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Folk - Lore 



[Incorporating Thv. Ahch^ological Review and 
The Folk-I-ore Journal.] 

VOL. I L— 1 891. 

**■ -'----■ 





I.— < March, 1891,) 


Opening Address 10 ihe Folk-Lore Society for the Session 

1890-91.— G. L. GOMME - - - - I 

Magic Songs of the Finns, No. III.— Hon, J. Abercrombv - 31 

The Ixgcnd of the Grail, No, I.— Dr, M. Caster - > 50 

Siava-— CoL Grant Maxwell - - - ^5 

The Scotch Fisher Child— Rev. Walter Gregor ' - 73 
An Early Irish Version of the Jealous Siepmotlier and the 

Exposed Child,— Alfred Nutt - - - B? 

Bliuridatta,^R. F. ST. ANDREW ST. JOHN - go 

Report on Folk-tale Research, 1S90. — E. SlDMEV HarTLAND - 99 

IL— (June, 1891.) 

Legends of (he Lbcolnshire Cars. Part I. — Mrs, M. C- 

Balfour - - - - - "MS 

An Amazonian Custom in the Caucasus. — Hon }. Abercrombv 171 

Childe Rowland,— Joseph Jacobs - - - iSa 

The Legend of the Grail- No. II.— Dr. M. Gaster - - 198 
Remarks on preceding article.— Alfred Nott - -at 

Report on Greek Mythology. — Prof. F, B, JEVONS - - 320 

in. — (September, 1891.) 

Legends of the Lincolnshire Cars. Part IL — Mrs, M. C. 

LUlfour - - - - - - 257 

Manx Folk-Lore and Superstitions.— Prof. J, Rhvs - - 2S4 

FoTk-Drama.— T- Fatrman-Ordish, F.S.A. - - 314 

The Folk-Lore of Malagasy Birds.— Rev. JAMES SiBREE, Jun, - 336 
Mr, Stuart-Glennie on the Origins of Matriarchy. — ALFRED 

Nutt and Joseph Jacobs - . _ _ 36^ 

The International Folk-Lore Congress, jSql - - 373 

W Contents. 

IV. — (December, 189^-) 

Legends of the Lincolnshire Cars. Part ML— Mrs. M, C. 

Balfour - - - - - - 401 

Notes upon the Religion of the Apache Indians- — Capt. John 

G. BOURKE _ . _ . . 4,^ 

Samoan Storie?. I, — Hon, JOHN AherCROmbv - - 455 

Weather Folk- Lore of the Sea.— Walter Gregor - - 46S 

An Explanation - - _ , _ 483 

Recent Research on Institutions, — G, Laurence Gomme. Esq.. 

F.S.A. - - - - - - 485 

Folk-Lore Society. — Annual Report of the Council - - 502 

Title-Page and Contents for Vol I L 

Notes and News - - - lao^ 242, 392, 500 

Reviews : 

The Science cf Fairy Tales. — Joseph JaCOBS - ■ ^ -3 

Superstitious Beliefs and Practices of ihe Finns.— Hon. John 

Abercromby . _ - _ _ 244 

Le Po^me ei la Ugende des Nibeiungen. — Alfred Nutt - jSi 
Canti popolari Sidliani and BAIiografia Tradizicm popotari 

if Italia,— yi\%% R. H. Busk - - - - 390 

Correspondence : 
Modem Greek Folk-lore, W. R, Paton and Lucv M, J, 

Garnett.— Story of the Girl who Plucked out her o^vn 

Eyes, W. A. CLOU STON,— Irish Tales among the Redskins, 

Alfred Nutt - - - - - 128 

Tom-Tit-Tot, Pro£ Reikhard Kohler - - 246 

Miscellanea * . . . . J32f247, 510 

Folk-lore Bibliography * - - 139, 249, 394, 514 

Indexes — Articles — bibliography - . - - 513 


V.^i. It. I MARCH, i89r. [\o. \. ' 

LORE SOC/ETV, Nov. 26, 189a 

THE twelfth session of the Society was marked by 
some very useful contributions — contributions which 
compel us to look back, but which also enable us to 
look forward. They appear to me to be properly classified 
as follows^and I will point out that the value of such classi- 
fication lies in the fact that we may readily understand 
whether, and how far, our science has advanced by the work 
of the past session. We have, then — 

I, De&criptive Folk-lore : 

Legends from Torres Straits, by ProC Haddon. 
Legends of the Island Frisians, by W. G. Black- 
Marriage Customs of the Mordvins, by the Hon, 

J. Abercromby. 
An Inedited English Folk-tale, by J. Jacobs. 

^- Collective Folk -lori : 

Notes on the Folk-lore of Beetles, by W. F. 
Kirby, ■ 

3, Contributive Folk-lore : 

Legend of the Lady Godiva, by E. S. Hartland. 
The Grail and Local Palestinian Legends, by Dn 

The Collection of English Folk-lore, by Miss 



AnttlU^l'Aidinss io Uu Folk^L^fn Society. 
;.^cont Theories on the NibchingcnHed, by A, 

./, "'A Highland Talc and Its Foundation ii U^agc, 
% • Xiy G. K Gnminc, 

J-.Vhtnk that, looked at in this way, it v^ill be gcrerally 
ctmccded that la^t session's papers were all cf them bighl/ 
'•'interesting and important to our science. 
'"'•-' Wdl, we are noA- entering upon our thirteenth session, 
V* and with ihr^c papere — typical of tht? rnnst recent rrsitarci 
' —as ;iii imiiK.-(lutti; K'^itlt^, wc may indeed aik ouikIvi 
what sligc liftvc we reached ? 

My reply to thifs will take- me into some OiiM^rstve 
topics ; but I wantn if possible, to unify the results of my^ 
obscn^attcn of the year's work so as to bring out 
clear issues for the Society's consideration. 

At firet sight wc ccriainV seem to be divided into two 
camp£ — the anthropological and the literary : just those 
two camp« which existed at the beginning of the Society, 
when Mr Thorns simply followed tlw footsteps of John 
Auhrry, some two hundred years earlier, and considered 
that what waif recorded chronologically earlier vti\i%t be the 
parent of that which was recorded later, the record being 
the; *'(Tntnil point nf importance*, not the tiung recorded. 
What 1 *J\a11 venture to say upon tbifl subject to- 
night will, I ho|je, emphaMsc the fact that folk-lore, 
however and wlicrcvcr recorded, so long as the record 
lA of ttwlf good, ia one of the cLemcnta which must be 
taken into account before the la^t word has been said 
on the connection between the prehistoric racc5 and those 
of history. 

I mufit confesn to a feclirg of mthcr :icrimonious 
jealotsy when I see how persistently folk-lore is ignored by 
authorilicK in reckonin^c up tlie factors w^hich contribute 
towards the history of iirrhi*«tvic man. l*hilo!ogy for a 
long lime uMifjH-d the whole pWc to heiv^If Sin; 
attempted to tell its all About our iprimitiv^ ancestors — die 
nuhlc Aryftni — and in doirf; so she appropriated a whole 

Anmual Address t^ the FcH-Lort Sode-ty. 3 

section of folk-lore— namely. f:>lTt-taIc* — and cooIJy put an 
tntcrprctation upon them ^bicl^ folk-IorJsts co\ild never find 
in the taJcs tiicmncKx^ But Philolt^y h^ ncAv to retire 
a1rD09t inio the back;^rounJ, while AichaJology and Crani* 
ology attempt to settle the jnattcr. It in a K^in to science 
that it hat at bst l>een rcooji^nif ed that we cannot penetrate 
Tar back into man's history without appealing to more Than 
one clement in that history. Some day It will be rccog- 
ni«ed tliat we fnU4t appeal to ^// elements in that hiMoty. 
In the inc^nttinc, tlic conjunction of philolog^^ archaeology', 
atki craniology hi*s brought about a revolution in itncntilic 
tbcught &S, to the pichiaturie raeev in Hurtipe ; and my 
belief is, before anything like good order is again restored 
after this fxrvolutir^n, folk-lore mu5t be l^kcn into account 
I do iK>t suppose we can any more restore ordcf in the 
■Arj'an houschcld"; but at Icitst i^t may di^tcover some- 
thing defiaiEc about the relationship between Tcutoni Celt, 
and their non-Aryan-$pcaking contcmporariea. 

What, for instance, ha\'e yiiiblo^y and Archaeoloo' to 
s^y to I^lr. Frazer*£ folk-lore researches into agricultural 
customs ajid ntcft? It is declared now that the primitive 
Aryan knew nothing about agriculture — knew of only one 
grain, and cultivated, if at all, on that sporadic system of 
burning a piece of forest land as occasion required, culti- 
vating \i for a year or two, and then going elsewhere, which 
15 chimict eristic of many h;irhMrous tribes in India, But 
Mr FrajECT proves tliai the ^agrlcuUuriiti of Kurope pes* 
»ssed a n'tual and ceremonial attached to their occupation 
which, Advai^e ai It i^l in coiKcptioii, Z» also pnrt of a ^yitlcm 
of 00 recent or sudden growtlL Sudi 4n accmnulattoii of 
evidence must have a place allotted to it I myself am not 
iuCiincd. as Mr. Fratcr iccms to be, (o allot it to the culture 
hutoryofthc primitive Ar>'ans — f^i^//M/-<r a i/n j/W<^x/ was 
tJie classical Fummingupof the historical Ar}'an,and it is the 
scicntife tumming-up of the prehistoric Aiyan. Stud>'ing 
agriculture fmm ii* inEtijutfonai ude, I have concluded that 
h b of non-Ar>'aii or^in and of primitive dc\'cIopmGnt. 


lal Address to t/:€ Folk'Lorc Society. 

id thfjujih ihls conclusion is to some extent met by 
lanon T^ylnr^i^ ingcniou« njirnnary of the evidence in 
favour of neolithic Arj-ans and of an iinbnoWcn develop, 
ncrt fmm nrolithk to historic ttmc*, it spivaTs lo mrr Ih^t 
UiccvidcTicc of folk-lore suppons the evfdcnc<r of Jr^llmiioii* 
id inlmdiiccs u* lo an agriniltnrat ^yMcrn which, m Ihe 
i\aj;e lullirc of It^ tcrttn'-'iUi fc-li*;iN. hi ihi prinutiic 
uiAi:tcii'^K-^ "f the iii»liLini'*»'. ii f.i^lcrcd and *iiJ|»]*orttiJ, 
» coii^iJc ruble amuuiit of prchiMurlc cuhurc 
b represented by rolhinj; tKnt t:^ at prcsctH known 
Af>'-in history. Bui wc c;ii>not g^ furtlier into hych 
qucfitions here: I onlj- draw attenlini) to them find their 
profotind *ignificance. lo dme home my conienlion that 
Edlc'loTG is one of the factor* which IiKjuirers \\\\^ tlie 
prehistoric r»c>G>^ mu-Hi no longer pn^ by u-ith pedantic 
oontem;)t or wfth xiSlfnl negk-cl. 

After ill, hoiA^vcr, I Jim tncUncd tu thiuk tlii« halting 

ftcogniiif-n of rolk-Torc ^s aii clement snJ an imporunt 

le. In prehistoric research li very muth the fautl of folk- 

prists ihftTt^dvcs, \Vc h^ivc been cclecijc rather tli^in 

k. \Vc have not often enough inai.Htcd upon the 

)llltc necessity of precision in the arrangement of our 

rriftl vhen collected, and we have not insisted upon 

teoncct and comt^lete collection We arc, for insttkncc, ccm- 

it with the (jeneial temarlc of a collector ih;;t thin or that 

,ni*to*n or supcrstrtion i* prevalent all over Engbnd, or 

.^vcn all over Kun->pr 'fhrrr are feik-, \{ any, e^yample£ of 

t|^} gcdorAl prrt'rtlente, iiml ihc Inpngr^phicil as well a£ 

the £eographic-jl distribution of tubloin anil heliE^f. snd al!»o 

i)f tc^-Ulc and Icjjciid. in an itnptJrtanl necessity in the 

-rtdy of fclk-lorc. The result of these fdull?^ in method 

u that careful studies like that which Mr Jlartland hau 

^-^ m ilona? the last year on the legend of Lady 

Qodivi ati; aI«W)6l ignored in the general cvidcrce they 

jTnjifff^lkwli'^T^ qti-^nion of legend and tradition. It \i 

,^^^ir(dl1rsy<Ti"^t,^"d 1 am willing to admit, nay. to 

^JLji^thctotniie that ihi^a explanation of the Godtva 

Annual Address to the Folk-Lore Society. 5 

tcgcnd, if it stood alone, might be called into question. 
But, besides other studies of Mr. Hartland's, which I am 
happy to think will soon be published in a collected form, 
this Godiva study stands alongside of Mn Ciodd's Rumpcl- 
stiltskin, Mr Lang's interpretation of Grimm's stories, 
Mr Nutt's discussion of the Holy Grail legend But all 
these can be true only if all the branches of folk-lore tend 
towards the same direction. Folk-tale, legend, and saga 
cannot point one way, while folk-custom and bdief point 
another way ; and I would go further, and say that one 
section of either of these groups cannot point one way 
if all other sections point in the opposite direction- In a 
word, I believe that the results of folk-lore are scientific 

If, therefore, practical agreement about the elements of 
folk-lore, or on the vital question of origins, does not in 
general obtain, either of two results must happen. 
We must amend our definition of the object and scope 
of our science, or we must go in for a delimitation of 
boundaries (rather a popular thing to do just now), 
and surrender to other branches of research some 
important material, hitherto reckoned as belonging to 
folk-lore. Of the two alternatives, I personally would 
prefer delimitation, as being by far the most scientific ; 
but I shall not consider these "hateful'* alternatives any 
further, because I believe that in the bulk of the pheno- 
mena sanctioned by tradition we have along with the 
uniformity of the sanction practical uniformity of origin. 

This brings me very near to a dangerous topic, which 
cannot be altogether ignored. Does hterature produce 
folk-lore? or^ rather, has it produced folk-lore? I do not 
mean to say that absolutely no modem traditional tales 
are literary in origin ; I only deny that any great group of 
genuine peasant tradition is literary in origin. And I 
further qualify this denial by saying that it does not 
apply so much to the present e^e, which is the age of 
literature, not of tradition. 

UnfcitimatpTy; Pr. Gastr-r\ paper on thr Holy Grail 
kgcnJ Iia» i>oi yet been publislu'd, vj ] drj nut kiimw with 
pfTcisLon what Ihc exact cfTocC hi; theory has upon ihc 
geitcral theory of folk-lore. But I ihink it <:omc:i to thb 
— that folk-lcwc is modem, or ralhcr historicAl ia oripn. 
anci represents the culture of the (cw when at Um it hu 
pcnctnilcd to the masse*. I shflU Icovc Hn Nutt to 
battle on bU o^n ground* arxJ tarn to l'rofc*yor Cran« 
v-dloablc book which he has just edited for the Society. 
He there points out how the mcdixv;^ clergy lucd 
"cxcmpla'in tlieir ^crmon^ and that tliese excmpb, Fn 
the shape or rAbtef, apologueiv and stonc«, have an 
irnporfAnt bearing; upon the question of the dlfTuKlon of 
popular talcs. Sn thcty have Rtit then wc must a^Ic 
what d;Ls» uf t)ilc!i? Centdinly not tfic- Wine! of t;ilrs 
wc find in CetmpbcHS Htgbland Talcs, nor Gfimm's 
German ^tf>^ie». nor Kennedy's Ittdi Moricfs But 
cause Jacques dc Vilry, Etitrtnc dc Bourbon, and otbei 
were shiewd enough to use iabliaux vulf^arca to pu-^h boinc 
their religious tcAcInng tolhc'^vuIgaro'V it doc5 not prove 
\ literary origin for the fabliaux — rttther to mc it proves 
the re^-enc 

We have on almost paraUcl state of things goii^ on 
now. My friend, Mr. Jacobs, v^if^hcs to put into the hands 
of noiii'tg Engfish children a collection of Enj^tUh tradi- 
tional talcs. He ftndc them loo incomplete or too ni<k ir\ 
their traditional form, so he ''eliminates a malodoctn:» and 
un-English sikurilt" from ont tale, '■ removes the inddeni 
of the Giant dragging the lady along by her hafr" from 
ancitbcr talc, "reduces" the dialect of such a talc as Tom 
TjtTol/'tii>crl2 incidci^ts in the flight, and cxiundx ibc 
ocMiclusion" in anotltcr talc, turns ballada into prose, and 
tells us of all these gay doir^:; in his notes. 1 am sure my 
friend, Mr. Jacobs will forgive me lor using hts production 
a.t a literary artist to push home my argun>ent as a fblk* 
lofisc. These talcg will be read, tK>t told; read by the 
children who axe broaght up on bright and wetl-pjctured 

Annual Address to the Folk-Lore Society. 7 

booksi not by the peasant children from whom the talcs 
are originally taken ; and the appeal with those who use 
them will always be from book to book, not from tradition 
to tradition. Literature such as this may, and does, kiU 
tradition, but it does not create it 

It seems to me we have two areas within which folk- 
tales are found — two areas sharply defined^ in this as in 
other things, and always distinct and separate. The one 
area is occupied by literary influenceSj and has been 
insensibly increasing from the times of Jacques dc Vitry 
to the times of Madame D'Aulnoy and the modern fairy- 
talc books ; the second area is occupied by tradition, and 
has been insensibly decreasing from its origin in primitive 
times to its survival in modern times. I can conceive of 
little or no overlapping here. Tales that are told in the 
literary area are a group by themselves, literary in form, 
and dependent upon literature for their life. Occasionally 
it may happen, and has happened, that some story more 
popular than ordinary has become known orally, and 
perhaps may have been transmitted through a generation 
by tradition. But the tradition soon dies out unless it is 
constantly refreshed by literature, I represent this area to 
myself as a triangle whose apex just touches primitive 
life, and whose base extends to modem times, and is ever 




The traditional area is sharply marked off from tills ; 

S 'Anmial Address t$ the Fcik^Lore Society* 

an J to ccniliniic my ligiirc. it sccmv to mc that it may be 
rcprrsffTitcil by iin nirertcil tridtnglc, with it* ?«•« n^vling 
on the primitive life of long past ages, and \is apex cx- 
tcndmg-to modem tinier.. The talcs here are dependent 
upon IraditJon. and never upon literature- The people 
who know thcnc ta1e:» Arc the pca-santry, unlettered and 
untravdted, and who have lived a life of unclinn^ing 
routine, 'Surrounded by unehanj^ni; cuntcm Etnd belief, the 
antiquity of whieh id attested in c\'er>- tvay. The tales 
themselves arc loved and treasured or the folic, jealously 
guanfed by them lest they should be e-iptured by the 
cultured, are taiown to people who^e capadiy for tradition 
takiTs the pjarc of cap;icity Tor literature Thtry never had 
" Blue Fiifry Talt" books, or *' English Fairy Ti^le"* books ; 
they could not ha^-e read them, thej- wnnld not have acade- 
mically learnt ihem, A fcjlk-lale of the Vcy^, a North 
Afncan people, explains this view most graplncatly in Us 
opening scrtcncc^ The rarrator begins his talc by 
sayin;;: "I speak of the long time paMilicar! It is 
wnittcn in out old-time-pal aver- books — i do not say S/un ; 
in old time the Vcy people liad no book,s but the old men 
told It to their children and ihcy kept it ; afterguards it iras 
written" ijt^urrr. iithmt, iW., N,S., vi, 154), Vcs. afi^mftnis 
it waftwrittCT^ ; that i« the entire qLcstion, and it b answered 
by this savage folklorisi. 

Thai this dual divtMCm fs, therefore, !iupporte<l by the 
data of popular tfa'tlition in modem times, may now, I 
think, be granted, it tu confirmed by what i* kro^^-n of 
popular tradition Jn elasskal ilmc^ The subjcoi h too 
long lo enter upon now, but let any ore consider for a 
moment how *uch » division helps to explain much of the 
phenomena of cla^wical myth. No one soppcscs that the 
xvhole i.)f lEiylh is coiitamed in Homer, HeHitxl 
Virgil, or Ovid. If Ihcy do, let me refer them to 
Mr. Frarer'^i admirable i>apcr In FoLK-I/>RE on some 
popular superstitions of the ancients, published during 
the present year. Scattered up and down the exbtiit 

Annual Addr€Si to tlu F^lk-Lor^ SociHy,, 9 

works of Ibc poctf, hUtonans* phitoaophcps, and parti- 
ctitarly the lesser WTilcra of c1a<:»cal times, arc irnuincr- 
ablc notices of myth, tradition, and :^pcrs1ition. which 
wben po: together *h&w clearly en oofih a suV^tratum of 
folk'brc residinff amonj; the people M-hich no poet had 
worked up Into the lore of ifio cultured The Apollo of 
the cultured and of the po&tiw;i); dtfTercnt from the Apollo 
oT the people t It Is trtie we krow both from literarj- 
sourcefi ; but the Ittcrature whtch telN u* mf the one ik the 
greatest epic ev'cr woven by man, the Jiterature whkh teUs 
U9 of the otiKr, putting on one %idc purely hiiftoriail norks 
like thjsc 'jf Paitoanias, is conuined in the epigrams and 
sneers, or in the accidental noting^ of the luttirist* in the 
haphazard alltmona of the poctd and;^, and in 
the discussicnft of the philosophers when pfaik^sophy was 
jtut beisinnin^ to tlirci4' off the spell of poctr>' And art. 
This if not a litcrar>' origin, therefore— it is the unin- 
tentional mention by literature of folklore. The way 
that literature treats folk-lore is thus clearly thown. It 
poetises it into a system, or it treats it with derision ; 
neitberor which processes are operative in the traditional 
treatment of folk-lore, where details arc attended to with 
scnipnlout e\acti)&L^. and rormuT;u are repeated in the 
accepted mant>er, becau» variation would be a fatal 

1 h-A'tv. ikntd thai t)ie anthruj»)In^Scal TTielhtHi uf ntudyitig 
foSk-lore must be proved by il:* result In JiowTot; iVftt all 
branches lend in the sane dirediuii. Thw dlrecticJi^ %o 
lar ai wc hairc gone at present* b that folk-ioTC contains 
the survivals of tt^ oldest and rudest cultLire of man. An 
example of the manner in ^vhich one branch of folk-lore 
complcnKnt^ or supplements another —an example con- 
spaeuous by tt!G lucid re^oning— is Mr. Hartland's Lady 
Godiva study given to us kwt session. This rc-itlj- adds 
a chapter to Mr, F/azer's A^unltunst Mph crni Cttsitm. 
tt is an addition^tl brick in the building-up of the unre- 
corded history of the past from folk-lort And when one 

10 Annual Address io the Folk-Lore Society* 

rcfo^J«* Ihflt two great authorities lik« Mr, FrATirr vul 
Mr- HartlancI, each in their own Mxte of study, praclScally 
bring thrir n-sprctiVc stiidics fo -a converging [xniit, the 
time h^A come tu lay sire.s^ u|jorT tlie Hact fts an argument 
for the irtcrpTct-ition they give to folli-lorc- 

Before passing away from Mr. Haitlaiid's subject. ! want 
to add one word on the detail of the te^^cod itself I am 
perfectly aware that jn thb J am adding not one syllable 
to Mr. Hartland'a knowltxJge ; and, •'l-s he is present, I 
most heartily apologise for my intnislon into his prcscrv-cs. 
But my reason for thtis poaching fe that I quite well 
roroembor^ during the disais^ion that took place on this 
paper, great and very proper stress was laid upon the 
absence of the Peeping Tom Incident in ihe earliest 
vtnloris of tlie slory. This w;is held tu be an itrjJU]ne:il 
against Mr. Harllaiid'-s views, Wdl, I am of a dtlTerurit 
opinion, I believe it helps Mr. Haitland's views, and, in 
my own way, I put the CjL»e ixy f^^llows. 

It will be remembered tlut Mr. Ilaitland pointed out 
that the e*trlie*t form of thii legend appcan in the 
thirteenth -century chronicle of Roger of Wcndovcr, <ind 
that an undoubted parallel to the Coventry ceremony » 
recorded at St ilria^^cV^, in Somer±etahire. Here, then, w^ 
have a^ starting points— 

(tf) The Coventry IcRcnd and ceremony kept up as 
municipal custom^ ^ni^ mentioned as early as 
the thirteenth ecntur>'- 

(i) The St. Brtavcrs legend, the ceremony fallen into 
dlsusCp and no literary mention of it at all 

Mr. Hartland rightly considers the record of Roger of 
VV'cndover ai one of those p!e&sln£ acddents which ahow5 
that our early chroniclers were sometimes ready to note 
folk-lore, and he doea not auc^et that the literary record 
started the legend. The fiict of it obtaining in two pJaceSj 
in two di^erent counties, i* to me of grr^it importance for 
the interpretation of the story. But It is to be observed 

Annual Address to the Folk-Lore Society. 1 1 

that, both in the oldest version of the Coventry legend and 
in the Sl Briavel's legendj no mention is made of the 
Peeping Tom incident Mr. Hartland looks upon this as 
an ^j-^/j'fi/ part of the legend; I am, however, inclined 
to think it is only an accidental part of the l^end. 
The reasons for this opinion are sufficiently illustrative of 
the points I have chosen for discussion to-night to warrant 
my setting them forth somewhat fully, and the subject is 
attractive as one of the few genuine English traditions 

The ride of Lady Godiva is, according to Mr, Hartland, 
a survival of a pagan belief and worship concerned with a 
being awful and mysterious as Hertha, Pliny mentions 
just such a festival as Mr. Hartland notes in India as 
occurring actually in Britain, and the passage is interesting 
enough to quote. The ceremonial described by Pliny 
would doubtless be an annual one, and in its primitive 
form the incident of Peeping Tom would certainly not be 
a rec<^ised part of it : — 

" Both matrons and girls among the people of Britain are 
in the habit of staining their body all over with glastum 
when taking part in the performance of certain sacred 
rites ; rivalling thereby the swarthy hue of the Ethiopians, 
they go in a state of nature." 

We are not told what these sacred rites were ; but there is 
little reason to doubt their general assimilation to such rites 
among savage and barbarous people. For instance, among 
the Tshi-speaking people, according to Ellis, in time of war 
"the wives of the men who are with the army paint them- 
selves white, and make a daily procession through the town, 
... - The ceremony is generally performed in a complete 
state of nudity, and any man, except the aged and infirm, 
who may be discovered is at once assailed with torrents of 
abuse, assaulted with stones, and driven out of the town." 
Thus, amongst the^e African tribes the incident sug- 
gested by Peeping Tom would occur over and over again, 
but it is not an essential part of the ceremonial itself. 

12 /Annual ^^ti/tr-U ia tk^ Fclk-Lore Sockty. 

This ancient ceremony in Britain, then, survived at St 
Kri^LTcrs in Ugtnd^ at Coventry in ctmpm. Let W5 note 
in p^fiing ih« intimate connection iliat t^ here affonled 
between legend and nistom, At Coventry the ancleni 
rile* *t3inpctl cliem-ielvc^s ujioii llie memory of the people 
with such force ih^t tlicy converted^ in course of time, ilic 
heathen gotJdi;t(% cerem^my lato a muntdpal And, oonKC- 
quently. secular ceremony. To account for the cxistcitco 
of the municfpAJ ceremony a municipnl Ic^^end was 
necessary, and thus the old heathen legend wa^ con- 
verted into a municipal let^id. In proce^ of time, 
where til e let^cnd and the ceremony kept :i]ivc» accretion 
would take pbce in the incIdenU, either from ^^omc 
actual local occurrence or for the purpose of adding 
point to the original legend, who^e r^al poirJ had of 
eourie been lost Add tn this the fact that tlic ancient 
prohibftion ;igMui-%t the presuiTice of men iLf ihc ('(rretnony, 
wliidi Mr. HarlUiid shows is part of the primitive cere- 
mony, mighl certainly introduce ^uch an idea as the Peep- 
ing Tom intidenl, <iuitc lutural m itstlf, am) msc^ should have 
the Utu ii]lrt]duc:tTun of Peeping Tom projKjly accounted 
for. This would leave the ride and its heathen purpose 
free from all intruftion of Ibrcij^n or laic elements— leave it, 
in point of fact, in it^ simple primitive form as the ride of 
a FB-tn goddess or an c;iTth £^oddes^ 

1 should have liked to say something about two very rain* 
able paper-*: which have appeared ui the Society's Journal 
durin;; tliU la*t year— nami'ly, Mr. Abercromby'i; " Ma^c 
Song^ of the I'inn*" and TrofcitKor J [addon's " Tales of the 
Torres Straits Feoplc", At ihU time, when the Finns are 
bdng brought into such close contact wirh the prehistoric 
Aryui-«^eaking people, tt is particularly fortunate that w« 
have one scholar in the Sciciety who will give us such im- 
jxirtaTil material a» Mr. Alxrrtromby h^is ^i\x\c \\\\\ I itm 
anxious to pa«j en to some ralhcrilry dctarts. with nhith I 
ihink [t^nccesAary lo trouble the Society to-nighl, and so do 

Annua/ Address to thd Folk-Lore Society. 13 

not propose to touch upon these enticing subjects, I nnust, 
however, just point out that the Society is entitled to con- 
gratulate itself upon a veritable capture it has achieved 
during the present year. Professor Haddon went out to 
the Torres Straits on an expedition on behalf of natural 
-ioiencc : ht- returned ;im iucleiil (blk-1i»nsiH utuI iinmtMli;arU' 
i'jin*-'<l U'^. .\> w -^i.icntfrk' in;in, lie kiiovx s ilio v;ilu"_' *»f ]iiv- 
cisi'in ill iX'Cordiil^ fuels. ;iiid I do ri'H kTii*w :i incMC |>Lrli;i:i 
iinnlel of ^^ontiint; siofy-ojllccnng Lh;in his, lit is iuav 
pursuing his folk-lore work in Ireland, and I, for one, 
expect great things from him. 

I must now pass on to what I \\-ant to say about the 
methods of classifying, docketing, and analysing the 
materials of folk-lore. 1 will suggest that the only way of 
studying folk-lore is by syncretic analysis, if the expres- 
sion is not almost paradoxical. The Society is helping 
towards this object by its forms of analysis and tabulation 
which have been adopted for folk-tales, and custom and 
belief And it is only fair to point out to members that 
several ladies are now busy upon the tabulation of folk-tales, 
one group of which — the Cinderella group — will be analysed 
and examined by Mrss Roalfe Cox, and the results placed 
before the members. The tabulations are the first step, 
not the final one, in the study of folk-tales. Having got 
all folk-tales grouped together, either in story-types or in 
geographical order, the next step is analysis. 

It would be premature to speculate as to the result 
of this analysis, but, as an example of its value to the 
anthropological method of interpretation, let us take 
Grimm's collection of folk-tales. They have been already 
lai^ely tabulated upon the Society's plan, and if we pro- 
ceed to analyse the first twelve of them, say, what is the 
result ? 

Dividing each tale so as to bring out the features which 
mark — 

14 Annual Address to the Folk-Lore Socisty, 

(i) The story radicals or essential plot ; 

(2) The story accidentals or illustrative points ; 

{3) Modern gloss upon the events in the story — 
we get the following results with regard to seven out of the 
twelve: — 

L — Frog Priwce. 

Sbitf rulkulL 

SlOTT jfg JF***!* 

Added fcaiBRL 


I, Stnge ■ifmmr* , . 

PauQtun or wU 
Iba Localltr of 
IhhUii^ iacidtnt 


FrO£-priacC ttMj% 

*I lU houK ti 
bU lutun «fc- 

TUffCptbe prince 
j^^m^m From ■ 
foreif D Cniotry. 




t, FuUicic ■'*"""' 



FuLhful HTVUl 

whokd bean u 
boopd by im 

3. Ruifc ud iploidaiir 



Kingly MUa And 
it! tnppioEi — 
the prmccit 
weuft ■ offvn 
on ardinuy oc- 
raWMi, uhL yet 
opens tiu doflff 
to ft vHiumituia 

UK— Our Lady*s Child, 

Story radical 


Added reftlarea. 

Modem ^totk. 

1. Sftnfttt aLtBeaU , . 

Nil:ed forvA wi> 
Dun apliired 

Sotpidoo ihu 
■he ii ■ cuuiibaL 


3, R.*nV tnri i^endour 




Yirpa M vj uid 
heaveTi the cco- 
Enl fEfttur*! cf 


4^ MonI cluruter- 

UlJCIi - 

PaniihiaFnl far 


Annual Address to the Folk-Lore Society. 15 

IV.— The Youth who wants to learn to shuddeil 

StDTT ndicilA. 

SrofT accidentAli. 

Added remturca. 


1, SllVWH ■»1*«*Ml ,^ 

Wiuniii^ of wiie 

flncxcuiDn la 
kiDBBhip tltraigh 
w^f e — femali 

TrcBsuTD giianl- 




«. FuiEHtie tltoeot 


Th« adTfimirei 
Id the 1uudi«I 



3. RuikuiilajiLcbdoUE 




KJnfLy tttte. 

%. Ucml dunctcT- 





v.— The Wolf and Seven Little Kids. 

1. Sk«(« elcawim .. 

StoTT Tftdlcali. 

TjtlkiDB uii^ 

CnEtinE opvn of 
the ? ni im l (o 
fre« tbc iwaI- 
towed Iclda, and 
n-6EbDE ilw 
iiDinaca with 


Slory uxid<nlA]i, 

Cridcian upm 
picq lu com- 
puml wilh Bsi- 
mmli« *' tnily 
DKD aro lilu 

Added featDm. 


VL — Faithful John- 

Sl«y ruliralL 

Stcr7 iccideaUili 

Added fcatDtvL 

Modem gloB' 

1. SftT«Ct dcmoiU . , 

CapEuTT orhnde- 
Taili^nE of uu- 

■uclting of 

Sucrilicc of diild- 
ren uid ipnnJc- 
lin£ (Ldi blood 
M A Hone. 

Hmniui Drigin oE 
ilone pillar. 




^ JtrnkudapkodDiir 




Kinaly Ktile aad 
gold ■□ d TJcliel. 

4_ Uaral clufuiler- 


Puai^hment for 



r6 Annual Address to ilie Folk-Lore Society. 

IX.— The Twelve Brothers. 

Story ndjcali. 

StoTT accideiiulL 

Added fcuurtt- 

Modem floft^ 

1, S^kU^Jc cIcillCBlS . . 

Goirti- [cAUiins 
ic ^o[ away of 
Aocts so rhii ilw 

Changi: of brftiK- 
er- ir»rM rjicnii. 

QJl &□ DLlC^ 

i-'n-\ lilc. 


a, RAolcandiplcndour — 


— \ Kingly (late. 

Moral c^uacCE- 



XI.— Brother and Sister. 

Sux7 ndkalt- 

Story Accidenuli. 

Added fraioret 

Mod«TTi x-lou. 

J, Savage elements . , 

TnuufonniEion of 
hero into roe- 
buck fifier driDlt- 
uig Bl f lEcanL. 




There is no time to Ao more than to give these few 
examples of story analysis, but they are sufficient, I think 
to show the value and interest of it It brings out the 
statistical side of folk-lore methods, and in folk-lore we need 
statistics, if we would be exact and scientific. 

I pass from analysis of tales to that of custom and 
belief Nothing of this has, so far as I am aware, yet been 
done. Some five years or so ago 1 began the task of com- 
piling a dictionary of the folk-lore of the British Isles, and 
when, about a year ago, I began to arrange my collections, 
the need of a proper analytical system at once occurred to 
me. The plan for analysing custom and belief prepared 
for the Society was the result of my experience of what 
was necessary, and 1 have been working upon it ever 

Wc have no right to discuss custom and belief in folk- 

Annual Address to the Folk-Lore Society. 1 7 

lore until we know something of its place in folk-lore 
analysis. Working this out in some examples chosen 
almost at random from my collections, let me first note 
some customs of considerable significance which allow us 
at once to penetrate beneath the stratum of Christianity 
into the paganism beneath. 

Remember^ I am trying to show the importance of 
analysing the component elements of folk-lore. Baptism, 
an essentially Christian ceremony, might off-hand be sup- 
posed to contain nothing but evidence for Christianity, It 
might at most be expected that the details of the ceremony 
would contain relics of adapted pagan rites, and this we 
know is the case. But my point is, that we can go beyond 
even this, and discover in the popular conception of the rile 
very clear indications of the early antagonism between 
Christianity and paganism — an antagonism which is cer- 
tainly some eighteen hundred years old — in this country, 
and though so old is still contained in the evidence of 

An analysis of baptismal folk-lore shows us that its 
most important section is contained under the group which 
deab with the effect of non-baptism. 

In England we have it prevailing in the border counties, 
in Cornwall, Devonshire, Durham, Lancashire, Middlesex, 
Northumberland, and Yorkshire, and in north-east Scot- 
land, that children joined the ranks of the fairies if they 
died unchristened, or that their souls wandered about in 
the air, restless and unhappy, until Judgment Day. Various 
penalties attended the condition of non-baptism, but 
perhaps the most significant is the Northumberland custom 
of burying an unbaptised babe at the feet of an adult 
Christian corpse — surely a relic of the old sacrifice at a 
burial which is indicated so frequently in the graves of 
prehistoric times, particularly of the long-barrow period. 
In Ireland we have the effect of non-baptism in a still 
more grim form. In the sixteenth century the rude Irish 
used to leave the right arms of their male children un- 


christened, to the intent that they might give & more 
ungTArioiis ar<I dcatlly blow. 

Tlic*e,iiiiiUhi"ir;;llip(l ^ml vnrbnt iiii^touis, arc rcltcMlOt 
so much or tllc absufption by Chfi>lian baptism of Hlca 
belonging to early paganism a* of the struggle between 
Christianity anJ paganism for ihc mastery, of the ana- 
thorns of ChristifLn^ against pagan^i, and of the terriblo 
answer of the paffan< And what arc wc to my to it P la 
it that the struggle it^lf has lasted rill Uicse centwne*. or 
only its memory ? My belief is that the struggle itself has 
lasted fn reality though not in rame. 

Uiit if wc have becri able to look through the very 
portals of Chri*iiiamly to the regions of iMganism bdiind, 
can we not boldly pass through altogetlicr and rcccrvtt 
from folk-lore much of the lost evidences uf our pTchiitoric 
ancestors? I put the question in Ibis way purposely^ 
because it is tlic way which Is indicated by the methods 
and data of fotk-lore, and it \s a question which has much 
to do with the different views held of the province of folk- 

Let us first note the pre-bapUsmal rites of washing. In 
Northumberland we meet with the rtnalogue of the six- 
teenth century Irish practice, for the»-e the child** "g^* 
hand IS Ifrfl iiiiwiL^hcd titat it may gvithct nclit^s belter-^ 
the g<)Mcn cuin Ijcing the modern weapon In this as in 
other fcaluit» of civilisation- Not only is llic water used 
for this purpose heated in the old fashioned way hy pladng 
red-hot irons in it {i.e., the modern equivalent for stone- 
boilinp); but in Yorkshire we have the custom that the 
ncw-bom infant must be placed in the arm* of a maiden 
before anyone else touches it, two practices represented 
exactly in the customs of the Canary Islanders, who were 
In the ^tonc Age of culture and are considered to be the hut 
remnants of a race which once included Biitain among Its 
lands of occupation. 

Of course we cannot^ en the present occasion, deal ex- 
haustively with any of these subjects, i can only indicate 

Annual Address to the Folk-Lore Society. 19 

the results. But 1 should next like to draw attention to 
the clavie burning at Bur^head. It has been described 
over and over again with but little additional information 
until the ceremony of 1889, which was described in greater 
minuteness than usual in our FoLK-LORE Journal. I will 
not, however, describe the whole ceremony, which is very 
well known, but draw attention to the additional features 
which are not so well known. 

At the making of the clavie no stranger may join the 
band of workers but as an onlooker only. The sons of the 
original inhabitants only handle the primitive tools that 
make the clavie. Unwritten, but invariable, laws regulate 
all their actions, and every article required is borrowed, 
not bought. 

The barrel having been sawn in two, the lower half is 
nailed into a long spoke of firewood, which serves for a 
handle. Tfus nail must not be struck by a fiamnier^ but 
driven in by a stone. The half-barrel is then filled with 
dry wood saturated with tar, and built up like a pyramid, 
leaving only a hollow to receive a burning peat, for no 
lucifeT'^natdi must be applied. Should the bearer stumble 
or fall, the consequences would be unlucky to the town and 
to himself. The clavie is thrown down the western side of 
the hill, and a desperate scramble ensues for the burning 
brands, possession of which is accounted to bring good 
luck, and the embers are carried home and carefully pre- 
served till the following year as a safeguard against all 
manner of evil In bygone times it was thought necessary 
that one man should carry it right round the town, so the 
strongest was selected for the purpose. It was also cus- 
tomary to carry the clavie round every ship in the harbour, 
a part of the ceremony which has lately been discon- 

The analysis of the whole custom gives us the following 

important details ; — 

(i) The limitation of the ceremonial to members of the 

community by blood descenL 


so AitHuai Address io ilic Folk^Lorc Society* 
(a) Tlje construction of ihc clavic wJch stone iroplc- 

(3) Thfr lighting cjf thr davit; vrft}i :i biinilng pCAt, and 

the tdboo a^ujnht t luctfcr. 

