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Full text of "Fodder crops of the Punjab"

UC-NRLF 




7S3 5? 4 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA* 

DAVIS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/foddercropsofpunOOdouirich 



85 

16 S7J/ 



FODDER CROPS OF THE PUNJAB. 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

DAVIS 



INDEX. 




l 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 



19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
81 
32 
33 



34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 



CHAPTER I.— Food of Cattle. 

Introductory ... ... £73 

Constituents of food ... 

Wild plants ... ... ... 

Meaning of fodder crops 

Classification of dry fodder ... ... 

Cattle feeding in different parts of the Punjab 

Karnal ... ... ,,. ... 

Gurgaon ... ... ... ... 

Rohtak ... ... ... ... 

Ferozepore ... . i( 

Ludbiana ... ... ... ... 

Jullundur ... 

Lahore ... ... ... 

vrujrau ... ... ... ... 

Rawalpindi ... ... 

Montgomery 

Multan ... ... ... ... 

Multan and Muzaffargarh ... ... 



... 
... 
... 



... 
... 

... 
... 

... 
... 



... 
... 
... 



CHAPTER II.— Cereals. 



Cereals and pulses 

Ilakki or maize 

Jowar ... 

Bajra 

Kangni ... 

Cbina 

Sanwak ... 

Kuria 

Guinea grass 

Dban or rice 

Mandwa . . . 

Kodra 

Kanak or wheat 

Jau or barley 

Jawi or oats 



• •• 

• •• 

• • • 



... 


... 




■•■ 


.<• 


... 


... 


• • 1 


... 


... 


..a 


• .t 


... 


... 


■ »* 


• • • 


... 


• •• 


• •• 


■ a. 


• »• 


... 


... 


• a. 


.. . 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




• •• 


... 



CHAPTER III.— Pulses. 



Value of mixed crops of cereals and pulses 

The kharif pulses ... ... 

Gwar ... 

Arhar ... ... ..• 

Mash 

Mung ... ... ... 

Moth ... ... ... 

Kulath ... ... ... 

Rawan ... ... ... 

Rabi pulses 

Gram ... . •. ••• 

Masri ... ... ... 

Cbural ... ... 

Matar ... ... •»• 

Senji 

Methra ... 

Maina ... ... ••• 

Lucerne ... ... ... 

Shaftal ... ... •>• 

The grounduut ... ... 

Bbut or Soybean ... 



... 
... 



... 
... 
... 
... 
... 
... 
... 



... 
... 
... 



... 

... 
... 



... 

r— ' 
• •• 

... 

... 



... 

... 
... 



... 

... 
... 
... 



1 

ib. 
2 

ib. 

3 

ib. 

ib. 



■ •• 


4 


• »t 


ib. 


• a. 


ib: 




5 


••• 




.a* 


ib. 


• •« 


6 




7 


»•• 




«•• 


3 


.*• 


ib. 


• •a 


ib. 


• a . 


9 


_ 


9 






■•• 


ib. 


• •• 


10 


..a 


11 


• •• 


ib. 


• •a 


12 


... 


ib. 




13 


• •• 


ib. 


■ •a 


ib. 


■ a. 


14 


• •• 


ib. 




15 








16 






• •• 


ib. 


#•• 


16 


• a. 


17 


• •• 


ib. 


*». 


ib. 


• •• 


18 


... 


19 


• •• 


ib. 


• •* 


20 




ib. 


t *. 


21 


• a. 


ib. 


• •• 


23 




ib. 


• •a 


24 


t*« 


ib. 




ib. 


... 


ib. 




ib. 








ib. 








25 






a • . 


ib. 



*. y s-i /~7 



11 




56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 



63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 



I 
II 



CHAPTER IV.— Oilseeds, Turnips and Carrots. 



• • • 

• •• 



Crops included in chapter 

Sarson 

Toria 

Other sources of oil-cake 

Turnips 

Ahur or mustard 

Taramira ... 

Carrots ... 



• a. 

• • r 



• • • 

• •• 



■ « t 

• •• 



• a ■ 
»aa 
aaa 



• 90 

• •• 

• •• 



CHAPTER V.— Other Crofs. 



Cotton 

Sugarcane,.. ... 

Sani ... ... 

Halon 

Kasni (chicory) 
Kusumbh (safflower) .., 
Melons ... ... 

Indigo 
Acknowledgments 



••• 
• •• 
•• • 



*•• 

• a* 

• a. 

• •• 
a • . 

• a* 

• •a 



••a 
4 • a 



• •a 

• a* 

... 

1*4 

i«l 

at* 

... 

• •• 
i • a 



• •a 
■ •a 



• aa 



• •a 

aa* 
a** 



STATEMENTS. 

Area, population and cattle ... ..". ... 7.. 

Crops (compiled partly from table in annual report of Department of 

Agriculture and partly from copies of statements in the district 
revenue registers). 



25 
ib. 
26 
27 
ib. 
28 
ib. 
29 



29 
ib. 
39 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
31 
ib. 
ib. 



11 — HI 
iv — vii 



THE FODDER CROPS OF THE PUNJAB. 



CHAPTER I.— Food op Cattle. 

1. From the nature of the country, agriculture must always be the 
introductory. cme f occupation of the people of the 

Punjab. According to the recent 
census the population of the 29 districts was nearly 20 millions. In round 
figures the cultivated area in 1906-07 amounted to 28 million acres, and 
pasture lands including Government forests to 18 millions. The well-irrigated 
area was 5 million acres, dependent on quarter of a million masonry and from 
30 to 40,000 kachcha wells. The area protected by canals was 6f millions of 
acres— an area to which large additions will be made. An area of 275,000 acres 
was recorded as abi, and the unirrigated area exceeded 16 million acres. Accord- 
ing to the cattle census of 1909 there were in that year 2,169,000 ploughs aad 
288,000 carts. The horned cattle available for draft were — 

4,247,000 bullocks, and 

625,000 male buffaloes. 

The former figures include bulls, and if we exclude animals used for 
breeding, we may say there are 4 J- millions of animals available to plough the 
land, work the wells, thresh the corn, draw the carts, and work sugar, oil and 
Hour mills. Camels are used for ploughing to some extent in Hissar and 
Ferozepore, and in Rawalpindi a donkey or a cow is sometimes seen yoked 
with a bullock. The milch kine consisted of 3,384,000 cows and 2,241,000 
buffaloes, and the young stock, male and female, was returned as amounting 
to 3.820,000. Female buffaloes are far more valuable than cows, and are 
steadily growing in favour. They are also coarser feeders. The only districts 
in which little attention is still paid to them are a group of four in the north- 
west of the province, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock and Mianwali, and two 
of the south-western districts, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan (see for 
details statement I). Roughly there are 14 \ millions of horned cattle depend- 
ent for natural grazing on 18 million acres of waste, much of it of poor 
quality, which they have to share with 4 million sheep and 5|/ million 
goats. The large areas of waste are found in a few districts, mostly in the 
west of the province and in the hills. In the four plain districts of the Jullun- 
dur division the waste is only equal to 12 per cent, of the cultivation, in the 
Lahore division excluding Gujranwala it is 20, and in the Delhi division 
excluding Simla 21 per cent. The products of the waste are supplemented 
by those of the fallow and by the grasses and other plants weeded out of the 
cropped fields. It is obvious that in the Punjab a very large acreage must be 
devoted to raising food for cattle, and that fodder crops must be of vast 
importance. Broadly speaking, the province is now secure from widespread 
food famines, but fodder famines can still inflict enormous losses on the 
people. 

2. The following extracts from Moreland's Agriculture of the United 
„ . Provinces are worth quoting as an in- 

Constituents of food. -, ,. , ,, 1 • t 

troduction to the subject : — 

'" This food is produced in the parent plant from the materials that it has collected from 
the soil or the air and passes into the developing seed ; large numbers of different substances 
are stored in this way by different plants, but they can be grouped in two main classes 
according as they do or do not contain combined nitrogen .... The non-nitrogenous 
matter is usually either starch or oil, while the nitrogenous matter is in various forms which 

are known collectively as albuminoids or proteids _ Animals are made 

Up of precisely the same elementary substances as plants, though they require to consume these 
substances in different forms, and convert them into such things as skin, bones and muscles, 
not leaves, flowers, or seed. We have seen that the most important product of plants from 
the nutritive point of view are (1) starch and the various sugars, and (2) the proteids; when 
speaking of animals it is more convenient to call these respectively work food aJid flesh food. 



The first class supply energy which enables an animal to go on working, but the second class 
(which it will be remembered contain nitrogen) are essential to replace the wear and tear of 
substance that is constantly going on in an animal body ; in order to feed an animal so as to 
o-et the best work out of it, it is necessary not only to see that the weight of food given is 
sufficient, but also that it contains a due proportion of flesh food. Now we have seen that 
most of the flesh food produced by plants is stored in the seeds, and very little of it in the 
leaves and stems*: it follows that when cattle are doing hard work they ought to receive a 
fair amount of seed or grain as well as fodder, and even when they are idle some grain should 
be given to keep them in really good health." 

For further information about food and the nutritive value of different 
grains, Church's " Food Grains of India " may he consulted. It is worth while to 
note that a standard diet for human beings should contain albuminoids and 
starch in about the proportion of 1 — 5. This is very much the proportion in 
which they exist in wheat, but in the millets and maize the proportion is 
about 1—8, in rice about 1 — 11, and in mandwal— 13. In pulses the proportion 
of albuminoids to starch is much higher than 1—5 ; hence the utility of such 
mixtures as rice and dal or bajra and moth khichri (porridge). The analyses 
of the chemical contents of the grain of different crops given in this note are 
taken from Professor Church's book. In paragraph 239 of his work on the 
" Improvement of Indian Agriculture " the late Dr. Voelcker remarked in 1893 
that little was known as to the relative nutritive values of different fodders in 
India, and apparently this has so far not been remedied. No doubt the straw 
of the pulses generally contains more albuminoids than that of the cereals, and 
it is on this account that they are weight for weight more valuable as fodder. 

3. We are not here concerned with the wild plants which furnish food 

for cattle. The list of trees, shrubs 
p an 8 ' and herbs on which they feed is a very 

long one. A large part of it is occupied with the names of grasses, and of 
leguminous trees, such as various species of acacia and the dhak (Butea 
frondosa) and herbs, such as maina or maini (Medicago denticulata', a near 
relation of lucerne. For information the following may be referred to : — 

(a) Duthie's "Fodder Grasses of Northern India." 

(b) Coldstream's " Grasses of the Southern Punjab." 

(c) Duthie's four lists on pages 407-437 of volume III of the Diction- 

ary of Economic Products. 

It is probable that considerable additions could be made to the lists of 
flowering plants other than grasses. 

The two best fodder grasses in the plains are dnjan or dhdman (Pennisetum 
ccnchroides), and dub, dutra, or khabbal (Cynodon dactylon), and the most 
useful shrub is the jhdrberi or malla (Zizyphus nummularia), the leaves of 
which, pdlct, are a very valuable food for milch kine. 

4. The food of cattle, so far as it is derived from crops, may be classified 
.„.,, „ as consisting of — 

Meaning of "fodder crops. ° 

(a) straw — Vern. " chdra " or " nira " ; 

(6) the roots and tops of certain cruciferous plants, such as turnips 
and carrots ; 

(c) gram ; 

(d) oil-cake—" khal " or " khali " ; 

(e ) cotton seeds — " binola " or " varenwa ". 

It is only with the first two that a note On fodder crops is directly concerned 
" Fodder" according to a dictionary definition is " food for cattle, horses, and 
sheep, as hay, straw, and other kinds of vegetables." This is somewhat vague. 
A good working definition would be " the food derived by live-stock from crops 
exclusive of the ripe grain." Thus the ripe grain of wheat, or mash or jowdr 

* See in this connection chemical analysis of grain and straw of jowdr in paragraph 21. 



is not fodder, but the leaves and stalks, and in the case of mash the broken pods 
left after threshing are fodder. Cotton-seed is not fodder, and according to our 
definition oil-cake is also excluded, because it is the refuse left after grain has 
been expressed from the ripe seeds of certain crops. The number of purely 
fodder crops in the Punjab is really very small consisting of some of the pulses 
and one or two other plants. But any account of fodder crops would be in- 
complete which did not notice the use as fodder of the straw of crops whose 
grain is mainly used as human food. And it will be convenient also to mention 
the crops from which oil-cake is derived, especially as the chief of them also 
supply green food and roots for cattle. 

edification of dry fodder. , . 5 - Dry fodder may he broadly 

classified as — 

(a) bhdsa, bhiis, bho, or bhon. Broken straw of those cereals and 

pulses of which the straw is threshed with the grain. Of this 
there are two main divisions — 

(1) turi or sufed bhusa, which is the straw of wheat and barley, 

and 

(2) missa bhiisa, which is the broken leaves, straw, and pods of 

moth, mting, mash, masar, and gram ; 

(b) tdnda or stalks of maize, bajra and jowar, which are not threshed 

with the grain. These are usually fed to cattle after bein g 
chopped up into small pieces : 

(c) pardl or pardli, which is the straw of rice. 

6. Speaking generally, the people feed cows and still more buffaloes 
„ _ . ,. . ..„ . . ... - *. when in milk better than they do their 

Cattle feeding in different parts, of the Pnniab. . , , hit.-. mi 

plough and well bullocks. The zamm- 
dars of the cis-Suttlej districts are better stock-keepers than those of the 
Punjab proper. The care which a peasant in Rohtak bestows on his female 
buffalo is remarkable, and even in seasons of severe drought one sees them 
coming out of the village sleek and well favoured. The feeding of cattle on 
turnip roots is far more common in the western districts than elsewhere, and it 
is in the same districts that peas (chural and matar), and, so far as the plains 
are concerned, the inferior cereals, known as china and swank, are most in use. 
Some extracts and notes are appended regarding cattle-feeding in some — 

(1) cis-Sutlej, 

(2) trans-Sutlej, 

districts. !|L 

* A. — Cis-Sutlej districts. 

7. " The fodder of the autumn crops consists of the stalks (tanda) of the 

great millets and of maize, which are 

Karnal (Gazetteer, edition of 1890, paragraph 222). ^^ stacked Qn end j n ft gtack ^^ 

clihor ; of rice straw, which is merely piled up in a heap (kwyra) ; and of the 
bhiis or broken straw of the pulses. The spring crops give bhiis only, also 
called turi if of wheat or barley. * * * * 

Stems of millet and maize are chopped up into small pieces (sani or kuti) 
before being given to the cattle. An ox doing ordinary work will eat 20 sers 
of grass and a ser of grain daily ; if working at the sugar-mill or well-bucket, 

nearly twice that Of course the fodder varies according to the season. 

The mass of it consists of grass and straw of cereals ; a little pulse straw is 
always added, and green food when obtainable. In the cold weather methi and 
rape and carrots, and at all times the weedings, are given to the cattle. 
Besides this, some cotton seed or oil-cake, or either gwdra, moth, or gram, is 
daily given. The;best fodder of all is the straw of the small pulses, and is 
called missa ; after that that of wheat and barley called turi ; after that the 
joiodr stems or chari. Bdjra stems are seldom given alone. They are chopped 
up and mixed with one-third of mung fodder, or, failing that, with some oil- 



cake or peameal of gram. In famines the cattle will eat almost anything. 
The sacred pipals are stripped, and even the thorny Jims (Capparis sepiaria) is 
cut up and given to the starving beasts. Where sugarcane is grown it is 
cut down to keep the bullocks alive." 

8. " The grazing on such waste as there is is supplemented by the 

grazing on cultivated lands lying 

Gurgaon (Gazetteer, page 109). £Jj-JJJ ^ on ^ ^^ ^.^ ^ 

inadequate. In consequence the cattle have to be largely stall-fed, and consi- 
derable areas of crops are grown exclusively for fodder. Chart, gvodr, and kdsni 
are exclusively fodder crops, while of other crops most of the peas, carrots, and 
turnips, about one-quarter of the sarson and autumn pulses, and small quantities 
of barley and gram are given to the cattle. To these must be added the stalks 
of jowdr and bdjra, the straw of the autumn pulses and rabi cereals, cotton 
seed, oil-cake, and pala. In good years all the above sources supply the zamin- 
dars with an abundance of good fodder, bnt, if the rains fail, a dearth of fodder 
and terrible loss of cattle result. When fodder is scarce the cattle are fed on 
branches of trees, roots of piila, etc." 



