Skip to main content

Full text of "Flower gardening"

See other formats














Author of " Making a Rock 
Garden," "Lilies," etc. 



Copyright, 1913, by 
McBaiDE, NAST & Co. 

Published, April, 1913 



















BULBS 128 











"Just a Garden" Frontispiece 


The flower garden in intimate relationship with the 

house 2 

"A rock garden is a semblance of nature" 8 

The adaptation of ideas rather than slavish imitation. 12 

The Japanesque rock garden 16 

Roses for the place that cannot be called a rose gar- 
den 20 

A strip of turf between a border and a path 28 

The spring bulbs along a path 34 

The double border inside the garden gate 40 

A simple fountain 48 

Shrubbery around the base of the house 54 

The border defining an edge of the lawn 64 

The border-enclosed lawn for the small place 70 

An elaborate hardy garden 80 

The hardy garden with a fountain 84 

"The big notes are struck by solid effects as in na- 
ture" 90 

Naturalistic arrangement of foxgloves 96 

Annuals filling gaps in the border 104 

May tulips back of contrasting edging plants 114 

Spanish iris and English iris in the early summer 

garden abroad . . , 124 


Snowdrops naturalized under a big spruce 134 

Roses in the formal garden 146 

Evergreens for winter color 150 

A carefully planned garden picture 154 

The special cutting garden 162 

A garden picture with wistaria 174 

Arabls albida, the white rock cress 190 

Sweet peas 206 

The garden in shade 224 

Primroses 234 

Aconitum, or monkshood 240 

The water feature for the birds 244 



BACON, in the famous essay that is an eternal 
joy to the flower lover, maintains that a garden 
is "the Purest of Humane pleasures." Certainly 
all will agree that it is among the purest. 

In the nature of things it can be such only by 
so close an association with the home as to be 
"part and parcel" of it, as they say in New Eng- 
land. And the more intimate this association the 
more nearly does the garden approximate the Ba- 
conian estimate that it is "the Greatest Refresh- 
ment to the Spirits of Man." 

There must be gardenless homes in these days, 
more's the pity. But wherever the garden, mean- 
ing more particularly the garden of flowers, comes 
into human life the first thought of all should be 
its affinity with the home. Unfortunately, this is 
only too often the very last thought; worse yet, 
many go on to the end of their existence without 
realizing the supreme experience. 

What is a flower garden? Doubtless some 
would say, if one may judge them by their works, 
that it is a highly decorative frame for the house, 



or a showy adjunct thereto; or again that it is a 
colorful possession the joy of which would be ma- 
terially lessened were the effect not boldly planned 
for the eyes of the passerby, or a mere place for 
the growing of the flowers that one must have. 

Now the true garden of flowers is a great deal 
more. It may be sometimes it must needs be 
merely a clump of lilies by the doorstep, a rose on 
ithe porch or a row of chrysanthemums hugging 
the house. If this means the establishment of a 
real relationship between the inside of the portal 
and the outside, there is a garden, and one worthy 
to be numbered among "the Purest of Humane 
pleasures." Size matters not, nor design, nor the 
abundance of flowers. 

So began the earliest American flower gardens 
gardens that the Colonists made for themselves 
r in New England, in New York and in Virginia. 
From the home outward they began, at first not 
straying from the walls of the house. Gradually, 
as forest and redskin receded, flowers ventured 
forth into the created yard but never so far that 
the garden seemed other than the integral part 
of the home that it should be. 

The old Colonial rule call it instinct if you 
will is the only one worth while. And so sim- 
ple it is that even a child may read it as he runs. 
Let the flower garden expand from the heart of 
the home outward; then you may be sure that 
you have made a right start. 


FROM the days of the ancients, there have been 
various kinds of gardens. And in this age of 
specialization there are more and more kinds as 
the years go by. Already the kinds are so many 
that life and purse would seldom be long enough 
to secure their possession, even were such a mul- 
tiplicity of gardens to be desired. 

The advantage of these numbers is that they 
offer infinite suggestion for the making of a garden 
along composite, as well as specialized, lines. A 
bit here and a bit there, molded into shape by 
personality, may be precisely the material needed 
to create a pleasance that asks to be called by no 
more definite name than the garden. 

After all, taking the human race by and large, 
this is the best of the many kinds of gardens 
just a garden and yet one thoroughly thought out 
in its relation to the house. A variation for every 
individual is possible, there being no limit to the 
changes to be rung. As for beauty, there is ample 
room for all that any one cares to put into it. 
Nor need such a garden be nondescript; if the 



borrowing and adapting of ideas is judicious, the 
garden will have a personal character in nine 
cases out of ten better than a slavish reproduction 
of one of the endless number of kinds. It is 
better in point of appropriateness and better in 
point of enjoyment. 

To borrow and adapt judiciously is relatively 
easy if common sense be kept in the foreground. 
Art matters less than good taste and need not 
seriously disturb the amateur so far as strict ad- 
herence to set rules, and all that, is concerned. 
These rules are for the professional makers of 
gardens bearing high-sounding names. 

The more a garden is so broken up that the 
eye cannot grasp all at once, the more kinds may 
be drawn upon. At the end of the main path 
there is, perhaps, a stone bench backed by small 
evergreens ; this from an Italian garden. A curved 
bypath discloses a little Japanese scheme, a bank 
of thyme is from a Shakspere garden, while an 
herb garden suggested the walk lined with burnet. 

This sort of garden-making is always worth 
doing and the beauty of it is that the working out 
of the idea may be of gradual growth. On the 
other hand, a named garden is not worth while 
at all unless it is substantially what it purports 
to be. That means careful study, to the end that 
there may be consistency of design and materials. 
On top of the study will come much labor and, 
more likely than not, much expense. 

Of the four kinds of gardens that are classed by 


national style rather than the plants grown, the 
Italian is the acme of formality; nothing is un- 
ordered. It is the Renaissance perfection of the 
ancient Roman idea of a garden that not only 
was symmetry itself but was a part of a larger 
scheme of symmetry as represented by the villa 
using the word in its old sense of an estate rather 
than merely a house. The elaborate design bears 
a distinct relation to the house, yet is quite com- 
plete in itself. There are terraces which may 
be of monumental proportions if the opportunity 
presents itself and much topiary work, ornamen- 
tal stone and statuary. Pools and running water 
also figure prominently in it. 

A garden sufficiently Italian to be so called is 
perfectly feasible on a small place, if it conforms 
to the architecture of the house and there is a 
sufficient slope to permit of three terraces. Mod- 
ification may be quite extreme. Flower beds of 
set design and neatly edged, with gravel walks, 
are more important to the plan than lawn spaces. 
Trees should close it in on three sides, that iso- 
lation may bring out its individuality. Clipped 
hedges may be made to take the place of stone 
balustrades. The red cedar is a fair substitute for 
cypress, while very good reproductions of antique 
garden furnishings are comparatively inexpensive. 
With these two materials, in fact, a short path 
could be converted into what it would be permis- 
sible in the intimacy of home to name an Italian 


Few will care to carry consistency beyond this 
compromise ; for the more one studies Italian gar- 
dens the more one inclines to the view that to the 
average American gardener some part is of greater 
value than the whole. Perhaps it is only a group 
of cypresses in the Villa Albani, Rome, that sug- 
gests how to plant some red cedars standing out 
against the sky. Or the plan of the Villa Lante, 
at Bagnaia, is just the thing from which to adapt 
a parterre design, or the view up the terraces to 
the palace at Villa d'Este, Tivoli, the solution of a 
sloping rear-yard problem, or the Hill Walk of 
the Boboli Gardens, Florence, the pattern of a 
smaller scheme with a modest gateway. None, 
in the making of gardens, need fear to look too 
high; perhaps the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, 
as pictorially imagined, may furnish the very key 
to the planting of a cottage yard that is so hilly as 
to require a series of retaining walls quite close 

French gardens have formality, too, but there 
are long vistas which the Italian style does not 
call for, though they are not necessarily lacking. 
For these vistas there are avenues, sometimes with 
clipped trees; and there are broader stretches of 
water and more spouting fountains than in the 
gardens of Italy. 

A reduction of the garden at Fontainebleau to 
very moderate proportions would provide an ex- 
cellent model for a French garden. Here the 
square pool has four wide approaches and the 


surrounding flower beds are set in the turf. There 
is a good garden suggestion, too, in the "Isle of 
Love" at Chantilly; this for a short vista of flowers 
and water. Another, for box-lined parterres, will 
be found in the garden of the Grand Trianon, 
at Versailles, and still another, for a paved court, 
in the Orangery at the same place. 

The English garden, when highly formal, is 
very apt to show traces of Italian or French in- 
fluence. In its less grand estate it possesses a 
charm that neither of the others has a certain 
atmosphere of the home. Beauty it has, often of 
an exquisitely reposeful sort that is lacking in Italy 
and France ; but there is the feeling that the beauty 
is not so much for art as to live with and love by 
personal association. To bind it still more closely 
to the home, the bowling green, the tennis court 
or croquet ground may be made part of it, and it 
is a common practice to enclose it with a wall or 
clipped hedges to insure seclusion. 

Where foreign copying is to be done, it is to 
English gardens that the American would better 
look in most cases; if he is able to appropriate their 
homely air, their restfulness and their seclusion 
he need not mind if his work is not scholastic. 

Atmosphere rather than design being the dis- 
tinguishing feature, the best way to make an Eng- 
lish garden is to enclose preferably with a wall 
of stone or brick a plot laid out in a formal pat- 
tern. Whether the plot is exactly square is im- 


The walled garden is more laughed at than 
understood by Americans ; they are prone to regard 
the barriers as an affront to liberty. Yet it is 
one of the most admirable' of gardens which 
scarcely can be sanctuary when exposed to the 
full view of the public. The walls do more than 
provide seclusion, however; they break the violence 
of chilling and withering blasts and keep out such 
undesirable visitors as dogs. They also make it 
possible to grow tender climbing roses and vines, 
as well as choice fruit. 

The Japanese garden is the fourth great na- 
tional type. As far from the Italian, French or 
English garden as the East is from the West, its 
art lies so much in the concealment of art that 
were it not for the architectural features it would 
seem as if nature were being imitated instead of 
adapted. This through the exercise of rigid laws 
that are not easy for the occidental mind to grasp. 
It lends itself very well indeed to many American 
requirements. It fits in with low rambling houses, 
or bungalows, where roofs are long and hang well 
over. It is most serviceable in the development 
of rocky grounds, especially where a small amount 
of water is at hand or easily obtainable. If a 
pedant chooses to call the resultant garden Jap- 
anesque rather than Japanese, let him. 

There are hill and flat Japanese gardens. In 
the former, if there are not natural rises of ground, 
they are created, often with such cunning that the 
eye is deceived into seeing distance that does not 


exist. This idea is helped along not only by the 
size and shape of the hills and their relative posi- 
tions, but by the planting of dwarf trees. For 
both types there are rough, intermediary and fin- 
ished styles. 

All are too complicated to be reproduced ac- 
curately by any save skilled Japanese gardeners, 
but single features are readily appropriated. Very 
frequently these are worth taking because of a 
meaning that, though distinctly oriental, may be 
given an occidental turn. Thus there is a very 
pretty sentiment to the stones known as "guard- 
ian," "perfect view," "moon shadow" and "ped- 
estal," to quote only a few of the names, and the 
"principal," "perfection," "out-stretching pine," 
"setting sun" and other trees all placed by rules 
that are tradition. Whether one takes no more 
than the merest suggestion, any good pictures of 
Japanese gardens will be found profitable study. 

A rose garden has a charm so rare that there 
is nothing comparable to it. Unfortunately it 
will always be for the few. On anything like a 
large and comprehensive scale it is a costly as well 
as difficult undertaking. Then again, excepting on 
a place of considerable size, it is a wasteful use 
of space as its glory is transient. To be thoroughly 
successful the hybrid perpetuals that bloom in June 
must be supplemented by enough hybrid teas to 
keep up a show of color until autumn, and the 
longest possible succession must be arranged in 
planting the climbers. Even then, pansies, ver- 


benas or some of the creeping perennials, as ground 
covers, and lilies or other tall flowers will have to 
be relied on to piece out the season. The ground 
covers can stand for several years if the soil is 
very heavily and deeply fertilized at the start. 
Or there are the numerous so-called roses which 
properly enough might go in. Lavender, where 
it proves hardy, is very beautiful planted with 
China roses. 

Better for the most a garden with roses, or else 
a little place apart too unpretentious to be des- 
ignated a rose garden. A great many of the 
choicest roses are not particularly decorative and 
may just as well be grown in rows on the edge of 
the kitchen garden where they can be cut with 
long stems and in no fear of color robbery. 

An iris or a phlox garden is a safer venture. 
And if stock is propagated for a few years before 
the definite planting, the expense need be very 
little; possibly nothing at all, if there are kind 
neighbors. Nor is there the great maintenance and 
renewal expense of a well-ordered rose garden. 

The iris garden may be made a beautiful place 
the year round by using no other flowers. The 
bloom of Iris pumila, Iris cristata, the German, 
Spanish, English, Siberian and Japan irises and the 
blue and yellow flags will be continuous from April 
into July, but before and after some of the foliage 
will be attractive. If the rest of the planting be 
small evergreens, with a bit of water and some 
rocks, there will never be the scraggliness that a 


rose garden is bound to show at times. Unless it 
be the curious, but capricious, /. Susiana, reject the 
strange-colored irises. Choose the clear colors and 
not too many of them in one class, if the garden is 
not very large. 

A phlox garden will start to bloom in April and 
so late as November there is likely to be a bit of 
flower color here and there. But all through the 
winter there will be the broad bronzed leaves of 
P. ovata and the lighter green of P. subulata, P. 
timoena and P. divaricata. These are April and 
May phloxes, but not all of them. Later come 
the tall P. suffruticosa and the taller P. panlculata. 

Lilies, both the true and the false; primroses, 
for spring only; speedwells, pinks, bellflowers, 
daisies and mallows are also well adapted for 
named gardens. 

It is less trouble to buy herbs nowadays than 
to grow them. Nevertheless a great many more 
would grow them if they realized the pleasure to be 
derived from an herb garden. This, indeed, may 
be made a most delightful retreat as well as a 
valuable kitchen adjunct. In foliage alone there 
are enough shades of green and gray to contrive 
all manner of pleasing pictures. And it is pleas- 
ant for the clothing to brush against mint, and 
burnet and other savories. 

For flower color the common calendula, which is 
a very old pot herb, will give various yellow shades 
from early summer until well into the autumn. 
The blue of the common sage blossoms is very 


soft and pretty and there are the still softer tones 
of lavender and rosemary herbs that unfor- 
tunately are very tender in the North. And some 
of the other subdued hues, such as the red of the 
flower heads of the burnet and the greenish yel- 
lows of the fennel and dill umbrellas, are grateful 
to the eye. Then there are the little golden but- 
tons of the tansy, which should be in every herb 
garden because the fresh leaves laid on the pantry 
shelves will keep black ants away. 

In the Dark Ages the monks had medicinal 
gardens that were agreeable to walk in, aside from 
their primary reason for being. A medicinal gar- 
den nowadays would scarcely sound right except- 
ing as a reserved space in a botanic garden. Yet 
the garden of simples, which is the same thing, 
is a too-cherished memory of an age when life 
was less complicated to be wholly neglected where 
there is room for it as a special retreat. There 
would be no obligation, even on the part of a New 
England conscience, to go "simpling" in it; the 
flowers properly entering into it would make it a 
gay enough place in which to ramble for the sheer 
joy of beholding. Any of the "worts," which are 
legion, may go into it, and there will be blossoms 
from the coltsfoot of March to the monkshood of 

The rock garden, fairly common abroad but 
rare here, is in the narrow sense of alpine an en- 
deavor to make the plants of the high mountains 
at home by approximating natural conditions. 


When termed a moraine garden, a miniature slope 
of fine stones is made for alpine dwarfs that do 
not thrive well in pockets of soil. Broadly speak- 
ing, a rock garden is a semblance of nature, which 
may be no more than the mere planting of native 
flowers by existing rocks. One great advantage of 
it is that it need be only a yard square and still 
be what it pretends to be; there are many tiny 
ones in England. And it can be entrancingly 
beautiful without the employment of any plants 
but some of the "iron-clad" perennials. 

A wall garden is not to be confused with a 
walled garden. It is any wall in the crevices of 
which are grown appropriate plants. The mortar 
may be knocked out here and there in an old wall, 
but it is better to make a dry -one that is to 
say, one in which the crevices are filled with earth 
for planting. It is a large or small undertaking, 
according to desire and circumstance; nothing could 
be simpler than a simple one. 

The water garden is a sufficiently expansive 
term to cover plants that like "wet feet" as well 
as those that actually grow in the water; for that 
matter it may be made up of either, the water 
being the essential thing. As for pretentiousness, 
a tub of water sunk in the ground and a single 
water lily growing in it, with a bit of perennial 
forget-me-not flourishing in the adjacent moist soil, 
is a water garden that is not to be sneered at; the 
birds will tell you that by their actions, if they 
cannot in so many words. 


A bog garden is a wet one, more or less faith- 
fully reproducing boggy conditions. It is just the 
place for segregating some of the orchids, ferns 
and other native plants that otherwise are liable 
to perish in cultivation, or at best grow only half- 
heartedly. It may be also a peat garden, or just 
the moister section of one the remainder to be 
higher land for rhododendrons, heather, lilies and 
other peat-loving plants. 

Of what may be called sentimental gardens there 
are doubtless more kinds than will ever be num- 
bered, because any one is likely to extend the list 
through purely personal promptings of the heart. 
The best for general recommendation is the garden 
of friendship. All of the plants in it, of course, 
are from friends or from seed sent by them; and 
it is astonishing to find how many are only too 
glad to contribute. Long-lived, hardy plants ought 
to be given the preference. 

A garden of association might mean this, too; 
but a wise differentiation is a gathering together of 
plants personally and through friends that 
come from places of historical and literary interest. 
Shakspere, Bible and Virgil gardens are among 
the possible specializations, though all offer ob- 
stacles to completeness that few would find sur- 
mountable. Enough for most will be to visualize 
"Daffodils that come before the swallow dares" 
or some of the other easy references. 

The name garden has occasional possibilities that 
have not begun to be recognized. Rose and Vio- 


let may choose either the flower or the color for 
theirs. Daisy is perhaps not less fortunate in the 
variety of "day's eye" flowers that extend over 
the entire season. And there is Lily, with glorious 
opportunities from May to September. If there 
be but contentment with one or two kinds of flow- 
ers, several other feminine names, and perhaps as 
many masculine ones, may be coupled with gardens. 
Is it too small a thing to bestow the name of Mary's 
garden on a generous planting of "blue-eyed 
Mary" and "sweet Mary," or Susan's garden on 
a grouping of the two flowers known as "black-eyed 
Susan" ? Surely there would be something in them 
to Mary or Susan that an acre of roses would 
lack even though there were not a precise match- 
ing of eyes. 

Color gardens are more dreamed of than re- 
alized. Yet they offer a most fascinating field 
that would not seem hedged in with trials and 
tribulations if the first thing to remember were 
not usually overlooked. It is this: there is no 
statute on the books requiring a pink garden, for 
example, to be all pink. How soon the eye would 
tire were there not the green of the leaves; and 
if the color why not a touch of white? The only 
rule is to have the name color dominant, and no 
more so than you fancy. White always is a re- 
freshment and a bit of yellow warms up a blue 
garden. A red garden ought not to be too red, as 
this is a hot color in summer; use winter berries and 
evergreen foliage in generous measure. By skill- 


ful planting the garden may be four or five colors 
in succession. In that event, yellow is a warm color 
for spring. 

The old-fashioned garden is a somewhat con- 
fused term. It may mean a formal Colonial garden 
or a garden having only the flowers of other days, 
with little or no color and planting order. Either 
interpretation will answer in its place. But do 
not worry yourself to death trying to find out where 
the old-fashioned flowers begin and the new ones 
end; it is a hopeless task. If the garden looks 
old-fashioned, or Colonial, a few anachronisms will 
not matter a great deal. 

There are also two kinds of wild gardens, real 
ones and crazy ones. The latter are the product 
of the pernicious habit of mixing various flower 
seeds together and scattering them broadcast to 
come up as best they may. The real kind is a 
bit of the wild brought to the home. It offers 
no end of attractive possibilities, especially where 
there is adjacent woodland and conditions may be 
adapted instead of being created. 

Finally, there is the fruit garden which first 
is a flower garden, yet seldom figuring in that light. 
Now that there are all manner of dwarf fruit 
trees, enchanting spring pictures are to be made. 
Though the fruit is highly decorative later, there 
are spaces where flowers may bloom all summer. 
In early spring the fruit garden may be bright- 
ened with various bulbs. 


THE initial step toward laying out a flower gar- 
den is to make up your mind not as to the kind 
that you want but the kind that you ought to have. 
Although this sounds heart-breaking, it is not so 
bad after all; it is only a matter of adjusting the 
mental attitude. 

Of course, the kind of garden that you ought to 
have is the one that is best in the circumstances. 
In the first place, as has already been said, it should 
bear a relationship to the house. This does not 
mean that a house wholly impossible, or only half- 
way bad, ought to have those qualities duplicated 
in the garden; nothing could be more senseless 
than that. It does mean that there should be a 
certain harmony, if not actual correspondence, of 
character. True, there might easily be the sort 
of planning that would so isolate the garden as to 
shut it out completely from any picture of the 
house. This would satisfy the passerby, and your 
neighbor; but how about you? Do you not want 
to feel that there is a certain homogeneity of at- 
mosphere? Well, you ought to if you do not. If 



the house is not right architecturally, strive to con- 
ceal its defects by beginning the garden there, so 
to speak. Sometimes a single vine or a few shrubs 
or evergreens will chasten architecture wonder- 
fully, and at the same time serve to bridge the 
house with the garden. 

An Italian villa would better have an Italian 
garden, a Georgian house a formal design of the 
English type, a rambling farmhouse an old-fash- 
ioned layout of no set form, a house built on rocky 
ground a rock garden, and so on. This is speak- 
ing broadly; in actual practice, so far as the aver- 
age place of moderate size is concerned, the idea 
is not so much a garden that is technically accurate 
for its class as one that in its lines, or some dis- 
tinguishing feature, suggests that class. Nor, as 
has previously been said, is there any need of its 
going by this, that or the other name; it may 
have a dominant Italian note in the broad view, 
as seen with the house, but at close range reveal 
such a variety of adapted touches that it can be 
called only the garden. 

There is no occasion to fear that this limitation 
of plans will be a serious barrier to the expression 
of individual preference; the combinations that can 
be worked out are endless. The real limitations 
enter when decision must further depend on cli- 
mate, soil, exposure to sun and wind and whether 
the house is occupied at all seasons, not to mention 
the matter of time. All these things must be 
considered, and considered well. 


Time, that is to say the amount of leisure at 
one's disposal, is of the utmost importance. It 
takes time not only to make a garden, but to main- 
tain and enjoy it. The moment that the garden 
uses up more time than can be given to it com- 
fortably, it gets beyond its, province play becomes 
work. And a flower garden is no place for drud- 
gery. Figure out then how much time you can 
spend, comfortably, not merely during the season 
just in sight but for at least a few years to come ; 
and cut your garden cloth accordingly. 

Climate is safely disposed of only by the elimina- 
tion of all but the really dependable flowers, re- 
membering always that in some places hot, dry 
summers are as much of a problem as severely 
cold winters in others. Soil disadvantages can be 
remedied wherever expense does not stand in the 
way. Winds and the force of the summer sun are 
broken by the planting of shrubs and vines. Little 
or no sun is harder to get around, though the last 
resort of a shady garden is far from being one to 
be altogether deplored; sometimes such a garden 
is a place of genuine delight. 

All this figuring out what is best to be done is 
prime mental sport for long winter evenings. 
Those are rare times for the planning of gardens 
when the fire burns bright and you can sit and think, 
devise and revise, with the comfortable feeling 
that spring is still well in the future that there 
will be no call to dig on the morrow. 

Hurry, indeed, is the last thing to enter into the 


planning of the garden. Much has to be thought 
out, and thought out means threshed out until 
there is clean winnowing of the impractical from 
the practical. 

Preliminaries out of the way, the paper stage of 
the game passes from memoranda into the definite 
form of a plan to scale. Blessings on the man 
who invented cross-ruled paper; with it laying out 
a garden is child's play, even for the unmathemat- 
ical mind. This paper comes in sheets, 17x14 
inches, and is ruled in little squares that run thirty- 
six to the square inch. The squares may be called 
any convenient unit from a square foot up, and 
if one sheet of paper is not large enough two. or 
more may be pasted together. 

With a steel tape, if you can get hold of one, 
take measurements of the boundaries of the en- 
tire home grounds and the base lines of the house 
and any other buildings. Then get the distance 
of the house from the boundaries and locate by 
further measurements all existing roads, paths, 
trees, shrubs and borders. Having decided on 
your unit, transfer these measurements to the cross- 
ruled sheet and you have a plan of the place all 
ready for laying out the garden by exact scale. 
This plan would better settle only the location and 
size of the garden. 

A large plan of the garden in detail should 
then go on a separate sheet; this to be a working 
scheme for planting. Here it will sometimes be 
found very convenient to call every six squares 


each way a yard, which gives plenty of space for 
numbers or other designations. 

All borders should be not less than four feet in 
width; six is better, and they may run up to ten or 
twelve feet if there is access from both sides. Three 
feet is a good average width for a path, but if 
growth is eventually to fall over both sides allow 
another foot. 

Straight lines depend largely upon the amount 
of formality that is to enter into the plan. Some- 
times, however, they are considered as the means 
of saving work. Every variation from straight 
lines calls for more labor of maintenance, as well 
as construction, and the same is true of the mul- 
tiplicity of beds and borders in a layout. The 
time to think of both things is when the paper 
plan is taking shape. 

At this point, too, it should be borne in mind 
that laying out a garden does not necessarily im- 
ply that you are binding yourself to do all the work 
designated before the next summer has flown. As 
a matter of fact, in the case of any layout of size 
or one of complexity, the better way is to make only 
a start the first year. If, as is again and again the 
case, the start is a wrong one, it will be the more 
quickly remedied. 

Suppose the garden scheme to be a bordered 
path leading down to a parterre plot. Plant only 
the path border the first spring and let the re- 
mainder simmer until autumn when it can be 
made ready for planting the following year. This 


is not altogether a question of dividing the labor, 
though that is important enough; you learn a lot 
as you proceed with the work and'the final shaping 
of the plan will be easier as well as more satis- 
factory for the experience. If it is convenient to 
make ready the parterre plot the first spring, fill 
it up with annuals as a temporary measure. 

Greater restraint than this may be exercised, and 
it is good advice to follow where pretty nearly 
everything is to be learned about plants color 
value, foliage effect, manner of growth, hardiness 
in a given locality and the season and duration 
of bloom. These things are best learned by doing 
all the initial planting in some out-of-the-way place 
like one end of the vegetable garden. Lay out 
long beds about six feet wide and grow your flow- 
ers there for a season, or even two or three 
until you feel competent to handle them with in- 
telligence. Plant in transverse rows, wide enough 
apart to use a hoe, where rapid increase of hardy 
stock is desired and in small groups to experiment 
as to color combinations and other effects. It 
takes courage and patience to do this, but it pays 
in the end. 

These are more thoughts for winter evenings. 
Meanwhile, the paper plan is only an outline of 
boundaries. The filling in of the details is simple 
or complex, according to the variety of plants used 
and the character of the color scheme. A border 
of Canterbury bells, white in front of pink, may 
be indicated on cross-ruled paper in this manner 


calling each one of the squares a square foot: 


Or in this way, the shading indicating a color: 


If the plants are in long drifts and big patches, 
show them so : 







Apply a thin wash of water color to the sec- 
tions, before the letters and numbers are put on; 
the indication will be all the clearer. In the final 
stage it is advisable to color the entire plan, using 
green for all grass plots and brown, gray or brick 
color for the paths, according to the material. 

Catalogues begin to come along in January; so 
that these may be gone through and the selection 
of plants and seeds made as the work of planning 
progresses. Early decision and early placing of 
orders is wise ; you get the pick of the stock, which 
sometimes runs out altogether before the late- 
comers have been heard from. There is no danger 
that early orders will be shipped too soon; they 
merely take precedence, 


To grow flowers successfully one thing, perhaps 
above all others, is needed. This is plain, ordinary 

It is all very well to say that flowers will grow 
for those who love them; that so and so has only 
to put a stick in the ground and it will blossom, 
and that sort of chatter. One might as well assert 
that good bread, cake and preserves are products 
of affection rather than of skill. As in everything 
else, there is a certain knack in growing flowers. 

This knack comes uncons.ciously to some, being 
bred in the bone. Others, who are the great 
majority, have to acquire it. Usually the process 
of learning is a slow one, not because it need be 
but because of the wrong notion that the heart 
is the guide of guides. 

Far from it; the head it is that leads to success 
in the garden. The hands are the chief aids, and 
once in a while the feet are called upon to do 
more than walking. Heart, in the sense of senti- 
ment, has been known to be absent altogether. 
But it ought to be there always, only properly 


dominated by the too rare quality of common sense. 

Nature is the great fount of garden knowledge. 
Go to her for the elementals. From her you will 
learn how plants grow, bloom and ripen their seed ; 
how natural gardens are planted, how colors are 
arranged, how the annual has its place and the 
perennial its, how winter protection is given, how 
evergreens serve a purpose in short, the all of 
the how. 

The more you know nature the better gardener 
you will be. She teaches the why and wherefore 
of everything, if you will but open your eyes to 
see ; and she makes learning a pleasant pastime. 

The whole point is this : All gardens are nature 
humanized, to a greater or less degree. The 
humanization proceeds successfully only as you fol- 
low natural laws. You may bend those laws a bit, 
for the time being, but you cannot alter them. 

Ignorance of first nature principles is shown on 
every side by the very bad habit of thinking that 
blossoms are the beginning and end of a plant. 
They are not; they are an episode in the life of a 
plant. In numerous instances they are not the 
most attractive episode; the foliage at one stage 
or another, or the seed, may be a great deal more 
beautiful. Let this sink firmly into the mind. A 
lily is more than blossoms; it is a plant, and one 
of a particular class in nature's wise ordering of 
things. With that class always associate it. 

A person, whose family name happens to be 
Legion, once said when spring came around : "My 


Canterbury bells all died." Of course, they did; 
their time had arrived and they went the way of 
their kind. This, person should have known that 
some plants are biennials, of which the Canterbury 
bell is one. Biennials, relatively few in garden 
cultivation, bloom normally in their second sum- 
mer from seed; then they die. Occasionally, when 
the seed is sown later than spring, they survive 
two winters. 

Annuals, as the name implies, are plants of a 
year. They are born in the spring and if their 
life has not spent itself by the end of autumn the 
winter's cold blots it out. In gardens, seedlings 
from sowings too late in the year to bring the 
plants to maturity will sometimes bravely endure 
a winter rather than perish in unfruitfulness. The 
name annual is necessarily elastic in the usage of 
cold climates, as freezing will kill some plants 
that naturally would go on flourishing. Thus the 
four-o'clock, unless the root is taken up and stored 
for the winter, is an annual in the North, though 
in its native tropics it is a perennial. 

Strictly speaking, all trees and shrubs as well 
as those herbs that are neither annual nor bi- 
ennial are perennials; the first two are differen- 
tiated as woody, the last as herbaceous. In garden 
usage perennial is hardy herbaceous perennial, for 
short. Herbaceous plant and hardy plant are oc- 
casional alternatives. Bulbs, although veritable 
herbaceous perennials, are usually classed by them- 
selves; which is convenient if it is not botanical. 


Herbaceous perennials are the largest class of 
garden plants and because of their durability they 
are the most valuable one. Their life runs on 
indefinitely; two or three generations may see a 
peony or fraxinella growing in the same spot. 
It scarcely can be said that the individual lives years 
without number, as in the case of a tree. Often 
there is the appearance of this when old plants 
have not been disturbed; but the fact is that the 
root system expands from year to year, forming 
new crowns for blooming. With the development 
of the new comes a more or less gradual dissolu- 
tion of the old, according to the nature of the plant. 
Bulbs create new units as the old ones die and 
shrink and wither away. 

Whatever is herbaceous is supposed to die down 
to the ground in winter. This many herbaceous 
perennials fail to do. Not a few, such as the pinks 
and the creeping phloxes, have evergreen foliage 
which is a very fortunate thing indeed. That 
beautiful St. John's wort, Hypericum Moserianum, 
is known as herbaceous, but is more like a dwarf 

Annuals and biennials have a root system that 
generally permits of no division. They are there- 
fore grown from seed; or, in certain cases, from 
cuttings. The more nearly the root is a long tap 
with very fine rootlets, the more difficult transplant- 
ing becomes; that is why it is advisable to sow the 
seed of annual poppies, sweet alyssum and mignon- 
ette where the plants can remain, the surplus being 





thinned out gradually as the plants become crowded. 

Perennials, on the other hand, have spreading 
root systems that, after the second year or so, are 
more or less readily separated by either pulling or 
cutting them apart; bulbs separate automatically. 
The roots of perennials are sometimes a spreading 
network of fibre; again the system is largely con- 
centrated in a fleshy stock, a tuber, a rhizome or 
a bulb. 

It is essential to learn these things, for the 
reason that knowledge of plant life below ground, 
as well as above, is no inconsiderable factor in 
successful cultivation. 

Associate a plant with its class and characteris- 
tics at the very outset. Do not be content with 
half knowledge; you get nowhere with that. If 
some one gives you a plant of purple German iris 
that you had admired when it was in bloom, do not 
begin by thinking of it as a lovely purple flower with 
three petals curved upward and three in falls. 
Think of it as a perennial ask if you are ig- 
norant with, as you can see for yourself, roots 
of a rhizomatous character. If you have not 
learned that in nature such roots grow horizon- 
tally and near the surface of the ground, some- 
times showing a little above it, find that out, too, 
by inquiry. 

Very soon the observation of these details and 
their merger into a comprehensive whole becomes 
second nature; you know a plant as an individual 
without any more process of reasoning than when 


you mentally distinguish the pine as an evergreen 
tree or the grape as a deciduous vine. 

A frequent cause of failure with flowers is what 
may as well be called footlessness as anything else. 
That is about what it is; an aimless plunging into 
the task with good intentions but an appalling 
lack of common sense. Footlessness cuts a strip 
fifteen inches wide out of the lawn on the west side 
of the house, and quite near it, and plants in what 
it is pleased to call a border some roses or some 
peonies, without any enrichment of the poor soil. 
Common sense would have ascertained before a 
spade was put in the ground that roses and peonies 
must have a sunnier position, that they are gross 
feeders and that without a wider border the grass 
would encroach on their territory in no time. 

Footlessness plants sweet peas in dry, poor soil, 
three weeks late at that, and then wonders why 
the woman next door "always has such good luck" ; 
it undertakes, to establish a rose garden in an ob- 
viously unsuitable location ; it piles manure on top 
of foxgloves, which become rotten pulp before 
spring, and then cannot see why they should "win- 
ter kill"; it takes home plants that friends have 
given and sticks them in the ground with so little 
care and thought that the wail that they "didn't 
live" goes up; it transplants hollyhocks six inches 
apart and pansies fifteen it does a thousand things 
wrong. And all for the want of taking pains to 
find out the right road to travel. 

Taking pains looms large in the garden gospel. 


If your cousin's wife has famous larkspurs every 
summer larkspurs more than six feet tall and 
with enormous spikes of bloom that is not "Ser- 
ena's luck"; she took pains. Serena took pains to 
secure the very best seed, or plants, obtainable; 
you may be sure of that. She took pains to pre- 
pare a bed of deep and well-drained soil for them 
and to enrich the same without letting manure 
come next to the roots. Every May she takes pains 
to work a little bone meal into the soil around 
the plants. And she stakes the plants in time; 
early and late she is mindful of her larkspurs 
which she knows will respond quickly enough if 
she gives them what they want. Serena is "on 
to her job," or everybody would not be talking 
about her larkspurs. 

It is not luck that counts; it is ordinarily in- 
telligent labor. If only everyone would realize 
that this uses up no more time than pottering, not 
infrequently a great deal less! The labor that 
makes for success is marked by the timeliness that 
finds it materially easier to get ahead of work 
than to lag behind it. Things are done when 
they ought to be done. Labor is thus so distributed 
through the season that at no time does it become 
wearisome enough to cease to be a pleasurable rec- 
reation. And by system every step possible is 

All this is helped along by a good memory. 
Every successful grower of flowers has a good, or, 
at any rate, a serviceable, one. The memory may 


be bad indeed as to Latin names, but it seizes upon 
essentials and holds them ever ready for use. The 
mind in time develops into what is virtually a per- 
petual garden calendar; you feel instinctively that 
such and such things are to be done at certain 
times of the year. 

