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Florence Nightingale 


Pdci^ Coast Hcadk Office: San Francisco Canadian Head Office: Ottawa 











Grace T. Hallock, coauthor of 
Growing Up, the Safe and Healthy 
Living series, and other health books 


C. E. Turner, Professor Emeritus of 
Public Health, Massachusetts Insti' 
tute of Technology. 

Copyright, 1928, by 
Grace T. Hallock and C. E. Turner 

Grateful ac\nowledgment is made to 
the following publishers for permis-' 
sion to copy pictures: 

The Macmillan Company for por' 
trait of Florence Nightingale from 
The Life of Florence Jiightingale, 
Vol. I, by A. T. Cook, and for a 
scene from Florence from A Wan^ 
derer in Florence by E. V. Lucas; 
G. P. Putnam's Sons for pictures 
from A History of A[ursmg by Nut' 
TING and Dock; Underwood and 
Underwood for picture of Florence 
Nightingale as a young girl from 
A Modern World Setting for Amer- 
ican History by Jones and Sleman. 

(Edition of January 1948) 


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LITTLE more than 100 years ago, a wealthy 
Englishman and his wife were traveling in 
Italy. Europe had then become safe for trav- 
elers because the wars of Napoleon had come 
to an end at last. In 1820, this couple, Mr. and Mrs. 
William Nightingale, and their little daughter. Par- 
THENOPE, were in the city of Florence. There, on May 
12, another daughter was born to the Nightingales. 
She was named for her birthplace. Thirty-four years later 
the whole world was to hear the name of Florence 


From the time she was 5 years old Florence had two 
homes in England. One was Lea Hurst, near the quaint 
village of Lea in Derbyshire. The other was Embley Park, 
near Romsey, on the edge of the New Forest. 

Both homes were surrounded with beautiful old trees 
and flower gardens. Florence loved flowers and birds 
and animals. She loved babies, too, and although there 
were none in her own family, she had a great many little 
cousins in whose teethings and baby illnesses she was 
greatly interested. 

The City of Florence, 

birthplace of Florence Nightingale 

ft '^ 



Florence Nightingale 
at 8 years of age 


Florence was given a better 

education than was at that time 

thought suitable for young ladies. 

To be sure, she and her sister learned 

. all the usual female accomplish- 

Jk. «^ . ments. They were taught to use a 

\ 1 1 \ globe, to copy out ''elegant ab- 

T\ J stracts'' from various writers, to em- 

/ / ^^ broider slippers and footstools, and 

\ ' tf'^"'^^^"""^ to do other fancy work. They 

|. studied music, grammar, composi- 

^ tion and modern languages. Mr. 

Nightingale himself added to this 

learning by teaching his daughters 

Latin, Greek, mathematics and history. 

Florence was a good student and a quick one. 
By the time she was 17, she had read a truly formidable 
list of books in both modern and ancient languages. Her 
father had trained her to think clearly and to concentrate 
her mind on what she had to do. This training was to 
help her greatly in later years when quick, clear thinking 
meant the saving of lives. Florence was taught, as well, 
the usual manners and graces, which prepared her to take 
her place in the social world. She and her sister spent 
a season abroad and were then presented at court. 
Florence was not beautiful, but she possessed charm and 
distinction, and was a good, even a witty talker. 




Although Florence's life was full and busy, both in 
London and at the country houses of her family and 
friends, she was not happy. The occupations of a young 
lady of fashion could not satisfy her keen mind and un- 
bounded energy. The first record we have of her desire 
to become a nurse is found in a conversation which she 
had with the husband of Julia Ward Howe. In 1844, 
Dr. and Mrs. Howe were staying with the Nightingales 
at Embley. Florence said to Dr. Howe: "If I should 
determine to study nursing, and to devote my life to that 
profession, do you think it would be a dreadful thing?'' 

Dr. Howe replied: ""Not a dreadful thing at all. I 
think It would be a very good thing.'' 

But to Florence's parents and sister it did seem a 
dreadful thing. In every way possible they tried to turn 
Florence from her idea. But so definite was that idea 
that, shortly after her talk with Dr. Howe, the freedom 
to nurse sick people became Florence Nightingale's 
strongest desire. 