(4) Tlic honour received by being the bearer of the 


(5) The want of pity shown M an accident happen to 

the bearer and the unluck caused to the town by 
such accident 

(6) The circuLt or tl\e burning clavtc round the old 

boundaries -md round the ^ipc 

(7) The twA placir^f; of the clavic on the circular heap 

of clones, 
(S) The hurling of the blnying pile down the bill, 
(9) The smiggle for the lighted brand by members of 

the commuiiit/. 

(10) Tlic lijihting of the housc-fire with the lighted 


(11) The jjcrpetuation of the house-fire Uiroughout the 

ycav until tlic Jjcxt clavic day 

(12) The sacredneas attributed to the possession of 


This ctKtrttn i*i comparab!e with others of rqnal fJgnffl- 
cance, and its mort! aiKiLiu features preserved to us from 
the early sLwcntccnlh ccnlury supply us with further 
details; hut tlic conipariaon U not nc:cdcd, becuu>c the 
custom contains within itself a perfect record of the pre- 
hlsloric orif^Inat. 

At Whitsuntide, in the pfin^h of King's Tcigntor, Devon* 
abire, a custom is thu^ described. A lamb i» dmwn about 
the parish on WbitGun Monday in a cart covered with 
t^rlftud^ of lilac, laburnum, :Lnd other l^owerv,when persons 
arc requested to give ^omethin^ towards the animal and 
attendant expenses; on TueAd;iy it tsc then killed and 
n>»-st*^cl whole in the miJf^lc of th(? village. The lamb la 
tlicn jiclJ in slices tcj the poor yt a clieaji rate. The origin 
of the custom 13 ror^oiicn, but a tradition, supposed to 

Annual Address to ike Folk-Lore Society. 21 

trace back to heathen days, is to this effect : The village 
suffered from a dearth of water, when the inhabitants were 
advised by their priests to pray to the gods for water, 
whereupon the water sprang up spontaneously in a meadow 
about a third of a mile above the river, in an estate now 
called Rydon, amply sofRcient to supply the wants of the 
place, and at present adequate, even in a dry summer^ to 
work three mills, A lamb, it is said, has ever since that 
time been sacrificed as a votive thankoffering at Whitsun- 
tide in the manner before mentioned The said water 
appears Hke a large pond, from which in rainy weather 
may be seen jets of water springing up some inches above 
the surface in many parts. It has ever had the name of 
" Fair Water^'. 

Analysing this, we get the following results : — 

(i) The decoration of the victim Iamb with garlands- 

(2) The killing and roasting of the victim by vill^ers. 

(3) The place of the ceremony in the middle of the 


(4) The selling of the roasted flesh to the poor. 

Cs) - 

(6) - 

(7) - 

(8) The traditional origin of the custom as a sacrifice for 


Now, let us turn to a parallel custom in the same 
county. At the village of Holne, situated on one of the 
spurs of Dartmoor, is a field of about two acres, the pro- 
perty of the parish, and called the Ploy Field, In the 
centre of this field stands a granite pillar (Menhir) six or 
seven feet high. On May-morning before daybreak the 
young men of the village used to assemble there, and then 
proceed to the moor, where they selected a ram lamb, and 
after running it down, brought it in triumph to the Ploy 
Field, fastened it to the pillar, cut its throat, and then 
roasted it whole, skin, wool, etc. At midday a struggle 

22 Attnual Address to ike Folk-Lerc Society^ 

took ptftcs, at the rislc of cut hands, for a slice, it being 
lOppDMd to confer luck for the enduing y^^ on the fortu- 
f»tt dtfvourcr A* nn act of grtllaiUry t^^ young nico 
iomdimci rou;*Iil clicir tvay tlii»uj:lL llic cnitn) tn get a 
flUce for ihc cho«cn amongst the young women, all of nhum, 
In thcif \ic^\. iJrL'Mvcti, attcddod the Ram Fcatnt, as It was 
ciJkd Dandng, ivic^^tling:, and other games, aubtcd by 
€opioti4 libiUioa<» of cider dunng the aftcmocn^ prolonged 
tbc fc«livity tilJ midnight 

Anatyaiotf Uila example, wc have the following rc- 

(I) - 

(fl) The killing and roosting of the viettm mm by viU 

(3) The |>]Ace of the ceremony at a stone pillar in a f>cld 

whicli is common property. 

(4) The itni^^ie for pi<;ci:!*« of raw fle^h ^«t the risk of 

cut hands", 

(5) The time of the ceremony before diiybrciU. 

ffi) Tbc luck confcncd by Uic possession of a slice of 

the dicih 
(7} The fcstlvittei attcndingf the ceremony. 
(8> - 

Thiitf, of the five elements in the K?n^5 Tctgnton cus- 
tom, Ihrec arc retained in the Holnc custom, and three 
additional on» of imjxjrtance are ndded. 

I think wo may conclude, Hr^t, that the Hohic custom Ia 
a more primitive form of a common original from U'hich 
both have defended ; secondly, tliat wc may strike out the 
" roasting" a^ an entirely civiUied element di^e to modern 
Influence!. The final form of the analysU inighi then be 
restored from the two fragmentary ones as follows :-^ 

(\) The decoration of the victim with garlands. 

(2) "I'hc killing of the victim by the community, 

(3) The place of ttie ceremony on lands belongins to tbc 

oommunily, and at a stone pillar. 

Annua/ Address to the Folk-Lore Society, 23 

(4) The struggle Tor pieces of flesh by members of the 


(5) The time of the ceremony before daybreak. 

(6) The sacred power of the piece of fiesh. 

(7) The festivities attending the ceremony. 

(8) The origin of the ceremony as a sacrifice to the gcd 

of waters. 

Need I go further than this, with Mr. Frazer's book 
quite fresh in our minds ? At least, I will mention the 
nearest parallel to this custom from another famous book. 
Professor Robertson Smith thus quotes from an early book 
on Arab custom {Religion of Setnites, p. 320): — 

" A camel is chosen as the victim, and is bound upon a 
rude altar of stones piled together. When the leader of 
the band has thrice led the worshippers round the altar in 
a solemn procession^ accompanied with chants, he inflicts 
the first wound while the last words of the hymn are still 
upon the lips of the congregation, and, in all haste, drinks 
of the blood that gushes forth. Forthwith the whole com- 
pany fall on the victim with their swords, hacking off 
pieces of the quivering flesh and devouring them raw with 
such wild haste that, in the short interval between the rise 
of the day star, which marked the hour for the service to 
begin, and the disappearance of its rays before the rising 
sun, the entire camel, body and bones, skin, blood, and 
entrails, is wholly devoured." 

Now, what would an analysis of this give us ? Just those 
points which have been produced from two Devonshire 
customs, and which help, therefore, to stamp the latter as 
survivals from savagery which, if borrowed, must have been 
borrowed in sav^e times by savage people. 

Witchcraft in killing an enemy by causing his image 
to be made, and inflicting injury upon the image, which 
injury will be transferred to the individual represented, is 
well known, liut it is not so well known that in Scotland 
the method of thus producing vicarious injury upon an 
enemy takes us back to the stone ^e. On July 22, 1590, 

26 Annual Address io Ihc Faik^L^rc Smtfy. 

what I would venture in call an anthropologiail brirrnwioj 
theory. He lias- si^^st^ llic ^tpplic^iiQn of the latest 
llitiifiuH uf cinnjj;<tiilivc- phJlolujiy lf> cx|i1;iiti the |iJiefrii 
mcna of folk-loic- Compar^livc philology has before noi 
had '^n€w" thcoric:!, which w^xc readily accepted in years 
gone by, and now they arc rejected, not without fiome 
show of petulant scorn, by thoat who have loamt the new 
wayK. At least it seems to tne to be premature to accept 
the latest "iictv" theories of compafL^tive philolc^ as a 
(fttldc to folk-lorfsU Why should folk-lore be perpetually 
Asked to U'^n upon philology) I rtlU»j»ctheT reject an 
alliance Lpon such a basis. I hclic^nc that folk-lore \\'. 
methofl^ of its own quite as exact as tlioAc of philolc^yjl 
and that the true course to pursue is to keep to those 
mclhodsv Tho' arc to be determined by folk-lore data, 
and not by ihc data of oilier sciaicca^ however clourly 
allied ; tbcy depend upon the inter-relationship of the 
various component parts of folk-lure, and rausl be ancer* 
tained and set forth in scicntiEic order and precision — Ein 
order and precision attainable, as 1 believe, to a much 
greater degree of perfection than most of ui have any 
Idea of. It may well be that b/ its own method* folk-lore 
will be in ;i poj^itTcm lo leach something to philolcigy and 
the other allied sciences. 

Thus, then, ft seems that our work in the fuluie mu»t Ue 
nnorc and more !n llie direcLiun of ;m<^lysi^ and classtliea- 
tior. To do this properly we \^ant first of all absolutely 
exhaustive collection, Collection b twofold; (j) among the 
people for llio^e item^ which are even yet unreeorded, as, 
for instance, Kuch an item ;l« Profe^i^or Haddon s week or 
two ago told me he had noted in Ireland— the custom of 
Icosenin)^ the nail* of a coffin just btfore consignment to 
the ^ that the spirit may have less trouble ingettini; 
to the spirit world : {2) among the scattcicd llleralure not 
«peeially devoted to folk-lore. Thi* l-wt need has been 
noted in the H.iHdbi><*l\hyii 1 will recall to the members 
the admirable paper whJcli Mi^s Burnc sent up to 

Annua/ Address to ike Folk-Lore Society. 27 

Society, and which contained so many important sugges- 

Recognising^ therefore, as we do, the needs of folk-lore, 
there is not much doubt as to what the duty of the Society 
is in the future. Folk-iore of iate years has become 
popular, and is becoming more so ; and» this being the 
case, we find there is much that can now be accomplished 
by the private student through publishers, which in the 
past could only have been accomplished by the Society, 
Such a state of things is one of the surest indications of the 
Society's success in the past And it points to a defining 
line for its work in the future. In the admirable biblio- 
graphy given in our Joumalj we are made acquainted with 
the foik-lore that does not pass through our own hands. 
Whatever work publishers will now undertake, therefore, 
the Society should gladly leave to their care. But there is 
a large balance of very necessary work which can only be 
taken up by the Society, and which, in my humble 
judgment, should be taken up at once in a comprehensive 
manner. We want to get at the statistics of folk-lore. 
We want definite plans laid down upon every branch of 
work which needs to be done, the order in which it is 
required, the form which it is to take, the methods of 
obtaining the co-operation of all our working members. 
Some of this has been begun, some of it has been neglected, 
some of it has not been attempted. The organisation of 
County Committees is still an unfinished plan of the 
Council. Complete and exhaustive bibliography is another 
subject which needs almost immediate attention at our 
hands. The English portion of it was begun by myself 
soon after the Society started ; another department of it 
has been taken in hand by Mr. Kirby. My ideal of the 
work, of the Society in the future is, I am afraid, not a 
very exhilarating one, and is certainly devoid of the fasci- 
nation and enchantment which our distinguished President 
has given to folk-lore study generally, and to his utterances 
from thi$ chair. But I am earnest in my contention that 

38 Aunual Address to ike FoiicLore Smeiy, 

it ifi iu«cntiAl to accomplish a ccitain amount or dry u-ork 
before we oui get Tolk-lore fully reco^nlsietJ, as It should 
be, in the historical sciences, i-'olk-lofc has *uffirrMi by 
bein^ Tituclicd in picceineal, 1>«:aiae all aU4cl<3 upon [l 
have been dJreclciI agiio^t one or two of its regiments, 
which havK htvtj\ mistaken ior \t% main anoy. Only the 
Society, ill {U cullectjve r;ip4diy. can prepare for the 
student whitt he requires all along the line ; the 5ockt>* 
should always be scientific, let Its individual members work 
a£ they may. Scientific method? may not be popular 
methods, but popularity i-i quite a secondary consideration* 
This has been the policy t have advocated ever since the 
Society h^ been in existence, aad, while I have not lost 
one scrap of faith in the wisdom of such a policy, I have 
loAt faith in my own capacity for successfully advo< 
catirg it 

Tilts bnnj^s me to Hpeak here of our new Journal I 
think the Society is to be congratulated upon the com- 
pli'liiin of fhir firsf vtsliime nf FoLK-T/iRP^ wilh nuch con* 
»picuuu^ Hucie:!^, ^^d I think it owes a tlcbt of gr^lilude to 
Mr, Nutt and Mr. Jacobs^ But in my opiniorh, the new 
Journal lacks something from the Society's point of view, 
and 1 only found what this something was in looking over 
the paf^ei of the old FoLK-L^Ki: JouRKAU In an early 
volume of thatworkisalctterfrooiMr. Kinchani whkhsug- 
gests the need of a place of record for the tritlcfl which may 
come under the notice of an ob&erver at all times and 
placet, when but for a printed record it might be losL< 
^fitts tixd Quiria has long held thb place; our Journal 
fliould noiv hold it. And for th]« to be acnnnpltiihed we 
wania section of FoLK-l.OHF- exclusively devoted to collec- 
tion- 1 know ihrrr are pagrs devxiird lo notes 'i^' ^'^ 
want, I thinks a Ccfleacrs' NoU^Bouk ^-cliun definitely set 
out for those of our members iiibo come across stray bits of 
folk-lore, whether printed in a non<folk-!orc book or irt 
tradition among the folk. Willi this properly nrganbcdt^ 
wc might get members to search among the netrspapcn 

Annual Address to the Folk-Lore Society. 29 

and journals, and maybe discover another Tom Tit Tot — 

to search, I mean, systematically for the Society, and, 
having finished any particular section, to record the fact in 
our Journal, even if the results are nil so far as folk-lore is 
concerned. At least, this will secure work not being done 
twice oven 

One other matter of ot^anisation is of somewhat more 
importance to the Society and to folk-lore, and it lies 
outside the Society's immediate control. I mean the 
establishment of a folk-lore section of the British Associa- 
tion. I think the time has come for this. Anthropology 
has long since been recognised there \ folk-lore should also 
now be recognised, and independently. I think, until this 
is done, it would be well if the Council of the Society sent 
a representative to the meetings of the Association, who 
should draw up a report of folk-lore matters dealt with 
there, and their relationship to other subjects. The 
Society, in my humble judgment, should assert itself, and 
put itself into communication with such other societies as 
take up any branch of its work, or illustrate any important 
feature of the science. It would thereby spread its useful- 
ness, and would, I am convinced, increase its members. 

Taking the work done, and noting the work to be done, 
it occurs to me that the record of the past session has been 
substantial and good. Such of it as I have been able to 
note indicates that we are proceeding slowly, no doubt, but 
systematically. Wc arc urging forward collection, and 
our handbook for collectors is the best evidence of our 
action under this branch of work. We are urging forward 
analysis and scicntitic arrangement, and our tabulation 
work, under the superintendence of Miss Roalfe Cox, will 
show this. We arc formulating our interpretation of 
certain phenomena in folk-tales, our materials, perhaps, in 
all cases not being quite perfect. We are discussing and 
taking careful note of our methods of work. We are 
watching the progress of other scientific work which bears 
upon our own. We already find that philology has beaten 

38 Antmai Addras io tkc fcik-Lort Society^ 

it U efsentUl to iiocomj^tsh ^ certain amount of dry work 
Jjcfofc w* can get follc-lon? fully rrcngTii<i(!rI, 'a\ it ithi}tj!d 
be» Jn ihe historical scJencei FoIl;-Sorc has suftcrcd by 
being studied £n pfccemcal, because all att^ki upon it 
liavG hecfi dircctcti dgairvU one or two of \\s regiments 
whkli Iiavc been mlntakc^n foi its main army. Only the 
Socict>-p in its collective capacity, can prepare for ihc 
student what he requires all along the line ; the Society 
should always be acicntiBc, let its individtiaJ members ivoxk 
aa thcj" iruiy, Sciciitifie methods may not be popular 
methods, but popularity is quite a i;econdaj>' con«ideration. 
This lias been the policy I have advocated ever since the 
Society hn:( been in existence, and, while I hai^ not locC: 
one 4crap of faitb in the wisdom of such a poUcy. \ hai 
lost &ith in my own ca|>fitcit^- for Kikcccufully advo 
cacini; it. 

This brings me to speak hen? of our tiew Journal I 
think the Society is to be congratulated upon the com- 
pletion of the first volume of Folk-LorR vrith such con- 
spicuous success, and [ think il o^vs ^ debt of gratitude to 
Mr. NtJtt and Mr. Jacobs, But. in my opinion, the new 
Journal lacks something from the Society's point of view, 
atid i only found what thbaomcthing was in looking over 
the pagc$ of the old FOLK-LORE JOURKAU In an early 
volume of that work it a letter from Mr, Ktrahan, w hfch sug- 
gests the need of a place of record for the tri^s which may 
come under the notice of an obieen^r at all times and 
place?, when but for a printed record it might be lost 
NaUi ami Qttcntt ha« long held this pluce ; o<ir Journal 
shouk) now hold it. And for this lo be accompUslvcd wc 
wantascction of POLK-LORF-cxdusivcly devoted to collec- 
tion. I know there are pages devoted to note% but wc 
want, t think, a CWUcUr^ iVrt'^-An*^ acction definitely set 
out for those of our members who codK across stray bits of 
folklcre, whether printed in a not) -folk lore book or in 
tradition among the folk- With this properly o^ani^edi 
wu might ^ct members to f^arch among tlw newspaper* 

Annual Address to the Folk-Lore Soaeiy. 29 

and journals, and maybe discover another Tom Tit Tot — 
to search, 1 mean, systematically for the Society, and, 
having finished any particular section, to record the fact in 
our Journal, even if the results are nil so far as folk-lore is 
concerned. At least, this will secure work not being done 
twice oven 

One other matter of organisation is of somewhat more 
importance to the Society and to folk-lore, and it lies 
outside the Society's immediate control. 1 mean the 
establishment of a folk-lore section of the British Associa- 
tion- 1 think the time has come for this. Anthropology 
hEis long since been recognised there ; folk-lore should also 
now be recognised, and independently. I think, until this 
is done, it would be well if the Council of the Society sent 
a representative to the meetings of the Association, who 
should draw up a report of folk-lore matters dealt with 
there, and their relationship to other subjects. The 
Society, in my humble judgment, should assert itself, and 
put itself into communication with such other societies as 
take up any branch of its work, or illustrate any important 
feature of the science. It would thereby spread its useful- 
ness, and would, I am convinced, increase its members. 

Taking the work done, and noting the work to be done, 
it occurs to me that the record of the past session has been 
substantial and good. Such of it as 1 have been able to 
note indicates that we arc proceeding slowly, no doubt, but 
systematically. We are urging forward collection, and 
our handbook for collectors is the best evidence of our 
action under this branch of work We are ut^ing forward 
analysis and scientific arrangement, and our tabulation 
work, under the superintendence of Miss Roalfc Cox, will 
show this. VVc arc formulating our interpretation of 
certain phenomena in folk-tales, our materials, perhaps, in 
all cases not being quite perfect. We are discussing and 
taking careful note of our methods of work- We are 
watching the progress of other scientific work which bears 
upon our own. We already find that philology has beaten 

30 Annual Address to i/te Folk-Lore Society. 

a retreatf while archaeology and craniolc^y are bntiging 
themselves to the front in the interpretation of man's pre- 
historic past We await the time for folk-lore to range 
itself alongside of these great studies, fully recognised and 
fully used in the sense that Edmund Spenser wrote three 
centuries ago: "^By these old customes the descent of 
nations can only be proved, where other monuments of 
writings are not remayning." 



XXV.— The Origin of Iron. 

The aerial God himself, Ukko^ the Creator up above, 
Rubbed together both his palms upon the end of his left knee. 
From that originated three maidens — all the three Lucnoiars, 
To be mothers of iron ore (F. rust), to be generators of "blue 

The maidens walk with swinging gait, the girU advance along 

the atmospheric rim 
With swollen breasts, with smarting teats. 
They milked their milk upon the ground — caused their breasts 

to discharge. 
Milked over lands, milked over swamps, milked over still 

One, the eldest of the girls, milked out black milk. 
The second, the middle one, jetted forth red milk. 
The third, the youngest of the girls, poured forth white milk. 
One had milked black milk, from hers originated soft iron. 
One had jetted forth red milk, from hers brittle iron Is obtained. 
One had poured forth white milk, from hers things of steel are 

There was a short interval of time. 
Iron desired to meet his elder brother, to make acquaintance 

with fire. 
Fire became insolent — grew exceeding terrible, 
Burnt swamps, burnt lands, burnt great wooded wildernesses, 

1 The Thunder God ' 7.^., hlue-edged steel. 


Magic S&Hgs of the Finns^ 

Was on ihc point of burnnng poor iron, H% wretched brother. 
Iron rn^tnogcit to take Eo flight, lo tabct^ (o flight, to hide hUnitdf 
In <]Ark Pt/hjoia, m I^pIand'A wide and furLhett bouiidi^ 
Upon the K'^teat reach of swamp, oq a wild rnountain'tQp, 
Whctc wans lay their egg* —a goo*© hatches \\& young. 
Irom heft £iretchr?d upon u swAmp — lies idly m A watciy plac^i 
Hid a whofe year, hid for a tecond, forthwiEh hid for a thiJtL 
He did not maiugc ccruinly to escape the raging baotb of 

A tccond ttmo he had to go — Eo enter rooms of fir^ 
When h>dn^ made into a weapon, whcD being foT{ned into % 

A woir vaa running o'er a swamp, a bear wos hurrying o'er a 

tandy heath. 
The ^wamji rose under the wolf* feci — the uady hcilh under 

the hrtr's paw:(. 
Iron bars, ball* of steel grew up 

On the tracks of the wolf, on the dintft of the bcar*^ hccL 
■J'he smith Umatimn^ the very skilful hammerer 
r.iiood old ITdinAm^ntn^ the iiine-<j]d sof>ihsaycr (/^/A^J) 
(^S^u) was wending his way, wi^ pursuing his course. 
Came by chance on the wolfs tr^ctb— on die dinia of the 

bear's heel, 
Saw the iron spronEB, the balls of steeT, 
On the wolfs huge UackSf on the diiiU of the bear'ii bcel, 
(And) to this speech gives utterance ; 
" Alas for ihec, unlucky iron. 

For thou an in a wr^tchod plight— in a lowly siiuation. 
In a wDlfifi fi)oiin:itkT( on h ^wanip, qiiiTe irt the footsteps of \ 

Wouldst Ihou noE grov beautiful— increase in lotclincn, 
If I extricated thee from the swamp — conveyed thee to a 

Torccd ihccinioa fireplace, set lb ee clown in afargc?" 
I'oor iron jtavc a sudden elart. ^ve a sudden start, toolc sudden 

When he heard Aie mentioned, wlicn he heard £pcak of racing 

Magu S^ngs 0/ Uu Finns^ 


Smith Jimawin/m uid : 

'^Tbou art i»c, KTctcbcJ ircrt, ptDduccd. 

Thy kin<jr«<l one not fbnncd, Ihy rcladv» vlII not gr:>w up 

Without ^folmt fire, withovt being ukea lo ^ imiihy, 

Wlihoui bciitj put Into A forge, wii)ioui b^g blovn U(k>ii by 

Um heed it not, prajr do not pay the lout n^ord. 
Ptrewtll r»oc bum bii; ftcquaipuincc — nilt not bum a relative, 
Wieti Hkil ei^ltfrevi rof^ms (if firc—'the rtct-ptnc le of cuals, 
TTkhj wiJl gro« tjcaiLtil\jI — will tjccviiic cxtrcntcl)- fait, 
(\VUt be mode) in;o trusty iworcLt for mtxv — into tcnninol} hx 

vomeo's belts.*' 
EfW since that day iron lias been kneaded out of in^amp^. 
Been UsiQijdcd out of natery ^poi«. beca obtained fit^u cby. 
The intith bicasclf flood id the aw&mp, up I0 Kifl knoa in bbck 

Whilu diggtntg Iron from the swamp, while cuiracting on* 

(F- n»nh) from the mirr. 
J£c i£i/cd the iion Eiprout&""t]ic bolls of fitecl> 
I'rom the huge footprints cf the volf^ from the dints of the 

tjear'fi paft«. 
The nnitb Hm^rinta 

Sd up hi:( ficIloHTi thcfc, csUb1i?^hcd \Cvs forge there, 
On tlie huge tmckji of the tdI^ on the scmtcbci of the bear's 

Be pliMigctl tin* in»i inia the fire, 

Slew the t)cIlow!( alt ni^it without resting — nil day vitliout 

Slew the bello^ics X whole day, blc^r them a second, blew them 

foffihwtib a third day (00, 
The iicn c3ipand» Lkc pap— bubbles like slji^, 
EicpoiKled hke whatcn dou^ib - -like rj-e meal doughy 
In tbe tcnkh's htge £re, when in the hands of gLowini; heat 
Then iniilh Ifm^rimn looked ul the b;*Uoiii uf ilii: forge, 
Uliat the foige perdiancc tiuy yield — nbat hb bellows can 

Tfast he obt^aed bnttle jroit, then he goi elag^ 
.Then let white (iron) iHckle from the bellows bclov. 
Then wrcCcheJ iron shouted out : " Oho T wiith //Mwram, 

fOU II. D 


Magic Songs of t/te Finny. 

Tftkc me avay from ^ro, from the torawmt of maJigmiu 

Smith Jlrmrintn nid : '* Tf I took iKcc from tb« fire 
Pdrhap«thcu wilt grow icrrrble— wilt begin UJ grow eofeiMlsp 

Wilt aUo cut ihy bruher,* «il[ Uccr^^tc thy mWbn'* child-" 

Then mbtrabic iron swore — ^csorc hi» tiolemn oaih 

Upon the forge, upon the anvil, upon the bjimincn, upon the 

" E shall not touch Jlc&h, I ziliall rot c^iusc blood to How. 
There ii wood for mc to bite— a fallen irce for me to muncht 
A young fir for mc to nip, a stone's heart for mi; to cst« 
So chat 1 shall not rue my braih«T — shan't bccrate my mother'* 

Tia belter for me to be— more pleasant for roe to live 
Ai comniUo to a truveller, ^ a weapon m a waylansr'fi harid, 
Than tmich ,t kinsmiin wjlli my 'mouih", than injure my mrn 

kith ind kin." 
Then Mntth limmmmt the liro«}ld hammerer, 
Snatched the iton from the fire, set it on the anvil 
To niakc ii niEillcabl?. to hammer it into sharp Implcrncnn, 
Into ajics, imo s|jear5, into cvei)' sort of implement. 
He hammers with rcpcUcd bloirs, cling> clang lescunds 

Bui iron will not take a \yam\, in edge of ileel \% not pra- 


!The iron docs not harden, the iron edge is not durable. 
V^ Ifcn does rot take an edge withoiil being dipt m wafer, 
Smith /iwann/iT acxcrdingly kftpi ptimlcrinii in liis mind 
What could be procured, what could be brought 
To form a toughcning-llujd^ for ateel— a baidenjng- water for 

He [jrc[WJtd a linlc ashes, he dissolved some lye, 
Tried it with hi^ tort^Cj tasted it with intcltigcncc. 
Expressed himself in words : " The^ are not food for sie 

^ /.^, A humaD hiXti%% aa man also owetd bis origin to the 
* F. '' manufociure-fiuid". 

Magic Songs of the Finns^ 35 

As toughening- fluid for steel, as a substance for preparing 

A bee rose from the ground, a '* blue-wing"' from a knoll, 
Keeps flying round, keeps hovering around the smithy of the 

Smith Ilmarinen ordered it to Mtisola^ 
To bring honey from Metsola^ virgin honey from a virgin honey 

For the steel about to be made, for the iron about to be 

A hornet, " misCs bird'*, a " bird of misP, " Lempo's cat", 
Was flying round the smithy, oflering for sale its sicknesses,' 
Keeps fiying round, keeps listening to the smith's clear 

Concerning the steel about to be made, the iron about to be 

It was nimble of wing, it was very swift on its pinions. 
It managed to get on in front, 

It caught up Hissps horrors, bore off a snake's poison, 
The black venom of a "worm", the itch-causing fluid of an 

The hidden poison of a frog, 

f As toughening-fluid for steel, as hardening water for iron. 
L©- To the door of the smith's forge, and upset it into the 

hardening water. 
Smith Ilmarinen himself, the incessant hammerer, 
Beheves, keeps supposing that the bee has returned. 
That it has brought honey — has fetched virgin honey. 
He uttered a speech, and spake thus 1 '* Lo : these are good 

for me 
As toughening-fluid for steel, as a substance for preparing 

He dipt the poor iron into it, into it plunged the steel 
When he had extracted it from the fire — had taken it from the 

Therefore steel became evil — iron began to go raging mad, 

' The forest home. 
» Or "paJoa". 

D 2 


Magu Scf9gs of iAt Fmns* 

Cot his wrctdaed broiher, tcucbed vrJth bif ''nmtlh" his 
Cuucd blood to flow, cs.uu^ foarnj&g blood to bubbi^ ton\ 

Ceruiirty 1 krow the ycncsis of jfon, I guess ihv origin ol 

Kormerly the minds blew oiherwis^ formerly ttonci vhtsllcij 

Ttic liLM^H of tiirches tore up the t^iuuiiJ, y<juii£ aJicpot^ uf ^nc 

(tore up) the fields. 
Then It blew for ^\x ;can, tlonnc<l for Kvcn sumracrE, 
The vrjrd ]yio)^c off ihc hcidt of oaks — «niaAh<d branching* 

aallowN {rei/a). 
Knocked otr ft hillock from the ground, conve)'cd it to ibc scst- 
From It an ide w^ts formed by tpclb upon the clear :ind open 

A lovely wuud (i^) un the inland, a smooth [iie:tduw in the 


V. ft foung gill near the nood. 
On ihib two girlfi f^en up, all ihMC brides. 
Well, the maidens walk along lo a nameless mead, 
5ftt nith ihcir brcjists lo the c^i, with their heads to tbc 

They milked tlieir milk upon the ground, ihetr f«pt' conieau 

ui*on the mc^d. 
The milk Ijcgdui to How, Howcd orer swamps, flovred over 

flowed over sandy lields run wild, flowed into 3 hiLloek on a 

Inio a !i(jTtt>Td knoll, inio the yolJcii Uif. 
Hence poor iron on^natcd, bcncc originated and appeared 
Within a iwamp, on a knoll of earth, on ground of medium 

Spruuis (jf mm ^w up, itie height of a huinidji beio^t thumb. 
Good old Viinam<Htt<H. a soothnyer as old a^ limCi 

■ RuhtviM (v. mm/ay Me FolK-Lo»e, II CxxU, a, "jn/iWoi^ 

Magic S^gs of iAe Finns. 


W41 weoding hi£ vaj*, vru pursuiit;; his coune, 

Foufid ihe sprout* of iion — che ttedy shools of grrwinR com. 

He looks about, turns liure and tJicrc, uHef<?i! a 4p«xh, spkc 

* What Bort of growiDfi crom la this, cmtJ wlint thoc buddmjt 

Somciliing would cr^mc fmm them ;il a de^icroti% }minnicTier'«." 
He s^thcrfd ihcm iaio hn> poudi, he carried them into i 

smith 'j handi' 
Smith lixisrintm seeks for :l p}ac& for hi> forge, 
FoLtru! a tiiiy bil of ground — an extreme])' small delT, 
ttlictc lie let up his bclJovs Inhere he calabliafaed hia fofgc. 
Bui WTCtclKd iron doc3 not tc^o^i ^Hc fccna» steel it not 

Iri a doortru smithy, on a fireless for|;«. 
TI1C iron-smiLh hnd lack of wocxl, llic iron -li am merer of fjrc 
He gct> vood, he fetches fitc, but still iron l» not produced 
Unless there be a bellow;; mnn — a man loprcid ihe bclloi^a* 
He took a servani to Wow— a hireling to prew tham, 
Looked unilcn>c;xll: tlie forge^ai thp c*1gp of the beHows. 
Already the pcodoctJoi (F. biith) of iron bad taken pbcc, the 
Oouas sleet had appeared. 

TItc j^mciii of awel ia known, tlic origin of iron ia guessed, 
Wjuer ia the eldest of ibc brothers, iron the youngeet. 
Pattiy ftrc the middJc one. 
Water \% the outcome of a mmmtain, fite't genesis te from the 

Iran's ori^n from ironorc {!'< ni9t). 
Foe t)ecame triofent, ivorked \xwM into a fury^ 
Evil ftrc burnt miich land, much Und, much j^A-amp^ 
Botui saody fields tun aild, buntt »uidy hcath&* 
Wittehcd iron lay concealed from his matignant bradicj'a 

Whete did poor Iron lilde, inhere did he hide and lare 

Id that poodiskKU year of droUK^i- that summer bad for forest 



Ma^ Songs of lie Fittns. 

Poor iron did ncn liide in old ySmimointn't belt, 

la hid tripjLrtit« *cAbbud — act thcic ccrt&inlv. 

Poor iron did not bide 

Tfiildc a youthful tnAJdcD's paps, under & growing nud«s's 

Upon Ji lon^ bonk of cloud, upon on oak tree's lerd head 
Iron did not hide there, nor yet in yonder pbicc 
Intide a blue ewe, in the belly ol a copper «h«^ 
tn llic IwiHim of n hlur [?'. red] pig. 
It Cfirlainly did not hide in ihc ac;i, nndcr deep billows, 
Inside & bine goiniad/ in the bosom of a red b^ilmon. 
Net yt\ exaaly in the sky, abc^vc sin tpijcklcd (inniuxtcnu, 

ilntlde a bloe fox» insid* a golden till-cmwned hot, 
r. in ibc belly of a golden cucL 

There, ihe«, iron hid, both bid ^nd wved iisclt 
In the interval between two itumpa, under a bitch tree's triple 

(On a Und devoid of knolU. on i land wholly unknown, 
i\ Jn dark PffMJci^ in L^plArd's widely rcachina bounds 
Where a haiel grouse keeps her ne^t— a hen reus her youn^;. 
A wolf nti«ed mould TTom a twamp, a bcflr dug nomc frrjm a 

Iion'orc (F, rust) npnng up there, a bar of necl grew 
From vhere the wolf ha& raised its foot, from the dint of the 

bear's heeL 
II tnay have been brought ti) ^ uniihy — may have l.)cen cast 

into a forge lire. 
Then iron wat pfoduc«d from it — steel «vas undoubtedly 


Formotly much land tras burnt, much land, mudi msip^ 
In & BtUDUacf bad for forest tires, in a hapl^ conflagnUon 

A little bit rpmatrwd imbrimt 

On a wild incunlaiir lop, on ilic greaicst reach of awiiupi 
One wretched man rcmairkcd upon the ipoi unburni. 
Alreivdv a httte of him waft burnt. 

* fLalmo L CoiTTC£c>nu4 lavar«tuj. 

Ma^ic SoHfs cf (lie Finns, 


His kn«^i were bumlr^, tht f e^ of hit thighs vii icordicd, 
ne QATtow poriions o( the iiod«, tlic ton uf ttic kfl foot. 
The tip of hi« toes ircrc bJidly biirnt, ih« n^ih hftd burnt into 

He nui to n poo! in bit diHKtf, 
Sci3i%<l i>fr ^H^ H(KJt» scnichtid off llie Mabliy crust 
Into in unf ro£cn pooL 

Uence ttoD ore (K ru*t) originated— ordinarr bloclc mire, 
tn m rnifroMn pool, in a bubbLng t^mg. 

Whence originated wR-tohcd iron, wbcrKt orijjLnfttcd ard vjls 

|troducei ^ 
Henoe cngtriAifd wretched iron, hence origirmted and wu 

A golden fi^h apairns, n ulmoji plunges cloac at hind 
In SLa uiilro7«Q pool, m ci bubbltn^^ ^prin^- 
Foor raaidenii were engendered— all three brides, 
Fmm the sfawtj of the golden fi-ili, ffum ihc naiiir;i] ijicnure 

of the ialii»o:i, 
Tft b« EQDEbert of iron en (F. niat)^ (o be generators of " blue 

The tnoidcnii stood in a dcit, the '^ tin-breist?;** \ay pnwerlcss 
Od B liitk bull of land, on a narrow piece of ground. 
There t))C)r made (F. built) iror, and by dtgrt^ formed felccl. 
Fvilvcnted iron toeds, poundvd lumps of steel. 
God hipjicns to mire at die plate Mlicie tlie irun scc-rl^ tvcsty 
Found the pounded biu of iron, the n^anulacturcd lunipa of 

Cainef ihcm to the smithy of a smith — i;ndcr the forge of 

TlieD tmith Jimariiun 

Hiruat thctn into the Jire* shovca them under hi« Tor^. 

Prtvn the fTtgr^ Uhry arr ^ikfnj tri ihr snvil 

He h^inmcn with repealed Uow^ keep «tiikin^ with incessant 

Swea.t Inckled from itt Oeator^ head— dew frmr the face of 

Wbtie lorgmg iron, vbile making tteel. 

40 Magk Sojigs of tlu Finns. 

Hcacc OTigimt^ wretcli^d iron, wretcb«d it<m, uwico ihg, 
\X originotifd in ttie smrlby of ft aniiih— tindtr the fwigc of 


He rabtted together both his palmt-^-ground together hli two 

Hence originated two maidens — ftll the three ZM^mt^tan* 


Ho 1 ihou wretched iron, wretched iron, ufifle^s slag. 

Ccrlninly I ki:ow thy stocky tliy ^tock aitd tliinc ongin. 

Thou arc ^aft'rf«Ht*Ji«f>iV^ (c. KrA'*2flrt/jir«V]" son — wwl brought 

fcriSi by P'tt^iaAatar.^ 
4 Thy £acher i« Ttoih the knoils (hit/u) of Vu^alo? thy mother 

fnnu Uie well uf Lcmpi.'' 
Thine origia >» from ^n^amp knolh, fTom «wamp knolb, from 

cranh knollB in 3 »ivamp> 
'ihy father is from a svp^mp, thy mother from a svraicp^ 
All thy other relative* ate from a iwampu 
A lUii'Colouied ludjje^ ^lew uii a fiwamp^in a poo! pai 

mclic groM,^ 
Rocked by TuifUfitr, swung la and Iro by Unrnfif^ [v. 

^ All these three names lUe mentioned by Ganandci (p. 109). 

^ AUi) wiitieu V^itjtlj. Among ihc vati^nli Id tlie OUt AWriw&i 
0.5] ^m&jsls is stitMlilutcd for tuaiaU % aIko rvrt(i«n JmMo, an ^at 
of PcAj^tty And bolJ^ }idvc vdiAifiit ( VainiimvintnU hoiucj u a parallel 
word in The foUotving llne. 

^ The Being that excited love, Ettcwhcfc In the l^Hntntu^ 
p. 4^) tliisurll *eerTW t<i be ralleil (he "miiUpni*'' (wj*;) wetl. 

' Rutfil^tuit^ Thi» word is ap|>Liod lo purple melie, mat cratS 
and variaUK ^dgei. 

^ 7Ww-4^W tranabtcs the Swedish ataal-Kris, steel gm«s purple 
mclic icrtix 

* Wc»t Wind's daughter- 

^ The goddeu of love- 

Magic Songs of the Finns^ 4! 

Hpima^ comes from Tuoneia — Manalifs son from under the 

Found the rust-coloured sedge on the swamp— in the pool the 

purple melic grass, 
Carries it to the smithy of a smith— under IlmarinefCs fo^e 
To be forged into iron, to be made into steel. 


4 Mother iron is Ruopahalarf 
4 Thy mother is from AtjiPi pen. 

The greater part of {a) will be found in the Kalevaia, \x, 
39-266, with occasional differences. 

XXVI. — The Origin of Arrows. 

A Call fir grew upon a heath, on the summit of the Hill of Pain 

From it a sorcerer {noita) formed arrows — an ''archer" evil 

He made a single-feathered' anow out of the Sowest boughs, 
Made a double-feathered arrow of boughs from the middle of 

the tree. 
Made a triple-feathered arrow out of the highest boughs. 
The sorcerer shot his arrows — angrily launched his pointed 

Anywhere, wherever he could. 
For a sorcerer cares nothing at all 
Whether they enter a human skin or the body (F. hair) of a 

beast {kave). 