An element of success always is the careful avoid- 
ance of attempting to do too much. Your neigh- 
bor around the corner has the banner sweet peas 
in town; but if he tried to beat every one in roses 
and chrysanthemums also he would fall down in 
all, for it happens that he has only a comparatively 
little time to give to flowers. Being especially fond 
of sweet peas, he devotes himself to them and 
lets who will excel in other directions. That is the 
right spirit. 

Not the least of requirements is eternal vigi- 
lance a watchfulness that becomes a habit, but 
never a burden. It has a keen sense that sights 
the bugs from afar, that detects any invasion of 
weak plants by the strong before it is too late, 
that feels Jack Frost in the air that ever is at 
one with the life of the garden. 


Too many there are who look out of the win- 
dow of a February day and sigh: "Oh, I wish 
that spring would come, so that I might work in 
the garden again." Not so the wise gardener. 
Already he is up and doing; for he knows full 
well that spring, so far as its particular garden 
chores is concerned, is then at hand. 

There are February days when little or no snow 
lies on the frozen ground. Then is a good time 
to spread on it some manure, to be soaked into 
the soil by later snows. If it has to be wheeled, 
or carted, over the lawn it can be done at that 
time without ruts being left on the turf. Where 
plants are green above ground, as not a few peren- 
nials are, place the manure around them, not on 

In February, too, take the pruning shears, out- 
doors between snows and cut off from the shrubs 
branches that the winter storms have broken, or 
any that show unmistakeable signs of being dead. 
Throw them into a wheelbarrow as you go along, 
to save a second handling, and at the same time 



gather up fallen twigs and other refuse ; then make 
a pile of the rubbish in a suitable place for the 
first spring bonfire. In your garden wanderings 
look for the green spears of the snowdrops; if 
they show, favor them by pushing aside a bit 
their blanket of dead leaves. 

March is the best time for pruning all of the 
roses but the teas, which can go until April. If 
large blooms are wanted, cut the canes of hybrid 
perpetuals back to within six or eight inches of 
the grounds. Only a few "eyes" are required 
and it is best to let the top one on each cane be 
an outside one in order that the growth may be 
outward and give a spread to the bush. Cut 
off at the base all weak and dead canes; also any 
that come from below the graft. Bushes of such 
old roses as Madame Plantier, Damask and Har- 
ison's Yellow need have only the dead wood cut out 
unless the branches crowd each other too closely. 
For the climbers the same, but weak side shoots, 
dead cane ends and all wood that has lost its use- 
fulness for blooming ought to be removed. Have 
the wheelbarrow at hand to receive all cuttings 
and dump them at once on the bonfire heap. When 
pruning roses always wear gloves. 

There will also be some pruning of shrubs and 
vines to do in March. The shrub rule is to prune 
in spring only those that bloom late in the season 
Hydrangea paniculata, for example. Live wood 
taken from the spring-blooming shrubs, such as 
forsythia, weigela and deutzia, only robs the sea- 


son of a part of its flowers. Vines that make an 
exceedingly vigorous growth each year, like 
Clematis paniculata, are usually pruned very se- 

Crocuses, Scilla sibmca, glory-of-the-snow and 
the common coltsfoot need a little watching in 
March, that their bloom may not flash in the pan 
because of too much covering. 

Burn up in March all rubbish, including any 
Takings, that may have been gathered; if it is dry, 
it is quickly disposed of and is that much out of 
the way. The village fire rule of making a bon- 
fire not less than thirty feet from a building is a 
good one. If the wind is toward a building even 
twice that distance away, or is blowing very strong 
in any direction, wait for a more favorable day. 

A dry pile of rubbish may be started by thrust- 
ing a crumpled sheet or two of newspaper under 
the bottom on the windward side and touching a 
match to it. When there are green twigs to be 
burned, it is better to make a more careful job of 
it. Put some paper and dry grass on the ground 
and then the dry twigs and wood on top. Add 
only a portion of the green stuff, or there will be 
too much smoke, and feed the remainder when the 
fire is burning briskly. Throw on whatever rub- 
bish the house and barn hold. And never let the 
fire go long unwatched; not at all if children are 

Look over the garden tools; sharpen the old 
ones and order the new ones, that April may find 


nothing unready. In odd moments cut stakes of 
various kinds and make or repair trellises. 

On the first day of April, some years a little 
earlier, it is safe to uncover the flower beds in 
gardens as far north as Connecticut. It is better 
for the plants, and easier for you, to do this 
gradually. The point is to give light and air to 
plants that have begun to grow, thus preventing 
the blanching that weakens shoots and foliage. Be- 
gin by lifting leaves or other covering from the top 
of plants like grass pinks that remained above 
ground all winter and from bulbs that are piercing 
the soil. 

Use the hands if there is little to do; if there is 
much, take an iron rake and draw off gently, taking 
care that the teeth do not sink deep enough to 
tear creeping plants or root up the little fellows. 
Carry all coarse stuff, like stalks, to the bonfire, 
but give the leaves, which have not begun to lose 
their usefulness, to the compost heap. 

Take off from time to time the litter between 
the plants or, if well rotted and there is plenty 
of space, work it into the ground. This is readily 
done with roses and peonies, for both of which 
the leaves in the soil will be very beneficial. Leav- 
ing some of the litter between plants serves to 
keep the ground warm. It is nature's way and is 
not necessarily untidy. If plants need to be cod- 
dled, a little pile of litter may be left near them 
against cold April nights; some gardeners inva- 
riably do this with tulips and hyacinths. In such 


cases, of course, the covering must be taken off 
the next morning unless the weather is extremely 
severe. Few hardy plants, however, are injured by 
April cold; bleeding heart, astilbe, crown imperial 
and some of the lilies, which have tender shoots, 
are exceptions. The greater danger is too much 
protection once growth has set in. 

One reason why so many plants "winter kill" 
is because they are murdered in spring. Each, 
if it disappears for the winter, has its own time 
to show itself, and unless its precise location is 
remembered which ought to be the case it is un- 
safe to put an implement into the soil, lest some- 
thing be beheaded and, lacking the strength, fail 
to rise to the occasion a second time. 

When April, say, is half over remove the last 
of the litter, if it is not to remain to be worked in. 
Use the left hand, and a basket, for this, and, with 
a two-tined steel table fork or the point of a nar- 
row trowel held in the right hand, stir the soil 
gently around the crowns of plants and between 
if you are sure that everything is above ground or 
so far below that cultivation will not be hazardous. 
At the same time, pull up any weeds that have 
got a start some will have survived the winter 
and destroy, or remove to a nursery row, all seed- 
ling plants that are out of place. Make a note, 
too, of plants that require division or transfer to 
a more favorable location. 

Early cultivation of the soil is among the most 
important of April operations. It not only en- 


courages growth, but weeds then will not get ahead 
of you. Use a hoe wherever possible; it saves a 
lot of time and is more effective. Cultivation may 
begin as soon as the soil is dry enough to be 
easily worked. 

Wherever the bed or border is next to a grass 
plot, straighten the edge of the turf. Use a sharp 
spade and a line if a turf cutter is not available. 
After shaking off some of the soil, throw the clods 
of turf into a wheelbarrow and make a new com- 
post heap or extend the old one. 

A simple way to start a compost heap is to lay 
out a square or rectangle in a place remote from 
the house and yet not inconvenient of access, by 
placing on the ground clods of turf, with the grass 
side down, something after the manner of a founda- 
tion. If there is enough turf for walls a foot or 
more high and a flooring as well, so much the bet- 
ter. Throw into this kitchen refuse, lawn clip- 
pings and any easily rotted garden waste that does 
not contain weed or grass seeds ; burn these. Cover 
lightly with earth any decaying matter that at- 
tracts flies. By the following spring the pile will 
be valuable fertilizer. 

Before April is past much of the transplanting is 
out of the way if time be taken by the forelock. 
Hybrid perpetuals, old-fashioned bush roses, climb- 
ing roses and flowering shrubs are best moved when 
the leaf buds have not begun to expand and the 
transplanting should therefore be done early in 
April; even late in March if the ground is ready. 


Aside from spring-blooming bulbs, lilies, peonies 
and bleeding heart, hardy plants are shifted in 
the latter part of April and early in May to rather 
better advantage than in the autumn, though there 
is no rule save convenience and the exigencies of 
the case. 

If note of what is to be moved has not been made 
already, look over the garden with pencil and paper 
in hand and get a line on things. Before digging 
you are supposed to have some idea of what sort 
of a root growth a plant has, that you may favor 
it as much as possible. Excepting with tap roots 
there is no special risk if most of the soil falls away 
but it is safer to have a good ball of earth, which 
is not difficult in spring when there is plenty of 
moisture to hold it together. The ball is less likely 
to split if the trowel, or spade, is pressed deep into 
the soil on one or two sides and withdrawn, the 
actual lifting being then done from a third side. 
When a very large plant or shrub is to be handled, 
first prepare the new hole. Then it may be car- 
ried there on the spade that has lifted it and there 
is less likelihood of the ball of earth splitting. 
If the distance is far, lay the burden, spade and 
all, on a wheelbarrow and look out for rough 
places in transit. 

When you can do so, choose for transplanting 
a day when the sky is overcast or when you have 
an idea that rain will be along soon. Then, per- 
haps, you will be able to do away with the trouble 
of watering. As the plants are dug lay them care- 


fully in a basket or wheelbarrow and protect from 
the hot sun ; the roots dry very quickly. As a rule, 
take up only what can be replanted before night- 
fall; any held over may be placed in the barn or 
cellar after being sprinkled lightly. Put all plants 
that are not required for the garden scheme in rows 
in a nursery bed, dividing them into as many 
parts as you can. They will be useful there in 
three ways for increase of stock, gifts to friends 
and bouquet flowers. The greater part of the 
spring flowers may be lifted with safety even after 
they have begun to bloom ; give them plenty of 

Plant always in a hole deep enough and wide 
enough to a little more than take the ball of earth 
that holds the roots. If the bottom of the hole 
is hard, loosen it with the point of the trowel or 
spade. Where the ground is dry fill the hole with 
water and let this soak in thoroughly. Then 
sprinkle the bottom with a little soil and set the 
plant down, steadying it with the left hand to keep 
it upright and filling in with the other until it 
stands alone. As the remainder of the soil is filled 
in, press it down with the hands or feet. Unless 
there is a drought, a second watering will probably 
not be necessary, but the plants must be watched 
until the next rainfall. 

Many flower seeds cannot be sown outdoors 
with safety until late in May, when, as the seeds- 
men say on their little packets, "danger from frost 
is over," April therefore ought to find a cold- 

"The peculiar advantages of the double border are 

the creation of delightful vistas and the greater 

enjoyment of a stroll where attention is not confined 

to one side" 


frame getting a start of the season, provided that 
autumn forethought did not make one ready the 
year before. This can be purchased, knocked 
apart, or with some narrow boards and one or 
more window sash it is a matter of little time to 
put one together at home. Plant in it in April 
or very early in May seeds of annuals for bloom- 
ing ahead of those sown in the open ground; also 
seeds of perennials, for years to come. Sow the 
seed in rows and at the head of each place a num- 
ber on the inside of the frame, this to correspond 
with a list giving the name opposite each number. 
Seed is always "bad" whenever it fails to come 
up. The truth is that seed from a reliable source 
is good, but very frequently the planting is bad. 
Whether in a coldframe or in the open ground 
first see that the soil is loose and quite free from 
lumps and grit, adding a little sand if not light 
enough. Press the soil down with a small piece 
of board to get a smooth surface. Scatter the 
very finest seed, such as that of the poppy, broad- 
cast on the surface and sift a very little soil over 
it. Sow larger seeds in rows, made with a sharp- 
pointed stick, the depth being about twice the di- 
ameter of the seed. Pour the seed into the palm of 
the left hand and drop it with the thumb and 
finger of the right. Or, if done adroitly, the 
dropping may be done through a small hole made 
in one corner of the seed envelope. Plant very 
large seeds one by one and an inch or so apart in 
the row, to avoid the labor of thinning out. 


After the sowing in rows, fill in with soil and 
then in broadcast sowing as well press firmly 
and evenly with a bit of board. Cut a piece of 
white cotton cloth large enough to fit the surface 
of the soil, lay it down smoothly and do all the 
watering, with a sprinkler, through this until the 
plants begin to show above ground. 

If the stand is good, thin out rigidly. When the 
first two true leaves appear thin out the weaker ones 
or, if a large stock is wanted, transplant to an- 
other frame. Seedlings that are so close together 
as not to be easily separated by dividing the soil 
with a small trowel or knife may be lifted in 
clumps and dropped into a shallow pan of water. 
There the soil is turned to mud and the seedlings 
will pull out with no injury to the rootlets. 

At the end of May the annuals will be large 
enough to move to their permanent place in the 
garden, either by themselves or as fillers among 
hardy plants. The perennials may remain in the 
frames, to grow on, until summer, autumn or the 
following spring. 

May weeding is the salvation of summer, when 
garden work is less invigorating. Go over the 
garden carefully and between times pull up every 
weed within easy reach as you walk about. Loosen 
with a trowel any weed or bit of grass that does 
not yield at once, so that no roots may be left 
behind. In May also dirt walks will need hoeing 
and lawn edges of borders another very careful 


In the latter part of the month, after a rain, 
sift some powdered hellebore over the roses to 
ward off insect ravages. 


WHEN June is well under way, the gardener 
rests on his hoe and draws a breath of relief. But 
only for a moment; work must go on and on. 

Theoretically growth should now cover the 
ground completely. There are bare spots, how- 
ever, and weeds are struggling to get possession 
of every one of them. Such spots must be gone 
wer at least once, and there are the paths to 
hoe again. All of which is very prosaic when 
there is a riot of roses and the Canterbury bells 
and foxgloves are vying with them and each other. 

Pruning the shrubs that have bloomed in spring 
is a task of early summer. Most will stand plenty 
of cutting back, as it is the new wood that will 
furnish the next year's blossoms. Limit the 
pruning of lilacs to the removal of weak and super- 
fluous branches and the disfiguring seed clusters. 
Pinch off the tops of hardy chrysanthemums, to 
make them branch. In August pinch off the ends 
of the branches. 

Bugs demand June attention. The principal of- 
fender is the rose bug, which is not satisfied with 



his June fodder but must needs feast upon the 
Japanese irises of July. Fortunately he is big 
enough to handle very conveniently between the 
thumb and forefinger. Pick him thus from the 
rose or iris and drop him into a wide-mouthed 
pickle bottle partly filled with kerosene oil. If you 
object to touching this creature, which has a special 
hankering after white blossoms, poke him into the 
bottle with a little stick; the end, not the means, 
is the important thing. Gather up the rose bugs 
every morning. Once in a while empty the bottle 
on the ground and touch a match to the mixture 
of dead bugs and oil. 

Snipping, of which the summer brings a great 
deal, begins in June if May has not been a re- 
minder of earlier needs. This is snipping with 
scissors and the objects are two neatness and pro- 
longation of the blooming period. As soon as a 
flower fades, if no seed is wanted, snip \\ off, with 
its individual stem. Then the plant retains its 
attractiveness. And it is astonishing how much 
difference this little thing makes, especially with 
such flowers as the rose, iris and peony. The later 
blossoms not only have more room for expansion 
but benefit by strength that otherwise would go 
into the development of seed. 

Pansies planted in a partially shaded place and 
treated in this way will bloom quite freely into 
August and sparsely until winter. Canterbury bells 
and some of the other bellflowers, whose beauty 
is serious, marred by the brown of even a few 


faded blossoms, will give a second crop of bloom 
if snipped. Snip hollyhocks, foxgloves and an- 
nuals that self-sow freely, as their progeny is some- 
times as much of a nuisance as weeds. Let the 
blossoms and stems fall to the ground, between 
the plant, to serve as mulch and soil nourishment 
if this can be done without making an unsightly 

Remove flower stalks from June on, when bloom 
is entirely over, cut down plants whose foliage 
has turned brown and pull up by the roots bien- 
nials and annuals that have bloomed themselves to 
death. Leave hollyhocks and foxgloves if they 
show new crowns, as sometimes they send up small 
second stalks of bloom. 

Fill in the spaces thus created, and those left 
earlier by the dying down of the spring bulbs, with 
annuals from the coldframe or seed bed, or with 
potted plants. In some way all the garden gaps 
should be filled as summer progresses. 

Transplanting is safely done on the hottest of 
summer days, though cloudy ones would better be 
given the preference. Use plenty of water. Shade 
for a few days with pots, slats or cotton cloth 
stretched on pegs, if the plants look as if they 
would wither quickly. Toward evening is the best 
time for the work. Where a plant is very choice, 
or the roots are not strong, minimize the risk by 
filling the hole with water once or twice and letting 
it soak in. Set the plant in a little lower than usual 
and only partly fill up with soil. Then add a thin 


layer of wet lawn clippings, more soil and a light 
top dressing of the clippings. 

Mulching is a summer task much more honored 
in the breach than in the observance. It is always 
beneficial, and when there is a long period with lit- 
tle or no rain it is the alternative of tedious water- 
ing. Sometimes water is so scarce that mulching 
is the gardner's only solution. 

Either dry soil or lawn clippings and other vege- 
table matter may be used as a mulch. The dry 
soil is simply the surface of the ground kept loose 
by frequent cultivation a good thing in summer 
even when the season is normal. Lawn clippings 
are an excellent mulch, but they must be spread 
very lightly as otherwise they heat. Or a thin layer 
of wet clippings with a litle dry soil on top may 
be used. Tall weeds if there are no ripe seeds 
on them flower stalks and discarded bouquets 
make good mulch when run through a hay chopper. 
Then there is leaf mold, but that is rarely at hand. 

Spraying with the hose toward evening always 
freshens plants in summer. But real watering has 
to be done only when digging into the ground a 
little shows plainly that the soil is abnormally dry; 
do not wait to find this out by the appearance of the 
plants themselves. Watering having to be done, 
do it thoroughly rather than frequently. Set the 
hose where the spray will fall like so much rain, 
and leave it there until the ground is well soaked; 
then water the next tract. A still better way to 
fight drought is to dig a circular trench around 


a plant, or a straight one between rows, fill this 
with water two or three times and then put the 
soil back in place. A day or two afterward cul- 
tivate to keep the soil from baking. 

Potted plants, even when sunk into borders to 
fill up the empty places, dry out quickly and may 
be crying for water when their neighbors are not. 
This is particularly true of Hydrangea hortensis, 
one of the hardest of garden drinkers. Use a 
watering pot with a long spout and no spray. 

Seed gathering goes on all through the summer 
and into the autumn. It is worth while when there 
is a good strain and when the flower is one of as- 
sociation. It is not worth while, in many cases, 
going to the trouble for the sake of mere economy, 
for seed is comparatively inexpensive. Poppy seed, 
for instance, is easily saved, but gathering and dry- 
ing China aster seed is bothersome and it means 
the sacrifice of several blossoms to concentrate 
strength in one. 

Some seed, like that of the fraxinella, must be 
gathered before the pods split; or it will be scat- 
tered far and wide. Upright receptacles, such as 
the columbine and iris have, may be left until they 
have split a bit. Generally the seed is dead ripe 
when the pod, or in the case of composite flowers 
the head, is brown. , Cut off pods carefully, so 
as not to spill any of the seed, and place in a 
saucer to dry; if the seeds are of the shooting kind, 
cover the saucer to prevent their escape. Usually 
they will dry sufficiently in a day. Shake out any 

"It requires no profound knowledge of garden 

material to work out these beautiful forms of 

garden expression' 


seed remaining in the pods and throw the latter 
away. Then winnow the chaff by blowing gently 
with the breath across the saucer. Dry composite 
heads by hanging them up in a paper bag, out of 
the reach of mice, for a fortnight or more; then 
shake or pick out the seeds and get rid of the 

For carrying seeds through the winter, or for 
making up packets for friends, the little manila 
pay envelopes that open at one end will be found 
very serviceable. Seed that is as fine as dust must 
first be folded in tissue paper; otherwise it is likely 
to leak out of a corner of the envelope. Or, in- 
stead of the envelope, a small piece of white paper 
folded after the manner of a druggist's powder 
wrapper will do. Label the packages with ink, 
and be sure to state the year as well as the kind of 

It will be well to sow the new crop of perennial 
seed on the first of August or thereabouts. Bloom 
cannot be looked for in some cases the next year, 
unless the seedlings are given the benefit of a hot- 
bed later, but the plants will have a better start 
than if the seed is held over the winter. Sow in 
a coldframe or in the open in a seed-bed, which 
it is always well to have on the place for this 
purpose and for cuttings of perennials. Proceed 
as with the May sowing of seed, but shade with 
laths and be careful that the ground does not dry 
out. Transplant the seedlings in rows when large 
enough. They may then be removed to permanent 


positions in autumn or wintered where they are. 

Cuttings are also planted in rows. They root 
readily in summer if kept well watered and shaded 
a bit at first. This is a good way to propagate 
grass pinks, Arabis albida and Torrey's pentste- 
mon. Pull off sprigs that have half-hardened 
wood at the base; do not cut them off, because 
that makes it less easy for the callous that pre- 
cedes rooting to form. Some of the perennials, 
especially the creepers, will furnish cuttings that 
already are partly rooted. 

Summer work is most comfortably disposed of 
in the cool of the morning; leave only transplant- 
ing and watering for the other end of the day. If 
the work is properly spread over the period, the 
time spent will hardly be missed. 


THE work of the garden year is materially less 
arduous when a proper proportion of it is spread 
through the autumn months. A good garden ax- 
iom is to leave nothing until spring that can be 
done in autumn. No matter how much is gotten 
out of the way, there need be no fear that one 
cannot find enough to do in spring. 

It will not kill peonies to move them in spring, 
but the best month is September. Oriental poppies 
and Lilium candidum are transplanted the month 
previous, as they make a new foliage growth in 
early autumn. The other lilies are generally moved 
in autumn, or a little before that if the foliage 
has died down ; the spring bulbs in October. This 
is about all that there is to the necessity of autumn 

The advisability of autumn transplanting is quite 
another matter. It applies with particular force 
to the making over of the hardy garden, which 
is done to advantage every few years. There is 
more time to do the work in autumn than in spring 
and if the planting includes bulbs, other than the 
rarities that bloom after September, everything 



can be taken out. Though not necessary, this is 
always a good plan. 

In that event, lift out all the plants and lay 
them on old bagging or canvas spread on the ad- 
jacent path or grass plot. This saves cleaning up 
afterwards and, if the cloths are not too long, plants 
may be carried in them to another spot. Then 
spade the ground twelve to eighteen inches deep 
and work in some well-rotted manure, unless the 
planting is to be of lilies or larkspurs; these do 
not like to come in close contact with that kind 
of fertilizer. Leaf mold is always a good ad- 
dition and if the soil is heavy a little sand may 
be mixed in, too. If possible, have all the plants 
back in the ground by nightfall; if not, place them 
under cover to keep the frost away from the roots. 
Separate into parts any plants that are large 
enough. When the ground is tolerably moist no 
watering need be done, but it always helps a plant 
to re-establish itself quickly. 

The category of advisability also includes the 
transplanting of a considerable number of the per- 
ennials that bloom in early spring more especially 
those of April. These can be moved in April, 
but the bloom is more satisfactory when the plants 
establish themselves before winter and thus have 
a chance to develop foliage and blossoms without 
any setback. The bleeding heart, all the primulas, 
Arabis albida, Phlox subulata, Alyssum saxatile 
and coltsfoot are some of the plants that it is 
wise to transplant in autumn. 


Certain of the biennh/^ notably foxgloves, Can- 
terbury bells, hollyhocks and Myosotis dissitiflora, 
it is well to transplant to the beds in which it is 
proposed to have them bloom the next year, if 
this has not been done already; likewise summer- 
sown pansies, violas and dianthus. Move into 
their permanent places any perennials grown from 
seed and likely to bloom another year. 

Where there is actual danger of winter-killing, 
very young biennials and perennials may be car- 
ried over in a coldframe and bedded out in April 
or May. This is also a good way to catch up, 
if planting has been late or growth slow; devel- 
opment then goes on through the autumn and is 
resumed early in the spring. Put only a few leaves 
in the frame; just enough to cover the plants 
lightly, as if the fall had been natural. Bank 
earth against the frame and when winter has set 
in lay a piece of rush matting or some cornstalks 
on top of the glass. If there are warm days, let in 
some air and light in the middle of the day when 
the sun is warmest. 

Planting in autumn has a slight distinction from 
transplanting, for in the case of purchased plants 
and bulbs the time is sometimes regulated by trade 
exigencies. Thus lilies, other than L. candldum, 
may be transplanted in September and October, 
but purchased bulbs, especially the imported ones, 
are slow getting to market. Lily bulbs from Japan 
are planted in November and even in early De- 
cember, the ground being kept from freezing by 


a heavy cover of manure. A good bulb rule is to 
have crocuses and daffodils in the ground in early 
October and other bulbs by the end of the month 
if they arrive in time. 

Allow about two inches from the base of the 
bulb to the top of the ground for small bulbs and 
about five inches for the larger ones. If the lilies 
are stem-rooting kinds, allow six to seven inches. 
For planting crocuses, scillas and snowdrops in the 
lawn there is a special dibble; where that is lack- 
ing use a pointed stick to make the hole. Whether 
bulbs are planted in the garden or in the grass, 
press the soil firmly over them. A little sand 
under and around the bulb is a good thing for 
lilies, hyacinths, tulips and fritillaries. Both of 
the best known fritillaries, the crown imperial and 
the guinea-hen flower, have bulbs that are slightly 
hollowed on top. In order that too much moisture 
may not settle in the hollow, it is customary to 
plant them tilted a little. 

In general, autumn planting of perennials that 
either have to be purchased or are acquired by 
gift is the better way out when the plants bloom 
as early as April. In the matter of purchases espe- 
cially, the result is much more satisfactory in cer- 
tain instances. Thus most of the primulas in the 
trade are grown in pots from seed and, being kept 
in coldframes, are likely to arrive with the bloom 
almost or quite gone; by autumn planting a year 
would have been gained. 

So with leopard's bane, aubrietia and trollius. 


Again some roots, like bleeding heart, are dug up 
in autumn and stored as the only means of early 
spring delivery. Better winter them in your gar- 
den than to buy them in spring, possibly sprouting 
and consequently weakened. 

Of later-blooming flowers it is well to plant all 
of the irises excepting the bulbous ones in Sep- 
tember, as spring will then find them well estab- 
lished instead of trying to readjust themselves the 
while they are gathering strength to bloom. Bul- 
bous irises are planted in October. It is well also 
to plant Phlox paniculata in September, or Octo- 
ber. The reason is the same; though less urgent, 
as the blooming period is later. 

Frost begins to be a serious problem some time 
in September. Very often one or two frosts come 
quite early and then there will be no more, per- 
haps, until October. For this reason it is deplor- 
able that the first frosts are allowed to blight the 
garden. Most of the hardy plants will stand frost 
after frost. The Japanese anemone is an excep- 
tion; this needs to be covered on frosty nights, 
otherwise its beautiful bloom is likely to be lost. 
When hardy chrysanthemums are neither close to 
the house nor where there are tree branches over- 
head, the large-flowered kinds would better be 
protected; they endure cold but the frost gets in 
the mass of petals and, melting, streaks the blos- 
soms with brown. 

Some of the annuals and all of the tender bed- 
ding plants are the ones to look after chiefly; and 


these really repay wonderfully the little care that 
it takes to prolong their blooming season. Pansies 
and sweet alyssum will stand the frost; the calen- 
dula and scabiosa a great deal of it. Look out for 
cosmos, dahlias and geraniums in particular. 

White cotton cloth laid over plants is the handi- 
est protection. Frost conies when the wind has 
gone, and the cloth is just heavy enough to stay 
in place by its own weight. If it presses too 
heavily anywhere, put a stake underneath. News- 
papers are quite as good. Weight the corners 
with small stones if the plants are very low; tall 
plants may be wrapped loosely and the top of the 
paper brought together with pins. Uncovered 
plants that look dangerously frosted may often be 
kept from being blackened by sprinkling them with 
cold water the next morning, before the sun has 
a chance to shine on them. 

Another way, and a very pleasant one, to get 
the better of Jack Frost is to take up some of the 
plants while they are in bloom, or just before. 
Cosmos, and hardy chrysanthemums lend them- 
selves to this purpose especially well. Dig the 
plants up with a good ball of earth and put in pots 
or tubs. The plants will be very decorative in- 
doors, on the porch or set in the shrubbery or 
hardy border and placed under cover at night. 
Both plants have a long period of bloom. Cosmos 
plants may also be placed in a shed or barn, or 
the potting room of a greenhouse, and the blos- 
soms used simply for cutting. 


Take up in October, or before the ground 
freezes, such bulbs and tubers as would perish if 
left outdoors all winter. These include the dahlia, 
canna, gladiolus, Galtonia candicans and Madeira 
vine. It is a good plan to let them dry for a few 
days under cover. This gives the tops a chance to 
die down before they are cut off, while the clinging 
soil falls away readily. Then place the tubers and 
bulbs in a dry, dark cellar where they will be kept 
from freezing and yet not be warm enough to start 
premature growth. Cannas and dahlias may be 
set on a board, raised a little from the floor, and 
partially covered with the dry earth that has fallen 
away from them. Very choice varieties of these 
plants and all smaller tubers and bulbs would better 
be laid in a wooden box and covered with dry 
sand. The sand treatment may also be used for 
wintering a few of the tender herbaceous peren- 
nials like the red-hot poker plant (Tritoma). 

Very often it is worth while saving some of the 
olants that were bedded out in the spring and have 
made a sturdy growth these for future display 
purposes. The lemon verbena and lantana, per- 
haps, have developed into big shrubby plants and 
there are geraniums, both "fish'* and fragrant, that 
have seen one winter in the house but are now 
grown beyond indoor convenience. Put all of these 
in large pots or wooden boxes, crowding the plants 
fairly close together. Keep them where they can 
dry off, by the gradual withholding of water, but 
where they will not freeze, until November and 


then move them to a cool cellar for the winter. 
If the cellar is dark give a little water two or 
three times in the course of the winter; if it is 
light, and quite warm, the plants may be kept near 
a window and given more water in which event 
there will be less dying down. 

Plants that know no garden life save within the 
confines of pots or tubs, including Hydrangea hor- 
tensis, "marriage bell" (^brugmansia), oleander, 
agapanthus and amaryllis, require the same treat- 
ment as to autumn drying off and wintering. When 
repotting is necessary, this is done in the spring. 

There is also a dry system of storing plants. All 
the earth is shaken from the roots and the plant 
is suspended, head down, from the ceiling of a 
dark, cool cellar. This is the old-fashioned way 
of treating geraniums after serving a winter as 
window plants and it is sometimes recommended 
for the lemon verbena. 

More often than not, autumn's weed troubles 
are passed on to spring. This is a mistake. The 
garden, on principle, ought to be put away for 
the winter clean. But there is another reason; 
weeds and grass that were so small in summer as 
to escape the eye may now be maturing seed and 
doing their level best to make mischief for an- 
other year. Root them up early. Some of these 
pests flourish bravely through the autumn, and 
the sooner they are checked the better. One of 
the worst offenders is chickweed. A late crop 
seems to spring from nowhere in August and, if 


not rooted up, covers the ground in short order. 

Pull up all stakes and temporary trellises just 
as soon as the need of them is over. Unless they 
are in too bad order for further use, shake off 
the dirt and put them away for the winter under 

The last thing to do in the garden before winter 
is to give the plants any needed protection. But 
this does not mean that the task is to be begun 
at the eleventh hour. Go about it gradually as 
nature does. Manure, straw, hay, cornstalks or 
any coarse litter four to six inches deep may 
be placed over plants that have disappeared en- 
tirely from view, provided that this is done after 
the ground freezes and the covering is all or par- 
tially removed when spring growth is discernible 
beneath it. The usual reliance, and there is noth- 
ing better, is leaves and the stalks of plants. 

Gather the leaves after each heavy fall lest 
many of them blow where they will be lost to you, 
and also to make the burden lighter. So far as 
can be done conveniently, rake the leaves toward 
the plants, using a leaf rake, and then toss them 
lightly over the plants with the implement. Other- 
wise carry the leaves in a basket or wheelbarrow 
to the spot and toss them by hand. In either case 
they will fall naturally most of them settling 
sooner or later between the plants, where the next 
rain will pack them a bit. 

Continue this process three or four times until 
all the available leaves are used. A good com- 


bination is maple leaves, which fall early and soon 
curl up, and the apple and pear leaves, which drop 
to the ground late and keep firm all winter. Or, 
for shrubs, vines, roses and any large plants, the 
leaves may be left by the side of them in a pile 
or windrow and spread over the ground thickly 
after it has frozen. 

With perennials the point to be borne in mind 
is that the majority of them endure the cold well 
enough; many of them, if left quite unprotected 
artificially, provided the cold is continuous. What 
they really need is to have the ground so covered 
that the danger of alternate thawing and freezing 
is minimized. So make sure, first of all, that the 
plants which remain above ground have protec- 
tion around them especially those that have dis- 
tinct crowns ; creeping plants protect themselves in 
a measure. 

Put only a thin scattering of leaves on the crowns 
of plants with soft foliage that is more or less 
evergreen; manure will rot foxgloves, Canterbury 
bells, primulas and hollyhocks. Very light stalks 
may then be laid on to keep the leaves from blow- 
ing away. When such plants seem to need greater 
protection use more leaves and then with slats, rest- 
ing on something just high enough to be clear of 
the plants, and cornstalks, or weighted straw, make 
a roof over them, closing it in on the north side. 
This roof prevents the snow from bearing down 
too heavily, and allows air circulation. 

The weight of the snow itself would not harm 


the plants, as it falls flake by flake and settles 
evenly. Snow is the winter blanket par excellence s 
if only it would stay put which it will not do 
nowadays. Where there are many leaves on plants 
with soft foliage, however, the snow presses the 
dead and living so close together that there is rot- 
ting, which every thaw aggravates. 

As the final operation, cut down all herbaceous 
stalks and lay them between the plants and over 
such as will bear the weight. These stalks are a 
little added protection and they serve to hold down 
the leaves. Cut the stalks with pruning shears 
quite close to the ground and be sure that the 
peonies and hardy chrysanthemums have some of 
their own ; they are entitled to them. Light brush 
and small evergreen branches may also be used. 
With every stalk laid low, the beds and borders 
will have the neat appearance that is highly desi- 
rable even if it is not necessary. 

Burn up in autumn any litter not suitable for 
either garden protection or the compost heap. 
There is always more or less lying around and there 
is no time like the present to rake it up and reduce 
it to ashes which, after a bonfire, ought to be 
spread over tilled ground or shoveled up and placed 
around roses and shrubs. Do not burn any fallen 
leaves; if there are too many for the garden, use a 
portion of them for the compost heap and put the 
remainder, sprinkling with water each load when 
dumped, in a trench to form leaf mold for another 


Coarse manure, laid around shrubs, roses and 
vines after the ground has frozen and worked into 
the soil in spring, is an excellent means of autumn 
fertilizing. For smaller plants use well rotted 
manure thoroughly mixed with a little soil, and put 
it on the ground before the leaves are spread. 
Tobacco stems, which are rich in potash, are a good 
autumn fertilizer for roses, peonies and other 
strong plants that have bare ground around them. 


FLOWER beds, that exhaust the possibilities of 
geometrical design and then wander off into all 
manner of devious paths, are well enough in their 
place. They are necessary, within decent bounds, 
to the rigid formality of the partere. And there is 
a theory, which may or may not be tenable, on the 
part of park superintendents that such plantings, 
even when turned into living signs and like freaks, 
are one of a municipality's horticultural duties to 
the public. 

Unless there is a parterre grouping, the home is 
better off without flower beds in the accepted sense. 
Stuck there is no other word that fits in the 
lawn they are always out of place and very fre- 
quently are nothing short of atrocious. Then, in 
their set gaudiness, they remind one of what Bacon 
said of lawn designs of colored earth: "You may 
see as good Sights, many times, in Tarts." 

Flowers for the edge of the lawn, but the stretch 
of sward itself unbroken save by suitable planting 
of trees or shrubbery, or both, is a good rule that 
does not have to be qualified other than to admit 



the inevitable exceptions that make the rule. There 
are instances, as in Hyde Park, London, of beds in 
the simplest geometrical forms being placed in the 
lawn near the edge of it with an effect really 
beautiful and not out of keeping with the general 
scheme; but all this is on a large scale. Again, 
islands of shrubbery, that are virtually converted 
into flower beds by a liberal planting of perennials 
or bedding plants, are to be seen. 

