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FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 

Volume 3 






FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 

A NEW FLORA OF FIJI 

(SPERMATOPHYTES ONLY) 



ALBERT C. SMITH 



Volume 3 
Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, Families 117-163 




Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 
1985 



© Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden 1985 
Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 
All Rights Reserved 



Dates of Issue 
Volume 1 January 10, 1979 

Volume 2 October 26, 1981 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 78-61712 

Printed for the Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden 

by 

SB Printers, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME 3 



Introduction 1 

Supplementary References 2 

Division Angiospermae (Magnoliophyta) (continued) 3 

Class Dicotyledones (Magnoliatae) (continued) 3 

Subclass Rosidae 3 

Order Saxifragales 5 

Family 1 1 7. Cunoniaceae 5 

Family 1 18. Davidsoniaceae 27 

Family 1 19. Pittosporaceae 28 

Family 120. Crassulaceae 35 

Order Rosales 36 

Family 121. Rosaceae 37 

Family 122. Chrysobalanaceae 41 

Order Fabales 52 

Family 1 23. Mimosaceae 53 

Family 1 24. Caesalpiniaceae 86 

Family 1 25. Fabaceae 142 

Order Connarales 273 

Family 1 26. Connaraceae 273 

Order Myrtales 281 

Family 1 27. Lythraceae 281 

Family 1 28. Myrtaceae 289 

Family 1 29. Punicaceae 377 

Family 1 30. Onagraceae 378 

Family 131. Melastomataceae 382 

Family 132. Combretaceae 414 

Order Rutales 444 

Family 1 33. Anacardiaceae 445 

Family 1 34. Burseraceae 464 

Family 1 35. Simaroubaceae 479 

Family 1 36. Surianaceae 487 

Family 1 37. Rutaceae 490 

Family 1 38. Meliaceae 527 

Family 1 39. Zygophyllaceae 578 

Order Sapindales 580 

Family 1 40. Sapindaceae 580 

Order Coriariales 620 

Family 141. Coriariaceae 620 

Order Geraniales 623 

Family 142. Oxalidaceae 623 



Family 143. Balsaminaceae 629 

Order Araliales 63 1 

Family 144. Araliaceae 631 

Family 145. Apiaceae 653 

Order Linales 660 

Family 146. Linaceae 660 

Order Celastrales 664 

Family 147. Celastraceae 664 

Family 148. Hippocrateaceae 672 

Family 149. Aquifoliaceae 676 

Family 1 50. Icacinaceae 679 

Family 151. Dichapetalaceae 684 

Order Rhamnales 687 

Family 152. Rhamnaceae 687 

Family 1 53. Vitaceae 705 

Family 154. Leeaceae 712 

Order Polygalales 716 

Family 155. Malpighiaceae 716 

Family 1 56. Polygalaceae 722 

Order Cornales 724 

Family 157. Alangiaceae 724 

Order Santalales 728 

Family 1 58. Olacaceae 729 

Family 1 59. Santalaceae 734 

Family 160. Loranthaceae 740 

Family 161. Viscaceae 743 

Order Balanophorales 747 

Family 162. Balanophoraceae 747 

Order Proteales 750 

Family 163. Proteaceae 750 



INTRODUCTION 



As in Volume 2 of this Flora, a few new names are here presented; for the 
convenience of compilers of indices of such names, they are here listed: 
Caesalpiniaceae; Senna glanduligera (comb, nov.) 
Myrtaceae: Syzvgium duhium (comb, et stat. nov.), S. purpureum (comb, et stat. 

nov.), S. minus (sp. nov.) 
Combretaceae; Terminalia psilaniha (sp. nov.) 

Rutaceae: Melicupe seemannii {comb, nov.), M. cucullala {comb, nov.), M. cucul- 
lata var. rohustior {comb, nov.), M. viliensis {comb, nov.), M. vitiensis var. minor 
(comb, nov.), M. evansensis (comb, nov.), M. capillacea {comb, nov.), Sarcomeli- 
cope petiolaris {comb, nov.) 
Proteaceae: Turrillia (gen. nov.), T. vitiensis (comb, nov.), T. ferruginea (comb, 
nov.), T. lutea (comb, nov.. New Hebrides), T. papuana (comb, nov.. New 
Guinea), T. hleasdalei (comb, nov., Queensland). 
A considerable number of pertinent books andjournal articles have been produced 
since the publication of Volume 2 of the present Flora: some of these will be found 
mentioned in appropriate places throughout Volume 3, but perhaps others have been 
overlooked. 

The "Sydney edition" (Voss et al., 1983)' of the International Code of Botanical 
Nomenclature (ICBN) does not differ substantially from the "Leningrad edition" of 
1978, although a few paragraphs have unavoidably been given new numbers; these 
numbers will be used when such references are desirable. The only major alteration in 
the 1983 ICBN is the addition of the seemingly innocuous words "and species" to Art. 
14. 1 . It remains to be seen what complications will thereby await plant taxonomists of 
the next century, in spite of the addition (Art. 14.2) of the ambiguous sentence: "Con- 
servation of specific names is restricted to species of major economic importance." 
The third and fourth volumes of the second edition of Taxonomic Literature 
(Stafleu& Cowan, 1981, 1983),coveringauthors whose family names begin with Lh-O 
(Vol. 3) and P-Sak (Vol. 4), are now available, as this invaluable compilation draws 
near its completion. 

An important work entitled An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering 
Plants (Cronquist, 1981) will be often consulted and cited by plant taxonomists 
concerned with families, orders, and higher taxa. The book presents an updating of the 
philosophy propounded in Cronquist's The Evolutior} and Classification of Flowering 
Plants (1968), but it goes beyond the earlier work in its extraordinarily complete 
descriptions of the 384 families of flowering plants now accepted by its author. 

Very useful outlmes and indices of six recent major systems of angiosperm classifi- 
cation (including Cronquist's) have been compiled by Bedell and Reveal (1982). 

In Volumes 1 and 2 of this Flora I mentioned the unsatisfactory nature of keys to 
the larger taxa (orders and families) of flowering plants. It is indeed premature to offer 
keys to orders, the satisfactory limits and relationships of which still require much 
future research. But a recently published key to the families of flowering plants in 
English (Geesink et al., 1981) goes far to fill the need for a usable artificial key to those 

'References indicated in this Flura by parenthetical dates, if not otherwise modified by an adjacent 
textual reference, are listed in Volume 1, pp. 84-88, in Volume 2, p. 3, and in the present volume, p. 2. 



2 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

taxa. The work is a translation and amplification of the keys published in German by 
Franz Thonner ( 1 863- 1 928), whose 1917 key is the basis of the greatly expanded new 
work by Geesink and his colleagues. A glossary and illustrations help to make the 198 1 
key readily usable by taxonomists and botanical students. The first step in the 
identification of a flowering plant — to discover its family — becomes entirely feasible 
by use of the new publication. 

Throughout the present Flora I have attempted to typify or lectotypify each 
botanical name listed, believing that any floristic or monographic work is incomplete 
without such essential nomenclatural designations. Correct typification is no problem 
when the name is a recently proposed one, but to ascertain the typification of older 
names is often difficult, as Linnaeus and his contemporaries did not utilize the type 
method familiar to present-day botanists. To designate a lectotype for Linnaean 
species, when more than one element was included in the protologue, involves special 
expertise as well as access to early collections and pre-Linnaean publications. Many 
Linnaean taxa have indeed already been lectotypified by specialists, but to locate their 
decisions in the vast body of systematic literature is a major problem. Plant taxono- 
mists have recently received a welcome announcement (Cannon et al., 1983) of an 
undertaking now being initiated at the British Museum (Natural History) and the 
Linnean Society of London to compile existing data on typifications of Linnaean 
names and then to study the remaining taxa and select lectotypes for them. This project 
will greatly clarify what has been a vexing problem for conscientious systematists. 

William G. Ziarnik, a student at Columbia University, New York, made a small 
collection of plants in Fiji in 1984, with the cooperation of the University of the South 
Pacific. He has kindly permitted me to use one of his photographs in the present 
volume. 

Supplementary References 

Bedell, H. G., & J. L. Reveal. 1982. Amended outlines and indices for six recently published systems of 

angiosperm classification. Phytologia 51: 65-156. 
Cannon, J. F. M., C. E. Jarvis, & N. K. B. Robson. 1983. The typification of Linnaean plant names: a 

project of the Linnean Society of London. Taxon 32: 76-78. 
Cronquist, a. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. 1262 pp. Columbia 

University Press, New York. 
Geesink, R., A. J. M. Leeuwenberg.C. E. Ridsdale, & J. F. Veldkamp. 1981. Thonner's Analytical Key to 

the Families of Flowering Plants, i-xxvi, 1-231. Leiden Botanical Series, 5. Leiden University Press. 
Stafleu, F. A., & R. S. Cowan. 1981. Taxonomic Literature. Ed. 2. Vol. 3: Lh-O. Regnum Veg. 105: 1-XII, 

1-980. Utrecht. 
& 1983. Taxonomic Literature. Ed. 2. Vol. 4: P-Sak. Regnum Veg. 110: I-IX, 1-1214. 

Utrecht. 
Voss, E. G., et al. 1983. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Thirteenth International Botanical 

Congress, Sydney, 1981). Regnum Veg, 111: I-XV, 1-472. Utrecht. 



1985 ROSIDAE 



Division ANGIOSPERMAE (MAGNOLIOPHYTA) (continued) 

Class DICOTYLEDONES (MAGNOLIATAE) (continued) 

Subclass ROSIDAE 

The first ten families (numbered 1 17-126) here treated are among the many that the 
majority of recent phylogenists consider central to a broad "rosoid" concept, which in 
its entirety may betaken as a subclass (Takhtajan, 1980;Cronquist, 198 Doras a series 
of superorders (Thorne, 1976; Dahlgren, 1980). The ten families which have represen- 
tatives in Fiji are of course too few to give much indication of the full variability of a 
basic rosoid alliance, and they are differently treated by various proposers of phyloge- 
netic sequences. 

Schulze-Menz(in Melchior, 1964) utilizes a broad concept of an order Rosalesthat 
accommodates all ten of the families. Hutchinson ( 1973) would place the ten families 
here considered in six orders, all but one of which occupy early positions in his 
"Lignosae." Thorne ( 1976), in hissuperorder Rosiflorae with three orders, accepts nine 
of our families in the order Resales, the tenth in an order Pittosporales. Dahlgren 
(1980) would include five of the families in his orders Cunoniales, Saxifragales, and 
Rosales (superorder Rosiflorae, composed of twelve orders), the remaining five in 
more advanced, derived superorders. Cronquist ( 1 98 1 ) places seven of our families in 
his order Rosales, the other three composing the order Fabales. 

In view of these diverse opinions of the contents and sequence of orders, 1 continue 
to follow Takhtajan ( 1 980) and place our basic rosoid families in four orders, Saxifra- 
gales (with a total of 25 families), Rosales (with three families), Fabales(with the three 
subfamilies of legumes, here construed as families), and Connarales (with a single 
family). It may be noted that some current opinion indicates the Fabales and Conna- 
rales to be too advanced in many respects to be included in a basic rosoid complex; 
perhaps in future phylogenetic systems they will be considered more closely allied to a 
sapindalean complex. 

The following key to the orders of Rosidae represented in Fiji is based on fairly 
superficial characters; it is largely adapted from Cronquist (1981) and is intended to 
aid in the placement of our families, not to indicate the full scope of the named orders. 



Key to orders occurring in Fiji 

Flowers with separate ( l-many) carpels, or with carpels united only toward base or by their styles, or with 

numerous ovules per carpel, or with numerous stamens; plants relatively primitive within the subclass. 

with one or more of the preceding listed characters, vascular bundles never with internal phloem; plants 

never parasitic. 

Flowers actinomorphic (at least in all our taxa). hypogynous or rarely semi-epigynous, seldom slightly 

perigynous; carpels free or united (and then styles separate or simple); stipules present or absent. 

Saxifragales (Families I 17-120) 
Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic; carpels usually free (or, if united, usually with separate styles or 
only I carpel fertile). 
Carpels I -many, the seeds usually without endosperm; stamens usually 2-many times more numerous 

than petals; flowers perigynous Rosales (Families 121, 122) 

Carpels usually I or 5, free; stamens usually twice as many as petals. Ilowers hypogynous to somewhat 
perigynous. 



4 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Flowers usually zygomorphic (but sometimes actinomorphic); carpel solitary; ovules superposed 
(when more than 1); fruit a legume ( 1 -celled and 2-valved)orindehiscent, sometimes winged, the 
seeds without (or rarely with scanty) endosperm; stipules usually present. 

F.ABALES (Families 123-125) 

Flowers actinomorphic; carpels usually 5 or 1; ovules 2, collateral; fruit composed of 1-5 1-seeded 
follicles, the seeds with endosperm copious to none; stipules lacking. 

CONNARALES (FAMILY 126) 
Flowers mostly syncarpous (infrequently with separate carpels; gynoecium consistently composed of a 
single carpel only in Proteales). or with only 1 or 2 ovules per carpel, or with comparatively few stamens 
(stamens usually not more than twice as many as sepals or petals, but in some included groups, i. e. 
Myrtales, numerous); plants relatively advanced within the subclass, with one or more of the preceding 
listed characters; vascular bundles sometimes with internal phloem; plants sometimes parasitic. 
Vascular bundles with internal (as well as external) phloem; flowers strongly perigynous to epigynous, 

often with numerous stamens and numerous ovules Myrtales (Families 127-132) 

Vascular bundles without internal phloem; flowers diverse but usually with comparatively few stamens 
and ovules. 
Gynoecium obviously with more than I carpel, syncarpous (some exceptions to be noted in Families 
135, 136, 137, 141). 
Plants autotrophic; ovules apparent and with an integument. 

Leaves mostly compound or conspicuously lobed or cleft, but sometimes unifoliolate or simple. 
Ovary superior; pollen either binucleate or trinucleate when shed. 
Plants usually woody. 

Disk present; carpels not free (or, if free basally, joined above by styles); petals not enclosing 
carpels after anthesis to form a pseudodrupe; leaves usually alternate and compound 
(but sometimes opposite and; or simple). 
Ovules epitropous (except in Family 133); flowers usually actinomorphic (rarely zygo- 
morphic), the stamens not unilateral; disk intrastaminal, annular or often developed 

into a gynophore Rutales (Families 133-139) 

Ovules apotropous (mostly solitary and ascending with the raphe ventral, epitropous 
when dependent); flowers often obliquely zygomorphic, the stamens usually 8, 
inserted within disk or unilateral; disk extrastaminal, sometimes unilateral. 

Sapindales (Family 140) 
Disk lacking; stamens 10; carpels 5-10 (-12), free, the ovules solitary, pendulous, apotro- 
pous; petals keeled within, persistent, accrescent and closely subtending achenes to 

form a pseudodrupe; leaves simple, opposite Coriariales (Family 141) 

Plants mostly herbaceous or nearly so (woody in Averrhoa, Family 142). 

Geraniales (Families 142, 143) 

Ovary inferior; pollen trinucleate when shed Araliales (Families 144, 145) 

Leaves simple, entire or merely toothed (but usually compound in Families 153 and 154). 
Ovary superior, sometimes partially or completely surrounded by disk or semi-inferior. 
Flowers regular, strictly actinomorphic. 
Stamens basally connate, usually more than 5; disk lacking or represented by inconspicuous 

glands; pollen trinucleate when shed Linales (Family 146) 

Stamens free from one another, seldom more than 5; disk often present. 

Stamens alternate with petals or fewer or flowers rarely displostemonous; pollen either 

binucleate or trinucleate when shed Celastrales (Families 147-151) 

Stamens opposite petals; pollen binucleate when shed. 

Rhamnales (Families 152-154) 

Flowers irregular, at least slightly zygomorphic Polygalales (Families 155, 156) 

Ovary inferior Cornales (Family 157) 

Plants mostly parasitic or hemiparasitic (but sometimes autotrophic); ovular reduction sometimes 
apparent in lack of an integument or absence of recognizable ovules. 
Flowers usually 5 (unisexual in Family 161); plants with chlorophyll. 

Santalales (Families 158-161) 
Flowers unisexual; plants without chlorophyll; fruits small, nutlike. 

Balanophorales (Family 162) 
Gynoecium composed of a single carpel developing into a basically follicular fruit; flowers hypogynous, 
4-merous, monochlamydeous, the tepals commonly petaloid, the stamens 4, antetepalous; hypogy- 
nous glands usually present, borne within androecial whorl Proteales (Family 163) 



1985 CUNONIACEAE 5 

Order SAXIFRAGALES 

Key to families occirring in Fiji 
Plants woody, the leaves not succulent; stamens essentially free; gynoecium usually syncarpous (but 
apocarpous in some Cunoniaceae). 
Stipules present; leaves compound or simple; flowers usually 4- or 5-merous. the petals present or absent, 
if present free and imbricate (in our genera), the stamens often twice as many as calyx lobes (in our 
taxa very rarely as many as and opposite calyx lobes); gynoecium (in our genera) either apocarpous 
or syncarpous and 2-carpellate, and then the ovary 2-locular and with axile or pendulous ovules, 
these often few ( I -7, or in one of our genera as many as 42); fruit (in our genera) a follicetum or a 
septicidally dehiscent capsule or a drupe, the seeds often winged. 
Leaves opposite or whorled, simple or compound ( if imparipinnately compound then in our representa- 
tives with not more than 9 (very rarely 13) leaflets); stinging hairs not present; stamens often 
exserted, the filaments straight; ovules apotropous or rarely epitropous; fruit (in our genera) a 
follicetum, a 2-valved capsule, or drupaceous (and probably tardily dehiscent); seeds with usually 

copious endosperm; our genera all with indigenous species 117. Cunoniaceae 

Leaves alternate, imparipinnately compound, with a roughly aculeate rachis and usually 11 or 13 
leaflets, stinging hairs present on branchlets. leaves, and inflorescences; stamens not exserted, the 
filaments sharply bent distally; ovules epitropous; fruit a drupe with 2 pyrenes; seeds without 

endosperm; cultivated only in Fiji 118. D.^vidsoniaceae 

Stipules absent; leaves alternate or pseudoverticillate, simple; flowers usually 5-merous, the petals free or 
proximally connate (in our genus basally valvate and distally imbricate), the stamens as many as and 
opposite calyx lobes; gynoecium syncarpous, 2( rarely 3-6)-carpellate. the ovary superior, in our 
genus 1-locular and with parietal placentas, the ovules numerous (in our taxa 22-50); fruit (in our 
genus) a loculicidally dehiscent capsule, the seeds with copious endosperm, in our genus not winged. 

embedded in viscid resin; our genus with indigenous species 119. Pittosporaceae 

Plants herbaceous (or shrubby) and usually with succulent stems and leaves; leaves (in our genus) opposite 
or whorled. simple to 5-foliolate. often with adventitious buds in marginal crenations; sepals and petals 
(in our genus) connate into tubes; stamens (in our genus) 8 (rarely 4), epipetalous; gynoecium 
apocarpous, the carpels free or basally connate; fruit a follicetum (in our genus enclosed by the 
marcescent calyx and corolla); seeds with fleshy and scant endosperm, rarely without endosperm; culti- 
vated and naturalized in Fiji 1 20. Crassulaceae 



Family 117. Cunoniaceae 
Cunoniaceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Australis 2: 548. 1814. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes dioecious or polygamodioecious; stipules present, 
sometimes large, often united in pairs; leaves usually opposite, sometimes verticillate, 
simple (rarely 2-foliolate) or digitately 3- or 5-foliolate or imparipinnately compound, 
the leaf or leaflet blades pinnatinerved, often with axillary domatia beneath, often 
glandular-serrate; inflorescences axillary or terminal or borne on defoliate branchlets, 
racemose, paniculate, capitate, or rarely l-flowered; flowers actinomorphic, usually 
small, § or unisexual, the receptacle usually flat; calyx lobes usually 4 or 5 (less often 3 
or 6, very rarely 7), sometimes shortly connate, imbricate or valvate, sometimes 
accrescent; petals present or absent, if present 3-5, free or basally connate, usually 
smaller than sepals, entire or toothed or 2- or 3-lobed, the lobes sometimes gland- 
tipped; disk annular or lobed, nectariferous; stamens 4-numerous, often twice as many 
as calyx lobes (sometimes as many as calyx lobes and opposite them), inserted at base 
of disk, the filaments free, the anthers short, 2-locular, longitudinally dehiscing; 
gynoecium 4- or 5-carpellate (rarely 3- or 6-carpellate) and apocarpous, or 3-5- 
carpellate and syncarpous, or commonly 2-carpellate with concrescent carpels, the 
ovary if syncarpous superior or rarely semi-inferior, the ovules anatropous, usually 
apotropous (epitropous in Spiraeanthemum and Acsmithia). 1-many, axile or pendu- 
lous in syncarpous ovaries, the styles free, the stigmas terminal, capitate; fruit usually a 
2-valved capsule or a follicetum, rarely a drupe or nut, the seeds I -many, sometimes 
winged, glabrous or pilose, the endosperm usually copious, the embryo small, straight. 



6 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Distribution: Pantropical and warm temperate but mostly in the Southern 
Hemisphere, with a center in eastern Malesia and Australasia, with 21-26 genera and 
about 350 species. Five genera are represented in Fiji by indigenous species. Two 
genera occur in Samoa but apparently the family is absent from Tonga and Niue. 
Dickison ( 1 980, cited below, p. 308) summarizes evidence suggesting that Spiraeanthe- 
mum and Acsmithia are to be considered the most primitive extant genera of the 
family. 

Useful treatments of family: Smith, A. C. Studies of Pacific Island plants, XII. The Cunoniaceae of 
Fiji and Samoa. J. Arnold Arb. 33: 1 19-149. 1952. Hoogland, R. D. Studies in the Cunoniaceae. II. The 
genera Caldcluvia, Pullea, Acsmithia, and Spiraeanthemum. Blumea 25: 481-505. 1979. Dickison, W. C. 
Comparative wood anatomy and evolution of the Cunoniaceae. Allertonia 2: 28 1-321 . 1980 (listing previous 
studies of the family by the author and others). 

Key to genera 

Gynoecium apocarpous, composed of 4 or 5 (rarely 3 or 6) free carpels, each with 1 or 2 (in our species) 

epitropous ovules; flowers small, apetalous, the calyx and filaments white to yellowish or greenish, the 

calyx lobes valvate. the disk lobulate with (3-) 4-12 lobes, the stamens (6-) 8-12; follicles ventrally 

dehiscent, the seeds winged at one or both ends; inflorescences paniculate, solitary; leaves simple. 

Plants dioecious (possibly rarely polygamodioecious); leaves opposite; stipule scars elongate, curved; 

ovules paired; seeds winged at both ends I. Spiraeanthemum 

Plants with § flowers; leaves verticillate; stipule scars short, nearly straight; ovules solitary (in our 
species, but in some others 2 or 4, infrequently 3, 5, or 6); seeds with a distal wing only. 

2. Acsmithia 

Gynoecium syncarpous, composed of 2 carpels, the ovules apotropous, 3 or more per ovary locule. 

Inflorescences basically racemose, the racemes solitary or 2-4 at apex of a short common peduncle or 

arising from inconspicuous glomerules; ovary superior, the carpels fused ventrally in the region of the 

ovary; fruit a septicidally 2-valved capsule; leaves compound or simple. 

Plants with $ flowers, these apetalous, large, the calyx and filaments red, the calyx lobes valvate; disk 

pulvinate, entire; stamens numerous (8-26 in our species), with comparatively long (1 1-20 mm. 

long in our species) filaments; ovules numerous (20-42 per locule in our species); seeds irregularly 

winged at both ends (or proximal wing reduced); leaves digitately 3- or 5-foliolate. . . .3. Geissois 

Plants with § flowers or dioecious or polygamodioecious, the flowers small, the petals and filaments 

white or greenish, the calyx lobes imbricate; petals 4 or 5; disk divided into 8 or 10 free lobes; 

stamens 8 or 10, with short (up to 4 mm. long in our species) filaments; ovules comparatively few 

(3-6 per locule in our species); seeds comate at both ends (in our species), not winged; leaves simple 

(rarely 2-foliolate), 3-foliolate, or imparipinnately compound 4. Weinmannia 

Inflorescences paniculate, paired or ternate (or quaternate) and superposed; flowers $ . apetalous, the 
calyx and filaments white to yellowish or greenish, the calyx lobes narrowJy imbricate; ovary 
semi-inferior or (as in our species) 1,3-1,4 inferior, the ovules 4 or 6 per locule, biseriate, pendulous; 
disk lobes 1 or 12, often coherent in pairs; stamens 1 or 12; fruit drupaceous (probably becoming a 
tardily dehiscent capsule not much altered from maturing gynoecium), the seeds with a proximal 
wing and a distal nucellus; leaves simple 5. Pullea 

1. Spiraeanthemum A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 3: 128. May, 1854, Bot. U. S. 

Expl. Exped. 1: 666. June, 1854, in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV. 4: 176. 1855; Seem. Fl. 

Vit. 1 10. 1866; Engl, in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 18a: 237. 1930; A. 

C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 139. 1952; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 2:8. 1967; Hoogl. 

in Blumea 25: 501. 1979. 

Dioecious (or possibly occasionally polygamodioecious) shrubs or trees; stipules 
ovate to lanceolate, caducous, leaving elongate, curved scars; leaves simple, opposite; 
inflorescences axillary or pseudoterminal, paniculate, solitary, with opposite or 
subopposite branches, often many-flowered, the flowers small, solitary on ultimate 
inflorescence branches or in fascicles, unisexual (or the 9 flowers possibly sometimes 
with fertile anthers), the pedicels articulate (only portion above articulation strictly 
pedicellary), the calyx and filaments white to yellowish or greenish; calyx lobes 4 or 5, 
infrequently 3 or 6, valvate; petals absent; disk lobulate, the lobes in d* flowers (3-) 



1985 CUNONIACEAE 7 

4-6, in 9 flowers (6-) 8-12; stamens twice as many as calyx lobes, present but 
apparently sterile (possibly rarely fertile) in $ flowers, the anthers small, the d" flowers 
lacking vestigial carpels; 9 flowers with 3-6 (usually 4) free carpels, the ovules 2, 
epitropous, collateral, pendulous, attached near middle or subapically, narrowed and 
winged at both ends; calyx and stamens (usually sterile) persistent in fruit; fruit a 
follicetum ( 1 or more carpels sometimes aborted), the follicles ventrally dehiscent, with 
persistent styles, the seeds 2 (1 rarely aborted), subequally winged at both ends. 

Lectotype species: Spiraeanthennim samoense A. Gray (vide A. C. Smith in J. 
Arnold Arb. 33: 139. 1952), one of Gray's two original species, the second of which is 
now referred to Acsmithia. 

Distribution: New Britain, Solomon Islands, New Hebrides, Fiji, and Samoa, 
with six species, of which three are endemic in Fiji. The genus also seems to occur in the 
Milne Bay District of New Guinea, although this is not stated by Hoogland. 

Key to species 
Branchlets and petioles glabrous or distally evanescently stngose-puberulent; leaf blades glabrous on both 
surfaces (rarely sparsely puberulent on costa when young), lanceolate to elliptic- or oblong-ovate, 4- 10 
« 1.3-6 cm. 
Leaf blades 5-10 " (2-) 2. 5-6 cm., obtuse at base and abruptly decurrent on petiole, entire or inconspicu- 
ously serrulate at margin (teeth minute. I or 2 per centimeter, or obsolete); inflorescence peduncle 

(I-) 4-7 cm. long; filaments in d" flowers 2.5-3 mm. long \. S. graeffei 

Leaf blades 4-8 " 1.3-3.8 cm., attenuate or acute at base and long-decurrent on petiole, conspicuously 
serrate at margin (teeth 3 or 4 per centimeter); inflorescence peduncle 2-4 cm. long; filaments in d" 

flowers 1.2-1.6 mm. long 2. S serralum 

Branchlets and petioles copiously velutinous-puberulent with long-persistent hairs 0.1-0. 15 mm. long; leaf 
blades persistently puberulent on costa and secondary nerves beneath, ovate to lanceolate- or ovate- 
elliptic, 4-14 X 1.5-8.5 cm., entire or inconspicuously denticulate at margin 3. 5'. katakata 

1. Spiraeanthemum graeffei Seem. FI. Vit. 1 1 1. 1866; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 163, 
as Spireanthemwn g. 1890; Gibbs in J. Lmn. Soc. Bot. 39: 145. 1909; A. C. Sm. in 
J. Arnold Arb. 33: 141. 1952; J. W, Parham, PI. Fijilsl. 81. 1964, ed. 2. 122. 1972; 
Hoogl. in Blumea 25: 502. 1979. Figures 1A & B, 2A. 

A tree or shrub 3-8 m. high, occurring at elevations of 275- 1,050 m. in dense forest 
or on its edges; the calyx and filaments are white, the anthers yellow. Flowers have 
been obtained in scattered months between March and December, fruits only in 
September and October. 

Typification: Seemann cited only Graeffe 16. p. p., from Mt. Mbuke Levu, 
Kandavu. However, the k sheet of this, indicated as having been sent from Reichen- 
bach's herbarium in April, 1 865, is noted as from Viti I evu. Seemann also cited part of 
Graeffe 16 from Viti Levu as representing Spiraeanihemum vitiense (i.e. Acsmithia 
vitiensis). Probably Hoogland in 1979 correctly cited the bm specimen as the holotype 
of 5. graeffei. but 1 would amend this citation as: Graeffe 16. p. p. (bm holotype; 
isoTYPEsat K, w; photos of Kisotypeat bish, i;s), probably collected in 1862 or 1 864 on 
Viti Levu, as suggested by the known occurrence of the species on Mt. Voma, which 
was probably visited by Graeffe. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and thus far known with certainty only from Viti 
Levu. Hoogland in 1979 also mentioned Kandavu and Vanua Levu; the former is 
based on the probably erroneous type locality cited by Seemann, and I have found no 
records from Vanua Levu. Spiraeanthemum graeffei has been noted from Guadal- 
canal. Solomon Islands (by Dickison in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 292. 1975), but the 
specimen probably represents S. macgillivrayi subsp. kajewskii (Perry) Hoogl. (in 
Blumea 25: 504. 1979). 



8 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Local names: Katakata (used generically), kutakuta, kutukutu. 

Available collections; VITl LEVU: Mba: Nandende Levu, DA 14060: Koro-0 radio station, west of 
Nandarivatu, DA 13536: Tholo-i-Nandarivatu ridge, Gibbs 731. Nandronca & Navosa: Nausori High- 
lands, DA 12563. 13391. Serua: Mt. Tikituru, DA 14471: Nathengathenga Creek, upper Navua River, DF 
975. Namosi: Summit of Mt. Voma, Gillespie 2728. Naitasiri: Northern portion of Rairaimatuku Plateau, 
between Mt. Tomanivi and Nasonggo, Smith 5800. 

2. Spiraeanthemum serratum Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 1 1. fig. 11. 1931; A. C. 

Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 143. 1952; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 82. 1964, ed. 2. 122. 
1972; Hoogl. in Blumea 25: 505. 1979. Figure IC & D. 

A small tree or shrub 3-5 m. high, found in dense thickets on crests and ridges at 
elevations of 1 , 1 00- 1,323 m.; the calyx and filaments are greenish white. Flowers have 
been collected between October and February, mature fruits only in February. 

Typification: The type is Gillespie 4107 (bish holotype; isotypes at bish, gh), 
collected Nov. 29, 1927, on the summit of Mt. Tomanivi, Mba Province, Viti Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and known only from Viti Levu and Taveuni. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mt. Evans Range, Greenwood 364. 457,- summit and upper 
slopes of Mt. Tomanivi, Gillespie 4122.1. DA 7126, 13074. 14649, O. & I. Degener 32075. Namosi: 
Korombasambasanga Range, DA 2200. Taveuni: Summit of Mt. Uluingalau, Smith 891. 

Although Spiraeanthemum serratum is clearly a close relative of S, graeffei, the 
two taxa seem to merit specific recognition as noted in my key, the leaf blade margin 
being the most apparent distinguishing feature. Spiraeanthemum serratum is known 
only from a few of the highest Fijian ridges, while S. graejfei occurs on lower mountain 
slopes. 

3. Spiraeanthemum katakata Seem, in A. Gray in Bonplandia 10: 36, nom. nud. 1862, 

Viti, 437, nom. nud. 1862, Fl. Vit. 111. r. 77. 1866; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
163, as Spireanthemum k. 1890; Pampan. in Ann. Bot. (Rome) 2:51. 1905; Gibbs 
in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 145. 1909; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 144. 1952; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. %2.fig. 33. 1964, ed. 2. 122.//g. 35, 1972; Hoogl. in Blumea 25: 
503.//^. 2. 1979. 
Spiranthemum (sic) vitiense sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 256. 1861; non A. Gray. 
Spiraeanthemum samoense sensu Gibbs in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 145. 1909; non A. Gray. 
Spiraeanthemum parksii GMespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 10. fig. 10. 1931. 
A tree or sometimes a gnarled, compact shrub, 3-15 m. high, occurring at eleva- 
tions of 100-1,195 m. in dense or dry forest or on its edges, in the forest-grassland 
transition, in the forest and thickets of ridges, and sometimes in open places. The calyx, 
filaments, anthers, and styles are white or with a greenish tinge, the styles sometimes 
flushed with pink, and the mature fruits are usually dull pink. Flowers and fruits have 
been collected in most months. 

Typification and nomenclature: The only collection cited by Seemann was his 
no. 196, said to have been collected on Kandavu. However, some specimens of this 
number at k are indicated as being in part from Viti Levu and in part from Ovalau. It 
seems probable that the type material was taken from several plants, the localities of 
which cannot now be disentangled, and that the better citation is: Seemann 196 (k 
holotype; putative isotypes at bm, gh; photos of k specimen at bish, us), collected in 
1860 in Namosi Province, Viti Levu, near Port Kinnaird, Ovalau, and perhaps on 
Kandavu. 

The type of Spiraeanthemum parksii is Parks 20725 (bish holotype; isotypes at 
SUVA, us), collected in July, 1927, in the vicinity of Nandarivatu, Mba Province, Viti 
Levu. Gillespie indicated that his new species has thicker, smaller, and more coriaceous 



1985 



CUNONIACEAE 




Figure 1. A & B, Spiraeanlhemum graeffei. from Smith 5800: A, distal portions of branchlets, with 
foliage, mature stipules, and 9 mflorescences, « 1 2; B, 9 flower with I calyx lobe removed, showing disk 
lobes, sterile stamens, and carpels, " 20. C& D, Spiraeanlhemum serralum. from DA 7/-6.C, distal portion 
of branchlet, with foliage and maturing 9 inflorescences. « 1 /2; D, maturing 9 flower with 2 calyx lobes 
removed, showing disk lobes, sterile stamens, and maturing carpels, » 20. 



leaves than S. katakata. but the now available material shows these characters to be 
inconsequential. 



10 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 CUNONIACEAE 11 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji, and now known from Viti Levu, Ovalau, Vanua 
Levu, and possibly Kandavu (the last depending upon the accuracy of Seemann's 
published statement only). Of this most abundant Fijian species of the genus about 50 
collections are at hand. 

Local names: In addition to the usual name katakata, names noted locally on Viti 
Levu have been kutakuta. kau lamhua. namhosawa, rare, singasinga. tandalo, and 
vurewai, on Vanua Levu wakathere. Some of these names are doubtless questionable. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU; Mba: Mt. Evans Range, Greenwood 863 A: iumm\\ oi Ml. 
Koroyanitu, high point of Mt. Evans Range, 5mif/! 4/ 92.' vicinity of Nandarivatu, Gihhs673. Gillespie 402 1: 
slopes of Mt. Nanggaranambuluta, Websier & Hildreth 14230. western and southern slopes of Mt. 
Tomanivi, Smith 5222. Nandronga & Navosa; Nauson Highlands, DF82fl: Numbutautau. upper Singato- 
ka River, DF 1186: northern portion of Rairaimatuku Plateau, between Nandrau and Rewasau, Smith 
5429. Namosi: Hills north of Wainavindrau Creek, between Korombasambasanga Range and Mt. Naitara- 
ndamu. Smith 8410: vicinity of Namosi, Gillespie 2589. Ra: Vicinity of Nasukamai. Gillespie 4691.7: 
Numbumakita, on Wanggaitambua Creek, Gihhs 880. Naitasiri: Nakatia, Lomaivuna Tikina, D.A 2738. 
OVALAU: Milne 267: hills west of Lovoni Valley, on ridge south of Mt. Korolevu, Smith 7512. VANUA 
LEVU: Mathuata: Mt. Ndelaikoro. DA 12826. Mathhata-Thakai'ndrove boundary: Crest of Korotini 
Range, between Navitho Pass and Mt. Ndelaikoro, Smith 553. Thakaundrove: Hills south of Natewa, 
Natewa Peninsula, Smith 1967. 

Spiraeanlhemum katakata is more closely allied to S. samoense A. Gray than to the 
two preceding Fijian species, but the Samoan endemic is sharply characterized by its 
comparatively conspicuous, hispidulous indument, its elongate stipules, its serrulate 
leaf blades, its longer ultimate inflorescence branchlets, and its often glabrous disk 
lobes. 

2. AcsMiTHiA Hoogl. in Blumea 25: 492. 1979. 

Spiraeanlhemum sensu A. Gray et auct. p. p.; non A, Gray sensu lectotypi. 
A genus closely related only to Spiraeanthemum: shrubs or trees with § flowers; 
stipules ovate and caducous (in our species), leaving inconspicuous, transversely 
elliptic, nearly straight scars; leaves simple, verticillate in whorls of 3 or 4 (or rarely 5); 
inflorescence and basic floral characters as in Spiraeanthemum but inflorescence 
branches usually ternately or quaternately arranged and flowers always § ; disk lobes 
often 8 (sometimes 10 or 12), free or rarely connate in pairs; stamens twice as many as 
calyx lobes or rarely irregular in number and sometimes only as many as calyx lobes; 
carpels with 1 (in our species), 2, or 4 ovules (these infrequently 3, 5, or 6); seeds with a 
distal wing, the nucellus basal. 

Type species: Acsmithia pulleana (Schlechter) Hoogl. (Spiraeanthemum pullea- 
num Schlechter). 

Distribution: New Guinea and the Moluccas, northeastern Queensland, New 
Caledonia, and Fiji, with 14 species. The Fijian species is endemic and terminates the 
generic range to the east. 

The genus and several of its species have been mentioned in pre- 1 979 literature, but 
none of the names were validly published prior to Hoogland's treatment. 

1. Acsmithia vitiensis (A. Gray) Hoogl. in Blumea 25: 501. 1979. Figure 2B-D. 

Spiraeanthemum viiiense A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 3: 128. May, 1854, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 
669. June, 1854, Atlas.p/. 83. B. 1856, in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. IV. 4: 177. 1855; C. Muell. in Walp. Ann. 
Bot. Syst. 5: 24. 1858; Seem. Viti, 437. 1862, Fl. Vit. 111. 1866; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 163, as 

Figure 2. A, Spiraeanthemum graeffei: seed, " 30. B-D, .Acsmithia vitiensis: B, distal portion of 
branchlet, with foliage and inflorescences, x 1/2; C, seed, " 30; D, flower with 2 calyx lobes removed and 
some anthers fallen, showing disk lobes, stamens, and maturing carpels, « 20. A from Gillespie 2728. B& D 
from Smith 7699. C from DA 1743. 



12 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Spireanthemumv. 1890; Gibbs in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 144. 1909; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 140. 

1952; J. W. Parham. PI. Fiji Isl. 82. 1964, ed. 2. 122. 1972. 

An often gnarled shrub or small tree to 4 m. high, known from elevations of 
450- 1 ,200 m. in thickets on crests and ridges or in open places. The filaments and styles 
are white; as far as dated material is available, flowers have been obtained in June and 
September and fruits in September. 

Typification: Gray's type material apparently came from two Vanua Levu plants, 
one from Mbua Bay (altitude not stated, but probably from hills considerably inland), 
Mbua Province, and the other from Mathuata Province at about 1,500 ft. (perhaps 
from the Mathuata Range). It is not now possible to separate the two parts, an 
appropriate citation being: U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 47621 holotype; putative isotypes 
at B, GH, K, NY, p), collected in 1 840 on Vanua Levu in the vicinity of Mbua Bay, Mbua 
Province, and in Mathuata Province. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and now known definitely from Viti Levu, Ovalau, 
and Vanua Levu. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Tholo-i-Nandarivatu, Gibbs 732. Namosi: Summit and 
upper slopes of Mt. Voma, DA 1743, 1910, 13966. Viti Levu without further locality, Graeffe 16, p. p. 
OVALAU: Summit of Mt. Tana Lailai and adjacent ridge, Smith 7699. Fiji without further locality, //orne 
759. 1104. 1113. 

Six species of Acsmithia have carpels with solitary ovules, five of these being New 
Caledonian endemics and the sixth A. vitiensis. The Fijian species is believed most 
closely related to the New Caledonian A. brongniartiana (Schlechter) Hoogl. The 
remaining eight species (New Caledonia, Australia, New Guinea, and Moluccas) have 
2-4 (-6) ovules per carpel. 

3. Geissois Labill. Sert. Austro-Caled. 50. 1825; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 
678. 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 108. 1866; Engl, in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 
2. 18a: 237. 1930; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 120. 1952, in op. cit. 36: 278. 
1955; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 2: 11. 1967. 

Trees or shrubs with $ flowers; stipules often large, free or proximally connate, 
caducous or sometimes subpersistent, the scars elongate, straight or slightly curved, 
sometimes forming a continuous ring; leaves opposite, digitately 3- or 5-foliolate (in all 
our species 3-foliolate); inflorescences axillary or borne on defoliate branchlets, race- 
mose, solitary or few arising from an inconspicuous glomerule, the flowers compara- 
tively large, the pedicels articulate near or below middle, the calyx and filaments red; 
calyx lobes 4 or 5, valvate; petals absent; disk pulvinate, entire or inconspicuously 
grooved; stamens numerous (in our species 8-26), the filaments comparatively long, 
the anthers small, didymous; ovary 2-locular, the ovules apotropous, biseriate, numer- 
ous (20-42 per locule in our species); calyx and stamens caducous in fruit; fruit a 
coriaceous, cylindric, septicidally 2-valved capsule, sometimes falcate, the valve mar- 
gins incurved over the seeds, the seeds numerous, irregularly winged at both ends and 
often narrowly so laterally. 

Type species: Geissois racemosa Labill. 

Distribution: Australia, New Caledonia, Santa Cruz Islands, New Hebrides, and 
Fiji, with 1 7-20 species. Four endemic Fijian species terminate the generic range to the 
east. 

Key to species 
Inflorescences robust. 20-45 cm. long, the stamens 14-26; leaves comparatively large, the petiole 1.5-8 cm. 
long, the petiolules 1.5-8 cm. long, the leaflet blades usually 24-50" 10-19 cm., with 13-20 secondary 
nerves per side; stipules large, ovate-oblong, densely velutinous-hispidulous on both surfaces, up to 6 x 
4.5 cm., comparatively persistent, usually laterally connate at base and often cupuliform, recurved at 
margin 1 . G. superba 



1985 CUNONIACEAE 13 

Inflorescences much smaller, not exceedmg 10.5 cm. in length, the stamens 8-15; leaves smaller, the petiole 

rarely exceeding 5 cm. in length, the petiolules to 6 (usually less than 2.5) cm. long, the leaflet blades 

rarely more than 23 "" 10.5 cm., usually much smaller, with not more than 15 secondary nerves per side; 

stipules usually not persistent at penultimate node, or if so then oblong or elliptic or lanceolate and not 

more than 2 cm. broad. 

Leaflets nearly sessile, the blades rounded to subacute at base, the petiolules of lateral blades up to 2 

(rarely 3) mm. and of terminal one up to 3 (rarely 6) mm. long; leaflet blades hispidulous on both 

surfaces, the hairs usually persistent, densest on costa and secondaries; stipules rarely subpersistent, 

lanceolate, to 6.5 « 1.5 cm., free to base, densely velutinous-hispidulous on both surfaces, not 

recurved at margin; branchlets, petioles, and petiolules copiously setulose or stngiUose, rarely 

subglabrate; inflorescence rachis and pedicels hispidulous, the calyx lobes sparsely strigillose on both 

surfaces 2. G. imihurnii 

Leaflets obviously petiolulate, the petiolules usually 4 mm. or more long (if shorter then the leaflet blade 
base attenuate or long-decurrent); leaflet blades glabrous or merely faintly strigillose on costa. 
Stipules at first coherent into a subglobose bud, subpersistent, at length ligulate-oblong, shortly 
connate basally but not cupulitorm, up to 10 ■< 2 cm., copiously hispid without with hairs 1.5-2.5 
mm. long, glabrous within; branchlets robust, distally conspicuously tlattened, the petioles sim- 
ilarly flattened, copiously hispidulous or strigillose or glabrate, the petiolules 1-6 cm. long, the 

leaflet blades (8-) 11-23 » (3.5-) 6.5-10.5 cm.; calyx lobes 6-7 mm. long 3. G. siipulans 

Stipules at first coherent into a laterally flattened, ovoid bud, usually early caducous, rarely subpersis- 
tent beyond ultimate node and then apparently not exceeding a size of about 3 " I cm., variously 
pilose or glabrous on both surfaces; branchlets subterete or distally slightly flattened, the petioles 
semiterete, sparsely strigillose and glabrate, the petiolules up to 2.5 cm. long, the leaflet blades 
usually 2-17 (-19) " 1.5-9 (-10) cm.; calyx lobes 4.5-6 mm. long 4. G. lernala 

1. Geissois superba Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 9. fig. 9. 1931; A. C. Sm. in J. 

Arnold Arb. 33: 121. 1952; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. l%.fig. 31. 1964, ed. 2. 120. 

fig. 33. 1972. Figure 3 A. 

A tree 6-13 m. high, occurring in dense forest or on its edges at elevations of 
150-900 m.; the inflorescences are borne on defoliate branchlets or sometimes asso- 
ciated with leaves; the calyx and filaments are crimson to dull red or pinkish red; and 
the anthers are yellow. Flowers have been obtained between October and May, fruits 
between July and December. 

Typification: The type is Gillespie 4274 (bish holotype; isotypes at bish, gh, k, 
us), collected Dec. 10, 1927, along the trail between Nandarivatu and Vatuthere, Mba 
Province, Viti Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and thus far known only from forested areas of Viti 
Levu. 

Local name: Vure, a name well established for Geissois in the generic sense. 

Av.ML.'kBLE collections: viti LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of Nandarivatu, Gillespie 3 17H. Nandronga & 
Navosa: Northern portion of Rairaimatuku Plateau, between Nandrau and Rewasau, Smith 5434. Serua: 
Inland from Korovisilou, DA 1434. Namosi: Valley of Wainambua Creek, south of Mt. Naitarandamu, 
Smith 8772. DA 14219: Mt. Voma, DA J 1639. Naitasiri: Central Road, TothiU47l. ViTi Levu without 
further locality, Tuihill 189c. 

The striking Geissois superba is the most robust species of the genus in Fiji, at once 
recognized by its characteristic stipules and its large leaves and inflorescences. 

2. Geissois imthurnii Turrill in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43: 19. 1915, in Hook. Icon. PI. 31:/?/. 

3053. 1916; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 122. 1952; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 
78. 1964, ed. 2. 120. 1972. Figures 3B, 4E. 

A tree 5-20 m. high, with a trunk sometimes to 1 m. in diameter, found in usually 
dense forest at an altitude of 500-900 m.; the inflorescences are noted as occurring on 
defoliate branchlets; the calyx and filaments are bright red to deep rose-pink. Flowers 
have been observed between March and August, fruits only in February and March. 
Typification: The type is ini Thurn 137 (k holotype; isotype at bm; photos of 
holotype at bish, us), collected in flower on March 7, 1906, in the vicinity of Nandari- 
vatu, Mba Province, Viti Levu. 



14 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and thus far known only from a limited area of 
northern Viti Levu. 

Local names: Vure, vunga: the latter, usually used for Metrosideros (Myrtaceae), 
was recorded by im Thurn, who noted that small crimson parrakeets feed on the plant. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Nukunuku Creek, west of Nandarivatu, Vaughan 3401: 
Koro-O road, west of Nandarivatu, DA /i524,- Nandarivatu and immediate vicinity, Greenwood 886. Parks 
20671, Degener 14265, Reay 17, Vaughan 3432, DA 315. Watkins 767; vicinity of Navai, DA 15096. 
Nandronga & Navosa: Nausori Highlands, DA 12650 (Melville el a!. 7023). Fur without further locality, 
DA L. 13454 (DF 1237). 

Geissois imthurnii, although sympatric with G. superba in the vicinity of Nandari- 
vatu, is readily distinguished by its indument, its subsessile leaflets, its smaller inflores- 
cences, and its very different stipules. The sole specimen from the Nausori Highlands is 
sterile but seems correctly placed here, although its leaves are unusually large, with 
petioles to 13.5 cm. long and leaflet blades to 26.5 ^ 13.5 cm. 

3. Geissois stipularis A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 123. 1952; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji 

Isl. 78. 1964, ed. 2. 120. 1972. Figures 3C, 4A. 

A tree 5-15 m. high, occurring in dense, open, or dry forest at recorded elevations 
of 50-250 m.; the inflorescences are borne on defoliate branchlets; the calyx lobes and 
filaments are bright red, the anthers, disk lobes, and ovaries are yellow, and the styles 
are red like the filaments. Flowers have been collected between September and 
December, fruits only in September and October. 

Typification: The type, a sterile collection, is Gillespie 2118 (bish holotype; 
isoTYPES at GH, us). Obtained Aug. 9, 1927, in the vicinity of Tamavua, Naitasiri 
Province, Viti Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and thus far known with certainty only from Viti 
Levu. 

Local name: Vure. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mountains (presumably foothills but no recorded eleva- 
tion) near Lautoka, Greenwood 343. Serua: Hills west of Waivunu Creek, between Ngaloa and Korovou, 
Smith 9246. 9328. Namosi: Hills bordering Wainavindrau Creek, vicinity of Wainimakutu, Smith 8573, 
8557; Mau turnoff (from Queen's Road), DA 11589. Naitasiri: Vicinity of Navuso, DA 26. Viti Levu 
without further locality. Parks 20934a. 20940. Fiji without further locality, DA 3933. 

Geissois stipularis, now much better known than when it was first described, is 
readily distinguished from G. superba and G. imthurnii by stipular and foliage 
characters. It may seem to resemble some large-leaved specimens of G. ternata var. 
ternata, but its foliar indument and mature stipules readily distinguish it; in the 
absence of developed stipules the shape of the stipule bud seems a dependable 
character. 

4. Geissois ternata A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 679. 1854; A. C. Sm. in J. 

Arnold Arb. 33: 124. 1952. 
Distribution: Endemic to Fiji. While the three species of Ge/55ow discussed above 
appear limited to Viti Levu, G. ternata has a broader distribution within Fiji and is 

Figure 3. A, Geissois superba; stipules at ultimate, penultimate, and antepenultimate nodes of branch- 
let, >> 1, from Smith 5434. B, Geissois imthurnii; stipules at ultimate and penultimate nodes of branchlet, x 
1 , from Degener 14265. C, Geissois stipularis; stipules at ultimate and penultimate nodes of branchlet, x 1 , 
from Gillespie 2118. D, Geissois ternata var. ternata; stipules at ultimate node of branchlet, * 4, from Smith 
5969. E, Geissois ternata var. glabrior; stipules at ultimate node of branchlet, » 4, from Smith 343. F, 
Geissois ternata var. serrata; stipules at ultimate node of branchlet, x 4, from St. John 18128. G, Geissois 
ternata var. minor: stipules at ultimate node of branchlet, x 4, from DA 14055. 



1985 



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Vol. 3 




1985 CUNONIACEAE 17 

more variable. The four varieties discussed by me in 1952 seem reasonably constant 
and readily accommodate the more recently available collections. 

Local names: Vure, vurevure, and voia are applicable to all the varieties, and 
vunga has also (perhaps erroneously) been recorded. 

Key to varieties 
Leaves comparatively large, the petiolules (2-) 4-25 mm. long, the leaflet blades usually 5-17 '< 3-9 cm., 
obtuse to acute at base, obtusely cuspidate to acuminate at apex; inflorescences 4-10.5 cm. long, the 
stamens 12-15, the disk 0.8-1.2 mm. high, the ovules 36-42 per locule. 
Leaflet blades entire, usually 5-15 « 3-7.5 cm., the secondary nerves 5-11 per side. 

Stipules copiously setulose with spreading hairs 0.2-1 mm. long 4a. var. lernala 

Stipules glabrous on both sides or strigillose with appressed hairs 0.1-0.4 mm. long, sometimes 

puberulent-tomentellous at margin 4b. var. glahrior 

Leaflet blades obviously denticulate-serrulate at margin, large, usually 9-19 x 4-10 cm., the secondary 

nerves 9-13 per side; stipules copiously setulose with hairs 1.5-2 mm. long 4c. var. serrala 

Leaves comparatively small, the petiolules l-ll mm. long, the leaflet blades usually 3-9.5 x 1.5-5 cm., 
attenuate to acute at base, obtuse to rounded at apex, entire; stipules copiously setulose; inflorescences 
2.5-8 cm. long, the stamens 8-12, the disk 0.5-0.6 mm. high, the ovules 20-34 per locule. 

4d. var. minor 

4a. Geissois ternata var. ternata; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 126. 1952; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 78. 1964, ed. 2. 120. 1972. Figures 3D, 4B, 88 (upper). 

Geissois lernala A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:679. 1854, Atlas, />/. <S6. 1856; Seem, in Bonplandia9: 

256. 1861, Viti, 437. 1862, Fl. Vit. 109. 1866; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 163. 1890; Pampan. in Ann. 

Bot. (Rome) 2: 58. 1905; Gibbs in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 144. 1909. 

A sometimes spreading tree 5-20 m. high, found from near sea level to an elevation 
of 900 m. in dense or open forest or on its edges or on open hillsides. The inflorescences 
are usually borne on defoliate branchlets but are sometimes associated with foliage; 
the pedicels, calyx lobes, filaments, and styles are bright red; the anthers, ovaries, and 
disk are yellow; and the fruit is green to dull yellow and often red-tinged. Flowers and 
fruits have been noted in most months. 

Typification: The type is U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 47817 & 47818 holotype; 
putative isotypes at gh, k, ny), collected in 1840 in part on Ovalau and in part in 
Mathuata Province, Vanua Levu. It is not now possible to attach individual specimens 
to localities and therefore the two us sheets may be taken together as the holotype; 
47817 bears fruits and 47818 flowers. Possibly the whole of the material is from more 
than two plants. 

Distribution: Known definitely from five of the high islands, but to be anticipated 
on others; about 30 collections are at hand. 

Representative collections: VlTl LEVU: Mba: Northern portion of Mt. Evans Range, between Mt. 
Vatuyanitu and Mt. Natondra, Smith 4271: Vunayasi, south of Nandi, D.4 2370: vicinity of Nandarivatu, 
Gibhs 591. Smiih 5i>69. Nandronga & Navosa: Nausori Highlands, D.4 15604: Yawe, vicinity of Mbelo, 
near Vatukarasa, Degener 15274. Serl'a: Mbuyombuyo, near Namboutim, Tahualewa 15609; Thulanuku, 
vicinity of Ngaloa, Degener 15120. Tailevu: Matavatathou, D.4 9235. KANDAVU: Seemann 201: hills 
above Namalata and Ngaloa Bays, Sniiih 76. OVALAU: Hills west of Lovoni Valley, on ridge south of Mt. 
Korolevu, Smiih 7521. NGAU: .H^lilne 231. Fiji without further locality. Home 580. 

4b. Geissois ternata var. glabrior A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 127. 1952; J. W. 

Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 78. 1964, ed. 2. 120. 1972. Figure 3E. 

A sometimes spreading tree 4-25 m. high (rarely noted as a large shrub), occurring 

in open forest or on its edges or on open slopes, from near sea level to an altitude of 600 

Figure 4. A, Geissois slipularis: inflorescence, x L B, Geissois lernala var. lernala: infructescence, » 1 . C 
& D, Geissois lernala var. minor: C, distal portions of branchlets, with foliage and inflorescences, * ill: D, 
seed, X 30. E, Geissois imihurnii: seed, >> 15. A from Smiih 9328. B from Smiih 7521. C from DA 14055, D 
from Gillespie 3898. E from Degener 14265. 



18 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

m. Flower and fruit colors are the same as in var. ternata, and similarly the flowers and 
fruits may be seen throughout the year. 

Typification: The type is Smith 1590 (ny holotype; many isotypes), collected 
April 24, 1934, in the upper Ndama River Valley, Mbua Province, Vanua Levu. 

Distribution: Geissois ternata var. glabrior is less frequent on Viti Levu than var. 
ternata, but it is the only variety of the species with a distribution extending into the 
Lau Group. It is thus far known from eight islands and 25 collections. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Vunanamo, DA 14796. Namosi: Between Namuamua 
and Nanggarawai, Wainikoroiluva River, Gillespie 3213. Naitasiri: Navutu, near Viria, DA 631. KORO: 
Western slope, Smith 1085. NGAU: Hills east of Herald Bay, inland from Sawaieke, Smith 7987. VANUA 
LEVU: Mathuata: Seanggangga Plateau, DA 13929. Thakaundrove: Natua, Wailevu Tikina, DA 15697: 
hills south of Nakula Valley, vicinity of Savusavu, Smith 343: between Nathula and Valovoni, Sanggani 
Tikina, Howard 141. TAVEUNI: Western slope, between Somosomo and Wairiki, Smith 847: vicinity of 
Waiyevo, Gillespie 4699. MOALA: Tothill 189. VANUA MBALAVU: Vicinity of Lomaloma, Garnock- 
Jones 1090: slopes of highest peak, Bryan 583. LAKEMBA: Harvey: hills above Naivanavana Valley, 
Garnock-Jones 931. 

4c. Geissois ternata var. serrata A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 127. 1952; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 78. 1964, ed. 2. 122. 1972. Figure 3F. 

A tree about 1 5 m. high, with a trunk 8- 1 cm. in diameter, found in woods at an 
elevation of 120-240 m. The flowers are red and were obtained, together with fruits, in 
July. 

Typification: The type and only known collection is St. John 18128 (bish 
holotype; isotypes at bish, k, us), collected July 19, 1937, north of Yalombi, along 
Olo Creek, Waya Island, Yasawas. 

Distribution: Known only from the type collection; no other material of Geissois 
has been seen from the Yasawas, although the plant is said to be locally common on 
Waya. 

Use: The collector indicates that the wood is used in house-building, and also that 
birds visit the flowers. 

4d. Geissois ternata var. minor A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 128. 1952; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 78. 1964, ed. 2. 120. 1972. Figures 3G, 4C & D. 

A gnarled shrub or tree 2-5 m. high, occurring in dense forest, in thickets on 
exposed ridges, and on open slopes, at elevations of 500-1,050 m. The inflorescences 
are found on defoliate branchlets or together with the foliage, and the flower colors are 
as usual for the species. Flowers have been obtained between October and April, fruits 
only in November and December. 

Typification: The type is Smith 679 (ny holotype; many isotypes), collected 
Nov. 29, 1933, on the summit of Mt. Mbatini, Thakaundrove Province, Vanua Levu. 

Distribution: Known only from the two large islands and usually from compara- 
tively high elevations. 

Available collections: VITl LEVU: Mba: Mt. Evans Range, Greenwood 119, DA /-^/^O; Natua Levu, 
Mt. Evans Range, DA /4055,- vicinity of Nandarivatu, Gillespie 3898, DA. Dec. 25, 1949,2110.2111. 9729, 
11118. Namosi: Summit of Mt. Voma, Gillespie 2730. p. p. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Summit ridge of 
Mt. Numbuiloa, east of Lambasa, Smith 6514. 

4. Weinmannia L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1005, 1367. 1759; Seem. Fl. Vit. 109. 1866; Engl, in 
Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 18a: 250. 1930; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold 
Arb. 33: 128. 1952; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 2: 9. 1967. Nom. cons. 
Trees or shrubs with $ flowers or dioecious or polygamodioecious (as often in our 

species); stipules sometimes connate, caducous; leaves opposite, simple or 3-foliolate 



1985 CUNONIACEAE 19 

(rarely 2-foliolate) or imparipinnately compound, the rachis often winged; inflorescen- 
ces axillary or terminal, racemose, the racemes solitary or aggregated (often 2-4) on a 
short common peduncle, the flowers small, if 5 sometimes protandrous, often fascicu- 
late along inflorescence rachis, the petals and filaments white or greenish; flowers 
4-merous (as in our species) or 5-merous; calyx lobes 4 or 5, imbricate, often persistent; 
petals 4 or 5, imbricate, often persistent; disk divided into 8 or 10 free lobes; stamens 8 
or 10, inserted between disk lobes, the filaments usually filiform, the anthers small, 
didymous; ovary 2-locular (present but with lacking or undeveloped ovules in cT 
flowers), the ovules apotropous, biseriate, few to many (3-6 per locule in Fijian 
species), pendulous from upper part of locules, the styles short, subpersistent; fruit a 
septicidally 2-valved capsule, usually small and ellipsoid, the seeds pilose, often comate 
at both ends (as in our species), not or rarely inconspicuously winged. 

Type species: Weinmannia pinnata L., the only original species. 

Distribution: Madagascar and the Mascarenes to Malesia and eastward to New 
Zealand, the Austral Islands, and the Marquesas, and more abundantly in America 
from Mexico and the West Indies southward, with a center of diversity in the Andes, 
and with 170-190 species. Five endemic species are known in Fiji. 

Key to species 
Leaves simple (or very rarely 2-foliolate), the blades oblong-elliptic, glabrous, usually 7-1 1 >< 2.5-6 cm. 
(rarely as small as 2 " 1.2 cm.), the secondary nerves usually 7-14 per side, the margmal crenations 
usually 1 or 2 per centimeter; stipules comparatively large, elliptic or suborbicular-obovate, 13-25 » 
8-15 mm. (rarely as small as 4 x 2 mm.), conspicuously barbellate in axils with often subpersistent tufts 
of stiff hairs 1-1.5 mm. long; perianth comparatively large, caducous in fruit, the calyx lobes 1.2-1.5 

mm. long, the petals 1.6-1.8 mm. long 1. W. affinis 

Leaves compound, 3-9(-13)-foliolate, very rarely simple or 2-foliolate, the leaflet blades not exceeding 9. 5 « 

4.5 cm., with fewer than 12 secondary nerves per side, the marginal crenations 2-4 per centimeter; 

stipules smaller, variously shaped but not exceeding 12 " 16 mm., inconspicously strigose-barbellate in 

axils; perianth comparatively small (not known for species no. 2), the calyx lobes less than 1.2 mm. long, 

the petals less than 1.6 mm. long. 

Leaflets comparatively large, only rarely less than 2 ■< 1 cm. and usually much larger, the marginal 

crenations only rarely as few as 8 per side; racemes more than 4 cm. long, often up to 12 cm, or longer. 

Leaves 5-foliolate (as far as known), with the petiole, rachis, and lower leaflet surfaces hispidulous 

(hairs 0.5-1 mm. long);stipulessuborbicularor ovate-oblong, about 10 >< 7- 1 mm., conspicuously 

dentate 2. W. spiraeoides 

Leaves glabrous or with the petiole, rachis, and costa of lower leaflet surfaces puberulent (hairs up to 0.2 

mm. long); stipules entire. 

Stipules suborbicular, variable in size (1.5-12 "• 1.5-16 mm.) but usually slightly broader than long; 

leaves 3-9-foliolate (very rarely simple or 2-foliolate), the leaflets predominantly elliptic or 

oblong-elliptic, ( I.5-) 3-7 x (1-) 1.2-3.8 cm. (terminal one rarely to 9.5 « 4.5 cm.); calyx lobes 

0.5-0.7 mm. long; petals 1-1.3 mm. long; perianth persistent in fruit 3. W. richii 

Stipules oblong or ovate to lanceolate, 3-10 x 1.5-5 mm., longer than broad; leaves 3-foliolate (as far 
as known), the leaflets predominantly lanceolate or lanceolate-elliptic, (2.5-) 3-5.5 » 1-2 cm. 
(terminal one sometimes to 7.5 ^ 2.8 cm.); calyx lobes 0.7- 1.2 mm. long; petals 1.1 -1.6 mm. long; 

perianth caducous in fruit 4. W. vnien.sis 

Leaflets small, (5-) 8-20 " 3-9 mm., with 3-6 marginal crenations per side; leaves 3-13-foliolate (very 
rarely simple); racemes 2-3 cm. long, the flowers small, the calyx lobes 0.7-0.8 mm. long, the petals 
1.2-1.3 mm. long; stipules suborbicular, 2-6 mm. in diameter, strongly revolute; perianth soon 
caducous 5. If. exigua 

1. Weinmannia afflnis A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 674. 1854; C. Muell. in 

Walp. Ann. Bot. Syst. 5: 30. 1858; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 256. 1861, Viti, 437. 

1862, Fl. Vit. 1 10. 1866; Engl, in Linnaea 36: 648. 1870; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 

Pac. 163. 1890; Pampan. in Ann. Bot. (Rome) 2: 92. 1905; Gibbs in J. Linn. Soc. 

Bot. 39: 145. 1909; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 130. 1952; J. W. Parham, PI. 

Fiji Isl. 82. 1964, ed. 2. 122. 1972. Figure 5A, B, E. 

An often compact shrub or small tree 1-8 m. high, known from altitudes of 

350-1,323 m. in dry forest, in the forest and dense thickets of crests and ridges, and on 



20 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

open ridges. The petals, stamens, and ovaries are white, the styles purple-tinged, and 
the fruits red or pink-tinged. Flowers have been collected between December and June, 
fruits between May and January. 

Typification: The type is U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 48070 holotype; isoTYPESatGH, 
K, ny), a fruiting collection obtained in 1840 on Ovalau. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and thus far known from Viti Levu, Ovalau, and 
Taveuni; 32 collections have been studied. 

Local names: Weintnannia as a separate genus does not appear to have its own 
name in Fiji; such names as vure and katakata, sometimes applied to this and other 
species of the genus, are more commonly used for Geissois and Spiraeanthemum 
respectively. 

Representative collections; VITI LEVU: Mba: Mountains near Lautoka, Gteenwood247: Mt. Evans 
Range, DA 14184: vicinity of Nandarivatu, Gibbs 881, Greenwood 864, Smith 4905: summit of Mt. 
Tomanivi, Webster & Hildreth 14204. Nandronga & Navosa: Nausori Highlands, DA 13890: southern 
slopes of Nausori Highlands above Tumbenasolo, Greenwood 1 188. Namosi: Korombasambasanga Range, 
DA 2201: slopes and summit of Mt. Voma, Gillespie 2730, p. p., DA 13965. Viti Levu without further 
locality, Seemann 197. OVALAU: Graeffe s. n.: summit of Mt. Ndelaiovalau and adjacent ridge. Smith 
7608. TAVEUNI: Seemann 200: borders of lake east of Somosomo, Smith 878. 

Although Weinmannia affinis is sharply distinct from other Fijian species of the 
genus on the basis of its simple leaves with comparatively large blades and its large 
stipules, a gradation to forms with small leaves and stipules (as in DA 2201 and Smith 
878), apparently from especially exposed situations, may be noted. The species is more 
closely allied to the endemic Samoan W. manuana Christophersen than to other Fijian 
species. 

2. Weinmannia spiraeoides A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:677. 1854; C. Muell. in 

Walp. Ann. Bot. Syst. 5: 30. 1858; Seem. Viti, 437. 1862, Fl. Vit. 1 10. 1866; EngL 

in Linnaea 36: 644. 1870; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 164. 1890; A. C. Sm. in J. 

Arnold Arb. 33: 132. 1952; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 82. 1964, ed. 2. 125. 1972. 

A small tree, known from a single specimen from an elevation of about 150 m., 

apparently sharply characterized by the stiff indument and sharply serrate margins of 

its leaflets, as well as by its conspicuously dentate stipules. 

Typification: The holotype is U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 48073), collected in 1840 on 
Ovalau. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and thus far known only from the sterile holotype. 
Some doubt must remain attached to the status of Weinmannia spiraeoides, which 
conceivably is merely an aberrant juvenile form of W. richii {not known from Ovalau). 
Nevertheless, the fohage and stipular characters mentioned above have not been noted 
in other juvenile Fijian specimens, and so it seems advisable to retain W. spiraeoides as 
a distinct taxon. 

3. Weinmannia richii A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 675. 1854, Atlas, p/. 85, B. 

1856; C. Muell. in Walp. Ann. Bot. Syst. 5: 30. 1858; Seem. Viti, 437. 1862, Fl. 
Vit. 110. 1866; Engl, in Linnaea 36: 643. 1870; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 164. 

Figure 5. A & B, Weinmannia affinis: A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and infructescences, 
showing stipules, x 1/2; B, distal portion of branchlet, small-leaved variant, with young inflorescences, x 
1/2. C, Weinmannia exigua: foliage and stipules, » 2. D, Weinmannia richii: protandrous flower, with 2 
calyx lobes, 1 petal, and 2 stamens removed, showing disk lobes, mature stamens, and young gynoecium, » 
30. E, Weinmannia affinis: seed, x 40. A & E from Smith 7608, B from DA 2201, C from Howard 89. D from 
DF 1174. 



1985 



CUNONIACEAE 



21 



1 







22 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

1890; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 133. 1952; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 82. 
1964, ed. 2. 124. 1972. Figure 5D. 

Weinmannia rhodogyne Gibbs in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 145. 1909; Turrill in op. cit. 43: 20. 1915. 

An often compact shrub or small tree 1.5-7 m. high, found at elevations of 
100-1,100 m. in open or dry forest, thickets, and ridge forest, and on dry slopes. The 
inflorescence peduncle and rachis are sometimes pinkish to dark red, the petals, 
stamens, and ovaries are white, and the fruit becomes pink or deep red. Flowers have 
been observed between May and January, fruits more or less throughout the year. 

Typification: The type of Weinmannia richii is U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 48071 
holotype; isotypes at gh, k, ny), collected in 1840 in the vicinity of Mbua Bay (at 
about 600 m., i. e. some distance inland), Mbua Province, Vanua Levu; that of W. 
rhodogyne is Gibbs 594 (bm holotype; isotype at k), obtained in August, 1907, in the 
vicinity of Nandarivatu, Mba Province, Viti Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and thus far known only from Viti Levu, Vanua 
Levu, and Taveuni; about 45 collections have been examined. 

Local names: The several names recorded by collectors are probably all erroneous 
for a species of Weinmannia. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mountains near Lautoka, Greenwood 384: Mba 
closed area, DA 12515: vicinity of Nandarivatu, Degener & Ordonez 13599. im Thurn 73: slopes of Mt. 
Nanggaranambuluta, east of Nandarivatu, Gillespie 4333. Nandronga & Navosa: Southern slopes of 
Nausori Highlands, in drainage of Namosi Creek above Tumbenasolo, ^m///! 4770.' vicinity of Nandrau, DF 
1174. Serua: Vicinity of Namboutini, DA L.13539 (DF911). Namosi: Korombasambasanga Range, DA 
2188; Mt. Voma, DA 2598. p. p. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Vicinity of Ndama, DA 2277: vicinity of Nandi 
Bay, Milne 251. Mathuata: Mt. Ndelanathau, DA 16061: Seanggangga Plateau, in drainage of Korovuli 
River, vicinity of Natua, Smith 6813. TAVEUNI: Exposed summit ridge east of Somosomo, Gillespie 4837. 

Weinmannia richii and W. affinis, although not forming a conspicuous element of 
the vegetation, are the most abundant species of the genus in Fiji. They are commonly 
sympatric at middle elevations on Viti Levu, especially in the frequently collected area 
around Nandarivatu. 

4. Weinmannia vitiensis Seem. Fl. Vit. 110. 1866; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 164. 
1890; Pampan. in Ann. Bot. (Rome) 2: 93. 1905; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 
135. 1952; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 82. 1964, ed. 2. 125. 1972. 
Weinmannia affinis var. /3 A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 674. 1854; C. Muell. in Walp. Ann. Bot. 

Syst. 5: 30. 1858; Engl, in Linnaea 36: 649. 1870. 
Weinmannia Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 256. 1861. 
Weinmannia affinis sensu Seem. Viti, 437, p. p. 1862; non A. Gray. 

A tree 3- 1 8 m. high or a compact shrub, occurring in dense forest or in open places 
at elevations of 300-900 m. Its slightly fragrant flowers have white petals and fila- 
ments, and the mature fruits are brown. Flowers have been obtained only in March 
and July, fruits between March and September. 

Typification: The type of Weinmannia vitiensis in Seemann 199 (k holotype; 
ISOTYPES at BM, gh), Collected on Kandavu in August or September, 1860. Gray based 
his W. affinis var. fi on U. S. Expl. Exped. (gh, ny), obtained in 1840 on Ovalau. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and known from several islands, but nowhere 
seeming frequent except on Moala. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Nausori Highlands, DA 18858. 
TAVEUNI: Hills east of Somosomo, west of old crater occupied by small swamp and lake. Smith 8401. 
MOALA: Bryan 317: Ndelaimoala, Smith 1354. Fiji without further locality, Harvey s. n. 

Weinmannia vitiensis, known from scattered localities on five of the high islands, is 
not sharply distinct from the more abundant W. richii, but I believe that it may be 
retained at the specific level on the basis of its differently shaped stipules and leaflets 



1985 CUNONIACEAE 23 

(which seem uniformly three) and its somewhat larger flowers. 

5. Weinmannia exigua A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 137. 1952; J. W. Parham, PL 
Fiji Isl. 82. 1964, ed. 2. 122. 1972. Figure 5C. 

A shrub or small tree to 3 m. high, found in forest or in crest thickets at elevations of 
150 to about 600 m. Flowers and fruits have been obtained only in May. 

Typification; The type is Home 632 (k holotype; photos of holotype at bish, us), 
collected in May, 1878, "on top of the mountains" between Waiwai and Lomaloma, 
Mathuata or Thakaundrove Province, Vanua Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and apparently to Vanua Levu, where it seems rare. 
The second known collection, cited below, is sterile but unmistakably represents the 
species with very small leaflets otherwise collected only by Home. 

Available collection: VANUA LEVU; Thakaundrove: Near tributary of Sovivi Creek, south of 
Karoko, Tunuloa Tikina, Natewa Peninsula, Huward 89. 

5. PuLLEA Schlechter in Bot. Jahrb. 52: 164. 1914; Perry in J. Arnold Arb. 30: 163. 
1949; A. C. Sm. in op. cit. 33: 148. 1952, in op. cit. 36: 278. 1955; Hutchinson, Gen. 
Fl. PI. 2: 9. 1967; Hoogl. in Blumea 25: 490. 1979. 

Trees with § flowers; stipules soon caducous, leaving short, transversely elliptic, 
straight scars; leaves opposite, simple; inflorescences axillary or pseudoterminal, 
paniculate, many-flowered, paired or ternate (or quaternate) and superposed, the 
flowers small, sessile or subsessile, often fasciculate in clusters at apices of ultimate 
inflorescence branchlets, the calyx and filaments white to yellowish or greenish; calyx 
lobes 5 or 6 (very rarely 7), narrowly imbricate; petals absent; disk divided into 10 or 12 
lobes, these often coherent in pairs; stamens 10 or 12, the filaments slender, the anthers 
small; ovary semi-inferior or (as in our species) 1/3-1/4 inferior and only basally sunk 
into the hypanthium, 2-locular (very rarely 3-locular), the ovules apotropous, bise- 
riate, 4 or 6 per locule, pendulous, the styles curved or ascending; fruit drupaceous, 
probably becoming a tardily dehiscent capsule (not much altered in shape and size 
from maturing gynoecium), containing 2 collateral pyrenes, these flattened-ovoid, the 
endocarp cartilaginous or crustaceous, the placenta apical, with 4 or 6 pendulous 
developing seeds, these flattened, oblanceolate to obdeltoid, with a proximal wing and 
a distal nucellus, the seeds perhaps ultimately becoming obovoid. 

Lectotype species: Pullea mollis Schlechter (vide Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 2: 9. 
1967), one of Schlechter's two original species. 

Distribution: New Guinea (and probably Morotai in the Moluccas), northeastern 
Queensland, and Fiji, with four species. The Fijian taxon is here considered an 
endemic species terminating the range of the genus to the east. 

1. Pullea perryana A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 33: 148. 1952, in op. cit. 36: 278. 1955; J. 

W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. n. fig. 32. 1964, ed. 2. Ml. fig. 34. 1972; A. C. Sm. in 

Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 37: 71. 1967. Figures 6B-D, 7A & B. 

Pullea glabra sensu Hoogl. in Blumea 25: 491. p. p., solum quoad spec. vit. 1979; non Schlechter. 

A tree 2-12 m. high, with a trunk up to 23 cm. in diameter, known to occur from 

near sea level to an elevation of 626 m. in forest or on its edges, in hillside forest, and in 

the dense thickets and forest of crests and ridges. The calyx, filaments, and styles are 

white to cream-white, and the disk lobes become rich pink. Flowers have been 

obtained in most months, occurring together with young fruits; fully mature fruits 

have not yet been noted. 

Typification: The type is B. H. Tothill 472 (or F472) (k holotype; isotypes at 
BiSH, us 1992912), collected in November, 1928, along the "Central Road," Naitasiri 
Province, Viti Levu. 



24 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 CUNONIACEAE 25 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and now observed as fairly frequent in eastern Viti 
Levu (including Naingani Island), with a single collection from Ovalau. 
Local name: The name mbulewa was noted for DA 12463. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Prince's Road, DA 7565. 11786: Tholo-i-suva and 
vicinity, DA 1646. 11895. 12463. 1 2548. 12558. 1380J. 1452J. Boh 14^ Tailevu: Wainiveimbalambala 
Creek, DA 5834: Naingani Island, DA 3330. 3345. Rewa: Mt. Korombamba, DA 3845. OVALAU: Summit 
of Mt. Ndelaiovalau and adjacent ridge, Smith 7613. 

Hoogland (1979, cited above) is probably correct in recognizing only one species 
(Pullea glabra Schlechter) of the genus in New Guinea in addition to the comparatively 
rare and very distinct P. »;o///i Schlechter. The characters utilized by Perry (1949, cited 
above) to distinguish five New Guinean species (in addition to P. /?io///i) refer to minor 
foliage variations, indument, and the number of flowers in a cluster, and are probably 
not very reliable. 

Nevertheless, I consider Hoogland's reduction of the Fijian taxon to the New 
Guinean Pullea glabra inadvisable, in view of the absence of the genus (as far as now 
known) from intervening areas. Differences between the two populations are discerni- 
ble in stipules, extremes of leaf size and margin, flower arrangement, degree of 
submersion of the ovary into the hypanthium, and young seeds. These differences may 
be expressed in a key as follows: 

Stipules (Figure 6B) obovate-suborbicular or obovate-elliptic, 8-12 * (3-) 5-11 mm., narrowed at base, 
rounded at apex, strongly revolute at margin; petioles (5-) 10-25 mm. long; leaf blades elliptic or 
lanceolate-elliptic, (4-) 7-18 (-23) x (2-) 3-9 (-12) cm., coarsely undulate-crenate at margin; flowers 
often solitary, paired, or in small clusters along ultimate inflorescence branchlets, less frequently 
densely aggregated at ends of ultimate branchlets; ovary (Fioi:re 7A) 13-14 inferior, only the basal 
portion sunk into the broadly conical hypanthium; pyrenes of young fruits ( Figure 7B) acuminate at 
apex, the endocarp crustaceous and brittle, the maturing ovules with a distinctly narrowed basal wing, 

oblanceolate P pernana 

Stipules (Figure 6A) oblong-deltoid. 4-6 " 2-2.5 mm., broad-based, obtuse to subacute at apex, flat at 
margin; petioles 3-20 mm. long; leaf blades oblong- to obovate-elliptic to lanceolate-elliptic. (3-) 4- 1 1 " 
(1-) 2.5-7.5 cm., obscurely to obviously crenate at margin; flowers often aggregated in clusters of 5-12 
at ends of ultimate inflorescence branchlets. less frequently scattered along branchlets below terminal 
clusters; ovary (Figure 7C) half-inferior, the hypanthium cupuliform; pyrenes of youngfruits(FiGURE 
7D) acute at apex, the endocarp cartilaginous, not obviously crustaceous and brittle, the maturing 
ovules (Figure 7E) narrowed at base but with a less obvious wing, obdeltoid P glabra 

The characters utilized above are neither entirely convincing nor thoroughly 
satisfactory, but at this stage it seems advisable to retain the Fijian material as 
representing a discrete taxon. If the genus should be discovered in the Solomons and 
New Hebrides this decision should be reviewed. At the moment it would appear that 
the Fijian population resulted from the establishment of a chance waif in a past 
geological period. In that case a different course of development would have been 
probable in contrast to the situation in New Guinea, where frequent contact among 
parts of the population of Pullea glabra has prevented the emergence of discrete taxa 
(except for var. verticillaia Hoogl.). It may be noted that P. perryana. in respect to 
characters of stipules and leaf margins, is more suggestive of the Australian P. stutzeri 
(F. v. Muell.) Gibbs than of P. glabra. 

Figure 6. A, Pullea glabra: stipules at ultimate node of branchlet, ■< 6. B-D. Pullea perryana: B, stipules 
at ultimate node of branchlet. showing ternately or quaternately superposed inflorescence buds. « 6; C, distal 
portions of branchlets, show ing variability in foliage and inflorescences. "1 3; D, flower, with some stamens 
removed, showing calyx lobes, disk lobes, stamens, and styles. » 20. A from Kairo & Streirttann (sgf iSTil). 
New Guinea, B from D,4 11895. C from DA 12548 (detached branchlet with small leaves, upper left, from 
Smith 7613. detached large leaf, lower left, from DA 11895). D from Smith 7613. 



26 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 DAVIDSONIACEAE 27 



Family 118. DAVIDSONIACEAE 
Davidsoniaceae G. Bange in Blumea 7: 294. 1952. 

A family formerly combined with the Cunoniaceae, differing in its alternate leaves, 
in the presence of rigid, stinging hairs on the branchlets, leaves, and inflorescences, in 
having its stamens scarcely exserted, and in its seeds lacking endosperm. Trees with § 
flowers; stipules subreniform, dentate-serrate; leaves alternate, imparipinnately com- 
pound, large (to 1 m. long), the rachis roughly aculeate, the leaflets usually 11 or 13, 
decreasing in size proximally, penninerved, irregularly dentate-serrate at margin; 
inflorescences paniculate to glomerate-spicate; flowers § , actinomorphic; calyx 
gamosepalous, 4- or 5-lobed nearly half its length, the lobes valvate; petals absent; disk 
with 8 or 10 nectariferous scales; stamens 8 or 10, hypogynous, inserted on disk, the 
filaments short, sharply bent distally, the anthers 2-locuiar, versatile, longitudinally 
dehiscing; gynoecium 2-carpellate, the ovary superior, the ovules about 7 per locule, 
pendulous, anatropous, epitropous, the styles free, curved; fruit a drupe with 2 
pyrenes, the seeds solitary in each pyrene, compressed, without endosperm, the 
embryo with plano-convex, straight cotyledons. 

DiSTRiBt_'TiON: Australia (Queensland and northeastern New South Wales), with a 
single genus and species; cultivated in Fiji and perhaps elsewhere. 

Useful treatment of family: Bange, G. G. J. A new family of dicotyledons: Davidsoniaceae. Blumea 
7: 293-296. 1952. 

In erecting a new monotypic family for Davidsonia. Bange followed the suggestion 
of Engler (in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 18a: 261. 1930). The family has 
been accepted as distinct by Schulze-Menz(in Melchior, Syll. Pflanzenfam. ed. 12. 2: 
207. 1964), Takhtajan (1969, 1980), Thorne (1976), Dahlgren (1980), Cronquist ( 198 1 ), 
and most recent students of the cunoniaceous alliance. Epitropous ovules, mentioned 
as a distinguishing feature by Bange, occur in two genera of Cunoniaceae, as men- 
tioned above in the treatment of that family. 

I. Davidsonia F. v. Muell. Fragm. Phyt. Austral. 6: 4. 1867; G. Bange in Blumea 7: 
294. 1952; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 2: 12. 1967. 
Characters and distribution of the family. 
Type species: Davidsonia pruriens F. v. Muell. 

1. Davidsonia pruriens F. v. Muell. var. pruriens; G. Bange in Blumea 7:296. fig. 1-19. 
1952; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 82. 1964, ed. 2. 125. 1972. 

DaviJsunia pruriens F. v. Muell. Fragm. Phyt. Austral. 6: 4. pi 46. 1867; Engl, in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. 

Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 18a: 26 1 . 1930; B. E. V.' Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 10: 1 14. 1 939; G. Bange in 

Blumea 7: 294, p. p. majore. 1952. 

A slender tree to 12 m. high, infrequently cultivated in Fiji, with large, compound 
leaves, an ample, paniculate, long-pedunculate inflorescence, reddish calyces, and 
globose-ovoid fruits about 5 cm. in diameter. It has been collected in flower in January 
(Lam, cited below); in Australia (fide Bange) flowers have been collected between May 
and February, fruits in August and September. 

Figure 7. A & B, Pulleaperryana: A, fully mature flower, with 3 calyx lobes removed, the stamens fallen, 
X 20; B, pyrenes of young fruit, the left one with the ventral wall removed to show 4 young seeds pendulous 
from placenta, the right one showing the dorsal surface, " 30. C-E, Pullea glabra: C. fully mature flower, 
with 2 calyx lobes removed, the stamens fallen, » 20; D, pyrenes of young fruit, the left one with the ventral 
wall removed to show 4 young seeds pendulous from placenta, the right one showing the dorsal surface, >< 30; 
E, young seed, " 70. A & B from Tuthill 472. C & D from L. K. Wade (anu 7638), New Guinea, E from 
Clemens 11108 bis. New Guinea. 



28 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification: The only specimen cited in Mueller's protologue was collected by 
Dallachy, and the only such material available to him in 1867 was Dallachy (mel 
holotype; fragment at k), collected in flower and fruit Aug. 12, 1866, along Murray's 
River, Rockingham Bay, Queensland, Australia. (The specimen need not be consid- 
ered a lectotype, as indicated by Bange.) Another flowering specimen from the same 
locality, cited by Bange, is Dallachy (mel), collected Nov. 10, 1869. Mueller (k, 2 
sheets; fragments at l and p cited by Bange), from Rockingham Bay, should presuma- 
bly not be considered part of the type. 

Distribution: As of the family. A second variety, with smaller leaves and fruits 
and with spicate inflorescences, is accepted by Bange. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU; Naitasiri: Mbatiki. Nanduruloulou, cultivated, B. E. V. Par- 
ham. Lam 6921 {l, cited by Bange). 

In his note of 1939, cited above, Parham indicated that the species had been 
introduced in 1922 and was growing well on the property of W. L. Wallace on Tovu 
Island, Ra Province, Viti Levu. The same introduction was presumably established in 
the arboretum at Nanduruloulou, where it was shown to H. J. Lam by Parham in 1 949. 

Family 119. PITTOSPORACEAE 
PiTTOSPORACEAE R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Australis2:542, as Pittosporeae. 1814. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent, estipulate, with schizogenous resin canals in 
vegetative parts, the indument when present composed of diverse types of few- or 
multicellular trichomes; leaves alternate (spirally arranged), often pseudoverticillate 
toward apices of branchlets, simple, the blades penninerved, often coriaceous, usually 
entire; inflorescences axillary, cauline, or terminal, simple or compound, few- to 
many-flowered or infrequently with solitary flowers, usually corymbose, cymose, or 
paniculate, bracteate; flowers actinomorphic (rarely zygomorphic), § or functionally 
unisexual, pedicellate, often bibracteolate, usually 5-merous; calyx composed of free 
or variously connate sepals, these rarely spathaceous; corolla composed of 5 petals, 
these free or proximally connate or connivent, distally imbricate; stamens 5, hypogy- 
nous, erect, opposite sepals, the filaments filiform or subulate or linear, free or slightly 
connivent proximally, the anthers 2-locular, introrse, subdorsifixed to basifixed, 
dehiscing by longitudinal slits (rarely by apical pores); disk lacking; gynoecium 2(infre- 
quently 3-6)-carpellate, sessile or short-stipitate, the ovary superior, 1-locular or 
incompletely or completely 2(-6)-locular, the placentation parietal or sometimes axile, 
the ovules numerous, 2-seriate, anatropous, the style simple, the stigma small, thick- 
ened, capitate or lobed; fruit a berry or a loculicidal capsule, the seeds usually 
numerous, often immersed in viscid pulp, rarely winged, the endosperm copious, the 
embryo small. 

Distribution: Tropical and southern Africa (one species in Madeira and Canary 
Islands) and Madagascar through the Middle East to eastern Asia, Malesia, and 
Australia, eastward to New Zealand, Polynesia, and Hawaii, with eight or nine genera 
and about 240 species, and with a center of diversity in Australia. Only Pittosporum, 
the largest genus, occurs east of Australia and New Guinea. 

Useful tre.mments of family: Bakker, K., &C. G. G. J. van Steenis. Pittosporaceae. Fl. Males. I. 5: 
345-362. 1957. Hutchinson, J. Pittosporaceae. Gen. Fl. PI. 2: 294-298. 1967. Carlquist, S. Wood 
anatomy of Pittosporaceae. Allertonia 2: 355-392. 1981. 

1. Pittosporum Banks ex Gaertn. Fruct. Sem. PI. 1: 286. 1788; Seem. Fl. Vit. 7. 1865; 
Pritzel in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 18a: 273. 1930; Bakker in Fl. 
Males. I. 5: 345. 1957; Haas in Allertonia 1: 92. 1977. 



1985 PITTOSPORACEAE 29 

Evergreen, erect, aromatic trees or shrubs with characters of the family; cataphylls 
(reduced bracteiform leaves) often numerous as scales around vegetative buds, at bases 
of peduncles, or scattered; inflorescences simple or with 2-4 main branches; flowers 
actinomorphic (rarely with a zygomorphic, spathaceous calyx), § in all Fijian species 
(but often functionally unisexual elsewhere); petals basally valvate in bud, glabrous, 
proximally connivent or subconnivent at anthesis, distally imbricate and quincuncial, 
white to yellowish (as in our species) or rarely reddish to purplish, variably recurved at 
anthesis; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; gynoecium 2-carpellate (in our spe- 
cies, but rarely 3-6-carpellate elsewhere), the ovary 1-locular, pubescent (with 2-armed 
trichomes) or glabrous, the placenta median on each carpel; fruit a loculicidally 
dehiscent capsule, sometimes laterally and medianly (rarely suturally) compressed, the 
valves 2 (in our species, but sometimes 3-6 elsewhere), the exocarp coriaceous or 
woody-coriaceous and with a variable degree of external sculpturing, the endocarp 
fleshy, the funicles subglobose to peg-shaped or long and slender, the seeds numerous, 
22-50 in our species (sometimes more or fewer elsewhere), irregularly angled and 
compressed, reddish or blackish, embedded in viscid resin, the seed mass usually filling 
capsule volume at maturity. 

Lectotype species: Pittosporum tenuifolium Gaertn. (vide Bullock in Kew Bull. 
14: 44. 1960). 

Distribution: As of the family, with about 200 species. Five species (three of them 
endemic) occur in Fiji, and one species has been reported in cultivation. 

Useful treatment of gems: Haas, J, E. The Pacific species of Pittosporum Banks ex Gaertn. 
(Pittosporaceae). Allertonia 1: 73-167. 1977. 

The present treatment is abstracted from the comprehensive 1977 work of Haas, in 
which all the Fijian species are to a degree illustrated. The five Fijian species fall into 
three evolutionary lines derived from a more westerly ancestry: (1) the Pittosporum 
rhytidocarpwn group with two Fijian species (all the Hawaiian endemics are referred 
to this alliance by Haas), (2) the P. arborescens group with two Fijian species, and (3) 
the isolated species P. brackenridgei. 

Key to species 
Indigenous species. 

Sepals free to base, ( 1.3-) 3.2-5.5 mm, long; corolla hypocrateriform, the petals rounded at apex, strongly 
recurved distally; capsules rostrate to subrostrate or acute at apex. 
Leaves comparatively large, the petioles (8-) 17-40 (-50) mm. long, the blades narrowly obovate to 
oblanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, (6-) 1 1-35 cm. long, (2-) 4-1 1 cm. broad, entire at margin, with 
9-25 secondary nerves per side; intlorescences axillary (sometimes pseudotermmal). with 10-22 
flowers; mature capsules strongly verrucose-sulcate to rugulose, the valves 18-39 * 14-38 mm., the 
seeds 40-50, 5-8 mm. long; indument composed of one tnchome type (trichomes with a basal stalk 

and 2-armed terminal cell) 1. P. rhyliducarpum 

Leaves smaller, the petioles (2-) 8-20 mm. long, the blades lanceolate or oblanceolate to narrowly 
elliptic or obovate, (3.5-) 6-16.5 cm. long, (1-) 2-4 cm. broad, entire to coarsely and remotely 
serrate distally. with (4-) 7-15 secondary nerves per side; inflorescences terminal, with 5-7 (lowers; 
mature capsules minutely rugulose, the valves 30-33 » 18-20 mm., the seeds 22-28, 5.5-6.5 mm. 
long; indument composed of two trichome types (some trichomes with a basal stalk and 2-armed 
terminal cell, others uniseriate, glandular-capitate, and frequently moniliform). 

2. P. oli^oduntu/n 

Sepals variably connate; corolla narrowly campanulate. the petals laxly recurved at anthesis; capsules 

minutely rugulose, broadly acute to rounded at apex; inflorescences with 3-16 flowers; leat blades 

(2-) 4-18 (-19) cm. long, 1.5-7 cm. broad, entire at margin; indument composed ofone trichome type 

(trichomes with a basal stalk and 2-armed terminal cell). 

Calyx cupuliform, with lobes rounded or broadly acute distally, splitting down one side at anthesis and 

then appearing patelliform, the sepals 1.5-3.3 mm. long, fused for 2 3-3 4 their kngth, flower 

buds narrowly ovoid-subellipsoid. rounded at apex; corolla broadly hypocrateriform. the petals 

7-1 1 mm. long. 1.3-2.3 mm. at widest point, rounded at apex; mature capsules obovoid to ellipsoid 

(frequently transversely so), frequently compressed, the valves 1 3-30 mm. long, 11-21 mm. broad, 

the seeds 30-40, 4-5 mm. long; petioles 8-30 mm. long; leaf blades with 7- 14 secondary nerves per 

side. 



30 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Flowers about 6.5 mm. long at anthesis; sepals fused for approximately 2/3 their length; pericarp 
3.5-6.2 mm. thick; leaf blades obovate to elliptic, rounded to broadly acute (rarely short- 
acuminate and mucronulate) at apex 3. P. arborescens 

Flowers 8-10 mm. long at anthesis; sepals fused for approximately 3/4 their length; pericarp 1.8-3 
mm. thick; leaf blades oblanceolate to narrowly obovate or elliptic, acute to mostly short- 
acuminate and mucronulate at apex A. P. pickeringii 

Calyx spathaceous, 7-11 mm. long, completely enclosing mature flower buds, splitting down one side 
and frequently deciduous at anthesis, the sepals completely fused for their entire length; flower 
buds subconical, acute at apex; corolla narrowly campanulate, the petals 9.5-13 mm. long, 1.8-2 
mm. broad at widest point, acute at apex; mature capsules subglobose to ovoid or transversely 
ellipsoid, the valves 17-32 mm. long and broad, the seeds 25-35, 3.5-4.5 mm. long; petioles (5-) 
10-26 mm. long; leaf blades obovate-oblong to elliptic, rounded or rarely broadly acute or obtuse 

at apex, with 10-19 secondary nerves per side 5. P. brackenridgei 

Cultivated species (>. P. phillyraeoides 

1 . Pittosporum rhytidocarpum A. Gray, Bot. U.S. Expl. Exped. 1 : 228. 1 854, Atlas, pi. 
18. 1856; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 254. 1861, Viti, 434. 1862, Fl. Vit. 8, 1865, op. cit. 
425. 1873; Drake. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 111. 1890; Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. III. 2A: 111. 1891; Pritzel in op. cit. ed. 2. 18a: 277. 1930; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 108. 1964, ed. 2. \ 54. fig. 47. 1972; Haas in Allertonia 1: 96. 

fig. 1, A. B. 3, A. B. 7. 1977. 

A shrub or tree 2-10 m. high, often slender and cauliflorous, with abundant white 
latex, found in considerable abundance at elevations from near sea level to 1 , 1 95 m. in 
dense, open, or secondary forest, in thickets, and in open rocky places. The fragrant 
flowers have the corolla white or cream-white to dull yellow; the fruits are olive-green, 
becoming orange (especially within the valves), usually borne on branchlets below the 
leaves, and with black, sticky seeds. Flowers and fruits may occur throughout the year. 

Lectotypification: Several Exploring Expedition specimens were examined by 
Gray, who cited the localities Viti Levu (north coast), Ovalau, and Vanua Levu 
(Mathuata). Haas in 1977 indicated U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 78 13 lectotype), collected 
in Fiji in 1840, although the precise locality cannot be stated. Other available U. S. 
Expl. Exped. specimens (gh, k, p, us 7812) are not necessarily isolectotypes, as the 
material came from several plants. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and the most abundant species of the genus in the 
archipelago, being known from about 1 50 collections from nine islands, although it 
may be anticipated on many others. 

Local names and uses: The names most commonly applied to this species (and 
often used as generic in nature) are nduva, nduvakalou, tuva, nduthi, and vothe. Other 
locally noted names for Pittosporum rhytidocarpum are mbau (Waya), saranga, 
taranga, and vothivolhi (Mba), vothevothe ni thangi (Tailevu), and wailoa and samu 
nggawe (Thakaundrove); some of these are dubious. Like those of many other species 
of Pittosporum, the fruits are crushed and used as a fish posion, and they also provide a 
dye used in tattooing and for other purposes. An extract from the leaves and bark is 
said to be used medicinally in Ra, and in the Yasawas the larger trunks may be used for 
canoe-making. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: W.wa: Naruarua Gulch, west side of Mbatinaremba, St. 
John 18050. VITI LEVU: Mba; Northern portion of Mt. Evans Range, between Mt. Vatuyanitu and Mt. 
Natondra, Smith 4356: Mt. Koromba, D.4 14732: vicinity of Nandarivatu, Degener & Ordonez 13601: 
slopes of Mt. Tomanivi, Gillespie 4078. Nandronga & N.wosa: Nausori Highlands, O. & I. Degener 32157: 
Thuvu, near Singatoka, Greenwood 928: northern portion of Rairaimatuku Plateau. Smith 5495. Serua; 
Mt. Tuvutau, DA 15530: vicinity of Ngaloa, Degener 15177. Namosi: Mt. Naitarandamu, Gillespie 3345: 
summit of Mt. Vakarongasiu, Gillespie 3269: Nambukavesi Creek, Damanu 80. Ra: Vicinity of Rewasa, 
near Vaileka, Degener 15454. Naitasiri: Near Matawailevu, Wainimala River, St. John 1 8 190: \\c\n\r.y o( 
Tamavua, Gillespie 2413. Tailevu: Namara, Seemann 52: Raralevu road, DA 5640. Rewa: Hills near Lami 



1985 PITTOSPORACEAE 31 

quarry, Gillespie 4601. K.ANDAVU: Hills above Namalata and Ngaloa Bays. Snuih 150: vicinity of 
Naikorokoro, Damanu 48. OVALAU: Hills east of Lovoni Valley, Smith 7257: Mt. Tana Lailai, Graeffe. 
Dec., 1864. VANUA LEVI); Mbia: Southern portion of Seatovo Range, Smiih 1541: Nandi Bay. Harvey. 
Nov., 1855. Mathi^.'M,^: Southern base of Mathuata Range, north of Natua, Smith 67S9: mountains near 
Lambasa, Greenwood 607. Thakai'ndrove: Eastern drainage of Yanawai River, De^ener & Ordonez 
/■////. southern slopes of Mt. Mariko, 5m///! ■//J. TAVEUNI; Vicinity of Wairiki, C/7/<'5/'i>-/6-m KAMBA- 
RA: On limestone formation. Smith 1253. NAVUTU-I-LOMA: Central lowland forest, Bryan 464. 
ONGEA NDRIKI: Central forest, Bryan 383. CULTIVATED: Lyon Arboretum, Honolulu, Hawaii, 
ishikawa L-64.2242 (bish). 

This conspicuous species, which is fairly ubiquitous in Fiji, is readily recognized by 
its large leaves, large flowers with free sepals, and characteristic fruits, which are large, 
usually rostrate, and with valves that are usually very thick and characteristically 
strongly rugulose. 

2. Pittosporum oligodontum Gillespie in Bishop Mus. Bull. 83: 9. fig. 8. 1931; J. W. 

Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 108. 1964, ed. 2. 153. 1972; Haas in Allertonia 1:99. /i^. i, C, 
D. 5. A, 8. A-C. 1977. 

A small tree, occasional in forest from near sea level to an elevation of about 750 m. 
No color notes are available, but flowers have been obtained in August and September, 
fruits in March and August. 

Typification: The type is Gillespie 2329 (bish holotype; isotypes at bish, gh, k, 
NY, uc), collected Aug. 23, 1927, on the summit of Mt. Korombamba, Rewa Province, 
Viti Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and, as far as known, to Viti Levu. 

Local name: Nduvakalou has been recorded (DA 1061). 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Nandendeleva, Mt. Evans Range. D.4 /•/S5.?.' Nauwangga, 
south of Nandarivatu, Degener I48I7. Seri^a: Bank of Navua River at Namata rapids, Gillespie 2942. 
Tailevu: Vicinity of Korovou, D.4 1061. Rewa: Mt. Korombamba, on or near summit. D.4 1188. 13110: 
Rewa without further locality, DA 2574. Fiji without further locality, D.4 L. 13376. 

Pittosporum oligodontum, clearly allied to P. rhytidocarpum, has smaller leaves 
than its abundant relative, the blades being often (but not always) coarsely serrate 
distally; its inflorescences are terminal and few-flowered; and its capsules are generally 
smaller and only minutel\' rugulose. Its sparse indument, unlike that of other Fijian 
species, is composed of trichomes of two types, some hairs being glandular-capitate (cL 
Haas, \911,fig. 5. A) and others with a 2-armed terminal cell as in other Fijian species. 

3. Pittosporum arborescens Rich ex A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 223. 1854; 

Seem. Viti, 433. 1862, Fl. Vit. 8. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 1 10. 1890; Pax 
in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III. 2A: 1 1 1. 1891; Hemsl. in J. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. 30: 169. 1894; Burkill in op. cit. 35: 26. 1901; Pritzel in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 18a: 277. 1930; Yunckerin Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 123. 1959; 
J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 108. 1964, ed. 2. 153. 1972; St. John & A. C. Sm. in 
Pacific Sci. 25: 327. 1971; Haas in Allertonia 1: \5Q. fig. 1. C. D. 18. A. B. \911. 

/'///(i.sporumnf/ii/A.Gray, Bot. U.S. Expl. E.xped. 1:224. 1 854; Seem. PL Vit. 8, p.p. 1865; Drake, III. Fl. 

Ins. Mar. Pac. 111. 1890; Pritzel in Engl & Prantl. Nat, Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 18a: 277. 1930; J. W. 

Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 108. 1964, ed. 2, 154. 1972. 
Pittosporum lohiroides sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 254. 1861. Viti. 434. 1862; A. Gray in Bonplandia 

10: 35. 1862; non A. Gray (1854). 
Pittosporum hrackenndgei sensu A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5: 316. 1862; Seem. Fl. Vit. 8, p. p. 

1865; non A. Gray (1854). 
Pittosporum rhytidocarpum sensu Hemsl. in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 30: 169. 1894; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. 

Bull. 220: 124. 1959; non A. Gray. 
Piiiosporum rarotorijiense Hemsl, in Checseman in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 6: 272. 1901; Pritzel in Engl. & 

Prantl. Nat. Ptlanzenlam. ed, 2, I8a: 277, 1930; Wilder in Bishop Mus, Bull, 86: 53. 1931. 



32 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

A shrub or a tree (slender, spreading, or compact) 1-15 m. high, occurring from 
near sea level to an elevation of about 750 m. in dense or open forest or on its edges and 
frequently in coastal thickets. Its usually sparse latex is pale or colorless; its petals and 
filaments are white and its anthers yellow; and its capsules are green to yellow, usually 
with orange-red and sticky seeds. Flowers have been obtained between May and 
November, but fruits persist throughout much of the year. 

Lectotypification and nomenclature: Pittosporum arborescens was described 
by Gray on the basis of two Exploring Expedition collections, one from Tongatapu 
which Haas in 1977 designated as the holotype. A better citation is; U. S. Expl. Exped. 
(us 7796 lectotype; isolectotype at gh), obtained on Tongatapu, Tonga, in 1840. 
The second collection mentioned by Gray was a fruiting specimen from Fiji without 
further locality, but no such material with his annotation has been located. Pittospo- 
rum richii was also based on two collections; the lectotype (Haas, 1977) is U. S. Expl. 
Exped. (us 7815; isolectotype at gh), collected on Vanua Levu without precise 
locality in 1 840. The second collection, from Fiji without further locality, is U. S. Expl. 
Exped. (GH, us 7814). In first combining these taxa of the same date, Haas ufihzed the 
first binomial. Also to be reduced to this concept is P. rarotongense, based on two 
Cheeseman specimens from Rarotonga, between which Haas in 1977 selected Cheese- 
man, July, 1899 (K lectotype); Cheeseman 507 (k) is a paratype. 

Distribution: Fiji, Home Islands (Alofi), Tonga (at least six islands), and Cook 
Islands (Rarotonga, Mauke). The species is abundant in Tonga and in the Lau Group 
of Fiji, also occurring on the larger Fijian islands but less commonly than P. rhytido- 
carpum and P. pickeringii. About 50 Fijian collections are at hand, from 14 different 
islands. 

Local names and use: Names recorded in Lau are tuvakalou, nduvakalou, and 
nduva nganga (bitter); a report of the name nggaringgarikalavu in Thakaundrove 
seems doubtful. The fruits are crushed, boiled, and used as a fish poison, like those of 
other species of Pittosporum. 

Representative collections: VITl LEVU: Mba: Korovou, east of Tavua, Degener 14939: vicinity of 
Nandarivatu, Degener 14464. Nandronga & Navosa: Thuvu, west of Singatoka, Greenwood892B:\'\c\n\\.y 
of Nakambuta, north of Singatoka, H. B. R. Parham 293a. Serua: Vicinity of Ngaloa, Walkins 766. Ra: 
Vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, Degener 15431. Tailevu: Singh's farm, Tailevu North, DA 13583: near 
Londoni, DA 14422. Naitasiri; Near Savu, Waindina River, DA 2617. Viti Levu without further locality, 
Seemann 56. MBENGGA: Waisomo, DA 13723. KANDAVU: Naikorokoro, DA 12446. p. p. (DF 92): 
Nangingia Island, DA 14959. OVALAU: Slopes of Mt. Koronimoko, vicinity of Thawathi, Smith 8067: 
vicinity of Levuka, Gillespie 4464. NAIRAI; DA 1010. NGAU: Shore of Herald Bay, vicinity of Sawaieke, 
Smith 7912. VANUA LEVU; Mbua: Liuka flat, Nasau, Rukuruku Bay, H. B. R. Parham 7: between Mbua 
and Ndama, DA 1124. Mathuata: Mbatiri, Ndreketi River, DA 13901. TAVEUNI: Vicinity of Waiyevo, 
G//te/«£"^7'/.^,' summit and adjacent slopes of Mt. Manuka, east of Wairiki, Smith 8219. MATUKU: Wi7«<? 
122. KANATHEA: Graeffe 1544. THITHIA: Nakoro, DA 13251. LAKEMBA: Between Yandrana and 
Vakano, Garnock-Jones 946. KAMBARA: Moore 33. FULANGA: On limestone formation. Smith 1129. 

4. Pittosporum pickeringii A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 227. 1854; Seem, in 
Bonplandia 9: 254. 1861, Viti, 434. 1862; A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5: 
315. 1862, in Bonplandia 10: 35. 1862; Seem. Fl. Vit. 8, p. p. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pac. 111. 1890; Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III. 2A: 1 1 1. 
1891; Pritzel in op. cit. ed. 2. 18a: 277. 1930; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 108. 1964, 
ed. 2. 154. 1972; Haas in Allertonia 1: 154. //g. 4. F, 6. D, 17, D. 1977. 

Pittosporum brackenridgei sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 254, as P. brakenridgii. 1861, Viti, 433. 1862; A. 

Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5:315. 1 862, in Bonplandia 10:35. 1 862; Gibbs in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 

140. 1909; non A. Gray (1854). 
Pittosporum richii sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 8, p. p. 1865; non A. Gray. 



1985 PITTOSPORACEAE 33 

Pillosporum >wJanvalcn.Kf ijibbs in J . Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 140. 1909; J. W. Parham, PI. Fijilsl. 108. 1964, 
ed. 2. 153. 1972. 

An often slender tree 3-20 m. high, with thin, colorless latex, occurring from near 
sea level to the highest elevation in Fiji, 1,323 m., in dense, dry, or open forest, in the 
lorest-grassland transition, or in dense crest thickets. The fragrant flowers, pale green 
in bud, have white to pale yellow petals; the capsules turn from green to black at 
maturity and have sticky seeds varying from black to bright red. Flowers and fruits are 
seen throughout the year. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type is U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 7808 
holotype; fragmentary isotype at gh), collected in 1840 in Fiji without a definite 
locality. Gibbs assigned two numbers collected in August, 1907, in the vicinity of 
Nandarivatu, Mba Province, Viti Levu, to Pittosporum nadanvaiense: of these Haas 
in 1977 indicated Gibbs 581 (bm lectotvpe; isolectotype at k); no. 577 bis (bm, k) 
consists of fragments mixed with no. 581. Gibbs's material is not distinguishable from 
other specimens obtained in north-central Viti Levu, where P. pickermgii is particu- 
larly abundant. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and now known from eight of the islands and about 
85 collections. 

Local names and uses: In addition to the commonly used names nduva. nduvaka- 
lou, tuva. and tuvakalou, locally recorded names are taranga, saranga, tuva ninduna, 
mundu, mariko, and sinu (Mba), tuva lailai, nggalaka, and taranga (Nandronga & 
Navosa), and wailangio(Y^oro). As is the case with other species, the fruits are crushed 
and boiled and the resulting liquid is used as a fish poison; leaves crushed in water are 
said to provide a remedy for stomach troubles. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mangondro Tikina, DA 14902: foot of Koro Levu, 
north of Waikumbukumbu, Gibbs 765: vicinity of Nandarivatu, Parks 20730: summit of Mt. Tomanivi, 
Smith 5910. Nandronga & Navosa: Nausori Highlands, i'elawa 9: northern portion of Rairaimatuku 
Plateau, Smith 5413: vicinity of Nathotholevu, north of Singatoka, H. B. R. Parham 105. Slria; Nathcnga- 
thenga Creek, upper Navua River, D.4 14270: vicinity of Ngaloa. D.4 /•///9. hills between Navua River and 
Wainiyavu Creek, near Namuamua, Smith /i98/i. Namosi: Nakavika, D.4 //6-V. track to Mt. Vakarongasiu, 
D.4 17603. Ra: Tuvavatu, vicinity of Revvasa, Degener 15384. Naitasiri: Namboumbutho Creek, Home 
9H9: Waindina River basin, .MacDamels 1055: Suva Pumping Station, Degener & OrJonez I37HI. Tailevl: 
Hills east of Waimmbuka River, vicinity of Ndakuivuna, Smith 7146: vicinity of Nggelekuro, D.4 13596. 
Rewa: Between Suva and Lami, Gillespie 2075. KANDAVU: Hills above Namalata and Ngaloa Bayt,, Smith 
54. OVALAU: Seemann 55: summit of Mt. Ndelaiovalau and adjacent ridge. Smith 755H. KORO: Eastern 
slope of main ridge. Smith 1065. NAIRAI: .Milne IH5. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Southern portion of Seatovo 
Range, Smith 1539. Mathi:ata: Wainikoro River, Greenwood 707. TAVEUNI: Seemann 53: vicinity of 
Wairiki, Gillespie 4677. KAMBARA: Central wooded basin, Bryan 505. 

Pittosporum pickeringii is distinguished from P. arborescens by its larger flowers 
with more highly connate sepals, and by having its leaf blades usually short-acuminate 
and mucronulate at apex, rather than predominantly rounded to broadly acute. The 
capsules of the two species are quite similar, those of P. arborescens being on the 
average slightly the larger and with a substantially thicker pericarp. Pittosporum 
arborescens is frequently coastal in habitat and is the more frequent of the two species 
in Lau, also extending eastward. On the larger Fijian islands P. pickeringii is the more 
frequent, especially in inland and higher elevation forest. 

5. Pittosporum brackenridgei A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 225. 1854, Atlas, p/. 
17. A. 1856; Seem. Fl. Vit. 8, p. p. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 1 10. 1890; 
Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III. 2A: 111. 1891; Hemsl. in J. Linn. 
Soc. Bot. 30: 169. 1894; Pritzel in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 18a: 
277. 1930; A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 11. fig. 37. 1936; Yuncker in op. cit. 



34 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

178: 58. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 124. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 108. 1964, ed. 2. 
153. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 169. 1970; 
Haas in Allertonia 1: 161. fig. 4, G, 6. E. 20. 1977. 
PUlosporum lohiroides A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:226. 1854, Atlas,p/. 17. B. 1856; Seem. Fl. Vit. 

8. 1 865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 111.1 890; Pritzel in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 18a: 

277. 1930. 
PUlosporum spalhaceum Burkill in Hook. Icon. PI. 26:p/. 2561. 1898, in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 35: 26. 1901 ; A. 

C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 73. 1936; Yuncker in op. cit. 220: 124. 1959. 

A tree 4-25 m. high, with thin, yellowish latex, found from near sea level to an 
elevation of about 750 m. in open or dry forest, hillside thickets, and in beach thickets. 
The petals are white or cream-white to yellowish, and the capsules turn from green to 
yellowish or black, with black to reddish seeds. In Fiji flowers have been collected only 
in April and December, but fruits have been obtained in most months. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type oi Pittosporum brackenridgei is U. S. 
Expl. Exped. (us 7798 holotype; isotype at gh), collected in 1840 in Mathuata 
Province (probably on Mathuata Island), Vanua Levu; that of P. tobiroides is U. S. 
Expl. Exped. (us 7825 holotype; isotype at gh), obtained in 1840 near Somosomo, 
Taveuni; and that of P. spathaceum is Crosby 22, p. p. (k holotype), from Vava'u, 
Tonga. The two Gray taxa were apparently first combined by me in 1936 under the 
name P. brackenridgei: both type collections are in fruit and differ only insignificantly. 
The type of P. spathaceum has somewhat shorter petioles, a fewer-flowered inflores- 
cence than Fijian collections, and comparatively long pedicels, but the material now 
available indicates that these characters are not consequential. 

Distribution: Fiji, Tonga, and Niue; although it has now been obtained on seven 
different Fijian islands, it is nowhere abundant, 25 collections being known. In Tonga 
it appears to be uncommon, but on Niue it is said to be frequent (Sykes, 1970, cited 
above). 

Local names and uses: In addition to the usual names nduva and tuva, the names 
konakona (Mba), nduvakora (Ra), and /?76au(Thakaundrove) have been recorded. As 
with other species of Pittosporurri in Fiji, the fruits are used as a fish poison; the wood 
is locally considered useful for boat-making and flooring. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: Yasawa: DA L. 10920 (coll. C. Walker). Waya: Nakawa 
Gulch, west of Mbatinaremba, St. John 18145. VITI LEVU: Mba: Saweni Beach, near Lautoka, Green- 
wood 892; north of Natalau, between Lautoka and Nandi, Degener 14998: valley of Namosi Creek, vicinity 
of Tumbenasolo, Smith 4617: slopes of escarpment north of Nandarivatu, Smith 6039. Ra: Mataimeravula, 
vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, Degener 15332. OVALAU: Graeffe 1556: north of Levuka, Gillespie 4556. 
MAKONDRONGA: Degener & Ordonez 13808. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Vicinity of Nanduri, Toihill 
F'/Ji,' vicinity of Lambasa, Greenwood 558: Mt. Numbuiloa, east of Lambasa, DA 14642. Thakaundrove: 
Nukulekaleka Island (Vuya Tikina, east of Rokothivia Bay), DA 13173: hills west of Mbutha Bay, Natewa 
Peninsula, Smiih 818. 

The flowers of Pittosporum brackenridgei, which have a large, spathaceous calyx 
and comparatively long petals and filaments, immediately distinguish it from P. 
arborescens, which it resembles in foliage and fruit. In general, the leaf blades of P. 
brackenridgei are the more definitely rounded (or even retuse) at apex, and the mature 
capsules are more frequently transversely ellipsoid; both species have capsules with 
very thick pericarps in comparison with P. pickeringii. 

Pittosporum sect. Spathicalyx (A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 73. 1936) has 
been proposed to include P. brackenridgei and P. spathaceum (now considered a 
synonym). As indicated by Haas (1977, p. 164), asimilartrend toward development of 
a spathaceous calyx occurs in at least one African species, suggesting that a section 



1985 CRASSULACEAE 35 

based on this sole character would be phytogeographically untenable. When a world- 
wide review of Pitlosporum is undertaken, it is likely that a large number of small 
groupings (such as the sections distinguished for the Papuasian species by Schodde in 
Austral. J. Bot. Suppl. 3: 1-60. 1972) will provide reliable criteria for natural infrage- 
neric taxa. 

6. Pittosporum phillyraeoides DC. Prodr. 1: 347, as P. phylliraeides. 1824; B. E. V, 
Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 10: 116. 1939. 
No herbarium vouchers seem to support the cultivation of this Australian species in 
Fiji, but Parham indicates that it was introduced in 1924 and in 1939 was growing 
slowly on the property of W. L. Wallace, Tovu Island, Ra Province, Viti Levu. The 
holotype is a fruiting specimen, Leschenault (g), the species being widespread in 
Australia. 

Family 120. CRASSULACEAE 
CRASSULACEAE DC. in Lam. & DC. Fl. Fran?, ed. 3. 4(1): 382. 1805. 

Mostly perennial and xerophilous herbs or low shrubs, estipulate, usually with 
succulent stems and leaves; leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, the blades often 
simple but sometimes pinnately compound, entire to crenate or dentate; inflorescences 
usually cymose; flowers actinomorphic, $ or rarely unisexual, often protandrous; 
sepals frequently 4 or 5 (sometimes 3-32), free or united into a tube, persistent; petals 
as many as sepals, hypogynous or shallowly perigynous, free or variously connate; 
stamens usually as many as or twice as many as petals, hypogynous or epipetalous, if 
few then alternate with petals, the filaments free or occasionally basally connate, the 
anthers introrse, basifixed, 2-locular, longitudinally dehiscent; gynoecium composed 
of superior carpels as many as petals, the carpels free or basally connate, each usually 
subtended by a glandular scale, the ovules usually numerous, rarely few or solitary, 
anatropous, the placentation marginal or laminar, the styles short or elongated, the 
stigmas capitate or inconspicuous; fruit a follicetum, often surrounded by the persis- 
tent perianth, the follicles usually adaxially dehiscent, the seeds minute, the endosperm 
fleshy and scant, rarely none, the embryo straight. 

Distribution: Warm or temperate parts of both hemispheres, usually occurring in 
dry, rocky places, with about 35 genera and 1,500 or more species. Only one species, 
now widespread, is established in Fiji, but others are doubtless grown in private 
gardens. The family includes many ornamentals and succulent horticultural novelties. 

Useful treatment of family; Backer, C. A. Crassulaceae. Fl. Males. 1. 4: 197-202. 1951. 

1. Kalanchoe Adanson, Fam. PI. 2: 248. 1763. 
Bryophyltum Salisb. Parad. Lond. /. i. 1805. 

Perennial, succulent herbs or infrequently shrubs, often gemmiparous and vivipar- 
ous; leaves opposite and decussate or in whorls of three, usually simple, the blades 
often with adventitious buds in marginal crenations; inflorescences corymbose or 
paniculate cymes; flowers pedicellate, 4-merous; sepals connate, forming an inflated 
calyx tube; petals connate, forming a cylindric to campanulate tube with spreading to 
recurved lobes; stamens 8 (rarely 4), epipetalous and usually 2-seriate and exserted, the 
filaments slender; carpels 4, connate basally, the ovules numerous, borne on adaxial 
placentas, the style slender; follicles enclosed by the marcescent calyx and corolla, the 
seeds numerous. 

Type species and nomenclature; The type species of Kalanchoe is K. laciniata 
(L.) DC. (Cotyledon laciniata L.); that of Bryuphyllum is B. calycinutn Salisb. Bryo- 



36 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

phyllum is now most frequently included in Kalanchoe (e. g. Backer, 1 95 1 , cited above, 
p. 198; Lawrence, Tax. Vascular PI. 531. 1951; Schulze-Menz in Melchior, Engl. Syll. 
Pflanzenfam. ed. 12. 2: 200. 1964; Spongberg in J. Arnold Arb. 59: 238. 1978). 

Distribution: Africa and Madagascar to tropical Asia, with 125-200 species. 

J. W. Parham(Pl. Fiji Isl. 230. 1964, ed. 2. 319. 1971) has noted, in addition to the 
well-established species listed below, two additional species of Bryophyllum that have 
been observed in gardens in Fiji, but no herbarium vouchers are available. These are 
the species now known as Kalanchoe tubiflora (Harvey) Raym.-Hamet and K. daigre- 
montiana {Raym.-Hamet&U. Perrier) A. Berger, both indigenous in Madagascar and 
widely grown as pot plants. 

1. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Syn. PI. 1:446. 1805; Backer in Fl. Males. L 4: 199. 

fig. 1. 1951. 
Cotyledon pinnata Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 2: 141. 1786. 
Brvophvllum pinnatum Kurz in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 40: 52. 1871; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 

128: 95. 1935; A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 35. 1942; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 57. 1943; 

Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 98. 1943, in J. Arnold Arb. 30: 76. 1949; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. 

Bull. 220: 123. 1959; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35:43./(g. 16. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 230. 1964,ed. 

2. 319. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 75. 1970. 

A succulent herb, sometimes shrubby, 0.3-2 m. high, often forming colonies, 
occurring from near sea level to an elevation of 550 m. as a weed of waste places and 
cultivated fields and along roadsides, naturalized on rocky coasts and slopes and 
sometimes in dry forest. The hollow stems bear leaves that are at first simple, on 
mature plants 3- or 5-foliolate and producing plantlets in the marginal crenations. The 
large, paniculiform inflorescences have flowers with an inflated, papery, greenish 
white to purple-tinged calyx; the corolla is green, rich pink to purple distally and 
slightly exceeding the calyx; and the stamens have pale green, distally pinkish fila- 
ments. Flowers and fruits may be found at any season. 

Typification: The type is Sonnerat{v), from He de France (Mauritius), Mascarene 
Islands. 

Distribution: Probably indigenous in tropical Africa, but early introduced into 
and now widespread in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres. 

Local names and uses: The frequent English names are air plant, life plant, and 
Canterbury bells: the Fijian name thakomana or thakamana has been recorded. The 
species is sometimes cultivated in gardens. The leaves are widely used medicinally 
(Burkill, Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. ed. 2. 380. 1966), although in Fiji this has 
not been noted. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Naloto Range, DA 14779: Tavua, Greenwood 782. 
Nandronga & Navosa: Queen's Road near Thuvu, DA 10270: near Saru, Tamanua Creek, Tabualewa 
15618. Ra: Yanggara, DA 1 1862. Naitasiri: Central Road, H. B. R. Parham II. Rewa; Suva, in Depart- 
ment of Agriculture Botany Laboratory garden, D.4 11045. VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: Near 
Mbutha, Mbutha Bay, Natewa Peninsula, DA 16878. TAVEUNI: Vicinity of Waiyevo, Smith 8109. 
THITHIA: Bryan 561. 



Order ROSALES 

Key to families occurring in Fiji 
Flowers actinomorphic; gynoecium usually apocarpous and superior, rarely syncarpous or inferior, the 
ovules pendulous, the styles free or rarely connate, terminal or lateral but never gynobasic; fruit various 
(in our genera pomaceous or an aggregate of achenes or drupelets); leaves simple or compound. 

121. ROSACEAE 

Flowers zygomorphic (except in Chrysobalanus among our genera); gynoecium basically composed of 3 

carpels (but usually only I developing), superior, the ovules erect, the style filiform, gynobasic; fruit a 

drupe; leaves simple 1 22. Chrysobalanaceae 



1985 ROSACEAE 37 

Family 121. ROSACEAE 
RosACEAE Juss. Gen. PI. 334. 1789. 

Trees, shrubs, or (usually perennial) herbs, sometimes straggling or climbing; 
stipules usually present and paired, often adnate to petioles; leaves alternate or very 
rarely opposite, simple or compound; inflorescences usually corymbose, racemose, or 
paniculate, sometimes 1-flowered; flowers actinomorphic, §, rarely unisexual, the 
perianth usually dichlamydeous and perigynous, basally forming a hypanthium, sel- 
dom epigynous or nearly hypogynous; calyx free or adnate to ovary, the lobes mostly 
5, usually imbricate; disk intrastaminal, lining the hypanthium; petals the same 
number as calyx lobes, usually imbricate; stamens numerous (usually at least twice as 
many as petals, seldom fewer), perigynous around gynoecium, the filaments free, the 
anthers small, didymous, 2-locular, longitudinally dehiscent; gynoecium usually apo- 
carpous and superior, rarely syncarpous or inferior, the carpels 1-many, free to 
completely connate, the ovules often 2 (rarely 1 -several) per carpel or ovary locule, 
pendulous, superposed, anatropous, the placentation axile, the styles free or rarely 
connate, terminal or lateral (never gynobasic), the stigmas capitate or punctiform; fruit 
superior or inferior, drupaceous, pomaceous, follicular, or achenial, very rarely capsu- 
lar, the seeds without or with scant endosperm, the embryo small. 

Distribution: Cosmopolitan but most abundantly north temperate, with about 
100 genera and 2,000-3,000 species. The family is of great economic importance, 
especially in temperate areas, producing many well-known edible fruits and ornamen- 
tals. Four genera, each represented by a single species, are recorded from Fiji, only one 
of them (Rubus) being indigenous. 

Useful treatments of family: Schulze-Menz, G. K. Rosaceae. In: Melchior, H. Engl. Syll. Pflanzen- 
fam. ed. 12. 2: 209-218. 1964. Hutchinson, J. Rosaceae (excl. Neuradeae, Chrysobalaneae). Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
174-216. 1964. 

Key to genera 
Gynoecium apocarpous, the carpels numerous, sometimes enclosed within the hypanthium but not adnate 
to it; fruit an aggregate of achenes or drupelets. 
Hypanthium with an apical epicalyx of bracteoles alternating with calyx lobes; receptacle in fruit greatly 
enlarged, juicy, bearing numerous, minute achenes; leaves usually 3-foliolate; our species a culti- 
vated, rhizomatous, stoloniferous herb 1. Fragana 

Hypanthium without an apical epicalyx; erect or scandent shrubs. 

Leaves usually imparipinnately compound, in our species with 5-9 leaflets; hypanthium subglobose or 
urceolate, enclosing the ovaries and ripe fruits; our species a cultivated, ornamental, erect shrub. 

2. Rosa 
Leaves (of our species) simple; hypanthium flat or shallowly campanulate. the receptacle conical in fruit 
and bearing small drupelets; our species an indigenous scrambling vine or scandent shrub. 

3. Ruhiis 

Gynoecium syncarpous, the ovary inferior, (2-)5-locular, the styles (2-) 5; leaves simple; fruit a pome; our 

species a cultivated small tree 4. Eriuhotrya 

1. Fragaria L. Sp. PI. 494. 1753. 

Rhizomatous herbs, sometimes polygamodioecious, usually stoloniferous, with a 
short main stem, the stipules partly adnate to petioles; leaves radical or alternate, 
compound, usually 3-foliolate, the leaflet blades pinnate-nerved, dentate; inflorescen- 
ces cymose or with solitary flowers; flowers 5-merous, the hypanthium turbinate or 
obconical, at apex bearing an epicalyx of bracteoles alternating with calyx lobes, these 
persistent, the disk pilose; petals white (as in our species) or yellow; stamens numerous, 
I- or 2-seriate, persistent; gynoecium apocarpous, the carpels numerous on a convex 
receptacle, each with a solitary ovule, the styles ventral; aggregate fruits composed of 
numerous, minute achenes borne on an enlarged, juicy receptacle. 

Lectotype species: Fragaria vesca L. (vide RydberginN. Amer. Fl. 22:356. 1908), 
one of Linnaeus's three original species. 



38 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Distribution: Eurasia, Indo-Malesia, North America, and southern South Amer- 
ica, with about 15 species and many cultivated hybrids. One cultivated taxon is 
recorded from Fiji. 

1. Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne, Nat. Hist. Frais. 190. 1766. 

Fragaria vesca sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 94. 1972; non L. 

A cultivated, sprawling herb, sparingly cultivated near sea level (and also reported 
from about 750 m.), with white petals. The only available collection was flowering in 
December. 

