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I ') / 

I / 





* 1 
i I 




►DUCTiON i — xxviii 


toN WoEDS Corrupted 467 — 514 

•:r Names Corrupted 616 — 667 

jptions due to coalescence op the article . . . 668 — 691 

jptions due to mistakes about n umber .... 692 — 607 

'IONS AND Corrections 608—664 




By Folk-etymology is meant the influence exercised upon words, both as to 
their form and meaning, by the popular use and misuse of them. In a special 
sense, it is intended to denote the corruption which words undergo, owing 
either to false ideas about their derivation, or to a mistaken analogy with 
other words to which they are supposed to be related. Some introductory 
remarks on the predisposing causes of this verbal pathology and its sympto- 
matic features may conveniently find place here. 

In every department of knowledge a fertile source of error may be found 
in the reluctance generally felt to acknowledge one's ignorance. Few men 
have the courage to say " I don't know." If a subject comes up on which we 
have no real information, we make shift with our imagination to eke out what 
is wanting in our knowledge, and with unconscious insincerity let *"*" may be " 
serve in the place of " is." Another infirmity of mind which helps to foster 
and perpetuate the growth of errors is the instinctive dislike which most men 
feel for everything untried and unfamiliar. If, according to the accepted 
maxim, ^' the unknown ever passes for magnifical,'' it is no less true that in the 
majority of instances the unknown arouses active feelings of suspicion and 
resentment. There is an Arabic proverb, says Lord Strangford,iln-w(2«u addun 
mdjit/iaiuyof which the French Vest la mesintelUgence qui faitla guerre is a feeble 
shadow, and which we may freely translate " When men see a strange object 
which they know nothing of they go and hate it " (^Letters and Papers^ p. 86). 
The uneducated shrink from novelties. A thing is new, i.e, not like any- 
thing in their past or present experience, then it is '^ unlikely," unsafe, 

Thus, significantly enough, in Spain, a country which has more yet to learn 
dun most in Europe, novedad^ novelty, is in common parlance synonymous 
with danger. Reformers in all ages have had unhappy experiences of this 
popular feeling. To leave the common track is to be delirious (de lird)^ if 
mot tiMnething worse. Fust, the innovating printer, is in general belief no 
better than Faust, who juggles with the fiend. How the attitude of the 
popular mind towards the vast field of human knowledge will be influenced 
by this prejudice may easily be imagined. When it is a foregone conclusion 
tbat ^e only thing that will be, or can be, is the thing that hath been, every 
phenomenon which refuses to adapt itself to that self-evident axiom will be 


doubted or ignored ; and, if it persists in obtruding itself as an obstinate fact, 
it must be manipulated somehow till it fits in with the old formula. This 
unreasoning conservatism of the populace, which has handed down many an 
ancient superstition and delusion in the region of Folk-lore, has had a marked 
effect in the province of language also. Multitudes of words owe their present 
form, or present meaning, to the influence exercised upon them by popular 
misconception. The Queen s English is for the Queen's subjects ; and if 
they treat it like the Queen's currency — thumb it into illegible smoothness, or 
crooken it for luck, or mutilate it now and then if suspected as a counterfeit, 
or nail it fast as an impostor whose career must be stopped — who can say them 
nay ? ^^ They will not use a foreign or strange word until, like a coin, it has been, 
to use the technical term, iurfrappe with an image and superscription which 
they understand. If a foreign word be introduced, they will neither not use 
it at all, or not until they have twisted it into some shape which shall explain 
itself to them" (Farrar, Chapters on Language^ p. 138). For if there is one 
thing the common folk cannot away with, it is an unknown word, which, 
seeming to mean something, to them means nothing. A strange vocable 
which awakes no echo in their understanding simply irritates. It is like a 
dumb note in a piano, which arouses expectation by being struck, but yields 
no answering sound. Every one has heard how O'Connell vanquished a 
scolding fishwife to tears and silence with the unintelligible jargon supplied 
by Euclid. Ignotum pro horrifico ! 

^^ If there's any foreign language Qread to them]] which can't be explained, 
I've seen the costers annoyed at it — quite annoyed," says one intimate with 
their habits in Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor (vol. i. p. 27). 
He read to them a portion of a newspaper article in which occurred the word.s 
fiobiesse and qui nest point noble nest rien, " I can't tumble to that barrikin " 
[understand that gibberish], said a young fellow, "it's a jaw-breaker." 
"Noblesse!" said another, "Blessed if I know what he's up to," and here 
there was a regular laugh. 

The feeling of the common people towards foreigners who use such words 
is one of undisguised contempt. It seems supremely ridiculous to the bucolic 
Englishman that a wretched Frenchy should use such a senseless lingo. 
Why say oh when it is so much more obvious to say "water" in plain 
English ? How perverse to use tee for "yes," and then noo for " we" ! If 
any word from his vocabulary be adopted, it must, as contraband goods, pay 
heavy toll ere it pass the frontier. It must put on an honest English look 
before it receives letters of denization — Quelques choses must pass as kick- 
s//aws^ and haut goUt as hogo. To the unlettered hind still, as to the Greeks 
of old, every foreigner is a mere " bar-bar-ian," an inarticulate jabberer. 

Nay, even a foreign garb awakens our insular prejudices. Should an 
Oriental stranger pace down the street of any of our country villages in all 
his native grace and long*robed dignity, he would, to a certainty, be pro- 
nounced a " guy," and might congratulate himself if he escaped with being 
ridiculed and not hooted and pelted by a crowd of grinning clod-pates. If 
he would but condescend to change his barbaric turban for the chimney-pot 


of civilization, and his flowing robe for a pair of strait trousers, and, perhaps, 

beflour his bronzed countenance, so as to '^ look like a Christian," he might then 

I go his way unmolested, and probably unobserved. It is much the same with the 

language he imports. The words of his vocabulary must be Anglicized, or 

\ we will have none of them. They will be regarded with suspicion till they 
put on an honest English dress and begin to sound familiar. The unmeaning 
bihishti (a water-carrier) must become beastie ; sipahi must turn into sepoy or 

* (as in America) into seapoy ; Sirdju-d-daula must masquerade as Sir Roger 

Thus Barker mwb aya^ cover the Jew^ is the popular transmutation in the 
Anglo-Indian lingo of the Hindustani bahir ka sahib aya khabir dijoy i, e, ^^ a 
stranger has come, please give the news" (Duncan Forbes). 

The Margrave of Baden Dourlach was called by the people the Prince of 
Bad-door-lock (Horace Walpole, Letters^ vol. ii. p. 208). 

Longbdly was the popular form at Durban of the name of the S. African 
chief Langabalele (Froude, Short Studies on Great Subjects^ 3rd Series, p. 354). 
Belleropfton^ the ship that carried the first Napoleon into exile, became the 
BuUyruffian^ and another vessel, the Hirondelle^ was known as the Iron Devil, 
The Franctireurs became the Francterrors (Andresen, Volksetymologiey p. 26). 
In a similar way the lower classes in Hungary often deface foreign names 
when they are contrary to euphony, and try to transform them into compounds 
that sliall have a meaning as Hungarian words ; Lord Palmerston, for in- 
stance, was called Pdl Mestei' (Master Paul), Prince Schwarzenberg, the 
Governor of Transylvania, was known as Sarczember (The tribute man), and 
Prince Reuss Kostritz as Bizskdsa (Rice pudding). — Pulszky, in Phildog, 
Trans, 1858, p. 23. 

The Romans contrived to make the one word serve for a guest, a stranger, 
and an enemy — pretty good evidence that those ideas were intimately asso- 
ciated in their minds. In English, too, ^^ guest," ^^ host," and ^' hostility " 
have the same underlying identity : and to our verbal guests, at all events, it 
must be admitted we as hosts are often hostile. We give them a Procrustean 

I reception by enforcing conformity to our own manner of speaking, and our 
treatment of alien words, or even native words which happen to look like 
strangers, is intolerant and arbitrary. In popular and colloquial speech these 
mutilations and abbreviations abound. If a word appears to be of undue 
length it must submit to decapitation. Hence *bu8^ 'van^ *ploty *tcig^ 'drawing- 
rooniy &c. If the head is spared, the tail must go. Hence cab\ cify gin\ 
mob\phiz\ tar {=. sailor), t€ag\ slang cop* {=. capture), spec\ <fec. 

Sometimes a word is simply cut in two and each half, worm-like, has hence- 
forth a life of its own. An old game at cards was called lanturlu in French ; 
this became lanterloo in English {lang'trilloOy in Shadwell's A True Widow^ 
1679). The latter part of the word yielded foo, the former lanter^ and lant^ 

I the names still given to the game in Cumberland and Lincolnshire. '^ At lanter 

[ the caird lakers sat i' the loft " (Dickinson, Cumberland Glossary ^ E. D. S.). 
So Alexander yields the two Scottish names Alec or Aleck and Saunders, 

[ Sometimes, again, nothing but the heart or dismembered trunk is left in a 




middle accented syllable, as in the slang 'tec\ a detective, and sometimes the 
word, if not quartered, is clean " drawn" or eviscerated, as in cdms^prox^^ sexton, 
prov. Eng. ske^ (for " suck-egg"), the cuckoo. 

But of all the tricks that the mischievous genius of popular speech loves to 
play upon words, none is more curious than the transformation it makes them 
undergo in order that they may resemble other words in which some family 
relation or connexion is imagined. This is Folk-etymology proper. If the 
word does not confess its true meaning at once, we put it on the rack till it 
at least says something. '^ The violent dislike which we instinctively feel to 
the use of a word entirely new to us, and of which we do not understand the 
source, is a matter of daily experience ; and the tendency to ^ive a meaning 
to adopted words by so changing them as to remove their seemingly arbitrary 
character has exercised a permanent and appreciable influence on every lan- 
guage" (Farrar, Origin of Language^ p. 66). 

In the world of animated nature the curious faculty with which many 
creatures are endowed of assimilating themselves to their surroundings in 
colour and even shape is one of the most interesting phenomena that engages 
the naturalist. It is one chief means such animals have of securing them- 
selves against their natural enemies, or of eluding the notice of their prey. 
Thus the boldly-striped skin of the tiger enables it to crouch unobserved 
amongst the stalks and grass of the jungle ; the ta\^iiy lion exactly counter- 
feits the colour of the sandy plain over which he roams ; the russet feathers of 
the woodcock render him scarcely distinguishable from the withered leaves 
amidst which he lurks. Fishes will imitate to a nicety the exact colour of 
the bottom over which they swim, changing, it is said, as it is changed ; 
while the so-called " leaf insects " of Ceylon simulate the very form and 
veining of the foliage amongst which they live. It is due to this protective 
mimicry that the white Arctic foxes are often enabled to escape the pursuit of 
their natural enemies amongst perpetual snows. In the domain of philology, 
something very analogous to this may be observed. A word conspicuous by 
some peculiarity of foreign shape or sound only gains immunity by accommo- 
dating itself to its new habitat. It must lose its distinctive colour, and 
contrive to look like an English word in England, like a French word in 
France, if it is to run free. This pretence of being native when indeed 
foreign is made by many words in every language. Thus bangle^ jungle^ toddij^ I 
which look familiar enough, are accommodations of Hindustani words ; ! 
aieniug^ curry ^ jackal^ caravan^ are Anglicized Persian words; ccuhhj is 
Malayan ; jerked-heef is Peruvian. So Fr. redingote is only a travesty of 
Eng. riding-coat, as old Fr. goudale^ goud-fallot^ are of Eng. good ale, good ' 
fellow. Many French words are Scotticized out of all resemblance ; hlen- . 
shaw^ Burdyhouse^ gardeloo^ kii/yoie, Jigot^ proochie^ are not at once recognizable 
as blanche eau^ Bordeaux^ gare de teau^ qui let vive^ gigot^ approdiez (Jamieson). 

An immense number of English and Latin words are imbedded in Welsh, ' 
but so Cambrianized that they pass for excellent Welsh ; cvrppwrdd^ lleicpart^ 
ffoddgraffy pwrcas^ aowgarty are disguised forms of cupboard, leopard, photo- 
graph, purchase, safeguard ; and cysyUtu^ siclit, ysiicyll (= Epiphany), of Lat. 


•«, solidus^ Stella (the wise men's star). See Rhys, Lectures on Welsh 
, p. 74. Similarly Gaelic abounds in borrowed words, which, like 
ildren, are disfigured that they may not be reclaimed. Thus Arm- 
Dictionary gives prionnsa^ priomhlaid^ probhaid^ prionntair^ which 
:and for prince, prelate, profit, printer ; Campbell cites daoimean for 
) and probhaM (lord mayor) for provost. Similarly in Gaelic, Lat. 
akes the form of ahhlatiy sceculum of saoghcdy apostolus of ahstd^ epis- 
easbuig ; discipulus becomes deisciopuil ; sacerdos^ sagari ; haptizare^ 
msecrarey coisrig ; confortare^ comhfortaich (vid. Black ie, Language 
rature of the Highlands^ p. 31). Adbhannsa^ moision^ coitseachauy 
pkairti^ represent Eng. advance, motion, coaches, dispute, party 
jll, Taies of W, Highlands^ vol. iv. p. 167). Bhaigair^fudairy reisi- 
! the £ng. words beggar, powder, regiment, in disguise {Id, p. 188). 
«, karkara^ aikeits^ are Gothicized forms of the Latin lucema^ career^ 
in Hebrew sanhedrin is a loan-word from Greek sunedrion^ while it 
honia to the Greek as sumphonia. Who would recognize at a glance 
»k proibcle in the Rabbinical Pruzbul^ " the defence," a legal docu- 
iarclay. The Talmud^ p. 81). 

I same way the Northmen often adopted bastard Greek words into 
1 tongue. Thus, from Hagiosophia^ the famous church of St. Sophia, 
ie their ^gisif ; from the Hippodrome^ their Padreimr, So Elizabeth 
EUisif Hdlespontum was twisted into EUipallta^ Apulia became Pids- 
!^i<M-guIf became Atals- Fjord, See Prof. Stephens, Old Nortliern 
^onuments^ p. 9G4. 
within the limits of our own language the likeness assumed by one 

another is so deceptive that dictionary-makers have over and over 
len into the mistake of supposing a radical identity where there was 
iperficial and formal resemblance between them. Cutiet^ for example, 
ry naturally to denote a little cut off a loin of mutton, a ^^ chop," as 
;all it ; and cutler seems equally suggestive of one who has to do with 
ing instruments as knives and razors. Accordingly Richardson, with 
lulity, groups both these words under the verb to cut^ not penetrating 
lish disguise in the one case of Fr. cdtelette^ a little rib (from cdte^ Lat. 
id in the other of Fr. coutdier or cotelier^ Lat. cultellarius^ the man of 
Lat. cultellus, a knife). Similarly dipper^ a fast sailing vessel, from 
)gy of cutter^ readily falls into a line with dip^ to speed along, and has 
3n ranged as a derivative under that word, with which it has really no 
•n, as will be seen at p. 66. The same lexicographer also confuses 
press and press'(gang)^ stand and stafidardy a banner, tact and tactics^ 
ks an earnest is a pledge given of being in earnest about one's bargain 
nent — words totally unrelated. 

I rantism^ an old pedantic word for an aspersion or sprinkling of 
specially in the rite of baptism, has nothing to do, as Richardson 
I, with the verb to rant^ or, as Johnson puts it, with "the tenets of the 

called ranters" being simply the Greek rhantismos^ a sprinkling, 
bodily (Trench, On Some Deficiencies in our Eng, DictiotiarieSy p. 22). 


" We but an handfull to their heape, but a ranttstne to their baptisme. — 
Bp. Andrewes, 0/the Sending of the Holy Ghost, Sermons, p. 612 fol. 

Pitfalls like these await word-mongers at every turn, and there are few 
but tumble into them sometimes. I may mention one or two which I was 
nearly caught in while engaged on this work. Meeting the word greensick- 
ness in Suckling {Fragmenta Aurea, 1648, p. 82), and The Spectator (No. 431), 
the chief symptom of which malady is an unnatural longing for unwholesome 
food, I was for a time tempted to see in this the Scottish veih green or grene^ 
to long {e,g. in Dalyell, Darker Superstitions of Scotland, p. 206), from A. Sax. 
ggman, to yearn, georn, desirous. However, it really bears its true meaning 
on its face, it being, as. Johnson says, ^^ the disease of maids, so called irom 
the paleness which it produces," from green, used for pale ; and so its scientific 
name is chlorosis, from Greek chlOros, green, Welsh glastest, from glas, green, 
pale, proving my too ingenious conjecture to be unfounded. Again, on dis- 
covering that the Low Latin name for the common wild cherry is Prussia 
avium, and having read that Prussic acid can be made (and I believe is made) 
from the kernels of cherries and other stone-fruit, I concluded for the moment 
that Pru^ic acid must be that manufactured from the Prussus, Further in- 
vestigation showed me that it was really the acid derived from Prussian Biue^ 
as witness the Danish blaasgre, " blue-acid," Ger. berlinerUausdure, " Berlin- 
blue-acid,** — that colour having been discovered by a Prussian at Berlin. 

A similar blunder, though plausible at first sight, is Tynvhitt's theory that 
the old expression hotfot or hotfoot, with all speed (Debate hetvreen Body and 
Sml, in Mape's Poeww, p. 339), w fote hate (Gower, Chaucer), is a corruption 
of an old Eng. hautfote, adapted from Fr. hantpied, as if with uplifted foot, 
on the trot or gallop (see Cant, Tales, note on 1. 4858). The suggestion 
might seem to derive corroboration from Cotgrave's idioms : — 

" S'en aller haut le pied. To flie with lift-up legs, or as fast as his legs can 
carry with him." 

" Poursuivre au pied leve. To foWow foot-hot or hard at the heels." 
However, as impetuosity and quick motion are often expressed by heat 
(of. Hotspur ; " A business of some heat,** Othello, i. 2 ; heats in racing ; and 
Shakespeare speaks of a horse ^'heating an acre"), this supposition seems un- 
necessary, and is certainly wTong. The worst of it is that learned men have 
had such confidence in the truth of their theories that they have sometimes 
even altered the spelling of words that it may correspond more closely to the 
fancied original. Thus ahoyninaUc was perverted into abhominalde, coisinage 
into vicinage, and many other instances will be found below. 

Dr. J. A. II. Murray, remarking that Abraham Fleming's alteration of 
old Eng. bgcoket, a military cap, to abacot {Holinshed, p. CGO, 1687), was 
doubtless in accordance with some etymological fancy, adds that all the cor- 
ruptions of the English language have been thus caused. " The pedants of 
the sixteenth century, like the sciolists of the nineteenth, were strong for 
' etymological spelling' ; their constant tinkering at the natural and historical 
forms of English words, to make their spelling remind the eye of some Latin I 
or Greek words with which they were thouglit to be connected, was a curse 


to true etymology. They exemplify to the full the incisive remark of Prince 
Lucien Bonaparte that ^the corrupters of language are the literary men who 
write it not as it is, but according to their notions of what it ought to be/ " — 
Athenceunu, Feb. 4, 1882, p. 157. 

Julius Hare had long before given expression to much the same opinion : — 
^^A large part of the corruptions in our language has arisen, not among 
the Fulgar, but among the half-learned and parcel-learned, among those who, 
knowing nothing of the antiquities of their own tongue, but having a taint of 
Latin and Greek, have altered our English words to make them look more 
like their supposed Latin or Oreek roots, thereby perpetuating their blunder 
by giving it the semblance of truth. Thus nobody now doubts that idajid is 
connected with i^ and insula^ rhyme with pu&fAog^ whereas if we retained the 
true spelling Hand and rimey it would have been evident that both are words 
of Teutonic origin, and akin to the German Eiland and Reim. Such corrup- 
tions, as having no root among the people, as being mere grafts stuck in by 
clumsy and ignorant workmen, it is more especially desirable to remove. 
Their being more frequent in our language than perhaps in any other is 
attributable to its mongrel character : the introduction of incongruous analo- 
gies has much confounded, and ultimately blunted that analc^ical tact, which 
is often found to possess such singular correctness and delicacy in the very 
rudest classes of mankind : and the habit of taking so many of our derivatives 
from foreign roots has often led us to look abroad, when we should have found 
what we wanted at home. For while the primary words in our language are 
almost all Saxon, the secondary, as they may be called, are mostly of French, 
the tertiary of Latin origin ; and the attention of book-mongers has been 
chiefly engaged by the latter two classes, as being generally of larger dimen- 
sions, and coming more obtrusively into view, while our Saxon words were 
liardly regarded as a part of our learned tongue, and so were almost entirely 
neglected. On the other hand, a great many corruptions have resulted from 
the converse practice of modifying exotic words under the notion that they 
were native ; and this practice has prevailed more or less in all countries " 
[Phiklogiad Museum, i. 654). Thus our unfortunate vocabulary has been 
under two fires. The half-learned and the wholly unlettered have alike con- 
spired to improve words into something different from what they really are. 

^^ Ignorance has often suggested false etymologies ; and the corresponding 
orthography has not unfrequently led to false pronunciation, and a serious per- 
version of language." Thus the old word causeif came to be spelt causeicat/^ 
and life-lode was turned into livelihoodj and the pronunciation, as Dr. Guest 
observes, is now generally accommodated to the corrupt spelling ; but he was 
certainly too sanguine when he wrote, thirty-five years ago, '^that no one who 
regards purity of style would, under any circumstanees, employ terms so 
barbarous" {Philological Proceedings^ 1848, vol. iii. p. 2). 

'^It is usual," says Thomas Fuller, ^'for barbarous tongues to seduce words 
(as I may say) from their native purity, custome corrupting them to signifie 
Uiings contrary to their genuine and grammatical notation'' {Pisgah Sights 
1650, p. 80). The working of this principle of misconstruction has left its 





mark on the Authorized version of our Bible. '' In some cases the wron? 
rendering of our translators arose from a false derivation which was generally 
accepted in their age. Thus akeraios (Matt. x. 16, Phil. ii. 15) is rendered 
'harmless' [as if originally 'hornless,' from a, not, and keras^ a horn], instead 
of 'simple, pure, sincere* [lit. 'unmixed,* from kerdnnumi'\. So also erithUa 
(Rom. ii. 8, Gal. v. 20, &c.) is taken to mean 'strife, contention,* from its 
supposed connexion with eris^ whereas its true derivation is irom Mthos^ 'a 
hired partisan,' so that it denotes 'party-spirit'" (Bp. Lightfoot, On a Fre^h 
Revision of the Nete Testament^ p. 137). 

In out nursery tale Folk-etymology has clothed Cinderella's foot with glass 
in the place of minever. It is now generally believed {e.g, by Mr. Ralston 
and ]VI. Littre) that the substance of la petite pantoufle de verve in Charles 
Perrault's story of Cendrillon (1C97) "was originally a kind of fur called 
vair — a word now obsolete in France, except in heraldry, but locally preserved 
in England as the name of the weasel Qsee Fairy, p. 110^ — and that some 
reciter or transcriber to whom the meaning of vair was unknown substituted 
the more familiar, but less probable, verre^ thereby dooming Cinderella to 
wear a glass slipper/' Balsac, so long ago as 1 830, affirmed that the pan- 
toufle was Bam doiite de tnenu vair^ i,e, of minever {The Nineteenth Centur^y 
Nov. 1870). 

Thus it is not alone the form of a word that undergoes a metamorphosis 
from some mistaken assimilation, but its signification gets warped and per- 
verted from a false relationship or analogy being assumed. Many instances 
of this reflex influence will be found throughout this volume. An early in- 
stance is exhibited, it is supposed, in the name of the tower of Babel, origi- 
nally Bab-el or Bab-bel, " the gate of God or Bel," which by the quaint 
humour of primitive times had been turned to the Hebrew word " Bahel" or 
"confusion " (Stanley, Jeteish Churchy vol. i. p. 7). But Babd or Bah-iln is 
itself a Semitic translation of the older Turanian name Ca-diynii-ra^ "gate 
of God" (Sayce, Trans, of Soc, of Bib, ArcJta^ology^ vol. i. p. 298). 

Similarly, with regard to the early belief in a stone-spi'iiny race (>^i9ivo; 
yovog, Pindar), human beings are represented as having been created out of 
stones in the Greek legend of Deucalion and Pyrrha, from a notion that \zo^, 
people, was derived from ^oo;, a stone (Von Bohlen, Genesis^ ii. 17^), just as 
if we were to connect "people" (Welsh poU)^ with "pebble'' (old Eng. 

The fact is, man is an etymologizing animal. He abhors the vacuum of 
an unmeaning word. If it seems lifeless, he reads a new soul into it, and 
often, like an unskilful necromancer, spirits the wrong soul into the wrung 
body. In old writers we meet the most ludicrous and fanciful suggestions 
about the origination of words, quite worthy to range with Swift's ostler for 
oat-stealer^ and apothecari^ from a pot he ca7Tie^. Alexander Neckam, in the 
twelfth century, delights in " derivations " like ^^j)asser a patiendo" " ardea 
quasi ardua** ^* alauda a iattde diei" ^*'trnta a trudendo" ''^/teUicayws^ the 
pellican, so called because its skin {pellis) when touched seems to sound 
(ranere) by reason of its roughness" (De Natwis R^-nm^ I. cap. 73). Otlur 


mediseval etymologies are equally amusing, e.g. Low Lat. colossus^ a grave- 
stone, i,e, cdens ossa^ "bones-keeper" (Prompt. Parv, s.v. Memorycd) ; Lat. 
nepos^ a spendthrift, from negans possum^ sc. ad bonum, not a step taking to 
anything good (Id, s.v. Neve) ; *'^ eepukhra^ id est, iemipvlchra^ halfe faire and 
beautiful" (Weever, Funeral Monuments^ p. 9, 1631), "extra nitidum, intus 
fcetidum '* (T. Adams, Sermons^ ii. 466). Durandus thinks that Low Lat. 
poliantrum^ a tomb or mausoleum (for pdyandrum^ the place of " many men "), 
is from poStitum antrum^ a polluted cave ; and cemeteiy^ " from cimen which is 
sweet, and sterUm which is station, for there the bones of the departed sweetly 
rest " ! (Symbolism of Churches^ p. 1 02, ed. Neale). Philip de Thaun, in his 
Norman- French Livre des Creatures^ derives Samadi^ Saturday, from semuns^ 
seed (1. 251) ; Septembre from Lat. imber^ rain ; furmi^ an ant, Jj2X, formica^ 
because "ybrt est e porte mie^^ (1. 502), it is strong (fortis) and carries a 
crumb (mica) ; perdix^ partridge, so named because it loses, pert ( perdit\ its 
brood. Equally whimsical is his affiliation of vervex, a wether, on ver (vermis)^ 
a worm (1. 563). In the Malleus Maleficarum^ 1520, it is explained that the 
etymolc^ of Lat. femina^ a woman, shows why there are so many more female 
sorcerers than male, that word being compounded of y<^ ('=.fides\ faith, and 
minus^ less, the woman having less faith (p. 65, see R. R. Madden, Pkantas- 
matOj i. 459). Mons^ it was believed (apparently on the Tertullian principle 
of its being impossible), was derived a movendo^ " A mount hath his name of 
mouyng'* (Wycliffe, Unprinted Works^ p. 457, E. E. T. S.), just as ^^ steUa a 
stando dicitur, — A star^ quasi not stir " (T. Adams, Sermons^ i. 455). Indeed 
Thomas Adams is much given to these quaint derivations ; so is Thomas 
Fuller, whose style and vein are very similar. Devil for Do-evil is one of the 
suggestions of the former (ii. 41), while the latter is responsible for compliment 
hota eompleti mentiri (Joseph's Parti'Coloured Coat^ 1640) ; malignant^ as a 
political nickname, ^* from malus ignis (bad fire) or malum lignum (bad fewell)" 
(Church Histortfy bk. xi. p. 196) ; — the latter already hinted parenthetically by 
Quarles, with allusion to the forbidden tree, " totus mundus in maligno (mali- 
ligno) positus est" (Emblems^ I, i.); — crocodile^ from the Greek x^oxo-SctAof, or 
the Safiron-fearer, " proved by the antipathy of the Crocodiles thereunto " 
( Worthies of England, i. 336). To Fuller also is due " Needle quasi Ne idkj 
the industrious instrument " (Id, ii. 50), for a parallel to which he might have 
adduced the somewhat similar Lithuanian word nedele^ a week, originally the 
Sabbath, from ne^ not, and dielo^ labour, and so denoting " the day of rest " 
(Pictet, Origines Indo^Europeenes^ ii. 601 ; compare negotium^ business, from 
nee otium^ ^' not leisure *'). As other old guesses which did duty as etymologies, 
may be noted Ascham's «e^r, from old Eng. werre (Scot, waur)^ that thing 
which is worse than any, and lesing^ a lie, as if losing ; Peacham's penny ^ from 
Greek srcv^ poverty, as if the poor man s coin ( Wcfrth of a Penny ^ p. 30, 
repr. 1813) ; Latimer's homily from homely^ as if a familiar discourse ; Henry 
Smith's marriage from merry age^ " because a play-fellow is come to make 
our age merry " (Sermons^ p. 12, 1657) ; mastiffrom mase-thief; Ben Jonson's 
ennstalle from cyning and staple^ " a stay for the king" (Tale of a Tub^ iv. 2) ; 
rogue ** from the Latine erro^ by putting a G to it" ! (Conversations with Drum- 


tnond^ p. 84, Shaks. Soc.) ; and harlot " from Arlotte^ mother of William 
Conquerour" (Ihid,)^ — ^the last notion being found also inCamden, Rema 
p. 159 (1637X and Cartwright's The Ordinaty ; Spenser^a ei^ ** to i 
quick" (F. Qiieene^ II. x. 71)9 as if o^ from ali/e^ alive^ like old Eng. 10 
which has both these meanings, just as the old feminine name Aiiive is 
same as i^lffirine, elf-darling ( Yonge, Christian Names^ ii. 349) ; his c 
raentator, E. K., ratlier extracting E(fe8 and Goblins from the Guel/es 
Gibelines {Shep, Calender^ June^ Crlosse on Faeries), Another fiancy of Spent 
is that Germany had its name from certain brothers, Lat. germani^ the 1 
of Ebranck, 

'^ Those germans did subdew all Germany 

Of whom it hight." Faerie Queene^ II. x. 22 

An older writer accounts for the name in a way not less ingenious : — ^ ^ 
nyghe all y* londe that lyeth north-warde ouer the see occean of brytayn 
qMq^ germania . For it brjmgyth forth so moche folke. Germania com 
of germinare that is for too borge and brynge forth " (Pdycronicon^ P 
Treveris^ 1527, f* 184). As correct as either, probably, is Carlyle's assert 
" (German is by his very name, Guerre-man^ or man that wars and ga 
{French Revolution^ Pt. II. bk. iii. ch. 2). Erasmus affirms that Sun 
(Sonntag) is "called in the commune tongue of the Germanes SoendacJk^ 
of the Sonne as certayne men done interprete but of reconcilynge " (Ow 
Commandinenis^ p. 162, 1533), as if like sohn-opfer^ expiatory sacrifice, fi 
(ner')sdhnen^ to reconcile. Bracton says Low Lat. ringce (belts, evidently 
Eng. rings) are so called because renes girajity they encircle the reins ( 
Legihus^ bk. i. cap. 8). " Baptisme," says Tindal, " is called vctto-icynge 
many places in Englande, by cause the preste sayth Wo " (in Sir Thomas Mi 
p. 49), the true word being fulling^ from A. S&x. /uUian, to whiten, cleai 
or baptise. 

Many quaint popular etymologies occur in the Old English Homilies (i 
ser.) of the 12th century, edited by Dr. R. Morris; e.g, fader is a na 
given to God, " for that He us feide" formed or put us together, or becai 
he/edeth (feedeth) us (p. 25); a king is so cleped, "for that he ke^nief 
(p. 45); Easter " is cleped estre dai, that is estene da ( = dainties' day, p. <){ 
old Eng. hindre^ deceit, is explained to be from hihinden^ behind, '^ for 
maketh a man to be behind when he weened to be before " (p. 213). In t 
same volume (p. 99) is given an old folk-etymology of the A. Sax. word ht?^ 
the sacrifice of the mass (Goth, hunsl^ a sacrifice), as if Hu sel^ " How good 
from hu^ how, and sel ( = seelg^ Ger.^ selig)^ good. " This dai is cleped est 
dai that is estene da, and te este is husel, and no man ne mai seien husel^ \ 
god it is"; i.e. "This day is called Easter Day, that is dainty day (day 
dainties), and the dainty is the housel^ and no man may say how good it is.' 

The Wycliffite Apology for the Lollards seems to have derived priest, o 
Eng. prest^ from hot. pr(eesty "he is over (the flock)," at least it more tlu 
once translates prcnesse by "to be prestis" (pp. 2, 4). Wycliffe himself spt* 
" privileges " />raptf%/>*, evidently to suggest a connexion with Lat. j/roff 

IN TROD UOTIOir. x vii 

crooked, wrong ; '' They meyntenen false prauelegies agenst cliarite ^ good 

I conscience" {Unprinted Works^ p. 139, E. E, T. S.). 

Coming down to later times, borel^ or borreU^ an old word meaning rustic, 
clownish, illiterate, as in " borel folk " (Chaucer), " barrel men " (Gascoigne), 

I was supposed to refer to ^^ the rudenesse and simplicity of the people that are 
seated far North," as if derived from Lat. borealis^ belonging to the north 

t country, as in Bishop Corbet's Iter Boreale (or Journey to the North), 1G48 

I (so "Aurora borealis,'* the Northern lights) ; " Which no doubt is intimated by a 
vulgar speech," says The Optick Glasse of Humors^ 1039, p. 29, " when we say 
such a man hath a borrell wit, as if we said boreale internum." The word is 
really from old Fr. burel (borely bureau)^ coarse woollen stuff of a russet 
colour (Lat. burrus, reddish, Greek purros^ fiery red), and so means coarsely 
clad as a peasant is, frieze -like, rude, plebeian ; to which usage we find numerous 
parallels, e.^, russet in^ and russet-ccfot^ a clown (Hall, Satires^ i. 3) ; "poor 
grogran rascal " (B. Jonson) ; Gaelic peiUag^ coarse cloth, also a peasant ; Fr. 
grisette^ a grey clad wench ; It. bizocco^ coarse cloth, also clownish, rude ; and 
with the phrase " borrd wit " we may compare " coarse freize capacities, ye 
jane judgements" (7Vo Noble Kinsmen^ iii. 5, 8), and Shakespeare's '-^rtisset 
yeas and honest kersey noes" {Love's L. Lost^ v. 2, 413). See also Diez, s.v. 
Bnjo^ and Skeat's Notes to P, Plowman^ pp. 208, 249. 

" How be I am but rude and borrell" 

Spenser^ Shep, Calender^ July. 

" They deem a mighty lord 
Is made by crown, and silken robe, and sword ; 
Lo, such are bord folk." 

W, Morris^ The Eanhly Paradise^ p. 318. 

Another word which readily lent itself to popular etymologizing was 
sincere (old Fr. sincere^ Lat. suicerus\ pure, unmixed, which formerly had a 
material significance rather than an ethical, as in P. Holland's " sincere 
vermilion." The original signification was conceived to be free from 
alloy or mixture, as honey is which is without wax^ sine cerd. Thus it is 
recorded of Fran9ois de Sales, " Un jour quelqu'un luy demandoit ce qu'il 
entendoit par la sincerite : ^ Cela mesme, respondit-il, que le mot soune, c'est & 
dire, sans cire, . . . S9avez vous ce que c est que du miel sans cire ? C'est 
' celuy qui est exprime du rayon, et qui est fort purifie : il en est de mesme 
d'un esprit, quand il est purge de toute feintise et duplicite, alors on I'appelle 
sincere^ franc, loyal, cordial, ouvert, et sans arriere pensee ' " {U Esprit du F. 
De Sales, ii. 73, ed. 1840). 

Dr. Donne no doubt had the same conception in his mind when, contrasting 
the covert nature of bees' working with the open labours of the ant, he wrote, 
" The Bees have made it their first work to line that Glasse-hive with a crust 
of Wax, that they might work and not be discerned. It is a blessed sincerity 
to work as the Ant, professedly, openly" (LXXX, Sermons, 1640, p. 713). 

Then wo have 0\erh\\T\''%^^ sergett)it quasi see argent" {Characters, 1616); 


Sir Jolin Davies's teorld^ so named because it is whirled round, tliough 
Hampole had already resolved it intoicer Me^ worse age {Pricke ff Conscience^ 
1. 1479) ; Verstegan's heaven from heave-n^ the heaved up ; otherwise 

" Which well we Heaven call ; not that it rowles 
But that it is the hauen of our suules." 

G, Fletcher^ Christ s Trivmph after Death^ st. 45 (1010). 

Richardson may end the catalogue with his curious remark, " Writing 
from the heart [Lat. cor"] as the very word cor-respondence implied " (Clarissa 
Harlowe, iv. 291). 

Some of the instances above quoted were doubtless, like llowe\Vsft)olosf>j)her 
for philosopher^ and Southey's fittilitarian for lUilitarian^ with many others 
similar in The Doctor^ merely humorous suggestions not seriously believed in 
by their originators, and so deserve to be ranged only with such coinages of 
" the Mint-masters of our Etymologies " as those mentioned by Camden, 
" for they have merrily forged Money from My~hony^ Mayd as my oyd^ Syinony 
see-money^ Stirrup & stayrc-up^ &c." (Remaines, p. 34, 1037). While rejecting 
these, however, Camden accepts as reasonable, not only the derivation of God 
from yood^ and JJenti from Jsoj, " because God is to be feared," but also, which 
is more strange, ^^'Sayle as the Sea-haile^ Windo)' or Windoicasadoore against 
the winde [see below, p. 441], Kiny from Conniny^ for so our. Great-grandfathers 
called them, which one word implyeth two most important matters in a 
Governour, Power and Skill" (ibid.). 

Many of the corruptions we meet in old writers are intentional and jesting 
perversions of the true form of the word, and are therefore not folk-etymo- 
logies proper. Such, for example, is bitesheep^ or biteshi/w, a satirical corrup- 
tion oi bishop (in Fox, Book oft Martyrs)^ to denote an unfaithful shepherd who 
ravages his flock instead of feeding them. In the Hecords of the English 
Catholics under the Penal Laws^ vol. i. (ed. Knox), mention is made of one 
Tippet, a student of Doway, being " brought before the bitcsheejte of London 
and M*" Recorder " (1578). This spelling was not invented by Bale (as the 
Saturday Review states, vol. 40, p. 701), since we find in old German writers 
bisZ'Schaf ioT bischo/ (AndrL^scn, Volksetymoloyie^ p. 30). 

Fischart, in the 10th century, has many ingenious and humorous word-twists, 
Jesuwider( Anil- J efixi) for Jesuiten^Jcsuiter^ a Jesuit; Pfotenip'an}^ foot-grief, for 
podagra^ the gout; Saurcjsdhnen^ "sour-teeth," iMrSarnzenen; Notnarr (narr = 
fool) {orNotar; Redtorich (as if from rede^ speech) for Rhetor ik ; Untennmcnd(}\% 
if from unten, beneath) ior fundamcntum ; ynaidhenkolisch (as if down in the 
mouth) for meUuichdisch (Andresen, p. 33) ; the latter recalling Moll-ou'the- 
coalsy an Ayrshire word for a gloomy-minded person, a ludicrous perversion 
of the word melanchdy (Jamieson), Allkilhmistei'ei^ " All-cow-mistery,'' is 
Pastor Schupp's rendering oi Alchimisterei^ Alchemistry ; and ZattktHJfe is a 
good twist that some German Socrates gave to Zardipjie when applying it to 
his scolding wife (as if from ^rt//X*, a quarrel or bickering). 

Coming now to deal with Folk-etymologies proj)erly so called : — 

" The nation always thinks that the word must have an idea behind it. 


So what it does not understand it converts into what it does ; it transforms 
the word until it can understand it. Thus, words and names liave their 
forms altered, e.<j. the French ecrecisse becomes in English cratcjish^ and the 
heathen god Svantecit was changed by the Christian Slavs into Saint Vitifs, 
and the Parisians converted Mons Mortis into Mont^martre ** (Steinthal, in 
Goldziher's Mt/t/to!op?/ amoyig the Hebrews^ p. 440). 

*^ People in antiquity, and even in modern times those who are more 
affected by a word than a thought, were fond of finding in the word a sort of 
reflexion of the corresponding thing. Indeed, many component parts of 
ancient stories owe their existence only to such false etymologies. Dido's 
oxhides and their connexion with the founding of Carthage are only based on 
the Greek hj/rm^ a misunderstood modified pronunciation of the Semitic 
blrethd^ * fortress,' ' citadel.' The shining Apollo, bom of light, is said to be 
born in Delos, or Lycia, because the terms Apollon Delias and LyHgenh 
were not understood. The Phenician origin of the Irish, asserted in clerical 
chronicles of the middle ages, only rests on a false derivation of the Irish 
word, ' fenn^ pi. /?ow, beautiful, agreeable/ Even the savage tribes of 
America are misled by a false etymology to call IVIichabo, the Kadmos of the 
red Indians (from mic/n\ * great,* and trabos^ 'white') a 'White Hare.' 
Falsely interpreted names of towns most frequently cause the invention of 
fables. How fanciful the operation of popular etymology is in the case of 
local names is observable in many such names when translated into another 
language. By the Lake of Gennesereth lies Hippos, the district surrounding 
which was called Ilippene. This word in Phenician denoted a harbour, and 
is found not only in Carthaginian territory as the name of the See of 
St. Augustine, but also as the name of places in Spain. The Hebrew chdph^ 
* shore,' and the local names Ydpho (Jaffa) and Haifdy are unquestionably 
related to it. But the Greeks regarded it from a Grecian point of view, and 
thought it meant Ilorse-town. Did they not call ships sea-horses, and 
attribute horses to the Sea-God ? Then the Arabs directly translated this 
wr^o?. Hippos, into Kalat al-Hiisdn; husdn being 'horse' in modem Arabic" 
(Goldziher, Mythdogy among tfte Hebretcs^ pp. 331-332). 

A good woman, the hostess of the inn, proud of her skill in etymology, 
once assured Wordsworth the poet that the name of the river Chreta was taken 
from the bridge which surmounted it, the form of which, as he could see for 
himself, exactly resembled a great A . 

In provincial German we find the name Beauregard transformed into 
5i2rew^r/2 (Boors-garden); Belle Alliance ^xWateiloo changed into Bullerdans^ 
" Thunder dance;" a Westphalian mine called Felicitas commonly known as 
Flitzentasche ; Philomelenlitst^ a grove at Brunswick, changed into Vielmanns- 
lust; C/teval blanc^ an inn at Strassburg, becomes Uanke Schtcalbe ; Brunos 

Warte, a district in Halle, becomes braune Schtcarte (Andresen, Deutsche 

Vdksetymologie^ p. 45). 

T-he gypsies, both in England and on the continent of Europe, have a 
rough and ready way of giving a Rommany meaning to towns they visit, some 
fanciful resemblance of sound suggesting the new form. Thus Bedford 


becomes ReJfoot {Laiojfcero) ; Doiicastcr, Donketf-town {Milesto-gav) ; Lyons, 
LioH'town {Bombardd) ; Augsburg, Eyes -town (Jakkjakro foro)^ &c. (Smart, 
Dialect of Eng, Gypsies^ pp. 11 and 87). 

The common gypsy name Boswell^ as if *'*' Bttsn-weli^'* they translate into 
Chumomisto^ from c/ioom^ to kiss, and mUto^ well ; while Stanley becomes 
Baryor^ as if " «/owe-folk." A more curious metamorphosis still is that by the 
Spanish gypsies of Pontius Pilate (Sp. Poncio Pilato) into Brono Aljenicato^ 
i.e. " Bridge-fountain," Poncio being confused with Sp. puente (Lat. jjons)^ a 
bridge, and Pilato with Sp. pila, a pillar, especially that of a fountain 
(G. Barrow, Romano Lapo-lil), In our own local etymology Lancsister is 
said to have its name from one Lafig Eester or long Christopher, who, like the 
saint so called, used to carry people across the Lune in the time previous to 
bridges {Notes and Queries^ 4th S. xii. 27). 

'^ Either be Csesur or Niccolo " is a popular Italian folksaying (G. Giusti, 
Proverbi Toscani)^ i.e, a man or a mouse. Niccold here stands for no histo- 
rical Nicholas of proverbial insignificence, but is a personification in the 
mouths of the people of It. nidtilo^ nothing, Lat. nihilmn^ often in the middle 
ages spelt nichilum ; the saying is therefore only a modem version of '^ Aut 
Csesar aut nihil." A similar perversion is annigylate^ Anglo-Irish for unni- 
hilate^ ''If you do I'll annigulate you** (W. Carleton, The Battle of the 
Factions), A somewhat similar perversion is that by which *' Teste David cum 
Sibylla," in the Dies Irce^ has been transformed into " David's head," testa 
David^ by the Trasteverini, who Uvse it as a by-word for something enig- 

Underneath the window of the cell of Roland's Tower in Paris were 
engraven the words Tu Ora, " Pray thou." " The common people," says 
Victor Hugo, '^ whose plain common sense never looks for profound meanings 
in things, gave to this dark, damp, loathsome hole the name of Trou attx 
Bats*' (The Hunchback of Notre- Dame^ bk. v. ch. 2). 

M. Gaidoz observed that in the German invasion of 1870 popular etymo- 
logy ran riot, and as many outrages were committed on the French language 
as on the people. But retaliation was sometimes made on the enemy. M. 
de Brauschitsch, the Prussian prcfet in Seine-et-Oise, was known by the 
people as M. Bronc/iite, — and indeed he had them by the throat. In Lorraine, 
the peasants called the soldiers of the landwehr ^^ langues-vertes** During 
the siege of Paris the national guard always spoke of the casemate in which 
they hid themselves {on se cachait) from the projectiles of the enemy as la 
ca^^hetnate. At the same period a woman was found searching everywhere to 
get some huile d*Henri V. for her child : the desideratum was merely 
huile de ricin ! 

'^ Donnons un exemple de ce procede populaire de la deformation des mots. 
C'est ainsi qu'en fran9ais le nom de courte-pointe d^igne une sorte de couver- 
ture, bien qu'il n'y ait la, comme le fait remarquer M. Littre, ni courte ni 
pointe. Le mot vient du latin culcita puncta, qui signifie "couverture piquee," 
et avait donne regulierement en ancien fran9ais coulfe-jfointe. Coulte ne se 
comprenant plus a ete deform^' en couiie qui semblait fournir un sens. De 


meme de Tallemand Sauerkraut " herbe sure " nous avons fait choucroxlte^ qui 
n*est pas la traduction du mot allemand et qui a de la croH/e quand le mets 
en question n'en a pas. Voih\ ce qu'on appelle une etymologie populaire. 

^^Les mots de ce genre sont en linguistique de veritables mtmstres ; car les 
lois qui president h la generation du langage voient alors leur action paralysce 
par une influence etrangere. L'instinct de la fausse analogie, on pourrait 
presque dire du calembour, fait dchec aux regies de la phonetique, et le mot 
en question acquiert des lettres adventices auxquelles il u*avait pas droit, 
comme les monstres de Thistoire naturellc acquierent des membres nouveaux. 
Ces mots, deformcs par Tetymologie populaire, 6chappent aux lois ordi- 
naires du langage comme les monstres aux lois de la nature. La bosse ne 
rentre pas dans le type normal de Thomme, et pourtant elle existe chez un 
certain nombre d'hommes. Eh bien, il y a dans toutes les langues beaucoup 
de mots bossus qui vivent, se melent aux autres mots du dictionnaire, et qui 
cachent si bien leur infirmite qu'elle 6chappe a tout autre personnes qu*aux 
linguistes" {Revue Politique et Litteraire^ No. .35, p. 830). 

To be distinguished from true folk-etymologies are those intentional per- 
versions of words which for the main purpose of raising a laugh, or supporting 
the vrai-semblance of the character, are put into the mouth of illiterate per- 
sonages in works of fiction, such as Mrs. Malaprop, Mrs. Partington, Mrs. 
Brown. To this class belong Mrs. Quigley's honeif-seed for homicide^ canary 
for quandary^ calm for qualm^ in Shakespeare ; Mrs. Honeysuckle's " clients 
that sue in /or ma jmper" in Webster's Westward Ho ; and Lackland'sywx'- 
cupations^ losophers^ dirickssfories^ extrumpert/^ and nomine in Randolph's He?/ 
/or Honesty^ instead of occupations^ philosophers^ directories^ extempore^ and 

To the same category of jocularity prepense belong Costard's " Thou hast 
it ad dunghill^ at the fingers' ends " {ad vuyuem)^ Loces Lafxmrs Lost^ v. 1 , 
80 ; "a stay-at-home-at-us tumour " in one of Lever's novels, as if a sluggish 
one, toujours cltez nous^ for steatomatous^ tallow-like ; Coleridge's favourite 
author Spy Nozy (Spinosa), which the eaves-dropper regarded as a personal 
allusion to himself {Biocp-aphia Literaria, ch. x.) ; Sam Weller's " have-his- 
carcass" for habeas corpus; "delicious beam-ends" in Anthony Trollope's 
Dr. Thorne (ch. xl.) for delirium tremens^ of which a slang corruption is 
triangles ; Sham Elizas for Chaynj)s Ely sees in Russell's Memoirs o/ Moore^ 
iii. 171 ; Punch's coaly»hop»terror for cdeoptera^ which is, perhaps, also the 
original of crawly -whopper^ a black-beetle, mentioned by Dr. Adams in the 
Philolog, Soc, Trans, 1859, p. 96. Such also are Deborah Fundish^ an old 
corruption of De Pro/undis ; Solomon David ^ a cockney form of solemn 
affidavit ; and the " Angry cat ** which, spoken by a Jewish costumier, does 
duty for Henri Quatre (Punchy vol. Ixx. p. 78). And so in many modern 
works of humour. " Those long sliding opra-glasses that they call tallow* 
scoops" is an ingenious make-up, individual, and not popular. When Mrs. 
Ramsbottom in Paris bought " some sieve jars to keep popery in," she gave 
for the moment a familiar and homely ring to those strange and outlandish 
words Shm-es and jyot-pourri^ with a lofty disregard to mere propriety of 


nieaniiig. If those forms were generally and popularly accepted they would 
be folk-etymologies. A* it is they are a mere play on words. In the following 
instances, thrown together at random, but all fairly authenticated, we may 
see the mischievous genius of folk-etymology more undoubtedly at work. 
" The poor creature was that big, sir, you can't think. The doctor said there 
was a j)(>7'poise inside her." I conjecture it was nothing worse than a pdypus. 
A servant man has been heard to convert an Alpine-stock into a helping-stick. 
A cook who used antipathies for antipodes also spoke of " the obnoxious gales'* 
at the time of the equinox. Another asked leave to attend " the aquarium 
service " on the death of the last pope, evidently a requiem, A Devonshire 
maid informed her mistress she had ^' divided her hair into three traces^* for 
tresses. An Irish domestic spoke of " trembling coals," i.e. trendling or ti-und- 
ling^ round, rolling coals, Cumberland trunlins. " As for my husband," 
remarked a pastrycook, " poor man, he is a regular siphon.'* Another Irish 
woman of diminutive stature complacently described herself to a lady hiring 
her services as " small but tricked." Wicked here, as sometimes in provincial 
English, is manifestly a corruption of Yorkshire icick^ lively, active, nimble, 
properly alive, another form of qnick^ A. Sax. cwic^ as in " wirk as an eel " 
( Whithg Glossar//)^ the word being confused with wicked, old Eng. fcicke., 
icikke. In the Cleveland dialect a verv livelv vounfj man was characterized 

• • • o 

as " T' wickest young chap at ivver Ah seen " (Atkinson), and in a Yorkshire 
ballad occurs the line : — 

" ril swop wi* him my poor deead horse for his wick." 
Ballads and Songs of the Peasantry of England.^ p. 210 (ed. R. Bell), 

In Scotland needcessity is commonly used for necessity {e.g. Whitehead, 
Daft Davic^ p. 190); in England ill-conve?iientfoT inconvenient, equ/il-nomical 
for economical, humati cry for hue and ay, natural school for national school, 
hark awlience for accordion, queen wine for quinine wine, uproar for opera, 
cravat for ciirafe, in Ireland croft. Notes enquiries for Notes and Queries, have 
all been heard. A lady of ray acquaintance always uses tipsoinania for dipso^ 
nuuiia, a natural confusion with the word tipsy, and less pardonably trans- 
forms acetic into Asiatic acid. " Would you like it square-edged or bible- 
edged ? " asked an upholsterer of a lady ordering a sofa (Notes and Queries^ 
4th S. xii. 276), meaning no doubt bevil-edged. "This here is the stage front 
or proceedings" said a Punch-and-Judy showman pointing to the proscenium 
(Mayhew, London Labour and the London Pom', iii. 53). Jeremy Taylor's old 
pulpit in Uppingham Church is shown by the sexton as " Genral Taylor's 
pulpit, or GenTman Taylor's, I don't mind which " (Sat. Review, vol. 50, p. 
422). The Wardecil is a London cabman's attempt to give a native appear- 
ance to the Vaiuleoille Theatre. A Hampshire parish clerk when a certain 
passage came round in the psalms always spoke of "snow and vijyers" fulfilling 
His word. Another of that fraternity would strike in " Thur go the shibs, 
and thur's that lively thing, whom thou*s made take bee's bastime thurin " 
(Chambers* Journal, 10*4, p. 484). "Aye, sir," said an old sexton, "folks 
like putting up a handsome memorandum of those that are gone." " The old 


gentleman likes telling antidotes of his young days." " We set up a soup- 
kitchen, and a report gets about that it is Horsetralian meat " (Miss Yonge, 
Womankindy p. 294), which suspicion of hippophagy is quite enough to con- 
demn it. " Shall I let out the white uns or the dark ww^' inquired a Hamp- 
shire man of his master, whose fowl he kept, ingeniously discriminating 
between the Dorkinys and a lighter-coloured breed that happened to be in his 
charge. The same man, an invaluable factotum, once expressed an opinion 
that a hemp holder would do for the pony, meaning thereby a halter, A 
young farmer of East Anglia with a liking for fine phrases appropriated 
** otium cum dignitate," and assured his friends that he enjoyed his " oceans- 
come-dig-my-taty," apparently = plenty as the result of his potatoe digging. 
According to a Stratford- on- A von MS. quoted in the last edition of Nares, 
it was the business of a juror at an inquest to inquire whether the person 
found dead was " ^fellow 0/ himself" i,e. B.felo de se. 

In a wretched farrago of a book entitled The Rosicrucians^ by H. Jennings 
(p. 41), the author evolves the word scara-bees, or the imperial " Bees" of 
Charlemagne, out of the Latin scarabceus^ a beetle. It occurs also in MoufTet's 
History of InsectSy and in Beaumont and Fletcher. A New York paper once 
used Sanscript for Sanscrit. The Americans of the Southern States, having 
already *coonery as a descriptive word for Whiggery, from the shifty habits of 
the racoon^ transformed chicanery into shee-cwmery^ as it were feminine Whig- 
gery. The lower orders in Ireland have got jackeenery^ as if the conduct of 
a jaxkeen or cad, out of the same word. " The physic is called ' Head-e- 
cdocpie^ or a sure cure for the head-ache" explains a showman in iMayhew's 
London Labour and the London Poor^ vol. iii. p. 50, referring to eau-de- 
Cologne. An old woman in a country village to whom it was recommended for 
an obstinate toothache, gratefully remarked that the power of that 0-do-go- 
along was, indeed, wonderful (Nomen omen). Another belonging to Surrey 
observed, *' Doctor has give me this here stuff, and my ! I do believe it's 
silver latiny" [Notes and Queries, 5th S. x. 222), and sal volatile it was. 

This word-twisting, or, as Ben Jonson calls it, " wresting words from their 
true calling," is especially observable, as might be anticipated, in the case of 
learned and unusual words, such as the names of diseases, medicines, or 

Thus we hear of complaints as extraordinary as " the * hairy sipples,* 'green 
asthma,' and * brown creatures' of the English poor*" [Monthly Packet, vol. 
xxiii. p. 253), which seem to be disguised forms of erysipelas, tenesmus, and 
bronchitis. The last disease also takes the different forms of broicngetns, browu' 
chitis, and brown-typhus. " He's down with a bad attack t of brotcn crisis on 
the chest," said a Sussex peasant of his neighbour (Parish, Sussex Glossary, 
8.V. Down). Information of the lungs is not uncommonly met with. So, in 
German, diphtheritis has been turned into gifieristik, as if from gift, poison, and 
gastrische fieber into garstige Jieber (Andresen, p. 42). 

" It often happens that gardeners become acquainted with new plants, or 
new species of old plants, that are brought to them under a foreign name ; not 
understanding this name, they corrupt it into some word which sounds like it, 


and witli which they are already familiar. To this source of corruption we 
owe such words as dafidt/lion (dent de lion\ rosemary {ros marijius)^ (fdlyfoicer 
{flirofle)^ quarter sessions rose (desquatre saisons\ Jerusalem atiichuke {pirasoie)" 
&c. (Farrar, Origin of Language^ p. 57). Southey mentions that the Bon 
Chretien pear is called by English gardeners the Bum-Gritton {The Doctor^ 
p. 349, ed. 1848), French gardeners having already manufactured Bon 
Chretien out of Gk. Panchrestos^ universally good. 

Other gardener's mistakes are China oysters for dmm asters^ Bleary eye for 
Blairii {rosa\ Bloody Mars for Fr. Ble de Mars. An Irish dancing-master pro- 
fessed to teach his pupils to go through "petticoatees and coatylongs {cotillo7is) 
with the Quality" (P. Kennedy, Banks d the Boro^ p. ISO). Another Irish 
peasant made misty manners out of misdemeanours (Carleton, Traits and 
Stories^ i. 309, ed. 1843). PolJy Ann and Emma Jane have been observed as 
negro corruptions of Pauline and Imogen. " We have heard of a groom who, 
having the charge of two horses called Othello and Desdemona, christened 
them respectively Old Fellow and Thursday Morning, Lamprocles, the name 
of a horse of Lord Eglintoun's, was converted by the ring into ' Lamb and 
Pickles/ The same principle may be seen at work among servants ; we have 
heard a servant systematically use the word cravat for carafe, and astonish a 
gentleman by calmly asking him at luncheon, ^^ If she should fill his cravat 
with water?" (Farrar, Origin of Language., p. 67). 

Peter Gower^ the Grecian and "mighty wiseacre," who, according to 
Leland's Itinerary (temp. Hen. VIII. ed. Ilearne), first introduced the 
mystery of masonry into England, having learned it of the " Venetians " 
( = Phoenicians), is none other, as Locke first pointed out, than Pythagoras^ 
Frenchified into Pythagore^ Petagore^ and then turned into a naturalized 
Englishman. Worthy to keep him company is Paid Podgam^ not this time 
a Christianized heathen, but a personified plant. 

^^ An old man in East Sussex said that many people set much store by the 
doctors, but for his part, he was one for the yarbs [^herbs3» and Paul Podgam 
was what he went by. It was not for some time that it was discovered that 
by Paul Podgam he meant the fern polypodium" (Parish, Sussex Glossary), 
A German apothecary has been asked for Ok Peter^ for umgewandtem Napo^ 
lean., and even for umgewandte dicke Stiefel (a "quick-thick-boot" !), when the 
real articles wanted were deum petroe^ unguentum Neapolitanuyn^ and unguen- 
turn digestivum (Andreseuj Deutsche Volksetymol<jgie^ p. 40). In the Americo- 
German broken English of the Breitmann Ballads^ CosmopfJite becomes 
*''' moskopolite^ or von whose ko^f [^headj ish bemosst Q= bearded] mit expe- 
rience" (p. 17, ed. 1871), mossyhead being a German college phrase for an 
old student ; and applaud becomes ooploud (up-loud), " For sefen-lofen 
mi nudes dey ooplouded on a bust" (p. 136) ; applause^ vp^loudatio^i (p. 138) ; 
while Guerillas appears as Grillers, 

Amongst other ingenious word-twists which may be heard in Germany are 
canaillenvogeln for canarie?woge/n^ frojitenspitze for frontispiece^ sterfdichtern for 
stearinlichtern, rundtheil for nmdelle, erdscfiocke for artischf>cke^ erdapfel for kar- 
toffd, the last being, indeed, a partial reversion to the original meaning, as 


kartftffel itself stands for tarff/fj^ It. tartftfda^ tarinfo^ from Lat. terrrv tuher^ 
earth tuber. Andresen, in his VMsfff/moloofe^ also mentions the popular cor- 
ruptions hibehrpthek^ jyarh'iscn^ sr*'Uifuier, hie/Mack^ for bihliothek^ /Hirtim?ie^ 
cylinder ( = hat), beefsteak (of which a further corruption is the French 
waiter's bijtek du pore). So the unpopular ///v/^/<^rwe was cleverly turned into 
sckand-arm ; the French pear-name benYre bhutr ( = Ger. bnlter-hirne) was 
naturalized as IteerUamj (where L(»w Ger. beer = Mid. High Gcr. bir^ a pear); 
and bleu mourant^ a faint or sickly hlue, acipiired a prettier form in Nihnerant^ 
with its apparent relationship to IJftme. Keiicrassei (cellar millei)es) is more 
familiarly known as ke/Ierese/^ "cellar ass;" but this again is an unconscious 
reversion to the right meaning asse/, a wood-louse, being identical with Low 
Lat. aselius onisefts^ (ireek ovo^ and 6vi<rfto;, In j)rov. German pfeifhdter^ a 
butterfly, is a corruption of/ei/alfer^ and mnnl-nyse of malce^ the mallow. 

The good folk of Bonn, with their thoughts running on apples, sometimes 
degrade aprikosen^ apricots, into mere apjfelknsen. The Westphalians have 
coined a word iflnsseay^ as if glass-ware, out of klaszeng, signifying properly the 
presents supposed to be given by the good St, Klas^ or Santa Claus, i.e, St 
Nicolaus (see Andresen, Deutsche VMsetf/moloifie, p. 08). 

Many of the corruptions which words have undergone are doubtless due to 
the wear and tear of 

" Time, whose slippery wheel doth play 
In humane causes with inconstant sway. 
Who exiles, alters, and disguises words." 

J. Syiceslery Du Batias, 1021, p. 170. 

" Our language hath no law but vse : and still 
Runs blinde, vnbridled, at the vulgars will." . 

Id. p* 2G1. 

Or, as Tennyson expresses it : — 

*' A word that comes from olden days, 
And passes through the peoples ; every tongue 
Alters it passing, till it spells and speaks 
Quite other than at first." 

A word having been once thus altered, we must be content to take it as it 
is, and pass it current for its nominal value. For example, to take a word 
commented on by De Quincey : — 

"The word eountr^-dance was originally a corruption, but having once 
arisen, and taken root in the language, it is far better to retain it in its collo- 
quial form : better, I mean, on the general principle concerned in such cases. 
For it is, in fact, by such corruptions, by offsets on an old stock, arising 
through ignorance or mispronunciation originally, that every language is fre- 
quently enriched ; and new modifications of tliought, unfolding themselves in 
the progress of society, generate for themselves concurrently appropriate ex- 
pressions. Many words in the Latin can be pointed out as having passed 
through this process. It must not be allowed to weigh against the validity of 



a word once fairly naturalized by use, that originally it crept in upon an abuse 
or corruption. Prescriptioil is as strong a ground of legitimation in a case of 
this nature as it is in law. And the old axiom is applicable — Fieri non 
debuit, factum valet. Were it otherwise, languages would be robbed of much 
of their wealth. And, universally, the class of purists, in matters of lan- 
guage, are liable to grievous suspicion as almost constantly proceeding on half 
knowledge, and on insufficient principles. For example, if I have read one, 

I have read twenty letters, addressed to newspapers, denouncing the name of 
a great quarter in London, Mary-le-bone^ as ludicrously ungrammatical. The 
writers had learned (or were learning) French ; and they had thus become 
aware that neither the article nor the adjective was right. True — not right 
for the current age, but perfectly right for the age in which the name arose : 
but, for want of elder French, they did not know that in our Chaucer's time, 
both were right. Le was then the article feminine as well as masculine, and 
bone was then the true form for the adjective" ( Works, vol. xiv. p. 201). 

Karl Andresen observes in the preface to his Deut^e VoUcsetymdogie 
(1876), that it is a strange fact that his own volume, notwithstanding the very 
curious and interesting nature of the subject, was the first work of the kind 
professedly devoted to popular etymology, and he expresses his surprise that 
philologists should have so long neglected it. M. Gaidoz accounts for this by 
remarking : — ^' La raison de la negligence ou pour mieux dire du dedain que 
les linguistes montrent k Tegard de I'etymologie populaire est que celle-ci ne 
se ramene a aucune loi, et qu'ils etudient de preference les phenomenes qui 
peuvent se ramener a des lois. Peut-dtre aussi voient-ils d'un oeil de defiance 
et de mecontentement des faits en quelque sorte hors serie exercer une influence 
perturbatricesurle developpementmathemathique des lois gen^rales du langage. 

II faut pourtant tenir compte de Tinfluence exercee sur le langage humain par 
le raisonnement et la volonte de I'liomme. II est aise de voir, ne fut-ce que 
par Texemple des langues vivantes, et malgre Taction conservatrice de la litt^- 
rature et de la grammairc, combicn sont puissantes ces tendances qu on peut 
reunir sous le nom d*anaJoffie^ par exemple dans la conjugaison dont Tanalogie 
cherche a detruire les irregularites et meme la variete " {Revue Critique, 1 9 
Aout, 1876, p. 118). 

The same judicious writer elsewhere gives the following summary of the 
whole subject : — " L'etymologie populaire joue un certain role dans le develop- 
])ement des langues, et elle s' applique d'abord aux mots et aux noms etrangers, 
puis aux mots savants et aux termes techniques, en d'autres termes, k tons les 
mots et k tons les noms auxquels la conscience linguistique du peuple n'est 
pas habituee. Dans les mots ordinaires de la langue, Tusage fait qu on voit 
distinctement en eux, non la combinaison de sons ou de lettres qu'ils ferment, 
mais la chose meme qu'ils representent. Ce sont des monnaies que le peuple 
passe comme il les a revues, sans s'occuper d'en regarder Teffigie ou d'en lire 
la legende, puisqu'il sait qu'elles sont bonnes. Les mots de la langue ordi- 
naire frappent son oreille des son enfance, et sa curiosite ne s'y arrete pas, 
parce que ces mots sont pour lui des choses. II n en est pas de meme des 
mots etrangers ou inusites qu'il entend pour la premiere fois. Sa curiosite 



est mise en jeu, et comme il a une tendance a croire que tout mot a une sig- 
nification, il cherche et se laisse guider par une ressemblance de son avec des 
mots dejk connus. II en arrive de la sorte k deformer les mots par fausse 
analogic. Cette tendance est dans la nature des choses, et les puristes 
auraient bien tort de s'en indigner " {Revue Politique et Litteraire^ No. 36, 
p. 831). 

" How many words," says an old writer, " are buryed in the grave of for- 
getfuUnes ? grownc out of vse ? wrested anTye and peruersly corrupted by 
diuers defaultes ? we wil declare at large in our booke intituled, Siniphonia 
vocum Britannicantm'* (A. Fleming, CaiuB of Eng, Dogges^ 1676, p. 40, repr. 
1880). This promise I think was never redeemed. A part of his projected 
plan I have here endeavoured to carry out, by forming a collection, as com- 
plete as I could make it, of words which have been corrupted by false deri- 
vation, or have in some way been altered or perverted from their true form or 
meaning by false analogy. Such words may be conveniently ranged under 
one or other of the following analytical groups (see Farrar, Origin of Lan- 
guage^ p. 68) : — 

1. Words corrupted so as to be significant and in some sense appropriate ; 
such as acorn^ ambergrease^ aureole^ battlement^ belfy-t blindfold, buttress^ carnival^ 
cafs cradle^ caiue^tcag^ chittgfaced^ cockatoo^ counterpane^ court-cardy a'awfish^ 
devrlap^ excise^ faincatf^ flushed ^ furbelow^ geneva^ hanger ^ hastetier^ hollghocky 
instep^ meregroty runagate^ touchy ^ travellers Jog^ wormwood ^ <fec. 

2. Words corrupted so as to convey a meaning, but one totally inappro- 
priate, though sounding familiarly to the ear ; such as battle-door^ cast^me^ 
downj cheese-bowly fairmaids^ farthingale^ featherfew^ gingerly ^ goose-horn^ 
hammer-clothy stick-a^dove, titmouse^ wheat-ear^ wise-acre^ &c. 

3. Words corrupted so as to give rise to a total misconception, and conse- 
quently to false explanations ; such as aiticy bitter-endy cannibaly hom-mady 
humbU'piey hutricaney hudnindy &c. 

4. Words which, though not actually corrupted from their true shape, are 
suggestive of a false derivation, and have been generally accepted in that mis- 
taken sense ; such as camlet y carp^ colonel, cozen, crabbed, fratery , God, hawkery 
henchman, hop-harlot, hussif, incentive, muse, recover, tribulation, worldy Ac. 

In this latter case it is the meaning of the word that has got warped from 
some mistaken relationship or incorrect analogy having been assumed. Many 
instances of tliis reflex influence of the form' on the meaning will be found. 
Fuller, for instance, remarks that men who being slow and slack go about 
business with no agility are called '' dull Dromedaries by a foul mistake 
merely because of the affinity of that name to our English word Dreaming 
[compare old Sax. drom, a dream, Icel. draumry Dut. drooni\ applied to 
such who go slowly and sleepily about their employment ; whereas indeed 
Dromedaries are creatures of a constant and continuing swiftness, so called 
from the Greek word Apifio^, a Race" ( Worthies of England, vol. ii. p. 385). 

In popular Italian belief the plant comino or cummin is supposed to have 
the power of keeping animals and young children from straying from home, 
or a lover near his mistress, owing to an imagined connexion of its name with 


Lat. commus^ close at hand, near(De Gubematis, Mtfthologie des Plantes^ p. xx. ). 
The people of the Abruzzi in a similar manner fancying some relationship 
between the plant-name rnenta and It. rammentare^ to remember, lovers in 
that region are accustomed to present a sprig of mint to each other as a me- 
mento, with the words : — 

" Ecco la menta^ 

Se si ama di cuore, non ralleuta." 

{Id. p. 236.) Compare the popular misconceptions with regard to the word 
aimant^ 8.v. Aymont, p. 16. 

I have thought it well, for the sake of completeness, to notice those words 
which, though not really corruptions at all, have long passed for such, from 
men through an excess of ingenuity not being content to take a plain word 
in its plain meaning, such I mean as beef -eater ^ fox-glove^ John Dory^ Welsh- 

To the English words I have appended a collection of foreign words which 
have undergone similar corruptions, and also lists of words which have been 
altered through agglutination of the article, or through being mistaken for 
plurals when really singular, or vice versd. 

I have to thank Professor Skeat for his great good-nature in looking over 
many of my earlier sheets, and in setting me right in several instances where 
I had gone wrong. It is needless to say that I had his invaluable Etymological 
Dictionary always in use, so far as it was issued when going to press ; but 
from letter R to the end I could only make use of it for my Additions and 
Corrections. I am also indebted to Mr. Wedgwood for kindly making a few 
suggestions which I have utilized. 




Aaron. A popular name for the 
arum plant, Gk. aron, Lat. a/i'um, a 
corraption into a more familiar word. 
(Prior, Pop, Names of British Plants,) 
It was sometimes called Barha-Aron^ 
as if "Aaron's beard" (Gerard, Her* 
hal, 1597, p. 685). 

Abbey. The Somerset name of the 
white poplar tree, the Dutch aheel^ 
whence 0. Eng, ahele, aheel, of which 
this is a corruption. The origin is Low 
Latin alhellus, whitish. 

He attempts to destroy her child before 
birth with tne leaves of the abbey-tree, — D, 
Wiisony Old Edinburghy vol. i. p. 175. 

Another side of the garden was girt with 
five lofty ja^ed a6e/0-trees. — A, J, C. Harey 
Memorials oj a Quiet Life, vol. ii. p. 147. 

Abhomination, an old mis-spelling 
of "abomination '* (Lat. ahominatio, 
from abominor, ah and omen), some- 
thing to be deprecated as evil-omened, 
as if it were derived from db and homo, 
something alien from the nature of 
man, or inhuman. 

The Hebrews had with Angels conversation^ 
Held th' Idol-Altars in abhomination, 

Sylvester, Du Bartas, p. 273 (1621). 

Holofemes the pedant censures the 
pronimciation of the " racker of ortho- 

lliis is abhominable, — which he would call 

Love*s Labour's Lost, v. 1. 1. 27 
(Globe ed.). 

AhJwni^nahle is foimd in the Promp- 
iorium Pa/rvulorum (c. 1440) and the 
Apology for Lollo/rd Doctrines ; ahhond- 
nadyoun in Wycliffe's New Testament ; 

while Fuller presents the form aJbhomi- 

The Bev. Jonathan Boucher actually 
assumes the etymology to be ah and 
homo and defines the word as unmanly, 
unworthy of a man I — (Fitzodward 
Hall, Modem English, p. 159.) 

Abide. Frequently found in old 
writers with the meaning to expiate, 
atone, or pay the penalty for, some 
wrong-doing, is a confoimding of the 
old £ng. verb able, dbeye, dbegge, A. 
Sax. abicgan, to buy, redeem, or pay 
for, with ahide, A. Sax. a^icUm^ to ex- 
pect or wait for. 

Let no man abide this deed 
But we the doers. 

Shakespeare, Julius Cttsar^ iii. 1. 1. 94 
(Globe ed.). 

If it be found so, some will dear abide it. 

Ibid. iii. 2. 1. 119. 

Ay me ! they little know 
How dearly I abide that boast so vain. 
Milton, Par, Lost, Bk. IV. 1. 86. 

Instances of ahie are the following — 

For if thou do, thou shalt it dere abie, 
Chaucer, Chanones Yemannes Tale, Prologue. 

Yet thou, false Squire, his fault shalt deare 

And with thy punishment his penance shalt 


Spenser, Faerie Queene, IV. i. 53. 

Yf I lyue a yere he shal afrt/e it. 
Caxton, Reynard the Fox (1481), p. 11 
(ed. Arber). 

Yf he wente out .... to stele mjes to a 
preetes hows and the priest dyde hym harme 
sholde I abye that. — laid. p. 30. 

In both these in8tances,and elsewhere, 
the editor incorrectly prints aby [d] e. 
Spenser, on the other hand, some- 



( 2 ) 


timeB uses ahie incorrectly instcacl of 
abide, to endure or suffer, e, g. — 

Who dyes, the utmost dolor doth abye. 

F.Queeney III. iv/38. 

But patience perforce, he must ahie 
W hat fortime and hia fate on him will lay. 

Ibid, 111. X. 3. 

Able, is old Eng. habh, Fr. Jmhile, 
Lat. Iiahilia, " haveable," manageable, 
fit, apt (from liahco, to have). We still 
say habilitate f to en-able, not ahilitate, 
habit, not abit (cf. also habihments, 
fittings, clothes; disJiahillej undress). 
The word seems to have been assimi- 
lated to — perhaps confounded with — 
old Eng. dbal, strength, abihty, "fjin 
ahaZ and craft," Coidwon, 32, 9, which 
Ettmuller connects with a root form, 
dban, to be strong. (Lex, An/jlo-Sax. 
8. V.) See Diefenbach, Goth. Spraclie, 

AbUy or abuUe, or abjUe. Habilis, idoncuB. 
Promptorium Parvulcrumf 1440. 

Which charge lasteth not long, but vntill 
the Scholer be made hable to go to tlie Vni- 
versitie. — R, Aschaniy SchoUmastery p. 84 (ed. 
Arber), 1570. 

Abram- or Abraham-coloured, as 
applied to the hair in old plays, is a 
corruption of auburn, which is spelled 
ah'on in Hallos Saiires (iii. 6, ** abron 
locks "). Shakespeare, Cor, ii. 3. 
(folio) speaks of heads, ** some brown, 
some black, some abram " (vide Nares). 
The expressions Cain-coloured and 
Judas-coloured for a red-haired person 
may have contributed to this mode of 
spelling. In old German it is found 
as abramsch, abrdumisch. In old Eng- 
lish, whore the word occurs in the 
forms of abron, ahurne, aborne, it de- 
notes a colour inclining to white, e. g, — 

He*8 white-hair*d, 

Not wanton-white, but such a manly colour, 

Next to an aborne, 

Tuo Noble Kinrnietiy iv. 2. 1. 123 (Quarto, 
1634, ed. Littledale. See his note, p. 153. ) 

It is another form of alburn, white, 
Lat. alburnum. 

It. albumo, the white part of any timber, 
also the whitish colour of womens haire which 
we call an Albume or Aburue colour. — Florio, 
New World of Words, 1611. 

Abraham's Balm, a popular name 
for a kind of willow, is probably a cor- 
ruption of Abrahams-boom (i, e, Abra- 
ham's tree), a Dutch name for the Viicx 

Agnus-Cnsfus, — Britten and Holland, 
Eng, Plant-Names, p. 4 (E. D. Soc). 

Acorn, has generally been regarded 
as another form of ^^ oak-corn,'^ e.f/., 
A. Sax. dc-corn, ac-ccBrn, oiceren, as if 
from ac, cbc, an oak ; so Ger. eichel, as 
if from eiche, oak. Old Eng. forms are 
oJcecorne, accharne (Ortus), a<:come 
(Prompt. Parv.), aJcehcrne (Florio, s. 
V. Acilone), Compare, however, Icel. 
akarn, Dan. agern, all near akin to 
Gothic dkran, fruit, originally a crop, 
field-produce, from Goth, ah's, a field, 
Icel. akr, Gk. agrds, Lat. ager, A. Sax. 
CBcer, Ger. aeker, our "acre." Seo 
Diefenbach, Goth, Sprache, i. 31. Dean 
Wren notes of the oak. 

Besides the gall, w^hichis his proper fruite, 
hee shootes out oakerns, i.e. utnunc vocamus 
acornes, and oakes ap]>lc'S, and polypodye, and 
moss." — Sir Thos, Bniwne, JVorks, vol. i. p. 
203 (ed. Bohn). 

See Akehorne. 

Act or Part, in the phrase, " I will 
take neither act nor part in the matter," 
is a corrupted form of the old Scottish 
law term, "To be art €ind pa/ii in the 
committing of a crime, i, e,, when the 
same person was both a contriver and 
acted a part in it." — Bailey, L. Lat. 
artem et partem habuit (Jamieson). 
See Davies, Supp, Eng, Glossary, s. v. 

Acknawle^g his sinnes, hot na art iior 
vart of the King's father's murdour wherfor 
ne was condemnit. — J as. Melville, Diary ^ 
1581, p. 117 (Wodrow Soc. ed.). 

AcwERN, the Anglo-Saxon name for 
the squirrel, which Bosworth and 
EtmiUler rank under the heading of 
derivatives from dc, in company with 
ac-bedm and others, as if it was tho 
animal that lives in the oaks (Ger. 
eichorn), is really nlcelandictAorrw*, and 
that, according to Cleasby, is a cor- 
ruption of the Latin and Greek sciurus, 
" me shadow-tail," the diminutive of 
which, sciurulus, yields our squirrel, 
Cf. O.Eng. ocquerne, Lambeth Homilies, 
p. 181. 

Adder. A. Sax. wttor, so spelt as if 
denoting the poisonous snake, from 
cbttor, dHor or dior, poison, Prov. Eng. 
otter, Dan. cedder, Icel. citr (like Icel. 
eitr-ormr, "poison-worm," tho \4per), 
is a corrupt form of A. Sax. iimddrv., a 
snake (mistaken for an ceddre), AYclsh 


( 8 ) 


nach; Irish nafhmr, originally perhaps 
a water snake, Lat. natrix, " the 
swimmer," a serpent. — (W. Stokes, 
Irish GlosseSf p. 46 ; Diefenbach, Gofh. 
Sprache, ii. 93.) Compare addircop 
(ralsgrave) = attercop, a spider ; also 
natter -jdck, a (venomous) toad (Suf- 
folk), and Ger. natter^ an adder. In S. 
Matt. xxui. 83, where Wychflfe (1389) 
has "3ee sarpentis, fruytis of eddm," 
the A. Sax. version (995) has ''ge 
ruBddran and nmddrena cynn." The 
poisonous nature of the adder is fre- 
quently dwelt on in old Eng. writers. 

We ben alse )>e Jtedre hie hauelS longe liued, 
and we ionge leien iu sinnc. Hie baue^ 
mucbel atter on hire [(.«. We are as the adder, 
she hath lived long, and we lay long in sin. 
She hath much venom in her], — Old Eng, 
Homilies, XII. Cent. 2nd Ser. p. 199 (ed. 

)>e Neddri of attri Onde haue seoue Kundles 
[The adder of poisonous envy hath seven off- 
springs], — Ancren Riwle (1225), p. 200. 

J»e attri neddri [slea^S] alle )>eoontfule [The 
poisonous adder (slayeUi) all the envious]. — 
M. p. 210. 

Danne \>e neddre is of his hid naked, 
and bare of his brest atter. 

Bestiary (ah, 1250) 1. 144, Old 
Eng, Miscellany^ p. 5. 

In swete wordis )>e nedder was closet. 

The Bahees book. p. 305, I. 207 

EddyTf or neddyr, wyrrae. Serpens. — 
Promptorium ParvuUrrum (1440). 

Topsell says of the adder : 

Although I am not ignorent that there be 
which write it Nadere, of A'atrii, which sig- 
nifieth a Watersnake, yet 1 cannot consent 
vnto them so readily, as to depart from the 
more vulgar receaued word of a whole 
Nation, because of some likelyhoode in the 
dcriuation from the Latine. — Historic of 
Serpents, p. 50 (1608). 

Adjust. So spelt as if the primitive 
meaning were to make just or even, 
to set to rights, and so Fr. adjuster, " to 
place justly, set aptly, couch evenly, 
joyn handsomely," Cotgrave; 0. Fr. 
adjoustcr, to add, set or put unto. It. 
aggiustare, " to make iust, even, or 
leuell " (Florio), Pro v. ajostar, Diez 
is of opinion that these words are de- 
rivatives not oi just, giusto, but of 0. 
Fr. josfe, juste, Prov. josia. It. giusta, 
lifii, juxta, near, as if adjuxtm'e, to set 
near together. Hence also Sp. justar, 
0, Fr. joster, juster, Eng. " to joust " 
and " josUe." 

Admiral, an assimilation of the older 
form amiral, amyrayl, Sp. alrmrante, 
Portg. amiralh, It. ammiraglio, to 
"admire," "admirable," as we see in 
the Low Latin forms, admiralis, ad^m- 
ralius, admiraldus, admirans, admiran- 
dtis (Spelman, Olossarium, s. v.) ; ndmi- 
rabile^ and admiralli in Matthew Paris, 
0. Fr. admiraulx (Selden, Titles oj 
Honour, p. 103.). 

Amiral is from the Arabic amir, a 

Erince or lord (compare Heb. dtnir, 
ead, top, summit). ** Am£rel of the 
see, Amirellus." — Prompt, Parv, O, 
Fr. hahn/yrach, an admiral (Cotgrave), 
seems to have been assimilated to Gk. 
halmyros, the briny sea. 

Engelmann supposes that amiral is 
shortened from Arab, amdr-al-bahr, 
commander of the sea, but the oldest 
meaning of the word in French, as M. 
Devio observes, is a general or com- 
mander of troops. 

Sir Lancelot . . . slew and detrenched 
many of the Romans, and slew many knights 
and admiralis [= emirs or Saracen chiefs, 
Wright]. — Malory, Historie of King Arthur, 
1634, en. xciv. 

Admiral occurs in Layamon's Brut,, 
A.D. 1205. 

It may be noted that the handsome 
butterfly called the admiral is also 
known as the admirable, which was 
probably its original name. 

Much difference there is about the original 
of this word, whilst most probable tlieir 
opinion who make it of Eastern extraction, 
borrowed by the Christians from tlie 
Saracens. These derive it from Amir, in 
Arabick a Prince, and "AXto;, belonging to 
the Sea, in the Greek lan^age : such mix- 
ture being precedented in otner words. 
Besides, seeing the Sultan's dominions, in 
the time of the Holy War, extended from 
Sinus Arabicus to the North Eastern part of 
the Midland-Sea, where a barbarous kind of 
Greek was spoken by many, Amirall (thus 
compounded) was significantly comprehen- 
sive of his jurisdiction. Admirall is but a 
depraving ot Amirall iu vulgar mouths. How- 
ever, it will never be beaten out of the heads 
of common sort, that, seeing the Sea is scene 
of wonders, something of wonderment lutth in- 
corporated itself in this word, and that it hath 
a glimps, cast, or eye o{ admiration therein. — 
T, Fuller, Worthies of England^ vol. i. p. 18 
(ed. 1811). 

} so spelt as if com- 
Advantage, ) pounded (like ad- 

venture, adverse, etc.) with the Latin 


( 4 ) 


preposition ad, to, arc derivatives of 
Fr. avancer, avania^e (It. avanzare, 
vantamio), wliich are from avaivt^ for- 
ward, Lat. ah-ante, 

Otlier mistaken assimilations of tlie 
first syllable of a word to prepositions 
are — 

Enlarge for 0. Eng. alarge (Wycliffe), 
Fr. esl^i/rgir, Lat. ex-largior, 

Engricve (Chaucer, Spenser) for ag- 
grieve. Entice^ Fr. attiser. 

Impair for appair. Imposthume for 

Invoice^ from It. awiso (advice). 
Ensample for exa/mpU. 

Encumher for O. Eng. aconibrCf ac- 
conibrc (Townlcy Mysteries), 

Encroach for accrcHich, Fr. accrocher. 

Embassy t an amhassagCf Low L. am^ 
hascia, Lat. amhactus. 

Advowtry, I an old word for adul- 
AvowTRY, S tery. O. Fr. avoufrie, 
as if a breach of one's marriage voio 
(Fr. voue), is a derivative from Lat. 
aduUeriumihroxigh the Proven9al forms 
aauUeri, aulf^j avulferi, just as Lat. 
gladius yields Prov. glassij glai, glavij 
Fr. and Eng. glaive: and Lat. vid/ua 
yields Prov. vevza, veuva (Diez). 

Duke Humfrey a^e rq>ined. 
Calling this match advoutriey as it was. 
Mirror for Magistrates [Nares]. 

The pharisees brought a woman taken in 
Caxtm, Reynard the For, 1481, p. 73 
(ed. Arber). 

Euen such vnkindnesse as was in the lewes 
... in committing aduoultrie and hordom. — 
R. Ascham, The Schoolmaster, 1570, p. 56 (ed. 

Avoutre (i. e. arOutre'^a(d)uli€r) oc- 
curs in the Norman French Vie de 
Seint Auhan, 1. 62 (ed. Atkinson). 

^GLOGUEs. Spenser^s spelling of ec^- 
gues from a mistaken theory that — 

They were first of the Greekes, the in- 
rentours of them, called £glogai, as it were 
aXyin or alyowfxan X^yot, that is, Goteheards 
tales. — General Argument to the Shepheards 

"Eclogue" of course is the Gk. 
eTclogSy a choice poem, a selection. So 
E. E. his commentator thinks it neces- 
sary to note that Idyllia is tlie proper 
name for Theocritus's pastorals " and 
not, as I have heard some fondly gnesse 
. . . HoBdiliat of the Goteheards in Uiem '* 
( Spenser, p. 472, Globe ed.). 

Aelmesse, > an Anglo-Saxon word 
Almasse, ( for a charitable deed, 
our "alms,*' so spelt as if derived 
from Oil, fire, and tiimsso^ an oblation, 
the mass, " a burnt offering " (so Bos- 
worth and H. Leo), is really a corrupt 
form of L. Lat. elimosiiia^ Gk. EUe- 
mosu7i4*.j an act of pity or mercy, whence 
It. limosina, Sp. limosna^ Fr. awnume 
(cdmosne). This word has been pecu- 
liarly unfortunate in the treatment it 
has received at the hands of popular 
etymologists. Thus Brother Geoffrey 
the Grammarian, c. 1440, when regis- 
tering the word " almesse, or almosy Eli- 
mosina, roga " [ ? a pyre, a bumt-ofifer- 
ing] , vouchsafes the information that 
" Elimosina is derived from cZ, which 
is God, and moys which is water, as if 
water of God; because just as water 
extinguishes fire, so alms, climos^ina^ 
extinguishes sin." Florio similarly 
defines It. Elim4sina, "a word com- 

Sosed of E'li, that is to say God, and 
foiSf that is to say water, that is to 
say Alms or water of God to wash 
sinnes away." " Elimcsiniere, an Al- 
moner, a giuer of almes or Gods water." 

In Mid. High. German the word 
(Ger. almosen) takes the form of almu- 
osen, as if containing al and muos 
(pap, food), and sometimes of armtiosen^ 
as if from arm^ poor-food. 

Aerolite, a corrupt spelling of aero- 
lithy air-stone, from the Greek lifhos, a 
stone, just as chrysolite is for ch-ysolith, 
"^old-stone," from a desire probably 
to assimilate these words to others 
terminating in He, such as anthracite, 
malachite, &c. So coproUte for co- 

Aebt, > in old Eng. also spelt " a/ire, 
AiERY, \ airy, a Nest of Hawks 
or other birds of prey " (Bailey), 
Low Lat. aerea, a nest (Spelman, Ghs- 
sarium), as if so called from the airy 
or aerial height at which the eagle 
builds (Lat. aereus, 1 airy, 2 elevated), 
is derived from Fr. aire, an eagle's nest, 
oiVer to make a nest or airy (Cotgrave). 
See Air. 

An eagle o'er his aiery tow'rs 
To souse annoyance that comes near his 
bhakespearey King John, act v. sc. 2. 


( 5 ) 


Another frequent corraption is eyries 
eyerie, as if for ey-ry (old Eng. ey, an 
©gg)i t- «• ©gg-©ry» a collection of eggs. 

Afford, so spelt as if connected with 
Fr. afforer, affeurer, is a Corruption of 
old Eng. ifor^ien of the same meaning, 
cf. grfor^ian, to further or help 
(Morris), avoHhi in Bp. Pecock. 

Do )>ine elmesse of )K>n \>et fna maht 
t/brtSien. — Old Eng. Homiiies, Ist 8er. p. 37 
(E. E. T. S.). 

See Oliphantf Old cmd Mid, EngUah, 
p. 179. 

Aqhast, so spelt from a mistaken 
analogy with ghastly, " ghost-like,*' is 
an incorrect form of old Eng. agastf a 
participial form from A. Sax. ege»ian, 
to ternfy, Goth, usgaisja/n, from A. 
Sax. egesa, ege, "awe," fear, Qoth. 

Ye deouel schal et a^esten ham. 

Ancren Riwle (1S25), p. 219. 
Wallace was spedy and gretlje oia agast, 
Henry the Minstrel, Wallace, Bk. i.l. ft30 
(ab. 1461). 
Of euery noyse so was the wretch agoMt, 
Sir Tlios, Wiat, Satires, i. 1. 39 (ab. 1540). 

There sail aiie Angell blawe a blast 
Quhilk sail mak ail the warld agast. 
Sir D, Lindsey, The Monarche, Hk. iy. 1. 
5586 (1552). 

Another corrupt spelling is a^aaed^ 
as if to imply standing at gaze, with 
eyes fixed and paralyzed with fear. 

As ankerd fast my sprites doe all resorte 
To stand agaied, and sinke in more and 
Lord Surrey, Songes and Sonnettes, 1557. 

The French exclaim 'd, The devil was in 
All the whole army stood agat'd on him. 
Shakespeare, Hen, VI, Pt. I. i. 3. 

See however Prof. Skeat, Etym, Diet. 

8. V. 

AaNAiL. This word in all probability 
has nothing to do, as its present form 
would suggest, with the na/Us of the 
fitngers (A. Sax. angndgl (?), pain-nail). 
It was formerly spelt agnel, agnayle, 
angnayle, and denoted a com on the 
toe, or generally any hard swelling. 
It is doubtless the same word as fV. 
angonailles, botchis, (pockie) bumps, 
or sores (Cotgrave), It. a/nguinagUa, a 
blain on the groin, " also a disease in 
the inside of a horse's hinder legs," 
(Florio). AngvMMLgUa, as Diez shows. 

is for tnguinoMa, a disease or affliction 
of irujuine, Lat. inguen, the groin or 
flank (Sp. cngle, Fr. aine). 

Palsgrave (1580) has " agnayle upon 
one's too," and Turner, Herbal, speaks 
of *' angnayllea and such hard swel- 
linges," Florio of " agnele, wartles, 
ahnonds, or kernels growing behind 
the eares and in the necke " (s. v. 

The inner flesh or pulp [of a Gourd] is 
passing good for to be applied to the agnels 
or corns of the feet. — noUand, Pliny*s rfat. 
Hist. a. 36 (1634). 

Frovelle, An Agnell, pin. or wamell in 
^ thel? toe]. — Cotgrave (ed. 1660). 

Agassin, A corn or agnele in the feet or 
toes. — Id, 

Ghiandole, Agnels, wartles, or kernels in 
the throat. — Florio, 

Air, word for a person's mien, 
manner, or deportment (Fr. air, li.^ 
ana), as if the subtle atmosphere, or 
OAJira, which envelopes one and ema- 
nates from his idiosyncrasy, is a con- 
fusion of " air " z: Lat. a>er, with quite 
a distinct word. Old Fr. aire, family, 
breeding, natural disposition. This 
aire, derived from Lat. area, seems to 
have gone through the transitions of 
meaning : (1) a space of ground for 
building, (2) a dwelling or nest (whence 
our airy, or eyry, an eagle's nest), (8) 
race, family, disposition, quality. So 
old Eng. debonaire, good-natured, Fr. 
d&xmnairc, was originally applied to 
" im faucon de. bonne air," of a good 
nest, i,e, breed or strain — well bred 
and consequently well conditioned. 

See LittrS, aistoire de la Langvs 
Franqanse, tom. i. p. 61. 

Prof. Skeat thinks that L. Lat. a^rea^ 
an eyrie, is itself only a corrupted form 
of Icel. a/ra-hrei^r, " eagle's-nest " 
(Etym. Did. p. 10). 

AiRBELL, a name for the Oampamila 
roiundifolia, is corrupted from the 
commoner name Hairbell. The old 
forms of this word are Hare bell and 
Hare's bell (Britten and Holland, Eng. 
Flant-Natnes, p. 84). 

Akehorne, an old mis-spelling of 
a>corn (Urry, Chaucer, p. 364). Other 
old forms of the word are akernel, 
aJceron, akker, ahkern, akran, and 
akyr (Britten and Holland, Eng. Plant- 
Names, p. 9). See Agobn. 


( 6 ) 


Akerspire, 1 provincial words, 

AcBESPiBE, > moaning to sprout or 

AcKERSPRiT, j germinate, corrupt 

forms of acrosp^ijre (from Greek t'tkros 

and apeira) to shoot at the extremity. 

They let their mnlt akerspirt, — Regiam 
Majestatem, p. 99S (Wripht). 

A more corrupt form hechlespire is 
found in some counties. 

Alacompane, an old name for the 
plant Inulu llehmium (Bullein, Booh 
of Simplee)^ as if from a French a la 
conijpa^ne, is a corrui)tion of the old 
Latin name enulu camj^anay tlirough 
tlie foims eU'camj^a^ie and alUcami^ane, 
used m Cheshire. (See Britten and 
Holland, Eng, Tlatvt-Names^ p. 11.) 

Albatross, as if connected with Lat. 
albus^ white, is corrui)tcd from the older 
form (dcafraz (fi. g. in 37m? Mirror for 
Magistrals), which is the name of the 
bird in Portuguese and Spanish. 

" Alcairaz, a kind of fowlo like a 
seamew " (Minshow), old Fr. algatroe. 
M. Devic has shown that alcatraz is the 
same word as Portg. aloainiz. Span, alca- 
duzy Arab. ahqaJiiSj a vessel for draw- 
ing water, having originally been given 
as a name to the pelican, which was 
beUeved to fill its huge bill with water 
and convey it to its yoimg ones in the 
desert (Chardin). For tliis reason the 
peUcan is called by the Arabs saqqa, 
" the water-carrier.'* 

Alfin. I The old English name 
AwFYN. S for the piece in the game 
of chess which we now call a bishop is 
a corruption of its oriental name, 
Arabic Aljii, " The Elephant,'* Persian 
rU or 2q/ (compare the borrowed 
words Icel. filly Swod., Dan. fil, an ele- 
phant). In Hussian it is called sloniCf 
an elephant (\'id. D. Forbes, History 
of Gh^ss, pp. 40, iilO). 

Aw fun of |>e chekor, Alfinus. — PromptO' 
rium Parv. c. 1410. 

All If n, a lunn of the chesse horde, avyin, 
— Puhgiave, 1530. 

Al'fil was assimilated in English to 
aJfiriy an oaf or lubber, just as fil be- 
came in 0. French /o/, a fool. An 
Italian corruption isdalfino, " a dolphin, 
also a Bishop at Chesse," — Florio; Old 
French dav))hi7i, as well as aui^hln, 
avfin i compare S]>ftii. and Portg. a I fil ; 
It. alfnWy a/fido; Ijow Lat. alfihis, al- 
phinus (Devic). 

All amort, dejected, for a la mcrt. 

Shall he thus all amort live malcontent! 
•^Gnrne, H'ntory of Friar Bacon, 1594. 

\Vhat, all a initio! Iluw doth mv dainty 
Nell \—PeeU, Edward 1. (1593), p. 392, ed. 

\Vhat all a tnortl No merry counte- 
nance ? — Chettle, Kind Harts Dreame, 

Allan, a name in Cornwall for 
October 81st, is a curious condensation 
of Allhallowp*?n, t. c. The Eve of All' 
hallotcs or All Saints Day. 

At St. Ives, " Allan Da^," as it is termed, 
is one of the chief days m all the year to 
hundreds of children, who would deem it a 
great misfortune were they to go to bed on 
Allan Night wiUiout their Allan apple to hide 
beneath tneir pillows. A lar^e quantity of 
apples are disposed of in this manner, the 
sale of which is termed Allan Market. — R. 
Hunt, Pop, Romances of West of England , 
2nd Ser. p. 177. 

All and some, a very common phraso 
in old Eng. meaning all together, ouo 
and all. It is a corruption of alle in- 
same, all i-some,zzQ]l together; in- 
same, A. Sax. cBt-samne, together, from 
sam, samon, togetlier (see Notes and 
Queries, 6'^ S. II. 404). 

The lady lawglied and made good game 
Whan they came owte all in-same. 

The )Vright's Chaste Wife (ah. 1462) 
1. 6J2(E. E. T. S.). 
fHe] bade assemble in his halle, 
In rantlieon alle in-^ame. 

Utacuons of Rome, 1.792 (E. E. T. S.). 

Uppon holy |x)re8day J>er on his nome 
Heo weren i-j^edered alle i-some. 

Castel of Lone, 1. 1418 (ah. 1320). 
Sir, we bene heare all and some, 
As boulde men, readye bonne. 

Chester Mjfsteries, ii. 87 (Shaks. Soc.). 

His wife tolde him, all and smne, 
How Dane Hew in the morning would come. 
A Mery Jest of Dane Hew, 1. 41 (Early 
Pop* Poetry, iii. 136). 

Now stop your noses, readers, all and some, 
Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel, ii. 467. 

Two liours after midnight all and some, 
Unto the hull to wait liis word should come, 
ir. Morris, tlarthly Paradise, ii. 478. 

Allaways, the Lincolnshire word for 
the drug aloes (Peacock), assimilated 
apparently to cairatcays. 

Alleluli, a popular name for the 
wood-sorrel (Bailey), sometimes also 
called lujuht and luzii la, is held by Coles, 
Adum m Eden, 1G57, and Withering, to 
be a corruption of the Italian name 
Jtdiola; see, however. Julienne infra. 


( ^ ) 


Florio (1611) has " Luggiala^ an 
bearbe very sharpe in tasto.'* 

Alley, the Lincobishire word for the 
aisle of a church, of which probably it 
is a corruption. 

Alley, a boy's marble of a superior 
description to the ordinary clay ones, 
is probably a shortened form of alu" 
hasferj of which material it is said 
(in the language of the toy mart) to 
have been made. 

Mr. Pickwick enquired " whether he had 
won any alley tors [f ^ taws] or commonejs 
lately ('both of which I understand to be a 
particular species of marbles much prized by 
the youth of this town)." — Dickens, Pick- 
wick Papertf ch. xxxiv. 

Allioatob, It. alMgatore, so spelt 
as if a derivative of Lat. cUliga/re, to 
bind (cf. hoa constrictor), is a corruption 
of the older word alfigwrto, which is the 
Sp. Uigarto with the article el (al) pre- 
fixed, Lat. Incerta, a lizard. However, 
if a writer in the Penny Gyclopoedia,B.Y,, 
be correct, lagwrto is itself a corruption 
of a native Indian word legateer, 
Raleigh mentions alegartoes in his 
History of the World, fol. p. 150. 

Jonson spells it alligarta in Ba/rtho- 
loniew Fair, act ii. sc. 1. Mrs. Malaprop, 
as every one knows, gave the word a 
new twist into " an alhgory on the 
banks of the Nile." Pf^r contra, the 
lizard seemed to the Ettrick Shepherd 
a diminutive aUigator. 

There's nane [serpent] amang our mosses, 
only asks, which in a sort o' lizards, or wee 
alligators. — Nodes AnUirosiana, vol. i. p. 145. 

^All Saints' Wort, a popular name 
of the Hypericum Androsoimum, is a 
mistaken rendering of the French name 
tovte-saitie {Tutsan) "All-heal." 
• Britten and Holland, Eng, Plant- 
Names (E. D. Soc). 

Allyant, a variety of cdient, the old 
English spelling of alien, from a desire 
apparently to accommodate it to 
" alii ant or ally, one that is in league, 
or of kindred with one (Bloimt, 1656), 
sc. one's enemy." 

Yonder cometh Richmond over the fflood 
with many alluanh out of ffari: countrye, 

bold men of bone and blood ; 
the crowne of England chalengeth hee, 

PercQy Folio MS. vol. iii. p. 241, I. 115-148. 

Ifanya/i/ant in his absence durst aduen- 
ture him selucn to vi^itt or inuade, our most 
valiant realme. — Ibid, vol. i. p. tVy, I. 60. 

Halliwell and Wright [in Nares] 
while quoting "Among cUyaunles 
[z= strangers, aliens] he had easily 
cured very many of all kyndes of dis- 
eases" (Paraphrase of Erasmus, 1548), 
confound this word with aXlyaunte, 
aUied, akin, in More's Utopia^ 1551. 

Aliant, an ahen, occurs m Coverdale 
(Judges xix., Jer. viii.) and A. V. 1611 
(Job xix. 15, Lam. v. 2). 

Almeby, an old Eng. word for a 
cupboard, otlierwise spelt aunmj, " a 
Cupboard for the keeping of cold and 
broken victuals" or other atnis, as if 
for almonry, cf. " aiomebry or awmery, 
Ele^)iosinarium " (Prompt, Pa/rv.), It 
is the same word as Ger. aimer, quasi A. 
Sax. almerigc, Sp. almario and armario, 
Low Lat. almojria, armaria, Fr. 
armoire ; all (according to Diez) from 
Latin arnuirium, a chest for holding 

Almary or almery, Almarium. — Prompt, 

Aimer If of mete kepynge, or a saue for 
mete. Cibutum. — Ibtd. 

Almery, aumbry, to put meate in, unet 
almoires. — PaUgrave, 

Almond, is derived from Fr. amande, 
Proven9al amanda, and these from 
amandola, which was supposed to be a 
diminutival form, but really represen- 
ted the hatin amygdala (Qk. aftuySd\ri), 
The etymologicaUy correct form would 
be something like anuindel, cf. It. 
mandola, Ger. maruM, See Date. 

So the French angc has been formed 
from amj'Cl by dispensing with the 
supposed diminutival termination el 
(Philog. Soc, Proc, vi. 41). 

Alpine, a Cheshire name for the 
plant Sedum Telephium, is a corruption 
of Orpine (Britten and Holland, Eng, 
Plant-Names, p. 12, E. D. Soc), Fr. 
orpin, contracted from orpiment, which 
is from Lat. OAiripigmentum, with 
allusion to the golden-coloured flowers 
of one species. 

All-plaisteb, a provincial corrup- 
tion of alahast^ir (Yorkshire), which in 
old English is frequently spelt alor- 
blaster, cf. Yallow-plastee, infra. 

Her alahbster brest she soft did kis. 
Spenser, Faerie Queene, Bk. 111. 3, xlii. 

Ambergbease, a corruption of Fr. 
ambregris. Grey amber (gris amher. 


( 8 ) 


Milton, Fa/r. Beg. ii. 844). So verdi- 
grease for vert-de-gris. 

Jacobus de Dundis, the Aegrogntor, 
repeats ambergreese, nutmegs, ana all spice 
amongst the rest. — Burton, Anatomy of 
MeUtJicholy, 16th ed. p. 436. 

A mass of this Ambergreese was about the 
third year of King Charles found in this 
county [Cornwall J at low water. — Fuller, 
Worthies of England, vol. i. p. 206 (ed. 

A fat nightingale well seasoned with pep- 
per and ambergrease. — S. Marmion, The 
Antiqtuiry, activ. sc. 1 (1641). 

Ambrt, ") a cupboard or pantry, is 
AuMBBT, 3 the Fr. armoire, orig:in- 
allyachestinwliichan>2«werekept. The 
word was somotimes spelt almery, and 
being applied to the general receptacle 
of broken meat such as would be given 
in alms, was confounded with quite a 
different word, aumry or cdmonry, the 
office or pantry of the aic^nh'cre, 
awmnere, or almoner, the alma dis- 
penser. Wedgwood. 

Amobeide, ? old Scotch corruptions 
Emerant, S of the word emerald, 
O. Eng. emerand. The English word 
traces its origin to Gk. smaragdos, 
marngdos, which may be the same 
word as Sausk. marakata, a beryl, 
(FUrst), cf. Heb. hdrekeih, a beryl. (See 
Spealcer's Commentary, Ex. xxviii. 17.) 

Amperzand, an old name for **&,** 
formerly &, the contracted sign of et 
(izand); the Criss-Cross row of the 
old horn-books conmionly ending in 
X, y, z, &c, &. These final characters 
were read ** et cetera,'* ^^etper se, and,** 
\Vlien the modem & was substituted for 
&, tliis came to be read " and per se, 
and," of which amprrzand, amjms-and, 
fl/nipassy, are corruptions. Similarly 
the letters A, I, 0, when standing by 
tlicmsolves as words, were read in 
spelling lesROus "A per se, A," "I per 
se, I." Chaucer calls Crcseide "tlie 
floureand apn'se of Troio and Greco." 

Hut he observed in apology thnt it [z] 
wns a Ifttcr vou never wanted hnrdlv, and he 
thought it had only l)een jmt then; to finish 
oti'th'alphnbL't like, though am/7}/«-<iN(i would 
ha* done as well, for what he could see." — 
Adam Bede^ ch. xxi. p. §05. 

In the Holdemess dialect, E. York- 
sliire, it is called parsvyand. See And- 
pussY-AND, infra, 

Anbebby, or anbury or amhury. 

A kind of wen, or spongv wart, growing 
upon any part of a horse s body, full of 
blood. — The Sportsman's Dictionary, 1785. 

Lincolnshire nanherry, fi'om A. Sax, 
anipre, a swollen vein, which still sur- 
vives in the Dialects of Essex and the 
East counties as amper, and in the 
South-Eastem counties as anipery, de- 
cayed, unhealthy (Wright, Frovinciai 

)yri ampres were an mancyn ter his to-cyme 
[i.e. three blemishes were in mankind before 
His coming]. — Old, Eng, Homilies, XII, Cent, 
1 Ser. p. 237 (ed. Morris). 

Ampre may possibly be connected 
with old Eng. ample, ampvlle, a 
globular vessel, Lat. ampulla, some- 
thing inflated. Cf. Fr. ampoule, a 
smaU bUster, wheal, powke, or rising 
of the skin ((^otgrave). 

Anchovy owes its present form to a 
mistaken notion that anehoxnea or 
anchoveya was a plural, whereas our 
forefathers used formerly to speak of 
" an anchoveyes." 

Acciuga, a 6sh likea Sprat called Anchioues, 
—Florio, New World of Words, 1611. 

Anchoyts, ou Anchoies, The fish .inchoveyes, 

Anchoces (fish). Anchou, anchoies, 
anchoyes (poisson). — Sherwood, English' 
French Diet, 1660, 

We received the word probably from 
the Dutch, who call the fish anchov^is; 
but compare Fr. anchois, Portg. an- 
chova, &c. 

Ancient, an old and frequent cor- 
ruption of enaign, Fr. e^isigno, Lat. 
insignia, denoting (1) a flag or banner. 

Full of holes, like a shot ancient. — The 
Puritan, i. 2. 

It wart a spectacle extremely delightful to 
behold the Jacks, the iM'ndants, and the 
ancients sporting in the wind. — Don Quixote, 
p. .569(ed. 16tt7). 

(2) a standard-bearer. 

Tis one lago, ancient to the general. 

Othello, ii. 4. 

Master, Master, see you yonder faire ancyent ? 
Yonder is the serpent 6l the serjient's 
Percy, Folio MS, vol. i. p. 303. 1. 77. 

^^ Ensrinn/j, An Ensigne, Auniieni, 
Standard bearer." — Cot grave. 

Enst'igne, it would appear, was con- 
founded with an4^ien. 

This is Othello's ancient, as I take it. 

Othello, act v. sc. 1. 


( 9 ) ANOTHER QUE83 

Akdibon, whatever be the origin of 
this word, iron probably is no real part 
of it, as we see by comparing the old 
forms awndpme {Tromjptorium, 1440), 
atcndyem (Palsgrave, 1530), andyar 
(Horman, 1519), old Pr. andier^ emetine 
liow Lat. andena^ anderius. 

Farther corruptions are Endibons 
and Handibons. 

And-pdssey-and, "j Printers' names 
Ampus-and, J for the character 

Ampebzand, 5 &, are corrup- 
tions of the old expression, " and per 
se^ and," applied to it, I believe, in the 

The pen commandetb only twenty-eiz 
lettera, it can only ranee between A and Z ; 
these are its limits — I had forgotten and- 
pussey-and! — Southey^ Letterty vol. i. p. 

Popular etymologizing has busied 
itself here to some purpose. 

The sign & is said to be properly called 
Emperors Hand, from having been first in- 
vented by some imperi&l personage, but by 
whom the deponent saith not. It is com- 
monly corrupted into Ql Ampatcui, Zumpy 
Zedy Ann Passy Ann,—-Tne Monthly Pachetf 
vol. XXX. p. 448. 

The character was also sometimes 
called anpcusty, anpassy, anparee 
(Wright), t. e. " and per »c.'* 

Anoel-touche, an O. Eng. name for 
the earth-worm, is said by Nares to be 
firom the French anguille. More pro- 
bably it is the twitch (A. Sax. twicce)^ 
or worm for angling with. (See PhUo- 
logical Transactions for 1858, p. 98.) 

I made thee twine like an angle-twitch, 
— Mrs, Palmer f Devonshire Court^ipyp. 28. 

Tagwormes which the Cornish .English 
terme angle-touches, — Carew (^Couch, E, Com' 
umU Glossary), 

Anoeb nails, a Cumberland word for 
jags round the nails, as if connected 
with angry, in the sense of inflamed 
(Dickinson, Cumberland Glossary j E. D. 
Soc.) is a corruption of ang-nails. See 
Agnails supra, 

Akole-doo, in Prov. English a large 
earth worm, is a corruption of A. Sax. 

Aneyb, a borrowed word for a " re- 
cluse, Anachorita'* {Prompt. Parv,), Gk. 
ancuhdretes (a withdrawer, a hermit), in 
old Eng. and A. Sax. oncer, has been 
afidmilated, regardless of meaning, to 


the word ** anhyr of a shypi>e, Ancora, 
A. Sax. oncer. The A. Sax. word was 
probably regarded as a compound of 
an, alone, and cerran (zzversari), as if 
one who lives alone (qui solus versatur), 
like Gk. nUmachos (**monk"). Bos- 
worth actually ranges oncer as a deri- 
vative under an, one, alone. 

A curious piece of popular etymology 
is given in the Aihcren Riwle, ab. 1225. 

For )>i is anere icleoped ancre, & under 
chirche iancred ase ancre under schipes 
horde, uorte holden )>et schip, \>et u^en ne 
stormes hit ne ouerworpen. Al so al holi 
chirche, )>et is schip ic^ped, schal aticren 
o^er ancre \>ei hit so holde, )^t tes deofies 
puffes, )^t beolS temptaciuns, hit ne ouer- 
worpe. (P. 142.) 

[i^. For this (reason) is an anchoress called 
an anchoress, and anchored under the church, 
as an anchor under a ship's board, for to hold 
that ship, that waves or storms may not over- 
throw it. Even so all holy church, which is 
called a ship, shall anchoresses, or the anchor, 
so hold^ that the devirs puffs, which are 
temptations, may not overthrow it.] 

Lady Fayth ... is no Anhers, shee dwels 
not alone. 

Latimer, Sermons, p. 58 verso. 

Anny seed, a corrupted form of 
anise seed, quoted by Dr. Prior from 
The. Englishman^ Doctor', 

The Promptorium Parryulorum has 
" Aneys seeds or spyce, Anetiun, ani- 
sum " (o. 1440). 

Anointed, in provincial Eng. em- 
ployed to denote a worthless, reprobate, 
good-for-nothing fellow, e, g. " He's 
an anointed youth," in tlie Cleveland 
dialect nointed, has generally been un- 
derstood to be a perverted usage of the 
ordinary word, as if it meant conse- 
crated, sot apart, or destined to evil 
courses and an evil end. (So Mr. 
Atkinson, Glossary, s.v.) 

It is, without doubt, a corruption of 
the French anoiente (Roquefort) , another 
form of aneanti, brought to nothing, 
worthless, good for nothing. Wiclif 
has anyntiscJie, anentysch, to bring to 
nought, destroy (Ps. Ixxiv. 9, &c.) 

Anotheb guess, meaning different, 
of another description, dissimilar, is a 
corruption of the older phrase a/twther 
gates, or other gaies, i.e, other ways. 
Compare Scot, this gate, this way, 


( 10 ) 


This will never foil 
Wi' them that this gale woot»8 them. 
Ramsay, Christ s Kirk on the Green, 
canto ii. 
Our race to heaven [is] another gates 
business. — Frank, Sermotu, vol. i, p. 436. 

His hringing up [requires] another gates 
marriage tliun such a minion.— Li7/i/, Mother 
Bombie, act i. sc. 3. 

He would have tickled jou othergatts 
than he did,— Ttcel^'th Night, v. 1. 

Iludibras, about to enter 
Upon another gates adventure, 
To Ralpho calTd aloud to arm. 

Butler, Hudibras, Pt. I. canto iii. 

This is quite anoiher-guess sort of a place 
than it was when 1 first took it, my lord. — 
The Ctauilestine Marriage. 

You bean't g:iven to malting of a morn- 
ing — ^more's tlie pity — ^you would be another 
gtiea sort of a man if you were. — Tates by a 
BarrUur, vol. ii. p. ,353 (1»44). 

Iler's another gess 'oninn than Dame. — 
Mrs. Palmer^ Devonshire Courtship, p. 12. 

My lady Isabella is of anotherguess mould 
than you take her for. — Horace Walpoie, 
C<istle of Otranlo, ch. ii. 

8o Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield, ch. xix. 

1 am constrained to make another guesse 
divertisement. — Comical History of Francion, 

1 co'd make otherness musick with them. 
— Flecknoe, I Awe's Kingdom, 1664. 

Wolfe liarrington came. Quite another 
guess sort of pupil. — The Argosy, Dec. 1870, 
p. 447. 

Somewhat similarly "any h'^idest 
tiling,*' is a Devonshire phrase for 
" any kind-is thing " (an old genitive, 
A. Sax. cyiinca), and so old Eng. alkins, 
fw Jccnties, nonkyns, &c. 

Anthymn. Johnson's amended spell- 
ing of anthem, as if a hy^nn sung in 
parts or responsively {a7iH). It is so 
written by Barrow. The old forms 
are antcfni, atiicvie, antevipne, anfcjihne, 
A. Sax. aniifn, f^om Lat. and Greek 
antii^hona. It. and Sp. atUlfona, (Vide 
Blunt, Annotated Hook of Common 
Prayer, p. Ixii.) 

Fr. antienne, an antem. — Cotgrave, 
Hyuines that are song interchangeably 
in the Church, commonly called Aniemes, — 
Hanmer, Translation of Socrates, 1636. 

A volume that has run through 
many editions (Sullivan's Dictionary of 
JJenvaiions) actually gives as the origin 
anti and /it/^uwms, alleging the following 
passage from Bacon in support of it, 
** Severall ([uires, placed one over 
against another, and taking the voices 

by catches, antkenie-iiuse, gave great 

On Sondaies and holidaies masse of the 
day, besides our Ladymasse, and an an- 
thempne in the aft<Tuoone. — Orditiaunces 
made for the Kijt^es [^lien, VIII.'s] household, 

Efter hire viue hexte blissen tel in )>e 
antefnes. — Ancren Hiule (ab. 12'25), p. 4^, 

*' After her five highest joys count in the 
anthems," where another MS. has antempnes, 

Antient, a frequent mis-spelling, as 
if connected with Lat. antiquus, of 
ancient, which is a derivative of Fr. 
a/ncien, 0. Fr. ahupis^ It. anziano, Sp. 
anciano, Prov. ancian, all from Lat. 
ante ipsuni (Diez). It is the customary 
form in writers of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. 

So in this last and lewdest age 
Thy antient love on some may shine. 
Vaughan, Silei bcintillans, 1650. 

It must have been by a sUp of tlie 
pen that such an orthographical purist 
as Archbishop Trench S2)eaks of ** the 
antient world" in his latest work 
{MedicBval Church History, p. 303), as 
he elsewhere always uses the spelling 
** ancient." 

Anti-masque, so spelt as if denoting 
an interlude opposed {anti) as a foil or 
contrast to tlio more serious niasqve, 
was j)erhaps originally aiitick-mas/jue, 
a form put by Ben Jonson into the 
mouths of two of his characters. Bacon 
in his Essay Of Masques and TriumpJhs 
(1625), says of Anti- Masques, 

They haue been commonly of Fooles^ 
Satyres, Baboones, Wilde-men, Antiqtus 
(p. 5 W), ed. Arber). 

And Wright quotes antick^eui anti- 
masque from Ford. 

Sir, all our request is, since we are come, 
we may be admitted if not for a mnsque for 
an antic-masque. — Jonson, The Masque of 
Augurs (161^2), p. 631, Works (ed. Moxon). 

O Sir, all de better vor on antic-mask, de 
more absurd it be, and vrom de purpose, it 
be ever all de better. — Id. p. 632. 

Anxious, Barbabous, &c., a mis- 
spelling of anxivs, harbarus, to bring 
them into conformity witli such words 
as glorious, famous, odious, &c. (gloiuO' 
sus, famosus, odiosus). 

Apparent, in the phrase " heir ap- 
parent," would seem natuially to mean 
the manifest, evident, and unques- 
tioned heir, Lat. apparcns. 


( 11 ) 


Fabyan, however, writes it "heir 
pa/t'OMntf'' which Richardson thinks is 
for pcvrajvaunt, Fr. pa/ravant, before, in 
front (like pouraunter for paraventure). 
He understands apparent^ therefore, to 
be from old Fr. auparavcmt^ meaning 
the heir who stands foremost, or first 
in the order of succession. So Spenser 
speaks of one of the Graces. 

That in the midst was placed paravaunt. 
Faerie Queene, VI. 10. xv. 

In the Alliterative Poems (XIV. cent.) 
Sodom is described 

As aparaunt to paradis J^at plantted )>e 
diystyn.— B. 1. 1007. 

It may, however, only mean next of 
kin ; compare Fr. apparenie (from 
parens) of Kin, or neer Kinsman, 
imto. — Cotgrave. 

Apple-pie, in the phrase " Apple-pie 
order," seems to be a popular corrup- 
tion of cap-Ci-pie (Fr. de pied en cap), 
with reference to the complete equip- 
ment of a soldier fully caparisoned 
from head to foot. The ajyple-pie bed 
of schoolboys is an arrangement of the 
sheets by which head and foot are 
brought close together. 

Take an Englishm.on Capa pea^ from head 
to foot, every member lie hath is Dutch. — 
Hou:eU, Instructions for Forrein Traw//, 1642, 
p. 58 (ed. Arber). 

Appleplexy, a vulgar corruption of 
apoplexy, Polish in The Magnetic Lady, 
iii. 8, turns it into Juippyplex. 

But there's Sir Moth, your brother, 
Is fallen into a fit o' the happy plex, 
Ben Jonson, Works, p. 448 (ed. Mozon). 

Arbour, so spelt as if it described a 
bower formed by trees (Lat. arbor , a 
tree). Sydney, for instance, speaks of 
** a fine dose arbor " — 

It was of tre«f whose branches so interlaced 
each other that it could resist the stron^i^est 
violence of eye-sight. — Arcadia [in Richard- 

It is really a corruption of harbour, 
oldEug. herberwefthonghthe two words 
are distinguished in the following : — 

To seek new-refuse in more secret harbors 
Among the dark shade of those tufting arbors. 
Sylvester y Du Bartas, 1621, p. 194. 

They have gardens . . . with their harbers 
and bowers fit for the purpose. — Stubbes, Ana- 
tomie of Abuses, 1593. 

Wjmter, all thy de83rre is the belly to fyll : 
Betf were to be in a grene herber, where one 
may have his wyll. 
Debate betwene Somer and Wynter, 1. 58. 

An older form of the word is erbar 
or herber, which was used sometimes 
in the sense of a bower, sometimes in 
that of a garden, e. g, " Erbare, 
Herbarium,*^ — Prompt, Parvulorum, c, 

Of swuche fiures make )m his herboruwe 
wilSinnen \>e suluen. — Ancren Riwle (ab. 
W25), p. 340. 

" Of such flowers make thou his bower (or 
lodging) within thy self." The Latin version 
here has herbarium. 

Archangell, appears in company 
with various other birds in the Eoma/unt 
of the Rose (1. 915), "With finch, witli 
larke, and with archangell,'^ and trans- 
lates the French mesange (also vuwenge) 
a titmouse or titUng. — Cotgrave. 

The word was perhaps interpreted 
to be compounded of mes ( = plus) and 
ange, an angel. It is really a corrupted 
form of the Low German nieeseke^ 
Ficardian maisaiiigue, Icel. meisingr. 
Other forms are old Fr. nuisange, 
Wallach. masengc, Rouchi niasiw^ue. 

This corruption was the more 
natural from birds being often called 
angels by old authors in accordance 
with the saying of Thomas Aquinas 
" Ubi aves ibi angeli : " e,a. wariangle, 
an old £ng. name for the shrike or 
butcher-bird, Ger. uHrgengel, i.e. the 
worrying or destrojring angel (vid. 
Cotgrave, s. v. Ancrouelle) ; Ger. 
engelchen (Uttle angel), the siskin. 
Similarly G. Macdonald calls a butter- 
fly ** tlie flower-angel '* {The Seahoard 
Parish, p. 414). Compare 

The dear good angel of the spring, the night- 

Ben Jonson, Sad Shepherd, ii. 2. 

And aerie birds like angels ever sing. 
Bamabe Barnes, Spiritual Sonnets, x. 

Not an angel of the aire, 
Bird melodious or bird faire, 
[Be] absent hence. 
The Two Noble Kinsmen, i. 1. 1. 16 (1634). 

See Littledale's note in loco, and Prof. 
Skeat's note on Vision of Piers Plow- 
man, xviii. 24, 38, where he traces the 
idea of the excellence of birds to the 
expression " volucres cceH," the birds 
of heaven. Matt. viii. 20. 


( 12 ) 


Arghichogke, an old mis-Bpelling of 
arilcJioke (Tumor, Herhah 1551-1568), 
as if compounded with Gk. archi, 

** Artichoke " is itself a corrupted 
form of Fr. artichnuf, Sp. artich^fat It. 
articiocco, from Gk. artutikd, heads of 
artichoke (Devic). But compare the 
Arabian al charsjof, Sp. alcarcJwfa 
(DozVi Scheler), or Arab, al khardiuff 
as Eugelmaun transcribes it. 

The latter part of the word has been 
sometimes understood to refer to the 
core of tlie vegetable, which is likely to 
stick in the throat, and is in Lincoln- 
shire called the choak. 

It was sometimes spelt hartichoake, 
Oringoes, hartichoakeSy potatof^ pies, 
ProTocativi'H unto their luxuries. 
The Young Gallants Whirligiggf 16f9, 

Low. Lat. corruptions are articactuB 
and articodus, 

Archibiastrte, an old corruption 
of alchermstry in Norton's Ordinall of 
Akliem/ie, as if the chief of mmsirie.s 
or " arch-mystery " (see Mystery). Old 
Eng. alkamistre^ Old Fr. arqueniie, 

MftLstryefull, merveylous and Arehimastry 
Is the tincture of holi Alkimy: 
A wondf^rfull science, s^'crete rhilosophie. 
AshmoUf Theatrum Chemicum Brit, p. 13. 

In tlie Proheme to his curious poem 
Norton says : — 

This Hoke to an Alchimister wise 
Is a Boke of incomparable price. 

Op. Cit. p. 8. 
Florio gives ** Archimisiay an alchi- 
mist," and Archimia for Alchimia. 
Ni^c World of Words, 1611. 
Fuller says tliat Alasco, a Pole, 
Sought to repair his fortune's by associat- 
ing himself witti these two Arch-chemistg of 
England [viz. Dr. Dee and Kelley, the 
Alchemists]. — Worthies of England^ vol. ii. 
p. 473 (ed. 1811). 

Argosy, a ship, a merchant-vessel, 
is a corruption of liagoalvto, i, e. a vessel 
of Ragi)sa or Ita^^isa, influenced i)ro- 
bably by the classical Anjo in which 
Jason went in search of the golden 
fleece. The old Fr. argouain, the 
Ucutenant of a galley (Cotgrave), which 
would seem to be connected, is the 
same word as It. agtizzino, and a cor- 
ruption of nlguazil, Sp. alguacil, Arab. 
al'waztr, tlie \'izier (Devic). 

Your argosies witli portly sail . . . 

Do overjKJer the jwtty tralhckers, 

That curtsy to them. 

Merchant of Venicef i. 1. 1. 9. 

See, however, Douce, lUustraHont, 
in loco. 

Ark, recently used for citadel or 
stronghold, as if identical with ark, a 
place of safety (Lat. area), is a corrup- 
tion of Lat. arx (arcs), a defence, bid- 
wark (from arcro, to keep oil), seem- 
ingly mistaken for a plural. 

Lord Hartin^ton said that he had no infor- 
mation concerning the defences of (^andahar; 
but it \A well known that im ar/c, or citadel, is 
naturally untenable against aitillery. — ilie 
Standard, July 30, 1880. 

Armbrust, a corruption of a/rhalegt^ 
arhl^tst ; cf. old Dan. arhtirst, Icel. 
arm-hrysti, a cross-bow, Ger. amihrttstf 
as if an ami fired from the breast 

Arow-blaste, } an old spelling of 
Arweblast, \ the wo«i arhlast, 
arbalest {arcu-halisfa, bow-catapult), a 
cross-bow, as if derived from the old 
Eng. word anc(*, an arrow, and blasts 
to expel forcibly. Aroic-hlasfers is 
Wycliffe's word for crossbowmen, 2 
Kings, viii. 18. 

The form all-hlaicsiers occurs in 
Morte Arfhnre, 1. 2426 (c. 1440, E. E. 
T. S. ed.), airchlast (air-blast I) in 
William of PaJerne, 1. 268. 

Arquebuss, It. archihuso, arcobugioj 
is tlie Dutch ha^ck-hiisse or haeck-btiyse, 
Dan. ham-bossp, Ger. hakinhiich-sc, t. e. 
a gun, tnissc, Ger. I'iichse, fired from a 
hooked or forked rest, haeck, hage^ 
JiaJeen, Tlie word wlien borrowed was 
altered in form so as to convey a mean- 
ing in the vernacular, as if a derivative 
from arco, Lat. nrcvs, a bow. Hence 
tlie words arcohvgia, Fr. arquebus, 
Eng. arquebuss. Sir S. D. Scott, how- 
ever, thinks that the word was origi- 
nally arc-et-lnis, ** bow and barrel " 
(Dutch bus. Low Ger. bUssv) in one 
(The British Anny, vol. ii. p. 262), and 
so Zedler. It was sometimes called 
the arquebus a croc (Scott, p. 268). 
See also Spelman, Glossary, s. v. Boni- 

Arrant, thorough, downright, noto- 
rious, as applied to a knave or a fool, 
seems to be the same word as old Eng. 
and Scot, argh, arch, Scot, arrotc, A. 
Sax. carg, cowardly, Dan. arrig, arrant, 
rank, Ger. arg, Icel. argr, a coward 
(of. Gk. Mrgos, idle, lazy), conformed 


to old Eng. arrant, errauni, wandering 
about, vagabond. Low Lat. a/rna was a 
contemptuous term for a stupid, lazy, 
or mean-spirited person. — Spelvian, 
Glosaarium, s. v. 

PuaillaDimitas, )>et is, to poure iheorted, 
& to arch mid alle eni heih )>mg to undemi- 
men.—Aticren Riwle (ab. 12«5), p. 202 
(MS. C). 

Pusillanimity, that is, too ]>oor hearted 
and too cowardly withal any high thing to 

Dotterel. So do I, sweet mistress, or I am 
an errant fool. — May^ The Old Couple, iv, 1 

Old Eng. arght artoe, cowardly, lazy, 
Scot, arroiv, A. Sax, earg, Gk. drgos 
(a-ei'gos, not working), curiously cor- 
respond to arrow, the swift dart, O. 
Eug. arwe, A. Sax. earh, from earhf 
earg = Gk. drgos, swift. 

Arrow-root. The first part of the 
word is said to be a corruption of ara, 
the native name of the plant which 
yields this substance and grows in the 
West Indies. Arrow-root is also a popu- 
lar name for the arum (macula^tim), of 
which perhaps it is a corruption, though 
a kind of starch resembling arrow-root 
is actually made from its tubers. As a 
Suffolk name for the Achillea MilUr 
folium, it is a perversion ofya»TOM;-root, 
just as Green arrow is of Green yarrow 
(Britten and Holland, Eng. Flani" 
Naines, p. 17). 

Arsmetrick, a common old spelling 
(it is foimd in Lydgate and Chaucer) 
of the word arithmetic, as if it were the 
metric art. The Low Lat. form aria- 
inetica is probably from It. arismus, 
risma, for Gk. arithmds (number). Cf. 
Sp. resnia^ Fr. rame, Eng. " ream.** 

Arsmetrike is a lore : )>flt of figours al is 
& of draustes as me (lrawe)> in poudre: & in 
numbre iwis. 
5. Edmund Confessor, 1. 224 (ab. 1S05).— 
{Philolog. Soc, Trans. 1858, p. 77.) 

Arthur's Wain, an old popular name 
for the constellation of the Great Bear, 
has arisen, in aU probability, from a 
confusion of Arthur, Keltic Arth, Art, 
Arthwya {cf, Ard, high), the name of the 
legendary British prince, with Welsh 
arth, a bear, Irish art, the same word 
as Lat. arctus, Gk. arktos, a bear, 
especially the constellation so-called 
(whence our '* arctic*'), Sansk. riksha. 

(1) the bright, (2) a bear, (8) Ursa 
Major. Cf. Welsh aXban arthan, the 
winter solstice ; Arab. dMhh, a bear, the 
constellation. In particular, Ardurus 
(Gk. Arktouroa, the Bear-guard, a star 
in BoOtes) would readily merge into 
Arthurua. Gawin Douglas calls it 

Arthur's slow wain rolling his course round 
the pole. — Yonge, Hist, of Christian Names, 
iL 135. 

Similarly the Northern Lights were 
sometimes called *' Arthur's Host.** 

Arthur has long ag^ been suspected of 
having been originally the Great Bt>ar or the 
bright star in his tail. — Quarterly Reviev, vol. 
91, p. 299. 

Sir John Davies writing on the ac- 
cession of Charles I., says : — 

Charles, which now in Arthure's seatc doth 

Is our Arcturus, and doth g^ide the waine. 

Poems, vol. ii. p. 237 (ed. Grosart). 

Artoorafye, an old spelling of or- 
thography, as if compounded with art. 

How spellest thou this word Tom Couper 
In trewe artosrajue. 

Interlude of we four Elements (Percy Soc), 

p. 37. 

Ashore, a West country word for a- 

jar, i.e. on the jar (the phrase which so 

perplexed Mr. Justice Stareleigh), A. 

Sax. on cSrre, Old Scot, on cfiar, on the 


A Wiltshire girl I have heard ask 
her mistress, ** Shall I leave the door 
ashore, mam ? '* 

Ask, a provincial word applied espe- 
cially to keen biting winds, or Hask 
S pronounced ask) in the Holdemess 
lialect, E. Yorkshire, stiff, bitter, tart, 
is Icel. haskr, " harsh.** 

Aspect, an incorrect Scottish form 
of aspick, Fr. aspic the asp (Janmson). 

Aspio, a term of cookery for a species 
of jelly served as a condiment with 
dishes, Fr. aspic (as if from being cold 
as a snake or aspic I — Littr^), was so 
called from having been originally 
made with espic, or spikes of lavender, 
as one of its ingredients. — Kettner, 
Book of the Table, p. 47. 

Aspic, the herbe Spickenard or Lavander 
Spike. — Cotgrave, 

Ass-PARSLET, ) a popular name 
AssE-PERSELiE, > for the plant 


( 1* ) 



chervil. The first part of the com- 
pound is probably a corruption of old 
Eng. and Fr. ache^ parsley, such pleo- 
nasms being not uncommon. — Britten 
and Holland, Eng, Plant-NameSt 
p. 19. 

\\i]> alisaundre )>arnto ache & anjs. 
BoddekiTy Alteiig. DtchtungeUy p. 145, 1. 14. 

Aster, ) an old comiption of 

AsTUB, j EastcTy owing to a false 

derivation explained in the following 

quotation from Mirk's Festival of 

Englyasche Sennones. 

Hit is called a<( Mr Jav ... for welnjgin 
cb place hit is )>e maner to do \>e. fyre owte of 
lialle at \>is day, and ^ astur \>^ hath be 
alle J>e wvntur brend w* fyre and baked 
wt smoke, hit scball be )>is day araed w* grene 
rjsshes and sole flownis. 

AsieVy also spelt asiir, aistre, and 
esti'Py is an old Eng. word for a hearth 
or fire-place, 0. Fr. aistre^ L. Lat. 

So \>*- ye mowe w* a clene concience on 
attur day receyue )7e clene body of owrc 
Lorde Ihu criste. — Festiall of Englysshe 
Sermones, See Hampson, Med^ Aevi Aalend. 
vol. ii. p. 24. 

Two other popular etymologies of the 
word are given in th e Old EngUsh Homi- 
lies edited by Dr. K. Morris, **)»is dai is 
oleped estrene dai, )»at is aristes dai, for 
l^at ho >is dai aros of dea^e " (2nd Ser. 
p. 97), i. c. ** This day is called Easter 
day, that is, day of arising, because 
He arose from the dead on tiiis day." 

"^is dai is cleped esire dai )>at is 
estone da, and te esf^ is husel" {Ilnd. p. 
99), i,c. "This day is called Easter 
day, that is, day of dainties, and the 
dainty is the housel." 

AsTEBiBKS, for hysterics in the lan- 
guage of the street folk. 

** Leniontation of Judy for the loss of her 
dear child. She goes into asterishy" says a 
Punch and Judy exhibitor in Mayhew's 
lAmdon Labour and the London Foopy vol. iii. 
p. 55. 

Compare Stebaeles. 

AsTONY, ) These, as weU as 0. 

Astonish, f Eng, a«/one (Chaucer), 
are perversions of astound (regarded 
porhai)S as a past participle astoun-cd)y 
A. Sax. astundiany to stupefy (cf. stunt, 
stupid, sfuniauy to stun, or stupefy), 
and assimilated to Fr. estonncTy "to 
astonisli, amaze, daimt, ... to sionnyy 
bcnum, or dull the sencos *' (Cotgravc), 

as thunder does, from a hypothetical 
Latin px-tonare. Thus astonind was 
regarded as equivalent to tliunder- 
struck (Gk. enihronfMos), dund<r-7i€ad 
(=num-skull), Massinger, The Picture, 
u. 1. 

Besides astonied (A. V. Job, xvii. 8), 
we find astonyid^ asfoneyedy Wycliffe 
(Lev. xxvi. 82, Deeds ii. 6), stoneid, 
stoneydy stonycd (Ibid. Gen. xxxii. 32, 
Matt. X. 24), astonnedy HaU (Rich. IIL, 
fol. 22 b) North speaks of Alexander 
being astoniody i.e. stunned, with a 
blow from a dart on his neck (Plutarch , 
p. 751), and Holland of the torpedo 
being able to astonish, or benumb, those 
that touch it. 

Astonyedy or a-stoyned yn mannys wytte. 
AttonituSy constematus, stupefactus, per- 

Astoynyn, or brese werkys (al. astoyn or 
brosyn). Quatio. — Promptorium Parvuiorum 
(c. 1440). 

Vor her hors were al astoiiedy & nolde af^er 

Sywe no)}er spore ne brydel, ac stode )>er al 

Robert of Gloucester , Chronicle (ed. 1810), p. 


An old MS. recommends " ooste " as 

a Ruffreyn remedie for sciatica and to ]« 
membris |jat ben a-itonyed. — A. Way, Prompt, 
Parvuiorum, p. 94, note 4. 

Attendant, Defendant, Confidant, 
&c., for the more strictly correct forms 
aitendent (Lat. aitenden{t)-s)y defendeni 
(defenden{t)'S)y &c., from the mistaken 
analogy of words like inhabitaniy vigi- 
lant, viilitant, igrioranfy arrogant., from 
Lat. inhahitan(J)-s, vigU<in(f)-s, &c. 
Itespondrnt, correspoTidcnf, preserve 
their primitive form. 

Attic, the name given to a room at 
the top of the house, Fr. attique, has no- 
thing to do with an Attic style of archi- 
tecture. It seems to have been bor- 
rowed from the Hindus, as it closely 
corresponds to Sanskrit at't'al'<i (in 
modem pronunciation at talc), the 
highest room of an Indian house, from 
a'ti'a, high, lofty. (Heb. attih a portico, 
can be only a coincidence.) Prof. Gold- 
stiicker (Philological Transactions for 
1864, p. 96). Similarly verandah, 
Portg. varanday is from Sansk. varanda, 
a portico. 

Eev. Isaac Taylor is therefore mis- 
taken in tracing the Attics of a house 


( 15 ) 


to the tipper tiers of columns displayed 
in Attic architecture {Words a^td rlaces^ 
p. 424, 2nd ed.). 

Attone, a very frequent old spelling 
of atone^ to set at one those that are at 
two, L e, at variance, as if to at-toney 
to bring them to the same tone^ or into 
concord, to harmonize. 

Accordeff to accord, — to attorney reconcile 
parties in difference. — Cotgrave, 

Attmtementy a louing again after a brcache 
or falling out. — Barety Aloearity 1580. 

High built with pines that heaven and earth 
G. Chapmaiiy Odysteyty 1614, Bk. iz. 1. ZG6, 

He that brought peace and discord could 
Drydeny Poem on Coronatiany 1661, 1. 57. 

I am comming forth to make attonement 
betwixt them. — R, Bemardy Terence in 
Kngitshy 1641. 

White seemes fayrer macht with blacke 
attone. — Spenser , F. Queen ey 111. ix. 2. 

For the old use of atone compare — 

|>i8 Kyng & )>e Brut were at on, 

Robert of Gloucestery p. 13. 

If my death might be 
An off'ring to atone my God and me. 
Quarlesy EmblenUy iii. 6 (163o). 

I was glad I did atone my countryman and 

Cymbelmey i. 4, 1. 42 (Globe ed.). 

Udal speaks of a " triactie of atone- 
mente** (ErasniuSy Luhcy p. 118), and 
Bp. Hall of 

Discord 'twixt agreeing parts 

Which never can be set at onement more. 

Satiresy iii. 7 (ed. Singer, p. 68). 

Fleshely action .... doth set foes at 
freendship, vnanimitie, and atonement. — 
A. Fleming, Caiuss Eng, Dogges, 1576, p. ^ 
(repr. 1880). 

AuELONQ, also afvelon^fCy aweylonge, 
an old English word defined ohlongus in 
the PromptoriumPanmlorumy elsewhere 
a/velongey Suffolk avellong, as if com- 
pounded with A. Sax. av:ohy oblique, 
is an evident corruption of oblong, 

AuBEOLE. A luminous appearance 
encompassing the head of a saint in 
Christian art is termed an *' aureole.*' 
This is generally imagined to represent 
the classical Latin aureola (sc, corona), 
a diminutive of aurea, and to mean 
"a golden circlet," as indeed it is 

fenerally depicted. It is highly pro- 
able, however, that, not aureolay but 

areola (a little halo),* a" diminutive of 
areOy is the true and original form, 
areole in French, and that the usual 
orthography is due to a mistaken con- 
nection with auruniy gold, just as for 
the same reason urina became, in 
Italian, avrina,^ It. a/rancio became Fr. 
orange, L. Lat. ponia awrantia; Gk. 
oreich-alcos became Lat. aurlcJuiIcuvi, 
This is certainly more likely than that 
it is a diminutive of attra, a luminous 
breath or exhalation, which is the view 
put forward by Didron in his Chria- 
tian Iconography (p. 107). He quotes 
a passage from an apocryphal trea- 
tise, De Transitu B, Maries Virginis, 
which states that **a brilliant cloud 
appeared in the air, and placed itself 
before the Virgin, forming on her brow 
a transparent crown, resembling the 
aureole or halo which surrounds the 
risiag moon" (p. 137). Here, ob- 
viously, areola would have been the 
more correct word to have employed, 
and it is the one which recommended 
itself to De Quincey. He writes — 

In some legends of saints we find that 
they were born with a lambent circle or 
golden areola about their heads. — Workt^ 
vol. XV. p. 39. 

So correct a writer would not have 
applied the superfluous epithet of 
"golden" to this " supernatural halo," 
as he subsequently terms it, if the 
word were to him only another form 
of aiireola. 

From liis use of the word in "Queen 
Mary" (act v. sc. 2), it might be 
supposed that Tennyson connected 
" aureole " with amrum — 

Our Clarence there 
Sees ever such an aureole round the Queen, 
It gilds the greatest wronger of her peace. 
Who stands the nearest to her. 

George Macdonald has been in- 
fluenced apparently by the same idea. 

The aureole which glorifies the sacred 
things of the past had gathered in so golden 
a hue around the memory of the holy cot- 
tager. — David Elginbrody p. 26.5. 

Aureolay in the ecclesiastical sense 

* This bright phenomenon was called by 
the Romans area — a word which runs exactly 
parallel with the Greek haldsy meaning 
(1) a plot of ground, (2) a threshing-floor, 
(3) a nnlo round one oz the heavenly bodies. 

• Florio, s. V. 


( 16 ) 


of a golden discns, is not found in 
MedisBval Latin {vide Da Cange). Dr. 
Donne, who anderstands by it a croum 
of gold, traoes its origination as fol* 
lows — 

Because in their Translation, in the 
Tuleat Edition of the Roman Church, thej 
find in Exodus [xxv.25] that word Aureolam^ 
Fades Coronam aureolamy Thou Hhalt make 
a lesser Crowne of gold ; out of this diminu- 
tive and mistaken word, they have established 
a Doctrine, that besides those Corona aurea^ 
Those Crownes of eold, which are communi- 
cated to all the &int8 from the Crown of 
Christ, Some Saints have made to them- 
selves, and produced out of their owne ex- 
traordinary merits certaine A ureulasj certain 
lesser Crownes of their own, whereas in- 
deed the word in the orij^inall in that place 
of Exodus is Zer Zehaby which is a Crowne 
of gold, without any intimation of any such 
lesser crownes growing out of themselves. 
— LXXX., SermoMy p. 743, fol. 1640. 

AxEY, a provincial word for the ague 
used in Sussex and in the Eastern 
States of America (L. J. Jennings, 
Field Paths and Green Lanes ^ p. 46), 
is a corruption of access (perhaps re- 
garded as a plural), Fr. access a fit or 
attack of illness, '* accez de fiehure, a 
fit of an ague," Cotgrave, Lat. acces' 

Feveree, ajf«, and the blody flyx [pre- 
vailed] in djrverse places of Euglonde. — 
Warkuorth's Chronicle, p. 23, ab. 1475 
(Camden Soc.). 