For the small home grounds, above all, the bor- 
der, or series of borders, is infinitely to be preferred 
in any but very exceptional circumstances. Borders 
adjust themselves to every line of a place, no matter 
with what irregularity it is marked; beds rarely 

Then, too, borders are very much easier in the 
making, while in the upkeep the labor does not 
begin to be so much as with a bed that offers any- 
thing more serious than a right angle. The 
thought of laboriously cutting a crescent in the 
lawn, and then planting it, trimming it again and 
again and keeping the grass edge just right, that 
always there may be exact symmetry, is enough to 
drive such an idea out of one's head. 

A border is technically a narrow flower bed 
that is to say, one that is narrow in proportion to its 
width. Less precisely, but within proper usage, it 
is any bordering bed. Though usually much 
elongated, it would not be out of place to call a 
large square bed a border if it had a path on one 
or two sides of it. The simplest and commonest 

"Then there is the border that defines one or two 
edges of the lawn on the sides that are not adja- 
cent to the house or street" 


form is a long strip of even width, straight or 
curved, with either square or rounded corners. 
Very frequently the border is a triangle, generally 
obtuse-angled. Then there are various forms with 
all the edges irregular and others where one side 
is broken very much as a coast line is. 

The more closely the border sticks to straight 
lines, the less work in the beginning and from that 
time on. The guiding idea, however, should be fit- 
ness; what is best for one place may be worst for 
another. As a rule the line of border along a path, 
road or boundary has at least the nearer line paral- 
lel to the latter; this is not necessarily automatic, 
as often there is the permissible very narrow strip 
of turf between. But the border may be parallel 
only a certain distance and then veer off at an angle 
at a point where a break in the lawn gives it an ex- 
cuse for so doing, or where it is desirable to create 
a low screen. 

Irregular borders would better have their edges 
broken by graceful curves when they come close to 
a path; they look better and the bit of intervening 
turf is more easily cared for. As to care, the same 
is true of shrubbery islands in a lawn scheme. If 
a border is to be cut up into capes and bays let it be 
a long one on the farther side of a lawn, where not 
so much the irregular edge as the admirable effect 
produced by it comes into the picture. 

Width and length are governed by circum- 
stances; some borders are from twelve to twenty 
feet wide and others are hundreds of feet long. 


One of the most frequent errors is to make them 
too narrow two feet or so in width. This does 
not seem narrow when the ground is prepared ; but 
it is. Aside from the impossibility of obtaining 
scarcely more than a ribbon effect, there is scant 
room for the spread of the plants which must be 
kept clear of the grass or walk, though some may 
hang over the latter if there is room enough. Four 
feet will be found a convenient minimum where 
there is access to the border from only a single 

This for small plants, either in rows or massed 
in sections of broad and drift forms. Many of the 
large plants, as well as dwarf shrubs, can be massed 
in clumps in a four- foot border; or they can be 
placed in three rows if the plants in the center one 
are set opposite the space in the other two. 

Borders on a small place, as may be observed by 
a study of cottage gardens, are exceedingly attrac- 
tive when run along the foundation wall of the 
house, or the edge of the piazza. If the border 
turns a corner it will be all the more satisfying to 
the eye. Choose the south and east walls wherever 
possible, for the sun. If the shade is there, or only 
the west or north wall is available, you can always 
get around the difficulty by using shade-loving 
plants. Borders such as these need not come down 
to, or even near, a path if the latter is some distance 
from the wall. Lay out the border with reference 
to the line of the wall and let the outer edge of it 
be parallel pr not, as circumstances warrant, 


A border, preferably a double one along the path 
leading up to the entrance to the house, is another 
good leaf from the book of cottage gardens. This 
may be of equal width the entire distance, or agree- 
ably varied by a distinct broadening at one or both 
ends at the house end only if it does not extend 
to the gate, or sidewalk line. Again it may be va- 
ried by being made L shaped on one or both sides, 
the arm being an extension along the house wall; 
widen the elbow a little to reduce the angularity at 
that point. 

Or the front yard scheme may be extended to 
two rectangular borders, the remaining boundaries 
being as near the side limits of the home plot as 
seems practicable. Leave a break in the border 
near the house for entrance from the path. Where 
space is abundant and more flowers are desired, 
make the border a double one all around, or part 
way, by a continuance of the path within the 
grounds. Inside the rectangles have only lawn, 
with shrubs or small trees if there is room. 

A border along the driveway is sometimes quite 
enough for a small place. One that comes to mind 
for its fitness uses up the entire space between the 
road and the boundary line. It is six feet wide 
until the road takes a turn inward; then it broadens 
and ends with a rounded effect. Another, that has 
the drawback of a brief season of bloom, is simply 
a four-foot strip of German irises that follows the 
several curves of a driveway its entire length. 

Then there is the border that defines one or two 


edges of the lawn on the sides that are not adjacent 
to the house or street. This is one of the best kinds 
of borders, since it is not only very beautiful as a 
nearer background but may be made to serve the 
purpose of a screen. If the flowers are largely 
here, and the borders by the house and front path 
are given over to shrubs, the foliage of which is of 
rather more importance than the blossoms, there 
is an advantage not so commonly apparent as might 

For, with all the cottage garden charm of a house 
framed by flowers, or a front yard well nigh filled 
with them, something is lost when the borders are 
open to the full gaze of every passerby. The cot- 
tagers do not mind ; for generations they have had 
no privacy and, ignorant even of what it means to 
the more sensitive, are happy in brief intervals of 
morning and evening garden intimacy that their 
long hours permit. 

While the cottager has no other choice, it is a 
small place indeed that does not allow a second. 
This is the relegation of at least some of the bor- 
ders to the rear of the house, or where they will 
provide a walk with a semblance of seclusion if 
not the thing itself. To what lengths the relegation 
is to be carried is a matter for every individual to 
decide for himself, but that the extreme need not 
be too far in certain circumstances is clearly enough 
demonstrated by small places where the house and 
lawn are framed only by shrubbery borders, the 
flower borders being largely, or quite, out of the 


picture as seen from the street. Not that blossoms 
are absent; some of the shrubs bloom and there is 
an interspersing of perennials and bulbs. The 
main note, however, is shrubbery which is given a 
winter value by the employment of some evergreen 
shrubs and others with berries or gaily-colored 

Run a border down from the back door even 
when that happens to be the kitchen entrance. 
Make a path if none exists and extend the border to 
a flower garden, consisting of more borders or a 
parterre ; or to the kitchen garden, the barn or the 
poultry yard. The walk thither will be the more 
pleasant for the border, in each case. Or run a 
border from the rear of the house down to the end 
of the lawn; then straight through the plowed 
ground to the farther edge of the plot, to divide 
the fruit garden from the vegetable garden, or all 
around a rectangle of vegetables excluding corn 
and lima beans, unless the space is large. If there 
is no plowed ground the rectangle may be a grass 
plot for tennis or merely for drying clothes of a 

These back yard borders are all along the lines 
of least resistance straight propositions. None 
of them offers any particular difficulty; in fact 
there is no easier kind of flower gardening. They 
may be long or short, wide or narrow, straight or 
curved, double or single ; you consider yourself and 
your convenience here, not the judgment of the 


Make a border that leads somewhere, a double 
one whenever you can do so. In the case of a very 
wide rectangular border that ends at a boundary 
line, arrive at a similar result by running a path 
nearly through it lengthwise. The peculiar ad- 
vantages of the double border are the creation of 
delightful vistas and the greater enjoyment of a 
stroll where attention is not confined to one side. 

A narrow strip of turf between a border and a 
path always has a refreshing look, but in the con- 
sideration of this it must be remembered that the 
care of it is no small item, looking through the 
year. The strip is not easy to mow and there are 
the edges to be cut, as well as the grass ends to be 
trimmed from time to time. Altogether it will be 
far less trouble to let the border come down to the 
walk. Even when the walk is of dirt, gravel, 
ground stone or ashes, it does not take much time 
to keep the line comparatively straight. 

Borders are best managed when they are a mat- 
ter of gradual growth. A good way is to begin at 
the house and make only one, or a section of it if it 
is to be very long, the first year. Add the other as 
time goes by. Then when the borders have to be 
made over, assuming that they are hardy, all the 
work will not come in one year. Again, delay 
allows time for the accumulation of experience in 
border-making and the propagation of stock that, 
perhaps, is beyond one's mean to buy in quantity. 
Nothing is lost and a great deal is gained by going 


Aside from shrubs, which are in a class by them- 
selves, perennials are the best for borders for the 
simple reason that they do not have to be planted 
every year. Also they have a longer range of 
bloom that gives them an advantage over other 
herbaceous plants; and there is the widest variation 
of height, which is no small thing in the planning 
of effective borders. Very beautiful borders, how- 
ever, are made of biennials or annuals alone or 
of various bedding plants, including not only the 
ordinary ones that are left to die in autumn but 
large and choice specimens of greenhouse plants 
that are kept under glass in winter. There is no 
rule save the very primitive one of doing as you 

What is known as a hardy border is not neces- 
sarily one composed of herbaceous perennials ex- 
clusively. These may or may not be all; perhaps 
there are a few shrubs and more often than not 
there are annuals, biennials and bedding plants 
scattered through. But the very pillars are 
herbaceous perennials. 

No matter what class of plants is employed, it is 
a good plan never to use less than two kinds, these 
to be at their best at different times unless the pe- 
riod is a very protracted one. German iris backed 
by Michaelmas daisies is an example. Or, in an- 
nuals, Shirley poppies may be followed by China 
asters, letting an edging of sweet alyssum, which 
will outlive both, be regarded as the second flower. 
So few as three perennials will answer very well 


indeed if they all have good foliage. Thus the 
Arabis albida, German iris and hardy chrysan- 
themum would give three separate periods of 
bloom and a continuous gray foliage effect in ad- 

But the greater joy is in using a larger number of 
perennials to provide a long succession of dominant 
bloom, any other plants being fillers and therefore 


THOSE whose wealth is a perpetual Aladdin's 
lamp have but to command a garden and it appears. 
Infancy and childhood are annihilated in its crea- 
tion; like Aphrodite goddess of gardens rising 
from the sea, it is born mature. 

That is a legitimate enough game for princes and 
potentates, whether royal, financial or industrial, 
and it is a custom honored by at least a few thou- 
sand years of observance. But, on the whole, it is 
just as well that not more are in a position to in- 
dulge in the game, or have hopes of ever being able 
to do so. For the truth is that a garden is a great 
deal like a library; you get infinitely more enjoy- 
ment out of it when you accumulate it than when 
you acquire it outright. 

All of the gardens that mean most to their 
owners, the real home gardens, may be said to have 
been gathered together just as a collection of 
books is. There is a small beginning, perhaps a 
very modest one indeed; the years add more plants 
and for them more places are made. With the 
years, too, comes the inevitable discarding of what- 



ever has lost its usefulness or, it is discovered, 
never did have any to speak of. 

This is not the spirit that goes in for numerical 
satisfaction; numbers, and size, too, are of second- 
ary importance. It is the spirit that, little by little, 
room by room, equips a house with mellow old 
furniture having the air not so much of a collec- 
tion as of being an inseparable part of the home. 

How a garden may be accumulated can be no 
better illustrated than by telling just how one has 
thus been brought together. There came a day to 
an old place in the country when the last vestige of 
its golden garden age had disappeared. Not a 
link, unless it was the purple lilac on the west side 
of the house, bound the garden past with the pres- 
ent. Nor was there enough of the present to boast 
of a narrow bed of spring bulbs on the east side of 
the house and on the western edge of the lawn a 
short row of "golden glow" ; that was all that was 
worth mentioning. 

More flowers were needed; at least as many as 
in days long gone by, the waning glory of which 
was well remembered. This was obvious one 
spring when winter scarcely had departed. Then 
came the thought : This is an old-fashioned house ; 
why not an old-fashioned garden ? 

Very likely an impatient soul would have 
endeavored to make an old-fashioned garden all at 
once, had he not been a creature of circumstances; 
forced to do what he could, not what he wanted to. 
The which was a blessing, for circumstance taught 


him a garden joy that otherwise he might be ignor- 
ant of even now. 

The moment desire was known, neighbors of- 
fered of their garden treasures. So a start was 
made by going after these offerings in April. In- 
cluding some shrubs, they were numerous enough 
to fill up the extended bulb bed and a new triangu- 
lar, half-shaded border that had been dug where 
two paths met on the other side of the house. 
There was even enough, with gifts that followed in 
May, to fill a dozen or more short rows in an 
improvised border in the rear of the house; every- 
thing separable was divided, some plants making 
three or four. This bed, unconsciously rather than 
by intent, became a nursery. 

Later, seed of a dozen kinds of perennials and 
biennials, one packet of each, was purchased. This 
was sown, in shallow boxes, on the very first day 
of August strictly according to rule. There was 
a good stand, which was thinned out where too 
abundant, and in due time a great number of seed- 
lings was transplanted, in a cleared end of the 
vegetable patch the more delicate ones in a home- 
made coldframe and the remainder in rows by the 
side of it. When the time came for covering them 
up for the winter there was a lot of lusty plants, 
though smaller than the one most interested had 
hoped to have at that particular stage of the pro- 

The end of the first season did not see much of 
a garden, to be sure; any one might protest with 


reason that it was no garden at all. Yet it was 
very much of a garden to a dreamer of dreams, 
who naturally was not always over-careful to draw 
a distinct line between the substantial and the 

Treasures, not a few of them choicer from asso- 
ciation, had been brought together. If the idea was 
still lingering on the border of vagueness, there 
was a plain enough nucleus; and one the sounder 
because it was largely permanent. While the 
foundation was not laid, the first of the stones were 
on the spot. 

But that did not begin to be all of the initial 
season's showing; else this tale would be less 
interesting, as well as shorter. There was the 
experience, that had been accumulating the while 
the garden grew from nothing into the hope, if 
not the present semblance, of something. The 
dreamer had known flowers from childhood had 
pottered with them indoors and outdoors; but for 
the first time in his life he had been handling 
hardy plants, other than a few bulbs. 

Already there was a feeling of conquest. The 
hardy garden had been sensed and a glittering of 
practical knowledge of its spring work, its summer 
work and its autumn work was indelibly impressed 
on the mind. Perennial and biennial were now 
fixed terms. Out of indefiniteness were beginning 
to come ideas as to succession of bloom in the 
garden, the use of blossoms and foliage in the way 
that the painter employs the pigments on his palette 


and much else that concerns the pictorial side of 
gardening. And of many other things learned, or 
then well along in the learning, not the smallest 
was contentment with a modest beginning and with 
making haste slowly. 

The second year unlearning began ; as with gath- 
ering libraries, that is always incidental to the 
early stages of making a garden. One thing un- 
learned was the sowing of the seed of biennials 
and perennials on the first day of August a rule 
again and again drummed into the ear of the 
would-be flower gardener. Only a few of the 
perennials bloomed and of the biennials not a 
Canterbury bell or a hollyhock and no more than 
one foxglove; the Iceland poppies alone were up 
to scratch. From that time on some one has 
planted biennial and perennial seed under glass 
in early May, if he counted upon getting bloom 
the following year. 

To return to spring from this summer digres- 
sion, the second April saw a long, and really se- 
rious, border under way. It was L-shaped and 
ran back from the street along the east side of 
the east lawn and then turned to border the south 
side thus giving this part of the yard a back- 
ground. Hybrid perpetual roses were planted 
nearly up to the turn, where a break was made 
with some larger Madame Plantier bushes; thence 
the border was continued as a hardy herbaceous 
one. What with the little nursery, the numerous 
seedlings and more generosity on the part of neigh- 


bors, there was enough to give the new border a 
fair showing and also to turn the nursery into 
another border. Only a few plants besides the 
roses had to be purchased; but in the autumn bulb- 
buying for the new borders began, the planting 
being in little colonies. 

So the garden grew. The third spring an- 
other border in the rear of the west lawn, to 
define it. It was a big one, almost as wide as 
it was long with a path nearly all the way down 
the middle; but it was not so big that there were 
not plants enough to give it a good start in life. 
Some purchases they could now be made with 
wisdom more gifts, another crop of seedlings 
and the natural increase obtained by separation, 
all helped. And as the garden grew, experience 

The fourth year brought a narrow herbaceous 
border paralleling the rose border and a very wide 
one behind the original herbaceous border, while 
the one that was first the nursery was extended 
to the other side of the path leading up to the rear 
door of the house and also along the east edge 
of it. A new nursery was started at one end of 
the kitchen garden. Now stock was increasing so 
rapidly that a great many plants were given away, 
more going out than coming in. Of those that 
came in, there was beginning to be a sprinkling 
of plants of association picked up on travels and 
sent, or brought, home. And always accumula- 
tion of experience, 


One more east border, the longest of all, an- 
other year; the addition of some small ones, mak- 
ing sixteen altogether, and experience piled upon 
experience that is the rest of the story. Maybe 
it is not yet a garden that has been accumulated, 
but it illustrates a principle even if it is no more 
than an aggregation of loosely related hardy bor- 

The cost? Not a great deal more than the labor 
of two hands in leisure hours. The small expense 
for purchased plants and seed was scarcely missed 
because of its distribution through the years, while 
the amount of money paid out for hired help 
was so slight as to be practically negligible. As 
the garden stands today, it would take hundreds 
of dollars to duplicate the plants, let alone the ex- 
pense of planning and planting if these were done 
by a professional. 

And the pleasure of it. In all of flower garden- 
ing there is nothing more charming than this gath- 
ering with the years and learning with the years. 
You never get to the end, of course. But who 
wants to? A garden is not made to be finished 
within the span of any one human life unless, 
perchance, it is the decree of wealth that it shall 
be. It is something of cumulative growth some- 
thing that expands with its age and the age of 
the one whose hand has shaped and reshaped it 
and who always secretly hopes that when he is gone 
there shall be no cessation of expansion. 


TIME was when most American flower gardens 
were hardy. That was still the rule in grand- 
mother's day the grandmother, say, of those who 
now are getting toward middle life. 

Grandmother knew the intrinsic value of per- 
manence in the garden ; she loved plants that stayed 
by her, that endured with her the rigors of the 
winter and woke up smiling in the spring. And 
she knew full well that, with all else that she 
had to do from the rising of the sun until long 
past the going down thereof, such plants must 
be her main reliance because they represented the 
minimum of labor. 

Came mother. She was rather inclined to stick 
up her nose at grandmother's garden. Like some 
of the fine old furniture, it was not quite good 
enough for the new day and generation. So many 
a beautiful garden that had been treasured for 
years by some one now gone to her last account 
perished from lack of care, and lack of thought, 
by a more or less slow process of petering out. 
They died hard, not a few of them; here and 



there in New England villages root-bound daffo- 
dils, tulips, grape hyacinths and "johnny-go-to- 
beds" are still struggling through the grass to 
show where once was such a garden. 

Mother took a fancy to red cannas, redder gera- 
niums, and reddest salvia, for their gay color, and 
she had a notion that "foliage plants" meaning 
coleus and "elephants' ears" were as necessary 
to the family position as black walnut furniture 
and body brussels carpets. These plants kept up 
a brave show all summer, the while they gave a 
tropical air to dooryards that was not altogether 
becoming, to say the least. 

Happily the third generation came to its senses. 
Today the tide is turning back and with a force 
such as to leave no doubt that the hardy garden 
is here to stay definitely. Old-fashioned flowers 
of permanence are being restored to places that 
knew them in the long ago and ar-e basic figures 
in the establishment of numberless new ones. 

The hardy garden has come into its own again 
because it is the best of gardens. It is best by 
reason of the very permanence that links it with 
the home, year in and year out, so closely that 
the child born within sound of it will remember 
it with infinite pleasure the rest of his life even 
though time and circumstance eventually remove 
him far hence. 

There is another reason, and a potent one. It 
is nature's way. She uses an abundance of an- 
nuals, that there may be no bare spots, and bi- 


ennials; but trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials 
and bulbs are the strength of her gardens. Hers 
are hardy gardens. 

They are by far the most beautiful, the hardy 
gardens. Not that supremely beautiful gardens 
that are only of a summer's life may not be made, 
but the beauty is of a less satisfying kind. Ob- 
served once it enchants, for the lavish display of 
color cannot fail to impress; but when the July 
vision is like unto that of June, and August sees 
little or no 'change, the beauty is of the palling 
kind. Fancy living with a garden made up of 
such beds as are to be seen at Hampton Court 
in summer, for example glorious as these master- 
pieces are for an ever-shifting public. 

The beauty of the hardy garden owes much of 
its charm to the fact that it does not endure, 
save as a varied pageant. May's splendor is its 
own, and so with the other months. There is al- 
ways beauty from April to November often in 
winter as well; but so frequently does it change 
that at all seasons today's beauty scarcely can be 
called tomorrow's beauty. As in nature, picture 
follows picture. 

Plants almost incredibly numerous and varied 
make this possible. Grandmother had relatively 
few to draw from; but now the world has been 
ransacked and the array is nothing short of be- 
wildering. No matter what it is, any effect can 
be planned and carried out and with the feeling 
that it will become the better with age. 


Another point in favor of the hardy garden. 
There you see plants reach their full development, 
as nature intended them to be. From the first 
snowdrop to the last chrysanthemum, every plant 
pursues its natural course of life; you may ob- 
serve it mature and immature. On the other hand, 
bedding plants, such as the geranium, heliotrope 
and lantana, come into the garden in their youth 
and are cut down by the frost before the end of it. 
They are bedding plants at best. When one thinks 
of the geranium in subtropical California, the helio- 
trope in the Alameda of Gibraltar and the lantana 
running wild in Bermuda, all in the greater glory 
that nature meant to give them, their incomplete- 
ness in our northern gardens seems really very 

Then there is the question of appropriateness, 
speaking more particularly of temperate climates. 
Hardy plants are natives of temperate zones, other- 
wise they would not be hardy. There is accord- 
ingly a certain fitness in their use. They seem 
to fall in with any landscape scheme and look as 
if they belonged there. A lily from Japan or a 
bleeding heart from China has the appearance of 
being at home in a Massachusetts garden, whereas 
Cuban palms or Arizona cacti, bedded out for the 
summer in pots, do not. This, of course, is going 
to extremes to institute a comparison. The idea 
is the fitness of hardy plants for the general note 
of home gardens of temperate zones. 

Seldom is a hardy garden literally, that is to 


say exclusively, hardy. Nor is there a valid reason 
why it should be any more than there would be 
for the prohibition of flowers from a zoological 
garden. As a matter of fact, some of the finest 
hardy gardens have liberal plantings of annuals. 
To such a purpose most annuals lend themselves 
admirably, especially when planted in a naturalis- 
tic manner to double-crop the patches of ground 
given over to spring bulbs. That so many of them 
are natives of tropical or subtropical countries is 
no argument against them. Few appear out of 
place in a northern garden in which they are the 
secondary note. Perhaps they ought to, but they 
just do not. 

The long season of the hardy garden is always 
a revelation to those who, by the use of only tender 
bedding plants, have been accustomed to think of 
the flower garden as having its annual beginning 
late in May and its end in September. If the 
proper thought be given to planting, the hardy 
garden, which is little affected by cold in either 
spring or autumn, will have no less than seven 
months April to October inclusive that are 
really good ones. There are forty or fifty reliable 
kinds of flowers that will bloom in April, and, if 
October has fewer at her command, the numerical 
deficiency is more than counterbalanced by the 
showier display. 

But a hardy garden ought to give some enjoy- 
ment to the eye the year round, and will, even 
above a heavy winter blanket of snow, if only a 


few of the advantages that evergreen shrubs and 
those with attractive twigs and berries offer are 
taken advantage of. There are winter days when, 
if the garden is not an altogether comfortable 
place to walk in, it may be a pleasant sight from 
the window. 

A mistaken idea of the hardy garden is that it is 
the most expensive. This is true only of the initial 
expense, and not always then. If everything has to 
be purchased at the outset, the creation of a large 
hardy garden does mean considerable expense ; but 
even then, the investment being a permanent one, 
the cost at the end of a decade or so may be less 
than the total amount that would have been laid 
out for the perishable material of ten consecutive 

There is the economy in labor also to think of. 
A well-made hardy garden can go for many years 
without complete replanting at any one time ; some 
have gone a generation or more and shown no 
material deterioration. The changes, in other 
words, may be made by piecemeal and, if need be, 
at any convenient time, whereas if the foundation 
is not hardiness everything has to be done over 
each year. 

It is labor saved in the end to spade the beds or 
borders fifteen or eighteen inches deep and work 
in a fair quantity of well-rotted manure. If the 
soil is really poor, take it out to at least the depth 
of three feet and fill up with entirely new and 
good soil. What with frequent stirring of the soil 


and an annual top dressing of fine manure between 
the plants, the garden can be kept in good shape 
indefinitely. Sheep manure, which may be used 
sparingly for roses, is excellent for surface appli- 
cation and bone meal is worked into the soil with 
fine results. One of the best of commercial fer- 
tilizers for perennials is a mixture of bone, blood 
and potash; a peony will thank you for a handful 
of it in the spring. 

No hardy garden is made in a day, always ex- 
cepting the comparatively few products of carte 
blanche orders. Even when all laid out at once, 
the plantings call for a considerable amount of 
reshaping. Then again, some of the finest peren- 
nials refuse to be at their best for two or three 
years unless there is the unusual and extravagant 
expedient of making use of large clumps which 
soon will have to be taken up and divided, as 
they are virtually ready for that when set out. 

The sensible plan is to make the hardy garden 
a vision of three or four years hence and com- 
promise with the springs, summers and autumns 
that come before. The plan in detail is this: 
Plant shrubs, roses, peonies and fraxinella far 
enough apart to allow for the maximum expan- 
sion. It is just as well, though less imperative, to 
follow the same rule with funkias, bleeding heart 
and Lythrum superbum. In the spaces between 
the plants grow little colonies of spring bulbs, to 
be followed by transplanted annuals, until the time 
comes when they are not needed; the bulbs can 


remain for years with the peonies, as a great deal 
of ground is required for the spread of the latter 1 s 

In regard to other perennials, fill at first only 
one-third or one-half of the space laid out for a 
colony, setting the plants thickly enough together 
to cause one summer's estimated growth to seem 
at a little distance nearly to conceal the ground. 
Fill the remainder of the space with a good and 
appropriate annual, massed; let one or two of 
the plants wander over into the perennial colony, 
that the effect may appear less studied. As the 
perennial colony becomes crowded remove some 
of the plants and with them continue the filling of 
the space. Another way, but not quite so good, 
is to plant the perennials wide enough apart to al- 
low for a few years' expansion and then fill in 
the spaces with annuals. 


ALL other plants might disappear and the peren- 
nials would give the garden supreme loveliness 
expressed in hundreds upon hundreds of individual 
forms. No one knows how many kinds are in cul- 
tivation; if any calculation were made it would be 
good for only a day, so rapidly are species emerging 
from the realm of botany to the garden and new 
varieties appearing on the scene. A glance at a 
British list of iris, primula or campanula species 
alone is enough to stagger one. 

The special value of perennials, however, lies 
not more in the marvelous variety of form and 
color that incalculable numerousness affords than in 
the distribution of their blooming season through 
the greater part of the year. Excluding all of 
the bulbs, which it is the trade custom to catalogue 
under a separate head, the herbaceous perennials 
have a range of bloom that has not begun to be 
realized by amateurs as the meagre representa- 
tion in the average garden, in both spring and 
autumn, demonstrates clearly enough. Without 
any coddling at all, they can be made to furnish 



an uninterrupted stretch of bloom for approxi- 
mately nine months of the year; a thin showing 
at both ends, it is true, but neither quantity nor 
variety is everything in the flower garden. With 
coddling, it is possible to extend this stretch 
through December, January arid February and 
thus make a complete circle of the year. 

Perennials as a class bloom only once a year. 
Most adhere to this rule with absolute rigidity; 
the exceptions usually are early spring flowers that 
a mild autumn causes to bloom sparsely a few 
months ahead of time or summer flowers that 
have a second spurt, often because the first crop 
of seed has not been allowed to mature. Nor is 
the average period of perfection of bloom long; 
sometimes it is lamentably brief and rarely is a 
perennial so prodigal as the plumy bleeding heart 
(Dkentra formosa), which has blossoms from 
spring to autumn. 

The actual time of bloom is fixed only so far 
as habitat the place where the plant is native 
is concerned. Even then the season, especially an 
early or late spring, will shift normality a little 
one way or the other. In gardens a similar in- 
exactitude of time, but more of it, is to be noted. 
Comparatively few perennials are cultivated in re- 
gions where they grow naturally. Not infrequent- 
ly there is a marked change of altitude; thus a 
primula native to the mountainous heights of Switz- 
erland will bloom earlier in a New York garden, 
because in the latter *he snow disappears earlier. 


Again climate differences are such that garden nor- 
mality is by no means the same everywhere in 
spring and early summer; the German iris is likely 
to be in full bloom in northern Virginia the last 
week in April while in southern New England it 
is not to be looked for until May. 

In the matter of hardiness the withstanding of 
the winter's cold without artificial protection 
there is no fixed rule once a perennial leaves its 
habitat Taken by and large, perennials are won- 
derfully adaptive in this respect, often enduring 
patiently more cold, or more heat, than at home, 
and quite as often giving no sign of minding at all 
a drop of a mile or more to about sea level. But 
with a fairly large number these include, un- 
fortunately, some of the most charming species 
the degree of hardiness positively refuses to 
budge much to accommodate the grower of flow- 
ers. Such perennials must either have protection 
that amounts to coddling or, perhaps, be taken 
up every year and stored all winter where they 
will not freeze. They it is which are largely re- 
sponsible for making certain features of hardy 
gardens of southern Britain the despair of north- 
eastern America where winters are colder and 
summers hotter and drier. 

Where a plant's local hardiness has not been 
tested by cultivation it is a good plan to look it 
up in an authoritative reference book before decid- 
ing about planting. First, see how closely native 
and proposed conditions tally. Then, if the book 


does not give the result of tests in the United 
States, ascertain whether the plant is catalogued 
by reputable American houses. The perennials 
that they offer are a very much abridged list as 
compared with British ones and generally they are 
either reliably hardy as far North as Boston, or 
relative tenderness is plainly indicated. 

All of these things should be clearly understood 
before any definite attempt to grow perennials is 
made. Such understanding is absolutely essential 
for determining the special value of perennials not 
merely to the garden world but narrowed down 
to the province of your particular garden. What 
you want to know above all is the worth of peren- 
nials to you as working material. 

This enables the choice from the embarrasingly 
large list to be made with the intelligence that 
prevents useless waste of time and money in the 
endeavor to do what is not worth while in an in- 
dividual case. 

For the great pleasure in growing perennials is 
to devote time and money to those that are dis- 
tinctly worth while in one's own case. There is a 
host of them available after the most ruthless proc- 
ess of rejection that any one of a thousand cir- 
cumstances would necessitate. The sacrifice will 
never be so great that the true philosopher will 
not be able to find solace in the garden of a dif- 
ferently situated neighbor or friend, or a public 
collection of plants. 

In making a list of availables for final choice 


take, say, one or two hundred small cards and 
from catalogues and garden books pick out the 
same number of plants of tested hardiness that 
seem best suited to the required purpose. Write 
at the top of each card both the botanical and 
the common name. Then add, on separate lines, 
the time of blooming, as nearly as you can as- 
certain for your section of the country, and its aver- 
age duration, the height of foliage as well as bloom 
wherever possible; the general character of the 
plant, whether creeping, sprawling, bushy or mar- 
kedly erect and, finally, the color. It is best thus 
to segregate the color memorandum, because this 
should include not only the color, or range of colors, 
of the blossoms, but like notes as to the foliage. 
Make a clear differentiation of the many foliage 
shades and if the leaves are evergreen say so. It 
is well also to keep in mind, as to color, that the 
matter of blossoms and leaves being loose or com- 
pact may make a material difference in their use 
for garden pictures. 

Next, sort the cards according to season of 
bloom going by the month or, better still, by 
fortnights; they cover better the average period 
of perfection. Lay the resultant packs of cards, 
chronologically, in a line on a table and see if there 
are any distinct breaks in the succession or any 
fortnights that do not admit of enough choice. 
Should these deficiencies exist, return to the cat- 
alogues and garden books for additional material, 
before proceeding. 


The last step is to take up each little pile of 
cards by itself and either subdivide according to 
this or that feature of the memoranda or at once 
choose for the planting. The selected cards will 
then answer as notes from which to make the 
garden, or border, plan. 

Even with this preliminary study, it would be 
far better for every one who is growing peren- 
nials for the first time to plant most species in rows 
like so many vegetables; this for a year or two. 
No matter how much one absorbs from books, it 
is only by watching a perennial grow a season or 
more that it is possible to sense its character in 
every particular, and if this is done in a little home 
nursery the acquired practical knowledge makes 
every definite step in the use of such plants as per- 
manent garden material infinitely easier and more 
effective. No time is really lost and much work- 
ing experience is gained. 

A good reason for this preliminary planting is 
the difficulty of getting a clear idea of the foliage 
spread of a perennial without actual observation. 
The kinds are too numerous to permit of the 
spacing tables by which tulips, hyacinths, pansies 
and geraniums are set out; very few go into the 
ground excepting by what seems guesswork, but 
is really an acquired knack. 

The foliage spread is important to know be- 
fore planning a hardy border or garden, in order 
that enough and not too many plants may be ac- 
quired and set out thus saving money at the 


outset and time spent in replanting later. 

Suppose, to get away from the abstract, half a 
dozen oriental poppies and as many plants of 
"baby's breath" (Gypsophila paniculata) are set 
out in a home nursery bed in parallel rows, about 
fifteen inches apart and the plants nine inches 
apart in the rows. If the plants are of commer- 
cial size they may not seem too close together in 
the row the first year; but the second year they 
will look crowded and there will be every sign 
that thinning or complete replanting must be done 
earlier than ignorance had suspected would be the 
case at the time they were so very carefully set out 
at apparently wide spaces. 

Possibly ignorance, had the planting been done 
in a garden, would have taken it for granted that 
no change would be necessary for years. The 
second season it is noticed that an oriental poppy 
is likely to have a spread two feet in diameter 
while the masses of "baby's breath" in the bloom- 
ing season will perhaps be twice that distance 
across. Meanwhile this will have been discov- 
ered the first year and will be still plainer the sec- 
ond; the poppy blooms early in summer and soon 
the plant turns brown and dies down to the ground, 
the while the later-blooming "baby's breath" is 
spreading out toward it and gradually concealing 
its unsightliness. It is also seen that by the time 
the "baby's breath" is turning brown a couple of 
vines of Thunbergia alata, from seed that hap- 
pened to fall there, are making their way over the 


drying masses because partly to hide the ugly 
is one of the special errands on which nature sends 
the five-foot climber. 

By autumn another thing is noticed; the poppy 
has begun to make a considerable second growth 
of foliage and, lest this be too shaded, there is 
need of cutting away some of the branches of 
"baby's breath" or else diverting them to one 
side. Obviously, the oriental poppy and "baby's 
breath" are one of those dovetailing perennial 
combinations to know which is among the secrets 
of successful hardy gardens and borders. 

Here then is a whole lot, and not all at that, 
learned by the exercise of a litle patience in the 
study of plant character before attempting to bend 
that character to one's own use. And the observa- 
tion of the plants was the easier because of their 
being in a row. 

The only safe general rule for the planting of 
perennials is to allow a space of ground six inches 
square for each plant known to be of dwarf or 
fairly low habit and a space a foot square for the 
taller ones. This is a good rule. Unless the 
plants are seedlings or small cuttings sometimes 
then the ground will be nearly or quite concealed 
when the first summer is well along on its course. 
And there will be ample room for two, three or 
more season's growth according to the plant's nor- 
mal rate of increase and the way that this is helped 
or hindered by weather conditions. 

Whether the plants are set out in rows or 3 


more or less naturalistic fashion, the rule in ques- 
tion need occasion no complete replanting for a 
long time. This is avoided by removing alternate 
plants, or one here and there, as the colony be- 
comes crowded. In some instances the plants may 
be left in the same number, but the individual size 
reduced by cutting off portions with a trowel 
which may be accomplished without lifting 'the 
plant from the ground. Peonies are an exception 
to the rule; they should be planted two feet or 
more apart, as they dislike frequent disturbance. 

Perennials usually are planted for permanent ef- 
fects, but there is a growing tendency to use some 
of those that bloom in the spring and very early 
in the summer as bedding plants. Seedlings or 
small plants raised from cuttings are bedded out 
in the autumn, after the summer flowers have come 
to the end of their tether, and the year following, 
directly the height of bloom is past, they are rooted 
out and either thrown into the compost heap or 
divided and placed in nursery rows. This is the 
plan of Belvoir Castle, where every spring there 
is a superb display of bedded-out perennials on 
a scale that may be imagined from the fact that 
the annual consumption of aubrietias alone is some 
seven thousand. 