9. " The cattle of the district are in some respects ill«cared for. They 
, „ are left to stand in filthy enclosures 

Koiitak (Gazetteer, paragraph 129). . , ,. ill • i i c 

(neora or iigar), ankle-deep m hall- 
liquid manure. They are chiefly stall-fed, chopped jowdr stalks (sani) being 
the principal fodder, while in season the top leaves of the cane Avill be mixed, 
or some green sarson toppings. Working stock w ill get half a ser to a ser of 
gram a day, and a little gur, and milch cattle also eat cotton seed (hinoln) and 
oil-eake (kJial), while the straw of gwar (phalidr) and of milng and iird 
(patti) and of gram (Mar) are highly valued for cattle, and the wild jJidrberi 
is given for its milk-producing qualities. Best fed and best tended is the 
buffalo, and every day the village urchins may be seen carefully washing them 
in the tanks. In the morning the cattle are turned out for exercise, and to 
pick tip what they can in the waste ground of the village, but there are few 
patches of jungle which produce more than indifferent grass. When the crops 
are off the fields the stubble is grazed by all the cattle of the village. 



The jowdr and bdjra stalks of a good year are usually counted to be 
sufficient for the current and one following year, though in a rain-land village, 
where the area under these crops is larger, it will last rather longer. Bdjra 
fodder is not used so long as the jowdr lasts." 

10. (Based on a note by Bai Bahadur Tilok Chand, Sub-Divisional 

Officer of Tazilka.) The cattle of the 

Uplands or Bohi are of the Hissar and 

Nagore breed, and much finer than those of the Bet. A zamindar with a 

pair of bullocks would usually also keep a cow, a female buffalo, and some 

calves. Their food would be as follows : — 



No. 


Slontha. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


1 


Baisakh (16tli April— loth May) 


No grain, except to milch cattle, which get 


Graze in stubble of 






grain awl oil-rake. 


wheat and gram. 


2 


Jeth (16th May— 15th June) 


Khali and grain to working and milch 
cattle. 


Bhi'tsa. 


3 


Har to Asoj (16th June— 15th October) 


Two sers of gram or gwdra daily to each 


Chari, if available ; 






working animal or to milch kinc when 


otherwise Ihiisa. 






pregnant or giving milk. 




4 


Katak and Magghar (16th October — 15th 


No grain, aa gwtira (see next column) is 


Gwdra. 




December). 


considered a rich food. 




5 


Pot and Magh (16th December— 15th 

l'Vl.ruary). 


As No. 1 „ 


Bhiisa. 


6 


Pliagan and Cbait (16th February — 15th 


No grain 


Green wheat (khaicid ) 




April). 




or green gram. 



Half-ground gram idta) is generally used and it is often mixed with 
bJiusa. The grain of gwdra is boiled before it is given to cattle. While cows and 



* fc'ce parage h 3. 



buffaloes arc in milk they get hhali or oil-cake and binola or cotton seed. A 
cow gets half a ser of hhali and one ser of binola, and a female buffalo twice 
these quantities, Khali is also sometimes given to working bullocks in 
Baisakh and Jeth when they are employed in threshing grain. It is supposed 
to be cooling. The oil-cake used in 'Ferozepore is til in winter and sarson or 
taramira in summer. The milch kine are looked after very carefully in winter, 
and get gram or gwara as well as oil-cake and cotton seed. In the Bet the 
zamindars cannot afford to give their well bullocks much grain. But if they 
are in hard work and are getting weak, a ser of gram or wheat is given daily. 
This is generally done in the ploughing season for rabi crops (Asoj and Katak). 
Milch kine in the Bet do not get oil-cake or cotton seed, but they get a ser of 
grain daily for two or three months in the cold weather. The zamindars, when 
they run short of bhusa, as often happens, use sarr grass (Saccliavum c'iliare), 
cut into small pieces mixed with green chart, sarson, taramira, or green, wheat 
(cf. paragraph 19 of Steedman's Settlement Report of Jhang), The Bet 
zamindars grow turnips as fodder, usually three ghumaos on each well, and 
feed the cattle on them for a month or a month and-a-half in Poh and Ma^h 

In the south of the Ferozepore district the camel is used for ploughing 
and riding as well as for carrying burdens. They get gram and gwar grain and 
the straw of gwdr, moth and gram. 

11. The feeding of bullocks is described in paragraph 131 of Mr. (now 
LudUana Sir Thomas; Gordon Walker's Settle- 
ment Beport : — 

" In the months of Baisakh, Jeth, Har (April — June) the cattle are fed on dry straw 
and grain, the new straw of the rabi coming in by the first of these months. This is the 
worst time for them, and the working cattle could not get on without the ser or two ten of 
grain that they get daily. In Satvan and Bhadon there is good grass in the was;e if any is 
left, and in the fields intended for the next rabi, where it is allowed to grow till the time of 
the Sawan ploughing. The cattle are grazed on this, and it is also grubbed up and given to 
them in the stall, the grain being stopped. Cutting grass is the work in Jat villages of the 
women who are out all day in the fields, collecting bundles. The cattle have very light work 
in these two months, because the wells are not working ; and between this and the new grass 
they put on condition. In Asoj and half of Katak (September to October) green fodder, 
either " chari" alone or mixed with moth, &c., is given ; and this is perhaps the best time of the 
whole year for the cattle. At the end of Katak the " chari," &c, is cut and stored ; and 
during Magghar, Poh, Magh, and Phagun the dry stalks of chari, maize, &e., are given, and, 
if necessary, straw. The straw is either white (" sufed bhusa "), that of barley and wheat, or 
" missa," i.e., of moth, mush, &c, coloured straw. The latter, especially the moth straw, is said 
to be very strengthening. In the month of Chait (March) patches of green fodder are grown 
at the wells, either " met ha," " senji," &c, or carrots ; and green wheat or barley is also given, 
but not commonly in an ordinary year." 

The grain that is given is gram coarsely ground sprinkled on the turi. 
They are also given a little oil-cake. 

Mr. Dunnett has supplied me with the following account of the feeding 
of milch kine in Ludhiana : — 

" Milch cattle in this district are generously fed. The basis of their food is of course 
turi and the straw of pulses, and they get some of the maize stalks and the metha. But they 
are not usually allowed to have any of the gwdra. That fodder is filling and improves the 
appearance, but is said to be in reality weakening and prejudicial to a good milk yield. Turi 
reinforced with grain, hhali, and binola are given. The grain is always gram. Jowdr grain 
causes swelling in the mouth and throat (I am merely repeating what is said), and gives little 
milk. The grain of pulses is hot, and dries up the milk. Frequently all three (gram, binola 
and hhali) are mixed with the turi, but more usually hhali is moistened and mixed with turi, 
and gram dta is then sprinkled over it. The calculation is that gram is feeding and streng- 
thening, while hhali and binola improve the quantity of milk and increase the percentage of 
butler. 3 A little gur is sometimes given. Only the eastern half of the district grows cotton 
to any extent ; all the cotton is sold in Khanna, and the binola has to be brought back from 
the factories. The people of the western half of the district get binola from Khanna and 
Ludhiana, and consequently do not feed it freely to the cattle." 

B. — Trans-Sidle] districts. 

12. "During Baisakh, Jeth and Har (middle of April to middle 

of July) the broken straw of wheat 

Jullundur (Gazetteer, page. 196-97). - ^ principal food (of the Cattle). 

Broken barley, massar, and gram straw may also be given, but barley 



e 



and massar are little grown. Senji is occasionally stored, and, when this 
is the case, it is given to the cattle during these months. During the 
next two months i Sawan — Bhadon) there is plenty of grass in uncultivated plots 
and in fields lying fallow. This is grazed and also dug up and brought home 
for the cattle. Next month (Asoj, 16th* September — 15th October) green chari 
alone, or mixed with moth or tniing, comes in and supplies food for nearly two 
months. About the end of October the chari left is cut down and stacked, and 
for the next four months it forms the principal food, being supplemented by 
maize stalks and, as soon as the cane crushing begins, about the end of Novem- 
ber, by the arrow of the canes, which is fed mixed with broken straw. During 
February and March green fodder crops as methi, senji, and hdlon arc cut down 
as needed, and given to cattle in the same way as cane tops were previously. If 
the rains hold off, the people are put to great straits to feed their cattle ; sugar- 
cane is cut for this purpose, but it is a poor fodder and does not suit for any 
length of time ; the leaves of the dliak tree (Butea frondosa) are extensively 

used on such occasions When cows and buffaloes are about to calve 

and when they are in milk they often get grain, cotton seed, and oil-cake, but 
the amount depends on the owner's means, and nothing can be said about the 
quantity." 

The following dietary for the canal-irrigated tract in the Lahore 

Manjha has been supplied by Rai Baka- 



Lo. 



Lahore. 



dur Hotu Singh : — 



Moutii. 



October ... 



November 



December 
January.., 



1'ebrr.a v 



March .. 





Grain. 


Bullock 


. . . 2 sers, whole gram . . . 


Cow 


fl ser gram 
... 

(.1 ser bmola 


Buffalo 


C 4 sers hinola 
(.1 strjchali 


Bullock 


... None ... 


Cow 


{ 1 ser hinola 




(.1 sergrain 


Buffalo 


C 4 sers hinola ... 
(.1 ser Tchali ... 



Straw. 



As in November, but bullocks get 
grain in first 15 days. 



Bullock 

Cow 

Buffalo 

Bullcck 

Cow 



None „ fc 

1 ser hinola 
1 ser grain 
4 sers hinola 
1 ser Tchali 
None ... 

1 ser hinola 



Buffalo as in January,.. 
Bullcck ... None ..,' 
Cow 
Buffalo 



"{ 



None ... 

1 ser hinola 

2 sers grain 



Bullcck — 10 sers hhusa mixed with whole 
gram or 30 sers of chari mixed with 
gwdra, moth or mung green. 



Cow — 5 sers hhi'isa and 20 sera green, chari 
l and gwdra, moth or mung. 



> Buffalo — 15 sers hhusa, 20 sers chari and 
J gwdra, moth or mung. 

Bullock — 15 sers hhusa and 30 sers dry 
chari. 

? Cow — 5 sers hhusa and 20 sers dry chari. 

Buffalo— 20 sers hhusa, 20 sers chari. 
As in November. 



Bullock— 20 sers hhusa and 20 sers turn 
or sarson. 



'V 



Cow — 5 sers hhusa and 15 sers green 
sarson. 



V Buffalo— 20 sers hhusa and 20 sers green 
) sarson. 

Bullock— 15 sen hhusa and 60 sers senji or 
green barley. 

Cow — 5 ters hhusa and 25 sers senji or 
barley. 

Buffalo — 20 sers hhusa end 20 sers senji or 
barley. 

Bullock — CO sers green senji, barley, wheat 
or gram. 

Cow — 40 sers of above. 



• Buffalo— 10 sers hhusa and 40 sers green. 
I wheat, gram or senji. 



Month. 



April 



May and Jane 



Grain. 



July ... 



August and September 



Bullock 


... None ... 


Cow 


•«. None ... 


Buffalo 


C 4 ten linola 
... j 




(.1 ter khali 


Bullock 


e 2J ten grain 




C i ter khali 


Cow 


"... 1 ter grain 


Buffalo 


C 4 t&rt linola 




(. 1 ter khali 


Bullock 


._ 2 »«r* grain 


Cow 


T7I 1 J«r grain 


Buffalo 


f 4 mm WnoZa 




L 1 ser khali 


Bullock 


... Nono 


Cow 


77. None 


Buffalo 


... Nona 



Straw. 



Bullock — GO sers green gram. 
Cow — 30_«r5 green gram. 

£ Buffalo— 5 tert Ihuta and 20 ten green 
J gram. 



Bullock— 30 jer* JAa'ia. 



Cow — 15 ten Ihuta. 

> Buffalo— 20 ten Ihuta. 

Bullock— 15 sen Ihuta and 20' sen early- 
sown green chari. 

Cow— 5 itrj Ihuta and 10 ten early sown 
moth. 



J Buffalo— 15 sen bhisa and 30 sen chari 
J and moth. 

Bullock— 5 ten Ihusa and 40 sen gretn 
chari and gmdra. 

Cow— 20 *erj green cAar». 

Buffalo— 10 «« Ihusa and 45 «c» c/ (a r» 
and gwdra. 



11. 



Rai Bahadur Hira Singh, Revenue Assistant of Gujrat, has supplied 

the following dietary for that district. 
Gu;irat ' It represents the food an ordinary small 

farmer would give to his cattle. Milch kine get the first three items when 
in milk : — 



Month. 



i. 



Jeth, Har and first fort- 
night of Sawan (16th 
May— 31st July). 

Second fortnight of Sawan 
and Bhadon (1st August— 
15th September). 

Asoj (16th September— 
15th October). 

Katak (16th October— 15th 
November). 



Grain. 



5. Magghar ( 16th November - 

15th December). 

6. Poh (16th December to 

15th January). 



Magh, first fortnight 
(16th— 31st January). 

Magh, second fortnight 

(1st— 15th February). 
Phagan (16th February— 

15th March). 
Chait and first fortnight of 

Baisakh (16th March— 

30th April). 

Baisakh, second fortnight 
(1st — 15tli May). 



7. 



8. 



10. 



11. 



Sers. 
rCow l 

( Buffalo 2 

Nil 



Bullock 1 
employed 
ploughing. 
Nil 



f Cow 1 

I Buffalo 2 

Ditto 



Ditto 

Nil 
Nil 
Nil 



Cow ... 1 

Buffalo ... 2 



Cotton seed. 



Sers. 



i ■ i 



Nil 
Nil 
Nil 

Buffalo 
Ditto 

Ditto 

Nil 
Nil 

Nil 



'{ 



Oil-cako. 



Sers. 



Bullock 

Cow 

Buffalo 

Nil 



Nil 



Fodder. 



Nil 



Cow 
Buffalo 



.} 



Ditto 

Ditto 

Nil 
Nil 

Nil 



Turi mixed with the oil-cake and 
linola in Idrdni, and with early 
jowdr and makki when available 
in chdhi villages. 

As grass is available, no grain, is., 
or straw given. 



Grass and chari. 



Grass, chari, moth, lajra. At 
green fodder with grain is avail- 
able, no other grain or oil-cako is 
given. 

Bullocks — turi mixed with moth. 
Milch kine — turi and stalks of 
maize, jowdr and Idjra mixed. 

As in No. 5. But sarson also bo- 
comes available, and in chdhi 
villages turnips. 

Green sarson and kusumhh and 
green wheat to some extent mixed 
with turi. 

As in No. 7. 

Green wheat and kusumhh. Liitls 
or no grain, 4c, given. 

Green wheat and barloy in first 
fortnight of Chait ; afterward* 
green gram, masar, and barley 
with the grain. 

Green fodder being exhausted, grain 
given to milch kine. Bullocks 
get Ihusa of jaunsri. Milch kino 
graze in the roaped fields and at 
night get turi mixed with their 
grain ration. 



a 

15. The livestock of the Rawalpindi district, both oxen and cows, is 

of very poor quality and little regarded. 

Bawalpindi (Gazetteer). „ Jn ^^ M&y ^ j^ ^^ 

bullocks get bhiisa or chopped straw, and while in work half a ser of hhal or 
oil-cake. Bullocks used as beasts of burden usually get a small feed of grain 
daily as well. In July and August they are fed on green grass, and from Sep- 
tember to March on the straw of autumn crops known as tanda (jowdr and 
bdjra) and missa (the straw of moth). Favourite and valuable animals are 
also occasionally allowed to graze in jowdr and moth fields when the crops 
are still young. Sarson and occasionally young wheat are also used as fodder 
for bullocks. In the hills more grass is used and less of other kinds of fodder." 

16. When not in milk a cow is left to shift for herself pretty much, 
„. _ . c t ., . „ . ' „ .. going out with the cattle of the village 

Montgomery (Purser's Settlement Roport, pages 76.$). ? ° tt 1 • >n •# 

to graze. However when m milk, if 
{he owner is fairly off and she has not many rivals, she will get some boiled 
cotton seed (varenva), about 1£ ser per diem in Poh, and in Jeth and Har 
as much ground gram or barley soaked in water, and will in other respects 
be treated as her owner's bullocks, sharing with them and the buffaloes the 
oil-cake {hhal) he may possess. As a rule a cow is well off, if she gets some 

chopped straw in addition to what she can pick up in the fields 

. . . . Bullocks are fed four times a day, in tbe 

morning and evening, at noon, and before the owner goes to bed. They very 
seldom get any grain, if ever, but they may come in for some raw cotton seed in 
Poh. ... A bullock will eat from 12 to 15 sers of broken straw per diem, 
or about double that quantity of green fodder. Its food consists chiefly of 
broken straw of sorts, turnips, chari, green wheat, and dry jowdr stalks. 
Its food during the year commencing with Chaitr or the middle of March 
may be taken as follows : — 

Chaitr ... ,.. Green wheat, methra, carrots (rare). 