It is hard for us today to visualise what nursing was 
like in the first half of the nineteenth century. Many 
nurses were untrained, coarse, ignorant women. Some- 
times they were actually cruel to their patients. As a 
result, most hospitals in England, Scotland and Ireland 
were places of dirt and misery and needless suffering. 
Florence's family felt that they could not allow her to go 
into such conditions as these. 

She was bitterly disappointed when her mother re- 
fused to let her enter a hospital for training. To distract 
her mind, her family sent her abroad with friends. Wher- 
ever she went she visited hospitals and learned what she 
could of organisation and methods of nursing. 



At this point in the life of Florence Nightingale 
came the first test of the quality of her determination. 
Persistence met opposition and conquered. Vain were 
the attempts of Florence's family to lure her from her 
purpose by offering the distractions of travel and the 
gayeties of social life. In 1851, she entered the Deaconess 
School at Kaiserwerth in Germany for a short term of 
training as a nurse. The life there was hard and bleak, 
but Florence Nightingale gloried in it. She wrote her 
mother: ''This is Life! I wish for no other earth, no 
other world but this.'' 

After this beginning there was no holding Florence 
Nightingale back. She had started toward the realizia- 
tion of her desire. It was to be a long, hard way, but her 
persistence was not to be denied. 

In 1853, Florence Nightingale took her first ''situa- 
tion." She became the Superintendent of an Establish- 
ment for Gentlewomen During Illness, in London. The 
fact that her patients were to be " gentlewomen" partly 
reconciled her family, but, even so, her mother did not 
understand her. With tears in her eyes, Mrs. Nightin- 
gale said:" We 
are ducks and 
have hatched a 
wild swan." 

The Kaiserwerth 
Training School, 


Map showing seat of war 

Outbreak of the Crimean War 

Florence Nightingale had been a year in her 
situation when, in 1854, the Crimean War broke out. 
Russia, with an eye on Constantinople, had seized some 
Turkish provinces on the Danube. This did not suit 
France and England, as it threatened their interests in the 
East. They joined Turkey in a war on Russia, and the 
battleground was the Crimea, a small peninsula thrust 
out into the Black Sea. There the fleets of the allied 
powers landed their troops, and there, in September, 1854, 
was fought the first great battle of the war, the battle of 
the Alma River. The allies were victorious and England 
went wild with joy. 

The Call 

But the rejoicing quickly changed to mourning. The 
number of the killed and wounded was very large and 
presently charges of neglect toward the sick and wounded 
in the military hospital at Scutari were published in a 
London newspaper. There was one woman in England 
who was ready, experienced in nursing, and anxious to 


serve, who could come to England's help in this hour of 
desperate need. Fortunately there was one Englishman 
who knew it. Their letters to each other crossed in the 
mail. One letter was from Florence Nightingale offer- 
ing to go to the Crimea with a party of nurses. The 
other was from her friend, Sidney Herbert, the Secretary 
of War, asking her to go. 

Within five days from the time that each one had 
accepted the other's offer, Florence Nightingale, with 
a party of thirty-eight nurses, was on her way to Scutari, 
the place opposite Constantinople where the military 
hospitals were located. She left in a great burst of en- 
thusiasm. This Florence Nightingale, of whom most 
people had never heard five days before, had become a 
popular heroine. 

At Marseilles, Florence Nightingale laid in a large 
stock of supplies. She did this in spite of the fact that she 
had been assured at the War Office that nothing was 
needed for the comfort of the wounded soldiers. She and 
her nurses arrived at Scutari on November 4, 1854, ten 
days after the battle of Balaklava, and the day before the 
battle of Inkerman. They were given quarters in one 
tower of the Barrack Hospital, the chief hospital used in 
the Crimean War. 

The Military Hospitals 

Dark as the picture of conditions in the military 
hospitals had been painted in newspaper reports, the 
reality turned out to be darker still. Florence Nightin- 
gale had longed for a job equal to her ability and energy. 
Now she had one. Her tidy mind and her capable fingers 
had always itched to straighten out messes of any kind. 
Now, in the hospitals at Scutari, she found a huge muddle 
complicated by entangling red tape. In her own words. 


she found ''The sanitary conditions of the hospitals of 
Scutari were inferior m point of crowding, ventilation, 
drainage, and cleanliness to any civil hospital, or to the 
poorest homes m the worst parts of the civil population 
of any large town that I have seen/' Ordinary comforts 
for the sick and wounded were lacking and necessary 
surgical and medical supplies were often not forthcoming. 
There were not enough beds, ''there were no vessels for 

Military Hospital, 

water, or utensils of any kind; no soap, no towels or 
cloths; no hospital clothes; no chairs, tables, benches, nor 
any other lamp or candlestick but a bottle.'' Often the 
wounded men were left lying in the uniforms they had 
worn on the battlefield. 