' Mentioned by Ganander (p. iS), who quotes this and the following 
tines. The word means *^ stupid fool, simpleton". 

> From ruopOf '• mud, bog earth". She seems to be the same as 
Ganander*5 Ruojuatar. 

> An arrow feathered on one s^de only. 


Magic ScHgs of ik€ Finns, 

A^MMi, the blind nuicicnr wcnl lo lk« v^r of Aft^ 

A tin |:4iig fell ttown, a tilvct Tctmjna] Kitpt ofl 

Inio the spiux l>ct»nn lira rockx, 

A ftorc«rcr teicod it in hi« hond^ 

Before it hnd lime to reach ibc groonit b«<(ffc tit contact with 

the earth. 
He took I! t& ft forge or smiiha— a smith fonxxd out of tl ft 

Fofged from it a ^arcertf% arrows— an "ardier"*"* evil inamh 


The sorcerer sbot hi« srroivt— thot nn anov ai the tky. 

Thfi *ky WM liVc (F. wished) to cplit— ihe atrial vault* to 

Portions of the afr to rend, die acriaJ canopy to sUnt 
From tAc torment of the '' bcry^ arro«, from the pointed abaft 

of ^It/ii's son. 
The arrow icccdcd thiihcr wbcrc nought was ever heard of it 

TScn he ahoi another arrow into the earth ui>der his feet. 
T,i The eaitl^ wa« like 10 go to .l/lrnr*— the hllb to break op 

into niouldp 
Sandr ridjcca to Kpliu sandy bciaths to break in two 
From the lorment of the " fiery^ arrow, from the bnraing pain 

(K jqiark*) of the red wow!. 
The aiTOw con«taniJy itccdeJ tbiiha where nought was eref 

heard of il o^Za 
Forthviih he «h9i a thirds a fical and malignant arrov, 
Through Undi^ ihfough !ivram|>a, thruugh doq> {kjosijr fhrcsft 

AgaiDft a atcd [t. lilvcr] mou&min, against an isou [^ stoay] 

The arrow rebounded frons lite aione^fooockd a|iuisi the 


■ £ls«wh«r« this man't flame app«ai* in lh« fona /rtvrj^, «kich 
Ldnarot denves from the RotaiaD inerxt " n snontccr.*' an ttntimtty 

< Waa tik« to dia. 

Magic Songs of the Finns. 41 

ffblmii^ comes from Tuomia — Manala's son from under the 

Found the rust-coloured sedlge on the swamp — in the pool the 

purple melic grass, 
Canies it to the smithy of a smith — under Ilmarinerit forge 
To be forged into iron, to be made into steel- 


4 Mother iron is Ruopahaiar^ 
4 Thy mother is from Aij^s pen, 

The greater part of {a) will be found in the Kalevaia^ ix, 
39-266, with occasional difTerences. 

XXVI. — The Origin of Arrows. 

A tall (ir grew upon a heath, on the summit of the Hill of Pain 

From it a sorcerer {rwi/a) formed arrows — an "archer*' evil 

He made a single-feathered' arrow out of the lowest boughs, 
Made a double-feathered arrow of boughs from the middle of 

the tree, 
Made a triple-feathered arrow out of the highest boughs. 
The sorcerer shot his arrows — angrily launched his pointed 

Anywhere, wherever he could. 
For a sorcerer cares nothing at all 
Whether they enter a human skin or the body (F. hair) of a 

beast (kave). 

' Mentioned by Ganandct (p. iS)^ who quotes this and the following 
lines. The word means " stupid fool, simpleton". 

' From rv^pa, '* mud, hog eanh". She seems to be the same as 
Ganander's Rucjuatar. 

' An arrow feathered on one side only. 


Magic Scn^s of tht Finns, 

Wtt conbcd out with ftviditf, it«s brushed in tlic botir« of 

liDflneduuly it was pul on ft diiTafT-^ln \ trice upon a spfnoing^ 

Sistcn^ spin ii, tistcrs-in bvr put Lt on lh« netting- necJCi 

Broth«Ti iKt it mio a net, Ta there- in -1 aw attach Lnei. 

The nettirg-necijle turned — the mesh-siick mot-cd backimds 

and fonKraftls 
Befute the seine vsa* completed— the yam line* were atucbcd 
Duriag a single summer night, in tbe middle bctvECcn two 

The ncr was llnished, the yarn linei wtr* atiathed, 
A h(i:^tircii falhonu at the tai end, ^cvcn hundred fathonis At 

ibc aides. 

At nighl tht flAx was sown» at nlghl was heckled, 

At night was rjppled, at night «a» steeped in writer, 

At night wns removed from (he wm^r, at night the flax was 

hrokci m tTax-ljrakcs, 
At night the threads weic spun, at night the t^ts ircrc woven. 
T]ic nets were completely finished, the seine was tilled vkith 

During n single summer night, in half anmher one besides, 
The neLs wcie woven h>- brothers, were spun by »jslci^ 
Were netted ^y aistcra iti law, wcic Stttd *iub lines b}- a 

They neatly fttied ll niEh sinkn, they attached the floats 


Tuoftri ihrcc-fin(;cTcd girl, I^pUnd'^ three-toothetl crone 
Spun a hundred (fathom) seine during a sinelc summer nigbL 
Lapland's three-fitigcred old man was the weaver of neu, 
The m^h'^tick lunied in his hand, a knot was formed on th€ 

* The sister* that helped Vainamfitn^rt to make a net {KaUvmia, 
xtvii* 3aa). The whole of (a) i* in the A'*i^aia (dviii, 3>-6a). 

Magic Songs of the Finns. 45 

He wove a hundred (fathom) seine — stitched one of a thousand 

During a single summer nighty in the interval between two 


XXIX.— The Origin of Ague. 

I well know ague^s genesis, T guess the villain's origin. 
Ague was rocked by wind — was put to sleep by chilly air, 
Brought by wind, by water drawn, brought forward by hard 

Came in the whirlwind of a storm — in the sleigh-tracks of a 

cold wind 
Against us wretched sufferers, against poor unfortunates. 

XXX.— The Origin of Cancer, 

A furious [p. iron-toothed] old woman. 

That moves along with the wind, with the water^ with all the 

Carried a heavy womb — a belly full of suffering 
For thirty summers, for the same number of winters. 
Finally she got a malignant boy, an eater of flesh, a biter of 

She fashioned him into a cancer. 
She reared her boy, she protected her offspring 
Id bloody clothing, in gory p;arments. 
Then she sent him away to devour, to gnaw, - 
To lacerate a Christian, to destroy a baptised one. 
To cause his Hesh to rot, and to gnaw his bones. 

XXXI.— The Origin of Colic (Gripesj. 

Colic a groaning boy, a second an aggravating boy, 
1 A third hke a pole, 
Are not made of what is good— not of anything exactly 

They are made of swamp — made out of earth. 


Magk Songs of the Fnsns. 

CorapOKd of cmnc nil ncttllp-pointx, vound up from woman'K 

Scmtditd u:> from heaps of twigs. 
Sralcen off Troic heather, ncript off ftom gmsMS^ 
CcJIectped frum a rxpiii*s Iti^iin, pnim^d oui fro<n tbe fCft** todi, 
Rcwghly boicbcd out of feaihcn, 
From the iiwud pGins of Sytfaiar, Tfom tuadcr iJic liver of 

J A llufd hiu a fi«t \v. threat, v. skin] like a poiti-- 

Otipcfl, the panting, mo<aninj$> inaolcni, stupid boy, 
A sUy nt-hnme and good for nothing 
Certainly I know thy Ktocle. 
Thou wniit mndc from nothing good, from nothing 9^>^ tiCm 
somcthins l>ad. 
, Thou wast gathered from hard voodi— rnadc from Xxr wood 
Fuhiored out of afpcai't fiuigusi tvJstod out of birch agoric- 

A lean Ldpp boy 

U'as making his vay beneaih (he paih, travels along bcncatli 

ihr gmund. 
With a bloody axe on hia shoulder. 
lie struck a man against the hoart — cue him sharply on the 

breast - 
From Ltiac colic onginalerd — the groaning (boy) wjii fitiircd to 


xxstii.— The Oricen or Rickets, Atrophy {Hiist). 

A maiden rose frorci a duU [i^. natcr] — a ''toft skirt* ' from a 

clump of grus, 
Who «ai btauiiful to behold— the delight of those living in the 

She pays no regard to suitors— has no fancy for the good men. 

' See FouE-LcmF, f, 45, Jr<u^ 

Magic Songs of ike Finns. 47 

There came a giant (turilas) man — a shirt-weaiing monster 

(fursas) of the sea. 
The wretch, indeed, had planned a scheme — had thought upon 

a Hne affair. 
He sent a nightmare upon her. 
He caused the unwilling one to sleep -brought her at last to 

seek repose 
Upon a honey-dropping sward^ upon the liver-colouied earth. 
He lay there with the girl, 

Made the girl parturient, quickened her into pregnancy ; 
He himself takes his departure. 
The miscreant began to move away — the wretch to wander 

The girl becomes oppressed with pain, her womb becomes 

In her sufferings she laments 1 
"Whither shall I, poor wretch, whither shall 1, most luckless, 

In these my days of great distress, with cruel torments in the 

The Creator [v. Jesus] uttered from the sky : "To be confined, 

O hariot, gOt 
Into a deep forest, into a wooded wilderness recess. 
There other harlots were confined — strumpets [v. mares] dropt 

their young,'* 
She went thence in another direction — walked ahead with rapid 

Strides from atone to stone, sprang from fallen tree to fallen 

Into the homes of those "dogs*\^ as far as {the abodes) of 

"wooUy whelps". 
There she discharged her womb — gave birth to her progeny. 
Produced a son of evil sort — the boy Rickets that causes 

pining away, 
That gnaws the roots of the navel — keeps cutting into the 


^ /./., harlots. 


Mafpt S&Hgs of the Finns. 

Thcr sought foff one to chnucii him— ^c to baptiac the 

gnawtag boy 
At iho wdl of KaUvrtt soil, upon ihc prop>^ of a little ham^ 

But no phcc wfts found there, 
Not in ten villaf^», not at seven door hinges. 
Howevtf, Kicketa wju baptised, the ill-otncrvid hot va^ 

ji I On X beach, on a. ^Mtt-pti «lont. 

Oh a atone ui>oii the open ftCK. 

jj Pused otft t>7 a wave* lighcJy touched by % wure, 

W^s the vTHLci clean wiili whicb Riclccti was bapTsted ^ 

The wAicr ^As not dean, thai ivaicL wai coiciuiml with blood 

tiarloi-s had vo^hcd (in it) their linen caps— bod iromcn their 


Thdr jacVctn ni{£2£<=[l at Wut C3i3ge, therr sm^mg pt-ttii:oaliL 
Therein Ricltcta waa baptiacd — * the 31'Oiiicfkcd boy was 

A name was given to the evil bo^ — the name of RicLcts to the 


51, 3a In the bloody houfc of //ii/ala, while swine wcfc bciois 

3a On ihtf wiier-lily leaf of a pond, 
In a Joorl»^ mora, entirely windowleiL 


How wan Ricktb poiaeiMnl — the "evil «naiP ^«rnT, 

The " bloody dog^ (sent) to cat—'* //iitfj cut" to lacerate ? 

Thus w» Ktckeift posifsMd— the "evil snul" sent 

To devour, to gnaw, to bile, 10 ImtatC' 

A nxxn fluttered in the %\cy, blood >pincd (tout il^ beak 

Down 00 the end ol a unaJI pine (beocbK dovn on the end of 

an iron h«cch, 
From that tlthf Rickeu origlnated-^fae evil ofTipring set 


* Short woodao propi icited iBi« niDAcn to auppon i^ bottom d" 
ibe il«l|fc. 

Magic Songs of the Finns. 49 

To derai^ the tcids,! to Up up blood^broth, 

To eat the substance of Che heart. 

To buiTOw into the navel, to bore into the navel's root. 

To rack with pain the spinal bone, 

To bore through the sides, to lacerate the grotn, 

To cause the eyes to mn with tears, to nip the organs of sight. 

To swell beneath the temples 

Either of a girl or of a boy, 

xxxiiL— The Origin of Scabs. 

A brown, scabby crone \v. girl, v, lord], the evil mother \v, 

housefather] of boils,* 
Gare birth to a scabby son, screeched over an ill-tempered 

With one foot (F. root), with eight heads, upon a scabby bed, 
(A son) begotten of a scabby sire 
Out of a scabby dam — a mother covered with boils.' 
She Aung her malignant son 
Against a human being's skin, at the body (F. body hairs) of a 

woman's (Aafo) son. 

' Or^ews, 
' Or tuTnours, 
^ Or abscesses. 

John ABERCRo\fnv. 



IN the hUtory of inc<l];e\'^] itjinances there i^ none so 
complicated ai that of the romance or th« Holy GraiL 
Many a wholar has tried to *olve the problem of Us origin, 
an<l yet a final (u>Uition h still watitmg. 

No one who has ever tnxiden ihe enchaniei] land on 
which the ca.^tle which contained the PFoly Grait stood 
coutd entirely escape the clsarm that overhangs it. Just U 
difTicuIt as was the ancient quest in romance, is the mod«m 
qu^st after the origin and sources of this remarkable and 
weird talc. 

ThiA romance now exists in various forrtd^ more or le^ 
skin to one another. These have been subdivided into 
groups, according to the aHinit}' in which the inddcnta 
narrated therclTi stand to one another, and also in how far 
one tale U developed more than the other : a work which 
has been successfully carried out by Mr. Nutt, who. In h!» 
admirable Sln^Uf^s on the Grail, hss endeavoured to dis- 
entangle the skein tif this complicated problem, and to 
make ftome order in the mass of versions, leirts. ind 
alterations in which this legend lias been preserved. Mr. 
Nntt rightly di.-itinEuishcs between an Eariy his!<'ry of the 
Grail and t^ Qi^est: the former containing the origin and 
Eourcu of the Grail, and the Quest, on the other hand, 
consiitinff of the description of the adventures the expected 
hero had to undergo until he linaU/ reached his goal* 
Stripped of all the embellishment whkrh made out of 
these simple fact^ the most rennwncd of mcdi2^val 
romances, thff numerous versions of it arc practlcsUy one 
Thi? ilifTrrenctrs begin with the detailed p.ccounli; given !n 
the E.-irly history, and slil! more with tlie peculiaritirN of 
the Grail, of the hero and his achievements The &amc* 

TAe Lcg€nd of thf. Grail. 

work i« th« »rDcv but the contents rauy almost £n ever)- 

At the head of the whole litenttitrc !tt:indtt Chrestien de 
Tro^'C?, the famous minstrel, who, as far as our [present 
kxra^Iedge goei^p w^i^ the fir^ to «lng the pnii^ of the 
Grail, and of tlie hero Jn learch of it Next in point of 
dmr, and, as f may at one*' add, first In impoTti^ncc, U the 
Germin foHuwcr of Chrviticn, Wolfriwn vun Enchtnbach- 
In flp)tc of the likeness, there is xIsq a very great diver- 
sity III the Ircalmcnt of the Grail by both these writenip 
Dcside^, WQlfram claims an independent source for hi^ 
poetical composition, ridiculing Chrc^tien for not following 
the original closely, 

£vcrything tcnd:^ to make os bclreve that there munt 
have cxi&tcd a common primary source whence both 
Chreaticn and Wolfram drew their tale. Of what Vini 
was thi* pnmar>' t^iirce^ and how much did il contain? 
Were both tho»e ports which we find atterw&rds united, or 
««s only one of then contained in the origtnil? Did 
Chrutien and Wolfram know the Early hIstOT>* of the Grait 
or not? I entirely agree with Mr, Null that they, or cvcti 
the ongtnal they foljowwl, did not know much of It, the 
origin and propenics of the Grail befng only %'aguely in- 
dicated. It 15 chiefy the Qttett which plny^ the most 
^imporlant pjtrl in therr j]f>ci]i». Whence did they take it 
from^ It IS round this question that a literar>' battle has 
now been fought for over &fty yeart. J du not lljittcr 
myself that I shall be able to brin^ the batllc to an end. 
but 1 irtcnd attacking th^ <iu&-aion from a different point 
of Wew altcgeiher. 

It ia a futile attempt to reduce cveiy incident of these 
:m5 to ore and the same soutocl Every work of att. 
pGctic:al production is, to some extent, a kind of 
Jc, a kind of blending in one of a raasi of different, 
letimes widely divcrfrent, elements. Composite as our 
lodem knowledge is, *o mu*t al^o h;jvc been that of Ihc 
icient or media!V-al author who d^c^t' the elements of the 


The Legend of iht Gmif. 

romance^ roi from one source atone, but from m^ny, some- 
times quite differc^nt ones. 

Two main sources of tnspitation have bt-co MJggc^nl 
hy the various writers uu thb ^ubj^ct. To ?»(jihc. ihc 
legend in its fncirg^ owes its origin to Cbrisiiao lore \ 
others have divided the matter, a^si^iiig the Early history 
to the Christian source, whilst the other — Qwe^C — would 
be of OJitc (WeUb) origin. It is remarkable, boi^cvcr. 
that both sections have totally ignored another main 
source of mediaeval poetty ard of modem dvilia^tion ; I 
mean the old classical literatart^ of Greece and Rome. 
But before proceeding further, I mu&t first maker clear my 
Ktand point. 

The Celtic orijiin does not rest upon documentary proof, 
upon older teirU and MSS, than Chresticn's poenif but on 
parallels to be found in Celtic fulk-lore, ^nd ^omc later 
versions. [ still huld to the theory that these version* are, 
in (act, only variations of Chrc^licn's poem of later origin, 
and that, through llic in^trumenlalily of such versions and 
adaptations, these romances entered into the pos^csaion of 
the people, and became its unwritten lore, the modem folk- 

Far, therefore, from beirg the primitive source for 
Chrestien or his predecessor^ mcxiern talcs are merely the 
reflex of that written literature, and are tjy no mean» 
anterior to it. Parallels adduced from modem tales do 
rot therefore prove that these tales were the direct sources 
whence Chrcslicn drew Ihc elements of his poem, but, as 
1 contend, they arc ihe outcome of that literature. 

We must look for oldt^r pamltcla than the time of 
Chrcsticn, older than the second half of the twelfth cen- 
tury. Wc must study first the surroundings in which 
Chrcsticn grew up, what amount of knowledge was ac- 
cessible to him, what great events stirred the nations of 
Europe, and what kind of literary currents stvaycd 
the people at that time. It is only by answering »iich 
questions that we can come to a more positive result, and 

Tk^ Legend 0/ i/u CraiL 


riien dmw r»ir in&rmco abo for Woirr&ir, and Tor the 
bo^ of Clire^iien'* cont!iiiiatcnc The*? al^o rnvini have 
had access to some ston? cf similar lemming, to be able to 
Irccd in his fciCFtMcps, ;iiiil to take tip tlic: thread where hw 
dyii^^ \\Ax\tX let it r^L A Few lays CAnnot, «ind could not. 
Miflicc for th<: cxpl.inali^n of the ereal mas5 of incidents 
embodied in tJhcsc romances 

it inu:(t aho first be proved how such Celtic talcs, if 
tbcy existed at all, could come to the kriowledgc of a 
French pcx^t, living a^ he did in France, of whoM,* KOjoum 
in En;*land not a trace has been found. One has onl>' to 
compare the widcl/ diflerent parallclii adduced froin Celtic 
loTCj to t>e convinced thai Chrcstien, or the author of the 
ori^nal which he adopted, must have had a herculean 
tii^k to perform, I0 alter and change, to blend and to 
aAalmDate, an iinmcitse mass of tales, mythic^ andhcroical, 
zr\d mould them tngrther into one tale^wfildl, aftcx all,dut» 
not 4p]> 111 4 cutierent fomi in any of its niodcrr paiallds. 
For k must be borne in mind thcit such a Celtic talc, con- 
taining most of the striking incidents, and older than the 
time of Chrciticn, has not yet been discovered What wc 
hare instead b a number of layi, or other tales, where 
eitfaef the one cr the other incident is said to occur, the 
similarity not t>einf; absolutely identical, and in very many 
casc9 only the result of skilful interpretation. 

If one M-uuTd follow the same line of alimentation, one 
could easily adduce parallels to those Celtic lays and lale^ 
frofD various quartern of the globe^ which would thus 
^'destroy the claim of thr? Celtic origin. The moment 
the «me? incidimt could tx- prtjved to cviit elsewhere. 
wc might just as well con^iider it to have originated 
there also, and not be limited to Celtic lore alone. We 
would luvc then one source more for the supposed origin 
of the Ic^nd : the tblk-lorc of Europe. 

The natural way, hcrwcvcr, is to look for Gttc central 
tatc, containing a sufficient number of incident? complete 
In itself^ and round tliat tale, other minor incidents 


Tie Ugend 0J i/u Gnil. 

(Ir^awn from varioos quancra, could have been added 
afitneardf by the coattotnhir and amplifi^ or the laic. 

Itui that prmuuy one mist alnaJy cuntaiu the meat 
important incidcittfl, and at the saac time tUs primitive 
lolc mmt coDiaio tbat of the C7nri/as one oT ii5 indtkniA, 
but only in a vague, iiMJdiDitc fonn* ^ » to afTord the 
po£iib-:iity for the double mtejprcUtioii of the Grail %s 
prcMrntcd on one ude by ChresticQ, and 00 the other by 

The problem, thrrdbfc, is to fiod a tale cootaining fiome 
of the principal dnnciiu d the Que^ the GraU or ^tome- 
thing aldn to k bdng an ImfxxtaRt one; this Grail, or 
whatcv'cr woatd be standing for ii, inusi be coneeii^od in 
a va^Cp indc^ite form, so as to be sblr co be fitted with 
any klndorirtccrprctation — religious Dutcna),iDeUphy?Uca1, 
accoiding to the pccticoJ bent and the inEcntkros of ttx: 
poeta. It i», further, an abooSntc necc^ity that xtxh a 
talc should be of an older date than the lime of ChresLbCR, 
arid alao it v^itl have to be >hown that it was, or oovid have 
been, accc^iblc to hlm- 

Bcforc I proeccd further, lot u$ f^rst examine the state of 
thlogi OH they existed in Europe at the end of the tinxlfth 
century, tltc pj^ycholcgtcat ccnditioni tn the mida of which 
Chrc^ticn lived, and mov&d, and wrote. 

It u in the twdfth century that the peal Freneh epical 
poetry flourished, Through patient ini.'cstigation It has 
been proved that the history of the old Merovrngfan 
period was cbangrd by the tremvnir in some of these 
epopees into U^e history of ChArTc-ma^ei A brittle at 
Roncevalleii bcc^nc the theme of one of the most cele- 
brated old French romances, the chanson dc Roland, and 
t?us waii *toon followed by a stately line of Ch.inMins de 
Gcilc, Gncc started on the line of changing old history 
into modem, poct5 took a bolder course, and changed 
hcrcea of antiquity into national ones. Very welt knoxvn 
is the tendency of the age to connect their own national 
history with that of the Creeks and Komans. The Reman 
dV Brui of Wace, the old chronicler of Ceo^icy and otbers. 

Tfu Legend of tAe GratL 


arc examples of iliis laitlciicj-. Homer, ix^ Dktys ati^ 
Darc-1, Virgil, and olhcr writcn of cI^ssicaI aiitiquity, 
funmbcd tlic inaLtcnals fcr the; writcm of the middle 
agC3, who drew upi^a Oicm larticly, only Altering th-cm, 
M that Trom Greek aiid Latin they became Tfcnch ami 

The crusades had furnished further new themes for the 
fancy of the trcHv^ur of the lime. The whole world was 
stirred to \\s innermost depth by that K^neral uphcavinj; ; 
the exp)oit<i of the flnt and «coond erunode hnd already 
begun to belong to the history of the pa^t, when Chrcstien 
began his poem_ How many orfcnal legends were brought 
home and n'rctilated by v;iTimi\ pilffnins, especially iiucfa 
as were in Jcrusilfm, now rjhcc Agnin h\ the hands of the 
in6dcl& ? The hi{;hc^t ^im of the Chriitiiin world of that 
epoch was to regain posseASion of thoac sacred places ; 
and the Order of the Templars reprcscrtcd the most 
ideal aspirations of the time — to Live achaalc Life, and to 
be found worthy to keep watch over the Lord's sanctuary. 

Runiour:! of a ^^^t Chrinlian Icin^dom in the fnr Kast, 
the kingdom of Frcstcr John, reached liurope at the time, 
and like lif^htning these tidings spread from country to 
country, rcvivioK the hopes of the crusaders by announclof; 
help from an unexj^ected quarter in the deadly fight against 
the Mihommedan power 

At the «amr time a great dngm-itic change was taking 
place In the teachings of tlie Church, The theory of 
Faschasius Radberitu found many adversaries, but no 
less adhcrentA> and the twelfth century ta the time when 
that di±pme readied tU climax, iind the dogma of 7>u«- 
su&sian(i4tti&n lAits finally settled. The mystery of the 
Mcramcnt, and the more than symbolic meEming of the 
Eucharist, was the central point of this dogma which has 
profoundly altered the Catholic Church, and was in later 
tioca one of the principal elements of discord between the 
Reformed church and the Church of Komt 

In naming thc^e factors, classical literature^ so to &ay 


Tk€ Lfgend of the GraiL 

moderfllsed in an cpicaJ fonn,tbc French Chansons dcGestc, 
the Cru»(l<^^ and the legends of Palestine, and, f naltjr, the 
question of trur substantial ion and the pseud o^cptf^aphlc 
Htcraturc of the myKlcry of the ;iacrament, I have pointed 
out the chief sources to which the romance of the Holy 
Grail owes its origin, without any further admixture 
of Celtic tales or lays, or Celtic mytliologj-. Tlie 
life <hat U dt^Kcnhcrd in the mniance!i U that of the 
aulhor-s' lime, Kii3|;hU/ deciK aJvcntute*, nitrHLlcs, and 
spells all belong to the mjichincry of ihc romantic litcja* 
turc of the time, and though important for determining the 
exact character of the surroundings, vary, as b natumf. 
in every version, and if more MSS. had been preserved the 
number of variations might have incre^ed. 

I shall noiv proceed to prove my case as lax ai possible 
in the order indicated. 

Chssi€€tl Influfnct. — Wording the romance backwards to 
it; primitive form, wc shall And that the main feature ol 
the Qnest may be summarised a.*; follows : 

A young nan staits on an unheard of adventure, which 
no human being has ever achieved before him. It » by 
mere ch^nci? that he alights al the very 5pnt where he 
hiid determined to go, although nothing defimle i,s said as 
to the nature of that adventure, What he lias to do, or to 
5ee, fjr to accomplish, is by no means clear, lie himself 
docs not know what to do, and fails thus in hia (iist 

According to Chrcsticn,' he comes to a rtvcr, upon which 
there is a boat, wherein arc two men fishing. Ore of them, 
in reply to his questions, directs him for a night's shelter 
to his own castle hard by. i^erceval starts for it, and at 
first, unable to find it, reproaches the fisher, Suddenly he 
perceives the castle before him, enters therein, is disarmed, 
clad in a scarlet mantle, and led fnio a ^cat hall. Therein 
]« a coufrh^ upon which lies an old man \ near him is a 

^ Nuu, p« i\^ Indd 7- 

Tfu Legend of ihe Graii, 


fire; around wlildi some fuur hundred men «rc »iHiii};. 
[•crccval tells his host th<vt lie ha^tcfimc fmm Rcau-Rcpairc. 
A squire enters, bcAriiii: a s^^ord, and on it is written th^t 
it will never breaK. aavc in one peril, and that known orly 
to the maker of it, 'Ti* a prc^rl from the host's niece, 
to be bestowed i^'hcre it will be well employed. The host 

ives it to rerceval, "to whom it was adjudged and de* 
ined/' Hereupon cnten^ anotl^cr >L<]uire, be;mng in hcA 

md a lance, from the head of which a drop of blood runs 
lown on the «qnirc'i hand. Perceval wuuld have a<knd 

incerning ihii wnndrr, hut he mindi* him rif (lorpmYin's 
counsel not to ^pe^k or inquire too much. Two more 

|ulrc9 enter, holding: each a ten-branched candlcsttck, and 

itii ihctn a damsel, A ''Gmal" in her hands. The Graal 
shines so that it puts out the 1if;ht of the candles, as the 
docit that cf the stars. Thereafter follows a dam!;el 
a (silver) plate- All defile past between the fire 
and the coueh, but Perceval docs not venture to ask where- 
fore the Grail is u*ed Supper follow*?, and the Grail Is 
^agahi brougbr^ and Prfrcv-;il knowing not ils usr, had fain 
asked, but nhvayv refrains when h^-thirWsof GonemiiDS.and 
finally put* off his questions till lljc morrow After supper 
the giKnt i% led 10 his chamber, and on the morrow, 
uwakening, finds tlie cattle deserted. Issuing foiith. he 
Gnd« his horse saddled, and tin; drawbridge down, Think* 
lag to find the castle dwellers in the forest, he rides forth, 
bot the drawbridge ckscs so suddenly behind him, that 
had not the horse leapt <iuickly forward, it had [^ne hard 
vitfa t^tccd and rider. Tn vain Percev:t] calU r none 


Morc elaborate ix tlie version of Hcinrich vcn dcm 
TUflfn.' "After monthlong wanderings, he meets with 
Lancelot and C^ltKreant, and all thrL-c; come to the Orall 
fasile. They arc led inio a hall, which pa^sc^ in splendour 
aught earthly eye ever «w. The floor is strewn with 
roses ; on a bed lies an oki man in gold-cinbioidcrcd g-ir- 

" Noit, 17- 


THt Lf^^nd ^/ iM Grails 

mcnts, aod watches two youths playing at dKs& Towards 
tii^hi ilic lull fills with koJi>hi> and damo; ft youth 
enters, bearing a si^-otd, which he lays before the old man. 
, . , Then enter t^^ damacb, bearini; lights, followed by 
two knighb, with a spear, and two more dainscb, with a 
toUicT of gold and jcwcb^ Afto- them comes the fairest 
woman ever God created, and with her a maiden wcepit^. 
The spear it laid on the table, by tt the ' toblter', wherein 
are three drops of blood. In th« box borne by the fair 
lady fs a piece of bread, one-third part of which the tuvaks 
oJT ^nd giv-os to the old man. Gawoin, recognising in her 
Gansguoter's sister, staj-s no longer, but asks what these 
wcnd^i mean. StraEghCivay knighu and dames, all with 
mii^hly shoi:t, leap fitnii t^blc, ai>d great joy arises. The 
ok! man s^y^ what he has seen t^ the Grail ; niwie saw it 
before save Far^ivaL ard he ^skoi not Dy his question 
Gawain has delivered from loo^ waiting and MilTcnnf^ both 
thoM: which are dead and tbscc which live: The old man 
himself and hb companions are rv^Iy dead, though they 
seen; it not, but the lady and her damsels are living: for 
their unstained womanhood God has granted them to hare 
the Grai!, and therewith yearly to feed the old man." 

So in all the \-er*ions it U a magnificent castle, wherein 
the one constantly-recurring figure is that of an oU.sIck or 
dead man. surrounded by jewels, plates or dishes of gold, 
and a my«tenou3 thing, a cup with blood, or « box with 
bread, and a bloody lance. Only in Wolfram is It a 
mysterious ruck or a jewel upon which a dove Uy^t once 
;i year a holy wafer. The hero asks, or omits to ask, and 
upon tltat action the whole talc turns. It H riot, however, 
clear from the bcgirniDg whcit kind of task the hero has 
to achieve, nor is it more clear afterwords when he has 
achieved it. This portion seems not to U: in thconginal,as 
not one version can clearly account for it The original 
tale muEit have been also quite obscure on this point, thu^ 
affording free scope to the poet to interpret and to u^ it 
according to his own fanc>'. The less definite the task 

The Lfgcnd of the CraiL 


WAA the c&*kicr it wAa for the ^ub^tcqucitt author to introduce 
toto k «vtut naa nearest to him, and to give to it cither a 
material or a «pintual meanirt; ; the whole history of the 
IcRcad points to 9iKh a kind of development as that 
U'hich it really did underpOL 

Biit wbciKe comes that fundamental motive, an ;kdvcn' 
turotu kn^ht endowed with supcnor jfifn, striving after an 
undertaking quite tuuquc, never atlompccd before and 
ne\'er aften^-ard* ? 

A glance uver tlw literary activity in Krance ac the 
lime wDl iiive us the answer- 
It wa^ iM the middle of the twelfth crntury th^t tttr 
Tropin war bad 1>ceii iiidiUe the tlicitic ofan cldburaie cpu^ uf 
3OPO0 verges by Bcnolt dc St. Moie^ who> ba^jng his work 
upon that of Hares Plirygiuft, Paulus Orosiu.^ Ovid, etc, 
wrote his Reman dt TroU. At about the same time 
the fabulous history of Altx^vuftr the Grt^t was 
changcil into a national epos by vMbcric dc Dctan^n, 
Alc.^andcr dc Jkmay C^* 1 J 50). s«d vcr>" much aoiplilicd 
by Lambert li Toft {e, 1190- 1 200), the contemporary of 
Chresticn, One has only to see how they dealt with their 
originals, hc^v they transferred the whole scenery from 
boory antiquity to their own time, and to their own courtc, 
to understand the liberty a poet of thoi&e ttmcs could take 
with hU originals. 

Swing ih<T m^nnt^r in which the old kings and heroes 
were cluingetl ntlu knightit and squires, the old gods Into 
magicians and fciines I do not think that I ^ball be con- 
sfdered very bold if ! say thai the Icgcntl of the Quest is 
nothing else hul also a tntnaform-atton of the mo^t fntereU- 
Cng episodes of that ^vryk^gcnd of Alexander; the hcio of 
Ihc Grail romance is none cUe but Alexander, the Quest 
the counterpart of hts attempt to force the Gates of 
Paradi^. and tbo wonderful cystic or temple, the one that 
Alexander saw in his marvellous expedition. 

There U not one old version in which that journey — 
the iUr ad Partjdisffin — it not contained either in an 


Tiu Legend of iAe GraiL 

arapl/ developed form, or in an abridged ooc ; but 
all conUin the description of that mftrveUous castle. 
As we fth&n KC prciently, not only va it contained in the 
Grade text knon-n under the name of Callisthcncs [ book iii, 
cK sS), but also in the Latin version oi Julius Valerius, and 
in that of the Archipn^byter Leo. The oldest Fnnch 
vcruons af>d the German of LamprechCt which U based 
upon the«e French poenxs, ccntaln it also. Tbu^ thef« b 
no difBcutly from a hUtorical and literar\' point of view ; 
thift Icgrod was r;*rlirr than Chrc**(icn, this legend wa* ttien 
not only iiccesH^ble, but surely ixfdl knir^en to Chrtstutt. 

Starring ffun the oldest version. \ will give here an 
aoeuratc tIiUl^1atton of the '* Pseudo-Call iMhc;ic»' " versfon : 

"Wc sailed away from that river, and came to a bfge 
hUnd, i^o furlongs distant from ihc mainland aikl there 
wc found the city of the sun. This city had twch-e towcm, 
built of fifold and emerald The wallif> the circumference 
of which wa5 about \\o furlong:;, were made of Indian 
atones. In the middle of the town there wa^; an altar 
buitt. like Che towers, of gold and emerald. Seven ^tcps 
led up to the altar, at the lop there stood a chariot mth 
horses and driver* made likewise of gold and emerald. 
But all these things were partly Invisible on accotmt of 
the ftjg, Th*- priest of the sun, Aetoups, was clothed In 
real Cy^us. He spoke to us In a ravage tongue and 
ordered xva to leave that city. After wc had left vrc wan- 
dered about lor seven days. Everywhere was darki^cKs; 
not even fire lit up those parts. So we turned bttck,ard came 
to the fields of Nyaa, and there wc saw a hj^h mourUaia 
We climbed to the top, and tl^ere beautiful houses, full of 
gold and silver, met our view ; and tbc^e vtvre enclosed 
by a wall of sapphire, with 1 50 steps cut into it, and upon 
the top stood a round temple, w^th ^ven pillara of sapphire 
and ICO $tcps. Inside and outside were imn^es of dcmj- 
gods bacchante^:, satyrs =^nd of others initiated in the 
sacred my«ieries, but old Maron sat on a beaj&t of burden. 
A couch waj< placed in the middle of the temple; on 


Th§ legend of thi GraiL 


this couch lay a man dolhint hi «i1K. I cuol<] iiol sec hi5 facc> 
for it WA.% veiled: but I saw strength -ind greatness. In 
the middle of the temple there wu a golden ch&in 
wcqcbing a hundred pounds *nd suspended Trom it was 
a transparent wccath; ji precious Monc which iLlummcd 
the whole temple, took the place of lire. From the ceil- 
ing hung aIao a gold cagt*, in which was a bird about the 
»Im of a dcvc; Thie bird called out to me >n the voice 
resembling man's, the following, in Greek ;— ' Alexander, 
cease now to cippc^c (the) god ; retum lo your home, and 
Insten not through ihoughtlcsincss (recklessness) your 
transJl to tli<; celeNtial regions.' And as \ w^is abaut to 
:hc bird uiid the Eatnp, which I tnlende<l to 
I, it seemed to mc a5 If he who was resting on 
the couch moved. Then my friciid^t said to mc, ' Forbear, 
for it b holy/ And as I was going out into the grounds 
of the temple, 1 saw two amphoros of gold ivhich were 
capabJc of holding sixty mclrctc); wc measured them at 
tkbhx I commanded the sotdicrs to encamp there, and to 
CDJc^ thcmsdvcs, 

"AhouseaUo stood there, and it contained many beauli- 
fol and valuable goblets of precious stones. But just as we 
and the army were on the p<nnt of »iltmg down to the 
crpftst, there was heant suddenly a heavy thunder of f!ut<-< 
and cymhaU, And piprs and Iruin^H.'!!!, and kettledmrns 4nd 
zittcr> ; and the whole mountain was covered with smoke, 
a*( if a heavy storm had hii^kcn dowti on us. Seized with 
fear, wc hastened away, and wandcicd on until we came to 
the caAk of Cyrus; and wc came iicross roa.ny deserted 
towns, and one beautiful city, in whicti then: was a hoa-*, 
in which the king himself received* 1 was told that there 
was a bard that spoke with human voices L went into the 
bouf^ ai>d $aw many wonderful ^ight:;, for the whole house 
was of gold From the middle of the ceDing hung su*;- 
pended a golden cage, liVethe one which 1 have mentioned 
before. In it was a bird like a dovL\of gold colour ; it wa^ 
told to rac that thiw bird priphc^iied to the kiiiy throu^fh 


The Le^tnd of ike Graii, 

Its different tones, and that it was ho!>'. I also saw an 
amphor;i capable of holding nixty metrete«. The gold- 
work was marvellous, for all rourd It were Jigurcs. and 
above these a sw-battlc, and in the; middle was an iiucrip- 
tkm; everything wiis made and finished with gold^ This 
amphora was said to be Egyptian, having been brnught 
from t3K city of Mcmphi:= al the time when the Persians 
conquered Eg)!)^^ There was a house there, built in Greek 
atyi^ in whieh the king had held his recrcptfons, and in 
which tliere wa^f a picture of the sea-fi^^ht of Xerxes. In 
this houac there stood a]fio a golden throne, inlaid with 
precious stones ; and tliere was al«o a sweet- soundir^ 
aitter^ whose strings moved of their own accord. Arourkd 
it there stood a gnlden sideboard sixteen clU wide, and 
next to it anotlicr twenty ctU wid? ; sfx steps led the way 
to it, and un tlip tcp of these stood an eagle with his wingv 
spread nut over ihc wfiole MdeboanL There wa^ slso of 
gold a wild vine, with seven branches all worked In gold." 
So far r^cudo-Callisiltenes, The lexlof Valcriu?i haw some 
vanalicns, which I thSnk essential and I therefore mention 
them here, In fact, we have here two accounts, one of the 
temple of the Min. and tlic other of the palace of Cyrjs 
and Xerxes. Bcin^ very inuch like one another these two 
have been blended into one tale, some of the firtt description 
beini: left cjiit by ignorant copyists, who took the former to 
be a mere narration of the latter {Zachcr, pp, 170, 17 1 > 

The text of Valerius has now the following very remark- 
able detail in the description a'i he saysi <>f the palace^ 
whilst, \x\ fact, the Umf^e is meant, as will be seen from the 
very wording, whicli runs an follows: 

" In the temple hung from the ceElin^ a tro^iheum 
aureum {Cod Mtdiolan.: stropicum aurcum), from that 
'trophjijm* hung a ball Tn the form nf * vertigini* eccliti^ 
(ihL- hcavt^iily), UjK)!! that ball sat the image of a dove, 
which prophesied to the kmjr- And aa I was about to 
take dovm that ' tropliarum' which I intended to send to 
you, those present counselled mc not to do it as it was a 

Tkf Lfgmf? of tkr Grail. 


gacrcd place, and that I ^rniX^ not expose myself to ihc 
dangers ;ivntCin^ the intruder. ' 

It b obvioQs that this pa£saj*c here belong to tlie de- 
scription of the temple^ as it has nothinp whfilsoc^-cr to do 
urltbthe palaceofXorxe?; and «owe6nd it also afterward a 
in the L^tin and French version* of the Alescarder legend. 
Sobstkming PeiY<'val for Alrvandcr, wc have In thi« 
chajiter the cjenlral fmittms of tlie Grail le^i^nif : the mar- 
^veHous ca^Ie or tr-mplc Alexander had been the only 
who oouM re;idi after \ortz And severe hardshiji; 
the myMcrloua old mftn on the couch, who appe'Ors m die 
lanccs as the maimed, sick king; the marvellous 
le or easic with the myi:cri'>us dove endowed with 
sopcrmitural gifts — what could be more welcome for a poet 
than such a Bi^xirc aa that of the unknov^ri powerful and yet 
hoJf-concealed man lyln^ on a couch ? h'ancy wss <\\nXt 
free to picture In him either an iclc^l or a physical sufferer, 
by a wound» inflicted cither by a shaft, or by the 
^dart of «ia Nothing could therefore adapt itself better to 
another cj'ck* of talc? and legends than the things seen in 
the temple; the jcwrt, tjr the dove, tht- huge amphoras 
and cauldronif tlw numerous dcmt-gods and myotics, they 
could aftemard^ t>c ^ubstttutcO by Chn^L'iUT cmblem?» or 
by other conceptions, drawn from different scnirccs. The 
jragucnc^-t of the object* beheld in the temple, which can 
seen already in the Latin versions of Valerius, whose 
Is (almost unintellipble) I have retained, is the same 
rhich clmf;3 to the Grait, to the cattle, its inmates, and 
task of the bera 
It Is, ihercfore, neither a feud-qucst nor an unspelling- 
quest, to ivhich two formulae Mr Nutt has reduced the 
legend (pL 181). but dimply the Journey to tlie earthly 
Parailiu.', and the man^ellouK castfr or temple of the^ sun, 
whkh form ihc primitive nucleus of the romance. 