Baisakh ... ... Wheat straw, dry turi, grazes in stubble 

fields. 

Har ... ... Ditto. If 1 there has been rain, the 

bullocks are turned out to graze. 

Sawan-Bhaclon ... Graze as before. If there has been no rain, 

turi, chari or china sown in Jeth, and 
kept over is given. 

Asoj ... ... Kangni straw or chari sown in Sawan. 

Katak ... ... Chari sown in Sawan or straw of china 

sown in Bbadon. Bullocks also graze 

in stubble fields. 

Magghar ».. ... Chari or china straw. Also rice straw, if 

available. 

Poh ... ... Turi mixed with green wheat. Tops of 

turnips. 

Magh ... ... Turi mixed with green wheat and roots of 

turnips. 
Phagan ... ... Green wheat, turnips and methra at the 

end of the month. 

. . . ". . It is not uncommon on the Ravi to turn the cattle out 
into the young fields of gram, massar, etc., to graze. 

17. In an ordinary holding in this district the well cattle will be fed in 
Muitan (Gazetteer, edition 1901-02, pa-es 225-26) April on peas or methra, and, as the 
, , . , . , r , * , wheat is cut, they get grazing in the 

stubble ; in May and June they graze in the wheat stubble or get fed on china 
or pea straw; in July they get the early jowdr and wheat straw is also avail- 
able ; from August to December they get jowdr or green grass or bdjra stalks 
and when green food is not available, then wheat straw or dried jowdr is given 
to them. With December begins the turnip season, and as the turnips give 
out, green wheat is supplied as far as necessary, or the cattle receive peas a*d 



g 

methra until the wheat crop is cut in April. During a large part of the year 
therefore the well cattle are stall-fed ; and it is as a rule only when there is 
wheat stubble or peas or fresh grass on the ground that they get anything 
like sufficient grazing. In addition to the peas, wheat, china, jowar, and 
turnips above mentioned there are several other crops used wholly or partly for 
fodder, such as ravodn, mash, masar, gram, senji, methra, and swdnk. Some- 
times crops, such asjotodr and turnips, shrivel up when young and become 
actually poisonous to cattle ; this is called patha lagna. Cattle can graze 
freely among indigo plants, so long as they have not begun to seed, without 
injuring the crop." 

Multan and Muzaffargarh (based on a note by Rai 18. The food of plough and Well 

Bahadur Tilok Chand). OXen is— 



Months. 




Fodder. 



Baisakh and Jetli ... 
Har to Asoj 

Katak and Magghar 

Poh and Magh 
Phagan and Chait .. 



Half to 1 ser of khali daily 
Xrne ... ... 



One ser of gram or wheat to each 
working bullock. 



One ser of linola to working 
cattle, if they seem weak. 

None ... 



Bhusa. 

Chart, jowar, moth, if available ; otherwise 
bhusa. 

Chari, if available ; otherwiso bhusa, senji 
fodder in second fortnight of Maghar, if 
available. 

Senji. Turnips alone or mixed with sarr 
grass or bhusa. 

Green wheat mixed in first fortnight of 
Phagan with sarr grass, or bhusa. 



While in milk a cow gets half a ser of oil-cake and a ser of grain, and a 
female buffalo double these quantities. In Poh and Magh when fed on turnips 
a cow gets a ser of binola and a milch buffalo 2 sers. 



CHAPTER II.— Cereals. 

19. In temperate climates grasses or flowering plants of the natural 

order Gramineae occupy the land to 



Cereals and pulses. 



an extent far exceeding any other 



class of herbs. Probably plants of the order Leguminosse occupy the second 
place. It is a striking fact that grasses (cereals) and leguminous plants 
(pulses) supply all that is necessary to man and beast for food except in 
very cold climates, and that the two classes supplement each other, the 
element which is in defect in most cereals being in excess in the pulses. 
This chapter and the next deal with the cereals and pulses which supply food 
to cattle. 

20. Zeamays: natural order Graminea. — For botanical description see 

Fuller and Duthie's Field and Garden 

Makki, synonyms ctalian, lcnlcri, jowar (Jullnndur). ^^ q£ ^ North . Westem Provinces, 

part I, page 21, and plate V. 



Chemical composition of grain — ■ 



Water .. 
Albuminoids 
Starch... 
Oil ... 
Fibre ... 
Ash ... 



Per cent. 

12-5 

9-5 
707 

3-6 

2-0 

1-7 



The dry stalks, Tcarbi, are only indifferent fodder, and should be mixed 
with green food. Purser notes on page 178 of the Jullundur Gazetteer - 
" when ripe the leaves and thinner parts of the stalk are fair fodder, but 
inferior to joiodr. The harder parts of the stalk are rejected by cattle, and 







Acres, 


• •• 


• •• 


165,452 


• • t 


• •• 


161,14,9 


... 


• #■ 


96,283 


»•• 


■ •• 


85,929 


*•* 


... 


79,234- 


•♦• 


•♦• 


72,992 


• • • 


• •ff 


70,752 



Jowdr. 



10 

are good only for fuel and manure. The green plant is good fodder, and well- 
to-do zamindars sometimes sow maize thick like chari in order to supply- 
green food to the cattle in the hot weather. " It is then sown very early in the 
hot weather." The area under maize in kharif 1910 was 1,206,645 acres, The 
districts having the largest acreage were— 

Kangra ... ^T 

Hoshiarpur ... ,,. 

Ambala ... ••• 

Jullundur ... ... 

Sialkot ... ... 

Gurdaspur ... ... 

Lyallpur ... 

21. Sorghum vulgare : natural order, Graminefe.—-'FoT botanical des« 

cription see Field and Garden Crops, 
page 25, and plate VI, 

Chemical composition of grain—* 

Per eent. 

Water ... ... ".,, ... 12'5 

Albuminoids ... ... ... ... 9'3 

Starch ... ... ... ... 72-3 

t-Jil ... ... ... ... ... <£'U 

.Fibre ..• • «, ... ... ... (* & 

x\.sn ... ... .» ... ... J- i 

Dr. Voelcker's analysis of the straw, which shows that it is more nour« 
ishing than turnips (see paragraph 59), as given in Field and Garden Crops, 
is as follows : — 

Per cent. 

Water .« ... ... ... 85-17 

Flesh forming matters ... ... ... 2-55 

Patty and heat producing matters ... ,;. H'14 

Inorganic matters .. . .., ... ... 1*14 

If jowdr is grown for grain, it is sown sparsely, 8 to 12 set's of seed 
being used to the acre. If fodder (chari) only is wanted, 30 to 40 sers will be 
used. In Gurgaon it is sometimes sown moderately thick so as to secure some 
grain as well as the chari, and then 15 sers of seed go to the acre. Jowdr is 
grown largely for grain in the five southern districts of the Delhi division, 
and in some districts of the Multan division, especially Dera Ghazi Khan. 
Except in Dera Ghazi Khan the grain is little used as a food for cattle and 
horses. Tie dry stalks (tdnda, karbi) are excellent fodder, and are usually 
chopped up and mixed with the bhusa of kharif pulses, eto. In Lahore " if 
fodder is plentiful, the stalks are thrown down whole, and the cattle eat half, 
leaving the harder ends. ' If owing to drought the plant withers, it is very 
dangerous for cattle, and to eat it may have fatal results. In Hissar the husks 
{boda), after the grain has been beaten out, are fed to cattle, mixed with pdla. 
The stalks when green contain a good deal of sugar and are much appreciated 
as fodder. Part of the crop is cut in October while still green. A variety 
known as "mithi jowar " is mentioned in the Gazetteer of the Lower Chenab 
Canal Colony, page 82, " which is eaten with avidity by cattle, while its 
stalks are chewed like sugarcane by the Janglis, who call it ganna (cane)." 
In some districts some jowdr is sown thickly on irrigated land very early in 
the hot weather so as to secure a supply of green food in June and July. 
This is called Sari or Hard. The ordinary sowing season is July. Owing to 
the way in which jowdr is cultivated it is difficult to place very great reliance 



11 

on the areas returned as under jowdr and chari respectively. According to 
^tement II the areas sown vith jowdr and chari respectively inSri\ 1910 

Acres. 
Jowdr '" - ... ... 1,342,870 

Chari - - ». ... 1,485,345 

The figures under chari may include a certain amount of other fodder 
crops. The districts in which jowdr is grown largely for grain are the five 
southern districts of the Delhi division, Ferozepore, the districts of the Rawal- 
pindi division (except M^ Jhang, Multan, and 
JJera Gnazi Khan. ' 

Sorghtim halepense- bam— is a fodder grass which when it dries up has 
the same poisonous properties as its cultivated relation (Fodder Grasses of 
Northern India, pages 40-41). 

22. Pennisetuni typhoideum, : natural order, Graminece. —For botanical 
Bajra, synonym hdjH. description see Field and Garden Crops, 

part I, page 30, and plate VII. 

Chemical composition of unhusked grain — 

Per cent. 

Wat er ... ... ... ... H-3 

Albuminoids ... ... ... ... 104s 

Starch ... ... ... ... 71-5 

'-'11 ... ..• ... ... ... 3*3 

Fibre ... ... ... ... ... 1-5 

Ash ... ... ... ... ... 2*0 

The grain is considered excellent food for men, and in Gujrat some of 
it is given to bullocks. As fodder the stalks are distinctly inferior to those of 
jowdr, and in some parts, if other fodder is abundant, only the heads are cut 
off and the stalks are left standing. In Karnal they are called dandar and in 
Hissar karbi. They are chopped up and given to the cattle mixed with green 
stuff or with gram dta. Before the Sirsa Branch of the Western Jumna Canal 
began to irrigate the southern part of the Kaithal tahsil, it used to be a common 
sight there to see in the barani fields large ricks (chhor) of bdjra stalks black 
with age preserved as a reserve against fodder famines. In some of the north- 
western districts the stalks of bdjra are a very important part of the fodder 
supply. 

The area returned as under bdjra in kharif 1910 was 2,412,497 acres.' 
Of this 1,173,585 acres were in the Hissar, Rohtak and Gurgaon districts of 
the Delhi division, Hissar alone accounting for nearly 700,000 acres, and 
792,106 acres were in the six districts of the Rawalpindi division. 

Bdjra is a near relation of anjan or dhdman (Pennisetum cenchroides) , 
£he best of the uncultivated fodder grasses in the Punjab. 

23. Setaria Italica : natural order, Graminece. — For botanical descrip- 

,„. , , tion see Field and Garden Crops, part 

Kaagni, synonym *«„« (Santa). j^ page ^ ^ ^ xxy 

The chemical composition of the husked grain is— 

Per cent. 



Water 


• •• 


*•• 


• •• 


• •• 


10-3 


Albuminoids 


• •• 


■M 


• • • 


#•• 


10-8 


Starch 


»•• 


»• > 


... 


• • t 


73-4: 


Oil 


• •• 


■ » • 


• •« 


• •« 


2-9 


Fibre 


»•* 


••• 


• •• 


••t 


1-5 


Ash 


• •• 


••• 


•M 


••• 


H 



This inferior kharif millet is grown more or less in all districts, but 
except in the hills and submontane tracts and in parts of the Multan division 



12 

the areas are generally insignificant. Mr. Purser wrote on page 115 of the 
Montgomery Settlement Report : — 

" Two varieties of this crop are recognized, Jcangan and l-angni, but they differ only iir 
size, as Jcangan is larger and coarser than hangni. Kangan is rare. The straw .... 
is called pardl or pardli. It is not broken up like turi. It is considered good strengthening 
food. The grain ■. . . . is used as an article of diet." 

In Jhang " patches are grown on wells for fodder by zamindars who* 
keep horses, hut the grain is seldom threshed." In Lahore kangni is grown 
sometimes for fodder and sometimes for grain, and the fodder is considered good. 
In the Simla Hills it is sown in poor lands, and the grain is boiled and eaten like 
rice, while the straw is fed to cattle during the winter. 

24. Panicum miliaceum : natural order, Gramincce. — For botanical 

description see Field and Garden Crops,, 
part II, page 1, and plate XXIIL 

The chemical composition of the husked grain is— 

Per cent* 

Water ... '..7 ... .77 7.. 12-0 

Albuminoids ».. ... ... ... ... 12-6 

Starch ... ... ... ... ... 69"4i 

Wll ... ... ... ... ... 0*0 

Fibre ... ... ... ... ... 10 

xVsn ... ... ... ... ■•■ j i- 

Outside the hills and one or two of the south-western districts this &; 
a very unimportant crop. As regards its cultivation in Jhang and Multan the- 
following extracts may be given — 

Steedman's Settlement Report of Jhang, page 94— 

" China as a crop is largely grown on well lands. Two crops are reaped in the year,, 
the first in Jeth and Har, the second in Magghar .... China requires a large quantity 

of water The first china crop is used chiefly as fodder. It is very rarely 

threshed. The second china crop comes in useful for the wheat sowings. The crop is 
sometimes pulled up or cut half ripe, as much grain beaten out as can be, and the straw used for 
fodder. More generally the second crop is allowed to ripen .... If there have been 
good rains and grass is plentiful, the whole of the china will be allowed to ripen ; if there has- 
been but little rain and grass is scant, the whole crop may be used as fodder." 

Multan Gazetter, edition of 1901-02— 

"China is a crop which has nearly trebled in area since 1880 and now represents^ 
1*5 per cent, of the cropping of the district. This increase is entirely due to its popularity on 
the Sidhnai Canal, where it has been extensively grown both in the zairl rabi and in the kharif 
harvest, about one-third being shown in the revenue records against the former .... 
. . The crop is mainly used for food, but a certain portion of the said rabi is employed as 
fodder also. As a food the grain is inferior . , . It provides the poorer classes with a 
cheap if somewhat distasteful food." 

In Simla the straw is fed to cattle in the winter. In 1910-11 the area 
under hangni and china amounted to about 56,000 acres, china being the more 
important crop. The only districts in which the area under hangni exceeded 
1,000 acres were— 

Acres.. 

Sialkot m« ... ••• ••■ ... 3,395 

Kangra ... ... ... ... ... 2,920 

Rawalpindi... ... ... ... ... 1,538 

25. Panicum frumentaceum : natural order, Graminem. — For botanical 
c , , ,, m. ~l i lv s description see Field and Garden Crops. 

fcanwak, synonym swank, samuktia, jhandru (Kangra). , TT n -i i , Trtr-nr r 

part II, page 3, and plate XXIV. 

For chemical composition of unhusked grain see Church's " Food -grains 
of India," page 49- 



13 

In Gujrat kangni and swank arc mixed with maize crops on well lands 
and ripen before the maize. 

In Jhang sdnwak is grown to a small extent for horse fodder on wells. 
In Muzaffargarh it is grown on canal and well lands, mostly as a food 
crop, hut it is sometimes used green for fodder. This millet is also grown in. 
hill districts. In the Dictionary of Economic Products, volume VI, part I, 
page 9, the quick-growing saildb crop, samiikha, sown in Jhang, Miamvali and 
Muzaffargarh in land newly left by the river, is treated as the same plant as 
sdnwak, but possibly this may be a mistake. Pandit Hari Kishan Kaul, has 
informed me that the main difference is that samiikha has a black seed, while 
that of sdnwak is white. Samiikha may perhaps be one of the panicums men- 
tioned below. The account of its cultivation given on page 106 of the Mu- 
zaffargarh Gazetteer may be quoted : — 

" As the rivers recede in August and September they leave large flats of quicksand or 
rather quick-mud, which will not support a man. The sower taking a g&ara of seed enter as the 
mud, supporting himself on the ghara, and scatters the seed over the mud. As the mud dries 
the plant springs up and produces grain in October. The grain is small and inferior. Kirars 
eat it on fast days. The straw is considered excellent fodder." 

Samiikha is grown mostly for fodder. The crop returns for 1910-11 
show 2,500 acres as under sdnwak in Gujranwala and 1,019 in Gujrat. In 
ELangra sdnwak is included in an area of 11,175 acres shown as under " Other 
cereals." Jhang returned 2,453 acres of sdnwak and 491 of samukha, Mian- 
wali 46 of sdnwak and 504 of samukha, and Muzaffargarh 790 of samukha.- 

The wild grass, sdnicak— Panicum colonum, is useful fodder when it is 
young, and Hindus eat the grain on fast days (Hissar Gazetteer, page 10, and 
Karnal Gazetteer, edition of 1890, page 22). Panicum crus-galli, called bharti 
in the Hissar district, is also a fodder grass. If the crop described as shdnvikh in 
the crop returns of the Hoshiarpur district, and which there occupied in kharif 
1910 an area of 3,140 acres, is not Panicum frumentaceum, it may be a culti- 
vated variety of one of these wild panicums. 