\Vyth love's axeeue now wer they bote, 
now colde. 

Bocluu, Fall ofPrineei (in Wright^ 
Prov. Diet,), 

Thou dost miscall 
Thy phvsick ; pills that change 
Thy sick Aceewons into setlea health. 
H, VaughaUy Silex Scintillans, 1650. 

Aymont, an old English word for a 
diamond, occurring in Dan Michel's 
Aycnhiie of Inwyt (or Remorse of Con^ 
science), 1340 (E. E. T. S. ed.). 

Hi de8pende)> follich hare guodes ine 
ydelnesses uor host of >e wordle ac uor to 
yeue uor god hy byeth harde ase an aymont, 
-p. Ib7. 

(i. e. " They spend their goods foolishly 
in idleness for boast of the w^orld, but 
for to give for God they be hard as a 
diamondy or as adamanf") 

So the MS., but Mr. Morris, the 
editor, tliinks it necessary, for clear- 
ness' sake, to print it ** an \di] aymont.'* 
There can be little doubt, however, 

that there is no omission in the Bf S., 
and tliat aymont is the old French 
aymnni or aimant (cf. Sp. iwwn), which 
seems to have been a more customary 
form tlian diamante Cotgrave gives 
" OAm^ini, a lover, a servant, a sweet- 
heart; also, the Adam^ant, or Load' 
stone J** " Diamant, a Diamond ; also, 
the Loadstone : {instead of Aymanf),** 
He also has " Guideymurit, the needle 
of a sea-compasso." " Diamond," Fr. 
diamant, and "adamant,'* are both 
(as is well known) derivatives of the 
Latin adamus, adam^ntis, Gk. addtnas, 
" the invincible," the diamond, later 
the magnet. The French form affords 
an interesting example of a word being 
corrupted in accordance with a popu- 
lar acceptation. The adamant, or load- 
stone, on account of its attractive 
power in drawing iron to itself, and 
the steady affection with which it 
remains true to tlie pole, was regarded 
as the lomng stone, and transformed 
into aimant. That this popular con- 
ception is not a mere assumption, but 
one widely traceable even in our own 
language, the following quotations will 
make plain — 

How cold tliis clime! and yet my sense 
Perceives even here tliy influence. 
Even here thy strong mag^etick charms I 

And pant and tremble like the amorous 
John NorriSy Miscellanies (1678), The 

In Chinese the magnet is called 
"the affectionate stone " (Kidd, China, 
p. 871), in Sanskrit "tlie kisser," 
cumhaka. ** \Vliat loadstone firet 
touched the loadstone ? " is one of a 
series of posers that Thomas Fuller puts 
to the naturalists of his day, " or now 
first /?ZZ it in love with tlie Isorth, rather 
affecting that cold climate than the 
pleasant East, or fruitful South, or 
West ? " 

[A wider question is that proposed by 
Charles Kinffsley, ** What eflScient cause is 
there that all matter should attract matter 1 
, , . If we come \o Jinal causes, there is no 
better answer than the ohi mystic one, that 
God ha8 imprest the \a\w of Low, which is 
the Law ol His own being, on matter." — 
Ijctters and Mcmorits oj his Life, vol. ii, 
p. 67.1 

Is there anything: more heavy and unapt 
for motion than iron or steel ? yet these do 



80 run to their beloved loadstone u if they had 
a sense of desire and delight. — Bp. Hall 
(1634), Works, vol. xi. p. 93 (Oxford ed.). 

Sylvester says of the loadstone, that 
it acts 

With unseen bands, « with Tndiscemed 

With hidden Force, with sacred secret 

Wherewith he wooes his Iron Misteriss^ 
And never leaves her till he ^et a kiss ; 
Nay, till he fold her in his faithfiill bosom, 
Never to part (except we, loue-less, loose- 
With so firme zeale and fast affection 
The stone doth bue the steel, the steel the stone, 
Du Bartas, Diuine vVeekes and Worket^ 
p. 67 (1621, fol.). 

Th' bidden loue that now-adaies doth 

The Steel and Loadstone, Hydrargire and 

Golde ; . . . . 
Is but a spark or shadow of that Loue 
Which at the first in everything did moue. 

Ibid, p. 202 (fol.). 

The Anglo-Norman poet Philippe de 
Thaun, in his Bestiary, about 1125, 
says that the loadstone is a symbol of 
the Incarnate Lord. 

D^ en guise d*aimant fud, puis que en char 

fud aparut . . . 
Si cum la pere trait le fer, e Jhesu Christ nus 

traist d "en fer. 

Wright y Popular Treatises on Science in 
Mid. Ages, p. 126. 

** God was in ^ise of loadstone when be ap- 
peared in ffesh . . . 

As the stone draws the iron, so Jesus Christ 
us drew from hell." 

If it be a mysterious thing 
Wliy Steel should to the Loadstone cling ; 
If we know not why Jett should draw 
And with such kisses hug a straw. 

Howell, Familiar Letters, Bk. iv. 44 
What makes the loadstone to the North ad- 

uance? . . . 
Kind Nature first doth cause all things to 

Loue makes them daunce and in iust order 


Sir John Davies, Orchestra, 56 (1596). 

What was the loadstone, till the use was 

But a foul dotard on a fouler mistress ? 

T, Randolph, The Muses* Looking Glass, 
iii. 2 (1638). 

On the other hand, it may be re- 
marked as illustrative that the attrac- 
tive power of love is often compared to 
that of the magnet. 

I find that I love mv Creator a thousand 
degrees more than I /ear him ; methinks I 
feel the little needle of my soul touched with 
a kind of magnetical and attractive virtue, 
that it always moves towards Him, as being 
her summum bonum, the true center of her 
Happiness.— i/oii>«//, Bk. ii. 53 (1639). 

Milton, speaking of women, says they 
are — 

Skiird to retire, and, in retiring, draw 
Hearts after them tangled in amorous nets. . . 
Draw out with crediuous desire, and lead 
At will the manliest, resolutest breast. 
As the magnetick [== magnet] hardest iron 
Paradise Regained, Bk. ii. 1. 161-169. 

On this passage the commentators 
quote — 

But if the fair one once look upon you, 
what is it that can get you from nert she 
will draw you after her pleasure, bound hand 
and foot. Just as the loadstone draws iron, — 
Lucian, Imagines. 

Flagrat anhela silex, et amicam saucia sentit 
^l&tcriem, placidosque chalybs cognoacit amores. 
Sic Venus, etc. 

Clauaian, Idyllium, 

That a stone so named should be 
esteemed of sovereign virtue in love- 
charms is quite in accordance with 
popular logic. The following hint to 
jealous husbands is given in a chap- 
book entitled Lea Admdrdbles secreia 
du Chrand Albert, 

Si un homme veut savoir si sa femme est 
chaste et sage, qu'il prenne la pierre que Ton 
appelle aimant, qui a la couleur du fer, . . . 
qu il la mette sous la tdte de sa feiiime ; si 
elle est chaste et honnete elle embrassera son 
mari, si non elle se jettera aussit6t hors du 
lit. — Nisard, Histoire des Livres Poputaires, 
tom. i. p. 161. 


Baccalaureate, the adjectival form 
of ** bachelor," pertaining to the degree 
of bachelor at a imiversity, Fr. hacca- 
la/urSat, late Latin haccalaurius, as if 
one crowned with a ohaplet of ZouraZ 
berries {baccm lavri), a corruption of 
Low Latin bcicccdariuB (see Spelman, 
OlosscMrmm, s.v.). Of. It. bacccdcuro and 
baccaMo, a kind of laurel or bay ; Fr. 
bacheUer. The original meanine^ of 
baccala/riu8 seems to have been (1) the 
proprietor of baccalaria (in L. Latin of 
ninth cent.), a rural domain, properly a 
cou;-farm, from bcLcca, a medueval form 


( 18 ) 


of Lai vcMca (and so in Italian, Florio); 
(2), a young knight who takes service 
under a superior ; (8) a young man of 
inferior dignity; (4) an unmarried 
youth. Gf. Wallon, hoMchelle, a young 
girl (Sigart). 

A sounder man 
In mind and body, than a host who win 
Your baccalaureate honours. 

£. C. Stedmarij Lvrics and IdulUy 1879, 
The Freshet, 

The haccalcmreus was perhaps re- 
garded as one who had successfully run 
Sie gantelope of aU his examiners, with 
reference to the Latin proverb, "Bacu- 
lum la/ureum gesto ** (I carry the staff 
of bays), said of those who having been 
plotted against, happily escaped the 
danger (Erasmus, Adagia). Others 
have imagined that he who had ob- 
tained his first degree at the university 
was said to have gained a herry of the 
hay, an earnest of the entire chaplet. 
Dante says : — 

11 bacceilier s' anna, e non parla, 
Fin che 1 maestro la quistion propone. 

raradisoy xxiv. 46. 
The bachelorj who arms himself, 
And speaks not, till the master have pro- 
The question. Carey, 

Baokrao, and Bagbag, an old name 
for the wine produced at Bacha/rach on 
the Bhine. 

I*m for no tongues but dry'd ones, such as 

Give a £ne relish to my backrag. 

Old Piayg, vol. ix. p. 28t (in Wright). 

Bacharach is said to be a corruption 
of Bcuxhi cvra, having been of old a 
favourite seat of the wine god. — C. 
Bedding, On Winest p. 215. 

Backstone, a north coimtry word 
for a girdle or griddle, also spelled haJc- 
Stan, is a corruption of the 0. Norse 
haJesfjdrn, i.e, "bake-iron." 

Badges, an old word for " one that 
buys com or other provisions in one 
place in order to sell them in another, 
a Huckster " (Bailey), still used provin- 
oially for a dealer, has been confoimded 
with hadger^ the name of the animal, 
which is an AngUcized form of Fr. hla- 
diet (orig. hladger) a corn-dealer ; Low 
Lat. hladarius, whence also its Fr. 
name hlaireau (Skeat, Wedgwood). 
Tliis false analogy has actually led 

Webster to connect broker with hroekf 
a badger ! 

To badger was orig. to barter, to 
haggle with. The woid is a disguised 
form of Old Eng. bager^ beger^ a buyer 
(from buggen^ A. 8. hjcgav^, to buy), 
with an intrusive (2, as m ridge (North. 
^gg)i bridge (brig), ledger, abridge^ 

De heger bet litil )>ar-fore =sthe buyer bid- 
deth little for it. — Old Eng, HomiUetj vol. ii. 
p. 213. 

(See Dr. B. Morris, Address to Philc- 
log, 8oc. 1876, p. 17.) 

We have fellows amon^ us, the engrosscnrs 
of com, the raisers of price, sweeping away 
whole markets; we call these badgers, — 
Adamsy SermonSf i. 17. 

Fuller says ^* Hi^^lers, as bajulating them 
\i.e, carrvin]? provisions! to London— -Hence 
Bagers.— Worthies of England, vol. ii. p. 381 
(ed. 1811). 

Holland has *'a kinde of hucksters or 
badgers," — Camden's Brittania, p. 555, fol. 

One of the duties of the *^ Maire of Bris- 
towe *' was to assist and counsel the bakers 
** in theire byeng and bargaujmg with the 
BagerSy such as bryneeth whete to towne, as 
wele in trowys, as otnerwyse, by lande and 
by water." — English Gilds (ed, Toulmin 
Smith), p. 424 (E. E. T. S.). 

Wee will ryde like noe men of warr ; 
but like poore badgers wee wilbe. 
Percy, Folio MS. vol. ii. p. 205, 1. 30. 

Licences to "badgers" to buy and 
sell com are foimd among the Quarter 
Sessions records of the time of Queen 
Elizabeth.— A. H. A. Hamilton, Hi§t. 
of Quarter SeseionSy p. 26. 

Ill Queen Anne*s reign one Biohard 
Tulling is licensed in Devonshire to be 
" a common Drover of Cattle, Badger, 
Lader, Kidder, Carrier, and Byer of 
Come.'*— Jd. p. 270. 

Bad-monet, > north country words 
Bawd-money, { for the plant Gen- 
tian, are corruptions of its name Bald- 
MONET, which see. 

Baffle, so spelt as if a verbal fre- 
quentative formation similar to rc^, 
shuMey enufflcy stijky &c. (Haldeman, p. 
178), has not been satisfactorily ex- 

Dr. Morris rightly remarks that 
^^Baffledy as appHed by a Norfolk pea- 
sant to standing com or grass beaten 
about by the wind, or stray cattle, adds 


( 19 ) 


greatly to our knowledge of the modem 
term " (Address to Philoha, Soc^ 1876, 
p. 16). Older forms of the word are 
hafful (Hall, Chron.; Spenser, F. Q. 
VI. vii. 27) and baffoule, 

A religrion that baffoulet all Temporal 
Princes.— Bp. Hall, Worhy fol. 1634, p. 

These are from Fr. haffouer (and haf- 
foler, adds Nares), " to baffle, abuse, re- 
vile, disgrace, handle basely in terms " 
(Cotgrave). Iholdthis6a/rouer(6a/foZer) 
,to be contracted from has-fouler, to 
trample down, just as haculer, haccoler 
(Cotgrave) is from has-culer. The orig. 
meaning, then, would be to trample 
upon, afterwards to ill-treat, or put to 
scorn (a recreant knight, &c.). Prof. 
Skeat and Wedgwood, with less likeli- 
hood, deduce the word from a Scottish 
verb hoAichle, to treat contemptuously. 

Bering winds are perhaps from Old 
Fr. beffler, to deceive ; It. heffanre. 

Baooaoe, a contemptuous term for a 
worthless woman, a wench following a 
camp, as if a mere encimibrance, like 
Ger. lumpenpacky Dutch sioute zak^ a 
saucy wench, a naughty pack (Sewel, 
Dutch Did. 1708), is a naturalized form 
of Fr. hagasse, **a baggage, quean, 
jyll, punke, flirt " (Cotgrave) ; It. hag- 
ascia, Sp. hagaaa. Old Fr. haiasse, a 
woman of light character. These words 
seem to be connected with Arab, hdgi^ 
a word of the same meaning, hagez 
shameful. In Sanskrit hJtaga is lewd- 
ness (vulva), and hhaga-bhaksJiaka, a 

Y<ro baggage, let me in ! 

Comedy of Errorgy iii. 1. 

The English word was very probably 
associated with the old Eng. hagage, 
meaning scum, dregs, refuse, just as 
drab is akin to drqff. 

When brewers put no bagage in their 

G. Gatcoigne, The Steel GUu, 1. 1082, 1576 

(ed. Arber). 

Scum off* the green baggage from it and it 
will be a water. — Lupton, lliousand Notable 
Thingt [in Nares]. 

Hacket speaks of ''a baggage wo- 
man'' (LiJQ of WilUams, ii. 123 [Da- 
vies, 8upp. Eng, Oloss,] ). 

Bairn-wort, ^ names for the com- 

Ban-wood, S mon daisy in the 

develaad district, are corruptions of 

an older name, but whether this was 
A Sax. bdn-wyrt (bone- wort), or an old 
Eng. bane-wort, or some other word, is 
not easy to determine. Perhaps b&n, 
bone, here may be a perversion of 
belUs, the Latin name, just as 2>on-fire 
or 6one-fire is for bosl-fyr, [?] In the 
North of England the daisy is still 
known as the bonejknippr (Britten and 
Holland, Eng. Tlant-Names, p. 67). 

Balance, in etymological correctness, 
ought to be spelt bilance, being the 
same word as It. bilancia, Lat. hilanc-s 
(bilanx), lit. a pair (bis) of scales (lanx). 

The French balance, which we have 
adopted (Prov. bala/ns, Sp. baZanza), 
seems to have been altered, under the 
influence of a false analogy, to O. Fr. 
balant. Mod. Fr. ballant, oscillating, 
hanging — Fr. baler, Wallach. baJ>er, It. 
boMcure, to dance up and down. 

The French, however, have retained 
the proper form in the book-keeping 
term bilan, a balance-sheet of debit 
and credit. 

Bald-eterrow, a curious North of 
England name for the plant ArUherms 
CoiuUi, is a corruption of Balder Brae, 
so called from its whiteness resembling 
the dazzling brow of Baldur, the north- 
em sim-god (Britten and Holland, 
Eng. Plant-Names, p. 23). 

. Compai'e Swed. boMershra, Icel. Bal- 
drs-brd, and old Eng. Baldar herbe 
(Cockayne, Leechdonis, iii. zxxi.). 

Bald-monet, ) popular names for 
Bawd-monet, I tne plant Mew (Me- 
um Aihatna/nHcum), are corruptions of 
its old Latin name valde bona, *' very 
good ** (Prior). For the change of 6 
to m, compare mona dies, an old French 
perversion of bona dies (Cotgrave) ; It. 
vermena, Lat. verbena; 0. Eng. prirnet, 
now privet ; Lat. mandibula, Sp. ban- 
dibula: A. Sax. hrdamn, Eng. raven; 
temiagant, Fr. Tervagant; cormorant 
and corvorant, &c. Britten and Hol- 
land agree with Sir W. J. Hooker 
that the flrst part of the word is a cor- 
ruption of Baldii/r, the Apollo of the 
North, to whom this plant (like Bal- 
der's Brae) was dedicated (Eng. Plant- 
Names, p. 23). 

Balled, the old form of baJd (ballid, 
Wycliffe, Levit. xiii. 41), as if to denote 
round, smooth, and polished, like a 


( 20 ) 


hiVdard'hall (Tyrwhitt, Biohardson) ; 
•• hcUlyd, calvns," Prompt, Parv, (cf. 
" halhetVt or pleyn,*' Id, ; 0. Eng. 60/3, 
smooth?). Bal-d seems to be the same 
word as Welsh hal^ white-streaked, 
Lith. halu^ Gk. phal-ioSt white (cf. 
Gmnberl. hoh/f a white-marked horse ; 
W. Comw. oaH-eye, a white or wall- 
eye). Baldr, the white smi-^od, is pro- 
bably near ^dn. — Thorpe, N. Myth, i., 
185. The nominant quality therefore 
of a hairless head is its gleaming sur- 

His head was balled and schon as eny fi^Iaa. 
Chaucer, C. T, Prologue, 1. 198. 

Robert of Gloucester says that William 
the Conqueror was 

Gret-wombede & hailed^ & bote of euene 

Morrii, Specimens, p. 15, 1. 408. 
Whanne the pie sawe a balled or a pilled 
man, or a woman with an big^he forhede, the 
pie saide to hem, **ye spake of the ele." 
—Knight of La Tour Landry, p. ft 
(E. E. T. S.). 

Ballzzhead, occurs in K. Ah/aaunder, 
L 6481. 

Balliabds, Spenser's orthography of 
•• billiards," as if from the halls that 
rame is played with (Mother Huhberd's 
Tale), whereas its name is really de- 
rived from tlie French hillard, the cue ; 
hillot, hille, a stick. 

Balm-bowl, a Cleveland word for a 
vase de chamhre (matella), Mr. Atkin- 
son compares an Icelandic hamhur, a 
pot or bowl (Haldorsen), and thinks 
there may be a connexion with the 
Teutonic harme. But this seems 

Balsamtnte is an old name of the 
plant (tanaceium) halsamifa, of which 
it seems to be a mere modification 
(Britten and Holland). 

Bandog, as if a dog banned or cursed 
for its savageness, was originally a 
hand'dog, i.c. one bound or chained : 
Fr. chien handi, Dutch, band-hond. So 
the *' lime-hound ** was one held in a 
leash {liam, 0. Fr. liavien, Lat. liga- 
men). But the Danish bonde-hund 
seems to be the husbandman's (bonde) 
dog, a farm-dog. Tie-dog was another 
name for an animal of unusual fierce- 

As a iie'dag I will muzzle him. 
Death oj'H, hjarl of Huntingdon, 1601. 

Mastivey BaHdtit, Molosima. 

Buret,* Aloearie, 1580. 

We han great Bandoss will teare their akina. 
Spemer, Shepheard^s Calender, Sept, 

Make bandog thy scoutwatch, to barke at a 

Tusser, Five Hundred Pointet, 1580 
(rd. E. D. Soc. p. SO). 

The tie>dog or band-dog, so called bicause 
manie of them are tied up in chaines and 
strong: bonds, in the daie time, for dooing 
hurt abroad. — Harrisim, Description of Eng- 
land, pt. ii. p. 44. 

See also Caius, Of Englishe Doggeg^ 
1576. p. 43 (repr. 1880). 

The fryer set his fist to his mouth 

And whuted whues three : 
Halfe a hundreth good band-dog$ 

Came running over the lee. 
\ Robin Hood and the Curtail Fryer, 

Bands, a frequent misspelling of 
banns {i,e, proclainations) of marriage, 
with evident allusion to the bonds or ties 
of matrimony. More than once I have 
received a written request from rustio 
couples to have their " bands put up." 
Dan Michel calls the married **y- 
bounde mid hende,*^ bound with a band. 
—AyefMe oflmcyt, p. 220 (1840). 

Art and industry can never marry those 
things whose hands nature doth forbid.— 
Fuller, Truth Maintained, 1613, p. 10. 

The brethrein ordained Mr. Robert Wat- 
Boune to proclaime hir 6a n Wis, and to proceed 
with the manage. — Presbi^teryBookoJ Strath- 
bogie, p. 1 (1631), (Spalding Club). 

Banisters, a very common corrup- 
tion of balusters when placed as a 
guard to a staircase, perhaps from a 
supposed connexion with Prov. Eng. 
ban, to stop, shut in, bannin, that which 
is used for shutting or stopping (Somer- 
set). Balusters, Fr. halustres, seem to 
have been originaUy the same as Low 
Lat. halistarice, the shot-ports for 
smaller cross-bows (balistce) along the 
gunnels of the medieval galley (see 
Yule, Ser Marco Poh, vol. i. p. Ixvii.). 
Cf. It. balestriera, a loophole (Florio, 
1611) ; 0. Sp. barahustvs, balaJiu^e4f 
turned posts like pillars to support gal- 
leries (Minsheu, 1623), harahustar to 
cast weapons (Id.), The It. halaustro 
seems to have been assimilated to ha- 
la,usto (Gk. balaustion), a pomegranate 
flower. Somewhat similarly crenelle^ 
Fr. creneati, 0. E. ca/mel, denoted both 
a battlement and a loophole (see Castel 
of Love, ed. Weymouth, p. 77). 


( 21 ) 


Banwood, and Baienwoet (Cleve- 
land dialect), the daisy, seem to be the 
same as the A. S. hdn-wyrt^ bonewort 

In battill gyns burg^onys the hanwart 
G, Douglatf EneadoSf Buk xii. Prolong. 

Mr. Cockayne says that in old Eng- 
lish hamoyrt was the name of the wall- 
flower, from hana^ a man -slayer, in 
allusion to the bloodstained colour of 
its petals, just as it is still frequently 
called ** the bloody warrior ;*' and tha^ 
afterwards the word was appHed to the 
daisy on account of its red-tipped pe- 
tals (Leechdoma, &c. vol. iii.)- 

Barb, to, to shave or trim the beard — 
a verb that seems to owe its origin to a 
mistaken idea tliat a harher is one who 
barbs. Ct Butch. 

Cocke and I to Sir G. Smith, it being now 
night, and there up to his chamber and sat 
talking, and I barbinj^ against to-morrow. — 
Pq)ifiy Diary (ed. Bright), vol. iii. p. 316. 

Barbed, when apphed to horses (as 
in Shakespeare's*' barbed steeds," Rich. 
III. L 1, 1. 10)= covered with armour, 
is a corrupted form of the older word 
barded, Fr. ba/rdi, furnished with ba/rde, 
or horse-armour (Skeat, Et. Bid.), 
assimilated seemingly to ba/rb, a Bar- 
bary horse. 

Barbeert, the shrub so called, does 
not derive its name from its berries^ 
but is corrupted from the Latin ber- 

Barybaryn tre (harhery), Barbaris. 

Prompt, Parvuloruniy c. 1440. 

Fr. "berberiSy tlie barbarie-tree " 
(Cotgrave). Prof. Skeat adds Arab. 
barbdris, Pers. ba/rbari {Etym. Bid.). 

Barge, to scold in a loud abusive 
way, used in most parts of Ireland 
(e. g. Antrim and Bown Glossary ^ Pat- 
terson, E. D. S.), as if to use the strong 
language of a ba/rgee or barge-ma/n, is 
the same word as Scot, bairge, to lift 
up the voice in a strong loud manner 
(Banff Glossary y Gregor), bargain, to 
chaffer, Scot, bargane, to fight, O. Fr. 
bargvAgner, to wrangle (C6tg.), from 
baragouin, confused speech, gibberish, 
whence slang barrihin. 

Hee thinks no len^age worth knowing 
but his Barrasmiin. — Overbury, Works, p. 84 
(ed. Rimbault). 

Baragouin is from Celt, bara gouin 
bread and wine (W. Stokes, Ir. Glosses, 
p. 52). 

Barouest, an apparition in the form 
of an animal, as if one that arrests a 
traveller (like the Ancient Mariner), 
beheved in the northern counties (as 
the Swed. kirke-^m, Dan. Mrke-var- 
sel) to be a harbmger of death. It is, 
no doubt, a corruption of bier-ghost, 
Ger. bahr geist, Dan. baa/re geist (Sir 
W. Scott). See Atkinson, Glevela/nd 
Glossary, s. v. Henderson, Folklore of 
the N. Counties, p. 239. 

He had been sufficiently afraid of meeting 
a bargM.'it in his boyish days. — Souihey, Tm 
Doctor, p. 377 (ed. 1848). 

Barlet-men, a Lancashire word for 
the petty officers of the manorial courts 
leet or baron. In other places, and in 
old documents, they are called burley- 
nien, burlinien, or bye-law men, e.g. : 

Item there be appointed foure burley-men 
for to se all paines that are made to be kept. 
—-Records of the Manor of ^cotter, anno 1586. 

All these words are corruptions of 
byre-law-men, law of the byre or town ; 
Icel. boar. See By-law. 

Barley-sugar, or s^igar-barley, is 
said to be a corruption of the French 
Sucre bruU, " burnt sugar ;" sucre d'orge 
being a re-translation of our corrupted 
term, but this is doubtful. 

Barman, is probably not correlative 
to bar-madd (as in Ger. Kellner to Kell- 
ncrinn), one who attends at the bar or 
buffet ; but the modem -form of old 
Eng. berman, a kitchen-porter. 
l>er the herles mete he tok, 
)>at he boutlie at )>e brigge ; 
)>e hermen let he alle ligge, 
And bar ]>e mete to )>e castel. 

Havelok the Dane, 11. 873-877 
(ab. 1280). 

Weoren in )>eo8 kinges cuchene 

twa hundred cokes. 
& ne msi na man tellen 

for alle )>a bermannen. 

Layimon, 1. 8101. 

This berman is A. Sax. baBr-nujmn, a 
"bear-man" or porter, from biran. 
Bwr is not found in the earliest Eng- 

Bar-master, a name given in the 
mining districts of Derbyshire and 
Yorkshire to the officer or agent who 
superintends the mines, is a corruption 


( 24 ) 


It 18 a basiUtk unto mine eje. 
Kills me to look on 't. 
Shaketpeare, Cymbeline, act ii. sc. 4. 

Bassinette, a term for an infant's 
cradle, as if (like the old ba^»hict, a 
helmet), a dinoiniitive of Fr. hasmn, a 
basin. It is plainly a corrupted form 
of herceaunett^, from herceau, a cradle. 
This latter word is from herccr, to rock 
to and fro, to swing like a battering- 
ram, &er6eaj, another form of Lat. vervex, 

Batteb, an old Scottish word for a 
small cannon, as if that which boMere 
walls (Fr. haifre), is also found as hoi' 
tard, from Fr. hatarde, old Fr. hasta/rde^ 
a demy cannon (Cotgrave). Cf. Bumper. 

Battledooe, tlie light bat with 
which the shuttlecock is bandied to 
and fro, is a corrupted form of the 
Spanish haiidor or haiador, a striker, or 
beetle, from haiir to beat. Formerly it 
denoted the beetle used by laundresses 
in beating and washing linen. 

Bat v/tioMre,orwa88hyngebetylle. — Prompt, 

Batyldoref betyll to bete clothes with. — 

The curious phrase " not to know B 
from a battledoor,*' expressive of igno- 
rance or stupidity, meant originally 
not to know one's letters — the old 
horn-book resembling a battlodoor in 
shajie. The modem card-board which 
has superseded this is still called a 
battledoor by some of the Lincolnshire 
folk, who have the saying, " He does 
'nt know his A B C fra a battle- 
door.'* (See Peacock, Ghsaa/i'y of Man- 
ley and Cwringham, E. D. S.) Com- 
pare Dutch *^ Abeehordfje [u e, A B- 
board] a Battledoor, Criscrossrow " 

One whose hands are hard as battle dwn 
with clapping at baldness. — HUtrio-Mtutix 
(1610), act ii. 1. 138. 

While he was bliiide, the wenche behiude 

lent him, leyd on the flore, 
Many a iolc about the nole with a great 
battil dare, 
A Jest How a Serf^nnt wolde leme to 
be a Frere, 1. 260. 

Battlement, apparently a defence 
in time of battle, a fortification. Prof. 
Skeat is no doubt right in regarding it 
as only another form of Fr. batiment, 
old Fr. bastill^tnipnt, from old Fr. bos- 
filler, to fortify (whence ** bastile "}, 
bastir, to build {Etym, Bid.), 

At Tch bniggea berfray on bastelet wyse (At 
€^ach bridge a watch-tower on the fortifica- 
tions appeared). — Alliterative PoemSy B. 1. 
1187 (ed. Morris). 

In the same poem we find 

\>e bor3 bautaifled alofle (The city fortified 
alolt), 1. 1185, and hatelment, 1. 1459. 
Grape-loaded vines that glow 
Beneath the battled tower. 
Tennyson, Dream of fair Women, 1. 220. 

Beam, a ray of light, A. Sax. beani^ 
(beainia^), has generally been regarded 
as the same word as beam, A. Sax. 
bemn (Goth, ba^ms, a tree), (Skeat, Ett- 
mliller), just as "ray " itself (radiua) is 
akin to " rod," MUton's " long-level'd 
rule of streaming light" (Comus, 1. 

Benfey identifies it with Sansk. 
hha-nia, light (root bha, to shine, to 
sound), which is probably right. Old 
Eng. beme, a trumpet {PricJce of Con- 
science, 1. 4677, A. Sax. beami), is nearly 

Beans, a slang word for money, has 
been regarded as a corruption of the 
French biens, goods, property. How- 
ever, the analogy of lupini, lupines, 
used as money on the Latin stage, and 
ai Lavo, tlie name given to money by 
the Fiji Islanders, from its resemblance 
to the fiat round seeds of the Mimosa 
scandens, shows that the word may 
well be imderstood in its natural sense. 

Acosta mentions that the Spaniards 
in the West Indies at one time used 
cacao-nuts for money. 

Bear Coote, as if the coot which 
hawks at bears, is a corruption of Bar- 
hut, the hunting eagle of Eastern 
Turkestan, which is trained to fiy at 
wolves, foxes, deer, &c. (Atkinson's 
Or, and W. Siberia, 493; see Yule, 
Marco Polo, i. 855). It is spelt " bur- 
goot " in T. E. Gordon's Boof of the 
World, p. 88. 

Beastie, a vulgar Anglo-Indian 
term for a water-carrier, is a corruption 
of the native Hindustani word bihishii^ 
"the heavenly man" from bihisht^ 

Beaufin, Beefin, Biffin, are various 
names for a sort of ai)ple peculiar to 
Norfolk, but which ia the original or 
more correct form is not easUy deter- 
mined. It is said to be called beefin. 


( 25 ) 


from its colour resembling that of raw 
beef! The first spelling would seem 
to indicate a fruit, beau et fin. But in 
either case there is a corruption. 

Beaver, the lower part of a helmet, 
is a corruption of Fr. hav-iere, due to 
confusion with ^^ heaver hat" (Skeat, 
Etym. Bid.). 

Become, to suit, fit, or set off to ad- 
vantage, as when a certain dress or 
colour is said to become one {decere)^ a 
distinct word from become, to happen, 
be-cuman, is the modem form of A. Sax. 
be-cwefiian, from cwenian, to please or 
profit ; compare Ger. hequemy con- 
venient. See Comely. 

Pilatus wolde iSa %am folce ge-cweman, 
— S. Markf XV. 15 (A. Sax. vers.). 

Bedridden : the passive form of this 
word is puzzUng. As it stands it 
would seem to denote one that was 
ridden or pressed by his bed, rather 
than one who lay upon it — the paraly- 
tic man as he returned home with his 
burden, rather than as he came for cure, 
borne of four. It is the A. Sax. bed- 
rida, bedreda, or bedredda, a deriva- 
tive from ridarij to ride, rest on, or press ; 
and so denotes one who habitually 
keeps his bed : O. Eng. ** bedered-man 
or woman. Deciunbens, clinicus," 
Prompt, Parv, (cf. bedlatcyr, Decum- 
bens. Id.). Similarly, hojrede is one 
who keeps his house {hof), a sick man. 
The form bed-rid was probably mis- 
taken for a past parte, and then 
changed to bed-ridden, 

Prieei-ridden, may be a modem for- 
mation on tlie same model, as if over- 
mastered by priests, as Sindbad by the 
old man of the moimtain ; but really 
corresponding to an A. Saxon prcost- 
rida, one that rests wholly on his priest. 
Professor Erie advances the extraordi- 
nary notion that bed-Hda is for be- 
drida, past parte, of bedrian ! {Philo' 
logy of the Jifnglish Tongue, p. 23.) 

8eke 1 was, and bedred lay, 

And yhe visite me uouther nyg^ht ne day. 

Hampole, Pricke oj Consciencey ab. 1340, 
1. 6198 (ed. Morris). 
There is an honest man, 
That kept an olde woman 
Of almes in hyr bed 
Liyng dayly beddered. 

Doctour Doubbie Ale, 1. 338. 
Old bedndden palsy. 
Tennyson, Aylmer's Field, 1. 178. 

Beefeater, a popular designation of 
the yeomen of the guard on duty at 
the Tower, lias been considered a cor- 
ruption of Fr. buffetier, one who keeps 
the buffet, Fr. buffet formerly meant 
a cupboard of plate, and the collection 
of plate set forth on a sideboard (Cot- 
grave) ; and the chief duty of these 
yeomen may have been to guard the 
crown jewels and coronation plate 
there deposited. There is, however, no 
such word as buffetier in Cotgrave, and 
buffeteur, which he does give, means a 
purloiner of wine. 

Though this corruption is quoted by 
Andresen, M. Miiller, Trench, and 
others, it is open to grave suspicion, 
as there is no evidence whatever that 
these yeomen were ever called buffe- 
tiers, Mr. Pegge states, indeed, tliat 
the ofl&ce of carrying up the dishes to 
the royal table continued to be a branch 
of their duty up to the time when he 
wrote, 1791 (Uuricdia, p. 81), but he 
denies that they had anything to do 
with the buffet. 

Sometimes 1 stand by the beef-eaters, and 
take the buz as it passes by me. — 7 he Specta- 
tor, No. 6^ (1714). 

Bathurst is to have the Beef-eater$. — Horace 
Walpole, LetUrs, vol. L p. 176 (1742), ed. 

But these gentlemen of the Guard 
have been noted of old for their pre- 
dilection for beef. 

Hear me you men of strife ! you that have 

Long time maintain 'd by the dull Peoples 

At Lyon's, Furnifold's, and Clement's Inne ! 
With huge, o're-comming Mutton, Target- 
Beefe, that the queasie stomacWd Guard would 

Sir William Davenant, Works, 
fol. 1673, p. 237, 
A foreigner, visiting England in 1741, 
describes the Yeomen of the Guard as 
follows ; — 

Une Troupe d'Anglo - Suisses, qu'on 
nomme Yomen of the Gard, et par derision 
Ruast-beef ou Beef-eateis, c'est a dire Man- 
geurs de oceuf, remplissent la ?5alle des Gardes 
et en font les fonctions. — Lettres de M. le 
Baron Bielfield (1765), tom. i. Lett, jcxix. (in 
Hcott, Briti^ Army, vol. i. p. 530). 

Cowley, also, in his poem entitled 
The Wish, plainly imphes that these 
portly yeomen were notorious for their 
oonsmnption of beef : — 



And chine$ of &ee/* innumerable send me, 
Or from the itomach of the Guard defend me. 

Marvell, in his Instructions to a 
Painter about the Buich Wars, 1667, 
has these lines : — 

Bold Duncomb next, of the projectors chief, 
And old Fitz Harding of the eaters beef. 
Those eoodly Jmnents of the gaard would 

{At they eat beef) after six stone a day. 
Cartwrightf The Ordinary, ii. 1 (1651). 

The yeomen are often spoken of as 
The Guard in ancient documents : Sir 
S. D. Scott, The British Amvy, vol. i. 
p. 513. An instance of the early use 
of the word beefeater is there quoted 
from a letter of rrince Bapert*s, dated 
1645 (pp. 515-516). The large daUy 
allowance of beef which was granted 
for their table renders the term in its 
obvious sense quite appropriate (p. 

In the old play of Histrio-Mastix 
(1610), Mavortius dismisses his serving- 
men with the words — 

Begone yee greedy beefe-eaters ; y'are best : 
The Callis Cormorants from Dover roade 
Are not so chargeable as you to feed. 

Act iii.1.99. 

Beeld, a N.W. Lincolnshire word for 
likeness, fac-simile — e,g. " She's the 
very beeld o' her brother when she's 
a man's hat on" (Peacock): as it were, 
build (beeld being "to build") seems 
to be identical with Dutch beeld =: Ger. 
bild, figure, portrait, likeness. 

Beeves, a Sussex word for bee-hives, 
whence it is corrupted (Parish, Sussex 

Beooeb, has generally been regarded 
from a very early period as being only 
another form of badger ; the bag which 
he carried about for the reception of 
alms or broken victuals being the dis- 
tinctive mtcrk of the mendicant. So 
Skinner, Bailey, Richardson, Wedg- 
wood. The Dorset folk say to bag for 
to beg. Just as pedlar, O. E. jpedder, 
was one that goes about with a ped or 
pannier, and maunder, a begger, one 
that goes about with a maund, or 
basket, whence mavml, to beg, in Ben 
Jonson (see Nares, and Sternberg, 
Northampt, Glossary) ; so begger, it was 
conceived, came from bag. Compare 
Ir. pocaire, a begger, from poc, a bag 
or poke ; GseL bmgeir, a begger, from 

bag, Wedgwood adduces similar in- 
stances of "to beg," being originally to 
carry a scrip or wallet, from Welsh, 
Ital., Dan., and Greek. In the Cleve- 
land dialect, " To tak' oop wi' t' hegg- 
ing-pooak," or " begging-poke," is to 
be reduced to beggery; Fr. etre au 
bissac (Le Roux, Bid, Uomigue), "solet 
antiquo bribas portare bisacco " (Rabe- 
lais, Famtagruel, iv. 8). Thus the wallet 
and staff was the standard "round 
which the NetJierland Gueux, glorying 
in that nickname of Beggars, heroi- 
cally rallied and prevailed " (Carlyle, 
Sartor Besartus, iii. 8). Compare also 

Hit is beggares rihte uorte beren bagge on 
bac. — Ancren Riwle, p. 168. 

Beggers with bagget J>e whiche brewhouses 
ben here churches. — Vision of Piers Plownusn^ 
X. 1. 98, C. (ed. Skeat.) 

Bagges ana beggyn^ he bad his folk leuen. 
— Pi^r» Pbu^man's Crede, 1. 600 (ed. Skeai). 

Bidders and beg^ers' tastv. a-boute eoden. 
Til heor Ba^^es and heore Balies* weren [brat- 
ful] I-crommet. — Vision of P, Plowman, Prol. 
41, text A. 

That maketh beggares go with bordon and 
bagges. — PoUticalciongs, p. 150(Camden Soc.). 
1 dreame it not the nappy life 
The needie beggers bag to beare. 

TurbervUle, Sonnettes, 1569. 

But what found he in a beggers bag,'-' 
Percy's Folio MS. i. 49, note. 

An old patcht coat the Beggar had one . . . 
and many a bag about him did wag. — Ibid^ 
p. 14. 

Mr. H. Sweet, however, commenting 
on the word bedecige, to beg, in K. Al- 
fred's version of Gregory's Pastoral 
care (p. 285, 1. 12), thinks that O. Eng. 
bededfm, bedegian (from biddan, to beg) 
passed through the stages beggian, beg- 
gen, into our modem beg (p. 486, 
E.E.T.S.). Prof. Skeat adopts this 
view, remarking that the word was 
forced out of its true form to suit a 
popular theory. Diefenbach had al- 
ready connected it with Goth, bidagva^ 
a begger, bidjan, to ask, Bav. baiggen 
(Goth, Sprache, i. 294). 

Behind hand : this curious idiom, 
applied to one in arrears with his work 
or in money matters, seems to be a 
corruption of Old Eng. behinden, back- 
ward (opposed to forward or well to- 
wards the front). 

He him makeS to ben bihinden,o{\)B,t he 
wene* to ben biforen. — Old Eng. Homilies, 
3nd aer. p. 213 (ed. Morris). 


( 27 ) 


See Oliphant, Old and Mid. Eng. 
p. 198. 

Beholding, a very common perver- 
sion of beholden^ Old Eng. heholdyny in 
old authors. 

I came .... to take my leaae of that 
noble Ladle lane Grey, to whom I was ez- 
cedmg mocli beholdinge. — R» Aschunif Schole- 
magter, bk. 1. (1570), p. 46 (ed. Arber). 

The church of Landaffe was much behold- 
ing to him. — FuUer, WarthUty 11. 164 (ed. 

Belfby, bo spelt as if it denoted al- 
ways the tower where the beUa are 
himg, is the French heffroi, O. Eng, 
hercfreity 0. Fr. herfroi^ heffroit, a watch- 
tower ; M. H. Ger. hercvn't, from her- 
gen (to protect) and frid (a tower). — 
•Wedgwood, Diez. 

At vch brugee a berfra\j on basteles wyse. 
— Alliterative roemt (xiv. cent.), p. 71, 
1. 1187. 

A bewfray that shal have ix fadome of 
lengthe and two fadome of brede. — Caxtati*s 
VegeciuSf sig. 1. 6. 

In Lincolnshire a helfry is any shed 
made of wood and sticks, fiirze, or 
straw (Peacock). 

The heffroy, in ancient military war- 
fare, was a movable tower of wood, 
consisting of a succession of stages or 
storeys, connected by ladders, and 
diminishing in width gradually from 
the base. The name was afterwards 
given to any high tower (Sir S. D. 
Scott, The British Army, vol. ii. p. 

Mr. Cosmo Innes holds that the two 
roimd towers of Scotland ** were used 
as helfreye, probably before bells were 
hung in biiildings, and when the mode 
of assembling a congregation was by a 
hand hell rung from the top of the bell 
tower, ^^ — Scotland in the Mid. Aaes, p. 
290. It is difficult to suppose tnat in 
writing this passage the author did not 
connect helfreys with hells. 

Bellibone, an old Enghsh word for 
a lovely woman, is a corruption of the 
phrase belle et bonne. 

Pan may be proud that ever he begot 
Such a Bellibone, 
Speiuerf Shepheardt Calender (April). 

The fact of woman being sometimes 
termed man's rib may have favoured 
the corruption. £. K.'s gloss on the 
passage is : '*A BelUhone, or a honnibeUf 

homely spoken for a fayre mayde, or 

Bell-kite, a vulgar name in Scot- 
land for the bald coot, old Scottish held 
cytte, of which it is a corruption. 

The coot, Welsh cwt-ia/r, has its name 
from its short tail, owt. 

Belltcheere, an old word for good 
living: — 

A spender of his patrimony and goods in 
bellycheere and unthriftie companie. — Nomen- 
elatory 1585. 

It is a corruption of an older form, 
belle-cherey i,e, good cheer. 

For God it wote, I wend withouten doute, 
That he had yeve it me. because of you, 
To don therwith mine nonour and my prow, 
For cosinage. and eke for belle-chere. 
Chancer, The Shinmannes Tale, 1. 15Sd6-9 
(ed. Tyrwhitt). 

Gluttonie mounted on a greedie beare, 
To belly-cheere and banquets lends his care. 
Sam, Rowlandty The Four Knaves (1611, 
&c.), p. 117 (Percy Soc. Ed.). 

Bellt-bound, the name for a certain 
kind of apple [? in America] is said to 
be a corruption of belle et horme (Scheie 
De Vere, Studies in English, p. 205). 
Cf. Prov. Eng. belliborion, a kind of 
apple. East (Wright). See Bellibone, 
a fair maiden. 

Benjamin, **Benjoin, the aromaticall 
gumme caUed Benjamin " (Gotgrave), 
is a corruption of Benzoin, It. bdzuino, 
bclguino: Span, benjui, Portg. beijoim, 
all from Arabic, lUhdn djaiwi Chan- 
djaim) '* incense of Java,** i.e, of Su- 
matra, called Java by the Arabs 
(Dozy, Devic). In the dialect of 
Wallon de Mons, benjamins is a cor- 
ruption of balsamine (Sigart, Olossadre 

Bent-wood, a north of England 
word for ivy (hedera helix), is a cor- 
ruption of Scotch hen-wood, hind-wood; 
compare Bind- with. 

Bequest, that which is hequeaihed, 
from A. Sax. be-owe^am,, to be-quoth, 
influenced in form by a false analogy 
to request, inquest, &c. 

Bebby, an old Eng. word for a 
squall, or sudden storm, is a corruption 
oiperrie (Harrison) ; *^pyry or Storme, 
Nimbus ** (Prompt, Pa/rv,) ; **pyrry, a 
storme of wynde, orage,'' Palsgrave ; 
" Sodain pme«,** Hall, Ch/ronidef 17 


( 28 ) 


Hen. VI. ; " guado di uenlo, a goflt or 
herie or gale of wind," Plorio, 1611, 
** Pirries or great stormes" (Sir T. 
Elyot, The Gmienwur), 

Crdscia d* acqua, a sudrlaine showre, a 
storme, a tempetit, a blustring:, a berry, or 
flaw of many windes or stormes together. — 

TourbUlon^ a gpist, flaWyfrerrte, sudden blast 
or boisterous tempest of wind. — Cot^mve. 

Vent, a gale, flaw, or hevrie of wind. — Id, 

We hoised seall with a lytle pirhe of ♦'St 
wind, and lainshed furthe. — J. Melviile, Diary 
(15JJ6), p. 252 (Wodrow See.). 

See Time (Nares), Scotch, pirr^ a 
gentle breeze ; Icel. hyi-r, a fair wind ; 
Dan. hijr, Swed. hor. Cf. Skeat, Etijm, 
Diet, 8.V. Pirotceite. 

Bkbtbam, the name of a plant, has 
no connexion with the Christian name 
of the same sound, but is a corruption 
of the Lat. jyyrethrum, Gk. pureinron, 
a hot spicy plant, from jtuvy fare. The 
same word, by a different process, has 
been converted into Peter (which 

Beseen, used by Chaucer and Spen- 
ser in the phrase wcll-heseen, comely, 
of good appearance, is a corruption of 
old Eng. hisen, example, appearance 
(Dr. li. Morris, Pricke of Conscience, 
p. 288). See Bison. But query? 

Arayd in antique robes downe to the 

And sad habiliments right well heseene, 

Fairie QneeM, 1. xii. 5. 
Thus lay this pouer in great distresse 
A colde and hungfry at the gate, . . . 
So WBS he woiuUy be^ne. 

Oowery Coujessio Amantixy vol. iiu p. 35 
(ed. Pauli). 
Defoe uses hescen for attire, clothes. 
See Davies, 8upp. Eng. Glossary, s.v. 

Bewabe, a cant term used by street 
showmen for a drink or beverage, is 
doubtless corrupted from It. bevere 
(Lat. hihere), many other words of this 
class having an ItaUan origin — e,g. 
ncmti, none, It. nienio ; din/ili, money. 
It. dinari ; casa, house, It. casa; keteva, 
bad, It. cattivo : vada, look. It. vedere ; 
otter, eight, It. otto ; carroon, a crown, 
It. corona: In the "mummers* slang,** 
•* all beer, brandy, water, or soup, are 
hetoanre.'' — Mayhew, London Labour 
and London Poor, vol. iii. p. 149. 

It is tlie same word as old Eng. 
"Better, drinkinge tyme** (Prompt 

P<wv.), Prov. Eng. hever, an afternoon 
refection (Suffolk). In the argot of 
Winchester College, heever is an allow- 
ance of beer served out in the after- 
noon, and he^vcr-time tlie time when it 
is served out (H. C. Adams, Wylee- 
hamica, p. 417). 

Bezobs, a Gloucestershire word for 
the auricula, is a corruption of hear^g 
cars (Lat. ursi auricula), so called from 
the shape and texture of its leaves. — 
Britten and Holland, Eng, Pla/nt- 
Names, p. 40 (E. D. Soc). 

old name for the game of cup and 
ball, is a corruption of bilhoquet, Fr. 
hilleboquet ; hoquct seems to be for hoc- 
quet (the iron of a lance), the pro-. 
jecting point on which the ball {hille) 
was caught. But cf. Prov. Fr. hUbofer, 
to totter or waver (Sigart, Gloss. Mon- 

I am trying to set up the nohle game of 
bilboqnet against it [whiBt],-^ Horace Walpolt, 
Letters, vol. i. p. 237 (1743). 

Bile, tlie common old Eng. form of 
hoil, an inflamed sweUing, and still used 
by the peasantry both in England {e,g, 
Lincolnshire, Brogden, Glossary, s.v.) 
and Ireland, has no connexion with 
hil/i (Lat. hilis), as if attributable to de- 
rangement of the liver. That there 
is no real analogy is shown by the 
cognate words, Icel. hdla^ a blain, or 
bhster; also the boss on a shield (a 
protuberance), Lat. bulla, a bleb or 
bubble (Ger. heule, a boil ; Dutch huile^ 
Swed. hula) — all probably denoting a 
bhster or bubble, the result of ebullition, 
and so akin to Icel. hulln, Eng. to hoil, 
Lat. {e)bullire. So eczema, a trouble- 
some skin disease, is the Greek eJczfyna, 
a boiling over, a pustule. 

Ettmiiller gives A. Sax. hyle, a blotch 

or sore. 

Buy I, a Bile, boss. 
Buyi, a Purse. 

Sewel, Dutch Diet, 1708. 

Wychffe has the forms hih, hyil, hiel, 

heel (Beut. xxviii. 27, 35 ; Ex, ix. 9). 

His voices passage is with h'lies be-lnjd. 
Sylvester, Dn Bartas, p. 438 (1621). 

ByU, Sore, Pustula. — Prompt Parvulorum 
(c. 1440). 

Dyeing houses . . . within are the botches 
and bylei of abhomination. — Whetstone, Af ir- 
ourj'or Magistrates of Cytiet, 1584.' 


( 29 ) 


Thou art a byle. 

King L$ar, ii. 4. 

The leaues of Asphodel seme for . . . red 
and flat bUeSy eout-rosat, Saucefleame, ale- 
pocks, and such like vlcers in the face. — 
lloUandy PiinUt ^'at. History^ vol. ii. p. 128 
(1654) fol. 

BosUf ... a botch, bile, or plague sore.— 

So A.V. LevU. xiii. 18, 20 (1611). 

Billy, a slang word for stolen metal 
of any kind (Hotten), is probably a 
corruption of Fr. hilUmy bullion. 

BiLLTARD, an old spelling of hilliard, 
as if it were the ya/rd or rod with which 
the hille or ball is struck. 

Bille, a small bowle, or biUyard ball. 
Billart, the sticke wherewith we touch 
the ball at bUlyards. — Cotgrave. 

It is from the Fr. hillardf originally 
a curved stick for striking the ball — 
Low Lat. hiUardus, from l^la zzpila^ a 

BiND-wiTH, a popular name for the 
demcUie viiulha. It is difficult to say 
what connexion, if any, exists between 
this and the following words, or which, 
if any, are corrupted words: Scot. 
hindwood, henwood, ivy; bindweed, 
henweed, hunioede^ ragwort; 0. Eng. 
benwyt-ire, henetvith tre {Prompt Pa/rvJ), 
perhaps the wood-bine ; Icel. hein-viHir 
(bone- wood), salix arbuscula; Swed. 
hen-ved (bone- wood), the wild-cornel; 
Dan.&e<?n-vee(2(bone-wood),th6 spindle- 
tree {etionymus). 

BiBDBOLT, the fish gadue lota, is a 
corruption of harhote (Latham). 

So Nares gives turhoU from Witta 
Recreation, as another form of turhot. 

Bv/rhote, or ha/rhote, is Lat. ha/rhaia, 
the bearded fish, like *' barbel." 

BiBD-OAOE Walk, in St. James's Park, 
80 called as if bird-cages were hung 
there, is said to be a corruption of 
hocage walk (Phihlog. 8oc. Proc. vol. v. 
p. 189). This is doubtful. 

Bird Eagles, a Cheshire name for 
the fruit of the Cratwgus Oxyca/ntha, 
Eagles or Agles is the diminutive of 
Hague, the more common name of the 
haw in Cheshire. [A. Sax. haga.] — 
Britten and Holland, Eng. Plami- 
Names, p. 42. 

BiscAKE, a provincial form of " bis- 
cuit,'* Fr. his'Ouit (Lat. l!^-coc^(us), t.e. 

dms-cod, literally, timce-cookt; Icel 
tin-haka^ Ger. ztmehach. 

She had biteakei and ale with the Dog's Meat 

BaUad of the Dog's Meat Man, 

Bis-ca^ea would have supplied a 
transitional form. 

Bishop's- Leaves, a popular name for 
the plant scrophularia aqtiatiixi, arose 
probably from a misunderstanding 
of its French appellation, Vherhe du 
siige, as if siege were used here in its 
ecclesiastical sense of a bishop's see, 
instead of its medical — the herb being 
considered remedial in hsemorrhoidfJ 
affections (Prior). 

BiSHOP's-woRT, A. Sax. hiscop-toyrt, 
as a name for a plant, seems to have 
been originally a translation of the 
Latin hibiscus, which was confounded 
with Episcopvs. 

Bison, in the phrase " to be a holy 
bison " — more correctly spelt in the 
Cleveland Glossary " a holy bisen," i.e. 
" a holy show," a gazing-stock, a 
spectacle — is A. Sax. hysn, bysen, an 
example ; Icel. bysn, a wonder, a 
strange and portentous thing. 

A common menace which the wo- 
men of Newcastle-upon-Tyne use to 
each other is, ** I'll make a holy byson 
of you." — Brand, Pop, Antiquities, vol. 
i. p. 487 (ed. Bohn). 

be bodys of be world in j^air kynde, 

bhewes us for biteiu to haf in mynde. 

Hampole, Pricke of ConMcience, 
1. 10^6 (ab. 1340). 

Bitter end, in the modem phrase 
•* To the bitter end " = a owtrance, was 
originally a nautical expression, to the 
end of tlie hUter, which is ** a turn of a 
cable about the timbers called bites (or 
bitts),*^ Bailey. Probably the same word 
as bite, or bight, a bend or coil, bought (1 
Sam. XXV. 29, marg.), Dut. lx>gt, Dan. 
bugt. See Dr. Nicholson in N, and Q., 
6th S. III. 26, who quotes from Capt. 
John Smith, Governor- General of 
Virginia : "A Bitter is but the turn of 
a Cable about the Bits, and veere 
[slacken or pay] it out little by little. 
And the Bitter's end is that part of the 
Cable doth stay within board " (8ea^ 
man's Oramma/r, p. 80). But this 
bitterns end became altered into bitter- 
end, Adm. Smyth in The Sailor's 


( 30 ) 


Word-Booh has *' Bitter end. That part 
of the cable which is abaft the bitts, 
and therefore within board when tlie 
ship rides at anchor. . • . And when a 
chain or rope is paid out to the hitter 
end no more remains to be let go.** 

Black abt, a literal rendering of the 
Sp. magia negra^ a phrase formed from 
wtgroma/nda^ which is itself a corraption 
of the Gk. nehroma/nteia^ as if connected 
with niger^ black. Compare It. negrO" 
mcmtej nigromcmie. Span, and Portg. 

Nygromancy, ATi^romancia. — Prompt, Parv, 

Let*B also flee the furious-parious S])ell 
Of those Black-Artixts that consult with Hell. 
J. Sttlveittr, Worhf p. 773 (1621), fol. 

See Davies, Supp, Eng, Glossary ^ s.v. 

Blanch, an old spelling of Uench, to 
shrink, or flinch, as if to grow pale or 
white (blcmche^ Fr. hlanc), old Eng. 
blench, to turn aside (game, &c.), lead 
astray, deceive; A. Sax. hUnccm, to 
make to blink (Skeat, Etym. Diet,). 
Cf. Icel. blelckja, to impose on. 

Latimer has blcmnchers for blencliers. 

Even now so hath he Certayne blaunchert 
longinff to the market, to let and stoppe the 
light of the Gospell, and to hinder the Ringed 
proceedings in setting forth the worde and 
glory of God,— Sermons (154fi), p. 23, verso. 

Nu a aleih mei eilen \>e and maken ]je to 
blenchen [Now a fly may hurt thee and make 
thee shrink]. — Ancren Riule, p. 276. 

i^buten us he is for to hlenchen. 
Mid alle his mihte he wule us swenchen. 
Old Eng. Homilies, 1st ser. p. 55, 1. 14. 

Saw you not the deare come this way, hee 
flew downe the wind, and I beleeve you have 
blancht him. — Lilly, Gallathea, u, I. 

Here and there wanderers, blanching tales 

and lies. 
Of neither praise nor use. 

G. Chapman, Odysseys, xi. 492. 

Sylvester has blanch =: avoid, omit 

O ! should I blanch the Jewes religious 

Du Bartat, p. 52. 

If my ingratefuU Rimes should blanch the 

Id. p. 54. 

Blancmanoeb : the latter part of this 
word is said to have no connexion 
with numger, to eat. The old spelling 
was btcmc-niangier, and bUmc-mengier, 
a corruption of ma-en-sire, i,e. " fowl- 
in-syrup,** which is the chief ingredient 

of the dish in old recipes. Its other 
names — Blanc Desire {i,e. de sire, " of 
syrup **), Blunc dcsorre, Blanc de sorry, 
BUmc de Surry — are of similar origin. 
— Kettner, Book of the Table, pp. 211- 
218. But where is this ma('^) -en-sire to 
be found ? 

The Liber Cure Cocorum, 1440 (ed. 
Morris) gives recipes for Blonke desore 
(p. 12) and Blanc MoAingere of fysshe 
(p. 19). Minsheu gives (Span. Dui. 
1628), Manjar hl<inco, a wnite.meat 
made of the breast of a hen, milke, 
sugar, rice beaten, mixed all together. 

Blaze, a white mark, on the face of 
an animal, or made on a tree by strip- 
ping off a portion of the bark — so spelt 
as if to denote a bright, flame-like 
streak — is the same word as Ger. blasse^ 
a white mark (blass, pale, wan) ; Swed. 
bias, Dan. blis, a face-mark ; Frov. Ger. 
blessen, to mark a tree by removing the 
bark (Westphalia) ; Ger. bletzen. Com- 
pare Fr. blesser. 

They met an old man who led them to a 
line of trees which had been marked by 
having a part of the bark cut off ; trees so 
marked are said to be blazed^ and the patch 
thus indicated is called a blaze. — Southey, 
Life of' \rVe*ley, vol. i. p. 74, ed. 1858. 

Blaze, in the plirase "to blaze 
abroad,'* to proclaim or make widely 
known, as if to cause to spread like 
wild-fire, is properly to blow abroad or 
trumpet forth, old Eng. hlasen, to blare, 
A. Sax. bJ^Jesan, Dut. hloMn^ Icel. blaso^ 
Goth, {uf-) blesan, all = to blow (Skeat). 

With his blake clarioun 
lie gKn to blasen out a soun. 

Chaucer, House of Fame, iii. 711. 

The heavens themselves blaze forth the death 
of princes. 
Shakefpeare. Julius Ctesar, ii. 2, 1. 31. 

That I this man of God his godly armes may 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, I, xi. 7. 

He began to publish it much and to blase 
abroad the matter. — A. V. S. Mark, i. 45. 

Latimer has to blow abroad, and Hall 
(1550 ) to blast abroad, =: to publish. See 
Eastwood and Wright, BibleWord-booh^ 
p. 67. 

But when the thing was blazed about the 

The brute world howling forced them into 


Tennyson, Merlin and Vivien. 



Blazes, in sundry ooUoqnial com- 
parisons implying vehemently, ex- 
tremely, in a very high degree, as 
"drunk as blazes," is said to have 
been originally hlaizers, or votaries of 
8, Blaize or Blcmue, in whose honour 
orgies seem formerly to have been held. 
" Old Bishop Blaize " is stiU a publio 
house sign (N. and Q. 6th S. II. 92), 
and Minsheu speaks of *' St. Blaze his 
day [Feb. 8] , about Candlemas, when 
country women goe about and make 
good oheere, and if they find any of 
their neighbour women a spinning that 
day they bume and make a blaze of 
fire of me distaffe, and thereof called 
S. Blaze his day (I)." See Brand, Pop. 
AnHq, i. 51 ; Chambers, Booh ofBanjS, i. 
219 ; N.amdQ. 6th S. I. 484. Phrases 
like a '* blazing shame " (=: burning) 
seem to be different. A naval officer 
turning in after a very wintry watch 
told his fellows " It was as cold as 
hlaaes." De Quincey says of a horse 
" He went Wee hlazea,*' 

I remember, fifty years since, or more, at 
one of the Lincoln elections, hearing a man 
in the crowd say to another, speaking of the 
preceding night, " We got drunk as Blaizers." 
I never conld make out what he meant. 
Yesterday 1 was reading Sir Thomas Wyse's 
ImpressioM of Greece j and, speaking of the 
reverence for St. Blaize in Greece (who is 
also, as you know, the patron saint of the 
English woolcombers), and how his feast was 
observed in the woollen manufactories of the 
Midland Counties, he says, '' Those who took 
part in the procession were called ' Blaizera^' 
and the phrase * as drunk as Blaizers ' origi- 
nated in the convivialities common on those 
occasions." So good '* Bishop and Martyr" 
Blaize is dishonoured as well as honoured in 
England, and very probably in Greece.— 
Lije of Richard Waldo Sibthorp, by Rev, J. 
Fowkr, 1880, p. 2«7. 

Bleab one's ete, an old phrase for 
to deceive (Shaks. Taming of Shrew^ 
V. 1, 1. 120), is, according to Prof. 
Skeat = Prov. Swed. 6Zirrci/Q;r ou^, 
to hlv/Ty or dazzle before the eyes {Etym. 

Bleabt ete, a cottager's attempt at 
Blairiif the scientific name for a species 
of rose iirst raised by Mr. Bliur, of 
Stamford Hill, near London. — S. B. 
Hole, Booh about Roses, p. 154. 

Bless, an old verb meaning to guard, 
preserve, must be distinguiiSied from 
oless, A. Sax. hhtsia/nf i.e. 6^'^-auin, to 

make hUthe or hUss-fal, with which it 
has sometimes been confounded. It is 
old £ng. hlessen, blissenj hlecen, to pre- 
serve, turn aside, lessen ; Dut. hlescnen, 
to quench (Morris), for he-leschen, of. 
Ger. loschen, to quench, discharge. 

From alle uuele he seal bUcen us. — Old 
Eng. HomilieSf 1st ser. p. 57, 1. 64. 
[Aaron] Ran and stod tuen lines and dead, 
And is is fier bUssede and wiiS-droe. 

Genesis and Exodus, 1. 3803 (ab. 1250). 

So sorely he her strooke, that thence it 

Adowne her backe, the which it fairly bUst 
From foule mischance. 

Spenser, F. Queene, IV. vi. 13. 

Their father calls them [Simeon and Levi] 
''brethren in evil " for it, olesseth his honour 
from their company, and his soul from their 
secrecy, Gen. zlix. 6. — T. Adams, The City 
of Peace, Works, ii. 322. 

Heaven bless us from such landlords. — 
Country Farmer* s Catechism, 1703 [Nares]. 

Bless, to brandish (Spenser) seems 
to be akin to Fr. hlesser, to wound, slash. 

Burning blades about their heades doe bles^. 

F. Queene, I. v. 6. 

Blindfold seems to have no al- 
lusion to the fold (A. Sax. fedld) of 
material that covers or hUnds the eyes, 
but is a corruption of the old Eng. 
hlindfellede, from the verb hlindfellen. 
OUphanJ, Old and Mid. Eng., p. 280. 

He ^lede al J^uldeliche ))et me hine blinds 
fellede, hwon his eien weren )ni8 ine schend- 
lac iblinfelled, vor to Siuen*^ ancre brihte 
sihiSe of heouene. — Aneren Hiwle, p. 106. 

He suffered all patiently that men him 
blindfolded, when his eyes were thus in 
derision blindfolded for to give the anchorite 
bright sight of heaven. 

Buffetes, spotlunge, blindfellunge, )x>mene 
crununge. — Id. p. 188. 

\)e Gywes ^t heolde ihesu crist. Muchele 

schome him dude. 
Blyndfellede. and spatten him on. in fjen ilke 

Old Eng. Miscellany, p. 45, 1. 272. 

Blyndefylde, ezcecatus. — Prompt, Parvw- 

Where the Heber MS. has blyndfeUyd. 
Blyndf'ellen, or make blynde, exceco. — Id. 

Prof. Skeat says hUndfellen is for 
hUnd-fylla/n, to stnke blind; Mod. Eng. 

Blind-han^s-buff seems to be a 
corruption of hUnd-ma/n-lmch, as '* in 
the Scandinavian Julhoch, from which 
this sport is said to have originated, 


the principal aotor was disguised in 
the skin of a buck or goat " ( Jamieson). 
The name of the game in Gorman is 
hUnde-Kuh, ** blind-cow ;" in Scotch, 
hlind'harie, belly -hlitid^ hcllie'Tnantie^ 
Chacke-blynd-manf Jockle-hUnd-nia/n ; 
in Danish hlindcbuk. The Promptorium 
Parvulcrum (ab. 1440) gives " Tleyyn, 
buk hyde^ Angulo," which, however, 
may perhaps be the game of hide and 
seek. Bough, in Martin Parker's poem 
entitled Blind Mans Bmtgh, 1641, may 
be regarded as the transitional form. 

The Dorset name is hlitid-buck-o* - 
Deavy (Da\'y's bhnd buck). In most 
countries it is an animaiy not a person, 
that is represented as being blind in 
this game — e,g, in addition to those 
already mentioned, Portg. cabra cii'ga^ 
(blind goat), Sp. gailina ciega (blmd 
hen). It. gcUta orba (blind cat), mosca 
deca (blind fly). — {Phihhg.Soc.Trans. 
1864, Dorset Ohaswnj, p. 48). 

Similarly the game of hide and seek 
is in the Dorset dialect hidy-buck : cf. 
hide-fox, Hamlet iv. 2. 

He has a natural desire to play at hlind- 
man-buff all his lifetime. — Randolph, Works, 
p. 39^^ (1651) ed. Hazlitt. 

Bloody Mars, a popular name for 
a kind of wheat, is a curious corruption 
of Fr. Ble de Mars. — Britten and Hol- 
land, Eng. Pla/nt'Names, p. 92 (E. D. 

Bloomebt, • a melting - furnace, a 
foundry, an Anglicized form of Welsh 
rflymwriaeth, lead- work (Gamett, Phi- 
lotog, Soc. Proc. vol. i. p. 173), from 
Welsh 'pUoni zz. Lat. phinibum. But O. 
Eng. hlama is a lump of metal taken 
from the ore. 

Massa, da^ rel bloma. — Wright*s Vocabu- 
Uiriea (10th cent.), p. d4. 

Blooming- Sally, a North of Ireland 
name for the flowering (Lat.) sdlix, or 
willow (Epilobium angustifoliiun). — 
Britten and Holland. So Sweet Cicely 
and Sweet Alison have no connexion 
with the similar woman's names. 

Blot, in the phrase " to hit a blot," 
to And out a defect or weak point in 
anything, is not, as one might suppose, 
the same word as blotch, a stain or 
mark on a fair surface, but taken from 
the game of backgammon, where blot 
is a man left uncovered, and so liable to 
be taken — a vulnerable point. Exactly 

equivalent is Ger. eine bUkze treffen .* c£. 
Swed. gora blott, to make a blot, or ex- 
posed point. It is the Ger. blozs, Dan. 
and Swed. bhtt, Scot, blout, llaii, all 
meaning naked. Vid. Blackley, Word 
Gossip, p. 84. Cf. Icel. blautr, soft, and 
so defenceless. 
Quarles says that Vengeance 

Doth wisely frame 
Her backward tables for an after-game : 
She gires thee leave to venture many a blot; 
And, for her own advantSiec, hits thee not. 

Emblems, fik. iv. 4 (1635). 

Blue as a Razob, a proverbial ex- 
pression, which Bailey explains to be 
for bliLe as azure (Dictioncwy, b.v.). 

Blue-bottle : Dr. Adams believes 
that boifh in this word for a fly is a 
diminutive of bot, a grub or maggot 
(Gael, botus; — ? from its producing 
these) — O.Eng. Wor-bottles being foond 
for wor-bofs. — Phihlog, Soc, Trcms. 
1859, p. 226. 

Now, bine-bottle? what flatter you for, 
sea-pie? — iVebster, Northward lloy i. 3. 

Blue-manoe, a vulgar Scotch cor- 
ruption of blancnw/nge. 

No to count Jc(>Iie8 and coosturd, andfr/ii«- 
mange. — Noctes Ambro^iame, vol. i. p. 64. 

Blundebbus, which seems to be a 
later name for the old harquebus, which 
was flred from a rest fixed in the 
ground, is not probably (as generally 
stated) a corruption of Dutch donder' 
his, Ger. donnerbiich-se, but another 
form of the word bhmter-bus. Blcmter- 
bus seems originally to have been 
plantier-bus, a derivative doubtless of 
Lat. planfare, Fr. pl^mter. It. jnon- 
tare, denoting the firearm that is 
planted or fixed on a rest before being 
discharged. Blunyierd is a Scotch 
word for an old gun. 

King James, in 1617, granted tke 
gumnaJcers a charter empowering them 
to prove all arms — ^Miarquesbusse 
(plcmtier-busse, alias blanter-busse), and 
musquettoon, and every caUiver, 
musquet, carbine," &c. — Original 
Ord/nance Accoutifs, quoted by Sir 8. D. 
Scott, T/w British Amvy, vol. i. p. 406. 

I do believe the word is corrupted, for I 

Sies8 it is a German term, and should be 
onnerbucJu, and that is thundering guns; 
Donner signifying thunder, and Bttchs a 
gun. — Sir James Turner, Pallas Armata^ 
p. 173 (16B3). 


( 33 ) 


Sir S. D. Soott, strangely enongh, 
adopts this later accoant, explaining 
blund&i' in the old sense of stupefying 
or confounding. — {Briiiah Army^ vol. ii. 
p. 803.) 

Blunt, money (cant), is said to be 
from the French hlond^ used in the 
sense of silver ; so " hroions " for half- 
pence, and **to7/»," a very old cant term 
for a penny = Welsh gtoyn (white), 
a silver coin. " Blank," an old Eng. 
word for a kind of base silver money, 
is from the French hlanc^ white — " mon- 
noye hlcmche, white money, ooyne of 
brasse or copper silvered over : ** Cot- 
prave. " 8 hlcmches is a shilling :" The 
Post of the World, 1576, p. 86 (in 

Blush, in the phrase " at the first 
blush" is a distinct word from blush, 
to be suffused with redness, being the 
old Eng. blusch, look, view, glance. 
Thus, when Campion, in his Historie of 
Ireland, 1571, speaks of **A man of 
straw that cU a blush seemeth to carry 
some proportion " (Reprint, p. 167), he 
means at a glance, at nrst sight. This 
b-lush is, perhaps, related to A. Sax. 
lodan, to look ; Gk. leusso, to behold ; 
as b-lush, A. Sax. blysca/n, to redden, 
i)ut. bhscy are to Dan. blusse, to blaze ; 
Lat. lucere, loel. Vysa — both being 
traceable to the Sansk. root ruch, to 
shine (Benfey). 

A good instance is this conoeming 
Lot*s wife : — 

Bot [>e balleful burde, ^at neoer bode keped, 
Bliisched by-hyndeu her bale, ^at bale torto 

Alliterative Poems, p. 65, 1. 980 (ed. Morris). 

^enne com Ihesu cnat* so cler in him seluen, 
after )« furste bluteh' we ne mi3te him bi- 


Joseph of Arimathie, ab. 1550, 1. 656 
(E.E.T.8. ed.). 

Thou durst not blushe once backe for better or 

but drew thee downe fiiill* in that deepe hell. 
Death and Liffe, Percy Folio MS, yol. iii. 
p. 72, 1. 388. 

Methinks, at a blush, thou shouldest be 
one of my occupation. — LiUtf, GaUatheoj ii. 
3 (vol. i. p. 234, ed. Fairhol't). 

A " Contemporary Review"-er lately 
(Deo. 1878) singled out for remark the 
following sentence: **In the garden 
lay a dead Jackal, which, at the first 
blush, I took to be a fox,*' from a book 

entitled West cMd East, and affixed a 
sic I to the word blush, as if to say, 
" Utterly incredible as it may appear, 
it actually stands so I " Evidently he 
did not know that blush means a look 
or glance. 

BoAB THISTLE, a widcly-sprcad popu- 
lar name for the ecbrdaus Icunceolaius, 
is a corruption of Bur Thistle. — Brit- 
ten and Holland, Eng, Plant-Names^ 
p. 64 (E. D. Soc.) 

Sinularly, bores is a Somersetshire 
word for Imrs {Id. p. 68). 

BoABD, TO, a vessel, so spelt as if the 
original conception was to go on board 
and take possession of the deck, whereas 
it meant at first simply to come along* 
side, Fr. aharder, "to approach, ac- 
ooast, abboord ; boord, or lay aboord ; 
come, or draw near unto; also to ar- 
rive, or land at :" Gotgrave. Fr. bord, 
Icel. boriS, a margin or border, esp. 
the side of a ship (e.g, leggja bor^ viH 
borii, to lay a ship alongside of another 
so as to board it) ; O. Eng. io bo&rd zz to 
approach, address (Spenser, Lillie). 
" Board," a plank, is, however, a word 
nearly akin. Cf. ** accost," Fr. costoyer, 
" to accoast, side, abbord, to be by the 
side of: " Gotgrave (ad costam), "Jjap- 
land ... so much as accosts the sea *' 
(Fuller, W<nihies, i. 267). 

Spenser speaks of the river 

Newre whose waters gray 
By faire Kilkenny and l^ossepont^ boord 
[i.t, flow by the side of). — Faerie Qiuene, IV. 
xi. 43. 

They both yfere 
Forth passed on their way in fayre accord. 
TiU hmi the Prince wiu gentle court aid 
bord [== accost]. 

Id. II. Lz. 2. 

Affect in things about thee cleanlinesse 
That all may gladly board thee, as a flowre. 
Geo. Herbert, The Church- Porch, 

Mrs. Page. Unless he know some strain in 
me .... he would never have boarded me in 
this fury. 

Mrs. Ford. " Boarding,'* call you it? Ill 
be sure to keep him above deck. 

Shakespeare, Merni Wives of Windsor^ 
ii. 1,94. 

Bodkin, an old word for a species of 
rich cloth, a tissue of silk and gold, is 
a corruption of bavdhin (Gascoigne), 
or ba/udequin, Fr. baldaquin, Sp. baXda* 
Quino, It. baldacchdno, -froBi naidach, 
Bagdad, where it was manufactured. 



( 34 ) 


The Icelanders corrupted the word 
into BtMrsskinn^ ue. ** Balder's skin." 

The better sort hare vestes poivmitie ghr- 
ments of party-coloured silks; some being 
Satten, some (fold and Silver (.'hamlets, and 
some of Bodkin and rich cloth of gold, 
figured. — Sir That, Herbert, Travels, p. 313 

At this day [Baf^ad] is called Valdac or 
Batdach.—Id'. p. 242. 

He hanged all the walls of the gallery . . . 
with riche clothe of bodkin of divers coloura. 
— Cavendinh, Life of Wolaey, Wordsworth, 
Eccle$ Biflg.y vol. i. p. 447. 

Boo-BEAN, a popular name for m^n- 
yanih^s trifoliata, N otwitlistanding its 
French synonym, irfflp, des morals. Dr. 
Prior holds it to be a corruption of the 
older forms huck-hean or huckcs-heane. 

Bolt-sprit, a frequent spelling of 
how-sprit (Bailey, Richardson), the 
sprit or spar projecting from the how of 
a ship ; Dutch loeg-spriet, Dan. hug- 
spryd, as if one straight as a holt or 
arrow. The French have corrupted 
tlio word into heaupre. 

Kennett explains holtsprii as the sprit 
or mast that hoUs out (1695) : Eng. 
Dialect Soc, B. 18. 

Bond-grace, an old name for a 
hanging border or curtain attached to 
a bonnet or other head-dress to shade 
the complexion from tlie sun, is a cor- 
ruption of the older word hongrace, Fr. 

You think me a very desperate roan . . . 
for coming near so bright a sun as you are 
without a parasol, umbrellia, or a boudzrace, 
-Sir \Vm. Davenant, The Mans the Master 

Bonne-praee. The uppermost flap of the 
down - hanging taile of a French-hood ; 
(whence bt-likeour Boon^race). — Cotgrave. 

The attire of her head, her carolc, her 
borders, her peruke of hair, her b(m-graee 
and chaplet. — Holland, Trans, of Plinii. 

Tlie Nomenclator, 1585, defines urn- 
hella to be a hona-grace, 

BoNE-FiRE, an old spelling of hon- 
fire, from a belief that it was made of 

Baldoria, a great bonejire or feude ioy. — 

Tlie word is still vulgarly pronounced 
so in Ireland, and probably elsewhere. 

Some deduce it from fires made of bone, 
relating it to the burning of mnrtyrs, first 
fashionable in England iu the reign of King 
Uenry the Fourth. But others derive the 

word (more truly in my mind) from Boon, 
that is f^ood and t ires ; whether good be taken 
for mernt and chearfull, such fires being 
always mnde on welcome occasions. — Ful- 
ler^ Good Thoughts in Bad Times, p. IBl (ed. 

Drayton's speUing is hoon-fire {Poly^ 
oJhion, 1622, song 27), and so Fuller, 
Mixt Contemplations, 16G0, Part i. xvi. 

In worshipp uf Saint lohann, the pec^le 
wake at home, and make tlurce mam^ of 
fyres : oonc is dene bones, and noo woode, 
and tliat is called a bone-fyre; another is clene 
woode, and no bones, and that is called a 
woode fyre, for people to sit and wake there- 
by ; the thirde is made of wode and boQes, 

and it is called Saynt lohannvs fyre 

Wyse clerkes knoweth well that dragons 
hate nothyng more than the stench of bren- 
nynge bunes, and therefore they gaderyd a^ 
many as they mighte fvude and brent them ; 
and so with the stenche thereof they drove 
away the dragons, and so they were brought 
out of grei'te dvsease. — Old Homily^ quoted 
in llampson's Aifd. Kalendarium, vol. i. p. 

A slightly different version of this 
quotation is given in Brand's Popular 
Antiq'uitics, vol. i. p. 299 (ed. Bohn). 

The best bone-Jire of all is to have our 
hearts kindled with love to Go<i. — Richard 
Sibbes, Works (ed. Nichol), vol. iii. p. 198. 

Stowe gives the same account as 
Fuller : — 

These were called bonfires, as well of 
good amity amongst neighbours, that, being 
beforti at controversy, were there by the 
labour of otlw^rs n*co:iciled, and made of bit- 
ter enemies loving friends; as also for the 
virtue that a great fire hath to purge the in> 
fection of the air. — Survey oJ'lAtndon, p. 307, 
ed. 17,'>4. 

Mr. Fleay observes : — 

The singular words *' everlasting bon- 
fire" [in Xlacbeth, ii. 3] have been mis- 
understood hv the commentators. A bonfire 
at that date is invariably given in the i4itin 
Dictionaries as equivalent to pyra or rogus ; 
it was the fire for consuming the human body 
afler death : and the hell- fire differed from 
the earth-fire only in being everlasting.— 
Shakesjteaie Manual, p. 247. 

Wliether the wonl be spelt hone-fire^ 
as if from t^m^.', or, as at present, bon- 
fire, as if a fire made on the receipt of 
good (Fr. hon) news (Skinner, Johnson), 
it has superseded A. Sax. hasil-fyr f? Scot. 
bane-fire} , from haul, a burning, a funeral 
pile : cf. Icel. bul, a flame, a funeral pile ; 
Scot, hcde, a beacon-fagot. So lieU- 
talne, the Irish name for the Ist of 


May, accorcling to Cormao's Glossary, 
is hil'tene, the goodly fire then made by 
tlie Druids (Joyce, Irish Names of 
Places, p. 193); as if from hil, good, 
and tene, a fire. Bil here is probably 
akin to hcBl, htil. The A. Sax. hceU 
bknse still survives in the Cleveland 
bdHy-hleeze, a bon-fire. 

Mr. Wedgwood identifies the first 
part of the word with Dan. haun, a 
beacon, comparing Welsh hden, high, 
lofty, whence hcm-ffagl, a bonfire. 

BoNE-SRAVE, a provincial word for 
the sciatica, is a corruption of the old 
Eng. ** honschoMe, sekenesse, Tessedo, 
Sciasis:" Prompt, Parvulorum, Other 
forms are honeshavoe, hoonschdw, bane- 
schawe, perhaps from A. Sax. ban and 
seeorfa (Way). 

BoNNT • CLABBEB — an Anglo - Irish 
word for thickened milk or buttermilk, 
used by Swift, Jonson, and others — is 
from the Irish baine, baiwne, milk ; and 
claha, thick. Ford spells it bowny- 
elnbbiyre, and Harington {Epigrams, 
1633) bony-cldbo. 

It is a^inst my freehold, my inheritance, . . . 
To drink bqcH balderdash or bonnyclabher. 
Jonwn, The New Inn, act. i. so. 1. 

O Marafastot shamrocks are no meat, 
Nor bonntf clabbo, nor green water-cresses. 
The Famous Uutory of Captain Tho$, 
5(ii/ce^,i/, 1.3^(1605). 

Boon, in such phrases as *' to ask a 
boon," is derived from Icel. b&n (A. 
Sax. bene, bem), a prayer or petition : 
with a collateral reference in popular 
etymology to boon (as in boon com- 
panion, =: Fr. bon compagnon), Fr. bon, 
a good thing, a benefit. 

Bone or g^aunte of prayer, Precarium. — 
Prompt, Parvulorum. 

And yif ye shulde at god askeyow a bone, 
—The Babees Book, p. 5,1. 117 (E. E. T. S.). 
What is good ror a bootless 60910 ? 

Wordtworth, Workt^ vol. v. 
p. 52, ed. 1837. 

Howell, in his Letters, has boon voyage 
for Fr. bon voyage. 

Boot and Saddle, a military term, 
the signal to cavalry for mounting, is 
explained by Mr. Wedgwood to be a 
corruption of Fr. boute-seUe, put on 
saddle, one half the expression being 
adopted bodily, and the other trans- 
lated {Philolog, Trans, 1856, p. 70). 

Boute'i^tte, the word for horsemen to 
prepare themselves to horse. 

Bouter telle, to olap a saddle on a horse's 
back. — Cotgraiie. 

Stand to your horses ! It*s time to begin : 
Boots and Saddles ! thp pickets are in ! 
G. J, Whyte-Meloille, Songs and Verses, 
p. 154(5thed.)« 

Boots, or Bouts, quoted by Dr. Prior 
as a popular name for the marsh mari- 
gold, is a corruption from the French 
name boutons d'or, ** golden buds.*' 

Boots, in the old phrase, ** Such a 
man is got in his boots " — i.e. he is very 
drunk, or has been at a drinking-bout : 
Eennett, 1695 (E. Dialect. Soc. B. 18) 
— seems to be corrupted from bouts, as 
we stiU say, *' He is in his cups.*' 

BooziNO-KEN, an old slang term for 
a beer-shop or public-house, as if a 
drinking - house, from the old verb 
booze, bouse, to drink deeply ; Dut. buy- 
sen, huyzen, to tipple, wMcn Wedgwood 
deduces from buyse (Scot, boss, old Fr. 
bous, bout), a jar or flagon. Gf. old 
Eng. bous, drink. 

Wilt thou stoop to their puddle waters 
. . . bousing, carding, dicing, whoring, 6cc. — 
Sam. Ward, Life oj Faith, ch, viii. (1636). 

The word was introduced by the 
Gypsies, and is identically the Hindu- 
stani biize-khdna, i.e.** beer-shop," from 
buzd, beer (Duncan Forbes). 

In Jonson *8 Masque of The Meta- 
morpJiosed Gipsies, 1621, a gipsy says : 

Captain, if ever at the Bawiing Ken 
You have in draughts of Darby drill'd your 
men .... 
Now lend your ear but to the Patrico. 
My dozv stays for me in a bousing ken. 
The UiHiriH^ Girl (1611), Old Plays, 
vol. VI. p. 90 (ed. 1825). 
As Tom, or Tib, or Jack, or Jill, 
When they at bowsing ken do swill. 

Bromey The Merry Beggars, 1652 
(O.P. X. 315). 

Bouzing-can, a drinking cup, occurs 
in dignified poetry (Faerie Queene, I. 
iv. 22). 

To crowne the bouiing kan from day to 
night. — G. Fletcher, Christ*s Victorie on 
Ettrth, 52. 

BoRE'COLE, an old name for a species 
of cabbage, is perhaps a corruption of 
broccoli: but compare Dut. boerekool, 
peasant cabbage (Prior). 

Bosh Butter — a name given to a 
spurious imitation of the genuine com- 


( 36 ) 


modity (somotimes called Bntterine), 
lately introduced into the London 
market from Holland, as if from hash I 
an exclamation of contempt — is an 
Anglicized form of Dutch Bosscli^ Bator ^ 
from Ilertooenbosch (Fr. Bois-le-Duc), 
the place where the stuff was manu- 
factured. So Bosjesman^ a man from 
the Bush (Dut. hosch^ hoschje), 

Bosu, used by Bp. John King for an 
elephant^s trunk, as if the same word 
as li08€, a protuberance ; Yr.hosaey seems 
to be merely the accented syllable of 

CurtiiM writPtli of the olephant that he 
taketh an armed nuin with h}B hand. . . lie 
meaneth the bos* of the elephant, which he 
useth as men their hands. — Leeturet on 
Jonahj 1594, p. 238 (ed. GroMrt). 

BoTHEBY-THREE, a Yorksliiro name 
for the elder (samlnicvs nigra) — i.e. hot- 
tery-iree; boitery being for hor-tree (pro- 
nounced hortery) or here-free^ perjiaps 
witli reference to the hwed or hollow 
appearance of the pithless wood. So 
hottery-tree zz bore-free tree. Compare 
beet)irtree zz. tree-tree, and Ass-pabslet, 

Bottle, in the proverbial saying, 
"To look for a needle in a bottle of 
hay," is old Eng. botely a bundle, from 
Fr. botte. 

Botelle of hey, Fenifascis. — Prompt. ParVy, 

Methinks I hare a Kreat desire to a bottle 
of hay. — Midsummer A. Dream, iv. 1, 1. 37. 

Tailor. What dowry has she [a mare] ? 

Daugh. Some two liundred bottUfj 

And twenty strike of oatt^. 

The Tuo \ohle Kinhmenj t. 2,1. 64. 

Bottom, in the old phrase, " to bo in 
the same bottom,'* i.e. to have a com- 
munity of mterests, is the A. Sax. 
bytme, a sliip (Ettmilller, 804, al. 
bytne), connected witli hyi, butt, boat. 
Hence bott&niry, the insurance of a 

We venture in the same Itottom that all 
good men of all nations have done before us. 
— Bp. Bull, SermimSf vol. ii. p. 216. 

Bottom, an old word for a cotton 
ball, still in provincial use (see Pea- 
cock, Lincolnshire Glossanj), origi- 
nally the spool or knob of wood on 
wliich it was wound, is another form 
of biUton, Old Eng. and 0. Fr. boton 
(Fr. bouton)f Wefih feo/icw, a boss. 
Hence the name of Bottom the 

BotiM of threde (al. botvm). 
Botu'Hy Boto, 6bula, nodulus. 

Prompt Parv* 

George Herbert, writing to his 
mother (1622) says : — 

Ilappv is he whose bottom is wound up, 
and laid ready for work in the New Jeru- 
salem. — /. Walton f LiiieSf p. 304 (ed. 1858). 

Bound, in such expressions as ** out- 
ward bound,'' "homeward bovnd'* 
(generally appUed to vessels), ** I am 
bound for Loudon," is a corruption of 
the old Eng. word bovn, boicne, boon, 
or 6o»t^, meaning, prepared, equipped, 
or ready (for a journey or enterprise), 
Icel. buinn, past parte, of bua, to make 
ready, which is akin to Ger. baticn 
(to till). 

Brother, I am readye bowne. 
Wye that we wen* at the towne. 
Chetter Mysteries (Shalw. Soc.), vol. ii. p. 7. 

Sir, we bene heare all and some, 

As boulde men, readye bonne 

To drive your enemyes all downe. 

Id. p. 87. 

BouBN, a boundary (Hamlet^ iii. 1), 
is a corruption of old Fr. Umne (Fr- 
borne), a bovn-d-ary, assimilated to 
bouriij a (limitary) stream. 

BowEB, an American term for the 
highest card in the game of Euchre, is 
the German baiter or peasant, corre- 
sponding to our knave (Tylor). 

BowEB, originally meaning a cham- 
ber, N. Eng. boor, A. Sax. bur, Icel. 
bur, Ger. bauer, owes its motleni signi- 
fication of an arbour made by inter- 
lacing branches to a supposed connec- 
tion with bottgh, A. Sax. ooh and bog. 

Bowyeb's Mustabd, as if tlio Bow- 
maker's Mustard, an old name for the 
plant Thlaspi arcense, is a corruption 
ofBotcers-, Bourvs-, or I^oor'«- Mustard, 
from Dutch Bauren-senfr. Compare 
its name ChurVs Mustard (Bntien and 
Holland, Eng. Plant-Names, p. 58). 

Box, the front seat of a coach, as if 
originally the chest or receptacle in 
which parcels were stowed away, is the 
same word as Ger. bock, Dan. buk, de- 
noting (1) a buck or he-goat, (2) a 
trestle or support on which anything 
rests, (8) a coach- box in particular. 
Wedgwood compares Polish koziel (1) 
a buck, (2) a coach-box, kozly^ a 
trestle. For similar transitions of 


C 37 ) 


meaning see my Wordhunt^*8 NotC' 
Book, pp. 230 seq. 

Box, in the phrase "to box the 
compass/' i.e. to go round the points 
naming them in their proper order, 
has not been explained. l!t has pro- 
bably nothing to do with hoXf the old 
name for the case of the compass. It 
may have been borrowed from the 
Spanish mariners, and be the same as 
the nautical word to box := to sail 
around, Sp. hoxa/Tj hoxear (Stevens, 
1706) ; cf. Sp. hoxo, roundness, com- 
pass, circuit. 

BoxAGE, used by Evelyn for shrub- 
bery, wooded land, is apparently a cor- 
rupt form of boscage. See Davies, Supp, 
Eng. Glossary, s.v. 

Bban-new, an incorrect spelling of 
hrand'fieic, i.e. " fire new," fresh from 
the forge, just made. Shakespeare has 
the expression fire-new. Bums spells 
it hrenf new, i.e, burnt new. 

JVae cotillon brent new frae France. 
Tarn O'Shanter (Globe ed. p. 93). 

Compare flam-new ( W, Cornwall Glos- 
sary, E.D.S.) ; spam^-new (Havelok the 
l)a/ne), O.Norse spdn-nyr, i.e, "chip- 
new," fresh from the carpenter's bendi 
(A. Sax. sp&n), and Swed. sinllemy, 
" splinter-new." 

Brass, a vulgar and colloquial term 
for impudence, effrontery, is generally 
regarded as a figurative usage derived 
from the composite metal so called, 
just as we speak of "a brazen hussy," 
a " face of brass," i,e, hard, shameless, 
unblushing. The word occurs in the 
Cleveland dialect, where Mr. Atkinson 
identifies it with tlie old Norse brass 
of the same meaning (not in Cleasby). 
Compare Icel. hrasta, to bluster, Ger. 
hrasten, Dan. hrashe, to boast, brag, Ir. 
hras, a lie, hrasa, boasting, hrasaire, a 
liar. North uses it in his Examen, see 
Davies, 8upp, Eng. Glossary, 

Brawn, a West of England word for 
the smut in wheat, is a corruption or 
contraction of old Eng. hrancom, which 
has the same meaning ( Ustilago sege- 
lum), i,e, hren-corn, what hums or 
blasts the com. 

Bread-stitch, in Goldsmith, an in- 
correct form of hraid'Siiteh, Davies, 
Hnpp, Eng. Glossary, 

Break, in the expression " to break 
in a horse," as if to crush his spirit, 
has probably no direct connexion witli 
hreaJc (znfra/ngere). 

Brake is a bit for horses, also a 
wooden frame to confine their feet. 
Compare Icel. hrdk, a tanner's imple- 
ment for rubbing leather, Dutch hraake, 
a twitch to hold an animal by the nose. 
A hraJce to check the motion of a car- 
riage is the same word. The correct 
form, therefore, would be " to brake." 

Bre.vst-Summer, an architecttu*al 
term for a beam employed like a lin- 
tel to support the front of a building, 4 
is a corruption of hressumer {Glossary 
of Architecture, Parker), where hres- 
seems to be for brace, as in Scotch 
bress is another form of hra^, a chim- 
ney-piece, and -sumer, is O. Eng. somer, 
a beam. 

Brest Summers, are the pieces in the out- 
ward part of any building, and in the middle 
floors, into which the girders are framed. — 

Cantrefrontaily ... a haunse or breast sum- 
mer, — Cotgrave, 

Bred, in the expression " a well-bred 
man," is probably not the past parti- 
ciple of the verb to breed (A. Sax. bre- 
dan), as if gentle birth, not manners, 
maketh man, but akin to Icel. bragii, 
manners, fashion (= bragr, habit of 
life, manner), also look, expression, 
whence old Eng. bread, appearance 
(Bailey), and Prov. Eng. "/o brmd of 
a person," meaning to resemble him, 
have his appearance or the trick of his 
favour, Scotch to breed, as " ye breed o' 
the gowk, ye have ne'er a rime but 
ane " (= IceL breg^r). So when Diana 
protests in AWs Well that Ends Wcll^ 
act iv. sc. 2 : — 

Since Frenchmen are so braid j 
Marry that will, I lire and die a maid. 

The meaning seems to be that which 
Mr. Wedgwood assigns to it, "Since 
Frenchmen are so mannered." Cf. 
A. Sax. bredian, to adorn, bragd, bregd^ 
a device, Ac, EttmUUer, 818. In the 
same way " a well-bred person " is one, 
not necessarily well bom, but well- 
mannered. !Bre€ddng was formerly 
used for the education or bringing up 
of a child, and bred for educated. 

My eldest son George was bred at Ox- 
ford. — Vicar of Wakejield, ch. i. 


( 38 ) 


Thanks to my. friends, who took care of my 

And taught me betimes to love working and 


Dr. Watts, The Sluggard. 
You wer to be sent to mj Ladye Dromond, 
your Cousine germaiue .... to be bredde in 
the Protestant religion .... I resolved to go 
to France, wher your grandmother had re- 
tired herself .... with the intention to work 
upon her to send for you, and bread yon with 
herself in France. — A breijfe narration of the 
services done to Thre^ Noble Ixidifes by' Gilbert 
Blakhall. See Preisbytery Book of Strathbttgie, 
p. xzi (Spalding Club). 

Perhaps the most that should be said 
is that hired here has been assimilated 
^ to, or confomided with, braid (Iraid-ed), 

Bbeegh, a verb formerly in use 
meaning to flog, as if to strike on that 
portion of the body so named, is, ac- 
cording to Mr. Wedgwood (Etynwh^i- 
ccd Diet, 8. v.), the same word as Pro v. 
Ger. hritschenf prUechefiy to strike with 
a flat board (m Low Dutch called a 
hriize) ; Dutch Mdseny Swiss hraiscJieny 
to smack. 

I view the prince with Aristarchus' eyes, 

W hose looks vrent an a breeching to a boy. 
Marlowe^ Edward the Second (p. SIB, 
ed. Dyce). 

Had not a courteous serving-man conveyed 
me away while he went to fetch whips, I 
think in my conscience ... he would have 
hreech'd me. — R. Taihr, The Hog hath Lost 
His Pearl (O. Plays, vi. 369, ed. 1825). 

Bbeeches, 60 spelt as if denoting 
clothing for the hreechy that part of 
the body where its continuity is hrohen 
(I as if breach). Compare hreche, an 
old word for the hinder 2)art of a deer 

\>e water dude vorth hys kunde, &t waze 

euere vaste . . . 
Jpat yt watte hys brych al aboute. 

Robert of Gloucester J ChnmicUj 
p. 3^« (ed. 1810). 
Here's one would be a flea (jfst comicall ! ) 
Another, his sweet ladies veruingall, 
I'o clip her tender breech. 

Marstonj Works, vol. iii. p. S90 
(ed. Halliwell). 
This has actually been regarded as 
the true etjTnology of the word by 
lUchardson and others. It is really 
the same as North Eng. brerl-Sy A. Sax. 
bi'ec, hwc, plural of h-oCy Icel. ^tcpAt, 
plu. of brdk; old Fr. bragvcs, braivsy 
Span. bragaSy Breton hrageZy Welsh 
biijcaiiy Gaelic hiogiSy Lat. &rac<», 

trowsors ; Irish brdcc (also hrog)y a shoe, 
whence Anglo-Irish bromie (Whitley 
Stokes, Irish GlosscSy p. 119). Compare 
the two meanings of Fr. chausec, and 
our hose. 

Bree.cheSy h'a<XBy &c., are of Celtic 
origin, being identical with the Gaelic 
brcBcariy tartan, from breac, party- 
coloured, variegated, describing the 
plaid or striped cloth worn from time 
inmiemorial by the Celts (Cleasby, IceL 
Diet. 8. V. Brdk). Cf. ** Versicoloro 
sagulo, hracasy tegmen barbanim in- 
dutus," Tac. Hist. 2, 20; ** bracae vir- 
gatas," Propert. iv. 10, 48. 

It may be observed that breeches is 
really a double plural. For the Celtic 
broc or brogy having been adopted into 
old English, was treated as a native 
word, and had its plural formed hy 
internal vowel change. Just as O. En^. 
foty boCy gas become in tlie plural ftt 
(feet), bee (books), ges (geese), so Iti'oc be- 
came brec (breek) ; and accordingly we 
find braccve in the ProviptoHum Parvti- 
lorvm (c. 1440) defined in EngUah 
by ** brecJie or breke ; " cf. ** Irreche of 
hosen, braies," Palsgrave (1630). Wy- 
chfife has brcgirdley breeches-band ( Jer. 
xiii. 1, 4, 6), for breke-girdh. 

Thou breech of cloth, thou weede of lowlines. 
Thou hast not feared to mayntayne thy cau8«>. 
ThynnCy Dtbate between Pride ^ Lowliness^ 
p. 63 (Shaks. Soc.). 

Briab-boot pipes are reaUy made 
from the roots of the white heath, Fr. 
bi'uy&rCy of which Imor is a comiption, 
being imi)orted chiefly from Corsica. 
BruytTPy Milan brughieroy Low Lat. 
bnianum^ are akin to Breton hrug^ 
heath, Welsh brwg. Briar is A. Sax. 

Bbick, a slang term of approval, as, 
" He is a regular brick," a thoroughly 
good fellow . Some wonderful nonsense 
about this word is vented in The SJangi 
Dictionary (Hotton), and Brewer's Die* 
tionary of Phrase and Fable. 

It is, perhaps, a survival of A. Sax. 
hr^jcey useful, jn'ofitable, and so good, 
wliich is the philological counterpart of 
Lat. frvgiy worthy, honest. Bryce is 
from brucany to enjoy or profit, whence 
O. Eng. Ijroukcy Scot, br^iicky to use, 
enjoy (Mod. l^ng. to Irooky cf. Ger. 
brauch€n)y corresponding to Lat. Jhig 
in fru(g)ory frucivsy frvges. Compare 


also A. 6ax. Mcc^ use, old Eng. hriche 
(Old Eng. Miscellany, E.E.T.S. p. 12), 
Goth, hruks. An anuising coincidence 
is presented by Heb. too, good, and 
Arab, toh, a brick, Coptic and Egyptian 

Bbick-wall, a corruption of hricoU 
or hricoh, a term at tennin. 

Bricolef a brkh-watl : a side stifxake at 
cennis, wherein the ball goes not right for- 
ward, but hits one of the wals of the court, 
aud thence bounds towanls the adverse party. 
Bricolerj to toss or strike a ball sidewaies, to 
give it a brick-wall. — Cotgrave, 
' What are these ships but tennis balls for 
the wind to play withal ? tost from one wave 
to another ; . . . sometimes brick-ual'd against 
a rocke. — Manton, tUistward ifue, ii. 1, l(i05 
(vol. iii. p. 24, ed. H alii well). 

HecTf th' Enginer begins his Ram to reare, . . . 
13endjs heer his Bricoly there his boysterous 

Bo we, 
Brings hefr liis Fly-bridge, there his batt*ring 


J. SylvesUr, iVorki, p. 976 (1621 ). 

These words are from the Mid. H. 
German brechel, a "breaker." Com- 
pare It. hriccola, Sp. hrigola. Low Lat. 
oricola, a catapult. 

Bbidal, so spelt as if it were a simi- 
lar formation to "espousal," "be- 
txayal," "denial," &c., iia corrupted 
from the old form bride-cde, the (de- 
drinking or carousal in honour of the 
bride. Bride-cUe is still, in the Cleveland 
dialect, the name of the draught pre- 
sented to the wedding party on its re- 
turn from church. 

Harrison, in his Deseription of Eng- 
land in the time of EUzabeth, rejoices 
that the Beformation had swept away ' 

. . idle wakes, guilds, fmtemities, church- 
ales, helpe-ales, aud soule-ales^ called also 
dirge-ales, and heathenish rioting at bride- 

0. Norse hrud-^l, A. Sax. hryd-edla. 

Ale was even used as a synonym for 
a festival or holiday, as in the Prologue 
to the Plav of Pericles, 1. 6, " ember 
eves and holy ales.'^ In addition to 
those already mentioned, we find 
Easter ales, WlMtstm ales, Leet cdes^ 
Clerk ales. Lamb dies. Midsummer ales, 
&c. Arval, a funeral feast, old Scand. 
arfbl (inheritance alej, Hampson, Medii 
Aevi Kalend, vol i. p. 283. 

None of these martial, and cloudy, and 
whining marriages can say that godliness was 
invited to their nride-ale. — Henry Smith, .Ver- 
Tfuuis, 1657, p. 23. 

A man that's bid to a bride-ole, if he have 

And drink enough, he need not vear his stake. 
B. Jouson, Tale of a Tub, ii. 1. 

The Preshjfterie Buih of Aberdeen, 
1606, speaks of tlie "intollerable abomi- 
nations that falls out at the penny hry- 
dellis, speciallie of drunkennes and. 
murder " (Dalzell, Darker ISuperstitiona 
of Scotland, p. 298). 

Bbide-oboom is a corruption of bride- 
gome, old Eng. bridgonie, A. Sax. bryd- 
guma, i.e. tlie bride's man, from a con- 
fusion of gome, a man (Goth, guma, Lat. 
hoiho), with grome, a groom, a servant, 
0. Fr. gromme. 

Ffor it es bryde, and God es brydepome.— 
Ilampole, Fricke of Corucience, 1. 8B09, ab. 

And )»e wyse maydinea . . . yeden in mid 
l^e bredgonw to ]« bredaie. — A veubite of' Inwyt, 
p. 233 (1^340). 

Bbief, a provincial word, meaning 
prevalent, frequent, plentiful, is pro- 
bably Q> corruption of rife. 

" Wipers are wery briefs (vipers are 
very plentiful), Pegge, Alphabet of Ken- 
ticisms, 1786. I have heard a CounW 
Wicklow woman remark : " The small- 
pox, I hear, sir, is very brief in Dubhn." 
A use of the word in 1780 is quoted in 
Blanche's Comer of Kent, p. 171, and 
see Sternberg, Northampton Glossary, 

8. V. 

Bbimstons, a corrupted form of the 
old Eng. bren-stone or bryn-sioTie, i.e. 
" bum-stone," from 0. Eng. brenns, A. 
Sax. bryne, a burning, byman, to bum ; 
Icel. brennistein. 

The word is also found as bnmstan 
{Northumbrian Psalter, 1260) ; brinstan 
in the Cursor Mundi il4th century) : — 

Our lauerd raind o |>am o-nan, 
Duii o lift, fire and brimtun. 

1. 2841, Cotton, MS. ; 

where the other versions have brim- 
stone and brimston; brumaton in the 
JDehate between Body and Soul (xiii. 
century) : — 

Bothe pich and brunutcn, men mySte fif mile 
nave the smel. 
Mopes, Poem* (Camden Soc.), p. 539. 

Wycliflfe (1889) has brenstoon, ]bryn- 
etoon, brunston, and brymstcon, 

Bbook-limb, a popular name for the 
plant Veronica Beccahunga, seems to 
be a corruption of the older names 


hrohlenibe, hroklemp^ hrodempe (what- 
ever may be the origm of these), as if 
it was BO called from growing in the 
lime or mud (Lat. limvs) of hrooJcs, 
Markham (1687) spells, the word 
hrockeUhempe^ as if = ** brittle-hemp " 
(English Housewife* 8 Hotishold Pny- 
sicke, p. 23). . 

Mr. Cockayne says hrodempe is for 
hroclenike, and lemJce = Icel. lennkiy 
Dan. lemmike [?] , old £ng. JUeomoc in 

Bbook-tongue, an old name for the 
hemlock (cicutavirosa), is a corruption 
of old Eng. hrocpung. — Britten and Hol- 
land, En/;. Plcmt-I^amcs, p. 66 (E. D. 

Bboth, in the Anglo-Irish expres- 
sion, "the broth of a boy," is probably 
from the Irish hnUhj x)ower, strength, 
heat, adjectivally, pure, unalloyed; 
which is akin to &rMi7AVw,to boil, hruithy 
hroih^ boiling, broth. Cf. hrigh^ essence, 
power, strength, Eng. "brew;" It. 
hrio, spirit. 

Bbotherlixoe, an old word for a 
nincompoop, as if a younger brotlier, 
is a corrupted form of bnilbellng^ hrethe- 
ling, a rascal, or worthless fellow, con- 
nected with 0. Eng. brothel^ a black- 

Quod Achab thanne : There is one, 
A brotltely which Micheaa hight. 

Gower, Conf. Amantiiy iii. 173 
(eil. Pauli). 

AJielyng, brif^lingyf Lond wi}?-vten lawe. 

Old Eng. MiKeliany, p. 185, 1. 19. 

Ete H mete b^ smalle morselles ; 
Fylle not thy mouth as done brotheUis. 

The Babees Book, ab. 1480, p. 18 

Ili6 said jVToyne their young King 
waa but a Bwthertingef 
& said if Vortiger King were, 
he wold bring them out of care. 

Percg Folio MH, vol. i. p. 426, 1. 133. 

Brown Bess, a familiar name for 
the old-fashioned regulation musket. 

Bc88 is the equivalent of -hves in 
hlunder-bii88^ aripw-lnise s Ger. hiichsCj 
Flemish huis, Low Ger. bOsffe, Dut. bus, 
Fr. biisf*, tube, barrel ; and so is equiva- 
lent to ** Brown barrel." 

Vou should lay brown Bess ower the garden- 
dike, and send the hail into their brains for 
them. — ISloctes AmbrflsiantTy vol. i. p. 171. 

This is the bix of tlie Americo-Ger- 

man lingo of tlie Breitmann Bcdl<uU^ 
"Shoot at dat eagle mit your hiae'^ 
(p. 87, ed. 1871). A picture of the old 
Brown Bess is given by Sir S. D. 
Scott, The BMsh Amiy^ voL ii. p. 

If we had not the cognate words It. 
busarey btigiarey to perforate, hnso^ hn- 
gioy perforated; O. Sp. bu^y a hole 
(Diez), we should have been tempted 
to connect Fr. buae, a gun-barrel (cf. 
bu^ney a pipe — Cotgrave), with bttsey a 
falcon or ouzzard (Ger. busey Lat. 
buteo)y the names of firearms being most 
commonly derived from birds. 

BsowN-BBEiiD, bread made with bran, 
is not improbably a corrupted fonu of 
the old word brcm-brecUL — Skeat, Etyttu 

They drew his broum-bread face on pretty gin*. 
Bp. Corbet, PoemSy 1648, p. 211 (ed. 1807). 

Bbowngetus. a poor Irish woman, 
suffering from bi'onchitiSy always spoke 
of her complaint as an attack of Irroicn- 
geiv.8. The form broivn-fyjihus has also 
been heard, and in Sussex brmvn-titus. 

The German briivne (brown), as a 
name for the quinsy or croup, is a 
curious parallel. This disease is said 
to have been so named from being at- 
tended witli blackness (see Kilian, b«v. 

Brown study. This somewhat pe- 
cuhar expression for deep contempla- 
tion, total pre-occupatiou, and absent- 
mindedness, is one of considerable 
antiquity. It is supposed to be a per- 
version of the old Fr. evibronCy (1) bent, 
with head bowed down ; (2) sad, pen- 
sive, moody, thoughtful. Compare old 
Span, broncar, to bend ; It. bronciare^ 
to stumble, probably from Lat. protiw*, 
through a form pronlc/ire (Dioz). Cot- 
grave gives an old verb, ** embronclicr^ 
to bow or hold down the neck and 
head, as one that is stonied . . ., also 
to hide the face or eyes with hands, a 
doth, &c." The French and Provencal 
embron, tlioughtfal, was perhaps con- 
founded with embi'uniy embrowned, 
darkened, obscured. But cf. ** Si les 
penseas n'y sont pas tout-k-fait noires, 
elles y sont an moins gris-brun,** — 
Madame Sevigne, Letttrs^ torn. iv. 
p. 9. Compare gris, diill, fuddled. 


( « ) 


l^e noir dit la fermet^ des cueun, 
Gris Ic trarail, et tanne les lan{pieura; 
Par ainsi c'eat langueur en travail ferme. 
Grid, tanne, noir. 

Clement Marot, Rondeaujf xliii. 

Compare Ger. hiester, Swed. bister zz 
(1) brown, " bistre ; " (2) gloomy, grim, 
dismal. Compare adso Gk. kalcJutind, ( 1 ) 
to empurple, (2) to be troubled and 
anxious; porphuro, (1) to be dark- 
coloured, (2) ponder, be thoughtful, 
perplexed (II. xxi. 651, Od. iv. 427) ; 
2}hren€8 meiainm, amphifiiilainaif black 
thoughts, painful ruminations. 

Lack of company will soon lead a man into 
a broirn studtf. — Mani/eit Detection oj Ute of 
Dice, «>c., 153^, p. 6 (Percy Soc. ). 

It seems to me (said she) that you are in 
som»^ hnmn study what coulours you might 
best wear. — Lyly, Euphne$^ 1579, p. 80 (ed. 

Another commeth to muze, so soon as hee 
is set, hee falleth into a hnmn study, some- 
times his mind runnes on his market, some- 
time on hiM ioumey. — Henry Smith, SermoM, 
16.57, p. y08. 

1 must be firme to bring him out of his 
Browne stodie, on this fashion. — The Manage 
of Witt and Wisditme, p. 13 (Shaks. Soc. ed.). 

Faith, this broum study suits not with your 

Your habit and your thoughta are of two 

Ben Jonhon, The Cuse is Altered. 

Donner la muse d, to amuse, or put into 
dumps; to drive into a broivn study. — Cot- 

bonge-creux, one that's in his dumps, or in a 
brown study. — Id. 

At last breaking out of a brown study, he 
cried out, Conclusum est contra Manich^os. — 
Howell, Familiar Letters, bk. iii. 8 (1616). 

They live retir'd, and then they doze away 
their time in drowsiness and biown stutlies. — 
S'orris, Miscellanies, 1678, p. 126 (ed 8th). 

He of^en puts me into a brown study now 
to answer him. — The Spectator, tio. 2286 

A zeem'd in a brown stiddy. — Mrs. Palmer, 
Devonshire Courtship, p. 4. 

Unconnected, perhaps, are Ir. hroti^ 
mourning, grief; Ironach, sad, sorrow- 

Bubble, to cheat, corresponds both 
in form and meaning to Ital. huhholare, 
to cheat, derived from {mb&o^o, a hoopoe, 
a bird which in many languages has 
been selected as a synonym for a fool 
or simpleton; e.g. Fr. ckipe, ckippe 
(whence omr " dupe "), Bret, houpenk, 
Polish diuiek, = (1) a hoopoe, (2) a 
simpleton. Thus to bubble is ** to gull/' 

or •* pigeon," or " woodcockize," or 
make a goose or 5oo&t^ of one; cf. It. 
pippionare, Fr. dindonner. The older 
form of bubbola is piipola, puppula 
(Florio) for upupula, dim. of Lat. 
uptipa, the hoopoe, so called apparently 
fjrom its cry, supposed in Greek to be 
pou, pou (where, where I). Its Persian 
name is pupu. However, we find in 
EngUsh ** Hubble, a bladder in water, 
also a silly feUow, a cully" (Bailey); 
(cf. Manx bteb, an inflated pustule, also 
a fool ; and fool itself, from follis, an in- 
flated baU), and bubble, a cheating 
scheme of speculation, which would 
seem to show that the word is of native 

And so here 1 am bubbled and choused out 
of my money. —Murphy, The Citizen, ii. 1. 

Hume, a man who has so much conceit as 
to tell all mankind that they have been bubbled 
for ages! — Boswell, Tour to the Hebrides, p. 

The dustman, bubbled flat. 
Thinks 'tis for him, and doffis his fiin-tailed 
Jas. and Hor. Smith, Rejected Addresses, 
p. U^. 

T. L. 0. Davies quotes an instance 
of bubblecbble = cheatable, 1669 (Supp. 
Eng. Glossary). 

Buck-beak. \ The plant so called, 
BucKES-BEANE 3 (menyanthestrifoliota), 
is the Dutch bocks-booTien, German 
bocksbohne. The latter words, however, 
are corruptions, it would seem, of 
scharbock^s -boonen or -bohne, " scurvy- 
bean," the plant being considered a 
remedy for the scliarbock, or scurvy, 
Lat. scorbvi'US (Prior). 

Buckles, Hobse, a Kentish name for 
cowsUps (primula vcris), is probably a 
corruption of paigles, the £. AngUan 
name for that plant. — Britten and Hol- 
land, Eng. Fkmt'Names, p. 70 (E. D. 

BucK-MAST, the mast or nuts of the 
beech, A. Sax. bdc, Ger. Iniche, Swed. bok, 
Dut. beuke, boeke. 

BucKB.VM. This pleonastically mas- 
culine word is a corruption of Fr. bou- 
gran or bou/rgradn, Prov. bocaran, boque- 
ram,. It. bucherame (apparently from 
Imcherare, to pierce with holes) a coarse, 
loosely - woven stuff. " B&urgrain, 
Buckeram," Cotgrave. It has been 


( 42 ) 


suggested that BoJeharanwaa the origi- 
nal form, BtufiT from Boklmra ; but this 
needs coniirmation. 

BucKSOME, an old spelling of husrcm 
(bending, pliant, obedient), as if 
** spirited, or lively as dkluck" (vid. 
Nares, s.v.) ; old Eng. htih^im^ " bow- 
some," from A. Sax. hugan^ to bow. 

VafTo^ louely-fain*, .... handsome and 
buekeaome. — FtorWy iL Diet. 

Bncksome^ brisk and jocund. 
Kennett, 1695 ( E. Dialect Soc. B. 18). 

Shee now bogins to ^ow biickaome as a 
lig:htuing before death. — .irmiiif Nett of 
SinnieSy p. 5 (Shake. Soc). 

And if he be til God bnuiomf 
Til endeles blis at ^ last to com. 

HampoUf l*ricke of Con$ciencef I. 85 
(ab. 13 k)). 

Lorde, )>oa make me to be bjuxsome euer 
mare to J^i byddynges. — l{rligioii$ Hiecet in 
Profe and Verse, p. 19 ( E.E.T. Soc.). 

BucK-THOBX, Mid. Lat. ejyina cerrina, 
a popular name for tlie plant rhanmns 
caiJtarticus^ seems to have originated 
in a blunder, the German hux-dam 
( zz Gk. jyux-ahanihd ) being mistaken for 
hocksdomy \.e, " box-tliom" for ** buck's- 
thom *' (Prior). 

Buck- WHEAT, the name of ihe poly- 
gonum fagopynim^ is a corruption of 
i)ut. hoek'Weif, Ger. hucJi^vjelzen^ i.e. 
** beech- wheat," so called from tlie re- 
semblance of its tliree-comered seeds to 
beech-nut«. Another corrupted form is 
tlie older German hnvch'WPiz*m, as if 
"belly- wheat.* ' The French have trans- 
formed it into hoti^piette. In the Montois 
dialect of French, hmicnn-couque (as if 
** griddle-cake ") is for Flem. hoekweii- 
koek (Sigart). 

Budge, an old adjective, meaning 
pompous, grave, severe, solemn, has 
never been satisfactorily explained. 

While the great Macedonian youth in nonage 

grew, . . . 
No tutor, but the budge philofiophers he knew, 
And well enough the grave and useful tools 
Might serve to read him lectures. 

Oidhamy Praise of Homer, stanza 4. 

The solemn fop. significant and budfie, 
A fool with juages, amongst fools a judge. 
Cowper, Conversatittti, p. 123 
(c>d. Koutledge). 

O foolishness of men ! that lend their ears 
To those budge doctors of the Stoick fur. 

Milton, Comut, 1. 706. 

Poore budge face, bow-case sleeve : hut let him 

Once furre and lieard shall priviledge an asse. 
Marstou, Scourge of Villanie (1599), III. z. 

From the context in which budge 
occurs in tlie two latter passages, a far- 
fetched connexion has been imagined 
with btidgpy an old word for lauib*8- 
wool, or fur, with wliich imiversity 
h(H>ds used to be trinuned (Warton, 
Kichardsou, Nares), and so tJie word 
w&s conceived to mean grave as a 
doctor, or wearer of budge, scholastic, 

J>edantic. Bailey actually defines 
^iudgc-Bachdors as ** a comjjany of men 
cloathcd in long gowns, lin'd with 
Lamb's Fur, who accompany the liord 
Mayor of London, etc." 

Tlieso explanations, I believe, are 
altogether on the wrong scent. That 
the word has no such learned origin is 
proved by the fact that it still lives in 
the mouths of tlie j^casantry in Sussex, 
where one may hear a sentence like 
this : " He looked very hudge [i.e. grave, 
solemn] when I asked him who stole 
the apples" (Parisli, Sussex Ghssary), 
Tliis is tlie softened fonn of the old 
and Prov. Eng. word Irug, proud, pom- 
pous, conceited, tumid, great. (Cf. brig 
and liridgcy rig and ridgt', to egg and edge^ 
dog and dodge, drag and dredge, etc.). 

BugM a lord iUatliweU), 

As bug aM H Ihu wiv a leatlier knife ; As bug 
as a dog wi' two tails {Holderness Dialect, 
E, Vorks. K.D.S.). 

Vou nc«>d-na be so bug, you're non of the 
quality {Brogden, Lxneolns. Glossary), 

" To be quite huggy about a tiling," 
i.e. proud ; also sell-important, churlish 
(East Angha, E. Dialect. Soc. B. 20). 

These are bugg-uords that aw'd the women 
in former nges, and still Ibol a great many in 
this. — havftii^crofty Careless Lovers, 1673. 

Anotlier fonn of the word is hog : — 
The cuckooe, s<>eing liim 80 bog, waxt also 
wondrous wrothe. 
Warner, Albions England, 1592 (Wright). 

The thought of this should cause . . . thy 
bog and bold h«>art to be abashed. — Hogen, 
Kaamun the Syrian, p. 18 {Trench, Dejiciencie^ 
&c., p. 17). 

East Anglia, " Boggy, self-important, 
churlish" (E. Dialect. Soc. B. 20). 

Still another form is big, which from 
meaning proud, puflfed-up, tumid, now 
only means great, though we still say 
** to look big," meaning to look proud. 
Similarly stout (Ger. siolz) once meant 
proud, but now fat, corpulent. 



The Bischope • . with a gftut ponti6calitie 
and big countenance . . bragg^it he was in his 
awin citie. — Jamet MeluiUe^ Viaryy 1586, p. 


Who ever once diflcoTer*d innolency in 
him, or that he bore himaelf with a his car- 
riage to any man? — T. Flume, LiJ'eof Hachety 
167.% p. xlvii. 

Th^jr [the monks] did presently think 
themsiilves alicujui moment i, and did beg^n 
to look big and Acornfully on their brerhren. — 
FarindoHy Senmms, vol. iv. p. 447 (ed.Te^ff). 

Cheval de trompeite, one that's not afraid of 
sliadowes ; one whom no big nor bug words 
can temfie. — Cotgrave. 

FaroUmiy high, big, roving, long or bug 
wordes. — Flor'w, 

The primitive meaning underlying 
all these words, whether hudgc, or hug, 
or hog, or hig, is awe-inspiring, just as 
huge was originally awe-full, terrify- 
ing, and awful in modern slang means 
great of its kind. Near akin, there- 
fore, is old Eng. hug or hugge, anything 
that frightens or scares, a ghost or 
spectre, hoggart, hogU, Welsh hwg, a 
hobgoblin, Wallon himga, a monster to 
terrify infants. 

These hogiee of the nursery are de- 
graded survivals of a word once full of 
dignity, its congeners being — Slavonic 
hog, God, lord ; old Pers. haga, a lord ; 
Zend hagha, Sansk. hhaga, a lord, a 
liberal master, " apportioner of food," 
from hhaj, to share or distribute. Com- 
pare our own lord, A. Sax. hUtford, 
** loaf-provider," and It. Frangipam, as 
a family name. 

Budge op Court, an old English 
phrase for a gratuitous allowance of 
provisions, originally, " Avoir houche d 
Court, to eat and drink Scot-free; to 
have hudge-a-court, to be in ordinary at 
Court." — Cotgrave. 

Hoicge of eourte, whyche was a liverye of 
meate and dryncke. — Huloet, 

Ben Jonson spells it hoiulge ofcou/rt 
{Maeque of Augws) ; Stowe, houch of 
court {Survey of London), Wright. 

See also Sir S. D. Scott, The British 
Army, vol. ii, p. 864, who quotes 
Boudie de Courte from an indenture 
between the Earl of Salisbury and 
W^niiam Bedyk, his retainer, to whom 
it is guaranteed. 

Bugle, small glass pipes, sometimes 
made like little trumpets, used as orna- 
ments on women's dresses, is LowLat. 
hvgulus, prob. from M. H. Ger. houc 

(Icel. haugr), a circular ornament 
(Skeat) ; and so the same word as old 
Eng. buckle, a curl ( Yorks. huckle-Jioms, 
curved horns) ; Fr. hoticle, Dan. hugle, a 
boss or bulge, and distinct from hugh, 
the horn of the huctdus or bullock. Cf. 
Fr. haucal, a glass violl . . long necked 
and narrow mouthed (Cotgrave). 

Bulfist, a provincial name for the 
puff-ball fungus, = the Swedish and 
Gorman hofist, whence also the Low 
Latin hovisia. ? for hall-foist, i.e. puff- 
ball. See Fuzz-Ball. 

Turma de tierra, a puffe, a hull fist, — Afin- 
sheu^ Span, Diet., 16^;>. 

Pisnaulict. a furse-ball, puckfusse, puflSst, 
or bnljist, — Cotgrave, 

Bull, a blunder, an absurd or self- 
contradictory statement made with the 
most unconscious naivete, supposed in- 
correctly to be indigenous in Lreland 
(Bos Hihemicus), 

An Irishman may be described as a sort of 
Minotaur, half man and half bull ; '* semi- 
bovemque virum, semivinimque bovem," as 
Ovid has it. — Horace Smith, The Tin Trumpet, 

It is doubtless the same word as 
Mod. Icel. hull, nonsense, hullo, to talk 
nonsense, hterally huhhUs, inflated, 
empty talk, from Fr. bullc, Lat. bulla, 
a bubble ; It. holla, a bubble, a round 
glass bottle (cL fiasco, in Italian a flask 
of thin glass easily smashed). No well 
says, " Life is as a hull rising on the 
water" (Davies, Supp. E, Glossary). 
When the German students flung a 
Papal bull into the river saying. Bulla 
est I (It's a hull or bubble,) Let's see if 
it can swim I (Michelet, I/lp of Luther,) 
they meant it was empty verbiage, " full 
of sound and fury, signifying nothing." 
So Lat. ampulla, a globular flask, in 
Horace is used for bombast, and am- 
pullari is to talk bombastic nonsense. 

Compare Eng. hlather, to talk non- 
sense, Icel. hla^r, nonsense, and hlaiSra, 
a bladder. Sir Thomas Overbury 
writes of '* a poet that speaks nothing 
but hladders.'* 

She was brought to bed upon chairs, if 
that in not a bulL—Reliqui^ Hearniang, Feb. 
14, 1720-«1. 

Kvery in order was to speake some pretty 
apothegme, or make a je^t or bull, or speake 
some eu>quent nonsense to make the company 
laugh. — Athena Oionienses, Life of Wood, 
sub ann. 1647, ed. Bliss, p. 55, 


( 44 ) 


The word is found as early as the 
fonrteenth century in the Cursor Mundi: 

Quilk man, quilk calf, quilk leoo, quilk 

fuxul [^fowl] 
I sal jou tel, wit-vten bul. 

1. 21269 (E.E.T.8.ed.). 

1 may say (without a Bull) this contro- 
versy of yours is so much the more needless, 
by how much that about which it is (Refor- 
mation) is so without all controversy need- 
ful.— CAa*. HerUy Ahab's Fall, 16*4, Dedica- 

" Why, Friend," says he [Baron Treversj), 
..." 1 'my»elf have knowne a beast winter d 
one whole summer for a noble." *' That was 
a Bm//, my Lord, I beleeve,"8ay8 the fellow. 
— Thorns, Anecdotes and Traditions, p. 79 
((!cunden Soc). 

Coleridge (Biographia Liferaria, oh. 
iv. p. 86) has a philosophical disquisition 
on '* the well-known hull, * I was a fine 
cliild, but they changed me.'" He 
says : ** The ^uZ? consists in the bringing 
together two incompatible thoughts, 
with the sensation, but without the 
sense, of their connection." 

Sydney Smith says : " A hull is an 
apparent congruity, and real incon- 
gruity of ideas, suddenly discovered." 
It is ** the very reverse of wit ; for as 
wit discovers real relations that are not 
apparent, bulls admit apparent rela- 
tions that are not real." — W'orks, vol. i. 
p. 69. 

Bull-beggar, a terrifier of children 
(Bailey), is, according to Wedgwood, a 
corruption of Welsh hwha^h, a scare- 
crow or goblin, and with this he com- 
pares Dut. hulh-haky a bugbear. 

Children be afraid of bear-bugs and bull- 
beggars. — 6ir Thomas Smith. 

He also gives Dut. hull^niann, Low 
Dut. hu-nmnn, = Eng. ho-man. 

Kaltschmidt explains the word as 
" der Bettler mit einer Bulh,'' [? with 
a papal license to beg] I ( Gertnnn Did., 
s.v.) Compare Ger. popanz, a bugbear, 
apparently connected with pope, 

Mr. Wirt Sikes says the hvhach is 
the house-goblin whom the Welsh maids 
propitiate with a bowl of cream set on 
the hob the last thing at night {British 

Sigart compares Montois heuheu, 
Languedoc hahau, a ghost to frighten 
chil&en, Fr.Uibeau (Ulossaire Montois, 
p. 86). 

Bull-pinch, is probably not a natiTe 
compound of hull, significant of large- 
ness, with finch, but the same word 
as Swedish Iw-fink, the bull-finoh or 
chaffinch, apparently the house-Jmch, 
the bird that frequents the ho, or home- 
stead ; Icel. hoi, Dan. hoi. Couipare 
hull-fist = Swed. hofisf, a pufif-ball. The 
Cleveland name of the chaffinch is hull- 
sphik; in Danish it is called hog-f/iiJce^ 
i.e, the beech- (or mast-) finch, which is 
perhaps a fresh corruption. 

Bull-finch, a term well known in 
thB hunting-field for a stiff fence, is a 
corruption of bidl-fence, one strong 
enough to keep in a bull apparently 
(see T. L. 0. Davies, Supp, Lng, Glot- 
sanj, s. v.). 

\Vhcn 1 see those delicate fragile forms 

[sc. ladies] crashing through strong bull" 

Jinches 1 am struck with admiration. — G. J. 

IV hyte- Melville, Riding RecollectionSy p. Itt 

(7th ed.). 

The same writer has a rebus on the 
word in his Songs and Verses, p. 127. 

Mv first is the point of an Irishman's tale ; 

'My second's a tail of its own to disclot^e ;. . . 
The longer you look at my whole in the rale. 

The bigger, and blacker, and bitterer it 

Bullies, a Lincolnshire form of 
BuLLACE, a wild pliun, otherwise spelt 
hullis (Skinner), hulles (Turner), bolas 
(Prompt. Parv.), hoi-ays (Gret^ HerhaU), 
and huUlons, as if to denote the htiUet- 
hke shape of the fruit (Sp. ho1<i8, Lat. 
hulla, a bullet) : Prior. It is probably 
a corruption of the French name bellO' 
cijer, " a buUace tree, or wild pliuu-tree " 
(Cot grave). Professor Skeat,in a note 
to Tusser's Five Hundred PoinUs (where 
it is spelt hoollesse), thinks the word is of 
Celtic origin, akin to Ir. hulos, a prune. 
— E. D. Soc. ed. Glossary, s.v. Davies 
quotes "haws and hullies'* from Smol- 
lett, and hull-plum from Foote. {Supp. 
Eng. Glossary.) 

BuLL-TEEE, a Cumberland word for 
the elder (Savdmcvs nigi'a), is a cor- 
ruption of the word hur-iree or hore-tree, 
which is frequently apphed to it. 

BuLLY-EooK, an old Eng. word for a 
noisy, swaggering fellow. 

\\ hat says my bully-rook ? Sneak scholarly 
and wisely. — Merry Wives of Windsor, act i. 
Bc. :i. 

The word, as Mr. Atkinson remarks. 


( 45 ) 


IB doubtless essentially identical with 
the Cleveland htdlyra^, haUyrag, hakagy 
to scold or abuse soundly (cf. Low Ger. 
huUer-hrook), In modem Knglinh the 
word has shrunk into hMy, 

Dorset, hallywrag, Hereford heUrag — 
perhaps, says Mr. Barnes, from A. Sax. 
ftf/rZw, evil, and 'icrSgan^ to accuse. — 
(Thihlog. Soc, Transactions, 1864). 

Bulrush, the scirpus lacustris, 0. 
Eng. holertishf i.e. tlio rush with a hole 
or stem (Dan. bul, Icel. hulr, holr) ; so 
bulwarky originally an erection of hoh*s 
or logs. — Skeat. Messrs. Britten and 
Holland, however, consider it as being 
merely hull-rush^ the large rush. 

Tbej are deceived in the name of horse- 
radish, horse-mint, bull-rush, and many more: 
conceiving therein some prenominal con- 
sideration, whereas, indeed, that expression 
is but a Grecism, by the prefix o£ hippos and 
btuti ; tliat is, hor^e and bull, implying no 
more than great. — Sir Thomas BrowMy IvorkSf 
vol. i. p. 215 (ed. Bohn). 

BuMBAiUFF, a sheriffs officer, a cor- 
ruption of "bound bailiflf" (Black- 
stone). But see Skeat, Etym. Did. s. v. 

Bum-boat, a long-shore boat, Dan. 
homhaad (Ferrall and Repp, pt. 2, p. 58), 
seems to be from Dut. loom, a harbour- 
bar (? a harbour), Swed. horn. Cf. 
another Eng. word==Dut.feoawi, another 
form oihodem, bottom (Sewel). 

The prototype of the river beer-seller of 
the present dny is the bumboat-man. Buni' 
boats ( or rather Ba urn-boats, that \a to say, the 
boats of the harbour, from the German Baum, 
a liaven or bar) are known in every port 
where nhips are obliged to anchor at a dis- 
tance from the shore. — Maiihew, London 
lAibour and London Poor, vol. ii. p. 107. 

BuMPEB, a full glass, as if a brimmer 
when the liquor humps or sweUs above 
the brim (Lat. mnum coronare), is really 
a corrupted form of humha/rd or honi' 
hard, used formerly for a large goblet 
(Shakes. Tempest, ii. 2), properly a 
mortar to cast bombs (see Skeat, Etym. 

Compare Fr. hourrahaquin, a great 
carousing glass fashioned like a cannon. 
— Cotgrave. 

Then Rhenish rummers walk the round, 
In bumpers every king is crowned. 

Dryden, To Hir G. Etherege, 1. 46. 

The bright-headed bumper shall sparkle as 

Though Cupid be cruel, and Venus he 
coy .... 
Then crown the tall goblet once more with 
champacTie ! 
G. J. Whyte-MelvUle, Songs and VerteSy 
p. i?44. 

The old word humpsie, tipsy, may 
have contributed to this use of humhard, 

Tarlton, being a carousing, drunk so long 
to the watermen that one of them was 
bumpsie. — Tarlton's Jests, p. 8 (Shaks. Soc). 

Burden, the refrain or recurring part 
of a song, is a corrupt spelling of tlie 
old English hordmh, Sp. hordon, It. hor- 

The burdon of a son^, or a tenor and keep- 
ing of time in musicke. Also a humming 
noise or sound. — Florio. 

Fr. h&iirdon, " a drone, or dorre-bee, 
also the humming or buzzing of bees" 
(Cotgrave) ; Low Lat. hurdo{n), a drone, 
an organ-pipe. 

Yng. But there is ti hordon, thou must here it. 

Or ellys it wyll not be. 
Hu. Than bcgyn and care not to ... . 

Downe, downe, downe, &c. 

Interlude of the Four Klements, p. 51 
(c. 1510), Percy Soc. 

The wife of the snoring miller 

Bare him a burdon a ful strong, 
Men might hir routing heren a furlong. 
Chaucer, The Heies Tale, 1. 41^. 

O moaning Sea, 1 know your burden well, 
Tis but the old dull tale, filled full of pain. 
Songs of Two Worlds, p. 219. 

The word has been further corrupted 
into hwrthen. An anonymous poet sang 
of " Christmas Good Will," in 1879, as 
follows : — 

It sounds from Angels' voices, 
It sounds o'er hill and dale. 
The echoes take the burthen up. 
Repeat the gladsome tale. 

Burnet, another name for the herb 
pimpernel, ** so called of Bwm, which it 
is good against" (Bailey), is a slightly 
disguised form of Fr. brunette, from 
hnin, brown, according to Dr. Prior, 
with allusion to its dark flowers; 
whence also one species of it was called 
prunella, i.e. hrunella. 

BuBNiBH, an old word for to prosper, 
flourish, or grow fat, as if to shine 
or be sleek, in fine condition (not regis- 
tered in the dictionaries), is perhaps 
a violent transposition of the verb bur- 
gen (into btMmege, bwmish), sometimes 
spelt bvrgeon, to grow big or prosperouSf 


( 46 ) 


to swell or bud fortli. In Leicestershire 
and Northampton, ha/mish is to grow fat 
(Sternberg). Cf. Northampt. frez for 
furze, wape for wasps, humish for 6rtt- 

Her hath a' feathered her nest and bur- 
ni*h*d well a' fine since her com*d here. — 
Mrt, Palmer, Deronshire Courtship, p. 49. 

Breake off thp toppes of the hoppes .... 
bicause thf^reby they barnigh and Htocke ex- 
ceedingly. — K. Scot, Piatforme of a Hop- 

Foller prophesied of London : 
It will be found to burnish round about to 
every point of the compasse with new struc- 
tures dailv addeil thereuuto. — WorthUs, ii. 
49 (ed. 1811). 

The clustering nuts for you 
The lover finds amid tlie secret shade ; 
And where they burnish on the topmost 

'With active vigoqr crushes down the tree. 

Thornton, Seasom, Autumn, 

According to Bailey, humish " is also 
used of Harts spreading their Horns 
after tiiey are fray'd or new rubb'd;" 
and hurgcon "to grow big about, or 
gross, also to bud forth." From Fr. 
hourgpcm, a bud, wliich appears to be 
from O. H. Ger. hurjan, to lift, push up 

When first on trees bourgeon the blosnoms 
soil. Fairjax, Tano, vii. 76. 

It may be that harnish was the orig. 
form, a derivation of ham [hairnj, 
meaning ** to child,*' teem, or be pro- 

BuBSTEB, a Surrey word for a drain 
under a road to carry off water, is a 
corruption of old Eng. hwrstow, a 
covered-in place, from A. Sax. heorgan 
and stotv, 

Burt-Pear. Tlie first part of tlie 
word is corrupted from Fr. hewre, from 
heurre, butter, wliich tliis pear was com- 
pared to for softness, just as we speak 
of vogelable-marrows and marrow-fat 
peas (vid. ed. Midler, Etymologische 
woerterhuch, s.v.). 

•* Voire de heuree, the butter Pearo, a 
tender and delicate fruit." — Cotgrave. 

Another corruption is " JJtwreZ Fear, 
the lied Butter Pear " (Bailey), as if a 
russeting, from O. Eng. horel, O. Fr. hu- 
rel, Prov. hurel, reddish-brown, russet. 

The Germans have popularly cor- 
rupted Fr. heurr6 hlanc, the ueurre pear, 
into he€rbl<iftg. 

Buskin, a half-boot, bears a decep- 
tive resemblance to Scot, bushing, dress, 
as if clothing for the legs (O. Eng. husk, 
to dress oneself). It is really for hurrs- 
hin, Dutch hrooshm (Sewel, 1708), It. 
horza^ckini, from horsa (Fr. haurse), 
Lat. and Gk. bursa, a leathern case, 
also a "purse," and bo iz pursekin, a 
small leathern receptacle. 

A payre of bnskings tliay did bringe 
Of tlie cow ladyert currall winge. 

Herrick, Poems, p. 475 (ed. Hazlitt). 

Bust, used in W. Cornwall in the 
sense of needs, requires, e.g. "It es 
busy all my money to keep house," 
** It es busy all my time " (Miss Court- 
ney, E. D. S.), seems to have been in- 
fluenced by Fr. hesoin. 

Busy-sack, a slang term for a carpet 
bag (Hotten), is no doubt a corrupt 
form of hy-sach, French hissac, hesace^ 
a bag opening into two parts (Lat. 
bisa^ciwn). It. bisaccia, Sj). bisaza. 

Butch, To: a verb manufactured 
by the Lancashire folk out of the word 
butcher, to denote the act of slaughter- 
ing cattle ( Glossary of Lan^^sJtire Dia- 
lect, Nodal and Milner). As "player," 
" runner," and other words significant 
of agency, are derivatives from verbs, 
it was supposed, by a false analogy, 
that " butcher " (0. Eng. and O. Fr. 
hocher, a imcA^-slayer,) impUed a verbal 
form also, and to butch was devised ac- 
cordingly (see Buttle). To bu<^ or 
hutch is in use also in the Cleveland 

I shall be butching thee from nape to rump. 
Sir H, Taylor, Philip van Artevelde^ 
II. iii. 1. 

Similarly Quarles has inferred a verb 
to haherdash from haberdasher. 

What mean dull souls in this high measure 

To haberdash 
In Earth's base wares, whose greatest trea- 

Is dross and trash. 

Emblems, Bk. IL Emb. 5 {16iU). 

Cf. to burgle from burglar (Bartlett, 
Diet, of Americanisms; Daily News^ 
Oct, 28, 1880). 

In thenortlicm counties of England, 
to daile or daitle n: to work by the day, 
to go a datUng, are verbal usages evolved 
out of daialer, a day workman, also 
daith-man, which words are for day- 


( 47 ) 


ialer, day-iale-man, i,e, one who works 
by day tale (Icel. dagaUiS), whose labour 
is told or reokoned by the day. — Notes 
and Queries J ith S. viii. 456. 

Step into that bookseUer*ii shop and call 
me a^ay-td/icritic. — Sterne^ Tristram Shandy, 
Tol. IT, chap. xiii. 

Butter-bump, I The name of this 
Bittern. S bird, also called hi- 

tour J O. Eng. hittov/r, hotcr, Scot, hewter^ 
Fr. huioTf It. hUtore, is said to be a cor- 
ruption of its Latin name hoia/urus, so 
called from its hull heUowin^, hoaius 
tawri. Cf. the names rohr-trv/nimel^ 
O. Eng. mire-di'uwhle Uyumpzzto l)ooin] . 
— John's British Biros m their HaurUs, 
p. 414. 

Butaurus quasi bootaurus dicitur eo quod 
mugritum tauri imitari videtur.— ^/«i. Neckaniy 
De A at. Herum^ cap. Ii7. (died 1217). 

Botowre, bjrde, onocroculus, botorius, — 
Prompt. Par v. 

In Gny Manneiing it is called the 
Bull of the hog. 

Then blushed the Byttur in the fenne. 
The Par lament of Byrdes, L 87. 

And as a bittonr bumps within a reed, 
** To thee alone, O lake," she said, " I tell." 
Dryden, Wife of Bath, 1. 194 
(Globe ed. p. 598). 

Many a fertile cornfield . . . has resounded 
far and wide with the deep, booming, beilow' 
ing cry of the Bittern. — J, C. Atkintatif Brit, 
Birds* Eggs, p. 82. 

Another corruption is hottle-hump 

Butter-cup. Dr. Prior thinks that 
this word is a corruption of huffon-cop, 
i.e, button-head, comparing the French 
houton d'or, the bachelor's button. The 
form hutton-cop, however, seems alto- 
gether hypothetical. 

Buttery is not the place where 
hutter is kept, as larder is the place for 
lard, and pantry for panis, bread, but a 
store for hutts or oottles, Sp. hoteria 
and hotilleria, a ** butlery." 

Bedwer J>e botyler, Kyng of Normandye, 
M om al so in ys half a uayr companye 
Of on sywy te, vorlo seruy of J>e ootelerye. 
RobL of Gloucester, p. 191 (ed. 1810), 
ab. 1295. 

In to the Buttry. 

Beare, two tonne hoggesheads a zlviiii the 
tonne, vi>*. 
The Lately Manuscripts (1556), p. 11. 

. In the nonage of the world Men and Beaits 
h«d but one Buttery, which was the Fountain 

and River. — Howell, Familiar Letters, Bk. ii. 

To it [the fonda] frequently is attached a 
cafe, or botilleria, a bottlery, and a place for 
the sale of liqueurs. — Ford, Gatherings from 
Spa in t p. 168. 

Buit, Fr. hotte, is the same word as 
Sp. hota, a large, pear-shaped leathern 
bottle (whence Sp. hotilhi, Fr. houteille, 
our " bottle ") ; and so very nearly akin 
to hoot, a leathern covering for the 

Bota, a boot to weare, a bottle, a buskinne. 
— Minshtii, Spanish Diet, 16i3. 

For a description of the Spanish hota, 
see Ford's Gaiherings from Spadn, pp. 

The Welsh hicytfy, a pantry or but- 
tery, if the same word, has been assimi- 
lated to hicyta, to eat, take food. 

Buttery, a Yorkshire word for the 
elder tree (Samhucus nigra), is a cor- 
ruption of its common name, hofrti-ee, 
or hore-tree. See Bothery-three. 

Buttle, To, a Lancashire verb, to act 
as butler, and developed out of that 
word, as if hutler were one who huttles. 
So Butch is a feigned verb, to perform 
the functions of a hutcher ; and tynhe, to 
play the tinker, occurs in the curious 
old play of The Worlde a/nd the Chylde 

idanhode. But herke, felowe, art thou ony 

craltes man ? 
Folye. Ye, syr, 1 can bynde a syue and tynhe 

a pan. 