Following up thill due wc sh-df l>e able to expliiin many 
an incident in the romance tlirou|;h the legend of Alevan- 
dcfp There is in the romance the chief H&lier ,HtMnding hy 


Thi Legend of ii^ GraiL 

ibc rivPT, vrho directs Perceval to the ca^lc. Tn the legend 
it iit not a (Kbcr, hut a fish, which i* qui<:kcncd to life hy 
bciDg clipped bilo tJic water (if tti<: river, which ^tracts the 
Mention of Alexander and arouses his curiosity. He 
follows up the n'vcr, and b thui led to raiAdbc Out of 
tint fish there grew the fishcr-king. I need not rurthcr 
insist upon the dmost identical legend of the dovo siting 
on the hill [or jcwei) and propheT^ying to the ktni; in a 
huoun voitt — j^j to the man Jyini^ on the couch and the 
doifc which lay* a holy wafer upon the utone in Wolfram's, 
and the bread by which the sick king b kq*t alive io Hebi- 
rich's poem, Pcrctval is led by l^hix to the magie Cftsth^, 
which arc almost identical with the lights that go before 
Alexander in the vcr^on of Valerius. 

Wc shall sec presently how deeply tlic$e elements taken 
from the Icj^nd of Alexander, ha^x been modiBcd through 
the agency of Christian Ideas find Christian oonccptioiUL 
Thi* episode with the lights, and espcciaiiy that of the 
tree full of lights whereupon one child (t^%x> children) ^t^ 
will find iti explanation later on. 

M Gastebl 



THE Scn'Un national custom called "iAitw" (iitcraliv, 
* Glory and Cclctffation*'), and aomclimci "Kron^ 
»m^*(or Baptism}, id one which di^inj^Uhc^ the Scr\i;in 
people not only from taces of Latlii xnd Germanic oiigln* 
but al«o from all other Slavonians. 

DuHng their p<af;an period each SerxSan household had 
a particular drity 3s it^ |Mitron nnd jirolrctor Annually, 
on an appolTiied day, tlie family offered to its eipcdal 
deity special sacrifices. Of all religious rites in those early 
days this amiual celcbratton wa» the most iinportant* ftnd 
wu always accompanied by much feasting and varied 

Thl* act of household vrorship was a dccply-rootcd 
custom with the Ser>'isLn.*i. When baptised Christians, in 
the sc^'cnlh century, they would not surrender thi* cherished 
usagie, M} the hyzantirie missionaries, in the spirit of eora- 
tc then prc^^alcrt, ini^tcad of abolishing ^1 heaven 
rmorie*, sub*tiiincd the woishfp of sifnt* for that of 

igan deitJcs So the Slava custom rcmaiiird, nnly, on re- 
ceiving ChmtJ4n Iniptlstn, each Servian fatnitychoKeaHuint 

the Ea^lern Church a^ itsspccial guardian. And to ihc 

icicnt appcUatJoii of the household festival "Slava'' vols 
ad<kd, as a synonyms, the new name " Kroro imc", or 

TIk favourite family patron-naints of Servia arc St 
Nicholas, St John, and St Georfrc. The archance) 
Michael is aUo ver>- popular llouKcholds having the 
ftafne patron-saint consider thcmseUcf in a holy relation- 
ship to eadi other, lo much that in some districts they 
do not intermarry The Slava aids in deciding to which 

rou II. r 


The Legend of iks Grail. 

the river, who directs Perceval to the castle. In the l^encJ 
it is not a fisher, but z.fisk, which is quickened to life 
being dipped into the water of the river, which attracts 
attention of Alexander and arouses hi^ curiosity, 
follows up the river, and is thus led to Paradise. Oi 
that fish there grew the fisher-king. I need not fi 
insist upon the almost identical legend of the dove SJI 
on the ball (or jewel) and prophesying to the king 
human voice — *>., to the man lying on the couch — am 
dove which lays a holy wafer upon the stone in Wolfi 
and the bread by which the sick king is kept alive in 
rich's poem, Perceval is led by lights to the magic 
which are almost identical with the lights that go bel 
Alexander in the version of Valerius. 

We shall see presently how deeply these elements 
from the legend of Alexander, have been modified 
the ^ency of Christian ideas and Christian concept 
This episode with the lights^ and especially that 
tree full of lights whereupon one child (t\vo children! 
will find its explanation later on. 

(7b hta^ntirtM^.) 

Slaz^a. 67 

as a sacrifice to the patron-saints, its name implying what 
in olden times such annual sacri6ce must have been. 
"Kollivo", meaning literally something which is cut with 
a knife while alive. The verb " Klats, Kollyim", signifying 
in all Slavonian dialects to kill with a knife. 

While the mother is busy making these cakes and 
kollivo, the house-father is roasting as much mutton or 
pork, and procuring as laige a stock of wine, as his means 
permit. The younger members of the household go 
through the neighbourhood inviting friends to the ffite. 
The invitation runs, in a stereotyped form, thus: "God's 
house be yours I Our father {or uncle) sends greeting, and 
invites you this evening to a glass of wine, that we may 
talk a little and shorten thus the night. What our Saint 

has brought will not be hidden from you : do not 

hesitate, but come!" The answer being, "Thanks, we 
weJl know where to come, and what we shall meet" 

At the time of Vesper service the master of the house- 
hold carries, as a present, to the nearest church or cloister 
a 1a^^ wax candle, a bottle of wine, and some olive oil. 
The house-mother meanwhile, with a short, improvised 
prayer, placing a lighted oil-lamp before the picture of 
their patron-saint, usually hung in a corner of the principal 

At evening the guests arrive, each one steppiLig into the 
house with this greeting: "Good evening; happy be the 
day of your saint 1 God grant you may celebrate it yet 
many years in joy and health T' 

The master of the house (who, from this time to the end 
of the Slava feast, is cailed "Joechat", or the Celebrator) 
answers, " God grant it Thou art welcome : happy be thy 


Each guest kisses and embraces the host, and brings an 
apple or citron as a present to the house-mother. 

They sit in the spacious kitchen drinking coffee and 
brandy until all arrive, when the master leads them into 
the best room, which on this occasion is spread with carpets 



made in the houftt There the )^)ung women of the famHy 
approach the guests, hand them sandaK ^^^. <t4 % m^irk of 
litmoHt respect, w;ish their TeeL The guests then w»8h 
thdr races and hands, and ranging thccDSclvc^ with the 
master in the centfr, before the picture of the nint, pray 

Alter this the ^cst? choose a presridcnt of the feast, who 
must be a man thoroughly conversant wiih the Slava 
routine, and ready at the proper intervals with the appro- 
priate and traditional tOia^ts. In placing themsclv-es around 
the liheraUy-Ioaded table, the oldest ukc the higher scatJ;. 

The master does not sit down, it being es<ential th&t he 
should personally serve the wine to his guests. WHieti 
bnndirig the first cup iiTound^he gives the firsi toast of ihr 
evcuitig, which is a prayer that, by God's grace, to-morrow, 
the day of hh patron-samt, may atispiciously dawn upon 
all prcacnt, and that every one may be hia Slava-gtKSt 
again next year, and many other years to come. 

The president, rising, crosses himself, repeats the toast, 
with the wish that the patron-saint may increase and 
strengthen the friends and confound the encmic« of the 

As the cup gD^4 mund. each guest adds a wont (»* two; 
the last ore a*Witig God to forgive all Improper n^quesls 
and change tlicm to good ones. 

A second toast gucs alike around; and when the cup 
again reaches the president, turning to the master, who fills 
it, he says : " Thou givcst us a third cup, may God gt>"c thcc 
joy, health, and love to the end." Then to the gucrts he 
says: " My brcthrent to your foot This toast is to the 
Name of God, and to His exalted Glory, strong and able 
to help ui," 

All arise; the master brings In a pan of lighted coats, 
and, while someone reads s long clmrch-prayrr, bums 
incrnse before the illuminated picture iif the pultuti-Mint. 
Th]>^ invocation ended, tJie president continues the third 
toast, thus; "This toast is to the One and Undivided 



Triun*; God! May H« grant ihai His beautiful Glwy 
may c\cr davn upon thi** and aI] Chriulian homc« until the 
end of Tfme! May He help anil guide tJ« now «nd for 
ever ! and especially help all Uiosc who do. or (if they could) 
wouU), keep SI«Vii to-day, enablms thcro to keep it in all 
coning ycar^ until wc, altogcthcT. celebrate the anniversary 
in the cele^lint Kinj^om,*' 

Turning a^Ain lo The riaKtcr of the house, he adds s 
" Brother, drink to the honour of your Safnt 1 May he aid 
and thine to-day and for cvermcjre," Thrry embrace 
1ds« each other The master, trplyingj desires tliat all 
Sbiva good wishes *' utternl nnw im R^rth may be re^ix- 
tcrcd and graiLicd \t\ Heaven.'' 

The cup goc^ round ngaJn, each guest giving a ;^ort 
and kissini; his neighbour. The cup then circulate;^ 
;hout the entire household, every member having to 
Irink from it and embrace the next one lo him ; tlus, con- 
sidered the chief act of the evening, iit called "the toast of 
The orthodox us^^e includes seven toastit. The ffth 
being very long; commcncirg with mentioning "The 
Chttrch of Jerusalem lying precisely at the central point of 
the Wkiu world like a lovely flower", a votigc of ibc 
tncdiifrval ijcot^iaphy. It includes all pricsU. nH^nkn, 
;loistef% churches, and, by name, every one of the house- 
)ld of which they arc the guests on " this ever-memorable 

A^tt the seventh toast, designated '* honourable", the 
party ^uit the table and repair, if in winter, to the kitchen 
fire, or, in summer, to the gardens where they listen to the 
recital of patriotic balEadi and cithers like "The Slav^ of 
Ciar Duihan", or "The Dream of St Nicholas". Avery 
tular recitation va "The Archanj{crs Stava", which I 
may tran<i1ate hcrrafler, as It i;ivcs a lively version uf tlie 
eofnmingled pagan and Christiau vicw?( of Paradise preva- 
lent in Oriental land^ during the Mi<Idlc Agc?t, 

In what Ih now the kingdom of Scrvia. the guests wend 

homeward at midnight. But in oih<t parDi of 
old Si?r^An Unds ats Bo^U. they rem^ to sleep In 
the tiou^ic whose Sld\'s they JUi:tcclH>raltng. 

Next morning the master carries ihc Kullivo and SUva* 
cukes to the ne^irent church, placing thciti, with a lighted 
wax-iapcr. before the altar. After matins the prkat rc&ds 
a prayer o^x^r the Kollivo and SUva-ciike^, euts the eailces 
undirru^xih into four equal parts, pours a liule red wine 
f>vcr thft CT0S£-cultin{;|;3, lifting the cakcf tn his hand$, 
intones a dunt, commencing " Great be your io}-". and thcnj 
assistcid by ttie master, breakii the portioni;, retaining half 
■ of eaeh for hfmself. The other hakes and the KoUtvo the 
mft'iter takes home. 

In w^C'ikhief hdusehcldi* this visit to the chureh b 
dUpf-nsed with, tlic parUh ^rie^t being invited lu the family 
feMiv^t where the cakes are cut and broken with similar 

t ceremony. 
By this time the friends have again ^thered together, 
and with new eongnLtuLation?. the mziAter, bsucheadcd, 
server them v^-ith wine and food, the gue»ts remaining with 
covered heads. 

I About midday all rise " to the Glofy csf God". The 
Kollh'O and pieces of SIava-eake« are brOllgllt into the 
bcrt room, where wax Upcrsare lighted and inccnM bomL 
All remove their haci^, and the matter himself drinks to 
God's Glory", giving a tuast lillcd with good wishes, to 
which aI] an^uer, " Amen, God grant it-" While the cup 
pA.vses around the party, some of the younger guests ang a 
popular songi beginning : 

"WhoeverdriaksioiheGloiiy of God, 
Maf God ±ad \\a Glory help binv" 

After which eomc toaUs " To tlie Memory of The BaptiAfD*" 
and to the Trinity. The KolUvo is then served around by 
the master, the eaiirg drinking, singing, tallcing, and merri- 
menl continuing *ome liour», broken by occasional :oasta to 
he fiaintf, the king, and nation. 



ShcHiM llw wGitlicT permit, tlxr yvturi^ people gather in 
the yard or stnrd vk-ath bagpipes and flutes ^"^ dance 
until ntghtfAlL Vnym tiii:c to time guni arc fired, as ihc 
Serviaiis consider no cclcbratioD complete nvithout the 
noisy explosion of powder 

In territonca under Turkish rule, the u»c of fircArms U 
^metimc^ forbidden; And, in^y-c^n gone b>-, the Scrxuin 
SlafA ectebnbona in distncU under Turki&h AUttiurit/ had 
usually to be held pHvatety and at midnighl, 

li U to be remarked that however lengthy and profuse 
the Slava-toa*t», though many and rcilctalcd good wishes 
for the mctobers of the household arc expressed by the 
i-i*'tan, a wiimaiia iiaine h never Kicnliuiicd; tJic Scrviiui 
ctlc)iM:tte presenting the peasant Apcakmg before men of 
hU wife or daughter by name But with happy delicacy, 
whik none can name the modest and almost inviMblc 
mbtrcis of the home, the president, in proposing the toast 
of the Slava-cakc^, in reality gi^'cs the health of the hou^c- 
vrife, thun: "Let ua now- drink to the honour of thetw 
SJavacakcs ! God give that where they have now^ been 
broken, £uch may be brokci^ many years, and that the 
hands which made ihcm may continue handsome and dis- 
tinguished amongM all trther hand^, as iht^ Morning Star 
outshines all other sIBts-" 

When ;i11iidirt> iu Uh help-mate m company, llie Servian 
peasant u&UA[[y &ay« : '^ My wife, I beg paidon for mentluo- 
ini; bcr, Aflid (or did) ao-and-sa" 

The SUva festivals Ibrmefly continued three days. Even 
now, and in larEc cities, the household mu;<t be prepared to 
receive and regale guests at Ic^t two days. Sl^va was 
cotucquentty a heavy draft upon the lamlly incotrc. In 
the kingdom of Scrvia ihc advice of the priests and other 
authorities agidnst too costly fea^tifig is having a good 
effect. Butwiih the Scr^"ian'i in Bosnia <Tnd Herzegovina the 
etMloftheSUvafifitctsMtlt ihv Uat drt^pof wine r the gue^tn 
teoiajning until they see the issks and wine-skins arc 
empty. Tliey then rcUictantly leave, with elTuiiive htipcs 

73 Slava. 

to meet again the next year and many successive years. A 
standard farewell wish is that their host may long live to 
celebrate his " Slava, the day of the baptism of his fore- 
fathers, twelve hundred years ago." 

Perhaps one of the best of the stereotyped Servian Slava 
parting-phrases is : 

** May God teach us to know what trae 
Friendship h, and bow to appreciate it." 

Grant Maxwell. 



T may be iafdy said that children's amusenn^nt^, a? 
dtfi*ingiiNhccl from children** games, have not 

igageil the alfcntion of tlic students of man to tHc 
extent they merit. M-iny of these amuicmcTils are 
itnltationa of the work of men, and tJius become a 
trainini: for the work of Hfc. Others, a^ain. arc in all 
ihood the survivals of what ^xrrc once citatoms 

lowed by men. For example, can it be th^t the 
uscmcnt of imitating bur>-Lng alive in tlic &and U the 
sumval of any sacrificial CLStom, or nf the custom of 

ryin^ a victim below the foundation stone of any Large 
uUding ? 

Another question of much vroight is; Do these arouse- 
otE dicw the mental development of the children ? If 
it becomes a oaatier of much moment to collect not 
CMfely civilised children'* amusements to as wide an 
extent a* possible, but the amusements of imdvili^cj 
tribe*! and n^timi^, «j a,^ to form a comparison bctwrm 
thc! imnilal Jcvclopment of the tmrivili*«ed man and thai of 
the CTvIli.^cd child. 

Another (xiint worthy of compftiiJton U the amuacmenln 
followed by ililTcrciit clo^aea of children, t^., those of the 
fishcr-folks' children with those of the children of the 
rtiral population. Such a compfirisof^ would probftbly 
bring out modes of thouffht^ and traitii of charaacr. 
peculiar to each cla**, as it wout<l assuroclly set in clear 
light the differE--ne*fs cf their occupations. 

An Attempt lias been made to set forth some account of 
tbc child*life of the lishcr-folk» of the north-cast coa^t of 
Scotland. My information hai come from only a few uf 
the villager, «> that one must not judge that, because only 


Tk€ Scotch Fisher Child. 

one or two villages arc nicntionciJ as the home af an 
iiinLifswncnt or game, it may ntjt !>t* ffitmrl in the aame, or 
jn a somewhat different form in other vinagcs. 

M. SL'billot has devoted much attention to this subject, 
and ha5 g^Evcn the fruits of his labours In L'/f&Mmt, 2* 
Ann^ No. l6. 3$ Aout iSS^« pp. 481-go. and in H^vtt^ 
dffs TradiiicKi Pcfu/atnt, 1" Ann6e, No, 1. 1886^ pp. 5^13, 
in which he rormulate^ a ^ries of <iucstions for the ioves- 
tigsttcrs of this branch of the knowledge of nan. 

There is z. very striking agreement of the amusements 
of the children of the fishcr-folk'* on the Cfi^tvt of Fmntc 
with thrive of (he same class of children en the north>cA9t 
coast of Scotland h it because both have sprung from 
the same home in the north ? A collection of the amuse- 
ments of the tisbcr-foUca' children on the coa^itfof Denmark 
and the Scandinaviar Pcnin&ula would ro doubt j^v^ 
results of considerable value My wish is that others 
more competent for this interc^mg t^sk may enter upon 
it, and work it out to a good end. Much remains to be 
done with regard to the manners, custams, work, and 
beliefs of a most useful, worthy, and interesting portion of 
the inhabitants of the British islards — the fisher-follc*. 

I have arranged the jjaper as fiillows:-^ 

l» The baby and the cfftdlcn 
II. Amusements of imitation. 
HI. Amusements with living creatures. 
IV. Aonusements with shcllJ^ and seaweed* 

V. Amusements with tide and waves. 
VL Amusements with the sand on the beach. 
VII* Dancer and games, 

I,— The Babv and the Cradul 

A. TktBahy. 

(tf) The ■* twalt oor^' (twelfth hour), whether midday or 
midnight, is accounted an unlucky hour tor the biith of a 
child (?ennar, Kodchcartyl 

The Scoirh Fuker CkiM. 


(i) If a child U born ctunng th« time Uw tWcis "flowwin" 
(risinfr), the raying i-*^ th&t "the voildc (world) Boww5 
on'l* (Pcnnan) 

(^) When A neW'bom chilcl i;i being w;Lshcd, if ^ boy, he 
Is rubbed gently to mako him g'ood -tempered. A girl \% 
rubb«d more roitghJy vi make her firm (Portwti*). Jf the 
child rrirs mvirh when horn, it** wrifii \s ar rimc^ ^srratrhed 
to dr^w bttHjd, M) Oi4l the " ill-iulurtd" bItKjd intjjlit 
c$CApc T1ii$ w^ done not inAny ycAxx ago by ji midwife 
in RoschcATt)', And ihe ^aid tliat unless she did so, ihc 
child would be ill-tcinpcrcd 

(i^ Id nursing their babicj, the mothers or ntirxs oflcn 
dandle them in a w<iy to imitate the rocking of a beat on 
the s«a ( Poirtedftiv, M^icdulT, KoscJieaityJ, Here is a nuisiiig 
rhyme — 

" Rcdcie, reeb'e, nurig, 
Rin f the fairy, 

An ye 11 (^ a pcd4« m&il bannock* 
FJn he comci b*ck." 

Thia rhyme \nM repeated to the child, a^i the mother or 
nLrac sat in front of a fiie. from which a good deal of 
smoke was rising. 

Dc^ the rhyme refer to the custom of the trial by dre ? 
V/hen a child was '*<lwinin'\ it was suspected that the real 
cTutd had been stolen by the fairies, ard ore uf their own 
left in its room. It wai: tried hy fire A large f re of j>eat 
waii heaped on the hcarihj the child put into » basket, 
ivhith *-fls hung in the *'crook" over Ihc fire. If the 
" dwimn*' child n ■*» one ^f fair}' origin, it made il.t cttcape 
by the " lum" (chimney), and the true child was restored. 

(r) A necklace of amber bctids (''kmcr") wa,i worn 
round the child's neck to keep off ill-luck (Roscbcarty), 

(/) The belief in the influence of the planets on human 

ife was at one time not uncommon. An old womarv that 

ilely lived in I'cnnan, had an expression she uaed when 

»hc ti'as nur«ing a child much given lo crying ; " Vc"\^ 

been born aneth an ill planet", or "an unlucky planet" 


Th€ Scotch Fishtr Child* 

(^) Shells form comnoon playthings for lUtle children. 
When ihc infant's teeth bc'gin to cause trouble, a piece of 
*' t:-Lslt^ tanglt^" — ihe sli^iti iif Laminavin ttsgiiaia 15 f^vcn^ 
in>tcad of d tccihmg nng> 

{k) On markc:t-day£, and at Chnatmji». many had the 
cujtom of giving a penny or half-penny to each child of 
ikit family, Thia coin went by the name of " the market 
ha-wbcc", and "the Ycel bawbee". It was somotimcx p%<cn 
by the grandfather, or grandmother, or aunt; and the 
children regularly, as tht occa^toij came rourd, went to gc: 
the "bawbee" from the kind donor (Macduff) 

{{) To frighten the children frooi goinj; to the tea, they 
arc told dial a aca-otter or watcr-kelpie (MaizduliQ, or otters 
or " selchs" (sicals) (Portesile, Ro^ehearty) will come and 
take them, 

B, Tiu Cradle. 

(j?) If a cradle was borrowed, a fiery [>c;l! wat thrown 
Into \i at the door by the borrower (Pcnnan), 

{b) A cradle, if borrowed, wa^ never »cnt empty, neither 
wa,*^ it returned cuipty, 

(f) The cradle i^ always carried with its head foremost, 
that ia, the opposite way a coHin ia carried (Roichcarty, 

{d) In Buckie and PortcaaJe a smatl wooden bowl,— 
"acap" — lay constantly in the cradle. It was cillcd "the 
craidle cap". My informant told mc that her mother made 
her a prcficnt of f>ne, and told her to keep \l always in the 
cradle when in usg She did *iO, and when there was no 
baby the "cap" was laid up carefully till the next baby 

{i) Thccradlc waasomclimcs called by old folk* (Pcanan) 
"the li^c-boat'^ and they spoke of putting the chfid into 
the life-boat when they laid it in the cradle. 

(/) ll U a common notion that if a mother meets a boy 
aa her " first fit"", the first time the goes out after having a 

The Scotch Fiskcr Child. 


baby, sh« will have a von ak her t^cxt child, and if ah« meets 
a girl, *hc will bear a g(rl (Fortcssie, Roacheart>'), 


(fv) Boys and j'oung men construct boat't and ships, 
coruncniy faahioDing them with a knife. They x\^ them 
with much ncatnciw. They are named and Ijittnehcd with 
due ocrcmony. and it b a source of much amusement to 
salt thcM boats and *hips (pcncrally round the coiwt). In 
many of the villages (Macdufl", Pcnnan, Roschcarty) sailing 
matchet or re^rattas w^re common, and bcttifig w;u rife 
{Macduflf) At the viHii^e of Ptnn;m, mjt many yc^iirt ago, 
there was a rct:a1ta on New Year's Day for some ycaivH in 
aiicccssion on the mslNpond of the farm of CIcntcrty, when 
many from the villa^. aa well as many from the ndgh- 
bourinic farm«, met to witness the race. Prices were 
a^'firdcd for the victors In Kcpschcarty, New YcoKa Day 
was specially de%x>led to the sailing of Iheir ships by the 

(^> [n liajlin;; thdr ships tliey at times put small stonec 
or shells on them to represent sailor*. When the ships 
cam« to land they were carefully cxamlncti to set whether 
the men had been swept ovcrbtjsrd. At timps, two or more 
wtfTc laundieil in Mich A way as to lun into each other, and 
BO rvn o]]c of them down. Great i^i the exultation of tJie 
oimcr of the stouter ship (Macduff). 

it) Bui almost anylhing that will float, a piece of cork, 
or wood, with a leather :ttiick Into it, the carapace of a 
crab, a shell, etc, is used as a boat. Hock-pools, pools left 
by tlie tide, pools near t&treams, mill-ponds, if at hand and 
of convenient form. 

(d) A favourite pastime is the making of eanalu and 
larbfivirs in the ^and. The children dig little ditcher, 
[ow the watcrr to run into ihein. imd then place in them 
a» ihips and boats small pieces of cork* wood, shelU, the 

ipaccTi of crabs, paper boats. Tike water Ls cr^nRncd, 


Tht SioUh Fhher Child. 

an<f. when everything is ready* the \1uicc vs removed. And 
thr wAtcr llciws away, cariylng with Jt al) the littfc cmft, 
A wiile space l» often mnHc^ at one end m imitation of a 
harbour, and at other tEoics a harbour is made at each end. 
The children of Rofiehc^rty used to make ■* bridges'^ that is, 
locks in their canaU, m Linttation of the Cafcdonian Canal. 
The boys of M^icdufT built harbours, Filed them with 
water, and at tirnoii put pieces of wood across thdr mouths 
in imitation of hoomn. In Portcimie *iich structurei^ are: 
called " ihorie*"- This name^ arises, likely, from the i?^ 
That there wen* in many of the fishing villages no built 
harbours, but oT))y natural creeks <^^ iw ell -sheltered pit 
of sliore, commonly csUcd *' the shore". 

(«) The catching of iUh is often imitated. Su many of 
the players act as fish, and %o many aa fishermen. The 
Unci are throi^n, and the children thtit represent fl,sh scixc 
the line, sometimeri in their teeth, and sometimes the line 
i-t thrown round tht^m. They are pulled ashore, Jind then the 
whole process of clearing thcfifh i^; gone through, the first 
jitep always beinR to imttaie the cutting;: of the throat Al 
beint^ dr«ssed, sand is sprinkled over them for ialt (Por- 
tcssic, Macduff, Roschcarty). 

(/) Tlie boys and girls often imitate the arrival of the 
boats from the fiKhing grnuml. The fish, for which Email 
Titone^ are used, are divided Jn the usual way» and then 
carried up And dressed, and the " skvlls", or baskets with' 
the Unca, are broueht ashore with all formality (PiirtcWe, 
MacdiifT, Ro*chcarty). 

ig) A common amusement is the making of "houf 
and gardens on the beach or smooth grassy spots con- 
venient. This is done by laying clones in a line on the 
tsand or grass ir the form of a hou?;c. I'orches are M>me- 
times added, as well as other houses for other purposes, 
furniture, tn the shape of small atones, pieces of wood, 
limpets, or the bones of the larger fish are put into thcm.^ 
There arc always two pieces of furniture. " the bench", a 
kind of o|ien cupboard for holding stoneware, of whicli 

TAe ScoUJt Fhhtr Ch!M. 


fi^^r-folks *rc <:ommonly very ^<^x^^, and *'thc drcMCr", 
which in the fl«Kerman':^a5 well A.'i in the country kitchens, 
st&ndb underneath the "bench". Shells of various kind», 
broken pieces of stone and cjirthenware, often called 
"lehmns", are used for dishes. The fiahcr-girl seals herself 
tn^de the houite, and buAJci^ herAcIf with the arrangement 
of her furrfiure and crockery. 

(AJ Oardrn^ or "yards" an^ enclosed with a row of 
(tones or tv'Flh a line of Hand chrown up by the hand, and 
planted with pjecc:s of seiiwced for llcjwem and trcct 
(Portcaaic, MaodufT. Pcnnan, Ro^chcarty). The children 
the country do the ?Amc- Only they plant their 
■ns or "yards" with flowers, 

if) Keeping a shop, or acting; the merchant, and buying 
sDd selling, arc favourite pait^mc5. A hou^c U made a» \ 
shop, and the various kinds of goodt; arc put irto it. 
Shells, chiefly, but often pjecei of broken stone and 
earthenware arc used for money. The penny Is rcprc- 
ftentixl by a Urge i;hcll, or piece of fttonc or earthenware, 
the halfpenny by a le^ piece or sbeLL Silver coins are 
re|>rcvntrd by the smallest ?hclU, or frsgmcnt^; of ware 
fPortettJC, Macrduff. Pennan, Rosehi^sirty), 

(J) In bathing, boys pretend to be .salmon, eels, or &ny 
other Gih : aad tit Roachcarly the boys have in bathing a 
leap colled the Aalmon-!cap. The boys of Macduff use 
the cxprcf^iion ''to dive tike an eel". They also use the 
expression **to dive like a ^rath' and they r.pealc of 
"scrathiftn" to indicate clever diving. 


(tf) A great amusement i» to catch eels and transfer 
them CO other ponds, repeating the u-ords : 

** Edic, eelic, <ae\ ^ knot, 
An yell win aito the ttlmon-poL" 


Tk€ Scotch Fisber CMld, 

A variant of the l^st Imc \%i 

" An yc'll win into ihc wnicnpot/' 

The formula In Macduflf \% : 

" Eclic, ccUc, cd« yir knottier 
An yo'H iwt m o' yir water pottio/' 

(^) The children amuse ihcmfeclvcs b>" catchinp the 
green ihore-crab {Carcinus Mwnas\ called "the craib" in 
Macduff, and the eatable crab, or **partcn'* {Canarfasttrus), 
and using them 2A hot$c%. They tie picceu of cork, wood, 
Of any other light ^ubjitance behind ^iIn, in imitation of 
cart» and coaches, and thou set ihvm ofT to pull ihcm. 
They at time* take a few of them, hold ihcm in line, and 
then let them go. as if in a race, on a given signal (Ma<:du^, 
Ruschcarty. I*ortc5sic). They also use them a^ cow* and 
horses, and tether them in imitation of the atrrlcultural 

(<:) The bo>':i and girU at timca amuse thcmacK^cs by 
catching fish among the rocks and pooU, cooking them on 
fires they kindtc on the beach, and then feaaLfng on them 

IV.— Amusemknts with Shells and SEAWEca 

{a) The children of MacduiT have a custom of taking 
limpet shells boring out the centre of them, and then 
sticking them on their eye* under the name of spectacles. 
They carry them in this way for a considerable iJmc when 
amusiny themselvtx 

{b) ThL' girls often gather shells, bore them, and make 
necklaces of theni (Rosehearty). 

(tf) They deck themselves in seaweed. Some of than, 
as "bcllywaax^'f^KiTft/ nodastts, and P. tesctciUejMj), they 
use as curU for their bair. The larger ponds of " bathcr- 
lyocki" (Lanuftafja efi/^rttn) are used aa waistbands, whibt 
tbc smaller ones are formed into bands for ihc brtiw and 

Tlie Scotch Fisher Child. 8r 

the neck. Sometimes chaplcts are woven and placed 
round the head. 

The girls of Fennan make thimbles of the air-vessels of 
** belly-waar". 

(d) The children amuse themselves with "carle tangles'*, 
the stems of Lanunavia digitaia, in the following way. 
Each player selects a few ; one holds up one, the others 
strike it crosswise. If it breaks, the player holds up the 
one that broke it, whilst it is in turn struck till it is broken. 
This is playing at " sodgers". Instead of tangle, " carle 
doddies" (Plantago ianceoiata) are used. Country children, 
and sometimes grown-up folks, amuse themselves with 
playing at "sodgers" with "carle doddies". 

v.— Amusements wittf the Tide and the 

{d) An amusement is to gather stones and build a little 
hillock, or to heap up one of sand, when the tide is rising, 
and then to take their stand upon it, and cry out : 

"Willie, Willie Weet'feet 
Winna get me." (Peanan.) 

"Willie, Willie Weet-feet, 
Dinna weet me, 
An a'll gee ye a Scots bawbee." (Macduff.) 

They wait till they are nearly surrounded by the rising 
tide, and then jump. Such a little mound is called a 
"lockie-on" (Macduff). 

(^) In Rosehearty this hillock is called "a prop", and 
the formula is : 

" Knockie, knockie, nocean wash me awa', 
Ten mile, len miJe, ten mile jaw," 

When the sea struck it, the player jumped and roared. 
Girls, in doing this, often took off their shoes and stockings, 
and tucked up their clothes to keep them dry. 



TJie ScoUA FisAer Chtid. 

(^) A »mibr amudcincnt is for the diildrcn to niii up to 
meet Ihc rising tEdc, and then to run back out of the w^y 
of the wave, shouting: the same wordi In doxnz thi*. the 
^\i\^ oUcii kilt up their clothe^ to keep them dry (Kq»- 

During A storm the children run up t:> meet the uravi 
shouting : 

" The nineteent jaw, 
Come, uEi waxU iiic uwa* 
Owcr the 9ca in fat asa'/' (Rosehearty.) 

(■/) They plunge inlo ihc cn&ssc« of foam lliat ate 
thrown up during a ^I^tvti. and jhout and dance in fucc of 
the gale (MacdiilT). 

{€) When ilic tide is rising, the children cast up dykes 
or ndges of sand to »tem the water, and then watch their 
overthrow. They proceed to build another to meet the 
raiae fate, and so on lor any Length of time. 

VI.— Amusements wmi the Sakd on the 

(rf) It ta a great amusement to lie down on the soft sand 
and leair-e an impn^ssion of the body on it. The sarail 
thing U done when there i« snow, 

(f) Another nmiiHCinent H for one to lie down on th«- 
.<and, whL-n it is damp or hard, and strcleh nut every limb] 
to thcT wit^c^r.andfiir .imithcr to take a ^haqi-pniitted ftone 
tjr pircer of slick and draw theouClineof the fi^^ure. Sfnne- 
timcs it is an imprint of only a hand iritb the fingers folly 
spread out, or of a foot, that 1% taken. Tlic same thinj; izt 
done in snow. 

(r) The children amu^e thcmseUes by imprinting; their 
footsteps on the &ind, and a^fter a time retvirnin);^ to see if 
the impression strll remains. 

(^) Another amusement ifi tD make drawings of houses, 
men, cr of anything that strikes the fancy, on the firm 
sand A boat H a very cotninon obj«et to be drawn. It 

Tks SroteA Fisher Child. 


is done irt profile, and it3 name nritlcn 011 it Ai iimc* it 
id dra-Aii birdVcycwisc, atid the bey* tfiei^ go nithin H, 'iit 
dowr, flnd act ;u; if fiihiiiR- 

(tf) Wriiing their namc« on ihe saiid U a favourite 
amusement, and a boy"* and a g^r^ namr an? nftrii wnttrii 
together. Tliey arc catird "llir irwn ;ind llie wife" (Rtisc- 

(/) It t* an amu^vt^mcnt to make or binld up of wcl sand 
the image of ^ m^in, tlicii to mn pait it and strike with the 
hand to break IL This Amusement is called *' Vullin' the 
Rooflhian^" (Roiichcirty). 

{S\ One goes along the bcacli making us long pftce« as 
p^^iblc* The otht-r pla)-ers follow, ard their aim i? to 
pbce their feet In the foot^tep^ of the leader The one 
that fail* \o do so is beaten (Roschearty). The same thing; 
b dotie In snow. 

{h) A not uncommon amufiement it fodiga hole and 
allow the w^ter to (ill it. The water i* then carefutly 
covered, often by crinkling fine dry sand over the water. 
Ttnf out; oti whom tlie tiick 1* to be pkiyL'tl ih enticed to 
walk along in iht; direction of it, «o a^ to stumble into it 
and have his foot made wet or ^et a fnll (MaalulT)^ In 
Macduff tlu a amusement is called " Maskln' ^ trap". In 
other villajfca (I'ortcftAiCH RoKhcarty) the hole i» not filled 
with watcr^ but covered over with anything fouiul con- 
Tvntent, *o as to conceal it. 

(0 A* an fimu«cnnent, bur^'ing in the sand i* not uncom- 
moa At Macduff the boy^ dig graven in the eand or 
simple, put stone* or piece* of wood into them, cover them 
up, and then «rt up stones at the head of the grave. A not 
unfreqiieni amiiscrrcnt i* burjing i>nc of llic players- A 
is dug, and one stone is placed at the top and 

lOtlicr at the boitotn. AftLT it i* fini^hcd^ the one to be 

iricd is IdiJ flat on his back in the hole — if i\ grrl, with 
dotlic* tightly tucked round her — and aII covcrctl up 
with small sand ot jhlDgle, according to the iinturr of ihc; 

o J 


Tfu SioUk Fiskir CMd 

b«ich, except the face. Al^ l/i^g ^ time an exit b 
m;idc ir the beet way the burJed one can (Portct^ic, Mac- 
dufit Per an, Rosehcarty). 

VIL— Danchs and GaveSh 

(<t} The hoi's ard girls at times amuse thcm»ch-cs by 
dancing on tl^c £and^ any of the ordinary danccK One, 
however, used to be danced called " Scn-biackin", The 
players take Iheir stand behind e;Lch other, ;tiid, on a ^ivcn 
signal, the first one in the line stcops< then suddenly rifics 
and throws up the arms, cind then sets off at a run, stoop- 
ing and rising and throwing up the arms. The others do 
the same. Thus they run on, imitating the rising an<i 
falling of the wave* or roll of the sex If one falls it Is 
uillcd a "Shtpwreck", and the unfonun:*tc one: must lie 
aiid allow ihc players behind to leap uver (KoseliearlylJ 

{ff) A game, calkd "Bfiil the Bear", is played b>' ihc 
children nf Porlessie in the following xv^y. One is cho^n 
as the bear acid am^thcr as the ^^uaid. A circle is dr*iwn, 
and d stone li placed in the cuiure of Uic circle. On this 
5tonc the bc^r scat^ hlmscir, and get^ into hi.s hand a piece 
of strinj;: by otic end. Hia (n^ard takes hold of tlic other 
end of the string, and sets himself in a po-sition to dercnd 
the bear. He hold:^ in his other hand bis cap, oir bandker- 
chief ]>laitcd. The other player* all stsnd round ready to 
fall on the bear and pelt him with their caps or plaited 
handkerchiefs. The one the guard strikes first becomes in 
his rum (he bei^r^and the former hear become* the guard. 
The i^aitte cunlinues as long as tlie players wish, 

Thi." same game wa* played at Keilh \\\v:z\\ I was a boy, 
wllh thiN difTcrcncc, that the butir ciouUicd on his hands 
and knees with his head stuck down between his hands aa 

> I thmtc MiM Gordon Cumoijitg ton; ? where givec a description of 
w ftiJiiiUi drt^Kc m one of llio South Sea I bljuiUb. but I camiot And the 
euct tcfvtcncck 

The Scotch Fuhcr Child. 


fans pcrw(W(* to i;ave It from the blows inflfctiNl by the 
pla>"CTs. The Kanie la played in \\\c !*Uinl f>r Saiuos, 
under (he name? of ^vich xpatrl, or " swoet wfne'V' 

(c> A: I\jrlcs.sic iIk'tc i* a rock cnliccl ihc " Scatt Craigs", 
which ia kft tJiy by ihc ictiilii^ tide. The chiltlixrn Lake 
their tttand on it, nhcn the tide Is ebb, and shout : 

'* 1 wurri you witr, 
I VTArit you IwicCf 
1 natn >'cij ilircc ;ijnci ovcr^ 
Tjilee up your u-itif^tt 
Aiid (!pe HH-ft*, f(A fear o* Johnnie Rover," 

Th«y then jump from the rock, and run as fast as ihc>' can 
hack to the top of the roclc, to repeat llit word* and the 
action lill they become tired 

(ti) A roumi ftl^ne, caDcfd the "tainic'j is placed upon 
another. TIk pliiyors tlitii lake their stand ai any coii- 
sidcrabTc dUtanc^ agreed on and throw stones to displace 
the "tamJc". The flret who knocks it offa certain number 
of tfines previously agTMd on wins the game (Portcssic). 