Typification: Duchesne's citation of "Mill. fig. t. 1. p. 192" refers to Philip Miller, 
Fig. PI. Gard. Diet. 1: pi. 288 (opp. p. 192). (June) 1759. 

Distribution: Fragaria ^ ananassa is considered a hybrid between the American 
F. chiloensis (L.) Duchesne and F. virginiana Duchesne and is very widely cultivated. 
Parham (1972) indicates that the Fragaria recorded in Fiji was introduced many years 
ago and was grown at Nandarivatu and occasionally in lowland gardens. 

Local name and use: Strawberry; widely grown commercially for its edible fruit, 
although it is probably not productive in Fiji at least at low elevations. 
Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Koronivia. DA 4032. 

The cited collection was cultivated in fodder plots at an agricultural station; it 
seems better referred to Fragaria x ananassai\ia.x\ to F. ve.sca (distinctions indicated by 
Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr. , Fl. Java 1:517-518.1 963). In the Pacific F. ^ 
ananassa is also known from Hawaii, the Austral Islands, and Pitcairn, as well as 
Indonesia. 

2. Rosa L. Sp. PI. 491. 1753. 

Erect, climbing, or sprawling shrubs, usually with aculeate branches, the stipules 
adnate to base of petiole (rarely absent); leaves alternate, usually imparipinnately 
compound with 5 or more leaflets (rarely simple); inflorescences terminal or on short 
lateral branches, corymbose or 1-flowered; flowers usually with a subglobose or 
urceolate hypanthium; calyx lobes 5 (rarely 4), imbricate in bud, sometimes foliaceous 
or pinnatisect; petals 5 (or 4, or many more in cultigens), spreading, imbricate, usually 
white to yellow or red; disk thickened at annular apex; stamens numerous, several- 
seriate, the filaments filiform; gynoecium apocarpous, the carpels numerous, included 
by the hypanthium, the ovules 1 or 2 per carpel, the styles exserted from hypanthium, 
free or distally coherent; fruits achenial, 1 -seeded, included by the fleshy, colored, 
fruitlike hypanthium (hip). 

Lectotype species: ING (1979) indicates as the lectotype species Rosa centifolia L. 
(vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. S. ed. 2. 2: 282. 1913), one of the twelve original 
species. However, G. D. Rowley (in Taxon 25: 181. 1976) had pointed out that R. 
centifolia is a double-flowered cultivar of unknown origin and is not a suitable 
lectotype species; he recommends selecting R. cinnamomea L. 

Distribution: North temperate areas and tropical uplands, with 200-250 species 
and innumerable hybrids and cultivars, of which one or perhaps many have been 
grown in Fiji. 

1. Rosa damascena Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. 1768; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 61. 1964, 
ed. 2. 95. 1972. 
An erect, robust, aculeate shrub to 2 m. high, with 5-9-foholate leaves, cultivated 
near sea level. The very fragrant flowers have the pedicels and calyces with glandular 
bristles; the petals are red or rarely white. 



1985 ROSACEAE 39 

Typification: Miller cited "Lob. Icon. 206,"presumably referringtoLobelius(M. 
de L'Obel), PI. Icon., 1581. 

Distribution; Indigenous in western Asia, now widely cultivated. 

Local name and use: Damask rose: ornamental. 

No herbarium vouchers support this record, but perhaps this popular cultigen was 
introduced by J. B. Thurston (cf. Vol. 1 of this Flora, pp. 47, 87), as it was among the 
three species of Rosa listed in his Catalogue. Probably other species are now growing 
in private gardens in Fiji, but R. damascena is the only one recorded by Parham; it has 
been noted in the Pacific at least on Guam and in Hawaii, and it is doubtless often 
cultivated in Indonesia (cf. Backer & Bakh. f. Fl. Java 1: 520. 1963). 

3. RuBUS L. Sp. PI. 492. 1753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 75. 1865; van Royen in Phanerogam. 
Monogr. 2: 11. 1969. 

Shrubs or scrambling vines, infrequently creeping, the stipules adnate to petiole, 
entire or divided; leaves alternate, simple, lobed, or digitately (rarely pinnately) 
compound, the blades usually strongly serrate; inflorescences terminal or axillary, 
corymbose, paniculate, or 1 -flowered; flowers § or sometimes unisexual, the hypan- 
thium flat or shallowly campanulate, the calyx lobes 5, persistent, the disk nectarifer- 
ous, the petals 5; stamens numerous (staminodial in ? flowers), the filaments filiform; 
gynoecium apocarpous, the carpels usually numerous, rarely few, borne on a usually 
convex receptacle, the ovules 2 per carpel, the styles subterminal, filiform; fruit an 
aggregate of drupelets, these crowded on the dry receptacle, 1-seeded, red to yellow or 
black. 

Lectotype species: Rubus fruticosus L. (vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. S. ed. 
2. 2: 275. 1913), one of Linnaeus's ten original species. 

Distribution: Essentially cosmopolitan but especially in north temperate areas, 

with 200-250 species and many cultivars. One species is indigenous in Fiji. 

UsEFiL TREATMENT OF GENUS: RoYEN, P. VAN. The genus Rubus (Rosaceae) in New Guinea. Phanero- 
gam. Monogr. 2: 1-126. 1969. 

1. Rubus moluccanus L. var. austropacificus van Royen in Phanerogam. Monogr. 2: 
113, as var. austropacifica. fig. 30. 1969. Figure 8. 

Rubus liliaceus sensu A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 503. 1854; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, 
Viti, 436. 1862, Fl. Vit. 76.' 1865. op. cit. 427. 1873; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 162. 1890; non Sm. 

Rubus moluccanus sensu J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 79. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 61. 1964, ed. 2. 95. 
1972; non sensu var. moluccanus. 

A scrambling, thorny vine or liana or a scandent shrub, with simple leaves of which 
the blades are shallowly 3- or 5-lobed and often acuminate, sometimes locally abun- 
dant from near sea level to an elevation of 1,100 m., on forest edges or in secondary 
forest or thickets. The petals, filaments, and styles are white, the anthers yellow, and 
the ripe fruits red. Flowers and fruits are seen at all seasons. 

Typification; The type of Rubus moluccanus var. austropacificus is van Royen 
16444 (l holotype), collected July 4, 1963, near Tuareruku Village, west of Toiumo- 
napu Plantation, south of Kieta, Bougainville, Solomon Islands. 

Distribution; Rubus moluccanus L. (typified by R. moluccus latifolius Rumph. 
Herb. Amb. 5: 88. t. 47. fig. 2. 1747) as a whole has a distribution ranging from the 
Himalayas through Malesia to New South Wales in Australia and eastward to Fiji. As 
treated by van Royen in 1969 (pp. 98-1 15), the species is composed of four varieties; 
var. austropacificus extends from the Caroline Islands, New Britain, the Solomon 
Islands, and northern Australia to New Caledonia and Fiji. The variety is abundant in 
Fiji, being known from some 45 collections and seven islands (doubtless also occurring 



40 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




Figure 8. Rubus moluccanus var. austropacifuus: A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and 
inflorescence, x 1/3; B, flower, ^ 4; C, stamens, a calyx lobe showing laciniate apex, and a carpel, x 10. A 
from Smith 1746. B & C from Smith 554. 



on others). Although it sometimes gives the appearance of being an introduction 
because it is often found in secondary habitats, it is probably indigenous in Fiji, having 
been first collected between 1840 and 1860 at widely separated localities by the U. S. 
Exploring Expedition, Milne, MacGillivray, Harvey, and Seemann. No record of its 
occurrence in Samoa or Tonga has been noted. 

Local names and uses: The frequently used Fijian names aresoni, wasori, and wa 
ngandrongandro; wa votovotoa and wa vuka have been more locally noted. English 
names are wild raspberry and wild bramble. The fruit is edible but somewhat tasteless; 
it has a reputed medicinal use of causing constipation. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of Nandarivatu, Degener & Ordonez 13519; 
western slope of Mt. Nanggaranambuluta, Smith 4835. Nandronga& Navosa: Uluvatu, vicinity of Mbelo, 
near Vatukarasa, Tabualewa 15631. Serua: Ndeumba, DA 9198 (McKee 2761). Namosi: Valley of Waina- 
mbua Creek, south of Mt. Naitarandamu, SmiV/i iS7(50; slopes of Mt. Voma, Gillespie 2483. Naitasiri: Vicin- 
ity of Matawailevu, Wainimala River, St. John 18197; Naulawai Creek, DA 9910; vicinity of Nasinu, DA 
7514. Naitasiri-Rewa boundary: Mt. Kombalevu, Parks 20286A. Tailevu: Matavatathou, DA 9938. 
Rewa: Namboro, DA 5941. "Viti Levu and Ovalau:" U. S. Expl. Exped. (Rewa on Viti Levu); Seemann 
147 (Port Kinnaird on Ovalau). KANDAVU: Hills above Namalata and Ngaloa Bays, Smith 113. OVA- 
LAU: Milne 262. WAKAYA: Milne 386. NGAU: Milne 166. MacGillivray. Sept., 1854. VANUA LEVU: 
Mbua: Lower Wainunu River Valley, Smith 1746. Mathuata: Seanggangga region, DA 12919; mountains 
near Lambasa, Greenwood 621. M athuata-Thakaundrove boundary: Crest of Korotini Range, between 



1985 CHRYSOBALANACEAE 41 

Navitho Pass and Mt. Ndelaikoro, Smith 554. Thakaundrove: Between Nikawa Bay and Valethi, Bierhorsi 
FS9. MOALA: Bryan 330. 

4. Eriobotrya Lindl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 13: 96, 102. 1821. 

Small trees, the stipules connate, bifid; leaves alternate, simple, crowded toward 
apices of branchlets, the blades coriaceous; inflorescences terminal, paniculate; flow- 
ers 5-merous, the hypanthium obconical, the calyx lobes small, persistent; disk not 
completely covering ovary at apex; petals short-clawed; stamens 20-25, uniseriate on 
upper margin of disk, the filaments subulate, unequal; gynoecium syncarpous, the 
ovary inferior, (2-)5-locular, the ovules 2 per locule, the styles free; fruit a juicy pome, 
the mesocarp thin, the seeds 1-5, large, angular. 

Type species: Not designated by ING (1979), but Hutchinson (Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 214. 
1964) so lists Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical Asia, with 15-30 species, one of which is 
widely cultivated and is recorded from Fiji. 

1. Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 13: 102. 1821; B. E. V. 
Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 10: 1 14. 1939; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 
220: 127. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 94. 1972. 

Mespilus japonica Thunb. Fl. Jap. 206. 1784. 

Photinia japonica Benth. & Hook. f. ex Aschers. & Schweinf. HI. Fl. Egypte, 73. 1887; J. W. Parham in 
Agr. }. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 101. 1948. 

A small, symmetrical tree, with lanceolate or elliptic leaf blades that are tomentose 
beneath, cultivated near sea level. The fragrant flowers have white petals that soon 
become discolored and white filaments; the fruit is yellow to brownish, up to 4 cm. 
long. 

Typification: The type was a Japanese plant, presumably collected by Kaempfer. 

Distribution: A native of China, now widely cultivated. In the Pacific it has been 
recorded at least from Hawaii, the Mariana Islands, Tonga, and the Cook Islands as 
well as Fiji. 

Local name and use: Loquat is the widely used name. The fruit is sweet and edible, 
but the species does not grow well at low elevations in the tropics and is not productive 
in Fiji. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU; Nandronga & Navosa: Agricultural Station. Singatoka, D.4 
83U1. 

B. E. V. Parham (1939) indicates that the species was introduced in 1920 and was 
established in 1939 on the property of W. L. Wallace, Tovu Island, Ra Province, Viti 
Levu. J. W. Parham (1948) noted that the species was growing in the Suva Botanical 
Gardens, but no voucher has been seen. 



Family 122. CHRYSOBALANACEAE 
CHRYSOBALANACEAE R. Br. in Tuckcy, Narr. Exped. Congo, 433, as Chrysobalaneae. 
1818. 

Trees or shrubs, the stipules minute to large, often persistent; leaves alternate, the 
petioles often with 2 lateral glands, the blades simple, often coriaceous, pinnate- 
nerved, entire; inflorescences racemose, paniculate, or cymose; flowers subtended by 
bracts, usually zygomorphic, infrequently actinomorphic, § (rarely unisexual), the 
perianth usually dichlamydeous, perigynous, the receptacle often gibbous, lined by a 
disk; calyx lobes 5, imbricate, often unequal; petals (4 or) 5 (rarely lacking but present 
in our genera), imbricate, equal or unequal; stamens usually numerous, 7-26 (2-300), 



42 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

inserted with petals on margin of disk, sometimes unilateral, some of them frequently 
staminodial, the filaments of fertile stamens filiform, free or connate, the anthers 
small, 2-locular, longitudinally dehiscent; gynoecium basically composed of 3 carpels 
(but usually only 1 carpel developing, the others aborted or vestigial), the ovary 
superior, attached to base, middle, or mouth of receptacle, sessile or rarely with a short 
gynophore, unilocular and with 2 ovules (or bilocular by a false partition, each locule 
then with 1 ovule), the ovules erect, with a Ijasal micropyle, the style filiform, gynobasic 
(attached by its base to receptacular tissue below the ovary), the stigma truncate to 
3-lobed; fruit a dry or fleshy drupe, the seeds solitary or sometimes 2, erect, lacking 
endosperm, the embryo large, the cotyledons plano-convex. 

Distribution; Pantropical (rarely subtropical), with 17 genera and about 420 
species. Three genera occur in Fiji, with four species; two of the genera are indigenous 
and one species is endemic. 

Useful treatment of family: Prance, G. T. Chrysobalanaceae. Fl, Neotropica 9: 1-410. 1972. 

The Chrysobalanaceae are sharply differentiated from the related Rosaceae by 
anatomical and palynological characters as well as by a few obvious floral characters 
(cf. Prance, 1972, cited above). 

Key to genera 
Flowers actinomorphic, the ovary inserted at base of receptacle, unilocular, the ovules 2; stamens 12-26, 
inserted in a complete or nearly complete ring, about twice as long as calyx lobes; fruit not more than 5 
cm. long (usually 3-4 cm.), with prominent longitudinal ridges when dry (lines of endocarp fracture in 

germination); introduced and naturalized 1. Chrysobalanus 

Flowers zygomorphic, the ovary inserted laterally near mouth of receptacle, seemingly bilocular at least 
initially, each locule with 1 ovule; fertile stamens 6-20, unilateral, opposite short, toothlike staminodes; 
fruit larger, smooth or verrucose, without longitudinal ridges when dry; indigenous. 
Stipules submembranaceous, fugacious; leaf blades reticulate or with stomatal areoles on lower surface, 
the areoles with gray, arachnoid indument; inflorescences paniculate; fertile stamens (6-) 7 or 8 (-10), 
the filaments not exceeding calyx lobes; style short, not or only slightly exceeding stamens; fruit 
usually ellipsoid and laterally flattened, not dehiscent during germination, initially bilocular, some- 
times permanently so and with 2 seeds, but usually 1 -seeded, the cotyledons not ruminate, the 
exocarp composed of hyaline, radial spindles, the mesocarp fibrous or fleshy, the endocarp copiously 

tomentose within 2. Parinari 

Stipules stiff, carinate, subpersistent; leaf blades without stomatal areoles, glabrescent and scabrous 
beneath, with rough-margined holes on small nerves; inflorescences spiciform or racemiform; fertile 
stamens (10-) 12-20, the filaments often exserted and longer than calyx lobes; style equalling or 
longer than stamens; fruit ellipsoid to subglobose, irregularly cracking during germination, unilocu- 
lar and 1 -seeded at maturity, the cotyledons ruminate, the exocarp thin, fleshy, the mesocarp radially 
fibrous, the endocarp with short, inconspicuous hairs within 3. A tuna 

1. Chrysobalanus L. Sp. PI. 513. 1753; Prance in J. Arnold Arb. 51: 523. 1970, in Fl. 
Neotropica 9: 14. 1972. 

Small trees or shrubs, the stipules small, caducous; leaf blades coriaceous, glabrous 
or with a few stiff, appressed hairs beneath, with 2 (sometimes obscure) glands at base; 
inflorescences terminal or axillary, short-cymose or cymose-paniculate, the bracts and 
bracteoles small, eglandular; flowers actinomorphic, the hypanthium cupuliform, 
puberulent on both surfaces; calyx lobes acute, pilose; petals 5, slightly longer than 
calyx lobes; stamens 12-26, exserted, sometimes unequal, inserted in a complete or 
nearly complete ring, the filaments pilose, proximally connate in small groups, about 
twice as long as calyx lobes; ovary inserted at base of receptacle, densely pilose, 
unilocular, the ovules 2, the style pilose; fruit a small, fleshy drupe, the exocarp 
smooth, ridged in drying, the mesocarp thin and fleshy, the endocarp hard, bony, with 
4-10 prominent longitudinal ridges on outer surface (lines of fracture in germination), 
the seeds 1 or 2. 

Type species: Chrysobalanus icaco L., the only original species. 



1985 



CHRYSOBALANACEAE 



43 




FiGl'RE 9. Chrvsohalanus icaco: A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and inflorescences, and 
detached fruits. " 1 ,3; B. cross section of dried fruit, showing external ridges and plano-convex cotyledons, " 
2; C, detail of lower surface of leaf blade, showing copious glands, " 40. A from MeeholJ21388. B from DA 
10091. C from Smith 9611. 



Distribution: Tropical America and western Africa, with three or four species, 
one of which is sparingly cultivated and locally naturalized in Fiji. 

1. Chrysobalanus icaco L. Sp. PI. 513. 1753; A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 36. 1942; J. W. 

Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 101. 1948; Greenwoodin J. Arnold Arb. 30: 

76. 1949; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: SO. fig. 37. 1959, PL Fiji Isl. 61. 

1964, ed. 2. 94. 1972; Prance in J. Arnold Arb. 51: 525. % /, a-J. 1970, in Fl. 

Neotropica 9: 15.//^. 2. 1972. Figure 9. 

As seen in Fiji, Chrvsohalanus icaco is a shrub or tree 2-8 m. high, infrequently 
cultivated but often locally abundantly naturalized along roadsides near sea level, on 
the upper edge of beaches, and in thickets on the inner margin of mangrove swamps. 
The petals, filaments, and style are white, the anthers pale yellow. The ovoid to 
obovoid fruits turn from green to reddish at maturity and are 3.5-4 (-5) " 2-3 cm., 
becoming longitudinally ridged when dry. 

Tvpification: Prance (1972, p. 16) indicated the holotype as Pa/ncA- Browne (lwn 
64 1 ), from Jamaica; in view of Linnaeus's many references, this specimen might better 
be considered the lectotype. 



44 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Distribution: Mexico and Florida through the West Indies and along the north- 
ern and eastern coasts of South America to southern Brazil; also in coastal regions of 
western Africa from Guinea to Angola; sparingly cultivated and naturalized elsewhere. 
In the Pacific it is known to be cultivated in Hawaii and the Societies. It was probably 
introduced into Fiji during the 1920's or 1930's, the earliest collection known to me 
being H. B. R. Parham 20; it was growing in the Suva Botanical Gardens in 1948 and 
had been abundantly naturalized in southeastern Viti Levu prior to that date. 

Local name and uses: No Fijian name has been recorded for the species locally 
known as coco plum. Presumably the plant was introduced as an ornamental, and the 
white, soft, sweetish but scanty pulp (mesocarp) of its fruits is edible. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Serua: Flat coastal strip in vicinity of Ngaloa, Smith 961 1: 
Ndeumba Beach, DA 11458: Waimate Beach, DA 10100: Karombo Beach, DA 16493: Naitonitoni Beach, 
Greenwood 1027. Naitasiri: Vicinity of Nasinu, Greenwood 1027 A. DA 7503. 10090. 10091. Rewa: Along 
Queen's Road, Meebold 21388, DA 1286: near Suva, H. B. R. Parham 20. Fiji without further locality, DA 
3994. 

In America and Africa Chrysobalanus icaco demonstrates considerable variation 
in leaf size and shape; the Fijian specimens have leaf blades fairly constantly elliptic- 
obovate, l-\\ ^ 4.5-7 cm., and rounded to retuse at apex. 

2. Parinari Aubl. Hist. PI. Guiane Fr. 514. 1775; Kostermans in Reinwardtia 7: 151. 
1965; Prance in Fl. Neotropica 9: 178. 1972. 
Parmarium Juss. Gen. PI. 342, orth. mut. 1789; Seem. Fl. Vit. 75, p. p. 1865. 

Trees or shrubs, the stipules lateral to petiole or axillary, thin, usually soon 
caducous; leaves with usually biglandular petioles, the blades chartaceous to coriace- 
ous, reticulate or with stomatal areoles on lower surface, the areoles with arachnoid 
indument; inflorescences axillary or terminal, paniculate, freely branched, with con- 
spicuous (but caducous) bracts; flowers zygomorphic, the hypanthium turbinate to 
campanulate, gibbous near throat at attachment of ovary, densely pilose without, 
retrorsely strigose below ovary within; calyx lobes pilose on both sides, acute; petals 5, 
small, spathulate, thin, glabrous, soon caducous; stamens inserted on margin of disk, 
the fertile ones (6-) 7 or 8 (-10), unilateral, those opposite the style staminodial and 
represented by short teeth, the filaments glabrous, not exceeding calyx lobes; ovary 
lateral near mouth of receptacle, adnate to hypanthium, densely pilose, seemingly 
bilocular, each locule with 1 ovule, the style short, not or only slightly exceeding 
stamens, glabrous or proximally pilose; fruit a fleshy drupe, ellipsoid to subglobose, 
usually laterally compressed, initially 2-locular but usually with a single developing 
seed, not dehiscent during germination, the exocarp verrucose, lenticellate, composed 
of hyaline, radial spindles, the mesocarp coarsely fibrous or fleshy, the endocarp hard, 
bony, with 2 basal plugs the detachment of which allows the seedling to escape, 
copiously tomentose within, the cotyledons not ruminate. 

Lectotype species: Parinari campestris Aubl. (vide Hauman in Bull. Jard. Hot. 
Etat 21: 190. 1951; Prance in Fl. Neotropica 9: 178, 182. 1972). 

Distribution: Pantropical, with about 50 species. One species is indigenous in 
Fiji. 

Useful treatment of genus: Kostermans, A. J. G. H. A monograph of the genus Parinari Aubl. 
(Rosaceae-Chrysobalanoideae) in Asia and the Pacific region. Reinwardtia 7: 147-213. 1965. 

1. Parinari insularum A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:488, as Parinarium i. 1854, 
Atlas, pi. 54. B, as Parinarium i. 1856; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 61. 1964, ed. 2. 
94. 1972; Kostermans in Reinwardtia 7: 181.//^. 7,^. 1965; St. John & A. C. Sm. in 
Pacific Sci. 25: 327. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. 
Inform. Ser. 85: 109. 1972. Figures 10, IIA-C, 89. 



1985 



CHRYSOBALANACEAE 



45 



Parmanum insu/arum A, Gray ex Seem. Fl. Vit. 75, 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins, Mar. Pac, 161, 18TO; 
Chnstophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull, 128: 97, 1935, Yuncker in op, cil, 184:40, 1945, in op, cit. 220: 127. 
1959. 




Figure 10. Parman msularum; A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and innorescences. * I ,'3; B, 
leaf axil with petiole, base of inflorescence peduncle, and stipule, » 6; C, section of flower, with 2 calyx lobes 
and 3 petals removed, showing base of hypanthium (h), ovary (o), style (s), petal (p), stamens (sn), and 
staminodes (sd), >> 10; D, mature fruit, « 1, A-C from Smilh 6655. D from Smith 6431. 



46 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 



A tree 8-30 m. high, with a trunk up to 50 cm. or more in diameter, occurring from 
near sea level to an elevation of about 800 m. and often locally abundant in dense or 
open forest, ridge forest, and sometimes in coastal thickets. The brown bracts subtend 
flowers that have the calyx lobes greenish with a brown indument, and the petals are 








Figure 1 1. A-C, Parinari msularum: A, longitudinal section of mature fruit, showingdevelopingseed, a 
second (vestigial) locule, and basal plugs in endocarp, x 1; B, longitudinal section of fruit wall, showing 
exocarp (ex), mesocarp (m), endocarp (en), copious tomentum (t) of endocarp, and cotyledon (c), « 6; C, 
detail of lower surface of leaf blade, showing arachnoid indument of areoles, x40. D, Aiuna racemosa: Ae\.a\\ 
of lower surface of leaf blade, showing minute, rough-margined holes on nerves, x 40. A & B from Gillespie 
3619, C from Smilh 9128. D from DA 9814. 



1985 CHRYSOBALANACEAE 47 

white, turning brownish; the fertile stamens are often 8, the sterile ones being toothlike. 
The fruits are dull green to olivaceous, with copious brown lenticels. Flowers have 
been obtained between March and October, while fruits persist for much of the year. 

Lectotypification: Gray originally cited the Exploring Expedition material as 
being from Sandalwood (Mbua) Bay on Vanua Levu, Mbau, and Samoa. The only 
specimen identified by Gray remaining at us, with good flowers and fruits, is U. S. 
Expl. Exped. (us 75124 herewith designated as lectotype), collected in Samoa with- 
out further locality, probably in 1839. The k sheet bears two fragments noted as from 
Fiji and Samoa; probably neither this nor any other Exploring Expedition specimen 
should be considered a definite isolectotype. 

Distribution: Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, and the Wallis Islands; about 65 Fijian collec- 
tions from five of the high islands have been examined, but the species doubtless occurs 
on other islands. 

Local names and uses: The well-established Fijian name is sea: also recorded are 
sa and sere. The species produces a useful hardwood, frequently used for house posts; 
the bark, together with that of Pometia pinnata (Sapindaceae), is used in the Namosi 
area as a diuretic; and one collector notes the fruit as edible, which seems unlikely. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of Nandarivatu, Mead 1992. Gillespie 3885. 
Nandronga & Navosa: Nausori Highlands. DF659 (SI409/5). Serua: Nambukelevu, upper Navua River, 
Berry 7//,- inland from Navutulevu, DF658 (S1409/4. fio/a A'Z.-J'J. hills east of Navua River, near Nukusere, 
Smith 9128. Namosi: Northern slopes of Korombasambasanga Range, in drainage of Wainavindrau Creek, 
Smith 8752: Nambukavesi Creek, Bola NI-8 (S1409/2). Naitasiri: Vina-Naisonggo trail. Parks 20436: 
vicinity of Tamavua, Yeoward 102: vicinity of Nasinu, Gillespie 3619. Tailevu: Nanggelendamu, DA 4031: 
near Namalata, D.A 2674. Rewa: Vicinity of Lami, Meehold 17045. ViTi Levu without further locality, 
Seemann 146. KANDAVU: Hills above Namalata and Ngaloa Bays, Smith 196: vicinity of Naikorokoro, 
DF 660 (SI409/6. Bola KU-4J. OVALAU: Hills east of Lovoni Valley, Smith 7316. VANUA LEVU; 
M athuata: Above Nasingasinga, Berry 50: Seanggangga Plateau, in drainage of Korovuli River, vicinity of 
Natua, Smi7/i 6655,- southern slopes of Mt. Numbuiloa. east of Lambasa, 5mi;/i64i/. Thakaundrove: Mt. 
Kasi, Yanawai River region. Smith 1824: between Mbalanga and Valethi, Savusavu Bay, Degener & 
Ordonez 14049. TAVEUNI: Vicinity of Wairiki, Gillespie 4639. 

3. Atuna Raf. Silva Tellur. 153. 1838; Kostermans in Reinwardtia 7: 421. 1969. 

Cvclandrophora Hassk. in Flora 25 (2), Beibl. 1: 41. 1842; Kostermans in Candollea 20: 118. 1965. 
Parinarium sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 75, p. p. 1865, et auct.; non Juss. 

Trees, the stipules narrow, stiff, erect, carinate, lateral to petiole and enveloping 
bud, subpersistent; leaves with eglandular petioles, the blades chartaceous to coriace- 
ous, without stomatal areoles beneath but with reticulation marked by rough- 
margined holes; inflorescences subterminal and axillary, spiciform or racemiform, 
with conspicuous bracts before anthesis; flowers zygomorphic, the hypanthium 
obconical, slightly gibbous near throat at attachment of ovary, pilose without, densely 
and retrorsely strigose below ovary within; petals 5, longer than calyx lobes, glabrous, 
membranaceous, gradually narrowed proximally, soon caducous; stamens inserted on 
margin of disk, the fertile ones (10-) 12-20, unilateral, those opposite the style 
staminodial and represented by short teeth, the filaments often exserted and longer 
than calyx lobes; ovary laterally attached to mouth of receptacle, adnate to hypan- 
thium, densely appressed-pilose, initially seemingly bilocular, each locule with 1 ovule, 
the style slender, as long as or longer than stamens; fruit ellipsoid to subglobose, often 
laterally compressed, unilocular, with a single developing seed, irregularly cracking 
during germination, the exocarp thin, fleshy, the mesocarp radially fibrous, the 
endocarp thin, bony, with short, inconspicuous hairs within, the cotyledons ruminate. 

Type species: The type species of Atuna is A. racemosa Raf.; that of Cvclandro- 
phora is C. glaberrima Hassk. (= Atuna excelsa (Jack) Kostermans). 

Distribution; Indo-Malesia and eastward in the Pacific to Tonga and Samoa. In 
Fiji two species are indigenous, one of them being endemic. 



48 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Useful TREATMENTS OF genus: Kostermans, A. J. G. H. A monograph of the genera MaranthesBl. and 
Cyclandrophora Hassk. (Chrysobalanaceae) of the Asiatic and Pacific area. CandoUea 20: 103-158. 1965. 
K.OSTERMANS, A. J. G. H. Atuna Rafin. versus Cyclandrophora Hassk. (Rosaceae-Chrysobalanoideae). 
Reinwardtia 7: 421-422. 1969. 

The genus Parinari had been very broadly construed prior to recent studies by 
Kostermans and Prance. Cyclandrophora was the name utilized by Kostermans (1965, 
cited above) for one of the segregates, Atuna Raf. having been considered a later 
homonym of Atunus Lam., a synonym of Heritiera (Sterculiaceae). However, Atuna 
and Atunus are not homonyms (ICBN, Art. 75. 1), and the first was properly used for 
the chrysobalanaceous genus by Kostermans in 1969. 

Key to species 

Stipules up to 20 mm. long; leaf blades ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, 10-35 " (2.5-) 5-13 cm., acute to 
subcordate at base, gradually acuminate at apex, the secondary nerves (6-) 10-15 per side; inflorescen- 
ces often to 1 5 cm. long, the pedicels 1 mm. long or less; hypanthium 5- 1 mm. long, the filaments 10-15 
mm. long \- A. racemosa 

Stipules 9- 1 7 mm. long; leaf blades elliptic, 5-16 " 4-10 cm., rounded to obtuse at base, rounded at apex, the 
secondary nerves 5-8 per side; inflorescences 2-7 cm. long, the pedicels 1-5 mm. long; hypanthium 4-5 
mm. long, the filaments 4-9 mm. long 1. A. elliptica 

1. Atuna racemosa Raf. Sylva Tellur. 153. 1838; Kostermans in Reinwardtia 7: 422. 

1969. Figures IID, 12, 13A, 88 (lower). 

Pahnarium laurinum A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 490. 1854, Atlas, pi. 55. 1856; Seem, in 

Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 436. 1862, Fl. Vit. 75. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 161. 1890. 

Parinarium margarata A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 489. 1854, Atlas, p/. 54. A. 1856. 

Parinarium glaberrimum sensu Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 97. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit. 

184: 40. 1945, in op. cit. 220: 127. 1959; non Hassk. 
Parinari giaberrima sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. vi. 1964, ed. 2. 94. 1972; St. John & A. C. Sm. in 
Pacific Sci. 25: 327. 1 97 1 ; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 43. 
1972; non Parinarium glaberrimum Hassk. 
Parinari laurina A. Gray ex J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 61. 1964. 
Parinari margarata A. Gray ex J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 61. 1964. 

Cyclandrophora laurina Kostermans in CandoUea 20: 135. 1965, in Reinwardtia 7: 185. 1965. 
As it is seen in Fiji, Atuna racemosa is a tree 5-20 m. high, occurring from near 
sea level to an elevation of about 500 m. in forest or in grassland thickets. The petals are 
white, sometimes tinged with purple toward base; the filaments are white to pale blue; 
and the brown fruits are subglobose or laterally flattened, up to 8 (- 10) cm. in diameter. 
Flowers and fruits have been noted throughout the year. 

Typification and nomenclature: Atuna racemosa was based by Rafmesque on 
Atun Rumph. Herb. Amb. 1: /. 66. 1741 (cf. Merr. Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amb. 
247. 1917, Index Rafin. 136. 1949). The type of Parinarium laurinum is U. S. Expl. 
E.xped. (us 65333 holotype; isotype at k), collected in Samoa without further locality, 
presumably in 1839; that of P. margarata is U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 62799 holotype; 
fragmentary isotype at k), obtained in the "Sandalwood district" (presumably inland 
from Mbua Bay), Mbua Province, Vanua Levu, in 1840. This well-known species has 
usually passed as Parinarium glaberrimum (Hassk.) Hassk., but that species (based on 
Cyclandrophora giaberrima Hassk.) has no extant type and apparently was described 
from a living Javanese plant; it is referable to Atuna excelsa (Jack) Kostermans. The 
discussions of Kostermans (in CandoUea 20: 128-142. 1965, in Reinwardtia 7: 422. 
1969) have listed and clarified a complicated synonymy. Atuna racemosa does not 

Figure 12. Atuna racemosa: A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and inflorescences, » 1/3; B, 
stipules, with petiole and base of leaf blade, >^ 6; C, mature fruit, showing irregular cracks prior to 
germination of seed, x 1 ; D, flower, the petals and most anthers fallen, showing detached petal, style(s), and 
staminodes (sd), x 4. A, B, & D from DA 9814, C from Smith 1713. 



1985 



CHRYSOBALANACEAE 



49 




50 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 CHRYSOBALANACEAE 51 

occur wild in Java, and the two species have overlapping ranges only in Borneo, 
according to Kostermans's interpretations. Only synonyms noted in the literature 
referring to the Fijian Region have been listed above. 

Distribution: Malesia (Philippines, Borneo, and Amboina) eastward to the Caro- 
line Islands, Tonga, and Samoa. I have examined about 45 collections from three of 
the high Fijian islands. 

Local names and uses: Makita and makita ndamu are the widely used Fijian 
names; sa has been infrequently recorded, suggesting confusion of this species with 
Parinari insularum. The name margarata was noted by Pickering, according to Gray; 
this does not suggest a Fijian word and must be questioned. The timber has been used 
for posts, poles, and canoe spars, and leafy branchlets are still widely utilized to thatch 
the outside walls of houses, as the leaves remain attached to twigs indefinitely. The 
seeds are crushed to make a fragrant juice which is used to scent coconut oil, and the 
inner bark is reputed to be used medicinally as part of an internal remedy for high 
blood pressure. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mountains inland from Lautoka, Greenwood 427: 
vicinity of Tumbenasolo, valley of Namosi Creek, Smith 4723. Nandronga & Navosa: Near Nakalavo 
Village. H. B. R. Parham 251: vicinity of Sam, Tamanua Creek, inland from Vatukarasa, W. L. Parham. 
May 17. 1931, p. p. (K). Serua: Vicinity of Ngaloa, DF 919. Namosi: Near Namosi, Gillespie 2569. Ra: 
Ndombuilevu, D,A, Dec. 7, 1948. Naitasiri: Vicinity of Matawailevu, Wamimala River, Si. John 18221: 
Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, D.A 9814: Prince's Road, Vaughan 3459. 
TAiLEVti: Raralevu Village, H'einer 128. Rewa: Namboro. DF 265: Rewa River delta, M ac Daniel.'. 1019. 
KANDAVU: D.4 11942: Kiombo Creek, Naikorokoro, Damanu D-1. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Southern 
portion of Seatovo Range, Smith 1713. Mathuata: Seanggangga Plateau, in drainage of Korovuli River, 
vicinity of Natua, Smith 6680. Thakaundrove: Eastern drainage of Yanawai River, Degener & Ordonez 
14100: Tukavesi, Mbutha Bay. Natewa Peninsula, Mead 1994. Fiji without further locality, Seemann 146. 

2. Atuna elliptica (Kostermans) Kostermans in Reinwardtia 7: 421. 1969. 

Figure 13B-E. 

Parinari elliptica Kostermans in Reinwardtia 7: 'Mi. fig. 2. 1965; J. W. Parham. PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 94. 1972. 
Cyclandrophora elliptica Kostermans & Prance in Reinwardtia 7: 120. 1965. 

A small tree 7-10 m. high, infrequent from near sea level to an elevation of about 
100 m., found in open forest and usually near streams. The petals are white with 
pinkish margins, the filaments are yellow, and the anthers are mauve. No fruits are now 
available, but they are indicated to be large and ovoid to globose. On the basis of 
available field notes, flowers have been collected in January, April, and May, and 
fruits were observed in April and May. 

Typification: Kostermans cited as the type Parham s. n. (k holotype), collected 
in flower in January (year?), alt. 70 m., in a sheltered valley at Vunindawa, Naitasiri 
Province, Viti Levu. This specimen has not been located at k, nor does the published 
photograph permit one to read the field label that presumably indicates the collector's 
initials. It was probably obtained by B. E. V. Parham prior to or in 1936, the year in 
which he began to assign numbers to the "DA " series; he often collected in the vicinity 
of Vunindawa. Perhaps the holotype and the paratype Pent Turagas. n. (k) (indicated 
to be a sterile specimen from Naitasiri) are still on loan. A second paratype. Home 242, 

Figure 13. A, .4ru«ara(eoioia, longitudinal section ofasubmature fruit, with a shrivelled seed and trace 
of an incomplete partition. » 1. B-E, .Atuna elliptica: B, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and an 
inflorescence. "1 3; C, stipules, with petiole and margin of leaf blade. « 6; D, detail of lower surface of leaf 
blade, showing minute, patelliform holes on nerves, " 70; E, distal portion of old inflorescence with 
developing ovary, the petals, anthers, and most filaments fallen, bracts and a few sepals remainmg. >■ 4. A 
from Smith 1713, B-E from DA 476. 



52 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

remains at k; this had been annotated as the holotype by Kostermans, but apparently 
he changed his mind before publishing the name Parinari elliptica. 

Distribuhon: Endemic to Fiji and apparently rare, known only from Viti Levu. 

Local name and uses: Makita leka (leka = short, referring to the very obvious 
difference in leaf blade length and apex that readily distinguishes this species from the 
true makita, Atuna racemosa). Uses similar to those of A. racemosa have been 
indicated; the timber is locally used as poles, the leafy branches as thatch, and the seeds 
to scent coconut oil. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Vicinity of Saru, Tamanua Creek, inland 
from Vatukarasa, W. L. Parham. May 17, 1931, p. p. (k). Naitasiri: Vicinity of Viria, £)/! //O(coll. B. E. V. 
Parham, April 27, 1936) (suva), 476 (coll. B. E. V. Parham. May 13, 1936) (suva); Naitasiri without further 
locality, Turaga s. n. (k, not seen but cited by Kostermans). Fiji without further locality, Home 242 (k). 
(From the low number, one may assume that Home obtained his specimen in the Rewa River area, which he 
visited early during his Fijian trip, cf. Home, A Year in Fiji, 5, 6. 1881.) 

Order FABALES 

Whether to consider the legumes (Fabales or Leguminales) as constituting a single 
family (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) or as divisible into three families remains a matter 
of opinion. Much current opinion seems to favor the recognition of one family with 
three well-marked subfamilies (Polhill and Raven (eds.). Adv. Leg. Syst., 1981). If 
three families are accepted, their compositions in most cases are clear and unambigu- 
ous, although there are a few genera that seem transitional among the three groups. In 
view of the vacillation demonstrated by several well-known phylogenists in recent 
years, and because the three groups within the order seem as well characterized and 
discrete as most families currently accepted, the groups are here treated as families. It 
now seems generally agreed (Polhill and Raven in Adv. Leg. Syst. 1-26. 1981) that the 
most archaic genera of legumes fall into the Caesalpiniaceae (or subfamily Caesalpi- 
nioideae), from different groups of which the Mimosaceae (or subfamily Mimosoi- 
deae) and Fabaceae (or subfamily Papilionoideae or Faboideae) were evolved. 

The order Fabales is economically one of the most valuable groups of plants. The 
seeds and/ or pods of many species are important as food: beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, 
etc. Many genera include valuable fodder plants and cover crops, while others are well 
known for their timber trees, and still others produce fibers, dyes, gums, resins, and oil. 
Ornamental plants abound in the order. If taken as a single family, the legume family 
(then to be called Fabaceae or Leguminosae) is the third largest among flowering plant 
families, with more than 650 genera and about 18,000 species, exceeded only by 
Asteraceae (Compositae) and Orchidaceae. 

In spite of the worldwide size of the group, it is not a particularly conspicuous 
component of the indigenous Pacific flora — at least in comparison with its abundance 
in many continental areas. Taking the group as a whole, 96 genera of legumes are here 
recorded as being in Fiji, but only 31 of these genera are represented by indigenous 
species. Some of these 31 genera also have cultivated and /or adventive species in Fiji. 
Sixty-five of the genera here treated are represented in Fiji only by cultivated (and 
often naturalized) or adventive species. 

It must be noted that the Fabales cannot summarily be included in or allied to the 
order Resales. In most classification systems the legumes have been placed as having 
their closest affinity with the Connaraceae, a viewpoint summarized by Dickison (in 
Adv. Leg. Syst. 35-54. 198 1). However, a closer relationship between the legumes and 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 53 

the sapindaceous alliance is now suggested by evidence from wood anatomy (Baretta- 
Kuipers in Adv. Leg. Syst. 677-705. 1981), phytochemical data, trichome morphology, 
embryology, etc., as noted by Dickison and other contributors to Advances in Legume 
Systematics. Further discussion of such complex relationships are out of place in a 
regional Flora such as the present work. 

Useful treatments of order (or inclusive family comprising three subfamilies): Schulze-Menz, G. K. 
Fam. Leguminosae. In: Melchior, H. Engl. Syll. Pflanzenfam. ed. 12. 2: 221-240. 1964. Verdcourt. B. A 
Manual of New Guinea Legumes (Papua New Guinea Dept. Forests Bull. 11), 1-645. 1979. Polhill, R. M., 
& P. H. Raven (eds.). Advances in Legume Systematics, 1-1049. 1981. 

Of the above-cited treatments, that of Verdcourt on New Guinea legumes is 
important for our purposes in that it includes most of the genera and many of the 
species known to occur in Fiji. Advances in Legume Systematics is a milestone of sorts, 
concentrating the expertise of a large group of specialists to produce an improved 
classification based on many modern criteria in addition to the traditional morpholog- 
ical ones. The resulting synopsis of tribes and genera has been freely abstracted for 
present purposes; it builds upon the basic nineteenth century work of Bentham and 
supplements that of Hutchinson (1964, cited below under each of the three families). 
Additional valuable treatments of the component parts of Leguminosae (sensu lato), 
cited below, include those of the Flora of Tropical East Africa and precursor papers. 
These are important to a summary of the legumes of any tropical area in that they 
discuss taxa now cultivated or naturalized throughout the tropics. 

In the present work the sequence of genera in each family (subfamily) follows that 
proposed by the contributors to Advances in Legume Systematics, and the keys to 
tribes and genera in that work have been adapted to such taxa known to occur in Fiji. 

Key to families 
Flowers actinomorphic, the petals valvate in bud, often united at base; sepals usually united at^base; stamens 
as many as petals or twice as many or numerous, free or united into a tube or to base of petals; seeds 
normally with an areole (pleurogram) on each side or face; leaves bipinnate, or less often pinnate, or 

phyllodic 123. Mimosaceae 

Flowers nearly always zygomorphic, the petals imbricate in bud, free or some of them united; stamens 10 or 

fewer or occasionally more numerous; seeds usually without areoles (pleurograms). 

Adaxial petal overlapped by adjacent lateral petals (if these are present); sepals generally free to 

hypanthium rim or to pedicel; stamens 10 or fewer or occasionally more numerous, free or less often 

variously united; seeds without a hilar groove and generally with a straight radicle; leaves bipinnate 

or pinnate, rarely simple or unifoliolate 124. Caesalpiniaceae 

Adaxial petal overlapping adjacent lateral petals (at least in all taxa occurring in Fiji); sepals united at 
base; stamens 10, rarely fewer, never more numerous, free or the adaxial (upper) one free and the 
other 9 united (diadelphous), or united in 2 groups (diadelphous) or all united (monadelphous); seeds 
with the radicle usually curved; leaves never bipinnate 125. Fabaceae 

Family 123. MIMOSACEAE 
Mimosaceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Australis 2: 551, as Mimoseae. 1814. 

Trees, shrubs, lianas, or rarely herbs, often prickly or spiny, stipulate, the stipules 
sometimes spinelike; leaves alternate, bipinnate, rarely simply pinnate, sometimes 
phyllodic; inflorescences spicate or capitate, rarely racemose or umbelliform, the 
bracts small, often deciduous; flowers actinomorphic, § or unisexual, sometimes 
neuter and sterile; perianth dichlamydeous, hypogynous or slightly perigynous; calyx 
usually with 5 lobes, these valvate, rarely imbricate, rarely free; petals as many as calyx 
lobes, valvate in bud, free or united at base into a corolla; disk usually absent; stamens 
numerous or twice as many as petals or few (as many as petals), free or monadelphous 
or adnate to base of petals, the anthers small, versatile, 2-locular, often gland-tippcd at 
apex, dehiscing lengthwise, the pollen grains sometimes simple but frequently com- 



54 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

pound or united; ovary free, unilocular, the ovules usually numerous, the style usually 
filiform, the stigma small, terminal; fruit dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes breaking 
into 1 -seeded segments, the seeds usually ovate or orbicular, compressed, sometimes 
winged, usually with lateral pleurograms (areoles), the hilum basal, an aril rarely 
present, the testa hard, the endosperm none or very thin, the cotyledons flat, the radicle 
straight, not folded. 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, especially numerous in the Southern 
Hemisphere, with about 62 genera and 3,000 species. In Fiji 14 genera have been 
recorded, five of them with indigenous species. 

Useful TREATMENTS OF family: Brenan, J. P. M. Leguminosae Subfamily Mimosoideae, 1-173. 1959. 
In: Hubbard, C. E., & E. Milne-Redhead (eds.). Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Hutchinson, J. Mimosaceae. Gen. Fl. PI. 
1: 277-297. 1964. Kostermans, A. J. G. H. Mimosaceae. In: Dassanayake, M. D., & F. R. Fosberg (eds.). 
Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 459-508. 1980. 

Key to tribes occurring in Fiji 
Caly.x lobes imbricate in bud; unarmed trees with bipinnate leaves; our genus with inflorescences of globose, 
biglobose, or clavate heads and with heteromorphic flowers, the proximal ones d" or sterile, the stamens 

10 1. Parkieae 

Calyx lobes valvate in bud. 

Stamens 10 or fewer (as many as or twice as many as petals), the filaments free or connate only at base; 

leaves bipinnate (rarely phyllodic but not in any of our species) 2. Mimoseae 

Stamens more than 10 (in our genera seldom fewer than 20). 

Filaments free or connate only at base; leaves bipinnate or reduced to phyllodes (as in all our indigenous 

species) 3. Acacieae 

Filaments proximally connate into a tube; leaves bipinnate (rarely pinnate but not in any of our genera). 

4. Ingeae 

Keys to genera 
Tribe 1. Parkieae 

One genus only in Fiji, represented by a rare, indigenous species 1. Parkia 

Tribe 2. Mimoseae 
Neuter or nonfunctional cT flowers (sometimes caducous) present at base of inflorescence; inflorescences 
capitate or short-spicate; petals free or slightly coherent at base; filaments free; fruits linear, dehiscent 
and 2-valved, the seeds longitudinal or oblique; leaflets opposite; our species a sparingly naturalized 

woody herb or low shrub 8. Desmanlhus 

Neuter flowers absent (except in a few species of Mimosa). 

Plants with stipular or scattered spines or spine-tipped branches; foliage glands usually present, the 
leaflets opposite or subopposite; inflorescences spicate or spiciform-racemose, rarely capitate; petals 
free or proximally connate; stamens free; fruits indehiscent, not segmented; our species introduced 

and perhaps sparingly naturalized 4. Prosopis 

Plants unarmed (sometimes with recurved prickles or stipular thorns but then foliage glands absent). 
Flowers in heads, with persistent, spathulate bracts, the peduncle with an involucel; fruits dehiscing 
down both sutures or opening only along margins; leaflets opposite. 
Anthers eglandular; fruits 2-valved, the valves separating, not winged; our species an abundantly 

naturalized shrub or small tree 6. Leucaena 

Anthers with small, stalked, apical glands; fruits indehiscent, the valves narrowly winged, splitting at 
edges but not separating over seed chambers; our species an indigenous tree or shrub. 

7. Schleinitzia 
Flowers in spikes (or if in heads as in some species of Mimosa then the fruits not as in Leucaena or 
Schleinitzia). 
Style tapering to a small, porate stigma; pollen in compound grains. 

Flowers with distinct, jointed pedicels; leaflets clearly alternate; calyx campanulate, shortly 
5-dentate; anthers with a stalked, fugacious, apical gland; fruits dehiscent with 2 thin valves, 
these spirally twisted after dehiscence but not breaking up, the seeds brightly colored, 
subpersistently attached to valves; our species a naturalized, unarmed tree. 

2. .-idenanthera 

Flowers sessile; leaflets opposite or subopposite; calyx usually minute, irregularly or minutely 

dentate, sometimes pappuslike; anthers eglandular; fruits 2-valved, the valves separating from 

sutures to form 1-seeded segments and leaving a persistent replum, rarely remaining entire; 

our species naturalized, thorny, weedy scrambling shrubs or coarse herbs. ... 5. Mimosa 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 55 

Style tip tubular; pollen in simple grams; Iruits large, the sutures thickened, continuous in a persistent 
replum, the valves splittmg transversely into l-seeded segments; our species an indigenous liana, 
the leaves with I or 2 pairs of pinnae each with 1-3 pairs of large leaflets, the rachis terminating in 

a bifid tendril 3, Enlada 

Tribe 3. Acacieae 
One genus only in Fiji; our species indigenous (and then with phyllodic leaves) or introduced (and then with 

bipinnate or phyllodic leaves) 9. Acacia 

Tribe 4. Ingeae 
At least the terminal pairs of leaflets opposite; our species cultivated and sometimes naturalized. 

Fruits thick-margined, 2-valved, the valves elastically dehiscent from apex, not segmented; seeds unise- 

rially arranged, without an aril, with a hard testa with pleurogram 12. Calliandra 

Fruits with valves not elastically dehiscent. 

Seeds without an aril; flowers usually heteromorphic; armed or unarmed trees or shrubs, the stipules 
usually inconspicuous and caducous. 
Fruits straight or slightly curved, flattened, dehiscent or not, segmented or not; seeds unisenally 
arranged; tlowers of the same part-inflorescence usually heteromorphic; our species cultivated 

and sometimes naturalized 10. Alhizta 

Fruits twisted in a flat plane into a circle or curved-reniform, thick and compressed, indehiscent, at 
length woody, the endocarp forming septa between seeds; seeds biserially arranged; (lowers of 
the same part-inflorescence uniform; our species a cultivated, large, spreading tree with a 

massive trunk II. Enlerolohmm 

Seeds arillate; fruits contorted, the valves chartaceous, reddish within, not segmented; flowers uniform 

(not heteromorphic); armed trees and shrubs with spinescent stipules 13. Pilhecetlohium 

Leaflets alternate, numerous, the leaves usually with raised glands on petiole and rachis; inflorescences 
axillary and spicate or subterminal and paniculate; fruits straight, often densely tomentose, indehiscent 
or tardily dehiscent; indigenous trees 14. Scnanthes 

1. Parkia R. Br. in Denham & Clapperton, Narr. Travels Africa, 234. 1826; A. C. Sm. 

in J. Arnold Arb. 36: 279. 1955; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 7. 1959; 

Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 280. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 132. 

1979. 
Unarmed trees; leaves bipinnate, the pinnae and leatlets numerous, the petiole 
usually glandular; inflorescences large, capitate, the heads solitary or in panicles, 
abruptly contracted pro.ximally, sometimes constricted in middle, the peduncles a.xil- 
lary and solitary or several and subterminal; flowers numerous, congested, presumably 
bat-pollinated, heteromorphic, the distal ones § , the proximal ones d" or sterile; calyx 
infundibular or tubular, with 4 or 5 short, imbricate teeth; petals 5, linear or spathu- 
late, free or connate below middle; stamens 10, the filaments proximally connate and 
sometimes adnate to corolla tube, the anthers oblong, eglandular, the pollen shed in 
dissymmetric polyads; ovary usually stipitate, the ovules numerous; Iruits elongate- 
oblong, straight or curved, compressed, tleshy and becoming woody, indehiscent or 
2-valved, the seeds ellipsoid or oblong-ellipsoid, somewhat compressed. 

Type species: Parkia africana R. Br., nom. illeg. (Mimosa higUihosa Jacq.). 
Distribution: Pantropical, with about 40 species. The range of the Asian- 
Malesian segment of the genus seems to terminate in the Solomon and Caroline 
Islands except for an outlying endemic species in Fiji. 
1. Parkia parrii Home ex Baker in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 20: 359. 1883; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. 

Mar. Pac. 159. 1890; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 36:279. 1955; J. W. Parham, PI. 

Fiji Isl. 70. 1964, ed. 2. 107. 1972. 

Parkia pari Home, A Year in Fiji, 266, nom. nud. 1881. 

The Fijian species of Parkia is said to be a tree 12-2! m. high, occurring at low 
elevations near streams; its branchlets are copiously lenticellate and its leaves (includ- 
ing a petiole about 5 cm. long) attain a length of 30 cm. The turbinate inflorescences are 
3.5-5 cm. long, with white or rose-colored flowers; the fruits are about 15 " 3.5 cm., 
with 10-12 seeds. The only available collection bore inflorescences and fruits in 
September. 



56 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification: The type is Home 1041 (k holotype), collected in September, 1878; 
two localities are given: Parr's coffee plantation on Viti Levu, and Mbua, Mbua 
Province, Vanua Levu. Home's handwritten label in part indicates: "Not common at 
the Rewa — Parr's coffee plantation — and near streams at Bua Vanua Levu Sept. 
1878." Although the collection could possibly be from the two localities, the date 
suggests that it was obtained in Mbua Province (cf. Vol. 1 of this Flora, p. 51); Home's 
visits to the Rewa River took place at earlier dates. Perhaps he merely observed it (or 
thought that he did) at Parr's coffee plantation (which I have been unable to locate but 
which could have been in either Rewa, Naitasiri, or Tailevu Province). 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and known only from the type collection. There 
seems no reason to doubt that Parkia parrii is indigenous in Fiji; Home seems to have 
had a knack for finding plants that have eluded more recent collectors, as also 
suggested by his Fijian record of A'eoa/.sow/rra(Cucurbitaceae); cf. Vol. 2 of this Flora, 
pp. 687-688. 

Local name and use: Home records the name vaivai (used for many legumes with 
finely divided leaves) and indicates that the timber is used for various purposes. 

The Fijian species is probably most closely related to Parkia versteeghii Merr. & 
Perry, of New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, differing in the fewer (6- or 7-paired) 
pinnae and the fewer (12-16-paired) and substantially larger (12-15 ^ 7-9 mm.) 
leaflets. 

2. Adenanthera L. Sp. PI. 384. 1753; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 30. 
1959; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 287. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
135. 1979. 

Unarmed trees, the stipules small, caducous; leaves bipinnate, without glands, the 
leaflets alternate, several per pinna; inflorescences axillary or aggregated in terminal 
panicles composed of slender, spiciform racemes; flowers usually § , 5-merous, with 
jointed pedicels; calyx campanulate, short-dentate; petals joined proximally or soon 
free; stamens 10, the filaments free or connate at extreme base, the anthers with a 
stalked, fugacious, apical gland; ovary sessile, the ovules numerous; fruits linear, at 
first straight, becoming falcate, dehiscent into 2 thin valves, these spirally twisted after 
dehiscence, the seeds numerous, hard, subpersistently attached to valves, reddish (as in 
our species) or bicolored. 

Type species: Adenanthera pavonina L., the only original species. 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical Asia to Malesia and Australia, with about 
eight species; one species is now widespread and is naturalized in Fiji. 

1. Adenanthera pavonina L. Sp. PI. 384. 1753; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12: 247. 

1931; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 98. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit. 178: 

59. 1943; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 91. 1948, in op. cit. 29: 31. 

1959; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 131. 1959; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 

Leg. Mimos. 30. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 68. 1964, ed. 2. 104. 1972; Sykes 

in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 120. 1970; B. E. V. Parham in 

New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 49, 67. 1972; Verdcourt, 

Man. New Guinea Leg. 138.yi^. 34. 1979. 

As seen in Fiji, Adenanthera pavonina is a sometimes spreading tree 6-15 m. high 

(up to 20 m. elsewhere), introduced but now thoroughly naturalized along roads, in dry 

forest, and occasionally in dense forest, at elevations from near sea level to about 600 

m. The leaves have 3-5 pairs of pinnae, each with 5-9 leaflets per side, these with blades 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 57 

1.5-4.5 X 1.2-2.3 cm. The petals are white to pale yellow like the filaments; the fruit 
valves are brown without and yellow within, and the seeds are evenly scarlet to brick- 
red. Flowers and fruits are commonly seen in November and December but doubtless 
occur through much of the year. 

Lectotypification: The type is Hermann (bm lectotype), from Ceylon, fide 
Brenan (1959, cited above). 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia and Malesia, widely cultivated and naturalized 
elsewhere. It may be a comparatively recent introduction into Fiji, where its first 
record may be that of Thurston (cf. this Flora, vol. 1, pp. 47, 87). Even now it is not 
abundant, all available collections being cited below. 

Local names and uses: Recorded Fijian names are lera, lere ndamu, vaivai, vaivai 
ni vavalangi. and pomea. Seeds of the red bead tree dirt made into necklaces; elsewhere 
the wood is used for furniture and building. 

Available colleclions: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Nausori, DA 327. Seria; Namboutini, 
DF 508. Damanu 147: hills west of Waivunu Creek, between Ngaloa and Korovou, Snuih 9463; hills 
between Waininggere and Waisese Creeks, between Ngaloa and Wainiyambia, Smith 9350. Naitasiri: 
Naitauvoli, Waingga Creek, DA 7008. Tailevu: Between Ndakuand Mburetu, DA 877. Rewa: Kalokolevu, 
DA 11015. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Vuo, Korondongo Bay, DA. May 10, 1947. LAKEMBA; Near 
Nukunuku Village, Garnock-Jones 805: near Tumbou Village, Garnock-Jones 978. Fiji without further 
locality, DA 3153. 

3. Entada Adanson, Fam. PL 2: 3 1 8. 1 763; Seem. Fl. Vit. 71.1 865; Brenan in Fl. Trop. 
E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 9. 1959; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 288. 1964; Verdcourt, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. 134. 1979. Nom. cons. 

Trees, shrubs, or lianas, sometimes with prickly stems and rachises, the stipules 
small, setaceous; leaves bipinnate, the rachis (as in our species) sometimes terminating 
in a bifid tendril, the leaflets few (as in our species) to many, usually opposite; 
inflorescences axillary or terminal, spicate or spiciform-paniculate; flowers § or d", 
5-merous, sessile; calyx campanulate, short-dentate; petals free or proximally connate; 
stamens 10, exserted, the filaments adnate to petals at base, the anthers with an apical, 
caducous gland; ovary subsessile to stipitate, the ovules numerous, the style tip 
tubular; fruits straight or curved, often very large, compressed, the sutures thickened, 
continuous in a persistent replum, the valves transversely jointed, breaking away from 
sutures and splitting into I-seeded segments, the endocarp persistent around seeds, the 
seeds orbicular or ellipsoid, flattened, often smooth and polished. 

Type species: Entada monostachya DC. {Mimosa entada L.). 

Distribution: Pantropical, most numerous in Africa, with about 30 species. One 
widespread species is indigenous in Fiji. 

L Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. in Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 9C: 86. 1914, Interpret. 
Rumph. Herb. Amb. 253. 1917; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 98. 
1935; I. M. Johnston in Sargentia 8: 1 37. 1949; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 
131. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 69. 1964, ed. 2. 106. 1972; St. John & A. C. 
Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25: 328. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. 
Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 133. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 134. 
fig. 33. 1979; Henty in Papua New Guinea Dept. Forests Bull. 12:86./;,?. 51. 1980. 

Figure 14. 

Lens phaseoloides L. Herb. Amb. 18. 1754. 

Mimosa scandens L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1501. 1763. 

Entada scandens Benth. in J. Bot. (Hooker) 4: 332. 1841; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:473. 1854; 

Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 71. 1865, op. cit. 427. 1873; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. 

Mar. Pac. 159. 1890; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12: 245. 1931. 



58 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 MIMOSACEAE 59 

An often high-climbing liana, with very stout stems, occurring from near sea level 
to about 900 m. in dense forest or on its edges, in crest thickets, and sometimes near 
beaches and in mangrove swamps. The leaves have 1 or 2 pairs of pinnae, the rachis 
terminating in a tendril, and the pinnae have I -3 pairs of large leaflets (up to 1 1 '^ 6.5 
cm.). The slender flowering spikes are as long as 35 cm. and are often long- 
pedunculate, with fragrant flowers. The calyx and petals are greenish and tinged with 
deep red or purple, and the stamens have white to yellowish filaments and yellow 
anthers. The large fruits, up to 150 x 13 cm., are somewhat contracted between the 
seeds, which are brown and as large as 5 x 4.5 ^ 1.5 cm. Flowers and fruits are seen 
throughout the year, 

Typification: Lens phaseoloides is based entirely on Faba marina major Rumph. 
Herb. Amb. 5:5. t. 4. 1 747. The aggregate species A//>»oia5fa«c^e/!5 may be typified by 
the same Rumphian element (cf. I. M. Johnston, 1949, cited above). 

Distribution: Tropical Asia from China throughout Malesia and eastward in the 
Pacific at least to the Cook Islands. In Fiji it may be expected on most islands that 
support a forest; 47 collections have been examined, but the species is more frequent 
than this implies. 

Local names and uses: This well-known plant throughout Fiji is called wa lai. wa 
tinggiri, wa tanggiri, wandamu. or soni ni veikau: l\\s u^udiX English name is water vine. 
Hanging loops of the stout stems contain substantial amounts of potable water, and 
the smaller stems are used to bind timbers in house-building or as fibers in making 
bamboo rafts. The seeds (ai thimbi, ai lavo) are roasted with kaile ( Dioscorea spp.) and 
eaten, but they are more favored in children's games, being used as dart-heads or 
skimmed over Pandanus mats toward a goal. Parts of the plant are said to be used in 
treating rheumatic pains on Taveuni. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: North of Lomolomo. Degener & Ordonez 13725: 
northern portion of Mt. Evans Range, between Mt. Vatuyanitu and Mt. Natondra, Smith 4302: Nandala 
Creek, south of Nandarivatu, Smith 6253. Nandronga& Navosa; Nauson Highlands. DA 11726. Serua; 
Navutulevu, Howard 58: hills west of Waivunu Creek, between Ngaloa and Korovou, Smith 9497: near 
Navua. I'aughan 3289. Namosi: Hills bordering Wainavindrau Creek, vicinity of Wainimakutu, Smith 
8851: Mt. Voma, Gillespie 2502. Naitasiri: Wainisavulevu Creek, Wainimala Valley, St John 18291: Vina, 
Parks 20424: vicinity of Nasinu, Gillespie 3401. Tailevi': Hills east of Wainimbuka River, vicinity of 
Ndakuivuna, Smith 7034: near Londom, DA 14417. Viti Levi; without further locality. Seemann 139. 
KANDAVU; Namalata isthmus region. Smith 19. OVALAU: Vicinity of Levuka, Gillespie 4478. KORO: 
Eastern slope of main ridge. Smith 1004. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Mountains along coast. Greenwood 
642. Thakaundrove: Hills between Vatukawa and Wainingio Rivers, Ndrekeniwai Valley. Smith 580: 
vicinity of Savusavu, Bierhorst F2I3. TAVEUNI: Waitavala Estate, H'einer 71-7-2A. MOALA: Bryan 309. 
MATUKU: Bryan. July 3, 1924 (bish, fruit only). VANUA MBALAVU: Slopes of Korolevu, near Loma- 
loma, Garnuck-Jones 1018. LAKEMBA: Harvev. Nov. 1855; between Yandrana and Vakano, Garnock- 
Jones 951. MOTHE: Bryan 478. Fiji without further locality, U. S Expl. Exped. 

4. Prosopis L. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 282, 293, 1767, Mant. 10, 68. 1767; Brenan in Fl. 

Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 34. 1959; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 289. 1964; 

Burkart in J. Arnold Arb. 57: 200. 1976; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 139. 

1979. 
Trees or shrubs, usually xerophilous, often armed with prickles, axillary spines, or 
spinescent stipules; leaves bipinnate, usually with small glands on rachises, the pinnae 

FlOLRE 14. Entada phaseoloides: A, distal portion of stem, showing one leaf (the lower pair of pinnae 
fallen), a tendril terminating the rachis, and two inflorescences, » I 4; B. portion of rachis with flowers, " 4; 
C, mature fruit breaking up, leaving the replum, the outer woody layer falling away from the two upper 
1-seeded segments to leave the inner layer persisting around the seeds, " l;4; D, old seeds, the lower one 
starting to germinate, " I. A & B from Smith 9497. C from Bryan 309. D from Bryan. July 3, 1924, 



60 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

1 or 2 (rarely numerous) pairs, the leaflets opposite or subopposite, 1 -several pairs; 
inflorescences axillary, spicate or spiciform-racemose, rarely capitate; flowers small, 
$ , 5-merous; calyx campanulate, short-dentate; petals free or proximally connate; 
stamens 10, free, the anthers usually with an inconspicuous apical gland; ovary 
stipitate, the ovules numerous, the style tip tubular; fruits straight, curved, or coiled, 
thick, indehiscent, compressed or subcylindric, the mesocarp usually thick and 
spongy, the endocarp cartilaginous or papery, continous with septa between seeds, the 
seeds 3-many, hard, ovoid, compressed. 

Type species: Prosopis spicigera L. (= P. cineraria (L.) Druce). 

Distribution: Tropics and subtropics, mostly in America, with about 44 species. 
Several species are cultivated and naturalized outside their indigenous areas for shade 
or forage, one having been introduced into Fiji but perhaps not persisting there. 

Local names: Species of Prosopis are widely known as algaroba or mesquite. 

Useful treatment of genus: Burkart. A. A monograph of the genus Prosopis (Leguminosaesubfam. 
Mimosoideae). J. Arnold Arb. 57: 219-249, 450-525. 1976. 

1. Prosopis sp. 

Prosopis chilensis sensu B. E. V. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 10: 1 16. 1939; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 

ed. 2. 107. 1972; dubie Stuntz. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Ra: Yanggara, DA 5578 (suva). 

The first record of the cultivation of a species of Prosopis in Fiji is that of B. E. V. 
Parham (1939), who indicated that the plant had been introduced in 1918 and in 1939 
was established on the property of W. L. Wallace, Tovu Island, Ra Province, Viti 
Levu. J. W. Parham's 1972 record refers to DA 5578, from a plant which in 1945 was 
growing on the Yanggara Estate of the Colonial Sugar Refining Co. but did not appear 
to flourish. 

It is doubtful that either of these records is referable to Prosopis chilensis (Molina) 
Stuntz, which is not noted by Burkart (1976, cited above) as being cultivated in the 
Pacific area. More likely the Fijian material represents either P. pallida (Humb. & 
Bonpl. ex Willd.) H. B. K., which is thoroughly naturalized in Hawaii and is infre- 
quently cultivated in Australia, or P. juliflora (Sw.) DC, which is cultivated or 
naturalized in New Guinea, Queensland, Java, Ceylon, and perhaps elsewhere in the 
Pacific. 

5. Mimosa L. Sp. PI. 5 16. 1 753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 72. 1 865; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Mimos. 42. 1959; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 282. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New 
Guinea Leg. 147. 1979. 

Herbs or shrubs, less often trees, sometimes scrambling or climbing, usually armed 
with prickles or stipular thorns; leaves bipinnate (rarely reduced to phyllodes but not in 
any of our species), eglandular, the pinnae with few to many pairs of leaflets, these 
opposite or subopposite; inflorescences capitate or spicate, axillary and solitary or 
fasciculate or the distal ones racemiform; flowers small, sessile, $ or cf, 3-6-merous; 
calyx usually minute, irregularly or minutely dentate, sometimes pappuslike; corolla 
gamopetalous, 4(3-6)-lobed; stamens as many as or twice as many as corolla segments, 
exserted, the filaments free, the anthers small, eglandular; ovary usually sessile, the 
ovules 2 or more; fruits flat, straight or coiled, usually prickly with bristles, 2-valved, 
the valves separating from sutures to form 1 -seeded segments and leaving a persistent 
replum, rarely remaining entire, the seeds ovoid or subglobose. 

Lectotype species: Mimosa sensitiva L. (vide Britton & Wilson, Sci. Surv. Porto 
Rico 5: 357. 1924), one of Linnaeus's 39 species. 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 61 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical, mostly American, with 400-450 species. 
Three species are naturalized in Fiji. 

Key to species 
Leaves without prickles on petiole and rachis (but sometimes hispid); pinnae in I or 2 pairs, very sensitive, 
subdigitately borne on a very short rachis, this much exceeded by the petiole; leaflets 1 0-26 pairs, 6-15 x 
1.2-3 mm.; stamens 4, as many as corolla lobes; fruits setose-prickly only on margins, 1-1.5 cm. long, 
0.2-0.4 mm. broad, 2-5-jointed; our variety with the corolla glabrous or nearly so even in bud, the heads 
in bud with no or few projecting setiform hairs; coarse herb or scrambling shrub to 0.5 m. high. 

I . A/, pudica var. unijuga 

Leaves with pinnae in 3- 10 pairs, not subdigitate, the rachis longer than the petiole; leaflets 1 1 -40 pairs, 2-12 

X 0. 7-2.5 mm. ; stamens twice as many as corolla lobes; scrambling shrubs forming tangled masses to 2 

m. high (or becoming treelike and to 8 m. high). 

Fruits 1-3.5 cm. long. 4-6 mm. broad. 3-5-jointed, setose-prickly on margins and on surfaces of valves; 

corolla 4-lobed; stamens 8; pinnae 2-4 cm. long; leaflets 11-30 pairs, 2-6 mm. long. 

2. M. invisa 

Fruits 4-5 cm. long, 7-8 mm. broad, 5-8-jointed, unarmed; corolla 5-lobed; stamens 10; pinnae 4-7 cm. 

long; leaflets 15-40 pairs, 5-12 mm. long; mature stems terete or inconspicuously 5-angled, the 

prickles of the same longitudinal row 1 -4 cm. apart, coarse, 4-6 mm. long, 4-7 mm. thick along basal 

attachment 3. .W. himiuronala 

1. Mimosa pudica L. var. unijuga (Duchass. & Walp.) Griseb. in Abh. Konigl. Ges. 
Wiss. Gottingen 7: 211. 1857; Brenan in PL Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 47. 1959; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. \5\.fig. 40. 1979. 
Mimosa unijuga Duchass. & Walp. in Linnaea 23: 744. 1850. 

Mimosa pudica sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 436. 1862, Fl. Vit. 72. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pac. 159. 1890; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12:248. 1931; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 
59. 1943; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154:98. 1943; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 103. 
1948, in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 86. fig. 43. 1959; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 130. 1959; J. W. 
Parham. PI. Fiji Isl. 69. 1964, ed. 2. 107. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 
122. 1970; St. John & A. C. Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25:328. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. 
Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 48, 133, 142, 147. 1972; non sensu str. 

An abundantly naturalized weed in cultivated areas, along roadsides, in pastures, 
on waste land, and forming mats on the dry mud of river banks, at elevations up to 
about 500 m. It is a coarse herb or scrambling shrub, usually semiprostrate but 
occasionally shrubby, seldom more than 0.5 m. high, with pale pink to lavender 
filaments. Flowers and fruits occur throughout the year. 

TvpiFiCATiON AND NOMENCLATURE: The type of Mimosa pudica L. (Sp. PI. 518. 
1753) came from a plant (bm lectotype) cultivated in Hortus Cliffortianus; that of M. 
unijuga is Duchassaing (isolectotype at goet, fide Brenan, 1959, cited above), 
collected on Guadeloupe. Most of the Pacific material, including that of Fiji, appears 
to represent var. unijuga, but var. teirandra (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) DC. also 
occurs in some archipelagoes. 

Distribution: The species as a whole was probably originally South American, 
but it is now a pantropical weed, widespread in the Pacific, including Hawaii. Twenty- 
five Fijian specimens have been examined, but the taxon may be anticipated around 
every settlement. 

Local names: Tho ngandrongandro, tho kandrokandro (in La.\x), sensitive plant, 
sensitive grass. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 392: shores of Mba River near 
its mouth, Smiih 4750. Nandronga & Navosa: Near Ndumbulevu, upper Singatoka Valley, DA 1 1352. 
Seriia: Tokotoko, Navua, D.A 9456. Ra: Yanggara, Greenwood 392.4. Naitasiri: Koronivia, D.4 4047. 
Tailevu: Mbau road, near Kuku. DA /06/7,- Wainimbokasi, DA 10579. Rewa: Suva, DA 12267. VANUA 
LEVU: Mbi:a: Vicinity of Mbua, DA 5028. Thakaindrove; Mbalanga, Savusavu Bay, D.4 9107. 
TAVEUNl: Mt. Vernon Estate, DA 4048. VANUA MBALAVU: Near Ndelana, Lomaloma, DA 10223. 



62 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

LAKEMBA: Near Tumbou Jetty, Garnock-Jones 775. Fiji without further locality, Seemann 140. U. S: 
Expt. Exped. 

Although Mimosa pudica was estabhshed in Fiji before 1840, Seemann's (1865) 
suggestion that it might be indigenous is surely erroneous. 

2. Mimosa invisa Mart. exColla, Herb. Pedemont. 2:255. 1834; Verdcourt, Man. New 
Guinea Leg. 147. 1979. 

Key to varieties 
Plants with mature stems 5-angled, with copiously superposed prickles 2-4 per cm. on each angle, the 

prickles slender, 2-3 mm. long, abruptly narrowed from the longitudinally attached base, this I -4 mm. 

thick 2a. var. invisa 

Plants unarmed 2b. var. inermis 

2a. Mimosa invisa var. invisa; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 148. /;g. 38A, 39. 
1979. 
Mimosa invisa sensu B. E. V. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 13: 50. 1942; A. C. Sm. in Bull. Torrey Bot. 

Club 70: 540. 1 943; Greenwood in J. Arnold Arb. 25: 399. 1 944; Mune in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 24: 53. 

1953; Mune & J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 31: 28. % 6. 1957; J. W. Parham in op. cit. 35:85. 

fig. 42. 1959; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 45. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 69. 1964, ed. 2. 

107. 1972; Mune & J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 48: n.fig. 3. 1967; B. E. V. Parham in New 

Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 48. 1972. 
Schrankia dislachya sensu A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 36. 1942; non DC. 

The abundant form of Mimosa invisa is a spreading or sprawling shrub, forming 
dense, tangled masses up to 1.5 m. high in cultivated fields and pastures and on 
plantations. The filaments are pink and the seeds pale brown. It is usually seen sterile, 
but flowers have been obtained in Fiji in September and fruits in October. 

Typification: The type is Martius (Herh. Fl. Bras. 172) (isotype at k), from Brazil. 

Distribution: Tropical America, but now introduced and sometimes naturalized 
in other tropical areas. In the Pacific it has been noted at least from Java, New Guinea, 
the Mariana and Caroline Islands, and Samoa, as well as Fiji. 

Local names: Fijian names for the giant sensitive plant are wa ngandrongandro 
levu and wa ngandrongandro ni wa ngalelevu. The thorny form (var. invisa), far from 
being of any use, can form impenetrable thickets. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba; Vatualevu, Nandi, DA 9720: Lengalenga, near Nandi, 
Greenwood 838A (coll. D. A. Donald): Mba, DA 4044: Mba without further locality, DA L. 15628. 
Nandronga & Navosa: Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, Singatoka, Greenwood 838. Tailevu: Koro- 
vou, DA 4045. TAVEUNl: Mt. Vernon Estate, DA 8945. 

This aggressive weed was accidentally introduced from Malaya in 1936 with seeds 
of Centrosema and Calopogonium. It is a declared noxious weed in Fiji but is now 
largely under control; methods of control are detailed by Mune and Parham (1957, 
1967). 

2b. Mimosa invisa var. inermis Adelb. in Reinwardtia 2: 359. 1953; Verdcourt, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. 148. /Ig. 38B. 1979. 

The unarmed variety of Mimosa invisa was discovered in Java; it is widely 
cultivated as a cover crop and as such is obviously preferable to var. invisa. 

Typification: The variety is based on A. J. H. van Haaren s. n., Nov. 14, 1950, 
cultivated in experimental gardens at Bogor, Java. 

Available collection; VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 9563. 

This unarmed variant should probably be considered a cultivar rather than a 
botanical variety. Mune and Parham (1967, cited above) state: "A thornless strain 
developed overseas as a pasture legume has been abandoned because of its tendency to 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 63 

revert to the thorny type and because it was found to have some toxic properties." In 
Fiji this strain is now grouped with the typical variety as an undesirable noxious weed. 
In the Pacific it is also known from Hawaii and doubtless elsewhere. 

3. Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 198. 1891; J. W. Parham, PI. 
Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 107. 1972. 

Acacia himucronala DC. Prodr. 2: 469. 1825. 

Mimosa sepiaria Benth. in J. Bot. (Hooker) 4: 395. 1842; Ridley in Kew Bull, 1938: 280. 1938. 

As seen in Fiji, Mimosa bimucronata is naturalized on open land and along 
roadsides near sea level; it is a scrambling, copiously armed shrub 1-2 m. high (noted 
elsewhere as a small tree up to 8 m. high). The only available fertile specimen was 
flowering in September. 

Typification: The type of Acacia bimucronata is Raddi (Herb. Moricand, G 
holotype), from Brazil. For Mimosa sepiaria Bentham cited many collections, among 
which a lectotype should be designated. 

Distribution: Indigenous in Brazil, but naturalized elsewhere (at least in Jamaica 
and Guyana) in tropical America and also in Singapore, possibly the source of the 
Fijian introduction. Many varieties have been described by Hassler (in Repert. Sp. 
Nov. 9: 2. 1910), but Velva E. Rudd, who kindly verified the identification, puts little 
credence in them. 

Available collections: VITl LEVU: Mba: Uthiwai, Lautoka, DA //-//i.- Varoka. near Mba. DA 3158: 
Ndramasi, DA 9468. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Mbuthalevu Estate, near Lambasa, DA 16675. L.15585. 

Mimosa bimucronata was introduced into Singapore as a hedge and firewood 
plant (Ridley. 1938, cited above), and it has also been recorded from China and 
Malaya. The earliest available Fijian collection is DA i/5^ (coll. T. L. Mune. Sept. 13, 
1952). A more recent introduction was made in the Lambasa area from seeds brought 
from India in 1952 by a local merchant, who claimed that an outstanding chutney was 
made from the fruits. The plant is potentially a serious pest, quickly forming impene- 
trable thorny thickets; even when it is sterile, its stems and thorns permit its ready 
separation from M. invisa. as suggested by the above keys. 

6. LEUCAENABenth. inJ. Bot. (Hooker) 4:416. 1842; Seem. Fl. Vit. 72. 1865; Brenanin 
Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 48. 1959; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:281. 1964; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 154. 1979. 

Unarmed trees or shrubs, the stipules small, setaceous; leaves bipinnate, the petiole 
often glandular distally, the pinnae opposite, the leaflets few to many pairs, opposite, 
often small, inaequilateral at base; inflorescences capitate, pedunculate, axillary, 
solitary or subfasciculate, the distal ones racemiform, the bracts persistent, spathulate, 
the peduncle with an involucel; flowers 5-merous, § , sessile; calyx tubular or cam- 
panulate, short-dentate; petals free; stamens 10, exserted, the filaments free, the 
anthers often pilose (as in our species), eglandular; ovary stipitate, the ovules numer- 
ous, the style tip tubular or infundibular, pilose; fruits stipitate, linear to oblong, 
compressed, 2-valved, not septate, the valves thin, separating, not winged, the seeds 
tranverse, compressed, brown and glossy, the endosperm scanty. 

Type species: No typification has yet been indicated in ING (1979). 

Distribution: Tropical America, with 40-50 species. One widespread species is 
abundantly naturalized in Fiji. 

1. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit inTaxon 10:53. 1961; FosberginOccas. Pap. 
Bishop Mus. 23: 36. 1962; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 69. 1964, ed. 2. 106. 1972; 
Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 122. 1970; B. E. V. 



64 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 67, 121. 1972; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 154. fig. 42. 1979; Henty in Papua New Guinea 
Dept. Forests Bull. 12: 90. fig. 53. 1980. 
Mimosa glauca sensu L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1504. 1763; non M. glauca L. Sp. PI. 520. 1753 (= Acacia glauca 

Moench, Meth. PI. 466. 1794). 
Mimosa leucocephala Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 1: 12. 1783. 
Acacia glauca sensu Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 1075. 1806; excl. basionymo Mimosa glauca L. (1753) = Acacia 

glauca Moench (1794). 
Leucaena glauca (L. ex. Willd.) Benth. in J. Bot. (Hooker) 4: 4 16. 1842; Seem. inBonplandia9:255. 1861, 
Viti, 436. 1 862, Fl. Vit. 73. 1 865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 1 60. 1 890; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 
12: 248. 1931; W. L. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 9(1): 18. 1938; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 
58. 1943; Greenwood in J. Arnold Arb. 25:399. 1944; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 129. 1959; J. 
W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: S3, fig. 41. 1959; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 48. 
1959; excl. basionymo Mimosa glauca L. (1753). 

A shrub or slender, small tree 1-8 m. high, abundantly naturalized from near sea 
level to about 800 m. along roadsides, in cultivated areas and in pastures, on dry river 
banks or open gravel banks in forest, often forming dense thickets. The leaves usually 
have 3-10 pairs of pinnae, each with (5-) 7-17 (-21) pairs of leaflets 6-19 x 1.5-5 mm. 
The petals are pale green or white; the stamens have white filaments and pale yellow 
anthers; and the mature fruits are brown, 8-20 cm. long, ( 1 .4-) 1 .8-2.2 cm. broad, and 
with 18-25 brown, shiny seeds. Flowers and fruits are found throughout the year. 

Typification and nomenclature: The holotype is a specimen in the Lamarck 
herbarium (p), presumably taken from a plant growing in the Jardin du Roi. The 
binomial Mimosa glauca was used twice by Linnaeus, in 1753 and 1763, but his 
descriptions were not based on the same concept. The usage of 1753 is referable to 
Acacia glauca (L.) Moench. The usage of 1763, which was the actual basis of the 
binomials of Willdenow and Bentham, is referable to Leucaena, but the epithet glauca 
cannot be used for this concept because of the earlier 1753 basionym. The earliest 
available epithet is that of Lamarck, 1783. Discussions of this complex nomenclature 
have been many; the interested reader is referred to: de Wit in Taxon 10: 50-54. 1961; 
Gillis & Stearn in op. cit. 23: 1 85- 1 9 1 . 1 974; de Wit in op. cit. 24: 349-352. 1975; Polhill 
& Stearn in op. cit. 25: 323-325. 1976; Shaw & Schubert in J. Arnold Arb. 57: 1 13-118. 
1976. 

Distribution: Indigenous in tropical America but now worldwide in tropical 
areas. About 35 Fijian collections are at hand, but the species is becoming ubiquitous 
on Pacific islands. 

Local names and uses: Vaivai and vaivai ni vavalangi; balori (Hindi); in tropical 
America frequent names are lead tree and jumbie bean. In Fiji the species is considered 
useful as a low shade tree and a browse plant for stock, and in the Yasawas the roots are 
sometimes used to bleach hair. In most parts of the tropics Leucaena leucocephala was 
probably introduced as a browse plant, producing fodder rich in protein. However, the 
leaves and pods are considered poisonous to horses, causing them to lose hair; the 
effect of the plant on cattle and goats is less noticeable. The plants grow rapidly and 
produce wood useful for fuel. In some tropical countries strains have been developed 
that are promising sources of wood pulp for paper making. In many areas the species 
has become a notorious weed that replaces indigenous vegetation. It had been intro- 
duced before 1860 into Fiji, where Seemann found it in use as a hedge plant. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: Waya: Along Wailevu Creek, St. John 18079. VITI LEVU: 
Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 215: shores of Mba River near its mouth. Smith 4730: slopes of escarpment 
north of Nandarivatu, Smith 6041. Nandronga & Navosa: Navula, Valley road, DA 11324. Namosi: Hills 
east of Wainikoroiluva River, near Namuamua, Smith 9062: Lombau River, Damanu 44. Ra: Mountains 
near Penang, Greenwood 215A. Naitasiri: Koronivia, DA 11912. Tailevu: Matavatathou, DA 9947: 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 65 

Mbau Island, Seemann 141. RtWA; Suva, DA 12234. KANDAVU: Western end of island, near Cape 
Washington, Snnlh 252. KORO: Eastern slope of main ndge, Smilli 1027. VANUA LEVU: Mathhata: 
Between Nanduri and Lekutu, Toihiit 131a: Lambasa, D.A 10520. Thakaiadrove: Savusavu, DA 10759. 
TAVEUNI: Vicinity of Waiyevo. Gilles/ne 4691. VANUA MBALAVU: Site of Lomaloma Botanical 
Gardens, DA 10214. LAKEMBA: Near Wathiwathi Village, Ganwck-Jones 942. 

7. ScHLEiNiTZiA Warb. ex Guinet in Inst. Fran?. Pondichery Trav. Sci. Tech. 9: 33. 
1969; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 32: 231. 1977; Nevling & Niezgodain Adansonia II. 
18: 356. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 157. 1979. 
Schleitiiiziu Warb. in Bol. Jahrb. 13:336, nom. invalid. 1891; Warb. ex Harms in Bot. Jahrb. 55:39, nom. 
provis. 1917. 

Unarmed trees or shrubs; leaves bipinnate, with glands on petiole and rachis and 
with 4-30 pairs of pinnae, the leaflets opposite, minute, obliquely rounded at base, 
20-60 pairs per pinna; inflorescences capitate, pedunculate, axillary, solitary or fasci- 
culate, the bracts persistent, spathulate, the peduncle with an involucel; flowers 5- 
inerous, $ or a few functionally d": calyx infundibular, short-dentate; petals free, 
oblanceolate, longer than calyx; stamens 10, exserted, the filaments free or proximally 
loosely connate, the anthers with small, stalked, apical glands; ovary short-stipitate, 
the stigma minute, cupuliform; fruits oblong to broadly linear, straight or slightly 
curved, flat, indehiscent, the valves narrowly winged, splitting at edges but not separat- 
ing over seed-chambers, the seeds 8-20, oblong, compressed, with endosperm. 

Type species: Schleinitzia novo-guineensis (Warb.) Verdcourt (Piptadenia novo- 
guineensis Warb.; Schleinitzia microphylla Warb., nom. invalid.). 

Distribution: Philippine Islands and New Guinea to New Caledonia and the 
Mariana Islands and eastward to the Society and Austral Islands, with four species. 
One species is indigenous in Fiji. 

Useful treatment of genus: Nevling, L. I., & C. J. Niezgoda. On the genus Schleinitzia 
(Leguminosae-Mimosoideae). Adansonia II. 18: 345-363. 1978. 

The first valid publication of Schleinitzia has been a subject of discussion. After 
describing it in 1891, Warburg in the same paper (p. 453) treated the name as a 
synonym of Piptadenia. thereby rendering it invalid (ICBN, Art. 34. 1 (a) ). Verdcourt 
in 1977 ascribed valid publication to Harms ( 1917), but Harms's use of the name seems 
definitely provisional (ICBN, Art. 34.1 (b)), as indicated by Nevling and Niezgoda 
(1978), who have accepted Guinet's 1969 usage as first validating the genus. The 
publication of Warburg in 1 89 1 and the type species S. microphylla have been listed by 
ING (1979), but this seems incorrect. 

1. Schleinitzia insuiarum(Guillemin) Burkart in J. Arnold Arb. 57:524. 1976; Nevling 
& Niezgoda in Adansonia II. 18: 359. pi. 1 (4-6). 3 (3. 4). 4 (A), fig. 5. 1978. 

Figures 15 & 16. 

Mimosa glandulusa Solander ex Forst. f. Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 92, nom. nud. 1786. 
Acacia insutarum Guillemin in Ann. Sci. Nat. 11. 7: 360. 1837 (repr. Zephyr. Tait. 66. 1838). 
Leucaena fursleri Benth. in London J. Bot. 5:94, nom. illeg. 1846; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:477. 

1854; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti,436. 1862, Fl. Vit. 72. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 

160. 1890. 
Leucaena insularum Daniker in Viert. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 77 (Beibl. 19): 176. 1932; Yuncker in Bishop 

Mus. Bull. 178: 59. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 130. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 69. 1964, ed. 2. 106. 1972. 
Prusopis insularum Breteler in Acta Bot. Neerl. 9: 398. 1960. 

Prusupis insularum subsp. insularum: Breteler in Acta Bot. Neerl. 9: ^9%. fig. I. I960. 
Leucaena insularum var. insularum: Fosberg & Stone m Micronesica 2: 67, 1965; Sykes in New Zealand 

Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 121. 1970. 

As seen in Fiji, Schleinitzia insularum is a shrub or spreading tree 4-6 m. high, 
found near sea level along sandy beaches; elsewhere it has been noted as 2-15 m. high 
and with a trunk up to 45 cm. in diameter. Its leaves usually have (7-) 9-13 pairs of 



66 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 



pinnae, each with 25-35 pairs of leaflets 5.5-10 x 1-2.5 mm. The petals and filaments 
are white, and the fruits, dark brown to black at maturity, are 5.5-11.8 cm. long. 




Figure 15. Schteinit:ia insularum: A, distal portion of branchlet with foliage, " 1/3; B, flowering head 
before anthesis, x 10; C, mature fruits, ^ 1/2; D, ostiolate gland on rachis between pinnae, ^ 30. A&Dfrom 
Bryan 350, B & C from Bryan 479. 



1985 



MIMOSACEAE 



67 



1.2-1.9 cm. broad, and with 8-15 seeds. Our few dated specimens have flowers in 
August, fruits in July and August. 

Lectotypification and nomenclature: Nevling and Niezgoda (1978) designate 
Beriero & Moerenhout (p lectotype), collected on Tahiti in 1830 or 1831, as the type 
oi Acacia insularum. Guillemin's original citation oi "Lesson, Beriero, Moerenhout" 
apparently included a collection made by Lesson during the earlier voyage oi L' Astro- 
labe. Mimosa glandulosa is a name probably taken from a specimen obtained on 
Cook's first voyage. Leucaena forsteri is illegitimate because Bentham cited Acacia 
insularum as a synonym. 

Distribution: Southern New Hebrides and New Caledonia eastward to the 
Society and Austral Islands. In Fiji the species seems neither common nor well known. 

Local name: Vaivai ni papalangi (recorded from Vanua Mbalavu). The wood is 
said to be used for handicrafts in Tonga, but no Fijian usage has been recorded. 

Available collections: VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Islands off coast. Greenwood 684. Thakau- 
ndrove: Maravu Estate, Degener & Ordone: 14179. TAVEUNI: Seemann 142. TOTOYA; Bryan 350: on 
bank near lagoon, rof/ji// /iO; beach opposite Tovu Village, D.4 17705. VANUA MBALAVU; NearSawana 
Village, Garnock-Jones 1074. MOTHE: Bryan 479. Fiji without further locality, V. S. Expl. Exped. 




Figure 16. Schlemitzia insularum. from Bryan 479: A, llower, showing subtending bracteole (b), calyx 
(c), petal (p), ovary (o), and exserted style and stamens, some anthers fallen, » 20; B, distal portion of 
filament and anther with apical gland, " 70. 



8. Desmanthus Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 1044. 1806; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:281. 1964; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 143. 1979. Nom. cons. 
Shrubs or perennial herbs, the stipules subulate, persistent; leaves bipinnate, often 
with a petiolar gland, the leaflets small, opposite; inflorescences a.xillary, solitary, 
stalked, capitate or short-spicate; flowers § (lower ones neuter or d and sometimes 
lacking petals but with staminodes), sessile, 5-merous; caly.x campanulate, short- 
dentate; petals free or shghtly coherent at base; stamens 5 or 10, exserted, the filaments 



68 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

free, the anthers eglandular; ovary subsessile, the ovules numerous, the style tip 
tubular; fruits subsessile, linear, straight or falcate, flattened, 2-valved, the seeds 
longitudinal or obhque, ovoid, compressed. 

Type species: Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd. {Mimosa virgata L.). 
Distribution: Tropical and subtropical America, with about 25 species; one 
widely naturalized species occurs in Fiji. 

1. Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 1047. 1806; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. 
Soc. 154: 93. 1943, in J. Arnold Arb. 30: 76. 1949; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 69. 
1964, ed. 2. 106. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 143.//^. 36. 1979. 

Mimosa virgata L. Sp. PI. 519. 1753. 

As noted in Fiji, Desmanthus virgatus is a woody herb or low shrub 0.5-2 m. high, 
perhaps originally introduced for cultivation but now sparingly naturalized along 
shores and in waste places near sea level. Its leaves have 3-8 pairs of pinnae, each with 
1 0-25 pairs of leaflets up to 9 x 2 mm. The flowers, in small heads of 6- 1 0, have white 
petals and filaments. The narrow fruits at maturity are reddish brown, up to 10 cm. 
long and 4 mm. broad, with 20-30 brown seeds. 

Typification: Linnaeus noted prior references to his Hortus Cliffortianus, Hortus 
Upsaliensis, and Flora Zeylanica. 

Distribution: Indigenous in tropical America, but now widely naturalized else- 
where. The date of introduction into Fiji is not known, but the species may have been in 
cultivation at the Botanical Gardens on Vanua Mbalavu. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Near Lautoka, Greenwood 1 184. Nandronga & Navosa: 
Experimental Farm, Singatoka (cultivated), DA 4043. Naitasiri: Koronivia, DA 4042. OVALAU: Vuma, 
DA 17038. VANUA MBALAVU: Botanical Gardens, Lomaloma, Tothill 135: Lomaloma, DA 10221, 
L. 15791. 

9. Acacia Mill. Gard. Diet. Abridg. ed. 4. 1754; Seem. Fl. Vit. 73. 1865; Brenan in Fl. 
Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 49. 1959; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 280. 1964; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 159. 1979. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes scrambling or climbing, often prickly or spiny, the 
stipules sometimes spinescent; leaves bipinnate, often with petiolar glands and small 
pinnae in numerous pairs or completely modified into phyllodes of petiolar origin (as 
in all our indigenous species) but sometimes pinnate or bipinnate in seedlings; inflores- 
cences spicate or capitate, pedunculate, bracteate, axillary, solitary or fasciculate, or 
the distal ones racemiform or paniculiform; flowers small, usually 4- or 5-merous, § 
or cT and ? ; calyx campanulate, dentate or lobed (or sepals rarely free); corolla with as 
many lobes as calyx, these shorter than the tube; stamens numerous (30-200 or more), 
exserted, the filaments free or connate only at base, the anthers with or without a 
gland; ovary sessile or stipitate, the ovules usually many; fruits ovoid to linear, straight, 
curved, or variously contorted, flat to terete, membranaceous to woody, 2-valved or 
indehiscent, rarely articulated or moniliform, the seeds longitudinal or transverse, 
compressed, with a filiform funicle or fleshy aril, the testa hard. 

Lectotype species: Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile (Mimosa nilotica L.) (vide Britton & 
Rose in N. Amer. Fl. 23: 85. 1928). 

Distribution: Tropics and subtropics, especially of Africa and Australia, with 
about 1,200 species. The genus yields many valuable products, such as timber, gum 
arable, bark used in tanning, and ornamentals. 

Useful treatments of genus: Pedley, L. Revision of the extra-Australian species oi Acacia subgen. 
Heterophvllum. Contr. Queensland Herb. 18: 1-24. 1975. Pedley, L. A revision of Acacia Mill, in 
Queensland. Austrobaileya 1: 75-234. 1978, 235-337. 1979. 

The large genus Acacia is represented in Fiji by three or four cultivated species, at 
least one noxious adventive, and three indigenous species, two of which are endemic. 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 69 

Key to species 

Plants with bipinnate leaves only, never with phyllodes; flowers in heads or spikes; cultivated and or 

naturalized (subgen. Acacia). 

Stipules conspicuously spiny, the spines straight, 4-30 mm. long; petioles 0.7-2 (-3) cm. long, with a gland 

near middle, the rachis sometimes with a gland between pinnae; pinnae ( 1-) 2-5 pairs. 1-4 cm. long, 

the leaflets 8-25 pairs, usually 3-6 « 1-1.5 mm.; flowers in globose heads, the peduncles 1-3 in axils 

and 1-3 cm. long; fruits subterete. curved, 5-7 cm. long, 8- 1 5 mm. in diameter; originally cultivated 

but now widely naturalized 1. .4. farnesiana 

Stipules inconspicuous, lanceolate, caducous; petioles usually 3-5 cm. long, eglandular (like rachis); 
pinnae (2-) 5or 6 (-10) pairs. 4-7 cm. long, the leaflets (6-) 1 0-25 (-30) pairs, usually 5-7 « 1.5-3 mm.; 
flowers in short spikes, these axillary or forming a small terminal panicle, the peduncles 4- 10 (-15) 
mm. long, the rachis 4- 10 mm. long; fruits flattened. 3.5-8 cm. long, 8-15 mm. broad; cultivated only. 

2. A. curassavica 

Mature plants with phyllodes only (pinnate and bipmnate leaves found only on seedlings or on "reversion" 

shoots of old plants); indigenous or cultivated (subgen. Helerophyllum). 

Flowers in spikes 5-8 cm. long; fruits up to 10 cm. long, 6-8 mm. broad; branchlets glabrous; phyllodes 

6-9 times as long as broad, 9-17 (-23) cm. long, ( 1 3-) 16-23 (-25) mm. broad, with 2-4 prominent 

longitudinal secondary nerves with many fine anastomomosing longitudinal secondary nerves (4 or 5 

per mm.) between them; cultivated (sect. Juhjlorae) 3. A. pulyslachya 

Flowers in heads; phyllodes with several-many longitudinal nerves, some of them often more prominent 

than others; indigenous or cultivated (sect. Plurinerves). 

Branchlets densely appressed-pilose, the indument caducous in patches; phyllodes usually 9-20times as 

long as broad, 5-10 (-14) cm. long, 4-8 (-9) mm. broad, with 1-3 longitudinal nerves more 

prominent than others; flowering heads of 14-20 flowers in 2-4-branched axillary racemes; fruits 

4-8 cm. long, 8-18 mm. broad, with a wing about 3 mm. broad along upper margin; cultivated. 

4. .-1. pemlula 
Branchlets glabrous; phyllodes 1 .4-9 times as long as broad, with 5-many equally prominent longitudi- 
nal nerves; flowering heads on a short axis 1-4 mm. long or appearing 1-8 and axillary, the 
peduncles glabrous; fruits up to 14 cm. long, narrowly winged on both margins, the wings not more 
than 0.5 mm. broad; indigenous. 
Phyllodes 1.4-2.4 times as long as broad, 3.5-12.5 cm. long, 13-85 mm. broad, with 5-14 prominent 
longitudinal nerves with less prominent longitudinal nerves and reticulations between them; 
flowering heads of 25-45 flowers, the peduncles 2- 1 3 mm. long; fruits 5- 1 4 cm. long, 8- 1 3 mm. 
broad (not known for A. malhualaensis). 
Flowering heads of 25-30 flowers, the peduncles 5-13 mm. long; calyx irregularly divided into 
somewhat linear, subspathulate lobes; phyllodes 5- 12.5 cm. long. 25-85 mm. broad, with 5-14 
prominent longitudinal nerves 3-9 mm. apart and with irregular longitudinally oriented 
reticulations between them; fruits constricted between seeds, the valves obscurely or bluntly 

reticulate-veined; plant of the seashore and littoral forests 5. A. simplex 

Flowering heads of 35-45 flowers, the peduncles 2-6 (-7) mm. long; calyx with broad, subacute 
lobes; phyllodes 3.5-5 cm. long. 13-25 mm. broad, with 8-14 prominent longitudinal nerves 
0.5-2 mm. apart and with a single less prominent longitudinal nerve and reticulate venation 

between them; plant of interior crest thickets 6. A. malhualaensis 

Phyllodes 4-9 times as long as broad. 5-8.5 cm. long. 7-19 mm. broad, with 7-14 prominent 
longitudinal nerves 0.5-1 mm. apart and with a single less prominent longitudinal nerve and 
faint reticulations between them; flowering heads of 1 0-20 flowers, the peduncles 4-8 mm. long; 
calyx obtusely dentate; fruits (3-) 6-10 cm. long, 12-25 mm. broad, not (or very slightly) 
constricted between seeds, the valves thin, conspicuously reticulate-veined; plant of interior 
forests or open hillsides 7. A. richii 

1. Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 1083. 1806; Seem. Fl. Vit. 74. 1865; 
Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943; A. C. Sm. in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 
70: 540. 1943; Mune & Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 28:24.//>. 1957, in Dept. 
Agr. Fiji Bull. 31: 30./;,?. 7. 1957; Brenanin Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. \\\.fig. 
16 (38). 1959; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: ^l.fig. 44. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 
68. 1964, ed. 2. 103. 1972; Mune & Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 48: \A. fig. 2. 
1967; Pedley in Austrobaileya 1: 308. 1979; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
168. 1979. 
Mimosa farnesiana L. Sp. PI. 521. 1753. 
Vachellia farnesiana Wight & Arn. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 272. 1834. 



70 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

As it is seen in Fiji, ^rac/a/i3r«e5;a«a is a freely branched shrub or tree 1-6 m. high, 
naturalized near sea level along roadsides, in cultivated areas and pastures, and on 
beaches and dry river banks. The trunk and branches bear copious spines. The fragrant 
flowers have the corolla and stamens golden-yellow, and the fruits are dark brown to 
black, with chestnut-brown seeds. Flowers and fruits seem to occur throughout the 
year. 

Typification: Although this remains uncertain, the species is based primarily on 
L. Hort. Upsal. 146. 1748 (fide Brenan, 1959, cited above). 

Distribution: Tropical America, but now widely naturalized throughout the 
tropics. In Fiji it is known definitely only from Viti Levu. 

Local names and uses: Recorded Fijian names are vaivai vakavotona and oki; 
otherwise known as Ellington curse and ban baburi (Hindi). Acacia farnesiana is 
widely cultivated throughout the tropics for the pleasant fragrance of its flowers, often 
being known as cassie. Cassie perfume is obtained from the flowers, a small industry in 
making this perfume being centered in southern France. Other uses are detailed by 
Burkill (Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. ed. 2. 20-22. 1966). It had been introduced 
before 1860 into Fiji for its flowers, but Seemann preserved no specimen of it. 
Unfortunately the species readily escapes from cultivation and becomes a serious pest; 
it is a "declared noxious weed" in Fiji. Methods for its control are detailed by Mune 
and Parham (1957, 1967, cited above). 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Grff^wooi/Ji.'Nandi, Greenwood 33A:s\ioTtsoi 
Mba River near its mouth, Smith 4728: Namosau Government Station, Mba, DA 18853: Toko Tavua, DA 
9482. Ra: Rambulu, DA 10444; Ellington, Parks 20856. DA 7896. 10752; Viti Levu Bay, Vaughan 3436. 
Tailevu: Queen Victoria School, DA 14528. Fiji without further locality, DA 9003. 

2. Acacia curassavica (Britton & Killip) Stehle in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) II. 18: 
191. 1946; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 102. 1972. 
Acacielia curassavica Britton & KiUip in J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 24: 47. 1934. 

As cultivated in Fiji, /I cac/fl cwrciiav/ca is an unarmed shrub or small tree 1.5-6 m. 
high, growing near sea level. The corolla and filaments are white, and the fruits are 
brown, with 5-8 seeds 3-5 ^ 3 mm. The collections seen bore fruits in July, August, and 
November, and flowers in the same months as well as in April. 

Typification: The type of Acacielia curassavica is Britton & Shafer 2943 (ny 
holotype; isotype at us), collected March 20-27, 1913, near Willemstad, Curasao. 

Distribution: Curasao, Bonaire, and some of the Lesser Antilles as far north as 
Guadeloupe. 

Use: The species was introduced into Fiji as a possible cocoa or coffee shade and is 
grown experimentally for that purpose; there is no indication that it has been put into 
practical use. One of the cited collections, DA 10795, bears the notation: "Brought into 
the Colony from Caracas or Curasao in 1 950 as FDA 1 3023." One may assume that the 
introduction was from Curasao, since the material seems identical with type material 
of the species. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 8486: Mothimothi, Nanduruloulou, DA 10795; Nanduruloulou, DA 11051: Principal Agri- 
cultural Station, Koronivia, DA 12134. 

Acacia curassavica is here retained in the sense of Stoffers (Fl. Netherlands Antilles 
3: 20. 1973) as distinct from A. glauca (L.) Moench (including A. villosa (Sw.) Willd.) 
as interpreted by de Wit (in Taxon 10:53. 1961 ; Shaw & Schubert in J. Arnold Arb. 57: 
1 1 3. 1976), the latter species presumably having a distribution of Central America and 
Jamaica. To the contrary, Gooding et al. (Fl. Barbados, 185. 1965) and Adams (Fl. PI. 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 71 

Jamaica, 336. 1972) maintain A. villosa as a Jamaican endemic and assign the more 
easterly taxon to A. glauca. to which they would reduce A. curassavica. As the type 
specimen oi A. glauca was described by de Wit, it clearly differs from A. curassavica in 
its broader fruits as well as in its pubescent branchlets and leaves. It would therefore 
seem that A. curassavica %\\ou\d not be synonymized with /I. glauca, regardless of one's 
interpretation of the limits of A. villosa. 

3. Acacia polystachya A. Cunn. ex Benth. in London J. Bot. 1: 376. 1842; J. W. 

Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 104. 1972; Pedley in Austrobaileya 1: 173. 1978. 

As seen in Fiji, Acacia polystachya is sparingly cultivated near sea level as a tree 
about 1 1 m. high (up to 25 m. high where indigenous); its corolla and stamens are 
yellow. Flowers have been obtained in February and April, fruits only in April. 

Typification: The type is Cunningham (k lectotype designated by Pedley), 
collected in 1820 on Haggerstone Island (east coast of York Peninsula), Queensland, 
Australia. Bentham's original citation was "Endeavour River and Cape Flinders, 
North Coast." 

Distribution: Queensland, occurring from Cairns north to Banks Island in Torres 
Strait and the Palm Islands, and apparently sparingly cultivated elsewhere. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Koronivia Research Station, DA 11565. Fui without 
further locahty, Wilder. Feb. 20, 1935 (bish). 

4. Acacia pendula A. Cunn. ex G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. PI. 2: 404. 1832; B. E. V. 

Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 10: 113. 1939; Pedley in Austrobaileya 1: 197. 
1978. 

Typification: The type is Cunningham (k lectotype; isolectotype at bm, fide 
Pedley, 1 978), collected in 1817 along the Lachlan River, New South Wales, Australia. 

Distribution: Australia from central Queensland southward into New South 
Wales, and presumably cultivated elsewhere. 

Local names and use: Acacia pendula. known as myall in Queensland and as 
boree in New South Wales, is an attractive tree up to 12 m. high where indigenous, with 
pendulous branches and silvery foliage; it would be a desirable ornamental if it could 
be established. 

No vouchers from Fiji are available, but Parham (cited above) states that the 
species had been introduced into Fiji in 1921 and that in 1939 only one or two trees 
remained and were not doing well. It may not have survived in Fiji, but Parham's 
identification of this well-known Australian tree is probably correct. 

5. Acacia simplex (Sparrman) Pedley in Contr. Queensland Herb. 18: 10. 1975. 

Figure 17A& B. 

Mimosa simplex Sparrman In Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. 3: 195. 1780. 

Mimosa simplicifolia L. f. Suppl. PI. 436, nom. illeg. 1782. 

Mimosa mangium Forst. f. Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 75, nom. lUeg. 1786. 

Acacia laurifolia^\M. Sp. PI. 4: 1053, nom. lUeg. 1806; Benth. in London J. Bot. 2: 218. 1843; A. Gray. 
Bot. U.S.Expl. Exped. 1:482. 1854; Seem, in Bonplandia9:255. 1861, Viti, 436. 1862, FL Vit. 73. 1865; 
Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 160. 1890. 

Acacia simplicifolia Druce in Bot. Soc. Exch. Club Bnt. Isles 4: 602. nom. illeg. 1917; Guillaumin in J. 
Arnold Arb. 12:248. 1931; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128:98. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit. 220: 
129. 1959; J. W. Parham, PL Fiji Isl. 68. 1964, ed. 2. 104.//,i;. 3 J- 1972; St. John & A, C. Sm. in Pacific 
Sci. 25: 327. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 124. 1972. 

In Fiji Acacia simplex is an often spreading tree 3-12 m. high, with angular 
branchlets, frequently abundant along sandy beaches and on the inner edges of 
mangrove swamps; it is never found far from the sea. Its fragrant flowers have yellow 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 




Figure 17. A & B, Acacia simplex; A, phyllode and fruit, =< 1; B, detail of phyllode surface, x 10. C, 
Acacia malhuataensis: detail of phyllode surface, x 10. D & E, Acacia richii: D, detail of phyllode surface, x 
10; E, phyllodes, mature inflorescence, and fruit, x 1 . A, phyllode from Bryan 363, fruit from Bryan 287, B 
from Smiih 1458, C from Smiih 6521. D from DF 258, E, phyllodes and mflorescence from DF258. fruit 
from Smith 4519. 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 73 

corollas and stamens; the fruit is brown, with longitudinally arranged seeds about 6.5 ^ 
4.5 mm. Flowers and fruits have been obtained in months between December and 
August. 

Typification: The type is J. R. &. G. Forster (bm holotype, fide Pedley, 1975), 
collected during the second Cook voyage on Tanna, New Hebrides. Pedley questions 
whether or not the p specimen is an isotype; since other Forster collections may exist 
elsewhere, 1 believe that the bm specimen is better designated the lectotype. The same 
type collection is involved for Mimosa simplici folia, M. mangiuni, and Acacia laurifo- 
lia. all of which are therefore illegitimate names (ICBN, Art. 63.2). 

Distribution: New Caledonia and the New Hebrides eastward to Tonga and 
Samoa, and presumably sparingly introduced into the Santa Cruz Islands. About 30 
Fijian collections are at hand, but the species is to be expected along most beaches. 

Local names and uses: This species, well known to Fijians, is usually called 
tatanggia or tatangia. Its hard wood is used for axe handles and other small carpentry 
items. The leaves (phyllodes), according to Seemann, were used as spoons (ai taki). and 
therefore Seemann thought the local name more accurately to be tatakia. 

Represfntative collections: VITl LEVU: Mba: Saweni Beach, DA 13787. Nandronga & Navosa: 
Thuvu, Greenwood 275. Tailevt: Naingani Island. DA 3327. Rewa; Nukulau Island, Barclay 344 1 (bm) or 
s. n. (K), Hinds (k). MBENGGA: Ndakuni, DA 2073. OVALAU: Tolhil/ 132. MOTURIKI: Seemann 143. 
VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: Maravu, near Salt Lake, Degener & Ordonez 14057. RAMBI: DA 4041. 
TAVEUNI: Opposite Waitavala Estate, DA 16901. MATUKU: Bryan 287. TOTOYA: Bryan 363. 
YATHATA: Naveranavula, DA 15549. VANUA MBALAVU: Southern limestone section. Smith 1458. 
KATAFANGA: DA 4039. NAYAU: Tolhill 132c. LAKEMBA: Near Tumbou Jetty, Garnock-Jones 783. 
KOMO: Bryan 495. FULANGA: On limestone formation. Smith 1188. Fiji without further locality, U. S. 
Expl. Exped. 

6. Acacia mathuataensis A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 31: 165. 1950; J. W. Parham, PI. 

Fijilsl. 68. 1964, ed. 2. 104. 1972; Pedley in Contr. Queensland Herb. 18: 11. 1975. 

Figures 17C, 18. 

A spreading tree to 6 m. high, apparently rare in dense crest thickets at an elevation 
of 500-590 m. The corolla and stamens are bright yellow. 

Typification: The type is Smith 6521 (a holotype; many isotypes), collected in 
flower Nov. 6, 1947, on the summit ridge of Mt. Numbuiloa, east of Lambasa, 
Mathuata Province, Vanua Levu. 

Distribution: Known only from the type collection. 

Local name: Tatanggia. 

Although it is known only from a single collection. Acacia mathuataensis seems 
very distinct from its only relative in the area, A. simplex, in the shape, size, and 
nervation of its phyllodes and in characters of its inflorescences and calyx. It is 
accepted as a distinct species by Pedley, although he considers it closer to A. simplex 
than seems to be the case. 

7. Acacia richii A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:482. 1854, Atlas, p/. 53, B. 1856; 

Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255, as A. ritchei. 1861, Viti, 436. 1862, Fl. Vit, 73. 1865; 

Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 161. 1890; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 68. 1964, ed. 2. 

104. 1972; Pedley in Contr. Queensland Herb. 18: 12. 1975. Figure 17D&E. 

An often freely branched tree 6-25 m. high, occurring at elevations of 1 00-900 m. in 

dense forest or in forest patches in open country, in the forests of crests and ridges, and 

on open hillsides. The corolla and filaments are pale yellow. Flowers and fruits have 

been obtained between May and December. 



74 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 MIMOSACEAE 75 

Lectotypification: Gray cited Exploring Expedition material as "common in 
barrens, at Sandalwood Bay. Vanua-levu, and Naloa." The first locality is Mbua Bay, 
Mbua Province, Vanua Levu; the second, doubtless Ngaloa, may refer to Ngaloa Bay 
on Kandavu, certainly visited by the Expedition, although no subsequent material has 
been noted from Kandavu. A precise locality therefore cannot be indicated for U. S. 
E.xpl. Exped. (us 47662 lectotype); specimens at gh, k, and ? are not necessarily 
isolectotypes. The specimen here indicated as lectotype is fairly complete; a second 
specimen at us (47663) is a sterile branch with comparatively small phyllodes. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and known with certainty only from the two largest 
islands. 

Local names and uses: The usual Fijian name is nggumu, but also noted are 
tumhonu. loaloa, and lolo (the last certainly erroneous and probably to be transcribed 
loaloa). The hard wood is valued as timber; a black dye (also called nggumu. ~ paint) 
produced by the plant was in earlier times used for blackening the face on special 
occasions. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Upper Namosi Creek, near Tumbenasolo. Greenwood 
! 193: northern slopes of Mt. Namendre.east of Mt. Koromba, Sniiih4SI9. Nandronga& Navosa: Vicinity 
of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, Degener 15239. Serua: Inland from Yarawa, DF 1068 (S1559I3). 1069 
(SI559I4). 1070 (SI 5591 5). Berry J 15: inland from Ngaloa, DF 1032 (51559/2): Taunovo River, DF258 
(Nasoqiri 13): Serua without further locality, DA 5526. Naitasiri: Naivuthini, D.A 2332. Viti Levi' without 
further locality, Seemann s. n. (K), Graeffe 19 (bm), i. n. (K), Home s. n. (K). VANUA LEVU: Mathliata: 
Small hill near Ndreketi River, Mead 2009: \\cm\ly of Nanduri. Tolhi/1452: Seanggangga Plateau, vicinity 
of Natua, Stniih 6901. DA 12847: Naravuka, Ndreketi River, Df/OiO ('5/555'/ /;.Tandrandave, DA 12949. 
Thakaundrove: Eastern drainage of Yanawai River, Degener & Ordonez 14078. Fiji without further 
locality, Seemann 144 (some sheets 145 err.). Home 1 105 (k), i. n. (gh). 

This very sharply characterized Fijian endemic seems distantly related only to the 
Australian Acacia excelsa Benth. and to A. confusa Merr., of Taiwan and the Philip- 
pines. 

8. Acacia sp. Greenwood in J. Arnold Arb. 30: 76. 1949. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Mb^: Near Varoka. vicinity of Mba, Greenwood 1182. 
Of this unidentified specimen of subgenus Acacia Greenwood wrote: "This is 
apparently a recent arrival in the Colony and, as far as I know, occurs only at this one 
locality, where efforts are being made to eradicate it before it spreads. It grows to 12 
feet high and is armed with strong spines." 

9. Acacia sp. 

Available collection: VANUA LEVU: Mathiata: Seanggangga Agricultural Station, in cocoa plan- 
tation, DA 12283. 

I am unable to place this sterile material of subgenus Heterophyllum, from a tree 
6-8 m. high recorded as tatanggia, which represents neither ,4rar/apo/v.?/ar/7i'anor/l. 
pendula. It was perhaps being experimentally grown as a possible cocoa shade. 

10. Albizia Durazz. in Mag. Tosc. 3 (4): 11. 1772; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 

Mimos. 136. 1959; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl, PI. 1: 294. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New 
Guinea Leg. 176. 1979. 

Figure 18. Acacia mathuaiaensis. from Smith 6521: A, distal portions of branchlets, with foliage and 
inflorescences, x 1/2; B, flowering head before anthesis, x 1 5; C, flower, showing caly.x, corolla, and exserted 
stamens (most anthers fallen) and style, " 30; D, flower-subtending bracteole, x 70. 



76 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Albizzia Durazz. ex Benth. in London J. Bot. 3: 84. 1844. Orth. var. 
Pilhecolobium sect. Samanea Benth. in London J. Bot. 3: 197. 1844. 

SamaneaMeu. in J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 6:46. 1916; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:294. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. 206. 1979. 

Armed or unarmed trees and shrubs, rarely lianas (none of ours), the stipules 
setaceous or lanceolate, rarely larger and membranaceous, caducous; leaves bipinnate, 
with glands on petioles and rachises, the leaflets (1-) few or many pairs, opposite; 
inflorescences capitate or spicate, pedunculate, solitary or subfasciculate or corym- 
bose, axillary or the distal ones paniculiform; flowers often 5-merous (infrequently 
4-7-merous), § or d" and ? , those of the same part-inflorescence heteromorphic or 
uniform; calyx dentate or short-lobed; corolla infundibular or campanulate, the lobes 
often connate to middle or beyond; stamens numerous (usually 19-50), usually long- 
exserted, the filaments proximally connate into a slender tube, the anthers small, 
eglandular; ovary sessile, the ovules numerous; fruits oblong, straight or slightly 
curved, flattened, dehiscent or not, segmented or not, the valves thin to thick and 
subligneous, neither elastic nor twisted, sometimes contracted between basal seeds, the 
seeds ovoid or orbicular, uniserially arranged, transverse, compressed, without an aril, 
the testa thick. 

Type species and nomenclature: Albizia is typified by A. julibrissin Durazz., 
Samanea by 5. saman (Jacq.) Merr. {Mimosa saman Jacq.). Albizia is here construed 
in the comprehensive sense utilized by Nielsen (in Adv. Leg. Syst. 180. 1981), with 
some regret in that it means giving up the well-known and euphonius name Samanea 
saman for the beautiful rain tree. The spelling Albizzia is often used, but Durazzini's 
latinization of Albizzi's name was intentional and must be preserved (ICBN, Art. 73.7); 
in the citations under species below the two spellings have not been differentiated. 

Distribution: Tropics and subtropics, with about 150 species, many of which are 
cultivated as ornamentals and timber trees. Five species occur in Fiji, all of them 
introduced in cultivation and to a certain extent naturalized. 

Key to species 

Fruits dehiscent along both sutures (at least tardily so), thin, flat (or swollen over seeds), without pulp, not 

septate, the valves satiny white within; calyx not more than 5 mm. long; corolla not more than 9 mm. 

long, white to greenish yellow; filaments white to pale green or pale yellow. 

Flowers in spikes 1-2.5 cm. long; calyx 1-2.5 mm. long; corolla 3-7 mm. long; filaments 10- 17 mm. long; 

fruits 9-12 cm. long, 1.2-2.5 cm. broad, with a narrow wing along ventral suture; leaf rachis and 

petiole ferrugineous-tomentellous or -puberulent, the leaves with (4-) 8-20 pairs of pinnae, the 

leaflets in (10-) 15-26 pairs, small, usually 8-15 x 3-6 mm 1. A. falcataria 

Flowers in heads; leaf rachis and petiole glabrous or sparsely pilose, the pinnae not more than 8 pairs, the 
leaflets not more than 12 pairs and at least 15x6 mm. 
Leaves with 1 or 2 pairs of pinnae, the leaflets in 2-4 pairs, comparatively large, (2-) 5-15 " (1-) 3.5-7.5 
cm.; flowers comparatively small, the calyx about 1.7 mm. long, the corolla 5-6 mm. long, the 

filaments about 15 mm. long; fruits 7-18 cm. long, 2.5-3 cm. broad 2. A. saponaria 

Leaves with more numerous pinnae (only rarely 1 or 2 pairs), the leaflets seldom as few as 3 pairs, 
usually smaller than 6x3 cm.; flowers comparatively large. 
Fruits (12-) 15-33 cm. long, 2.5-6.5 cm. broad; calyx 2-5 mm. long; corolla 5-9 mm. long; filaments 
15-30 (-45) mm. long; leaves with (1-) 2-4 (-5) pairs of pinnae, the leaflets in 3-1 1 pairs. 1.5-5.5 

(-6.5) X (0.6-) 1-2.5 (-3.3) cm i. A. lebbeck 

Fruits 10-25 cm. long, (1.5-) 2-2.5 cm. broad; calyx 1.5-2.5 mm. long; corolla 3.5-7 mm. long; 
filaments 10-13 mm. long; leaves with (2-) 3-5(-8)pairsofpinnae, the leaflets in 6- 12 pairs, 2-6 

X 0.7-3.3 cm 4. .4. procera 

Fruits indehiscent, 9-20 cm. long, 1.3-2.2 cm. broad, thick (4-15 mm.), semisucculent, internally septate, 
with thickened sutures; flowers in heads, the central flower larger than the others; calyx 6-7. 5 mm. long; 
corolla up to 13 mm. long, pink with greenish or yellowish lobes; filaments 20-35 mm. long, white 
proximally, shading to pink or crimson distally; leaves with 3-9 pairs of pinnae, the leaflets in 2-10 
pairs, (1-) 2-6 x (0.5-) 1-4 cm., the distal ones larger than the proximal ones 5. A. saman 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 77 

1. Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg in Reinwardtia 7: 88. 1965; Sykes in New Zealand 

Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 121. 1970; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 104. 
1972; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 
121. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 182. /;g. 48. 1979. 

Aiienanlhera fakataria L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 550. 1762. 

Albizia falcaia sensu Backer, Voorl. Schoolfl. Java, 109, typo excl. 1908; J. S. Sm. in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. 

Fiji 12:67. 1941; W. L. Parham in loc. cit.; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 68. \')M\nonstnsu Adenanlhera 

fatcala L. (1754). 

As seen in Fiji, Albizia falcataria is a tree 12-18 m. high (up to 40 m. where 
indigenous), cultivated and perhaps sparingly naturalized from near sea level to an 
elevation of 250 m. The corolla is cream-colored or greenish yellow, and the filaments 
are whitish. However, the available Fijian collections are in fruit only, obtained in 
January, March, and September. 

Typification and nomenclature: Adenanthera falcataria is based entirely on 
Clypearia alba Rumph. Herb. Amb. 3: 176. /. ///. 1743. Fosberg in 1965 clarified the 
nomenclature, indicating that Adenanthera falcata L. was based on Rumphius's t. 112, 
Clypearia rubra, and that the epithet falcata could not be utilized for the present 
species. This had been widely knownas Albizia moluccana Miq. (1855), the synonymy 
of which with A. falcataria is very doubtful (cf. Verdcourt, 1979, cited above). 

Distribution: Moluccas, New Guinea, New Britain, and the Solomon Islands, 
widely planted elsewhere (as in Hawaii) for reforestation, often under the name Albizia 
moluccana. 

Use: A timber tree and shade tree; in Fiji it is not widely used, although it may be 
occasionally naturalized in lowland forest. It was apparently introduced in 1937 as a 
potential source of firewood, as it is very fast-growing, although susceptible to wind 
damage. 

Available collections: VlTl LEVU: Naitasiri; Departmentof Forestry plantation, Tholo-i-suva, DA 
L. 14329: Tholo-i-suva, DF 373. Damanu 60: Principal Agricultural Station, KLoronivia, DA 12352. 
TAVEUNI: Waitavala Estate, DA L 14328. 

2. Albizia saponaria (Lour.) Bl. ex Miq. Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(1): 19. 1855; J. W. Parham, PI. 

Fiji Isl. 69. 1964, ed. 2. 106. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 191. 1979. 
Mimosa saponaria Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 653. 1 790. 

In Fiji Albizia saponaria is sparsely cultivated and also locally naturalized at low 
elevations along roadsides and forming thickets. It is-seen as a tree 5- 1 2 m. high, with a 
white corolla and filaments. Flowers have been noted in months scattered throughout 
the year. 

Typification: Loureiro cited merely: "Habitat in sylvis Cochinchinae." 

Distribution: Indo-China to the Philippines, Borneo, the Moluccas, and the Key 
Islands, but often cultivated and sometimes naturalized elsewhere. 

Uses: The wood is whitish and not very durable; saponin is present in parts of the 
plant, and the bark and wood produce a lather when rubbed in water. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Tailevu: Namalata, cultivated, DA, Jan. 29, 1938; Korovou, 
DA, March 30, 1938, 2291. 15561: opposite Sach's farm, DA 7673: Tailevu without further locahty, DA 
1001. 

The species apparently does not naturalize very readily, since it is known only from 
Tailevu Province; it may have first been cultivated at an agricultural compound in 
Korovou, presumably in the 1930's. 



78 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

3. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. in London J. Bot. 3: 87, as Albizzia lebbek. 1844; A. C. 

Sm. in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 540. 1943; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154 
98. 1943; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 89. 1948; Greenwood in J 
Arnold Arb. 30: 76. 1949; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 147. 1959: 
Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 129. 1959; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fij 
Bull. 35: 89. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 68. 1964, ed. 2. 104. 1972; B. E. V. Parham in New 
Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 121. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New 
Guinea Leg. 185.//^. 49. 1979. 
Mimosa lebbeck L. Sp. PI. 516. 1753. 
In Fiji Albizia lebbeck is noted as an often spreading tree 5-20 m. high, cultivated 
or naturalized along roadsides or in patches of forest at elevations from near sea level 
to about 200 m. Its calyx and corolla are greenish yellow, its filaments white to yellow 
proximally and pale green distally, and its fruits green to stramineous. Flower have 
been obtained in November and December, fruits between June and December. 

Typification: The type is Herb. Linnaeus 1228.16 (linn syntype), fide Brenan in 
1959, cited above. Linnaeus's original citation was: "Hasselquist, act. ups. 1750. p. 9", 
"Habitat in Aegypto superiore." 

Distribution: Probably indigenous in tropical Asia (rather than Egypt), but now 
widespread in tropical areas. Available material suggests that its introduction into Fiji 
was probably not much earlier than 1920. 

Local names and uses: Vaivai or vaivaini vavalangi (one report of vaivaini Vitiis 
questionable); also siris (a Malesian name), siris rain tree, or simply rain tree. The 
timber seasons and polishes well and is fairly durable, useful for furniture and 
veneering as well as for general construction. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Tavakumbu Block, Lautoka, DA 16335 (DF 1283): 
between Mba and Tavua, Greenwood 791. Serua: Navutulevu, DA 9281. Naitasiri: Nanduruloulou, DA 
721. Tailevu: Natovi, DA 11275. Rewa: Between Suva and Lami, Gillespie 2064; Suva Bay. Bryan 197. 
VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Tambia, Sasa Tikina, fif rrv J9; Seanggangga Plateau, in drainage of Korovuli 
River, vicinity of Natua, Smiih 6874. TAVEUNI: Vicinity of Waiyevo, Smith 8123. VANUA MBALAVU: 
Site of Lomaloma Botanical Gardens, Tolhill 576. D.4 10201. LAKEMBA: Near Tumbou, Gar^iocAr-yofiM 
892. 

Although the specific epithet was doubtless derived from a vernacular name 
lebbek, Linnaeus's spelling lebbeck must be retained; the two spellings are not differen- 
tiated above except for Bentham's usage. 

4. Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. in London J. Bot. 3: 89. 1844; Greenwood in J. 

Arnold Arb. 25: 399. 1944; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 89.//^. /. 
1948, in op. cit. 29:31. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 68. 1964, ed. 2. 105. 1972; B. E. V. Parham 
in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 121. 1972; Verdcourt, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. \%1 . fig. 50. 1979. 

Mimosa procera Roxb. PI. Coromandel 2: 12. l. 121. 1799. 

In Fiji Albizia procera is cultivated and often naturalized between sea level and 
about 200 m. elevation as a tree 7-10 m. high (up to 30 m. where indigenous). Its 
flowers have a white to greenish white corolla and pale yellow or white filaments, and 
the fruit is red-brown. Dated specimens bore flowers in March, fruits between 
December and July. 