Such a temporary use of perennials within the 
limits of parterre formality and the set designs 
of park flower beds is quite common in England. 
The example is one that might well be emulated 
in the United States, where, aside from the most 


familiar bulbs, it is rare to see any plants but 
pansies, English daisies, arabis and forget-me-not 
bedded out in spring. There is a long list to 
choose from, without touching the doubtful flower 
such as various kinds of ranunculus and anemone. 

It is not an expensive form of gardening, if one 
has the time for the additional labor required. 
Seed of perennials does not cost a great deal and 
as soon as a stock is started, propagation by cut- 
tings uses up no money and very little time. 

When seed is purchased, secure the very best 
obtainable. This costs more, but is worth every 
bit of the difference. Americans are apt to imagine 
that they are paying a high price for seed when 
they exchange a dime for a packet and to regard 
a nickel as a sort of standard price. The Eng- 
lish, on the other hand, think nothing of paying 
the -equivalent of twenty- four, thirty-six and forty- 
eight cents a packet; they know what superior 
seed means and the choicest is never too good. 

Seed is the best means of securing some of the 
perennials that are not in the American trade. Not 
only is the risk of importing plants done away with, 
but specimens born here are better fitted to stand 
the climate. One of the few American alpine gar- 
dens of importance has been thus stocked. Aside 
from this, the question of using seed depends a 
great deal on circumstances. It is the quickest 
way of getting a considerable quantity of larkspur, 
Iris pseudo-acorns, aubrietia, Baptisia australis, 
blackberry lily (Pardanthus sinensis), oriental 


poppy, Amsonia Tabernaemontana, the maiden 
pink (Dianthus deltoides) and some of the primu- 
las, to name only a few perennials, while it is a 
very slow way to accumulate herbaceous peonies. 
The only thing to go by is a knowledge of habit, 
which varies greatly in the length of time required 
for germination as well as for the attainment of 
the capacity of blooming; it is often difficult to 
get the seed of trollius and Gentiana acaulis to ger- 
minate until its second spring underground. 

Creeping and prostrate plants commonly send 
out a large number of shoots that root readily and, 
indeed, often strike root before being attached. 
All of the spring-blooming phloxes, arabis, doron- 
icum, Polemonium reptans, the ajugas, the veroni- 
cas and the stonecrops are readily propagated in 
this wise. Others, like the primulas and dropwort, 
cannot be grown from cuttings; they form crowns 
that are easily pulled apart. Cuttings may be ta- 
ken of Phlox paniculata, and it grows quickly from 
seed, but for ordinary purposes the best plan is to 
separate the roots. Large clumps may be safely 
cut with the edge of a spade and the same is true 
of Tradescantia virginica, the funkias, hermero- 
callis, Siberian and Japanese iris and all perennials 
that form a mass of roots so closely bound together 
that division by hand is out of the question. 

There need be no fear of taking cuttings, within 
reasonable bounds, or of much subdividing; both 
are good for perennials, which, it must not be for- 
gotten, occasionally thrive more luxuriantly in the 


garden than in their native haunts. Separate every 
few years; or every year, if conditions seem to 
warrant it. This for the majority of perennials; 
divide peonies every seventh year and let frax- 
inella and the everlasting pea alone indefinitely 
unless a transfer is absolutely necessary. 

It is a custom, but one altogether too infrequent, 
to plant some of the perennials generally grown 
from seed in pots. This seems to be the only 
way to get perfection out of the chimney bell- 
flower (Campanula pyramid alts). In pots the 
spikes of blue or white blossoms will shoot up 
five or six feet and there is nothing more beau- 
tiful for an early summer decorative change in 
the conservatory or for a porch or hall plant. All 
of the hardy primulas, but more particularly the 
English, Cashmere and Siebold primroses, the giant 
cowslip, the polyanthus and the border auricula, 
are remarkably handsome little pot plants for 
March and April indoors. The choicer pyreth- 
rums, trollius, Phlox divaricata and many of the 
alpines are quite as handsome in their way. All 
of the plants may be set out in the garden after 
blooming, though the chimney bellflower is gen- 
erally treated as a biennial and thrown away after 

There are two more uses for potted perennials. 
One is to keep a reserve store for filling gaps in 
the garden and the other is to solve the problem 
of those perennials, including some bulbous and 
tuberous plants, that are unreliably hardy if at all. 


Among the latter are several of the loveliest wind- 
flowers Anemone syhestris, A. bland a, A. St. 
Engid and A. fulgens; the turban and Lebanon 
ranunculus and Rehmannia angulata. These, as 
well as the various hellebores known as Christmas 
and Lent roses which, if they survive the winter 
in the open, do not always bloom satisfactorily in 
December, January and March may be grown 
in pots sunk in ashes in a tight coldframe or kept 
cool indoors until brought out to bloom. 

Some perennials hold strictly to species. Others 
have a perplexing number of varieties, the peony, 
Phlox paniculata, pyrethrum and larkspur running 
up into hundreds, and the original type may be 
lost altogether in cultivation. Where there is a 
choice of varieties, seek out the best. There is 
the greatest difference in the world, as to both 
size and color of bloom, between the best of the 
peonies, phloxes, pyrethrums and larkspurs and 
those that are neither bad nor yet very good. And 
of the best select not many kinds; a dozen plants 
each of the lovely new double pale pink pyrethrum 
Queen Mary and as many more of that admirable 
double white, Carl Vogt, make a much finer show- 
ing than a mixture of two each of twelve va- 

So, too, a massing of the Festiva Maxima peony 
or the old-fashioned red "piny" is better than the 
same number of plants in varied assortment, while 
Phlox paniculata loses half its effectiveness when 
there is not a generous grouping of one kind. 


Not only be chary of varieties in the hardy 
garden and borders, but use the same restraint as 
to the multiplication of species. The wonderful 
big notes are struck by solid effects such as are 
to be found in nature. Bring your stock of Phlox 
divaricata the type color or Alyssum saxatile up 
to one hundred plants, which is easily done in 
a few years. Set them out in a long, narrow 
drift of each and the point will be plainly appar- 
ent. This course does not call for the slighting of 
other desired perennials; they can be grouped as 
fillers, or used in the reserve garden and odd spots 
on the place. Often space by the south or east 
wall of a barn may be used for colonizing peren- 
nials not required for the garden. They make a 
fine show there because of the isolation and are 
always handy for cutting. 

Perennials are the cheapest of all plant invest- 
ments, everything considered. Most of them in- 
crease so rapidly that in a few years the result 
makes the money laid out seem ridiculously small. 
A large number of the commonest kinds may be 
had at fifteen cents each less by the dozen or 
hundred. Novelties and rarities are seldom more 
than half a dollar in. this country. In England 
all kinds of high prices are paid willingly; some 
of the 1912 novelties were $24 each. 


BEST of all the uses of annuals is the most natural 
one the employment of them to fill any spaces 
that hardy plants leave in the garden. Then, if the 
planting be naturalistic, the flower colony looks 
as though it had sprung up spontaneously. 

No one can be said really to know annuals who 
has not seen them in such plantings. Barring a 
few of the very stiff ones, they take on a grace 1 
and beauty a final touch of both that is lacking 
in the formality of set designs. It is the differ- 
ence between the irregularity of a dazzling patch 
of corn poppies in an English field and a circle, 
square or triangle of the same flowers cut out of 
a patch and removed where there is no more of 
the kind. 

Annuals thus employed are invaluable to the 
hardy garden and borders. Even in the best regu- 
lated families, hardy plants cannot always be made 
to cover every inch of the ground unless they have 
evergreen foliage then there may be perishing 
just the same. Spring bulbs die down after bloom- 
ing, the early lilies soon turn brown as do bleed- 



ing heart, oriental poppies and some other peren- 
nials. Not a year but there are bare spots that 
nature will strive to fill with weeds rather than 
have them bare. Here annuals are welcomed. 

But it would be doing annuals scant justice to 
leave them to hazards of this sort. Paradoxical 
though it sounds, it is an unideal hardy garden 
that does not provide in the layout for one or 
rnore colonies of annuals. Without them there is, 
somehow, a sense of incompleteness. 

The greater the departure from the conventional 
the more objection there is to using double flowers. 
The objection is highly elastic; nine times out of 
ten it need not bar the showy double forms of 
the China aster, clarkia, zinnia, stock, poppy and 
African marigold. The chances are, however, that 
where thought is given to the matter the peculiar 
advantages of single forms for drifts and other 
naturalistic plantings will be apparent; single China 
asters and poppies look natural, double ones do 

Besides those mentioned, some of the best an- 
nuals for unconventional massing are larkspur, Arc- 
Jotis grandis, godetia, lupine, Drummond's phlox, 
schizanthus, candytuft, leptosyne, nigella, corn- 
flower, eschscholtzia, cosmos, petunia, nemophila, 
Saponaria vaccaria, phacelia, scabiosa, chrysanthe- 
mum, spreading lobelia (L. speciosa), nemesia, 
Gyphsophila elegans, nicotiana, viscaria, Brachy- 
come iberidifolia, portulaca, coreopsis, alonsoa, 
Dimorphotheca aurantiaca, leptosiphon, petunia, 


sweet sultan and Lavatera rosea and several others. 
Where there is a choice of color, as in the case 
of the larkspur and phlox, make it the general 
rule to plant only one tone in a colony. If the 
latter is very large and two colors are desired, 
mass each; but divide the space unequally between 
them and make the line of division very irregular. 

One of the saddest mistakes made with annuals 
is to plant them in mixtures. Some flowers, pop- 
pies, for instance, never shock you grievously when 
all colors are thrown together; but zinnias, China 
asters and Drummund's phlox, among others, do 
with a vengeance. While between these extremes 
are instances where a mixture may be suffered, no 
annual can be seen in perfection unless the va- 
rieties of the species are segregated. Treated this 
way some of the shades of the zinnia and China 
aster that seem unbearable when in close contact 
with others take on genuine beauty. The sweet 
sultan, scabiosa, portulaca, nemesia, petunia and 
Drummond's phlox likewise show a vast improve- 
ment when the colors are separated. 

Beware of "art" and strange shades, unless the 
scheme is one that needs just such tones; they 
are beautiful when rightly applied, but not easy 
to apply. The large mauve blossoms of Martynia 
elegans are difficult picture material; so are the 
gold-veined blossoms of salpiglossis. And there 
are certain shades of scabiosa and sweet sultan 
that it were better to discard than to use without 
proper thought. 

"Best of all the uses of annuals is the most natural 

one the employment of them to fill any spaces 

that hardy plants leave in the garden" 


Before deciding on annuals for temporary col- 
onies in the hardy garden and borders, get a com- 
prehensive idea of the height and spread of the 
plant; frequently a seed catalogue will give the 
one in print and the other in picture. Thus cosmos 
is very tall and therefore, for the background, 
save when used near a border edge to break a vista, 
though its height may be reduced by the some- 
what reprehensible practice of pinning down the 
plant and letting the side shoots grow perpen- 
dicularly. Low annuals, like Brachycome iberi- 
difolia and godetia, are for the immediate fore- 
ground or very open spaces between perennials 
that are farther to the rear. 

In the placing of annuals among perennials a 
point always to be considered is the freedom with 
which they self-sow and thus become a nuisance 
unless watched very closely. The cornflower, lark- 
spur, coreopsis and Silene armeria are as much of 
a pest as weeds if left entirely to their own way 
of thinking what their share in the population of 
the garden ought to be. These should have the 
blossoms, as they fade, snipped off with scissors 
not a burdensome task if the planting is not an 
uncommonly large one and the work is done daily. 

Where the planting of a hardy garden or border 
is delayed to afford time for accumulating a stock 
of perennials in the home nursery, annuals may 
serve two excellent purposes at once. Get the 
ground in readiness for its eventual use and then 
devote it to annuals entirely for one, two or three 


years as circumstances necessitate, or warrant. 
Whether the hardy scheme be formal or informal, 
a vast amount of experience in the effect of mass- 
ing blossoms and foliage, the combination of colors 
and the meaning of skylines and vistas is to be 
had in this way. 

You want to know, perhaps, how small taper- 
ing evergreens would define certain garden formal- 
ity, or would look in an irregular grouping. Ex- 
periment with the annual that is well named sum- 
mer cypress (Kochia trichophylla). The color is 
light green, changing to a reddish tint in autumn, 
but with the needed form there the imagination 
can do the rest. Or you want to get the effect 
of low shrubs; use the bushy four-o'clock, which 
is a better annual (really a non-hardy perennial) 
than it is credited with being if any of the self- 
colored varieties is used by itself. Put to a prac- 
tical test the color value of sheets of low bloom 
by planting the blood-red Drummond's phlox or 
the orange eschscholtzia, the value of irregular 
spikes with larkspur, of rayed blossoms with 
Brachycome iberidifolia, of blossoms thrown up 
on long stems with sweet sultan, of scattered bloom 
with cosmos, of clouds of tiny blossoms with 
schizanthus and of pastel shades with scabiosa. 
Work out formal effects with such annuals as the 
China aster, candytuft, stock, godetia, alonsoa, tall 
and dwarf zinnia, chrysanthemum, lupine and 
French and African marigold any that are not of 
sprawling growth. With a little study it will not be 


a difficult task to find comparative material. 

A garden all of annuals is also a desirable ex- 
pedient when a place is rented for a season. Peren- 
nials, of course, can be set out temporarily and 
removed with the rest of the household belong- 
ings this is done every year but the plan is not 
always practical. Most would prefer to plant an- 
nuals and leave the problem of garden permanence 
to the next comer. Again this kind of a garden 
is a welcome alternative when a new place is in 
its first season and there is either not the time 
for permanent planting or else a definite scheme is 
left to future decision. 

Then there is the country home that is occupied 
only from late June to early September. The 
garden could still be hardy, out of the abundance 
of summer-blooming perennials, if there is any one 
to give it the necessary spring and autumn care; 
but annuals, and bedding plants treated as such, 
are sometimes to be preferred for one reason or 

Whether it is well to possess a garden of annuals 
simply to have it all annuals is something that no 
one can decide for another. Without question, it 
may be a garden of superlative beauty; on the 
Riviera are great borders that prove this bor- 
ders composed of drifts and other irregular sec- 
tions of some of the most strikingly effective an- 
nuals, the arrangement being as careful as if per- 
manent material were employed. Like proof was 
offered at the international flower show of 1911 


in London, where there were groupings of annuals 
that could not be surpassed with perennials. 

The disadvantage of a garden of annuals is not 
any limitation of esthetic potentiality; it is its im- 
permanence, necessitating complete making over 
and repetition of expense every year, and a mini- 
mum season. The last is the great, and uncon- 
querable, disadvantage; July is at hand before 
much bloom can be counted on and of the few 
species available after the middle of September 
not all can stand frost without protection. There 
are two kinds of annuals, hardy and half hardy. 
The latter are too tender to put plants in the 
ground until near the end of May, so that getting 
them started under glass does not help the matter 
of May bloom. Hardy annuals are so by com- 
parison with the other class, not in the sense that 
most of the cultivated perennials are. The few 
that are really hardy, surviving through late seed- 
lings of the previous year, hurry their blooming 
very little. 

In the circumstances why not let the garden 
of annuals belie its name, just as the hardy garden 
does without compunction whenever it chooses? 
Lavish annuals on it in any measure for summer 
glory, only do not leave the garden bare before 
and after. This is easily got around by pardon- 
able inconsistency. In October plant the garden 
with tulips, hyacinths and other spring bulbs. Edge 
formal beds or borders with hardy candytuft, for 
a permanent thing; with pansies, Bellis perennis, 


Myosotis dissitiflora or Arabis albida for spring 
bloom or with violas (tufted pansies) for summer 
flowers. All of these plants can be set out in 
October and with the exception of the candytuft 
any of them are suitable for places between the 
bulbs, which they follow immediately in bloom 
when the period is not coincident; the arabis and 
myosotis are especially good with early tulips, or 
late ones if care is taken as to the color that goes 
with the myosotis. 

Late in May, when the bulb foliage is turning 
brown, remove any other plants that are not used 
for edging and set annuals in all the available 
spaces. Or the bulbs may be taken up, dried off 
and reset in the autumn. If this is done through- 
out, or here and there, the garden may be given 
a riot of autumn color by massings of hardy chry- 
santhemums. It is not necessary that the chrysan- 
themums should be potted ones; they may be plants 
from cuttings rooted in the spring and grown on 
in rows, as they will bear moving even when in 

Start the annuals, other than poppies, eschscholt- 
zia and sweet alyssum, early by sowing seed in a 
coldframe soon after the first of May. Keep the 
plants under glass until the end of the month, or 
later if the garden is not ready for them. Do not 
let them get spindling; this is the objection to 
starting the seeds in the house in boxes in April. 
If started still earlier in a greenhouse, in March, 
they can be potted and put in the garden as good- 


sized plants; but they will reach up for the light 
and are apt to go outdoors in a weakened condi- 

Annuals that are a long time reaching maturity 
such as helichrysum, the finest of all the everlast- 
ings, and the old type of cosmos ought never to 
be sown in the open ground. The fascinating sal- 
piglossis, also, is sown early under glass to insure 
bloom. Then there is the sweet sultan, which 
likes to get an early start so that it may give of 
its, best before the heat of midsummer. 

An effective way of using annuals is as pot plants 
not only to fill spaces in the greenhouse but 
for the porch in summer, and for setting among 
shrubbery or in garden blanks. A great deal of 
this is done in England, where some potted an- 
nuals are superb specimen plants that cause eyes 
not familiar with them to open wide with wonder. 
Think of bushes of Clarkia elegans, a yard high 
and through, that are a mass of double pink or 
salmon blossoms! These are May possibilities if 
the seed is sown indoors in September and the 
plants potted and pinched back to promote bushi- 
ness. Cosmos, for autumn; rhodanthe, one of 
the everlastings; the common double balsam, ne- 
mesia, schizanthus, cockscomb and Dimorphotheca 
auriantiaca, the last of which has handsome hy- 
brids now, are among other suitable annuals for 
pots. The balsam, nemesia and schizanthus, like 
clarkia, develop better in pots than in the garden. 

One of the biennials, the Canterbury bell, is as 


fine a subject for pot culture as heart could desire. 
This and other biennials, among them the fox- 
glove, hollyhock and Myosotis dissitiflora, are 
usually thrown in with the annuals as they are 
regarded as plants of only a year so far as garden 
usefulness is concerned. Often they spend scarcely 
more time in the garden than is necessary for 
blooming, after which they are discarded. The 
same with sweet-william and columbine, though 
both of these will persist several years if conditions 
are favorable. 

Of the number of annuals in cultivation few have 
any idea. Name a dozen or so and the list that 
the average person can think of offhand is ex- 
hausted. The common annuals are such because 
of a worth that time has shown, but they do not 
begin to be all that ought to be common. Nor do 
they begin to be all the easy ones if any annuals 
can be called really difficult. 

The salpiglosis is one that deserves to be better 
known; it is very good for massing if the colors 
are not mixed, but this plant affords the keenest 
pleasure when it is in less crowded garden con- 
ditions or when the blossoms are in a vase. Un- 
appreciated, too, are schizanthus, with its myriads 
of little butterflies; nemesia, than which no low 
annual is more charming and which shows blue as 
well as red, yellow, pink and white, and phacelia, 
especially P. campanularia, with its blue bellflow- 

Then there are three rayed annuals that are 


badly neglected. The Swan river daisy (Brachy- 
come iberidi folia) , from Australia, is among the 
daintiest of carpeting annuals. The type is light 
blue, but there are white and pink varieties. Of 
the others the African daisy (Arctotis grandis) 
is unusual in that the white blossoms have a mauve 
centre, while the foliage is very downy, and the 
Namaqualand daisy (Dimorphotheca aurantiaca) 
furnishes rich yellow bloom. This trio is good for 
all summer. 


MOST of the old-time flower gardens of the 
northeastern part of the United States had at least a 
shrub or two with others so near as to give them 
an air of relationship. Flowers were flowers in 
those days; little time was spent in botanical dif- 
ferentiation of the source. 

One such garden scarcely would be discoverable 
today were it not for the surviving shrubs. Turf- 
grown paths, with but a ragged remnant of the 
box that once lined them, are arched with great 
bush honeysuckles; a double yellow "wallflower" 
struggles for bare existence in the shade of a rank 
old "syringa," cinnamon roses run wild and a 
flowering almond is a mere ghost of its former 
glory. What few perennials remain are straggling 
remnants of hardy races that even neglect finds 
it difficult to kill. 

The old idea is every whit as good today. Why 
look upon shrubs, or trees, as something quite 
separable from the garden? If only as a 
background, some of them almost always come 
into the picture anyway; when shut out of a 


planting by a circumscribing wall, they are rarely 
lost altogether from view. No matter how plainly 
defined, what it is so pleasant to call the garden 
is no more all the garden, in the broadest sense, 
than the section of a city that is built up solid 
is all of that city. As the city rambles suburban- 
ward, so the garden spreads and spreads, until the 
ends thereof are the boundaries of the home site. 
Shrubs are not the only factors in this garden ex- 
tension, but the flowering ones are the dominant 
denotive figures. A shrub in the garden, or by the 
side of it, a few more near the house and a small 
border of them in one corner of the grounds 
there you have the simplest sort of a garden chain; 
yet one binding together the parts of a small place. 
Shrubs, in short, are prime material for the mak- 
ing of the piers of the imaginary garden bridges 
that every place, whether large or small, needs. 

A great English estate, such as Witley Court, 
the main portion of which stretches out into ten 
thousand acres, shows how little size has to do 
with the expression of the thought. May is two- 
thirds over and the garden of gardens, that the 
stately mansion looks out upon, is aglow with rho- 
dodendrons. But in every direction flowering 
shrubs are beckoning, as if to remind you that 
there is more to the garden than that. Whichever 
way you turn there are links with the garden; 
some of them bind it to other gardens, and then 
away again. In one direction you are soon in 
the woods, but along the broad shaded path are 


more rhododendrons with other shrubs, and you 
can see that only a little while ago there had been 
myriads of bluebells and primroses to perform a 
like office in a more lowly fashion. 

Shrubs are of special value in the hardy garden 
because of their height, which varies the skyline 
agreeably and at the same time gives permanence 
to some of its aspects. In April, when nothing 
herbaceous, barring possibly the crown imperial, 
has dared as yet to raise its blossoms, far from 
the ground, a single forsythia will fairly illumine 
the garden because it is a flowering shrub standing 
out boldly against the sky. Then in winter the 
bare branches of shrubs, above a deadly monoto- 
nous level, are a grateful break if they are only 
brown; more so when they are red, green, yellow 
or gray, and still more so when bright fruit or 
evergreen foliage lingers on them. 

In the garden proper these are more important 
considerations than mere wealth of bloom for late 
spring and early summer, when no end of peren- 
nials can be depended upon for flower color. Shrub 
bloom really grows in importance as it recedes from 
the garden, unless the latter is given over en- 
tirely to this class of plants, which is seldom the 

Put but one evergreen shrub in the garden, re- 
gardless of whether it blooms, and it is imme- 
diately seen that here is an indispensable note. 
Spring, summer, autumn and winter this note is 
indispensable. In a formal garden that is not 


large enough to use evergreen conifers, it is best 
expressed by box and ilex; though conifers of 
very small size may be allowed with equal propri- 
ety to pass as shrubs. Box is the most beautiful 
edging and normally is very hardy. As shrubs 
go, it is expensive; but with five-inch edging at 
three dollars a hundred and five dollars for fine 
single specimens about four feet high, the price is 
not prohibitive. Both the English holly (Ilex aqui- 
folia, var. Hodglnsii) and the American holly (I. 
opaca) may be had in four-foot specimens for about 
half the price. Clipped California privet of the 
same size costs five dollars or so for a pyramid 
or globe; the shrub itself is cheap, but the train- 
ing has to be paid for. 

For less formal or wholly unconventional ef- 
fects there are more than a dozen evergreen shrubs 
whose worth in the garden itself does not begin 
to be appreciated. Foremost among them, because 
superb bloom is added to strongly effective foli- 
age, are certain rhododendrons and the mountain 
laurel (Kalmia latifolia). These have thrived in 
a full exposure; but if the garden has no shaded 
spot, they are safer when planted where the sun 
does not beat down on them relentlessly in sum- 
mer and the force of the winter's winds is broken 
by protecting trees and shrubs on the North. 
Moreover, such a situation, perhaps on the edge 
of the garden, best becomes them. Both require 
soil made fibrous by peat or leaf mold; also a 
heavy winter mulch of leaves, to be left on as a 


of helping to keep the ground moist in 

If good stock fully acclimatized, should it have 
been imported is purchased, neither shrub is so 
difficult as it seems to most who lose them in cul- 
ture. Generally the losses are due to a lack of 
common sense. The two big American rhododen- 
drons, R. Catawbiense and R. maximum, the latter 
the last of all to bloom, are not excelled by any 
of the hybrids for massing. They are also hardier. 
The Catawbiense has rose shades while the max- 
imum ranges from pale pink to white. Of the 
hybrids some of the finest are hardy in England 
but will not bear the winters here ; the tender ones 
include the majority of those known as red. In 
choosing hybrids therefore reject all but the named 
varieties of well-tested hardiness; there are enough 
reliable ones. Two-foot rhododendrons and laurel 
cost about two dollars each. 

For low evergreen growth, semi-formal or nat- 
uralistic, there are several good shrubs. The show- 
iest is Azalea amoena, which is ablaze with little 
solferino blossoms in May and in autumn has 
bronzed foliage. Keep the blossoms away from 
everything not green or white; the color is the 
fighting kind. Three kinds of cotoneaster, all 
with gay berries through the winter; as many of 
the andromedas; Crataegus pyracantha, which has 
brilliant orange berries; Phyllyrea decora. Rhodo- 
dendron ferrugineum, Rhododendron hirsutum, 
Euonymus japonicus and the lovely little garland 


flower (Daphne cneorum) are others. The gar- 
land flower is so low that it drops conveniently into 
lists of perennials supposed to be herbaceous. 
Though little known, it is among the choicest of 
hardy garden plants. The clustered pink blos- 
soms coming in May and again, more sparsely, 
at the end of summer are deliciously fragrant. 

For holly-like effects without regularity there are 
the American and Japanese mahonias, both with 
early yellow blossoms, and Osmanthus aqui folium, 
which is quite dwarf. 

Although evergreen shrubs bloom, it is the de- 
ciduous ones that, for convenience, are called flow- 
ering shrubs. Here the riches are so embarrassing 
that only parks and vast estates can hope to sound 
very deep the joys of possession. One catalogue 
lists no less than eighty-eight hardy species and 
these are sub-divided into nearly four hundred 
varieties. Eighty-eight species ; yet how many can 
be called at all common in dooryards? The lilac, 
snowball, Japan quince, weigela, Philadelphus 
coronarius, deutzia, Spiraea Fan Houttei, Hydran- 
gea pamculata, forsythia, althea and bush honey- 
suckle less than a dozen. No fault is to be found 
with these eleven shrubs, they will always be among 
the best; but there are others that deserve to be 
just as familiar. 

Nor is this all of the pity. There is much 
ignorance of the fact that the commonest kinds 
have not been standing still; new species and new 
hybrids have been coming along. Once all you 


had to know about a lilac was that it was either 
white or purple; nowadays there are double and 
single ones, with enormous trusses and such fancy 
names as Comte Horace de Choiseul and Souvenir 
de Louis Spaeth. White has cream and yellowish 
shades, while purple is varied by hues styled red, 
blue, lavender, lilac and violet. Lilacs, too, may 
be Hungarian, Persian or Rouen and you must 
not say lilac but syringa. Once upon a time syringa 
meant the white flower which is called mock orange 
in its larger form. Now you have to say phila- 
delphus for mock orange, and there are double 
and single named kinds. Snowball is viburnum; 
if you know a dozen species you are not through 
with the cultivated list. The old pink and white 
weigelas have a host of variants, altheas go by 
name instead of color, spirea and hydrangea spe- 
cies have multiplied and you are obliged to ex- 
plain sometimes which one of four forsythias you 

So, before ordering even these familiar flower- 
ing shrubs, study the catalogue for a line on the 
improvements and variations of the type; better 
still, visit a nursery in the blooming season. Study, 
in particular, the new lilacs, altheas, weigelas and 
deutzias, the unfamiliar viburnum, spirea and hy- 
drangea species, the variety of bush honeysuckles 
and the double mock orange. The althea, or rose 
of Sharon, which is being developed largely in 
the double forms, ought to be on every place, as 
it blooms later than most shrubs. 


k. _ 

Of shrubs that are not so common, there is an 
altogether too scant showing of deciduous azaleas, 
magnolias and flowering crabs (Mains) in the 
hardy garden. Named varieties of Azalea mollls 
are strikingly fine for early yellow, red and rose 
effects, as the bloom precedes the foliage. This 
azalea will do well in the open, but it and the 
gorgeous flame azalea (A. calendnlacea) are the 
better for being treated as undergrowth in partial 
shade. A dozen two-foot plants of either sells for 
about seven dollars and a half. Magnolias occa- 
sionally are winter-killed even after standing for 
so many years that they have become trees of con- 
siderable size; but often a single season's bloom 
is worth the cost. The dwarf species (M. stellata) , 
which costs two dollars and a half for the three- 
foot size, is a beautiful garden shrub, especially 
when it blooms by the side of forsythia. The 
creamy Chinese magnolia (M. conspicna) and the 
purplish Japan species (M. atropnrpurea) are best 
suited for the edge of the garden unless the layout 
is an extensive one. The flowering crabs are really 
small trees. The Siberian crab (Mains baccata) 
is a good choice; so are the double M. spectabilis 
alba fl. pi. and the dwarf M. Toringo. Four-foot 
trees are under a dollar in price. 

The amygdaline, or almond, group offers, in its 
way, quite as much beauty. The double pink and 
white almonds (Amygdalns chinensis) are charm- 
ing shrubs that are grossly neglected nowadays. 
These are very hardy. The double pink and white 


peaches perish more easily, but, like the magnolias, 
they give in a short life the worth of the money 
spent. The blood-leaved peach has excellent dark 
foliage. Another shrub in this group, A. sibirica, 
begins to bloom in late March or early April. 

Small trees of laburnum (Cytisus), which need 
a little shelter; dogwood (Cornus florida), both 
the white and the rare pink; the Japan Judas tree 
(Certis japonica), silver bell (Halesia tetraptera), 
witch hazel (Hamamelis japonica), cornelian 
cherry (Cornus mascula), double English haw- 
thorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) and white fringe 
(Chionanthus 'Virginia) all make good garden 
shrubs. Those that grow large develop slowly; 
but none of them should be planted without due 
allowance for future expansion, as transplanting 
is not so easy as with shrubs proper. 

What used to be called wallflower (Kerria jap- 
onica) in the old double form has a great deal 
of garden effectiveness in the species; the single 
yellow blossoms have a long season and the green 
branches are handsome. The white kerria 
(Rhodotypos kerrioides) is quite as good and it 
has black berries that last all winter. Other fine 
white-flowered shrubs, yet rarely seen, are the 
pearl bush (Exochorda grandiftora) and the dwarf 
Juneberry (Amelanchier botryapium). 

One of the unfortunate things about shrubs in 
the North is the lack of true blue, violet and pur- 
ple shades in the bloom. There are enough shrubs 
to supply it, but these colors do not seem to go with 


the ability to stand severe cold. The Chinese and 
Japanese buddleias, which are fairly hardy in the 
North when planted in a sheltered location, are in 
this class. The false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa) 
and the blue spirea (Caryopteris mastacanthus) 
have the same relative hardiness. The beautiful 
blue hybrids of ceanothus are less to be relied 
upon above the latitude of Washington, though 
Gloire de Versailles has pulled through the win- 
ter near New York. This is a fine variety to 
contrast with the hardy native New Jersey tea 
(Ceanothus americanus), which has white flowers. 

Several shrubs with pea-shaped bloom are useful 
for secondary effects. Pink, purplish and white 
blossoms are furnished by four species of tick tre- 
foil (Desmodium). These bloom late and their 
growth is such that they may be placed in any 
herbaceous border. The bladder senna (Colutea 
arborescens) will add yellow tinged with red and 
there are some fine new forms of broom some- 
times listed now under cytisus instead of genista. 
The Schipka cytisus ( C. Schipkaensis), with whitish 
blossoms, is quite hardy. 

The dwarf barberries are worthy of a place in 
the garden for three good reasons blossoms, fo- 
liage and fruit. The common European barberry 
(Berberls vulgaris), either the type or the kind with 
purple foliage, ought to be grown more on the 
garden's edge than it is; in autumn, especially, it 
is splendidly effective. Then there are the beau- 
tiful species of elder .(Sambucus), of sumac (Rhus) 


and currant (Ribes), in themselves sufficient to 
make a garden of great variety; the several tama- 
risks, some of which are great improvements on 
the old; the French mulberry (Callicarpa), which 
has an abundance of showy fruit, as well as grace- 
ful growth; one or two good aralias, the old-fash- 
ioned, sweet-scented shrub (Calycanthus) and half 
a dozen worth-while St. John's worts (Hyperi- 
cum). Privet, notably the new Japanese Ligustrum 
Ibota, has fine white bloom, but the odor is rather 
strong for the garden. 

Roses creep into the shrub category of conve- 
nience, just as some of the trees do. The standard, 
or tree, roses are serviceable only for formal layouts 
and without professional care they are apt to be 
more bother than they are worth. The best roses 
to consider as shrubs are those that make big 
bushes, such as the old-fashioned damask and Mad- 
ame Plantier. Then there is the sweet brier; noth- 
ing is fairer than the type, but the Lord Penzance 
hybrids offer darker pink and ecru tones. Coarser 
single blossoms and foliage are provided by the 
ramanas rose (Rosa rugosa), which has semi-dou- 
ble forms now. Harison's yellow and Rosa mul- 
tiflora japonica, the latter for massing in loose ef- 
fect, are two more of the many good bush roses. 

There can be no rule as to what extent shrubs 
shall figure in hardy gardens and borders. The 
only thing to do is to count them as available 
material of permanence like the perennials, only 
not herbaceous and work with them to the 


best advantage. They are very serviceable in small 
gardens to raise the height of the center or rear 
of a bed or border, to define entrances and to 
multiply vistas by blocking a view. In long bor- 
ders they may be made to form bays for peren- 
nials; or there may be a dotting of them for ac- 
cents of flower color or evergreen foliage. 

Perennials, biennials, annuals and bulbs all work 
in well with shrubs, if the planting is done with 
understanding. There is no better place for some 
of the best lilies than among rhododendrons. And 
there are perennials that enjoy, if they do not de- 
mand, the partial shade that planting among or 
near shrubs gives them. Plant such accordingly; 
the other perennials in the open spaces. Where 
shrubs are placed far apart to provide for future 
expansion, mass perennials they can be removed 
later or use a combination of spring bulbs and 
annuals or biennials. 

Often the best results with shrubs are obtained 
by using them chiefly for a more or less formal 
massing around the garden. Privet, hawthorn, al- 
thea, barberry and flowering quince are among 
those available for clipped hedges. Generally the 
naturalistic effects are the most beautiful of all. 

For these plantings, and for shrubberies any- 
where else on the grounds, draw upon other classes 
of plants to fill every bit of space that is going 
begging. Whether the spaces offers full sun, half 
shade or complete shade, some plant will find it a 
congenial home. Shrubberies are always a good 


place for plants that you would like to grow but 
have not the room for in the garden; or perhaps 
they do not suit the scheme there. Straight edg- 
ings are allowable when circumstances warrant 
them, but naturalistic colonies are best. 

The space under shrubs of a spreading habit 
need never go to waste. Under deciduous shrubs 
it is just the spot for permanent colonies of small 
bulbs which it is often risky to grow in the gar- 
den, where their location in little groups is easily 
lost sight of. Similarly the foam flower (Tiarella 
cordifolia) and other shade-loving carpeting plants 
will gladly cover the ground beneath shrubs. A 
bulb and a carpeting plant may be used together, 
or two different bulbs colonized. 

Shrubs have an April to October range of bloom, 
with the greatest burst of it in May and June. 
The sweet gale (Myrica) and Mahonia japonica 
are due in February and March and Daphne me- 
zereum in the latter month, while the witch hazel 
holds off until November; but between October 
and April color must largely be a matter of fo- 
liage and fruit. Fortunately shrubs are so gen- 
erous in these two respects that planning for the 
entire year is possible. 