Old Plays, vol. xii. p. 3?4. 

So the Scot<sh have made a verb to 
airch or arch, to take aim or shoot, out 
of archer. 

Buttress, apparently a support that 
hutts up, or props, the main building, as 
if from Fr. touter, to support (hov4<mt, a 
buttress) — older forms hutrasse, hoterace 
(Wychflfe), hoteras, hretasce, is really 
the same word as old Fr. hretesse — the 
battlements of a wall (CJotgrave), hre- 
t^sche, hretesque, also hrutesche (Matt. 
Paris), It. hertesca, a rampart, all seem- 
ingly for hrettice, a boarding (Ger. hrett, 
a board), like lattice, from Fr. latte, a 
lath. Brattice, a fence of boards, is 
therefore the same word {see Skeat and 
Wedgwood). **Betrax of a walle (al. 
hretasce, hretays), Propugnaculum." — 
Prompt, Parv, 

Bigge brutaoe of borde, bulde on \>e walles. 
AUiterative Poems, p. 71, 1. 1190. 


( « ) 


To patch the flaws and buttress up the walL 
Dtydeuy Abialom and Achitaphetf I. 802. 

By-law, the law of a company for 
the regulation of their traffic, as if, 
like "by- word," "by-play," something 
bfiside, or subordinate to, the State law 
(Dan. hylov), is only another form of 
^*byrlmvj hurlaav, laws established in 
Scotland with consent of Neighbours 
chosen unanimously in the courts called 
Burlaw Courts." — Bailey. Icel. hnjar- 
log, " byre-law," i,c. the law (log) of 
the 60W, town (also farm-yard). See 
Cleasby, p. 92; also Spelman, who 
(\xioiQBBellag\ne8, a medieval corruption 
( zMlagen), Glosaarium, p. 94. 


Cabbage, for old Eng. cahoclie (old 
Fr. cahucCj It. cappiiccio, a little head), 
simulates the common termination -age 
(Fr. -agpy It. -aggio, Lat. -aiictis, Halde- 
man, p. 109) in voyage, savage, &c. 

Cabbaoe, to pilfer or purloin (slang), 
especially applied to ike pilfering of 
cloth by tailors, is a corrupted form of 
Belgian habassen, to steal ; Dutch ha- 
hassen, to hide, to steal (Sewel), origi- 
nally to put in one*s basket ; Dut. ka- 
has, a basket ; Fr. cabas, Portg. caibaz, 
Sp. cahaclio, Arab, qofas, a cage ; and 
80 to bag, to pocket ; cf. Fr. empocher 
(perhaps, our "poach "). Cmnberland 
** cahbish, to purloin " (Dickenson, 
Supplement, £. D. S.). 

Not to be confounded with this is the 
old heraldic and hunting term, to cab' 
ha/ge = to take the head off. 

As the hounds are surbated and weary, the 
bead of the stag should be cabbaged in order 
to reward them. — Scoit, Bride of Lammer" 
moor, ch. ix. 

This is another form of to caboahe^ 
from Fr. caboche, the head. 

Caboshed, is when the Beast's Head is cut 
off clone just behind the ears, by a nection 

Sarallel to the face, or by a perpendicular 
ownright section. — Bailey. 

Cachecopb Bbll. I quote this word, 
not having found it anywhere else, on 
the very insufficient authority of Dr. 
Brewer (Diet, of Phrase arid Fable, 
8.V.), who explams it as a bell rung at 
funerals when the pall was thrown over 
the coffin, from Fr. cache corps, "cover- 
corpse " (?). 

Calender, old Eng. caXend/re {Leech' 
doms, Wortcunmng and Starcrafi, ed. 
Cockayne, vol. i. p. 218), an old name 
for the plant coriander, is a corruption 
of coliander, coliaundre (Wycliffe, Ex. 
xvi. 81 ), another form of " coriander," 
still named col, by apothecaries. Com- 
pare coronel and colonel. 

Calf, the fleshy part of the leg be- 
hind the tibia, is the Irish caJjpa, colpa^ 
and colbhtha (while colbihac is a calf or 
heifer, and colpa, a cow or calf!). 

Hac tibia, calm. — Medieval Tract on Latin 
Dectension (ed. VV. Stokes), p. 7. 

Near akin are collop, and Lat. pulpck, 
flesh (Wedgwood). It is curious to 
note tarh, the hull (of the thigh, or the 
loin), glossing exugia in the Lorica of 
Gildas, which elsewhere is glossed ge- 
scinco (shank). — Stokes, Irish Glosses, 
pp. 139, 144 (Irish Archseolog. Soc). 
Cf., perhaps, Lat. taurus, interfonii- 

Calm. The I has no more right to 
be in this word than in could. It was 
probably assimilated to halm, halm^ 
palm, psalm, &c., in EngUsh ; tliougli 
the word in other languages also has 
the I : e.g, Fr. calm£. It., Span., Portg., 
and Prov. cahtia, denoting sultry 
weather, when no breeze is stirring; 
all from Low Lat. cauma, the heat of 
the sun ; Greek hauma, heat, burning. 
In Proven9al, chaume signifies the time 
when the flocks repose in the heat of 
the day, and cctumas =heat (J. D. Craig, 
Handbook to Prov,) ; cf. " caumas, hot, 
Gascon " (Cotgrave). In old Eng. the 
form caicme is foimd. 

For a similar intrusion of an I, com- 

Eare It. aldace, from Lat. audax, cUdire 
•om atcdire, pahtvento from paumento 
(pavimentum) ; so we find in Scottish 
walx (G. Douglas) for ionux-=.w<xx, and 
fTotefortrotttJ ziwox ; waXh*nioTwauken^ 
to waken, and awalk (Dimbar) for 
awcike, Al is often pronounced as ou, 
e,g, talk, stalk, walk, falcon, cawk 
(Bailey) for calk, O. Eng. fatUe for 
fait, caudron (Wycliffe) for caldron, 
Hawkins for Hal-kins, Maukin for Mai' 

Cawiva may have become calma^ 
from a supposed connexion with Lat. 
color, heat ; Span. " Calina, a thick, 
sweltry air, rising like a fog in hoi 



weather'* (Stevens, 8p. Did. 1706), 
Langued. caUmae. 

Swed. qfidhnf sultry weather, is per- 
haps the same word assimilated to Dut. 
and Cher. qucJmi, steam, exhalation; 
Dan. quabr^ close, oppressive ; quaimR^ 
to feel sickish ; Eng. ^ito^, Dan. qucsle^ 
to stifle, torment, gueU. Cf. Mrs. 
Quickly, " sick of a coK" 2 Hen. IV. 
ii. 4, 40. 

Forto behald. It was a glore to se 
The stablit wjndia and the caiomvt aee. 
G. DouglaSf EneadMf Bk. xii. Proioug^ 

Calme or softe, wytbe-owte wynde, Calmaa, 
tranquillua. — Prompt, Parvulorum, ab. 1440. 

All these stormea, which now his beautj 

Shall tume to eaulmetj and tymely cleare 

Spenur, Sonnettj Ixii. p. 582 (Globe ed.). 

A blont hede in a caulme or downe a wind 
ia Terj good. — R. At^iam, Toxophilut, 1545, 
p. 137 (ed. Arber). 

Camel leopabd, an occasional mis- 
spelling and vulgar pronunciation of 
camelO'pan'df the animal which was re- 
garded as partaking of the nature of 
the camel and the pard, Lat. comvelo" 

All who remember the old staircase of 
Montague house have felt that there is limit 
to the exhibition of a giraffe which had been 
received at a period so remote that it was de- 
scribed as a ^^ camel leopard," — The AtheTutum^ 
Oct 13, 1877. 

Camels, a W. Cornish word for eamo' 
ftvile flowers (E. D. Soc). 

Camlet, a stuff made of wool and 
goats' hair, Fr. ca/melot, anciently called 
eaniellotti, is not named from the camels 
out of whose hair it was supposed origi- 
nally to have been woven, but is de- 
rived from Arab. khamUU, which is 
from hhcmd, pile or plush. — ^Yule, 8er 
Marco Polo^ vol. i. p. 248. 

In Scotch the word was corrupted 
into chahmllett. 

For chamelot the camel full of hare. — Jai, /. 
rf Scotland^ The Kingis QuAatr, stanza 157 
(ab. 1423). 

And then present the mornings-light 
Cloath'd in her chamlets of deught. 

Herrieky HesperideSf Poems^ vol. i. 
p. 48 (ed. Hazlitt). 

Damaske, chamoUUy lined with sables and 
other costly fiirres . . . are wome according to 
their seuerall qualities. — G« Sandytf Travels, 
p. 64. 

Canary, a corruption of qtumdanj, 
which Mrs. Quickly employs, confound- 
ing it, probably, with cana/ry, an old 
name for a quick dance. 

The best courtier of them all could never 
have brought her to such a canary. — Merry 
Wivet of IVindsory ii. 12, 63. 

Quandary itself seems to be a cor- 
ruption of O. Eng. wandreth, difficulty, 
perplexity ; Icel. vandrcBti (Wedg- 

Candlboostes, a curious old name 
for a plant, probably the orchis mas- 
etikL, which Gerarde (HerhaU) calls 
. gancUegoseea (Britten and Holland, 
ing. Plant-Names, p. 85). On account 
of its double bulb or tuber, and two- 
coloured flowers, this plant is often 
popularly known by names expressive 
of a pair, or of the two sexes, e.g. Lords 
and Ladies, Adam and Eve, CoAn and 
Abel, It would seem, then, that the 
original of gandle-gosses was gander- 
gosses, i.e. gwnder and goose, 

KandUgostesia stooaegrtMae. — Gerarde f Sup» 
plement unto the Generall Table, 

In Dorset and Gloucester the orchis 
is called goosey -gander. 

Cane-apple, an old word for the 
arbutus unedo, which '*hath come to 
us from Ireland by the name of the 
Can«- apple *' (Parkinson). The first 
part of the word is the Irish Cadhne. 
— Britten and Holland, Eng, Plant- 
Names, p. 14 (E. D. Soc.). No such 
word, however, occurs in 0'Donovan*s 
edition of O'Reilly's Irish Dict.^ nor in 
W. Stokes's Irish Glosses. 

Cannibal, formerly cambal. Span. 
canibal, a corrupted lonrL of caribal, a 
native of the Caribbean islands, as if 
savages of a canine voracity {see Skeat, 
Etym. Diet,), 

Thejr are people too were never christened ; 
They know no law nor conscience ; they 11 
devour thee, 

they're cannt6a^/ 

Beaumont and Fletcher, Wit without Money, 

Cannon, as a term at biUiards, is 
said to have denoted originally a stroke 
on the red ball and a white, and to be 
a corruption of carrom or coA-om, a con- 
tracted form of Fr. carambole, the red 
ball; ca/ramboler, to make a double 
stroke, or ricochet ; Sp. caramhola, 



Cantanksbous. This cnrions popu- 
lar word, meaning peevish, cross- 
grained, ill-tempered (Sheridan; see 
T. L. O. Davies, iS^itp. Eng. Glossary)^ 
would seem to be a oompronuse be- 
tween c(i7U, to whine, and raftioorous. 
It is really, I think, for contekoroua, or 
amtdkerouSj quarrelsome, from O. Eng. 
ocmtehm/r, a quarrelsome person ; con- 
tekf contake, a quarrel. 

Contek 80 as the bokessain 
Foolhast hath to his chamberlain, 
Bjr whose counseil all unavised 
Is pacience most despised. 

Gowery Confeuio Amantis, vol. i. 
p. 318 (ed. Pauli). 

That contek sprong bituene hom mani volde. 
—Rohei't of Gloucestery Chronicle^ p. 470 (ed. 

To ^ise bo3e belone:e)> alle ualshedes and 
^ gyles and j^contackes, — AyenbiteoJ Inwyt^ 
ISU), p. 63 (ed. Morris). 

WyclifTe has contake and conteh. 

The other helden hisseruaunti^ and slowen 
hem, ponished with eonuk, — Matt, xxii. 6 

A Coward, and Contacowr$y manhod is ^e 

The Abce of Anstotill, 1. 36. 

Capeb corner WAT, a Cumberland 
word for diagonally (Dickinson); a 
corruption of caier oom&r wcuy (see 
Catbb). So " caper-ixmstnSy great 
friends (Lane.)" — Wright, for cater- 

Caf-stebn, sometimes found for cap- 
itan, Fr. oabestcm^ Sp. cahrestarUe (a 
standing goat?), a windlass. Horace 
Walpole spells it capstand. 

He invented the dmm capttands for weigh- 
ing heary anchors. — Anecdote* of Painting, 
(ed. Murray), p. ^67. 

Capsfring in the following descrip- 
tion of a sea-fight seems to be the 
same word. 

I pierced them with my chace-piece 
through and through. Part of their cap- 
itring too I, with a piece abaft, shot over- 
board. — Heytcood ana RowUjtf Fortune by 
Land and Sea, act iv. sc. 3 (1655). 

Compare Ger. hock, a buck or he- 
goat, also a trestle or support; the 
'* box " of a coach. So Pol. koziel, a 
buck; Jcozly, a trestle (Wedgwood). 

Sp. cobra, Fr. chevre, (1) a goat (Lat. 
eapra), (2) a machine for raising 
weights, &c., a ** crab." 

•• Chevron,'* Ft. chevron, Sp. cdbrto, a 

rafter, from chevre, Sec, a goat. Com- 
pare aries, a battering-raw. 

Mahn and Professor Skeat, however, 
who think tlie original form is Sp. cabeS' 
irante, deduce the word from Sp. cahes- 
trar, Lat. capistrare, to tie with a 
halter (Lat. capistrum), 

CABG-iBBN, the A. Saxon name for a 
prison, as if the house (oBm) of cark or 
care (care), (cf. O. Eng. cioalm huse, 
"death-house," a prison: AncrenBiwh, 
p. 140), is a manifest corruption of Lat. 
career, which also appears as a borrowed 
word in Gothic karhara (Matt. xi. 2). 

Cabe-awates, caraways (Fr. carvi), 
as if they were good for dispelling 
cares, Gerarde spells it caruwaie, and 
says, ''it groweth in Caria, as Dios- 
corides sheweth, from whence it took 
its name." — Herhcdl, p. 879. 

Haile of care-a-toaifet, — Davies, Scourge of 
Folly, 1611 (Wright). 

Cf. " ca/re-awey, sorowles." — Prompt, 
Parv. Thos. Adams, in his sermon, 
A Cont-emplation of the Herbs, under 
the heading care-aioay, has : '* Soli- 
citous thoughtfulness can give him no 
hurt but this herb eare-away shall easily 
cure it" (Works, ii. 467, ed. Nichol). 
Caraway, itself an altered form of 
cartoy (Prompt, Parv. p. 62), Fr. carvi, 
cf. Portg. cherivia, (al)-carama, is from 
Arab, karawid, from a Greek karuia 

Cabe- Sunday, a provincial name for 
the fifth Sunds^in Lent, like the related 
words Chare Thwsday, the day before 
Good Friday, Ger. char-freiiag. Good 
Friday, Charwoehe, Passion week, all 
said to be derived from an old Teutonic 
word cara, preparation [? gara] , be- 
cause the day of the crucifixion was 
Dies Parasceves, Gk. paraskeue, the pre- 
paration dav of the tf ews. See Hamp- 
son, Med. Aevi Kalendarivmi, i. p. 178 ; 
Grinmi, however, connects old Ger. 
kanfreitag with O. H. Ger. chara, grief, 
suffering. Old Sax. cara, Goth, kara 
(Wijrterbueh, 8.Y.). So old Eng. care, 
A. Sax. cea/ru, mean grief. The proper 
meaning, therefore, of Care-Sunaay 
and Chare- Thursday is the Sunday 
and Thursday of mourning (see Diefen- 
bach, Goth, oprache, ii. 4^). C curling 
Sunday, as if the day on which carlings, 
or grey-peas, are eaten, seems a popu- 


( «1 ) 


-lar oormption (Atkinson, Cleveland 
Olossary, s. v.). 

Carnation, so called now as if it de- 
rived its name £ron\ its flowers being 
of a flesh colour (Lat. caro, carniSf 
flesh ) , was formerly more correctly spelt 
coronation, being commonly employed 
in chaplets, coron(B (Prior). 

So in German cornice has become 
Tcamipsz-: cf. Gabnelian. Gerarde, 
however (1597), spells it CcMmaiion, 
and identifies it with "Clone Gilli- 
flower" {Herhcdl, p. 472), which sug- 
gests that coronation may be itself .the 

Bring CoronationMy and Sops in wine, 

Worne of Paramoures. 
Spenser J Shepheard* Calender^ April, 1. 139. 

Cabneuan, a mis-spelling of cornelian 
sometimes found, as if it meant the 
flesh-coloured stone (cam-, flesh), Ger. 
Jcameol, whereas it is Fr. comaline. It. 
comdlino, comiola, from comu, so called 
on account of its ^om-like semi-trans- 
parency. Cf. Ger. hornstein, and 
** onyx," Gk. onnix, the finger-nail ; 
perhaps also Fr. nacre. It. nacca/ro, 
mother-of-pearl, connected with Sansk. 
nakhara, a naU. 

Carnival, the festivity preceding 
Lent, Fr. and Sp. camavcd. It. come- 
vcde, ** Shrovetide, shroving time, when 
flesh is bidden farewell" (Florio), as if 
from caro (carnis) and vale — "Flesh 
farewell t ' * — is really an accommod ation 
of camelevdle, a corrupt form of Low 
Lat. came-levamien, a solace of the 
flesh. The Sunday before the begin- 
ning of Lent was called Dominica ad 
cames levandae. Compare also the 
names of Shrovetide, Camicapiunif 
Camivora, Mardi-gras, &c. — Hampson, 
Medii Aevi Kalendariwm, i. p. 168. 

This feast is named the Carnival, which 
Interpreted, implies " farewell to flesh : " 
So oaird, becaose the name and thing agree- 
Through Lent they live on fish both salt 
and fresh. 

ByroUf Btppo, vi. 

Carol, an architectural term for a 
small closet, or enclosure, to sit in 
(Parker, Oloesary of Architedwre, s.v.). 
It is also spelt carrol, carrel, carole, 
carola, quarrel; and is corrupted from 
Low Lat. quadreUus, a square pew. 

Carola, a little Ptfw or Closet. — Bailev. 
Car ret f a Closet or Pew in a Monastery. 

Carola is applied to any place enc1os«>d 
with skreens or partitions. In Normandy 
and elsewhere in France the rails themselves 
are termed earoLet, Also this term was ap- 
plied to the aisles of French churches which 
nave skreened chapels on one side. — Parker, 
GlosMary of Architecture. 

In tKe west walk [of the cloisters] are the 
peaces prepared for the carols of the monks, 

or their studies, to sit and write in ; 

they were so called probably from their being 
square, carrels, or quarrcs. — Id. 

So quarrel, a square of glass, and 
anciently a square-headed arrow, is 
from qu^uMlua; and carillon, a chime, 
is literally a peal of four bells, L. Lat. 
quadrillio; like quadrille, a dance of 

Carousal : strange as it may seem, 
this word has probably no connexion 
with carouse, a drinking-bout. Prof. 
Skeat says that in its older form, 
carousel, it meant a pageant or festival, 
being derived from Fr. carrousel. It. 
carosello, a tilting-match or tournament, 
corrupted (under the influence of carro, 
a chariot), from garoseUo, a diminutive 
form of garoso, quarrelsome (cf. gcura, 
strife, perhaps == Fr. guerre). Carouse, 
formeny garouse, is from Ger. gar aus 
(a bumper drained), '* right out." 

Cabp, Mid. Eng. carpen, old Eng. 
ha/rpe, to speak, to tell (IceL harpa, to 
boast), owes its modem sense of speak- 
ing with sinister intent, fault-finding 
or cavilling, to a supposed connexion 
with Lat. carpers, to pluck, to calum- 

Other of your insolent retinue 
Do hourly carp and quarrel. 

King hear, i. 4, 1. 221. 

Bi crist, sone, qua|) be King, to carpe )>e so^. 
William ofPalemB,\, 4681. 

(See Prof. Skeat, Eiym. Bid, s.v.) 

Carpyn, or talkyn, Fabulor, confabulor, 
garrulo. — Prompt. Parv. 

So gone thei forthe, carpende fast 
On this, on that. 

Gower, Conf. Amantis, vii. 

Many was the bird did sweetly carpe, 
Emong the thomes, the bushes, and the 
F. ihynn. Pride and Lowliness, ab. 1570, 
p. 8 (Shaks. Soc.). 

Cabbiaqb, which appears to be a 
similar formation to voyage, wharfage, 


( 52 ) 


parenUxge, townage, ittcmiage^ is a more 
thoroughly naturi^zed form of caroch 
(Jonson), Fr. caroese^ Sp. carrozaj It. 
carrozza, caroccio. To uie latter has 
been assimilated It. borocoio, hiroccio^ 
our ** barouche," which originally 
meant a two-wheeled vehicle, from 
Lat. hi-rottts, Cf. Fr. hroueUe, for W- 
roTiette (Diez). Carriage^ the carrying of 
a parcel, ** caryage, vectura, caria- 
gium" (From^t, Parv.)^ or the thing 
carried, baggage (A. V. 1 Sam. xvii. 
22), is a distinct word, 0. Fr. cariage^ 
It. ccnriaggio. 

Madam .... muflt be allowed 
Her footmen, her caroch , her ushers, pages. 
MatsingeTf The RinegaHoj i. 2 (p. 136^ 
ed. Cunningham). 

At this time, 1605. began the ordinary use 
o£ earaches. — Stow, Annales.p. 067 (1616). 

They harnessed the Grand oigniors Caroach^ 
mounted his Cauallery vpon Curtals, and so 
sent him most pompously .... into the 
Cit^. — Dekkerf oeuen deadly Sinnes ofLondon^ 
1606, p. 20 (ed. Arber). 

He nurries up and down ... as a gallant 
in his new caroch^ driving as if he were mad. 
— 7. Adams, Myitical Bedlam, Sermont, i. 

Cabbt-all (American), a waggon, 
corrupted from Ccvrhle, 

Cartridge is an Anglicized form of 
Fr. cartou^che, It. ccurtomo^ a case made 
of paper (It. cairta, Lat. charixi), assimi- 
lated to such words as partridge, or 
mistaken for carte (ncaid) and nidge. 
G. Markham further corrupts the word 
to cartcdage ( The Sotddier's Accidence, 
p. 86). 

*' Cartridges " seem to be found first 
in the works of Lord Orrery in 1677. 
Sir James Turner in 1671 calls them 

Casement — '* Make the doors upon a 
woman's wit and it will out at the 
caaement** (As You Like It, a. iv. sc. 1) 
— seems to be confounded sometimes 
with ** casemate," a loophole. 

At Mochrum ... a medieval castle lone 
in ruins has been partly rebuilt on the old 
lines, nothing being altered in the thickness 
of the walls . . . and very little in the holes 
or ** casemsntt " which admit the light.— 5at. 
Review, vol. 50, p. 542. 

The tumid bladder bounds at eyery kick, 
bursts the withstanding casemenU.—^haj'tei- 
bury, Charaeterigtieks, voL iii. p. 14 (1749). 

The Eye, by which as through a cleare 
ehristall Catemtnt wee disceme the various 

works of Art and Nature. — J. Howelly F&T' 
rein Travell, 1642, p. 12 (ed. Arber). 

Casemate, Fr. easema^, Sp. easamaia. 
It. casa-matta, (1) a house of slaughter 
(from COM,, and Sp. maiar. It. mazzare, 
Lat. mactare, to slaughter) — i.e. a cham- 
ber in a fortress from which the enemy 
may be securely slaughtered, (2) a 
loophole or opening to fire on the 
enemy. ** Casamatta, a casamat, a 
canonrie or slaughter-house, so called 
of Engineers, which is a place built low 
under the wall or bulwarke not arriv- 
ing unto the height of the ditch, and 
serves to annoy or hinder the enemie 
when he entreth the ditch to skale the 
wall "— (Florio, 1611). Compare Fr. 
tnewrtrUre, Ger. mord-keller, a loop- 

Cash, the name which we give to the 
Chinese copper coins which are strung 
together on strings through a hole in 
the middle, is the same word as the 
Russian chek or chohh, and a corruption 
of the Mongol j^o«, Chinese fsien, from 
a false analogy to the English word 
** cash," Fr. caisse, Vid, Prejevalsky, 
Mongolia, vol. ii. p. 8. 

Cashisb, to dismiss one from his 
office, is a corruption of the older word 
casseer, Ger. cassiren, Dut. Icasseren, all 
from French casser, " to cass, casseere, 
discharge '* (Cotgrave) ; Sp. cassar, to 
casseer (Minsheu) ; Lat. cassa/re, to 
render null (cassus) : see Cast. The 
phrase *' to break an officer " seems to 
nave originated in a misimderstanding 
of this word. 

Excepting the main point of cashiering the 
Popes pretended Authority over the whole 
Church, those two abuses were the first 
things corrected by Authority in our Realm. 
— Bp, Racket, Century of Sermons, p. 124 

Cast, in the idiom '* to cast about," 
to look for a plan, to contrive, plot, 
meditate, searcn — " He ca^t about how 
to escape " — as if he turned or cast his 
eyes every way — looked round, seems 
to be only a modem usage of old Eng. 
cost, to contrive (A. Sax. costian, to try, 
prove, tempt, old Swed. kosta, Dut. 
Koste, try, attempt), which was some- 
times written cast ( =: conceive, con- 
sider). See Dr. B. Morris, E. E, AlUie- 
rative Poems, p. 187. But query. 


( 83 ) 


Catte for to goon', or purpose for to don' 
any othyr thjnge, Tendo, intendo. 

Caste warke or disposjn', DiBpono.— 
Prompt. Parv. 

A mare payne couthe na man in hert cast 
\»a )}is war, als lang als it suld last. 

Pruke of Conscience, 1. 1918 (ab. 1340). 

Alle mans lyfe casten may be 
Principaly in bis partes thre. 

Ibid. I 43%. 

Bi a coynt compacement * caste sche sone, 
How bold she mist hire bere * hire best to 
William ofPaUme, L 1981, ab. 1350 
(ed. Skeat). 
Than cast I all the worlde about 
And thenk, howe I at home in dout 
Have all my time in vein despended. 
Govjer. Conf, Amantis, vol. L p. 317 
(ed. Pauli). 

Who ever casts to compasse weiehtje prise 
And thinks to throwe out thonaermg words 

of threate, 
Let powre in lavish cups and thriftie bitts of 

Spensery Shepheards Calender, Oct, 1. 105. 

She cast in her mind what manner of salu- 
tation this should be. — A. V, S, Luke, L 99 

And ever in her mind she cast about 
For that unnoticed failing in herself. 
Which made him look so cloudy and so 

Tennyson, Enid, 1. 892. 

Hence, no donbt, cast = to calculate, 
as '*to cast a horoscope," or*' to cast 
up a sum in addition." 

[He] arsmetrike raddein cours: in Oxenford 

wel faste 
& his figours drous aldai: & his numbre 
S. Edmund the Confessor, 1. 192 (Philolog. 
Soc. Trans. 1858). 

Cast, applied to old clothes, as if 
something thrown aside as useless, is 
probably for cassed, found in old writers 
— French, caeser, ** to casse, casseere 
[cashier] , discharge, tume out of ser- 
vice" (Cotgrave) ; which is from Lat. 
coBSOfre, to render null and void ( cassua). 
Sea Cashieb. North and Holland 
speak of soldiers being cassed: and 
in OtheUo (ii 8) lago says to the 
*' cashiered Cassio" (L 881), "You are 
but now cast in his mood," L 278. 

We will raise 
A noise enough to wake an alderman, 
Or a cast captain, when the reckoning is 
About to pay. 

if. Cartwright, The Ordinary^ iii. 4 

Put now these old cast clouts ... under 
thine armholes. — A. V. Jerem, xxxviii 12. 

He hath bought a pair of cast lips of Diana. 
-'As You Like It, iii. 4, 16. 

Castle, the chess piece. It. castello 
and forre, so called from rocco, its 
proper name, being confounded with 
rocca, a rock, fortress, or castle. The 
Italian rocco, our " rook," is the French 
roc, Sp. rogue, Persian rukh, all varia- 
tions of the Sanskrit roha, a |)oat or 
ship, that being the original form of the 
piece. — D. Forbes, History of Chess, 
pp. 161, 211. Devic connects the word 
with old Pers. roJch, a warrior or knight. 

Castle, as used in Shakespeare (Tro. 
and Ores. v. 2, 1. 187) and Holinjshed 
(ii. p. 815) for a helmet, must be a 
representative of the Latin casaida^ 
cassis, a helmet. 

Stand fast, and wear a cattle on thy head. 
—Shakespeare, 1. c. 

Cast-me-down, a corruption of the 
word cassidone, cassidonm, & species of 
lavender, which is itself a corruption 
of its Latin name, stcBchas Siaonia 
{*chaS'8idonia), the stoBchas from Sidon^ 
where it is indigenous. 

Stechados, Steckado, or Stickadove, Cassi- 
donia or Castmedown. — Cotgrave, 

Some simple people imitating the said 
name doe call it cast-me-downe. — Gerarde^ 
Uerball, p. 470. 

Castor Oil, a corruption of castus' 
oil, the plant {rieinus commuwis) from 
the nuts or seeds of which it is ex- 
pressed having formerly been called 
Agnus castus (Mahn, in Webster* a 
Did.). The word was doubtless con- 
foimded with, or assimilated to, cos- 
toreum, " a medicine made of the liquor 
contained in the small bags which are 
next to the beaver's [or castor's] groin, 
oily, and of a strong scent" (Bailey). 

Cat, a nautical term applied to va- 
rious parts of the gear connected with 
an anchor, e.g. " U at, Sk piece of timber 
to raise up the anchor from the hawse 
to the forecastle ; " cat-head, *' catt-rope, 
the rope used in hauling up the cat " 
(Bailey) ; to cai, to draw up me anchor 
(Smith, Nautical Bid; Falconer, Ma* 
vine Did. ) . Compare Dutch hat, a small 
anchor; hatten, to cast out such ; hatrol, 
a pulley. It is beyond doubt the same 
word as lith. hUas, Bohem. kotew^ 
Buss, and old Slav, kotva, an anchor, 


( 84 ) 


meaning at first probably a large 
stone ; cf. Sansk. Icdilha, a stone (Pictet, 
Origines I, Etwop. i. 183), and the Ho- 
merio eunai^ stones used as anchors. 

Cat, in the story of WMttington and 
his Caij it has been considered with 
some reason, is a oorraption of the old 
substantive acat or achate trading {e.g. 
Le Grand, Fabliaux^ tom. i. p. 805), 
from acheter, to buy (RUey). — Scheie 
de Vere, Studies in English, p. 206 ; M. 

Cat or dog- wool, " of which ix>tto or 
coarse Blankets were formerly made " 
(Bailey, s. v. cottum). Cat here is a 
corruption of the old Eng. cot, a matted 
lock; Ger. koize, a shaggy covering; 
Wal. cote, a fleece. " Got-ga/re, refuse 
wool so clotted together that it cannot 
be pulled asunder " (Bailey). 

Dog-wool is for da^-wool, cf. dag- 
locks, the tail- wool of sheep (see 
Wedgwood) ; and old Eng. dagswain, a 
bed-covering, ^* daggysweyne, lodix," 
Frompt, Parvidorum. 

Catoh, a word used by Howell and 
Pepys for a small vessel (see T. L. O. 
Davies, Sup, Eng, Glossary), as if like 
yacht (Dut. jagt), a vessel for pursuit, 
is a corruption of ketch, It. caicchio, ** a 
little cooke bote, skiffe or scallop" 
(Florio); from Turk, qaiq, a sk^ or 


Scotch terms for the 
game of tennis, are 
corrupted forms of 
Belgian kaetsspel, i.e. "chase-game,** 
the game of ball : cf. kaetsJxd, a tennis- 

Catekuulyno, an old Eng. corrup- 
tion of caischtmien, a person catechized 
or under instruction preparatory to 
baptism, as if compounded with koine- 
lyng (Robt. of Gloucester, p. 18) — i.e. 
covneling, a stranger, new arrival, a 
proselyte — occurs in Langland's Vision 
of Piers Plowman, 1377. 

Why 3owre couent coaeytath* to confesse 

and to hurye, 
Rather ^n to baptise bames* );at ben cate- 

Pasx/xi. 1. 77, text B. (ed. Skeat) ; 

where another MS. has ccUhecu^ 

Cater, to cross diagonally, or eater- 
ways, in the Surrey dialeot (Notes and 

Queries, 5th S. i. 861), is evidently a 
corruption of Fr. quatre, as in caier- 
cousins and ccUer-cap. Compare Fr. 
canrtayer (which Littr^ derives from 
quaire), corresponding to our verb to 
quarter, to drive so as to avoid the ruts 
in the road. 

Cateb-oousik, an intimate friend, a 
parasite, as if a friend for the sake of 
the catering, is really a fowrth cousin, 
Fr. qucUre. 

Eb havn't a' be cater cousins since last bay- 
harvest. — Mrs. Palmer, 2}evonshire Court^ip, 
p. 61. 

Sleep ! What have we to do with 
Death's cater-cousin ? 

Randolph, Aristippus, Works, p. 23 
(ed. Hazlitt). 

So 0. Eng. catereyns = quadrains^ 
fiEurthings. See Cateb. 

Catebpilleb — old Eng. "ccrfyrpeZ, 
wyrm amongefrute,** Prompt. Part;. — 
is corrupted from old Fr. chait^ peUmse 
(Palsgrave, 1530), "hairy cat." Cf. 
Norman ca/rplevse (? r= caier-peleuse). 
It. gattola, Swiss teuf^U-katz, ** devil's 
cat " (Adams, P^tfo^f. Soc. Trans. 1860, 
p. 90). The last part of the word 
was probably assunilated to piUer, a 
robber or despoiler. 

Latimer actually uses it in this 
sense — 

They that be children of this worlde (as 
couetous persons, eztorcionem, oppressonrs, 
caterpillers, usurers), thynke you they come 
to Gods storehouse ? — Sermons, p. 158, recto. 

Cater, moreover, being an old name 
for a glutton, the whole compound 
would be understood as a ** gluttonous- 

Horace writes of an outragious cater in 
his time, Quicquid qusesierat ventri donabat 
avaro, whatsoever he could rap or rend, be 
confiscated to his couetous gut. — Nash, Pierce 
Pcnilesu, lb9i, p. 49 (ShAs. Soc.). 

Catgut, the technical name for the 
material of which the strings of ^^ 
guitar, harp, &c. are made. It is reaf 
manufactured from s1ieep-^i (vi 
ChappeU's History of Music, vol. i. *. i 
26). " "S 

That sheep's guts should hale souls out of 
men's bodies. — Much Ado about Nothing, 
ii. 3. 

So it may be conjectured that the 
word is a corruption of kit-gut, kit being 
an old word for a small violin. Com- 


( 55 ) 


pare Ger. hitt, hUU, a late, and hiizef 
katze, a cat. Or ccUUngs, small strings 
for musical instruments (Bailey), may 
be connected with chUterUngs^ Ger. 
Jeuttelenf "guts." 

Hearsay. Do you not hear her guts already 
Like kit'Strings? 

Slicer, They mnat oome to that within 

This two or three years : bj that time shell 

True perfect cat, 

W, Cartwright, The Ordinary, L f 

Unless the fidler Apollo get his sinews to 
make catlings oiL-^Troilus and Cress, act iii. 
sc. 3. 

Play, fiddler, or Til cut your cat*s guts 
into chitterlings. — Marlowe, Jew of Malta, 
act iv. (1633). 

Mr. limbs (Popultxr Errors Ex- 
plained, p. 64) points out that the old 
reading for ccU's-guts in CymheUne is 

Cat-handbd, a Devonshire term for 
awkward, is a corruption of the word 
which appears in Northamptonshire as 
heeh'Jia/nded, left-handed (Sternberg); 
in the Craven dialect gauk-hcmded, in 
Yorkshire gawh, awkward ; gawhshaw, 
a left-handed man, Fr. gauche, 

Gineerlj, gingerly ; how unvitty and cat- 
handed you go about it, you dough-cake.— 
Mrs. Palmer, Devonshire Courtship, p. 33. 

Cat in thb pan, to turn cat in the 
pan, or cat in pan, are ancient phrases 
for becoming a turn-coat or time-server, 
changing with the times and circum- 
stances. They are evident corruptions, 
but of what ? Not likely of the name 
Catapan, a title which was assigned to 
the chief governor of the metropolis of 
Lombardy in the tenth century, when 
the " policy of Church and State in that 
province was modelled in exact sub- 
ordination to the throne of Constanti- 
nople " (Gibbon, Decline and Fail, eh. 
Ivi.) ; Notes a/nd Queries, 6th S. viii. 
148. The original was perhaps "to 
turn a cote " or cake. 

In W. Cornwall " to turn cat-in-the- 

gan" is literally to turn head over 
eels while holding on to a bar 
(E. D. S.). 

I am as yery a tumcote as the wethercoke of 

Poles [Paul's] ; 
For now I wm call my name Dae 

Disporte, fit for all soules, ye. 
So, BO, findly 1 can tume the eatt in th§ 
The Mariage of Witt and Wisdoine 
(Shaks. Soc. ed.), p. 24. 

Damon smatters as well as he of craftie 

And can toume cat in the panne very pretily. 
R, Edwards, Damon and Pithias, 1571 
(O. P. L 206, ed. 1827). 

When George in pudding time came o'er 
And moderate men look'd big, Sir, 

I tum'd a cat-in-pan once more, 
And so became a Whig, Sir. 

The Vicar of Bray, 

Minsheu, in his Spanish Did, 1628, 
gives ** Trastroc&das pal&bras, words 
turned, the cat in^o the pan." 

Lord Bacon, in his Essays, uses the 
phrase in a different sense : — 

There is a Cunning, which we in England 
call, The Turning of the Cat \^Latin felem'\ in 
the Pan ; which is, when that which a man 
sayes to another, he laies it, as if another 
had said it to him. — Of Cunning, 1625 
( Arber's ed. p. 441 ). 

•• To savour," or " smeU, of the pan," 
seems to have been a common cant 
phrase in the time of the Heformation 
for to change one's views — e,g. West, 
Bishop of Ely, said of Latimer : "I 
perceive that you smell somewhat of the 

I hear of no clerk that hath come out lately 
of that College, but savoureth of the frying 
pan, though he speak never so holily. — Bp, 
Nikke, 1530 (see Eadie, The English Bible, 
vol. i. p. 183). 

Cats and doos. To rain : the origin 
of this expression has never been satis- 
factorily explained. A correspondent 
of Notes and Queries (5th S. viii. p. 
188) suggests that it is a perversion of 
an ItaUan ctcqua a catinelle e dogU, rain 
in basins and casks. The phrase a,cqua 
a catinelle is used by Massimo d'Azeglio 
in his Ni<icolo de* Lapi, vol. i. p. 97, ed. 
1841, Paris ; Aoqua a higonce, **rain in 
tuns," buckets of rain, is also found. 
But is such a popular expression Ukely 
to be of foreign origin ? Chien, in the 
French phrase, une pime de chien (a 
heavy shower), has the same deprecia- 
tory and intensive force as in brudt de 
chien, querelle de chien. Probably this 
is just one of those strong intensive 
phrases in which the populace delights, 
Li the dialect of the Wallon de Mons, 
pleuvoi a dih et dak rain in tor- 



rents (correspondinfi; to a German reg- 
nen dick una [?an] dock, "thick on 
thatch : " cf. riech und raacht hUng und 
kla/ng, &c.)* 

CAT*s-c&iiDLB, the ohildren*s game of 
weaving a cord into various figures 
from one to the other*8 hands alter- 
nately, is a corruption of croUch-eradle, 
the word cratch Being the usual term 
formerly for a manger, rack, or crih 
(Fr. creche), of interlaced wickerwork. 
Lat. cratidus, crates. If, as Nares 
affirms, the game was also called 
scratch-cradle, this account may be re- 
ceived without hesitation, and an allu- 
sion may be traced to the manger- 
cradle of the Sacred EUstory. 

Thdse men found a child in a cratch, the 
poorest and most unlikely birth that ever was 
to prove a King. — Bp. Hackety CetUury of 
Sermtms, 1675, p. 143. 

Sche childide her firste bom sone, .... 
and puttide him in a cracche. — Wycliffi, Luke, 
iL 7 (1389). 

This game in the London Schools is called 
Scratch'tcratch, or Scratch'cradle.^^Britton, 
Beauties of mitthire, 1825. 

Cat-stones, i,e, battle-stones, erected 
in various parts of England, and espe- 
cially in Derbyshire, in commemoration 
of battles having been fought there. 
From the Celtic cath, a battle ; cf. Ard- 
cath in the Co. Meath, Lat. cateia^ &c. 

On the east side of [Stanton] Moor were 
three tall isolated stones, whicn in Rooke*s 
time [ijt. 1780] the natives still called Cat 
atones, showing clearly that the tradition 
still remained of a battle fought there. — 
Ferguuon, Rude Stone Monuments, p. 146. 

Catsup, or ketchup, a corruption of 

kifjap, the oriental name for a similar 


And for our home-bred British cheer, 
Botar^o, Cutstip, and Caveer. 

Swift, Panegifrick on the Dean, 1730. 

Caulifloweb is, properly, not the 
flower of the (Lat.) cauUs, cabbage, but 
as formerly spelt, fo%yi>r2/(Cotgrave) — 
t.e. cole-floris, Fr. choufleuri, the flower- 
ing cole (Skeat). 

Cole FUnie. or after some ColiefloHe, hath 
many large leaves sleightly endented about 
the edges. — Gerarde, Herbail, p. 246 (1597). 

Caubed-wat, Fuller's spelling of 
causey — e,g. History of Cambridge, iii. 
19 (1656). 

Builders of Bridges . . . and makers of 
Cauted'vcaks or Caosways (which are Bridges 

over dirt) . . . are not least in benefit to the 
Conunon- wealth. — Worthies of England ^ vol. 
Lp. 3*(ed. 1811). 

Causewat (Isaiah, vii. 8, marg.), 
also sometimes written causey-way, 
caused-way (q. v.), and cawcetcey, 
cawcy wey (Prompt. Tarv, 1440), was 
originally causey (1 Chron. xxvi. 16, 
18 ; Prov. xv. 19, mar^. ; Milton, Par, 
Lost, X. 415) ; caniseis in Camden's 
Britain, fol. pp. 516, 760. It is the 
French chaussee, old Fr. cauchjie. 
Norm. Fr. chau^cee. Vie de St. Auhan, 
1. 531 ; Sp. and Portg. cdlzada, from a 
Latin catciata (sc. via), a road laid 
down with limestone or chalk (caix). 
Low Lat. caXceta. Compare It. sell- 
ciata^ or slab-pavement. In W. Corn- 
wall cawnse is a flagged floor, and 
coiwnse-way, a paved footpath. 

A blazing starr seen hj several people in 
Oxon, and A. W. saw it in few nights after 
on Botley Causey (166 (). — Life of Anthony a 
Wood (ed. Bliss), p. 140. 

Th^ rode on then all S : 
Vpon a ffaire Causye, 
Percy, Folio MS, vol. iL* p. 4«8, 1. 319. 

Cblebt, a corruption (through a 
mistaken analogy to other words be- 
ginning in eel-) of the older name 
" sellenj, a saUad Herb " (BaUey). Cf. 
Ger. selleri, It. sellari, plu. of sellaro, 
from Lat. selinum, Gk. selinon. The 
word is comparatively modern^ not 
being found in Gerarde, 1597. 

Cblebt-leaved ranunculus. This 
expression is said, I know not on what 
authority, to be a corruption of scele- 
ratus ranunculus (Phihhg. Soc, Proc, 
vol. V. p. 188). 

Cellar, the canopy of a bed, a cor- 
ruption of It. delo, Fr. del, "Cellar for 
a bedde,CTeZ de Uf" — Palsgrave; Lesclair- 
dssemeni (Wright); **ceele or scele, a 
canopy" {Glossary of Architecture, 

Centinel, a corrupt spelling of sen- 
tinel, Fr. sentinelle (one who keeps his 
beat or path, O. Fr. sente), as if like 
centurion, connected with Lat. centum. 
Sir J. Turner speaks of "the forlorn 
centinels, whom the French call per- 
dus:'— Pallas Amiata, p. 218 (1688). 

Two men who were centinels ran away.— 
Horace WulpoU, Letters (175«), vol. ii p. 

Coming up to the house where at that time 


( 57 ) 


Bome centinelU were placed, and g^eting out 
of her conch " she " wiys, make way there, I 
am the Duchess of Devonshire. — Life of Bp, 
Frampton (ed. T. S. Eyans), p. 194. 

Spenser has eerUonell (F, Q. I. ix. 
41), Marlowe centronel (Dido, 11. i.). 

Cento, a poem made np of scraps of 
different verses, Lat. cenio, as if of a 
hundred pieces (cerUum), is a corrupted 
form of the Greek Jcentron, of the same 
meaning, originally a patch-work, from 
kentron, a prick (or stitch ?). 




an architectural term 
for the wooden mould 
or frame upon which an 
arch is built, would seem, naturally 
enough, to be the centre (Lat. centrum) 
around which the masonry is con- 
structed. It is really an alteration of 
Fr. ointre, " a centry or mould for an 
Arch," Cotgrave ; dnfrer, to mould an 
arch, &om Lat. dncturare, to encircle, 
cinctwra, a girdle, It. eintwa, 

Centrt-oabth, an old name for a 
burying-ground, is a corruption of 
cent try, cemetry, cemetery (Gloasary of 
Archntect'wre, Parker). 

At Durham the unworthy dean . . . de- 
stroyed the tombs in the CenterU earth. — Af.^ 
E. C. Walcott, Tradilions and Ctx^onu of 
Cathedrals^ p. S6. 

Cess, a word used in the southern 
counties of England and in Ireland to 
call dogs to their food, or to encourage 
them to eat. '* Cess, boy, cess / '* is no 
doubt another form of the old word 
sosse (Palsgrave, 1530), or sos, dogs* 
meat, Gael, sos, a mess. 

Sog, how(nd)y8mete. Cantabrum. — 
Prompt. Parvulorum, ab. 1440. 

CesS'pool is of the same origin (see 
Skeat, ^t. Diet. s. v.). 

Cess, a tax, a mis-spelling of sess^ 
from assess, under the misleading in- 
fluence of Lat. censtis, It. censo, '*a 
sessing," Florio. 

Chaff, badinage, as if light, fruitless 
talk, conversational husks (like Ger. 
kaff, (1) chaff, (2) idle words; A. Sax. 
ceaf), would seem to be the same word 
as lincolns. chaff, to chatter (Dut. 
keffen), old Eng. chcfle, cheafle, idle 
talk ; N. Eng. chqff, the jaw; A. Sax. 
ceafl, O. E. chawl, to chide, "give jaw;" 
Cleveland cha^, to banter (Icel. %d/a). 
The AncrenBtwle warns against words 

that " uleoten seond te world ase deH 
muchel cheafle " (p. 72) — %.e, flit over 
the world as doth much idle-talk, and 
says that the false anchorers " chefleU 
of idel " (p. 128)— chattereth idly. The 
phrase " to chaff a person," i.e. to make 
fon of him, to ply him with jeering 
remarks, was probably influenced by 
chafe, to make hot, to exasperate (Fr. 
chauffer), as in the following — 

A testy man . . • chaff* at erery trifle.— 
Bp. Hall, Contemvlaiions, Bk. vii. 3. 

The boys watcned the stately barques . . . 
or chafed the fishermen whose boats beared 
on the waves at the foot of the promontory.-— 
F. W. Farrar, Eric, p. 155 (1859). 

** Why then," quoth she, *' thou drunken ass. 

Who bid thee here to prate? "... 
And thus most tauntingly she chrf^ 
Against poor silly Lot. 
The Hanton Wife of Bath, 1. 40 (Child'i 
Ballads, vol. rui. p. 154). 

A thirde, perhapps, was hard chaffing with 
the bay lie ot his husbandry for gerrnge viiici. 
a day this deere yeer to day laborers. — Sir 
J. Harin^ton,Treatiteon Playe, Nugtt Antiqua^ 
vol. ii. p. 176. 

Chamois-leathsb is considered by 
Wedgwood to have only an accidental 
resemblance to the name of the chamois, 
or wild goat, and to be a corrupted 
form of the older word shammv. This 
he compares with Ger. sdmiscn, Swed. 
samsk, which some explain as Samo- 
gitian [Icel. Sdm-land in Bussia] lea- 
ther; but he prefers connecting with 
Dut. sam, soft and pliable, Prov. Eng. 
semnwt (Ger. samisch, soft). In most 
European languages, however, this 
leather is called by the name of the 
chamois or shamoy. See chamois and 
ysard in Cotgrave, Ger. gemsenleder, 
Bwed. stengetsldder ; cf. old Eng. che- 
verel, from Fr. chevreul, the chamois or 
wild goat. It is perhaps worth noting 
that in the Gipsy language cham is 
leather, chamische, leathern ( Borrow )» 
tschammi (Pott). 

Champaion, a flat or plain country 
(Deut. xi. 80 ; Ezek. xxxviL 2, marg.), 
a corruption of the older and more 
correct form, champian, or champion^ 
in Shakespeare champadn {Lear, L 1) — 
the ^ (as in Fr. champagne. It. cam' 
pagna) being inserted from perhaps a 
supposed connexion with pagus, paga^ 
nus. Compare Fr. compagne, Ger. 
kompa/n, a companion, one who eats 



bread (Lat. panis) with {cfum) another, 
= conimenmiis ; and see £. Agnel, In- 
fluence du Langagc Fopulairef p. 112. 

Chance-medlet, an accidental en- 
counter, is said to be a corruption of 
Fr. chaude mealee^ or nveU&^ a mingling, 
broil, or skirmish, in the heat of the 
moment, and not in cold blood. See 
Chaudmallet, L. Lat. chaudmella 

Joab for obeying the King's letter and 

Sutting Uriah but to chance-medley is con- 
emned for it. — Bp. Arulrewet, Pattern of 
Catechistical Doctrinef 1641 (Anglo-Cathoho 
Lib.), p. 184. 

Chanoelino, a child changed, also a 
fool, a silly fellow (Bailey) ; an oaf or 
elvish child left in exchange by the 
fairies for a healthy one tliey have 
stolen away. "The word changeling 
impUes one almost an idiot, evincing 
what was once the popular creed on 
this subject ; for as all the fairy chil- 
dren were a little backward of their 
tongue, and seemingly idiots, therefore 
stunted and idiotical children were 
supposed changelings" (Brand. Pop. 
Aniiq, ii. p. 74). The word is probably 
not a hybrid, but formed from old 
Eng. change, a fool, diang, cang, hang, 
foolish, which occur repeatedly in the 
Ancren Riwle (ab. 1225) ; the popular 
superstition, as in other cases, being 
invented afterwards to explain the 

VVc beo^ changes \>et wene^ mid lihtlcapes 
buggen eche blisse. — Ancren RiwUy p. 362 
(MS. C). 

( We be fools that ween to buy eternal bhss 
with trifles.) 

fjis is al JTes canges blisse. — Id. p. 214, 

Compare tlie following : — 

From thence a Faery thee unweeting reft. 
There as thou tdepst in tender swadling 

And her base Elfin brood there for thee left : 
Such men do Chaungelinges call, so chaung'd 

by Fscries thefL 
Spenser y F. Qneene, I, x. 65 (ed. Morris). 

When larks *gin sing/ Away we fling, 
And babes new-bom steal as we go 

An Elf instead/ We leave in bed. 
And wind out laughing, ho, ho, ho ! 

Pranks of Puck, lUintrattons of Fairy My- 
thohgy, p. 169 (Shaks. Soc). 

O that it could be proved 
That some night-tripping fairy had ex- 
In cradle-clothes our children where they lay. 
Shakespeare, 1 Hen. IV. i. 1, 1. 86. 

Lament, lament, old abbies. 

The Faries lost command ; 
They did but change priests babies, 

But some have cnangd your land : 
And all your children sprung from thence 

Are now growne Puritanes ; 
Who live as changelings ever since 

For love of your demaines. 

Bp. Corhety Poems, 1648, p. 214 
(ed. 1807). 

Candlelights Coach is made all of Horn, 
shauen as tnin as Changelinges are. — Dekker, 
Seuen deadly Sinnes oj London, 1606, p. 29 
(ed. Arber). 

As for a Changelingy which is not one child 
changed for another, but one child on a 
sudden much changed from it self; and for 
a Jester .... I conceive them not to belong 
to the present subject. — T. Fuller, Holy State, 
p. 170 (1648). 

Chap, a colloquial and rather vulgar 
word for a man in a disparaging sense — 
a fellow, a boy, as if shortened from 
ehap-nian (just as merchant is used in 
old writers for a fellow, e.g. Shake- 
speare's '* saucy merchant : " Bom. and 
Jul. ii. 4; and customer in modem par- 
lance has much the same meaning). It 
is really, however, derived from the 
Gipsy word for a child or boy, which 
is variously spelt chaho, tscJiaho, chavo, 
and chabhy. Cuffcn in rjuecr-cuffen, an 
old slang term for a magistrate, and 
perhaps chuff, "cove," are the same 

Cofe, a person. Cuffen, a manne. — T. Har- 
man. Caveat for CursetorSy 1566. 

An' ane, a chap that's damn'd auldfarran, 
Dundas his name. 

Bums, Works, Globe ed. p. 11. 

Char-coal, a corruption of chark- 
coaly " to chark " being an old word 
for to bum wood (Bailey). 

She burned no lease through the cinders 
of too kinde afi'ection, than tlie logge dooth 
with the helpe of charke-coles, — Tell-TroOi, 
The Passionate Morrice, 1693, p. 80 (Shaks. 

Oh if this Coale could be so chareked as to 
make Iron melt out of the stone. — Fuller, 
Worthiexy ii. 253. 

To charke seacole in such manner as to 
render it usefull for the making of Iron. — 
Id. ii. 382. 

It [peat] is like wood eharked for the 
smith. — Samuel Johnson, A Journey to the 

1 saw Sir John Winter's new project of 
charring sea-coale. — J. Evelyn, Diary, July 
11, 1666. 

Chark'codl was no doubt the coal 

CHABU THimSDAY ( 59 ) 


that eharhs (Prov.Eng.), that is, olinks, 
or gives a metallio sound; W. Corn- 
wall cherk or chare, a half-burnt cinder. 
Cf. clinker, Wycliffe has charkith = 
creeks, Amos, ii. 18. Prof. Skeat is, I 
think, mistaken in giving char, to turn, 
as the first part of the word (Etym. 
Did,) ; but char-k (like har-k, toL-k, 
&c.) may be a frequentative of c7kzr. 
Ealtschmidt, in his English- German 
Dictionary (Leipsic, 1887), gives 
•• Chark-coals, Charks, Holzkohlfifi." 
*• Chark, verkohlen (Holz)." Compare 

Chabb Thubsdat, the Thursday in 
Passion Week, the day before Good 
Friday, Ger. Char-freytag, from an old 
word coro, grief, mourning ; see Cabb 
Sunday. Perhaps a connexion was 
imagined with the French chair, flesh, 
because ''Upon Chare Thursday Christ 
brake bread unto his disciples, and bad 
them eat it, saying it was his^^^ and 
blood." — Shepherd's Kalendar [Nares]. 

Chables* Wain, a corruption of A. 
Sax. Carles wcBn, Ceorles tocen, the con- 
stellation of the churVs (or husband- 
man's) waggon, Swed. Karl-vagnen, 
Dan. KarlS'Vognen, Scot. Charlewan 
(G. Douglas, ^neid, p. 289, ed. 1710). 

Nares says it was so named in honour 
of Charlemagne I English writers gene- 
rally twisted it into a compliment to 
Charles I. or II. ; e.g. a curious volmne 
bears the title : ** The most Gloriovs 
Star or Celestial Constellation of the 
Pleiades or Charles Waine. Appearing 
and Shining most brightly in a Miracu- 
lous manner in the Face of the Sun at 
Noon day at the Nativity of our Sacred 
Soveraign King Charles II. . . . Never 
any Starre having appeared before at 
the birth of any (the Highest humane 
Hero) except our Saviour. By Edw. 
Mathew, 1662." 

May Peace once more 
Descend firom Heay*n upon our tottering 

And ride in Triumph both in Land and 

And with her Milk-white Steeds draw Charlet 

his Wain. 
J, Howell, The Vote or Poem-Royal, 1641. 

In England it goes by the name of '* King 
Charki' iVain," — J, h, Blake, Astronomical 
Myths, p. 69. 

SeptemtriOy ^ne hataiS laewede menn 
emries^wdn, (Septemtrio, which unlearned 

men call carl's- wain.) — Wright, Popular 
Treatitet on Science in the Middk Ages, p. 16, 
Cockayne, Leechdoms, iii. 270. 

Ursa Major is also known as ths 
Phuah, A. Sax. \>isl: similarly the 
Greeks called it Hdmaxa, the waggon, 
the Latins plaustrum, sepiem-triones, 
terno, the Gauls Arthur's chariot ; Icel. 
vagn and Odin's va^: Heb. as, the 

Weever says the " Seuen Babaurers 
[?] in heven " in the epitaph of Arch- 
bishop Theodore, are the 

Seuen utarres in Charles Waine, 
Funerall MonumenU, p. 248 (1631). 

Brittaine doth ynder those bright atarres 

Which English Shephearda, Charles his toaine, 

doe name; 
But more this lie is Charles, his waine, 
Since Charlf'S her royall wagoner became. 

Sir John Davies, Poems, vol. ii. p. 237 
(ed. Grosart). 

Augustus had native notes on his body and 
belly after the order and numher in the stars 
o( Charles* Wain. — Sir Thomat Browne,WorkSj 
vol. ii. p. 536. 

Charlotte, the name of a confec- 
tioner's sweet dish, as a Charlotte 
Busse, seems to have no connexion 
with the feminine name, but to be a 
corruption of old Eng. ** Charlet, dys- 
chemete. Pepo." — Prompt, Parv. 1440 ; 
Forme of Cary, p. 27 ; which is perhaps 
(as Dr. IPegge thought) a derivation of 
Fr. chair, flesh being one of the chief 
ingredients of it. Mr. Way supposes 
it to have been a kind of omelet. But 
to judge by the following recipe it 
must have been more like a custard. 

Take swettest mylke, ^t ^u may have. 
Colour hit with safron, so God |7e save ; 
Take fresshe porke and 8ethe hit wele. 
And hew hit smalle every dele; 
Swyng eyryn, and do [«r to ; 
Set hit over Jje fyre, l^enne 
Boyle hit and sture lest hit brenne ; 
Whenne hit welles up, ))ou scbalt hit kele 
With a litel ale, so have ))ou cele ; 
When bit is ino3e, )x>u sett hit doune, 
And kepe hit lest hit be to broune. 

Liber Cure Cocorumj 15th cent. p. 11, 
ed. Morris. 

Hoc omlaccinium, eharlyt, — Wright't Vo» 
eabularies (15th cent.) p. 241. 

Chabm, applied to the song of birds, 
as if descriptive of their enchanting or 
seductive strains (cf. Fr.serin, a canaxy, 
lit. a " siren '*), 



Sweet is the breath of Mom, her rising 

With charm of earliest birds. 

MiltoHf Par, Lort, iv. 641, 

has nothing to do with chami, an en- 
chantment (from Lat. carmen, a song), 
but is Prov. Eng., charm, chirm, a con- 
fused murmuring noise, as, ** They are 
all in a charm'' (Wilts. Akerman), 
"They keep up sitch a chirm" (E. 
AngUa, Spurdens). A. Sax. cymi, cew^i, 
a noise, uproar ((^. ceorian, to murmur, 
O. E. chirre, to chirp). 

Sparuwe is a cheaterinde brid, cheateretS 

euer ant chirm^, 
(Sparrow is a chattering bird, chattereth ever 

and chirmeth.) 

Ancren RiwU, p. 152 (ab. Ift5). 

How heartsome is't to see the rising plants ! 
To hear the birds chirm o'er their pleasing 
A. Ramtay, Tht Gentle Shepherd, i. 1. 

So Spenser speaks of the shepherd, 
Charming his oaten pipe unto his peres. 

Colin Clout^s Cimte Home Again, I, 5. 

Whitest favourable times did us afford 
Tru libertie to chaunt our charmes at will T 
The Tearet of the Musei, 1. !t44. 

Charmed-milk, or Charm-miUe, a 
North Eng.wordforsour milk (Wright), 
is a corruption (not probably of charn 
(i.6. chum) milk, buttermilk, but) of 
chwr-niiJh, ue. charred or turned (sour). 
Cf. Kentish charred drink, drink turned 
sour, Lincolnshire charhed (Skinner, 
1671). Here the m of mdlk has got 
attached to char-, as by a contrary 
mistake in char{Jc)'Coal tiie h has 
merged into the -coal, 

Lait beur6, Butter milke ; charme milke, 

Nomenclator, 1585. 

Chabteb-house, a corruption of O/tar- 
ireuee (sc. manson). It. Gertcaa, a house 
or monastery of the Carthusian order 
of monks, so called from the mountain 
of Chartreuse in Dauphin^, where St. 
Bruno built his first monastery. 

Chabemates, in Heywood*s Hierar* 
chie, is a corruption of casemates, q. v. 

Chaudmallet, an Aberdeen word for 
a blow or beating, is evidently, as Ja- 
mieson observes, a relic of another 
Scotch word chaudmelU, a sudden 
broil or quarrel, Fr. cJiaude melSe, 

Chaumberlino, an old Anglicized 
form of Fr. chaniberlain, 0. Fr. cham- 
brelene (cf. 0. H. Ger. chamerUng). 

Lnue is his chaumberlir^, 

Ancren Riwle, p. 410 (ab. 1<25). 

Chaw, a frequent old spelling of JoM 
(A. y. Ezek. xzix. 4 ; xxxviii. 4), chetce 
in Surrey's Sonnets, as. if that which 
chaws or chews (Bible Word-Book, s. v.) 
is not probably a derivation of A. Sax. 
ce^an, to chew, having no inmiediate 
representative word in A. Saxon, but, 
like^OM^Z, A. Sax. ceole, ceafl, geagl, is 
in cQrect relation with 0. Dul kautce^ 
Dan. lijoBve, a jaw; cf. Scand. kaf^ 
Prov. Eng. chaffs, ** the chaps," Greek 
gamjthai, Sansk. jamhha, the jaws (see 
Skeat, s. v. Champ), jahh, " to gape," 
(Benfey). The word was probably in- 
fluenced by Fr.joue, the cheek, O. Fr. 
joe. Cf. O. E. ^^jorie, or chekebone, 
Mandibula," Prompt. Parv., and chcnd 
(Wycli£fe), chawle, iatole, old forms of 

Leuel-ranged teeth be in both chaufs alike. 
^Holland, Pliny N. Hist. xi. 37. 

Here's a Conqueror that's more violent 
than them both, he takes a dead man out of 
my chau'i, who stinks, and hath been four 
days in the sepulchre. — Hacket, Century of 
Sermom, p. 569 (1675). 

Check- LATON, a kind of gilt leather. 

In a jacket, quilted richly rare 
Upon checkUiion, he was strauneely dight. 
Spemer, F. Q. VI. vu. 43. 

It is a corruption of the O. Eng. " cic- 
latoun," as if it were checkered or che- 
quered, and adorned with the metal 
called laion. It is the Fr. dclaton, Sp. 
ciclaion and ddada, &om Latin cyclase 

Cheeruppino cup, an old phrase for* 
an exhilarating glass, which occurs in 
the old ballad. The Greenland Voy- 

To Ben's, there's a cheerupping cup ; 

Let's comfort our hearts. 

(Nares, ed. Halliwell and Wright.) 

As if " the cup that cheers " and ine- 
briates, is a corrupt form of chirruping 
cup, pr **Mrping ctfp," in Howell, 
Fam. Letters, 1650, i.e. which makes 
one chirp or sing (Bailey). 
Let no sober bigot here think it a sin, 
To push on the chirping and moderate bottle. 
A. J onion, Rule* for the Tavern Academy 
( Woria, p. 726). 

Cheese, in the slang phrase ** That's 
the cheese,*"* meaning it is all right, 
oomme ilfautf is literally " That's tlie 



thing,** The expression, like many 
other cant words, comes to us from the 
Bommany or Gipsy dialect, in which 
cheese, representing the Hindustani 
chiz, denotes a thing. In the slang of 
the London streets this is further me- 
tamorphosed into ** That's the StiUon^** 
and " That's the Oheshdrer 

Cheese-bowl, an old English name 
for the poppy (Gerarde, Skmner, &c.)* 
** Cheseholte, Pavaver" — Proniptorium 
Parvulorum, It is a corruption of the 
word cheshol, cheshowe, or chasholl, so 
called from the shape of the capsule, 
Fr. chasaef in which its hoU is en- 

Oiiettef Poppy, ChetboU or ChttsebowUt.^' 

Drummond spells it chashow. 

The brave carnation speckled pink here 

The yiolet her fiiinting^ head declined. 
Beneath a drowsy chasbow, 

PoenUf p. 10 (Lib. Old Authors). 

Ghequer-tbee, an old and provincial 
name for the service tree, is said to be 
a corruption of the word choker (or 
c^A^-pear), which was also applied to 
it (Prior). 

Cheebybum, a provincial word (De- 
vonshire, Holdemess, &c.), for a cherub, 
a corrupted form of cherubim. 

Chest-nut, 0. Eng. chesten, would 
more properly bear the form of chastnut 
or casinut, as we see when we com- 
pare its congeners, Dut., Dan., and 
Ger. hasianie, Fr. chastctone, chatadgne^ 
Lat. castanea^ Greek histanon, i.e, 
the tree brought from Castana in 

Chaucer correctly spells it (Ostein. 
The word was probably considered to 
be a compound of chest and nut, with 
some reference to the case within which 
it is enclosed. Compare 

Like as the Chest-nut (next the meat) within 
Is cover'd (last) with a soft slender skin. 
That skin incloa'd in a tough tawny shel. 
That shel in-cas't in a thick thistly fell. 

Sylvester, Du Bartas, p. 999 (1621). 

Bosworth gives an Anglo-Saxon 
form, cisten-hedm, which is an evident 
assimilation to dste, a* chest. The Irish 
understood the woid to be chaste nut^ 
nux casta, calling it geawm-chnu. The 
following curious form occurs in Lihiui 
Disconius: — 

Sir Lybius noe longer abode, 
but auer him ffast ne rode, 
6c under a chett of tret, 

Percy Folio MS., vol. ii. p. 461, 
1. 1261. 

Chests, ** The playe at Chests,** was 
the old name of the game of chess^ 
from a false analogy perhaps to '* the 
game at tables," t.e. backgammon. 

They reHoect not him except it be to play 
a game at Chestt, Primero, Saunt, Maw, or 
such like. — Lingua, sig. £ verso, 1633. 

The title of a curious old volume is, 
*'The Pleasaunt and wittie Playe of 
the Oheasts renewed, with instructions 
how to leame it easely, and to play it 
well. Lately translated out of Italian 
and French : and now set forth in Eng- 
lishe by lames Bowbotham. Printed 
at London by Boulande Hall." 1562. 

Chicken-hbabted is perhaps iden- 
tical with the Scot, hicken- or kighen' 
hearted, faint-hearted, which Jamieson 
connects with Icel. and Swed. kikn-a^ 
to lose spirit. The Cleveland kecken^ 
hearted means squeamish, and this Mr. 
Atkinson compares with old Dan. kiek" 
ken, squeanush, Cleveland, keck, keo^ 
ken, to be fastidious. 

Chickin, a Venetian coin, checkin 
(Skinner). "An hundred chickins of 
very good golde." — Passenger of Ben" 
venuio, 1612. (Nares.) 

I am sorry to hear of the Trick that Sir 
John Ayres put upon the Company by the 
Box of Hail-shot .... which he made the 
World believe to be full of Chequing and Turky 
Gold,— HoweU, Leltert (16«6), Bk. I. iv. 28. 

It is a corruption of the Italian coin, 
seguine, also found in the form chi- 
guinie, and cecchines (Ben Jonson, 
Volpone, i, 4.). It is the It. cecchino^ 
zecchino, from ceccare, zeccare, to coin, 
zecca^ the mint, Arab, sikkah, a stamp 
or die (cf. Fr. dchenie in Cotgravez: 
sequenie, a oarter*s firock). There is a 
similar Anglo- Indian term chickeen, 
chick, and sicca, equivalent to four 
rupees. Hence perhaps the slang 
phrases, chicken stakes, chicken Tiazard, 

'^ And a little chicken hatard at the M , 

afterwards," said Mr. Marsden. — Bulwer 
Lytton, Night and Morning, ch. ix. 

Chick-pea, a corruption of 0. Eng. 
oich'pease, It. cece, Lat. eicer. 

If the soile be light and lean, feed it with 
such grain or forage seed as require no great 


( 62 ) 


noarishment • . « ezceptine the eich-paue. 
—Hollmui, PUnjf't NaturaUlIistoryf torn. i. p. 
576, fol. 16U. 

Child, as nsed for a knight, is not 
fonnd in the oldest English, though we 
read of Child Mauricet Child Waiere, 
and the Child of Ell, in the Percy Folio 


Chmt thee saae, good child of £11 ! 
Christ saue thee & thy steede ! 

Vol. i. p. 133. 

It is hest rememhered hy reason of 
Lord Byron's Childe Harold's Tilgrim- 
age. The word is not, as might be 
supposed, analogous to Span, infante, 
a prince, from Lat. infans, a child ; or 
to old Eng. valet, varlet, a title of 
honour, originally a boy. It is in all 
probability the result of confounding 
two distinct words, A. Sax. beom, a 
chief, hero, or prince (M. E. bum), and 
A. Sax. hea/m (M. E. ham), a child or 
" bairn." 

The latter word is from A. Sax. hiran, 
to bear or bring forth, one who is borne 

SiAt.fero), while bcom is akin to Gaulish 
ennos, a king, Ir. ham, a nobleman, 
Pers. harij Sansk. hhofraiha, a sustainer, 
from the same root hhar (Lenormant). 
Beam, he who is borne (by his mother), 
and hearn, he who bears up or supports 
(the state, &c.), are thus radically con- 
nected. Compare also A. Sax. hora 
(bearer), a king. In the following line 
we have the two words together : 

William ^t bold ham' |MitaIle6um«sprai8en. 
Wiiliam of PaUrne, 1. 617, 1360 
(ed. Skeat). 

Childbek*b daisy, a Yorkshire name 
for the "hen and chicken " variety of 
the common daisy, is no doubt a cor- 
ruption of the childiiig daisy, i.e. the 
daisy producing yoimg ones, just as 
chilaing cudweed is a name for filago 
germanica (Britten and Holland). 
Shakespeare, it will be remembered, 
speaks of **the childing autumn,*' t. e. 

Chin-couoh, the whooping cough, 
has nothing to do with the chin, but 
should properly be spelt chink-cough, 
being the same word as Scot, kinkhosf, 
Dutch kinkhost, Ger. keichliAisten, a 
cough that takes one with a kink, i. e. 
a catch in the breath, a total suspension 
of it (lit. a hitch or twist in a rope, Icel. 
kengr) . Similarly char-coal should pro- 
perly be charh'Coal^ and pca-gooae, as 

we see from the early editions of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, and Ascham's 
Scholemuister, was originally peak-goose^ 
peaking or pcakish meaning simple. 
Comxmre also clog-weed, a corrupt form 
of the name kryc-loggc (i.e. keck-lock), 
anciently given to the cow-parsnip. 

Qvinie, the French word for a severe 
cough that comes in fits (? as if every 
fffh hour), seems to be for quiwpie, a 
modification of the same word, Belg. 
kinckf*n, Ger. h^icJu^n, which gives us 
our chincough ; just as in the Kouchi dia- 
lect nuintousse is for quincousse = Belg. 
kincklhoest ; (compare old Fr. ainte for 
ainque, encre, and quintefenille for 
quirKiUffcuille). In the dialect of Ba- 
yeux the form is clinke, in the Wallon 
of Liege caikioul^, caicoule, whence 
perhaps coqtieluche, whooping-cough 
(Schelor). It is also spelt kin-cough 
(Lincoln), king-cough, or kink- cough, a 
cough tliat takes one witli a paroxysm 
called a chinh or kink. (Compare 
Devonshire kick, to have an impedi- 
ment in one's speech.) ** J>is eroe y- 
dronke in olde wyne helpi); ]>e kyngrs 
^«^e,** and " skyrewhite " (= skerret) 
heaJs ** pe chynke and pe olde coghe." 
(15th cent. MS., Way, Prompt, Parv. 
p. 97.) 

It was well known that he never had but 
one brothor, who died of the chin-cough, — 
Graves, The Spiritital Quiiote, vol. i. p. 36. 

Here my lord and lady took such a chink 
of laughing, that it was some time before 
tliev could rocovcr. — Henrif Brooke, The Ftwl 
of (iiuility, vol, i. p. 95 IHa'U, Modem Engluh, 
p. t^O]. 

Hobhole Hob! 
Ma' bairn *B gotten 't kink cough f 
Tak'toff! Uktoff! 

Charm in Henderson, Folklore of 
N. Counties, p. 228. 

Chinneb, a word for a grin in use at 
Winchester College, is an evident cor- 
ruption of Lat. cachinnus. (H. C. 
Adams, Wykehamica^ p. 418.) 

Chisel, a slang term for to cheat, as 
if to take a slice off auytliing (I Slang 
Diet.), is Scottish chizzcl, to cheat, to 
act deceitful, either a frequent, form of 
chouse, or from Belg. kwczolm, to play 
the hypocrite (Jamieson). [?] 

Chittyfaced, a colloquial expression 
for a baby-faced or lean-faced person 
(Wright), as if having the face of a chit 
— a contemptuous word for a child or 


( 68 ) 


little girl. " OhUteface, a meagre 
starveling young child." — Bailey. 
Another spelUng is chichefdce. E. Corn- 
wall chiiter-faced, as if from cMtter^ 
thin. AH tliese words are corruptions 
of Ghichevache, a mediaeval monster 
who wasfahled to devour only patient 
wives, and being therefore in a chronic 
state of starvation for want of food was 
made a b3rword for leanness. Its name 
is formed from old Eng. and Fr. ckiche, 
meagre, starving, and vache^ a cow. 
In Lydgate's ballad of CMchevache and 
Bicome occurs the following descriptLon 
of this '* long homed beste/* 

Chichevaeke this is my name ; 
Hun^j, mpgre, sklendre, and leene, 
To show my body I have gprete shame^ 
For hunger I feele so eretX teene : 
On me no fatnesse will be seene ; 
By cause that pasture I finde none 
Therfor I am but skyn and boon. 
DodsUy'i Old P/aj/<, vol. zii. p. 303, ed.l827. 

Chaucer warns women not to be 

like Grisilde, 

Lest Chichevaeke you swalwe in hir entraille ! 
The CUrkes TaU, 1. 9064 (ed. Tyrwhitt), 

where another reading is Chechdface : 
and so in Cotgrave, 

Chiche-facey a chichifacey sneake-bill, etc. 

Choke, a name popularly given to 
the inner part of the a/rtichoke cone 
(Cyna/ra Scolymua), or "flower al of 
threds " as Gerarde defines it {Herballf 
p. 991), as if the part that would choke 
or stick in one^s throat if swallowed, 
has arisen manifestly from a misunder- 
standing of the word artichoke. 

" The choke '* of this vegetable was 
authoritatively defined in The Field 
(Sept. 21, 1878) to be " the internal or 
filamentous portion.** 

Chokeful, completely filled, as if so 
full that one is likely to chokey is a cor- 
rupt form of chock-fully or chuck-full^ 
t. e, full to the chocks dmcky or throat 
(Prov. Eng.). Cf. 0. Scot. chokkeiSy 
the jaws, Icel. kok^ the gullet. 

I like a pig's chuck. — M. A. Courtney, W. 
ComtoaU Glosiaryy £. D. S. 

Chops, the jaws, as if the instru- 
ments which chopf mince, or cut up 
one's food (Dut. Ger. kappen^ Gk. kdp- 
teiny to cut), is an incorrect form of 
chapSy N. Eng. chaffs, chaffs, jaws, 
Swed. kdft, Icel. J^aptr (Skeat). See 

Chbtsoblb, a form of crucible (Low 
Lat. crttdbolum, a little cruse or crock), 
used by Bishop Jeremy Taylor aa 
if called from the gold, chrysos (Gk. 
chrusos), which it served to melt. See 
Trench, English, Past andPresentjltect, 
V. With cruse compare Dutch kroes, 
kruyse, Dan. krwus. The word crucible 
itself, Lat. crudholwm (0. Eng. croseleit, 
croislei, Chaucer), owes its form to a 
mistaken connexion with Lat. cruc-s 
(crux), a cross, the sign sometimes 
marked upon the vessel as an omen of 

Peter, What a life doe I lead with my 
master, nothing but blowing of bellowes, 
beating of spirits, and scraping of crotlett ! 

LiUy, GaUathea, ii. % (Works, i. STSS, 
ed. Fairholt) 

Chubn-owl, a popular name for the 
nightjar, seems to be a corruption of 
its other name jar-owl, or cmmr-owl, 
so called from *' the whirring or jarring 
noise which it makes when fi3ring '* 
(H. G. Adams), with an oblique refe- 
rence to its reputed habit of milk-steal- 
ing, whence its names capnmulgusBsid 
goaisucker. This is supported by the 
namem'^^-c^r, another form of night- 
jar^ Cleveland eve-ch/wrr. In the latter 
dialect the bird is said to ch/wnr in its 
nocttumal flight, i. e, make a whirring 
sound (A. Sax. ceorian). — Atkinson. 

Its loud ehurring or jarring note, as it 
wheels round a tree or clump of trees, is 
often enough heard by many a one to whom 
its form and size and plumage are nearly or 
utterly strange. — J. C. Atkinson, Brit, Birds' 

Chtlle, an old English term for an 
herb, is defined cUium vel psiUiwm 
[=Gk. psyllion, flea-wort] in Prowip- 
torinira Parvulorum, and is evidently 
corrupted from that word under the 
influence of *^ cJvyllyn for colde, fri- 
gucio,** — Id, 

Chtmist, a mis-spelling of chemist, 
common among members of the phar- 
maceutical profession — I have noticed 
it on two apothecaries* shops within a 
stone's throw of the Crystal Palace — 
as if from Gk. chymos (xt^/ioc), the art of 
distilling juices from simples, &c. Che- 
mistry, as weU as alchemy, is derived 
from chemia, the science of medicine, 
literally the Egyptian art, from Chemi, 
Egypt, where the art of medicine was 



imltiyated in the darkest ages of an- 
tiaoity (Bunsen, Egypt, vol. i. p. 8). 
Cnemi means either **the black soil,** 
or the land of Ham or Khem (the sun- 
burnt or swarthy), from the Shemitic 
root h<wn or cham, to be hot (Bawlin- 
Bon, Herodotus, yol. ii. p. 19). In the 
Middle Ages books of alchemy, necro- 
mancy, and magic were ascribed to 
Ham, — B. Goula, Old Teat, Leaends, 
vol. i. p. 188; Faber, Propneticai 
DmertaHons, vol. iL p. 868. Chemia 
was the native name of Egypt, also 
Kame, i,e. Black (Plutarch, De Is, et 
Osir, xxxiii.) = Ham {Psalms, Ixxviii. 
cv.). Eupolemos says that ^e word 
Ham was also used for soot. 

Ewald thinks that the name refers 
to the dark, sooty complexion of the 
Egyptians (History of Israel, vol. L 
281). The Arabs call darkness, ** the 
host of Ham ** (jaysJU hdm). 

Homer speaks of the infinity of drugs 
produced in Egypt, Jeremiah of its 
** many medicines, and Pliny makes 
frequent allusion to the medicinal 
plants produced in that country. — Wil- 
kinson, Ancient Egyptians, ed. Birch, 
vol. ii. p. 417. 

He muit be a good Chymist who can ex- 
tract Martyr out of Malefactor. — Fuller^ 
Worthies, u. 497. 

Honej. and that either distilled by bees 
those little ehymittt (and the pasture thej fed 
on was never a whit the barer for their biting) 
or else rained down from heaven, as that 
which Jonathan tasted. — FuUtr^ The Holy 
Warn, p. 29(1647). 

When we sin. God, the rreat Chymist, thence 
Drawes out th* elixar oftrue penitence. 
Herrick, Noble Numbers, Works, ii. 413 
(ed. HazUtt). 

T. Adams has chyme, to extract che- 

Y/htX antidote against the terror of eon- 
science can be chymed from gold? — God*s 
Bounty, Sermons, i. 153. 

Ghtxms bbllb, an old English term, 
is defined in the Promptorimm Parvu^ 
lorwn (c. 1440) by cimbalum, a cym- 
bal (old Eng. dvymbale), of which word 
it is probably a corruption, Lat. cym^ 
halwm. Oik, himhalon. 

His ehymbe-belle he doth rrnge. 

K, Alisaunder, 

The word being mistaken for a com- 

Sound, ehymhe or chime acquired an in- 
ependent existence. 

CiDBRAOB, an old name for the plant 
waterpepper. Polygonum hydropiper, ia 
the French ddrage, which is a corrup- 
tion of cuX'ra>ge, also spelt curage (Cot- 

GiELiNO, ) the former spelling being 
Geilino, f that of the authorized 
version (1 Kings, vi. 15 ; Ezek. xli. 16 
marg.), as if connected with Fr. ciel. It. 
cieh, a canopy or tester, Low Lat. 
ccelum, the interior of a roof. It seems 
to be a corrupted form of seeling (Cot- 
grave, s. V. Lanibris), from the old verb 
to seel, meaning to pannel, or wainscot, 
e. g, " Plancher, to seele or close with 
boards." — Cotgrave. Tliis is the verb to 
del in A. V. 2 Chron. iii. 5, Jer. xxii. 14, 
i, e. to cover with planking. Wedgwood 
thinks to seel here is the same as seal= 
to make close. Cf. ^* ceel, sigillum,'* 
" ceelyfl wythe syUure, celo." — Pronwt, 
Parv, ** These wallys shal be eelyd 
with cyprusse." — Herman. But Prof. 
Skeat holds del, ccelum, to be the true 
origin : c and s are certainly often con- 
fused in early writers, as searcloth for 

Loe how my cottage worships Thee aloofe. 
That vnder ground hath hid his bead, in 

It doth adore Thee with the seeling lowe. 
G. Fletcher, Christs Vietorie on Earthy 
19 (1610;. 

As when we see Aurora, passing gttj. 
With opals paint the seeling of Cathay. 
Sylvester, Du Bartas, p. 25 (1631). 

The glory of Israel was laid in a Cratch, 
. . . ana dost thou permit us to live in tieled 
houses? — Bp. Hacket, Century of Sermons, 
1675, p. 9. 

GiNDEB is for 0. Eng. sinder, syndyr, 
A. Sax. sinder, Ger. sinter, loel. sindr 
(with which Gleasby compares Lat. 
scintilkL, a spark), but conformed to Fr. 
cendre, Lat. cincr. In Welsh einidr, 
sindw, is scoria, dross, cinders. I find 
that this also is the view of Prof. Skeat, 
who identified the word with Sansk. 
sindhu, " that which flows," slag, dross. 
(Etym. Diet,) 

Scoria, sinder, — Wright*s Vocabularies, ii. 
120^ col. 1. 

[ llie Glossary here printed is from a MS. 
of the eighth century ; almost the oldest 
Knglish MS. in existence. This takes the 
word back nearly to a.d. 700. — W. W. S.] 

CiNOULAB, a wild boar in his fifth 
year (Wright), as if from Fr. oinq, five 


( 65 ) 


( Compare cincaiery a man in his fiftieth 
year, Id,), is a corrupt form of the Low 
Lat. singularis (epur), a wild boar, so 
called from its solitary habits fcf. Greek 
fiSvioQy the lonely animal, me boar). 
Hence comes Fr. scmgUer^ It. cinghiaJe 

When he is foure yere, a boar shall he be, 
From the sounder [=herd] of the Bwyne 

thenne departyth he ; 
A iynguUr is he hoo, for alone he woll go. 
Book of St. Albans f 1496, si{^. d. i. 

They line for the most part solitary and 
alone, and notinhearda. — Topselly Fourfooted 
BeastSf 1608, p. 696. 

Citron, a musical instrument, a cor- 
rupted form of cittern (" most barbers 
can play on the dtiemJ'* — B. Jonson, 
Vision of Delight) f or diher, Lat. 
cithara^ a lyre or '* guitar." 

Shawms, Sag-huts, CitronSf Viols, Comets, 
Flutes.— 6yt««ter, DuBartaSy p. 301 (1621). 

Civet, as a term of cookery, Fr. eivet 
de Uevref denotes properly the chives, 
Fr. dve (Lat. cepa), or small onions with 
which the hare is jugged, to form this 
dish. — Kettner, BookoftJhe Table, p. 127. 
Cotgrave gives " dvette, a chive, little 
scallion, or chiboll," and "cn?^ a kind 
of black sauce for a hare." 

Civil, in the Shakespearian compari- 
son, *' Cii>il as an orange " {Much Ado 
about Nothing, ii. 1), is evidently a 
jocular play on Seville, a place famous 
for its oranges. 

He never learned his manners in Sivill. 

Apius and Virginia, 1575 (O. P. xii. 
375, ed. 1827). 

ix tonne of good Ciuill oyle [i.e. Seville 
oil].— ^moW« Chron, (1502); repr. 1811, 
p. 110 

Thei had freighted dyuers shippis at CyuUl 
with diuers merchaundicis. — la. p. 130. 

What Ciuill, Spaine, or Portugale affor- 

deth . . . 
The boundlesse Seas to London Walles pre- 

R. Johnson, Londons Description^ 

Clear-eye, ) old popular names for 
See-bright, ) the plant salvia aclor- 
rea, are corruptions of the word clary, 
otherwise called Godes-eie or oculua 
Christi, On the strength of these names 
it was regarded as a proper ingredient 
for eye-salves (Prior). Gerard says it is 
called *'in high Dutch scharhxch [scar- 

let I] , in low Dutch schnrleye, in Eng- 
lish Cla/rie or Gleere «>." — Herbal, p. 
627 (1597). See Goody's eye. 

Cleft, a fissure, so spelt as if a 
direct derivative of cleave, is more pro- 
perly clift, 0. Eng. chjft, clifte, Swed. 
fclyft, a cave (Skeat, Et, Did.), 

]>e deuyll stode as lyoun raumpaunt 
Many folk he keis:hte to hell clijte. 
Legends of' the Holy Rood, p. 205, 
1. 258. 
I will put thee in a cli/t of the rock. — A. 
V, Eiodus, xxxiii. 22. 

Than I loked betwene me and the lyght, 
And I spye<l a civfte bothe large and wyde. 
J. Heiiwood, A Mery Play hetwten 
lohau lohan the ifusband, Tyb his 
IViJe, 6ic. 

Clever. There is little doubt, as I 
have elsewhere contended (Word- 
hunter, ch. x.), that this word is a 
modem corruption of the very common 
old Eng. adjective deliver, meaning 
active, nimble, dexterous, Fr. delivre, 
free in action. It is probable that de- 
liverly was the form that first under- 
went contraction in rapid pronuncia- 
tion — thus, dHiverly, gliverly, cleverly 
— and that deliver then followed suit 
{gliver, clever). The word was no doubt 
influenced by, and assimilated to, old 
Eng. cUver, quick in seizing or grasp- 
ing (from cliven, Stratmann), capax, 
"Te deuel cliuer on sinnes" (0. E. 
Miscellamj, p. 7, 1. 221, Morris), Scot- 
tish, cleverus, ** scho was so d-everus of 
her cluik" (Dunbar). Cf. 0. Eng. 
diver, a claw. This is well illustrated 
in the ballad of The Last Dying Words 
of Bonny Heck, 

Where ^ood stout hares gang fast awa, 
Bocliverlif I did it daw, 
WitL pith and speed. 

But if my puppies ance were ready . . . 
They'll be baitn dijver, Veen, and beddy. 

It is certain that clever did not come 
into use till deliver was already obso- 
lete, and was at first regarded as a 
somewhat vulgar and colloquial term, 
like can't, don't, sha'n't, and other 
contractions. Prof. Skeat could not 
find an earlier example of the word 
than deverly, in Uudibras, 1668. But 
Thos. Atkin, a correspondent of Ful- 
ler's, writing to him in 1657, says 
that one MacheU Vivan, at the age of 
110, '* made an excellent good sermon, 
and went deaverly through, without 




the help of any notes " {Worthiea of 
England, ii 195, ed. 1811). Cf. Prov. 
Enfif. clever through, uninterrupted, 
without difficulty. 

If it be BOO jt all thjrnge go clyver currant. 
— Patton LeiUrSj 1470 (toI. iv.' p. 451, ed. 

That is, dlyver (clyver) current, run 
free and smooth. 

His pen went, or pretended to go, as c/«- 
verty as ever. — DickeiUy David Copperjield, 

So Hood, in his valedictory poem to 
Dickens on his departure for America : 

May he shun all rocks whatever ! 

And each shallow sand that lurks, 
And his passage be as clever 

As the best among his works. 

A deceptive instance of a much 
earlier date appears in Sir S. D. Scott, 
Hist of the Brit. Army, vol. i. p. 287, 
where a letter of Senleger*8, 1543, is 
quoted describing the kernes as '* bothe 
hardy and clever to serche woddes or 
maresses." The word in the origi- 
nal, however, is delyver (State Papers, 
vol. iii p. 444, 18B4). This unconscious 
substitution of the modem form for the 
earlier is interesting. 

In the Prov. dialects clever still re- 
tains the old meaning of active, dexte- 
rous, weU-shaped, handsome, as *'a 
clever horse,** " a clever wench." In the 
17th century it was used in the sense 
of fit, proper, suitable, conv.enient. 

It were not impossible to make an original 
reduction of many words of no general re- 
ception in England, but of common use in 
Norfolk, or peculiar to the East Angle coun- 
tries ; as . . . clever, matchly, dere, nicked, 
stingy, fitc. — Sir T, Broume, Tracts, 1684 
( Worki, iii. 233). 

I can't but think 'twould sound more clever, 
To me and to my Heirs for ever. 

Hwif't, Imit, of Horace, Bk. ii. sat. 6. 

If you could write directly it would be 
clever. — Graif, Letters. 

These clever apartments. — Cowper^ Works, 
v. 290. 

See Fitzed. Hall, Modem English, 
p. 220. 

Clippeb, a fast-sailing vessel, as if so 
named from its clipping pace through 
the water, like cutter from its cutting 
along, is derived by a natural meto- 
nymy from Ger. klepper, a racehorse 
or quick trotter. Compare Dan. klep- 
per, Swed. kUppa/re, Icel. klepphestr, 
Ger. Jdepper ({ormer^kUippei', JUeppher^ 

and kl4Jpfer) get« its name from the 
pace called klop (compare trot and 
irali), expressive of the clattering or 
clapping sound (klap) made by the 
horse's nooves as they go klipp-klapp or 
kUp-und-klap (Grinun, Devischesnar- 
terbuch, s. v.). Similarly the Latin 
poets use sonipes, *' sounding-foot," as 
a synonym for a horse. 

Clipper is still used in English for a 
fast-paced hunter. 

A^'hen the country is deepest, I give you my 

Tis a pride and a pleasure to put him along. 
O'er tallow and pasture he sweeps like a 

And there's nothing too high, nor too wide, 

nor too strong; 
For the ploughs cannot choke, nor the fences 

can crop. 
This clipper tnat stands in the stall at the 


G. J, W, Melville, Songs and Verses^ 
p. 99. 

Mr. Blackmore, writing of the time 
of the Peninsula War, assigns a diffe- 
rent origin, but not a correct one : 

The British corvette Cleovatra-cum-AnUmio 
was the nimblest little craft of all ever cap- 
tured from the French ; and her name had 
been reefed into Clipater first, and then into 
C/if>p*r, which still holds way. — Alice Lorrainey 
vol. iii. p. 2. 

Clock, aname for the common black- 
beetle in Ireland and the North of Eng- 
land, seems to be a compressed form 
(g^loch) of Scotch gohch, a beetle 
(Philological Trans., 1858, p. 104; 
Sternberg, Northampton Glossary), Cf. 
doak, a blackbeetle (Dalyell, l)a/rker 
Superstitions of Scotland, p. 564). 

In Scotland gelloch or gellock is a 
contracted form of gavelock, an earwig, 
so caUed from its forked tail ; gaveloac 
also meaning a crowbar sHghtly divided 
at the end, A. Sax. gaflas, forks, gafo" 
loc, a javelin. In the goloch, the aUu- 
sion is to the fork-like antennsB. Jamie- 
son gives clock-hee as synonymous with 
fleeing goloch, a species of beetle. See, 
however, Gamett, Philologicai Essays^ 
p. 68. 

Cloo-weed, an old name of the cow- 
parsnip, is a shortened form of keyc" 
togge (Tumor), i.e. keck-lock (A. Sax. 
leac), or kex-plant (Prior). 

Close sciences, Gerard's name for 
the plant hesperia nuUronoMs, is a oor- 


mption of dose sciney, the double va- 
riety, as opposed to single sdney — sdney 
having arisen probably from its specific 
name Damascena being understood as 
Dame's scena. Compare its name 
Dame's violet (Prior). 

Fr. ^^MatroneSf Damask, or Dames 
Violets, Queens Gilloflowers, Bogues 
Gilloflowers, Close Sciences" — Cot- 

Cloud-berrieb, a popular name for 
the plant rubiis chamoBmoruSf so called, 
according to Gerard, because they grow 
on the sunmiits of high mountains. 

Where the cloitdes are lower than the tops 
of the same all winter loofif, whereupon the 
people of the countrie haue callea them 
Cloud berries,— HerbaU, 1597, p. 1568. 

More probably they get their name 
from old Eng. dud, a cliff (Cockayne, 
Leechdoms, &c., vol. iii. Glossary). 

Clouted cbeam, a corruption of 
doited, 2^ if it meant fixed or fastened; 
"clouted "properly meaning fixed with 
douts or nails (Fr. d(meite, d<m). In a 
manner curiously similar, the Greek 
verbs gomphoo (yo/i^oiu), to nail, and 
piafi/una/i (inyyvuvai), to fix, were ap- 
phed to the thickening or curdling of 

Cloveb, is not, as it seems at first 
sight, and as Gray calls it, " the doven 
grass," but a mis-spelling of the old 
Eng. and Scot, claver, A. Sax. do&fre, 
"clubs," Lat dava. Cf. Fr. trtfle, 
** clubs " at cards (Prior). " Ossiiriphi- 
lone, a kinde of Clauer or Trifolie." — 
Florio. • 

And every one her caird-for dances treads 
Along the soft-flowV of the claver-grass, 

G, Chapman, Homer's Hymnty To 
Earth, 1. ^6. 

Cock, an Anglo- Irish verb meaning 
to bend down and point the ends of a 
horse's shoes in order to give him a 
surer footing in frosty weather, as if 
another usage of code, to turn up, erect, 
or set upright, is corrupted from old 
Eng. coJk or cauh, of the same mean- 
ing, which occurs in Eennett's Paro- 
chiai Antiquities, 1695 (E. Dialect Soc. 
Ed. p. 9). The origin is Lat. calc'S^ the 
heel, calceus, a shoe, caicea/re, to shoe ; 
cf. calcare, to tread, whence 0. Fr. 
caiiquer, O. E. c<mk, " calk." Horse- 
shoes so treated were called calkins. 

On this horse is Arcite 
Trotting the stones of Athens, which the 

Did rather tell than trample. 

The Two Noble Kinsmen (16S4), t. 4, 
55 (ed. Littledale, New Shaks. 

To cog is, I believe, the form used in 
modem English. 

KaaipI6n, eawkes on a horse-shoe.— Mtn- 
theu. Span, Diet,, 1623. 

Calking, or eaukit^, of horseshoes, i,e. to 
turn up the two corners that a horfte may 
stand the faster upon ice or smooth stones. — 
Kennett, Paroch. Antiq, (1695), £. D. 8. 
B. 18. 

Brockett has, ^^Oouvoker^ an iron 
plate put upon a clog." 

Cock, the faucet or stop-oock of a 
barrel, is perhaps that which cauks, or 
calks it, or keeps it from flowing, as a 
tent (0. Fr. catique) does a wotmd 
when thrust into it. 

CocK-A-Hoop, exulting, jubilant, has 
often been imderstood to mean with 
crest erect, like a triumphant cock, as if 
from a potential Fr. coq a hupe. Coles, 
Lat,'Engjyict., explains it by cristas eri- 
gere (cf. Fr. accreste, having a great 
crest, or combe, as a cocke, oockit, proud, 
saucy, crest-risen, Cotgrave, and hupS, 
proud, pluming oneself on something). 
The older form however is " Cock on 
hoop," t.0. " the spiggot or code being 
laid on the hoop, and the barrel of ale 
stunn'd, i.e, drimk without intermis- 
sion, and so^at the height of Mirth 
and Jollity." — Bailey. In Fifeshire 
it is used for a bumper, or as an adj.i= 
half seas over (Longmuir). 

I haye good cause to set the eoeke on the 
hope and make gaudye chere. — Palsgrave^ 
Leselarcissement, 1530. 

Nares quotes from The Honest 
Ohost : 

The cock'on-hoop is set. 
Hoping to drink their lordships out of debt. 

Folks, it seems, were grown cock-on'hoop-^ 
but the heegh leaks of the meety were sean 
brought laa. — W, Hulton, A Bran New Wark, 
1. 195(E. D. 8.). 

Howerer, it is to be noted that the effigy 
of a cock (the fowl) stuck above a hoop, was 
a (x>mmon tayem sign in the olden time. 
The Cock on the Hoop is mentioned in a 
Clause Roll, SO Henr^ VI., and still ezinted 
as a sign in Holborn in 1795. — Ltirwood and 
Hotten, Hist, of Sigtiboards, p. 504. 


( 68 ) 


GocKAPPAREL, a provincial word, 
quoted by Skinner {Eiymohgicon^ s. v.), 
as of frequent use in Lincolnshire, 
and moaning *' great pomp, great pride 
in a small matter; '* he identifies with 
the French qwlju' appareiL Compare 

Cockatoo, a crested parrot, is not a 
derivation of cock, but a corruption 
of the older form cacafoo, which is 
from the Malayan kakatuay Hindu- 
stani hdkutudf a word imitative of its 
cry, Fr. cacatocs, Dut. kakcfoe (Sewol, 

The Hebrew name tucciim Reems to re- 
semble the tutitky and tutvk of the Persians 
. . . meaning, perhaps, the crested parrot, 
which we call cucatoo, — Scripture lUmtrated, 
Pt. i. p. 108 (1814). 

Sir Thos. Herbert says that in Mau- 
ritius are 

Cacatoesy a sort of Parrat whose nature may 
well take their name from kaxov m^ feTil 
eeg] it is so fierce and so indomitable. — 
Travels, ^. 40ti (1665), 

The Physick or Anatomie Schole, adorn *d 
with some rarities of natural thins^, but no- 
thing extraordinary save the skin of a Jaccall, 
a rarely colour *d Jacatoa or prodigious large 
parrot, fitc. — J. ilvelifn, Diarii, July 11, 1654. 

CocKATBiCE, old Eng. coJcedrill, coco- 
drille (Wycliffe), a fabulous beast sup- 
posed to be hatched by a cock from the 
eggs of a viper (0. Eng. atter), is a cor- 
rupted form of Sp. cocatHz, cocadriz, " a 
serpent called a Basiliske, or Cocka- 
trice" (Minsheu), and that a corrup- 
tion of cocodnlh, *' a serpent, a Croco- 
dill " (Id.), Fr. cocatrix. The same 
word as crocodiU, 

The death-darting eve o{ cockatrice, 

Rom, ami Jul. act iii. sc. 2. 

Cocatryte, basiitscuSy cocodrillus. — Prompt. 
Parv. (1440). 

Idlenis is a cockadiU and grcate mischefe 
breeds. — The Mariage of Witt and Wisdomt, 
p. 58 (Shaks. Soc. ed.). 

The Welsh word is ceiliog-neidr, 
exactly =r cock-aiier, or *' cock- viper '* 

CocK-BBAiNED, light-headed, silly, is 
perhaps from Gaelic caoch, empty, hol- 
low, Welsh coeg, foolish, empty, and so 
akin to O. Eng. cokes, a fool, *' coax," 
to befool. 

Doest thou aske, cock-braind fool ? 

R, Bernard, Terence in EngUthf 1641, 
p. 162. 

CocK-CHAFEB, probably a corruption 
of clock- cJut for. See Clock. 

Cock-eyed, squinting, from Gaelic 
caog, to wink, shut one eye, squint 
(Skoat), akin to Lat. ccbcils, blind. 

Cock-hobse, in the well-known 
nursery rhjrme 

Ride a cock-horse 

To Banbury cross, &c., 

would seem to be another form of the 
Lincolnshire word cop-horse, ( 1) achild^s 
name for a horse ; (2) a child's toy like 
a horse (Peacock). As cop, cop ! in that 
dialect is a call- word for a horse, co}^' 
horse would be a similar formation to 
puss-cdt, moo-coto, htia-lamh, and other 
nursery compounds. 

And there he spide 
The pamper'd Prodigall on cockhorse ride. 

Taylor, the Water Poet, Workes, p. 119, 
ed. 1631). 

Sometimes he would ride a cock horse with 
his children— equitare in arundine longk. — 
Burtony Anatomy of Melancholy, Pt. ii. sec. f , 
6, iv. (1651). 

A knave that for his wealth doth worship 

Is like the diyell that's a-ctfck-horse set. 

Taylor, the Water Poet. 

Mr. Dennis thinks he has discovered 
an early representation of the *' cock- 
horse," the hij)j)oleciryon or " horse- 
cock" of Aristophanes, in abiform chi- 
maera depicted on an ancient Greek 
vase ! — Uities and Gemeteriesof Etruria^ 
voL ii. p. 83, ed. 1878. 

Cockie-leekie, } the Scotch name 
Cock-a-leekie, S for a soup made 
apparently of a cock, boiled with leeks, 
is said by Kettner to be a corruption of 
cock and i)uil<icki, a dish of the 14th 
century, which he regards as com- 
pounded of ma, a fowl (?), and Usch-e, 
leached, ** licked," or beaten small, Fr. 
alachi {Book of the Talk). 

Cockle, in the curious phrase ** the 
oockUs of the heart," has never been 
explained. It occurs in Eachard's 
Ohservations, 1671, ** This contrivance 
of liis did inwardly . . . rejoice the 
cockles of his heart" (Wright). In de- 
fault of a better I make the following 
suggestion. As wo find coi'ke, a provin- 
cial word for the core or heart of fhiit 
(Wright), so cockle may bo for corcle, 
corkle, or corailc, an adaptation of the 
Latin corculuni, a httle heart, and the 


expression would mean the core (Fr. 
cc&ur), or " heart of heart," but why the 
word occurs in the plural I cannot say. 
Similarly cockle^ gith, cochily cockelist 
cokliSf Wycliffe, A. Sax. coccel, seems to 
be from Lat. corch&ruSy a wild pulse 
(but see Skeat, Etym, Diet, s. v.). Cf. 
huskin for burskirif gin^ old Eng. grin, 

CocKLE-STAiBS, a name sometimes 
given to winding stairs (Wright). The 
first part of the word is a distinct for- 
mation from Lat. cochlea^ Greek koch- 
I'uu, meaning (1) a snail, (2) a snail- 
shell, (8) anything spiral like a snail- 

Shakespeare correctly describes the 
** hodmaudod," or '* house-bearer ** 
(Hesiod) as ^^ cockled snails." — Love' 8 
Labour's Lost, iv. 3. 

CocKLOACH, or cockJocke, an old word 
for a fool or a coxcomb, e.g, '* A couple 
of aocA;foc/ic«."— Sliirley, WiUy Fair 
One, ii. 2 [in Wright] , is no doubt from 
Fr. coqueluche, a (fool's) hood (hke co- 
(juillon, a fool's hood, or a hooded fool, 
Cotgrave) — a derivative, not of coq, but 
of Lat. cuculluSf a hood, It. cocoUa, cu- 
cula; compare It. coccal>e, a gull, a noddy 

Fr. coqueluche, whooping-cough, is 
probably a variety of coqueUcot, the 
cry of a cock, from its crowing sound. 

CocK-LOFT, I.e. the cop- (head-, or 
top-) hft in a house. Wright {Prov, 
Diet,) quotes coploft from a MS. Inven- 
tory dated 1668. So a " cock " of hay 
for a cop, A. S. copp, a head, apex, and 
*' cock-web," provincial for ** cob- 

" Cockmate," which occurs in Lily's 
Euphuesy seems to be a corruption of 
the more common word " copesmate." 
Cockshot, a shot taken at an object 
resting on the top of a wall, a rock, &c., 
is probably for cop-shot, a top-shot. 

He left the cockleioft over his brother's 
chamber in the first quadrangle. — Life of An- 
thony a Wood (sub anno l&O), p. 45, ed. 

Such who are built four stories high are ob- 
served to have little in their cock-loft. — /♦u(- 
Ur, Worthies^ vol. ii. p. 104 (ed. 1811). 

These are the Tops of their houses indeed, 
like cotloftSy highest and emptiest. — Fuller^ 
Holy State, p. 40 (1648). 

CocKMAN, a Scottish word for a sen- 
tinel, is a corrupted form ofgochmn or 

gokman, Gael, gochdman, a watchman 

CocKQUEAN, an impudent beggar, a 
cheat, originally feminine, is from Fr. 
cotpiine, the fem. form of coquin, a beg- 
gar, poor sneak, any base scoundrel or 
scurvy fellow. 

Cot'(pican seems to be the same 
word. Vid. Kennett, Paroch. ArUiqui- 
ties. Glossary^ s. v. Cock-boat. 

CocKQUEEN is also an old word for a 
female cuckold, probably the same 
word as cot-quean (q. v.). B. Jonson 
spells it cucqaean. 

Queen luno not a little wroth 

Against her husband's crime. 
By whom she wsa a coc^^ueene made. 
Warner, Albion s England, iv. 

CocKEOACH. "Without question," 
says Mr. Fitzedward Hall, ** it is from 
the Portuguese caroucha, * chafer,' 
* beetle,' and was introduced into our 
language by sailors." — Modern Eng- 
lish, p. 128. However, kdkkerlak in 
Dutch is a blackbeetle, "a certain 
Indian insect" (Sewel, 1706), which 
Nares would identify with cocoloch, an 
ambiguous term of abuse employed in 
Beaumont and Fletcher, Four Plays in 
One, Cocoloch would readily become 
cock-roa^h. Cf. Dan. kakerlc^, a cock- 

CocK-BOSE, a Scotch name for the 
wild poppy, is probably the same word 
as Picard. coqria>cot. Ft, coquericot, co- 
queUcot, Languedoc caca/ra>ca, all de- 
noting (1) the cry of the cock, " coque- 
ri-co!'* (Wallon cotco7'oco), (2) the 
cock, (8) from the red colour of its 
crest, the poppy. (Cf. Fr. coquerellest 
red berries of nightshade, Ac, coqueret, 
a red apple, Cotgrave.) For this gene- 
ralizing of the word "cock" in the 
sense of red, compare the German cant 
phrase, " Den roSien Halm auf *s Dach 
setzen," " To make the red cock crow " 
:=to set fire to a house; just as in 
French argot rif, riffe (from ruffo), " the 
red " zi fire. Diefenbach, however, 
thinks that cock meant originally the 
red bird, comparing Welsh coch, red. 
It is more likely to have been named 
from its cry. 

Cock's-bones, cock's passion, &c., hy 
cock, a corruption of the name of the 


( 70 ) 


Deity, slightly disguised^ as is common 
in most languages, to avoid the open 
profanity of swearing. So Odd^s hodi- 
KinSj German hotz and poiz^ Poiz leich- 
nam ! Herr Je [sus] , Fr. corhleUy ventre- 
hleUy morihleuy parhl-eu (t.<?. corps de 
Dieu, &0.). " Bones aDod/" {Flay of 
Studeyy 1605, 1. 67) ; iwm de ga/rcc ! 
(Babelais) for nom de grace ! 

Speake on, lesus, for caches bloode. 
For Pilate shall not, by my boode, 
Doe Thee non amjase. 

Chester MysterieSy The Patsion (Shaki. 
ooc.), vol. ii. p. 41. 

Men, {or cockes face ! 
Howe longe shall Pewdreas 
Stande nacked in that place ? 

Id, The Crucijisiony p, 57. 

A ! ffelowe ! felowe ! for cockes pittie ! 
Are not thes men of Gallalje ? 

Id. p. 137. 

Yes, by cockes bones that I can. 

The IVorlde and the Chylde, 1522 
(O. P. xii. 324, ed. 18«7). 

CJocK-STOOL, a corrupt form of cuch- 
ing-sfool, a seat of ignominy, old Eng. 
coksfoley cokeafoUy cuckestoley in which 
scolding or immoral women used to be 
placed formerly as a punishment. It 
is from old Eng. " cdkkyny or fyystyn, 
caco.^* — Prompt, Tcurv, ; <rf. goging-stoolfiy 
sedes stercoraria. See Chambers* Book 
of Bays, i. p. 211, and Way's note 
on Cukstole (Prompt, Parvuhrum). 
An old Scotch law against thieves de- 
clares that " for a payr of shone of iiij. 
penys he aw to be put on the cuk stnlV* 
— C. Innes, Scotland in tlie Mid. Ages, 
p. 190. 

Cocksure. This expression, which 
is now obsolescent and vulgar, was for- 
merly in general use even in the most 
dignified writings. Whatever be its 
origin, whether it be compounded with 
the Irish coCy manifest, or with Welsh 
cocsy the cogs or indentations on a 
wheel (and the certainty and exactness 
with which cog meets and fits into cog 
strikes every observer of machinery in 
motion), or whether, and this is only a 
particular case of a cog, and indeed 
the most probable theory, the expres- 
sion be taiken from the certainty with 
which the cock of a gun discharges its 
function, in any case it can scarcely 
be anytliing to do with the farmyard 
cock. "As sure as a gun " is a collo- 
quial phrase often heard among the 

lower orders. The cock of a gnn is the 
modem representative of Fr. cochcy the 
nick or notch of an arrow, or " the nut- 
hole of a crossbow " (Cotgrave), Prov. 
coca. It. coccay Bret, cochy Gael, sgoch. 

We steal as in a castle, cock-sure. 

Shakespeare, 1 Hen. IV. ii. 1. 

For looke whome he iudg^eth to be good, he 
is sure, he is safe, he is eoche sure. — Latimery 
Sermonsy p. 55, verso. 

Now did Orandia laugh within her sleeve. 
Thinking all was cock-sure. 

Thalina and Clearchus, p. 89. 

Whiles the red hat doth endure. 
He maketh himself cocksure. 


I thought myself cocksure of his hors^. — 
Popcy Letters [Latham]. 

It occurs also in George Herbert's 
Country Parson. 

CocKWARD, an old corruption of cuck- 
oldy O. Eng. kokewoldy kukwaJd, orig. 
one cokol-edy i.e., cuckoo-dy wronged as 
a hedge-sparrow is by a cuckoo, Lat. 
cuculiiSy O. Fr. couc&iil. 

Her happy lord ia^cuckord by Spadil. — 
Young, Satire VI. 

King Arthur, that kindly cockward, 
hath none such in his bower. 

Percy Folio M.S. vol. i. p. 65f 

Then maried men might vild reproaches 

scorne, .... 
Then should no olde-Cocks, nor no cccke- 

olds crow, 
But euerie man might in his owne ground 


Tom Tel-Troths Message, 1600, 1. 677, 
(Shaks. Soc.) 

Cock- WEB (North), a corruption of 
coh-tveh (A, S. coppay Dut. kopy a spider), 
just as a cock of hay is for cop. 

Cocky, a colloquial word for pert, 
brisk, saucy, swaggering (provincial 
Eng. to cock, to swagger iminidently, 
apparently as a cock does in liis own 
yard), is probably another form of 
Lancashire cockety Hvely, vivacious, 
also keck, pert, lively, which is nearly 
related to A. Sax. cue, ctococ, cicic, quick, 
alive. Cf. Dan. kick, hardy, pert, Ger. 
keck {Philological Transactions, 1855, 
p. 270). In old English cocken seems 
to mean to be impudent, and cocker, 
an insolent fellow, e.g. in The Pro- 
verbs of Alfred the Httle man, it is 
said, "wole grennen, cocken, and chi- 
den '* (L 688), while the red man '' is 


( 71 ) 


eocJcer, J>ef, and horeling" (1. 704). — 
Old Eng. Miscellany^ p. 188 (Morris). 

Cocoa. The beverage so called is a 
mis-speUing of the Mexican word e<7.cao, 
from a confusion with cocoay the fruit 
of the nut-bearing palm. 

God, a vulgar word in Ireland for a 
silly, contemptible fellow, an ass, and 
as a verb, to hoax or humbug (Patter- 
son, Antrim and Bourn Ohssary), is a 
clipped form of codger^ an old hunx, a 
queer old fellow, Prov. Eng. cadger and 
codger J a tramp, a packman or pedlar, 
from cadge, to carry, also to beg. 

The Cistercian ladn called the^e old gentle- 
men [pensioners] CodtU. — Thackeray^ The 
NetccomeSf ch. Ixxr. 

See Davies, Supp. Glossary, 

CoD-iEPPEL, an A. Saxon name for the 
quince (Somner), is possibly a corrup- 
tion of its classical name cydoniumj 
Gk. hudonta {mela\ so called from 
Cydon, a place in Crete. Hence It. 
and Sp. cotogna, Fr. coing^ O. Eng. 
coine^ " quince." 

Codling, ) a species of hard apple, 
CoDLiN, i as if one that requires 
codling {coddling) or stewing before it 
can be e&ien, ponium cocHle (so Skinner, 
Bailev, Richardson, Wedgwood, Prior), 
was formerly spelt quodUng^ Norfolk 

J n luly come .... Ginnitings. Quadlint, 
— Bacon, Esisays (16$5), p. 556 (ed, Arber). 

Quadlin is evidently shortened from 
the older querdling, denoting a kind of 
hard apple, probably (like " warden 
pear") one fit for keeping, from the 
old adjective quert, quarte, sound, firm, 
lasting. For the interchange of qu and 
c, cf. Prov. Eng. cothy, sickly, A. Sax. 
co^, akin to Fris. quda, bad (Etmiiller, 
891) ; quea»y == A. Sax. cyse, squeamish. 

Qu£rdlufige,9ippu\le, Duraceniun. — Promp" 
torium Parvulorum (1440). 

Whose linnen-draperj is a thin 
Subtile and ductile codlin's skin. 

Herricky Hesperides, PoemSf vol. i. 
p. 97 (ed. Hazlitt). 

Cohort, a division of the Boman army, 
Lat. cohors, the tenth part of a legion, 
originally an enclosed yard. Co'hor(t)8f 
cO'hort'iSf in its primitive signification 
was probably understood to be a yard 
or garden {hort-us) going with (co-t 
cuni) a house, it being a corrupted form 

of the older word chor{f)8, or cor(t)8. 
That the prefix co- is no organic part 
of the word is evident from its con- 
geners in other languages, e.g. Greek 
ch&rtoSf Lat. JiortuSt Qoih.'garda, Scand. 
gardr, A. Sax. geard, Eng. gard-en^ 
yard; cf. also It. corte, Weleii cwrt^ 
Eng. court. See, however, Pictet, 
Origines Indo-Europ., tom. ii. p. 266 ; 
Curtiusy Griech, Etymol. i. p. 168. 

CoLD-PBOPHET, a Corruption appa- 
rently of the older forms " col-prophet " 
and "cole-prophet," a false prophet. 
Cole is an old Eng. word meaning 
falsehood, deceit, or craftiness. It 
may be recognized probably in the old 
French word cole, given by Boyer in 
his French Diet., 1753, as equivalent 
to " hourde, mensonge, Sham, Bant, 
Fun.** Cold-prophet occurs in Enolles' 
HisUyry of the Turks, 1014 (1608), and 
Scot's Biscovery of Witches (1665). In 
thieves' cant. 

Cole Prophet is he, that when his maister 
sendeth him on his errand, he wyl tel his 
answer thereof to his maister or ne depart 
from hjm. — r^ XXV, Ordert of Knaues, 

The older form is col-prophet, where 
the prefix col means false, deceitful, as 
in col-fox, a crafty fox (Chaucer). Cf. 
O. Eng. kolsipe (col-ship), deceit, and 
colwarae, deceitful, ^^colwarde and 
croked dede ." — AUiterative Poems, p. 
42, 1. 181 (ed. Morris). 

And cast it be colis' with her conceill at 
Richard the RedeUt, ir. 94i (1399), 
ed. Skeat. 

Nor colour crafte by swearing precious colet, 
Gateoigne, Steel Glas, 1. 1114, p. 80 
(ed. Arber). 

Colleague, for Lat.. collega, one 
chosen with another (con and legere), 
Fr. collegue, so spelt as if it denoted 
one leagued with another. 

Colonel, a corrupt spelling of coro- 
nel, i. e, the chief or coronal captain of 
a regiment, as if it meant the com- 
mander of a column (It. colowna), 

Theyr coronell, named Don Sebastian, came 
foorth to intreate that they might parte with 
theyr armes like souldiours. — Spenser, State of 
L^land, p. 656 (Globe ed.). 

We took our spelling seemingly from 
It. '* ooUmello, a Coronell of a Begiment ** 
(Florio, 1611). Cf. Sp. " caronel, a coUo- 


{ 72 ) 


nell ouer a regiment *' (Minshen, 1623). 
See Cbowneb. 

On this word Sir S. D. Scott re- 

We probablr received it from the Spaniards. 
It was CoroTuu and Crownell here at first, and 
Coronello is still the Spanish for that nuk. — 
The British Armyy vol. ii. p. ^iS. 

Francois, Erie of Hothevrall, tukupe bands 
of men of weare undnr the conduct otCoroneU 
llakerston. — James MelvHie, Dianfy 1689, p. 
276 (Wodrow Soc.). 

Thus Anneus Serenus . . . came hy hia 
death, with diners coroneU and centurions, 
at one dinner. — Hollafidy Pliny Nat, Hitt.y ii. 

Coronell, C^roneli ; 

Th* enemie's at hand, kils all the centries. 
Sir John Sucklings Brennoralt (1648), p. 9. 

GoLonRBiNE, the columbine {aqm- 
iegia vulgaris) is said to be so called in 
Lincoln (Note to Tuaser, Fine Hundred 
Points, &C.-E. D. Soc. Ed. p. 272). 
A further distortion of this again is the 
Cheshire curranhinc (Britten and Hol- 

C0LT8TAFP, otherwise colled a stang^ 
a provincial word for a long pole on 
wliich a husband who had been ill-used 
by his wife was compelled to ride, 
amidst the jeers of his neighbours, is a 
corruption of colestaff or cowlstaff, a 
staff used for carrying a tub called a 
cowl. Burton speaks of witches ** riding 
in the air upon a coulsfaff, out of a 
chimney-top." (Wedgwood, in ^. ij^ 
Q. 5th S. vii. p. 212.) Richardson 
observes that Holland renders fustcs 
by clubs and coul-staves, 

Coule tre^ or soo tre, Falanga, vectatorium. 
— Prompt. Parvulorum, 

Go take up these clothes here quickly. 
Where's the dnvl-KtaJf? — Merry Wives of 
Windsorj act iii. sc. 3. 

Fr. tint a Cokslnffor stang. — Cot»;iave. 

The Gjants sjiitt sickerlye 
was more ihcn a cowU tree 
that he rosted on the bore. 
Libius Disconiits, PercUy Pol. MH. vol. ii. 
p.440, 1.679. 
Mounting: him upon a cole-staff -which . . . 
he apprehended to be Pegatius. — 6ir J, Suck- 
lingy The GobltnSf iii. 1. 

Comb, To, the modem form of the old 
EngUsh I'enib or ccmh, A. Sax. a^mhan, 
perhaps owes its x^rosent spelling to a 
desire to assimilate it to the Latin 
conwrPy to dress the hair. But it may 
be only a verbalized form of the sub- 

stantive comb, A. Sax. camh, " Gonihe 
for hemynge, Pecteu." — Fronipi. Parv. 

Every line, he saya, that a proctor write© 
... is a long black hair, kemb*d out of the 
tail of Anticnrist. — B. Jwison^ Bartholomeio 
Fair, i. 1. 

My ship shall kemb the Oceans curled backe. 
Jacke Drums Entertainemenly act iii., 

He, not able to kembe his own bead, became 
distracted. — Fuller, Worthies, ii, 539. 

With silver locks vnkemh'd about her &ce. 
-^SylvetUr, Du Bartas, p. 399. 

Comb, a W^est country word mean- 
ing to sprout or geiminate (Wright). 
It is the old Eng. come, Ger. heimcn, to 
germinate, Icol. Icoima, O. H. Ger. ar- 

chinit ( •=. gorminat). — Vocah, ofS, GalL 
7th cent. 

Comys, of malte, pululata. — Prompt. Parv. 

To snoote at the root end, which malsters 
call commyn^, — Harrison, Description 0/ Kng- 
land. (Vid. Way, Prompt. Parv. p.3i^4.) 

Lincolnshire nialt'Comh^ dried sprouts 

CoMESSATioN — a word for reveUing 
found in old writers (e.g. Bp. Hall), 
Lat. cornessatio, so spolt as if froiu 
comedo, an eating together — in strict 
proi)riety sliould be comissaiion, from 
«WM88/iW (=Gk. Tiomuzein), to revel. — 
Trench, English Past and Present^ p. 
845 (ed. 10th). 

Latimer complains of the old trans- 
lation of Romans xiii. IB, ** Not in cat- 
yng and driukyug." 

1 maruell that the English issotranslatedy 
in eating and drinkyng ; the Latine Exem- 
plar hatii, A'lm comme^suttonibus, that is to say, 
Not in to much coating and drinkyng. — Ser- 
mons (15.V2), p. 229. 

CoMFOBT is tlie form that cmnjii 
assumes in N. W. Lincolnshire (Pea- 

Commission, an ancient slang term 
for a shirt, Itahan cmuicia, Low Lat. 
ca-misia (whence also Fr. cJuyniise). It 
occurs in Harman's Caveat or Warcning 
for Common Cursetors, 157B. 

Which is a garment shifting in condition, 
And in the canting tongue is a Commission. 
Taylory the Water Poet, 1630 (in Slang 

CoMMODOB, a corrupted form of Span, 
and Portg. comcndador, one put in 
charge, from Lat. commcndare, has ac- 
quired a deceptive resemblance to Lat. 


( ?3 ) 


commodus, conirtwdare. Mr. George 
Marsh (Lectures on ilte English Lan- 
gv^e^ p. 100) holds it to be a corrup- 
tion of Portg. capifao mor, or ** chief- 
captain." Southey (Lef ^er«, vol. ii. p. 70) 
quotes the form conidor from an old 
Catalan autlior who claims it to be a 
native word of his own country. 

Common, an Anglo-Irish term for a 
stick crooked at the end, used for strik- 
ing the ball in the game of hurling (C. 
Croker, Ballads of Ireland, p. 155), is 
a corrupted form of Ir. caman (pro- 
nounced cornaun), from the wide-spread 
root cam, crooked, bent. 

The game itself is called comfiumy^ 
Ir. camanachd; 

Compare Welsh cam, crooked; 
•* clean him'' (Shakes, Cor. iii. 1. Cot- 
grave s.v. Behotirs.); Lat. cnmurus ; 
** a camber nose, a crooked nose," Ken- 
nett, Parochial Antiqwiiies (E. D. Soc. 

Common Place was anciently a fre- 
quent corruption of Go^nmon Fleas, the 
court so called. 

Unto the common place I yode thoo, 
Where sat one with a svlken hoode. 
J. Ly(igate, London Lifckpeny, stanza 4 
(ab. 1420). 

He gayeth they are to seke 
In pletynge of thevr case 
At the Commune Place, 
Or at the Kynges Benche. 
J. Skelton, Why come ye nat to Courte, 
1. 315 (1522). 

Companion-ladder, on board ship, 
was originally the stairs that led up to 
the quarter-deck (above tlie cabin), 
Dutch komyanje or kam^yanje (Sewel), 
the quarter-deck (*? the fighting deck, 
from kampcn), 

CoMPASANT, a sailor's word for the 
electric fiame which hovers around the 
mast-liead, is a corruption of the 
Spanish name ctLerpo sanio. — Smyth, 
bailor's Word-Booh. 

Complaisance. Sir Henry Ellis men- 
tions this name as having been given 
to the electrical light, sometimes called 
St. Elmo's Fire, or Castor and Pollux, 
by the captain of a vessel, when he ob- 
served it playing around the mast-head. 
— Brand, Pop. Antiquities, iii. 400. 
It was a further perversion of corpu^ 
sanse, corposants, which is a sailor's 

oormption of the Spanish name cv^rpo 

While baleful tritons to the shipwreck guide, 
And corposanti along the tacklin^j^ slide. 
Maxwell, Poems, p. 103 (Murray repr.). 

Compound, an Anglo-Indian term 
for the enclosure around a bungalow, is 
probably of Portuguese origin. 

Compare Sp. campaiia, a field. 

' Comptroller, an old and incorrect 
spelling in Thomas Fuller and others 
of controller, one who keeps a counter- 
roll (Pr. coifUroUe, or countre-rolle) of 
the accoimts of others, and so checks 
and overrules them. 

Cownt Tollare, {countrollonre), contrarotu- 
lator. — Prompt, Parvulorum. 

Richardson quotes counterrolment 
from Bacon, and conteroler from Lang- 

Know I have a controul and check upon 
you. — Sir M. Hale, The Great Audit, 

The spelling comptroller assumes a 
connexion with " compt," Fr. compter, 
'* accomptant,"&c. (=accountant, &g,), 
Lat. computare. 

CoMRoauE, a conscious corruption by 
the Elizabetlian dramatists of the word 
comrade, which is itself a warped form 
of " camrade," Fr. earner ade, a chamber- 
fellow, from camera (cf. Lat. contuher- 
nalis). The word was adopted into 
Irish ascomrada, and probably regarded 
as a derivative of com, with, and radh, 
speech (whence comhradh, discourse), as 
if a gossip or talk-mate. 

You and the re^t of your comrogues shall 
sit disguised in the stocks. — Ben Jonsim, The 
Masque of Augurs (ed. Moxon, p. 630). 

Tho* you and your come-rogues keep him 
out so late in your wicked college. — Swijt, 
Mary, the cook-maid, to Dr. Sheridan, 

CoNDOO, an old humorous corrup- 
tion of concur, as if cv/r hero meant a 
worthless dog. 

Alcumust. So is it, and often doth it hap- 
pen, that the just proportion of the fire and 
all things concurre. 

Rajfe. Concurre? Condog^e! I will away. 
—Lilly, Gallathea, iii. 3 ( vVorks, i. 247, ed. 

Nares says that in Cockeram's Dic- 
tionary " agree " is defined " concurre, 
cohere, condog." 

Connection, Beflection, a very 
common mis-spelling of connexion, Fr. 


connexion^ from Lat. connexio ; reflexion, 
Fr. rtfl^'xlon, Lat. reflpxh; from the 
mistaken analog of words like affec- 
tion, Fr. affection, Lat. affcdio ; coUec- 
Hon, Fr. collection, Lat. coUecHo. • 

CoNNTNO EBTHE, an old pervorsion of 
the word cony garth, an enclosure for 
rabbits, a rabbit warren, as if com- 
pounded of conig, cony, and erthe, 

Connyngere or connynge erthe, Cunicula- 
rium, — Prompt. Parvulorum, c. 1440. 

Conigare, or cony earth, or clapper for 
conies. Vivarium, — HuU)et, 

"The conyngerthe pale," MS. 1498, 
quoted by Way. Other corruptions 
are conyger, connynger, conigree, coni- 

CoNSOBT, the usual spelling in old 
writers of concert, a musical entertain- 
ment, as if from Lat. consor(t)8, and 
denoting an harmonious imion, a mar- 
riage of sweet sounds, is from It. con- 
sprto, an agreement, accord, conseHare, 
more commonly written (borrowing 
the c from concertto, harmony) con- 
cciiare, "to proportion or accord to- 
gether, to agree or time together, to 
sing or play in consort,'* — Florio, (Lat. 
consero, conserius). 

The music 
Of man'H fair composition best uccords 
VVbeu 'tis in consort, not in single strains. 

Ford (in Richardson). 

There birdn sing^ consorts, garlands grow, 
Cool windH do whi^jper, springs do flow. 
Marvell, Poems, p. 65 (Murray repr.). 

Compare also the following : — 

Jubal fintt made the wilder notes agree, . . . 
He callf'd the echoes from their sullen cell. 
And built the Organ's city, where they 

dwell ; 
Each sought a consort in that loyely place. 
And virgin trebles wed the manly base. 

Marvell, Poems^ p. 73. 

If good as single instruments, they will be 
the better as tunfnl in a Consort. ^Fuller, 
Worthies of England, vol. i. p. 2 (ed. 1811 ). 

CoNTRiYE, a modem corrupt spelling 
of old Eng. conirove (0. Fr. con-frover 
= con-trotivcr, to find out, inyent), 
assimilated to arrive, derive, survive, 

bis may be said, als \}e boke proves 
Be ^m ]At new gvses eont roves, 

Hampole, Pricke of Conscience (1340), 

Cook-eel, a provincial term for a 
certain kind of bun used in East Anglia, 
is no doubt (as Forby suggests) a cor- 
ruption of the French coquill^, it being 
BO called from its boing shaped like a 
scallop- sliell. Compare ^^Pain CoquilU, 
A fashion of an hardcrusted loafe, souie- 
what like our Stilly ard Bunne." — 

In the Wallon dialect coquille is a 
very small cake (Sigart). 

Cookies, a Scotch word for a certain 
sort of tea-cakes, is probably, like cooh- 
eels, a corruption of Fr. co^juille, 

Selkirk bannocks, coifkies, and petticoat- 
tailSf-^elicacies little known to the present 
generation. — Scott, Bride of Lammermoor, 
ch. zxvi. 

Cool. In Ireland a cool of butter is 
a small tub of that commodity, and 
cool'hutter, as opposed to fresh, is 
butter salted slightly and packed into 
a tub. Cool here is clearly the same 
word as the Prov. Eng. cowl, a tub, 
altered somewhat so as to convey the 
idea of freshness ( Scot. calhT) ; W. Corn- 
wall cool, a large tub to salt meat in. We 
may perhaps comx)are A. Sax. co^iu^l, 
coivel, cawl, a basket. Compare Colt- 
BTAFF, O. Eng. cuuel-staf, Gen, and 
Exodm, 1. 8710. 

Soo, or coivt, vessel. Tina. — Prompt. Parvu' 
lontm, ab. 1140. 

Ci^wle, vessel, Tina. — Id. 

Cowl or Coul (Da tub with two ears to be 
carrie<l between two persons on a coul -staff; 
(2) any tub ( Essex ). — Kennett^ Parochial Auti- 
quities (K. Dialect Soc. ed.). 

(.'heoHe llti. per pound, and tub butter 15d. 
— Register of Streat, ^mmu (Sussex Arche- 
olog. Coll. vol. XXV. p. 129). 

Quaffe up a bo win/ As big as a cowle 
To bef r drinkers. 

Herrick, Het^perides, Works, ii. SI3 
(ed. Hazlitt). 

COPPIN-TANK, or coppod tanlce, a com- 
mon term in old authors for a high- 
crowned or copped hat, is a corruption 
of tlie expression " a copaiain hat," 
found in the Taming of the Shrew, act 
V. sc. 1. The form cop-tank occurs in 
North (Translation of Plutarch) and 
copplcd hai in Henry More. 

CoRDWAiNEE. This Very English look- 
ing word for a shoemaker is a natu- 
larized form of Fr. cordonnier, 0. Fr. 
cordoannier, literally one that works in 
Cordwayne (Spenser, F, Q., VI. ii. 6), or 


( 75 ) 


Spanish leather, leather of Cordova^ 
Fr. corcUmcm, Sp. cordohcm. It. cordo- 

The Maister of the Crafte of Cordyneres 
. . . hath diuerse tymez sued to the honorable 
Mayor.— Ew^/wfc OiUUy p. 331 (E. E. T. 8.). 

Of their skins excellent gloves are made, 
which may be called our English CordovanU 
— Fuller, [Vorthies, ii. 553. 

Cork, a Scotch name for a species of 
lichen (lecanora iartarea)^ Norwegian 
7cor1(jey is said to be a corruption of an 
Arabic word into one more familiar. — 
Prior, Na/mea of Britiak PlarUa (2nd 

CoBKiNo PIN, a term used in Ireland 
and Scotland for a pin of nnusaally 
large size, seems to be cormpted from 
a aUldng or cauking pin. ]bailey de- 
fines calk "to drive oakham and 
wooden pins into all the seams.'* In 
N. W. Lincolnshire a cauker is anything 
very big, especially a great lie, while 
ayi'ker (as Mr. Peacock suggests, for 
caulker) is an incredible assertion, 
"Well, that is a corker!** Compare 

Cuwkevj anjthin? abnormally large. — Hoi- 
derness Dialect, E.lorks, 

The Scotch have corkie and corkin- 
preen for the largest kind of pin. 

When you put a clean pillowcase on your 
lady'8 pillow, be sure to fasten it well with 
corking'fnn8.---^wiJ't, DirectSnu to Servantt 
( Chumbermaid), 

Corks, a provincial word for cinders 
(Lancashire), Wright, as if from their 
lightness, is, without question, a cor- 
rupted form of coalce, of the same 
meaning, or colkes, standard £ng. coke, 
which Mr. Wedgwood deduces from 
Gael, caoch, empty. 

So corke, the core of fruit (Wright), is 
for colke, Cf.Lincolnshire crat^A;, a core, 
Cleveland goke, 

A rounde appel of a tre, 
l^at even in myddfs has a colke. 
HampoUj Pricke of' Conscience^ ab. 13-10, 


Cawky the core of an apple, also crauik and 
gawk. — Holderness Dialect, E, Yorks. 

Corn-acre, an Eng. corruption of 
the Anglo-Irish word con-acre, the name 
given to a certain tenure, or sub-letting, 
of land in Ireland — a partnership (ex- 
pressed by con) in the cultivation of an 
acre, one supplying the seed and labour, 

another the land and manure, and the 
profits being divided. 

He had a large farm on a profitable lease ; 
he underlet a good deal of land by con-acre, 
or corn-acre. — A . TroUope, The Macdermott of 
Balltfcbran, cb. xv. 

This eloquent and reverend defender of the 
cause of the tenant is in the habit, however, 
of charsin^ as much as eight or ten pounds 
for a field m con-acre, that i», for one season's 
crop.— r^ Standard, Dec. 27, 1880. 

Corporal, a heteronym for Fr. capo- 
ral, It. capora2e, as if the petty, com- 
mander of a corps, instead of Jiead of a 
squadron (cap, capo, caput), Cf. " Cap 
d'escadre, a corporall." — Cotgrave, and 
*' captain," i.e. capUaneus, the head- 
man (Ger. haupt-man), ** Ccbbo de 
eaquad/ra, qui caput et qui cseteris 
prseest." — Minsheu. Holinshed uses 
corporal, and Stowe corporals of the 
Muadrons, for captains (Sir S. D. Scott, 
The British Army, vol. i. p. 628). 

Cosmos. " Their drinke called Cosmos, 
which is mares milke, is prepared after 
this maner.'* — Journal of Frier Wm, 
de Bulruquis, 1258, in Hakluyt, Voy- 
ages, p. 97 (1598). 

A corruption of koumds or kwmz, the 
habitual drink of most of the nomads 
of Asia. 

Their [the Tartars'] drink is mare's milk 
prepared in such a way that you would take 
It for white wine, and a right good drink it 
is, called by them kemiz.---Ser Marco Polo, 
vol. i. p. 224 (ed. Yule). 

CosT-MARY, the plant so-called, as if 
costus MwricB, owes its name to a mis- 
understanding of Fr. coste ainere, Lat. 
costus amarus. 

Cot-quean (an effeminate man), pro- 
bably for cock-qu^an^ and that perhaps 
a corruption of the French coc^vine, *' a 
cockney, simperdecockit, nice thing.** 
— Cotgrave. Coqydn, " a poor sneak, 

Who like a cot-quean freezeth at the rock. — 
Hall, Satires, iv. 6. 

Cot, however, in N. W. Lincolnshire 
is a man or boy who cooks or does other 
womanly work (Peacock) ; in Ireland, 
a molly-cot, 

[A husband of an effeminate character] in 
several places of £ngland goes by the name 
of a *^ cot-queen." I have the misfortune to be 
joined for life with one of this character, who 


( ?6 ) 


in reality is more a woman than I am. He 
could preserve apricots, and make jelliei, &c. 
—The Spectator, So. 482 (1712). 

Cotton, **to afp*ee, to succeed, to 
hit " (Bailey), still used in the collo- 
quial phrase, " to cotton to a person," 
meaning to take kindly to him, to take 
a liking to him, as if to stick to him as 
cotton would (Bartlott, Dictionary oj 
Americanisms y 1877, s. v.), or to lie 
smooth and even, like cottony e.g. 

It cottens welly it cannot choose but beare 
A pretty napp. 

Familif of Lave [in Nares]. 

It will he foimd, however, that the 
old meaning of tlie word is always to 
agree, harmonize, coincide, fit in well. 
It is evidently an old British word still 
Biurviving, and has nothing to do with 
cottony being identical with Welsh 
cydunoy cytvnoy to agree, consent, or 
coincide, from cyduuy cytun, of one 
accord, unanimous, coincident, literally 
** at one (vn) together " (cydy cyt), 
** To cotton to a person " is then to be 
at one with him. Dr. Skinner, with a 
wrong affiliation, but true etymological 
instinct, deduced the word from Lat. 
co-adunare (Etymologicony 1671, s. v.). 

Doth not this matter cottim as I would ? — 
Lii/i/, Campattj/e^ in. 4 (l.'>84'). 

A, Hirra, in faith this ^eer cottons. — Manage 
of Witt and Wisdome, 1579, p. 29 (Shaks. 
Soc. ). 

Styles and I cannot cotten. — History of 
Capt, Stukeletfy B. 2. b. 

Our secure lives and your severe laws will 
never cotton. — T, Adams, The fatal Banquet, 
Sermons, i. 181. 

Couch, left-handed, a provincial cor- 
ruption of Fr. gauche. 

Couch-grass, tlie popular name of 
iriticum repciiSy a corruption of quitch- 
or quich-grasHy A. Sax. cwicc, quice, i.e. 
the quick or vivacious plant, Scot. 
guicJc^ny Ger. queclcey Lincolnshire 
micl-8 (firom wicky aUve), it being very 
tenacious of life, with some allusion 
perhaps to its habit of growth lyitig 
along the ground ; cf. Dorset, coochy to 
lie, Fr. couclier. So Dan. qyik-groiSy 
Norweg. qvickuy &c. See Diefcnbach, 
Goth, SprachCy iL 483. 

Could, a modem corruption of the 
more correct form coud, from a false 
analogy to wouldy sliouldy where the I is 
an organic part of the word. A simi- 

larly intnisive I is seen in moult for 
mout (mooty Lat. mutavp), calm (for 
caume)y haham (Heb. hu8(rni)y nolt for 
nmvt (neat-cattle), &c. Coude or coupe 
is the perfect of can^ to cu^ne, = (1) 
to know, and, as knowledge is x>ower, 
(2) to be able (See Fhihiog. Soc. Proc. 
vol. ii. p. 153) ; A. Sax. ciiiSe. 

Well couth he tune his pipe and frame his 
SpenseryShepheard's Calender, Januarie. 

The child could his pedigree so readily 
[= conned, knew]. — Campion, Uistorie of 
IreLindy 1571 (Ueprint, p. 152 . 

Some of the bolder purists, such as 
Tyrwhitt, Prof. George Stephens, and 
(if I remember right) the brothers 
Hare, liave consistently written cmid — 
e.g.y the first expresses his wonder that 
Ciiaucer **in an advanced age coud 
begin so vast a work." — Infrod. to 
Cantrrhury Talcs, p. 1. See also 
Stoddart, Fhilosophy of Language^ 
p. 286. 

The more we po into its history the more 
we become convinced that the / has no place 
in it. It occurs in none of the other tenses, 
and in none of the Participles in any languas^e 
except our own. The Anglo-Saxon preterite 
was Ctt)>f, and the Scotch is coud. — Latham^ 
Preface to Uictionaryy p. cxxx. 

His fftlow taught him homeward prively 
Fro day to day til he coude it by rote. 

Chaucer, Prioresses Talcy 9C>. 

They coulhe moch, he couthe more. 
Cower, Conf, A mantis, iii. 50 (ed. Pauli). 

A lewed goost )>at kou\)e not knowe Jje cause. 
Trevisti, Hv^dens Polffchronicon, 

Gret wonder is how tliat he couthe or mighte 
Be domesman on hir dede beaute. 

Chancery Mimkes Tale. 

I djd hym reverence, for 1 ought to do so, 
And told my ca-se as well as 1 coode. 

Lydgate, London Lyckpeny. 

The fyrste was Fauell, full of flatery, 
Wy th fables false that well coude fayne a tale. 
Skelton, Bouge of Courte, 1. 134. 

Haruy Hafler that well coude picke a male. 
Skelton, Works, ed. Dyce, i. 35. 

Whiche was ri<^ht displesant to the kyng, 
but he coude nat amende it. — Berners, Froissart, 
fol. 43. 

Counter, the name of two prisons 
in Old London, sometimes spelt compter, 
as if derived from count, Lat. compu- 

Old Eng. ** Coicntotcre, Complicato- 
rium " (IWompt. Farv., where Way 
seems to mistake the meaning). Per- 



haps from A. Sax. cioeariem, a prison. 
Cf. O. Fr. carire, chair e^ chaHrc (scar- 
cer), Bartscli [?] . 

A yonker then bf^^^an to laugh, 

'Gaiujtt whom the Major advano*t white 

And sent him to the Compter safe. 
Sans parly. 
The Dagonizing of Bartholomew Fair 
(c. 1660). 

Counterpane, a corruption of the 
more ancient word " counterpoint," as 
if to imply that it was formed of panes 
or Siiuares coi^w/^-changed, or disposed 
alternately, like patch-work. Fr. 
confrv-2)ointy also couic-poinic^ cotiltv- 
pohifCj is from coulire (It. coltre^ Lat. 
culcitray culcita, a cushion), a duvet, 
and pvncta, stitched, quilted. A French 
corruption is courte-point, ** short- 
stitch." See Quilt. 

In ivory coffV'rs I have stuBTd my crowns ; 
In cypress chests my arras wunterpoints. 
Taming of the Shrew y ii. 1. i. :i51. 

SjTionym in old Eng. is ^* Pur-voynf, 
bed hyllynge [ = covering] . ruM- 
narlurtiy 'plumea^ eidciira punctata.^* 
— Prompt. Parvuloruvi. 

Cotinfcr-pafw., as a correctly formed 
word, means the dupUcate or respond- 
ing sheet of an indenture (Kennett, 
Paroch. Aniiq.y 1695, E. D. S., B. 18). 

Country - DANCE, a corruption of 
contra dance, i.e. one where the part- 
ners are arranged in two lines con- 
fronting one another, Fr. contredanse. 
It. contradanze, 

I canti, i balli, .... cbe a noi Bono per- 
vcnuti con vocabulo In^lette di contradanze, 
Country Ditnces, quasi mvenzione deeli In- 
glesi contndini. — Venuti, DeiU Antichi d'Er- 
colan, p. 114. 

The Enj^lish count rv-</anctf was still in esti- 
mation at the courts of princes. — T. Dt 
Quincetff Works, vol. xiv. p. 201. 

In a note he adds — 

This word, I am well aware^ grew out of 
the French word contre-dnnse ; indicating the 
rej^ular contraposition of male and female 
jArtiiers in the first arrangement of the 
dancers, llie word countru-dance was there- 
fore originally a corruption ; but having once 
arisen and taken root in the language, it is 
far belter to retain it in its colloquial form. 

A country-dance of joy is in your face. — 
Fietding, 7om Thumb the Greaty act ii. sc. 4 

FjHch man danced one minuet with his 
partner, and then began country dunces,^ 

Horace Watpole, Letters (ed. Cunningham), 

vol. i. p. Qi 1 1741 ). 

1 country- danced till four. — Id. p. 84(1741). 