26. Panicum helopus : natural order, Graminea?. — Por botanical des- 

cription see Duthie's " Podder Grasses of 
Kur!a - Northern India," page 8. Dutbie states 

that it is an excellent fodder grass for both horses and cattle, and tbat it is 
found chiefly on cultivated ground in the plains, and occurs on the Himalaya 
up to about 5,000 feet. It is cultivated to a small extent on well lands in 
Jhang and Muzaffargarh, and is used as fodder for horses. 

27. Panicum jumentorum, a native of tropical Africa, is a rich fodder 

grass. It is best propagated by dividing 
Guinea grass. the roots. It has been cultivated ex- 

perimentally in the Punjab, but has not become an established fodder crop. 

28. Oryza sativa : natural order, Graminea. — Por botanical descrip- 

• tion see Picld and Garden Crops, part I, 

DUa - page 15, and plate IV. 

Chemical composition of lmsked grain is— 

Per cent. 

Water ... ... ... ... ••• 12'8 

Albuminoids ... ... ••• .•■ 7'3 

Starch ... ... ••• ••• ••• 783 

Oil ... ... ... ••• ••• *" 

Fibre ... .,-. ••• ••• ••• '* 

Ash ... ... ... ••• ••• '6 

The straw is called pardl or pardli. It is not threshed with the grain. As 
fodder the straw is very poor, but in rice tracts it is given to the cattle faute 
de mieucc. It ought to be reinforced with green stuff. In Karnal the pardli of 



14 

the coarse sdnthi rice is said to be better fodder than that of the fine ziri rice. 
It is noted that when, owing to want of water, the crop produces no grain, the 
straw, which is then known as marain, is an " excellent fodder " (Hissar 
Gazetteer, page 173). The area under the many varieties of rice was returned 
in kharif 1910 as 712,813 acres. The districts having the largest acreage 
under this crop were — 

Acres. 
Kangra ... ... ... •- 119,995 

Sialkot ... ... ... ... 64,800 

Dera Ghazi Khan ... ... ... ... 68,588 

Ambala ... ... ... ... 61,984 

Gujrauwala ... ... ... ... 59,606 

Gurdaspur ... ... ... ... 50,707 

Muzaffargarh ... ... ... ... 47,963* 

Karnal... ... ... ... ... 47,153 

29. Eleusine coracana : natural order, Graminece. — For botanical descrip- 
_. " _, . , , . , _ ,„ . tion sec Food and Garden Crops, part II, 

Mandwa, synonyms, mandal, /coda, chalodhra (Oui- _ i i • „„ TTTTT A .i,f . , 

rat), mandan (small variety). page 10, and plate XXVIII. Chemical 

composition of husked grain — 

Per cent. 

Water ... ... ..." ... ... 13-2 

Albuminoids ... ... ... ... 7*3 

Starch ... 7.7 ... ... ... 73*2 

Oil ... ... ... ... ... 1*5 

Fibre '... 7.7 ... ... ... 2-5 

ASIl ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ** O 

Under the name of rdgi it is largely grown as a food crop in Southern India. 
The total area in the Punjab in kharif 1910 was returned as 22,035 acres, and 
two-thirds of this came from the hill districts of Kangra and Simla. The only 
other districts with areas exceeding 1,000 acres were Karnal (1,220), Sialkot 
(1,444), and Rawalpindi (1,460). The grain is very inferior food, but useful 
to poor people. According to the Simla Gazetteer, page 66, the straw is fed 
to cattle and " is said to be very sweet." In Karnal its cultivation as a dry 
crop expands a good deal in dry seasons, as it is sown in fields intended for 
the fine ziri rice, when the latter cannot be planted out owing to the drought. 
There " the Mits is very bad fodder, and is generally burnt as it stands or grazed 
down" (Gazetteer, edition of 1890, page 204). The wild grass, Eleusine flagel- 
lifera, which is the chliimbar of the "Western Punjab, and the gathil of Karnal, 
is a useful fodder plant. Other wild species of eleusine, which are fodder 
grasses, will be found noted on pages 56-9 of Duthie's " Podder Grasses of 
Northern India." 

30. Paspalum scrobiculatum : natural order, Graminece. — Por botanical 

description see Pield and Podder Crops, 
part II, page 8, and plate XXVII. 

The chemical composition of the husked grain is given on page 40 of the " Pood 

Grains of India." 

This poor millet is a favourite crop in parts of the United Provin ces 
and is grown there on inferior outlying lands. It appears to be grown to some 
extent in the Simla Hills and elsewhere (Punjab Products, page 238), and may 
be confused in our returns with koda (Eleusine coracana). In the list of crops 
on page 116 of the Hosh'iarpur Gazetteer mandal (Eleusine coracana) and kodra 
are shown separately, but the botanical name of kodra is also given as Eleusine 
coracana. It is stated on page 1 of Duthie's " Podder Grasses of Northern 
India " that the grain is chiefly consumed by the lower classes, and that the 
straw is used as fodder. 



15 

31. Triticum sativum : natural order, Graminea.— For botanical des- 

Kanak, synonym geJan (in eastern districts). Cription SCO Fuller and Dutllie, Food and 

Garden Crops, part I, page 1, and 
plates I-A and I-B. 

The average chemical composition of the grain of Indian wheats is— 



Water 

Albuminoids 

Starch 

Oil 

Fibre 

Asli 



Per cent. 
12-5 
13 5 
68-4 

vi 

2-7 
1-7 



The grain is too valuable to be used much as food for cattle. 

It is sometimes given to milch kinc. The uses as fodder of the dry 
broken straw or turi have already been indicated. The ways in which it L 
stored may be gathered from the following extracts :— 

Karnal Gazetteer, edition of 1890, paragraph 222.—" Bhus is stored in a 
hup made of a wisp of straw wound spirally round and round upon a founda- 
tion of cotton stems so as to form a high circular receptacle in which the bhus 
is packed and preserved, and thatched when full. A long low stack fenced 
in by cotton stems alone is called a chhan or bhiisarl Near the city the 
people store their bhus in mud receptacles (Jchuta) and plaster it all round the 
top. The bhus is taken out from a hole at the bottom as wanted." 

Chenab Colony Gazetteer, page 80.— Bhusa " is stored in stacks, rm'isal, 
or in low heaps, dhar. The musal is built up in the form of a haystack and 
better withstands the rain owing to its sloping thatch. But the dhar is often 
preferred because it is less exposed to damage from fire. An enemy can burn 
a musal down, whereas a dhar will only smoulder at one end." 

Multan Gazetteer, page 219.—" The wheat straw is collected in stacks, 
palle, and surrounded with wattles or cotton stalks and daubed over with 
mud." 

Near towns the green wheat when in ear {khaioid) is cut down and 
fetches a very good price. In some of the western districts much wheat on 
the wells is cut down green to feed the bullocks, the amount which has to be 
sacrificed depending of course on the nature of the season. 

Thus the late Mr. Steedman wrote in paragraph 131 of the Jhang Settle- 
ment Report : — 

" Practically the tenant can cut as much green wheat and jowdr to feed the well 
bullocks as is necessary. There is really no limit. Similarly, the whole of the turnip crop 
is his. It is only where the crop or roots are sold that the proprietor takes a share ; otherwise 
all (of the fodder) that he takes is a mafia or two of green wheat and a bundle or two of 
turnips." 

In rabi 1910 the area under wheat was 8,884,697 acres, distributed among 
the divisions as follows : — 



Division. 


Acres. 


Per cent, of total 
cropped area o£ 
both harvests. 


Delhi ... 

Jullundur 
Lahore ... 
Rawalpindi 
Multan .., 


892,721 
1,662,321 
2,024.376 
2,127,265 
2,178,014 


118 
299 
38-5 
48-7 
408 


Total 


8,884,697 


311 



These figures show the enormous importance of wheat straw as a source of 
fodder in the three western divisions. 



16 

32. Hordeum vulgare : natural order, Graminece. — For botanical des- 

cription of barley see Field and Garden 
Jan ' Crops, part I, page 9, and plate II. 

Tbe chemical analysis of the husked grain is — 

Per cent. 
Water ... ... ... ... ... 125 

Albuminoids ... ... ... ••• H'° 

Starch ... ... ... ... ... 70'0 

Fat ... ... ... ... ... 1'3 

Fibre ... ... ... ... ... 26 

AS'l ••• ••• ••• »*• ■•« ** ■*■ 

Barley is, speaking generally, a much more important crop in the cis-Sutlej 
than in the trans-Sutlej districts. As an unirrigated crop it is often grown 
mixed with wheat, gram, or masri. There is a beardless Tariety known as 
paigliambari or Kdbuli. Barley can be sown much later than wheat, in some 
of the western districts as late as the middle of January, and, except when 
sown late, it ripens much earlier. Hence it is useful to supply tenants and the 
poorer landowners with food before wheat becomes available. The grain is 
also commonly given to horses. Purser quotes a Montgomery proverb — 

" Jau kache, pakke, daddare, jo joban turiyan." 

" Unripe, ripe, half ripe barley, whatever excellence it possesses is 
only for horses." 

The dry straw or turi is an excellent fodder used in the same way as wheat. 
Being less valuable than wheat a greater proportion of the barley grown is 
used for green fodder. It is sometimes sown for this purpose with other fodder 
crops in cotton fields while the cotton is still standing. 

The area under barley in rabi 1911 was 1,003,429 acres. In Hissar 
and Gurgaon it covers a much larger acreage than wheat. The crops with the 
largest areas were' — 

Acres. 
Hissar... ... ... ... ... 167,865 

Gurgaon ... ... ... ... l."i],0S6 

Ferozepore ... ... ... ... 119,805 

The next largest areas were in Sialkot (59,147) and Kangra (54,9S6). 

33. Avena sativa : natural order, Graminece. — For botanical description 
T . see Field and Garden Crops, part I, 

page 13, and plate III. 

Oats have been introduced into the Punjab and are cultivated to a small 
extent for green fodder. 

The wild oats, gandal (Avena fatua), sometimes seen in wheat fields, is 
an introduced weed, which is considered good fodder in California (see Duthie's 
Fodder Grasses of Northern India, page 51). 

CHAPTER III.— Ptoses. 

34. The value of pulses as food for cattle is enormous, and the extent to 

Vatae of mixed crops of cereals and pulses. which they are grOWll alone Or mixed 

with cereals, cotton, etc., is a marked 
feature of the agriculture of the Punjab. The value of the practice of sowing 
pulses with other crops is great. An excellent statement of the case will be 
found on pages 141-43 of Moreland's " Agriculture of the United Provinces." 
Briefly it may be summed up as follows : — 

(a) Insurance.— The pulses generally want less moisture than the 
crops whose companions they are, and gram, or mash, or mung 
may survive when wheat, or cotton, or joicdr has dried 
up. 



17 

(b) Checking of evaporation from the soil, the low growing creeping 

pulses, shading thejsurface. 

(c) Leguminous plants like pulses feed the soil with nitrogen. 

(d) The produce of mixed crops of wheat and gram or barley and 

gram are reaped together. The grain is not separated but 
ground together, and the resulting flour is an excellent 
food. 

35. The kharif pulses with the exception of gtodr belong to the 
Kharif pulses. sub-division Phaseolae of the natural 

order Leguminosae, and the three 
principal ones, moth, mash and mung are included in the genus Phaseolus, 
from which the sub-division takes its name. Owdr belongs to the same natural 
order, but to a different sub-division, Jalegeae. 

36. Cyamopsis Psoralioides : natural order, Leguminosce.—'For botanical 
„ , , description see Fuller and Duthie's Field 

Gwar, synonym gwara. , r . _. TT 

and Garden Crops, part II, page 24, 
and plate XXXV. 

It is an important fodder crop in the districts of the Punjab formerly 
included in the United Provinces. It is suited to light sandy soil, and is 
usually sown alone, but is sometimes mixed with bdjra. It is considered to 
be a good crop to follow cotton or chart, because " the leaves appear to act as 
manure on the soil and to prepare it for a subsequent rabi " (Hissar Gazetteer, 
page 170). No doubt, like other leguminous crops, it feeds the soil with nitrogen. 
The grain is very rich in albuminoids, the chemical composition being — 

Per cent. 

\\ ater ... ... ... ■•• »»« 11 o 

Albuminoids ... ... ... ... ... 29 - 8 

Starch ... ... ... ... ... 462 

vJll ... ... ... ... ... 1 tJ 

Fibre ... ... ... ... ... 77 

-A.SI1 ... ... ••• ... ... o X 

But it is considered coarse and produces flatulence, and both grain and 
leaves and stalks are given to the bullocks. The grain is either boiled or 
coarsely ground and given dry. The dry straw is useless, but the green plant is 
cut and chopped up and given to bullocks. The broken pods, called palosi, left 
on the threshing floor, make good fodder. 

After gram, gwar is the most important pulse in Pohtak, Gurgaon and 
Delhi. The average in these three districts in 1910-11 was — 

Delhi ... ... »«■ »•• ••• 37,079 

Rohtak ... ... ... -. ••• 59,825 

Gurgaon ... ... ... ••• ••• 67,138 

37. Cajanu8 Indicus ; var. bi-color : natural order Zeguminosce.'—'FoT 

botanical description see Field and Gar- 

Arhar, synonvms dangrf (Gujrat), bhart (Simla), den OopS, part II, page 20, and plate 
dhingra, kundi (Kangra). XXXIV. 

The chemical composition of the unhuskod grain is similar to that of 
gram, but it is difficult to digest — 

Per cent. 

Water ... ... ••• • ■« ••• 1"" 

Albuminoids "... ... ... ••• ••• l''l 

Starch ... ••• ••• ••• ••• _'. 

Fat ... ••• ••• ••• 

Fibre ... ••• »•• ••• 

Ash ••• ••• ••* ••• * 

In the United Provinces this tall pulse is a very important fodder crop and 
is usually grown mixed with jowdr, bdjra, or cotton. The cultivation and uses 



26 

7-5 
3-8 



18 

of arhar in the United Provinces are described on pages 200-202 of Morland's 
" Agriculture of the United Provinces." The following may be quoted : — 

" When arhar is sown with cotton it is usually placed in lines about fifteen feet apart ; 
it grows thick and high... and! it is of particular value as a shelter; the outturn from a cotton 
field, is not, however, as great as from a millet field, as the arhar plants are far fewer in number 
...Arhar seems to survive any deficiency of rain short of an absolute drought, and is almost 
independent of cold weather rain ; while nothing short of regular floods seems to injure it 
seriously, but it has dangers of its own. The greatest is frost to which the plant is more liable 
than any other of our field crops : a single ground frost may destroy the entire crop. The 
caterpillar, known usually as chheda, does a good deal of harm in some seasons, boring into 

the pods and eating the young seeds The dry leaves and pods make most nourishing food for 

cattle and the 6talks are put to a great variety of uses, the chief of which is lining temporary 
wells." 

Though sown with cotton, the grain, if it has survived the cold, does not 
ripen till the beginning of the hot weatber. Its great susceptibility to frost makes 
it unsuited to the climate of most parts of the Punjab, and it is an unimport- 
ant crop except in the east of the Gurgaon district, where it is sown in lines 
with cotton. The leaves are used for fodder, and the stalks for fuel, while " the 
pulse is little esteemed, so that its perishing in the winter is of the les9 
consequence " (Gurgaon Gazetteer, page 93). The variety which ripens in the 
autumn and is occasionally sown in Gurgaon seems to be the plant known as 
thur in the United Provinces (Cajanus Indicus, var. flavus). 

38. Phaseolus mungo ; var. radiatus : natural order, Iteguminosce. — For 
„, , , _ 4. . _ ._, . . . botanical description see Field and 

Mash, synoynms urd, man, malm (interior variety). /-. n /-. , -r nr\ i ^ i 

Garden Crops, part I, page 39, and plate 
X : also Church's " Food Grains of India," page 148. 

Chemical composition of unhusked grains : — 

Per cent. 

Water ... ... ... ... 10-0 

Albuminoids ... ... ... ... 22*7 

Starch ... ... ... ... 55 8 

Oil ... ... ... ... 2-2 

Fibre ... ... ••• ... 4*8 

Ash ... ... ... ... 4'4 including 1*1 of 

phosphoric acid. 