Typification: The type locality was mentioned by Roxburgh as the Coromandel 
coast of India. 

Distribution: India to Malesia and Australia, cultivated and naturalized else- 
where. The material at hand would suggest its introduction into Fiji as the 1920's or 
1930's. 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 79 

Local names and uses: The usual Fijian names are vaival or vaivai ni vavalangi: it 
is known as silver hark rain tree and (perhaps inaccurately) monkeypod. In addition to 
being ornamental, the tree produces a wood useful for furniture and general construc- 
tion. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka and vicinity. Greenwood 794. Si. John IS174. D.4 
971. DF 1045 (Damanu 181). Rewa: Botanical Gardens, Suva, Tothill 137. DA 1005. 12166. 12359. VANUA 
LEVU: Mathuata: Lambasa. DA 1490. 

5. Albizia saman (Jacq.) F. v. Muell. Select. PI. ed. 2. 12. 1876. 

Mimosa saman Sacq. Fragm. Bot. \5. pi. 9. I80L 

Pilhecolohium saman Benth. in London J. Bot. 3: 216. 1844. 

Samanea saman Merr. in J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 6: 47. 1916; .\. C. Sm. in Bull. Torrev Bot. Club 70: 540. 

194.1; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 

200: 122. 1970; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 107. 1972; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Scl 

Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 71. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 207. fig. 55. 1979. 
Piihecellohium saman Benth. ex J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 91. 1948, in op. cit. 29: 33. 

1959, PI. Fiji Is!, 70. 1964. 

A tree 7-25 m. high, with a trunk up to 1 m. in diameter and with a spreading, 
rounded crown, found from near sea level to an elevation of 700 m.. cultivated and 
sometimes abundantly naturalized along roadsides, on river banks, and in forests. The 
calyx is green, the corolla pink with greenish or yellowish lobes, and the filaments are 
white pro.ximally, shading to pink or crimson distally. The mature fruits become black, 
with brown seeds. In general, flowers are found between November and May, fruits 
between July and December. 

Typific.mion: The species was presumably illustrated and described from a Jac- 
quin collection from Caracas, Venezuela. 

Distribution: Indigenous in tropical America from Mexico to Peru and Brazil, 
now cultivated throughout the tropics. It may have been first introduced into Fiji by J. 
B. Thurston, being listed in his Catalogue (cf. Vol. 1 of this Flora, pp. 47, 87). 

Local names and uses: Like many other introduced trees of the family, Alhizia 
saman is called vaivai ni vavalangi; the usual English name is rain tree, and sirsa (noi 
Fijian) has also been recorded. Monkeypod is often used for this species but perhaps 
more accurately should refer to related genera with twisted fruits, such as Pithecello- 
bium. As an ornamental tree, A. saman is now to be found everywhere in the wet 
tropics as a street or garden tree, prized for its broad, symmetrical, dome-shaped 
crown and its rapid growth. The wood is used for manufacture of bowls, trays, and 
ornaments and some is exported for these purposes. The pods, which have a honeylike 
fragrance when broken, provide a cattle feed. 

Available coLLECTioN.s: VITI LEVU: Mba: Nandi, DA 976.''. Ndrasa, DA 16325 (DF 12S0):3\ongroad 
between Waikumbukumbu and Nandarivatu, Gillespie 4378. Seri*: Yarawa, DF 1066 (S1558/3). 1067 
(.S1558!4). Ra: Yanggara, Greenwooct 792. Naitasiri: Waimanu River, Berry 55. Rewa: Botanical 
Gardens, Suva, DA 1318: Edinburgh Drive, Suva, DA 15878. VANUA LEVU: M.athi'.ata: Ndreketi, DA 
12957: vicinity of Vunisea Village, Berry 29: Lambasa, DF 1025 (S1558/1). 1026 (S1558/2). TAVEUNI: 
Vicinity of Waiyevo, Smilh 8251. KANATHEA: Bryan 574. 

1 1. Enterolobium Mart, in Flora 20 (2) (Beibl. 8): 117. 1837; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 
1: 294. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 204. 1979. 
Unarmed trees, the stipules inconspicuous; leaves bipinnate, sometimes with 
glands on petiole and rachis, the leaflets opposite in numerous pairs; inflorescences 
axillary or subterminal, pedunculate, solitary or subfasciculate or in short racemiform 
groups, composed of small, globose heads; flowers 5-merous, usually § and slightly 
heteromorphic, subsessile. those of the same inflorescence-part uniform; calyx short- 
dentate; corolla infundibular, divided about to middle; stamens numerous, the fila- 
ments proximally connate into a tube, the anthers small; ovary sessile, the ovules 



80 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

many; fruits twisted in a flat plane into a circle or curved-reniform, thick and com- 
pressed, indehiscent, at length woody, the mesocarp spongy, the endocarp forming 
septa between seeds, the seeds biserially arranged, transverse, compressed-ellipsoid, 
without an aril, the pleurogram often pale. 

Lectotype species: Enterolobium contortisiliqua (Veil.) Morong {Mimosa 
contorti-siliqua Veil.) (vide Britton & Killip in Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 35: 124. 
1936). 

Distribution: West Indies and Central America to Argentina, with 5-10 species, 
two of which are widely cultivated elsewhere. One species is sparingly cultivated in Fiji. 

Enterolobium is scarcely to be distinguished from some groups oi Albizia but is 
retained because of its greatly curved or curled fruits with biserially arranged seeds 
(Nielsen in Adv. Leg. Syst. 182. 1981). 

1. Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 226. 1860; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 106. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 206. 1979. 

Mimosa cyclocarpa }acq. Fragm. Bot. 30. /. 34, fig. I. 1801. 

A wide-canopied tree, where indigenous up to 38 m. high and with a massive trunk 
to 3 m. in diameter, infrequently cultivated in Fiji near sea level. The leaves have 4-9 
pairs of pinnae, each with 13-30 pairs of leaflets 8-13 >< 2-4 mm. The corolla and 
filaments are white to greenish, the very characteristic fruit brown to blackish and 
curved into a circle or spiral often 10-13 cm. in diameter, with dark brown seeds. 
Although the species may be occasionally seen in Fiji, the only voucher was in flower 
and fruit in November. 

Typification: Only a fruiting specimen from Caracas, Venezuela, was known to 
Jacquin. 

Distribution: Central and northern South America, now widely cultivated 
throughout the tropics. 

Local names and uses: The usually applied names are elephant's ear or earpod. As 
cultivated, the species is a highly ornamental shade tree; where native it is used as a 
timber tree, and its fruits may be used as a cattle feed. 

Available collection; VITI LEVU: Tailevu: Fijian School near Korovou, DA 16016. 

12. Calliandra Benth. in J. Bot. (Hooker) 2: 138. 1840; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
297. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 173. 1979. Nom. cons. 

Usually unarmed shrubs or small trees, the stipules often persistent, membranace- 
ous, foliaceous, or rarely spinescent; leaves bipinnate, usually without glands, the 
leaflets opposite in 1 -several pairs; inflorescences capitate, axillary, pedunculate, 
solitary or paired or aggregated in terminal racemes; flowers 5- or 6-merous, uniform 
or heteromorphic; calyx campanulate, shallowly or rarely deeply lobed; corolla infun- 
dibular, with lobes free above middle; stamens numerous (up to 100), long-exserted, 
the filaments proximally connate into a tube, the anthers usually glandular-pilose; 
ovary sessile, the ovules numerous; fruits linear, oblong or oblanceolate, straight or 
nearly so, often narrowed to base, compressed, thick-margined, 2-valved, the valves 
membranaceous to subligneous, elastically opening from apex, not segmented, the 
seeds obovoid to orbicular, uniserially arranged, without an aril, with a hard testa with 
pleurogram. 

Type species: Calliandra houstonii ("houstoni") (L'Her.) Benth., nom. illeg. 
{Mimosa houstoni L'Her., nom. illeg.) = Calliandra inermis (L.) Druce (Gleditsia 
inermis L.). 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical areas, with about 200 species, one of 
which is sparingly cultivated in Fiji. 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 81 

1. Calliandra surinamensis Benth. in London J. Bot. 3: 105. 1844; Verdcourt, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. 116. fig. 47. 1979. 

Calliandra pitrioricensis sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 106. 1972; non Benth. 

Calliandra .^urinamen.<iis is sparingly cultivated in Fiji as a spreading shrub or small 
tree about 2 m. high (up to 6 m. elsewhere) near sea level. It has leaves with short 
petioles 6-15 mm. long and 1 (infrequently 2 or 3) pair of pinnae, these 3-7 cm. long 
and with 7-10 pairs of leaflets 10-17 x 3-5 mm. The flowers are sessile in showy heads, 
the calyx and corolla are green to yellowish, the filament tube is white, and the free 
parts of filaments are red to crimson. The fruits are oblong from a narrow base, 
thick-margined, 7-10.5 cm. long, and 8-13 mm. broad. The single available collection 
bore flowers and fruits in July. 

Typification: The type is Hostmann 171 (k presumable holotype), collected in 
Surinam without further locality. 

Distribution: Northern South America, now sometimes cultivated elsewhere as 
in the West Indies and, in the Pacific, at least in Hawaii and New Guinea. 

Use: Introduced as an ornamental, the species may not have persisted in Fiji. The 
cited collection was obtained by S. Pillay on July 6, 1960. 

Available collection: VITI LEVI): Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station. Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 12159. 

13. PiTHECELLOBiUM Mart, in Flora 20 (2) (Beibl. 8): 114, as Pithecollohium. 1837; 
Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 165. 1959; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
296, p. p. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 209. 1979. Nom. etorth. cons. 
Piihecolobhim Benth. in London J. Bot. 3: 195. 1844. Orth. var. 

Armed trees and shrubs, the stipules spinescent; leaves bipinnate, usually with 
glands on petiole and rachis, the leaflets opposite, sessile in 1 -many pairs; inflorescen- 
ces capitate or spicate, pedunculate, axillary and subfasciculate or racemiform or 
paniculiform; flowers 4-6-merous, § , uniform; calyx campanulate, short-dentate; 
corolla infundibular, lobed above middle; stamens few-numerous, long-exserted, the 
filaments proximally united into a tube, the anthers minute, versatile, eglandular; 
ovary sessile or stipitate, flattened, the ovules numerous; fruits circinnate, spirally 
twisted, or curved, 2-valved, the valves often twisted, chartaceous, reddish within, not 
segmented, the seeds ovoid or orbicular, compressed, arillate. 

Type species: Pithecellohium unguis-cati (" Piihecolohium") (L.) Benth. (Mimosa 
tmguis-cati L.). Typ. cons. 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical America, with about 20 species, one of 
which is widely cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics, as in Fiji. 

I. Pithecellobium duIce(Roxb.) Benth. in London J. Bot. 3: 199. 1844; Greenwood in 
Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Mimos. 165. 1959; 
J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 70. 1964, ed. 2. 107. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 209. //g. 56. 1979. 
Mimosa dukis Roxb. PI. Coromandel 1: 67. /. 99. 1798. 
As noted in Fiji, Pithecellobium dulce is a tree or shrub 2- 1 5 m. high, with stipular 
thorns, cultivated in fairly dry areas near sea level and also naturalized in the dry zone 
along roadsides, etc. Its petioles are variable in length, 3-50 mm. long, with a gland 
between the single pair of pinnae, each of which bears a single pair of leaflets, these also 
being diverse in size, 7-50 x 3-23 mm. The flowers, in small heads, have greenish white 
to yellow corollas and filaments. The fruits become spirally twisted and produce seeds 
that are black and glossy, with a white to reddish aril. Dated Fijian collections bore 
flowers in May and August. 



82 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification: The type is Roxburgh in Wallich 5282 D (holotype probably at K, 
with a painting of type material, no. 488, fide Brenan, 1959), collected from a plant 
cultivated in Coromandel, India. 

Distribution: Tropical America from Mexico to Venezuela, but now widely 
cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics. 

Local names and uses: The usual name, Madras thorn, is utilized in Fiji, and also 
recorded is kataiya (Hindi). The species was probably introduced into Fiji as an 
ornamental comparatively recently (early in the present century?); it is a good street 
tree for dry areas and when pruned is often used in hedges. The timber is heavy and 
durable, although soft, and can be used for general construction. Livestock eat the 
fruits, from the seed pulp of which a lemonadelike drink can be prepared. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Near Mba sugar mill, DA 11469: vicinity of Mba, DA 
16498: Mba without further locality, DA 462. Ra: Yanggara, Greenwood 745 A: Rakiraki and vicinity, DA 
3292, 14361: Ellington, Greenwood 745. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Lambasa, DA 328. 

14. Serianthes Benth. in London J. Bot. 3: 225. 1844; Fosberg in Reinwardtia 5: 294. 
1960; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PL 1: 294. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
196. 1979. 

Unarmed trees or shrubs, the branchlets with crowded leaf scars and often pubes- 
cent, the stipules obsolete; leaves bipinnate, large, usually with raised glands on petiole 
and rachis, the pinnae usually numerous, the leaflets alternate, numerous; inflorescen- 
ces axillary and spicate or subterminal and paniculate and composed of few-flowered 
heads or racemes; flowers 5-merous, subsessile, § ; calyx campanulate to infundibular, 
short-lobed; corolla infundibular, lobed at least to middle; stamens numerous (often as 
many as 500), long-exserted, the filaments proximally connate into a tube adnate at 
base to corolla tube, the anthers minute; ovary sessile, the ovules numerous; fruits 
narrowly oblong, straight, often densely tomentose, woody, thick-margined, indehis- 
cent or tardily dehiscent, septate or not between seeds, the seeds oblong or ellipsoid, 
compressed, hard, glossy, transversely arranged, without an aril. 

Type species: Serianthes grandiflora Benth., nom. illeg. = 5. myriadenia (Bert, ex 
Guillemin) Planch, ex Benth. {Acacia myriadenia Bert, ex Guillemin); vide Fosberg in 
Taxon 12: 34. 1963. 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia through Malesia to New Caledonia and east- 
ward in the Pacific to the Marquesas, Society, and Austral Islands, with about ten 
species. Two species are indigenous in Fiji, one of them endemic. 

Useful treatments of genus: Fosberg, F. R. Serianthes Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae), 
Reinwardtia 5: 293-317. 1960. Kanis, A. The Malesian species of Serianthes Bentham (Fabaceae- 
Mimosoideae). Brunonia 2: 289-320. 1980. 

Key to species 

Fruits 8-12 cm. long (in our varieties), 3-4.5 cm. broad, ferrugineous-tomentellous, slightly thickened at 
margin, the valves comparatively thick, with numerous, subimmersed veins; leaves usually with raised 
glands on petiole and rachis, the pinnae 4-12 pairs, the leaflets 8-26 pairs, 6-20 mm. long, 2-6 mm. 
broad, subsericeous on both surfaces but eventually subglabrate 1 . S. melanesica 

Fruits 12-15 cm. long, 5-5.5 cm. broad, closely tomentellous, scarcely thickened at margin, the valves 
relatively thin, with about 6 prominent, branching veins issuing from dorsal margin; leaves without 
glands on petiole and rachis, the pinnae 6-8 pairs, the leaflets 8-17 pairs, 10-15 mm. long, 5.5-7 mm. 
broad, glabrous or essentially so 2. S. vitiensis 

1. Serianthes melanesica Fosberg in Reinwardtia 5: 312. 1960. 

Distribution: As described and understood by Fosberg the species was composed 
of six varieties distributed from the New Hebrides and Loyalty Islands eastward to 
Tonga and Samoa. Subsequently Kanis (in Brunonia 2: 290. 1980) mentioned collec- 



1985 MIMOSACEAE 83 

tions from the Santa Cruz Islands without assigning them to a variety. Three of the 
varieties were considered by Fosberg to be endemic to Fiji. The species is indicated to 
be closely related to Serianthes «nT/a(/e«/a( Marquesas, Society, and Austral Islands), 
5. sachetae (New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands), and S. ebudarum (T^ev/ Hebrides), 
the two latter described as new by Fosberg in 1960. 

Fosberg expressed dissatisfaction with his concepts of the four species of the 
Pacific complex and with their component varieties. However, Serianthes melanesica 
is here taken as circumscribed by him, and the varieties said to occur in Fiji are here 
discussed. The problem of taxa with overlapping ranges in the New Hebrides and 
Loyalty Islands casts some doubt on the reliability of their circumscriptions. The size 
and proportions of the calyx do not seem to merit the dependence on them expressed 
by Fosberg, and the size and degree of indument of leaflets are very variable. Perhaps 
S. sachetae is adequately separated from the complex by its very broad fruits; .S. 
mvriadenia appears to differ from 5. melanesica and 5. ebudarum in its larger corolla. 

Key to varieties 
Petiole (from base to first pinnae) 3-7 cm. long, the leaf rachis 8- 1 5 cm. long, the leaflets 7-20 » 2.5-6 mm. 

la. var. melanesica 
Petiole (from base to first pinnae) 8- 1 cm. long, the leaf rachis 25-30 cm. long, the leaflets 6-14 >■ 2-4.5 mm. 

lb. var. meeholdii 

la. Serianthes melanesica var. melanesica; Fosberg in Reinwardtia 5: 312. 1960; J. W. 

Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 108. 1972. Figure 19. 

Serianthes mvriadenia sensu A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:485, p. p. 1854; Seem. Vitt,436. 1862, Fl. 

Vit. 74. i. 14. 1865; Drake, III. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 161. 1890; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 70. % 30. 1964; 

non Planch, ex Benth. 
5erian//ifi v/(/f/ii;isensu Seem, in Bonplandia9:255. 1861, inop. cit. 10:296. 1862, Viti, 436. 1862; non A. 

Gray. 
Serianthes melanesica var. macdanielsii Fosberg in Reinwardtia 5: 313. I960; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 

ed. 2. 108. 1972. 

An often spreading tree 4-21 m. high, occurring from near sea level to an elevation 
of about 750 m. in dense forest or on forested slopes, sometimes found along rocky 
shores and on the edges of mangrove swamps. The corolla is cream-white to pale 
yellow; the stamens have the filaments distally pink to crimson, paler proximally, and 
yellow anthers; and the fruit becomes velvety russet-brown at maturity. Flowers have 
been obtained between February and July, fruits between March and September. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type variety of Serianthes melanesica is 
based on Degener 15041 (ny holotype; isotypes at a, bish, k, us), collected April 20, 
1941, at Mbulu, near Sovi Bay, Nandronga & Navosa Province, Viti Levu. The type of 
var. macdanielsii is MacDaniels 7067 (bish holotype; isoTYPEat a), dated March 31, 
1927, and obtained about five miles west of Suva (i. e. vicinity of Lami), Rewa 
Province, Viti Levu. The type number of var. macdanielsii is not at K, but it is 
interesting to find there "Tothill 133 (coll. MacDaniels, April, 1927)", which Fosberg 
cited as var. melanesica. Tothill 133 (K), from Lami, is almost certainly from the type 
plant of var. macdanielsii and may indeed be part of MacDaniels 1067. The Tothills 
often accompanied MacDaniels in 1927 and their different numbers were often taken 
from the same plant at the same time (cf. this Flora, vol. 1, p. 57). That Fosberg 
assigned the two collections to different varieties indicates his uncertainty as to their 
differences. There is a complete gradation in leaflet size, the type material of var. 
melanesica having about the largest leaflets noted (Figure 19C, pinna on left), whereas 
many specimens from southeastern Viti Levu have smaller and sometimes more 
numerous leaflets (Figure 19C, pinna on right). 



84 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and widespread throughout the archipelago, 
although seeming most frequent near the south coast of Viti Levu. Approximately 30 
collections have been studied. 

Local names and uses: Although vaivai is frequently used, application of the 
names vaivai ni Viti and vaivai ni veikau indicate awareness of its indigenousness. The 
species is considered a good timber tree, and at one time its wood was prized for canoe- 
and ship-building. The seeds are reported to be used for necklaces and are said to be 
edible (the latter seems to be dubious). 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of Nalotawa, eastern base of Mt. Evans 
Range, Smith 4489: Sovutawambu, south of Nandarivatu, Degener 14657. Nandronga& Navosa: Vicinity 
of Singatoka, Greenwood 657 A (coll. H. P. Phillips). Serua: Inland from Navutulevu, DF SI4I0/3 (coW. 
Bola): inland from Namboutini. DF572 or 796 (S1410/6): inland from Ngaloa, DF594 or 818 fSI4IO/7). 
Namosi: Nambukavesi Creek, DFS14lO/2(col\. Bola); Wainandoi River, Mead 1962. Naitasiri: Waindina 
River, DA 170: Waimanu River, DA L.I3253 (Berry 57). Rewa: Lami, DA 1054. KANDAVU: Naikoro- 
koro, DPS 1410/ 5 (Damanu KU.16). OVALAU: Storck 887: Port Kinnaird, Seemann 145. VANUA LEVU: 
M.athuata: Mathuata coast. Greenwood 657: vicinity of Lambasa, DF 14101 1 (coll. P. Seru). TAVEUNI; 
Vicinity of Somosomo, U. S. E.xpl. E.xped. VANUA MBALAVU: Namalata islet, 5m/r/? /"/^Z. FULANGA: 
On limestone formation. Smith 1212. ONGEA NDRIKI: On small rocky islet, Bryan 414 (coW. R. H. Beck). 

lb. Serianthes melanesica var. meeboldii Fosberg in Reinwardtia 5: 314. 1960; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 108. 1972. 

Serianthes myriadenia sensu A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 485, p. p. 1854; non Planch, ex Benth. 

An inadequately noted tree, probably in general similar to var. melanesica. The 
only dated specimen was flowering in July. 

Typification: The type is Meebold 16465 (k holotype; isotype at bish), collected 
in July, 1932, near Lami, Rewa Province, Viti Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji; available material does not permit comment on 
distribution, but it should be noted that the type was obtained at the same locality as 
the type of var. macdanielsii (here referred to var. melanesica). 

Available collections: Fiji without further locality. Home 367 (gh, k), V. S. Expl. Exped. (ny, fide 
Fosberg). 

As representing var. meeboldii, Fosberg cited Home 267 (k); however, the speci- 
men at K is clearly labelled 367. It closely agrees with the holotype of var. meeboldii and 
is duplicated at gh, although curiously Fosberg cited Home 367 {on) as representing 
var. macdanielsii. No. 367 is the only Home collection of Serianthes that I have 
located. Fosberg also cited U. S. E.xpl. Exped. (ny) as var. meeboldii. The Expedition 
material of Serianthes melanesica doubtless came from more than one locality, as Gray 
cited "Somu-somu (i. e. Somosomo, Taveuni), & c, Feejee Islands; on the banks of 
streams." The Taveuni material seems correctly placed in var. melanesica. The long 
petioles and leaf rachises of var. meeboldii seem to provide the only characters 
distinguishing it from var. melanesica. 

2. Serianthes vitiensis A. Gray, Bot. U.S. Expl. Exped. 1:485. 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 74. 

1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 161. 1890; Fosberg in Reinwardtia 5: 306. 

1960; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 70. 1964, ed. 2. 108. 1972. 
A tree to 15 m. high and with a trunk up to 60 cm. in diameter, occurring in thick 
forest near creeks on lower slopes of mountains (Greenwood 617). The only available 
fertile specimen is the type, in fruit. 

Figure 19. Serianthes melanesica var. melanesica: A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and 
inflorescences, '< 1/3; B, partial inflorescence, x I; C, partial inflorescence and two pinnae, » 1; D, mature 
fruit, X 1. A & B from Degener 15041. C from Mac Daniels /067 (partial inflorescence and pinna on right) 
and Degener 15041 (pinna on left), D from Bryan 404. 



1985 



MIMOSACEAE 



85 




86 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification: The type is U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 62796 holotype; putative 
ISOTYPES at GH, k) Collected in 1 840 presumably from the vicinity of Mbua Bay, Mbua 
Province, Vanua Levu. Gray's citation is "Feejee Islands, at Sandalwood Bay, Vanua- 
levu, & c", which may imply that the material came from more than one locality; 
however, the three specimens could well have come from a single plant. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and thus far known with certainty only from Vanua 
Levu. 

Available collection: VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Mountains near Lambasa, Greenwood 617 (ti). 
Seemann (1865) cited a sterile Williams specimen from Mbua Bay, but this has not been located at K or bm. 

Although Greenwood 61 7 is sterile, it is an excellent match for the type material of 
Serianthes vitiensis, which is readily distinguished from 5. melanesica by its fewer 
leaflets (these are rarely less than 15 pairs in S. melanesica), which are conspicuously 
broader on the average and with a much more obscure and evanescent indument. 
Inflorescences are still unknown for S. vitiensis, but the fruits are broader than those of 
S. melanesica and very different in texture, as noted in the above key. 

Family 124. CAESALPINIACEAE 
Caesalpiniaceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Australis 2: 551, as Caesalpineae. 
1814. 

Trees, shrubs, or lianas, less often herbs, stipulate, the stipules paired, usually 
fugacious, sometimes lacking; leaves nearly always alternate, pinnate or bipinnate, 
rarely simple or unifoliolate, usually without stipels or these rarely present and minute; 
inflorescences axillary, terminal, or borne on old wood, rarely leaf-opposed, spicateto 
racemose or paniculate, rarely 1-flowered; flowers zygomorphic, less often actinomor- 
phic, usually 5-merous and § , less often unisexual, sometimes with large calyxlike 
bracteoles covering the bud; calyx tube (hypanthium) cupuliform to tubular, some- 
times absent, the sepals 5 (or 4 by the union of 2), rarely more numerous or fewer, 
usually free to hypanthium rim or to base of calyx, infrequently partly united, 
imbricate or rarely valvate; petals 5 (-6) or fewer (rarely absent), imbricate in bud, free 
or proximally connate, the adaxial one innermost, overlapped by adjacent lateral ones 
(if these are present); disk sometimes present and extrastaminal; stamens 10 or fewer, 
infrequently numerous, often partially reduced to staminodes, the filaments free to 
variously connate, the anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, 2-locular, usually dehiscing 
lengthwise, sometimes by apical or basal pores or short slits, lacking apical glands; 
ovary free, sometimes stipitate with the stipe adnate to hypanthium, unilocular, the 
suture ventral, the ovules 1-many, often superposed, the style undivided, the stigma 
terminal or subterminal; fruit 2-valved or indehiscent and drupaceous or samaroid, the 
seeds sometimes arillate, usually without pleurograms (areoles) and without a hilar 
groove, the endosperm usually lacking, the cotyledons fleshy or foliaceous, the radicle 
straight or slightly oblique, never folded. 

Distribution: Mostly tropical and subtropical, most numerous in tropical Amer- 
ica, with about 152 genera and 3,000 species. Nineteen genera are known to occur in 
Fiji, only seven of them having indigenous species. 

Useful treatments of family: Hutchinson, J. Caesalpiniaceae. Gen. Fl. PI. 1 : 22 1-276. 1 964. Brenan, 
J. P. M. Leguminosae Subfamily Caesalpinioideae, 1-230. 1967. In: Milne- Red head, E., & R. M. Polhill 
(eds.). Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 

Key to tribes 
Leaves simple, entire or bilobed or 2-partite, but with a pulvinus not jointed to petiole, the blades palmately 
nerved; sepals joined above hypanthium, the calyx limb lobed or spathaceous or 5-partite; seeds with 
the hilum with a crescentic parenchymal scar or transverse slit; our genus represented in Fiji by 
cultivated plants with large and showy flowers, the petals white to variously colored. 

3. Cercideae 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 87 

Leaves usually compound or unifoliolate with a jointed petiolule. occasionally simple (not in any of our 

representatives) but then often pinnately nerved; sepals usually free to hypanthium rim or to pedicel, or 

if joined above hypanthium then the leaflets numerous; seeds with the hilum with parenchyma 

penetrating testa only around the vascular trace. 

Hypanthium none (i. e. stamens hypogynous) or short and infilled; anthers dehiscing by lateral slits or by 

apical or basal pores; sepals free 2. Cassieae 

Hypanthium usually cupular or tubular, or if infilled or negligible then the anthers clearly introrse or the 

calyx tubular, anthers dehiscing by lateral to introrse slits. 

Stipules mterpetiolar or lacking; bud scales not leaving prominent, spaced scars at base of each shoot 

and/ or buds supra-axillary; leaves in our genera bipinnate or paripinnate, without twisted petio- 

lules or specialized glands on leaflets; bracteoles narrow, usually caducous, or lacking; stamens in 

our genera 10 I. Caesalpinieae 

Stipules intrapetiolar. joined behind the strictly axillary bud by at least a line, often small and caducous; 

bud scales often well developed, leaving conspicuous, discrete scars on lower part of each shoot; 

leaves pinnate, paripinnate if leaflets opposite, if other leaflets alternate then with a terminal or 

subterminal leaflet exceeded by a frequently caducous rachis extension, or unifoliolate. 

Bracteoles small or large, usually enclosing flower bud but then imbricate or tubular with imbricate 

lobes 4. Detarieae 

Bracteoles well developed, enclosing flower bud, valvate, usually persistent (but caducous in our 
genus), never tubular; our genus represented in Fiji by a cultivated tree with paripinnate leaves, 
the petals yellow to cream-colored, with red or purple veins 5. Amherstieae 

Keys to genera 
Tribe I. Caesalpinieae 
Lowermost sepal similar to uppermost sepal, both outside in bud but sometimes valvate or calyx 2-lipped; 
flowers essentially actinomorphic to zygomorphic, the stamens usually spreading; leaf-axes adaxially 
grooved, sometimes with glands or bridges at leaflet-insertions; plants lacking thorns or prickles; leaves 
bipinnate; cultivated only or infrequently naturalized. 
Sepals markedly imbricate; petals yellow; fruit flattened, indehiscent (or valves eventually splitting 

lengthwise through middle), winged along both margins 1. Pehophorum 

Sepals valvate or calyx limb 2-lipped; fruit dehiscent (sometimes tardily so), not winged, the valves woody 
or coriaceous. 
Calyx with 5 valvate, subequal sepals free at anthesis; petals subequal in size, in our species 4-7 cm. 
long, crimson or scarlet, the uppermost one yellow with red blotches; stipules in our species forked, 

with pinnate divisions 2. Delonix 

Calyx limtj 2-lipped, the upper lobes connate, the lowermost lobe somewhat separated; petals about 2.5 

cm. long, orange, the uppermost one the broadest; stipules minute 3. Culvillea 

Lowermost sepal modified, often forming a hood in bud; flowers zygomorphic. the stamens crowded around 

gynoecium at least toward base; leaf-axes adaxially ridged or rounded or flattened (not grooved). 

without specialized glands at leaflet-insertions; plants in our genera often with thorns or prickles; leaves 

bipinnate or paripinnate. 

Leaves bipinnate. the pinnae in our species 3-16, each with 3-28 pairs of leaflets; fruit indehiscent or 

dehiscent and 2-valved; indigenous (and then lianas with spiny fruits) or cultivated (and then shrubs 

or trees with with unarmed fruits) 4. Caesalpinia 

Leaves paripinnate, with few leaflets (or partially bipinnate with lower pinnae divided); fruit with valves 

splitting down the middle; our species a cultivated small tree 5. Haemaioxylum 

Tribe 2. Cassieae 
Inflorescences cymose-paniculate; flowers 5 , the perianth essentially actinomorphic, the sepals and petals 
isomerous. each (3-) 5. the stamens perigynous, 4 or 5 or (as in our species) 10-15; fruit flat, compressed, 
tardily dehiscent, winged along adaxial suture, with 1-4 seeds; leaves imparipinnate, with alternate 

leaflets; indigenous 7. Slonkiella 

Inflorescences spirally racemose or, if paniculate, composed of racemose elements; fruit terete or com- 
pressed, dehiscent or not, sometimes winged, with 2-many seeds; leaves paripinnate (rarely bipinnate), 
the leaflets opposite or prevailingly so. 
Flowers usually unisexual but sometimes § , apetalous, with a fleshy hypogynous disk wider than calyx; 
stamens 5. the anthers dorsifixed, versatile, dehiscent through their full length; fruit compressed. 

indehiscent; our species an infrequently cultivated tree 6. Ceralonia 

Flowers g , petaliferous, lacking a hypogynous disk; anthers mostly basiflxed and usually dehiscent by 
pores or slits at apex only, sometimes dorsifixed but then dehiscent by introrse slits or basally. 
Filaments of 3 abaxial stamens sigmoidally incurved, each many times longer than its anther, this 
dorsifixed, subversatile, and introrsely dehiscent by slits; filaments of adaxial stamens straight. 



88 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

shorter, their anthers dehiscent by basal pores; pedicels bibracteolate at or shortly above base; fruit 
elongate, terete or variously compressed, indehiscent, pulpy or pithy within; seeds dorsiventrally 
compressed, the funicle filiform, the testa smooth, without areoles; extrafloral nectaries absent; 

cultivated trees only 8. Cassia 

Filaments of all stamens straight, each shorter than or not more than twice as long as its anther; pedicels 
ebracteolate or, if bracteolate, the bracteoles attached at or above middle and the fruit elastically 
dehiscent; fruit various (but if simultaneously cylindric, indehiscent, and internally pulpy then the 
pedicels ebracteolate); seeds laterally compressed, the funicle and testa various; extrafloral necta- 
ries common; trees, woody vines, shrubs, or herbs. 
Bracteoles absent; androecium commonly zygomorphic, the adaxial members often staminodial but 
all 10 members sometimes subequal, the anther thecae glabrous along sutures; fruit either 
indehiscent or inertly dehiscent through 1 or both sutures (if through 1 suture only then 
follicular, if through both sutures then the valves tardily separating but not coiling); seeds with 
the funicle filiform, the testa smooth or minutely rugulose but not pitted, often with a closed 
areole on each face or margin; extrafloral nectaries (when present) mounded or claviform, 
secreting nectar from a convex surface; indigenous, cultivated (and sometimes naturalizing), or 

adventive species 9. Senna 

Bracteoles 2; androecium essentially actinomorphic, the 2 cycles of anthers often of different lengths, 
the anther thecae puberulent or pilosulous along sutures; fruit elastically dehiscent, the valves 
coiling; seeds with the funicle deltately dilated, the testa either smooth or pitted but without 
areoles; extrafloral nectaries (when present) secreting nectar from a concave or flat surface; 

adventive or cultivated 10. Chamaecrista 

Tribe 3. Cercideae 

One genus only in Fiji II. Bauhinia 

Tribe 4. Detarieae 
Bracteoles free; stamens free or the filaments shortly connate (tube not exceeding ovary). 

Leaflets opposite or nearly so; petals none, 1, 3 or 5 (4-6) (if none then bracteoles usually colored and 

showy and sepals petaloid). 

Flowers in racemes (as in our species) or somewhat pyramidal panicles, often congested; petals (4 or) 5 

(rarely 6), subequal; leaflets not glandular-punctate; indigenous genera (one species of no. 12 

cultivated). 

Stamens usually 10(8-12), the filaments free to base or essentially so; inflorescence rachis slender (in 

our species 1 .5-3 mm. in diameter proximally, the sepals up to 6 mm. long, the petals up to 9 mm. 

long); fruit tuberculate to smooth; leaf buds with comparatively small perules (these in our 

species, like inflorescence bracts, not exceeding 1 cm. in length) 12. Cynomeira 

Stamens 15-80 (usually 21-40 in our species), the filaments sometimes connate at base; inflorescence 
rachis usually comparatively stout (in our species 2-6 mm. in diameter proximally, the sepals 
5-16 mm. long, the petals 7-19 mm. long); fruit smooth; leaf buds with conspicuous, larger 
perules (these in our species, like inflorescence bracts, often exceeding 1 cm. in length, sometimes 

3 cm. or more long) 13. Manitloa 

Flowers in subcorymbose or rarely elongate panicles (less often in simple racemes); petals 1 or 3 or 
lacking; leaflets sometimes glandular-punctate. 
Petals 3 or lacking; stamens usually 4-8; flowers in bud with 3 or 4 sepals visible; fruit valves 
sometimes twisting or dispersing with 1 seed; cultivated only. 
Leaflets with a strong, continuous marginal nerve, this usually with several small crateriform 
glands along its length; bracts and bracteoles showy; petals 3, equal, exserted, long-clawed; 
stamens 6, the filaments connate at base, 2 of them minute and with abortive anthers. 

14. Lysidice 

Leaflets without a marginal nerve; bracteoles colored, shorter than calyx tube, this elongated, with 

4 (-6) petaloid, showy sepals; petals lacking; stamens (3-) 4-8 (-10), with elongated filaments. 

15. Saraca 

Petal 1 , large, clawed (the others rudimentary or lacking); fertile stamens 3; staminodes 4-7, filiform; 

flowers in bud with 2 sepals outside and 2 concealed; fruit valves not twisting, the seeds exarillate 

(funicle slightly fleshy); leaflets with twisted petiolules, not glandular-punctate but often with I 

or 2 glands near base; indigenous 16. Intsia 

Leaflets alternate, usually 3-7, glandular-punctate; petals none; bracts and bracteoles minute; Indigenous. 

17. Kingiodendron 

Bracteoles united into a bilobed tube, conspicuous, persistent; flowers showy, spirally arranged, the petals 5, 

well developed; stamens 10-15, the filaments joined into a well-developed tube or at least basally 

connate; cultivated only 18. Brownea 

Tribe 5. Amherstieae 
One genus only in Fiji 19. Tamarindus 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 89 

1. Peltophorum Benth. in J. Bot. (Hooker) 2: 75. 1840; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
262. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 16. 1979. Nom. cons. 

Trees, the stipules small, caducous; leaves bipinnate, without glands on petiole or 
rachis, the leaflets numerous, small, opposite; inflorescences a.xillary and racemose or 
(as in our species) terminal and composed of racemes aggregated into a panicle, the 
bracts lanceolate, often caducous, the bracteoles none; calyx tube patelliform, the 
sepals 5, imbricate, slightly unequal, reflexed; petals 5, imbricate, subequal, orbicular 
to ovate, becoming spreading, pilose at base; stamens 10, free, the filaments curved, 
pilose at base; ovary substipitate, the ovules 2 or more, the style filiform, the stigma 
broadly peltate; fruit oblong-lanceolate, compressed, mdehiscent, winged along both 
sutures, the seeds 1-6, transverse, compressed. 

Type species: Peltophorum vogelianum Walp., nom. illeg. = P. dubium {Spveng.) 
Taubert (Caesalpinia duhia Spreng.). 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical, with 7-9 (-15?) species. One species is 
cultivated in Fiji. 

1. Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Backer ex K. Heyne, Nutt. PI. Ned.-Ind. ed. 2. 2: 

755. 1927; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 102. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New 
Guinea Leg. 16. A?. /. 1979. 

Inga pleruiurpa DC. Prodr. 2: 441. 1825. 
Caesalpinia inennis Ro.xb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 367. 1832. 
Caesalpinia ferruginea Dec. in Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3: 462. 1834. 

Peltophorum ferrugineum Benth. Fl. Austral. 2: 279, 1864: J. W. Parham. PI. Fiji Isl. 66. 1964. 
Peltophorum inerme Llanos in Blanco. Fl. Filip. ed. 3. ;. 355. 1877-1883; Merr. Enum. Philipp. Fl. PI. 2: 
269. 1923; J. W. Parham in Agr, J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 91. 1948, in op. cit. 29: 33. 1959. 

A tree 8-15 m. high, with a spreading crown, cultivated in Fiji near sea level. The 
leaves have 4- 15 pairs of pinnae, each with 8-20 pairs of leaflets 8-30 x 3.5- 10 mm. and 
rounded or emarginate at apex. The fragrant flowers have canary-yellow petals 1-2 
cm. long, with frilly margins; the reddish brown fruit is 5-1 1.5 cm. long and 2-2.7 cm. 
broad, the valves at length splitting lengthwise through the middle. Our specimens 
bore flowers in March and October, fruits only in March. 

Typification a.n'd nomenclature: Inga pterocarpa is typified by a specimen from 
Timor (no collector mentioned by de CandoUe) (p holotype); Caesalpinia inermis by a 
specimen from the Moluccas; and Caesalpinia ferruginea by several collections from 
Timor, among which no holotype was indicated by Decaisne. The three names in 
Peltophorum based on these basionyms have been widely used. 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia through Malesia to northern Australia, widely 
cultivated in tropical areas. 

Local names and uses: Golden flamhoyant. yellow poinciana. a.nd yellow flame 
tree are used for this striking ornamental tree, which is desirable as a street tree and for 
shade in gardens. Elsewhere the species is used as shade for coffee, and a yellow dye is 
obtained from the bark. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Tholo-i-suva, Damanu JJ: Nasmu Experiment Sta- 
tion, DA 1559. Rewa: Suva, DA 12241: on or near Department of .Agriculture grounds, Suva, D.A. Nov. 
1949, 12061: Suva, in private garden, DA /6777. 

2. DELONixRaf. Fl. Tellur. 2:92. 1837; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:265. 1964; Brenan in 

Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 23. 1967; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 29. 
1979. 
Trees, the stipules inconspicuous (but in our species forked at base, the divisions 
pinnate); leaves bipinnate, without glands on petiole and rachis, the leaflets numerous. 



90 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

small, opposite; inflorescences axillary, corymbose-racemose, aggregated near ends of 
branchlets, the bracts small, caducous, the bracteoles none; flowers large and showy; 
calyx tube short, the sepals 5, valvate, subequal; petals conspicuously clawed, imbri- 
cate, subequal or the uppermost dissimilar; stamens 10, free, exserted, alternately 
slightly longer and shorter, the filaments short-villose at base; ovary short-stipitate, the 
ovules numerous, the style filiform, subclavate distally, the stigma truncate, ciliolate; 
fruit linear-oblong, compressed, septate, dehiscent, the valves woody or coriaceous, 
the seeds numerous, transverse (oblong-subcylindric in our species), with a hard testa. 

Type species: Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. {Poinciana regia Bojer ex 
Hook.). 

Distribution: Eastern Africa and Madagascar to India, with about ten species. 
One species is cultivated in Fiji. 

1. Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. Fl. Tellur. 2:92. 1837; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. 
Bull. 178:60. 1943; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19:90. 1948, inop. cit. 
29: 32. 1959; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 136. 1959; J. W. Parham, PL Fiji 
Isl. 64. 1964, ed. 2. 99. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 
200: 56. 1970; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 30.//^. 5. 1979. 
Poinciana regia Bojer ex Hook, in Bot. Mag. 56: ;. 2S84. i 829. 

A spreading tree to 15 m. high, cultivated and infrequently naturalized from near 
sea level to an elevation of about 500 m. The leaves usually have 1 1-20 pairs of pinnae, 
each with 10-25 pairs of leaflets 5-10 x 2-5 mm. The sepals are yellowish without and 
red within; the petals are 4-7 cm. long, crimson or scarlet but one of them yellow with 
red blotches; the filaments are red distally; and the oblong fruit, up to 70 x 7 cm., has 
yellowish and brown seeds. Flowers in Fiji have been noted from October to March, 
fruits in July and August but long-persistent. 

Typification: Bojer sent Hooker the drawing reproduced in the original 1829 
publication, which may be taken as the type; the locality mentioned was near Foule 
Point, Madagascar. 

Distribution: Endemic and rare in Madagascar, now widely cultivated through- 
out the tropics. Although Parham (1964, 1972) states that the species was introduced 
into Fiji prior to 1 860, the earliest record that I have located is that of Thurston in 1886. 

Local names and use: Often known in Fiji as sekoula; the common English names 
art flamboyant, flame tree, and poinciana. It is a striking ornamental,more frequently 
grown than the few collections suggest and to be found in many villages. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Along road between Waikumbukumbu and Nandarivatu, 
Gitlespie 4379. Rewa: Suva, in Department of Agriculture compound, DA 12191, 16478. TAVEUNI: 
Vicinity of Waiyevo, Smith 8312. 

3. CoLViLLEA Bojer ex Hook, in Bot. Mag. 61: /. 3325, 3326. 1834; Hutchinson, Gen. 
Fl. PI. 1: 265. 1964. 

Spreading trees, the stipules minute, caducous; leaves bipinnate, the leaflets 
numerous, small; inflorescences densely racemose, the rachis thickened, the bracts 
membranaceous, colored, caducous, the bracteoles none; flowers showy; calyx tube 
short, the limb ventricose, 2-lipped, the upper lobes connate, the lowermost lobe 
somewhat separated; petals 5, imbricate, the uppermost one the broadest; stamens 10, 
free, the filaments pilose at base, longer than petals; ovary short-stipitate, the ovules 
numerous, the style filiform, the stigma small; fruit straight, elongated, the valves 
woody or coriaceous, the seeds transverse, oblong. 

Type species: Colvillea racemosa Bojer ex Hook. 

Distribution: Endemic to Madagscar and with a single species, cultivated in other 
tropical areas. 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 91 

1. Colvillea raeemosa Bojer ex Hook, in Bot. Mag. 61: i. 3325. 3326. 1834; J. W. 
Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19:90. 1948, PL Fiji Isl. 64. 1964, ed. 2. 99. 1972. 

A spreading tree to 18 m. high, infrequently cultivated near sea level. The leaves 
have 10-20 pairs of pinnae, each with 20-32 pairs of leaflets 5-10 x 2-4 mm. The 
flower buds are orange-red, the calyx being about 2 cm. long, the petals orange and 
slightly longer than the calyx, and the stamens yellow, with filaments about 3 cm. long. 
The oblong fruit, up to about 30 x 6 cm., is narrowed at both ends. In Fiji flowers are 
seen in February and March. 

Typification: Hooker noted that Bojer found a single tree cultivated at the Bay of 
Bombatoe, Madagascar, in 1824 and took seeds to Mauritius. Probably a plant 
cultivated in Mauritius should be considered the type. 

Distribution; Endemic to Madagascar and now frequently cultivated elsewhere. 
It may have been introduced into Fiji by Thurston, being listed in his Catalogue of 
1886. 

Local name and use; Colvillea is used as the vernacular name of this striking 
ornamental. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Suva. DA 7571. Parham (1948, cited above) noted its 
occurrence in the Suva Botanical Gardens. 

4. Caesalpinia L. Sp. PI. 380. 1753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 66. 1865; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
260. 1964; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 28. 1967; Hattink in 
Reinwardtia 9: 9. 1974; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 20. 1979. 

Trees, shrubs, or scrambling or climbing plants, unarmed or armed with spines or 
prickles, the stipules various, minute to leafy, or lacking; leaves bipinnate (rarely 
reduced to scales but not in our species), the leaflets opposite, less often alternate, few 
to many; inflorescences racemose or paniculate, in upper leaf axils or terminal, rarely 
1 -few-flowered, the bracts caducous; flowers § or unisexual; calyx tube short, the 
sepals 5, imbricate, sometimes very narrowly so, subequal or the lowermost one 
cucullate, often larger, clasping the others; petals 5, imbricate, spreading, orbicular or 
oblong, subequal or the uppermost smaller and clawed; stamens 10, free, alternately 
longer and shorter, the filaments often villose or glandular; ovary subsessile or 
short-stipitate, free, the ovules few (usually 2-10), the style fihform, rarely clavate 
distally, the stigma terminal, oblique, ciliolate or glabrous; fruit compressed to rarely 
cylindric, not winged or winged along dorsal suture, hard and woody or thick anc| 
pulpy, indehiscent or dehiscent and 2-valved, the seeds transverse, hard. 

Lectotype species; Caesalpinia hrasiliensis L. (vide Britton & Wilson, Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico, 377. 1924), one of Linnaeus's four original species. 

Distribution; Pantropical and subtropical, sometimes warm-temperate, proba- 
bly with about 100 species. Six species are known to occur in Fiji, two of them 
indigenous and the others cultivated. 

Useful treatment of genus: Hattink, T. A. A revision of Malesian Caesalpinia, including Mezoneu- 
ron (Leguminosae-Caesalpiniaceae). Reinwardtia 9: 1-69. 1974. 

The difficulties of reaching a satisfactory circumscription of Cae.^alpinia are dis- 
cussed by Polhill and Vidal (in Adv. Leg. Syst. 84-85. 1981). The genus is now 
generally taken to include such groups as Guilandina L. (C honduc and C. major in 
this treatment) and Poinciana L. sensu str. (C pulcherrima). 

Key to species 
Stamens long-exserted, the filaments 5-7.5 cm. long, mostly scarlet; petals 15-25 mm. long, scarlet to 
orange-red or yellow, the standard long-clawed; pedicels 2, 5- 1 cm. long; fruits unarmed, dehiscent, up 
to II ■< 2 cm.; leaflets 5-13 pairs per pinna, seldom larger than 30 ' 15 mm.; cultivated. 

1. C. pukherriina 



92 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Stamens shorter, not as conspicuously exserted; petals yellow or cream-colored; pedicels not more than 4 

cm. long. 

Lianas, the stems often armed with spines and prickles; fruits copiously spreading-spinose (spines 5-10 

mm. long), ovoid-oblong, dehiscent, the seeds very hard, ovoid to globular, 1 5-20 mm. long; flowers 

unisexual, the d" flowers with a small, pilose, rudimentary ovary, the $ flowers with the ovary 7-8 

mm. long and the anthers without pollen; leaves with 3-11 pairs of pinnae, each with 3-12 pairs of 

leaflets; indigenous. 

Stipules pinnate, subpersistent, leafy, composed of 2-5 lobes up to 25 mm. in diameter or larger; leaflets 

6- 1 2 pairs per pinna, opposite or subopposite, ovate- to elliptic-oblong, 1 .5-6.5 cm. long, 0.5-3 cm. 

broad, inaequilaterally rounded or cuneate at base, obtuse to subacute at apex; fruits 4.5-9 x 3-5 

cm., the seeds 1 or 2, gray or olive-green at maturity; pedicels at anthesis 2-6 mm. long; ovules 2. 

2. C. bonduc 

Stipules subulate, 1 -3 mm. long, often split into 2 or 3 superposed parts, caducous; leaflets 3-7 pairs per 

pinna, opposite or alternate, ovate-oblong to suborbicular, 3-13 cm. long, 1.5-6.5 cm. broad, 

subsymmetrically acute to rounded at base, acute or acuminate to rounded or emarginate at apex; 

fruits 5- 1 3 '< 4-6 cm., the seeds 2-4, yellow to brownish at maturity; pedicels at anthesis 6- 1 2 mm. 

long; ovules 4 3. C. major 

Shrubs or trees; fruits unarmed; flowers § ; leaves, with 3-16 pairs of pinnae, each with 5-28 pairs of 
leaflets; cultivated. 
Petals 3-6 mm. long; inflorescences 2-6 cm. long; pedicels 2-4 mm. long; fruits oblong to ovate, 3-6 cm. 
long, 1-3 cm. broad, inflated, indehiscent, becoming twisted or coiled; stems and leaves unarmed; 
leaves with 3-9 pairs of pinnae, each with 15-28 pairs of leaflets 4-9 =< 1.5-2.5 ram. 

4. C. coriaria 

Petals 9-15 mm. long, the uppermost red-veined or -blotched; inflorescences 10-40 cm. long; pedicels 

1.5-3 cm. long; fruits oblong to elliptic, 6- 10 cm. long, 3-4 cm. broad, tardily dehiscent, not twisted 

or contorted; stems and leaves with prickles. 

Pinnae 3-15 pairs, 2.5-10 cm. long, each with 5-12 pairsof leaflets, these usually 8-20 x 3-8 mm., the 

midrib subcentral; stipules 0.4-2 cm. long, subpersistent; fruits with 4-9 seeds, these 9- 1 2 mra. 

long; climbing or straggling shrub 5. C. decapetala 

Pinnae 7-16 pairs, 6.5-17 cm. long, each with 10-20 pairs of leaflets, these 10-25 x 3-1 1 mm., the 
midrib excentric; stipules 3-4.5 cm. long, fugacious; fruits with 2-4 seeds, these 15- 18 mm. long; 
tree or shrub 6. C. sappan 

1. Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. Obs. Bot. 166. 1791; Seem. Fl. Vit. 74. 1865; 

Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 100. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit. 178:61. 

1943; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154:97. 1943; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 

220: 137. 1959; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 29: 3 1 . 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 

1964, ed. 2. 96. 1972; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 31. 1967; Sykes in 

New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 55. 1970; B. E. V. Parham in New 

Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85:60. 1972; Hattinkin Reinwardtia 

9: 50. 1974; St. John in Phytologia 36: 369. 1977; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 

Leg. 27.//^. 4. 1979. 

Poincmna pulcherrima L. Sp. PI. 380. 1753; Seem. Viti, 435. 1862. 

A shrub 1-3 m. high (to 6 m. elsewhere), frequently cultivated near sea level (not 

recorded as naturalized in Fiji). The inflorescences, up to 40 cm. long, bear striking 

flowers, the petals being scarlet to yellow, often with orange margins, and the filaments 

red. The fruits are purple to blackish brown and enclose brown seeds about 10 mm. 

long. Available specimens bore flowers and fruits in April and June, but plants are 

commonly seen in Fijian towns and villages with flowers at other times. 

Typification: The specimen at linn numbered 529.1 may be considered the 
holotype (fide Brenan, 1967, cited above). 

Distribution: Almost certainly indigenous in tropical America, but widely culti- 
vated and frequently naturalized elsewhere. 

Local name and use: Pride of Barbados is commonly used in Fiji, as elsewhere. 
This beautiful ornamental has been grown in Fiji since before 1860, when Seemann 
observed it but apparently did not prepare a specimen. 



1985 



CAESALPINIACEAE 



93 











^'-V '''f>^^^*'-. 


'^ -A. 


'.J /' ~-E/ 


■<■»/ ' ' ''',,^^^^!^* 






'■ ^* <^' ' 


. ,.j;-<p^- 


/ '? f 


^HB^f^^i^H 



Figure 20. Caesalpinia honduc, from Smiih 791 1: foliage and fruits, from the edge of a forest along a 
rocky shore on Ngau, " about 1 3. 



Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Greenwoods^. Naitasiri: Principal Agricultural 
Station, Koronivia, DA 1I9I3. Rewa: Suva, Lady Cecil 236: Suva Botanical Gardens, DA 12088. VANUA 
LEVU; Thakaundrove: Namale, near Savusavu, DA 16860. 

2. Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 362. 1832; Dandy & Exell in J. Bot. 

76: 179. 1938; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 37. 1967; J. W. Parham, 

Pi. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 96. 1972; Hattink in Reinwardtia 9: 17. 1974; Verdcourt, Man. 

New Guinea Leg. 23. fig. 3 (7. 8). 1979. Figure 20. 

Guilandina bonduc L. Sp. PI. 381. 1753. 

Caesalpinia cristaL. Sp. PI. 380, p. p. (quoad syn. Pluk. et Breyn.). I753;sensu Urb. Symb. Antill. 2:269. 
1900; Merr. Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amb. 260. 1917; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 62. 1964, ed. 2. 96. 
1972; non sensu str. 
Guilandina honducella L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 545, nom. illeg. 1762. 

Caesalpinia honducella Fleming in Asiat. Res. 11: 159, nom. illeg. 1810; Seem. Fl. Vit. 66, p. p. 1865; 
Drake, III. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 157, p. p. 1890. 

A high-climbing liana, sometimes noted as a scrambling shrub and then to 5 m. 
high, occurring at elevations from near sea level to 900 m. in coastal thickets or dense 
forest or on forest edges. The petals are yellow or greenish yellow, the upper one 
sometimes orange at base, the filaments and style are greenish, and the seeds are gray 
or olive-green when mature. Flowering material has been collected between March 
and May, fruits between May and January. 



94 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification: The lectotype designated by Dandy and Exell (1938, Cited above) is 
Herb. Hermann, vol. 3, fol. 35 (bm), from Ceylon. 

Distribution: Widespread in tropical areas of both hemispheres. 

Local names and use: Soni is the usual name, but also recorded are sonini Viti, 
nggalau sort, and wa nggiri. In the Yasawas the root is prepared with other plants and 
taken internally for rheumatism (Weiner 238). 

Available collections: YASAWAS: Yasawa: Tamasua Village, Weiner 238. Sawa-i-Lau Island, south 
of Yasawa, DA 13662. VITI LEVU: Mba: Northern portion of Mt. Evans Range, between Mt. Vatuyanitu 
and Mt. Natondra, Smith 4347; Vatia Point, Tavua, DA 2817. Nandronga&Navosa: Nausori Highlands, 
DA 12658 (Melville el al. 7033). 13345. Ra: Ellington Point, DA 7898: vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, 
Degener 15532. Rewa: Nukulau Island, Tothill 125 A. NGAU: Shores of Herald Bay, vicinity of Sawaieke, 
Smith 7911. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Nakuthi Island, off mouth of Ndreketi River, DA 15286. VANUA 
MBALAVU: Southern limestone section. Smith 1459. 

3. Caesalpinia major (Medik.) Dandy & Exell in J. Bot. 76: 180. 1938; Sykes in New 
Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 54. 1970; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 
2. 96. 1972; Fosberg in Taxon 22: 162. 1973; Hattink in Reinwardtia 9: 39. 1974; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 26. 1979. 

Guilandina bonduc sensu L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 545, p. p. (excl. syn. Pluk.). 1762; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. 

Exped. 1: 461. 1854; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862; non L. (1753). 
Bonduc majus Medik. Theodora, 43. t. 3 (upper part) (excl. syn. L.). 1786. 

Caesalpinia bonduc sensu Roxb. Hort. Beng. 32. 1814, Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 362, p. p. (excl. lectotyp.). 1832; 
Seem. Fl. Vit. 66. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 157. 1890; Urb. Symb. Antill. 2: 272. 1900; 
Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 61. 1943; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 62. 1964; non L. 
Caesalpinia bonducella sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 66, p. p. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 157, p. p. 1890; 

non Fleming. 
Caesalpinia jayabo Maza in Anales Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 19:234, p. p., nom. illeg. 1890; Merr. Interpret. 
Rumph. Herb. Amb. 261. 1917; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128:99. 1935; B. E. V. Parham in 
New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 15. 1972. 
Caesalpinia crista sensu Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 136. 1959; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand 
Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 15. 1972; non L. 

An often high-climbing liana, found from sea level to an elevation of about 300 m. 
in coastal thickets or forest. The flowers have green to dull red sepals, yellow petals, 
green filaments, and orange anthers; the seeds are yellow to brownish at maturity. 
Flowers have been obtained between December and March, fruits from May to 
December. 

Typification and nomenclature: As previous authors had not typified the name, 
Hattink (1974, cited above) suggests that Rumphius's plate of Frutex globulorum 
(Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5: t. 48. 1747) be taken as the type of Bonduc majus. The 
complex problems involved in the nomenclature of Caesalpinia major and C bonduc 
were clarified by Dandy and Exell (in J. Bot. 76: 175-180. 1938), whose resolution has 
been accepted by most concerned botanists. The new name C. globulorum Bakh. f. & 
van Royen (in Blumea 12: 62. 1963) in place of C major is not required (cf. Fosberg, 
1973, cited above). 

Distribution: Tropical and warm north temperate America, and also Madagas- 
car and southeastern Asia throughout Malesia and into the Pacific to Hawaii. 

Local names: Like Caesalpinia bonduc, the present species is known as soni in Fiji. 
On Kambara I noted the name soni ni mbeka. 

Available collections: MBENGGA: Malambi, Weiner 227. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Along 
coast, Greenwood 670: mountains near Lambasa, Greenwood 629. Thakaundrove: Mbalanga, Savusavu 
Bay, DA 13178. TAVEUNI: Track to lake above Somosomo, DA 14076: vicinity of Wairiki, Gillespie 
4754.1: without further locality, Gillespie 4659. 4760.5. MOALA: Bryan 311. VANUA MBALAVU: Near 
Lomaloma, Garnock-Jones 1045. VUANGGAVA: Bryan, Aug. 27, i924 (BiSH, seeds only). KAMBARA: 
On limestone formation, Smith 1288. Fiji without further locality, Seemann 132. 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 95 

In Fiji both Caesalpinia major and C honduc may be found in coastal thickets, and 
both occur in inland forests. From the available material, C. honduc seems to reach a 
higher elevation than C. major, but this is probably not consequential. In general, it 
may be noted that C. honduc is frequent on Viti Levu, while no Viti Levu specimens of 
C. major are at hand; the latter seems more frequent in the Lau Group than C. honduc, 
although both have been found there. 

4. Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. Sp. PI. 2: 532. 1799; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. 

Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 90. 1948, PI. Fiji Isl. 62. 1964, ed. 2. 96. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. 23. 1979. 
Poinciana coriaria Jacq. Select. Stirp. Amer. 123. /. 175. fig. 36. 1763. 
A tree 4-9 m. high, infrequently cultivated near sea level. The petals are pale yellow 
or cream-colored, and the fruit becomes twisted or contorted. Flowers have been noted 
in March, fruits in July. 

Typification: Jacquin noted his material as having been obtained on Curasao and 
in the vicinity of Cartagena, Colombia. 

Distribution: Tropical America, occasionally cultivated elsewhere. 
Local name and uses: The indigenous American name divi-divi is used for this 
ornamental tree in Fiji. Elsewhere the fruits are sometimes used for tanning and for 
ink-making. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Suva Botanical Gardens, D.i 12168. 12339. 

5. Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 89. 1931; 

Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 36. 1967; Hattink in Reinwardtia 9: 24. 
1974; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 219: 79.//^. 24. 1977. 

Reichardia decapetala Roth, Nov. PI. Sp. 212. 1821. 

Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb. Hort. Beng. 32. nom. nud. 1814, Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 360. 1832; Greenwood in 

Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 93. 1943: J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964, ed. 2. 97. 1972. 

A climbing or straggling shrub or small tree, infrequently cultivated near sea level. 
The flowers have pale yellow petals, the standard being veined or blotched with red, 
and the anthers are red to purple. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type of Reichardia decapetala is Heyne 
(possible isoTYPE at k, fide Brenan, 1967), collected in India. The species has often been 
known as Caesalpinia sepiaria, said by Roxburgh to have been introduced into the 
country (India) by General Martin; a probable isotype is Roxhurgh in Wallich 5834a 
(K), fide Brenan (1967). 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical Asia, now widely cultivated and often 
naturalized, as on Raoul, Kermadec Islands, where it is considered a threat to the 
indigenous vegetation (Sykes, 1977, cited above). 

Local name and use: No local name was recorded in Fiji, but elsewhere the species 
is known as Mysore thorn. It is often used as a hedge plant, but apparently not 
frequently in Fiji. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Suva, near Golf Club, Tothill 124. 

6. Caesalpinia sappan L. Sp. PI. 38 1 . 1 753; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1 964, ed. 2. 96. 

1972; Hattink in Reinwardtia 9: 51.//^. 4 ("/ 7/ 1974; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 

Leg. 27. 1979. 

A tree or shrub 3-4 m. high (as noted in Fiji, but up to 10 m. elsewhere), cultivated 

only near sea level. The petals are yellow, the standard being red-veined proximally, 

and the fruit is green, becoming brown, with dull black seeds. Flowers were noted in 

January, fruits in January, June, and September. 



96 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification: The principal basis of the species is Hermann, vol. 4, fol. 31 (bm 
lectotype), from Ceylon (fide Hattink, 1974). 

Distribution: The indigenous area of Caesalpinia sappan seems to be uncertain, 
but it is now cultivated in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

Local name and uses: Sappan is used as a vernacular name in Fiji, as elsewhere. 
The species is used as an ornamental and is sometimes cuhivated as a hedge plant. The 
wood yields red and black dyes, tannin, and useful timber. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Principal Agricultural Station, Koronivia, DA 12349. 
Tailevu: Korovou, DA 5650. Rewa: Suva, in private garden, DA 15374. 

5. Haematoxylum L. Sp. PL 384. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:236, as Haematox- 

ylon. 1964. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes with spiny branchlets, the stipules spinelike or small 
and caducous; leaves paripinnate (or partially bipinnate with lower pinnae divided), 
the leaflets few, closely veined; inflorescences axillary, racemose; flowers small, the 
bracts minute, the bracteoles none; calyx tube short, the sepals 5, broadly imbricate, 
slightly unequal, soon deciduous; petals 5, imbricate, subequal; stamens 10, free, the 
filaments pilose at base; ovary short-stipitate, free, the ovules 2 or 3, the style filiform, 
the stigma small, terminal; fruit lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, compressed, the valves 
membranaceous, splitting down the middle, the seeds transversely oblong. 

Type species: Haematoxylum campechianum L. 

Distribution: Tropical America and southwestern Africa, with three species, one 
of which is occasionally cultivated in Fiji. 

I. Haematoxylum campechianum L. Sp. PI. 384. 1753; B. E. V. Parham in Agr. J. 
Dept. Agr. Fiji 10: 115. 1939; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 74. 1964, ed. 2. 99. 1972. 

A thorny tree to 10 m. high, occasionally cultivated near sea level. The paripinnate 
leaves have 3-5 pairs of leaflets, each obovate, emarginate or subtruncate at apex, and 
usually 2-3 ^ 1-2.5 cm. The racemes in flower and fruit are 6-12 cm. long, the flowers 
being fragrant, with yellow or purple-tinged sepals and bright yellow petals. The 
lanceolate fruits are up to 6 x 1.2 cm. Our only dated collection was flowering in July. 

Typification: Several earlier references were given by Linnaeus. 

Distribution: Tropical America, now widely cultivated elsewhere. It seems to 
have been introduced into Fiji in the 1880's by J. B. Thurston, who listed it in his 
Catalogue (1886). 

Local name and uses: Logwood; an ornamental plant, sometimes used in hedges. 
The heartwood is the source of a red dye (haematoxylin) which may turn black and is 
used as a stain and in ink-making. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Agricultural Station, Singatoka, DA 
8303. Naitasiri: Experiment Station, Nasinu, DA 1556. Rewa: Suva Botanical Gardens, DA 3305. 3308: 
Suva, in private garden (formerly Thurston's "Thornbury," cf. vol. 1, p. 47 of this f/ora), Z).4 16077. B. E. V. 
Parham (1939) mentioned that the species was then doing well and flowering on the property of W. L. 
Wallace, Tovu Island, Ra Province, Viti Levu. 

6. Ceratonia L. Sp. PI. 1026. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 255. 1964. 

Polygamodioecious trees, the stipules minute or lacking; leaves paripinnate (rarely 
bipinnate), the leaflets few, prevailingly opposite; inflorescences racemose, axillary, 
terminal, or clustered on older wood; flowers small, solitary or fasciculate, usually 
unisexual but sometimes $ , the bracts and bracteoles minute, decuduous; calyx tube 
short-turbinate, the segments 5, imbricate; petals none; stamens 5 (vestigial in ? 
flowers), the filaments filiform, the anthers dorsifixed, versatile, dehiscent by lateral 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 97 

slits; disk fleshy, hypogynous, intrastaminal, wider than calyx; ovary short-stipitate 
(vestigial in d" flowers), the ovules numerous, the style short, the stigma peltate; fruit 
elongated, compressed, thick, indehiscent, thickened along sutures, divided within by 
pulp between seeds, the seeds transverse, obovate, compressed. 

Type species: Ceratonia siliqua L. 

Distribution: Mediterranean region and northeastern Africa and Arabia, with 
two species, one of which has been cultivated in Fiji. 

1 . Ceratonia siliqua L. Sp. PI. 1026. 1 753; B. E. V. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 10: 
113. 1939. 

A small tree (or up to 15 m. high where indigenous), infrequently cultivated near 
sea level. The leaves usually have 2-5 pairs of coriaceous, rounded leaflets about 4-6 
cm. long. The flowers are greenish to reddish, and the fruit is 12-30cm. long and about 
2 cm. thick. 

Typification: Linnaeus listed several prior references, including one to Hortus 
Upsaliensis. 

Distribution: Indigenous in the Mediterranean region, now occasionally culti- 
vated elsewhere. 

Local names and use: This very distinct species is widely known as carob. locust 
bean, and St. John's bread: the fruits may be used for fodder. 

Although no vouchers support the record in Fiji, Parham noted that the species 
was introduced in 1924 and in 1939 was doing well on the property of W. L. Wallace, 
Tovu Island, Ra Province, Viti Levu. It may still be in cultivation in seasonally dry 
areas. 

7. Storckiella Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255, nom. nud. 1861, in op. cit. 9: 363. 
(December) 1861, Fl. Vit. 68. 1865; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 36: 279. 1955; 
Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 228, as Storkiella. 1964. 

Trees, the stipules minute, caducous; leaves imparipinnate, with small, ellipsoid, 
axillary buds, the petiole conspicuously swollen at base, the leaflets alternate; inflores- 
cences terminal, cymose-paniculate, the bracts and bracteoles small, lanceolate, cadu- 
cous; pedicels bibracteolate at or near base, distally swollen into a short-turbinate 
calyx tube infilled with nectarial tissue, the sepals (3-) 5, subequal, imbricate; petals 
(3-) 5, subequal, imbricate, obovate-oblong, slightly longer than or subequal to sepals; 
stamens 4 or 5 (-6) or 9-15, free, exserted, all fertile, the filaments filiform, the anthers 
narrowly oblong, dorsifixed near base, dehiscing by short, oval, introrsely oblique, 
apical slits; ovary short-stipitate, free, the ovules 4-6, the style short, subulate, the 
stigma terminal, small; fruit elliptic to oblong, flat, compressed, broadly winged along 
upper suture, dehiscent and 2-valved, the valves thin-coriaceous, the seeds 1-4, 
transverse, compressed-ellipsoid. 

Type species: Storckiella vitiensis Seem. 

Distribution: Queensland, New Caledonia, and Fiji, with four or five or probably 
more species, one of which is endemic in Fiji. The New Caledonian species were first 
thought to have only four or five stamens and were placed by Baillon in a separate 
section Doga (based on Storckiella pancheri Baill.). However, it is nowseen that some 
New Caledonian specimens have 9-14 stamens (H. S. MacKee in litt.). The recently 
described S. australiensis i. Ross&B. Hyland(in MuelleriaS: 215.//^. /. 1983)hasfive 
(or six) stamens, very short filaments, and five (or three) leaflets. Prior descriptions of 
5. vitiensis have indicated the stamens as ten or twelve, but flowers are now at hand 
with 13, 14, and 15 stamens. 



98 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 



CAESALPINIACEAE 



99 




Figure 22. Slonkiellaviiiensis. from DA 1 1793: \, flower with 3 sepals, 3 petals, and 2 stamens removed 
(of 15 stamens in this flower), » 4; B, gynoecium and a few stamens, showmg mfilled hypanthium, » 4; C, 
anthers, introrse and extrorse surfaces, x 8. 

1. Storckiella viticnsis Seem, in Bonplandia9: 255, nom. nud. 1861,inop.cit. 9:363. r. 

6. (December) 1861; A. Gray in op. cit. 10: 35. 1862, in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5: 

317. 1862; Seem. Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 68. p/. 13. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 

Pac. 158. 1890; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 36: 279. 1955; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji 

Isl. 66. fig. 29. 1964, ed. 2. \Q2. fig. 30. 1972. Figures 21, 22. 

A tree 6-27 m. high, with a trunk up to 1 m. in diameter, occurring in usually dense 

forest from near sea level to an elevation of about 300 m. The leaves have 5 or 6 pairs of 

alternate leaflets in addition to the terminal one, each thin-coriaceous, ovate-oblong to 

narrowly elliptic, 4-8 x 1.5-3 cm., acuminate to cuspidate at apex, and paler beneath 

than above. The fragrant flowers have the calyx green, the petals golden-yellow, and 

the stamens somewhat darker yellow. As far as material is dated, flowers have been 

obtained in December, May, and July, and fruits in November and January. 

Lectotypification: In his first valid publication of the genus and species, See- 
mann (December, 1861) cited two collections. It is obvious that his own collection was 
the principal basis, and therefore I Icctotypify his concept by the three k sheets taken 
together: Seemann 133 (k lectotype, 3 sheets; isolectotype at bm), the flowering 



Figure 2 1 . Storckiella vitiensis: A, fruit with wing at left, » I ; B, inflorescence, x 1 / 3; C, distal portion of 
branchlet with foliage, x 1/3; D, inner surface of fruit valve with one attached seed, " 1. A & D from DF 
1124. B & C from DA 11793. 



100 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

material collected in July, 1860, at Port Kinnaird, Ovalau, the fruits collected in 
November, 1860, presumably from the same locality or possibly from the same tree. 
Seemann ( 1 865) remarked that he had collected ripe fruit during the very last hours of 
his stay in Fiji (he sailed from Ovalau on Nov. 16, 1 860). The second collection is A/!7«e 
72 (k, 2 sheets, leaves and flowers), labelled: "Naviti Levu. Tree forest districts around 
Nisana 30 to 40 feet high. Milne 1 858." Nisana has not been located, but in considering 
the type locality of Elaeocarpus milnei (cf. this Flora, vol. 2, p. 362) I speculated that it 
might be in the Waindina Valley, a very likely locality for the present species. Milne's 
collection was doubtless made in 1856, not 1858. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and now known from four of the high islands. 
Guillaumin (Fl. Nouv.-Caled. 156. 1948) listed Storckiella vitiensis from New Cale- 
donia, in reference to specimens with ten stamens (although the number is not so 
definite, as noted above); cf. also Guillaumin in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 17: 454. 
1911; Daniker in Viert. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 77: Beibl. 19: 179. 1932; Guillaumin & 
Baumann-Bodenheim in Mem. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., Ser. B, Bot. 8: 57. 1957. It seems 
likely that the New Caledonian specimens with more than five stamens represent an 
undescribed species (cf. Guillaumin's 1911 remarks) rather than S. vitiensis. 

Local names and uses: The names marasa and vesida have been recorded several 
times, ngandi only from the Rewa delta. The species produces a very durable timber 
that Seemann reported as used for housebuilding, but it is probably too infrequent to 
be used commercially. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Forest Reserve, Tholo-i-suva, DA 2510: vicinity of 
Tholo-i-suva, DA 11793, 11887. Rewa: Vicinity of Lomanikoro, Rewa River delta, DA 4036. K.ANDAVU: 
Vicinity of Naikorokoro, DF1124 (B. Batiram 5). VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: Nakatei Creek (tribu- 
tary of Wairikithake River, which enters Lambasa River about 12 km. south of Lambasa, DA 13749 (DF 
243, Bola 91): Navonu Creek, Natewa Peninsula, Berry 7, Howard 212. Fiji without further locality, DA 
4035. 4037. 

This spectacularly beautiful tree must be considered one of Seemann's most satis- 
factory finds. Until recent years it had been known only from the two original collec- 
tions, and in fact it is still rare, although it may be seen in some local abundance around 
Tholo-i-suva, a short distance north of Suva. The last two numbers cited above, 
without locality, may have come, with DA 4036, from the Rewa delta, but early DA 
numbers are not always sequential as to locality. 

8. Cassia L. Sp. PI. 376, p. p. minore. 1 753; Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. 
Card. 35: 4. 1982. 

Cassia sect. Fistula DC. ex Colladon, Hist. Nat. Med. Casses, 83, nom. superfl. 1816. 

Cassia subgen. Fistula Benth. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 15 (2): 83, nom. superfl. 1870. 

Cassia subgen. Cassia: de Wit in Webbia 11: 202. 1955. 
Trees, without extrafloral nectaries; leaves spirally arranged or distichous, paripin- 
nate, the leaflets opposite; inflorescences racemose, axillary or borne on branches, 
many-flowered, the pedicels subtended by a bract and with 2 bracteoles at or shortly 
above base; flowers § , with a solid, turbinate to vase-shaped hypanthium; sepals 5, 
imbricate, reflexed at anthesis; petals 5, subisomorphic, yellow to red, the vexillar one 
interior in bud; stamens 10, strongly accrescent toward abaxial side of flower, the 
filaments 2-many times as long as anthers, those of the 3 long abaxial stamens 
sigmoidally arcuate and much longer than anthers, those of the other stamens straight, 
the anthers of abaxial stamens dorsifixed, subversatile, introrsely dehiscent by slits, the 
anthers of adaxial stamens dehiscent by basal pores; ovary centric; fruit elongate, 
terete to compressed-tetragonal, sometimes sulcate along sutures or compressed but 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 101 

turgid, indehiscent, the valves firmly papery, leathery, or ligneous, the cavity divided 
by transverse septa into 1 rank or in addition by a longitudinal septum into 2 ranks of 
1 -seeded locules, the seed funicle filiform, the seeds horizontal, somewhat compressed 
parallel to septa, embedded in wet pulp or fibrous pith, the testa smooth, without 
areoles. 

Lectotype species: Cassia fistula L. (vide Gaertner, Fruct. Sem. PI. 2: 313. t. 147, 
fig. I. 1791; Britton & Brown, Fl. N. U. S. ed. 2. 2: 335. 1913), one of the 26 original 
species of Linnaeus. 

Distribution: Circumtropical (America, Africa, Madagascar, Asia, Malesia, and 
Australia), with about 30 species, many of which are widely cultivated ornamentally in 
nonindigenous areas. Five such species are known to be grown in Fiji. 

Useful treatments of genus: Wit, H. C. D. de. A revision of the genus "Cassia" (Caesalp.) as occurring 
in Malaysia. Webbia 11: 197-292. 1955. Symon, D. E. A revision of the genus Cassia L, Caesalpiniaceae in 
Australia. Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 90: 73-146. 1966. Irwin. H. S., & R. C. B.^rneby. The 
American Cassiinae: a synoptical revision of Leguminosae tribe Cassieae subtribe Cassiinae in the New 
World. Mem. New York Bot. Card. 35: 1-918. 1982. 

The thorough and detailed 1 982 work of Irwin and Barneby puts into effect, at least 
for native American species and for most of the widely cultivated ornamentals and 
weedy adventives, the division of the unwieldy genus Cassia into three well- 
demarcated genera, as advocated by the same authors in Adv. Leg. Syst. 104-106. 
198 1 . These taxa, recognized as clearly distinct subgenera by Bentham (in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. 27: 503-591. 1871) and many other specialists, differ from one another in 
characters as numerous and substantial as those utilized to recognize genera through- 
out the Fabaceae sensu lato. In the present work I have borrowed freely from the 
thoroughly documented work of Irwin and Barneby. 

Key to species 

Leaves with 2-7 (-8) pairs of leaflets; stipules small, 0.5-2 mm. long, caducous before expansion of 

associated leaf; inflorescences pendulous, the bracts small, up to 5 mm. long, caducous as pedicels begin 

to elongate. 

Inflorescences 15-65 cm. long, the flowers (7-) 15-75; pedicels 3-6 cm. long; petals clear golden-yellow, 

drying delicately brown-veined, the largest ones (16-) 21-32 mm. long; sigmoid filaments of 3 long 

stamens gradually and slightly thickened in middle; pods narrowly terete, 30-60 cm. long, 1.5-2.5 cm. 

in diameter, smooth, the sutures thickened and fully immersed, the fertile locules about 5 mm. long, 

the seeds embedded in sweet, glutinous, blackish pulp; leaflets 3-7 (-8) pairs, the blades subsymmetri- 

cally ovate, usually 9.5-21 " 5-9 cm., acute to subacuminate at apex 1. C fistula 

Inflorescences 7-30 cm. long, the flowers 6-12; pedicels 2-3 cm. long; petals yellow, orange, reddish, or 
brownish, the largest ones 10-13 mm. long; sigmoid filaments of 3 long stamens abruptly and 
conspicuously swollen into a globular nodule in middle; pods slightly or markedly compressed, 20-45 
cm. long, 1-2.5 cm. broad, with more or less distinct transverse ribs, the sutures persistent as body of 
pod disintegrates, the seeds falling enclosed in pod partitions about 12 " 10 mm.; leaflets 2-4 (-6) 
pairs, the blades narrowly ovate to oblong-lanceolate, the larger ones 4.5-5 « 1.5-2 cm., obtuse to 

emarginate at apex 1. C. brewsieri 

Leaves with 8- 1 7 (-2 1 ) pairs of leaflets, these with blades seldom exceeding 8*3 cm.; petals opening pink or 
red or whitish, fading to shades of orange or pale yellow or cream-colored. 
Stipules deltoid-subulate, to 1 mm. long and usually concealed by indument, caducous before expansion 
of associated leaf; leaflet blades oblong, the largest ones usually 3.5-6.5 " 1. 2-2.5 cm. .obtuse at apex; 
inflorescences becoming obliquely geotropic from drooping branchlets, (8-) 10-23 (-27) cm. long, 
the flowers usually 20-45, the bracts ovate, 2-5 mm. long, caducous as pedicels begin to elongate; 
pedicels (8-) 10-20 mm. long; longest petals (8.5-) 9-11 mm. long; sigmoid filaments of 3 long 
stamens gradually and slightly thickened in middle; pods massively linear-oblong, slightly laterally 
compressed, 40-60 (-100) cm. long, 3.5-5 cm. broad, keeled dorsally by 1 and ventrally by 2 parallel, 

blunt ribs, the seeds 14-16 x 9-10 mm 3. C grandis 

Stipules 2-lobed, reniform or crescentic, foliaceous or moderately dilated, laterally attached and 2-10 
mm. broad at point of attachment, briefly persistent but absent from mature specimens; leaflet blades 
ovate to oblong; inflorescences comparatively stiff, simply or paniculately racemose and subcorym- 



102 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

bose, not (or rarely) drooping, 3-12 (-25) cm. long, the flowers 10-many, the bracts broadly to 

narrowly ovate-acuminate, 5-12 (-17) mm. long, persistent into anthesis with similar but shorter 

bracteoles; pods elongate-pipelike, terete or slightly obcompressed, 40-60 cm. long, 1.5-2 cm. broad, 

neither thickened nor prominent at sutures, the seeds 6.5-8 x 6-7 mm. 

Leaflet blades usually 3.5-8 =< 1.5-3 cm., obtuse to acute to slightly acuminate at apex; pedicels (2.5-) 

3-6 cm. long; petals usually 1 2-35 mm. long; sigmoid filaments of 3 long stamens abruptly dilated 

near middle into a globular or ellipsoid nodule, their anthers pilosulous or puberulent dorsally. 

4. C. javanica 

Leaflet blades usually 2-4 x 1-2 cm., obtuse to retuse at apex; blades of stipules falcate-reniform, up to 8 

mm. long; pedicels 1-2 cm. long; petals usually 10-14 mm. long; sigmoid filaments of 3 long 

stamens not dilated, their anthers glabrous 5. C. roxburghii 

1. Cassia fistula L. Sp. PI. 377. 1753; B. E. V. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 10: 1 13. 

1939; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 60. 1943; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. 

Agr. Fiji 19: 90. 1948; de Wit in Webbia 11: 207. 1955; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. 

Dept. Agr. Fiji 29: 32. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964, ed. 2. 97. 1972; Symon in Trans. 

& Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 90: 79. 1966; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 

Caesalp. 50, 64. 1967; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200:55. 

1970; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. A\. fig. 9. 1979; Irwin & Barneby in 

Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 14./;^. 2. 1982. 

This favorite ornamental Cassia is a tree with a short bole and spreading crown, 

cultivated near sea level and usually attaining a height of about 10 m. (up to 20 m. 

where indigenous). It is unmistakable in its comparatively large leaflets, its pendulous, 

elongate racemes often occurring two or three together, its strikingly large flowers with 

long pedicels and golden-yellow petals, and its hanging, terete, smooth, hard-walled 

pods. 

Typification: The species is appropriately typified by Hermann s. n. (bm 
lectotype), collected in Ceylon (cf. Fawcett & Rendle, Fl. Jam. 4 (2): 102. 1920). 

Distribution: Indigenous in southeastern Asia and early dispersed throughout 
the Indian subcontinent, introduced into the neotropics prior to 1800, and now 
extensively cultivated throughout warm countries. It may have been first introduced 
into Fiji by J. B. Thurston, who listed it in his 1886 Catalogue. It may be seen in the 
Suva Botanical Gardens. 

Local names and uses: Golden shower; Indian laburnum; amaltas (Hindi). The 
golden shower, a highly ornamental street tree, is much more frequent in Fijian towns 
and gardens than indicated by the collections at hand. The bark can be used for 
tanning. Probably seeds are not produced in Fiji. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Rewa; Suva, Rodwell Road near Department of Agriculture 
compound, DA 12243. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Lambasa airport, Howard 307. 

2. Cassia brewsteri (F. v. Muell.) Benth. Fl. Austral. 2: 282. 1864; W. D. Francis, 

Austral. Rain-For. Trees, ed. 2. 164. 1951; de Wit in Webbia 11:290. 1955; Symon 
in Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 90: 80. 1966; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. 
Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 49. 1967. 

Calharlocarpus brewsteri F. v. Muell. Ann. Rep. Govern. Bot. (Melbourne) 1858: 17. nom. nud. 1858, 
Fragm. Phytogr. Austral. 1: 110. 1859. 

An infrequently cultivated tree at low elevation in Fiji, attaining a height of about 
12 m. and with a pendulous, comparatively few-flowered raceme of yellowish flowers. 

Typification: The type is Mueller s. n. (k holotvpe?; isotype at p), collected in 
hilly pastures and on banks of the Burdekin River, Queensland. 

Distribution: Queensland, Australia, occasionally cultivated elsewhere. 

Available collection: VlTl LEVU: Naitasiri: Forest Reserve, Tholo-i-suva, D.4. May 12, 1942. 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 103 

3. Cassia grandis L. f. Suppl. PI. 230. 1782; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 

90. 1948; de Wit in Webbia 11:212. 1955; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 
29: 32. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964, ed. 2. 97. 1972; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Caesalp. 49. 1967; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 45. fig. 10. 1979; Irwin & 
Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Card. 35: 30. fig. 1. 1982. 

In Fiji Cassia grandis is occasionally cultivated near sea level as an attractive tree to 
about 9 m. high (to 15 m. or more where indigenous). The leaves and inflorescences 
bear a more or less persistent rusty indument, the numerous leaflets are oblong, and the 
petals open pink or white, soon fading to an orange-pink or pale yellow. The only 
available collection was flowering in October. 

Typification: Linnaeus listed a collection made in Surinam in 1754 or 1755 by C. 
G. Dahlberg, designated as the lectotype by de Wit ( 1 955, cited above). However, Irwin 
and Barneby (1982) suggest that the species was in part based on a better lectotype: 
Cassia fistula Pore incarnato Breyne, Exot. PI. Cent. 58. t. 21. 1678. 

Distribution: An aboriginally dispersed species presumably indigenous in 
Central America, South America southward to the lower Amazon, and in parts of the 
Greater Antilles, now widely cultivated throughout tropical areas. In spite of the 
paucity of Fijian collections, the species is not infrequent and may have been intro- 
duced by J. B. Thurston, who listed it in his 1 886 Catalogue. It was growing in the Suva 
Botanical Gardens at least until 1959, although no voucher for that record is available. 

Local names and use: Thtpink shower or horse cassia is a striking ornamental for 
gardens and streets. 

Available collection: VITI LEVI): Rewa: Suva, Rodwell Road near Department of Agriculture 
compound, D.A 12238. 

4. Cassia javanica L. Sp. PI. 379. 1753; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 47. 1979; 

Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 46. 1982. 

As seen in Fiji, Cassia Javanica is a handsome ornamental tree cultivated at low 
elevations and attaining a height of 1 2 m. (up to 25 m. or more where indigenous). It is 
characterized by 2-lobed (but evanescent) stipules, numerous leaflets, comparatively 
stiff inflorescences with persistent bracts, large, long-pedicellate flowers with pink or 
carmine petals fading to buff-pink or orange or white, and essentially terete pods with 
the sutures neither thickened nor prominent. Specimens of the two varieties grown in 
Fiji usually flower between October and March. 

Irwin and Barneby ( 1 982, pp. 48-49) have well discussed the problems in recogniz- 
ing meaningful taxa in Cassia javanica (including C. nodosa), concluding that the 
stipules (unfortunately early caducous), sepal size, and size of fertile anthers provide 
the only dependable characters for sorting material into four varieties, two of which 
are noted in Fiji. 

Distribution: Believed to be indigenous in southeastern Asia (Bay of Bengal to 
southern China and southward) into Malesia including New Guinea, but in cultivation 
for a long period beyond this area. 

Key to varieties 
Blades of stipules amply foliaceous, venulose. at least I cm. long from tip to tip of lobes and at least T 3 as 

broad; leaflets usually rounded to broadly obtuse at ape.x; rachis of inflorescence stout; sepals dark red. 

(6.5-) ''-10 mm. long; petals pink, turning dark red 4a. var. /avanica 

Blades of stipules crescentic, up to 18 mm. long but not more than 5 mm. broad; leaflets usually acute to 

narrowly obtuse at ape.x; rachis of inflorescence slender; sepals green. 5.5-7 mm. long; petals pink to 

nearly white, turning yellowish pink 4b. var. tmlothinensis 



104 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

4a. Cassia javanica var. javanica; Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York. Bot. Gard. 35: 
50. 1982. 
Cassia javanica L. Sp. PI. 379. 1753; de Wit in Webbia 11:214. 1955; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 
135. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964, ed. 2. 98. 1972; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 
49. 1967. 
Cassia javanica subsp. javanica; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 47, 1979. 

Typification: Cassia Javanica is based entirely on Cassia fistula javanica, Jlore 
cameo J. Commelijn, Horti Med. Amstelod. 1: 217. /. 111. 1697. 

Local name and use: Usually known as pink and white shower, this beautiful 
ornamental was introduced into Fiji in 1910 (Parham, 1964, 1972, cited above); 
presumably Yeoward then had it in cultivation at the "Botanical Station," now the 
Suva Botanical Gardens, although no recent voucher from the Gardens is at hand. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Government House gardens, Suva, DA L. 1 1532: Suva, 
Department of Agriculture compound, DA 16204: Suva, in private garden, DA 16782. Fiji without further 
locality, Yeonard s. n. (K, probably from the present Suva Botanical Gardens). 

4b. Cassia javanica var. indochinensisGagnepaininFl. Indo-Chine2: 158. 1913; Irwin 

& Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 50. fig. 2. 1982. 
Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 336. 1832; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 

19:90. 1948;de Wit in Webbia 11: 223. 1955; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964, ed. 2.98. 1972; Brenan 

in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 49. 1967. 
Cassia javanica subsp. nodosa K. & S. Larsen in Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 25: 205. 1974; Verdcourt, Man. 

New Guinea Leg. 48. 1979. 

Typification and nomenclature: Cassia nodosa was described from a plant 
growing at the Botanic Garden in Calcutta, said to have come originally from Chitta- 
gong, Bangladesh, of which authentic specimens are Wallich 5331 (k holotype; 
isotype at NY). The close similarity of C. nodosa to C. javanica has long been 
recognized and they are sometimes taken as subspecies. The oldest applicable trinom- 
ial is C. javanica var. indochinensis; Gagnepain cited 13 collections from southeastern 
Asia for his variety, but a lectotype has presumably not been indicated. 

Local name and use: The ornamental p/'^^i/iower is commonly grown in Fiji and 
was probably introduced by J. B. Thurston, who listed it as Cassia nodosa in his 1886 
Catalogue. Although the plant was growing in the Suva Botanical Gardens in 1948 
(Parham, cited above), the record there is not supported by a voucher. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Government House gardens, Suva, DA L. 11531: Suva, 
Edinburgh Drive, DA 17236. 

5. Cassia roxburghii DC. Prodr. 2:489. 1825; de Wit in Webbia 11: 226. 1955; Brenan 
in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 49. 1967; Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York 
Bot. Gard. 35:51. 1982. 
Cassia marginata Roxb. Hort. Beng. 31, nom. nud. 1 8 14, Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 338. 1 832; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji 

Isl. ed. 2. 98. 1972; non Willd. (1809). 

A spreading tree 4-12 m. high, cultivated near sea level, resembling Cassiajavanica 
but with smaller leaflets, shorter pedicels, and smaller flowers, of which the petals are 
pink or orange. Flowers have been collected between October and April. 

Typification and nomenclature: Cassia marginata Roxb., an illegitimate later 
homonym of C. marginata Willd., was said to be a native of Ceylon introduced into the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta by General Macdowell in 1802; the type (de Wit, 1955, p. 
227) is Wallich 5308 (k holotype). Cassia roxburghii is a legitimate substitute name 
for Roxburgh's taxon (and also has nomenclatural priority). 

Distribution: Southern India and Ceylon, now widely introduced and cultivated 
elsewhere. 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 105 

Use: No local name has been noted in Fiji for this attractive ornamental, which is 
perhaps less commonly cultivated than Cassia javanica. The time of its introduction 
has not been noted but is probably comparatively recent. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Serua: Navua, Coronation Triangle, DA 16707. Naitasiri: 
Nasinu, Experimental Farm, DA 2546. Rewa; Suva, Government Buildings garden, DA 16479: Suva, 
Rodwell Road near Department of Agriculture compound, D,4 12239. 

9. Senna Mill. Gard. Diet. Abridg. ed. 4. 1754; Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York 
Bot. Gard. 35: 64. 1982. 
Cassia sect. Senna DC. ex Colladon, Hist. Nat. Med. Casses, 92. 1816. 
Caj.s/a subgen. 5e««a Benth. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 15(2):96. 1870, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 27:513, 518. I871;de 

Wit in Webbia 11:228. 1955. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, often with extrafloral nectaries on leaf petioles or rachises 
and/or raceme axes; leaves spirally arranged, paripinnate, the leaflets opposite; inflo- 
rescences 1 -many-flowered, racemose or corymbose-paniculate toward ends of 
branchlets or rarely borne on branches, the pedicels without bracteoles; flowers § , 
with a solid to slenderly vase-shaped hypanthium; sepals 5, imbricate; petals 5, subi- 
somorphic to strongly heteromorphic, yellow (rarely white), the vexillar one interior in 
bud; androecium functionally 4-10-merous, the stamens accrescent toward abaxial 
side of flower, the adaxial ones dwindling to staminodes, the filaments straight, shorter 
than or not more than twice as long as anthers, the anthers basifixed, glabrous along 
lateral sutures, dehiscent by pores or short slits apically; fruit terete, 4-angulate, or 
piano-compressed, sometimes winged lengthwise along sutures or valves, indehiscent 
or tardily dehiscent along ventral or both sutures, sometimes fragmenting through 
interseminal septa, the valves papery to coriaceous or ligneous, never coiling, the 
cavity often transversely septate, the seed funicle filiform, the seeds 1- or rarely 2- 
seriate, oriented either transversely or basipetally, the testa not pitted, sometimes with 
well-defined areoles. 

Type species: Miller took his generic name from Senna alexandrina sive foliis 
acutis C. Bauhin, Pinax, 397. 1623 = Senna ale.xandrina Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. 1768 
(Cassia senna L., p. p., excl. var. /3). 

Distribution: Pantropical, extending into warm temperate and rarely into cool 
temperate areas of both hemispheres, with about 260 species. The greater number of 
species is American, but others are indigenous in Africa, Madagascar, and Australia, 
and a few in southeastern Asia and the Pacific. Many species are cultivated as 
ornamentals and some may be regarded as weeds. Thirteen species are here recorded as 
occurring in Fiji, one or two of them indigenous, the others either introduced as 
ornamentals (and sometimes naturalizing) or adventive weeds. 
Useful treatments of genus: As listed under Cassia. 

Four of the sections recognized by Irwin and Barneby (1982) are found in Fiji and 
are listed parenthetically in the following key, but the key statements refer only to our 
representatives and do not presume to describe the full variation within the sections. 

Key to species 
Fertile stamens 10, the anthers similar but slightly accrescent toward abaxial side of flower; leaves with 
stipitate interpetiolular glands at least between lowermost pairs of leaflets; pods piano-compressed, the 
seeds transverse, compressed parallel to valves (sect. Psilorhegma). 
Leaflets 4-6 (-7) pairs; innermost sepal 8- II. 5 mm. long; longest petal (20-) 23-30 mm. long; style 4-6.5 

mm. long; body of pod 10-17 (-20) cm. long, 1.3-1.8 cm. broad; cultivated only \. S. sutfurea 

Leaflets (3-) 4 (-5) pairs; innermost sepal 5-8 mm. long; longest petal 6- 1 3 mm. long; style 1 -2 mm. long; 

body of pod 6-13 cm. long, 0.8-1.5 cm. broad; indigenous 1. S. glanclutigera 

Fertile stamens usually 7, rarely reduced to 6 (or fewer); stammodes 3 (infrequently suppressed); pods 
various (piano-compressed to terete or angled). 



106 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Flowers exactly zygomorphic or, if petals randomly asymmetrical, then the pistil centric (not laterally 
displaced), one abaxial petal not obviously different from the others; foliar glands present or absent; 
leaflets (in our representatives) 2-18 pairs. 
Two long (antepetalous) abaxial stamens incurved together in a plane opposed to vexillar petal, 
divergent from one another at a narrow angle or continuously subparallel; floral bracts compara- 
tively inconspicuous, linear or lanceolate to ovate, seldom longer than 12 mm.; foliar glands 
present (lacking only in sp. no. 3); leaflets 2-12 (-14) pairs; stipules subulate or lanceolate to 
deltoid, rarely exceeding 12 x 5 mm. (sect. Chamaefistula). 
Foliar glands absent; tree 6-12 m. high; leaves to 30 cm. long or more, the leaflets 5-12 (-14) pairs; 
functional stamens 7 but 3 staminodes relatively large; cultivated and sparingly naturalized. 

3. S. siamea 
Foliar gland(s) present, either between or below the proximal pair(s) of leaflets. 
Gland(s) inserted between pairs of leaflets or slightly above them. 

Anthers of 2 or 3 fertile abaxial stamens distinctly beaked, the beak more or less porrectly 
incurved and its orifice oblique; leaflets 2 or 3 pairs. 
Shrub or tree (1.5-) 2-8 m. high; leaflets always 2 pairs, the gland 1 between proximal pair, 
sessile, ovoid-ellipsoid, obtuse, usually 2-4 mm. long; functional stamens 6 or 7; pod 
cylindric or obtusely 4-angular, usually 14-36 cm. long; sparingly cultivated. 

4. 5. bacillaris 
Coarse herb or shrub 0.2-1.2 (-2) m. high, with glabrescent stems; leaves usually 6-12 cm. 
long, the leaflets 3 pairs, the rachis with slender, cylindric glands about 2 mm. long 
between both lower pairs of leaflets, the leaflet blades obovate, broadly rounded at apex, 
the largest (distal) ones 2.5-5.5 x 1.5-3 cm.; functional stamens 7; pod often curved, 
slender (4-6 mm. in diameter), terete or 4-angled, 10-15 cm. long; foetid-smelling weed, 

often abundant 5. 5. tora 

Anthers of 2 or 3 fertile abaxial stamens with a short, dilated, obliquely truncate beak; leaflets 3 
or 4 (-5) pairs, with glands present between all (or all but distal) pairs; leafy shrub or small 
tree 1-5 m. high; largest leaflet blades ovate, up to 10 x 4cm., acuminate; cultivated and also 

becoming naturalized 6. S. septemtrionalis 

Gland inserted on petiole below proximal pair of leaflets, often contiguous to leaf pulvinus; coarse 

herbs or shrubs seldom exceeding 2 m. in height; leaflets 3-8 pairs. 

Stems and leaves hirsute with straight, ascending, pale, lustrous hairs 1-2.5 mm. long; petiolar 

gland subcylindric to subclavate; peduncles usually 1-12 mm. long, the racemes 2-8- 

flowered; pod 1 1-18 x 0.4-0.7cm.,densely hirsute, the seeds when not crowded compressed 

parallel to valves, when crowded becoming variably distorted; adventive weed. 

7. 5. hirsuta 
Stems, leaves, and pods soon glabrate, if at first pilosulous the longest hairs not more than 0.6 
mm. long; pods 6-13 x 0.7-1 cm., the seeds mostly with broad faces turned to septa. 
Petiolar gland hemispherical, ovoid, or subglobose; leaflets 4 or 5, the largest blades up to 1 2 x 
4 cm.; peduncles 3-8 mm. long, the racemes 1-5-flowered, the bracts acute; style moder- 
ately dilated or incurved at tip, the stigmatic cavity introrsely lateral, elliptic- 
oblanceolate; pod compressed or piano-compressed, the seeds 1-seriate; adventive weed, 

often locally abundant 8. S. occidenlalis 

Petiolar gland cylindric or clavate; leaflets (4-) 6-8, the largest blades up to 7 x 2 cm.; 
peduncles 8-25 mm. long, the racemes 4- 1 0-flowered, the bracts obtuse to subacute; style 
strongly dilated at tip and incurved through about 180°, the stigmatic cavity terminal, 
round; pod subterete, the seeds 2-seriate; presumably indigenous but infrequent. 

9. S. sophera 

Two long (structurally antepetalous) abaxial stamens raised sideways into the plane horizontal to floral 

axis of symmetry, the incurved anthers opposed to one another like the arms of tongs; floral bracts 

conspicuous, petaloid, 9-30 mm. long, forming a terminal cone on developing racemes; foliar 

glands lacking; leaflets 5-18 pairs; dense-foliaged shrubs or small trees usually not more than 5 m. 

high (sect. Senna). 

Leaves usually 30-75 cm. long, the terminal seta of rachis dilated into a conduplicate blade 2.5-5 mm. 

long, the leaflets 5-13 pairs, the larger blades usually 7-19 x 3- 10 cm.; stipules obliquely dehoid, 

6-16 X 3-10 mm.; floral bracts yellow or orange; pods 12-19 cm. long, winged lengthwise down 

the middle of each valve; cultivated or sparingly naturalized 10. S. alata 

Leaves usually 1 0-40 cm. long, the terminal seta of rachis obsolete, the leaflets 8-18 pairs, the larger 
blades usually 2-6.5 x 1-2.5 cm.; stipules broadly ovate-cordate, acuminate, 10-25 x 8-12 mm.; 
floral bracts brownish or blackish green; pods 7-12 cm. long, strongly compressed; sparingly 

cultivated 11.5. didymobotrya 

Flowers strongly asymmetrical, one abaxial petal (alternately right and left following raceme axis) 
obhquely dilated and opposed to the laterally displaced pistil; foliar gland(s) present at least between 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 107 

proximal pair of leaflets; leaflets (in our representatives) usually 4-36 pairs, the blades not larger than 
4.6 X 1.5 cm. (sect. Peiranisia). 

Leaflets (in our variety) 16-36 (-46) pairs, the blades oblong to oblong-elliptic, usually 20-46 » 4.5-13 
mm.; foliar gland present between proximal pair of leaflets and similar glands often present also 
between a few distal pairs; inflorescence a panicle of 3-16 racemes, each raceme usually with 5 or 
more flowers; pedicels 14-32 mm. long, not subtended by a gland; longest petals 16-26 mm. long; 
pod broadly linear, 8-20 " 1 .3-2. 1 cm.; tree to 1 1 (-25) m. high, cuhivated and perhaps sparingly 
naturalized \1. S. multijuga 

Leaflets (in our variety) usually 4-7 pairs, the distal blades obovate to oblanceolate, usually 19-35 » 
8-15 mm.; foliar gland present only between proximal pair of leaflets; inflorescence inconspicu- 
ously paniculate, composed of 1 -few racemes, each raceme usually 2-flowered; pedicels 1 1 - 1 8 mm. 
long, each subtended on one side by a gland like that between proximal pair of leaflets; longest 
petals 14-19 mm. long; pod linear, in our variety 6-9.5 x 0.4-0.5 cm.; shrub to 4 m. high, sparingly 
cultivated 13.5. pallida 

1. Senna sulfurea (DC. ex Colladon) Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 
35: 78. 1982. 
Cassia glauca Lam. Encyl. Meth. Bot. 1:647. 1785; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 97. \972; non Senna 

glauca Roxb. (1832). 
Cassia sulfurea DC. ex Colladon, Hist. Nat. Med. Casses, 84. 1816. 
Cassia surallensis sensu de Wit in Webbia 11: 269. 1955; non Burm. f. (1768). 

As infrequently seen in cultivation near sea level in Fiji, Senna sulfurea is a small 
tree 4-6 m. high. The leaves, up to 30 cm. in length, have 4-6 (-7) pairs of leaflets with 
usually elliptic blades paler beneath, the largest ones up to 8.5 ^ 3.8 cm. The racemes 
are mostly 7- 15-flowered, with pedicels 2-4 cm. long, and the petals are bright yellow, 
ovate to oblong-obovate, and as long as 30 mm. Flowers have been noted in Fiji in 
January and March. 

Typification and nomenclature: The oldest name for this species. Cassia glauca, 
is based on Sonnerat (p-la holotype), from the vicinity of Pondichery, India; the 
epithet cannot be used in Senna because of Roxburgh's use of the binomial for a 
different taxon. Cassia sulfurea is based on a plant growing "in horto Parisiano" in 
1803; no specimen of this seems extant, but a specimen at g-dc, said to be from 
Mauritius or La Reunion, is considered authentic by Irwin and Barneby (1982). The 
same authors have discussed the confusion between Cassia glauca and C. surattensis, 
clarifying the two closely related species of Senna sect. Psilorhegma, both of which are 
now widely cultivated. 

Distribution: Probably indigenous in tropical India and Burma, but early 
dispersed through Indo-Malesia as a shade and ornamental tree and becoming natu- 
ralized, now cultivated in tropical areas in both hemispheres. 

Use: An ornamental and shade tree. 

Available collections; VITI LEVU: Rewa: Suva Botanical Gardens, DA 12296: Lami, H. B. R. 
Parham 9. p. p. (March 22, 1932). 

The related Senna surattensis (Burm. f.) Irwin & Barneby, with smaller leaves, 
flowers, and fruits, has not been noted in Fiji but is likely to be found there in 
cultivation. In the soathem Pacific it is known from the Mariana and Caroline Islands 
(cf. Fosberg in Phytologia 15: 500. 1968), the Cook Islands, the Societies, and perhaps 
elsewhere. 

In clarifying past interpretations of the "Cassia glauca" complex (i. e. the species 
now referable to Senna sulfurea and S. surattensis), Irwin and Barneby (1982, p. 80) 
made the correct combination Senna gaudichaudii (Hook. & Arn.) Irwin & Barneby 
for the only indigenous Hawaiian relative, suggesting that the taxon of this relation- 
ship indigenous in Fiji and the New Hebrides is the Hawaiian species. They did not 
mention Cassia glanduligera St. John, a taxon that in my opinion merits separation at 
some level from 5. gaudichaudii: it is discussed as the following species. 



108 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

2. Senna glanduligera (St. John) A. C. Sm., comb. nov. 

Cassia glauca sensu A. Gmy, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:464. 1854; Seem. Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 67, p.p. 

1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 158. 1890; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12: 247. 1931; non Lam. 
Cassia glanduligera St. John in Trans. Roy. Sec. New Zealand Bot. 1: 181. ^Tg. 8. 1962. 

As seen in Fiji, this indigenous senna occurs as an infrequent shrub or small tree 1 -5 
m. high growing on rocky coasts or on lagoon cliffs, usually or always on limestone. It 
becomes glabrous very early and also loses its stipules, these being lanceolate and (5-) 
7-12 mm. long. The leaves are 9-22 cm. long, with the longer interfoliolar segments of 
the rachis (10-) 15-25 mm. long; the leaflets are usually 4 pairs, with conspicuous, 
clavate glands between the 2 or 3 lowermost pairs, and with eUiptic to oblong blades 
seldom exceeding 7 ^ 3.5 cm. The short inflorescences bear fragrant flowers with 
yellow petals no longer than 13 mm., and the pods are thin, flat, and brown, not 
exceeding 13 x 1.5 cm. Dated collections bore flowers and fruits in February and 
August. 

Typification; The type of Cassia glanduligera is St. John & Fosberg 15128 (bish 
HOLOTYPE and 2 isotypes), collected June 18, 1934, on elevated dissected coral at the 
north end of Henderson Island. 

Distribution: New Hebrides (and possibly New Caledonia) eastward to Hender- 
son Island. In addition to the Fijian collections cited below, material is now available 
from the New Hebrides (Erromango and Tanna, cited by Guillaumin, 1931), Austral 
Islands (Rurutu and Raivavae), Rapa, and Henderson. In his original discussion of 
Cassia glanduligera, St. John mentioned that reports of C. gaudichaudii from Tahiti, 
the Loyalty Islands, and New Caledonia should be reconsidered. It seems hkely that 
indigenous sennas of this relationship from those areas will prove to represent Senna 
glanduligera. 

Local name: Vaivai (Fulanga). 

Available collections: OVALAU: U. S. Expl. Exped. ONEATA: U. S. Expl Exped FULANGA: On 
limestone cliffs in lagoon. Smith 1210. ONGEA LEVU: On rocky sea coast, Bryan 431. 

The relationship between Senna glanduligera and S. gaudichaudii (Hook. & Arn.) 
Irwin & Barneby (i. e. Cassia glanduligera and C. gaudichaudii) is indeed very close, as 
implied in St. John's protologue. There appear to be no consequential differences 
between the flowers and fruits of the two taxa, but certain divergent tendencies are 
apparent if series of collections are carefully compared, these being expressed in the 
following key: 

Young vegetative parts, rachis, petiolules, and lower surfaces of leaflet blades at first copiously stramineous- 
pilose with spreading hairs, the indument usually persisting at anthesis and often in fruit, but sometimes 
finally lost; stipules (6-) 8-18 mm. long; leaflets (3-) 5 (-6) pairs, the interpetiolular glands very 
slenderly stipitate-clavate, present between 1 or 2 lowermost pairs of leaflets, the leaflet blades 
elliptic-oblong or narrowly elHptic, the largest ones 2.2-6 (-9.5) x (0.7-) 1-2.5 (-3.3) cm., (1.9-) 2-3 

(-3.3) times longer than broad; endemic to Hawaii 5. gaudichaudii 

Young vegetative parts, rachis, petiolules, and lower surfaces of leaflet blades at first sparsely pale- or 
brown-puberulent with appressed or subascending hairs, the indument evanescent and usually lost 
before full anthesis; stipules (5-) 7-12 mm. long; leaflets (3-) 4 (-5) pairs, the interpetiolular glands 
(comparatively stout-stalked) present between 2 or 3 lowermost pairs of leaflets, the leaflet blades 
elliptic to oblong, the largest ones (3.4-) 4-7 (-8) x ( 1 .3-) 1.5-3.7 cm., ( 1.6-) 1 .8-2.5 (-2.9) times longer 
than broad; southern Pacific from (New Caledonia?) New Hebrides to Henderson Island. 

S. glanduligera 

The characters here utilized are not entirely convincing, and certainly some taxon- 
omists (including R. C. Barneby, who has kindly reviewed the opinion here expressed) 
will consider them to denote taxa of only inf raspecific consequence, if indeed even that. 
However, Senna gaudichaudii is the only indigenous Hawaiian senna, and one must be 
very reluctant to extend the range of an assumed endemic to southern Pacific archipel- 
agoes. Very few flowering plants, except a limited number that are notoriously "easy" 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 109 

dispersers, have natural ranges that extend north-south between Hawaii and Polynesi- 
an-Melanesian archipelagoes. The characters itemized above referring to indument 
and leaflet blade proportions are at once perceived, although if the two populations 
were now in a position to exchange genetic data they would possibly lose their 
identities. 

3. Senna siamea (Lam.) Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 98. 1982. 
Cassia siamea Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 1:648. 1785; Benth. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 27:549. 1871; Greenwood 

in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 94. 1943; de Wit in Webbia 11: 263. 1955; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 64. 1964, ed. 

2. 98. 1972; Brenan in FI. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 50. 1967; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 52. 

1979. 
Cassia florida Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: 57. 1794. 

As it occurs in Fiji, Senna siamea is a tree 6-12 m. high (up to 30 m. where 
indigenous), occasionally cultivated between sea level and about 250 m. and sometimes 
established on roadsides and in parks. Its stipules are subulate, minute, about 1 mm. 
long, and very early caducous. Its leaves may exceed 30 cm. in length, and its usually 
5- 1 2 pairs of leaflets have lanceolate to ovate-elliptic blades up to 8 x 3 cm. and obtuse 
to emarginate at apex. The inflorescence is a thyrsiform or pyramidal panicle up to 40 
cm. long, composed of corymbiform racemes usually with 20-60 flowers, the pedicels 
are 20-35 mm. long, the largest sepal is 6-9 mm. long, and the yellow petals are as long 
as 12-17 mm. The pods are linear-plano-convex, usually 20-30 x 1.2-1.5 cm., with 
thick, riblike sutures, the seeds strongly compressed parallel to valves, up to 8 x 6 mm. 
Dated specimens were flowering in March and April. 

Typification and nomenclature: Cassia siamea is typified by Commerson (p-la 
holotype), taken from a plant cultivated on La Reunion in the Mascarenes but 
believed to be indigenous in Burma and Thailand, now extensively cultivated as an 
ornamental or sometimes as a coffee shade or windbreak. Cassia florida was described 
from the East Indies; Irwin and Barneby (1982) have not seen a type but accept 
Bentham's traditional interpretation (1871) of it. Other synonyms are discussed by 
Irwin and Barneby. 

Distribution: Indigenous in southeastern Asia, probably in Burma and Thailand, 
now widely cultivated elsewhere. It was probably introduced into Fiji by J. B. Thur- 
ston, listed in his 1 886 Catalogue as Cassia florida. 

Local name and use: The kassod tree was probably brought into Fiji as an 
ornamental. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Forest Park, Tholo-i-suva, DF 309, Damanu 32: 
Tamavua Village, Tolhill 140: 9 miles from Suva along King's Road, D.A 16408. Rewa: Suva, Department of 
Agriculture compound, DA 12060: Suva, Rodwell Road near Department of Agriculture compound, DA 
12358. 

4. Senna bacillaris(L. f.) Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 113. 1982. 

Cassia bacillaris L. f. Suppl. PI. 231. 1782. 

Cassia frulicosa sensu Benth. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 15 (2): 98. /. 31. 1870, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 27: 521. 1871; de 
Wit in Webbia 11:247. 1955; Backer & Bakh. f. Fl. Java 1: 537. 1963; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Caesalp. 70. 1967; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 97. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 43. 
1979; non Mill. (1768). 

A tall shrub or small tree 2-8 m. high, infrequently cultivated near sea level. The 
leaves are 12-25 cm. long overall, the petiole being 2-6 cm. long and usually exceeding 
the rachis. Senna bacillaris is the only species of the genus recorded from Fiji with as 
few as two pairs of leaflets, these having inaequilaterally elliptic or ovate blades up to 
19 X 9.5 cm. The paniculate inflorescence is composed of 5-35-nowered racemes 
usually 2-7 cm. long, the pedicels being 2.5-5 cm. long, the longest sepal 8-12 mm. 
long, the petals pale yellow or golden-yellow and with obovate or elliptic blades as long 
as 18-30 mm. The pendulous pods bear biseriate seeds embedded in pulp. The only 
specimen at hand was flowering in July. 



no FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification and nomenclature: The type of Cassia bacillaris is C. G. Dahlberg 
(linn 528.2 & 3 holotype), from Surinam. A discussion of other synonyms and of 
Bentham's misinterpretation of Cassia fruticosa Mill, is provided by Irwin and Bar- 
neby. 

Distribution: Tropical America, widely dispersed around the southern circumfer- 
ence of the Caribbean and in northeastern South America, and long cultivated in 
tropical gardens of the Old and New Worlds. Of the two varieties treated by Irwin and 
Barneby, the commonly cultivated plant belongs in var. bacillaris. 

Use: Ornamental; apparently a comparatively recent introduction into Fiji. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 12158. 

5. Senna tora (L.) Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 340. 1832. 

Cassia tora L. Sp. PI. 376. 1 753; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 99. 1935; A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 

1: 39. 1942; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943; de Wit in Webbia 11: 276. 1955; Brenanin 

Kew Bull. 13: 248. 1958; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 136. 1959; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji 

Bull. 35: 82.y(g. 40. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 64. 1964, ed. 2.99. 1972; Symon in Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South 

Australia 90: 92. 1966; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 144. 

1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 56. 1979. 
Cassia obtusifolia sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 67. 1865, op. cit. 427. 

1873; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 158. 1890; non L. 

A coarse herb or shrub usually not exceeding 1 .2 m. in height, abundantly natural- 
ized as a weed in fields, plantations, canefields, and villages, along roadsides, and also 
spreading to grass-covered hills and forested ravines at elevations from near sea level to 
about 600 m. This pernicious weed is at once distinguished from other weedy sennas in 
Fiji by having its leaflets in three pairs, with a gland between both lower pairs; the 
leaflet blades are obovate and broadly rounded at apex, the largest (distal) ones being 
up to 5.5 ^ 3 cm. The short, 2-flowered racemes have pedicels 4-15 mm. long, sepals 
5-6 mm. long, and yellow petals up to 8-10 mm. long. Flowers and fruits occur 
throughout the year. 

Typification: De Wit (1955, cited above) proposed as the type linn 528.9. 
However, Brenan (1958, p. 250) pointed out that this specimen was available to 
Linnaeus only in 1758; a more suitable choice is the original reference to Fl. Zeyl. 152. 
1747: Herb. Hermann (bm lectotype), collected in Ceylon. 

Distribution: Paleotropical, from India and Ceylon eastward into Polynesia, but 
not indigenous east of Melanesia and perhaps not there. The species has been confused 
with Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby (i. e. Cassia obtusifolia L.); Brenan (1958, 
cited above) has pointed out the distinctions between the two species and their different 
distributions. Senna obtusifolia is distributed throughout the tropical regions of the 
world, but it does not occur in Polynesia (nor, presumably, in most of Melanesia, 
although Verdcourt (1979) considers it present in New Guinea). Neither of the two 
species was believed to occur in Australia by Brenan, but Symon (1966) indicates that 
both are present there as recent adventives. In Fiji S. tora is now a widespread weed 
difficult to eradicate. The date of its introduction is uncertain, but the first record 
seems to be that of Seemann, who collected it in 1860. Probably it was an early and 
inadvertent European introduction rather than an aboriginal one. It is also frequent in 
Tonga and Samoa but seems infrequent or lacking in many other Polynesian archipel- 
agoes. About 50 Fijian collections, most made within the past half century, are at 
hand, from seven islands, although the species is doubtless present on many other 
islands. 

Local names: Kaumothe (general); pini (Lakemba); tarota (Hindi). 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 111 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 206: Nandi, DA 9686: Nalo- 
tawa. eastern base of Mt. Evans Range, Smith 4500: Vatia, west of Tavua, Degener 14981. Nandronga & 
Navosa: Singatoka Experimental Farm, DA 5958: Lawangga, DA 9779. Ra: Yanggara, D.4 10732: Pasture 
Seed and Production Farm, Ndombuilevu, D.4 9525. Tailevu: Naingani Island, DA 3372: Matavatathou, 
DA 11279. Rewa: Lami, //. B. R. Parham 9. p. p.; Suva, Meebold 16462. KANDAVU: Between Talaulia 
and Ndavinggele, DA 2939. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Tambia, DA 8745: Lambasa, Greenwood 206B. 
Thakaundrove: Savusavu, Krau.ss 1021. TAVEUNI: Vicinity of Waiyevo, Gillespie 4461.4: Vatuwiri 
Estate, DA 8923. MATUKU: Bryan 261. VANUA MBALAVU: Lomaloma, DA 10232. LAKEMBA: Near 
Tumbou, Garnock-Jones 896. Fiji without further locality, Seemann 135. 

6. Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 

365. 1982. 
Cassia sepiemirionalis Viv. Elench, PI. Hort. Bot, 14. 1802. 
Cassia laevigata Willd. Enum. PI. Hort. Berol. 1:441. 1809; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 

1862, Fl. Vit. 67. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 158. 1890; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 

29: 32. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 98. 1972. 
CaiJ(oy7on6uWasensudeWitinWebbiall:245. 1955; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964, ed. 2. 97. 1972; 

Symon in Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 90: 86. 1966; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 

Caesalp. 70. 1967; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 43. 1979; nonCav. (180l)(i. e. Senna " flonhunda 

(Cav.) Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 360. 1982; Senna multiglandulosa (Jacq.) 

Irwin & Barneby " 5. septemtrionalis). 

Small tree or shrub 1 -5 m. high, flowering almost continually, cultivated near sea 
level and also naturalized on cleared land and becoming a weed in villages and thickets 
up to an elevation of 900 m. Its lanceolate stipules are 3-7 mm, long and caducous, and 
its leaves are 8-25 cm. long, usually with 3 or 4 pairs of leaflets with acuminate blades 
up to 10 >< 4 cm. The inflorescence is a terminal panicle of racemes, these up to 8 cm. 
long and usually 4-10-flowered, The flowers have bright yellow (sometimes green- or 
reddish-tinged) sepals up to 6.5-10 mm. long; the petals are bright yellow, the longest 
ones 13-18 mm. long; and the pods are obliquely ascending, cylindric or obtusely 
subquadrangular, up to about 10.5 x 1 cm. (flattening under pressure), with valves 
becoming papyraceous. 

Typification AND NOMENCLATURE: Cassia sepiemirionalis was described from 
plants cultivated at Genoa; no type is known to survive, but the description is full and 
decisive. Cassia laevigaia was described from a plant cultivated at Berlin (b-willd 
7952 holotype), of unknown provenance. For a discussion of these and the hybrid 
Senna >^ floribunda, cf. Irwin and Barneby (1982). 

Distribution: Apparently indigenous in Mexico and southward to Costa Rica, 
but a prolific weed and since pre-Columbian times used for folk medicine, more 
recently widespread in cultivation and naturalized. It has long been established in the 
Old World tropics, Africa and India to Malesia, and also in Fiji and Hawaii. The date 
of its introduction into Fiji is unclear, but Seemann noted it (as Cassia laevigaia) in 
1860; it could conceivably have been an aboriginal introduction, but more probably 
was an early European introduction that occasionally became naturalized. 

Local names and use: Mosimosi (Gillespie 4080); naseni karakarawa (Mba); 
winivinikau (Namosi); yellow shower. An ornamental, but also widely established on 
Viti Levu as a weed. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mountains inland from Lautoka, Greenwood 24. 24Z: 
Nalotawa, eastern base of Mt. Evans Range, Smith 4113: Nandala, south of Nandarivatu, Degener 14735; 
base of Mt. Tomanivi, Parks 20842. Namosi: Vuniwaivutuku, west of Namosi, Seemann 136. Naitasiri: 
Nanduruloulou (in nursery), DA 12142. Rewa: Suva, in private garden, D,A 16083: also recorded as growing 
in the Suva Botanical Gardens (Parham, 1959) but no voucher available. Fiji without further locality, 
Gillespie 4080. 

7, Senna hirsuta (L.) Irwin & Barneby in Phytologia 44: 499. 1979, in Mem. New York 

Bot. Gard, 35: 425. 1982. 



112 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Cassia hirsuta L. Sp. PI. 378. 1753; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943; de Wit in Webbia 11: 
250. 1955; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 8 1. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964, ed. 2. 97. 1972; Symon 
in Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 90: 88. 1966; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 80. 
1967; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 45. 1979. 

A coarse herb becoming softly woody in age or a shrub 0. 5-3 m. high, established as 
a weed in villages and plantations, along roadsides, and on rocky shores of rivers. 
From other weedy sennas occurring in Fiji, Senna hirsuta is readily distinguished by its 
abundant, pale indument. The leaves are usually 10-25 cm. long, with (2-) 3-6 pairs of 
accrescent leaflets, the distal ones with ovate to elliptic, acuminate blades up to 10.5 x 4 
cm. The 2-8-flowered racemes have pedicels 10-25 mm. long at anthesis and yellow 
petals up to 8- 1 5 mm. long. The pods are stiffly ascending or outwardly recurved, up to 
18 cm. long, and very slender. Flowers and fruits have been noted between April and 
September. 

Typification: The type was a plant cultivated at Hartekamp and described by 
Linnaeus, Hort. Cliff. 159. 1737, represented in Herb. Cliffort. (bm holotype) as 
Cassia No. 4 (leaves only). 

Distribution; A widespread weed but perhaps genuinely autochthonous in South 
America, most likely in southern Brazil. Seven varieties are recognized by Irwin and 
Barneby (1982), essentially confined to America except for var. /?/r5u/a, which has long 
been naturalized in the wet tropics of the Old World. It was first noted in Fiji in 1935 
(Parham, 1972). 

Local name: Stinking cassia. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 229, 787; Nandi, DA 10892: Vatutu, 
near Nandi, DA 10890: Veiseisei Village, DA 16659: Nalotawa, eastern base of Mt. Evans Range, Smith 
4328. Nandronga & Navosa: Along Queen's Road west of Thuvu, DA 5826: Ndumbulevu, upper Singa- 
toka Valley, DA 1 1344: Narata, upper Singatoka Valley, DA 1 1362. Naitasiri: Tamavua, DA 2554, 11826. 
Rewa: Suva, Meebold 16656. OVALAU: Valley of Mbureta and Lovoni Rivers, Smith 7389. TAVEUNI: 
Waimanggere Estate, DA 115 1 7. 

8. Senna occidentalis (L.) Link, Handbuch 2: 140. 1829; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 343. 
1832; Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Card. 35: 436. 1982. 

Cassia occidentalis L.Sp.PV 377. 1753;Seem. in Bonplandia9:255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 67. 1865; 

Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 158. 1890; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 99. 1935; Yunckerin 

op. cit. 178: 60. 1943; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943; de Wit in Webbia 11: 256. 1955; 

Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 1 35. 1 959; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 8 1 .fig. 39. 1 959, 

PI. Fiji Isl. 64. 1964, ed. 2. 98. 1972; Symon in Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 90: 87. 1966; 

Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 7%.fig. 14. 1967; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. 

Bull. 200: 56. 1970; St. John & A. C. Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25: 327. 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 

Leg. 51. 1979. 

Coarse, foetid herb or shrub to 2 m. high, often locally abundant as a weed at 
elevations from near sea level to 850 m. along roadsides, in canefields, coconut 
plantations, pastures, and open fields, and sometimes on river banks or sand dunes. 
The larger leaves are 1 1-24 cm. long, usually with 4 or 5 pairs of distally accrescent 
leaflets with the largest blades mostly ovate-acuminate and up to 12 x 4 cm. The short, 
1-5-flowered racemes have the sepals pinkish- or brown-tinged, the petals yellow and 
up to 16 mm. long, drying whitish and brown-veined. The erect or narrowly ascending, 
usually slightly incurved pods are 8-13 x 0.7-1 cm. Flowers and fruits are seen 
throughout the year. 

Typification: The best lectotype (Brenan, 1967, cited above) is from a plant 
cultivated at Hartekamp and first described by Linnaeus in Hort. Cliffort. 159. 1738: 
Herb. Cliffort. (bm lectotype). De Wit (1955) had designated linn 528. 13 as the type, 
but that specimen was not available to Linnaeus until 1 758 (Irwin and Barneby, 1982). 

Distribution: Ahhough Senna occidentalis has long had a pantropical distribu- 
tion, extending into warm temperate areas, and has often been considered initially 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 113 

American, Irwin and Barneby ( 1982, p. 440) adduce that its origin was more probably 
paleotropical. It was first noted in Fiji by Seemannin 1860. About 40 Fijian collections 
are at hand from five islands, but the species may be anticipated on many others. 
Local names: Kau mothe; pint (Lakemba). 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, To//!/// 4(5.?; vicinity of Nandi, DA 10705: 
Vatia, west of Tavua, Degener 14979: between Nandarivatu and Navai, DA 17329. Nandronga& Navosa: 
Naveisamasama, DA 9760: Ndumbulevu, upper Singatoka Valley. DA 11346. Ra: Yanggara, DA 10737: 
Penang, Greenwood 258.4. Tailevu: Naingani Island, DA 3369: Matavatathou, DA 9951. Rewa: Suva 
Point. DA 6089. OVALAU: Levuka, Tolhil/ 134. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Lambasa, Greenwood 258C. 
Thakahndrove: Nangingi, DA 10778. TAVEUNL Vicinity of Waiyevo, G/Vte/'/e 4(564. Z; Waitavala Estate, 
DA 8905. LAKEMBA: Near Tumbou, Garnock-Jones 894. Fiji without further locahty. Seemann 134. 

9. Senna sophera(L.) Roxb. Fl. Ind.ed. 2. 2: lAl ,?is S. sophora. 1832; Irwin & Barneby 

in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 440. 1982. 
Cassia sophera L. Sp. PI. 379. 1753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 67, as C. sophora. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 

158. 1890; de Wit in Webbia II: 265. 1955; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 136. 1959; J. W. Parham, 

PI. Fiji Isl. 64. 1964, ed. 2.98. 1972; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 78. 1967; St. John & A. C. 

Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25:327. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 

85: 51. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 54. 1979. 
Cassia occidentalis var. sophera A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 462. 1854. 

Erect herb 0.5-2 m. high, soon becoming woody, only weakly malodorous, pre- 
sumably indigenous and occurring near sea level, although weedy in aspect, apparently 
rare. The larger leaves are 7-18 cm. long, usually with 6-8 pairs of leaflets, the largest 
(distal) blades lanceolate or ovate-acuminate and up to 7 x 2 cm. The 4-10-flowered 
racemes have flowers with petals like those of Senna occidentalis but slightly smaller. 
The pods are erect or stiffly ascending, cylindric or linear-ellipsoid, and usually 6-9.5 x 
0.7-1 cm. 

Typification; One of the three original references, that to L. Fl. Zeyl. 64. 1747, is 
taken to typify the species: Herb. Hermann (bm lectotype) (Trimen in J. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. 24: 141. 1887). 

Distribution: Pantropical, but perhaps originally paleotropical, according to 
Irwin and Barneby's discussion (1982, pp. 439-443). However, those authors are not 
entirely satisfied that all the American populations of Senna sophera are identical with 
the nomenclaturally typical paleotropical taxon. It may be suspected that S. sophera. 
in this broad sense, is indigenous in the Pacific as far eastward as Tonga and Samoa. 
This was the opinion of Seemann (1865); the species was first collected in Fiji and 
Samoa by the U. S. Exploring Expedition. No recent collections from Fiji have been 
seen, but a few are available from Tonga and Samoa, at least some of which appear 
indigenous. It is also questioned by Irwin and Barneby whether the taxon of this 
immediate relationship in Australasia (including New Caledonia and Fiji) should 
remain in 5. iop/jera or (following Symon in Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 
90: 89-92. 1966) be placed in "Cassia" harclayana Sweet or "C." planitiicola Domin. 
This question cannot be pursued in the present work. 