(fi A <tonc is thrown a certain distance. The one that 
throw* It leaps the dwtance. The other play^^rs trj' to do 
the same. Tho^ tliat fall short of iht; distance lost?. 
"When all have IcajK^I, the stuiic is again thrown, ami the 
leaping proceeded with as before. This goes on for any 
tcfig:th of time (Roschcarty)- 

(/) A fircal soiiicc of amiucmcnt wfis to place a stone* 
or, best of all k a bolllc, At a oCFn-sidcrablc distance, and 
throw atoned to break the bottle or knock down the stone. 

(^) *'Corking the bottle" ia a common pfL^itimc: both by 
^rh and boy^ A longish, somewhat tapering ntone is 
sele<tcd, and ihe boy or girl goes to a deep pool and drop« 
the stone with the sharp end down into the water, and 
then watches for the air-bubble* risrng when the bottle U 

(A) "SktfTm" is nn<itJicr amusemrnc with a ^tone. This 

' FM-lM^Jtmmutf voL ii» p- j). 

86 The Scotch Fisher Child. 

15 done only when the sea b smooth, A flat stone is 
taken and thrown along the surface of the water. The aim 
of the player is to make it rebound the greatest number of 
times on the surface before it The children inland, that 
live near streams, lochs, or ponds, h;ive the same pastime. 
It is called "skippin'" (Keith), and the first stroke on the 
water used to be called *'the drake", the second "the 
deuk'\ and the rest " the young deuks" (Personal). 

(;■) Another pastime among boys inland was " cuttin' the 
water". A thin, sharp-edged stone was chosen, and the 
boy took his stand beside the pool or pond (if a little above 
the level of the water so much the better), and tried to 
strike the water without dashing it up. To do so with 
neatness requires a good deal of practice- 

Walter Gregor. 




THE Tcgail BrHidni Z*ddtfr^ (Destruction of Ifrudin 
Dadcrga), an Insh hero-talc, belonging to the o[<tc»t 
*lnitum of heroic legend, contains the following Incident. 
Cormac mac Airt. King of Ulster* wctiUcd to the daughter 
of Eochftid Fcidlcch, High King of Irel^ndi puts her awajr 
" because ^e was unfmitfu), »ve that ahc t>ore a daughter 
lo Cormac", He then wcd« Etain, a dame from faery, 
who had been the lady-lcne of his father- iri- 1 au', Hochaid 
"Her demand ^^a*; ihat the datightCT nr ilic wonan who 
had WcTi ab.uithjncd before her should be killed, Cormac 
voutd not gis'c her (the child) to her mother to be nurwd. 
His two !scrt'anl,t took her aflerwarcts to a pit, and ^h'* 
laughed a love !aii£;h tX them when being put into the pit. 
Their courage lefr them. They placed her snb^c^uently in 
the calf-^ed of the cowherds of Eliracct, great-grand Jon of 
laii Kin^ of 'L ara, and thcra: nurtured her tiJI she wQd & 
good embroiderc!^ ; and there wav not in Ireland a ktrg'd 
dau^tet more beautiful ihan she/" She f^ afterwards 
posse^^cd by one of the fairy folk, who comes in to her as 
a bird and ihenaiiume^ liuman shape, and he tells her that 
the king, report to whom of hr-r hi-auiy has bceri made, will 
«!nd for her, " she wjSI be fniitrni frcim him (the bird-man), 
and will bear a »0]i, and thai son »hall ool kill bird*^" Thi» 
happens, and the ^on (Cunairc Mor) forwards becomes 
High King of Ireland, dnd 15 the hero of the lafc. 

The Destruction of Daderga*5 fort (the t&lc is so called 
because, when renting there for the ni^'ht, Conairc la 
attacked by pirates, slaio with ino5t of his following^ and the 

88 Jealous Skfimother ani Expend Child. 

house ilcfitroyod)^ is fourd in th« oI<lcst Iriib MS., Liahl 
n-a A* CW^Tif {copied at the end or tbc eleventh ccntur)' 
from MSS, or the wri/ ck-venlli ctntury) in a fragmentary 
form. It Ih uIho fount} in a more complete form En Oie 
wcU-known ftHjitccnlli oenlury MSu, the -ffo«f ^ Zfr«rK 
(H. z.iC), frfini rthtch ii Iia» been cdltcJ anO tr&ns'Med Ijy 
the litte W. If Hcnncssy, who died before he had oora' 
pictcd his ediiion. The Above cited passapfcs arc from a 
cfjjiy of the proof'3he<t3 J p«rcli^'«^d at the sale of his 
librar)'. They ;irc only to be found no^-v \\\ the B&ok &f 
Lecan and in younger MSS.^ as L,n.rr i» Jinpcrrect jusft &t 
the Ix^tnning; of tlie tale. It is, therefore, impossible to 
be absolutely certain that they were in tlie eleventh century 
MS. But diis U almost ceruin, a^ the L.aR and B. L. 
versicnji ;jrr vrry similar in thr pavsa^-'i tTiry havr in com»^ 
mon, Murcover, rruf. Zimmei (Z- P'.S.^ 18S7, p. 583) hxlt 
!>hovni strong icasons for believing that the B. L. version 
was cop\c<l (txixxixhc JJtfttk ir/ Dratt'ir: Snrc^/a, ^ nowIoM MS, 
of the tenth or early eleventh century, and that it ^a5 one' 
of those H»ed by the compiler of for making up hb 
version, which h ob\'iously badly pieced together from At 
least two older, and at timci contnidiclor>", versions. We 
ma)', tlicrcforc, be almost certain chat tl\c episode of the 
jealous stepmother and of the exf)o«cd child wns current in 
Ireland in the early eleventh century at the latest 1 need not 
point out that the form of the other folk-tale incident, the 
bird-lover, is ;iT«o considerably older than tliat which ha« 
hitherto bc:?n looked up<in as it*; rarlie*it appearance in 
l-liimp(-aii litrmturc, the KrJUA uf ^fllIie dt Piancc (Tate 
iwelfth century)- 

The incident of the exposed chlM occum in the t^t/i 
Mrriiidtfa, an 05 yet unptibtishcd text, tlic MS. of wW 
{FoHSt, B. 6) is in the British Mu-^unL Meriai 
of Caiadtx, king of the diMrict flfoun*l 
Camdoc b sl-tin by his brother, who -scndi \\ 
niccc into tlic wood of Afg:lud t>. 
huntsman takes ptty en them and h\^c^ 

Jiaims StepmoiAsr and E:rpcs€d Chitd. 89 

by Uricn m he b ndin^ through the wood and brought U(> 
1^' Urica and Aithar, who avenger Caradoc^s death. The 
MS- iscarly fourteenth ccnliirj' {cf- V Cymmrctfcr^xup^^^)^ 
but the text must be old, :ii it has preserved the original 
nortlieni t^ak of the legend, Afglud = Arecluta— />., the 
district aboirt the Clyde — although the last trAiischber 
mott pr^^lwbly thought of Caradoc as a Welsh pHnct-* It 
tirould be unsafe, however, to argue from iht,* facl that the 
theme of tht' Babes In the Wnod vvits l;niiwn to the Welsh 
of the milh or tenth ccnUrry, the iJcrlod during whtdi the 
traittfif-renet: tn .SouiInwc^I Brilatii of North Cijnihnan 
IcECrnJ [iTobably ltx>k place ; but it may be :iafcly a\^r.'rted 
that it was current in Waic* in the t^^clfih century. 

It shoLiId be fioticcd that both incidents occur quite 
casually in the talc, little insistence i*^ laid upon them, ^\d 
1 do not tinnk it possible for one moincnt that such chnncc 
and passing references can have t?n/^'rtfiftr4 the folk-talcs 
current to lhi& day. On the cortrar>-, it Mcms e\idcnt to 
me that wc have hero folk-talc incidents which ipui;t have 
been perfectly familiar to the anther and hearers of our 
aoTies — which were, in fact, cetnm/^ttj^lacfs. If thj* is so. it 
sbow-s that at least two well-Icnown type* of folk-tale were 
popular tn Irelard in the tenth century, and one in Wales 
In the twelfth ccntiiry 

* The *' Scabdooe" i» dmoM ccitfualy'Stirling and not the WdiJi 
MMUElain, ihoiij^h lh« laft Tran^f^rltier probably had Snowdon m his 



IN FoLK-LORE, ij p. 278, there is an extract regflr<ling the 
Cherokees' beUcf relative to the connrctton between 
lerpents and precious stones, and, at pa^ 209 of the same 
Issue, there is a passage on I^rnfs in the Rhone, that arc 
«n similar to inddentH in the Bliitridatt^ Jatalca of the 
Buddhist tllerature. that I venture to think that a f ^r^/f 
of that Ic^cntl.a."* taken front the Rutmt>- Pali vcrMon, would 
be of inicrcsl to the readers of Folk-Lore. and, without 
fxinhcr preface, proceed to give it- 

Once upon n time, there rciffrcd in Benares a kinc who 
wftA afraid that his eldest son was becomir^ too po^rcrful, 
90 be ordered him to leave the eountr>' until the tinie 
should come for him to ascend ihc throne. The prince 
accordfngly went into the foreit or the banks of the 
Jumna, and lived there in a hut as an ascetic jL£t at that 
time a NAgf (serpen-Iady). who had lost her husband, 
came wandering in search of ;iri">ther, and, iseeing the 
empty hut, wondered whether the owner was a real hennit 
or an ordinary man , and, in order to find it out, covered 
the couch wkh flowers and fairy scents and went iiway. 
In the cool of the evening the prince returned from the 
forest, where he had been searching for fruits and root& 
He wondered who had been decoratinjif his bed with 
flowers, and then went to ileep on it ; a hcrmitwould have 
first thrown them all away. Next day the serpent-lady 
came back, and, seeing he had slept tin the flowers, knew 
he was not a real hermit, and redecorated the bed, Au she 
was going awaj', however, the prince, who had been on the 
watch, came np and asked her who she was. She told 
him, and, as she was very beautiful, he married her. She 



created a feiry palace in the forcUt in which they dwelt, 
and bore him a son named Ssfjari,* and. two or three years 
rdfi, a daughter nam«j Samudd;tj.i' The prince is 
then discovered by a hunter and informed of his father's 
death- The robtec come out from the city and intiiil on 
his returning to the kingdom. The Bcrpcnt-lady says she 
camiot accompany liiin, because tA\c Is ^frjiid that in her 
ari^er J^c iiuy dt^ilroy some of his jjeoplc, sceiiiy that lUe 
5erpent-pcop!c arc very irritable and unable to restrain 
their poison. She says. *' Though my duty ^nd inclination 
arc to Ebllow my husband, yet, if I were to ,-;cc anything to 
anger mc. the pcnon who caused my anger to arise n<ould 
be reduced to a^tes. " Next mcming she hand:i over the 
cbjidrcn to him» a.nd begs him to take the greatest csiro of 
tlicm, and be careful to let them have plenty of water to 
play in^ as ihry are half serpent by nature, Whcr he got 
toBenarev he h*d lomc tank^madi? for the children to play 
in. <jne day, when the prince and prf ncess were swimming 
In the pGird. a frrsh-watcr tnrtuisc put its head up and 
loolcrd ;it tbriti, ^^hi<.b so fni;litcued the childnfti thiil ihey 
Acd to ihcir father and told him there ^ras a devil in the 
pond. The kim: K*J the poniJ dragged, find the tortoise 
was caught and brought before the fting. Hi5 nobles 
advised that it should be put to death in various way» ; but 
one of them, who wa.-! very much afraid of water, thought 
that it ought to be punished by being hurled into the rj«r. 
On hearing thi*, the tortoise put his head out, ard said : ''My 
Lwd King, I have done no harm, bui 1 am nevertheless 
wilting to undergo any punishment rather than that/' 

The king ai once ordered him to be thrown into the 
vthiilpool in the Jinnna, Now, this whirlpool was lh€ 
direct road to Serpen tOaiid, and the tortoise fell close to 
a Niga, who was ihc son of Dhataratlha, the Niga king^ 
He was immediately artcstctl, and. to %iivc himself from 
punishment, cried out that he was an ambassador from the 

' 5%ui means " Thf Oocia". 
' Suntiddaj:t means " Sea-bora'. 



King of BenArv^ *cnt to nffcr hi* daufjhtcr in marriage to 
Kifg Dhataratlha. Al firat he was not belwvcc!, but, after 
«ome arguinuit, he prmaiW nn the Serpent king to send 
Aomc young Nigas back with hun to Hrnarr*: On th*- 
rcjrtcJ the tortoi«! got nway ^nd hid hiiiiwlf, and the Ni^4§ 
arrived at ihc palace alont The King nf BcrHfc^ A^Jcei! 
what they had ctjine for, and on being informed, got ani^ty, 
and declared that he could not give the lady Siunuddaj;^ 
in aiarriit;;^; to such a creature 7l% a serpent. The Nigas at 
this were h^hly incensed, but, bciiis :LmbJisuLdor:i, could 
not destroy Ben^^rc*. *o went back to malce their report. 
King Dhatarattha thereupon summoned hia hosts, and 
ordered ihcm to spread them«elve* All over ihc city of 
Benares but nf« to hiirl anyone. At this tJie people of 
Benares were so trrri/ii'ii ih^t they cried out to know uhy 
they urere so plaj^icd by scTpent^ ; anil im l>eing informed, 
thi?y Iwg^-d the Niiga king to allow llicni to t:<> '" llieir 
own king to cnlrcat ^nl^, The jjenpli: cneil nut to (he 
king tij give the I*(inccs3 Scunuddai4 in marrJAgc to Dha- 
taraitha. The king w*ls so tcrrilicd at the ncwJc made by 
his people, and the hissing of the N^^s, that he consented 
to give his daughter to the Nfiga king. After the wcddini; 
they went back to Niga bnd^ and the King Dhatarattha 
gave an order that no one was to show himself to Queen 
Samuddfijii in serpent form.' 

Samuddajd bore four ^otis, vil., Sudas^nst (^ood- 
looking), Datta Cgivt?n?], Subhoga (wealth), and Arittha. 
Datta was the Boclhlsat (j>, one who i^ on the road to the 
Huddhaship), and he gn-iv ?«> imr th^t Tndra gave him the 
name of Bhun<dx1t;i. Bhunc]aU:i was liUed witl^ a desire to 
progress in wisdom, and on his return to N4ga land from the 
kingdom uf liulra, informed his parent> that he fntcndcd to 
fast regularly on the proper days, They acquiesced in hi» 
p^opo^a1, but told him he had better not do ao on the surface 
of the worlds &s he would be exposed to many dangers, 

■ Th« oifipring of man ond Niga cauld not change Inio a tcrpeot, 
bill liad only »ome of Lhc N^tc* ch:u'ackn»tici. 



Howc\'cr he found that whilst he waa fitting in Scrp<?nt-Und 
the distnictions were too many for him, so he dctcrtnincd 
to (^) 11(3 to the bn<I uf men, and calling hSs wivc.^ and 
^ladicit, he inforTned tht-m that he :^ht>u]d keep hb fa^ts 
coiled on the top of an atit-hill at the foot of a banyan- 
Itcc near the bank of the Jumn<i, and on the mornint; after 
th« fast ihey wore to come and fetch him. 

Novr there tlvvclt in a villaj^e near ihe g:ttc of Uenaref; a 
Brahman hunter^ and one day he \vas following a de«r 
with hk Koi\ 5omad;^tta, axxA beinj^ btrlated, dimlied up 
Into ilie trcir at whose foot I'hiiridatta w^s coiled. In the 
caHy mttmiTi^ \hi'. Bralminn wan annincd by the M>iind of 
music, and looking:, s^^^ UIiLridatta sitting suaoundcd by 
hin quecn?t, drc^-<ed in all their fiiiry jewch. He went up 
to Bhuridatta. and said : 

■* Whf? art Ihou wiih tye^ so Md, 
Gleaming in th>" noble head. 
Strong of limb ^n*] bMad iif chc%\, 
G<n with Fair ones proudly drciaed?" 

!o which Bhundatta made reply ; 

" Bnhman, 1 am BhnftdflU^ 
Son cjf Raja nhiCai^ttha, 
When my eye in anger flash ct, 
JitiLii^iji realms are burnt to ui&heEL." 

A; Bhiiridatta could see that this Brahman iva$ a wicked 
old fbUow. Ulccly to betray him lo others who would come 
and \i\)\sr^ him whilst fa.slinj:f (wlv?n he would he powcrlcw), 
he determined to carry him off to Niiga land, and endow 
him with fp^at wealth. He took .Somidatta there too, 
after reciting several stanzas descriptive of llic bL-aulIei of 
Scr^'iit'land The Brahman dwelt there for a long lime 
in great luxury, and Bhuridatta ^vc bim all that he 
vrantcd ; but at last a desire to return home and acc his wife 
made him discontented, ard he determined lo go, notvith- 
standing Ilhuridatta?; offer of further wealth. The old 
Braliman declared all ho wai^tcd woj to »ee his wife, ard 



tlien turn ascetic ; «o BhuHUatta allowed them to <lcpart, 
tcDtng them that if they changed their niiiid« and came 
back, he would give them further rkhe*. 

The Brahman ;ind his son nclum hnme. and on jhe niad 
see a pond, in whit:h llicy liathe ; and as soon a* Ihcy do 
5o all their fancy garment'? fall ofTand disappear, and iheli 
old cbtiicfi arc restored to thcni SccLug: this. Somaclatta 
wept, bul his father consoled him by pointing out the 
plc^isurc of hunting. 

U'hcn lhc>' got to the house, the Brahman'^ wife came 
out to welcome them ; and they told her vhcrc they had 
been, but, on hearing they had brought bade rone of the 
splendid things that were given them, and that the old 
Brahman had even refu?;ed a splendid ruby that 'xculd git^ 
evfrytftin^ tftat one iKfishd Jhr, she rtew into a pasafon, 
ahused her husband, and drtjve him out of the hou«e, 

AbtJUt that liine a Garuta' (fabLilous eagle) was looking 
out ft?r Nugas (their hereditary enemies), and having 
acij^ed one. carried it o^ towards the Himavanta forest 
The serpent, in its struggle, caught hold of a banyan- 
tree in the country of llenares. at the foot of which 
a hermit was sitting The Garula carried off both 
!4erpent and tree to Hicnivanta, and. after eating the lat of 
the serpent, discov-crcd he had brought the tree loa 
Recognising the tree, he was terrified lest the ht^rmit should 
lay a ctir^c on him. So he went to the hermit and ques- 
tioned him 2s to whether the Garula who carried oH the 
tree wa* to be blamed. Finding that the hermit wa^ not 
un^y with the Gaiula. ht? admitted that it was lie whn 
had imwittrngly done it. and taught the hermit the cliarm 
ftrr subduing ^rpcnts^ 

Not long afterwards, a poor Brahman came to thii hermit 
and served him, and in return the hermit taught him the 
;;nal<c charm. The Brahman then went off. and as he wa» 
travelling; alcns; one momin;^^ he came across a number of 

' The GamUs, or Calunaa, when they wUh to catch a Nijr^.divldc 
the watcr» of lh< sect by Aappiag ihclr win^ over il 

Bkut iiiaita. 


serpent* l«dici dancing on the rivcr-bank r^und thi grtst 
msking-rmfy. The Nigai, hearing the Brahman reciting 
the charm, thought it was a. Gartjia, and dived into ihc 
cvih in a fright. Leaving ihc rub/, which (he Brahm;in at 
once «caud with delif^ht 

Sh:>rt'>" after he met Xos^dt, the hunter, nnd hb son 
Som^Ldatta, ;Lnd .Vesid^, reeogfnising the mby which had 
been offered to him, was sci/cd with a de%lrt! to get it from 
the *nakc charmer. 

He proposes to get it by artifice, but Somadatia will 
have rothine: to say to the matter, rebukes hi» father for 
hts ukKcdne:^^ In tr>irg to take \vhat he had already 
refused when it was offered to him, and foraakci hiK father 
to bcccmc a hermit. Ne^Ada then goes up to tlic snake 
cbarnicr and a^lci him what he will take for his rxiby \ tlic 
>nmke ch&rmcr refuses, at first, to part with it, saying : — 

"Ne'er will [ my ruby barter 
Fof eai Lh*» treasurer, oe for silver ; 
Tia a ilone of ivondrou;* power, 
Soch a ruby none can purehosc-'* ^ 

On being again preiscd by Ne»^da to name a pHee for 
the ruby, he afi:rec3 to give it to the man who can point 
out to him the King of Serpents. Ncs^a, after acme 
further conversation, takea the Brahman to the place u here 
Bhuridatta lies coiled round the ant-hill,' and pointing him 

out, sayj : 

*^ Scit€j then, the Serpent king, 
Citvc me that jewel : 
IJIce fire 11 i» ip/iricltng 
Of ilut one \ the red h&id : 
Like wcli-cardcd cotcon, 
KiEt body behold tiiere ( 
He alceps on the -im-hiJl, 
Fnsc scifc hiiii, O Brahmnn." 

Bhuridatta opens his cyex.and seeing the t;vo Brahmaos, 

■ The c»nver<a|ioa i* eirricd or. naoitly in thon ven^f. 
" Whiiv-aaE hilU arc a livaunie rcMMl of Mrpeait. 


immediately Ukc^ in the situation, And, after some rcflcc- 
tUttt oil tliL' wkkeclro^K and treachery of Nevada, elect* to 
permit himself to be captured rather than give way to 
pujst(Ji\ The Mwke-cliiinnrr hancis (jvt;r the niTjy to 
Ncsida, when it sliiJi lluough !iih firij;crs and tli^api^ar^. 

The snake- channer ihen smcivrs himself with some 
unguent, ami, seizing DhurldaLla by the tail, diawts hiin 
quickly through the other hard until he grips him by the 
throat, and then opening his ja\vs» ^pit^ ?(Omc chewed drugs 
into his mouth. When the drugs have taken cflfcct he 
holdft him up by the tail and make; him vomit all his food, 
and then laying: him on th^ ground, kneads him with hb 
feet from the tali towards the head ; he then baii^a him en 
the ground till he is quite limp and almost lifcleu, crams 
him mto a »:maU wickcr-bfisket, and goes off to make him 
perform at the various villages. 

The scene now changes back to Serpenr-landn where 
Rhiiridatta's mother and wives are alarmed at hi* not 
reluming hotnCi His brothers corneal the usual lime to 
pay tJicit rc:spccls to their mother, and, after considerable 
talking ami weeping, his biothcrs agree to go in :icareh of 

SudaMana directs Arittha to go to Dcva-land, Subh<^ 
to Himavanta. and saya he himself will go to the land of 

A couaio of Bhuridatta, named Ajamukhi, says she 
will accompany SudrL-^sana, and, as Svidassana i& K^tng in 
the form of a hcrmiE, she changca herself into a frog, and 
h!dcs in his top knot of hair Bhurldatta's wives take him 
to the ant-hill, and there they find the shavings AnS 
ctittmga of twigs where the snake chunncr liiul made 
thL* busket, and fetl sure that he has been caught* 
Sudassaiia, llicri^orc:, goes to the nearest village, antl hear* 
that asjiakcchdimci hitd been thcic holdlnc a perform- 
ance, and he follows on from village to village until he gets 
to the king's city- The snake churmcr had just made 
himaclf ready to give a performance before the; king. 



Svdasfiana mixes in xiw crowds ard follows. The snake 
channcr i^rc3d« hh c&rpct, piiu down hU ca|^, and call« 
oi\ the gTf^ai serpeni lo coine forth. Rhuridatta, rccog- 
Ri^mgbisbrothcrf camcout and made straight lowa-fd^hfrn. 
The E^copk ran nway, but Suda,>u.inu titnad f tm^ And the 
serpent, having rested his head on Smlauana's instep, 
returned to his cage. 

The -^^nake charmer a.-^ked Sudds»ina if be was bitten, 
and toJd him not to be arraid, for he eould nt onee cure 

Sudassana ansvercd, "Fear not, O snake ebarmer, ti\y 
i^erpci^t dared not bite mc, for ] am a very powerful anak^ 

Tbc *inakc charmer grnt angry, and -xanH »tf> know who 
he is; whereupon Sud;)HK;iT];i ofltni to fi^ht the serpent with 
hJs frog for 5.000 piuccs of silver. 

The snake charmer a*ks iiim to put down the money, or 
^t a surety, whercupcm Suda^^ana walks into the paiacc 
and gets the kins; to stand accunty. Seeing: tbc k>ne 
come out with Sudassana, the snAl<c charmer tries to 
Ifigbleo Sudos^na* but Sudassana tells him his serpent 
hajL no poifwn tn hiK fan^, and cannot hurt 

At thi* the inake charmer get* more angry, and, after 
lome further calk, Sudufiana calls to Ajamukhi, and ahe 
hup* down into hk h;»nd, whrrr <ho let*; fall rhrrt* dmp< of 
pajvni- Thi3i SutU-stuina, with h loud vnici^, cric« out, 
" Now shall this kingdom of Dcdarcs he? destroyed/' 

The ktii|: a.Hk» him to explain himNcIC and he says he 
cannot sec anywhere that he can throw away the poison so 
as to prevent ita doing harm. If he were to throw it on 
the earth, all the hcrb.i and trees would be burm up ; if he 
were to throw it in the water, evc;rj'thinj; in the water 
would be killed. On begging him not to destroy tho 
country, Sudas^ana tells the kinj^ 10 have three hole* dug 
in a row. The fir*t he filled with dnigs, the second with 
cow-dung, and the third with some unknown charm ; and. 
on his casting ihe three drops of poison into the first hole, 

ToL, II. n 




flames burst forth, which pAS9cd on to the second hole, and 
wrcrc cxtinguwbc^ in the thin!. The snake charmer waj» 
so Icrrificd that he cried Offt, *' 1 release ti>c pxat serpent." 
nnd his whole body became a leper as white a* snow, 
Bhuridnlta then cwne forth in his proper form, and Stidas- 
aana expl&ins to the kirg that they are the children f>f 
Sainuddajd, The king 1* much pleased, and cntcTtain<; 
them, and they all return tn Miga land, 

Subhogu, 111 thf? mrdnliinc, liaci sf^rchtrd ihe Hima^anla 
Torcst, ai>d all the >eiLs and rivets, and at la-M cauk- bttck to 
the river Jumna, Nc^ida also went down to the Jumna to 
cleanse himself from the effects of his s'm in betraying 
Bhuridutta, and got to the bathing-place just as Subho^ 
returned there, Hearing Nesdda'5 lamentations, he thought, 
"This ii the wretch who caufacd all the trouble to my 
brother ; I viiW slay liim." So, atriinj;^ kis taif rtmnd 
NfSfifia'sffgs, hi ilrtig^ith'm under ffii ttw//r. The Rrahni;in, 
howc%'er^ got his he^d above water, and a convcrsalion 
en«ue!t between them, the result of which i* that Suhhnga 
is not clcJtr as to whctlier it would be riglit to slay a 
Brahman, so he takc5 him away to Ndga land, arid bring? 
him before Rhuridatta, to sec what he nays about the 
matter Arittha take-f the part of the Hrahman, ard quotes 
the stanzas which explain ho»' Brahm» the creator, divided 
men into four classes, viz. : ITie itrahmanf, to teach ; the 
Kshairyas, to rule; the Vo«yAS, for cultivaiff^; ajtd the 
Sudras, lo be ilie slaves of the other three c1af<c& Ho 
al*n adduces other proof* of their value and holiness. 

The liodMsal Bhuridatta then tefiil» Arinha In a 
number of siaruas, proving that Brahm Is a very poor 
ruler uf the universe if he cnnnot make everyone happy 
end eliminate cniscr>' altogether. 

R- F. St. Andrew St Joiix. 


IN 1899-1890. 

T. Kftrean TaUt .• b«iDg a collection of stories translated ftom tbe 
Korean Folk-lore, by H. N. AU<n, M.D, New York and 
London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1869, 

2. PawTtge Hero StorUs and Folk-taUs, by GeoT^ Bird Grinnell. 
New York, Forest and Stream Publbhing Company, 1889. 

5. Yorkshire Legends and TradUitms as (old^y her AncUnt Chr£tni- 

clers, her Poets and Journalists^ by the Rev. Thomas Parkin- 
sou, RR.Hist.S, 2nd series- London, Elliol Stock, 1889. 

4. Les Conies Moralish de Nicole Boson Frire Aftneurj publics 
pour la premi^ foLs d^apr^s lea manuscrits de Londres et de 
Cheltenham, par Lucy Toulmin Smith el Paul Meyer- Paris, 
Firmin Dtdol el Cie., 1889. 

l- Folk-lore and Legends, 6 vols., viz. : German, Oriental, Scolland, 
- Ireland, England, Scandinavian. London, W. W. Gibbings, 

6. Myths and Folk-lore of Ireland^ by Jeremiah Curtin- London, 

Sampson Low and Co., 189a 

7. English Fairy and other Folk Tales. Selecied and edited, wilb 

an Introdudion, by Edwin Sidney Hartland- London, Walter- 
Scotl, n-d. (1890], 

8. Tales and Legends from the Land of the Tsar : a collection of 

Russian Stories. Translated from the original Russian by 
Edilh M- S, Hodgelts. London, Griffith, Farran and Co., TB90. 
9- TqUs of the Sun; or. Folk-lore of Southern India. Collected 
by Mrs. Howard Kingscote and Pandit Nat^sl S^stri. 
London, W- H. Allen and Co., 1890. 
10- ^aifs and Strx^s of Celtic Tradition. Argyllshire Series, No. If. 
Folk and Hero Tales. Collected, edited, and translated by 
the Rev. D. Maclnnes. With Notes by ibe Editor and Alfred 
WuiL London, Folk-Lore Society, 1890. 
' '■ '^i^ Exempiat or Illustrative Stories from the Sermones Vulgares 
^ facques de Viity. Edited, with Introduction, analysis, 
ttad notes, by Thomas Fre4erick Crane, M.A. London, Folh- 
Xore Society, 1890, 

fl 3 


Re^rt on 


11. EmgliiA Fairy TttUi, Collected by jOMph Jacob*. London, 

by J, H. Uney (Mr*. J. W. Ri;»m:1I)- Lod-Ioe^ C Stock. tS^ 

i^ TJif fltJ Fairy Bt^tA, Editedby Andrew Lnfig. Londom, Loc^- 

m*nh, Grcfin and Co^ [89Cl 

QDd ub4-tfiMr< vcfi Alb^iT Sodn. St. TAon-bAur];, Comnri>< 

ftionn^krei dc TAcAd^mic Jmpjrialc d» Sciences, iSgcx 
l& ZA' CJtaats ff its TradiH^Ms PppuJairtt ^Ijs Anm^tmifa. KCuoiilES 

et trftduiia pftr C. DomMiicr. Tafu, E. Lcroux, i&>% 
17. F^t^art fif Rati Y^k^tn, by fohn Ntrholun. l^ndon, 

Simp\ie, Marshal] and Co^ 18^ 
IS. Tkf ^^mtn p/ Titrk^ and tMr FfiH-lort^ by twcy M, J. 

Cunctt. 7%^ CkfUiUn H^^mtti. London, D. Natl, 1S90. 
19. VMs£lm^ unJ r^£wur BnAnhk der SudtUx^m. Vg«vie^ild 

oadk «j^on«n KrmiUlunfvn von Dr. Fnpgdrtcli S. Knnu. 

Munaict-i.AV., eSqo. 
ao. r*/ ik^ftjBwifK y Tnrditfttn, b>' David MacRiCchie, London, 

Ke^an PaliI and Co- Utnkcd, ttg^. 
ai, /Mn /Jfl^'r CfmtititiatioH of Chutktrr't •* S^uirr't Taf^\ Edtt«d 

by Freak |. fumlvAll, MA, tion. Dr. I'kil.. ^^ith Soles on tb«. 

M^f^cikl ElenLcnu in Ch;kuccr'> " Sfjutrc't Talir", aflJ A^i&Lo^! 

fue% by W. A- Cloustcn. Chagcer Society, t^S, iS^ 
21, GTi€ckistk4 MiircAfjt iftf« darOthartr^ TU^n vmi i^trttumdia, van 

Au^uu Mane Stmignrt, W. Kohlfummor 1S89. 
3]|. i^uveUifte Popohri Sardc^ r;icco]tc c AOikOUit lUl Dolt Fnu-- 

C««co MatntTO. Palermo, Carto Clau(«(i, i9^ 
14, Mammdj Ulack A'arj* SicH^, Wert Indian Polk-lorci by 

Mary Pnmda Milne-Hnmc, Ediaburjch and London, W. 

BUiTlcwood and Sona, 1800. 
71. Tkt S>ayl/ F'dry Rof>t ; con«i*tinj of iweniy-nine Fairy laJ*!, 

trnnilntcd from varioua lAn£:ii&ji;o by Acithg&y R, Monulbo, 

Willi Uiiny illusiffilkins by Rlrhard DoyU. London, DeiQ 

and Son, i£^ 
i6. SesiiUtkt Firt: ao^lcciion oTrHtb GaHic FolkStorlet. Hditnl. 

iranstaEtd, and OknAOEneod by Uoue^u Hyde, LL-D,, M.R.I.A-, 

Willi additional notes by Alfred Kuti. London, l>ark] Nun, 

TO studonts of folk-talcs, the most importart cvtnt of, 
the year i8go has be<^n the definite formulation, 
in the coluinns of M/iysimt, of the charges agamcl Dr. 

Rtporl OH Fotk^taU /iestanJi \ 

Edmund Vcckcnatcdt in Uie^ ytrar 1885, Ur Vcck^ntcdt 
published, at l-lciddbci^.wiiat purported to be a o^^tion 
of folk-iAlcs of the ZhamaKeit, ^ Lttluifinian people cut the 
Ahorc^ of the liaJtic, identified with the i^amogitianSi-' 
Doubts had long been hinted by M. Gaido?: ai to the real , 
characicT of ihis c-nllrrimn ■ bur there the matter remained, "--"-l. - 
Laait year, LuwevL-r, a w.-vcic ankl«? in M/!nsine on a sub- ',•;- 
sequent cs^/ by Dr. Vecken^lcdt celled forth from him ft 
retort, which it iru^t be admitted wa% mere nbuse of 
hi& di:)tLn^i?»hcd critic. By nay of answer to thiSv in 
the September- October number of M^itisinc appeared an 
articie of tw^oty-four columns by M. J. CarlowicK, a I'olish 
Sirt'a/tt^ coTitftirting the fallowing dcBnite charges against 
Dr. Veckenstedt, which wetc then (or the lust time pub< 
li«hed in a tongue acceMiblc to Western student*, M. 
Carlowici declares Dr. VtcketiTitedt tt> be absolutely 
ignorant alike of the Zhamaite speech, and of Polish and 
RitA^i^n, His philtjlugics aiit proinmnccd iiitVakeri ; the 
names of the Zhamaite deities wht>m he bricigs upon the 
scene arc ^metimca impcj^iblc, 3oineltmc;t mere blunders, 
sometimes Duncs of common objects ennobled by capitfti 
letters, A.1 often fts not the gndi itnd their namc^ arc 
ukcn from & work by John Lasicki, wnttcn in 1 sSo «nd 
printed in 1615, entitled I?^ tfiit SaiHft^tarum, which, 
under the gui<c of a Zham^tite mytholog>-, was a satire 
upon the superstitions of the Roman Catholic Church. A 
large portion of Dr Vecken»Tedt*ft work dca1< with the 
legends of a mythkaj kinft- In 1&80 the Ductor had pub- 
lished a volume nf WcndiKh sagan from l.uaatia, cf which 
it dJtisidefdble number were occupied with a mylhicaJ kin^ 
of the Wends. M. Carlowicz givca a tong tj>1 of identical 
particulars relating to both these kings, such as the age 
(fourteen years) of his first manifestation, his curing men 
and cattle^ hi$ reception by his people with scorn ^nd 
anger, dogs are iiilenced at the Hight of him, he is invulncr^ 
able, hi« boat, his Aying chariot, hi» leathern bridge which 
twiats together ii hi* will, hia ^word adorned with a 
serprni^ his military' maiKVtivres, his soldiers made of 

J02 '.^Jirpori en Foik-taU Rcstarck. 

choppexf fMw, hi« cloud-chiriot^ \i\% death and burbl, cicl 
On chcWflDd otbcT 3iinitadti<;sof dcUll ft is remarked itiat 
"tbL'j^'^ro ;tnml^thmg more than the mm]3Je paralldi with 
^ «(ifch ihc compaxaUvc mythology of the Afyan peoples^ 
dvi^Kand it i» CHpcclall)' the great tivtmbci of ihc^ detail! 
* •J^Cdnccnlratcd on a iinglc thcuic Ahlch tail but wcikcn our 
^/-•failh in the Authenticity of the one book or the other, or of 
*< both, There exists, indeed, a fpccial rclatiorahip bctii'Gcii 
the Slaves and Lithuanian:* ; it tA reflected in their laitguagcn 
and alEo in their myths. Dut it is the degree of UiJs 
reUtioniihip which here pla>'S the principal part Wc 
wittin^ily admit the exUtenec of features common to the 
stories of Slaves and UthuanJans, ax, for example. In that 
of the three brothers of whom ore is stupid, in that of the 
man without fe^r, of Ctndcrelta, etc. ; but a legend of a 
char:ictf.T onlirely national ftuppOM.'<4 a colouring quite 
difTcfcnt ^uid di^uiictive — in fact,^ national colourfng. If 
wc h;id been t(;ld MmiW tales concerning the kliig^ of the 
Lithuaiuan.^ <tnd of tJie Letts resembUnj^ one another as 
strongly as the Lusatian and Samt^itian legends with 
which Dr. Vcckciutedt regales na, we should have 
expressed doubts ; much more, then, when we are aaked lo 
bcUcxe that the political le^fends of t^-o peoples, as far 
apart ethnographically and geographically as the Lithuan- 
ians and Lu^tianiL, have a majts of identical details 
gathered round the single figure of a king. No, it ifi 
impo«iible. Even an elementary knowledge of the things, 
the places, tht: mciij wnd the nrciim«ances is enough to 
enable iiii to understand th^t wc have here uuthini^ but a 
mystification* an invention, an imposture." M. CarlowicE, 
in pressing home thi> accusation, docfl not fall to io^i^t 
upon Dr. Veckcn^tedt'a adtnoflion, already seized upon by_ 
M. Gaidoc, that he had put these legend* into lil 
ahapc While potntint: out a number of rctcmblanco, 
which he contends cannot be fortuitous, to Lasjcki'fl 
account of the ^hamaitc gods, he regrets that the 
ahoutd hare neglected the wofk» of AfAnaudf on the Sla^ 

Rfp&ri M Foi&'lalc S^suirch. 