We learn from the Vicar of Wahfield^ 
cli. ix., that when the two fashionable 
ladies from town wanted to make up a 
set at this dance, the rosy daughters 
of farmer Flamborough, though they 
** were reckoned the very best dancers 
in tlie parish, and understood the 
jig and roimdabout to perfection, yet 
were totally unaciiuainted with country 

Couet-cards, a modem corruption 
(owing no doubt to the names Kings 
and Queens) of ** coat- cards," so called 
from the long dresses with which the 
figures are depicted. 

The Kings and Coate cardes that we use 
nowe were in olde tnnes the images of idols 
and false gods. — yt'orthhnH)ke*s Treatise against 
Dicins, 1577, p. 142 (Shaks. Soc.). 

1 have none out coate cardes.^-FLoriOf Secotid 
Frutesj 1591, p. 69. 

And so in Minsheu's Spanish Dia- 
logues, p. 26. 

Can a di figunt^ o cote-card. — Flario. Cf. 
Jonfon, New Inn, i. 1. 

" Cwoat cards " is still a form in use 
in Cumberland (Dickinson, Glossary , 

Compare the Dutch jas, a coat, and 
jas-kaart, a trump-card. It. ** Carta 
dipunto, a carde that hath no coaie on 
it."— Florio, 1611. 

Here's a trick of discarded cards of us ! we 
were ranked as coats as long as old master 
lived. — Alauinger, The Old Law, iii. 1 (p. 
574, ed. Cunnmgham). 

Cover, when used as a hunting term 
for the retreat of a fox or hare, as if 
that which covers it, is an incorrect form 
oi covert, i.e. a place coifered [with brush- 
wood, &C.J , *' an umbrage or shady 
place " (Bailey), Fr. couvert, ** a woody 
plot, a place full of bushes and trees " 

A couert for deere or other beaates, Latibu- 
lum . . . umbraculum. — Baret, Aivearie. 

[He] stole into the covert of the wood. 
Shakespeare, Rom. and Jul. i. 1. 

Chapman uses closset in the same 

From the green cL)ssets of his loftiest reeds 
He rushes forth. 

Homer's Hymns, To Pan, 1. f7. 


Similarly when it is said that " covers 
were laid '* for so many at a dimier, 
woer is for Fr. convert, a knife and 
fork, a plate and napkin for one 

I muHto go before the break fastinge coven 
are plac(>de aud Htandc uncovered as her 
llighnesrie comethe forthe. — Sir J. Harington, 
Nugte Aniiqua, ii. 213. 

CovERiKa-sEEDS, ** A soit of comfit, 
vulgarly called covering-seeds," is men- 
tioned in the Bich Closet of Bomties, 
quoted by Nares. It is doubtless a 
corruption of the old English carvi^ 
M. Lat. ccurai semina, carraway seeds. 
Compare carvis-caJces, a provincial name 
for cakes made wiUi carraway seeds 

CovEB-KETS, a Kentish name for the 
oxlip, also covey-keys, a corruption of 
oulverJceySt said to be so called from its 
X^-like flowerets expressing the form of 
a culver or dove (Britten and Holland), 
but more probably a perversion of cul- 
verhins, little pigeons. 

Cover-lid, a corrupt form of coverlet, 
— covei'let itself, though bearing all the 
appearance of a diminutival form (cf. 
cJuiplet, corselet, ringlet, &c.), being the 
French oo^ivre-lit or " cover-bed." 

Loves couches cover-lid. 
Haste, haste, to make her bed. 

Lovelacef The Rose, Poems, ed. 
Singer, i. p. 8. 

Wyclifife has cover-lyte, 4 Kings, viii. 
15 (1889). The form coverlyght is also 
found in old wills dated 1522 (Wright, 
Homes of Other Days, p. 414). 

Cow-BEBRT^ a name for the fruit of 
the Vitis Idcea, arose probably from a 
blunder between vacci7iium, the whortle- 
berry, and vacdnus, pertaining to a cow 

CowcuHBEB, an old corruption of 
cucumber, e.g. ** concombre, A cow- 
ct4wier." — ifomcnclcttor, 1586. Skinner 
spells it so in his Etymologicon, 1671. 

Pickled cpweumbers I have boueht a pecke 
for three pence. •— Tay^r, the Water-Poet, 

In their Lents thej eate nothing but Cole- 
worts, Cabbages, salt Cowcumbers, with other 
rootes, an Radish and such like. — Hakluyt, 
Voiages, vol. i. p. 242 (1598). 

Cow- HEART, ) corruptions of the 

Cowherd, { word cotoard. With 

but slight difference of foim this word 

is to be found in more than one lan- 
guage of modem Europe, and in each 
the dififorence of form seems to have 
arisen from an attempt to trace a con- 
nexion and educe a meaning which 
did not really belong to it. For in- 
stance, the French cotiard, O. French 
coord, was regarded as cognate with 
the O. Spanish and Proven9al coa (Fr. 
queue), a tail, as if the original signifi- 
cation was a tailer, one who flies to tlie 
rear or tail of the army. Thus Cotgrave 
translates the phrase, **fair€ la queue,'^ 
" to play the coward, come or drag be- 
hind, march in the rere." 

The Itahan codardo in hke manner 
was brought into connexion with the 
verbs ** codare, to tail, codiare, to follow 
one at tlie taile " (coda). — Florio. 

The Portuguese form is cobarde, also 
covarde (zi couard), which seems to 
have resulted from an imagined rela- 
tionship with cova, It. coro, al-covo, Sp. 
aXcoha, Arab, al-qohhah (the recess of a 
room, ** alcove "). A coward was so 
called, says Vieyra, ** from cova, a cave, 
because ho hides himself." Identically 
the same account is given of the Spanish 
cobarde in Stevens' Dictionary, s. v. 

As to our English word, some per- 
sons, I would venture to assert, have 
looked upon the coward as one who has 
ignominiously cowered beneath the on- 
slaught of an enemy, comparing the 
ItaUan covone, " a squatting or cowring 
fellow," " from covare, to squat or 
coure " (Florio), just as the ** craven " 
was supposed to be one who acknow- 
ledged himself beaten, and craved for 
mercy. Both derivations, however, 
are equally incorrect. Another origin, 
more improbable still, was once pretty 
generally accepted, and the form of the 
word was twisted so as to correspond. 
The coward, it was tliought, must surely 
be a cow-heart, one who has no more 
spirit or courage than the meek and 
imld-eyed favourite of the dairymaid. 
** Cowheart," indeed, is still the word 
used in Dorsetshire, and ** cow-hearted" 
occurs in Ludoli)h's Ethiopia, p. 83 
(1682). Compare also '^corio de cwa- 
cMh, cow-hearted" (Stevens' Sp, Did,, 
1706) ; ** CoUard, a coward, a dastard, 
a coto" (Cotgrave) ; "The veriest caio 
in a company brags most " (Ibid., s. v. 
Crier) ; ** Craven, a cow " (Bailey). 


( 79 ) 


It is the eowish terror of his spirit 
That dares not undertake. 

King Leafy iv. 2. 

To cow is nearly allied to Icel. huga 
of the same meaning. 

In the Holdemess dialect of E. York- 
shire, caffy (calfy) and cauf-hemied are 
similarly used in the sense of timid, 

Spenser, if we may judge by his 
spelling of the word, considered coxo- 
herd to be the primitive form, as he 
tells of the shepherd Coridon : 

When he saw the fiend, 
Through cowherd feare he fled away as fast, 
Ne durst abide the daun^er to the end. 

Faerie Queeney VI. x. S5. 

This is also the usual orthography in 
Chapman's Homer— 

Ulysses, in suspense 
To striVe so home that he should fright from 

His cowherd soul, his trunk laid prostrate 

there. Odys»ey$y xyiiL If^. 

The French and Italians, though 
they erred in their explanations, were 
certainly right in recognizing queue and 
coda respectively (Lat. ca/udii) as the 
source of couard and codardo. It is 
not, however, because he tails off to the 
rear that the dastard was so called, nor 
yet — for this reason also has been as- 
signed — because he resembles a terroir- 
stricken cur who runs away with his 
tail between his legs. It is true that 
** in heraldry a lion borne in an escut- 
cheon, with his tail doubled or turned 
in between his legs, is called a Uon 
coward,'^ Still it was not the heraldic 
lion, nor the fugacious dog, nor even 
the peaceful cow, but a much more 
timid and unwarlike animal, which 
was selected as the emblem of a person 
deficient in courage. It was the hare 
— "the trembler," as the Grreeks used 
to call her; "timorous of heart,'* as 
Thomson characterizes her in the 
"Seasons" (Winter); "the heartless 
hare," as she is styled in the " Mirror 
for Magistrates," ii. p. 74 (ed. Hasle- 
wood) ; the " coward maukin," Bums. 

In mediaeval times the familiar name 
of the hare was couard, ouwaert, coart 
(zz Bcutty or short-tail), just as bruin 
is still of the bear, and chanticleer of 
the cock. ( See Grinom, Beinhcvrt Fuchsy 
pp. ccxziii.-ccxxvii) Compare Prov. 

volpUhy cowardly, from Lat. vulpecula^ 
a fox (Diez). 

For further information the reader 
may consult my Leaves from a Word- 
harder* s Note Book, p. 183, seq., from 
which much of the above has been 

Of the Hare Huntyng ... If eny fynde of 
hym, where he hath ben, Rycher or Bemond, 
ye shall sey, " oiez d Bemond le vayllaunt, 
que quide trovere le coward,ou. le court cow," 
— Le Venery de Twetif (temp. Ed. II.), Reliqu, 
Antiq. vol. i. p. 153. 

I shall telle yow what I sawe hym do yes- 
terday to Cuwaert the hare. — Caxtony Reynard 
the FoXy 1481, p. 7 (ed. Arber). 

The foze sayde to the hare, Kywart ar ye a 
colde. how tremble ye and quake so, be not 
a ferd. — Ibid, p. 41i. 

Compare in old French (14th cent.), 

Li amans hardis 
Vaut miens que li aeouwardis, 

Jehan de Conde, Bartsck Christo- 
mathie, p. 372. 

Norman Fr. cu^rd. Vie de 8t. Auba/thy 
1. 474 (ed. Atkinson). 

|>eonne he kene \et was er cueard. [Then 
he (becomes) bold that was before a coward.] 
^Ancren RiwUy ab. 1«25, p. tm (text C). 

To be of bold word atte mete, & coward in )« 
Robt. of Gloueeiter, ChronieUy p. 985 
(ed. 1811). 

O con ella oazar por les campiSas 
Liebres eobardesy conejos viles. 

Lopey Hermomra de Angelica, 

ri] scarce ever look'd on blood 
But that of CO wart/ liaresy hot goats, and venison. 
ShakespearCy Cymheiiney iv. 4, 37. 

GowiTOH, an Indian seed producing 
itching, is said to be from the native 
name kiwach, {PhUolog. Trans,y 1855, 
p. 69.) 

CowKEEP, a Fifeshire word for the 
plant Heracleum Sphondylivmty is a 
corruption of the synonymous word 
cowkeeks [cow-keek] y i. e. cow-kex, a 
large kind of keck. —Britten and Hol- 
land, Eng, PUmt NameSy p. 122. 

Cow-LADT-STONE, ) a Scotch word 
GoLLADT-STONE, ) for quartz. Ja- 
mieson thought it might be corrupted 
from Fr. caiUeteau, " a chack-stone or 
little flint-stone." — Cotgrave. Many 
French words have been adopted by 
the Scotch. 

Cow-SHOT, an old name for the cu- 
shat or ring-dove, still used in Lanca* 


( 80 ) 


sliire and probably other parts of Eng- 

Conlon ramier, A Queest, Cowshotf Ring 
dove, Stock dove, Wood-culver. — Cotgrave, 

The A. Sax. word is cusceote^ wliich 
Bosworth resolves into cue (cow) -|- 
sceoie. It is doubtless, however, a de- 
rivative of A. Sax. CU8C, chaste; cf. 
Ger. Jcnuech; doves being generally 
regarded as patterns of conjugal fidehty 
and true love. 

Turtle ne wUe habbc no make bute on, and 
after ^t non, and for^i it betocnetS i>e cle- 
nesse. — Old Eng, Homilies {t^th cent.), Snd S. 
p. 49. 

The wedded turtelle, with his herte true, 

Be trewe as turtyll in thy kynde 
For lust will part as fethers in wynde. 
The Parlament of ByrdeHy t.ariy Pop, 
Poetrtfy iii. IhS (ed. Hazlitt). 

And love is still an emptier sound, 
The modem fair-one 8 jest ; 

On earth unseen, or only found 
To warm the turtle's nest. 

Goldimithy ITie Hermit. 

CowpENDocH, ) a Scottish term for 
CowPENDow, } a young cow, to 
which word it has been partially as- 
similated, was originally colpiiulachy 
from the GaeUc colhhiachy a calf (Jamie- 
son), Ir. colhthaCy a cow or heifer, col^pa, 
a calf. Compare Goth, halho^ Ger. 
hilhy A. Sax. calf, ' all connected with 
Sansk. garhlia, the womb (Benfey), and 
denoting any young animaL 

Cowslip, Prov. Eng. cowslop, cooelop, 
old Eng. cotcslopy cowalcpBy cowdypp^ 
A. Sax. cuslyppct has generally been 
resolved into cow's-lip (A. Sax. cue -j- 
lippe) ; cf. its Proven9al name museta, 
Beasons are adduced in Britten and 
Holland's Eng, Plnnt Nartwa^ p. 123 
(E. D. Soc), for considering it to be a 
corruption of keslop or keslip, A. Sax. 
ceselihj cyselih^ i,e, the prepared stomach 
of a calf (which the plant was supposed 
to resemble), used as rennet (liby 
Swed. 7m)c, Dan. to6c, Ger. Za&, Dut. 
}e}!)y for the making of cheese (A. Sax. 
cespy Swed. IcaaCy Lat. casfivs) [?J . 

A view, however, put forward by 
Bev. E. Gillett is deserving of con- 
sideration. He thinks the old Eng. 
cuslyppc is to be analyzed as cu'\-8lyppey 
the last part of the word being from 
A. Sax. alupcm, to paralyze ; the name 

(in Latin herha paralyf{<;a, or herha 
paralysis) being indicative of the seda- 
tive virtue of its flowers, which were 
used to cause sleep. — Cockayne, Leech- 
dowsj &c., vol. iii. p. xxxii. Compare 
niircissu^y from Gk. fiarhw, to benumb. 
But slupan, from «Zjp, means to relax, 
not to put asleep (W. W. S.). 

Cowslope, herhe (al, cowsleky or cowslop^y 
Herba ])etri, herha paralisis, Ugustra. — 
Prompt, Parv, (c. 14k)). 

Palsie^cort was a name formerly 
given to this plant (vid, Cotgrave, s. v. 
Cocu), Beu Jonson boldly adopts the 
popular etymology — 

The primrose drop, the spring's own spouse, 
Brigot daj s eyes, and the lips of cows. 

Pan's Annivermriiy 162,) (cd. Moxon, 
p. 613), 

Prof. Skeat says that cow slip (M. 
Eng. cousloppCy Wright's VocahulaH^'s, 
L 162) was originally the slip, alcp^ or 
dung of a cow, a ** cow-plat. 

Cow*s THUMB, in a curious old 
phrase, " (right) to a Cow's Tliumb," 
qiioted by Skinner {Etymohgicon, a. v. 
Cot(;, 1671), and meaning "exactly," 
** according to rule," he explains as a 
corruption of the French d la cousiuvie, 
selon la cousiume. 

You may fit yourself to a cow^s thumb 
among the Spaniards. — T. Hrowriy Worksj iii. 
^6 [see DavifSy Hupp. Kng. Glossary'], 

CoYSTRiL, in old writers used for a 
cowardly hawk, as if from ccy, shy, is 
a corruption of the word kestrel, which 
is also spelt ca^trel and coistrell. 

Like a coistrell he strives to fill hims€>lf 
with wind, and flies aj^aiiist it. — Overbury^s 

He's a coward and a Coystrill that will not 
drink to my niece till his brains turn o* the 
toe like a parish-top. — Shakespeare, Twelfth 
Night, act 1. 8c. 3. 

Better places should hee possessed by Coif 
strelU, and the coblers crowe, for crying biit 
ave Cd'Mr. be mon? esteemed than rarer birds. 
— Nash, Pierce Penilesse, His Supplication t» 
the Deuill, p. 22 (Shaks. Soc. ed.). 

The Musquet and the Coystrel were too weak. 
Druden, Hind and Panther, 1. 1119. 

Cozen, or coscn, to cheat, has been 
assimilated in form and meaning to 
cousin, formerly spelt cosin, cosyn, as if 
its original import was to beguile or 
defraud one under tlie pretence or show 
of relationship, like Hamlet's uncle, 


( 81 ) 


who was " more than Inn and less than 
kind,'^ So Minsheu and Abp. Trenoh, 
Eng, Past cmd Present. 

A re, Deere cosin Palamon. 

Ful. Ck>8ener Arcite, give me language such 
As thou hast shewd me feate ! 
The Two NobU Kinsmen, iii. 1, 1. 43(1634). 

Mr. Littledale remarks that the two 

words were frequently brought together 

in this connexion, e,g, : — 

Cousin, Cosen thyself no more. 

mons, Thomas, i. 3. 

Cousins indeed, and by their uncle cozened 
Of comfort. Hichard III,, iy. 4. 

Bailler du foin a la mule. To cheat, gull^ 
cousen, over-reach, cony-catch. — Cotgruve, 
s. y. Mule. 

Coiisiner, to claime kindred for advantage 
or particular ends ; as he, who to save charges 
in travelling, goes from house to house, as 
Cosin to the honour of every one. — Cot grave. 

The true origin of the word has not 
hitherto been shown. I have Uttle doubt 
that it is the same word as It. cozzonare, 
to play the oraftie knaue (Florio), origi- 
nally to play the horse-courser, horse- 
dealers being notorious for cheating 
(compare our "to jockey"), from coz- 
zone, a horse-courser, a crafty knave 
(O. Fr. co88on), Lat. codo or coctio, a 
haggler, dealer. (Gf. Fr. cuia«on,from 
Lat. coctio(n),) 

The Scottish verb to cozmn, to barter 
or exchange one thing for another, 
seems to be another usage of the same 
word. In medieeval Latin cocoio (cogdo, 
or cotio) was used especially for a class 
of beggars who used to extort alms by 
cries, tears, and other impostures. A 
Prankish law ordered *' Mangones 
vagabundi et cotiones qui imposturis 
homines ludunt coercentor" (Spelman, 
Oloesarium, 1626, p. 172). The word 
thus became applicable to any cheat or 

Valentine themperour, by holsome lawes 
prouided that suche as . . . solde themselues to 
Deg^ng, pleded pouert^ wyth pretended in- 
firmitie, & cloaked their ydle and slouthfull 
life with colourable shifts and cloudy cossen- 
ing, should be a perpetuall slaue and drudge 
to nim by whom their impudent ydlenes was 
bewrayed. — A, Fleming, Cuius of Eng, DoggeSf 
1576, p. 27 (repr. 1880). 

So 1 ma^ sp^ke of these eousonage* now 
in use, which till now not knowne, I know 
not how to stile them . . . hut onely by the 
generall names of cousonages, — The severall 
notorUms and letcd Coitsonage* of Joiin West 
and Alice West, 1613, chap. 1. 

The cooi%*ned birds busily take their flig^ht 
And wonder at the shortnesse of the night. 
G. Fletcher, Christs Victorie in Heaven, 4f 


The devil doth but coun the wicked with 
his cates. — •$. Adams, Sermons, i. 217. 

Grabbed, peevish, irritable, has been 
generally understood to be " sour as a 
crab-apple," of a temper like ver-juioe ; 
thus Bailev gives " Urdbhed (of crah, a 
sour apple), sour or unripe, as Fruit» 
rough, surly." *' Orahhedneaa, sourness, 

Of bodie byege and strong he was. 
And somewhat Crabtre faced. 

B, Googe, Eglogs, S^c, 1563, p. 117 
(eo. Arber). 

Sickness sours and crabs our nature. — 
Glanville [Latham]. 

It is really from North. Eng. crab, 
crabhe, to provoke, crob, to reproach, 
Scottish crab, to fret. Gf. Dut. hribben, 
to quarrel, hrib, a cross woman, a shrew, 
kribbig, peevish, cross (Sewel). It was 
originally a hawking term, hawks being 
said to crab, when they stood too near 
and fought one with another. This is 
evidently the same word as Dut. hrab- 
ben, to scratch, Prov. Eng. scrab, and 
scrabble. It is curious to note the 
Prompt. Parvuhrum translating ** crah- 
byd, awke, or wrawe," by Lat. can- 
cerinua, as if like a orah (cancer), or 

The strublyne of fulys erabis the visman. 
[The troubling of fools vexes the wise man.] 
Ratis Raving, p. 20, 1. 652 (E. E. T. 8.). 

With crabyt men hald na cumpany. 

Jd. p. 100, 1.3509. 

That uther wakned upe the spreits of all 
guid brethring, and crabet the Court stranglie 
[i.e. irritated]. — Jas, Melville, Diary, 1574, 
p. 52 (Wodrow Soc.). 

W'howbeit he was verie hat in all questiones, 
yit when it twitched his particular, no man 
could crab him. — Id. 1578, p. 65. 

The saise [=: assize] wald nocht fyll 
[= convict] him wherat the Court was verie 
erabbit,—ld, 1584, p. 218. 

A countenance, not werishe and crabbed, 
but faire and cumlie. — R, Ascham, The Schole- 
master, 1570, p. 39 (ed. Arber). 

What doth Vulcan al day but endevour to 
be as crabbed in manners as hee is crooked in 
hodjl—LUly, Sapho and Phao (1584), i. 1. 

After crysten-masse com )« crabbed lentoun. 

Sir Gavkiyne, 1. 502. 

He regardes not the whips of the moste 
crabbish Satyristes. — Dekker, Senen Deadly 
Sinnes of London, p. 34. 




How charmine is diyine philosophy ! 
Not harsh t^uS crabbed ^ as dull fools suppose. 

Milton, Ccmus, 1. 476. 

Crack Begiment, one of great fyres- 
iige, seems properly to denote a brag 
regivient, one entitled to boast of its 
achievements, from cracic, O. Eng. 
crake, to boast. Compare O. Eng. 
hra/^, adj. spirited, proud, from hrag, to 
boast (orig. to make a loud noise, 
** bray," Lat./ra^or), akin to Scot, braw, 
fine, and brave. 

Crakynge.oT boste, Jactancia, arrogancia. 
— Prompt, ran*ulorum, 

A mj-hair'd knight set up his head, 

And crackit richt crouseiy. 
Auid Maitland ; Child's Balladty vol. yi. 

p. 222. 

Craven, a coward, so spelt as if it 
meant one who has craven, craved, or 
begged his life from his antagonist (A. 
Sax. crofian), and indeed so explained 
by Skinner and H. Tooke, was origi- 
nally and properly cravant, meaning 
overcome, conquered, old Fr. cravoMf^ 
** oppressed, foUed, or spoiled with ex- 
cessive tcyle, or stripes" (Cotgrave), 
Span, quebra/niado, broken, from qv£' 
brantar, Prov. orebarUar, from Lat. ore- 
pare (crepa/n(t)8), to break. 

In a tryall by battel upon a writ of right 
the ancient law was that the yictory should be 
procIaime<l, and the vanquished acknowledge 
nis fault in the audience of the people, or 
pronounce the horrid word Cravant. . . . and 
after tliis the Recreant should . . . become 
infamous. — Glossary to Gawin Douglagy 1710, 
i.v. Crawdoun, 

An early instance of creauni or cra- 
vant used as an exclamation in ac- 
knowledgment of defeat occurs in The 
Ancren &iwl£ (about 1225), where the 
heart is desciibed as yielding to the 

LeitS hire sulf aduneward, and buhiS him 
asc he bit, and 5eie^ creaunty creaunt, ase 
swowinde. — p. 28B. 

That is, ** Layeth herself downward and 
boweth to bim as he bids, and crieth * crayen, 
craven ! ' as swooning." 

His mangled bodie they expose to scome, 
And now each eravin coward dare defie him. 
Fuller y Davids Hainous Sinney 47 (1631). 

Cryance in Sir Cauline appears to be 
a corrupt form of orea/uncey cowardice. 

He sayes, No cryance comes to my hart, 
Nor ifaith I tfeare not thee. 
Percy** Folio MS, vol. iii. p. 7, 1. 93. 

Crawdown, an old Scotch word for 
a coward, as if crawed rfoim, or crowed 
down, as one cock is by another. Com- 
pare old Enpr. overcrowy to insult over, 
Spenser, F. Qti^cne, I. ix. 50. 

Becum thou cowart crawdown recriand, 
And by con:«ent cry cok, thy dede is dicht. 
Gawin Douglas, Bukes of EneadoSy 
p. 356, 1. 28 (ed. 1710). 

It is not perhaps (as Jamieson sug- 
gests) from old Fr. creant and donner, to 
yield one's self vanquished, but another 
form of Prov. Eng. cradant and cra- 
vant, O. Eng. crauaundc, a coward or 
"craven:" compare Prov. cravaniar, 
O. Fr. cravanier, to oppress or over- 
throw. (See Wedgwood, s.w. Craven 
and Reci'eant). Cf. O. Eng. crapayn. 

He cared for his cortaysye lest cra]^yn he 

Sir Gawaune, ab. 1320, 1. 1773 

(ed. Morris). 

Crawfish, a corruption of the old 
English crevish or crevice. See Cray- 

They set my heart more cock-a-hoop, 
Than could whole seas of craw-psh soupe. 
Gay, Poemsy vol. ii. p. 100 (ed. 177l5, 

I know nothing of the war, but that we 
catch little French fish like crawfish. — Horace 
Walpnle^ Letters (1755), vol. ii. p. 465. 

My physicians hiive almo.'tt poisoned me 
with what tiiey call bouillons rejraichissants 
. . . . There is to be one craw-Jish in it, and I 
was gravely told it must be a male one, a 
female would do mc more hurt than good.-— 
Sterne, LetterSy xlvi. 1764. 

Crayfish is a corruption of O. Eng. 
crcvis, crevice (** Ligombeau, A sea crev^ice 
or Uttle lobster," Cotgrave), or crevish, 
from Fr. ecrevisso, i.e. O. H. G. hrebiz^ 
Ger. hreha, our " crab." 

Departe the crevise a-sondire euyii to youre 

The Babees Book, p. 158, 1. 603 
(E. E. T. 8.). 

So " cancer the creuyce,^' p. 281 ; 
cra/ues, p. 233. 

Sylvester remarks that in the increase 
of the moon the more doth abound :'- — 

The Blood in Veines, the Sap in Plants, the 

And lushious meat, in Crettish, crab and 

oyster. Dn Bartas, p. 82 (1621). 

This Sir Christopher [Metcalfe] is also 
memorable for stocking the river Yower. . , . 
with Crevishes. — Fuller, Worthies, ii.fiSS, 

Crustaceous animals, as crevises, crabs, and 
lobsters. — Sir Thomas Browne, Work$, ii. 254. 


( 88 ) 

on OFT 

Grazt, a provincial word for the 
buttercup, may perhaps be, as suggested 
by Dr. Prior {Popular Names ofBrUuh 
Plants), a comiption of Christ's eye 
(craisey), oculus Christie the mediaBval 
name of the Marigold, with which old 
writers confounded it. In some places, 
as the result of its name, its smell is 
believed to make one mad (JV. and Q., 
5th S. V. 364). Others regard it as a 
contracted form of oroto's eye. 

Cbeam-wabe, a Scottish word for 
articles sold in booths at fairs, other- 
wise creamery^ from oream^ crarrie^ a 
market-stall or booth, a pedlar's pack 
(creamer y a pedlar); and this from Dut. 
kraam, a booth, hraamer, a pedlar, Dan. 
hram, petty ware, Ger. hram. 

Ane pedder is called ane merchdd oreremar 
oaha heirs an pack or creame upon his hak.— 
okentf De Verborum Significatwne, 1597. 

Gbease-tiles, ) corrupt forms of 

Cress-tiles, S crest-tiles, those that 

are fixed saddle-wise on the ridge of a 

roof (Glossary of Architecture, Parker). 

** Faistiere, A Ridge- tyle, Creast-iyle, 

Roof-tyle " (Cotgrave), from faiste^ the 

ridge or crest. 

Thaktile, roftile, ou crestiU, — Stat. 17 £d. 
IV. c. 4. 

Credence table, the small table on 
which the Communion vessels are 
placed, has only a remote connexion 
with the creeds of the church. It is Fr. 
credence, a cupboard of silver plate (Cot- 
grave), It. credenza, a buttery or pantry, 
also a cup-board of plate (Florio), Low. 
Lat. credential a sideboard (Spelman) ; 
It. credentiere, a cup-bearer, a prince's 
sewer or taster, perhaps an accredited 
or trusty officer. Credenza, then, would 
be the place where the dishes and cups 
were arranged and tasted before served 
up to the great table. 

Cbeepie, a three-legged stool in North 
English and Scottish, has in all proba- 
bihty nothing to do with creep, but is a 
corruption of old Fr. tripiea, a trivet 
(Cotgrave), Mod. Fr. ^repied, from Lat. 
tripc(d)s, three-footed, tripeiia, a three- 
legged stool. Cf. Ital. trepie and tre- 
piedi, a three-footed stool (Florio). Tr 
would change into cr, as Fr. crmndre^ 
O. Fr. cremhre, from Lat tremere; Dan. 
trane = £ng. crane; huckle-herry = 
hurtle-berry^ Ac, 

The three-leffged ereeoig stools . . . were 
unoccupied. — Mrt, GaAeUf Sylvia t Lovers, 
ch. ii. 

Bums says of the stool of repent- 
ance — 

When I mount the ereepie-chair^ 
Wha will sit beside me there? 

Poenu, p. 213 (Globe ed. 

Creeper, a trivet (T. L. O. Davies, 
8upp, Eng, Glossary), seems to be a 
further corruption. 

Cremona, the name of a certain stop 
in the organ, as if resembling the tone 
of the Cremona viohn, is a corruption 
of Fr. eremome, Ger. krummhom, ** the 
crooked horn,'* an old instrument 
somewhat similar to a bassoon. See 
Hawkins, History of Music, vol. ii. p. 
245 ; Hopkins, History of the Organ, 
p. 124. 

In a letter in the State Paper Office 
(about 1515) occurs the following : — 

Ego dimiai unum Manicordium cum pe- 
dale in Grintwitz [Greenwich] : et nisi ves- 
tram Majestatem dredecim Cromhomei pro 
talia, non sum recompensatus, sed spero. — 
EUU, Orighuii Letters, 3rd Ser. vol. i. p. 203, 

Crest-mabine, an old name for the 
plant Samphire ( Crithnmmviaritimum), 
as if from its growing on the crest of 
land that rises above the sea, is a cor- 
ruption of Fr. christe-viarine, the popu- 
lar name of the same plant (otherwise 
called salicome or hacile), which is it- 
self corrupted from Lat. crethmos, Gk. 
krethmon (Littr^). 

Chritte-Mariney Sampire, rooke Sampire, 
Crestmarine, — Cotgrave, 

The root of Nenuphar . . . assuageth the 
paine and griefe of tne bladder : of uie same 
power is sampler, [marg^] or Crettmarine, 
— P, Holland, PUnies Naturall hutory^ tom. 
ii. p. «54 (1634). 

Cboft. In Ireland '*a croft of 
water " is the common term, especially 
among servants, for a water-bottle. It 
is probably a corrupted form of caraffe 
(cWaffe, craft, croft). Canon Farrar 
records an instance of the same word 
being transformed into cravat in the 
mouth of an English servant (Origin 
of Languages, p. 57). It would be but a 
short step from cnwai to croft, Fr. 
carafe. It. caraffa, Sp. ^ortg, aarrafa, fr. 
Arab, qircf, a measure, qarafaj to draw 
water, otherwise spelt gharaf (Dozy, 
Devic). Littr6 thinks it may be from 
the Persian gardhah^ a la^ge-bellied 


( 84 ) 


glass bottle. In Italian giraffa (a 
giraffe, also), ** a kind of fine drinking 
glasse or flower glasse " (Florio), seems 
to be a corruption of caraffa (garaffa), 

Gbosieb, old Eng. crose, orosse^ Fr. 
crosse (crosaeron), the pastoral staff 
of a bishop, owes its present form to a 
confusion with " cross,** Fr. croix, 
Lat. crtuR, with which words it has no 
direct connexion. The oldest forms of 
the word are in English croce, crochet 
in French croc€t denoting a staff, like 
a shepherd's, with a curved head or 
crook, Fr. croc, Dan. hrog, Welsh crwg. 
Compare Ger. hrummatdb. 

•* Uroce of a byschope. Pedum.** — 
Prompt Parv. (see Way, in loco). 
** Croce is a shepherd's crooke in our 
old English ; hence the staffe of a 
Bishop is called the crocier or crosier" 
— Minsheu. The fact of a cross-bearer 
being called a croser, croyser, or crocere, 
contributed to the confusion. 

Gross, meaning peevish, bad-tem- 
pered, irritable, as if one whose dis- 
position is contraiy, perverse, or acroas 
that of others, not running in the same 
line but cross-grained, like thwart, per- 
verse (A. Sax. fiweor, Ger. quer, 
"queer'*); froioard, i.e. fromward; 
Fr. reveche. It. rivescio, from Lat. rever- 
ius; It. riiroso, from Lat. retrosus (retro- 
versus). It, however, seems to be the 
same word as old Eng. cfnis, excited, 
wrathful, nimble; North Eng. crous, 
crowse, brisk, pert, Prov. Eng. crous, 
to provoke (East), Swed. hrus-hvfvtid, 
Dan. hrus-Jwved (** crowse-head **), ill- 
tempered,perverse fello w, Soot.croivsely, 
with confidence or some degree of 
petulance. The original meaning of 
the word was crisp and curly, from 
which it came to signify smart, brisk, 
then pert, saucy, and finally peevish, 
excitable. (See Atkinson, Cleveland 
Glossary, s. v. Crous.) Compare the 
popular phrase, '* cross as two sticks.** 
— Davies, Supp. Eng. Glossary. Have- 
lok, when attacked by thieves, 

Driur hem ut, Jjei (ss though] he weren cn«, 
So dogges ut of milne-houB. 

Havebk the Dane, 1. 11)66 (ab. 1280). 

Cruse, captious, cross; also croose, 

irritable, pugnacious, conceited. 

He's M croose as a banty cock. — Patterson, 
Anirim and Down Glossary, £. D. S. 

It is noticeable that in Prov. English 

crup (? from Fr. crepe, crisp) has the 
twofold meaning of (1) crisp, brittle, 
short, and (2) surly [? short-temperedj 

Caoss-PUTS, a Scotch term for funeral 
gifts to the church, is a corrupted form 
of cors-presnnds, or corps-presents ( Ja- 
mieson). So cors, corse, is a Scotch 
form of cross. 

Crow, or Crow bar, may perhaps 
be a corruption of the Provincial Eng- 
lish cronie, a crook, cronie in Tusser 
(1680), E. D. Soc. p. 38, cronihe. Prompt. 
Parv. In the Paston Letters we read 
of a riotous mob coming with "long 
cronies to drawe down howsis.** 

Compare the Irish ci-uim, crooked, 
A. Sax. crumh. Compare, however, 
the Irish crd =: (1) strength, (2) an iron 
bar. Cotgrave spells it croe, ** Pince, 
a croe, great barre, or lever of iron." 
The cloven end of the implement was 
mistakenly assimilated to the powerful 
beak of the crow or raven, cf. Lat. 
corvtis, Gk. Jcdrax. Cotgrave uses croe 
in a different sense : — 

Jables, the croes of a piece of caske ; the 
furrow, or hollow (at either end of the pipe- 
staves') whereinto the head-pieces be en- 
Get erowe made of iron, deepe hole for to 

With croHse ouerthwart it, as sharpe as a stake. 
Tusser, Fiue Hundred Pointes, 1580 
(E.D. Soc.), p. 98. 

Crowd, ") apparently a popular cor- 
Croud, > ruption of crypt in tlie fol- 
lowing passage descriptive of tlie an- 
cient church of S. Faith, beneath old 
S. Paul's. 

This being a parish church dedicated to the 
honour of St. taith the Virgin, was hereto- 
fore called Ecclesia S. Fidis in Cryptis (or in 
the croudes, according to the vulgar expres- 
sion). — Dugdale, Hist. ofS, Paul's, p. 117. 

Crotid zr Crypt, Glossary of Archi- 
tedu/re, Parker. 

Cryptoporticus ... a secret walke or vault 
under the grounde, as the crnwdes or shrowdes 
of Faules, called S. Faithes church. — Nomen' 

The Temple of the Holy Sepulchre .... 
hathe wonder many yles, croudes, and vautes. 
— Fi//grvitui^« of Sir R, Guylforde, 1506^ 
p. 24 (Camden Soc). 

The origin of the word may be traced 
through O. Fr. crote, Prov. crota>, Sp. 


( 86 ) 


Portg. grtUa, It. grotta^ Fr. grotte (our 
"grot,' "grotto"), from Lat. crypta^ 
Gk. hrupU, a hidden place. 

The close walks and rustic grotto; a crypto, 
of which the layer or basin ia of one vast, 
intire, antiq porphjrie. — Evelyny Diary, 
Nov. «9, 1644. 

Gbowneb, also crownaly " the oom- 
mander of the troops raised in one 
county '* ( Jamieson), a Scotch corrup- 
tion of colonel { coronel). Cf . cronmell for 
coronet, crowner for coroner. 

The crowners laj in canvas lodges, high 
and wide, their captains about them in lesser 
ones, thesoldiers about all in huts of timber. — 
Account of the Covenanters* Camp, temp. Chas. 
I. (in BaiUie, Letters and JournalUy vol. i. p. 
«11, ediatl). 

Crowner (= crownell = coronel or 
colonel) also occurs in Sir T. Turner, 
FaUas Amiaia, 1627, p. 17. 

Crucible, a melting-pot. Low. Lat. 
cruoibolum, so spelt as if it were a de- 
rivation of Lat. crrvx^ cruois, because it 
was often marked with the sign of a 
cross. So Chaucer calls it a croialet or 
croselett. It is, however, certainly of 
the same origin as cruse, Dut. Aroea, 
kruyse, Dan. kruus, Fr. creuaet, a cup 
or pot, Lr. cruiagin, a pitcher, pot, or 

Cruels, ) a Scotch word for the 
Cruelles, ( scrofula, or King's evil, 
is a corruption of the French ScrouelleSf 
which is from Lat. scrofula through a 
form scrofella, O. Fr. eserovele, whence 
O. Eng. scroyle, a scrubby or shabby 
[i,e, scabby] fellow. This word cruels 
is still in use in Antrim and Down 

A MS. account of The Order of K. 
Charles [L] entring Edinhurghe, p. 28, 
preserved in the Advocates' Library, 
says, that on the 24th of June, 1633, 
he " their solemnlie ofi&ed, and after 
the ofifringe, heallit 100 persons of the 
cruelles or Kings's eivell, yong and 
olde." — J. G. Dalyell, Darker Super- 
stitions of Scotland (1835), p. 62. 

Crumb, wunib, thumb, =i old Eng. 
crume, A. Sax. crurrui, num('en), pum-c^ 
seem to owe their present speUing with 
a final 5 to a false analogy with dumb 
(A. Sax. dumb), tomb (Greek tumbos). 
So limb (q.v.) was formerly lim, A. Sax. 

Crush, a word used in the eastern 
counties for gristle, cartilage, or soft- 
bones, perhaps mentally associated 
with the verb to crush, is a shortened 
form of crussel (or crustle) of the same 
meaning used in Suffolk, old Eng. 
crussheU or cruschyl, allz: A. Sax. gristel^ 
which indeed itself probably denotes 
that which must be ground like grist, 
or crunched, before swallowed. 

CrmchyUxme, or erystjlbone (cruashell), 
cartilago! — Prompt, rarvulorum, 

Bailey gives crussel as an old word 
for gristle. 

Crusty, in the sense of short-tem- 
pered, irritable, testy, is perhaps a cor- 
rupt form of the old English curst, 
which has the same meaning (e.a. 
Cursor Mundi (14th cent.), p. 1100). 
Compare Belgian and Dutch korzel, 
angry, choleric, testy. In Lish crosda 
is morose, captious, crabbed, and cros- 
tacht perverseness (O'Reilly). The 
Yankee cussedness, perversity, wrong- 
headedness, is of the same origin. 

She is thought but a cunt mother who 
beats her child for crying, and will not cease 
beating until the child leave crying. — John 
Owen (1680), Works, vol. xiii. p. 341 (ed. 

As cunt and shrewd 
As Socrates' Xantippe. 

Taming of the Shrew, act. i. sc. 2. 

They are never curst but when thej are 

Winter*s Tale, act iii. sc. 3. 

So the old proverb " God gives a curst 
cow short horns." 

Similar transposition of letters is 
common, e.g. Dut. korst, a crust, kors- 
tig, crusty; cur sen (Beaumont and 
Fletcher) for christen, kirsome for 
chrisom; 0. Scot, corslinge for crossling; 
grass, A. Sax. gears; bird, A. Sax. brid, 
elapse, and clasp. The French encroutS 
(crusty), fuU of prejudices, and s'en- 
Cfroutcr, to grow stupid, are foimded on 
the conception of becoming encrusted, 
indurated, unimpressionable, stolid. 

There are some dogs of that nature that they 
barke rather vpon custome then curstnesse.—' 
Thos, Lodge, IVorkes of Seneca, p. 915 (1614). 

Cursedly she loked on hym tho. 
A Merif Geste of Frere and the Boye, 

Pray for thy crusty soul? Where's your re- 
ward now ] 

Beaumont and Fletcher, The Bloody 
Brother, iii. 2. ^ - 


( 86 ) 


Compare custard = O. Eng. crustade, 
O. F. croiMtadey orig. a orosted tart. 
Somewhat similarly Prof. Skeat thinks 
curse may be a perverted use of Scand. 
Jcorsa, to make the sign of the kora, 
kro88, or ** cross." Cf. Heb. baraJc = 
to curse or to bless, Lat. sacer^ sacred 
or accursed. 

Cbutohes, a Sussex word for broken 
pieces of crockery (Parish, Olossary)^ 
is probably from Fr. cruche, a pitcher, 
Welsh atcc. 

GucELERE, the Anglo-Saxon word 
for a spoon, which Bosworth ranges 
under cdc, a cook, as if a cooking utensil, 
is evidently the Latin cochleare or each* 

Cuckold, a Somerset word for the 
plant Burdock, a corruption of the 
A. Sax. coccel, darnel, tares, cockle. 

CucKOO-BONE, a name applied to a 
l^ne at the lowest extremity of the 
spine, attached to the 08 sdcnim, Lat. 
08 coccygis, Greek holchix, cuckoo. 

At the end of the Holy-bone appeareth the 
Rtimp-bone called os coccugiSj because it is 
like a cuckoos beake. — Crou/c«, Description of 
the Body of Man, p. 981 (1631). 

It is in all probability only another 
form of Lat. cox^im (coMim), the hinder- 
part, coxQy the hip, Greek kocJume (for 
koxone), Curtius, Chriechischf Etyino- 
hgie, i. 123 ; ii. 283. 

CucKOo-PiNT, ) a popular name for 
CucKOO-PiNTLE, J tlie arum niactUo' 
ium, a supposed corruption, is said to 
have no reference to the bird so named, 
but to bo the A. Saxon cucu, living 
(Prior) ; Yorksliire cttckoo-point (Brit- 
ten and Holland). 

But Mr. Cockayne quotes old Eng. 
coke-pini^l, gauk-pyniell^ and shows it 
was so called, because it flowers at the 
time of the coming of the gcac or 
cuckoo (LeecJuiomSy &c. vol. iii. Olos- 
8ary). This is undoubtedly right. 

Cuddy, ) a Nortli British word for 
CuDDiE, ) an ass, as if identical with 
cuddy t the pet name for Cuthbert, which 
has long been a favourite appellation in 
tlie North of England out of veneration 
for the famous saint of that name. The 
much - enduring disx^osition of tlie 
donkey was, perhaps, sugfjestive of the 
saintly character, to say uotliing of its 
^wearing the cross, just as tlie patient 

oamel is nicknamed by tlie Arabs Ahi» 
Ayuh, "Father of Job." It would 
be curious if Cutlibert, expressive of 
•* noted brightness " (Yonge, Chriatian 
Name8y ii. 417), came to be applied to 
an animal notoriously stupid. The 
word is not a native Scottish term, 
and was originally slang. It was in 
aU probabihty borrowed from the 
Ojrpsies, the ass being their favourite 
animal, as Jamieson remarked, and so 
may be of oriental origin. Cuddy there- 
fore may be identical with Hindustdni 
gadhd, aadJiU an ass (? Persian gudda), 
with which Colebrooke would connect 
Sansk. gardahha. But in the Siahi)d8h 
dialect of Cabul guda is an ass, IMalay 
kudha^ near akin to Sanskrit ghota^ a 
horse, originally ** the kicker," from 

?huU to strike back (see Pictet, Originea 
ndo-Europeeiu'8f tom. i. p. 352). In 
Modem Greek gddaro8 is a donkey. 

England being a dull country — a Ghud- 
distan or CuddyLind, as they say* in the Knat 
—keeps up ol^ fashions. — Andrew If'iTson, 
Edinburgh Euays (1856), p. 160. 

James Simson, writing of the Scottish 
Gypsies, speaks of 

The droll appearance of so many cuddies — 
animals that generally appear Bm^j^Iy, but 
when driven by ^^ipaies come in battalions.—- 
History ot the Gipsieny p. 46. 

A cuddy's gnllopV sune done. — A, HisUrp, 
Proverbs of Scotland y p. 16. 

Cuddyj cudden, an old provincial 
word for " a Nizey, or a silly fellow " 
(Bailey), is probably a derived usage. 
In the Cleveland dialect cuddy is a 
hedge-sparrow (Atkinson), so called, 
perhaps, from its resemblance in colour 
to an ass, just as Northampt. doney, a 
sparrow (elsewhere dnmiock), donk4*y, 
and Soot, donie, a hare, are all from 
O. Eng. dorij dun. 

CuDSHOE, an afifectod mispronuncia- 
tion of the interjection ** Gadso " 
(which is itself a corruption of It. 
ca2zo) in the old drama. 

CuLLEXDEB, a popular spelling of 
colander, which is apparently an in- 
correct form of col<id^*r (cf. Span, co^ 
drro, a strainer, siuo, a colender. — Min- 
slieu), like mesacngcr, porrengor, pa^en- 
gcr, for mcssager, porridger, passagcr, 
A derivative of Lat. coUire, to strain. 

I am a witnesse that in the late war his 
owne ship was pierc'd like a cuUendar. 
Evelyn, Diary, May 31, 167^. 

/.: : 


( 87 ) 


CxTLLiSEN, ) an old word for a badge 

CuLLisoN, J or distinctive mark, in 

Ben Jonson and others, is a corruption 

of cognisance^ that by which one is 

hnown (Lat. cognoscere)^ from a desire, 

perhaps to assimilate it to other words 

like cully, cullion, &c, 

Onioa . Hut what bodge shall we give, what 
cuUisim 1 — J3. JoMon, The due it Altered, iv. 4. 

CuLVEB-KETS, an old popular name 
for a meadow plant, probably the 
orchis niorio, is apparently a corruption 
of culverJcins, i .«. little culvers or pigeons 
(A. Sax. culfre), to which its flowers 
were fancifully resembled. Compare 
the name of the plant colwmhine &om 
Lat. colwmha, a pigeon. With the ter- 
mination compare raon-hey, don-key. 

The form covey-keys, may sometimes 
be heard in Kent, applied to the oxlip. 

Gup, as a medical term to draw 
blood by scarifying under a glass 
wherein the air is rarefied, derived as 
it were from the ci*p-like shape of the 
glass, is a corruption of Fr. couper, to 
cut, O. Fr. copper. 

I should rather substitute couping gUu,^*, 
applied on the legs. — Ferrand, Love Metan- 
eholu, p. 34'.). ' 

It [pleurisy] is helped much by cupping; I 
do not mean drinking. — T. Adanu, Tne Soul*t 
Sickness, Works, i. 487. 

They bled, they cupp'd, they purged; in 
short, they cured. 

Pof)e [Latham], 

CuRLY-FLowER, a Lincolnshire word 
for a cauliflower (Peacock, Olossa/ry of 
Words used in Manley, ^c). 

Curmudgeon, so spelt, no doubt, to 
suggest a connexion with cv/r, used as 
a term of contempt, is an altered 
form of corn-mudgin, which Holland 
in his Livy uses to translate frumen- 
tortus, a corn-dealer, especially in the 
sense of a regrator, one who engrosses 
and hoards up the com in time of 
scarcity, and then ** a covetous hunks, 
a close-fisted fellow " (Bailey), in ac- 
cordance with the Proverb (xi. 26) 
"He that withholdeth com, the people 
shall ciu^e him." Corn-mudgin is for 
coi-n-mudging, tx. corn-hoarding; mvdge 
being zz O. Eng. much or miiih, to hide 
(Skeat). Compare ** Flcure-pain, a 
nigardly wretch; a puling mich&r or 
miser, &c." {Id.), 0. Fr. mucer, to hide. 
The popular hatred of the corn-hoarder 

is exhibited in the Bhenish legend of 
Bishop Hatto, and in a ballad licensed 
in 1581, 

Declaring the greate co^etousness and un- 
mercifull dealing of one Walter Gray, some- 
tyme Archebisshop of Yorke, whoe having 
great abundance or corne, suffred the needie, 
m the tyme of famyne, to die for want of 
relief, And of the fearfull vengeance of God 
pronounced against him. — liegiilers of the 
Stationers* Company, vol. ii. p. 150 (Shaks. 

Gormora/nt (formerly corvofant, as if 
com-vorant) seems to have been used in 
the same sense. 

His father is such a dogged old curmudgeon, 
he dares not for his ears acquaint him with it. 
— Hey wood 6^ Rowley, Fortune by Land ^ Sea, 
1655, p. 46 (Shaks. Soc.). 

When the Cormorants 
And wealthy farmers hoord up all the g^raine 
He empties all his gamers to the poore. 

No'Ehdy and Some-body, 1. 320 
(ab. 1600). 

The covetous cormorants or com-morantt 
[ue. corn-delayers] of his time. — IF. Smith, 
The Blacksmith, 1606. 

CuBRAKTB, a corruption of Corinfha, 
or ** raisins of Corinth," Fr. raisins de 
Corinthe, they having been originally 
brought from that place ; Welsh grcmn 
Corinth, i.e. Corinth berries. 

We founde there rype smalle raysons that 
we calle reysons of Corans, and they growe 
chefly in Corynthy, called nowe Corona, in 
Morea, to whome seynt Poule wrote senary 
epystolles. — Fylgfymage of Sir R. Guyljorde, 
1506, p. 11 (Camden Soc). 

The fruits are hereof called in shops by the 
name of Passularum de Corintho ; in English 
Curram, or small Raisins. — Gerarde, Herbal, 
p. 7«7(1597). 

Take raysyns of Corauns berto, 
And wyte wynne {tou talce also. 
LUier Cure Coeorum, p. 16 (1440). 

Take . . . Raysonifs of Coraunce & myncyd 
Datys, but not to small. — The Babees Book, 
p. J12(E.E.T.S.). 

The chiefe riches thereof [of Zante] consis- 
teth in currents, which draweth hither much 
trafficke. — G. Sandys, Travels, p. 5. 

CuBRT, an Indian dish, originally a 
native term. Hind, kdri (a making), a 
made disli, a curry, from ka/md, to make 
(Sansk. kanr, hri, to make), seems to 
have been assimilated to the existing 
word cfwrry (Fr. corroyer. It. correda/re), 
to prepare or make ready. Mahn de- 
duces it from Pers. Jckurdi, broth, juicy 



Curry favour, a phrase which Pro- 
fessor Niohol brands as a ** vulgarism " 
{Primer of Engliah Composition), and 
the ScUv/rday Review ** does not much 
like'' (Jan. 4, 1879), is at all events 
no parvenu in the language. G. Put- 
tenham, in his Arte of English PoestSf 
1589, says — 

If moderation of words tend to flattery, or 
soothing, or excusing, it is by the figiire 
Paradiastole, which therefore nothing im- 
properly we call the Currif-faveU, as when 
we make the best of a bad thinf, or tume a 
signification to the more plausible sence ; as 
to call an unthrift, a liberall Gentleman. ~ 
(P. 196, ed. Arber). 

If thou canst currejf fauour thus 

Thou shalt be counted sage. 

TuLsser, Works, 1680, p. 148 (E. & 8.). 

It is a corruption of cumf favel, to 
ourry, or smooth down, the chesnut- 
horse, Fr. itriller fauveau,^ Cotgrave 
quotes a proverb, ** Tel etrille fa/uveau 
am puis U mord. The ungratefull jade 
bites him that does him good ; '' this 
is found in a fourteenth century Bo- 
mance, which went by the name of 
TorcJie-Fa/uvel or Estrille-Fauvel, (Le 
Boux de lincy, Proverhes Frangms, 
.torn. ii. p. 86). Compare ** cv/mjfaAiell, 
a flatterer, esirille,^' — Palsgrave, 1680. 

Sche was a schrewe, as haye y hele, 
There sche currayed favell well. 

How a Merchant did his Wyfe betray, 
1. J03. 

The phrase assumed its meaning of 
cajoling from a confusion of fa/vel, the 
yellow-coloured horse, with favel, an 
old word for flattery (in Langland, 
Occleve, Skelton, &c.), t.e. It. favola, a 
lying tale, Lat. falmla. See Prof. 
Skeat's Note on Piers the Plowman, 
Vision of Pass. iii. 1. 6, Text o. 

In the ancient cant of thieves the 
phrase is used for a sluggard. 

He that will in court dwell, must needes 
currie fabel .... ye shal understand that 
fabel is an olde Englishe worde, and signified 
as much as favour doth now a dajes. — 
Taoemer, Pioverbesor adagies gathered out of 
the Chiliudes of Erasmus, 1562, fo. 44. 

Cory Jane 11 is he, that wyl lie in his bed, 
and cory tlie bed hordes in which he lyeth in 
steede of his horse. This slouthful knaue 
wyll hu8kill and scratch when he is called in 
the morning, for any hast. — The XXV, 
Orders of Knaues, 1576. 

' So also Douce, Illustrations to Shakespeare, 
p. 291. 

To eurry a temporary favour he incurreth 
eyerlasting hatred. — Adams, Sertnons, i. 284, 

To curry was once used indepen- 
dently for to cajole, with reference 
to the '* soft smoothing of flattery '* 

l>ey curry kinges & her back clawe|>. 
Fierce the Ploughman*s Crede, 
1394, 1. 366 (ed. Skeat). 

Curse, in the vulgar phrase ** not to 
care a curse for a thing," is a corrup- 
tion of the old English hars or kers, a 
cress, A. Sax. ceerse ; Dutch kersse, Ger. 
hresse, Fr. cresson, ** the herb teanued 
Jcars, or cresses," ^^ cresson alenois, 
kcrse " (Cotgrave) ; which was made a 
by-word for anything trivial and worth- 

So kerson is a Lancashire form of 
christen, "Feather Adam nother did 
nor cou'd kerson it " (View oftJie Lanca- 
shire Dialect), See also H. Tooke, 
Diversions, p. 860 (ed. Taylor). 

Wysdom and Wit now is nat worth a carte, 
Langland, Vision of Piers Pbuman, 
Pass xii. 1. 14, Text c. 

Anger gayne5 the not a creste. 
Alliterative Poems, The Pearl, 1. 343, 
(ed. Morris). 

Of paramours ne raught he not a kers, 
Chaucer, Tlie MUUres Tale, I 5764, 

To-morrow morning (if Heayen permit) I 
begin the fifth yolume of Shandy — I care not 
a curse for tlie critics. — Sterne, Letters, xyiii. 

That man neyer breathed, .... for whose 
contributions to the Mag^azine 1 cared one 
single curse, — Wilson, Noctes Ambrosian^, 
vol. i. p. 259. 

I care not a curse though from birth he 
The tear-bitter bread and the stingings of 
If the man be but one of God's nobles in 
spirit — 
Though pt^nniless, richly-soul'd, — heart- 
some, though worn. 

Gerald Massey, The Worker, 

A long list of examples in Norman 
French, such as " not worth an onion, 
a head of garlic, a nut, a lettuce, a 
thread of silk," &c., will be foimd in 
Atkinson's Vie de Seint Auban, p. 67. 


Thereof set tlie miller not a tare, 

Chaucer, The Reves TuU, 3935. 

This Absolon ne raughte not a bene, 

MiUeres Tale, 1. 3770. 


( 89 ) 0U8TABD WINDS 

Compare the expressions " I don*t 
care a straw," ** not a rush," Pr. il ne 
vrmt pa8 un zest (i.e. a walnut-skin), 
Lat. nauci, flocci^ nihili (i.e. ne-MU), 
pendere; Greek hardamdzo, to talk idly, 
lit. chatter about cresses Qcdrdamon), 
kards aise , at a hair's value, &o. 

** Not worth a rush " seems origi- 
nally to have meant not deemed of 
sufficient importance to have fresh 
rushes strewed on the floor for one's 
reception, at least so it is suggested by 
the following passage : 

** Strange have greene rushes when daily 
guestH are not worth a rusA.— Lt%, Sapho 
and Phao, ii. 4 (1584;. 

Curtail, a corruption of the older 
form to curlally as if from the French 
court tmller^ to out short, or as if it 
meant to shorten or dock the tail [Cf. 
O. Fr. courtaulty It. cortcddo]. Thus, 
esqueOey which Cotgrave defines as "cmt- 
tall, curicdled ; untailed, without taile, 
deprived of a taile,** would now be 
translated ** curtailed.** An old writer 
speaking of the knavery of dealers in 
horses says : — 

They can make curtaiU when the^ list, 
and againe set too large taiUs, hanging to 
the fetlockes at their pleasure. — Martin Mar- 
halCs eipobgie to the helman of London^ 1610, 
Sig. G. 

The curtdl Friar of the Bobin Hood 
Ballads was evidently of the Franciscan 
order of monks who were ridiculed for 
the short habits they wore in obedience 
to their founder's injunction (Staveley, 
Itortmh Hwseleech, ch. xxv.), 0. £ng. 
curtalf a short cloke or coat. In the 
old canting language of beggars, 

A curtail is much like to the upright man, 
but hys authority is not fully so great. He 
useth commonly to go with a short clokey like 
to greif JrierSy and his woman with him in 
like liuery. — The Fratemitye of Vacabondes, 

Shakespeare has " a curtail dog ** for 
curtal, in Comedy of Errors, iii. 2, 
Merry Wives of Windsor, ii. 1, and 
Howell defines a curtail or curtal as 
** a dog without a tail, good for any 
service.'* — Diet. ofFou/r ijanguages. 

Mr. Fitz-£dward Hall quotes, as 
authorities for the verb to ewrtall, 
Thomas Campion (1602), Ancient CriH- 
cfil Essays, vol. ii. p. 165 ; Thos. James, 
Treatise of the Cwruption of Scripture, 
1612, pt. ii. p. 59; Heylin, Ecclesia 

Vindicata (1667), pt. i. p. 182 (Modem 
English, p. 185). 

Curtail dogs, so taught they were 
They kept the arrows in their mouth. 
Ingledew, BaUud$ and Songi of' York- 
thire, p. 5S. 

CuBT-HOSB, the nickname of the 
eldest son of the Conqueror, a corrup- 
tion of Bobertus Curtus (M. Miiller, 
Chips, iii. 801). So cat-house, an old 
species of battering-ram, was originally 
oattus, so called from its crafty approach 
to the walls. It. gatio, **a nee-cat. 
Also an engine of warre to batter walls *' 
(Florio). Gaitus, " machina belli " 
(Spelman, Glossary), ** a werrely holde 
that men call a baroed catte " (Caxton*s 

CuBTiLAOE, '* a law term for a piece 
of ground, yard, or garden-platt, be- 
longing to, or lying near a house.** — 
Bailey, from Low Lat. owrtis. The 
word is a derivation not of curtus, but of 
Lat. chor(t)s, cohor(t)s, a yard, whence 
also It. oorte, Fr. cour, Eng. court, 
Welsh cfvort. C. Kingsley curiously 
spells it courtledge (Davies, Supp.Eng. 

CuRTLE-AXE, and CuRTLAX, a cor- 
ruption of ** cutlass,*' really Fr. coufe- 
las. It. cortelazo, coUellxiccio, from Lat. 
cultellus (dim. of culter, a knife), but 
understood as if a curtal or short cur^. 
Skinner spells it curtelass, and explains 
it as ensis hrr^ior (Etymologicon, 1671). 
Cf. Dut. hyrtelas (Sewel). 

For witli my 8wor[r]d, this sharp ciirtle axe, 
I'll cut asunder iny accursed heart — 

Locrine, 1586. 

A gallant curfle-axe upon my thigh, 
A boar-spear in my hand. 

At You Like It, i. 3, 1. 119 
(Globe ed.). 

Dear ware this Hanger and this Curtilas, 
The Roaring Girl, i. 1 (1611). 

There springs the shrub three foot aboue 

the grass 
Which fears the keen edge of the Curtelaee. 
Sylvester, Du Bartas, p. 181 (16^1). 

A still further corruption was curtate. 

With eurtaxe used Diamond to smite. 

Speneer, F. Queene, iv. 2, 42. 

Custard winds, a Cleveland word 
for the cold easterly winds prevalent 
on the N.E. coast in spring, is probably, 
Mr. Atkinson thinks, a corruption of 
coaM-ward winds. 


( 90 ) 


Gut-heal, a popular name for the 
Valerian, Dr. Prior thinks may be from 
Dut. kutfe, A. Sax. cwiis, it being used 
in uterine affections. 

CuTLASH, a corruption oicuflas found 
in N.W. Lincolnshire, and elsewhere. 

He . . . grave him one Blow a-croM his 
Belly with his cutUuh, — Chun, Johnson, Lives 
of Highwiiitmen, ^c, «69 (173J). 

A good hog for an old cut lash. 

Id. p. 234. 

A yillanoas Frenchman made at me with a 
cutlash, — Btackmorej MaidoJ ^her, vol. Lp. 11. 

It is also found as ctttlace. 

With Monmouth cap and cut lace by mj side. 
A Sat y re on Sea Officers ( 0, Ftays, 
xii. 375, ed. 1827). 

Cutlet, so spelt probably from a 
notion that it denoted a little cut of 
meat. It is really the French cotelcttc, 
a Httle rib of mutton or other meat, 
diminutive of cote, a rib or side, and 
this again is from the Latin costa. The 
older French form was cosfelette, 

Costellettes de pircy the sparribs. — Cotgrave, 

To join in a costelel and a sallad. — North, 
Life of Lord Guilford, i. 91 [see Davies, Supp. 
Eng. Glossarii'], 

Coast is said to be a Sussex word for 
the ribs of cooked meat, particularly 
lamb (Parish, Glossary). 

Sir Ikaumains smot him through the cost 
of the body. — Malorut ^i»g Arthur, 1634, 
vol. i. p. 2bS (ed. Wright). 

Cuttle-fish, O. Eng. ** Codtille, 
fysche. Sepia" {Frovqyt. Pan\). A. 
Sax. cudele. ** Loh'go, a fyshe whiche 
hath his head betwene his feete and 
his bealy, and hath also two bones, 
00710 lyhe a knife, the other lyke a 
penne." — Elyot. It is from this bone, 
which bears a considerable resemblance 
to a flint knife or colt (Fr. (coutel) cou- 
tcav), and may often be picked up on 
the shore, that the flsli is supposed to 
take its name. Cf. the names coiisteau 
do mer, Welsh mor-gylUll, "sea-knife." 
The German name, however, is k'utfel- 
fisch (? from kuftel, entrails, guts) ; 
O. Dut. kuttel-visch. The word in 
Enghsh has been corrupted from 
cuddle, cudle, under the influence of the 
foreign names. 

CwELCA, an Anglo-Saxon name for 
tlie plant colocynihis, Gk. kolohantliis, 
given by Bosworth, is evidently a natu- 
ralized form of the foreign word, as if 

connected witli cwelian, to kill or qnell, 
from its powerful action when adminis- 
tered as a drug. See Gerarde, Her- 
hall, fol. p. 769. 

Cycle, a pedantic spelling of sickle 
(Lat. seculu, a cutter, from seco), as if 
so called from its circular shape and de- 
rived from Greek cyclus (rvcXoc); cf. 
Fr. cicle = a shekel. — Cotgrave. 

The com . . . wooed the cycles to cut it. 
FuiUr, Pisgah Sight, fol. 1650, p. 161. 

MeRsena was at the fir.^t called Zancle, of 
the crooWedneHse of the place, which Kigni- 
fieth a cycle, — G. Sandys, Travels, p. 244. 

Cyder, for sider or syder, the com- 
mon form in old writers, Lat. ncera, 
Greek sikerd, Heb. sliekar, has appa- 
rently been assimilated in spelling by 
the learned to cyd-oneum, a beverage 
made out of the cydonia or quince, a 
kind of perry. Pepys spells it syder, 
Diary, vol. ii. p. 113 (ed. Bright). 

ShekAr (Prov. xxxi. 4) was originally 
a sweet wine; in later times, when 
widely spread by means of Phoenioian 
commerce, only a kind of beer. — £wald« 
Anfifjuities of Israel, p. 86. 

Sothli he schal be greet bifore the Lord, 
and he schal not drynke wyn and sydir, — 
Wiiclife, Luke i. lo (l:t89). 

lie ue drincj) win ne hior. — A, Sax. Version 

Sikera, says S. Jerome, *' in the 
Hebrew tongue is every dnnk which 
can inebriate, whether it is made from 
grain, or from the juice of apples, or 
from honey, or the fruit of the palm " 
(Epist. ad NcjwUan). Initial C and S 
were formerly almost interchangeable, 
and we still write celei^ for sdery (It 
sellari, Lat. selinon), ceiling for seeling, 
cess for sess, &c. 

Cygnet, formerly cignet (Fr. eigne), 
a young swan, so spelt as if connected 
with Lat. cygnus, a swan. Fr. dgne, 
however, is identical with 0. Fr. and 
Span, cisnc, from Low Lat. cecinus, a 
swan, and quite unconnected with cyg- 
nus (Diez). 

Cypher. An organ-pipe is said to 
cypher when it continues sounding, 
when the note on the key-board is not 
struck. It is doubtless the same word 
as Welsh sibrwdy to murmur, to whisx)er, 
French sijfler, Sp. cliijlnr, Prov. siblar 
(from sifUiire = sihilurc) ; Prov. Eng. 
sife, siff, to sigh (Devonshire, &c). 


( 91 ) 


Compare It. c^folare and ciuffolare^ to 
whistle, cifello, a piper, a whistler* 
zufffjurarCf to whistle or whisper, «i^o- 
lare, to pipe; Arab. »ifr, whistling, 
siffeVf to whistle ; Heb. sqfar, a trumpet. 

Cypress soot, or Stoeet^Cypress, 
popularly so called, is an assimilation 
of its Latin name cyperus (longvi) to 
the well-known tree-name cypress^ 
Lat. cupTe88U8^ Greek lcup(m%90B. 

Ctprus, otherwise spelt cypress and 
cipreSf an old name for a species of fine 
transparent lawn, as if the stuff intro- 
duced from Cyprus, has been considered 
the origin of the word crape (Abp. 
Trench, Study of Words, Lect. iv.). 
The direct opposite is, I think, the case. 
Crape, Fr. crepe, old Fr. crespe, which 
Cotgrave defines *' Gipres, also Cobweb 
Lawne," Scot. or?«p, have their origin 
in Lat. crispv^, and are descriptive of 
tlie crisp and rivelled (Fr. crespi) tex- 
ture of the material. Minsheu de- 
scribes cipres as *' a fine curled linen, 
Lat. hyssus crispaia,** Cipres, there- 
fore, was the same as crape, and pro- 
bably is only another form of the same 
word altered by metathesis, thus, crispe, 
old Eng. cryspe ; cripse (crypse) in Prov. 
Eng. ; cirps in A. Saxon, cyrps; cipr{e)8t 
cypr{e)8; similar transformations being 
not unusual, e.g. grass for ga/rs, A. S. 
goers ; cart for crat, A. S. croBt ; kirsten, 
Jcirsen (Bums), for ch/nsten, &c. 

Blak with crips her [:= hair], lene, and 
somdel qued. 
Wright, Pop. Treatises on Science, 
13th cent., p. 138, 1. S83. 

Jamieson gives oryp (? for cryps) as 
an old Scotch word ior crape, old Eng. 

Neile with hir nyfjls of crisp and of sylke. 
Town ley Mifsteries, Juditium (l5thcent.). 

A Cyprus not a bosom 
Hides my poor heart. 

Twelfth Night, iii. 1. 

Lawn, as white as driven snow, 
Cyprus, black as e'er was crow. 

Winter's TaU, iv. 3. 

About her head a Cyprus heau*n slie wore, 
Spread like a veile, vpheld with siluer wire. 
G. Fletcher, Christs Victorie in Heauen 
(1610), 59. 

And sable stole of cipres lawn 
Over thy decent shoulders drawn. 

Milton, II Penseroso, 1. 36, 

Ovpr all these draw a black cypress, a veil 
of penitential sorrow. — J. Taylor, noly Dying, 
p. 22 (ed. 1848). 

Exactly similar in origin, and nearly 
related, are Fr. crepe, a pancake, old 
Eng. crippes, fritters (Wright), cryspels 
IFortne of Cury), Scot, crisp, a pancake, 
t.e. something fried till crisp. 

Crysites fryey — Boo/c of Precedtnee, p. 91 
(L. K. 1 . S.). 

Cyst-beam, the Anglo-Saxon name 
for the chestnut tree, as if connected 
with cyst, fruitfulness, goodness, cysiig, 
bountiful, hberal, is a corruption of 
Lat. cast-aneus. See Chestnut. 

Cythobn, an old Eng. form of " cit- 
tern,** the musical instrument, is quoted 
W Carl Engel, Musical Myths and 
Fads, i. p. 60. 


Dab, in the colloquial phrase " to be 
a dah at anything,** i.e. clever, expert, 
has probably no connexion with doibj 
to hit (the mark), or dapper, spruce 
(Goth, ga-dohs, fitting), but is a corrup- 
tion of adept (Lat. adeptus, proficient), 
misunderstood as a aep\ Cf. Nortii 
Eng. dahster, a proficient. 

Dainty. This word, when used in 
the sense of fastidiously nice, finicking, 
dehcate, O. Eng. deyntS, deinU, is pro- 
perly a subs. = pleasantness, from 
O. Fr. dainiie, and that from dain, fine, 
quaint, Lat. dignus, worthy. Cf. dis- 
dain, to deem im worthy (Skeat). 

For deynte )>at he hadde of him : he let him 

sone bringe 
Before jje prince of Engelond : Adelstan ^ 


Life of S. Dunstan, I. 36, Philolog. 
Soc. Trans.« 1858. 

And he resawyt thaim in daynte, 
And h^T full gretly thankit'he. 
Barbour, The Bruce, bk. iv. 1. 142 
(ed. Jamieson). 

When used in the special sense of a 
delicacy, something nice to eat, the 
word was probably confounded with 
Welsh dantaeth, a dainty, something 
toothsome (from dant, daint, tooth), 
Scot, daintith, dairUcss. 

Thow waxes pur, J>ane fortone wil J:e wyt. 
And haf na dantetht of )>i sone na delite. 
Bernardus, De Cura Hei Famularity 
p. 14,1. 334(E. E. T. 8.). 


i 92 ) 


To tell here metus was tere/ That was senred 

at here sopere, 
There was no dentethu* to dere/ Ne spyces to 

Sir Degrevant^ 11. 1409-141«, The 
Thornton Romance, p. 'iSS, 

Abof dukes on dece, with dayntys serued. 
Alliterative Poems, Bf 1. 38 (ed. 

Jacob here made dainty of lentils. 

T, Adams, Politic Hunting, 
Ivorks, i. .5. 

So that for lack o£deintie mete, 
Of which an herte may be fedde, 
I go fastende to my bedde. 

Goiver, Conf. Amantis, vol. iii. 
p. 23 (ed. Pauli). 

When we say, therefore, that a per- 
son is dainty about his food and fond of 
dainties, we use two really distinct 
words — the former akin to dignity ^ the 
latter to dcntifst. 

Dames, an old English name for the 
game of draughts, Fr. dames, would 
seem to have been borrowed &om 
Egyptian dameh, if that be the primi- 
tive word. 

The modern Egyptians have a game of 
draughts very similar in the appearance of 
the men to that of their ancestors, which they 
call dameh, and plnv much in the same manner 
as our own. — Wiuiiiuon, Ancient Egyptians, 
ed. Birch, vol. ii. p. 58. 

Anotlier game existing in the Middle Ages, 
but much more rarely alluded to, was called 
dames, or ladies, and has still presenred that 
name in French. — Wright, Homes of other 
Days, p. 235. 

In French and Provencal damier is a 

Dame's violet, a popular name for 
the hesperis mairimaks, is a corruption 
of Fr. viohtte de Davias, "damask 
violet " (Lat. violu Daniascena), as if 
it were violette dea dames (Prior). 

Damsel, "the damson (Damascena), 
a variety of the prunus do^nestica,'* 
\Holderness Glossary, Eng. Dialec. Soc, 
Yorks., Cheshire, and North of Ireland.) 
— Britten and Holland. 

They are called damascens of the citie of 
Damascus of Soria. — Passenger of Benvenuto, 
1612 (Nares). 

Modem Damascus is a beautiful! city. 
The first Damask-rose had its root here, and 
name hence. So all Damask silk, linen, 
poulder, and plumbes called Dama»cens. — 
F. Fuller, Pisgah Sight, bk. iv. ch. i. p. 9 

Darbies, a slang term forhandcufib, 
is said to be in full John/ny Darbies, a 
corruption of Fr. gens-d*artnes, applied 
originally as a nickname to police- 
men [?]. 

We clink*ld the darbies on him, took htm as 
quiet as a lamb. 
Scott, Guy Manjuring, ch. xxziii. 

But the old term was "Father 
Derbie's bands." 

To binde such babes in father Derbies bands. 
G. Gascoigne, The Steel Gla* (1676), 
1. 787. 

See also T. L. O. Davies, Supp. Eng, 
Glossanj, s. v. 

Darkle, to gloom or be dark, a 
fictitious verb, formed from darkling^ 
understood as a present participle. 
Darkling •=! in the dark, is really an 
adverb, like O. Eng. haMing, flailing, 
headling. See Grovel and Sidle. 

Out went the candle, and we were left dark' 

Shakesp&ire, K, Lear, i. 4, 1. 237. 

Darkling they join adverse, and shock un* 

Coursers with coursers justling, men with 


Dryden, Palamonand Arcite, bk. iii. 

Bp. Hall has the phrase " to go dark- 
lings to bed." 

D'Arcy Magee, in one of his songs, 

says — 

A cypress wreath darkles now, I ween, 
Upon the brow of my love in green. 

Founder's Tomb .... darkles and shines 
with the most wonderful shadows and lights. 
— Thackeray, Neacomes, ch. Ixxv. 

Sec T. L. O. Davies, Supp, Eng, 
Glossary, s.v. 

Modem poets often use darkling as 
an adjective. 

To-night beneath the lime-trees* darkling 

The dying sun's farewell is passing sweet. 
n\ H. PolUKk, The Poet and the 
Muse, 1880. 

On darkling man in pure effulgence shine. 
Johnson, The Rambler, No. 7. 

Dash it ! This expletive does not 
probably, as we might suppose, repre- 
sent the typographical euphemism of a 

dash, as in "d it," but the Fr- 

desliait, dehait, delict, affliction, misfor- 
tune (lit. dis-pleasure, from O. Fr. haitf 
pleasure), as an imprecation equivalent 


( 93 ) DAT-NETTLE 

to Cursed t 111 betide! This in old En^. 
appears as the interjection datheitf 

Da]jeit hwo it hire thane ! 
Da\feit hwo it hire yeue ! 
Havelok the Dune ( ab. 1280), 11. 
296,300. SeeSkeat,Glouaryf 
Dahet habbe that ilke best 
That fuleth hiit owe nest. 

The Owl and the NightingaUf 
1. 100 (Percy Soc). 

Dasibebde, an old Eng. word for a 
simpleton (? as if a dazed hewrd)^ affords 
a curious instance of corruption. It iB 
another form of dozeper, dosaeper, origi- 
nally one of the doaeperis^ Fr. Us douze 
pairs, the twelve peers of France. See 


Al BO the dosse pen 
Of France were ]>ere echon, |>at bo noble were 
and fers. 

Robt. of Gloucester y p. 188. 

Sir Cajrphas, I saye aeckerly 
We that bene in companye 
Must needes this dosebeirde destroye. 
The Chester Mysteries (Shaka. Soo.)y 
▼of. ii. p. 34. 

Date, the fruit of the palm-tree, Fr. 
dattef old Fr. c2ade, have been formed 
from da^dUf doAstyle; cf. Span, and 
Prov. daiil, Flem. dadel, Ger. doMel, 
Lat. dadylv^f Greek ddJct^s, (1) a 
finger or dactyl, (2) a finger-shaped 
fruit, a date ; these latter words from 
their termination being mistaken for 
diminutives (like kernel, saichel, &c.). 
Similarly (dmond, Fr. amande, has 
been evolved from amandle, Dut. 
amandel, Prov. dlrrumdolas and Fr. 
ange from angel. 

Date, frute, Dactiloa. — Prompt Parvulo- 
rum, 1440. 

Dactjfle, the Date-grape or Finger-grape. 
— Cotgrave, 

A. Sax, finger (q^la [=: dates], i£lfiric. — 
Cockayne, Leecfidoms, ii. 368. 

A man might have been hard pnt to it to 
interpret the language of iEaculapius, when 
to a consumptiye person he held forth his 
fingers ; implying thereby that his cure lay 
in dates, from the homonomy of the Greek, 
which sienifiefl dates and fingers. — Sir Thos, 
Browne, Works, vol. iii p. 344 (ed. Bohn). 

Dayt Jones's Logkeb, in the sailor*s 
phrase "He's gone to Davy Jones's 
jjocker,^* i,e, gone to the bottom, 
drowned, or dead, it has been supposed 
may originally have been Jonah* slocker, 
in allusion to the position of the pro- 

phet when swallowed up, and " the 
earth with her bars was about him for 
ever " (JonaJh, ii. 6). Davy, as being a 
common prenomen of all the Welsh 
Joneses, was then, perhaps, arbitrarily 
prefixed. See T. L. O. Davies, Supp, 
Eng, Qhssaru, s.v. David seems to 
have been a &vourite name, for some 
reason, among seamen, certain navi- 
gation instruments being called David* s 
staff and David* s quadrant (Bailey). 

So was he descended .... to the roots 
and crags of them fthe hills], lodged in so 
low a cabin, that all those heaps and swel- 
lings of the earth lay upon him The 

meaning of the prophet was, that he was 
locked and wardea within the strength of the 
earth, never looking to be set at liberty again. 
—Bp, John King, On Jonah (1594), p. 174, 
col. 1 (ed. Grosart). 

Dawn, a corruption of the old word 
darning or daying, A. Sax. dagung, the 
becoming day, a substantive formed 
from the O. £ng. verb to daw, A. Sax. 
dagian, to become day {dmg), Icel. 
deging, so spelt as if a past participial 
form, like ara/um (from A. S. dragan), 
saton, horn, &c. 

Dawyn\ Auroro ; Day\m\ or wexjm day 
(dawyn). Diesco. — Prompt, Parvulorum, 

The aayng of day. — Anturs of Arthur ^ 
xxxrii. (Camden. Soc.). 

To dau^ as the day dothe, adjoumer, l*aube 
te crieve, — Palsgrave, 1530. 

In his bed ther daweth him no day. 

Chaucer, The Knightes Tale, 1. 1678. 

Hii come to her felawes in dawynge,— 
Robert of' Gloucester, Chronicle, p. 208 (ed. 

Bi nihte ine winter, ine sumer i|ie 
dawunge. — Ancren RiwU (ab. 1225), p. 20. 

When \)e datcande day dryStyn con sende. 

Alliterative Poems (14th cent.), C. 

Dat-bebbt, a provincial name for 
the wild gooseberry (Courtney, TT. 
Comwdll Glossary), is undoubtedly a 
corruption of its common popular name 
thape, or theahe, -f herry, the p or h 
being merged in the ensuing h, so that 
the word became tha^-herry, and then 

Dat-nettle, a north cotmtry name 
of the plant galeopsis teirahit, is for 
deye-nettle, i,e, the nettle injurious to 
lahotMrers, old Eng. deyes, whom it is 
believed to afifect with whitlows. — 
Britten and Holland, Eng, Plant- 
Names, pp. 140, 150. 


( 94 ) 


Dat-woman oocors in Shakespeare 
for a servant whom we would now call 
a dairy -maid, Perthshire dey. 

She is allowed for the daif-woman, 
Love*s Labour's Lost^ i. 2. 1. 137. 

Dey-toyfe occurs in Palsgrave (1530), 
deye in Chaucer and Prompt, Parvulo- 
rum (c. 1440), with the same meaning. 
Compare Bwed. cUja, a dairy -maid, 
Icel. deigja. Dadryy tlie place where 
she pursues her occupation (O. Eng, 
deyrye) stands to dey^ as fairy (/epnV) 
does to fay, htiUery {i,e. Imtlery) to 
hutler. Vay-hmise for dairy still is 
found in S. W. counties of England. 
It is this word day or dey^ in the 
general sense of maid, that occurs in 
ia-dyt A. Sax. hlmf-dige, the "loaf- 
maid.** It is generally understood to 
be the "kneader,** connected with 
Goth . deigan, to knead. But it is never 
apphed except to a female, and seems 
to mean specifically a "milk-maid,** 
not a baker. G£ Hindustani, ddU & 
milk-nurse, " Lucy and her Day.'* Cf. 
Prov. Ger. diiicm, to fatten a calf with 
milk (WestphaHan); and Dan. d^e, milk, 
the breast, give die, to suckle, diehrodery 

His daife \fe is his whore awlenc^ hire mid 
cloiSes [The maid that is his whore he adorns 
with clothes]. — Old Kng, Homiiies, 12th cent. 
2nd ser. p. 168. 

The goodnesse of the earth abounding with 
deriei and pasture. — FuUer, Worthiesy vol. ii. 
p. 1. 

The dey, or farm woman, entered with her 

Sitchers/to deliver the milk for the family. — 
&)ttj Fair Maid of Perth, ch. xxxii. vol. v. p. 
329, ed. 1857. [^i)eywoman occurs a few lines 

Deadman*s Dat, an East Anglian 
name for the 20th of November, St. 
Edmund' 8 Day (E. D. Soc. reprints, 
B. 20), of which it is evidently a cor- 
ruption, H Edmun's day. Cf. Tanflins 
for 67. AnthoUns, Tabhs for St. Ehh's, 
Tanns for St. ArvrCa, Tooley for St. 

Dear me t a vulgar exclamation of 
mild surprise, is supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of It. Dio miol It is rather 
from Fr. Dieu me (aide), old Fr. madia I 
Similar is the exclamation in the Alex- 
ander Romance madcusl which stands 
for m'aide Deus / (0. Fr. Deus, God. — 
W. W. S.) In Irish fiadha is " good 
Qodf" " a testimony*" and fiadh is a 

"deer,** but this is no more than a 

Mudioy In good sooth; as true as I live; 
or (instead of Ce m'ait Dieu) So God help 
me. — Cot grave. 

Deary me ! Deary me ! forgive me, good sir, 
but this ynnce, I'lf steal uaamaar. — W. Hut- 
ton, A Bnin New Wark. 1. 343 ( E. D. S.). 

My informant Jack did'nt 8*^ein quite so 
sanguine as the clergyman, for he uttered 
that truly Nortlmmbrian ejaculation, '^ J>ur 
kens ! " in a highly interrogative manner. — 
N. and Q, in Dyer, Eiig. Folklore, p. ^ii5. 

Then did ideas dance {dear safe us !) 
As they'd been daft. 

A. Ramuiy, Epistle to Arbuckle, 1719. 

** Dear help you ! " " Dmt love you ! ** are 
in use in N. Ireland (Patterson, L. D. S.). 

Debenture, a bond in acknowledg- 
ment of moneys owing, is an altered 
form of dehmfvr (Blount, Bacon), 
" There are due,*' the first words of a 
bond written in Latin. Cf. debet, he 
owes, credit, he trusts, tenet, he holds. 

It has been assimilated to tenure, 
censure, eneloBure, and many other 
words in -ure, Lat. -ura. 

Father John Barges,/ Necessity urges 
My woeful cry/ 1 o feir Robert rie : 
And that he will venture/ To send my deben- 

B. Jonson, Underwitods, Izxv. 

Deck, in the following passage — 

Thou didHt smile, 
Infused with a fortitude from heaven. 
When 1 have decked the sea with drops full 

Tempest, act i. sc. 2. 1. 155 — 

is most probably a corruption of the pro- 
vincial word deg, to bedew or sprinkle 
(so Dyce, Clark, and Wright). Other 
forms of the word are Cleveland d4igg, 
Icel. doggva, Swed. dugva, to bedew, 
and Icel. dogg, Dan. and Swed. dug, 
Prov. Swed. da<jg, •=. " dew.** 

Decoy, the modem form of the older 
word duch'coy, from the mistaken ana- 
logy of words like devcnir, decry, delude^ 
depose, denude, deploy, &c. Duck-coya 
or coy -ducks (which occurs in Bush- 
worth's Historical Collections, and is 
the word still in use in N. W. Lincoln- 
shire) are tamo ducks trained to entice 
wild-fowl into a net or coy. ** Coy, 
a duck decoy.'* — Holdemess dialect, 
E. Yorkshire. See Coy-duck, Davies, 
Supp. Eng. Glossary. 

Compare Dutch eende-kooi, " a duok* 
cage,** I.e. for catching dackB, and 


( 95 ) 


hooi-eend, a decoy dnok; Pr. canar- 
diere; ** Decoys seu DticJc-coya,** Wil- 
lughbv, 1676. See Evelyn, Diary, 
Sept. 19, 1641. 

Similarly Fr. enjoUv, to wheedle, 
meant etymologically to encage, from 
geole^ 0. F. jaioU, a cage. Decoy seems 
generally to have been confounded 
with O. Eng. to coy or (icoie, to make 
coy or quiet, to tame, to allure (so 
Bichardson, s.v.). See Haldeman, 
Affixes^ p. 66. 

St. Baflil says that some in his time did 
sprinkle sweet ointment upon the Winj^s of 
tame Pigeons, and sent them abroad, like our 
coif Diicks, to fetch in the wild Flocks that 
they might take delight in them, and follow 
them home. — Bp. Hacketf Century of' Sermons, 
1675, p. 808 (fol.). 

Women, like me, as ducfa in a decoy. 
Swim do^n a stream, and seem to swim in 

Crabbe, The Parish Renter, WorhSf 
p. 137 (ed. Murray). 

Defame, the modem spelling of old 
Eng. diffanie, Sp. deefamer, Fr. diffamer. 
It. diffamare, Lat. diffamnare, to dis* 
fame (Uke disgrace, dislwnour, disfigwre), 
from a false analogy to words such as 
debase, degrade, defend, &o. So defer is 
for differ. 

All Jmt diffame man or woman wherfor her 
state and her lose is peyred. — J. Myrc, In- 
structions for Parish Priests, p. 22, 1. 708 
(E. E. T.S.;. 

Delice, " The fayre flowre Delice,** 
Spenser, The Shepheards Calender, 
April, 1. 145, so called as if the flower of 
delight (delice), flos delidarum, is a cor- 
ruption of fleur-de-lis, the iris. E. K.*s 
comment is, " Flotvre deUce that which 
they use to misterme flowre deluce, 
being in Latin called Flos dclitiarum" 

Custarde royall, with a lyoparde of golde 
syttynge therein, and holdynge a fioure 
delice. — Fabifan, Chronicles, 1516, p. 600 
(bUis's repnnt). 

If sin open her shop of delicacies, Solo- 
mon shews the trap-door and the vault; 
.... if she discovers the green and gay 
powers of delice, he cries to the ingredients 
[= goers in] Latet anguis in herba — The 
serpent lurks there. — T. Adams, The Fatal 
Banquet, Sermons, i. 159. 

Fleur-de-1/is itself is said to be a cor- 
ruption of fleur-de- Louis, &om its hav- 
ing been adopted as his badge by Louis 
yil. of France. Compare the old Eng. 
name^Zcmre de luce. 

Cardeno lirio, a Flowre-de-Hce, or Flowre* 
de-luce. — Minsheu, Spanish Diet,, 1623. 

Bring rich carnations, /^cnrer-df-ZucM, lilies, 
The chequed and purple-ringed daffodillies. 
B,Jonson, ran s Anniversary, Works, 
p. 6iS. 

There is a legendary belief that the twelve 

first Louis signed their names as Loys, and 

that fltur-de-lys is simply a corruption of 

Jienr-de-Loifs. — F, Marshall, International 

Vanities, p*. 200. 

The vj a flour had fond, 
Clepit delice. 

Booke of Precedence, p. 95, 1. 47 
(E. E. T. 8.). 

John Birch .... beareth azure three 
Flower deluces. . . . This Flower in Latin 
is called Iris, w*^ word stands also for a 
Rainbow whereto it some what resembleth 
in Colour. Some of the French confound 
this with the Lilly.— T. Dingley, History 
Jrom Marble, p. cli. (Camden Soc). 

And as her Fruit sprung from the Rose and 

(The best of Stems Earth yet did e'er pro- 

Is tie<l already by a sanguine Race .... 

So may they shoot their youthful Branches 

The surging Seas, and graff with eve^ shore. 
J. Howell, The Vote or Poem-Royal, 

II est certain que, ni en pierre, ni en metal, 
ni sur les medailles, ni sur les sceaux, on ne 
trouve aucun vestige veritable dejieurs de lis 
avant Louis le Jeune ; c'est sous son regne, 
vers 1147, que T^cu de France commenca 
d*en ctre sem^. — Saint Foix, Ess. Hist. Paru, 
(Euvres, tom. iv. p. 107. 

A further corruption seems to have 
resulted from a misunderstanding of 
flower-de-luce as "flower of light," 
flos Uicis, with some reference perhaps 
to its name Iris, in Greek ourania, 
which denotes also the heavenly bow 
or rainbow (Gerarde, Herhall, p. 60). 

The azure fields of heau*n wear 'aembled 

In a large round, set with the^oioVi of light. 
The flow* rs-de-luce, and the round sparks of 

That hung vpon the azure leanes. did shew. 
Like twinkling Starrs, that sparkle in th 
eau'ning blew. 
Giles Fletcher, Christ^s Victorie on Earth, 
42 (1610). 

A \\\j of a day 

Is fairer far, in May, 
Although it fall and die that night ; 
It was the plant and^oicer of light. 

B, Jonson, Underwoods, Izzzvii. 3. « . 


( 96 ) 


Demain, ( also formerly demean^ an 
Demesne, S estate, lands pertaining 
to a manor-house, so spelt as if con- 
nected with old Eng. deniain, deniene^ 
to manage, Fr. deini-ner, and meant to 
denote those lands which a lord of a 
manor holds in his own hands (Bailey), 
in his c2etnmn, management, or control ; 
just as, accord[ing to Chaucer, Alexander 

All this world welded in \nademaine. 
The Monke* Tale, 1. 14583 (ed. Tyrwhitt). 

and so in anotlier place 

Hiaherte was nothing in his own demain. 
Similarly old Fr. demaine. It. de- 

maMo (Florio). 

I find one William Stumps .... bought 
of him the demean* of Malmesbury Abbey 
for fifteen hundred pound two shillings and 
a halfpenny. — T. Fullery WorthieSf vol. ii. 
p. 452 (ed. 1811). 

These are all comiptions of the cor- 
rect form dmnain^ Fr. doniaine^ It. do- 
minion Lat. dominium^ a lordship or 
dominion, Milton speaks of Rome's 

Wide domain f 
In ample territory, wealth, and power. 

Paradiie Regained , iv. 81. 

Domaine, A demaine, a mans patrimony or 
inheritance, proper and hereditary posses- 
sions, thone whereof he is the right or true 
Lord [dominus], — Cotgrave, 

Domanium properly si^ifies the King's 
land in France, appertainmg to him in pro- 
perty. . . The iomaiiw of the Crown are held 
of the King, who is absolute lord, having 
proper dominion, — Wood, InstituteSf p. 139 
(In Latham). 

iJtmainf . . are the lord's chief manor-place 
with the lands thereto belonging, terroi domi- 
nicales, — BUntnt (Latham). 

The spelling demesne is owing to an 
idea that these were lands held in 
mesnCf an old law term, by a mesne 
lord. Spelman says " Domimcum is a 
forensic word . . in Enghsh the Be- 
madne^ which some write wrongly Be- 
meane and Demesne^ as if it wore sprung 
from Fr. de mesne, i.e. pectdiar to one- 
self, and not from Lat. dominicum" 
{Glossary, 1626, p. 224). 

A gentleman of noble parentage, 
Of fair demesnes, youthful, ana nobly trained. 
Shakespeare f Iwmeo and Juliet, iii. 5, 181. 

Demean, often used in the sense to 
lower, de^*ade, or make mean, as "I 
wouldn't de^ncan myself to 6X)eak to 
him," is a modem and popular per- 
version of the verb demean, to comport 
ojr behave oneself, Fr. se dSmener, 

whence demeanovr. It has no con- 
nexion with mean, low, base, A. Sax. 
mcene, "Yours as you demean your- 
self " was the phrase with which Queen 
Elizabeth sometimes concluded her 

Be you bo valiant as ye say, & of so g^eate 

That so great loye demeaneth, Of what contr6 

be ye? 
Debute between Somer and Wynter^ L 8. 

See, sir, thus far 
W^e have demeaned fairly, like ourselves. 
Hey wood and Rowley, Fortune by Land 
and Sea, p. 19 (Sbaks. Soc.) 

An Holy Scripture does not demean itself, 
nor exhaust itself on matters alien to its very 
highest purpose, when it largely occupies 
itself herein. — Abp, Trench, S. Augustine as 
an Interpreter, ch. iv. 

Demi- John, a large wicker-cased bot- 
tle (compare " black- Jack "), anciently 
damaja/n. It is a corruption of the 
Arabic damagan, which came from the 
Persian glass-making town of Dama- 
ghcm (Tylor). It is sometimes called 
a Jemmy- John [Sl^ang Did,). 

A French corruption of the same is 
dame-Jeanne, which MM. Littre and 
Devic deduce from the Arabic (in their 
transliteration) damdjana, a large glass 

It. damigiana, as if " a young lady" 
(Busk, Folklore of Home, p. 864). 

Denize, ) an old verb for to natura- 
Dennize, S li7^6 (Holinshed), evolved 
out of the word denizen, a naturalized 
citizen, 0. Fr. denzein, or deinz-ein, 
"one within,'* from O. Fr. deins (= 
£Za7W,Lat. de inius, within), opp. to /or- 
ein, "one without." Formed on the 
model ofnafv/raUze, civilize, pretty much 
as if dtize were formed out of diizen. 

Dent, the mark left by a blow, a less 
correct spelling of dint, A. Sax. dyni^ 
Icel. dynir, dyttr, as if an in-detU-ed 
mark, an in-<i(?n^-ation, or notch made 
by a tooth (Lat. den{t)'S), Cf. " De^U 
(of Dens), a notch about the Edges,** 
" in Heraldry of an outline notched in 
and out." — Bailey; '^Dentyn\ or yndeii' 
tyn*, Indento." — From-pt, Farv, 

}>e lif sone he les* )>at lau3t ani dint, 

WilliumofPalerne, 1. 12.'it (1350) 
(ed. Skeat). 
Now made a pretty history to herself 
Of every dint a sword had beaten in it. 

Tennyson, Elaine, 1. 19. 


( 97 ) 


Descry, tp spy out, aa if to cry ou4 
on discovering something that has been 
looked for (of. Fr. deemer^ to cry down, 
decry, and Lat. exphrare, to search a 
wood, &c. with cries), is according to 
Prof. Skeat merely a shortened spelling 
of 0. Fr. descrire^ to describe, Lat, 
desorihere, Cf. O. Eng. disoryve. 

A maundement w«*nt out fro Cesar August 
thnt al the world schulde be discryued, — 
Wyclife, S. Luke, ii. 1 (1.'389). 

)>us sal dede visite ilk man, 
And yliit na man ditcrifue it can. 
HumpaUy Pricke of Cotiscienc€f 1. 1897, 

Describe was formerly used in its 
Latin sense "to mark or trace out" 
(Wright and Eastwood, Bible Word- 
hook), as we still say "to describe a 
circle ; " whence tlie meaning to mark 
or observe. The identity of Qie words 
descry and describe was soon forgotten. 

ThuR hath my pen described^ and descr}f*d, 
Sinne with hiH 8euen headii of seauen deadly 
J. Lane, Tom Tel-Trotht Mesmge, 1600, 
1. 704 (Shaks. Soc). 

I described his way 
Bent all on speed and mark d his aery gait. 
Miltottj Par, Loity iv. 567. 

Ye shall therefore describe the land into 
seven partA. — A, V. Joshiia, zviii. 6. 

Who hath descried the number of the foe? 
Shakexpeare, Rich. Ill, v. 3. 

If thou, my sone, canst descrive 
This tale, as Crist him self it tolde, 
Thou shalt have cauue to beholde. 

Gowerf Conf, Amantis, vol. iii. p. SS 
(ed. PauU). 
Ho cou^e kyndeliche* with colour discriue^ 
Yf alle J>e worlde were whit* o)>er swan-whit 
alle )>ynges? 

Langlaiid, Vifiion of P. Plowman^ 
C. xxi. I. 215. 

In that ^me that Octavianus was Em- 
peroure of Home ... he sent oute a com- 
maundement to discrie all the world : . . and 
this discroying was made frist [by] Cyrinus 
that then waSs bisshop of Cyrie. — Legend of 
tlie Three Kings ( Chester Plays, p. 271, Shaks. 

Deuce, a common expression ap- 
parently equivalent to the devil, as in 
" The deuce ! " " The dettce and all ! " 
** It is deuced hard luck ; " cf. " Duce 
take you, i.e. the Devil, or an evil spirit, 
take you ! " (Bailey), as if identical with 
deuce, the two of dice, taken as a syno- 
nym of bad luck. Similarly Ger. dg,u8 
=: (1) deuce at cards, (2) the dickens I 

In the mystical doctrine of numbers 

two has always been considered un- 
lucky as being the first of the series of 
even numbers. The Pythagoreans re- 
garded the imit as the good principle, 
tlie duad as the evil one (Wilkinson. 
And, Egypt, vol. ii. p. 496, ed- Birch), 

The Number of Two. 

God hates the duall number; being known 

The lucklesse number of division : 
And when He blest each sey*rall day, whereon 

He did His curious operation ; 
' Tis never read there, as the fathers say, 
God blest His work done on the second day. 
Herricky Noble Numhers, PoemSf p. 425 
(ed. Hazlitt). 

Men therefore deem 
That equal numbers gods do not esteem, 
Being authors of sweet peace and unity, 
But pleasing to th' infernal empery, 
Under whose ensigns Wars and Discords fight, 
Since an even number you may disunite 
In two parts equal, naught in middle left 
To reunite each part from other red. 

C. MarlowCf Hero and LeandMr, Works^ 
p. 303, ed. 1865. 

The exclamation Deusl occurs fre- 
quently in Havelok the Dane (ab. 1280), 
as " Deus ! " quoth ubbe, '* hwat may 
pia be ? " 1. 2096. Sir F. Madden and 
Prof. Skeat think this is merely Lat. 
Deus! God! naturalized in Norman 

There is no doubt, however, that ducfi. 
Low Lat. duoius, dusius, was an old 
word for some demon, spectre, or bogie, 

Bugge, or buglarde, Maurus, Ducitis, — 
Prompt. Parvutorum, 1440. 
Thyrce, wykkyd spyryte, Ducius,— Id. 

To this, says Mr. Way, the origin of 
the vulgar term, the deuce, is evidently 
to be traced. 

Certaine deuills whome the Frenchmen 
call Duties [quos dusios Galli nuncupant], doe 
continually practise this yncleannesse and 
tempt others to it, which is affirmed by such 
persomt, and with such confidence that it 
were impudence to denie it. — S. Augustine of 
the City of God (xv. 23) EnglUhed by J. H, 
1620, p. 561. 

Devil, as a term in cookery, **fo 
devil a fowl," " devUled bones," to broil 
with abundance of pepper, &o., was 
perhaps originally to divel, i.e, to dis- 
member, or tear asunder the wings, 
legs, &c. as preparatory to cooking, 
Latin di-vellere. But query ? 

"Devil" (= Satan), it may be ob- 
served, in old writers, such as Bishop 
Andrewes, is commonly spelt diveL ' . 

DEW-BEBBY ( 98 ) 


Dew-berbt, the ruhus ccBerus, is 
properly the dove-herry, so called from 
the colour of its fruit, Ger, t^iuhen-heere, 
Norw. col-har; from A. Sax. dtMta, Dut. 
duif, a dove (Prior). Cf. Bav. taub-ber, 
dove-berry (Wedgwood). 

Dewlap. This word has generally 
been explained as meaning the pendu- 
lous part of the neck of a cow, which 
seems to lap or lick the deto! (see 
Bichardson, s.v.). 

It is the same word as Dan. doglcep, 
where dog, is a distinct word from dug, 
dew, and Icep is a pendulous fleshy part, 
a lobe. The Swedish is drog-lapp, wliich 
seems to be the original form, and to 
mean the trailing hbe or lappet of flesh, 
from draga, to drag, trail, or sweep 
along the ground (of. drdg, a dray or 
sledge). So Icel. ddglingr, a draggle- 
tail, seems to be for droglingr. An 
old £ng. name for tlie same is frcBt- 
Imppa (Vocabulary, 10th cent., Wright, 
p. 64). 

Here thou behold *Bt thy large sleek nest 
Unto the dew-laps up in meat. 

Herrick, Hesperides^ Poenu^ i. 247 
(ed. HazhU). 

The vnctious dulapps of a snayle. 

Id. ii. 472. 

Dewsiers, a Wiltshire word for " the 
valves of a pig's heart always cut off 
and thrown away" (E. D. Soc. Be- 
printed Glo88(mes, B. 19), which has 
oeen regarded as a corruption of Jew^s 
ears (Grose), — Jew*8 ears being actually 
the name of a worthless fungus, — can 
scarcely be other than a perverted form 
of old IV. jusier, Wallon jugii, Mod. 
Pr. g^sier (Lat. gigerium), the entrails 
'of a fowl, especially the gizzard. In 
old English gtseme was synonymous 
with garbage {Prompt. Parvulorum), 

Dickens 1 or The Dichins {take it) I 
This vulgar exclamation must be the 
same, Dr. Jamieson remarked, as the 
Scotch daih'ns ! of similar import, and 
this for deilhin or deelkin, i.e, devUkin, 
the I, as BO often, being silent. 

And of every handfull that he met 

He lept ouer fotes thre : 
" What devilkttnn draper,** sayd litell Much, 

" Thynkystthou to be ? " 

A LyteU GesU of Robyn Mode, 1 292 (Child't 
Ballads, v. 57). 

I cannot tell what the dickens his name is 
my husband had him of. — Shakespeare, Mei-rv 
. rVitw of Windsor, iii. 1. 1. 20. 

Diddle, to cajole or cheat one out of 
anything, is an assimilation to fiddle, 
piddle, to trifle, &c., of didder, old Eng. 
dyder, A. Sax. dyder-ian, dydrian, to 
deceive. Ettmiiller connects with this 
Dut. doddprig, and Eng. "dodge** 
(Lex, Ang.'Sax, p. 662). 

Dier's cordial, an old name for an 
apotliecary's electuary, is a corruption 
of Diascordium. — Slanner, Prelogom. 

Diet, a deliberative assembly, Low 
Lat. dieta, as if derived from dies, the 
day of assembly, like the German words 
Land-tag, Beiclts-tajg, 

Cf. dieta, a day's work or journey 
(Spelman, Bailey). 

It is, however, as Lord Strangford 
has pointed out {Letters and Papers, p. 
172), the same word as A. Sax. thedd, 
a nation, Goth. tJmcda, Ir. tuaih, Oscan 
tuta, Umbrian tota, Lith. tauta, whence 
A. Sax. theodisc, O.H.G. diutisJc, Ger. 
deutsch, *' Dutch.** Or the word may 
not improbably have been assimilated 
to Lat. dicBta, Gk. diaita, way of living, 
arbitration, whence comes ** diet,** a 
prescribed regimen of food. 

DiocEss, a mis-spelling of diocese 
(Greek dioihe»is), from a false analogy 
to such words as recess, excess, abscess, 
&c., for which The Times newspaper is 
generally held responsible, is found re- 
peatedly in the anonymous Life of Bp, 
Frampton, who was deprived in 1689, 
e.g. " He came to reside in his own 
diocess wholly,'* p. 129 (ed. T. S. 
Evans). Dr. South also speUs it so, 
and Gotgrave, s. y. Diocese. 

That apperteynithe to the ordinaries in 
whos diocess tlier said churcbia bee in.— > 
Warham, 1525, Ellis, Orig. Letters, ser. Srd, 
vol. ii. p. 36. 

DiSGHORDE, an old spelling of cJrscorci, 
as if from dis and chords (chords not 
in unison), instead of from dis and cors 
{heanrts at variance) ; cf. 0. Fr. descorder, 
to quarrel. 

OfU^ntimea a dischorde in Musick maketh a 
comely coucordaunce. — E. A'(ir^), JKp. to 
Gabriel Uarveif, prefixed to The Shepkeards 

In the seventli century the Sevillian guitar 
was shaped like tlie human breast, because, at 
archbishops said, tlie chords surnified the pal- 
sation of the heart, d corde. The instruments 
of the Andalucian Moors were strung after 
these significant heartstrings — one string 

• • 


( 99 ) 


beinfi^ bright redy to represent bloodf another 
xielloWy to indicate b'dty olc, — Ford, Gathering* 
from Spciin, p. 333, 

Similarly dccordf notwithstanding ac- 
cordion, and concord in music, are not 
derivatives of chord (Greek chorde, 
whence Fr. corde, "cord"), but of 
cor(d)8, the heart. 

Heart with hfeart in concord beats, 
And theloyeris beloved. 


DiSHLAOO, ) North country words 
DiSHTLAOiE, ) for the plant colt's- 

foot, are corruptions of its Latin name 


DiSTBAUOHT is an incorrect assimi- 
lation of distract, e.g, " The fellow is 
distract " (Gom, of Errors, iv. 8 =Lat. 
dis-tractus, dragged asunder, confused, 
deranged ; O. Eng. desirai), to rcuught, 
the old p. parte, of rea4ih (like taught^ 
&c.). Similarly Shakespeare has ex- 
traught for extradznextracted : "Sham*st 
thou not, knowing whence thou art ex- 
traugW—S Hen. VI, ii. 2. 1. 142. The 
Latin past parte, was frequently adopted 
into English, e,g, oflycte (= afflicted), 
Bogers; a c^t^t/, ea^'o^e (Shakespeare); 
conipa4:t (id.); captivate (Hammond); 
consecrcUe, conftute (Chaucer) ; complicate 
(Young) ; exaU (Keats), &c. 

As if thou wert dUtrauf^ht and mad with 
Shakespeare, Richard 111, iii. 5, 1. 4. 

Ere into his hellish den be raugbt . . . 
She sent an arrow forth with mighty draught, 
That in the very dore him overcaught, . . . 
His greedy throte, therewith in two dit- 


Spenser, Faerie Qptene, IV. vii. 31. . 

With present feare and future griefe dit" 
G, Fletcher, Christs Trivmph over Death, 
44 (1610). 

Do when used in sundry idiomatic 
phrases, in the sense of to avail, profit, 
tlirive, prosper, suffice (liB,t, prodesse, 
valere), is a distinct verb altogether 
from do (-=. facers), A. Sax. d6n (Dut. 
doen, Ger. tmn), being the modernized 
form of old Eng. d&w, to avail, Prov, 
Eng. and Scotch d(yw', to be able, to 
profit, to thrive, A. Sax. &agan, to pro- 
fit, help, be good for ; and near akin to 
Dutch deugen, Swed. duga, Dan. dnie, 
Ger. taugen, O. H. Ger. iugan, Icel. 
duga, to help, be strong, suffice. 

Such phrases are, '* That will do,'''=. 

That will suffice (Jam satis est) ; "This 
will never do," Jeffirey's rash and time- 
confuted dictum, meaning, This poetry 
will never succeed, thrive, or be good 
for anything ; ** If he sleep, he wUl do 
well " (Johnxi. 12), i.e. He will thrive, 
or recover (A. Sax. version, he hyb hal, 
Greek <ra»^<rcrat). The Cleveland folk 
say of a patient who lingers long, " He 
nowther dees nor dows," Other York- 
shire phrases are, *' March grows, never 
daws, meaning early blossoms never 
thrive, and '* He'll never dow, egg nor 
bird" (Atkinson, Clevela/nd Ohssary, 
p. 150). 

Bugcm is also found in old Eng. with 
the meaning to suit or become, e,Q, *' oa 
Drihtin deoA " (Legend of 8, KcUherine, 
p. 99), " as it becometh a lord." We still 
say, "that will do very well for him *' 

We find the two verbs, do (zzfacere) 
and do (dow =: valere), side by side in 
our fanuliar greeting, "How do you do 
(dow)? (Quomodo valetis ?) And in 
this firom Gotgrave : " Ati'ophe, In a 
consumption, one with whom his meat 
dowes [= prodest] not, or to whom it 
does [=facit] no good." Compare 
also the following : — 

And now he gaes daundrin' aboot the dykes, 
And a' he dow do is to bund the tykes [=: 
valet facerel. 
Lady Baillie, JVere na my Heart Licht 
I wad Dee, 


No5t dowed hot pe deth* in pe dope 
stremes." — Alliterative Poenis (ab. 
1B60), The Deluge, I 874 (ed. Morris), 
i.e. nought prevailed but death. So 
douihe =: dotoed (availed), in Havehk 
the Da/ne, IL 708, 883. 

Some swagrer hame, the best they dow, [ = 
are able] 
Some wait the afternoon. 
Burns, The Holy Fair (Globe ed.), p. 19. 

A' the men o' the Mearns dowan, do mair 
than they daw, — Scott, The Black Dxoarf, 

Of the same origin are doughty, old 
Eng. dohty, A. Sax. dyhtig, Dan. dyg- 
tig, Swed. dugtig, Ger. tOchtig, mighty, 
able; A. Sax. dugu^, Ger. tugend, 
valour, virtue, &c. 

As instances of the confusion between 
the two words, compare such phrases 
as "It did admirably" (for O. Eng. 
douthe, availed), " I have done very 
well " (for O. E. ydought, fared, pros- 


{ 100 ) 


Doo, a provincial word for a small 
pitcher (Wright), is probably the same 
word as Ital. doga, *' a wooden vesaell 
made of deale or barrell-boards " 
(Florio), L. Lat. doga, a vessel, de- 
rived from Gk. cUfche, a receptacle. 

Doo CHEAP, which has generally been 
8npx)osed to be a perversion of the old 

S hr&ae good'cheapj "god-kepe" in Man- 
eville, is really, I believe, a corrup- 
tion of an original dag-clteap^ or d/igger- 
cheap, i.e, pin-cheap, a phrase used by 
Bishop Andrews. 

But with u.-* it 1.-4 nothing fto ; we eeiteeine 
farre more b.iAt* ly of ouweTven : wee set our 
wares at a very easie price, he [the devil] 
maj buy us even davger-cheaftef as we say. — 
Seven Sermong on the WonderfuU Combate be- 
tween Chriit and Salhany p. 51 (1642). 

" I do not set my life at a pin^s /c^," 
says Hamlet (acti. sc. 4). In colloquial 
phrase, he held it dagger-cheap or dog- 

Honour is sould soe dog-cheap now. 
Ballad on the Order for making KnightSf 
temp. James 1. 

So dog would be another form of old 
Eng. dagge^ It. and Sp. dagtt^ A. Sax. 
dalc^ dole, Ger. dolch, a dagger, or sharp 
instrument for piercing, L;el. dalkr, a 
pin, 0. North liunic da^ca, and cognate 
with Scot, dirk or durk, Gael, dure, a 
poniard, Ir. deaJg, a pin, a tliom, a 
skewer, Dan. dolk. In Prov. English is to prick or stab (compare Doo- 
wooD, i.e. dag-wood, so called from 
skewers being made of it). Dale or dole, 
according to Bosworth, denotes a toy or 
trifle, as well as a brooch or buckle ; so 
that dalc-eheap, pronounced daxck- 
cheap, would accord well, both in sound 
and meaning, with dog-cJteap, 

With the above we may compare 
pricksworth, a Scotch word for a tiling 
of the slightest value — priek being a 
pin, or skewer ; and " no worth a prein- 
head," an expression for anything not 
valued at the head of a prein or preen, a 

" Alle peos ))inge8 somed . . ne beo* 
noui wur^ a nelde,*' — All these tilings 
together are not worth a needle, — occurs 
in the Ancren BiwU (ab. 1225), p. 400 
(Camden Soc). 

However, Prof. Skeat identifies tliis 
affix with Prov. Swed. dog zz very, 
•P^tt-Deutsoh dbger, very much. 

I have boufifht seven hundred books at a 

Eurchase, dog-cheap — »nd many f^ood — and 1 
ave be«n a wt»ek getting them set up in my 
best room here. — Uterne, Letters, xvii. 1761. 

Daggar, an old term for the dog fish 
(Smyth, Sailor's Word-hook), presents 
a close parallel to dagger- and dog- 
clieap. Dog-sfon^, a name of the plant 
orchis masctilii, is spelt dag-ston-e in 
Holme's Academy of Armory, vol. ii. 
p. 56. 

It is, notwithstanding, quite possible 
there may have been some such phrase 
as "As cheap as a dog." Shakespeare 
has ** As dank as a dog " (1 Hen, 
IV. ii. 1), on which Dyce (Remarks, 
&c., p. 105) appropriately quotes from 
the Water Poet : — 

Many pretty ridiculous aspersions are cast 
vpon iJogges, so that it would make a Dogge 
laugh to heare and vnderstand them : As I 
haue heard a Man say, 1 am as hot as a 
Dogge, or, as cold as a Dogge ; 1 sweat like 
a Dogge (when indeed a Dog never swc^tes), 
as drunke as a Dosage, hee swore like a 
Dogge ; and one told a Man once, That his 
Wife was not to be beleev'd, for shee would 
lye like a Dogge. — IVorkes, The IVorldmniut 
on Wheelex, p. 'tSf (1630). 

Thou dogs^M Ciiieas, hated like a dogge. 
For still tliou grumblest like a mantv dogge, 
Compar'st thyself to nothing but a aogge ; 
Thou saith thou art as weary as a dogge. 
As anery, sicke, and hungry as a dogge. 
As dull and melanchoUy as a dogge. 
As lazy, sleepv, idle as a dogge. 

Sir John Daviei, Epigrammes, 19. 

An other certain man complaining that he 
was euen doggue wearie, and cleane tiered 
with goyns: a long iourney, Socrates asked, 
&c. — ^A. Udall, Apophthegmes of Erasmus 
(1542), p. 8, ed. 1877. 

There is a Scotch expression dog- 
thick, meaning as intimate, or thick, as 
two dogs. 

Dog-fish was originally the dag-fish, 
or daggar -fish ; at least, Cotgrave gives 
aguillai, a kind of dog-fish ** that hath 
two sharp and strong prickles on her 
hack, and thereof may be termed (as 
she is by the Germans) a Thorn-hound " 
[? Dornhutte'] , It may be from these 
prickles, or d-tigs, Fr. aguilhs, that the 
fish got its name. Compare aguUle, a 
needle, also a long small fish, called a 
Hornback (Cotgrave). 

Dogged, sullen, morose, obstinate, 
can scarcely be a derivative of dog^ as 
we never say that a person resembling 


( 101 ) 


a sheep, or pig, or swine in disposition 
is sheeped, or pigged, or swined, but 
sheepish, piggish, swinish. The older 
signification was somewhat different. 

Dnggyde^ malycyowse. Mahciosus, per- 
versus, bilosus. — Prompt, Parvuhium (ab. 

It is probably the same word, 
radically, as Scotch dodgie^ irritable, 
bad-tempered, dudgeon^ ill-temper, 
sullenness, formerly spelt dogicfn 
(Nares), Welsh dygen, grudge, malice, 
dueg, melancholy, spleen (Spurrell). 
Cf. Fr. doguin, brutal, quarrelsome 
(Roquefort), Wallon doguer, to butt or 

The fala wolf stode behind; 
He YfHS doi^s^id and ek fplle. 
Political Songst (temp. Edward 1.), p. 199 
(Camden Soc.)< 

Wiltshire folk use the word as = 
very, exceedingly, e,g, ^* dogged cute" 

DoaoEBBL,^ "pitiful poetry, paltry 
DooGBEL, > verses '* (Bailey), as if 
rime ila c^icn (Tyrwhitt), has been con- 
nected with Gor. dichtery a poet (Hal- 
deman, Affwes^ p. 209) ; cf. dkMerliiigy 
a poetaster, Flemish dichtregel, verse 
(dinger). This is quite conjectural. 
Compare Icel. grey-Ugr, paltry, from 
grey, a dog. 

Unre in a gallimaufrie of all sorts . . . and 
Clownes olaim? Dunstable dogrell to make 
them laugii. — The Cobler oj' Canterburie, Ep, 
to Renders^ 1608. 

Dogs, an Essex word for the dew, is 
a corruption of dag. See Deck. 

Dog-sleep, an expression used in 
Ireland for a light slumber easily 
broken, might be conjecturally identi- 
fied with the Icelandic phrase ** a* sitja 
ui)p vi8 dogg,'^ to recline upon a high 
pillow, to he half erect in bed, where 
dogg seems to be a pillow (Cleasby, 
p. 101). 

Dogwood, the camus sanguinea, has 
been supposed to derive its name from 
its unfitness for a dog to eat I (Parkin- 
son), or from its astringent bark being 
medicinal in the case of dogs (F. G. 
Heath, Our Woodland Trees, p. 487), 
especially mangy dogs {Sai. Review, 
vol. xlvi. p. 605). 

The word was, without doubt, origi- 
nally dag-wood, the wood that skewers 

were made of, old Eng. dagge, A. Sax. 
daJ>c (see Dog-cheap). Compare its 
other names — Prick-wood (prick being 
an old word for a butcher s skewer), 
Skewer-woodf and Gad-rise (i.e. A. S. 
gad, a goad, and hris, a rod). — Prior. 
So dog-wool, coarse wool (Bailey, b. v. 
Coiium) is for dag-wool, 

Cornus. KpaviM. Cormier, cornier, comeil- 
lier. Tlie wilde cherrie tree : the do/r-tree : 
the tree of the wood uherwf butchers makt 
th^ir pricks. — ^Homenclutor, 

Compare such names as Spindle- 
tree, Ger. SpindAilhawni , pinnholtz, It. 
fusaggine, Ger. ntvdelholiz, pfriemkraut. 

The dog-rose is a translation of Lat. 
rosa caninu, so called apparently be- 
cause the root of a wild rose was a 
" sure and Soueraigne remedy for them 
that are bitten with a mad dog." — 
Holland, Plinys Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 
220 (1634). 

Doll would seem to be a shortened 
form of Scotch dally, a girl's puppet, 
O. Eng- didy, a plaything, a die (= Lat. 
takis), Eng. dally, to trifle, or play. 
Thus Morison speaks of a vain woman, 
" Wlia's like a dfdly drawn on delf or 
china-ware " (Jamieson). Prof. Skeat 
further comx>are8 O. Dut. dol, a whip- 
ping-top, Dut. dollen, to sport, dol, mad 
(Etym. Diet., s.v.). The probability is, 
however, that doll is just Doll, the 
shortened and familiar form of Do- 
rothy, a typical female name (as Moll 
(idal) of Mary, Hal of Har-ry). In 
Scottish doi'oty is a doll, and a very 
small woman. Compare Fr. viario- 
ndte, a puppet, orig. little Marion, 
'Mary, or Molly (Cotgrave, Diez), and 

Richardson notes that in Cooper's 
Lai, Did. 1573, " O httle pretie Doll 
polU " [i.e. Dorothy Mary] is the ren- 
dering of capiiulum lepidissimum. 
The old name for these playthings was 
hahies or poppets. For similar appU- 
cations of proper names to famihar ob- 
jects or utensils, cf. Prov. Eng. dolly, a 
washing beetle or chum dash ; hetty, a 
clothes drainer (Northampt.) ; vtia/akin 
(i.e. Mal-kin, little Molly), a baker's 
mop ; jpeggy, a ni^'ht light (Lincoln.) ; 
thoniasin, or tamsin, a frame for airing 
linen (Kent) ; spinning-tTcwny, Jenmj- 
quick, an Italian iron (Devon.), roast- 
ing-JocX;, &c. 

DOLLY OIL ( 102 ) 


Mr. Henry Morley, in his Memoirs 
of Bart?iolometo FaWy says : — 

Dolla, now so dear to all youu^ daughters 
of England were not known by that name 
before the reign of William and Mary. . . . 
Fewer dolls certainlj were nursed; and of 
these tlie Bartholomew Babies, elegantly 
dressed and carefully packed in boxes, seem 
to have been regarded as tlie best. In 
Nabbes' comedy of ** Tottenham Court " 
(1638) this phrase occurs. '* 1 have packed 
her up in't, like a Bartliolomew Baby in a 
box. I warrant you for hurting her." Poor 
Robin's Almanac for 1696 say 8^ "It also tells 
farmers what manner of wife they shall 
choose : not one trickt up with ribbens and 
knots like a Bartholomew babv." . . When 
some popular toyman, who mient have called 
his babies pretty Sues or Molls or Polls, 
cried diligently to the ladies who sought fair- 
ings for their children, " Buy a pretty DoU " 
(it was at a time too when tlie toy babies were 
coming more and more into demand), the con- 
quest of a clumiiiness was recognized. Mo- 
thers applied for dolU to the men at the stalls, 
and, ere long, by all the stalls and toybooths 
the new cry of " Pretty Doll " was taken up. 
We have good reasou to be tolerably certam 
that Bartholomew Fair^ve its familiar name 
to a plaything now cherished in every English 
nursery. — pp. 259, Z60y ch. xvii. 

BoU has often been regarded as a 
mutilated form of idol (e^q. Todhunter, 
Account of Br, Wnu Whewell, i. 63), 
like dropsy y from O. E. ydropsy; and it 
is observable that when Spenser 
says — ' 

All as a poore pedler he did wend, 
Bearing a trusse of tryfles, at hys backe, 
As bells, and babeSf and glasses, in hys packe. 
Shepheardt Calender^ Maye — 

E. E.*s gloss is,/' By such trifles are 
noted, the reliques and ragges of popish 
superstition, which put no smal reUgion 
in Belles, and Balies, s [oil.] Idolea . . 
and such lyke trumperies ** (Spenser, 
Works, p. 468, Globe ed.). 

DoLLT OIL, the same as eel-dolly, a 
Scotch term for oil, is a corruption of 
Fr. huiled'olive (Jamieson). 

DoLLT-SHOP, a slang word for a shop 
where stolen property, or goods, are re- 
ceived in pawn, and charged at so much 
per day, is probably a corruption of 
taUy-shop, one where a tally — that is, a 
score or account of moneys lent — ^is 
kept. Cf. *' tdlley-man, one who sells 
clothes, &c., to be paid by the week '* 

The doUy-ihnps are essentially pawn-shops, 
and pawnnshopa for the very poorest. There 

are many articles which the regular pawn- 
brokers uecline to accept as pledjges. ... A 
poor person driven to the necessity of raising 
a few pence, and unwilling to part finally 
with his lumber, goes to the dtiUif-mun, and 
for the merest trifle advanced, deposits one or 
other of the articles 1 have mentioned. — 
MayheWf London Labour attd London Poor, 
vol. ii. p. 1^. 

The true origin of the name being 
forgotten, a large black wooden figure, 
or doll, is frequently hung up, as a sign 
over the door of these shops, and from 
this they are supposed by Mayhew to 
have been called. 

Near akin to these caterpillars [pawn- 
brokers] is the unconscionable tallu-nuin. — 
Four J or a Penny, 1678 (Harl. Miiic. ir. 


Donjon, ) If these be not two dis- 
DuNQEON. S tinct words, it is not easy 
to say which is the original form from 
which the other has taken its rise. 

1. Bonjon, a large tower or redoubt 
of a fortress (Bailey), Fr. donjon^ don- 
geon, Frov. dovjo, is from Low Lat. 
doninio (doniindo), a commanding tower 
that dominates all the rest of the build- 
ing (Diez, Wedgwood, Skeat). 

2. Bungeon, a dark, strong-fenced 
place, old Fr. doignon, dognon, dan- 
geon, Low Lat. dangio, is fronoi Irish 
daingean, strong, secure, also a strong- 
hold or fort, daingnigim, a fortification 
(so Zeuss, Pictet, Origines, ii. 194, 
Whitley Stokes). In Stokes's Irish 
Ohsses, daingen explains durus and 
firmus (p. 87). Bangan (a fortress or 
castle), frequently used as a place-name 
in Ireland, is the same word (Joyce, 
Irish Names of Places, i. 295). In the 
" Wars of the Gaedhil," ed. Todd, it is 
said, ** They built duns and daingeant " 
{p. 41). 

Bungeon, a dark prison cell, may 
perhaps be a result of a popular con- 
fusion of the two words. 

I seigh a towre on a toft* trielich ymaked ; 
A depe dale binethe* a doneeon )>ere-lnne. 
With depe dyches & derke* and dredful of 
Langtand, Vision of P. Plowman (1377), 
Prol. 1. 16, text B. ed. Skeat. 

*' Anon the donge it was for-dit " 
(the dungeon it was shut up). — DehcUe 
between ^ody and Soul, 13th cent. 
1. 236 (Camden Soc. p. 339), where a 
later version has *'the dungottn was 
for-dit " (p. 846). 


( 108 ) 


Vigfusson connects " dungeon " with 
Icel. dyngja, a lady's bower, the common 
sense being that of a secluded chamber 
in the inner part of a house or castle 
(Cleasby, Icel. Bid. p. 111). 

DosEBEBDE, I a simplcton, as if a 
Dasiberde, { dozing^ dazed, person, 
'* a dazed beard/* is really a degraded 
use of the word dozepcr, a nobleman, 
one of the Douze-Pairs, or twelve peers, 
of France (see Le Grand, FabliafiXf 
vol. ii. p. 420). A connexion was 
imagined, apparently, with old Eng. 
d/iisiy foolisli, A. Sax. dy9ig, Mod. Eng. 
** dizzy," Scot, doseuj to stupify. 

Lyeser of Colonye, and al so the da$u pen 
Ot rronce were fere echon, ^t so noble were 
and fers. 
Uobert of Gloucester's Chronicle, p. 188 
(ed. 1810). 

lhere|> nv one lutele tale. fnA ich eu wille 

telle . . . 
Nis hit nouht of Karlemeyne ne of }« 

Old Eng. Miscellany (Morris), p. 37, 1. 3. 

Aid he to Carlele was commene, that comiue- 

rure kyde. 
Withe dukes ana with ducheperes. 

The Awntyrs of Arthure. 

There is a dossiberde 1 would dere 
That walkes abrode wild were 
Whoe is his father 1 wotte nere. 

The Chester Plays, vol. i. p. 264 
(Shakspere Soc.). 

Dnrihiiccus, ])ni neuer openel> his moul>, a 
dasiberde. — Medulla. 

Big looking like a doughty Doucepere 
At last he thus. 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, III. x. 31. 

Double X, the name given to porter 
or beer of more than ordmary strength, 
asin "Guinness'sXX," or "Double X," 
is probably a survival, in a somewhat 
disguised form, of the Lat. word d/uplex 
(misunderstood as douhU-x), which 
formerly was conomonly apphedtosuch. 
Thus the Fellows and Postmasters of 
Merton College were forbidden by the 
Statutes to dnnk cerevisium dMj)lex, or 
strong ale. In Martini SchooTcd Liber 
de Cei'evisia, 1661, he says there are 
three kinds of English ale, *' Simplex 
cerevisia,'* which produces the same 
effect as a watery wine ; ** Pot ens cere- 
visia," commonly called duplex, which 
warms powerfully, and has the strength 
of potent wine ; and a medium ale, com- 
monly called Tnhapennina [? three 
ha'penny], which warms but mode- 

rately. Cap. xxxvii. {Notes and Queries, 
6th S. ii. 528). There is a curious old 
poem, entitled Doctowr douhhle ale (see 
Early Pop, Poetry, vol. iii. p. 297, ed. 
Hazhtt). Gascoigne mentions '* doohle 
doolie beere." 

Had he been master of good double beer, 
My lift! for liis, John Dawson had been here. 
Bp. Corbet, on J. Dawson, ButUr of Chritt- 
Church (1648). Pttenis, p. 208, ed. 1807. 

DowN-DiNNEB, in the Cleveland dia- 
lect an afternoon meal, is without doubt 
a corruption of the old word aandom, 
orndom, omdooms, undern, a mid-day 
meal, still current in N. W. England 
(Atkinson). See Orn-dinneb. 

So *' down-dinner, a mid-day meal in 
the field.'* — Holdemess, Glossary (Eng. 
Dialect Soc). 

Downer, a slang word for sixpence, 
apparently another form of " tanner," 
which, hke " tanny " (httle), is derived 
from the Gipsy tofvcno, little. 

Dbaoonwobt. Dragon hefe is a cor- 
ruption of Tarragona in Spain, whence 
it comes, says Mr. I. Taylor, Words 
amd Places, p. 408, 2nd ed. 

This, however, is quite a mistake. 
It is rather the Eng. name tarragon^ 
that is a corruption of dragon, its 
French name. It. dragontea, Lat. dra- 
coniium and dracufi4:tilus (see Gerarde, 
He^'hall, p. 193). Pliny calls it d/i-agon 
(dracuncuVus), and says its root ** is 
somewhat red, and the same wrythed 
and folded roimd in manner of a Dra^- 
gon, wherupon it took that name" 
(Holland's translation, 1684, vol. ii. 
p. 200). 

Drake, a popular name for darnel or 
cockle, is a corruption of dratok or 
dra/t^icJc, Dut. dravig, Welsh dreug, 
Bret, di-aok (Prior). 

Draught (A. V. Matt. xv. 17 ; Mark 
vii. 19) and Draught-house (2 Kings x. 
27), old words for a latrine, or house of 
office. Draught here is a corruption of 
draf, diraffe, zz faeces, dregs, refuse, dirt, 
which WycUflfe spells draft (Ps. xxxix. 
8), Icel. draf, A. Sax. drife, drof. See 
Eastwood and Wright, Bible Word* 
Book, s. V. 

And wi)> )« Jerde pe wolf he werde 
Wi|> duntes drof him al to drat'. 
Legends of the Holy Rood, p. 141, 1. 
(ed. Morris). 

DBAWINO^BOOM ( 104. ) 


Hang them, or stab them, drown them iu a 
Shakespeare, Timon of Athens, v. 1. 

There WAH . . . a goddesse of the </rau^At or 
Burton^ Anatomif of Melancholy, Pt. 2, 
Sec. 1, Mem. 3. 

The worst of the three is a thick, cloudy, 
misty, fogj^y air, or such as comes from feas, 
moorish grounds, lakes, muckhils, draught*, 
sinks, where any carkasses or carrion lyes. — 
Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, I. ^, ii. 5. 

Drawing-room, a meaningless con- 
traction of wUhdrmoing-rooni, a room 
for retiring to after dinner. 

Afker dinner into a withdrawins-room ; and 
there we talked, among other things, of tlie 
^-.ord Mayor's sword. — Pepus, Diary, Sept. 2, 

Dress, in colloquial usage to drub, 
chastise, or beat soundly, as in the 
phrase " to give one a good dresmig,^* 
is the same word as Prov. Eng. dresh, 
•* to thresh," A. Sax. ]>et'8can, Icel. 
yreshja, Goth. ]yHs1ijan, O. H. Ger. 
drescan, Ger. dreschen, Dan. toBrska, but 
assimilated by false analogy to Fr. 
dresser (Lat. directiare), to set right. 
So, in the Cleveland dialect, dress (pro- 
nounced derse) is not only to set in 
order, but to beat, chastise, thrash 
(Atkinson). Compare the phrase, ** I'll 
d/ress [sometimes frirt}] his jacket for 
him," Scotch "to drees one's doublet," 
i,c, to give him a sound ilirasUing, Ger- 
man ci^ifn dresclicn. 

The Devonshire form is drash, to drub 
with a stick. 

Chell baste tha, chell stram tha, chell drath 
Eimoor Scolding, 1. 94 (£. D. S.). 

Now you calves-skin impudence, I'll thresh 
your jacket {Beats him out']. — 'i*. Randolph, 
Aristippns, 1630, Works, p. 10. 

Drilling, a coarse cloth used for 
trousers, is a corruption of Ger. dril- 
Itch, ticking, which is itself corrupted 
from Lat. tnliC'S, irilix, three- threaded 
stuff (Skeat). 

Drop, in the phrase ** to drop a curt- 
sey," seems to be a corruption of the 
older word dop, to make a bow or curt- 
sey, orig. to dip, or duck, or bob (cf. 
" The learned pate ducks to the golden 
fool." — Sliaks.), Swed. doppa, to dip, 
Dan. diJibe, Dut. doopen, Goth, daupjan. 

Cf. 0. Eng. doppar, a diver or dob- 


The Wnotian dop, this. 

h. JoHStm, Cynthia* Uevels. 

We act by fits and starts, like drowning men, 

But )ust peep up, and then dop down again. 

Dryden, ICH'i, Works, p. 462 (Globe ed.). 

Compare the intrusive r in shrill for 
shlll, Fr. affrodillr. for affodille, lioarse, 
grocyin, pursy, vagrant, treasure, &c. 

Drop, in the provincial Eng. " wrist 
drop," a disease of painters, and 
** dropped hands " = paralyzed, ac- 
cording to Mr. Cockayne is the same 
word as old Eng. dropa, the palsy of a 
limb (LeccJidoms, vol. iii. p. 8), from 
droppen, the j). parte, of drapan (A. Sax. 
drepan, to strike, drepe, a blow). Cog- 
nate words would then be IceL drepa^ 
Dan. drcabe, Ger. treffen, to strike. Icel. 
drep is used for a disease (cf. "plague," 
Gk. plagt, a blow), and we still speak 
of a paralytic stroke. 

Dropsy, old Eng. ydropsie, a natu- 
raUzed form of Fr. hydropisie, Lat. hy- 
drops, Gk. hudrops, the watery disease 
(from hudor, water), and confounded 
possibly with drop. Compare gout, Fr. 
goute, supposed to come from a humour 
or drop (Lat. gutta) settling in the 

And loo! sum man syk in ydropesie wss 
bifore him. — Wyclijf'e, S. fjuke, xiv. J 
(l.i89). [A. Sax. version, *^ Bum wtcter-seoe 

Drought, an incorrect form (assimi- 
lated to thought, &c.) of drouth, O. Eng. 
drougih, drouhilie (in Lreland pro- 
nounced d^rooth), A. Sax. druga^e, dry- 
ness, from drugian, to dry. C£ you(g)th, 
d-oarth, groivth, &c. So heigJit is incor- 
rect for highth (Milton). The Sussex 
folk use di-ythr, " Diythe never yet 
bred dearth " (Parish, Glossary, p. 38). 

" Drowte, siccitas." — Prompt, Par- 
vulorum, 1440. **Dyere time, rayn, 
di-wjfjc." — Ayenhite of Inwyt, 1340, p. 

\Vil> cold ne wij> heete, wij> weete ne wi|> 
Trevisa, Polychronicon, 1387, lib. i. cap. 41. 

Now for drieth the fields wear all vndone. 
G. Fletcher, Christ s Victorie in Heaven^ 81 


Droit ght is the ordinary word in the 
A. Version, but drouth in Milton, Cole- 
ridge, -and Tennyson. 



He is tnx'd for drowth 
Of Hrity that with the cry spends not his 
mouth. CureWf roems, 1649* 

As one, whose drouth 
Yet scarce allay 'd, still eyes the current 

Milton^ Pur. Lostf vii. 66, 

Summer drouth, or singed air 
M ever scorch thy tresses fair. 

Comuty i. 9^. 

The traveller ... is liahle to mistake . . . 
the mirage of drouth for an expanse of refresh- 
ing waters. — Coleridge^ The Friend^ vol. i. 
p. 99. 

I look'd athwart the burning drouth 
Of that long desert to the south. 

Tenntfwtif Fatimaj 1. 13. 

My one oasis in the dust and drouth 
of city life! 

Id., Kdu'in Morris^ 1. '5. 
Ask any [Irish! proprietor, more especially 
if a farmer, and he would tell you ** We're 
ruined, ruined entirely, with the drought " — 
perhaps he'd have called it " druth" — Chat, 
L£ver, One of Them, ch. vi. 

Druooerman, an old form of drago- 
mun, an interpreter, 0. Eng. truchnian 
(? as if a barter-man). It. dragomanno 
and iurciviannOj Fr. drogman and 
truchenianj from Arab, targomdn, which 
is a derivative of iarganm, to explain. 
Compare Heb. meturgeman, an inter- 
preter (Edersheim, The Jews, p. 119), 
from f^irgtmiy to tranBlate(wlience targum 
and wetvrgcmiy "interpreted," Ezra^iv, 
7), which is itself from ragam, to bring 
together, construe, translate. 

The form dragman occurs in Kyng 
Ahxaunder, p. 141 (ed. Weber). 

In Mid. High German dragoman as- 
simied the form of iragemunt (or irouge- 
niuni)^ as if denoting the mouth-bearer 
of the party. 

Thus with ryght lyg;hte and joyous hertes, 
by warnynge ot our drogemt and guydes, we 
come all to Mounte Syon. — Fiflgrumafre of Sqr 
li. Guuljorde (l.)0(i), p. 56 (Camden Soc). 

Here the Vizier Bassos of the Port .... 
consult of matters of State, and that pub- 
liklv, not excepting against Embassadors 
Drogermen, lightly alwayes present. — SaudifSy 
TruteU, p. 6'i. 

The day of audience being come they were 
introduced with the usual solemnity, and then 
by the Druggermun or Interpreter he stated 
his case. — Life of Bp, Frampton (ed. T. S. 
Kvans), p. 72. 

Their drug^erman did desire them to fall 
down, for otherwise he should suffer for their 
contempt of the King. — Fepys, Diary, Aug. 
17, 1666, 

Dry, in the sense of tedious, weari- 
some, devoid of interest, as " a dry 
book," " a dry sermon," is the same 
word as the Northern dree, tedious, 
Prov. Eng. d/reighy Soot, drleghy Icel. 
d/rjugvy substantial, slow and sure. 
Cf. Swed. di-yg-mily a long mile, en 
dryg hok, a heavy book, Dan. dri>i 

" I am very weary, Mrs. , and wet 

through ; could you find me a ghiss of 
wine r' She dicl not reply, like the old 
Scotchwoman, " Get up into pulpit with 
you ; you'll be dry enough there." — T, Jack- 
•on, Curiosities of the Putpit, p. 344. 

The moor was driegh, an* Meg was skiegh. 

Burns, There was a Lass. 

In N. Ireland the people say, ** It's 
a dre^gh jab (a wearisome job), a dreegh 
road (a tedious road)." — Patterson, 
(E.D. S.). 

A dreigh drink is better than a drtf sermon. 
— A . Hislop, Proverbs of Scotland, p. 17. 

These two words, though spelt diffe- 
rently, are really the same. They are 
no doubt akin to the old verb drye, to 
endure, undergo (Scot, dree), A. Sax. 
dredgan, to suffer; cf. Gotli. dringan, 
to serve as a soldier (Diefenbach, 
Goth, Sftrache, ii. 641). 

Also in contemplacion there ben many other 
That drawen hem to disert and drye muche 


Political Poems, ii. 64 (ed. Wright). 

Full gray>ely got 3 )>is god man* & dos godeS 

In c/n/3 dred 6c dnunger. 
Alliterative Poems, 1360, Cleanness, 1. 342. 

Dry-bot, the name of the plant 
memlius lacrivians, is, according to 
Dr. Prior, a corruption of tree-rot, from 
A. S. treotu and rotian. 

Duck, ) a famihar caressing term 
Ducky, ( for a child or other object 
of affection, notwithstanding the ana- 
logy of the Latin anaticuln, "little 
duck ! " used as a word of endearment 
in Plautus, is not a metaphorical em- 
ployment of the name of the bird (like 
"pigeon," "dove,'* &c.), but identical 
witli Danish dukke, a bab^ or puppet 
(Wolff), Ger. docks, a doll or puppet, 
Shetland duchie, a doll or little girl ; 
with which we may compare Scotch 
tokie, a fondling term for a child (Ger. 
tocke), Swed. iokig, silly, Icel. tdki, a 
simpleton. This is more likely than 
that it should be connected with North. 



Eng. duchyt a woman's breast, and 
mean a "suckling" (cf. dug, dcmgh^ 
ter, Greek ^^«gr-ater). 

Mrs. Sanders, in Bardwell v. Pick- 
wick, thought that Mr. Sanders had 
called her a '*duck" in his love-letters, 
because "he was particularly fond of 
ducks " for dinner, which was only a 
particular form of the common philolo- 
gical error. 

Duck, l a Dorset word for the 
DucKisH, ) twiUght, as " In the duck 
of the evening," is certainly a corrup- 
tion, Mr. Barnes thinks, of A. Sax. 
\>€orc-ungj which has the same mean- 
ing (Philolog. Soc. Trans. 1864, Oloa- 
aa/ry, p. 54). 

ft is more probably, I think, &om 
dusk, O. Eng. dose, deosc, changed by 
metathesis into d/ucs, docs, as in A. Sax. 
tux for tusc, a tusk; dix for disc, a dish ; 
dirt, O. Eng. drit Cf. Icel. di}kk; diikkr, 
dark (Gleasby, 118). 

DncK-EOOS, is a comical corruption 
of ducats, in the old play of Patient 
Grissell, by Dekker, Cliettle, and 
Houghton {Shdkspere Society Ed, 
1841, p. 88). 

Cousin, jou promised to help her to her 
duck-eggg, for all her paper and ponds are 

Jf the Lyon had beene eating a ducke, it 
had beene a rare device worth a duckat or a 
ducke-egge, — Camden, Remaines Concerning 
Britaine, 1637, p. 166. 

The duccU was an Itahan coin, so 
named from the word ducatus, duchy 
(It. ducato), occurring in its legend. 

DucKiNO-STOOL, an incorrect way of 
writing cucking-stool, an ancient and 
well-known machine for pimishing 
scolding wives. Cucking-stool, origi- 
nally 1= catJiedra stercoris, is akin to 
IceL kuka (cacare), Manx cugh (ster- 
cus), another name for it being goging- 
stool, A. Sax. gong-stoh, a close-stool, in 
the form of which it was sometimes 
made (Wedgwood). Another old cor- 
ruption of the word is cocksiule, cock- 
gtoll, for cuck-stool. 

Prof. Skeat maintains that the two 
stools of punishment were always dis- 
tinct (Fiei's Plowman, Notes, p. 61) ; 
but at all events the terms were some- 
times used interchangeably. — Cham- 
bers, Book of Days, i. 211. 

The oldest word is certainly cuck- 

The pilory and the cucking-stol beth i-mad for 

Poem on the Reign of Edward II, Polit. 
Songs, p. 345 (Camden Soc.). 

Stocks for the men, a ducking-stool for 
women, and a pound for beasts. — Boswell, 
Life of Johnson, vol. iii. ch. z. p. 193 (ed. 

In a quarter sessions record of the 
time of James I., the constables are 
directed to cucke one Agnes Pringe as 
a skolster or scold (A. H. A. Hamil- 
ton, Qiuvrter Sessions, p. 85), viz. to 

duck her 

Iq a chair curule 
Which moderns call a cucking-stooL 


DuLciMELL, the old name for the 
dulcimer, Itahan '* dolcemelle, a musi- 
call instrument called a BuldmeU or 
Dulcimer, also hony sweet" (Florio), 
as if the sweet-toned. So Sylvester says 
a siren " Powres-forth a Torrent of 
m/el-Mclodies,^'' — Bu Bartas, p. 434. The 
latter part of the word is more likely 
to be from Greek melos, tune, than 
nieli, mel, honey. 

Dulcimer is a corrupted form of dv^- 
cimel (cf. marmalade, Portg. marmelo, 
a quince, from Greek meUmilon^ 
"honey-apple "). 