Available collections: Fiji without further locality, t'. 5. Expl. Exped.. Home 1029: H'illiams was 
cited by Seemann (1865) but the specimen has not been located. 

10. Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 349. 1832; Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New 

York Bot. Gard. 35: 460. 1982. 
Cassia alaia L. Sp. PI. 378. 1753; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128:99. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit. 
178: 60. 1943; de Wit in Webbia 11: 231. 1955; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964, ed. 2. 97. 1972; Symon 
in Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 90: 94. 1 966; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 64. 
1967; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res Bull. 200: 55. 1970; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand 
Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85:28,47. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 38. /ig. 7. 1979. 



114 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol.3 

Shrub or tree 2-5 m. high, cultivated in gardens and villages and becoming 
sparingly naturalized in swampy places at elevations from near sea level to about 250 
m. The large, coarse leaves are as long as 75 cm. and have 5-13 pairs of distally 
accrescent leaflets with blades up to 19 x 10 cm. The conspicuous inflorescences are 
composed of many-flowered racemes 15-60 cm. long, with large, yellow or orange 
bracts subtending flowers and also aggregated into a terminal cone; the orange-yellow 
sepals are as long as 16 mm.; and the bright yellow petals may be up to 16-23 mm. long. 
The pods are widely ascending and sharply tetragonal, with lengthwise wings down the 
middle of each valve, usually 12-19 cm. long and 2-3 cm. broad including wings. 
Flowers seem to occur mostly between May and August. 

Typification: Of the five references given by Linnaeus, the lectotype may be taken 
from that to Hortus Cliffortianus: a cultivated plant represented in Herb. Cliffort. (bm 
lectotype) (cL Brenan, 1967), consisting ofa single leaf. The indication of linn 528.26 
as lectotype, proposed by de Wit (1955), is not sustainable because that specimen 
became available to Linnaeus only in 1758 (Irwin & Barneby, 1982). 

Distribution: Tropical America, now extending into subtropical and warm tem- 
perate regions in America, but long established in paleotropical areas as a medicinal or 
ornamental plant or as a naturalized weed. In Fiji it is more common in village 
cultivation than suggested by the available specimens and is occasionally naturalized 
near villages. 

Local names and uses: Golden candelabra tree; Roman candle tree; mbai ni 
thangi. In addition to being a striking ornamental, the species is used medicinally, the 
leaves and seeds being rubbed on the skin to cure infections. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU; Namosi: Nambukavesi Creek, DF409, Damanu 81. Naitasiri: 
Savura Creek, Weiner 140. Rewa: Suva Botanical Gardens, DA 12107:Su\a Point, Weiner 105. OVALAU: 
Lovoni Village, Smith 7464. 

1 1 . Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 
467. 1982. 
Cassia didymobotrya Fresen. in Flora 22: 53. 1839; de Wit in Webbia 11: 241. 1955; Symon in Trans. & 

Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 90: 95. 1966; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. bt.fig. 12. 1967; 

Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 41.yig. 8. 1979. 
Cassia bakeriana sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964, ed. 2. 97. 1972; non Craib. 

A shrub 1-5 m. high with dense, foetid foliage, sparingly cultivated near sea level. 
From the related and (in Fiji) more frequent Senna alata, the present species differs in 
stipules, apex of leaf blade, the often subpersistent, pale indument of its foliage and 
inflorescences, and its dull floral bracts. The leaves, 1 0-40 cm. long, have 8- 1 8 pairs of 
comparatively congested leaflets with smaller, elliptic-oblong blades, each with an 
aristate mucro 1 -3 mm. long. The racemes are 1 0-40 cm. long, the longest sepals 10-14 
mm. long, and the longest petals 17-27 mm. long. The spreading or ascending pods are 
strongly compressed, 7-12 x 1.5-2.5 cm., and bicarinate by the sutures. The only 
available collection was flowering in November. 

Typification: The type was collected in Abyssinia by Riippell, but no holotype is 
found at fr, where Riippell's specimens in the Fresenius herbarium should be located. 
The present interpretation of this unmistakable species follows that of the authors 
cited above. 

Distribution: Tropical Africa, now widely cultivated and often becoming natu- 
ralized in tropical areas and sometimes extending to warm temperate regions. Only 
one Fijian collection has been noted; this was listed by Parham (1964, 1972) as Cassia 
bakeriana, an entirely unrelated species, but perhaps the original introduction in 1952 
was made under that name. 

Use: Ornamental. 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 115 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
raloulou, DA 12254. 

12. Senna multijuga (L. C. Rich.) Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 

492. 1982. 
Cassia muhijuga L. C, Rich, in Actes Soc. Hist. Nat. Pans 1: 108. 1792; de Wit in Webbia II: 25.1. 1955; 
Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 50. 1967; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 50. 1979. 
Typification; The type, from Cayenne, is Leblond (holotype at p in Herb. 
Richard; isotype at p-la) (cf. Irwin and Barneby, 1982). 

Distribution: Tropical America, now widely cultivated in tropical and subtropi- 
cal areas. Irwin and Barneby (1982) recognize three subspecies, two of them further 
divided into varieties. The commonly cultivated variety is Senna multijuga subsp. 
multijuga var. multijuga. but Irwin and Barneby (1982, pp. 494, 498) indicate it to be a 
matter of record that the variety cultivated in Fiji is subsp. lindleyana var. lindleyana, 
probably introduced from Rio de Janeiro. 

12a. Senna multijuga subsp. lindleyana (Gardner) Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New 
York Bot. Gard. 35: 497. 1 982, var. lindleyana; Irwin & Barneby in op. cit. 35: 498. 
1982. 

Cassia lindleyana Gardner in London J. Bot. 2: 341 1843. 

Cassia multijuga sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964, ed. 2. 98. 1972; non sensu str. 

Tree 9-11 m. high (up to 25 m. where indigenous), found in cultivation from near 
sea level to 250 m., or perhaps sparingly and locally naturalized on edges of forest. The 
larger leaves are up to 30 cm. long, with 16-36 (-46) pairs of leaflets gradually 
decrescent toward base and apex of leaf, and the largest leaflets are up to 46 x 13 mm. 
The flowers have greenish to yellow sepals, the largest (inner) one up to 7.5 mm. long, 
and the yellow petals are as long as 16-26 mm. Flowers have been noted in March and 
April. 

Typification: The type is Gardner 367 (k holotype; isotypes at fi, k, ny), 
collected in April, 1837, in the Organ Mountains, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (data from 
Irwin and Barneby). 

Distribution: Brazil, from Bahia and Minas Gerais to Santa Catarina, known to 
be cultivated at least in southern Brazilian cities, in southern California, and in Fiji. 
The specimens known from Fiji are all from an introduction made in 1947 (Parham, 
1964, 1972, cited above). 

Use: A very attractive ornamental. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Namosi: Nambukavesi Creek, DA 13856 (DF 298), Damanu 26. 
Naitasiri: Forest Park, Tholo-i-suva, DF 108. 344. Damanu 31. 

Subspecies lindleyana differs from subsp. multijuga in having its stipules setiform, 
not more than 0.6 mm. broad at base, and with plane margins (rather than, as in subsp. 
multijuga, asymmetrically dilated and 0.8-2.5 mm. broad at base and undulately 
crimped or folded). A second variety of subsp. lindleyana. not known to occur outside 
of South America, has substantially smaller leaflet blades than var. lindleyana. 

13. Senna pallida (Vahl) Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 53 1 . 1982. 

C) Cassia hiflora L. Sp. Pl. 378. nom. ambig. 1753. 
Cassia pallida VaM. Eclog. Amer. 3: 12. 1807. 

Typification and nomenclature: Irwin and Barneby (1982, pp. 531, 535) con- 
sider Cassia hiflora L. to be a nomen ambiguum; it was described from a plant grown in 
Clifford's garden at Hartekamp, of which no type is extant. (These authors apparently 



116 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol.3 

disagree with de Wit's (1955, p. 238) designation of linn 528.21 as the holotype.) The 
protologue could be interpreted to refer to more than one species, hence Irwin and 
Barneby suggest that it not be used; icbn (Art. 69) provides for placing such names on a 
list of nomina rejicienda, thus far not established. The type of C. pallida is von Rohr (c 
HOLOTYPE in Herb. Vahl), from Santa Marta, Colombia. Irwin and Barneby (1982) 
recognize 19 varieties in Senna pallida. Of these, var. bahamensis is presumably the 
one cultivated outside the native area of the species. 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical America, with a substantial range of 
habitat and elevation. 

13a. Senna pallida var. bahamensis Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 
35: 548. 1982. 
Cassia biflora sensu de Wit in Webbia 11: 238. 1955; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 63, 1964, ed. 2. 97. 1972. 

Slender shrub to 4 m. high, infrequently cultivated near sea level. The leaves are 
about 5-9 cm. long, usually with 4-7 pairs of distally accrescent leaflets, these with 
blades prevailingly obovate, up to 35 ^ 15 mm., and pale beneath. The largest sepals are 
5-8 mm. long, and the golden-yellow petals are up to 14-19 mm. long. 

Typification: The type of the variety h A. H. Curtiss 50 (ny holotype; isotype at 
us), collected Jan. 26, 1903, near Nassau, New Providence, Bahama Islands. 

Distribution: Low elevations in the Bahamas and eastern Cuba; cultivated in the 
continental United States, Hawaii, and presumably elsewhere. The only available 
Fijian collection is from a coastal resort area. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Korolevu, Sovi Bay, DA 12062. 

10. Chamaecrista Moench, Meth. PI. 272. 1 794; Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York 
Bot. Gard. 35: 636. 1982. 
Cfliiifl subgen. Laiior/jegma Vogel ex Benth. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 15(2): 129. 1870;de Wit in Webbia 11: 278. 

1955. 
Cassia subgen. Absus Symon in Trans. & Proc. Roy. See. South Australia 90: 77. 1966. 
Trees, shrubs, or herbs, often with extrafloral nectaries on leaf petioles and/ or 
raceme axes; leaves spirally arranged or distichous, paripinnate, the leaflets opposite 
(numerous and small in our taxa); inflorescences 1 -many-flowered, racemose, the axis 
sometimes adnate to stem, the pedicels 2-bracteolate near or above middle; flowers $ , 
the sepals 5, imbricate; petals 5, nearly always highly heteromorphic, yellow (some- 
times red-marked near claw), the 2 abaxial ones variously obHque, the vexillar one 
usually interior in bud but sometimes exterior on one or both sides; androecium 
functionally (2-) 5- 1 0-merous, essentially actinomorphic, the filaments straight, short, 
the anthers basifixed, equal or unequal (if unequal not accrescent toward abaxial side 
of flower), puberulent or pilosulous along lateral sutures, dehiscent by pores or short 
slits apically; fruit piano-compressed, very rarely winged along sutures, elastically 
dehiscent, the valves coiling, papery, leathery, or subligneous, the seed funicle deltately 
dilated, the seeds with a smooth or pitted testa, without areoles. 

Lectotype species: Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench (Cassia nictitans L.); vide 
Britton and Rose in N. Amer. Fl. 23: 270. 1930; Irwin and Barneby in Mem. New York 
Bot. Gard. 35: 664. 1982. 

Distribution: Circumtropical, but mostly American, and also occurring in warm 
temperate areas, with about 265 species. Two species occur in Fiji, one a widespread 
weed and the other known only in introduction plots. 
Useful treatments of genus: As listed under Cassia. 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 117 

Key to species 

Stipules lanceolate, usually 5- 1 5 mm. long and prominently 5- 1 3-nerved; leaves with petioles 3-7 mm. long, 
the gland variable but usually slightly elevated (depressed in center) and 0.5-1 mm. in diameter, 
sometimes obovoid-stipitate; leaf rachis sulcate, the margms of furrow not raised between leaflet pairs 
and appearing only narrowly winged; leaflets 10-26 (-31) pairs, the blades usually 10-23 « 2-3 mm. and 
with venation evident on both surfaces; seeds nearly as broad as long, an often locally abundant weed. 

1. C niclhans 

Stipules acicular to lanceolate, usually 3-10 mm. long and with only I -3 nerves in distal portion; leaves with 
petioles 1-3 mm. long, the gland flat, discoid, 0.3- 1 mm. in diameter; leaf rachis seemingly serrate, the 
margins of furrow slightly expanded between leaflet pairs into rounded wings; leaflets 1 5-40 (-80) pairs, 
the blades usually 2-8 x 0.5-1.5 mm. and with venation often immersed or obscure on upper surface; 
seeds about half as long as broad; known only in introduction plots 2. C. mimosoides 

1. Chamaecristanictitans(L.) Moench, Meth. PI. 272. 1794; Irwin &Barneby in Mem. 
New York Bot. Gard. 35: 811. 1982. 
Cassia nictUans L. Sp. PI. 380. 1753. 

Lectotypification: Cassia nictitans is typified by the reference to L. Hort. Clif- 
fort. /. 36. 1738: Herb. Cliffort. Cassia No. 1. excl. fl. (bm lectotype) (cf. Pennell in 
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 44: 356. 1917; Irwin and Barneby, 1982, p. 840). 

Distribution: Widespread in America, highly polymorphic, and with one variety 
introduced into the Old World. Irwin and Barneby divide the species into four 
subspecies, the variety occurring in the Old World belonging to subp. patellaria. 

Chamaecrista nictitans subsp. patellaria (DC. ex Colladon) Irwin & Barneby (in 
Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 814. 1982) is based on Cassia patellaria DC. ex 
Colladon, Hist. Nat. Med. Casses, 125. t. 16. 1816. Colladon's name is typified by 
Thibaud (G-DC lectotype), collected in Cayenne (cf. Irwin and Barneby, 1982, p. 818, 
where the variety including this name is established as var. ramosa (Vogel) Irwin & 
Barneby, based on the oldest varietal name for the varietal concept, cf. ICBN, Art. 
26.2). 

The variety found in the Old World is referable to Chamaecrista nictitans subsp. 
patellaria var. glabrata, which may be used as the following trinomial (ICBN, Art. 
24.1). 

la. Chamaecrista nictitans var. glabrata (Vogel) Irwin & Barneby in Mem. New York 
Bot. Gard. 35: 822. 1982. 
Cassia lechenauhiana DC. in Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 2: 132. 1824; de Wit in Webbia 11: 280. 1955; 
Symon in Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 90: 134. 1966; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
48.y7g. //. 1979. 
Cassia patellaria var. glabrata Vogel, Syn. Gen. Cass. 66. 1837. 
Chamaecrista leschenauliiana Degener, Fl. Haw. Fam. 169b. 1934. 

Cassia mimosoides sensu Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 99. 1935; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. 
Fiji Bull. 35: 80. fig. 38. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 63. 1964; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 
200: 55. 1970; St. John & A. C. Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25: 327. 1971; non L. 
Cassia leschenauliiana DC. ex Greenwood in J. Arnold Arb. 30: 76. 1949, in op. cit. 36: 398. 1955; 
Yuncker in Bishop Mus Bull. 220: 135. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 98. 1972. 
Chamaecrista nictitans var. glabrata, which has long passed as Cassia (or Chamae- 
crista) lechenauhiana in Pacific archipelagoes, is seen in Fiji from near sea level to an 
elevation of about 300 m. It is a subligneous herb or shrub 0.5-2 m. high and has 
become abundant locally as a weed along roadsides and in cultivated areas, sometimes 
in coconut plantations. The species is confusingly variable, even in the variety that has 
become widely dispersed in the Pacific, but it is readily distinguished from C. mimo- 
soides by its larger (and fewer) leaflets and more conspicuous stipules. 



118 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol.3 

Typification and nomenclature: The oldest varietal name for this concept. 
Cassia patellaria var. glabrata Vogel, is based on a collection by Siebert: Herb. 
Willdenow 8000/ 1 (b holotype). Cassia lechenaultiana is typified by Leschenault 
(g-dc holotype), from Bengal, dated 1821. Leschenault de la Tour sometimes spelled 
his name without the "s", and de Candolle's spelling is intentional (de Wit, 1955, p. 
282). A specimen at k. Greenwood 183, bears an unpubUshed name in Cassia as a "sp. 
nov.", dated 1930, suggesting that this widespread weed has been puzzhng to students 
of local floras; this is further indicated by the many other synonyms listed by Irwin and 
Barneby (1982). 

Distribution: Widespread in tropical America from the West Indies and southern 
Mexico to Peru and Brazil (probably adventive in southern part of range); it has long 
been naturahzed in parts of the Old World from India and Ceylon eastward into the 
Pacific including Hawaii. The first published record of this weed in Fiji was Green- 
wood's in 1949, but it was first collected by him many years earlier, and it was present in 
Samoa in 1921 or earUer. It was probably an accidental introduction, being unpalata- 
ble to stock and without any apparent useful attributes. Eighteen Fijian collections are 
at hand, but they give an inaccurate picture of the abundance of the taxon on the drier 
coasts of Viti Levu. Flowers and fruits occur throughout the year. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mb a: NearNdrasa, vicinity of Lautoka, Greenwood 1 183 A: 
near Tawarau, between Lautoka and Rarawai, Greenwood 1 183; Rarawai, Greenwood 183: Sambeto River 
Valley, DA 10297; vicinity of Nandi, DA 8986; Mba township, DA 8191. Nandronga & Navosa: Volivoli, 
near Singatoka, DA 10661. Ra: Yanggara, DA 10734. Naitasiri: Koronivia, DA 7544. VANUA LEVU: 
Thakaundrove: Nasekawa East, Wailevu, Savusavu Bay, DA 9633. 

2. Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.) Greene in Pittonia 4: 27. 1899. 

Cassia mimosoides L. Sp. PI. 379. 1753; de Wit m Webbia 11: 283. 1955; Symon in Trans. & Proc. Roy. 

Soc. South Australia 90: 133. 1966; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. \<X>.fig. 10 (48). 1967; J. 

W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 98. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 50. 1979. 

In Fiji Chamaecrista mimosoides is known only from introduction plots and 
apparently has not become naturalized. It is an erect herb to 1.5 m. high, with woody 
stems, readily distinguished from the naturalized C. nictitans var. glabrata by its leaves 
with more numerous and smaller leaflets, with shorter petioles and less obvious glands, 
and with the rachis expanded and winglike between the leaflet pairs. 

Typification: Cassia mimosoides is based entirely on Fl. Zeyl. 154. 1747: Herb. 
Hermann, vol. 2, pp. 13, 78 (bm syntypes). 

Distribution: Widespread in the paleotropics; apparently a comparatively recent 
introduction into Fiji and not established. In New Guinea and the Caroline Islands it 
seems to occur as a weed, but probably reports of its naturalization in the Fijian 
Region are due to confusion with Chamaecrista nictitans var. glabrata. 

Local name and uses: Japanese tea; sometimes used as a green manure and 
perhaps introduced into Fiji with that purpose in view; a tea can be made from the 
leaves. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, 
near Singatoka, DA 12578. Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station (Cocoa Station), 
Nanduruloulou, DA 9560. 12147. 

11. Bauhinia L. Sp. PI. 374. 1753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 69. 1865; de Wit in Reinwardtia 3: 
390, sensu str. 1956; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 242. 1964; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. 
Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 207, sensu str. 1967; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 1 12, 
sensu str. 1979. 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 119 

Shrubs and small trees (rarely semiscandent), sometimes with intrastipular spines, 
or lianas (none of our species) with tendrils and without spines, the stipules linear to 
deltoid, caducous; leaves simple, the blades 3-many-nerved, entire or bilobed, rarely 
divided as far as base; inflorescences terminal, axillary, or leaf-opposed, racemose (as 
in our species) or paniculate or 1 -flowered; flowers often large and showy, § or 
unisexual; calyx tube (hypanthium) cupuliform or cyathiform to long-tubular, the 
limb spathaceous or split to hypanthium into 2-5 lobes (as in our species) or with the 
lobes or teeth free or variously connate; petals (2-) 5 (-6), subequal, erect or spreading, 
imbricate, the uppermost within in bud; stamens 10 or fewer, sometimes all perfect, 
sometimes in part reduced to staminodes or deficient, the filaments free to short- 
connate, the anthers ellipsoid to linear, versatile, dehiscing lengthwise; ovary usually 
stipitate, the gynophore free or (as in our species) abaxially adnate to hypanthium, the 
ovules 2-many, the style short to elongate (as in our species), the stigma terminal or 
oblique, often peltate; fruit oblong to linear, somewhat woody to thin-walled, dehis- 
cent (often explosively so) and 2-valved or infrequently indehiscent, septate or not, the 
seeds few to many, orbicular to ellipsoid, compressed. 

Lectotype species: Bauhinia divaricata L. (vide L. Gen. PI. ed. 5. 177. 1754;etiam 
de Wit in Reinwardtia 3: 390. 1956), one of Linnaeus's eight original species. 

Distribution: Pantropical, subtropical, and warm temperate (but apparently not 
indigenous in the Pacific east of Malesia), with about 250 species. Several species are 
cultivated and sometimes naturalized in Pacific archipelagoes, five being recorded in 
Fiji. 

Useful treatment of genus: Wit, H. C. D. de. A revision of Malaysian Bauhinieae. Reinwardtia 3: 
381-539. 1956. 

Attempts have been made to divide Bauhinia into several genera, and the classifica- 
tion proposed by de Wit (1956) has been followed by Brenan (1967) and Verdcourt 
(1979). Wunderlin, K. Larsen, and S. Larsen (in Adv. Leg. Syst. 114-116. 1981) 
consider generic segregates inadvisable but recognize four "groups," pending a redefi- 
nition of infrageneric categories. All the species cultivated in Fiji belong in Bauhinia 
sensu str. (with about 90 species). 

Key to species 
Fertile stamen 1 ; staminodes 5, small; petals long-clawed, 4-5.5 " 2-3 cm., white to pink, with red blotches or 
dots, the uppermost one splotched with deeper red. yellow or yellow-margined; leaf blades ovate- 
oblong, 7-20 cm. long and broad, cordate to rounded at base, pubescent beneath when young, lobed 

about 1/5-1/2 their length, the lobes obtuse to subacuminate 1. B. monandra 

Fertile stamens 3-10. 

Petals crimson to deep red, yellow-dotted without, 2.5-4 cm. long, the claw nearly as long as the lamina; 
fertile stamens 3; leaf blades crescent-shaped, 2-5 cm. long and broad, cordate to rounded at base, 

shallowly lobed to about 1 3 their length, the lobes rounded 2. B. galpinii 

Petals white or yellow to purple, not clawed or with a claw much shorter than the lamina. 

Fertile stamens 10; corolla campanulate, the petals yellow, 1-3 of them sometimes purple-blotched 
within, 2.5-5.5 cm. long, overlapping at margins; leaf blades variable but subcircular. up to 10 « II 
cm. long and broad, sometimes pilose beneath, truncate to subcordate at base, usually lobed to 

about 1 / 3 their length, the lobes rounded i. B. lomentosa 

Fertile stamens 3 or 5. 

Flower buds 4- or 5-angled or -winged; petals pale purple, shading to pinkish proximally, oblanceo- 
late, 3-6 cm. long, not more than 2 cm. broad; fertile stamens 3; staminodes 7; leaf blades elliptic 
to suborbicular, 6-19 cm. long and broad, rounded to cordate at base, lobed 1/2-1/4 their 

length, the lobes rounded to acute 4. ft purpurea 

Flower buds not angled or winged; petals pale purple or rose or white or yellow, obovate, 4-6 cm. 
long, 2-3 cm. broad, the uppermost one broader; fertile stamens 5; staminodes 5, about half as 
long as stamens; leaf blades broadly ovate to suborbicular, 5-14 cm. long and broad, cordate to 
truncate at base, lobed about 1/3 their length or less, the lobes rounded. ... 5. B. variegata 



120 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

1. Bauhinia monandra Kurz in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 42 (2): 73. 1873; Greenwood in 

Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 60. 1943; A. C. 

Sm. in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 541. 1943; de Wit in Reinwardtia 3:401. 1956; 

Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 135. 1959; J. W. Parham, PL Fiji Isl. 62. 1964, 

ed. 2. 95. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 54. 1970; 

B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 141. 

1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 115. 1979. 

A tree 3-4 m. high as cultivated in Fiji near sea level. The single fertile stamen 

readily characterizes this species, together with its white or pink, red-spotted petals, 

one of which is at least partially yellow. Its fruits are narrowly oblong and up to 22 x 3 

cm. As far as dated, our material bore flowers and fruits in November and February. 

Typification: The type is a specimen collected by Brandis at Martaban, Burma. 

Distribution: The species is probably indigenous in tropical America, but it is 

now in widespread cultivation. 

Local name and use: Called pink butterfly tree in Fiji, this ornamental is said to 
have been established for many years, but from available material its introduction was 
probably not much earlier than 1920. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Tonuve, Ruwailevu Tikina, H. B. R. 
Parham 144, 158; Singatoka, Greenwood 773. Rewa: Suva Botanical Gardens, DA 12298. VANUA LEVU: 
Thakaundrove; Along Hibiscus Highway east of Savusavu, Bierhorst F165. Fiji without further locality, 
Gillespie 4399. 

2. Bauhinia galpinii N. E. Br. in Gard. Chron. III. 9(1): 728, as B. galpini. (June) 1891; 

de Wit in Reinwardtia 3: 39?,. fig. 2. 1956; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 1 15. 
fig. 29. 1979. 
Bauhinia galpini N. E. Br. in Hook. Icon. PI. 20: (. 1994. (August) 1891; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 62. 

1964, ed. 2. 95. 1972. 

A shrub clambering to 9 m. high, but usually maintained in cultivation as a smaller 
plant, characterized by its three fertile stamens and its deep red petals; the fruit is 
comparatively small, up to 7 x 1.5 cm. 

Typification: In both of his descriptions of 1891 Brown cited three collections 
from South Africa; probably an appropriate lectotype would be Nelson 409, from 
"Dorn Spruit Spelunken," Transvaal. 

Distribution: Southern Africa, now widely cultivated in tropical areas. 

Local name and use: This attractive ornamental is known as red butterfly tree. 

No vouchers seem to support the record of Bauhinia galpinii in Fiji, but it is an 
unmistakable species, said by Parham to be uncommon, introduced prior to 1940 by 
W. L. Wallace. 

3. Bauhinia tomentosa L. Sp. PI. 375. 1753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 69. 1865; de Wit in 

Reinwardtia 3: 409. 1956; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 62. 1964, ed. 2. 96. 1972; 

Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 209. 1967; B. E. V. Parham in New 

Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 141. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New 

Guinea Leg. \\%. fig. 30. 1979. 
A shrub or small tree 3-4 m. high as cultivated in Fiji near sea level, Bauhinia 
tomentosa is readily recognized by its flowers with ten fertile stamens, a pubescent 
calyx, and yellow petals overlapping to form a campanulate corolla. Its fruits attain a 
size of about 15^2 cm. Our specimens bore flowers and fruits in January and March. 
Lectotypification: Brenan (1967) states that, in the absence of authentic speci- 
mens at linn, Roti-Michelozzi (in Webbia 13: 153. 1957) indicated the lectotype as 
Burm. Thes. Zeyl. pi. 18. 1736, one of Linnaeus's several references. The neotype 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 121 

suggested by de Wit (1956) is unnecessary. 

Distribution: Tropical Africa to southeastern Asia, now widely cultivated else- 
where. Of the two forms recognized by de Wit, our material falls into f. tomentosa. 

Local name and use: Yellow butterfly tree is the name applied to this ornamental, 
at least locally. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Lami, in private garden, DA 16463; Suva Botanical 
Gardens, DA 12292: Albert Park, Suva, DA 11835. 

Seemann in 1865 cited a sterile Williams specimen, which I was unable to locate at 
K, as representing Bauhinia tomentosa. If that early introduction date is not correct, 
the species was in Fiji at least before 1886, when it was listed in J. B. Thurston's 
Catalogue. 

4. Bauhinia purpurea L. Sp. PI. 375. 1753; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 

90. 1948; de Wit in Reinwardtia 3: 406. 1956; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. 

Fiji 29: 31. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 62. 1964, ed. 2. 95. 1972; B. E. V. Parham in New 

Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 141. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New 

Guinea Leg. 118. 1979. 

A shrub or small tree 5-7 m. high, commonly cultivated near sea level, or possibly 

sparingly naturalized along roadsides. Its fragrant flowers, with three fertile stamens, 

have pale purple petals paler at base; its fruits may be as large as 30 x 2.5 cm. It flowers 

in July and continues flowering over a long period of time. 

Typification: The only Linnaean reference is to Rheede, Hort. Ind. Malabar 1: 59. 
/. 33. 1678. Nevertheless, de Wit has preferred to indicate a neotype: Merrill, Sp. 
Blancoanae no. 1050 (l no. 920.278-111). 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia, now widely cultivated throughout the tropics. 
Among the three varieties recognized by de Wit (1956), our material represents var. 
purpurea. 

Local names and use: Locally known as purple butterfly tree or pink butterfly 
tree, this Bauhinia is another desirable ornamental. It may have been first introduced 
by J. B. Thurston, being listed in his 1886 Catalogue. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Principal Agricultural Station, Koronivia, DA 11917. 
Rewa: Suva Botanical Gardens, DA 12095. 

5. Bauhinia variegata L. Sp. PI. 375. 1753; de Wit in Reinwardtia 3: 411. 1956. 

Distribution: Eastern Asia, now widely cultivated. The two commonly cultivated 
varieties of Bauhinia variegata have been recorded in Fiji, but a date of introduction 
cannot accurately be suggested; they were established at least by the 1940's. 

The species is characterized by having five fertile stamens; its petals are variable in 
color. 

Key to varieties 
Petals pale purple to rose, the uppermost one darker, with purple or crimson veins or blotches. 

5a. var. variegata 
Petals white to yellowish, with green veins, purplish without 5b. var. Candida 

5a. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata; de Wit in Reinwardtia 3: 411. 1956; J. W. 

Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 62. 1964; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. 

Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 141, as B. variegata. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 

Leg. 119. 1979. 
A shrub or small tree to 8 m. high, the typical variety has darker petals than var. 
Candida; both varieties have large fruits, up to 30 ^ 2.5 cm. 



122 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification: Linnaeus gave three prior references for his species, including one to 
Rheede, Hort. Ind. Malabar 1: 57. t. 32. 1678. De Wit (1956) preferred to indicate a 
neotype: Reporter on Economic Products to the Government of India, no. 12187 (l 
908.112-142), collected at Bodhupore, Bogra, India, on Feb. 16, 1897. 
Local name and use: Butterfly tree; ornamental. 

No vouchers of this variety have been seen, but Parham (1964) indicates it as 
moderately common. 

5b. Bauhinia variegata var. Candida Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcut. 253. 1845; J. W. 
Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 29: 3 1. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 62. 1964, ed. 2. 96. 1972; 
B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 141. 
1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 119. 1979. 
Bauhinia variegata var. /3 Buch.-Ham. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 13: 496. 1822. 

Bauhinia Candida Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 318, nom. illeg. 1832; non Ait. (1789) nee WUld. (1799). 
Bauhinia variegata var. alboflava de Wit in Reinwardtia 3: 412. 1956. 
A cultivated tree, similar to var. variegata except in the color of its petals, and 
perhaps sparingly naturalized in forest at higher elevations (DA 14759) as well as 
cultivated near sea level. 

Typification: Although Voigt's variety was based on Bauhinia Candida Roxb., 
illegitimate as a later homonym, his trinomial may be considered as new, without a 
parenthetical author, dating from 1 845 (ICBN, Art. 72). Several localities were cited by 
Voigt; Roxburgh's concept may be based on a specimen now at k as "N.403." De Wit 
did not account for Voigt's trinomial and proposed a new var. alboflava, the type of 
which is Kiah s. n., Singapore Bot. Gard., Lawn Z (sing holotype), Jan. 25, 1928. 
Local names and use: This attractive ornamental is locally known as white 
bauhinia or white butterfly tree. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: "Naloto Range," DA 14759. Ra: Between Penang and 
Ellington, Greenwood 790. The variety was growing in the Suva Botanical Gardens in 1959 (J. W. Parham). 

12. Cynometra L. Sp. PI. 382. 1753; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 36: 279. 1955; 
Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 235. 1964; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 
111. 1967; van Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 12. 1970; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 77. 1979. 

Trees (rarely shrubs), the stipules filiform, fugacious, the leaf buds with congested, 
comparatively small scales (perules), the leaf flushes flaccid, usually pink; leaves 
paripinnate (unijugate in our species) (very rarely unifoHolate), the leaflets 1-few pairs, 
the blades coriaceous, not gland-dotted, asymmetrical, the midrib acroscopic; inflores- 
cences congested-racemose (as in our species) or pyramidally paniculate, short, axil- 
lary or borne on older wood, the bracts scarious, subpersistent, the bracteoles small, 
fugacious; calyx tube (hypanthium) short, the sepals 4 (or 5), imbricate, reflexed at 
anthesis; petals (4 or) 5, subequal, imbricate; stamens 10 (8-12), the filaments free or 
essentially so, fihform, the anthers small, dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscing by longitudi- 
nal slits; ovary short-stipitate, free from hypanthium or nearly so, the ovules 1 or 2 (-4), 
the style filiform, the stigma terminal; fruit woody, rugose to verrucose or smooth, 
flattened and elastically dehiscent into 2 valves or (as in our species) indehiscent, 
thickened, ellipsoid to suborbicular, the seed usually 1 (infrequently 2), thick, com- 
pressed. 

Lectotype species: Cynometra cauliflora L. (vide Britton & Wilson, Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico, 363. 1926), one of Linnaeus's two original species. 

Distribution: Pantropical, with about 70 species. The Asian- Malesian portion of 
the genus terminates its range in Fiji with two endemic species; a third species is 
infrequently cultivated in Fiji. 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 123 

Useful treatment of genus: Knaap-van Meeuwen. M. S. A revision of four genera of the tribe 
Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae-Cynometreae in Indomalesia and the Pacific. Blumea 18: 1-52. 1970. 
(Cynomelra, pp. 12-31.) 

Key to species 
Inflorescences composed of 4 or 5 racemes crowded together on hard knots on tree trunk; leaves unijugate, 
the petiole 2-8 mm. long, the leaflet blades ovate- or obovate-oblongto -lanceolate, 5.5-16.5 " 1.6-5.6 
cm.; sepals and petals not more than 4 mm. long; fruits up to 3 " 2 * 1 cm.; cultivated only. 

1. C. cautiflora 

Inflorescences sohtary. axillary or borne on slender branchlets immediately below leaves; leaves unijugate; 

indigenous species. 

Leaves subsessile, the petiole 1-3 mm. long, the leaflet blades subfalcate-ovate-lanceolate. 5-10.5 cm. 

long. 1.3-3.5 cm. broad; inflorescences small, the rachis 3-5 mm. long, the bracts probably not much 

longer than 3 mm., the pedicels 3-5 mm. long; style after anthesis 2-3 mm. long; sepals and petals not 

known 2. C. faicaia 

Leaves obviously petiolate, the petiole 10-25 mm. long (of juvenile leaves 6-20 mm. long), the leaflet 
blades asymmetrically elliptic to oblong, 5- 1 1 cm. long and 2-5 cm. broad (of juvenile blades up to 1 8 
X 7 cm.); inflorescences larger, the rachis 10-25 mm. long, the bracts up to 10 « 7 mm., the pedicels at 
anthesis 7-14 mm. long; sepals up to 6 mm. long; petals up to 9 mm. long; style at anthesis 4-7 mm. 
long; fruits oblong-eUipsoid, up to 6 " 4.5 * 3.5 cm., the pericarp rugose, the seed usually 1. up to 4 « 3 
" 1.5 cm i. C. msularis 

1. Cynometra cauliflora L. Sp. PI. 382. 1753; van Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 21. 1970; J. 

W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 99. 1972; A. C. Sm. in Allertonia 1: 398. 1978. 

A tree up to 15 m. high in Malesia, with flowers and fruits borne on its trunk, 
infrequently cultivated in Fiji near sea level. 

Typification: Three references were given by Linnaeus; Knaap-van Meeuwen 
(1970) indicates the type (i. e. LECTOTYPE)as Cv'/7owor/ww Rumph. Herb. Amb. 1: 163. 
/. 62. 1741. 

Distribution: Known only in cultivation and probably a cultigen derived from 
eastern Malesia, but now found from India to Malesia and occasionally elsewhere, as 
in Fiji. 

Use: The fruits are kidney-shaped and brownish green and are edible either raw or 
cooked and used as a compote or a flavoring for curry. 

Available collections: VITl LEVU: Mba: Wainivothe. near Korovou, east of Tavua, DA 7065. 
Naitasiri: Experiment Station, Nasinu, DA 1539. 

2. Cynometra falcata A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 472. 1854; Seem. Viti, 435. 

1862, Fl. Vit. 71. 1865; Home, A Year in Fiji, 260. 1881; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pac. 159. 1890; A. C. Sm. inSargential:38. 1942,in J. Arnold Arb. 31: 165. 1950, 
in op. cit. 36: 279. 1955; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 64. 1964, ed. 2. 99. 1972; van 
Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 27. 1970; A. C. Sm. in Allertonia 1: 398. 1978. 

Figure 23A. 
A slender tree to 4 m. high, with the upper branches subscandent, apparently very 
rare in open forest between sea level and an elevation of about 500 m. 

Typification: The type is U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 62096 holotype), collected in 
1840 at or near Mba, Mba Province, Viti Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and thus far known only from the type from Viti 
Levu and a single collection from Vanua Levu. The Home collection that 1 cited in 
1950 is now believed referable to the following species. 
Local name: Thimbithimbi. 

Available collection: Vanua levu: Mathu.^ta: Southern slopes of Mt. Numbuiloa. east of Lambasa. 
Smith 6574 (sterile). 

When mature, Cynometra falcata and C. insularis are readily separable by inflores- 
cence characters, but the leaves of sterile, juvenile specimens are confusingly similar. 



124 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

and in this condition perhaps the petiole length provides the only reliable character for 
their recognition. 

3. Cynometra insularis A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 38. 1942, in J. Arnold Arb. 31: 166. 
1950, in op. cit. 36: 279. 1955; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 64. 1964, ed. 2. 99. 1972; 
van Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 26. 1970; A. C. Sm. in Allertonia 1: 398. 1978. 

Figures 23B-D, 24A & B. 

A tree 6-25 m. high, occurring at elevations from near sea level to about 600 m. in 
dense or open forest or on its edges, in riverside forest, in dry gullies, and on hillsides. 
The flowers, fragrant and attractive to bees, have the petals pure white to cream- 
colored, the filaments and style pure white, and the anthers yellow. Flowers have been 
obtained between April and July, fruits between October and January. 

Typification: The type is Degener 15491 (a holotype; many isotypes), collected 
June 6, 1941, at Vatundamusewa, vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, Ra Province, Viti 
Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and now known from six of the high islands. As 
prior discussions have mentioned few collections, all those known to me are now listed 
below. 

Local names and uses: Recorded names are thimbithimbi, movi, movivula, moivi, 
and namo. The species produces a useful timber for houseposts and other, more 
commercial purposes. On Waya the species is considered of medicinal use in the 
treatment of dysentery, the part not being specified. 

Available collections: YASAWAS: Waya: West of Mbatinaremba, Naruarua Gulch, St. John 18055. 
VITI LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of Lautoka, Greenwood 717, 717A, /202 (juvenile). Nandronga & Navosa: 
Nausori Highlands, DA 13830 (DF 162). DF 1007 (SI 553 /I), Johns 3. Ra: Mataimeravula, vicinity of 
Rewasa, near Vaileka, Degener 15433: Waindawa, same area, Degener 15494. Naitasiri: Viria, Meebold 
7(550/ (juvenile); vicinity of Nasinu, Gillespie 3426. DA L.22232 (DF73). Tailevu: Hills east of Wainimbuka 
River, vicinity of Ndakuivuna, Smith 7138, 7207. KANDAVU: Waikerelo, Naikorokoro, DF 1018 
(S1553/4). VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Ndreketi River Valley, DA 325 (Sykes 47): Valembasonga, east of 
Lambasa, DA 766(S0; southern slopes of Mt. Numbuiloa, east of Lambasa, 5mi7/i 6552. RAMBI: Homes, n. 
(juvenile, GH, K). TAVEUNI: Western slope between Somosomo and Wairiki, Smith 843. Fiji without 
further locality, Yeoward 34, DA L. 13251 (coll. Berry), Howard 15. 

Three sterile collections (Greenwood 1202, Meebold 16501, Home s. n.) cited 
above, presumably from juvenile plants, have petioles 6-20 mm. long and leaflet blades 
to 18 X 7 cm., the costa not curved, the secondaries slightly prominulous above. They 
probably represent Cynometra insularis rather than C.falcata, juvenile plants of which 
have the petiole negligible and the leaflet costa distinctly curved. 

13. Maniltoa Scheffer in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 1: 20. 1876; A. C. Sm. in 
Sargentia 1: 36. 1942, in J. Arnold Arb. 31: 166. 1950; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
244. 1964; van Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 31. 1970; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 57. 1979. 
Trees, the stipules linear, fugacious, the leaf buds subconical, with conspicuous 
scales (perules), these imbricate, subrounded, the leaf flushes drooping, usually pink; 
leaves paripinnate, the leaflets 1-15 pairs (not more than 4 pairs in our species), the 
blades coriaceous or subcoriaceous, asymmetrical, the midrib acroscopic; inflorescen- 
ces racemose, contracted, sessile, axillary or borne on defohate branchlets, with many 

Figure 23. A, Cynometra falcata: distal portion of branchlet of sterile, juvenile plant, with foliage, "1/3. 
B-D, Cynometra insularis: B, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and inflorescences, " 1/3; C, flower, 
with 3 petals removed, several anthers fallen, x 4; D, inflorescence buds, "LA from Smith 6574, B from DA 
16680, C from Smith 7138, D from DA 13830. 



1985 



CAESALPINIACEAE 



125 




126 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 127 

imbricate bracts, these reniform (lower ones) to ovate or lanceolate (upper ones), the 
rachis stout, the bracts and bracteoles deciduous; calyx tube (hypanthium) short, 
campanulate and circumscissile (as in our species) to tubular and spathaceous, cadu- 
cous in fruit, the sepals 4 (or 5), subequal, imbricate in bud, reflexed at anthesis; petals 
5 (rarely 6), subequal, imbricate; stamens 15-80 (usually 21-40 in our species), the 
filaments sometimes connate at base, filiform, the anthers dorsifixed, introrse, dehisc- 
ing lengthwise; ovary short-stipitate (as in our species) or sessile, free from hypan- 
thium, the ovules ( 1 or) 2, the style elongate, the stigma terminal, usually truncate; fruit 
woody, smooth, ovoid to globose, indehiscent, the seed usually 1 (sometimes 2), 
subglobose. 

Type species: Maniltoa grandiflora (A. Gray) Scheffer ( Cynometra grandiflora A. 
Gray). The fact that Scheffer, in proposing the genus, misidentified his New Guinean 
material (later named as M. schefferi K. Schum.) does not affect typification of the 
genus. 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia eastward (centering in New Guinea) and extend- 
ing into the Pacific to Fiji and Tonga, with about 25 species. Four species occur in Fiji, 
three endemic and one also in Tonga. 

Useful treatments of genus: Smith, A. C. Maniltoa Scheff. J. Arnold Arb. 31: 166-171. 1950. 
Knaap-van Meeuwen, M. S. A revision of four genera of the tribe Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae- 
Cynometreae in Indomalesia and the Pacific. Blumea 18: 1-52. 1970. (Manilioa. pp. 31-46.) 

In the Fijian species the leaves are 1-4-jugate, and the leaflets are asymmetrically 
elliptic to oblong, subcoriaceous, and with 5-13 subascending principal secondary 
nerves, the veinlet reticulation being immersed or plane above and somewhat promin- 
ulous beneath. The recognized species have many overlapping features but in general 
are readily distinguished by characters of indument, the predominant number of 
leaflets, the facies of the vegetative buds, and the trends of dimensional details. Upon 
reconsideration of a substantial number of available collections I now agree with 
Knaap-van Meeuwen (1970) that my species Maniltoa brevipes and M. amicorum are 
reasonably incorporated into M. grandiflora. 

Key to species 
Young branchlets and leaves (including rachises) glabrous (even when juvenile in new flushes); inflorescen- 
ces 1 3-20-flowered. the rachis and pedicels glabrous (very rarely with a few spreading ferrugineous hairs 
to 0.5 mm. long), the bracteoles 1.5-2 (-6) mm. long, stigose-sericeous only along dorsal median line, 
the sepals glabrous; stamens 2 1 -40; ovary glabrous or (with base of style) very sparsely pilose distally. 
Mature vegetative buds 2. 5-7 cm. long, the largest scales 1 5-40 mm. long and broad, copiously sericeous- 
puberulent dorsally (hairs 0. 1 -0.2 mm. long), sometimes essentially glabrate. scariose and ciliolate or 
eciliolate at margin; fully developed leaves 8-23 cm. long, the leaflets 2 or 3 (very rarely 1 or 4) pairs, 
the petiole 5-22 mm. long, the rachis 2-10 cm. long, the petiolules 1-7 mm. long; leaflet blades (4-) 
5-10 X (1.5-) 2-5.5 cm., obtuse to cuspidate at apex (actual apex often slightly emarginate); 
inflorescence rachis 1 -3 cm. long (to 4 cm. in fruit), the pedicels 8-25 mm. long (to 40 mm. in fruit), 
the flower-subtending bracts 12-35 x 2-10 mm.; sepals 8-15 " 2.5-7 mm.; petals 8-19 x 2-4 mm.; 
stamens usually 35-40, the filaments 10-25 mm. long; separate to base; style (6-) 10-14 mm. long; 

mature fruits up to 6 •< 3.5 x 1.8 cm 1. M. i^randiflora 

Mature vegetative buds not more than 1.5 cm. long, the largest scales 8- 1 2 mm. long and broad, copiously 
stramineous-strigillose dorsally (hairs 0. 1-0.4 mm. long), tardily glabrate, scariose and ciliolate and 
irregularly splitting into short teeth at margin; fully developed leaves 3.5-9 cm. long, the leaflets 1 or 2 
pairs, the petioles 4- 12 mm. long, the rachis (of 2-jugate leaves) 1.2-3 cm. long, the petiolules 1-2 mm. 
long; leaflet blades 2.5-6 " 1.7-3.8 cm., rounded to obtuse and emarginate at apex; inflorescence 

Figure 24. A & B, Cynometra insularis: A, fruit, x |; B. longitudinal section of mature fruit, showing 
seed, X I . C-F, Maniltoa minor: C, distal portions of branchlets. with foliage and maturing inflorescences, x 
I /3; D, fruit, x 2; E, inflorescence bud. x 4; F, flower, with 3 sepals, 3 petals, and several stamens removed, 
manv anthers fallen, x 4. A from Smith 6382. B from Smith 843. C from Bryan 248. D from O. & I. Degener 
32245, E from Smith 9700. F from Smith 1333. 



128 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

rachis 1-1.5 cm. long, the pedicels 6-16 mm. long, the flower-subtending bracts about 12x2 mm.; 
sepals 5-7 » 2-4 mm.; petals 7-8 x 1.5-2 mm.; stamens 21-28, the filaments 8-15 mm. long, basally 
connate for about 1 mm. and sometimes also basally adnate to petals, becoming free; style 5-7 mm. 

long; mature fruits up to 2.7 x 2 x 1.2 cm 2. M. minor 

Young branchlets and leaf petioles, rachises, and petiolules minutely puberulent (at least when juvenile in 
new flushes), often soon glabrate; inflorescences 15-50-flowered, the rachis apd pedicels copiously 
puberulent, tomentellous, or hispidulous, the bracteoles 2-5 mm. long, dorsally copiously strigose or 
hispidulous, the sepals dorsally (often very inconspicuously) puberulent; stamens usually 25-40, the 
filaments separate to base; ovary (and style proximally) obviously strigillose or velutinous-hispidulous 
(hairs 0.1-0.3 mm. long). 
Mature vegetative buds up to 11 cm. long, the largest scales 20-50 mm. long and broad, copiously 
stramineous-sericeous or -pilose dorsally (hairs 0.1-0.5 mm. long); indument of young parts stra- 
mineous; fully developed leaves (10-) 15-30 cm. long, the leaflets predominantly 3 (sometimes 2 or 4) 
pairs, the petiole 10-30 mm. long, the rachis (3-) 8-17 cm. long, the petiolules (1-) 2-7 mm. long; 
leaflet blades (6-) 9-11 x 3-6.5 cm.; inflorescences 25-50-flowered, the rachis (1-) 2-3 cm. long, 
copiously cinereous-puberulent (hairs less than 0.3 mm. long), the pedicels 10-35 mm. long, 
copiously puberulent like rachis, the flower-subtending bracts up to 25 x 6 mm.; sepals 5-16 x 2-8 
mm., dorsally inconspicuously puberulent; petals 7-17 x 3-5 mm.; filaments 15-30 mm. long; ovary 

(and style proximally) stramineous-strigillose; style 10-18 mm. long 3. M. floribunda 

Mature vegetative buds 3-4 cm. long, the largest scales 20-25 mm. long and broad, copiously 
ferrugineous-puberulent dorsally (hairs to 0.1 mm. long); indument of young parts ferrugineous; 
fully developed leaves 7-14 cm. long, the leaflets predominantly 2 (rarely 1) pairs, the petiole 8-18 
mm. long, the rachis (of 2-jugate leaves) 1 -4 cm. long, the petiolules 2-5 mm. long; leaflet blades 4-8 x 
2.5-4.5 cm.; inflorescences 15-25-flowered, the rachis 1-2 cm. long, copiously ferrugineous- 
tomentellous and -hispidulous (hairs 0.3-0.5 mm. long), the pedicels 10-20 mm. long, copiously 
tomentellous and hispidulous like rachis, the flower-subtending bracts 15-20 x 2-3 mm.; sepals 5-13 
X 3-5 (-6.5) mm., dorsally copiously hispidulous-puberulent; petals 11-14 x 2-3 mm.; filaments 
12-21 mm. long; ovary (and style proximally) ferrugineous-velutinous-hispidulous and sometimes 
sparsely setulose; style 8-12 mm. long 4. Af. vestita 

1. Maniltoa grandiflora (A. Gray) Scheffer in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 1: 20. 1876; 
Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 1: 194. 1897,inNotizbl. Bot. 
Gart. Berlin 3: 191. 1902, in Bot. Jahrb. 55: 48. 1917; A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 36. 
1942, in J. Arnold Arb. 31: 167. 1950; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 66. 1964, ed. 2. 
101. 1972; van Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 38. 1970; A. C. Sm. in Allertonia 1: 399. 
1978. Figure 25A. 

Cvnomelra grandiflora A, Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 470. 1854, Atlas, pi. 52. 1856; Seem, in 
Bonplandia 9: 255, p. p. 1861, Viti, 435, p. p. 1862, Fl. Vit. 71, p. p. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 
159, p. p. 1890. 
Mam7(oa6rev/p«A.C.Sm.inJ. Arnold Arb. 31:168. 1950; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 66. 1964, ed. 2. 101. 

1972; A. C. Sm, in Allertonia 1: 400. 1978. 
Maniltoa amicorum A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: ni.fig. 11. 1959, in Allertonia 1:400. 1978. 
A tree 5-2 1 m. high occurring from near sea level to an elevation of 600 m. in dense, 
open, or dry forest, often along rocky coasts, sometimes on the inner edges of 
mangrove swamps, and often on limestone. The trunk frequently approaches 1 m. in 
diameter and the vegetative and inflorescence buds are at first glaucous-green, becom- 
ing brown. The fragrant flowers have white or cream-colored petals and filaments, and 
the fruits turn from purplish to brown. Flowers and fruits have been noted between 
May and January, but fruits probably persist throughout much of the year. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type of Cynometra grandiflora is U. S. 
Expl. Exped. (us 62097 lectotype), collected in 1840 on Vanua Levu without further 
locality. The material studied by Gray seems to have come from three plants, and the 
specimen indicated is shown z.%fig. B in the 1856 illustration and apparently provided 
the floral details for Gray's description (Smith, 1942). Other Exploring Expedition 
specimens cited below are not isolectotypes. Maniltoa brevipes is based on Smith 6600 
(a holotype; many isotypes), collected Nov. 13, 1947, near the summit of Mt. 
Uluimbau, Mathuata Province, Vanua Levu. The type of M. amicorum is Yuncker 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 129 

16168 (us 2128567 & 2157730 holotype; isotypes at bish, bm), obtained May 25, 1953, 
above a coastal limestone cliff on the northwestern side of Vava'u, Tonga. The 
comparatively compact inflorescences with early glabrate bracts and the smaller, 
short-pedicellate flowers of M. hrevipes and the compact inflorescences, small flowers, 
and prominent leaflet venation of A/, amicorum are not sufficiently stable or conse- 
quential to permit separation of these taxa from a reasonable concept of M. grandi- 
flora. 

Distribution: Fiji (known from nine islands, both high and low) and Tonga 
(known from several islands). About 35 Fijian collections are here referred and the 
species may be anticipated on many other islands in the archipelago. I have not seen the 
Solomon Islands specimen mentioned by Knaap-van Meeuwen (1970). 

Local names and use: Fijian names referred to this species are thimbithimbi, 
moivi, namo, yamo, and tongatu: it is a desirable timber tree. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Naloto Range. DA /'/764.Thelau, west of Mba, O. & 

1. Degener 32144. Naitasiri: Tholo-i-suva, DA 13780 (DF 778). OVALAU: U. S. E.xpl. E.xped. (gh, us; 
Gray's 1856 illustration as % O- WAKAYA: Southern peninsula (Wakaya lailai), Bryan 615. KORO: 
Eastern slope of main ridge. Smith 1022. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Above Nasingasinga, Berry 39: 
Seanggangga Plateau, DA 14109; vicinity of Lambasa, Greenwood 423. Thakaundrove; Uluinambathi 
Mt.. Savusavu Bay region, Degener & Ordonez 13949: near Tukavesi, Mbutha Bay, Natewa Peninsula, 
Mead 1995. Vanua Levli without further locality, U. S. E.xpl. E.xped. (gh; Gray's 1856 illustration as /7g. ,-1). 
TAVEUNL Vicinity of Waiyevo, Gillespie 4732. KANATHEA: Graeffe 1548. ONGEA LEVU: Bryan 436. 
ONGEA NDRIKI: Rocky islet off northwest end, Bryan 394. Fiji without further locality, ^eemaww 138. p. 
p. (K). 

2. Maniltoa minor A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 37. 1942, in J. Arnold Arb. 31: 169. 1950; 

J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 66. 1964, ed. 2. 101. 1972; van Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 

39. 1970; A. C. Sm. in AUertonia 1: 400. 1978. Figure 24C-F. 

Cynometra grandiflora sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255, p. p. 1861, Viti, 435, p. p. 1862; non A. Gray. 

Manilloa cynometroides sensu van Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 39, solum quoad spec. vit. 1970; J. W. 

Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 101, p. p. 1972; non Merr. & Perry. 

A tree 7- 1 8 m. high, with a trunk up to 50 cm. in diameter, noted at elevations from 
near sea level to 250 m. in dense or dry forest. The petals and filaments are white. 
Insofar as specimens are dated, flowers have been collected in March and July, fruits in 
July and February. 

Typification: The type is Smith 1333 (gh holotype; many isotypes), collected 
March 22, 1934, near Maloku, Moala. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and thus far known definitely from seven of the 
islands. 

Local names and use: Fijian names, generic in nature, applied to this species are 
thimbithimbi, moivi, and namo; the timber is locally used in housebuilding and 
is considered of commercial value by foresters. 

Available collections: MAMANUTHAS: Nggalito Island, Malolo Group, O. & I. 
Degener 32245. VITI LEVU: Serua: Inland from Korovisilou, DA 13877 (DF 266: Bulai 2): Ual consul 
strip in vicinity of Ngaloa, Smith 9700: Navua River, below Namuamua, DA 2463. Naitasiri: 
Vicinity of Tamavua, Yeoward 52: Experiment Station. Nasinu (cult.). D.A 1539. KANDAVU: Wai- 
kerelo, Naikorokoro, DF 1024 (S1553/5). OVALAU: Hills south of Levuka, Gillespie 4540. KORO; 
Toihill I28A. p. p. MATUK.U: Milne 121. Bryan 248. Tothill 127. Fiji without further locality, See- 
mann 138, p. p. (bm, k). Home 294. Howard 159. 

3. Maniltoa floribunda A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 31: 169. 1950; J. W. Parham, 

PI. Fiji Isl. 66. 1964, ed. 2. 101. 1972; van Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 31. fig. 5. 
1970; A. C. Sm. in AUertonia 1: 399. 1978. Figure 258. 



130 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Cynomeira grandiflora sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255, p. p. 1861, Viti, 435, p. p. 1862; non A. 

Gray. 
Caesalpinia Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861. 

A tree 15-23 m. high (rarely noted as 3-4 m.), with a trunk to 70 cm. in diameter, 
occurring from near sea level to an elevation of 600 m. in dense, open, or dry forest, 
sometimes along rocky coasts. Bracts of the inflorescence buds are rich brown, the 
petals and filaments are pure white, and the ovary is pinkish, becoming brown as it 
matures. Flowers have been obtained between December and May, fruits between 
June and August. 

Typification: The type is Smith 4588 (a holotype; many isotypes), collected May 
29, 1947, on the southern slopes of the Nausori Highlands, in drainage of Namosi 
Creek above Tumbenasolo, Nandronga & Navosa Province, Viti Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and now known from five or six islands; I now refer 
about 30 collections to Maniltoa floribunda. The ranges of this species and M. 
grandiflora are not discrete, although the former seems the more abundant on Viti 
Levu and Kandavu, the latter on Vanua Levu and in the Lau Group. The two species, 
readily distinguishable if inflorescences or young foliage is at hand, have very similar 
mature leaves. 

Local names and use: The usual Fijian generic names have been noted: thimbi- 
thimbi, moivi, yamo, and namo. Like its relatives, the species produces a useful timber. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mountains near Lautoka, Greenwood /205; vicinity 
of Tumbenasolo, valley of Namosi Creek, Smith 4502. Nandronga & Navosa: Near Nakalavo, north of 
Singatoka, H. B. R. Parham 248: vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, Degener 15317. Serua: Nathenga- 
thenga Creek, upper Navua River, DF 1008 (S1553/2): hills between Waininggere and Waisese Creeks, 
between Ngaloa and Wainiyambia, Smith 9516. Namosi: Nambukavesi Creek, DF791. Naitasiri: Tholo-i- 
suva Forest Reserve, DF 778; vicinity of Nasinu, Gillespie 3507. Rewa: Between Lami and Suva, Meebold 
16655: near coast west of Suva, Mac Daniels 1073 (Tothill 128). KANDAVU: Seemann 131: western end of 
island, near Cape Washington, Smith 322: vicinity of Naikorokoro, DF 822. "OVALAU or VANUA 
LEVU:" Seemann 138, p. p. (bm, gh, k). VANUA MBALAVU: Slopes of Korolevu, near Lomaloma, 
Garnock-Jones 1031. LAKEMBA: Near airport, Garnock-Jones 875. 

4. Maniltoa vestita A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 31 : 1 70. 1 950; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 
66. 1964, ed. 2. 102. 1972; A. C. Sm. in Allertonia 1: 399. 1978. 

Figure 25C & D. 

Maniltoa yokotai sensu van Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 38, solum quoad aliquot spec. vit. 1970; non 
Hosokawa. 

A tree 1 8-20 m. high, occurring at elevations of 200-500 m. in dense forest or thin 
forest on rocky slopes. The inflorescence bracts are whitish brown, becoming darker, 
and the petals, filaments, and style are white. Flowering specimens have been obtained 
in February, June, and November. 

Typification: The type is Smith 6442 (a holotype; many isotypes), collected Nov. 
3, 1947, on the southern slopes of Mt. Numbuiloa, east of Lambasa, Mathuata 
Province, Vanua Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and infrequent, known only from Viti Levu and 
Vanua Levu. 

Local names and use: Thimbithimbi, moivi, and namo have been applied to the 
species, which is said to be a useful timber tree. 

Figure 25. A, Maniltoa grandiflora: fruits, x 1. B, Maniltoa floribunda: vegetative bud, x 1. C & D, 
Maniltoa vestita; C, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage, an inflorescence, and 2 inflorescence buds, " 
1/3; D, flower, with 2 sepals and 3 petals removed, most anthers fallen, x 4. A from Bryan 615, B from 
Meebold 16655, C from DA 3209. D from Smith 6442. 



1985 



CAESALPINIACEAE 



131 




132 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Serua: Tumbarua, inland from Ngaloa, DF 1009 (S1553/3). 
Naitasiri: Prince's Road, DA 3209. Fiji without further locality. Home 922. 

14. Lysidice Hance in J. Bot. 5: 298. 1867; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PL 1: 244. 1964. 
Tree, the stipules small, intrapetiolar; leaves paripinnate, the leaflets 3 or 4 pairs, 

opposite, acuminate, with a strong, continuous, usually glanduliferous marginal 
nerve; inflorescences axillary and terminal, paniculate, the peduncles with large, 
colored bracts at base, the bracteoles 2, showy; calyx tube (hypanthium) short, the 
sepals 4, narrowly imbricate, reflexed at anthesis; petals 3, equal, exserted, long- 
clawed; stamens 6, the filaments connate at base, 2 of them minute and with abortive 
anthers; ovary stipitate, the stipe adnate to hypanthium, the ovules about 12, the style 
long, circinate in bud, exserted at anthesis; fruit large, flat, apiculate, 2-valved, the 
valves twisting after dehiscence, the seeds compressed, transversely oblong. 

Type species: Lysidice rhodostegia Hance. 

Distribution: Southern China and Vietnam, with a single species which is some- 
times cultivated elsewhere. 

1. Lysidice rhodostegia Hance in J. Bot. 5: 299. 1867. 

A small tree, sometimes up to 18 m. high where indigenous, sparingly cultivated in 
Fiji near sea level. The bracts are pink and conspicuous, the flowers pink to purple. 

Typification: Hance cites the type as T. Sampson, collected along a river near 
Canton, China. 

Distribution: As of the genus. 

Use: An ornamental tree, known in Fiji only from an introduction garden and 
perhaps not persisting. It is known in cultivation in Africa, Singapore, New Guinea, 
Hawaii, and doubtless elsewhere. Where indigenous its not very durable timber is used 
for temporary articles, and the seeds are considered edible. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Experiment Station, Nasinu, DA 1554. 

15. Saraca L. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 2: 469. 1767, Mant. 13, 98. 1767; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. 

PI. 1: 256. 1964; Zuijderhoudt in Blumea 15: 414. 1968; Verdcourt, Man. New 
Guinea Leg. 88. 1979. 

Trees or shrubs, with flaccid flushes of young leaves, the stipules adnate, envelop- 
ing buds but soon caducous; leaves paripinnate, the leaflets 1-7 pairs, opposite, the 
blades coriaceous or herbaceous, often with small glands near base and apex; inflores- 
cences axillary or borne on branchlets or old wood, corymbose-paniculate, the bracts 
small, deciduous, the pedicels with a pair of subpersistent, colored bracteoles, articu- 
late above them; flowers §, sometimes functionally cT; calyx tube (hypanthium) 
cylindric, the sepals 4 (-6), conspicuous, petaloid, imbricate in bud; petals lacking; 
stamens (3-) 4-8 (-10), free, exserted, often partly abortive (staminodes dentate to 
subulate), the filaments elongate, the anthers oblong, dorsifixed, versatile; ovary 
stipitate, the stipe adnate to hypanthium, the ovules numerous, the style filiform, the 
stigma terminal, minute; fruit linear- to lanceolate-oblong, compressed, coriaceous to 
woody, dehiscent, the seeds 1-8, compressed, exarillate. 

Type species: Saraca indica L. 

Distribution: India and southern China into Malesia to Celebes, with eight 
species (Zuijderhoudt, 1968), some of which are cultivated elsewhere. One species is 
recorded from Fiji. Other students have considered the genus to include about 20 
species; Verdcourt (1979) suggests that Zuijderhoudt's revision takes a wide view of 
species circumscription. 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 133 

Useful treatment of genus; Zuijderhoudt, G. F. P. A revision of the genus Saraca L. (Legum.- 
Caes.). Blumea 15:413-425. 1968. 

1. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde in Blumea 15: 393. fig. I, A. 1968; Zuijderhoudt in 
op. cit. 15: 422. 1968; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 88. 1979. 

Jonesia asoca Roxb. in Asiat. Res. 4: 355. //^. 252. 25S. 1799. 

Saraca inJica sensu J . W . Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 29:33. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 102. 1972; nonL. 

A tree 6-9 m. high, sparingly cultivated near sea level. The leaflets are usually 4-6 
pairs, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, and up to 25 cm. long. The flowers, fragrant 
during the night, have the pedicels subtended by yellow to red bracteoles 2-7 mm. long, 
these erect, clasping, and subpersistent. The calyx is yellow to orange or red, purplish 
in and near the throat; the stamens have yellow to reddish filaments and grayish purple 
anthers. Our material bore flowers and fruits in July. 

Typification: Roxburgh's figures, from a plant cultivated in the Calcutta Botanic 
Garden, may be taken as the type; specimens from the Calcutta material are at BR in 
Herb. Martius. 

Distribution: India, Bangladesh, Burma, and Ceylon, often cultivated elsewhere. 
The species has often passed as Saraca indica L., indigenous from Thailand and 
Malaya to Java, which apparently is less frequently cultivated. 

Local names and use; The names commonly used in India, asok and asoka, are 
utilized in Fiji, where the species is sometimes cultivated as an ornamental. Saraca 
asoca has been venerated as the sacred tree under which Buddha was borne. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Cocoa Station, Nanduruloulou, DA I2I74. Rewa: 
Suva Botanical Gardens, DA 17220. 

16. Intsia Thou. Gen. Nova Madagasc. 22. 1806; Meijer Drees in Bull. Jard. Bot. 
Buitenzorg III. 16: 87. 1938; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 245. 1964; Brenan in Fl. 
Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 128. 1967; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 90. 
1979. 
Afzelia sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 68. 1865; non Sm. 

Trees, the stipules connate into an interpetiolar scale; leaves paripinnate, the 
leaflets (1-) 2-5 pairs, opposite or nearly so, the petiolules twisted, the blades not 
glandular-punctate but often with 1 or 2 basal glands beneath near petiolule; inflores- 
cences terminal, corymbose-paniculate (rarely simply racemose), the bracts and brac- 
teoles deciduous; calyx tube (hypanthium) elongate, the sepals 4, imbricate, the outer 2 
enclosing the inner 2 in bud; petal 1 (2 lateral petals very rarely present, small or 
rudimentary), short-clawed, the blade orbicular to reniform, auriculate; fertile sta- 
mens 3, exserted, the filaments long, the anthers dorsifixed; staminodes 4-7, filiform, 
comparatively short, lacking anthers; ovary stipitate, the stipe adnate to hypanthium, 
the ovules several, uniseriate, the style elongate, exserted, the stigma terminal, convex- 
capitate; fruit compressed, slightly thickened at margin, tardily dehiscent, the valves 
thin-woody and reticulately transversely nerved, with transverse septa, the seeds few, 
compressed, exarillate, the funicle slightly fleshy. 

Lectotype species: Intsia madagascarien.sis Thou, ex DC. (vide Hutchinson, Gen. 
Fl. PI. 1: 245. 1964) = /. hijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze. 

Distribution: Madagascar and coasts and islands of tropical eastern Africa to 
southern Asia and Formosa, eastward through Malesia and into the Pacific to Tonga 
and Samoa. In his treatment of 1938 Meijer Drees indicated the genus to be composed 
of nine species, but Cowan and Polhill (in Adv. Leg. Syst. 128. 198l)suggest that there 
are probably only three species. One widely distributed species is indigenous in Fiji. 



134 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Useful treatment of genus: Meijer Drees, E. The genera Intsia and Pahudia (Legum.) in the 
Netherlands Indies. Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg III. 16: 83-102. 1938. 

1. Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 192. 1 89 l;Christophersen in Bishop 
Mus. Bull. 128: 98. 1935; Meijer Drees in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 111. 16:89 
1938; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 1 34. 1959; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept 
Agr. Fiji 29: 33. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 64. fig. 28. B. 1964, ed. 2. 99. fig. 29. B. 1972: 
Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 128.//^. 23. 1967; St. John & A. C. Sm 
in Pacific Sci. 25: 328. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust 
Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 44. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 91. fig. 20. 
1979. Figures 26, 27 

Macrolobium bijugum Colebr. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 12: 359. (. 17. 1819. 

Afielia bijuga sensu A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:467, nom. illeg. 1854, Atlas, p/. 5J. 1856; Seem, in 

Bonplandia 9: 255. 1 86 1 , Viti, 435. 1 862, Fl. Vit. 69. 1 865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 1 59. 1 890; non 

(Willd.) Spreng. (1827). 

A tree 7-24 (-42 elsewhere) m. high, with a trunk to 1 m. or more in diameter and 
with small buttresses, often abundant near sea level in coastal forests and thickets, 
along beaches, and on the inner edges of mangrove swamps; in dry forest it sometimes 
occurs inland up to an elevation of 450 m. The leaflets are usually 2 (rarely 1, very 
rarely 3) pairs, with blades usually not exceeding 15^9 cm. and obtuse to emarginate 
at apex. The fragrant flowers have the sepals pale green, the petal white or pale yellow 
proximally and pink to purple distally, the filaments and style red to purple, and the 
anthers rich purple. The oblong fruits usually do not exceed 20 x 6 cm. and for the most 
part produce 4-7 black seeds up to 3.5 cm. long. Flowers seem to occur between 
October and May, fruits between April and October. 

Typification: The species was described from a plant cultivated at the Calcutta 
Botanic Garden; perhaps Herb. Wallich 5823 A, from there, can be considered typical 
(Brenan, 1967). 

Distribution: A widespread species with essentially the generic range. In his 
treatment of 1938 Meijer Drees described two forms, glabra and hirsuta, but these are 
usually considered local modifications of little consequence. I have examined about 55 
collections from eleven islands, but the species doubtless occurs on most Fijian islands 
with appropriate habitats. 

Local names and uses: The names vesi and vesiwai are firmly attached to the 
species, which is one of the most useful and valued of trees in Fiji. It produces a durable 
hardwood suitable for heavy construction, boat building, flooring, and many other 
commercial purposes. Fijians value it for making yanggona bowls, canoes, houseposts, 
and headrests, and in earlier times made clubs from it. Medicinal uses are ascribed to 
the leaves for toothache and sore tongues, and the stem is sometimes part of an internal 
remedy for asthma. The tree is frequently cultivated in villages as an ornamental. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: Waya: Yalombi, St. John 18007. VITI LEVU: Mba: Vicinity 
of Tumbenasolo, valley of Namosi Creek, Smith 4620. Nandronga & Navosa: Mbulu, near Sovi Bay, 
Degener 15031. Serua: Korovisilou, DF268: Mburelotu, near Taunovo River, DA 2869. Namosi: Nambu- 
kavesi Creek, DF 733. Naitasiri: Tholo-i-suva, Vukicea. Aug. 10, 1950. Tailevu: Ndravuni, DA 12471 (DF 
120): Viwa Island, Seemann 137. p. p. Rewa: Lami, Parks 20908; Nukulau Island, Tothill 126A. KA- 
NDAVU: Seemann 137. p. p.; Naikorokoro, DF 838 (S1421/1). OVALAU: U. S. Expl. Exped.: Port 
Kinnaird, Seemann 137. p. p. KORO: Coastal thickets. Smith 1038. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Ridge above 

Figure 26. Intsia bijuga, from Smith 1383; A, distal portion of branchlet with foliage and a terminal 
inflorescence, and a detached partial inflorescence, x 1 / 3; B, mature flower, the 3 anthers fallen, " I ; C, distal 
part of style and stigma, " 20; D, lower part of flower with sepals turned down and some staminodes 
removed, showing ovary, basal parts of 3 antheriferous filaments, staminodes, and claw of petal, » 10. 



1985 



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135 




136 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 137 

Thongea, Wainunu River. DA 15784 (coW. Berry). Mathuata; Natindoyanga Creek, Korovuli River, DA 
12904: vicinity of Lambasa, DF 841 (SI42I /4). Thakaundrove: East of Savusavu, Bierhorsi F190: 
Tukavesi, Mbutha Bay. Natewa Peninsula, Mead 1993. TAVEUNI: Vicinity of Somosomo, V. S. Expl. 
Exped. MOALA: Naroi, Smith 1383. VANUA MBALAVU: Near Namalata Village, Garnock-Jones 1 1 13. 
FULANGA: On limestone formation, Smiih J 157. ONGEA LEVU: In central forest, Bryan 426. 

17. KiNGiODENDRON Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 1: 194. 1897 
B. L. Burtt in Kew Bull. 1936:461. 1936; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 36:279. 1955 
Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 254. 1964; van Meeuwen in Blumea 18:46. 1970 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 93. 1979. 

Trees, the stipules small, fugacious; leaves imparipinnate, the leaflets alternate 
(terminal ones rarely subopposite), (2-) 3-7 (very rarely only 1), the blades slightly 
inaequilateral, obscurely pellucid-punctate; inflorescences axillary, racemose- 
paniculate, the bracts and bracteoles minute, the pedicels short, the flowers small, § ; 
calyx tube (hypanthium) short, with an inconspicuous marginal disk, the sepals 5, 
imbricate; petals lacking; stamens 10, exserted at anthesis, the filaments inflexed in 
bud, the anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing by introrse, longitudinal slits; ovary obscurely 
stipitate, the stipe adnate to hypanthium, the ovule 1 , the style developed (but short) or 
negligible, the stigma truncate or minutely peltate; fruit ellipsoid to ovoid or obovoid, 
flattened when young, becoming greatly thickened, indehiscent, the pericarp at matur- 
ity hard and woody, with usually conspicuous longitudinal or reticulate nervation, the 
seed solitary, basal, the cotyledons strongly folded. 

Type species: Kingiodendron pinnatum (Roxb. ex DC.) Harms (Hardwickia 
pinnata Roxb. ex DC). 

Distribution: India to Malesia, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji, where an endemic 
species terminates the range, with six or more species. 

1. Kingiodendron platycarpum B. L. Burtt in Kew Bull. 1936:460. 1936; A. C. Sm. in J. 
Arnold Arb. 36: 279. 1955; van Meeuwen in Blumea 18: 49, solum quoad spec, 
vit., exd. fig- 7. b. 1970; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 101. 1972; A. C. Sm. in 
Allertonia 1: 400. 1978. Figures 28, 29. 

Pierocarpus indicus sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 64. 1865; Drake, 111. 
Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 156. 1890; non Willd. 

A tree 8-35 m. high, occasional from near sea level to an elevation of 600 m. in 
dense forest and on its edges and in ridge forest; the trunk attains a diameter of 1 .3 m. 
and is straight and clear for up to 15 m., terminated by a dense, wide-spreading crown. 
The floral parts are inconspicuously green to dull cream-colored, and the fruits turn 
from green to dull brown. Flowers have been obtained between January and March, 
fruits between May and October. 

Typification: The type is Home 483 (k holotype; isotype at bo, ex van 
Meeuwen), collected in flower in March, 1878, on the island of Rambi. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and known with certainty from five of the high 
islands. 

Local names and use: The names muivi and thimhithimhi, also used for some 
related genera, are applied to this now well-known species. The hard wood was utilized 
by Fijians for many purposes and is now considered commercially valuable. 

Figure 27. Intsia hijuga: A, flower bud (above hypanthium) with 2 sepals removed, showing blade of 
petal enclosing inner organs, ' 10; B, mature fruits. " I 3; C, inner surface of fruit valve, with 1 seed 
remaining attached, >> 1 2; D, flower bud with 3 sepals removed and half of young petal turned to right, >< 6, 
showing hypanthium (h), edge of sepal (s). blade of petal (p). filament of fertile stamen (f), anther (a), 
staminode (sd), ovary (o), style (st), and stigma (sg). A & D from Smith 1383, B from Smith 1038. C from 
Bryan 426. 



138 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




Figure 28. Kingiodendron platycarpum: A, distal portion of branchlet with flat, immature fruits, =< 1/4; 
B, portion of inflorescence branch and flowers, " 6; C, mature fruits, showing variability in shape, x 1/2; D, 
longitudinal section of broken mature fruit, showing a single basally attached seed (also broken), " 1 . A from 
Smith 7549. B from DF 269. C from Smiih 9056 (left) and 8185 (right), D from Smith SI85. 



1985 



CAESALPINIACEAE 



139 




Figure 29. KmgiodenJron ptaivcarpum, from DF 269: A, flower with I sepal removed, the ovary 
concealed by filaments, « 25; B, gynoecium.showmg short style (s) and stigma, and basal part of a filament, x 
40. 



Available collections: VITI LEVU; Mba: Mountams inland from Lautoka, Greenwood 423C. 
Seria: "Serua coast," Bulai 5, vicinity of Korovisilou, DF 269: vicinity of Ngaloa, DF 774. 931. Damanu 
G.IO. Namosi: Hills east of Wainikoroiluva River, near Namuamua, Smiih 9056. Naitasiri: Between 
Nasirotu (Waindina River) and Waimanu River, DA L.l 2627 {coW. Berry). OVALAU: Valley of Mbureta 
and Lovoni Rivers, Smiih 7549. VANUA LEVU: Mbla: "In dry part of district of Mbua near streams," 
Home 1121. Vanua Levl without further locality (probably Mbua Province), H B. R Parham 387. 
TAVEUNI: Seemann 1 29: slopes of Mt. Manuka, east of Wainki, SmiihSI/i3. Fiji without further locality. 
DA L 13373 (Berry 20). 

In her treatment of 1970 (in Blumea 18:46-50), Knaap-van Meeuwen indicated the 
occurrence of Kingiodendron platycarpum in Fiji, the Solomon Islands, and New 
Guinea, aconclusion with which I reluctantly agreed in 1978 (cited above). At that time 
I had not noted Verdcourt's perceptive comments (in Kew Bull. 32: 244-246. 1977), 
expanded in his Man. New Guinea Leg. 93-98. 1979, indicating that K. platycarpum is 
endemic to Fiji. 

Van Meeuwen's fig. 7, b shows a plant with presumably glabrous filaments, 
whereas those of the Fijian species are copiously pilose proximally (Figure 29A), and 
the style illustrated by her is at least 0.5 mm. long and tomentulose, whereas typical 
Kingiodendron platycarpum has the style negligible, only 0. 1 mm. long, and glabrous 
(Figure 298) in contrast to the copiously pilose ovary. The rachis and pedicels of the 



140 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Fijian species are glabrous (Figure 28B), not pubescent as described by van Meeuwen. 
Fruits of our species are comparatively broader than those described by van Meeuwen, 
6-7 ^ 4.5-5.7 cm., flat and smooth (but thick-margined) when young, at maturity 
becoming 1.8-2 cm. thick and with strongly prominulous nerves that are reticulate 
(Figure 28C, right) rather than copiously and conspicuously longitudinally raised as 
in K. novoguineense Verdcourt. 

The young fruits of species of Kingiodendron platycarpum (cf. Figure 28A) 
appear to be quite flat, but with development of the seed they thicken and acquire a 
characteristic nervation; young, flat fruits apparently do not provide dependable 
characters in the genus. Verdcourt suggests that in some cases developed and obsolete 
styles may indicate $ and d" states, but in at least K. platycarpum the essentially 
obsolete style bears a minutely peltate and apparently receptive stigma, and the ovule 
appears to be functional. 

18. Brownea Jacq. Enum. Syst. PI. Carib. 6, as Brownaea. 1760; corr. Murray, Syst. 
Veg. ed. 13. 516. 1774; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 271. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. 103. 1979. Nom. et orth. cons. 

Small trees, the flushes of young leaves flaccid, pink to red, subtended by large, 
marcescent perules, the stipules foliaceous or colored, caducous; leaves paripinnate, 
the leaflets often large, the blades usually acuminate and with a gland at base beneath; 
inflorescences usually densely capitate, terminal, axillary, or borne on branchlets and 
old wood, the bracts often large and caducous, the bracteoles colored, conspicuous, 
connate into a bilobed tube enclosing the calyx; calyx tube (hypanthium) tubular, the 
sepals 4 (or 5), petaloid, imbricate; petals (4 or) 5, slightly unequal, ovate to oblong, 
clawed, imbricate; stamens 10-15, the filaments connate at base or into a tube; ovary 
stipitate, the stipe adnate to hypanthium, the ovules numerous, the style filiform, the 
stigma capitate-dilated; fruit oblong, compressed, coriaceous to woody, dehiscent, the 
seeds transverse, compressed. 

Type species: Brownea coccinea Jacq. 

Distribution: Tropical America, with 25-30 species, several of which are in 
widespread cultivation; one or two species are grown in Fiji. 

1. Brownea spp. 

Small cultivated trees, with red to scarlet flowers in large, showy inflorescences 
usually axillary or borne on older branches. 

Local name and use: A name applied in Fiji is rose of Venezuela: species of the 
genus are beautiful additions to many tropical botanical gardens. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Nanduruloulou, DA, April 20, 1949 (Suva). Fiji 
without further locality, DA 3453 (suva). 

In the absence of a recent revision of the genus, the identities of the several species 
of Brownea recorded as cultivated in various tropical areas remain questionable (as 
noted by Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 16. 1967, and Verdcourt, Man. New 
Guinea Leg. 104. 1979). Cultivated hybrids further complicate identification. Whether 
one or two species are cultivated in Fiji remains to be resolved; two have been recorded. 
Five species are said to be in cultivation in Hawaii and three in Java. 

Brownea grandiceps Jacq. (Collect. 3: 287. /. 22, fig. a-i. 1891), typified by a 
collection made (by Loefling?) near Caracas, Venezuela, was listed in Thurston's 1886 
Catalogue as being cultivated in Fiji. J. W. Parham (PI. Fiji Isl. 62. 1964, ed. 2. 96. 
1972) also recorded B. grandiceps, presumably represented by the two specimens cited 
above. 



1985 CAESALPINIACEAE 141 

Brownea coccinea Jacq. (Enum. Syst. PI. Carib. 26, as Brownaea c. 1760, Select. 
Stirp. Amer. 194./. 121. 1763) waslisted by J. W. Parham(in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 
90. 1948) as being cultivated in the Suva Botanical Gardens, but no voucher has been 
seen. The species is typified by Jacquin specimens from Venezuelan coastal forest. 

19. Tamarindus L. Sp. PI. 34. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 246. 1964; Brenan in 
Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 151.1 967; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 1 06. 
1979. 

Tree, the stipules lanceolate, fugacious; leaves paripinnate, the leaflets opposite, 
small, in numerous pairs, subsessile, asymmetric at base; inflorescences terminal and 
lateral, racemose, lax, the bracteoles valvate, enclosing flower buds but soon cadu- 
cous; flowers § , zygomorphic; calyx tube (hypanthium) narrowly turbinate, the sepals 
4, broadly imbricate; petals 5, the 3 upper ones subequal, imbricate, the 2 lower ones 
minute, setaceous or scalelike; perfect stamens 3, the filaments connate about half their 
length into a sheath, the anthers dorsifixed; staminodes 4 or 5, dentate, borne between 
antheriferous filaments at apex of filament sheath; ovary stipitate, the stipe adnate to 
hypanthium, the ovules 8-14, the style elongate, the stigma subcapitate; fruit oblong to 
linear, curved or straight, thick, sometimes irregularly constricted between seeds, 
indehiscent, septate between seeds, the mesocarp pulpy, the seeds embedded in pulp, 
compressed, areolate. 

Type species: Tamarindus indica L. 

Distribution: Tropical Asia and Africa, with a single species so widely cultivated 
that its precise origin (probably African) is uncertain. 

1. Tamarindus indica L. Sp. PL 34. 1753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 74. 1865; Yuncker in Bishop 

Mus. Bull. 178: 59. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 134. 1959; J. W. Parham, Pi. Fiji Isl. 67. 

1964, ed. 2. 102. 1972; Brenan in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Caesalp. 153./;^. 32. 1967; 

Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 56. 1970; B. E. V. Parham 

in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 120. 1972; Verdcourt, 

Man. New Guinea Leg. lOS. fig. 25. 1979. 

Tamarindus indicus L. ex J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 91. 1948, in op. cit. 29: 33. 1959. 

A tree (up to 25 m. high where well established) with a rounded crown, occasionally 

cultivated near sea level or naturalized near seashores; the leaves have 10-21 pairs of 

leaflets about 1-3 ^ 0.5-1 cm. The flower buds are red, the sepals reddish without and 

pale yellow within, and the petals slightly larger than sepals, yellow or cream-colored, 

with red or purple veins. The fruits are 6-20 cm. long and 2-3 cm. in diameter, with 

1-10 seeds up to 17 x 12 mm. Our specimens bore flowers in January and February, 

fruits in May. 

Typification: Several references are given by Linnaeus, but a lectotypification has 
not been noted. 

Distribution: As of the genus. The tamarind was already in cultivation in Fiji at 
the time of Seemann's visit, but he did not collect it. 

Local names and uses: Names used in Fiji are tamarind, tamalina, imli (Hindi), 
and puli (Tamil). The acid pulp of the fruit may be used fresh in beverages or preserved 
for jams, chutney, etc.; the seeds are also edible. The species is often used as an 
ornamental street tree. Many medicinal and other uses are detailed by Burkill (Diet. 
Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. ed. 2. 2159-2162. 1966) and Purseglove (Trop. Crops, 
Dicot. 204-206. fig. 30. 1968). 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Ndreketi Inlet, south of Lautoka, DA 11407. Tailevu; 
Along Wainimbokasi River, near Hospital, D.4 1003. Rewa: Suva Botanical Gardens, DA 12067. Fiji 
without definite locality ("Avatele"), DA 4038. 



142 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Family 125. FABACEAE 
Fabaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Bot. ed. 2. 148. 1836. 

Papilionaceae Giseke, Prael. Ord. Nat. PI. 415. 1792. Nom. alt. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, sometimes climbing or decumbent, usually stipulate, the 
stipules free or adnate to petioles; leaves alternate or rarely opposite, usually com- 
pound (impari- or paripinnate, trifoliolate, digitate, or unifoliolate, never bipinnate), 
rarely simple, with or without stipels; inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemose, 
paniculate, or capitate, rarely spicate, sometimes 1 -flowered; flowers zygomorphic 
(very rarely essentially actinomorphic, as in Inocarpus among our genera), usually § , 
very rarely cleistogamous; calyx gamosepalous, (4- or) 5-dentate or -lobed, bilabiate, 
or rarely spathaceous, the lobes or teeth imbricate or valvate; petals 5 (rarely absent), 
imbricate, free or rarely partially connivent, the adaxial one (standard or vexillum) 
outermost, the two lateral ones (wings or alae) parallel with each other, the two lower 
ones innermost, often joined to form a keel (carina); disk rarely present; stamens 
inserted with petals, often 10, rarely fewer, monadelphous or diadelphous, rarely all 
free, the adaxial (vexillary) filament often free or partially united with the others, the 
anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, usually dehiscing lengthwise, rarely dimorphic; ovary 
free, unilocular or rarely transversely or longitudinally septate, the ovules 1- 
numerous, inserted on adaxial suture; fruit dehiscent by one or both sutures or indehis- 
cent, sometimes winged, sometimes articulate (jointed) and breaking up into 1-seeded 
segments (articles), the seeds without pleurograms (areoles) and (if hard) with a hilar 
groove, without or with very scant endosperm, sometimes strophiolate or carunculate, 
the radicle usually incurved. 

Distribution: Worldwide, with about 443 genera and 12,000 species. In Fiji 63 
genera are now recorded, 19 of them having indigenous species. 

Useful TREATMENTS OF family: Hutchinson, J. Fabaceae. Gen. Fl. PI. 1:297-489. 1964. Verdcourt, B. 
Studies in the Leguminosae- Papitionoideae for the 'Flora of Tropical East Africa': I-V. Kew Bull. 24: 1-70, 
235-307, 379-447, 507-569. 1970; 25: 65-169. 1971. Gillett, J. B., R. M. Polhill, & B. Verdcourt. 
Leguminosae Subfamily Papilionoideae, 1-1108. 1971. In: Milne-Redhead, E., & R. M. Polhill (eds.). Fl. 
Trop. E. Afr. Smartt. J. Tropical Pulses. 348 pp. Longman, 1976. Rudd, V. E. Fabaceae. /n; Dassanayake, 
M. D., & F. R. Fosberg (eds.). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 428-458. 1980. 

Species with potential as useful agricultural plants that have been introduced into 
Fiji in recent years have been listed, together with their sources, in Plant Introduction 
Lists (now approximately 30 in number) prepared by the Fiji Department of Agricul- 
ture. Numbers assigned to these introductions, now more than 20,000, are indicated as 
"FDA" numbers. Herbarium specimens have often been prepared from such plants 
growing in introduction plots, the specimens then bearing the usual "DA" numbers 
(sometimes but not always accompanied by the corresponding "FDA" number). 

Potential forage legumes or leguminous cover crops or pulse crops are numerous in 
the "FDA" series, and many of them have been listed in the more strictly botanical 
literature (e. g., J. W. Parham, 1964, 1972) and hence included in the present Flora; for 
the most part there seems a reasonable chance that such species have or will become 
established and naturalized. Other legumes known only from introduction plots under 
"FDA" numbers, lacking herbarium vouchers of any sort and not listed in any 
botanical treatment known to me, probably will not become naturalized and hence are 
omitted from the present Flora. Into this category fall taxa listed under such generic 
names as Cytisus, Lotus, Trifolium, Voandzeia (= Vigna), etc. Genera such as Trifo- 
lium, Vigna, and Phaseolus are indeed included in the present Flora, but some of the 
"FDA" introductions of them (and of other fabaceous genera) were listed under 
dubiously correct specific names that it has not seemed worthwhile to track to a logical 
synonymy. 



1985 FABACEAE 143 

The sequence of genera here utiHzed is taken from the various treatments in 
Advances in Legume Systematics ( 198 1), and the following key to tribes is in large part 
taken from Polhill's key in that work (pp. 205-208); however, the tribal circumscrip- 
tions here outlined are based only on genera that occur in Fiji and do not connote all 
the variation inherent in the tribes as understood by Polhill and his collaborators. 

Key to tribes occurring in Fiji 
Stamens free or shortly connate at base; calyx lobes subequal or the upper pair connate; leaves imparipin- 

nate; fruits not jointed; petals 5; our representatives trees or shrubs 1. Sophoreae 

Stamens joined to a considerable degree. 

Anthers (at least in our genera) dimorphic, alternately basifixed (longer ones) and versatile (shorter ones); 
leaves estipellate, digitately 3(-7)-foliolate, sometimes simple or 1-foliolate, usually pulvinate, not 
glandular-punctate; fruits not articulate; calyx with 5 subequal lobes or with the lateral sinuses 
shallower or the upper sinus deeper, the calyx sometimes 2-lipped; seeds conspicuously arillate or 

not; filaments connate into a sheath open on upper side 14. Crotalarieae 

Anthers essentially uniform at least in size, some sometimes aborted, or if anthers dimorphic then leaves 
pinnate or glandular-punctate. 
Leaves with pulvinus lacking (stipules often adnate to petiole base) or reduced (visible but not swollen), 
often then with a stipular ridge forming an abaxial commissure, generally distichous or crowded, 
estipellate; inflorescences axillary; herbs (all our genera). 
Nerves extending to the more or less toothed margin of leaflet blades. 

Stipules free from petiole; leaves 3-36-foliolate. ending in a tendril, spine, or leaflet; seeds globose 
to ovoid, beaked, with a very short radicle; our representative a cultivated annual herb, 
glandular-viscid, the leaves imparipinnate and usually with 9-14 leaflets, the flowers solitary, 

the seeds edible 12. Cicereae 

Stipules adnate to petiole; leaves in our genera 3(-7)-foliolate; seeds small, with a well-developed 

radicle 13. Trifolieae 

Nerves looped within margin of leaflet blades; leaves usually paripinnate, ending in a tendril or 
bristle, rarely imparipinnate; stipules free from petiole, often foliaceous; seeds lenticular to 

globose, with a more or less linear hilum and no radicular lobe II. Vicieae 

Leaves pulvinate, mostly free from stipules (if present). 

Petals all similar, linear; fruits 1-seeded, indehiscent, drupelike; flowers sessile or subsessile. 

3. Dalbergieae (Inocarpus) 
Petals differentiated, the flowers papilionoid. 

Upper 2 calyx lobes greatly enlarged, separate to base, petaloid, the lower 3 lobes minute; ovary 
l-ovulate; leaves paripinnate; radicle short, straight; our genus represented in Fiji by a 
cultivated tree, the leaves with a winged rachis, the flowers rose-pink, the fruit indehiscent. 

2. Dipteryxeae 

Upper calyx lobes not so enlarged (or if enlarged then forming a lip and not separate to base). 

Stamens 9; leaves paripinnate; flowers in pseudoracemes (pedicels several at rachis node) or 

axillary fascicles; fruits elastically dehiscent, with brown to bright-colored, often bicolored 

seeds; a tribe composed of a single genus, our representative an indigenous, often frequent, 

littoral scrambling vine or scandent shrub with 1 6-40 small leaflets and red and black seeds. 

4. Abreae 
Not as above. 

Anthers apiculate (in our genera) or appendaged; petals usually reddish and caducous; 

biramous hairs present (often among others) 7. Indigofereae 

Anthers not appendaged. 

Fruits transversely articulate, sometimes composed of only 1 article, or less often opening 
down 1 suture (then tertiary venation of leaflet blades scalariform); seeds with radicu- 
lar lobe longer than cotyledonary lobe; lower petals generally withering and caducous 
after explosive pollen release; inflorescences generally compound with more than I 
series of bracts; leaves pinnately 3(-5)-foliolate or 1-foliolate, generally stipellate; 
stipules and bracts often stnately nerved; uncinate or microscopically glochidiate hairs 

generally present 8. Desmodieae 

Fruits not articulate, or if so (Aeschynomeneae) then seeds more symmetrical; lower petals 

more retractible or a little interconnected and differentiated. 

Hypanthium none; intrastaminal disk generally present; vexillary filament free or often 

connate medially but then free, arched, and thickened to form openings at base of 

filament sheath; flowers often in pseudoracemes, sometimes in extensive panicles or 



144 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

clustered in axils; leaves generally imparipinnate, 3-many-foliolate, often stipellate, 
the leaflets generally strictly opposite, occasionally alternate, or the leaves some- 
times 1-foliolate or simple; fruits not articulate. 
Leaves 1-many-foliolate (but never 1-foliolate in our species), if 3-foliolate then the 
lateral leaflets often only slightly asymmetrical; stipels often lacking; trees, shrubs, 
or lianas, with hard wood, less often (Tephrosia) subshrubs with soft wood or 
herbs; flowering (except Tephrosia) often massive, the inflorescences often aggre- 
gated toward ends of branches; seeds with rudimentary plumule. 

5. Tephrosieae 
Leaves ( 1 -)3-foliolate, stipellate or less frequently estipellate, the lateral leaflets usually 
markedly asymmetrical, or the leaves occasionally 5-9-foliolate; twining, pros- 
trate, or erect herbs, sometimes shrubs, trees, or lianas; flowering generally 
protracted, the inflorescences often in many axils; flowers often as in Tephrosieae 
but with a tendency toward elaboration in style, standard appendages, abortion of 
anthers, resupination, and bird-pollination; seeds generally with a well-developed 

plumule unless endosperm thick 9. Phaseoleae 

Hypanthium present, short to long; disk usually lacking; vexillary filament not forming 
openings at base of filament sheath; flowers almost always inserted singly if inflores- 
cence extended; leaves variously paripinnate to imparipinnate, with or without 
stipels, the leaflets alternate to opposite, or the leaves sometimes 1 -3-foliolate. 

Fruits articulate unless geocarpic 10. Aeschynomeneae 

Fruits not articulate nor buried by an elongating gynophore. 
Ovules 1-4; fruits indehiscent, the seeds generally in separate seed chambers with 
hard endocarp; keel petals overlapping abaxially (or if margins adnate then 
flowers usually secund on rachis), more or less free from wings; stamens often 

shortly and/ or irregularly joined 3. Dalbergieae 

Ovules generally more numerous; fruits generally more podlike, dehiscent (some- 
times tardily so), often septate; flowers in axillary racemes (or these clustered at 
older nodes); stamens about 3/4 joined 6. Robinieae 

Keys to genera 
Tribe 1. Sophoreae 
Lower petals essentially similar, pinnately nerved; calyx with subequal lobes; anthers in our representatives 
3-5 mm. long; cultivated only. 
Fruits compressed, indehiscent, narrowed and 2-winged proximally, swollen and usually 1 -seeded dis- 
tally; lateral petals outside lower petals and about as long as stamens; ovules 2; leaflet blades with 

pellucid dots and streaks 1. Myroxylon 

Fruits essentially terete, turgid, woody, dehiscent, few-seeded, not winged; lateral petals much shorter 

than stamens; ovules 6 or 7; leaflet blades not pellucid-glandular 2. Caslanospermum 

Lower petals differentiated into wings and keel, palmately nerved; calyx with lobes subequal or the upper 2 
somewhat connate; anthers in our representatives about 1 mm. long. 
Fruits oblong to orbicular; calyx lobes imbricate; stigma lateral and introrse; our species a cultivated tree, 
the leaves with 7- 1 1 leaflets (blades coriaceous, ovate to oblong, acutf to acuminate at apex), the 

petals dark purple, the seeds bicolored red and black 3. Ormosia 

Fruits moniliform, strongly constricted between seeds; calyx lobes valvate; stigma minute, terminal; our 
species an abundant, coastal, indigenous tree or shrub, the leaves with 9-21 leaflets (blades chartace- 
ous, broadly elliptic to suborbicular, rounded at apex), the petals yellow, the seeds unicolored, pale 

brown 4. Sophora 

Tribe 2. Dipteryxeae 

One genus only in Fiji 5. Dipteryx 

Tribe 3. Dalbergieae 
Flowers papilionoid, zygomorphic; filament sheath not adnate to petals; leaves imparipinnate (rarely 
unifoHolate but not in our representatives). 
Fruits not winged; wing petals not much broader or longer than keel petals; petals not yellow. 

Keel petals overlapping beneath; fruits drupaceous; our species a cultivated tree, with pink to purple- 
red petals 6. Andira 

Keel petals connate (not overlapping) on lower side toward apex; fruits samaroid; our species an 

indigenous, httoral, scrambling liana or sprawling shrub, with white petals 7. Dalbergia 

Fruits narrowly to broadly winged; wing petals expanded, usually longer than keel petals; petals yellow to 
orange; our species a cultivated tree 8. Plerocarpus 



1985 FABACEAE 145 

Flowers with 5 (4-6) linear petals, essentially actinomorphic, the petals connate into a tube proximally; 
leaves simple (with I pulvinus); flowers sessile or subsessile; calyx closed in bud; filaments connate into 
a tube adnate to base of petals, the anthers subsessile at 2 levels on the tube; fruits indehiscent, 
drupelike, large; our species a large, primarily coastal, indigenous tree, often with a massive trunk, the 

seed edible 9. Inocarpus 

Tribe 4. Abreae 

One genus only 10. Ahrus 

Tribe 5. Tephrosieae 
Leaflet blades with curved secondary nerves not reaching a well-defined marginal nerve; trees, shrubs, or 
lianas; pedicels with bracteoles, but these often soon caducous; fruits indehiscent (or very tardily 
dehiscent), membranous to subligneous, not soft, sometimes winged (those of our species orbicular or 
elliptic to linear-lanceolate, very rarely less than I cm. broad, and rarely with more than 4 seeds). 
Inflorescences terminal and axillary, paniculate, pseudopaniculate, or pseud o racemose, the flowers often 
crowded on short lateral branchlets or fasciculate at nodes; fruits membranous to thin-coriaceous at 
maturity, narrowly winged or not, the seeds 1-few. 
Fruits winged along upper suture or both sutures; flowers clustered or crowded on short lateral 
branchlets or pseudoracemes or pseudopanicles or fasciculate at nodes; our species indigenous or 

cultivated and sometimes naturalized 11. Derris 

Fruits in our species very narrowly winged along upper suture (in most species not winged); flowers in 
our species paired at apices of short lateral branchlets of axillary pseudoracemes; our species a 

cultivated tree 12. Lonchocarpus 

Inflorescences axillary, racemose (racemes sometimes grouped into a panicle), the flowers 2 (rarely 3) at 
nodes; fruits thick-coriaceous to subligneous at maturity, not winged, the seed 1 (rarely 2 or 3); an 

indigenous tree seldom found far from coasts 13. Pongamia 

Leaflet blades comparatively small (in our species 1.5-4 x 0.3-1 cm.), with numerous (in our species 6-17), 
nearly straight, ascending, parallel lateral nerves extending to margin, and often with a well-developed 
marginal nerve; herbs or small shrubs with soft wood; inflorescences usually terminal or leaf-opposed, 
less often axillary, the pedicels without bracetoles; fruits dehiscent, often explosively so, soft, not 
winged (those of our species hnear, 3-5.5 cm. long, 3-6 mm. broad, with 5-14 seeds); our species 

indigenous or cultivated 14. Tephrosia 

Tribe 6. Robinieae 
Leaves imparipinnate, the leaflets in our species 7-17 pairs, with blades 3-6 « 1.5-3.5 cm.; racemes often 
clustered at older nodes; bracteoles absent; fruits linear-oblong, compressed, not septate, with valves 
becoming spirally coiled after dehiscence; fruits in our species up to 15 " 1.5 cm., with 3-8 seeds; 

cultivated only 15. Gliricidia 

Leaves paripinnate, the leaflets numerous, in our species (4-) 7-55 pairs, with blades 0.4-4.2 x 0.1 5- 1.4 cm.; 
racemes axillary; bracteoles present but usually fugacious; fruits linear, often becoming subterete. 
transversely septate, with valves not coiled after dehiscence; fruits in our species 1.3-6 « 0.2-0.9 cm., 

with 6-50 seeds; our species indigenous, cultivated, naturahzed, or adventive 16. Sesbania 

Tribe 7. Indicofereae 
Vexillary filament free; standard (at least in our taxa) dorsally pilose, not distinctly veined; fruits usually 
subterete; leaflets (in our taxa) 5-19, the blades entire; adventive, naturalized, or cultivated. 

17. Indigo/era 

Vexillary filament attached at least lightly to filament tube; standard glabrous, strongly veined; fruits fiat, in 

our species with 3 longitudinal ridges; leaflets in our species 3, the blades sparsely serrate; cultivated 

only 18. Cyamopsis 

Tribe 8. Desmodieae 
Ovary in our genera 2-many-ovulate (very rarely 1 -ovulate), fruits very rarely 1 -seeded; small uncinate hairs 
generally present, together with straight hairs; leaves stipellate; secondary lateral nerves more or less 
suppressed, the tertiary venation often scalariform; standard without inflexed auricles. 
Calyx not glumaceous nor striate; articles or complete fruits usually more convex on lower than on upper 
side. 
Leaves 3(-5)-foliolate or l-foliolate. the leaflet blades longer than broad (or sometimes suborbicular); 
calyx neither accrescent nor reticulate-veined. 
Fruits not folded nor enclosed within calyx; leaflets 1 or 3. rarely 5, the blades with lateral nerves not 
extending to margin; pedicels not hamate; flowers not twisted. 
Inflorescences axillary, subumbellate to congested-racemose; flowers solitary in axils of bracts; 
secondary bracts lacking; bracteoles paired at base of calyx, comparatively large and distinct 
under buds and young flowers; petals white or pale yellow; androecia monadelphous; styles 
more than 5 times longer than ovaries; fruits indehiscent, thick-corky or coriaceous, glabrous 
to variously pilose but lacking uncinate hairs, at length separating into articles; seeds rim- 
arillate; indigenous 19. Dendrohhium 



146 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemose or paniculate (rarely subumbellate or fasciculate); 
flowers borne in fascicles of 2-several or infrequently solitary on rachis; secondary flower- 
subtending bracts often present; bracteoles lacking or minute at base of calyx; petals purplish, 
reddish, blue, or pink, sometimes shading to white; androecia sometimes diadelphous (vexil- 
lary filament often free to middle or to base); styles not much longer than or shorter than 
ovaries; fruits often with uncinate hairs; cultivated (and often naturalized) or adventive. 
Fruits distinctly articulate, often reticulate-nerved, the articles at length separating from each 
other, indehiscent or rarely dehiscent on lower suture; seeds inconspicuously rim-arillate 
around hilum (in all our species); secondary flower-subtending bracts usually present; 
bracteoles at base of calyx sometimes present but minute; keel petals without appendages; 
terminal leaflet blades somewhat larger than lateral ones, but these occasionally lacking and 

the leaf unifoliolate 20. Desmodium 

Fruits not articulate nor reticulate-nerved, dehiscing along the undulate lower suture; seeds 
conspicuously arillate around hilum; secondary flower-subtending bracts lacking; brac- 
teoles absent; keel petals appendaged dorsally at base of lamina; terminal leaflet blades 
much larger than lateral ones, these often lacking and the leaf unifoliolate. 

21. Codariocalyx 

Fruits folded (in our species usually with 2 but sometimes with only I article) and mostly enclosed 

within the persistent calyx at maturity; leaflets in our species 1 or 3, the blades with lateral nerves 

extending to margin; pedicels usually paired, hamate (apically hooked); flowers often twisted; 

indigenous 22. Uraria 

Leaves 1- or 3-foliolate, the terminal (or only) leaflet blade in our species much broader than long; calyx 
nearly as long as petals, accrescent and persistent after flowering, papyraceous, reticulate-veined, 
the lobes deltoid; fruits deeply constricted between articles, folded and enclosed within calyx at 

maturity; cultivated and naturalized 23. Chrisiia 

Calyx glumaceous, the lobes striate with conspicuous nerves; fruits subterete or slightly compressed, 
articulate, the articles symmetrical along upper and lower margins (in our species short-cylindric and 
truncate at ends); leaves in our species unifoliolate, the petiole channelled and narrowly winged; 

adventive 24. Alysicarpus 

Ovary 1-ovulate; fruits 1-seeded, indehiscent; uncinate hairs absent; leaves estipellate; secondary lateral 
nerves well formed, the tertiary venation reticulate; standard usually with inflexed auricles; our species 
an infrequently cultivated potential fodder plant, with very small leaves and inconspicuous, 2-4- 

flowered inflorescences 25. Lespedeza 

Tribe 9. Phaseoleae 
Key to subtribes occurring in Fiji 
Leaflets and calyx eglandular; bracteoles usually present. 
Style generally terete and unbearded (sometimes with a few hairs below stigma), sometimes bearded or 
flattened in subtribe 9d but then petals less complex than in subtribe 9e; stigma terminal and capitate 
or obsolete; hilum rarely (as in some species of Erythrina) covered with tissue. 
Flowers not resupinate, or if so then differing in other respects from those of subtribe 9d; leaves 
trifoliolate. 
Petals unequal in length; flowers often adapted to bird- or bat-pollination, the fertile parts loosely 
housed or exserted; inflorescences pseudoracemose or paniculate, with showy flowers; our 

species trees, lianas, or climbing herbs 9a. Erythrininae 

Petals subequal in length; flowers mostly adapted to bee-pollination. 

Inflorescences often prominently nodose, occasionally paniculate or axillary and few-flowered; 

seeds diverse, the hilum short to long 9b. Diocleinae 

Inflorescences not or scarcely nodose (sometimes branched in Pueraria); seeds smooth, granular, 

or shagreened, the hilum short 9c. Glycininae 

Flowers generally resupinate; calyx glabrous within; style narrowed or expanded to a glabrous, 
penicillate, or bearded (in our genera) distal portion; petals often pilose; leaves 1-9-foliolate, with 

minute uncinate hairs 9d. Clitoriinae 

Style complicated by expansion, flattening, coiling, or specialized hairs, or if rarely both unbearded and 
terete then petals elaborate with appendages on standard and with keel petals adaxially joined; 
stigma terminal or lateral; hilum usually covered with spongy tissue; leaves in all our species 

trifoliolate 9e. Phaseolinae 

Leaflets and (usually) calyx with yellowish, resinous gland dots and with bulbous-based hairs; bracteoles 
lacking; style slender proximally, distally stiffened and somewhat thickened and glabrous, not bearded; 

stigma terminal, capitate; inflorescences not nodose 9f. Cajaninae 

Subtribe 9a. Erythrininae 
Standard the longest petal (or subequal to keel petals); anthers uniform; ovary stipitate; stinging hairs 
absent. 



1985 FABACEAE 147 

Petals red, or the wings and keel petals greenish or yellowish but usually red-tinged, the standard lacking 
appendages, the keel petals much shorter than standard; ovules (2-) numerous; fruits usually 
linear-oblong, constricted or sinuate between seeds, not winged, the seeds 1-14, the hilum elliptic or 
oblong; trees (our species), the trunk and branches often aculeate, the pseudoracemes often pyrami- 
dal and many-llowered; our species indigenous, cultivated, or naturalized 26. Ervihrina 

Petals orange to pinkish red or blue-green, the standard with 2 appendages above claw, the keel petals 
subequal to standard in length; ovules I -several; fruits usually inflated, ovoid-oblong to subglobose, 
the valves often reticulate-nerved, the seeds 1-few, the hilum extending to 1/2 the circumference of 
seed or more; lianas with pendulous racemes or panicles composed of racemes; indigenous or 

cultivated 27. StrongyloJon 

Standard shorter than wings or keel petals, with inflexed auricles, the keel petals equal to or longer than 
wings, stiffened at apex; petals scarlet to pale green, yellowish, or dark purple; 5 larger anthers 
subbasifixed, alternating with 5 shorter, versatile or dorsifixed ones; ovary sessile, the ovules few; fruits 
sometimes with wings bordering the sutures, the valves thick, sometimes transversely lamellate or 
longitudinally ridged; seeds ( I -) 2-7 in our species, either subglobose to oblong and with a short hilum 
and a conspicuous rim-aril, or discoid and with an elongate hilum and without a rim-aril; lianas or 
chmbing herbs; stinging hairs present (at least on young fruits, except in some cultivars); indigenous, 
cultivated, or naturalized 28. Mucuna 

SUBTRIBE 9b. DiOCLEINAE 

Stigma subglobose, lateral on inner surface of broadened tip of the distally subinvolute and pilose style; 
vexillary filament free from filament tube of the other stamens; fruits of our species less than 2 cm. 
broad, the valves without an additional longitudinal rib, the hilum small; climbing herbs with tuberous 

roots; our species cultivated for its edible tubers and young pods 32. Pachvrhirus 

Stigma small, terminal, the style glabrous at least distally, incurved but not subinvolute. 

Calyx lobes connate into 2 lips, the upper lip large, subentire or 2-lobed, the lower lip trifid; filaments all 

connate into a tube, the vexillary filament free only near base or rarely entirely free; fruits of our 

species more than 2 cm. broad, the valves with an additional longitudinal rib near sutural rib, the 

hilum about half as long as seed or longer; lianas, slender vines, or herbs; our species indigenous or 

cultivated 31. Canavalia 

Calyx lobes not connate into 2 lips, the upper ones separate or connate but not much larger than the 3 

lower ones. 

Vexillary filament free proximally but united in middle with filament tube of the other stamens; flowers 

large, the petals usually more than 1 cm. in length; fruits large, in our species probably at least 3 cm. 

broad and with seeds probably larger than 25 " 20 x 10 mm., the hilum (in our species) elongate, 

encircling more than 3, 4 the testa; our species indigenous high-climbing lianas. 

Calyx tube less than twice as long as lobes, the 2 uppermost lobes partially connate; standard not 

exceeding 3 cm. in length; stamens all fertile or the alternate ones smaller and sterile; fruits with a 

short stipe, the dorsal suture dilated or winged 29. Diociea 

Calyx tube 2-4 times longer than lobes, the 2 uppermost lobes adnate in bud but soon becoming 
completely separate; standard (2.5-) 3-7.5 cm. long; stamens all fertile; fruits stipitate, the stipe 
about 2 cm. long, the dorsal suture thickened but not dilated nor winged. 

30. Macropsychanlhus 
Vexillary filament free from filament tube of the other stamens; flowers small, the petals not much 
exceeding 1 cm. in length; fruits small, of our species about 5 mm. broad and with seeds not much 
larger than 3.5 » 3 "< 2 mm., the hilum small; climbing or trailing herbs; our species cultivated but 
apparently not naturalized, the stems, leaves, calyces, and fruits copiously pilose with spreading, 
ferrugineous hairs 33. Calopogonium 

SUBTRIBE 9c. GlYCININAE 

Fertile anthers 10, uniform; fruits lacking an apical hook; style obvious, long or short but not obscured by 
ovary-indument; standard inconspicuously auriculate. 
Flower solitary at inflorescence nodes; upper calyx teeth only partially connate; keel petals much shorter 
than wings; leaflet blades entire, in our species seldom exceeding 10 * 6 cm,; indigenous or cultivated. 

35. Glycine 
Flowers 3 or more per inflorescence node. 

Upper calyx teeth partially connate into a bidentate or emarginate lip (and then stipules not produced 
below point of insertion) or completely united (and then stipules produced both above and below 
point of insertion); keel petals subequal to wings in length; leafiet blades entire or sinuate-lobed, in 
our species often 12 " 11 cm. or larger; introduced species, copiously or rarely naturalized. 

34. Pueraria 

Upper calyx teeth completely united; stipules not produced below point of insertion; keel petals much 

shorter than wings; leaflet blades entire, not exceeding 7x5 cm.; introduced and perhaps 

naturalized 36. Neonuiunia 



148 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Fertile anthers 5, the alternate ones small and sterile or lacking; fruits with a sharply bent apical hook formed 
by the accrescent base of the short, thick style, this in flower sometimes obscured by tufted hairs; flowers 
paired or fasciculate on rachis or in leaf axils; standard not auriculate; keel petals shorter than wings; 
leaflet blades entire, in our species not exceeding 7 x 3.5 cm.; introduced and naturalized. 

37. Teramnus 

SuBTRiBE 9d. Clitoriinae 

Standard short-spurred (or rarely tuberculate) dorsally; calyx campanulate, the 2 upper lobes united into a 

bifid or emarginate lip (calyx in our species about 10 mm. long); fruits with 4 prominent ribs or wings 

near sutures (in our species ribbed and not more than 7 mm. broad); leaves in our species 3-foliolate: 

introduced and naturalized 38. Cenlrosema 

Standard not appendaged; calyx infundibular, the 2 upper lobes connate only at base (calyx in our species 
about 20 mm. long, with conspicuous lobes); fruits sometimes longitudinally ribbed (but in our species 
thick-margined and without ribs, about 10 mm. broad); leaves in our species 5- or 7(or 9)-foliolate; 

introduced and naturalized 39. Cliloria 

SUBTRIBE 9e. Phaseolinae 
Fruits conspicuously 4-winged; ovary winged; inflorescences with fasciculate or solitary flowers at rachis 
nodes, the bracteoles conspicuous; petals blue to purplish, yellow-, red-, or white-tinged; stipules 
produced below point of attachment; standard appendages small or none; style terete, flattened toward 

apex; cultivated only 40. Psophocarpus 

Fruits not longitudinally 4-winged; ovary not winged. 
Style either uniformly thick or uniformly thin, but not distinctly divided into a tenuous basal part and a 
thickened upper part, the stigma terminal. 
Inflorescences pseudoracemose, long-pedunculate, the flowers clustered at nodes along rachis; stan- 
dard with 2 callosities on inner surface; style incrassated, conspicuously laterally flattened, straight 
and bladelike throughout its length, forming an angle of just less than 90° with the ovary and with a 
line of hairs near top of inner margin, the stigma glabrous; fruits with spongy septa, in our sub- 
species up to 10 X 4 cm., the seeds with a linear hilum and a whitish rim-aril, up to 15 mm. long; 

cultivated and naturalized 41. Lablab 

Inflorescences fasiculate and axillary or racemiform at stem apices; standard with 2 linear, lamelliform 
appendages on inner surface; style subfiliform, glabrous or short-pilose but not barbate, the stigma 
usually surrounded by a conspicuous ring of hairs; fruits not septate, in our species 3-8 cm. long 
and 6-8 mm. broad, the seeds with a short hilum and an inconspicuous rim-aril, not more than 6 

mm. long; cultivated only 42. Macrotyloma 

Style divided into a tenuous basal part and a thick, incrassated upper part. 

Stipules not or distinctly produced below point of attachment; floral bracts caducous; style with 

thickened part rarely curved through more than 180°, introrsely bearded toward apex; stigma 

introrse or subintrorse (rarely subterminal); keel petals about as long as wings or longer, sometimes 

with a conical pocket, rarely spiralled in as many as 3 complete turns; uncinate hairs lacking. 

Thickened part of style not abruptly but usually gently curved; petals yellow, blue, or purple; wings 

slightly shorter than standard; keel petals sometimes with a conical pocket; fruits linear to 

oblong-linear, subterete or flattened, in our species 3-7 (-14) mm. broad and with 2-15 seeds; 

stipules produced below point of attachment or not; indigenous, cultivated, and naturalized. 

43. Vigna 
Thickened part of style characteristically abruptly curved through about 90° just above its junction 
with tenuous part and narrowed and slightly curved toward apex, resembling a squarish hook; 
petals usually crimson or dark blackish purple; wings suborbicular, large, longer than standard 
and keel; keel petals without a pocket but with a transverse fold; fruits cylindric or compressed, 
narrow, in our species 3-4.5 mm. broad and with 12-30 seeds; stipules not produced below point 

of attachment; cultivated and naturalized 44. Macroplilium 

Stipules not produced below point of attachment; bracts and bracteoles persistent at least to anthesis; 
style with thickened part curved through at least 360°, glabrous or introrsely pilose distally; stigma 
oblique, subterminal, or terminal; keel without a pocket, often narrow and elongated, the apex 
beaked and spiralled in 1-5 complete turns; uncinate hairs present; cultivated and (one species 
only) naturalized 45. Phaseolus 

SUBTRIBE 9f. CaJANINAE 

Ovules 2-8 or more; fruits 2-many-seeded, the valves with transverse or oblique grooves or lines separating 
seeds, the seeds with an obvious (well-developed although sometimes small) rim-aril. 
Erect shrubs or subshrubs; fruits scarcely septate within; seeds with a small rim-aril; cultivated and 

naturalized 46. Cajanus 

Plants twining, trailing (as in our species), or shrubby; fruits distinctly septate; seeds with a well-developed 
rim-aril; introduced and naturalized 47. Aiylosia 



1985 FABACEAE 149 

Ovules (I or) 2; fruits 1- or 2-seeded, not septate, the valves without transverse or oblique grooves or hnes, 
the seeds with the rim-aril obsolete (at least in our species). 
Leaves in our species digitately trifoliolate; inflorescence bracts sometimes conspicuous (in our species 
concealing flower buds but deciduous at anthesis); our species a shrub, cultivated only. 

48. Flemingia 
Leaves in our species pinnately trifoliolate; inflorescence bracts inconspicuous, not concealing flowers; 

our species a climbing or prostrate herb, adventive 49. Rhvnchosia 

Tribe 10. Aeschynomeneae 

Stipules not adnate to petiole; leaflets in our species numerous (9 or more); flowers pedicellate, the calyx tube 

broader than long; filaments connate into a sheath split on one or both sides, the vexillary filament 

sometimes free; anthers uniform; ovary stipitate or substipitate, the ovules often numerous; fruits 

articulate. 

Fruit articles longitudmally ribbed; our species an indigenous shrub or small tree, the leaflets 9-20, usually 

2-3 " 0.7-2 cm., the fruit articles 15-24 x 5-8 mm 50. Ormocarpum 

Fruit articles reticulate-veined; our species an adventive annual or perennial herb, the leaflets usually 

20-60 and 0.2-1.3 » 0.1-0.3 cm., the fruit articles 3-5 mm. long and broad. 51. Aeschvnoniene 

Stipules proximally adnate to petiole; leaflets in our species 3 or 4; flowers sessile or subsessile, the calyx tube 

filiform, much longer than broad; filaments connate into a closed tube, this sometimes at length split on 

vexillary side; anthers alternately long (and subbasifixed) and short (and versatile); ovary sessile or 

nearly so, the ovules seldom more than 4. 

Leaves in our species trifoliolate, the leaflets seldom exceeding 3 x 1 cm; distal part ofstyle caducous after 

anthesis, the lower part persistent, recurved or revolute. forming an inflexed or hooked beak on 

mature fruit; fruits not developing underground, articulate, the articles 1 or 2 (but usually I article 

aborted); cultivated and sometimes sparingly naturalized 52, Sivlosanihes 

Leaves in our species 4-foliolate, the leaflets up to 7 » 3 cm.; gynophore elongating after anthesis. 
becoming reflexed and rigidly acute at apex, in our species at length 1-20 cm. long; fruits maturing 
underground, subtorulose but not articulate, continuous within, with 1 -3 (-6) seeds; cultivated only. 

53. Arachis 
Tribe II. Vicieae 
Style not longitudinally folded; filaments not dilated distally. 

Style terete or compressed dorsally or laterally, pilose all around or ventrally or abaxially tufted at apex; 
filament tube oblique at mouth; fruits in our species 10-30 >< 2-4 cm., with 1-6 seeds 1-2.5 cm. long, 
the pericarp with a spongy white layer within; leaflet blades with conduplicate vernation (but this in 
our species sometimes supervolute); leaflets in our species 2-6, 5- 1 x 1-5 cm.; cultivated only, for its 

large, edible seeds 54. I'icia 

Style dorsally compressed, pubescent only on adaxial face. 

Leaves in our species unijugate, the leaflet blades with supervolute vernation, usually 2-4 cm. long; 

filament tube usually truncate at apex; ovules few-numerous; fruits in our species 5 cm. or more 

long, the seeds subglobose; cultivated only, for its attractive, fragrant flowers. . .55. Laihvrus 

Leaves in our species with 4-7 pairs of leaflets, the blades with conduplicate vernation, usually 1-1.5 cm. 

long; filament tube oblique at apex; ovules 2; fruits in our species to 1.5 cm. long, the seeds 

compressed, lenticular; cultivated only, for its small, edible seeds 56. Lens 

Style dorsally compressed, adaxially pubescent, longitudinally folded with the margins joined abaxially 
below stigma; filaments slightly dilated distally, the tube truncate at mouth; fruits in our taxon inflated, 
with 2-10 subglobose seeds; stipules in our species large, foliaceous, usually larger than leaflets; leaflet 
blades with conduplicate vernation, in our species up to 7 * 4 cm.; cultivated only, for its edible, usually 

green seeds 57. Pisum 

Tribe 12. Cicereae 

One genus only 58. Cicer 

Tribe 13. Trifolieae 

Petals not persisting in fruit; filaments not dilated; fruits with ( I-) many or numerous seeds, not included in 

calyx; leaves pinnately 3-foliolate. 

Fruits straight or rarely falcate, usually many-seeded and dehiscent; flowers without an explosive tripping 

mechanism, those of our species I or 2 in leaf axils; our species cultivated only. . 59. Tngonella 

Fruits usually coiled, sometimes merely falcate, scarcely dehiscent, sometimes spiny (but not in our 

species); flowers with an explosive tripping mechanism, those of our species numerous in congested 

racemes; our species cultivated and possibly becoming established 60. Meduago 

Petals often persisting in fruit; filaments (at least some) dilated below anthers; fruits 1- or 2(-4)-seeded, often 
indehiscent and included in calyx; leaves usually digitately 3(-7)-foliolate; several species introduced 
into Fiji but infrequently becoming established 61. Tnfolium 



150 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Tribe 14. Crotalarieae 

Style distally bearded; anthers 5 + 5 (5 distinctly the longer); keel usually prominently beaked, the beak 
sometimes twisted; calyx lobes free or the upper and lateral lobes united; fruits usually markedly 
inflated; leaves simple, 1-foliolate, or 3-7-foliolate; our species either adventive or cultivated (and 
sometimes naturalized), with leaf or leaflet blades seldom less than 1 cm. broad (and then only in species 
with simple or 5-foliolate leaves) 62. Crotalaria 

Style distally glabrous; anthers 4 + 6 (4 distinctly the longer); keel petals rounded at apex; calyx with the 4 
upper lobes usually connate in pairs; fruits compressed or only slightly inflated; our species cultivated 
and becoming naturalized, with 3-foliolate leaves, the leaflet blades narrow, usually 0.5-1 cm. broad. 

63. Lotononis 

1. Myroxylon L. f. Suppl. PL 34, 233. 1782; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 332. 1964; 
Rudd in Rhodora 70: 502. 1968, in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 420. 1980. Norn, 
cons. 

Trees, the stipules minute or lacking; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, estipellate, 
the leaflets 5-15, alternate, the blades entire, with pellucid dots and streaks; inflores- 
cences axillary and racemose or terminal and paniculate, the flowers small; calyx 
campanulate-tubular, without basal bracteoles, with 5 short, subequal lobes valvate in 
bud; petals 5, the standard broadly orbicular, long-clawed, the 4 lower petals subequal, 
narrow, short-clawed; disk lining base of calyx tube; stamens 10, the filaments free or 
shortly connate at base, the anthers conspicuous, nearly as long as filaments; ovary 
long-stipitate, the ovules 2, near apex, the style short, subulate, the stigma terminal, 
small; fruit stipitate, indehiscent, flattened and narrowed at base, swollen and usually 
1 -seeded at apex, 2-winged, the seed subreniform. 

Type species: Myroxylon peruiferum L. f. 

Distribution: Mexico, Central America, and South America, with two or three 
species, sometimes cultivated elsewhere, as in Fiji. 

Useful treatment of genus: Harms, H. Zur Nomenclatur des Perubalsambaumes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin 5: 85-98. 1908. 

1. Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms var. pereirae (Royle) Harms in Notizbl. Bot. 
Gart. Berhn 5: 95. 1908; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964, ed. 2. 1 15. 1972; Rudd 
in Rhodora 70: 503. 1968, in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 432. 1980. 
Myrospermum pereirae Royle, Man. Mat. Med. ed. 2. 414. 1853. 

A tree to 20 m. or more high where indigenous, infrequently cultivated near sea 
level. The racemes are 5-30 cm. long and bear flowers with white petals and filaments. 

Typification: The type of Myrospermum pereirae was collected by Jonathan 
Pereira in El Salvador. 

Distribution: Southern Mexico to Panama (and possibly Colombia), cultivated 
elsewhere. Variety balsamum (said to be originally from Tolii, near Cartagena, Colom- 
bia) is found in Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela; from it var. pereirae differs in 
having its leaflets slightly smaller and its fruits also smaller, 6-8 cm. long, sometimes 
strongly curved and with the winged lower portion narrowed basally. The resin of the 
two varieties is said to differ physically and chemically. Both Myroxylon toluiferum f= 
M. balsamum var. balsamum) and M. peruiferum were listed in J. B. Thurston's 1886 
Catalogue and presumably were first introduced into Fiji by him, but no available 
vouchers from his gardens permit verification of his names. 

Local name and uses: Balsam of Peru, a name widely used for both Myroxylon 
balsamum (which more accurately might be known as balsam of Tolii) and M. 
peruiferum L. f. (Colombia to Peru, Bolivia, and southern Brazil). Cultivated as a 
garden ornamental. The resin is the source of balsam used medicinally and as a fixative 
in perfumery, and the hard, durable wood is valued for cabinet work. 
Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Experiment Station, Nasinu, DA 1552. 



1985 FABACEAE 151 

2.CASTANOSPERMUM Cunn. ex Hook, in Bot. Misc. 1:241. 1830; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. 
PI. 1: 326. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 283. 1979; Rudd in Rev. 
Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 436. 1980. 

Large tree, estipulate; leaves imparipinnate, estipellate, the leaflets opposite or 
alternate, coriaceous; inflorescences short-racemose, terminal or borne along 
branches, the bracts minute, the bracteoles lacking, the flowers large; calyx campanu- 
late, thick-coriaceous, with 5 short, broad lobes; petals fleshy, the standard obovate- 
orbicular, recurved, the 4 lower petals shorter and narrower than standard; stamens 
10, free, the anthers linear, versatile; ovary long-stipitate, the ovules 6 or 7, the style 
long, the stigma terminal, small; fruit stipitate, oblong, turgid, woody, 2-valved, 
spongy within between seeds, the seeds few, large, subglobose. 

Type species: Castanospermum australe Cunn. & Eraser ex Hook. 

Distribution: Northeastern Australia, New Caledonia, and the New Hebrides, 
with a single species. 

1. Castanospermum australe Cunn. & Eraser ex Hook, in Bot. Misc. 1: 241. t. 51, 52. 

1830; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12: 247. 193 1; B. E. V. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. 

Agr. Fiji 10: 113. 1939; P. S. Green in Bramwell, Plants and Islands, 48. 1979; 

Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 283. //j?. 61. 1979; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. 

Ceylon 1: 437. 1980; Henty in Papua New Guinea Dept. Forests Bull. 12: 80.//^. 

49. 1980. 