It was evident that there had been a complete break- 
down of medical arrangements at the seat of war. No one 
person could, or would, assume responsibility for this 
awful failure. It was not the time to exclaim, "What a 
mess!" nor to ask, "Whose fault is it?" That could come 
later. The only thing that mattered then was: Here is a 
job to be done. Florence Nightingale knew, of course, 
that her position was a delicate one. Women nurses in an 



army hospital were unheard of and the prejudices of both 
the medical and military authorities must be overcome. 

She made a good impression on most of the medical 
men from the beginning. She was an expert and they were 
quick to realise it. She obeyed rules and maintained a 
rigid discipline over her nurses. She never lost her 
temper, she never raised her voice, she was never over^ 
bearing, and so she won confidence. 

The Emergency 

The wounded from the battle of Balaklava began to 
arrive shortly after the party of nurses landed. In the 
Barrack hospital alone there were four miles of wounded 
soldiers laid not eighteen inches apart. The wounded lay 
up to the very door of the nurses' quarters. Florence 
Nightingale wrote home: ''Let no lady come out here 
who is not used to fatigue and privation,'' She herself 
was known to be on her feet for twenty hours at a time. 
Along with the permanent reform which Florence 
Nightingale made with patient persistence came this 
necessity for meeting emergencies. 


During the Crimean War, no one dreamed that in- 
fections after surgical operations, or after wounds re- 
ceived in battle, were caused by tiny living organisms. It 
was not until twenty years later that Lister introduced 
antiseptic methods in surgery by making practical use of 
the germ theory of infection taught by Pasteur. But 
Florence Nightingale did know that efficient nursing 
demands cleanliness. She set herself to supply this neces- 
sity. She found ''not a basin, nor a towel, nor a bit of 
soap, nor a broom," in the whole place. One of the first 
things she asked for was a supply of sacking and 200 hard 
scrub-brushes for washing the floors. 



Up to the time of her arrival the largest number 
of shirts washed in a month had been six. Florence 
Nightingale installed a laundry at once and employed 
in it the wives who had followed their soldier husbands 
to the front. 


After starting her clean-up campaign, the next thing 
that Florence Nightingale did was to install ''extra 
diet'' kitchens with the supplies she had laid in at Mar- 
seilles. Gone at last were the days when sick and almost 
famished men found themselves confronted with hunks 
of meat or bone or gristle from the thirteen copper kettles 
in which all the food for the hospital had been cooked. 
Now the meals were well prepared and served on time 
and there were delicate jellies and broths to be had when 
the doctors ordered them for their patients. 


Florence Nightingale set up a shop in a kitchen in 
her tower. She was the storekeeper, the doctors were 
the customers, and the patients the consumers. The 
medical officers found that they could get from Florence 
Nightingale necessary supplies which they could not 
possibly procure from the official purveyor of the army. 

But Miss Nightingale's stores could not last for- 
ever. As soon as matters were somewhat straightened 
out at the hospital, she set to work to unwind the red 
tape in which the official stores sent out from England 
were hopelessly entangled. Articles from the official 
stores were supplied to the hospitals by the Purveyor 
only on the requisition of a medical officer. The Pur- 
veyor would not unpack goods until they had been 
examined by the Board of Survey. This elaborate system 
led to delays which maddened Florence Nightingale. 



British private 
soldiers in the 
Crimean War 

Once she ordered a government consignment to be 
opened forcibly while the Purveyor stood by wringing 
his hands in fear of what the Board would say. Some- 
times she got the Board together herself and forced it to 
''sit'' on supplies which were needed at once. She did 
not take the report of others as to what was in the store- 
house, but went foraging there herself. 

More often than not what she wanted was not there. 
Quantities of stores sent from England lay in the Turkish 
Custom House. Supplies for the hospitals, loaded under- 
neath the cargoes of shot and shell, were sometimes car- 
ried to and fro three times over the Black Sea before 
being landed at Scutari. Florence Nightingale saw that 
the whole system was at fault, and, six months after her 
arrival, she succeeded in having established, at Scutari, a 
storehouse for the reception and distribution of supplies. 