[mylholo^ and other learned work* which he enumerate*, 
[but which arL\ unfortiinaidy, writtLiii id Unsuages unknown 
to the «iuihor tjf Uic Xhamaitc and Wcndish myths^ Dr. 
[Vockcn&lcdt bo^t* tl^at he haa unveiled to science itictc 
[than a hundred frgurcs before unknown, of Zhdmaitc 
'nytbolo^y and tradition; but an AiGC|aaintancc with the 
works referred to wx)u)d have relieved him from the 
necesLi&ity of to large a creation, for he would there have 
foimd more than forty mytbieal ficrutea undoubtedly 
known to the modem Lithuanians, and more or leui 
exactly described by different authors^ 

If it should l»e asked, h<jw could a man, whully 
i^oranl of the Un^u^e uf tlie people traditions 
he profcsftcis to have gatliered. invent traKlitions ? 
M. Carlowict ha5 his theory rcndy. He quotes the 
Abb£ Bictcnstcin, a member of the Society of Lettish 
Literature at Mitau, to the effect that Dr. Veekenstcdfa 
iatants in the work were hi& scholars at the Vym^ 
iam at Libau, who themselveis were very often not 
;i«ot ir the Lithuanian tongue, and cert;iin1y had 
lot sufficient experience \ whence too often, wich;jut an>' 
HI mtent, they furnished suspicious materials. It wax 
c%"en said, we are tolj, that nume of these pupfU made 
up thr "popular txaditicns" for their mailer in the cUiin itMlf, 
and dunni£ the Wsun i and it ih pu»itively iisserted tliat 
Dr Vc^kcnstcdt fixed the number of talc^ traditions, etc. 
which was required by every sclioUr when be wait aw^y 
for hiA holidays. If the youth was unable to collect the 
lumber allotted to him, he furni^cd tlic rest out of hU 
'Own head, Thiv allegation is supported !;>>- extracts from 
letters from former pupiU and others, teslifyini* to Dr. 
Veckeniitedt'^ ignorance of Lttliuanian^ and to the fact that 
the Stories ;vere the inventions of his pupSU, "especially", 
fay* one letter, " cf the jewv, whn did it to be received 
iIdio his good graces"; wiiilc arjother letter states that he 
caused hut pupiU tci rc^luti- Lithuatuan ^tnrie\ which he 
"verified" by comparini^ them with tlie writing?! nf Stfij- 
kow»ki and of NarbLrtt> which were tr&n&latcd fur hmi. 


Report <nt Folk-taU Research. 

The Ahb^ Bfelcnstdn is not the onty Tetmed man, i*« 
jirc a?L*mrc;:1, who luu dimicd The^ ;iuthrnticity nf t\v^ 
lAlcji. Other Slavonic scholars — Bc/iunibergcr, Pfofrssor 
Briickiicr, &od Woltcr — have exprc^^cd more than 
doubts ; and the last-named has publicly called on Dr. 
Vcckcriitcdt to produce Ihc Lithuanian texts, and to 
answer tiivcnty-5cvcn questions framed with a view to lest 
their vaIuc. 

Ill &ummart!)tii[; Uieiee f;rave chArgei:, 1 have endeavoured 
to give their KubAtancc r^ithfully, whUe avoiding, as ^ as 
pc^Fble. both the phitdc^icji! detatU, wlildi it wotttd not 
be possible to give wilhout running to too grcaiE a lefiglh. 
ami also ihc tone of tuucanm cmplayeitt liy M. CarU)wkj. 
Whether this tone be justJIied depends on the accuracy of 
the accUTia.tion. U^hat answer hasi Dr. Veckautedt mack 
to it? In the November number of the ^atukrift 
/itr V^lksJ^anii^, which he edit*, he haa inserted two 
pages of sxnxW type, whercm he refers to M, CarJowJci'* 
article, not naming him^ but describing him as M. 
Gaido^t Polish assistant Dr. Veci:enstedt declarer at 
the outset that he U not going lo analyse every detail of 
his article, but only to exhibit mongh to prove the !dii>sliot) 
knowledge, uiuiuih, and -slandorou^ne*^ of "the Polish 
gentleman"; for it is not his custom to reply to cvcty 
attack, a* nobody know^ better than "Uie Polish gentle- 
man", u'hose article wns lealiy written yean agCu Cotning 
after awhile to the substance of the chafes, be states that 
no defence is possible to the aceuaotiootf by hu fonner 
scholars ag^mst their fellcw-pupils, tince the laner arc not 
named. M. Carlowicz, he say», impugns the credibility of 
JciWB as such ; but, talking of credibility » he will give scene 
examples of the crL-dibility ai " tl>e PolfsJi gentleman's" 
friend^ Gaidox, Jahn, and Kr:Eu«(. The inr^anoe givtfi 
of M. Gaiclox IK tmc ccmceniin^' an allcired error Jn^ 
the date of the publication of M^iu^int; and the 
are equally important and relevanL He further 
oJiJn> thai M. CarJowicx ccnif tV 
{Du VeckcDiitedt's) fonner pu(>i: aikl 

Report on Foli-iaie Researtk 


Ficdcirovricx'Wcbcr, because he hoa f^lcd to trace him, 
and thftl he reprc-icnt^ the hiMoncal conrcdlons atnA 
the nature of the country of the Zhamaftes in a fal^e 
light in order to discredit his atJitemcnU, In ref^d 
to the ch^irge thai he bu overlooked ;i number of 
genuine mytJ^ical fi3:t]iei on which he offers no lagu nor 
myths, "the Polish gentleman" indirectly admits That he 
must have taken the figuies mentioned in hi* book from 
the people rather than from books, since ft would have 
bircti impoutble for htm to discover even the names of ihc 
figures he hjvn omitted if he did not kI:o^v a ^jfigk word of 

He then turns to diseuss wheth&r the word Zhamnitc 
should t>c written with an r or nn ^ in the f n<t 
syllable, and invokes l*rr>fcs5or BciAcnborger against " the 
FoJish gentleman'' on thi« point, an well as on the exist- 
ence in popular belief of Fijokas, rhe demon of the culture- 
drink, which M Carlowic^i had denied. On the ctyrrology 
of Perdc^ylu-H he hai a word lo say aUo, arraying un thin 
[»int Jtaitknoch, rrcnzel, and Schwcnck against "the 
Poli?Ji k^ntlcman". who, after all. bad no need to prove 
by thi5 etymology the meanness of his intellect and 

'ihxs, i&practicaliy the whole of Dr. Vcckenstcdfs answer : 
a defence he him^lf docs not call it. Of the extraordinary 
paraileli«ms allej^ed between hb W<:ndish and hi<^ Zhamaitc 
ft&ga;, of Lasickl, of WoUct's twcniy-scven interrogatories, 
not a K^-llable! He tr4!al-<& as ii charge again^ namclcs« 
pvptls one of the most serious cliarges against himself, and 
calls it a ealumny whti:h the nUrdered per>«[ifi-\ c^mnot ans\ver 
because no n^mc^ Aie mentioned. He pt^iys with the ciy- 
tnolcgy of Zhamaltc and Pcrdoytus when he should be 
vindicating hl^ own good faith and the authenticity of his 
booka. iiut Dr Vcclcenatcdt ;fhouId understand that a 
heavy indictment has been laid a^^inst him. and that he 
haa been brought to the bar of scientific opiniou on the 
(]ttcUton whether he is an hantst man. a diituijpii^hcd con- 
ribtitor to the sum of anthropological knowledt;e, or an 


Rtpori CK f'otk-t^U Riuarck. 

Ignorant impostor of the type of George P«alrDai)aiiLr. It 
vs. no ^iffatr of vulgar aboAc. or fcckkn fil&nder, but distinct 
and specific charge* iiippoiietl by evidence that must be 
ricalt with. I earnestly hope, I would fair brrlicvc, that he 
luts a full and complete refutation to (jive tu these diargnfi. 
If so, he owes it to science even fnorc than to hintwlf 
to £Lve it, and to give it quickly. He is the pieaidcnt 
of a new German FoLk-Lorc Society, the editor of the 
Zatsfhrift f»r Votkikun^K. and he hold* a public and 
rcsponi^Lble position in Germany ad a tcncher of youth, 
TnHing with an actuation hke the one before us is hardly 
cnlcuUtcxi to inspire confidence in him in cither of the«e 

It is needless for mc to divclatm any pentona) or national 
feeling ; if I had any it would be In Dr Vcckenstedt's 
fiviiur, jL% tht? |>CTNon attacked. Indeed, were the ^ucMion 
a pergonal one, or even a national one, it would find no 
pldcc In tticse pages. But it is far more than pcntonal 
or national, Folk-Jore is a scicno: dealing wiUi phcno- 
mcna, the evidence of which — cspccmlly in the department 
of Folk-laici — is more liable to distortion, conacioua ot 
unconiKiou^s and presents greater opportuniticrt for impoi- 
turo, especially in this age of liicnirj- ^iclivity on every 
liidc^. than many others. It is, tl^erefore, of supreme 
importance to ensure the good faith, the competence, and 
the iiccuracy of cuUeciori ; for on these depend the entire 
ccnclu&ions of the .science Dr, Vcckcnstedl claims to be 
a c-cllector who has rendered sign^ service to science He 
has, he tells us, discovered for science more than a hundird 
^gures of Lithuanian deities previously unknown. Results 
so ania/.ing naturally chiillengc scepticism; and it is but 
reasonable that tiiey ^ihouU bo £ubmiUcd to th;; most 
searching scrutiny. Truth can only shJnc the clearer for 
^wch a r-crutiny \ and to refuse, or parry, inquiry i;^ to take 
up the weapons and rc^oit to the tactics of error, if not of 
imposture Far be it front me lo suggest that Dr. Veeken- 
^tedt is guilty of imposture?: I only desire to point out 
that the scientific [jubiic lui^ a right to know cvoy detail of 

f^pori w P<dk'taU Rtsmrc/i. 


the facts CQtincctcd with the collection fin<) record cf These, 
and all other, items of folk*lorc, And that th« more fcirark- 
able, the more unusual, tbc phcnomonon recorded, th€ 
more careful vn\itx the collector bfi; not only to record it 
accurately, but sXso to preserve and pre^nt to the world 
every poMible mcanv of verification. When Mr Campbell, 
Dr Pitr**, M. Luzcl or M S(^billot obtains a fclk-tale. he <rt< 
down when, where, to whom and by whom it wa* told, the 
ag^ occupation, and culture of the teller, and so f^r 
aA \% ponntble similar fmrticuUrA concerning tlie person 
from whom the teller profcAse^ to have heard it ; and the 
two former oollecton give all their Important i^torioi in the 
ian^a^c ordialcct in which they were told, with a view to 
preserving; the very worda uttcrod. It is thus open to anyone 
who desires, and is able to do so, lo verify the phenomena 
for himself This cctirw inspires confidence ; and since U 
is not the method adopted hy Dr. Vecken;^tcdt, and t'mcc, 
moreover, be admits a certain amount of literary manipula* 
tlofi, be mu«t not be «utprif(rd or cfTended at doubts 
conremtng hii ^Iq^cd diHccjverira He lta>i d<tn(? nothing 
In ievcn year> to rvmovc those doubts, and they have 
grown into dia^^n. Unlcu he ha^iten fully and completely 
to an&wer the charges, they will stiffen Into certainties, 
which will not only overwhelm Dr. Vcc:iccjistcdt, but {a 
much greater thing) t>e in danger of throwmi; discredit 
upon the »ienee of folklore attielf. 

The long list of books at the head of this paper nhows 
that, during the twelve ov eighteen months ended In 
December last, the bu^ines^*; of folk-tal^^ coUeai^m and 
publication went bri^I<ly on. The collections may bo 
divided Into four cl&sw$, namely s~ 

L Stories for the fir^t time taken down from oral tradi- 
tion, confining of No& 3| ^ lo, lO, 3j, and 34 of 
the lifrL 
It Storicfl all previously on record, cansidting of No«^ I, 

4»5>7- i>. 14. and 25, 
TIL Sturiis^ M»nic uf which are taken down for the first 


Report on Folk^tak Rtuarik, 

rfm^t and th^ remainder cf which arc fcpubhsheJ, 
cnnMsting nf Ntn. JJ, 9, I2» 15, ami i(\ 
IV. Suiric^ wfoughl up for litcraiy purposes, consisting 
of Nos. 3 and 13. 

To i!ic«! fuur cUaaca must be added a fifth, in whidi 
aton&t arc included among general coUcctions of folk-lorc» 
compri^m^ Noi. 17, 18. and ig. 

Of the collection* cont&inint; stories direct from oral 
truditions&i it mu^ be confessed that not more than two or 
three of them re;idi the high standard of Campbell, Pitrfi, 
LuKcl, and S*?billot, in the precisioti with which their 
authorities are recorded, Mr Maclnnes' Folk and litre 
Tales \% one of these. It U in the hands of evccy 
member of the Stidely, and has doubtless by thit lime 
received the itudy it so well dcrserves. From the iikkIc of 
presentation, as well as the substance of the slorie*, ihb 
book 19 probably the most valuable contnbuUoo of the 
year I Bqo tofolk-ulc rc^arch, and its worth has been greatly 
enhanced by the notes contributed by Mr. Alfred Nuit 
These notes deal with the separate story incident^ and 
with details of manncrjikc the "runs \ which arc a little 
apt to be overlooked in our preoccupation with the inct* 
dents, but which arc imponant clcmenis ic be taken into 
account in estimating the authenticity and age of a docu* 
mcnt offered as a fclk-tale. Mr Nutt's timely note, or 
ratlicr C5say> on tltc " Dcvelojiment nf the Fenian or 
Os&ianic Saga". wUI repay careful itudy as a piece of 
.tcicntifie reasoning and a keen, though moderate. oritici^rQ 
of Dr. Skene'a position with regard to the Irish texts, and 
Mr. MacRitchie'3 crude and unscientific, but ably Advo- 
cated, theory on the Fairy M>'tho]ogy. 

So complete an account of Mr. Curtin's Myths and Folk* 
len of Inland has recently been given by Mr Nutt in 
these pages that it i* unnecessary for mc 10 do more than 
rxprcA* the hope that a second edilirn will ^oon be called 
for, and that Mr. Curtin will then give the information 

R£port en Folk^aU Research, 


^ to the narrators vrhieh ought to luve hetn affixed to 

The Pa^tmtf fffro Stones amd Fotk-talts^ publi&hecl by 
Mr Grinncll. arc very valuable, as giving us An authentic 
f;liin|]Mr of the triulitions and mode »f life (fur ihe Author 
Itas lulded a immbci of iiiterc^tirig aiithropulcigjcal notes) 
of fi North-American tribe, of which only too litilc Ln 
known. In my report last year I drew attention to the 
imporlancc of the hbtoricid, a5 welt a? the mythical, tradi- 
tions of the Maoris^ One action of Mr. Grinneli's book 
is devoted to correitponding fawnce tfadition:^^ called b)' 
him *' Hero Stories^. Th« mythical traditioDs deal chiefly 
with tlie reUtionii conceived to exist between men and 
ihc lower animals^ Two of them narrate the origin of 
the bear and deer cUnces, Others are legends nf fwrsonw 
who have died and been restored to lifc^ None can safely 
be overlooked by studcnLs of ravage thought. 

M Dumontia tus indiidcd a doicn ^toric^ in hla 
Anruimitc collection, which is of much inferior interest to 
thoac of Landcs and Dcs Michcls, and, indeed, if talcf^ only 
be considered, to he* own prc\'iou!t L/^ndfs iHstorit^un 
di^rAnnam €t dtt T<mkin. The tradition of Uic first man 
is curious, the human race, according to it, being derived 
from a man Aho wm hatched from a square e^R dropi>ed 
by a bird, ooic of a pair produced from a tree. Three of 
the *loric5 arc comic ; one mming on the effect ofa mirror 
on pervm* who had never Keen 4Uch a thing before, 
anotlicr an analogue of the barber's blind brother In the 
Arabian Xt^ks^^ and the third a well-known variant of 
"The Three Wishes". Wc have also a Travelling Ddly 
stoiy, a story of a brother and aisicr who married without 
being aware of their km^hip, and twx) stories turning: on 
the superstition that he who succeeded in plncing his 
father's bono; inside the mouth of a subfLqucous dragon 
i«t>u!d beoomc a kJnff. The remainJer are bcjut tale«, one 
of which — "The OpJum-imoker and the Tiger" — is ob- 
viously of quite modem origin. 

I to 

Rtpori on Fatk-taU Res^atrek, 

New ground, or almost new ground, has been broken \^ 
Dn FranociKO Mango in hb Sardiman FM-taia, Twchr« 
or Iburlccfi folk-Uk^ from the island of Sardinia ai mort had 
previously appeared in black «nd vhitc.ofwhichckvcn w<;re 
published i^ early volumes of the Art^vi^, and one 15 practi- 
cally ifiaccesaiblc to EnfjHUi stndenl*, having: been printed 
in a limited (xjition on the ocCAsion or Prof, Gtumerio's 
wedding. Dr. Maxif^o rnentlons aUo two others by Prot 
BaHota, but where and when the)* were published he <!oe« 
not say. It fa to tm a curious cu*lom, that of printing 
a tale in a <^Ainty Ifltlc p^mphltt ass wedding cotDpiiment; 
but it 1ft eommoti amonf; folk-lore Mudcnt^ in Italy, md 
quite a number have thus appeared. Only a, few uf thev! 
have been translated by Prof. Crare in hia ItaiioK Pofmlat 
TttUx. \\c seems to hnvc accer^*;, in that wonderful lilnary 
at Harvard, to them all. Could he not be irduced by the 
Coiinci) of tbc l-olk l-ore Society to add to our heavy debt 
to him by translating the rest for the pages of FoLK-IX)ftK? 
This isby the w!iy. The book before uncomists of twenty- 
six talcs in ihclr original dia1c!Ct, followed by literal trans- 
lations. Dr Mango only names :>re of the peaianta from 
whom he And his tiAY» fair a^istanta obtaineil ihein. The 
difficulties of collecticn, he «ys. were so great that he 
would Iiavc abandoned the CAlerpn» but for the ]»elp and 
cncouragcfncnt of IJr Pitri, under whose editorship tlic 
volume appeared. Tl^e atories are obviously genuine, and 
they present some intereeting variants of welt known 

A portion of Mr*. Milnc-Home's little booW con^ctc of a 
reprint of the Ananci stories somci^^'hat incongruously 
apl^endtd to Sir G. W. Dasenfs P&pular Taiis /rem thi 
Horu, The remainder is new, and comprises fourteen 
sttJTics, chfeily vatianis of Uncle Kcmus' collection, whrre 
the part of Drer Rabbtt is played by the Anansi. Brotli 
Death, however, is a new character in nuch a company 
The introduction deserves to be read for the wtilcr's obocr- 
>ations on tlK n^ro customs and tupcntittons in Jamaica, 

Report on Folk-tale Research. \ 1 1 

and on the modifications undergone by the stories to adapt 
them to West Indian surroundings. Here, again, no parti- 
culars of the modoof collection are given. 

Mr. Allen's Korean Tales, though placed before Western 
readers for the first time, are translated from a literary 
original There can be little doubt, however, as to their 
being at bottom traditional. The series opens with a few 
tjeast tales, whence we pass to " The Enchanted Wine-jug", 
in which an old man is befriended by a TraveUing Deity, 
to whom he had shown kindness, and who in return gifts 
him with an amulet that causes his wine-jug never to be 
empty. The story concerns the loss of the amulet, and its 
recovery by his two faithful servants, his cat and dog, at 
the expense, however, of peq^tual enmity between cats 
and dc^s ever since. Among the other stories is one of 
two brothers, one rich and covetous, the other poor and 
virtuous ; and another illustrating the power of fate, in 
which we read of the son of a nobleman's concubine who is 
cast out and joins a band of robbers, but ultimately makes 
his peace with the king, and, by supernatural aid, conquers 
an island for himself, rescuing a fair maiden with the 
usual result. The stories arc preceded by an interesting 
account of Korea 

It is not easy to know for what purpose the collection 
tniiiSx^ Folk'lore and Legends \c^^ been published, beyond 
that of producing pleasant little books good in print and 
paper, and suitable for whiling away an idle hour. At all 
events, it contains little or nothing that the student will not 
easily find elsewhere. It only purports to be "a selec- 
tion", and no hint is afforded as to the source of any of the 
tales, except in the Scandinavian volume, where half-a- 
dozen purport to be taken from the Prose Edda. This 
precludes all scientific use of the volumes. And yet the 
author is evidently impressed with a genuine love of folk- 
tales, and has some knowledge of the subject. He might 
do good work, if he would go about it in the right way. 
Prof. Crane's edition of Tfie Bxemfla of Jacques de Vr^ry, 


RefHfrf QH Foik-iafe Resear^i, 

on th^ oUier hund. xs one of the mwt valuable booki ix^tucd 
by the Poik'Lofc Society, tt foTTa6 an adinirablc com- 
panion-volume to the Cmtts M^rniis/s of Nicholas 3o2oa, 
put forth ;l few months earlier by the Soci^td dcs AncicnA 
Textes Fran^ats, under the editorship of Miss Toulmin 
Srnith and M. Paul Meyer The tntTodiiction to the lattcf 
wupk, wiilten by M. P^irl Meyer, is learned and judicial ; 
and it would have been still moie complete had be been 
able w refer to Mr. Jacob:i' cditioiL of Tfi£ Fisbies c/ Ais^, 
reported on lajit year. The notes to both the Exem^A and 
the Cimtes MeraHs^s greatly enhance their usefulness. 
Those of Prof, Crane di:(play wider re-^arch in the Ijtcrmy 
history q( the fable, and hre whole book 13 a model of 
editing. 1 may note, incidentally, that the thirteenth 
example, that of the mouse in the dish, has fiurvivcd in 
Hnglatid a^^ a traditiunal apologue unt-il the preservt <iay, I 
remember my tnvn nurse, a Cambridgeshire woman, often 
repeating it to me a* a child. Pnif, Crane notice** its sui 
vivfll in Ilaly. but he refers to no case in KngUrd, nor 
any English writer who ha.s mentioned it beside Swift 

Miss Hodgclls leaves us to find out which of tlie items 
included in her TaUs and Ltgmds from ikt Land cf tA$ 
Ts<Mr arc translations from existing collections. Some of 
them arc easily recognised from Mr, Ralston 's vcr^ion^.and 
it WfLS hardly necessary to present them afresh to Kngtish 
readers. Much more reai service would have been done 
had Tihc tiken the trouble to give us chapter and ver*e for 
all that she has obtained from Afanasief and other whtcrfl, 
and stated concerning the rest when, where, and from 
whom she heard them. Thu'^ much ^aid, however, let me 
hapten to add that thirty of the eight -and -thirty Ftorics 
benr brought together are new. in Iheir Russian form, 
to English readers; and there arc few English men or 
womm whu have the oppoitunily of obtaining Rutuian 
folk-talcs at first hand. To those who have the opportunity 
iind it, wc may wcU be grateful. 

In 7'ai4s €>/ ih€ Sun^ Mn Howard Kin^!(cotc ha3 coco- 

ii^^rt im Po/^'/aU JtfSfOfri. 


mitted the same fault as Mi^s Hoclgclts. Indeed, $he 
jtdmiLn that nhc only obuincd the i^toricx which an; bcf 
ccntiibution to the volume from the old women in Ac 
faazaai^, lhroL£h her nntivc ;^crvant5— of ^hftt town ahc 
carefully rcfiarns from telUng U3. It la cvtdcot that the 
collecticn would have been of little value it not l>ccn 
for Pdndit Nat^sa Siaur^ help; and Mrs. Ktngscote haa 
done widely in retaining Mr.Cloustcm'c long ard important 
note en "The King and his Four Ministers" (here piven 
under the name of "The Ixi*<t Camel ;ind r>theT Taleft"), as 
wetl a»i the smaller notr« hy Mr. Clouston and Captain 
Temple lo PaiLdIt Sitstti's tales. The? n^imirnng nolc-i arr 
piesuoi&bly to be attributed to Mnv Kingscote herself 
They are short and to Uic point Allopcthcr, folk-lore 
studcm^ vt-jll not repxt to have thii supplement to the 
folklore of Southern India alrc&dy publiabcd by PandJE 
Sistil, though it b much to be regretted that wc nrc not 
cvxR told to which of the ni^merous populations of that 
land WG are indebted for the various talcs. 

Engiisfi Fairy TitUs {% Uie first form of the firtt insUl* 
incnt of Mr, Jacotw" promised collection of English folk- 
tale*E, and the most delightful book of fairy tale«, taking 
form and contents together, ever prcscnicd lo children. Of 
lis alnnid4iit jrEjpuUiily uinuni^ tlie public In wliicli it in 
Specially addresMd, nobody who has made the experiment 
will doubt Treating: "t itom a scientific point of view, h 
may be said to con^iidt of forty-thrcc tolc^ roughly 
divisible into twenty miiftktn^ four saf^&s, seven drolla, 
three cumulative talcs, two bcnst taici:, and seven nonsense 
tales, tales working; up to a dimax of comic ^imaee, and 
so forth, clajcseii tor which specific namcK have yet to be 
found One of the*e, " The Three Brars," Mr Jacobs say*, 
isof literar)' origin, h;iving been intt-nled by Souihey, Thi« 
statement requires some quallfic^ilon. The likeness of tbc 
plot to a portion tif the talc of " Little Snow'white'*, and 
the identity of some of the phrdses, render it probable that 
tbc most that can be attributed lo Soulhey is the c>ving of 

VOL. It 1 


fyp&rl on fotk-taU Research. 

a new turn to a well-known miirfhtn. I inuit slIso mske a 
protect on another point Glad ftx I i^^ll be to find that 
the opinion I ventuicd to exprtis in th? IntroJucilon to 
Engihk Fmry and otfier Ft^i: Tales, that the indrrkm 
recorUcd in EiiftUnd are very fcw^ is unrounded, sttU I 
niiiM. in all fnirncss. object to tbc incluKion fimong Rngli^ 
fdiry tttlc) of M>rRC that Mr. Jacobs has added \o hia list. 
It may be probable— nay, I think wc m^y assume fts 
ccrtatJi — that the stories of " Nicht Nought NotWnt", 
" Childe Rowland". "The Red Etin"\ and others, were in 
substance told >n Ergl;tnd generations ago. This t», how- 
ever, a mere inference : and we do not know in what 
precise fcrin they were repeated to our forefathers. It 
may have been tliat In which thry are here presented : it Is 
equally Hkcly not to have; been Again. Mr. Jacobs has 
putiipUra^cd bd)lad?i in order to obtuiii M>me of his slonVs, 
like ^'Binnorlc". "The Laidly Worm", " Eirl Mar's 
Duightcr". Here, again, there can be little doubt that the 
aCories once existed in other forms Uian verse ; nor would it 
be reasonable to complain of th^r bcin^ put into prose 
for the purpose of the present volume. But it munt not be 
forgotten that these prose versions arc not themselves 
genuine follc-tale*» but only literary reconstruct ions which 
nnay be more or \c'i& accuraten The careful and scholarly 
notes apfiended to the book display with franknesj^ the 
alterAticm& Mr. Jacobs has deemed proper to make for the 
little ones of the present day, and give t« a slight foretaste 
of the banquet he is preparing " for students oniy". 

Of TUc Ked Fairy fla^k I need only say that it is a 
worthy companion to Th Bitte fairy B^k^ published lost 
year. The storie:} are, except "Jack and the Beanstalk", 
from foreign, and some of them from unthmiliar, sources, 
and so will be the more welcome to the audience to whom 
they arr* addrcssej — the same aiidic*nGe as that to which 
Tittgii^ Pmry Ta!ts is inlctult^ to appeal May both 
editors Miccced in malcin^ majiy youthful diMrtjih^ to 

Report en Foik-tak Reuatck. 


become in future years enthusiastic recruits for Ihc Folk- 
Lore Soclrty I 

Thciwconc! par of the Knrdhk C^Ui^ficns k>\ ^i"^, Pr>'m 
and Socin cMisists of tales and songs in the dialect of 
Bohlsifi tnn<(]«trd by M, Socm, Nearly all of lhe*e arc 
from written on|:£inAl*f« and in*JHt of thcin an? trilnl or 
rciiginus ^AgA^ IJlcrary influences have been at work or 
them for many a year ; but they fite by no means witHcnit 
tnlcrc5t for Mudcr^t^ of the pmblems of the dilfuMon of 
folk-tales. The wild cxacgcrationa af oriental fancy. 3lil] 
more marked pcrhapn in the Siberian coUeetion publi'shed 
by M> Radloff. in whose footsteps the present editor walks; 
are here abundantly exemplified^ The poetical provenance 
of the tales is evidenced b>" the sad catastrophes which 
clone them, a« well a* by the verbiage wherein they arc 
clad, The firit talc \% noticeable as repeating the ircWcnt 
which openi the immortal stnry of *' Camarabaman and 

A book half tlic aze of Mr PajkinsonS Y&rkshirt 
Ltg<nds (fW Traditions, oinilting all the verses anil rhetori- 
cal dap-trap, might be made of some Kieniific ^-aluc if 
care were taken to specify llie source of each trnditior, 
and, where possible, to obtain jt direct from tl^c mouths of 
the natives^ Many of the traditions are stilL living, as Mr. 
Nicholson has shown in h\^ FoiA'-Iarf tf B^js! Vcrkshirf— 
a better book in e^<ery way, though one that sXWi leaver 
much to be desired a^ to exactness of record^ Some of 
the narratK^v Mr Nicholson givei arc very interesting : 
amnng the^e may be mf^nrlnrjcd thir legend rrf Wilky How, 
which 1* tnki, firxt of all, by William of Nrwhrid^ie, Tn 
Wi1!cy How the fairies haJ their Jwellhig: but I may 
state, for the information of Mr, MacRiichic, thr*t die How 
[q question was never in fact inhabited cither by the living 
Of the dead Lord F.ondcs borough caused it to be opened 
in the year 1857. but (bund nothing. Thirty years btcr 
Canon GreenwcU reopened it, and ascertaircd tliat, Inapitc 

of \xs s!*c and the enormous care evidently bestowed upon 

1 1 


Report on Fotk-tak Research, 

tU coa^truction, il wan merely a cenotApli. A grave tbo? 
•m-^, sunk more thin twelve feet deep in the chalk rock; 
but no corporeal tcn&nt had ever occu^cd it. PIcts and 
Fmnri were alike foreign to it; yet hc;re Ua legend juM like 
^mc of those Mr. MacRitchie relics on, of a Tairy festi- 
val within its earthen walLft, which ha^ periif^tcd to our 
cert^iin knovlcc^e for «cvcn hundred years. I have dealt 
elsewhere i^^th Mr. MacRUchie's book, and have no inten- 
tion of drscu^sfng It again. It \s an argument to prove a 
the^f^ <[uitc untenable, namely, that the fairies of trailirion 
were the prehistoric, dwnrfi^lv races of NorLhcrn Europe 
driven out by the anccsLors of the present peoples. In 
Scotland and Ireland* the author tells us these races were 
called I'iets and Finns, and they inhabited barrows, such 
as are still known in Scotland a5 Ticts' Houses. Many of 
thc3e barrows aeem, in fact, to have been used as resi- 
dences: to some of them fau>' traditions yet clin^ and 
the/ are quoted by Mr. MacRitchie in proof of his posi- 
tion. The legend cf Wiiicy How i$ an instance of a 
Uadition of this klnd^ attaching;; with great persistency^ 
to a barrow that never was a [ilacc of human aliodc- ; and 
it i* not an unfair test of the vAnt^ of tlic evidence Mr 
MacRItchie brings forward to support this branch of his 

Of Miss Gamctt's book on Tfte Christian IViPfttrti ef 
Turkty^ it will be cnou^ lo say here that the follf-talea it 
contains were all, or nearly all, previously in print, thoui{h 
scarcely any of them were known to Engliih readers. 
They are al) interesting, and their importance U enhanced 
by the full and vivid account of native life and super^iti- 
tions in which they are umbediUid. Dr. Krausd has 
included a number of s^as illustrative of South Slavonic 
hujiefA tit ions in bis work on that subjt'ct. The nanalives 
have been gathcicd at fti^t hand, and the pattlculan rcla" 
tive to them are carefully recorded. 

TJu Doylt i'aity Boah and (except for the la^it chapter) 
Skad^tvland in E/fan Vanain hardly fall within the Umitfl 

/if^c^rl en Foik'iaU JiesearcJk* 


ofthi* rcf)cn. Thfi chief poTni df Ebe former is the iUu- 
natioT!^ by the Utc Richard Doyle^TipcatcdlyrGCslllng'Ibt 
same artist** design frsr the cover of Pumtk. Th<r latter 
bcxsk t^ftiiscs mc To icgfct that with Mrs, Rus?*cU's ttbTlities. 
OppurtuiiiliE^ and etitliuM^Mti, sht? has nut tl'ven oh h 
collection of the ycnuinc aiid unadorned fulk-lorc. aU duly 
ticketed And pigcon-holcd, of the Uland she loves so well 
It is ncpt toif late to hope that she may be induced to make 
90 dc:»inblc a contribution to science. Waldron's Ls the 
only book on the eubjcct, for the chapter* ^ivcn by Train 
are somewhat p-udgircly devcted to it in a lar^-er work ; 
and Waldron labours under the difficulty of having 
writTen in a j.^re-sdentific age. From Tht Dtrtinur -A-e 
learned what wealth lay buried in tltc mnunt^iri rcce*si!?t of 
the file of Man; ard Mr^ RusscH's Utile book conlinns 
the knowledge 13ul in neither case is ihc ^Itire, by it.s 
form, available for students Aavc in Mii Russcirs last 
chapter, however, wlicrc she gives an account of a few 
superstitions, and relates acme stories not hitherto recorded; 
but they, ala^! only whet the appetite- 

I bat'e Icfl but little space to deal ^vith Mr Cloiiston'« 

mattte (for thi* it is) on Chaucer's " Squire's Tale", and 

Herr lhTafx'« luork on Grcfk Ft^l'^al/s pf GraUfft! Jifosts. 

The importance of the former will be understood ^vhen I 

%Ay Ihat Mr, CIniixton h;^ filled mf>rfT th;in hvo hiimlred 

ipagci with abstracts of anah^ues cif the tale and of Clic 

L-^arionw magical inMnimctits — horsc^s chariots mirrors, 

[imagca, Hn^ gemii, iwords, and ^pears — with which it ts 

concerned lie ha^ ransacked litcmturc and tradition, 

with a result that every one who knows hi& writings would 

have anlictpatcd. 'llic reader 15 presented with a cyck>' 

pL&dia of information ; and the pity is that it is intended only 

fcr the members of the Cliaucer Society, for it is worthy of 

a wider audience Incidentally Mr Clouston admini*lcrs 

a rebuke to the late Sir R- F. Burton for his "explanation" 

'of the eborry hniTKcr in Iht: Arabian tale as simply Pega-MJK, 

"vrhlcir. Sir RSdiard lucidly declares, *' U a Greek 


lepoH on 

le Hazard 

travesty of an P^pti;in myth developed in Indu'*[ In 
e 111 phuti call)' rctiuilialln^ ih]« " irxpliin^liun^', Mr ClouMoni 
^ mo^t readers uf this rt:v]'c*w will be gl;icl tci learn, ntatea 
Ki:i belief th^t the idenikticti found \\\ ravage folk-lore wiUt 
tiK cnyttiologIcA of ancient nations and the folk-lore of 
modem l^urope and Asia, arc impossible to explain by any 
theory of tranimi^sion^ and therefore "have been inde- 
pendently developed by widely different ;ind widely lepa- 
rated races in aiaitlar condition^t of Itfe, and having mora 
or less Eimilar modcti of thought". 

K&rr Marx hai viudicd with great care and acuteness 
the Ulcrary hUlory of ancient Greek folk-talcs concerning 
Grateful Ile:i*t*, The chief animal* dtiUt wJlh aic the 
dolphin, eagle, stnrk^ lion, dog, hortc, elephant, dnd ^^;tkc- 
The Ui-it'Mautcd i.s «Ludlc-d with K|)e<ial fulncNH, aj;d hhould 
not be 4jvctl[H)kcd by any uiie intcrchteJ in the relatione of 
itnakc^ With the apiiits of the dcitd. The author ici by no 
mcAJi^ a partisan of the liuddhist origin of the Gr^tcltil 
Ifcik^t ; en the contrary, he maintains, in opposition even to 
Hcnfey, that the fable of the Lion and the Mowte originated 
ir Greece, and migrated to India, where the lion's part is 
pUycd by an elephant 

The preceding paragraphs had all boeji written whcTi 
Mr, Dniiyh'^ Hydr's Reside fti^ Fire was issued. The 
IfeyTioU-' (jf Dr. Hydc'a work \^ Jiinick (n cn^e of hii ciiX!r- 
ing^pagcK. ''The folk-lore of Ircland",hc ^s, '* remains 
practic^dly uncxpluilcd and LJii^atlicred Attccnpti h^^c 
been made from time to time during the present cciituiy to 
collect [fiah fbtk-lore, but tbcw: attempts, though interest- 
ing from a literary point of view, arc not always successes 
from a scientiJic one." The attempt before ua U on idcntific 
lines. It Goniftists of Aftcen stories, six of which arc given 
In tbeJr native Irish, with translations opposite, according 
to die plan adopted by Campbell and Maclnnc-^ ; and the 
rcituuik<lrr are from an Inih work by the same author pre- 
viou:ily publl:ihed. All of them ;ire *'on aeamnt<if 
their dfuiniitarity to any published lEighlaTid talcf, for, as 

^ffierf mt Foik*iaU Research. 


I^iti2ral rule, the main body of Ulcs in lrvJnii<l and 
Sootland bc^r a vcr>- near relation to each other". Thi» 
principle of sclecUoni Adds to the importance or the book, 
whkh thus gives u£ i better notion of ihc vast -vealth 
or Critic tradition. Some of the iliuctrations it affordH of 
Ihe fiury ^pcrsiitlon^, lite that of " Lccam O'Rooney** 
Buiiar\ iut c^^Ji-dally valunhfr Dr. Hyde's Prefatr, and 
Mr. Aificci N(itt*«Poscscri|)l, contain a discussion de?KT\in^ 
of Cdrcful ooTiAJ'denition conccmicj* the relations of bardic 
storica, and of heroic sa^aa in g:cncral, to fclk-talc& It Is 
to be regretted ti:at Mr. Nutt wa^ unabk to comment on 
the stories thcm^lvcs so fuUy as he intended, fcrhaps 
w« may !w>pe for a further instaJment of talcs from Dr. 
Hyxie. So able and con^^cicntioLis a collector \i> wanted to 
gather the folk-lore of Ireland and give it to the world 
before it vani);he% away with the language. 

Let cnc, In coiictusion, <^uoie two sentences fioai an 
article in the first volume of the FoLK-LuiiK RKt.o«i>. by 
the late Mr. W. R. S. Ral.^ioEi, whr>se lavt we liave kd tniirJi 
cause continually to regret. *' It is impossible", he ^Ay^, 
" lo im^jTC^u too EiUun^ly un collectors the absolute nccc-t- 
»ity of accurately recording the stories they hear, and of 
Accompanyinj^ them by ample referenced Cur the 5ake of 
vcdticatloa The temptation to alter, to piece together, and 
to improve, i$ one which many minds find extremely 
seduetive, but yielding to it deprives the result of any 
value, except for purposes of mere amiisefnent." Would 
that the^e ijcldtn words could be wrltteo on the conscience 
of eiicry one who goes about to publish a book of follc- 
tale«l Thirteen "^^xr^ have |ia-*raeil u'ncc ihty were fint 
penned, but, if vre may judge by the woika meutioncid in 
this report, how few have yet taken them to he^rt \ 

IL SrDEtfEY Hartlanu 


The next number orFOLK-LpOKB, for June, will contdi 
iIm: coiidusio?) of Dr. CA-^^tcrs paper on the Holy Grail ; 
Mr JacoWa paper on " ChOdc Rowland" ; Rev. F. Sibrcc on 
'*Tbc Folk-lore of MaJj^^uy Bird:^'; and Mr. CociJ Smith's 
Report on Greek Arducology. 

Ti!E date oT the Kolk-Iorc Con|:re5s has b«m sitehtly 
advuiocd The meclincs w\\ be held iii the roomi of Uic 
Soctely of Aotiqtiaries, which ha^-c been kindly placed 
it Uic disposal of the Congress by the Sode:^. The first 
maeting will be held oo Thursday, itt October. 

A NUMBER of forc^ Tolk-lorisis hare exprvswd ihdr 
Intention of attending the Congretj, lome coining frocD as 
far as Ru^uia and Fintai>d. 

Dr. Wiktekmakck. the Finnish scholar, will *hortiy 
pubtiflh a work on rn'mltiv'c Marria^ The kafned 
Doctor writes m English, and publishes with MesA&. Mae^ 
intllan. Dr. R Tylor has been for M»nc time engaged on 
a somcuhal ?siinilar topic, and t« also apprxnching a stage 
uf huH toqniries at which |MtUkal>nn will be jio^sfble. 