As with perennials, shrubs should be planted 
for long succession. Thus the forsythia, Spiraea 
van Houttei, althea and Hydrangea paniculata are 
a good sequence, that may be lengthened by adding 
'Berberis Thunbergii and Ilex opaca for the com- 
pletion of a year's circle. As a rule, especially in 


shrubberies, strive to get the successive effects with 
only one or two species of shrubs. No mixed 
bloom can begin to make the picture that is cre- 
ated by a massing of Spiraea van Houttei or pink 
weigela alone, or laburnum and purple lilacs to- 
gether. Clashing shrubs need not be discarded if 
the place is of any size; there is always room for 
more somewhere. 

Do not mass all of the shrubs. Now and then 
isolate one and let it give full play to individuality 
as expressed in its natural form. If inclined to 
primness, let it be prim; if rambling, let it ramble. 
This not merely for specimens in the garden or 
on the lawn, but one standing out in blooming 
time from a shrubbery background. A shrub that 
has a great burst of bloom a magnolia, flame 
azalea, rhododendron, Hydrangea paniculata, for- 
sythia, Spiraea van Houttei, Dentzia corymbiflora, 
double Philadelphus coronarius (Boule d' Argent) 
double white lilac (Madame Casimir Perier), 
weigela or any of the double-flowered fruit trees 
if thus left to itself, will be an annual spectacle, 
growing in beauty with the fullness of age. 

In some cases old wood will have to be removed, 
but keep the pruning down to the appearance of 
there not being any. There is always a tendency 
to over-prune shrubs. Where sheer form of a 
restrained artificial character is desired, there are 
shrubs trained in standard, or tree, shape to be 
had. For the lawn this shape has an advantage in 
that the grass does not suffer beneath it The lilac, 


weigela, 'Azalea mollis, althea, double hawthorn, 
forsythia, Hydrangea paniculata, double almond 
and rose acacia (Robinia hispida) are so trained 
with particular effectiveness. It is also one of the 
best ways to use that showy vine, the Chinese wis- 
taria. The price is based on the age of the head, 
two dollars and a half to five dollars; the stem 
height is five or six feet in any case. 



No plants are more interesting to grow in the 
garden than the bulbous ones, especially those that 
are hardy. There is a peculiar fascination in buy- 
ing a dry brown, black, white or yellow bulb, 
sometimes a mere mite of a thing, burying it in 
the ground, leaving it there all winter and one 
day in spring finding it doing its share to beautify 
the earth. And not the change of a seed into a 
plant seems so marvelous a transition. 

It is in the springtime that bulbs are of the 
most value in the garden. At that time of the year 
they are simply invaluable. Not that there is 
any lack of perennials for spring, if flower lovers 
would only cast their eyes about; but in neither 
form nor color can these perform for the garden 
the gentle offices of the bulbs. Veritable herba- 
ceous perennials though they be, they are abso- 
lutely distinct. 

A close observation of American gardens for 
many years has shown that here is a field well- 
trodden in no more than a few spots. Only the 
tulip, hyacinth, narcissus and crocus are grown 


BULBS 129 

commonly, and of these It is rare to come across 
all four in one dooryard. As if this were not 
bad enough, tulips, to most, remain tulips; hya- 
cinths are hyacinths, the narcissus is a narcissus 
and the crocus is a crocus, just as if the horti- 
cultural world had stood still since the middle of 
the last century. Single or double, red, blue, pur- 
ple, pink, yellow or white are still the common 
differentiations. Of course, these four bulbs can 
give abundant satisfaction at that, but a greater 
satisfaction is lost through ignorance of the va- 
riety that has converted the modern catalogue into 
a veritable treasure-house. 

Tulips have been separated into important sub- 
divisions since the early days of their culture; it is 
the emphasis on the subdivisions that is modern. 
You speak now not of tulips in general, but of a 
particular class. The commonest bedding tulips, 
known as early-flowering, are both double and sin- 
gle and the growth is low. While their precise 
origin is lost in remoteness, they are supposed to 
have come from Tullpa suaveolens, a species from 
the southern part of Russia. The old tall single 
bedding tulips are styled late-flowering, May or 
cottage tulips. These range from two feet to, in 
some cases, the height of an ordinary walking- 
stick and bloom well along in May, immediately 
following the others which begin in April. Their 
parent species is T. Gesneriana. For many years 
they were neglected save in the British and Flem- 
ish cottage gardens whence they have been res- 


cued, to become one of the most admired classes. 

Late tulips were themselves divided some three 
hundred years ago into four classes breeders or 
self-flowers, that is to say, all of one color : bizarres, 
bybloemens and roses. A peculiarity of tulips is 
that in cultivation a seedling blooming for the first 
time is generally self-colored; then, after a few 
years they have been known to wait three dec- 
ades there will be a change to a feathered state. 
The lower part of the petals remains as before, 
but there will be marginal pencilling and wide and 
narrow stripes or blotches. Bizarres are the ones 
with yellow bases and markings of red, maroon 
and brownish shades ; bybloemens are white, marked 
with purples that grade to what is called black, 
and roses are white with many shades of pink 
and red markings. 

From this race has come a comparatively new 
one, the Darwin, which some amateurs regard as 
the finest of all. Certainly it is a noble race, well 
calculated to send into ecstasies of delight any 
one who has seen an exhibition of the star va- 
rieties say twenty-five specimens of each, mag- 
nificent in form and color and the stems more than 
two feet long. The Darwins are selfs, or nearly 
so; some of them are shaded, shot or edged with 
another tone and the centre may be white, blue or 
black. No tulip colors are more exquisite. 

When the Darwins "break" into a lasting varie- 
gation they are known as Rembrandts. These are 
very strikingly blotched, striped or flamed and vie 

BULBS 131 

in color combinations with the bizarres, bybloemens 
and roses. 

Parrot, or dragon, tulips are a very old class. 
The large blossoms have deeply toothed petals 
and the color variegations are extraordinarily pic- 
turesque. They remind one rather of macaws 
than parrots. Golden inside and the outside shaded 
and feathered with scarlet, purple and green is a 
summary of the gorgeousness of one variety. The 
parrot tulips bloom in May. While they are very 
showy, their somewhat artificial air, weak stems 
and irregular flowering habit have always kept 
them out of the foreground. 

A further classification of English tulips is some- 
times made. These are the old English florist 
tulips and are merely another group of breeders 
that have broken, being sub-divided into bizarres, 
bybloemens and roses. Then there are the tulip 
species, a great number of which have been brought 
into cultivation; there are thirty-four of them in 
a single English list and of these not one has 
been more than a rare visitor to an American gar- 
den. So it is plain that the cup of tulip hap- 
piness is being only sipped. 

Of the species, a few are in the American mar- 
ket. The sweet-scented Florentine tulip (T. syl- 
vestris, or florentina) is a very pretty yellow one 
and the little lady tulip ( T. Clusiana) is a perfect 
gem. The latter, which is pale red outside and 
white inside, will do well in the garden if planted 
among stones and plant roots in light soil and a 


warm, sheltered place. Three red ones, T. tuber- 
geniana, T. Greigii and T. oculus soils are all very 
handsome and there is an early pink or white one, 
T. Kaufmanniana. 

The lack of tulip education is most deplorable 
in the case of the cottage and Darwin tulips. Any 
of these, but most of all the selfs, are among the 
very choicest material for giving the garden beau- 
tiful May color with sharply defined individuality 
of form. Such cottage tulips as Glare of the Gar- 
den, Orange King, Inglescpmbe Yellow, Mrs. 
Moon, The Fawn and Black Chief and such Dar- 
wins as Clara Butt, Baronne de la Tonnaye, King 
Harold, Mrs. Krelage, Peter Barr and Mrs. Stan- 
ley are a joy to handle in the making of a garden 

Of hyacinths there is less to be learned. Only 
the familiar Hyacinthus orientalis, single and dou- 
ble, is generally available in gardens north of 
Washington, but with protection it is possible to 
grow the dainty Roman hyacinth in the open ground 
near New York. What is chiefly to be learned 
about hyacinths proper is that it is idle to keep on 
in the old way of making mixed plantings ; no bulb 
loses more by such treatment. There is no ex- 
cuse for this; named varieties of every hue, that 
have stood the test of time, are to be had and 
for low spring massing in a solid tone nothing is 
better. This is a more expensive plan than buy- 
ing by color alone, but safer, as in the latter in- 
stance there is likely to be a conglomeration of 

BULBS 133 

shades that makes for indefiniteness of tone. A 
third species, H. amethystinus, is a dainty alpine 
hyacinth that ought to be better known. There is 
now a white variety of it. 

The feathered, grape, musk and starch hyacinths 
are not of the same genus ; they are muscari. One 
of them, M . azureum, was formerly Hyacinthus 
azureus. The deep blue grape hyacinth (M. 
Botryoides) called bluebell in New England, is the 
only familiar one here and even that is much more 
of a stranger than it was years ago; as often as 
not it is an "escape" in the grass. It is fine for 
garden massing and so are the light blue and 
"pearls of Spain" (white). The Trebizond 
starch hyacinth Heavenly Blue has the gentian 
color and is very lovely in the garden. The or- 
dinary starch hyacinth (M. neglectum majus) and 
the Caucasian starch hyacinth (M. paradoxum) are 
blue-black. The fragrant musk hyacinth is M. 
moschatum majus, the tassel hyacinth M. . comosum 
and the plume or ostrich feather hyacinth M. 
plumosum. The last has been developed into mauve 
plumes of great size, worthless to the garden save 
as curiosities. 

Old gardens knew a few kinds of narcissus. The 
common ones were the yellow "daffy" (N. Tele- 
monius plenus, or van Sion) , the orange and yel- 
low "Butter and Eggs" (N. incomparabilis fl. pi.) , 
the "jonquil" (N. alba plena odorata) and the 
poet's narcissus (N. poeticus), all but the last 
double. Only the first has begun to hold its own 


and the chief newcomer is the single yellow daffo- 
dil (N. pseudo-narcissus), generally in only a slight 
improvement of the species form. 

Yet this is the day of the daffodil to use the 
most convenient English name for covering the 
genus Narcissus. In England there is a daffodil 
craze, with no parallel save the historic tulip mania 
in Holland. It is said that 50, about $242, 
is the top-notch price for a single bulb. In any 
event prices in excess of ten dollars are tolerably 
common; some of the 1912 quotations for novel- 
ties were Challenger, $162; Michael, $90; Em- 
pire, Jasper and Sheba, $76, and Czarina and 
Sir Galahad, $50. 

It is doubtful if the craze will ever cross the 
Atlantic. Meanwhile daffodils than which none 
could ask anything more beautiful are not in every 
garden, though sold as low as half a dollar a 
dozen. Two of the best single trumpet -daffodils, 
Emperor (all yellow) and Empress (yellow with 
a white perianth) cost no more than that and will 
be just as satisfying to the general run of flower- 
lovers as costly bulbs are to the ardent British 
collector. The poet's narcissus and its yellow 
counterpart, N. incomparabilis Barrii conspicuus, 
which cost less than half as much, are two more 
of the best. And these are only four selections of 
cheap single kinds. The natural hybrid of the 
poet's narcissus, N. biflorus, is very beautiful but 
is more common from Delaware southward. The 
double white jonquil, better named now gardenia 

"// there is a stretch of thin grass that is not cut 
early, naturalize some of the bulbs" 

BULBS 135 

daffodil, is good for massing but rather capricious 
as to blooming. It exceeds in beauty the four other 
double ones, Van Sion, "Butter and Eggs" and 
the remaining two incomparabilis variants, Orange 
Phoenix ("Eggs and Bacon") and Silver Phoenix 
("Codlins and Cream"). 

The clustered nosegay daffodil (N. polyanthus) 
has beautiful forms for the garden, but they are 
tender and require protection. Their poetaz hy- 
brids are less tender. The Chinese sacred lily 
(N. orientalis) is not grown in the open in cold 
climates. The true jonquils are hardy and it is 
unfortunate that they have not come to the front 
more. Both the campernelle jonquil (N. odorus) 
and the smaller kind (N. Jonquilla) are exceed- 
ingly graceful yellow flowers. Of the small spe- 
cies called daffodils the hoop petticoat (Bulboco- 
dlum citrinus) and the rushleaved B. gracilis, last 
of all to bloom, are deserving of close acquaintance. 
The angel's tear daffodil (Triandrus albus) is not 
very hardy. 

The crocus is as much of a surprise as the tulip 
and daffodil to those who find that it is no longer 
merely a crocus. So many crocus species have 
come into cultivation that they are the subject of 
a very remarkable monograph. Nor do they con- 
tinue to suggest only spring; there are autumn- 
blooming and winter-blooming ones, so that in some 
English gardens it is possible to have crocus color 
from August to March without any interruption. 

That is work for the collector; the thing for 


others to do is to get a better understanding of 
the superiority of the new named spring crocuses 
over the old. As with hyacinths, it is inexcusable 
to buy mixtures when there are such fine named 
varieties, with larger bloom, for producing sheets 
of early spring color at about one cent a bulb 
by the hundred. These improvements of C. vernus 
and C. aureus answer ordinary garden purposes 
so well that there is no special need of extending 
one's knowledge of the spring-blooming species. 

Of the host of other spring bulbs the fritillaries 
have two very hardy representatives that have been 
gradually disappearing from old gardens without 
being asked to enter new ones. Yet one of these, 
the crown imperial (Fritillaria imperialis) is a 
grand and stately figure in the hardy garden in 
spring; the yellow, orange or red bloom is rich 
in color and the form of the plant unique. The 
other is the snake's head fritillary, or guinea-hen 
flower (F. meleagris). The white or nearly white 
kinds are best for garden pictures; the dull purple 
shades do not show up well at any distance. There 
are many other charming fritillary species, but most 
of them are for specialized culture. 

For intense blue in March the Siberian squill 
(Scilla sibirica) is unrivalled unless it is by the 
early S. bifolia of the Taurus mountains. These 
two, which have white varieties, are the most de- 
sirable of the very low scilla species that are usually 
called squills. The taller May-flowering species 
are distinguished as wood hyacinths, though the 

BULBS 137 

English one (S. nutans) is better known as blue- 
bells. This is a little more than a foot high and 
very handsome in the garden, as are also the taller 
Spanish wood hyacinth (S. Hispanica, or campanu- 
lata) and S. patula. Of the first two there are 
white and pink variations, but the blue type is 
preferable to them. 

The "glory-of-the-snow" (Chionodoxa) , which 
has delicate blue star blossoms with a white center, 
is another inexpensive bulb that sadly needs recog- 
nition of its charms. It blooms in March and 
masses beautifully. There are several species; the 
one generally planted is C. Luciliae, which now 
has pink and white varieties. 

Snowdrops would be worth planting for pos- 
sible February bloom even if their little white bells 
were not a welcome sight at any time. The old 
snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) has a double form 
that may appeal to some; but it is inferior to the 
single, and neither is the equal of the giant snow- 
drop (G. Elwesii) for garden effect. The Crimean 
snowdrop ( G. plicatus) is another tall species, and 
there are half a dozen more if these do not offer 
variety enough. The somewhat similar spring 
snowflake (Leucojum vernum) and summer snow- 
flake (L. aestivum), the one blooming in April and 
the other in May, are hardly less useful. 

Other thoroughly reliable spring bulbs are the 
spring star flower (Triteleia uni flora), which has 
deliciously fragrant bluish white blossoms; the In- 
dian quamash (Camassia esculenta) with tall spikes 


of blue blossoms; the golden garlic (A Ilium Moly), 
which is about the last of the spring bulbs to bloom, 
and Pushkinia libanotica. The best star-of-Beth- 
lehem (Ornithogallum arabicum), the firecracker 
plant (Brodiaea coccinea), the netted iris (I. re- 
ticulata) and the "hardy gloxinia" (Incarvillea 
Delavayi) are fairly hardy in the North, with pro- 

Winter aconite (Eranthis hyemalis) responds 
less readily to culture in the North than any of 
the bulbs mentioned none of which calls for any 
favoring other than as stated in a few instances. 
Sometimes there is a moist place in a garden under 
a shrub; there, perhaps, the green foliage tufts 
and yellow blossoms will show themselves in March 
or April. The bulbs are cheap. 

With coddling still more spring bulbs are pos- 
sibilities in the North, but are materially less risky 
propositions to the southward. Several of the 
windflowers that are so beautiful in England every 
spring, such as Anemone coronaria, A. fulgens, A. 
St. Brigid, A. hortensis, A. blanda, A. apennina 
and A. nemorosa Robinsoniana, are among these 
so are Gladiolus Colvillei, the early species that 
is forced in quantities; the little known but very 
beautiful deep blue Ixiolirion tataricum, the showy 
red amaryllis-like Habranthus pratensis and the 
gorgeous single and double forms of Asiatic ranun- 
culi. Here is a list that ought to be drawn on 
more in the nearer South. 

All of the spring bulbs, of course, are planted 

BULBS 139 

the preceding autumn generally in October. Only 
the tulip, hyacinth, narcissus and crocus are very 
well adapted for general formal planting. For 
such planting place hyacinths six inches apart, tu- 
lips, four, daffodils three and the crocus and other 
small bulbs two. But with any spring bulb the 
most satisfactory planting is informal. Use clumps 
and drifts and aim for effects with a few good 
varieties, so far as the garden proper is concerned. 
Other varieties may be colonized here and there in 
the shrubberies. Combine a May tulip with a 
perennial rather than with another variety so as 
to secure marked form as well as color contrast. 

Small or large clumps of tulips (selfs) , hyacinths, 
narcissus, and almost any of the little bulbs are 
very effective when scattered irregularly through 
the hardy garden. Use the imposing crown im- 
perial only when it can be insured permanency of 
location; it dislikes being disturbed. The little 
bulbs, however, are best colonized under deciduous 
shrubs where a great many kinds can be grown 
in unutilized space and left to themselves for 
years. Some of them, especially scillas, spread 
rapidly by self-sown seed. If there is a stretch 
of thin grass that is not cut very early, naturalize 
some of the Kulbs; single trumpet daffodils, Tu- 
lipa sylvestris, May-blooming tulips (selfs), grape 
hyacinths, snowdrops, scillas, guinea-hen flower and 
crocus are all willing subjects. 

Summer flowers from bulbs that withstand the 
northern winter in the open ground are largely the 


contribution of the lilies. These are the most 
glorious of summer bulbs and fortunately the re- 
liable species are sufficiently numerous to provide 
bloom from early June into September. The 
orange lily (Lilium croceum), the madonna lily 
(L. candidum), the tiger lily (L. tigrinum), the 
handsome lily (L. speciosum) and the gold-banded 
lily (L. auratum) are very hardy, though the last 
requires frequent renewal, and will carry the season 
through. All told, there are nearly thirty hardy 
species from which to make a selection. 

Two of the bulbous irises would do more if they 
had the chance. Abroad there are myriads of 
the Spanish iris (L hispanica) and the English 
iris (I. anglica) in the early summer gardens but 
in the United States, despite their cheapness, they 
make scant headway. The bulbs are planted like 
tulips and require no more care. Named varieties 
of the Spanish iris are only one dollar a hundred; 
mass the selfs, like Belle Chinoise, King of the 
Blues and British Queen. The larger and later 
English iris is similar, but lacks yellow; Othello 
and Mont Blanc are good selfs. 

Dahlias and cannas, which are tuberous, and 
the large-flowered gladioli loom up more prom- 
inently in the summer garden. All have unques- 
tioned value there, though they are not very plastic 
material. They would be of more value if the 
rule was to plant them with greater care; they 
are mixed too much. Try one variety the yel- 
low Princess Victoria show dahlia, the soft pink 

BULBS 141 

Wawa canna or the vermilion Brenchleyensis glad- 
iolus in a rather bold garden grouping and let 
there be none other in sight. The effect will be 
a revelation if you are addicted to the variety 
habit. Or try two varieties harmonized or con- 
trasted; for a striking violet and yellow combina- 
tion plant the Blue Jay and Sulphur King gladioli 
side by side. 

Two of the most graceful and colorful summer- 
flowering bulbs, the African corn lily (Ixia) and 
the monbretia, are nominally hardy with protec- 
tion the latter has stood the test well up in 
New England, but north of Washington it is best 
to plant the bulbs in the spring and take them up 
in autumn. Ixias and the closely allied sparaxis 
have strange color combinations, even seagreen 
with a black center. Plant by named varieties; 
a mixture is horrible. Monbretias run the whole 
gamut of vermilion, orange and yellow shades. 
These also ought to be planted by named varieties. 
The new hybrids cost more than the old, but have 
larger blossoms. 

The great white summer-flowering hyacinth 
(Galtonia, or Hyacinthus, candicans) is treated 
the same way in the North. Being white, it fits 
anywhere. Try it with the scarlet Gladiolus 
Brenchleyensis, or one of the primrose or violet 
Groff hybrids, instead of using two varieties of 
gladioli. The height is about three feet, but this 
is doubled in favorable circumstances. 

The white bugle lily (Watsonia ardernei), from 


the Cape of Good Hope, resembles a gladiolus but 
is taller; it is very fine for the garden. The yel- 
low calla (Richardia Elliottiana) , which masses 
well in appropriate positions; the Chilian lily (Al- 
stromeria chilensis), which is not hardy without 
protection; the brilliant red Scarborough lily (Val- 
lota purpurea), the pink and white fairly lilies 
(zephyranthes) and the tiger flower (Tigridia 
pavonia) are all desirable tender bulbs. 

A few of the summer bulbs are grown in the 
North only in tubs or pots, which may be sunk in 
the ground if desired to give the effect of plant- 
ing out. The great crinums, C. longi folium (ca- 
pense), C. Moorei and C. Powelii and the blue 
African lily (Agapanthus umbellatus) are conspic- 
uous among these. 

The showiest of the autumn-blooming bulbs is 
the belladonna lily (Amaryllis Belladonna), whose 
pink and white bloom is superb when planted out 
in a sheltered, hardy border as it is in England. 
Here Washington is about the safe northern limit 
for this treatment. And even there it should have 
some attention. It should have warmth and be 
planted deep, but when flowering it is such a de- 
sirable addition to the garden that the extra care is 
of negligible consideration. There is a wide range 
of shades from white to red and a variety in form 
and size of the flowers. 

Other autumn-blooming bulbs are numerous, but 
while they are usually hardy few of them are for 
the many. The saffron crocus (C. sativus) and 

BULBS 143 

the blue C. speciosus are easy selections; so are 
the white meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale 
alba) and the lily-of-the-field (Sternbergia lu- 
tea). Add, perhaps, one of the hardy cyclamens, 
C. neapolitanum, as an experiment 

Winter-blooming species of crocus, iris and cy- 
clamen are suitable only for mild climates even 
then special care will be necessary. 


IN the "Royall Ordering of Gardens," Bacon 
held that "there ought to be Gardens for all the 
Moneths in the Yeare: In which, severally, 
Things of Beautie may be then in Season." 

Though the writer had princely magnitude in 
mind, this is a suggestion that might be carried 
out on a place of even moderate size without any 
appalling difficulties to overcome. All that is nec- 
essary is to pick out an even dozen spots on the 
home grounds and see that each has a dominant 
note characteristic of a certain month of the year. 
Geographical sequence is quite unimportant. Nor 
does it matter at all whether in each, or in any, 
case there is actually a garden. Thus a colony 
of snowdrops in a warm spot would not be too 
small to be called the February garden. It is 
no one's business but your own how much play 
you allow your imagination. 

In a single garden, especially if it be of irregular 
design, it requires no great amount of ingenuity 
so to plant the plot that in every month of the 
year some one spot will have a glory unmistakably 



associated with it. Or, where space and time at 
one's disposal are no barrier, a garden of the year 
could easily be created in the form of a wheel. 
The hub should be a good-sized pool, or bird bath, 
and from the path around it should radiate as 
many paths as there are months. A rim could 
be added if precise formality were desired, but 
very often spokes of unequal length would be bet- 
ter and these need not always, or ever, be 

Such a garden would develop into a perfectly 
permissible, but rather foolish, fad if it were laid 
out with the idea that no path was to be a pleasant 
walk save in the month to which it is dedicated. 
The point is not that at all; it is simply that the 
"April path shall savor so strongly of April as to 
make it that month's particular part of the gar- 

The January path ought to be the way of ap- 
proach. The chief reason is this : evergreens must 
be the seasonal note and by the use of these a 
permanently attractive entrance may be made. 
Moreover, their green will always be the best of 
frames for the color that the July path, directly 
opposite, will bring into the vista. The ever- 
greens will have to spread into the February path 
on one side and the December path on the other. 
So long as it ceases to be dominant, the note may 
extend to any or all of the other paths. 

It would be possible in a fairly cold climate, say 
southern New England, to have at least one dis- 


tinguishing flower for each month. But this is a 
very pretty theory that may or may not come out 
all right in practice; it depends on the winter, 
and some other things. Snowdrops are rather re- 
liable "Fair Maids of February," if they are 
planted where the snow is likely to melt soonest, 
and there is not only the witch hazel for November 
but a very tardy, and very tiny, hardy yellow 
chrysanthemum. December and January are the 
hardest months. The Christmas rose is only tol- 
erably dependable; sometimes it comes into bloom 
in October. More likely to appear in either month 
is a stray pansy, California violet or "Johnny- 
jump-up," all of which need no more encourage- 
ment than a bit of a thaw. 

Plant Christmas roses for December, "Johnny- 
jump-ups" for January and snowdrops for 
February, by all means, but for assured seasonal 
notes use, to again quote Bacon, "such Things, as 
are Greene all Winter." The red-cedar for its state- 
liness, would better be the note of the January path. 
Holly answers very well for December and the rho- 
dodendron for February. There is a fairly wide 
choice of both the narrow-leaved and broad-leaved 
evergreens, and this after rejecting any of doubtful 

March has the lovely blue of S cilia sibinca and 
glory-of-the-snow, as well as the bright yellow of 
Crocus Vernus to denote it. Usually the later 
white and purple crocuses can be counted on also. 
Thenceforward, until November, choice may be- 


come a matter of preference; so many flowers are 

There is no reason why preference should be 
kept down to one, two or three kinds of flowers a 
month; almost any number may be employed, ac- 
cording to desire and opportunity. As a rule a 
path will yield the maximum of pleasure if the 
chief accent is brought about by one or two kinds. 
This accent need not be employed for the whole 
month; there can be one, say, for the early part of 
it and another for the latter part. 

Thus April might disclose a drift of Arabis 
albida and another of Alyssum saxatile as a striking 
early note, with a straggling patch of tulips of one 
color for later in the month. The two drifts may 
run into each other; but the third colony would 
better be some distance away and on the other side 
of the path. This is partly because the early note 
will probably not have disappeared when the later 
one comes on and partly because the isolation of 
the special pictures permits a wider range of color. 
In this case, for example, the arabis and alyssum are 
white and yellow ; but pink or red could be used for 
the tulips. 

May should have a marked fleur-de-lys note, first 
with the deep purple Iris pumila and later with one 
or two self-colored kinds of the germanica type. 
The Aubrietia deltoidea, Myosotis dissitiflora, 
Primula veris superba, Doronicum caucasicum, col- 
umbine and late-flowering tulips are also good for 


In June the rose comes first. A few kinds, 
planted separately, will give far and away the best 
results. But the June walk ought not to be without 
foxgloves, both pink and white,and a generous 
supply of Canterbury bells; use the pink, lavender 
or purple with the white. For the very end of the 
month, always, a clump of Lilium candidum. 

July's path might have the tall blue larkspur and 
a colony of one of the several orange or yellow 
lilies of the month. And there are the Japanese 
iris and the Miss Lingard variety of Phlox suf- 
fruticosa, as well as the imposing hollyhock. 

Some of the best August notes are furnished by 
Phlox paniculata, the two kinds of boltonia, Lilium 
auratum and Lilium speciosum. 

Various hardy asters, notably A. novae angliae 
and A. laevis, the Japanese anemone, Aconitum 
autumnale and the beautiful new heleniums may be 
used for September. , 

The chrysanthemum is the unique October note. 
Fortunately this is a most generous one as to varia- 
tion in color and duration of bloom. The old- 
fashioned large yellow, pink and white varieties 
and the rose and red "buttons" are particularly 
good for bold groupings. 

Where a hedge is not used for a rim, shrubs may 
close the farther end of some of the paths, or of all 
but the January one. And if the paths diverge 
until there is a wide space between every two, a few 
shrubs or small evergreen trees can be planted 
there. Some of these may be fairly tall in order to 


create partial shade along a path; that would 
make a place for shade-loving plants. The shrubs, 
of course, ought to carry out the seasonal idea. 

Occasionally a flower runs over from one month 
into another; in that case let it do the same thing 
with the corresponding paths. But there must be 
less consistent straying, too. While the main 
showing of foxgloves belongs in the June path, let 
there be a few spires in the January path and so 
with enough of the other flowers to brighten up 
bare spots. With some of the flowers not required 
for accenting notes it will be just as well to plant 
the entire stock in a path where it does not belong 
if bloom is more needed there at a given time. 

The same idea is readily applicable to a garden 
of the four seasons. Lay out four paths instead of 
twelve and name them spring, summer, autumn and 
winter: The last to be the entrance one. The 
remaining three may be Y-shaped to advantage: 
This to break up the wider spaces and to add to the 
number of vistas. 

And, in general, what has been said applies to 
any effort to give the garden seasonal effects. It is 
not argued that there must be such effects; rather 
that they add immeasurably to the enjoyment to be 
derived from the growing of flowers as a pastime, 
not a little of which enjoyment lies in the planning 
and the waiting for results. 

Nor is it argued that seasonal notes are so to 
concentrate attention as to exclude the following 
out of ordinary garden desires. One might grow 


a hundred kinds of flowers and yet use only a single 
accent the daffodil in April, the columbine in 
May, the rose in June, the larkspur in July, the 
speciosum lily in August, the Japanese anemone in 
September or the chrysanthemum in October; one 
covers the ground sufficiently if it is enough for 

It requires no profound knowledge of garden ma- 
terial to work out these beautiful forms of garden 
expression ; not infrequently they come without con- 
scious effort. Blooming season, color, height and 
habit of growth are the important things to know, 
after the question as to what plants will do well in 
a given situation has been decided. 

The blooming season is easily determined. 
Color is much more difficult. It must be not only 
decided in tone but unless the blossoms are very 
large spread so profusely over the plant as to fur- 
nish solidity of effect. Whether the color is used for 
harmony, as lavender Canterbury bells with 
purple ones, or for sheer contrast, as white and 
pink foxgloves together, matters little, so long as 
there is no mixture other than the pardonable kind. 
This is letting, say, a white iris or two stray over 
into the adjoining colony of purple ones just as 
if nature had had the ordering of it. While two 
kinds of one flower, or two kinds of flowers, are a 
safe rule it is not one to be adhered to rigidly; good 
taste can always settle that. 

Height is mentioned because even carpeting 
plants, such as Phlox subulata, may be used in 

"/"or assured seasonal notes use, to again quote 
Bacon, 'Such things as are Greene all Winter " 


spring, whereas later in the season, unless there is 
absolute isolation, only taller material will stand 
out by itself. As for habit of growth, foliage and 
stems may make one plant more desirable than 
another for a certain spot; thus Yucca filamentosa, 
for its form, might be a better July note somewhere 
than Platycodon grandiflorum, for its blue color. 

Perennials offer the lines of least resistance, 
because of their permanence; but some of the bien- 
nials, or plants best grown as such, are invaluable. 
These include self colored sweet-william and col- 
umbine, My os otis dissiti flora, Iceland poppy and 
hollyhock, as well as foxglove and Canterbury 
bell. Annuals are more useful as summer filllers 
than as summer accents, though at times not to be 
despised in the latter capacity. 

Miss Gertrude Jekyll's theory of a seasonal gar- 
den is worth close study because she has put it to a 
practical test on her English place. "I believe," 
she says, "that the only way in which it can be made 
successful is to devote certain borders to certain 
times of year : each border or garden region to be 
bright for from one to three months." 

No doubt this is the best, if not the only, way 
when striving for the ideal is made a life work, as 
in Miss JekylPs case. But the plan is an admirable 
one for a place that is either very large or sufficient- 
ly diversified to permit the division of the garden 
into segregated sections. Miss Jekyll has an enor- 
mous summer border, a secluded spring garden 
and so on. 


The plan moreover is one that, like Bacon's, has 
suggestions for the least of places if the mind of 
the flower lover is at all adaptive. Certainly the 
secluded spring garden is a hint for any one who 
wants to strike a seasonal note that need mean no 
more labor than one is disposed to put into it. 


THERE is a particularly appealing sentence in 
Miss JekylFs "Colour in Flower Gardens." This 
reads: "It seems to me that the duty we owe to 
our gardens and to our own bettering in our gar- 
dens is so to use the plants that they shall form 
beautiful pictures." Her ideal is "gardening that 
may rightly claim to rank as a fine art." 

No garden ideal could be finer. Unfortunately 
none is more difficult of attainment, in the complete 
sense that Miss Jekyll has in mind. In gardens, as 
elsewhere, "art is long," but likewise "time is fleet- 
ing" there are other things to do. Most must 
be content with shooting the arrow high, the while 
they take a grain of comfort in the thought that 
though they will inevitably fail to reach the mark 
they will have something, and be the better, for the 

So these "beautiful pictures," even if for long 
they may exist only as insubstantial visions, ought 
to be the inspiration of the humblest as well as the 
grandest of garden schemes. While not essential, 
save to the highly sensitized nature, they do put a 



keener edge on the pleasure to be derived from 
"the adaptation of things in the natural world to 
the uses of life" to quote one definition of art. 

Art, by the way, need not be taken so seriously 
as to make the pursuit of it in the garden at once a 
worry and a despair. If it seems too much of a bug- 
bear think of it "as the application of skill to the 
production of the beautiful by imitation or design," 
and let it go at that. With good taste and imagi- 
nation, perhaps with only common sense, you will 
arrive at a sufficiently artistic goal. 

Garden pictures have the same beginning as 
paintings on canvas composition, always with the 
idea of adapting nature rather than merely imitat- 
ing it. Form, which may not overlook so simple a 
thing as a flower stem; foreground and background 
are all prominent factors in this. Color, when 
taken to mean the hue of blossoms, is non-es- 
sential; it may be left out altogether. But color 
does not signify that, despite loose usage of the 
word; else would garden pictures be but patchwork 
quilts. It is made up of foliage as well, and of 
sky, rocks, buildings and everything entering into 
foreground and background. 

Pictures, of course, may be set down anywhere: 
again and again this is done with wholly satisfying 
results. But what makes the pains really worth 
while is to create these pictures precisely where they 
ought to be which is determined by the natural, 
or potential, advantages of a certain spot. 

To illustrate; there is no law against planting 

"What makes the pains really worth while is to 
create these pictures precisely where they ought to 
b e which is determined by the natural, or poten- 
tial, advantages of a certain spot" 


larkspur and madonna lilies together on a border 
and callng the group a blue and white picture 
much worse things than that happen in gardens 
every year. It is far better, however, first to reach 
the conclusion that a certain spot demands fairly 
tall plants, which well define themselves. These 
will, you feel, be more effective if there are two 
kinds, of not only unequal height but marked dif- 
ference in the shape of the blossoms and the way 
they are carried on the stems. 

Then let personal preference step in and go as 
far as it likes consistently. If larkspur and ma- 
donna lilies are your choice, plant them. But re- 
member that blue and white are not the everything 
of color in your picture; the lily foliage is a delicate 
green, that of the larkspur darker.* And you 
must have brought other colors into your back- 
ground perhaps a sky that from dawn to sunset 
is everchanging. 

Whether a picture is the whole garden or a par- 
ticular grouping in it, or an isolated spot on the 
home grounds, matters very little; the main thing 
is to have as many pictures as the circumstances 
warrant. For this is not all of the growing of 
flowers; it is merely the supreme incident. 

A garden may be made a well composed picture 
at all times of the year, but that would mean either 
being a veritable slave to it to the end of life or 
expending an amount of money that most gardeners 
for pleasure could not afford. Even then there 
would very likely come intervals of imperfection 


sorely to try a soul now grown somewhat finicky, 
if not intolerant. 

Rather than set one's self about a task little 
short of superhuman, the wiser part is to make the 
most modest of beginnings and let art, to say noth- 
ing of labor, grow with experience. 

A simple way is to compose a picture of the gar- 
den entrance and the vista through it. This en- 
trance, say, is defined by two slim but shapely ever- 
greens of moderate height. The path almost im- 
mediately divides in twain, to form a large bed, be- 
yond which is a line of shrubbery. A rather bold 
massing, with an edging, is thought of for the bed. 
Many combinations there are; but take foxgloves 
and Canterbury bells. White of the one and pink 
of the ether will do, with green in the distance. 
Here are the main features of an extremely simple 
and uncomplicated garden picture. 

It is a June picture, but easily made one of a 
series of half a dozen or so from spring to autumn 
according to the time one cares to give to planning 
and planting. And it does not interfere with the 
creation of any number of pictures inside the gar- 
den ; they may come along later, or not at all. 