The Ministering Angel 

The military surgeons, the orderlies, her own nurses, 
the Purveyor, saw in Florence Nightingale the ''im- 
pelling power of a brain and a wilP' set to bring order out 
of the chaos in the military hospitals. But to the sick and 
wounded and to the public at home, she was known as the 
Angel of the Crimea. At night when the medical officers 
had gone to bed and darkness and silence had settled down 
on those miles of prostrate sick, she might be seen, alone 
with a lamp in her hand, making her solitary rounds. One 
boy wrote home in a letter which became famous : 

What a comfort it was to see her pass, even. She would 
speak to one and nod and smile to as many more ; but she could 
not do it all, you know. We lay there by hundreds, but we 
could kiss her shadow as it fell, and lay our heads on the pillow 
again content. 

The men adored her. They saluted her as she passed 
down the wounded ranks. ''Before she came,'' said one 
soldier, "there was cussin' and s wearing but after that it 
was 'oly as a church.'' Another, who had lost a leg at the 
Alma River said, "If the Queen came for to die, they 
ought to make her Queen, and I think they would." 

They wrote home for her. They saved their money 
for her. They went through painful operations without a 
murmur for her. She called them "her children," and the 
dead to her became "the heroic dead." 

With all her other duties, Florence Nightingale 
carried on a huge correspondence. Late at night when the 
hospital was in darkness, she sat at her small unpainted 
table and wrote the dying messages of soldiers to their 
relatives, long reports to ministers at home and to military 
and medical officials at the seat of war. She filled page 
after page with recommendations, suggestions, criticisms, 
statistics, and storekeeping accounts. 




Six months after Florence Nightingale's arrival, the 
results of her activity were clearly apparent. Order and 
cleanliness reigned in the wards. The hospitals were 
better supplied. Sanitary improvements, so important 
that Florence Nightingale said they had saved the 
British Army, had been carried out. Most remarkable 
of all, the death rate among the cases treated had fallen 
progressively from 420 a thousand in February, 1855, to 
twentytwo a thousand in June, 1855. 

The Lady 
of the Lamp 



In the Crimea 

Not content with reforms at the hospital base, 
Florence Nightingale now set out to inspect hospitals 
at the seat of war. She made her first visit to the Crimea 
in May 1855. Shortly after her arrival, she came down 
with what was called Crimean fever. Even then, although 
she could not walk, she could write, and write she did, 
until she became delirious. When, after many weeks, she 
was well enough to be moved, she refused to return to 
England. ''I am ready to stand out the war with any 
man,'' she said. 

On September 8, 1855, Sebastopol fell. From this 
date until the end of the war, Florence Nightingale 
divided her time between Scutari and Crimea. In the 
Crimea the work was very hard. She spent whole days 
in the saddle, or was driven in a baggage cart over bleak 
and rocky roads. She stood for hours in the heavily 
falling snow. Often she did not reach her hut until late 
at night after walking for miles through perilous ravines. 

At last the war came to an end. Peace was signed in 
Paris on March 30, 1856. Four months later Florence 
Nightingale sailed for England. 

At Scutari 



Florence Nightingale 

The Heroine 

During Florence Nightingale's illness in the Crimea, 
all England had held its breath. 

When the bells were ringing ''Victory!'' after the 
fall of Sebastopol, the name of Florence Nightingale 
was on every tongue. Now that she was coming home, a 
rousing welcome was planned for her. She was to be 
transported on a man-of-war. Three military bands were 
to meet her at the station and play her home whenever 
she might arrive, by day or by night. 

Florence Nightingale refused the man-of-war. On 
August 7, 1856, a lady dressed in black entered the back 
door at Lea Hurst. The old butler hastened to put her 
out. She lifted her veil; it was Miss Florence. The 
heroine had not chosen to publish her time of arrival. 



After the War 

Florence Nightingale lived for more than half a 
century after her return from the Crimea and m all that 
time she practised the most rigid seclusion in order to 
save strength for her work. The upper rooms of her house 
in South Street, London, became the center of a network 
of reform which spread over the world. 