A tree up to 40 m. high and with a trunk to 1.2 m. in diameter where indigenous, 

reported as sparingly cultivated near sea level. The leaflets are 7-19, elliptic-oblong, 

acuminate, and up to 16^5.5 cm. The racemes, up to 25 cm. long, bear flowers with the 

calyx yellow, the petals yellow and becoming orange-red, the standard being about 3 

cm. long. The fruits are dark brown, up to 25 cm. long and 6 cm. in diameter, with 2-5 

dark brown seeds up to 4 cm. long. 

Typification: The type is Cunningham & Fraser (k holotype), from the Brisbane 
River, Queensland, Australia. 

Distribution: As of the genus, cultivated elsewhere, in the Pacific at least in Java, 
New Guinea, and Hawaii. 

Local names and uses: Moreton Bay chestnut, Australian chestnut. This orna- 
mental tree bears seeds that are edible after roasting and can be made into a coarse 
flour; the wood is also considered useful. 

No vouchers support the Fijian record, but Parham (1939, cited above) states that 
it was introduced in 1923 and in 1939 was growing on the property of W. L. Wallace, 
Tovu Island, Ra Province, Viti Levu. It should grow well in Fiji but it may not have 
persisted. 

3. Ormosia Jackson in Trans. Linn. Soc. 10:360. 181 1; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:323. 

1964; Rudd in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 32: 287. 1965; Verdcourt, Man. New 

Guinea Leg. 287. 1979. Nom. cons. 
Trees, the stipules caducous; leaves imparipinnate (rarely unifoliojate), estipellate, 
the leaflets 3-19, opposite or subopposite and with coriaceous blades; inflorescences 
terminal or axillary, paniculate or racemose, the bracts and bracteoles small; calyx- 
tube campanulate, the lobes subequal or the upper 2 subconnate; petals 5, the standard 
suborbicular, the wings oblique, obovate-oblong, the keel petals free, more incurved 
than wings, often overlapping dorsally; stamens 10, free, alternately slightly unequal, 
the anthers dorsifixed, versatile; ovary subsessile, the ovules 2 or more, the style 
filiform, recurved, the stigma lateral and introrse, less often terminal; fruit oblong to 
orbicular, compressed or inflated around seeds, woody or coriaceous, dehiscent (rarely 



152 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

indehiscent), sometimes septate between seeds, the seeds 1-6, ellipsoid to subglobose, 
red, yellow, or black, unicolored or bicolored. 

Type species: Ormosia coccinea (Aubl.) Jackson (Robinia coccinea Aubl.)- Typ. 
cons. 

Distribution: India and southern China through Malesia to northern Australia, 
and in the New World from southern Mexico to southern Brazil, with about 100 
species. 

Useful treatment of genus: Rudd, V. E. The American species of Ormosia (Leguminosae). Contr. U. 
S. Nat. Herb. 32: 279-384. 1965. 

1. Ormosia monosperma (Sw.) Urb. Symb. Antill. 1: 321. 1899; Rudd in Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 32: 355. />/. 1-4. 1965; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 115. 1972. 
Sophora monosperma Sw. Nov. Gen. & Sp. Prodr. 66. 1788. 
Ormosia dasvcarpa Jackson in Trans. Linn. Soc. 10: 362. /. 26, nom. illeg. 1811; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. 

Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 91. 1948. 

A tree to 17 m. high where indigenous, occasionally cultivated in Fiji near sea level. 
The leaflets, usually 7-11, are up to 20 x 6 cm., and the petals are dark purple, the 
standard with a white spot. The fruits are densely velutinous, up to 6 >< 3.5 x 2 cm. and 
with 1 -3 seeds, these red and black and up to \1 ^ 1 7 x 11 mm. Fruits have been noted 
in Fiji in January. 

Typification: The type was collected in the West Indies by Alexander Anderson 
(bm holotype; putative isotype at g from St. Vincent). The type of Ormosia dasy- 
carpa, illegitimate because Jackson cited Sophora monosperma as a synonym, was 
presumably also collected by Anderson (g holotype) (Rudd, 1965). 

Distribution: Lesser Antilles to Trinidad and northeastern Venezuela, cultivated 
elsewhere, in the Pacific at least in Java and Hawaii. 

Local name and use: Commonly known as bead tree; the seeds are often made 
into necklaces, although this has not been noted in Fiji, where the species is grown as an 
ornamental. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Experiment Station, Nasinu, DA 1564: Reform 
School grounds, Nasinu, DA 7298. The species was recorded (Parham, 1948) as growing in the Suva 
Botanical Gardens, but no voucher is available. 

4. Sophora L. Sp. PI. 373. 1753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 65. 1865; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
328. 1964; Rudd in Rhodora 70: 521. 1968; Polhill in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 
43. 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 289. 1979; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. 
Ceylon 1: 439. 1980. 
Trees or shrubs, rarely perennial herbs, the stipules deltoid or lacking; leaves 
alternate, imparipinnate, 8-64-foliolate, the stipels setaceous or often absent; inflores- 
cences terminal or axillary, racemose or paniculate, few-many-flowered, the bracts 
small to sometimes large, the bracteoles small, more often apparently absent, the 
pedicels solitary, swollen or jointed proximally; calyx tube campanulate to tubular, the 
lobes small to prominent, subequal or the upper 2 often fused; petals 5, the standard 
obovate to orbicular, usually short-clawed, the wings obliquely oblong, the keel petals 
overlapping or dorsally connate; stamens 10, free or the filaments connate at base, 
alternately subequal, the anthers dorsifixed, versatile; ovary short-stipitate, the ovules 
several-numerous, the style incurved, filiform-subulate, short, the stigma minute. 

Figure 30. Sophora lomeniosa: A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and an inflorescence, x 1 /4; 
B, flower, with one wing petal removed, " 4; C, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and an infructes- 
cence, x 1/4; D, portion of disintegrating fruit and seeds, one turned to show hilum, x 2. A & B from DA 
16850, C from Smiih 1096, D from Valemine 34. 



1985 



FABACEAE 



153 




154 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

terminal; fruit moniliform, strongly constricted between seeds, terete or slightly com- 
pressed, sometimes winged, fleshy to coriaceous, indehiscent or tardily dehiscent, the 
seeds 1-6 (-15), ellipsoid to globose, usually with a small hilum. 

Lectotype species: Sophora tomentosa L. (vide Rudd in Rhodora 70: 522. 1968; 
Yakovlev in Taxon 21: 716. 1972), one of Linnaeus's six original species. This lectotyp- 
ification (originally suggested by Hitchcock and Green in 1929) must replace the ING 
choice of S. alopecuroides L. (designated by Britton and Brown in 1913) because all 
five species of Linnaeus except 5. tomentosa have now been referred to other validly 
published genera (cf. ICBN, Guide for the determination of types. At). 

Distribution: Most warmer parts of the world, and sometimes in temperate areas, 
with 50-75 species, one of which is indigenous in Fiji. If Sophora is divided into genera 
or sections (cf. Polhill in Adv. Leg. Syst. 229. 1981), sect. Sophora will include 
seven-ten widely distributed, seaborne species. 

1. Sophora tomentosa L. Sp. PI. 373. 1753; A. Gray, Bot U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 460. 

1854; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, in op. cit. 10:296. 1862, Viti,435. 1862, 

Fl. Vit. 66. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 157. 1890;GuillaumininJ. Arnold 

Arb. 12: 246. 1931; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 100. 1935; Yuncker 

in op. cit. 220: 137. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 2. 118. 1972; 

Rudd in Rhodora 70: 526. 1968; St. John & A. C. Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25: 328. 1971; 

Polhill in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 44. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand 

Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 34. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 

Leg. 2S9. fig. 64. 1979; Henty in Papua New Guinea Dept. Forests Bull. 12: 9A.fig. 

55. 1980; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 439. 1980. Figure 30. 

A shrub or tree 1-14 (usually 2-5) m. high, often abundant in coastal thickets or 

forest near sea level. The flowers have pale or bright yellow petals, the filaments and 

style being greenish yellow; the fruits turn from pale green to grayish brown. Flowers 

and fruits are to be seen during most of the year. 

Lectotypification: Four references were listed by Linnaeus; Polhill (1971, cited 
above) indicates Hermann 1: 61 & 3: 13 (bm), from Ceylon, as syntypes. 

Distribution: Sophora tomentosa as a whole occurs on both coasts of Africa and 
northward to China and eastward into the Pacific, and also in America from Mexico 
and the West Indies to eastern South America. It has been divided into several 
subspecies, our material falling into subsp. tomentosa, which is widespread on tropical 
and subtropical coasts from eastern Africa and Madagascar northward to China and 
eastward to eastern Australia and into Polynesia at least to the Society and Austral 
Islands. About 40 Fijian collections are at hand, but the species is to be expected along 
most shores in the archipelago. 

Local names and uses: Kau ni yalewa is frequently applied to this species (as to 
other, quite different plants); more questionable names are kau ni yalewa tevoro 
(Serua), nandrala (Nandronga & Navosa), and manawi ni sawana (Kambara). In 
addition to providing a useful windbreak behind beaches, the Sophora is said to have 
medicinal uses; the leaves are mixed with coconut oil and used as a compress. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 309. Nandronga & Navosa: 
Vicinity of Singatoka, Valentine 34. Serua: Navutulevu, DA L. 13450 (DF I2I2): near mouth of Taunovo 
River, DA 13851 (DF347). Naitasiri: Vunindilo, DA, May 5, 1951. Tailevu: Near Queen Victoria School, 
Matavatathou, DA 15369. Viti Levu without further locality, Seemann 130. MBENGGA; Raviravi, DA 
6076. KANDAVU: Namalata isthmus region, Smith 179. OVALAU: Vicinity of Thawathi, Smith 8095. 
WAKAYA: Tothill 121a. KORO: East coast, Smith 1096. NAIRAI: Tothill 121. VANUA LEVU: 



1985 FABACEAE 155 

Thakaundrove: Wairuku Plantation, near Nathavanandi, DA 16850: Maravu, near Salt Lake, Degener & 
Ordonez 14228. TOTOYA: DA U243. WAILANGILALA; Bryan 592. KAMBARA: On limestone forma- 
tion, Smith 1260. Fiji without further locality, ('. 5. Expl. Exped.. Siorck 886. 

5. DiPTERYX Schreber, Gen. PI. 485. 1791; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PL 1:392. 1964. Norn. 

cons. 

Trees; leaves paripinnate, estipellate, the leaflets 3-14, opposite or alternate, the 
blades sometimes glandular-punctate, with the costa excentric; inflorescences termi- 
nal, paniculate, the bracts small, the bracteoles small or lacking; calyx colored and 
glandular-punctate, the tube (hypanthium) short, the upper 2 lobes enlarged, separate 
to base, petaloid, the lower 3 lobes reduced to small teeth; petals 5, the standard 
emarginate, the wings free, emarginate, the keel petals apiculate; stamens 10, the 
filaments connate into a sheath split above, the anthers uniform, versatile; ovary 
stipitate, the ovule 1, subapical, the style straight or incurved, the stigma small, 
minutely papillose; fruit drupaceous, ovoid, indehiscent, the seed pendulous, 
cylindric-fusiform. 

Type species: Dipteryx odorata ( Aubl.) Willd. (Coumarouna odorata Aubl.). Typ. 
cons. 

Distribution: Tropical America, with about ten species, one of which has been 
cultivated in Fiji. 

1 . Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 910. 1 802; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. 
Agr. Fiji 19: 90. 1948. 
Coumarouna odorata Aubl. Hist. PI. Guiane Fr. 2: 740. /. 296. 1775. 

A tree up to 40 m. high where indigenous, sparingly cultivated near sea level. The 
leaf rachis is conspicuously winged and the leaflets are usually 3-6, up to 1 5 '^ 8 cm. The 
bracteoles are pink and fugacious, the calyx rose-pink with the upper 2 lobes 10-12 
mm. long, and the petals also rose-pink. The fruits, yellow-brown and up to 10 x 6 cm. 
when mature, each bear a single seed up to 5 x 2 cm. and black or brownish. 

Typification: The species is based on an Aublet collection from Guiana. 

Distribution: South America, from Colombia to Brazil; introduced on a com- 
mercial scale into Trinidad and other West Indian islands, and frequently cultivated 
elsewhere. The species was apparently introduced into Fiji by J. B. Thurston, who 
listed it in his 1886 Catalogue. Parham (1948, cited above) indicates that a specimen 
was growing in the Suva Botanical Gardens at that time, but no voucher seems 
available. 

Local name and uses: The name in widespread use is tonka bean. The cured seeds 
have a characteristic odor and flavor due to coumarin, and are used for flavoring and 
scenting tobacco, and also in perfumery or to flavor confectionery, liqueurs, soap, etc. 
For the most part wild plants supply the market, but commercial cultivation has been 
successful in Trinidad and other West Indian islands. The timber is hard and durable. 
Its introduction into Fiji was presumably for experimental purposes or as an ornamen- 
tal tree. Interesting accounts of the species are provided by Burkill (Diet. Econ. Prod. 
Malay Penins. ed. 2. 859. 1966) and Purseglove (Trop. Crops, Dicot. 258-263.//^. 40. 
1968). 

6. Andira Juss. Gen. PI. 363. 1789; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:391. 1964;PolhillinFl. 

Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 62. 1971. Nom. cons. 
Trees, the stipules various; leaves alternate, imparipinnate ( rarely trifoliolate), with 
setaceous stipels or none, the leaflets opposite or rarely alternate; inflorescences 



156 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

terminal or sometimes axillary, paniculate, the flowers often crowded and subsessile, 
the bracts and bracteoles small and caducous; calyx tube short-campanulate, subtrun- 
cate or with short teeth, the upper ones united nearly to apex; petals much longer than 
calyx, the standard suborbicular, without appendages or auricles, the wings free from 
keel, the keel petals overlapping beneath; stamens 10, the filament of the vexillary 
stamen free or rarely connate with the others, the anthers dorsifixed, versatile, uni- 
form; ovary usually stipitate, oblong-ellipsoid, the ovules (1-) 2-4, the style short, 
incurved, the stigma small, terminal, penicillate; fruit drupaceous, indehiscent, woody, 
ovoid or obovoid, the seed solitary, pendulous, eUipsoid to ovoid, the hilum small. 

Type species: Andira racemosa Lam. ex St.-Hil. 

Distribution: About 20 species in tropical America, one of them extending to 
Africa. One species is cultivated in Fiji. 

L Andira inermis (Wright) DC. Prodr. 2: 475. 1825; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. 
Agr. Fiji 19: 90. 1948, PI. Fiji Isl. 70. 1964, ed. 2. 109. 1972; Polhill in Fl. Trop. E. 
Afr. Leg. Papil. 63. 1971; Mattos in Acta Amazonica 9: 26L 1979. 

Geoffroea inermis Wright in London Med. J. 8: 256. 1787. 
Geoffraea inermis Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 1255. 1806. 

A spreading tree 7-15 m. high, with a trunk to 30 cm. in diameter, sparingly 
cultivated near sea level. The leaves are 20-40 cm. long, with 4-8 pairs of leaflets 
usually not exceeding 11x5 cm. The calyx and petals are pink to purple-red and the 
filaments are white. The fruits are round in cross section, up to 7 cm. long, with a single 
ellipsoid seed about 2.5 cm. long. Some of our collections were flowering in October. 

Typification: The author of the basionym is often indicated to be Swartz (1806), 
who referred to Wright's "Goeffraea inermis jamaicensis" (in Philos. Trans. 67: 512./. 
10. \111) and indicated the locality as "Jamaicae occidentalis." Probably no specimen 
was preserved, but perhaps Wright's 1777 illustration may be considered the type. The 
combination is often shown as "(Sw.) H. B. K.," but (Nova Gen. et Sp. 6: 385. 1824) 
Kunth merely listed Geoffraea inermis Sw. there without making a new combination. 

Distribution: Continental tropical America and the West Indies, also extending 
to Africa (western Africa to Sudan). Two endemic subspecies occur in Africa, where 
the American subsp. inermis probably occurs naturally in forests around the Gulf of 
Guinea (Polhill, 1971, cited above). Mattos (1979, cited above) divided the American 
population into two varieties. The infraspecific identity of our cultivated plant cannot 
be certain. 

Local name and uses: This ornamental tree is often known as bastard mahogany; 
its wood is considered useful for furniture, cabinet work, etc. Parham (1972, cited 
above) thinks that it was probably introduced into Fiji about 1937. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Suva Botanical Gardens, Mac Daniels 1127, DA 2540, 
5592, 5661, 11958; Suva, in private garden, DA 3808; Nasese, DA 11700. 

1. Dalbergia L. f. Suppl. PL 52, 316. 1782; Seem. Fl. Vit. 64. 1865; Hutchinson, Gen. 

Fl. PI. 1: 389. 1964; Polhill in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 95. 1971; Verdcourt, 

Man. New Guinea Leg. 291. 1979. Nom. cons. 
Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent, or lianas, sometimes spiny, the stipules small, 
usually caducous; leaves alternate, imparipinnate (rarely unifoliolate), estipellate, the 
leaflets mostly ahernate; inflorescences terminal and axillary, paniculate or less often 
racemose, the bracts small, subpersistent, the bracteoles usually minute, the flowers 
small; calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, rarely with the lateral lobes reduced, the upper 2 
lobes broader than the others, the lowest lobe usually narrower and the longest; petals 
5, the standard usually emarginate, the wings free, oblong, the keel petals connate on 
lower side toward apex; stamens 9 or 10, the filaments all connate into a sheath open 



1985 



FABACEAE 



157 




Figure 31. Datbergia candenalensis. from Smith 6621: A. portion of branchlet with foliage and 
inflorescences, x 1 /2; B, old flower with developing ovary, the petals and anthers fallen, x 4; C, young flower 
spread open, with a bracteole at apex of pedicel, " 20. 

above or the vexillary filament free or absent or the filament sheath divided into 2 
phalanges or irregularly, the anthers small, ovate to obovate, with short, subtransverse 
slits; ovary stipitate, the ovules 1-few, the style incurved, short, the stigma small, 
terminal; fruit samaroid, indehiscent, oblong or linear, reticulately veined, sometimes 
thickened over the median seed chambers, the seeds 1 or rarely few, reniform or 
oblong. 

Type species: Dalhergia lanceolaria L. f. 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, with about 100 species. One indige- 
nous species is found in Fiji. Additionally, Dalhergia lanceolaria L. f. is probably 
represented by DA 1543. a sterile specimen from a plant once grown at the Experiment 
Station, Nasinu, Naitasiri Province, Viti Levu, but never established. Dalhergia sissoo 
DC. was listed as introduced in J. B. Thurston's 1886 Catalogue, but it seems not to 
have persisted. 

1. Dalhergia candenatensis (Dennst.) Prain in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 70 (2): 49. 1901; 
Merr. Enum. Philipp. Fl. PI. 2: 294. 1923; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 142. 
1959; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 295. fig. 65. A-C. 1979. Figure 31. 

Cassia candenatensis Dennst. Schlus. Hort. Malabar. 12, 32. 1818. 

Dalhergia monosperma Dalz. in Hook. J. Bot. Kew Card. Misc 2: 36. 1850; Seem, in Bonplandia 9:255. 

1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 64. 1865; Drake. III. Fl. Ins. Mar Pac. 156. l890;Guillauminin J. Arnold 

Arb. 12: 246. 1931; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964. ed. 2. 110. 1972. 



158 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Dalbergia loria Graham in Wall. Num. List no. 5873, nom. nud. 1832; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 

458, nom. nud. 1854; Seem. Viti. 435, nom. nud. 1862; Graham ex Prainin J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 66(2): 

12o' 1897. 

A scrambling liana or sprawling shrub, strictly littoral in thickets along beaches 
and river banks and on the inner edges of mangrove swamps. The leaves have 3-7 
leaflets usually 1.5-4 x 1-2.5 cm. and rounded or emarginate at apex. Theflowerbuds 
are yellowish green and the mature flowers, not more than 1 cm. long, have white 
petals; the curved-oblong fruits are no larger than 3.5 x 1.5 cm. The species, not 
abundant in Fiji, has been noted in flower in November and February, in fruit only in 
February insofar as collections are dated. 

Typification and nomenclature: Cassia candenatensis is based on Rheede, 
Hort. Ind. Malabar. 6: pi 25: Dalbergia monosperma, according to Dalzell,"crescit in 
collibus provinciae Malwan;" and D. toria is probably best lectotypified by Wallich 
5873 among the several specimens cited by Prain in 1897. The three taxa are now 
uniformly considered synonymous. 

Distribution: India to southern China and eastward throughout Malesia to 
Australia and Tonga. 

Local names and use: Ndenimana or wa ndenimana; medicinal uses have been 
recorded in Fiji, the bark being part of an internal remedy for sore throat, the root part 
of an internal remedy for illness after childbirth. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Namosi: Wainandoi River near mouth. Mead 1969. Rewa: 
Vicinity of Lami, H. B. R. Parham 37. Gillespie 4615. VITI LEVU and TAVEUNI: (Tailevu; Namara; 
"Vuna"), Seemann 128. MBENGGA: Savusavukalou, Weiner 197. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Banks of 
lower Lambasa River, Smith 6621: vicinity of Lambasa, Greenwood 554 (Oct. 24, 1922); Mathuata coast. 
Greenwood 554 (Jan. 2, 1924). Thakaundrove: Nathavanandi, Weiner 71-7-47. Fiji without further 
locality, U. S. Expl. Exped. 

8. Pterocarpus Jacq. Select. Stirp. Amer. 283. 1763; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:388. 
1964; Polhill in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 81. 1971; Rojo in Phanerogam. 
Monogr. 5: 11. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 298. 1979. Nom. cons. 

Trees, the stipules small or rarely foliaceous; leaves alternate, imparipinnate (very 
rarely unifoliolate), estipellate, the leaflets alternate to subopposite, the blades often 
minutely glandular beneath; inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemose or panicu- 
late, the bracts and bracteoles small, caducous; calyx turbinate to campanulate, 
shortly 5-lobed, the upper 2 lobes connate; petals 5, clawed, the standard usually 
suborbicular and with a well-developed claw, the wings obliquely obovate to spathu- 
late, the keel petals usually shorter than wings, connate on lower side; stamens 1 (- 1 1), 
the filaments all connate into a sheath split above and sometimes below, the vexillary 
filament sometimes free, the anthers dorsifixed, versatile, longitudinally dehiscent; 
ovary sessile or stipitate, the ovules 2-8, the style filiform, slightly incurved, the stigma 
small, terminal; fruit compressed, indehiscent, suborbicular to asymmetrical, nar- 
rowly to broadly winged, the wing curved laterally or right around to base, the 
seed-bearing part central, variously thickened or hardened, the seeds 1-3 (-4), reni- 
form or oblong-reniform. 

Type species: Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Typ. cons. 

Distribution: Pantropical (eastward in the Pacific to the New Hebrides), with 
about 20 species, most numerous in Africa. One species is cultivated in Fiji. 

Useful treatment of genus: Rojo, J. P. Pterocarpus (Leguminosae-Papilionaceae) revised for the 
world. Phanerogam. Monogr. 5: 1-119. 1972. 



1985 FABACEAE 159 

1. Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 904. 1803; Merr. Interpret. Rumph. Herb. 
Amb. 270. 1917; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 76. 1964, ed. 2. 116. 1972; Rojo in 
Phanerogam. Monogr. 5:41. fig. 7. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 298. 
fig. 66. 1979. 

A tree up to 48 m.high where indigenous, occasionally cultivated near sea level. The 
leaves have 5-1 1 leaflets usually up to 10 >< 5 cm., ovate to lanceolate. The fragrant 
flowers, about 1 cm. long, have yellow or orange-yellow petals, and the suborbicular 
fruits, up to 6 cm. in diameter with a stiffly membranaceous wing, are brown in drying. 
Fruits were obtained in Fiji in March and April. 

Typification: The entire basis of Pterocarpus indicus is Lingoum ruhrum Rumph. 
Herb. Amb. 2: 205. /. 70. 1741. Of the two forms recognized by Rojo (1972, cited 
above), our material falls into f. indicus, lacking bristles on the seed-bearing part of the 
fruit. 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia (north to Ryukyu Islands) through Malesiaand 
into the Pacific to the Caroline Islands and the New Hebrides, cultivated elsewhere. 

Local name and uses: In Fijian cultivation the usual name ispaJouk. which more 
often is applied to Pterocarpus dalhergioides and perhaps other species of the genus. 
Usually cultivated as an ornamental, P. indicus is an important timber tree where 
indigenous, with durable wood used for furniture, boat building, and small items. 
Interesting details are provided by Burkill (Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. ed. 2. 
1861-1864. 1966). 

Available collections: VITl LEVU: Naitasiri; Kalambo, DA 16432: Experiment Station, Nasinu, 
DA 1553. 5513. Rewa: Suva, in private gardens, DA 16773. L.26244. Although the last number was 
collected in the "Thurston Botanical Garden" (presumably that of the second Sir Maynard Hedstrom), the 
species was probably introduced later than 1886, since Thurston did not then list it in his Caialogue. 

9. Inocarpus J. R. & G. Forst. Char. Gen. PI. 33. 1775, ed. 2. 65. 1776; Seem. Fl. Vit. 
69. 1865; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:316. 1964;St. JohninNaturalisteCanad. 98: 
575. 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 301. 1979. Nom. cons. 
Anioium Parkinson, J. Voy. Endeavour. 39. 1773. 

Trees, the stipules small, caducous; leaves alternate, simple, the petiole very short, 
the blades large, entire, pinnate-nerved; inflorescences axillary, simple or branched, 
spicate, the bracts and bracteoles small, caducous, the flowers sessile or subsessile; 
calyx tubular-campanulate, closed in bud, obtusely bilobed or spathaceous and sub- 
regularly 3-5-toothed; corolla with 5 (4-6) petals connate into a tube proximally, the 
petals equal, linear, imbricate in bud; stamens 8-10, the filaments connate into a tube 
adnate to base of petals, the anthers short, subsessile at 2 levels on filament tube, 
didymous, dehiscing lengthwise; ovary subsessile, the ovule 1, the style short, the 
stigma oblique; fruit ovoid to obovoid, slightly stipitate, compressed, indehiscent, the 
pericarp fibrous, the seed 1, without endosperm, the cotyledons fleshy. 

Type species: Inocarpus edulis J. R. & G. Forst. (= /./a^//er( Parkinson) Fosberg). 

Distribution: Malesia and Pacific Islands, probably with three species, one of 
which is indigenous in Fiji. 

Inocarpus seems to be an aberrant representative of the tribe Dalbergieae (Polhill 
in Adv. Leg. Syst. 235. 1981), having a highly modified corolla with similar, linear 
lobes (petals), and with the filament tube connate to the corolla, the alternation of 
filament length being very pronounced. The truly simple leaves (with one pulvinus) do 
not resemble those of typical legumes. 



160 



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1985 FABACEAE 161 

1 . Inocarpus fagifer (Parkinson) Fosberg in J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 31: 95, as I. fagiferus. 
1941; St. John in Naturaliste Canad. 98: 575. 1971, in Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 4:309. 
1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 302./;;?. 67. 1979. Figure 32. 

Aniotum fagiferum Parkinson, J. Voy. Endeavour, 39. 1 773; "Parkinson ex Z" in Naturforscher( Halle) 4: 

230. 1774.^ 
Inocarpus edutis}. R. & G. Forst. Char. Gen. PI. 33. i. S3. 1775,ed. 2. 66. ;. iJ. 1776; Forst. f. PI. Esc. Ins. 

Oc. Austr. 50. 1786, Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 34. 1786; Seem, in Bonplandia 9; 258. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862. 

Fl. Vit. 70. 1865, op. cit.427. 1873; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 156. 1890;Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 

12: 246. 1931; Chnstophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 102. 1935; B. E. V. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. 

Fiji 13: 44. 1942; J. W. Parham in op. at. 19: 90. 1948; Merr. in Chron. Bot. 14: 347, 1954; Yuncker in 

Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 143. 1959; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 29: 32. 1959; St. John & A. 

C. Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25: 328. 1971. 
Amolum fagiferum Solander ex Seem. Fl. Vit. 70, pro syn. 1865. 
Inocarpus fagiferus Fosberg ex Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178:63. 1943; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 64. 

fig. 28. A. 1964, ed. 2. 99. fig. 29. A. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 156. 

1970; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 43. 1972. 

A tree to 30 m. high, sometimes locally abundant in coastal forest and on the edges 
of mangrove swamps, and often slightly inland up to an elevation of 400 m. in dry, 
open, or dense forest; also often cultivated. The massive trunk of mature trees is 
buttressed and irregularly fluted; the bole may be long and the crown spreading. The 
leaf blades are oblong, up to 40 >< 18 cm. The fragrant flowers have the calyx white or 
pinkish, the corolla, filaments, and ovary white to pale yellow. The fruit is yellow- 
green, becoming darker, and up to 10 x 8 x 4.5 cm., the seed often measuring 8x7x3 
cm. Flowers are noted in practically all months, and fruits seem best developed 
between April and October. 

Typification and nomenclature: Parkinson's brief description (1773) may be 
taken as the type; it serves as a fairly inadequate descriptio generico-specifica. His 
description was doubtless drawn up from Banks and Solander material collected in 
Tahiti; at bm there are three specimens identified as Aniotum fagiferum. one indicated 
as "Capt. Cook" and two as "Sir J. Banks and Dr. Solander." As lectotype of 
Inocarpus edulis I take the bm specimen marked "G. Forster's Herbarium. 102. 197. 
Inocarpus edulis;" 197 is the number assigned by Forster on p. 34 of his Prodromus, 
where the locality is indicated as "Societatis, Amicorum et nouarum Hebridum 
Insulae." Merrill's opinion (1954, cited above) to the contrary, most botanists are now 
willing to consider Parkinson's description as valid, unmistakably referring to the 
Tahitian chestnut. 

Distribution: Malesia into the Pacific at least as far as the Marquesas, Society, 
and Austral Islands. Sykes (1970, cited above) believes that it was an aboriginal 
introduction into Nine and perhaps elsewhere. It is indeed so valuable a tree that it 
would surely have been carried eastward by early voyagers, but the fruits are probably 
bat-carried and perhaps seaborne as well, and one cannot be sure that its wide 
distribution in the southern Pacific is due to human activity. More than 40 Fijian 
collections are at hand. 

Local names and uses: The usual names are ivi and Tahitian chestnut: sometimes 
ivi ndamu and ivi sere are used. The ivi is one of the most common and most valued 
trees in Fijian coastal forests. The edible seeds are usually cooked by roasting the whole 
fruit or by boiling the separated seed; thus prepared, the seeds have a delicious, 
chestnutlike flavor, or they can be made into puddings or mandrai (brtiid). In earlier 

Figure 32. Inocarpus fagifer: A, distal portion of branchlet. with foliage and inflorescences, ' \ 4; B, 
fruits, « 1 2; C. lower part of corolla and filament tube spread open, showing anthers at 2 levels and 
gynoecium, « 15; D, distal portion of innorescence, « 4. A from Smith 1 175. B from Bryan 5 13. C& Dfrom 
DA 4033. 



162 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

times the ivi seeds were particularly valued in periods of breadfruit scarcity. The wood 
was used for small articles such as tool handles and is now considered suitable for 
interior finishing. The leaves and bark are reputed to have medicinal properties and are 
parts of remedies for "relapses" and "pain in bones." 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 428. Nandronga & Navosa: 
Mbemana, Ruwailevu Tikina, H. B. R. Parham 138. Serua; Flat coastal strip in vicinity of Ngaloa, Smiih 
9686. Namosi: Wainandoi River, DA 8364. Ra: Rakiraki, DA 4034. Naitasiri: Vicinity of Vunindawa 
(cult.?), DA 10060. Tailevu: Between Mburetu and Ndaku, DA 888. Rewa: Lami, DA 4033: Suva Botanical 
Gardens (cult.), DA 15457. KANDAVU: Western end of island, near Cape Washington, Smith 306. 
OVALAU: Milne 253: vaWty of Mburetaand Lovoni Rivers, Smith 7733. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Mt. 
Uluimbau, south of Lambasa, Smith 6601. Thakaundrove: Ndromoninuku, DA 16823. KANATHEA: 
Graeffes. n. VANUA MBALAVU: Narothivi Village, Garnock-Jones 1109. LAKEMBA: Harveys. «..near 
Nukunuku Village, Garnock-Jones 802. K.AMBARA: Bryan 513. FULANGA: On limestone formation, 
Smith 1 175. Fiji without further locality, Seemann 371. Home s. n. 

10. Abrus Adanson, Fam. PI. 2: 327, 511. 1763; Seem. Fl. Vit. 63. 1865; Hutchinson, 
Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 451. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 113. 1971, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. 305. 1979; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1:445. 1980. 

Subshrubs or lianas, the stipules small, usually persistent; leaves paripinnate, with 
minute, filiform stipels, the leaflets numerous, opposite, the rachis projecting beyond 
the terminal pair; inflorescences axillary or terminal, pseudoracemose, the bracts and 
bracteoles short, the flowers small, often secund-fasciculate on short, reduced branch- 
lets, rarely sessile in leaf axils; calyx tube subtruncate or short-denticulate, the upper 
2 teeth subconnate; petals 5, the standard ovate to orbicular, short-clawed, the wings 
long-clawed, the keel petals shallowly falcate, abaxially adnate; stamens 9 (vexillary 
stamen absent), the filaments connate into a sheath split distally and shortly adnate to 
petals at base, the anthers uniform or 4 slightly smaller; ovary subsessile, the ovules 
numerous, the style short, incurved, the stigma capitate; fruit oblong or linear, 
subturgid or compressed, elastically dehiscent, subseptate between seeds, the seeds 
subglobose or ellipsoid, shining, the hilum small. 

Type species: Abrus precatorius L. (Glycine abrus L.). 

Distribution: Pantropical, with about 17 species, one of which is indigenous in 
Fiji. 

Useful treatment of genus: Verdcourt, B. A reappraisal of the species of the genus Abrus Adans. 
Kew Bull. 24: 235-253. 1970. 

1. Abrus precatorius L. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 2:472. 1767; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 
1: 436. 1854; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl.' Vit. 63. 1865; 
Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 150. 1890; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12: 245. 
1931; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 103. 1935; Yunckerinop. cit. 178: 
63. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 144. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 70. 1964, ed. 2. 108. 
1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 144. 1970; Verd- 
court in Kew Bull. 24: 240. 1970, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 1 14. 1971; B. E. V. 
Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 21, 38, 79. 1972; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 305. fig. 68. 1979; Henty in Papua New Guinea 
Dept. Forests Bull. 12: 79.//^. 47. 1980; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1:446. 
1980. Figure 33. 

Glycine ahrus L. Sp. PI. 753. 1753. 
A scrambling vine or scandent shrub, often frequent along beaches and rocky 
shores, sometimes on limestone, and slightly inland to an elevation of about 80 m. on 
edges of forest. The leaves have 16-40 oblong to ovate leaflets up to 30 ^ 10 mm., and 
the petals are pink to lavender or white. Mature fruits are somewhat swollen, oblong, 
up to 5 cm. long and 1.5 cm. broad, with (1-) 3-7 seeds, these up to 7 x 5 mm. and red or 



1985 



FABACEAE 



163 



scarlet with a black area around the hilum, or very rarely entirely black or whitish. 
Flowers are inconspicuous and there are no dated Fijian collections; fruits have been 
observed between June and February. 

Lectotypification: The lectotype, lacking fruits, is Hermann, vol. 2, p. 6 (bm), 
from Ceylon. Verdcourt (1970, cited above) indicated this as the holotype, but Lin- 
naeus mentioned other prior references for Glycine abrus. 

Distribution: Tropical Africa and Madagascar to tropical Asia, eastward to 
Australia and in the Pacific to the Tuamotus, now widely naturalized in America. Our 
material falls into subsp. precatorius, with a range from tropical Asia into the Pacific. 
The African and Indian Ocean material, with tuberculate pods, falls into subsp. 
africanus Verdcourt. About 20 collections from Fiji have been examined. 

Local names and uses: Names used in Fiji are lele, lere ndamu, ndiri ndamu, and 
nggiri ndamu. As in many other areas, the seeds are used as beads, but they are 
poisonous to cattle and humans unless boiled. A decoction of leaves is used in many 
countries as medicinal for coughs, sore throat, etc., and in the Yasawas is reported as 
used for gonorrhea. An interesting account of the species is provided by Burkill, Diet. 
Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. ed. 2. 4-9. 1966. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: Sawa-i-Lau (south of Yasawa I.), DA 13663. Waya: 
Ya\ombi. Si. John 18030. VITI LEVU: Mba: Vatia Point, DA 13573. NandrongaA Navosa: Thuvu, west 




Figure 33, Ahrus precaionus: A, portion of a stem, with fohage and fruits 
bicolored seeds, >< 2. A from Smith 1034. B from Si. John 18030. 



1 3, B, dehisced fruit and 



164 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

of Singatoka, Greenwood 242. KORO: East coast, Smith 1034. NGAU: Shore of Herald Bay, near 
Sawaieke, Smith 7929. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Seemann 110. p. p.; Nakuthi Island, off mouth of 
Ndreketi River, DA 15288: Undu Point, Tothili 117c. Thakaundrove: Savusavu, DA 5754. TAVEUNI: 
Seemann 110, p. p. NAVUTU-1-LOMA: Bryan386. p. p. FULANGA: On limestone formation. Smith 1176. 
ONGEA NDRIKl: Bryan 386, p. p. Fiji without further locality, U. S. Expl. Exped. 

11. Derris Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 432. 1790; Seem. Fl. Vit. 64. 1865; Hutchinson, Gen. 
Fl. PI. 1: 384. 1964; Polhill in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 73. 1971; Verdcourt, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. 314. 1979. Norn. cons. 

Climbing or scrambling shrubs or lianas, less often trees or erect shrubs, the 
stipules usually small, caducous; leaves alternate, imparipinnate (sometimes 3- 
foliolate), with small stipels or estipellate, the leaflets opposite; inflorescences terminal 
and axillary, pseudoracemose or pseudopaniculate, the bracts and bracteoles small, 
caducous, the flowers crowded on short ultimate branches or fasciculate at nodes; 
calyx usually cupuliform, truncate or with short teeth (the upper two united); petals 
much longer than calyx, purple, pink, or white, the standard obovate or orbicular, 
without distinct basal appendages, the wings usually with a fold or pocket on basal part 
of blade, slightly adherent to keel, the keel petals slightly curved and somewhat united 
on lower side distally; stamens 10, the filaments connate in a closed tube, the vexillary 
filament free at base but connate with the others above middle, the anthers dorsifixed, 
versatile; ovary sessile or short-stipitate, the ovules 2-few, the style filiform, incurved, 
the stigma small, terminal; fruit orbicular or elliptic to linear-oblong, flat, membran- 
ous to thin-coriaceous, indehiscent, narrowly winged along upper suture or both 
sutures, the seeds 1-few, flat, reniform to orbicular. 

Type species: Derris trifoliata Lour. Typ. cons. 

Distribution: Pantropical, most numerous in southeastern Asia, with more than 
50 species. In Fiji five species are known to occur, one of them indigenous. An 
interesting discussion of some of the rotenone-producing species of Derris is provided 
by Burkill, Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. ed. 2. 795-804. 1966. 

Key to species 
Tree; leaflets 19-43, the blades 1.5-3.2 x 0.8-1.3 cm., rounded to emarginate at apex; petals purplish to 

pinkish; cultivated only 1. D. microphylla 

Lianas or scrambling shrubs; leaflets rarely more than 13, the blades larger; petals pink to white. 

Leaflets (7-) 11 or 13 (-19), the blades 2-8.5 x 1-3 cm., obtuse to emarginate at apex; pseudoracemes 
pendulous, 15-45 cm. long, the calyx purple; fruits oblong to linear, 3.5-8 x 0.9-1.3 cm., with a wing 

about 1.5 mm. broad; cultivated as an ornamental vine. 2. D. scandens 

Leaflets 3-13 (-15), the blades broader (infrequently less than 3 cm. broad), acuminate or cuspidate at 

apex, the calyx pale green to pink; fruits broader, seldom less than 2 cm. broad, with a wing or wings 

1-5 mm. broad; rotenone-yielding plants often used as fish poisons. 

Leaves 3-7-foliolate, the leaflet blades ovate to elliptic, 5- 12 (- 1 5) x ( 1 .5-) 2-6 (-7.5) cm., acuminate to 

cuspidate at apex (acumen rounded or emarginate at tip),the secondary nerves prominulous 

beneath; fruits winged only on upper suture; indigenous species, often common in littoral habitats. 

3. D. trifoliata 

Leaves 5-13(-15)-foliolate, the leaflet blades oblong to elUptic or oblong-obovate, 6-15 (-23) x 2.5-7 

(-10) cm., the secondary nerves prominent or strongly elevated beneath; fruits winged on both 

sutures; cultivated and sometimes naturalized. 

Petiole, rachis, and petiolules usually strigillose with ferrugineous hairs; leaflets (5-) 9-13 (-15), the 

petiolules of the proximal leaflets deflexed, the leaflet blades oblong to oblanceolate, 6- 1 5 (- 1 6) 

X 2.5-5 (-7) cm. (sometimes up to 42 x 8 cm. elsewhere) (lowermost pair sometimes only 2.5 x 1.3 

cm.); paler beneath than above, sparsely strigillose above (hairs up to 1 mm. long), usually 

obviously strigillose beneath (hairs 0.3-0.5 mm. long), abruptly or gradually acuminate at apex 

(acumen rounded at tip, 2-3 mm. broad toward tip); inflorescences 10-26 cm. long; standard 

silky-strigose dorsally 4. D. elUpiica 

Petiole, rachis, and petiolules glabrous or sparsely strigillose; leaflets 5 or 7 (or 9), the petiolules of the 
proximal pair of leaflets not or rarely deflexed, the leaflet blades elliptic (or terminal one 
elliptic-obovate), 10-15 (-23) x 5-7 (-10) cm. (said to be as small as 5.3 x 2 cm. elsewhere), 
concolorous or only slightly paler beneath than above, glabrous or sparsely strigillose beneath 
on nerves and veinlets (hairs 0.2-0.3 mm. long), usually gradually caudate-acuminate at apex 



1985 FABACEAE 165 

(acumen obtuse to rounded at tip, 1-1.5 (-2) mm. broad toward tip); mflorescences 10-16 cm. 
long; standard glabrous 5. D. malaccensis 

1. Derris microphylla (Miq.) B. D. Jackson, Index Kew. 1: 332. 1893; Valeton ex 

Backer, Voorl. Schooin. Java, 95. 1908. 

Brachypierum microphyllum Miq. Fl. Ned. Ind. Suppl. 296. 1861. 

Derris dalhergioicies Baker in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 241. 1878; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 
19:90. 1948, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964. 

A sparingly cultivated tree with a densely pseudopaniculate inflorescence up to 
about 13 cm. long. The flowers have the calyx dark purple and the petals dark 
red-violet to pinkish. The elliptic, narrowly winged fruit attains a size of about 7x2 cm. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type of Brachypterum microphyllum was 
collected by Teijsmann in Palembang Province, Sumatra; for Derris dalhergioides 
Baker cited collections by Parish, Heifer, and Maingay, indicating the distribution as 
Java, his material presumably being cultivated. The two names are now considered to 
refer to the same concept. 

Distribution: Although the distribution is sometimes indicated as southern 
Burma to Java, Derris microphylla is probably indigenous only in Sumatra and is 
cuhivated in the adjacent areas (Backer & Bakh. f. Fl. Java 1: 618. 1963). 

Local name and use: No name was recorded for this ornamental tree in Fiji, but 
elsewhere in cultivation it is sometimes called vetch tree. 

No voucher supports the record, but Parham (cited above) indicates that the 
species was in cultivation in 1948 in the Suva Botanical Gardens. It is deciduous for a 
brief period and then bears masses of flowers, which do not last long. 

2. Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth. in J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: Suppl. 103. 1860. 
Dathergia scamtens Roxb. PI. Coromandel 2: 49. ;. 192. 1805. 

A vine cultivated near sea level (a robust liana where indigenous), the flowers with 
the calyx purple and the petals pink to white. In Fiji flowers have been noted in 
January, fruits in May. 

Typification: No collection was indicated by Roxburgh; if one from the Coro- 
mandel area is available it could be taken as the type, or otherwise his illustration 
would serve. 

Distribution: India to Malesia and Australia, cultivated elsewhere. 

Use: This attractive ornamental vine, for which no local name was recorded, is 
cultivated as a vine trained over trellises. 

Available collection: OVALAU: Levuka, Greenwood 581 (k, collected in fruit May 18, 1923); 
Greenwood noted that he had observed the same plant in flower in January, 1926. 

3. Derris trifoliata Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 433. 1 790; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 

128: 102. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit, 220: 143. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 
1964, ed. 2. 1 1 1 . 1972; Mune & J. W, Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 48: 22. fig. 5. 
1967; Polhill in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 14. fig. 14. 1971; St. John & A. C. Sm. 
in Pacific Sci. 25: 328. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. 
Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 39. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 326. fig. 72. 
1979; Henty in Papua New Guinea Dept. Forests Bull. 12: 86. pi. 29. 1980. 

Figure 34. 

Rohinia utiginosa Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1 133. 1802. 

Derris uliginosa'RexWh. in Miq. PI. Junghuhn. 1:252. 1852; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:457. 1854, 

in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5: 3 1 7. 1862, in Bonplandia 10:35. 1862; Seem, in op. cit. 10:296. 1862, Viti, 

435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 65. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 156. 1890. 
Pongamia piscaioria Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255, nom. nud. 1861. 



166 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




Figure 34. Derris irifoliala; A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and mfloresLences "^14 8, 
flower, with one wing and one keel petal removed, " 4; C, staminal sheath with protruding style and calyx 
(partially removed), " 12; D, fruits, one with a valve removed to show a seed, x \. Ahom Smiths, B&Cfrom 
Smith 9335, D from MacDaniels 1077. 



1985 FABACEAE 167 

A woody vine or scrambling liana, frequent near sea level or at low elevations near 
the sea in thickets or on edges of forest, sometimes on limestone cliffs and on the edges 
of mangrove swamps. The calyx is pale green; the petals are pale pink or greenish white 
and faintly pink-tinged; and the filaments and styles are white. The fruits are subreni- 
formto oblong, in Fiji usually 3-4.5 ^ 2-3.5 cm., with awing 1-2 mm. broad alongthe 
upper suture, and the 1 or 2 seeds are oblong-reniform, 1.5-2.4 cm. long. Both leaflets 
and fruits are sometimes larger in other parts of the range. In Fiji the species is noted in 
flower and fruit throughout the year. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type of Derris trifoliata is Loureiro (p 
HOLOTYPE), from Canton, China; that of Robinia uliginosa is Roxburgh (b probable 
holotype), from eastern peninsular India. The two concepts are now universally 
combined. 

Distribution: Eastern Africa to tropical Asia, eastward through Malesia to 
Australia and into the Pacific as far as Tonga and Samoa, sometimes cultivated and 
naturalized elsewhere. Mune and Parham (1967, cited above) consider Derris trifoliata 
"almost certainly an aboriginal introduction." But there seems no reason to believe it 
anything but indigenous in the Fijian Region, where it is very abundant in coastal 
situations, its fruits and seeds probably being readily seaborne. About 40 collections 
are at hand. 

Local names and use: Commonly used names are nduva, tuva, nduva nganga, wa 
nduva, wa tuva, nduva ni Viti, tuva ni Viti, and raurau. The crushed roots and stems 
are used as a fish poison. The species was declared a noxious weed in Fiji in 1965, not 
because of any agricultural hazard but because its use as a fish poison is prohibited by 
law. In view of its abundance and widespread use in Fiji, the control methods described 
by Mune and Parham (1967, cited above) would appear futile and perhaps needless, as 
the species is one of the weakest fish poisons of the rotenone-yielding species of Derris. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Shores of the Mba River near its moulh. Smith 47i8. 
NandrongaA Navosa: Korotongo, O. & I. Degener 32200. Serua: Flat coastal strip in vicinity of Ngaloa, 
Smith 9335. Namosi: Wainandoi River near its mouth, D,4 10800. Ra: Penang, GreenKood 538.4. Tailevu: 
Mokani, DA 630. Rewa; Between Lami and Suva. MacDaniels 1077. KANDAVU: Namalata isthmus 
region. Smith 3. YANUTHA (probably one of the Yanutha Islands between Ovalau and Moturiki): Storck 
883. KORO: East coast, Smith 1102. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Nasarowangga, D,4 1100. Mathuata: 
Lambasa, Greenwood 538. Thakaundrove: Vicinity of Savusavu, Bierhorst F50. TAVEUNI: Somosomo, 
Seemann /27(sourceofthe name Pongamia piscaioria). MO ALA: Milne 118. VANUA MBALAVU: Slopes 
of Korolevu, near Lomaloma, Garnock-Jones 1040. VANUA VATU: Bryan 555. LAKEMBA: Near 
Tumbou Jetty, Garnock-Jones 766. 

4. Derris elliptica (Wall.) Benth. in J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: Suppl. 1 1 1. 1860; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964, ed. 2. 111. 1972; Mune & J. W. Parham in Dept. 
Agr. Fiji Bull. 48: 20. fig. 4. 1967; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 256. fig. 39. 
1968; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 320. 1979; Henty in Papua New Guinea 
Dept. Forests Bull. 12: 86. pi. 28. 1980. 
Pongamia elliptica Wall. PI. Asiat. Rar. 3: 20. /. 237. (March) 1832. 

Galedupa elliptica Roxb. Hort. Beng. 53, nom. nud. 1814, Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 3: 242. (Oct. -Dec.) 1832. 
A liana or scrambling shrub, cultivated from near sea level to an elevation of about 
400 m. and also occasionally naturalized along roadsides and on creek banks. The 
pedicels are purplish and the petals pink; the brownish fruits, usually about 5 ^^ 2 cm., 
have a wing 1-5 mm. broad along both sutures. Flowers have been collected in Fiji 
between September and February. 



168 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification and nomenclature: Pongamia elliptica, the earlier basionym, was 
described from a plant cultivated in the Botanic Garden of Calcutta, originally from 
Amboina. Galedupa elliptica was mentioned by Roxburgh merely as a native of 
"Amboyna and the Malay Islands." 

Distribution: India into Malesia, but apparently not indigenous in New Guinea 
as often stated (Verdcourt, 1979, cited above), now introduced into many tropical 
areas as a fish poison and a potential insecticide and often naturalized. 

Local names and uses: Nduva, nduva ni vavalangi, and derris have been recorded 
in Fiji. The pounded roots are used as a fish poison, as in the indigenous Derris 
trifoliata. Derris elliptica was introduced in 1935 for trial as a potentially commercial 
rotenone-yielding plant for use in insecticides. However, it could become a weed of 
pastoral and plantation lands and therefore was declared a noxious weed in 1965. The 
comments of Muneand Parham(1967, cited above) may in part refer to £). malaccen- 
sis, the two species not being readily separable. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Mbemana, Ruwailevu Tikina, DA 
16029. Namosi: Vicinity of Namosi, DA 14579. Naitasiri: Toninaiwau, Tholo-i-suva, DA 10899 (coW. B. E. 
V. Parham). 

Derris elliptica and D. malaccensis have often been confused in herbaria and 
doubtless in field studies. Ridley (Fl. Malay Renins. 1: 593-599. 1922) discusses their 
separation, and I am also indebted to W. R. Sykes and P. J. Garnock-Jones for further 
comments that have been incorporated into my key to species. At least some specimens 
from Samoa, Niue, and the Cook and Society Islands that have been referred to D. 
elliptica actually represent D. malaccensis: it is doubtful whether or not the former 
species occurs in those archipelagoes. Both species are found in Fiji, but D. malaccen- 
sis seems the more common, although only D. elliptica is known to flower there. I have 
seen no flowering collections of D. malaccensis from Fiji or eastward to the Societies. 
Therefore the key character referring to the indument of the standard is not very useful. 
The leaf indument, the number of leaflets, and the shape, apices, and coloration of 
their blades provide characters that generally serve to distinguish the two species. 

5. Derris malaccensis (Benth.) Prain in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 66: 107. 1897; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964, ed. 2. 111. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. 
Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 150. 1970; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. 
Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 38. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 322. 
1979. 
Derris cuneifolia var. malaccensis Benth. in J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: Suppl. 112. I860. 
Derris elliptica sensu Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 102. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit. 178: 62. 
1943; non Benth. 

A liana or scrambling shrub, cultivated and doubtless sometimes naturalized near 
sea level or slightly inland. Although fertile specimens have not been seen from Fiji, 
elsewhere the calyx is pink and the petals white to pink; the fruits, up to 7.5 x 2.7 cm., 
are winged on both sutures with wings about 2 mm. and 4 mm. broad. 

Typification: Bentham based his description on material obtained by Griffith in 
Malacca. 

Distribution: Southern Burma into Malesia, but presumably not indigenous in 
New Guinea, and cultivated (and often naturalized) there and elsewhere, in the Pacific 
as far east as the Society Islands. 

Local names and uses: Nduva, tuva, and nduva ni niukini; like the preceding 
species it is a fish poison and a potential source of an insecticide. The time of 



1985 FABACEAE 169 

introduction is not known, but it probably entered Fiji earlier than Derris elliptica. In 
spite of the local name nduva ni niukini (and the name New Guinea creeper used on 
Niue and perhaps elsewhere), this species is not considered indigenous in New Guinea 
(Verdcourt, 1979, cited above). 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa; Mbulu, near Sovi Bay, Degener 15038. 
Naitasiri: Central Agricultural Station, Navuso, DA. May 23, 1934. Vm Levu without further locality, 
Gillespie 3664.1 (Nov. 4. 1927). LAKEMBA: Near Tumbou Jetty, Garnock-Jones 769. 

12. LoNCHOCARPUS H. B. K. Nova Gen. et Sp. 6: ed. fol. 300. (April) 1824, ed. qu. 383. 

(July) 1824; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:383. 1964;PolhillinFl.Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Papil. 65. 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 309. 1979. Nom. cons. 

A genus closely related to DerrLs, but with the stipules sometimes subpersistent, the 
leaves rarely unifoliolate, and the inflorescences sometimes paniculate (i. e. with 
pedicels inserted singly on axes) as well as pseudopaniculate or pseudoracemose; fruit 
without obviously winged sutures, the upper suture thin or thickened or rarely very 
slightly winged (and then the pedicels inserted singly or paired on inflorescence axes). 

Type species: Lonchocarpus sericeus (Poir.) DC. {Robinia sericea Poir.). Typ. 
cons. 

Distribution: Tropical America, Africa, and Madagascar, mostly American, with 
about 100 species, one of which is cultivated in Fiji. 

1. Lonchocarpus sericeus (Poir.) DC. Prodr. 2:260. 1825; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 
2. 114. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 309. 1979. 
Robinia sericea Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 6: 226. 1804. 

A tree to about 12 m. high, sparingly cultivated near sea level. The 7-13 leaflets 
have ovate to oblong-elliptic blades 3-14 x 2-9 cm., these copiously sericeous beneath 
and with conspicuous secondary nerves. The axillary pseudoracemes are up to 20 cm. 
long, and the very short-pedicellate flowers are paired at the apices of short lateral 
branchlets. The calyx is copiously sericeous, with small, persistent bracteoles at base, 
and the petals are pinkish to pale purple, pilose without. Fruits are not available on 
Fijian specimens, but they are obscurely winged along the upper suture, pale-pilose, 
8-13 X 2-2.5 cm., and with 1-several seeds. Our collections were flowering in March. 

Typification: The type is Vahl{p holotype in Herb. Jussieu), collected in Amer- 
ica. The combination in Z,o«f/2o<"ar/?w5 is sometimes accredited to H. B. K. in 1824, but 
it was not then made in the sense of ICBN, Art. 33.1. 

Distribution: Tropical America, and also said to occur in western Africa, often 
cultivated elsewhere. 

Use: The species is a very attractive ornamental tree, said by Parham ( 1972, cited 
above) to have been growing in the Suva Botanical Gardens as early as 1938. 

Available collections: VITl LEVU: Rewa: Suva Botanical Gardens, D.4 1318. IJ340, s. n. (March 16, 
1948). 

13. PoNGAMiA Vent. Jard. Malmaison,p/. 28. 1803; Seem. Fl. Vit. 65. 1865; Hutchin- 

son, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:383. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 311. 1979. Nom. 

cons. 
Tree, the stipules fugacious; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, estipellate, the leaflets 
opposite; inflorescences axillary, racemose or composed of a few racemes grouped into 
a panicle, the bracts caducous, the flowers paired (rarely 3) at inflorescence nodes, the 
pedicels with minute bracteoles above middle; calyx cupuliform, subtruncate or 
undulate at margin; petals 5, the standard suborbicular to obovate, with inflexed 
auricles at base, sericeous without, the wings oblong, slightly adherent to keel, the keel 



170 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

petals obtuse, coherent at apex; stamens 10, the filaments connate into a closed sheath, 
the vexillary filament free at base but connate to the others above middle, the anthers 
versatile; ovary subsessile, the ovules 2 (rarely 3), the style filiform, incurved, the 
stigma small, terminal; fruit obliquely oblong-ellipsoid, somewhat flattened, thick- 
coriaceous to subligneous, indehiscent or tardily dehiscent, the seeds usually solitary 
(rarely 2 or 3), thick, ellipsoid-reniform. 

Type species: Pongamia glabra Vent., nom. illeg. {Robinia mitis L., nom. illeg.; 
Cytisus pinnatus L.) - P. pinnata (L.) Pierre. 

Distribution: Mascarene Islands and tropical Asia, throughout Malesia to Aus- 
tralia and eastward to Samoa, with a single species which is indigenous in Fiji. 

1. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Fl. For. Cochinch. sub t. 385. 1899; Merr. Interpret. 
Rumph. Herb. Amb. 271. 1917; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12:246. 1931; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 76. 1964, ed. 2. Wd.fig. 32. 1972; St. John & A. C. Sm. in 
Pacific Sci. 25: 328. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. 
Inform. Ser. 85: 44. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 312. fig. 70. 1979. 

Figure 35. 

Cytisus pinnatus L. Sp. PI. 741. 1753. 
Robinia mitis L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1044, nom. illeg. 1763. 

Pongamia glabra Vent. Jard. Malmaison, /)/. 28, nom. illeg. 1803; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:455. 
1854, Atlas, p/. 53, A. 1856; Seem, in Bonplandia 9:255. 1861, in op. cit. 10:296. 1862, Viti, 435. 1862, 

Fl. Vit. 65. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 156. 1890. 

As it occurs in Fiji, Pongamia pinnata is an often spreading tree 4- 14 m. high (to 25 
m. elsewhere), with a trunk to 1 m. in diameter, found at elevations from near sea level 
to 1 50 m. but usually near the sea in beach thickets, on rocky shores, along river banks, 
and sometimes in lowland forest. The leaves, 13-30 cm. long, have (3 or) 5 or 7 leaflets, 
these with ovate to oblong, acuminate blades 6-16 ^ 2.5-8 cm. (up to 25 ^ 15 cm. 
elsewhere). The petals are white to pinkish without and rich pink or purple within; the 
fruits turn from greenish to dull brown and are ellipsoid, beaked, 3-6 (-8.5) ^ 1.5-3 
cm., sometimes 1.2 cm. thick at maturity, with seeds usually 2-2.5 cm. long. Flowers 
and fruits are seen at most seasons. 

Typification: As Cytisus pinnatus, Linnaeus cited only a reference to Plukenet's 
Phytographia, "104. f. 3," presumably based on a plant from India. 

Distribution: As of the genus. About 50 Fijian collections have been examined, 
the species being found near most shores. 

Local names and uses: Widely used Fijian names for this well-known species are 
vesi, vesivesi, vesiwai, vesi ni wai, vesivesiwai, visivisiwai, and tosinga. It is considered 
a useful timber tree and is also reputed to have medicinal uses, a tea from the leaves 
being used for relapses and a filtrate from the scraped root drunk for stomach ulcers. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: Waya: Yalombi, St. John 18089. VITI LEVU: Mba: Shores 
of Mba River near its mouth. Smith 4732. Nandronga & Navosa: Thuvu, Greenwood 68. Serua: Vunaniu, 
DA L. 13451 (DF 1210). Ra: Rakiraki, DA 4052. Naitasiri: Experiment Station, Nasinu, DA 1563. 
Tailevu: Matavatathou, DA 15370. Rewa: Vicinity of Suva, MacDaniels 1011. MBENGGA: Seemann 126, 
p. p.; Raviravi, DA 6077. KANDAVU; Namalata isthmus region. Smith 186. OVALAU: North of Levuka, 
Gillespie 4498: Lando islets south of Ovalau, Seemann 126, p. p. YANUTH A (probably one of the Yanutha 
Islands between Ovalau and Moturiki): Storck 884. NG AU: MacGillivray s. n.; shore of Herald Bay, vicinity 
of Sawaieke, Smith 7905. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: U. S. Expl Exped. (fl.). Thakaundrove: Maravu, 
near Salt Lake, Degener & Ordonez 14178. Vanua Levu without further locality, U. S. Expl. Exped. (fr.). 
TAVEUNI: Seemann 126, p. p. MOALA: North coast. Smith 1401. NAITAMBA: DA 11815. VANUA 
VATU: Limestone slope above Taira Village, Bryan 553. ONEATA: Graeffe 1378. FULANGA: On 
limestone formation. Smith 1229. ONGEA LEVU: Bryan 433. ONGEA NDRIKI: Bryan 388. 

Figure 35. Pongamia pinnata: A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and inflorescences, x 1 /4; B, 
flower, the standard at right, the wing and keel petals at left, x 6; C, opened fruits and seeds, x ]; D, 
infructescences, x 1/2. A from Bryan 553, B from Smith 1229, C from Bryan 433, D from Smith 186. 



1985 



FABACEAE 



171 




172 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

14. Tephrosia Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 328. 1807; Seem. Fl. Vit. 54. 1865; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. 
PI. 1: 396. 1964; J. B. Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 157. 1971; Verdcourt, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. 338. 1979. Nom. cons. 
Cracca L. Sp. PI. 752. 1753. Nom. rejic. vs. Cracca Benth. (1853). 

Herbs or shrubs with soft wood, stipulate; leaves alternate, imparipinnate (rarely 
simple, unifoliolate, or palmately 3-7-foliolate, but in none of our species), estipellate, 
the leaflets opposite, entire, with numerous parallel lateral nerves extending to margin 
and often with a well-developed marginal nerve; inflorescences pseudoracemose, 
terminal, leaf-opposed, or less often axillary, bracteate, the flowers usually 2 or more 
together, lacking bracteoles; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes or teeth subequal or the upper 2 
subconnate; petals 5, usually yellow to purple, clawed, the standard suborbicular, 
without basal auricles, pilose without, the wings slightly adherent to keel, the keel 
petals auriculate at base of blade; stamens 10, the filaments connate into a sheath, the 
vexillary filament free at base, subconnate with the others above middle, infrequently 
free; intrastaminal disk usually present; ovary sessile, the ovules usually many (1-22), 
the style incurved or inflexed, the stigma terminal, often penicillate; fruit linear or 
oblong, compressed, beaked, usually pilose, dehiscent (often explosively so, the valves 
then becoming twisted), the seeds longitudinally to transversely arranged. 

Type species: Tephrosia villosa (L.) Pers. (Cracca villosa L.). 

Distribution: Pantropical and often warm temperate, most abundant in Africa, 
with more than 400 species, many of which have been used as fish poisons or as cover 
crops. Three species are recorded from Fiji, one indigenous and the others introduced 
but probably not yet naturalized. 

Key to species 

Hairs (at least some of them) on calyx and on pod sutures brown or black, 0.4- 1 mm. long, the pods densely 

fulvo-pubescent; upper pair ofcalyx teeth about 1.5 mm. long, united forabout 3/4 their length, shorter 

than calyx tube, the lowest tooth attenuate, about 6 mm. long, much longer than upper teeth; standard 

8- 1 2 mm. long, densely brown-sericeous without; leaflets (9-) 11-25, sericeous beneath, with 8- 1 7 pairs 

of lateral nerves and without an obvious veinlet-reticulation; cultivated only 1. T. noctiflora 

Hairs on calyx and on pod sutures white or yellowish; upper pair of calyx teeth united for about 1 / 3 their 

length, longer than calyx tube, the lowest tooth not much longer than upper teeth; leaflets 7-17. 

Fruits copiously spreading-pale-pilose (hairs obscuring surface, 1-2 mm. long); calyx spreading-pilose, 

the teeth long-acuminate, the lowest one to 8 mm. long, the others nearly as long; standard 10- 15 mm. 

long, copiously fulvo-sericeous without; leaflets pale-sericeous beneath, with 7-9 pairs of lateral 

nerves and without an obvious veinlet-reticulation; cultivated only 2. T. villosa 

Fruits shortly and inconspicuously strigillose (hairs not concealing surface, less than 0.5 mm. long); calyx 
appressed-strigillose to sericeous, the teeth narrowly deltoid, the lowest one 2.5-3 mm. long, the 
others 2-2.5 mm. long; standard 6-9 mm. long, shortly whitish-strigillose without; leaflets closely and 
inconspicuously strigillose beneath, with 6-12 pairs of lateral nerves interconnected by a prominu- 
lous veinlet-reticulation; indigenous, frequent in coastal areas and occasional inland. 

3. T. purpurea 

\. Tephrosia noctiflora Bojer ex Baker in Oliver, Fl. Trop. Afr. 2: 112. 1871; J. B. 
Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 182. 1971; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 
119. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 344.//^. 77, A. 1979. 

A straggling annual or short-lived perennial 0.5-1.5 m. high, cultivated near sea 
level. The petals are yellow without, purple and white within; the fruits are linear, 4-5 
cm. X 4-6 mm., with 6-11 seeds about 4 mm. long. Our dated material was in flower 
and fruit in August. 

Typification: The type is Bojer s. n. (k holotype), from Zanzibar Island. 

Distribution: Eastern Africa and Madagascar to India, cultivated and often 
naturalized elsewhere. 

Use: The species is often cultivated as a cover crop and was doubtless introduced 
for that purpose, but perhaps it is not yet widely used. In some areas it is used as a fish 
poison. 



1985 FABACEAE 173 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, 
Nanduruloulou, DA 8490 (FDA 13678). DA. PI. Introd. no. 13678, no. 14893. Fiji without further data, DA 
12978 (FDA 15529). 

2. Tephrosia villosa (L.) Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 329. 1807; J. B. Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 

Papil. 190. 1971; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 119. 1972. 
Cracca villosa L. Sp. PI. 752. 1753. 

An annual or brief, suffruticose perennial to 1 m. high, sparingly cultivated near sea 
level. The terminal pseudoracemes are up to 20 cm. long or the flowers are fasciculate 
and axillary, the petals purple, the keel being glabrous. The strongly curved, often 
deflexed fruits are 4.5-5.5 cm. >* 3-6 mm., with 6-14 seeds about 4 mm. long. Our 
material was in flower and fruit in May. 

Typification: The type is Hermann (bm holotype), from Ceylon. 

Distribution: Africa and Madagascar to India and Ceylon, sometimes cultivated 
elsewhere as a cover crop and sometimes naturalized. Our material seems to represent 
subsp. villosa, which does not occur in Africa. 

Use: In Fiji this species has been introduced for trial but is probably not 
established. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, 
Singatoka, DA 10839. 

3. Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Syn. PI. 2:329. 1807; Benth. in London J. Bot. 2:217. 

1843; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pac. 148. 1890; Gibbs in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 144. 1909; Greenwood in Proc. 
Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 62. 1943, in op. cit. 
220: 139. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 2. 1 19. 1972; Sykes in New 
Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 161. 1970; J. B. Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. 
Afr. Leg. Papil. 186. 1971; St. John & A. C. Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25: 328. 1971; B. E. 
V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 21. 1972; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 345. 1979. Figure 36. 

Cracca purpurea L. Sp. PI. 752. 1753. 

Galega piscaioria Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 71. 1789; forsan non sensu str. 

Tephrosia piscatona Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 329. 1807; A. Gray. Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:407. 1854, in Proc. 
Amer. Acad. Arts 5: 317. 1862, in Bonplandia 10: 35. 1862; Seem. Fl. Vit. 55. 1865; Christophersen in 
Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 100. 1935; forsan non sensu str. 

An erect or spreading annual or a short-lived, subligneous perennial, occasional 
but not abundant at elevations from near sea level to 300 m. on rocky shores and rocky 
slopes and open places, infrequently inland. The inflorescences are slender, lax, 
leaf-opposed pseudoracemes up to 20 cm. long; flowers have the standard white- 
pubescent without and reddish purple to pink within, the wings pink, and the keel 
petals green to purple and glabrous. The fruits are 3-5 cm. x 3-5 mm. and bear 5-9 
seeds about 3 mm. long. Flowers and fruits are noted to occur between February and 
July. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type of Cracca purpurea is Hermann (bm 
holotype), from Ceylon. Galega piscaioria is based on a cultivated plant (bm 
holotype) said to have been introduced in 1778 by Patrick Russell. Alton's name has 
generally been reduced to the synonymy of Tephrosia purpurea, but Verdcourt (1979, 
cited above) expresses some doubt of this placement. 

Distribution: Africa (Natal) to southern Asia and eastward through Malesia to 
tropical Australia and to the Tuamotu Islands, introduced elsewhere. It could have 
been an aboriginal introduction as a fish poison in the eastern parts of its range, but 
there is no real indication that it is not indigenous in Fiji and eastward. Subspecies and 



174 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




Figure 36. Tephrosia purpurea: A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and infructescences, " 1 /4; B, 
flower, with one wing and one keel petal removed, x 6. A from DA 5759, B from Smith 1389. 

varieties have been named; presumably our material represents subsp. purpurea, 
which appears not to be indigenous in Africa. 

Local name and uses: Locally known as tukavei, Tephrosia purpurea was for- 
merly used as a fish poison. In the Yasawas it is reputed to be used medicinally for 
earache. 

Available collections: YASAWAS; Waya: Nakawa Gulch, west of Mbatinaremba. St. John 18137. 
MAMANUTHAS: Nggalito Island, Malolo Group, O. &I. Degener 32207. VITI LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of 
Lautoka, Greenwood 404, 404Z; foot of Korolevu (probably the Korolevu on Ra boundary, 17°30'S.), 
Gibbs 766. Nandronga & Navosa: Savusavu, Malomalo Tikina, Greenwood 293. Rewa: Nukulau Island, 
Barclay 3437 (bm), s. n. (K). WAKAYA: Milne 381. NGAU: Hills east of Herald Bay, inland from Sawaieke, 
on slopes of Mt, Vonda toward Waikama, Smith 7954. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Seemann 107. 
RAMBI: Ngaloa, DA 5759, 5762. MOALA: North coast. Smith 1389. MATUKU: Milne 112. TOTOYA: 
Milne 80. FULANGA: On limestone formation, Smith 1106. ONGEA LEVU: Bryan 429{co\l. R. H. Beck). 
Fiji without further locality, U. S. Expl. Exped. 



15. Gliricidia H. B. K. Nova Gen. et Sp. 6: ed. fol. 309 (July), ed. qu. 393 (Sept.). 

1824; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 368. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 

347. 1979. 

Trees or shrubs, with small stipules; leaves imparipinnate, estipellate, the leaflet 

blades entire; inflorescences axillary, racemose, often clustered at older nodes, the 

flowers borne singly on rachis, the bracts small, the bracteoles none; calyx cupuliform. 



1985 FABACEAE 175 

the limb subtruncate, with short teeth, the 2 upper ones subconnate; petals 5, the 
standard large, reflexed, sometimes with small, inflexed auricles, the wings falcate- 
oblong, free, the keel petals incurved; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 connate into a 
sheath, the vexillary filament free, the anthers uniform; ovary stipitate, the ovules 
several, the style inflexed, the stigma small; fruits stipitate, linear-oblong, compressed, 
not partitioned, dehiscent, the valves coriaceous, becoming spirally coiled. 

Type species: Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. (Robinia sepium Jacq.). 

Distribution: Tropical America, with 4-9 species, one of which is in cuUivation in 
Fiji. 

1. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. Rep. Bot. Syst. 1: 679. 1842; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 74. 1964, ed. 2. 113. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
Mi. fig. 78. 1979; Henty in Papua New Guinea Dept. Forests Bull. 12: S&.fig. 52. 
1980. 

Robinia sepium Jacq. Enum. Syst. PI. Canb. 28. 1760. 

A shrub or small tree to 8 m. high, cultivated near sea level, the leaves with 7-17 
leaflets of which the blades are elliptic-oblong, usually 3-6 >* 1.5-3.5 cm., and often 
with bronze blotches beneath. The inflorescences are 5-13 cm. long and the flowers 
have the calyx red-tinged and the petals rose-pink, the standard and keel partly 
yellowish. Thefruits, at length blackish, are up to 15 x 1.5 cm., with 3-8 purplish brown 
seeds up to 1 cm. long. 

Typification: Jacquin did not indicate a type in his original publication, but 
probably the species is based on his own material from the West Indies. 

Distribution: Mexico to northern South America, naturalized in the West Indies 
and frequently cultivated elsewhere in tropical areas. 

Local names and uses: In Fiji only the name gliricidia has been used, but in 
America the well-known name madre de cacao is widespread. Although no herbarium 
vouchers are available, Parham (cited above) states that the species was introduced in 
1932 and was established as a shade for plantation crops (presumably cocoa and 
coffee) and as living fence posts. It is also a striking ornamental or shade tree and is said 
to be locally common in Fiji. 

16. SesbaniaScop. Introd. Hist. Nat. 308. 1777; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:402. 1964; 
J. B. Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 330. 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New 
Guinea Leg. 358. 1979. Nom. cons. 
^ga(/ Adanson, Fam. PI. 2: 326, 513. 1763. Nom. rejic. 
Sesban Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2: 327, 604. 1763. Nom. rejic. 

Small trees, shrubs, or herbs, the stipules often fugacious, the indument of simple, 
pale hairs; leaves paripinnate, usually stipellate, the rachis channelled above, the 
leaflets many (usually more than 10 pairs), the blades entire; inflorescences axillary, 
racemose, the pedicels usually borne singly, articulate distally, the bracts and brac- 
teoles usually fugacious; calyx campanulate, with subequal teeth shorter than tube; 
petals 5, the standard orbicular to ovate, spreading or reflexed, with a variously 
appendaged claw, the wings falcate-oblong, transversely ribbed, short-clawed, the keel 
petals incurved, long-clawed; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 connate into a sheath 
longer than free parts, the vexillary filament free, curved near base, the anthers 
uniform, dorsifixed; ovary often stipitate, the ovules numerous, the style incurved, the 
stigma small, capitate; fruits linear and usually becoming subterete, rarely subcom- 
pressed, rarely winged (not in our species), dehiscent (sometimes tardily so), rostrate, 
transversely septate, the seeds 6-50, ellipsoid, often narrowly rim-arillate around 
hilum. 

Type species: Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. (Aeschynomene sesban L.). 



176 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, often in seasonally wet habitats, with 
about 50 species. Four species are known from Fiji, one indigenous and the others 
cultivated, naturalized, or adventive. 

Useful treatments of genus: Gillett, J. B. Sesbania '\n Africa (excluding Madagascar) and southern 
Arabia. Kew Bull. 17:91-159. 1963. Burbidge, N. T. The Australian species of i'wiama Scopoli(Legumi- 
nosae). Austral. J. Hot. 13: 103-141. 1965. 

Key to species 

Filaments 30-60 mm. long, curved for much of their length; petals at least 23 mm. long; calyx (including limb 

and teeth) at least 8 mm. long; mature leaflet blades 15-42 x 5-14 mm. 

Leaflets in 10-25 pairs; calyx (including limb and teeth) 20-30 mm. long; petals 5-10 cm. long, pure white 

(to dark red in some forms); fruits at maturity up to 60 cm. long and 9 mm. broad, the stipe 25-50 mm. 

long, the septa 8-14 mm. apart, the beak 25-30 mm. long (soon breaking off); cultivated and 

sometimes naturalized 1 . S, grandiflora 

Leaflets in 8-13 pairs; calyx (including limb and teeth) 8-15 mm. long; petals 2.3-3.2 cm. long, pinkish 
yellow or cinereous-yellow, with deep red-brown lines; fruits at maturity ( 1 3-) 1 8-2 1 cm. long and up 
to 8 mm. thick, the stipe 10-20 mm. long, the septa 6-9 mm. apart, the beak 5-10 mm. long (soon 

breaking off); indigenous 2. S. coccinea 

Filaments 8- 1 2 mm. long, upcurved only distally; petals 8- 1 5 mm. long; calyx (including limb and teeth) 3-5 
mm. long; septa of fruits 4-6 mm. apart; mature leaflet blades not more than 25 " 4 mm. 
Stems and leaf rachises glabrous (or very sparsely pilose when young and soon glabrate); retrorse prickles 
(0.1-0.8 mm. long, broad-based) present on stems and often on leaf rachises; leaves in our material 
with (4-) 7-17 pairs of leaflets with blades 4- 13 x 1.5-3 mm. (in species as a whole up to 55 pairs with 
blades up to 20 x 3 mm.) and glabrous on both sides even when very young; inflorescences in our 
material 1- or 2-flowered, the pedicels 3-6 mm. long (to 1 1 mm. long in species as a whole, with as 
many as 12 flowers per inflorescence); blade of standard about as broad as long; fruits at maturity 
20-25 cm. long and 2-3.5 mm. in diameter, the beak 10-12 mm. long (soon breaking off); adventive. 

3. S. bispinosa 
Stems and leaf rachises moderately pale-sericeous with hairs about 0.5 mm. long (presumably at length 
subglabrate), not aculeate; leaves with (1 1-) 25-45 pairs ofleaflets with blades 12-25 x 2.5-4 mm. and 
subpersistently sericeous at least beneath; inflorescences (3-) 6-9-flowered, the pedicels 6-10 mm. 
long; blade of standard slightly broader than long; fruits at maturity 15-20 cm. long and 3-4 mm. in 
diameter, the beak 5-8 mm. long (soon breaking off); cultivated only 4. 5. catmabina 

1. Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 7: 127. 1806; Yunckerin 
Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 139. 1959; J. B. Gillett in Kew Bull. 17: 105. 1963; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 76. 1964, ed. 2. 1 18. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
360.//^. 83. 1979. 

Robinia grandiflora L. Sp. PI. 722. 1753. 

Agati grandiflora Desv. in J. Bot. Agric. 1: 120. 1813. 

A tree 4-12 m. high, cultivated near sea level in gardens and villages, and also 
occasionally naturalized. The inflorescences are 2-4-flowered, and in Fiji only the 
form with pure white petals and styles has been noted; however, other forms attributed 
to the species have the petals shading to dark red. Our material bore flowers and fruits 
in June and July. 

Typification: Linnaeus cited earlier references for Robinia grandiflora, but a 
lectotypification has not been noted. 

Distribution: As the species has long been cultivated as an ornamental, its place 
of origin is questionable but may have been Indo-Malesia. The related Australian 
species is considered distinct as Sesbania formosa (F. v. Muell.) Burbidge (in Austral. 
J. Bot. 13: 115. 1965). 

Local names and use: In Fiji the species passes by its Tamil name, agatioragathi. 
It is a beautiful ornamental, which may have been first introduced into Fiji by J. B. 
Thurston, who listed it in his 1886 Catalogue (as Agati grandiflora). Thurston also 
listed ''Agati speciosa. East Indies," which I cannot interpret. 



1985 FABACEAE 177 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Nanduruloulou, in Cocoa Station nursery, DA 12251 . 
Rewa: Suva Botanical Gardens, DA 12098. NGAU: Shores of Herald Bay, vicinity of Sawaieke, Smith 
7996. 

2. Sesbania coccinea(L. f.) Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 7: \21,asSeshanc. 1806; 
Seem. Fl. Vit. 55. 1865. Figures 37, 38. 

Aeschvnomene coccinea L. f. Suppl. PI. 330. 1782; Murrav, Syst. Veg. ed, 14. 671. 1784; Forst, f. Fl. Ins. 

Austr. Prodr. 51. 1786. 
Seshania lomentosa f. arhorea sensu Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 93. 1943; non Rock. 
Sesbania tomeniosa sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 2. 118. 1972; non Hook. & Arn. 
Sesbania alollensis sensu A. C. Sm. in Allertonia 1: 401. 1978; forsan non St. John (1962) sensu str. 

As seen in Fiji, Sesbania coccinea is a shrub or small tree 1-5 m. high, occurring 
near sea level along sandy beaches and sometimes in coconut plantations, on soil 
presumably derived from limestone. Its petals are pinkish yellow or cinereous-yellow, 
with deep red-brown lines. The fruits become brown at maturity and then are (13-) 
18-21 cm. long and up to 6 mm. broad and 8 mm. thick (subterete but thicker than 
broad), with seeds up to 7 x 4 x 2 mm. Our specimens bore flowers and fruits in March, 
May, and August. 

Typification and nomenclature: In describing his new species Seshania alollen- 
sis, then known from the Society Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago eastward to 
Henderson Island, St. John (in Trans. Roy. Soc. New Zealand Bot. 1: 184.//j?. 9. 1962) 
pointed out its identity with S. speciosa F. Br. (in Bishop Mus. Bull. 130: 1 10. 1935). 
Brown's binomial was a later homonym of the African S. speciosa Taub. ex Engl. 
(1894), and it was also illegitimate because it was apparently based on Aeschvnomene 
speciosa Solander (a binomial published only in synonymy by Seemann, Fl. Vit. 55. 
1865). In referring Fijian collections to S. alollensis in 1978, I neglected to pursue the 
fact that Seemann had referred Solander's manuscript name (which is supported by a 
beautiful Parkinson drawing at bm) to a valid binomial, S. coccinea Poir. Seshania 
coccinea has as its basionym A. coccinea L. f., which originally (1782) was cited as: 
"Hahiiat in Nova Zeelandia. Eques Back. Flores maiores, rubri." The mention of New 
Zealand has misled students of Seshania. since no New Zealand species suggests that of 
the younger Linnaeus, and St. John did not associate a New Zealand species with his 
Polynesian taxon. 

Fortunately, M.-H. Sachet has further investigated the matter and has examined 
the holotype of Aeschvnomene coccinea L. f. (linn in J. E. Smith Herbarium). The 
specimen is doubtless a J. R. and G. Forster collection from the second Cook voyage 
(some of the "Back" material having reached the younger Linnaeus and subsequently 
J. E. Smith, cf. Merrill in Chron. Bot. 14: 208. 1954) that has now been marked "prob. 
New Caledonia." It is no doubt part of the material that G. Forster ( 1 786) redescribed 
as A. coccinea. assigning it the localities: "Societatis insulae, Botanicesque insula." The 
LINN specimen is probably from "Botanists' Island" (modern name: lie Amere), 
between the mainland of New Caledonia and the Isle of Pines. There is also a Forster 
specimen at UPS (in the Thunberg collection) which is obviously a duplicate, with the 
correct localities. This specimen may have material from both of the localities men- 
tioned by G. Forster. 

The above data in large part were kindly supplied to me by M.-H. Sachet (in litt.), 
who has in preparation a discussion of Seshania coccinea and S. alollensis. Her 
treatment of the problem, which may be in print prior to the present volume of this 
Flora, will illuminate a puzzling problem. 



178 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




Figure 37. Sesbania coccinea: A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage, an inflorescence, and young 
fruits, X 1/3; B, flower with 1 wing removed, " 2; C, standard, " 2; D, keel petals and a wing, x 2 A from 
Bryan 517, B-D from DA 15540. 

Mentions of Sesbania tomentosa (a Hawaiian endemic) in the above synonymy are 
based solely on misidentifications of Tothill 103, from Nayau, Fiji, cited below. 
Distribution: Specimens of Sesbania coccinea are now known from the Isle of 



1985 



FABACEAE 



179 




Figure 38. Sesbaniacoccinea, {rom Bryan 443: A, maluiefTuits,* 1/2; B, sectioned portion of fruit with 
seeds, •< 6. 

Pines and nearby islands (but not from mainland New Caledonia) and the Loyalty 
Islands (fide Sachet, in litt.), as well as from Fiji (cited below) and Tonga (Vava'u: 
Crosby 46 (k) (F. R. Fosberg, personal communication) ). In Fiji it is now known from 
five islands of the Lau Group. Whether or not the concept of 5'. cuccinea should be 
expanded to include the eastern Polynesian S. atoUensis is discussed below. 
Local name: Vaivai. 

Available collections; YATHATA: Namberavula, DA 15540. 15541. VATU VARA; DA 17708. 
NAYAU: Tolhill 103. MARAMBO: Bryan 517. FULANGA: Bryan 443. 

Sesbania atoUensis is closely related to S. coccinea and may possibly be separable 
only at an infraspecific level, a problem under study by Dr. Sachet; neither taxon has 
been recorded from islands between Tonga and the Societies. A comparison of Fijian 
material (which apparently may safely be assigned to typical 5. coccinea) and S. 
atoUensis indicates that the latter often has slightly the longer leaves, more numerous 
and sometimes larger leaflets, somewhat larger flowers (flowers in Fiji have the 
standard blade no larger than 22 x 19 mm., the wings to 30 >< 6 mm., the keel petals to 
29 ^ 1 mm., and the stamens to 30 mm. in length), and different fruits (dimensions of 
Fijian fruits are noted above). These data suggest that material of the complex from 
eastern Polynesia may represent one or more taxa separable at some level from S. 
coccinea. 



180 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

3. Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq.) W. F. Wight in U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Indust. Bull. 
137: 15. 1909; J. B. Gillett in Kew Bull. 17: 129. 1963, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Papil. 349. fig. 51 (11. 12). 1971. 
Aeschynomene sesban sensu Jacq. Collect. 2: 283. 1788; non L. 
Aeschynomene bispinosa Jacq. Icon. PI. Rar. 3: 13. pi. 564. 1792. 
Sesbania aculeata Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 7: 128, nom. illeg. 1806. 
Typification and nomenclature: The type is a plant of unknown origin, proba- 
bly Asiatic, cultivated in Vienna prior to 1788 and illustrated in Jacquin's 1792 work. 
Sesbania aculeata (Willd.) Poir. is based on Coronilla aculeata Willd. (Sp. PI. 3: 1 147. 
1802, an illegitimate name because it is based on the same plant as Jacquin's name). 
The oldest epithet for the concept is found in Aeschynomene aculeata Schreber ( 1 770), 
but Poiret's combination prevents its use in Sesbania. 

Distribution: India and China southward through much of Africa and in Mada- 
gascar and Mauritius, probably as an introduced weed in much of this range as well as 
in many other tropical areas. 

Fijian collections belong to the following variety. 

3a. Sesbania bispinosa var. micrantha (Chiov.) J. B. Gillett in Kew Bull. 17: 130. 1963. 

Sesbania aculeata var. micrantha Chiov. Fl. Somala 2: 164. 1932. 

Sesbania bispinosa sensu Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 76. 
1964; non sensu str. 

Sesbania aculeata sensu J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 89. 1959; non Poir. sensu str. 

Sesbania sesban sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964; non Merr. 

Sesbania cannabina sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 118. 1972; non Poir. 
As seen in Fiji, Sesbania bispinosa var. micrantha is a shrub or coarse herb to 1.5 m. 
high, locally naturalized near sea level as a weed along roadsides, in waste places, and 
in cultivated fields; it is often common in damp places in areas with a pronounced 
seasonal climate. The petals are yellow. As far as our collections are dated, flowers and 
fruits have been noted in May and July. 

Typification: Variety micrantha is typified by Senni 446 and 490 (fi syntypes), 
collected in Somalia in July, 1929. All the above references to names used by Green- 
wood and Parham refer to the weed of cultivation established on the lee coast of Viti 
Levu and not to Sesbania cannabina, which, however, is sparingly cultivated in Fiji. 
Distribution: The variety has a very spotty distribution in the tropics as a weed of 
subsaline seasonally wet areas, reported by Gillett (1963) from India, Fiji (Greenwood 
739), and British Guiana, as well as Somalia. It is commonly found in cuhivated areas, 
including rice fields, and it probably has a much wider distribution, perhaps including 
at least some of the material referred to Sesbania bispinosa in Java (Backer & Bakh. f. 
Fl. Java 1: 597. 1963). 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Near Tavua, DA 14360. Ra: Near Thamboni, DA 11470: 
Penang, Greenwood 747: Ellington, Greenwood 739, DA 2831. Fiji without further locality, DA L. 13845. 
Parham ( 1 959, 1 964, 1 972, cited above) also indicates that the taxon is established in Mbua Province, Vanua 
Levu, but no vouchers are available. 

Variety micrantha, which differs from var. bispinosa in having the inflorescences 1- 
or 2-flowered (rather than 3-12-flowered) and the filament sheath only about 8 mm. 
long (rather than 9-12 mm. long), seems worthy of recognition. If our material is 
typical of the variety, its leaves have only (4-) 7-17 pairs of leaflets rather than 25-55 
pairs, as in var. bispinosa. 



1985 FABACEAE 181 

4. Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 7: 130. 1806; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ed. 2. 3: 335. 1832; J. B. Gillett in Kew Bull. 17: 130. 1963; Burbidge in 
Austral. J. Bot. 13: 118. 1965; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 360. fig. 82. 
1979. 
Aeschynomene cannabina Retz. Obs. Bot. 5: 26. 1789. 

A low shrub or herb up to 3 m. high, sparingly cuhivated in experimental plots near 
sea level. The petals are yellow, the standard streaked with red or purple; our material 
bore flowers and fruits in May. 

Typification and nomenclature: Retzius presumably based his concept on 
Koenig material from India, but the actual specimen may no longer exist. Gillett (1963, 
cited above) discusses the nomenclatural issues in detail; it is possible that Retzius 
actually described a specimen of Sesbania procumbens (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., but S. 
cannabina is generally accepted in the sense used by Roxburgh in 1832, that is, as the 
fiber-yielding species known in India as dhunchi(ov dhaincha. cf. Burkill, Diet. Econ. 
Prod. Malay Penins. ed. 2. 2032. 1966). If the species is subdivided (e. g. Burbidge, 
1965, cited above), our material falls into var. cannabina. 

Distribution: Probably indigenous in Australia and islands to the north, but early 
widespread in Malesia and southeastern Asia to India and China, and perhaps in parts 
of Africa. It has been confused with Sesbania hispinosa, Gillett's table ( 1 963, p. 1 32) of 
distinguishing characters readily permitting separation. 

Local names and uses: No names are noted in Fiji, but this is the plant known in 
India as dhunchi or dhaincha. FDA 16065 was introduced into Fiji in 1965, but no 
source or name was indicated in Dept. Agr. Fiji Introduction List No. 12, p. 12. 1965. 
Perhaps the species has not become naturalized in Fiji; in other areas it is utilized as a 
green manure, and its fiber may be made into fishing lines and nets. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, DA 14357 (FDA 16065). Nandronga & 
Navosa: Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, near Singatoka, DA 9787. 

17. Indigofera L. Sp. PI. 751. 1753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 54. 1865; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 
1: 400. 1964; J. B. Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 212. 1971; Verdcourt, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. 348. 1979. 

Shrubs or herbs, the indument copious to sparse, usually partially composed of 
biramous hairs, the stipules often small and setaceous; leaves imparipinnate (in all our 
taxa) or 3- or 1-foliolate or simple, very rarely paripinnate, stipellate or not, the leaflet 
blades entire, with obscure lateral nerves; inflorescences axillary, racemose or spicate, 
infrequently paniculate, the flowers borne singly in axils of caducous bracts, the 
bracteoles none; calyx with the lobes or teeth subequal or the lowermost one the 
longest; petals 5, usually red to pink, caducous (or standard persistent), the standard 
longer than broad, gradually narrowed to base, the wings short -clawed or not, the keel 
petals erect, gibbous or calcarate on each side, short-clawed; stamens 10, the filaments 
of 9 connate into a persistent tube, the vexillary filament free from base, the anthers 
uniform, dorsifixed, apiculate; ovary usually sessile, the ovules mostly numerous, 
infrequently only 2, the stigma capitate, often penicillate; fruit linear to ovoid, straight 
or curved, subterete or tetragonal or compressed, septate between seeds, dehiscent, the 
seeds (1-) 2-many, globose to cylindric. 

Lectotype species: Indigojera tinctoria L. (vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. S. 
ed. 2. 2: 371. 1913), one of Linnaeus's three original species. 



182 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, with about 700 species; five species are 
recorded from Fiji, two of them furnishing indigo and now naturalized, the others 
sparingly cultivated and perhaps still limited to introduction gardens. 

An interesting discussion of the many uses of various species of Indigofera is 
provided by Burkill, Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. ed. 2. 1252-1260. 1966. 

Key to species 

Leaflets opposite; pedicels 1 mm. or more long; erect or sprawling herbs or shrubs often more than 1 m. high. 

Fruits straight or curved; leaflet blades 7-30 x 4-17 mm.; woody herbs or low shrubs 0.5-2.5 m. high or 

subscandent, the indument of stems, rachises, calyces, and fruits fine, appressed, never very dense, the 

hairs pale. 

Racemes up to 27 cm. long (seldom as short as 5 cm. at anthesis), the peduncle up to 3 cm. long; calyx 

2.5-4 mm. long, the lobes subulate-setaceous, much longer than tube; fruits straight or slightly 

curved, somewhat tetragonal, 20-30 mm. long, about 1.3 mm. broad and 2 mm. thick, white- 

strigillose, the seeds about 10; leaflets in our variety 5-9, the blades 8-30 x 5- 1 7 mm.; erect, woody 

herb 0.5-2 m. high, sometimes subscandent. 1. /. trita 

Racemes up to 5 cm. long but usually shorter, sessile (epedunculate); calyx about 1.5 mm. long, the 

lobes deltoid, about as long as tube; leaflets 5-19, the blades up to 28 x 16 mm.; erect or sprawling 

shrubs up to 2.5 m. high. 

Fruits strongly curved, 10-15 mm. long, 2-3 mm. broad and thick, the seeds 3-5; leaflet blades 12-28 

X 4-12 mm. 2. /. suffruticosa 

Fruits straight or shghtly curved, linear, 25-35 mm. long, about 2 mm. broad and thick, the seeds 

8-12; leaflet blades 7-25 x 5-16 mm. 3. /. lincloria 

Fruits straight, somewhat tetragonal, 12-20 mm. long, about 2 mm. broad and thick, the seeds 6-9; 

racemes 20-30 cm. long, the peduncle 2.5-8 cm. long; calyx about 4 mm. long, divided nearly to base, 

with linear-setaceous lobes; leaflets 5-7 (-9), the blades up to 45 x 25 mm., densely pilose on both 

sides; erect or spreading subUgneous herbs up to 1.5 m. high, the stems, rachises, calyces, and fruits 

stiffly and copiously brown-hirsute with long hairs. 4. /. hirsula 

Leaflets alternate or very rarely opposite, 5-1 1 (usually 7), the blades about 10 mm. long (but very variable, 

3-30 mm. long in some forms); racemes up to 15 cm. long, the peduncle 1-4 cm. long; pedicels about 0.5 

mm. long; calyx 2-3 mm. long, divided nearly to base; fruits linear, straight, 1 1-25 mm. long, about 2 

mm. broad and thick, the seeds 5-8; prostrate or ascending annual herbs with stems up to 60 cm. long, 

the stems, rachises, calyces, and fruits appressed-strigillose. 5. /. spicata 

I . Indigofera trita L. f. Suppl. PI. 335. 1782; J. B. Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 
303. 1971. 

Typification: The type of Indigofera trita is a collection from India by an 
unknown collector (linn 923-9 holotype). 

Distribution: The typical variety occurs from Pakistan eastward to Malesia and 
Australia; other varieties extend the range of the species southward to Africa and 
Madagascar. Only var. scabra has been brought into Fiji. 

la. Indigofera trita var. scabra (Roth) AH in Hot. Not. 3: 558. 1958; J. B. Gillett in Fl. 
Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 304. /I^. 43 (1). 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
356. 1979. 
Indigofera scabra Roth, Nov. PI. Sp. 359. 1821. 

Indigofera subulata sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 114. 1972; non Poir. 
In Fiji this variety, cultivated in nursery plots near sea level, is a somewhat ligneous 
herb to 50 cm. high, with pink petals, flowering in April, September, and October. 
Typification: The type of Indigofera scabra is Wallich 5475 ex Herb. Heyne 
(isoTYPE at k), from Madras Province, India. Our material of /. trita belongs in var. 
scabra rather than var. subulata (Poir.) Ali, which has only three leaflets. 
Distribution: Africa and Madagascar to India, cultivated elsewhere. 
Use: Introduced into Fiji, probably since 1940, as a potential cover crop, but not 
established because of its believed potential toxicity to cattle. 



1985 FABACEAE 183 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, 
near Singatoka, DA 14754. Naitasirl Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, DA 
9558. 9668 (FDA 13403). 

2. Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. 1768; Merr. Interpret. Rumph. Herb. 

Amb. 264. 1917; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 100. 1935; Greenwood 
in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. ! 943; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 1 38. 1959; J. 
W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 90. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 1 14. 1972; B. E. 
V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 49. 1972; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 355. fig. 80 (F). 1979. 
Indigofera anil L. Mant. PI. Alt. 2:272. 1771; Seem. inBonplandia9:255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 54. 

1865; Drake, III. Fl, Ins. Mar. Pac. 147. 1890. 
Indigofera linctoria sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 74. 1964; non L. 
As seen in Fiji, Indigofera suffruticosa is a shrub 0.6-2 m. high, occurring from 
near sea level to about 300 m. and often locally abundant in dry areas along roadsides, 
in waste places, cultivated areas such as canefields and coconut plantations, and 
pastures, and along beaches and on open hillsides. The petals are greenish but 
copiously tinged with salmon-pink or orange-red; flowers and fruits have been noted 
throughout the year. 

Typification and nomenclature: Indigofera suffruticosa is based on Sloane, 
"Cat. Jam. 142," the holotype presumably being at bm. No reference or specimen was 
cited in the protologue of /. anil, said to have come from India, but a specimen may 
exist at linn. The two concepts are now firmly established as referring to the same 
taxon. 

Distribution: Tropical America, but early introduced to Asia and now widely 
naturalized in many other parts of the tropics. About 30 Fijian collections have been 
examined. 

Local names and use: The indigo or indigo plant is one of the sources of 
commercial indigo, providing a permanent dye of widespread use. The earliest Fijian 
collection was that of Seemann, who noted the species as common along the coasts of 
various islands. It was presumably introduced into Fiji by European settlers considera- 
bly earlier than 1860. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 393: Ndreketi Inlet, south of 
Lautoka, DA 11760: Nandi, D.4 9682: Tavua. Greenwood 393 B. Nandronga & Navosa: Navula Creek, 
upper Singatoka Valley, DA 1 1323: near Singatoka, Vaughan 3202. Serua: Namboutini, D.4, Jan. 17, 1962 
(Bola 104): hills west of Waivunu Creek, between Ngaloa and Korovou, Smith 9462. Ra: Penang, Green- 
wood 393A. Tailevu: Viwa Island, Seemann 106. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Lambasa, Greenwood 
393D. LAKEMBA: Tolhill 102: near Tumbou, Garnock-Jones 903. 

3. Indigofera tinctoria L. Sp. PI. 751. 1753; Merr. Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amb. 264. 

1917; A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 39. 1942; Greenwood in J. Arnold Arb. 25: 398. 

1944; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 139. 1959; J. B. Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 

Leg. Papil. 308. //g. 42 (2). 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 355. //g. 80 

(G). 1979. 

As noted in Fiji, Indigofera tinctoria is a shrub 0.5-1 m. high, infrequently 

naturalized along roadsides and on dry river banks. It has pink petals and has been 

seen in flower and fruit in June and December. 

Typification: Linnaeus based his species primarily on Hermann, vol. 3, fol. 20 (bm 
holotype), from Ceylon. 

Distribution: Africa and Madagascar to Arabia, southeastern Asia, and Malesia, 
but now widespread in other areas in cultivation or naturalized. Our material falls into 
var. tinctoria. 



184 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Local name and use: The Ceylon indigo plant, like the preceding species, is an 
important source of commerical indigo. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Degener & Ordonez 13626: shores of Mba River 
near its mouth. Smith 4739. 

Indigofera tinctoria seems to be very infrequent in Fiji, perhaps having been a 
comparatively recent and inadvertent introduction that is only sporadically estab- 
lished as a weed. In fruit it is readily separable from the more common /. suffruticosa, 
but without fruits the two species can be confused. The leaflet blades of/, tinctoria diXt 
proportionately slightly the broader, usually distinctly obovate rather than elliptic to 
narrowly obovate, and with a broader, more rounded apex; the leaflets of both species, 
however, have a distinct apical mucro. 

4. Indigofera hirsuta L. Sp. PI. 751. 1753; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. 

Bull. 200: 156. 1970; J. B. Gillettin Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 310./;^. 45(1-14). 
1971; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 113. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 2,S\.fig. 80(B). 1979. 

As seen in Fiji, Indigofera hirsuta is a shrub to 1 m. high, cultivated only in nursery 
plots near sea level. Flowers, with brick-red to rose-colored petals, and fruits have been 
collected in September and October. 

Typification: The primary basis of the species is Hermann 172 (bm holotype), 
from Ceylon. 

Distribution: Africa and Madagascar to southern Asia and eastward to northern 
Australia, now widely introduced and naturalized elsewhere. 

Use: Introduced for trial as a cover crop or for pasture improvement, probably in 
the 1940's, but not yet established, perhaps because of suspicion that it may be 
poisonous to stock. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA. Oct. 29, 1951, DA 9562, 9669 (FDA 13250). 

5. Indigofera spicata Forssk. Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 138. 1775; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 

74. 1964, ed. 2. 113. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 
156. 1970; J. B. Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. IM.fig. 46 (17). 1971; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 353./;^. 80 (E). 1979. 
Indigofera hendecaphylla J^cq. Collect. 2: 358. 1789; Payne & Naidu in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 26: l,as/. 
endecaphylla. 1955. 

A spreading or prostrate annual herb, with stems sometimes ascending to 60 cm., 
cultivated near sea level in an introduction garden (but probably not now to be found 
in Fiji, as noted below). 

Typification and nomenclature: The type of Indigofera spicata is Forskkal (c 
holotype), from Bolgose, Yemen; that of /. hendecaphylla was a plant cultivated at 
Vienna, probably originally from western Africa, the collector unknown. The two 
concepts are combined by students of the genus. 

Distribution: Africa and Madagascar to Yemen and southeastern Asia eastward 
to Malesia and Australia, now widely cultivated and naturalized elsewhere. 

Local name and uses: Creeping indigo; although Indigofera spicata was intro- 
duced for trial prior to 1955 and subsequently established as a pasture legume in Fiji, it 
is reported to cause photosensitization of cattle, and consequently its use was discour- 
aged and the experimental plants were destroyed. On Niue, where it is also grown, it is 
considered of value in enriching the soil and helping to prevent erosion. 



1985 FABACEAE 185 

Available collection; VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 7555. 

18. Cyamopsis DC. Prodr. 2: 215. 1825; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 400. 1964; J. B. 

Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 328. 1971. 

Erect herbs, the indument composed of biramous hairs, the stipules small, setace- 
ous; leaves imparipinnate, 3-7(rarely 1 )-foliolate, estipellate, the leaflets opposite, with 
dentate or entire blades; inflorescences axillary, racemose, the flowers borne singly in 
axils of caducous bracts, the bracteoles none; calyx cupuliform, oblique, the lower- 
most tooth the longest; petals 5, strongly veined, the standard obovate, not clawed, the 
wings oblong, free from keel, the keel petals erect, slightly gibbous or short -calcarate 
laterally; stamens 10, the filaments all connate into a closed tube or the vexillary one 
only lightly attached to tube, the anthers uniform, apiculate; ovary sessile, the ovules 
numerous, the style short, apically incurved, the stigma capitate; fruits flat or 
subtetragonous-compressed, longitudinally ridged, rostrate, septate between seeds, 
dehiscent, the seeds several, compressed. 

Type species: Cyamopsis psoraloides DC, nom. illeg. = Cyamopsis tetragonoloba 
(L.) Taub. (Psoralea tetragonoloba L.). 

Distribution: Africa to Arabia and eastern India, with three species, one of which 
is cultivated in Fiji. 

1. Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III. 3: 
259. 1894; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 255. 1968; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 50. 
1976. 

Psoralea tetragonoloba L. Mant. PI. 104. 1767. 

Cyamopsis psoraloides DC. Prodr. 2: 216, nom. illeg. 1825; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 72. 1964, ed. 2. 1 10. 
1972. 

A robust, bushy annual 1-3 m. high, occasionally cultivated in Fiji near sea level. 
The branches are stiff, erect, angled, grooved, and white-pilose, and the leaves are 
3-foliolate, with ovate, sparsely serrate leaflet blades. The small flowers have the 
standard white and the wings pinkish. The fruit is linear and compressed, 4-10 cm. 
long, with a double ridge on the dorsal side and a single ridge on the ventral side, with 
5-12 white to gray or blackish seeds. 

Typification and nomenclature: Psoralea tetragonoloba was based on material 
obtained by Forsskal in Arabia; Cyamopsis psoraloides was described from material 
from India but is illegitimate because P. tetragonoloba was listed as a synonym. 

Distribution: The species is not known in a wild state but is probably indigenous 
in India. It is now widely introduced into the drier tropics and warm temperate areas as 
a fodder and green manure. 

Local names and uses: The cluster bean or guar produces young pods that are 
edible as a vegetable, and the seeds can be used as cattle feed. The seeds are also made 
into flour that is used as a thickener in food products and also in textile sizing. 

Although no herbarium vouchers from Fiji are available, the species is known to be 
cultivated there, probably along the lee coasts of the two large islands. 

19. Dendrolobium Benth. in Miq. PI. Junghuhn. 215. 1852; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 

1: 483. 1964; Ohashi in Ginkgoana 1: 50. 1973. 
Desmodium subgen. Dendrolobium Wight & Arn. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 223. 1834. 
Trees or shrubs, the stipules striate, fugacious; leaves trifoliolate (very rarely 
unifoliolate), stipellate, the leaflet blades chartaceous to coriaceous, the terminal one 
the largest; inflorescences axillary, subumbellate to congested-racemose, short- 



186 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

pedunculate, the flowers solitary in axils of bracts, the bracts scariose, caducous, the 
bracteoles 2 at base of calyx, conspicuous in bud but soon deciduous; calyx cam- 
panulate to tubular, deeply 4-lobed, the upper lobe entire or minutely bifid; petals 5, 
clawed, the standard obovate to orbicular, not auriculate, the wings oblong, the keel 
petals straight, obtuse; stamens 10, the filaments joined in a sheath beyond middle, the 
vexillary filament sometimes free in upper half; ovary sessile, the ovules (1-) 2-8, the 
style conspicuously long, slender, deflexed, the stigma capitate; fruit subfalcate, 
indehiscent, with 1-8 articles, these at length separating but not dehiscing, the pericarp 
becoming thick-corky or coriaceous, the seeds oblong-elliptic to reniform, conspicu- 
ously rim-arillate. 

Type species: Although ING (1979) states that the type species is "non designatus," 
both Hutchinson and Ohashi, cited above, indicate it as Dendrolobium umbellatum 
(L.) Benth.; "lectotype species" would be more appropriate. 

Distribution: Paleotropical, with about twelve species, one of which is indigenous 
in Fiji. 

Useful treatment of genus; Ohashi, H. 1973 (listed under Desmodium). 

The genera Dendrolobium and Codariocalyx have been incorporated in Desmo- 
dium by most authors, but in keeping with the review of the tribe Desmodieae by 
Ohashi, Polhill, and Schubert (in Adv. Leg. Syst. 292-300. 1981) they are here retained 
as distinct. 

L Dendrolobium umbellatum (L.) Benth. in Miq. Pi. Junghuhn. 216, 218. 1852; A. 
Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 431. 1854; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861; 
Ohashi in Ginkgoana 1: n.fig. 11 (11), 13 (4, 5), 15 (11), 16 (13), 17 (13); pi. 9. b. 
1973. Figure 39. 

Hedysarum umbellatum L. Sp. PI. 747. 1753. 
Hedvsarum ausirale Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1183. 1802. 

Desmodium umbellatum DC. Prodr. 2: 325. 1825; Seem. Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 56. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pac. 149. 1890; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12:244. 1931; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. 
Bull. 128: 101. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit. 220:141. 1959; van Meeuwenin Reinwardtia6:263. 1962; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964, ed. 2. 1 12. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 
\52.fig. 14. 1970;SchubertinFl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil.455.yi^. (55W. 1971; St. John& A. C. Sm. in 
Pacific Sci. 25: 328. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 53, 
57. 1972; Verdcourt, Man, New Guinea Leg. 410. 1979. 
Desmodium australe DC. Prodr. 2: 326. 1825; Seem. Viti, 435. 1862. 
Desmodium umbellatum var. villosum Benth. in London J. Bot. 2: 217, nom. nud. 1843. 
Dendrolobium australe Benth. in Miq. PI. Junghuhn. 216, 218. 1852; A. Gray, Bot. 0. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 
431. 1854. 

As seen in Fiji, Dendrolobium umbellatum is a shrub or small tree 1-7 m. high at 
elevations from near sea level to 200 m., often locally common in beach thickets, on 
rocky coasts, on the inner edges of mangrove swamps, and along rivers, sometimes 
occurring inland in dry forest or on its edges. Its terminal leaflet blades are elliptic to 
ovate or obovate, usually 5-14 x 3-7.5 cm. and with 7-12 conspicuous lateral nerves 
per side, the lateral leaf blades being obliquely elliptic and conspicuously smaller than 
the terminal one. The inflorescences are densely 10-20-flowered, the petals are white 
to pale yellow and 8- 1 3 mm. long, the filaments are white, and the style is greenish. The 
fruits turn from green to brown and at maturity are usually glabrate, 3-5-jointed, and 
up to 5 cm. X 7 mm.; the seeds are reddish brown to black and about 4^3 mm. 
Typification and nomenclature: The type of Hedysarum umbellatum is Her- 

FiGURE 39. Dendrolobium umbellatum; A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and infructescences, 
X 1 /3; B, mature fruits, x 2; C, an axillary inflorescence, some bracteoles still persisting below calyces, x 6; D, 
flower with one wing petal bent downward, showing androecium and the style deflexed toward standard, the 
bracteoles fallen, x 6. A & B from Smith 1073. C from Smith 8064. D from Gillespie 4502. 



1985 



FABACEAE 



187 




188 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

mann (bm holotype in Herb. Hermann), from Ceylon; that of H. australe was cited by 
Willdenow as "Tanna et Nova Caledonia (v. s.)," doubtless a reference to the J. R. & G. 
Forster collection cited by the latter as H. umbellatum in Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 51. 
1786. The nomen nudum Desmodium umbellatum var. villosum was based by Ben- 
tham on Hinds (k) and Barclay (3438, bm), collected in 1840 on Nukulau Island, Rewa 
Province, Viti Levu. Many other names (cf. Ohashi, 1973, cited above) are referable to 
Dendrolobium umbellatum f. umbellatum, one of the two forms recognized by Oha- 
shi. 

Distribution: Eastern Africa and Madagascar to tropical Asia north to the 
Ryukyu Islands, and eastward through Malesia to northern Australia and into the 
Pacific to Micronesia, Tonga, Nine, and Samoa. About 60 Fijian collections have been 
examined. 

Local names and use: Recorded Fijian names for this frequent species are 
sausautave, sauthava, seuseutavei, tokaimbembe, roro ni mbembe, ai vaka mbula ni 
namu, mothemothe, and ndrala. In the Yasawas the species is said to be used for scaly 
skin and leprosy. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: Waya: Wailevu Creek, St. John 18086. MAMANUTHAS: 
Nggalito Island, Malolo Group, O. & I. Degener 32237. VITI LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of Nandi, DA 10708. 
Nandronga & Navosa: Thuvu, Webster & Hildreth 14305. Serua: Flat coastal strip in vicinity of Ngaloa, 
Smith 9697. Ra: Yanggara, Greenwood 1358. Naitasiri: Waindrandra Creek, DA 904. Tailevu: Naingani 
Island, DA 3331: near Londoni, DA 14419: Viwa Island, Seemann 109, p. p. Rewa: Queen's Road west of 
Suva, Vaughan 3322: Nukulau Island, U. S. Expl. Exped. KANDAVU: Namalata isthmus region. Smith 
175. OVALAU: U. S. Expl. Exped.: vicinity of Thawathi, Smith 8064: north of Levuka, Gillespie 4502. 
MAKONDRONGA: Degener & Ordonez 13802. WAKAYA: Milne 392. ICORO: Rocky west coast. Smith 
1073. NGAU: Milne 227. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Seanggangga Plateau, in drainage of Korovuli River, 
vicinity of Natua, Smith 6704: Lambasa, Greenwood 135C. TAVEUNI: Seemann 109. p. p. TOTOYA: 
Bryan 351. VANUA MBALAVU: Near Ndakuilomaloma Village, Garnock-Jones 1129. FULANGA: On 
limestone formation, Smith 1189. 

20. Desmodium Desv. in J. Bot. Agric. 1: 122. 1813; Seem. Fl. Vit. 55. 1865; van 
Meeuwen in Reinwardtia 6: 240. 1962; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:481. 1964; 
Schubert in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 451. 1971; Ohashi in Ginkgoana 1: 87. 
1973; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 385. 1979. Nom. cons. 
Herbs or shrubs, sometimes prostrate or scrambUng, rarely arborescent, the indu- 
ment of various parts composed of straight or uncinate hairs, the stipules striate, often 
scariose, free or rarely fused at least when young; leaves usually pinnately 3-foliolate, 
sometimes 1-foliolate, very rarely 5-foliolate, stipellate; inflorescences terminal or 
axillary, racemose or racemose-paniculate, rarely subumbellate, the primary bracts 
striate, persistent or caducous, each subtending a fascicle of 2-several flowers or 
infrequently a single flower; secondary flower-subtending bracts often present; brac- 
teoles lacking or minute and borne at base of calyx; calyx campanulate, the limb 
2-lipped or subequally 5-lobed, the 2 upper lobes completely or partially connate, the 3 
lower ones acute to subulate-acuminate, the lowermost usually the longest; petals 5, 
exceeding calyx, the standard obovate to orbicular, not appendaged, often short- 
clawed, the wings more or less adherent to keel at least when young, short-clawed, the 
keel petals long-clawed, partially fused above; stamens 10, the filaments connate into a 
sheath, the vexillary filament often free to middle or to base, the anthers uniform; 
ovary sessile or stipitate, narrowly oblong, the ovules (2-) many, the style slender, 
infiexed or incurved, the stigma terminal, minute or capitate; fruit exserted from calyx, 
compressed, articulated, the articles usually flat, membranaceous or coriaceous, often 
reticulate-nerved, at length separating from each other, indehiscent or rarely dehiscent 
on lower suture, the seeds compressed, ellipsoid to subquadrate, often rim-arillate 
around the hilum. 



1985 FABACEAE 189 

Type species: Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw.) Desv. (Hedysarum scorpiurus Sw.)- 
Typ. cons. 

Distribution: Pantropical and temperate, with centers of greatest diversity in 
Mexico, Brazil, and eastern Asia, and with 300 or more species. The precise eastern 
limit of the Asian-Malesian part of the range is uncertain, but the species occurring in 
Fiji and eastward all appear to be adventive or cultivated and often naturalized. Nine 
species are here recorded from Fiji, but it is likely that a few others have been 
introduced in experimental plots and are not yet established. Desmodium heterocar- 
pon var. strigosum was in Fiji (and eastward at least to the Societies) prior to 1840 and 
perhaps as early as 1769 (cf. Merrill in Chron. Bot. 14: 219. 1954), presumably as an 
adventive or an inadvertent aboriginal introduction. Desmodium scorpiurus seems to 
have been in Fiji, presumably as an adventive, in the 1 870's, if the Home specimen here 
listed is correctly placed. Desmodium triflorum and D. heterophyllum may have been 
introduced into Fiji about 1920 or slightly earlier; the remaining species would appear 
to be more recent introductions. 

Uses: Many species of Desmodium are utilized for pasture improvement and are 
useful fodder plants, and some are used as cover crops and green manure. These data, 
applicable to all our species, are not repeated below. 

UsEFiL TREATMENTS OF GENUS: Knaap-van Meeiwen. M. S. Preliminary revisions of some genera of 
Malaysian Papilionaceae V— A census of the genus Desmodium. Reinwardtia 6: 239-276. 1962. Ohashi, H. 
The Asiatic species of Desmodium and its allied genera (Leguminosae). Ginkgoana 1: 1-318. 1973. 

Key to species 
Leaves all unifoliolate. the blades elliptic to ovate. (1.3-) 4-17 x (I-) 2-6 cm.; stems distally angular, with 
appressed. gray or whitish hairs; inflorescences terminal and axillary, racemose or paniculate, 6-30 cm. 
long, the flowers 2-4-fasciculate, the primary bracts linear to subulate, not more than 1 mm. broad, the 
secondary bracts to 3.5 >< 0.7 mm.; pedicels 2-6 mm. long, spreading or reflexed in fruit, the fruits 
appressed to each other, with minute uncinate hairs, deeply undulate on lower suture, with usually 6-8 

articles 2.5-3.5 » 2-2.5 mm., the isthmi narrow, about 0.5 mm. broad I. D. gangelicum 

Leaves trifoliolate (rarely mixed with unifoliolate ones). 

Stipules asymmetrical, distinctly auriculate at base on side away from petiole (and less obviously on side 

toward petiole), acuminate from a broad base, sometimes reflexed, persistent; indument of stems 

composed of uncinate hairs; leaflet blades elliptic to ovate. 

Fruits narrow, the articles oblong-elliptic, 4-6 x 1-2.5 mm., the isthmi about half as broad as articles; 

leaflet blades appressed-pilose with dense, fine hairs, and also with some scattered, stiffer hairs and 

a few uncinate hairs also on nerves, the terminal leaflet blades 1-5 « 0.5-3 cm.; pedicels 3-7 mm. 

long, with uncinate hairs sometimes intermixed with straight hairs 2. D. scorpiurus 

Fruits broader, moniliform, the articles suborbicular, 3-6.5 « 3-4 mm., the isthmi comparatively 
narrow, about 1 '4 as broad as articles; leaflet blades laxly pilose with long hairs and or short, unci- 
nate hairs, the terminal leaflet blades 2.5-13 x 1.5-7 cm.; pedicels 5-17 mm. long, with many 

basally thickened hairs 3. D. loriuosum 

Stipules symmetrical at base (or at least scarcely auriculate), sometimes caducous. 

Inflorescences composed of terminal and axillary racemes 6-20 cm. long, the rachises densely 
uncinulate-puberulent, the pedicels 4- 1 mm. long; flowers usually solitary (sometimes paired or 
with a third flower not always developing to maturity), each pedicel (or fascicle) subtended by 1 
primary bract and 2 lateral secondary bracts, these all long-persistent, the primary bracts 
lanceolate-acuminate. 2.2-4.5 " 0.5-0.8 mm.; stipules connate for about the lower I 3-1, 2 or at 
least marginally contiguous when young, 3-11 " 1.5-3 mm., long-persistent, when deciduous 
leaving the stipular scar continuous on side of stem opposite petiole; leaflet blades appressed- 
pubescent beneath, the terminal leaflet blades 2-9 " 1.5-4.5 cm.; fruits more or less pendulous, 
distinctly incised on lower margin, the articles 3.5-5 » 2-3.5 mm., the isthmi about 1 , 3 as broad as 

articles 4. D. incanum 

Inflorescences with flowers 2 or 3 (-5) in fascicles (occasionally solitary), each fascicle subtended by a 
soon caducous primary bract, these ovate-acuminate, 3-6 (-8) " 1.2-2.5 (-4) mm., the lateral 
secondary bracts absent (very rarely present and depauperate); stipules not connate or marginally 
contiguous, when deciduous leaving the stipular scar incomplete on side of stem opposite petiole. 



190 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Upper calyx lobes usually connate entirely or nearly to apex, the calyx appearing 4-lobed; inflores- 
cences racemose, many-flowered, 2-20 cm. long; primary bracts congested in young inflorescen- 
ces and entirely covering flower buds, hence the youngest parts of inflorescences strobiliform; 
fruits 10-28 mm. long, uncinate-puberulent throughout or at least on sutures; leaflet blades 
usually longer than broad, (0.5-) 1-7 x (0.4-) 0.7-3.3 cm.; plants creeping or ascending herbs or 
procumbent or suffruticose, the rootstocks and stems somewhat woody. 
Fruits incised on lower sutures, the articles eUiptic, distinctly longer than broad, 3.5-7 x 2.5-3 mm., 
the isthmi about half as broad as articles; inflorescences composed of terminal and axillary, 
loosely flowered racemes on suberect branches arising from creeping stems or woody root- 
stocks; pedicels 7-17 (-21) mm. long, arching upward to horizontal, stiff-pilose and finely 
puberulent with multicellular and uncinate hairs (like rachis and distal parts of branchlets). 

5. D. adscendens 

Fruits slightly undulate on lower sutures, the articles semicircular to oblong, 2.5-4.5 x 2.5-3 mm., 

the isthmi at least 2/3 as broad as articles; inflorescences composed of terminal and axillary 

densely flowered racemes; pedicels (2-) 3-5 (-8) mm. long, almost erect, the rachis and distal 

parts of branchlets in our variety densely appressed-strigose with straight hairs. 

6. D. heterocarpon 
Upper calyx lobes shallowly connate at base for less than half their length, the calyx appearing 
subequally 5-lobed; inflorescences laxly and comparatively few-flowered, fasciculate or race- 
mose, not more than 6 cm. long; primary bracts in young inflorescences not congested, hence the 
young parts of inflorescences not strobiliform; fruits (5-) 6-20 (-22) mm. long, indented on 
lower suture, the articles oblong or quadrate, with strongly reticulate nerves; leaflet blades often 
suborbicular, 0.3-2.5 (-3.5) x 0.3-1.4 (-2) cm.; plants herbaceous or subshrubby, procumbent, 
freely branched, the rootstocks woody. 
Leaflet blades obovate, usually distinctly (but slightly) emarginate, the terminal leaflet blades 0.3- 1 
(-1.2) cm. long and broad; stems with appressed or weakly spreading hairs up to 1 mm. long; 
inflorescences fasciculate, 2-5-flowered, the pedicels 3-8 (-13) mm. long, with straight or 
weakly spreading hairs 0. 7- 1 mm. long or glabrous; fruits composed of 2-5 articles, these 2-4 
mm. long and broad, not dehiscing, with only uncinate hairs, the isthmi 2/3-3/4 as broad as 

articles 7. D. triflorum 

Leaflet blades usually broadly elliptic, not or only faintly emarginate, the terminal leaflet blades 
(0.3-) 1-2.5 X (0.3-) 0.8-1.4 (-2) cm.; stems with long spreading hairs to 2 mm. long; 
inflorescences sometimes few-flowered and fasciculate and sometimes short-racemose, the 
pedicels or peduncles 10-30 mm. long, glabrous or with a few minute uncinate hairs distally; 
fruits composed of (2-) 4-6 articles, these 3-4 mm. long and broad, ultimately dehiscent along 
lower suture, with both uncinate and a few scattered straight hairs, the isthmi about 4/5 as 
broad as articles 8. O. heterophyllum 

1. Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. Prodr. 2: 327. 1825; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 

31: 171. 1950; van Meeuwen in Reinwardtia 6: 249. 1962; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji 
Isl. 73. 1964, ed. 2. 1 1 1. 1972; Schubert in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. A61.fig. 65 
(10). 1971; Ohashi in Ginkgoana 1: 184. pi. 22, b. 1973; Verdcourt, Man. New 
Guinea Leg. 397.//^. 93 (E). 1979. 
Hedysarum gangeticum L. Sp. PI. 746. 1753. 
As seen in Fiji, Desmodium gangeticum is a coarse herb to 70 cm. high, somewhat 
woody near base, sparingly naturalized in grassland near sea level. The petals vary 
from purple to bluish or white; flowers and fruits have been noted in April and May. 
Typification: Linnaeus cited three Indian references for Hedysarum gangeticum; 
Schubert (1971, cited above) indicated the holotype as Herb. Linnaeus 92 1 . 1 3 (linn). 
Distribution: Throughout the Old World tropics, now also introduced into 
Pacific areas as far east as the Societies and also into America. Curiously, in Fiji it 
seems limited to the island of Kandavu. 

Available collections: KANDAVU: Vunisea, £1.4 2999, 3000. Kandavu without further locality, DA. 
May, 1931, DA 2 (coll. C. R. Turbet, May, 1931). 

2. Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw.) Desv. in J. Bot. Agric. 1: 122. 1813; van Meeuwen in 

Reinwardtia 6: 101. 1961, in op. cit. 6: 258. 1962; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 
112. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 401. fig. 94 (G). 1979. 



1985 FABACEAE 191 

Hedysarum scorpiurus Sw. Nov. Gen. & Sp. Prodr. 107. 1788. 

Meibomia scorpiurus Kuntze, Rev, Gen. PI. 1: 198. 1891; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 93, as M. 
scorpiuroides. 1943. 

A prostrate or sprawling herb, occasionally naturalized along roadsides near sea 
level. The petals are pink to pale purple; the comparatively long, symmetrical articles 
of the fruit readily characterize the species, which has been observed in flower and fruit 
in May, July, and September. 

Typification: Swartz cited "Hispaniola, Jamaica," the latter island perhaps 
represented by a Browne collection. 

Distribution: West Indies and Mexico southward to Peru, now introduced into 
and adventive in many other areas. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, DA 14354. Rewa: Suva and vicinity, 
TothilllOS. DA35{C. R. Turbei. 'No\., i923), 3075. 4049. 5819. 5820, L.l 1427. OVAL AViVuma. north oi 
Levuka, DA 17039. Fiji without further locality. Home 738. 

3. Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.) DC. Prodr. 2: 332. 1 825; van Meeuwen in Reinwardtia 

6: 101. 1961, in op. cit. 6: 260. 1962; Schubert in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 474. 
1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 408. 1979. 
Hedysarum purpureum Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8. 1768. 
Hedysarum tortuosum Sw. Nov. Gen. & Sp. Prodr. 107. 1788. 

Desmodium purpureum Fawc. & Rendle, Fl. Jam. 4: 36. 1920; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 31: 171. 1950; 
J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964, ed. 2. 112. 1972; non Hook. & Arn. (1832). 
A shrub or ligneous herb to about 2 m. high, cultivated and presumably adventive 
near sea level, with white to pink petals shading to mauve. Flowers and fruits have been 
obtained in scattered months. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type of Hedysarum purpureum is Hous- 
toun (bm holotype), collected in Vera Cruz, Mexico, in 1730; the epithet, however, 
was not available when it was transferred to Desmodium in 1920. The type of H. 
tortuosum is Swartz (s holotype; isotype at b in Herb. Willdenow 13808), from 
Jamaica. (Data from Schubert, 1971, cited above.) 

Distribution: Throughout tropical and subtropical America, now introduced and 
naturalized in the Old World tropics. 

Local names: The usual name in the southeastern U. S. A., now widely used 
elsewhere, is Florida beggar weed; Spanish clover is also recorded from Fiji. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, DA 14352, 14355. Nandronga & 
Navosa: Agricultural Station, Nathololevu, Singatoka, DA 12580. Ra: Yanggara, DA 12312. Naitasiri: 
Central Agricultural Station. Navuso, DA 2273. 2411, 5519. TAVEUNI: Mua Plantation, DA 11513. Fiji 
without further locahty, DA 5616. 

4. Desmodium incanum DC. Prodr. 2: 332. 1825; Nicolson in Taxon 27: 370. 1978. 

Hedysarum racemosum Aubl. Hist. PI. Guiane Fr. 774. 1775; non Desmodium racemosum DC. (1825). 
Hedysarum incanum Sw. Nov. Gen. & Sp. Prodr. 107, nom. iUeg. 1788; non Thunb. (1784). 
Hedysarum canum J. F. Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 1124, nom. illeg. 1792. 
Desmodium canum Schinz & Thell. in Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Neuchatel 5: 371. 1913; Fosberg in Micro- 

nesica 2: 144. 1966; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 151. 1970; Schubert in Fl. 

Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 456. 1971; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 111. 1972; Verdcourt, Man New 

Guinea Leg. 394. /ig. 93 (D). 1979. 

A shrub or woody herb 0.5-1 m. high, occasional from near sea level to an elevation 
of about 300 m., cultivated as pasturage or naturalized in plantations and along roads. 
The petals vary from blue or red to purple; flowering and fruiting do not appear 
seasonal. 

Typification and nomenclature: The complicated synonymy of this widespread, 
weedy species has been clarified by Nicolson (1978, cited above), who considers that 
Hedysarum racemosum, H. incanum Sw., and H. canum are ail typified by Plumier, 



192 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

PI. Amer. 140.p/. 149, fig. 1. 1757 (although Schubert, 1 971, cited above, lists 5'war/z(s 
holotype) for H. incanum Sw., which in any case is a later homonym). The earliest 
legitimate name for the taxon is H. racemosum Aubl., but the epithet is not available in 
Desmodium. Desmodium incanum DC. is based on Hedysarum incanum Sw., but, 
since the latter is an illegitimate basionym, de CandoUe's binomial may be considered 
as a legitimate new name with priority from 1825 and to be used without a parentheti- 
cal author. Several other names not found in the literature referring to the Fijian 
Region are discussed by Nicolson. 

Distribution: America, from Florida and Texas to Uruguay and Argentina, now 
cultivated and naturalized in many other tropical areas and known in the Pacific 
eastward to the Marquesas and Hawaii. 