This crop and its two relations, mung (Phaseolus mungo) and moth (Phaseolus 
aconitifolius) form a group of kharif pulses of great importance as furnishing 
food for men and cattle. According to Purser there are two varieties of mash, 
one with black seeds t known as hurang, and one with green called kachua. " The 
former grows as a creeper along the ground ; the latter upright. The pods of 
hurang are blackish purple, long and thin ; those of kachua greenish yellow, short 

and thick the dal of kachua is larger, has abetter taste, and requires less 

time in cooking than that of hurang, hence it sells at 3 or 4 seers the rupee 
dearer" (Settlement Report of Montgomery, page 117). 

Mash is sown either alone or mixed with jowdr, cotton, or with other 
pulses such as mting, kulath, or rawdn. It is unsuited to a light sandy soil 
in upland tracts, and is therefore not grown with bdjra. In Jullundur it is 
mostly found in the best class of dry land and often precedes sugarcane. It is 
the one of the pulses which is grown most in riverain tracts and in the low 
hills. In Kangra it is sown on the ridges between rice fields or mixed with 
kulath. It does best in a season of moderate rainfall, and is often destroyed 
by heavy rain or by floods in the autumn. " The fodder obtained from moth, 
mung and mash is divided into three kinds, which ranked according to their 
value, are — the empty pods (phali), leaves (patti), and the stalks {gona). The 



19 

last are of little use for cattle and are sold to owners of asses and mules, when 
possible. The leaves are first stripped off by hand, then the stalks and pods 
are threshed, next the stalks are picked out, and then the remainder is 
winnowed and the chaff separated from the grain. As regards their value 
as fodder, moth stands first, mash second, and mtlng last (Purser, quoted on 
pages 186-87 of Jullundur Gazetteer). Mash is a good fodder for camels." 

39. Phaseolus mungo : natural order, Leguminosce. — For botanical des- 

Mung, synonym miingli, an inferior variety in Ln- Cl'iption See Puller and Dllthic's Food 

dh ' aDa " and Garden Crops, part I, page 37, and 

plate IX. 
To quote from the same book : — 

" Mung is one of four pulses which resemble one another very closely in appearance 
and habit of growth, the other three being- urd or mash, lobia, and moth. Mung is the most 
valuable of the four, and as a rule its consumption is confined to the better class of natives. 
It can be easily distinguished from either moth or lolia, but its resemblance to urd is so 
close that both are considered by some botanists varieties of the same species. The most 
popular distinction between the two plants in the field lies in mung having dark green and 
urd yellowish green leaves, but the principal difference is in the shape of the grain in that of 
urd being much larger and longer than that of viing. . . . There are three well marked varie- 
ties of mung having respectively green, yellow, and black seeds. The green seeded is the 
typical and commonest variety, that with yellow seed, known as sona or golden mung, being 
named phaseolus aureus, and that with black seeds phaseolus max" 

ling to Purser the variety with black seeds is 
e green and yellow seeded varieties mungi. 

The chemical composition of the unhusked grain is— 



According to Purser the variety with black seeds is called burang or munga, 
and the green and yellow seeded varieties mungi. 



"n, seeded. 


Yellow seeded. 


jr cent. 


Per cent. 


10-8 


11-4 


22-2 


238 


541 


54'8 


27 


2-0 


5-8 


4-2 


4-4 


3-8 



Water ... ... 

Albuminoids ..,■ ... . 

Starch ' ... 

v/ll ... ... ... . 

Fibre 

ASU ... ... ... . 

It is usually sown with the millets, joio&r and bdjra, chiefly the former, 
with maize or cotton, or mixed with other pulses. It is not suited to the light 
sandy soil in which moth flourishes. It is grown in saildb lands, but not to 
the same extent as mash. Mung is the pulse of the Pothwar tract in the 
RaAvalpindi and Jhelum districts. In Rawalpindi it is as a rule sown mixed 
with bdjra. Heavy rain in September, when it is in flower, is exceedingly 
harmful, and both mash and mung " suffer from the attacks of grasshoppers 
(tidda) when young and later on caterpillars attack the pods and grains" 
(Steedman, Settlement Report of Jhang, page 93). 

The broken straw and stalks are good fodder for cattle, but, as already 
noticed, not so good as the bhusa of mash and moth. 

40. Phaseolus aconitifollus : natural order, Z°guminosa. -For botanical 

description see Pood and Garden 

Moth, synonym motfci. ^^ ^ ^ page ^ an(1 ^tc XL 

The chemical composition of the grain is — 

Per cent. 

Water ... ... • •• ••• "*8 

Albuminoids 

Starch ... ... ... 56 ' 6 

Fat ... ••• ••• 

Fibre 

\sh ... — ••• ■'•« 3 ' 6 1 ' nc,,Kl; ' 1 ? °' s 

of phosphoric 

:u'id.* 

According to Purser (Montgomery Settlement Report, page 110) there 
are three' kinds—" bagga, jhijru, and gardra. The first grows up straight ; the 



•6 
4-2 



20 

leaves are not indented ; it throws out no runners ; and the grain is whiteJ 
The other two kinds throw out runners ; the leaves of jhijru are indented ; those 
of gardra are not. The grain of jhijru is white with black spots ; of gardfa 
black with white spots. " Jhijru is evidently the typical phaseolus aconitifolius, 
which derives its specific name from the fact that its leaves are deeply cut, 
like those of the aconite plant. Moth is a crop of the uplands and is not 
common in riverain tracts. It grows well in very sandy land, and the most 
typical association is bdjra and moth, but it is also mixed with chari. In 
Gurgaon a variety called gora moth is the pulse usually mixed with cotton, 
as it spreads and does not climb. Moth is also sown alone or mixed with mung. 
In the low hills of the Rawalpindi district it is grown on sloping stony rakar 
soil. Like mdsh and mung it suffers from heavy autumnal rains. 

The prejudices against the use of moth as a food for men which exist 
in the United Provinces do not appear to extend to the Punjab. In fact 
in Perozepore khichri or porridge of moth and bdjra is a common dish for the 
evening meal, and moth, bdjra and jowdr form in the cold weather the staple 
foods of the people. But generally its grain is less esteemed than that of 
mdsh or mung, and much more of it is given to live stock and more especi- 
ally to horses, than is spared from the two other pulses. The main use of 
moth is as a fodder crop, and as that it is held in high esteem. Cut green, 
when the seed is still unripe {gharar in Jullundur) it is an excellent food for 
horses, and the grain is given to them as a substitute for gram. " Boiled 
and mixed with crude sugar it is considered unsurpassed for getting horses 
and bullocks at the end of the cold weather into what natives look 
upon as good condition " (Purser, quoted on page 160 of Jullundur 
Gazetteer). In Lahore some is sown early in the hot weather at the same time 
as the hdru jowdr and sometimes mixed with it. This is known as babul moth 
(Lahore Gazetteer, page 163). The bhusn of moth is a first class fodder for 
cattle, the leaves and the broken pods and stalks being all valuable. In Hissar 
the straw is given to camels, and in Attock they are given green moth. 

Moth is in the Punjab the most important of the group mdsh, mung> 
and moth. 

In 1910-11 the areas sown were— 

Acres. 

Moth ... ... ... ... ... 595,621 

Mung ... ... ... ... ... 399,882 

Mdsh ... ... ... ... ... 259,642 

In making the calculation the areas in Bohtak and Gurgaon recorded 
under the single heading of " mung and mdsh " have been divided equally 
between the two crops. 

41. Dolichos biflorus : natural order, Leguminoste. — Por botanical des- 
_ , a _ ,. ; _ ii. cription see Pood and Garden Crops, 

Kulath. synonyms raung (Hosn larpnr), Knit hi. \ TTX n , , , _. _ * 

• part III, page 2, and plate LXXXI. 

Chemical analysis of unhusked grain— 

Per cent. 
Water .. ... ... ... ... IPO 

Albuminoids ... ... „ , ... 225 

Starch ... ... ... ... ... 56*0 

vJH ... ... ... ... ... 1 V 

Fibre ... ... ... ... ... 5*4 

Ash ... ... ... ... ... 3-2 

This pulse is grown on poor sloping stony soils in the lower hills and 
up to 6,000 or 7,000 feet. The grain is said to be hard and indigestible. In 
the Murree Kahuta Assessment Report Mr. Kitchin noted that " though much 
eaten by the poorest, (it) is eaten by no one who can get any better food." It 
is stated in Puller and Duthie's, Pood and Garden Crops that " the plant where- 
ever grown is highly valued as a fodder for cattle, and in some parts of the 
Punjab it is sown in the spring solely for fodder." 

In kharif 1910 kulath was sown in 618 acres in the Simla and 3,846 
acres in the Hoshiarpur district. In Rawalpindi and Kangra it is not shown 



21 

separately, but with " other kharif pulses." It probably occupied a very lar»e 
part of the areas of 26,123 and 3,603 acres returned under that head in Kanera 
and Rawalpindi respectively. 

42. Vigna catiang : natural order, Leguminos®.— For botanical 

Rawan, synonyms arwan, lobia, chaula, rangan description See Food and Garden CrODS, 

(Simli) - part II, page 12, and plates XXIX and 

XXX. 

The chemical composition of the unhusked grain is— 

Per cent. 

Water ... ... ... ... ]*7 

Albuminoids ... ... ... 231 

Starch ... ... ... ... 553 

Oil ... ... ... ... 11 

Fibre ... ... ... ... 4-2 

Ash ... ... ... ... 3 6 

This agrees pretty closely with that of mdsh and mung, but Fuller and 
puthie state that the grain is less valued than that of these two pulses, as it 
is difficult to digest. 

It is grown in small quantities in different parts of the Punjab, and 
more largely in the extreme south-east and in the south-west of the province. 
In Gurgaon it is known as chaula, and is said to be the chief kharif crop on 
very inferior soils. The area sown there in kharif 1910 was 35,441 acres. 
The leaves and stalks are used as fodder. In Multan in 1910-11 the area 
sown was 9,163 acres, of which 7,346 were returned in the rabi crop statement. 
Mr. Maclagan noted that in Multan it is generally a catch crop after the rabi. 
In his Settlement Report of Montgonery, page 120, Mr. Purser stated that 
" rawdn is grown in the spring only for fodder. It is given to cattle green, 
mixed with turi .... Cattle are sometimes turned into raicdn fields to graze." 
In the Simla district the grain is eaten as dal or mixed with rice as khichri 
(porridge), while the straw is fed to cattle. 

The handsome wild pea, Vigna vexillata, which is common in the low 

hills of the Punjab, is a near relation of rawdn. It is noted on page 420 

of volume III of the Dictionary of Economic Products that cattle eat it in 

Chutia Nagpur. 

„ . . , 43. The rabi pulses are divided 

Baoi pulses. . , x 

(a) the Vetches belonging to the sub-division Vicieae of the natural 

order Leguminosse — 

gram, masar, chural, matar, 

(b) the Clovers or trefoils belonging to the sub-division Trifolieae of 

the same natural order — 
senji, methra, maina, shaftal, lucerne. 
The latter are fodder crops pure and simple, and are fed green to cattle. 

44. Cicer arietinum : natural order, Leguminosce. — For botanical 

description see Food and Fodder Crops, 

Chhola, synonyms chana. ^ j page 3^ ^ ^^ yjjj 

The chemical composition of the husked grain is— 

Per cent. 

Water ... ... ••• ••• H'^ 

Albuminoids ... ••• ••• 21'7 

Starch ... ... ... ... 59 

Oil ... ... ... — 4 " 2 

Fibre ... •■• ••• ••• 1- ° . 

Ash ... ... — ••• 2-G > including l'l of 

phosphoric acid. 

After wheat gram covers by far the largest area of any crop in the 
Punjab, and is important everywhere except in hilly and submontane districts 
and in a few districts in the Rawalpindi division to the north of the Salt 



22 

Bange. In the cis-Sutlej districts it covers an enormous area. The acreage 
sown in the rabi of 1911 was by divisions — 

Acres. 
Delhi ... ... ... 1,960,438 

Jullundur ... ... ... 1,203,864, including 710,866 

in Ferozepore. 

Lahore ... ... ... 617,038 

Rawalpindi ... ... ... 354,068 

Multan ... ... ... 358,636 

Total ... 4,494,044 

This was 26 per cent, of the rabi area and 16 per cent, of the area 
of both harvests. 

Gram grows in all kinds of soil from stiff clay to light sand. In sandy 
soil it has a more feathery habit and the leaves are of a lighter colour than 
when growing in a clayey soil. The yield of gram is said to be greater when 
the soil is stiff (Field and Garden Crops, page 34). In medium or light soils it is 
very often sown mixed with wheat igochni) or barley (jauchana, hejhdr, 
or terra). The discovery that it can be grown with a fair prospect of 
success in very light sandy soils has led to a considerable extension of rabi 
cultivation in some of the western districts. The cultivation is very rough, 
and in heavy soils one sees gram growing among the clods of a field which 
has been ploughed once and in which no attempt has been made to pulverise 
the soil or. root out the coarse dab grass. 

A good proverb on the subject is quoted on page 100 of the Ferozepore 
Gazetteer, edition of 1888-89, page 100 — 

"Chholaki janevah, 

Mah ki jane gha, 

Jatt ki jane rah/' 

which means that gram needs little ploughing, mash does without weed- 
ing, and a Jat can travel without roads. If the land contains sufficient 
moisture when it is sown it requires little rain afterwards. But it is a delicate 
crop in some ways, and when in flower, suffers much from night frosts. Cold 
westerly winds shrivel up the young grain. It is also said that lightning 
injures the crop. 

We are not concerned with its great use as human food. Of all the 
pulses it has the least claim to be considered a fodder crop, for its 
grain is of much more importance as food for horses and cattle than 
its straw. When bullocks in hard work get a grain ration, gram is 
usually selected. It is given half-ground and is usually mixed with 
bhiisa. The grain is also given to camels. It is stated in Field and 
Garden Crops, page 35, that " gram bhiisa is considered a most excellent food for 
cattle, but is seldom given alone, being generally used to give a flavour to 
more unpalatable fodders." In the Punjab it is much less esteemed as fodder. 
Hissar and Ferozepore are the districts with the largest gram area according 
to the crop returns of 1910-11. It is noted on page 174 of the Hissar Gazetteer 
that " the straw and leaves make an inferior kind of fodder, which is given to 
camels." In Sbahpur gram bhiisa is only given to camels except in seasons 
of scarcity, and is considered bad for horses and milch kine. In Ferozepore 
it is given to horned cattle, mixed with turi, but not to cows or buffaloes 
when they are in milk. In Attock sheep and goats, and in Jhang cows and 
horses, are allowed to graze on the young crop, and the outturn is probably 
little, if at all, injured thereby. In Ferozepore cattle are allowed to graze in 
irrigated fields of young gram, and the practice is said to improve the ultimate 
outturn. A wild species of Cicer, C. Soongaricum, grows in Spiti and 
Lahul. It is said to fatten cattle quickly (Dictionary of Economic Products, 
volume II, page 284). 



23 

45. Urvum lens or lens esculenta : natural order, Leguminosae. — For 
ibiti.fynotaymimnr.moiir.inohri. botanical description see Field and 

Garden Crops, part II, paejo 13, and 
plate XXXI. 

Chemical composition of unhusked grain— 

Per cent. 

Water - ». r.. ... 11-7 

Albuminoids .... ... m u . 9 

Starch .„ ... ... §m 5C . 

Gil ... ... ... ... 1-5 

Fibre ... ... ... ... 3 - 6 

Ash ... ... ... ... 2-3, including 0'7 of 

phosphoric acid. 

Husked the fihre is reduced to 1*2 per cent, and the starch increased 
to 58*4 per cent. As regards its yalue as human food Professor Church 
writes — 

" It is highly nutritious, but somewhat heating ; it should be carefully freed from the 
husk or coat. The meal of lentils deprived of their coat is of great richness, containing 
generally more albuminoid or flesh- forming matter than bean or pea-flour. The preparations 
advertised under the names of ' Revalenta/ ' Ervalenta,' etc., consist mainly of lentil 
meal mixed with flour of barley or some other cereal and common salt" (Food Grains of 
India, page 189.)" 

We are told that the mass of pottage, for which Esau sold his birth- 
right, was probably composed of masri flour (Dictionary of Economic Pro- 
ducts, volume IV, page 621). Masri alone or mixed with barley is sown in poor 
damp riverain lands or after rice in flooded lands. Its grain is used as dal for' 
human food and the dry stalks and leaves as fodder. It is not regarded as a 
valuable fodder. Mr. Purser noted that some considered it heating and bad for 
milch kine, while others thought it good for all cattle, as being sweet (Mont- 
gomery Settlement Report, page 122). 