In the heyday of her usefulness she, a semi-invalid, 
lay on her couch in her upper room, writing, writing, 
writing. Below in the sitting-room, great statesmen, 
famous generals, foreign royalties begged for audiences. 
For many years, the newly appointed Viceroy to India 
paid her a visit before leaving for his post. She had the 
admiration of Queen Victoria, who had said when she 
met Miss Nightingale, ''Such a head! I wish we had 
her at the War Office.'' 

On her return from the Crimea, her friends begged her 
to rest. Rest! How could she? She could never forget 
the heroic dead. She could never forget that many of 
her ''children'' were lying in their forgotten graves from 
causes which might have been prevented. 

Her experience in the Crimea, when it was happening, 
had been her job. After it was over, it had become an 
example. She said: "The sanitary history of the Crimean 
campaign . . . is a complete example — history does not 
afford its equal — of an army, after a great disaster arising 
from neglects, having been brought into the highest state 
of health and efficiency." Now was the time to drive 
home the lesson of this example. With the help of Sidney 
Herbert, she set out to reform the Army Medical 
Service. She found that even in the army at home the 
death rate was nearly double that of civil life. "You 
might as well take i,ioo men every year out upon 
Salisbury Plain and shoot them," she said grimly. 


Sanitary Reform in the Army 

She met stubborn opposition, but in the end she 
forced the Minister of State for War to appoint a com- 
mission to report upon the health of the army. She her- 
self worked day and night to help the commission. 

When the report was finished the next task was to 
have its recommendations put into effect. In the end this 
proved to be easy, as her friend, Sidney Herbert, became 
Secretary of State for War. The army barracks were re- 
modeled; the responsibilities and duties of Florence 
Nightingale's old foe, the Purveyor, were accurately 
defined. An Army Medical School was established, and 
the Army Medical Department was reorganised on the 
principle that it is as much a part of the duty of the 
authorities to take care of the well soldier as it is to take 
care of the sick soldier. By 1861, as a direct result of these 
reforms, the death rate in the army at home had decreased 
by one-half since the days of the Crimea. 

Balmoral Castle 



Reorganization of Army Statistics 

Another valuable service to the cause of army reform 
was the emphasis which Florence Nightingale laid on 
the reorgani2;ation of army statistics. She herself, who had 
a passion for statistics, had been exasperated time and 
again with the discrepancies in official statistical returns. 
With great skill she pointed the way to a better system. 
She was greatly helped and encouraged in her reform of 
army statistics by Dr. John Sutherland, one of the lead- 
ing sanitarians of his day; by Dr. William Farr, as 
deeply interested in statistics as she; and by Dr. T. 
Graham Balfour, who was appointed head of the sta- 
tistical branch of the Army Medical Department. When 
the recommendations of the commission on army reform 
were carried out, the British Army statistics became the 
best and the most useful then available in Europe. 

Sanitary Reform in India 

Florence Nightingale was not content with reforms 
directed toward the health of the army at home. She 
reached out to the troops in India, and her main work for 
many years has been described as ''Health Missionary for 
India.'' After an investigation into the existing sanitary 
conditions of the Indian army, a commission, appointed at 
her suggestion and working with her assistance, did for 
the troops in India what sanitary reform had done for the 
army at home. 

Her interests in India spread from the troops to the 
natives. She worked in season and out of season for 
sanitary improvements in native living conditions and for 
irrigation projects which would free the Indian farmers 
from their ever-present fear of famine. 



School of 
St. Thomas 

The Nurses Training School 

While Florence Nightingale was still in the 
Crimea, a movement was started to mark in some public 
manner the nation's appreciation of her services. It was 
decided to raise a fund for the establishment of a training 
school for nurses of which Florence Nightingale would 
be the head. This school, which was connected with St. 
Thomas's Hospital in London, was opened on June 24, 
i860, with fifteen probationers. On this modest scale 
there was launched a scheme which was destined to found 
the modern art and practice of trained nursing. 

Florence Nightingale's own delicacy of observation 
and fine nursing technique were indelibly impressed on 
the first nurses' training school. In her book, ?{otes on 
?v[ursing, are found the precepts which she insisted must 
be translated into action. The welfare and comfort of the 
patient must come first always. There must be plenty 
of sunlight, proper ventilation and scrupulous cleanliness 
in the sick room. The Nightingale Training School 
created a new model for nurses and the Js[otes on 7<lursing 
was its gospel. 