Durance, in the sense of imprison- 
ment, painful restraint, as in the phrase 
** durance vile," is a corrupt form of 
tlie old word duress, hardship, severity, 
imprisonment, Fr. duresse, from Lat. 
d/uritia, A connexion was imagined 
with endurance, suffering. 

Do you by duresxe him compell thereto, 
And in tliis prison put him nere with me. 
Spenaer, Faerie Qneene, IV. xii. 10. 

So \>bA duel was to deme* ^ duresse h&t he 
William oj FaUrne, 1. 1074 (ed. Skeat). 

Thy Doll, and Helen of thy noble thoughts. 
Is m base durance and contag^ious prison. 
Shakespeare, 2 Hen. IV, v. 5, 1. So, 

Being BO infeebled with long durance and 
hard U8age, that he could not stand, he bad a 
chair allowed him. and had the painfull ease 
to sit therein. — 7. Fuller, Worthies, voL i. 
p. 343 (ed. 1811). 

Dutch Cousins, an expression mean- 
ing intimate friends, used along the 
coast of Sussex. 


( 107 ) 


Yes, he and I were reglar Dutch Countu ; 
I feels Quite lost without him. — W, D, Parish^ 
Sussex Glossary. 

This is, doubtless, a whimsical cor- 
ruption or perversion of germa/n-couifinSf 
or couains-german, from the old Eng. 
word germane^ near akin, Lat. germO' 
nu8, sprung from the same stock or germ. 
Compare tiie following : — 
And to him said; ''Goe now, proad Mia- 

Thyselfe thy message do to german deare. 

Spenser. Faerie Hueene, Bk. I. cant. y. 13. 

Those that are gernyine to him, though re- 
moved fif^y times, shall all come under the 
han f^An.---Shakespearef W interns TaUy vf. 4, 

The greatest good the Land got by this 
match was a general leave to marry Cousin- 
germans. — Fuller, Worthies, vol. ii. p. 68. 

The phrase " A Dutch imcle " is no 
doubt of similar origin. 

Milverton . . . began reasoning with the 
boys, talking to them like a Dutch uncle (I 
wonder what that expression means) about 
their cruelty. — Sir A.HelpSf Aninuilsand their 
Masters, p. 131. 

Dte-house, a Gloucestershire word 
for a dadry, or day-home. Bee Day- 


Eager, a peculiar violence of the tide 
in some rivers causing them to rise with 
great suddenness, so spelt as if derived 
from Prov. Eng. eaaer, angry, furious, 
zzLat. acer (Wright), is the A. Sax. 
igor, ocean, connected with ege, awe, 
terror (Ettmiiller) ; d.osgir, the stormy 
ocean (Thorpe, North, Myth, vol. i.). 
Other forms are higre and aker. 

Akyr of the see flowynge. Impetus maris. 

Prompt, Parvulorum, 

Its more than common transport could not 

But like an eagre rode in triumph o'er the 
Dryden, Threnodia Auguttalis, 1. 154. 

Eagle-wood, the aloe. The native 
Indian name of this tree is aghdl, Sansk. 
a/faru, whence Heb. ahalim or ahaloth 
(Low Lat. agaUochum), Septuagint. 
aloth, Gk. aloe. The first Europeans 
who visited Lidia, on account of the 
similarity of soimd, called the a^hilf 
" Ugnum aquike,** ^^ aqv/UariUf" ''eagle- 

wood," Fr. hois d^a/igle, Ger. adler-hoh 
(Smith, Bible Diet,, vol. i. p. 52). See 
also Dehtzsch on Song of Songs, iv. 

It seems that the Sanskrit name is 
itself a corrupted word. 

The ''agallochum" is called aguru or 
a^ru in Sanskrit^ it is mentioned as mate- 
rial for incense m the Ramlkyana; aguru 
means ''not heavy," and as the incense is 
made out of the dfecayed roots of the tree 
C'aquilaria agallocha ). the Sanskrit name 
might seem applicable. Another name, how- 
ever, of the Aeallochum, in Sanskrit, is '' an- 
&rya-ja" proouced among non-Aryans, i.e, 
barbarians, and. I believe, the wood is chiefly 
brought from Cochin China and Siam. In 
that case, aguru may be only an approxima- 
tion to some foreign word, and an attempt to 
give to that foreign word a meaning in San- 
skrit. Aghil is only a modem pronunciation 
of aguru. — M. Mailer, in Posey, Lectures on 
Daniel, p. 647. 

Eab, the name for a spike of comi 
bears a deceptive resemblance to that 
for the organ of hearing. It is A. Sax. 
eon', a contracted form of ceckir, O, H. 
Ger. aMr (hahir, spicas. — Vocah, of 8, 
Gall, 7th cent.), Goth, ahs^ Ger. iUire, 
Scot, icker, the radical idea being that 
of sharpness, root ao, as in the cognate 
A. Sax. egl, egle, an ear of com. 

A daimen-ic/cer [occasional ear] in a thrave, 
*S a sma' request. 
Bums, Works, p. 54 (Globe ed.). 

Bat Thou with corne canst make this Stone 

to eare. 
What needen we the angrie heau'ns to fear? 
Let tliem enuie vs still, so we enioy lliee 
G, Fletcher, Christ's Victorie on Earthy 
20 (1610). 

Eab, an obsolete word for to plough, 
A. Sax. erian (cf. Icel. erja, Goth, arja/n, 
Lat. araire), occurring in the authorized 
version of the Bible (Gen. xlv. 6, Is. 
XXX. 24, &c.), and Shakespeare, has 
sometimes been mistakenly used as if 
it meant to form into ears (of com), to 

Pegge quotes &om the Earl of Mon- 
mouth's translation of Boccalini(p.ll), 
** The plowers of poetry . . . had good 
reason to expect a ridi harvest, but 
when, in the beginning of July, the 
season of earing began, they saw their 
sweat and labours dissolve all into 
leaves and flowers." — Qenikman'B 
Magaainef May, 1755. 


( no ) 


JesuB Christy and hath therein three Ilierar- 
chiaa, holy orders, or principalities. — Hop- 
ton ^ loc. cit. 

If these inferior Orbs were rowled vp. 
And the Imperiall heauen bar d to my view, 
Twere not so ^pracious, nor so much desir'd, 
As my deare Katherine is to Pasquils sight. 
Jacke Drums Entertainementf act iii. 
1. f95 (1616). 
Whoso hath from the Empiireall Pole, 
Within the centre of his happy Soule, 
ReoeiT'd som splendor of the beams divine, 
Must to his Neighbour make the same to 


Sylvesier, Du Bartas, p. 151 (1621). 

The Emperiall Heaven is one thing, the 
material] or visibleHeaven another. — IviUiam 
Streaty The Dividing of the HooJ) p. 5, 1654. 

Dante curiously enough calls the 
ninth heaven ** regal." 

Lo real manto di tutti i volumi 

Del mondo, che piu ferve e piu s*awiva 

Nell' aUto di Dio. 

Parudisoy zxiii. llS-114. 

The ro1>e, that with its regal folds enwraps 
The world, and with the nearer breath of God 
Dsth bum and quiver. Carey. 

Emrod, \ the old Eng. word for an 
Emebaud,) emerald, when applied 
to the disease known as piles, A. V. 
emerods (1 Sam. v. 6), is a corrupted 
form of hcBmrods, hemroids (Burton, 
Anaiomy of Melancholy), It. etuor- 
roidiy Fr. hemorroidea, "haemorrhoids,'* 
Gk. hadmorrhoides, "flowing with 

The Spaniards corrupted the word 
into niorSydes (Minsheu). 

An emerod [== emerald] esteemed at 50,090 
crowns. — North*i Plutarch^ Life of Augustus, 

EmerawntySy or emerowdys, Emorrois, — 
Prompt. Parvulorum. 

Enceinte, old Fr. enceincie, great 
with child. It. incinia, ungirt, also 
with child (Florio), Low Lat. ineinda, 
pregnant, Uiat is, without a cincture^ or 
girdle (Isidore of Seville), or, as the 
French say, "femme sans corset" 
(Scheler). All these words seem to 
have been corrupted by false etymo- 
logy &om Lat. incien{t)8y pregnant, 
breeding, childing, which is near akin 
to Greek egknos (i.e. inkuos), pregnant, 
Sansk. (tn', to swell (Gurtius, Griech, 
Efym, i. 126). Enceinte^ an encircling 
wall or boundary, is therefore a dis- 
tinct word. 

Enohesoun, a common old Eng. cor- 
ruption of oecainon (e.g. Wyclifie, Gen. 

xxxvii. 5), as if compounded with tlie 
preposition en {in) (so ensanqtl^. for <«•- 
amph)^ the intermediate forms being 
acJiesouriy aclutison. 

For it semes )>at )>e Kyng had grete enchexfln. 
Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 1. 5790. 

Ends errand, a Scottish expression 
meaning " a special design," is uo 
doubt, as pointed out by Jamieson, a 
corruption of ones errand, a single 
errand, for the nonce, or one special 
occasion; a/nes being the genitive of an, 

Endue, from the Lat. induo, to 
clothe, has been confounded with en- 
doto (Fr. en and doner, L. Lat. indofare), 
to furnish with a doifrnj (Fr. douaire, 
L. Lat. dofarium), then to supply with 
any gift. This is evidently the case in 
Genesis xxx. 20, "God hath endtied me 
with a good dowry." — Botavit me Deus 
dote bona. — Vulgaiei " And with Sans- 
foyes dead dowry you endeio. ' ' — Spenser, 
jP. Queene, I. iv. 51. In Luke xxiv. 
49, however, the word is used in its 
proper meaning, " Until ye be endued 
with power from on high," where the 
Greek has endud, Vulgate induo, to 
clothe. Another instance is presented 
in the Versioles at Morning Prayer, 

Priest. £fidi<« thy ministers with righteous- 

Answer. And malce thy chosen people joy- 

These words are taken from Ps. 
oxxxii. 9, " Let tliy priests be clothed 
with righteousness, and let thy Saints 
sing with Joyfulness " (P. B. version), 
where the Vulgate has " Sacerdotes tiii 
induantur justitiam, et sancti tui ex- 

Clothe ttie in clennes, with vertu be indute. 
And God with his grace he wyl the sone 

The Coventry Mysteries, p. 204 
(Shaks. Soc). 
Infinite shapes of creatures there are bred . . ., 
Some fitt for reasonable sowlos t' indew. 
Some made for beasts, some made for birds to 

Spenser, F. Queene, III. vi. 35. 

End-irons, ) corrupted forms of 
Hand-irons, J andirons, iron bars to 
support the ends of the logs burning on 
the hearth, the former occurring in the 
margin of A. Version of Ezek. xl. 43, 
the latter in Quarles' Judginent and 


( in ) 


Mercy (Repr. 1807), "Let heavy cynics 
.... be hcmdlrons for the injuriooB 
world to work a heat upon," p. 147. 

Older forms are anjondyryny andyrons. 
** Iron ** is no part of the original word, 
cf. O. Eng. awndeme {Prompt. Parv.), 
andyar, O. Fr. cmdier^ Fr. landier^ Low 
Lat. andena. Andedos occurs in 
Charlemagne*8 capitular, De Vill'is Im- 
perialihus^ c. 42 (a.d. 812). 

Enemy, a Lincolnshire nAme for the 
anemone J of which word it is a corrup- 
tion, through the common mispronun- 
ciation cmenom£f or anenemy, being mis- 
understood as an enemy. "The com- 
mon people call them em^ynes.*^ — Coles, 
Adam in Eden, 1667. 

Doon i* the woild enemies. 
TennysoRy Northern Farmer , Old Style. 

(Britten and Holland, p. 169.) 

Enemy, a Scotch word for* an ant 
(Fife), is a corruption of A. Sax. cemete, 
an emmet, which in other parts is 
caMed emmochyem>antin,enanteen. Simi- 
lar, perhaps, is the meaning of the fol- 
lowing from Wright's Provincial Dic- 
tionary, ^^EnemiSy an insect, Shrop- 

England. So far back as the time 
of Procopiufl England was popularly 
regarded by the people on the oppo- 
site shore of the continent as the land of 
souls or departed spirits. It is still 
believed in Brittany that a weird boat 
laden with souls is ferried across the 
English Channel every night, and the 
point of departure is either Boi awn 
anavoy " the Bay of Souls," near Raz, 
or La Bane des Tripassh, " the Bay of 
the Departed," at Ca/mbet (see Tylor, 
Prim, Uultv/rey ii. 69 ; Keary, Daivn of 
History y 176; Lewis, Astronomy of An- 
dents, 494; Macquoid, Picfwes and 
Legends from Normandy and Brit- 

It has been conjectured that this 
superstition arose from a misunder- 
standing of England, formerly Enge- 
lamd, as engle-land, " the Angel land," 
engel being an angel in German, A. 
Saxon, &c. 

So Ger. engllsch,?aig&Mo, and English. 
The historic pun of Pope Gregory the 
Great will occur as illustrative. 

)ni ueir bimong wummen. auh bimong 
engUt, )»u meiht don |ierto [Tuou fair among 

women, nay, among anfj^ls, thou mightent 
add thereto].— /4nrr«n Riwie, p. 102. 

In German folk-lore we still hear of a 
Realm of the Dead, which is said to be 
situated in " Eng^l-land." Engel-land in 
German literally means both the land of the 
Angels and of the English. In the former 
sense Engel -land is a later semi-Christian 
transfiguration of the former Teutonic Home 
of the aneel-like Light Elves — good fays who 
were said to be more beautiful than the sun. 
In An^lo-Sazon we find the Home of the 
Light Elves mentioned as Engb eard. — K. 
Blindy The Nineteenth Centurif, No. xxviii. 
p. 1110. 

Enhance, old Eng. enhaunce, en- 
haunse, seems to be a natural com- 
pound of en and old Eng. haunce, to 
raise or lift up, a nasalized form of 
Prov. Eng. hause, to heave up (Ang. 
Ir. hoosh), hoAizen (Peele), from Fr. 
hausser, to heighten, lift (= It. alzare, 
Lat. (?) oMia/rey to make high, cdtus). 
Cf. " Hawncyn\ or heynyn' (al. 
hawten, or heithyn vp), exalto, elevo." 
— Prompt, Parv, So a city wall is said 
to be enhaunsed (MS. in Way). ** En- 
hance, exaltare." — ^Levins, Manipuhis, 

It is, however, identical with Prov. 
enansar, to advance or put forwards, 
from enans (= in ante), forward (Skeat, 

He puttide doun mvSty men fro seete, and 
enhauntide meke. — iVycUffe, S, Luke, L 53 

Entail, in its modem and popular 
acceptation to produce a necessary re- 
sult, as when a measure is said to " en- 
tail serious consequences," is probably 
generally supposed to mean " draw in 
its wake, or tail, or sequele " (cf. " a 
matter of consequence," i,e, having a 
following, sc. of results). 

As a law term it means to limit an 
estate to a certain line of descent (to 
settle imchangeably), orig. to abridge or 
cut it off, from O. Fr. eniailler, to cut, 
It. inta/gUaro, whence intaglio, a cut 

Entice, bo spelt as if compounded 
with en (in), from the idea of drawing 
in or inveigling a person, is a corrupt 
form of aityce (Barclay, Shyp ofFooles, 
1509), to excite, inflame, or kindle, 
from Fr. aMiser, to kindle, lay one brand 
near another (Ootgrave), It. attizzare^ 
to stir up the fire, provoke to anger 

EOTUL^VARE ( 112 ) 


(Florio); and tliese from Fr. tison. It. 

tizzOj Lat. iitio, a firebrand. 

To thefte shall tlipy you 8oone attyse. 
Ancient Pnetiail Tracts, p. 11 

It is his owne lust . . . xhaXentixes him to 
gin. — Bp. Andrewe*, Sermons^ p. 752. 

EoTUL-VARE, the word for Italians in 
Beda (Hist. Ecchs,, 2, 4), as if " the 
gluttonous men " (A. Sax. cotoly ea4ol, 
efoh voracious, from etati, to eat ; cf. 
fofon, eion^ a devouring giant), is a natu- 
ralized form of lialici, literally ** Italy- 

Ephesian, a name given in Galloway 
to the pheasant (Jamieson), is an evi- 
dent corruption of old Eng. frsan, /e- 
snurti old Fr. faisan, Lat. plutsiana^ i,e, 
tlie Pliasian bird, from the Fliaais in 
He com him-self y-charged ' wi conyng & 

\\\]^ J'emuiu & feldfarps * and o)7er foules 

iViUiam of Pd/eme, 1. 183 (ed. Skeat). 

Take goode brothe, [«rin J»ou pyt 
^y fetauntex and ^y pertryks, jjat men may 
Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 23 (rd. Morris). 

Goe silly soules that doe ho much admire 
Court curious intertainment and 6ne fare 
May you for mee obtainc what you desire 
I fo'r your Jotvles of yhanin do not care. 

2\ ruller^ DavitC» Hainous Sinntf ^c, 
1631, p. 72 (ed. Grosart). 

Episode, so spelt and pronounced as 
if denoting something sung in addition, 
like epodp, odt\ should in strictness be 
€j>Moa (like nieiliod^ period, synod), being 
the Greek epcisodos, an addition ad entry 
(into a story), something adventitious. 

Equerry, an officer who has tlie 
care of tlie horses of a prince, so spelt 
as if derived from cguus, a horse (so 
Bailey), is properly the stahl-c man, 
from *Fr. ecurie, Low Lat. scuria. 

Equipage was onco mistakenly re- 
garded as a compound of Lat. (Bquvs, 
equal, like oipiipolsf*, equinox, &c. Thus 
•* (cqfiq^ngp, order," is E. K.'s gloss on 
Spenser's line — 

With queint Bellona in her equipage. 
The :^hephearir}i Calender, Oct., 1. 114. 

But let thes4> translations be beheld by un- 
partial eyes, and thev will be allowed to go 
m equip -ge with the best Poems in that ag^e. 
—7'. FuUer, Worthier, vol. i. p. 411 (ed. 

Equip, formerly csl'ip, rsquip, from 
Fr. efjuipf^, esquiper, ^p, esqtilfur, was 
originally to fit out a sliip (It. 8chlJo, 
O. H. G. shif, Goth, skip), M. MuUor, 

To e»quippe or foumish ships with all abi- 
lements. — Cooper, TheMurus, 1573. 

See Verstegan, Rest ifut ion of Bcc.alod 
InieUiqencc, p. 205. 

Ebd-lino, cordling, or ner^linq, the 
A. Saxon name for the bittern or lieroii, 
as if from porrf, eor^, the earth, is a cor- 
niption of Lat. ardea, Gk. crodios, a 

Errant, " In Law, ia applied to Jus- 
tices who go the circuit " (Bailey), as 
if f(?f7»w?rnt?^ judges (Lat. erranffs, from 
errare, to wander) ; it is really derived 
from Fr. ci-re, a way or course (Cot- 
grave), 0. Fr.nVf*, a journey, Fr. errf^r, 
O. Fr. ^drar (L. Lat. iin^aro), to jour- 
ney, all from Lat. Her, but confounded 
with prrare. Scheler even thinks that 
tlie Juif orrant is of similar origin. So 
" Justices in oijrc,'^ are justices on a 
journey ; explained by Spehnan as 
** Justiciarii iiiim-atifps, or rrranfes, for 
itrr is also called oror*' {Glossarium, 
p. 240, 1626). 

Tuelf hundred ns in S'^r of grace & nintence, 

ich vnderstonde, 
The «ir0 of Justice wende aboutc in the 
Hobt, of Gloucester, Chronicle, p. 517 
(ed. 1810). 

Errant, in the sense of notorious, 
rank, is a corruption of Arrant, which 

Take heede of those, 'for they are errauut 
theeues. — Thos, Lever, Hermans, IbbO, p. 66 
(ed. Arber). 

Ebscen, an old Eng. word for tlio 
hedgehog (? fide Somneri), as if from 
ersc^ a park or warren, is a corruption 
of an original seen in O. Eng. irch^m, 
urchone, O. Fr. orison, Sp. crizo, Fr. 
hSriason, Lat. ericitis, 

EuTOPiAN, Milton's spelling, "Aflan- 
tickand l!.'«/02>iV7n politics, which never 
can be drawne into use, will not mend 
our condition" {Arcoj>agificn,, 1644, p. 
61, ed. Arber), as if from Greek fu, 
well, and io}X)8, a place, is a mistaken 
form of Ufoptian, from on, not, and 
iopoi, a non-existent place, " Kenua- 
quhair," or No man's land. 


( 113 ) 



Provincial names 
for the darnel, lo- 
/rum ;)^rf^w, are 
Mrmptioiu of its French appellation 
imrnes so called from its power to Ine- 
hriate or make drunk (irrv). Cf. Ger. 
ramtehkon^ Flem. dwnckaerf, Lat. lo- 
Imm fenudefilfcm. See Rat-obass. 

EVBBHXLL8, a Northamptonshire 
word, sometimes contracted into errils^ 
for a field or enolosnre, originally an 
allotment of common land to a parti- 
enlar proprietor, is a corruption of 
«00era2, a portion mrerfd or set apart, 
** a divided enclosure " (Kennett, Pa- 
ffodb. Aniiq^ 1695). 

Of late he** broke into a teveral 

WUeh dock belong tome, and there hespoili 

BoCbeom and pastare. 

Sir John OldcastUj iii. 1. 

Stsmberg, NorthampL Glossary, 

It is easy to see now constantly re- 
enmng phrases like *' John's several,** 
" His several," would degenerate into 
** John's evenJ, ' * *' His everal/ ' Bo in 
oampounded words the initial s of the 
latter part is often swallowed up in tlie 
final 9 of the prefix, especially in the 
fliM of ets (= elc$\ e.g. execrate for ex- 
moraie (eL consecrate) ; exert for ex- 
mH (oL in-^eH); exist for ex-sist (cf. 
m-tki) ; expect lor ex-sped (cf. in-sj^rcf) ; 
mpm for ex-spire {eL in-spire) ; extant 
far eBSStcaU (ef. 4n-stant): extinct for 
ea-sffiMt (ef. tn-siinct) ; extirpate for rx- 
tUrpaiei eamde for ex-sude; exult for 
s m s Mlt (ef, m-ndt) ; exuperate (Browne) 
for «B-f«perafo. 

Why should my heirt think that a teven^l 

Whieh my heart knowa the wide world's 

commoo placed 

Snaketptarty Stninet czxzvii. 

IVnCh lies open to all ; it is no man's ie- 
9srmL (Patet omniboa Veritas ; nonduni eiit 
oeeapata.)— B. Jonaon^ Ductnerief, Work*, p. 

doaieare8oboyateTon8,noiifOfra//ji will hold 
thcB, bnt lar all Offices common to their 
powerw—r. FuUtrf Holy and Profane State, 
p. SM (1618). 

old Eng. eavfirihirer 
{Leffend of 8* Kaiherine, p. 87), is no 
eompoana of every, evericli, but a cor- 
mption of ever-gehwcer, ever ywherc; 
ever being the nsnal 12th century prefix 
(Oliphant ) . 8o Jumdy-icorJc is for Imud- 
geweore^ hatuUywork. 

Excise, apparently a portion cut n/T 
or f*xcis*^ (Lat. txcitfus) from a com- 
mo<lity in tlie way of duty, a tax, like 
ttifllttgr from Fr/tailh*}', to cut. Prof. 
Skcat, however, shows tlmt this in a 
mere mis-spelling ofaccis*', Dut. tiksys, 
akslls, Ger. nccis*\ and these comiptions 
of O. Fr. assis, assisi\ an assessment 
{Lat. as8*s^i*s), — Kiym, Ulcf,, s. v. Ae- 
cisr occurs in Howell, Letters, Bk. i., 
vii. (1C19). 

All the townes of the Ix)we-Countreyeii 
doe eult uywii themselves an rinV of' all 
tliio^es towarde the mayntiMiauiice of the 
warre. — Sinter, State of Irtlami^ p. 66^ 
(Globe ed.). 

ExcBEMBVT, frequently used in old 
writers for the hair or nails, is literally 
an " out-^owth " from the body, an 
excr^'sccnce (Lat. excrt>mmfum, from ex- 
crt'scrrre, to grow out), and has no con- 
nexion with excremmt, tlie excreta, or 
parts separated by digestion (from Lat. 
excf-mo, to sift out), with which it has 
sometimes been confounded, c. g. by 
Richardson. Tims Fuller says that 
Elislia was mocked by the children 
" For lacking the comely exert" m^mf of 
haire on his head." — Pisgah-Sighi of 
Palestine, p. 249 (1650). 

If that omamentall eicrement which fn^weth 
beneath the chin bo the utandard of wisdoms, 
they [gfonts] carry it from Aristotle himself. 
— llorthie* *f En^LtHd, vol. ii. p. 53.} (ed. 

Why is Time such a nicr^irArd of hair, hein^, 
as it is, BO plentiful an firrrm^rir ? — Shakenyeare, 
Coiwfdy of Error*, ii, t, 1. 79. 

Above all thinp:s wear no beard : lon{7 bearrls 
Are ni^ns the brains are full, because tJie 

Come out so plentifully. 

Hiivdolph^ Amuntu*, i. 3, Work*, p. ^H'i 
(<Hi. Mazlitt). 

Pliny snith that the thorn is more soft than 
atreo, and niort> hanl than un herb; as if it 
were Aonie unkindly thin^« and but an un- 
perfect cicnnirHt of tlie earth. — T, Adium, 
Fore*t ofThonii, Works, ii. 478. 

The folloi^-ing passages show how 
the two Words were confounded. 

Kxpulsion \A a power of nutrition, by 
which It expi-lls 8lli*ui>erfluous^jrrfmfiitsand 
relicjues ot meat and drink, by the );uts, blad- 
ders, pores ; as by purging, vomiting, spit- 
ting, sweating, urme, huirh, nuiU, &c. — nur- 
toii, Anatomu of Melancholy, I. 1, ii. 5. 

HaireA are bodycH eneendred out of a su- 
perfluou*i ncrement of the thirrl concoction, 
torrified by the naturall heat . . . One vapur 



( 114 ) 


continually Bollicitin^ U vrginp: another, thej 
are wrought together into one hody ; euen as 
in ChimneyR we Bee by the continual! ascent 
of Soot, long strings of it are gathered as it 
were into a chaine. The difterencc is, tliat 
the atniightnesse of the passages of the Skin, 
where through the matter of the Haires is 
auoided, foimeth them into a small round- 
nesse, euen ns a wire receiueth that projwr- 
tion whereof the hole is, where through it is 
drnwne. — //. Crooke, Uexcription of ' the Body 
of Many p, 67 (1631), 

Exhale, sometimes used by Shake- 
speare as moaning to draw out (Clark 
and Wright), seems to be a confusion 
of Lat. exhalare, to breathe out, with 
Eng. hah, to draw or drag, Dan. JiaUf 
Dut. hdl<!n, to pull or draw. Thus 
when Pistol defies Nym to mortal com- 
bat, tind bids him draw his sword, he 
says — 
The grave doth gape, and doting death ia 

Therefore exhale, 

Henry V. ii. 1, 1. 66, 

And when King Henry's corpse be- 
gins to bleed in tlie presence of Glou- 
cester, Lady Anne says — 

Tis thy presence that exhales this blood. 

Richard 111, i. 2, 1. 58. 

ExTASY, a mis-spelling of ecstasy, 
Bometimc^s found, like the French ex- 
tasoj as if from the Greek ex and tasis, 
the state of being oviT strahwdy instead 
of from eh and stasis, being beside one- 

There is nothing left for her but to fly to 
the other world tor a metaphor, and swear 
qu'elle etoit tout extaftit'e — which mode of 
speaking is, by tlie bye, here cree]>ing into 
use, and there in scarce a woman who under- 
stindii the 6o/t ton but is seven times a day in 
downright extastf, — Sterne, Letters, zxiii. 

In the same authour [Florilegus] is re- 
corded Carolufl Magnus vision an. 8H5, or 
extasis, wherein he saw heaven and hell after 
much fanting and meditation. — BurUm, Ana- 
tomy of MeLincholy^ III. 4, i. i. 

Eftsoones she thus resolv'd; that whilst the 

Gods . . . 
Were troubled, and amongst themselves at 

To set upon them in that extasie, 

Spenser, F. Queene,Yll. 6, xxiii. 
Joel breaks into an extasy as he sees the 
spirit of God poured out *** on all flesh.*' — 
Saml. Cox, Expository Essays, p. 119. 

This carri^'d the Heart of olde Simeon into 
such a holy extasie of religious delight, that 
earth could hold him no longer, but he must 

needs, as it were, breake prinon, and leape out 
of his olde body into heauen. — G. Fletcher, 
Reward of the FaithfuU, 16'23, Poetm,, p. 27 
(ed. Grosart). 

ExTEME, an old Eng. perv'ersion of 
esteem (JjdX, (Bstimare), as if compounded 
with the proposition ex. Hall reports 
how " certain Scottes of the islo of Bri- 
tayne eate the floshe of men .... 
€xtem7jng this meate to be the greatest 
deinties." — Henry V, fol. 8 a, 

ExTERics, a common corruption in 
Scotland of the word hysftTics (Jamio- 
son). See Asterisks, High strikes, 
and Steracles. 

Eye, as an article of millinorj-, the 
correlative term to a hook, which it 
serves to catch, being indeed its coun- 
terpart and inseparable concomitant, 
as in the expression ** hooks and eyes," 
seems to be a metaphorical use of tlio 
name of the organ of sight. It is pro- 
bably a corruption of the German ocse, 
which has the same meaning. 

Ose is given in Rumpf, Technolo- 
glsclies Wihierhuch, as meaning a ring, 
loop, link, hoop, or eye of a rope, hook, 
&c. Auge, however, is used in a simi- 
lar way. Cf. 0. Eng. oes = eyes, 15th 
cent. (Wright), and eyelet-JioU, Fr. 

It is perhaps the same word that in 
old writers appears as o or oe, in the 
sense of a spangle or circlet. 

Yon fiery oes and eyes of light, 

Midsum, iV. Dream, iii. f. 
Oes or spangs, as they are of no great cost, 
BO are they of most glory. — Bacon, Of Masques 
and Triumphs, 

Eye, used, as formerly, in the sense 
of a tint or shade of colour, is probably 
j&om A. Sax. hiw, hue, colour, ai)poar- 
ance (cf. eawlan, to show or manifest), 
Swed. hy, Goth, hiwi, appearance, 
colour (Diefonbach, ii. 556). 

The ground indeed is tawny, 
Witli an eye oi green in it 

Tempest, ii. 1. 

Red, with an eye of blue, makes a purple. 
•^Boyle, Experiments touching Colours. 

The Shakespearian verb eye, to ap- 
pear, is perhax)S the same word. 

My becomings kill me, when they do not 
Eye well to you. 

Antony and CUop. i. 3, 1. 97. 

Eye, a prov. word for a brood or 
nest, as "an eye of i)heasants'* (Old 


( 115 ) 


Cemmiry and Farming W(yrdB, E. D. S., 
p. 80), fleems to be a oormption of Fr. 
•M, a nest (Skeat). 


Fio. A penon is said to bo fagged 
whm wearied or tired out. This has 
been regarded as a cormption oiflaggod^ 
beeome limp (It. fincco^ Lat. fivccva)^ 
car aa a eontraction of fatiguS (S. De 
Yen« Siudietin Engh'^h). The original 
meaning, I think, is beaten (cf. ** dead 
beatt" Snasez flogged, tired out), fag 
being a aUghtly cUsguised fonn of the 
cid ymrhfeag or feague^ to beat. *' To 
Fea^, to beat witn rods, to whip, whence 
fatggtmg signifieth any manner of beat- 
ing." — Bailey. 

*'Fag, to beat or thrash."— Wright. 
Hence pobably the/o^ of public schools. 
Diefenbaoh connects it witli A. Sax. 
fiage^ about to die, Swed. ftg, Icel. fclgr^ 
BeaLfetf [Goth. Spraeha, i. 880). 

"B^X fagged was certainly used in tlie 
■ame sense as fagged. 

Flagged veinessweete [? swell, I^whU] plump 
with firesh-infuBed joyes ! 


Davies, 8uwp, Eng, Glossary, gives 
instances oijag, sb. = fatigue (Miss 
Ansten), and fag, to toil or drudge (M. 
D*Arblay, Dickens). 

Faibfolks, ) Scottish names for 

Fabbfolks, 3 the fairies, of wliich 
word they are no doubt corruptions. 
Fahy farfatry (Fr. /c^w, an asKemhly 
oifhi), probably owes its present form 
to an imagined connexion wltli/i/r, as 
in the title of a modem novel, ^''Fairer 
than a Fairy, ^^ In Wales they are 
called Tylwifh teg, " the Fair family." 
Iq Iceland the ch'os of hght were '* fair 
of fiftoe,*' in distinction from tlioir dark 
subterranean brethren (Dusent, OiHoi-d 
Euays, 1858). Other names for them 
are whiie nymplhs, whit*^ Imlies, iviite 
vyven (Douce), edhaicB mulieris (More- 
sin), lilanqueUes in the Pyrenees. 

Jn the Glossary to G,l)ovnhis (1710) 
it is explained that the elves 
get their name of BroutilPH ironi tlieir 

arthy colour, " as these wlio move in 

a higher sphere are called Fairirs from 
tiieir fairness" The tnie origin wfny. 

Fr.fffi, Portg. fuln, from L. Lat. fafrt, 
a goddess of fate. 

With Nymphis and FauniA apown euery 

QuhiW Jiiref'olki* or ttinn elfis cl«*pin wp. 

G. hoiii^la*, Biiken of Eneadit*, p. 2.S3, 

Faibia*, when used as an intensive 
adverb, meaning downright, wholly, 
altogether (Lat. omnino), as in "I am 
/»//>/»/ puzzled," ^*fnlr1y exhausted," Ac, 
is an evident comii»tion of 0. Eng. 
ff^rly, wonilroiw, wonderfully, i,e, fear- 
like, A. Sax./(cr-/ic. So SScottish/i //•/?/ 
fiv, suriirisiugly or wondrouK few,/«r/»/ 
f}ie (Jamieson). Wedgwood (s. v. Fear) 
quotes from K. Brunne, " He felt liim 
hevy and ferly sick.'* 

I>o, a itt'orlich ^chI word |)et te holi Job 
seide. — Ancren Hiule, p. 148. 

\ie ])ore man Iifiite hyt vp heljue, 
Ami was jHTdf {\i\ jerlii bly|je. 

Hobt. Manning, llandtifng Sinne, 
1. bO^lK 

So in the Alliferafivo Forms (ab. 
1800), the Cities of tlio Plain when set 
on fire fairly frightened the folk tliat 
dwelt in them. 

Ferly flayed ^t folk * )>at in |x>fte fees Ipnged. 

p. 61, 1. 9&X 
Whr'n a' the hills arp covenid wi* snaw, 
I'm sure it's vrmtn Jairty. 

Burn*, l'i)ems, p. 211 (Globe ed.). 

Faibmaids, orfrrmaiU's, i,e,funiadoes, 
smoked pilcliards. 

" Eating fair ma ids and drinking 
mahogany " (gin and treacle), is a pro- 
verbial expression in the west of Eng- 
land. Hunt, Drolls, Jrc, of W, i^ng.^ 
ii. 245. 

And then (by the name of Fumadiies) witli 
oylf and u lemon, they [pilchards] are meat 
forthf ini^htic^t Donin^puin. — FHlUr,\\'oi'' 
thiex, vol. 1. p. tJ(X). 

Dried, sowctMl, indurate fi«h, as lin}?, /«- 
mados, rrd-herrinirB, sprats, stock-fish, haber- 
dine. ]M)or-Johii. — Burton, Anatomy of Me- 
lanrfiotQj 1. 2, ii. 1. 

Fair- WAY, a sea term used in charts, 
denoting the best com-sc for a vessel 
tlirough slioals or other dilliculties, is 
without doubt the German Fahrirry, a 
tliorouglifare or highway, a **/»T/v-way." 
(Coni])tiYo Fnhnrassr-r, naWgable water. 
A "fair wind "also may bo for/t>v-wind, 
Her. Fnlrmind.) The Scotcli word is 
fnu'viiy, Swed. firviig, a liigh road, 


( 116 ) 


Fairy, a provincial name for the 
weasel, also called a fare or vare or 
vary (Somerset, Cornwall and Devon), 
is the old Fr. vair, from Lat. varius, 
parti- coloured. The word in the mouth 
of a Sussex man underwent a further 
corruption and hecame a f)hari8ee 
(Parish, Sussex Glossary). " Vare wi- 
(jpon " is a name for the smew in N. 
Devonshire (in Norfolk, **the weasel 
duck") from the resemblance of its 
head to that of a weasel (Johns, Brit, 
Birds m tlieir Haunts^ p. 626;. 

Faith, O. 'Eng. feyih, feifh, an Angli- 
cized form of O. Fr. fei, feid (= Lat. 
fidevi), which has been assimilated to 
other abstract words like truth, ruth, 
health (Skeat, Etym, Diet.). 

Fall, in the exclamation " A fall f A 
fall ! " used by the whale fishers on tlie 
sight of their prev, is a corruption of 
the Dutch VaX! Vol I i.e. "A whale I 
A whale I " 

A whaler empties it« crew — clothed and 
half-naked — into the boata when at any mo- 
ment of the day or night the glad cry is 
raised of *< A Jail ! A fail ! "—The Standard^ 
^ov. 7,1879, p. 2. 

False-sweab; The Leicestershire 
folk say tliat a person who has com- 
mitted perjury is "false-sworn." It is 
doubtless a popular corruption of for- 
swear, forsivarn (Evans, Leicestershire 
Words, p. 146, E. D. S.). 

Fancy, an attempted explanation of 
pan&y (Prior), not altogetlier beside 
the mark, as pansy itself is from the 
French pcnsee, thought. 

Fanole, used for something trivial 
or fantastic, "as new fancies, new 
wlximsies." — Bailey. Narcs quotes an 
instance from Gayton, and tliis from 
Wood's Aihenm, " A hatred to fan^Us 
and the French fooleries of his time." 
Shakespeare has fangled. 

Be not, as is owrfangltd world, a garment 
Nobler than that it covers. 

Cinnbeliue, v. 4, 1. 134. 

These words originated in a mistake 
about the composition of tlie words 
runvfan^led (Palsgrave, 1680), netv- 
fanglcdness (Pref. to P. Book), less cor- 
rect forms of netrfanael (Chaucer, 
Gower), nciifanglenes (rrrf, to A. V.). 
Prof. Skeat shows that nnv-fangel is 
compounded off angel (fangol) and neu\ 

ready to fang or seize on neio things 
(Etynu Did,). 

Farmer, one who cleanses, in the 
old words jakcs-farmer (Beaumont and 
Fletcher), gong-farmer (Stowe), a la- 
trine-cleaner, is a distinct word from 
fami<!r, the food (A. Sax. ffarmc) sup- 
plier, andfamur of revenue who man- 
ages it for a fixed sum {firma, cf. '' Frr- 
niyn, or take a |:inge to ferme^ tulfirmam 
accipio.*' — Prompt, Parv.), i)eing a de- 
rivative of old Eng. ferme, Pro v. Eng. 
fnrm^ to cleanse, A. Sb,x. fearwian^ and 
akin to Pro v. and old 'Eng.ff^yjfrigh, 
or fow, to cleanse, Ger. fegvn, Dan. 
feje, Idel. fuga; also Icehfagr, A. Sax. 
fceger, " fair." 

1 ferme a siege or priuy, Vescure, — Pals- 
grave, Le$ci4iirciisement, IXiO. 

Fimtarius, given in other MSS.fima- 
rius and fv/niarins, in the Prompt. Par- 
v^ilortmi (c. 1440), as equivalent to 
" racare of a pytte," is due to a false 

Farther, is a mongrel form, — a cor- 
ruption of farrer, Mid. 'Eng.ffim^fn'vr, 
old Eng. jyrra, the comparative of far. 
Mid. Eng. /er, oldEng./mr, from false 
analogy to furtJier. SofartJu'st for far- 

Now sen a ryghtwis man sallc schyne als 

Als ^e son dose, )jan mon he gyf lyght 
Alafer hIs )« son dose and /«rr«r. 

Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 1. 9151- 
(ab. 1310). 

Further (Mid. Eng. fortlier, fnihrr, 
old 'Eng. furtJwr) is the comparative of 
forth. Stoddart, Philosophy of Lan- 
guage, p. 286 ; Morris, Ilisiorical Eng. 
Grammar, p. 94. 

Fabthinoale, a comiption of the 
older form vardingale, Fr. veiivgalh\ 
vertugadin, Sp. verdugado, a hooped 
petticoat, from Sp. and Portg. Vf^-dvgo, 
a rod, a plait, and that from vcrde, viri- 
dis, a green twig. 

We shall not for the ftiture submit our!*elv<\s 
to the learning of etymology, which niijjht 
persuade the age to come that the J art h in i^nle 
was worn for cheapness, or the furbelow for 
w^armth.— Spectator, No. 478 (1712). 

The history of the French vMvgadin 
being forgotten, it was explained to be 
a vertu gardien, a safe-guard, from its 
rendering it impossible to approach the 
wearer except at arm's length ! Jamie- 


( 117 ) 


MB ^rm QB a Seotoh word vardingard, 
Md ItaL gnardinfante^ which must be 
• finther oomiption. 

Wkk time FcrrfiJifslft the Gownsof Womon 
ir wttiites were peiit-houM*d out 
Jieir bodies, m that pMtprity will • 
to what parpoM those buckl«*n of 
-board were emplored. Some di'Juce 
HBO from the Belgick Verd-gard ( derived, 
thn Mjy Aom Virg^ a Virf^in, and Ganlfr^ 
li laep and preaenre); as used to M*cure 
aodaaty, and keep wantons at a distiuice. 
Othsn mora tmlj finch it from Vertu and 
Gallr ; becaoa e the scab and bane thereof, the 
imtiaweuireas thereof being known for a li}?ht 
Ihaw wife, who, under the pretence of mo- 
iiM|y aooght to cover ber shame, and the 
ftaili of aer wantooneis. . . . 15ut theite 
WtfdiMgmlm have been diMused this foiirt^ 
fmnd — FuUerp IVorthia of En^^taudf vol. ii. 

FsahtOD hroaght in the farthins'dey and 
CKricd oot the ^arlAin^/f, and hatli again 
nvhred thmJf^mHhingaU from df>ath, & |il;ir(Nl 
itbAiad, hke a nidder fit ntcTu to the body, 
ia BOiM ao big that the ressi>l is scare** a Me to 
bsaritp— fip. John Kwg^ Lecturer on Jonahf 
U94^ pu far ( Nichol s ed. ). 

I wammt you they had bracelets, nnd rcr- 
d&^gyalai, and suche line geare. — Im timer, 
Sir— i, p. WO, vento. 

Whatoompass will you wear jour /art /li/i- 

Skmht^^rtf Two Gentlemen of Vemna, 

ii. 7, 1. M. 

Ihe Qoeene ariv'd with a traine of Portu- 
goan ladiea in tlieir monstrous faniin^iiU or 
gaanf-m/aattiji, their complex ionfl olivader 
aod abfliciently unagreeable. — J. F.ielu't, 
Dknff May 30, 1662 (p. «BI, A. Murray 
IVd with pinn*d ruffii, and fans, and partlet 

Aad boaka, and verdingaUs about their hifM. 
Bp. HuUf Satires, IV. 6, 1. lU. 

Fabhionb, a disease of horsoH, the 
hny^ a oomiption of Fr. farchM, urcin 

£iL farciTmnunij orig. a stii fling). See 
vies, 8upp. Eng, Glossary, s.v. 

Infected with the J'axhioM, 

Taming of'the Shrew^ iii. 3. 

No, afara, my bonu* is not diseased of the 
JktkhmM. — CapUy, Wits, Fits, and Fancies, 

They are like to die of the^ast^'n. — Greene, 
fmnwtU to FoUy, Introd. 

It. fa/rdna, ''tlie farcin, farcios, 
faMcmM or creeping ulcor in a horso." 
— ^Fknio. Cf. Qer.fusch. 

**Fukio»!" says a Wiltshire fsirmer to his 
BBW-fengled granddaughters, ** lla ! many a 
good horaa baa died o* the Ja>hion I " — Aker- 

Davies quotes from Stoma " a/irc/- 
enl house," one fit fnr the reception of 
farcifd patients {Supp, Eng, Gloss'try), 

Favour, to curry, is a corruption 
of the old plirase fo cnmj fav*]., whidi 
meant originally to curr>' the yellow- 
coloured horse, fnvrl ; ]»ut the puiinLn^; 
allusion to facA, fnvrUt\ Bij»nifyin|jf 
flattery (from Lat. fulnla) eventually 
predominated, and f^^ave the pliraso the 
meaning of to flatter or cajole. See 


Men of worschypiN* thiit wylle not ^Iom 
nnrri»rtf_/ifrj//.— (ifrifiirvN Chronicle oj lAindon 
(1-kil ), p.\;i4 (Cumd'en Soc.). 

Sell*' wa* a 8c*hr»»we, att hare v hele, 
Then» she currtitf'djmH'H wi'll. 

i/i>ii? a Merchant did his K'^i' betray, 
I. ^.W. 

Curryfauell, a flatti 'rer, wfri//^. — Palsgrave. 
(Skeatf Sotes to i*. Phuunan, p. 13. ) 

Faun'T, an old Enf?. word for a cliild 
(WychfTo, Exod. ii. U, i^c), so spelt as if 
a nnitilated form of hifnunt, an infant 
( Lat. In-f'in(f)tt, one who cannot s])eak), 
is no doubt the same word as (dd Fr. 
/m, fdfyn, ffon, a younji: animal, off- 
spring (our ** fawn "), through frdon, 
fipfon, from Lat. frntus. Hence also 
Walach. /<7, a cliild, Sard, frdii, i)ro- 
geny (Wedgwoo«l). The excrescent t 
(as in tyran-t) is common. 

At !« fote ^vr-of |?»*r S'*te a/aunt ^ 
A mavdfMi of mennke, ful dehoiif>re. 
AUiter^itive Poems, A. 1. 162 (ed. 

In Lrgpnds of flu*. Holy Hood (E. E. 
T. S.), Christ is called— 

Ciodessoue and muyden»s fmint. 

r. Ik), 1. 124. 

" Ftiunch (door) " is perhaps the same 


The Y:\iiti\fuHnch d»?er of tliehnwtliom glen 
Makes li^lit of my woodcnift and me. 

O. J. ^yhute-MeliUle, Song^t and Verses, 

Feasestr.vw, an old corruption of 
the woriifrsfit, the name given formerly 
to a straw or small stick used in point- 
ing out to children their letters. Later 
forms are fskue and ffsciir, all from 
Lat. frstncn, a straw. See Davios, 
S^tjtp. Eng. Glossary, s.v. Fesfrao:^, 

Festuca, a f»»skue or fea^iestraw that children 
usr to iM)int th»»ir lettrrs. — f'/i»iii» (1611). 

But what siM'St thou a /«*'('" »» the rise of 
thi brother, and thuu neest not a borne in 
tliin owne e 3* ? — M'ucliffe, 6". Matt, vii. 3. 


( 118 ) 


This cloyster . . . arched with stone hath 
in y* work our hlessed Lady shewing her son 
to read w*** a fescue &l books. — T. Dingletfy 
History from MarhUj clxx. (Camden Sec.)* 

A Gesture f penna, festuca. — Levins, Afani- 
puluSf 1570, p. 192, 21. 

Featherfew, ] provincial names of 

Featherfold, the plant feverfew, 

Featherfowl, i the Pyrethriim par- 

thenlum, so called from its being a 

febrifuge (Lat. febris fuga, what puts 

lever to flight). 

To these I may adde roses, violets, capers, 
ietherfew. — Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, 
*16th ed. p. 436. 

Other old corruptions are fedyrfoy 
{Prompt, Parv,) and fetherfewelh wliile 
provincial forms Are fe^herfull^fecUJler' 
fooly^ fetherhow,feiherfoe^ feafhcrvolieeUe, 
feverrfox, feve^foullie. (See Britten and 
Holland, Eng, Plant-Names, p. 176.) 

Feather-stone. Dr. Brewer {Did, 
of Phrase and Fahle), giving no autho- 
rity, more suo, quotes this word as 
meaning " a federal stone, or stone 
table at which the ancient courts baron 
were held in the open air, and at which 
covenants [fcedera] were made" [?]. 
Wycliflfe has federed, bound by cove- 
nant (Prov. xvii. 9). 

Fell, a Scotch word for very {valde), 
sometimes spelt feil and fele, as in the 
expression "He's a fell clever lad" 
(Lady Naime), is from the old Eng. 
feel, pure, true (Oliphant, Old and Mid, 
Eng, p. 76). But compare A. Sax. 
fela,. much, O. Eng. fete (Ger. viel), 
which was perhaps confounded with O, 
Eng. fel, cruelly. 

Ych haue koled for Jay loue woundes fele 
sore. — Boddeker, Alteng, Dichtungen, p. i73, 

Feltryke, an old Eng. name for the 
plant Eryihrma cenia-urium, as if fell 
trick, is evidently a corruption of its 
Latin name fel terrm (Dutch eerdegall, 
Eng. earth-gall, Cotgrave s.v. Sacoiin), 
so called from its very bitter taste. 

Feltryke, herbe, Yistn,fel terre, centaurea. 
'^Prompt. Parvulonim, 

It may have been regarded as that 
with wliich women trick their **fell of 
hair," it being commonly used as a 
hair- dye formerly. See Way (note in 
he. cit.). 

Female, so spelt from a false analogy 
to 9»a/o, with which it has no con- 

nexion. It is the French femcUr, Lat. 
femella, for feniinula, a diininutivo of 

And in euenynges also 3ede males fro 
femeles, — Vision ofr. PLowmanj B. xi. 331. 

Dr. Donne spells the word f com all, 
Liv'd Mantuan now a^aine, 
That fitmall Mastix, to hmme with his 

This she Chymera, tliat hath eyes of fire. 

Poems, 1633, p. 97. 

Sylvester speaks of palms 

Whose lusty Femals wilh'iip- 
Their marrow-boy ling loues to be fu Hill- 
ing .. . 
Bpw their stiff' backs, and seme for passing- 

Du Bartas, p. 1»0 (1621). 

Male, best or fowle, no femel, Musculus. — 
Prompt. Pan, (1440), 

I will conclude that neither Viporg in- 
gender with Lampreys, nor yet tho fnnuU 
vipers kill the male. — Topsetl, llistorie of 
Serpents, p. 296 (1608 ). 

In The Two Nohle Kinsmen (v. 1, 
140), Emilia addresses Diaua as one 

Who to thy f emu II knights 
Allow*st no more blood than will make a 

The form femmnh occurs early in 
Alliteraiive Poems (14tli cent.), p. 57, 

Fenny, an old coimtry word for 
mouldy, as "/etmy cheese " (Worlidgo, 
Diet, liusticum, 1681), as if the same 
word as fenmj, boggy (cf. Goth, fani, 
mud), is only another form of vlnnnj, 
vinnowy, or vinnewed, mouldy, A. Sax. 

Ferret, which would more regularly 
be spelt furei (like the cognate word 
"furtive "), owes its present form i)ro- 
bably to a mistaken idea that the 
original was ferette, a dim. of fere, Lat. 
fera, as if the "little wild animal." 
Compare Fr. furet and furon. It. 
fwretto, from Lat. ftir, a thief, Lan- 
guedoc/t^re, a mouse, just as "mouse " 
(Ger. maus, Lat. Gk. mus) is from 
Sansk. tntt^^, to steal (vid. Pictet, OHg. 
IndO'Eur, ii. 441). 

Forette, or ferette, lytyll beste. [Mid. 
Lat] FurOffnretus, veljurunculns. — Prompt, 
Paiv. c. 1440. 

The Latines call this beast Viuerra, and 
Furo, and Fuietuf, and Furectuf, becauwi . . . 
it preyeth vppon C'oni<*s in their holes and 
liuetk vppon stealth. — E. Top»ell, Fourvjovttd 
Beasts, p. 216 (1606). 


( 119 ) FIDDLE'DE-DEE 

^1 an old namo for soino 
ipeeieB of woven silk Dabric, is a cor- 
mpCed form of It. fiorvito, Fr. fl* uM^ 
Oit.fonU^ tram laX.floB^ a dower. It 
pwhiif ciziginally bore a flowercil pat- 
taxn. **lUfioretHf course //rrpf Bilkcs.*' 
— Florio. Another name for it was 
firi^fimi^ orflorei^ silk. 

mrefanmitien put in no />nvr- nil k«*. 
G. GmaeoigM^ The Stgel Olat, 1. 10U5 

is the Frencli viroh^ " an 
iron ring put about the cud of a fitafT, 
Aeuy to strengthen it, and keep it from 
liTing*' (Gotgrave), Sp. vlrohi, con- 
neeted with ft. viita^ a riu^, t'/n.'/*, to 
tnzn aronnd. Comixitod from a fulso 
analogy to ferrum^ iron. Tlio oKlcr 
fiirm 18 verrel, verril (Bailey). 

FS8TRA.W, a corruption of hsfu*' or 
feteMe^ Lat. festuca^ a straw or wand 
used to point out the letters to a child 
iBaming to read. In E. Cornwall it 
appears as vester (T. Q. Couch). 

All that man can do towards tin' lupritin^ 

of hearen is no more tlinn tlM* hftiii}; up of u 

jMfnaw towards the meriting of a kiii^(h»iii. — 

Tkm. Brooks, Apples of Gold (l(i<>)}, W'orkt 

{edL Nicbol), vol. i. p. ii'X 

We have only scapt tbo feruhr to roine 
woder the Jescu of an Imprimutur. — Miltony 
Armpagiticaf 1644, p. do (ed. Arb4*r;. 

Fbtoh, the apparition of one who is 
■fcQl alive, is probably a comii>ti(>n of 
the Scandinavian rce//, a 8U[>t'rnatnriil 
being (Icel. vceiir zz wi^lit, Cieashy, 
7S0). so wBtte-lya^ the va^tt's candle, 
would be the origin of the frfcJi-findle 
(Wedgwood). But in Manx j'anUh is 
a c^ost or apparition. 

Fbtlock appears to be another form 
dtfiet'loek, and has so been understood, 
either as the joint of a liorse's leg 
whereby the foot is inter-Zoc-Avti with 
tiie tibia (Skinner, Hichardson), or as 
the lock of hair whicli grows behind tlie 
foot. Mr. Wedgwood, however, thinks 
that the word is the same as Swiss 
fetloch, faJoch, But. viishh, vifhl: (:'), 
the pastern, from Low Ger. fiss, Swiss 
fsel^ a lock of hair, Dut. vezrj. In 
Cornwall it is called the jctierlock 

Fbttebfoe, in Prompter ium Fanm* 
lorumfedcr-foyt a corruption ofjeirrj't'iv, 
Bee Fkathkbfsw. 

Fkud, an inveternto pmidce, enmity, 
a private war, is A. Sax./*'//^, hatred, 
LowLat./a/»//i (Charlonia^mo, Cnpihi- 
lary), Oer. f*'1uh\ Ooih. fijaihwn (akin 
to Jinulf fop^ root vi, to hate), mis- 
takenly assimilated to /?/(/, a fief, 
Low Lat. fi Villi m, Tliis latter fnvd 
hiLq l)cen evolved out of Low Lat. 
f*vdiiHsy a vassal (-=. Icel. fv-v^al), 
mistaken for an adjective (Skeat). 

Cuward D«>Ath iH'liind liim juin[>it 
\Vi' deadly /ri'/c. 
hum*, PiH-ms, p. W (^(ilolw wl.>. 

Fbverefox, a corruption oifevrrf* iv. 
See Feathekfkw. 

Fewterkr, an old term for a dog- 
keei)er, or ho who lets them loose in a 
chace (Buih^y), so spelt as if connected 
with O. VAi^^.friifr, the scent or trace 
of ahca^t of chase, " Fnvfo, vesti^rium " 
(I'rotnpt, J'#/»T.), **He fond \>o fufi.' al 
fresh.''— Tr///.\im of rah rw\ l.'lM). It 
is reallv derived from (). Fr. riufrp, 
viautn' (Fr. I'autro)^ a hunting,' dorr. 
It. rt'Ui'o^ L. Lat. vflfrum, from Lat. 
vrrfriiyus^ proj)erly a Gaulisli word from 
tvr (intensive particle) +irng (Celtic = 
ixk. rpixift to nm), **tho ver>* swift'* 
(W. Stokes, Jriith Olossfs, p. 44). 

Ainoii^st si'rviii<^-inrii, worse, worse tlinn 
til*' iimirs insiii to tin* ii ndpr-yeoman-/cir/f ivr. 
W'thnter, Appins and I'irginiu.t^ iii. 4. 

It' you will bo 
An hoiipflt yoonvxn-Jeuit'rer, tee<l us first 
And walk u-f after.* 

MiLssiiii^erj The Pirfwre, v. 1. 

Fii)DLE-de-dek I As tlie exclamation 
Bosh ! (compare Cier. rontt'n ! meaning 
N(i7i6rnt<*' !) has in all prohability no 
connexion with the (Jipsy ?W/, a 
fiddle, tliou^'h Goorpe Borrow asserts 
the contrary, it seems likely tliat the 
interjection fidilh-Jo-iW I instead of 
beinj^ derived fnmi tlie popular namo 
of the violin, is a naturalized form of 
the Italian expletive Fvdiddio ! (feds 
and Idd'.o) "God's faith I" 'Sfaith I 
just as Dtar mr I dt'orl are appa- 
rently from IHo miol dio! Fiddle^ 
stick I would tlien be a fiurther corrup- 

** Fed'uld'w ! " cxclaimod Francpsco Cei, 
"that is a well-tannrd San Giovanni." — G. 
Eliotj RomolUf cli. viii. 

Smiilarly Crimiml an interjection 
of surprise, Mr. Wedf^wood thinks is 
It. criminal cf. crymaninsl Gracious! 
(DfVi/ii^hnc Cnurtithij), p. 12). 


( 120 ) 


Fieldfare, the name of a bird sup- 
posed to have been so called from its 
characteristic habit of faring or moving 
across the fields (so Isaac Taylor, 
Words and Fla^s, p. 160, n. 2nd ed.), 
Old Eng. feldffa/i'e and felfare in the 
Prompforium Parvulormn (ab. 1440), 
is a corruption of A. Sax. fealefor, 
fealofor (Ettmiiller), from feah, fealav, 
tawny, yellowish, Lat. flnvus. In 
Cumberland it is called ihe feU-faiv, or 
" mountain gipsy,** as if from fell, a 
mountain (Ferguson, Glossary, s.v.). 
Compare ¥r, fauvette,, a small bird, a 
warbler, from Fr. foAivey Lat. flavua 
{f alius), 

Glauciumf .... A felfare^ or (aa some 
tbinke) a coote. — Nomenelator, 

Feldfare also, however, is found in 
old English (Skeat). 

Wi)7 fesauns & feldf ares' and o)«r foules 
mUiam ofValerne, 1. 183 (ab. 1350). 

FiOARDE, an old Eng. word for a 
roebuck used in Wycliffe's Bible, Deut. 
xiv. 5, is a corrupted form of Lat. 
pygargus, Gk. pugargos, " white- 
rump.** The word was perhaps in- 
fluenced by A. Sax. fi/rgen-gdt, a moun- 
tain-goat, firgcn-hucca. 

File, a slang term for an artful per- 
son, formerly a thief or pickpocket, 
from Prov. Eng. /ca7, to hide, 0. Eng. 
fclcn, Icel./cZa, Goth.^i/Zwin, to conceal. 
Near akin is fil-ch, jU-k, and perhaps 
Ft.fiJou, "To Fealty velare, abscon- 
dere.'* — Levins, Manipulus (1570), p. 

The greatest character among them was 
that of a pickpocket, or, in truer language, a 
Jile.—ll. Fielding, Jotuithan Wildy Bk. iv, 
chap. xii. ( IVorh, p. 690). 

Fillet, an Anglicized form of Fr. 
fihfy a little thread, from ^Z, h&t.filum. 
An old form is felet (Paston Letters), 
Low Lat. feleta (1394, in Way), and 
the orig. meaning a band worn across 
the forehead consisting of hnon em- 
broidered with gold (Ortvs). It is 
worth considering whether it is not a 
corruption of phylacierium {fihiicriuin), 
to which it closely corresponds, and 
by which indeed it is glossed in the 
Prmupiorium Parvulorumy " Fyleitc, 
vicrta, philacicrmm." Compare It. 
filaUriOy a precious stone worn as an 
amulet (Florio), the same word, with 

its close resemblance to fihitorlr, fiJa- 
tera, a web, a woof. Low Lat. filahrium 
is used for a girdle (cordHiere), while 
filetum is a net (Du Cange). 

Forsothe thei alargen her Jilateries, — Wit- 
clijfe, S, Matt, xxiii. 5. 

Fill-horse, or Fillar, "that horse 
of a team which goes in the rods." — 
Kennett, Parochial Antiquities, 1G95 
(E. Dialect Soc. ed.), is a corruption 
of thill-horse, one that goes iu tlie thlUs 
or shafts (A. Sax. \>il, Icol. \yiU), 
Northampt. filler and ihiller (Stern- 

Come your ways ; an you draw backward, 
we'll put youi*the^//j«. — Shakespeare, Troilus 
and Cremda, iii. 2, 1. 48. 

F is very frequently substituted for 
th, e,g, Wiltshire fusty for thirsty (E. 
D. Soc. Reprint B. 19), 0. Eng. afnrst 
for aihirst{P. Plowman, C. x. 85), and 
th for f, e,g. thetchrs for fitches, 
for furrow (W. EUis, 1750) ; Leicester 
throff for froth (Evans). 

The traces of the hindmost or phill-horse 
are put on an iron hook. — [V. EUis, Mod. 
Husbandtnan, I. 39 (1750). 

Thou hast got more hair on thy chin than 
Dobbin my fiU-horte has on his tail. — Mer- 
chant of Venice^ ii. 2, 1. 100. 

FiLLY-BAO, an EngHsh pronimcia- 
tion of Gaelic feile heag, i,e. fcilc, a kilt 
or covering, and heag, little (Campbell, 
Tales of IV. Highlands, vol. iv. p. 

Film Fern, |owes its name, perhaps. 
Filmy Fern, S to the latter part of 
Ilymeno-phyllum, its Latin denomina- 
tion, just as fiUyfindillan is an Irish 
adaptation of the (Spiraea) filiptn- 

Find, in the sense of to support, pro- 
vide, or supply witli provisions, as 
when ser\'ant8 are hired at a certain 
wage " all fimjid,*' or otherwise " to 
find themselves," and as when a ship 
is described as " well found,'' is a pecu- 
liar use of the word find, to discover, 
A. S&j..findan, It is old Eng. fynde, 
^^Fyndiii, helpyn*, and susteinyii' hem 
l^at be nedy. Sustcnto. Fyyndyngr, 
or helpynge in bodyly goodys at uede. 
Exliibicio, subvencio.'* — Promptai^ium 
Parculorum (ab. 1440); influenced ap- 
parently by Prov. Eng. and Scottisli 
jend, to support, provide for, or si lift 
(for oneself ), whence fcndy, managing. 


( 121 ) 


flirift;^, develm&d/enda&fe, indnstriouB, 
He most find for himielf aa well ai he 

Bmj gives ** To Ft^nd, to shift for, 
lirom d^end " (North Country WonU), 
Kr. drfemdre^ to preserve, maintaiue, 
wirtMnw (Cotgrave). Compare 

Helme end hawherke both he hent 
A long frnohion Terament. 
to find them in hin nf>ede. 
Ptrey'i Fotw MS, toL ii. p. 61, 1. 76. 

I aaaajed him, & heffended weeie. 

id, ToL i. p. 365, L S16. 

Bat gie them guid cow-milk their fill, 
Till tbej be fit to fend themsnL 

BiiriM, Pomif, p. ;{.$ ( Globe pd.)> 

Bone iaith chat in payinj^ this demaund 
tbcT aboald not be able to Jvnde chair wifi'S 
ami ehildre, but abould be'dreven to «*fnd 
ihejm a begging, and io to ^eve up tlieir 
fume.— KUm, Original Lettert (date i:>i25;, 
&d 8cr. ToL i. p. 363. 

J^idiiij^ was used for Uie exliihition 
or sapport of a studeut at tlio Uuivcr- 

I haTe a fetherbeed witli a houllHter for 
Master WjUam WelljfMl none that yn at 
Cambreg at jowre masterahviN* jitnttettjr. — 
EUmm, Original Lttten{lJ33)iird^r, vol. ii. 
p. t38. 

Compare old Eng. and Scot, findy, 
fiilL substantial, supporting (A. Sax. 
fmdig)^ as in the proverb:— 

A cold May and a windy 
Makes bams fat aiid^m/v. 

Bt hiisbondry of swiche as Cio«l hire Rente, 
fimjMind hireself and eke her ilou^Iitntn two. 
CAaucer, The Sonne* i'ree»te$ TaU, 
1. l&aU. 

My &der and my frendes 'J'onnden nie to scole. 
Langlandf Vi»imi oj /'. PUmmaUf vi. 
36 (t««xt C). 

Fiat u<dnnta0 tua 'fynt ous alle ^Tjn^iit. 

IbUi, 8H. 

If a labouring man iihould see nil tlmt hee 
^athereth and apendifth in a yrnire in a chfst 
It vuold not ^hnde him hnlfe a yenre, yet it 
Jimdetk him. — Lutimer, SermonZf p. 3(M, vfnu). 
Aa for the wicked, ind(>«Hie Ood of his ex- 
ceeding mercy and liberality Jindeth them. — 
Id, p. 167, veno. 

FntxAN, a decree of the Tiirkisli go- 
Temment, so sjielt as if derived from 
O. Eng. firm^ Portg. fimiar^ to Bij^n, 
seal and confirm a writing (formerly 
phirman), is properly the rorsian far- 
mdHf a mandate, order, Ilindiistani 
famtdnf and farwdnd, to command, 
Sanak. pramana, decitdon. A finn is 

properly tlie confirmatory signature 
(Sp. ^rma) peculiar to u trading com- 
pany, under which it does business, 
from Sp. and Portg. firniar, to sign or 

Lon^' attendance we danced ere we could 

?rocure a l*hirman tor our safe travel. — Hir 
'hoi. Herbert, TmveU, p. 2*21 (1666). 

Fish, a counter used at cards to mark 
the state of tlie game, owes its Hlia])0 
and name to a mistaken etymoln^y, 
being reall}' the Anghcizcd form oi Fr. 
Ju-fie, used in the some sense. It is a 
derivative of ficJter, to fix (as a i>eg at 
cribbogo), thun to mark, a by-form 
springing from the Latin figtTCf to fix. 
Curiously enough Fr. jmitmon (a fisli) 
seems formerly to liave been used for a 
peg fixed in the ground. In the metri- 
cal account of the siege of Carlaverock 
in the time of Edward II., we read of 
tents being erected ** with many a pin 
driven into tlie ground," — mevif jwissan 
en itTTc fichie (Nichols's translatiuu, p. 

It is, however, the last quoted word 
which is identical with onr fish. Com- 
pare O. Eng.yi<W/^', tt) h\^ ficchmg, fix- 
ing, *' No but I schal se in his hondis 
iho ficchi7i(f of nay Us. ... I schal not 
bileuo." — WycHffe, St. John, xx. *J5. 

He was not luiiji: in di^coverin«; that staking 
shilling ami halNcrowns, instfa<l ot'couiiU'rs 
and *\fi»li "... was a vi»ry different thiiij; to 

}>Uvin^ rinf^t-ft-nn at home with his sisters 
or love. — Auventnre* of Mr, Verdant Green, 
Pt. I. ch. xi. 

Fist-ball, ) poxnilarnames for tlie 
FuRZE-hALL, J fungus lycopcnlvn, or 
puff-buU. Tlie first part of the word 
represents Ger. /<?/**/, Dut. I'rnff. (crepi- 
tus), alluding to the pop or offensive 
exi)losi()ii of dust it makes when broken. 
In Sufi'olk it is called n Joint, Dry- 
den calls it a fuzz-hull, liacon a fuzzy- 
ball. See Bulfist. 

There ij* a baj?, oTfiizzv-hall, growing com- 
mon in the fields . . . full of lt}(ht dust u]}on 
the breaking. — Sulva >Sylwrum, Horkit, vol. 
ix. p. 261 (ed. IBiU). 

Fivp:8, also sjielt vivcs, a disease in 
horses, a KWv.>lling of the glands, is from 
the French acivcs, Ger. fifi'l, Sp. ahx- 
vas. It. rivoli', L. Lat. vicoUii, the glands 
of a horse. M. Littre holds that Fr. 
avivre is from vive, because horses wore 
supposed to contract tlie disease from 
drinking caux vies or vaviv&'s / 


( 122 ) 


Flash, a Suffolk word for to trim a 
hedge by cutting off the overhanging 
brush (Old Country amd Fanning 
Words^ E. D. S. p. 143), is no doubt a 
corrupted use of jilash, to cut and lay a 
hedge, orig. to interweave its spreading 
branches into a fence, to pleach or plait 
it (Fr. pUsscTt Lat. pUcare). See 

Flat, a set of rooms comprised in 
one storey of a house, as if all upon the 
one level, is the Icelandic fi'if A. S. 
fleit, Dan. /led, O. H. G. fliai, Prov. 
Qer.fietZy a dweUing, chamber, room, 
house. O. Eng. vlette^ a floor (La^a- 
man's Brut, ab. 1205). 

I Bchal itonde hym a strok, Btif on ]ABflet, 
Sir Oawayne, 1. 294 (ab. 1320). 

But fajre on kneus \)ey schule hem sette, 
Knelyn^e doun vp on the Jiette. 

f, Myrcy Instructwn for Parixh Priettty 
1. 273 (E. fe. T. S.) 

An hep of girles sittende aboute tbe^et. 
Political Songs, p. 337, I. 309 (temp. 
l-!d. II.). 
I felle ypon ^t floury yZaSt. 

Alliterative Poems, p. 2, 1. 57. 
Flet, a floor, a story of a house, commonly 
ajiat. — Jamiehon, Scottish Diet, 

Scot flet, a saucer, Banff jferf (Gregor), 
opiate, plutter. 

Flatter dock, a Cheshire word for 
pondweed. Flaiier is forfloter = float- 
ing ; compare " floter-grasse," gramen 
fluviatile (Gerarde, Herhall, p. 13) ; old 
Eng. fleathe, the water-lily, fleet wyrt, 
float wort (Cockayne, LeecMoms). 

Flavoub is probably identical, as 
Wedgwood notes, with Scottish ^icarc, 
fleure, a smell, scent (Gawin Douglas), 
French^'itrcr, to yield an odour, which is 
merely another form (? influenced by 
fleur) oi fl>(iircT (Scheler), Ptoy, flairar, 
Lat. fragrare, to yield a scent, Flaur 
{Jaaiieson), jlaware, no doubt became 
flavour from the analogy of savour. 
Old Eng. flayre, flauore. 

And alle swete savours \>a,i men may fele, 

Of alkyn thing ^t here savours wele, 

War noght hot als stynk to regard of ^t 

^t es in ^ cete of heven swa fajre. 

Pricke of Conscience, 1. 9015-9018. 
So frechJiauoie$ of fryte3 were. 
Alliterative Poems {14th cent.), p. 3. 

Fleeoarie, a Scotch word for a whim 
( Jamieson),is a corrupt form of fecgary^ 

%,e. a vagary, a wandcrinpf thought 
(from Lat. vagari, to wander), with a 
mistaken reference iofl^ee. 

Fegary, q.d. Vagary^ a vagando, a roving or 
roaming about. — Bailey, 

La tlie Holdemess dialect of E. York- 
shire it takes the form of frigary ; iu 
W. Cornwall fl^y-gerry (M. A. Com*t- 

Flight of stairs. Flight in this 
curious expression is perhaps the same 
word as tlie Icelandic fl*H, a set of 
rooms, O. H. Qer,fl>aJii, Prov. German 
fletz, A. SvkX.flett, and so would mean 
the series of stairs joining one fl^it or 
storey with another. See Flat. 

Flinty-mouse, said to be a name for 
the bat in some parts of England (T. F. 
T. Dyer, Eng, Folhlcre, p. 116), is a 
corruption of the word fllttcrmonsc, old 
"Eng.flyndennotisetflicke^-^naicsc (B. Jou- 
son), Ger. fledermatis. Cf. O. Eng. 
vlindre, a moth (Ayenhitc, 200). 

Thenne cam . . . the Hyndermows and the 
wexel. — Cuxton, Reynard the Foi, 1481, p. 
112 (ed. Arber). 

Giddy Jiitter-mice with leather wings. 

B, Jonson, The Stid Shepherd, ii. 2 
(p. 500). 

Flirt, according to Prof. Skcat, is 
the same word as Scottish flird, to liirt, 
flirdie, giddy, A. S&x.fleardian, to trillo, 
fleard, a foolish tiling, a piece of folly 
{Etym, Did.), Cf. Banff, flird, to trille, 
with the notion of going from place to 
place, "He's a flirdin' aboot bodie, 
he'll niver come to gueede " (W. 
Gregor, Banff, Glossary, p. 48). The 
old form of the word isflurt. 

Hath light of love held you so sofle in lier 

Sing all of greene willow ; 
Hath fancy provokte you \ did love you in- 

oing willow, willow, willow ; 
That now you be Jiurting. and will not 
The Gorgeous Gallery of Gallant Inventions, 
1578, p. 133 (ed. 1814). 

Skars and bare weedcs 
The gaine o' th' martial ist .... 
.... now Jinrted 
By peace for whom he fought. 
The Ttoo NobU Kinsmen, i. 2, 1. 19, 1634 
(ed. Littledale). 

It is probable that in the sense of 
amorous triiling tlie word has been in- 
fluenced both in form and meaning by 
Fr. *^fleurcier, Hghtly to pass over; 


( 123 ) 


only to touoh a thing in goinp^ by it 
(metaphorically from tlie littlo Boea 
nimble skipping from flowor to flowor 
M ahe fiaedB},*' — Cotgrave ; just as tlie 
oognate word in Spanish, /Zor^ar, moans 
"to dally with, to trifle" (Stevens, 
1706). Anyone who has observed a 
butterfly skinuning over a gay parterre 
on ft hot Bnmmer*s day will admit that 
its **" airy dance '* is no unapt compari- 
■on for the oonrse of that frivolous and 
ephemeral creature, whether male or 
female, which is known as **a flirt.** 

(1) With regard to tlie fonn, compare 
the tenn "Jlur^-silk,** U. " floret silke, 
oowrae silke** (Cotgrave, s.v. fihunrUc)^ 
from the French flewei (Gor. floret- 
Mide), and so = " flowered *' silk; like- 
wise the heraldic term ** crosso flvrt " 
(Fuller, Church History, ii. 2*27-228, 
ed. Tegg), (}.d. croixflevrriief a flowered 
eroes, "crot* florencee ** (Cotgrave). 

A pj3t Goroune 3;*t wer ^t gjrie, . . . 
W jth fturted flowreS perfet vpon. 

AUUeratiwf Poem*, p. 7, 1. ^208 
(14th cent.). 

(2) With regard to tlie meaning, in 
many languages an inconstant lover 
IB compared to a bee or butterfly which 
flita lightly from flower to flower. See 
The Wori-Hunter's Nofc-Book, p. 36, 

The rate of old, th(>y say, waa white, 
Till Love one day in waiiton flight, 
Fiirting away from flower to flower, 
A roae-tree bniahed m evil hour. 

Temple Bur Ma*;, No. czxvi. 
p. ««o. 

" A gay insect in hia Nummer-shine, 
The fop, light-fluttering, spreads hu mealy 

Thomson, Seafonfy Winter. 

The light Coqnett4*s in Sylphs aloft repair, 
And sport and flutter in the fieldi* of Air, 
Pope, Rape oj the LtKk, 1. 66, 

And as for the bee 
And hia industry, 

1 distrust his toihiome hours ; 
For he roves up and down 
Like a ** man upon town," 

With a natural taste for flowers. 
C. Lever, One of' Them, ch. vii. 

From a difierent point of view, a 
eompliment or x^i'otty lovo-spcceh is 
called in French une fl^rurctte, " Cida- 
bse est johe et soufire la Jhurcfte " 
(Le Boux, Did, Comvpie, p. 270). 
Hence ileure^er,babiller, dire des ricus 

Floil\mor or Florhncr, Fr. flcur 
d^ amour, owes its name to its Latin 
appellation amnrnnihis being mis- 
understood a.s if compounded of amor^ 
love, and anihus, flower (Prior). 

Flotilla, a small fleet, is a Spanish 
word, dimin. fonu offlota, a fleet, akin 
to Fr.flottr (O. Fr.flittc), flat for, to float, 
from Lat. flucfuare, to swim, fliicfvs, a 
wave. It was no doubt influenced by 
the really distinct words A. ^)ax. flnfa, 
a ship, Icel. flofi, a raft, Dut. vloot 

Flower, a Sussex word for floor, of 
which it is a ci)mii)tion. Cf. Fhyicor- 
hank and Floor-Jtank, an embaukniont 
at the foot of a heilgo. Similarly in 
the French phrase a flrvr de, on tlio 
same level,/* wr Rooma to be corrupted 
from Cfer. flar, Dut. r/o<T, our "floor" 

l'ijvl»»mo if«*ttes Phyloturt faste hy the pfraie 
bennle, and hy plain*; ftirce pullrs hvm doiine 
on the //.»urr. — lUche His Fareiu'U (l.)Ul), 
p. SOH (SLiikrt. See.). 

Flower armour, in Tusser, Fine 
Hundred Tolnies of Good llvshandrir, 
1577, Flnii-er armor in ed. 1580 (E. D. 
Soc. p. 95), a name for the ])laut ama- 
ranthus, is a corrui)tion of Flor.vmor, 
which see. 

Flusu, in the sense of level, a car- 
penter's term, has not been ex] darned. 
It is perhaps only a softened foiin of 
Ger. flach, level, flat (zz Greek plmv, a 
plain surface). 

Flush, a Wiltshire word for fledged 
(E. D. Soc. Ticprints, B. 10), is a per- 
verted form of old ^ug.fln(jgo (Norfolk 
flifjjt'd), able to fly, from A. Sax. jZ/of/an, 
to fly. Tliey ** am ryglit flyjgo and 
mery.'* — Vaston Letters, iv. 412. 

Flu'^ney as bryddys. Maturus, volatilis. — 
Prompt. Parvitlorum (c. 14K)^. 

Prov. Eng. fliggnrs, birds that can 
fly. Hence tlio slang term "fly," 
knowing, wideawake, able to sliift for 
oneself. Of the same origin, no doubt, 
is *' a flush of ducks," i.e. a flight ; " to 
flush a covey," to make it take wing 
( Sussex, to flight) ; and Shakespeare's 
"as flush as May " (Hamlet, iii. 3) z= 
full-blown, mature ; Wilts flitch, pert, 


( 124 ) 


Fledge was used formerly where we 
would now use " fledged.'* George 
Herbert calls skeletons — 

The shells ofjiedge souls left behinde. 

The TempUf Death, 

And says that pigeons — 

Feed their tender offspring, crying. 
When they are callow ; but withdraw their 

When they are .fledge^ that need may teach 
them flying. 


To zee the crisimore, by peep o' da^, in 
his leet Hcrimp jerkin, like a oard that isn*t 
Jiush. — Mr*. Palmer, Devonshire Courtship, 
p. 26. 

The birds have flushed and flied. — M. A, 
Coitrtnejfy W. Comuall Glossaryy E. D. S. 

Fleey astutus, calidus. — Levins, Manipulus, 

Flushed, in such phrases as ^^fiiiahed 
with success," ** flushed with victory," 
as if heated, excited, so that the face is 
suffused by a flush of blood from the 
accelerated action of the heart, is really 
a corruption of tlie older expression 
fleslied, the metaphor being taken from 
the chase — dogs becoming more eager 
and excited when once they have tasted 
the flesh of their prey. " The Hounds 
are flesh' d and few are sadd." — Old 
Ballad in Nares. Bailey gives 
*^ Flushed, Fleslicd, encouraged, put 
in heart, elated with good, success." 
Similarly flusher, a provincial name 
for tlie shnke or butcher bird (Atkin- 
son, Bi-it. Birds' Eggs, p. 81), must 
originally have been jleshcr, an old 
word for a butcher ; cf. its names, Lat. 
lanius (butcher), "murdering pie," 
Oer. neuntodier, it being a slaughterer 
of small birds. 

Attine, provoked, incensed, also fleshed or 
fastened on. — Cotgrave. 

His whole troops 
Exceed not twenty thousand, but old soldiers 
Flesh*d in the Hpoils of (iemiaiiy and France, 
Inured to his commiind, and only know 
To fight and overcome. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, The False One, 

The tyrant Ottoman .... is fleshed in 
triumphs. — Glanville, Sermons [Latham]. 

tio fl/eslimient in Shakespeare for the 
elation or pride of victory. 

[He] in theflexhment of this dread exploit 
Drew on me here &gfun. 

King Lear, ii. ^, 1. ISO. 

Although they were flesh'd villains, bloody 

Richard III. iv. 3, 1. 6. 

Full bravely hast xXxou flesh*d 
Thy maiden swurd. 

1 Hen. iF. V. 4, 1. 132. 

He that is moat fleshed in sin commits it not 
without some remorse. — Hales, liem. p. 165 

A prosperous people flushed with great 
victones. — Bp, Atterbury, Sermons [I^athani]. 

Such things as can only feed his pride 
and flush his ambition. — South, ii. 104 

Lo ! I, myself, when flush*d with fight, or 

hot, . . . 
Before I well have drunken, scarce can eat. 
Tennysim, Idylls, Enid, 1. lf)08. 

FoDDBB, food for cattle, is an altered 
form of food, A. Sax. fdda, confused 
perhaps with the cognate words, Icel. 
jd^r, Ger. futter, which denote (1) a 
lining, (2) a quantity of hay, fodder. 
Cf. Goth. /odr, a sheath. It. fodei-o, 
lining, a sheath, Dut. voeren, to line, 
O. Fr. foiire, (1) a sheath, case (Enj,'. 
fwr), (2) fodder (Eng. forage). Could 
the food of cattle possibly have been 
regarded asthelining of tlioir stomachs, 
as the justice had his fair round paunch 
with good capon Ihied ? 

Theca, ftnider. Coriti, hoge-fodder. — 
Wright, Vocabularies (10th cent), p. 41. 

FooLE, a slang word for a handker- 
chief — perhaps of University origin — 
seems to be merely an Anglicized form 
of Lat. /ocaZ<7, a neck-cloth {for faucale, 
from fauces, the jaws), on the model of 
slang ogle, an eye, zi Lat. oculus, juggle 

The bird's-eye fogle round their necks has 
vanished from the costume of inn-keepers. — 
A. Trollope, Can You Forgive Her, vol. i. 
p. 96. 

"If you don't take/o^/w and tickers — . . . 
If you don't take pocket handkerchers and 
watches," said the IJodg^r, reducing his con- 
versation to the level of OHvi'r's capacity, 
" some other cove will." — C. Dickens, OUi^r 
Twist, ch. xviii. 

FoLKSAL (Norfolk), the forward part 
of the vessel) where the sailors live ; as 
if the sali or haU of the folk, for fore- 
castle (Vhilohg. Soc Trans. 1855, p. 

Fool, in "gooseberry fool," it has 
often been said, is corrupted from the 
¥rench fouler, to crush (Graham, Book 
about Words ; Kettncr, Book of tlie 


( 125 ) 


TMb^ p. S81 ; SiU. R4iview, Fob. 24, 
1877, p. 248). 

FomUr^ howefver. It. /oZ/arr, seoms 
only to have been used for trampling 
or enuhing with the feot, to tliroii;;, 
and not in the general sciiBe of inasli- 
ing or redodng to pulp. A parallel is 
nerartheleBa afforded in Fr. marc^ the 
iwidnnm of pressed fniits, which 
Beheler derives from march tr, and 
maaurom from macciirr, to briilKo or 
eniah. ,So jam was probably at first 
fruit /omtfied or crashed, and then pro- 

Fan to year cheese-cakes, curds, and clouted 

YaarJ'ooUj your flswns. 

Ben Jonson, The Sad Shepherd, 
set i. 8C. ^. 

TL fuuudif s kinde of clouted cresme or 

In the old cookery book, LUtrr Cure 
Coeorum, ab. 1440, /o/<* ( the old spi^ll- 
ing €iJbol) occurs in the schho of a thin 
paste made of flour and wator, r.g. in 
compoanding a Cnisfafe of jI'mHo the 
diiaction ia given — 

Fyrst make s fote trap [^ disli] ^u mun 
(p. 40y ed. Moms). 

And for Tartlote$— 

Hake a fole of dogbe, and dose ^is fast 
(p. 41). 

It is probable that fool^ liko Fr. fou, 
foL^ being applicable to anything liglit, 
frothy, or nnsnbstantial, was used spe- 
eiflcally for a dish consisting of cream, 
Ae., whipped into a froth, — food the ro- 
vene of solid and satisfying. Wo may 
eompare with this vol-nu-vcnt^ origi- 
nally vo2e ei vcune, an idle empty tiling ; 
voUf light puff paste ; souffle, a dish 
made with eggs beaten into froth, «&c., 
from BOuMer, to puff or blow ; and our 
own (rife, moon-shine, and perhaps 
tiOabub (Prov. Eng. sillyhauk), as 
names for light sweet dishes. The 
primitive meaning of fool (Lat. folhis) 
■eenu to be something puffed up or 
inflated like a foot-baU (The Word- 
HvfUet'B Note-Book, p. 209). Other- 
wise we might have supposed the word 
to have denoted a dish so dehcious 
that it ensnared, or befooled one, into 
over-indulgence, like the Italian '* Cac- 
eia $apiente ['wise-catcher'], a kinde 
of Cnstard or Deuonshire whit^-x^ot or 
Lancashire /oo2e."—Florio, 1611. 

FooTY, paltrj', moan, contemptible, 
until recently only in provincial use, 
has no cnnnoxion withy/w/, as a would- 
be etymologist once iniiigincd, compar- 
ing Lat. }h'(ii]jor and /w'l «/)«», as if low, 
base (A. H. Fausset, Jfam, Jlonl), is 
N. Fiiig./oM/»/, pdor, mean. VAXstfoutnj 
(Wright), Scdt. fonftj, moan, also ob- 
scene, indecent ; compare Sct'tt, jhuirr, 
fitiifttfur, a tenn of the greatest con- 
tempt, Frenoli foufu, a scoundrel, a 
fellow of small arciMmt, fronifoiitrc, to 
leaclier ( Cotgravo ) , Lat. jut ut^ri\ 

A /imfri' for thin*' otKoc ! 
Shahf\i)faref 'si Hen. IV , v. 1, 1. 1^. 

Mr. Atkinson, however, compares 
Swed./H^^*i7,l)altr5' {CUveland Glossary, 
p. 1U7). 

Forced meat, stufling, i.n. farcrd 
meat, from fiirc^ or fnrrt\ to stuff or 
cram, Fr. j'nrctr, Lat. f'lrdrf, to 

Farcffdn as mptys. Farcitus. — Pi-ompt. 

Hc'ttiT. I wvs, tliPfi Ainadifl da Onule, 
Or eN lilt' l\illsw /oriYi/ with lM»»«i«ur»'. 
F. Thifniifj Drhitf hfturfii I'rhietiiul l.owline*$, 
(;il>. l/viH), p. (>r (Shaks. ^>oc.). 

Wit larded with malice, aud malice forced 

with wit. 
Shakespeare, Troiluf and Cmsid't, v. 1, I. 63, 

Force him with praisoH. 

ibid, ii. :). 

If thijiho the fruit of our lift* .... to till 
and farce our bodien, to make them slirines 
of pridtf . . . . 1 know not well wliat to say 
to it. — lip. Andreuet, XC Sermons, fol. p. 

ForA hit with ]>owder of canol or go<le 
gynger. — Liht-r Cure dx-onim, p. Si (I4k)). 

Faru JTO nkyn and perboj'le hit wele. — Id. 

p. no. 

Farce thy lean rih.s with hope, and tliou wilt 

grow to 
Another kind of rreaturo. 

Massinger, Hflieue A$ You TA»t, iii. 2, 

Force, in the phrase " to forc<i a 
lock," it has been supposed is a cor- 
ruption of Fr. fnnlsrr, to jnerce or 
breakthrough (Wedgwood). Compare 
** Faulser les gonds. To forcp, orbreake 
asunder, the hindgcs *' (Cotgrave). At 
all events, Shakespeare uses forcM as 
meaning "falsely imputed,*' zz^funlse, 
forged, feigned. When Leonalo dis- 
owns his child with the words, ** Tako 
up tlic bastard," PauUna rejoins, 


( ^26 ) 


For ever 
UnTenerable be tliy bands, if tbou 
Takest up the princess by tliat forced base- 
Wbich he has put upon 't ! 

The Winter's Tale, ii. 3, 1. 78. 

Forgetful is by a mistaken analogy 
compounded with -/wZ, the original 
form being old Eng. forgitol : simUarly 
Bimcful in La3amon's Brut (ab. 1205) is 
for sivicoly deceitful (Oliphant, Old and 
Mid. Eng, p. 247). Compare 0. Eng. 
gifol, zz Prov. Eng. ghish, openhanded, 
the opposite of the old word gripplo 
(Hall, Satires), griping, stingy, which 
must be from a form gnpol; witol, 
knowing, sometimes corrupted to mit- 
all : etol, a glutton, &c. 

Forget, 0, Eng. forgitan, meant 
originally "to throw away," then to 
dismiss from memory, root gha(n)d, 
Lat. (pre')hcndo (Sweet, Gregory* e Pae- 
toral Care, p. 482). 

Ten )7ing ben be letten men of here scrifte 
• • • • Jorgeteliiesae, nutelnesse, recheles. 
shamfetitncsse, &c. — Old Eng. IlomiUeSf 2nd 
Ser. p. 71 (12th cent.). 

FoBE-GO, to give up, a mistaken 
orthograi)hy o£ for go, A. Sax. for-gan, 
from the false analogy of fore-run, fore- 
see, fore-know, fore-hode, &c., where /ore 
is A. Sax. /are (= Ger. vor), before. 

For-go, however, like for-hid, for- 
hear, for-get, far-sake, contains the par- 
ticle (A. S., Dan., Icel.) for, = Ger. vet. 
" Fleschs forgon oJ>er visch (To forgo 
flesh or fish)." — Ancren Riwle, p. 8. 

FoBEiGN, spelt with g from a false 
analogy with words hke reign, arraign, 
&c. The more proper form would have 
been farain or Joram. Cf. Spanish 
forano, Fr.forain, Lat. foranmLs, from 
f(yris, abroad. See Sovereign. The 
brothers Hare used the form forein 
(Guesses at Truth), Chaucer foreyne. 
An intrusive g was formerly foimd in 
many other words, e.g. Gower writes 
aiteigne, ordeigne, restreigne. 

To be safe from the forreine enemy, from 
the wolfe abroad, is a very great benefit. — 
Bp, Andreaes, Of the Giving Cteaar hi* Due. 

Forreiners may take aim of the ancient 
English Customs ; the Gentry more floting 
after forrein fashions.— T. Fuller, The Holy 
and Profane State, p. 106 (1648). 

Our modem word is perhaps, to some 
extent, a representative of old Eng. 
fion(:n<', distant, A. Sax. frorran, far 

away (from /cor)-, far), merged into tho 
French word. 

A king f«t luuode one lefdi of feomne 
londc. — Ancren Riwle,' y^. 588. 

Daer w£ron manega v>'i( feorran (Tlipre 
were many women afar off). — S. Matt, xxvii. 
55 (A. Sax. Ver;*.). 

So moche folc offurrene londc: jxit \)\i 
clipest herto. — Lives of Saints, S. Katherine, 
1. 20 (Philolog. Soc. 1858), ab. 1510. 

FoRE-SHOBE. Tlie first part of tlie 
word seems to be the Icelandic jf/f/nr, 
the ebb-tide, the beach, as in fjoni-hrn-i, 
the sea-board (see Cleasby* and Vif?- 
fusson, S.V.), Shetland fiorin, the ebb 
shore, Norweg. fjora (Edmonston, 
Philolog. Soc. Tram. 1866). 

FoBBYN, ") aoes8-poolordrain((7/os- 
FoREiNE, ) sary of Architecture^ Par- 
ker), is probably a derivative from 
Lat. forica (cf. Lat. foria, diairhoea, Fr. 
foire), and assimilated to the old word 
foreine, as if a place without (foron^ms). 
From forica comes also forah^^rs, a cant 
term for the latrines at Winchester 

In to a chambre forene ]ye gadelyng gan 

lAt kyng Edmond com oAe to, & in )« dunge 

Iludde hym Jjere longe, jat none man nas y 
Robt. of Gloucester, Chronicle, p. 310. 

FoBEMOST, 80 Spelt as if denoting 
most (i.e. mo-est, superl. of mo), fm'e or 
forward, is a corrupt form of O. Eng. 
fomwst, foremeste (Maimdeville), i.e. 
O. Eng./orwjc (A. S.forvia), a superla- 
tive of fore, + -est, and so a pleonastic 
form (as if Jirstest, jyfimissimus). See 
Morris, Accidence, p. 109. 

Jjere \fe pres was perelouste' he priked in 

IViUiam of Palerne, 1. liyi, ab. 1340 
(ed. Skeat). 

FoBM (pronounced foi'm, with the o 
as in no), (1) a long seat or bench, (2) 
a class of pui)il8 (originally) occupying 
tlie same bench, has generally been re- 
cognized as identical with /c>n>i (rhym- 
ing with stm-m), Lat. farina, a shape, 
figure, or model. They are kept soi)a- 
rate, however, in tlie Prortiptorium Var- 
vulorum (ab. 1440). 

FoiTUP, Forma. 

Foorme, longe stole. Sjtonda, 

And so in Bailey fm'^n and foth-m. 
As Lat. forma, a model or rule (cf. 


( 127 ) 


fitmnUa), eoiTBspondB to Sansk. dhamia, 
■a ertaWiihad rale, law, from the root 
Aor, to stand flxm, bo finn^ old Fr. 
Jbmw, Low JmX. forma, a choir Btall or 
Mnoiht in all probabilitv corresponds 
to GsMk {hHf-mnu (for ihcv-nvs), fhr/i' 
Mt, f h r inotf a seat, bench, or Htool, 
iMLfinu^ a row of seats in the cirons, 
■11 mm the same root dhttr, whence 
also Lai. finnut, Comnaro old Lat. 
Jur m m& f wann, = Gk. themtos ; Lat. 
jMs, ^ Gk. (him, Sansk. dvar. 

How drink gaed round, in coca an' caups, 
AaSBg the/Wniu and bencties. 

Bmnu, Ptfeau, p. 18 ((jlobe ed.)* 

llwoald not aa well become the atate of 
die damber to haue eaaje quilted and lyned 
Jmrnu and stools for the l^nla and l<«il v(»<( to 
■t on (which fiMhron ia now taken u]) in 
•fetj ■isrehiwnts ball) aa f^at ]ilaiik /i;rm< 
Asft two yeomen can akant reinout* out of 
Anr plaoeSd — Sir J, Ilarinf^tonf A'u^'tf An- 
fifr^ vol. ii. p. 173. 

FoBSAKB, a compomid of En^. sakft, 
A. Sax. soean, to strive, for-sucnn, to 
contend against, seems to have been 
asdniilated in meaninpf to A. Sax./or- 
•ee^owy iofcT'9ay, deny (Gor. vcr-fnigtn), 
nfoMv and then in a secondary sense 
to renounce, give np, abandon. 

8. Peter • . . departed leavyng bchinde him 
' Velvet iJreecbes, and thiabricklay IT who/ar- 
woke to goe into 
Heaven becauae hiA wife waa there. 

GranWy Newts both from Heaven and Hell, 

If a man me it axe, 
Six aithea or flevrn, 
Ij'onake it with othf>8. 

Fien Plowman. 

And who-BO be chonen in offVce of Alder- 
man, and hejor-eake [i.«. n*fuM>] yo oflVcf, he 
shal paie, to amendcmeat of ye list, j. li. wax. 
—EmgliJi Gitdi, p. 103 (ed/Toulmm Smith). 

Thon maiat not J'ormken (rznegfare non 
pomia). — Chaucer [in Richardson]. 

Spenser has the form to forsay as 

well as to forsake. 

Her dalliaunce he dcapia'd, and follies did 

Faerie Qiteene, Bk. II. vi. 21. 

But ahepheard must walkc another way, 
Sike worldly aovenance [^ remembrance] he 

must /orMi/. 

Shepneardi Calender, Maye (Globe ed. 
p. 45«;. 

Shephrardea bpne/<irj«u/d 
From placf*8 of delifi:ht. 

ii/. 7u/vf (p. ki7, 1. (;«)). 

Founder, a N. Ireland word for a 
cold or catarrh, as ** The boy has ^ot a 
founder** (Pattorson), i8 a corrii])tion 
of Fr. morfondrv, to catch cold, from 
mon-Py nmcus, and fimilrr, to melt, 
cause to run. From the finit part of 
the same word comes 0. Kng. niurf a 
c«dd. 8o to founder (of a horee), to 
collapse, is Fr. sf ftnulro, "to molt, 
waste, consume away, to sinkc down 
on a sudden*' (Cotgrave); Lat. fun- 

Fox, a term for a sword frequent in 
the Elizabethan dramatist b, may per- 
haps be the French fiiuw, fnuU, Lat. 
fidjr, a " falchion.*' 

lliou dy'Mt on point offoi. 

ahakt^peufVy Hrn. I', iv. 4. 

William Sharp for bilboeaf/oifx, and Toleilo 

The Ftittious Hiftoiy of Captain Thos, 
Stukelft, 1. 574 (16<».'>). 

O, wfiat blade in't f 
A Toh^ilo, or an En^^lish Fox. 
Webster, The IMnte Devil, aub fin. 

Fox, a cant term for to make, or 
become, dnmk, pcrhai)8 akin to Fr. 
fituif8t*r, as if to oistniiHe (V). Cf. also 
the Fnmch. favssor, or fanlsf.rtto piorco 
or broach a cask, whence faHsarf, a 
faucet for a hognhoad. Fuller uses 
fni.rfty (or fwHscte (falsity) (Davics, 
Suj^jK King. Glossary), with allusion to 
Guy Faux. 

Dr. Thomas IVpys dinod at my house . . , 
whom 1 did almost /i'x with .Miir^'ntiMilc. — 
Oct. 26, KkJt), Vepui^ Diary ( IJright 8 ed. vol. 
i. p. 2a5> 

Malli^o j;lrtR8«.*M /iu thoe. 

Middlettm, Span. Gi/ijv'V, iii. 1. 

But a.<4 the hunibh* tenant that does brinj; 
A chick or ojipa for *8 uffcring, 
In ta'cn into x\\o butt'ry, and do<»a /*>x 
Equal witli him that f^ave a t*tall(><I ox. 

J. JvphsoHy Commendiitorii Verses to 
I.on-lace^s PiH'ins. 
Then fox mo, & lie for thoe ; 
th«;n lets aj^ree, & end tliis fray. 
iVrf V Folio MS. vol. ii. p. :)4, 1. 43. 

The sole contention who can drink most, 
and /i)X his fellow soonest. — Burton^ Anatomy 
of Melancholy y I. 2, ii. 2. 

It is worth noting, however, tliat in 
Icelandic fo,r. is a fraud or deception 
(Cleasby, 107), and perhaps tofo^ is to 
bojjpiilo or fuddle one. Fnzzrd (zz 
fuddled) is perhaps related. 


( 128 ) 


Foxed. A print or book is said to be 
fox^d^ when the paper has become 
spotted or discoloured by damp. In 
Warwickshire the same term is apphod 
to timber wlien discoloured by incipient 
decay. It is, no doubt, the same word 
as the West country foust, soiled, 
mouldy, and fiisU to become moiddy, 
Scot, fozo, the same. Compare fouse, a 
Craven form of fox, Fuat is from 
O. Fr.fiiste, "fusty," originally smelling 
of the cask (/««/, from Lat. fusfis), 
" They stanko like fiistie barrells." — 
Nash, Pierce Penilesse, p. 83. 

Fox-GLOVE. It might be argued 
with some plausibility that this is a 
corruption of folk's-ghve, just as Fox- 
hull in Pepys' Diary (May 29, 1662), 
now Vauxliall, is a corruption ofFulke^s 
HalL The Digitalis^ with its fingerUke 
flowers suggesting a glove, is considered 
sacred to the " good people " or fairy 
folJcs in most pajrts of the British Isles 
and Ireland ; witness the names, Che- 
shire, Fairies* Fefiicoat ; East AngUa, 
Faii-y-fhiwhlft; N. Eng. Wifches'-ihivi' 
hie ; Irish, Fairy-cop^ Fairy-hell, Faiiy- 
weed. Fairy-glove, In Welch it is called 
menyg ellyllony "fairy's gloves," hyeedd 
yellyllon, " fairy*s-fingers," hyeedd y 
cfcn, " dogs*-fingers." In Irish sid- 
heann, from sidhe, a fairy, where aid- 
heann, pronounced shee^un, the folJcs* 
plant, has a confusing resemblance to 
einncachf or aionnajch, pronounced shin- 
nagh, the fox. Other Irish names are 
siothan-sleihke (connected perhaps with 
aioihachan, fairy), and mea/racon, " thim- 
ble plant." Cf. also " Lady's-fingers," 
Gor. fingerhutj French gantcs de noire 
dame ; " ganfelSe, the herb called Fox- 
gloves, our Ladies gloves " (Cotgrave), 
old Eng. wantelee, Ciunberland and 
Yorks. Fairy-fmgers, Whitby Fox-fin- 
gers; Low Lat. cirotecaria, from Gk. 
cheiroiheke, a glove. 

See The Gardener's Chronicle, July 
15, 1876, p. 67; Lady Wilkinson, 
Weeds and Wild Flowers ; Joyce, Irish 
Names of Places, 2nd Ser. p. 811 ; Hunt, 
B<ymances and Drolls of the West of 
Enghnd, vol. i. p. 127 ; Crofton Croker, 
Legends of Kiltaimey, p. 14 ; Britten 
and Holland, Eng, Plant Names, E. 
D. Soc, p. 178 ; Cockajme, Leechdoms, 
Worfctinning and Starcraft, vol. iii. 

The old English form Fo.i'p8 glofa 
(Cockayne, LeecJidoms, &c., vol. i. p. 
266) shows that the obvious meaning 
is, after all, the correct one. 

Bu<^loss»*, foies glt'fd. — Wright, Vocubti- 
luriei (11th cent. ', p. 67. 

The Norwegian name is rev-hit>Jdr, 
** fox-bell." Fox's glove is not a iiioro 
whimsical name for the digitalis than 
cucJcoo's breeches in French for the cow- 
slip (hrnyes de cocu), and ciichio't} hoots 
in Welsh for the wild hyacinth {hriia^ 

y gog)- 

Fox's PAW, TO MAKE A, is quotcd bv 
Mr. Scheie de Vore {Stndirs in English, 
p. 205), as a provincial iihrase, ami ex- 
plained to be a corruption of Fr.fiirc 
un faux pas. I cannot find it men- 
tioned elsewhere, and his otlier inac- 
curacies and mistakes, even on the 
same page, would render his authority 
for this assertion very desirable. 

Fractious, peevish, unmanageable, 
bears a deceptive resemblance to Lat. 
fractus, broken, weak, Shakespeare's 
fracted, fraeture, &c. It is, no doubt, tlio 
same word as Prov. Eng. fraJched, res- 
tive (Wright), Cleveland fratch, to 
quarrel, or squabble angrily (Atkinson), 
old Eng. **iracehyn [to creak] as newo 
cartys, al. frashin.'' — Prompt. Pan\ (so 
Skeat, Etym, Did,), Cf. perhaps Scot. 
frate, to chafe by friction, 0. Eng.^reo/, 
to scold. 

Fbame, in tlie following passage of 
the Authorized Version is probably 
generally understood as meaning '* He 
could not shape his lips so as to pro- 
nounce it rightly," as if an unusual 
use oifra/nie, A. Sax./rc7>mi«n, tomake, 
do, effect. 

He said Sihboleth ; for he could noi frame 
to pronounce it right. — Judges, xii. 6. 

Tlie real meaning is "He could not 
succeed, was not able, to pronounce it 
right," 0. Eng. and Scot, frame, to suc- 
ceed, A. Sskx,fr€niian, to profit, ** Hwspt 
freina\> eenegum menn " [What profiteth 
it any man] . — S. Matt. xvi. 26. Cf. 
loel. /rcw/;a, to further, ^oihfrcmian 
and fremman are from fram, strong, 
good, frenie, useful (Ettmiiller, p. 370), 
lit. to furtlier or put/orttv/rti (fram). 

In tlie Leicestersliire dialect frame, 
to contrive or manage to do a thing, is 
still in use ; e.g., ** A cain't freem to dew 


( 129 ) 


BOoUnnk m ft*d ought.*' — Evans, Glos' 
mmy, p. 154 (£. D. S.). 

FnHqMM, or affninyngte, or wynnyngre. 
Lncnmiy Eooliimaitum. — Fromptorium i'cir- 

When tbej came to the Shaw burn. 

Said he, *' Saa wmI wejramef 
I think it ia oonrenient 
That we ihould Binic • fMalm. 
Bmttk of Pkiiiphuugh, II. 1.M6 (CAi7</*« 
Baliadtf ToL Til. p. 15:3). 

''WeUyhow'i that colt o*youn likely to turn 
OBtT Wlwea ! 't/ramri weel." The new iw*r- 
vast ^framn well," when appf^arine likfly 
l» fill her place well. — Aikinmn^ CitvtUind 
CImmrjf, p. 199. 

Ill ffie following tlie word is dif- 
nnnt i 

He oould well bin glozinpf Bnot^hf^frume. 
Spenter, F. Queentf ill. viii*. 14. 

His wary speoch 
Huh to the empyreal minwter he framed, 
MUtoH, Far, Lott, V. 'kiO. 

Fbatbbt, } an old word for tlie re- 

VuAXKt > fectoiy of a monaHtery 
(mo Tyndal, Works, ii. 98, Grindal, 
W6rh§, 272, Parker Soc Edd.), as if 
Ihe common-room of the brotherhood 
(fiairet), is a oormption of fr^^iaur, or 
^fnyfowTB*' (Prwnpt. Parv.), 0. Fr. 
nfrtMr, Low Lat. refcdarlutn. Cf. for- 
wary for infernuiry. ^^ Fnifer-hoii8t\ 
cr iVoAwr, the refrectory or hall in a 
snonastery" (Wright). 

See Skeat, Notes io Pu-re iJie Plow- 
mam, p. 97. 

Sixnilarly 'Ft. frame, an old word for 
ft fbast or repast {fi.g. " Uu loup utant 
de frame" — La Fontaine) has I)een 
minmderstood as another usa^^e of 
frairieftk confraternity met togoilier fi)r 
pvuposes of festivity (Clirruel, Did Urn- 
naire Historvpiedes InstUuiloim, turn. i. 
p. 452). 

A fruiter or place to eate meatt? in, nifcc- 
t/anmm,^ Withal, Dictumarif, fd. 16U}), p. ^60. 

Fierce in herefreitonr abuUe fynde |>at tymo 
Bred with-oute be^gyjigp. 

Langtand, Vitinn of F'ifrs the Plouman, 
Paw. VI. 1. 17 1, text C. 

Where ho erer aum pate, a sertrn kr'|H> tlie 
frnfter^-^Balep Kynfi^e lohm, p. ^7 {Ciundeu 

Fenneiy tkmlfraitnr with f(>lf> nio 1iou<«cm. 
Pierce Plough mans Crtde, 1. yi'J 
(ed. Skeiit). 

Coneemrnge the fare of their^n)j/fer, 
I did teU toe a fore partly. 

But then tlipy havo gest chambera, 
Which are urdaiucd for ntran^^ra. 

Hede me and he nott wrothe, 151^ 
p. JJ5 (ed. Arb<'r). 
The wonlrt ** Ftefectory " and ** Fnitru '* or 
" Frater Houne" — ** domuH in qu a ^>a(rr« una 
comt'dunt in M{]cnum mutui amurin " — are 
pmrticiilly synoiiymoufl. Ind^od ** Fr5tr>' " 
yran at one tune t[iemore]K>puIardosignfition 
in Kn^^land, thou<j:h Carlisle in probably the 
only plnce wliere it lisiA Hurviv<Hl tlie craah of 
the l)i!«sulurion. So ub^jletc, in fact, hits the 
term iMTonie, that it'it very meaning bus l>een 
forgutten. — \itMrdaif Uevieiv, vol. 51, ]►. 2()7. 

Freckle, mn Rpolt a^ if a dimiu. form 
o{ freak, a strejik, like gprchle, spnuglr, 
&v., is an altered form of O. Eng. 
frtu'h^i (PiilsOTave, 1530), fruhM 
(Cliuiicor), fruuivr (Prompt. I'ai-v,) ; 
and Ku ill the cognate languages, Swed. 
friikiip, lve\,frfhiur. We may perhaps 
ef. A. Sax. Jrilritfss, turpitu<lo, a dis- 
fij^uromeut (EttiuUller, p. 305). "A 
Fi'rh^i, neuus." — Levins, Munqmlvs, 
1570, 00, 40. 

FiiEE, frequently in old Eng. used of 
ladies in the sense of lovely, amiable, 
noble, osp. in the combination ** fair 
and //vv'," *' fuvr and /Vr','* and often 
applied to the Virgin Mary, as in the 
carol ** When Christ was born of Mary 
//>•'," is perhaps a distinct word fi'om 
//•«v, at liberty {= Goth. fm's). Its 
congeners seem to bo A. Sax. f/vo, a 
fair woman, O. Sax./v-i, Lombard. //vv/, 
a la<ly, Friyfj, tlie Nortliem Venus, 
Firyia (cf. Ger. frav, Thorpe, X. My- 
//w)/of///, i. 88) ; abio A. Sax. fr«ii, lord, 
Goth, frttiija (lOttmiiller, ]). 871, Die- 
fonbach, Uoth. Hpracln', p. 808). Con- 
firmatory are Scot, frcn, a lady, fre, 
beautiful, frt'hj, a IjoautLlul woman, 
IcL'l. //•/', a lover, Dan. /riVr, a wooer, 
Icol. ?/^Vi, to j>et, Gt)tli./r/;o?i, to love, 
Sansk. j/W, to love or phase. 

Slw ia f lyr and «!»«• is /iv. 

flail loli the Dune, 1. 287(j. 
Tlie maid /"/•«', that here the [JesusJ 
So swetlich under wode. 

liiUtjuitr Ant'upiti', vol. ii. p. 1V3, 

Ysondt} men calletli thatyh-, 
With the white hand. 

iiir Tiiitirm^ p. 179 (od. Scott), 
uh. It'oO. 
yi-A maiden is suet e ant/ /r [ = nobIeJ of blud, 
hriht ^t i't'.yr^ of niilde mod. 

lioiU{ikei\ Altfiii;. Dichtnitiivny p. ViUJ, 1. 7. 

Meusklul muidi'U of niy^ht, 
f<'ir ant/rc to fonde.' 

Id, p. 168, 1. K. 


For fir»i whan \>efre was in )ie foredt fownde 

in his denne, 
In comely clo);e8 was he clad* for any kinges 


Wiliiam of Palerne, I. 505 (ed. Skeat). 

Freebooter, Ger. freiheuier, Dan. 
frihyUer, Dutch vrfjhuiter, are supposed 
to be corruptions of the li, flihuatiero^ 
American fiLihufster^ from tlie Spanish 
flihote^ Icelandic^f^'i/ (fley-hair ?), a swift 
ship, a ** fly-boat.** Vid. Cleasby, Ice- 
hvmic Diet, s. v. Flpy^ p. 160. Compare 
O. Fr. frihnstier (Sclieler), Fr. flihusiieTf 
O. 'Eiif^.flilnistiery a pirate or buccaneer, 

De Quincey using the ^vord flihustier 
remarks that in the United States 
Journals it is always written ^//i&tc^/erd. 
He adds incorrectly, 

Written in whatsoever way, it is under- 
stood to be a Franco-Spanish corruption of 
the Knglish word Jreebtwter, — lVork»y vol. i. 
p. 6. 

Freed-stool, a seat near the altar in 
chiurchos to which offenders fled for 
sanctuary (Bailey, Wright), so spelt 
perha])s from the idea that they were 
there freed from pmiisluuent, is a cor- 
rui^tcd form of A. Sax. fri^'Stol^ " seat 
of peace,** an asyliun (CJi/ron. Saxon, 

FuUer says tliat on the church of St. 
John of Beverley, Athelstan " bestowed 
9k freed-siool with large priviledgos be- 
longing thereunto.** — Cnnrch JFisf, II. 
V. 9. (see Davies, Supp, Eng, Glossary, 
B. v.). Spelman says that the inscrip- 
tion on this seat was, " Haec sedes la- 
pidea Freedsiol dicitur. i. Pacis cathe- 
dra.**— G^)««^/rmw», i>. 298 (1626). 

Similarly free-hoard, a strip of land 
outside the fence of an estate only par- 
tially belonging to the proprietor, some- 
tunes spelt frUh-hordy must originally 
have been " a border of peace,'* /n*, a 
neutral territory. 

Free-martin, the name given in 
many parts of England to a female 
calf of twins, when the otlier is a male ; 
such an animal being regarded as barren, 
and I believe with good reason. Free 
here seems to be a contracted form of 
fe^rry seen in Scotcli ferry-cow, one not 
in calf. Compare Scotch/tTa?<7, not carry- 
ing a calf (cf. A. Sax.ymr, Icel. /arr?, 
a bullock). Martin is the same word 
as Scotch niari, a cow or ox, so called 

from being usually slaughtered at Mar* 
iinvuis for whiter lu'ovision, Ir. vwrt; 
of. Mod. Gk. marti, a fatted shoei^ for 
the festival of San Martiuo. 

Free-mason, a word first found, it is 
said, in a document dated 139(), *' La- 
thomos vocatos/nmiarfow**,*' i.e, "stone- 
cutters caUcd freemasons/* is regarded 
bv some (G. F. Fort, Early Hist, and 
Antiquities of Freemasonry^ pp. 189, 
seqq. ; Scheie de Vere, Studies in Eng- 
lish) as a contracted form oifrere-ma<;on, 
a brother-mason, a term constantly 
used in the Order. Fr. fraiic-war^on, 
Ger. frei-niaurer, &c., are late foi-ma- 
tions, prob. borrowed from the EngUsh ; 
but an early instance of frere-m(u;on is 
a desideratimi. In tlic Joumnl de Vnvo- 
cat Barhier, Mars, 1737, it is said " Nos 
seigneurs de la cour ont invent ('^ tout 
nouveUement, un ordre ai)pcle dos/r/- 
nias807iSy k Texemplo de rAngloterro *' 
(Cheruel, Diet. Histm'i'jue d*:s Institu- 
tions, s. V. Sociites Secretes), 

The Company of MasonH, oth<»rwi8f» call*d 
Free Mamtis, wen* usM to be a lovinj^ Brother- 
hood for many ages* ; yet were thev not rej^u- 
lated to a Fiociety, till Hen. 4. llieir arms 
sable, on a cheuron between 3 castles arg-ent, 
a pair of compasses of the first. — J, Howell, 
hoiui'mopolis, p. 4( ( 1654). 

French, a Scotch corniption of finch, 
a small bird, as huU-french, grcm-fren<:h, 

French disease, probably a mis- 
translation oigalh (a skin disease), gtil- 
Uux, &c., as if identical with 'GaZ/us. 
Cf. French crotvn, Nares. 

Frensickb, in Levins, Mo7ii2mhis 
Vocabulorum, 1670, 121, 1. 28 (glossed 
phreneticus), as if compounded with 
sick, is a corrui)t form of frenzie, fran- 
sic/il =z mad (see Davies, Supv. Eng, 
Glossary, s. v. v.), O. Eng. " Frenesy, 
sekenesse, Frcn^.sis, mania." — Froiupt, 
Fa^'v. Lat. Greek, phreiusis, disorder 
of the phren, or senses. 

Fresher, a small frog (Norfolk). 
From O. 'Eng,froschi'jfro8slie (WycUffe\ 
Ger. frosch, Dan .frosk ( a frog ) . * * Fr oke, 
or frosche, Rana*' (Fr, Farv.). 

I thouji^ht by this a lyknesse whiche hier a 
fore tyme byfylle to the Jrosshis. — Caiton, 
Reyiiard the Fox, p. 37 (ed. Arber). 

Fresh-wold, } tlie Cleveland foi-ni of 

Fresh- WOOD, S threshold^ i.e. ihrrsh- 

wold, A. Sax. ^ersc-ivald, Worsc-wold 


( 131 ) 


(Atkinson). Wycliffe has frexjoold 
(Zeph. i. 9). Com])are 0. Eng. fureti 
= thirsty. 

Fret, a stop on tlie handle of a 
stringed instroment, orig. a thin metal 
band, is no doubt tlie same word as O. 
Ft. frete, for ferette, dimin. of jhr, an 
iron. So/rfi/, to corrode or eat away, 
is a contracted form of for-cai (see 
Skeat Eiym, Did., s. v. v.), and Ger. 
fnH of ferret, 

Fbieze, in architecture, the part of 
the entablature between tlie architrave 
and cornice, has often been confounded 
with yrie»», coarse cloth (so Cotgravo, 
Diez). There can be little doubt that 
the orig. meaning was. an ornamental 
band (of sculptured work, &c.), and 
that the word is identical with Fr./r«'z<», 
a ruff, O. Span./re«o, ** a kind of mnge 
or silke lace, or such like to set on a 
garment" (Minsheu), lt&\. frieo./rt'gio, 
a fringe, lace, border, an embroyderie 
or any ornament and garniKhing about 
clothes ; also a wreath, crowne or cliap- 
let (Florio), a variety of /W///o, a kind 
of worke in Architecture, also a kind of 
tnne or melodic (Id.). Tlicre is little 
doubt that these Itahan words arc from 
Lat. phrygiua^ meaning embroidered, 
also applied to certain stirring strains 
of mnaic. Tlie Phrygians appear to 
have been celebrated for their skill in 
embroidery, as Plautus uses phrygio = 
embroiderer (It. frigione). Moreover 
in Low Lat. phrygium and vhrysitm 
were used for an embroidered uorder. 

Afl for Embroderie it Kelfe aiul neodle-work, 
it wai the Phrygians inuention : and Ii(>n>- 
apon embroderers be called in J^tim* I*hri/- 
f^itomit.'-' Holland, PlinieM A'af. History, vol. 
i.p. St8(l(i34;. 

Fringes. " Itiding the frlngrs" a 
phrase once used in Dubhn, is a cur- 
mption of *' Kiding the franchisi's,*' a 
custom formerly obsen'ed by the Cor- 
poration (Irish Fop. StipvrstiilonSy p. 

Fbiskbt, " an unrecorded word " 
(Grosart) in Sir John Davies* Enh'r- 
tainnieni of Q. EUzahcth at Ifarcjlihl 
(Wcrrhs, vol. ii. p. 246), is most i)robably 
a frog, a dimmutive of old Eng. fiosk, 
A. Sax. fro8c, frox (Icel. froskr, O. H. 
Ger. /rotfc, Qer.froscJt). tiee Freshkb. 

Yesternight the chatting of the pycs aud 

the chirkinge of the fruketU did foretell as 
much [viz., the coming of strangerM]. — Op. 

The word was ax)parently conformed 
to frisk, to leai). 

^o can iSor up awDcfroskes here. 
[Then came tliore up Kuch host of fro^.] 
Geiufsi* and Exodus, 1. «969 (ab. 1250). 

Frisky, in Meadoic Frisky, a Suffolk 
name for the plant frstuca jrratensis, is 
a corruption of fescue. (Written and 

' Frizzle, a Scotch word for a steel to 
strike firo from a flint, and for tho 
hammer of a gim or instol, as if to 
burn up quickly as liair does in the fire, 
seems to be a comii)tion of the syno- 
nymous Fr, fusil (Jamieson). 

Frog, a part of a horse's foot, "a 

Frush on a Horse's foot" (Bailey), 

.** Frush, the tender Part of a Horse's 

Heel, next the hoof" (Id.). Frog here 

is a corruption of old Eng. frush (for 

fursh, forg), the forked part, Fr. fovrcJte, 

fotirchttU', from Lat. fiirca, a fork, It. 

forclnifa, **a diseasje in a horse called 

the running /rM«/*" (Florio). Compare 

for tlie form of the word, frogon, a prov. 

word for a poker ( Wright), Lincolnshire 

fruggin, = Fr.fnurgo^i, an Oven-forke, 

(Cotgrave), It. forcone, a groat fork. For 

the meaning compare Ger. gdbel, (1) a 

fork, (2) a horse's frog. And yet, curious 

to obser\'e, the Greek word, bdfracJios, a 

frog, denotes (1) the reptile, (2) a part 

of a horse's foot. 

Sfettouure in by GrUoni taken for the 
o|)enin^ or cutting of the frush of a horse 
away.— fVor/rt, A>ii» World of Words, 1611. 

Frog (of a horse) : frush :: frog (tho 
reptile) : Ger. frosch (cf. Prov. Eng. 
fresher, a young frog). 

The Fruxh u the tendt.'reKt part of the 
hooue tc)war(l(*H the h(*ele, called otthe Italians 
FetUme, and because it is t'asiuoned like a 
forked head, llie French men cal it Furchetle, 
which word our Ferrers, either for not know- 
ing rightly how to pronounce it, or else per- 
ha|js tor easinesse nake of pronunciation, do 
make it a munasillable, 6l pronounce it the 
Frush. — Topselt, Historif of Foure-footed 
Betuts, p. 41(i, 1608. 

Frog, an embroidered ornament on 
a coat or frock, seems to have been 
originally a frock- or frog-ornaifient, 

^^roiige, or frokg, munkys aby te, Flocus. — 
Prompt, I'arvutorum (1440). 


( 132 ) 


Low TiOX, froccus and floccuSf a long 

He is nonp of your sccond-raU* ridinp- 
niajit(*rs in uunkien dri'ssing-i;owiLs, with 
brown /r<>;f5, but the rejjular i^cntleinan atten- 
dant on the princi]>»l ridt'ra. — C. DickenSy 
Sketches bu Hoz, p. 72 (ed. 1877). 

Fronteu, a Scottish term for a ewo 
in hor foiu'th year, is contracted from 
four- u^hiicr (A. SsiTi.femoei'-iv intra, quad- 
rionnis). Similarly jnmdely a North 
country word for a measure of two pecks 
(Bailey), also spelt frvndeh^ fvnmdclf 
is for fourthcn-dciil or furfhhuHe (A. 
Sax. /'or^'/n </&/), the fourth i)art (? of 
a bushel), like hxlfmdeal and eijtendeh\ 

Compare Scot, rfiiniiu'r, a one year old 
lamb, Icel. yt/whr, Welsh gifji'f a one- 
year old goat, from gam ((/hiam), O. 
Welsh gat'in, winter (= hifUis, Greek 
d^'lmdn), (lihys, Weltfh Vkxlologyy p. 
432) ; Gk. chimuiray orig. a ivlnfrrling 
goat ; Prov. Eng. (jitinfir (for f v:\nicr, 
i.f), iwo-inn1o^')f Lincolns. tivinfy, a 
sheep of two winters ; Frisian, <?7i/(>r, 
and Urintfr, a colt of one, and two, 
winters old ; Lat. hmti^, irhnvgy for hi- 
hlwuHf irl-h iiinis, two and tlireo winters 
old {hiciue). 

Fkgntispieck, 80 siieltas if to denote 
the ^>?V'c*' ihat froiif 8 a hook, is a corrupt 
form of Old Kng./rf»7i//«/'/cf, Yv. front i- 
HjHco, Lat. front i82tlchi}n, from /row* and 
(Wj>/r/o, the front of a building. 

The Wiiidows also and the Buiame** must 
be thou<;ht on, there are shn-wd UKtks, with 
dauf^erous Fronti^pice* set to sah*. — Milton^ 
Arefpagitica^ 1614 (ed. Arlx*r, p. A()). 

\\ hat can l)e ex)M*cted from so lying: a 
frontispicfy but suitable falshoudrt ? — tuUer^ 
Mixt ContemplaUon$, 

Such, ]>oth for {Stuff, and for rare artifice, 
As nii>;]it l>e8<'em som royjill hnmthpice. 

6>/n'.Wrr, Dm Bar'ta», p. 1()4 ( 16'21). 

The word in German is sometimes 
pojiularly corrupted into fronUnsiutzo, 
as if from spitzt', a head or point. 

Similarly the j>rffKf' is not, as might 
ho imagined, the fon-f'CP. to tlie hook, 
hut the forr-8pc(\'h^ A. -Sax. forr-Hj^<{:c, 
Lat. prtb-ftfiKm, what is said before- 
hand to the reader. 

Frown, always used now with the 
specific meaning "to knit tlio brows or 
wrhiJclr iJir forvlnttd '* (Bailey), as if 
akin to fronno', Fr. fronarr !*• front, to 
frown or knit the brows (Cotgi-avc), Lc 

fronds d\i sovrcil, the knitting of the 
eyebrows (Id.), iiyi.frunclr ///*«' tfj<'s, to 
frown, coiTesponding to a LaK fnm- 
tiarc, to contract the forehead {jni-Ufi). 
Wright (Vrov. Diet.) gives frovno\ a 
frown or wrinkle; "With that sche 
yVoi/nc/'^/t up the brow" ( Go wer) ; "i^Vr-v // - 
i/w^r, Fnmcacio, n/^/ftc/o" (rroinpt. r^r- 
vulo-nuii). Etj'mologists, however, are 
unanimous in identifying the word with 
Ft. (rr-y)'ogn<:r, {rp-)fr(mgnrr, to look 
sullen, frown. It. ('m-)frlgnoy frowning, 
Lombard, frignaro, make a wrj' faci', 
whine, Trov. Swed. frynn, Norwtg. 
froyna, the same (Diez, Scheler, Skcalj. 

He sct'th her front is larj^e and ]dt>inc 
Without^ /■ri)MHr«' of niiy irreine. 

OuutT, Coninsio .Imu/i/js, vol. iii. 
p. '^7 (ed. J*uuli). 

8ome frounce their curled heare in courtly 

Sjfenser, F. QneeiWf 1. iv. 11. 

FuLMERDE, an old name for the pole- 
cat, 0. Eng. fnhiiardt\ so spelt as if 
compounded of 0. Eng. fnl, foul, and 
Fr.mrrdf\ dung, filth (Lat. wrrd^t), with 
allusion to its offensive smell, and so 
actually understood sometimes (f.g. 
Smiles, Life of a Scotch Nithirnlist, p. 
116), is an incon*ect foi*m o{ fniinart, 
fulmmi, which ** are contractions of 
foul martin, a name applied to it in 
contradistinction to the sweet niai-jin 
on account of its disgusting oilour '* 
(Bell, History of Ihifish Qwulrfiprds), 

For J»e fox and [je fonlmert jxii arhotht tals. 
Bernardng, De Curu tifi Familiuri'^y 
p. *i:), 1. 74. 

In the chiu'chwardens' accounts of 
the parish of Kendal for the year KHHJ, 
among the various sums paid for the 
heads of vermin are twoi)enco for that 
of a "foulmart," andfouriK'ncefor that 
of a "eleanmart" {'Trmisitrfltims (f tin' 
CuinlH'rJand and Wtsthmn land Anfitj. 
and Arcluf'olog. Socirfy^ 1877;. 

Fouinnrt therefore is not compounded 
with Fr. fovinr, the foine or beech- 
martin (Cotgrave), Lat. fagina (Wedg- 
wood, Morris). 

J?e fox Ac \)ofolnkirde to \:<' fryth wymh'S. 
Altiteratiie Fi»ems, j». .VJ, I. ;"V>t. 

On the nighte tyme . . . ny«;:htecrow«'s and 
]M)ulcat ten, tuxes jindyimwifri/fy, with all nther 
vemiine and ni>yM>nie iH'nstes V8i> nutoste 
styrrmjre. — R. .Im'/kiiii, Toiopltitu^, 1.>1;), 
p. 6ii (ed. Arbcr). 


( 133 ) 


Hum jod anj ntt or misc, pfileciitfl or 

Or is there aoy old sowpa uck of tli(> mrasles T 
I eftn destroy/ H/inert mid CMtch moli>i«. 

(Shaks. Sue). 

A Fnbikiref martcs. — I^vinSf ManipntiHf 
1370, f8, 47. 

FuLBOXE, a word generally used now 

only of flattery or praise, in tho souse 

of gross, extravagantly nverdniu>, is 

given by almofit every dictinnary as 

another formof/o((/-iff>f/{f\frnni A. Sax. 

fil^ fool, impure. It is ])rol>aldy, liow- 

erer, the same word as Old Kn<;. /"///»- 

ttwtm, which appears in Orniinn .alxnit 

1200) in the sense of compliant, and 

this £ take to be a derivative of A. 

BKS..folgian, t-o follow, joJI^fn an in Or- 

minn ; tho original mean in <; thru would 

hefoUoiC-wniP^ fawning', inuiative, apish 

like a parasite. Compare 

Folwfngt of manerys or coiidyrvon.^, I niitiirio. 

I'roinpt l\irv. 

Similar words are huuuwrnfmi*' and 
huxom (= bow-Bome), apt to hiunour 
or bow to tho wishes of anotlir^r. 

When Shylockdescri1>es Jacol>*K fraud 
upon Laban, he says tlio skilful shex)- 
herd peeled certain wands and 

Stack thpm up before tlu* J'uUimif cwps. 

The word here makes best sense when 
understood as meaning; ** sofpiarious,*' 
apt to follow whore led, ready to imitate 
or oopy [so. in their olTsprin*^'] what is 
set beioreUiem [viz. the parti-coloured 
rods]. Merchant of Vt nirt', i. 8,1. 88. 

There is no doubt, howciver, that at 
an early period the word was undcrstoml 
as a compomid ofjull^ r.g, the rroiHpfo- 
n'tcm Parvuloinim has ** /•'*//*»//>/ rnw*- of 
mete, eacietas," and Goldin^' in his (JvUl 
renders j)Zeno uhorr by "fvlsom'' dupfs." 

This tart is nwatc and f'ulMmf [=: cloying]. 
M, A, ConrtHfU, W. Coniw.iU (Uossaruy 
E. D. S. 

And BO in old English — 

Herufulium ^ren farcn [thr m^vou abun- 
dant years P^^skJ. — Genesis and EhhIh* (ah. 
1250), 1. 8153. 

We ben an fuUom i-foundc * as ):ou3 w(> ft>d 

AUiander and UindimitSfh 41)7 (ub. 
In baU 
CarthuHian faflts andJulMtmr Bacclianuld 
Equally Ihatp. McKne'H hlr>.st. 

Ur. DoHiie, l*i^m*^ 1 !>.'}.'), {». ISO 
{>iaiiiv H.). 

His li\in, i>a1«^ iKKir, and withered corpM 

{jr«»w fufsom'-, liiir, and fri'sli. — Holding 

Later writers si^cm ponorallytohavo 
connertt'd tlm word with jnftl (A. Sax. 
/«/). Thus I5p. Ilackctt says, some *' to 
prove that evrrvthinj,' without Faith is 
Uilsiiiii and <»di.»us," rt.']»nrtL'd the imhe- 
lievini^ .lews to !•(» "nasty smellinf; '* 
(Cnitiirijnj .s'« /*,;/» i</x, HIT."), p. 80,'5 ; und 
so Itp. Jlall, who in his ( hcttfirunl 
Mt'iVifittlon^ cxwiii., "()u a llowt-r-tle- 
luce." snys, " This tlowi-r is hut im- 
])luasin;,dy j'l'Utnn*' fur scent " (1034, 
W'nrl'x^ xi. 17'J, Oxlord od.). 

FnUtmif, fu'dus. — Jji rinsy^faiiiiivlva, 
1570, ir.-i. 1. <). 

Tlif w.irst [:i!r] is . . . wlii-n-any carkfwsi's 
or Ciirrion lv>'>i or t'nim wluMin' any htiiikiiii' 
c«»nii'>». — limtoH. Anmomii of Mr- 
/.iffi-Ati/i/, 1. *J, ii. V. (p. 1;')?, (m1. lotb). 

Hut on*' piHir walk . . . 
An t'ulsinne with |M*rtuni<<s llial I am fear'd, 
My br.iiu dotb swi-ut sd, 1 havi^ cau>;ht tin? 
pla;;u«* ! 

b. JoHM'n, F.iriu Man out of Hit 
llunumiy li. ^ (p. 4;>j. 

TIu'v [tlu* Ji'w.t] hsivj* a kind itC fulsome 
RCiMit, ni) tx'ttcr than a stink. — Howt lly l^tten^ 
hk. I. <>, XIV. (l(j.'i.)). 

Sent, fnf'ii ft m is used with both moan- 
inj^s, (1 ) rathor too lar*:e, luscious (full)^ 
(2) lilthy, nause»uis [JohI). 

KuMiTOKV, the name of the fumnnti 
ojf'irrn'tlitt, s«> spi'li as if having' tin* sauio 
termination as jh IHfurij^ Inritonj^ ftir- 

ftn'tj, itroniontnrift I'* J' I'itinj^ in'iiltn'ij^ ihn'- 

iiiifin'i/, is rornipti'd from Fr. //'#/< /7r/*>v, 
" eartli-smiikc," \,ii{. J ttimin trrnv, it 
being an ()ld hrliff that tliis plant was 
generated without se<*d fr«)iii ihv Juim-s 
or vapours risinj^ from tho earth (seo 
Priiir, H.V.). Compare f/odltiima, a San- 
skrit word for wlu^at, literally the smoke 
or incense of tho earth. 

Another corrui)tion is It. j\nnmo- 

Fuxn, a sum of money set apart for 
a certain i)urpose, a store or supply of 
anythinj,', VV/*' FmuJn, Government 
St<>ck paying interest, the same word 
as Fr. /(rnily " A Merchants Stock, 
whether it he money, or money wortii." 
The word, h(»tli in French and Knjjilish, 
has huen generally regarded as a deri- 
vative of Lat.//'?/</j/<^, an estate, land as 
a permanent source of income, the/o?/w- 
dtitlou of wealth. 


Fond, a merchant's stock, however, 
is plainly a contraction of old French 
fondeaue, a merchant's ware-house or 
storenouse (Cotgrave), also spelt /on- 
dique, fondiCj = It. /onc?6Wo, Span./«n- 
dago, a storehouse, Portg. aJfandega, a 
custom-house, all which are from the 
Arabic/o7i^i2(7,ahouseto receive strange 
merchants, a dop6t or hostelry. The 
Arabic word itself comes from tlie 
Greek pandocheion (" the all-receiver **), 
an inn (Devic), or panJoknon^ adopted 
in the later Hebrew as jmTu^ ( Mishna). 
Thus fund, stock, Fr. fond, has only an 
accidental resemblance to fcmd, land, 
Lat. fundus, to which it has been as- 

Furbelow, a corruption of Fr. fal- 
haJn (" un volant "), Ger, fdlhel, Sp./ar- 
ffdu, a flounce, and akin to Fr.fariholes, 
flim-flams, nonsense, £ng. fallal, It. 
farfalla, a butterfly, &c. 

See the quotation from TJie Spectator, 
under Fabthingale. Tlie word is said 
to have been invented in the 17th cen- 
tury by M. de Langlee, marshal of the 
King's armies (Cheruel, Dictionnaire 
dee Institutions, s. v. Falhala). 

Compare " Flounces, feathers, /ct/ZaZ^, 
and finery." — Thackeray (see Davies, 
Supp. Eng. Ghssa/ry, p. 281). 

FuBLOUGH, a soldier's leave of ab- 
sence, is (as Bailey noted) a corruption 
of Dutch rer-Zo/ (=for-leave) ; cf. Dan. 
forlov, Ger. verluuh. When first intro- 
duced tlxe word was i)robably pro- 
noimced "furlof," and spelt furlxmgh, 
from analogy to cough, trough, &c. The 
written word then being more common 
came to be mistakenly pronounced fur- 
hw as at present. Words like cough 
have undergone great clmnges of pro- 
nunciation, r. g, " Hie tussis, the cowe.** 
— Wright, Vocahularles (16th C3nt.), p. 
267 ; " Bowgh-e, al. rotn, Hispidus." — 
Prompt Parv. 

Cf. W. Cornwall, Irnft •= brought, 
hofien = bought ; Pro v. Eng. dttft^ = 
daughter, &c. "Whoso him MhoffI 
Inwardly and oft." — Old Epitaph in J. 
Taylor's Holy Dying, ch. iii. 9, 6. 

Fuss-ball, ) tlie name of a well- 

Fuzz-BALL, ) known fungus (i>|/oo/w?r- 

don)^ is not so called from the fine dust 

or fuzzy matter which it contains, but 

is a corruption of 0. Eng. fis, a blowing. 

fizz, feist, foist, = Fr. vesse, Cf. vesse 
de hup, " The dusty, or smoakie Toad- 
stoole, called a Fusse-haU, Puckfusse, 
Bull-fyste, Puflyste, Wolves-fyste."— 
Cotgrave. See Bulfist. 

The latter i)art of puck-fusse is iden- 
tical with the first part of fuzz-hall, 

PufTes Fistes are oommonly called in Latine 
Litpi Crepitus, or Woolfes Fistps; in Italian 
Vewie de Lupo ; in Knp^lish Puft'es Fistps, 6l 
Fu$.^bdU in the north. — Gemrde, lierlxitj p. 
1386 (1397). 

A Mttlefnst'ball pudding Btandos 
By ; yett not blessed with his handes. 
nerrick. Poems, p. 471 (ed. Hazlitt;. 


Oabbiel Hounds, the name given 
in the Northern counties of England to 
a yelx)ing sound heard in the air at 
night, resembling somewhat the cry of 
hounds, and beUeved to x)ortcnd death 
or calamity. In Leeds this pheno- 
menon is called gahhh-reichet, and is 
held to be the souls of unbaptized cliil- 
dren flitting restlessly around their 
parents' abode (Henderson, Folklore of 
tlie N, Counties,^. 99.). The Devon - 
sliire word is Mish-Junind^ (or Odin's 
Hounds), Cornish Dandy-dogs (Kelly, 
Indo-European Tradition, p. 28i ; 
Hunt, Drolh, ^'c, of W. England, p. 
150), Welsh Gwm Anwm, Hell Hounds ; 
cf. Dan. Helrakker, of the same moan- 
ing. The noise in question is imdoub- 
tedly tlie cry of a flock of wild geese 
passing overhead. 

The old EngUsli word for the weird 
sound was Gahrielle radie, or Gabriel 
raicJies, rache or ratche being a hoimd 
(A. Sax. rcocco), and Gahrirl being a 
comii)ted foi-ra for an old word gaharvn, 
a corpse, tJie whole, therefore, signify- 
ing a cotpsr-hound (= Dan. liigliund, 
cf. O. Eng. Z/c/a fotvle), " Lychc, dedo 
body, P'unus, gabares .... in Gabriel 
dicit [? dioiturj gaharen, vel gahhannS' 
— Prompt. Pan^lorum. See an excel- 
lent note in Mr. Atkinson's Cli*vel<ind 
Glossary, p. 203, where he quotes Gah- 
harcB vel Gahhares, dried cori)ses or 
mummies, from Facciolati. S. Augus- 
tine says that the Egyptians caU their 
mummies Gahbaras {Senn, c. 12), and 
Wilkinson observes that the word stQl 



( 1^5 ) 


fiv a tomb in Egypt is gahr^ or 
foUnr {AneimU EgwtiOM, iii. p. 462). 
Hmrarer. Gabriel Ib, acoordin^ to tbo 
Bablmi, the angel al death for tlie 
pMpla of Ivyl whose souls are en- 
tnirtad to his care. The Talmud de- 
Hribea him as tibe spirit that nresides 
onrThuider. (Wheeler, ^o/f a ^unt^^ 
i(f JRefiom p. 148.) 

He tlMWreo birds hath seen, that never part, 
8mi the Snm WkittUn m their nigbtlj 

AidsoontHl tlM9n : and oftentimes will starts- 
Far offltfaead are sweeping Gabriki/s 

Dooned with their impious Lord, the flving 

Toehise for erer, on aerial fproundii ! 

WmduBortkf Poenu of the linufrituttiofif 
Pt. II. xxix. 

In an old list of Colliers* " Signes and 
WaningaB " was one : 
liGakritVi koumdtt ben aboate doe no worke 

Dr. Ph)Ct flientiona a noiM he heard in 
Aesir wbidi he judged to be a flight of wild 
yme; but the miners at tliat time (1&)()) 
ja^fsd it to be caused by the houndH of the 
bmI Gabriel. — C€UteU\ Magathie, vol. ii. p. 
m (New Series). 

Tliia wild exy is in some parts of 
Tflckshira regarded as a warning of ap- 
pnaohing death. 

Oft hare i beard my honoured mother haj 
Hmr she hath liittened to the Gabriel HoumU — 
Those stnngey unearthly, and mysterious 

Which on the ear through murkiest darkuess 

Aad how. entranced by superatition'H s^iell, 
The trembling villager not st^dom Iipard 
hi tbeonaint notea of the nocturnul bird, 
Of death preoionished, some sick neighbour's 


John IhUand, 

Bee Monihiy Packet, vol. xxiv. p. 126. 

Gad-flt has generally been con- 
■dered another form oinoad-fly, from 
A. Sax. gad, a goad. However, that 
eomponnd is not found in tlie oldest 
Engpdi; it may veiy probably bo the 
iame wcHtd as gcmd-fluga^ the Icelandio 
name of the insect, the loss of n in a 
word being of frequent occurrence, as 
in gco$e for gam, tooth for torith. G ami' 
fiftaa itself ia synonymous with Iccl. 
Mdrorfluaa, t.e. the witch-fly or fly- 
nend, aneh as the oBstrus that persecuted 
tiia bovifbrm lo in tlie Prometheua 


Gadlino, an idle person (Bailoy), as 
if a va<jrrant or vagabond, one who g(»os 
gnMhig about (cf. gndtihmit^ Da\'ie8, 
Supp. L'ng. Glossary), is old Eng. 
gadfling, a companion or comrade, A. 
Sax. goid-eling, from gijad, society, com- 

A lu)x>r gfidelyng was ys sone, bo)^ at one 

Robt, of GUmcettrr, Chronicle, p. .'ilO 
(ed. 1810). 

>u Hhalt hauen a f^udeling, 

le shalt ]fO\x hauen uon o^r kinpf. 

Havelok the Uune, 1. Wi^, 

Gad so! I think I have met this 
form of triWal oath in some of the 
older dramatists, oh if a disguised form 
of ** .So help mo God!'' 

It is probably a corrupted fonn of 
O. Eng. &ifso, a low term of reproach. 
It. cazzo, a petty oath (Florio), and so 
a remnant of the phaUic abjuration of 
tlie e\'il eye, like tlie vulgar Spanish 
carajo / 

Mai. Lightning and thunder ! 
Fietro. Vengeance and torture ! 
Mai. Catw! 

Web»ter, The Malcontent, i. 1 (1604). 

An Hebrew bom, and would become a Chris- 
Cazzo, <linholo ! 

MarLme, The Jew of Malta, iv. 1 (1633), 

Gainage, all plough tackle and im- 
plements in husbandry (Bailey), Gain- 
EBT, tiUa<(0 or husbandry, the proflts 
tlience arising (Id.), is the French gag- 
nnge, pasturage, pasture-land, from O. 
Fr. gtilgner. It. gvadtg^iarr, and these 
from 0. II. Ger. wekhmon, to pasture. 
These words bear no connexion with 
gain, x)rofit, Icel. gagiu (See Skeat, 
Ehjm. Did, s. v. Gain.) 

Gainly, graceful, elegant, suitable, 
O. Eng. gain, now only used in the 
negative word ungainly, so spelt as if 
connected with gain, as we say that 
anything attractive gains upon one, or 
is winning. It is identical with Icel. 
gcgn (Swod. gen, Dan. gjen), serviceable, 
ready, kindly, (of a rowl) sliort (as in 
N. Eng.). Cf. Prov. Eng. gain, handy, 
convenient; gaitisonie (Massinger). 

Jyat art so gaunlq a god & of go«te myld**. 
Aliit/rtitive totems, p. 57, 1. 7 '^8 
(etl. Morris). 

To wham god hade geueu alle \ffit ^avn were. 

Id. p. 44, I. '25d. 