The area recorded in the district revenue registers in 1910-11 as sown 
under the heads of masri andjatimasri was 225,787 acres. 

46. Lathy rus saiivus : natural order, Leguminosae.— For botanical 

description see Field and Garden 
Chura - Crops, part II, page 15, and plate-" 

XXXH. 

Chemical composition of pea — • 

Per cent. 

Water ... ... ... — ••• 101 

Albuminoids .... ... ••« ••• ^' 9 

Starch and fibre 

Oil ... ... ... ••• 

Ash ... ... ... ••• •••' 

called in the United Provinces Icesari. 

This humble pulse is grown in damp riverain lands and is used almost 
wholly for fodder, especially for cows and female buffaloes. The dal has a bad 
reputation for human food, and indulgence in it is undoubtedly sometimes 
followed by paralysis of the lower limbs. The curious statement in the late 
Mr. O'Brien's Settlement Report of Muzaffargarh that "to sleep m a pea 
field is believed to produce a kind of paralysis called munda, probably refers 
to churdl. Mr. Purser in the Settlement Report of Montgomery page 
122, writes:-" This crop is grown chiefly for green fodder. The plants arc 
pulled up or cut. The dry stalk and leaves are considered good fodder for 
cattle, but not for horses," as causing constipation. Mr. Maclagan on page 220 
of the Multan Gazetteer puts the average selling value of chural at Rs. 1W 
per acre. 



•9' 
3>» 



24 

47. Fisum arvense: natural order, Leguminosce. — For botanical descrip- 

tion see Field and Garden Crops, page 17, 
Matan and plate XXXII B. 

Like chural this pulse is mostly grown in moist river lands and used 
for fodder. The peas have no poisonous qualities, and on page 90 of the 
Jhang Settlement Report the late Mr. Steedman noted that the pods were 
picked green and eaten as a vegetable, and that the grain was not usually 
threshed except for seed. 

In the south-western districts peas {chural and matar, which are not 
distinguished in the crop returns) are important fodder crops. The area in 
Multan in rabi 1911 was 40,856 acres. 

The area recorded under churdl and matar or peas in the district revenue 
registers was 148,971 acres. Few districts outside the Multan division sow any 
large acreage. 

48. Melilotus parviflora : natural order, Leguminosa. — For botanical 

description see Hooker, Flora of British 
njl ' India, volume II, page 89. It has 

minute yellow flowers growing in a raceme (see illustration I). It does not 
appear to be cultivated to any extent in the United Provinces, for it is not 
mentioned in Fuller and Duthie's Field and Garden Crops, but in the Punjab it 
is an important fodder crop. It is often grown in irrigated land after cotton 
or maize, being sown between the lines while these crops are still standing. 
Farmers sow it to supply green fodder to their own cattle and do not as a rule 
•ell it, except near cities like Lahore and Amritsar, where it fetches a 
good price. 

Its relation melilotus alba is a Punjab wild plant, which cattle 
doubtless eat. 

49. Trigonella fcenum-grcecum : natural order, Leguminosce — For bo- 

tanical description see Field and Garden 

Methra, synonyms metna, methi, methun. « , TT V . n ■, 1 , -ft nT-n- 

J J Crops, part III, page 46, and plate XCIX, 

also Hooker Flora of British India, volume II, page 87. It has some resemblance 
to senji, but is distinguished by its humbler growth and larger light yellow 
flowers. It is fairly common in damp riverain lands, but is also grown on irrigated 
lands, where it is often sown between the lines of cotton. It is used as green 
fodder, and can be cut several times if the plant is watered after each cutting. 

50. Medicago denticulata (see illustration I). — Is a common Punjab 
Maina wild plant, which no doubt is eaten by 

cattle, though it is not included in the 
list of fodder plants in the Dictionary of Economic Products. It springs up 
thickly in Gujranwala in cotton fields, and is watered, so may there be con- 
sidered a fodder crop. A very considerable part of the area of 624,020 acres 
shown under rabi fodder in statement II was no doubt under senji and methra. 

51. Medicago sativa : natural order, Leguminosce.— It is perhaps a culti- 
Lncerne vated variety of medicago falcata which 

grows wild in Kashmir and Kunawar 
(see Hooker, Flora of British India, volume II, page 90) . The flowers are 
usually purple. The plant has been introduced as a crop from Europe, and is 
commonly grown at remount depots, to supply green fodder for horses. It 
covers a large area at the Mona Remount Depot in the Gujrat district. It 
belongs to the same group as methra, senji, maina and shaftal (see also Fuller 
and Duthie's Food and Garden Crops, part III, page 61). The medicagos are dis- 
tinguished by their curious spirally twisted pods. There are three wild species 
besides M. denticulata mentioned above in the plains— M. lupulina, M. loci- 
niata, M. minima— no doubt all useful to cattle though not included in the list 
of fodder plants in the Dictionary of Economic Products. 

52. Trifolium repens : natural order, Leguminosce. — It is cultivated in 
Shalta Afghanistan, Hazara, Peshawar, and 

Bannu, and in the Attock tahsil of the 
Attock district. In Bannu it is, like senji and methra, usually sown in maize 




1 . Maina «= Mcdicago denticuL 

2. Senji = Melilotus parviflora 

3. Metlira=Trigonellafainuir 



griecum. 



25 

and cotton fields. It belongs to the same group as methra, senji, and lucerne, 
and it might be worth while to try to extend its cultivation in the Punjab Tri- 
folmm pratense (red), Trifolium repens (white), and Trifolium fwiferum 
(straw-berry headed trefoil) are English clovers, which also grow wikfin the 
hills. 

53. A foreign leguminous plant, Arachis hypogaea or the ground-nut 
The ground-nut or mungphaii. ( see Ggaxe 22 in Church's " Food Grains 

_ .. _ ,. _, , ,, . of India") is now much cultivated in 

boutnern India. It has the curious property of burying its pods in the ground. 
" The seeds are a valuable source of oil, and are also eaten. The leaves and 

branches of the plant are an excellent fodder- The hay is very nutritious 

much increasing the milk of cows. The cake holds a high reputation as a 
food upon which cattle rapidly fatten." (Dictionary of Economic Products, 
volume I, page 287). Probably the Punjab climate is too cold for the ground- 
nut. 

54. Glycine hispida : natural order, Leguminosm. — For botanical des- 
Bnnt cription see Field and Garden Crops, 

part III, page 3, and plate LXXXV. 

This is the soy bean of China and Jfipan of which the seed is now large- 
ly exported to England for oil. In the United Provinces it is cultivated under 
the name of bhat in the lower hills and in a few of the neighbouring plain dis- 
tricts. " The plant affords excellent fodder for all kinds of stock, if harvested 
before it is fully matured." The extent to which it is now cultivated in the 
Punjab hills requires investigation. It appears from page 243 of Punjab Pro- 
ducts that several samples of a plant called bhut, which was identified as soja 
or glycine hispida, were sent to the Lahore Exhibition of 1864 from the Hill 
States. This was probably an inferior variety of the Chinese plant. The 
desirability of introducing into the hills and submontane districts a good kind 
of soy bean may be judged from the following extracts from the Dictionary of 
Economic Products, volume III, page 111 : — 

" The chemical composition of the bean, according' to Professor Kinch, places it above 
all other pulses as an albuminous food, while that of the straw also surpasses in nitrogenous 
value that of wheat, lentils, and even hay. The following composition is given by Professor 
Church : — In 100 parts of the bean water 11, albuminoids 353, starch and sugar 26, fat 18-9,. 

fibre 4*2, ash 4 6 The soy bean is an extremely valuable fodder plant. If cut just when 

the pods are, fully formed, it makes most nutritious hay, and the residual cake (after oil has 
been expressed from the seed), which contains, according to Church, 40 per cent, of flesh -form- 
ing materials and 7 per cent, of oil, is an extremely rich cattle food." 

CHAPTER IV.— Oilseeds, Turnips and Carrots. 

55. We now come to a group of plants of great importance in the 

feeding of cattle because the roots and 
crops included m chapter. the green leaves and stalks are eaten, 

and the refuse made after oil has been expressed from the seeds is the chief 
source of oil-cake. These plants belong to the order Crucifcrse, and three-fourths 
of them, sarson, toria and turnips, are varieties of Brassica campestris. Taramira 
belongs to the nearly related genus Eruca. Although carrots belong to a differ- 
ent natural order, it is convenient to include them in this section, as their use 
as fodder is similar to that made of turnips. 

56. Brassica campestris ; sub-species napus, varieties glauca, trilocularis, 

quadrivalvis, and dichotoma. — For 

Sarson, synonyms saron, airsam, sarshaf, malwan, botanical descriptions SCe pagCS 28-30' 

of Field and Garden Crops and plates XXXVII to XL. 

Natives recognise two varieties, black and yellow. The former, which is 
Brassica campestris, variety dichotoma, is said to be more hardy, but less rich 
in oil. 



26 

Sarson is sown cither alone, or mixed with wheat, barley, gram, or other 
crops. "When mixed it is sown either scattered or in lines (ad). It is one of 
the crops sown for fodder in cotton fields, while the cotton is still standing. 
Except in the south-western districts, where it is unimportant, it is rarely 
irrigated. It is noted on page 168 of the Lahore Gazetteer, edition of 1893-94, 
that on well lands it " is seldom sown except with wheat, when the two are 
intended to be cut together for fodder." It is a delicate plant, very liable to 
injury from frost. It ripens the earliest of the rabi crops except toria. 

The seed yields a bitter oil (karwa tel), which is good for burning and also 
for cooking, though for this purpose not equal to til. The refuse, after the oil 
has been expressed, is a valuable oil-cake, but much of the seed is exported to 
Europe. The young flowering shoot is used for sag. Sarson, when sown as a 
mixed crop, is pulled up and fed green to cattle in January and February. 
It is noted on page 123 of Purser's Montgomery Settlement Report that when 
well irrigated and manured two cuttings for fodder can be got, if the first is 
taken before, or very early in Magh. The dried threshed straw is of no use. 

The area under sarson in 1910-11 was 350,000 acres, but it is extremely 

difficult to record the area of this crop accurately, and in one or two districts it 

is lumped with taramira or toria. The districts with the largest areas in 

rabi 1910 were — 

Acres. 

Ferozepore ... ... ... ... 80,641 

Karnal ... ... ... ... ... 47,698 

It is a favourite crop in Gurgaon, Karnal and Ludhiana. In the 
Rawalpindi and Multan divisions tar amir a is much more important than 
sarson. 

57. Brassica campestris ; sub-species napus, variety toria : natural order 
, . ,. ,,. Crticiferce. — For botanical description 

Toria. syncnyms satbn, tirpaklu. __ __ « ,,. ,, i n i 

see pages 29-30 of Field and Garden 
Crops and plate XLA. 

In Sialkot toria is a crop of some importance, and it was probably intro- 
duced into tbe Lower Chenab and Lower Jhelum Canal Colonies by immigrants 
from that district. It has become a very popular canal-irrigated crop in both 
colonies, on the Upper Bari Doab Canal in Lahore and on the Sidhnai Canal 
in Multan. 

The following passage from the Gazetteer of the Lower Chenab Colony 
may be quoted :— 

" The popularity of toria with the colonists is easily explicable. It is in the ground 
for only some 2i\ months, requires but little water, and that mainly at a time when wheat 
sowings have not commenced. Once sown it makes no demands on the energies of the 
colonists • • • • There is a uniformly steady demand in the market for the seed, which is 
exported mainly to Italy and Marseilles, to be manufactured into ' finest Lucca oil '. . . . 
It is curious that the zaruimlar will not eat the oil, which he uses himself only as an illumin- 
ant. It is popularly considered to be heating. A little toria is grown by the Janglis 
as green fodder for cattle and by Biloches for their camels .... The pressed seed is 
given to buffaloes to increase lactation." 

In Sialkot toria is generally an irrigated crop, but in Karnal it is 
mostly grown without irrigation. The chahi area, however, expands in a year 
of drought when the people want a crop which ripens quickly. The name 
sathri, by which it is known in some western districts, is an allusion to the 
fact that it is supposed to ripen (or perhaps to be of use for fodder) in sixty 
days. It is a delicate crop, but ripens so early that it stands a good chance of 
escaping damage from frost. It is mainly grown for the export of the seed, 
which fetches a good price. The oil-cake is not liked by cattle as it has a bitter 
taste. As fodder toria is much less appreciated than sarson, as the leaves are 
said to be bitter. But on page 221 of the Multan Gazetteer, edition of 1901-02, 
Mr. Maclagan noted that in that district outside the Sidhnai area " it is mainly 
grown along with turnips, and forms, when so grown, a green fodder, which is 
available for the cattle earlier than the turnips." 



27 

Owing to its popularity in the new canal colonics toria now covers a 
larger area than sarson. The area given in statement II is 440,701 acres. 

In rabi 1910-11 the area sown with toria was returned as 192 140 acres 
in Lyallpur, 81,472 acres in Shahpur, 59,224 acres in Lahore, and 24 378 
acres in Amritsar. ' 

The area for the whole province was probably about 400,000 acres. 

Other sources of oil-cake. 58 ' Jt ma J *> e ai * Well to note here 

the other sources of oil-cake. 

The chief is til (Sesamum indicum : natural order, Pedalinece), which is 
specially valued for use in the cold weather. 

Alsi (Linum ttsitatissimum : natural order, Linacece) is another source. 

Gonglu, synonyms dulgtm, rfg, gudnf. , 59 ' ^assica CampestHs ', sub- 

species nap its. — The chemical composi- 
tion of the root is — 

Per cent. 
"Water ... ... ... ... ... 90-4. 

Albuminoids ... ... ... ... ]•() 

Patty and beating matters ... ,., ... 7-9 

Inorganic matters ... ... ... ... 0"7 

The importance of turnips as food for cattle in the districts of the 
Multan division is very great. They are also largely grown in Shahpur, 
Lahore, Gujranwala, Mianwali, and Gujrat. On page 222 of the Multan 
Gazetteer Mr. Maclagan wrote : — 

" The Multan district grows more turnips than any district in the Punjab. This crop 
represents 6-3 per cent, of the cultivation, and its function is to keep the cattle alive when 
the joiedr fodder is finished, until the wheat and wheat 6tra\v are available. It is used to 
a small extent as food, the stalks (gandal) being cooked and the roots being eaten either raw 
or cooked, but it is not cultivated with this object. There are two varieties, the red 
and the white, of which the white are said to be the better and the more widely cultivated. 
The crop needs a fair amount of water and is rarely found outside the reach of well 

irrigation The ploughings begin in July and the seed is sown shortly after. The crop 

receives six or seven waterings during the autumn and winter ; it is manured if possible, 
and sometime* weeded. The roots are not taken up at one time and stacked, but are pulled 
from time to time from the end of November onwards, and given at once to the cattle. 
As a rule the tops and roots are given together, but sometimes the tops are cut and fed off 
separately, while the roots remain in the ground. The plants are never thinned or transplanted. 
The crop is sometimes grown along with other crops such as methra, gram, sathri and 
nssun." 

With this may be compared the late Mr. Steedman's account of the 
crop on page 89 of his Settlement Report of Jhang : — 

" Turnips are on well lands a most important crop in this district. The well oxen are 
very heavily worked during the wheat sowings and the first waterings, and require a 
large amount of strengthening food. This is furnished by the joiodr and turnip crops. 
There is nothing else. If the turnips fail, or are late as they often are, owing to the failure 
of the first sowings, the working power of the bullocks is materially weakened, and the area 
under wheat does not get properly watered. Turnips, raw and cooked, are also eaten 
largely by the tenants during the cold weather. To them, no less than to the bullocks, a bad 
turnip crop is a serious misfortune. * * * * 

" The best land on the well, well ploughed and liberally manured, is allotted to this 
crop. The land will generally have been ploughed up after rain once before the seed time 
arrives. The land is then irrigated and ploughed from three to six times with one or two 
rollings in between, if there are any clods to be broken up. The seed is sown broadcast, 
mixed with sand or earth or manure. Then the soil is once more rolled, and the irrigation 
beds and channels are made. If the soil has now become somewhat dry, a watering is given 
at once, but usually the first watering is given a few days after the plants have come up. 
When turnips are sown on well lands in soil that has been ploughed up once or twice previously 
a couple of plouo-hiugs are given, and then the well beds and irrigation channels are 
banked up. ******* 



28 

" For sailab lands tbe process Is different. The land is ploughed twice or three times 
and rolled. The seed is sown broadcast ami ploughed in with very shallow furrows. * * * 

" The crop ripens in three months. Zamindars say turnips are not ready till the first 

frosts. It is watered five or six times. No weedings or hoeings are given. A turnip crop 

should not be too thick, or it runs to leaf, and the bulbs suffer. A first class crop is that 
which yields a good fodder crop of leaves first, and a heavy root crop afterwards. 