Available collections: VITl LEVU; Mba: Wainavothe, DA 7061, 7062. Nandronga & Navosa: 
Agricultural Station, Nathoth..^ievu, Singatoka. DA 10843. Ra: Yanggara, DA 12309. Naitasiri: Plant 
Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, DA 8483 (FDA 13150), 9564, 12965 (FDA 15267). 
VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: Maravu Estate, DA 8831: Nathavanandi, DA /077i,- Nangingi, DA 
10780. 

5. Desmodium adscendens(Sw.) DC. Prodr. 2:332. 1825; vanMeeuweninReinward- 

tia 6: 245. 1962; J. W. Parham, PI. Fijilsi.vi. 1964, ed. 2. 111. 1972; SykesinNew 
Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 150. 1970; Schubert in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 
Leg. Papil. 461. 1971; Ohashi in Ginkgoana 1: 199. fig. 61 (1), 62 (2): pi. 25, b. 
1973; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 392. fig. 93 (A). 1979. 
Hedysarum adscendens Sw. Nov. Gen. & Sp. Prodr. 106. 1788. 
Desmodium uncinatum sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964; non DC. 
Desmodium irichocaulon sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 112. 1972; non DC. 
As seen in Fiji, Desmodium adscendens is a low shrub or subligneous herb 0.3-1.3 
m. high, the stem sometimes creeping and sometimes forming tussocks with ascending 
branches. It is now locally common and naturalized in pastures, fields, and waste 
places, sometimes being found on open hillsides and along forest trails up to an 
elevation of about 500 m. Its petals are pink to blue or pale purple, and flowers and 
fruits occur throughout the year. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type is Swartz (s holotype), collected in 
Jamaica. In the present treatment I include those specimens that have passed in Fiji as 
Desmodium Irichocaulon (a nomenclatural synonym of D. heterocarpon var. hetero- 
carpon), although they differ from typical material of D. adscendens in having smaller 
leaflets and a more compact habit, with woody branches arising directly from a large 
rootstock. 

Distribution: Widespread throughout the tropics of both hemispheres, but pre- 
sumably originally a native of America. About 40 Fijian collections are available. 
Local names: Tropical clover and kandakanda have been recorded. 
Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, DA 13192. Nandronga & Navosa: 
Vicinity of Mbelo, near Vatukarasa, Degener 15295. Serua: Vicinity of Navua, DA 10098. Namosi: Lower 
slopes of Mt. Voma, DA 1749. Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, DA 
9565. Tailevu: Vicinity of Korovou, DA 14038. Rewa: Suva, DA 5821. KANDAVU: Hills above Ndavi- 
nggele, DA 2990. OVALAU: Wainiloka, DA 1348. YANUTHA (one of the Yanutha Islands south of 
Ovalau): DA 9630. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Seanggangga District Farm, DA 14319: vicinity of 
Lambasa, Norwood 57. Thakaundrove: Nakarambo, Vaturova Tikina, DA, July 2, 1947. YATHATA: 
Naveranavula, DA 15547. LAKEMBA: Near Tumbou, Garnock-Jones 899. 

6. Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. Prodr. 2: 337, as D. heterocarpum. 1825; van 

Meeuwen in Reinwardtia 6:93. 1961, in op. cit. 6:251. 1962; Fosbergin Microne- 
sica 2: 145. 1966; Schubert in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 462. 1971; Ohashi in 
Ginkgoana 1: 210. 1973; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 399. 1979. 



1985 FABACEAE 193 

Hedysarum heterocarpon L. Sp. PI. 747, 1753. 

Typification: The Ceylon specimens in Herb. Hermann 2: 32, 3: 39, and 4: 20(bm 
SYNTYPEs) are indicated by Schubert (1971, cited above) as typifying the species and its 
type variety. 

The authors cited above discuss Desmodium heterocarpon in its broad sense. It is 
divided into two varieties by van Meeuwen, who in this respect is followed by Fosberg, 
Schubert, and Verdcourt. Ohashi has recognized two subspecies in the taxon, dividing 
subsp. heterocarpon into four varieties. It appears to me that the Fijian material (and 
perhaps all the Pacific material) of the species falls into var. strigosum (cf. also 
Fosberg, 1966), although van Meeuwen (1962) included Polynesia (specifically men- 
tioning Tonga) in her distributional concept of var. heterocarpon. 

6a. Desmodium heterocarpon var. strigosum van Meeuwen in Reinwardtia6:95. 1961, 
in op. cit. 6:251. 1962; Fosberg in Micronesica2: 145. 1966; Sykes in New Zealand 
Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 151. 1970; Schubert in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Papil. 463. //g. 65 (8). 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 399. 1979. 

Hedysarum polycarpum Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 6:413. 1804. 

Desmodium pohcarpum DC. Prodr. 2: 334. 1825; A. Gray. Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:432. 1854; Seem, in 

Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862. Fl. Vit. 56. 1865; Engl, m Bot. Jahrb. 7: 458. 1886. 
Desmodium heierocarpon sensu Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 149. 1890; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. 
Bull. 128: 101. 1935; A. C. Sm. inJ. Arnold Arb. 31: 171. 1950; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 140. 
1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964, ed. 2. 111. 1972; non sensu str. 
Desmodium heierocarpon var. strigosum f. strigosum: Fosberg in Micronesica 2: 145. 1966. 
Desmodium heterocarpon subsp. heterocarpon var. strigosum van Meeuwen ex Ohashi in Ginkgoana 1: 
2]5. fig. 61 (7. ?■). 64 (2). 1973. 

In Fiji Desmodium heterocarpon var. strigosum is a coarse herb or shrub 0.6-2 m. 
high, occurring from near sea level to about 200 m. in pastures and secondary growth, 
along roadsides, on waste land, and sometimes thoroughly naturalized in dry forest. It 
has pale blue or purplish flowers and may be seen in flower and fruit in most months. 
Typification and nomenclature: The type of the variety is Kalkman (B. W. 
3596) (L holotype; isotypes at a, bo, cane, p), collected in New Guinea. Hedysarum 
polycarpum is typified by a plant from Malesia grown at Paris (p-la holotype). 

Distribution: Variety strigosum appears indigenous from southeastern Asia 
throughout Malesia to Micronesia and possibly to New Caledonia; eastward in the 
Pacific as far as the Tuamotus and Hawaii it was presumably an inadvertent aboriginal 
introduction. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Inland from Lautoka, Greenwood452. Naitasiri; Vicinity 
of Viria, D.4 S13; Central Agricultural Station, Navuso, D.4. Oct. 27, 1942. Tailevu: Tonia, DA 10005. 
Rewa: Suva Point, B. & H. Parham 35. D.4 I05J. MBENGGA: D.4 9619. OVALAU: Port Kinnaird, 
Seemann 111. WAKAYA: .\filne ill. KORO: Nasau, D.4 11803. NGAU: .Milne 150. VANUA LEVU: 
Mathhata: Seanggangga Plateau, in drainage of Korovuli River, vicmity of Natua, Smith 681 1: Seangga- 
ngga region, D.4 11779. Thakaundrove: Nathavanandi, D.4 13137. TAVEUNI: DA 2564: vicinity of 
Somosomo, Gillespie 4774. MATUKU: On grass-covered forehills, Bryan 260. Fiji without further locality, 
[/. 5, Expl. Exped.. Harvey. Home 114. 835. 

1. Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. Prodr. 2: 334. 1825; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. 
Bull. 128: 101. 1935; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 96. 1943; J. W. Parham 
in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 103. 1948; Greenwood in J. Arnold Arb. 30:76. 1949; 
Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 140. 1959; van Meeuwen in Reinwardtia6:261. 
1962; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964, ed. 2. 1 12. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand 
Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 152. 1970; Schubert in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Papil. 459. 1971; Ohashi in Ginkgoana 1: 2A5. fig. 67 (7); pi 36. h. 1973; Verd- 
court, Man. New Guinea Leg. 409. //.?. 94 (H). 1979. 



194 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Hedysarum triflorum L. Sp. PI. 749. 1753. 

A diminutive prostrate herb, abundantly naturalized at elevations from near sea 
level to 600 m. in lawns, waste places, and villages, on grassy hillsides, and along 
roadsides and forest tracks. The petals are rich pink to blue or purple, and flowers and 
fruits occur throughout the year. 

Typification: Schubert (1971, cited above) indicates the lectotype as Herb. Lin- 
naeus 921.45 (linn), from Ceylon. 

Distribution: Pantropical, and northward into the southern U. S. A. In much of 
the Pacific the species was presumably introduced and has become naturalized east- 
ward to the Societies and Hawaii. About 20 Fijian collections are available. 

Local names and uses: In Fiji the names konikoni, vakathengu, and tropical 
trefoil are used. The species was probably introduced as a green manure and cover 
crop, but it is also considered to be useful in turf and is common in lawns. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Tavua, Greenwood I2A: Nalotawa Village, Smith 
4322. Ra: Yanggara, D/1 1 1872: Penang, Greenwood 12 B.Ruv/A:Sii\a, DA 19 (C. R. TurbeiJ-VATVLELE: 
Tothill 107. OVALAU: Levuka, DA 1130. VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: Maravu Estate, DA 8827. 
NAITAMBA: Toihill 106. VANUA MBALAVU: Near Lomaloma, Garnock-Jones 1139. LAKEMBA: 
Near Tumbou, Garnock-Jones 900. 

8. Desmodium heterophyllum (Willd.) DC. Prodr. 2: 334. 1825; Greenwood in Proc. 

Linn. Soc. 154:96. 1943; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35:94.//g. 47, a-e. 
1959; van Meeuwen in Reinwardtia 6: 251. 1962; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 
1964, ed. 2. 111. 1972; Fosbergin Micronesica 2: 146. 1966;OhashiinGinkgoana 
1: 239. fig. 67 (6). 1973; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. AQO.fig. 93 (I). 1979. 

Hedysarum heterophyllum Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1201. 1802. 

A prostrate or semiprostrate or sprawling herb or shrub, rarely with suberect 
branches, occurring at elevations from near sea level to about 1 ,000 m. and abundantly 
naturalized in pastures, grassland, plantations, waste places, and villages, and some- 
times along forest trails. The petals shade from dark reddish purple to white, and 
flowers may be found, together with fruits, throughout the year. 

Typification: Willdenow based his concept on a Burman illustration of a plant 
from Ceylon. 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia to Malesia and perhaps to the Mariana Islands, 
now widely naturalized in the Pacific eastward to Hawaii. Some 50 Fijian collections 
have been examined; the species is often misideritified as Desmodium triflorum, and 
material should be checked with the superficial similarity of the two species in mind. 

Local names: Senivakathengu, wakutu. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 518B: western slopes of Mt. 
Nanggaranambuluta, east of Nandarivatu, Smith 4761. Serua: Tokotoko, Navua, DA 9430: flat coastal 
strip in vicinity of Ngaloa, Smith 9500. Naitasiri: Nanduna, DA 9597: Koronivia, DA 6019: vicinity of 
Nasinu, Gillespie 3415. Tailevu: Hills east of Wainimbuka River, vicinity of Ndakuivuna, Smith 7222, 
Matavatathou, DA 9963. Rewa: Suva and vicinity, Bryan 183. Degener & Ordonez 13513. VATULELE: 
Tothill 122. MBENGGA: DA 9618. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Vicinity of Mbua, DA 5029. Mathuata: 
Seanggangga Plateau, in drainage of Korovuli River, vicinity of Natua, Smith 6871: Lambasa, Greenwood 
604. Thakaundrove: Maravu Estate, DA 8825. RAMBI: DA, Jan. 21, 1948. TAVEUNI: Nggathavulo 
Estate. DA 8884. 

Inadequately known taxon 

9. Desmodium discolor Vogel in Linnaea 12: 103. 1838; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 

111. 1972. 
The plant so identified is a large, erect shrub 1-2 m. high, known only from 
introduction gardens and apparently not established. Its trifoliolate leaves are short- 



1985 FABACEAE 195 

petiolate, with ovate leaflet blades up to 6.5 ^ 3 cm. with ascending nerves and a 
copious indument beneath of pale spreading hairs. The inflorescences are terminal and 
narrowly paniculate. 

Typification: Vogel cited a Sellow collection from southern Brazil. 

Distribution: Presumably Brazil; cultivated material under this name has been 
recorded in Hawaii, but in the absence of a modern treatment of the genus in Brazil I 
am unable to verify the indentification. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU; Naitasirl Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 8481 (FDA 13249): Mbatiki Nursery, DA. Sept. 30, 1946. 

21. CODARIOCALYX Hassk. in Flora 25: Beibl. 2: 48. 1842; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
479. 1964; Ohashi in Ginkgoana 1: 40. 1973. 

Erect shrubs, the stipules scariose, striate, fugacious; leaves trifoliolate or often 
unifoliolate, stipellate, the stipels subulate, the terminal leaflet blade large, the lateral 
leaflet blades smaller or absent; inflorescences terminal and axillary, racemose or 
paniculate, in bud with conspicuous, overlapping, striate bracts, each subtending 2- or 
3-flowered fascicles, caducous, the bracteoles none; calyx broadly campanulate, 4- 
lobed, the upper lobe bifid; petals 5, much larger than calyx, the standard suborbicu- 
lar, minutely clawed, not auricled, the wings obovate-semideltoid, short-clawed, the 
keel petals falcate-obovate, longer than wings, long-clawed, appendaged dorsally at 
base of lamina; stamens 1 0, diadelphous, the free parts of filaments alternately longer 
and shorter, the vexillary filament the shortest, connate to tube only at base, the 
anthers ellipsoid; ovary linear-cylindric, the ovules 6- 1 3, the style inflexed and distally 
thickened, the stigma terminal, capitate; fruit narrowly oblong, not articulated, dehis- 
cent along the undulate lower suture, the upper suture thickened, not indented, the 
articles subquadrate, not separating, the seeds ellipsoid, conspicuously arillate. 

Type species: Codariocalyx gyrans (L. f.) Hassk. (Hedysarwn gyrans L. f.) = 
Codariocalyx motorius (Houtt.) Ohashi (Hedysarwn motorium Houtt.). 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia throughout Malesia to northern Australia, with 
two species, one of which is cultivated in Fiji. 

Useful treatment of genus: Ohashi, H. 1973 (listed under Desmodium). 

1 . Codariocalyx gyroides ( Roxb. ex Link) Hassk. in Flora 25: Beibl. 2: 49. 1 842; Sykes 
in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 147. 1970; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji 
Isl. ed. 2. 110. 1972; Ohashi in Ginkgoana 1: 43. ./ig. 7 (1). 8 (I). 1973. 

Hedvsarum gyroides Roxb. Hort. Beng. 57. nom. nud. 1814; Ro.xb. ex Link, Enum. PI. Hort. Berol. 2: 

247. 1822. 
Desmodium gyroides DC. Prodr. 2: 326. 1825; van Meeuwen in Reinwardtia 6: 250. 1962; J. W. Parham, 
PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 398. //g. W (Gj. 1979. 
An erect, freely branching shrub to 3 m. high, cultivated near sea level and 
apparently not yet naturalizing. The terminal leaflet blades are elliptic to obovate- 
oblong, rarely exceeding 7x4 cm., with 5-8 obvious, ascending lateral nerves per side, 
the lateral leaflet blades being much smaller or entirely lacking. The inflorescences, up 
to 1 5 cm. long, bear flowers with pinkish to purplish petals 7- 1 2 mm. long. The fruits, 
copiously pilose with both straight and uncinate, yellowish hairs, usually do not exceed 
4 cm. X 6 mm., and the seeds are about 4 ^ 2.5 mm. Our material bore flowers and fruits 
in June and July, and flowers also in October. 

Typification: Since the species is based on Roxburgh's name of 1814, the type is 
probably a specimen collected, as noted by de Candolle in 1825, "in India orient, ad 
Silhet," presumably Sylhet, Bangladesh. 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia (from India, Nepal, and southern China) to New 
Guinea, occasionally cultivated elsewhere. 



196 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Uses: The species may have been first introduced into Fiji in the 1880's, as J. B. 
Thurston's Catalogue (1886) lists "Desmodium gyrans" (i. e. Codariocalyx gyrans. 
probably intending C. gyroides). Apparently its intended use was as a shade for young 
cocoa trees. It is also used as a forage plant and to provide green manure and soil cover. 
Specimens thus far seen were growing in Government stations. 

Available collections; VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 9670 (FDA 11672). 10188. 10189 (FDA 14343): Principal Agricultural Station, in cocoa 
nursery, Koronivia, DA 12133. VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: Wainingata Cocoa Station, near Savu- 
savu, DA 12006. 

22. Uraria Desv. in J. Bot. Agric. 1: 122. 1813; van Meeuwen in Reinwardtia 5:450. 
1961; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 481. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Papil. 479. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 413. 1979. 

Shrubs or perennial herbs, the stipules free, persistent; leaves pinnately 3-9- 
foliolate (sometimes 1-foliolate), stipellate, the leaflet blades with lateral nerves 
extending to margin; inflorescences usually terminal, spiciform-racemose or 
-paniculate, the pedicels usually paired, hamate, the primary bracts persistent or 
deciduous, the secondary bracts and bracteoles lacking; flowers often twisted, the 
calyx 5-lobed, the lobes subulate-acuminate, the 2 upper ones the shortest; petals 5, the 
standard orbicular to obovate, the wings falcate-oblong, adhering to keel, the keel 
petals shghtly incurved, obtuse; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 connate into a tube, the 
vexillary filament free to base, the anthers uniform; ovary sessile or short-stipitate, the 
ovules 2-many, the style filiform, inflexed distally, the stigma capitate; fruits subses- 
sile, constricted between seeds, plicate-retrofracted and mostly enclosed in the persis- 
tent calyx, the segments 1-7, inflated, 1 -seeded, indehiscent, the seeds subglobose or 
compressed, exarillate. 

Lectotype species: Uraria picta (Jacq.) Desv. ex DC. {Hedysarum pictum Jacq.) 
(vide Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 482. 1964). 

Distribution: Paleotropical, extending in the Pacific to Fiji and Samoa, with 
about 20 species, one of which seems indigenous in Fiji. 

1. Uraria lagopodoides(L.) Desv. ex DC. Prodr. 2: 324, as U. lagopoides. 1825; emend. 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 415. 1979. Figure 40A-C. 

Hedysarum lagopodioides L. Sp. PI. 1198. 1753. 

Lespedeza lagopodoides Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 318. 1807. 

Uraria lagopoides DC. ex A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:430. 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 57. 1865; Drake, 

111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 150. 1890. 
Uraria lagopodioides DC. ex Seem, in Bonplandia 9:255. 1861, Viti,435. 1862; Christophersen in Bishop 
Mus. Bull. 128: 102. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit. 178: 62. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 142. 1959; van Meeuwen in 
Reinwardtia 5: 45 1 . 1 96 1 ; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 161. 1970; St. John & 
A. C. Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25: 329. 1971. 
Uraria lagopioides DC. ex J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 2. 1 19. 1972; B. E. V. Parham in New 
Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 53. 1972. 

As it occurs in Fiji, Uraria lagopodoides is a sprawling or suberect herb to 60 cm. 
high, with a stem somewhat woody at base and with soft, pale hairs and a few uncinate 
hairs on many parts. It is common on grassy slopes in the dry zone, especially along 
leeward coasts, and it may be found up to 750 m. elevation as a weed in pastures. 

Figure 40. A-C, Uraria lagopodoides: A, distal portions of branchlets. with foliage and maturing 
inflorescences, '< 1/2; B, maturing inflorescence, with persistent primary bracts and projecting calyx lobes, x 
2; C, matured flower subtended by a primary bract, showing the 3 longest calyx lobes, a remnant of the 
filament tube, and 1 segment of a fruit with a terminal scar indicating a caducous second segment, x 6. D, 
Christ ia vesperiilionis: terminal portion of stem, with foliage and an inflorescence, « 1 ,2. A from DA 11776, 
B & C from DA 11702. D from Smith 1512. 



1985 



FABACEAE 



197 




JBki 




198 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

plantations, villages, and waste places. The leaves are 1- or 3-foliolate, the leaflets 
ovate to obovate, the terminal one larger than the laterals, 2-8 x 1.5-6 cm. The 
compact inflorescences seldom exceed 6 cm. in length; the petals are pale reddish 
purple, turning bluish or nearly white, and the fruits commonly have only 2 (sometimes 
1) segments. Flowers and fruits do not appear seasonal. 

Typification: Linnaeus based his species on material collected in China by 
Osbeck. The specific epithet has been variously spelled, perhaps correctly for the first 
time by Persoon in 1807, and correctly in Uraria by Verdcourt in 1979. 

Distribution: Northern India and southern China throughout Malesia to north- 
ern Australia, and eastward in the Pacific to Fiji and Samoa, apparently adventive in 
Tonga, Nine, and elsewhere. Although in Fiji the species is usually noted in weedy 
habitats, there seems no reason to doubt its indigenousness. More than 30 Fijian 
collections are at hand. 

Local names: Lakanikasa, lakanirase, and setamoli have been recorded. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: Waya: West of Mbatinaremba, Nakawa Gulch. St. John 
18142. VITI LEVU: Mba: Hills near Lautoka, Greenwood 1248: Tavua, Greenwood 5C: vicinity of 
Nandarivatu, Gillespie 4322. Nandronga & N.avosa: Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, near Singatoka, 
DA 1 1702. Ra: Nananu-i-thake Island, DA 2782: Penang, Greenwood SB. Tailevu: Naingani Island, DA 
3335. Rewa; Vutia Creek, Rewa delta. DA 2581. KORO: DA 3434. NGAU; Tothill 115. VANUA LEVU: 
Mbua: Nasau, Rukuruku Bay, H. B. R. Parham 18. Mathuata: Kia Island, Ndaku Village, DA 11776: 
Lambasa, Greenwood 5E. Vanua Levu without further locality, U. S. Expl. Exped., Seemann 108. 
YATHATA: Bryan 593. VANUA MBALAVU: Vicinity of Lomaloma, DA 10237. 

23. Christia Moench, Suppl. Meth. PL 39. 1802; van Meeuwen in Reinwardtia 6: 89. 
1961; Backer & Bakh. f. Fl. Java 1: 612. 1963; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:481. 
1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 416. 1979. 
Lourea Necker, Elem. Hot. 3: 17, nom. illeg. 1790; Necker ex Desv. in J. Hot. Agric. 1: 122. 1813. 

Prostrate herbs or small shrubs, the stipules free; leaves 1- or 3-foliolate, stipellate, 
the terminal leaf blade often broader than long; inflorescences terminal and axillary, 
racemose or narrowly paniculate, the pedicels single or paired, the bracts caducous, the 
bracteoles lacking; calyx broadly campanulate, papyraceous, reticulate-veined, 
accrescent and persistent after flowering, the lobes deltoid, acute, subequal, nearly as 
long as petals; petals 5, the standard obovate or obcordate, not auricled, the wings 
obliquely oblong, adherent to keel, the keel petals slightly incurved; stamens 10, the 
filaments of 9 connate into a tube, the vexillary filament free,_the anthers uniform; 
ovary with 2-8 ovules, the style curved, the stigma capitate; fruit subsessile or short- 
stipitate, deeply constricted between segments, plicate-retrofracted and included 
within calyx, the segments ovoid, indehiscent, the seeds subglobose, exarillate. 

Type species: Christia lunata Moench, = C. vespertinionis (L. f.) Bakh. f. {Hedysa- 
rum vespertilionis L. f.). 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical Asia through Malesia to northern Austra- 
lia, with about ten species, at least one of which is widely cultivated as an ornamental, 
as in Fiji. 

1. Christia vespertilionis (L. f.) Bakh. f. in Reinwardtia 6: 90. 1961; Backer & Bakh. f. 
Fl. Java 1: 612. 1963; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 110. 1972. 

Figure 40D. 

Hedysarum vesperlilionis L. i. Suppl. PI. 331. 1782. 

Lourea vespertilionis Desv. in J. Hot. Agric. 1: 122. p/. 5, fig. 18. 1813; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 
96. 1943, in J. Arnold Arb. 30: 76. 1949; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964. 
Herb or shrub with sprawling or erect stems, up to about 50 cm. high, sparsely 
cultivated and also locally naturalized on grassy hillsides and in clearings from near sea 



1985 FABACEAE 199 

level to about 100 m. The leaves are striking, the terminal (or only) leaflet blade being 
butterfly-shaped, much broader than long, 0.5-1.5 x 4-8 cm., often paler along main 
nerves, the lateral leaflet blades being much smaller and obovate. The inflorescences 
may reach a length of 40 cm., the rachis with straight and uncinate hairs, the petals 
white to yellowish, with purple markings, and the fruits with 2-6 segments. The only 
dated flowering specimens were obtained in March and July; the species is often 
collected in sterile condition because of its striking leaves. 

Typification: The original citation is: "Habitat in Regno Cochin-China. lo. de 
Lourei." 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia and probably parts of Malesia, widely cultivated 
for its unusual foliage and becoming naturalized elsewhere. 

Local name and uses: Mhekamheka { Vanua Mbalavu). The plant is an ornamen- 
tal curiosity because of its leaf shape. On Vanua M balavu the crushed leaves are said to 
be rubbed into the skin as a treatment for scabies. 

Available collections: VITI LEVI): Ra: Rakiraki, D/t i294,- Government Station. Vaileka, D,4 «09S,- 
Penang, Greenwood 740: Ellington. Greenwood 740 A: Waimave. DA 9543: without data but from the 
number probablv also from Ra. DA 3297. VANUA MBALAVU: Central volcanic section, near Lomaloma, 
Smith 1512. Garnoek-Jones 981. MANGO: Toihi/l 109. LAKEMBA: Toihi/l 109A. 

The earliest collections appear to be those of Mrs. Tothill and Greenwood, proba- 
bly dating from the 1920's. Except for three islands in Lau, the species seems estab- 
lished only along the Ra coast. Because it is well naturalized on Vanua Mbalavu, one 
may suggest that its first introduction into Fiji was into the Lomaloma Botanical 
Gardens (cf. vol. 1 of this Flora, p. 49), probably early in the century. 

24. Alvsicarpus Desv. in J. Bot. Agric. 1: 120. 1813; van Meeuwen in Reinwardtia 6: 
86. 1961; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:482. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Papil. 491. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 419. 1979. Nom. cons. 

Annual or perennial herbs, erect or decumbent, the indument often of straight and 
uncinate hairs, the stipules scariose, acuminate, free or connate, persistent; leaves 
1-foliolate (less often 3-foliolate), stipellate, the petiole channelled and narrowly 
winged; inflorescences terminal, axillary, or leaf-opposed, pseudoracemose or infre- 
quently paniculate, the pedicels often paired, the bracts scariose, deciduous, the 
bracteoles none; calyx papyraceous or glumaceous, persistent, deeply and subequally 
lobed, the lobes striate with conspicuous nerves, the 2 upper ones nearly completely 
connate; petals 5, the standard obovate to orbicular, not auricled, the wings obliquely 
oblong, adhering to keel, the keel petals slightly incurved, obtuse, often membranously 
appendaged on each side; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 connate into a tube, the free 
parts alternating in length, the vexillary filament free, the anthers uniform; ovary 
sessile or short-stipitate, the ovules several-many, the style filiform, distally incurved, 
the stigma broadly capitate; fruits subterete or slightly compressed, symmetrical along 
upper and lower margins, constricted between seeds or not, articulated, the articles 
rounded or short-cylindric and truncate at ends (as in our species), indehiscent, the 
seeds subglobose or ellipsoid, exarillate. 

Type species: Alvsicarpus hupleurifolius {L.) DC. (Hedysarum hupleurifolium L.). 
Typ. cons. 

Distribution: Paleotropical, with 25-30 species. Most species are considered 
useful fodder plants, including the one naturalized in Fiji. 

1. Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC. Prodr. 2:353. 1825; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 
154: 96. 1943; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 103. 1948; Greenwood in 
J. Arnold Arb. 30: 76. 1949; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 95. /?^. 47. 
f-i. 1959; van Meeuwen in Reinwardtia 6: 87. 1961; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 70. 



200 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

1964, ed. 2. 108. 1972; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 493. fig. 71 (A). 
1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 420. y7^. 98. A-F. 1979. 
Hedysarum vaginale L. Sp. PI. 746. 1753. 
Alysicarpus nummularifoHus sensu Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 141. 1959; non DC. 

A prostrate or suberect perennial herb to 60 cm. high, originally cultivated but now 
considered a weed, often abundant in pastures and cultivated areas and along road- 
sides from near sea level to about 750 m. The unifoliolate leaves have the blades 
variable in shape and size, 0.5-6.5 x 0.5-3 cm.; the inflorescences attain a length of 
about 10 cm. and have small flowers, the petals being about 6 mm. long, orange or 
pinkish to purple. The subterete fruits are 1-2.5 cm. long, exserted from calyx, 
reticulate-nerved, with slightly raised borders between articles, and the seeds are 
brown to yellowish, about 1.5 mm. long. Flowers and fruits occur throughout the year. 

Typification: The type material was collected by Hermann in Ceylon (bm in Herb. 
Hermann 1: 27, 59, syntypes). 

Distribution: Paleotropics, including Malesia, and widely introduced and natu- 
ralized elsewhere in tropical areas. About 40 collections have been made in Fiji. 

Uses: Doubtless originally introduced for pasture improvement, but more often 
considered a weed of little or no value. The earliest Fijian collection seems to be that of 
Yeoward, who may have introduced the species about the turn of the century (cf. Vol. 1 
of this Flora, p. 52) as a potential fodder plant. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVI): Mba: Vicinity of Lautoka, Greenwood 34: hills in upper 
Sambeto River Valley, Vaughan 3209: Nandi, DA 10284: Jiwii, Gr<-f nwoot/ 5^/4/ Nandarivatu, Tothill78. 
Nandronga & Navosa; Singatoka Valley near road to Nasauthoko, DA 9289 (McKee 2859): Singatoka, 
Greenwood 34C. Ra: Yanggara, DA 11871: Nanunu-i-thake Island, DA 2777. Naitasiri: Savura Creek, 
DA 12559. Tailevu: Between Mburetu and Ndaku, DA 2725. Rewa: Suva, DA 12606. KANDAVU: 
Ndavinggele, DA 2998. OVALAU; Wainiloka, DA 1348. VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: Savusavu, DA 
8848. NAITAMBA; Tolhill 105. LAKEMBA: Near Tumbou, Garnock-Jones 979. Fiji without further 
locality, Yeoward 47. 

Alysicarpus vaginalis and A. ovalifolius (Schumacher) Leonard are unsatisfactor- 
ily delimited (Verdcourt, 1971, cited above, whose illustrations of the fruits,//^. 71 (A, 
B) suggest that our species is the latter, whereas the spacing of flowers suggests the 
former). Intermediate material seems widespread, and by van Meeuwen (1961, cited 
above) A. ovalifolius is not considered separable from A. vaginalis. If varieties are 
recognized (Verdcourt, 1971) our material falls into var. vaginalis. 

25. Lespedeza Michx. Fl. Bor.-Amcr. 2: 70. 1803; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 487. 
1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 383. 1979. 

Small shrubs, often with sericeous indument, the stipules free, small, caducous; 
leaves pinnately 3-foliolate (rarely 1-foliolate), estipcllatc, the leaflets entire; inflores- 
cences axillary and fasciculate or racemiform, few-flowered, rarely terminal and 
paniculate, the primary bracts small, persistent, subtending 2 flowers, the bracteoles 2 
at base of calyx, narrow, often persistent; calyx deeply lobed, the lobes subcqual or the 
upper 2 shortly connate; petals 5 (occasionally lacking), the standard sometimes 
minutely auricled, the wings falcate-oblong, free or slightly adherent to keel, the keel 
petals straight; stamens 10 (occasionally lacking), the filaments of 9 connate in a tube, 
the vexillary filament free or rarely coherent to tube, the anthers uniform; ovary sessile 
or stipitate, 1-ovulate, the style filiform, incurved, the stigma small; fruits compressed- 
ellipsoid to -orbicular, indehiscent, the seed compressed-suborbicular, exarillate. 

Lectotype species: Lespedeza sessiliflora Michx., nom. illeg. = L. virginica (L.) 
Britton (vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. S. ed. 2. 2:402. 1913) (Medicago virginica 
L.). 

Distribution: Temperate North America and eastern Asia to tropical Australia, 
with about 40 species, one of which is cultivated in Fiji. 



1985 FABACEAE 201 

1. Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. PI. 2: 307. 1832; 

Nakai, Lespedeza of Japan & Korea, 98. fig. A-C (p. 96); pi. (p. 97). 1927; 

Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 3&5. fig. 91. 1979. 
Hedysarum junceum L. f. Dec. PI. Horti Upsal. p/. 4. 1762. 
Hedysarum senceum Thunb. Fl. Jap. 287. 1 784. 
Anihyllis cuneata Dum. Cours. Bot. Cult. ed. 2. 6: 100. 1811. 
Lespedeza juncea DC. Prodr. 2: 348. 1825; non Pers. (1807). 
Lespedeza sericea Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 3: 49. 1867; non Benth. (1852). 

An erect shrub to 1 m. high, sparingly cultivated near sea level. The small leaves are 
crowded, the leaflet blades being narrowly obovate, emarginate, 10-20 x 3-10 mm., 
and grayish-sericeous beneath. The compact inflorescences are 2-4-flowered, the 
flowers having white to pale yellow and red-tinged petals, and the fruit being 3-4 mm. 
long and slightly narrower. Our specimens bore flowers and fruits in December. 

Typification and nomenclature: The species that has often passed as Lespedeza 
juncea OT L. sericea, as indicated by Nakai (1927, cited above, where a full synonymy is 
given), is correctly to be known as L. cuneata, based on Anihyllis cuneata, Dumont de 
Courset's basionym, presumably described from a cuhivated plant, providing the 
oldest epithet available in Lespedeza. 

Distribution: China and Japan to Malesia and Queensland, cuhivated elsewhere. 

Use: The species was probably introduced in the 1940's as a potential fodder crop, 
but perhaps it was grown only experimentally and has not become naturalized. 
Probably Fiji does not offer a suitable climate for this temperate species, which in New 
Guinea occurs only in highland areas. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, D.A 4050: Principal Agricultural Station, Koronivia, DA 4051. 

26. Erythrina L. Sp. PI. 706. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:432. 1964; Verdcourt 
in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 541. 1971; Krukoff & Barneby in Lloydia 37: 337. 
1974; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 422. 1979. 

Trees (all of our taxa) or shrubs, rarely perennial herbs, the trunk and branches 
often aculeate, the stipules usually small, persistent or deciduous; leaves pinnately 
trifoliolate, the stipels glandular, the leaflet blades pinnate-nerved, the lateral ones 
usually asymmetrical and smaller than terminal one; inflorescences terminal or axil- 
lary, pseudoracemose, often pyramidal and many-flowered, the showy flowers usually 
in fascicles of 2-5, sometimes single, the bracts and bracteoles deciduous; calyx with a 
rounded or turbinate hypanthium, sometimes ruptured by the emergent corolla and 
androecium, the limb entire, erose, variously lobed, or spathaceous, sometimes asym- 
metrical; petals 5, the standard the largest, erect or spreading, clawed or not, lacking 
appendages, the wings longer or shorter than keel, short-clawed, the keel petals free or 
connate, short-clawed; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 connate above middle, alter- 
nately longer and shorter, the vexillary filament free or connate to filament tube 
proximally, the anthers uniform, dorsifixed; ovary stipitate, usually linear or fusiform, 
pubescent, the ovules (2-) numerous, the style long, incurved, the stigma small, 
terminal; fruit stipitate, usually coriaceous or subligneous and linear-oblong, often 
falcate, constricted or sinuate between seeds, dehiscent (sometimes scarcely so), sep- 
tate by endocarp or not, the seeds 1-14, ellipsoid to asymmetrically subglobose. 

Lectotype species: As pointed out by Krukoff and Barneby (1974, cited above), 
Erythrina herbacea L. was indicated as the type species of the genus by Walpers (in 
Flora 36: 145. 1853). The indication of E. "corallodendron" (based on the 1924 
selection by Britton and Wilson) by ING should therefore be corrected. 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, with about 110 species and many 
horticultural forms and hybrids. Four taxa occur in Fiji, two indigenous, one intro- 



202 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

duced and naturalized, and one a cultivated hybrid that is sometimes naturalized. 

Useful treatments of genus: A number of important studies of this taxonomically isolated and 
horticulturally important genus have been pubhshed; in our area the following well summarize present 
understanding of the taxa concerned. Krukoff, B. A. Notes on Asiatic-Polynesian-Australian species of 
Erythrina, II. J. Arnold Arb. 53: 128-139. 1972. Krukoff, B. A., & R.C. Barneby. Conspectus of species of 
the genus Erythrina. Lloydia 37: 332-459. 1974. Additionally, a series of valuable Erythrina Symposia, with 
contributions from many authors, has been published as follows; I in Lloydia 37: 321-487, 543-588. 1974; II 
in op. cit. 40: 401-475. 1977; HI in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 66: 417-544. 1979; IV in Allertonia 3: 1-154. 
1982. 

Key to species 
Rachises, pedicels, calyces, ovary, and leaflets not stellate-pilose; calyx tube at anthesis expanding to 
accommodate the emergent corolla or split by it (but not more deeply than half its length); keel petals 
connate; leaflet blades longer than broad. 
Fruits slightly constricted between seeds, not sterile in proximal half (or fruits erratically developing in E. 
X bidwillii); calyx not or slightly contracted at base, the tube crateriform, about as broad as or 
broader than long, the margin entire to erose, not regularly bilabiate; keel petals partially united by 
exterior margins. 
Calyx tube asymmetrically crateriform; standard long-clawed, the claw about 1/3 as long as the 
suborbicular- to ovate-rhomboid blade; wings relatively ample, obovate, rounded at apex, about 
1 / 2 as long as keel; keel petals obliquely ovate, obtuse at apex, 1 / 2-2/3 as long as standard; seeds 
opaque, umber to blackish with black markings; leaflet blades elliptic, up to 16 x 10 cm., rounded 
to subacute at base and apex; indigenous, occurring in freshwater swamps near coasts, rarely along 

rivers inland 1. £. fusca 

Calyx tube essentially symmetrical; standard short-clawed, the claw less than 1/8 as long as the 
oblong-elliptic blade; wings lanceolate, subacute at apex, slightly shorter than keel; keel petals 
obliquely ovate-lanceolate, subacute at apex, about 1/2 as long as standard; leaflet blades 
rhomboid-ovate, 5-8 x 2.5-6 cm., cuneate at base, acute to acuminate at apex; cultivated and 

sparingly naturalized 2. E. " bidwillii 

Fruits samaroid, in the proximal half sterile, compressed, winghke, indehiscent, in the distal half dilated 
by the few seeds but not constricted between them, the valves coriaceous, the seeds dark brown; calyx 
contracted at base into a turbinate hypanthium, the tube campanulate, longer than broad, deeply 
bilabiate; wings oblanceolate, obtuse or rounded at apex, about as long as keel; keel petals inaequilat- 
erally oblong-elliptic, subacute at apex, completely united by exterior margins, about 1 /2 as long as 
standard; standard short-clawed, the blade ovate or subelhptic; stipules large, cuplike; leaflet blades 
ovate to deltoid-rhomboid, up to 18 x 14.5 cm., acute to acuminate at apex; cultivated as shade for 

cocoa and coffee and sparingly naturalized 3. E. subumbrans 

Rachises, pedicels, calyces, ovary (obviously when young), and leaflets (at least on petiolules and costa 
beneath) stellate-pilose with many-armed hairs; calyx tube in bud closed at orifice, early broken by the 
emergent corolla, at anthesis asymmetrical and deeply split on the vexillary side, the spathehke Umb 
opposite the standard; keel petals separate, obovate, rounded at apex, nearly as long as wings, these 
obovate, rounded, about 1 / 3 as long as standard; standard broadly elliptic, narrowed proximally to a 
short claw; fruits large, 15-30 cm. long and 2-3.5 cm. in diameter, not or slightly constricted between 
seeds, the valves coarsely reticulate-veined, the seeds large (up to 20 x 12 mm.), bright red to brownish 
red; leaflet blades ovate to broadly rhomboid, usually broader than long, up to 25 x 30 cm., truncate to 
slightly cordate at base, acute to acuminate at apex; indigenous and littoral, but sometimes cultivated 
and naturalized inland 4. E. variegata 

1. Erythrina fusca Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 427. 1790; Merr. in Trans. Amer. Philos. See. n. 

s. 24 (2): 209. 1935; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 103. 1935; Krukoff 

in J. Arnold Arb. 20: 229. 1939; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 145. 1959; J. 

W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 74. 1964, ed. 2. 113. 1972; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 

Leg. Papil. 547. 1971; Krukoff in J. Arnold Arb. 53: 130. 1972; Krukoff & 

Barneby in Lloydia 37: 340. //g. 1974; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 424. 

1979; Lucas & Theobald in Allertonia 3: 87.//^. I. 1982. 

Erythrina ovalifolia Roxb. Hort. Beng. 53, nom. nud. 1814, Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 3: 254. 1832; Seem, in 

Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 60. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 151. 1890. 

As seen in Fiji, Erythrina fusca is a tree 5-10 m. high (up to 26 m. in Malesia) 

occurring in freshwater swamps slightly inland from coasts and rarely inland along 



1985 FABACEAE 203 

rivers. The trunk is often buttressed and the trunk and branches are spiny. The 
inflorescences may be as long as 40 cm.; the standard is yellowish orange to scarlet, 
4-6.5 X 3.5-5.5 cm., and the wings and keel petals are yellowish and red-tinged (wings 
distally, keel proximally). The fruits are linear, slightly compressed, 14-33 cm. long, 
1.4-1.8 cm. broad, with 6-12seeds 12-18 >< 5-8 mm. Recorded dates of flowering and 
fruiting are inconclusive. 

Typification and nomenclature: Loureiro's original citation was: "Habitat in 
Cochinchina ad ripas fluminum spontanea." Verdcourt ( 1 97 1 , cited above) indicates as 
SYNTYPES a Loureiro collection (which he did not locate) from Indo-China and Gelala 
aquatica Rumph. Herb. Amb. 2: 235. /. 78. 1741. Erythrina ovalifolia was based on 
material from Calcutta, India, represented by Roxburgh drawing 972 (k lectotype; 
cf. Verdcourt, 1971). The latter name is among the many synonyms of E. fuse a Wsltd by 
Krukoff and Bameby (1974, cited above). 

Distribution: Erythrina fusca is the most widely dispersed species of the genus, 
being circumtropical and found on the continents of both the Old and New World as 
well as on many oceanic islands. The Malesian-Pacific part of the range extends 
eastward to Samoa and Tonga. 

Local names: Ndrala, ndrala kaka. ndrala ni vavalangi; the last, reported from 
Lakemba, is a misnomer, as it implies an introduction. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of Nandi, Greenwood 733: vicinity of Tavua, 
Greenwood 733A. Namosi: Naraiyawa, Waimkoroiluva River (about 22 km. inland!), DA L. 13278 (Berry 
85). Tailevu: Korovou, near hospital, DA 15562. ViTi Levu without fuilher locality, Seemann 124. 
KANDAVU: Vicinity of Richmond, Tothill 116. LAKEMBA: Tumbou Valley, Garnock-Jones 916. 

2. Erythrina ^ bidwillii Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 33:p/. 9. 1849; Krukoff in Brittonia3:214. 
1939; Krukoff & Barneby in Lloydia 37: 443. fig. 1974. 
Erythrina crisla-galli sensu Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 64. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 145. 1959; Sykes in 

New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 154. 1970; J. W. Parham, Pl. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 1 12. 1972; non 

L. 

A small tree 3-10 m. high cultivated near sea level as a street and garden tree, 
sometimes cultivated or sparingly naturalized inland at slightly higher elevations (to 
250 m.). The racemes, up to 60 cm. long, bear flowers with a deep red calyx and bright 
red petals and filaments; the standard is 5-6 x 1.5-2 cm. Flowers have been obtained in 
Fiji in December, March, and April. 

Typification: Lindley's description was from a plant grown at Manchester in the 
1840's, ahhough the hybrid had first been made at the Royal Botanic Gardens in 
Sydney by J. C. Bidwill. This taxon is perhaps the best-known Erythrina hybrid 
between allopatric species, being in effect an "amphidiploid neospecies" (Krukoff and 
Barneby, 1974, cited above). The cT parent is E. crista-galli L., the ? parent E. 
herbacea L. 

Distribution: Widely grown as an ornamental in tropical areas and also in 
temperate greenhouses. This appears to be the only Erythrina hybrid that produces 
viable seeds, although these have somewhat impaired fertility (Krukoff and Barneby, 
1974). In the Fijian Region and elsewhere in the Pacific the hybrid is occasionally 
cultivated, usually under the name E. crista-galli. 

Local name and use: The name dadap was recorded for DA 12087, but this is the 
Malayan word for the genus and in Fiji is usually applied to Erythrina subumbrans. 
Erythrina x bidwillii is an attractive ornamental. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Tholo-i-suva, DA L. 13398. Tailevii: Hills east of 
Wainimbuka River, in pasture near Ndakuivuna, Smith 7006. Rewa: Lami, in private garden, DA 16786: 
Suva, DA 7483: Suva Botanical Gardens, DA 12087. 17222. 



204 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

3. Erythrina subumbrans (Hassk.) Merr. in Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 5: 1 13. 1910, Enum. 

Philipp. Fl. PL 2: 305. 1923; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 
200: 154. 1970; Krukoff in J. Arnold Arb. 53: 130. 1972; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 
ed. 2. 113. 1972; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. 
Ser. 85: 42. 1972; Krukoff & Barneby in Lloydia 37: 355. //g. 1974. 
Hvpaphorus subumbrans Hassk. Hort. Bogor. Descr. Retz. 198. 1858. 

Ervlhrina lithosperma sensu Miq. Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (1): 209. 1855; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 74. 1964; non 
Bl. (1823, nom. nud.) nee Hassk. (1825). 

As seen in Fiji, Erythrina subumbrans is a tree up to 10 m. or more in height, 
cultivated near sea level or slightly higher and sparingly naturalized along roadsides. 
The inflorescences, up to 22 cm. in length, bear flowers with red standards 3.5-4 x 2-3 
cm.; the wings and keel petals are greenish to pale red; and the fruits are 10- 14 cm. long 
and 2-2.5 cm. broad, with 1-5 seeds. Flowers were noted in Fiji in July. 

Typification: Hypaphorus subumbrans was a new name proposed for the illegiti- 
mate homonym Erythrina lithosperma Miq., the type of which was a Javanese 
specimen. 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia to Malesia (presumably eastward to the Philip- 
pines, Moluccas, and Timor), cultivated and sometimes naturalized elsewhere. The 
time of its introduction into Fiji is uncertain, but possibly this species was intended by 
Thurston in his 1886 Catalogue, where he listed Erythrina picta. The latter name is a 
synonym of E. variegata, which Thurston doubtless knew as the seashore plant 
indigenous in Fiji and which he would not have confused with the useful E. subum- 
brans. 

Local name and use: The Malayan word for the genus, dadap, is applied to 
Erythrina subumbrans in Fiji and Niue. The species is commonly used as a shade for 
cocoa and coffee and has become occasionally naturalized. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 9557: Nanduruloulou, DA 17401. 

4. Erythrina variegata L. Herb. Amb. 10. 1754, Amoen. Acad. 4: 122. 1759; Verdcourt 

in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 549. 1971; Krukoff in J. Arnold Arb. 53: 132. 1972; 
Krukoff & Barneby in Lloydia 37: 431.//g. 1974; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 425. //g. 100. 1979. 
Erythrina coraUodendrum var. orienlalis L. Sp. PI. 706. 1753. 

Erythrina indica Lam. Encyel. Meth. Bot. 2: 391. 1786; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl.Exped. 1:444. 1854; 
Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 60. 1865; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. 
Fiji 29: 32. 1959. 
Ervlhrina variegata var. orienlalis Merr. Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amb. 276. 1917; Christophersen in 
Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 103. 1935; Krukoff in J. Arnold Arb. 20: 228. 1939; A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 39. 
1942; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 64. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 146. 1959; J. W, Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 
74. 1964, ed. 2. 113. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 155. 1970; St. John& 
A. C. Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25: 328. 1 97 1 ; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. 
Ser. 85: 42. 1972. 

Erythrina variegata, as seen in Fiji, is an often spreading tree 3-10 m. high 
(sometimes more than 25 m. high elsewhere), frequent along coasts and widely 
cultivated and sometimes naturalized inland. Its trunk, up to 1 m. in diameter, and 
branches are coarsely spiny. Its leaves are very variable in size, with petioles (6-) 9-25 
cm. long, petiolules 5- 1 4 mm. long, and leaflet blades 4-25 x 3-30 cm. The inflorescen- 
ces, up to 45 cm. long, bear striking flowers; the standard is orange-red to crimson or 
scarlet, 5-8 x 2-3.5 cm.; the filaments and style are red, as are the large seeds. 
Flowering is most abundant between July and September, fruiting somewhat later. 
Typification: The entire basis of the Linnaean binomial is Gelala alba Rumph. 



1985 FABACEAE 205 

Herb. Amb. 2: 243. t. 77. 1741. Erythrina corallodendrum var. orientalis is based on 
Rheede, Hort. Ind. Malabar. 6: 13. /. 7. 1686. In proposing E. indica. Lamarck cited 
Gelala Htorea Rumph. Herb. Amb. 2:230. /. 76. 1741, as well as the Rheede illustration 
mentioned above. The complete synonymy of this widespread species is discussed by 
Krukoff (1972, cited above). 

Distribution: Zanzibar and other Indian Ocean islands north to India, China, 
and Ryukyu Islands, and eastward through Malesia into the Pacific to the Societies 
and Marquesas, widely cultivated elsewhere, sometimes as an early introduction. The 
species is more abundant in Fiji than indicated below, where all examined specimens 
are cited because of the scattered localities. 

Available collections: YASAWAS: Waya; Yalombi, St. John 18091, Weiner 254. VITI LEVU: Mba: 
Lautoka, Greenwood 736: hills near Lautoka, Greenwood 788 (coll. H. R. Phillips); Nandarivatu road, 
Vaughan 3263. Nandronga & Navosa: Roadside north of Singatoka, DA 16994. R a: Penang, Greenwood 
736A. Tailevu: Mbuthalevu, DA 10959. Naitasiri: Roadside between Naluwai and Nanggali, DA 16695. 
ViTi Levu without further locahty, Graeffe 61. MBENGGA: Weiner 72-7-79. OVALAU: Vicinity of 
Thawathi, Smith 8105. MAKONDRONGA: Degener & Ordonez 13803. MATUKU: Moseley. July, 1874, 
Bryan 235. TOTOYA: Bryan 349. LAKEMBA: Near Tumbou Jetty, Garnock-Jones 796. ONEATA: Bryan. 
Aug. 19, 1924. ONGEA LEVU: Bryan 434. Fiji without further locality, U. S. Expl. Exped.. Williamss. n., 
Seemann 125. 

Seemann (Fl. Vit. 60. 1 865) also mentioned a var. fi of Erythrina indica with white 
flowers, but later (op. cit. 426. 1873) he opined that this variety might belong to E. 
ovalifolia (i. e. E. fused). I find no other mention of a white-flowered form in either of 
these species in the Pacific. 

27. Strongylodon Vogel in Linnaea 10: 585. 1836; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 
445. 1854; Seem. Fl. Vit. 60. 1865; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 432. 1964; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 429. 1979. 

Scandent shrubs or lianas, the stipules small; leaves pinnately trifoholate, stipel- 
late, the stipels conspicuous, parallel-nerved, at length caducous; inflorescences axil- 
lary, pseudoracemose, the racemes sohtary or in few-branched panicles, usually 
pendulous and long-pedunculate, the bracts small, the flowers usually showy, borne in 
fascicles from nodules on rachis, the bracteoles orbicular or ovate, small, caducous; 
calyx tube subtruncate or with broad, obtuse lobes, these marginally overlapping or 
separated by narrow sinuses, the upper 2 scarcely or completely connate; petals 5, the 
standard ovate-oblong, acute, at length reflexed, with 2 appendages above claw, the 
wings much shorter than standard, adhering to keel, the keel petals joined, incurved, 
rostrate, subequal to standard in length; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 connate into a 
tube; the vexillary filament free from base, filiform, the anthers uniform; ovary 
stipitate, the ovules 1 -several, the style filiform, the stigma small, terminal; fruits 
stipitate, obliquely ovoid-oblong to subglobose, dehiscent, the valves often reticulate- 
nerved, the seeds subglobose to somewhat compressed, the hilum conspicuous, hnear, 
extending to half the circumference of seed or more. 

Type species: Strongylodon ruber Vogel. 

Distribution: Madagascar and Mascarenes to Ceylon, eastward through Indo- 
Malesia to Queensland and into the Pacific to the Societies and Hawaii, with about 20 
species. Two species occur in Fiji, one indigenous and one cultivated. 

Key to species 
Petals orange to pinkish red, the largest ones 1.5-2.6 cm. long; inflorescences 5-50 cm. long; fruits I- or 
2-seeded, the body 3-7.5 cm. long, 2.2-4.3 cm. broad, 1.1-2.6 cm. thick, the stipe 0.8- 1.8 cm. long, the 
beak 0.8-1.2 cm. long; seeds subglobose to slightly flattened, 14.5-20 » 12-18 " 8-16 mm., the hilum 
extending around the seed margin for about I / 2 the circumference; leaflet blades ovate to elliptic, (4.5-) 
6-15 cm. long, (2.5-) 4-12.8 em. broad, rounded to truncate-obtuse at base, abruptly acuminate or 
cuspidate at apex (tip (3-) 5-13 mm. long); indigenous 1.5. lucidus 



206 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 



FABACEAE 



207 




Figure 42. Strongylodon lucidus. from DA 14346: A, basal portion of standard blade, showing 
appendages, x 15; B, ovary with one ovule, « 20. 



Petals bluish green or jade-green, the largest ones 3.7-6 cm. long; inflorescences 70-300 cm. long; fruits (3-) 
6-12-seeded, the body 10-15 cm. long, the seeds 3.5-5 cm. long; leaflet blades lanceolate to ovate- or 
elliptic-oblong, 9-17 cm. long, 3.5-7 cm. broad, broadly obtuse or cuneate at base, bluntly acuminate at 
apex (tip 10-13 mm. long); cultivated only 1. S. macrobolrvs 

1. Strongylodon lucidus (Forst. f.) Seem. Fl. Vit. 61, as 5'. lucidum. 1865; Drake, III. Fl. 
Ins. Mar. Pac. 151, as S. lucidum, p. p. excl. spec. haw. 1890; J. W. Parham, PI. 
Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 2. 118. 1972. Figures 41, 42. 

Glycine lucida Forst. f. Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 51. 1786. 

Strongylodon ruber sensu A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:446, p. p.. quoad spec. vit. 1854; Seem, in 
Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862; A. Gray m Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5: 317. 1862; non Vogel. 
Strongylodon siderospermus sensu Verdcourt, saltem p. p., in Kew Bull. 32:457. 1978, Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 432..% 101 (F-H). 1979; forsan non Cordemoy. 

In Fiji Strongylodon lucidus is an often high-climbing liana, occurring in forest or 
on its edges at elevations from near sea level to 750 m. Its striking flowers have orange 
or pinkish red petals, and its fruits are oblong-ellipsoid, turning from yellow-green to 
brown, with prominulous reticulate venatjon and reddish brown to black seeds. Our 
specimens bore flowers in April, May, and November, mature fruits (as far as dated) 
only in May. 

Figure 41. Strongylodon lucidus. from DA 14346: A, distal portion of stem, with foliage and inflores- 
cences, X 1/4; B, inflorescence, x 1; C, calyx, with marginally imbricate lobes, " 10; D, flower, the bracteoles 
fallen, the standard reflexed, the vexillary stamen free, the style projecting from keel petals, « 4. 



208 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification: At bm there are two herbarium sheets, both with mature fruits, 
collected in 1769 in Tahiti by Banks and Solander during Cook's first voyage, one of 
them labelled "Glycine lucida Mscr." This is the only bm herbarium material of the 
species from the Cook voyages, but in the bm library there is an unpublished drawing 
(t. 197, as noted by Seemann in 1865) of a specimen in flower and fruit collected in 
Tahiti on May 3, 1774, and indicated as "Glycine lucida Fl. Austr. p. 51. n. 272." 
Presumably G. Forster had such material at hand when he described Glycine lucida. 
Nevertheless, his description mentions fruits and not flowers, and one must assume it 
to have been based primarily on the earlier collection: Banks & Solander (bm 
lectotype), collected in Tahiti between April and July, 1769. 

Distribution: As here interpreted, Strongylodon lucidus in a fairly restricted 
sense occurs from New Guinea and Queensland through the Bismarck Archipelago 
and the Solomons to the New Hebrides and Fiji, and also in the Society Islands; its 
possibly wider occurrence is discussed below. It is not frequent in Fiji, being known 
from only a few collections from three of the high islands. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of Nandarivatu, DA 11822. Serua: Serua hills, DA 
14346. Naitasiri: Waimbau Creek, Waimanu River tributary, DA 12077. Rewa: Namboro Farm, DA 
L. 10458; Lami, near entrance to quarry, Toihill 476. OVALAU: U. S. Expl. Exped. TAVEUNI: Seemann 
113. Fiji without further locahty, Home 1046. 

Some reservations must be expressed in interpreting the range of Strongylodon 
lucidus to include Fijian and other Melanesian and New Guinean specimens, in part 
because of its apparent absence from areas between Tahiti and Fiji. The species in 
Samoa (cf. Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 103. 1935) and Tonga (cf. 
Yuncker in op. cit. 220: 146. 1959) is clearly not S. lucidus, having flowers more than 
twice as large, as well as larger fruits (the body up to 8 >< 6 x 2.5 cm.) and seeds (up to 26 
X 25 X 24 mm.) with the hilum extending around the seed margin for about 2/3 the 
circumference. The Samoan-Tongan species seems to be undescribed. 

Verdcourt (1978, 1979, cited above) has taken Strongylodon siderospermus Corde- 
moy (type from La Reunion) as the correct name for material of this immediate 
relationship from Madagascar to Ceylon and eastward to Queensland, the New 
Hebrides, and Fiji, reducing to it S. pseudolucidus Craib (type from Madagascar), S. 
secundus St. John (type from Solomon Islands), and "S. lucidus aucct. non (Forst. f.) 
Seem." Such material has narrowly imbricate calyx lobes and one or two ovules and 
seeds. 

In Strongylodon lucidus from Tahiti and Fiji the inflorescences are simple pseu- 
doracemes, but in other Melanesian and New Guinean material the inflorescences 
seem to be either simple or compound (with as many as five racemes scattered along the 
rachis of the panicle, as typical for S. secundus). In occasional New Guinean collec- 
tions (e. g. Kanis 1017) the inflorescences may be either simple or with two racemes 
from a rachis, thus suggesting that this character may not separate 5. secundus from S. 
lucidus. Leaf, flower, and fruit characters in this complex (i. e. specimens from Tahiti 
and Fiji to New Guinea) vary from specimen to specimen within reasonable limits. 

Reasons for the acceptance by Verdcourt of the binomial Strongylodon siderosper- 
mus ( 1 895) rather than S. lucidus are not clear. I am unable to perceive any characters 
that permit separation of the Tahitian 5. lucidus (of which, however, no Tahitian 
material except the lectotype has been seen by me) from material of "S. siderospermus" 
as it occurs in Melanesia and New Guinea, with the exception of those specimens that 



1985 FABACEAE 209 

could be separated as S. secundus solely because of their obvious and consistent 
compound inflorescences. Since S. lucidus has more than a century of priority, I 
believe that it should be applied to the concept that Verdcourt refers to S. siderosper- 
mus, with the reservation that I cannot comment on collections from Madagascar, the 
Mascarenes, Ceylon, and Malaya. Material from Micronesia is probably not separa- 
ble, but the status of 5. secundus requires reexamination. 

The genus is in need of a complete revision; the disposition of one element as here 
suggested may not be acceptable to an ultimate reviser. Harold St. John has long been 
interested in the genus and has assembled many drawings and notes pertaining to it; 
use of his notes in interpreting the taxa here mentioned is appreciated. 

2. Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:448. 1854, Atlas, p/. 

49. 1856; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 118. 1972; Polhill in Bot. Mag. 179:/. 

627. 1973; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 432. 1979. 

A woody climber, often forming vigorous masses, in Fiji in cultivation only and 

seen from near sea level to about 250 m. elevation. The flowers have bluish green or 

jade-green petals. Flowers were noted in July, fruits in December and January. 

Typification: The type is U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 40713 holotype), collected in 
1842 in mountains near Banos, Luzon, Phihppine Islands. 

Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines, but now widely cultivated. 
Local name and use: The well-known jade vine is a striking ornamental. 
Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Toninaiwau, Tholo-i-suva, DA 16991. 

28. Mucuna Adanson, Fam. PI. 2: 325, 579. 1763; Seem. Fl. Vit. 59. 1865; Hutchinson, 
Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 433. 1964; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 286. 1970, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 
Leg. Papil. 561. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 433. 1979. Nom. cons. 
Stizolobium P. Br. Hist. Jam. 290. 1756. Nom. rejic. 

Woody lianas or climbing herbs, rarely erect shrubs, the stipules deciduous; leaves 
pinnately trifoliolate, often stipellate; inflorescences axillary or borne on defoliate 
stems, pseudoracemose or paniculate, the bracts and bracteoles caducous or infre- 
quently subpersistent, the flowers showy; calyx tube campanulate. 2-lipped, the 2 
upper lobes connate to form an entire or bifid lip; petals 5, the standard rounded, with 
inflexed auricles, shorter than other petals, the wings oblong or ovate, incurved, often 
adherent to keel, the keel petals equal to or longer than wings, incurved and stiffened 
at apex; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 connate, the vexillary filament free, the 5 larger 
anthers subbasifixed, alternate with 5 versatile or dorsifixed, often barbate ones; ovary 
sessile, the ovules few, the style filiform, the stigma small, terminal; fruits ovoid to 
oblong or linear, often with stinging hairs, septate or filled between seeds, dehiscent 
(but sometimes scarcely opening), the valves thick, variously ribbed or not, the seeds 
subglobose to oblong and with a short or linear hilum and a conspicuous rim-aril, or 
discoid and with an elongated hilum and without a rim-aril. 

Type species: Mucuna urens (L.) DC. (Dolichos urens L.), typ. cons. The lectotype 
species of Stizolobium is 5. pruriens (L.) Medik. {Dolichos pruriens L.) (vide Kuntze, 
Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 207. 1891). Mucuna has sometimes been divided between Mucuna 
proper and Stizolobium. Verdcourt (1970, cited above) discusses some of the dif- 
ferences and similarities between the two groups. 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, with about 100 species. Five species 
are found in Fiji, three indigenous and two cultivated, one of them sparingly natural- 
ized. 



210 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Key to species 

Fruits (in our variety) somewhat S-shaped, longitudinally ridged, glabrous to appressed-tomentose but 

lacking irritant bristles, up to 10 " 2 cm., the seeds 4-7, up to 19x 13x 8 mm., with a short, oblong hilum 

4-8 mm. long and with a cream-colored rim-aril; petals dark purple, the longest ones 3-3.7 cm. long; 

lateral leaflet blades strongly asymmetrical, up to 19 cm. long; climbing or twining herb, cultivated as a 

cover crop or for cattle-food and sparingly naturalized 1. M. pruriens 

Fruits oblong, not longitudinally ridged, often (like calyx) with irritant bristles, at least 3 cm. broad at 

maturity, the seeds usually 2-5, often larger than 20 x 20 mm., with an elongate hilum and without a 

rim-aril; petals usually at least 3.5 cm. long; lateral leaflet blades oblique; Uanas, often robust and 

high-climbing. 

Petals scarlet to orange-red, the longest ones usually 5-8 cm. long; calyx lobes scarcely developed, the limb 

at maturity subtruncate; fruits linear-oblong, 1 6-27 x 4.2-5.5 cm., the margins not winged, the valves 

with very low transverse lamellae, the seeds 2-5, 40-45 mm. long and broad; leaflet blades usually 

glabrous, up to 19 x 13 cm.; cultivated as an ornamental 2. M. novo-guineensis 

Petals pale green to yellowish (perhaps rarely orange-tinged), the longest ones not more than 5.5 cm. long; 
calyx lobes apparent; fruits oblong, (8.5-) 10-15 x (3-) 3.5-5.5 cm., densely pilose with stiff, irritant 
bristles but at length subglabrate, the margins with 2 obvious wings 5-10 mm. broad bordering each 
suture, the seeds ( 1 -) 2 or 3 (-5?), not more than 30 mm. long and broad, the hilum extending around 
the seed margin for 3/4-5/6 the circumference; indigenous species. 
Young branches, leaves, and inflorescences (except calyx) glabrous or at least soon glabrate; inflores- 
cences usually long-pedunculate but with a short rachis and flowers sometimes appearing to be 
subumbellate (but sometimes with a long rachis and spaced fascicles of flowers); bracts and 
bracteoles inconspicuous and fugacious, the bracts up to 7 x 2.5 mm., the bracteoles up to 14 x 5 
mm.; calyx lobes deltoid, often broadly so, 2-4 mm. long; fruits without transverse lamellae; leaflet 
blades elUptic to ovate, up to 13 x 9 cm., broadly obtuse to subcordate at base, glabrous. 

3. M. gigamea 

Young branches, leaves, and inflorescences (including calyx, bracts, and bracteoles) with a copious, 

soft, pale to dark ferrugineous indument; inflorescences broadly to narrowly cymose-paniculate, 

sometimes freely branched; bracts and bracteoles conspicuous, papyraceous, often persistent until 

full anthesis; calyx lobes elongate-deltoid, 7-12 (-20) mm. long; fruits with obliquely transverse, 

sharply salient lamellae; leaflet blades elliptic to broadly ovate, (7-) 10-15 x (4.5-) 7-16 cm., 

broadly obtuse to rounded at base, with a copious indument, tardily glabrate above. 

Indument of petioles, petiolules, principal nerves of lower surfaces of leaflet blades, bracts, and 

bracteoles usually dark ferrugineous, the hairs 0.3-1 mm. long, a few seldom longer; leaflet 

blades short-cuspidate or abruptly apiculate at apex, the actual tip blunt, not subulate, about 5 

mm. long and about as broad at its base; bracts comparatively small, ovate-lanceolate, 9-12 x 

4-6 mm., acute, the bracteoles 9-12 x 2-4 mm., acute; fruits oblong, 10-14cm. long, 4.5-5 cm. 

broad, not narrowed proximally except for the abrupt stipe about 5 mm. long, the transverse 

lamellae 14-16, oblique at an angle of about 30-45° (from horizontal), the seeds 3 (as far as 

known) 4. M. plalyphylla 

Indument of petioles, petiolules, principal nerves of lower surfaces erf leaflet blades, bracts, and 
bracteoles pale ferrugineous to yellowish, the hairs (1-) 1.5-3 (-4) mm. long, sometimes mixed 
with shorter ones; leaflet blades abruptly acuminate at apex, the actual tip 5-12 mm. long and 
narrower at its base, with a terminal minutely subulate-lanceolate portion 1-3 mm. long that 
readily becomes broken and detached; bracts comparatively large, ovate-elliptic, 25-30 x 20-25 
mm., caudate-acuminate, the bracteoles 20-30 x 5-10 mm., gradually acuminate; fruits oblong 
or slightly obovate, (8.5-) 10-14 cm. long, (3-) 3.5-4.5 cm. broad, sometimes narrowed proxi- 
mally to a stipe 10-15 mm. long (or more gradually narrowed when lowermost seed is unde- 
veloped), the transverse lamellae 8-13, steeply oblique at an angle of about 45-60° (from 
horizontal), the seeds 1, 2, or 3 (-5?) 5. M. stanleyi 

1. Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Prodr. 2: 405. 1825; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Papil. 566. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 451. 1979. 
Dolichos pruriens L. Herb. Amb. 23. 1754. 
Typification: The species is based on Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5: /. 142. 1747. 
Distribution: Africa and Madagascar to tropical Asia and Malesia, some culti- 
vars being grown throughout the tropics. In Fiji the species is represented only by 
subsp. pruriens var. utilis. 

la. Mucuna pruriens subsp. pruriens var. utilis (Wight) Burck in Ann. Jard. Bot. 
Buitenzorg 11: 187. 1893; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 567. 1971, 



1985 FABACEAE 211 

Man. New Guinea Leg. 451. fig. 107 (E). 1979. 
Mucuna uiilis Wall, ex Wight, Icon. PI. Ind. Onent. I: l. 280. 1840. 
Slizolohium aiernmum Piper & Tracy in U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 179: 18. /. 4, fig. B, I. 7. 1910; 

Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 220. fig. 33. B. 1968. 
Mucuna aterrima Merr. Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amb. 279. 1917; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178:64. 

1943; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154:97. 1943; J. W. Parham, PI. Fijilsl. 75. 1964,ed.2. 114. 1972; 

Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 157. 1970. 

Climbing or twining, annual or short-lived perennial herb, in Fiji cultivated and 
sometimes sparingly naturalized at low elevations up to about 200 m. The strongly 
asymmetrical lateral leaflet blades may be as long as 19 cm. The pendulous inflorescen- 
ces, up to 40 cm. or more long, bear many flowers with dark purple petals. The only 
herbarium voucher bore fruits in June. 

Typification and nomenclature: Mucuna utilis was based by Wight on a manu- 
script name of Wallich, presumably taken from collections by the latter. Stizolobium 
aterrimum was described from specimens originating in various tropical areas. The 
several "species" of Stizolobium distinguished by Piper and Tracy are now considered 
cultivars of Mucuna pruriens (cf. Verdcourt, 1971, cited above). 

Distribution: Probably first grown in Asia, but now widely cultivated throughout 
the tropics. 

Local names and uses: The Mauritius bean is also often known as velvet bean or 
Bengal bean. It is used as a cover crop and for green manure, and the seeds and pods are 
used as cattle-food. 

Available collection: VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: District Farm Northern, Seanggangga Plateau, 
DA 16686. 

2. Mucuna novo-guineensis Scheffer in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 1: 18. 1876; J. W. 

Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 114, as M. novaeguineensis. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. A5Q. fig. 104, 107 (A). 1979. 

A robust liana, occasionally cultivated at low elevation in Fiji as a trellis plant. The 
inflorescences, up to 60 cm. in length, produce magnificent hanging bunches of 
flame-colored flowers. The fruits (not seen in Fiji) may be up to 27 cm. long and 5.5 cm. 
broad, the valves with low transverse lamellae, and the seeds as large as 45 x 45 x 
17 mm. Flowers are borne in Fiji between August and October. 

Typification: Scheffer's description was based on specimens collected by Teijs- 
mann in several New Guinean localities. 

Distribution: Probably endemic to New Guinea (or possibly also occurring in the 
Moluccas), now frequently cultivated in other tropical areas. 

Local names and use: This striking ornamental is known as New Guinea creeper 
or flame of the forest. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Tholo-i-suva, CHR 181774. 

3. Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC. Prodr. 2:405. 1 825; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 

1: 442. 1854; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 59. 1865; 
Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 152. 1890; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 
104. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit. 178: 64. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 146. 1959; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964, ed. 2. 1 14. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. 
Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 157. 1970; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 287. 1970, in Fl. 
Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 564. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. 
Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85:35,41. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 443. 
fig. 106 (F). 1979. Figure 43. 

Dolichos giganleus Willd. Sp. PI. 1: 1041. 1802. 



212 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 






^HBi^^^>v^^^^~^^^^H 




^^^Bt >;^^^H 


j^in^^ 








' ''^^^^^^^^F 





Figure 43. Mucuna giganlea; A, distal portion of stem, with foliage and an inflorescence, x 1/4; B, 
mature fruits and a seed, x 1/2. A from Z)/4 /5i7/, B from Bryan 254. 



An often high-climbing liana, with the stem to 3 cm. or more in diameter, occurring 
from sea level to an elevation of perhaps 200 m., usually in coastal thickets or on creek 
banks but sometimes in dry lowland forest. The inflorescences, often borne on the stem 
below leaves, are usually long-pedunculate but with a short rachis and with flowers 
sometimes appearing to be subumbellate; occasionally the rachis is longer and the 
flowers are in well-spaced fascicles. The longest petals are usually 3.5-4.5 cm. long, and 
seeds have been noted 20-29 mm. long and broad and 7-18 mm. thick. Flowers occur 
between May and December, and fruits seem mature from May to July. 

Typification: Willdenow based his species on Rhecde, Hort. Ind. Malabar. 8: 63. 
t. 36. 1688. 

Distribution: The species as a whole occurs from Africa and Indian Ocean islands 
to India and China and eastward into Polynesia. Vcrdcourt (1970, 1971, cited above) 
places the African and Indian Ocean material in subsp. quadrialata (Baker) Verdcourt. 
Subspecies gigantea has a wide distribution from India and China through Malesia to 
Australia and eastward in the Pacific to the Societies and Hawaii. The species is 
frequent in coastal thickets and its seeds are readily seaborne. Because of their 
scattered localities, all Fijian collections examined are here listed. 

Local names and use: Fijian names are wakore, wakurikuri, and watikuri; miht 
Yasawas the seeds have been noted as edible. 



1985 FABACEAE 213 

Available collections: YASAWAS: Wava: Yalombi. Si. John 18092. VITl LEVU: Mba: Junction of 
Visi (Vise?) and Sambu Creeks (probably in drainage of Teindamu River. Vunda Tikina), D.A 14750. 
Nandronga & Navosa: Malanggerenggere, Thuvu Tikina, Toihitt 113. Ra: Vatundamu, vicinity of 
Rewasa, near Vaiieka. Degener 15391: vicinity of Penang. Greenwood 798. Naitasirl Near Nasinu. 
Greenwood 1109. Tailevi': Matavatathou, D.A 15371. KANDAVU: Western end of island, near Cape 
Washington, Smiih 320. OVALAU: U. S. E.xpl. Exped. NGAU: Hills east of Herald Bay, inland from 
Sawaieke on slopes of Mt. Vondaand toward Waikama, Smith 7949. VANUA LEVU; Mbua: In dry zone of 
Naivakasinga, B. & H. Parham 3. Vanua Levu without further locaUty, U. S. E.xpl. Exped. TAVEUNI: 
Somosomo, Seemann 119. MATUK.U: Bryan 254. NAMUKA-I-LAU: Bryan, Aug. 12, 1924 (seeds only). 
ONGEA NDRIKI: Bryan 411. Fiji without further locality. Home 721. 

Two of the cited specimens, DA 14750 dind Greenwood 1109. are unusual in having 
elongate (15-40 cm. long) and short-pedunculate inflorescences, the rachis 1-2 cm. 
between fascicles of flowers, and petals recorded as orange or "yellowish to pink." In 
other respects these specimens appear typical for Mucuna gigantea. 

4. Mucuna platyphylla A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 443. 1854; Seem, in 
Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 59. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 
Pac. 152. 1890; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964, ed. 2. 115. 1972. 

Figure 44B (pods only). 

An often high-climbing liana, occurring from near sea level to an elevation of about 
1,000 m. in forest or on its edges or in hillside thickets. The inflorescences are 8-25 cm. 
long, the longest petals being 4.5-5.5 cm. long, pale green to yellowish and sometimes 
with dull purplish markings. The fruits are winged at the sutures and with sharply 
raised lamellae oblique at a small angle (about 30°) from the horizontal, and the seeds 
are sometimes as large as 30 >< 27 x 10 mm. Flowers have been noted as collected 
between April and July, fruits maturing about six months later. 

Typification: Gray recorded Exploring Expedition material from Ovalau and Viti 
Levu (Rewa Province); only one sheet is now available at us, but it does not bear a 
locality: U. S. Expl. Exped. (us47902holotype), collected in 1840 on either Ovalau or 
Viti Levu. 

Distribution: Fiji (thus far known only from Viti Levu, Ovalau, Vanua Levu, and 
Taveuni) and Tonga (apparently rare, seen only from 'Eua: Sykes 186 1 T, CHR 
3I7121B). 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Slopes of Mt. Nairosa, eastern flank of Mt. Evans Range, 
Smith 4405. Namosi: Nakavu, on Navua River, Parks 20394. Tailevu: Vicinity of Nausori, Greenwood 
254 A (coW. R. Veitchy."L. Hunt's farm," /).4 11429. Rewa: Vicinity of Lami, /'arAs209iJ. VANUA LEVU: 
Thakaundrove: Navonu Creek, Natewa Peninsula, Howard 100. TAVEUNI: Seemann 120. Fiji without 
further locality, Horne 730. Howard 109. 

Dr. B. Verdcourt has kindly called to my attention the fact that Fijian material 
currently passing as Mucuna platyphylla actually represents two taxa. One of these, 
with comparatively short indument, cuspidate leaflet blade apices, and small bracts 
and bracteoles, may be taken as M. platyphylla in the sense of Gray's type collection. 
The other, with longer indument, abruptly and sharply acuminate leaflet blade apices, 
and substantially larger bracts and bracteoles, seems indistinguishable from the New 
Guinean M. stanleyi C. T. White. A comparable situation exists in New Guinea, where 
M. stanleyi has often been confused with M. albertisii F. v. Muell., with which it may 
occasionally intergrade (cf. Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 435, 437, 455. 1979). 
The two taxa of this relationship in Fiji seem further separable in minor characters of 
the fruits, as mentioned in the above key, although such data are derived from too few 
specimens to be accepted as entirely valid. 

Various Polynesian specimens from the Society, Marquesas, and Austral Islands 
have been referred to Mucuna platyphylla (e. g. sensu F. Br. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 130: 



214 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

115. 1935), but they do not represent the Fijian species. Some of them differ in having 
the indument of the leaflet blades closely sericeous and becoming sparse (rather than 
softly velutinous and persistent), the lateral blades more obviously asymmetrical and 
often narrower, and the bracts and bracteoles fugacious. Other eastern Polynesian 
specimens have foliar indument like that of M. platyphylla but bract and bracteole 
indument like that of the following species (M. stanleyi). Fruits of eastern Polynesian 
material often have steeply oblique lamellae (like those of M. stanleyi). Possibly two 
species of this alliance occur in eastern Polynesia, but the combinations of characters 
seen in the two Fijian species (M. platyphylla and M. stanleyi) are not present. The 
long stem and foliar indument and the large bracts and bracteoles that characterize M. 
stanleyi have not been noted in any of the eastern Polynesian specimens. 

5. Mucuna stanleyi C. T. White in Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 34: 36. 1922; Verd- 
court, Man. New Guinea Leg. 455. 1979. Figure 44A & B (seed only). 

Mucuna stanleyi occurs at approximately the same elevations and in the same 
habitats as M. platyphylla and has in the past been confused with it, but closer 
examination shows that it differs in several dependable key characters. The vegetative 
and inflorescence indument is in large part composed of notably longer and somewhat 
paler hairs, the leaflet blades are more conspicuously and more sharply acuminate at 
apex, the bracts and bracteoles are conspicuously and consistently larger, and the 
fruits have the transverse lamellae oblique at a steeper angle (about 45-60°) from the 
horizontal. The available fruits of the two species are too few to permit a fully definitive 
comparison, but it appears that those of M. stanleyi are slightly the narrower and are 
less abruptly stipitate, with a tendency (at least in Fiji) to have the lower one or two 
seeds undeveloped. 

Typification: Mucuna stanleyi is based on C. T. White & E. R. Stanley 497 (bri 
holotype; isotype at k), collected in July or August, 1918, at Mafulu, alt. about 1,200 
m., Papua New Guinea. (No collection number was indicated in the original publica- 
tion, but the K sheet is marked "part of type".) 

Distribution: Papua New Guinea, including the Louisiade Archipelago and 
probably New Britain, and here first reported from Fiji, where it is known only from 
the two largest islands. The species has not been recorded from the Solomon Islands or 
the New Hebrides. 

Local names: Fijian names each recorded only once have been wa ndra and wa 
tikori (Mba), wa na ndrau (Ra), wa mbuto (Tailevu), and nggatiyaka (Mbua). 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mountains near Lautoka, Greenwood 254, 1288; slopes of 
Mt. Nairosa, eastern flank of Mt. Evans Range, i'm;/^ 400/,- slopes of the escarpment north of Nandarivatu, 
Smith 6289. Namosi: Wainivisova Creek, near Navunikambi, Wainikoroiluva River, DA 14990. Ra: 
Mountains near Penang, Greewivoot^ 2J^B; vicinity of Nasukamai, Gillespie 4387. Naitasiri: Between Viria . 
and Naisonggo, Parks 20473. Tailevu: Hills east of Wainimbuka River, vicinity of Ndakuivuna, Smith 
7030. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Southern portion of Seatovo Range, Smith 1517: lower Wainunu River 
Valley, Smith 1734. 

29. Dioclea H. B. K. Nova Gen. et Sp. 6: ed. fol. 342 (July), ed. qu. 437 (Sept.). 1824; 

Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 426. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 463. 

1979; Maxwell in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 67: 662. 1980. 
Shrubs or lianas, often high-climbing, the stipules usually basally produced; leaves 
pinnately trifoholate, the stipels setaceous to filiform, the leaflet blades entire; inflores- 
cences erect, axillary or borne on stems, often elongate, pseudoracemose, the flowers 
fasciculate on nodes, the bracts usually caducous; calyx with 2 caducous or persistent 
bracteoles, the tube campanulate, the 2 uppermost lobes partially connate, the lower- 



1985 



FABACEAE 



215 







^-^j^,,.-.. 


A 



Figure 44. A & B (seed only), Mucuna sianleyi: A, distal portion of stem, with foliage and an 
inflorescence, » 1/4; B (seed only), seed, « 1/2. B (pods only), Mucuna plaivphylla: mature (luits, " 1/2. A 
from Smith 1 734, B (pods) from Parks 20932. B (seed) from Gillespie 4387. 



most lobe smaller than or subequal to the lateral lobes; petals blue to purple or paler, 
the standard orbicular to obovate, reflexed, auriculate at base of blade, the wings 
obovate or oblong, free, the keel petals incurved, subequal to wings, distally connate; 
stamens 10, the filaments of 9 connate into a tube, the vexillary filament free proxi- 
mally but united in middle with the others, the anthers medifixed, linear, rarely 
uniform, usually the alternate ones smaller and sterile; ovary sessile or scarcely stipi- 
tate, villose, the ovules 2-several, the style incurved, thickened, glabrous distally, the 
stigma terminal, capitate; fruits subsessile above calyx scar, linear-oblong to semi- 
orbicular, somewhat compressed, coriaceous or woody, dehiscent or indehiscent, filled 
between seeds, the upper (dorsal) suture dilated or with a parallel wing or rib to either 
side, the lower suture dilated or with shallow ribs, the seeds large, compressed, oblong 
or suborbicular, hard, the hilum Unear, usually encircling about 3/4 the testa. 

Lectotype species: Dioclea sericea H. B. K. (vide BrittonA Killip, Sci. Surv. Porto 
Rico, 418. 1924). 

Distribution: Pantropical, mostly American, with about 50 species. One species is 
indigenous in Fiji. 

For advice on the disposition of the very incomplete but nevertheless intriguing 
collections here referred to Dioclea and Macropsychanthus I am much indebted to B. 
Verdcourt, I. K. Ferguson, and R. H. Maxwell. 



216 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

1. Dioclea sp. Figure 45A&B. 

Dioclea violacea sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 57. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 152. 1890; Gibbs in J. Linn. 

Soc. Bot. 39: 144. 1909; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 73. 1964, ed. 2. 112. 1972; non Mart, ex Benth. 

The fallen fruit upon which this record is partially based is oblong, 2-seeded and 
slightly contracted between seeds, about 13x6 cm., slightly dilated but not winged 
along upper suture, apparently estipitate, and obtusely apiculate at apex. The seeds are 
chestnut-brown, large, 31-34 ^ 27-29 x 15-17 mm., with the Unear hilum encircling 
slightly more than 3/4 the testa. 

Local name: Wa ndra was recorded by Gibbs; this not very informative name is 
used for many lianas. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Namosi: Plateau above waterfall near Namuamua, Gillespie 
2982 (bish, a fallen fruit and 4 seeds only). Naitasiri: Vatavula, Wainimala River, Gibbs 509 (bm, flowers 
and young foliage). Fiji without further locality, Williams (bm, 3 leaflets only). 

The fruit and seeds of Gillespie 2982 represent the alliance of the predominantly 
Old World species of Dioclea, an alliance previously thought not to be indigenous in 
the Pacific east of Bougainville (cf. Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 465. 1979). The 
Gibbs collection consists of detached parts (a leafy shoot, a separate inflorescence 
rachis, and two packets of flowers); its flowers and pollen (Verdcourt, Ferguson, in 
litt.) indicate that it is correctly referred to Dioclea. The three separate leaflets of 
Williams have thick petiolules about 4 mm. long, whereas the petiolules of Gibbs 509 
are more slender and about 7.5 mm. long. Although it seems fairly certain that all three 
collections came from indigenous plants, it cannot be positively stated that they all 
represent the same species. However, it is unlikely (although not impossible) that more 
than one indigenous Dioclea occurs in Fiji. 

Thomas Williams was resident in Fiji between 1840 and 1853 and was often 
stationed at Somosomo, although these particular leaflets have not necessarily come 
from Taveuni. They do not form a very sound basis for Seemann's identification as 
"Dioclea violacea." However, that identification was based upon comparison with 
specimens from Hawaii and Tahiti; such specimens are now referred to D. wilsonii 
Standley, indigenous in tropical America. Apparently Gibbs was content to accept 
Seemann's opinion in identifying her no. 509. 

Perhaps the taxon in Fiji is a form of D. reflexa Hook. f. or D. javanica Benth. (if 
the latter is considered distinct). It should be noted that drift seeds very similar to those 
of Gillespie 2982 have been found in the Gilbert Islands {Luomala 39, 41, 43, all bish). 
These seeds do not represent D. wilsonii, which is now known to occur in Hawaii and 
the Society and Austral Islands and is sometimes considered a naturalized escape from 
cultivation in those archipelagoes. However, at least one Hawaiian collection of D. 
wilsonii dates from 1825 (Verdcourt, in litt.), and so its natural occurrence from drift 
seeds there and in eastern Polynesia seems more likely than its naturalization from 
cultivated introductions (cf. also Maxwell in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 67:674. 1980). 
If this is the case, the cited Fijian collections do not indicate a new eastward indigenous 
extension of Dioclea in the Pacific, although they (and the drift seeds from the Gilbert 
Islands) may indeed suggest that the D. reflexa-D. javanica complex seems thus 
extended eastward. 

30. Macropsychanthus Harms in K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. 
Siidsee, 399. 1900; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 426. 1964; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 
32: 455. 1978, Man. New Guinea Leg. 466. 1979. 



1985 



FABACEAE 



217 




Figure 45. A & B, Dioclea sp.: A, fruit and seed, " 1/2; B, seed, » 2. C & D, Macropsychanihus 
lauierbachii subsp. parviflorus: C, flower, « 2; D, calyx, x 4. A & B from Gillespie 2982. C & D from / (f. 
Parham. July 5, 1965. 



218 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

A genus of high-climbing lianas closely allied to Dioclea, but differing in its 
cylindric to campanulate, slightly asymmetrical calyx tube, which is conspicuously 
longer than the lobes; the lobes are clearly 5, the 2 upper ones being adnate only in bud 
and soon becoming completely separate. The petals are substantially longer than those 
of Dioclea, and the stamens are all fertile, although alternately longer and shorter and 
sometimes with caducous anthers. The fruits are obviously stipitate, with the upper 
suture neither dilated nor winged; seeds of the two genera appear to have an overlap- 
ping range of variability, although those of Macropsychanthus always have an elon- 
gated hilum. 

Type species: Macropsychanthus lauterbachii Harms. 

Distribution: Talaud (Kepulauan) Island, Caroline Islands, and New Guinea 
eastward to the Solomon Islands, and here first recorded from Fiji, with three or more 
species. 

1. Macropsychanthus lauterbachii Harms subsp. parviflorus Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 
32: 456. 1978, Man. New Guinea Leg. 469. 1979. Figure 45C & D. 

The genus is known in Fiji only from the inadequate collection cited below. 
Nevertheless, Macropsychanthus may be confidently recorded as occurring indigen- 
ously in Fiji. The mature (fallen) flowers from Taveuni seem indistinguishable from 
those of M. lauterbachii subsp. parviflorus (Verdcourt, in litt.), and their pollen agrees 
with that of the genus (Ferguson, in litt.). While the flowers should perhaps not be 
unequivocally assigned to this variety, their agreement with flowers from the Louisi- 
ades and Solomons is such that only further contradictory evidence could negate the 
identification. 

Typification: The type of Macropsychanthus lauterbachii subsp. parviflorus is 
Brass 28335 (k holotype; isotypes at l, lae), collected at Abaleti, Rossel Island, 
Louisiade Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. 

Distribution: Macropsychanthus lauterbachii as a whole has been known from 
New Guinea and adjacent islands and the Solomon Islands. Subspecies parv//7or«i has 
hitherto been recorded only from Rossel Island and from New Georgia and San 
Cristobal in the Solomons. 

Available collection: TAVEUNI: Track to crater lake east of Somosomo, / W. Parham, July 5, 1965 
(bish, 2 fallen flowers only); petals bright blue. 

Although the available material of Macropsychanthus and Dioclea here discussed 
is far from satisfactory, both genera may now be recorded as indigenous in Fiji, and it is 
hoped that these notes will impel future collectors to search for such infrequently 
obtained high-chmbing lianas. 

31. Canavalia DC. Prodr. 2:403. 1825; Seem. Fl. Vit. 58. 1865; SauerinBrittonial6: 

113. 1964; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 427. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 

Leg. Papil. 571. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 470. 1979. Nom. et orth. cons. 

Canavali Adanson, Fam. PI. 2: 325, 531. 1763. Orth. rejic. 

Lianas, slender vines, or perennial herbs, a few species cultivated as annuals, the 

stems climbing or trailing, infrequently suberect, the stipules small, sometimes spurred 

and swollen beneath, deciduous; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, stipellate, the stipels 

usually minute and caducous; inflorescences pseudoracemose, the peduncle usually 

elongated, the rachis nodose, the bracts minute, the flowers borne in fascicles of 2-6, 

the bracteoles caducous; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes connate into 2 lips, the upper lip 

large, with 2 lobes united along upper edge, the lower lip much smaller, trifid; petals 5, 

showy, glabrous, clawed, auriculate at base of blade, the standard obovate, rounded, 

reflexed, sometimes slightly shorter than wings and keel petals, the wings narrow, free, 

falcate or somewhat twisted, the keel petals broader than wings, incurved, united near 



1985 FABACEAE 219 

apex; stamens 10, the filaments usually all connate into a tube, the vexillary filament 
free only near base or rarely entirely free, the anthers uniform; ovary stipitate, usually 
many-ovuled, the style incurved, the stigma small, terminal; fruits oblong to linear, 
compressed or inflated, dehiscent (sometimes tardily so) or not, the valves often 
winged or ribbed along ventral suture and sometimes (as in all our species) with an 
additional rib near sutural rib, ( 1 -) 4- 1 5-seeded, often thinly filled between seeds, the 
seeds ovoid to ellipsoid, compressed, the hilum linear, with a small, papery, persistent 
rim-aril. 

Type species: Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. (Dolichos ensiformis L.). De Can- 
doUe did not intend to present a new name, but merely latinized Adanson's earlier 
name. 

Distribution; Pantropical and subtropical, with more than 50 species, principally 
concentrated in the New World. Some species, with buoyant and/or impermeable 
seeds, have very broad distributions. Five species are known from Fiji, four indigenous 
and one cultivated, all of them falling into subgen. Canavalia in Sauer's treatment 
(1964, cited below). 

Useful treatment of genus: Sauer, J. Revision of Canavalia. Bnttonia 16: 106-181. 1964. 

Key to species 
Petals not more than 3.5 cm. long; calyx at anthesis 11-14 mm. long, the upper lip shorter than the tube; 
fruits spirally dehiscent or indehiscent, the seeds 18-21 » 12-15 « 9-11 mm.; leaflet blades sparsely 
short-pilose, essentially glabrate. 
Leaflet blades elliptic to ovate, up to 20 " 13 cm., obtuse to acuminate at apex; fruit valves with an 
additional rib 4-6 mm. from ventral rib. 
Fruits compressed, 20-35 « 2.5-3.5 cm., spirally dehiscent, the seeds white, the hilum about half as long 
as seed, about 9 mm. long; upper calyx lip only slightly shorter than calyx tube; cultivated only, as a 

bushy, erect, annual herb 1 . C. ensiformis 

Fruits inflated, 10-12 " 3-4.5 cm., indehiscent or tardily dehiscent, the seeds dark reddish brown, the 
hilum more than half as long as seed, 9- 14 mm. long; upper calyx lip much shorter than calyx tube; 

indigenous vine, sometimes high-climbing 2. C. calharlica 

Leaflet blades elliptic to suborbicular, up to 1 2 x 11.5 cm., obtuse to emarginate at apex; upper calyx lip 
much shorter than calyx tube; fruits inflated, 11-15 " 2-2.7 cm., at length spirally dehiscent, the 
valves with an additional rib 2-3 mm. from ventral rib, the seeds brown, the hilum about half as long 

as seed, 7-12 mm. long; indigenous, littoral, trailing or weakly climbing vine 3. C rosea 

Petals 4-6.2 cm. long; calyx at anthesis more than 1 5 mm. long, the upper lip as long as (or nearly as long as) 

the tube; fruits compressed, indehiscent or tardily dehiscent, the seeds 17-22 " 10-13 " 7-9 mm.; 

indigenous. 

Leaflet blades suborbicular or broadly elliptic, 5-12 « 4-10 cm., obtuse to emarginate at apex, densely 

sericeous, especially beneath, with soft, long, white hairs; pedicel about 8 mm. long; calyx about 16 

mm. long; standard about 4 cm. long; fruits pale brown, (6-) 10-16 « 2-3 cm., the valves with an 

additional rib 3-6 mm. from ventral rib, the seeds dark brown, the hilum about half as long as seed, 

9-1 1 mm. long; littoral, prostrate or scrambling vine 4. C. sericea 

Leaflet blades ovate, 6-12 " 3.5-8 cm., acuminate or cuspidate to an obtuse tip 4-7 mm. long, sparsely 
pilose beneath but essentially glabrate; pedicel about 3 mm. long; calyx 18-23 mm. long; standard 
about 6 cm. long; fruits dark brown, 13-21 ^ 2.5-3.6 cm., the valves with an additional rib 5-8 mm. 
from ventral rib, the seeds reddish brown, the hilum more than half as long as seed, 1 5- 18 mm. long; 
inland species, an often high-climbing liana 5. C.vitiensis 

1. Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. Prodr. 2:404. 1825; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 
220: 148. 1959; Sauer in Brittonia 16: 142. fig. 2 (26). 12 (26). 1964; J. W. Parham, 
PI. Fiji Isl. 72. 1964, ed. 2. 109. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 242. fig. 36. 
1968; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 572. 1971; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 
57. fig. 2.6. 2.18 (5). 1976; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 473. 1979. 

Dolichos ensiformis L. Sp. PI. 725. 1753. 

A bushy, erect, annual herb 1-2 m. high as occasionally cultivated near sea level in 
Fiji. The petals are pink to purple, the standard being 2.5-2.7 cm. long. Probably 
flowers and fruits may occur throughout the year. 



220 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification: Sauer (1964) indicates as lectotype Sloane, Cat. PI. Jam. 1: 68. /. 
114, fig. 1-3. 1696. However, Verdcourt (1971) states that an actual specimen exists: 
Sloane (Herb. 3.67) (bm holotype), from Spanish Town, Jamaica. 

Distribution: Central America and the West Indies. The species was a prehistoric 
American Indian domesticate as a food plant, now widely cultivated in tropical areas. 
It was probably a comparatively recent (within the past half century) introduction into 
Fiji. 

Local names and uses: The usual names, sword bean and jack bean, are applied in 
Fiji. The species is cultivated as a cover crop and green manure and is also considered a 
fodder plant. The young pods and immature seeds may be used as a vegetable. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Tailevu: Nausori (Township Board compound), DA L. 17093. 

2. Canavalia cathartica Thou, in J. Bot. Agric. 1: 81, as Canavali catharticus. 1813; 
Sauer in Brittonia 16: 158./;g. 2 (40), 12 (40), 19. 1964; St. John in Israel J. Bot. 19: 
216. 1970; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 574.//^. 84. 1971; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 109. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. All. fig. 
111. 1979. Figure 46A. 

Lablab microcarpus DC. Prodr. 2: 402. 1825. 

Canavalia turgida Graham ex A. Gray, Bot. U.S. Expl. Exped. 1:440. 1854; Seem. inBonplandia9:255. 

1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 59. 1865; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 65. 1943. 
Canavalia obiusifolia sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 58, p. p. 1865; 

Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 153, p. p. 1890; non DC. 
Canavalia ensiformis var. turgida Baker in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 196. 1876; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. 

Pac. 153. 1890. 
Canavalia microcarpa Piper in Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 176. 1917; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 
148. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 72. 1964. 

A vine, sometimes high-climbing, found from near sea level to an elevation of 
about 400 m. in coastal or inland thickets, but not limited to littoral areas like 
Canavalia rosea. The inflorescences, up to 20 cm. long or more, bear fragrant flowers 
with pink to magenta petals, the wings and keel petals somewhat paler than the 
standard. Our material bore flowers between February and October, fruits between 
April and August. 

Lectotypification and nomenclature: Although apparently no specimens were 
preserved by Thouars, Verdcourt (1971, cited above) indicates the desirability of 
lectotypifying Canavali catharticus by Thouars material from La Reunion rather than 
accepting Rheede, Hort. Ind. Malabar. 8: 87. t. 45. 1688, as the lectotype as suggested 
by Sauer (1964, cited above), because of the involvement of Rheede's illustration in the 
protologue of the basionym of Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Am. The lectotype 
of Lablab microcarpus selected by Sauer is Cacara laut Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5: 390. /. 
141, fig. 1. 1747; for C. turgida he indicated Wallich 5534a (bm lectotype; 
ISOLECTOTYPES at c, G, k), collected in 1 822 at Penang, Malaya. The three concepts are 
accepted as synonymous by all students of the genus. 

Distribution: Widespread from eastern Africa to India and the Ryukyu Islands 
and eastward through Malesia and into Polynesia, but only introduced and natural- 
ized in Hawaii. 

Local name and use: In the Yasawas wa tikuri has been recorded, and there the 
stems are used for binding house frames. 

Available collections: YASAWAS: Waya: Wailevu Creek, Si. John 18078. VITI LEVU: Mba: 
Vicinity of Lautoka, Greenwood 24 1 A (coll. H. Phillips), 24 1 B. NANDRONGA&NAVOSA:Thuvu, Greenwood 
241. Naitasiri: Mbatiki, Nanduruloulou, Dy4 //7J/. p. p. KANDAVU: Hillsabove Namalata and Ngaloa 
Bays, Smith 192. NGAU: Near Nggarani, Tothill 112. VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: West of Valethi, 
Bierhorsl FIOO. TAVEUNI; Seemann 122; Somosomo, Seemann 112. MOALA: Bryan 337. MATUKU: 



1985 FABACEAE 221 

Edge of forest, Bryan 231. FULANGA: Bryan. Aug. 6, 1924. Fiji without further locahty, U. S. Expl. 
Exped. 

3. Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. Prodr. 2: 404. 1 825; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 
128: 104. 1935; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943; Verdcourt in Fl. 
Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 576. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 475. 1979. 

Figure 46B. 

Dolichos marilimus Aubl. Hist. PI. Guiane Fr. 765. 1775. 

Dolichos ohiusifolius Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 2: 295, nom. illeg. 1786; non Jacq. (1768). 

Dolichos roseus Sw. Nov. Gen. & Sp. Prodr. 105. 1788. 

Canavalia mariiima Thou, in J. Bot. Agric. 1:80, as Canavali marilimus. 1813; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. 

Bull. 220: 148. 1959; Sauer in Brittonia 16: 163. % 2(42). 12(42). 21. 22. 1964; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 

72. 1964, ed. 2. 109. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 145. 1970; St. John& 

A. C. Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25:327. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. 

Ser. 85: 38, 39, 141. 1972. (Non Dolichos marilimus Aubl.). 
Canavalia oblusifolia DC. Prodr. 2:404, nom. illeg. 1825; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:440. 1854; 

Seem. Fl. Vit. 58, p. p. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 153, p. p. 1890; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 

12: 246. 1931; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 93. 1959. (Dolichos ohiusifolius Lam., non 

Jacq.). 

A trailing or weakly climbing vine, occurring near sea level on beaches near high 
tide mark or in littoral thickets. The inflorescences, up to 20 cm. long, bear flowers with 
the standard pink to purple, yellowish proximally; the wings and keel petals are pale 
magenta. Flowers and fruits occur throughout the year. 

Typification AND NOMENCLATURE: Dolichos maritimus may be typified by Pha- 
seolus maritimus fructu duro Plumier, Nov. Gen. App. 8. 1 703. For Dolichos obtusifo- 
lius Lam. the lectotype (cf. Verdcourt, 1971, cited above) is a specimen from Santo 
Domingo, collector unknown (?). Cotypcsof Dolichos roseus (c{. Verdcourt, 1971)are 
Dolichos maritimus repens P. Br. Hist. Jam. 293. 1756, and Swartz(UM syntype?; no 
specimen found at s) from Jamaica. Canavalia mariiima Thou, is best lectotypified 
(Verdcourt, 1971) by Phaseolus maritimus purgans Plukenet, Phytographia, /. 57, fig. 
2. 1691. 

The species has been widely known both as Canavalia rosea and as C. maritima, the 
nomenclature having been discussed by Sauer (1964) and Verdcourt (1971). A choice 
depends upon whether Thouars based his binomial C. maritima on the earlier Doli- 
chos maritimus Aubl. or whether it is to be construed as a new name dating from 1813. 
The latter viewpoint would seem requisite, since Thouars did not actually cite the 
Aublet reference but did cite the Plukenet 1691 reference. Although the oldest binom- 
ial referable to the species is indeed Dolichos maritimus Aubl., the epithet is not 
available in Canavalia after 1813 because of C. maritima Thou. Dolichos ohiusifolius 
Lam. is a later homonym of D. obtusifolius Jacq. and cannot serve as the basionym of 
the present taxon, for which the earliest available basionym is D. roseus Sw. Many 
additional synonyms of this species were discussed by Sauer (1964). 

Distribution: Worldwide, one of the commonest and most widespread seacoast 
plants in the tropics and subtropics. It sometimes hybridizes with C. cathartica. 

Local names and use: Ndralawa, ndrautolu; in the Yasawas a concoction of leaves 
is said to be used after childbirth. 

Available collections: YASAWAS: Yasawa: Nambukeru Village, Weiner 232: Tamasua Village, 
Weiner 232A. VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 157. Nandronga&Navosa: Vicinity of Singatoka, 
Greenwood 157 A (coll. G. R. Roberison). Serua: Serua road, DA 9127: Ndeumba Beach, DA 11602. 13000: 
Navua, Parks 20402. Naitasiri (presumably cult.): Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 8489: Mbatiki, Nanduruloulou, DA 11751. p. p. Rewa: Makuluva Island, DA 11792. OVA- 
LAU: U. S. Expl. Exped. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Tomberua Island, DA 11599. Naitamba: ToihilllN. Fiji 
without further locality. Parks "A" (part of Parks 20402''). 



222 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

4. Canavalia sericea A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 440. 1854; Seem. Viti, 435. 
1862, Fl. Vit. 58. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 153. 1890; Yuncker in Bishop 
Mus. Bull. 178:65. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 149. 1959;SauerinBrittonial6: 171.y;^.2 
(43). 12 (43), 23 (43). 1964; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 72. 1964, ed. 2. 109. 1972; 
Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 146. 1970. 

Figure 46C. 

Canavalia sericea var. yunckeri O. & I. Degener, Fl. Haw. Fam. 169c. 1960. 

Canavalia sericea var. yunckeri f. grandifoliolata O. & I. Degener, Fl. Haw. Fam. 169c. 1960. 
A prostrate or scrambling vine occurring near sea level on beaches, along rocky 
coasts, or in coastal thickets. The standard is bright or rich pink, the other petals 
slightly paler, and the filaments white. Flowers and fruits have been obtained between 
February and August but probably occur throughout the year. 

Typification: Type material was collected in 1840: U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 62795 
holotype; putative isotypes at gh, k, ny, p), obtained from three localities in Fiji, 
Rewa Province (Viti Levu), Ovalau, and Direction Island (i. e. Namenalala, 17°06'S., 
179°06'E., administratively part of Mbua Province, Vanua Levu, as discussed in this 
Flora 2: 695; this is only the second collection I have noted from the islet). Although the 
specimens do not bear precise localities, the us sheet should be considered the holotype 
(of. this Flora 1: 40); Sauer (1964) had designated the gh specimen as lectotype. 
Canavalia sericea var. yunckeri is typified by Yuncker 15050 (bish lectotype; 
isolectotypes at u, us, w), collected Feb. 26, 1953, near Vaina, Tongatapu, Tonga; f 
grandifoliolata by Yuncker 9889 (bish lectotype; isolectotypes at a, mich), 
obtained Jan. 26, 1940, near Alofi, Niue. Infraspecific variation within this well- 
demarcated taxon seems inconsequential. 

Distribution: Micronesia, Queensland, and New Caledonia eastward to the 
Society and Austral Islands, introduced and sparingly naturalized in Hawaii. 
Local names: The usual name is ndralawa; wa vue was noted on Koro. 
Available collections: MAMANUTHAS: Nggalito Island, Malolo Group, O. & I. Degener 3221 S. 
VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Thuvu, Greenwood 273. Tailevu: Naingani Island, DA 3364. Rewa: 
Nukulau Island, Tolhitl IIOA. OVALAU: Vicinity of Thawathi, Smilh 8103. KORO: East coast, Smilh 
1093. NAIRAI: Tothill 110. VANUA LEVU; Mathuata: Beach near Lambasa, Greenwood 273A. 
YATHATA: DA 15552. VANUA MBALAVU: Near Sawana Village, Garnock-fones 1055. NAVUTU-I- 
LOMA: Bryan 403, p. p. FULANGA: Bryan 403, p. p. ONGEA LEVU: Bryan 403. p. p. ONGEA NDRIKI: 
Bryan 403, p. p. Fiji without further locality, DA 5031. 

5. Canavalia vitiensis Sauer in Brittonia 16: 172. //g. 2 (44), 12 (44). 23 (44). 1964. 

Figure 46D-F. 

A sometimes high-climbing liana, sparingly found at elevations from 50 to 900 m. 
in thickets on forehills and in dense forest. The inflorescences, to 17 cm. long, bear the 
largest flowers of any Fijian species; the petals are rich to deep pink and the filaments 
white. Flowers have been collected in April and May; the only fruiting collection is not 
dated. 

Typification: The type is Degener 15348 (a holotype; isotypes at bish, k, mo, ny, 
uc, us), collected May 28, 1941, near Mataimeravula, vicinity of Rewasa, near 
Vaileka, Ra Province, Viti Levu. 

Figure 46. A, Canavalia caihariica; fruit, x 1 / 2. B, Canavalia rosea; fruit and seeds, *< 1 / 2. C, Canavalia 
sericea: fruits and seeds, " 1/2. D-F, Canavalia vitiensis: D, flower, x 1; E, calyx and staminal tube, keel 
petals, and a wing, X 1 ; F, fruit and seeds, x 1 / 2. A from Bryan, Aug. 6, 1 924, B from Parks 20402 (seeds from 
Parks "A"), C from Bryan 403. p. p. (Ongea Levu), D & E from Smith 4053. F from Gillespie 4195. 



1985 



FABACEAE 



223 




224 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and known with certainty only from Viti Levu and 
Vanua Levu. 

Local names and use: The names wa kori and wa korikori have been recorded; in 
Ra the stems were used to bind timbers in house-building. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Slopes of Mt. Nairosa, eastern flank of Mt. Evans Range, 
Smith 4053. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Naivakasinga region, B. & H. Parham 4. Fiji without further locality, 
Gillespie 4195. 

32. Pachyrhizus L. C. Rich, ex DC. Prodr. 2:402. 1825; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
439. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 475. 1979. Nom. cons. 

Tall climbing herbs with tuberous roots, the stipules lanceolate, the leaves pin- 
nately trifoliolate, stipellate; inflorescences axillary, racemiform, the flowers borne in 
fascicles of 2-7 or on short branchlets, the bracts and bracteoles small, setaceous, 
caducous; calyx tube campanulate, 5-lobed, the 2 upper lobes connate into a bidentate 
lip; petals subequal in length, the standard broadly obovate, transversely appendaged 
within at base and with inflexed auricles at base of blade, the wings retrorsely 
appendaged, the keel petals incurved, obtuse; stamens with the vexillary filament free, 
the other filaments connate into a tube, the anthers uniform; ovary subsessile, the 
ovules numerous, the style pilose, broadened distally and subinvolute, the stigma 
subglobose, lateral; fruits linear-oblong, compressed, dehiscent, depressed between 
seeds, these 4-12, ovoid to compressed-orbicular, the hilum small. 

Type species: Pachyrhizus angulatus L. C. Rich, ex DC, nom. illeg. = P. erosus 
(L.) Urb. {Dolichos erosus L.). Typ. cons. The generic name has often been spelled with 
-rrh-, considered etymologically correct by students of classical Greek, but others 
consider the doubling of rho pedantic and unnecessary (e. g. R. W. Brown, Composi- 
tion of Scientific Words, 19. 1956). In the present case, Pachyrhizus may perhaps be 
taken as the conserved orthography. 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical America, with four or five species, of 
which one or two are now widely cultivated. 

1. Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb. Symb. Antill. 4: 31 1. 1905; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, 
Dicot. 2%\.fig. 43. 1968; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, dl.fig. 2.9. 1976; Verdcourt, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. All. fig. 112. 1979; Henty in Papua New Guinea Dept. Forests 
Bull. 12: 90. fig. 54. 1980. 

Dolichos erosus L. Sp. PI. 726. 1753. 

Pachyrhizus tuberosus sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964, ed. 2. 1 15. 1972; non Spreng. 

A climbing or trailing herb, with turnip-shaped, often lobed tubers up to 30 cm. 
in diameter, occasionally cultivated near sea level. The leaflet blades are broadly ovate, 
angular or coarsely dentate, and up to 20 ^ 20 cm. The petals are blue to pale purple, 
the standard green-blotched at base or sometimes all white, and the fruits, up to 14 x 
1.8 cm., have pale brown to blackish seeds up to 9 >< 8 >< 3.5 mm. 

Typification: The only reference of Linnaeus was: "Pluk. aim. 292. t. 54. f 4." 

Distribution: Mexico and Central America, cultivated in pre-Columbian times 
and early taken to the Philippines and thence to Asia and Malesia, now widely 
cultivated in tropical areas. 

Local name and uses: Yam bean; the tubers are edible raw or cooked, and the 
young pods are eaten as a cooked vegetable. Mature seeds and leaves contain a toxic 
substance. 

Although no Fijian herbarium vouchers are available, Pachyrhizus erosus is the 
species cultivated in Pacific archipelagoes (e. g. Hawaii, Societies, Marianas, Caro- 
lines, New Guinea, Java) and was probably intended in Parham's references cited 



1985 FABACEAE 225 

above. The young pods of P. tuherosus (Lam.) Spreng. are not used as a vegetable 
because of irritant hairs, and this species is not widely established in the Old World; it 
has entire rather than coarsely dentate leaflet blades. 

33. Calopogonium Desv. in Ann. Sci. Nat. 9: 423. 1826; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 

429. 1 964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 577. 1 97 1 , Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 480. 1979. 

Climbing or trailing herbs, sometimes ligneous, the stipules small, ovate- 
lanceolate, caducous, the leaves pinnately trifoliolate, stipellate, the leaflet blades 
entire (as in our species) or lobulate; inflorescences axillary, pseudoracemose, long- or 
short-pedunculate or sessile, the flowers small, short-pedicellate, fasciculate in nodose 
clusters of 2-7, the bracts and bracteoles small, caducous; calyx campanulate, the lobes 
often subulate, the 2 upper ones separate or connate into a bidentate lip; petals blue to 
violet, clawed, auriculate at base of blade, the standard obovate, the wings narrow, 
adherent to keel, the keel petals shorter than wings; stamens with the vexillary filament 
free, the anthers uniform; ovary sessile, with few-many ovules, the style filiform, 
distally glabrous, the stigma terminal, capitate; fruits linear to oblong-linear, com- 
pressed, dehiscent, the valves transversely furrowed, septate between seeds, these 
orbicular-compressed or oblong, the hilum small. 

Type species: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical America, with 6-8 species, one of which is 
now widely distributed. 

1. Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. in Ann. Sci. Nat. 9:423. 1826; J. W. Parham, PI. 
Fiji Isl. 72. 1964, ed. 2. 109. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 218.//g. 32. A. 
1968; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 145. 1970; Verd- 
court in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 577. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 481./;'^. 
114. 1979. 

A sprawling or twining, perennial herb, cultivated from near sea level to an 
elevation of about 200 m. but apparently not naturalized. The stems, leaves, calyces, 
and fruits are densely pilose with spreading, ferrugineous hairs. The leaflet blades are 
ovate to rhomboid, usually not much exceeding 8x6 cm., obtuse to apiculate-subacute 
at apex, and the short- to long-pedunculate inflorescences bear blue or purplish 
flowers, the standard sometimes with a proximal yellow blotch. Fruits are up to 40 x 5 
mm., stiffly long-pilose, with 4-8 seeds about 3.5 x 3 x 2 mm. Flowers and fruits are 
seen sporadically throughout the year. 

Typification: Desvaux indicated: "Hab. in Guiana?", without mentioning a col- 
lector. 

Distribution: Tropical America, now cultivated and sometimes naturalized in 
other parts of the tropics. 

Local name and use: The name in widespread agricultural use is calopo. The 
species was introduced into Fiji in 1933 for use as a cover crop, but it does not seem to 
have become naturalized; it is rapidly growing but is not very palatable to cattle. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, in trial plots. DA 14358 (FDA 16027). Ra: 
Colonial Sugar Refining Co. Estate. Vanggara, D.A 12310: District Farm. Ndombuilevu, DA 9513. 
Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, DA. Feb. 27, 1949; Mbatiki, 
Nanduruloulou, DA 2596: Koronivia Research Station, DA. Dec. 2, 1949. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: 
District Farm Northern, Seanggangga, DA L. 15606. 

34. PuERARiA DC. in Ann. Sci. Nat. 4: 97. 1825; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:426. 1964; 

Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 594. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 483. 
1979. 



226 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Climbing or trailing perennial herbs, the roots sometimes tuberous, the stipules 
sometimes produced below point of insertion; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, stipellate, 
the leaflet blades ovate to rhomboid, entire or sinuate-lobed, usually pilose on both 
surfaces; inflorescences axillary, pseudoracemose or paniculate, often elongated, the 
rachis usually nodose, the bracts small, caducous, the flowers in fascicles of 3 or more, 
the bracteoles sometimes subpersistent; calyx tube campanulate, the 2 upper lobes 
connate into an entire or bidentate lip, the lowermost lobe the longest; petals small (in 
our species 1.5-2.5 cm. long), blue to purple, clawed, the standard rounded, with 
inflexed auricles, not appendaged, the wings narrowly oblong, often adherent to 
middle of keel, the keel petals subequal to wings, sometimes beaked; stamens with the 
vexillary filament free proximally, connate at middle with the filament tube of the 
others, rarely entirely free, the anthers uniform; ovary subsessile, linear, the ovules 
many,the style curved, proximally filiform, the stigma terminal, small, capitate; fruits 
elongated, narrow, compressed, filled or septate between seeds, dehiscent, the seeds 
many, compressed, suborbicular to subcylindric, the hilum small, central. 

Lectotype species: Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. {Hedysarum tubero- 
sum Roxb. ex Willd.) (vide Burkart, Las Leguminosas Argentinas, 544. 1943). 

Distribution: China and Japan to tropical Asia and Malesia, extending eastward 
in the Pacific (but questionably indigenous east of western Melanesia), with about 20 
species. Two species have been introduced into Fiji, one now copiously and the other 
rarely naturalized. 

Key to species 

Roots greatly thickened, the tubers oblong-fusiform, up to 60 cm. or more long; stems with long, spreading 
hairs; stipules 1.5-2.5 cm. long, distinctly produced above and below point of insertion; stipels 10-20 
mm. long; leaflet blades usually distinctly 3-lobed and conspicuously acuminate at apex, 10-18 (-35) x 
8-15 (-30) cm.; bracteoles at base of calyx 4-7 mm. long, caducous; upper lip of calyx 7- 10 mm. long, 
entire, acuminate; fruits up to 12 cm. long and 12 mm. broad, with a copious indument of spreading, 
ferrugineous hairs 1 . P. lobata 

Roots not greatly thickened; stems with spreading or retrorse hairs; stipules about 1.5 cm. long, not 
produced below point of insertion; stipels 3-5 mm. long; leaflet blades entire or 3-lobed, acute to 
acuminate at apex, 5-12 (-20) x 4-1 1_(-15) cm.; bracteoles at base of calyx 1.5-3 mm. long, subpersis- 
tent; upper lip of calyx 2-3 mm. long, bidentate or emarginate; fruits 4-1 1 cm. long, 3-5 mm. broad, 
densely appressed-pilose 2. P. phaseoloides 

1. Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwiin Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. no. 18: 16. 1947; Yunckerin 
Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 147. 1959; Verdcourt in Taxon 17: 171. 1968; Sykes in New 
Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 159. 1970; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 
2. 117. 1972; St. John in Phytologia 36: 369. 1977; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 485.//^. 116. 1979. 
Dolichos trilobus L. Sp. PI. 726, p. p. 1753; Houtt. Nat. Hist. 10: 153. /. 64. fig. I. 1779; non L. sensu typ. 

cons. 
Dolichos hirsutus Thunb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 2: 339. 1794; non Pueraria hirsuia Kurz (1874). 
Dolichos lobatus Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1047. 1803. 
Pachvrhizus ihunbergianus Sieb. & Zucc. in Abh. Math.-Phys. CI. Konigl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4: 237. 

1846. 
Pueraria ihunbergiana Benth. in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 9: 122. 1865; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12: 245. 
1931; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 104. 1935; A, C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 39. 1942, in Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club 70: 541. 1943; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 65. 1943; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 
76. 1964. 
Pachvrhizus trilobus sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 63. 1865; Home, A Year in Fiji, 265. 1881; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. 
Mar.Pac. 155. 1890; Guppy, Obs. Nat. Pac. 2:412, 413. 1906; Gibbs in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39:209. 1909; 
non DC. 
Pachyrhizus angulatus sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861; Home, A Year in Fiji, 86. 1881; non A. 

Rich. 
Pueraria triloba Makino in linuma, Somoku-Dzusetsu, ed. 3. 954, 13: (. 22. 1912; non sensu Dolichos 
trilobus L. sensu typ. cons. 



1985 FABACEAE 227 

A sprawling, scrambling, or twining vine with subligneous stems, abundantly 
naturalized on dry hillsides, in grassland and thickets, and along roadsides at eleva- 
tions from near sea level to about 400 m. The petals vary from purple or rich blue to 
pink, the standard being slightly paler and marked with yellow within; the filaments 
and style are nearly white. Although many collections are sterile, flowers are seen 
between November and July. Fruits seem not to occur in Fiji, as previously noted by 
Guppy (1906, cited above). 

Typification and nomenclature: The complex synonymy concerning this spe- 
cies was clarified by Verdcourt (in Taxon 17: 170-173. 1968), Dolichos irilohus L. 
being typified in a way that excludes the present concept and permits that binomial to 
be applied to the conserved type species of the genus Dolichos. Dolichos hirsutus was 
based on Kampfer, Icon. Select. Pl.p/. 41. 1791, but the binomial based on it, Pueraria 
hirsuta Schneider, is a later homonym of P. hirsuta Kurz. Dolichos lobatus is based on 
Panzer's edition of Houtt. Nat. Hist. 8: 560. t. 64, fig. 1. 1782, and thus on Houttuyn's 
concept of D. trilobus L. (Nat. Hist. 10: 153. /. 64. fig. 1. 1779). Pachyrhizus thun- 
bergianus, like Dolichos hirsutus. is typified by Kampfer's 1791 illustration. 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia from India, China, and Japan perhaps into 
Malesia, now widely naturalized elsewhere. About 20 Fijian collections have been 
seen, but the species is very abundant in scattered localities. 

Local names and uses: Fijian names are yaka, wayaka, and nggariaka: kudzu is 
also used. The yaka seems very probably to have been an aboriginal introduction, its 
tubers providing a well-known emergency food, edible when cooked like yams but 
insipid and much inferior. The stems can be used for tying temporary bundles. As 
kudzu. the species has been more recently introduced and cultivated to produce green 
and dry food for livestock. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Hills inland from Lautoka, Greenwood 161: Koro- 
vou, east of Tavua, Degener 14942. Serua: Hills between Waininggereand Waisese Creeks, between Ngaloa 
and Wainiyambia. Smith 9668. Ra: Hills near Penang, Greenwood 161.4. Naitasiri: Vunimbua hills, 
vicinity of Nanduruloulou, DA 5629: Mbatiki Model Farm, Nanduruloulou, D.4 1 1746: Nasinu, Tonga- 
wangga, D.A 10791. Tailevu: Naingani Island, D.A 3371. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Seemann 114: 
Nggaraningoli Creek, Ndreketi River, DA 13909. Thakaundrove: Along Hibiscus Highway east of 
Savusavu, Bierhorst F167. TAVEUNI: Vicinity of Waiyevo, Gillespie 4703. LAKEMBA: Nukunuku 
Village, Garnock-Jones 823. KAMBARA: On limestone formation. Smith 1268. 

2. Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 9: 125. 1865; J. W. 
Parham, PL Fiji Isl. 76. 1964, ed. 2. 117. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 
2\%.fig. 33. A. 1968; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 159. 
1970; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 596. y7^. 87 {ynv.javanica). 1971, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. A%5. fig- 115 {\aT. javanica). 1979. 
Dolichos phaseoloides Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 3: 316. 1832. 
A climbing or trailing herb, often forming tangled mats, cultivated at elevations 
between sea level and about 200 m., and perhaps very sparingly naturalized on open 
hillsides near experimental plots. The petals are mauve to blue or pink, the standard 
being greenish without. Flowers and fruits have been collected between June and 
August. 

Typification: Described from plants grown at Calcutta from seeds sent from 
Canton, China, by Kerr, and represented by Roxburgh drawing no. 1890(k, syntype, 
cf. Verdcourt, 1 97 1, cited above). 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia and Malesia, now widely cultivated and doubt- 
less naturalized elsewhere. In Fiji it has scarcely become naturalized. 



228 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Local names and uses: The tropical kudzu or puero was introduced into Fiji in 
1943, and various subsequent introductions have been made. The species is used as a 
cover crop and green manure, as well as a fodder and pasture plant. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa; Agricultural Station. Nathotholevu, 
near Singatoka, DA 6001, 8304. Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, 
DA. Feb. 27, 1949, Dec. 28. I95i, 8487 (FDA 13471): Principal Agricultural Station, Koronivia, DA. Dec. 
2, 1949. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: District Farm Northern, Seanggangga, DA 16682. L.15607. 

It is not clear whether the strain cultivated in Fiji represents var. phaseoloides or 
var.7ava«/cfl(Benth.) Baker (in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 199. 1876, hdi^tA on Neus tan- 
thus jav aniens Benth. in Miq. Pi. Junghuhn. 235. 1852), which is said to be the more 
robust variety and to have short, blunt calyx lobes; the two varieties do not seem 
sharply separable. 

35. Glycine Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 1053. 1802; Hermann in U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 
1268: 9. 1962; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:449. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 
Leg. Papil. 528. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 490. 1979. Norn, cons., non Glycine 
L. (1753), nom. rejic. 
Soia Moench, Meth. PI. 153. 1794, Nom. rejic. prop, (vide Lackey in Taxon 27: 560. 1978). 

Procumbent or twining perennial herbs (one species erect and annual), the stipules 
small, deciduous; leaves pinnately (or in some species digitately) trifoliolate, stipellate, 
the leaflet blades entire; inflorescences axillary, racemose, rarely terminal and panicu- 
late or fasciculate, the bracts small, the flowers small, solitary at inflorescence nodes, 
the pedicels short, with subpersistent apical bracteoles; calyx subbilabiate, 5-lobed, the 
2 upper lobes partially connate; petals long-clawed, glabrous, the standard suborbicu- 
lar or obovate to rhomboid, slightly auriculate at base, the wings narrow, somewhat 
adherent to keel, the keel petals much shorter than wings; stamens 10, monadelphous 
or the vexillary filament at length becoming free, the anthers uniform; ovary subsessile, 
th.e ovules few-several, the style short, slightly incurved, glabrous, the stigma small, 
terminal, capitate; fruits linear or oblong, subcylindric or compressed, straight or 
falcate, thinly septate between seeds, dehiscent, the seeds ovoid-oblong to subglobose, 
the hilum short, lateral. 

Type species: Glycine clandestina Wendl. (vide Verdcourt in Taxon 15: 35. 1966). 
All eight of the species originally referred to Glycine by Linnaeus are now considered 
members of other genera. As Verdcourt has indicated, the only reasonable way to 
preserve the generic name Glycine in its current sense, including the economically 
important soybean, is to conserve it from Willdenow's 1802 usage. 

Distribution: Siberia and Japan to Australia and eastward in the Pacific to Fiji 
and Tonga, with nine species. Two species occur in Fiji, one indigenous and one 
cultivated. 

Useful treatments of genus: Hermann, F. J. A revision of the genus Glycine and its immediate allies. 
U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1268: 1-79. 1962. Newell, C. A., & T. Hymowitz. A reappraisal of the sub- 
genus Glycine. Amer. J. Bot. 65: 168-179. 1978. Newell, C. A., & T. Hymowitz. A taxonomic revision in 
the genus Glycine subgenus Glycine (Leguminosae). Brittonia 32: 63-69. 1980. Hymowitz, T., & C. A. 
Newell. Taxonomy of the genus Glycine, domestication and uses of soybeans. Econ. Bot. 35: 272-288. 
1981. 

Key to species 

Twining or procumbent perennial herb, with short, often sparse, usually appressed, whitish hairs on stems, 

leaves, inflorescences, and fruits; leaflet blades obovate to elliptic-lanceolate or oblong-linear, usually 

(as seen in Fijian Region) 1.5-3 x 1-2 cm.; inflorescences loosely racemose, 5- 10 (-18) cm. long; fruits 

variable, curved and slender to stout and straight, usually 2-3 cm. long and 2-4 mm. broad; indigenous. 

1. G. labacina 



1985 FABACEAE 229 

Erect annual herb, with obvious, spreading, usually yellowish brown hairs on stems, leaves, inflorescences, 
and fruits; leaflet blades ovate or elliptic, 3- 10 (-15) x 2-6 (-10) cm.; inflorescences often congested, 1-5 
cm. long; fruits oblong, slightly falcate, 2.5-8 cm. long, 8-15 mm. broad; cultivated. ... 2. G. max 

1. Glycine tabacina (Labill.) Benth. ex Seem, in A. Gray in Bonplandia 10: 35, nom. 

illeg. 1862; Benth. ex Seem. Viti, 435, nom. illeg. 1862; Benth. Fl. Austral. 2: 244. 
1864; Seem. Fl. Vit. 57. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 151. 1890; Yunckerin 
Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 145. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 74. 1964, ed. 2. 1 13. 
1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 155. 1970; Newell & 
Hymowitz in Amer. J. Bot. 65: MO. fig. 16-18. 1978. 
Kennedia tabacina Labill. Sert. Austro-Caled. 70. ;. 70. 1825. 
Rhynchosia minima sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861; non DC. 
"Hedysarea" A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5: .117. 1862. 

Galaclia tenuiflora sensu Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 147. 1959; non Wight & Arn. 
A twining or procumbent perennial herb with usually creeping or trailing stems, 
infrequently occurring near sea level and presumably in more or less open and dry 
habitats. The petals are mauve-blue to dark reddish purple, 5-7 mm. long, the standard 
white proximally. 

Typification: The type is a Labillardiere collection (holotype probably at fi) 
from New Caledonia. 

Distribution: Australia (diploid); the tetraploid form has spread north to south- 
ern China, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Islands and also eastward in the Pacific to 
Micronesia, New Caledonia, the New Hebrides, Fiji, and Tonga. Hymowitz (in 
conversation) suggests that its occurrence in Niue and Samoa (Sykes, 1970, cited 
above) results from accidental introductions. Although doubtless indigenous in Fiji, 
the species must be extremely infrequent there, whereas in Tonga it is known from at 
least three islands and five or six collections. 

Available collections: VITI LEVI): Nandronga & Navosa: Vicinity of Singatoka, Greenwood 769 
(k). VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Nukumbati Island, off Mathuata coast (at long. 179°02'E.), Seemann 123 
(K). 

2. Glycine max (L.) Merr. Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amb. 274. 1917; Hermann in U. S. 

Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1268: 39. 1962; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 74. 1964, ed. 2. 
1 13. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 265. fig. 41. 1968; Verdcourt in Kew 
Bull. 24:256. 1970; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 21, 59./i'^. 2.7, 2. /^f^^J. 1976; Verdcourt, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. 492. 1979. 

Phaseolus max L. Sp. PI. 725. 1753. 

An erect annual herb 0.5-1.8 m. high, occasionally cultivated near sea level. The 
petals are white to pink or lilac, and the seeds are greenish yellow to blackish, 6-10 x 
5-8 mm. 

Typification: Although Merrill in 1917 provided a full discussion and an exten- 
sive synonymy, he did not indicate a lectotype among the references mentioned by 
Linnaeus. 