( 136 ) 


Gait, a person's manner of walking, 
formerly (dways spelt gafe^ generally 
understood as the way lie gaeth ovgoefh 
(Richardson), Scot. ** gafi your own 
gaity'* has no connexion with the verb 
to go. Gaicy a manner or way, orig. a 
path, street, or entrance (Icel. gata^ 
Goth, gaiico), is that by wliich one gets, 
or arrives, at a house or place, from A. 
Sax. gifan., to get or arrive at (Skeat). 
Cf. old Eng. ** Geff or maner of customo. 
Modus, consuetudo." — Frowpf, Farv.; 
" Geif or gyn* (or gyle), Macliina." 

Him tliought he rodt; ol of the newe get, 
Chaucei'y Cant. TaUSf Prologue, 1. 684. 

Good gentleman, go your gait, and let poor 
yolk pas8. 

King Tjpar, iv. 6, 1. 212. 

All the gri(>8ly Monsters of the See 
Stood gaping at their gate, and wondered 
them to see. 
SpenaeVf Faerie Queene, III. iv. 32. 

She hadna ridden a mile o' gate, 
Never a mile but ane. 

Sir lUiund, 1. 30 (Child's Ballads, 
vol. i. p. 225). 
Thev beare their bodies vpright, of a stately 
gate^ and elated countenance. — G, HandyXf 
Travels, p. 64. 

A man's attire, and excesnive laughter, and 
gait, shew what he ia. — A . V, Ecclu.\. xix. ,'30. 

An' mny they never learn the gaets 
Of ither vile wanrestfu' pets! 

Barns, Poor Mailie, p. 33 
(Glob© ed.). 

Galdragon, a Scotch word for a sibyl 
or prophetess, has nothing to do with 
a dragon — as had the ancient sorceress 
Medea — but is a corrupted form of Ice- 
landic gcUdra-l'ona, a witch (Ut. a sor- 
cery-woman), from //n/JrjA.Sax.^coWor, 
song, charm, witchcraft (Cleasby). 

Gale, a well-known word in Ireland 
for rent due, or tlie payment of rent, is 
a contracted form of O. Eng. gavel, 
which is also spelt gahel, A. Sax. gafol, 
Fr. gahellc, It. gabelJn, all apparently 
from the Celtic. Cf. Ir. gabhail, a 
taking, Gaelic gahhnil, a lease, tenure, 
or taking, from gabh, to take or hold ; 
Welsh gafa/il, 

lie seyb ^t he is godes suue, and is a ded- 

lich mon. 
And he vor-beod cesares gauel [= tribute]. 
Old Eng, Mifcellany, p. '16, 1. 329. 

Gale, in the Scotch phrase '* a giile 
of geese,*' i,e, a flock of geese, is a con- 

tracted word from Icel. gngl, a wild 
goose (Cleasby), wliich is evidently 
jfonned from the verb to goggU, to make 
a confused noise, especially used of 

A faire white goose bears feathers on her 

That gaggles still, much like a chatterin«:; pye. 
T, Chnrchifard, Pleasant Conceit 
jwnned in Verse ^ 1d1>3. 
GagelyTt', or cryyn* as gees. Cliny-o. 

Prompt. Purvulornio. 

They gagUdf fforth on the grene, ffor thoy 
greved were. 

Deposition of liicfiard II. p. 18 
(Camden Soc). 
Si-lelinge, chattering, occurs in The Owl and 
Nightingale, 1. 4<). 

Gallic disease, vmrbus golllcvs, 
owes its name, perhaps, to a confusion 
oi gaJlvs,g<iUicv8, with Fr. <////7r {rjnh), 
a gallmg or itching of the skin, a scab 
or scurf, galk'tt.r, scabby, ** gahisp, a 
scurvy trull, scabby quean, mangy 
punk.'* — Cotgrave. 

My Doll is dead i' the spital 
Of malady of France. 

Hen. V. act v. sc. 1. 

Galligaskins, " a sort of wide slops 
or breeches used by the inhabitants o£ 
Gascoign [or Ga^cony] in Franco." — 
Bailey. Tliis definition seems to have 
been invented to account for the name. 
The word is probably for gangascaits or 
gargvesfpians, from O. Fr. gnrguesques 
(Cotgrave), a comii)t form of grrgties- 
qu€8 (otherwise gi'tguosy 0. Fug. grcgs, 
wide slops) zi Ital. Grcch^sco, " Greekish 
trowsers'* (Skeat, Wedgwood). 

Others [make] straight trusses and diuells 
breeches, some galty gascoynes, or a shipmana 
ho8<i. — T. iVtfx/i, Pierce PemUsie, 1692, p. 'iO 
(Shaks. Soc). 

Sir Rowland Russet-Coat, tlieir dad, goes 
sagging euej'ie day in his round gnscoynes of 
white cotton. — Id, p. 8. 

Gallo-shoes, a connipt spelling of 
gahchrs, as if Gallic shoes. 

Galloclies, or galloshoes, are the wooden 
sabots worn by the French peasants, and the 
name has been transferred to the over8ho«'s 
of caoutchouc which have been recently in- 
troduced. — /. Taulor, Words and Places, p. 

Similarly Dioz thinks Fr. galochc, Sp. 
galocha. It. gahscia, are from Lat. gal' 
iica, a Gallic shoe. These words are 
really derived from Low Lat. cahpedia 
(calop'dia), a wooden shoe, and that 


OALLOW'OLASa ( 137 ) 


ftom Greek haUhpddion^ a " wood- 
fBot" or iMt (Soheler, Bracbot). 

Gtkekt, or gmLiehgj mdrr solynf^p of 
■tti^i nte (al. gairgge\ Crt'pituiu, (.'n-pitA. 
^taipC. Panuiorum (1410;. 

He eoade man by twenty thousand pnrt 

CoBtiefete tbe ■opbimt^ of Iiin art ; 

Ke were worthy to unbocli* liU ffHlivhr. 
Ckatuer^ Sqitiere^ TaU, 1. 1^60. 

The Gildof Cordwainerswero bound 
to make search for all 

botwei, achoez, pyncoui, ga If seZf 
nd lU other ware perteynini^ to the saidu 
onfte, which u descey tously wrou«^ht. — Kft^'. 
GiUt^f. 3» (ed. Toulmiu Smith). 
^ in be kinde of a kjayght* bat comeb to be 

To frten hot nlte ipOFPS* and galM-hes 
W, LoHgiuHdy Vision of Piers PlowimiH, 
C. zxi. 13. 

It If eariooB to find galoshs, now 
iqggeBtiTe of a valetudinarian curntc, 
finu an essential part of a mediiuval 
bug^t's equipment. Gomx)aro Gallozzn, 
'^tk^aDd.oigaUance, star- tops, or wooden 
pattin«" (florio. New World of Words, 
1611), as if connected with gollozzare^ 
§aOeggiaret to cocker or pamper. 

My hart-blood is wel nifph frome, I feele, 
Aad my gaiage growue fast to iny h(v*ie. 
Speiutrf Shephvards CaL, Feb.^ 1. ii-^^. 

Fepys mentions that La<ly Batten on 
Not. 15, 1665, drox)ped ''one of her 
MlofAes" (Diary, vol. iii. p. 304, cd. 


GaUiOW-olass. This English-looking 
void for a native Irish soldier (cf. O. 
Eng. gaUow, to frigliten), spelt nallin- 
dan in Hist, of Captain Shtkrhj (see 
Mares), is Irisli galtoglach, a fighting 
gQHe, from gioUa^ a servant, and gleac, 
a fi^t (O'Reilly). 
* Spenser says an armed footman t]io 
Itisa " oiidl Agalloglasif, the which naino 
doth discover him to bo also auneient 
Kngliah, for gallogla signifies an Eng- 
liah aervitonr or yeoman" (Staie of 
Irdand^ p. 640, Globe ed.), erroneously 
legarding it as compounded of gall, a 
fonigner, an EngUshman, and ogkuoJi, 
a servant or soldier. 

A mighty jwwer 
0( galUnthglasaes and stout kemi^ 
Is marching hitherward in proud array. 

2 iitn. VL iv. 9. 

Gallt-pot, } originally flf/^?/c-po/, Dut. 
Gauupot, \ gley-pot, glazed pottery. 

Similarly glazed tiles wore called gnlhg- 
iiles (Wedgwood). 

VfiU may )>o 8urc ho is hut a siillipot, full 
of hon«*v, that thfSP wa>p9 liov«'r aiiout. — 
Adtiins, Vhe HonCx Sickjuf* [ W'orkSy i. j()3). 

Gambol, an incorrect fonn of the 
older wonl qttmhtJd (Pliacr), or gfim- 
hiidd (L'dal), for gnmlhivd (Skelton), 
wliich stands for O. Fr. gnmhuh', a 
gambol. It. gn nihil ftiy a kicking about 
of tlic legs {g'tmJni), Skcat. Here the /, 
wliidi was originally an intruder, ha.4, 
cuckoo- like, supplanted tlio riglitful 
letter d. 

Game, in the slang phrases " a game 
leg," ** a g>ihiv linger," i.e. crooked, 
disal)Ie<l, is in all probability derived 
from the Welsh and Irish ciim, crooked, 
Corn. gaWf Indo-Kuropoan verbal root 
hintfio bend (vid. Vic.ti'i, ()rigi7if's Itido- 
Evrt'p, toni. ii. p. 213). So the word, 
tlion«,'h unconnected with */'//>/f', to sport 
or i)lay, would be akin to g'tmhoL For 
** g'linltihy games or tunibliug tricks 
played with tbe /♦ i/8," as Bailey defines, 
is from the French gumhUln'y gnmhivr, 
to wag the legs, leap (cf. ginuhtd*r, to 
show tumbling tricks), and these words 
from gitndH\ j>n,ih\ a leg. Cf. JSomer- 
setsliire gnmhU\ a leg, Eng. slang 
gnmh^ a le^r. It. and Sp. gamha (viol dl 
gtirnha, ** a log-violiu ";, O. Sp. oindm^ 
rnma; also Eng. 7'/)// «.<>«, It. gnhdfOw, 
Fr. j*ii)dH.rn^ Ir. gfitidnin, a leg. But 

?uimlM\ the leg, as 'in inost beasts, is a 
imb remarkable for bends and crooks, 
and so is allied to O. Fr. gamhi^ bent, 
crooked, Gk. hi nipt' (*'as crookled as a 
dog's hint-leg " is a Lincolnshire i^ro- 
verb), from the root cnm^ crooked, seen 
in O. Eng. hnn, wnmg, slang gammy, 
btwl, worthless, &c. Cf. gambrel, a 
crot)ked stick, and owircU Welsh <vmm- 
hmn ; Devon, gmumerol, the small of 
the log ; Dtrvg Gam, crooked David ; 
Greek Jciihimai'ds, Lat. cammarus, a 
lobster, from its iicisfcd claws (cf. 
"tortoise," from Lat. tortus, twisted), 
0. Fr. g>iuiman\ gamhro, Swed. huvi^ 
vwr, whence Fr. homurd, Eng. luim 
(the bent or curved part) probably 
stands to gfnii{h), cam, as Swed. hum^ 
mer does to cammarus. 

Those [cnlves] arc nllowod for good and 
gutficipnt whose tailf'reacheth to the joint of 
tbe haugh or gumbriU, — Holland*s Pliny, fol. 
163 A, toiu. i. p. 225. 


( 138 ) 


Scott speaks of "the devil's game 
leg " {St. lionan'a Well). See Davies, 
Supp. Eiig. Glossary^ s.v. 

GAHBONE,an occasional mis-spelling, 
from a notion that it had something to 
do with honCf of gammon, part of the 
leg of a pig, Fr. jamhon, O. Fr. gamhon, 
from gamhe, a leg, radically the same 
word as ham. See Game. 

Gammon of bacon, formerly written Gam- 
bone. — Heliqutte Hearnian(tf Oct. 16, 1710 
(Lib. Old Authors, i. 207). 

The custom of the gamboue of bacon is still 
kept up at Dunmowe. — Ibid, iii. 73. 

Gammon, a slang word for to delude 
or cheat one, and as an interjection 
gammon I humbug I nonsense I is a cor- 
rupted form of the old Eng. gamene, to 
mock, Icel. gaman, fun. Hence As- 
cham's spelling gamn, gamning. 

Gamninge hath ioyned with it a vayne pre- 
sente pleasure. — ToiophiliUy 1545, p. 51 (ed« 

Ilwaet sceal ic iSonne buton . . . habban me 

iSaet to gamene, 
[What can 1 do but hold it in mockery.] 

King AlJ'rtdy Gregory** Pastoral y p. 249, 
Part I. 

Nowe by [my] soFeraiite I sweare. 
And Drincipallitie that 1 beare 
In hell pyne, when 1 am their, 
A gumon I will assaie. 

The Chester Piayi, vol. i. p. 201 
(Shaks. Soc.) 

And adam is to eue cumen. 
More for erneste dan for gamen. 
Genesis and Estnlus, 1. 411 (ab. 1250). 

They gammons him about his driving. — 
Dickens, Fiektcick, ch. xiii. 

See Davies, Stcpp. Eng. Glossary, 

Gammouthe, the gamut. Palsgrave, 
1580, a corrupt spelling. Gamvi is made 
up of gam/me (= Greek gamma, G.)» the 
old name of the last note of the musical 
scale, and ut the first note formerly of 
tlie singing scale. 

His knavery is beyond Ela, and yet he 
saves hee knowH not Gam \ti. — J. Lilly, 
Mother Bombie, ii. 1. 

New physic may be better than old, so may 
new philosophy; our studieH, observation, 
and experience perfecting theirs ; beginning 
not at the Gamnth, as they did, but, as it were, 
at tlie Ela. — T, Aditms, Sermom^ vol. i. p. 472. 

Gandebolass, an old popular plant- 
name, is, no doubt, another form of 
gandUgosB, or gandergoose, tlie orchis. 
See Gandlboostbs. 

Among the daisies and the violets blue, 
Red hyacinth, and yellow daffadil. 
Purple narcisauH, like the mornin«? rayea. 
Pale ganderglass and azure culverkayes. 

/. Walton, Compleat Angler (1653), 
p. 22 (Murray repr.). 

Gaboanet, so spelt by Stanyhurst 
(Davies, Supp. Eng. Gh8sai'y,B.\.), as 
if it meant a collar or chain encircling 
the ga/rgaie or throat, as gorget, a i)ieco 
of armour, does the gorge (of. g^irgayh; 
gargel, orig. a throat, gargle, &c.), is a 
corrupt form of carcanet, a jewelled 

Garn, an incorrect modem coina«^e, 
meaning to store grain, formed from 
gamer, a granary (O. Fr. gc^'nun; for 
grenier, Lat. granana),i.e, a "grainer^-," 
as if that wluch gams. 

Ye symbols of a mightier world 

That Faith alone can see — 
Where angels garn the golden grain. 

Harvest Hymn, The Guardian, 1880. 

Gabnet, a provincial name for the 
fish frigla himndo (Satchell, E. D. S.), 
is a corruption of gurnet, old Eng. gur- 
nard, from Fr. grognoird, grongnard, as 
if ** the grunter," in allusion to tlie 
grunting noise (Fr. grogner) it makes 
when taken out of the water. Com- 
pare crooner, another popular name for 
the same fish. 

Gatteridoe, the name of a species 
of cornel tree to which Dr. Prior as- 
signs a (liypothetical ?) French form 
gaitre rouge, is a variant of gaiter, O. 
Eng. gaitre, the comua sanguinea, and 
a derivative of A. Sax. aad, Icel. gnddr, 
a goad or pin. It is also called Vrick 
timber (Gerard, p. 1283). 

A day or two ye shul han digestives 

Of wormei*, or ye take your laxatives, . . . 

Of catapuce, or o(gaitre-beries. 

Chaucer, The Nonnes Preestes Tale, 

Gauntlet, in the phrase "running 
the gauntlet," is corrupted from the 
older expression **to run the gafitlope, 
i.e. to run tlirough a company of sol- 
diers, standing on each side, making a 
Lane, with each a Switch in his hand to 
scourge the Criminal*' (Bailey), Scot. 
goadloup (a distinct corrux)tion), Swed. 
gai'lopp — ga;fa meaning a lane or path 
(z= Ger. gassr), and hpp, a course, or 
the act of running, akin to leap. The 
word was probably introduced into 
England, as Dr. Dasent remarks, in 


( 139 ) 


flu time of the Thirty Yean* War. 
{Jeti amd Eameti, voL ii. p. 25.) The 
Gmiuui phiaae is gasMen laufen, 

Soae nidy he oaeht to be tied neck and 
Web; oChen that he denerred to run the 
KmUtjpt. — H. FiMldimgf Hut, rf a Foundiing^ 
K. Til. eh. 11. 

HaviagrHb thggamntkt here . . . atremen- 
4um battery of atonesy aticka, applei*, tuniips, 
pota i e eg , and other such Tarietr of mob am- 
■anffion waa opened upon him. — SoMthey^ 
LjftafWtalep^rA. u. p. 21 (ed. 1858). 

QynoiiiymoiuiB the Scotch word lonfte- 
ganmej numing through the hedge, or 
Mudorare, made by the soldiers. 

Oauxtbek, a irame to set casks on, 
a eomiptian of gaunire or gauntry, Fr. 
flloNlier, " a Qaunirey, or Stilling, for 
Hoga-heads, &c., to stand on** (Cot- 
nave), from Lat. eantherius, (1) a 
aoiM, (2) a prop, a trestle. Hence 
alio It. eofiiiere, Portg. eanticro, Bavar. 

CtuUherius is the same word as Gk. 
hmikeUoit leanihoa, a pack-ass, akin to 
Zaodhaikmif an ass. 

Haanwhile the frothing bicken, toon aa filled, 
An diainedy and to the gaumrte* oft return. 

Grukamej Britith Georgia, 

So a mare in Scotch, and a horse in 
I^OT. English, are used for a frame or 
oon-heam apon which something is 

A hogshead ready honed for the purpoae of 

T. nardii. Under the Greenwood 
Tree^ vol. i. p. 13. 


Oayblxind, an equal division of a 
&ther*B lands at his death among all 
his sons (Bailey), takes its present 
fbnn from a supposed derivation from 
old £ng. giwel (A. Sax. gafol\ tribute, 
and fttncl, as in mnn-hind, Verstegan 
iDBposed iivr^A give-all-hind, i,e. "Give 
•U children" [sc. a share] I It is 
marely an adaptation of Irish gahhail- 
flme, a fiunily (cine) tenure {gahhail), 
Skeai. See Gale. 

Gawkt, awkward, ungainly. It is 
difficult to suppose that this word has 
not heen influenced by Fr. gauche, left- 
handed, awkward, which indeed seems 
to be connected. Scheler compares 
gaiMck hand, left hand, which Bailey 
givea as a N. £ng. word. Gf. also Yorks. 
omMhaM^ a left-handed man (Wright). 
T\oA immediate origin, however, is 

gaicle, a cuckoo, metaphor, a simple- 
ton, geclc (Shakespeare), A. Sax. gear, 
Icel. g'luhr, Ger. gatich, a cuckoo, a 
fool. (See Skeat, Etgm, Diet,) Gawigh, 
foolish (Adams, ,i. 50*2), gavy, gaury, 
gawntm, a simpleton (Prov. Eng.), are 
per] laps connected. 

Conceited gouk ! puff *d up wi' windy pride. 
Hums, Brigs ff Ajir « (ilobe eil. p. i?6). 

Now gaukies, tawj)ips, ^oirAut, and fools . . . 
May Kprout like ximmer puddock-stnols. 

Id, Venes at Selkirk (p. 1^). 

Gaze-hound, ) a dog that hunts by 
Gast-hound, f night, Lat. agast^us 
(Bailey). The first part of the won! is 
probably a corruption of the Low Latin 
name, notwithstanding this statement 
of Topsell : 

The giitehound, ciilled in latine Agai^u», 
hath lii'< imme of the shnrpenes and st^fa»t- 
ne.>« of his eie-sight . . . Fur to ga^e is ear- 
ne»tlj tu ricw and behold, from whence 
floweth the deriuation of this Do^ name. — 
Htttorie of Four- Footed Beattt^ i&.i?, p. 179. 

Du Cange gives no such word, how- 
ever, as agaacBus. 

Gazels, a Sussex word for black 
currants (Parish, Glossary), is probably 
from Fr. groseilles, corrupted to gosvls, 
just as goose-horry of the same origin is 
for grvos-herry, 

Gemini ! an exclamation of surprise, 
as if a heathenish adjuration of the con- 
stellation of the Twins, Lat. Gemini, is 
identical with Ger. O Jemincl Dut. 
Jemy,Jemini ! (Sewel), which are shor- 
tened forms of Lat. Jrsudomiiw (An- 
dresen, Volhsetymologif*, p. 1*29), orper- 
haps merely from Jesu meus (It. (ries^i 
mio). Similar disguised oaths are Ger. 
Je 1 Herrje ! Jcrum! Potz! (for Gotts) ; 
Eng. La! Law! for Lord! 

Geneva, a name for gin, as if it came 
from the place so called, is a corruption 
of the French genitvre, Dili, jenever, It. 
gin^pro, all from Lat. juniperm, the 
juniper (Prov. Eng. jenepere, old Eng. 
jen»'Ji'r), the berries of that tree being 
employed as an ingredient in its manu- 

Theriaque des Alemnns, the juice of Gineper 
beiTi<>s extracted acconling unto Art. — Cot- 

In Spanish formerly there was the 
one word ginebra for the town of 
Geneva and the tree called juniper 


( 140 ) 


The junipers are of immense size and 
flavour [in the Himalaya]; hut most people 
prefer to have their junipers hy way of Hol- 
Itind or Geneva. — Andrew WiUumy The Abode 
of Snow, p. 83 (2nd ed.). 

As if gin came from Geneva as Hollands 
do from Holland. 

The poor muse, for less than half-a-crown, 
A prostitute on every bulk in town, . . . 
Clubs credit for Geneva in the mint. 

Youn^, Siitire I V. 
Tis a sign he has ta'en his liquor ; and if you 

An officer preaching of sobriety, 
Unless he read it in Geneva prmt, 
Lay him by tlie he*ds. 

Massintrer, The Duke of Miliin, i. 1. 

Genii, a name given to cert^n power- 
ful beings in the Arabian mythology, 
as in 2\dc8 of the Genii, is corrupted 
from Arab, jinn, under the influence 
of the Lat. genius, a tutelary spirit. 
See Keightley, Fairy MyiJiology, i). 25. 
Pors. jinn iromjdn, spirit, life, Turkish 
jinn, a spirit, jnn, a soul. Mr. I. Taylor 
compares Chinese shin or jin, spirit, 
Etruscan hin, a ghost {Etruscan lie- 
8e.arch4>s, p. 108, seq.). 

The Arabians and Persians had an equal 
advantaf^e in writinp^ their tales from the fi^enii 
and fairies, which thev believe in as an article 
of their faith. — H, Fielding, Hint, of a Found- 
tin*;, bk. xvii. ch. 1. 

And when w(* cume to the l^pland lone 
The fairies war all in array. 

For all the genii of the north 
War keeping their holiday. 

Hogg, The Queen s Wake. 

What need, then, that Thou shouldest come 
to my house ; only commission one of these 
genii of healing, who will execute spi^edily 
the errand of grace on which Thou shalt send 
him,— Abp, Trench, Miracles, p. J^ib (8th ed.). 

Gentry, gentility, nobleness, gentle- 
ness, is a corruption of the older form 
gm4rise (perhaps mistaken for a plural), 
O. Fr. gtmferise, for gcnfiliifp (? Lat. 
gmtilifia), Skeat. GetUeriso. in Ancren 

Vor case J>at mySte come, vor liyre gent ruse, 

Robert of Gloucester, Chronicle, p. 43 L 
)>is icsus of IiiLs gentrise shal louste in jieers 

Vision of Piers the PUtu^tnan, C. xxi. 
iJl (Skeat). 
To have pride of ^entri^ is right great foly. 
Chaucer. Personts Tale, De Supcrbia, 
]h» genirtfte of luise & lerusalem ^ ryche 
VVat3 disstryed wyth distres, &l (hrawen to )7e 

Alliterative Poems, p. 70, 1. 1160 
(ed. Moms). 

If it will jdease you 
To show UB so much gentiy ami good will. 
Shakespeare, llumkt^ ii. y, I. 21. 

But, think you, though we wink at base re- 
A brother's deatli can be so soon forgot ? 
Omt gentrii baffled, and our name (li>gracM ? 
HeyiLOod and Roicleu, Fortune bu l^nd 
and Sea, j). ll> (Shaks. Soe.). 

Gentrif and baseness in all ages jar; 
And poverty and wealth are still at wur. 

Jd. p. 4'J. 

The modem meaning of ** p:eiillo- 
folks," a collective nouu, opposed to tlio 
conunonnlty, as if the agf:;re<(ate of tlio 
gent or gvntlo., arose probiiLly from a 
false analog}' to words like iiif ydnj, 
ycamanry, soldiei'ij, &c. 



I think it may ho 
shown that all those 
words are false deri- 
vationsfrom an assumed connexion wi iJi 
Lat. gyrar(\ to move in circles, or with 
Ger. goier, a vulture. 

The old Eng. form is gnfavcon 
(Prompt, ran'.). Low Lat. goro-fdco, 
and this is, I think, for hifro-frucnv, 
the sacred falcon (Greek hirrifs). '* (nr- 
falcon saore.'* — Palsgi'ave. For the 
meaning compare Greek hlci'tur^ a liawk 
or falcon, from hioros, sacred (zz Ijini'^;- 
can aracus) ; O. Eng. sahr, Fr. s'lnv, 
It. sagro, a hawk, from Lat. ttitcrr^ 
sacred ; Ger. w^'ilie, O. H. Ger. vnho, a 
kite, fi'om wpihrn,io make sacred. 

The Mod. Greek word gicrnl'i, a fal- 
con, from hiWaif, shows that hifro-fih'o 
would readily pass into gcro-falco and 

The transition from hier- to gor- or 
jer is of frequent occurrence, e.g., Cera- 
nigra, an old Eng. name for a druj^:, 
m Bool'c of Qtiinie Essence, p. 3 (E.E.T. 
Soc, otherwise spelt icrajngra, p. 2i>)» 
Span, gci'iplirga, " a drug called Nina 
Picra** (Minsheu), from Greek hi era 
piJcra. Old Eng. gerarchie (Gower, C. 
A. iii. 146), It. and Sp. grrarchia, for 
hierarchia, and so Dunbar speaks of 
" the hlisfull soune of cherarchy " (77//' 
Timssill and the. Hois, cant. ix. 1508). 
Low Lat. gii'obofana for hieroUdnyui. 
Old Eng. ge^rilAiIbiim (Leechdoms, ,yc., 
Cockayne), for hierihullMm, So It. 
geroglificoy a Hieroglyphic ; g^^rtwhide, 
another form of hif^ra-cife, ** falcon- 
stone'* (Florio), Lat. hif^racHis; coinj^aro 
also Jerome, Fr. Gcrome, Si). Girvnimo, 


( 141 ) 


LowLftt. Gerotiomti«,from nienmyTiius: 
Jarrnvkf a tribataiy of tlio Jordan, from 
Gk. Hiewmax ; Jerusalem and Hin'ou- 
mHem, Hiero9oluma; jaeijnfh = hija^ 
em<4; 'Fr^jwiuiame from hyoscyamud^ 
hnbine, &o. 

If this view be correct, then the fonns 
mBt-faieom, ffyr-faktm, L. Lat. ffijroffilco^ 
nam been cormpted by false deriva- 
ftioa. Geierfalk4*, a gor-falcon in Qer- 
man, is according to Karl Andresou an 
•■imilation of tbe Lat. gyrofiil^M, the 
filetm of eircUng flight, to Gor. gei^r, a 
vpHiiie. (Compare Greek Jclrkog^ the 
aiding flier, a folcon.) 

Tis well if tmonj^ diem jou can clearly 
■ike out a Imnner, a siiarrow-hawk, and a 
kotiil, but must not Iiope to find your f:ier 
/Ubm there, which if tlie noble hawk. — Sir 
IVi. firpwue, (y Huurks tind Falconry^ Worh 
(ed. fiohn), toI. iii. p. 218. 
If I beftre downe tht'e, 
I'he Jerfaucom shall froe with mee 
Maagre thy head nidiHfd. 
Percy Folio MS, vol. ii. p. -151, 1. 9?i), 

Prafesssor Fictet points out that 
MOV, L. Lat. aaceVf a falcon, has really 
oi^y an indirect connexion ^ith saccr, 
naed, the former bein^rtho Arab, sokrj 
PttB.fAaJbia^ a falcon (cf. Sk. t;akvna, 
a Toltore), traceable to Sansk. t^nhrn^ 
itzang, powerful, whence also comes 
lA Mcer, sacred (cf. Eng. hilf^ irholp, 
■nd Ao2y). Li exactly the same rola- 
tion Ok. hieraoi stands to hivros, which 
= Sansk. iahlra^ strong, sound, lively. 
On the sacredness of tho falcon, roo 
QnbematlB, Zoological MytJu)li)yy, vol. 
iLeh. S. 

OESVJUn>EB, Fr. gamnndi'ei\ a liete- 
nmymfrom Gk. chamivdryej a hrir onk- 
IsSTed plant, X''/'^'* ^Q the oarili, nud 
if^ ofdL (Ualdeman}, assimilated tu 

Ohostfbl, a strange sx)ellin^' of fjon- 

efrom a confusion with yhoaf, 'jln^tly 
spiritual), used by Giles Fletcher, 
vlio speaks of 

Nonnini tnuislating: all Sainrt lolirr.s 
Ghattpel into Greek verse. — (.7*r/>N Vicione 
m Heavrn^ To th§ Header, 1610, p. 11.) ( .-d. 

Pro£ Skeat has shown tlmt (/i»ff,tl in 
not originally tlio " gnod si"U " or story 
(A. Sax. g6d), as has been j^uneriiUy as- 
inmed from the time of Omiiiiu, wJio 
■ays '* Goddspell onn Eiin;;li.-sii imih- 
mnedd iss god word and god t',\» muO," 

but A. Sax. gndnjwll (A. Sax. God), t.c. 
" God's 8too%" viz. the life of Clirist. 

Camdon took a correct view of the 

The ^Indsomo tidinffH of our salvation which 
the (tn>«'k8 called F.van::eiiim, and other Na- 
tions in thi* same word, they [the old Enj^- 
lish] called (i,Hhf>el, that is, Gmif xpeech. — 
lii'tminesronreriiitii^ liritaini-y p. ifo (ed. Ui37). 
And Wf hen pruutMl \h> prijs' of popes at Rome, 
And of «rn»ti'gt diyre* an ^tMisjitUeK tellej;. 
Pierce the Plitushimni'it Crede, 1. ^^7 
(od. Skeat). 

Gibberish, generally understood, in 
accordance with its present speUiug, to 
be derived from j^/W^r, tocliatter or talk 
inarticulately (Wedgwood), isproliably 
a corrupt ion of theoldEnglishfi^t'&zr/Wt or 
Grhrisn, that is, the unintelligible jargon 
of alchemy, so called from Gvln'r ( Gihoro 
in Gower, C\ A, iii. 46), the founder 
of the Ara])ian school of cliemistry and 
a prolific writer on alchemy, who llou- 
rislicd about the beginning of tlio 9th 
century. Gcltcr-ish modelled on t'afcot' 
tigh, I i-ishy Sired igh, &c. 

All v<iu tlifit fainr> I'lnlosoph'^n wonid be, 

And ni>rhtund day indther^s Kitchin hn»yle, 
Wjiaiiii-: the rliip{>s* of Ancient HermeKTree, 
\\ <Miuiii; lo turne tlK-m to apn-tious Oyle, 
The morn you worke the more you loose and 
.Sir F^lward Kelle, Ashmole^ Thdttrum 
Chemicum, p. J'Jl. 

Tlius I rostyd and hoylyd 05 one of Oelfern 
And oft fymi'S my wynnyn^je in the Aakd I 


(if'trt^f liipliii (1 171 ), !»/;. cit, p. ItU. 

This extraordinary work, willi its 
ever-rccuniiiguiiii^^iiius about tlirif Ireeii 
Lion, HrriMcs l>inl, I'tc, and cal)ali.s- 
ticiil;i'/r.'. is, as Aslimoio truly re- 
marks •'dilliciilt to be tlirou:,'lily and 
p«-rt''refly UlMl«.lsf.nor|." U is, in fact, 
ffUffn rin/i to tin' nninilialr-d. Such out- 
landish wunls as wi; lirid lion; and in 

(liiaiiecr's (.'/oftUtWH ytnuiiiWii Tulr^ 

with ils 

\'i(»ls, rnml'-tfi'S, ami siibliiii.-ifuricj*, 
t 'iiriiril)l<-.-«, :uiii .'ili-JiilMkiH rki*, 

would iMiJrn-ally iii!il<<! ibo art wliicli 
iniploycd IIm'Im a byvvrnd ftyv nniMt.«d- 
Ji^nl)l<! ;-i]M"«;cli. (!oni]iar(> Vv. i/iimoirfj 

' Siiiiil;irly .Nnrloiiin \u» OidnmU i i'\i. \ii. 
*iib iiiil.) UMi'H iithm:-, Cihil.t-:. J'ur AlrhniiiNlii, 


( 142 ) 


unintelligible talk, originally exorcisms, 
from gramm<i{re, Hteratm'e, Latin. 

Fuller, for instance, commenting on 
the words of Sir Edward Kelley, quoted 
above, makes the remark, 

As fur the high conceit he had of his own 
skill in Chemistry it appeareth sufficiently in 
the beginning of his own works, though I 
confess mys^^lf not to understand the Geberish 
of his language. — \rVorlhie$ of Knglandy vol. 
ii. p. 473ced. 1811). 

If we could set it down in the ancient 
Saxon, I meane in the tongue which the Kng- 
lish used at their first arrival! here, about 
440 yeares after Christs birth, it would seeme 
most strange and harsh Dutch or Gebrithy as 
women callit. — Omuieiiy Remainesconcerninge 
Britainey p. 22, 16S7. 

The Lyon Greene, 
He ys the meane the Sun and Moone be- 

Of joynyng Tynctures wyth perfytnes, 
As Geber thereto beryth wytnes. 

Geo. RipteUf Compound of AlchynUe 
(Ashmole, p. 12j). 

The best approved Authors agree that they 
[guns] were mvented in Germanie by B«r- 
thold Swarte. a Monke skilHiU in Gebert 
Cookery or Alchimy. — Camden^ Remained, p. 
19 (1637). 

Ben Jonson in The Alchemist puts 
into the mouth of Subtle such phrases 
as " imbibition,'* " reverberating in 
Athanor," ** to the Aludels," &c., on 
which Surly observes 

What a brave language here is ! next to 

And a Uttle afterwards, 

Whst else are all your terms. 

Whereon no one of your writers *gree8 with 

Of your elixir, your Lie virginis. 
Your stone, your med'cine, and your chry- 

sosperme. . . . 
Your oil of height, your tree of life, your 

Your marchesite, your tutie, your magnesia. 
Your toad, your crow, 3'our dragon, and j'our 

panther ; 
Your sun, your moon, your firmament, your 

Your lato, azoch, zernich, chibrit, heau- 

tarit, . . . 
And worlds of other Ktrangc ingredients, 
Would burbt a man to name ? 

Act ii. sc. 1. 

In the same scene Subtle asks, 

Is Ars Bacra 
Or chrvftopceia, or npag^-rica. 
Or the pamphyrtic, or panarchic knowledge, 
A heathen langttage ? 

To which Ananias replies. 

Heathen G reeky I take it. 

Act ii. 8C. 1 ( Works, pp. 248, 250). 

Peter, It is a very secret wiience, for none 
almost can understand tlie lan(^uago of it. 
Sublimation, Blniigatiou, calcination, rubifica- 
tion, encorporatioii, circination, Hemeiitatiou, 
albification, and fermentation ; witli sm many 
termer imposnible to be uttered, as the arte to 
bee compassed. 

Raff'e. Let mee cro5»i*e mjHelfe, 1 never 
heard so many CTeat devils in a little monkies 
mouth. . . . \Vhat language in this f doe 
they speak so? — J. JMly, Gallathea, ii. 5 

On the studied obscurity of writers 
on alchemy, the " Viccar of Maiden " 
remarks in his Hunting of tlve Greene 
Lyon, that their 

Noble practise dotli hem t(*ach 
To vaile their secrets wytli mistie ypeach. 

He had sworn to his master 

I'hat all tlie secrete 1 schould never undoe 
I'o no one man, but even spread a Cloude 
Over my words and writes, and so it shroud. 

The occurrence ofgihhnjsliCy however, 
in TJie Interlude of imithy 1557, renders 
it x)0ssible that geherish may itself be 
the corruption, though the hard g of 
gihJyerlshy dissociating it from gihhcr 
(j(Mer)y seems to point tlie other way. 

He plag'd them all with sundry tongues' con- 
Such gibruhy gibble-gabble, all did fangle, 
Some laugh, some fret, all prate, all difiierent 

wrangle ; 
One calls in Hebrew to his working mat<% 
And he in Welch, G lough whee comrage doth 
John Taylor, The Sevenill Seiges^ &'e.,nfthe 
Citty of Jerusalem (1630), 

Strike, strike our saile (the Master cries) 

Vaile misnc and Sprit-sail : but he cries in 

For, in his race the blasts so bluster ay. 
That his Sea-gibber ixh is straight bom away, 
i. Hylvester, Du Bartas, p. 491 (16t^l). 

[The builders at Babel] 

Som howl, som halloo, sum do stut and strain. 
Each hath his gibberhh, and all sti'iue in vain 
To finde again their know'n beloved tongue. 

Id. p. 255. 

Another alchemist, who, if he did not 
originate a word expressive of unmean- 
ing language, at least had it sometimes 
fatliered on him, was l^aracelsus, for- 
merly often called Bomhast, 

^* Jomnhast swelling blustering non- 
sense, also fustian " (Florio), is perhaps 



the same word as hombase, homhasin 
(see FuUer, Worthies, ii. 289), cotton 
staff formerly used for padding, but in- 
flaenced by a reference to him who as- 
sumed the high-sounding name Aureo- 
las Philippus Theophrastus Paracelsus 
BombasiiUf and was notorious for his 
" load boasting " and " braggadocio *' 
(Friswell, Vcaria, p. 166). Hence the 
name of the burlesque hero Bombastes 
Fnrioeoy designed to out- Herod the in- 
flated nonsense of modem tragedies. 

Dr. Donne speaks of '* the vain and 
empty fulness in Paracelsus' name." 
— Iluays in Divinity (1651), p. 119, ed. 
Jeesop. According to Ignatius his Con- 
dove (p. 123), when Lucifer asked him 
who he was, and he answered, ** PhiUp- 
pus Aureolus Theophrastus Paracelsus 
Bombast of Hohenheim,'* Satan trem- 
bled at this as if it were some new kind 
of exorcism. Ben Jonson says alche- 
mists '* pretend, under the specious 
names of Geber, Arnold, Sully, Bombast 
of Hohenhein, to conmiit miracles in 
art" (Mercury VindiccUed From the 

Bumbastiu kept a deyil's bird 
Shut in the pommel of his sword. 
Butler, Huaibnu, Pt. II. canto iii. 

GiLLY-FLOWEB, a Corruption of gillo- 
fer^ ffilofre, or gilly-vor (which occurs in 
the winter's TaJe, iv. 4), Pr. gin^JUe, 
It. ffarofalo. Mod. Gk. gardnlhcdo, Lat. 
con^fopMfUuni, Gk. karudphutlon. 

Barteries, Pinks, or Shops [sops] of wine, 
feathered OUlovtrSy small Honesties. — Cot- 

Gelqfre, Ancren Biwle, p. 870 ; gilo- 
fre, Kyng Alixatmder, p. 280; iciofer, 
Skelton, Phyllyp Sjta/rroio, 1. 1053; 
oerraflour, G. Douglas, Eneados Pro- 
loug. Buk XII, 

With clones of gehfer hit broch ]jou shalle. 
Liber Cure Coctn-um, p. 26. 

All mancr of flowera of the feld and f^ar- 
denneSy at* roses, gelevors. — //. Machifn, Diary, 
1559, p. 303 (Camden Soc.). 

Gin, a snare, trap, a cunning device, 
0. Eng. gynne, seems to bear some re- 
lation to O. E. engyn, Fr. engin, a fraud 
or mechanical instrument, an engine. 
It has also been derived from Icel. 
ghma, to dupe (Skeat). It seems to 
me to be a native English word, re- 
presenting A. Sax. gim, gym, trans- 
posed forms of grin, gryn, a snare or 

trap (compare Prov. Eng. gim, to grin 
wi& the mouth ; wm for run ; ura for 
red (rud); grass, A. S. gcBrs, &c.) : r 
being omitted as in speak, for A. Sax. 
sprecan. The two words, however, are 
found CO- existent and distinct at an 
early date. 

Swk swk grin he becymj; on ealle [as a 
snare it cometh on a]l]. — A. Sax. Vert. S. 
Luke xxi. 35 (995;. 

And panteris preuyliche* pight vppon fte 

With grennes of good heere* [At god him-self 

Richard the Redelet, Pas8 ii. 1. 188 
(1399), ed. Skeat. 

I &nd the woman mar bitter na the ded, 

quhilk is 
The gyrne of the hunter to tak the wild bestis. 
Ratis Raving, p. 21, 1. 695 (ed. 

Satan . . . setteth his snares and grinnes, 
Udal, Erasmus, p. 3T verso. 

"The gren shal take him by the 
heele," Genevan Version, Job xviii. 10; 
" The proude ... set grennes for me," 
Id. Ps. cxl. 5, and so Ps. cxli 9. The 
A. v., 1611, in these passages has grin, 
which the printers have now changed 
to gin. 

Even as a bird/out of the foolers grin, 
Stenihold and Hopkins, Ps. cxxiv. 7 
Laqs, a snare, ginne, or grinne. — Cotgrave. 

But vnder that same baite a fearful grin 
Was readie to intanele Him in sinne. 
G. Fletcher, Chruts Victor ie on Earth, 
29 (1610). 

So ^t we mai no^hc negh it nere 
Bot-if we may with any gyn 
Mak bam to do dedly syn. 

Legends of the Holit Rood^ p. 96, 1. 
318 (E. t.T.S.) 

Ihesus as a gyaunt* with a gun come)? Sonde, 
To breken and to bete a-ooun* alle jjat ben 
a-gayns hym. 

Vision ofPien the Plomwan, 
C. xxi. ^64. 

Uele ginnes hej? \>e dyeucl vor to nime f^et 
volk be J* )nrote. — Ayenbiie of Inwyt, p. 54 

jjet ne is a gryn of J* dyeule. — Id. p. 47. 

No Ermines, or black Sables, no such skins. 
As the grim Tartar hunts or takes in Gim. 
J, Howell, The Vote or Poem-Royall, 

GiNOEBLT, in the phrase "to walk 
gingerly," is perhaps from an old Eng- 
lish word gingralic, like a (A. Sax.) 
gingra, or young person, from A. Sax. 


( 1« ) 


gtno, TOtmg. tender. So the meaning 
would be to walk mincingly, trippingly, 
or delicately, as Agag came to Saul (1 
Sam. XV. 32j =: Greek. aSo^c Satvttv 
(Euripides). In provincial English 
ginger means dehcate, brittle. 

Prithee, gentle officer. 
Handle me eingerln, or I fall to pieces. 
McMN^rr, The Parliament of Let*, t. 1. 

After this was written I fomid that 
gingerly is acttially the word used by 
Bp. Patrick to describe Agag's gait. 

He came to him vrith a toft pace, treading 
f^iuserlfi (as we ^peak) atler a nice anil deh- 
cate manner. — Comu»entarVj in /«<<>. 

MistHtf Minx . . . tliat looirs as e^imper- 
inglv as if she irere bei^meared, and iet« it as 
f^Pi'frlv as if she were dancins: th<> canaries. 
— r. .V<uA, Pierce PeHiU*MylJ9i, p. 21 (^Sbaks. 

Measter . . . was slinkine down, tiiitoe, so 
pi^grrivy shnimping his iihoulders, that be 
mist his vooting. — 31 rt. Pulmery UetoRthirt 
Courtship, p. 25. 

Walk circumspectly, tread ginserlf§^ step 
wahW, lift not up onf foot till ye hare found 
sure /ootiiig for tlie other. — John Trapp^ Com- 
Mrrtfuni, 1647 (1 Peter iii. 17). 

AUrr a pit mmuj to go nic*'Iy, tread gin- 
gertu, minci* it Uke a maid. — Cor^mte. 

Archbishop Trench quotes (jingomess 
from Stubs's Auatomy of Abuses, 1585, 
*' Their gingcnu^s in tripping on toes 
like young goats" iOn ^me IhficUn- 
cies in our English I/idionaritg. p. 22]. 

Ginger is found in Kemble's Cfo.irferg, 
and gingra in the Anglo-Saxon version 
of the Go.>i>els, with the meaning of 
yoimger. ''Ac ge^i'ur^e he sw4 swa 
gingf'tj se *e ylJra ys betwux eow 
(Luke uii. 26, a.d. DOot," But he that 
is the elder ami>ng you Lecometh even 
as the voun^er. 

Du* art tu ^/'.-j and n'-we, 
FortSward U.* ^u trr-wp. 
Morrif, Old Kk;. Mi.*ctiL:K\.\ p. 7,1. ei4. 

^fCi'tJ"' win:m»-n of ?:n lond. 
faitTcr on siirt ? and •<.ri- on Lor.d. 

Ortteti* a.'td Ex d';>. 1. 4U>(). 

GiXGEEijyE, an old word for '* a 
vello"wish cr'lr.;ir** j'Wrii:hi. D.'d. of 
Pror. aii'l OlfJ'.ii JE.'M-;TV/f t. does not 
moan '?.'/»■> r-c.-.l«'iirei. as it would seem 
at firs: si^'ht. bu: is a corrupti.-n of It. 
glautAn*. , a diminunve of n' *'..»?'':•. yellow. 

Cri::!.'. /iM\ a lih'Irr <A CoXj-lT LOW 

adni'.4 a (.fi»ijiriiiie. — 1\ -"o, .Vetr \\\'ria of 
11 .'.'Js 1611. 

From this perhaps come gingor, a 

pale red colour, and gingcr-patedf red- 
haired (Wright. I. 

GiN'GLES, an incorrect form in Fuller, 
" The Qhiqlts or St. Anihonv his lire " 
{Church Hi^f, IX- i. 60 , of ihingls^ so 
called because it sometimes encircles 
the patient like a girdle, Lat. cinguJa. 

Gis SLiXGS, a slang name for a beve- 
rage composed of gin, soda water, 
lemon, and sugar, is said to be a cor- 
ruption of John CoUinSj the name for- 
merly given to it, and still in use in 
America. The transitions must have 
been John-C'IVngf, John-slings, Gln- 
slings. John Collins, its inventor, was 
a well-known waiter at Limmer's Hotel, 
Conduit Street. (XoiiSduJ Qu*. rits, 6th 
S. ii. 444). 

Gist, an old orthography of gucsf, a 
receiver of hospitality. O. Eng. grsf, 
A. Sax. g'j!sf. O'^f, perhaps from somo 
confusion with g'sfc, a lodging <cf. gJst- 
fi'ii, to lodge, g'^tting*\ hospitahty I, all 
which words occur in the Ancrrn Itlide 
(ab. 1225). 

3:f eni haue^ d»?ore gist i= gutst, p. 
68 » ; '' J^e go«le pilfgrim . . . hiej? toward his 
gitie " (= Io<i£:ing. p. Sx*). 

^i toke |:«ir e*>ting [z=. lodiiing] in \e tun. 
Cunnr Miiudi, .Wi»rri,< Spec. p. 71, 1. 71. 

The contrary change is foimd in 
GuEST-TAKEB, which soe. 

GiTHORK, an old corruption of ijitivm, 
O. Eng. git*nu\ giti*me {Pi-omj^t. 
Pari'.), O. Fr. gv.'Jtm*, another fonn of 
gnitti-r*', gtiiU^r^\ a "guitar," all from 
Lat. ccV/uir.f. Greek lifhtlr-i, a lyre ; cf. 
Chaldic I'-rthtx-s, a harp ^Dan. iii. 5). 

Twa or tl.rie of our condiscipli-s played 
follon w«-iil oil tlio \ iririn.tls. and another on 
thelut.iud c*:*^ "■«• — •'• 3i\/iii.>, Diary, 1^74, < 
p. ^ I \\ itirow Soc. ^. 

Herrick has the strangely corrupt 
form gof't'' . 

Touch but thr liro, mv Harrie. and I beare 
From thee some rapiures ot th«» mre gotiit. 
i/<*fvridf *, p. '^96 veil. Ilazlitt). 

Gl.\cis, an easy sloj^e in fortification, 
Fr. [jhi»\s, apj\arontly a place as smooth 
as I'lV gJ T''* , from -r.-.W' r, to cover with 
ice I Lit tret. It is perhaps only Low 
La:, »7^7.^^r, smoothness, from Ger. 
gl^ff, sniooih, oven; gUiftir, smooth- 
ness (\rahu\ The old Fr. form is 
gUissis ^Cotgrave;. Compare Fr. glis- 


( 145 ) 


% to glide, from Ger. gUt-scnf gldU 

Glancs, to strike and turn aside, as 
an arrow from a tree, or a lanoe from 
a breastolate, apparently to be re- 
flected like a gleam of light, or touched 
as by a hasty look which is instantly 
ayerted, is, according to Dr. B. Morris, 
a nasalized form of O. Eng. gldce, to 
glance, to polish, from Fr. glacer^ 
glacier^ to slip or slide [as on ice, 
glaeieg] . Compare — 

Glaevng€f or wronge glydynee of boltys 
or ardwTfi (al. glansjng), Devolatus." 
Prompt, Parvulorum. 

Suche gladande glory con to me glace, 

AUittrative Poems, p. 6, 1. 171 (see 
note, p. 152). 

This seems slightly doubtful. Prof. 

Bkeat oompares Prov. Swed. gUnta, 

glaniaf to sUde or glance aside (Eiym, 

Diet, s. ▼«). Gf. Scot, and O. Eng. glenU 

to slide or slip. 

Tbe damned arrow glanced aside. 

Tennyuniy Oriana, 1. 41. 

Glass-blipfeb, Fr.pantoufle de verre^ 
the material of Cinderella's famous 
slipper in our version of the story, 
according to Mr* Balston is altogether 
a mistake. In the oldest French ver- 
sion the word employed with reference 
to it is ffeitf the heraldic term for pearl, 
and this in the course of transcription 
most have been altered to verre, glass. 
The slipper probably was merely em- 
broidered with pearl. Others have 
supposed that Perrault's paniovfle de 
terre is a corruption of pcmtovfle de 
voir, Le. a slipper of squirrel fur. 

"From a similar play on words voir, 
the heraldic fur, is represented by 
pieces in shape of little glass pots, 
verreSf argent and azure. — Chambers, 
CyeU^padia^ s.v. Fmt, In old Eng. 
iKrres are glasses. 

She. . . . lepte upon the borde, and threw 
downe mete, and drinke, and brake the 
vnray and ipilt alle that there waa on the 
borde.^ — Bodk of the Knight of La Tout' 
Lamdry, p. f7 (£. £. T. S.). 

Glass- WORM, ) old and provincial 
Glaze-worm, S words for the glow- 
wonn, the former used by Moufet, the 
latter by Lily. The first part of the 
word is identical with Scot, glosa^ a 
glowing fire, gloee^ a blaze, Icel. glosaif 
a blaze, Prov. Swed. glosBo, to glow, 

glaaot a glowing, M.H. Ger. glosen, to 
glow. Cf. Mid. Eng. gliaien, to shine, 
Ger. gleiasen. Another old name for 
the insect is gloherde or glovohird. 

Globt-hole. It was long a puzzle to 
me why a cupboard at the head of a 
staircase for keeping brooms, &c. 
(Wright), or a person's '*den*'or retreat, 
which is kept in chronic litter and un- 
tidiness, or in general any retired and 
nncared nook, should be popularly 
called a glory-hole. I have little doubt 
now that the first part of the word has 
nothing whatever to do with glory^ 
renown (Lat. gloria), but is the same 
word as old Eng. '* gloryyfi\ or wythe 
onclene l^ynge defoylyfk*. Macule, de- 
turpo." — Frompt. Parvulorum. 

Compare Prov. Eng. glory, and 
glorry, greasy, fat; Cleveland, glor, 
mere fat, glor-fat, excessively /a< (Atkin- 
son). Fletcher has " not aU glory-fat " 
iHalliwell), and Fuller says that the 
lesh of Hantshire hogs — 

Though not all gUnre (where no bancka of 
lean can be seen for the deluge of hx.) is no 
less delicious to the taste and more whol- 
some for the stomaok. — WarthUt of England^ 
vol. i. p. 401 (ed. 1811). 

Cf. also 0. Eng. glare, mire, and 
Scot, glorg, to bemire. Thus ghry- 
hole is no more than a dirty hole, an 
untidy nook. The parallelism of Fr. 
gloriette (Sp. glorieta), a bower, for- 
merly a little room in the top of a 
tower, is curious. 

Gloze, to flatter, 0. Eng. glosen, has 
often been regarded as only another 
form of to gloMe, to throw a gloss, or 
bright lustrous appearance, over one's 
language, to speak in a polished spe- 
cious style : ol " Glacyn or make a 
fiynge to shine, Olasifige in scomynge, 
Int^acio '* (Prompt. Parv.) ; ** I glase 
a knyfe to make it bright, je fourbis *' 
(Palsgrave) ; 0. Eng. gUsien, to glisten, 
Ger. gleissen, to shine, also to dissemble 
or play the hypocrite ; Icel. glys, finery, 
and ghssi, a blaze, Scot, ghse, gloze, to 
blaze. For the meaning, cf. *' Smooth 
not thy tongue with filed [= poUshed] 
talk." - The PassioruUe Ptlgnm, I. 806 
(Globe Shaks. p. 1056) ; and compare 
the following : — 

These . . . are vanitas ranitatum; that 
file, and glau, and whet their Tongues to 
Lies, the properest kind of Vanitie; which 



( 146 ) 


call Euilly Good, And Good, Euill C^ood 
DeuilU) for a Reward. — 6'. PurchoSy Miero' 
cotmut or The Hiatorie of Man, p. 621 (1619). 
Every smooth tale is not to be beleeved ; 
and every glofing tongue is not to be trusted. 
— //. Smith, SennonSf 1699. 

Ohze meant originally to interpret 
or explain, to ms^^e a comment or 
glo88, Fr. glo8€, Lat. gloasa, a word re- 
quiring to be explained, Greek glossa, 
a tongue, a foreign word (needing ex- 
planation) ; hence ghssfwy. The con- 
notation of deception, flattery, is per- 
haps due to the confusion above. 

Glose teztys, or book3r8, Gbso, 
GlosylCy or flateryfl' Adulor, blandior. 

Prompt, Parvulorwn, 

Loke in y« sauter glo$ed 
On ecce enim ueritatem dilezisti. 

Langlandy Vision of P. Plowman, 
▼ii. 303, text C. 

Wber-on was write two wordes in \>ia wise 

Ibid. XX. U. 

Ac tho hii come, hii nadde of him, bote is 

olde wone, 
Glosinde wordes & false. 

Robert of Gloucester, p. 497 (ed. 1810). 

For he could well his gloiing speaches frame 
To such vaine uses that him best became. 
Spenser, F. Queeue, III. viii. 14. 

And as thesubstaunce of men of worschyppe 
that wylle not glo^ nor cory favyl for no 
parcyaflyte, they cowthe not undyrstond that 
alle thys ordenaunce dyd any eoode or harme. 
— Gregoru*s Chronicle of London (1461), 
p. 314 (Camden Soc). 

Well, to be brefe with outen glose. 
And not to swarve from our purpose, 
Take good hede what I shall saye. 

Rede me and be nott wrothe, 1538, 
p. 39 (ed. Arber). 

GoADLOup, a Scotch word for the 
military punishment called the gante- 
lope in modem EngUsh, both which 
words are corruptions of Swed. gat- 
lopp, a "lane-course." See Gaunt- 

Goat, a Lincohishire word for a 
sluice or drain. 

*' A goai, or as you more conmionly 
call it a sluice." — Inatruction for a 
Committee of Sewers, 1664 (Peacock). 

O. Eng. *^gote, or water schetelys, 
Aquagium " (Prompt. Parv. ah, 1440) 
Northampton, gout (Sternberg). 

As water of dyche, 
0|«r gote$ of golf bat neuer charde. 
AlUterutive Poems, p. 18, L 608. 

As gotes out ofguttars. 

K, Alexuunder, p. 163. 

The Three Goata^ a tavern sifrn at 
Lincoln, was originally the Thre^ 
Gowts, gutters, or drains (Ger. gosse), 
which are known to have existed there 
(M. Miiller, Chips, vol. ii. -p. 530). Ray 
gives as a Northiunberland word Gofr, 
a flood-gate, from A. Sax. gcotan, to 
pour [cf. gedtere, a pourer, Orosius], 
Dut. gote. 

Other forms of the word are goivt, 
gut, gutter, goyU got, a drain or water- 
course (cf. Fr. Sgout). An old church 
in Lincoln still bears the nnme of 
8. Peter at Gowts. Wo ought, perhaps, 
to connect these words with gutter, 
0. Eng. gotere; but cf. O. Fr. gontiere, 
a channel for drippings (Lat. gutta). 

Goat-weed, a pop. name of the plant 
JSgopodium podegraria, seems to be a 
corruption of its other name, gout-weed 
and gout-wort. 

GoD-iEPPEL, i.6. " good-apple," a 

?twwt- Anglo- Saxon name for the quince 
Somner), is apparently a corruption 
of GoD-APPEL, which see. 

GooQLE, in goggle-eyed, having full 
rolling eyes, Ir. gogshuileach, from gog, 
to move sUghtly, and suil, the eye, is 
used by WycHffe as equivalent to Lat. 
codeSf with which it has probably no 
connexion (Skeat). Codes, one-eyed, 
is a Latin corruption of Gk. kyklops 
(Mommsen), or from ca {zz one) -[- 
oculus (Bopp). 

It is good to thee for to entre gogil y^'>d in 
to rewme of God, than havynj^e twey vSen 
for to be sent in to helle of fier. — S. Mark 
ix. 47. 

Gold, a Somerset name for the sweet 
willow, formerly called gaule (Myrica 

Good, in the Scottish expression " to 
goodfOrguid, a field " (Jamieson), mean- 
ing to manure it, as if to do it good, or 
ameUorate its condition (cf. W. Corn- 
wall goody, to fatten), like the Latin 
phrase Iceta/re agrum, to make a field 
joyful, to manure it (whence Icetanien, 
It. letame), is the same word as Dan. 
gi^de, to dung or manure, Swed. g'dda, 
to manure, or make fat, Shetland aiic^ 
den, manure (? compare Hind, khdt, 
dung, manure). But Geel. mathaich, 
to manure, is from maitht good, l^e 


( 147 ) 


yerb ffood^ to make good, was onoe in 


Gmtness not goaded witherace is like a 
beacon upon ^ high bill. — T. AdanUf God*t 
BoHMty, Sermons f i. 151. 

Goodies, a ooUoquial name for sugar 
sweetmeats given to children, as if 
''good things," Uke Fr. honhonSf has 
been identified by Mr. Atkinson with 
Prov. Swed. gutfar, sweetmeats, Swiss 
gutelu It is perhaps the Gipsy goodly ^ 
gudlo, sngar, sweet. 

GooD-BTE, a corruption of Ood he 
wP ye, just as ''good speed " is some- 
times incorrectly used for *' God speed 
(you)." " Ood speed, fair Helena I " 
(Mid. N. Dream, i. 1). 

God B* w' v*! with all my heart. 

Sir J, ^ucklii^, Fragmenta Aurea^ 
1648, p. 40. 

Allan Bamsay ends his poetical 

Epistle to James Arhuckle (1719) 


Health, wit, and joy, aaula lar^e and free. 
Be a' your &te8— sae God he wi* ye, 

Yoa are a treacherous villaine, God hwy yee, 
Mantonj The Malcontentf i. 5, Worktf 
11. 216 (ed. Halliwell). 

Tow. Godden, my little pr^tie priuat Place. 
Pimee. FMrcwelly godbwy iime. 

Sir J. Daviet, Foenuj ii. 249 (ed. Grosart). 

Shaking me by the hand to bid me God- 
by*e, [he J said he thought he should see me 
no more.— J. Evelyn, Diary, May Si, 1672. 

God buy you, eood Sir Topas. 

TiMlfth Night, iv. 2, 1. 108 (Ist 

So spelt, perhaps, from a confusion 
with " God save you," buy =: redeem. 

It has often been supposed that the 
words good and Qod are etymologically 

If that opinion were not, who would ac- 
knowledge any God? the verie Etimologie 
of the name with vb of the North partes of 
the world declaring plainely the nature of 
the attribute, which is all one as if we sayd 
nod [bonus] or a giuer of good things. — G. 
Puttenhamy ArU of Eng. Foesie, 1589, p. 44 
(ed. Arber). 

God is that which sometime Good we nam'd. 
Before onr English tongue was shorter 

Nath. BaxUr, Sir Philip Sydney's 
Ourania (1606). 

An indifferent man may judge that our 
■ame of the most dinne power, God, is . . . 
derired firam Good, the chiefe attribute of 
God^—CnN^ji, Remaines^ 1637, p. 3A. 

They have long been proved to be 
fundamentally £stinct : good (A. Sax. 
gdd, Goth, gods) either = (1) fit, suit- 
able (Fick), or (2) = Sansk. khyata, 
famous, known (Benfey) ; whereas 
Ood (A. Sax. Ood, Goth, gutk) prob. 
= Pers. khoda, Jchudd, God, t.e. knumd 
(seif) -h ay (coming), (Johnson, Pers, 
and Arab, Did.), Zend hhadhata, self- 
existent (Diefenbach, Ooth, 8pr. ii. 416). 
On the Bunic monuments Kup is God 
(G. Stephens, TTior tJhe Thundd-er, 
p. 82). Bums uses Oude (=: good) 
for God : *' Oude keep thee frae a tether 
string I " {Wcyrks, p. 88, Globe ed.). 

Goodman. Messrs. Eastman and 
W. A. Wright in their excellent Bible 
Word-Book, make a suggestion that 
goodman, an old Eng. word for the 
master of the house (e,g, Prov. vii. 19, 
Matt. XX. 11) or a yeoman, is a corrup- 
tion of A. Sax. gummann or guma, a 
man (whence brydguma, a bride-^rroom), 
and that good-wife [or goody, cf. house- 
wife and hussy] was formed in imita- 
tion of the corrupted word. 

Oum^nann, which occurs in Beowulf^ 
would seem to be a pleonastic com- 
pound of guma (which has been re- 
ferred by Grinun to A. Sax. ge&nuvn 
igyman), to care, guard, keep, or rule) 
and man. However, goodman is found 
in old Eng. for the master of a house, 
80 there are no grounds for this sug- 
gested corruption (see Skeat). More- 
over ^uma=:0. H. Qer, gomo, Goth. 
guman, Lat. homo (Fick). 

The said day [Nov. 25, 1646] compeired 
William Seifvright . . . being accused of 
sorcerie, in alloting and giuing over some 
land to the old goodman (as tney call it) 
[^ devil]. — Freshtftery Book of Strathbogie, 
p. 71 (Spalding Club). 

Good tbabs, in Shakespeare, is a 
corruption of the word ^^go^eres," a 
loathsome disease, from Fr, gouge, a 
punk or camp-wench. ''The good 
yeeres shall devoure them flesh and 
fell."— Lear, v. 8 (fol.). 

** What the good-jer / " is Dame 
Quickly*s expletive in The Merry Wives 
of Windsor, act i. sc. 4, 1. 127. 

Goodger, a provincial word for the 
devil, may be the word intended. (Vid. 
Notes and Queries, 5th S. v. p. 202.) 

A 'scat the things about as thof the goodger 
was in en. — Dewmskire Courtship, p. 8. 

GOODY'S ETE ( 148 ) 


Seeke not, I pray yoa, that that pertaineth 
not to jou. What a goodyere haue you to 
doe to meddle in hin matters T — T, North, 
Moratl Philosophie of the Ancient Sages, 1601, 
p. M verso. 

Who at her first coming, like a simple, 
ignorant Wooman, after her homely manner, 
was bluntly saluted him : *' What a good 
yeare, Master More, I mervaile what you 
mean." — Wordsuwrth, Eccle*. Biography, vol. 
ii. p. 139 (ed. 1810). 

The corruption was made perhaps 
with a reminiscence of the Italian 
phrase — 

Mai* annOy an ill yeere, eontinuall trouble, 
Tsed in Italie for a Curse to ones enemie, as 
II mal* anno che Dio ti dij, an ill yeere God 
giue thee. — Florio. 

So in Chancer — 

God give the monke a thousand last quad 

Prologue to The PHorestet Tale, 

Which seems to mean ** God give the 
monk a thousand (fold) burden of 
bad years.*' 

GooDT*s ETB, a Somerset name for 
the plant 8<dvia adcurea, is a corrup- 
tion of another popular name Ood*8 
eye ^Britten and Holland). Oodes-eie, 
Uhn8t*8 eye, and Clea^-eye, seem free 
renderings of its Low Lat. name sclarea 
(f ex-cUvrus). See Clear- bye. 

Ocultu Christi is also a kinde of Clarie, but 
lesser. — Gerarde, Herbal, p. 627 (1697). 

GooL-FBENOH, Somerset word for the 
goldfinch. In Antrim it is called the 
gold-flinch and goJd-npring (Patterson). 

GoosE, a certain symptom of the lues 
venerea, a bubo, frequently alluded to 
in the old dramatists, is perhaps a cor- 
ruption of gougeree, vid. Good-teabs. 

Goose, a tailor's iron for pressing 

Come in, taylor; here you may roast your 
goote. — Macbeth, ii. 3. 

The word probably meant originally 
any large mass of iron, compare Swed. 
ads, a pig of iron, Qer.gans, a great 
lump of melted iron, fr. gueuse, '* a 
great lump of melted iron, rude, and 
unfashioned, even as it comes from 
the furnace" (Cotgrave, in Babelais 
queuse), all no doubt near akin to Ger. 
guss, metal, founding, gusseisen, cast 
iron, giessen, to pour, to found, gosse, a 

The term goose would readily be ap« 

plied to a mass of melted metal from 
the analogous usage of sow, pig, Gk. 
delphis, a dolphin, &c. T. Row, in the 
Gentleman^s Magazine, June, 1774, re- 
marks that smoothing - irons " were 
made at first of hammered iron, but 
now are generally made of sow-metal, 
but are still called irons." Belated 
words are, 0. H. Ger, gxuzan, Swed. 
giuta, Dan. gyde, A. Sax. gedtan, Goth. 
gjutan, Icel. gjdta, to cast metal. 

I beg on my knees to have Atropo^ the 
tailor to the Destinies ... to heat ttie iron 
goo-'^e of mortality, and so press me to death. 
— Massinger, The Virgin martyr, iii. 3 (p. 19, 
ed. Cunningham). 

Goose, used as a synonym for a 
simpleton or fool, is, as Bishop Stanley 
has observed, a " proverbial libel " on 
a bird remarkable for its intelligence. 

It has qualities, we might almost say of 
the mind, of a very singular character. . . . 
There are no animals, biped or quadruped, 
so difficult to deceive or approach, their sense 
of bearing, seeing, and smelling being so 
extremely acute; independently of which 
they appear to act in so organized and cautious 
a manner, when feeding or roosting, as to 
defy all danger. — History of Birds, p. 35S 
(7th ed.). 

Among the ancient Egyptians tlie 
filial affection of the goose was con- 
sidered so exemplary to men that it 
was made the ideograph of " a son." 

It may credibly be thought also, that this 
creature hath some sparks (as it were) of 
reason, understanding, and learning. — Hol- 
land, Pliny's Nat, Hist. vol. i. p. 280, 16.^4. 

Accordingly, a band of crusaders in 
the time of our Henry II., saw nothing 
ridiculous in having a goose carried as 
a standard at .their head. Indeed, it 
is only in modem times, and that as 
we shall see through a verbal miscon- 
ception, that the name of this wise bird 
has become the very antithesis of its 
true character. Its carefulness has 
been warmly eulogized by Scaliger, 
who declares it the very emblem of 

When Frederick Nausea, Bishop of Vienne, 
desired in his panegyric on St. Quintin to 
convey a fitting idea of the sobriety, chastity, 
and vigilance of that eminent personage, he 
could not express himself more forcibly than 
bv asserting the holy and virtuous man 
closely resembled a goose. Had folly been 
esteemed a prominent characteristic of the 
bird, the saint would hardly have been 
likened to it ; but it is only ignorance of the 

0008EBEBBY ( 149 ) ' GOOBE^EOBN 

Mceit hue that Tentures to portraj the 
goow M deficient in sagacity or intelligence. 
'-CtmhiU Magaxiney toI. mi. p. 303. 

I would suggest, therefore, that goose, 
in the sense of simpleton, is a survival 
of the Scandinavian gtm, a fool, found 
in Swedish, derived from old Swed. 
guio, to blow (of. "gust").— G. Ste- 
phens. Old Northern Sunic MonumentSy 
p. 925 ; just as 0. Norse gcdi, a fool 
(Dan. acU, mad), is near akin to a gale 
of wind (Wedgwood). Windy inflation 
is the root idea of " fool,** and many 
other words of the same signification. 

Here Ijes Benjamin Johnson dead, 
And liath no more wit than [a] gooie in bis 

B, Johnson's ConvertatumSy Sfc, p. 36 
(Shaka. Soc.). 

GoosBBKBBY. Whatever be the ori- 
gin of this word, whether it be akin 
to the G-erman hra/aabeere^ the rough 
haizy berry, from hraus, rough (com- 
pre Dan. McheUbo&r, Swed. siickelhOr, 
** the nriokly berrv," and perhaps Dutch 
Jeruymesh, frt)m Jcroee, frizzled, bristly, 
Sp. creipincty Lat. uoa oriepa), which 
seems most probable, or, as Dr. Prior 
thinks, from Fr. gro$eiUe (which is it- 
self a oormpted form from Ger. krau- 
ml), it certainly has no connexion with 

The Dutch kruysbeezi has been assi- 
milated to kruys, a cross. Oarberry, 
the North country name for this fruit, 
is according to Mr. Atkinson akin to 
JL Sax. and Norse gar, a point or 
prickle, and ororse, the prickly plant 
{Cleveland uU>9sary, s.v.), which in 
N. W. Lincolnshire is called gose 
(Peacock), whence perhaps goa&'Oerry 
("Prickly gow and thorns." — Tempest, 
iv. 1) ; bat this is unlikely. Mr. Tunbs 
says that roasted geese used in the 
dden time to be stuffed with goose- 
berrieBy and thence came their name 
{Noeike and Oomers of Ena, Life, 
p. 168), but this is more than doubtfiil. 
Oooeeherry may be for grooaeherry, as 
epeak for epreak, epeckle for eprcckle, 
gjn for grin: compare Welsh grtoys. 
Prof. Skeat says the orig. form must 
have been groise-herry, where gi-oise := 
M. H. Ger. krus, curling, crisped,^ i.e. 
hairy, and so ** goose-berry " is the 
hairy-berry. A Scotch form is groser, 

George Gordoone being cited beibr the 

session of Rynie for prophanein^ the Sabbath, 
by gathering grosers in tyme ot sermon . . • 
appealed to the presbyterie. — PrtsbyUry 
Book of Strathbogie (1636), p. 9. 

GoRDiAN, used absurdly by Keats as 
a verb meaning to knot, from some 
confused reminiscence of the fabled 
•'Gordian knot," so called because 
tied by Gordi^s, King of Phiygia, with 
the oracular prediction tliat whoever 
shotdd undo it would reign over the 
entire of Asia. 

She had 
Indeed, locks bright enough to make me 

And thej were simply gordian'd up and 
Endymion, Bk. I. Poenu, p. 19 (ed. 1869). 

GoosE-DANCiNO, a kind of masque- 
rade, indulged in at Christmas and 
other festivals in Cornwall, Scilly 
islands, &c., originally gee$e dancing. 
I.e. guUe dancing (dance-deguise), a 
species of mumming performed by the 
gtUxards or masquers. — Hunt, Vrolle, 
^. of West of England, L 37 and 807. 

The young people exercise a sort of 
gallantry, caUea Goost Dancing, when the 
maidens are dressed up for young men, and 
the young men for maidens; thus disguised 
they visit their neighbours in companies, 
where they dance and make jokes upon what 
has happened on Ihe island. — Heath, Istands 
rfSciUtf, p,l«5(1760). 

Compare Scot, gyser, a mummer, 
and gyse, to masquerade. 

The loons are awa tlirough the toon gysin'. 
-^Gregor, Banff Glossurtt, p. 72. 

Disguise was the old £nglish word for a 
masque. — Ben Jonson, The Masque of Augurs. 

See also M. A. Courtney, W. Com- 
w^iU Ghssary, s.y. Gts' Dance, and 
^F. Q. Couch, E, OomwaU Glossary, 
s.v. Goosey Dance. 

GoosB-HOBN, Scottish gtise-hom; as 
the ingredient of a recipe, sounds as 
apocryphal as *' pigeon's milk," or as 
the ^ goat^s wool *^ and ** ass's fleece *' 
of the ancient classics. It is a curious 
corruption of Soot, gwssem, Lincolns. 
ghizzem (Bailey, 1758), old Eng. gys- 
erne {Prompt, Parv.) and giser, the giz- 
zard of a fowl, Fr. gesier, from Lat. 
gigeriwn. Compare Git- horn for git- 
tern, CiTHORNE for dttem, Goshorne 
in the Reliqum Antiq, vol. ii. p. 176, is 
probably the same word. 

A Powder for the winde in the body. Take 

G008E-8HABE ( 150 ) 


Anniseed, Carowftj-seed, Jet, Amber-greese, 
red Coral, dried Lemon or Orange peels, 
new laid Egg shels dried, Dates Stones, 
pillings of Ooote-horru of Capons & Pigeons, 
dried Horse-radiBh-roots, of each naif a 
Scruple in fine powder well mixed, and take 
half a Scruple thereof everjr morning in a 
Spoonful of Beer or white Wine. — The 
Queent Closet Opened, p. 77 (1658). 

GoosE-SHABE (Tuiner, Herbdll), or 
Ooose-sha/reth, a name for the plant 
gcUvum aparlne, is a cormption of its 
old name goose -heiriffe (W. Coles, 
Adam in Eden), A. Sax. go8-hegerife, 
"goose-hedge-reeve," the reeve that 
guards the hedge and arrests the geese 
passing through (Prior). SeeHAiBouoH. 

Graterotiy the small bur called Goose-thare, 
Goose-grass, LoTe-mau, Clearer, and Claver. 
— Cot^rawr. 

GouKSTULE, a Scotch word for an in- 
strument of punishment, as if a " foors 
stool,*' from gouk, a fool, is a corrup- 
tion of cuck-stool. See Cook-stool. 

On the 24th Feb. 1564. James Gardiner 
** for iniuring of the proTest publicklie," was 
" sett on the goukitulit four bouris on the 
merkat day." — Linlithgow Burgh Records 
(Daluelly harher Superstitions of Scotlandy 
p. 68*4). 

Graft, a modem and corrupt form 
of graff, 0. Eng. graffen, to insert a 
scion, where the final t is perhaps due 
to the p. participial {orm graft^igraf ted ; 
^affy a scion, Fr. greffe, is properly 
a slip pointed like a pen or pencil, Lat. 
graphiuTn, Gk. graph/ion, a writing in- 
strument (Skeat). On the other hand 
lift is sometimes used as a p. parte, as 
if =: lifedy " The ark was lift up " 
(Gen. vii. 17, xiv. 22, &c.), and hcdlast as 
if hall'Os'dy " Their weak hallacH souls " 
(Ford, Honor TriumpharUy 1606). 

They also .... shall be graffed in ; 
for God ifl able to graff them in again. — A. V, 
Rom, xi. 2:). 

Orvff'iiny or graffyny Insero. — Prompt. Par- 

GraJ'tfy or gri{ffe of a tree, ente. — Pals- 
grave, 15jO. 

Grain, in the phrase '* Against the 
grain," i.e. running counter to one*s 
natural inclination or disposition, as 
the saw or plane does against tlie direc- 
tion of the fibres in wood, called its 
grainy is possibly a popular corruption 
of " Against the gri," which was also 
in UKe with the same signification, 
Fr. gre, wish, liking, humour {c,g,, a 

gre, moL grS). The phrase " to take in 
gr^, or gree," t.e. in good part, kindly, 
is common in old writers ; Pepys says, 
"He is agmnet the grS and content 
of the old Doctors made Judge " (Diary, 
March 27, 1667). 

Similarly the Scottish threat, " I'll 
gie him his gray," i.e. a drubbing (as 
if payment, full satisfaction, his heart's 
desire), is no doubt a ludicrous use of 
Fr. gre, desire (cf. /aire gre), Jamieson. 
In vulgar English this sometimes ap- 
pears as " 111 give him his grains" 

Our judgments muHt needs give assent to 
God; but because bin precepts go again8t 
the grain of our affections . . . . we settle 
upon the Grecian resolution, though more 
seriously, not to be so troubled for our souls 
as to lose a moment of our carnal delights. — 
T. Adams, Sermons, vol. i. p. 198. 

Grains, a Prov. word for the prongs 
of a fork (Old Country WordSy E. D. S. 
p. 145). Grain, used also for the jimc- 
tion of a branch with the tree, and for 
the bifurcation of the body, the groin 
(cf. Ir. gahhdl), is loel. grein, a branch, 
a fork. 

A Grain-staff, A Quarter-staff, with a short 
pair of Tines at the End, which they call 
Grains, — Raffj South and East Countrtf Words, 

Gramerct, also spelt Gramnieraj 
(as if gramd merci, great tlianks, " grnn- 
d&in merce-dem dot iihi BeuSy" i,e, God 
give you a great reward), " I thank 
you *' (Bailey, Skeat), and so Chaucer : 

Grand merely quod the preest, and was ful 

The Chanones Yemannes Tale, 

is a corruption of Grant nwrcy 1 

We see the beginning of what was to 
become a well-known English oath. 
Bays Mrs. Oliphant, in 

Ye, he sevde, grannte mercy. 

Robl, Manniut^y HaniUyng Synne, 
p. 3553 (1303)'. 

She saith : Gnunt mercu, love sir, 
God quite it you, there 1 ue may. 

Gower, Conf. Amantisy vol. iii. p. 317 
(ed. Pauli). 

Scottish folk corrupted it into Oray 
mercies I as an exclamation of Bur|)ri8e 

Grampus, " a fish like a whale, but 
less " (Bailey), formerly spelt grand- 
pisce, as if the great fish. But as no 
such form is found in French, tlie word 
is probably a corruption of A. Sax. 
hranfisc, a whale-fish (Mahn). 


( 151 ) 


Ghre me leaTe to name what fifth we took ; 
thej were Dolphins, Bonetaes, Albicoref, 
CaTftlloes, Porpioe, GrampoMte (the <Siuimirt- 
«u«), &c.— Sir Thos, Herbert^ TraveU, p. 404 

Gbanob, an old Scotch corraption of 
grains, the branches of a bnm towards 
the head. See Grains. 

At Threeburn Grange^ in an after daj. 
There shall be a lang and bloody fray. 

Thomtu of Ereeldount, 

Grant, from 0. Fr. grautUer, groan- 
ier, originally oraanter, crea/rUer (from 
Low Lat. creantare, credentarej to as- 
sure, accredit), influenced perhaps in 
spelHng by confusion with 0. Fr. go- 
rantir, of the same meaning (Skeat, 
Etgni, Bid.), But of. grate beside Lat. 

Grapb-shot, a quantity of broken 
pieces of iron and miscellaneous mis- 
siles discharged from a gun, is evi- 
dently another form of Icel. grdp, sleet, 
used poetically of arrows, the form in 
prose being krap, hrapi. The curious pa- 
rallelism, however, of Swed. druf-hagel^ 
grape-shot, from drufva, a grape, must 
be taken into consideration. 

Compare Gray's ** Iron sleet of arrowy 
shower," Virgil's "ferrous ingruit 
imber " (^n. xii. 284), and " Hastati 
spargunthastas, fit ferrous tmber" (En- 
nius, Ann. viii. 46). 

Gray's line seems modelled on Mil- 

Sharp sleet of arrowy showers. 

Par, Regainedy iii. 523, 

and this on Spenser's " sharp showre 
of arrowes '* (F, Queene, V. iv. 38). 

In old Englisli shower is a storm of 
arrows, a battle, A. Sax. scur. 

Th^ shall haue many a sharpe thotcer, 
both the King 6c Trvamore, 

Thej shall nevpr haue peace. 

Fercu Folio MS. vol. ii. p. 112, 1. 929. 

Compare A. Sax. isem-scur (iron- 
shower), a battle, scur-heorg, a battle- 

Ofl geb&d item tcur, 
]x>nne straila storm . . . 
iScoc ofer scykl-weall. 

Beownljy 1. ;3116 (8th cent.). 

Oft he abode the iron-shuwer ; the storm 
of arrows flew ov^er the shield-wall. 

Grass-man, a Scottish term for a 
tenant who has no land, but is only a 
*' cottar," seems a paradoxical forma- 
tion. However, the word has nothing 

to do with grass. Another form of it 
is gerss-ma/n, or gers^man, for gersom- 
man, i.e. one who pays ^6rsom,^e0som, 
or grassom^ which is a sum paid to a 
landlord by a tenant on entering a 
farm, old Eng. gersom, payment or 
reward, A. Sax. gcsrsuma, a&ie or pre- 
mium, gersume, a treasure. Holland 
says Norwich paid ** an hundred shil- 
lings for a gersume [a fine] to the 
queene" {Camden, p. 474). 

He ne bereiS no ganum. — Ancren RiwUf p. 

Grass-widow, a provincial term for 
a woman who is a mother and not 
married, also for a wife in the absence 
of her husband. It might seem that 
grass here is for grace, pronounced in 
the French fashion, old Eng. gras, as if 
a widow by grace or courtesy ; indeed 
the Suffolk form is graee-widino (Moor). 
A grass hand is a term used among 
printers, and means (I beUeve, for I 
cannot find it in any glossary) a tem- 
porary or supernumerary workman, a 
hand by grace or sufferance, as it were, 
in contrast to the regular and perma- 
nent staff of employees. 

The word, however, is not peculiar 
to English. In Low German it appears 
as graS'Wedevae, in Swedish as gras- 
enka, Ut. "grass-widow" (Tauchnitz 
Diet.), Prov. Dan. gr(BS(*nka, Compare 
the nearly synonymous Ger. siroh- 
witiwe, " straw- widow." It has been 
conjectured that the Scandinavian 
words, which are doubtless the origi- 
nals of our own, are colloquial forms 
of grmdesenka, from gradig, longing (our 
•* greedy"), meaning one who yearns 
or longs for her husband in his absence, 
like the Belgian hosck wedewe, from 
hivcken, to feel strong desire. Cf. old 
Eng. grees, greece^ a step, from gradus, 
(See Atkinson, Cleveland Glossary, p. 
231.) Gradig, Dan. graadig, is cog- 
nate with Gothic gredus, Ir. gradh, love 
( agra), Sansk. gridh, to desire or long for. 

Grass, heart of, To take, a corrup- 
tion in old authors of the once familiar 
phrase " to take hpart of gr<ice," i.e. to 
be of good courage. 

Persuaded thereunto by her husbandes 
lelosye^ [she] tooke harte at^roue, and would 
needes trie a newe conclusion. — TelL-Trothes 
NeW'Yeartt Gift, 1595, p. 23 (New Shaks. 

OBAVma-DOOK ( 152 ) 


Taking hart at gratu, drawing more neere 
him, I praied him to tell me what Purgatorj 
if. — Tarlton*8 Jestgf p. 57 (Shaks. Soc). 

Graying - dock is probably con- 
sidered by most persons to be derived 
from grave, to dig out or excavate 

i**gravynge, or delvynge, Fossio." — 
\ompt. ^arv.). It was originally a 
dry dock where the bottom of a ship 
oould be pitched or graved, i.e, smeared 
with graves or greaves, grease or refuse 
tallow, Prov. Swed. grevar. 

To grave a ship [sea-term] to preserve the 
calking bj dawbine it over with tallow, train- 
oil, &C., mix*d. — nailey, Diet, 

Gbayt, a corrupt spelling apparenti^i 
of old Eng. grovy, *' Heo promulada, 
grovy" — Wright, Vocabularies (16th 
cent.)) p- 266. The original meaning 
seems to have been pot-hquor, potage, 
from old Eng. greova:=.olla, (A. Sax. Vo- 
cabulary, lOth or 11th cent., Wright, 
p. 288). The word perhaps was con- 
founded with grave, graves, greaves, tal- 
low refuse, from which indeed Prof. 
Skeat derives it. But gravy does not 
seem to have meant fat, but the juice of 
the meat. Chapman spells it greavy^ 
and distinguishes it from fat, ** Their 
fat and greavde** {Odys. xviii. 68). 

Grat-milb, ) a name for the plant 
Grat-mtle, j UihosperrmLinofficincde 
(" gray millet ") in Turner, Herbal, ii. 
40, Uraymill in Cotgrave, O. Eng. 
forms groniel, grumelU, gremil, and 
gromtoell, Fr, gremil. The Latin name 
of the plant having been gramen (or 
granum) soUs, and miliwm^ tiiese words 
may have coalesced into the above 
popular names (Prior). 

Boddeker says the origin ia Lat, 
granum miliu 

Ase gromffl in grene erene is )« grone.— 
Johon, 1. 37 {Alteng. Dichtung$n, p. 146). 

In milium soUs, the epithet of the sun 
hath enlargtHi itH opinion ; which hath, indeed, 
no reference thereunto, it being no more than 
lithaspermimf or grummel, or rather milium 
toUr; which as nerapion from Abon Juliel 
hath taught us, because it pn^w plentifully 
in the mountains of Soler, rec^nved that ap- 
pellation. — Sir Thomas Browtte, Pfeudodoxia 
Epidemica, Works, vol. i. p. 214 (ed. Bohn). 

Gilofre, gyngure, & gromuli/onn. 

Alliterative Poems, p. 2, 1. 45. 

Graze, to scrape slightly and super- 
ficially, formerly spelt grase, seems to 
be merely an assiniilation of rase (Fr. 

raser, to touch or grate on a tiling in 
passing by it. — Cotgrave), to graze, to 
crop the surface of the sward as cattle 
do (lit. to grass), or perhaps to grafe 
(Skeat). So Fr. gr(U is not only a 
scratching or scraping, but pasture or 
grazing for cattle (Cotgrave). 

Great, a colloquial expression for in- 
timate, familiar, favourite, fast friends, 
as "They are very great with the 
Browns," was formerly in general use ; 
also for favourite, much affected, as 
" That is a great word of yours." The 
Dorset folk have "to be gref' (izvery 
friendly), Barnes ; the Scottish grit ; 
•* They two be very gret" — Sternberg, 
NortKmipto^i Glossary. 

A little National School girl in Ire- 
land once explained that the Cate- 
eliism phrase, " to be in charity with all 
men," meant " to hegreai with them." 
Bp. Hall remarked that " Moses was 
great with God" {Contemplations, Bk. 
vii. 1). 

Lady Castlemaine if still as great with the 
King. — Pepyss Diary, vol. ii. p. 5 (ed. M. 

"No snail " *s a great word with him. — R. 
Brome, A Jovial Crew, v. 1 (166^). 

The Lord Boid was grait with the Regent, 
and haid a cusing in our College. — J. Mel- 
ville, Diaryy 1578, p. 69 (Wodrow Soc). 

As to the origin of this word it is 
difficult to speak with confidence. Put- 
ting aside A. Sax. grit, peace (notwith- 
standing the analogy oisib, related, from 
A. S. 9ih, peace) ; A. Sax. grcdd4i, the 
bosom; Ir. gradJi, dear, beloved (Sansk. 
grdh, to desire), we may probably see 
in this " gi'eat " a derivative of A. Sax. 
gretan, to know familiarly (orig. to 
welcome or "greet"), Ger. grusscn. It 
is possible, however, that it is identical 
with " great," large, — to he thick being 
a phrase quite analogous, — and may 
mean "of much account," "of high 
value." In the provincial dialects the 
two words are kept distinct, e.g, " Thai 
bee turble grait " (zz very close friends), 
but gurt (:= magnus) (F. T. Elworthy, 
Grammar of TV. Somerset) ; while in N. 
England gryth is intimate, and grait, 
gert, is great. 

" He does not Top hifi part " — A greit word 
with Mr. Edward Howard. — Buckingham, 
The Rehearsal, Key 1704, p. 70 (ed. Arber). 

As great as the Devil and the Karl of Kent. 
-^wi/t. Polite Conversations, 


GvaauaK Stubs, at Linooln, origi- 
nalbf the GraeMn, t^. the steps, plural 
of toe old Enff. greue^ grixe, or gree^ a 
■lq^^M. MOlkr, C^jpt, iU p. 581. 

Oinos, in the phrase a hart of 
ffrMeSt a ftt hart, in old ballads, is for 
''hart of prvoM,** O. Fr. grausc^ fatness 
^rai, fat, Lat. era$9fu). 

WUeh of jou oan kill a baoke. 

Or who can kill a doe ; 
Or who can kill a hart of Gretcf, 
FiTo hnndreth foot him fro. 
IngUkm, Bmiladt mnd Songt of YorkMhirif 

p. 53. 

Gist, when nsed specifically for A 
hone or steed, bears a curious resem- 
Uaee to, and may possibly be the same 
votd as, the Gipsy grey (Pott), grye 
9oaa[t)f ara (foreign Gipsy, Borrow, 
uniUman), a horse. Of. Hind, ghord^ a 
Ivne, ghM% a mare. However, it must 
be remembered that horses freiiuently 
got names from their colour, e.g. Bay- 
nd, liard, Blanohard (Soot, hlonk)^ 
Yisnllf Ball, Sorrell, Dun, Grizzle, and 
fit ** Soots* Greys.'* 

Woe worth the chaie, woe worth the day, 
That coat thy life, my galUnt grejf ! 

Scottf Lady ofttu Lake, I. ix. 

He look'd—- he knew the raren^s prey, 
Hii owabraTo steed ^—*< Ah! rtil%nigrey!*' 

Id. IV. XX. 

"Gae nddle to me the bUusk," he cried, 

'^Gae saddle to me the grat/ ; 
Om nddle to me the swiftest steed, 
To hie me on my way." 
Urd Bmmaby, 1. 48 {ChiUVs Ballads, 

Tol. ii. p. 309). 
He spnrr'd the grai/ into the path, 

TiD baith his sides thej bled. 
Auid Maitland {Ibid, vol. yi. p. 9«r>). 

GiBT BXBD, a name for the thrush 
in W. Cornwall (M. A. Courtney), and 
Bdsmz (Parish), recalls its Fr. name 
frbm, which is perhaps akin togrivekr^ 
to pilfer {gripper, "gripe," Ac— 
Uieler}, as if tne plunderer, sc. of the 
Tines. Cf. the names, Ger. weinJrosscl, 
wmmgari vogelt mavis, Fr. rnaumt 
(Tondarstood as makim vitis); and 
the proTerb ** Soiil comme une grive.'* 

GiST-HonND, so spelt as if called 
from its grey colour, A. Sax. groaghund, 
gr^fhwmd (from groeg^greg, grey), is 
properly the Groum or Grecian (A. Sax. 
Urmt^ Qrie) dogt eanis grains. Scot. 
graig dcy.— So I. Taylor, Words and 
rlaeet, p. 415 (2nd ed.). 

Amonf^ the diuers kinds of hnntinfi^ Bogs 
the Grev-hound or Grttcian Dog, called Tm' 
reutieot or Elatira (by reanon of his 8wift- 
nt^Me) .... dfsenifth Xlw first placf.-— 
Topull, Hiitorie of Four-footed BeastSj 1606, 
p. 14^^ 

Grehownde (td. gre$ehotcnde)f Leporarius. — 
Prompt, Parvuhrum. 

It was also known in Scotch as the 
grey, grew (cf. old Eng. greto zz greek), 
gretckund, and grewan (Jamieson), old 
Eng. greicnd. 

The counterpart of this conyersion 
of graian into grey occurs in an old 
epigram on Lady Jane Grey, who *' for 
hor excellency in the Greek tongue was 
called for Greia, Graia, and this made 
to her honour in that respect. 

Mirarifl lanam Graio sermone valeref 
Quo nata est primilm tempore, Graia fuit. 
Camdeny Remaines, 1637, p. 163. 

Similarly in Spanish galgo, a grey- 
hound, is from goLlious canis (Diez). 

Compare spaniel, the Spanish dog, 
Lat. mohssus, a mastifif (i.e. the Molos- 
sian, from Epirus), turkey, Fr. dinds 
(pouletd'Inde), Ger. kaUkutcr, canary^ 
and many oUier birds and animals 
named after the countries from which 
they were introduced or were sup- 
posed to come. 

Otiierwise we might identify the first 
part of the word with Icel. grey, Gaelio 
gregh, Lr. greek, a hound. Spelman 
says : **A Greyhound, Ovidio cams GaUi- 
cus. Bed proprie magis Britannicus " 
{Ghssariuni, 1626, s.v. Canis), A dis- 
tinct corruption is old Eng. grif-Jwund 
{King Alysaundcr, 1. 5284), witli which 
agrees old Dutch griip-hund (Kiliau), 
as if the dog that grips its prey. 

In the Constitutions of King Canute 
concerning Forests occur the words : — 

Nullus mediocriA habebit nee cuntodiet 
Canes, quos Augli Greihounda uppellant. — 
Spelman, Glomirium (16:^6), p. 290. 

Tristre is j^er me sit mid )ie greahunde$ forte 
k('p<.>n \fR hi>arde. FA tristre is wLere men 
wait with the {^reyiiounds for to meet the 
herd]. — Ancren RivcUy p. 332. 

(be hnre yernj?, J« grjfhond hym uol3^)> 
The hnre runneth, tho greyhownd him tol- 
oweth]. — Ayenbite of Inwiftf p. 73 (1340;. 
As Sonne an 1 can renne to the laye, 
Anon the greifhonJifs wjrl me have. 

E, Eng, Muceflanie$, p. 46 (VVarton 

The Greiihoitnde called Leporarius, hath 
hiM name of thin word Gre, which word 
ttoundeth gradus in latine, in finglishc degree. 


( 154 ) 

Because among all dog^es these are the most 
principally occaprinff uie chiefest place, and 
being simplv and absolutely the best of all 
the gentle kinde of houndes. — A. Fleming ^ 
Caiui of Eng, DoggeSf 1576 (p. 40, repr. 

Tet another flEJse etymology is this 
of Fuller*8 : — 

I have no more to observe of these Grsj/- 
houndsy sare that they are so called (being 
otherwise of all colours), because orif^inally 
imployed in the huntine of Grayt ; Uiat is, 
Brocui and Badgers. — Wmrthie$ of Engiand, 
Tol. ii. p. 4 (ed. 1811). 

Grid-iron, formerly spelt gyrdiron 
(Levins), ^cdi^rwe, Wycliffe (Ex. xxvii. 
4), is a oormption of old Eng. gredire, 
a ^ddle, another form of Welsh 
gretdell, oradeU, a griddle, also a grate 
(Spurrell), Ir. greideU (hsc cretella). 
These words, as well as old Welsh 
grcUell, are from L. Lat. graticula, for 
crctticulaf a dim, of cratis, a hurdle, a 
barred grate (Zeuss ; Whitley Stokes, 
Irish Olosaes, p. 48 ; Ebel, OeUic Studies, 
p. 101). A griddle is thus a gratel or 
little grate. From the same source 
oome It. gradella, Fr. greille, Eng. griU 
(Diez). Prof. Skeat less probably holds 
to a Celtic origin, and so Haldemann 
(Affittes, p. 178). 

Nes Seinte Peter .... istreiht o rode, 
and Seint Lorenzo iSe grediL [Was not 
S. Peter stretched on the crosd, and S. 
Lawrence on the gridiron'\. — Ancren RiwU^ 
p. 362. 

Vp a gredire hi leide him ae\>]^ ; ouer a gret 

fur and strong 
To rosti as me de]> verst flesc. 

Lite of at, Quiriac^ Legend* of Holy 
Rood, p. 58, 1. 504 (L. E. 1. S.). 

\je King het bat me scholde anon: vpe a 

gridire nim do 
And roHte him wib fur it pich. 

Life of S. Chrulophery 1. 203 (Philolog. 
Soc. 1858, p. 65). 

Gnfdyryney Craticula, craticulum. 
Rost yryn, or grudyrifn, craticula, crates. 
Frttmpt, Parvulonun (1440). 

\)e gredime & jm goblotes gamyst of syluer. 
AlUteratilH: Poenu, p. 73, 1. 1277 
(14th cent.). 

Their Boucan is tigrediron of fowre cratches, 
set in the ground, a yard high, and as much 
asunder, with billets laid thereon, and other 
stickes on them grate-wise. On thin they 
ro8t the flesh. — PitrcAo*, Pilgrimage*^ America, 
Bk. viii. ch. 5, $ i. p. 10.'^. 

The Scotch have altered griddle to 


Wi' jumping and thumping 
The verra anrdle rang. 

BurtUf Workgy p. 48 (Globe ed.). 

Gbiffin, a term applied in, India to 
a novice or green-horn. Can this be 
from Fr. gnffon, griffonewr, one who 
writes badly, and so a backward pupil, 
a novice or b^jaune ? 

Gbig. The proverbial expression 
" Merry as a gng " is probably a cor- 
ruption of the older ** Merry as a Greeks 
The word has been generally under- 
stood to mean a smtdl, wriggUng eel, 
m called perhaps from its colour, A. 
Sax. grcBg, gray, just as another fish 
has been named a '* grayling.'* As 
"grig," however, is a provincial term 
also for the cricket, as it were the gray 
insect f in Icelandic grd-nMgi, ** gray- 
maw'* (compare the "gray-fly" of 
Milton's " Lycidas *'), it is more natural 
to suppose tliat the phrase is synony- 
mous with another equally common, 
" as merry as a cricket ; *' the cheerful 
note of the cricket, even more than its 
lively movements, causing it to be 
adopted as an exempUflcation of merri- 
ment. Holland has " grig hens " 
(Pliny, L 298), cf. W. Cornwall grig- 
gan, a grasshopper (M. A. Courtney, 
E. D. S.). 

The high-shoulder*d grigj 
Whose great heart ia too big 
For his body this blue May mom. 
Lord LyttoH, Poems {Owen Mere- 

But grig is probably a popular sub- 
stitute for Grc^.k. Cotgrave, for example, 
explains gouinfrey " a madcap, vierry 
grig, pleasant knave,*' gringalety " a 
merry grig, pleasant rogue, sportfiill 
knave." ureCygregeoiSygriesche, grcgue, 
are various French spellings of the word 
Qreeh (compare ^^gregues, foreign hose 
[i.c. GreekJ, wide slops, gregs" (Cot- 
grave) ; and the word gringaht, a merry 
grig, may be only another form of 
grigaht or gregalct, a diminutive of 
greCf i.e. a greekling, grceculus, n being 
inserted as in the old French term for 
holy water, gringoriane, a corrupted 
form of gregoriancj "so termed," says 
Cotgrave, " because first invented by 
a Pope Gregory." 

From the effeminacy and luxurious 
living into which the later Greeks de- 
generated after their conquest by the 


( 155 ) 


Romans, their name became a byword 
for hon-vivanU, good fellows, or con- 
vivial companions. 

She [Maria Ceaarissa| abrnpthr vented 
lienelf in tbeite expretwion^, '* Greece ia 
ffTown barbarous and quite bereft of ita 
lormgT worth ; not so much as the mines of 
▼mlour left in jou, to reach forth unto pos- 
teritj an J signes that you were extracted 
from brare ancestors .... The merry Greek 
hath novr drowned the proverb of the valiant 
Greek."— 7. FuUer^ The Profane State, p. 465 

The booneat Companions for drinking are 
the Grteke and Germane; but the Greek is 
the iiwrrier of the two, for he will sing, and 
dance, and kiss his next companion ; but the 
other will drink as deep as he. — Howelly Fam, 
LetUre (1634). Bk. ii. 54. 

^No people in the world,** it has 
been said, '* are so jovial and merry, so 
given to singing and dancing, as the 
Oreeks ** (P. Gordon). So Bishop Hall, 
in his "Triumphs of Bome,'* having 
spoken of the wakes, May games, 
Christmas triumphs, and other con- 
vivial festivities kept up by those under 
the Roman dition, ados these words — 
** In all which put together, you may 
well say no Cheek can be merrier than 
they.*' In Latin, grmccuri, to play the 
Greek, meant to wanton, to eat, drink, 
and be merry. 

[They drank cups] sometimes as many 
together as there were lettere contained in 
the names of their mistresses. Insomuch that 
those were proverbially said to Greeke it, 
that quaft in that fiuhion. — Sandytf TraveUy 
p. 79. 

Shakespeare says of Helen, " Then 
she's a merry Oreeh indeed " (Troilus 
and Cressida, i. 2), and the phrase 
occurs repeatedly in other writers of 
the same period. Cotgrave defines 
averlan to oe " a good fellow, a mad 
companion, merry Oreek, sound drunk- 
ard ; '* while Mioge gives '* a merry 
grig, tin pla/Uani txympagnon," and 
** They diank till they all were as 
merry as grigs *' occurs in " Poor 
Bobin's Almanac,** 1764. We can 
easily perceive that the latter phrase, 
both in sound and signification, arose 
out of^ or was at least fused with, the 
older one '* as merry as a Greek." 
That the connexion between the two 
was remembered and recognized so 
late as 1820 is proved by the following 
quotation, which I take from Nares — 

A true Trojan and a mad merry grig^ 
though no Greek, — Bam, Jowm, vol. i. p. 54 . 

Matthew Merygreeket the "needy 
Humorist'* in Udall*s BcUph Boieter 
Doieter (1566), says : — 

Indeede men so call me, for, hy him that us 

Whatever chance betide, I can take no 

Act i. sc. 1 (Shaks. Soc. ed. p. 2). 

1*11 cut as clean a caper from the ladder, 
As ever merry Greek did. 

AfaMtJt^er, The Bondman^ v. 5 (sub 

In Sussex grig by itself means gav, 
merry. ** He's always so grig ** (Pansh, 
Olossary, p. 50). 

I left the merry griggt .... in such a 
hoigh prouder ! such a frolic ( you'll hear 
anon. — R. Brome, A Jovial Crew, 1. 1 (1652). 

Let us hear and see something of your 
merry gri^s, that can sing, play gambols, and 
do feats. — Id. ii. 1. 

Griicask, in the old play of The 
Women's Conquegt, 1671 (Nares). " No 
more of your grimasJcs,** seems to be a 
corruption of grimaces^ under the in- 
fluence of mask. 

Grinning swallow, a Scottish name 
for groundsel, also grundxesvooLlow, grun- 
diesivattyf are corruptions of A. Sax. 
grundswelge (Britten and Holland). 

Grizzle, a name for the gooseberry 
in some parts of Scotland, is a cor- 
rupted form of groael, Fr. groseitte^ Lat. 

Groom, formerly any kind of man- 
servant, seems to be a corrupted form 
of old Eng. gome, A. Sax. gwnia 
(= O. H. Ger. gomo, Lat. liomo, stem 
ganwn, the ** earth-born,'* akin to Lat. 
%u7tm8, tlie ground, Gk. chamai, Fick), 
tlie r being due to a confusion with 
Icel. gromr, a boy, 0. Dut. grom, O. Fr. 
gronim€f whence groiyiet, a valet, and 
goumie de chambre (See Scheler, s.v. 

And gomes of gowrlande sail get vp ^r 
baneris. — Bernardus de cura ret J'amuliariSy 
p. 26, 1.117 (E. E. T. S.). 

Hire meiden mei techen sum lutel meiden 
t were dute of forto leomen among gromei 
:= boys]. — Ancren Riule, p. 422. 

Ich am nou no grom, 
Ich am wel waxen. 

Huvelok the Dane, 1. 790. 

Grounds, the dregs or sediment of 
coffee or other liquids, so spelt as if it 



( 156 ) 


signified the grotmd or bottom precipi- 
tated by a liquor (A. Sax. grand) ^ is 
really the same word as grouts^ the lees 
or grains left after brewing, with n 
inserted, as is common, A. Sax. griU 
(LoBce Boc. iii. lix. Cockayne), Dutch 
gruyte, Low Dutch gruua. Gal. gruid^ 
dregs. Norm, grui^ connected with 
grit, groats^ A. Sax. gredt, Ger. grutze, 
Cf. W. Cornwall grudglinge, dregs, Ang. 
Ir. gradians^ " Qromid&9t lyse of any 
lycoure. He' ' ( Palsgrave, 1580) . " Qrown- 
aesope of any lycoure, Fex, gedlmen" 
{Prompt, Faro. c. 1440). Orminn, 
about 1200, says " j^iss winn iss drunn- 
kenn to l^e grand*' (vol. ii. p. 133) ; he 
means, no doubt, to the lees, and not 
as Mr. Oliphant curiously interprets 
it, " down to the ground *' := omnino 
Old cund Mid. English, p. 219). 

A' com'd in heal*d with .... grutt 
[covered with mud]. — Afr». Palmer , Devon' 
shire Courtship, p. 6. 

Grute, Greet, coffee g^unds, finely pul- 
verized soil Growder, soft gfranite usea for 
scouring. — M. A, Courtney, W, ComtoaU 
Glossary, £. D. S. 

The nasalized form is also found in 
Celtic grunndaa, dregs. 

Groundsel, the name of the plant 
Senecio, assimilated to groundsel or 
groundailf the threshold of a door 
(Bailey), was origmskilyground-swaUow, 
A. Sax. grand-awelge^ urom ewelgan to 
swallow or devour. It is still called 
in Scotch and Prov. Eng. grandy- 
ewcdlow (Prior). Compare, however, 
Ir. grunncLsg. An old form of the 
word is groundswellf as if that where- 
with the earth teems. 

Thifl ground swell i» an hearbe much like in 
shape Yuto Germander. — P. Holland, Plinie^s 
Nat. Hist. (1634), vol. ii. p. 238. 

Senecio, grund-swylige. — Wright's Vocabu- 
laries, p. 68, 

Levins has the corrupt form grcne- 
steel (Manipulus, 56, 1570), but not 
grounsoyle, p. 215 (as Skeat), which is 
a distinct word. 

Grovel. This verb seems to have 
originated in the mistaken notion that 
groveling, in such phrases as '* to lie 
groveling," was a present participle. 
The word, however, is really an adverb 
and to be analyzed, not into grovel + 
ing, but into grove + ling, i.e, groof- 
long^ along the groof or grottfe^ an old 

English word for the belly. Similar 
forms are headling and headl<mg, fid- 
ling And fiitlong, darkUng and darkhnrj. 
Prof. Skeat, I find, has come to the 
same conclusion, comparing Icel. ligg- 
ja d grufu, to lie on one's belly (Cleasby, 
218). " They fallen groff, and crion 
pitously." — Chaucer, 6, Tales, 1. 951. 

The Lord steirit upe an eztraordinar mo- 
tion in my hart, quhilk maid me atteans, 
being alean, to fall on gruiff to the ground. — 
J. Melville, Diary, 1571, p. ?4. 

lAyin mvsel doun a' mv length on my 
gruje and elbow. — Wilson, f^octes Ambrosianct, 
vol. i. p. 293. 

Grovelynge, or grovelyngys, Suppine. — 
Prompt, Parv, 

To make grufelynge, suplnare. — Cath. 

It is natures check to us, to have our head 
beare upward, and our heart grovell below. — 
Bp, Andrewes, Sermons, p. 753 (fol.). 

Groueltfng to his fete ^y felle. 

AUiUrative Poems, p. 33, 1. 1120 
(14th cent.). 

Flat on the ground himself he groveling 

Sylffester, Du Bartas, Div. Weekes 
^ JVor/cej, p. 338(1621). 

Holland (1600) has the spelling 
grovelong, and wonibelyng in Kyng AU- 
saunder (1. 5647) occurs in a like signi- 
fication. Somewhat similarly, to hunt, 
a piece of modem slang for putting ono^s 
self on regimen as Mr, Banting did, 
was the audacious coinage of some 
laconic wit who resolved that gentle- 
man*s name into a present particix)le. 
The verb to Bidle owes its existenco 
to a like mistake (see infra); and 
to darkle has been evolved out of the 
adverb da/rkUng. Compare edgling 
(Cotgrave^ s.v. Az), 

People .... rush upon death and chop 
into hell hlindling. — Ward, Sermons, p. 57 
(ed. Nichol), 1636. 

GBOW-0&A.IN, an old corruption of 
grogram, formerly spelt grogran, from 
Fr. gros grain, stuff of a coarse grain. 

Wither in his Saiires speaks of 

Turkey Grow-g mines, Chamblets, Silken Rash, 
And such like new devised foreign ti*a8h. 

Banffishire arow-grey, understood as 
cloth made of the natural grey wool 
as it grows, is doubtless the same 

She keeps hir man weel happit wee grow- 
grey, — Gregor, Banff Glossary, 


( 157 ) 


GaowxjEB, a dang teim for a foor- 
wliadad oab, refers to its slow pace com- 
ftnd with the two-wheeled hansom, 
■nd u only another form of ** crawler," 
oompsra old £ng. ^rcwU to crawl; 
fiomuiy, the premonitory shivering of 
igna; apparently akin to Fr. grouUer, 
mmBbtv to move, stir, give signs of 
nCsb • • to fwarme, abound, or break 
oofe in great nnmbers (Gotgrave), grog- 
2er, erMer^ ernmler, to shake, tremble. 
TluM latter forms seem to be from O. 
¥r, endier (eniler), Prov. croilar^ from 
I^ conMare^ to roll together (Diez). 
** Ha died of lioe continually grmcling 
out of his fleshe, as Scylla and Herode 
did." — ^Udal, Eramnvi*t Apophihcame$t 
1M4. On the other hana erfuol was 
somatimes used for growL See Davies, 
Aifip. Eng, Okuary^ s. w. 

GiTABD-naH, a provincial name for 
fteBebn^ vuihariB (i^, ne^cUe-fish), is 
a eonraption of its ordinary name gar 
er flor-jit&t finom A. Sax. gar^ a spear, 
loaL fsirr, so called from its snarp- 
pomtad mont. Compare its other 
Bamaay pore-MZ, Zon^-noM, Bea-needlCf 
Mo-jnlee, whaup-fiih^ ie, curlew-fish 
(Balehell, E. D. S.). 

OusiDOM. Iftherightsof every word 
wan fltriotly regarded, instead of guer* 
iom we shoold use some such form as 
or wiiherhtm. Our Anglo- 
forefiithers had the word iri^cr- 
Ibir a recompense, literally, lean^ 
aloan, wage, or reward, wiUcr in return 
(or at a aet-ofi^ Ac., for work done], O. 
U.' Gar. widarlan. This word being 
■doplod into the Romance languages, in 
whioli Lat. dbftum, a gift, was familiar, 
Vnt Un« l&m^ strange, was changed into 
Mtdenbne in Italian (Low Lat. wider' 
ipwiw), gverredon (as if "war-gift") 
«id ^Merwm in old French, ga£irdon 
ttor ffodardtm) in Spanish. From the 
naoflh we received oack our mutilated 
loan-wovd, as guerdon. (Diez.) 

It is ^ooA to seiTie miche a lorde that gar- 
i tH glkt hwsenisuntiii auche wise. — Hookotth§ 
Mmt^tfUTaur-Undrv,^, 4CE.E.T.S.). 

[They] dom their serrice to that aoveraig^e 

That ghny dbis to them for guerdon g^ant. 
SpttutTy F. QueerUy I. x. 59. 

Qumn^ an old form of ghost or ghost , 
Boot ^ftaifl» as if the soul were regarded 
as ■& mmatir of the bodily house. 

Dreathleue th^ lyco» 
Gaping afcainst the moon ; their gtusU were 

Percit Fotio MS. rol. i. p. £», 1. 401 (ghMtSy 
Lyme MS.^. 

Guest-taker, another form of gist 
taker (otherwise agister), quoted by 
Mr. Wedgwood from Bailey, meaning 
one who takes in cattle to pasture (Fr. 
giste, gite), as if one who plays the host 
to his neighbour's cattle. {Philolog. 
Trans. 1855, p. 69.) 

Giste is from gisir, to lie (Lat. jaeire)^ 
and means properly a resting-place; 
of Fr. ci git^nete lies, common in epi- 
taphs. The gist, of a matter is how it 
lies. Holland uses gist for a halting- 
place or night's lodging. '* The guides . . 
cast their ^if ^f and journeys " (Livy, p. 

Kennett says that "to ^ise or juice 
groimd, is when the lord or tenant 
feeds it not with his own stock, but 
takes in other cattle to agist or feed it.** 
—Parochial AnUquUies (1695), E. D. 
Soc. Ed. p. 18. 

GuiNBA-pio, is supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of Guiana-pig, as it came from 
S. America, and chiefly from Brazil 
{SkeaX, Etym.Di4st.). 

Gum, when used in the sense of an 
exudation or secretion from a sore, the 
eyes, &c., is a corruption of old Eng. 
gotcnd (pus, sanies), A. Sax. gund^ 
matter (Lt^ce Boc, I. iv. 2, Cockayne). 
Compare Hind, gond, gum. 

Gttwnde of |« eye. Ridda albugo. — Prompt, 

The adjectiyal form of the word, 
generally applied to the eyes, iag^inded^ 
goivndy, gunny (Yorks.), gowndye (Skel- 

In the following from. Shakespeare 
gmcne seoms to be the same word, in 
the sense of secretion : — 

Our poefly in as a ffowne which uses [oozes] 
From wh(>nce 'tis nourisht. 

Timon of Athens, i. 1 (lat Fol. 16^). 

When the same writer, with refer- 
ence to horses, speaks of 

The gum down-roping firom their pale-dead 

the word is possibly the same. 

So the red-gum, an eruptive humour 
mentioned in Langham s Garden of 
HeaUh, 1579, is *'reed^oii;nci0,*'in Pals- 

BALI'-WOET ( 160 ) 


by old writers in the phrases to drink 
upsee Dutch ( Jonson), and upse-freeze 
(Dekker), said to be for op zyn fries, 
**in the Frisian fashion (Nares). 
Thus the meaning would be half way 
to total inebriety. Wright gives over- 
seen =r tipsy (Prov. Diet.) which may 
be connected. 

To title a drunkard by we (loath to give 
him Huch a name bo gross and harsh) strive 
to character him in a more mincing and 

modest phrase, as thus One that 

drinks upu-fmte.-^T, Heywoodf Pfulocotho- 

Hali-wobt, t.e. Holy Wort, an old 
Eng. name for the plant Fumaria 
hulbosaj is a corrupt form of Hole-toori 
or HoUow-rooif Badia cava (Cockayne, 
LeechdomSy &o. vol. iii. Glossary: Gher- 
ard, Eerhall, P* 9B0). 

Halloween, according to Mr. Oli- 
phant, is not, as generally understood, 
a contraction of [AIC\ HaUlow*8 een, All 
Saints' Eve(n), out the modernized 
form of old Eng. hdlehenes (or hale^ne) 
in the Anoren Biwle, p. 94, A. Sax. 
hdlgana (sanctorum), a genitive plural. 
He observes that some churches dedi- 
cated to All Saints or AU Hallows 
were formerly called All HoUamds. — 
Oliphant, Old amd Mid. Eng. p. 272. 
The Ancren BiwU has also the form 
Aire haleujune dei (p. 412). So Hallow- 
mass (Shakespeare) is for All HgMowt^ 
Mass, from Mid. Eng. halowe, a saint, 
A. Sax. hdlga (See Skeat, Etym, Bid* 


Ye Tapeners .... fram alU halowenetifd 
for here work shullen take for )« cloth 
xviij.<i. : ffiram \>e annunciation of oure lady, 
and of ^t tyme for to an-o))er tjme of aC- 
haUnoene, ij.f. — Englith Gilds, p. 551 (Ed. 
Touhnin Smith). 

Uor alle his haluwene luue [For the love of 
all his saints]. — Ancren Riwle, p. 330. 

About aU-haltantide (and so till frost 
comes) when you see men ploughing up 
heath ground, or sandy-ground, or ereen- 
Bwards, then follow the plough. — I. Walton, 
Compleut Angler (1653), chap. xii. 

Frydaye, Uiat was the xxx. day of Octobre, 
we made sayle, but the wynde arose eftsones 
so obtrariously ayenst vs, that we were fayne 
to fajle to an acre by the ooete of the sayd 
yIeofAlango, .... and there we lay Sater- 
daye, Alhalowe Euyn, all daye. — Py^grimage 
of Syr R. Guylforde, 1506, p. 59 (Camden 


. Hammeb-bleat, a name for the snipe 
in the Cumberland dialect. From the 

resemblance of the summer note of the 
bird to the bleat of a goat, it has been 
called in French cliem^e vohnfy in Scotch 
the heather-hleai (Johns, British Birds 
in their Haunts, p. 447). HaTnimr- 
bleat is probably a corruption of O. 
Norse hafr, A. Sax. hcnfer, a goat, and 
bleat (Ferguson, Olossary, s. v.). The 
snipe is also called in Scotch the earn- 
(=:eagle) hleater, heron-hluter, and 7/ar?i- 
hUter. In ^IfHc's vocabulary (10th 
cent.) occurs " Bicoca, Jujefer-hlmfe vel 
pun *' (Wright, Vocabularies, p. 21, and 
again s. v. Bugium, p. 28) ; A. Sax. 
hoBfer-hlcBt, bleating of a goat. 

When you say that in breeding-time the 
cock-snipes make a bleating noise, and I a 
drumming (perhaps I should rather have said 
a humming) I suspect we mean the same 
thing. — G. White, Nat, Hist, of Selborne, 
Letter 39. 

The laverock and the lark. 
The baukie and the bat^ 
The heather-bleet the mire-snipe, 
How many birds be that ? fAns. Three.] 
Chambers, Pap. Rhwnes of Scotland, p. 42 

Hahmeb-oloth, the covering of a 
ooach-box, is said to have been origi- 
nally hamper-doth, the box in early 
times having been nothing more 
than a large pannier, hamper, or 
ha/naper. The hanaper, old Eng. hany- 
pere [Prompt. ParvT) was a receptacle, 
sometimes made of wood, for cups, Fr. 
hanap, A. Sax. hncep, T. L. 0. Davies 
quotes an instance of hamer- cloth from 
a document of the time of Queen Mary 
(Supp.Eng. Glossary) . 

I have not been able to verify this 
derivation, but it seems more probable 
than that hammer denotes a (bear-skin) 
covering, Icel. hamr (A. Sax. hama), 
a covering, as asserted in Philolog. 8oc. 
Trans. 1855, p. 82. So, however, Prof. 
Bkeat, who regards it as an adaptation 
of Dut. hemel, an arched roof, ** the 
testem of a couch [not " coach "] ." — 

Hammebgbate is the disguise that 
the verb to em/igrate assiunes in N. W. 
Lincolnshire (Peacock, Glossary). 

Handcuffs. This word for manacles, 
as if euphemistically cuffs for the hands, 
is a corruption of A. Sax. hand-cops 
(which was perhaps mistaken for a 
plural), cops or cosp denoting a fetter 
(d. dspan^ to fetter). In provincial 


( 161 ) 


Enffliflh eop9 is Btill nsed for the con- 
neeting crook of a harrow, and cnert 
for the fostening of a door. Welsh 
eyfiom^ Btocks [?£ng. giji^rs]^ cosp^ 
pnninhTnent, Gael, ceap, BtockH, also to 
e«tch or hold, Lat. caper r^ ore probably 
related. Manica, haiuicops. — Wrij^ht's 
Vocdkulcmegy p. 95. 

Handicraft, a comiptian of hand- 
eraftt A« Sax. hcmd-awff, a trade, from 
m folse analogy to handiwork^ i, p. hand- 
noork^ O. Enfif. hondiw^rc, A. Sax. 
kcmd^geweorc^ geweorc being another 
fbnn oiweorc (see Skeat, Efym, J)id., 

Hence riMn letrned men in eche estate, 
Coonin^ in handv craft and facultie. 
F. Tmnm, Debate between Pritie and Louli- 
iiMf (ab. 15tiB), p. 2^ (Shakrt. 3oc.). 

Hand-of-oloby, the hand of a por- 
■on who had been hanged x}re])ared witli 
oertaiii enperstitioas rites, and used by 
honsebreakerB **to stuplfy those to 
whom it was presented, and to render 
them motionless, insomuch that they 
eonld not stir any more than if they 
were dead." See an accoimt of tlie 
charm by Grose, translated from Lrs 
SeereU du Petit Alh^rf (1751), in «rjind, 
Po0. Antiquities^ yol. iii. j). 278 (ed. 

^nie whole formula probably arose 
from A misunderstanding of the French 
term mhain-dc-gloire^ a name for the 
mamdragora^ a plant of notoriously 
wgiiMil properties, and a corruption of 
mamdragorey whicli Cotgrave gives with 
the alternative forms maiuhgJmr*' an<l 
mcaidregUm'e, "Main dc glom\ the 
name <n a pretended charm made with 
(he root of mandragoras pre^^ared in a 
eertain manner, to which impostors 
■ttribate the power of doubling tlio 
money to which it is applied. It is an 
attention of mandrgloirr, which in its 
torn is an alteration of mondmrfore, 
Besnlting from tliis disfigurement of 
the word is main-de-gloirfy the name of 
another pretended charm, which is 
made witb the hand of one who has 
been hanged, enveloped in a grave 
cloth'* (Littre). 

Here is the description of it given by 
Mr. Donsterswivel: — 

De hamd of' glory is vary well known in rle 
eountries wnere your worthy progenitors did 
it is hand cut off from a dead man, 

as has been hang«>d for nmrther, and dried 
very nic«? in dt^ shniokf of junij)»*r wckxI ; niid 
if you put a little uf what you call yew wid 
your junipiT, it will not be any 'l)elter — 
th;tt is it will not be no worse — th<>n you do 
take •«4>inethin<^ of tin* tUtsh of de bear, and 
of de bad;j;er, ;iiid of de gre;it elw-r, as you 
call de •rrand l)onr, and of dif little sucking 
cTiild ;iA h:i-i not been christened ( for dat in 
vrrv es-^eiitiuls ), aufl you do make a c:indIo, 
an(l put it into de hind of' frhru at <le ]>rop"r 
hour and minute, with de proper cen'monish, 
and he who .sfeksh for tretisuresh shall never 
fintl none at all. — Scott^ The AntiquarfffClmp, 

For the remarkable " Stainmore 
story'* about the Ifuwi of Glory, see 
Mtmihhj ]*ark('f, vol. xxiv. p. '2od. 

From the earliest times the man- 
drake has been used for charms and 
love i>liiltres (Gen. xxx. 14), whence its 
name Circ.ea, and ** Devil's apple *' an 
Arabic name for its fruit. It really 
possesses a soporific and intoxicating 
power, and was formerly used as an 
aufestlietic, like chloroform at present. 
** It is ttu ordinary thing to drink it . . 
before tlie cutting or cauterizing, 
pricking or launciug of any member, 
to take away the sence and fooling of 
such extreme cures. And sufficient it 
is in some bodies to cast them into a 
sleep with the smel of Mandrage against 
thetimeofsuciiChinirgery." — Holland, 
J* f Ivy' 8 Xat. HiHf.^ vol. ii. p. 235. See 
also liocliart, Opn-a^ vol. iii. p. 8G5. 
('omparo Manduvgon. Ilenco, no doubt, 
the supjiosed stupifying power of the 
iii'iin-d^'-gloirn. The belief that it was 
produced under the corpse of one 
hanged miiy have coutrilnited to the 
ghastly form assumed by the cliarm. 

There haue b^^en many ridiculous t'lles 
brought vp of this plant, whether of olde 
wines or some runna<;;ite suri^e;)ns or phisiek- 
mongers. . . . They ndde furtluT, that it is 
neuer or verie seldome to be founde growing 
ntiturully hut vn<l(»r a gnllow?*, wh<'re the 
matter that h.-itli fnllfu from the dead bo<lie, 
hath 1,'iuen it thp shn]>e of a man. — Gemrde^ 
Herhitl, p. 281. 

IIanhirons, a cornipt form of nnd- 
rroiis (Gloasary ofArchifocfvrr, Parker). 
See 8. v. Kndirons, the quotation from 

Handsen'yie, a word used in old 
Scotch writers for a standard, token, 
or standard-bearer (Jamiesoii), is a 
corruption of the Scotch an^^nyp, or 



( 162 ) 


ensenyiOf old Eng. ancien, nnciPtifj Fr. 
enseign^f " ensign,'* Lat. insignia. 

Handsaw, in tlio proverbial expres- 
flion ** to know a hawk from a hnmhaw '* 
( Uamlrt^ ii. 2, 890), was no doubt ori*^- 
nally a h'l-miha^c, which is a comii)tion 
of the older form h(*ron8cicr, apparently 
altered from Fr. h^onnvan, a yomig 
heron, under the influence of hemslmw^ 
a heronry, a shaw or wood frequented 
by hprons (Skeat). 

Minerva's hernshaw «nd hc»r owl 
Do both proclaim, thou Hhait control 
The course of thin^^s. 
B. Jotiumf The Ma»que of Aufrurs (1622). 

Handwhyle, an old Enpf. word for a 
short space of time, A. S. hand-hwil^ as 
if tlio turning of a haml (hind-hwyrff)^ 
Thus Langland says the Latin fathers. 

llarowedo in an hand-whule'&l holy Scripture. 
Vision of Piers PtounuiHy C. xxii. 272 
(ed. Skeat). 

Herkincfs now a hondauile of a liigh cas. 
AUileralive Tro^-booky 1. 7316 (E. E. T. S.). 

Handwhile, in conseipience of the in- 
stability of the aspirate, may very well 
be for ancl-whxle, a hreivthing -tinief 
which gives a much better sense, from 
the old Eng. and4\ aantJU^j breath, otlier 
forms being ondt'^ oc/mU {Prompt, 
Fare), cndfij Scot. a?/w</, Icel. andu, to 
breathe, 8wed. ando (cf. Ijat. an-imus, 
Gk. an-enios). The Scotch have hand- 
tvhilff Jianl-aichile. Old Eng. and, 
breath, was sometimes written hand, 
c. g,— 

His nese ofte droppes, hi^ hand stynkes. 
HampoUf Pricke of Conscience^ 1. 775. 

While itself (Goth, hueila) seems origi- 
nally to have meant a rest, a cessation 
of labour, a period of repose, being im- 
mediately akin to Runic huihr, he re- 
poses, or sleeps (G. Stephens), Gotli. 
(ga)/<i<<*/7(i.n, Icel. and Scand. hvila, 
hvih't O. H. G. wilorit to rest. 

Gray correctly dcsciibes a handwhile 
in his Ode on tJte S^yring — 

Still is the toiling hand of care, 
The panting henU re))OSH, 6cc. 

Handy, a word used in the North 
of Ireland and elsewhere for conve- 
nient, near, as if "close at /mwJ," e.g,, 
•' The church is quite handy," is a cor- 
ruption (and indeed a reversion to the 
radical meaning) of the old English 
liPitde, near, later /wndi, A. Sax. gchendc, 

Ge witon ^a;t sumor ytt gehende [Ye know 

that summer is near]. — A. S. Version^ S. 
Lnke^ xxi. M. 

An o^er stret lie make<le swi^f hendi. 
Ijammon^ Brut (ab. 120") ), vol. i. |). 'J0(). 

I nas neuer 3 't so hnrdi* to iiesh him »ohrndr. 

WiUiam of PaUnu; 1. !;>7y ^ah. l.oO) 

ed. Ski.Mt. 

Nothinp can lie so handu totjetlier ns our 

two estates. — //. Fieldin^y Hist, if a I'onnd- 

Ung^ book yi. ch. 2. 

Handy seems also to be used in Wilt- 
shire as a preposition zz near, as Prof. 
Skeat quotes from the Monthly M(t4jn- 
zin4*y 1812, ** iMndy ten o'clock" (E. 
D. Soc. Reprint, B. 19). 

Hanger, a broad, shoi-t, crooked 
sword (Bailey), so spelt as if nauiod 
from its hanging by the side, just as tlio 
stra])S by which the weapon was sus- 
l)endod from the belt were also formerly 
called hing(*r8. Similarly hang*'i\ its 
name in Dutch, seems to bo from 
hangvn (Sewel, 1708). 

Ziis^a^Ha, ... a iauelin. Also a Turkish 
sword or Persian Cimitarv. Also a short 
bendinp: sword called a hanger. — Flurioj JtaL 
Did. 1611. 

MalcnSy a faulchion, hungar, wood-knife. — 

In the one hand he had a pair of saddle- 
bags, and in the other a hanner of mijrhtv 
size.—//. Fielding, Works, p. 69:\ (ed. uiu j. 

The word is really a corrui)tiou of 
the Arabic hJinndJitr, a sabrc, whence 
also Fr. caii^inr, hluinj'ir, and a/ftngc 
(= al'llui7idjar), DeWc. 

Yata^^hsn, kandjar, thinj^s that rend and 

Gash rou^k, sla-sh smooth, help hate so ninny 


Browning, A Forgiveueas. 

Rawlinson would identify the Porsiiin 
khmdjar with the Sttgaris of the Miis- 
sagettf), comparing the Armenian snn; 
Lat. srcttris (Herodofus, vol. i. p. v)r>l). 
Further comiptions seem to be irhin- 
gar, whiniard, and Wuinyard, which 

Haxon.ul, a piece of abraded skin 
beside the linger-nail, so called as if to 
denote that which hangs beside tho 
nail, Prov. Eng. angiutil, A. Sax. avg- 
mogl, apj)arently that wliich augnisln a 
the nail (from aiujt\ pain, trouble), tho 
same word as old Eng. agwL 

Ijiser fetfheth out by the nnits the agntls 
or corns in the iWt. — HuiUmd's PUmu fol. 
1634, torn. ii. p. IM, 

HABDaHBEW ( 163 ) 


r, "a kind of wild mouse** 
(Bftilfly), a eoTrapted form of erd'shmv, 
or eartk-^knwt the shrew-mouse. 

HABDmouu, a Northampton name 
for the shrew-mouse, is a similar cor- 

T§fori£H6^ a Night-bat. AIpo the bardie- 
ilnv. — rhriff Sew World of Words, 1611. 

b'b BEAU), a popular name for 

ihe Tfiani mullein (also fonnerly called 
Bear** Imardf Florio, s. v. Verhtsco), is 
pediam a mistaken translation, says 
ur. Prior, of its Italian name fnsso 
lahoMBO (as if bearded badger), which 
ii itself a manifest corruption of tlie 
Lstiit Tkap9v» Verhascuin. 

HAinns-coBD, a corruption of harp- 
Moid m old writers, Fr. hari^echorae 

AnitnrdOf an initrument likn CUri^oIii 
mUm a hmrptn cord* — Florio, New World of 
Werdif 1611. 

Habpino xbom, a corrupt form of 
ftorpoii-fhm, a harpoon^ formerly spelt 
iorJNm, Fr. Aorpon, But. hfirpoen^ It. 
mjpagone^ from Lat. harpaQo{n). 

C^Maiii Andrew Evans strikiug^ onp at the 
Uorttiiia with his harping iroti, and leaping 
klo tbe sea to make abort work with his 
ftdltCtOy was BO cnuht bv the IVIannatee 
who draed him, that be died Mhortly aflcr. 
--^ Thoe, Herbert^ Travels, 1665, p. 27. 

Afttr a long conflict it [a whale J waa 
kiird with a harping t/ron, struck in the head, 
oat of which spouted* blood and water by two 
*— ^^^■t and after a horrid grone it ran <iuite 
•o abore and died. — J, Eveli/n, Diary, June 
S, lfi5B. 

Johnny, a Norfolk name 
for the plant Sedum Telephinm, is 
elflttrly a oorraption of Orpine (Johnny ) . 
Bee OsPHAN John. 

Habbidan, a contemptuous term for 
SB old woman, a withered old beldame, 
wliieh has been regarded as a dcriva- 
tive of harried, worried, exliausted, 
worn out (Richardson), is most pro- 
baUe an Anglicized form of Fr. aridelk, 
er himdeUe" a lean or carrion tit ; an 
m-fisToured fleshless jade; also, an 
AnsAomy, or body whereon there is 
JkOQji^i left but skin and bone" (Cot- 

Cve), and that a derivative of arkle, 
\ withered, without sap (Jjat. nri- 
iM.). In Mod. French haridllf is also 
wppiied to a thin scraggy woman. In 
m Wallon dialect arotfc is an ill-con- 

ditioned horse, cow, or ass (Si^art), 
Lif^pfo Jtarnffr, Compare cron^, origi- 
nally a toothless old ewe, jado,Q,hTokeU' 
winded horse, ramp ike, a decayed old 

What I^pland witch, what cunning man. 
Can tree you iVom tiiin haridan ' 

Porton, Imitations of Horace, lib. i. ode 34. 

But ju>«t endured the winter nhe began, 
An<l in four months a batter'd Hnrridun, 
And nothing It^ft, but wither 'd, pale, and 
Pope, Poams, p. 47i, 1. 25 (Globe ed.). 

C'est le propre d'un cheval pui>sant, et i 
Teschine furte, ({uand il part pruniptenient, 
et eKt ff'rnii? en (*on arrest. Une haridelle oui 
court la i)oAte, ira plusieurs pan apres qu un 
luy a tire la bride. Qui eat cauM^ de cela f 
C est sft ibiblt'M.He. — L*t^rit du Franfois de 
Sales, torn. i. p. lk> ie<l. 1840). 

IIabrier, a modem orthography of 
Juirifr, as if (like hfirricr, a kind of 
buzzard) named from its Iwnirying its 
prey (bo hailey), disguises its tnie 
meaning, lmT(p)-ier, or hare-hound 

Harry Soph, or Henry Sophister, 
a name at Cambridge for ono who has 
kept all his terms but has not taken 
his degree, was probably originally 
llnrisoph^ i.e. i^itroipos, valde eruditus 
(Wordsworth, Iniversify Life in Eiglk- 
ieenth Cent, p. 644). 

Harvest-row, a Wiltshire word for 
a shrew-mouse, probably corrupted 
from harvesf-shrow or -#/trcto (E. 
Dialect Soc. Beprints, B. 19). 

Haskwort, an old name for the plant 
ctwnhinnhi iracheVmm, as if good for 
the iiaak or lioarsonesH, appears to have 
been adapted by Ly te from the German 
halucruyt (neck-plant). He says tliey 
ar(5 **soveraigno to cure the imyne and 
inflaiinnatiun of ihe necke, and inside 
of the tbroto." — Britten and Holland, 
p. 244. Cf. Cleveland hiusc, tlie neck, 
=: Scand. hiU. 

Hastener, a tin screen used to re- 
flect the heat of tlie lire on meat when 
roasting, so called as if it derived its 
name from hisfmlnfj the operation, is 
really a corruption of the old and pro- 
vincial Eng, hosteler or Jurstleir, ** J^at 
rostyilie mote (orroostare), assator, as- 
sarius." — Vi-oinpt. Parvnhruhi ; *^ Hns' 
it'nfr, a screen for the purpose of hia- 
h-ning the cooking of meat (!)." — Stem- 


( 1G4 ) 


berg, Norfhampfon Ghssary, Similar 
words are hnistrxj, the place for roasting 
meat ; hasivrij and Juistelrfes, a kind of 
** rostyd mete ; " Prov. Eng. Jwsiey to 
roast ; 0. Fr. Imsieur, Lat. hnstaior, he 
who roasts ; all from Fr. haste (luite), a 
spit or broach, hasfrllc^ a skewer, as it 
were the spear (Lat. haain) on which 
tlio meat is* transfixed and suspended 
before the fire. 

In tlie Wallon dialect of N. France 
hafe-levee^ • a piece of roasted bacon, 
seemingly tine piece levee a la Juife, or 
dressed in haste, is of similar origin, 
being from Flemish hasten, to roast. 
Dr. Sigart thinks that l/yvee here is a 
corruption of Flem. lever, a liver, and 
that tlie dish originally (like Fr. hufe- 
rea.v, Flem. sn^de h^ver) consisted of 
pig's hver grilled (Dictionnaire du 
Wallon de Mons, p. 208). 

Hatch-hobn, a Lancashire word for 
an accn'n or oc/tartk?, Chosliire atcliern. 
See Acorn. 

Hatchment, an escutcheon erected 
over the door where a person has died, 
is a corruption of aicMevemeivt, an old 
spelhng of achievenieni, i.e, a coat-of- 
arms commemorative of some exploit 
achieved by himself or his ancestors. 
The word has been assimilated to 
hvtchiiu-nfxt , the ornament of a sword- 
liilt, lirotch, to engrave with lines heral- 
dically, to inlay with silver, to adorn ; 
Fr. liaclier, JJ is often found prefixed 
to a word where it has no right to be, 
e.g, old Fr. luiche (Cotgrave) zz ache, 
parsley ; hermit for eremite; Jiostage for 
osta/je ; howht for oicht ; himher, iieine- 
raulds (Holland) ior imhefr, emeralds ; 
holder (Ascham) for a.ld<*r ; in the in- 
scriptions of tlie catacombs hossa, hor- 
dine, hohitum, &c., are foimd for osea., 
iyrdhw, ohitum, &c. Compare Hos- 

Similarly, it ought to be hit, as it 
once was. tlsJter was formerly husclier 
(Tristrem, p. 40), Fr. hiiissier; ahle, 
habh (Lat. habiUs) ; articlioke, harti- 
choke ; ugly, huqly (Levins) ; ostler, 
hostler; ortolan, fiortokvn ; arhcmr, har- 

On the other hand, luirmony used 
once to be spelt ormony ; hymn, ymn ; 
Mlehoi-e, ellphore (Holland); hypoci-^ite, 
ipocrite ; heresy, formerly erlsie ; Imst, 
0. Eng. oste; Jiermit, formerly and pro- 

perly, eremite. Tu old texts harm, h'tul, 
h^l, Mder, lundp, hox, kc, are freciuent 
forms of ar^n, end, earl, elder, on-l, ov, 

As a remarkable instance of the per- 
versity of Cockney pronunciation miiy 
be mentioned Holhorn, originally Old 
Bourne, which has lately been changed 
back again into 'Olhorn. A sonp: be- 
ginning "As I was going up ""Olhom 
VZZ,'* was some years ago popular in the 
music halls of London. 

Hatter, in the phrase, ** As mad as 
a 7Mi//fT," a proverbial hbel on a quiet 
class of tradesmen — stereotyped for tlie 
present generation in the excellent 
foohng of Alice in Wcmderland- i^ ])er- 
haps a popular survival of tlie old Eng- 
lish word liettcr, meaning furious, 
violent, inflamed with anger. It still 
survives in various senses in the Pro- 
vincial dialects, e.g, hetter, ill-natured, 
bitter, keen (North), spiteful, malicious 
(Northampt. Sternberg) ; Scot, heitle, 
fiery, irritable ; Cheshire h-aitle, wild ; 
A. Sax, Zuc/o/, hot, furious, from A. Sax. 
Jiat, hot ; Icel. Iidtr, Swed. It^t. Com- 
pare also 0. Eng. hetlieh\ a hot iron ; 
hotter, to boU (North); liottprin, boiling 
with passion (Craven) . Thus the i^hrase 
would mean, As mad as a person hot 
with passion — Ira brevis furor. Cf. 
** But for her I should ha* gone hofln- 
ring mad." — Dickens, Hard Timts, 
chap. xi. Compare also Goth, haiis, 
wrath, haian, to liaie, connected with 
Sansk. k'andn, hot, flaming, passionate 

HattcrlicJie, h-etterly in old English 
zz violently, angrily, fiercely. 

He hpt hutieriiche 8lrup»»n hire steortnakel. 
—Ujlide of S. Julhina (12.J0), |). t(J ( K. K. 
T. S. ). [lie bade savagely to .strip her stark- 

He bray (1<*H to ]>o i\\u^ui\ 
& hent hire so hetterly to baue hire a-8traii- 

William of Pale rue ^ \. !.)(>. 

The Alliterative Poems say of Jonah : 

jjeii hef [rsbpaved] vp jje liete & heterlu 

brenned . . . 
With hatel anger & hot, heterlu h«» calle5. 

l*; lOiJ. 1. 4ia. 

Haiture is an old spelling of hoftrr. 

On heom is mony yrone beond, 
^t in hattiire ]:eno |x» brond. 
, Old Eng. MiscellanQ, p. lh\, 1. 2.')4. 

An absurd comparison has been in- 

HAUF^BOOK'T ( 165 ) 


itiCatad with the French '* II raiHonno 
mtmnwnm Que huitre" An oyster luay bo 
iCi^id, bat ■oaroely mad. 

Haw-boox*t, a word applied to a 
■■"T*^! half-witted penion in the Hol- 
fliWTiOM dialect (E. Yorkshire), pro- 
■oaneed aitf-raoki^ as if to denote one 
not auffleiantly rooked in the cradle. It 
fa nally a oorraption of an/-, alf-, or 
atf-fodbedl, rookea by tlie fairios, a 
coangeliiiff. Half-rochrd in Wrij^ht. 

So Cumberland h(yfp-thick, foohsh, is 
DO doubt for auf-imck^ i.^. thick or 
bitimatiT with the fairies (A. Six. mlfr^ 
leaL alfr)^ "not all there," but partly 
in another world ; Lonsdale hoftft^n, a 
half-witted person; Cleveland hoariwj, 
hoomAf hawtfiih^ twrvUh, airfiitkj silly, 
for aiaiifc, old Eng. elvM^ (Cliaucor), 

A Bcer eiiaiigeliiig, a rery monstor, nn 
m^ imperfeoty her whole complexion m- 
itsHL- 'jMrtoWy AnatMUi of MeUiitcholu^ 111. 

Hauobtt, a oormpt modem spoiling 
of hamiy^ haiU, hauU, Fr. Jtnulfy Lat. 
attat, loftyv from a false analo<(y to 
■kIi words as naughty, doughlij, tang1i4^ 
mmgktf where the g is orf?anic. 

Tb» h initial is probably owin^ to 
fta raflez influence of Ger. Itoch. Die- 
*"»^*^** suggests a comparison with 
FiOT. Eng. kigMy, pleasant, cheei-ful, 
A. Sax. SyA/, hope, joy, ^c. — Got ft. 
Bj^nuske, u. 576. 

Hii eonge also hauU and fenrce, which 
ftrlyd hhn not in the very dt*Rth. — l*olinitne 
witiU^ EmgUA Historif (temp. Hen. Vlll. 
Ctaaden Soc), p. f%7. 
After that Mem strife-hatching haut Ambi- 

Had (as hj lot) made thu lowe Worhl's par- 


Sjthmter, Du BarUuy p. 287 (Um ). 

Thfn ftept forthe the duke of Suifolk<> . . . 
aad tpake with an hauU coiintenaunc^. — 
CiwauiiA, Xj^jp of WoUei(y Wordtworth, tlccles, 
Bttg. vol. i. p. 4Sj. 

Ifilton speaks of the "jealous hauti- 
aeiM of Prelates and Cabin Counsel- 
loan*' {Areopagitica, 1644, p. 83, ed. 

, Bat IS dnilitie and withall wealth en- 
ttCMed, 10 did the minde of man n^rowc 
da^lymoK kaultie and 8U{>erfiuoiirt in all hin 
4iaiiaA.— G. Puttenham, Arte of Eng. /Wsir, 
tS», p. 5S (ed. Arher). 
Thtn are aonie .... like unto vessfU 

hluwne uj) with windc, filled with a hmitif. 
Hjiirit. — l('m. Coupfr, Heaven (>f«/ifc/ (1611 ), 
p. 7<i. 

Who ever thinkca throiij^h confidence of 

Or througli support of count*nance proud and 

To wron}^ the weaker, oft fallen in his own 


Sfienser^ F, Queenr, VI. ii. 2.J. 

IIavkrdril, a Chenhiro name for tlie 
Nurcissus, ifl a rorniptod fonn of old 
En {J. nffaibfl^ Lat. and Greek tuphoih'- 
IvH, the "daffoda," O. Fr. affroiUlh 

Hawboy, more connnonly written 
hnuflxty, a corruption of the Fr. haut 
1hu8. See HoBOY. 

Now ^ive th(! luintboui hreath ; lie comes, he 

iJruflen^ AUiander* Feast, 1. o'X 

They skip nnd dunce, and marryiu}^ all Iheir 

To Timbreln, llauhtutSy and loud CornetM 

Makf all thu nhours resound, and all the 

Witii the shrill Tni i-^eR of the Lord of Iloitsts. 
./. SQliesiery I)ii liartaSy ji.SiJt (lO^iJl). 