To Florence Nightingale, nursing was not a profes- 
sion; it was a ''calling." It required a sound knowledge of 
household hygiene, some knov/ledge of medicine and 
surgery, and an acute and sympathetic faculty of observa- 
tion. "Merely looking at the sick is not observing,'' 
Florence Nightingale used to say. 

Although she herself could not take the superintend- 
ence of her Training School, she kept in close touch with 
It. She worked out all the practical details of its admin- 
istration and saw to it that they were carried out. She was 
anxious to have it become a home as well as a school, "a 
place of training of character, habits, and intelligence, as well 
as of acquiring knowledge.'' She guided the development 
of the new nursing technique which she had originated. 
She was always ready to give practical help and advice 
to the Matron and the student nurses. 
Her good wishes and her interest in their 
welfare followed the Nightingale nurses 
when they left the school to demon- 
strate to the watching world her con- 
ception of what a nurse should be. 

It was not Florence Nightingale's 
desire that the nurses trained in her 
school should do private nursing. Her 
nurses, when they had finished their 
training, were expected to take positions 
in hospitals, workhouses, poorhouses, 
and other similar institutions. In this 
way she thought that her training school 
would be, in turn, the means of training 
elsewhere. It was. The profession of 
trained nursing, with its high standards 
and with the expansion into the great 
field of public health nursing, has grown 
from that beginning. A modem nurse 



Hospital Construction 

The publication of Florence Nightingale's 7<lotes on 
Hospitals in 1859 made her a recognised authority on 
hospital construction. This book opened a new era in 
hospital reform. After its publication she was deluged 
with requests for advice in the building of new hospitals 
or in the reconstruction of old ones. To her is largely- 
due the credit for whatever is good in modern hospital 
design and construction. 

So widespread was the recognition of Florence 
Nightingale's authority on questions relating to nursing 
and hospital construction that she was officially consulted 
by the Union Government during the Civil War in the 
United States. 

The Angel with a Flaming Sword 

Florence Nightingale lived to be 90 years old. Just 
three years before her death, she was given the Order of 
Merit by King Edward VII. This is a very high honor. 
It was the first time that it had ever been bestowed on a 
woman. Congratulations came pouring in on Florence 
Nightingale from all sides. The longer she lived, the 
greater became her fame. In the popular imagination, to 
the day of her death, she was the Lady of the Lamp, 
the Angel of the Crimea, the tender woman whose 
shadow the soldiers kissed as it fell on their pillows. But 
to those with whom she worked during and after the 
Crimean War, she was an angel with a flaming sword. 
Her mind was the sword — hard, sharp, brilliant. Pas- 
sionately she used it to do battle for those whom she saw 
suffering needlessly. Ruthlessly she bared the easy-going 
inefficiency which hitherto had made a disgrace of sanita- 
tion and nursing, both in military and civil life. Without 
sentiment, she pointed out the remedies and worked 
ceaselessly for their adoption. 



Her spectacular experience in the Crimea was to 
Florence Nightingale only one incident of the life work 
she had chosen. Yet what thrills, what splendor, what 
dreams of service it meant to the children and young 
women of her day ! Through her heroism, nursing became 
glorified. She lifted it from its lowly state to that of one 
of the greatest professions which woman can follow. It 
has been said that ''no woman who was not canoni2,ed, or 
who had not worn (or been deprived of) a crown, has ever 
excited among her sex so much passionate and affectionate 
admiration, and set so many an example as Florence 


The Life of Florence 7V(ightingale, 2 Volumes, by Sir Edward T. Cook, 
Macmillan and Company, London, 191 3. 

"Florence Nightingale," in Eminent Victorians, by Lytton Strachey, 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 191 8. 

J^otes on Hospitals, by Florence Nightingale. Printed in Transac' 
tions of National Association for the Promotion of Social 
Science, 1858. 

Nfites on J<[ursing, by Florence Nightingale. D. Appleton and 
Company, New York and London, 1924. 

Florence Nightingale as Statistician, by Edwin W. Kopf. Reprinted 
from the Quarterly Publications of the American Statistical 
Association, December, 1916. 


p F M. — PRINTED IN U.S.A. — (e) 466 L.W. (Edition Jan. 1948 >