In the garden itself pictures are most easily 
made by taking the angle where two paths separate, 
or the end of one, and working out an effect. 
Very frequently one kind of plant is sufficient and 
usually two are enough ; but there can be no set rule 
as to that. 

Simple pictures may be made by planting a rose 


at the side of the front door in the old-fashioned 
way; with a rambler on a porch, arch or gateway; 
with a woodbine on a juniper or a wistaria on a 
pine ; with a nearly submerged boulder and a patch 
of Phlox subulata and so on to the end of a chapter, 
limited in length only by failure to see glorious 

And there are innumerable lesser opportunities. 
A little patch of the old Campanula rapunculoides 
or Sedum spectabile close against the gray stones of 
the foundation of a house makes a picture as 
charming in its way as many of the more pretentious 
ones. Again, a small colony of foam flower (Tia- 
rella cordifolia), or bloodroot, or white violet, in 
the shade of a shrub, with brown twigs above it 
and brown earth around, is no less delectable. 
Do not despise the brown things even some scat- 
tered leaves of the garden's winter blanket. Nor 
fail to use the least of material ; three purple crocus 
blooms and their grass-like foliage, and only the 
soil for a background, will make a miniature at any 

So far the pictures spoken of have been seasonal 
in evidence at this or that time of year and then 
gone until another twelve months shall have come 
around. These present the minimum of difficulty 
and are therefore the best for the beginner. But a 
great deal of the pleasure of making garden pictures 
lies in the much more complicated task of arranging 
a succession of them in a single spot, nature to seem 
to evolve one from the other as the season pro- 


gresses as lantern views dissolve one into another. 

This requires an accurate knowledge not of all 
plants, but of enough to provide adequate working 
material. If perennials are used, and they are best, 
it is not a small undertaking to arrange a succession 
of plants that shall develop four distinct seasonal 
pictures, with no more bareness between times than 
san be avoided. It is worth trying, however. If 
failure comes, that will not rob the gardener of all 
his joy; some of it will have been the experience in 
the planning. 

A good compromise is to use a spot for only two 
pictures and these quite widely apart as to season. 
Thus the tall single cottage tulip might be planted 
behind hardy candytuft for a May effect and aut- 
umn monkshood for an October one. The candy- 
tuft is evergreen and the foliage of the monkshood 
is fine all summer which illustrates the need in 
picture composition of knowing much about leaves, 
as well as blossoms, height, season, habit and so 

Foliage is of untold color, as well as form, value. 
Besides every conceivable shade of green, there are 
gray, yellows and whites with red entering into 
the death notes of autumn and the life notes of 
spring. Twigs and stalks, too, are not all green; 
there are red, brown, yellow and gray ones. And 
the berries ; they may be red, black, blue, yellow or 

Color supplied by blossoms, as has been said, is 
not indispensable. Its place in a garden picture is 


nevertheless so appropriate that it, or the white of 
colorless blossoms, ought to figure in the majority 
of compositions. 

Flower color, which must include white for the 
sake of phraseological covenience, is employed in 
two ways to emphasize individual form and to 
obliterate it, the latter by means of solid sheets of 
bloom. For example, in a spring picture of reddish 
orange crown imperial and white Phlox subulata, 
form is brought out in the one and quite lost in the 
other. The reddish orange is a selected color note, 
but it never lets you forget the bells that make the 
crown. Nor is it by any means so big a note as the 
green or the white. This combination was ar- 
ranged because the crown imperial has height a 
rare thing in early spring. 


IT is a pretty poor home garden in which no 
flowers are picked. What are they there for mere 
show? Such gardens exist, but happily they are in 
the minority. 

There is never any need of robbing perceptibly 
the garden of its treasures, no matter how small it 
is. If the cutting is done with judgment here and 
there, and stems are taken full length, it is seldom 
that the reduction of bloom is apparent; a moder- 
ate-sized garden will often stand the loss of a 
market basket or two of its floral glory. Judg- 
ment will not err if it has back of it the knowledge 
that quantity in the case of flowers cut for the house 
is very unimportant; three stalks of lilies in 
a vase will be seen in all their beauty of form 
whereas fifty jammed into a jar together are an un- 
natural massing. 

On large estates there are special cutting gar- 
dens. This is a wholly admirable idea for even the 
smallest place. It not only relieves the garden 
proper from too much strain, but where a great 
many cut flowers are desired for the house the tract 

1 60 


can be at the same time a reserve garden or nursery. 
The modern tendency, and it is a good one, is to 
keep down numerically the variety of material em- 
ployed in garden pictures. For much, or all, of 
what is rejected as picture material, though too 
fondly liked to discard altogether, the reserve gar- 
den is a convenience amounting to a necessity. 

It is just as well to isolate this garden, though 
there is no occasion to do so if ordinary pains are 
taken to keep it in good condition ; there are cutting 
gardens that are really beautiful, even where the 
beds are as simple as if the planting were lettuce 
and there is little that is not in straight rows. 

Planting in straight rows is best for the sim- 
ple reason that it lightens labor. No planning is 
necessary for the planting and if sufficient space is 
left between the rows most of the weeding and 
cultivation can be done with a hoe. The work of 
fertilizing and winter protection is also reduced to 
a minimum. 

Grow a few shrubs in the cutting garden if there 
is room; some of them are readily propagated by 
cuttings. Shrubs elsewhere on the grounds may, of 
course, supply enough cut flowers without injury. 
But these should not be drawn on too heavily; 
several, like rhododendrons and azaleas, not at all. 
In the cutting garden plant forsythia, for branches 
to force in the house in February; the pink-flower- 
ing almond, or any good deutzia, weigela, 
viburnum, spirea, hypericum or lilac. These may 
be growing nursery stock or employed for an in- 


formal hedge to screen the planted space from 

Plant hybrid perpetual and hybrid tea roses just 
as if they were so many cauliflowers or eggplants. 
Use a large number of one kind in preference to 
a few of many kinds, so that no mixing wil be neces- 
sary when cut in quantity for the house. The white 
Frau Karl Druschki is among the best hybrid per- 
petuals for cutting with long stems, particularly 
when partially opened. A dozen plants of this, or 
Mabel Morrison, or Baroness de Rothschild or 
General Jacqueminot, is better than three of each. 
La France is a fine hybrid tea for the purpose; so 
are Killarney, Griiss an Teplitz and Kaiserin Au- 
guste Victoria. Such old teas as Isabella Sprunt 
and Safrano, the very fragrant noisette, Celine 
Forestier, and the moss rose, Blanche Moreau, 
are further selections from a wide range; give 
the teas extra winter protection. Where quick 
results are desired, buy two-year-old plants un- 
less they are novelties, thirty-five cents is a fair 

There are no better perennials for cutting than 
the German, Siberian and Japanese irises, brief 
as the life of the blossoms is. The selfs are by far 
the best the purple, pale, blue, straw-colored and 
pearl German, the blue Siberian and the kindred 
white /. orientalis and the purple and clear white 
Japanese. The two Japanese kinds go well to- 
gether in vases and blue cornflower is a good 
accompaniment for the straw-colored German. 


Plant not only the light and dark blue tall lark- 
spur but the lower and much more graceful Del- 
phinium chinensis. The latter has both of the blue 
shades and white as well. It is highly desirable 
for cutting, but unfortunately does not last long 
in the house. Phlox of the tall late kinds has the 
same fault of soon beginning to shed petals on 
the table or floor. Of the P. suffruticosa type 
choose Miss Lingard and of the later P. decussata 
any of the well-defined shades Mrs. Jenkins, Sie- 
bold and Madame Paul Dutrie are all good va- 

The old double clove-scented grass pinks and 
the newer Marguarite carnations; the double Lych- 
nis viscaria, the salmon and mulberry shades of 
oriental poppy, Pentstemon barbatus Torreyi, white 
or clearly defined colored herbaceous peonies, 
Funkia subcordata, feverfew, Aconitum autumnale, 
sea holly, Anemone japonica, all the hardy asters, 
boltonia, fraxinella (dictamnus), doronicum, Core- 
opsis lanceolata, Centaurea montana, pompon chrys- 
anthemums, pyrethrum, Baptisia australis, Cam- 
panula persicifolia, Campanula trachelium, antheri- 
cum, anthemis, amsonia, trollius,, helenium, Val- 
eriana officinalis, Statice latifolia, Gypsophila pan- 
iculata, bleeding heart, Scabiosa caucasica, Ranun* 
culus aconitifolius ft. pi., Primula veris superba, 
Primula cortusoides Sieboldii, the California violet, 
Phlox divaricata, Monarda didyma, Lychnis 
Haageana, lupine and Helleborus niger are among 
the other perennials that are desirable. 


The Canterbury bell, Iceland poppy, sweet-wil- 
liam, columbine and the gloxinoides type of pent- 
stemon are the best of the biennials, or plants 
treated as such. The foxglove is less satisfactory 
only because the bells fall quickly. 

Among the annuals and plants so classed the 
pansies, ordinary and tufted, are very choice cut 
flowers if grown by varieties and in sufficient quan- 
tity to permit the removal of branches; pansy blos- 
soms with only their own little stems are not them- 
selves in vases. China asters, both double and 
single; scabiosa, nasturtium, sweet peas, nigella, 
Shirley poppies, clarkia, sweet alyssum, African 
marigold, larkspur, Arcotis grandis, cornflower, 
chrysanthemum, nemesia, Drummond's phlox, 
schizanthus, mignonette, candytuft, cosmos, sweet 
sultan, coreopsis and salpiglossis are all equally 
desirable in their way. Grow the nasturtium on 
poor soil. For early risers the Japanese, Heavenly 
Blue and other morning glories may be added; 
besides they are especially beautiful on the break- 
fast table. 

Of the hardy bulbs, plant only the lilies whose 
odor is not too strong for the house. The best 
of easy culture are L. candidum, L. speciosum, L. 
longiflorum, L. tigrinum and L. croceum. Any of 
the May-flowering tulips, single hyacinths, all kinds 
of narcissus, Fritillaria meleagris, S cilia nutans, 
the giant snowdrop, Alllum Moly, quamash, Span- 
ish iris, English iris and the Trebizond starch hya- 
cinth, Heavenly Blue, are other selections of the 


highest merit, both for culture and beautiful bloom. 
The dahlia and gladiolus are nowhere so valua- 
ble as in the cutting garden. Choose free-flowering 
dahlia selfs, with the habit of long stems, and 
plant the gladioli at fortnight intervals to secure 
a longer season of bloom. Both the montbretias 
and the ixias are superior cut flowers and neither 
is expensive excepting for the newest kinds. The 
single tuberose is very good indeed for cutting, 
though rarely used. Tigridias are showy, but per- 

Although variety is better relegated to the cut- 
ting garden, the advantage of keeping it well re- 
duced in the case of plants grown primarily for 
cut flowers cannot be too strongly emphasized. 
Favorite flowers first and then the favorite vari- 
ety or varieties of these should be the rule. Buy 
bulbs and seed by name, to avoid mixture in a 
row : sometimes the solid effect in the cutting gives 
you just the idea you want for the house or the 
hardy garden. 

Some of the herbs, notably the common sage, 
wormwood and burnet, furnish beautiful foliage for 
cutting the first two in silvery sprays. The south- 
ernwood (Artemisia abronatum), Roman worm- 
wood (Artemisia pontica) and lavender cotton 
(Santolina Chamaecyparissus) are similarly useful. 
One plant of che lemon verbena and another of 
rose geranium there ought always to be. 

With a coldframe a much longer season of 
California violets is possible. This is also the 


best way to grow the beautiful Anemone St. Brigid 
in the North for cutting as well as other perilous- 
ly tender bulbs and perennials. 

The planting of the cutting garden, of course, 
should be so arranged as to give it the longest 
possible season. April to October, inclusive, is 
not a difficult range for bloom, and during the 
remainder of the year evergreen foliage and ber- 
ries are easily available. The common black alder, 
or winterberry (Ilex verticillata) has excellent red 
berries for cutting. 


ANY true amateur would find the growing of 
flowers only along lines of least resistance intoler- 
ably tame sport. To him no small part of the charm 
of the pastime lies in the overcoming of difficulties. 
Whatever is not easy to do, even the seemingly 
impossible, renews his zeal and spurs him to fresh 

But true amateurs are not the greater contingent 
of those who grow flowers for pleasure ; they are 
relatively few. Most have not the time, or, lack- 
ing the necessary enthusiasm, do not care to take it. 
The really dependable flowers are good enough for 
them. This is a very sensible attitude above all 
for the beginner, who has ahead years enough in 
which to graduate into the amateur class if the light 
of greater experience shall make such a change de- 
sirable. Better have prime poppies than consump- 
tive calichorti. 

Dependable flowers are flowers that can be de- 
pended upon to thrive in ordinary garden conditions 
and with ordinary care. With this distinction, 
ordinary is not to be taken to mean precisely uni- 


form conditions and care. That would be absurd. 
A great many of the most dependable flowers, it is 
true, will thrive in common circumstances; but the 
sweet pea and lily-of-the-valley, though both are 
perfectly dependable, differ decidedly in their re- 

The following lists are made up of some of the 
most dependable flowers, including a few plants 
that are grown for the foliage and fruit rather than 
the blossoms. Only hardy plants that it is believed 
are reliably so a little above the latitude of Boston 
are mentioned. 

The arrangement, for greater convenience, is 
according to use as well as season which necessi- 
tates occasional repetitions. 

Among shrubs are listed some slow-growing trees 
used in the same way. Perennials imply herba- 
ceous perennials exclusive of bulbs, and the bien- 
nials and annuals include any other plants grown as 

All hybrids, strains and varieties mentioned be- 
low the species are supplementary to the latter. 
Usually these signify an improvement of the spe- 
cies, but occasionally merely a color variation is 
noted. The named varieties indicated are some- 
times only a few out of many equally as good. In 
most instances novelties that are still expensive 
have been rejected in favor of old varieties of 
tested merit. 
DECIDUOUS SHRUBS For profuse spring 

bloom before the foliage comes, or virtually so. 



Amelanchier Botry- 

Amygdalus chlnensis 


Amygdalus persica fl. pi. 
Azalea gandavensis 



Geant des Batailles 

Nancy Waterer 

Azalea mollis 

Anthony Koster 

J. C. Van Tol 
Azalea nudiflora 
Cerasus avum fl. pi. 
Cerasus hortensis fl. pi. 
Cercis canadensis 
Cornus florida 
Cory lop sis spicata 
Cydonia (Pyrus) 

japonic a 




Forsythia Fortune! 
Forsythia suspensa 
Laurus benzoin 
Magnolia atropurpurea 
Magnolia conspicua 
Magnolia stellata 

Dwarf juneberry 

Double almond 
Double peach 

Ghent azalea 




Japanese azalea 



Pinxter flower 
European double cherry 
Japanese double cherry 
Judas tree 
Flowering hazel 

Japanese quince 

pure white 


Golden bell 
Weeping golden bell 
Spice wood 
Japanese magnolia 
Chinese magnolia 
Starry magnolia 



Prunus triloba 

Double plum 

DECIDUOUS SHRUBS For more or less 
broad effects of white and colored bloom with 
foliage ; spring to early summer. 

Amorpha fruticosa 
Azalea vis cos a 

Chionanthus virginica 
Cytisus laburnum 
Deutzia corymbiflora 
Deutzia cr-enata rosea 


Deutzia gracilis 


Pride of Rochester 
Diervilla florida hybrida 



Eva Rathke 
Exochorda grandiflora 
Halesla tetraptera 
Kerria (Corchorus) 


Ligustrum Ibota 
Lonicera tatarica 
Mains baccata 
Malus Nedzwickiana 
Mains Scheideckeri 

False indigo 
White swamp honey- 

White fringe 
Flat-clustered deutzia 

Double pink deutzia 

pure white 
Slender deutzia 


Hybrid weigela 

pale pink 

pure white 

carmine red 
Pearl bush 
Snowdrop tree 

Japanese rose 

double yellow 
Japanese privet 
Tartarian honeysuckle 
Siberian crab 
Pink-flowering crab 
Double apple 



Philadelphus coronarius 
Boule d' Argent 
Lemoinei Erectus 
Rhodotypos kerrioides 
Ribes aureum 
Ribes sanguineum 
Sambucus canadensis 
Sambucus maxima 


Sambucus nigra aurea 
Spiraea pruni folia 
Spiraa sorbifolia 


Spirea Van Houttei 

Syrlnga per sic a 

Syringa vulgaris 
Marie Le Graye 
Madame Casimir- 


President Grevy 
Souvenir de Louis 

Tamarix africana 

Viburnum opulus 

Viburnum opulus sterilis 

Viburnum plicatum 

Viburnum lantana 

Xanthooeras sorbifolia 

Mock orange 

double white 

single white 
White kerria 
Flowering currant 
Crimson currant 
Common elder 

Giant elder 
Golden elder 
Bridal wreath 
Mountain ash-leaved 


finer than type 
Van Houtte's spirea 
Persian lilac 
Common lilac 

single white 

double white 
double bluish 

single rosy lilac 

High-bush cranberry 

Japanese snowball 
Wayfaring tree 
Chinese flowering 


DECIDUOUS SHRUBS For more or less 



broad effects of white 

foliage; early summer 
Althea frutex 

(Hibiscus syriacus) 

Duchesse de Brabant 

Jeanne d'Arc 


Totus Albus 
Andromeda arborea 
Aralia japonica 
Aralia spinosa 
Buddleia variabilis 


Ceanothus americanus 
Clethra ami folia 
Colutea arborescens 
Hydrangea arborescens 

Hydrangea paniculata 

Hypericum prolificum 
Pavia matrostachya 
Paonia M out an 

Archiduc Ludovico 

Docteur Bowring 

Regina Belgica 

Reine des Violettes 
Rhus alba 
Rhus cotinus 
Rubus odoratus 
Spiraa bumalda 

and colored bloom with 
to early autumn. 

Rose of Sharon 
double deep rose 
double white 
single deep rose 
single white 

Sorrel tree 

Japanese angelica 

Hercules club 

Veitch's buddleia 
New Jersey tea 
Sweet pepper bush 
Bladder senna 
Snowball hydrangea 

improved type 
Panicled hydrangea 

improved type 
Prolific St. John's wort 
Tree peony 





White sumac 
Purple fringe 
Flowering raspberry 
Crimson spirea 


Anthony Waterer magenta 

Tamarix hispida 

astivalis Tamarisk 

EVERGREEN SHRUBS With especially good 

Lily-of-the-valley shrub 
Evergreen azalea 

Andromeda floribunda 
Azalea amana 
Grata gits pyracantha 

(P. coccinea) 


Kalmia latifolia 
Mahonia aquifolium 
Mahonia japonica 


Boule de Neige 

Fastuosum fl. pi. 

James Macintosh 

C. S. Sargent 

Purpureum Grandi- 



EVERGREEN SHRUBS For foliage only. 
Buxus sempervirens Box 

Euonymus japonica Spindle tree 

SHRUBS With more or less showy fruit 
Berberis Thunbergii Japanese barberry 

Berberis vulgaris Common barberry 

Callicarpa purpurea 'Beauty fruit 

Cornus florida Dogwood 

Fiery thorn 

improved type 
Mountain laurel 
Holly-leaved mahonia 
Japanese mahonia 

Catawba rhododendron 
pure white 
double bluish 
deep rose 

violet purple 
Great laurel 



Cotoneaster buxifolia 
Cratagus crns-galli 
*Crat#gus pyracantha 


Eleagnus edulls 
Eunonymus enropaus 
*Ilex aquifolia 


(Hardy in 

*Ilex opaca 
Laurus benzoin 
Lonicera tatarica 
*Mahonia a qui folium 
*Mahonia japonica 
Mains baccata 
Mains Nedzwickiana 
Mains Scheideckeri 
*Myrica cerifera 
*Phillyrea decora 
Pyrus arbuti folia 
Rho do typos kerriodes 
Rhns typhina 


Sambucns canadensis 
Sambncus maxima 

Sambucns plnmosa 


-Box-leaved cotoneaster 
Cockspur thorn 
Fiery thorn 

improved type 
Silver thorn 
Burning bush 
English holly 

improved type 

sheltered spot.) 

American holly 
Spice wood 
Tartarian honeysuckle 
Holly-leaved mahonia 
Japanese mahonia 
Siberian crab 
Pink-flowering crab 
Double apple 

Brood-leaved filaria 
Red chokeberry 
White kerria 
Staghorn sumac 
improved type 
Common elder 

Giant elder 
Plume Elder 

"Garden pictures have the same beginning as 

paintings on canvas composition, always with 

the idea of adapting nature rather than merely 

imitating it" 


racemosus Snowberry 

Symphoricarpus vulgaris Coral berry 

Viburnum acerifolium Maple-leaved viburnum 

Viburnum alnifolium Withe rod 

Viburnum cassinoides High bush cranberry 

Viburnum opulus Wayfaring tree 

Viburnum lantana Hobble bush 
SHRUBS With fragrant blossoms. 

Azalea nudiftora Pinxter flower 
Buddleia variabilis 

Veitchii Veitch's buddleia 

Calacanthus floridus Strawberry shrub 

Clethra ainifolia Sweet pepper bush 

Cratagus oxycantha English hawthorn 

Diervilla florida hybrida Hybrid weigela 

Ligustrum Ibota Japanese privet 

Lonicera fragrantissima Fragrant upright 


Magnolia conspicua Chinese magnolia 

Mains baccata Siberian crab 

Philadelphus coronarius Mock orange 

Ribes aureum Flowering currant 

Ribes Gordonianum Gordon's currant 

Rubus odoratus Flowering raspberry 

Sambucus canadensis Common elder 

Syringa vulgaris Lilac 

Viburnum lentago Sheepberry 
SHRUBS Suitable for hedges. 

Althaa f rut ex Rose of Sharon 

Berberis Thunbergii Japanese barberry 

Berberis vulgaris Common barberry 


Cratagus crus-galll Cockspur thorn 

Grata gus oxycantha English hawthorn 

Cydonia japonica Japanese quince 

Ligustrum ovali folium California privet 
Rhamnus cathartica Buckthorn 

SHRUBS That may be trained on a wall for 

a flat effect. These three are extraordinarily 

beautiful so trained. 
Cratagus pyracantha Fiery thorn 
Cydonia japonica Japanese quince 

Roblnla hlsplda Rose acacia 

SHRUBS That are particularly suitable for 

planting on places at the seashore. 
l Baccharis halimi folia Groundsel tree 
Berberls Thunbergll Japanese barberry 
Enonymus japonlcus Spindle tree 

Genista scoparla Scotch broom 

Hydrangea panlculata Panicled hydrangea 
Ligustrum ovallfollum California privet 
Prunus marltlma Beach plum 


from May to early summer. 
*Akebla qulnata Akebia vine 

Celastrus scandens Common bittersweet 

Celastrus orblculatus Oriental bittersweet 
Clematis cocclnea Red leather flower 

Clematis hybrida Large-flowered hybrid 


Duchess of Edinburgh double white 

Jackmani deep purple 

Ville de Lyon carmine 


Clematis montana Mountain clematis 

* Clematis virginiana Virgin's bower 
Ipomcea pandurata Hardy moonflower 
Lathyrus latifolius Everlasting pea 

White Pearl pure white 

*Lonicera Halleana Hall's honeysuckle 

Wistaria sinensis Chinese wistaria 

Alba pure white 

from early summer to October. 

*Apios tub-erosa Groundnut 

Aristolochia sipho Dutchman's pipe 
Bignonia (Tecoma) 

radicans Trumpet creeper 

* Clematis paniculata Japanese clematis 
Dioscorea Batatas Cinnamon vine 
Lonicera sempervirens Coral honeysuckle 
Lycium barbarum Matrimony vine 
Polygonum multiflorum Many-flowered knot- 

Pueraria Thunbergiana Kudzu vine 
Schizophragma hydran- 

goides Climbing hydrangea 


grown mostly for foliage and fruit. 
Actimdia chinensis Chinese actinidia 

(Rarely blooms in cultivation.) 
Ampelopsis Veitchii Virginia creeper 

Ampelopsis quinqui folia Boston ivy 

* Fragrant. 

I 7 8 


} Aristolochia sipho 
Celastrus scandens 
Celastrus orbiculatus 
Euonymus radicans 

Hedera helix 
Humulus Ittpulus 


Lycium barbarum 
Periploca graca 
Fitis humulifolia 

Dutchman's pipe 
Common bittersweet 
Oriental bittersweet 
Creeping euonymus 

green and white 
English ivy 

yellow foliage 
Matrimony vine 
Silk vine 
Hop-leaved vine 
PERENNIALS For low massed effects of white 
or colored bloom in spring, late March to early 

Adonis amurensis 
Adonis i) emails 
Ajuga genevensis 
Ajuga reptans alba 
Alyssum saxatile 
Arabis albida 

Flore Pleno 
Armeria maritima 
'Aubrietia deltoidea 



Lloyd Edwards 
Epimedium nivium 
Epimedium sulphureum 
Erinus alpinus 
Iberis semperuirens 
Iris cristata 

Amur bird's eye 
Spring bird's eye 
Blue bugle 
White bugle 
Basket of gold 
White rock cress. 

False wall cress 

dark violet 

soft violet 


White barrenwort 
Yellow barrenwort 
Alpine erinus 
Crested iris 


Iris pumila Dwarf iris 

Eburnea white 

Florida lemon 

Formosa violet 

Iris reticulata Netted iris 

Phlox amoena Hairy phlox 

Phlox procumbens Creeping phlox 

Phlox stellaria Chickweed phlox 

Phlox subulata Moss pink 

Lilacina pale lilac 

The Bride white 

Primula auricula Auricula 

Primula polyantha Polyanthus 

Munstead bunch primrose is a fine strain 

Primula veris Cowslip 

Superba improved type 

Primula vulgaris English primrose 

Viola odorata Sweet violet 

Alba white 

Californica purple 
PERENNIALS For low massed effects of white 

or colored bloom from early May through June. 

Anemone sylvestris Snowdrop windflower 

Aster alpinus Alpine aster 

Albus pure white 

Campanula carpatica Carpathian harebell 

Cerastium tomentosum Snow-in-summer 

Convallaria majalis Lily-of-the-valley 

Dianthus casius Cheddar pink 

Dianthus deltoides Maiden pink 

Dianthus plumarius Grass pink 


Excelsior Double light rose 

Her Majesty white 

Lithospermum pros- 

tatum Gromwell 

Heavenly Blue turquoise 

Phlox ovata Mountain phlox 

Polemonium reptans Greek valerian 

Primula cortusoides Siebold's primrose 


Robert Herold deep rose, white eye 

Pulmonaria saccharata Lungwort 

Ranunculus repens fl. pi. Double creeping 


Sedum acre Golden moss 

Thymus serpyllum Creeping thyme 

Coccinea scarlet 

Tiarella cordifolia Foam flower 

Veronica gentianoides Gentian-leaved 


Veronica rupestris Rock speedwell 
PERENNIALS For low massed effects of white 

or colored flowers from late June to the end 

of summer. 

Nierembergia rivularis Cup flower 

CBnothera caspitosa Evening primrose 

(Enothera fruticosa Sundrops 

Youngii improved type 

Plumbago larpentae Leadwort 
Prunella (Brunella) 

grandiflora Self-heal 

Saponaria ocymoides Soap wort 



twelve to thirty inches 
A quite gia canadensis 

Aqmlegia chrysantha 
Aquilegia flabellata 

nana alba 
Aquilegia vulgaris 

Asperula odorata 
Astilbe japonica 

Queen Alexandra 
Dielytra (Dicentra) 

Dielytra (Dicentra) 

Doronicum caucasicum 

Doronicum Clusii 
Iris Germanica 


Mrs. H. Darwin 

Madam Chereau 

Pallida Dalmatica 


Iris ochroleuca 
Iris or lent alls 

Snow Queen 
Iris pseudacorus 
Iris sibirica 


throw up flower stalks 
tall in April and May. 

Common American 

Yellow columbine 

Dwarf white columbine 
Common European 

Sweet woodruff 


Plumy bleeding-heart 

Common bleeding-heart 
Caucasian leopard's 


Clusius' leopard's bane 
German iris 

pearl color 

white, violet markings 

white, blue markings 


violet purple 
Straw-colored iris 
Oriental iris 


Yellow water flag 
Siberian iris 

white, lilac markings 


Lychnis dioica fl. pi. 
Mertensia virginica 
Phlox divaricata 

Alba grandiflora 


Saxifraga cordifolia 
Trollius asiaticus 

Flore croceo 


Trollius euro pans 

and July. 
A Mile a mille folium 

Achillea p tar mica 

Boule de Neige 
Achillea tomentosa 
Actaa spicata alba 
Agrostemma coronaria 
Amsonia tabernamon- 

Anchusa italica 

Anthemis tinctoria 


Anthericum Liliago 
Anthericum (Paridisea) 

lilias trum 

Asphodelus luteus 

Ragged Robin 
Virginian cowslip 
Wild sweet-william 


improved blue 
Heart-leaved saxifrage 
Asiatic globeflower 

deep orange 


orange red 

European globe flower 
are at their best in June 

Rosy milfoil 
White milfoil 

improved double 
Yellow yarrow 
Mullein pink 

Sea bugloss 

improved type 
Golden marguerite 

St. Bernard's lily 

St. Bruno's lily 
improved type 



Baptism aus trails 
Campanula glomerata 


Campanula grandis 
Campanula persicifolia 

Campanula rotundifolia 
Campanula trachelium 
Centaurea montana 
Chrysanthemum max- 

inum hybridum 

Chrysanthemum par- 

thenium fl. pi. 
Clematis recta 
Coreopsis lanceolata 

Coronilla varia 
Delphinium chinense 


Delphinium formosum 
Delphinium hybridum 

Bella Donna 
Dictamnus fraxinella 



Gaillardia grandifiora 
Geranium cinerium 

Geranium sanguineum 

False indigo 
Clustered bellflower 

improved type 
Great bellflower 
Peach bells 

Blue bells 
Coventry bells 
Hardy cornflower 

Shasta daisy 
Burbank improvement 

Double feverfew 
Shrubby clematis 
Hardy coreopsis 

improved type 
Crown vetch 
Chinese larkspur 


Old blue larkspur 
Hybrid larkspur 

turquoise blue 
Gas plant 


improved type 
Blanket flower 

White crane's bill 
Red crane's bill 

1 8 4 


Geum chiloense 


Mrs. F. Bradshaw 
Geum Heldreichi 
Hesperis matronalis 


Hemerocallis flava 
Hemerocallis Midden- 


Hypericum Moserianum 
Inula montana 
Iris lavigata 




Linum flavum 
Linum perenne 
Lupinus arboreus 

Snow Queen 
Lupinus polyphyllus 



Taplow Purple 

Yellow Boy 
Lychnis chalcedonica 
Lychnis viscaria fl. pi. 
Ononis hircina 
Paonia hybrida 

Festiva Maxima 

Jenny Lind 

Richardson's Rubra 

Scarlet avens 

fine double 
Orange avens 
Sweet rocket 

pure white 
Custard lily 

Middendorfs day lily 
St. John's wort 
Mountain inula 
Japanese iris 

three-petaled lavender 

six-petaled purple 

six-petaled white 
Yellow flax 
Hardy blue flax 
Tree lupine 

pure white 
Many-leaved lupine 





London pride 
Double German catchfly 
Rest harrow 
Double hybrid peony 




Superba red 

Paonia hybrida Single hybrid peony 

Dog Rose pink 

Pride of Langport pink 

Silver Rose white 

Paonia officinalis Old-fashioned peony 

Alba white 

Rosea rose 

Rubra deep red 
Paonia tenuifolia fl. pi. Fine-leaved peony 

Papaver orientate Oriental poppy 

Bracteatum red, black markings 

Goliath scarlet 

Mrs. Perry salmon rose 

Many new rose, salmon and mulberry shades. 
Penstemon barbatus 

Torreyi Coral drops 

Pentstemon glaber Smooth pentstemon 

Phlox suffruticosa Early tall phlox 

Hercules lilac 

Miss Lingard white, with lilac eye 

White Swan pure white 
Platycodon grandi- 

fiorum Japanese bellflower 

Album white 

Marks! dwarf blue 

Richardsonii Jacob's ladder 

Alba white 

Pyrethrum hybridum Painted daisy 

Carl Vogt double white 


James Kelway single red 

Mrs. William Kelway single pink 

Queen Mary double pink 

Snow White single white 
Ranunculus aconitifolius 

fl. pi. Fa ir-maids-of -France 

Ranunculus acris fl. pi. Double buttercup 

Salvia pratensis Meadow sage 

Scabiosa caucasica Blue bonnet 

Spiraa filipendula fl. pi. Double dropwort 

Stachys Betonica Wood betony 

Stachys lanata Woolly woundwort 

Stokesia cyanea Stokes' aster 
Thalictrum aquilegi- 

folium Meadow rue 

Superbum double mauve 

Tradescantia virginica Spider lily 

Faleriana officinalis Garden heliotrope 

Veronica spicata Speedwell 

Yucca filamentosa Adam's needle 
PERENNIALS That are at their best between 

late July and early September. 

Acanthus mollis Bear's breech 

Aconitum napellus Monkshood 

Albus white 

polymorpha Gland bellflower 

Adenophora Potannini Potannini's bellflower 

Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly weed 

Bocconia cor data Plume poppy 

Boltoma asteroides White false chamomile 



Boltonia latisquama 
Calimeris incisa 
Centaurea tnacrocephala 
"Centranthus ruber 
Cimicifuga racemosa 
Clematis Davidiana 
Coreopsis rosea 
Echinops banaticus 
Erigeron glabellus 
Eryngium amethystum 
Eupatorium ageratoides 
Eupatorium caelestinum 
Funkia carulea 
Funkia Fortunei 
Funkia subcordata 
Gypsophila paniculata 
Helianthus de cape talus 

Soleil d'Or 
Helianthus mollis 
Heuchera sanguinea 

Pluie de Feu 

Hibiscus moscheutos 

Crimson Eye 
Liatris pycnostachya 
Lobelia cardinalis 
Lysimachia clethroides 
Lythrum roseum 

Monarda didyma 
Pardanthus sinensis 

Pink false chamomile 
Golden thistle 
Red valerian 
Snake root 
David's clematis 
Pink coreopsis 
Globe thistle 
Sea holly 
Blue thoroughwort 
Blue day lily 
Fortune's day lily 
White day lily 
Baby's breath 
Hardy sunflower 


Hairy sunflower 
Alum root 


cream white 
Swamp mallow 

white, red center 
Gay feather 
Cardinal flower 
White loosestrife 
Rose loosestrife 

improved type 
Oswego tea 
Blackberry lily 



Penstemon ovatus 
Phlox paniculata 

Antonin Mercier 


Le Prophete 

Mrs. Jenkins 



Pyrethrum uliginosum 
Physostegia virginica 

Alba ' 

Polygonum cuspidatum 
Potentilla atrosanguinea 


Miss Wilmott 
Rudbeckia laciniata 


Rudbeckia (Echinacea) 

Sedum Sieboldi 
Sedum spectablHs 
Senecio pulcher 
Statlce eximia 
Statice latifolia 
Veronica incana 
Veronica longi folia 



Aconitum autumnale 
Anemone japonica 

Ovate pentstemon 
Panicled phlox 





improved Coquelicot 


Giant daisy 
Obedient plant 


Giant knotweed 
Scarlet potentilla 

double red 


Golden glow 

Pink cone flower 

Lover's wreath 

Live- for ever 


Lilac sea lavender 

Giant sea lavender 

Hoary-leaved speedwell 

Long-leaved speedwell 
bloom in September and 

Autumn monkshood 
Japanese anemone 




Queen Charlotte 

Aster acris 
Aster lavis 
Aster nova anglia 

Beauty of Colwell 

Mrs. F. W. Raynor 
Chrysanthemum indica 


Julie Lagravere 

All old-fashioned 
Gentiana Andrewsii 
Helenium autumnale 

Riverton Beauty 

Riverton Gem 
Helianthus Maximiliani 
Helianthus rigidus 

Miss Mellish 

Wolley Dod 
Tricyrtis hirta 

tually so. 