IIawkeu lias hoen supposed to have 
f;t>Hiotliiiip: to do with htiwkt*, and to 
have had its orij^u in days of falconry, 
wlion the man who bore the "cad^e '* 
or eaj^'o on which the hawks were 
perclied was kno^\^l as the cadj^er. 
llawker, an ordinary' Knpflish term for 
a travelling' merehaiitor "colporteur," 
has a siniihir ori«,'iu (I). - N^/. l\t'viro\ 
Jan. 81, 18.S0, p. 144. " Ilawkor " has 
no more c<mnoxiou with "hawks" than 
"cad^'cr" with " caj,'c." It is a dis- 
piisod form of hvch^r (fern, hnrl-ftfrr), 
from old En^. hue/:, to peddle, Prov. 
Knj?. hvktr (Atkinson, C.kvi'htnd Glos- 
biiry), Ger. hochr, hiih r (proh. one who 
nms up the price, ukiu to nuciion^er). 

If we will stand hurkini!; with him, we 
nii^ht j;et u '^reat dt-ale more. — lip. Andr.'.ues, 
Tetnjitntion of Christ, j). M (UU^). 

Keiated words, then, arc old Erif^. 
oh r, increase, usury, Gor. fnichrr, 
Dut. v'orhr, and Eat. anfjrrv, to in- 

llwkstttrf (h\. huhterr), Auxionntor, auxio- 
natrix. — l^ronipt. /*r//r//A»r»m. 

Aiiccionariits, iihuksU'Yfi .-iitccw, ekvn«^f» : 
Au«*cionor, to uierciiaunt luid Ititk. — Medulla 

1 hucke, as one dothe that wolde hye a 


( 174 ) 


worn under armour to prevent it bruis- 
ing the body, and was identical with 
the gambeson (Sir S. D. Scott, The 
British Amiijf vol. i. p. 201). 

HoiDEN, 1 formerly a clownish ill- 
HoYDEN, / bred person of either sex 
(see Trench, Select Glossary, s.v.), is a 
naturalised form of Dutch lieyden, (1) 
a dweller on the heath, a wild man, (2) 
a Jieathen, (8) a boor. The spelling 
was altered perhaps to accommodate 
it to the old verb Jmt, or hoyte, to romp. 
** Let none condonm tliem for Bigs 
because thus hoiting with boys." — T. 
Fuller, Pisgah Sight, Pt. 11. p. 110 

Vastibousier. A lusk, lubber, loggar-head, 
lozell, hoiden, lobcock. — Cotgrave. 

Hold, ** of a ship, that part between 
the Keelson and the lower deck where 
the Goods, Stores, &c are laid up *' 
(Bailey), as if that which holds or con- 
tains the cargo, is really an altered 
form of 0. Eng. hole, the hollow part of 
a ship, A. Sax. Jtol, a hollow or hole, 
Dut. liol, a cavity, also the ship's hold 
(Sewel). Hull is probably the same 
word, just as the hull of pease was also 
formerly spelt hoole (Prompt, Parv,), 

IIooU of a schyppe (al. holle) Carina. — 
Prompt, Parvulorum, 

Other instances of excrescent d are 
the following : — Boun-d (homeward, 
&c., O. Eng. houn), gizzar-d (0. Eng. 
giscr)j hiizwr-d (Sp. az(w), hind (a ser- 
vant, O. Eng. hine), moul-d, roun-d (to 
whisper), soun-d, stran-d (of rope), 
wonn-d; cf, Ju?s-t, peasan-t (Fr, pay san), 
pheasan-t, parcJtvien-t, tyran-t, O. Eng. 
ancien-t (= ensign), graf-i, 0. Eng. 
alitm-t ; viilgar Eng. Sicoun-d, goitm-d, 
to drown-dj scJu)lar-d, salnion-d,orphan-t: 
old Eng. vil-d, anvel-d, gammon-d, luh- 

Hold, 1 as used of a player at tlie 
Held, / game of billiards, who is 
said to have Ji^ld a bail when he has 
driven it into one of the holes or 
pockets, is, according to Mr. Blackloy, 
a grammatical perversion of ** He 
hoh'd it,'' misunderstood as 7iold(Word 
Gossip, p. 74). The same writer main- 
tains tliat the verb to toll arose from 
iohl, in such plirases as '^ the knell was 
told,*' i.e, counted, the number of con- 
cluding strokes being significant of the 

sex of the deceased, which was mis- 
understood as tolled. Tliis seems very 

Holder, a Wiltshire man's cornip- 
tion of halter, as if that which holds in 
a horse, &c. Halter itself is an altered 
form of A. Sax. licalftcr, a noose or 
halter; cf. 0. Dut. and G. halfter 

Holes. Tlie phrase to pick JwJrs, 

meaning to find fault, as if to detect a 

weak spot (a chink in one's armour), 

as in Bums' lines — 

If there's a hole in a* your coats, 

1 rede jou tent it, 
A chield's amang you taking noted. 

arose, not improbably, from a mis- 
understanding of tlie Trov. Eng. to hok, 
meaning to calumniate, from A. Sax. 
hoi, detraction. 

Oil Tor . . . htmling and halzening, or cuflf- 
ing a Tale. 
Eimoor Scolding, 1. 297 (E. D. S., see note 

p. 135;. 

HoLiDAME, an occasional comix^tion 
in old books of holidoin or halidom, A. 
Sax. haHgdoin, i.e. holiness, the Chris- 
tian faith, -do'Di being the same termi- 
nation as in Christendom, JcingJom, 
Ger. heiligthum, Icel. Jielgiilomr ; so 
spelt as if to denote the holy Virgin, 
e.g. ** So help me God and'' 
— Bullein, Booh of the. Use of Sick M(7i, 
1679, fol. 2 h. 

By m^ holif dam, tho I say it, that shuld 
not say it, I thinke 1 am as perfect in my pipe, 
as Officers in poling. — Jacke Drums Lnler- 
tainement, act i. 1. 4 (1616). 

In Icelandic lielgir d&niar denotes 
sacred relics. 

So helpe me god, and holhdam. 
Of this 1 woUle not geve a dram. 
Jleyuood, The Four P\s (Doddley, i. 82, 
ed. 1825). 

I shalbe redy at scoti and lotte, and all 
my duties truly pay and doo . . . . so hcljw? 
mc god and hoUdome, and by this boke. — 
English Gilds, p. 189 (E. E. T. S.). 

HoLiOKE, i.e. holy oak (Holy Hoke, 
Huloet), an old form of the word holly- 
hock (Lat. Alc^a), which seems to bo 
from A. Sax. Iuk, Welsh liocys, a mal- 
low. The first jiart of the word is liohj 
not liolly. See Hollyhock. 

liol\oke», red, white, and carnations. 
Tusier, Fiug Jiundred Hointes (E. D. Soc. 

p. 96). 


{ 1?5 ) 


Hw word is spelt holly-oak in Wliite 
■id Karkwiek*B Naiwallsh Calendar^ 
kHfi-tkf in Baoon, Of Gurdens (16*25) 
{Bmnf$^ p. 557, ed. Arber). 
Blight crown imperial, kinf?9«pf«ar, holifhockn, 
SmC Vauw-naTel, and §oi\ lady-idnockn. 

&J0M0H, Pmm*t AHHivermntf ibtf.>, W'orkt, 
. p. 643. 

HoiuoLAfl, a 16th cent. Scotch word 
tot a diaraoter in old romanco», is 
another form of notclcghis^ OichjkisSf 
cr EuienipiegeL 

HoLLT-HOCK. Holly- here has no- 
tidng to do witii the tree so called. Dr. 
Prior thinks that the original form 
maj have been eatili- or coley-lioch^ but 
this seems aJtogetlier donbtml. Hock 
is evidently O. Eng. hoccc, A. Sax. Iwc, 
the mallow, which is also called tlie 
HiKk-herb. The incorrect form Itolhj- 
oak is found in G. White's Selliomp^ 
pp. 896, 880 (Nat. Ulust. Lib. od.), and 
MU-oak in Skinner's Etymologicon^ 
B.V. (1671). See Holioke. The old 
toxm, of the word was Hohj Jtorkp, ap- 
pamntly so called because it was iu- 
trodnei^ from the Holy Land (cf. its 
Welsh name hocys Imdignid^ i.e. 
^blessed mallow," Skcat), wlienoo 
oonnptly holly-hock. 

HMif Hokktf or w^lde malowp, Altea, 
■alWieilli. — Prompt. Parvtilorum (1440). 

Bam d'oHtre mer, the gardrn Mallow, 
called Hocks, and Holjflutcfa. — Cot^mve. 

Houf-OAX, the ilex or evergreen oak, 
as if connected with holm, a wator-side 
flat, is from O. Eng. 1iolm4>^ the holly 
(Prompt. Tarv,)^ which is a corrupt 
form of hfj^in^ A. Sax. holm, lioUy. 

Uez is named of some in English Holme, 
which ffignifieth Holly or lluluer. — Gemrde, 
Htrkai^ p. 1159. 

HoLT-STONB, the name given by 
sailoTB to the stone with which they 
somb the decks, has not been explained. 
It is perhaps tlie same word as A. Sax. 
heaUi-stan (apparently a *' covering- 
stone,** from Jielan, to cover), cited by 
Ettmiiller (p. 458) from .Elfric's Gk>s- 
tary^ with tne meaning of crvsf. The 
first part of healh-stan (hd-sif'm) would 
easily be confounded with luilig, holy, 
though rather akin to hell. Tcrliaps, 
however, ItefHh- is really akin to hudoc, 
a hollow, lyolh, hollow, with allusion to 
the light porous nature of pumice- 
stone— and so the true form of tlie 

word would be hoh^y-sfonr, the stone 
full of holes or hollows. For the same 
reason, pcrlinps, a perforated stone 
UHed as a charm is called in Cleveland 
a holy-fito}i*\ From a humorous mis- 
understandiug, seemingly, of tlie iirst 
part of tlie compound, holy-slones of 
small si/e are known to sailors as 
'* prayer- books " (Dana). Compare 

IIoME-LY, an old corruption of homily 
(Greek homilln), as if a plain familiar 
discourse in the language of the com- 
mon people. 

Hut howo xliall heoread thvR bookp, as the 
Ifomiiw* nre r<*ail ? Some cull th^m homeliet, 
and in divJ ^o they may he wel cnlled, fur 
they are homrlu handleil. For thou^jrh the 
I*rie-.i read them neuer so well, yet if the 
pnrisli like them not, there ix such talkin^j^ 
and hal)lin^ in the church that nothing can 
be heard: And if the Parislie be^)od an<l the 
priest nauirht, he will so hacke and cho|)i)e 
It, that it were as p>od for them to be with- 
out it, for any word yt shall be understand. 
— I Alt line r, isennong, p. 57, verso. 

A more curious comiption is humhle$ 
in Lever's Senno7i8, 1550 ; — 

Tint the rude lobhes of the countrev, 
whiche In* to syniple to pa^-nte a lye, Kj>eake 
foule Hnd truly as they iynde it, nnd save: 
He minishfth (lods sacraments, he slubj)er8 
yp his seruice, and he can not reade the 
humbles. — 1*. 6.5 (ed. Arber). 

HoNEY-MOON, as if inellis hma, '* Tlie 
first tfired mtmth of matrimony," is no 
doubt the some word as Icel. hj&n, a 
wedded pair, man and wife, hj&na-haml, 
matrimony, hjond-s'tmg, marria^i^e bed. 
Another related word is Icel. hijn6ttar- 
imnu^r, " woddinfj-night mmitli.*' Hy- 
noli, the tenn apjdiod to the wedding- 
night, is near akin to hju^ family, man 
and wife, whence hju-Hhtpr, matri- 
mony, and to hl-hyli, home, Ger. //</- 
rafhy A. Sax hiira, "hive," Hcliund 
hifa, wife (vid. Cleasby and Vigfusson). 
Thus the real congener of li07if*y-inoon 
is not honey, A. Sax. livnig, but the 
hive in which it is made, A. Sax. hiv-, 
a house, Goth. Jn'iva, akin to A. Sax. 
/m^r, one of the household, a domestic, 
or hind; home, Goih.h aims; Lat. c/r/8, 
Greek keimai, Sansk. si, to lie. Cf. Ger. 
hciinifh, marriage. 

iMarriapfe, like the useful bee, builds a 
house and gathers sweetness from every 
flower, and labours, nnd unites into societies 


( 178 ) 


Exodus, according to its primitive 
meaning, facieni esse comufum, "his 
face was lu>med.'* From this misren- 
dering sprang the homed Moses of the 
sculptors and painters, with some re- 
ference perhaps to horns as a symbol 
of power, which in this sense are as- 
signed to Alexander and others on 
coins. See Bp. Wordsworth on Ex. 
xxxiv. 29; Smith, Bible Diet. s.v. 
Horn; Gale, Court of Oentiles, bk. ii. 
p. 13 ; Sir T. Browne, Works, vol. ii 
p. 29 (ed. Bohn) ; Notes and Queriest 
5th S. ix. 453. 

Compare the use of Lat. coruscarey 

(1) of animals, to butt with the horns, 

(2) of fire, to flash or gleam ; and jribar, 
a beam of light, from juha, a crest or 
tuft of hair. 

Bishop Jeremy Taylor seems to have 
had a correct understanding of the 
matter, as he says the sun " peeps over 
tlie Eastern hills, thrusting out his 
golden homSf like those which decked 
the brows of Moses when he was forced 
to wear a veil, because himself had 
seen the face of God." — Holy JDying^ 
p. 16, Oxford ed. 

Coleridge strangely enough, though 
bearing this passage in mind, stands 
up for the literal and materisd repre- 
sentation of the horns. 

When I was at Rome, among many other 
visits to the tomb of Julius II., I went 
thither onte with a Prussian artist, a man of 
genius and great vivacity of feeling. As we 
were gazing on Michael Aneelo's Moses our 
conversation turned on the nomt and beard 
of that stupendous statue ; of the necessity of 
each to support the other; of the superhuman 
effect of the former, and the necessity of the 
existence of both to give a harmony and tn- 
tegritif both to the image and the feehng ex- 
cited by it. Conceive them removed, and 
the statue would become un-natural without 
being suprr-natural. We called to mind the 
horns ot the rising sun, and I repeated the 
noble passage from Tavlor's Holy Dying, 
That horns were the emblem of power and 
sovereignty among the Eastern nations, and 
are still retained as such in Abysninia ; the 
Achelous of the ancient Greeks ; and the 
probable ideas and feelines that originally 
suggested the mixture of the human and the 
brute form in the figure by which they rea- 
lized the idea of their mysterious Pan, as 
representing intelligence blended with a 
darker power, deeper, mightier, and more 
universal than the cons^cious intellect of man. 
than intelligence; — all these thoughts and 
recollections passed in procession before our 

minds.— Bwgrapfcm Literaria, ch. xxi. p. 208 
(ed. Bell and Daldy). 

Cotgrave (s.v. Moyse) remarks that 
his — 

Ordinary counterfeit having on eith<»r side 
of the head an eminence, or lustre arism*; 
somewhat in the form of a borne, hath em- 
boldened a profane author to stile cuckolds, 
Parents de Mouse, 

Pharaoh Miamun Nut is described 
on the monuments (b.c. 700) as ** the 
lord of the two horns.*' — Bnigsch, 
Egyj)t under the Tliaraohs, vol. ii. p. 
250. In Arabic at-gazdloj " the gazelle 
rises" (= "The Hind of the Dawn,'* 
Ayyeleth hasli-shacliar, of Psalm xxii. 
1), is a way of saying "the sim rises," 
his spreading rays suggesting the horns 
of the animal (Goldzilier, Mythology 
cvmong tlie Hebrews, p. 178). 

HoBRio-HOBN, a term of reproach 
amongst the s^eet Irish, meaning a 
fool, or half-witted fellow, from the 
Anglo-Irish owKwi/witm, Irish and Gaelic 
aniadan, from amad, an idiot, corre- 
sponding to Sansk. amati, mind-less- 
ness, folly (=: Lat. a-mentia). 

What d'you mane, you horrid horn, by 
selling such stuff as Uiac? — Mayhcw^ London 
Lnbour and the London Poor, i. p. 207. 

You omadhawn ... I was onlj puttin' up 
a dozen o* bottles into tlie tatch of the house, 
when you thought I was listenin'. — W, Car- 
leton. Traits and Stories of Irish Peasantry, vol. 
i. p. 287 (1843). 

HoBSE, To, an old verb meaning to 
raise, elevate, especially one boy on 
the back of another for a flogging, 
seems to bo a corruption of Fr. hausser, 
or perhaps of noise, Dut. hyssen 
(Sewel). Hausser (Prov. ausar, aUar, 
It. cUzmre) is from Low Lat. aliiare, to 
make high (Lat. alius). Compare Be- 
HOBSE. Of the same origin perhaps is 
the provincial word h^yrse, a plank or 
cross-beam upon wliich anything is 

A hogshead ready horsed for the process of 
broaching. — T, Hardy, Under the Greenwood 
Tree, vol. i. p. 13. 

Andrew was ordered to horse and Frank 
to flog the criminal. — H, Brooke, Fool of 
Quality, i. 2;32 [Da vies]. 

ISIr. Green remembered to have heard that 
the great Newton was horsed during the time 
that he was a Cambridge undergraduate. — 
Adventures of Mr, Verdant Gnen, Pt. 1. 
cb. n. 

HoBSE, a marine term for a rope 


flMda frit to one of the foro-mast 
doooda (B«ney), as *' the htmc of the 
— ^ - — " " AoTM of the mizzen sheet," 


k m oomption apparently of the older 
fDBn Aowtfl, originally hcuae, from Icel. 
Uii» Dan. and Swed. haie, (1) a neck, 

a the iaok of a sail, end of a rope ; 
L AdZfo, to dew up a sail. The 
MDM word aa haM$6r (see Skeat, Eiym. 

BieL ■.¥.)• 

Hmnif a thiek rope aaed for hoistine Bome 
fvd or extending a sail. — Falconer, marint 

Th» French hautaUre, which has 
been partially assimilated to haiissar^ 
to lift, is the same word, having for- 
neify been written aiUMwre and hau- 
ittrv (Seheler). 

[, a name of the hom- 
tree, is a cozraption of the more 
eofzeeC word huTBt-heech^ tlie beech of 
fiw Atw sl, A. Sax. hyrsty or shrubbery 

HoBSB-GOOK, a Scotoh name for a 
ipeeies of snipe, seems to bo for Iwrse- 
fonk, of a siinilar meaninfi^, and both 
sonaptions of Swed. horsgQh. 

H6B8B-G017BSXB, a horso-dealer. 
Gbnrwry here, old Eng. *^Cor8(nire of 
hone, mango *' (Prompt Parv.), is a 
eonraption of Fr. eourher, courrcUier, a 
koaikflry horsesooorser (Cotgrave), It. 
Mirafisre, a broker or factor who has 
flie eare (Lat. ewra) or management of 
a hnainees (Diez). 

Ha esa hone yoo as well an all the corsen 
ii the towne. eourtun de chevaulx, — Pals- 


A. Sax. Turra-hclene, 
This plant owes its 
to a doable blunder about its 
I«tin title inula Hdenivm: hinimla, a 
eolL being evolved out of inula, and 
Ami or heel out of Hel-enivm. It was 
an the strength of its name employed 
by apotheoaries to heal horsee of scabs 
nd sore keele (Prior). 

HoBSB MINT, nsme of the mmfha 
fybeilris, has no connexion with Jiorse, 
rat is a corrapt form of Swed. hers- 
wngnia. HSet is a horse in Swedish. 

HoBSB-STBONO, 1 names for the 

Habstbono, V "pleait peucedanum, 

HoBBSTBONO, J have no connexion 

wifli ttrang nor ^se, but are deriva- 

HoRTTARD, a frequent old spelling 
{e.g. in Holland, PlinicB Naturcul His- 
torie, vol. ii. p. 236) of orcJuird, old Eng. 
orc4^rd and orfgenrd, Scotch worcJiard, 
xccrrtchni, A. Sax. wy^rt-gcard, i.e, " wort 
yard " (cf. xcyrt-ttin, A. Sax. Luke xiii. 
19), as if a mongrel compound of Latin 
hftrius, a garden, and Eng. yard. King 
Alfred uses tlie word orfgeard. 

To ])Iantianne & to jmbhweorfanne bwsb 
so WMirl (lei his ort^eard, — Gregory*s l*d$ioraly 
p. 292 («il. Swert). 

[To i>Iaiit and tend as tbe churl doth his 

H^-ra foldas mid vreortum hlowende, 
& hyra orctrtlm mid spplum afyllcde. 

Tho$, Wright, Popular Treatises on 
Science (l()th C(Uit), p. 10. 

[Thoir fields with plants blowing, and their 
orcliards witli apples tilled.] 

For the loss of the initial t^; compare 
oozey 0. Eng. woze ; old Eng. oof for 
icooff and ootJie for tcood, mad, Qer. 
wvth {Prompt. Parv.) ; Scot, oo for wool, 

Giardino, a Garden, an Uort-yard, — Florio, 
Cenisarn, a clierry man or hortitard. — Id. 

Bailt bj sweete Siren ■ said to be built by 
Sterne Fhaleris : his F^mpires happj f^lory. 
Call'd, the rare horimrd of taire Cyprades. 
G. ^ndusj TravelSf p. ^253. 

Luther called Paradise in his discourse of 
Germanie, a plcaHant Garden, Eccl. 2. 
Munster an Orchycard, and in the Bible it ut 
called FMeii. — Itinemriumj Trauels of' the 
lioiif Patriarch, &c., 1619, p. 73. 

Hostage, 0. Fr. Ivostage, has no right 
to the initial h (which has been pre- 
fixed from a false analogy to host, hos- 
tile, Iw^pitahh, &c.), as we see by com- 
paring It. ostaggio, Prov. ostatge, which 
are from Low Lat. ohsidaficiim, from 
Lat. ohsidnfus, surety-sliip, oh8r.{d)-8, a 
hostage (Diez). In old French the 
word seems to have been brought into 
connexion with hoste, an inn-kcoper, 
and hostel, an inn ; compare Cotgravo's 
definition, ** Hostage, An Hostage, 
Pawne, Surety, Pledg (A term of pay- 
ment boinff expir'd, the Debtor must 
deliver Ilostagca ; to wit, three or four, 

EOT COCKLES ( 180 ) 


who goe to an Tnnr, and there continue 
. . . untill he have taken order." 

Hot Cockles, an old English game, 
a description of which will be found in 
Brand's FomiJar A7ifiqu{tie8, vol. ii. p. 
421 (ed. Bonn), is said in Bailey's Dic- 
tionary ^ 8.V., to be the French Hauies 
CoqwilUSf but I cannot find that tliis 
expression was ever in use as asserted. 
Skinner says ** HautcB GoquiUeSy i.e. 
verbatim AltaB Cochletc, quia nates, 
queo aUquo modo rotunditate suft Coch- 
leas referunt, in hoc lusu, incurvato 
corpore, sustoUuntur." — Etymohgicon, 
8.V. 1671. 

Aubrey says, " I have some reason 
to believe that the word cockle is an old 
antiquated Norman word which signi- 
fies naiogy — Thom's Anecdotes and 
Traditions (Camden Soc), p. 96. 

Cockles here, however, may be only 
another form of cockah, an old Eng. 
word for tlie hips, which in the game 
became hot from striking; compare 
hot-lmnds^ a children's game where the 
hands of the two players are struck to- 
gether in a regular alternation. 

Afl at hnt-cocklex once I lay me down, 
J felt the weighty hand of many a clown. 


Gockal seems to bo identical with 
the old Eng. hokyl^ huckle, the hip (the 
hough or Jwck?), Prov. Eng. hnggan, 
hug-hone.^ the hip, Lat. awa, coxendix, 
hip, coxim, tlie hinder part, Greek 
kocJi^ne, kokku^.. ** Kooi, a Cockal or 
hnckle-honey'* ^^kooten, to play at 
C'ocAyi7^."— Sewel, Dutch Did. 1708. 

CiKkal, a game that boyes used with foure 
hmklf'honcHy commonly called ciKkalL — AV 

Carnicol, a game with huckle hones called 
Cock-al. — Minxheuy Span. Diet. 16'ti. 

Machyn, in his Diary (1554), relates 
how a ** grett blynd bero broke losse " 
and caught a servingman "by the 
hokyll-hone" (p. 78, Camden Soc). 
We may compare Gipsy cocAAvx»/o8, koka- 
hs, cocalf a bone. Mod. Greek, kok- 

i\ or made of glasso, or wo(n1 or stone, 
But of a little transvfrce hone ; 
Which hoyos, and hruckelM children call, 
(Playing for points and ))ins) ciwhill. 

Htrrickf HefperitU'Sf p. V6 (ed. 

Cocklc-hrendf in **tho wanton 
Bport which," Aubrey tells us, " yoimg 



wenches have," and which " thoy call 
moulding of cockUi-hrcadj"' is no doul»t 
of tlie same origin, as it apjiears to 
have been an exercise porfonned by tlio 
players while squatting down on their 
houghs or "hunJters " (see Brand, vol. 
ii. p. 414). 

Hound's tree, a mistaken sjTionym 
of DoG-wooD, wliich see. 

Hour, in the phrases good hour =z 
good luck," and in a good hour =z 
with a good omen," luckily, happily 
(like Lat. felix fmistumque sif^ al)sit 
omen), is an a(loi)tion of Fr. a hi lonne 
heure, liai)pily, fortunately, as if ** in a 
good hour," whore la hoim^) hnnw is 
perhaps a perverted form of Zc hm hwr^ 
good fortune, good luck. This word 
hcur (old Eng. ure) has no connexion 
with h^ure^ hour (Lat. hora), h\ii is 
identical with old Fr. hnir, pur^ niir. 
Wall, awevre, Prov. agur, avgur, Sp. 
cufiifro^ from Lat. augurinm. llenco 
wnhcur, 7naJheur, and heurcujr (not 
from horosuSy as if timely, seasonable, 
but = L. Lat. aug^iriosKs), Dicz, Scho- 
ler. Compare tlie proverb, " Le Iton 
Jieur tost se passe qui n'en a soing. 
Good fortune cpiickly slips from such 
as lieed it not." — Cotgravo. Thus the 
proper signification of tliLs expression, 
**Li a good hour bo it spoken," would 
be "with a good omen or angurj- (O. 
Fr. m 1)0fi ailr). It must be admitted, 
at the same time, that *4iour ** is used 
similarly in other liomance languages, 
e.g. Sp. enlmena hora^ noralmcn/tj good 
luck. Li tlie first of the following (juo- 
tations good h<mr is unquestionably 
hon Jietir (iz Itonnm auguri^nn). 

Who, on the other s*i(h", did seem no farro, 
From mnlicing, or grudging his f^oiui houry 
That all he could he graced him with her, 
Ke ever showed sigiie of rancour or of jarre. 
.Spt'ii^T, F. Qneeney VI. x. .'li^ 

Vet myself (in a gtwd hour be it 8{>oken 
and a better heard) was never sick, neitlwr 
in the caiup nor the castle, at t^ea or on land. 
— Sir J. liarriitfrtoiiy Sugtc Antiqua; vol. ii. 
p. 14. 

Y<«, in a f^flihi howre he it spoken, 1 have 
tvl'd in I^ndon. — CopUu, ]\ iUy Fits^ and 
/awcif*, 1614. 

House-like, a fanciful spelling of 
ho-usv-h'vk in Hohnes and Ly to, as if 
named from its attachment to houses. 

nousiNa», the covering or trappings 


( 181 ) 

no WLEB 

of ft hone, bo spelt no doubt from a 
eonfaBum with houae.f housing ^ just aH 
moA is zeally akm to eote^ hood to hvf^ 
tutoek to Lat. eofo, a house (cf. Gk. 
ItfHMy hooflingB). Compare '* The wo- 
mm wove hangings for the grove/' — 
iL 7. S Kings, zzui. 7, Heb. ''Iwus^^ar 

The fla^jm were lint vttered in their hol- 
bwed phieei within the woods, . . . liocauiie 
Atj had no other hotmng fit for great asHpni- 
Uiet^— 6. Puttenkamf Arte of Eng. pMsie, 
1589, p. 51 (ed. Arber). 

The more correct form would be 
homs nug Mf or hotua (Dryden), from Fr. 
IcMMg, Low Lat. /ioutfta, husia (x>er]iaps 
fvMfui^akin to But. Jtuhe, and huak, 
Bkaat), Compare Welsh huja, a cover- 
age hmanf a hood. 

Sew the niperb funerall of the Prot«>ctor. 
Be WW carried lirom Somerset House in a 
vihit bed of state drawn bv hix h(irs«:s, 
kmm'd with the same.— J. £celyn, DUirv, 
Obi. SSy 1658. 

BowBAUi, aa old word for a simple- 
tall snother fonn of North £ng. hohllU 
IMaULf O. Eng. hoberd, of tlie same 
BMHung. Cf. hob, a country clown, 
EMmclf "a fained country uajiio'* 
Mepkear^B Calender , Jan.), It is no 
doubt ihe same word as Ilohj a trickKy 
■nlk, Hob-ihrush (? for Hoh-thursi'), 
inaak Mr. Atkinson regards as =' 06, z= 
«■&= AIA, =: BLF, just as Oheron = 
Jmbenm'^AXberon (Cleveland Glossary, 
f. 968). Compare Cleveland Jiauvlsh, 
rimnle-witted, for aucvish, O. Bug. el- 
mA ; oifff, a fool (" oaf '*), abo a fairy 
=0. None alfr^ an df, 

0)ar h M u Se hadden of hurlewaynis kynm*. 
BtcAflitf tkt RedeUs, i. 1)0 (139^;). 

Ihen to the Master of the daunsini^ schoole, 
lad doe the Master of the drsin);^ Iioukc, 
Iha wont of them no howbiiil, ne no fuole. 
Fm J%ynnf DehaU between Pride and 
Lawtiiute (ab. 1568) p. 48 
(Shaks. Soc). 

Te shall not (she sayth) by hir will, marry 

Te an aneh a ealfe, sach an ass, such a 

8aeh a lilburne, such a hoball, such a lub- 
K. VMly Rtiph Roitter Doitter {i:>66\ 
iii. 3y p. 40 (Shaks. Soc.)* 

Oil loftOifiere hoberd, now ye he sett. 
fits Cooentrif MuiU'ries, p. 3"J.> 
(dhakk .Soc). 

HowDiBy a name for a midwife in the 
■arthem ccmnties, which Mr. Atkin- 

son holds to be corrupted from O. Norse 
jdd^ parturition (Ch'rrhnid Glottsary, 
K.V.), has ai)i)arcnlly b^en popularly 
assimilated to IltyW'di'o, How d'ye ? the 
customary salutation of the sagr /*'Wjww 
on approaching her patient. In any 
case tJiat popular etymology would 
seem to have iuilucncod the form of 
the word. The Scotch verb howdy to 
play the htwdlo, would tlien come from 
tho Kul)Htantive. Compare also Jf(/iid*r, 
and }Iov-do'yi\ a sycophant or flatterer 
[who speaks one fair with polite greet- 
ings], as "She's an auld hond4'e,'" — 
Janiieson. Cf. Ger. ja-hn-r, and our 
** llail-fullow-well-met," intimate as a 
boon companion. 

Mac lloudie gets a social night, 
Or j)Iack frn»» thera. 
hitrn^y Scotch Uriitk, /'<wm», p. 8 
(Cilobo ed.). 

Such was th^ suddaiji how-dee [= greeting] 

and farewell, 
Such thy returu the angels scarce could tell 
Thj' miss. 

Fletcher [Xares]. 

In Ireland " a pretty how d^-yc-da '* 
is a popular exi)ressi()u for an cmU'vylio, 
confi'tfnnpSj or disonlcrcd state of affairs ; 
otherwise a "mess" or "kettle-of- 
fish.'' Similar instances of colhxjuial 
phrases or interrogations originating 
new words or names for things are the 
following: — in vulgar French CastVy an 
hospital, from Qu*-as-tu ? the doctor's 
first question, as if a " Wkai's-it-wV- 
your' : Un Quas-iV'l<i(a,WJiat-\ive-ye' 
th(Te?)y a custom-house officer (Vkt, 
dr V A ryot l^tin'sicnj p. 82). Un Va^sifas, 
a little window to spy what is passing, 
a cjiseineut, from Ger. Wti^ 1st das ? a 
" Whiif-is4hvt " (Scheler). Un d^- 
croche-woi'^ay tmold clothes (or lland- 
itu'-dnwn) shop. So Gorgan^un, tho 
naiue of liabolais' gigantic hero, is a 
corrui)tion of Qno gnviid tu as I his 
father's first exclamation on seeing 
him ; and Kan^vas was a nickname of 
Schubert from his habit of asking about 
every new ac(|uaintance, ''^ Kann <r 
was?'' "What can he do?" Com- 
pare w<jn7ia, originally man hn, 
" What is it ? " the inquiry made by 
tho Iloln-ews wlien they first saw tlio 
substance upon tho ground (Ex. xvi. 

tlie Lincolnsliire name 
of tlie alder tree, is a 

1Iowij-:r, ) 

OWLElt, \ 


corruption of A. Sax. air, Prov. Eng. 
aHeff Ger. eller. 

' HucKLB-BEBRiES, 1 popular names 

for bilberries 
various parts 



of England, are variants of hurtle 
berries, itself a corruption of the old 
English heorot-herlges, " hart-berries," 
from heorot, a hart. 

HuDDER-MOTHEB, an old corruption 
of hugger-mugger, clandestinely, in 
secret, which seems to be compounded 
of hugger, an old verb meaning to lie 
hid (cf. O. Eng. hugge, to crouch 
huddled up, Icel. huka, to crouch, Ger. 
hocke^i), and mugger z= Swed. i wjugg, 
clandestinely (cf. mug, much, to hide, 
O. Fr. viuchier, mucer, cvLr-mudgoon 
(Skeat); muggard, sullen (Exmoor). 
Thus the primitive signification would 
be ** crouching in hiding," as a person 
does when concealing himself in a 
comer. Cf. Scot, mohre, to hoard ; O. 
Eng. moherer, a miser (Old Eng, Mis- 
cellany, p. 214). 

If Hhotinee faulte at any tyme, it hydes it 
not, it lurkes not in corners and hudder' 
nutther, but openly accuseth and bewrayeth it 
selfe. — R, Atcham, ToxophUus, 1545, p. 36 
(ed. Arber). 

And Set I pray )>e. leue bro|«r, 
Kede ^ys ofte, and so lete o|wr, 
Huyde hyt not in hodifmoke, 
Lete other mo rede \>ys boke. 
J, Mifre, tnttruetiontfor ParitJi Priesti 
(ab. 1420), p. 62, L 2032. 

We have done but greenly 
Id hugger'tnugger to inter him. 

Shawtpeare, Hamtet, iv. 5. 

In Banffshire htidge-mudge is to 
wliisper or talk in a suppressed man- 

The twa began to hudge-mudge wee ane 
auither in a comer. — Gregory Banff Glossary, 
p. 83. 

Hum, 1 old words for malt 

Humming, / liquor, especially strong 
ale. Huinming seems to be a corrupted 
form of Low Lat. hummnlina, beer, de- 
rived from Low Lat. humulus, humhlo, 
the hop, IceL humcdl, Dan. and Swed. 
humle, Belg. hommel, the hop, A. Sax. 
hymeh [?J . Hum would be an abbre- 
viated form of this, as hock for hoc?^ 
heimer^ rum for rumhooxe, &c. 

Fat ale, brisk 8tout, and humming clamber- 
Epilogue to Adelphi, 1709, Lnsns AUeri 
Westmonasterienxes, p. 8. 

A glass of wine or humming beer 
The heart and spirit for to cheer. 

Pitor Robin, 17SS, 

What a cold I have over my stoninch ; 
would I 'd some h um, — Beaumont and Fletcher, 
WUdgooie Chase, iL S. 

Compare the following : — 

Bere, a drynke^ HummuUna, vel hummuli 
potus, aue cernsia hummulina. — Prompt. 
Parv, c. 1440. 

Humble, in the sense of hornless, 
applied to a cow, ewe, doer, &c. (eg. 
in the definition of holla, IcoUotr, in 
Cleasby's Icelandic Dictionary), is a 
corrupt form of Scotch and Northern 
Eng. hummel, hummle, h^myll, without 
horns; **Hummled, hornless, as *a 
huwmled coo,' a cow without horns.'* 
— Holdemess Glossary (Eng. Dialect. 
Soc). So hummeld in the Cleveland 
dialect ^Atkinson). Compare Scotch 
humUe, numlock, a hornless cow ; N. 
Eng. humble, Scot, hummel, to break 
off the beards of barley with a fiail. 
All these words are akin to Prov. Eng. 
hamel, to lame, Ger. hnmmel, a wether, 
A. Sax. hamelian, Icel. hamla, to maim 
or mutilate. 

HumbU'Cow, a cow without horns. — 
Pariiih, Sussex Glossary. 

That was Grizzel chasing the hund)le-cou> 
out of the Close. — Scott, Guy Mannering, 
ch. ix. 

It will come out yet, like hommel com. — 
A, Hislop, Scottish Proverbs, p. 192. 

The A. Sax. homela, homola; a per- 
son who has his head sliaved for tlio 
pillory, a fool (Bosworth), is obviously 
the same word (compare Lish maol). 
The base is Goth, hamfs, maimed ; and 
hamper, to impede, is substantially the 
same word (see Skeat, Etym. Vict., 


In the following citation from Hol- 
land's Pliny (1634), humbled seems to 
bear tlie sense of broken, chax)ped, 

If one lav them [Rapes or Turnipsl very 
hot to kibed or humbled heeles, they wil cure 
them. — Nut. History, torn. ii. p. 38. 

Humble-bee, a name for the wild 
bee (Copley, 1596, Whiting, 1638)somu- 
times imagined to denote its inferiority 
to the hive bee, 0. Eng. humbyl-bcc, is 


another fonn of hnm^m^l-h^e or 
j'hee^ firoin the old verb humnwl, 
tohmn; eonxpmre Qer, hummel, Ahuui- 
Ue-beeyfirommMi»m6fi,tohnin. Anotlior 
name ^en to the inseot for the 8ame 
XBMOn it humhU-hee^ Scot, humhce, horn- 
hdlf hmmmUf Greek h&nibos. Hind. 
UoMira, Bengal. hhcmrOf Sansk. ham- 
ttorot the bee that hums or humhlos — 
""fiMii ftombum" (Varro). Compare 
Jrona, A. 8az« dran, and Sonsk. drtino, 
a bee. ** Bombare, to hum or buzze'aa 
beei doe." — Florio» New World of 
Wards, 1611. 

Bone utbon J«.^. Dr. Johnson] inconver- 
tin netural hutorj have most erroneouHlj 
~ them in consequence of the nbovo 
to be dMtitute of a iting.^^Aau;, A^a- 
Iwvlbf i Mi$eeUantf. 

Jfdde Latjne he did mnmmill 
I bard na thing hot hummill bummilly 
He Mhew me nocht of GoddU word. 
Sir D. lAfndetapy Kitteis Confeuiounj 
1.45(lyorib, p.581). 

Ek) an old LincohiBhire woman once 
eon^Mured a drowsy preacher to a 
^^hii'elrbee npon a thistletop," which 
iMaDs a similar remark of TennyBon's 
Karik o m Farmer — 

I 'evd 'am a bummin* awaay loike a buzzard- 
doek ower my 'eiid. 

P<icinf, p. 267 (1878). 

ThB loudeit humwm't no tiie beat bee. — A. 
Hkhpf SeottiMk Proverbs, p. 283. 

Here if a box ful of humble Ami. 
That ftonge Ere aa she sat on her knees, 
Taet/ngtt the frute to her forbyddcn. 
Htywopdj The Four P'f (Dodoley, i. 
81, ed. 1825). 

Foil menilT the humhU-bee doth sinpr. 

Shate^earey Troilun and Cresfida, 
T. 10, 42. 

I^rka tbe humbUngf After the clappe of a 
CkoMctr, Iioute of Fame, lib. ii. I. 531. 

A rich mantle he did weare, 
Made of tinaell jossamerp, 
I>yde crimson in a maiden'^ blunh ; 
Lmde with a bumble bee*s soft plurth. 
iUrrkkj Poemiy p. 481 (ed. llazlitt). 

S bumming birds not much big^r thnn our 
kmmhk km^Evelyn, Diary, July 11, 16.')2. 

HnMBLB-FEC, in the phrase *' to make 
one eat hmnble-pie," moaning to hn- 
imlfatn him or bring down Ids prido, is 
a oonrapted form and perverted use of 
the name of a dish onco popular, viz., 
nmUe-jMe, a pie made of the umhlcs or 
pityrnttl parts of a deer. 

The homhub of the dow. 

Carol (15th cent,) bryn^yng in the 
Horei Head, 

Mrs. Turner . . . did brin^ us an umhle 
pie hot. — Pfpy*, Diary y vol. ii. p. 266 (ed. 

Imcu. What hare you fit for hrpakfnst T. . . 

Mar, Hutter and cheese, and umbles of a 


Such as }>oor keepers have within their lodge. 

Greene, Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay 

(l^i), sub Jin, 

Skinnor writes tlie word " humbles," 
and considers it, probably correctly, as 
derived from umbilicus, "the itarts 
about tlie navol." It is, i)erliapF, from 
A. Sax. ffumles, tlio bowels or thvmhlee, 
understood as iWumhUs, An old spel- 
ling was numhlrs, e,g, 

Friecordia, the numhles, as the hart, tlie 
Spleno, the lunges, aiid Ij-uer. — Elyot. 

Soumbtes of a dere, or beest, entrailles,'^ 

Sowmelys of a beest. Burbalia, — Prompt, 
Parv. (vid. Way's notf). 

Tnkc the nonmbles of calf, swyue, or of 
sliKpe. — Forme of Cury, p. 6. 

Then dre^s the nnmbUs first, that Y recke 
Downo the auauncers kerue that cleueth to 
the necke. 
Book of St, Albans, How ye shall breke 
an Hart, 

The Sussex folk have devised on the 
same model the phrase '* to eat carp- 
pio " for submitting to another person 
carping at one^s actions. 

HuNOARiAN, an old name for a species 
of horse, is borrowed from Fr. hongrc, 
a gelding (also an Eunuch, a Hunga- 
rian). — Cotgravo. The French name 
U said to liavo originated in a mis- 
take as to the moaning of the German 
word Wallach, a golding, CaivthTitis 
[compare Swed. vallack^ a gelding, 
valliicka, to castrate, perhaps akin to 
Swed. galla^ to geld, Greek gallos, a 
eunuch], which was popularly sup- 
posed to mean brought from Walladiia 
or Hunqaryy and therefore synonymous 
with if&ngre or Hungarian (Wachter). 
But see the quotation from Topsell. 

Our P^nglish Horses have a mediocrity of all 
necessary good proiM^rties in them ; as neither 
so sli^lit as the Barbe, nor so slovenly as the 
Flemish, nor ho fiery ns the Hnntrarian. — T. 
Fuller^ Worthies of Enfrliindy vol. ii. p. 4i>l. 

The Hunue:<brmg vn their Hursses hardly 
. . . These lliinnian I lorsses, else where he 
calleth them llunnican Horsses,and the same 
in times past Hunnes : but tliey are called a 


( 184 ) 


dales Vn^arian Horsses. — Topselly History of 
Four-footed Becals, p. 288 (1608). 

HuoN CRY, an absurd orthography 
of ITu4i and cry, as if it had sometliing 
to do with Sir Huon, famed in the ro- 
mances of chivaby. 

Scarce findes the doore, with faultring foot he 

And still lookes back for fear of Hu-on cries. 
Syivesterf Da BartuSj p. 193 (1621). 

Htie, a shout, is O. Fr. Mier, akin to 
hoot. Compare Fr. huyer, " to hoot at, 
shout after, exclaime on, cry out upon, 
follow with hue and cry,'' — Cotgrave. 

How shall 1 answer line and Cru, 
For a Roan-Geldinfi: twelve Hands liigh ? 
Butler, Hudibras, Tt II. cant. L 1. 693. 

HuBRiCANE. This word was once sup- 
posed in accordance with its spelling to 
be a storm or tornado that hurries the 
can^'8 away in the plantations, and a 
support for this derivation was sought 
in the Lat. word caJumitas, a calamity, 
an injury to the canes, calami (cf. hurle- 
hlast, a wliirlwind. — Wright). But 
hunicane, Fr. ouragan, Sp. huracan, 
Ger. orkan, is a corrupted form of a 
native American word, Hurakan, the 

When the ships were ready to depart, a 
terrible stoi-m swept the island. It was one 
of those awful whirlwinds which occasionally 
rage within the tropics, and were called by the 
Indians *^ furicanes,'* or ** uricatis," a name 
they still retain with trifling variation. — IV. 
Irving, Columbus, bk. viii. en. 9. 

The Elements grew dreadful, tlie wind ror- 
ing, and the sea so sublime and wrathful, and 
for three days space raging with such fiiry 
that we verily believed a Herocane was begun, 
which is a vast or unwonted tumor in the 
Ayre, called Kuroclydon in the Acts, a Tem- 
pest so terrible, that houses and trees are but 
like dust before it ; many ships by itn violence 
having been blown a shear and shattered.— 
Sir Thos, Herbert, TniviU, 1665, p. 41. 

Not the dreadful spout, 
"Which shipmen do the hurricano call, 
Constringed in mass by the Almighty sun, 
Shall dizzy with more clamour Neptune's ear. 
ahukespeare, Troilux and Cressida^ 
V. 2, 174. 

When the winds are not only wild in a 
storm, but even stark mad in a herricano, who 
is it that reHtorort them again to their wits, 
and brings them aslee)) in a calm ? — T. Fuller^ 
Holy State, p. 122 (lotti). 

Nor will any wonder at this wild Uericano 
blowing at once from all ]>oiut8 of the Com« 
pass, when he remembers that Satan is styled 

the Prince of the power of the air. — T. Fuller, 
Pisgah Si^ht, pt. ii. p. 35 (1650). 

in the year of our Lord 16. )9, in November, 
here happened an Hirecano, or wild wind, 
which, entering in at the great East- window 
blew that down, and carried some part there- 
of, with the picture of lx)rd Coventn% .... 
all the length of the gallery.— 7'. Fuller ^ 
Worthies of England, vol. i. p. 338 (ed. 

Nash speaks of *^funcanos of tem- 
pests," as if a mad raging wind. 

Hurts, a contracted form of TTvrflr- 
herries or Whorthherries (Lat. vnccl- 
nium), wliich is to all ai)pearance a cor- 
ruption of the A. Saxon hcorothcrigo, the 
"hart-berry" from heorot or horf, a 
hart. Similarly hlndbei^ry was an old 
name for the raspberry. 

Nothing more have I to observe of these 
Berries, save that the antient and martial 
family of tlie Baskervills in Herefordshire 
give a Cheveron betwixt three Hurts proper for 
their Anns. — Fuller, Worthies of En inland, vol. 
i. p. 271 (ed. Nichols). 

Hurtberries — In Latine Vaccinia, most 
wholsome to the stomach, but of a very astrin- 
gent nature ; so plentiful in this Shire, that 
It is a kind of Harvest to poor peoj)h'. — 7 . 
Fuller, Worthies, Devonshire, vol. ii. 271 (ed. 

S' Humphrey Baskervile .... beareth Ar- 
gent, a Cheveron Gules, between thrt'e Heurts 
proper. These are a small round berry of a 
colour between black and blew, growing u]>- 
on a manifold stalk about a foot high on 
IVJountaiim in Wales Forrests and W oodland 
grounds. Some call them Windberrys, others 
neurtle berries. They are in season with 
strawberries. They are called also Bill 
berries. — T. Dinsley^ History from Marble 
(temp. Chas. II;, p. ccix (Camden Soc.;. 

Husband does not etymologically 
denote, as was long supposed, the land 
that holds the house together. It is the 
EngUsh equivalent of Swed. hvsUmde, 
Icol. hushondi, which is properly a i)ar- 
ticiple contracted from husJiotmdi or 
hushuandi {hviidi being a tiller or owner, 
from hua, to till, to occupy, Goth, ga- 
hauan), and so tlie primitive meaning 
of the word is the master or good-man 
of the house (Cleasby). Tusser, there- 
fore, was mistiiken when he wrote 

The name of a husband, what is it to saie? 
Of wife and the household the band and the 

Tusser, 1.^80, E. D. Soc, p. 16. 

See my guardian, her hui^band. In fash- 
ionable as the word is, it is a pretty word : 
the house-band that ties all together : is not 


( 185 ) ICE^SHAOKLE 

tfMI ikBrneuungl-^Riehardtoa^ Sir C. Gran' 
rfiMHy tL 575. fUuvirs, 6'Hpp. Kng. Olnuury,] 

OMiWiiHn painted out the true ori^n : — 

B&mdf that if Pmterfamiliaa, u it is in the 
baoke of olde temu Deloiik,'iii); i*oiu«*tinieii to 
fitiiit Augostiiiei ia Cantio'burie, aiid wet* re- 
taiaeit intbe oompound Hutband, — Renuiinet 
Cmetnumg Britiiiw, 1637, p. 126. 

The fSbUowing moralizing of a Scripture 
nlgeot is therefore basoloss : — 

The ties that bound her to the land of Moab 
kad been anapped by the hand of dfath. In 
tihe death of tier hvuband then", wiu the dis- 
raptioo of the konwe^hand. In the d»-aths of 
her two aooa who bad become huafmnd*^ tlie 
anlT other hamd* or bonds tliat could ki*«*p to- 
geOer ftr Naooii a homp in >Moah wen* burst 
— IV PuipU Commentaru, Ituth {i, 6), p. 13 

The latine verbe eolert ... is to tillc or to 
kmKAamJMf aa fiprounde or any otht>r 8>'niklt>- 
aUe thjns' ia koH^bandtd. — Udait, Apo}ih- 
tUgmnafEnumiUf lbt*i, p. 'ia'y (M. Ui77). 

Yoa ketubmndf you hortuy you juy & you 

Yoa IQng 6t. you KcyaeTy to ber only trea- 

AfiMM and Virginiti^ l/)75 (O. P. xii. 

346, pd. xmru 

God defimde tbei ahould be ho foolishe to 
give dwir maidena to their huuvhtindea; I 
voold wiah them ratii«fr tliemfu'lves to take 
their Benne. — Riehe hi* Famcrll to MiUtarie 
Prwfiutiam^ 1581, p. 129 (Shnks. Sor.). 

Mr. Fuznivall has an cxIiauHtive 
tzeunas on " bondman/' which ImB no 
aonnezion with hombt or binding (cf. 
Dan. handCf a peasant ), in Bp. Percy's 
F\dIw M8.^ Yol. ii. p. xxxiii. 8cq. Ho 
there jqnotes hHu-honda (ahoiiselioUlL*r) 
ftom A. Sax. Gospcln (8th cent.), hun- 
hmda from Saxon Chrunicle, 1048. 

HuBKT, somewhat hoarse and dry in 
the throat, has no connexion with 
AmIbh, the diy coverings of seeds (nor 
jet with the Zend huttko^ dry !), but is 
nrobably another form of Prov. Kng. 
Mefcjf, dxy, rough, unpleasant feeling 
{e^. Sternberg, Northamjit. Glossnry). 
Compare Linoolns. husl'j dry, parched 
fWri^^t), N. Eng. and Scot. h->t8k% 
my, rough, parchod (akin to Dan. 
Aartfc, "harah," O. Eng. ** Jmrsh*, or 
katke^ as sundry frutys, Stipticiis." — 
Pfomfrf. Port;.). " He liaili a great 
koikneti (=:a8thma)." — Hunnan. Cf. 
veriiaps O. Eng^ ftood, A. Sux. hae, 
hoazse. Bichardson and Skeat re<;ard 
ibiidky as a corruption oihiuttij or fiausiy, 
iiift^^ to oou gh t 

HussiF, I a widely diffused word for 
HuzziF, / a pockct-eusc for needles 
and tlirpjid, as if for husfrif,>, hovsv- 
^f^if*\ which is sometimes the spelling 
used, Scot, husui y. According to Pn)- 
fessor Skeat tliis is a corruption of Ice- 
landic hiini, a cario for needles. (Dic- 
kinson, Cnmh'rland Glontntry, s. v.) 

Mm. Anm>, I have drupt my Auuv.— • 
HicfuirdMUif VameUiy i. 16^. [i>ui'ir«, Hupp, 
i^ng. (itosturtf.] 


Ice- BONE, a provincial name for tho 
aitch-bone or eilgu-bono of beef 
(Wright). See also Parish, tyusscx 
Glossary f s.v. 

I rcnicinbcr a pli -OMant pAKsatri* of thi* cook 
applying to liim [Jurkdon] fur instructions 
how to writi> down ft/ifi' /x'/if of beef in his 
bill of coinnioiiti. IIi> di>cid<Hi tin* ortlio- 

tn":ipliy to Ik* — as I have j;iv«'n it — tortifyiiij; 
lis authority with 8uch anatomical rciisoiis 
as (li.siiiis!<.(Hl rhi'nmnciplf Iranii'd and happy. 
Sointf do HjM'll it y«'t, jM'rv«'r«i*Iy, uitrh mnie^ 
from a fanciful ri'Mt;mhhiiir<* lx'tw(i>n its shafie 
and that of tiu' aHpiratc ho denomiiiutt'd. — 
C, iMmhf out lienrhers of the Inner Templty 
Elioj p. 58 (ed. 18 K)). ' 

Ice-shackle, an old corruption of 
iWf^, and still usoil jirovincially. The 
Dorset word is an ic^'-onidlt'y tlie Cleve- 
land irA'-shtgylo, The word ivich' is 
compounded of io' and icMo. (Prov. 
Eng.), a stalactite, Prov. Swed. ihh'l 
(a pointed ol)ject),A. Sjix.^/V»/, "Stiria, 
ist's ffii'iJ" — Wright, Vtiodivlariffi^ p. 
21 ; Pr(n'. Dan. nph So the correspond- 
ing fonns lire Fris. is-Jitkhl^ Prov. 
Swed. fiis-ih-h'l, A. Sax. iffftt-ginl^ Dut, 
ijs'h'tjvl, Cf. Prov. Swed. itf-sfikhi. 

The dajjgrrs of the HliariM'nt'd eaves. 

Jn MtnuoriitHf cvi. 

Ygt'keles [al. isevokeU'\ in euescs * Jjorw hetr of 

h? Mmnc, 
Melteth in a mynut while * to myst &c to 

hiiif^latidf Vimui of Piers Vlowmun, 
B. XX. 'AU 

Tlio latter i)art of tho word, -icl'Ir, 
Scand. jV;/.-?/// (an icicle or ice-berg), is 
itself cognate with ic(\ A. Sax. »V, Icel. 
iss, Zend i<;i (M. Miiller, Chips, iv. 248), 
wliich have been connected with Pers. 
j/ifc/i, old I'ers. yah, and Sansk. ya4;as, 
brightness, as if ice were originally 
named from its sparkUug brilliancy 


( 186 ) 


(Pictot, Origines Indo-Europ, i. 96, 

and BO Grimm). Thus we would have 

Yog- (bright) 


A. Sax. is 

Soand. jakit jokull 

Eng. ice ^^— ^— — 

Ikyl^ stiria. — Pntmpt, Parvubnim, 
Ksclarcjl, en yckele (Gloss in Way). 
Iggi^y ftnd aigle, an icicle. — EvanSy LeiceS' 
tershire Glossary j £. D. S. 

Otherwise ice («, Ger. ew) might be 
identified with t8, tso, the base of A. 
Sax. iVn, iron, Goth, ets-om, Ger. eis- 
en, as if " the iron-hard." Prof. Skeat, 
with less probability, I think, regards 
iron {i8en)f as having got its name from 
ice (as if ice-en). Compare the follow- 

When the cold north wind bloweth, and 
the water is concealed into ice . . it clotbeth 
the water a% with a breastplate, — EcclesiasticuSy 
zliii. ^0. 

So Greek pagos, pegoSy " the fixed," = 
ice, with which Prof. Blackio would 
equate Gaelic eigh, with the usual loss 
of initial p. Cf. ** Rivers . . . murmur 
hoarser at the ^i«^/ro«<." — Thomson, 

Ice-sickle, a corrupt form of t'crcZc, 
the 8 of the first part of the old com- 
pound is-ickle having coalesced with 
the latter part. Compare Scoubse. 

The Jonge vse sycles at the hewBjs [^seaveses] 
Cyt, and Upl, (Percy Soc xxii. S). 

Scoladuraj any downe-hanging and drop- 
ping ite-nckUs. — Florio. 
GhiacciuoUy ice'tickUs, — Id, 

For it had snowen, and frosen very strong, 

With great ysexycle* on the eues long, 
The sharp north wynd harled bytterly, 
And with black cloudes darxed was the 

The Hie Way To The Spyttel Ilousy 1. 10« 
(Early Pop, Poetryy vol. iv. p. 27). 

When Phoebus had melted the " sickUi " oficey 

With a hey down, &c.. 
And likewise the mountains of snow. 
Bold Robin Hood he would ramble away. 
To frolick abroad with his bow. 

Ritsoiif Robin Hood and the Ranger j 
XX, 11. 1-b. 

Idle-headed, tlie original expression 
of which oddle-headM is a corruption, 
as if having a head full only of corrupt 
matter, like an addled egg^ — "The 
mouldy chambers of tlie dull idiot's 
brain,"— and,80 addie patCf a simpleton. 

Addle means, not disease (Skeat), but 
corruption, and is from Welsh JkuU, 
rotten, corrupt, luidlyd, comiiited, 
hadlu, to decay (perhaps orig^aUy to 
run to seed, hadu, from had, seedy ; cf. 
** seedy*'). In Sussex addle-pool is a 
dunghill puddle. On the other hand 
idle-headed (nDut. iidel van lioofdc, 
empty-headed, mad. — KiUan), is from 
A. Sax. idely empty, vain, Dut. iidely 
Ger. eitely vain, conceited (correspond- 
ing to Greek itha/rds, pure, clear, as if 
sheer, downright. — Skeat). 

iS& swungon hie ^one, and idelne bine for- 
leton [They swinged him and sent him 
away emp^]. — A, Sax, Gospelsy St. Lukey 
XX. 10. 

Hee [John Segar, a rescued seaman] be- 
came idle-headed and for eight days space, 
neither night nor day, took any naturall rest, 
and so at length died for lack of sleep. — Hak- 
luyty Voyagety vol. ii. pt. 3, p. 108. 

Idel-oild, an A. Saxon word for 
idolatry, from idely vain, idle, and gildy 
worship, has perhaps a conscious refe- 
rence to mZoZ- worship, Lat. idohlnfria. 
This word recalls the paronomasia of 
Habakkuk ii. 18, Heb. 'elil 'ilUnny 
"idle idols" (A V. "dumb idols"). 

For 3our ydil idolns * don Sou ille wirche. 
Alexander and Dindimus (ab. 1350), 
1. 754 (ed. Skeat). 

Idolatrt, Fr. idolairiey popular cor- 
ruptions of idoloUiiryy idohlairlCy from. 
Lat. idololatriay Greek eidolo-laireiay 

So hipjjofam'tis (Topsell) is a popular 
pronunciation of hippopotamus; and 
igncmiy occurs in Shakespeare for igno- 
miny y physnomy in Topsell for physiog- 

First IdololatroSy whose monstrous head 
Was like an ugly fiend, his flaming sight 
like blazing stars, the rest all difi&reut : 
For to his shape some part each creature lent ; 
But to the great Creator all adversely bent. 
P, Fletchrry The Purple hlandy vii. 28 
(1633) ed. 1783. 

Ill-convenient, a widely difi*u8ed 
popular corruption of in-convenie7ify e.g. 
W. D. Parish, Sussex Glossary. 

Illustrious, an irregular formation, 
from a mistaken analogy to words like 
famovSy gloriouSy industrious (= Lat. 
fam-osuSy glori-osuSy indusfri-os^ts), of 
Fr. iUustrCy Lat. iUustris (Skeat, Etym, 
Did, B.V.). "Just like iUMSirious is 


( 187 ) 


mrfnnikihmB* emonmous fWarbnrton] 
^-ficom emor mit or esiomM!— wliich we 
■• nofc to Aeoonnt singularly mou' 
ifc'wuwi, mm the mne fbrefotherB wrote 
v«7 allowably."— 11 JEToZZ, Modem 

IiA-THivOy.a Deronshire word for 
■jnpfliaa or 8t Anthony's firo, Las all 
ma i^peannoe of being a cormption. 
It 18 pcriiapa from some 0. £ng. word 
lika tatdmg (ylding), from ce/df, ipMI^ 
fln^ like A. Sax. mledn^i, a burning 
or jfiflaimnation (?), Cf. Devon, (u- 
knJMUhf a bnming boil, prob. from 
A. SL cbZois to bom, and botch (Exmoor 
BtMimg, L 84). 

fonnerly pronounced ini- 
lt£-«It an old verb, iiBed by Bp. Jeremy 
Tqrlor for embe*%U, of which word it 
nay be the original, and so the nriuii- 
tive mnaning would be to eufooblo or 
impair a property or anytiiing entrusted 
to onOt to waste, squander, or misap- 
froporiato it. To imhecil is from Lat. 
w A eo Shtt ^ feeble (cognate probably 
with haoeoHuM^ Greek hakvlos^^ weak, 
effwninato), but conformed to the verb 
lo ftsesfey to guzzle, drink hard, oon- 
amne in riot. Thus Thos. Fuller 
■peaks of some *'that sit drinking and 
hetMKng wine abroad, whilst 'tlicir' 
frmily are glad of water at home*' 
(Com w ieiitory on Buth, i. 1), and Bp. 
Hall speaks of a dnmkard as '* the 
■woln OMsfa at an alehouse firo" 
{BoHnt, y. 2). 

Thsv sweur, btxxelf coret, and lauf^h at him 
ttsi tous them they siiL — T, Adanu, Sermontf 
tdL L p. 459. 

Time will come 
Wben wonder of thy error will strike dumb 
Thy imlwC wnae. 

Mmntonand Webtter^ The Malcontent, 
1604, act ii. 8c. 2. 

Howerer, this hezzle may itself be 
from haeeoluif an impotent, lewd per- 

' Hie old derivation of imbecUlu* wa8 in 
kmeuiOf one that sapportu himulf on a ntick, 
jmt at in Darid's curie on Joiib, *' One that 
leanedi on a staff,*' is uM*d to denote a weak, 
infinn penon (2 Sam. iii. V9). In Jculandic 
eertainly ftmf-karl, a '' staff-car 1p," (l<Miot(M 
an old and infirm person, ono, according to 
the Sphinx*i riddle^ho in the evening ^oes 
apon three le^s. The radical character in 
Cnineae for nt, sickness, infirmity, is the 
pidnrs of a man leaning against a support. 
— -£rfJUjtt, CkinMte Characten, p. 26. 

son, and heazled is still used in Sussex 
for wcarieil out, exhausted (Parish, 
Glossary), Cf. ** I emheaellj Je cele '* — 
Palsgrave, Lcsdaircisaptncnt, 1530. 

They that bj negligence imbfcil otiier 
men's cwtateH, spoiling or letting anything 
perish which is entrusted to them. — 7ai;((»r, 
//<)/(/ Dfiing, ch. iv. sect. viii. p. 168 (Ox- 
ford ed.). 

Compare with thii 

It iH a sad calamity that the fear of Death 
shall so indHcU man's courage and under- 
standing. — Id, p. 9tt. 

Imbecility was formerly used for 
weakness generally, e,g. Hooker speaks 
of obedience of wives as "aduty whoro- 
unto the very imhecil if y of their nature 
and sex doth bind them " {Ecdes, To- 
lily J vol. ii. p. 60, ed. Tegg). 

Go<l by his miglity worku convinoeth Job of 
ignorance nnd of imbecililu [== impotence]. 
—^4. V. Heading to Ji>6, cbap. xxxyiii. 

It should teacii us . . . that we do not any 
way abuH«.* and imbetell that Hubstance that 
Go<l means to grace. — M, Uayy Dotnnes'Day, 
lt>36, p. 240. 

Mr. Ilacluit died, leaving a fair estate to 
an unthrifl son, who embeziUd it. — Fuller, 
Worthiei of England. 

Henry More says that the Church 
"would not so much as enihescU tlio 
various readings " of Scripture {Mys- 
icry of GoiUliv'SSf b. vii. c. 11), and 
Howe, tliat time is " too precious to 
be emlx'zzlvd and trifled away," see 
Archbishop Trench, Select Glossary, 
s.v. Embezzle, 

By the<«(> ('omets he would embezzle the ex- 
cellencie of his worke. — Thos, Lodge, Works 
of Seneca, p. 900 (1614). 

liy whicii Dealing hi> ho imbetzUd his Estate, 
that when his Brother snd he came to an 
Account, there remained little or nothing for 
him to receive. — Amitoniy of the English JVuii- 
nery at Lisbon, 1622. 

It would be a breach of my Trust to con- 
sume or imbezil that Wealth in Excessive 
8u|)erfluities of Meat, Urink, or Apparel. — 
•Sir 31. HaUy Contemplations, pt. i. p. 312 
(ed. 16H:> ). 

It irt their [rtluggards*] nature to waste and 
embezzle an estate. — Barrow, Sermtms, Of In- 
dustrif in general. 

The same view as I have hero taken 
has been adopted by Professor Skoat 
(Notes a7id Queries, 6th S. x. 461), who 
quotes from a 15tli century poem, Tlio 
Lament of Mary Magdalen : — 

Not content my dere love thus to quell 
But yet they must embesile his presence. 


( 188 ) 


He also adduces the following from 
Palsgrave (circa 1580). 

I embesull a tbynge, or put it out of the 
way, Je mhstravt. He that embesqlUth a 
thyn^ intendeth to steale it if he can convoye 
it clenly. 
** They " so imb^cill all theyr strengthe 
that they are naught to me. 

Dranty Horaety Sat. i. 5. 

ThiH is imbesvlynge and diminyslie of their 
power and dominion. — Udal, Revelation ^ 
c. 16. 

Finally, Archbishop Sharp observes 
in his Scmwns (vol. i.), tliat religion 
"will not allow ns to evihezzle our 
money in drinking or gaming." Bp. 
Andrewes uses the word in the modem 
sense, " The son must not falsely pur- 
loin or emhpzzh from his parents** 
(Vaitt^m of Cat echisiical Doctrine, 1641, 
p. 187, Afig. Cath. Lib.). 

Imbb£W, an occasional spelling, as if 
connected with brewy of iinhi'uef to 
drench or soak, from Fr. a'evilrucry "to 
imbrue or bedabble himself with.** — 
Cotgrave; ** Emhrct(ver, to moisten, be- 
deaw, soak in.** — Id. (cf. descry and 
descrivc), from emhevrer. It. imhevere, 
Lat. imblhcre, to drink in (Wedg- 

Implement, so spelt as if from a Lat. 
'implemeTitumy from iinplere,, tliat which 
filU up or supplies one*s need, a ser- 
viceable tool, is really tlie same word 
as imiploymrnff that wliich is employed 
in a handicraft or trade, from Fr. mi- 
plier, employer, Sj). emplcar, to imploy 
(Minsheu), wliich is only anotlier form 
of imply, both being from Lat. impU- 
care. The original meaning of c^nploy 
would seem to be ** to bring or Utrn 
into use,** to introduce as a factor or 
means to an end. 

Compare the following : — 

Ly.Hundt^r solut*, with a crow of iron, and a 
halter, which he lays down, and puts uu his 
disguise a^ain. . . . 

See, sweet, here are the engines that must 

Which, with much fcwir of my discovery, 
1 have at last procured. 

My stay hath been prolong*d. 

With hunting obscure nooks for these ffm/>/(n/- 
The Widows Tears (1612), act v. sc. 1 
{Old Plans, yi. 19^, ed. 18*25). 

Of such dogges as kee]) not their kinde, 
... it is not neceKsarve that 1 write any 
more of them, but to baniahe them as va- 

profitable implements, out of the bounded of 
my iiooke. — A. Flemitig, Cains of Eni;. 
Dogges, 1576, p. :U (r«-pr. 1880). 

Imposthume, an abscess, as if an 
"on-come," imposition, sometliing Liid 
on one as an infliction, is a corruption of 
the older form o/wtf/wi/w?, apostt-m, Greek 
apost^na, an abscess. 
[lie] wringing gently with his hand the 

Made th' hot impostume run upon tho p-ouud. 
Syli'ei^ter, Du Bartas, p. 123 {\62i ). 

The inner flesh or puln [of a jjourd] is 
passing good for to be laid vnt(» those tm/>«>>- 
tumes or 8wellines, that gjow to an head or 
suppuration (which the Greeks call AiH^tr- 
mata). — Holland, Plinq's Nat. Hist. ii. 38 

Bladders full o( imposthume, 8ciatica.4, lime- 
kilns i' the palm, incurable l)onr-nche, and 
the rivelletl tee-siraph' of the tetter, take and 
take again such prepostiTous discoveries ! — 
Shakespeare, Troilus and Crassida, iv. 1, 28. 

Impovrbish, a corrupt form of appo- 
verish, Fr. appovrir, to beggar, npim- 
vrisHC-ment, impoverishment, Lat. nd- 
pauperare, as if comi)ouiided with im - 
in (Skeat). For a similar corruption 
of the prefix, compare im-posfhmnr, cu- 
sampU, and in-svre for as-sure, Fr. ns- 
scurer, Lat. aJ'Sccurarr. See Advance, 
Entice, Invoice, and Inveigle. 

Impress, to constrain men to servo 
in the navy, as it were to prrt<s them 
into tho service, is a corrui)t form of /?>/- 
prest, and has no connexion with imprfKs 
the derivative of Lat. imprcHfins, ini- 
privu-re, to press in. See Frkss. 

If proper colonels were once appointed . . . 
our regiments would noon Ix* filled without the 
reproach or cruelty of an impress. — >>am. 
Jonnsony The Idler ^ N'o. Z). 

Incentive, that wliich provokes or 
instigates, is commonly supposed t(^ 1)0 
connected "wdth inCt'Tidiary, inandiro, 
(Richardson), as if tliat which inflames, 
kindles, or set's one on tire (Lat. /n^v w 
dcre). Tlie Latin inc^'ntivvs, however, 
from which it is derived, is used of tliat 
which gives the note, or strikes ux> tho 
tune, and sets the otlier iiistnimonts 
going, akin to iiicmtor (** the same us 
incendiary.'' — Bailey I), a precentor, in- 
centio, a tuning up, all from in-clw re, 
to play on an iiistnunent. Ino nflv'', 
therefore, is cognate, not with to ///cv t/x*-, 
but with incantation and (mclmntimnt. 
The stirring music of the band is an 
incentive to soldiers going into action. 



Milton, with apparently the false 
analogy in his mind, says of the fallen 
angels when preparing their infernal 

Part incentive reed 
Provide, pernicious with one touch to fire. 

Par. Lattf bk. vi. I. 520. 

Incarnacton, in Turner, an old cor- 
raption of Gabnation, which see. 

Inch-pin, a curious old word for the 
lower gut of a deer (Bailey), and espe- 
cially its sweet-bread (Nares), has all 
the appearance of being a corruption. 
It is, perhaps, another form of ^inch- 
pitij used for a part of the stag attached 
to the doucets, and linch may be a 
softened form of old Eng. Unk^ a sau- 
sage (Bailey), ** lynke or sawcistre, 
hilla." — Prompt. Farvulorum ; origi- 
nally a pudding or gut, e.g. " Andouille, 
a litihe or chitterUng, a big hogs-gut . . 
seasoned with pepper and salt." — Cot- 
grave. So inkle, tape, is from O. Eng. 
lingelf 0. Fr. ligneul. 

Mar. I gave them 

All the Rweet morsels call'd tongue, ears, and 
dowccts ! 
Rob. What and the iuch-pin? 

Ben JontoUy Had Shepherd, i. 2 ( Workt^ 
p. 494). 

And with the fatt, 
And well broyl'd inch-pin of a batt, 
A bloted eare-wigg, with the pythe 
Of sufinred niHh, }iee gladds bym with. 
Herrick, Foems (ed. Hazhtt), p. 472. 

Income, a boil (Peacock, Glossary of 
Manley and Corringluvniy Lincolnshire. 
Ferguson, Cumberland Glossary.). 

The same word as old and prov. Eng. 
ancomey uncome, an ulcerous swelling 
rising imexpectedly (Wright), i)roperly 
an " on-come," identical with Icel. 
dkotiia, d'kv&ma, an on-come or visita- 
tion, a woimd, an eruption (Cleasby, 
p. 41). Compare Scottish income and 
oncome, an access or attack of disease, 
otherwise an on-f all (u.nd])orh&j)8 Devon 
impingan^, an ulcer, Somerset nhnpin- 
gang, a whitlow), Fr. mal d'aventure, 

Adventitinx morhun, Hyekeues that comcth 
without our defaute, and of some men is 
callyd an vncome. — Eli^ot. 

A fcUon, vncomme^ or catte's haire [=whit- 
lowljfnrunculm. — Baret. 

W liat makes vou lame ? A tuk' it first wi' 
an income in ma knee. — l*a1terson, Antrim and 
Down GtouarVj p. .55, E. D. S. 

Pterigio, a whitflaw, an vncom or fellon at 
the fingers ends. — Flono. 

The same [Persicaria] brused and bound 
vpon an impostume in the ioints of the fingers 
(called among the vulgare sort a fellon or 
vncome) . . taketh away the paine. — Gerarde, 
Herbal, 1597, p. 362. 

Indelible, an incorrect spelling of 
inde.hhle (Bacon), the old form, Fr. m- 
dclehle, Lat. indelehilis, from false ana- 
logy to words like horr-ible, ierr-ihh'., 
Lat. horrihilis, terribilis (Skeat). 

Innermost, a double corruption of 
old Eng. innemeet, A. Sax. innemest, 
i.e. irmem (a superlative form = innest, 
Lat. imics) + est (superlative suffix), 
from a false analogy to inner (A. Sax. 
innera) and most. Inmost itself sliould 
rather have been inmest, Skeat, Etym» 
Did. s. V. In. 

Bote \>e inemaste bayle, 1 wot, 
Bi-tokenel> hire holy mnidenhod. 

Cartel Off Loue (1320), I. 809. 

Inquire, a frequent spelling of en- 
quire, as if we took the word directly 
from Lat. inquiro, instead of mediately 
tlirough Fr. enquerir. So intend for 
old Eng. erUende, Fr. entendre; inter, 
for old Eng. enter, Fr. enterrer ; inireat 
for entre<U ; intrench for entrench, and 
interview for old Eng. enter-view, old 
Fr. entreveu. 

At the enter-view and voice of the blessed 
Virpfin Mary, he (then a babe) gave a spring 
in the womb of Elizabeth his Mother. — Bp. 
Andrewes, Sermons, p. 66, fol. 

Instep. " It is clear that instep is a 
corruption of an older instop or instup ; 
and it is probable that the etymology is 
from in and stoop, i.e. the * in-beud ' of 
the foot; and not from in and step 
which makes no sense." — Prof. Skeat, 
Etym. Diet, 

Le montant du pied, the instup. — Cot^rave. 

Poulaine, .... shoooA held on the feet by 
single latchets running overthwart the instup. 

The forepart of this pediuin i» called the 
instep. — li. Cnu)ke, Description of' the Body of 
Man, 1631, p. 735. 

Interest, verb, to concern or engage 
the attention of a person, is an altered 
modem form of old Eng. irUeress, Fr. 
inter essi, **inieressed or touched in" 
(Cotgrave), It. interessare, from 
teresse, to concern. From a confusion 
witli interest, profit. 

Not the worth of any living wight 
May challenge ought in (leavens interesse, 
Spenser, Faerie Queene, VI 1. vi. :J8. 


( 190 ) 


If this proportion '' whosoerer wUl be 
saved " be restrained only to those to whom 
it was intended, and for whom it was Com- 
pOHed, I mean the Christians, then the ana- 
thema reaches not the heathens, who had 
never heard of Christ and were nothing in- 
teressed in that dispute. — Dryden^ Religio 
Laieiy Preface (Globe ed.), p. 187. 

Not that tradition's parts are useless here 
When general, old, disintereMed^ clear. 
Id. Rtligio Uici, 1. 535. 

Intimate, in the sense of familiar, 
close (friends), an incorrect form of the 
older word intime (Digby), Fr. tWtwic, 
inward, hearty, deer, intiroly affected 
(Cotgrave), Lat. intimuSf innermost, 
intimate, due to a confusion with in- 
timcUe, to bring in (news), announce 

Intbust MONET, a corruption of in- 
terest money (Peacock, Glossary of Mom" 
ley and Corringham). 

Inyoice has nothing to do with 
either in or voioa^ but, hke many other 
book-keeping terms, comes from the 
Italian, and is a corrupted foim of 
atnn'tfo, a notice or " advice '* (Lat. ad- 
visus), a bill of particulars as to goods 
despatched, &c. See Inyeiglb. The 
word was perhaps influenced by Fr. 
envoi, a sending or consignment. 

Inyeiole is not, as it appears, com- 
pounded with m (as if from It. invog- 
liarc, to bring one to his will), but a 
corrupt form of Fr. aveugler, " to blinde, 
hudwinke, deprive of eyes, or sight " 
(Cotgrave), and so to entice or entrap, 
from aveuglCf blind. It. a/vocolare, idl 
from Low Lat. aloctUuSf eyeless, like 
aniens, mindless. Wedgwood quotes 
from Froude, Hist.j vol. v. p. 182, a 
document dated 1647, wherein the 
Marquis of Dorset is said to have been 
'* seduced and avetigled by the Lord 
Admiral." The in was perhaps due to 
the idea that the word meant to draw 
in or ensnare. 

This word " ngnificatiue " . . . . doth so 
well serve the turn, as it could not now be 
spared : and many more like vsurp<Hl Latine 
and French words, as '*methode,"**methodi- 
cair* . . . **inMigU."^G, Puttenham, Arte 
ofEng, Poesie, 1589, p. 159 (ed. Arber). 

Most false Duessa, royall richly dight. 
That easy was t' inveigle weaker si^ht. 
Spenser^ Faerie Queene, 1. zii. 32. 

For a similar foisting in of the pre- 
position in-y en-f compare tnt'otce = It. 

awisOf an advice ; entice = Fr. aiUsfr ; 
ensaniple = ex-ample ; enlurge = ahtrtje 
(WycUfife), Fr. esl-argir; engricve 
(Chaucer, Spenser) zz: aggrieve; enciim- 
her == O. Eng. a/ioniire and acconihrc 
( Totcnley Mysteries), &c. 

Perhaps a connexion was imagined 
witli inveigh (invehicle ?), Lat. ini'ehri'e, 
to take or carry in (whence invccilchis, 

Ibon-habd, Yronhoflrd (Gerarde), old 
Eng. Isenhearde, further changed jiro- 
vincially to Htselkom (Cockayne), 
popular names for the plant Cenfavrra 
nigra (Leechtlonis, Wortcunn'mg, ^J'c., 
vol. iii. Glossary )y are corruptions of 
Iron-head, another popular name for the 
same (Prior). (Grerarde gives yronhard 
as a name of the knapweed (r.^. knob- 
weed), the same plant, which has " a 
scaly head or Jcnop beset witli most 
sharpe prickes" (IlerhaU, 1597, p. 

Ibon-mold. The latter part of this 
word is the same as mole, a spot on the 
skin, Scotch mail, A. Sax. mal, Ger. 
nuihl, a spot or stain, Swed. mai, Goth. 
mail, Sansk. mala, dirt, Greek melas, 

One yron MoU defaceth the whole peece of 
Ltfljt, Euphues, 1579, p. 39 (Arber ed.). 

Mole is an old Eng. word for a soil 
or smirch. 

H best cote, hankyn, 
Hath many moles and spottes * it m'ustc ben 
Ijangtand, Vinon ofP, Plowman, xiii. 
315, text B. 

It was moUd in many places * with many sondri 

Ibid, 275. 

Isaac, a provincial name for the 
hedge-sparrow, is a corruption of hei- 
9^99^9 which is found in Chaucer : — 

Thou mordrer of the heyntgge on tlie brauncli. 
The Aisemhlu oj Foules, 1. 61^, 

and in Otcl and Nightingale, 1. 505. 

Heistagge, an Hedge sparrow. — Bailey. 

A. Sax. hege-sugge, where hcge is 
hedge, and sugge (or sucge) apparently 
the fig-pecker, beccafico, or titlark 
(Greek s^ikalis, = Lat. ficedvla, from 
ficus). "Cicada, vicetula [=^ Jicedula] , 
heges-sugge,^' — Wright's Vocabulnrivs 
( J^lfric, 10th cent.), p. 29. See Hay- 




( 191 ) 

I WI88E 


u worth noCieinff how our peamnts have 
cuad m biidi '^the iweet aeime of kin- 
fadLr Tlw hedge-Boarrow u fitill in Home 
Mti Jmacm The raa-breast aa long an the 
Miliih kani^ laatRy will have no other 
■■■• tiMD Holnii, the Jean le rouge-goren of 
Kwimlyw— nbf ComhiU Magazint, July, 

InsoLAflB, ft kind of gelatine used in 
ao nfi w tion egy, foxmerly somotimes spelt 
jdfii^-^laffy u if a glauy substance. for 
iemg Tiandes or making jelly (Fr. 
frfis, from Lat. aeilu, frost), is a oormp- 
tion of Dut. nuyzenblas, ising-glass 
fSowal, 1706), Ger. hausenhlaafi, Dan. 
Mit-UM, the bladder {bias, hlmo) of 
flia ■toigeon {huyzen^ luvasen, L. Lat 
ftwo), out of which it is manufactured 
fln the Damnbe and elsewhere. 

Iblaxd, more commonly and cor- 
netly written iUmd until far on in the 
18th oentoxy, is the A. Sax. ruhind, 
** water-land" (Ettmuller, p. 67), also 
frfoMl (Id. p. 85), from ig, an isle; cf. 
uer. euofki A. Sax. ed, water, is the 
■ame word aa IceL d, O. H. Ger. aha, 
Goth. oAvo, Lat. cbqucu Compare 
ttg-uft (aii), a little island. 

^le preeent orthography arose from 
a nimioiBed connexion with isle, O. Fr. 
Ws, from Lat. insula (perhaps origi- 
naUyadetached portion of the mainland 
whioh has taken a hound into the sea, * 
•M-fiU-y Mommsen). We even find tlie 
■palling iseland^ whioh would seem to 
imply that the $ was sometimes pro- 

TIm Doggei of this kinde doth Callimachus 
Mil Helitra, of the l$etand Melita, iu the 
■ea of Sioily. — A, FUming, Caiiu of Eng, 
Doggu (tSiri), p. to (repr. 1880). 

Hie Peraian wisdom took beginning from 
the oU Philosophy of this lUtnd.^Miltony 
AngpagUiea, 1644, p. 68 (ed. Arber). 

Et'ii tboae which in the circuit of this jeare, 
The prey of Death within our llund were. 
Gm Wither f Britain^ s Hemembnuicer, 
1628, p. 111. 

The German eiland, which seems to 
mean " egg-land," from ei, an egg, being 
ftncilully regarded as swimming iu the 
■ea as the yolk does in the white of an 
Qggp is of the same origin ; compare 
Dat. eyland (Sewel), Icel. eyl-and. 

Another corruption is presented in 
Hid. High Ger. einlant, as if a land 
lying alone (ein). Perversely onouj;li 
we (as Professor Skeat notes) was fro- 

qnontly written iU or yle. Thus Robert 
of Gloucester says of England, 

|m¥ see go)> hym al a boute, he stont ns an i//e. 
Chronicle, p. 1, 1. 3 (ed. 1810). 

Dnse Nputralfl, who havA scandaliBeil raucli 
And much endang(>r'd those who <loe contend 
Thitf lie from derwilation to defend. 

G. Wither, Ihitaint Uemembraneer, 
1628, p. 116. 

Isle, " in architecture arc the sides 
or whiga of a building " (Bailoy), an old 
spelling of aisle, whicli seems to be 
from Lat. axilla, a wing (cf. Fr. aih'), as 
if it denoted the parts isolated or de- 
tached from the nave. Isle, aisle, as 
aiiplied to tlie passage between the 
pews, seems to be a confusion of Fr. 
aili>, witli allee, an alley or passage. 
Alley is tlie common word for it in 
Leicestershire (Evans). 

The isle had been spoiled of its lead, and 
was nf*ar roofless. — H. Ifarington, A'm;;^* Ah- 
tiqiKF, vol. i. p. vi. (1779). 

1 Htarted up in tlie Church isle withe my 
Poetrie. — Id, p. xii. 

Nature in vain us in one land compiles 

If the cathedral Htill shall have its i*U$, 
Marveli, Foenu, p. 91 (Murray repr.X 

The Cross hie of this Church is the most 
beautifull and lightHome of any 1 have yet 
behi'ld. — r. Fuller, Worthies of England, vol. 
ii. p. 436. 

for indeed, Solutum est templum hoc, thiH 
temnle of his hody . . . The roote of it (Ills 
head) looned with thomes; the foundation 
(Ilia feet) with nailer. The side Isles (as it 
were) his hands ))oth likewise. — Bp, Andrewes, 
Sermons, p. 487, fol. 

In one ile lies the famous Dr. CollinR, so 
celebrated for his fluency in the I*atin tongue. 
— J. Eveliin, D'utry, Aujy. 31, 1654. 

I WIS, \ quasi-archaic forms some- 
I wissE, f times used in pseudo-an- 
tique writings, as if the first pers. sing, 
of a verb to wis, meaning to know, is a 
more misunderstanding of old Eng. 
iwis, ytcis, certainly. 

Vor siker )k)u be, Knp:eIond iH nou ^n, iwis. 
Robert of Gloucester, Chronicle, 
(Morris, Spec. 11. p. 4). 

/ u^ your p^randam had a worser match. 
Shakesjteare, Richard 111. i. 3, 1()2. 

An you play away your buttons thus, you 
will want them ere ni^ht, for aoy stoit; 1 Afo 
about you ; you might keep them, and nave 
pins, 1 wuss, — Jonson, Bartholomew Fair, act 

IV. 8C. 1. 

In tlio Percy Folio MS, i-wis (with 
a hyphen) occurs frequently for A. Sax. 
geiois, certainly. 


( 199 ) JACK-STONES 

The Sheriffe he hath Made a cry 
heele have my head I-wis, 

Vol. i. p. 19, 1. 9. 

And what for Weeping much & warle, 
A-sleepe I-wis thia knight fell. 

Id, p. 116, 1. 59. 

But once at least it is mistakeu for 
tlie pronoun and verb. 

3 pottles of wine in a dinhe 
They supped itt all off, <u / wis, 
All there att their partinge. 

Id, Tol. ii. p. 583, 1. 626. 


jAOK-A-LEas, a North Eng. word for 
a clasp knife, Scottish jockieleg. This 
ernious word is, according to Jamie- 
son, a corruption of Jacques de Liegr, 
the name of a celebrated cutler, by 
whom this kind of knife was originally 

An* ^f the custocks sweet or sour, 
\Vi' focktele»;s they taste them. 

Burns, hallowten ( Works, Globe 
ed. p. 45). 

Similarly, to stick a knife into any- 
thing '* up to the lamprey " was an ex- 
pression formerly in use in Ireland, 
meaning up to. the end of the blade, 
near the haft, where the name of a well- 
known cutler named Lamprey was 
commonly inscribed. 

Jack-call, 1 is a corrupt form of 
Jackal, f Fr. chacal, Ger. scha- 

half Pers. alutkal^ Sansk. ^igala, Heb. 

ahuaL Compare Gipsy yaccal and 

juJcelf a dog. 

The next being the noble Jack call, the 
Lion^s Provi<ler, which hunts in the Forest 
for the Lion's Prey. — A colUction of strange 
and wonderful crealuresj'rom most parts of' tne 
u'orldf all alive [to be emvn in Queen Anne*s 
lime at Charing Cross]. — Memoirs of Bartho- 
lomew Fair, ch. xvi. 

Jack-call is also the spelling in the 
Spectator, 1711, and in Dryden {Plays, 
vol. iv. p. 296). 

A rabble of Arabians and Persians board- 
ing her and like jacka lis with hunger-starved 
fury and avarice tearing her asunder. — Sir 
T,^ Herbert, Travels, 166b, p. 115. 

Heb. shudl (or shvghal), a fox or 
jackal, Song of Songs, ii. 15, is said 
to be from skoal, to go down, to bur- 
row. Dr. Dehtzsch {in Ice. cif. ) says 
this is quite a distinct word from the 

Persian-Turkish slKiglial, our "jackal," 
which comes from the Sanskrit crgCila, 
the howler. 

Jackeman, an old word for a cream 

cheese (Wright). 

Cheasemade uppon russhes, called a fresslie 
cheese, or jacicenian. Junculi. — hAuot. 

Tlie synonymous Fr.jon^Mp^lt.givn- 
caia (from Lat. junais, a rusli), would 
lead us to suppose ihtit jacl'-man was a 
corrupted foriu of some word like Fr. 
jonchevwnf, and that jonc was trans- 
formed into JocJc or Jack. 

Fr. " Jonchee, a green cheese, or fresh 
cheese made of milk, thats ciu'tUed with- 
out any runnet, and served in a fraile 
of green rw«7w's." — Cotgravo. 

It. ** Ginncuta, any jttnhi, but pro- 
perly fresh cheese and creamo, so calUul 
because it is sold ui^on fresh rushes.'* 
— Florio. 

Junket is still a Devonshire word 
for curds and clouted cream, and to 
junket is to feast on similarly delicioas 

Cf. Fr. fwm/ige, from It. fcynvaggio, a 
cheese, so called from the forma or 
frame on which it is shaped. It is curious 
to note that junket, a delicacy, is ety- 
mologically near akin to the sailor's 
junk, notoriously coarse and mii>alat- 
able fare, so called from being as 
tough as an old ca})le, originally a ropo 
made of rushes, "Parig.junco (Skeat). 

Jack-of-the-Buttery, a ti*i vial name 
for the plant sedutn ac^'e. Dr. Prior 
ingeniously conjectures tliat it is a cor- 
ruption of Bot-theriaajtie (it being used 
as a treacle or anthelmintic) into hiit- 
tery-Jack. But where is this Bot-then- 
acquo to be found ? 

Jack-stones, the name which chil- 
dren in Ireland (and probably else- 
where) give to tlie pebbles with which 
tliey play a game like the English tllhs 
or dihstone, tlirowiug them up and 
catching them alternately on the front 
and back of the hand. It is a corrup- 
tion of chack-sioties, Scot, rhncklr- 
sfones, from chiick, to toss or throw 
smartly out of tlie hand. 

Cailleteau, achach-stone or little flint stone. 

Kvery time their taes caught a bit crunkle 
on the ice, or an imbedded chvcki/stane. — 
Wilson, Noctes AmbrofiitnKc, i. 102. 

The chut'ky-stones are ottener dry than wet 



m «hB tSdm of the Imni.— 5. A. Whitehetul^ 
lIjA Onrif, p. 116. 

The P«nn of Scripture . . . u conjee- 
Ined the origin of/aeilct orchuchs in Scotlnnd, 
m plojfd withitooes — perha[>s dcriviMl fmrn 
fk» mrhnoQM Latini^ jotiieo$. — Ihl.ell, 
Avfar Smpgntitiout ofSDotland, p. 5^3. 

Jaok BoBursoN. "Before one could 
WKj Jmtk BMnson," is a way of saying 
in an inaiant or jiffy. Halliwell quotes 
"from sn old play,** without furtlior 

A warke it yi m enme to be doone, 
Ai tjB to nye, JarAw / mhyg on. 

So the original phrase would mean, 
Jmdt, o» wUh your dothes ! Tim noods 

I, Ml old Enf^lisli name for 
IhiBJaMmdiee (Fr. jaunisae, yellowncHs) 
rtiU popnlaily in nse in Ireland and 
some of the westom counties of En«?- 
fandv the words being assimilated to 
the namee of other ^seases, glan<hr«, 
wuiamden^ MUendera^ and regarded as 

the bincko lunderSf tlio <lifl- 
wluiiwd Ikeey tnd the coiMuniption of hucIi 
m imied inwwdly.— TAds. iMige^ Tran»latwn 
tfStmtea^ 1614, p. 4U3w 
■ — •-i— xhejaumdiu^ alBO the yollowH. — 


I, jaondioe.— AT. W. LincolnUiire 

HoWiid in his translation of Pliny, 
ftL 1684, speaks of ** an old jauniso or 
everilowmg of the gair* (vol. ii. p. 
IM). The Holdemess folk, £. York- 
rinnip will inquiro *' Is it yallow joyms, 
or UUok, she's gotten?" — Glossanj, 
bg. IXalect Soo. 

J*vaT-n/>WBB, apparently the same 
asjbii gtfe , a Scottish name for the niai*Kh 
mrigold, which stands for Fr. javvtiie 
(Jsnueson). A little tawny dog of uiy 
aeqiuttntiuioe so named in a similar 
Bmnercame afterwards to lie faiui- 
fiWty known as Johnette, Johnny, and 

jAUvrr, dashing, showy, fine, elc- 
matf dandified. This word, which 
bis eridflntly been assimilated to the 
▼erb ioJawUf is derived tlirough the 
fbtms jemiyt flw^y. from Fr. gmdi, 
pceUy, fine, .well-fashioned. 

nply lac*d her ^eiity wnint 
TBat sweetiv ye nii^ht Hpnn. 
Bicffw. Donuu Ann (Ctlube cd. 
p. ifli;. 

Jamieson defines goniy as neat, ele- 
gantly formo<l, and of dress, giving tlie 
idea of gentility, Othora forms are 
j'tmift'f ( l)urfey),an evident imitation of 
the French pronunciation, janfy (Wy- 
chorley, l(Sll),jainfy {Hprcfafor, vol. v. 
p. 23(), 1711-12). Com\}firo Jentlir (As- 
cliam, HrhcH)lmaitUr^ od. Mayor, p. 3), 
j'infyl (^ gcnilo), jpnfh'mnn, jenJIlrs, 
&c. So in French ja7iie and gt^ifc are 
names for tlio felloe of a wheel (Cot- 
gi'avo), Cf. Dut. jp7ii [a borrowed 
wordj, neat, handsom. — Sewcl, 1708. 
The word came in apparently in the 
18th century with Frencli fashions, 
and meant orip^inally modish, stylish, 
elej^ant — not bulToonhkc, as Prof. Skcat 
says, mistaking,' the origin of the word. 
There Roems to be no evidence of tlio 
existence of an Eng. word jaunty to 
play the fool. 

\a it rcasoiiablo that mich acrpftturc an thi.*4 
shall como fromnjunt}/ part of tlu* town, and 
pivo h«Tst»lf such violent aire. — The UpecUitor 
(171^2), No. MW. 

Your /fill fv air and easy motion. — Id. De- 
dication to vol. viii. 

Sober and f;nvQ was still the garb thy muse 

put on, 
\o tawdry careless slattern dress, 

• ■ . a 

Ihit noat, aj^jeable, and /aunfi/ 'twafl, 
\\ I'll titl(Ml, it sati* clom» in every place. 
And all biTame, with an uncommon air and 

J. Oldham^ Upon tJte Worki of Hen JonsoHy 5, 
Poemsy p. 66 (ed. 1^<»11). 

Compare the spelling in the follow- 

Trurly, you ppeako wisi'Iy, and like njan- 
tleuomnn of fouretJN^ne years of aj^e. — A/ur*- 
ion^ Antonio and Mellida, VX. 1. act. V (vol. i. 
p. 6.'}, ed. Halliwell). 

J.vw Box, ) Prov. words for a scullery 
Jaw Tub, f sink (Patterson, Antrim 
ami Voini Glossary, E.D.S.), ^cot. jaw- 
hole (Gvy Mnniit^mig), «7f7U' is perhaps 
the same word as Fr. gachis, puddle, 
slop, from gw'hrr, to rinse, old Fr. 
icnsrhh r, to soil, 0, H. Ger. tciisJcan^ to 
icaah. In Scottish ^Viw is to pour. 

Then uj) they pat the mapkin-pat, 
And in the sea did,;riu% man. 
liuiNSy Fotrm.<, p. 221 ((iIoImj ed.). 

Jemmif.s, an old provincial word for 
hinj^cs (GmtUmnns Magazine, Doc. 
171).')), is the same word which is some- 
times pronounced jimiturs, jimmela, O, 




Eng^. gimmaly gimmoiv, from Fr. jumcUe, 
a twin, a pair (of hinges, rings, &c.), 
Lat. gemellus^ from gcmmus. Herrick 
speaks of '* a ring of jimmdls^" i.e. a 
double ring. 

Anamnestes, his Pa^^ in a graue Satt^n 
suitp purple, Bui^kins, a Garland of Bayea and 
Rosemarj, a gimmal rin}2^ with one liuke 
hanging. — Lingvo, ii. 4 (1632), Big. D. 

I think, by some odd gimmors or device 
Their arms are set like clocks, still to strike 
Shahefpeare, 1 Hen. VJ, i. 2, 1. '12. 

From the latter use of gimmer, as a 
contrivance or piece of machinery (so 
Bp. Hall), no doubt arose the slang term 
jmvniy for a crow-bar. 

They call for crow-bars — jemmies is the 
modern name they bear. 

Barhamy The Jngoldsbif Legends, 

Jemmy, an old slang term defined 
in the following quotation : — 

A cute man, is an abbreviation of arut^, . . 
and signifies a person that is sharp, clever, 
neat, or to ase a more modem term, j>mmj^. — 
Oentltman*s Magazinty Sept. 1767. 

Todd gives it in the meaning of 
spruce as a low word. It is evidently 
the same as Scotch jimmyy meaning 
handy, dexterous, neat, dressy, jimjty to 
leap, andjmp, neat, (/i/m, neat, spruce 

Jemmt-John, a large wicker-cased 
bottle, a corruption of dem'^ohny itself 
a corrupted form of the Arabic danuwan, 
and that from the Persian glass-making 
town ofDamaghan, 

Lord Strangford, however, derives 
d^nni'joJm, Fr. damie-jauney from the 
Lat. dimidiana (Letters and Papersy p. 

JeopabdTj old Eng. juperdyy so spelt 
instead of jeoparfVy old Eng. jwparfio 
{juhertey Siege of RliodeSy 1419, pp. 
150, 155, Murray repr.; jeoheriie, Har- 
ington), from an idea that the original 
was Fr.jeu pf^rdUy a lost game. (Com- 
pare the old Fr. proverb, A vranj dire 
perd on le ieii, zz. By speaking truth 
one jeopards all. ) Tlie correct old form 
woRJupartie or Juperti, which occurs (for 
the first time, says Mr. Olipliant) in 
Dartie SiriZy a translation from tlie 
French, about 1280 ; and this is from 
Fr. jcu partly a state of tlie game equally 
divided, an even chance whether a 
player will win or lose, a hazardous or 

uncertain posifion. Tyrwhitt quotes 
from Froissart, ** Us n'estoient pas "k 
jeu parti contre les Francois" ( Chincer, 
p. 20G, ed. 18C0). and the mediaeval 
Latin phrase ^oci/^ pariitns, A inediiB- 
val game consisting of enigmatical 
questions and answers was called h'jrv- 
pa/rti, — Cheruel, Dictionnnire des Itisii- 
tuilonSy tom. ii. p. G22. The primitive 
meaning is apparent in the followinpf 
from a " Mery BaUett" (Cotton MS.), 
contributed by Mr. Fumivall to N. c^ 
Q. 5th S. xii. 445. 

Now lesten a whyle &c let hus singe 
to this Desposed com pan ve, 
how maryage ys a mervelous thinge, 
A holly disposed Juperdie. 

It Bchuld be a grettern jiiperdy to Kvnge 
Edwarde thenne wan I^arnet felde. — Ivurk- 
worth** ChronicU (ab. 1475), p. 20, Camden 

Men mycht have sen one euery nid begwn 
Many a fair and knychtly Injierty 
Of lu.Mty men, and of Sonj^ chevalrv. 

Lancelot of the Lai/r, 1. 1«548 (E.* E. T. S.). 
Whan he thurgh his madnesse and folie 
Hatli lost his owen srood thurgh /M/xir^V, 
Than he exciteth other folk therto. 

Chancery Canterbury Taleiy 1. 16«1()-12. 
He set the herte mjeopuriie 
With wishing and with fantasie. 
Gowery Conf. Amantis^ vol. i. p. St9 
(ed. Pauli). 

So lang as fatis sufferit hym in ficht 
To ezerce pratikkis, iupertue and slicht. 
G. Doiiglofy Bukea of Kneadosy 1553, 
p. 389, 1. 45 (ed. 1710). 

Jebked beef, dried beef, is a corrup- 
tion of the Peruvian charhiy prepared 
meat (Latham). Prof. Skeat quotes : — 

Flesh cut into thin slices wa.s distributed 
among the people, who converted it into 
charquiy the dried meat of the country. — 
Pre^icotty Conquest of PerUy c. v. 

Jebusalem Artichoke, a corruption 
of It. glrnsohy " tum-sim,'* the sim that 
turns about, tlio simiiower. By a 
quibble on Jerusalem the soup ma^le 
from it is called "Palestine" (Prior). 
It. glramUy ** the tume-sole or sunnc- 
flower " (Florio), is from gira/rey to turn, 
and aolcy the sun. 

Jesse's flower, a corruption of 
jessamine (from Persian josniin, " fra- 
grant "), used by Quarles (C. S. Jerram, 
LycidaSy p. 78), from a false analogy, 
perhaps, to Aaron s Beardy Solomons 
healy and similar plant- names. 

JBWS'BEAED ( 195 ) 


TIk \om\j innky the loftj ef^lantine ; 

The ^*^^™g raMi the queen of fluwen and 

Of Vlon^ betDt^ ; but abore the rpnt 
liiC jMH^f forVngnyyAHvr perfume my quiilm- 
ing breut. Q»ar&Mj EmbUmsj v. S. 

Jbw'b-bbabd, a local namo for the 
plani houae-leek (R. I. King, SkrfcJtrs 
amd 8Uiidie9)f is a oomiption of Fr. jtm- 
farbsp ** JoTe*8-beard,** Low Lat. Joria 
hmrfMf It. harha di Oiove, Prov. harlm- 
opl^ Gkr. cfofmerbaerf, *' Tlior*B beard." 
Mmg BMsred to the Thunder-god, and 
deemed a protection against lightning, 
it was frequently planted on tlie roof of 

One of the enactments of Charle- 
magne's Capitnlar Be VUlis lynperio' 
Ubmg (o. 70, A.D. 812) is ** Hortuianus 
habeat enper domtun soam Jovie har- 
ftom." Hence its old Eng. name ham' 
toyify *^ home-wort," as well as ^livior- 
y^fi^ *• thunder- wort " (Cockayne, 
Xeee&dofitf, kc.). 

Howflleke, herbe,or sengrene, Barba JoviSf 
■emper riTSy Jubarbium, — Prompt. Purvu- 

Jew's eab, a popular name for a cer- 
tain fungus resembling the human ear, 
is a oomiption of Judts* ear, Gcr. 
Jvda»-9ehwamm^ Lat. auricula Judie. 
It grows usually on the trunk of the 
elder, the tree upon which Judas is 
traditionally reported to have hanged 
himself. lUchard Flecknoe, Diarium^ 
1658, p. 65, roeaks of a certain virtue 
of alder-wood wliich 

From Judwt camp 
Who hang'd himself upon the same. 
Vid. Brand, Pop. AntiquitieXj 
Tol. iii. p. ?83. 

For the couirhe take Juda$ eare. 
With the parynge of a peare. 

BaUf ihree Imv)$ oJ Nature, l.*H)2. 

O. £ng« cfrxjelle is the alder-tree. — 
Prompt, Parv, Vid. oreiJJe de Judtuf. — 
Ootgzave. Cf. Cliinese nmh urh (Kidd's 
China, p. 47). 

In Jewt* ean nometliing is conceived ex- 
traordinary from the name, which is in pro- 
priety hat Juiit^iix sambuehniHf or an excros- 
eenoe about the roots of elder, and concerneth 
not the nation of tlie Jews, but Judus iscariot. 
upon a conceit he handed on this tree ; una 
is become a famous mt^dicinc in quinsicd, sure 
tbroato, and Strang ulationn, ever since. — Sir 
Thou, Browne, IVorks, vol. i. p. 214 (ed. 

I'here is nn excrescence called Jen'*f-ear, 
that grow6 upon the roots and lower parts of 

trees, especially of alder and sometimes upon 
a>«h. — Bacon f Si/iw SyiiHtrum, Work* (liUtJ), 
vol. ix. p. t&i. 

The Mushrooms or Tondstooles which >?row 
V]>oii the trunks or bodies of old treen, verie 
much resemblinpc Auricula hultf^ that is 
L'Ufg eure, do in continuance of time ^^we 
vnto the subiitance of wood, which the 
Fowlers do call Touchwood. — Gerarde, Herbal, 
p. 138.'>. 

llie hat he wears, Judas left under the elder 
when he hang^ed himself. 
Marlowe, The Jew of' Malta, act iv. 
sub fin. (163S), 

Jew's-harp, a small instrument of 
iron x)lAycd between the teeth, Lincoln- 
sliire Jetv-frump. Tlie first part of tho 
word is probably the same tliat is seen 
in the synonymous Cleveland word 
g^ic-gmc (Holdernesa geic-gaw), which 
Mr. Atkinson identifies with O. Norso 
giga, Swed. giga, a Jew's-harp, Dan. 
gigPf Ger. apign, a musical instnmieut. 
It was probably a Scandinavian inven- 
tion. Compare the following — 

They [the urns] contained .... knives, 
ni(>ceH of iron, hnis:*, nud wood, and one of 
Norway a hrass jcilded Jew*» harp. — Sir Than, 
Browne^ lljfdriotaphia, 1658, vol. iii. p. t\ 
(ed. Uohn). 

GpH'grtio seems originally to have 
been used in the special sense of a rustic 
musical instrument, e.g. " Pastor sub 
caula bene cautat ciun calamaulft. Tho 
sohoperd vndyr J^e folde syngythe well 
wytlie hys gwgatce ^e pype.*' — Promp- 
tm-ium Parv. s. v. Flowte (about 1440). 
The modem meaning of a trivial toy, 
a showy bauble, must then be a secon- 
dary one. 

Oiifftfii), idem quod Flowte, pypo, jjriga. — 
Prompt. Parvulorum. 

On tliis Mr. Way remarks that Fr. 
gigu^. It. giga (a fiddle), may be from 
Gk. gigms [? giggrati] , a kind of flute. 
J. Pollux mentions tho giglarus as a 
small sort of pipe used by the Egyp- 
tians. — Wilkinson, Atwk-nf Egyptians, 
vol. i. p. 487 (ed. Birch). If this should 
be connected, it would trace up our 
Jfii^'s harp to a curious antiquity. 

O let me hear some silent Song", 
Tun'd by the Jew's-trump of thy tonpue. 
Ilandolphy The Conceited Peddler, 
Works, p. -18. 

Is Clio dumb, or has Apollo's Jew\-trnmp 
13y sad disoHter lo^^t her melodious tongue \ 
Id., The Jealous Lovers, p. 114. 

Jews' tin, a name given in Cornwall 


( 196 ) 


to lumps of smelted tin found insido 
the so-called Joirs' liouscs^ which is per- 
haps for dshji-luniscSf fsh^j or dzhyi 
(old Cornish ty), & house, being used 
especially for smelting-houses (M. 
Miiller, Chips, vol. iii.). 

Probably this is merely house hn, or the 
fin found in the hotuet, — Chas. KingUey, Life, 
vol. ii. p. 938, 

The title of Jews* House i» ^iven by the 
country people to nn old smeltmt^ house — a 
nrirrow snallow pit ^nth a small quantity of 
charcoal ashes at the bottom, and frequently 
pit'ces of smelted tin, the last bein^ called 
Jews* Bowls, — J. 0. Halliwelly Rambles in W es- 
ter n Cornwall y p. 61. 

Jigger, a popular name for the West 
Indian flea, as if so called from itBJig- 
gin{ji or quick movement, is a natura- 
lized form of chigoe, its native name. 

Yet, how much is owing to themst-'lvos is 
plain from this circumstance, that numbers 
are crippled by the jiggers, which scarcely 
ever in our colonies affect any but the negroes. 
— i>outhe}iy Letters, vol. ii. p. 201. 

Jilt, to tlirow one over as a flirt does, 
is a contracted form oijillct, a diminu- 
tival form of jyll, a flirt, a light woman, 
originally a common feminine name, 
derived from Julia. Thus Jillet^z 
Juliof, Fr. Julietfe, It. Giv lietfa. The ex- 
pressions gill-flirt, flirt-gill, flirt-gill ion, 
are of frequent occurrence in old writers. 
This use ofj^ill was probably determined 
by the similar word giglH, a giddy, 
wanton woman, old Fr. gigws, & jig- 
ging, flighty girl (Skeat). So jockey, to 
cheat, was originally only the Scottish 
form of Jack. 

Ajillet brak his heart at last, 
111 may she be ! 
Bums, Poems, p. 71 (Globe ed.), 

Jo, ? in Scotch an endearing ex- 
JoE, \ pression of famiharity, as in 
" John Anderson, my^o,'* is said to be 
a corruption of Fr. joic, as if monjaie, 
iny dai'Hng (Jamieson). Joy is also 
given as a Scottish word for darling. A 
large niunber of Scottisli words, it is 
well known, are borrowed from the 
French. Bums says of Poesie : — 

And och ! o'er aft thyjtyes hae starved 
'Mid a' thy favours ! 

On Pastoral Poetry, Poems, p. Ill 
(Globe ed.). 

John Dort, ) the name of tliis 

Johnny Dory, ) fish is said to bo a 

barbarous dismemberment and corrup- 

tion of *'j(inifarn, a name by which this 
fish is familiarly known at Venice and 
elsewhere ; the origin of the tonn^"</?i/- 
torc, as apphed to the dory, seems to l^e 
the following : St. Peter, represented 
with the triple keys * of hell, of liadcs, 
and of heaven * in his hand, is called, 
in liis quasi-oflicial capacity, il juniivrc 
(The Gate-keeper), and this fisli, shar- 
ing with the haddock the apociyphal 
honour of having received the apostle's 
thumb-mark, is called in consequence 
St, Peter's fish, and by metonomy, il 
janii&re.^* The ancient Greek name 
for the dory having been Zens, i,r, 
Jupiter, it is not improbalde the great 
saint of the Roman church was chosen 
(as in other instances) to take the ])laco 
of the detlironed Thunderer. (So Uad- 
ham, Prose Ilah'ctt/ics, p. 2*29.) Wo 
may compare with this, impn-aim-o, a 
a popularname at Genoa for the sword- 
fish, so called because the Italian im- 
perators were commonly represented 
Bword in hand. Phny gives in a hst 
of fishes, "the Emperour with a Sword, 
called Xiphias *' (Holland's Trmis,, vol. 
ii. p. 452, 1G34). Tlie Arabs caU a cer- 
tain fish found on their coasts Snlian 
el-Bakr, Sultan of tlie Sea. St. Peter 
having been ever regarded as the patron 
saint of fishermen and fishmongers, 
certain boats plying on the Tliames 
were called Peti^-hoats ; the armorial 
bearings of the Fishmongers* Company, 
London, are his cross-keys ; watermen 
and fishermen were sometimes called 
familiarly Peter, Pet(r-vun (Wright). 
Similarly a plant that grows on the sea- 
shore is called Saint Pierre or sa7H2^h ire, 
and a Uttle bird tliat seems to walk tho 
water, Uko tho saint, is named tho 
ntitrel. That the dory was familiarly 
known as St. Peter's fish the following 
will show : — 

It. Ptsce ii/n Pietro, a Dory or Gold- 
fish,— f7«»ri«), 1611. 

German, Peteritumn, Petersfisch, the dory. 

French, St. Pierre, the John Dory ; see 
Cotgrave, s. v. Poisson, 

DoREE, St. Piter's fsh.^Bp, Wilkius, 
Essay towtirds a Philosophical Lini^iuige, 16<>0. 

Tiie. Juber marinus, , . . we often meet with 
it in these seas, commonly calltHl n ftfter-fish, 
having one blnc-k 8pot on citlii'r siilc the 
body ; conc*»iv«'<l the p<>r|M?tual si^aturc, 
from the im]nvssion of St. Peter's ling«»rs, 
or to resemble the two pieces of money whith 
St. Peter took out of this fiah.— 6ir Tkoi>. 



iFuhM€fNoHoik^ 1668), Work*, vol. 

m. p. an(ed. Bohn). 

We niftv periiaps oomparo Mod. 
Orcak Arui&'piainm, the trout, and 
haKhtU^ the holy fish. 

HoUend eeenu to have derivod Uio 
4bry, or cIotm as he spelle it, from Fr. 
do^ gilded (It. dontta), and so Mr. 
Wedgwood, Philolog. TroMoctiotis, 
1895, p. 68, and Prof. Skeat. 

The llprw or Goldjith, called Zeut and 
■bar. — P/lay, Naturall H'utoryy torn. i. p. 

ir (ifiM). 

Mahn (in Webster) thinks it is from 
jammB dorjb, the golden yoUow fish, an 
iin]ik6]y combination. John or Johnny 
la no oonbt onl^ a popular preuumou 
■a mjack^kefjack-amv, &c. Tho ful- 
lowing from Alexander Nockam, wlio 
died in 1217, seems oonoliisivo, and tho 
J tm U on theosy therefore falls to Uio 


danm que nomen uumimi nb anro, 

LmmUhMM D'uiiue Sapienti^, 1. b61. 

Boolfaejr seems to have thought tliat 
tho fiah has its name from a human 

Woold not John Dotth name have ditnl 
a, and ho been long a^o dead sm a 
1, if a ffrotesquu likeneu for him had 
fimiiain the fii^h, which bfin^ called 
him, has immortalised him and his ugli- 
mam (Tid. The Doctor, p. 310) 

Gompaie the old ballad of John Dory 
bk Child's BaOade, vol. viii. n. 1U4. 

Gajton in his Fleamnt Notes n}X)n 
Darn QuvMrf, 1654, mentions as popular 
h eroe a , qnite as illustrious as Pahnerin 
flf Bngland, " Bevis of Southampton, 
Sir Efflamore, Jolm Dory, tho riiuliir 
flf Wakefield, Bobin Hood, or Cloin of 
llio Clnft" (foL p. 21). Tho namo of 
the fiah was no doubt assimilated to 
ttuU of the well-known pirate. 

JoHHNT-DABBiES, a nicknamo for 
policemen, is said to bo a corruption of 
no Frenoh gens-d'armea {Slang iJict. 
■•▼.)- Sehandann is a populai* corrup- 
tion in German of the same word, as 
if from achand (shame) and f/n/i(poor). 
Other forms are Hfnndann in Aachcii, 
and aianddr^ scJmntlir in Lavaria 
(Andresen, Volkadymologk), 

JoUB-FBLLOW, a Scotcli word for an 
equal or intimate acquaintance (Jamie- 
ton), ia an obvious corruption of {Joiuj- 
fdiow) yohe-fiUow. 

JoLLT-BOAT, an Anglicized form of 
Dan. jolU\ a yawl, Dut. jol, Swed. jiUh', 
Yawl is tho saiuo word disguised by 
a different spelling. 

Jordan, an old name for certain 
household utensils of common uro, 
occurring in Chaucer {Prologw io ih*' 
rardo7nrra Tat*) and in IioUinslu'd, 
who speaks of " two jordm pots," in 
doubtless the DaiiisI) j(^d {jonh^i), 
earth, as if an eartlien pot. Cf.Jimmt, 
a provincial word for the pig-nut, I )an. 
jord-n^, JSo turrcen, i.e, a tvrrcne 

Ich shal Jnn<^ly to ))yi« Jordan' with hus Juste 
Lan^Uind, Vision of Viert Plowman^ Pau. 

xvi. r. y^jU'XtC'.). 
lunlone . . . Jurdanus, madelUi, — Fntrnpt, 

JoT-niBDR, a name commonly given 
by the country-folk about Ttdwortli, 
on tho borders of Wiltsliire and lljuiip- 
sliiro (and x)robably elficwhoro), to tiio 
Jay-hirds or jays, which abound in tho 
forest of Savemake, not far distant. 
Tliis corrui)tion is a ciurious instance of 
a reversion to the original moaning of 
a word, Fr. goai, formerly gai, Trov. 
gai, jai, Sp. gam, tlio jay, denoting 
properly the blithe and gay bird ( witli 
reference perhaps to its vari-coloured 
plumage), being derived from Fr. gai\ 
Prov. gai, Sp. gayo, Uvely, gay. 

The jay was I'onuerly used as a pro- 
verbial comparison for one exceedingly 

II eo [= shn] lA dercworthc in day, 

Grnciousc, stout, mid f;uy, 

Cientil, ioli(f to thejau. 
Lxfric Voetrtf ( af). 1,J2() ),]>.. N'JHVrcy Soc.), and 
B'vddeker, Atten^Uwhn Dichtunt^en, j). 169. 

JoYLY, an old spilling of JoUy, as if 
another form of joyous, joyful. Jolly, 
Fr. joli, old Eng. jolif old Fr. jollf, 
Ital. giullvo, ** iolly, glm.1, full of ioy " 
(Florio), are said to be derivetl fr»)m 
Icel. J 61, Yule, tho season ol" rejoicing 
(l)ioz). Compare, however, It. gitdio, 
blithe, merrj', glullaro, to glad or bo 
iolly (Florio), and giullaro, a jester 
(giullurn, to play the jester), shortened 
from giocohirn, Lat. jonilarhis, jocu- 
htris, a jester. Tho npolling joyhj is of 
fre<iuent occurrence in the Apoph^ 
ih'gms of Erasuivs, 1542 : — 

Xeuocrateo tlu- philusophier wad of a mure 


( 198 ) 


soure nature, a hifUe feloe in some other re- 
spectcs. — P. xxvi. (Ileprint 1877). 

That yemaie bee an liable nianne, to enioie 
the poflsession of that wyljf fruictet'ull Seig- 
niourie. — Id. p. xxviii. 

1 am that ioyly feloe Diogenes the doggue. 
— /d. p. 153. 

When I of any ioyllie ioy 
or pleosure do assaye. 
Dninlf Horace, 1567, F. vi. verso. 
See Notes aiid Qxieriea, 6th S. ii.522. 

If ye be Hiiche hylu felowes that ye feare 
not the wrathe or dyspleasure of officers, 
whan as ye do euyll, yet grope youre owne 
conscience. — Tho$, Lever ^ Strmoniy 1550, p. 
45 (ed. Arber). 

Besides all that, my foote is woorth thy yard, 
So am I jolif fayre and precious. 
H, Thyntiy Debate between Pride and Lnwli' 
ntf5«'(ab. 1568), p. 13 (Shaks. Soc). 

Jubilee, a season of rejoicing (Lat. 
juhilcuvs), no doubt popularly connected 
with jubilant and juhilaiion^ from Lat. 
jtihilarfiy to shout for joy, to rejoice, is 
a distinct word derived from Hob. 
ydhely the sound of a trumpet, espe- 
cially on the year of remission (Smith, 
Did. of Bible, i. 1151). However yabal^ 
the root of yobel, and Lat. jubil-, are 
both probably imitative of a resounding 
cry or note. 

AAer which he proclaims a Juhile, which 
was celebrated with all manner of sporti* and 
ploasures imaginable. — Sir Thos. Herberty 
LraveUf 1665, p. 10 K 

Judas tbee, a kind of oarob tree, 
said to be so called because Judas 
Iscariot hanged himself thereon, Lat. 
arbor Judm [ = Cercis sihquastrum] , is 
apparently a mistaken rendering of Sp. 
arbol Judia, %.e. the bean tree, which 
gets its name from its bean-like pods ; 
judia being tlie Spanish word for 
French beans (Minsheu). Gerarde says 
that " This shrub is founde in diners 
prouinces of Spaine," tliat it bears 
'* long flat cods," i.e. pods, with seeds 
hke lentils, and that '*it may be 
called in EngUsh ludas tree, whereon 
ludas did hang himselfe, and not 
vpon the Elder tree, as it is saido." 
— Herbal, p. 1240. It may however 
bo noted against the above conjecture 
that Pulci mentions un dirmbbio, a 
carob-trce, as that from which the 
traitor suspended himself {MorgatUe 
Maggiorc, xxv. 77). 

JuDY-cow, a name for the lady-bird 
insect in the dialect of Cleveland, may 

possibly be, as Mr. Atkinson suggests, 
a comiption of the French name vacJL^^ 
a Dieu (vache de- Du-u), partly triiris- 
lated and the rest corrupted (cow-dr- 
Dieu), and then inverted (as cow-lnJg 
for lady-coio in the same dialect, Fntnen- 
KUhlein, Bete de lu Viei'ge), and so 
would result Dieu-de cow, judy-con\ 
All tliis, however, is only conjecture. 

Jug, a small pitcher, apparently a 
famihar name of endearment at tirst 
for that which supi)lies drink to the 
company, Jug (Jugge, and Jmhjr) 
being a woman's pet name, equivalent 
to Jenny or Jannei (see Cotgrave, s. v. 
Jeliannette), but originally from Judiihi 
(Yonge, Christian Names, vol. i.j). G3). 
It was formerly used as a canting tenu 
for a Hght woman, see Davies, Snjyp, 
Eng. Glossary, s. v. In Leicostor- 
shire jugg is still the name of sun- 
diy small birds, as bank-jugg, tlie wil- 
low-wren, hedge-jugg and juggywrvn 
for jenny- wren (Evans, E. I). S.). 
The earlier form of the word appears 
to have been ja^k, a name long given 
to a kind of leathern jug, and this is no 
doubt identical with A. Sax. ceac, a 
pitcher, which would become chach or 
jack (see Skeat, Eiym, Diet. s. v. Ja<:k 
(1). Old Eng. jiCbbe, a jug (Chaucer), 
probably contributed to the corruption. 

Jug, in the old slang expression, 
" The stone jug," for a prison, not- 
withstanding the curious parallelism 
of the Greek kh'amos, denoting both a 
jug and a prison, is evidently a coniii)- 
tion of the Scotch word jugg, generally 
used in the plural in the forms jvggs, 
jougs, jogges, a kind of pillory in which 
the criminal used to be confined by an 
iron collar which surrounded his nock. 
It is the same word as Fr. joug, Dut. 
juk, Lat. jugum, a " yoke." A i^erson 
confined in this instrument was said to 
he jogged; the iron jvg, with its par- 
tial and temporary confinement, readily 
suggested the name of stone jvg for the 
more complete and protracted incarce- 
ration of the prison cell. The i)arish 
juggs were stiU to be seen a few years 
ago at the Uttle comitry church of 
Duddingston, under Arthiu-'s Seat, 
not far from Edinburgh (Notes atul 
Queries, 5th S. x. 214). A reprcsonta- 
tion of one is given in Glianibers' Cyclo- 
pcedick, s. v. 


( 199 ) 


▼iBBt to jut fiv dirty tays. 

C. G. Lakmd, tkt BnitmanH Balladtf 

ordained thaim both, for 

dnir Unkmg in tjin of dirin serrictt, and 

Ar thiiir ■ m pcc t behaTknir, to paj, ilke nnH 

' r Bvkii of penalte, an«l to nitte 

of nepeatanoe tuo Soondays, or 

to radeem tnameaelfii be atandin^ in 

Jmgu wad bnnkis. — Tht Prtsbut^ru Htwk of 

ftradUq^, Idn (Spaldinir Club); o. 6. 

Qahm the miniiter aaid be iioald cause 

in Jtfggii, that thei hard him aay 

ber he nor the best miniiter vithin 

mylai durst doe ao much. — Id. 1614, 


Yos kid bettber neither make nor meddle 
put him out o* that — but 

/er hand to him, or he'll nirvp you 
m Flanagan; put ye three or four 
■^^r**** in the Stame Jug, [jtotc, '* A short 
ptripbnMk for (^"]— fl^ CarUton, Traitt 
mmd Sterin rf Intk Peatantrtf^ rol. i. p. J(U6 


''Sis woebs and labour," replied the elder 
gifly with a flaunting laugh; ''and tliiit** 
fattar tlaa ikt tioMJugj anyhow ; the niiU's 
ft dMl better than the SoMionx/*— C. Dickenij 
SktUkm ^ fidS, p. 187 (ed. 1877). 

JuuBNiiB. This soap owes its nnme 
to a eozioiiB series of oormptions, if the 
MMOont given in Kettner's Book of tJui 
ToUe be correct. One distinctivo in- 
gredisnt in its composition, it seems, is 
(or was) wood-sorrel, wliich in Italian, 
M in other languages, is popularly 
kno w n as AUeluia, probably because 
ita temate leaf was considered an em- 
Uoni of the Trinity. Alleluia became 
oompted into luggiala (Florio), lifjitlx, 
and juUola, and tliis name, on being 
introdaced into France by Catherine 
ei Medici's Italian cooks, was finally 
Frenchified into Julienne. Cf. L. Lat. 
XrHMiIa (campestris), called in some 
parfta of Ghesnire QoiTs grace, 

JuLT-VLOWKB, a mls- Spelling of gllU' 
flower sometimes found, itself a corrup- 
tion of O. Eng. gilofer, Fr. gWoflrr, It. 
aamfalo^ Mod. Greek garovnalo, Grock 
harvMiMlhn ('< nut-leaf *0> Low Lat. 
gatkfiUtnh. [Compare June-eating.] 

Thou caught*8t som fragrant Rose, 
8om Jufyfbwrj or Rom nweet Sop^-in-wine, 
To make aChaplet, thy chaste browM tobiiide. 
Sifbrnter^ Du Burtag, p. 31)4 (16^1 ). 

The roellinghas been influenced by the 
lact that, as Bacon observes. 

In luhff come GiUit-ftowers of all varietieH. 
■ riMT/f, 16S5, p. 556 (ed. Arber). 

It is obaervedy that Julti-Jiower$f sweet- 

williama, and riolntji, that are coloured, if 
they be nef^lected .... will turn whitt*.— 
JiantHf Siitva Siflvarum^ Works {ed. 1803), vol. 
ix. p. tUi. 

Both ftock'Jultf'fUiwerg and rone campion, 
Btanipwl, have Ihh>u ■uccesHfully applitni to 
tUt^ wrigta in tertian or quartan aguea. — Id, 
vol. ix. p. ^6H. 

Voiiu lulyfiow^ru or the Damanke Kos«\ 
Ofiweet-on^ath'd Violet, that hidden ^roweH. 
G. Wither, Britnins Remfmhrancer, 
p. I.i7 vi»r«i, 1628. 

You are a lovely JulifJioweTf 

Ypt one rude wind, or ruffling^ shower, 

Will force you hiMice, and in an houre. 

Ihrrickf HrKiterides ( Work*, ed. 
Ilazlilt), p. 9t2. 

The Julu-Jiou^r that hereto thriv'd, 
Kuowinx heriiidf no longer liv*d. 

LifveUcef Animantha^ /'iifm-t, od. 
Sinjfer, p. 9. J. 
The Jiilu-Hoicer drclarcs his gonth^neM; 
Thyme, truth ; the paasie, hcarta-eane maidims 
Dratflonf Ninth Kclflgtie^ p. '136 (ed. 174H). 

Of flowf'r!* Jessamins, Rosei^, Melons, Tu- 
li|)H, Jnlij fiowerij &c. — Hir T. Herberty Traveh, 
16d>, p. V2il 

Jump, as applied sometimes to a spe- 
cies of dance music, is a corrupt form 
of duvipf a slow and solemn dance 
(Stainer and Barrett, Musical Die- 
tkmary). So Jumpish is found for 
dunijiish (Kares). 

JuNETiN [(I. d. Apple of Junr], a 
small apple, which ripens first (Bailey), 
sometimes spelled ** June-eating " (com- 
pare Sp. niayota, May-fruit, the straw- 
berry ), seems to bo corrupted from geniU 
J7J,7, also given by Bailey, ** a sort of 
ttjlple." Kettner, Booh of ilie Table, 
spoils it joanncting (p. 34). 

Anotlier form of the same word is 
jiyruitUy an old Eng. name for an early 
ripe pear. 

Ah peen-coddes Bndpert-JonttUt ' plomes and 

V'uion if Pierx Plnivnuin, Pass. xiii. 
1. 221, text C. 

Professor Skeat is of opinion that 
this word, as well as genniilng, an early 
apple, is ultimately derived from Jean, 
through probably O. Fr. Jeannei, Jean- 
nrion, a diminutive, the reference being 
to St. John's day, June 24, when per- 
haps it became ripe. In his note, in 
loco, he quotes : — 

In July come . . . early peares, and 
plummf>A in fruit, ginnitings. — Bacoiif EiMif 
46 ( 1625, Arber ed. p. 6J6). 


( 200 ) 


Pomme de S. Jean, S. John*8 apple, a kind 
of Hoon-ripe swet'tine. Hastivelf a soon-ripe 
apple, called the St. John's apple. — dHgrave. 

This early apple or pear is still called 
8L Jean, — P. Lacroix, Manners, ^c, of 
Middle Ages, p. 116. 

The Joanneting or 8t. John Apple^ 
like the Marga/ret, the Maudlin, and 
the LuTeewards apple, reminds us of 
the old custom of naming fruits and 
flowers from the festivals of the church 
nearest to which they respectively 
ripened or bloomed. Compare Lent 
lily. Lent rose, MicJiaelmas dai^y, Christ- 
mas rose, Mmj ( = Hawthorn), Thistle 
Bamahy, Oang-jlower or Bogaiion- 
flotoei' (Skinner), St, Barbara's cress, 
St, James wort, St. John's wort, St, 
Peter's wort, Pasqv^e-flower {izl^ABter 
flower), Fr.pasque^-ette(Cotgra,YG), Dan. 
pash-UJja, Ger. pjlugst-rosen. Low Gor. 
jyinksten, the "Wliitsuntide gilliflowor. 
Especially we may notice here the 
German JoJuinnis-apfel, -hecre, -hlume 
{= daisy), -hafer, -kraut, -ritte (= 
meadow sweet), -wumichen, all of 
which make their appearance about the 
feast of St. John Baptist, or Midsum- 
mer's Day. (See Yongo, History of 
Christian N'ames, vol, i. p. 110.) Finally 
we have the assertion of Messrs. Brit- 
ten and Holland that the JoJm-appIc or 
Apple-John, well known in Cheshire, is 
so called because it is ripe about St. 
Jolm*s Day (Eng, PlarU-Names, p. 
14). Gorarde gives a representation of 
a " Jennetting Pcare, Pyra Proicocia,'* 
—Herbal, p. 1267. 

Poni^ranat trees. Fig trees, and Apple 
trees, hue a very short time : & of thc*8<* the 
liHMtie kind or lenuings continue nothin^^ so 
large as tliose that hear and rii>en later. — 
P. IlolLnid, Pliny's Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 495 


If you loue frute, forsooth, wee hauo 7>wit- 
inj^s, jxireniuyns, russet coatcs, pi])pinp8, ahh>- 
johns, imd perhaps a parepluin, a dainsonr, I 
or an apricocke too. — 6'i/" John Duvies, Works, 
vol. ii. p. 218 (ed. Grosart;. 

Yet, tho' I HpnrtMl thee all the spring, 
Tli^ Kole deliii^ht ir*, sittinj^: Htillf 
With that gold dftgg<»r of thy hill 
To fret the summer/«'wii»?^iHi,'. 

Tennysim, The Blttchbird, Poems, 
p. 6U. 

Junk, a Chiuoso vessel, Sp-^Mwco, so 
spelt,perhap8, from some imagined con- 
nexion with tho naval term junk (so 

Bailey), is a naturalized form of Chinese 
chto*an, a ship (Skeai). 

Into India these IVrseos came ... in five 
Ju 7ic/c5 from Jasquez. — SirT. Herbert, Travels, 
1666, p. 55. 

JuBT-MAST, " a yard set up instead of 
a mast, which has been broken down 
by a storm or shot" (Bailey), is pro- 
bably for an itfjury mast. With less 
likeliliood it has been considered to bo 
a joury mast, i. e, a mast for tlie day 
{Fx. jour), temporary. Prof. Skeat 
holds the first part of tho word to bo 
a corruption of Dan. kiike, dri\dng, as 
if " a driving-mast,** which does not 
seem very likely either. 

Just, when used adverbially in such 
sentences as "It is just ten o'clock,'* 
" The water was just to tlie knee," ** Ho 
was just late," is a derivative, not of 
Frenoh juste, Lai. Justus, but of French 
**joustet neer to, nigh adjoining, hard 
by, towards, beside," also old Fr. (16th 
cent.) jouivte, li. giusta, Vrov.josfa,froin 
Lat. juxta, near. Hence also to joust 
or jttst, to come near, josfk, or tilt 
against each other, Fr. jirufcr, O. Fr. 
jo^ister. It. giustarp. Span, jvsfar, l*rov. 
jostar. The primitivfj meaning oijurta 
was adjoining, from jug-, the root oijun- 

Mr. 01ii)hant remarks that the ear- 
liest use of just is in the sense of lytum, 
right [i. e. of position] , e. g.. 

His hode wns Juste to his chynne [J in la 
mentum]. — Percimil ami lsumhriis,\i.\l. 

** It is curious," he adds, ** tliat^/wNt sliouKi 
be found in this sense before itj* mcanin^r of 
tfoii/t>/appeJtredin Knglaud." — Old and Middle 
hnfflish, p. 568. 

He evidently confounds here two dis- 
tinct words. 

JusTACOAT, a Scotch word for a waist- 
coat with sleevoB, is said by Mr. Wedg- 
wood (Phihhgical Trans<icfions, IH.')'*, 
p. 66) to be from Fr. just an cor/^s. 
Tlie Scotch forms in Jamioson aro 
just icoat, just iecor, Q,nd joist iecor, derived 
as above. 

JusT-BEAST, a Sussex word for a 
beast taken in to gi*azo, also called a 
joist-hvast, a corruption of a^flaf-inf^f, 
i. e. one taken for lujistmcnt or piisturago 

Compare Cumberland jystr, to agists 
to put cattle out to grass upon ano- 



f Mik.*' Lb. tuiMied (Old Country Words, 
I & B. 8. p. US). 

ft name popularly ^ven 

pUoea to a certain class of 

£n enthnsiastio mycolopst, 

in the 8aitwrday Bemew (Soxit. 


Hm naaik of a sharpish Isd who fruided 
H BoC loog MO through the beautiful womiA 
flf P ispos fclj and interrupted our triumph 
(Vfcr a ms nid of carious fungi with the 
CHlioo, ** Yoa mnnna eat them kan^roos," 
Wopnaeady learned that this was the generic 
anaawhioh his careAil mother had taught 
HSm to attach to mjoologic growths. Two 
4t^ laler, a Buddle-ased bailiff prunounced 
■pan n Ihngas on which we had stumbled 
tHt it waa not a mushroom, but a canker. 

It is of this latter word, no doubt, that 
Inn^arooiB a corruption. 

KbkuoiIv a piece of timber in a ship 
next to the keel, kiUhie (Chapmau). 
PknH Skeat observes that in the cognato 
laogoagea the word bears the apparent 
mattoing of " keel- swine," eg. Swod. 
M-mfkit Dan. J^l-nviin, Ger. kul- 
fdkoMis; Imt that those words wore 
no doabt at first '* keel-s///,'* as wo hco 
by oompaiing the Norwegian fonii kjol- 
tmUL The suffix aviU (— Ger. schv^dU^ 
ft nil)* not being understood, wiis cor- 
inpled (1) to «toin«, and (2) to >h/h. 

KnnBOWE, a curious old comi])tion 
t£Jtimho in the phrase " amis a-kinibo/* 
M if in a&oen (or sharp) l>ow (or curve). 

The host . . . Het his bond in kvnviMwe. 
Tmii of' Beryn^X. lU38(ed. Furiiivull). 

The proper meaning of a-lumh) is on 
ham bow, ''in a crooked bend *' (Skout, 
Etym, Bid, s. v.). For kam, see Game. 

Kennxno, a Cornish word for a white 
■peck forming on the cornea of tlio eye, 
as if a defect in the ken (— the night). — 
Polwhele, TradUlmis and liecolbrtlons^ 
iL 607. It is a corruption of h^mhitj 
■lao used, t. e, the growth of a kern or 
homy opacity. 

KsmPBCKLE, a Scottish word moan- 
ing easily recognizable from a disttiuce, 
eonspienous, remarkable, is perliax^s for 
eunapeckable, Lat. con^picabUis (-=^ con- 
9pimu8)f conspicuous ; just as ktn is 

idontical with Eng. r«>fi, to know, and 
kvnf, a long pole, witli Lat. cviitus ; cf. 
AT4»Wtt*r*',"-: consent. -Ancnn lihofr, p. 
288. It is also in use in Lincoln Kliiro 
(Peacock). In tlio IIoldemcRs dialect 
(£. Yorkshire) it api>ear8 as h-nslMick; 
in Antrim and Down, kmspockhd 
(Patterson); in Bailey's Diet, ktn- 

For the laitt nix or seTen yearn, tlipse 
showers of fulling Ktarn, recurrent at known 
inu*r\'ulK, make tnoite partit of the road ken- 
tpeekU (to uite an old Scottish word) — i.e. 
liable to recognition and distinguisbuble fniiu 
the nwt. — De Qnineeu, W'orksy vol. iii. p. 11)5. 

She thought it more prudent to stay where 
she watt [on Uie top of the coacliL ttiougli it 
might make her look kenspeckU. — Vtijt Davie, 
^c.,A'. R. Whitehead, p. 213. 

Kernel, an old word for a battle- 
ment, is a corrupt form of creticlle, old 
Fr. camel, creml (Mod. Fr. crtSkviw), 
from crvn, cran, a notch or indentation, 
Lat. cre7m. Hence ** creuollated," fur- 
nished with battlements. In Low Lnt. 
the word is spelt qumm4dln8 (O. Fr. 
mvr tjnenicle), as if "foramen (xiuulru- 
tmii," a square aperture. 

Wallis &c kirnels Htoutr ^ stones doun b(>tte. 
TMnf;toj't, Chronicle, p. :W6. 

On hym there fyl a pret kernel of ston. 
.St. Gnial, vol. ii. p. 388, 1.432. 

And |xt ctirneU m) ^tonde|) vp-riht, 
Wei i-plaiu*(l and feir i-diht. 

Cartel oj Lone, 1. 695, ab. 13«0. 

Jje konili kernttes ' were to-claturcil wi|) en- 

WiUifim of Pali-rne, 1. ','8)0. 

Kerr-stone, an incorrect spelling of 
cvrb-dtunt?, that which curhs or ci>n- 
Ihies a ])atliway, and marks it oil from 
the road, ho written perhaps from an 
inia<^aned connexion with Ger. ktrrle, a 
notch, fproovu, or indentation. 

By tlie West i«ide of the aforesiiid Prinon, 
then called the Tunne, was a fair Wi;!! of 
Spring water, curlnd round with liard stone, 
but in the year 1 k>l the said Tri-^on house 
. . . was niiulea (.'estern for sweet water. — J, 
Hourli, Londinopolis, p. 77. 

Kekseymerk, a line stuflf, is a corrup- 
tion of cutisiinrrf, the old form of (v^k//- 
rtifi'e, a material originally brought from 
Caslnnero in N. India. It waH assinii- 
latod to krnn'if, the name of a coarso 
cloth originally, jierhaps, mauufaciured 
at Kcr«ey, in Suffolk (Skoat). 

Kettle of Fisu, a coUorxuial phrase 


( 202 ) 


for an embroglio, "moss," or contre- 
ieifips, a perplexing state of affairs, per- 
haps originally denoted a net full of 
fish, wliicli, when drawn up with its 
plunging contents, is eminently sug- 
gestive of confusion, flurry, and dis- 
order. Compare kiddle {kid€llv:s)y a fish- 
ing weir, and keddie or kettle-net, a large 
stake-net. Compare perhaps Scot, kittle, 
to puzzle or perplex. See Davies, 8upp. 
Eng, Glossary, s. v., who quotes, 

Fine doings at my house ! a pretty kettle of 
Jish 1 have discovered at last. — Fielding^ T. 
Jones, bk. xviii. ch. 8. 

Key, formerly a common spelling of 
quuy, from, an idea that it meant that 
which shuts in vessels from the high 
sea, just as lock is an enclosure in a 
canal. Thus Bailey defines *' Key of a 
Biver or Haven, a Wharf, also a Station 
for ships to ride, where they are, as it 
were, locked in with the land," and so 
liichardson. But quay, Fr. quai, a dis- 
tinct word, is from Welsh cae, cai, an 
enclosure. Compare W. ca^Jk, bound, 
confined, which Ebel (through a form 
caM) deduces from Lat. captus (Cel- 
tic Studies, p. 100). 

Keyage, or botys stondynge, Ripatum. — 
Prompt. Parvttlorum, 

Quai, the key of a river, or haven. — Cot- 

Item, that the slippe and the keue, and the 
pavyment ther, be ouerseyn and repored. — 
Ordinances of Worcester, Eng, Gilds, p. 374 

I do not look on the structure of the Ex- 
change to be comparable to that of Sir Tho. 
(iresham in our Cittv of J^ndon, yet in one 
respect it exceeds, that ships of considerable 
burthen ride at the very keu contiguous to it. 
— J, Evelvn, Diary, Aug. 19, 1641. 

It has twelve faire churches, many noble 
houses, especialy the Lord Devereux's, a 
brave kay and commodious harbour, being 
about 7 miles from the maine. — Id. July 8, 

The crew with merry shouts their anchors 

Then ply their oars, and brush the buxom sea. 
While troops of gathered Rhodians crowd the 

Dryden, Cimon and Iphigenia, 1. 614. 

Key-cold, a frequently occurring ex- 
pression in old writers, as if to denote 
"as cold as an iron key." I would 
suggest, merely tentatively, tliat the 
original was kele-cold, i,e. " chill-cold," 
from A. Sax. cel<in, to chill, Prov. Eng. 
keel, or kele, to cool ; the word, as to 

its formation, being a kind of intensive 
reduphcation, like tip-top, tee-total. Of. 
keale, a cold, Lincolnshire. — Ray, N, 
Country Words, 

Either they marry their children in their 
infancv, when they are not able to kiuiw 
what loue is, or else matche them with in- 
equallity, ioyniiig burning sommcr with kea- 
cold winter, their daughters of twenty ycart*s 
olde or vnder, to rich cormorants of three- 
score or vpwards. — J, Lane, Tell-Troihes New- 
yeares Gift, 1593, p. 5 (Shaks. Soc.)* 

Poor key-cold figure of a holy king. 
Shakespeare, Richard 111. act i. hc. f. 

A fire to kindle in us some luke-wnmie, or 
some key-cold affection in us to good. — Bp, 
Andrewes, Sermons, fol. p. 607. 

But compare the following : — 

For certes there was never keie, 
Ne frosen is upon the walle 
More inly ro/J, than 1 am alle. 

Gower, Confessio Amaiitis, vol. iii. p. 9. 

Keys, the Anglicized name of the 
local parUament of the Isle of Man, is 
evidently a corruption of the first sylla- 
ble of the vernacular name, Kiare-as- 
feed, ** The Four-and-twenty,'* so called 
from the number of representatives. 

The power of making and repealing laws 
rested with the Keus. — The Manx Society Pub- 
licationx, vol. xiii. p. 113. 

Camden gives the fanciful explana- 
tion — 

The Keys of the Island are so called because 
they are to lay open and dLscover tho true 
ancient laws and customs of the island. — 
Britannia, Isle of Man (ed. 1696). 

Kick, a slang word for fashion, vogue, 
is not, as it might seem, a corruption of 
Fr. chic, but the same word as Prov. 
Eng. kick, a novelty, a dash, kicky, 
showy (Norfolk), old Eng. " Kygge, or 
ioly (al. kydge), Jocundus, lularis." — 
Prompt, Parvuloi'uvi. 

Tis the kick, I say, old un, I broueht it 
down. Dibdin, 

I cocked my hat, and twirled mj stick. 
And the girls they called me quite the kick, 

George Colnum. 

"He's in high kick** is a proverb in 
the Craven dialect. Compare Prov. 
Eng. kedgp, brisk, Uvely (Suffolk), 
Scotch kicky, showy, gaudy, kid^i^^, 
cheerful ; Swed. kdck, brave, brisk, 
Ger. k^ck, akin, no doubt, to quicJ: : 
IceL kykr, another form of kcikr, quick, 
lively; 0. H. Ger. keck, Dan. kiiik. 
See Diefenbach, Goth. Spradic, ii. 482. 