The //amdho^ of FM^t^n ba« neariy run out ol prtaL 
PrtTpanitiom ait bdng made *br a fceond editioa Cofrics 
axe placed at the disposal of tnip^lleni to unexplored 
i^bu fap the Royal Gco^TaplUca] Society, 

ARRAKt^lfEKTS are bdne made for donr rrhttton* 
being establidked between the Folk-Lore Society and the 
local antiquaritta eodeties throuebout the kinedonL 

Noi€S and Nmn. Ill 

A Conference will ^honfy be held b«t\u«on ttpfcstu^ 
tatjvc members of the Folk-Lorc Society and of the 
Anthropolof^Jcftl In^ttute. to settle certain questions of 
common interest to the two Societies. 

Mkktiwos have been held on January i6t\ whf?n a 
paper wa* read hy Rev. K Sibrcc on ^'Thi^ Folk-tore nf 
Malapwy Birds", an<! on February i8lh, whi-ii Mr Alfred 
Nutt discUKKcd "Recent Theories on the Arthurian Ro- 
iTunces". Members of the C/nimrodorion Society vrcrc 
elso invited to attend Mr. Nutt'.^t lecture 

Tr h pTn\iO<JCi^ In ftiture to rwid short papers before thp 
paper of ilie t^v^iiii)^ iil tJic meetings of the Society. 
Members desirlrtg to ptit queries on subjects tbey arc 
Studylnf: may aho adcipt thin method of making; known 
their wants to the Society. 

TiIE first ntimber of the new journal of the new German 
Fdlc-lore Society, ^iitschrifi dcr Vtrsimfur Volkikundi, is 
now beTonf uft. It \% practically a contintialTon of the 
Ztiluhri/i fitr Vi'ikerpsycfiGiG^t' of Pnjfs, Stcintli^il nnti 
Lazarus but it£ scope has been widened till il includes all 
folk-lore, and more alK>. Thus, coAtume, philoli^y, dialcctSi 
will receive attention tn ita pages, is well as curiums, t*ks, 
institutions, and myths^ 'i'he programme ir* wide, the 
wori<cr« arc able, may the result be commensurate with 
their skill and lofty aims. 

TllE list of members of the new German Vtrtin fur 
Vcikskunde reminds us that thuy do r^me things better in 
Germany, The list is crowded with names of professors, 
some of them, lil« Grimm (Hermann), lHa^n;s, Mobins, 
SteiDthal, Virchow, of European repuutfon. Among the 
150 name* already enmlled, at !ea« twc^lhirds arc of 
Academic standing. Would that the Eiiglhh Universities 
ivould follow Miit I 

122 Notes and I^ews. 

The appearance of another part of Prof Child's ex- 
haustive work on English and Scotch Ballads deserves 
additional record to the bare mention of the Bibliography. 
No other country of Europe has so complete a record of 
its ballad store so adequately commented upon. 

The Pattjab Notes and Queries^ which did such good 
work under Captain (now Major) Temple, but was dis- 
continued in i$S7, is to be revived under the title North 
Indian Notes and Queries. 

Communications for the next (June) number should 
reach the Office of FOLK-LORE, 270, Strand, W,C.> before 

May 1st 


THeSciekce of Fairv Tales I an Inquiry into Fairy 
Mytbol(^v By E. Sidney Hartland, F-S-A, 
(W, Scoit) 

Mk. IIartlanD's \x>lumc w:>uM deserve notice, if far 
nothinf cbc, as the work of the most Icarrtcd English 
student of tiic Folk tale. He hXMi At cocamancl the vrhoJfi 
literature of a subject which rowAdays ranges over all 
languages, and make^ in appearance in the most unex- 
pected quaiters. One consequence of this is, that, lf> his 
study of any particuhr talc or grcnjp of tale«, Mr Hartland 
deals with the whole ihas^ of ascertainable facts \ hU 
inductions Arc of the widest, and rnni^tfijticntty hi« in- 
(«rence-H, according to tfic logicraii, hliould bo of the 
soundest Another point, too, which should be noticed In 
\ his method, 15 the constant criticism to which he ^ubmit» 
his matcriaU. No talc i^ allowed to rank as a ^cauine 
folk'talc that cannot j^ivc date and place for its exinCcncc 
amonc the folk* We poor caterers for tlic depraved tttstc 
of the jxivcnilc public, who write at home at caac, eic 
warned oiT from the very thrci-hold of the inquiry. This 
It indeed as it should bo : this i^ in truth a t&cience of 

It is, however, only wiih one depiirtment of that sciimcc 
that Mr HartUnd d«ds nii the; prc-spnt orcaj^ior. When 
he speaks of faliy talc^, lie, btrange to aay, r:ie»ni wh<Lf he 
aaya; and docs not use the term in that v^aguc ^id unsci- 
entitle way thai the aforc^id popular catercm indulge in. 
By faio* talc5 our writer means talcs about fatj'ies kiid his 
work treats of five v^OTips of tales that deal with the 
manners and way^^ of the fairy people as conceived by the 
folk* Fairies love their lord:;, and require the assistance of 



human Mr^. Gamps> Fafrics tal<c fancies to human inbnw 
and exchange their awn bruCs for the babies. HumAntl 
obtain various gift^ from Fairyland by stealth Qf gil 
Hufnana can enter the land of Faerie, but find time 
cnly too plL-asantly and sv/iftly within its confines Hutnaa 
lovers can get feiry wives by n>bbtng them of their fairy 
rnbe* or ''husks" These fiv^ Topics — Fairy BirthK and 
Human MIdwives, Changelings, Robbcdes from Fairyland^ 
\\\tL Sii|itni Plural Lap-Ne of Time In Fairyland, am! Swan- 
maidens — these form Mr. Hartlcind's themes. What has 
htH science to say of them P This leads on to another 
question : What docs he ^eek to find m them ? What, id 
other words, is his problem ? 

Mr Hartland seeks or^ns ; we arc all on the scent for 
origins nowaday ^. How did these ciinous ideas about a, 
fairy world, where Things are other than ihey seem, wherv^ 
no Newton has distavered a law of gravitation, where 
time has wings and clocks spell years for minutt'S where 
human beings lose their sense of time, and fairy maidens 
doff their quairt garbs — how did mankind come to think 
sucli things? Mr. llartfand answers In shcfrt men have 
been sarages, and savages regard all these things a^t naCunil, 
just as miich a part of the normal coarse of things as 
marr>"int: many wives or eating humari beings for food. 
Civilised men have grown out of all these things* but 
— here is the important point — civilised mankind has 
pa^jwd through them all. The fairy world is a survival of j 
savage imagination, and Che science of fairy talcs coosbts 
in tracing these liurvivals. 

So far» Mr. Hartland is only applying to a wcll-dcfinedEl^ 
gioiip of talcs the method first su^cstcd, as far as I know, 
by Mr, Jh ILFarrcrin his '* Savage Life", but developed and 
made popular by the keen insight and literary skdl of Mr. 
Andrew Lang. So far as this theory professes to explain 
the origin of ideas occurring in folk-talcs that are manifeitly 
ab3;urd, yet e<iually manifestly believed in, it has won the 
batilc alt down the line. Men changed to beasts, beasts 



rerncd to mcn.dcad men rcsuscilatcd,humanbcirgs sleeping 
for centuries— these thin^^s never were on sea or Jand> *nd 
belief in them must be du« to a £tate of mind which no 

f longer cxiau amonfi civilised folic — tiiey arc savage in oriijin, 
So far »o goeid ; so far wc arc al], or nearly all. agreed. 
Btit when the- further que^on \s asked— Docs the moderr? 
rxwlenrt^ of tiilc's cinbudyitig these ideas necessarily invnlve 
the existence of those belief* among the nations where the 
tftlcn Arc now found? — here wc resell a point where wc 
nauat dbtiogutsh. To invent ^uch stories hh iifrioix requires 
no d:^ubt a belief in the idca5 underlying: them. But 
merely to take them and hand them on as stories when 

' once invented, doe» not necessarily involve :&ueh an active 
belief in metamorphosi*, totcmism, and the rest. The 
stories cannot, therefore, be used as arclueo logical evidence 
of !h*r beliefs in the counlrie* where they are founds unTew 
we can be certain that they originated there. In other 
imjrd-% the pnihle^n of diffu^on is of jirior urgency l» thai 
frf or^ui. 

Mr Ilartland does not think sex He does not consider 
it necessary to take into account the possibility of a story 

* having been diiTused from a single centre before discussing 
what it means. If stories are found alike, whether in 
adjacent or dist:int countries, it was the simitanty of the 

' human minds producing them that produced the AimOarity- 
Against this ht the fact tliat adjacent countries do as a 

Mnattcrof fact have a Ur^jer common More of tale* than 
diiftant ones. There arc more talcs in common between 
Dcornark and Scotland, say. tlian between Scotland and 
Kusfiia. A^aini while single incidents may have arisen in- 
dependently in different countrica, the weaving of them into 

'o connected story, with incidcrt following incident in the 
same order, this cannot have happcncdcaauatly, asMf. Lang 
and Mr. Hartlaiid would contend. And if they point to a 
few cases where suchtujies of incidents — ^^,, the Ja^or and 
Medea type — occur in widely remote ilislncts where diffu- 
laun by borruvking seems impavtible, I would turn rhrtfibles, 



jind produce the same as proofs of the in?Eidioiurcs!i of 
diffusion. "ITius^ to take an example from Mr, Hfirtland's 
book, if the celebrated t«t for the fairy changelings 
laughter at water boiled in t^g-shelli; — were found in Japan 
I should ncit be content to 5ay that the similarity of the 
Japnneve mlnci had [irfiducert a simiUr *torj'. I should try 

id tiacc where the stnry first arose. That (cjtt,ooe may 

tfely Hay, was never invented twice. 

On die iinporlAnt subject of method — and ft J* n «jjn eif 
youth and vi^Tour in a science for ii^ methods to be stilJ 
undetermined — I venture therefore to disaarcc with Mr. 
Hartland. But this by no meiins causctt me to overlook 
the fT^a^p of material and skill of ^arrangement shown in 
hi£ book. Hi^ dioieeof subject, too,af^;\iesfEreat judgment 
Fairy tale?< properly so called. *^., talcs about fairies, 
arc not *o much sttories a* incident*. Hence th* Casual 
Method, a5 I would venture to call it, can deal vr^ih these 
anecdote* withoHt rjising the inconvenient question of 
diffusion. It would hsve been Imptttsii^>le, I should fancy^ 
to deal with even any one of the types of story- — r^-, Fliss- 
in-Bont<; — with anything' like the same detail a* is shown 
here, without rai.^iiig tlic question uf difTusion. Mt, 
Lang's sketches in hi* Prrrau/f were only ,"^ketchcs after 
all, and scarcely toudKd the crucial problems of the 

Mr- Uartland dismisses rathercavolicrly Mr. MacKitehie's 
" realistic" theory of the ongfn of fairies, rather too cava*^ 
licrly, I think- His chief arjjument against it is, that where 
you find stones of fairicSj you ought to find traces of Finns. 
To that there is a twofold answer. First, the stories may 
have been brought from places where there had been Finns^ 
Secondly, in nearly all places where such ^lories arc told the 
present inhabitants hnvc been preceded by a shorter race, 
whom they have exlerminaleil Tradition about the^ 
autochthones might give rise to faio' tale^ in Mr Hart- 
land's sense of the word. 

I have oniy touched on Mr. Uarlland's main topic* ; to 



go into detail on his many interesting su^estions, notably 
that on Lady Godiva, which is somewhat dragged into the 

book, would be beyond the purpose of this notice, I desire 
to welcome, in as warm terms as possible, the first serious 
attempt in English to deal with fairy mytholc^y in a 
sufficiently wide induction of the facts. Mr. Hartland's 
conclusions are, I think, onJy part of the truth ; but his facts 
and his arrangement of them must form the basis of future 
investigation into the subject for a good while to come. 

Joseph Jacobs. 


7> iiu Editor <tf FOLK-LOftE. 

Sir, — 1 may mention, with regard to Mr. Fraiw** note 
on -^ Mfty Uay in Greece" (vol. i, p. 519), a curious cuitom 
which exists in Calymnod^and possibly elsewhere. Ewry- 
one must cat figs on the 1st of May, otherwUe ihey ^vHl be 
bitten by a donkey. Why a donke>', I cannot icIL 

The cu*tora of jumping over fire* on St, John** Eve 
alUided tn by Mr. Frazcr, is universal in Greece. The 
rcA-'ion for so doing b the same as that given In mAnyrAhcr 
Countne<i: it is to protect oneself from fle^^;. 

With regard to tlic same writer's rcinarkfi on "Pytha' 
goiran Maxims" (vol. i, p. 14KX is it ceruin that the 
precept, ^^ ^<^mv airo Bi^ffw (tliis is the MS. reading 
in PMarck, p. 290^, hrl in the other passage, p^ ,^54^). 
means, ** Do not eat in a chariot"? I Uiould suppose that 
it means, " Do not eat of food placed on a stool": it wo-uid 
thus be closely connected with the other precept, " Do not 
«it on a buuhel," with which Pjutarch twice couples it 

W. K. PaTON. 

Sir,— The G«:ek May-day song^ contributed by Mr- 
Frazcr to the laM number of Folk-Lore, Is almo^ 
identical witli one sung in Epirus, aitd included in my 
translation* of Grak I'oik-so^^, edited by Mr. Stuart- 
Glcnnic (i88s and lfi88>, The last ten linc^ of the Corfu 
aong: arc not given by Aravaudinoa, whoic version I 
followed, aimply because they ore a common form appended 



to all fcsiKal-sonR* which are sung for hrg^is^ before Iht* 
door% of wealthy hciiws^ T venture to thinks howx^vi^r, 
thai Mr. Fra/er's fnrormani is wrong in saying that "ilic 
fcstK'SLl cf the First oi Mfty oiiginiitcd in Corc/ri ilunnj; 
the time of ihz Venetian dwrniiKittuiVV For May-Jay Is 
celebrated lAith song^ and floral fitc:^ ^imiUr to thoM; he 
clc9Cnbca, not only in the Greek kingdom generally, but 
throughoui Turkey, and the custom is evidently an ex- 
trcrricly uicicnt one, dtitin^ back lo [>a^aTi timc», 

Th« St. John's Eve cuttom» alluded to by Mr. Frazer 
mfty be found fnll>' described in TA/ W&iwn of Tstfk^ 
(p- 120) ; ah aluo rt hilt he term* the '' rain-drarm" {Ptrfirid 
or Ptrpffoi^a), wftb the Invoeatlon song on the occsHJon 
(j>- 1^3), both obwrvancc* being ccminoci ihrmighcut the 

LUCT M, J, GarnETT. 



7(f ihc Editor 0/ Folk-Lohk. 

StR,— The Zansibarf parallel to the story in the iixaftf^a 
of Jacques dc Viirj*— which Ktienne de Bourbon took inio 
hi-^ Lsifir efc iJ4>tfw, etc— of the devout giri who plucked 
out her eyes, which had cau^d a man to become 
enamoured of her. given by Mi^ Barclay fn the last 
number of FoLK-LoitK (vol, i, p. 515), is very Tntere«thig. 
The siame leijcnd is told of St, Bridget, for which see 
TAr^^ AUiii^iif-frisU fF&inUu'S, by Mr. Whitley Stokes 
(p. €i%), and it ts jiraliahly of Buddhitt cxtrndion. With a 
royal ascetic in pUce of n gijl, a ^imil^u' ^tiny is told in 
ihc fdtiioUN Hindu K^ilKCXUiti^ Ktifhti Sartt Sahara {0^t^i%X\ 
of the Streams of Narrdtive), to this eficcC : 

A prince, who had abandoned hh kingdom and become 
a wandering ascetic, entered the house of a merchant one 




day to ask alm«, and the younj; v^ife of the mcr^ant, on 
»eing him, exclaimed, " How came £iich a han<Ucme OKtn 
as you to imdcnake *JiKh a sevi?re vcw 3« this * Happ>' jg 
the wom^n whi> i< gflzfd upon wiih such eyes as yourt !" 
Upon ibU the lit-ggfng ancctk tore out one eye ard ashed 
her what there was in it to be so attractive. He then told 
the lady a Tiloiy of a hcrtnJt who contiueret! his angcr^ after 
which she bowed before him ; and he, being rcgardle«« of 
his body, lovely though it w,is. passed on to perfection. 

It t* well known that Christian hagiology is largely 
indebted to Indinn^ard cspecfolly to Buddhist wTitin£» 
Kver before the com in en cement of our era the mild and 
benevolent doctrines of the illvstrioua Siddhartha had 
fuund their way into Europe. 

I'.S— In my paper on "The Frojj I'l-incc", in the last 
number of FOLK-LORE (vol 1), I iind two errors which 
may a$ well be corrected : 

Page 497, top linc,/w -William of Maloiesbiiry" rtad 
"Sir John Mandeville" — the reference to the 1725 cd. is 
all right 

Page 503, last {\j\c,/ar "Gcrmar" /ynrf'Scotch*', 


Tg the Editor t/ FoLJC'LoKK. 
Dear Sir. — The follo^virg extracts from letters recently" 
received may be of interest. Dr. Douglas Hyde writes 
from Ffcdcricton, New Bnmswick, where he hai; been 
pasting the winier : — 

'*Vou ft-ill be interested to hcaf that 1 got sian^ curious 
pamllch to oif Inih ttonc« from the;, ! v/as out huminjc 
cariboo with three of iheii) for a fortnight at ChriscrtiAt, and 
though I (ould noi get a itoT>-, ^oud or bad, from them in ihcii 
o^rn hau»cSi yctlgoL a number round the complireeveryevcnjR;, 
and tald dicm in return ever} fiiory ^n my wtp^rfoirt^ to their fp^i 



delight. Many of thdr itorics v«r« OQUtnly derived Trom 
'Gaielk or French *ourc*-s, from Ihe Hwdion Ba)' Pr/>\T^vtfrf^ fwo- 
tuibl). mott of whom trcrc Scocck Tlie purely Indi;iii ^loiicsi 
tbeysaid, thoj could not tell properly in En^'i^h; and though £ 
lesmied a lol of ilietr liuigUJtgeH 1 could not undersund them." 

A jtrxfMs of Dr Hy^c% own book {Btfi^t tht Fi¥i\ die 
Rev- Eu«cij)- D. Clciivcr writes to mc: — 

summer in Woicrford. Cork, Kctr>\ Oalwny, €lc. uid the school- 
boys who h;td copies were &ent for to read it to the men in the 
Seldi during the dLnner-hour, and nil o^«r the country at night. 

'^H>dc » wimewlut rif ;i |)CNtjmiKl .iboat thi; future of ihc 
hub bngua^e- The language ^nd ihc folk-lore vriEl lire on for 
anotlicr talf century in any cntit:'' 

These fjict* are of conjiid<:rablc impoitancc in discuwing 
the vexed question of the transmission of tales. Dr. 
Hyde's 6t:itcmcnt should be carefully considered by all 
«tudcfit)i of modi^m ootlcctionii of Indian legends I 
confess it confirms ^spldonK 1 have long had with regard 
to Mr Lcland'>i Algonquin collectioTi- It m^y he ^^id that 
Dr. Hyde, an cxperiaiced and enihmiastlc folk-luriat, i* 
by ro mean^ in tin.' position of ax% Grdinary IhuUon'^ Hay 
vayagaiT, biit it is qtiita jmv^ililc that ;i iimruAMtnial Gaelic 
story ■icllcj'. wiOi a Tiptri&irt as large as, if not lai^cr than 
Dr Hy*lc'». may ha^'c got over to New Brunswick in the 
k^t century or the beginning of this. The diMiitctioii 
made by the Indiana between the English talci ^nJ their 
owD should be no:ed. 


K 2 


'*M«ml]r my coune I zakci 

llcrrily I'll dkAce 4nJ »!■% 
For T\t\x day- vill a bifonga brin^ 
LiitSe dock my iatif wot 
Ttui my name K Trii-^-troc* 
J do not itmember ihv scmt^ but am nculj wr« it nac iti priftU 

A Bufic SapertltrioiL-'Cvi any read«of FoiA-U>Rr- tkiow any 
lislK on a »upcrsli1ion prer»!cm apputntty imongihc Uji«i|DM o* 
Navarre and the Aiagonese of Ihe Pjrcntes, to tbe eifet thai ite 
bear ictt u ii ^on of waicb-dog lo St. Pcttr at the |;;iie of Hc4v«eL 
M3 iTifi>r]n:Lnti aic Iwn Nai-areie Tlatiiurs. J i"fln "'d »«itta. 
whntn J Mw cxhibitiDg 2 bou ui lliairitz. I hava no doubt thai, if I 
<vuIJ Ilavl- spoken Basque* 1 could luvc C3iuacicd muck mott i^ 
fonration th»n 1 Jid. but tl was dtlBcult T^r them to ip«^ Sfuntilu 
Ihc onJy l<iotEUiise cxcepc [heir cwn vriih vbich they vctc et all 
icc^uajfitffd. aod alio ih«f' wer^* «hy and ftiicviM. and It reqtitfed ji 
80od<lealorpcrMUt»m[ilu «vid thcrr uinnd<nc< inlbeslis^icsi desree. 
Thrytold me ItM thcjr bear. **hen They »<re not tranTlliriK about, 
lived with them in ibeii hut in ihc mouitiaiDS ind thM ibcywcic 
fttwti}4 careliil to treat hrm kinrtly anrl feed him wrIL For 
if they hftd rot <nou);h of fol (which ihcjr looked upOA a« 11 Ittiufy] 
for ihtmielvei &nd the b?ar, the bner mnvr be M and saiistied Am. 
Tb«y declared that the ^nimnl understands all that b said aboat ban, 
ftml ob^erre^ ^nd compTebenii>> *iriy hnovehuid work, tr^e or ccOi* 
potion nvhich m^y t>D i:oinj^ on ; *- -md ihai is ih« reaioa that A bear 
iitob;u lived uiih men ihould ncvci be aJlowtd lu (ciuiii iw ihe 
foMBl and mouiiiain&i for be wiJJ tell the other bcort 01 what bo bi« 
Men a^ Uiuiit, djid ihcftbejn); t^ci> cunniii^t will come down into 
ibe vaUey«» and bv meant ot tb«ir {real (trcngih, added to the kiiow>- 
iedcc LhcylLa\« ihui jfaircd, wjli be able to lule men u^ M^ aM/ 



ber<»JcV 1 crtiic.ni7LEnI \^ 1»iii nvi^tii ihb tad »ldLtc vf ofbiri 
edited, bbl cixild only ascertain thai tt ««« ■rjf//^-— beJorc, in other 
Limes, " £t Ono," Hiid hit keepers, *' U el pcrso Je Diw. el perso dc 
San Pedro ; h« ii v4ry wit* ^rtd Ihoughtful i he sici beiidc the b]««wd 
%%\T\ At the iCAte of HcAvcn, and if lliusc ivho Kck ic^ enter hAve 
be«a cruel and unkind to ihv bc3r« in this «ioildr the kxicc wiJI turn 
tbem ATpay, ind they mil have to go And live in hell, with the details 
nn^ihf t/^irri*' "'Quf ay man jier dp«ir T VonrUicJefl the votnati, 
"d craQ e» d perao de Dioi," The hctifi name wa» ^t!//jv I spell 
it u ir ik-i.*i pronouni:^. Throtij^hn^iji th^ con^'crsnimn the peasants 
would con-toritly inEcirupt them^lvei to ipCAk to the fknimali a±aticiti£ 
mc ihAl he pcrfe«b undcrmnod alt (fi*t v-'m vikl 

Whoi » ihe od^ of the cuaioni whict; pTtvAiU in Hy£r«&, and 
whicli I have >Iau iiteii in Ba^n^rr* de Bigorre* of drii^rajt two oien 
lUeorflled with coTIats *nd gte«n vrtailie or bmnchta Ihrotish Ehe 
lown 1^(1 one (ji miwc nf the d^js vf Holy Week.* The oxen are 
acccmpcuued by men aitd boyt bcnting n drum nr blovmf; homi. 


"Kaklng^ Weather" in D«iiBUr1c.— AmoH cunoui eu«[Am iKMiUoV 
tc^vcd in «cirne ^Atti ni \>c!intAtk. DurintrthcTnoritH^of Tebruu)' and 
M^rrh, the (armer, ht^urvvlvpit, ilipcrnfi^r thfirhiuhnnrls- :irid *i Usl 
their »ervant*, icmile and mnlc, ■* niiikc weatlict' . Commonly, tb« 
ir^ima^e biriii}; Nf> i on ibe Ijiif the pAm>n'i wife ' ii>\bo> vcAihcr' 
^ttn th« lir«i cl fcbruniy. U the weather That day ^ood, Mrt. N- S. 
U nLd to be A very bcncvoicni Udy, in cuod Itwnioui, 3Jid Mifili- 
borettti go tanning her, cotisr-iEukiinj; en the fmr u'c;iiher. and are 
frieuilty leu^ived, iicdlcd (□ lulTce and caket^ Ii ilit^ wrAlhi:r on the 
^Contratx lout, MtK. fj- X, is id tiad hun^iur ; vc will go to pumih h^t 
todiicit her. Maybe 9J>c ^t pulled eui iiiEu ilje yasd md tied to 
ttaterpump, That ihetna/beneif iryhcraH-n weaihvr, Her nrigh- 
tan conic vrapi^ed up in Lip^c do^ik^ and >ha»-h, whcrcnalhey 
coii^a fturamcfcLxd vhen Ihe veaihet ii Tair- Othttfwiie a neighbour 
nuy creep caulioutly aloa^ the houtcwal! jiad lie aomc hsxrdt on th« 
door]atcfa, tt i« inMnnily undertioodj and everything *mK whh a 
cupof c^fifieG. Kivcn by tiic perion nho "makes" the fcul v^cjilhcr, 
tant^ jc*«T P>^d ex<-ryl;orfy gow home again. For funhct 
piarticuhtrs tee FeiJheri^'t Ifi^mikfiv, p, s^j, I pones* but one quota 
ftoQ pointing icdiizinaty to a sirnilnr cattom ^ Kuhn, Arfjgwi ci*i 
HVi/j»^W<w, li, 91, 3U4 : " Die Frauen wvd im Fobruar wciterregen- 
tlsnen." Is lh^» cutiom knoH-n anywhere cliie ? Wlicicfrom may ihia 
**CD;kkiiigm!aiber* be der»cdf Why in the months of FrhruRr> and 

H. T. rttUBEWk 



•• Ltrtrvctayiac" la Deamftik,— A ceato^' or «c «£» it hu twoi cu»* 
l-^msry ia D^nrULrk. for iotunce at ih« imirftDit;^ iabl«, and i:tnainty 
on uthcr f«»tJTAt»s thnt a tivci token Ticfn a licn or uiolticr fowl or 
nn^nul ntu ptUtc^ fiom h;in<l lo hand on i pUtr T1t« p«fioD to 
whom iht lift* aas hjintJccl Knd to pronoontc a tliyir*— "liycr-fhynw*. 
Moitpart arihMfravrT*irc£«1^«— fnrtrstanrr^ '*11ii« hwrliMnff 
a ^:4^ ^ iTtay i.ttti £lvc us atJ Ui^ Ilol> Gtiost !^ Many of ihttu 
tiill rvmpmbrrcc hy nld proplf- In X^rvay ai^d Sw^d^ a ipoonf 
of boiled rice vas pu^cd;oa ibc foroE itlnniA)> acowiAilirliamcdop 
wiib CTjloDrnl ribbonv qm;« for the nnif purpose 1 inkc ibc libeny, 
D< n^Winj;, Mny any luch cuBiom l>c rc<CTffc<t from Brittaa^ ? Fi 
Korih (jurmanv I know ihc Mio?^ t34ii fram nonhn? cUc 

11.1. KU1.BC1IC. 

lUtiftii P«cpiii£ ToQi«-'Bcuini: on tke fiia^ i^rtn in the ulidl 
" t^ccping lorn ^nd Ut^y Godwa'^ in >Oi.K-LORt, vol, i, p. 207, 
j^p, acemi to be tbe fvjlWinj: from /iemn A/tfi/tt4 ti RectiK ; ^r, 
TA* CnnfatmSty of AKHt»t aMtt Afjkifrm CtTtrnffU/s^^ rei^oblifaiiooi 
by E!lioi Slock of a lui <cmuTy book ;— 

"I »[!!, moreotvr. affirm this 'h*i nt. m the procevton ol the 
iAcratTE?j>t. ihc a(r«<t3 iHrnut^h w^kb that u to paM arc fcvn|; wrth 
UpfMry, pdrtii.inr tci An order ivf Ihe Rtirnaa rituaJ, fo ilij the [>aipim 
a1**x 'All tl>c p1ac<a tbrouj;b vti^ih iJic pomp Hn» l» pou i>cre 
buoB a& 1r pr^tctitucd hy u<.' m^k ItLnndut and PolldnrE Vli|^L Tlij^ 
Imi &c<;aamu o» tlut itk Italy boyft end girli arc forbidden to see the 
prvcc*»toii from windows — tbat i3>fit>m on hi^b tloitniwdt^ Tbe 
pa^uis torbade tb« a^m^ for which Vernun r^ceui n«ti|*n» ihki 
reuon , That wbca the plafae wat ai Rom^ the oracles aiuvcrcJ 
ibai It w:iH i>>:»uitr tli« aodi were gatocl at froni on bigh downwirdi. 
The Latm word J^pktrt^ made use of in tfec oradc, Idvinjc a do«b1« 
mranini;, aarl Mgnifyin^ *to took doW, a« wHl Jli to troaEenm or 
devpiM, the nholc city was nncniiy (o know the true mctninff of th« 
orarlr ; whrrfypnn \\ h*pp^n«! ibai, on tbr day of the profciMon of 
Diiann, a lad, who had jccn the ahov fi^m the bf;h«ftt ttoty of the 
lioiitr, and cold hii msrher chaT hf bad sfvn m vhni ordrr itc my«' 
intcs, which uoro carried in n <harioc, were d;ipoicd \ tbe Seoaitc 
bdn)* infonncci of thi^it wakordcriedthai alJ places bcre^fva thiough 
tvhicb the proceuion wcis 10 pats should b« blinded vnb laittsiry^ 
The bid having cle-vcd up tlje ttinbijckiity of llie oradc, the pUgttc 
preionily t«3Md. And ibut n wu diMovered ihAt Ibe j:r«1tcom< 
plamcd ihcy vcic i;af«l at from on bitsh, which wai a nuitCTtit 
ipoiiii, that poUut(^d (be lacred <crcmonlct "From ihencc^' ulEh 
I'olidore^'iEEiL'hb thai boy* and girU we forUdd^ 10 look upon 
tbe pfoc«*ioo from window*. "^ (P. 6>.> L, Ke-^«kuv. 

Afisce/fatrea. 135 

St, Jcbfi*ft Ev«Ciiitom,^Thc Stromber^, with DTUidi^l remAiA* 
and cia^ilium. U a noud pLnoc fot worihlp cf ifac ^un- Uiuil [eccntlff 
perhAf>l £1 th< |3r«t«m i\iy% «V4r> Midsummer night Kin fhr hitiofjr 
^Jr^tn^ttir de /* rff^»£ tn/t*i»i»n/c observed on ji» summit- Oa Si'JcKn's 
H^'e a folotul sh^of W4« ni;inufAnured of maw. cociTribmvd from 
^D6jcbl>oa(isg faiTD^aiid tixcd cxt a bie pglc » 00 * pEvoi,ihjiL ic 
klETfai iHm imitiii anrl nviind, After thf sounc^n^ of the Aniffltif, 
tnc huodnds of men mnrchcd up to ihc mounEAin-iup cnrryknjf 
^bied CQTcha, No W3m«i wprc Allowf^d to [ak« pan Whm (|uitc 
r-k, the ihcAf wat ict on frc vid turned raprdly rouad so as to 
It ili« apfie^rancc oif a hugp At-ry whM— symbol of the flun. 
SitniUr cujtomif not un1ik« ih« old Celtic ^//on or ^///irfi, survive 
libewi>c su Al%ac« *nd ihc 3Uck ForMT- C^^"its fimn anltJe in 

JVaftiutal Ji^'irv^ Dflc iBgO) p- Sj6, Ch4fi<au 3Ai/*'<iu/, by Henry 

W, Wolffo Makia» Roalfc Cox. 

An Irtoh VaHjuU of *' Mac»r of »ll Ma5t«rt,''-A *cho!ar called 
one evCLitnj^ at ihc houic of a f^m^cr Ami ^ikcj for h ruxUd ^'^^ng. 
The fanner, lo ic£t ttit progress i& h^ sicidtet, atk«tl him the fumc* 
of ru$au» things ia IriAh. 

FsrmfT Now. what do you call »p* ? 

Sdial^r, FcAr«nTEi:1ic— ''Mail of ihc house." 

F. Na Rf^h 'n t\^\xt — " King of the hou»e.'' What do you cUl 
thu— the dog? 

^, Madnni nocu DO ]£ar1hajr 

/", No. Soclait—" Trotting.'^ A doj; trots. What do you cftll 
tlWAt— Uioet F 

£ BtxSga. 

F. No. SocAir boinn— " Cumfort of lUe aolci.' What do you citl 
tlui— (be tire? 

5- Tcinnc no Luoir. 

F. No- Gloir — "Glory": A fire »paritl« and shines hkc glory. 
UI1U do you caI) thftl— the end of tho home -^ 

3. iscafn ughe—" Peeked end oE eh> hou»t." 

P. No. SSia ao lighc— " Luiio^k of the house." Wliutdo you 
CAllttaat— witer? 

5, Ui»*e-" Wuicr." 

F. No, loraidarrihUcht— " Abundance": becau»e natcr ia G9 
abaodant Wh4E dc you call Ihii— housq ? 

5- Teac!h-" Houie." 

F. No. SdmJb— '* Cotnfon": a home Ji conifvrUblc. 

AAcr ihey h^d |ori« to b«d, ihe scbohr rote, grofi«ed (ho 7ann«r*« 



«hoe9, yiM^h the d«i ibcn bcfio to c*t The tckiUr nvnt out *ml 
vrt Ar^ ro th^ tmd of th« houie. and tpolcf tbe f«tLr>»tng Unec : 

" Rl|>h 'n l3j;hc bi'xlh do ihuitJhc 
Di^idh ^QLl^r toi:Air b^inrt, 
T4 cclladh uom Aif AiPId, 
Ti an ifli^iie iJ-iAJn lAn^jt*^ 
Mar a ^bhdirhftdli An ioimJaiahUcfc^ 

•* King of ih* li«m«. be atliog (etutrg) up, 

The irouinir fdoi;! Ila^ men tTic comfurt of the aolo (»1a«)»>i 

Thrre « h«avy tieqi ■>« AiHin '\ht houirtkeep, 'the fJiir MlO. 

The sloij is in ib<; buviock fif the CLimfort fend of the Uotue^ 

If ihr plrufy 4w,»!Pf) will nm **in'e (iti 

Thy kiAf^dam will b< l>tirntJ,'^ 
This queer ppdAgoguinh purjlc I £^01 from * IV, MoiTifi, bum *bi>oi 
lifty ytin ago in Fertn;ui.'kgh : he heard 11 from hii mother. 
Si- tjimit. Jamf^ Kf.bgan. 

Follc-nMneB of Biitttb Bixd*.- Mr. Svv^iiiaoo'v FdH^^rt 0/ Brili$k 
^jriiiu.iiiinicreftLin^- un^J uadul work; yet, bk« every other book of 
folk-luie^ It ncLx ^^ hU|fp]ctiirnii:J lie Mmn to Itftvc unitlcd Eu 
consul! L-f,iy"s /^/fi/j i»//A/ tf'/^t^/ Se^UnJ^ GUtgOv, iS?!^ >» PP^, 
from -which 1 lake ilic foUowins note* ; — 

Ktilril.—'" 1 And, ftom D>>fl'fc FaUJta ff FttrfirtHirr, \hx\ \h\% bird 
in hi* day wa», 00I inippiopnKdyt (Ollod iViiiit WASp ike Wiiut^ 

fCiU, " or t9imm-iaihJj:ifii<, m it is caBod/' p. 43- 

Ofildf** Orialt.—^ A T«cert ci^ntnhiimr ir) CAnm^trs'i JflttrmfiJ re- 
marks that ' Utc ic>ni; of tl-tis >i>lcnJid bird a t^uio Uke whtttle, mth 
a udeticc nut isnlikc ipeedi- sounda oaiicmua lq tbc Dxttk^ni^a 
■hort of coin 1 fw Hwis. dnnbing heforo the ale^hmoe door, htan 
Uie OrinTe linfj froin the Undent Htut iht gtUffitfif M MM dn 
(Huiiho(iqu«ffe4? ihenpay), "PlSi. 

£VffrA«.w IVMtMlifViU, " or lyhtiJUy mkij JAJ/if, U ^t Is called ni 
m*ny parts of S«>lUnd," p- 95- 

tTrni/T'tf.— Itinote "ha* otoincd foe it the name of/flf*Mnrla 
tnftny pAxii of (he ccuficy,' p^ lov- 

/■in/*f'«xAju7.— ' Tlw Gaelit najnc of llir Urn Brt^icanftU 
»igniAei J //J'i^ ind ha* pr&hab!y ^»rrft applii^ tu ihia «^yiai1 froiw 
a tctcmblhnce which the cfinlriUting eolourv of \\y ^XnttA^t «Atfa« 
hRftSL bears to ihu arttck of sjipxtrd «h?it w.Ajved doacl)' tiMtnd 

sper pin of ihc bodv^ i« m;tn)- I4jghhnden ftrc in th& habit cf 

igii,"p. 111. 
3junvifv>i/fii/v— '^Kurnbenire Uk«n U tfaU ft^tan [end cf April] 
thcbir>i'»lLinVnof Bitctiinf^nd Kcrricmuir.Andart cnllcd in Ihcae 

VkJlev /^tMMtf.'—^T^c familiar \W/ffu:' Vt're ac lV/<^'ff. u tt i> 
nlleil in S^oda'^rl.'^ p lyrt. ^^If, Sv^in^cn i^ivo^ VWioxv YalCj but 
net lliC KContI forTTi,] 

"The Gulf, tht GonlOM, and the Hooded Craw, 
Were ih« three wont things Murr^ty t^cr iaw^ 

Th« j^« LN A v-etrkno^ti ^ir<*d mfecLinj^ £ro^tnj[ (ropSj and Lord 
Lcwja Gordon, who maJc jjlutjJcring ExtufMOth triii> Mor^y^h^ic 
from Ihc c;:u4l« of Koihes, w rclcrrcd lo aa ibe Kccoad * varit Ihing' 
in tbe couniy.*' [A i^ori^Lnt of linca *ipd cxpUnation ui fCirca by 
Swaiuon, pp^ t^Jjy 179] ^Tb* Gaelic nArn« of Ihit birdie Fjujuu^f 
vfckhamm U tlitt, at^Myt** P- I7B* 

ydv:jMiti>, cxUcd A'd}*, p, iSj. 

jt/dfirftf.-*^ Not nit^jc iljnr thiiiy >cat» a^o a wonhy Dunbar baifici 
vhoie r^idcncc was nbout cwo tnilet dittani from the town, vm in 
ihcbabiiof lumin;: b.i^k if lie li^ppcncd to cnci^utucr a patrof iHAg- 
pks Ml tti« n^ «itbcr to ;vlmlnhivr Juiiicc or aucnd djvlne wtrvJL-c," 

/!Vj;^/ir»y. — "Throii£hotit uriiern S<inland tbc Rim^ I>ovc t> bc»l 
IcDonvn by ihc n^cnc i>[' C»shai" p. ^19. [Mr. Sw^imson s*"^^ 
^'Cmskai [tterlct; hucki; Cravrn; WtMiTioreUnd). CmtAtt (Nurth.)/ 
p' r^S I yet coruinly Cu&hat, dftd not Cruchet, it thn usustl bcotiish 
MiiiG. Cf. Butn> — 

" On lofty likj ihf futh^t/r wjiil, 
And <cbo com th« doolfu' lalc ; 
Th« lic(whii» in ihf hare! brftcSt 
Dtii£hi«d, fivaL \\\itf% InyA. ' 

B/thC'K^y, Mr. f>v4(n«on annbtircs p 65, ffr^tt^ikfi^ for /fflfl/J only 
to^Oikiwy Islci-'l *"WoodpJi[t(/n*fcliouldbc kept down, lhcy*r« 
;I0 dc»ifuaivt.' ' Very trut; rejoincfl my fri«iid ; ' bui thflt's ncH th* 
«« ji'« the bird hire/ 'And what name do you g»*^ ii "-' I 
iiH{uijcd- *Oh,*uld hcappaTC-ncly urrun^ciods of any parody, ' w« 
ja« c*' tibom Timm^r Jatfj/'" p. 219. CTimmcr = wrood. Cf- 
llam» — 



" Exotpl r-M- breaking n' tlitir Hmmrr, 

Or Hhoolin' o' a h^fe or moor-cocW, 
Tlic oe'ci-a-bLi Uicy'ic ill Ig poor folk.* 

rjkf nttd Degr.} 

N^rtli America ymler tht name of i^>* iFAi/f, »« imrodaced ii 
T.xw \xA.H\tk in iA>7,'* Ji- HI 

CiJ/wmtm S^/«^/ifitr^ -*" Iti i^mt placet ii is call«d kiJ/Ut^/i^ a 
nunc cvldemfy derived from in oft'Ttpnied err*" P- 397< (Kiltk- 
U«p«ic in SwAin»on, p. 19&.) 

fhtnitit. — " Hic Garlic rijiine of PaHtttmmy xivoi to ilic Dctalin \% 
the Lonj Iilontt. tignifyin^ bif^tf ih4 mttd'fM/'f, cxprcoet in a lingte 
woni Ju habits bctta Uijui any En^isb or Scottnli »)nunjiii,'* 


SUi^v&man Ort^ — ^Tlic suixcHivc ntirtca uf HW/r HV*'i lAd 
//XV DHier, applied to thit bird in vufouv p^rti of Am^ricn, voold 
Icftd us 10 auppo>c thfii tolkctor» have ttad »ome dlfliculiT '^^ McortBC 
ipc^imf^nis for [hfir cibmtefk" p. <07. 