*Agrostemma coronaria 
Ajuga genevensis 
Ajuga reptans alba 
*Alyssum saxatile 
Anthemis tinctoria 
*Arabis albida 
Arenaria caspitosa 
Armeria maritima 

single white 

semi-double pink 

semi-double white 
Dwarf violet aster 
Smooth-leaved aster 
New England aster 

semi-double lavender 

crimson purple 
Pompon chrysanthemum 



kinds very hardy. 
Closed gentian 


reddish orange 
Maximilian's sunflower 
Hardy sunflower 


dark yellow 
Japanese toad lily 
evergreen foliage or vir- 

Mullein pink 
Blue bugle 
White bugle 
Basket of gold 
Golden marguerite 
White rock cress 



* Artemisia pontica 
*Aubrietia deltoidea 
*Cerastium tomentosum 
Dianthus deltoides 
*Dianthus plumarius 
Geum chiloense 
Geum Heldreichi 
Helianthemum vulgar e 
Helleborus niger 
Hesperis matronalis 
Heuchera sanguinea 
I her is semperuirens 
Pachysandra terminalis 

Phlox amcena 

Phlox divaricata (cana- 

Phlox ovata 
. Phlox subulata 
Primula auricula 
Primula polyantha 
Primula veris 
Primula vulgaris 
Ranunculus repens fl. pi. 

Santolina Chamaecy- 


Satureia montana 
Saxifraga cor di folia 
Sedum album 
Semperuivum tectorum 

Roman wormwood 
False wall cress 
Maiden pink 
Grass pink 
Red avens 
Orange avens 
Rock rose 
Christmas rose 
Sweet rocket 
Red alum root 
Hardy candytuft 
Japanese evergreen 

Hairy phlox 

Wild sweet-william 
Mountain phlox 
Moss pink 

English primrose 
Creeping double 

Lavender cotton 
Winter savory 
Heart-leaved saxifrage 
White stonecrop 
House leek 


*Stachys lanata Woolly woundwort 

Thymus serpyllum Creeping thyme 

Tiarella cordifolia Foam flower 

Yucca filamentosa Adam's needle 

^Veronica incana Hoary-leaved speedwell 

Veronica rupestris Rock speedwell 

Vinca minor Periwinkle 

Alba white 
*Gray, or grayish, foliage. 

PERENNIALS That, in species forms, are suit- 
able for naturalizing, or planting in broad nat- 
uralistic effect. 

*Achillea toment&sa Yellow yarrow 

Acanthus mollis Bear's breech 

Aconitum autumnale Autumn monkshood 

Actaa spicata Baneberry 

Alba white berries 

Rubra red berries 

Adonis amurensis Amur bird's eye 

Adonis vernalis Spring bird's eye 

Aegopodium podograria Bishop's weed 

*Ajuga genevensis Blue bugle 

*Ajuga reptans alba White bugle 

*Alyssum saxatile Basket of gold 

Tabernamontana Amsonia 

Anemone pennsylvanica Pennsylvanian anemone 

Anemone japonica Japanese anemone 

Anemone Pulsatilla Pasque flower 

Anthericum liliago St. Bernard's lily 

Anthericum liliastro St. Bruno's lily 



*Arabis alblda 
*Arenaria montana 
*Armeria maritima 
*Aquilegia canadensis 

'Aquilegia chrysantha 
Aquilegia vulgaris 

Ascelpias tuberosa 
Asperula odorata 
Asphodelus luteus 
* Aster alpinus 
Aster acris 
Aster lavis 
Aster nova anglia 
Baptisia australis 
BelHs perennis 
Bocconia cor data 
Boltonia asteroides 
Boltonia latlsquama 
* Campanula carpatica 
Campanula glomerata 

Campanula rotundifolia 
Cassia marilandica 
Centaurea montana 
Cimlcifuga racemosa 
Clematis recta 
Convallaria majalis 
Coronilla varia 

White rock cress 



Common American 

Yellow columbine 
Common European 

Butterfly weed 
Sweet woodruff 
Alpine aster 
Dwarf violet aster 
Smooth-leaved aster 
New England aster 
False indigo 
English daisy 
Plume poppy 
White false chamomile 
Pink false chamomile 
Carpathian harebell 
Clustered bellflower 

Blue bell 
American senna 
Hardy cornflower 
Shrubby clematis 
Crown vetch 



*Dianthus deltoides 
*Dianthus neglectus 
Dielytra formosa 
Doronicum caucasicum 
Epimedium niveum 
Erigeron coulteri 
*Erinus alpinus 
Eupatorium ageratoides 
Gentiana Andrewsii 
Geranium grandiflorum 
*Geum cocclneum 
*Geum Heldreichi 
Helianthemum vulgare 
Helianthus tuberosus 
Helenium autumnale 
Helleborus niger 
Heracleum giganteum 
Hesperis matronalis 
Hemerocallis flava 
Hibiscus moscheutos 
Hieracium aurantiacum 
Hypericum Moserianum 
Alberts sempervirens 
Inula montana 
*Iris cristata 
Iris germanica 
Iris lavigata 
Iris ochroleuca 
Iris pumila 
Iris sibirica 
Iris pseudacorus 

Maiden pink 
Glacier pink 
Plumy bleeding-heart 
Leopard's bane 
Alpine erinus 
Closed gentian 
Lilac crane's bill 
Red avens 
Orange avens 
Rock rose 

Jerusalem artichoke 
Christmas rose 
Giant parsnip 
Sweet rocket 
Tawny day lily 
Swamp mallow 
St. John's wort 
Hardy candytuft 
Mountain inula 
Crested iris 
German iris 
Japanese iris 
Straw-colored iris 
Dwarf iris 
Siberian iris 
Yellow water flag 



Iris versicolor 
Lamium maculatum 
Liatris pycnostachya 
*Linum perenne 
Lobelia cardinalis 
Lysimachia clethroldes 
Lysimachia nummularia 
Lychnis flos cuculi 
Lychnis semperflorens 
Lychins vespertina 
Lychnis viscaria 
Ly thrum roseum 
Mertensia virginica 
Mimulus luteus 
Monarda didyma 
Monarda fistulosa 
My os otis palustris 

*Oenothera caspitosa 
Oenothera fruticosa 
Ononis hircina 
Opuntia polycantha 
Orobus superbus 
Cypripedium acauh 
Cypripedium spectabile 
Pachysandra terminalis 

Pardanthus (Belem- 

canda) sinensis 
*Penstemon barbatus 


Blue water flag 
B abe-in-the-cradle 
Gay feather 
Hardy blue flax 
Cardinal flower 
White loosestrife 
Creeping Jenny 
Cuckoo flower 
Rose campion 
White campion 
German catchfly 
Rose loosestrife 
Virginian cowslip 
Yellow monkey-flower 
Oswego tea 
Wild bergamot 

White evening primrose 
Rest harrow 
Prickly pear 
Bitter vetch 
Pink moccasin flower 
Showy moccasin flower 
Japanese evergreen 

Blackberry lily 
Torrey's pentstemon 



Petasites japomcus 
* Phlox amcena 
*Phlox divaricata 
*Phlox ovata 
Phlox paniculata 

Phlox pilosa 
* Phlox subulata 
Physostegia virginica 
^Plumbago larpenta 
Podophyllum peltatum 
Polygonatum ma jus 
*Polemonium reptans 
Polygonum cuspidatum 
*Potentilla formosa 
*Potentilla pyrenaica 
Primula elatior 
Primula japonica 
Primula veris 
Primula vulgaris 
Rhexia virginica 
Rudbeckia pur pure a 
Salvia pratensis 
*Sanguinaria canadensis 
Sanguisorba canadensis 
*Saponaria ocymoides 
*Saxifraga cordifolia 
*Saxifraga virginiensis 
*Sedum acre 
*Sedum album 
*Silene pennsylvanica 

Japanese coltsfoot 
Hairy phlox 
Wild sweet-william 
Mountain phlox 
Panicled phlox 
pink and white^ 
Downy phlox 
Moss pink 
Obedient plant 
May apple 
Solomon's seal 
Greek valerian 
Giant knotweed 
Red cinquefoil 
Pyrenean cinquefoil 

Japanese primrose 

English primrose 
Meadow beauty 
Pink cone flower 
Meadow sage 
Canadian burnet 
Soap wort 

Heart j leaved saxifrage 
Rock saxifrage 
Golden moss 
White stonecrop 
Wild pink 



Smilaclna racemosa 
Tanacetum vulgar* 

*Thymus lanuginosus 
*Thymus serpyllum 

* Tiarella cor di folia 
Trade scantia virginica 
Tricyrtis hirta 
Trillium grandiflorum 
Trollius europaus 
Tussilago farfara 
Valeriana officinalis 
Veronica rupestris 
Veronica spicata 
Vinca minor 

Viola pedata 

* Yucca filamentosa 

*Well adapted for pockets of 


Aconitum napellus 
Aconitum autumnale 
Actaa spicata 
A ego podium podograria 
Ajuga genevensis 
Ajuga reptans alba 

False Solomon's seal 

Meadow rue 
Woolly-leaved thyme 
Creeping thyme 
Foam flower 
Spider lily 
Japanese toad lily 
White wood lily 
European globe flower 
Garden heliotrope 
Rock speedwell 
Spiked speedwell 
Bird's foot violet 
Adam's needle 

soil on rocky 

will do well in partial 

Autumn monkshood 
Bishop's weed 
Blue bugle 
White bugle 

Anemone pennsylvanica Pennsylvanian anemome 
Anemone japonica Japanese anemone 

[ Aquilegia canadense Common American 



Asperula odorata 
Chelone Lyoni 
Cimicifuga racemosa 
Convallaria ma j alls 
Cypripedium acaule 
Cypripedium pubescens 
Cypripedium spectabile 
Dielytra spec tab His 
Dodecatheon Meadi 
Doronicum austriacum 
Eryngium amethystinum 
Funkia ccerulea 
Funkia For tun ei 
Funkia subcordata 
Gentiana Andrewsii 
Globularia tricosantha 
Helleborus niger 
Hesperis matronalis 
Hepatica triloba 
Lobelia cardinalis 
Lysimachia nummularia 
Marshallia trineruis 
Monarda didyma 
My os otis semperflorens 
Pachysandra terminalis 
Phlox divaricata 
Podophyllum peltatum 
Polemvnium rep tans 

Sweet woodruff 
Pink turtle-head 
Pink moccasin flower 
Yellow moccasin flower 
Showy moccasin flower 
Austrian leopard's bane 
Sea holly 
Blue day lily 
Fortune's day lily 
White day lily 
Closed gentian 
Globe daisy 
Christmas rose 
Sweet rocket 
Cardinal flower 
Creeping Jenny 
Oswego tea 
Japanese spurge 
Wild sweet-william 
May apple 
Greek valerian 

Jacob's ladder 



Primula japonica 
Primula vulgaris 
Prunella grandlflora 
Prunella incisa 
Saxifraga cordifolia 
Saxifraga umbrosa 
Sedum album 
Smllaclna racemosa 
Tiarella cordifolia 
Tricyrtis hirta 
Finca minor 

Japanese primrose 
English primrose 
Large flowered self-heal 
Rose-flowered self-heal 
Heart-leaved saxifrage 
London pride 
White stonecrop 
False Solomon's seal 
Foam flower 
Japanese toad lily 

PERENNIALS That are suitable for planting 

by the waterside or in other moist places. 
'Anemone japonica Japanese anemone 

Anemone pennsylvanica Pennsylvanian anemone 

Astrantla carnlollca 
Calthra palustrls 

Flore plene 
Cornus canadensls 
Gentlana Andrewsll 
Housto n la s erpy lllfo lla 
Iris lavlgata 
Iris pseudacorus 
Lobelia cardlnalls 
Lythrum roseum 
Marshallla trinervls 
Mlmulus luteus 
Mlmulus rlngens 
Myosotls semperflorens 
Petasltes japonlcus 

Marsh marigold 

fine double 
Closed gentian 

Japanese iris 
Yellow water flag 
Cardinal flower 
Rose loosestrife 

Yellow monkey flower 
Blue monkey flower 
Japanese coltsfoot 

Physostegla virginica Obedient plant 



Polygonum cuspidatum 
Primula japonica 
Primula vulgaris 
Rhexia virginica 
Spiraa ulmaria 

Trollius asiaticus 
Trollius europaus 
Veronica repens 

Giant knotweed 
Japanese primrose 
English primrose 
Meadow beauty 
Meadow sweet 

Meadow rue 
Asiatic globe flower 
European globe flower 
Creeping speedwell 

BIENNIALS That are good for one season in 


Althaa rosea Hollyhock 

Single kinds are best. 

Antirrhinum majus 
Bellis perennis 


The Bride 
Campanula Medium 


English daisy 
double pale pink 
double white 

Canterbury bell 

'Campanula pyramidalis Chimney bellflower 

Dianthus barbatus 

Newport Pink 
Dianthus "Marguerite" 
** Digitalis ambigua 
* * Digitalis purpurea 
**Myosotis dissiti flora 

Papaver nudicaule 



Garden carnation 
Yellow foxglove 
Common foxglove 


Iceland poppy 
Oyster plant 

Tragopogon porrifolius 

(A vegetable, but beautiful in gardens.) 
**Fine for naturalizing 

*Best in pots 




ANNUALS For bold 

colors; low effects. 
Ageratum mexicanum 

Blue Perfection 

Princess Pauline 
Alyssum maritimum 

Little Gem 

Brachycome iberidifolia 
Cacalia coccinea 
Calendula officinalis 

Orange King 

Pure Gold 
Callirhoe involucrata 
Callistephus hortensis 

Non Plus Ultra 
Celosia cristata 

Queen of the Dwarfs 
Convolvulus minor 

Roseus Superbus 
Delphinium ajacis 

Dwarf Rocket 
Dianthus chinensis 

Crimson Belle 


Salmon King 

Salmon Queen 



Violet mullein 
massing in white and 

Floss flower 

dark blue 

sky blue 
Sweet alyssum 

very compact 
Swan River daisy 
Flora's paintbrush 
Pot marigold 

double orange 

double yellow 
Poppy mallow 
China aster 

dwarf type 

dark rose 
Dwarf morning-glory 


double various 
Chinese pink 

single red 

double red 

double salmon 

single salmon 

double white 

single vermilion 



Violet Queen double violet 


aurantiaca Namaqualand daisy 

Very fine new hybrids. 
Eschscholtzia caUformca California poppy 


Dainty Queen 
Godetia (Oenothera) 

Whitney i 

Duchess of Albany 


Gomphrena globosa 

Nana Compacta Alba 
Heliotr opium 


Lemoine's Giant 
Iberis coronaria 

Lobelia erinus 

Emperor William 

Prima Donna 

White Gem 
Matthiola incana annua 

Dwarf Bouquet 
Nemophila insignis 

gr an di flora 
Nigella damascena 

Miss Jekyll 
Portulaca splendens 

Especially double varieties. 





pale pink 
Globe amaranth 

dwarf white 


improved type 
Rocket candytuft 


sky blue 


Ten-weeks 1 stock 

dwarf type 

Love grove 

improved type 
Sun plant 



Petunia nyctagini flora 

hybrid a 

Rosy Morn 




White Pearl 
Phlox Drummondi 

Nana compacta 
Tagetes patula 

Little Brownie 

Tom Thumb 

Tom Thumb 
Verbena erinoides 
Verbena hybrida 
Viola cor nut a hybrida 

Bridal Morn 

Lutea Splendens 

Maggie Mott 

Viola tricolor hybrida 

Emperor William 


Golden Yellow 

Snow Queen 
Viscaria cardinalis 
Zinnia Haageana 
Zinnia elegans 

Red Riding Hood 
ANNUALS For bold 

Hybrid petunia 

pink, white throat 

rose, white throat 

compact white 

velvety purple 

Drummond's phlox 

dwarf type 
French marigold 

single yellow and 

double lemon 

double yellow 
Moss verbena 
Hybrid verbena 
Tufted pansy 









Rose of Heaven 
Mexican zinnia 
Common zinnia 

dwarf red 
massing in white and col- 


ors ; medium to high effects. 

Amaranthus cordatus Love-lies-bleeding 

Calliopsis tinctoria Calliopsis 

Nigra Speciosa maroon 

Callistephus hortensis China aster 

Daybreak shell pink branching 

Purity white branching 

Violet King violet branching 
Queen of the Market is a fine early strain. 

Celosia cristata Cockscomb 

Empress crimson 

Celosia plumosa Plumy cockscomb 

Golden Plume yellow 

Centaurea americana Basket flower 

Centaurea cyanus Cornflower 
Blue and mauve are best. 

Centaurea imperialis Sweet sultan 

Centaurea suaveolens Grecian cornflower 

Cheiranthus Cheiri Wallflower 

Paris Extra Early various 

Chrysanthemum ino- 

dorum plenlssmum Double mayweed 


carinatum hybridum Summer marguerite 

Evening Star golden yellow 

Morning Star cream, yellow center 

Northern Star white, yellow center 

Clarkia elegans Clarkia 

Salmon Queen double salmon 

Cosmos bipinnatus Mexican aster 

Klondike yellow 


Lady Lenox pink 

Dahlia rosea Single dahlia 

Giant Perfection is a good tall strain. 
Jules Chretien is a good dwarf strain. 
Delphinium ajacis Larkspur 

Gaillardia amblyodon Red blanket-flower 
Gypsophila elegans Baby's breath 

Alba Grandiflora improved type 


fumariafolia Bush eschscholtzia 

Impatient Balsamina Common balsam 

Prince Bismarck double salmon 

Lavatera trimestris Annual mallow 

Grandiflora rosea improved type 

Linaria maroccana Morocco toad flax 

Very fine hybrids. 

Linum coccineum Scarlet flax 

Matthiola bicornis Evening-scented stock 

Matthiola incana annua Ten-weeks' stock 

Colossal is a good early strain. 
. Continuity is a good late strain. 
Nicotiana a/finis Tuberose-flowered 


Sanderae hybrids white to deep rose 

Nicotiana sylvestris Tasseled tobacco 

Papaver glaucum Tulip poppy 

Papaver rhceas Corn poppy 

Shirley various 

Papaver somniferum 

hybridum Opium poppy 

Cardinal double red 


Charles Darwin single dark mauve 

Shell Pink double pink 

White Swan double white 

Rhodanthe Manglesii Swan River everlasting 
Salvia farinacea Meally sage 

Salvia splendens Scarlet sage 

Saponaria vaccaria Pink soapwort 

Scabiosa atropurparea Mourning bride 
Especially flesh pink, rose and lilac. 

Wiselonensis Butterfly flower 

Dwarf large-flowered. 
Tagetes erecta African marigold 

Phlox cuspidata Star phlox 

Phlox Drummondi Drummond's phlox 

Vinca rosea Madagascar periwinkle 

Xeranthemum annuum Immortelle 
ANNUALS Tall kinds for bold special effects. 
Cleome pungens Spider flower 

Datura cornucopia Trumpet flower 

Double Golden yellow 

Helianthus annuus Sunflower 

Russian improved type 


monstrosum Strawflower 

Very fine planted by colors. 
Kochia tricophylla Summer cypress 
Mirabilis jalapa Four-o'clock 

Polygonum oriental* Prince's feather 
ANNUALS That are especially good for cut- 



*Alyssum maritimum 
Arctotis grandis 
Calendula ofjicinalis 
Callistephus hortensis 

Queen of the Market 


Late branching 
Centaurea americana 
Centaurea cyanus 
* Centaurea imperialis 
* Centaurea suave olens 
Cheiranthus Cheiri 
Chrysanthemum ino- 

dorum plenissima 

carinatum hybridum 
Clarkia eltgans 
Cosmos bipinnatus 
Dahlia rosea 
Delphinium ajacis 
Dianthus chinensis 
Gaillardia amblyodon 
Gypsophila elegans 

*Heliotr opium 
Iberis coronarium 
Jacobaa (Senecio) 

elegans fl. pi. 
*Lathyrus odoratus 

Sweet aiyssum 

African daisy 

Pot marigold 

China aster 
early bloom 
August bloom 
September bloom 

Basket flower 


Sweet sultan 

Grecian cornflower 


Double mayweed 

Summer marguerite 
Mexican aster 
Single dahlia 
Chinese pink 
Red blanket-flower 
Baby's breath 



Sweet pea 

"Immense ones of marvelous form and growing on 

plants exceeding eight feet in height are only to be 

had as the result of cultural skill" 


Black Knight Spencer maroon 

Blanche Ferry Spencer pink and white 

Frank Dolby lavender 

Gladys Unwin pale rose 

Primrose Spencer yellow 

White Spencer white 

Lavatera trimestris Annual mallow 

Linaria maroccana Morocco toadflox 

*Matthiola bicornis Evening-scented stock 
*Matthiola incana 

annua Ten-weeks' stock 

Especially white, flesh and mauve. 

*Nicotiana affinis Tuberose-flowered 


Nicotiana sylvestris Tasseled tobacco 

Nigella damascena Love-in-a-mist 

Papaver glaucum Tulip poppy 
Papaver Rhceas 

(Shirley) Shirley poppy 

Papaver somniferum Opium poppy 

Phlox Drummondi Drummond's phlox 

Rehmanma angulata Rehmannia 

Blooms first year if started early. 

*Reseda odorata Mignonette 

Rhodanthe Manglesii Swan River everlasting 

Salpiglossis sinuata Painted tongue 

Saponariavaccaria Pink soapwort 

Scabiosa atropurpurea Mourning bride 

Wisetonensis Butterfly flower 

Tagetes erecta African marigold 




Madagascar periwinkle 

Tufted pansy 


Rose of Heaven 

Blue viscaria 

Common zinnia 

*Tropaolum majus 
Vinca rosea 
Viola cornuta hybrida 
*Viola tricolor hybrida 
Viscaria cardinalis 
Viscaria ccerulea 
Zinnia elegans 

* Fragrant 

ANNUALS That are climbers. 
Adlumia cirrhosa Allegheny vine 

Biennial, but blooms first year. 

Cobaa scandens 
Coccinea indica 
Cucurbit a Pepo 
Dolichos Lablab 



Echinocystis lob at a 
Ipomcea coccinea 
Ipomosa grandiflora 
Ipomosa imperialis 
Ipomosa major 

Ipomcea Quamoclit 
Ipomosa rubra coerulea 

Ipomosa setosa 
Maurandia Barclayana 
Momordica balsamina 
Momordica charantia 

Balloon vine 

Cup-and-saucer vine 

Scarlet-fruited climber 


Hyacinth bean 

Wild cucumber 

Red morning-glory 


Japanese morning-glory 

Common morning-glory 

Cypress vine 

Heavenly Blue morn- 

Brazilian morning-glory 


Balsam apple 

Balsam pear 



Phaseolus multi floras 
Phaseolus multiflorus 


Thunbergia alata 
Tropaolum canariense 
Tropaolum Lobbianum 

Asa Gray 


Roi des Noirs 
Tropaolum ma jus 

Scarlet runner 

Butterfly runner 
Black-eyed Susan 
Canary-bird vine 
Lobb's nasturtium 

pale yellow 


Tall nasturtium 

BULBS AND TUBERS For spring bloom, late 
February to June. Plant all of them in autumn. 

Allium Moly 
Anemone thalictroides 
Bulbicodium citrinus 
Bulbkodium gradlis 
Camassia Cusickil 
Camassia esculenta 
Chlonodoxa Lucilia 
Chionodoxa sardensis 

Crocus aureus 
Crocus vernus 



Crocus versicolor 
Er an this hy emails 
Erythronium albidum 

Erythronium citrinum 

Golden garlic 

Rue anemone 

Hoop petticoat daffodil 

Rush-leaved daffodil 

Cusick's quamash 

Indian quamash 



Yellow crocus 
Spring crocus 



Cloth of silver crocus 
Winter aconite 
White dogtooth violet 

Common dogtooth violet 
Yellow dogtooth violet 



Fritillaria imperialis 
Fritillaria meleagris 


Galanthus Elwesii 
Galanthus nivalis 
Galanthus plicatus 

Hyacinthus orientalis 

(Tink,) Baron von 

Bird of Paradise 

Czar Peter 

La Grandesse 

Lord Wellington 


Miss Nightingale 

Van Speyk 
Leucojum astivum 
Leucojum vernum 
Muscari Botryoides 


Narcissus biflorus 
Narcissus incomparabilis 

Barrii Conspicuus 

Orange Phoenix 

Silver Phoenix 
Narcissus Jonquila 
Narcissus odorus 
Narcissus polyanthus 

Crown imperial 
Guinea-hen flower 
is finest. 
Giant snowdrop 
Common snowdrop 
Crimean snowdrop 

Amethyst hyacinth 
Common hyacinth 

single pink 

single yellow 

single blue 

single white 

double pink 

double yellow 

double white 

double blue 
Summer snowflake 
Spring snowflake 
Grape hyacinth 


Primrose peerless 
Star daffodil 

yellow, red-rimmed 

double, orange shades 

double cream 

Campernelle jonquil 
Nosegay daffodil 



Queen of Yellows yellow, orange cup 

Hardy if well protected. 

Narcissus poetaz 

Narcissus poeticus 

Narcissus pseudo- 

Narcissus Telemonius 

Ornithogallum nutans 


Puschkinia scilloides 
Sanguinaria canadensis 
S cilia hi folia 
Scilla hispanica 

Scilla nutans 
Scilla sibirica 
Triteleia uniflora 
Tulipa Clusiana 
Tulipa gesneriana hyb. 

Black Chief 

Blushing Bride 

Bouton d'Or 

Glare of the Garden 

Inglescombe Pink 

Mrs. Moon 

Poetaz daffodil 
Poet's narcissus 

Trumpet daffodil 
yellow, white perianth 

Double yellow daffodil 
Drooping Star of 

Lebanon squill 
Taurus squill 

Spanish wood hyacinth 
English wood hyacinth 
Siberian squill 
Spring star flower 
Little lady tulip 
Cottage (single) tulip 


pink and white 


dark red 





Orange King 

The Fawn 

Tulipa gesneriana hyb. 


Baronne de la 

Clara Butt 

Early Dawn 

King Harold 

Peter Barr 

Salmon King 

The Sultan 

Violet Queen 
Tulipa gesneriana 


Monstre Cramoisie 

Margraf van Baden 

Lutea Major 
Tulipa Greigii 
Tulipa Kaufmanniana 


Tulipa oculus solis 
Tulipa suaveolens hyb. 

Blue Flag 

Cottage Maid 

Couronne d'Or 
Fire Dome 

orange, tinged scarlet 
pinkish fawn 

Darwin (single) tulip 



rosy violet 




deep maroon 

light violet 

Parrot tulip 


yellow and scarlet 


Greig's tulip 
Kaufmann's tulip 

yellow, streaked 


Sun's eye tulip 
Early-flowering tulip 

double violet 

single rose, flushed 

double yellow, 
flushed orange 

double scarlet 



La Candeur 

Ophir d'Or 
Pottebakker White 
Rose d' Amour 
Due van Thol 
Tulipa sylvestris 
Tulipa Tubergeniana 

double white 
single scarlet 
single yellow 

double flesh pink 
dwarf early type 
Florentine tulip 
Tubergen's tulip 

BULBS AND TUBERS For summer bloom, 
June to early autumn. Those marked * are not 
reliably hardy; in the North they must be planted 
in spring and taken up in autumn, though in 
favored positions a few are hardy with ample 


*Allium neapolitanum 
*Alstrcemeria chilensis 
* Amaryllis Belladonna 
*Canna hybrida 



Duke of Marlborough 

Jeart Tissot 
Colchicum autumnale 


Crocus sativus 
Crocus speciosus 
*Dahlia rosea 


St. George 

*Dahlia rosea hyb. 

Neapolitan garlic 
Peruvian lily 
Belladonna lily 
Hybrid canna 



dark crimson 

Meadow saffron 


Saffron crocus 
Blue autumn crocus 
Single dahlia 



Cactus dahlia 



Countess of Lonsdale 



Mrs. George 

Roland von Berlin 
*Dahlia rosea hyb. 

Black Beauty 



*Dahlia rosea hyb. 



*Dahlia rosea hyb. 

Charles Lanier 


John Walker 

*Galtonia candicans 

salmon pink 


pink, shaded white 


Decorative dahlia 


deep rose 


Pompon dahlia 



Show dahlia 




shell pink 

(Hardy with protection.) 
* Gladiolus 

^Gladiolus Colvillei 
Peach Blossom 

Vermilion gladiolus 
Colville's gladiolus 



light pink 

(Early flowering; hardy with protection.) 
* Gladiolus gandavensis Ghent gladiolus 


Canary Bird 

* Gladiolus hybridus 

Doctor Sellew 
Henry Gilman 

* Gladiolus hybridus 


Blue Jay 


La Luna 

Mrs. Francis King 


* Gladiolus hybridus 

* Gladiolus nanceianus 

* Gladiolus primulinus 

* Gladiolus princeps 

*Incarvillea Delavayi 

(Hardy with 
Iris anglica 

Mont Blanc 




Childs' gladiolus 

Groff's gladiolus 
purplish blue 
pale salmon 
pale yellow 
salmon rose 
pale yellow 

Lemoine's gladiolus 

cream, flushed rose 
Giant gladiolus 

Princeps gladiolus 

salmon pink 
Hardy gloxinia 
English iris 


dark blue 




Iris hispanica 


Belle Chinoise 

British Queen 

King of the Blues 
*Ixia hybrida 

Queen of Roses 


*Ixiolirion tataricum 
Lilium auratum 
Lilium Brownii 
Lilium canadense 
Lilium candidum 
Lilium chalcedonicum 
Lilium croceum 
Lilium dauricum 


Lilium elegans 

Alice Wilson 


Orange Queen 

Prince of Orange 
Lilium Hansoni 
Lilium Henryi 
Lilium Martagon 


Lilium monadelphum 
Lilium pardalinum 
Lilium speciosum 


Spanish iris 



dark blue 
African corn lily 



Gold-banded lily 
Brown's lily 
Canada lily 
Madonna lily 
Scarlet Martagon lily 
Orange lily 
Davurian lily 

crimson, yellow band 

orange, tipped red 
Thunbergian lily 

pale yellow 

late apricot 


early apricot 
Hanson's lily 
Henry's lily 
Martagon lily 


Caucasian lily 
Panther lily 
Handsome lily 



Melpomene pink 

Lilium superbum Swamp lily 

Lilium tenuifolium Coral lily 

Lilium testaceum Nankeen lily 

Lilium tigrinum Tiger lily 

Splendens improved type 

crocosmaflora Blazing star 

*Ornithogallum Arabian 

arabicum Star-of-Bethlehem 

(Hardy with protection) 

^Polyanthus tuberosa Tuberose 

*Richardia Elliottiana Yellow calla 

Sternbergia lute a Lily-of-the-field 

*Tigridia pavonia Tiger flower 

*Tropaolum speciosum Hardy nasturtium 

*Vallota purpurea Scarborough lily 

atamasco Atamasco lily 

*Zephyranthes rosea Fairy lily 
ROSES Hybrid perpetuals, for June bloom; only 

stray blossoms later in season. 

Baroness de 

Rothschild pink 

Frau Karl Druschki white 

General Jacqueminot red 

Mrs. John Laing pink 

Ulrich Brunner red 
ROSES Hybrid teas, for bloom all summer and 

into autumn. 

Arthur R. Goodwin pale apricot 



Bessie Brown creamy white 

Caroline Testout pink 

Griiss an Teplitz red 
Kaiserin Auguste 

Victoria white 

Killarney pink 

La Detroite rose 

La France pale pink 
Madame Abel 

Chatenay carmine rose 
summer; hardy with slight protection. 

Baby rambler, Jessie cerise 

Bengal, Agrippina red 

Bengal, Hermosa pink 
Polyantha, Jeanne 

d' Arc white 
Polyantha, Madame 

Turbat pale pink 
Polyantha, Mrs. W. 

H. Cutbush pale pink 
Tea-scented, Bon 

Silene bright rose 

Francisca Kruger coppery yellow 

Tea-scented, Safrano saffron yellow 
Tea-scented, White 

Maman Cochet white 
ROSES For bush effect in garden or border; 
unlike bedding roses, they are not pruned se- 



Austrian brier hyb., 

Austrian Copper 
Austrian brier hyb., 

Austrian Yellow 
Austrian brier hyb., 

Harison's Yellow 
Austrian brier hyb., 

Persian Yellow 
Austrian brier hyb., 

Rayon d'Or 
Austrian brier hyb., 

Soleil d'Or 
Damask, Cabbage 
Damask, Madame 

Damask, White 

Moss, Blanche 

Moss, Gloire des 


Rosa rubiglnosa 
Sweet brier 
Lord Penzance 
(Penzance hybrid) 

Meg Merrillies 
Rosa rugosa 
Wrinkled rose 

Nova Zembla 
Single rose, Simplicity 

reddish copper 
deep yellow 
double yellow 
double yellow 
double yellow 

double yellow 

pale pink 



double white 


CLIMBING ROSES For pillars, arbors, screens 
and old trees. 

Alberic Barbier double pale cream 

American Pillar deep rose, white eye 

Baltimore Belle double blush 

Carmine Pillar single red 

Dorothy Perkins double pink 

Dorothy Perkins double white 

Excelsa improved crimson 


Gardenia double cream 

Garland pale citron 

Hiawatha carmine, white eye 

Lady Gay double pink 

Prairie light rose 

Prairie Queen double deep rose 

Tausendschoen soft pink 

Yellow Rambler semi-double yellow 

WEEPING ROSES For use in overhanging ef- 

Dorothy Perkins both pink and white 

Excelsa improved crimson 

Lady Godiva flesh pink 

Rosa Widiuraiana Single white 

AQUATICS Plants suitable for tubs of water 
set in the ground up to the rim, but better in 
small ponds. 

A corns japonlca 

variegata Variegated sweet flag 

Aponogeton Dh tacky on Cape pond weed 



Calthra palustris 
Nelumbium luteum 
Nelumbium speciosum 
Nuphar advtna 
Nymphaa odorata 

Nymphaa tuberosa 


Peltandra virginica 
Pontederia cor data 
Sagittaria japonica fl. pi. 
Zizania aquatka 

Marsh marigold 
American lotus 
Egyptian lotus 
Yellow pond lily 
White water lily 

Pink water lily 
Water arum 
Pickerel weed 
Double arrowhead 
Wild rice 


EVER since gardens began the value of shade 
as a means of refreshment to man has been recog- 
nized, all manner of devices, from the natural to 
the sheer artificial, being employed to create it. 
Only in the failure to make the most of existing 
shade has there been a lamentable lack of recog- 

There is a feeling that flowers and shade will 
not go hand in hand. The feeling is so strong that 
when flowers are found growing in garden 
shade it is usually through neglect rather than intel- 
ligent intent. 

Full sunshine and the open sky are essential to 
gardens only in a general way. Nature shows 
that. Many of her most beautiful gardens are par- 
tially shaded; not a few have a leafy screen be- 
tween them and the sun the livelong day. 

Shade, in some measure, is as grateful to numer- 
ous cultivated flowers as it is to man. Having had 
it naturally, they crave it in the garden even 
though they are frequently good natured enough to 
live happily without it. 



The deliberate planning of any scheme intended 
to make for shade should therefore not leave flow- 
ers out of complete consideration. No matter 
what the degree of shade, something there is that 
will find a particular spot congenial. 

To make the point of complete consideration 
more clear, it is not enough to grow roses, wistaria 
or honeysuckle over a pergola or arbor, with per- 
haps a hardy border outside where there is a sunny 
exposure. So far as the flowers are concerned 
these are sun propositions. The important thing 
to learn is that other flowers may flourish in the 
created shady places flowers that will utilize 
waste spaces and sometimes prove no more trouble 
than grass or weeds; for something must grow in 
them, be sure of that. Call the pergola or arbor 
such if you will; but let it be secondarily a shaded 

So, in a wider sense, with the whole place. If 
the garden proper be endowed with shade, necessar- 
ily or preferably, seize upon its shade advantages 
and develop them to the utmost. Or it may be 
that shade is upon one side of the garden, or the 
garden leads into shrubbery or thin woodland ; then 
follow out the same idea. But do not overlook the 
lesser possibilities. Once a very pretty little shade 
garden not more than ten feet long and three feet 
wide was made along the stone foundation on the 
north side of the house. Though it had the sun 
only a little while in the morning, a couple of doz- 
en kinds of native plants flourished there. NO 


possibility is too small; there are plenty of them 
under trees, between shrubs or in the shadow of 
hedges and buildings. 

Thin woodland on the outskirts of the home 
grounds is the finest of all opportunities, for the 
reason that here there may be a liberal planting 
of appropriate flowers in a fashion approximating 
nature. In England there are woodland gardens 
of the rarest charm, but wholly unstudied appear- 
ance, and in them it is easier to find some of the 
choice American plants than at home. Here, for- 
tunately, there is an awakening and in a few in- 
stances most praiseworthy efforts have been made 
to bring naturalistic shade gardens to a high degree 
of perfection. 