" The turnip leaves are cut once, sometimes twice on the very best lands, and then the 
bulbs are pulled up. On sailab land the leaves are not cut, but the whole plant is pulled up. 
The bulbs grow very lar^e on sailab lands. I have also seen them eaten on the ground, but 
this is of course very different from what is meant by the process at home. The great 
difficulty about the turnip crop is to sow the seeds early and yet to get it to germinate 
well." 

In crop returns turnips and carrots are clubbed together, but in districts 
where turnips are important carrots form an insignificant part of tbe total. In 
rabi 1911, tbe districts returning tbe largest acreage were— 



59,426 

43,210 
41,707 
23,698 
22,791 
14,990 
10,584 



Multan ... ... #•• 

Montgomery ... 

Shahpur ... ... 

Gujranwala ... ... ••• 

Muzaffargarh ... ... 

Lahore 

Gujrat ... ... ■•• 

Tbe total acreage given in statement II is 280,652 acres. 

60. -Brassica juncea : natural order, Crnciferce. — For botanical descrip- 

tion of tbe mustard plant see Field and 

Ahur, synonym arhu, artnon. ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^fc XLL 

Mustard is not much grown in the Punjab. It is stated on page 34 of 
the Field and Garden Crops that in the United Provinces " it is not uncommonly 
cut green in January and February and given to cattle, should tbe supply of 
cattle fodder have run short." 

61. Eruca sativa : natural order, Cruclferce.— For botanical description 
_. , ,. '■ _ ■_,_ see Field and Garden Crops, page 26, 

Taramira, ernonyms tira ussun (b.-W districts), , , , _._.„_. a » a o 

jamian and jamiU (X.-W. districts). and plate AAA V 1. 

Tdramira is the oil-seed par excellence of the districts of the Rawalpindi 
division lying to the north of the Salt Range and of Mianwali. It is there an 
unirrigated crop. The description given in the Attock Gazetteer (page 152\ 
which would also apply to Jhelum, Gujrat, Rawalpindi and Mianwali, may be 
quoted : — 

" Tdramira is one of the three important rabi crops, and in Fattehjang and the 
Attock Nala ranks after wheat alone. It needs no cultivation, the seed is cheap, and the 
crop will grow on any land. It is grown almost exclusively on the most inferior kinds of 
unirrigated land, much of the poorest rakar being able to produce nothing more than a light 
tdramira crop, unless it be a very poor cotton. Tdramira is sown along the edges of paths, 
over the ridges between fields, is dribbled in among the bdjra, and is scattered broadcast 
about the fields whenever rain falls in November. The seed is cheap, and the zamintlar 
who cannot afford wheat seed can always afford tdramira. If the crop fails there is little 
loss, and if it succeeds the profit is large. It is a most useful crop. Like gram it is used as 
a vegetable when green. A good deal is also consumed for fodder. It is the favourite food 
of camels. But the bulk of the crop is allowed to ripen, and a valuable oil extracted. The 
only objection to tdramira is that it is an exhausting crop, and is considered the most 
exhausting of all rabi crops. In a good year the tdramira pays the revenue of the whole 
year, and great quantities are exported. In Fattehjang itself there are a great many oil- 
presses, and the oil stored in kerosine tins is sent into Rawalpindi and Gujar Khan for 
export. The oiHor lighting purposes has now been superseded by kerosine, but it is considered 
very strengthening and healthy as an article of food, and in many ways takes the place of ghi 
for frying, &c. The outward application in plague and other cases is said to be very beneficial. 
The Kot estate makes a large income annually from this crop. A remarkable characterstic of 
tdramira is its vitality. It is often self-sown. In vears of good rainfall it springs up 
everywhere, even on the house tops, in the Kala Chitta Forest, and among the ballast on the 



29 



important crop than even gram." a11 te ™*^« « probably a more 

for cattle" EaWall,indi be6ideS b ™= CooM as » I** * «. ^ favourite food 

In Multan, Muzaffargarh, and Dera Ghazi Khnr. ^^ m ■ i 
nssun, it is often an irrigated crop. On m K' it ™ u M ~ n0Wn as 
Mr. Maclagan wrote:- P P g 2il of the Multan Gazetteer 

^to^bnt Wi l ls nr viv e .ell ^SSS^J SS ^^ tS 

In Muzaffargarh it is sown as fodder with peas or gram, and there "in 

71^^%^^ brUiSGd ^ S -ttedtTgi^ 

_ The districts which returned the largest areas as sown in rabi 1910 



Acres. 



Dera Ghazi Khan 

Ferozepore 

Attock 

Multan 

Mianwali 

Jhelum 

Ambala 

Muzaffargarh 

Gurgaon 



81,806 
21,906 
19,347 
14,276 
13,044 
- ... — 13,699 

12,697 
• ■• «•• 11,346 

10,154 

The figures for Dera Ghazi Khan include sarson and toria, but the- 
deduction to be made on that account is probably not large. 

The handsome violet flowered chanaka {Diplotaxis griffithii) which 
grows freely near the Salt Eange, is worth experimenting with as a possible 
source of oil and fodder, especially as the seed has some small commercial 
value as a drug (Attock Gazetteer, page 19). 

62. Daucus carota '■ natural order, TJmbelliferice. — For botanical descrip- 
Gajar (cam^. tion see Hooker's Flora of British India, 

volume II, page 718, and illustration 
-LAA.V111 in Field and Garden Crops. A curious feature of the plant is that 
the central flower in the umbel is often red. In the Punjab it is an irrigated 
crop, and generally grown in small patches on wells. The tops are fed green 
to cattle in January and February. The roots, besides being a useful food 
for men, are given to horses. 

CHAPTER V.— Othee Cbops. 

63. Gossypium neglectum : natural order, Malvacece. — For botanical 

Vanwar cotton, synonyms kapiih, kapas, biri (eas- descriptions See Field and Garden Crops 
tern districts), var, varan. part J ; page ft. and ^^ X y ni * ' 

The cotton seed (binila, varemva, pewe), which contains much oil, is 
a very valuable food for milch kine. In Karnal after the cotton is picked 
the cattle are turned into the field to eat the leaves (Karnal Gazetteer, edition 
of 1890, page 200). 

64. Saccharwm officinarum : natural order, Graminece. — For botanical 

Kamsa, . s y non ym ik h (eastern districts). , description see Field and Garden Crops,. 

part I, page 55, and plate XIV. 

When cane is reaped the arrow or top [dg or pan+l) is cut off and used 
as fodder. A bad feature of a fodder famine is the extent to which cane has to 
be sacrificed to keep the cattle alive. In Gujranwala, even in a normal year, 
a great deal of the cane goes to feed the bullocks.. 



30 

65. Crotalaria juncea : natural order, Leguminosm. — For botanical de- 
„ . scription see Field and Garden Crops, 

BM "' Bynonym 8an - part I, page 82, and plate LXXXII. 

This leguminous plant, which is grown in small patches for its fibre, 
should be carefully distinguished from sankukra (also called san and sinjubara), 
which is Hibiscus cannabinus, natural order Malvacece, also grown for fibre, 
which is planted as a hedge round cotton and cane fields. It is stated in 
" Field and Garden Crops " that in the United Provinces the tops of sani are 
cut off and given to cattle when the plants are in full flower, and Mr. Duthie 
notes in his Flora of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, page 206, that the green plant 
as well as the seeds are sometimes given as food to milch cows. 

There are several species of Crotalaria which occur as wild plants in 
the Punjab. The only two included in the list of fodder plants in the 
Dictionary of Economic Products are Medicaginea and C. linifolia, but C. 
burhia is valued for fodder in Rajputana (Flora of Indo-Gangetic Plain, 
page 202), and it is unlikely that cattle neglect the others. 

66. Lepidium sativum : natural order, Cruciferce. — For botanical de- 
Halon scription see Hooker's Flora of British 

India, volume I, page 159, and illustra- 
tion II appended. 

It is a very unimportant rabi crop. A few scattered plants are some- 
times seen mixed with other crops. The seeds contain a good deal of oil. 
Its use as fodder is not referred to in the " Field and Garden Crops of the 
United Provinces" (part III, page 49), but Purser on page 185 of the 
Jullundur Gazetteer mentions it as one of the spring fodder crops. It was 
apparently introduced into India from the West, but its relation, Lepidium 
draba, is a weed of cultivation in the Punjab and is one of the English wild 
flowers. No doubt it is one of the plants weeded out of the fields, which finds 
its way into the cattle trough, for it is greatly valued as green fodder at 
Quetta, where it is a common weed (Dictionary of Economic Products, 
volume III, page 415, and volume IV, page 626). 

67. Ciohorium intybus : natural order, Composites. — For botanical de- 
K > Ini scription see Hooker's Flora of British 

India, volume III, page 391, and 
Plate LXXIV in Fuller and Duthie's " Food and Garden Crops." 

Chickory is an English wild plant and also grows wild in the North- 
Western Himalaya. It is. found apparently wild in the Punjab plains, but 
is there perhaps originally an escape from cultivation. 

It is grown alone or mixed with sarson as a fodder crop on wells in 
Gurgaon and the Jhajjar tahsils of Eohtak. 

68. Carthamus tinctoritis : natural order, Composites. — For botanical 
Kurombb, Bynonym kharar. description see Fuller and Duthie's Food 

and Garden Crops, part I, page 51, 
and plate XIII. 

< In the last twenty years the cultivation of safflower for the sake of the 
dye yielded by the flowers has been killed by the introduction of aniline dyes. 
About 1885 the area under safflower in the Hoshiarpur district exceeded 6,000 
acres ; in^rabi 1911 47 acres were sown. The area in Ambala was nearly 5,000 
acres in 1887-88. 

In Gujrat and Jhelum safflower is sown in lines in wheat fields like 
sarson, and the plants are pulled out and fed to the cattle in January and 
February. 

The ripe seed used to be valued in the United Provinces for its oil, 
which was used to adulterate ghi, and the refuse made an excellent oil-cake 
(Field and Garden Crops, page 51). But in Gujrat only enough is allowed to 
ripen to provide for the next sowings. 



ILLUSTRATION II. 




ijCifbrs — Lepidium sativum — Vera., Halo* 



SI 

Pohli (Carthamum oxyacantha), a thorny weed with yellow flowers, a 
near relation of saffiower, is common in the Punjab, and in the north-west of 
the province poor people in times of scarcity use the seeds as food. They 
also contain oil. 

ffl. In the sand hills of the Thai of Mianwali, Muzaffargarh and Jhang 

HinJwina ( me lon B ), aynorym tit* (smaller). ^f 0118 are aCatch Cr0 P- Th e "nds are 

ted to cattle. Pandit Hari Kishan 
Kaul has given me a note on the subject : — 

" The melon is split up, the seeds separated and the pulp eaten by men, the shell being 
given to the cattle. "Where melons grow in great abundance, the pulp and the shell are both 
(hrown to the cattle, only the choicest melons being reserved for men. The seeds are dried, 
parched, and eaten like parched gram, or in years of scarcity pounded into flour and eaten in 
the form of cakes. Camels are not fed on melons, partly because they are considered injurious 
for camels and horses, and partly because camels have plenty of other fodder. They are, 
however, allowed to eat the creeper, and, when grazing in melon fields, do not mind picking up 
as many small melons as they can." 

70. Iftdigqfera tinctoria : natural order, JJegwninosce. — Por botanical 
NiHindioo) description see Puller and Duthie's 

ln ,g ° ' Pield and Garden Crops, part I, page 43, 

and plate XII. 

The cultivation of indigo for the dye and the supply of seed to the 
Behar planters was once important in the eastern districts, but the area under 
the crop there is now quite insignificant. It is noted in the Rohtak Gazetteer 
(page 104) that "latterly it is said to have been tested as a fodder crop." 
Several of the wild Indigoferas are in the list of fodder plants in volume III of 
the Dictionary of Economic Products, but it does not include the " kathi " or 
Indigofera gerardiana so common in the low hills. Indigo is still cultivated 
to a considerable extent in Multan, Muzaffargarh and Dera Ghazi Khan for 
the sake of the dye which is exported to Afghanistan, Bokhara and Yarkand 
(Multan Gazetteer, page 215). 

71. Acknowledgments are due to the officers named in this note and to 
' Mr. Lall, Settlement Officer of Gujran- 

wala, and to M. Sant Singh, President 
of the Kalsia Council, for their ready response to requests for information. 
Mr. Dunnett has kindly agreed to correct the proofs in my absence. 



J. M. DOUIE. 
26th January 1912. 



STATEMENTS 



11 



STATEMENT I.— Areas, wells, ploughs, 



District. 



I ] Hissar ... 
Rohtak ... 
Gurgaon ... 
Delhi 
Karnal 
Auibala . . . 
Simla 

Kaugra ... 
Hosbiarpur 
Jullundur 
Ludhiana ... 
Ferozepore 
Lahore 
Amritsar ... 
Gurdaspur 

ialkot 
Gujrauwala 

Gujrat 

Shahpu." ... 

Jhelum 

Rawalpindi 

Attock 

Mianwali ... 

Montgomery 

Ly all pur ... 

Jhang 

Mult an 

Muzaffargarh 

Dera Ghazi Khan 



CULTIVATED ACRES. 



Chahi and 

111)!. 



Total 



3,806 
46,107 
141,448 
105,885 
150,817 
43,757 
736 
117,155 
41,708 
307,722 
140,866 
157,126 
469,656 
218,210 
142,253 
530,845 
438,829 
218,614 
178,699 
27,169 
5,046 
28,068 
124,828 
231,781 
4,813 
262,532 
641,315 
223,433 
288,273 



Nahri. 



Unirri- 

gated. 



Total. 



5,320,447 



302,121 

289,694 

97,235 

98,419 

241,921 

3,146 



17,843 

51,896 
909,345 
636,118 
212,282 

8S.500 

9,869 

477,050 

696,103 

179 

1,860 

7,697 

17,597 

224,596 

1,359,611 

333,391 

279,842 

181,757 

165,898 



2,385,551 
638,399 
749,930 
350,753 
756,138 
714,819 
9,171 
470,141 
680,748 
387,849 
561,611 
1,181,851 
356,334 
296,737 
613,650 
400,844 
263,469 
626,409 
392,754 
727,237 
591,465 
996,197 
605,830 
358,978 
9,468 
127,810 
159,873 
148,453 
580,840 



Grazing land. 



Govern- 
ment 
forests. 



6,733,970 



2,691,478 
974,200 
988,613 
555,057 
1,148,876 
761,722 
9,907 
587,299 
740,299 
695,571 
754,373 
2,248,322 
1,462,108 
787,229 
814,403 
941,558 
1,179,348 
845,023 
1,267,556 
754,585 
598,371 
1,031,902 
748,255 
815,355 
1,373,892 
723,733 
1,081,030 
553,643 
1,035,011 



Other. 



Total. 



Masonry 

wells in 

use. 



16,144,362 



Acres. 
2,033 
2,876 

1,488 
9,041 

874 

616,197 
2,082 
478 
61 
733 
8,4"2 
1,318 
714 
3,934 
47,831 
2,486 
160,357 
13,650 
163,502 
12,085 
804,310 
1,110,301 
369,831 
445,916 
980,518 
247,285 
120,839 



28,198,779 



Acres. 
437,551 
138,844 
90,560 
122,002 
575,803 
104,590 
21,625 
263,614 
176,489 
87,997 
65,503 
199,828 
449,966 
86,395 
95,924 
165,649 
533,801 
154,926 
1,049,747 
100,578 
311,402 
218,970 
2,729,042 
446,436 
99,618 
751,158 
902,249 
876,350 
1,387,069 



Acres. 
439,584 
141,720 
90.560 
123,490 
581,844 
105,464 
21,625 
879,811 
178,571 
88,475 
65,504 
200,561 
458,4 '.8 
87,713 
90,038 
169,583 
5S1.G32 
157,112 
1.210,101 
114,323 
479,904 
201,055 
3,533,352 
1,502,737 
469,419 
1,197,074 
1,888,767 
1,123;641 
1,507,908 



10 



Ploughs. 