In Bwifbhire fh^ say, "He tried 
en *• bjdbi wee me, * f . e. tricks ; aud 
* She gMd Mdh'M* np the street,*' t. e. 
walkiiig with m silly haughty air (Gre- 

XiOK-SHAWB, Frenoh ragodts or sauces 
fflidlflj), or generalhr any light mode- 
oUiM of an nnsatisfyiiig nature, is an 
fbixn of Fr. tptehjue chost)^ 
anything trivial, the ter- 
-jAoto being perhaps mentally 
with pghaw ! a term of cou- 
The Oeiznans have twisted the 
word into geckschaterie^ foolery, 
aa if eompomded with geck^ a simple- 
ton (Andzwen, Deuftehe VoUcsfifymO' 
Imm, p. 40). CL our " gooseberry yooZ " 

Gervaae Markham, in his Englleh 
Houtewifaf allma as instances of her 
dkill ** ouslqueM>$e8^ fricassees, dovisi^d 
Ao., and Whitlock, in his 
oonsiders "^2ytie« dioncs^ 
diahea of no nourishing.** 

Fspor Qm^lkrekcte never amelt in Scholes. 
-^Aninip Mmt'i Saerijieg, p. 5. 

Oaely let mee love none, no not the sport 
Wnm e wuiti c y gruM, to comfitares ut Court, 
O^ ciirirs ^HglfUM cAmh, let not report 
Hy mmde transport. 

Dr. Donnty Ponu, 1&15, p. 8. 

Biahop Hall has the word still un- 
"' ~ •* Fine guclquetdutscs of 
and artificial composition;'* Cot- 
doAnea Fricandeaux as ^^quclJc- 
made of good fleHh and herbs 
aliopped together,** and Diyden shows 
file word in a state of transition. 

Limkarhmau Some foolish French quelqut' 
1 wnnant jou, 

■ric Qtmqusehatel O ignortiin'^ in 
perfection ! He means a kek»hose, 
Thg Kind Kegper [in Wed^woodJ. 

Thia latter form seems eventually to 
Imwe been mistaken for a plural, as 
tidMoB ia used by Lord Somorville 
(UeiNoris^^f fAa i9^oniem2^«),and kecsho 
In an old MS. cookery book (Wright 
■L T. Su9e)» But hickshawsfis (Shaks. 
TwelfakMighi, L 8, 122) and kickaslMscs 
(Fentlej) were formerly in use. 

Bhe eaa feed on hang beef and a barloy 
■iMins withont the help of French kickshaa^s. 
..^rJktf Cmmmini Farmtr*$ Catechvm, 1703. 

Ye ehaU hrae a Capon, a Tansie, and some 
■CI of my wits. — Jaeke Drums Lnter- 


end th^ upon kU-hhuus aud 

puff paste, that have little or no Ruhstance in 
thom. — ThM. Hnntkif Works (Nichols vd.), 
▼ol. iv. p. IM (166:^). 

Milton spells it kicksliocs. 

Some pi^unSy l^^V* ^ couple of sliort- 
l^P^K*^! hf'ns, a joint of mutton, and any 
prtttty little tiny kickthavt, — bhaketpeartf 
mien. IV, y. 1, 1. *9. 

Kidnap, to steal a cliild, t. e. to nah 
a kids tlio latter slang term for a 
child being i>cr]iax>8 tlio same as Dutcli 
and Qcrxnan khul^ just as kipj anotlior 
slang word, is tlio same as Dutch I'nijK 
See JJavies, tSujfp. Eng. Glossarg^ s. v. 

Kidney, an assimilation to other 
words ending in -eg (such as aifoiKrij, 
chimney f moiuy) of old Kng. kidtwro, 
which is a compound word meaning 
literally ** belly-reins." Kid (Prov. 
Kug. kiic^ the stomach) is A. Sax. ciW^, 
the womb or stomach, Scand. Jcvi^r, 
Goth, qvipus^ and **neere of a beost, 
Hen '* {I'ro)nj}f. i'arr.) is a kidney, "the 
reins," Dan. nyre. 

"Keyiioun, kyd^mryre.*' — Old MS. 
See Prompt, Parvuhn-^nn, p. 853. I find 
that this is also identicaUy the view of 
Prof. Skeat, Etym, Diet. k. v. 

}pei Rch'ul offre twey tUdeneiretu^Wtfcliffef 
IatvU. iii. :i3. 

Take \)0 h(*rt and bo mydruv and \je kiidnere, 
And liew horn siualle, as 1 ^ lere. 

Liber Cure Cocorumy p. 10. 

Kilderkin, a small cask, a corrup- 
tion of Dut. ki7uli'krn, tlie same, ori^ji- 
nally a "child-kin," and tlien a barrel 
of infantine dimensions, from kind, a 

Killesse, } old words for a groove or 
CuLi.iDGE, S channel ( Parker, G/(;«8rt?*?/ 
of Architvdurr), are corrui)tious of Fr. 
couliese^ something that slides, a port- 
ed ///«, or the groove it slides in, from 
coxdrr^ to slide, to trickle, Lat. colare, 
to per-colato. 

Kill- ridge, an ancient corruption of 
tlio name of tlio plant cidrage (Poly- 
goninn hydropipcr), ** Wator- pepper, or 
arscnicke, scnno call it kill-ridge, or 
culerage." — Nomcnclutor, 1585. 

Curatre^Tho herb Waterpt'pper . . Killridge, 
or culernge. — Cotgrave, 

Cidcrago, anotlier name for the same 
plant, is a cornii)tion of Fr. cidrage. 
C^otwVc/i, according to Mr. Cockayne, is 


( 204 ) KING'OOUGH 

only another form of culrage [?]. — 
LeochdomSf vol. iii. Glossary, s. y.EarS" 

Kindness, a name given to a disease 
which prevailed in Scotland a.d. 1580, 
was probably, as Jamieson suggests, a 
vulgar corruption of (quinance) squin- 
ancPj sfpihvmcy^ the old forms of quinsy ^ 
from Fr.squinancCy Lat. cTfnanc^, Greek 
kunanchey a dog- throttling. 

King, a contracted form of old Eng. 
h'ningf A. Sax. cynnig. From a mis- 
understanding of the cognate words, 
O. n. Ger. and old Sax. huning^ 0. Low 
Ger. cuning, Dut. hming, Swed. Jconung, 
Icel. konu7igr, as if derived from Gotu. 
kunnany Icel. kutma, Dut. kunnen, A. 
Sax. cunfian, to know and to be able 
(so Helfenstein, Comp. Grammcvr, p. 
88), originated the idea that the Mng is 

Eroperly he who cariy or possesses power, 
ecause he kens or has cunning ; since 
knowledge is power, and might is right, 
according to Carlyle^s favourite doc- 
trine. (So Yerstegan, Smith, Bailey, 
Richardson ; also Jenkin on Jvde, p. 

This etjrmology is of considerable 
antiquity. In a homily of the 12th 
century it is said, 

Elch man be lede^ is lif rihtliche ... is 
cleped kingf for p&i he kenned eure to rihte. 
— Otd Eng. IlomilieSy 2nd Ser. p. 45 (ed. 

King from Conningj for so our Great-grand- 
fathers called them, which one word implyeth 
two most important matters in a Govemour, 
Power and Skill. — Camdeny Remaines Concern' 
ing Britaine^ p. 3 J, 1637. 

The Commander over Men ; he to whose 
will our wills are to be subordinated, and 
loyally surrender themselves, and find their 
welfare in doing so, may be reckoned the 
rooHt important of Great Men. . . . lie is 
called Rex, Regulator, Roi: our own name 
is still better ; King^ Konning, which means 
Gm-nin^, Able-man. — T, Carlyle, On HeroeSf 
Led. VL 

King is Kon-ningf Kan-ningy Man thatXcnous 
or cam. — Id. I^ct i. 

The onl;^ Title wherein I, with confidence, 
trace eternity, is that of King. Koni}; ( King) 
anciently Ki'niningyme'dnB Ken-ning(Cu.unin^)y 
or which is the same tiling Can-ning. Ever 
must tiie Sovereip:n of Mankind be filly en- 
titled King. — Sartor ResurtuSf bk. iii. ch. 7. 

0. Eng. h'n-ing (old Frisian kming) 
meant originally **8on of tlie kin," i.e. 
a chief chosen by the tribe (Ger. kur- 
fiirst) ; kin- being the same word as A. 

Sax. cyn, a tribe or kin, Icel. kyn, O. 
H. Ger. kunniy Goth. kum\ race; and 
-ing, a patronymic termination, mean- 
ing " son of," as in Atliel-ing^ Woden- 
ing (Rask, A. Sax. Oramniary p. 78). 
So Diefenbach, Goth, SpracJiCy ii. 4G4 ; 
Stratmann, Skeat. Compare *' The 
king is near of kin to us." — 2 Sam. 
zix. 42 ; A. Sax. ifcdden, a king, from 
bedd, the people ; \>eod^cyn\ng (Beowulf, 
1. 2, and 8008), a king belonging to the 
people; and A. Sax. d^'ighten^ a lord 
(Icel. dfirMjrm), from drigkt (dirdti), the 

The hing is the representative of the race, 
the embcxliment of^ its national beinef, the 
child of his people, and not their mther. 
A king, in the old Teutonic sense, is not tlie 
king of a country, but the king of a nation. 
The Teutonic king is not the lord of the soil, 
but the leader ot the people. — Freeman, The 
Nornuin Conquest, vol. i. p. 77. 

The king, says Cardinal Pole, is the head 
and husband of the ])eople, the child, the 
creature, and the minister of the two — 
populut enim Begem procreat. — Id. p. 584. 

Dans I'origine, le peuple souverain crca dea 
rois pour son utilitc. — De Cherrier, liiitoire 
de Charles VIU. i. 76. 

N6 ! iJln cifning ^6 cymj? to. — A. Sax. Vers. 
S. Matt. xxi. 5. 

& \je wule he was out of Engelond * Edgar 

l^at ri3t eir was of Engelond * & kunde to be 
Robt. of Gloucester, Chron,, Morris 
Spec. p. 15, 1. 422. 

He thought therefore without delay to rid 
them, as tnou&^h the killing of his kinsmeti 
could amend his cause, and make him a 
kindly king. — Sir T. More, History tf King 
Richard IIJ. 

King, Ger. konig, has also been iden- 
tified with Sansk. ganak<i, a father, 
which is rather a word closely related, 
root jan, to beget, whence gcmis, kin. 

KiNO-couGH, given by Bailey as a 
North country word for the chin-cmigh, 
or hooping-cough, is a corruption of 
klnk'Cough. (See Chin-cough.) It is 
found also in N. W. Lincohishirc (Pea- 
cock), in the Holdomcss district, E. 
Yorksliire, and in Cumberland (Dickin- 
son). An old MS. of the 15th cent, savs 
** Hs erbo y-dronke in oldo 'w-jtic hel]>i^ 
t>e Kyvges hosie'^ ( iz kin*2:-cou£:jh\ 
wliile another heals ** ^e chynkc and ^o 
olde cogh" (Way). Skinner (quotes 
kln-caufjh as a Lincolnshire word, and 
the verb kincli>cn, to breathe with dilli- 

( 205 ) LAMJJ-MASS 

. Comimr* Bwwl. Uk-lutta, dim- 
[h. I>at. kink-liHtl. 

I Is )iro|"'rly >>» oomponnd 

t with Uio RiiOU -doni, as if the 

r oondition nf u king, thonB;)' it 

B liocu rt'^'iinlHl aa Huoh, Tho 

of till- word is h'nfdtim, 

I, wlmrti the fint port of 

i is (yne l»dj.), royal. — 

... to all« kinnltma 

I. to ^ himdoHH uf 

k & la bi khuAii'iu iif haouena. — Anmn 

I. p. set. 

^Haj aBir|» Tcha kinulnm tokeraa jc kpuer 
"*« tym Ijkini. 

JlfiHrullM TwHl, p. B5, 1. 171)0. 

"fer, ft sm&Il violin, dontraoted (por- 
100 nader (hit inflnonce of calling, and 
^r**'> tiiiiny and kitUn) from A. Hnz. 
Ji Wf, a ellteni, n word borrowed from 
■i, AViktm, n lyre, whence also guitar 
id Oer. eitltrr, 

CtTTT, B pToviacial ^ord for a wren 

- F»na}i. Su«*.ij: <7/.MrtT7), is a cor- 

of fu'ltf, a nan ^ I also givsn to it, 

npdve of tho RluiL'Uiesa of ita tail ; 

ipiira Woleli /-ii-ln. Rhort, bob-tailod, 

n, stail, oT i-nif, cirt!.ir,Aeont,eiftyn, 

jiovKr. "The littlo Mly-icrm mnst 

loa Iiave been St. Cntherino's bird," 

ritee Mifis Yfrne^i J!^i*lory <ff Chrii- 

xH Ifanw-s, vol. L }i. 270, 

Kitty-witch, a Norfolk word for a 

•oekcturfer, from llie A. Sax. wirga, 

Mot also in eor-r-'ig.— PAifotoj. iS'oc. 

aVttfM, 1858, p. 108. 

KxoT, the name of a snipe-Iiko bird, 

SVmjr^ Oanuhie, ie said to havo its 

B« from King Canute, with whom 

Wft« a favourite article of food 

Oamden). Cf. knot, ncdua, and Swed. 

i«u/, IceL ImAlr. 

The bu> (h>I all<^l van (^mitiit' hird of nlil 

Of thM Kreat kiiii; ol' Unaet hit name that 

Htill ilulta hiiU[. Dniglaa. 

Haw u the t:«Kl'' '« '^^^ JoviB Alei, » 

VB li^BaatBtbmi tbej have a Uird wUich 

eJfed tbe Kinipi' Bird, nim^lj- Xiiut'i, 

Bt fcrhkbar out of Denmark&tihediarfre, 

, of Kant, or KanutuB, King 

FulUr, n'crlkiti, Tol. li. p. «. 

IiABCnUHTH, an incorrect spcUinR, ns 
JteomiMtedwiUi labor (Cotgnive), Low 

Lat. fci.fnr/n'iii', of Itihyrinth, Lat. Inbi/- 
riii/Autt, from Orook UJmrinifuini. The 
Greek wcinl hns been rcinu-dnl oa 
anothor fnrin of Inriirinlhni, from /iicrn 
(X»/p>) or ^iiira (Ani^.i), a Uuc, as if n 
place full of lonoa or nlleyii. It is i)ro- 
pci'ly a corruption of an E(,'yi>'''''i 

L.M>nER TO nEAVF.N, a trivial name 
for the plant Salomon's seal. Dr. I'rinr 
OiinjccturPH that it may hayc orif;iimtod 
in a confusion of »r.-I ,li- .•^.ihwon, or 
A- Notre Uanic; with celi,-lh de S. or Jo 

Laby's smock, an old popniar nnmo 
for tho fiivf.riHfly or cress, in North- 
ampton applied to tlio irroat hind weed. 
It was perhapn indclinitoly used at first 
for any comnton plant with a wliilo 
flower, and may po.ii9ibly bo tho samo 
word as old Jing. hittmoef (L'Cv line, I. 
zxxviii. R), A. Sax. f ti«/iai>ni, lust wort, 
sundew (droRora) [?J . 

Lamb, in certain cant phrases, as " to 
flivo one hmb and roLuI," i'. c. a soand 
thrashing, lianh-pie, a flogfjinR, in doiiht- 
lc39 the snmo word as I'tnv. and old 
Eng. Inm, to heat or druli, Ifimming, a 
tliroshinB (Lincohis.), originally to 
strike with Uio himl. Ir. laiiOi, 0. Norso 

tlirouBl.ij.-(:.n*«' ,"™' ^' """"' '"""^ 

De vcllpre a.-Ji Uim ik llomnni <Iill 

iluT nnn mit noam pluv. 

Ltland, Tht iifTtlWKn U.i(2.i./>, p. t(U. 

I once uw tlie tatf Duke or (imfton at 

GMirulfa, in iIir ojH-n atreet, witli Huch a lel- 

li>»r, ifliom hi-iumftV moot liorriblV' — Uimm, 

TracfU imr Kfiglamt, p. 305 (w!.'lrl9). 

Com|iaro enitieb, to slap, to give a sound- 
ing; blow to one, and Irish sni'tc, tlia 
palm of tho hand. However, tlio true 
cot^nation may be Icel. htma, to bruise, 
I'lMu^, A. Sax. lama; cf. Soot, lamp, to 

LamB'Hass, an old misunderstanding 

of (Diiij), tlio first of August, 
" bocauHe tlie rriCHts used to got in 
their Tithe- iiiufca on that Day" 
(Bailey); " Lammrn$r, Frvtmii ny- 
Iiiim is tlio ancient form of l<imb. A 
mass said on tliat day was accordinfily 
esteemed vciy beneficial to Imuhi 
(Sotithey, Conimnn Plnen Ilmk, vol. iv. 
p. 1'22}. hni Lanmaii in A. Sox. Mtif- 

LAMB'SKIN'IT ( 206 ) 


rw/T3s«r, loaf-mass (in Sasron Clwonlde^ 
an. 913), tho day when an ofifering of 
new wkeaten bread was made, as a 
thanksgiving for the fruits of com. 

Bj \fiB lyflode we mote lyue * tyl lammaue 

tynip ; 
And by )>at, ich hope tohaue * beruest in my 
Langlandf Vision of P, Plowman, C. iz. 315 
(ed. Skeat). 

Tliat the Sheriff and Bailly hunt the Wolf 
thrice in the Year betwixt St. Mark's day 
and Jjimbmass; and that the Country rise 
with them to that end. — Act» of Scot, Pari., 
Jac. VI., Par. 14, cap. 87. 

Lamb-skin-it, " a certain game at 
cards*' (Bailey, Dictionary), as if to 
imply the game at whioh an innocent 
tyro would be fleeced, or as the phrase 
goes, a pigeon would be plucked (Chau- 
cer's ** to pull a finch"), is a corrup- 
tion of Fr. lansquenet, *' a Lance-kniglit, 
or German footman ; also, the name of 
a game at cards." — Cotgrave. See 

Lamb's quabtebs, a popular name 
for the plant otHjplex patula^ is perhaps 
only Lammas quariery called so from its 
blossoming about the 1st of August, tlie 
season when the clergy used to get in 
their tithes (IMor), A. Sax. Iddf-m/msse, 

Lamb's-wool, the name of an old 
Enghsh beverage, of which the chief 
ingredients were ale and roasted apples, 
is said to be a corruption of lanmsool, 
from the "ancient British" la maes 
alihaX, "the day of apples," i.e. the 
autumnal feast of apple gathering, 
when it used to be drunk {Chainbers* 
CyclopcBdia) . In Irish indeed la is day, 
mas is collected, and abhal is an apple, 
and formerly this drink, as weU as 
apples, was partaken of at the autumnal 
feast of All Halloween (Brand, Pop., 
Antiq., i. 890, ed. Bohn), but-this Celtic 
name needs confirmation. It is first 
mentioned, I think, by General Val- 
lancey, while lavihs-wool is found in tlie 
16th century. The Scotch word is 

Next crowne the bowle full, 
With f^entle lambs-Wiwll, 
Adde Busrar, nutmeg, and ginger. 
Herrich, Poenu, p. 310 (ed. Hazlkt). 

With Mahomet wine he dammeth with intent 
'i o erect his paschal lamb*x uool Sacrament. 
Absuhnt Sine Worthies {^aee Drifden^ Poems, 
p. tor, Globe ed.;. 

Gerarde, writing in 1697, says : — 

The pulpe of the rested Apples . . mixed 
in a wine quart of faire water, laboured to- 
gither vntill it come to be as Apples and A le, 
which we call Ijimbes Wooll , . doth in one 
nip^ht cure . . . the strangurie. — Herbally p. 
1276, fol. 

Feele in his Old Wiv^s Tale, 1595, has : 

Lay a crab in the fire to roast for la iib\' 
woo/.— p. 446, ed. Dyce. 

The lambs*-icool, even in the opinion of my 
wife, who was a Connoisseur, was excellent. 
^^Goldtmith, The Vicar of Wakefield^ ch. xi. 

Lampeb eel, a Scotch corruption of 
lamprey ( Jamieson), found also in i^ro- 
vincial English (Wright). 

The Lamprey, or, as it is called liere [in 
Banffshire], the Lamper eel, is often met with. 
'—Smiles, Life of' Edward, the Scotch Naturalist ^ 
p. 426, 

In W. Cornwall it is called the lumping 
eel (M. A. Courtney, Glossary, E. D.S.). 

Some odde palace lampreel's that jngender 
with snakes, and are full of eyes on both 
sides, with a kin^e of insinuated humblenesse, 
fixe all their delightes upon his brow. — ./. 
Marston, The Malcontent, i, 5 (^Works, ii, 116, 
ed. IlalUwell). 

Lamprey, Fr. lamproie, Sp. lamjyrm. 
It. lampreda, has generally been under- 
stood to be from a Low Lat. Jam-ppirn, 
I.e. lambens petram, "lick-stone," from 
its attaching itself to rocks by its mouth. 
The Breton name lamprez, from lamjn\ 
sHppery, and Welsh lleiprog, from ll^pr, 
"limber," probably point to tlie true 
origin, and in that case the above forms 
would be instances of corruption due 
to false derivation. For the inserted 
m compare limpet from Greek hpa(d)s ; 
and limp beside Welsh lUpa, fiaccid. 
Compare also limher, Swiss lampig, 
Bav. la/nipecht, flaccid. 

My Ike of almondeg )>erto ^u cast, 
^ teuche or lamprati do to on last. 

Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 19. 

iMmprejfs — In Latine Ixtmoetrae, a lam- 
bendo petras, "from lickinj^ tne rocks," are 
plentiful! in this and the neighbouring Coun- 
ties in the River of Severn. A deformed 
Fish, which, for the many holes therein, one 
would conceive Nature intended it rather for 
an Instrument of Musick then for man's 
food. — T, Fuller, Worthies of England, vol. 
ii. p. 465. 

Lanceoay, the name of an old wea- 

Eon, apparently a s})ear or javelin, pro- 
ibited by the statute 7 Rich. III. 


Ha wwih mpon hu Htede (rntji 
And in hit bond a iatmetgavij 

A long nrcrd bj hit nide. 

■r, Tht Bim§ of Sir Thopai, 1. 1.368f . 

" r<Wffiiftryfly,Lmce>." — Prompt. Parv. 
Ifr. W^ tlunki that IcMce-gaue (men- 
lioned bgrGnillMime de St. Andre in tlie 
I*^ eent.) or lance-guaye may be the 
■anil as ue arcKegaye of the Franks, 
fend drnvad from the name of tlie 
KmIiwii or Moorish weapon, called 
mmaaay^ anegaye^ or tagam, L^assagay 
woiud readily pass into tincegay, Sp. 
"^.^sogi^ay aiavelin, a Moores weapon." 
— MxaBheOy is for al-tagaya. Prof. 
Skaat thinks the word is contracted 
from lance-Mogaye, De Comines men- 
tions that the Albanian Stradiots 
[s T p a n^ roi ] were aimed with a short 
piko ealled an amegaye pointed with 
mm at both ends. — Sir S. D. Scott, 
Ths BriHth Army, vol. ii p. 14. The 
anegai of savage warfare, a word with 
wkieh we became painfaUy familiar in 
oar eonflict with the Zulus, is not a 
natiTe term, but borrowed from the 
the Europeans. Cotgrave has zagnye 
and oMagaye^ "a fashion of slender, 
long and long-headed pike used by the 
Moorish horsemen." It is the Berber 
aagOya (Devio). 

The male sort from their infuncjr pracdde 
the rude postures of Mars, covering their 
naked bodies withmamie Targeta, their ri^^ht 
hand brandishing a long hut small Azaguaif 
«r laaee of Ebony, barbed with iron, kept 
hri^it, which by exerciw, they know how to 
jacwlare as well aa any people in the Uni- 
mae.-— 5ir That, Htrberl. Travel*, 166'\ p. S3. 

That no man go armed, to here launcfgamsj 
GkyveSy Speres, and other wepyn, in ilis- 
torlijngr of the Kvnges pease and people. — 
t^UA GiUi^-p. 388 (E. E. T. S.). 

To apeake ofleaner weapons, both defenfiiye 
and onenaiye, of our Nation, a^ tlieir Pauad, 
Baaelard, Launcepitf, &c., would be endlesse 
and needlesae, when wee can doe nothing hut 
name them,— Caim/en, Reinaiites Concerning 
Brifianw, 1637, p. 1^04. 

Lance-kmioht, a foot soldier, French 
lafugupnef, " a Lancfi knighf, or German 
footman '* (Cotgrave), is not, as Skin- 
ner thought, derived from latioif but a 
corruption of Ger. lands-hwcht, a coun- 
try man, lit. a land*s-kniglit. 

Ilia garmentes were nowe no sumptuouse, 
all Co pounced with gnrdens and iairgcs Ijko 
a rutter [i. «. Ger. ritter, knij^ntj of tho 
launee kny^hten, — .Sir l\\ Burlowe, IJiuln^uf 
dMKribing the orif^imiU Ground oj' thene Lw 

thenm Fticcumi.^Southeuj Life of Wesley, 
yol. i. p. ,'J68. 

The lans»p»rnf>f9 were mercenaries 
that Charles VIII. took into his pay ; 
tliey composed a large part of the 
French infantry in the IGth century 
(Cheniel). Compare " Lancnunnj a 
comjintrioto or countreyinan [Lmuh' 
viann] ; a word which the l?>enchni:iu 
borrows of the Dutch to mock him 
wit hall." — Cotgrave. 

Well, now must I practise to get the true 

fnrhof one ofth«*."*e lance-knight*. — H. Jonum, 
\very Man in his Jliinnmrj ii. S ( Works, p. 9). 

Land iron, a corruption of andiron, 
Fr. landier, O. Eng. anJyar, aicful/ntie 
{Prompt, Parv.), Low Lat. andrna, au' 
dt'Tia. Tlie word has certainly no con- 
nexion with either land or iron. See 
An'dibon, Endiron. 

One iyron potte and one land iyron. — //i- 
MiKdri/, 1685 (in Peacock's Giottary qf'Manley, 

Langley-berf, in W. Ellis's Prac- 
tical Farmer, 55, a corruption of Innfjne.' 
d^'Ixvyuf a name of the Hclmmthia 

Lantern, given in Wright's Diction- 
ary of Ohitolete and ProHncial English 
as a word for a reading desk, is a cor- 
ruption of hiftronj a Udern, Fr. hUrin. 

Jjpctom was also 8j)clt Mtn*n, lettrcmf, 
and letoroiifi. See Prompt. Parmihyrum, 
under the latter word. See Lectern. 

Lant-uorn, so spelt witli reference, 
probably, to the material with which 
it was commonly glazed, is a corrupt 
form of lantn'n, Fr. hntt^'ne, from Lat. 
h interna, latn-naf itself a corruption (for 
laviptcrna) of Greek lam-pter, a light, a 

Our Boules now-Rin-obacured Ligiit 
Shines through tbe iMnthorn of our FJertli so 


Sylvester, Du Bartns, p. 136 (1621). 
The Moon null VI oft* her veil of Light 
That hid«'K hfr Fac*- by Duy from Sight . . . 
And in the f^inf/ioru of the N'ig^ht 
With Shining Horns hung out her Light. 
Rut let f Hudi^iras, II. ii. 1. 905. 

To til y j udgeinent [siie] looks like a nmrd 
in a Linthoniy wliom thou couldst not fniicy 
for a world, but hatost, luathost and 
have spit in her fnc<». — Burton, Anatomy of 
Melancholy, 111. ii. 4, 1. 

With the form lanf-h/yrn may bo 
compared Swed. horn-hjkia, a lantern 
with horn sides. 



Assor claims for King Alfred the 
honour of being the original inventor 
of horn lanterns, which by a skilful 
device ho caused to be made of wood 
and cow's horns ; " Consilio artificiose 
atque sapienter iuvento, lantemam ex 
lifXuis et hovinle comihus i)ulcherrime 
CDnRtruoreimperavit." — WriQhtfE ssays 
on ArcJuDohgy, vol. i. p. 179. 

Lanthorn Lilies, a Warwickshire 
name for the Narcissus, in the Isle of 
Wight hmtorn lilies^ are corruptions of 
Lnifon lih>8, so called from the season 
of their flowering. — Britten and Hol- 

So the Scotch have Icnfrin hail and 
laiiien kail, for " Lenten kail." 

Lantobn, a northern provincial word 
(Wright), meaning ** at a distance,** is 
a corruption of tlie French loinfain. 
Similarly It. lanicrnarc^ " to goe loiter- 
ing about ** (also *Ho make Ian thomes"), 
hnternarOy an "idle loyterer " (Florio), 
ai*e near akin to Dut. IcrUt^ren, Bret. 
hmdar (cf. Diez, s. v. Lendore)^ our 
"loiter," (cf. Wedgwood, s. v.), Lat. 
lafeo. So Zow/crwer, inCotgrave,todally, 
play tlie fool, or loiter. 

Lanyard, a nautical term for a rope, 
is a corruption of French hni^e, a long 
strap, O.'Eng.lancre ( =hgula. — Fronipt, 
Tnrv.y ab. 1440), Umyer (Palsgrave, 
1580), Zai/tkT (WycHfifo, Gm. xiv. 28), 
a thong, lanier (Chaucer) ; Norfolk 
htnytTj tlie lash of a whip. Fr. laniire 
was perhaps originally a wooll4*n band, 
Lat. Irinan tea, from lana, wool (Scheler). 
Lannr, — Holland, Camden's Britannia^ 
p. 542. 

Laplove, a Scottish name for the com 
convolvulus, is apparently that which 
hil^s or enfolds the lenvrs^ Scand. Wft of 
tlie plant,asin Prov. Swedish it is called 
Ivf-hindc, the leaf-binder (Jamieson). 

Lap-stone, is not, as might naturally 
be supx^osed, the stone which the shoe- 
maker places in his lap to hammer 
leather upon it, but the cohhle-sfone^ 
from Dutch la^^pm^ to cobble or patch, 
lappcTy a cobbler, lapvferh^ cobblery. 

Lapwing, the peewit, derives He name 
not from the lapping or flapping of its 
wings, nor yet from their Iming, as if 
the old Eng. form were hkaf-winge 
(Loo), from A. Sax. Mifiiin^ to rise, soar. 

be lifted up (Bosworth). Cf. its French 
name vanncmi, the winnower, Lat. 
vancJhis. The old forms laptcinJcf*, Vtap- 
tvyncJir, A. Sax. hlmpi^nunce, sliow that 
the word has nothing to do witli lap or 
wing. The first part of the compound 
is connected with A. Sax. hleapan, to 
run or leap, says Prof. Skoat, the latter 
pai*t with winl\ O. H. Ger. wincJi^-n, M. 
H. Ger. winkm, to vacillate, waver; 
so that tlio whole (** leap- winker ") 
means the bird ** that turns in run- 

Hy bypj> ase \>c Ihapuumche jjpt ino uel^ 
[filth] of man makR|) his nest. — Auenb'Uc of 
iMuvtC 1.340), p. 61. 

Liipwifnke, or wype, byrde, Upipa. — 
Prompt. Parvulorum. 

Cucurata, httafte-wince. — \\'rifiht*i Vocahti- 
lanex^p, 62. Leepwynke. — \\'tjcli(fe. 

They begynne al redy to do wel, that one 
catcheth wel a chykni. ami that other a 
pullet, They conne wel also duke in the 
water after Utpuynvhes and dokys. — Carton^ 
Revnnrd the Fo.i, IWl, p. 60 (edi Arber). 

They will do it, and become at last insen- 
sati, void of sense; degenerate into dogs, 
ho}^, aKses, brutes; as Jupiter into a bull, 
Apulcius an asse, Lycaon a wolf. Tereus a 
Lip-winp. — Burtoitf Ajuitomy of' Metatichotiff 
III. ii. 4, 1. 

Lark, a colloquial and vulgar term 
for a frohc, playing, sporting, or in- 
dulging in practical jokes (sometimes 
more emphatically called shy -larking), 
as if to gambol and disport oneself like 
the merry bird of dawn, ** Tlie jolly 
bird of light" (Lovelace), "Lafestiva 
lodoletta" (Aleardi). 

Barley, cheerfull, mounting Larke, 
Light's gentle vslier, Morning's dark, 
In merry notes delighting. 
Sir John DavieSj liymnes to Axtrtpti, v. 

" We should be as gay as la/ihs,** Bays 
Mr. Brass in the Old Curiosity Shop^ 
ch. Ivi. ** The kitchen boys were all as 
gay as larhs," — T. L. Phipson, Biogra- 
phical Skeiclies of Violinists, p. 9. 
• It is really a corruption of the old 
Eng. Idh, A. Sax. lac, play, sport, O. 
Eng. laihf to play, Gotliic laihs, sx)ort, 
ladhan, to skip or leap for joy. 

In the Gothic version of the parable 
of the Prodigal Son, when the elder 
brother returned, he heard laikin^, 
'* larking," going on in the house (Li/7w 
XV. 26). 

And the answer of the lailies makes us 
aware that they are fresh from larking in 


LATB-WAKS ( 209 ) 

ft eonraption of lake-wake 
«UM0dbept.& bodv-watch. or waking 
if Am doftd. O. Eng. ficfte-t^aJfef , from A. 
flL its (ft eoxpae) and umbcm (a watch) ; 
"Mk deda body."— Pr. Parv. Cf. 
IM. ivk, ft oorpae, leeL Uk, Goth . leO;. 

Mthoir Anitt it brant to ashen cold; 
Mb kow tha Sekt^wtkt wu yhold 
All thOka nighty ne bow the Grekes play 
Iha waka-waiet na kepe 1 not to tay. 

Chneir, Tk$ KnighUu TaU, 1. S960. 

''la fade troth it will be a puir lukt-wake, 
■bIbm jour honour aenda oa something to 
harp aa eraeking." 

" YoaakaU hara aome whiskey," answered 
ffl^^^i ffi r <*tha rather that yoa have pre- 
aamdue pffoper word for that ancient cus- 
iBBi at watching the dead. — You ohnerve, 
Haelort thia ia genuine Temtouic, from the 
Oadne laidbMss*^<"P*^* It is quite erro- 
aaoasly called Late-wahey though Brand 
fc fO Bi a that modern corruption and deriva- 
tJBftiy Seait, Thf^Rtiyuary.chap. zl. 

LaTQHar, an old word for tlio thong 
at ft ahoOt as if that which kUchs or 
haUBM it (ot UUck of a door), from the 
old wb lateh, to oatoh or fasten, old 
b^ laoekep A. Sax. IcBccan. It is 
mSyft littla Uuse^Fr. lacet (It. laccietto), 
ikam <dd Fr. Zo^a, Lat. lanueua, a noose. 
Baa The B(tile Word-Booh, p. 287; 
Sfcaai, Etym, Diet, s. v. Lachrt of a 
■ahoo. Tenea. — Prompt, Tawulcrum. 
A UdM wherwith they fastened thoir 
Vtggb hftmejre, Fasdola. — Baret, Al- 
a. T. bamde. 


A ilTCiigierthen I eommeth after me, whoa 
I IsfdMtt 1 am not worthy to stoupe 
dawna and Tnloae.-— r^ndu^e, 6'. Marke, i. 7 

[Peabana] ara wont to lay by ni^bt, . . aiid 
ttaC from an high |dace where they perch: 
and tfaen, Tnlease there be good heed taken 
that tba agga be latehid in some Roft bed 
vademeathy they are aoone broken. — Hollandy 
Fffa^'f Nat. Hilt. ToL L p. 301 (IdU). 

IiATBDrB, a house of office, Lat. la- 
Mmi whidi would seem to be a deri- 
valiTe of Zofeo, to be hid, as if it meant 
ft hooae or place retired, concealed, or 
kipfc out of view, is really a contracted 
Comof 2aoa^r»fia(from^i;ar£>, to wash), 
danoting (1) a bath, (2) a place that can 
befliuhed or washed out, lieu d^aiaancc. 
QL Fr. laeemewt. In Nash's Ltnton 
Btdge, **laniememan or groomo of 
>'■ idoBe-stoole " (Davies, Svpp. 

Eng. Ohsiary) looks liko a oorruption 
of latrine-nian. 

Laudamum. " A medicine extracted 
out of the purer Part of Opium, so called 
from its laudable Qualities" (Bailey) — 
as if from Lat. laus, laudiB, praise — is 
a corrupted spelling of Lat. ladanum^ 
Gk. ledmum, the juice obtained from 
the plant lada or Udon, the cisfus Crcii- 
cus, Arab ladan ; cf. Heb. W (translated 
** myrrh," A. V. Gen. xxxvii. 25). Some- 
what similarly the lark, Lat. alauda, 
was once supposed to take its name a 
laude did, from its singing lauds (Neo- 
kam, De Nat, Berum^ cap. Ixviii.)* 

For the infirmities proper to the k^^^i ^ 
namely tlie worms there breeding Ijadanum 
of Cyprease in soueraigne to be taken in 
drinke. — Holhvids, Plinys Nat, lUttory^ vol. 
ii. p.25d(16»). 

Laystall, a dust-hole or ash-pit, 
seems to denote a stall where dust and 
rubbish may be laid^ but is really a cor- 
ruption of laye-stowe (Fabyan), an empty 
or unoccux)iod place, where any filth or 
rubbisli may be tlirown. Lay hero is 
tlie old Eng. ley, leye, Scot, lea, untilled, 
▼acant, unoccupied, corresponding to 
Prov. Dan. leid, Ger. leede, Dut. Udig, 
of the same meaning (see Wedgwood, 
S.V.). Compare " Lai/, londo not telyd." 
— rrompi.Parviilorwn, 2ii>a, a meadow, 
A. Sax. leah, and Prov. Ger. hh, a 
morass, are allied (Skeat). 

This place of Smythfeelde was at y* dare a 
Iditte stowf of all order of fylth,&c the place w^ere 
felons, & other trusgresnours of y" Kynges 
lawiSy were put to execucii). — Fabyan^ Chro- 
uiclei, p. 254 (ed. 1811). 

Scanie could he footing find in that fowle 
For many corses, like a ^cat Lay-itaU, 
Of murdred men, which therein strowed 
Without remorse, or decent funerall. 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, I. v. 55. 

Lavendeb-wateb, French eau-de- 
lavande, tlie original signification, ac- 
cording to M. Scholor, being perfumed 
water for toilet purposes, esp. iised in 
washing. It. lavatida = lavage, from 
Lat. lavare. But the lavender water of 
commerce 18 distilled from lavender. 

Law, in the compound words mother- 
in-law, failher-in-law, &c., is not the 
same word as law = lex, as if a Ugal- 
mother, or a father in the eyes of the 
law (which those connexions are not), 



( 210 ) 


but the modem form of old Eng. laae, 
marriage, Gothic Uuga, marriage, hu- 
gan, to many, Frisian logja, to give 
in marriage. 

To wife in lage he hire nam. 
Oenemand Exodus, 1. «764 (ed. Morris). 

Thus parents-in-law properly means 
parents in (or by ) marriage. The above 
words are probably near akin to A. 
Sax. licgan, to lie down, Prov. Eng. to 
lig, whence leger, a bed, a "lair," leger- 
team, matrimony, lighie, "concubin- 
age, which northward they call a Ughie '* 
(Nicholson, on Gai^Mam, 1661); com- 
pare Greek lechos, Wdron, bed, mar- 
riage, dlochos, a wife, &c. ; also A. Sax. 
logman, to place or lay down. Stanyhurst 
uses lawdaughter and lawfather for 
daughter-in-law and father-in-law. 

Soon to King Priamus by law; thus he laW' 

father helping. 
Aeneid, ii. 554 [DavieSy Supp, Eng, Glossary'], 

Law, in the phrase " to give one so 
much law," i,e, in running a race to 
allow one's competitor a start of so 
many yards or feet in advance, seems 
properly to mean a concession, and to 
be a corrupted form of A. Sax. le^/*, 
leave, permission. (This law has with 
less probability been connected with 
A. Sax. l4j{f, old Friesic laioa, what is 
leit,—'Philog, 8oc, Trans,, 1855, p. 278.) 
So the 0. Eng. ** lefuUe, or lawfulle, 
Licitus " {Prompt, Parv.), = A. Sax. 
ledf-ful, permissible, leveful (WycHffe), 
was confounded with " lawfulle, legiti- 
mus '* (P. P.), fifom A. Sax. lagu, law. 
These words were formerly kept dis- 
tinct, as in the old phrase "in lefull 
things and lawful " (vid. Way, Prompt, 
Parv,p, 866). Cf. '^fva-lomh," from 
Dutch ver-2c^, leave; Dan. lov, leave 
(and lov, law), Swed lof. See Leav£. 

This winged Pegasus posts and speeds 
after men, easily gives them law, fetches them 
up again, gallops and swallows the ground 
he goes. — Samuel Wardy Life of Faith in 
Death (d. 1653). 

Law I ) a feminine expletive, is pro- 
La I ( bably not a comiption of 
Mr. Pepys* Lord! but a survival of 
old Eng. la, eald, waid, an interjection 
of surprise. In the Anglo-Saxon ver- 
sion of John ii. 4, Christ addresses his 
mother, " Ldtvif, hwsQtisme and iSe ? " 
(Oliphant, Old and Mid. Eng., p. 72). 

Lawful, when used in the sense of 

allowable, permissible, as in " All 
things are lawful unto me, but all 
things are not expedient." — A,V, 1 Cor. 
vi. 12, is no compound of Law and full. 
It is the old Eng. leful, or leeue-ful, i.e. 

Leful, written Leveful bj VViclif and dp- 
rived from the An^lo-Saxon /«i/', English 
leave, signifies what is allowablf?, permissible, 
while lawful is what is legal, according to 
law. But we find in Old English authors 
constant mistakes in the use of tne two terms. 
Leful trespassed upon lawful^ and in fact is 

so rendered in most of the glossaries 

This confusion of terms, at first perfectly 
distinct with respect to meaning and et3rmo- 
logy, seems to have arisen from an endeavour 
to give significance to a word, or to some part 
of a word that had lost the power of explain- 
ing itself. — Aforri*, Philolog. Soc. Transactions, 
lb6t-3, p. 86. 

It is nat leful to thee for to haue hir. — Wy- 
cliffe, S. Matt. xiv. 4. 

liit ys nat lawfull for the to haue her. — 
Tyndale, Ufid. 

What don 3e this, that is not leefful in 
sabotis? — Wyeliffe, S. Luhe, vi. 2. 

Lay figure, as if the figure on which 
artists lay the drapery as a study for a 
picture, was formerly called a **lay 
man," i.e. "a statue of wood whose 
joints are so made that they may be 
put into any posture " (Bailey, 1736). 
It is the Dutch lee-man, for lede-mnn, 
from led or lid, a joint, Ger. glied, and 
so means a jointed figure like a Dutch 
doll. — Wedgwood, Not-es and Queries, 
6th Ser. V. p. 486. 

The German word is gliedennann. 
Compare A. Sax. li%, Prov. Eng. Uth, a 
limb or joint (also the clove of an 
orange), 0. H. Ger. lid, Goth, lithus, 
and perhaps Eng. liihe, flexible, active 
limbed (Diefenbach, Goth. Spra^he, vol. 
ii. p. 142). 

fJie Speda/tor speaks of milliners fiu*- 
nishing ladies with new fashions ** by 
means of a jointed baby [i.e. doll] , that 
came regularly over once a month, 
habited sUter the manner of the most 
eminent toasts in Paris *' (No. 277). 

With lay, a joint, Dut. lid, Ger. glied, 
and lay, a song, Ger. lied, compare 
Greek mUoa, (1) a limb, (2) a song. 

Lat-lock, a North coimtry corrup- 
tion of I4la>c (HoldcrneM Glossary, Enjr. 
Dialect Soc), Sp. lilac, of Persian ori- 

*' Sweet laylocks bloomed " occurs 



b ihm Beoloh ImDmU 'Twa$ wiihin a 
WHm y Bdiwibcffo* ioo%m 

Baoon m his E99aiy$ (1625) calls it 
"tih* ZaloelM Tree" (p. 666, ed. Arber). 
Li mbm INVtB of SootUnd the word is 
oomqptod into Uly-oak* 

A fiNoitaiiie of white marble . . . . let 
MHid with mx ticee called lelaek tree«.^ 
danmf, 1C30 [Dnifi, Supp. Eng. Gtauaru]. 

T^AjiM»»uiT» an old word for a fine 
to nmiah Ibnueation (Letue of Manor 
af Seolferj 1687), ie a corraptinn of 
toer iwfa, from A. Sax. tdf«, a fine. 

IdUD, aa old word for a canldron or 
kotHo, wm if one made of lead (like " cop- 
par^ oommonly need for a cauldron), for 
whioli that metal wonld bo a particu- 
hohf manitable material. It is pro- 
hMj a ootrapted form of Gaelic lucJid, 
apot orkottle, Irish luduL 

filowe hawme • ■ . • 
To bame Tnder lead. 

TiMwr, 1580, K. D.Soc. p. 12:>. 

And y ihal yeue |ie ful fair bred, 
And make be broja in )pe led. 
Hmmkk tkt Anw, 1. 9«4 (ed. Skeat). 

Aln baoS bia eSe-putte« 
■ae a bruben ltd. 
Old Emg. MiteeUamyy p. 182, 1. 942. 

Thai be led bim into nteddie 
werhaawaa a bojliog leade^ 
& weUiiig * Tppon bie. 
Pmy Folw MS. toI. i. p. 99, 1. 258. 

Hie fjen ateep, and roUjm^ in bia beed, 
Tbat atanied aa a fomevH oi a leed. 
ChMcer, Pnl. Cant. TaUt^ vol. ii. p. 7 
(ed. Morria). 

The ziij daj of Marche Fryday, wax a 
bojld in Smythfekl in a jnreti* /et/, for 
jjng of many v* Hhe bad dooii. — 
laelf (1640)| Camden MiaceUanu^ vol. iv. 

Lbaovsr, an old word for tho camp 
cf aa assailing army, is an assimilation 
to leo^He of Dnt. l^g<^% an army or 
ean^ (also a bed or tair, whicli is the 
■amo word), literally that whicli lira 

apoaition before a town), from Dut. 
eiiyto lie. Hence to he-leaguer. Of. 
Oer. lo^er. 

He ahsU soppoae no otber but that bo is 
canied into tne leaguer of the ndviTsaricii, 
when we bring bim to our own tentn. 
Skmhetptttre^ AlVi IVeU that End* |{V//, 
iii. 6, 1. 28. 

a false spoiling of the old 
word leiffer^ or ledger (Dut. logger), an 
r, one who ties (A. bax. lie- 

gan) or resides in a foreign country to 
guard tho interests of his own sovereign, 
as if it denoted one empowered to mi^o 
a Uague or terms of ])cacc. 

Rural iibiid«'ii are the Hweet a«'n8e 

Of piety and iiiiiocenitp ; 

They are the luoek'a calm region, whore 

Angela d«'iicend and rule tb«* Rphere ; 

When H«>aTen lien teaguer^nna the \)o\9i 

Du«-ly aM dew cornea from above. 

//. Vaughan^ Sticrtd I'ttrnu, id.*>0, p. 22.> 
(Repr. 18.78). 

Sir Henry \Votton*s jest is explana- 
tory, **An Ambassador is an honest 
man sent to hjr ahroiul for the Com- 
monwealth *' (Ii**lhjuiai Woftoniitwr, 
1672). So a letlgpT (book) is one that 
lies ready at hand on the desk (cf. O. 
Eng. a foi<f7«T), and ledgrr-hait is ono 
that lies at rest or fixed (Ik. Walton, 
C'omp/*7«» AngUr, p. 08, llepr. Mur- 

Newes of my morning; Worke . . . That 
Hlee)>e irt ileatliM /^i^ffr-amhAMndour.— •Sir T, 
Oivrfrurv, A'euvf, p. 189 (tnl. Kinibault). 

Lkason, a term of cooker^' denoting 
a thickeniTig for sauces, is a corruption 
of Fr. liaitntUf what ser\08 to bind them 
togetlicr (Kcttner, B(>ol' of the Table). 

Lbatiier, used in Scotland, Ireland, 
and Prov. KngHsli, for to fiog or beat 
soundly, as if to lash with leallu^r 
thongs fA. Sax. le^er). It is the old 
Kng. lltere^ used in tlio same sense, 
Scot, leather^ to belabour or work ener- 
getically (<Jrogor, Banff Ghasary) ; cf. 
A. Sax. (td')li^ion^ to tear (to limb, 
from li^v, a limb), W*^p, a sling; Prov. 
Eng. liihrr, supple, pliant, /)V^,tomake 
supple, Cleveland leal he. 

Hot hun ut hctterliche — ^> fule kur dn^p^e 
— & iifiere to him luiSerliche mid tf holi«* 
rode ateiie [Order him out sternly, the foul cur 
do^f and leather him K4>ver«>lv with the statl' 
of the holy roodj.^iiwcrrn (iiwle^ p. t^91. 

Leave. When a person hares^ or de- 
parts from, a place or company {disce- 
(/»7), he is said "to take his leave,** and 
the word in either case is no doubt 
popularly supposed to bo the same (as 
ii disccasiofiemaqjcre). The true moan- 
ing of the phrase is '* to take permis- 
sion " (lictnfiam canere), i.e. to with- 
draw; Imiw. being old Eng. le^kie, A. Sax. 
leaf permission (froni/i/y>frj, to permit), 
and identical with tho -lough of fur- 
lough (=:Dut. ver-lof pcnnission to bo 
absent, leave, Ger. nr-laiib), Icol. leijfi. 


( 212 ) 


Cf. "By your leave" wiiJi your por- 
mission, "to ask leave,'' "to give 
leave " (See Skeat, Etym, Did. s. v.). 

Therat alle the kynges logho, 

What wondur was thowe ther were no 

swoghe ? 
They take ther leve that tyde ; 
Witn trumpys and with mery Honge, 
Eche oon went to hys own londe. 
With yoye and grete pryde. 
The Emperor Octavian (14th cent.), H. 1720- 
171^ (Percy Soc.). 
But taketh his leve, and homeward he him 

spedde ; 
Let him beware, his nekke lieth to wedde. 
Chaucer, C^nt. Tale*, ). 1219. 

And 80 it were to me lever, 
Than such a sighte for to leve, 
[f that she wolde give me leve 
To have so mochef of my will. 
Oower, Conf, AmantiSf vol. iii. p. 8 
(ed. Pauli). 

Luf lokes to luf & his leue take^. 
Alliterative Poenu, p. 48, 1. 401 (ed. Morris). 

These graces though they shall leave the 
soule in Heaven, because she should not need 
them, yet tliey shall not forsake her while she 
abides in the porch, but shut heaven doore 
upon her ere they take their leave. — D. Rogert, 
Naaman the 5yrtan, 1641, Ep. Dedicatory, 
p. i. 

He that described his manner of departure 
from his mistresse, said thus not mucn to be 

I kist her cherry lip, and took mit leaue : 
For I took my leaue undi kist her; And yet 1 can- 
not well saj whether a man use to kisse before 
hee take his leaue, or take his leaue before 
he kisse, or that it be all one busines. It 
aeemes the taking leaue is by using some 
speach, intreating licence of departure : the 
kisse a knitting vp of the farewell, and as it 
were a testimoniall of the licence without 
which here in Eneland one may not presume 
of courtesie to depart, let yong Courtiers 
decide this controuersie. — G. Puttenham, 
Arte of Eng. Poesie, 1589, p. 181 (ed. Arber). 

In the following, lycence is used in the 
sense of leave of absence. 

'J'han for a space he taketh Lycence, 
God wot as yet he [be] payd for none ez- 
spence ; 

And so departeth. 

The liye Way to the Spyttel Rous, 1. 495. 

Lectern, a reading-desk in a church, 
apparently that from which the lections 
(or lessons) of Scriptiure are read out of 
the leciionary (Lat. lectio, a reading), 
and so given by Richardson. It is reaUy 
tlie Low Latm ledrin/um, from Low 
Lat. lectrum, a pulpit or reading-desk, 
properly that on which a book rests. 

from Greek UJdron, a conch (akin to 
Lat. Ucius, a couch, liifer, lie, lair, &c.), 
— Skeat. Compare cfnicJier, the re- 
gister-book of a corporation ; and ledger, 
an entry-book that lies (ready at hand), 
Ger. lager -buck. 

Leedginq, used in the sense of heal- 
ing or cure in the Percy Folio MS., is 
from Fr. alleger, to allay, assuage, or 
mitigate one's hurt, but confounded 
with leechinge, which is a various read- 
ing in he. 

Sir Cawlines sicke, & like to be dead 
Without and a good Uedginge. 
ffeitch yee down my dau^^hter deere, 
Shee is a Leeche fi'ull ffine. 

vol. iii. p. 5, 11. 37-40. 

Leese, a technical term used in the 
manufacture of playing cards, meaning 
to burnish or polish tlie cardboard by 
rubbing with a smooth flint, is cor- 
rupted from the French lisser, to 
smooth or poUsh (Transactions of 
PhUolog. 8oc. 1867, p. 65). 

Left. Tlie left hand is not, as has 
been often asserted, that which is l^ft 
or unused, as is proved by the Belgio 
and Lower Saxon lufte, lucht, luchter. 
It may be akin to Lat. hovvs, left, 
Greek laios, Church Slavonic levu. 

Pictet thinks that Greek laios for 
lavios corresponds to a Sanskrit form 
lamja (lavandus, sinister). — OHgines 
IndO'Evrop. torn. ii. p. 491 ; Curtius, 
Orisch. Etymohgie, p. 328; Garnet, 
Philolog. Essays, p. 66. 

Lyft in old English seems to have 
meant weak, powerless, disabled 
(Skeat), and the left hand is in other 
languages often regarded as tlie useless 
hand, e.g. It. vianca (the maimed), 
Prov. vum seneco (the aged or weak 
hand). See Diez, s. v. Oauchc. 

Leo powster, an old Scotch expres- 
sion for a state of health in contradis- 
tinction to death bed, e.g. a will made 
in Ug poivster, is a ludicrous corruption 
of the forensic phrase liege poustie. 

Leisure, an assimilation to other 
words ending in -ure, such as censure, 
figtt/re, rneasure, structure (Lat. ce^isura, 
figura, &c.), of hiser, old Eng. Iryser, 
old Fr. hnsir, (1) to be permitted, (2) 
leisure, from Lat. licere, to be allowed. 
Similarly pleasure from Fr. plaisir. 

Whan t^ou sei^s ley sere )>at he ne perceyue 

LBKON DAB ( 213 ) 


|i witti^lMwf^'j Okvmklff, p. f89 (ed. 

lamn daBi % certain speoies of dab 
vftwadflr, **!• oommonly called bo at 
tt-ftelli" (Badham, Pme Jf o^iVu/iM, 

^860). The name is a oormption of 
■ Mwflw&C'limand dab*'), pUxteisa 
iwaarfai ao called because its rongh 
Aia membles, and is used for, a fil^, 
lima, A aomewhat similar fish is called 
s fa wo a aofe, the scientific name of 
vlddi ii fi^oleci Aur\afUiaca^i.e, *' Orange 
■de," a pp ar ently a fresh cormption. 

LnT« a Scotch term for the game at 
oris mora oommonly called Loo^ as if 
(vhidi Jamieeon actually supposed) 
MMue it was played more especially 
dmnigljeii^, is a corruption of the word 
ImU^ which is also found. 

JmU ia merely the head, just as loo 
k the tail, of the word Lanterloo (which 
VM perhape understood as Lant or 
fas), nmnezly spelt lang-irilloo (Sliad- 
vdl, A True Widow^ 1679, act iv.) and 
hafrttjpii. (which Mr. G. Wordsworth 
Ahiki is from Fr. rentrptifin, conversa- 
fioiL — UmvarmiyLifeinEigJitecnth Cen- 
lary.p.517). The origin is probably Fr. 
hirfiirlii, nonsense I (Skeat). Lant is 
rifll need for the game of loo in N. W. 
leneohishire (Peacock), and lanier in 
Comberland (Ferguson). 

At Imlvr the csird taken lat i' the loft.— 
Cumberland Gbatant, E. D. S. 

>AT, an old Scotch term 
ftr the day of the birth of the Virgin 
(Jamieson), is evidently a corruption 
of (otir) Lady Mary' a Bay. 

r, a Scotch term for a desk, 
k a oaxToption of letirin, old Eng. let- 
iomef O. Fr. lelrin^ Fr. ZuM'n, a lecicm, 
or reeding stand. 

In silke |At comely clerk wan clad. 
And ooer a Uttortu Ironed he. 
EtHg Emg, PMjii«(PhiloloK. Soc. 1858), 
p. 124, 1. 18. 

Lettucb is frequently found as the 
Bgn of an alehouse ; e.g. The Grcefn Let- 
imee is (or was) the designation of one 
in Brownlow Street, Hoi bom (Brand). 

LeUuee here, and in the sign of The 
Red Lett/uce^ or as anciently spelt, *' a 
red kHice *' (Chapman, All Fools, sign. 
H 4)y ia a corruption of lattice, which, 
when painted red, was once the com- 
mon mark of an alehouse. Hence 

Shakespeare's "rcd-lattico phrases.*' 
— Merry Wm^e of Whuleorf ii. 2. 

As wrU knowen by my wit as an als-hmna 
Inf a rtd lattice. 

The known trade of the ivj bush or red let' 
tire. — Bra ith wait f Imw of Drinking, 1617 
( l*n'laci" >. 

First, YOU must Hwear to defend the honour 
of AriitipnuM, to thi» disgrace of brewers, ale- 
wives, and taprttcrs, and profc*88 ytmrsclt* a 
foe, numinalis, to maltm(*n, tapstprn, and red 
lattice*. — Riindntphf AriatippuHf 1650, Work*, 
p. l.i (ed. Hazlitt). 

All the vacation hee lies imboa^Me behinde 
the lattice of ponie biin<le, drunken, Ixiwdy 
ale-houw.— iiir T. Orerbitru, Characters, p. 
169 (ed. Rimhnuh). 

1 take a corner house, anfl sell nut-brown. 
Fat ale, bri>«k stout, and humming clamber- 
Ill front my window with a frothy boar, 
And plant a new red lettuce o'er my door. 
Epitof^ue to the Adelphi, 17i>9, Lumus Alteri 
WestmonasterienMes, p. 8. 

I am not tm well knowne by my wit as an 
alehourii* by a red lattice. — /. Manton, An- 
tonio and Mellidu, Pt. 1. act y. 

The alehouseM are their neHta and cagefl, 
where they exhaust and lavish out their 
goodn, and Iny plots and devices how to j^Pt 
more. Hence they full either to robbing or 
cheatine, open courses of violence or secret 
mischief, till at last the jail pn^pares them for 
the gibbet. For li^^htly they smg: throuj^h a 
red lattice, before they cry through an iroa 
grate. — T, Adam*, The I'^orett of Thorns^ 
Works, ii. 480. 

Where Red Jacttice doth shine, 
Tis tin outward mp^n 

Good ale iH a traffic within. 

The Chriilinas Ordinary^ 1683. 

He called me even now, my lonl, through 
a red lattice. — Hhakespeare, Hen. IV, Pt. 11. 

See Hotton, Hist, of Signboards, p. 
376; Brand, Pop. Antiquities, vol. ii. 
l)p. 851-355 ; Way, in Trompt. Parv, 
s.v. Crny ; Soanc, Noio Curiosities of 
Litf^raturc, vol. i. p. 89. 

ThL< lattice is said to have b<»en originally 
the chetiiters, which were the arms of the 
Warrens, Karls of Surrey (chcMjuy or and 
azure), and were affixed to public houses in 
order to facilitatf> the gathering of dues for 
those noblemen who had the grant of licens- 
ing tlieni. — ('. A'. Elvin, Anecdotes of He- 
rtildry, p. 157. 

Similarly LcHice-cap, a coif of net- 
work, occurs in the plays of Beaumont 
and Fletcher, and is a corruption of 
latticp-cnp. Minsheu, in his Spanish 
Diction^iry, j^ves "A Letfise bonnet or 
cap for gentlewomen, Alhu/nega;*^ "A 


( 214 ) 


Lettise window, v. Laiiise^'" and ** Let- 
Use an herbe, Lcchuga" 

Levant. A defaulter who runs away 
from luB creditors is said to levant, as 
if to go on a cruise to the furthest ex- 
tremity of tlie Mediterranean, a phrase 
of considerable antiquity; cf. in Frencli 
**Faire voile en Levant, to sail East- 
ward; to be stolne, filched, or pur- 
loyned, away" (Cotgrave). 

Tlie Leva/nt, as a word for the East, 
is firom lever, to rise. It. levare, mean* 
ing tlie rising, or (as Gray calls it) 
** the levSe of tlie Sun ;** and tlie phrase 
in question is a sort of calemhour on the 
verb lever, to lift or carry away, = Eng. 
**to convey;" Sp. levantar, to lift up, 
raise, weigh anchor (Minslieu), de- 
camp. Our slang verb to lift, meaning 
to steal (also to clift), as in slu^p-H fling, 
is of a different origin, being near akin 
to Gotli. hlifan, to steal, hliflus, a thief, 
Gk. klepto, klept^a^ To Levant, or sail 
J'itr tlie Levant, is one of a nimierous 
class of jocular plirases framed on the 
same model, with a quibbling allusion 
to local names ; e.g, the sleepy are said 
to be off to Bedfordehire or die Land of 
Nod ; tlie guUible are sent to the Scilly 
Isles or Greenland: the dinnerless to 
PeckJuim; the bankrupt to Begqars 
Bush, In France, to be upset is alter a 
VrrsaiUes ; a dunce is recommended a 
course a Asnieres (as we might recom- 
mend an impudent fellow to Brase- 
nose) ; a person is sent about his busi- 
ness by being despatched to the Ahhey 
of Vaian (va-t-en). — Tylor, Maamllans 
Mag. voL xxix. p. 505. 

We in England bid him go to Jericho, 
an old phrase : — 

Lot them gM to Jericho, 
And nVre be seen againe. 
Mereurius Auliciu, March ^-liO, 1648. 

He who snores in Leicestersliirc is 
one who comes from Hog's Norton 
(liogs* snorting !) ; the eccentric are 
said to live in Queer Street, or in Bo- 
Jn'mia ; the fanciful are said to have 
castles in Ayrshire; a ne' 
who may one day be hanged is in 
Scotch a Hpmpshirt' gentleman. So in 
Elizabethan EngUsh, one who deserved 
to bo whipt was sent to Birching Lan**, 
and if penitent bidden to come home 
by Weeping Cross ; those in want of 
food were Hungarians. The narrow- 

minded cit, or lover of good cheer, is & 
denizen of Cocagne, It. Cocagna. Com- 
pare also the French phrase ** voifogi-r 
en Comouaill4>. [to sail to ComwalT] , To 
wear the horn " (Cotgrave), i.e. to be 
comutus, or to be made a cuckold, 
which is also found in ItaUan, *' Donna 
che nianda il nuxrito in Como'u>aglia 
senza harca, a woman that sendeth her 
husband into the land of Corneicale 
without a boat, that is cuckoldeth 
him" (Florio). The nearest x)&i*all^lt 
however, to levant is It. Ficardia, the 
country of Picardie, but used for a 
place where men are hanged; andar'* 
in picardia, to goe to the gallowes, or 
to be hanged " (Florio), witli allusion 
to picare, to rogue or cheat. 

Never mind that, mnn ; e'en boldly run a 
levant. — Fielding, History of a Foundling, 
bk. viii. ch. 1!^. 

The following are in Fuller's Wor- 
thies of England ; — 

** He WM born at Little IVittham ** [Lincoln- 
shire]. . . It ia applied to mucIi |>eopl** as are 
nut overstocked with acutenesae. — Vol. ii. 
p. 7. 

'* He must take him a house in Tum-agfiin 
iMne " [l^ndou] . . is applied to those, 
who, sensible that they embrace destructive 
courses, must seasonably alter their manners. 
—Id. p. 69. 

He fetcheth a Wife from Shrews-buru 
must carry her into Staff-ordiihire, or else shall 
live in C u miter- In nd. — Id, p. t^Vt. 

" You are in the high way to Needham ** 
[SuifolkJ^-said to them who do hasten to 
poverty. — Id. p. S'26. 

*' He doth sail into dyrntpaU without a 
Bark" . . . this is an Italian Proverb, when* 
it passeth for a description (or derision rather ) 
of such a man who is wronged by his wife's 
disloyalty. — Id. vol. i. j). ilO. 

Then married men might vild reproach(>s 

And shunne the Harts crest to their hearts 

With cornucopia, Comewull, and the home, 
Which their bad wiues bid trom their bed be 

Imm, Tom Tfl-Trolhs Me*«tge, 1. 676 
(1600), (Shaks. 8oc.). 

I repaired to Delphos to ask counsel of 
Apollo, because 1 saw mvsi>lf almost arriveil 
at GruLesend^ to know it 1 should briiii; u]) 
my son suitable to the thriving trades oi tlii.s 
age we live in. — Uandolph^ tleq for Honesta^ 
i. 1, Works, p. :«» (eil. Hazlitt)". 

"We may compare witli tlio above : — 
in French, alter a Cachan(& village near 
Paris), to hide one's self (se cacher) 


( 216 ) LIFE-GUARD 

km €Bi't eraditori. — ^Le Bonx de 
IiMj, J V opertfli Fram^aiif torn. i. p. 
M; flOfr 4 Patnu^ to be gathered to 
mf» hAmm {ad paire$) ikre de Lunel, 
lilt ft ImiAtie ; oSer it Kawn^ to go to 
nh: In Q«niuui, mack Bethtehtmh gohen 
tp to Bedlam), and mack Beiiingen 

£(10 goto Bettiiigeii, a village near 
i)v for Ml Bette gehen (to go to 
M); Br til out AnkiUi (He is from 
iMf, M if iUiltoM, he holds foHt), 
minlin: he is a miser; Er tst ein 
AMamtr (oL amklammem, to oling to 
aw)y ho 10 importimate. — See Andro- 
MB, FoBhrfymotoytg, p. 86. 

old word used by 
and others for a riot or distur- 

(^id. Mazrell's Poetns, p. 117, 

Ifamw*! reprint), is from the French 
kdiad^ and oiigmally signified a romp- 
ing nme. '* To play at levell coil, joupt 
A ai Unit Lb, to play and lift up your 
toils when you have lost the game, and 
kt another sit down in your place '* 
(IGaahea); ^K>ven9al^a-ooi«a. Gom- 
pin Aenoh bascule, see-saw, from bis 
■ad ohI; ham^der (Cotgrave) ; old £ng. 
D^iflgs-flB, a riotous game. 

As my little pot doth boyle ; 
Wa will keep thU Ineil-eoyU ; 
That a wave, and I will bring 
To mj Ood, a heave-offmng. 

U§rriekf NifbU Numbers, Poenu, 
p. 4A5 (ed. Hazlitt). 

8o dwy did, & entered the parlour, found 
dl Ato twM eotfUf and hia pate broken, hiit 
ftse senieht, & leg out of joynt. — K. Ar- 
■fay Nmt 4' Ntnnigt (1606;, p. 28 ^Shaks. 

Tfl*. How now ! What coil is here ? 

Lnd-€oU, Ton see, every man's pot. 
t mmd Fkteher, Faitl^'ul FritndSy i. ^. 

ioal (parhapi) in quencbleHse fire 

Whilst on the euth his sonne keepes leueli 

Tm^ Cto WMUr-Poet, Workes, 1630, p. 260. 

A dafly deluge over them does boil, 
; The earth and water play at level coil, 
Amdrew BiarveU, The Character of Holland, 

LusBTONB, a literal rendering of the 
of the lamprey, which was sup- 
to he lambens-petram. 

LaoB, often used as if meaning 
fiathfolt trosty, loyal, yielding true ser- 
' liege man,*' a "liege vas- 

Tioe^as a 

It is easy to see, says Prof. Skeat, 
thai this sense is due to a false ety- 

mology which connected the word witli 
Lat. llgatua (from ligart*, to bind), as if 
hound to his lord by feudal tenure, 
owinp: allegiance. (SoSpolman, Builey, 
Way.) In exact contradiction to tlio 
popular notion, the original meaning 
was/p'f, and the w«)rd wan apjtlied to 
the lord, as **ouro hjgt* lord " (Robert 
of Gloucester). It is old Eng. Ugr, 
lige. Ft. ligp, old Fr. lu'gc, Low Lat. 
lights, 0. H. Ger. lidic, free to go 
one's way, from lidnn, to go. A lirgp. 
lord seems to liave been a lord of a froo 
band, and his lifgrs or men owed their 
name to iheirfrveJom, not to their afvr- 
via'. See Skeat, Etym, Did, s.v. 

Lordingei*, 5e ben my Uf^e men* ^t gode ben 
oc trewe. 

WiUiam of PaUme, I. 2663. 

Ltfche, ladyor lorde, Ligius, — Prompt, Par* 

The Baron Iiaa been with King Robert his 

These three long yean* in battle and sie^p. 

Scott, W'averley, ch. ziii. 

.... Sterne fortunes 8i»»jfH, 

Makes not his reason slinke, tlie soules faire 

Whose well pais'd action ever rests upon. 
Not giddie humours, but discretion. 

Mariton, AnUmio and Mellida, Pt. II. 
act i. Kc. 6. 

Life- BELT probably moans etymo- 
logically a hody-holt, from Dut. hjf, 
Swed. lif, Ger. leih, the body. 

Compare Ger. leib-hinde, a girdle, 
leib-gurfel, a body -belt ; Dutch lyf-hand, 
a sash or girdle ; Swed. lif-rock, a close- 
fitting coat. 

LiFE-ouARD, i,e, hody-^nxH, the first 
part of the word corresponding to Swe- 
dish "//Y" (zzGer. l^ih, body), said 
to have been introduced in the Thirty 
Years' War (vide Dosont, Jest cmd Ear- 
neat, ii. p. 25), but it is certainly older. 
Similar formations in Swedish are lif- 
vakt, body-guard; lif-pa^e, lif-hirurg, 
page and surgeon in ordinary ; lif -dra- 
gon, dragoon of tlio body-guard. Com- 
pare Dutch lijf, the body, whence lijf- 
giirde, lljf'8chvfhende,a.]i£e-gaard ; Ger. 
leibgard*', a body-guard. So Dut. lijf- 
knecht (body-servant), a footman. 

The Swiss have leihgijainer (body- 
gardenor), a blundering form of leih- 
garde. See Life-belt. 

" The King's Body guard of yeomen 
of the guard " was instituted by Henry 


( 216 ) 


VII. in 1485, T>robably on the model of 
" La Petite Uarde de son corps " or- 
ganized by Louis XI. in 1475. But 
the " King's Life Guards *' are first 
mentioned in the reign of Charles I. 
See Ellis, Orig, Letters, 2nd S. vol. iii. 
p. 810. 

Know also that the Cherethites were a kind 
of/t/e;^arrfto Kin^David. . . What unlikelj> 
hood waa it that David might entertain Prose- 
Ijrte Philistines, converts to the Jewish reli- 
gion, if there were such, to be attendants 
about his hodtf 7 Not to instance in the French 
Kings double ^ard of Scots and Switzars, as 
improper to this purpose. — T. FuUer, Pisgah 
Si£ht, 1650, p. 217. 

Then three young men, that were of the 
guard that kept the King*$ bodiiy spake one 
to another. — A. V, 1 Esdras, iii.' 4. 

Lift, an old verb moaning to steal, 
still used in shop-lificr, one who pilfers 
from shops, and ccUtle-Ufting, cattle- 
stealing, has sometimes been imder- 
stood as to raise, take up, and carry 
off ( Richardson), like It.Zovare, to take 
or set away, to remove, levanted an up- 
taker, a bold pilfrer (Florio). It has 
nothing to do with lift, to raise, but is 
Qikegraf-t for graff) an incorrect form 
of lifff cognate with Goth, hh'fany Lat. 
clepere, Greek kl^tein, to steal (Diefen- 
bach, ii. 569). EJepto-mania is a mcmia 
for Ufting, 

And so whan a man wold brjng them to 

They wyll hym rob, and fro his good hym 

The Hye Way to the SpytUl HouSy 1. 298. 

Is he so young a man and so old a lifter 1 
Shakespeare^ Troilus and Cressida^ 
i. 2, 129. 

He that steals a cow from a poor widow or 
a stirk from a cottar is a thief; he that lifts a 
drove from a Sassenach laird, is a gentleman- 
drover. — Scottf Wuverlejf, chap, zviii. 

Like. To like has often been under- 
stood to signify the attraction wliich 
we feel towards those who are like our- 
selves in tastes and dispositions ; nolle 
ct veUe eadem being one chief bond of 

Every beast loveth his like, ... all flesh 
consorteth according to kind, and a man will 
cleave to his like, — tlccUtt. xiii. 16, 17. 

For ech )>ing loue|} his ilicfUf so eai]) ffc boo 
Early Eng, PoemSy Judas Iscariot, 1. 66 
(ed. Fumivall). 

An hypocrite liketh an hypocrite because 

he is like unto him. — Bp, J. Kingy On Jonah 
(1594), Lect. ii. 

Compare also the following : 

For wel louus euery lud * bat liche is him 

Alexander and Dindimus (ab.l350), 1. 1041. 

** Every man loves woU what is like 
to himself," or as the old proverb has 
it, "Like will to Uke." — Hey wood. 

*X2f eutl Toy ofMiov iyti dioc w; tov ofjLoXm. 
Hoinery CW«/«. xvii. 218. 

Good [God] evermore doth train 
With like his like. 

Chapman^ Odyss. xvii. 285. 

The Greeks also had a sa3ring, *' Like- 
ness is the mother of love " (sec Ray, 
Proverbs, sub " Birds of a feather '*). 

Like mil to like, each creature lovps his kind, 
Chaste words proceed still from a bash full 
Herricky HesperideSy Poems, p. 342 
(ed. Hazlitt). 

Hence is it that the virprin neuer loues, 
Because her like she fiuds not anywhere ; 
For likenesse euermore affection moues. 

Sir J. Davies, Poems, vol. ii. p. 82 
(ed. Grosart). 

Custome and company doth, for the most 
part, simpathize together, according to the 

f>rouerbe. Simile Simili gaiidet^ like will to 
ike, quoth the Deuill to the Collier. — B. 
Rich. Uonestie of this Age (161^), p. 48 (Percy 

For all thinge loueth that is lyke it sclfe. 
The Parlament of Byrdes, Eng. Pop. Poetry, 

iii. 18t). 

The same idea occurs in Sterne, Ser- 
mons, iv. 49, 50; cf. Whitney, Lan- 
guage, p. 108. Archbishop Trench 
thinks that to lik^ a thing was originally 
" to compare it with some otlier thing 
which we have already before our 
natural, or our mind's, eye," this pro- 
cess of comparison giving rise to plea- 
surable emotion. 

That we like what is like, is the explanation 
of the pleasure which rhyme gives us.— 
Notes on the Parables, p. 24 (l>th ed.). 

But "like" (zzsimilis), old Eng. 
Uche, hkeness, is a distinct word, being 
akin to A. Sax. lie, form, body, Dut. 
lijk, Ger. leicJie, Goth. (ga-)leiks. 

The oldest usage, moreover, of the 
verb seems to have been impersonal, 
** It likes me," i,e. pleases me, is to my 
taste, Norse lika, Dutch lijken, Goth. 
leikan, to please. Mr. Wedgwood 
thinks the original meaning was ** it 
reUshes, or tastes pleasant" (comparing 


( 217 ) 


Of and oomUtes Fr. 
r. Udmruk, Ukerou§, fte., Lat. 
L3anipMre Kkeful^ pleasant, 
liBlor.lii old Bn^uh. 

Of flMy of !«•• uid rieh met, 
)• JMObf ^ auui mmi et. 


Wnm, the ume root Beemingly is 
a% VMd in the Bense of proper, fit, 
MBMMy, mU-oonditioned, ije, pleasing- 
fib (pIoflSHli-nmaif ), moi probable (to 
■Boaad), like to one that will suit (as 
il9mtM§iwUK§f mnee -ly is for like). 

« WhD is that preC^ irirl with dark oj(-ii ? " 
«Tlsl is Hatty 80ml, Mid MiM Lydia Don- 
silhoiaSt ** Martin Povier'i niece— a very 
ttib vmiBff person, ana welUlookiiiK too." — 
Q^Ebi^\£Um BeJi, ch. xzr. (p. «d7). 

"When Herodias' dao^^ter danced 
Mm the oompany, the A. Saxon ver- 
■m a^s *«hit Wsode Herode " (Matt. 
nr. 6). 

CoBBB, >e kyni^ neaew, ne Ukede not ]as 
pmm.f^-Bokert oj Glmtettttr^ Chronicle, p. 92 

C u r a sw ai le hym Uktde best — /fi. p. 21. 

Tkat it BUj iyJItf yon to caum* Ii^-m have in 
nmd one humuvd powmle. — Hir Thoi. 
iUn (I5f9), Eiiis, Orig. UUen, Ser. 3, vol. i. 


Bsfere nan is life and death ; and wh(>thcr 
Un Ukttk sbsll be given him.— yl. V. KccU- 

IdKB-owii, *'A ahrichowle, a IHc/*- 
sub*' (2!fomenelaior)t a corruption of 
IwIfoioI, ft provincial word for a scrcccli- 
mri, from KeAe, 2te^ a corpse, as in 

Diftyton speaks of 

The shrieking Uteh-owl that doth npvor cry 
Bat bodingoeath, and uuick hf reelf inters 
la dsrksonse graves, ana hollow Hcpulchm. 

Lilt oak, a popular name in some 
parts of Scotland for tlio lilac (Jumie- 
son), of which word it is u currup- 

IdXXT BoTAL, a South country name 
Ibir the plant fne^Uha pvlpgivui, in a cor- 
mption of putuUi roycUl (Britten and 

LiUie rioiU is Penniroynll.— G^rardf , <S'Mp- 
to the General Table* 

liUB^ formerly Ihii, A. Sax. J hi, ro 
spelt probably from a false oiialo^'y to 
Ihn^ an astronomical term for tlio od^o 
or bolder ^ the snn or moon, which is 

firom Lat. Umhts, It. U*mlo, a skirt or 

Whrn any of tin* mfmherA or limM were 
broken with the full, h man that Siiw them 
would my they wen* hnmd hith-a and liu^e 
caueR in the ground. — Holla ml, Flinus Matu- 
ntll Uistorit*^ vol. ii. p.-ll)! (^i(i5lK 

LiMn, as an astronomical term for 
the utmost cd^o or border of tlio disk 
of the sun or moon, wlion it is boin;; 
eclipsoil, &c,, lias notliin«; to do with 
limb, a member, but is a borniwcd 
word from It. Innlto, \Akt. limhus, a 

Limb, a provincial term for a mis- 
chievous or wicked person, as " He's a 
perfect linih,*' ** a devil's //m6,'' seems 
to be the samo word as Scot, liium, a 
profligate female, limm^r, a scoundrel, 
a worthless wuiiian. 

LiMK, as the name of a tree, is a 
corruption of the older fonn Ini^ (its 
name still in Liiicoliishire)^ which is 
itself comipttMl from A. Sax. and Swed. 
//wi/, Ger. llndr, a Vnubn} perhaps, 
orijL^rinally, the Miiooth wood, akin to 
Ger. (/rlifiil, suiootli, Icel. Unr (Skeat). 

Wilow, rlnif plane, nsh, l>ox, cheHt(>in, lind, 
Chiucer, The Knightes Tale, 1. 2^1. 

L<'f in lyht on lunde, 
Biktdeker, Alten^, l)irhtnni;en, p. 166, 1. .S, 

The female I.iue or lAndcn Xrov. wnxeth 
very great and thioke, Kpri'adini; foorth his 
brHnchi.'ii wi<l»* niid far ahroad, beiiiic a tr<»t> 
wiiirb veeUlcth a riUKt plea?i:uit Hhadnw, viider 
aiid within whose houg:lieH may be made 
braue simimer houHi*s and Imnkettint; nrliors, 
hicau80 the more tint it is ^urcharpNl with 
waijL^ht of timber ami Hiich like, the better it 
doth flourish. The bark(> is brownish, very 
imtHyth and ]daine on the outside. . . . The 
timber is whitish . . . yea very soft and 
jyentle in the rutting or hnndling. — Genirde, 
Herbal, p. 1*2«>». 

Limn has been pjeiierally understood, 
in accordance witli the spelling, to bo a 
contracted form of Fr, mhniiin^r, to 
illuminate, illiistrate, or paint in bright 
cobmrs (Skeat, Kichardson, Trench, 
Wedgwood). An old spellinj;, how- 
ever, is lim, to paint, from A. Sax. Ilm, 
a limb, ])roperly " to limb out," to figure, 
to delineate tlie parts of a body. S])eii- 
ser has //?>i>/i/wf7 for 2)ainting, whieli is 
the A. Sax. Ihnlnrj, J. Mayno in his 
Ti'fnishttion of Lnc'mn has llni}n\ to 
paint ; and so Sir Tlios. Browne, 


( 218 ) 


IjCt a painter carefullj Umhe out a million 
of faces, and you shall find them all different. 
^li^ligio A/«dici, 1642. 

Gf. A. Sax. lim-geleage, form or linea- 

He who would draw a faire amiable Lady 
limbe$ with an erring pencil. — Jaspar Maipie, 
Lucian ( Epistle Dedicatory)y 1663, 

Liv'd Mantuan now againe 
That fsmall MaAtix to /tmm« with his penne. 
Donney PoemSy p. 97, 1635. 

Where statues and Joves acts were vively 

/iffi6 [read limh*d], 
Boyes with black coales draw the yail'd parts 

of nature. 
MarstoTiy SophontMbaj iv. 1, Worhsj i. p. 197 
(ed. Halliwell). 

The h in limb is no organic part of 
the word. Even Ume (A. Sax. Mm, = 
ccUx) was formerly spelt Unibe. 

Wormes . . . are wont to doe much hurt 
to Fomaces and LimbekilU where they make 
Limbe, — TopteU^ Historie of Serpents, p, 314 

Lim, gluten, is given among words 
appropriate to painting in Wright's 
VocamiUmes (11th cent.), p. 89. 

The form Iwnn is of great antiquity, 
as in the Proniptorium Founndorumy 
about 1440, ive find, ** I/ymnydy as 
bookys (Cambridge MS. Ivmynid), Elu- 

^* Lymnore (Camb. MS. humnour) 
Elucidator .... alluminator, illumi- 

Johannes Dancastre, Ivmeruf, — English 
Gilds (1389), p. 9 (E. E.T.S.). 

Limn was probably a compromise 
between Um and lumin, two words 
originally distinct. 

He became the best lUuminer or Limner of 
our age, employed generally to make the 
initial letters in the Patents of Peers, and 
Commissions of Embassadours, having left 
few heirs to the kind, none to the degree of 
his art therein. — T. Fu/ier, Worthies of Eng- 
land, vol. i. p. 167 (ed. 1811). 

Lifmne them ? a food word, Ittmne them : 
whose picture is tnis ? — J. MarsUm, Works, 
Tol. i. p. 55 (ed. Halliwell). 

As m the two days stay there it was im- 
possible I could take the full of what I am 
assured an expert Limbner may very well 
spend twice two moneths in ere ne can make 
a perfect draught. — Sir T. Herbert, Travels, 
1665, p. 153. 

Similarly, Urmnous is sometimes 
found for luminous ; — 

So is th'eye [ill affected] if the coulour be 
sad or not Uminous and recreatiue, or the shape 

of a membred body without his due measures 
and simmetry. — G. Puttenhum, Arte oj Eng, 
Poeaie, 1589, p. 268 (ed. Arber). 

LiNCH-PiN. Linch here is a corrupted 
form, from confusion with link (A. Sax. 
hlence), of old Eng. line, A. Sax. /j/nj«, 
an axle-tree, Dut. luns (Skeat, iJtyin. 

Line-hound, quoted from Clittia^a 
Whimziea by Nares, as if called from the 
line in which he was led, is a corrupt 
form of UmA'hovnd, a sporting dog 
held by a lyme or thong, Fr. limier. 

Link, a torch, a corruption of lint^ 
seen in old Eng. Unt-stock, a stick to 
hold a gunner's match ; while lint again 
owes its form to a confusion with lint, 
scraped linen, being properly lunty the 
Scottish word for a torch or match, 
Dan. lunte, Swed. Iv/nia, Dut. lont 

Lint-white, Scot. Unt-quhii, an old 
name for the linnet, is a corruption of 
A. Sax. Unet-wige (Ettmiiller, p. 187), 
where linet is from Un^ flax, Lat. Unuvi 
(cf. its scientific name Unotu cannahinay 
Fr. linotte), and trnge is perhaps the 
same word as A. Sax. unga, a soldier or 
warrior, with allusion to the handsome 
appearance of the male bird, with its 
red poll and rose breast. 

Liquorice, the name of a well-known 
sweet root. Low Lat. liquiricia, so spelt 
as if connected with Lat. Uquor, ligurio, 
Ungo, Gk. Uicho, to lick (Ger. Uihritze), 
is a corrupted form of Lat. and Greek 
glycyrrhiza, = " sweet-root.*' In Prov. 
German it is sometimes called lecker- 
zweig, " licker-twig " or dainty-stick. 
Other corruptions are Fr. riglissfi, old 
Fr. reculisse (for legriese, lecurisse) ; It. 
regoHxia for legorizia; Wallon dialect 
erculisse (Sigart). 

The excellent Liquorice flAt. gl\fc\irrhiza\ 
is that which groweth in Cilicia, ,\\ . and 
hath a sweet root which only is Tsed in Phv- 
uic)L.— Holland, Pliny*s Nat, Historu, vol. li. 
p. 120(16*4). 

Whan that the firste cock hath crowe, anon 
Up ri8t this joiy louer Absolon, 
And him arayeth gay, at point devise, 
But first he cheweth grein and licorise. 
To smellen sote. or he had spoke with here. 
Chaucer, Cant, Tales, 1, 3692. 

Glycyriie, or Liquoris England af- 

fordeth hereof the best in the world for some 
uses ; this County the first and best in Kng- 


( 219 ) 


Uftwrik ftmarlr den and 

povB mmp waa eommoD, 

rmtllCoantiM. Thnsplentj 

pradoui thinff a dnijc, ■« 

iwfhing ranpecied in Jeruflalem in 

f Solpwa.— T. FuUtr^ Wortkittrf 

ToL Urn p* 905* 

iridk eat OBilly AnniiMd comfitii 
I of Sugar, of each two oaiicea. — 
CiMrt <^tmd, 1658, p. 178. 

IdqpOBOUtv a ooorrapt spelling of le- 
from Fr. Uiher^ to lick np, 
**IefeAe«ry often licking, lico- 
unw" (Gotgnve). Cf. Dan. loBJcker, 
iamiffiiiioe. Thus ZecAenme meant (1) 
l^nttoBiNia, (S) lewd. 

'*Ligmmm§ lust " oconn in Turber- 
vffliTB aVvufteaU Tolpt, 1587 (Wright). 
Ttm iansm Uguoruihj UdeorouSt and Uh'- 
ffiw an also found. 

A pnmd, peeriab, flirt, a liauoruh, prodifcnl 
^M— Ifii rieii, Jaattfmjy rf MeianchoiUf loth 
Larioth [=: Lot] in hue Ijue * fiorw (n;fr«- 


WiUjdlioh wrogfale * and wratthede god 

of Piers PlMcman, C. ii. &">. 

Aad after J began to taite of the fiesnh 
'^ I waa laeouroutf ao that aAf r tiiat 1 
to thejriieet, in to the wode.— Cairnu, 
tkt FoXf p. 54 (ed. Arber). 

And tiim| and leer, and with a lieorous eye 
iMkhigh and low? 

G. Herbert^ Ttmple, The Diacharge. 

No weoian ihnlde ete no lifconmt morM>lIe8 
in the abeena and withoute weting of her 
l ai l i l i nd 'Hr'r rf tke Knight of lm Tour 
Umdnfj p. » (£. £. T. S.). 

She chere ete a noupe or .8001106 lucorou* 
Ajagw— Carton. French, ** £lle lu nipnjj^oit 
la aouppe an matin ou aucune kicherie, * — 


— ^Mothera ahall run and fetch, 
neir danghtera (ere they yet be ripe) to 

Oar lifMorua iuttt, 
BMudolpkf Tke JealouM Lovers, ii. 2, p. 92 
(ed. Hazlitt). 

Ah, Tom, Tom, thou art a liquorish dog. — 
FiMirngf nistory of a FoutuiUfig, bk. v. 
ch. xiL 


••The honey-suckle, rosenittry, Liri- 
CMnphancy, rose-paz^oy " (Foot Bohin, 
174d), is evidently a corruptiou of lily 
comeaiUsy lily of the valley. 

Lists, ground encloBed for a touma- 
it, a corruption of lisses, O. Fr. lisspy 
It. tfccto, a barrier or palisade, 

Low Lat. /iciVs, barriers, perhaps akin 
to licinmf a thread, or girtllo, and so an 
eucloHuro (Skoat). The word was ])er- 
ha])B confused with ZiW, A. Sax. 2/<i/, a 
strixM) or border. 

Litmus, a kind of blue dye, formerly 
spelt liimose (Bailey), is a corru])tiou of 
hikmosp^ Dut. Itikmaes, from hih, lac, 
and mM8f pulp ; Ger. lickniuM^ litmuH 
(Skoal). The word has evidently been 
asHimilated to Shetland //7/, indigo, fo 
liti, to dye indigo blue (Edmonston); 
Scot, lit, to dye; old Eng. ^*lyiyn' 
clothys, Tingo " (Prompt, l\irrulomm) ; 
Icel. ///(f, to dj'O. Hence litst^^r, a dyer, 
and the proper name Lister. 

LiTTEB, tlie brood or progeny of an 
animal brought fortli at a birth, so 
spelt as if identical with Utter, a bed 
(Fr. lititre, Lat. U'ctaria), as partiment 
women are still said to be " brought to 
beil," or **in the straw." It is really 
identical witli Icel. Uitr, hittr, a place 
where animals produce their yoimg 
(from l^'fjtjjn. to lay; cf. Prov. Eng. 
i^fftf^r, the laying of a hen). — Skeat, 
Etym. Vict. 

Litterf or furthe bryngjjynge of beestyti. 
Fetus, ff'tur.1. 

Lifters of a bed, StratUH. — Prompt, Parvu- 

Live, when used as an adjective in 
tlie sense of Hving, as in ** hve stock,** 
" a live ox" {Ex. xxi. 85), has origi- 
nated in a misunderstanding of the 
idiom ** tlie ox is alive" where alive is 
properly an adverbial usage, old Eng. 
on-live, A. Sax. on life, " in life." It 
would be a similar error if we spoke 
of ** a sleejy child," instead of a " sleep- 
ing," because we say '* the child is 
a-sh'ep," i,e, old Eng. on sleep, "in 
sleep." Cf. " David fell on We(^)."—-4c/u 
xiii. 36. Indeed Chaucer actually does 
use «/c^j) for sleejying, when speaking of 
the vision which he saw. 

Not all waking, ne fulle on sleeps, 

he describes it as 

in jilaine En^Iigh evill written, 
For slet^ writer, well ye witteii, 
Kxcused is, though he do mia, 
More than one that waking ix. 

Chaucer's Dream, 1597. 

Both a-fire and mi fire are still in 
Then flew one of the seraphima unto me 



having a live coal in his hand. — A. V, Is. 
vi. 6. 

The juice of it on sleeping eye-lids laid 
Will make or man or woman madly dote 
Upon the next live creature that it sees. 
Shakegpearey Midi, Night's Dreamy ii. 1, 173. 

Similarly, lone (lonely, lonesome), 
solitary, "A poor lone woman " (Shaks. 
2 Hen. IV, ii. 1, 35), is a corruption of 
cblone, i.e. all-one, altogether single. 

LiYELiHOOD, so spelt as if it were a 
similar formation to likelihood, false- 
hood, &c., is a corruption of the 0. £ng. 
l/iflode, lyveJode, A. Sax. lif-lddc, life's 
support, maintenance, from lif, life, 
and Wd, way, "way of life," or "food 
for a voyage,'* Iddu (vicUicum). Cf. 
lode, the course of the ore in a mine. 
" Hieron has a sermon, the dedication 
to which is dated in 161G, entitled The 
Christians Live-loode. Philemon Hol- 
land has livelode in his Cyropmdia 
(1682), p. 128." ~ Fitzedward Hall. 
The real old word livelihood, lyvelyhede, 
meant Uveliness, quickness, with which 
Uflode was confounded. 

Thus the change of livelode to livelihood is 
what was to be expected ; liwlihood bring the 
more intelligible form would naturally sur- 
vive, existing for Rome time with two mean- 
ings and eventually retaining the one proper 
to livelode, the other being supplied by ** live- 
lineRs." — Morris, Philolog. Soc. Tram. 1863-3, 
p. 88. 

All nis not good to )« gost * )>at ]fe bodi 

Ne l}{flode to )« licam * ))at leof is to )>e soule. 
Vision of Piers Plowman, Text A. 
Pass. 1. 35. 

Folc sechen to his wunienge for to sen his 
holi lifiode.—Old Eng. Homilies of 12th Cent. 
3nd ^. p. 127 (ed. Morris). 

He must . . . get trulv his l^floode wyth 
Bwynke and traueyle of his bodye. — ihe 
Festial, Caiton, 1183, a. ii. 

Sir Thomas Wiat says : — 

[The feldishe mouse] 
Forbicause her liuelod was but thinne, 
Would n<>de8 go se her townish sisters 

5ci/irf5, 1,1. 3(ab.l540). 

Christ . . . wold not curse hem J»t de- 
noii'd to him harborow and lifeUni, but re- 
prouid his disciplis askyng veniawns. — Apo- 
log ff for the Lollards, p. '21 (Camden Soc.). 
He hath full suffisaunce 
Of livelode and of sustenaunce. 

Gower, C*mfg, Amantis, vol. iii. p. 38 
* fed. Pauli). 

Loach. The phrase "to swallow 

Cupids like loaches " occurs in The Trip 
to the Jubilee, and has been understood 
by some, in accordance with tlie spell- 
ing, to signify the fish of that name. 
Nares, indeed (s. v.), quotes an in- 
stance of one being swallowed in wiue. 
Compare, however, ^*Looch, or Ijohoc, 
loch, or lohoch, a thick medicament, 
that is not to be swallowed at once, but 
to be Hcked, or suffered to molt in the 
mouth, that it may have more effect 
upon theparts affected." — Vieyra, For- 
tuguese JDictionary. 

Great vse there is of it in those medicines 
which be held vnder the ton^e, so to re- 
solue & melt leasurely — [marpn] sucli as be 
our Ecligmata or Lochs. — Holland, PUny*s 
Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 120. 

They are good in a ItKhe or licking medi- 
cine for sbortnes of breath. — Gerarde, Herbal, 
p. 47. 

Loch, Lohoc, A Loche or Lohoche ; a liquid 
confection or soft medicine, that's not to be 
swallowed, but held in the mouth untill it 
have melted. — Coterave. 

A Stick hereof [of Licorice] is commonly 
the Spoon prescribed to Patients, to use in 
any Lmgences or Loaches. — T. Fuller, Wor- 
thies of England, vol. ii. p. 306. 

Oh, what an ebb of drink have we, 
firing, bring a deluge, fill us up the sea, 
Let ue vast ocean be ourmightv cup, 
Well drink it, and all it's fishes too, like 
loaches, up. 
J. Oldham, A Uithiframbic, 7 ; Ptiems, p. 53 
. (eel. Bell). 

Load-stab, ) mis-spellings, from 
LoAD-STONE, ) false analogy, of 
lode-stwr and lode-stotie, i.e. the star or 
stone that leads or guides one on his 
way, A. Sax. Idd, a way. We still 
speak of a lode in a mine. Cf. Icel. 
lei^ar-sfjarna, a way-star, lei^ar-steinn, 
a way-stone. 

An old word for a leader or guide 
was lodosman (Chaucer, Gower), lodys- 
nianne {Prompt. Parv.), A. Sax. Idd- 
man. Cf. 0. Fr. laman, a pilot. Lad 
is near akin to Icedan, to guide or 

Treuly y folowyde euermore my duke and 
lodiiman sent Nicholas. — Revelation to the 
Monk of Evesham (1486), p. 106 (ed. Arber). 

The Dutch word is loodsman, whicli 
has been assimilated to lood (lead), a 
sounding-lead, hodcn, to sound, loodi- 
sen, to pilot ; pilot itself being Dut. pnj- 
loot, another form of pryJ-lood, a sound- 
ing-lead, from peylen, to sound (Sewel). 

LOAF ABOUT ( 221 ) 


Thcr Mw I bow woful Caliitope, . . 
Wms turned from a woman til a bere. 
And after wu ahif maile the Itni^erre. 
Chaue^r^ Knighte% Tale, 1. ;^N>1. 

To that deere maieitie which in the North 
Doth like another 8unne in f^lory Tit*e ; 

Which atandeth fixc^yet siireads her lieavenly 
LomigtPna to hearts, and load$tarr§ to all 

Sir John Daviu, Poenu, 1.^99, vol. i. p. 9 
(ed. GroMart). 

What makes the loadOoM to the North ad- 

Hia anbtile point, aa if from thence he found 
Uia chiefe attractiue vertue to nnlound. 

Sir John Davies, Orcheitra, 56 (^1632). 

Bp. Andrewes says of the star in tlio 
east: — 

It ia not a star onl^, but a Jjnnd-Mtar: And 
vhhher ahonld . . it lead us, but to Him, 
whoae the atar ia 7 to the Stara MasUT. — 
StrmamMf fbl. p. 143. 

"Pnar uses the curiouR expression, 
**loaded needles" of tlie compass 
(Ahna^ 747, Davies, p. 881). It has 
been oo^jeotored that loile-etonr, appa- 
rently a trae English word, may be an 
adaptation of Lydian-afojie, Lat. lopia 
JMhtUf the tonchstono, just as MiujnH 
talkea its name from Ma<^CHia, a Lydian 
dty. — I. Taylor, Words Sf Places, p. 
417 (2nd ed). 

IiOAF ABOUT (to), a vcrb f ormod from 
the substantive *' loufvr,'^ as if it meant 
one who "loafs,** or loiters about for 
th e sake of a loaf, like old Eng. brihotir, 
a vagabond, &om /'nV^^, a piece of breiul. 
•* Loafer," however, is the German //m- 
/cr, IcmiUmfer, Prov. Oer. hfvr, a vap:a- 
oond, an unsettled roamcr about the 
coontiy ; Whitby land-loiq^t'-r ; old Eiij^- 
liah a iMul-lpapcr or hind-lcfer. ** I 
was a landloper as the Dutcliman saitli, 
a wanderer." — Howell, Fam. LvtU'TH, 
16S0. IceL hla/vpingi, vagabonds, from 
hlaiupctf Idpct, to run away, our "leap;" 
Dnt. loapateTf a gadding gossip (Sewcl). 

A l(md-lopor, as Professor Skeat ob- 
serves, was once a common name for a 
pilgrim ; " Vi1lofln\ a vagabond, latid- 
loj^, earth-x)l&uet, continuall gadder 
firom towne to towue " (Cotgrave). The 
phrase to Icpr otter lond i= be a pilgrim, 
occurs in Vision of Piers PloivvKin, 
Text A. Pass. v. 1. 258, and so landc- 
Ipperes hemiyfee =: vagabond hermits, 
Id. Text C. I*as8. xvii. 837 ; Cleveland 
landhupeTf one who runs away from 

his creditors ; Dan. hnullober, a vagrant. 
Compare lope in Da vies, Snj^p. Ewj, 

Hvt Buch Travelli'fs aa tlii^iio may bee 
tenned Ijatui'lojten, us tho Dutchman Kiith, 
rather than Tmvellt'ni. — J. Ilimell, Instruc- 
turn i for Forraine Truvell, iOi"^, p. 67 («»d. 

Shoeblacks are compt'lled to a gnrnt (lt*al 
of unavoidabli' Ltntmg; but certainly this on«? 
ttkifed rather (.•iifrgotically. — //. A'i «;;:*/«'</, 
Havenshtu', ch. xii. 

See Davies, Supp. I'lng. Glossary, s.v. 

LoBUTEB, for lop'Sfrr, A. Sax. 
lojfpesfre, lopysfre (Ettmiillur, p. lOD), 
so spelt as if an independent formation 
in English from old Eng. lopt\ to leap 
(A. Srtx. liUdpun, Gor. htufe^n, Icel. 
hlaupa)f with tlie termination -ster, 
and so meaning the ** Icap-stcr," or 
hounder, like old Eng. loppe, a ilt'a; 
cf. old VAX^Jiledpeatro, a dancer, hoppo- 
stere, a hopster, dnuyisft-rv, "songster," 
&c. Lopyslre, however, is from, 
the same word ws Lat. locitsta, denoting 
a leaping animal — (1) on land, a locust ; 
(2) in the water, a lobster ; from Sansk. 
root laiigh, to jmnp (whence also 
A. Sax. lait', the leaping salmon). Cf. 
Lat. pipt utt iz Gk. hippos. Sylvester uses 
lolmt arize tor to leap or run back. See 


From locnsfa comes also Fr. Ian- 
gousfi\ ** a locust or grasshopper, also 
a kind of lobster " (Cotgrave). See 


LoBSTEu, a name for the stoat in the 
eastern shires (Wright), is a corrupted 
form of lop'sfarf, hanging tail, a hmij)y 
tail ; compare cluhstpf, its name in the 
Cleveland dialect, i.e. dnh-tftaii, " club- 
tail," from A. Sax. sOoii, Dan. sticrf, 
Swcd. «//rr/, the tail. 

In Lincolnshire the animal is called 
cluh-tailf from its short stifif tail. 

In CaiuH, Of EngUahe Dogges, ir>70, 
he observes that some are good for 
cliasiug " The Polcat, the Lobster, tho 
Weasell, the Conuy, &c." (p. 4, repr. 

Locusts, a popular name for the 
mawkishly sweet bean-pods of tho 
Khwuh tree {Ccrafoiiln siliqiia). — 
Thomson, Land and th-r. Look, p. 21. 
It is also called **yt. John's bread- 
tree " (Gev.Jo/iannis Ihodthaum), from 
an idea that it furnished tlie Baptist 


( 222 ) 


with food in the wilderness. The name 
locftisfe perhaps originated in some con- 
fusion of Ktpana, "little horns," the 
Greek name of the pods, Luke xv. 16 
(whence Ger. Bockshcymhaum, as aname 
of the tree), with xtpaftfivKt cerambyXf 
KtipafioQ, Lat. caraims (iz locnsta), 
homed insects. Cf. "Hornet," Ger. 
Jtohhock, " stag-beetle," cerf -volant, 

A somewhat similar mistake is the 
rendering of drcoaioc (guileless, Ut. 
" unmixed "), " HcMrmless as doves " 
(A.V, St, Matt, X. 16), as if from d and 
Kipai, un-homed {sine ccrmif Bengel), 
without means of offence. — Trench, on 
A, Version, p. 125. Increase Mather, 
making a like blunder, says : — 

The thunderbolt was by tbe antienU 
termed Ceraunia because of the imell like 
that of an horn [lUfAc} when put into the fire, 
which does attend it. — RemarkabU Provir 
dencesy p. 81 (ed. Offor). 

LoGKCHEST, a provincial name for 
the wood-louse (Wright), also called 
locJecJiest^r in Oxfordshire {locchester. 
Prompt, Panrv.), is perhaps formed on 
the analogy of the ancient and syno- 
nymous name lokdore (" wyrme, mul- 
tipes." — Prompt, Pair.), misunder- 
stood as lock-door. But lokdorey also spelt 
lugdorret is compounded of Ivg (?a 
worm) and dor, A. Sax. dora, a chafer 
or drone. Dr. Adams thinks that lock- 
Chester is from lok-estre, i,e, log- or lug- 
( = slow) + egire (an A. Sax. termina- 
tion), " the sluggish insect" (Transac- 
tions ofPhilolog, Soc, 1860-1, p. 9). It 
is simpler, however, to suppose that 
lock-cJvpster, hkestre, is merely an An- 
glicized form of locusta^ tlie Latin word 
for a lobster as well as for a locust. In 
Prov. Eng. cockchafers are conunonly 
called locusts. The wood-louse is ac- 
tually called a hhstrous-louse in the 
North country dialects, witli reference, 
no doubt, to its flexile and armour- 
plated back, which closely resembles a 
lobster's tail, whence it is also named 
an armadillo. See Lobstbb. 

My friend. Mr. Halliwell, walking in a 
garden in Oxfordshire, accidentally over- 
heard the eardener talking ahout UvkcherterSf 
and immediately asking him what these were, 
received for answer tliat they were woodlice. 
On a further incjuiry he aHc«*rtained that iock- 
chest. or lockchestery^WM not an uncommon 
word in some partH of Oxfordshire for a 
woodlou3e, although it was rapidly going 

outofuHe. — T. Wright, Architological Essays, 
vol. ii. p. 47. 

LoNOOYSTER, the crayfish ( W. Corn- 
wall Glossary, M. A. Courtney), so 
called as if one of the bivalve species 
(and the word is actually explained in 
the publications of a learned society to 
be " a sort of oyster." — Camden Soc, 
Miscellany, vol. iv. p. 8), is a corruption 
of the French latujotisie, " a kind of 
Lobster tliat hath undivided cleyes, or 
long beake (or bearde) and prickles on 
her back," also " a Locust, or Grass- 
hopper." — Cotgrave. Langcmste is from 
the Latin locusia, (Compai*e Welsh 
llegest, a lobster.) See also Skinner, 
Etymologicon, s. v. Longoister; Ebel, 
Celiic Studies, p. 103. 

Langosta is in old Spanish a locust 
or grasshopper (Minsheu), in modem 
a lobster, while langostina is a prawn 
(H. J. liose). Bishop AVilkins in his 
Essay tmcards a Philosophical Lan- 
guage, 1668, groups with "Lobster," 
" Long oitter, Locusta marina " (p. V2S, 

In old English Icmguste is the locust, 

e.g. ;— 

Wilde hunie and hnguste his mete, and water 
was his drinke. 
Old Eng, Homilies of 12th Cent. 2nd S. 
p. Ii7 (ed. Morris, E. E. T. S. ) 

In the Adriatic this fish {Palimu-vs 
vulgaris) is known as agosta or aragosfa, 
the initial I having been mistaken for 
the article. " Of Locusts of the sea, or 
Lobster" is Holland's title to Pliny 
Nat. History, bk. ix. ch. 30. 

Locust, a fish like a lobsterf called a iong- 
oister. — Kersey^ Dictionary, 171.5. 

Presents . . . of Mr i^heriff, 2 hogsheads 
of beer, t carp, a isle of Hturgeun, a isle of 
fresh salmon, 1 pike, 3 trout and 1 long 
oyster. — Expenses nj the Judges of Assize, lij9J 
(Camden Miscellany, vol. iv. p. 37). 

LoDOB. Com is said to be lodged 
when it Ues flat, beaten down by stonii 
or rain. This can scarcely be the same 
word as lodge, to dwell or sojourn, Fr. 
loger, originally to occupy a hut, O. En^. 
loge, Fr. loge, from Low Lat. laubia, a 
leafy bower (Scheler). It is perhaps a 
survival of A. Sax. logjan, to place, set, 
or ^ut together, akin probably to Goth. 
higjan, to lay. So lodged would bo 
equivalent to laid. Ettmiiller co-ordi- 
nates logjan with A. Sax. loh, plaoo 
(? cf. Lat. locus, hcare). Compare low. 





teagk. Dot. kug, leeL iagr, 
**Miig flat," from the bMe 

mj wiMbw •mong the fiuilu in- 

cne their nnkeneaw; nunelv, 

Ihm blade ■ to oogt gru w u e unl tfie 

lo chtg ed ftiid loden vith a heaui<» 

tkat the eon itaiideth not Tpri^ht, but 

Thee^ hieded earn be lod/^ and trees blown 

', Macbeth^ it. 1 , 5o. 
ftnd thej [teen] shall lodge the 

e dearth in this rerolting land. 
Id. AicJbim/ 11, ui. 3, 163. 

Lumum, ma old £ng. word for a 
^mn or aong of prftise in The Early 
Mmg. FaaUer^ Pa. Ixiv. 2, as if a high or 
Iq/ly MBg (O. Eng. hfte, the air), is an 
iuomet foxm of A. Sax. lof-mng ( zz 
Oer. loft-^eAifi^), from O. Eng. lofp, 
A. 8ax. Iqf, Loue gong in tiie 
ring ii perhaps the same word: — 

Tech me, iesu, \fi lotu ftm/r, 
wi^ aoete terea eupr among. 
% Aitemg. Diehtunf^n, p. 104, 1. 156. 

Lpf-tOHg ayngen to God Jeme 
Wi^ such apeche as he con lerne. 

CaMttl of L4»iie, 1. 30. 

IiOOK*xif , 1 are given by Wright as 
Lbwoomk, / provincial words for a 
vindow in the root They are comip- 
tiona of the old word lueayne, Fr. /it- 
conM, from Lat. lucema, a lantern. 
Compare Goth, lucam^ Ir. luachini, 
WeL Uygom, In tlie French argot 
iHtfonfe is a window (Nisard, Livrcs 
Fopukares^ tom. ii. p. 874). 

liOOSB-BTBirE, a popular name of the 
plant lytimaehia, is a translation of that 
word into its component eleiuouts, 
Greek Uma, a loosing, and nmcJU., a 
fi^t. According to Pliny, however, it 
was called after a King Lysimachvs 

Lyaimachie, Willow-herb, Lonte-strife, 
Water-willow. — Cotgrave. 

Lff ri n m ehiaf as DioscorideR and Plinie doe 
write, tooke lus name of a speciall vertue that 
it hatn in appeasing the strife and unrulinesse 
which &lletn out among oxen at the plough, 
if it be put about their vokes ; but it rather 
reCaineth and keepeth the name LifximachiUf 
of King Ly$imachus the Honne of Agatbocles, 
the first finder out of the nature and vertues 
of this herbe, aH Plinie daith. — Oerarde, Her- 
baiy 1597, p. 388. 

Loss* a corrupt form (for leem') of 
old Eng. /<'«^, or /fivbti ^pa«t parte, 
fopn, /oml, A. Sax. /•iJi«»"w yZZtUM'/^tv*. 
to lose", which has boon as«iuulate\l to 
old Eng. /t'Nu'f M, to lix»so ,pa»it i*artc. 
If'^f)^ A. Sax. Uvfitut, to become Uv^j^^ 
{SketkU Etumoloij, Dictioihiry^. The old 
word Uwtfuj, lying \Vsahu iv. 2). A. 
Sax. /^wifM(/, is near akin. 

IjteMvngt^ or Ivrnge, Mf^ndacium. 
IjetUH^e, or thyni^v* l(«tH, IVrtlicio. 
LtvyrT* or Tnbvndvn', Si>lro. 

Whoae Siing lemo^, olt he ne Uu^ ; 
<^uo^ llendvng. 
Prvierbs tj' titndyng, 1. 46. 

" Hasardr}' in verv mother of /<«a^*." .... 
Trulye it maye well be calbtl jh>, if a man 
consydrt' howe mauve waycn, and how maiiv 
thinges, he Uueth thVrebv! for firste he Umth 
hia gOixl«4, he Uwth liix tymo, he U^setk 
quyrknes of wyt, and all goixl lust to othfr 
tliingi's, he loie'th hom^st oompanye, he h^teih 
his gootl name and t^stmiation, and at la5ti% 
j{ he leaue it not, Utseth (iihI, and IlcHueu 
and all. — Ii. Atchamf TiUophUu*f 1515, p. .>4 
(ed. Arber). 

Lord, an old slang tonn for a hump- 
backe<l person. It is dubious whether 
this nickname has originated in a |Hipu- 
lar grudge against the nobility, or in a 
sort of mock respect for the cripple. 
At all events we must probably sot 
aside as mere curious coincidences tho 
medical term, ^^hnliutis, tlio bonding of 
the backbone forward in children '* 
(Bailey), Greek lordds, bent fi^rwards, 
Low Lat. hrd{car*\ to walk ^lith bent 
back, as those words are not likely to 
have been known to tlio popidaco. It 
may possibly be another use of tlic old 
EngHsh loord^ lordfiw, lurdtn, or /oto*- 
fZf»ti, a maladroit clownish follow who 
cannot, or will not, work for his living, 
a sluggard. ** Lorol, or losol, or lurdnw 
(lordaytie), Liurco.'* — Prompt. Pan^uh- 
rum. This is the same word as Fr. 
hurd (0. Fr. lordc), heavy, clumsv, 
loutisli, sottish, unhandsome. It. /on/o, 
foul, filthy, Low Lat. lurdus, from Lat. 
luridiis, discoloured, ghastly. 

A laesy /«K>rr/ for nothing good to donne. 
Spenser , Faerie Queene, 111. vii. ii. 

Latimer speaks of *' lording loytorors " 
(Tli^ Plmtghere). 

Mv lordy a hunch-back< — Puttertorif Antrim 
and Down Glossarif, K. D. 8. 

She invariably wound up at night with a 


( 224 ) 


mad fighting fit. duriug which " m\i lord " — 
vulgar slang for hunchback — was always 
thrashed unmercifully. — The Standard^ Dec. 
6, 1879. 

He [James Annesley] was in derision 
called mif brd, which the mistress of the house 
hearing called him, and seeing he had no de- 
formity to deserve the title, as vulgarly given. 
Tell me, says she, why they call you my lard. 
—The Patrician, vol. i. p. 310 (1846). 

That a deformed person is a Lord 

After a painiiil investigation of the rolls and 
records under the reign of Richard the Third, 
or "Richard Crouchback," as he is more 
usually designated in the chronicles, — from a 
traditionary stoop or gibbosity in that part — 
we do not find that that monarch conferred 
any such lordships as here pretended, upon 
any subject or subjects, on a simple plea of 
** conformity " in that respect to tne " royal 
nature." — C. Lambf Essays of Elia, 

I euer haue beene a swome eneiny to lasye 
iurderu.—Tea Trothes New YearesGiJtfl59S, 
p. 3. 

Syker, thous but a laesie loord, 
Speiiser^ Shepheards Calender , JvXye, 

[On which £. K. comments " A loorde was 
wont among the old Britons to signifie a 
Lorde,'* and " Lurdanes =: Lord Danes " !] 

It is observable, in this connexiou, 
that in tlie Vision of Piers Fhivman 
Pass. xxi. 107, where the C.-text has 
lordlings, the B.-text lias hrdeynes, 
clowns (Skeat, Notes, in loco). 

The analyzing of hirden or lorda/in 
into Lord Vane is a very old bit of 
•* folk*s-otymology :" — 

The comon people were so of them op- 
pressed, y^for ff^re &l drede, they called them, 
m euery such house as thev had rule of, lord 

Dane This worde lorde Dane was, in 

dyrision and despyte of the Danys, toumed 
by the Englysshemen into a name of op- 
probie, and called Lurdiiyn, whiche, to our 
dayes, is natforgoten but whan one Englisshe 
man woll rebuke an other, he woU, tor the 
more rt'buke, call him LurdaifU' — Fabyan, 
ChronicUf p. 205 (ed. 1811). 

LovAGE, O. Eng. love-acJis, as though 
it were love-parsley, is a corruption of 
Fr. livtcliey levrscJiej Low Lat. levisH- 
cum, from Lat. ligvsiicufn, the Ligurian 

Loveache, herbe, Levisticus. — Prompt. Par- 

Another old Eng. form is lufuste. 
See LuFESTicE. 

Similar corruptions are Bolg. leve- 
stock, lirfstickel, Gor. liebstochcly as if 
" dear little plant" 

The distilled water of Lomge^ cleereth the 
sight, and putteth awny all spotJ*, lentiles, 
freckles, ana rednes of the face, if they be 
often washed tlierewith. — Gerarde, Herbal, 
p. 855. 

Take a handfulle of herb lovachey 
And anoJTer of persely. 

Liber Cure Coconim (14-10), p. 18. 

As for Loneach or Liitinhy it is by nature 
wild and sauage, and loueth alone to t^row of 
*it self among the mountains of Lic^uria, 
whereof it commeth to haue the name Li,o-m«- 
tieum, as being the uaturall place best agree- 
ing to the nature of it. — Holland, Plinies A'at. 
Hist. 1634, vol. ii. p. 30. 

Love, an old name for a game 
(Wright) played by holding up tho 
fingers behind the back of a blindfolded 
person, sometimes with the words, 
** Buck! Buck! How many fingers do 
I hold up? ** (Jjtkt.micare). This game, 
which is very widely difiused, was 
called in French amour; ^^Jouer d 
Vamour, One to hold up his fingers, 
and another, turned from him, to ghesso 
how many he holds up" (CJotgrave), 
whence came Eng. love. The French 
phrase, however, is corrupted from 
jouefT a l<i mourre ; mourre being " the 
play of love, wherein one turning his 
face from another, guesses how many 
fingers he holds up " (Cotgrave), iden- 
tical with It. mora, " a kmd of gamo 
much used in Italy witli casting of tlio 
fingers of the right hand, and speaking 
of certaine numbers *' ( Florio), probably 
from Lat. morari, to play the fool, Gk. 
mdros, a fool. 

If any unlearned person or stranger flhoiild 
come in, he would certainly think we were 
bringing up again among ourselves the coun- 
trvmen s plav of homing up our fingers 
{dimicatione aigitorum. i.e. the play of /<)iy). 
— Bailey, Erugmus's Colloquies, p. 159 [see 
Davies,Supp. Eng, Gloisary'\. 

Love, as used in sundry games with 
the meaning of nought, as in tlie phrases 
" to play for love,'' " ten to love, ** love 
all,** is perhaps the same word as Icel. 
lyf, denoting (1) a herb or simple, 
(2) anything small or worthless, as in 
the Edda. of Saemund, "okki lyf,'' not 
a whit (Magnusson, Journal of Philo' 
logy, vol. V. p. 298). Cognate words 
are old Dan. lov, Swed. Ivf, O. H. Ger. 
hipi, A. Sax. lib (Cleasby, p. 400). So 
hjf seems to have been used in old 
English for a whit or small particle : — 

LOVB'APPLEa ( 225 ) 


•nrk I pvm K" qood pert' '^pw Charite, 

jif foa Comie 
bf^'of leeheCnft* lere hit me,mj deore. 
Laagiamdf Vi$iim of P. Plotewun^ 
A. Tu. Sll. 

B ]■ mom likely, however, that love is 
lura tha ofdimury antithesis to monev, 
M in the phrases *' to play for love [of 
tiiB gMne] and not for money,** ** not 
to bo had for love or money.** 

I soBetiiiies • • plsy m rane at piquet for 
BIT oooflin Bridget — Bridget Elia. 
*, Emmm rf Eiia ( Works, p. :i56, 
ed. Kent). 

liOTB-AFVLES, Ft. Poiiimet (Tamoiir, 
Loft. mNna amons, all corruptions of It. 
jWMi ibi ifori, or Moorg' apples, hay- 
ing been introdaced as mala JSthiopica 

4ffiw of Lo«« do growe in Spaino, Italie, 
and sodi not eonntries, from whence my aelfe 
bane xeeeined Seedei for mj garden, where 
ikaj do inereaae and prosper .-^Gfrarcfe, Her- 
kai, 1997, p. S75. 

a North conntiy word for a 
oldmney, or more properly the lantern 
or aperture in the roof of old houses 
fluDOgh which the smoke escapes. *' It 
is plainljr the Icelandic liori (pro- 
nooneed notm or liovri), Norwog. I lore, 
*Woit Gothland liura, a sort of cupola 
Mrring the twofold purpose of a chim- 
ney a^ a skylight. Lidri is evidently 
djBnved from Itds, light, analogous to 
F^. 2fioarffie.'*'Gamett, Philotog. Eg- 

TxoL Skeat, however, shows clearly 
ihftfc lover is really from old Fr. Voverf, 
Powmif ue. ** th* opening,*' and quotes 
fheline — 

At Ituin [louutrtf Fr. text], lowpps, 
avdiefi [it] had plente. — Partenutj, 117o. 

1 jmmme to shroud the saiue^ voder the 
Shaoow of jour wingii, oud to grace it with 
Ae Ipmr of jour honorahle name, that enuy 
mmf be quite discouraged from giuing any 
•harpe asaanlt^ or at tne least her noysome 
■DOM ascending to the top, mav finde a 
vsntwhsrebyto vaniih. — Howardf Defenmtiie 
mgmti the Ponton of Supposed Prophecies 
(IMO), Dedkaiion. 

Ne lightned was with window;, nor with 

Spenser, F, Queene, VI. z. 42. 

Lnmr of sn howie, Lodium, umbrex.— 
Prtrntpi. ParmUorum, 

LoTEBTiKB, a term which Julia, in 
the old comedy of PcUient Griaail 

(1603), applies to her three inmnorati^ 
is apparently a corruption of libertine. 

There are a number here that hare bt*held 
. . tliese gentlemen loitrtine, and myself a 
haterof lore.-— .Act T. 8C. i (Shaks. See. ed.), 
p. 89. 

LowBB, now generally applied to the 
sky when gloomy and overcast, so spelt, 
perhaps, from an idea that it indicated 
a lowering or descent of the clouds, is 
the same word as old £ng. /otir, to 
frown or look surly, Dut. loeren, to 

Perhaps we laugh to heare of this that 
such dead blockt^ and iowrimg louts as many 
of us hare beeue to this day, . . should l>e- 
come anv other. — 1>. Rttf^ersj Kaaman the 
Si/rian (l'641), p. BB7. 

The skv is red and lourring. — A, V, St. 
Matt. xri. 3. 

So lukcd he with lene chekes * tourede he 

Langland, Vision of P. Plowman, 
A. Paff8. V. 1. 66. 

LuBBEBKiN', the name of a certain 
species of fairy in old writers, as if the 
little lubber (cf. Milton's "/«fc?>eTfiend "), 
seems to be corrupted from Lubbican, 
which see. 

As for your Irish Lubrican, that spirit 
\Vhom bv i)re[K>8terous charmes thy lust hath 

In a wrong circle, him He damne more 

Then any tyrant's soule. 

Dekker, Honest Whore, Pt. II. (1630). 

By the Mandrakes dreadful groanes, 
By the Liibrican's sad moanes. 

Drajfton, Numphidia, 417. 

Lubbeb's Head, the sign of an inn, 
is an old corruption of The LeoimriVs 
Head (Hotten, Iliatory of SignJtoarde, 
p. 147). 

He is indited to the Lubber's-head in Lum- 
bert Street. — Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV, ii. 

Lubbican, an old corruption of lepri- 
chann, the name of a species of Irisli 
fairy, generally seen in the form of a 
diminutive cobbler, and endowed witli 
the Protean faculty of slipping through 
the hands of his seizer, if not stead- 
fastly watched; so written as if con- 
nected with Lat. lubricue, slippery. In 
Dekker's Honeei Whore, Pt. II. (1680), 
a jealous husband speaks of the Irisli 

Brand, Pop. Anfiquiiiea, vol. iii. p. 
58 (ed. Bohn), compares with this : — 



( 226 ) 


I'll be no pander to him ; and if I finde 
any looRe Lubrick 'scapes in him, I'll watch 
him. — Witch of Edmonton f p. 32, 1658. 

This pigmy sprite is also known 
by the names of luprachaun, luricanef 
loughryrtian^ and leiihhh/ragan, as if 
from Ir. hith, one, hrogy shoe, an, 
maker (O'Reilly). The more correct 
designation, it seems, is luchorpdrij 
"Little-body," from lu, smaU, and 
corpdn, a body (Whitley Stokes, see 
Joyce, IHsh Place-Naniea, 1st Ser. p. 
183 ; Croker's Fairy Legends, p. 106, 
ed. Wright). 

Luce, the old Eng. name for the 
pike, Lat. lucius, is not probably a de- 
rivative of luceo, to shine (like ** bleak," 
the river fish, from Ger. hUcken, to 
gleam), but of Greek lukosj a wolf, on 
account of its wolf- like rapacity. The 
voracious fish which is named lukos in 
Greek, lupus in Latin, is no doubt the 

LuFESTiCE, ) Anglo-Saxon words 
LuF-STiccB, ) for the plant lovage, 
as if derived froQi Zm/, Iqve (under which 
word Dr. Bosworth in his Dictionary 
actually ranges themt), and atice or 
8ticc€j are corruptions of the Low Latin 
name Icv^isticiim, for Lat. liguaticum. 
Compare the German corruption lieh- 
sWcJcel, and see Lovaoe. 

Lump, in the colloquial and vtdgar 
phrase " to lump it,'' meaning to taJce 
things as they come, in the lump or 
gross as it were, without picking and 
choosing, e,g. " If he don't like it he 
may lump it ;" " She must lump it," 
says Mrs. Pipchin in Domhey. Mr. 
OUphant regt^s this word as a cor- 
ruption of old Eng. lomp (Legend of 8t, 
Margaret), A. Sax. gelamp, it happened, 
and so to lump would be "to take what 
may chance" {Old amd Mid, Eng, p. 
255). The A. Sax. verb is ge-Umpan, 
to happen or occur; past parte, ge- 

God hit wot, leoue sustren, more wunder 
ilomp [a ^eater wonder has happened]. — 
Ancren Riule, p. .54. 

Nyf oure lorde hade ben her lodes-mon hem 
had lumpen harde. 

Alliterative Poenu, p. 49, 1. 424. 

Lupine, Lat. hipinus, as if the wolf's 
hean, from Iwpus, a wolf, and so Vene- 
tian fava lovina, is probably of a com- 
mon origin with Greek lopos, a husk, 

lep6, to peel or hull (Prior), Polish 
lupina, a husk. 

Luke- WARM. Luhe^ formerly used as 
an independent word meaning tepid, is 
an altered form of old Eng. kiv (Wy- 
cliffe), A. Sax. hlco ; cf. Ger. leu, Dut. 
laauvj, Dorset lew (Bamos, Philolog, 
Soc, Trans. 1864; and so Skeat). It 
has been assimilated evidently to A. 
Sax. wlwc, tepid, weakly warm (cf. 
Goth. ihlaJcwvs, weak, tender. — Diefen- 
bach, Goth, SpracJie, ii. 710). 

Lewke not fully bote, TepiduB. — Prompt. 

With-drow \>e. knif, fcat was letve 
Of ]}e seli children blod. 

Ilavelok the Dane, 1. 499. 

Boyle hit in clene water so fre, 
And kele hit, J?at he be hot lue. 

Liber Cure Cocirrum^ p. S3. 

As wunsum as euer eni tclech weter [As 
pleasant as ever any luke water]. — St. Ju- 
liana, p. 70 (1'230). 

As if thu nymest ri3t hot water, and dost 

cold t her- to, 
Thu hit mist maki ivlah and cntempri so. 
Wright, Pop. Treatises on Science, p. t38. 

De wop . . cumeiS of )>e wUiche heorte 
[Weeping cometh from the warm heart]. — 
Old Eng. Homiliei, 2nd Ser. p. 161 (ed. 

LuPAERD, an old spelling of hopard, 
apparently from some confusion with 
Lat. lupus, a wolf. 

Tho spack Sir firapeel the lujHierd whicke 
was sybbe somwhat to the kynge, and saide, 
sire kyng how make ye suche a noyse ye 
make sorrow ynough thaugb the quene were 
deed. — Caxton, Reynard the Fox, 1481, p. 52 
(ed. Arber). 

Luscious is a corruption of old Eng. 
Ucious, delicious, near akin to old Eng. 
Hchorous, lickerish, dainty; Cheshire 
licksome, pleasant ; Ger. Icclc^, Fr. 
Uchewir, Ucher, A. Sax. liccera, a gour- 
mand, glutton (orig. " one who licks 
his lips '*), under the influence of lush, 
rank, juicy. It. lussaare, lussu/riare, to 
grow rank, orig. to live in voluptuous- 
ness or luxury, 

Bp. Hacket uses Ucious in the sense 
of luscious : — 

He that feeds upon the letter of the Text 
feeds upon Manna ; he that lives by the Alle- 
gorie feeds upon Ucious Quails. — Centurif of 
Sermons, p. 515, fol. 1675. 

She leaves the neat youth, telling his 
Uuhious tales, and puts back the serving- 
mans putting forwa!rd, with a frown. — Sir 


( 227 ) 


Vm, OfmkwryU Works^ p. 47 (ed. Rim- 

LuTEBTBXNO, a name for a certain 
liiffnwf or gloBsy silk fabric, is a cor- 
Tiiption of hulTing, Fr. hisirine^ from 
hitrer (Lat. lustrare)^ to shine. (Vide 
Skiimer, Prolegom. Efyrtiologica). 

To wash point-Uoe. tiffaiiirH, HarsnotA, a- 
Is-modes, luU-itrmgi, Ace. — FemaU Instructor 
(Nsres, s.t. Putat-foM). 

I WM led to trouble tou with theft* obHerva- 
tioiiSy bv a passage which, to npenk in hitt' 
ttnmgf I met with this morning, in the rourfte 
of my nading. — L§ttert of Junius^ \o. 48. 

Within mj monorj the price of lutestring 
[as a material for icarfsj is niised above twf>- 
panee in a jmrd. — The Spectator ^ No. 21 


Machn, 1 in the old popular oatli, 
Magkuto, j " By the tuacl-imf,'' is no 
doubt a corruption of nuiy-kin or ninid- 
hm (Ger. mttachen), like hjJcin for Imly- 
Inn* Thus the adjuration is '* by the 
Virgin" (O. Eng. may^ A. Sax. wp^, a 
id), "by 

our Lady." It is probably 
from a misunderstanding about this 
old Eng. may, or from some mere play 
on the word, that tlie montli of May is 
now regarded as especially dedicated to 
fhe Virgin. 

I would not have m^ zon Dick one of thrflc 
boets for the best pig in my sty, by tho //i<ic- 
lurni, — Randolph, Tlu Almes Lwhinf^-gltif*, iv. 
4 ( WorkSf p. «53). 

ILlckninnt, a curious word for a 
pappot-ahow used by North, is perhaps 
ft oorruption of Fr. inecaniquoj a me- 
ehanicfJ contrivance, an automaton 
worked by concealed mechanism. 

He eould . . represent emblfiuaticnlly the 
downfidl of majesty as in his rnn.'e-show nnd 
■wdbtWRy. — tMimenf p. 590 lUuvif*, Supp. 
Emg, GiMtary^, 

Madxfslon, 1 old English names 
Madfbloun, > for the plant centau- 
Matfellon, J rcan/j^m, are corrup- 
tions of its Latin name marafriphyllon^ 
Gk. maralhrou phullon, "femiel-leaf." 
Ftior, Pop, Na7nc8 of Brit. Plants. 

Mad-nbp, a trivial name for the cow- 
parsnip, is a corruption of mcadnf'p. 

Mad-wobt, the asporitgo prorumhons, 
is the Dutch meed, **maddor," instead 
of which its root was used (Prior). 

Madbioal, Sp. Fr. madrigal. It. mad- 
rig<dv, madrinh', originally mandn'ale, 
a pastoral song, from Latin and Greek 
mandra, a sheep-fold. The word was 
perhaps mentally connected with mad- 
ntgar (Sp. and Portg.), to rise, (L. Lat. 
mattiricare from viatvrvs) to rise early, 
as if a " moming-Bong," like auhe and 
auboili'iij and sf'Ti-nadt' "evening song," 
from sera. The Italian word has also 
been analyzed into madre gala, *' song 
of the Virgin," Qvnrtei'ly iicv^ieic, No. 
261, p. 102, but incorrectly. 

For the omisnion of the n compare 
mvsfer. It. wosira, from Lat. monairarc, 
to make a show, to display. 

Magweed, a local name in some parts 
of England for the ox-eye daisy (vhry- 
S'lntfu'minn Ivucanthpmum), in Baid to be 
a corruption of Fr. nmrgverite, a daisy, 
the 8yml)ol of S. Margherita of Cor- 
tr>na. (C. Yongo, Hist, of Christian 
Names, vol. i. p. 205.) 

Maiden- PINK, said to be a mistake 
for mead or mradow-pink (Prior). 

Make-batk, a popular name for the 
plant jx)hrni<yniuiii {cnn'vJrum), which 
was translated as if a derivative of 
iiTOiik pdlnnos, war (Prior). Compare 
LoosE-STBiFE, a mis-rendcring of /j/«i- 

Makindoy, a name for the plant 
Ettpkcrhia hihenia,, is an anglicized 
form of the Irish makkin-hwre zz ** yel- 
low-parsnip " (Britten and Holland). 

Machenboif, a Hort uf spurge with a knotted 
root. — BuiUy, Diclionurjf. 

Malecolte, an old and incorrect 
spelling of melancholy, as if it were the 
ev^il choler (Wright), Lat. mahts. 

Man, a conical pillar of stones erected 
on tlie top of amoimtain. " Such cones 
are on the tops of all our mountains, 
and they are called men.'' — Coleridge. 
(Dickinson, CuniherUmd Glossary, E. 
D. S.). An evident corruption of Keltic 
maen, a stone. 

Man, vb. a falconer's term for train- 
ing a hawk into obedience to liis com- 
mands, to tame, has often been under- 
stood to mean to accustom the bird to 
the society of man. For instance Nares 
commenting on Juliet's expression 
** my unmanned blood " (Bom. and Jul. 
iii. 2), says the term is apphed to a 


( 228 ) 


' hawk "not yet made famiUar with 
mem." The true meaning of to man, 
or mann, is to accustom to the hand, 
Fr. main, Lat. marms. So manage was 
originally to handle, to control a horse 
by the hand, It. maneggio, from wowo, 
the hand, Fr. Tminier, to handle, mani- 
ctble, tractable. 

Compare Lat. mansuetvs, Gk. chei- 
roethes, accustomed to the hand. So 6k. 
f>alam6oma^, to manage, from palame, 
the hand. 

Unmanned, a term in falconry, applied to a 
hawk that v» not yet tamed, or maae ^ami/uir 
mith man, — T, Wright, Diet, of Obsolete and 
Prov. English, 

In time, this Eagle was so throughly nuinn*d. 
That from the Quarry, to her Mistress hand 
At the first call 't would come, and faun upon 

And bill and bow, in signe of love and hon- 
J, Sylvester, Du Bartas (1621), WorkSj 
p. 112! 

Another way I have to man my haggard. 
To make her come and know her keeper's 


Shakespeare, Taming of the Shreto, iv. 
1, 207. 

Mandarin, a title given to certain 
Chinese officials (not of native origin) is 
probably an Indian word corrupted 
from the Sanscrit mantrin, a counsellor 
or minister, and assimilated in the 
Portuguese mandarim, to manda/r, Lat. 

Mandragon, an old name for the 
plant mamdragoras. 

In English we call it Mandrai^, Mandrage, 
'and Mandragon. — Gerarde, Herbal, p. 281 

The white Mandrage some name Araen, 
the male. — Holland, r4iny*s AW. Hist. vol. ii. 
p. 2^ (1634). 

Mandragore, mandrake, mandrage, man- 
dragon, — Cotgrave, 

Mandbaxe, a corruption of old £ng. 
m>andrage, Lat. mandragoras, was long 
supposed to grow in the shape of a man» 
See the curious figure in Berjeau, The 
Bookworm, vol. iii. p. 56, and Brand, 
Pop. AnHqvdties, vol. iii. p. 12, ed. 
Bonn. The following amazing state- 
ment in a volume lately published is a 
popular etymology with a vengeance, 

I'he mandif^, so called from the German 
mandragen, resembling man, was, &c. ! — T, 
F. T, Dyer, Eng, t'olk-bre^ p. 30. 

r He knows] where the sad mandrake growa 
Whose groans are death ful. 

B. Jon$oH, Sad Shepherd, ii. 2. 

So, of a lone unhaunted place possest. 

Did this soules second Inne, built by the 

This living buried man, this quiet mandrake, 


Donne, Poems (1635), p. 309. 

Many molas and false conceptions there 
we of mandrakes. The first, from great an- 
tiquity, conceiveth the root thereof resem- 
bleth the shape of man ; which is a conceit 
not to be made out by ordinary inspection, or 
any other eves, than such as, regmrding the 
clouds behold them in shapes conformable to 

Ere-apprehensions Illiterate heads 
ave been led on by the name, which in the 
first syllable expressetli its representation; 
but other have better observea the laws of 
etymology, and deduced it from a word of the 
same language, because it delighteth to grow 
in obscure and shady places ; which deriva- 
tion, although we shall not stand to maintain, 
yet the other seemeth answerable unto the 
etymologies of many authors, who often con- 
found such nominal notations. — Sir Thos. 
Browne, Works, vol. i. p. 192 (ed. Bohn). 

Sweet as a screech-oWl's serenade. 
Or those enchanting murmurs made, 
By th' husband mandrake and the wife 
Both bury'd (like themselves) alive. 

S. Butler, Hudibras, Pt. iii. canto i. 

Mangel wubzel, i.e. in German 
scarcity root," is properly mangold 

Mangiants, Easteb, a curious popu- 
lar name for the plant polygonum Sia- 
iorta in Cumberland and Westmore- 
land, also spelt may-giants, magianta, 
mun-jiande, ment-gions. Of doubtful 
origin, perhaps from Fr. manger (Brit- 
ten and Holland). 

Manna, Gk. pawa, in Bartich i. 10 
(A. V. " Prepare ye manna, and offer 
upon the altar of the Lord our God "), 
is a corrupt form in Hellenistic Greek 
(also pavad) of Heb. mincha, an offering. 
— Ewald, Antiquities of Israel^ p. 86. 

Manner, in the old law phrase " to 
be taken with the manner, i.e. red- 
handed, or in the veiy act of commit- 
ting a crime, with the thing stolen in 
one*s possession, is a corruption of the 
older form mainour, O. Fr. mainouvre 
(or mana^vre), possession. Compare 
** Manouvrer, to hold, occupy, possesse 
(an old Normand word)." — Cotgrave. 
Blackstone defines **A thief taken with 
the mainour (or mainouvre), that is 



( 229 ) 


vitii tha thing stolsii upon him in manu 
(in hit hmd).'* Law Lat. cum manu- 

In the Baron of Bradwardine's Char- 
ter of 1140 (Kemhie) oeonr the terma 
^imfamgMtf et (mtfcrngthief^ sive hand- 
iMmiiAy^hak'haTand.*'' In old Scotch 
bw pihraM the thief was said to be 
miafpxi wiA ihefcmg (i.e, with the thing 
m wi graspf A. Sax. fanQ), or bak-he- 
wwrf, or hmd-habend (G. Innes, Scot- 
kmd m Mid. Age§, p. 182). 

The Fehm-Law enamerated three tokpos 
m unuB§ of gnilt in these caies; the Ha- 
Im0 Mmf (naTiiiff band), or haring tlie 
fnotin hoM band ; the BUckemU ichein ( look- 
■e^peaiance) . . . and the Gichiig§ Mund 
(filtenng mouth), ^Steret Societies of Mid. 

Felons inome hond-habbing 
For to aaffrejugement. 
Kimg Uth and Floni, ab. 1280, p. 70 
( E. E. T. 8. ). 
O WUem, thou stol'st a cup of sack ei^^h- 
Bva ago, and wert Uikeu with tht nuiH' 
Shmkt^ean, 1 Hen, IV, ii. 4. 
Evaa M a theife that ia taken, with the 
r that he atealeth. — Latimer, SennoHt, 
p. 110. 

llHJUNir.aliaaAfaiioHr, alias Mainour. From 
the French Manier, i, manu tractare: In a 
Icnl asnaey denotes the thing that a Thief 
luedi awaj or atealeth. As to be taken with 
the Mmimour, PI. Cor. fol. 179, is to be Uken 
with the thing stollen about him. — Coicel, 
bOMfpnUT (ed. 1701 ). 

Pnmdn auj'aiet jiagrant. To take at it, or 
is tht aiiutiisr ; to apprehend vpon the deed 
doingy or preaentlj after. — Cotgrave, ».r. 

& we were issuing foorth, we were be- 
wrayed bj ye barking of a dog, which cauMd 
the Turkea to arise, and they taking yb with 
Ibe MMur stopped rs from flying away. — E, 
IFeMfy HU Tnttuiilet, 1590, p. 28 (ed. 

Mr. Tow-wouae, being caught, as our 
]aw;yers express it, with the manner, and 
hsrujg no defence to make, very prudently 
withdrew himself. — H, Fielding , Joseph An- 
drewij bk. i. ch. xviL 

Mamhsb, a Lincolnshire corruption 
of fnoMMrs, which is merely a shortenod 
fbrm of mancnivre, originally used for 
tillage in general. 

No inhabitant shall bring his manner into 
the itreete.— Toicn Record, 1661 { Peacock ). 

in Antrim and Down vuinner is used 
in a wider sense for to prepare, which 
is cloeer to the etymological meaning, 
"to work with the hand," mancmivre. 
It. HMMiOPrtBre, Lat. mantioperan. Thus 

land is said to be well mannered by tlie 
frost, and flax is mannered by being 
passed through rollers (Patterson). To 
manure was formerly used for any sort 
of agricultural handling or treatment. 

Voluntarios for this nervice he had enough, 
all desiring to have a lasii at the dov: in the 
manger, and every mans hand itching ti> 
throw a cudgel at him, who like a nut-tree 
must be manured bv beating or elne would 
iM*ver b«!ar fruit. — i . Fuller , The Uolq Warre, 
p. 59 (1647). 

Man'pebamble, a Leicestershire word 
for a kind of apple, is a popular corrup- 
tion of iwnpared (Evans, GloManj, E. 
D. S. p. 190). 

Manrent, a Scotch term for homage 
done to A superior (Jamieson), as if a 
rent, or something rendered, is a cor- 
ruption of tlie older fonn nianred, man- 
roayn, A. Sax. man-red or man-rmlen, 
t))o state of being the man (or //ot)io) of 
a lord, vassalage, homage (cf. hatred, 
kindred, where the termination ia the 
same). Manrede occurs in The Dighj 
MH, ab. 1290, Old En<j, MUcclla^ij, p. 

Mansworn. In the north of Ireland a 
perjured person is said to be man»worn 
(Patterson, Antrim and Down Glos- 
sary), perhaps with some idea that he 
has casuistically taken the oath to nmn, 
and not to God. 

For mon-sworne, & mensclnSt & to much 

For Jreft,* & for frrepyng, vn-)K>nk may mon 


Allitemtive Poems, p. 42, 1. 185. 

It is 0. H. Ger. mein»wer\di, perjury, 
from main, mein, stain, injury, bad, 
O. Norse mein, crime (Morris). 

Mangle, to mutilate or tear, for man- 
kel, a frequentative form of old Eng. 
manken, " Mankkyn, or maymvn, Mu- 
tilo." — Prompt, Parvulorum ; that is, to 
render maimed ; Lat. manais (Skeat). 
It has perhaps been assimilated in form 
to manijle, Dut. man<fel-en, to roll linen, 
to crush as with a mnngonel or war- 
engine, Lat. manganum, Greek mdn- 

Mantua, as in mantuaiuak^r, an old 
word for a lady's cloak or mantle, as if 
BO called from having been made at Man- 
tua, in Italy. So I. Taylor, Words and 
Places, p. 424 ; and compare the witty 
adaptation of Vergil's line, ascribed to 


( 230 ) 


Dean Swift, when a lady's mantle 
knocked down and broke a valuable 
fiddle, ^^Maniua, vsb miseroe nimium 
vicina Cremonse ! " It is evidently a 
oomipted form of Fr. mavieaUy mante, 
It. and Sp. manio, a mantle, from Lat. 

" Manfoe or Mantua gown, a loose 
upper garment." — Phillips, 1706. Si- 
milarly portmaniua (Dryden), port- 
rtianfue (Cotgrave), are variants of port- 

Many, an old word for a household, 
or a body of retainers, or retinue of 
servants, so spelt as if identical with 
many ( = Lat. juulti), A. Sax. manig, 
and significant of a multitude, or nu- 
merous attendance. It is really a cor- 
rupt form of the older word meinie, 
menyee, mainee, a household, derived 
from 0. Fr. " mesnic, a meyny, family." 
— Cotgrave ; also spelt meimie or mais- 
nie, identical with It. masnada, a fa- 
mily or troop. Low Lat. mansnada., 
mawtlonafa, a household, the contents 
of a mansion^ Lat mansio (see Skeat, 
Etyvi, Did. s.v. Menial), This meinie 
is therefore near akin to menage, house- 
hold arrangement, old Fr. mesnage, a 
household, for maisonage, from maison, 
a mansion. It is confounded with 
ma/ny in most dictionaries, but tlie 
meinie might be few or numerous, and 
there is no contradiction when Sir John 
Maundevile in his Travels writes of a 
"few many," p. 226