The list of flowers that may be drawn upon for 
shaded gardens is far longer than is supposed. 
Few, for example, take into account the fact that it 
is made materially more numerous by a small host 
of spring flowers that may be said to flourish in the 
shade, though they bloom in full sunshine in pre- 
cisely the same spot. This is a most important 
point to understand; many plants like to grow under 
deciduous trees and shrubs, where they may bloom 
in full sunshine before the foliage is out on the 
branches over their heads. The remainder of the 
season they are shade-loving, or at any rate shade- 

Plant always in irregular colonies, even in a 
square foot or two of waste dooryard space, except- 
ing in the rare instances when such a space a$ the 


inner line of a pergola, or parts of a formal gar- 
den, would seem to make conventionality desirable. 
Shaded gardens, as a rule, ought to be naturalistic. 

For early spring, when branches are still leafless 
or nearly so, there is nothing more beautiful than 
several forms of the hardy primrose (Primula). 
The loveliest is the English primrose (P. vulgaris) 
which has been slow making its way here, consid- 
ering the fact that it is one of England's commonest 
wildflowers and that with a proper degree of mois- 
ture and summer shade it is quite hardy here. The 
cowslip (P. veris), the oxlip (P. elatior), any yel- 
low polyanthus (P. polyantha) and the Japanese 
primrose (P. japonica) are easier of culture and 
also are in every way desirable for massing on any 
scale. The pink P. cortusoides Sieboldii and P. 
farinosa, the lilac P. denticulata, the violet P. cap- 
itata and the (type) P. auricula are finely suited 
for shaded gardens but require more care. 

Of the spring bulbs there are the snowdrop, Si- 
berian squill, glory-of-the-snow, grape hyacinth, 
wood hyacinth, common hyacinth, crocus, tulip, 
crown imperial, daffodil and guinea-hen flower 
that may be planted where shade comes later. Any 
of them will grow in the thin grass under the trees 
of an old orchard and all are the better for a 
ground cover. This need not be grass and as a 
rule would better not be, though daffodils look par- 
ticularly well in it. Snowdrops, for example, will 
come up through a carpet of periwinkle or bishop's 
weed, Siberian squill and lily-of-the-valley may be 


used together for double-cropping shaded ground, 
tulips thrive among ferns and so on. Avoid all 
double forms and bizarre color notes in naturalistic 
planting. Red is not a spring color in the North ; 
so beware of red tulips. The best tulips are the yel- 
low species and the cottage white and yellow selfs; 
the best daffodils the yellow trumpet and the poet's 

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadnsis) t which nat- 
uralizes well in rocky places, is excellent for early 
spring; so are Dutchman's breeches (Dielytra cu- 
cullaria) and Squirrel corn (D. canadensis). Then 
there are the foam flower (Tiarella cordifolia) , 
heart-leaved saxifrage (Saxifraga cordifolia), Lon- 
don pride (S. umbrosa), blue bugle (Ajuga genev- 
ensis) white bugle (A. reptans alba), liverwort 
(Hepatka triloba), white stonecrop (Sedum al- 
bum) and, later, the perennial forget-me-not (My- 
os otis semperflorens) for similarly carpeting the 
ground. The first three lose their foliage after 
blooming; so may be double-cropped with ferns 
and other plants. 

For higher growth a foot or so in partial 
shade the wild sweet-william (P. divaricata), sweet 
woodruff (Asperula odorata), Greek valerian 
{ (Polemonium reptans), common American colum- 
bine (Aquilegia canadense) and Pennsylvanian ane- 
'mone (A. pennsylvanica) are admirable when 
spring is getting ready to merge into summer; 
closed gentian (Gentiana Andrewsii) in September 
and the evergreen Christmas rose (Helleborus 


niger) and Pachysandra terminalis the year round. 

The pink, white or yellow foxgloves, which are 
glorious on the edge of thin woods, for June; 
monkshood (Aconitum napellus) and cardinal flow- 
er (Lobelia cardinalis), for late summer, and 
Japanese toad lily (Tricyrtis hirta) and Japanese 
anemone (A. japonica) for early autumn are fine 
for still higher growth. 

Other plants that may be grown in more or less 
shade are three of the best day lilies, Funkia sub- 
cordata, F. coerulea and F. Fortunei; the big bleed- 
ing-heart (Dielytra spectabilis) and the little one 
(D. formosa), banebery (Actaea spicata), May 
apple (Podophyllum peltatum), snakeroot (dm- 
icifuga racemosa) and false Solomon's seal (Smil- 
acina racemosa) . 

Good shrubs are all the native rhododendrons, 
laurels and azaleas, which do better with the pro- 
tection ; Cornus florida and the shad bush (Amelan- 
chier canadensis). 

Last, but not least, the true lilies. Some of the 
best of them like partial shade and low growth cov- 
ering the ground around them as well. Moreover 
these look better so placed than in any other way. 
Such lilies include L. speciosum, L. superbum, L. 
longiflorum, L. auratum and L. tenui folium. 

To return to the matter of double-cropping, see 
that shaded ground is covered in summer unless 
tree or shrub branches are so low as to do this. 
There are combinations for all places even those 
where grass refuses to grow. 


IF you would add joy in the flower garden, 
make a hobby of some particular flower or 
flowers. Here is the crowning touch that raises 
garden pleasure to the last degree of height. To 
the ordinary joy of the collector any garden is a 
collection, pure and simple it adds the joy that 
can come only through selection, as distinguished 
from mere aggregation. 

The aim may be, but generally is not, the ex- 
clusion of all save the subject of specialization. 
The usual plan is likened fairly to the way of a man 
who collects books, but makes Burns his hobby ; who 
collects paintings, but prides himself on the accumu- 
lation of Corots, or who collects postage stamps, 
but lays chief stress on United States issues. Cer- 
tainly there is no need of exclusion; it is possible to 
have numerous friends and yet prefer one, or a few, 
above others. 

A peculiarly happy note to this hobby is the fact 
that it is open virtually to all; rich and poor, in 
some way, may ride it to their heart's content. Prob- 
ably none who has played the game with much 



money has got more real enjoyment out of this sort 
of specializing than some Lancashire weaver with 
his auriculas the pride of what little time he could 
call his own. He knows well enough that so far as 
the sheer pleasure of playing for "points" is con- 
cerned, his "bob" is quite as good a coin as his rich 
neighbor's "quid." 

An American prototype of the Lancashire weav- 
er, in spirit, is a hard-working young business man. 
He happens to have a special liking for China 
asters ; so, while he grows other flowers, he makes 
a hobby of his favorite one. The result is a really 
absorbing outdoor interest from May all through 
the summer a little while in the morning and a 
little while in the evening, on week days, he potters 
with his China asters and on Sundays he studies his 
crop at leisure. He would not miss the little money 
that he expends for seed, but, as a matter of fact, he 
comes out with a profit. Living as he does, in the 
suburbs of the city of moderate size in which he is 
employed, he is able to sell to a florist at a fair price 
all the cut blooms that he cares to bring to town on 
summer mornings. 

China asters, of course, are a case of making a 
hobby of a single species or, more strictly, a glori- 
fied species, the form as developed through cultiva- 
tion being known botanically as Callistephus hor- 
tensis. It is a hobby that may be tolerably expensive 
if one cares to ride it to the limit. This is because 
there are so many strains, each with its several col- 
or divisions. The assortment offered in three 


American catalogues would cost from six to ten 
dollars for the seed alone, while one English list 
the prices run higher totals above thirty dollars. 

It would be a pleasant task to grow all strains 
in all colors, if only the fittest were intended to sur- 
vive in the end. Completeness, however, is not 
everything to a collection of flowers; it might be 
subspecializ-ed to great advantage, even going so 
far as to reject, say, all save a certain strain of 
China asters. A hobby that gives you the reputa- 
tion of growing the finest Early Market, Ostrich 
Plume or late branching asters for miles around is 
certainly something. Just now the single China 
aster, which is an intentional reversion toward the 
original species (Callistephus sinensis}, offers a fas- 
cinating subject for a restricted flower hobby. This 
new race has a grace that the double kinds lack and, 
both for bedding and cutting, the pink, mauve and 
white kinds are exceeding beautiful acquisitions. 
With the bold golden center, the crimson is at least 
a better mixer than the unfriendly double of the 
same shade. 

The other extreme of flowers hobbies is concen- 
tration on a genus rather than on a single species. 
In many cases this, taken literally, might be the 
despair of even the largest botanical gardens, let 
alone the amateur; not only do numbers sometimes 
mount up appallingly, but a genus may be so distrib- 
uted geographically as to render it next to impossi- 
ble to keep a complete representation flourishing in 
a given group of outdoor and indoor gardens. For- 


tunately it does not have to be taken literally least 
of all by those to whom the growing of flowers is 
more a matter of recreation than of botany. Make 
your interpretation liberal, not literal, and just as 
liberal as you choose ; it is your hobby, no one's else. 

Look over the principal genera that have come 
into garden cultivation and then decide on the one 
that most appeals to you. Maybe that very one 
already is represented by a species or two. If it is 
not, make a start with one or more of the easiest 
species which you may be sure are those most 
commonly catalogued and then add others from 
time to time. Study, the while, this genus from the 
botanical point of view; see what Bailey's Cyclo- 
paedia of Horticulture has to say, for one thing. 
The more you study the more you will become ab- 
sorbed, and it will not be unusual if your desires 
show a disposition to get way ahead of your time 
and money conveniences. But do not let them ; you 
can ride your hobby slowly and sanely and have 
just as good a time. 

Perhaps it is the lily genus that is decided upon. 
This would be a fortunate decision indeed; for 
American gardens are so badly in need of more 
lilies that every one who makes a hobby of them is 
a benefactor to this and future generations. You 
find the genus catalogued as Lilium, the particular 
species being indicated by a second Latin word; 
thus the botanical name of the tiger lily is Lilium 

Make a start with some of the easy species, such 


as L. tigrinum, L. croceum and L. speciosum. At 
the same time that you are learning to grow these to 
perfection, familiarize yourself with the way that 
lilies separate themselves into groups, largely ac- 
cording to the form of the blossom, and get a clear 
understanding of the reasons why some lilies are 
more difficult in culture than others, and to what ex- 
tent such difficulties can be overcome. There are 
eighty or more species of lilies in culture, but with 
a little research that will be a great pleasure it 
will not be troublesome to separate them into zones 
of difficulty, through which you may care to venture 
farther and farther as the years go by. Very likely 
it will not be many years before you find yourself 
trying to persuade those lovely, but tender, pink 
lilies, L. japonicum and L. rubellum y to stay with 
you by guaranteeing special attention to their wants 
in the way of food and winter bedclothing. 

The iris offers just as fascinating a field as the 
lily, with the advantage of being a less expensive 
hobby within the zone of easy culture. "The poor 
man's orchid" has the further advantage of a mate- 
rially greater variation of species. One could easily 
make a hobby of the German, the Japanese, the 
Spanish or the English iris, so many are the varie- 
ties of each. No less than fifty-six named varieties 
of Japanese iris are in a single American list. An- 
other offers forty-two German irises, while in a 
British list are thirty-five Spanish irises and thirty- 
two of the English and all these are only selec- 
tions from larger nursery collections. 


Of the easiest irises there are a dozen or more 
species; and as these bloom in April, May, June 
and July, the hobby opportunities are enough to 
bring contentment without going in for those that 
require coddling. The latter are a small army. 
There are more than thirty bulbous and tuberous- 
rooted species that are hardy in England where 
they bloom from November to June, and fifteen of 
the cushion irises, mostly from Palestine. Some of 
these, /. reticulata, I. pavonia, L alaia and /. 
susiana, have been wintered outdoors in this country 
and there are others that would survive with the 
protection that they get abroad. The truth is that 
more plants would prove hardy in American gar- 
dens if they were given the care that they have in 
England. There the gardeners not only take all 
pains to place tender plants in sheltered spots and 
to give them winter protection to suit their individ- 
ual needs, but small glass frames hand ones 
are used freely in winter and spring and also to 
enable bulbs and tubers to secure their required 
"dry season" after blooming. 

The rose genus is a fascinating field for a flower 
hobby along lines that have seldom been tried by 
the amateur. There are a great many species, both 
bush and climbing; and if the space is available, a 
fair representation of these will make a collection 
of practically assured permanence. Anyone who 
takes up species in this way will find their beauty a 
revelation and will not wonder that single roses 
stand so high in culture today. Or a species may be 


taken up with some of its variations; perhaps the 
sweet bner(Rosa rubiginosa) and Lord Penzance's 
famous hybrids, of which there are at least fifteen. 
In time add the other briers, notably the Austrian; 
there are some wonderful yellow and coppery tones. 
Going in for double bedding roses as a hobby 
means, of course, concentrating on one of a few 
classes and then selecting from a bewildering array 
of names. The hybrid tea, now the chief bedding 
rose, has two hundred and fifty varieties in one 
catalogue and a third as many hybrid perpetuals, 
neither list being more than the especially desirable 
varieties. In the same catalogue the dwarf polyan- 
tha roses number about thirty and the Rosa rugosa 
variations fourteen. A combination of carefully 
selected hybrid teas and the best of the climbing 
roses would be an excellent one. 

One amateur divides his hobby interest very 
agreeably by concentrating on the hardy primrose 
(Primula) for spring and the hardy chrysanthe- 
mum for autumn. He rather envies a Scotch phy- 
sician who grows more than one hundred and 
twenty-five primulas, with any number of varieties, 
and a friend nearer home whose named chrysanthe- 
mums are above two score. But this amateur wisely 
limits himself for the present to about a dozen of 
the hardiest primula species and less than twenty 
varieties of chrysanthemums. When he has the 
time to take proper care of more he will possess 
them, not before. The primulas are among the 
most charming of subjects for a flower hobby. 

"The primulas are among the most charming 
subjects for a flower hobby" 


Another very charming subject is the bellflower 
( Campanula). There is an endless number of bell- 
flowers, but not all are of interest unless one is col- 
lecting for numbers. A dozen or so perennial spe- 
cies, with the biennial Canterbury bell and the an- 
nual Campanula Loreyi, are distinctly worth while. 
Others are the phlox, with its species blooming over 
a period of six months ; the pink (Dianthus), which 
has a long season also and some beautiful dwarf 
species that the garden seldom sees; the violet 
(Viola), which has some fine foreign species other 
than the ones that are the forebears of the pansy 
and tufted pansy and several native ones that de- 
serve more garden culture; the speedwell 
(Veronica), with profuse bloom over a long sea- 
son; the morning-glory (Ipomcea), which has 
several fine species; the peony (Paeonia), both tree 
and herbaceous; the columbine (Aquilegia), the 
poppy (Papaver), the stonecrop (Sedum), the 
saxifrage (Saxifraga) and the windflower (Anem- 

Among the bulbs and tubers there are more temp- 
tations to stroll down pleasant paths. The dahlia, 
in its well-defined classes, and the gladiolus, in the 
species and the choicest representatives of their 
hybrids, rank with the best flowers for hobbies be- 
cause of their quality possibilities. The tulip genus 
(Tulipa) and the daffodil (Narcissus), by either 
.species or classes; the crocus, the fritillary (Fritil- 
laria), the butterfly, globe and star tulips (Calo- 
chortus) and the dogtooth violet (Erythronium) 


are extremely interesting, though the task will be 
found a very difficult one in the northeastern part 
of the United States excepting in the first two 

Shrubs, too, are hobby subjects. The lilac 
(Syringa), of which there are several species and a 
great many varieties, is one of the best of them. 
The rhododendron and azalea are quite as good in 
their showier way. Permanence of investment con- 
sidered, none of these can be called an extravagant 
hobby. The viburnum forms an interesting group 
of considerable size; so do the barberry (Herberts), 
the dogwood (Cornus), the hawthorn Cratagus), 
the St. John's wort (Hypericum), the honeysuckle 
(Lonicera) , the mock orange (Philadelphus) , the 
bramble (Rubus), the spirea, the elder (Sam- 
bucus), the sumac (Rhus) and the currant 

A few of the annuals are to be had in various 
species, though this point is generally overlooked 
by the grower of flowers. Half a dozen species of 
annual chrysanthemum are on the market and as 
many of candytuft (Iberis) and centaurea. The 
great annual for specializing is the sweet pea. Too 
many think the sweet pea (Lathyrus) easy. Indif- 
ferent blooms, it is true, are not very hard to bring 
into the garden; but immense ones of marvelous 
form and growing on plants exceeding eight feet in 
height are only to be had as the result of cultural 
skill. Any one who grows even a dozen of the best 
named varieties of a choice strain will find that he 


has no small hobby on his hands. This dozen can 
be chosen from a list of one hundred and sixty-five 
varieties; doubtless from longer lists also. 

Aside from Bailey's monumental work, there are 
many books of reference that can be used as the 
means of education in the pursuit of a flower hobby. 
The rose, iris, daffodil, lily and crocus have all had 
books written about their species and hybrids. Cat- 
alogues, too, frequently are of incomplete botanical 
assistance, but now and then there is needless con- 
fusion of name. It must be borne in mind also 
that common names are not always to be relied 
upon for establishing the genus of a plant. Thus 
the Christmas rose belongs to the genus Helleborus, 
not Rosa; the Guernsey lily to Nerine, not Lilium; 
the grape hyacinth to Muscari, and so on. If your 
hobby is roses, however, and you think that you 
would like Christmas roses with others, just let 
them come in and say nothing; botany can be dread- 
fully elastic in the gardens, sometimes, 
i Whether the hobby serves any marked decora- 
tive purpose is of minor importance. The prime ob- 
ject is the production of perfect individuals and 
very often it is much more convenient to put the 
plants in rows in a secluded part of the grounds, 
using, perhaps, the surplus for special display else- 
where. In such a place the raggedness incidental 
to seed-saving does not matter and there is plenty 
of room for experimenting with cuttings and seed- 
lings, as well as hybridizing if one has the time 
for that. 


EVERY little while you hear this remark : "I never 
can remember the names of flowers." Change 
"can" to "do" and it would be nearer to the truth. 
Many do not remember the names of flowers, that 
is lamentably apparent; but anyone can remember 
them, if sufficiently interested. It is only a ques- 
tion of training the mind, consciously or uncon- 

The memory will be helped a great deal if the 
striking similarity of the rules of naming flowers 
and civilized human beings is grasped clearly. In 
the botanical world the natural orders are divided 
into genera. Each genus or family has a name, 
which corresponds exactly to the surname of a man 
or woman. But the generic name always comes 
first, a plan which has much in its favor. A genus, 
in turn, is divided into species. This necessitates 
a Christian name, so to speak; in botany it is called 
specific. Usually there is only one specific name; 
but, as with the human race, there may be another 
that is still more specific. Thus, to make the cor- 
respondence clearer: 



Crucifera Iberis Gibraltarka 

American Jones Hezekiah 

Latin is used for orders, genera and species, for 
the reason that it is the universal language of sci- 
ence. The order and specific names are translat- 
able into any language; the generic name not 
always, as in the case of wistaria, which is coined 
from Wistar. In the instance just mentioned the 
plant is Gibraltar candytuft and it belongs to the 
order of cross-bearers. Candytuft is doubtless a 
corruption of Candia tuft, as the first species culti- 
vated (I. umbellata) was discovered on that island. 
Gibraltar implies habitat, but not a geographical 
restriction of range. Cross-bearers are so called 
because the four petals of the blossoms of plants in 
this order form a cross. 

As plants come into cultivation, frequently in the 
wild, they generally acquire a common name, which 
may be a literal translation or something suggested 
by a fancied resemblance or a mere notion. Lit- 
erally Viola tricolor would be the tri-colored violet, 
but that is not its customary name; in Europe and 
in this country the plant has numerous popular 
names. So the correspondence may be carried still 
farther by the statement that flowers, as well as 
human beings, frequently have nicknames some- 
times strikingly appropriate and again quite unfath- 
omable as to the reason therefor. 

If only the correspondence had stopped right 
there! But flower names change; by force, not 


volition. Someone says to Bignonia radicans, 
"Here, you; from this time on your name will be 
Tecoma radicans and don't mind what So-and-So 
says to the contrary. Understand?" Or to Geum 
coccineum, "A mistake was made at your christen- 
ing, it seems. You are not G. cocdneum but G. 
chiloense" So in looking over the pages of the 
floral directory you occasionally have reason to 
wish that well enough had been let alone. Fortu- 
nately the confusion is only here and there. 

The common names are most important to re- 
member, provided that they are either the best 
possible rendering into the vernacular or, if fanci- 
fully descriptive, are sufficiently distinctive. Dog 
rose (Rosa canina), in the one class, and Chinese 
lantern plant (Phy sails Francheti), in the other, 
are sufficiently definite. London pride is not, nor 
is bluebell ; the former is Saxifraga umbrosa in Eng- 
land and Lychnis chalcedonica here, while the latter 
is applied to more than one plant on each side of 
the Atlantic. Jerusalem cross is really a much 
better common name for the lychnis, as each blos- 
som suggests the red cross of the Crusader. 

It is well to inquire into the reason for every 
common name. The result is generally to create in 
the mind an association between the name and the 
plant. Moreover the inquiry leads one into a very 
pleasant field of folklore study, as well as greater 
intimacy with the garden. Look at a blossom of 
any aconitum on the plant and it is apparent from 
the shape of it why it is called monkshood and hel- 

< . 

"Look at the blossom of any acomtum on the 

plant and it is apparent from the shape of it why 

it is called monkshood and helmet flower" 


met flower. Pluck it, when fully open, and hold it 
with the back of the helmet down and it will be no 
less apparent that the little boys and girls of seven- 
ty years ago did not overstrain their imagination 
when they spoke of it as Pharaoh's chariot. It is 
just as well to know all these names; also that the 
best is aconite, because it is an English rendering of 
the generic name, aconitum. 

Learn all the common names that you can, for 
the pleasurable side of it, but hold to the best for 
ordinary use. Choose white rock cress (Arabis 
albida), for example, in preference to welcome- 
home-husband-be-he-never-so-drunk and prince's 
feather (Polygonum orientale) to kiss-me-over-the- 
garden-gate. Not that these names are so foolish 
as they might seem at first glance. The arabis 
also one of the stonecrops(Sedum album), which 
appears to have been given the same name has a 
mass of white blossoms well calculated to enable a 
man to locate his doorstep at night, and as for the 
knotweed, it hangs its deep rose plumes over a gate 
in a most inviting way. 

Having associated the common name with the 
plant, try to associate the botanical name with both. 
Use the dictionary, as well as botanical works, for 
reference. Such things as finding out that true bell- 
flowers have the generic name of Campanula (little 
bell), that a windflower is Anemone (from the 
Greek word for wind) , that the pink is Dianthus 
(Greek for Jove's flower), that any spring prim- 
rose is Primula (from the Latin for first), that the 


finger-shaped blossoms of foxglove are the digit of 
Digitalis, and so on, help the memory. Adding spe- 
cific names you get, Campanula persicifolia (peach- 
leaved bellflower) Anemone pennsylvanica (Penn- 
sylvanian anemone), Dianthus neglectus (neglected 
pink), Primula vulgaris (common primrose) and 
Digitalis purpurea (purple foxglove). 

Pair off the various worts with the respective 
generic names and note the close relationship in 
some cases such as Saponaria (soap wort), Plum- 
bago (leadwort) and Pulmonaria (lungwort). 
Woundwort (Stachys) has reference to the use of 
the woolly leaves to stop the flow of blood. Some 
of the other worts are more difficult; so are the 
banes wolfs (Aconitum), leopard's (Doroni- 
cum) and flea (Erigeron or Inula). 

Labels are always a good aid to the memory, but 
should be relied upon less and less for species. For 
varieties they will always be necessary to a certain 
degree, as it would be foolish, even if possible, to 
burden the mind beyond a reasonable limit in that 
direction. Keep all labels out of sight wherever 
the planting is decorative; if there is a reserve gar- 
den use such tags on the memory there, so far as 
this can be done. 


MORE birds would frequent the flower garden if 
there were fewer cats and dogs roaming around. 
These much too numerous domesticated animals, 
because it is their nature, and children, because they 
are innocently unthoughtful, frighten away if 
they do not kill some of the birds that would be 
only too glad to call from time to time, and perhaps 
settle down for the summer. 

For one, there is that most sociable of spring's 
harbingers the song sparrow. He will come in 
February to stay until November, if you do not let 
him be frightened away. And he will sing the 
while, day after day, as if his very soul were in the 
doing of it for you. But you must give him a bit of 
nearby thicket wherein to let him hide a nest or 
imagine that he is hiding it. Then he and his mate 
and their little ones will run around the garden and 
feel quite at home in every part of it. The catbird, 
who is a fine singer when he takes the notion, may 
also be persuaded to nest close by the garden if 
there is a higher thicket; he likes housekeeping in a 
bush of the common barberry. 



Different birds require different kinds of encour- 
agement The black-winged yellow bird, or Arner^- 
ican goldfinch, is sure to come in summer if there 
are cornflowers going to seed. So long as the seeds 
are good pickings, count on his company. And 
among the blue blossoms he is one of the prettiest 
of garden sights. Always have some cornflowers 
for the goldfinches. Later the juncoes and chicka- 
dees will be frequent visitors if you have been con- 
siderate enough to plant a few sunflowers for them. 
The big Russian sunflower is best and with careful 
arrangement is not inimical to beauty in a garden 
picture. Have enough of them somewhere on the 
place to attract the birds until late autumn. 

In the spring the male purple grackle, with the 
lustre fresh on his plumage, is a beautiful figure in 
the garden. The grackles and starlings walk 
leisurely over the beds and borders and the robins 
hop about all in search of earth food, and not 
over-timid. The chipping sparrow, whose nest may 
be in the clematis vine that shades the piazza, and 
the yellowhammer are likewise neighborly; the 
rose-breasted grosbeak and great-crested flycatcher 
drop in occasionally; the bluebird, warbling vireo, 
kingbird, bluejay, downy woodpecker and Balti- 
more oriole spend much time in the trees overhead; 
the ruby-throated humming bird buzzes around the 
flowers day in and day out, resting at long intervals 
on a branch, and it may be that the screech owl, 
looking for his prey, is in the garden of a night. 

The starling is very fond of the fruit of the com- 

"Water is always a great attraction to the birds; 
they like to drink it and they like to bathe in it" 


mon elder, which makes a handsome shrub, and the 
robin of the Russian mulberry and wild cherry. 
The mulberry and cherry are trees, but not too 
large to be worked into a garden scheme. These 
three fruits ought to be on every place for the birds 
not only to encourage them to stay around and 
feed on insects but to keep their minds off choicer 
fruit. South of Washington the china tree (Melia 
azederach) is a fine attraction for the birds. In the 
North the mountain ash, red cedar and dogwood 
are sure to keep robins and other birds around late 
in the year. 

Always the English sparrow stays by the garden; 
he does some good there and no particular harm. 
He is pugnacious, but is less responsible for keeping 
other birds away than are the presence of disturb- 
ing cats, dogs and the absence of attractive food 
and shelter. If food be placed in the garden in 
winter the junco, chickadee, blue jay, tree sparrow, 
fox sparrow, song sparrow and starling will all 
share the spread with the English sparrow; the 
downy woodpecker also, when the table is a piece 
of board fastened to a tree. For the birds in win- 
ter tie a piece of suet on a tree or shrub, out of the 
reach of cats, from time to time and throw on the 
garden walk or on an elevated bird table, bread- 
crumbs and mixed bird-seed. 

Water is always a great attraction tp the birds; 
they like to drink it and they like to bathe in it. 
Running water is best, but a still bird basin will do 
if properly cared for. Fill it every night and place 


it where there is shade. The water must either be 
very shallow or be made so in places by the use of 
stones ; garden birds bathe, they do not swim. 

Hedges, especially untrimmed ones, and all 
shrubbery in the form of thickets appeal strongly 
to birds. To them birds can run or fly to cover, 
they are good for nesting and roosting purposes 
and the ground beneath is just the place for scratch- 
ing. Wherever circumstances permit, it is an ex- 
cellent plan to create thickets as bird coverts ; the 
company of the songsters, let alone the destruction 
of insect pests, will pay for the trouble over and 
over again. 

What birds are willing to do, even without the 
allurement of water, is easily proven by what they 
did in one instance. Either within a few feet of 
the garden or in a tree just above it the starling, 
purple grackle, song sparrow, English sparrow, 
chipping sparrow, robin, bluebird, English gros- 
beak, yellow hammer and screech owl have all 
nested at one time or another in a space of less than 
six years. Adding the mere callers, the bird guests 
have exceeded thirty and this where conditions 
are suburban rather than rural. 



Accumulating, 72 Back yard, 68 

Adapting ideas, 4, 6, 9, 16 Hardy, 71 
Alpine garden, 12 Bulbs General, 27, 29, 35, 

AnnualsGeneral, 26, 27, 51, 53, 57, 86, 108, 

28, 41, 42, 55, 71, 84, 
86, 87, 102, 164, 200 

Bold massing, 200, 202 

Climbing, 208 

Cutting, 205 

Fragrant, 205 

Garden, 107 

Low massing, 200 

Specializing, 236 

Tall effects, 205 
April work, 36, 40 
Aquatics, 220 
Association garden, 14 
Autumn planting, 53 

109, 124, 125, 128, 

164, 209, 235 
Autumn, 142 
Spring, 16, 108, 128, 209, 


Summer, 139, 213 
Tender, 139, 141, 142, 


Autumn work, 51 

Beds, 5, 62, 96 
Best garden, 3, 81 
Biennials, 27, 28, 53, 71, 77, 

108, 110, 151, 164, 199 
Birds, 13, 243 
Bog garden, 14 
Bonfire, 34, 35, 61 
BorderGeneral, 21, 22, 

63, 107 

Canna, 57, 140, 213 

China aster, 71, 103, 164, 
200, 203, 206, 229 

Coldframe, 41, 49, 53 

Colonial garden, 16 

Colony, 101, 102, 104, 105, 
125, 139, 157 

Color, 26, 92, 104, 106, 120, 
124, 126, 132, 136, 
141, 148, 150, 153, 
154, 158, 170, 171, 
173, 176, 178, 179, 
180, 181, 182, 186, 
188, 199, 200, 202, 
209, 213, 217, 226 

Color garden, 15 




Common name, 237, 240 
Compost heap, 36, 38, 61 
Crocus, 54, 135, 209, 213, 

225, 235, 237 
Cultivation, 37, 47 
Cutting garden, 160, 205 
Cuttings, 50, 98 

Dahlia, 57, 140, 204, 213, 


Dependable flowers, 19, 168 
Division, 37, 52, 96, 98 
Drift, 66, 101, 103, 107, 


English garden, 7 
Evergreens, 10, 26, 69, 85, 
115, 145, 146, 173, 189 

Failure, 30 
February work, 73 
Fertilizer, 33, 38, 52, 60, 

61, 62, 85 

Fillers, 46, 102, 124 
Flower hobby, 228 
Flower pictures, 147, 153 
Flowers for cutting, 160 
Four-seasons' garden, 149 
Fragrance, 175, 176, 177, 


French garden, 6 
Friendship garden, 14 
Frost, 37, 55 
Fruit garden, 16 
Garden And home, 1, 17, 

Annual, 107 

Alpine, 12 

Association, 14 

Best, 3, 81, 160, 205 

Bog, 14 

Colonial, 16 

Color, 15 

English, 7 

Four-seasons, 149 

French, 6 

Friendship, 14 

Fruit, 16 

Hardy, 51, 80, 103 

Herb, 11 

Italian, 5 

Japanese, 8 

Iris, 10 

Medicinal, 12 

Month, 144 

Moraine, 13 

Name, 14 

Old fashioned, 16 

Personality of, 4 

Phlox, 10, 11 

Rock, 12, 191 

Rose, 9 

Shaded, 196, 221 

Spring, 16, 151, 178, 196, 

209, 221, 224, 226 
Wall, 13 
Walled, 7 

Water, 13, 198, 220 
Wild, 16, 191, 196, 198, 

220, 224 

INDEX 251 

Generic name, 238, 241 Lily, 11, 15, 51, 52, 53, 124, 
Ground cover, 10, 125, 225, 140, 148, 150, 155, 

227 164, 216, 217, 227, 

231, 237 

Hardy garden, 51, 80, 103 

Hedge, 124, 162, 175, 224, March work, 34, 35 

246 May work, 42 

Herb garden, 11 Medicinal garden, 12 

Herbaceous perennial, 27 Memory, 31, 37, 238, 242 

Home and garden, 1, 3, 17, Month garden, 144 

18 Moraine garden, 13 

Hyacinth, 132, 139, 164, Mulch, 46, 47, 116 

210, 225 

Name garden, 14 

Insects, 43, 44 Names, 238 

Intelligent labor, 31 Narcissus, 54, 133, 139, 150, 
Iris, 29, 45, 55, 67, 71, 140, 164, 210, 211, 225, 

147, 150, 162, 164, 226, 235, 237 

175, 179, 181, 184, Naturalistic effects, 84, 95, 

193, 194, 198, 215, 103, 124, 139, 191, 

216, 233, 237 224 

Iris garden, 10 Nature, 26, 81, 83, 221 

Italian garden, 5 Nursery, 40, 93, 161 

Japanese garden, 8 October work, 57 

June work, 44 Old fashioned garden, 16 

Kinds of gardens, 3 Paper plan, 20 

Knack, 25, 93 Peony, 36, 51, 86, 99, 100, 

Knowing plants, 29 163, 172, 184, 185, 


Labels, 242 Perennials General, 13, 

Larkspur, 31, 52, 97, 100, 26, 27, 29, 33, 41, 42, 

104, 155, 163 49, 50, 52, 54, 60, 71, 

Laying out, 17 77, 86, 87, 88, 124, 

252 INDEX 

151, 158, 178 Rose General, 36, 60, 62, 

Bedding out, 96 86, 150, 217, 237 

Evergreen, 189 Bedding, 217, 218, 234 

July to Sept., 186 Brier, 219, 234 

June and July, 182 Bush, 34, 38, 123, 218 

Naturalizing, 191 Climbing, 34, 38, 220 

Shade, 196 For cutting, 10, 162 

Spring, 178, 179 Hybrid perpetual, 34, 38, 

Summer, 180 162, 217, 234 

Sept. and Oct., 188 Hybrid tea, 34, 162, 217, 

Tall early, 181 234 

Wet places, 198 Insects, 43, 44 

Personality, 3, 4 Pruning, 34 

Phlox, 52, 55, 98, 100, 104, Specializing, 233 

163, 179, 182, 185, Weeping, 220 

188, 190, 195, 202, Rose garden, 9 

205, 207, 235 Rubbish, 33, 35, 61 
Phlox garden, 10, 11 

Plan to scale, 20 Scilla, 136, 139, 164, 211, 

Planning, 19 225 

Planting, 39, 53, 86, 87, 95, Seasonal effects, 144, 157 

139 Seed Annual, 109, 110 

Potted plants, 48, 56, 99, Biennial, 7 

110 For birds, 244 

Primula, 11, 52, 54, 60, 99, Gathering, 48 

179, 180, 190, 195, Perennial, 77, 97 

198, 199, 225, 234 Purchasing, 97 

Prolonging bloom, 45, 46 Seedbed, 49 

Protection, 36, 53, 55, 59, Self-sown, 105 

90, 233 Sowing, 40, 49 

Pruning, 33, 34, 44, 126 Thinning, 42 

September work, 51 

Right start, 2, 17 Shaded garden, 196, 222 

Rock garden, 12, 191 Shrubs General, 38, 60, 

Root system, 28, 39 62, 68, 113, 161, 168, 

INDEX 253 

Berries, 173 38, 39, 46, 51, 52 

Evergreen, 116, 173 Annuals, 42 

Flowering, 118, Ib8, 170, Biennials, 53 

173 Perennials, 39, 51 

Fragrant, 175 Roses, 38 

Seashore, 176 Spring flowers, 40 

Specializing, 236 Trial bed, 22, 93, 106 

Wall, 176 True garden, 2 

Winter, 115 Tulips, 109, 129, 139, 147, 

Snowdrops, 137, 144, 146, 158, 164, 211, 212, 

210, 225 213, 225, 226, 235 
Specializing, 14, 228 

Specific name, 238 Uncovering, 36 

Spring garden, 16, 128, 151, Tr . ~ 

168 178 20Q 224 various gardens, 3 

226 Vines, 60, 62, 176, 177, 208 

Spring work, 34 WaU d 13 

Success, 25 Walled d 7 176 

Succession of bloom i, 84, 89, Water den> 13 J9g 22Q 

92, 125, 144, 157, Watering, 40, 42, 47, 52 

Summer work, 44 Weeds, 37, 42, 44, 58 

Sweet pea, 206, 236 Wild garden, 16, 191, 196, 

198, 220, 224 

Taking pains, 30 Winter-killing, 37 

Transplanting General, 28, Wintering plants, 57 




This book is due oa the last date stamped below, or 

on the date to which renewed. 
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 

LD 21-50m-4,'63 

General Library 

University of California 



C 3 M fl M ^ 2 T 1