Distribution: Glycine max is considered a cultigen derived from its wild relative 
G. soja Sieb. & Zucc, indigenous in eastern Asia, and presumably domesticated in 
China as early as 1700 B. C. or earlier (Hymowitz and Newell, 1981, cited above). It 
spread into adjacent parts of the Old World and is now a worldwide crop plant of 
major importance. Its introduction into Fiji, however, was presumably recent and its 
cultivation there is very limited; no herbarium vouchers are available. 



230 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Local names and uses: The usual names soybean and soya bean are utilized in Fiji. 
Seeds of the soybean are very rich in protein, providing one of the world's most 
important sources of oil and protein. The newly germinated seeds are used in cooking 
as "bean sprouts," and many protein-rich foods and sauces are made from the seeds. 
The oil is widely used industrially for a variety of purposes. Valuable comments on the 
uses and history of the soybean are detailed by Burkill (Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay 
Penins. ed. 2. 1098-1103. 1966) and by Purseglove( 1968), Smartt( 1976), and Hymo- 
witz and Newell (1981), cited above. 

36. Neonotonia Lackey in Phytologia 37: 210. 1977. 

Notonia Arn. in Wight & Arn. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 207. 1834; non DC. (1833). 
Johnia Arn. in Wight & Am. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 449. 1834; non Roxb. (1832). 
Glycine subgen. Bracleata Verdcourt in Taxon 15: 36. 1966. 
A monotypic genus distinguished from Glycine by its pseudoracemose inflores- 
cence and its calyx with the 2 upper lobes completely united; inflorescences many- 
flowered, the flowers 3 or more per node, each fascicle subtended by a bract and each 
flower by secondary bracts, the pedicels short, with 2 bracteoles at base of calyx; calyx 
tube short, the lobes linear-lanceolate; leaves pinnately trifoliolate. 

Type species: Neonotonia wightii (Arn. in Wight & Arn.) Lackey {Notonia wightii 
Arn. in Wight & Arn.). 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia (India and Ceylon to Java) and tropical Africa 
from Ethiopia to Angola and South Africa, with a single species, which is now widely 
cuhivated elsewhere. 

1. Neonotonia wightii (Am. in Wight & Arn.) Lackey in Phytologia 37: 210. 1977. 

Notonia wightii Arn. in Wight & Arn. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 208. 1834. 

Johnia wightii Arn. in Wight & Arn. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 449. 1834. 

Glycine wightii Verdcourt in Taxon 15: 35. 1966, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 52%. fig. 79. 1971; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 113. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 493. 1979. 

Glycine javanica sensu auct. mult. (cf. Verdcourt in Taxon 15: 35. 1966); non L. 

Desmodium sandwiceme sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 112. 1972; non E. Meyer. 
A perennial climbing or trailing herb 0.5-4.5 m. long, often woody at base and with 
the rootstock sometimes thick and woody, cultivated only (or perhaps sparingly 
naturalized) near sea level. The leaflet blades are ovate to elliptic, variable in size but as 
noted in Fiji (2.5-) 3-7 x (1.5-) 2-5 cm., shortly soft-pilose and subglabrate on both 
surfaces. The inflorescences are variable in length but usually not much exceeding 30 
cm.; the pedicels are usually 1-3 mm. long, the bracts and bracteoles Unear to 
lanceolate, the primary bracts to 9 mm. long, the secondary bracts and bracteoles to 5 
mm. long. The calyx lobes are up to 6 mm. long, the standard up to 1 1 mm. long (about 
5-7 mm. long in our collections), white without, bluish within or with a mauve blotch, 
often turning orange-red with age, the wings and keel petals white or tinged with 
mauve. The fruits are linear-oblong, usually 2-3.5 cm. long and 3-5 mm. broad, with 
reddish or orange-brown seeds. 

Typification: Verdcourt (1971, cited above) lists as syntypes three collections 
from southern India: Wight 871 (k), 872 (k), and Heyne in Wallich Cat. No. 5528 (k). 
Distribution: As of the genus. 

Uses: A pasture legume, with very high nitrogen production, widely used through- 
out the tropics as fodder and often mixed with pasture grasses. It is a comparatively 
recent introduction into Fiji (usually brought in as Glycine javanica and at least once as 
Desmodium sandwicense). It has probably become naturalized, although the only 
available vouchers are all from trial plots. 



1985 FABACEAE 231 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, DA I3I8J (FDA I54I7). 14356 (FDA 
16020). Nandronga & Navosa: Agricultural Station. Nathotholevu. near Singatoka, DA 9786. 10837. 
Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, DA 9463 (FD.4 14350). 9465. 

In Taxon 15: 36. 1966, and in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 529-533. 1971, 
Verdcourt discusses three subspecies of Glycine wighiii, two of them with varieties. 
The typical subspecies wighiii is the one that occurs in Fiji. Of the two varieties of this 
subspecies recognized by Verdcourt, he suggests (1979, cited above) that var. longi- 
cauda has been introduced into the Pacific area, but different introductions into Fiji 
appear to represent both varieties of the subspecies. I have not noted transfer of 
infraspecific taxa to the genus Neonotonia. 

37. Teramnus p. Br. Hist. Jam. 290. 1756; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:451. 1964; 
Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 263. 1970, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 533. 1971, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. 496. 1979. 

Perennial herbs, usually trailing or climbing (rarely low shrubs), the stipules small; 
leaves pinnately trifoliolate, stipellate, the leaflet blades entire; inflorescences axillary, 
pseudoracemose or fasciculate, the flowers small, paired or clustered, the bracts small, 
the bracteoles linear or lanceolate, subpersistent; calyx 4- or 5-lobed, the 2 upper lobes 
free or united; petals glabrous, the standard obovate, not auriculate or appendaged, 
the wings narrow, long-clawed, adherent to keel, the keel petals shorter than wings; 
stamens monadelphous or the vexillary filament free, the alternate anthers small and 
sterile or lacking; ovary sessile, linear, the ovules many, the style short, thick, some- 
times obscured by tufted hairs, the stigma capitate; fruits linear, with a sharply bent 
apical hook formed by the accrescent style base, septate between seeds, dehiscent, the 
seeds ovoid or ellipsoid, the hilum short, lateral. 

Lectotype species: Teramnus voluhilis Sw. (vide Britton & Wilson, Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico 5:413. 1924). 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, with eight species, one of which has 
become naturalized in Fiji. 

I. Teramnus labialis(L. f.) Spreng. Syst. Veg. 3: 235. 1826; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 
266. 1970, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 52,5. fig. 80 (1-12. 14)(sens. lat.). 1971; J. 
W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 119. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 496. 
fig. 119. 1979. 
Glycine lahialis L. f. SuppL PI. 325. 1782. 

A climbing, trailing, or prostrate herb, cultivated or naturalized near sea level. The 
slender stems are pilose with subappressed white hairs. In Pacific material the leaflet 
blades are narrowly elliptic to ovate, 2.5-7 x 1-3.5 cm., rounded to subacute and 
minutely apiculate at apex, essentially glabrous above, and appressed-white-pilose 
beneath. The inflorescences may become 10 cm. long, the calyx being appressed-pilose 
and with lanceolate lobes to 3 mm. long; the standard is 4-5 mm. long, white to 
purplish, drying orange, the wings pale mauve, and the keel petals white. Fruits are 
3.5-6 cm. long and 2.5-4 mm. broad, appressed-pilose but glabrate, with a terminal 
hook to 3 mm. long; the seeds are smooth, chestnut-brown, and up to 3 x 2 x 1.5 mm. 

Typification: Verdcourt (1970, cited above) indicated as lectotype Herb. Lin- 
naeus 901.15 (linn), grown at Uppsala from seed from India. 

Distribution: The species as a whole occurs from southeastern Asia into Malesia 
and also in tropical and South Africa. In Verdcourt's key (1970) to the species and 
infraspecific taxa of Teramnus. the Fijian (and perhaps all the Pacific) material falls 
into subsp. labialis var. lahialis. which is indigenous in the northern part of the range of 
the species. It is also recorded from Guam, Madagascar, and Rodrigues (Verdcourt, 



232 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

1970), but at least on Guam it may be a naturalized escape from cultivation. 

Use: A comparatively recent introduction into Fiji (probably in the 1930's), pre- 
sumably as a potential pasture legume, and locally naturalized as a weed. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU; Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 9465. Rewa; Suva, as a common weed on roadside, DA 2486. 

38. Centrosema Benth. Comment. Leg. Gen. 53. 1837; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:446. 
1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 518. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
499. 1979. Nom. cons. 

Prostrate or climbing herbs or low shrubs, the indument of fine, minutely uncinate 
hairs, the stipules persistent; leaves pinnately trifoliolate (as in our species) or some- 
times 1-, 5-, or 7-foliolate (rarely digitately 3- or 5-foliolate), stipellate; inflorescences 
axillary, pseudoracemose, with (1-) few-many flowers, these showy, 1 or 2 in bract 
axils, the bracts paired, usually persistent, the upper ones united, the bracteoles 
appressed to calyx, striate; calyx tube campanulate, the 2 upper lobes united into a 
bifid or emarginate lip; petals white to violet, the standard the longest, broadly 
orbicular, short-spurred or rarely tuberculate dorsally near base above the short claw, 
the keel petals broad, nearly as long as wings; stamens with the vexillary filament free 
or loosely connate with the others, the anthers uniform; ovary subsessile, linear, with 
many ovules, the style incurved, distally compressed and bearded, the stigma terminal; 
fruits linear, compressed, with 4 prominent ribs or wings near sutures, dehiscent, the 
style base often persistent as a beak, the seeds oblong or subglobose, compressed, the 
hilum small. 

Type species: Centrosema brasilianum (L.) Benth. (Clitoria brasiliana L.). Typ. 
cons. 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical America, with about 45 species, some of 
which are cultivated and sometimes naturalized elsewhere. One species has been 
introduced into Fiji and has become naturalized. 

1 . Centrosema pubescens Benth. Comment. Leg. Gen. 55. 1 837; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji 
Isl. 72. 1964, ed. 2. 110. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 218.//^. iZ fi. 1968; 
Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 147. 1970; Verdcourt in 
Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 520. fig. 76. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 501. fig. 
122. 1979. 
A climbing or prostrate herb, often forming tangled mats, introduced and now also 
naturalized near sea level along roadsides, in waste places, on river banks, and on 
coconut plantations. The stems are slender and pilose, the leaflet blades oblong to 
ovate, 3-9 x 1.5-5 cm., short-pilose but glabrate on both sides. The compact inflores- 
cences are several-flowered, the standard being blue to purple with darker veins and 
yellow-tinged, up to 4 x 3 cm., pubescent without, and with a spur scarcely 1 mm. long. 
The fruits, up to 17 cm. long and 7 mm. broad, are ribbed near the sutures, with 
numerous (often about 20) seeds up to 5 x 3 x 2 mm. and red-brown with black streaks. 
Flowers and fruits have been noted between May and September. 

Typification: The type is Keerle in Herb. Martius (m holotype), obtained near 
Tlalpuxahua, Mexico. 

Distribution: Tropical America, now widely cultivated and often naturalized. 
About 15 Fijian collections have been examined. 

Local names and uses: Centra is commonly appUed to the cultivated introduc- 
tions; the only Fijian name noted isp/'«//7^o/a(Lakemba). The species was introduced 
as a cover crop and fodder plant in the middle 1930's, and as elsewhere is a widely used 
pasture legume. 



1985 FABACEAE 233 

Representative collections: VlTl LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, DA 14348. Nandronga& Navosa: 
Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, near Singatoka, DA 11312. Ra: Pasture Seed and Production Farm, 
Ndombuilevu, DA 9519. Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, D.4 8485: 
Principal Agricultural Station, Koronivia, DA 12130. Tailevu: Between Mburetu and Ndaku, DA 870. 
VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: District Farm Northern, Seanggangga, DA L.I5608. NAITAMBA: DA 
9645. LAKEMBA: Near Tumbou, Garnock-Jones 879. 

39. Clitoria L. Sp. PI. 753. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 446. 1964; Verdcourt in 
Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 515. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 501. 1979. 

Shrubs or herbs, sometimes climbing, or rarely trees, the indument of fine, 
minutely uncinate hairs, the stipules striate, persistent; leaves pinnately 3-9-foliolate, 
rarely 1-foliolate, stipellate; inflorescences axillary (or on old branches), racemose or 
1- or 2-flowered, the flowers showy, resupinate, the bracts paired, the upper ones 
united, the pedicels often paired, the bracteoles at base of calyx usually large, striate; 
calyx infundibular, the 2 upper lobes subconnate only at base; petals large, the 
standard the largest, suborbicular, not appendaged, the wings adherent to keel, the 
keel petals shorter than wings; stamens with the vexillary filament free or subconnate 
with the others, the anthers uniform or alternately dorsifixed and subbasifixed; ovary 
stipitate, linear, compressed, the ovules 2-many, the style elongated, incurved, 
bearded distally on vexillary side, the stigma terminal; fruits linear-oblong, com- 
pressed, beaked, sometimes longitudinally ribbed, dehiscent, the seeds ellipsoid or 
subglobose, compressed, the hilum small. 

Lectotype species: Clitoria ternatea L. (vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. S. ed. 
2. 2: 416. 1913), one of Linnaeus's four original species. 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical but mostly American, with 30-70 
species. One introduced species has become naturalized in Fiji. 

1. Clitoria ternatea L. Sp. PI. 753. 1753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 74. 1865; Gibbsin J. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. 39: 144. 1909; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 96. 1943; Yuncker in 
Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 63. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 145. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji 
Isl. 72. 1964, ed. 2. 1 10. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 
200: 147. 1970; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 5\5. fig. 75. 1971, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. 502. y?^. 123. 1979. 
A perennial climbing or sprawling herb, cultivated and also naturalized along 
roadsides and in villages, clearings, and canefields, at elevations up to about 300 m. 
The slender stems may be 3 m. long, and the rootstock is woody. The leaflets are 5 or 7 
(rarely 9), the blades oblong to elliptic, 2.5-7 ^ 1.5-4 cm., appressed-pilose but 
subglabrate on both sides. The flowers are solitary or paired in leaf axils; the calyx is 
about 2 cm. long, with conspicuous basal bracteoles and lobes; and the standard is blue 
to violet, with a pale yellow or white proximal blotch, up to 5 x 4 cm., and finely 
puberulent dorsally. The linear-oblong fruits are thick-margined and slightly broad- 
ened distally, up to 12 x 1 cm., appressed-pilose but subglabrate, with 6-10 seeds, 
these pale or dark brown with darker mottling, up to 8 x 4 x 2.5 mm. Flowers and fruits 
occur throughout the year. 

Lectotypification: Of the several references given by Linnaeus, the logical choice 
is represented by Hermann (3: 13, 20; 4: 49) (bm lectosyntypes), from Ceylon 
(Verdcourt, 1971, cited above). 

Distribution: Although the original distribution of this now pantropical species 
is not certain, it was probably indigenous in tropical America. More than 20 Fijian 
collections are at hand. 

Local names and use: The butterfly pea has been recorded in Fiji as latoela 
( Yasawas) and nawa (Tuvutha). It was introduced as an ornamental before 1 860, when 



234 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Seemann noted it but did not collect a voucher, and is often grown as a trellis plant. 
The species has become so thoroughly naturalized that it is sometimes considered 
indigenous. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: Waya; Along Wailevu Creek, Si. John 18082. VITI LEVU: 
Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 145: Nandi, DA 9691: Rarawai, near Mba, Greenwood 145B. Nandronga & 
Navosa; Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, near Singatoka, DA 12317. Serua: Ngaloa, DA 5758. Ra: 
Thamboni, DA 11471. Naitasiri; Cocoa Station, Nanduruloulou, DA 12149. Rewa: Suva: Meebold 16504. 
KORO: Eastern slope of main ridge. Smith 1028. NGAU: Sawaieke, Smilh 7894. VANUA LEVU: 
Mathuata: Lambasa, Greenwood 145A. VANUA MBALAVU: Sawana, DA 13260. TUVUTHA: Bryan 
546. 

40. PsoPHOCARPUS DC. Prodr. 2: 403. 1825; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 442, as 
Psophocarpos Necker. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 602. 1971; 
Verdcourt & Halliday in Kew Bull. 33: 191. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 530. 1979. Norn. cons. 

Herbs or shrubs, usually climbing or prostrate, the stipules prolonged below point 
of insertion; leaves pinnately trifoliolate (as in our species) or unifoliolate, stipellate; 
inflorescences axillary, pseudoracemose or with fasciculate or solitary flowers, the 
rachis nodose, the bracts small, caducous, the bracteoles larger, membranous; calyx 
5-lobed, the 2 upper lobes forming an entire or bifid lip; petals predominantly blue or 
purplish, the standard suborbicular, basally auriculate, glabrous, the wings oblique, 
obovate, the keel petals sharply incurved distally; stamens 10, the vexillary filament 
free or somewhat connate to tube of the others in middle, the anthers dorsifixed (5) and 
basifixed (5) alternating; ovary short-stipitate, winged, the ovules few-many, the style 
thickened above ovary, bent, flattened toward apex, glabrous but longitudinally 
bearded (as in our species) or with a ring of hairs below stigma, the stigma terminal or 
internal, penicillate; fruits oblong, distinctly 4-winged along angles, somewhat septate 
between seeds, dehiscent, the seeds ovoid to ellipsoid, an aril present or absent. 

Type species: Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. {Dolichos tetragonolobus 
L.). 

Distribution: Paleotropical and possibly indigenous only in Africa and Madagas- 
car, with nine species, one of them of doubtful geographic origin and perhaps Asian. 
One or two species have been widely cultivated. 

Useful treatment of genus: Verdcourt, B., & P. Halliday. A revision of Psophocarpus 
(Leguminosae-Papilionoideae-Phaseoleae). Kew Bull. 33: 191-227. 1978. 

1. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. Prodr. 2: 403. 18*25; Merr. Interpret. 
Rumph. Herb. Amb. 286. 1917; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 76. 1964, ed. 2. 116. 
1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 315.//g. 49. 1968; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 74. 
fig. 2.14. 1976; Verdcourt & Halliday in Kew Bull. 33: 196. fig. 3. 1978; Verdcourt, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. 533. fig. 130. 1979. 
Dolichos tetragonolobus L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1162. 1759. 
A climbing annual or perennial herb, occasionally cultivated near sea level, the 
glabrous stems attaining a length of 4 m. The leaflet blades are deltoid-ovate and acute, 
up to 15 X 12 cm. The pedunculate inflorescences are 2-10-flowered, the calyx is green 
to reddish purple, and the petals are mauve, often tinged with yellow, red, or white, the 
standard being 2.5-4 cm. long. The Unear-oblong fruits, usually about 10-30 x 3 cm., 
are green and sometimes red-spotted, with serrated wings as much as 1 cm. broad. The 
seeds are 5-20, to 1 cm. in length, and yellowish to brown or mottled. Our only 
available collection was fruiting in July. 

Typification: The whole basis of Dolichos tetragonolobus is Lobus quadrangula- 
ris Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5: 374. t. 133. 1747, based on material cultivated in Amboina. 



1985 FABACEAE 235 

Distribution: No wild specimens of Psophocarpus tetragonolobus have ever been 
found, and there is disagreement as to its place of origin, some authors believing its 
home to have been in Madagascar or Mauritius, where P. scandens{End\.) Verdcourt, 
conceivably its wild ancestor, is not uncommon. Verdcourt and Halliday (1978, cited 
above) suggest that P. tetragonolobus may be an improved race of a native Asian 
species. It is now widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas. 

Local names and uses: The most frequently used names, winged bean and Goa 
bean, are noted in Fiji. The plant has a high protein content and most parts of it are 
edible, including the young shoots, leaves, young fruits, seeds, and the tuberous root. It 
is also useful as a cover crop and fodder plant. In spite of its notably high nutritive 
value, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus seems to have been a comparatively recent 
introduction into Fiji, where it is not common in cultivation. Most often only the 
young pods are cooked and eaten in the manner of string beans. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Cocoa Station, Nandumloulou, DA 12177. 

41. Lablab Adanson, Fam. PI. 2: 325. 1763; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:440. 1964; 
Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 696. 1971; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 
244. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 535. 1979. 

Suberect or climbing herb, without uncinate hairs, the stipules usually reflexed and 
persistent, not produced below point of insertion; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, the 
stipels lanceolate; inflorescences axillary, pseudoracemose, long-pedunculate, the 
flowers in clusters of 2-4 at nodes along rachis, the bracts and bracteoles caducous, the 
pedicel about equal to calyx in length; calyx campanulate, bilabiate, the 2 upper lobes 
joined into an entire or emarginate lip, the lower lip 3-lobed; petals small, the standard 
orbicular, reflexed, auriculate at base, with 2 carnose, parallel callosities, the wings 
longer than keel, the keel petals incurved at a right angle, obtuse, with a small, convex 
pocket at base; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 connate into a sheath, the vexillary fila- 
ment free or loosely joined to sheath, the anthers uniform; ovary with several ovules, 
the style incrassated, lacking a tenuous basal portion, longitudinally flattened, in- 
curved at a right angle, short-barbate distally adaxially, the stigma terminal, glabrous; 
fruits obliquely oblong-falcate, laterally compressed, with salient margins, tipped by 
the persistent style, with spongy septa, the seeds ovoid, slightly compressed, the hilum 
linear, with a whitish rim-aril. 

Type species; Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet (Dolichos purpureus L.). For a long 
period this same species (as Dolichos lablab L.) had been considered the lectotype 
species of Dolichos, but after many discussions it was agreed to accept Dolichos 
trilobus L. to lectotypify that genus. Since the genus that includes D. lablab is now 
considered monotypic, a great number of new combinations would have been required 
without the present conservation of Dolichos in the sense of D. trilobus. The complex 
situation is summarized in Taxon 21: 533. 1972. The genus Dolichos in its presently 
accepted sense does not occur in Fiji. 

Distribution: Paleotropical and monotypic, now widely cultivated and often 
naturalized in tropical areas. 

I. Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. 481. 1827; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24:410. 

1970, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 696. fig. 1 04 (subsps. uncinatus. bengalensis). 

1971; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 244. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 537. 

fig. 131 (subsp. purpureus). 1979. 

Dolichos lablab L. Sp. PI. 725. 1753; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 155. 1890; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. 

Soc. 154:96. 1 94.1; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178:66. 1943, in op. at. 220: 150. 1959; J. W. Parham, 

PI. Fiji Isl. 74. 1964, ed. 2. 112. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 154. 1970. 



236 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Dolichos purpureus L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1021. 1763. 

Lablab niger Medik. in Vorles. Churpfalz. Phys.-Ocon. Ges. 2: 354. 1787; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 
m.fig. 42. 1968; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, (>\.fig. 2.8, 2.18 (16). 1976. 

Lablab vulgaris Savi in Nuovo Giorn. Lett. III. 8: 1 \().fig. 8, a-c. 1824; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 
453. 1854;Seem. inBonplandia9:255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 62. 1865; Guillaumin in J. Arnold 
Arb. 12:246. 1931. 

Lablab vulgaris var. albiflorus DC. Prodr. 2: 401. 1825; Seem. Fl. Vit. 62. 1865. 
As seen in Fiji, Lablab purpureus is a perennial scrambling vine, cultivated and 
naturalized but sometimes appearing to be indigenous, often found in beach thickets 
but sometimes in open places or waste places up to about 450 m. Although the 
cultivated plant is typically flushed with purple in all its parts, this is not always 
obvious in naturalized individuals. The leaflet blades are deltoid-ovate, up to about 1 5 
X 14 cm., and acute to acuminate. The inflorescences are often up to 50 cm. long; the 
standard, up to 1.5 cm. in diameter, and other petals vary from purple to mauve or 
white (in most Pacific archipelagoes the petal color is noted as white). Fruits (in subsp. 
purpureus) are as large as 10 >< 4 cm., with seeds white to red or black and usually not 
larger than 15 >< 9 x 5 mm. Our material is too sparsely dated to suggest seasonality. 
Typification and nomenclature: The type oi Dolichos lablab is Phaseolus niger 
lablab of Alpini, from Egypt (1592); Lablab niger and L. vulgaris were new names for 
Dolichos lablab. No type for Dolichos purpureus seems to be present in the Linnaean 
Herbarium. Lablab vulgaris var. albiflorus was based by de Candolle on Dolichos 
bengalensis Jacq. Hort. Bot. Vindob. 2: 57. 1772. Ofthe several earlier references cited 
by Linnaeus under Dolichos lablab, Verdcourt (1971, cited above) indicated the type 
(lectotype) as Alpini's name. As the epithet cannot be used in the genus Lablab, the 
oldest available epithet is provided by Dolichos purpureus, the type of which has not 
been found. 

Distribution: Paleotropical. Although the most frequently cultivated subspecies 
(subsp. purpureus), the form of the species known from Pacific islands, presumably 
originated in Asia, related wild subspecies are indigenous in Africa as well as in Asia. 
There are many varieties or cultivars of subsp. purpureus, some of which (as in Fiji) are 
so thoroughly naturalized as to appear indigenous. The species was probably an 
aboriginal introduction into many Pacific archipelagoes; it was present in Tahiti at the 
time of Cook's visits, and it has well-known Fijian names, although in 1860 Fijians 
seemed unaware that the seeds were edible (Seemann, 1865). 

Local names and uses: Fijian names for the hyacinth bean are ndralawa, 
natomba, and tomba; elsewhere the species is known as bonavist(e)bean, lablab bean, 
Egyptian kidney bean, and dolichos. The species has doubtless been introduced in 
recent times as a cover crop, for pasture improvement, and for fodder, as it has a high 
protein content. The leaves, young pods, and seeds are edible. If originally an aborigi- 
nal introduction it may have been considered an emergency food plant and subse- 
quently neglected. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mountains inland from Lautoka, Greenwood 368. 
Tailevu: Mburetu, DA 87. Rewa: Suva, near wharf, DA 14534. OVALAU; Milne 235. TAVEUNI: 
Somosomo, Seemann 118. MATUK.U: Bryan 236. KAMBARA: Tolhill 123. Fiji without further locality, 
U. S. Expl. Exped, DA 11836. 

42. Macrotyloma Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 322, 400. 1970, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Papil. 581. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 529. 1979. Norn. cons. 
Dolichos a. Macrotyloma Wight & Arn. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 248. 1834. 
Dolichos subgen. Macrotyloma Baker in Hook, f Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 210. 1876. 
Kerstingiella Harms in Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 26a: 230. 1908. Nom. rejic. 



1985 FABACEAE 237 

Annual or perennial herbs, climbing or trailing or sometimes erect, the rootstock 
sometimes ligneous, the stipules not produced below point of insertion; leaves pin- 
nately trifoliolate (as in our species) or less often unifoliolate, stipellate; inflorescences 
axillary or racemiform at stem apices, fasciculate; calyx with the 2 upper lobes joined 
to form an entire or bifid lip; petals comparatively small, the standard elliptic to 
suborbicular, usually auriculate, with 2 linear, lamelliform appendages on inner 
surface, the wings narrow, the keel petals not twisted; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 
connate into a sheath, the vexillary filament free, the anthers uniform; ovary with 3- 1 3 
ovules, the style subfiliform, glabrous or short-pilose but not barbate, the stigma 
terminal, subcapitate, usually surrounded by a ring of hairs; fruits straight or curved, 
compressed, not septate, dehiscing, the valves often twisting, the seeds compressed, the 
hilum short, the rim-aril inconspicuous or none. 

Lectotype species: Macrotyloma uniflurum (Lam.) Verdcourt (Dolichos uniflo- 
rus Lam.). 

Distribution: Africa and Asia, with about 24 species, some of which are now 
widely cultivated and sometimes naturalized. Two species have been cultivated in Fiji 
for potential pasture improvement, but their establishment is not yet recorded. 

Key to species 
Lower and lateral calyx lobes deltoid-lanceolate, 3-8 mm. long, abruptly attenuate mto a long, filiform apex 
2-severaI times longer than the expanded basal portion of the lobe; standard obovate-oblong. up to 1 2 x 
7 mm.; fruits 3-5.5 cm. long and (in var. uniftorum) 6-8 mm. broad; stems with spreading mdument. 

I. A/, uniflorum 

Lower and lateral calyx lobes acuminate but not filiform, the acumen no more than 1 .5 times as long as the 

expanded basal portion of the lobe; standard (in var. g/a/irum)upto 15 " 9 mm.; fruits 3-8 cm. long and 

6-8 mm. broad; stems with appressed indument (in var. glahrum) 2. A/, axiilare 

L Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 322, 401 .p/. 8 (13). 1970, 
in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 583. 1971. 
Dolichos uniflorus Lam. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 2: 299. 1786; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 263. 1968; 

Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 58. /jg. 2.18 (15). 1976. 
Dolichos biflorus sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 112. 1972, et auth. mult.; non L. 

A suberect or twining herb, perennial or (in cultivation) annual, up to 50 cm. high, 
sparingly cultivated near sea level. The stems are slender, with soft, spreading, pale 
hairs. The elliptic to ovate leaflet blades, usually not more than 5 cm. long at maturity, 
are soft-white-pilose on both surfaces when young. The inflorescences are usually 2- or 
3-flowered, with calyx lobes longer than the tube; the petals are cream-colored to pale 
or greenish yellow, the standard being obovate-oblong, up to 12 x 7 mm., and 
inconspicuously purple-blotched within. The fruits are pilose with pale, spreading 
hairs and at length glabrate, usually with 5-7 seeds up to 6 x 4 x 2 mm. and pale to dark 
red-brown or black or mottled. The single available collection bore flowers and fruits 
in May. 

Typification: The species is based on a plant grown in the Jardin du Roi, Paris, 
from seeds obtained in India by Sonnerat (p-la holotype). 

Distribution: India to South Africa. Of the several varieties accepted by Verd- 
court (1970, 1971), our material represents var. uniflorum. indigenous in India but 
cultivated elsewhere in tropical areas. It was introduced into Fiji in 1964 for trial and is 
perhaps still limited to introduction gardens. 

Local names and uses: The horse gram was recorded by Parham (1972, cited 
above) as kulthi. a non-Fijian name that 1 am unable to trace. In India the seeds are 
used in various ways, being edible after cooking, and the entire plant is used as fodder. 
Elsewhere it is cultivated as a cover crop or a green manure. 



238 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Available collection: VITl LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, in trial plots, DA 14353. This plant was 
grown from FDA introduction no. 15999, from seeds collected in Queensland by W. F. Wildin and received 
in Fiji on Nov. 28, 1964 (cf. Dept. Agr. Fiji PI. Introduction List no. 12. 1965). Three introductions were 
made at the same time (as Dolichos biflorus). 

2. Macrotyloma axillare (E. Meyer) Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 402.pl. 4 (14). 1970, in 
Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 586. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 52,0. fig. 129. 1979. 
Dolichos axillaris E. Meyer, Comm. PI. Afr. Austr. 1: 144. 1838. 

The variety introduced into Fiji is presumably var. glabrum (E. Meyer) Verdcourt 
(1970, 1971, 1979, cited above), the variety with comparatively small flowers and 
sparse, rather dense, appressed hairs, which has been used as a pasture legume in 
tropical and subtropical parts of Australia. 

Typification (of var. glabrum): The basionym is Dolichos axillaris var. glaber E. 
Meyer (1838, loc. cit.), typified by Drege (k isotype), from Natal, South Africa. 

Distribution (of var. glabrum): Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, and 
Ceylon, cultivated elsewhere. No Fijian herbarium voucher is available, but this taxon 
(as Dolichos axillaris) was introduced into Fiji by W. F. '^'Mm(FDA 1 6000- 1 6004) at 
the same time as Macrotyloma uniflorum. It probably persists in one or more intro- 
duction gardens and may be anticipated in use for pasture improvement. 

43. ViGNA Savi in Nuovo Giorn. Lett. IIL 8: 113. 1824; Seem. Fl. Vit. 62. 1865; 

Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 438. 1964; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 526. 1970, in Fl. 

Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 617. 1971; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 1978; Verdcourt, 

Man. New Guinea Leg. 515. 1979. Nom. cons. 
Voandzeia Thou. Gen. Nova Madagasc. 23. 1806. Nom. rejic. 
Climbing or prostrate herbs or subshrubs, rarely short and erect, lacking uncinate 
hairs, the rootstocks usually ligneous or tuberous, the stipules produced below point of 
insertion or not; leaves pinnately trifoliolate (as in our species) or rarely subdigitately 
trifoliolate or unifoliolate, the stipels more or less persistent; inflorescences axillary or 
terminal, pseudoracemose (or densely subumbellate or fasciculate), the rachis con- 
tracted, the flowers often in nodose fascicles, never more than 2 per node, the bracts 
and bracteoles small, caducous, the pedicels thick, shorter than or about as long as 
calyx; calyx bilabiate, the 2 upper lobes completely or partly united, the lower lip 
3-lobed (middle lobe usually the longest); petals yellow or purplish, the standard 
orbicular, with inflexed auricles and usually with 1-4 appendages, the wings slightly 
shorter than standard, the keel petals about as long as wings or longer, obtuse or 
beaked, sometimes incurved through up to 360° (in our species spirally incurved for 
2-3 turns only in V. adenaniha), sometimes twisted and with a conical pocket on 
left-hand petal; stamens 10, alternately slightly longer and shorter, the filaments of 9 
connate into a sheath, the vexillary filament free, the anthers uniform; ovary sessile, 
the ovules 3-many, the style with the tenuous lower part filiform to flattened or rarely 
obsolete, the upper part thickened, straight or curved, bearded lengthwise proximally 
within, sometimes produced beyond stigma into a beak, the stigma oblique or in- 
trorsely lateral, rarely subterminal; fruits linear to oblong-linear, subterete or flat- 
tened, straight or somewhat incurved, dehiscent, not septate, the style caducous, the 
seeds reniform or quadrate, the hilum short to elongate, the rim-aril well developed to 
obsolete. 

Type species: Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth. {Dolichos luteolus Jacq., the only 
species mentioned by name in the original protologue of the genus). 

Distribution: Pantropical, with about 150 species. Eight species are here recorded 
from Fiji, three of them indigenous (one being a common component of beach 



1985 FABACEAE 239 

vegetation) and the others introduced and sometimes naturalized. The genus includes 
many species of agricultural importance. 

Useful treatment of genus: Marechal, R., J. M. Mascherpa, & F. Stainier. Etude taxonomique 
d'un groupe complexe d'especes des genres Phaseolus et Vigna (Papilionaceae) sur la base de donnees 
morphologiques et polliniques, traitees par I'analyse informatique. Boissiera 28: 1-273. 1978. (This impor- 
tant contribution summarizes current concepts m the genus l^'igna and its close relatives. The chapter 
"Proposition de classification," pp. 133-252, is by Marechal alone and in the present treatment is so cited. 

Specialists in the subtribe Phaseolinae have found it difficult to propose sound 
distinctions among the genera Phaseolus, Vigna. and their close relatives, the problem 
being informatively discussed by Verdcourt (in Kew Bull. 24: 507-525. 1970) and 
Marechal, Mascherpa, and Stainier (1978, cited above). In the following key to species 
occurring in Fiji, the subgenera and sections utilized by Marechal (1978) are parenthe- 
tically indicated, although the key statements, of course, do not provide full criteria for 
those infrageneric taxa. 

Key to species 
Stipules distinctly peltate or at least well produced both above and below point of attachment, 8-25 mm. 
long; keel truncate, obtuse, or beaked, the beak sometimes incurved but through no more than 360° or 1 
complete turn. 
Keel bearing a prominent, hornlike pocket on one side; petals yellow, sometimes tinged with pink or 
purple; style with the thickened part very strongly curved, prominently and strongly beaked beyond 
the stigma (subgen. Ceratolropis). 
Leaflet blades 5-8 cm. long, deeply divided into 3-5 narrow lobes; fruits up to 5 cm. long and 5 mm. 

broad, with short, stiff hairs; seeds 4-9; cultivated only 1. I', acomtifolia 

Leaflet blades entire or with 2 or 3 very shallow, broad lobes; fruits 4- 1 6 cm. long and 3-6 mm. broad; 

seeds 6-15. 

Fruits glabrous at maturity, 8-16 cm. long, 3-5 mm. broad; seeds comparatively large, 4-9 « 3.5-5 

mm., predominantly castaneous to blackish-speckled, the rim-aril distinctly raised; stems with 

short, white hairs; leaflet blades ovate, up to 15x8 cm.; inflorescences densely conical, usually 

5-20-flowered, long-pedunculate; cultivated and sparingly naturalized 2. V. umbellaia 

Fruits bristly-pilose orscabridulous,usually4-10cm. long and 4-6 mm. broad; seeds upto 5 "< 4 mm.; 

stems with conspicuous, yellow to brown or ferrugineous hairs; leaflet blades elliptic to ovate, 

oblong, or lanceolate, up to 16 " 12 cm.; inflorescences not densely conical. 

Erect annual herbs, cultivated or infrequently naturalized; fruits with long or short, bristly hairs, 

suberect or horizontal; stem and peduncle indument composed of spreading hairs. 

Stems and fruits densely covered with long hairs, the fruits suberect, copiously pilose with pale to 

ferrugineous hairs 3-4 mm. long; seeds 6-10, black to dull olive-green, with a distinctly 

raised rim-aril around hilum; stipules ovate to lanceolate, up to 15 " 4 mm.; inflorescences 

usually 5- or 6-flowered; petals uniformly bnght yellow 3. V. mungo 

Stems and fruits less densely pilose, or hairs shorter, the fruits horizontal, with dark brown, 
short, spreading hairs; seeds 10-15, greenish to brown or blackish, the rim-aril not raised; 
stipules peltate, ovate, up to 18 x 10 mm.; inflorescences 4-25-flowered; petals pale yellow, 

often pink- to purple-tinged 4. C. radtata 

Twining or climbing perennial, indigenous; fruits reflexed to pendulous, pale-strigillose, becoming 
scabridulous; stem and peduncle indument composed of strongly reflexed, fulvous hairs ( 1 -) 
1.5-3 mm. long; stipules oblong-lanceolate, up to 12 x 4 mm.; inflorescences with peduncles 
8-30 cm. long and rachises 3-5 cm. long, few-flowered; petals uniformly bright yellow. 

5. V. reflexo-pilosa 

Keel without pockets; petals white or greenish, tinged with yellow, blue, or purple; style with the thickened 

part slightly curved and with a short, upturned beak beyond the stigma; fruits in our subspecies very 

variable, 7.5-100 cm. long, 3-11 mm. broad, glabrous; leaflet blades usually 6-16 « 4-1 1 cm., entire 

or sometimes inconspicuously lobed; cultivated only (subgen. Vigna. sect. Caliang). 

6. V. unguicutala 

Stipules ovate or oblong-ovate, conspicuously or obviously nerved, 2-5 mm. long, not obviously produced 

below point of attachment; indigenous species. 

Keel not much longer than other petals, incurved for about half a complete turn or less; petals yellow, the 

standard usually 1 2- 1 4 mm. in diameter; fruits linear-oblong, usually 4-8cm.»5-7mm.; stipules 2-3 

mm. long, inconspicuously bilobed at base, caducous; leaflet blades rhomboid-elliptic to obovate, 

rounded to emarginate at apex; abundant along beaches, usually not found much above sea level 

(subgen. Vigna. sect. Vigna) 7. V. manna 



240 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Keel elongated, about 5 cm. long, the apex beaked and spirally incurved for 2-3 complete turns; petals 
whitish to pale pink or purpHsh blue, the standard 15-25 mm. in diameter; fruits broadly linear, 
usually 8-14 cm. x 7-14 mm.; stipules 3-5 mm. long, truncate at base, subpersistent; leaflet blades 
ovate to rhomboid, obtuse to acute and mucronulate at apex; species of dry areas and open grassland, 
occurring near sea level and also inland along streams (subgen. Sigmoidotropis, sect. Leptospron). 

8. V. adenantha 

1. Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal in Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Beige 39: 160. (June) 

1969; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 23: 464. (Nov.) 1969, in op. cit. 24: 557. 1970; 
Marechal in Boissiera 28: 213. 1978. 
Phaseolus aconilifolius Jacq. Obs. Bot. 3: 2. l. 52. 1768; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964, ed. 2. 115. 

1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 286. 1968; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 65. 1976. 

A slender, trailing, freely branching, annual herb to 30 cm. high, found only in 
cultivation near sea level. The peltate stipules are about 12 mm. long, with lanceolate 
lobes, and the leaflet blades are 5-8 cm. long, deeply 3-5-divided into lobes. The 
axillary inflorescences have peduncles 5-10 cm. long and the rachis short, with 2-5 
flowers with yellow petals. The small fruits are subcylindric, up to 5 cm. long and 5 
mm. broad, brown, and with short, stiff hairs; the 4-9 seeds are rectangular, about 5 
mm. long, yellow to brown or black-mottled, with the hilum linear and white. 

Typification: Jacquin cited Petiver, "hort. sice, ined.," the holotype perhaps being 
at BM. 

Distribution: Indigenous in southeastern Asia (Pakistan, India, Burma), early 
spread to other parts of the Old World and to the New World early in the twentieth 
century. It is probably a fairly recent introduction into Fiji, having first been noted in 
cultivation about 1942. 

Local names and uses: Names used in Fiji are moth (Hindi) and moth bean; 
elsewhere the species is sometimes known as mat. The green pods are edible as a 
vegetable, and the ripe seeds are also edible when cooked. The plant is sometimes 
grown for fodder and as a green manure. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU; Naitasiri: Nakandi, DA 2616. Tailevu: Kandavulevu road, near 
Naila, DA 5641. 

2. Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi in J. Jap. Bot. 44: 31. 1969; Verdcourt in 

Kew Bull. 24: 560. 1970; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 214. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. 

New Guinea Leg. 525. 1979. 
Dolichos umbellatus Thunb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 2: 339. 1794. 
Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 3: 289. 1832; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 96. 1943; J. W. 

Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964, ed. 2. 115. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 294. 1968; Smartt, Trop. 

Pulses, k%.fig. 2.18 (7). 1976. 

A climbing or suberect annual herb, cultivated and also sparingly naturalized near 
sea level, the stems 1.5-3 m. long or tall and with short, white hairs. The stipules are 
ovate-lanceolate, striate, about 1 cm. long and 2-3 mm. broad. The usually ovate 
leaflet blades are 5-15 ^ 3-8 cm., entire or faintly 3-lobed, acute at apex, and usually 
pilose. The long-pedunculate inflorescences have a short rachis bearing 5-20 flowers in 
a dense cone, and the bracteoles are linear, longer than the calyx. The petals are yellow, 
12-20 mm. long, the keel with a long pocket. The fruits are 8- 1 6 cm. long and 3-5 mm. 
broad, glabrous at maturity, and with 8-15 brown to yellow or blackish-speckled seeds 
up to 9 X 5 mm., the rim-aril being white and distinctly raised. 

Typification and nomenclature: Dolichos umbellatus is typified by no. 16789 
preserved at uPS (Verdcourt, 1970). Roxburgh mentions that Phaseolus calcaratus v/as 
grown at the Calcutta Botanic Garden from seed sent by Benjamin Heyne from a 
cultivated plant in Mysore. Specialists now agree on this synonymy. 

Distribution: From the Himalayas and central China into Malesia, now culti- 



1985 FABACEAE 241 

vated elsewhere in the Old World tropics. It was introduced into Fiji in 1920 (Green- 
wood, 1943, cited above). Of the two varieties recognized by Marechal (1978), the 
commonly cultivated plant represents var. umhellata. 

Local name and uses: The well-known name rice hean is utilized in Fiji. The 
boiled seeds are often eaten with or as a substitute for rice; the young foliage and fruits 
may be cooked and eaten as a vegetable, and the plant is also sometimes used for 
fodder and as a green manure. 

Available collection: VITl LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, W. L. Parham (?) 799 (April 8. 1929) (k). 

3. Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper in Kew Bull. 11: 128. 1956; Verdcourt in op. cit. 24: 558. 

1970; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 209. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 521. 
1979. 
Phaseolus mungo L. Mant. PI. 101. 1767; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 76. 1964,ed. 2. 1 16. 1972; Purseglove. 

Trop. Crops, Dicot. 301. % 46. 1968; Smartt. Trop. Pulses, 68. /Jg. 2.11. 1976. 
Phaseolus aureus sensu Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 96. 1943; non Roxb. 

An erect or suberect, branched, annual herb to 80 cm. high, cultivated near sea level 
and occasionally naturalized along roadsides, in waste places, and on cultivated land. 
The stems have copious yellow or ferrugineous hairs, and the stipules are ovate to 
lanceolate, up to 15 x 4 mm. The leaflet blades are elliptic to ovate, sometimes 
oblong-lanceolate, usually 5-16 x 3-12 cm., entire or inconspicuously lobed, acute, 
and bristly-pilose on both surfaces or becoming glabrate. The inflorescences are 
composed of about 5 or 6 flowers on a short rachis at the end of a peduncle 4-10 cm. 
long. The petals are uniformly bright yellow, 10-16 mm. long. The fruits are suberect, 
compressed-cylindric, usually 4-7 cm. long and 5-6 mm. broad, copiously pilose with 
pale to ferrugineous hairs 3-4 mm. long, and with 6-10 seeds, these black or dull 
olive-green, oblong, up to 5 x 4 mm., and with the rim-aril raised. 

Typification: Linnaeus's only original reference was to "Pluk. aim. 290," presum- 
ably Plukenet's Almagesium Botanicum. t. 290. 1694. 

Distribution: A plant of ancient cultivation in India and not known in a wild 
state, but perhaps ultimately derived from Vigna radiata var. suhlohata (Roxb.) 
Verdcourt, the wild form oi mung. A degree of confusion between the black gram (V. 
mungo) and the green gram (V. radiata) has been pointed out by Verdcourt (in Fl. 
Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 621, 656. 1971), but the crops are totally different. T\\c black 
gram was probably introduced into Fiji in the early 1900's. 

Local names and uses: The commonly used namts black gram, urd {H\nd\), and 
woolly pyrol are noted in Fiji. The young pods are used as a vegetable, the ripe seeds 
are boiled and eaten. The species is also often used as a cover crop or a green manure. 
Many cultivars have been developed in India. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Ra: Penang, Greenwood 5 10 A. Naitasiri: Principal Agricultural 
Station, Koronivia, DA 7003. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Lambasa, Greenwood 510. 

4. Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek in Fl. Congo Beige 6: 386. 1954; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 

24: 558. 1970, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 655. 1971; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 
209. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 523. 1979. 
Phaseolus radiatus L. Sp. PI. 725. 1753. 

Phaseolus aureus Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2.3:297. 1832; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji IsL 75. 1964, ed. 2. 115. 1972; 

Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 290. fig. 44. 1968; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, bb. fig. 2.10, 2.18 (11). 1976. 

An erect (in cultivated variants) or twining annual herb, occasionally cultivated 

near sea level. The stems have long, spreading, yellow to brown, bristly hairs, and the 

stipules are peltate, ovate, and up to 18 x 10 mm. The leaflet blades are very similar to 

those of Vigna mungo. but the inflorescences may have more numerous (4-25) flowers; 



242 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

the petals are pale yellow, with the keel (and other) petals pink- to purple-tinged. The 
fruits are horizontal, linear-cylindric, 4-10 cm. long and 4-6 mm. broad, with a dark 
brown, short, spreading, bristly indument; the 10-15 seeds are greenish to brown or 
blackish, oblong-cylindric to subglobose, up to 4.2 x 3.2 x 2.8 mm., and with the 
rim-aril not developed. 

Typification and nomenclature: Of Linnaeus's several original references, 
Verdcourt ( 197 1 , cited above) has indicated as lectotype Phaseolus zeylanicus siliquis 
... of Dillenius, Hort. Eltham. 315. r. 235, fig. 304. 1732, from Ceylon. The synonym 
Phaseolus aureus is in the same place typified by Roxburgh drawing 1604 (k 
holotype), based on a plant from Bengal, India. 

Distribution: Vigna radiata van radiata is considered the Indian cultivated crop 
of ancient origin derived from var. sublobata (Roxb.) Verdcourt {Phaseolus subloba- 
tus Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 3: 288. 1832, based on Roxburgh drawing 1 158 (k lectotype), 
cf. Verdcourt, 1971). Variety radiata is now grown in tropical and subtropical areas 
throughout the world. Probably it was introduced into Fiji during the present century. 

Local names and uses: Names applied to this taxon in Fiji, as elsewhere, SiXt green 
gram, golden gram, mung (Hindi), and mung bean. The freshly germinated seeds are 
the "bean sprouts" widely used in oriental dishes. The dried seeds are edible when 
boiled, and the young pods are cooked as a vegetable. The species is also sometimes 
used as a cover crop or a green manure. 

Available collections: VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: Wainingata Station, near Savusavu. DA 
12035, 12036. 

5. Vigna reflexo-pilosa Hayata in J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30 (1): 82. 1911; 
Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 560. 1970; Tateishi in Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., 
Ser. 4, Biol. 38: 347.//^. 1 (9), 2 (4), 3 (6). 1984. 
Phaseolus mungo sensu A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 449. 1854; Seem. Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 61. 

1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 154. 1890; non L. 
" Neuranthus subspicatus Benth." sensu Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861. 
Phaseolus aureus sensu Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 149. 1959; non Roxb. 
A scandent plant, often with subligneous stems, occurring in thickets or open forest 
from near sea level to an elevation of a few hundred meters. The stems, petioles, and 
peduncles are copiously pilose with strongly retrorse, fulvous hairs (1-) 1.5-3 mm. 
long. The stipules are 10-12 x 3-4 mm., the stipels 2-6 mm. long, the petiolules 3-6 
mm. long, and the leaflet blades 8.5-14 x 5-10.5 cm., the lateral ones often notched on 
lower margin. The inflorescences have peduncles 8-30 cm. long and short, few- 
flowered rachises 3-5 cm. long, with uniformly bright yellow petals. The mature fruits 
(cf. Walker, Fl. Okinawa S. Ryukyu Isl. 596. 1976) are said to be reflexed or pendu- 
lous, 5-6 cm. X 4-5 mm., dark brown to blackish, becoming scabridulous (Hayata, 
1911), with blackish, mottled seeds. 

Typification: The type is Kawakami & Mori 1767 (ti holotype), collected Oct. 9, 
1906, at Kishiri, Kagi (cited by Tateishi, 1984, as Chiayi: Kuetsuling), Taiwan. 

Distribution: Japan (rare in Kyushu), Ryukyu Islands, and Taiwan, southward 
and eastward into Malesia (Philippines, Sumatra, Java, Timor, New Guinea) to 
Australia, New Caledonia, Fiji, and presumably Tonga and Samoa. The Samoan 
record is based on the U. S. Exploring Expedition fragment cited by Gray (1854), the 
Tongan record on the Barclay specimen listed by Seemann (1865). Both of these 
records require verification, but in view of the collection dates it seems unlikely that 
either represents Vigna mungo or V. radiata. 



1985 FABACEAE 243 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Hills inland from Lautoka, Greenwood 367. Tailevu: Hills 
east of Wainimbuka River, vicinity of Wailotua, Smith 7249: Waisere Creek, Vungalei (old Tikina name, 
now southern Verata Tikina), DA 2680. TAVEUNI: Seemann 1 17. Fiji without further locality, U. S. E.xpl. 
Exped. (fragmentary material). 

The occurrence in Fiji of an indigenous member of the mung group had not been 
noted prior to the revisionary studies of Tateishi, who has identified Seemann 1 17 (k) 
and Greenwood 367 (k) as Vigna reflexo-pilosa. Since ['. mungo and f '. radiata seem 
to be comparatively recent (i.e. not prior to the early 1 900's) introductions into Fiji and 
adjacent archipelagoes and are scarcely (and probably evanescently) naturalized, it 
seems probable that earlier-collected specimens of this immediate relationship repre- 
sent V. reflexo-pilosa. as well as more recent specimens that seem definitely indige- 
nous. 

In considering the mung group I have been aided by helpful comments of B. 
Verdcourt and Y. Tateishi, although neither is responsible for my suggestion that the 
range of V. reflexo-pilosa extends into Tonga and Samoa. 

6. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Rep. Bot. Syst. 1: 779. 1842; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 
24: 542. 1970, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 642. 1971; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 25. 
1976; Marechal in Boissiera28: 191. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. NewGuinea Leg. 526. 
1979. 

Erect or twining annuals (the cultivated subspecies) or perennials, cultivated and 
perhaps rarely naturalized near sea level. The stems are glabrous or sometimes 
minutely pilose with stiff hairs, and the stipules are medifixed, 8-25 mm. long. The 
leaflet blades are ovate or rhomboid, usually 6-16 x 4-11 cm., entire or sometimes 
inconspicuously lobed, acuminate to subacute, and glabrous or sparsely pilose on both 
surfaces. The inflorescences are 2-several-flowered and often long-pedunculate, the 
calyx lobes being acuminate and often longer than the tube. The petals are white or 
greenish, tinged with yellow, blue, or purple, the standard being suborbicular and 
usually 1.5-3 cm. in diameter. The fruits are linear-cylindric, in our subspecies 7.5-100 
cm. long and 3-1 1 mm. broad, glabrous, and sometimes minutely verruculose, with 
seeds white to red or black, often black- or brown-mottled, oblong or reniform, with 
the hilum 1/3-1/2 the longest dimension and the rim-aril slightly developed. 

Distribution: Tropical Africa, doubtless the place of origin of the species in its 
broad sense; various subspecies and cultivars are now grown throughout the warmer 
parts of the world. The date of introduction of Vigna unguiculata 'm\.o¥'\]\'\^\ince:ri2i\n, 
as no synonyms appear in the earlier literature; however, such an introduction could 
well have been made by European settlers in the nineteenth century. 

Local name and uses: Com' pea is a collective name for all the subspecies. The 
cultivated variants produce pods which when young are cooked and used as vegeta- 
bles, and the cooked ripe seeds are also edible. No Fijian herbarium vouchers are 
available, but cultivars are to be seen in local gardens. 

The three well-known cultivated taxa of Vigna sect. Catiang are known to cross 
and to form fully fertile hybrids; following Verdcourt and some earlier students they 
are here treated as subspecies, probably derived from a wild Old World plant with 
narrow, blackish, dehiscent fruits. The ancestral plant may well be the wild subsp. 
dekindtiana (Harms) Verdcourt (cf. Verdcourt in 1970 and 1971, cited above). 
Marechal (1978) groups all the cultivated forms under his subsp. unguiculata, referring 
the three well-known forms to "cultigroupes"(cv-gr.)and recognizing three additional 
subspecies. 



244 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Key to subspecies occurring in Fiji 
Spreading, suberect, or erect annuals, sometimes twining, usually 15-80 cm. high; fruits less than 30 cm. 
long, mostly indehiscent but sometimes dehiscent, hard and firm, not inflated when young. 
Fruits (10-) 20-30 cm. long, pendent even when young; seeds usually 6-10 mm. long. 

6a. subsp. unguiculata 

Fruits 7.5-13 cm. long, erect or ascending; seeds usually 5-6 mm. long 6b. subsp. cylindrica 

Twining annuals climbing to 2-4 m.; fruits 30-100 cm. long, pendent, indehiscent, more or less inflated and 
flabby when young; seeds elongate-reniform, usually 8-12 mm. long 6c. subsp. sesquipedalis 

6a. Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 543. 1970, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. 526. 1979. 

Dolichos unguiculatus L. Sp. PI. 725. 1753. 
Dolichos sinensis L. Herb. Amb. 23. 1754, Cent. 11. PI. 28. 1756. 

Vigna sinensis Hassk. Cat. PL Hort. Bogor. 279. 1 844; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 2. 1 19. 1972; 

Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 322. fig. 51. 1968; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, l%.fig. 2.16. 2.18 (14). 1976. 

The cultivated subspecies with fruits usually 20-30 cm. long and pendent even 

when young, the seeds usually 6-10 mm. long; cultivated and said to be rarely 

naturalized. 

Typification: For Dolichos unguiculatus Linnaeus cited only his Hortus Upsa- 
liensis, the type being a specimen grown in the Uppsala Botanic Garden from seeds 
received from Barbados. The binomial Dolichos sinensis was taken directly from 
Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5: 375. t. 134. MAI. 
Local names: Cow pea; barbati (Hindi). 

6b. Vigna unguiculata subsp. cylindrica (L.) Eselt. in Hedr. Veg. New York 1 (2): 11. 
1931; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 544. 1970, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 644. 
1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 526. 1979. 
Phaseolus cylindricus L. Herb. Amb. 23. 1754. 
Dolichos caijang Burm. f. Fl. Ind. 161. 1768. 

Vigna cayang Walp. in Linnaea 13: 533. 1839; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154:97, as V. catiang. 1943. 
Vigna unguiculata sensu Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 322. 1968; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 77. 1976; non 
sensu str. 

The cultivated subspecies with fruits usually 7.5-13 cm. long, erect or ascending, 
with seeds 5-6 mm. long, cultivated only. The only record of the catjang in Fiji is that of 
Greenwood ( 1 943, cited above), but its presence was also implied by Parham in 1 964 by 
his citation of Vigna catjang as a synonym of V. sinensis (i.e. subsp. unguiculata). 
Typification: Both Phaseolus cylindricus and Dolichos catjang were based on 
Phaseolus minor Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5: 383. t. 139, fig. 1. 1741. 
Local names: Catjang; catjang cow pea. 

6c. Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (L.) Verdcourt in Davies, Fl. Turkey 3: 266. 
1970, in Kew Bull. 24: 544. 1970, Man. New Guinea Leg. 527. 1979. 

Dolichos sesquipedalis L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1019. 1763. 

Vigna sesquipedalis Fruw. Anbau Hialsenfr. 254. 1898; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 322. fig. 50. 1968; 
Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 162. 1972; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 120. 
1972; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, IS. fig. 2.15. 1976. 

The cultivated subspecies with twining plants and with pendent fruits 30-100 cm. 
long, more or less inflated and flabby when young, and with elongate-reniform seeds 
usually 8-12 mm. long; cultivated only. 

Typification: A precise typification has not been noted by me. 
Local names: Yard-long bean; long bean; asparagus bean. 

1. Vigna marina (Burm.) Merr. Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amb. 285. 1917; Christo- 
phersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 103. 1935; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 



1985 FABACEAE 245 

97. 1943; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178:66. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 150. 1959; J. 
W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 93. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 2. 1 19. 
1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 161. 1970; Verd- 
court in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 626. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand 
Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 38, 39, 56. 1972; St. John in Phytologia 36: 
369. 1977; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 166. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
520. fig. 127. 1979. 

Phaseolus marinus Burm. Index Herb. Amb. (17). 1755. 

Dolichos luieus Sw. Nov. Gen. & Sp. Prodr. 105. 1788. 

Vigna lutea A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 452. 1854; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 
1862, Fl. Vit. 62. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 154. 1890. 

A prostrate, scrambling, or climbing perennial herb, often locally abundant at sea 
level and slightly upward, on beaches and sand dunes, in beach and coastal thickets, 
and along river banks and roadsides. The stems may become several meters long, being 
at first pilose but soon glabrate; the stipules are ovate, 2-3 mm. long, obscurely bilobed 
at base, obviously nerved, and early caducous. The leaflet blades are rhomboid-elliptic 
to obovate, usually 4- 1 0.5 '^ 3-8 cm., rounded to emarginate at apex, inconspicuously 
appressed-pilose on both surfaces but soon glabrate. The inflorescences are often 
long-pedunculate, and the petals and filaments are pale to bright yellow, the standard 
being obovate and usually 12-14 mm. in diameter. The fruit is green, turning brown, 
linear-oblong, slightly curved, inflated, usually 4-8 cm. long and 5-7 mm. broad, and 
slightly contracted between the seeds, which are 2-10, yellow- to red-brown, and up to 
7x6x5 mm., with an oblong hilum and an undeveloped rim-aril. Flowers and fruits 
seem to occur throughout the year. 

Typification: Phaseolus marinus is typified by Phaseolus maritimus Rumph. 
Herb. Amb. 5: 391. t. 141. fig. 2. 1747, Dolichos luteus by a specimen from Jamaica 
presumably in the Swartz collection. The synonymy seems universally accepted. 

Distribution: Pantropical. More than 30 Fijian collections are at hand. 

Local names and uses: Fijian names for the beach bean are ndrautolu. tokatolu. 
and wfl vue. The plant is occasionally used for fodder in the outlying islands, and its 
leaves are reputed to be part of a concoction sometimes used for headaches and more 
vague illnesses. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: Yasawa: Nambukeru Village, Weiner 231. VITI LEVU 
Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 141. Nandronoa & Navosa: Singatoka, Greenwood 141 A. Serua: Navua 
Parks 20389. Tailevu: Naingani Island, DA 3367. Rewa: Nukulau Island, Barclay 3440: Makaluva Island 
DA 11787. MBENGGA: Rukua Beach, DA 6046. KANDAVU: Namalata isthmus region. Smith 24. 
OVALAU: Vicinity of Thawathi, Smilh 8098. KORO: East coast, Srtuth 1089. NGAU: Shore of Herald Bay 
vicinity of Sawaieke, Smith 7936. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Lambasa, Greenwood NIB. Thakau- 
ndrove: Nasinu, Natewa Bay, DA 16845. TAVEUNI: Seemann 121. TOTOYA: Bryan 352. VANUA 
MBALAVU: Near Sawana Village, Garnock-Jones 1075. LAK.EMBA: Near Tumbou Jetty, Garnock-Jones 
790. ONGEA NDRIKI: Bryan 409. 

8. Vigna adenantha (G. F. W. Meyer) Marechal, Mascherpa, & Stainier in Taxon 27: 
202. 1978; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 229. 1978. 
Phaseolus adenanlhus G.F.V/. Meyer. Pum.F\.Esseq.2i9. 1818; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 153. 1890; 
Christophersen m Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 105. 1935; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 96. 1943; 
Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 149. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964, ed. 2. 115. 1972; 
Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 615. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 511. 1979. 
Phaseolus iru.xillensisH. B. K. Nova Gen. et Sp. 6:451. 1824; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 

1862, Fl. Vit. 61. 1865. 
Phaseolus roslralusWaW. PI. Asiat. Rar. 1:50. (.«. 1830; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:449. 1854; 
Seem. Viti, 435. 1862. 

A perennial climbing or sprawling herb found from near sea level to an elevation of 
about 600 m. in open grassland, often in dry areas, and also in thickets along forest 



246 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

streams. The stems attain a length of 4 m. and root at the nodes; the stipules are 
oblong-ovate, truncate at base, conspicuously nerved, and usually 3-5 mm. long. The 
leaflet blades are ovate to rhomboid, usually 5-9 x 3-6 cm., obtuse to acute and 
mucronulate at apex, sparsely appressed-pilose on both surfaces with stiff hairs, and 
often with conspicuously reticulate venation. The inflorescences are densely 6-12- 
flowered and sometimes long-pedunculate; the petals are whitish, tinged with pale pink 
or purplish blue, with the suborbicular standard 1.5-2.5 cm. in diameter and the keel 
about 5 cm. long, spirally incurved for 2-3 turns. The broadly linear fruits, usually 
8-14 cm. >< 7-14 mm., bear 9-15 dark reddish brown seeds up to about 7x5x3 mm. 
with a small white hilum. Our material bore flowers between April and October, fruits 
in May and June. 

Typification and nomenclature: Phaseolus adenanthus is typified by Rodschied 
(goet holotype), collected along the Essequibo River in Guyana. The type of P. 
truxillensis, presumably collected by Humboldt and Bonpland and deposited at ? or b, 
was obtained near Trujillo, Peru. For P. rostratus Wallich cited Phaseolus alatus 
Roxb. (Hort. Beng. 54, nom. nud. 18 14; nonL.) (Roxburgh's name was later published 
in Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 3:288. 1832). The type ofWallich's species may have been a Roxburgh 
collection from Bengal, or perhaps his beautiful illustration should be considered the 
type. These names are only a few of the many now referred by specialists to Vigna 
adenantha. 

Distribution: Pantropical; there is no sound evidence that the occurrence of 
Vigna adenantha in many Pacific archipelagoes was due to human agency, as often 
implied. 

Local name: The only recorded name is wa ndoka (Smith 4491). 

Available collections: VITl LEVU; Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 389, 799: vicinity of Nalotawa, 
eastern base of Mt. Evans Range, Smith 4491. Naitasiri: Nasonggo, Wailoa River, DA 15306: Vunimbua 
Hill. Nanduruloulou, DA 5630. Tailevu; Waisere Creek, DA 2679. Rewa: Nukulau Island, Barclay 3436. 
KANDAVU: Southern side of island, Seemann 116. OVALAU: U. S. Expl. Exped VANUA LEVU: 
Thakaundrove: Wainingata Station, near Savusavu, DA 12013. 

44. Macroptilium Urb. Symb. Antill. 9: 457. 1928; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:437. 
1964; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 24: 523. 1970; Marechalin Boissiera 28: 151. 1978; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 504. 1979. 

Phaseolus sect. Macroptilium Benth. Comment. Leg. Gen. 76. 1837. 

Erect, climbing, or creeping herbs, annual or perennial, withouj uncinate hairs, the 
stipules strongly nerved, not prolonged below point of attachment; leaves pinnately 
trifoliolate (as in our species), rarely unifoliolate, stipellate, the leaflet blades occasion- 
ally lobed; inflorescences axillary or terminal, pseudoracemose, long-pedunculate, the 
flowers 2-several at slightly swollen nodes along rachis, the bracts caducous, the 
pedicels shorter than or subequal to calyx; calyx tube narrowly campanulate, 5-lobed, 
the lobes acute, equal or the lowest one much reduced; petals (white to) crimson to 
dark blackish purple, the standard obovate or suborbicular, reflexed, with small 
reflexed auricles at base of limb, without median callosities, the wings suborbicular, 
longer than standard and keel, auricled below base of limb, the wings and keel petals 
long-clawed, the claws partly adnate to staminal tube, the keel with a transverse fold, 
twisted; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 joined in a tube, the vexillary filament free, the 
anthers uniform; ovary subsessile, the ovules few-many, the style in its thickened part, 
just above junction with tenuous part, abruptly curved through about 90°, toward 
apex narrowed, slightly curved, and introrsely bearded, resembling a squarish hook, 
the stigma capitate, subintrorse; fruits reflexed, cylindric or compressed, straight or 
falcate, narrow, dehiscent, not septate, the style caducous, the seeds small, few-many, 
the hilum short. 

Lectotype species; Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. {Phaseolus lathyroides L.) 
(vide Urban, 1928, cited above). 



1985 FABACEAE 247 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical America, with 12-20 species. At least two 
species are widely cultivated and sometimes naturalized in the Old World, as in Fiji. 

Key to species 

Plant creeping, the young stems copiously pilose, rooting at nodes; stipules ovate, 3-5 mm. long; leaflet 
blades ovate to rhomboid, often inconspicuously laterally lobed, copiously white-subsericeous beneath; 
inflorescences with peduncles 1 0-25 cm. long and with comparatively few flowers and fruits; petals dark 
red, purple, or almost blackish; seeds 12-15 I. M. atropurpureum 

Plant suberect or occasionally subscandent, the stems sparsely pilose; stipules lanceolate, 5-6 mm. long; 
leaflet blades narrowly elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, not lobed, sparsely pilose beneath at least at 
maturity; inflorescences with peduncles 15-45 cm. long, the flowers and fruits copious; standard 
maroon to purple, the wings and keel petals greenish, red- or white-tinged; seeds 18-30. 

2. M. laihyroides 

1. Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC.) Urb. Symb. Antill. 9: 457. 1928; Marechal in 

Boissiera 28: 153. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 505. 1979. 

Phaseolus atropurpureus DC. Prodr. 2:395. 1825; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 
157. 1970; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 115. 1972. 

A trailing or creeping perennial herb, cultivated only from near sea level to about 
200 m. The young stems are copiously white-spreading-pilose, rooting at nodes, and 
the ovate stipules are acuminate and 3-5 mm. long. The leaflet blades, ovate to 
rhomboid, are 2-7 x 1.5-5 cm., obtuse to acute and mucronulate at apex, copiously 
white-subsericeous beneath, and with 1 or 2 inconspicuous lateral lobes. The few- 
flowered inflorescences have peduncles 10-25 cm. long, and the petals are 1.5-2.5 cm. 
long, dark red to blackish purple. The fruits are about 7-9 cm. long and 4.5 mm. broad, 
appressed-pilose, and beaked, with 12-15 oblong-ellipsoid, pitted, brown, black- 
spotted seeds about 4 mm. long. Our material was flowering between January and 
June, fruiting in January and May. 

Typification: The type was collected in mountains of Chilapa, Guerrero, Mexico 
(holotype probably at g); de Candolle added: "fl. mex. icon, ined." 

Distribution: Tropical and subtropical America from southern U. S. to Peru, 
now widely cultivated and often naturalized elsewhere. The species was introduced 
into Fiji from Queensland about 1960; although no naturalized material is at hand, it 
has apparently been successfully established. 

Local name and use: The widely applied name siratro is used in Fiji, the species 
having been introduced as a potential cover crop and pasture legume. 

Available collections: VITl LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, DA 13184 (FDA 15318). Nandronga& 
Navosa: Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, near Singatoka, D.-1 12319 (FD.4 15313). Ra: Colonial Sugar 
Refining Co., Yanggara, DA 12314. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: District Farm Northern, Seanggangga, 
DA 16681. 

2. Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. Symb. Antill. 9: 457. 1928; Verdcourt, Man. 

New Guinea Leg. 505. _flg. 124. 1979. 
Phaseolus laihvroules L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1018. 1763; J. W. Parham in Dept, Agr. Fiji Bull. 35:93. fig. 45. e-h. 
1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964, ed. 2. 116. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 158. 
1970. 
Phaseolus senuereclus L. Mant. PI 100. 1767; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154:96. 1943; Yunckerin 

Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 149. 1959. 
Macroptilium lathyroides var. semierectum Urb. Symb. Antill. 9: 457. 1928; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 
152. 1978. 

An annual or biennial, erect, branching herb to 1.5 m. high, occasionally subscan- 
dent, cultivated but also an abundant weed at elevations from near sea level to 600 m., 
especially on Viti Levu, along roadsides, on waste land, in open fields, pastures, 
canefields, and in open places along streams and rivers. The stems are sparsely 
appressed-pilose and often subligneous toward base; the stipules are lanceolate and 
5-6 mm. long. The lanceolate- to elliptic-ovate leaflet blades are 2.5-8 x 1-3.5 cm., not 



248 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

lobed, sparsely appressed-pilose beneath, and acute at apex. The inflorescences have 
peduncles 15-45 cm. long and bear abundant flowers and fruits. The petals are about 
1.5 cm. long, the standard being maroon to purple or pink, the wings and keel petals 
greenish, tinged with red or white. The linear fruits, reddish brown at maturity, are 
appressed-pilose, 6-10 cm. long, about 3 mm. broad, and with valves becoming 
strongly twisted. The seeds are 18-30, oblong, 3-3.5 mm. long, reddish brown to black- 
and brown-blotched. Copious flowers and fruits occur throughout the year. 

Typification and nomenclature: In 1763 Linnaeus cited Browne and Sloane 
references of Jamaican plants, and in 1767 he gave several older references. Inmuchof 
the recent literature Phaseolus semierectus is relegated to direct synonymy, but 
Marechal (1978) agrees with Urban in maintaining it as the commonly cultivated 
variety; if this opinion is followed the plant so abundant in the Pacific should be 
referred to var. semierectum (L.) Urb. 

Distribution: Tropical America, now widely cultivated and naturalized through- 
out the tropics and subtropics. The species was apparently first observed in Fiji by 
Greenwood about 1 920, but it has frequently been introduced more recently and is now 
well established as a pasture legume as well as a common weed in drier areas. About 35 
Fijian collections have been examined. 

Local names and uses: The widely used names phasey bean and pea bean have 
been adopted in Fiji. The species is a pasture legume apparently not relished by cattle; 
however, more palatable strains have now been introduced from Australia. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, Greenwood 163: Korovuto, Nandi, DA 
/0699; vicinity of Nalotawa, eastern base of Mt. Evans Kange, Smith 4501 :Ja.\\ia, DA 9489. Nandronga& 
Navosa: Keiyasi, Singatoka River, DA 10170: Lawangga, Singatoka, DA 9767. Ra: Colonial Sugar 
Refining Co., Yanggara, DA 12313: Penang, Greenwood 163A: Pasture Seed and Production Farm, 
Ndombuilevu, DA 9551. Naitasiri: Between Suva and Nasinu, Gillespie 3667.2: Plant Introduction and 
Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, PI. Introduction no. FDA 15370. Tailevu: Queen Victoria School 
farm, Matavatathou, DA 9941. Rewa: Suva, DA 12304: Suva Point, DA 7486. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: 
Lambasa, Greenwood 163C: Namara road, Lambasa, DA 10453. 

45. Phaseolus L. Sp. PI. 723. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:436. 1964; Verdcourtin 
Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 613. 1971; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 133. 1978; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 508. 1979. 
Erect, prostrate, or climbing herbs or subshrubs, with uncinate hairs, the stipules 
striate, persistent, not prolonged below point of insertion; leaves pinnately trifoliolate 
(as in all our species) or rarely unifoliolate, stipellate; inflorescences axillary, racemi- 
form, the flowers fasciculate at inconspicuous nodes along rachis, the bracts and 
bracteoles subpersistent (at least to anthesis); calyx bilabiate, the 2 upper lobes 
forming an emarginate or bifid lip, the lower lip 3-lobed; standard suborbicular, 
auriculate, often reflexed and with 2 appendages at side of claw and with a transverse 
constriction above claw, the wings obovate or oblong, often spiralled and broadened 
or cucullate at apex, somewhat adherent to keel, the keel often narrow and elongated, 
the apex beaked and spiralled in 1-5 complete turns; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 
connate into a sheath, the vexillary filament free, the anthers uniform or 5 dorsifixed 
alternating with 5 basifixed; ovary subsessile, oblong to linear, the ovules 2-many, the 
style tenuous proximally, filiform, flexible, the apical part cartilagineous and thick- 
ened, curved through more than 360° , glabrous or introrsely pilose distally, the stigma 
oblique, subterminal, or terminal, not penicillate; fruits linear or oblong, sometimes 
falcate, compressed or subcylindric, dehiscent, not septate, the style caducous, the 
seeds 2-many, oblong or reniform, the hilum oblong, short, subcentral. 

Lectotype species: Phaseolus vulgaris L. (vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. S. 
ed. 2. 2: 422. 1913), one of Linnaeus's original eleven species. 



1985 FABACEAE 249 

Distribution: Cooler parts of tropical and subtropical America, extending north- 
ward into eastern temperate areas, as now circumscribed (cf. Lackey in Adv. Leg. Syst. 
324. 1981) with about 50 species, among which are three of the world's most important 
crop plants, now widely cultivated. These three species are grown in Fiji. These are all 
members of sect. Phaseolus. characterized by having the pedicels longer than the calyx, 
the calyx lobes no longer than the tube, the standard short-clawed and thickened in the 
middle, and the wings longer than the standard and keel. 

Key to species 
Fruits falcate- or lanceolate-oblong, usually 5-12 « 1.5-2.5 cm., with (2-) 3 or 4 seeds; inflorescences 
few-many-flowered, the peduncle up to 30 cm. long; bracteoles comparatively small, 1.5-2 mm. long, 
shorter than calyx; petals usually whitish (standard to purplish; wings white; keel greenish), the 

standard up to 7 -^ 10 mm 1. />. lunatus 

Fruits linear-lanceolate or elongate, 8-40 x 1 -2 cm., usually with 9- 1 2 seeds; bracteoles 3-6 mm. long; petals 

variously colored, the standard often more than 10 mm. in diameter. 

Inflorescences shorter than leaves, with 1 -3 flowers, the peduncle not exceeding 5 cm. in length; bracteoles 

conspicuous, 5-6 mm. long, exceeding calyx; petals white, yellowish, pink, or purplish, the standard 

usually 9-12 mm. in diameter; fruits linear-lanceolate, usually 8-20 « 1-1.5 cm. . . 2. P. vulgaris 

Inflorescences with 6 or more pairs of flowers, the peduncle commonly more than 6 cm. long; bracteoles 

3-5 mm. long, shorter than or subequal to calyx; petals bright scarlet or white or variegated red and 

white, 15-25 mm. long; fruits elongate, usually 10-40 « 1-2 cm 3. P. coccineus 

1. Phaseolus lunatus L. Sp. PI. 724. 1753; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964, ed. 2. 1 16. 
1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 29b. fig. 45. 1968; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. 
Afr. Leg. Papil. 615.//,?. 95. 1971; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 71.//^. 2.12, 2.18 (9). 
1976; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 145. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 513. 
fig. 126. 1979;HentyinPapuaNewGuineaDept. Forests Bull. 12:94. p/.i2. 1980. 

Perennial or biennial climber, sometimes shrubby, with stems up to 4 m. long, 
cultivated from near sea level to about 800 m. and also locally naturalized in fairly dry 
areas or sometimes in woods along streams. The leaflet blades are ovate to rhomboid 
or lanceolate, usually 5-12 x 3-9 cm., acute to acuminate, sparsely pilose to glabrous. 
The inflorescences bear few-many flowers (often 4 per rachis node) and have pedun- 
cles up to 30 cm. long; the bracts are lanceolate and persistent, about 1.5 mm. long, and 
the bracteoles are elliptic to ovate, 1.5-2 mm. long. The standard is white to pale rose 
or purplish, rounded-oblong, up to 7 x 10 mm., the wings are white, and the keel is 
greenish, 10-14 mm. long, and spirally incurved 1.5-2 turns. The fruits are falcate- or 
lanceolate-oblong, compressed, apiculate, glabrous or pilose, usually 5-12 x 1.5-2.5 
cm. and with (2-) 3 or 4 seeds which are mostly white or purple but very variable in 
color, reniform, 10-30 ^ 8-17 ^ 5-8 mm., with a whitish hilum 2.5-4 mm. long. 

Typification: The only reference given by Linnaeus is: '"Berg, viadr. 99. Habitat in 
Benghala." Verdcourt (1971, cited above) states this as ^"Phaseolus benghalensis 
scandens . . . striata of Bergen, Cat. Stirp. Hort. Acad. Viadr. compl.: 99 (1744)." 

Distribution: Tropical or subtropical America, found in Peruvian deposits as old 
as 6000 B. C, widely distributed in post-Columbian times and now cultivated through- 
out the tropics and subtropics and frequently naturalized. The date of its introduction 
into Fiji is uncertain; it is now completely naturalized at least in western Viti Levu. The 
cultivated forms fall into var. lunatus, one of two varieties recognized by Marechal 
(1978). 

Local names and uses: Commonly known in Fiji as lima bean or sem (Hindi). 
Elsewhere, names commonly used for the lima bean are butter bean, sieve bean, 
haricot bean, Madagascar bean, and Burma bean. The leaves and young pods are 
edible as a vegetable, but the species is primarily grown for its dried beans. It includes 
numerous cultivars, most of them with a poisonous principle that must be dissipated 



250 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

by proper cooking. The extent of its use in Fiji or of agricultural introductions is not 
apparent from available records. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Loloti, in mountains near Lautoka, Greenwood 284. 285 A: 
slopes of escarpment north of Nandarivatu, Smith 6292. Nandronga & Navosa: Singatoka, on trees near 
shore. Greenwood 284 B. 

2. Phaseolus vulgaris L. Sp. PI. 723. 1753; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178:65. 1943; 

J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 76. 1964, ed. 2. 116. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, 
Dicot. 304.//^. 47. 1968; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 
158. 1970; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 614. 1971; Smartt, Trop. 
Pulses, 71. fig. 1.2, 2.13. 2.18 (10). 1976; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 136. 1978; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 513. 1979. 
An annual climbing or suberect herb, found near sea level and doubtless to higher 
settlements and villages, cultivated but not becoming naturalized. The leaflet blades 
are ovate to rhomboid, usually 8-15 ^ 5-10 cm., acuminate, often pilose. The inflores- 
cences are shorter than the leaves, with 1-3 flowers, the peduncles not exceeding 5 cm. 
in length; the bracts are ovate and about 3 mm. long, the bracteoles more conspicuous 
and 5-6 mm. long. The petals are white, yellowish, pink, or purple, the standard 
oblate-oblong, usually 9- 1 2 mm. in diameter, the wings with long claws 5-6 mm. long, 
and the keel spirally incurved and about 22 mm. long. The fruits are linear-lanceolate, 
usually 8-20 cm. long and 10-15 mm. broad, compressed, beaked, puberulent or 
glabrous, with (5-) 10-12 oblong-ellipsoid or reniform seeds 9-20 x 3-12 x 4-1 1 mm. 
Lectotypification: Linnaeus listed several prior references, including one to his 
Hortus Upsaiiensis, 213. 1745. The lectotype (cf. Verdcourt, 1971, cited above) may 
be taken as no. 899/ 1 (linn), from a specimen cultivated at Uppsala. 

Distribution: Of American origin, known from Mexican deposits as early as 4900 
B. C. In post-Columbian times it has become the most widely cultivated bean through- 
out the world. More than 500 varieties or cultivars have been developed, all falling into 
var. vw/gflm of the two varieties recognized by Marechal (1978). In Fiji the species was 
very probably used by European settlers in the nineteenth century. 

Local names and uses: In Fiji this often cultivated species seems to be known as 
dwarf bean, kidney bean, French bean, and haricot bean. Elsewhere it is additionally 
called string bean, common bean, common haricot, salad bean, runner bean, and snap 
bean. As a primary use of the string bean the immature pods are cooked as a vegetable, 
but the mature seeds are also used in a great variety of ways, and the leaves may be used 
as a potherb. Seeds are imported into Fiji annually. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Principal Agricultural Station, Koronivia, DA 7464. 
Rewa: Suva, DA 12399. 

3. Phaseolus coccineus L. Sp. PI. 724. 1753; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 75. 1964, ed. 2. 

116. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 295. 1968; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 70. 

1976; Marechal in Boissiera 28: 137. 1978; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 512. 

1979. 
An annual or perennial twining plant, occurring near sea level and doubtless 
upward in European settlements, cultivated but not naturalized. The stems are usually 
pilose and up to 4 m. long; the leaflet blades are ovate to rhomboid, usually 7.5-15 ^ 
8-12 cm., acuminate, and pilose on both sides with minutely uncinate hairs. The 
inflorescences have 6 or more pairs of flowers, with a peduncle commonly exceeding 6 
cm.; the bracteoles are 3-5 mm. long, shorter than or subequal to calyx. The petals are 
scarlet, sometimes white or variegated red and white, and 12-25 mm. long. The 
elongate fruits, 10-40 cm. long and 1-2 cm. broad, are densely pilose when young and 
roughened along margins, with up to about 9 seeds, these variable in color, white to 



1985 FABACEAE 251 

reddish to black or variously speckled, oblong, and 17-25 x 10-16 x 1-10 mm. 

Typification: Linnaeus gave references to Cornut (Canad. PI. 184. 1635) and 
Morison (PI. Hist. Univ. 2: 69. 1680). 

Distribution: Indigenous in Central America, and known from Mexican deposits 
that may date back to 7000 B. C, now widely cultivated as a crop throughout the 
world. Four subspecies are discussed by Marechal (1978), the cultivated forms, with 
the largest seeds, falling into subsp. coccineus. 

Local name and uses: The name used in Fiji, scarlet runner bean, seems well 
established for this species throughout the world. The tender young pods are cooked as 
a vegetable, and the dried seeds may also be cooked and eaten. The species is 
sometimes cultivated for its ornamental flowers. Seeds must be imported into Fiji 
annually. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Viria, Meehold 1651 1 (sterile). 

46. Cajanus DC. Cat. PI. Hort. Bot. Monspel. 85. 1813; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
421. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 709. 1971, Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 537. 1979. Nom. cons. 

Shrubs or subshrubs, the stipules small, caducous; leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, 
inconspicuously stipellate, the leaflet blades covered with small, yellow, resinous 
glands; inflorescences terminal and paniculate, also axillary and subcapitate- 
racemose, the pedicels long, the bracts caducous, the bracteoles lacking; calyx 5-lobed, 
the 2 upper lobes connate, bifid; petals subequal in length, the standard suborbicular, 
reflexed, auriculate at base, the wings obliquely obovate, the keel distally incurved; 
filaments of 9 stamens joined into a sheath, the vexillary filament free, the anthers 
uniform, dorsifixed; ovary subsessile, elongate, pilose, the ovules 2-8, the style thick- 
ened distally, flattened below stigma, not barbate, the stigma small, capitate; fruits 
linear-oblong, inflated, tardily dehiscent, scarcely septate within, the acumen persis- 
tent, the seeds 2-8, separated by oblique grooves on faces of pods, rounded, com- 
pressed, the hilum linear, the rim-aril small. 

Type species: Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth {Cytisus cajan L.). It may be noted that 
ICBN (Sydney edition, 1983) continues to give Millspaugh as the first combining 
author, but ING (1979) corrects this to Huth, as was pointed out by Nicolson in Taxon 
24: 390. 1975. 

Distribution: Pantropical, with two (or three?) species, one of which is widely 
cultivated and naturalized, as in Fiji. 

1. Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth in Helios 11: 133, as Cajan c. 1893; Millsp. in Publ. Field 
Columbian Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 53, as Cajan c. 1900; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 72. 
1964, ed. 2. 109. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 236.% 35. 1968; Sykes in 
New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 144. 1970; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. 
E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 709. fig. 108. 1971; Nicolson in Taxon 24: 390. 1975; Smartt, 
Trop. Pulses, 54. fig. 2.5. 2.18 (17. 18). 1976; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
539. /?g. 132. 1979. 
Cylisus cajan L. Sp. PI. 739. 1753. 

Cajanus indicus Spreng. Syst. Veg. 3: 248, nom. illeg. 1826; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti. 435. 
1862, Fl. Vit. 74. 1865; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 96. 1943. 

A short-lived perennial shrub 1-4 m. high, found from sea level to not more than 
100 m. in cultivation and also as a weed along roadsides, in canefields, and in cultivated 
areas. The stems are prominently ribbed and copiously short-golden-sericeous. The 
leaflet blades are elliptic to lanceolate, 3-10 ^ 1.5-3.5 cm., acute, soon glabrate above. 



252 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

and finely silvery-pilose beneath. The long-pedunculate inflorescences are subequal to 
the leaves in length, and the calyx is fulvo-tomentose and glandular. The standard is 
1 2- 1 7 mm. in diameter, bright yellow, with reddish brown or crimson lines within and 
often flushed with brown to red without, the wings are yellow, and the keel is 
yellow-green. The nearly straight fruits are usually 4-10 cm. x 6-15 mm., stramineous, 
streaked with purplish black, pilose, and glandular; the compressed-globose seeds are 
up to 8 mm. in diameter, cream-colored to reddish or brown, and minutely pitted. Our 
specimens bore flowers between May and November, fruits between July and October. 

Typification: Linnaeus cited several prior references for Cytisus cajan, including 
his Fl. Zeyl. 354. 1747, selected by Verdcourt (1971, cited above) as the type. 
LECTOSYNTYPES are Hermann 2:76 and 3:30 (bm). Cajanus indicus is based on the same 
concept. 

Distribution: The species is assumed to have originated in Africa and in prehis- 
toric times to have reached India, where it was improved by selection. Many cultivars 
have been developed in India and are sometimes grouped into two botanical varieties. 
Another assumption (cf. Lackey in Adv. Leg. Syst. 327. 1981) is that Cajanus cajan is 
merely a cultivated form of Atylosia which has evolved an erect habit, large seeds, and 
an inconspicuous rim-aril, probably in Asia. The two genera are very closely allied, but 
it would be disruptive to combine them under the older name, Cajanus. 

Local names and uses: Commonly known as pigeon pea, but other names used in 
Fiji are Congo pea, red gram, arhar (Hindi), and dha! (Hindi). Fijians call the plant p/, 
and nggiringgiri was recorded on Kandavu. The green seeds are eaten as a vegetable 
and are considered a good substitute for green peas. When ripe, the seeds are boiled 
and eaten as a pulse or made into dhal. The plants provide an excellent fodder and are 
sometimes used as a cover crop or a green manure. Seemann noted that in 1860 the 
species was only cultivated in Fiji, presumably for its edible seeds, but since then it has 
become a locally frequent weed. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka and vicinity. Greenwood 2 13, DA 10361 .befween 
Nandi andNamulomulo, DA /02.S/; Mba closed area, DA /-^iJ/zKavuli, DA 9478. Nandronga&Navosa: 
Singatoka Valley road, DA 9142: Experiment Station, Singatoka, DA 5993. Ra: Yanggara, Greenwood 
213A. Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, DA, Jan. 23, 1952. Tailevu: 
Mokani, DA 2734: near Ndravo, DA 2526. Rewa: (without other locality), Tothill 136. KANDAVU; 
Western end of island, near Cape Washington, Smith 298. VANUA LEVU: Mathuata: Vicinity of 
Lambasa, DA 9646. 10467. Fiji without further locality, Seemann 115. 

An. Atylosia Wight & Arn. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 257. 1834; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 
1: 421. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 707. 1971, Man. New 
Guinea Leg. 540. 1979; Pedley in Austrobaileya 1: 378. 1981. 

Erect or climbing herbs or shrubs, the stipules small; leaves pinnately (as in our 
species) or rarely subdigitately trifoliolate, estipellate, the leaflet blades with scattered 
resinous glands beneath; inflorescences axillary, racemose or subpaniculate or flowers 
fasciculate, the bracts caducous, the bracteoles lacking; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes 
unequal, the 2 upper ones joined into a bifid lip; petals yellow, persistent, the standard 
suborbicular, with inflexed auricles at base, the wings obovate to oblong, the keel 
slightly incurved; filaments of 9 stamens connate into a sheath, the vexillary filament 
free, the anthers uniform; ovary with 2-many ovules, the style incurved at middle, 
filiform or slightly thickened and glabrous distally, the stigma small, terminal; fruits 
oblong or linear, compressed, dehiscent, distinctly septate, the valves with transverse 
or oblique lines, the seeds 2-many, rounded or ovoid, the hilum central on shorter side 
of seed, with a well-developed rim-aril. 

Lectotype species: Atylosia candollei Wight & Arn., nom. illeg. (Odonia trinervia 
Spreng.) = A. trinervia (Spreng.) Gamble (vide Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:421. 1964). 



1985 FABACEAE 253 

Distribution: Paleotropical, with about 35 species, presumably introduced into 
Fiji and represented by a localized weed. 

1. Atylosia scarabaeoides (L.) Benth. in Miq. PI. Junghuhn. 242. 1852; Greenwood in 
Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 97. 1943, in J. Arnold Arb. 25: 398. 1944; J. W. Parham in 
Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 92. fig. 46. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 71. 1964, ed. 2. 109. 1972; 
Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 101. fig. 107. 1971, Man. New Guinea 
Leg. 540.//^. 134 (var. scarabaeoides). 1979; Reynolds &Pedley in Austrobaileya 
1:421. 1981. 
DoHchos scarabaeoides L. Sp. PI. 726. 1753. 
Atylosia scarabaeoides var. scarabaeoides: Reynolds & Pedley in Austrobaileya 1: 421. 1981. 

A perennial creeping or prostrate herb, forming thick mats, or climbing, at eleva- 
tions from near sea level to 300 m. as a locally common weed along roadsides, on sand 
dunes, and in open fields and pastures. The slender stems are soft-spreading-pilose; the 
elliptic leaflet blades, usually 0.8-4 x 0.5-3 cm., are rounded to subacute at base and 
apex, sparsely pale-spreading-pilose and gland-dotted on both surfaces. The inflores- 
cences are sessile or short-pedunculate, to 2.5 cm. long, few-flowered, with petals 8-10 
mm. long, yellow, flushed with crimson or purple-veined, or the keel is green. The 
fruits are 1.5-2.5 cm. ^ 6-7 mm., hirsute with yellowish hairs, and with conspicuous, 
oblique septa; the 2-5 (-6) seeds are oblong, dark brown, and 4-5 x 2.5-3 x 1.5-1.8 
mm. Flowers and fruits are found throughout the year. 

Typification: Of the two references given by Linnaeus, Verdcourt (1971, cited 
above) takes that to Fl. Zeyl. 282. 1747 as indicating the lectotypes. Three specimens 
from Ceylon, Hermann 1:34 and 2:60 (bm) and Burman (linn 900.9) may be consid- 
ered LECTOSYNTYPES. 

Distribution: Widespread throughout Asia and to Australia, introduced into 
Africa and elsewhere. Our material falls into var. scarabaeoides, with fewer-flowered, 
shorter racemes and more numerous seeds than var. pedunculata Reynolds & Pedley 
(1981, cited above). About 20 collections are at hand. 

Local names and use: In the local Department of Agriculture the species is known 
as tropical clover or peanut grass. Presumably it was introduced about 1925 (from data 
in herbarium) as a pasture legume, but it is locally considered as of no value as fodder 
and is regarded as a weed, thus far apparently limited to Viti Levu. 

Representative collections: VlTl LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of Lautokaand hills inland. Greenwood 73 1 , 
DA 10728; Nandi, Cref«M'oo<^ 7J//); between Nandi and Namulomulo, £)/! /OJ'SO. NandrongaA Navosa: 
Thuvu, west of Singatoka, Greenwood 73 1 C: Experimental Farm, Singatoka, D.4 5974: Singatoka Valley 
near road to Nasauthoko, DA 9290 (McKee 2860). Serua: (?): Nawai Ranch, DA 7389 (L.3049). Ra: 
Yanggara, Greenwood 731 B. DA 10749. 

48. Flemingia Roxb. ex Ait. f. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. 4: 349. (Dec.) 1812; Rudd in Taxon 
19: 294. 1970; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 25: 146. 1971, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 
805. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 545. 1979. Nom. cons. 
Lourea (" Luorea") Necker e\ J. St.-Hil. in Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris II. 3: 193. (Dec.) 1812. Nom. rejic. 
Maughania }. St.-Hil. in Bull. Sci. Soc.'Philom. Paris II. 3: 216. (Jan.) 1813. 

Moghania i. St.-Hil. in J. Bot. Agnc. 1: 61. orth. var. (Jan.) 1813; Nooteboom in Reinwardtia 5: 432. 
1961; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:422. 1964. 

Herbs or shrubs, erect, prostrate, or rarely climbing, the stipules striate, often 
caducous; leaves digitately trifoliolate (as in our species), rarely unifoliolate, estipel- 
late, the leaflet blades covered with small glands especially on lower surface, often 
prominently nerved beneath; inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemiform or panic- 
ulate, usually many-flowered, the bracts sometimes broad and foliaceous, sometimes 
narrow, persistent or caducous, the bracteoles lacking; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes longer 



254 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

than tube, usually glandular; standard oblong or elliptic, auriculate at base, the wings 
very narrow, obovate or oblong, often adherent to keel, the keel straight or incurved; 
filaments of 9 stamens connate into a sheath, the vexillary filament free, the anthers 
uniform; ovary subsessile, ellipsoid, the ovules 2, the style filiform, enlarged distally, 
glabrous, the stigma small, terminal; fruits oblong-ovoid, inflated, dehiscent, not 
septate, the style oblique, persistent, the seeds 1 or 2, globose, the hilum short, without 
a rim-aril. 

Lectotype species: Flemingia strobilifera(L.) Ait. f. {Hedysarum strobiliferum L.) 
(vide Rudd in Taxon 19: 297. 1970). 

Distribution: Paleotropical, with about 30 species, all Asian except for two in 
tropical Africa. One species is sparingly cultivated in Fiji. 

1. Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merr. in Philipp. J. Sci. 5(C): 130. 1910, Enum. 
Philipp. Fl. PI. 2: 317. 1923; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 549.//^. 136, C. 
1979. 

Crotalaria macrophylla Willd. Sp. PI. 3: 982. 1802. 

Moghania macrophylla Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 199. 1891;Nooteboomin Reinwardtia5:434. 1961; J. W. 

Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 114. 1972. 

A shrub to 3.5 m. high, sparsely cultivated near sea level. The stems are ridged and 
appressed-white-pilose, the stipules lanceolate and sericeous. The elliptic to elliptic- 
lanceolate leaflet blades are usually 5-20 x 1.5-10 cm., predominantly acuminate at 
apex, pale-sericeous on nerves on both surfaces, and with prominent, ascending 
secondary nerves. The racemiform inflorescences are subsessile, to 7 cm. long, with 
ovate-deltoid, densely sericeous bracts exceeding the buds but soon deciduous. The 
petals are pink to purple, greenish-blotched or -striped, the standard being 10-12 mm. 
long. The fruits are oblong, about 15^7 mm., short-pilose, gland-dotted, and with 
black seeds about 3 mm. broad. Our specimens were flowering in May and August. 

Typification: The type is no. 13260 in the Willdenow Herbarium (b), from India 
(Merrill, 1910, cited above). 

Distribution: Himalayas to India and Ceylon to China and into Malesia, but 
presumably not indigenous in New Guinea or Australia; cultivated in other areas. 

Uses: The species was probably introduced into Fiji during the present century as a 
potential pasture legume, but it is not utilized as such and apparently has not become 
naturalized, although it is sufficiently attractive to be sometimes considered an orna- 
mental. In New Guinea it is sometimes cultivated to form shelter belts in tea planta- 
tions. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, DA 14347. Rewa: Suva, Meebold 16658. 

49. Rhynchosia Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 425, 460. 1790; Nooteboom in Reinwardtia 5: 

438. 1961; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 423. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. 

Leg. Papil. 711. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 551.1 979; Pedley in Austrobaileya 

1:378. 1981. 

Herbs or subshrubs, climbing, prostrate, or rarely erect, the stipules ovate or 

lanceolate; leaves pinnately (as in our species) or rarely subdigitately trifoliolate, 

sometimes unifoliolate, with very small stipels or these lacking, the leaflet blades with 

resinous glands beneath; inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemiform or paniculate, 

rarely 1 -flowered, the bracts often well developed but caducous, the bracteoles lacking; 

calyx 5-lobed, the lobes unequal, the 2 upper ones joined; petals often small, the 

standard ovate or suborbicular, with small auricles, glabrous or pilose without, the 

wings narrow, the keel incurved at apex; filaments of 9 stamens joined in a sheath, the 

vexillary filament free; ovary often tomentellous, the ovules (I or) 2, the style long, 

slender and usually pilose proximally, incurved, distally somewhat flattened, stiffened, 



1985 FABACEAE 255 

and glabrous, the stigma small, terminal; fruits subcircular to narrowly oblong, 
compressed, often falcate, frequently glandular and tomentellous, dehiscent, not 
septate, the valves without distinct transverse reticulate veins, the seeds (I or) 2, 
compressed-globose or subreniform, reddish to brown, black, or blue, the hilum short, 
lateral, the rim-aril usually obsolete, infrequently well developed. 

Type specie.s; Rhynchosia voluhilis Lour. 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, with about 200 species, one of which is 
an infrequent adventive in Fiji. 

1. Rhynchosiaminima(L.)DC.Prodr. 2:385. 1825; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 
65. 1943; Nooteboom in Reinwardtia 5: 439. 1961; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 76. 
1964, ed. 2. 118. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 
160. 1970; Verdcourt in Kew Bull. 25: 102. 1971, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 
756. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 553. 1979. 

Dolichos minimus L. Sp. PI. 726. 1753. 

A climbing or prostrate perennial herb, adventive along roadsides, in plantations, 
or in waste places near sea level. The slender stems are pilose to glabrate and to several 
meters in length; the leaflet blades are rhomboid to ovate or suborbicular, usually 1 -6 x 
1-5 cm., tomentellous to glabrescent, densely gland-dotted beneath, and rounded to 
subacute (to acuminate) at apex. The inflorescences are axillary, lax, 3-20 cm. long, 
the calyx lobes longer than the tube. The suborbicular-obovate standard is 5-10 mm. 
long, yellow, sometimes red-veined or -flushed, the wings are yellow, and the keel is 
greenish. The fruits are oblong-falcate, 6-25 x 3-5 mm. (in Pacific specimens mostly 
10-15 mm. long and glabrate), with (1 or) 2 seeds, these oblong-reniform, brown to 
blackish, and about 3 x 2 x 1.2 mm. 

Lectotypification: Of the three elements originally designated by Linnaeus, 
Verdcourt (1971, both references cited above) has indicated Sloane 3:79 (bm 
lectotype), from St. Jago de la Vega, Jamaica. 

Distribution: Paleotropical, perhaps often inadvertently spread. Conceivably it 

was introduced into Fiji as a pasture legume, but more likely its seeds were accidentally 

mixed with those of some more desirable species. 

Available collections: VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: Savusavu, DA LIJ75J. TAVEUNI: 
Nathongai Estate. DA 8990. 

Rhynchosia minima is a complex species difficult to divide into infraspecific taxa. 
Eight varieties are discussed by Verdcourt (in Kew Bull. 25: 101-105. 1971). Much of 
the Pacific material (from Fiji, Niue, and Polynesia) could as well fall into var. niuia as 
var. minima. Variety nuda (DC.) Kuntze (Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 204. 1891) is based on 
Rhynchosia nuda DC. (Prodr. 2: 385. 1825), typified by Rottler (G holotype), from 
Nandaradah, India (data from Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr., 1971, cited above). 

50. Ormocarpum Beauv. Fl. Oware 1: 95. 1807; Seem. Fl. Vit. 55. 1865; Hutchinson, 

Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 473. 1964; J. B. Gillett in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 352. 1971; 

Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 364. 1979. Nom. cons. 

Shrubs or small trees, the stipules striate, persistent; leaves often fasciculate on 

short shoots, imparipinnate (infrequently unifoliolate) and estipellate, the leaflets 

more or less alternate, numerous, mucronate; inflorescences axillary, short-racemose 

(rarely paniculate or I-flowered), the bracts and bracteoles striate, persistent; calyx 

tube campanulate, the lobes 5, usually longer than tube, the 2 upper ones proximally 

connate, the lowest ones slightly the longest; petals usually glabrous, often strongly 

veined, the standard orbicular, clawed, bituberculate above claw, the wings obliquely 

obovate, the keel petals broad, incurved, subequal to wings; stamens 10, the filaments 

connate into a sheath usually divided dorsally and ventrally, sometimes dorsally only. 



256 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

or sometimes with the vexillary filament free, the anthers uniform, medifixed, a 
cylindric intrastaminal disk often present; ovary substipitate, the ovules 3-9, the style 
filiform, inflexed, the stigma minute, terminal; fruits linear, compressed, articulate, the 
articles 1 -9, oblong, longitudinally ribbed, indehiscent, the seeds flattened, asymmetri- 
cally ellipsoid, the hilum lateral near apex. 

Type species: Ormocarpum verrucosum Beauv. 

Distribution: Paleotropical: Africa to southern Asia and through Malesia to the 
Caroline Islands, northern Australia, and Fiji, where one species terminates the 
generic range, with about 20 species. The genus should have been included in my 
discussion of genera with distributions terminating in Fiji (in J. Arnold Arb. 36: 279. 
1955); it was correctly so indicated by van Balgooy (in Blumea Suppl. 6: 178. 1971). 

1. Ormocarpum orientale(Spreng.) Merr. Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amb. 266. 1917; J. 
B. Gillett in Kew Bull. 20: 336. 1966; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. IbA.fig. 
84. 1979. 
(?) Diphaca cochinchinensis Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 454, nom. illeg. 1790. 
Parkinsonia orientalis Spreng, Syst. Veg. 4 (2): 170. 1827. 
Ormocarpum sennoides sensu A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 422. 1854; Seem. Viti, 435, as 

Ormocarpuss. 1862, Fl. Vit. 55. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 149. 1890; J. W. Parham, PI. Fijilsl. 

75. 1964, ed. 2. 115. 1972; non DC. 
(?) Ormocarpum cochinchinense Merr. in Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 5: 76, nom. illeg. 1910, Enum. Philipp. Fl. 

PI. 2: 282. 1923, in Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. n. s. 24 (2): 198. 1935. 

Shrub or small tree to 7 m. high, infrequent along dry coasts near sea level. The 
9-20 leaflets are oblong to obovate, usually 2-3 x 0.7-2 cm.; the pedicels are up to 2.5 
cm. long, with bracteoles well below base of calyx, the calyx lobes being 4-7 mm. long, 
longer than calyx tube; the petals are greenish yellow and purple-streaked or -veined, 
the standard 1 3-20 mm. long, with a scale at base of blade; the fruits have 1 -7 articles, 
each 15-24 x 5-8 mm. 

Typification and nomenclature: The sole basis of Parkinsonia orientalis is 
Solulus arbor Rumph. Herb. Amb. 3: 200. t. 128. 1743. This reference was also 
included by Loureiro in his protologue of Diphaca cochinchinensis, of which the type 
is Loureiro (bm holotype), said to have been cultivated in Cochinchina and China. J. 
B. Gillett (in Kew Bull. 20: 335. 1966) concludes that Diphaca cochinchinensis is a 
doubtfully valid name, firstly because some of Loureiro's material seems to be a 
"monstrosity" (ICBN, Art. 71; but this Article is deleted from the 1978 "Leningrad" 
edition), and secondly because Hedysarum ecastaphyllum L. was mentioned as an 
apparent synonym, thus raising the possibility that Loureiro's binomial should be 
rejected as illegitimate (ICBN, Art. 63). The latter alternative seems a reasonable 
method of disposing of Loureiro's name, if indeed his concept was conspecific with the 
later binomial Parkinsonia orientahs Spreng. 

Distribution: Southern China and southeastern Asia through Malesia to the 
Caroline Islands, northern Australia, and Fiji. The species is infrequent (or perhaps 
cultivated and naturalized) in parts of this range and seems lacking from certain 
archipelagoes, but it appears indigenous (although infrequent) in Fiji, having been first 
collected there in 1840. Differences between Ormocarpum oriencale (or O. cochinchi- 
nense?) and O. sennoides (Willd.) DC, with which it has frequently been confused, are 
indicated by Gillett (in Kew Bull. 20: 328, 336. 1966). 

Use: In some parts of its range the leaves are said to be eaten as a vegetable, which 
may account for the occasional cultivation of the species. 

Available collections: OVALAU: Milne 236. MATUKU; Milne 108. Fiji without further locality, U. 
S. Expl. Exped. 



1985 FABACEAE 257 

51. Aeschynomene L. Sp. 713. 1753; Rudd in Reinwardtia 5: 23. 1959; Hutchinson, 
Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 474. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 364. 1971, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. 365. 1979. 

Shrubs or herbs, often with tubercular-based hairs, the stipules peltate or basally 
attached; leaves alternate or clustered on short lateral branchlets, paripinnate, estipel- 
late, the leaflets numerous (5-100), small, entire; inflorescences axillary, leaf-opposed, 
or terminal, racemose (or paniculate or 1-flowered), the bracts often stipulelike, the 
bracteoles appressed to calyx; calyx lobes subequal or joined into 2 lips, the upper lip 
entire or bifid, the lower lip entire or trifid; petals 5, the standard suborbicular, 
short-clawed, the wings obliquely obovate or oblong, subequal to standard, the keel 
petals obovate or narrow, slightly or conspicuously incurved; stamens 10, the filaments 
connate into a sheath split on one or both sides, the vexillary filament very rarely free, 
the anthers uniform; ovary stipitate, the ovules 2-28, the style inflexed, the stigma 
terminal; fruits stipitate, linear or ellipsoid, compressed, articulate, the articles (1-) 
2-18, smooth or tuberculate, mostly indehiscent, the seeds small, reniform, the hilum 
circular. 

Lectotype species: Aeschynomene aspera L. (vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. 
S. ed. 2. 2: 392. 1913), one of Linnaeus's five original species. 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, well developed in America, with 150 
or more species. A single adventive species occurs in Fiji. 

Useful treatment of genus: Rudd, V. E. The genus Aeschynomene in Malaysia (Leguminosae- 
Papilionatae). Reinwardtia 5: 23-36. 1959. 

1. Aeschynomene indica L. Sp. PI. 713. 1 753; Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 154: 

12. 1938; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 96. 1943; Rudd in Reinwardtia 5: 

30. 1959; J. W. Parham in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 94. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 70. 1964, 

ed. 2. 108. 1972; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 373. fig. 54(4). 1971, 

Man. New Guinea Leg. 3bl.fig. 85. 1979. 

A frequent, shrubby, annual or perennial herb usually 0.4-2 m. high, occurring as a 

weed from near sea level to low elevations on gravel banks of rivers, along roadsides, in 

waste places, and often in wet parts of ricefields and canefields. The stipules are 

peltate-appendiculate, up to 15 x 3 mm., and the variable leaves (2- 10 cm. long) usually 

have 10-30 pairs of leaflets, these elliptic-oblong, glabrous, and 2-13 *< 1-3 mm. The 

inflorescences are 1-6-flowered, the calyx being 2-lipped and 4-6 mm. long; the 

standard, to 10 mm. long, isyellow to whitish and purple-streaked or -diffused, and the 

wings and keel petals are greenish white to pale yellow. The fruits, usually 2.5-4 cm. 

long and shallowly incised along the lower suture, have 5- 1 2 articles 3-5 mm. long and 

broad. Flowers and fruits occur at most seasons. 

Typification: The type is Rheede, Hort. Ind. Malabar. 9: 31. /. 7^. 1689 (Verd- 
court, 1971, cited above). 

Distribution: Although Aeschynomene indica is now pantropical and was known 
in the Old World as long ago as the seventeenth century, it was probably native in 
America (Rudd, 1959, cited above), being one member of a complex of about ten 
species that is otherwise confined to the New World. It has been widely introduced 
throughout the Old World and is frequent in ricefields. In at least one instance in Fiji 
(DA L. 13235) the seeds are known to have been introduced together with American 
rice. The species was apparently not in Fiji until about 1920. 
Local names: Sensitive vetch or sensitive Jointed vetch. 

Available COLLECTIONS; VITI LEVU: Mba: Lautoka, GrfcnHoo(/2/4,' Lomolomo, south of Lautoka, 
DA 1 1752: vicinity of Tonge, Mba River, DA 10420; near Tavua, D.A 14359. Nandronca & Navosa: Near 
Lombau, Singatoka River, DA 10165. Ra: Yanggara, DA 4957. 10750: Nanuku, DA 11820: Penang and 
vicinity. Greenwood 214A, DA 5620. 11472. Naitasiri: Mbatiki compound, Nanduruloulou, D.A 2615. 



258 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Vicinity of Mbua, DA. May 18, 1949. TAVEUNI: Nggathavulo Plantation, DA 
L 13235. Fiji without further locality, DA 2971. 

52. Stylosanthes Sw. Nov. Gen. & Sp. Prodr. 7, 108. 1788; Mohlenbrock in Ann. 
Missouri Bot. Gard. 44: 299. 1958; Nooteboom in Reinwardtia 5: 446. 1961; 
Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 485. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 
436. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 371. 1979. 

Perennial herbs or low shrubs, often glandular-hispid with stiff hairs, the stipules 
proximally adnate to petiole, biapiculate, persistent; leaves pinnately trifoliolate 
(rarely unifoliolate), estipellate; inflorescences axillary or terminal, densely spicate or 
paniculate, composed of 1 -flowered elements with imbricate, persistent, primary 
(1-3-foliolate) and secondary bracts, a plumose filiform axis (inflorescence rudiment) 
sometimes present, the flowers subsessile, the bracteoles 1 or 2, linear, persistent; calyx 
tube elongate, filiform, the lobes joined proximally, membranous, the upper ones 
connate into a lip, the lowermost one the longest; petals and stamens inserted at apex 
of calyx tube, the standard orbicular or obovate, the wings oblong or obovate, free, 
with a basal spur and lateral appendage, the keel petals incurved, spurred and appen- 
daged; stamens 10, the filaments connate into a closed tube at length splitting on 
vexillary side, the anthers alternately long (and subbasifixed) and short (and versatile); 
ovary linear, sessile, the ovules 2 or 3, the style long, filiform, after anthesis the distal 
part caducous, the lower part persistent, recurved or revolute, callose-dilated at apex 
and there resembling a stigma, the true stigma terminal, minute; fruit sessile, com- 
pressed, hooked at apex by persistent style base, articulate, the articles 1 or 2 (but 
usually 1 article aborted), reticulate or muricate, the seeds compressed, ovoid or 
oblong. 

Lectotype species: Stylosanthes procumbens Sw., nom. illeg. (Hedysarum hama- 
tum L.) = S. hamata (L.) Taubert (vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. S. ed. 2. 2: 393. 
1913). 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, with about 25 species. Two species 
have been introduced into Fijian cultivation and may be sparingly naturalized. 

Key to species 

Fniit article I, glabrous or minutely pilose distally, with a minute, inflexed beak (persistent style base) less 
than 0.8 mm. long; flowers with the calyx tube and standard each 4-8 mm. long; leaflets comparatively 
large, usually (in var. guianensis) 1.5-3 (-5) cm. x 5-10 mm.; herb or subshrub, usually erect, to 1.5 m. 
high 1 . S. guianensis 

Fruit article usually 1 (articles occasionally 2), puberulent to pilose, with an obvious, long, hooked beak 
(persistent style base) 5-8 mm. long and strongly protruding from fruiting inflorescence; flowers slightly 
smaller, the calyx tube about 5 mm. long, the standard 3-4 mm. long; leaflets comparatively narrow, 
usually 0.8-3.2 cm. x 2-4 mm.; much-branched perennial herb, usually prostrate 2. S. humilis 

1. Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. in Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 10: 301. 
1789; Mohlenbrock in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 44: 330, as S. guyanensis. fig. 2 
(7). 1958; 't Mannetje in Austral. J. Bot. 25: 2,51. fig. 1. 1977; Verdcourt, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. 373. 1979; Fosberg & Sachet in Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 45: 7. 
1980. 
Trifolium guianense Aubl. Hist. PI. Guiane Fr. 776. /. 309. \115. 

Sivlosanthes gracilis H. B. K. Nova Gen. et Sp. 6: 507. 1. 596. 1 824; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 
2. 118. 1972. 

Perennial herb or subshrub, usually erect, to 1 .5 m. high, cultivated in introduction 
plots near sea level and perhaps not yet naturalized. The dense inflorescences, to 1.5 
cm. long, are 2-40-flowered, lacking an axis rudiment; the calyx lobes are 3-5 mm. 
long, shorter than the calyx tube; the standard is orange-yellow and red-streaked, the 
wings are yellow, and the keel petals are greenish; and the fruit article is 2-3 x 1.5-2.5 
mm., with an inflexed beak 0.1-0.8 mm. long. 



1985 FABACEAE 259 

Typification and nomenclature; The lectotype of Trifoliuni guianense is 
Aublet (bm), from Macouria, French Guiana (the specimen mounted together with 
Poeppig 1401, cf. 't Mannetje, 1977, cited above, p. 351). The type of Stylosanthes 
gracilis was obtained by Humboldt and Bonpland in the Cerro del Turimiquiri, 
Venezuela (not Ecuador as stated by 't Mannetje, p. 348). The two taxa (and others) are 
combined by 't Mannetje, although kept as varieties. 

Distribution: Central and South America, now widely introduced into other 
tropical areas and sometimes naturalized. Oi l\\e: %\x\di.nci\c% oi Stylosanthes guianen- 
j« recognized by 't Mannetje (1977, cited above), the material grown in Fiji represents 
var. guianensis, as do most of the introductions into Australia. 

Local names and uses: Known in Fiji as stylo or tropical lucerne, the species was 
introduced in 1943 as a cover crop and as potential pasturage, but perhaps it is not yet 
naturalized; the available collections are all from introduction plots or quarantine 
stations. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, 
near Singatoka, DA 5965. Ra; Pasture Seed and Production Farm, Ndombuilevu, DA 9529. Naitasiri: 
Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station. Nanduruloulou, DA. Feb. 27. 1949, 75/6. FD.A 13031: 
Principal Agricultural Station, Koronivia, DA, Dec. 2, 1949. Rewa; P. Q. S., Vatuwangga, Suva, DA 11818 
(L.5742). 

2. Stylosanthes humilis H. B. K. Nova Gen. et Sp. 6: 506. /. 594. 1824; Mohlenbrock in 

Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 44: 345. f'g- 2 (15). 1958; Pedley in Austrobaileya 1: 37. 

1977; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 313. fig. 87. 1979; Fosberg& Sachet in 

Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 45: 7. 1980. 

Siylosanlhes sundaica Taubert in Verb. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 32: 21. 1890; Nooteboom in 

Reinwardtia 5:450. 1961; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 2. 118. 1972. 

Much-branched perennial herb, usually prostrate but sometimes with stems 
ascending to 40 cm., cultivated near sea level and perhaps locally and sparingly 
naturalized. The compact inflorescences are usually 1-1.5 cm. long and 3- 1 0-flowered, 
the axis rudiment usually absent but sometimes present; the standard is orange to 
yellow and sometimes pink-flushed; and the fruit article is about 3 mm. long, rigid and 
pilose, with a very obvious, hooked beak. 

Typification and nomenclature: JhtiWE of Stylosanthes humilis v/ascoWtcitd 
near Carichana, along the Orinoco River near the Rio Meta, Venezuela, by Humboldt 
and Bonpland. As cotypes of S. sundaica Taubert listed Zollinger 2788, from Java, 
and Bauer 95, from Timor. There has been disagreement as to the reduction of S. 
sundaica to S. humilis, suggested by Mohlenbrock (1958) but not accepted by Noote- 
boom (1961). I here follow the reduction as adopted by Pedley (1977) and other 
authors listed above. 

Distribution: Central America and northern South America, now widely intro- 
duced and naturalized elsewhere. In New Guinea and Fiji it seems to have been 
brought in from Queensland. Pedley (1977) suggests that it may have been introduced 
into Malesia by Portuguese traders in the sixteenth century. 

Local names and use: Introduced into Fiji in 1932, the Townsville stylo or 
Townsville lucerne is considered a valuable pasture legume, but its naturalization in 
Fiji has been sparse and local. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Ra: Yanggara, DA 2822. 2883. 3074: Colonial Sugar Refining 
Co. Estate, Yanggara, DA /2i/y,Ra without further locality, DA 13280. Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and 
Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, DA 5827, 7515. 



260 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

53. Arachis L. Sp. PI. 741. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. Pi. 1:486. 1964; Verdcourt in 
Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 440. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 380. 1979. 

Low herbs, annual or perennial, often prostrate, the stipules basally adnate to 
petiole; leaves paripinnate (rarely trifoliolate), estipellate, the leaflets in 2 pairs; 
inflorescences axillary, spicate, sessile, densely 2-7-fIowered, the bracts membranous, 
biapiculate, the flowers essentially sessile; calyx tube filiform, simulating a pedicel, the 
lobes membranous, the 4 upper ones connate, the lowest one slender, distinct; petals 
and stamens basally adnate and inserted at apex of calyx tube, the standard suborbicu- 
lar, without auricles, the wings oblong, free, the keel petals incurved, beaked; stamens 
(8-) 10, the filaments all connate into a closed tube, the anthers alternately elongate 
(and subbasifixed) and short (and versatile); ovary subsessile, linear, with ( 1 -) 2-4 (-7) 
ovules, the gynophore elongating after anthesis, becoming reflexed and rigidly acute at 
apex, the style filiform, long, deciduous, the stigma terminal, minute; fruits maturing 
underground, oblong, thick-walled and reticulate, functionally indehiscent, subtoru- 
lose but not articulate, continuous within, the seeds 1-3 (-6), irregularly ovoid, the 
cotyledons thick, fleshy. 

Type species: Arachis hypogaea L., the only original species. 

Distribution: Eastern South America, with about 22 species, one of which is 
widely cultivated. 

1. Arachis hypogaea L. Sp. PI. 741. 1753; Yunckerin Bishop Mus. Bull. 178:62. 1943; 
Surridge in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 18: 9. 1947; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 71. 1964, 
ed. 2. 109. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 225. fig. 34. 1968; Sykes in New 
Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 144. 1970; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. 
Afr. Leg. Papil. 442. //g. 63. 1971; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. 
Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 101. 1972; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 5\.fig. 2.4. 1976; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 381. //^. 89. 1979. 
Annual herb, branched from base, with erect or straggling stems, sparingly culti- 
vated near sea level. The 4-foliolate leaves have the leaflets obovate to elliptic and up to 
7x3 cm.; the inflorescences are few-flowered, with the calyx tube at anthesis up to 6 
cm. long and stalklike; the petals are yellow and red- or purple-nerved, the standard 
being 9-13 mm. in diameter; the fertile stamens are 8 or 9; and the pods are 2-6 cm. 
long, the gynophore becoming 1-20 cm. long. 

Typification: Of the several references given by Linnaeus, that to Hortus Upsa- 
liensis is taken to indicate the lectotype: no. 909. 1 (linn), grown at Uppsala from 
seeds from "Brazil and Peru" (Verdcourt, 1971, cited above). 

Distribution: Arachis hypogaea is a cultigen not known in a wild state, doubtless 
originating in eastern Brazil or adjacent areas and now widely cultivated on a commer- 
cial scale in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions. It is known to have 
been widely distributed in much of South America by 800 B. C. In the sixteenth century 
voyagers spread the plant widely and it has become an important crop, many cultivars 
having been developed. 

Local names and uses: The peanut or groundnut was perhaps first introduced into 
Fiji by J. B. Thurston, being listed in his 1886 Catalogue, but it is cultivated on only a 
small scale. The seeds are edible as the familiar peanut and are utilized in the 
preparation of many foods as well as a source of high quality oil, being second only to 
the soybean in world importance as a vegetable oil. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Agricultural Station, Nathotholevu, 
near Singatoka, DA 12316 (FDA 15342). Ra: Savusavu, Wainimbuka River, DA 5705. 



1985 FABACEAE 261 

54. ViciA L. Sp. PI. 734. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:452. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. 

Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 1067. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 554. 1979. 

Annual or perennial herbs, climbing and tendrillous or suberect, the stems 
unwinged, the stipules semisagittate, often dentate or divided; leaves usually paripin- 
nate, estipellate, the rachis sometimes terminating in a tendril or bristle, the leaflets 
usually numerous (rarely 1-3 pairs); inflorescences axillary, racemose, (1-) few- 
flowered, the bracts minute, caducous, the bracteoles none; calyx tube often oblique 
and asymmetrical, the lobes subequal or the 2 upper ones shorter and partly joined; 
standard narrowed into a broad claw, the wings obliquely oblong, usually adherent to 
keel, the keel petals shorter than wings; stamens 10, the filaments connate into a tube 
oblique at mouth, the vexillary filament free or lightly adhering to sheath, the anthers 
uniform, versatile; ovary subsessile or stipitate, the ovules (2-) numerous, the style 
terete or compressed dorsally or laterally, pilose all around or ventrally or abaxially 
tufted at apex, the stigma terminal; fruits oblong to linear, compressed, dehiscent, not 
septate, the seeds globose or compressed, with a thin aril. 

Lectotype species: Vicia sativa L. (vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. S. ed. 2. 2: 
408. 1913), one of the 17 species originally included by Linnaeus. 

Distribution: Temperate parts of Northern Hemisphere, extending into South 
America and eastern Africa, with about 140 species; one species is cultivated in Fiji. 

1. Vicia faba L. Sp. PI. 737. 1753; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 66. 1943; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 2. 119. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 
319. 1968; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 161. 1970; 
Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 38, 49. 1976; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1:458. 1980. 

Erect annual herb to 1.5 m. high, occasionally cultivated, with tetragonous stems. 
The 2-6 leaflets are elliptic to ovate and 5-10 x 1-5 cm.; the inflorescences are erect, 
2-6-flowered, with the standard 2-4 cm. long and white, sometimes dorsally black- 
streaked; and the linear fruits are 10-30 x 2-4 cm., the pericarp with a spongy white 
layer within, the seeds 1-6, variously colored, 1-2.5 cm. long. 

Typification: Several prior references were listed by Linnaeus, among which I 
have not noted an indicated lectotype. 

Distribution: Vicia faba is one of the oldest of cultivated plants, not known in the 
wild but presumably of Mediterranean or southwestern Asian origin. It was widely 
grown in prehistoric times but was not known in the New World until the post- 
Columbian period. 

Local names and uses: The most frequent name, broad bean, is used in Fiji; other 
widely used names are fava bean, horse bean, and Windsor bean. There are many 
cultivars, used for the edible green shell beans or the dried beans. The entire plant is 
used for fodder. The species is a cool weather crop, of which the seeds must be 
imported annually into Fiji. No herbarium vouchers are available, 

55. Lathyrus L. Sp. PI. 729. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:453. 1964; Verdcourt in 

Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 1076. 1971, Man. New Guinea Leg. 558. 1979. 
Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes tendrillous, the stem often winged, the 
stipules foliaceous, sagittate or semisagittate, persistent; leaves paripinnate, often 
unijugate, the petiole sometimes dilated and leaflike, the rachis terminating in a tendril 
or bristle, the leaflets 1-few (-numerous) pairs, the blades with supervolute vernation, 
rarely absent; inflorescences axillary, racemose or 1-flowered, the bracts minute, 
caducous, the bracteoles none; calyx tube often oblique or gibbous, the lobes subequal 
or the upper pair the shortest; standard with a short, broad claw, the wings falcate to 
obovate, slightly adherent to keel or not, the keel petals incurved, shorter than wings; 



262 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

stamens 10, the filaments connate into a sheath usually truncate at apex, the vexillary 
filament free or somewhat connate to sheath, the anthers uniform; ovary subsessile or 
stipitate, the ovules few-numerous, the style inflexed, dorsally compressed and often 
distally indurated, pubescent only on adaxial face, the stigma terminal, capitate; fruits 
linear-oblong, dehiscent, continuous within, the seeds globose or angular, sometimes 
compressed, with a thin aril. 

Lectotype species: Lathyrus sylvestris L. (vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. S. 
ed. 2. 2: 412. 1913), one of Linnaeus's original 21 species. 

Distribution: Northern Hemisphere, extending into South America and Africa, 
with about 150 species; one ornamental is cultivated in Fiji. 

1. Lathyrus odoratus L. Sp. PI. 732. 1753; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 74. 1964, ed. 2. 
114. 1972; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 457. 1980. 

An annual climbing herb, often cultivated in gardens. The leaves are unijugate, 
with elliptic to obovate, thin-pilose leaflets usually 2-4 cm. long; the flowers are borne 
in 2-5-flowered racemes, the showy petals being lilac to pink or white or variegated, the 
standard usually 2-4 cm. in diameter; and the fruits are 5 cm. long or more, with 
subglobose, gray to brown seeds. 

Typification: Linnaeus knew the species well as a garden ornamental, but I have 
not noted a lectotype designation. 

Distribution: Indigenous in Europe but now very widely cultivated. 

Local name and use: Sweet pea; an attractive, well-known garden plant with very 
fragrant flowers. No herbarium vouchers are available. 

56. Lens Mill. Card. Diet. Abridg. ed. 4. 1754; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:453. 1964; 
Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 1074. 1971. Nom. cons. 

Slender, erect or subscandent, annual herbs, the stipules linear or ovate to semisag- 
ittate; leaves usually paripinnate, estipellate, the rachis terminating in a tendril or 
bristle (or in a leaflet in imparipinnate leaves), the leaflets 2-several pairs, the blades 
with conduplicate vernation; inflorescences axillary, racemose and few-flowered or 
1-flowered, the bracts small, deciduous, the bracteoles none; calyx 5-lobed, the lobes 
elongated, subulate, subequal; petals small, the standard obovate, narrowed into a 
short, broad claw, the wings obliquely obovate, adherent to middle of keel, the keel 
petals shorter than wings; stamens 10, the filaments connate into a sheath with an 
oblique mouth, the vexillary filament free, the anthers uniform; ovary subsessile, the 
ovules 2, the style inflexed, dorsally compressed, pubescent only on adaxial face; fruits 
compressed, dehiscent, continuous within, the valves papery, the seeds 1 or 2, com- 
pressed, lenticular, with a thin aril. 

Type species: Lens culinaris Medik. (Ervum lens L.). 

Distribution: Western Asia and Mediterranean region, perhaps with one species 
in Africa, with six species, one of which is an important food plant. 

1. Lens culinaris Medik. in Vorles. Churpfalz. Phys.-Ocon. Ges. 2: 361, as L. culinare. 
\1%1; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 458. 1980. 
Ervum lens L. Sp. PI. 738. 1753. 

Uns esculenia Moench, Meth. PI. 131. 1794; J. W. Parham, Pl. Fiji Isl. 74. 1964, ed. 2. 114. 1972; 
Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 279. 1968; Smartt, Trop. Pulses, 39, Al.fig. 2. IS (2). 1976. 
Sparsely cultivated, erect or subscandent annual herb to 40 cm. high, with an 
angular stem and ovate-lanceolate stipules. The leaflets are 4-7 pairs, oblong to 
lanceolate, usually 10-15 mm. long, and finely pubescent; the 1-4-flowered inflores- 
cences bear flowers to 8 mm. long, the petals being shorter than the calyx, white to pink 
or pale blue, the standard violet-streaked; and the fruits are oblong, 12-15 ^ 8-10 mm., 
with greenish to brown, red- or black-speckled seeds. 



1985 FABACEAE 263 

Typification: Among the several references given by Linnaeus for Ervum lens, 
upon which both listed names in Lens are based, no lectotypification has been noted by 
me. 

Distribution: A plant of ancient cultivation in the Mediterranean area and 
western Asia, not known in the wild, now widely cultivated and with various cultivars. 
It is not suited to the wet tropics but is occasionally grown in dry parts of Fiji, although 
not represented by herbarium vouchers. 

Local name and uses: The lentil has highly nutritious seeds that are used in soups, 
flour, cereal, etc. The young pods may also be used as a vegetable, and the husks 
provide fodder for livestock. The species has doubtless been introduced into Fiji 
during the present century. 