720 
2,459 
6,594 
7,133 

7,827 
2,154 

5 
6,841 
28,287 
9,991 
7,940 
13,828 
12,386 
6,439 
23,010 
10,923 
10,221 
6,403 
4,103 
947 
C.850 
7,128 
10,472 
84 
11,588 
20,132 
14,053 
9,564 



11 



89,401 
50,870 
57,304 
38,661 
73,974 
60,726 
2,790 
126,218 
92,457 
79,121 
50,897 
112,306 
109,251 
69,304 
86,238 
104,072 
83,960 
80,248 
84.825 
63,739 
65,635 
68,060 
47,262 
73,193 
91470 
61,468 
97,921 
79,169 
57,850 



5,146,192 112,677,320 



17,823,512 



248,122 



• • • 

111 



CATTLE, CARTS, AND POPULATION. 



HoBMED CATTLE. 



Bulla and 

liuliooks. 



12 



115,161 

95,119 

113,279 

86,307 

189,536 

174,684 

6,865 

296,015 

201,800 

160,141 

120,981 

230,377 

185,701 

115,899 

156,597 

129,013 

125,897 

134,790 

170,853 

98,140 

93,465 

95,088 

100,531 

139,049 

198,525 

131,541 

232,260 

184,952 

144,928 



Male buffa- 
loes. 



13 



7,375 

960 

1,921 

1,237 

4,521 

2,348 

64 

17,377 

28,625 

30,402 

2,482 

22,659 

62,607 

47,405 

70,628 

61,529 

69,273 

33,269 

29,636 

4,946 

2,305 

3,751 

1,346 

43,373 

37,848 

22,167 

9,661 

3,830 

1,420 



4,217,494 



624,965 



Cows. 



14 



132,988 

82,113 

98,714 

6C,555 

149,159 

111,460 

8,109 

238,967 

134,156 

77,219 

59,929 

109,749 

121,894 

79,880 

163,601 

120,635 

110,916 

93,593 

168,574 

102,666 

99,715 

123,657 

80,806 

127,627 

132,759 

124,725 

182,696 

149,012 

137,769 



Female 
buffaloes. 



3,383,645 



15 



85,550 

57,093 

65,442 

53,385 

151,768 

90,459 

1,311 

101,161 

91,630 

64,016 

62,263 

137,979 

144,286 

114,006 

76,742 

127,332 

132,486 

90,382 

93,292 

26,957 

31,789 

19,272 

16,087 

63,139 

143,138 

73,339 

57,154 

40,993 

28,940 



Young stock. 



16 



2,241,371 



Total of 

columns 12 

to 16. 



17 



197,577 

140,851 

134,069 

92,947 

211,870 

144,952 

5,707 

214,833 

153,589 

114,634 

101,228 

188,277 . 

176,836 

119,026 

158,600 

128,398 

149,574 

124,000 

166,087 

86,728 

81,989 

82,661 

53,744 

102,587 

213,030 

121,971 

146,060 

111,113 

97,037 



3,819,975 



538,651 
376,136 
413,425 
294,431 
706,854 
523,903 
22,056 
868,353 
609,800 
466,412 
346,883 
689,041 
691,324 
476,216 
626,171 
566,907 
688,146 
476,034 
628.441 
319,437 
309,263 
324,429 
252,494 
475,775 
725,300 
473,743 
627,831 
417,900 
410,094 



14,317,450 



Horse* 

and 
ponies. 



18 



7,855 

8,757 

7,738 

5,031 

10,388 

10,487 

302 

8,171 

10,683 

8,804 

5,078 

19,371 

27,607 

16,449 

15,749 

15,406 

18,359 

13,506 

27,082 

6,819 

11,971 

5,755 

4,938 

14,722 

26,490 

14,396 

13,804 

10,818 

16,708 



35S,il 1 



Camels. 



19 



43,686 
2,419 
1,924 

649 
1,650 

617 

189 

1,724 

840 

2,409 

27,123. 

3,914 

603 

£84 

158 

2,178 

2,545 

16,360 

5,498 

3,711 

8,699 

21,682 

16,468 

11,135 

12,699 

23,165 

33,445 

24,148 



270,522 



Carts. 



20 



11,659 

16,676 

12,693 

14,447 

18,180 

23,941 

4 

130 

20,925 

28,405 

20,796 

31,411 

16,514 

8,402 

8,760 

3754 

5,713 

616 

3,871 

495 

6,285 

1,467 

60 

768 

29,256 

340 

1,486 

87 

629 



Population. 



287,688 



IV 



STATEMENT II.— Acres sown in 



District. 



Hitsur . 

lioliUk 

Gurgaon 

Delhi 

Karnal , 

Auilial.-i 

Sin-la 

Kangra 

Hosliiarpur , 

Jullundur , 

Ludliiana 

Ferozepore 

Lahore , 

Amritsar . 

Gurdaspur , 

gialkot 

Gujranwala 

Gujrat . 

fchahpur 

Jheluin 

Rawalpindi , 

Attock 

Mian wali 

Montgomery 

Lyallpur 

J hang 

Multan 

Mnzaffargarb 

Dera Gbazi Khan 



Total 



Maize. 



1,002 

348 

2,340 

10,644 

60,091 

96,283 

1,941 

165,452 

161,149 

85,929 

51,715 

57,797 

54,117 

47,826 

72,992 

79,234 

31,199 

19,758 

19,524 

6,763 

49,551 

23,978 

15 

17,880 

70,752 

13,903 

4,379 
\ 
63 

20 



Jowar. 



1,206,645 



156,170 

162,509 

53,284 

58,778 

137,241 

9,892 

12 

4,954 

2,127 

20,285 

132,870 

15,002 

2,095 

( 3 ) 6,318 

14,758 

40,989 

49,056 

39,827 

12,645 

25,950 

24,687 

23.2C9 

9,798 

12,794 

54,149 

75,894 

13,541 

' 184,006 



Chari. 



1,342,870 



104,532 
17,410 
42,814 
28,079 
54,591 

100,427 

1,141 

49,015 

123,912 

63,998 

145,630 

82,092 

( 8 ) 94,407 

(>*) 63,141 

65,163 

63,869 

32,429 

(») 63,650 

23,034 

(>)* 15,540 

20,828 

1,127 

43,400 

75,595 

17,678 

44,856 

17,078 

29,909 



1,485,345 



Bajra. 



Kangni and 
china. 



638.0S9 

247,389 

288,107 

82,774 

57,430 

10,956 

1 

3,889 

89 

2,097 

61,910 

9,038 

395 

5,117 

14,649 

30,850 

124,665 

110,996 

151,935 

107,347 

191,831 

105,332 

7,874 

8,107 

13,548 

42,055 

24,355 

71,672 



2,412,497 



55,988 



Rice. 



■• 


7,734 




110 


20 


114 


50 


217 


7,231 


47,153 


16,121 


61,984 


1,542 


956 


6,188 


119,995 


1,398 


34,508 


14 


3,135 


263 


2,529 


206 


9,888 


374 


20,634 


321 


39,188 


1,364 


58,787 


3,395 


64,800 


157 


69,606, 


214 


8,343 


1,188 


7,695, 


74 


657 


16 


1,468 


"• 


'H? 


20 


1 


3,684 


19,044 


577 


3,183 


4,038 


2,656 


7,069 


26,895 


421 


47,963 


43 


63,588 



712,843 



* (') The heading in crop return is chara maweshi, so other Mops may be included. 

(») Of this 22,532 entered in rabi crop return. 

(') Jotcar and charj. 

(*) Includes tdramira. • 

{>») Entered *> cHra. 



Khaeip 1910— Rabi 1911. 



Mundwa. 



49 

1,220 

824 

1,078 

13,689 



16 

302 

(') 7,077 

1,444 

150 

14 

1,460 

144 
8 

27 
999 
151 
426 

25 



Wheat. 



94,979 
94,490 
92,291 
114,849 
251,240 
240,153 
4,719 
249,847 
301,087 
272,184 
218,575 
620,628 
447,717 
322,773 
329,377 
431,896 
492,613 
337,856 
515,195 
342,262 
257,529 
493,609 
180,814 
246,582 
663,000 
318,967 
407,882 
319,960 
221,623 



Barley. 



10 



167,865 
29,219 
151,086 
46,719 
21,108 
17,457 
1,951 
54,9S6 
12,544 
7,054 
18,449 
149,805 
12,839 
14,609 
34,227 
69,147 
33,381 
29,841 
11,345 
10,581 
12,111 
19,144 
19,311 
8,636 
9,531 
9,241 
11,712 
22,740 
6,784 



Other cereals. 



11 



27 
249 
12,657 
364 
330 
866 
14,496 
3,309 
484 
218 
64 
1,304 
410 
2,980 
5,226 
3,098 
1,207 
8,198 
( 13 )293 
948 
699 
523 
67 
16 
7,919 
2,986 
4,005 
6,609 



Gram. 



12 



695,364 
407,804 
226,286 
175,190 
296,350 
159,427 
17 

33,372 
160,929 
122,787 
175,810 
710,966 
192,519 
143,077 
61,189 

31,339 
188,914 
63,334 
78,134 
23,856 

4,155 
82,588 
102,001 
80,510 
120,649 
30,124 
41,582 
58,154 
27,617 



Mash. 



13 



1,046 
(») 10,856 
5,056 
2,184 
20,763 
33,990 
476 
28,830 
13,910 
11,461 
11,180 
18,226 
3,814 
4,529 
(•) 34,359 
14,546 
958' 
1,187 ' 
504 
( 1S ) 2,151 
12,913 
929 
1,656 
6,984 
4,109 
4,947 
4,307 
965 
1,776 



Miing. 



14 



93,607 
(') 10,856 
19,059 
4,467 
6,856 
5,530 
1 
512 
680 
955 
38,987 
15,930 
214 
4,892 
(») 34,360 
798 
17,573 
5,110 
3,875 
(") 44,189 
65,815 
22,390 
1,248 
451 
940 
36 
486 
1,005 
60 



Moth. 



15 



97,176 

8,453 

6.13X 

6,199 

17,397 

Ml 

302 
24,292 
35,847 
47,426 
60,930 

5,062 

7,259 
25,016 

6,648 

14,513 

31,963 

19,503 

(>») 42,926 

37,116 

50,149 

25,221 

1,866 

6,673 

862 

1,928 

12,023 

3,644 



29,112 



8,884,697 



1,003,429 



79,552 



4,491,044 



257,692 



399,882 



583,129 



( 4 ) Includes sdnwah. 

( 5 ) In Rohtak 21,712 acres are returned as mung and mash. 

(•) In Gurdaspur 68,719 acres are returned as mung and mds%. 

(' s ) The figures for pulses are taken from district revenue registers and exceed those given in Annual Report 
by about 20,000 acres. There is a difference in the contrary direction under " Other cereals." 



VI 



STATEMENT II.— Acres sown in Kharif 



DlSIBICT. 


Gwara. 


Eawan. 


Miisri and 
Jawausari. 


Peas. 


Sarson. 


1 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


Eiwar 7m 7.7 '■..' 










99,844 


Kohtak ,., ... ™ 


59,825 


... 


1,067 


503 


12,032 


Gurgaon ... 


67,138 


33,441 


... 


2,149 


16,970 


Delhi 


37,079 


... 


1,318 


4,042 


7,171 


Karnal ... 


... 


•M 


18,829 


173 


47,698 


Ambala ... ,,. ... 


... 


... 


16,715 


3,986 


5,882 


Simla 


... 


• •• 


21 


2 


23 


Kangra ... 


... 


... 


2,190 


724 


6,890 


Hoshiarpur ... ... 


882 


... 


10,210 


... 


6,319 


Jullundur ... ... 


... 


468 


8,652 


... 


939 


Ludhiana ... 


... 


... 


2,488 ' 


... 


15,288 


Ferozepore 


... 




6,671 


6 


80,641 


Lahore ... 


... 


... 


3,576 


30 


(») 18,089 


Amritsar ... ... ••• 


1,448 


... 


4,407 


... 


2,174 


Gurdaspnr 




••• 


21,990 


... 


(») 5,356 


Sialkot ... 


... 


... 


31,538 


24 


( 8 ) 2,128 


Gujranwala ... •» 


... 


... 


2,592 


505 


10,686 


Gujrat ... 


... 


120 


19,092 


384 


2,307 


Shahpur ... ... ... ... 


... 


... 


10,464 


... 


232 


Jhelum ... ... ... ... 


... 


... 


2,783 


212 


1,276 


Rawalpindi 


... 


... 


3,294 


77 


2,387 


Attock ... ,,. ... 


... 


... 


82 


... 


1,340 


Mianwali... ... ... 


... 


1,042 


19,876 


... 


210 


Montgomery ... ... 


... 


462 


1,142 


(') 15,126 


694 


Lyallpur ... ... ,., 


16,685 


344 


8,752 


3,115 


3,059 


Jhang ... ... ... 


... 


5,756 


4,690 


11.943 


127 


Multan ... 


... 


9,163 


3,553 


40,856 


1,638 


Muzaffargarh ... 


... 


2,496 


10,425 


45,014 


396 


Dera Gbazi Khan 






9,349 


20,100 




Total 


183,057 


55,292 


225,757 


148,971 


351,796 



(') Chural,&c. 

(') Includes tdramira. 



Yll 



1910— Rabi 1911— concluded. 



Toria. 



21 



11 

8 

68 

66 

7,541 

2,187 

2 

176 

60 

75 

59,224 

24,378 

2,955 

10,006 

(">) 36,661 

446 

81,472 



10,318 

192,140 

11,924 

283 



441,001 



Taramira. 



22 



Turnips and 
carrots. 



30,595 
3,082 

10,154 
5,255 
4,190 

12,697 



1,228 
201 

21,906 

477 



1,162 

6,624 

5,710 

13,699 

3,701 

19,347 

13,814 

1,900 

1,496 

606 

14,276 

11,346 

(») 81,806 



23 



201 

1,935 

738 

88 

4 

4 



596 

1,841 

14,990 

314 

76 

2,508 

23,698 

10,584 

41,707 

1,131 

180 

146 

7,733 

43,210 

4,421 

36,198 

59,426 

22,791 

6,032 



265,272 



Fodder 
(rabi). 



24 



1,782 
1,458 
1,254 
9,892 
15,300 
1,539 

24 

16,346 

66,542 

23,864 

27,959 

85,139 

80,522 

35,889 

71,809 

60,781 

21,448 

16,522 

( n ) 11,004 

145 

3,965 

1,345 

15,951 

14,202 

23,983 

12,120 

3,235 



2S0,552 



618,020 



Cotton, 



25 



68,774 
72,317 
91,165 
39,432 
67,452 
54,164 
2 

4,136 
17,473 
27,977 
17,880 

4,423 
112,102 
38,602 
11,524 
23,380 
56,774 
12,278 
94,314 
12,065 

6,751 
21,804 

2,664 
32,787 
137,62S 
43,310 
85,639 
43,289 
49,171 



Cane. 



26 



1,082 
18,820 

6,117 
17,442 
22,937 
14,973 

5,206 

27,795 

29,171 

8,769 

2,110 

13,326 

27,531 

60,808 

41,785 

28,579 

10,530 

8,189 

368 

147 

1,861 

34 

1,051 

38,789 

1,247 

2,973 

7,944 

105 



Other crops. (»») Total 



1,249,777 



399,689 



(•) Includes sarson and toria. 

( ' °) Figures from Annual Report of Department of Agriculture. 

(") Includes turnips and carrots, 

( l4 ) Difference between last column and total of preceding columns. 



27 



178,046 
19,632 
19,564 
21,032 
43,313 
32,336 
1,408 
77,112 
67,524 
36,546 
51,099 
133,452 
59,209 
26,893 
44,420 
30,786 
30,753 
20,059 
38,818 
17,393 
12.773 
14,224 
33,174 
37,368 
178,697 
64,344 
74,735 
39,402 
24,480 



1,428,592 



28 



2,437,899 

1,169,7C6 

1,141,149 

685,518 

1,195,999 

915,338 

15,007 

785,161 

919,617 

830,534 

771,521 

2,253,934 

1,210,427 

888,829 

919,322 

1,007,005 

1,230,061 

808,838 

1,177,476 

721,300 

621,874 

993,714 

540,544 

605,793 

1,560,078 

673,414 

988,424 

718,205 

811,654 



28,597,401 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 



RENEWED BOOKS ARE SUBJECT TO IMMEDIATE 
RECALL 



LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS 

Book Slip-25m-6,'66(CiyS5.J>l) 158 



Douie, J.M. 

Fodder crops of 
the Punjab. 



SB185 
D6 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

DAVIS 



*