57. PisuM L. Sp. PI. 727. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:454. 1964; Verdcourt, Man. 
New Guinea Leg. 560. 1979. 

Erect or climbing, annual or perennial herbs, the stipules small to foliaceous, 
semicordate or semisagittate; leaves paripinnate, estipellate, the rachis terminating in a 
branched tendril or a bristle, the leaflets 1-3 (-4) pairs, the blades with conduplicate 
vernation; inflorescences axillary, racemose, the peduncle elongated, the flowers ( 1-) 
few, the bracts minute, caducous, the bracteoles none; calyx tube asymmetrical, 
oblique or gibbous at base, the lobes subequal or the 2 upper ones the broadest; 
standard obovate-orbicular, with a short, broad claw, the wings falcate-oblong, adher- 
ent in middle to keel, the keel petals shorter than wings, incurved; stamens 10, the 
filaments slightly dilated distally and connate into a sheath with a truncate mouth, the 
vexillary filament free or connate to sheath in middle, the anthers uniform; ovary 
subsessile, the ovules numerous, the style inflexed, dorsally compressed, adaxially 
pubescent, longitudinally folded with the margins joined abaxially below stigma, the 
stigma subterminal; fruits inflated, obliquely acute, dehiscent, the seeds subglobose, 
with a thin aril covering the oblong hilum. 

Lectotvpe species: Pisum sativum L. (vide M. L. Green, Prop. Brit. Bot. 175. 
1929), one of Linnaeus's four original species. 

Distribution: Mediterranean area and western Asia, with two or three species, 
one of which is an important food plant. 

I. Pisum sativum L. Sp. PI. 727. 1753; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178:66. 1943; J. 

W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 76. 1964, ed. 2. 1 16. 1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 

311. /;^. 48. 1968; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 159. 

1970; Smartt, Trop, Pulses, 38, 47.//^. 2.3. 2.18(3). 1976; Verdcourt, Man. New 

Guinea Leg. 562. 1979; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 458. 1980. 
A glabrous annual herb to 2 m. high or long, cultivated or occasionally seen as an 
ephemeral escape from sea level upward, with tetragonous stems, the stipules conspic- 
uous, clasping the stem, up to 10 x 5 cm. The leaflets are ovate-oblong, up to 7 x 4cm. 
and usually smaller than stipules; the petals (in var. sativum) are white, the standard 
usually 1.2-2 cm. long; and the fruits are usually 5-10 x 1.5-3 cm., with 2-10 seeds, 
these usually green. 

Typification: Linnaeus cited several references, among which I have not noted 
selection of a lectotype. 

Distribution: Although not known in a wild state, the pea may have been first 
cultivated in southwestern Asia in neolithic times, rapidly spreading throughout the 
Old World and later to the New World. A great number of cultivars have been 
developed. The edible garden pea is referred to var. sativum. 



264 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Local names and use: Pea, garden pea, green pea, mattar (Hindi); the familiar 
green pea is often cultivated in Fiji as a vegetable, although seeds must be imported 
annually. The pods of some cultivars are also edible. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Suva. DA 16990. 

58. CiCER L. Sp. PI. 738. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 452. 1964; Verdcourt in Fl. 

Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 1065. 1971. 

Perennial or annual herbs, glandular-viscid, the stipules foliaceous, oblique, den- 
tate or incised; leaves often imparipinnate (rarely trifoliolate), estipellate, the rachis 
terminating in a small tendril or spine or leaflet, the leaflet blades conspicuously 
dentate; inflorescences axillary, racemose with 2-5 flowers or l-flowered, the bracts 
small, the bracteoles none; calyx tube oblique or gibbous, the lobes subequal or the 2 
upper ones slightly the shortest and connivent; standard narrowed into a broad claw, 
without appendages, the wings obliquely obovate, free, the keel petals broad, incurved; 
stamens 10, the filaments dilated distally, 9 connate into a sheath, the vexillary 
filament free, the anthers uniform, versatile or sometimes alternately basifixed; ovary 
sessile, the ovules 2-few, the style filiform, incurved, glabrous distally, the stigma 
terminal; fruits sessile, oblong to ellipsoid, inflated, glandular-pilose, dehiscent, the 
seeds 1-10, subglobose or irregularly obovoid. 

Type species: Cicer arietinum L., the only original species. 

Distribution: Europe to central Asia and locally in northern Africa, with about 40 
species, one of which is widely cultivated. 

1. Cicer arietinum L. Sp. PI. 738. 1753; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 72. 1964, ed. 2. 1 10. 
1972; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 246. fig. 37. 1968; Verdcourt in Fl. Trop. E. 
Afr. Leg. Papil. \065.fig. 152. 1971; Smartt,Trop. Pulses, 37,44.//^. 2.7, 2.7^ r/^- 
1976; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 457. 1980. 
Erect or spreading annual herb to 50 cm. high, cultivated on a small scale in dry 
areas, the tetragonous stems, leaves, calyx, and fruit glandular-pubescent. The impari- 
pinnate leaves have about 9-14 leaflets with elliptic blades usually 7-20 x 4-15 mm.; 
the flowers are solitary, borne on pedicels 5-10 mm. long and slightly longer than 
peduncles, the petals being white to purphsh red, the standard 10-15 mm. long; and the 
fruits are 1.5-3 ^ 1-2 cm., with 1 or 2 angular, oblong-obovoid, white to red or black 
seeds 5-10 mm. in diameter. 

Typification: Of the several references listed by Linnaeus, that to Hortus Clifforti- 
anus may be taken to provide the lectotype: Hort. Cliff, (bm) (Verdcourt, 1971, cited 
above). 

Distribution: Not known in a wild state but found in prehistoric sites in the 
eastern Mediterranean area and western Asia, early spreading in the Old World and 
now widely cultivated. Various cultivars are known. 

Local names and uses: Chick pea: gram; chana (Hindi); an important pulse, 
especially in India. The dried seeds are edible when cooked or made into flour, and the 
green pods and young shoots are used as a vegetable. The species was introduced into 
Fiji about 1935. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU; Naitasiri: Nanduruloulou, DA 11542. 

59. Trigonella L. Sp. PI. 776. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 456. 1964; Huber- 

Mor. in Davis, Fl. Turkey 3: 452. 1970. 
Herbs, the stipules adnate to petiole; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, the leaflet blades 
with nerves extending to the dentate margin; inflorescences subumbellate or densely 



1985 FABACEAE 265 

short-racemose or 1-flowered, the bracts minute, the bracteoles none, the flowers 
without an explosive tripping mechanism; calyx campanulate, with subequal lobes; 
petals not persisting in fruit, the standard obovate to oblong, contracted into a broad 
claw, the wings oblong, the keel petals shorter than wings, obtuse; stamens 10, the 
filaments not dilated, 9 connate into a sheath, the vexillary filament free or connate to 
sheath in middle, the anthers uniform; ovary sessile or short-stipitate, the ovules 
numerous, the style filiform or thickened, glabrous, the stigma terminal; fruits nearly 
straight, rarely falcate, beaked, not included in calyx, terete or compressed, dehiscent 
or opening along seed-bearing suture, continuous within, the seeds many. 

Lectotype species: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (vide M. L. Green, Prop. Brit. 
Hot. 177. 1929), one of Linnaeus's seven original species. 

Distribution: Canary Islands and Mediterranean area to central Asia, and in 
desert regions of southern Africa and Australia, with about 80 species, one of which 
has been introduced into Fiji. 

1. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Sp. PI. 777. 1753; B. E. V. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. 
Agr. Fiji 13: 51. 1942; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 77. 1964, ed. 2. 119. 1972; 
Huber-Mor. in Davis, Fl. Turkey 3:481. 1970; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 
456. 1980. 

A fragrant herb to 50 cm. high, branched from base, sparsely cultivated near sea 
level and sometimes noted as an escape; the leaflet blades are obovate to oblanceolate, 
10-30 X 5-15 mm.; the flowers are 1 or 2 in leaf axils and have petals 12-18 mm. long, 
yellowish white and sometimes lilac-tinged; and the fruits are about 10 cm. ^ 5 mm., 
longitudinally reticulate-veined and with 10-20 seeds. 

Typification: Several references were given by Linnaeus; Huber-Morath (1970, 
cited above) indicates the species to have been "described from France ( Montpellier)": 
no. 932/ 16 (linn lectotype). 

Distribution: Mediterranean area into Asia, established as a medicinal plant in 
ancient Egypt and now widely cultivated. 

Local names and uses: Fenugreek: met hi (Hindi). The seeds are used as a 
condiment, and the young leaves and pods are cooked as a vegetable. In other areas the 
seeds are used medicinally and for cosmetic purposes. The species was probably 
introduced into Fiji about 50 years ago, but no herbarium vouchers are available. A 
more recent introduction, made in 1966, is numbered FDA (introduction number) 
16235. 

60. MedicagoL. Sp. PI. 778. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:457. 1964; J. B. Gillett 
in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 1036. 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
565. 1979. 

Herbs, the stipules adnate to base of petiole, dentate or laciniate; leaves pinnately 
trifoliolate, estipellate, the leaflet blades with veins extending to the dentate margins; 
inflorescences axillary, short-racemose, the peduncle, pedicels, and bracts short, the 
bracteoles none, the flowers with an explosive tripping mechanism; calyx tube short, 
the lobes subequal; petals small, free from filament tube, not persisting in fruit, the 
standard obovate to oblong, contracted at base, the wings oblong, the keel petals 
obtuse, shorter than wings; stamens 10, the filaments not dilated, 9 connate into a tube, 
the vexillary filament free, the anthers uniform; ovary sessile, the ovules ( 1-) numer- 
ous, the style subulate, glabrous, the stigma terminal; fruits curved or coiled, 
reticulate-veined, not included in calyx, usually indehiscent, sometimes spiny, the 
seeds 1 -several, curved. 



266 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Lectotype species: Medicago radiata L. (vide Scofield in U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. 
Indust. Bull. 131: 15. 1908), one of Linnaeus's nine original species. 

Distribution: Europe and Africa to western Asia, most numerous in the Mediter- 
ranean region, with about 50 species, one of which has been introduced into Fiji. 

1. Medicago sativa L. Sp. PI. 778. 1753; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 114. 1972; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 565. fig. 143. 1979; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. 
Ceylon 1: 456. 1980. 

Perennial herb to about 50 cm. high, cultivated near sea level as a potential pasture 
legume but perhaps not established. The leaflets are obovate or oblong, usually 10-25 
>< 4-12 mm.; the petals are blue to purple, usually 5-10 mm. long, the wings and keel 
petals long-clawed; and the fruits are unarmed, variable, falcate to coiled into 1-3 
turns. 

Typification: Of the references listed by Linnaeus, perhaps that to Hortus Cliffor- 
tianus would suggest the best lectotype: Herb. Cliff, (bm). 

Distribution: Southern Europe, now widely cultivated and often naturalized. 
Our material falls into subsp. saliva. 

Local names and uses: Alfalfa, lucerne. One of the most valuable fodder plants, 

but usually not becoming established in the lowland tropics and probably not suitable 

for use as a pasture legume in Fiji, where it has been tried in experimental plots during 

recent years. The available collections were obtained in 1961. 

Available collections: VITl LEVU: Ra: Colonial Sugar Refining Co. Estate, Yanggara, DA 12306. 
12307. 

61. Trifolium L. Sp. PI. 764. 1753; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1:457. 1964; J. B.Gillett 
in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 1016. 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 
562. 1979; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 452. 1980. 

Annual or perennial herbs, the stipules well developed, proximally adnate to 
petiole; leaves digitately (rarely pinnately) 3(-7)-foliolate, estipellate, the leaflet blades 
mostly denticulate, with veins extended to margins; inflorescences axillary or rarely 
subterminal, often long-pedunculate, racemose but condensed and appearing spicate, 
capitate, or umbellate, rarely 1 -flowered, the bracts small or absent or sometimes the 
outer ones connate into an involucre, the bracteoles none; calyx campanulate, often 
conspicuously nerved, the teeth subequal or the lower ones the longer; petals marces- 
cent, often persisting in fruit, clawed, the claws of 4 usually adnate to filament sheath, 
the standard oblong to ovate, the wings narrow, the keel petals obtuse, shorter than 
wings; stamens 10, the alternate or all filaments apically dilated, 9 connate into a 
sheath, the vexillary filament free or rarely connate to sheath in middle, the anthers 
uniform; ovary sessile or short-stipitate, the ovules 1-12, the style filiform, distally 
incurved, the stigma small, capitate or punctate; fruits oblong or obovate, subterete or 
compressed, included in or exserted from persistent calyx, indehiscent or dehiscent 
distally or irregularly, the seeds 1 or 2 (-4), subglobose to reniform. 

Lectotype species: Trifolium pratense L. (vide Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. N. U. S. 
ed. 2. 2: 353. 1913), one of Linnaeus's original 40 species. 

Distribution: Subtropical and temperate, with centers of diversity in the eastern 
Mediterranean area, western Asia, and western America, with 250-300 species, includ- 
ing many important fodder plants that have become widely naturalized. 

Species of Trifolium are probably not significant as fodder plants in Fiji, although 
it is likely that representatives will be occasionally found in pastures. As a rule clovers 
do not flourish in tropical lowlands, but at least the following species have been tried 



1985 FABACEAE 267 

experimentally in Fiji by the Department of Agriculture, from seed with the indicated 
"FDA" numbers: 

T. alexandrinum L. (FDA 15706) 

T. hirtum All. (FDA 15415) 

T. resupinatwn L. (FDA 15705. 15707) 

T. rueppellianum Fresen. (FDA 15212. 15414) 

T. semipilosum Fresen. (FDA 15213. 15413, 19019) 
Some of these species may have become ephemerally established in Viti Levu pastures, 
but none are represented by herbarium vouchers. An available herbarium voucher is 
DA 9559 (Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, Naitasiri), 
with purple flowers and very narrow, lanceolate leaflets, representing an unidentified 
species. The only species likely to become firmly established is the following. 

1. Trifolium repens L. Sp. PI. 767. 1753; Backer & Bakh. f. Fl. Java 1: 588. 1963; 
Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. Sbi.fig- 142 B. 1979; Rudd in Rev. Handb. Fl. 
Ceylon 1: 453. 1980. 

Essentially glabrous, perennial herb, with long stems rooting at nodes, cultivated 
near sea level and perhaps occasionally naturalized in pastures. The long-petiolate 
leaves have leaflet blades obovate to elliptic, I -2 cm. long and broad, and emarginate 
or obtuse; the inflorescences are usually subglobose and 1.5-2 cm. in diameter, 
many-flowered, with peduncles 10-30 cm. long and short-pedicellate, fragrant flowers, 
the petals being 8-12 mm. long and usually pure white; and the fruits are linear, 4-5 
mm. long, compressed, and constricted between the 3 or 4 seeds. 

Typification: Of the references given by Linnaeus, that to Hortus Cliffortianus 
may be taken to indicate the lectotvpe: Herb. Cliff. 375.18 (bm) (Rudd, 1980, cited 
above). 

Distribution: Europe and Asia, now widely cultivated as a fodder plant, with 
various cultivars. If varieties are recognized, that introduced into Fiji seems to be var. 
repens. 

Local name and use: White clover; a well-known and important fodder plant, said 
to have been introduced into Fiji in 1946. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Principal Agricultural Station, Koronivia, DA. Dec. 2, 
1949. 

62. Crotalaria L. Sp. PI. 714. 1753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 54. 1865; Munk in Reinwardtia 6: 
196. 1962; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 365. 1964; Polhill in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. 
Papil. 817. 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 570. 1979. 
Shrubs or herbs, the stipules filiform to foliaceous, sometimes lacking; leaves 
simple, unifoliolate, or digitately 3-7-foliolate, estipellate; inflorescences terminal or 
leaf-opposed (less commonly axillary), racemose (or subcapitate or subumbelliform), 
rarely 1 -flowered or fasciculate, the bracts small, rarely foliaceous, sometimes 
caducous before anthesis, the bracteoles small or rarely absent; calyx tube protracted 
on lower side or 2-lipped, the lobes free or the upper and lateral lobes united; petals 
usually longer than calyx, the standard orbicular to elliptic, often callose-appendaged 
at base within, glabrous or pubescent without, the wings obovate or oblong, shorter 
than standard, the keel petals incurved, usually prominently beaked, the beak some- 
times twisted; stamens 10, the filaments all connate into a sheath split at least at base on 
vexillary side, the anthers dimorphic, alternately short (and versatile) and long (and 
basifixed); ovary usually stipitate, the ovules 2-many, the style incurved or inflexed, 
usually bearded distally, the stigma terminal, small; fruits sessile to long-stipitate, 
subcylindric to oblong-clavate, inflated (usually markedly so), dehiscent (sometimes 
tardily so), continuous within, the seeds 1-many, sometimes conspicuously arillate. 



268 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Lectotype species: Crotalaria lotifolia L. ("latifolia") (vide Britton & Brown, 111. 
Fl. N. U. S. ed. 2. 2: 346. 1913), one of Linnaeus's 13 original species. 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, best developed in the Southern Hem- 
isphere, most numerous in tropical Africa, with about 600 species. Seven species are 
known to occur in Fiji. None are strictly indigenous, but three are apparently adventive 
rather than intentionally introduced, the remaining species being cultivated in intro- 
duction gardens and sometimes naturalized. 

Useful treatments of genus; Munk, W. J. de. Preliminary revisions of some genera of Malaysian 
Papilionaceae III — A census of the genus Crotalaria. Reinwardtia 6: 195-223. 1962. Polhill, R. M. 
Miscellaneous notes on African species of Crotalaria L.: II. Kew Bull. 22: 169-348. 1968. 

Key to species 
Leaves simple. 

Leaf blades oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, usually 4-8 x 1 .5-2.5 cm.; racemes terminal, to 30 cm. long, 
many-flowered; fruits 4-5 » 1.3-1.8 cm., glabrous, the seeds 12-20, 4-5 mm. long; adventive, 

presumably not intentionally introduced 1. C. retusa 

Leaf blades lanceolate-oblong, 6-13 x 0.5-2 cm.; racemes lax, 10-25 cm. long, usually 5-15-flowered; 
fruits about 3 x I cm., copiously short-brown-tomentose, the seeds 6-10, 5-6 mm. long; cultivated 

only (or perhaps becoming naturalized) 2. C. juncea 

Leaves with 3 or more leaflets. 
Leaflets 3. 

Fruits copiously spreading-pilose, 3-4.5 cm. x 8-17 mm., the seeds 40-50; stipulesfiliform, usually 3-12 
mm. long; our subspecies with long, ferrugineous hairs on stems, petioles, lower leaflet blade 
surfaces, bracts, and calyx; leaflet blades elliptic-obovate to suborbicular, 2.5-5 x 1.5-4 cm.; petals 

8-1 1 mm. long; cultivated only (or possibly becoming naturalized) 3. C. incana 

Fruits appressed-pilose or puberulent and soon glabrate; stipules 2-4 mm. long; stems, petioles, lower 

leaflet blade surfaces, bracts, and calyx with short, appressed hairs, often glabrate; petals usually 

13-15 mm. long. 

Leaflet blades in our variety obovate, usually 3-7 x 1.5-4 cm., retuse to rounded at apex; fruits 

narrowly cylindric, usually 3.5-4.5 cm. x 5-8 mm., the seeds 30-40; adventive, presumably not 

intentionally introduced 4. C pallida 

Leaflet blades narrowly elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, (3-) 5-10 x 1-3 cm., acute at apex; fruits 
oblong, usually 3-4 x 1-1.5 cm., the seeds 8-18; cultivated only (or possibly becoming natural- 
ized) 5. C. anagyroides 

Leaflets 5-7. 
Stems angular, short-pale-pilose; stipules 3-4 mm. long; leaflets 5, the blades lanceolate to linear, 3-9 
cm. X 4-10 mm., obtuse to subacute at apex, pale-strigose beneath; flowers 1.5-2 cm. long; fruits 
about 6 X 1.5-2 cm.; adventive, presumably not intentionally introduced. . . 6. C. quinquefolia 
Stems copiously ferrugineous-tomentellous, becoming terete; stipules 7-10 mm. long; leaflets 5-7, the 
blades obovate, 3-7 x \-2 cm., retuse to rounded at apex, copiously ferrugineous-pilose beneath; 
flowers to 2.5 cm. long; fruits 3-5 x about 1.5 cm.; cultivated only (or possibly becoming 
naturalized) 7. C. grahamiana 

1. Crotalaria retusa L. Sp. PI. 715. 1753; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154:96. 1943; 

Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 138. 1959; Munk m Reinwardtia 6: 212. 1962; 

Backer & Bakh. f. Fl. Java 1: 580. 1963; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 72. 1964, ed. 2. 

110. 1972; Polhill in Kew Bull. 22: 310. 1968, in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 958. 

1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 583.//^. 145, 147 (G). 1979; Henty in 

Papua New Guinea Dept. Forests Bull. 12: ^l. fig. 50. 1980. 
Erect annual or short-lived perennial herb or shrub 0.5-1 m. high, adventive in 
grassland and along roadsides near sea level. The ribbed stems are pilose with short, 
appressed, pale hairs, and the subulate stipules are 1-5 mm. long; the leaf blades are 
rounded or emarginate at apex and shortly appressed-pilose beneath; the flowers, 
2-2.5 cm. long, have bright yellow petals, the standard being purple-lined or -blotched, 
the keel with a short, twisted beak; and the fruits are oblong-clavate, with yellowish or 
brown seeds. Flowers and fruits have been obtained between March and August. 
Typification: The type material was obtained in Ceylon by Hermann: folio 2: 21, 



1985 FABACEAE 269 

84, & 4: 51, 78 (bm syntypes) (Polhill, 1971. cited above). 

Distribution: Although the original distribution is obscured by widespread intro- 
duction and naturalization, the species may have been indigenous in Asia or coastal 
eastern Africa (Polhill, 1968, 1971). The Fijian material falls into var. reiusa. 

Use: The species was presumably not intentionally introduced, as it is poisonous to 
stock and especially dangerous to horses. No Fijian collections are older than about 50 
years. 

Available collections: VITl LEVI): Mba: Lautoka and vicinity. Greenwood 27. 27Z. Rewa: Mua- 
naira, Vutia Creek, Rewa delta. DA 13678. OVALAU: Wainiloka, D.A 5682. TAVEUNI: Vicinity of 
Waiyevo, Smiih 8107. 

2. CrotalariajunceaL. Sp. PI, 714. 1753; Munk in Reinwardtia 6:206. 1962;Backer& 

Bakh. f. Fl. Java 1: 582. 1963; Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicot. 250. fig. 38. 1968; 

Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 148. 1970; Polhill in Fl. 

Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 950. 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 519. fig. 

147 (E). 1979; Henty in Papua New Guinea Dept. Forests Bull. 12: 85. 1980. 

Laxly branched, erect, annual herb to 3 m. high, cultivated only near sea level, or 

perhaps becoming naturalized. The stems are ribbed and appressed-pilose, and the 

filiform stipules are about 2 mm. long; the calyx, 16-20 mm. long, is copiously 

brown-pilose; and the petals are yellow, faintly marked with red, the standard to 25 

mm. long, the keel to 20 mm. long and with the beak twisted. 

Typification: Of the references cited by Linnaeus, that to Hortus Cliffortianus 
may be taken to provide the lectotype: a specimen from India, the collector uncertain. 
Herb. Cliff, (bm) (Polhill, 1971). 

Distribution: Indigenous in India, but now cultivated throughout the tropics. 
Local names and uses: Sunn hemp: san (Hindi); a useful species as a cover crop or 
a green manure, and in India an important source of bast fiber, but said to be 
poisonous to stock. 

Available collection; VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA. Jan. 23, 1952 (FDA 13401). 

3. Crotalaria incana L. Sp. PI. 716. 1753; Munk in Reinwardtia 6: 205. 1962; Polhill in 

Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 869. 1971; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 579. 
fig. 147 (D). 1979. 

Annual or short-lived perennial herb to 1.5 m. high, cultivated only near sea level. 
The racemes are 12-30 cm. long and many-flowered; the petals are yellow, with red to 
purple veins, the keel straight, not twisted; and the seeds are about 3 mm. long, pale 
brown to olive-green. 

Typification: Of the references listed by Linnaeus, Sloane's Voy. Jam. Nat. Hist, 
may be taken to provide the lectotype material: Herb. Sloane 6: 6, and Barham & Lane 
in Herb. Sloane 67: 76 (bm lectosyntypes) (Polhill, 1971, cited above). 

Distribution: Widespread in tropical America and perhaps also indigenous in 
Africa and Madagascar, introduced or adventive in other parts of the tropics. The 
Fijian introduction falls into subp. purpurascens. 

3a. Crotalaria incana subsp. purpurascens (Lam.) Milne-Redh. in K.ew Bull. 15: 159. 
1961; Polhill in FL Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 870. 1971. 

Crotalaria purpurascens Lam. Encyl. Meth. Bot. 2: 200. 1786. 

A subspecies distinguished from subsp. incana by the long ferrugineous indument 
of its stems, petioles, bracts, and calyx; the bracts are 4-10 mm. long, much more 
obvious than those of subsp. incana. 



270 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Typification: The holotype (p) is from a plant cultivated in Paris, originally from 
Madagascar. 

Distribution: Africa and Madagascar (and possibly tropical America), cultivated 
or naturalized elsewhere. 

Use: Presumably introduced into Fiji in 1961 as a cover crop from seed sent from 
Kenya, but no collections indicate that it has yet become naturalized, although this 
may be the case. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA (FDA 15449). 

4. Crotalaria pallida Ait. Hort. K.ew. 3: 20. 1789; Polhill in Kew Bull. 22: 262. 1968, in 
Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 905. 1971; Fosberg & Sachet in Smithsonian Contr. 
Bot. 21: 18. 1975; Verdcourt, Man. NewGuinea Leg. 582.//^. 147(F). 1979; Henty 
in Papua New Guinea Dept.Forests Bull. 12: 83. pi. 26. 1980. 
Crotalaria mucronata Desv. in J. Bot. Agric. 3:76. 1814; A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1:39. 1942; Greenwood in 
J. Arnold Arb. 25: 398. 1944; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 1 38. 1959; Munk in Reinwardtia6: 209. 
1962; Backer & Bakh. f. Fl. Java 1: 584. 1963; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 72. 1964, ed. 2. 1 10. 1972; Sykes 
in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 149. 1970. 
Crotalaria striaia DC. Prodr. 2: 131. 1825; J. W. Parham m Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 90. A?- 45. a-d. 1959. 
Crotalaria saltiana sensu Prain ex King in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 66 (2): 41. 1 897; Christophersen in Bishop 
Mus. Bull. 128: 100. 1935; Yuncker in op. cit. 178: 62. 1943; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 96. 
1943; non Andrews (1812). 

Annual or short-lived perennial herb or shrub to 3 m. high, abundantly naturalized 
from near sea level to about 800 m. in open places, clearings, thickets, waste places, and 
cultivated areas, on sand dunes and open hillsides, and along river banks and road- 
sides. The racemes are up to 30 cm. long and many-flowered; the calyx is 6-7.5 mm. 
long, becoming deflexed against the pedicel; the petals are yellow or yellowish green, 
red- to purple-veined, the wings much shorter than the keel, the keel not twisted; and 
the seeds are about 3.5 mm. long. Flowers and fruits are seen throughout the year. 
Typification and nomenclature: Crotalaria pallida was grown at Kew from 
seeds collected in Ethiopia by Bruce (bm holotype); the type of C. mucronata is a 
Jamaican specimen, collector uncertain (p holotype); and the type of C. striata is 
Leschenault (g holotype), from Bengal, India. The synonymy of these taxa and the 
recognition of two varieties of C pallida were discussed by Polhill ( 1 968, cited above). 
Distribution: Pantropical, in part adventive and hence the original distribution 
obscure, but the species appears to be indigenous in parts of tropical Africa (Polhill, 
1971). 

This is the only abundant and widely naturalized species of Crotalaria in Fiji. The 
Fijian material appears to represent var. obovata, distinguishable from var. pallida by 
its distinctly obovate leaflet blades being retuse to rounded at apex and usually 3-7 x 
1.5-4 cm. Variety/7a///^a has elliptic, larger leaflet blades (6- 13 cm. long) that are acute 
to rounded at apex. Perhaps both varieties occur in Pacific archipelagoes, although 
most material at hand represents var. obovata. 

4a. Crotalaria pallida var. obovata (G. Don) Polhill in Kew Bull. 22: 265. 1968, in Fl. 
Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 906. 1971. 

Crotalaria obovata G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. PI. 2: 138. 1832. 

Typification: The type is G. Don (bm holotype), from Accra, Ghana. 

Distribution: Widespread throughout the tropics, in part adventive, but predom- 
inant in the Old World and perhaps originally African. More than 40 Fijian collections 
have been examined. 



1985 FABACEAE 271 

Local names: Ratilepod: recorded Fijian names are nggiringgiri, kaumothe, toela 
(Mba), and pint (Lakemba). 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mbekana Island, near Lautoka, Degener & Ordonez 
1554): Lautoka, Greenwood S9: Nandi airport, DA 9742: Nalotawa, eastern base of Mt. Evans Range, 
Srnilh 4430: Tavua, DA 9486: Nandarivatu, Parks 20793. Nandronga & Navosa: Thuvu, sand dunes along 
shore, Webster & Hildreth 14316: Keiyasi, Singatoka River, DA 10176. Namcki: Valley of Wainambua 
Creek, south of Mt. Naitarandamu, Smiih S771. Ra: Yanggara, DA 10744: Penang, Greenwood 89.^. 
Naitasiri: Koronivia, DA 10792. Tailevu: Matavatathou, D.A 9952.Nausori, D.4 2921. Rewa: Suva Point, 
DA 7487. KANDAVU: Namalata isthmus region. Smiih 12. WAKAYA: Toihill 101. VANUA LEVU: 
Mathu.vla: Tandrandave, DA 12944: banks of lower Lambasa River, Smith 6616. LAKEMBA: Near 
Tumbou Village, Garnock-Jones 915. 

The species was probably adventive in Fiji rather than intentionally introduced; it 
is unpalatable and is believed to be poisonous to stock. None of the available speci- 
mens are older than about 50 years; although some occur near introduction plots, that 
may be merely a coincidence. 

5. Crotalaria anagyroides H. B. K. Nova Gen. et Sp. 6:404. 1824; Yuncker in Bishop 

Mus. Bull. 178:61. 1943; Munk in Reinwardtia6:200. 1962; Backer& Bakh. f. Fl. 

Java 1: 584. 1963; PolhiU in Kew Bull. 22: 219. 1968; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. 

Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 148. 1970; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 573.//^. 

147 (B). 1979. 

Shrub to 3 m. high, cultivated in introduction plots near sea level but perhaps also 

naturalized (readily naturalizing on Nine, cf. Sykes, 1970). The racemes are up to 60 

cm. long and many-flowered; the pedicels are 7- 1 mm. long; and the petals are yellow, 

sometimes purple-striped, the standard about 20 mm. in diameter. 

Typification; The species is based on material obtained near Caracas, Venezuela, 
by Humboldt and Bonpland. 

Distribution: Tropical America, now widely introduced elsewhere. 
Uses: Introduced as a cover crop or a green manure, perhaps 40 or 50 years ago, and 
probably becoming naturalized. In some parts of the tropics it is used as an ornamen- 
tal. 

A\ailable collections: VlTl LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, D.-l 8491. 9566: Central Agricultural Station, Navuso, DA 2410: in cocoa nursery. Principal 
Agricultural Station, Koronivia, D.A 12131. 

6. Crotalaria quinquefolia L. Sp. PI. 716. 1753; A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1:390. 

1854; Seem. Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 54. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 147. 

1890; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 96. 1943; Munk in Reinwardtia 6: 212. 

1962; Backer & Bakh. f. Fl. Java 1: 583. 1963; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 72. 1964, 

ed. 2. 110. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 582. 1979. 

Erect herb or shrub to 1 m. high, apparently adventive on grassy forehills at low 

elevations. The racemes are terminal or distally axillary and many-tlowered; the petals 

are yellow, red- or purple-streaked; and the fruits bear numerous seeds about 4 mm. 

long. 

Typification: The only reference given by Linnaeus is to Rheede, Hort. Ind. 
Malabar. 9:51. /. 28. 1689. 

Distribution: Probably indigenous in India, but now pantropical. 
Local name: Mboa, a name recorded by early collectors. 

Available collections: VITl LEVU: Mba: Vicinity of Tavua, Greenwood 783. MBENGGA: Toihill 
100. MATUKU: Bryan 281. Fiji without further locality, C. S. E.xpl. E.xped.. Williams. 

The species is seemingly adventive in Fiji and was established prior to 1840, 



272 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

although it is seldom collected. Gray implied that the species may have been an 
intentional introduction, but there seems no evidence for this. 

7. Crotalaria grahamiana Wight & Arn. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 194. 1834; Baker in 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 85. 1876; A. Lee in Telopea 1: 355. 1978. 

Herb or shrub to 2 m. high, cultivated near sea level but perhaps not naturalized. 
The inflorescences are 10-15 cm. long, therachiscopiously pilose, the bracts conspicu- 
ous, lanceolate, 10-15 mm. long, and the bracteoles are linear, paired proximally on 
the pedicel, this being stout and 8- 1 2 mm. long; the calyx is large, to 1 5 mm. long, with 
acuminate lobes longer than the tube; the petals are yellow; and the fruits are stipitate, 
strongly and persistently beaked, and soon glabrate. 

Typification: The type was obtained in hills near Dindigul, Madras, India. 

Distribution: Presumably indigenous in India and now cultivated or perhaps 
naturalized elsewhere. 

Use: The species was introduced into Fiji prior to 1935, perhaps as a potential cover 
crop. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nandu- 
ruloulou, DA 9561. 9667. 

A. T. Lee (1978, cited above) has noted that this species, naturalized in New South 
Wales, has sometimes been identified as Crotalaria quinquefolia, but it is readily 
distinguished by its more obvious indument, conspicuous stipules, shorter and broader 
leaflet blades, larger flowers, and somewhat shorter but equally inflated pods. 

63. LoTONONis Ecklon & Zeyher, Enum. PI. Afr. 176. 1836; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 
360. 1964; Milne-Redh. in Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Papil. 813. 1971; Verdcourt, 
Man. New Guinea Leg. 585. 1979. Nom. cons. 
Ononis sect. Loiononis DC. Prodr. 2: 166. 1825, Mem. Leg. 223. 1826. 

Annual or perennial herbs, prostrate or erect, the stipules solitary and unilateral or 
2 and free, rarely absent; leaves digitately 3(or 5)-foliolate (rarely unifoliolate), estipel- 
late, the terminal leaflet the largest; inflorescences terminal or leaf-opposed, racemose 
or umbellate or 1-flowered, subsessile or pedunculate, the bracts and bracteoles small; 
calyx with the 4 upper lobes usually connate in pairs, the lowermost lobe narrower; 
standard ovate to obovate, short-clawed, the wings sometimes shorter than keel, the 
keel petals rounded at apex; stamens 10, the filaments all connate into a sheath split on 
vexillary side, 6 anthers short (and versatile), 4 anthers long (and basifixed); ovary 
sessile, the ovules numerous, the style incurved, glabrous, the stigma small, capitate; 
fruits oblong, compressed or slightly inflated, dehiscent, continuous within, the seeds 
many. 

Type species: Lotononis vexillata (E. Meyer) Ecklon & Zeyher (Crotalaria vexil- 
lata E. Meyer). Typ. cons. 

Distribution: Mediterranean region and Africa to India, best developed in South 
Africa, with more than 100 species, one of which has been introduced into Fiji. 

1. Lotononis bainesii Baker in Oliver, Fl. Trop. Afr. 2: 6. 1871; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji 
Isl. ed. 2. 114. 1972; Verdcourt, Man. New Guinea Leg. 585.//^. 148. 1979. 
Prostrate, creeping, perennial herb, often rooting at nodes, cultivated and spar- 
ingly naturalized near sea level. The stipules are paired,foliaceous, 4-lOmm. long; the 
leaflet blades are elliptic to lanceolate, usually 2-6 >< 0.5-1 cm.; the inflorescences have 
the rachis 1-3 cm. long borne on a peduncle to 20 cm. or more long, the short- 
pedicellate flowers being about 1 cm. long, the calyx with short, white, appressed hairs, 
and the petals yellow; and the fruits are usually about 8 '^ 2 mm., copiously white- 
pilose, and with a long-persistent style. 



1985 CONNARACEAE 273 

Typification: The type is Chapman & Baines (K holotype), collected in interior 
South Africa near the Tropic of Capricorn. 

Distribution: Indigenous in South Africa, now cultivated elsewhere. 

Use: A pasture legume, introduced into Fiji in 1960 and becoming naturalized; it is 
considered palatable to stock and is protein-rich. 

Available collections: VlTl LEVU: Mba: Mba closed area, DA 13182. Ra: Colonial Sugar Refining 
Co. Estate, Yanggara, DA I230H. Naitasiri: Plant Introduction and Quarantine Station, Nanduruloulou, 
DA (FDA 15319). Fiji without further locality, DA 12961. 

Order CONNARALES 
Family 126. CONNARACEAE 
CoNNARACEAE R. Br. in Tuckey, Narr. Exped. Congo, 431. 1818. 

Trees or shrubs, often scandent, or lianas, without stipules, with indument of 
simple or dendroid several-many-celled hairs or glandular hairs; leaves alternate, 
imparipinnate, sometimes trifoliolate, rarely unifoliolate, estipellate, the petioles and 
petiolules basally pulvinate, the leaflets subopposite or alternate, with penninerved to 
triplinerved, entire blades sometimes slightly peltate at base; inflorescences axillary or 
terminal, sometimes borne on branches, paniculate, bracteate, the pedicels articulated 
distally, the flowers small, actinomorphic, hypogynous, § or rarely unisexual, 5(or 
rarely 4)-merous; sepals free or joined only at base, imbricate or subvalvate, usually 
persistent; petals free or rarely slightly connivent proximally, imbricate or valvate; 
stamens usually 10 (rarely 8) in 2 whorls, the inner (epipetalous) ones usually smaller, 
sometimes sterile or staminodial, the filaments free or shortly connate proximally, the 
anthers dorsifixed near base, with lengthwise, introrse dehiscence; carpels free, usually 
5, sometimes 1-3, the ovules 2 (1 sometimes small and sterile), collateral, basal or 
ascending from ventral suture, orthotropous or anatropous, the style subulate or 
filiform, the stigma more or less capitate; fruits composed of often solitary (rarely 2) 
follicles, these sessile or stipitate, ventrally (and sometimes also dorsally) dehiscent, 
more rarely indehiscent or circumscissile at base, the seed usually 1 (rarely 2), with an 
arilloid attached to the testa, the endosperm present or absent, the cotyledons thick, 
flat. 

Distribution: Pantropical and extending into moist subtropical areas, with about 
16 genera and 300-350 species. Two genera occur indigenously in Fiji. 

UsEFLX TREATMENTS OF FAMILY; ScHELLENBERG, G. Connaraceae. Pflanzenr. 103 (IV. 127): 1-326. 1938. 
Leenhouts, p. W. Connaraceae. Fl. Males. I. 5:495-541. 1958. Dickison, W. C. Anatomical studies in the 
Connaraceae. I. Carpels. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 87: 77-86. 1971. II. Wood anatomy. Op. cit. 
120-136. 1972. III. Leaf anatomy. Op. cit. 89: 121-138. 1973. IV. The bark and young stem. Op. cit. 89; 
166-171. 1973. Dickison, W. C. A survey of pollenmorphology of the Connaraceae. Pollen & Spores 21 
31-79. 1979. 

Key to genera 
Carpels 5 at anthesis; fruit with the follicle not stipitate, characteristically longitudinally finely striate; seed 
(in our species, of subgen. Paltialus) with a small basal sarcotesta giving rise to a loose, enveloping 
arillode; calyx accrescent in fruit, cupular, often enclosing base of follicle; anthers all functional. 

I. Rourea 

Carpel I at anthesis; fruit with the follicle often stipitate, smooth or rugulose; seed with only a basal or 

proximally unilateral arillode; calyx not accrescent in fruit; epipetalous stamens sometimes sterile or 

staminodial 2. Connarus 

1. Rourea Aubl. Hist. PI. Guiane Fr. 467. 1775; Seem. Fl. Vit. 53. 1865; Schellenb. in 
Pflanzenr. 103 (IV. 127): 194. 1938; Leenh. in Fl. Males. I. 5:510. 1958; Hutchin- 
son, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 166. 1964; Tirvengadum in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1:280. 
1980. Norn. cons. 



274 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Kalawael Adanson, Fam. PI. 2: 344, 530. 1763. Nom. rejic. 
Sanlalodes Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 155, p. p. 1891. Nom. rejic. 

Saniahides Schellenb. in Mitt. Bot. Mus. Univ. Zurich SO: 38. 1910, in Pflanzenr. 103 (IV. 127): 1 19. 1938; 
Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 166. 1964. Nom. cons. 

Shrubs, small trees, or lianas, the indument sometimes composed of several-celled 
hairs; leaves imparipinnate, sometimes trifoliolate, rarely unifoliolate; inflorescences 
axillary, sometimes pseudoterminal, paniculate, the bracts ovate to lanceolate, the 
bracteoles small, lanceolate, fimbriate, the flowers § , 5-merous; sepals distinctly 
imbricate, ovate, acute, usually pilose without, accrescent in fruit; petals longer than 
sepals, glabrous; stamens 10, the filaments filiform, joined at base, glabrous, the 5 
episepalous ones distinctly the longer, the anthers all functional; carpels 5, heterotri- 
stylous, the ovary obliquely ovoid, pilose or subglabrate, the ovules suborthotropous, 
the style slender, the stigma small, capitate or oblique; fruits composed of 1 (very rarely 
2) follicle, this ellipsoid to ovoid, usually slightly curved, longitudinally finely striate, 
ventrally (as in our species) or irregularly dehiscent, the pericarp thin but coriaceous, 
the seed solitary, ellipsoid to subglobose and laterally somewhat flattened, the testa 
entirely fleshy or the basal portion forming a small sarcotesta or the basal sarcotesta 
(as in our species) giving rise to a loose arillode enveloping or slightly shorter than the 
seed, the hilum large and basal or (as in our species) small and lateral near base. 

Type species and nomenclature: Rourea is based on R. frutescens Aubl.; Kala- 
wael (as discussed by Leenhouts, 1958) on " Kiridiwael" Hermann {Santaloides L., 
1747) = Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston. The type species of Sanlalodes may be 
considered 5. hermannianum Kuntze {Connarus santaloides Vahl) = Santaloides 
minus (Gaertn.) Schellenb. The conserved type species of Santaloides is S. minus 
(Gaertn.) Schellenb. (Aegiceras minus Gaertn.) = Rourea minor (GaeTtn.) Alston. The 
three genera listed in synonymy are all ultimately based on the Ceylonese plant now 
known as Santaloides minus (in Schellenberg's system) or Rourea minor (as inter- 
preted by Leenhouts). Santaloides is conserved against Kalawael and Santalodes, but 
not against Rourea. 

Distribution; Pantropical, with about 100 species, the Asian-Pacific portion of 
the range extending eastward to Nine and Samoa. 

Leenhouts (1958) has provided a detailed justification for his use of Rourea in a 
comprehensive sense, combining five genera distinguished by Schellenberg (1938). 
These genera appear to differ only in the degree of development of the sarcotesta, 
which may cover the whole seed or only a small basal part of it, from which in a late 
stage of ontogeny may develop an arillode which loosely envelops the whole seed. The 
last situation characterizes Santaloides Schellenb. (= Rourea subgen. Palliatus 
Leenh.). Anatomical and palynological evidence supporting this inclusive concept of 
Rourea has been summarized by Dickison (in J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 88: 129. 1972, 
in op. cit. 89: 137. 1973, in Pollen & Spores 21: 70. 1979). Even though they are 
separated only by seed characters, the three subgenera recognized by Leenhouts are 
sharply demarcated and all have valid names, but the inclusive concept of Rourea now 
seems generally accepted as reasonable. 

1. Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6: 67, as R. minus. 
1931; Leenh. in Fl. Males. L 5:5\A.fig. 8. 1958; Vidal in Fl. Cambodge, Laos et 
Vietnam 2: 34. 1962; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 200: 70. 
fig. 4. 1970; Tirvengadum in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 280. 1980. 

Figures 47, 48A, 49A & B. 



1985 



CONNARACEAE 



275 




Figure 47. Rourea minor; A, distal portion of branchlet, with foliage and infructescences, x 1 3; B, 
distal portion of branchlet, with unifoliolate leaves and an infructescence, x 1 3; C, flower, with 2 sepals and 
2 petals removed, some anthers fallen, » 1 0; D, indument of lower surface of young leaflet blade, x 50. A from 
Smith 8870, B from Smilh 6890. C from Vaupel 491 (Samoa), D from Smith 9567. 



276 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 CONNARACEAE 277 

Aegiceras minus Gaertn. Fruct. Sem. PI. 1:216. /. 46. 1788. 

Rourea heierophytla Planch, in Linnaea 23: 419. 1850; A. Grav, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 375. 1854; 
Seem. Viti, 435. 1862. Fl. Vit. 53. 1865; Drake, 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 146. 1890. 

Rourea samoensis Lauterb. in Bot. Jahrb. 41: 226. 1908. 

Santaloiiles samoense Schellenb. in Bol. Jahrb. 58: 180. 1923. in POanzenr. 103 (IV. 127): 122. 1938; 
Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 128, 1959; St. John & A. C. Sm. in Pacific Sci. 25: 327. 1971. 

Saniahides minus ScheWenh. in Bot. Jahrb. 59: Beibl. 131:28. 1924, in Pflanzenr. 103(1V. 127): 126. 1938. 

Samaloidesvitiense ScheWeab. in Pflanzenr. 103 (IV. 127): 135. 1938; J. W. Parham, PI. Fijilsl. 60. 1964. 
ed. 2. 93. 1972. 

Derns sp. Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 63. 1943. 
A high-climbing liana developing from a scandent shrub, found from near sea level 
upward to about 600 m. in dry forest, often on ridges, or in patches of forest in open 
country. Fijian specimens have the leaves and branchlets glabrous but sometimes with 
an evanescent indument of crispate, many-celled hairs; the leaves usually have ( 3-) 5-7 
leaflets, these with ovate to narrowly elliptic or lanceolate blades usually 3-8 x 1.5-4 
cm. and with veinlet reticulation diverse, inconspicuous to obvious, lax to tessellate. 
Rarely the leaves are unifoliolate, the blades then being deltoid-ovate, subcordate, and 
as large as 14 x 7 cm. (Figure 47B). The flowers have white petals and filaments and 
yellow anthers. The pericarp of the follicle is brown to dull reddish-tinged, the arillode 
being orange to bright red. Flowers have been obtained between December and May, 
fruits throughout much of the year. 

TvpiFiCATiON AND NOMENCLATURE: Aegiceras minus is based upon fruits collected 
by J. G. Konig in Ceylon (l carpologica 1163 holotype); Rourea heterophylla is 
typified by Cuming 752 (k probable holotype), Prov. Tayabas, Luzon, Philippine 
Islands. The type of Rourea samoensis is Vaupel491 (b holotype probably destroyed; 
2 isoTYPES at bish), collected Dec. 14, 1905, at Lealatele, Savaii, Samoa; that of 
Sanlaloides vitiense is Siorck 1 (k holotype), from Fiji but without further locality. 
Numerous other names are reduced to R. minor by Leenhouts (1958), only those 
mentioned in literature pertaining to the Fijian Region being here mentioned. 

Distribution; India and Ceylon through Malesia to northeastern Australia, New 
Caledonia, and Samoa. In western Polynesia the species is now known from Tonga, 
Niue, Futuna, and Samoa. 

Local names; Wa lo (Nandronga & Navosa) and wa vatu (Mathuata) have each 
been recorded once. 

AvAiL.ABLE collections: VlTl LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Nausori Highlands. DF42i<. i etawa 21. 
Serla: Mbuyombuyo, near Namboutini. Tabuatewa 15599: Vatuvilakia, vicinity of Ngaloa. Degener 
15 138: coastal hills in vicinity of Taunovo River, east of Wainiyambia, Smiih 9567. Namosi: Hills bordering 
Wainavindrau Creek, vicinity of Wainimakutu. Smith Ii870. Naitasirl Lower Waindina Valley, D.A 917:9 
miles from Suva, Meebold 16653. OVALAU: In mountains. Home 349. 394. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: 
Rukuruku Bay area, H. B. R. Parham 98. 377. Mathu,\ta: Seanggangga Plateau, in drainage of Korovuli 
River, vicinity of Natua, Smith 6890: vicinity of Lambasa, Greenwood 470. Vanua Levu without further 
locality, U. S. Expl. Exped. 

The broad concept of Rourea minor adopted by Leenhouts ( 1958) may be subdi- 
vided by some authors (e. g. Vidal, 1962 cited above, where three subspecies are 
recognized), but it seems difficult to perceive well-delimited taxa in the Papuasian- 
Pacific portion of the range. Subspecies minor is fairly diverse in Fiji as to number and 
shape of leaflets and type of venation, indicating that there have been repeated 

Figure 48. A, Rourea minor: androecium (with 5 stamens removed) and gynoecmm. » 20. B-D, 
Connarus pickenngii: B. leaf and axillary inllorescence, « 1 4; C. gynoecmm of young flower, with 3 
episepalous stamens and 1 epipetalous stamen (other stamens removed), " 30; D, flower with 2 sepals and 2 
petals removed, most anthers fallen, « 10, showing ovary (o), style (s), stigma (st), anther of episepalous 
stamen (as), and anther of epipetalous stamen (ap). A from Vaupel491 (Samoa), B from 5m///i 1072. C&D 
from Smith 7273. 



278 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

incursions of disseminules from farther west. In western Polynesia a pronounced 
diminution of diversity is apparent: there the indument is practically lacking and the 
leaflets are usually 5-7, with ovate to elliptic, notably acuminate blades up to 10x6 
cm., with coarse but comparatively inconspicuous veinlet reticulation. 

An interesting contrast may be noted in the representation of Rourea and Conna- 
rus in the Fijian Region. The arillode of the seed of the highly variable Rourea minor 
(Figure 49B) is of a color and texture presumably inviting to birds, whereas the 
arillode of the Connarus seed (Figure 49D) is small and yellowish, perhaps not 
attracting birds, and the seed is substantially larger than that of Rourea. It is note- 
worthy that Connarus has apparently not been recorded from the New Hebrides, that 
the Fijian C. pickeringii is not very variable and is sharply distinct from any Papuasian 
relative, and that the population of Connarus recently discovered in Tonga seems 
discrete. 

2. Connarus L. Sp. PI. 675. 1 753; Seem. Fl. Vit. 53. 1 865; Schellenb. in Pflanzenr. 103 
(IV. 127): 216. 1938; A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 36: 279. 1955; Leenh. in Fl. 
Males. I. 5: 525. 1958; Hutchinson, Gen. Fl. PI. 1: 167. 1964;TirvengaduminRev. 
Handb. Fl. Ceylon 1: 282. 1980. 

Shrubs, small trees, or lianas; leaves imparipinnate, sometimes trifoliolate, rarely 
unifoliolate, the leaflets opposite or subalternate, with pellucid-glandular-punctate 
blades; inflorescences terminal and /or axillary, paniculate, often ample, the flowers 
5 , fragrant, 5-merous, the perianth parts and stamens glandular-punctate; sepals 
connate at base, imbricate or subvalvate, usually thick and fleshy, persistent in fruit 
but not accrescent; petals free, imbricate in bud, cohering below middle before 
anthesis, usually glandular-ciliate proximally, often pilose with sometimes capitate- 
glandular hairs; stamens 10, the filaments connate at base, usually glandular-pilose, 
the epipetalous ones the shorter and sometimes sterile or staminodial, the connective 
apically tufted-glandular-pilose; carpel 1, often densely pilose, heterodistylous, the 
ovary subglobose, the style distally glandular-pilose, the stigma capitate; mature 
follicle dehiscing ventrally and sometimes also dorsally, often narrowed into a stipe, 
the dorsal suture usually straight, the ventral suture convex or sinuate, the style 
remnant often subpersistent, the pericarp chartaceous to woody, the seed with a 
shining, purple to black testa, basally enveloped by or unilaterally bearing a fleshy, 
yellowish arillode, this attached just below hilum, subpeltate, bilobed, lacerate, or 
crenulate. 

Type species: Connarus monocarpus L., the only original species. 

Distribution: Pantropical, with about 100 species, the Asian-Pacific segment 
extending eastward to Fiji and Tonga. One species is endemic in Fiji. 

Previous indications (Smith in J. Arnold Arb. 36: 279. 1955; van Balgooy in 
Blumea Suppl. 6: 167. 1971) that the range of Connarus terminates in Fiji requires 
correction. In recent years both W. R. Sykes and G. P. Buelow have obtained Tongan 
material of Connarus, now known to occur on Vava'u and 'Eua. Their collections 
apparently represent an undescribed species, differing from the Fijian C pickeringii, 
among other characters, in having fruits and seeds about twice as large at maturity. 



1985 



CONNARACEAE 



279 




Figure 49. A & B, Rourea minor: A, fruit in accrescent calyx, ventrally dehiscing to show seed and 
arillode, x 4; B, seed with arillode partly detached from basal sarcotesta and spread open, x 4. C & D, 
Connarus pickeringii: C, portion of infructescence, » 1; D, base of seed and arillode, x 8. A & B from Smith 
8870, C from Bryan 522 (detached fruit from Meebold 16518), D from Meebold 16518. 



280 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

1. Connarus pickeringii A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 375. 1854, Atlas, pi. 45. 
1856; Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 255. 1861, Viti, 435. 1862, Fl. Vit. 53. 1865; Drake, 
III. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pac. 146. 1890; Schellenb. in Pflanzenr. 103 (IV. 127): 261. 1938; 
A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arb. 36: 279. 1955; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 60. 1964, ed. 
2. 93. 1972. Figures 48B-D, 49C & D. 

High-climbing liana or scandent shrub, often frequent at elevations from near sea 
level to 900 m. in dense, dry, or secondary forest, on its edges, or in thickets. The young 
parts are copiously ferrugineous-tomentose, the indument being dense and subpersis- 
tent on inflorescences; the leaflets are (3-) 5-7, the blades lanceolate- to ovate-oblong, 
8-21 ^ 3-9 cm., with 3-6 curved-ascending secondary nerves. The inflorescences are 
usually shorter than the leaves at anthesis but often greatly exceed the leaves in fruit. 
The petals are white to cream-colored or dull yellow, short-ferrugineous-tomentose on 
both sides and orange-glandular-punctate; the filaments are dull yellow and glandular- 
pilose, the anthers yellow. Mature follicles are orange-brown, 2.5-3 x 1.5-2 x 1.4-1.6 
cm., the pericarp with long-persistent indument but eventually subglabrate, finely 
rugulose, and often faintly obliquely striate, the seed turning from cream-colored to 
black and shining, the arillode yellow with darker mottling. Flowers and fruits occur 
throughout the year. 

Typification: The type is U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 44130 holotype; putative 
isoTYPES at GH, k). Collected in 1840; three localities are given by Gray: Ovalau, Viti 
Levu (Rewa), and Vanua Levu, but specific localities cannot be associated with the 
specimens. 

Distribution: Endemic to Fiji and to be expected throughout the group, from 
which about 65 collections are available. 

Local names and uses: Most frequently used names are wa vatu, mbilitoi, wa 
vutu, and sekau; names used locally and perhaps not reliable are wa tele (Serua), wa 
tandangwala (Namosi), wa tanggola (Tailevu), katikatithanggala (Mbua), thanggala 
ni mbune (Thakaundrove), and ndawandawa (Moala, Koro). The leaves, even when 
green, are rolled up and used for smoking, the stems are used for binding house 
timbers, and the species is reputed to have medicinal properties. 

Representative collections; YASAWAS: Waya: North of Yalombi, along Olo Creek, St. John 18130. 
VITI LEVU: Mba: Naloto Range, DA 14768. Nandronga & Navosa: Northern portion of Rairaimatuku 
Plateau, between Nandrau and Nanga, Smith 5521. Serua: Mbuyombuyo, near Namboutini, Tahualewa 
1561 1: coastal hills in vicinity of Taunovo River, east of Wainiyambia, Smith 9605. Namosl Mt. Naitara- 
ndamu, Gillespie 3099: Wainandoi River, DA 16971. Naitasiri: Matawailevu. Wainamo Creek, Wainimala 
Valley, St. John 18178: Viria, Meebold 16518: Tamavua, Yeoward 60. Tailevu: Hills east of Wainimbuka 
River, vicinity of Ndakuivuna, Smith 7126. Rewa: Mt. Korombamba, DA 16522. VITI LEVU and 
OVALAU: Seemann 101. OVALAU: Hills east of Lovoni Valley, Smith 7273: northwest of Levuka, 
Gillespie 4554. KORO: Western slope. Smith 1072. NGAU: Slopes of Mt. Ndelaitho, on northern spur, 
toward Navukailangi, Smith 7865. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Upper Ndama River Valley, Smith 1585. 
Mathuata: Mountains along coast, Greenwood 610A. Thakaundrove: Mt. Kasi, Yanawai River region. 
Smith 1767; Wainingata, near Savusavu, DA 13120. RAMBI: Home. March, 1878. TAVEUNI: Vicinity of 
Waiyevo, Gillespie 4715. MOALA: Above Maloku, Smith 1351. AIWA: Central forest, Bryan 522. FULA- 
NGA: On limestone formation. Smith 1143. 

Connarus pickeringii has no very close relatives among Malesian-Papuasian 
species, but as indicated by Leenhouts (1958) it is suggestive of C. salomoniensis 
Schellenb. in foliage, differing sharply in its more obvious indument, much larger 
flowers, substantially smaller follicles with long-persistent tomentum, and seeds with 
smaller arillodes. 



1985 LYTHRACEAE 281 

Order MYRTALES 
The order Myrtales has been variously interpreted, most often as a comprehensive 
group of families some of which are not necessarily closely related. Briggs and Johnson 
{ 1 979) have discussed the underlying problems in considerable detail, concluding that 
many families often included in Myrtales (such as, in our area, Thymelaeaceae, Lecy- 
thidaceae, and Rhizophoraceae, already treated in Volume 2 of the present Flora) 
should be excluded. With these and other exclusions, the Myrtales may be considered 
to comprise no more than about twelve families, but even these are placed in two 
orders, Myrtales and Lythrales, by Briggs and Johnson on the basis of ovule and seed 
structure. However, the reliability of such characters is questioned by Schmid (in 
Taxon 29: 588. 1980), and at best they are difficult to analyze. The order Myrtales, 
including the Lythrales but with the exclusions mentioned above, is represented in Fiji 
by six families. 

Key to families occurring in Fiji 
Flowers pengynous or rarely slightly semi-epigynous, the ovaries superior (or rarely slightly semi-inferior 
and proximally adnate to hypanthium), completely or incompletely 2-6-locular or rarely 1-locular. 
each locule with 2-many ovules on an axile( parietal in 1-locular ovaries) placenta; stamens often twice 
as many as calyx lobes, sometimes fewer or numerous, the filaments elongate; flowers strongly perigy- 
nous, the hypanthium prominent, with valvate calyx lobes often alternating with appendages; fruits 

usually capsular and dry 127. Lythraceae 

Flowers epigynous or nearly so (in all our genera), the ovaries adnate to hypanthium or attached to it by 
septa. 
Stamens mostly numerous (3 or more times as many as calyx lobes in all our taxa). 
Ovary 2-12-locular (in all our taxa, but rarely 1-16-locular); fruit baccate or capsular (or sometimes a 
drupe or a nut but not in our taxa), dehiscent or not but only rarely both many-seeded and indehis- 

cent; leaf blades glandular-punctate 128. Myrtaceae 

Ovary (3-)7-9(-15)-locular; fruit indehiscent, with many seeds embedded in a pulpy mass; leaf blades 

not glandular-punctate 129. Punicaceae 

Stamens (in all our taxa) not more than twice as many as calyx lobes. 

Placentation axile, less often basal or parietal or free central; fruit a capsule, berry, or nut, the seeds 
numerous to seldom few (rarely only 1). 
Anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits, the connective lacking appendages; leaf blades pinnately 

veined; plants (our representatives) herbs or small shrubs 130. Onagraceae 

Anthers usually dehiscing by terminal pores (less often by longitudinal slits), the connective often 
thickened at base and with appendages; leaf blades usually with 3 or more conspicuous longitu- 
dinal nerves, less often (only Memecylon in our area) pinnately veined; plants usually woody. 

131. Melastomataceae 

Placentation apical in a compound, 1-locular ovary, the ovules 2-6; fruit a 1-seeded pseudocarp, usually 

indehiscent; plants woody 132. Combretaceae 



Family 127. LYTHRACEAE 
Lythraceae J. St.-Hil. Expos. Fam. Nat. 2: 175, as Lythrariae. 1805. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, the stipules small or lacking; leaves opposite or verticillate, 
rarely spiralled, the blades simple, entire; inflorescences axillary and/ or terminal, 
paniculate, racemose, cymose, or 1 -flowered (usually extra-axillary in Cuphea), the 
pedicels usually bibracteolate, the flowers actinomorphic or less often zygomorphic, 
$ , perigynous, usually 4- or 6-merous; calyx gamosepalous, composed of sepals 
united into a tube (hypanthium), the lobes valvate, often alternating with appendages; 
petals as many as calyx lobes or fewer or lacking, inserted toward apex of hypanthium, 
crumpled in bud, imbricate, often fugacious; stamens often twice as many as calyx 



282 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

lobes, sometimes fewer or numerous, inserted on hypanthium below petals, the fila- 
ments variable in length, usually inflexed in bud, the anthers 2-locular, dorsifixed near 
base, dehiscing lengthwise; disk sometimes present, cupular or unilateral; ovary supe- 
rior, sessile or short-stipitate, completely or incompletely 2-6-locular or rarely 1- 
locular, each locule with 2-many ovules on an axile placenta that is sometimes free 
distally (or parietal when ovary is 1-locular), the ovules anatropous, ascending, the 
style simple, variable in length, the stigma usually capitate or punctiform; fruits usually 
capsular, dry, dehiscing by transverse slits, by valves, or irregularly, the seeds 2- 
numerous, winged or not, without endosperm, the embryo straight. 

Distribution: Widespread in tropical, subtropical, and temperate areas, most 
abundant in America, with about 22 genera and 500 species, including many of horti- 
cultural value. Four genera are known to occur in Fiji, only one of them with an 
indigenous species. 

Useful TREATMENTS OF family: Koehne, E. Lythraceae. Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 1-326. 1903. Backer, C. 
A., & R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr. Lythraceae. Fl. Java 1: 251-256. 1963. 

Key to genera 
Inflorescences axillary or extra-axillary, racemose or the flowers sohtary or paired; flowers 6-merous; dis- 
sepiments of ovary discontinuous distally above placenta. 
Flowers zygomorphic; hypanthium tubular, longitudinally ribbed, often basally calcarate; petals (in our 
species) 6, 2, or none; stamens (in our species) 1 1 ; ovary incompletely 2-locular; fruit and hypanthium 
longitudinally split by the reflexed maturing placenta, the seeds lenticular, narrowly circumalate by a 

thin wing; adventive or cultivated 1 . Cuphea 

Flowers actinomorphic; hypanthium campanulate-cyathiform; petals 6; stamens (in our species) 1 2; ovary 
unilocular; fruit circumscissile, the seeds compressed-cuneate, circumalate by a thickened wing; 

indigenous and coastal 2. Pemphis 

Inflorescences terminal and axillary, forming leafy panicles at branchlet apices; flowers actinomorphic; 
dissepiments of ovary complete to apex; cultivated or sparingly naturalized. 
Flowers (4-)6(-9)-merous; petals obviously clawed; stamens 15-numerous, 1 -several-seriate, both 
episepalous and epipetalous; capsule loculicidally 3-6(-7)-valved, the seeds apically produced into a 

large cultriform wing 3. Lagersiroemia 

Flowers 4-merous; petals minutely clawed; stamens 8 (4-13), all episepalous; capsule indehiscent (or 
irregularly rupturing), the seeds unwinged, obpyramidal, the testa thickened and spongy apically. 

4. Lawsonia 

1. Cuphea P. Br. Hist. Jam. 216. 1756; Koehne in Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 80. 1903. 
Parsonsia P. Br. Hist. Jam. 199. 1756. Nom. rejic. vs. Parsonsia R. Br. (1810; nom. cons. Asclep.). 

Herbs or small shrubs, sometimes spiny, sometimes glandular-pilose; leaves oppo- 
site or verticillate (very rarely alternate); inflorescences usually extra-axillary, the 
flowers solitary or fasciculate or in leafy racemes, zygomorphic, 6-merous, the brac- 
teoles 2 (as in all our species), infrequently lacking; hypanthium tubular, longitudinally 
ribbed, often calcarate at base with a nectariferous spur, the lobes short, often alternat- 
ing with tubercles or accessory teeth; petals 6, rarely 2 or none, less often 4, often 
unequal, clawed or not; stamens 1 1 (as in all our species), rarely fewer (9, 6, or 4), often 
unequal, the filaments usually protruding from calyx at anthesis; disk scalelike or 
tubercular, dorsally unilateral or rarely cupuliform or lacking; ovary sessile, incom- 
pletely 2-locular, the placenta axile, the ovules 2-4 or usually more, the style filiform; 
fruit enclosed by hypanthium, thin-walled, dehiscing on one side together with hypan- 
thium, the placenta protruding, the seeds lenticular, 2-4 or more, flat, often narrowly 
circumalate. 

Type species: Cuphea viscosissima Jacq. 

Distribution: Western Hemisphere, with about 250 species, among which are 
many ornamentals. Five species are recorded from Fiji, four in cultivation and one a 
widespread adventive. 



1985 LYTHRACEAE 283 

Key to species 
Calyx tube (hypanthium) 4.5-8 mm. long; ovules 4-8; petals 6. rich pink (or nearly white) to purplish. 2-5 
mm. long. 
Stems and branches viscid-pilose; leaf blades ovate to elliptic, variable in size. (10-) 20-60 " (4-) 6-25 
mm., the petiole negligible or to 10 mm. long; pedicels short, 1-2 mm. long; hypanthium pink to 

mauve, sparsely hispidulous; abundant adventive \. C. carihagenensis 

Stems and branches glabrous or minutely pilose; leaf blades subsessile. linear- to lanceolate-oblong. 7-20 
X 2-5 mm.; pedicels 2.5-7.5 mm. long; hypanthium green, glabrous or minutely hispidulous; 

cultivated only 2. C. hyssopifolia 

Calyx tube (hypanthium) longer. 18 mm. or more long; ovules comparatively numerous (14 or more); 

cultivated only. 

Petals 2 or 6; hypanthium more than 20 mm. long, without a basal spur or this inconspicuous; ovules 1 8 or 

more. 

Leaf blades ovate to lanceolate. 30-80 x 6-25 mm., usually about 4 times longer than broad; pedicels 

2-4 mm. long; hypanthium 20-40 mm. long, green to purplish, copiously hirsute; petals 2, bright 

red. conspicuous, usually 7-10 mm. long; ovules 18-25 3. C. llavea 

Leaf blades lanceolate. 40-80 >< 8-15 mm. or larger, usually 5 or 6 times longer than broad; pedicels 
obvious, about 5(3-11) mm. long; hypanthium 20-30 mm. long, scarlet proximally, yellowish at 
apex, glabrous to sparsely hispidulous; petals 6, white to yellow, minute; ovules 60-120. 

4. C. micropetala 
Petals lacking; hypanthium slender, 18-26 mm. long, glabrous, with an obvious, rounded basal spur, 
bright red, apically violet and white; ovules 14-20; pedicels obvious, slender, 5-12 (-20) mm. long; 
leaf blades oblong to lanceolate. 20-40 " (4-) 6-20 mm. or larger. 2-3 times longer than broad. 

5. C. ignea 

1. Cuphea carihagenensis (Jacq.) Macbr. in Publ. Field Columbian Mus., Bot. Ser. 8: 
124. 1930; A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 73. 1942; B. E. V. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. 
Agr. Fiji 17: 25. 1946; J. W. Parham in op. cit. 19: 103, as C. canhaginemis. 1948, 
in Dept. Agr. Fiji Bull. 35: 51..% 19. 1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 228. 1964, ed. 2. 317. 1972; 
B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. Ser. 85: 47, as C. 
carthaganensis. 1972. 

Lythrum carlhagenense Jacq. Select. Stirp. Amer. 148. 1763. 

Cuphea batsamona Cham. & Schlechtendal in Linnaea 2: 363. 1827; Koehne in Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 
122.% 16. D. 1903; Greenwood in Proc. Linn. Soc. 154: 98. as C balsamina. 1943. 
Annual, erect, freely branching, suffruticose herb to 1 m. high, with stems and 
branches viscid-pilose, found from near sea level to an elevation of 1,125 m. as a 
sometimes abundant weed in gardens, plantations, and open fields, along roadsides 
and forest trails, and in open places on ridges and crests. Flowers and fruits are found 
throughout the year. 

Typification and nomenclature: Lythrum carlhagenense is based on a Jacquin 
collection from Cartagena, Colombia; Cuphea halsamona on a plant from the vicinity 
of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, said to be illustrated in Vandelli, Fl. Lus. et Bras. Spec. 30. t. 
4. 1 788. Since Macbride pointed it out, Jacquin's epithet has been generally recognized 
as the correct one for this taxon. 

Distribution: Tropical America, now widespread throughout the tropics as a 
weed. It was first noted in Fijiduringthe 1920's and has spread rapidly, about 60 Fijian 
collections, mostly from Viti Levu, being at hand. 
Local names: Tar weed: lasahia; kerisi. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Nandarivatu, rof/i/// 202, summit of Mt. Nanggara- 
nambuluta. Smith 4816. Nandronga & Navosa: Singatoka, Greenwood 786 (coll. H. R. Surridge); 
northern portion of Rairaimatuku Plateau, between Nandrau and Rewasau, Smith 5391. Serua: Vicinity of 
Ndeumba, McKee 2748: vicinity of Navua, D.4 10533. Namosi: Valley of Wainavindrau Creek, vicinity of 
Waimmakutu, Smith 8815. Ra: Pasture Seed and Production Farm, Ndombuilevu. D.-i V523. Naitasiri: 
Vicinity of Vunindawa, D.4 10037: Sawani-Serea road, D.4 1 1506: Plant Introduction and Quarantine 
Station, Nanduruloulou, D.4 9806. Tailevu: Hills east of Wainimbuka River, vicinity of Ndakuivuna, 



284 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Smith 7005: Wainimbokasi, DA 10578. Rewa: Suva, DA 12236. VANUA LEVU: Thakaundrove: Along 
Hibiscus Highway east of Savusavu, Bierhorst F173. TAVEUNl: Waimanggera, DA 8927. LAKEMBA: 
Near Tumbou Village. Garnock-Jones 921. 

2. Cuphea hyssopifolia H. B. K. Nova Gen. et Sp. 6: 199. 1 824; Koehne in Pflanzenr. 17 

{IV. 216): 127.//^. 17, A. 1903; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 317. 1972. 

Compact, freely branched shrub 30-60 cm. high, occasionally cultivated near sea 
level. The only available specimen was flowering in March. 

Typification: The type was collected by Humboldt and Bonpland near Jalapa, 
Chiapas, Mexico. 

Distribution: Mexico and Central America, now cultivated in many tropical 
countries. 

Local name and use: False heather, an attractive, compact, small-leaved plant, is 
a pleasing ornamental. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Lami, in private garden, DA 16791. 

3. Cuphea llavea Lex. in La Llave & Lex. Nov. Veg. Descr. 1: 20. 1824; Koehne in 

Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 155. fig. 21, C (var. barbigera). 1903; J. W. Parham, PI. 
Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 317. 1972. 

Coarse, subligneous herb to 60 cm. high, sparsely cultivated near sea level. The 
cited collection was in flower in July. 

Typification: The original publication notes as the locality Mexico, in mountains 
"prope Vallisoletum." 

Distribution: Mexico, cultivated in the nineteenth century in European green- 
houses as an ornamental and used as a parent of garden hybrids, such as Cuphea x 
purpurea Lem. (C. llavea x C. procumberts Cav.), with six petals. Our material does 
not permit positive identification. 

Available collection: VITI LEVU: Tailevu: Wainimbokasi. DA 2590. 

4. Cuphea micropetala H. B. K. Nova Gen. et Sp. 6: 209. /. 557. 1824; Koehne in 

Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 161. //g. 22, D. 1903; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 317. 
1972. 
Subligneous herb or shrub to 1 m. high, occasionally cultivated near sea level. 
Flowers were obtained in March. 

Typification: Noted as obtained in a Mexican botanical garden. 
Distribution: Mexico, now widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical coun- 
tries. 

Use: The species is an attractive ornamental. 
Available collection: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Lami, in private garden, DA 16454. 

5. Cuphea ignea A. DC. in Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 5: 500C. 1849; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji 

Isl. ed. 2. 317. 1972. 
Cuphea plalvcemra Lem. in Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 2: (. 180. 1846, in Paxton's Mag. Bot. 13: 267. 1846; 

Koehne in PHanzenr, 17 (IV. 216): 167. /(g. 23. E. 1903; non Benth. (1839). 

An essentially glabrous shrub to 1 m. high, sometimes cuhivated near sea level. 
Our material was flowering in November. 

Typification: De Candolle described the species from a plant cultivated in Van 
Houtte's garden, indicating that it was then growing at Geneva and elsewhere. 
Lemaire's illegitimate name was also based on a cultivated plant. 

Distribution: Mexico and perhaps the West Indies, introduced into greenhouse 
cultivation in the nineteenth century and a parent of various hybrids. 



1985 LYTHRACEAE 285 

Local names and use: Cigar flower: firecracker plant. Its bright red flowers and 
graceful habit make the species a desirable ornamental. 

Available collection: VITI LEVI): Naitasirl Mbatiki Nursery, Nanduruloulou, DA 3006. 

2. Pemphis J. R. & G. Forst. Char. Gen. PI. 34. 1775, ed. 2. 67. 1776; Koehne in 
Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 185. 1903. 

Unarmed trees or shrubs, the leaves decussate, subsessile, small; inflorescences 
axillary, the flowers solitary or paired, short-pedicellate, actinomorphic. 6-merous, 
heterostylous, the bracteoles at base of pedicel fugacious; hypanthium campanulate- 
cyathiform, persistent, the lobes broadly deltoid, alternating with small, subulate or 
callose-tuberculate accessory lobes; petals 6, elliptic-obovate, crispate, caducous; 
stamens 12 (as in our species) or 18, the filaments alternately slightly unequal; ovary 
sessile or stipitate, subglobose, unilocular, the placenta central, usually about half as 
long as the locule, the ovules numerous, the style filiform, persistent, the stigma 
bilobed; capsule obovoid to ellipsoid, not or hardly exceeding calyx, circumscissile, the 
seeds numerous, compressed-cuneate, circumalate, the wing margin thick, almost 
corky. 

Type species: Pemphis acidula J. R. & G. Forst. 

Distribution: Paleotropical, with two species, one widespread and the other 
endemic to Madagascar. 

I. Pemphis acidula J. R. & G. Forst. Char. Gen. PI. 34. /. 34. 1775, ed. 2. 68. t. 34. \llb\ 

Koehne in Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 185._% 30. B. 1903; Guppy, Obs. Nat. Pac. 2: 

108, 529. 1906; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12: 261. 1931; Christophersen in 

Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 154. 1935; A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 73. 1942; Yuncker in 

Bishop Mus. Bull. 178: 88. 1943, in op. cit. 220: 194. 1959; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji 

Isl. 228. 1964, ed. 2. 317. 1972; Sykes in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Bull. 

200: 1 10. 1970; B. E. V. Parham in New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. Res. Inform. 

Ser. 85: 43. 1972. Figure 50. 

Lyihrum pemphis Forst. f. Fl. Ins. Austr. Prodr. 36. 1786. 

As seen in Fiji, Pemphis acidula is an often gnarled or compact tree or shrub 0.3-4 

m. high, found in coastal thickets, along rocky coasts, and on limestone cliffs. The 

branchlets are subangular and densely gray-sericeous when young. The leaves have 

petioles 0.5-2 mm. long and obovate- to linear-lanceolate blades, these thin-carnose, 

densely appressed-gray-sericeous on both sides, at length glabrate, and usually 1-3 x 

0.5-1 cm. The pedicels are usually 5-10 mm. long, the calyx tube is 12-sulcate, with 

erect lobes, and the petals are white, elliptic-oblong, somewhat corrugated, and 6-8 ^ 

3-4 mm. The capsule is red, at length turning brown, 0.5-1 cm. in diameter, and with 

obdeltoid, reddish brown seeds about 3x2 mm. Flowers and fruits have been collected 

between November and February, but a longer fertile season seems probable. 

Typification: Type material was collected by /. R. & G. Forster (bm lectotype) 
on Takaroa, Tuamotu Archipelago, during Cook's second voyage. No locality was 
given in the original publication, but G. Forster ( 1 786, cited above) stated "Teautea," a 
locahty identified as Takaroa by St. John (in Occas. Pap. Bishop Mus. 18: 80. 1945) in 
reference to Rorippa sarmentosa (Brassicaceae; cf. this Flora, vol. 2, p. 710). 

Distribution: Along coasts of eastern Africa and Indian Ocean islands to south- 
ern China and eastward to northern Australia and to easternmost Polynesia. I was in 
error (1942) in reporting Pemphis acidula as not previously recorded from Fiji; in fact 
Guppy (1906) discussed it as an example of drift plants withseedsthat are buoyant for 
months. Apparently earlier collectors than Guppy overlooked the species in Fiji, and it 
does seem less common there than in some other Pacific archipelagoes. 



286 



FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA 



Vol. 3 




1985 LYTHRACEAE 287 

Local names: Sanggali or sanggale; ngingia or ngginggia. 

Available collections: VITl LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Near Singatoka, DA 2664: Korotongo, 
east of Singatoka, O. & I. Degener 32197. KANDAVU: Nangingia Island (Denham Island), off west point of 
Kandavu, DA 14962. WAK.AYA: Toihill s. n. K.ORO: East coast. Smith 1033. VANUA LEVU: 
Thakai'ndrove: Waina, Maravu, near Salt Lake, Degener & Ordonez 14165. 14189. Vanua Levu and 
offshore islets, Guppy. in 1898 (K). NAYAU: DA 3166. FULANGA: On limestone formation, Smiih 1202. 
Fiji without further locality, Toihill 195. 

3. Lagerstroemia L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1068, 1076, 1372. 1759, Sp. PI. ed. 2. 734. 1762; 
Koehne in Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 352. 1903; Furtado & Srisuko in Card. Bull. 
Singapore 24: 186. 1969. 

Unarmed trees or shrubs, the stipules minute; leaves opposite or verticillate, the 
blades coriaceous to herbaceous, entire; inflorescences terminal or distally axillary and 
forming leafy panicles, the flowers actinomorphic, (4-)6(-9)-merous; calyx tube 
(hypanthium) campanulate to infundibular, coriaceous, usually costate or angular, the 
lobes valvate, ovate, subacute; petals with narrow claws and crispate blades; stamens 
15-about 200, 1 -several-seriate, inserted below middle of hypanthium, often unequal 
( 1 episepalous and with a thick filament, the others epipetalous, shorter, and with thin 
filaments), the filaments exserted, the anthers ellipsoid to orbicular; ovary sessile, 
3-6(-7)-locular, the placenta axile, the ovules numerous, the style slightly longer than 
stamens, the stigma inconspicuous; capsule globose or ellipsoid, woody, subadnate 
proximally to hypanthium, loculicidally 3-6(-7)-valved, the seeds numerous, with a 
thickened appendage at base, apically produced into a large cultriform wing. 

Type species: Lagerstroemia indica L., the only original species. 

Distribution: India and China throughout Malesia to New Guinea and northern 
Australia, with about 53 species, including various timber trees and ornamentals. Two 
species are cultivated (one becoming sparingly naturalized) in Fiji. Both may have been 
introduced by J. B. Thurston, as two species (under incorrect names) of the genus were 
listed in his 1886 Catalogue. 

Useful treatment of genus: Furtado, C. X., & M. Srisuko. A revision of Lagerstroemia L. (Lythra- 
ceae). Gard. Bull. Singapore 24: 185-335. 1969. 

Key to species 

Leaves subsessile, the blades chartaceous, ovate-oblong to obovate, 5-10 x 3-5 cm.; panicles 5-20 cm. long; 
hypanthium glabrous, superficially 5- or 6-costate, the ribs often evanescent distally; petals with slender 
claws 6-10 mm. long and ovate-suborbicular blades 8-12 mm. in diameter; stamens 15-35, the 
episepalous ones with thick filaments and red anthers, the epipetalous ones with thinner filaments and 
yellow anthers; capsules about 1 cm. long 1. /.. indtca 

Leaves with petioles 5-10 mm. long and coriaceous, elliptic-oblong blades usually 10-20" 5-9 cm.; panicles 
up to 50 cm. long; hypanthium pilose, 1 2- 14-costate, the ribs obvious; petals with claws 3-6 mm. long 
and suborbicular blades 20-30 mm. in diameter; stamens about 150 or more, the episepalous and 
epipetalous ones similar; capsules 2-2.5 cm. long 2. L. speciosa 

1. Lagerstroemia indica L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1076. 1759, Sp. PI. ed. 2. 734. 1762; 
Koehne in Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 259. fig. 55. A-O. 1903; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. 
Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 99. 1948; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 194. 1959; J. W. 
Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 143. 1964, ed. 2. 317. 1972; Furtado & Srisuko m Gard. Bull. 
Singapore 24: 190. fig. 1. 1969. 

Figure 50. Pemphis acidula: A, tip of branchlet, foliage, and 2 young flowers, showing bracteoles(b)at 
base of pedicel, « 4; B, tip of branchlet with foliage and 3 flowers ( 1 in bud, I mature with petals beginning to 
fall, and I past anthesis), « 4; C, inner surface of part of calyx (ovary removed) and stamens, 2 anthers 
remaining, "< 15; D, calyx enclosing mature, dehiscing capsule, » 8. A from Smiih 1202. B from O. & I. 
Degener 32197, C from' Degener & Ordonez 14189. D from Snnih 1033. 



288 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Tree or shrub 2-5 m. high, cultivated only near sea level. The petals vary from pink, 
white, or rich blue to purple, apparently in different cultivated variants. The flowering 
season in Fiji is from November to March. 

Typification: Linnaeus based his species on Rumph. Herb. Amb. Auctuar. 7: 61. 
/. 28. 1755. 

Distribution: The Himalayas, China, and southeastern Asia, but now widely cul- 
tivated and variable as to leaves, flower color, etc., with many cultivars. 

Local names and use: Known in Fiji as crepe myrtle and Christmas bush, the 
species is strikingly ornamental. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Rewa: Lami, in private garden, DA 16447, 16458: Suva, in 
private gardens, DA 16096. 16234. 16780: also growing in the Suva Botanical Gardens (Parham, 1948, cited 
above), but no vouchers available. In Mathuata Province, Vanua Levu, the species is considered a minor 
weed in plantations (Parham, 1972, cited above). Numbers 16096 and 16234 are from the garden of the 
second Sir Maynard Hedstrom, originally J. B. Thurston's "Thornbury." 

2. Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 72. 1807; Koehne in Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 
216): 26\. fig. 55, P-T. 1903; Furtado & Srisuko in Card. Bull. Singapore 24: 264. 
fig. 29, A. 1969; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 317. 1972. 
Munchausia speciosa L. in Miinchh. Hausvater 5: 357. pi. 2. 1770. 

Lagerstroemia flos-reginae Retz. Obs. Bot. 5:25,p. p. 1788; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 29: 33. 
1959, PI. Fiji Isl. 143. 1964. 

Tree 7-15 m. high, cultivated near sea level and apparently becoming sparingly 
naturalized along roadsides and in pastures. The petals are pale pink or nearly white to 
purple, and flowers occur between November and March; essentially mature fruits 
were noted in January. 

Typification and nomenclature: Munchausia speciosa was based on a plant 
cultivated in the Botanical Garden at Gottingen, probably originally from Java. 
Furtado and Srisuko (1969, cited above) consider that Retzius's concept oi Lagerstro- 
emia flos-reginae included elements of both L. speciosa and L. reginae Roxb. (1795), 
although Retzius's description seems principally based on a Javanese plant collected 
by Bladh. 

Distribution: Southeastern Asia through Malesia to Celebes and the Philippines; 
now widely cultivated. 

Local names and use: In Fiji this beautiful ornamental tree is known as pride of 
India (a misnomer) or simply as Lagerstroemia. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Nandronga & Navosa: Singatoka, Greenwood 774 (coll. H. 
Phillips). Naitasiri: "N. T. C," DA 9868: Principal Agricultural Station, Koronivia, DA 12348: vicinity of 
Navuso, DA 16407. Rewa; Suva, along street, DA 12262: in private garden (formerly J. B. Thurston's 
"Thornbury"), DA 16081: also growing in the Suva Botanical Gardens (Parham, 1959, cited above), but no 
vouchers available. 

4. Lawsonia L. Sp. PI. 349. 1753; Koehne in Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 270. 1903. 

Shrub or small tree, glabrous, sometimes with spiny branches, the stipules minute; 
leaves decussate, short-petiolate; inflorescences terminal and axillary, leafy-paniculate 
at branchlet apices, the flowers 4-merous, the bracteoles fugacious; calyx broadly 
turbinate, becoming spreading in fruit, deeply divided into ovate lobes, without 
alternating appendages; petals minutely clawed, reniform, strongly corrugated; sta- 
mens 8, in pairs opposite calyx lobes, rarely 4, 9, or 13, the filaments subulate; ovary 
sessile, subglobose, 2-4-locular, the placenta axile, the ovules numerous, the style 
filiform, slightly exceeding stamens, the stigma small; capsule sessile, globose or 
oblate, indehiscent or irregularly rupturing, the seeds numerous, unwinged, obpyrami- 
dal, the testa thickened and spongy apically. 



1985 MYRTACEAE 289 

Lectotype species: Lawsonia inermis L. (one of Linnaeus's two original species, 
now combined, indicated by Britton & Millspaugh, Bahama Fl. 299. 1920). 
Distribution: Paleotropical and monotypic, now widely cultivated. 

1. Lawsonia inermis L. Sp. PI. 349. 1753; Koehne in Pflanzenr. 17 (IV. 216): 270. /i^. 
59. 1903; Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9: 306. 1905; A. C. Sm. in Sargentia 1: 
74. 1942; J. W. Parham in Agr. J. Dept. Agr. Fiji 19: 99. 1948, PI. Fiji Isl. 228. 
1964, ed. 2. 317. 1972. 

As it is seen in Fiji Lawsonia inermis is a tree or shrub 2-6 m. high, occasionally 
cultivated at or near sea level. The short-petiolate leaves have ovate to elliptic blades 
usually 2-4 x 1-3 cm, (but sometimes as small as 7 x 4 mm.). The terminal, leafy 
panicles are up to 20 cm. long, the fragrant flowers about 6 mm. in diameter, the petals 
white to pale yellow (but red in some cultivars), and the capsules 5-10 mm. in diameter 
and with seeds about 2-3 mm. long and broad. Flowers are seen between October and 
March. 

Typification: Of Linnaeus's several references, that to Flora Zeylanica might be 
considered as indicating an appropriate lectotype. 

Distribution: Probably indigenous in Asia from western India westward, but 
early in cultivation so that an original area is uncertain. 

Local names and uses: The henna or mignonette bush has also been recorded in 
Fiji under the presumably Hindi names kiari and mendhi. The species is grown as an 
ornamental, sometimes in hedges. A pulp prepared from its pounded leaves has been 
used since ancient times in India and Egypt as a reddish orange dye and cosmetic, and a 
perfume is prepared from the volatile oil of the flowers. Many parts of the plant have 
been used medicinally. 

Available collections: VITI LEVU: Naitasiri: Principal Agricultural Station, Koronivia, DA 12347. 
Tailevu; Nandali, on Rewa River, DA. Sept. 16, 1937. Rewa: Suva, Degener & Ordonez 13627: also 
growing in the Suva Botanical Gardens in 1948 (Parham, 1948, cited above), but not represented by 
vouchers, unless these are two sheets of DA (sliva) without data. 

Family 128. MYRTACEAE 
Myrtaceae Juss. Gen. PI. 322, as Myrti. 1789. 

Trees or shrubs, estipulate or with vestigial stipules; leaves opposite, disjunct- 
opposite, whorled, or alternate, petiolate or sessile, the blades simple, entire, often 
coriaceous, glandular-punctate or with immersed and sometimes inconspicuous 
glands, usually distinctly pinnate-nerved, often with one or more continuous intramar- 
ginal nerves; inflorescences terminal, axillary, or borne on older parts of plant, 
basically paniculate and frondobracteose but variously complex or reduced and 
sometimes 1-flowered; flowers actinomorphic, usually § , epigynous, sometimes with 
the hypanthium prolonged beyond ovary, infrequently perigynous, with a well- 
developed hypanthium partially free from ovary; sepals (3-) 4 or 5 (-6), often imbri- 
cate, sometimes closed in bud and irregularly splitting, sometimes completely connate 
into a caducous calyptra; petals (3-) 4 or 5 (-6), imbricate, sometimes coherent or 
connivent into a calyptra, sometimes lacking; stamens numerous (rarely few), 1 -many- 
seriate, borne on margin or on adaxial surface of hypanthial rim or on a disk 
surrounding style, the filaments free or proximally united into phalanges, the anthers 
bilocular, usually small and versatile, the locules dehiscing longitudinally or rarely by 
terminal pores, the connective often apically glandular; disk borne on summit of ovary 
or lining upper surface of hypanthium; ovary usually inferior, (1-) 2-12 (-16)-locular, 
the ovules 2-many per locule, anatropous or campylotropous, borne on axile placen- 
tae, the style often elongate, the stigma capitate but often small; fruits capsular or 



290 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

baccate (sometimes a drupe or nut), the seeds usually without endosperm, the cotyle- 
dons small to large, free or connate, sometimes with interlocking faces, sometimes 
completely united, the hypocotyl short to elongate. 

Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, sometimes warm-temperate, with 
100-144 genera; an estimate of 3,000 "or more" species is often given, but this is 
probably an understatement. The family includes many important timber trees as well 
as ornamentals. Many species have edible fruits and others produce well-known spices. 

Local names and uses: Many of the Fijian species are important as timber trees, 
especially in the genera Syzygium and Cleistocalyx. The local name applied to practi- 
cally any myrtaceous tree that is used for timber is yasiyasi. Consequently this name 
has little diagnostic value, but in the following text I repeat it as applied to many 
species. Foresters working in Fiji have found it understandably difficult to differen- 
tiate among the various kinds oi yasiyasi. Collectors for the Department of Forestry 
have sometimes applied more than one number to the same collection; some of these 
collections are found in herbaria under the collector's name and number, and in other 
cases a code number beginning with "S" has been used indicating that a study sample 
was sent to the C. S. L R. O. in Australia. Whenever possible, in the Myrtaceae as in 
other families, I have tied these numbers together by parenthetical citations of alterna- 
tive numbers. 

Useful treatments of family: Merrill, E. D., & L. M. Perry. The Myrtaceae of China. J. Arnold 
Arb. 19: 191-247. 1938. Merrill, E. D., & L. M. Perry. The myrtaceous genus Syzygium Gaertner in 
Borneo. Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts 18: 135-202. 1939 (reprinted without change of paging in Mem. Gray 
Herb. 4. 1939). Henderson, M. R. The genus Eugenia (Myrtaceae) in Malaya. Gard. Bull. Singapore 12: 
1-293. 1949. Merrill, E. D. Readjustments in the nomenclature of Philippine Eugenia species. Philipp. J. 
Sci. 79: 351-424. 1950. McVaugh, R. The genera of American Myrtaceae — an interim report. Taxon 17: 
354-4 1 8. 1 968. Schmid, R. A resolution of the Eugenia-Syzygium controversy (Myrtaceae). Amer. J. Hot. 
59: 423-436. 1972. Schmid, R. Floral anatomy of Myrtaceae, 1. Syzygium. Hot. Jahrb. 92: 433-489. 1972. 
Schmid, R. Floral anatomy of Myrtaceae, II. Eugenia. J. Arnold Arb. 53: 336-363. 1972. Briggs, B. G., & 
L. A. S. Johnson. Evolution in the Myrtaceae — evidence from inflorescence structure. Proc. Linn. Soc. New 
South Wales 102: 157-256. 1979. Schmid, R. Comparative anatomy and morphology oi Psiloxylon and 
Heteropyxis, and the subfamilial and tribal classification of Myrtaceae. Taxon 29: 559-595. 1980. Ashton, 
P. S. Myrtaceae. In: Dassanayake, M. D., & F. R. Fosberg. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 2: 
403-472. 1981. 

Much of the botanical literature of the past 50 years dealing with the Old World 
species of Myrtaceae has included discussions of generic concepts, especially as such 
concepts involve species originally assigned to the genus Eugenia L. Cited above is a 
fraction of this literature, essential to reasonable disposition of the species of subfamily 
Myrtoideae indigenous in Pacific areas. Opinions vary from that of Henderson ( 1 949), 
who uses Eugenia in the broad, traditional sense summarized by Bentham (in Benth. & 
Hook. f. Gen. PI. l:718seq. 1865)tothatof Briggs and Johnson (1979), whose division 
of the entire family into 144 genera will seem logical to many present-day taxonomists. 

As to Eugenia sensu lat. in the Old World, generic groupings in recent years have 
perhaps been most affected by several papers of Merrill and Perry, some listed above 
and others listed under individual genera treated below. Their recognition of Syzygium 
Gaertn. for the bulk of the Old World species of this alliance is now widely followed, 
and in fact its separation from Eugenia seems mandatory since the important studies 
by Schmid (1972 seq.), based largely on floral anatomy. While reaching a firm 
conclusion as to the suitability of separating Syzygium from Eugenia sensu lat., 
Schmid was willing to treat the two resulting genera in a sense that still seems very 
comprehensive to some taxonomists; Briggs and Johnson have placed the two genera 
in separate "alliances," recognizing several segregates from Syzygium. Schmid's stud- 



1985 MYRTACEAE 291 

ies in particular point to the (presumably more primitive) axile vascular supply to the 
ovules (in Syzygium) as opposed to the (presumably derived) transeptal supply (in 
Eugenia). His meticulous reviews indicate his conclusions to be supported by studies 
of wood structure, bark anatomy, palynology, pubescence characters, and inflores- 
cence features. 

The key to genera occurring in Fiji, below, will indicate my opinion that both 
Eugenia and Syzygium are logically further subdivided as to their Old World species, 
along lines proposed by Merrill and Perry. While the key steps under the subfamily 
Myrtoideae will seem prolix, they summarize such opinions more concisely than 
further discussion here could. Additional comments as to generic concepts are added 
below in text referring to Syzygium, Cleistocalyx. Piliocalyx, and Jossinia. 

Key to genera 
Ovary 3-5-locular (occasionally 2- or 6-10-locular); fruits capsular (loculicidally dehiscent in our taxa); 
leaves alternate or often opposite (to whorled); subfam. Leptospermoideae. 
Inflorescences not spicate (uniflorescences pedunculate); stamens free. 
Sepals separate, persistent; petals present; stamens m 1 or 2 series; leaf blades pinnate-nerved. 
Leaves opposite; inflorescences axillary in pairs below abortive branch apices, the uniflorescences 
triadic, aggregated or not into conflorescences with the main axis bracteose; flowers on short 
anthopodia or lacking them but not connate; ovary locales with axile placentae, the ovules 

crowded on placental surface; indigenous 1. Metrosideros 

Leaves opposite or whorled (as in our species); inflorescences composed of solitary and axillary 
capitula (as m our species) or these aggregated, the uniflorescences congested-dichasial; flowers 
subconnate; ovary locules with basal placentae, the ovules erect; cultivated only. 

2. Syncarpia 
Sepals connate into a calycine calyptra (operculum), the hypanthium essentially truncate after dehis- 
cence of calyptra along a fine, transverse line; petals absent (in Eucalyptus sensu str.); stamens in 
several series; ovules in 2-4 rows on axile placentae; leaves usually disjunct-opposite at maturity, 
the blades often narrow, falcate, and without prominent nervation; uniflorescences usually 
condensed-dichasial umbellasters; introduced species, cultivated and sometimes becoming natu- 
ralized 3. Eucalyptus 

Inflorescences spicate with the main axis often developing into a leafy shoot (uniflorescences monadic or 
tnadic, without a peduncle, the flowers lacking anthopodia, the conflorescences auxotelic or anauxo- 
telic); cultivated only. 
Stamens usually several-seriate, the filaments free or very shortly united at base; uniflorescences 
monadic; leaves alternate, the blades often with a prominent costa and submarginal nerves. 

4. Callistemon 

Stamens with filaments united into 5 distinct bundles opposite petals, the united portions short and 

broad to long and linear; uniflorescences monadic or triadic; leaves alternate or opposite, the 

blades often with 3 or more longitudinal nerves 5. Melaleuca 

Ovary 2-12-locular (occasionally to 16-locular but not in our genera); fruits baccate, fleshy to leathery or 
pithy; leaves opposite or disjunct-opposite or ternate (to whorled or very rarely alternate but not in our 
genera); subfam. Myrtoideae. 
Cotyledons small at one end of an elongate, curved, hippocrepiform, or spiralled embryo; calyx in bud 
composed of distinct sepals or closed but not calyptrate; petals spreading. 
Ovary 2-4(rarely-7)-locular; seeds not separated by a false septum. 

Ovules 1-7 per ovary locule, the locules 2, the placentae arising from upper part of dissepiment; fruits 
with 1-8 seeds, the testa thin; inflorescences many-flowered, cymose-paniculate; hypanthium 
shghtly prolonged above ovary, the sepals free in bud; mature fruits in our species not more than 

12 mm. in diameter, blackish; cultivated and sometimes naturalized 6. Pimenta 

Ovules numerous, the locules 2-4 (-7), the placentae axile; fruits with numerous seeds, the testa bony; 

inflorescences 1- or 3(-7)-flowered. 

Hypanthium prolonged above ovary, the calyx in bud closed or with an apical pore or composed of 

distinct sepals, usually splitting down to ovary at anthesis; ovary 3- or 4(2-7)-locular, the 

placentae usually bilamellate; inflorescences 1-flowered or 3(4-7)-flowered dichasial cymes; 

mature fruits in our species 2 cm. or more in diameter, yellow or red; naturalized species. 

7. Psidium 

Hypanthium not produced above ovary, the sepals free and appressed in bud; ovary 2- or 3-locular, 

the placentae simple; inflorescences 1-flowered; mature fruits in our species not more than 1 

cm. in diameter, dark blue; cultivated only 8. Mynus 



292 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Ovary 3- 1 2-locular, the ovules 2 (-4) per locule. collateral; seeds usually 2 per locule of fruit, separated 
by a false septum, the testa bony; inflorescence 1 -many-flowered; hypanthium not produced above 
ovary, the sepals free in bud; mature fruits in our species not more than 7 mm. in diameter, 

blackish; indigenous 9. Decaspermum 

Cotyledons large, often plano-convex, fleshy, or corneous, much larger than the hypocotyl; calyx in bud 
composed of distinct sepals or these sometimes fused into a calyptra; petals free or coherent into a 
calyptra. 
Plants mostly glabrous (but trichomes when present muUicellular); inflorescences terminal or axillary, 
largely centrifugal, usually freely branching and many-flowered; inflorescence bracts and brac- 
teoles usually inconspicuous and fugacious (sometimes persistent); flowers 4- or5-merous; hypan- 
thium often tapering proximally and narrowed into a stipe (pseudostalk, pseudopedicel), the 
hypanthial rim often considerably prolonged beyond summit of ovary, sometimes only shortly or 
not so prolonged; calyx sometimes calyptrate (sepals then completely fused and indistinguishable); 
petals free or coherent into a calyptra; stamens strongly inflexed in bud, usually free (in a few 
species with filaments proximally united into phalanges); major vascular bundles of hypanthium 
usually zonocyclic, if monocyclic then with more than 8 major bundles; vascular supply to ovules 
axile (i. e. through center of gynoecium via bases of septa); dried fruits not easily broken; testa 
somewhat rough, loosely adherent to pericarp and separating from cotyledons; cotyledons of 
embryo distinct, usually attached near middle of opposing faces and concealing hypocotyl (but 
sometimes interlocking and sometimes enclosing intrusive, branched placental tissue and with the 
hypocotyl essentially external). 
Sepals free, persistent or deciduous, but if deciduous then with at least occasional portions remaining 
on outer margin of hypanthial rim; petals free or coherent into a calyptra; cotyledons of seeds 
not enclosing branched placental tissue; indigenous, cuUivated, and naturalized species. 

10. Syzygium 

Sepals completely fused into an umbonate calyptra and indistinguishable; petals coherent and falling 

with calycine calyptra; our species indigenous (and endemic). 

Calycine calyptra rounded-conical to rostrate; anthers ellipsoid, the locules parallel; placentation 

axile, the ovules subascending; fruits ellipsoid to subglobose, usually somewhat longer than 

broad, smooth (terete) to 4-costate; seeds with the cotyledons enclosing the hypocotyl and 

epicotyl, the opposing faces separated or infrequently interlocking but not enclosing branched 

placental tissue 11. Cleistocalyx 

Calycine calyptra short-rounded or flattened; anthers broadly oblong, with divergent locules; 
placentation upper-axile, the ovules dependent from apical angle of ovary locules; fruits 
subglobose to obovoid-globose, as broad as or broader than long, smooth (terete); seeds with 
the cotyledons enclosing intrusive and branched placental tissue, the opposing faces ruminate 

and interlocking, the hypocotyl essentially external 12. Piliocalyx 

Plants mostly with some parts pilose, at least sparingly so, the trichomes unicellular; inflorescences 
predominantly axillary, centripetal, the flowers sometimes solitary or few and fasciculate, some- 
times racemose; inflorescence bracts and bracteoles usually conspicuous and persistent, but 
sometimes caducous at or before anthesis; flowers 4-merous; hypanthium usually rounded or 
abruptly narrowed proximally and without a stipe, the hypanthial rim not or only slightly 
prolonged beyond summit of ovary; calyx never calyptrate (sepals always free); petals always free, 
not coherent; stamens incurved in bud but not sharply so, free; major vascular bundles of 
hypanthium 8, monocyclic; vascular supply to ovules transeptal (i. e. via peripheries of septa, 
without vascular tissue in center of ovary below placenta, or such tissue very hmited); dried fruits 
with the pericarp thin and readily crushed; testa smooth, usually free from pericarp and adherent to 
cotyledons; cotyledons of embryo united (completely fused into a homogeneous, pseudomonoco- 
tyledonous embryo or connate). 
Flowers borne in opposite and decussate pairs on elongate or much-abbreviated racemes, sometimes 
seemingly fasciculate in leaf axils, rarely in opposite pairs at nodes below leaves, never solitary in 
leaf axils, small to medium in size; disk usually comparatively thin; ovary locules with 2-several- 
many ovules; vascular supply to ovules strictly transeptal; fruits with I or 2 seeds, the testa 
comparatively thin, the cotyledons completely fused into a homogenous embryo; cultivated 

only 13. Eugenia 

Flowers 1 -3-fasciculate in leaf axils or sometimes ( 1 -) 2- 1 0-fasciculate below leaves (perhaps in some 
species borne in racemes), often comparatively large, with buds to 10 x 7 mm., sepals to 10 mm. 
in diameter, and petals to 20 mm. in diameter; disk broad, thick, cushionhke; ovary locules 
usually with many (up to 25 or more) ovules; vascular supply to ovules transeptal but also axile 
in a limited sense, with a few bundles entering via bases of septa; fruits with (1-) 2-6 (or more?) 
seeds, the testa usually thick or subligneous but sometimes membranaceous or chartaceous, the 
cotyledons connate (but separate, although said to be sometimes partially or completely fused); 
our species indigenous, usually littoral, rarely found far inland 14, Jossinia 



1985 MYRTACEAE 293 

1. Metrosideros Banks ex Gaertn. Fruct. Sem. PI. 1: 170. 1788; Seem. Fl. Vit. 83. 
1866; Dawson in Blumea 18: 441. 1970; A. C. Sm. in Amer. J. Hot. 60: 479. 1973; 
Dawson in Blumea 23: 7. 1976. Nom. cons. 

Trees or shrubs, the branching sympodial in adult plants, the buds with several to 
many pairs of caducous scales; leaves opposite, petiolate, the blades pinnate-nerved; 
inflorescences axillary in pairs below abortive branch apices, the uniflorescences 
triadic, pedunculate, aggregated or not into conflorescences with the main axis brac- 
teose; flowers on short anthopodia or lacking them, usually 5-merous, the hypanthium 
extending beyond top of ovary; sepals equal, imbricate or not; petals oblong to 
suborbicular, rounded, often ciliolate, often caducous; stamens 3 or more times as 
many as petals, borne in a single series, the filaments slender, the anthers dorsifixed, 
versatile, longitudinally dehiscent, with oil glands in the connective; ovary semi- 
inferior to nearly superior, usually 3-locular, the placentae axile, the ovules numerous, 
linear, crowded on placental surface, the style as long as or slightly longer than 
stamens; mature fruits coriaceous, with free part of capsule extended well beyond to 
slightly below level of hypanthial rim, the base of style and placentae becoming widely 
separated by extension of intervening tissue; seeds linear, much longer than broad, 
sometimes winged, the fertile ones fewer than sterile ones, the embryo straight, the 
cotyledons adaxially appressed. 

Type species: Metrosideros spectabilis Solander ex Gaertn., typ. cons. This bino- 
mial is referable to M. collina (J. R. & G. Forst.) A. Gray var. villosa (L. f.) A. Gray 
(vide A. C. Smith. 1973, pp. 482, 484). 

ING (1979) lists as the conserved type species Metrosideros perforata (J. R. & G. 
Forst.) A. Rich. (Leplospermum perforatum J. R. & G. Forst.; M. scandens Solander 
ex Gaertn.); this had been listed as the conserved type species in ICBN (1966, Edin- 
burgh edition), a listing altered in the 1972 and 1978 editions and requiring correction 
in ING. 

Distribution: New Zealand, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, the Solomons, 
and the Bonin Islands eastward to the Tuamotus and Hawaii, with 25-30 species. Two 
species are indigenous in Fiji. 

Useful treatments of gents: Dawson, J. W. Pacific capsular Myrtaceae2. The Metrosideros complex: 
M. collina group. Blumea 18: 441-445. 1970. Smith, A. C. Studies of Pacific Island plants. XXVI. 
Metrosideros collina (Myrtaceae) and its relatives in the southern Pacific. Amer. J. Bot. 60: 479-490. 1973. 
Dawson. J. W. Pacific capsular Myrtaceae XI. Redefinition of Metrosideros Banks ex Gaertn. and 
definition of infrageneric categories. Blumea 23: 7-11 1976. 

The above generic description is modified from Dawson's ( 1 976) to include only his 
subgenus Metrosideros. as suggested by Briggs and Johnson (1979); in his 1976 
concept of the genus Dawson included Mearnsia and several other (some unnamed) 
genera segregated by Briggs and Johnson. 

Key to species 

Inflorescences compound, the axis of conflorescence 3-30 mm. long and bearing 3-5 decussate pairs of 
3-flowered uniflorescences; sepals not (or scarcely in bud) imbricate, 1.5-2 * 1.5-3 mm.; petals 2.5-4 
mm. long and broad, dull orange or salmon-pink to yellow; filaments and style bright red or bright 
orange to yellow; leaves with petioles rarely less than 4 mm. long, the blades rarely less than 4* 1.5 cm. 
and usually considerably larger, attenuate to obtuse at base, with prominulous venation on both 
surfaces, the lowermost secondary nerves not more conspicuous than the others; indument none to 
sericeous or conspicuously villose \. M. collina 

Inflorescences simple, each composed of a short-pedunculate, 3-flowered uniflorescence; sepals imbricate, 
comparatively large, 2-2.5 * 3-4 mm.; petals obovate-suborbicular, to4x 4 mm., pale yellow; filaments 
and style pale yellow; leaves subsessile( petioles 1-2 mm. long), the blades not exceeding 3.5 i" 1.7 cm., 
rounded or broadly obtuse at base, with venation immersed on upper surface, the 2 lowermost pairs of 
secondary nerves slightly more conspicuous than the others; indument sericeous, very sparse. 

2. M. ochraniha 



294 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

1. Metrosideros collina (J. R. & G. Forst.) A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 558. 
1854; A. C. Sm. in Amer. J. Bot. 60: 480. 1973. 

As seen in Fiji this complex species consists of trees or shrubs 1-20 m. high, variable 
as to the indument of vegetative and inflorescence parts, the branchlets subterete to 
subquadrangular; petioles (2-) 4-12 mm. long; leaf blades often coriaceous and 
copiously glandular-punctate, elliptic-lanceolate to oblong- or obovate-elliptic, (2.5-) 
4-8.5 ^ (0.8-) 1.5-6 cm.; conflorescences with 3-5 pairs of uniflorescences with 
peduncles 3-20 mm. long, the flower-enclosing scales about 6, to 6 mm. long and 
broad; flowers sessile or with anthopodium to 4 mm. (at anthesis) or 6 mm. (in fruit) 
long, the lateral flowers subtended by suborbicular bracts to 4 mm. long, the bracteoles 
to 2 mm. long; hypanthium cupuliform-obconical, 1.5-3 mm. long, 2-4 mm. in distal 
diameter, extending 1-2 mm. beyond ovary, the sepals 5 (or 6), to 2 x 3 mm.; petals 5 
(or 6), obovate to suborbicular, to 4 mm. long and broad; stamens 20-24 (-30), the 
filaments at anthesis 12-20 mm. long; style 13-30 mm. long; hypanthium in fruit 
subrotate, 5-7 mm. in diameter at rim, the free part of capsule triquetrous-subglobose, 
(3-) 5-8 mm. in diameter, conspicuously extending beyond level of hypanthial rim. 
Flowers and fruits are conspicuous throughout the year. 

Distribution: New Hebrides eastward to the Marquesas and Tuamotu Islands, 
and probably also in Hawaii. Differing opinions as to the nomenclature of Hawaiian 
species were briefly discussed by me in 1973 (p. 481). The preceding description briefly 
summarizes the salient characters of Metrosideros collina in a reasonably inclusive 
sense. Without reaching a conclusion as to Hawaiian, Marquesan, and easternmost 
Tuamotuan elements, in 1973 I placed the available material from between the New 
Hebrides and the Society and Austral Islands in three varieties, a solution originally 
proposed by Gray. However, M. collina var. temehaniensis J. W. Moore, from 
Raiatea, has simple inflorescences and probably should not be included in var. villosa 
(A. C. Sm., 1973, p. 483); it may merit specific rank. The synonymies and typifications 
indicated below refer primarily to the Fijian Region and are abstracted from my 1973 
treatment. 

Local name and uses: To the species as a whole the Fijian name vunga is firmly 
attached. The wood of any variety may be used for timber, the trunks of sufficiently 
large trees being esteemed as houseposts. The highly ornamental flowers are occasion- 
ally utilized for decoration and adornment. 

Key to varieties 

Peduncles and hypanthium copiously villose (or subsericeous) with hairs 0.3- 1 mm. long, tardily glabrate in 
fruit; filaments and style usually bright red or scarlet, occasionally orange; ovary at anthesis copiously 
villose with hairs 0.2-0.7 mm. long; young parts and bud scales copiously villose, the indument 
composed of hairs 0.5-1 mm. long, briefly persisting on branchlets and leaves; branchlets compara- 
tively stout, 1.5-4 mm. in diameter distally; leaf blades variable in shape, sometimes to 6 cm. broad. 

la. var. villosa 

Peduncles and hypanthium sericeous with closely appressed hairs 0. 1-0.4 mm. long, some indument often 
persisting in fruit; filaments and style orange-pink to yellow, less commonly red; ovary at anthesis 
sparsely or copiously tomentose-sericeous with hairs 0.1-0.2 mm. long; young parts and bud scales 
copiously sericeous, the indument composed of hairs 0. 1 -0.5 mm. long, evanescent; branchlets compar- 
atively slender, 1-2 mm. in diameter distally; leaf blades prevailingly elliptic-lanceolate or narrowly 
elliptic, rarely more than 3 cm. broad lb. var. collina 

Peduncles and hypanthium glabrous or very sparsely pilose and soon glabrescent; filaments and style usually 
yellow, less commonly red; ovary at anthesis glabrous or very sparsely tomentose-sericeous with hairs 
0.1-0.2 mm. long; young parts and bud scales puberulent-sericeous, the indument composed of hairs 
0.1-0.2 mm. long, evanescent; branchlets comparatively slender, 1-2 mm. in diameter distally; leaf 
blades prevailingly elliptic-lanceolate or obovate-elliptic, rarely more than 3.5 cm. broad. 

1 c. var. frulicosa 



1985 MYRTACEAE 295 

la. Metrosideros collina var. villosa (L. f.) A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 558. 
1854; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 197. 1972; A. C. Sm. in Amer. J. Bot. 60: 
484. //g. 1-5, 19-24. 1973. 
Melaleuca villosa L. f. Suppl. PI. 342, 1782. 

Metrosideros villosa Sm. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 3: 268. 1797; Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12: 253. 1931. 
(?) Metrosideros villosa \ax. glaherrima Berteroex Guillemin in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. II. 7:351. 1837(repr. 

Zephyr. Tail. 57. 1838). 
(?) Metrosideros collina var. glaherrima A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 558. 1854, in Proc. Amer. 

Acad. Arts 5: 317, p. p. 1862, in Bonplandia 10: 35, p. p. 1862. 
Metrosideros collina var. viiiensis sensu A. Gray in Bonplandia 9: 256, p. p. 1861; non A. Gray (1854). 
Metrosideros collina sensu Seem. Viti, 436, p. p. 1862; Rolfe in Bot. Mag. 146: i. 8S46. 1920; Setchell in 

Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 12: 198. 1926; Yuncker in Bishop Mus. Bull. 220: 205. 1959. 
Metrosideros polymorpha sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 83, p. p. 1866, op. cit. 427, p. p. 1873; non Gaud. 
Metrosideros collina "Form 2" Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 159. 1935, in op. cit. 154: 27. 
1938. 

As seen in Fiji, Metrosideros collina var. villosa is usually a tree to about 18 m. 
high, less frequently a compact shrub as small as 1 m. high, occurring at elevations 
from near sea level to 1 ,200 m. in forest and open swamps, on open hillsides, and in the 
thickets of crests and ridges. An indument of comparatively long, whitish, spreading, 
and sometimes loosely tangled hairs is characteristic of the variety. The petals are often 
orange-pink but vary from dull orange to yellow; the filaments and styles are bright red 
to bright orange (but apparently not yellow). 

Typification and nomenclature: The type of Melaleuca villosa is J. R. & G. 
Forster (upsor linn holotype; isoTYPEsat bm, k; cf. my 1973 treatment, p. 482), from 
Tahiti. Metrosideros villosa var. glaherrima is typified by a Bertero collection from 
Tahiti, which I have not seen but which was described as having villose peduncles; I 
believe that the specimen therefore falls into var. villosa, bringing with it Gray's 
trinomial M. collina var. glaherrima, even though Gray doubtless intended his varietal 
combination to represent the essentially glabrous phase of the species (cf. my 1973 
treatment, pp. 483, 484). The Seemann collections cited by Gray as this variety in 1 862 
represent all three varieties. 

Distribution: New Hebrides to the Austral and Society Islands, and probably 
also in the Marquesas. In Fiji this variety is especially frequent in southern Viti Levu, 
but it also occurs in scattered localities eastward into the Lau Group. About 50 Fijian 
collections are available. 

Local names: In addition to the general name vunga, this variety has been 
recorded as sekula in the Yasawas. 

Representative collections: YASAWAS: Waya: Nangua, St. John 18156. VITI LEVU: Mba: Slopes 
of Mt. Nairosa, eastern flank of Mt. Evans Range, 5n;///; 4'//'/ ,■ Nandarivatu, Tothill 160.4 (coll. H'. Teuton). 
Nandronga & Navosa: Nausori Highlands. D.4 13397. Serua: Namboutini, DF 1102 (SJ556/5). p. p. 
Namosi: Korombasambasanga Range. DA 2IS9: Mt. Voma, D.4 599. Naitasiri: Waimanu River, DA 
L. 13281 (Berry 70). Rewa: Mt. Korombamba. DA /7i72. vicmity of Lami, H. B. R. Parliam 22: vicinity o( 
Suva, Tothill 160C. KANDAVU: Hills above Namalata and Ngaloa Bays, Smith 67: Naikorokoro, DA 
11932 (DF 12). OVALAU: Summit of Mt. Ndelaiovalau and adjacent ridge. Smith 7587. VANUA LEVU: 
Mbua: Koromba Forest, Wairiki, DA 15140. Mathi'ata: Mt. Ndelaikoro, D.4 12820: Mt. Numbuiloa, east 
of Lambasa, Smith 6542. Thakai'NDROVe: Mt. Mbatini, Smith 682. TAVEUNI: Borders of lake east of 
Somosomo, Smith 860. VANUA MBALAVU: Near Lomaloma, Garnock-Jones 1144. LAKEMBA: Har- 
vey, p. p. Fiji without definite locality, Seemann 169. p. p. 

lb. Metrosideros collina var. collina; A. C. Sm. in Amer. J. Bot. 60: 4S6. fig. 6-12. 
25-28. 1973. Figure 90. 

l^ptospermum collinum i. R. & G. Forst. Char. Gen. PI. 36. t. 36. fig. m-q 1775, ed. 2. 72. t. id. 1776. 
.Metrosideros collina var. vitiensis A. Gray, Bot. U. S. Expl. Exped. 1: 559. 1854, Atlas,/?/. 68. 1856; Seem, 
in Bonplandia 9: 256, p. p. 1861; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 198. 1972. 



296 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

Metrosideros collina sensu Seem. Viti, 436, p. p. 1862. 

Metrosideros collina var. glaberrima sensu A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5: 317, p. p. 1862, in 
Bonplandia 10: 35, p. p. 1862; non sensu typi. 

Metrosideros polymorpha sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 83, p. p. 1866, op. cit. 427, p. p. 1873; non Gaud. 

Metrosideros collina "Form I" Christophersen in Bishop Mus. Bull. 128: 159, p. p. 1935. 

Metrosideros villosa sensu J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 137, p. p. majore. 1964; non Sm. 
The nomenclaturally typical variety is noted in Fiji as a compact or slender tree or 
shrub 2-20 m. high, found from near sea level upward to about 1,120 m. in sometimes 
dense forest and in swampy places. It is comparatively infrequent at lower elevations. 
The variety is distinguished by the closely appressed, comparatively short hairs of its 
distinctly sericeous, fairly persistent indument. Its flowers have the petals salmon-pink 
to yellow, the filaments and styles predominantly orange-pink but variable, occasion- 
ally yellow or red. 

Typification and nomenclature: Among the five Tahitian specimens of Metro- 
sideros collina at bm collected during the Cook voyages, the one most significantly 
labelled as Leptospermum collinum is J. R. & G. Forster (bm lectotype; cf. my 1973 
treatment, p. 481); this seems to have been the principal basis of the Forsters' 1775 
figures. Metrosideros collina var. vitiensis is typified by U. S. Expl. Exped. (us 47895 
and 47896 holotype; putative isotype at gh). The Exploring Expedition material 
described and illustrated by Gray came from three localities: Ovalau and Vanua Levu 
(Mathuata and Mbua (Sandalwood) Bay). It is not now possible to establish the 
localities of the two us specimens cited as composing the holotype, and indeed they 
may be from two different localities; other Exploring Expedition specimens from Fiji 
are not necessarily strict isotypes. Gray did not attempt to place the Forsters' concept 
of the species in any of his three varieties, but it is obvious that var. vitiensis best 
agrees with the nomenclatural type of the species. 

Distribution: New Hebrides to the Society Islands; in Fiji this is the most 
abundant of the three varieties, about 80 collections having been examined. The 
variety is especially frequent in the northern uplands of Viti Levu and is one of the most 
abundant trees in the vicinity of Nandarivatu. It is also common in Mathuata Pro- 
vince, Vanua Levu, and is known from scattered localities eastward and southward 
into Lau. 

Local names: In addition to vunga, the names vunga ndina, vunga tangane, vunga 
tawa, and vunga leka have been recorded from Mba Province. 

Representative collections; VITI LE VU : M ba: M ountains near Lautoka, Greenwood 295: vicinity of 
Nandarivatu, Parks 20656, Degener 14495: Mt. Nanggaranambuluta, east of Nandarivatu, DA 2335: valley 
of Nggaliwana Creek, north of the sawmill at Navai, Smith 5330. Nandronga& Navosa: Near "Mbeila," 
Home 935. Serua: Namboutini, DF 1102 (S1556/5). p. p.; vicinity of Navua, DA 9173 (McKee 2737). 
Namosl Summit of Mt. Voma, Gillespie 2785: summit of Mt. Vakarongasiu, Gillespie 3282. Ra: Vicinity of 
Rewasa, near Vaileka, Degener 15459. Naitasirl Viria, Parks 20431: Waimanu River, Milne 54. Rewa; 
Queen's Road 6 miles west of Suva, Vaughan 3461. KANDAVU: Kiombo, Naikorokoro, DF 1021 
(SI556/3). p. p. OVALAU: Vicinity of Levuka, Gillespie 4470. VANUA LEVU: Mbua: Navotuvotu, 
summit of Mt. Seatura, Smith 1651. Mathuata: Wainunu-Ndreketi divide. Smith 1853: Korovuli River, 
DA L.24I55. Thakaundrove: Mt. Kasi, DA 15734: Mt. Uluingala, Natewa Peninsula, Smith 1993. 
TAVEUNI: Borders of lake east of Somosomo, Sm/r/i S5J. MATUKU: Nearsummitof highest peak, A/f/«e 
109. LAKEMBA: Harvey, p. p. Fiji without definite locality, Seemann 169. p. p. 

Ic. Metrosideros collina var. fruticosa J. W. Moore in Bishop Mus. Bull. 226: 24. fig. 

17. 18. 1963; A. C. Sm. in Amer. J. Bot. 60: 488.//^. 13-16, 29-31. 1973. 

Metrosideros sp. fl. luteis Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 256. 1861, Viti, 436. 1862. 
Metrosideros sp. fl. coccineis Seem, in Bonplandia 9: 256. 1861, Viti, 436. 1862. 



1985 MYRTACEAE 297 

Meirosideros coUina var. glaberrima sensu A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 5: 317, p. p. 1862, in 
Bonplandia 10: 35, p. p. 1 862; Setchell in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 12: 198. 1926; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl, 
ed. 2. 197. 1972; non sensu typi. 
Meirosideros potymurpha sensu Seem. Fl. Vit. 83, p. p. 1866; non Gaud. 
Meirosideros villosa sensu Gibbs in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 39: 146. 1909; Turrill in op. cit. 43: 20. 1915; non 

Sm. 
Meirosideros villosa var. glaberrima sensu Guillaumin in J. Arnold Arb. 12: 253. 1931; non Bertero ex 

GuiUemin. 
Meirosideros collma "Form 1" Christophersen in Bishop Mus, Bull. 128: 159, p. p. 1935. 
Trislania viliensis A. C. Sm. in Bishop Mus. Bull. 141: 1 10. fig. 57, h. i. 1936, m J. Arnold Arb. 36: 286. 
1955; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. 142. 1964, ed. 2. 204. 1972. 

In Fiji Meirosideros coUina \ar. fruticosa is recorded as a tree 7-15 m. high, 
occurring in sometimes dense forest at elevations of 50-925 m. Indument is often 
lacking, or when present the hairs are very short and comparatively evanescent. The 
petals are yellow, and the filaments and style are also commonly yellow, but sometimes 
they are red-tinged and occasionally quite red. Flower color in the three varieties is 
certainly not dependable, but there is a predominance of red in var. villosa, of yellow in 
\a.T. fruticosa, and of a mixture, frequently orange, in var. collina. 

Typification and nomenclature: The type of war. fruticosa is St. John 17267 
(BISH HOLOTYPE), coUccted Oct. 5, 1934, on Raiatea, Society Islands. This appears to 
provide the first unequivocal name at the varietal level for the "glabrous" phase of 
Meirosideros collina, which has more often passed as var. glaberrima (discussed under 
typification of var. villosa). Trislania viliensis is typified by Smith 684 (bish holotype; 
many isotypes), collected in fruit Nov. 29, 1933, on the summit of Mt. Mbatini, 
Thakaundrove Province, Vanua Levu. Trislania does not occur as far east as Fiji and 
my novelty was ill-considered, as the collection is now seen to be a small-leaved variant 
of the "glabrous" variety of M. collina. 

Distribution: New Hebrides to the Society Islands. In Fiji this is the least 
abundant of the three varieties, now represented by about 35 collections, all but two of 
them (from Ovalau and Vanua Levu) being from Viti Levu; the variety is common in 
the vicinity of Nandarivatu, but less so than var. collina. 

Representative collections: VITI LEVU: Mba: Mountams near Lautoka, Crffnuoot/JP'/,- vicinity of 
Lewa, DA 14446: vicinity of Nandarivatu, Gibbs 545, 879, im Thurn 129: vicinity of Nandala, Degener 
14425. Nandronga & Navosa: Nausori Highlands, DF 831. Namosi: Navunikambi, on Waimkoroiluva 
River, DA L. 13280 (Berry 15): between Namosi and Vuniwaivutuku, Seemann 170: vicinity of Namosi, 
Seemann 171, Gillespie 2526. Ra: Vicinity of Rewasa, near Vaileka, Degener 15458. Naitasiri: Waindra- 
ndra Creek, D.4 3404: Tholo-i-suva, DF 229 (Bola 78). Tailevu: Between Raralevu and Namata, DA 2672. 
OVALAU: Hills west of Lovoni Valley, on ridge south of Mt. Korolevu, Smiih 7626. 

2. Metrosideros ochrantha A. C. Sm. in Amer. J. Bot. 60: 490. //g. 18, 36-39. 1973. 

Tree to 4 m. high, occurring in dense, low forest at an elevation of 300-430 m. 
Meirosideros ochrantha merits specific separation from the M. collina complex as 
noted in the above key: leaves subsessile, the blades narrowly ovate, gradually nar- 
rowed into an acumen 5-8 mm. long; inflorescences simple, short-pedunculate, 3- 
flowered uniflorescences; sepals comparatively large and imbricate; petals, filaments, 
and style pale yellow, the filaments 12-14 mm. long, the style 11-13 mm. long; 
indument of vegetative and inflorescence parts sericeous, sparse, evanescent. Only the 
type collection is known. 

Typification: The type is Smith 1 768 (bish holotype; many isotypes), collected in 
flower and fruit May 10, 1934, on Mt. Kasi, Yanawai River region, Thakaundrove 
Province, Vanua Levu. 

Distribution: Endemic and presumably limited to Mt. Kasi and its vicinity, which 
(cf. this Flora, vol. 2, p. 356) has an unusual and stunted vegetation. 



298 FLORA VITIENSIS NOVA Vol. 3 

2. Syncarpia Tenore in Ind. Sem. Hort. Bot. Neap. 1839: 12. 1839, in Ann. Sci. Nat. 

Bot. II. 13: 381. 1840; P. Ashton in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 2: 453. 1981. 

Trees, with flaky bark; leaves opposite or whorled (as in our species), the blades 
pinnate-nerved; inflorescences composed of solitary and axillary capitula or these 
aggregated into seemingly terminal panicles (uniflorescence a pedunculate, congested 
dichasium, the main axis of conflorescence frondose), the flowers subconnate in dense, 
globose heads; hypanthium turbinate or campanulate, the free portion erect or sub- 
spreading, the sepals 4, rarely 5, persistent, equal, short; petals 4, rarely 5, small, 
spreading; stamens many, free, in 1 or 2 sometimes interrupted series, the filaments- 
filiform, the anthers versatile, with latrorse-longitudinal dehiscence; ovary 2- or 3- 
locular, truncate or convex at apex and scarcely depressed around style, the locules 
with 1-many ovules erect from basal placentae, the style filiform, the stigma small; 
fruit capsular, included in and adnate to hypanthium, loculicidally dehiscing in 2 or 3 
valves, the seeds linear-cuneate, the testa thin, the embryo straight, the cotyledons 
plano-convex, exceeding radicle. 

Type species: Syncarpia laurifolia Tenore = S. glomulifera (Sm.) Niedenzu {Metro- 
sideros glomulifera Sm.). 

Distribution: Queensland, Australia, with five species, at least two of which are 
frequently cultivated elsewhere, one occasionally in Fiji. 

1. Syncarpia glomulifera (Sm.) Niedenzu in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III. 7: 
88. 1892; J. W. Parham, PI. Fiji Isl. ed. 2. 199. 1972; P. Ashton in Rev. Handb. Fl. 
Ceylon 2: 453. 1981. 
Metrosideros glomulifera Sm. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 3: 269. 1797. 

Svncarpia laurifolia Tenore in Ind. Sem. Hort, Neap. 1839: 12. 1839, in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. II. 13: 381. 
' 1840; Benth. Fl. Austral. 3: 265. 1867. 

An often slender tree, up to 30 m. high where indigenous, occasionally cultivated at 
low elevations. The indument of young branchlets, lower surfaces of leaf blades, 
peduncles, and calyces is copiously pale-tomentose with short, simple hairs, and the 
leaves are in whorls or pseudowhorls of 4, with coriaceous, elliptic-lance