Bt«uiihtvttttii Divtr. - Ui ciy in dry u^nthrr^ "TJk A*ir^t^ of 
B^nbrrula and Nonh Uiu Mimpue u Eo I^t:A.' dfwH/ dtM^.' M>>'x 
Av^ d/TLirFf^^jr/i, which may be imcri>f*tcd b? ibe <rord» ' Dr jtk t 

drink J drinl; : til* Liko it nvitly dried up '' "' p. 41 ;. 

Ca^«iMt Cuiiftmct, A» the Gulic Ettrt ait f a S^dan ** smfdlcs^ is 
the //frrrng-rird af the Hebrides" p. 4ro- 

bridUd mitrrat. ate instances of XqkxX iJiiTjr<:tion Ariksnc the Inh^r- 
m«ii : bnl these oamM hitve cvidentiy bctn AC^ujTcd tlirouKh intcr< 
course villi coUccion,' P' 425. 

UtiU ^11^.— Sea£iring people on llio thoiM of Eut Lothiui lAd 
Fif»biic " cjlEI ic ttit r^iAie 01 M«-dove^'* p^ 431. {Tbcy aic * tliouf^t 
10 indicate toush wc^ithcr out 11 lea.*^ uy« Ur- Wta. Andtnoi^ 
wrilinf from [tri|;ui« Ncwfi^undl^ndn to Mr Gr>y, on £tb Nav^ 18C9, 

P^ 433-1 
Fkim^r. ^* Tb« otl iihicb ibia bird yicldi by voiultin^ irlicn canglM 

l« highly vnJuwl by the nniivei of St. Kildn ak a cisre for all dlteACS^' 
p. S03' (A c}»cthtcai auMyaib of Iho oil i* eivcn : " \l \% ccrUmly » 
i^ch^ciil, anri ir po»r(f«« r^'R^ly aH the propmliis of codOivvr oil," 
elt.] WiLUAU GBOftOtt BL^OL 

Akvuaise des TftAmTtONW PopuiatxftUL i3mn. 44 pp, itrjcx. 
Amovi <£.) L'tiHidtJque de tn iradiEion, i6iqo. vui, l>4 PP- 
BitUXNJioiTJF (H.) Culturwindd u. Volkcrvcrkahr Svo. sSo pp. 

Dr LA FoJtTaue (J) L*^ Uaditiont » Cha]os«e; Sva Cmo, 

Hartland ^£. S-) The Sckcca <*t Fniry-talei- An Inqdry into 

Fairy MyiSoIocy. Cio^^n Bva viii, j72 pp. \V\ Scou- 1S9QL 
KOTKT^MAVs ^L) Gv«vndh«iupBege in MLUel^ilter t^ulturgrfvchicht- 

1kl»c Sludicn ad-cli ricdicctn 4cr J^, 14, \% J&hih. dra, rni, 

37* pp. Hiimbur^ IK90. 
KCAV&S (F. S-) V^lk^Uiil^G uud tclifCio^ci Bmuch dcrSiidtUrcn. 

Avo, »irl, 176 pp, MjtftMfri.AV, 1890 
LCLAiTD <A- C) Cypay Sorctry uid FofiuncicUiwi. 4l«- **li 

771 pp. Unv{n. 
NiaioLsoN [].) Folk-iorc of Eaw Yorksh«c. Cr. 8x0- xiiii, i6£ pp. 

London ' Sirni^ktitn Minhall and Co. iJ^90- 
Pmci {G-I UibIio]£rarift cjclk irndiuonc popoJore, Gvo. Turin, 


AVMUAM (F- V.) U«r HobcncuLlut Aimtiichn tind Europa^Hcher 
Vfilker. Ein« ctbnolcKiBcbc Studicn. £vo. 38$ pp. VioiDB, 

Data (It.) H«ilt|fe ItCbcn dcr altcn Gricchen und R')mer, Eine 
£fSuui:)ng ju F. v. Andjiin's Sclmit Svo. x $6 pp' VicnrL^ 


FciA'-Ure Btilicgrap&y. 

u. tltnord, Ofi£^- u. 378 aonft Quclli^ gcscbtipf: u. envicMn, 
Umlaci 169a 

DftUOSCB ;ii.) Reunion sad Mythol«p« <>Q Alt«« A«|et?(«- ^ad 
cdbiofL tro. Kxvif 77; ppL« <^ cuu« one pb<& LciptiK' 

Dyuwrnsn (G.; L«i Clumis cl \ts ft^Ai^Xrmt [>0|>uUkru dn An- 
nuntlCiH ismo. xmiv, j\^ p|>H TArit. 1&9U. 

kIuA and Lexicon dci M>i^cn>pr^h& 8ro, Kiel 
CreC'OK <K«v. WJ The Hort« in ScottUh Follc-li^ot: ntrto. 10 |i^ 

GtUMiHisfi dcT gcnrunlLchcn PhJologif- Vol i. part T, can- 
tftin» Am in^iALnitni of Mogck'* &rtic]« on Icutoak M)lhelog]r. 

jEKtMiA^ (A,> Jjiliihar-Nlmmd Kme nlitubj^onischc Hddesuagc. 
N4ch den KciUchiififfa^mcDtcQ du^eitelk. 9rO' TJ pp., 4 

Prrrror (Abb^ lu) Accord do mythobfilca du> b couMsoiue 


CurLD(FJO The Koglitfa ukI Scoti^tb Popotw BalM^ fjrtvili 

Rof. Svo., 1^4 pfi. &CD<oH ; Hougfiton^ Mifflki wkd C<l 18^ 
CUKriX {|.^ M>th and Fottc-tiWt of ik« Kmiuni, WetKfn S\kv%, 

Aod Maffyjtr*. Cr. 8vo. xxvi, 53} gup^ SampiOQ Lov aad Co. 

KvM-D.i IkMle the rpv. A colcccioo ot Uikh-Cadk folk- 

ictw«&, edilM, imfttbtted* ud vwoutrd by D. H, wUh 

a^ditiatMl notes by Alfred Ntalt- Sva Ivti^ 30^ pp. D. Nnt 

klAKOOlF.) KovaOiAc popu-iri S^rde, 8v«. ti, >44 pfi. PakraM. 

UlUEK HOVK (Un. U. R) 3i«mM • BIacL Nan* Sionai. West 

IndUfi FoOt-loce. Cr. Svo. Edkibsfh : W. bkKkvii^ wd 

Sov. 1590. 
SctooaajLfc (M DcttaAe V<Jh»frfctinip*Tk Ugtriir»nrkeea»^ 

aelt, nil AMmlntin and E ri aa ttM g e B> Mha tMn 

AtdMi«« - dw Lmkn Cbmti SpttI an dca GutktUc i«i 

SoCi^iA.) RMdncbt SaMiiJiiugtH- Z**iflc A htt J h ^. Ffta >M< i a 
«od tiedtfr Ib DUc^ne res BobUa. £vo«. 3 nii^ «■* GE»ab- 


Folk-lore Bibliography. 141 


CLousTON (W, AJ On the Magical Elements in Chaucer^s Squire's 
Taki with analogues, Svo> Chaucer Society. 189^ 

Etudes romaneSf dedi^es & Gaston Paris par des ^eves fran^ais ct 
Grangers- Svo. SS^pp- 

■%* Among the contents the following are of interest to folk-lorists : 
/. B^dier, Le fabliau de Richeut ; /. Cauraye du Pare, Chants 
populaircs de la Basse Normandie ; G. Raynaud^ La mesnie 
Hetlequin ; A- Thcmas, Vivien d^Aliscana et la l^gende de Saint' 
Vidian ; /- Flacky Lc compagnonage dans Le Chansons dcGeste; 
A. Salmon^ Rem^des populaires au Moyen-Age ; Ch. Joteij La 
l^gende de la rose au Moyen-Age chcz les nations romanes et 

L£Di£u (A.) Les vilains dans les ccuvres des trouv^res i6niO' 
116 pp. iSqo- 

MURKO (M.) Die Geschichte der sieben Weisen bei den Slaven. 
{Extr. Sitzungsbcrichte d. K. K. Akad. d. Wiss.) 4to. 138 pp. 
Vienna. 1890, 


BaBCOCK (W. H.) The Two Lost Centuries of British History. 
i6mo. 139 pp- Philadelphia. (An interesting rixumi of the 
Arthurian period.) 


KOVALEVSKV (M.) Modern Customs and Ancient Laws of Russia, 
being the llchcsier Lectures for ii)&9-9a Svo. x, 260 pp. D. 

Letourneau (Ch.) L'^volution juridique dans lea diverseg races 
humaines. Svo. 1S90 


Fotk'lore Biilxo^rapky. 


Aai&tic Qiuin<Ttr, Jjm. Hk Haja v//euf^^ Ltgrnd% and Soag* of 

AUi«nKiiDt, Ktb. 7- H^> -4- Ci^msi^n, Soaroc e^f Mad ind Unic6ni 
pAtabIc in Bvluira «id JouAph, 

dorck Time*, vjttlont NtM.. ]xn. jumI Ffftx 1S91. 'T^f^ iMmSan^, In 
"^ Vuix". di»ciu«» Items d Folk-lore. 

CkisiCAl Rerivw, v, 1. 3 (Feb. 1I91}, / & fnuw, iiw»1loir» in ih« 

Irish Off^n Olid tbc Afc cf StfUa. Jti<f. Kt^twniik^ TolUh 
Gni^ Folk-uks^ i?ii BatiAsTt Gypsy AcnAau fn Anrlri^: 
Marpport Ntwt^ !Jcc 13. Lecture or FAllc-lof«. 

NAtu», Uoc. in 1E9O' /f* fK ^fnjitfVk Who vo th« Amcriian 

?rDCe«diiifs <rf tbc Society of BtblteAl AnlvolotT* xui. 1 (Nov. 

Crs^tAyJhc iVovcrhiof Puh'lfotcp- 

Wcit CumbcrlAud Tkics* Dec. 1 3. I-Ccpon of txcivrc on Curabertnd 

Hfluiine, V, 7- //' CJii^r, La f^e McZunoe 1 LsMsnbo«f|:. L* 
Jc«tutF etc In (icn^^. La cli4iiton du Pflit Jcaji. Lc& ika <1« b 
conftlnicitonn L«s Aquc<:(jct. ht digi:<« <Jbl;itioffs ^ 1a ni*r. Le 
tuictdc- f' S. AVuwJJ, L'opCTiUicn a Esculapt' /. TutAmamit, Ls 
fiwciDMioo lMf/0^ ^' ^-f^t"*^. CTinn«nnft|iop|]|nir«ftdebli»«s 
OretJifine ; nv, Lc pAWftfc de la Li^ne. 

Rmie C«ltJqu(, ili, t. WkUiijF SttAts. Tbo Second Batik of Moy^ 
tura {fell lod tnnsbiion of oiio of Iho moti ivp«nuM teiuU oT 
ilie Iriih uiycholupc-il cydcV 

Rmw d#a Trmdltfon* PopuUces, l(v\ l^- ^^^ IlardOiin, TriulUioiu 
d iupcmKio&« cbinuiftM (iw/rfj ; ir, Concn u L^s^ades; v, 
Hbioirvs ilt rc^^iamft ct dc toidcrs. C Ak^«^, I^^jug^ en 
Louitiano^ /- Tic'Tfi/, La Kille ddgt&t4« en dri £?n« <h^«on iha 
Uorvui- />' CtmrtAtnin. Coatiunc» dc a»riac« ''vjAf vi^ t'ne 
no«« en B^tni. f- ^>MiM, Lrt IratLiioni piitiuliim cc Ah 

Foih'hri Bi&Ii&frrapky, 


auIftjrB. Qud<tue3 devineitea, I^ AUHn^ Coni«» iroycnt : 
i> Bouk-iJ«-NtIij[e ; \\, Ln Irms pmK Oti titftMr? ; iti, L'Ot^pau 
<^ui die (oui, /^ Skkler, Ran e( k^ Filler dc Kiois. k- Hian^irivtiy 
TT^dii^niiK ci bupcn^rliinni de U TowT-iine (in/f/) : ii, Prut g-iiide 
m^CAl- yl, CVrAwjTt Fac^tic« siiritcs- A ^iSifUf, Scccnde 
iwr : IntpnJj^ev (jkaiV): \'u Lts Ptonosii^fiJth de ition pfocluirne. 
— Juu iH^i, VI, I- A ^^Ulstt 'l>adltmnK ct tupcniUiont dtt 
poniL ct ctiauudet : j, Lch rouie* ; ij| Lea dicinint dc fer, 

Barif/t CliAn»CMi» ilu r<nuuvcncJJ>cjtC Oc L'a»di'c , i, Lou Ben 
Sfi. Jf. JfAtxm, MteUcfi de Folk-tore p:ifibEen, xi>-, V^ 
^Hjfrty La F£ic dc» Rois: xv, ChiODon tici Roi» Ji Caen. /, 
Brmty^t. Le petit bommc rrtuiiv «t Nnpol^on. R. Sassff, Aliu* 
»io&3 a dc> conlc« popuUirc? {4ititti* A. f^itcu^t Superstitions 
ei mtoiiimri dt* mnrin^era : lii, Lei Filote« Egyptienv F.'S^ 
\\\ L'Invcaiion <!rf flc-tt«j;e» : v, Kivn^c tiantf^ G. dt Hiaiky 
\x BaicliCT iW'Ait, \\. Mmr /*, StbUht^ Rcnuud cc *t* fcm)TLn; 
n, Hauic trctignc^ M. d/ Zmiif^rafxiii, Li Mfirc cl TlilnfaniL 
yf. Onv-vjr^ RiECi CI EJUfci fdc^iairet. ix- Z, Detaivtft \a 
l^S^nde de Thdophtle de Viau, A- K^sikrtt, La l^ff«Ad« de 

vii. Lj piifrrr d» SJiinl-Marlin irAMCviUicn (Somme)- A.Jittrott, 

La Tradition, 1S90, 11. ^f^ ^"^1 La vie sotiak chce Ics fauvaffei. 

B. BrtkkfT, Croyances et sitpcistUtons A^s lapini^. B^nmg/r- 

Finuidy £ouTC'(ucnio C<oikie provea^Al}^ ^L Jfur^u, Folk-lore dc 

fla Beljtiquv. li. 5. Fttfu^ Pio^etbts rcliiiLfa d U mn, iv. ^. 

flrfrwiJ/rtii^, Monitrct cc g^Axiti; vitl, Lo» C^ntt d« Nivdlu. 

//*, Canwr, ChAn»on» popuTaiic^ de Ia Picftnlic. K Brvmti, 

Cont«i populairet du Bociijfe Norraaad, iv.— ta. -1A rft ^jto- 

^ntfiitiit Lc Kolk'lofc polonai*. i>i Uiny J/. C. La L-ilt^raturc 

l^eotoo- jl/r Hadji' DiatHfitti, Ti^lnt-C'erasinMis el 1« Uocih 

f. PUtUttdit, D» Oui^eH dc prdibatJon ci dca couiumc& de 

nukr^c en Knincr. iu- /. firuiftt^ I-'Anr tlan^ tps proverbvA 

proTcn^uii, iii. K- B., Lei vicilles chansons popuUjrcii /^ 

OrU/it Moypa de relruu*cr tc (^otjja d'ua noy*. n. K Brvnef, 

Coatc4 populniret du bocage NQimfind, v. W- C^fi^Huuv , Procb 

toiitre let iimmaux (jufVtf), Duf'in, il\\,\nt.i>n de brtolage. F'Vr. 

rriff Ce/frvtlU, Praverbet Ni^oit- — 1B91, i, id DimSipn, Aoie 

rclctti* de " L* TtiidilJuii*, ^f. Suyft, U Saint-Eloj, T. 

I>jwdUfH, £lementi dft iriditionnitne du IbU'Icre; i^ Ixi ih^orio 


^olk'lore fiibitoptiphy- 

SrtxuarBbcrLcfcte der K. Preuu. Akftdemic dcr WitasachftHefv Siudc 

iri.tnu<h«i^ Mythologies (In itiia irii|jE>rtii/]l 4:iur :hv author 
irguci f h« (he Wane* were divmiibi of IjEhi, whilst Of in par- 
took of the n>iitir« of x Chthonian divinityO 

WicAC* 2«it»chriFt fur di« Kuade dH Mor^^Iondi^ iv, j {1S90J. 
/> Vk Abjj-Lj I^iJcssmi^clit S.i};!'. U'hiftrriSz^ Tuen- und 
Ahn<ficulms bet den Indoeuropiorn twith tq«ti&l rctcrcticc <o 
Ancknt I:<dtri) 

Zeiticbrift fnr Vi>Ilc«rps7iiha]ci£ie, vi, j (iS^i?). SStSntiMl^ Penodisdi« 
WicdcrKcb^Jrt tUr Saj^c 

Zvtxtrilt ilea Vcreifls ftir Volkftkimde. EniCT fahtKanjrk ItcA |. JtT, 
Wfrnki^l^, Ziif Einli«tiiii([. /»>w/ SifiitU^tl^ An ilen T^^wr, W- 
JfAa/i!''/*. Volksiiiraliclic Schbclichtcf- ^. ,1/«j(^/r, 7,ui Vollo- 
leu(art« U1:Ln<1t- ^. KUhfer^ Ein dcundiei MArrhcn von (kr 

Wetipr. n.vw.'jn Voistdlun^ iind Ride dcm Tirclrr Voll-ri _/iiijv 
ihm/GMa. Tamuind bci Coslin fi^oKtiption of Ltn folle-Torel Kkiiie 
Mittri^unfjen, lluchernnjcigen, Hihlifi^raphic etc* Jahfw iSqO. 

AArbo«2cr for NonJiak OldlcTtidiJIwd. -7,3 (1^9^)- /^ /ViVnm^ Tb« 
aJlCi:c^l ruh>^ioua itienmctncc of ihe l*cat and 3oK FiitdAEnflic 
Nonli ^infaicjtd nf bring poriion of S4cr«d ireuurf^ ih«y arv 
battle apoUa hidden away for safety?. 


VOL. n.] JUNE, 1891. [Ko. II. 


1 FANCY that many people still picture Lincolnshire 
to themselves as a region of bogs and swamps, of 
fever-haunted marshes, and ague-infested lowlands. I 
know that I, personally, expected something of the sort, 
when 1 first entered the county, and in speaking about it 
to strangers^ their first remark is apt to be, that we must 
have suffered much in those " dreadful fens'\ Now this 
is an entirely mistaken idea of the shire. 

Even in the South, the true fen district, the drainage 
system has been so widely carried out, that I am told the 
great marshes have been almost entirely reclaimed, and 
many hundreds of useless acres are now turned into fertile 
farm-lands. If this be true of the South, it is much more 
so of the Northern Division, which, to begin with, has in 
general a higher average level, and is more uneven in its 
surface, being also traversed by two long low hill ranges 
from N.W. to S.E. In the parts of Lindsey, there are no 
fens, their place being taken by the Cars, which were once 
wide swamps, bordering the course of a small stream or 
river. These have been drained, and I do not think that 
any now exist in their old barren condition, so great is the 
change that has taken place during the last half century. 
Broad dykes now intersect the fertile fields, and run beside 
the roads, on their way to join a central canal which 

VOL. 11. L 

146 Legends oj tkt Cars^ 

carries the waters of the district to the sea, the original 
river meandering now on one side now on the other, a 
mere brook of but a few feet wide, often dried up in 
summer. Drained cars like these lie along the wide 
shallow valley of the Ancholme, between the parallel 
ranges of the Wolds and the Cliffs ; the original Ancholme, 
a tiny twisted stream, being replaced, both in name and 
use, by a broad canal, which runs northwards for some 
thirty miles, as straight as an arrow, to join at last the 
wide Estuary of the Humbcr. 

Were this the place, J might speak of the elaborate 
system for regulating the outlet of the water ; of the 
yawning dykes that border or cross the roads, making 
them by no means safe on dark nights, holding, as they 
do, from two to ten feet of water and many more of shiny 
treacherous mud ; or of the lonely dwellings along the 
Anchoimc banks, only to be reached by a narrow bridle- 
jiath, with bewildering lanes of water on either hand, 
where a horse must be blindfolded before it will cross the 
frail wooden bridges over the noisy water gates at the 
jiiining of the dykes with the main Canal ; but I am more 
concerned at present with memories of the Cars as they 
once \vcre, a wild desolate drearj- marsh, full of strange 
sights and sounds, than as they now exist. 

NcN'cnhelcss they are still worth seeing, and have a 
beauty, or rather an attraction of their own. Stunted 
willows mark the dyke-sides, and in winter there are wide 
slr^-^tchcs i.>f black glistemn^ peat -lands and damp pastures; 
here aTKl there j^rcal black snags work their way up from 
subnier^j^ed forests below. When the mists rise at dusk in 
shifting wreaths, and the bleak wind frv^m the North Sea 
moans and whistles aen.>ss the valley, i: is not difficult to 
people the Cars once more wf:h all the uncanny dweliers. 
whose memor>' is prescrsed \\\ the old stories. Then in 
Slimmer, with its charm v\ \\i\i^ vision, and something of 
the ai;^pu;;:de and serenity of the sea. io its stretching 
le^'eLs aitd iar-ofi' h^jiiioo^ it seems to hold the brightness 


vou m 

JUNE, tS9l. 

INa ir. 


1 FANCY ihat many people still picture IJncolnAfrc 
to iheinsL-1-.'t.s as :i n^gioti of bo^4 and swamps of 
fcvcr'hauiitcd tnarwhcj, and aguc^infcslcd lo^vland*. 1 
knuw Ui;il I, |i*^iMiii.4l!y^ cxpecteJ somrttnng of ihe snrt, 
when I ursl cnlcfcJ ihc cuumy, itiid in sjKrakuig abuul it 
to Atrnn^Ecra, their Ant rcmarlc is apt to be, that viz must 
have suflc red much in tliosc "dreadful fcna'*. Now thb 
is an entirely mistaken idea of the shire. 

Even in the South, the true fen district, the dramof^c 
system hog been so widely carried out. th^it I am told the 
,jrr«al marshes iiave been almost entirely reclaimed, and 
many hundreds of useless acres arc now turned into fertile 
farm-lands. If thu be^ true of the South, it is much more 
SO of the Nonhcm DIvi&ion, whicli, to begin with, ha? in 
general a higher average level, and \% more unci'cn in itH 
surface, bcinj^ aUo trjvL-rsed by two long low hill nitiges 
from N.W to S.E* In the part^ of LJndscy, there arc nr^ 
Anu, their place being lalcen hy tJw Cars, which uure once 
Aide swamps, bunlcTiii^ i\vt counc of A small >trcdm or 
rivei. These have bccrn drainc^d, and I do nol tliink tltat 
any now exint in thcTr old b^rrc-n c«>n(litiun, !uj (;reat is the 
chait^ tlut has takci^ place during: the last half century^ 
Uroad dykc^ now intcn*cct the fertile fields and run bc--«ide 
the road^ on their way to join a central canal wbicb 



Lfgends 0/ the Cars. 

varied itiA^rs ; there are many Norse and Danish words, 
and some Roman and Normaa n&mca ; but in the common 
speech, French and Latin derivatives arc conspicuous by 
their absence 

The people themselves are not easy to make friendi 
with, for they arc strongly suspicious of stranger* ; but 
once won over, are nid to be ^launch and faithful Tlwy 
•re i^rave, long- featured, and rather raetandioly In foce, 
touchy and nrwrvnl in di*|»ndtion, and intensely averse; to 
change ur iiiru^uliiDn of Awy soft ; many of them tfvi: and 
die within the limits of a nanuw parisli, out?^idc of which 
they never ?tct fuot. The younger ^^encratiuna aic chjutf- 
LDg : but they show le^s disbelief in the eld legends than 
Indifference to them ; they socm (^rowinjE, not so fnuch 
less superstitious. Jt^ less imptcssiorablc. 3ut in some of 
the old people, there is still a simple serious faith that id 
delightful, and 1 do not think that elsewhere in England 
one could nowadays lind such a childlike certainty of un- 
seen things or such an unque^tEonlng belief In supernatural 

I have given ihji alight outline of the dUtrlct and sQme 
oTlts inhabitanis, in order to shew amid what ^UTround- 
ings lingur tlicse wUd tales of witchctoft, ;md the ?4imt- 
vrorld, In this little isolated home of folk-lore. Ifere, tn 
this bleak antl lonely tract, scarcely yet won over lo 
dvilt^ation, has dwelt for ages a people, ignorant, po^'crty 
stricken, weakened by m^larLa, and strongly alfccteJ by 
their wild home ; and here stiU, amongst a few ciders, who 
remember the traditions of their youth, and the t>clicfsof 
their fathers, liTigcr tales that tell of the old p^^an customs, 
that have perhaps e^eisted in these parts since the very 
dawn of history. 

I have gathered together a number of these storied- 
some of them were told me by devout believers, monly 
iiged folk, who dtilcd from the day? of iinixTtsal creduHty ; 
some were repeated aa ** rny grandad u^^etl to idi" — by 
younger pcopltr* and same were pieced together by scraps 

Legends 0/ ike Cars, 


KAined from 5e^*cral w>urcck One» which I call "The 
Dead Unor", \ f\T< hf^anl of ir> a nort of nursery rhyme 
uoine chilJren were ringing. 1 have listened to awesome 
Ule* of "boggarts*' and "todlowrtcs" ihat liave sttll local 
hahitatlcin-H as well a* naman ; and tn ;veinl slortrt r>f 
vrElchcs, and kvoc-uomcn and their spclU, lill 1 ueiiHy 
believed in them my^iclf; and to Mrangc, tumbling histories 
that seemed like peeps irto a bygone world, where the 
fanta^ic spirits were more real thar the trembling;, fcaiing, 
eondliattnn; people they alternately helped and oppressed. 
I fear 1 cannot p^cscr^-c the rude poctT>* and grace of the 
vernacular ; but I teil the^ stories of the Cars of the Anc- 
holme Vdley exactly as told to me, lest in atlerlng I 
might fipoil them. ! heard the firtt from ar aged woman, a 
life-Ionf; d^^-ctkr In these Cars, who in licr youn;; day* her- 
self obien^ed the rite she describes, though she would not 
confess to it wTthin the hearing of her grand-children, wh<«c 
indilTeionce and disbelief shocked her greatly. To her, 
-Tiddy M)in"was a perfect reality, and one to be loved as 
well a» (e^irTHl. She h now daul, nm\ I doubt whether 
anyone else kacni^ the Tegcnd, which she said had been 
forgotten for many, m<iny ycars^ by all but herself and one 
or two old friend^ aSI gone before her. 

I think the legend is, if not so poetical as some, a1 lea.Hl 
a carious one; and partkuWly so» as showing the uinalcly 
heathen idea of propitiation by offering There is an 
incoffiMqucncc and an incomptetencss about it for which [ 
am no: rc^jwnsiblc ; 1 tell it a* ft i^-as told to mc, and l 
have tried 10 keep to the old troman'i words as clocely at 
posfijble, only changing them whore the)' would certainly 
not be " underfunded of the people'* without art intimate 
knowledge of the dialect. 

"TlDDV Mus"/' 

Whiles ^nie, afore tha dykes wor made, an' Iha riv^er-bed 
changed, whan tha Car^ wor nobbuc bof;-lands, an' full o' 
watter-hoks ; Uia wor tccmfn, as thou mayst a' hccni wl" 


Legends o/ the Ciirj. 

Bo(»(iarts and Will-o'-iha-Wykcji, an' sidi loikc ; ^'oioe« o' 
deed Tolk*, an* hand< n-i'<»uten ftirms, that csmo T tlui 
darklins. mojinln' an* ciyin an' bockontn'all night thn^fT; 
todlowricH danciiV on tha ttiisock^ xn'wEtchcs ndiV on tha^ 
gfvat black snags, thai turoccl to snakes, an' raced 
wi' Vrni i' tha watt<?r ; my word ! Wor a Sitni*ttfi£e an' til 
place to be in, come everts. 

Folk wor gey skccrcd on urt nat'mlly, an' m-ouldna jiroo 
Atgh un wrouien a charm o* Aome sort, jiui a witches pink 
or a Bihic-ball w the loikc o" that. A'll tell tbec 
tliem another toime. Tha ^oo^ wf fio^bt, a tcU the«jf 
whan tha found their «el« i' tha Cars at darkllns. For 
sartatn, tha wor mostly ehakin J' they toimc* ; for tha agur. 
an* fe%-cr were terrible bad, an' ihar *<>r poor wreak cfj-som*, 
tx for nowt but to soop gfn an' eat op'um. In tna yottng 
days, we'd all tha agar ; tha women ower tha fire, tha men 
out ;' ihj garth, even tha bamte had tha shakes rej'lar.' 
Ay mcbbc:, tlia's better otff roa but a don't kncr^', a dont 
know, tha'x !o*i Tiddy Mun We^l, wecl. Tha ketwicd 
fainc that Uu fL-vei an'agui corned fra tha bogs, hot =«> 
corneas tha hccrd teil, that tha ma-aflhes mun be drained 
as tha ea' it, tha wor »orc miiconlented, for tha wor u*ed 
to un, an' thcr fcythcrs afore eai\ an' tha thowt, as tlia 
sayin' is, bad's bad, bxit meddling wv:t.s. 

Tha lellt un tine talcf, 'at tha m:3t3 'ud lift, an' tha 
bo;^ 'i>d come i' tha molds, an' tl\'ud be no'on agur ; but tha 
mihliked tha char^cment, an* wor main fratchcd wi* tha 
Dutchics, who coined acr«>is tha seas fot tha delvtn, 

Tha folk wnuld na give tha Diichiev viltle?:, or bcddln', or 
fair «*Drd» ; no'on let 'em crori?^ th^ door-^ll \ an' tha said lo 
each ithcr, tha aaid, as t'ud be ill days for the Cain, \\xi tha 
poor Car-tolk, no-bc tha bof^^holcji wor meddJcd wi', an' 
" Tiddy Mun " war tinhaf^ped. 

For Ihcc fcnow'st, Tiddy Mun dwdt in tha watter^holca 
doun deep i' tha green still waiter, an' a cofned out nobUit 
of n^enc, whan tha raifits rose. Than a corned crappeljn 
out i'tha darklins, ]Jni]>elty lobelty, h'ke a dearie u'co au'd 

Legends of ike Cars. 15! 

gran'ther, wi' lang white hair, an' a lang white bcardie, 
all cotted an' tangled K^ether ; limpelty-lobclty» an' a 
gowned i' gray, while tha could scarce see un thruff tha 
mist, an' a come wi' a sound o' rinnin' watter, an* a sough 
o' wind, an' laughin' like tha pyewipe screech, Tha wor 
none so skeered on Tiddy Mun like tha boggarts an' such 
hawiver A worn't wicked an' tantrummy like tha watter- 
wives ; an' a wom't white an' creepy like tha Dead Hands. 
But natheless, "twor sort o' shivery like when tha set round 
tha fire, to hear the screechin' laugh out by the door, 
passin' in a skirl o' wind an' watter; still tha only pulled 
in a bit nigher together, an' h'spit wi' a keek ower tha 
shouther, "'Arken to Tiddy Mun !" 

Mind ye, tha au'd Mun hurted none, nay, a wor real good 
to un at times. Whan tha year wor geyan wet, and tha 
watter rose i' tha marshes, while it creepit up to the doer- 
sill, an' covered tha pads, come tha fust New Moon, tha 
feyther an' mither, an' a' tha brats, ud go out i' tha darklins, 
an' lookin' ower the t>og, called out together, thofT mappen 
a bit skeered an' quavery like : 

"Tiddy Mun, Avi'-out a name, 
tha w-aiiers thruff!" 

an' all holdin' on togither an' tremblin'. a'd stan' shakin" an' 
shiverin'p while tha heerd tha pyewipe screech 'cross tha 
swamp ; 'twor tha au'd Mun's holla ! an'i*tha mom, sure 
'nough. tha watter ud be doun, an' tha pads dry, Tiddy 
Mun a done tha job for un» 

What's that? Ay' a called 'un Tiddy Mun, for a wor 
none bigger 'n a three year's bairn, but a hadn't rightly no 
sort of a name — a nivcr had none. Someday a'U tell thee 
how that corned. 

So's a wor sayin'. Tiddy Mun dwelt i' tha watter-holes, 
an' noo tha Dutchies wor a emptyin' 'cm out, while a wor 
dry as a two year au'd Motherin cake — an'thou'll no take 
much o' that. Hast heard tha au'd rhyme, as says : 

15* T^c^ends of ih€ Cars. 

**'riddr Mvn, vri-out a rumc 
^Vhite liwd, valkin' lam^ ; 
UTiiEc iha w3»*r iconis iha fen 
Tiddj Mld 'I) tuiLu ii;iii&*' 

Ad' thi; wot thA pother ! for tha xvattct-holcit wor nK>st 
dr>-, an" tlia \^atlcr wor drawrf off into big dykes, »o that tha 
soppy, quJvcrin' Ix^g wor iiirnm" in firm innldg. an' whccr'd 
Tiddy Mun be than? Ivrrybody saH as Ul times wor 
coinin' Tut tba Can 

But, howc^-CT, tha wor no help for 't ; tha Diitcbics ddvcd, 
9X\ th.V Dutdiic^ drawd tha natter ofT, an* ilia dykes gotten 
ever langcr an' larger, an' deeper *in' deeper ; tha wattcr 
ninncd awii\"^ an' runncd away dc\^*n to tha river, an' tha 
black soft bog^Iand-; 'ud soon be turned to green clo^in'Sv 

Jiut thoff tha \vork gotten done, it tv^jr no'on vri' out 
trouble. At the Inn «' night*, on tha grt^at settle, an' i tha 
garth};, an' i' tha kitchens to home, tha ti^pit s-trangc an' 
queer ta!e«, ay dearie me, Hinc'ange an' (jueer, but 'true's 
death I ail' tha fiu'd fc^Ik wagged tliLT hcad^ an' iha young 
unft wagged ther tongues, an' tha anci tliaut, an' tha itbers 

•' Ay, an' for sure. JtV ill comes o* crossin' Tiddy Mun ! " 
For m^k ma words I 'iwar fint ane^ -^ync anithcr o'llu 
Dutdiics WOT gone, clean 3pcrritcd away I not a niglit o'un 
any^vhc^e« ! tha !to\v't for un> an' aowt for un, but no'on 
a shado^v of un wor iver seen more, an' tha Car-folk kenned 
Eire, that ad niver 6nd un, nay, not if a sont till tha 
gowdcn Beasts o' Judgement come a-roarin' an' a mmptn' 
owcr tha Und, for to felt tha siinners, 

Tiddy Mun a'd fetted un away, an' drooned un i' tha 
mud holes whecr tha hadn't drawed olf alt tha watter! 

An" tha Car-folk nodded an' ^ard : 

" Ay, that comcd o' crr5s';in' Tiddy Mun ! " 

But tlia bruwt more Duh:hi(?« for tha work^ an' tboflT 
Tiddy Mun felted uii, an' felled un, tha work gotten on 
nathetc^^ aW tha \%.n no help for \ 

Legends 9/ the Cars. 


«oon thn poor Car-folk kcnnt that thft SLU*d Mun 
wor sore fraidicd m ivcrybod)'. 

For noon a nnccpit all T tiim ■ tha cow pired, tha pigs 
survcd, an' th^ jiownics wcnl lame; tlici bials look sick, 
tha lamb:ii clwJn«i, tha i:n-ird nn'al hnint *is«:n, an* iha rcw 
milk crdd^lcnl ; ttm thatch Cell in. an' tha n-allii burst out, 
an' all an' andcTs wtxxi iir»y-var»y. 

At nnt tha Cnr-folk oouldna think 'at tlm au'd Mun 'i>d 
worrttt's ain people sJch an' awa>- ; an' a thought mayhap 
'tu-or Ihxi uiichcs of tha tod low'ricfi. a« done it. So tha 
lad^ titoncd ihn wdl eyed Vh-itoh up to Gcrby oul o' tha 
Market-Place, an' Saify to Wadham v.-i' tha Evil Eye, she 
as charmed the dead men out o' ther graven, V tha kirk 
{vartha ; Uia ducked iftf In tha hor^e-pond whilcawor most 
dead; ar' tha at! said "our father" b^ick'anln an' *pat to 
the east lo kecj* ilia tod-lowncs* prank* of; but "iwor no'on 
helping; for Tiddy Miin 'itself wor angcrr^l, an' a wor 
ld*idn' tt on '* ptvw Car-folkx. Ar' whal could tha dn? 

The bainis sickened i' thcr mothers' airms ; an' ther poor 
white facc$ nivcr bri^jhtcncd ocp; an' tha fcyihers %\t an' 
smoked, while tha mothers grat, owcr tha tiddy innocent 
babbles lyin" theer 30 white an* amilir" an" peaceful. 'Twor 
like a frost 'at comes an' kills the bonniest flowcra. But 
tha hearts wor sore, an' Ihcr stomacli» empty, wV all thh 
sickness an' bad harvest an' what not ; an' somcthin' roun 
l>e done, or the Car folk 'ud roon be a' deed an' gone. 

Endlins, some 'un minded how, whan tha waiters ro*c 
i' tha marshes, afore tha delvin' ; an' tha folic ca'cd otit to 
Tuldy Mun, come New Moon 1' tha darkUns; a heerd tin 
an' did a^ a wor axed. An* th^ thout. mappon if Iha 
cad an age'an, so'« tc show un Uke, as tha Car^folk wished 
on well, an' that aVi gK^ iiti iha waiter back if iha only 
Cfiiilcl— maybe a\I lake tha b^d r|x.'11 undoncr, and forgive 
\m a^n. 

So tha fixed 'at tha should a' meet togithcr come ilia 
ncjfii New Moon down by tha cross dyke, ly tha au'd stopc 
nifh on to Joh:i Katton's garth, 

X54 Legends of the Cars. 

Weel, 'twor a reg'lar gathVin', there wor au'd Tom o' tha 
Hatch an' Willenij his sister's son, from Priestri^ ; an* 
crooked Fred Lidgitt. an' Brock o' Hell-gate, an' Ted 
Badley, as wor feyther's brothers to mc ; an' lots more on 
'em, wV women-folk an' bairns. A'll no say a wama theer 
masel, just mappen, thee knawst ! 

Tha coined i' threes an' fowers, joompin' at Ivery sough 
o' wind, an' screechin' at ivery snag, but tha didn't need, 
for tha poor au'd Boggarts an' jack o' Lanterns wor clean 
delved away. Mebbe ther's boggarts an* bogles still, an' 
witches an' things, a dunnot say ; but they good au'd times 
is gone i' tha marshes, an' tha poor swamp-bogles mun flit 
wi' tha waiter an' a seen "em go, mysel. 

Bui, hawiver, as a wor sa>in. tha comed. ever>' one wi' a 
stoup o' fresh watter in 's hand ; an' whiles it darkened, 
tha stood a' togithur, lispin' an' flustenn', keekin' i' tha 
shades ower tha shouthers, an' 'arkenin' oneasy-like to 
tha skirlin' o' tha wind, an' tha Hp^lap o' tha rinnin' watter. 

Come tha darklins at long last, an' tha stood all on 'em 
at tha dyke-edge, an' lookin owcr to tha new River, tha 
ca'd out a' leather, stra'ange an' loud, 

"Tiddy Mun, wi-out a name. 
Here's watter for thetj tak' iha spell undone - " 

an' tha teemed tha watter out o' tha stoups in tha dyke 
splash sploppert ! 

Twor se>-an skeerful, stannin' holdin' on leather, i tha 
stillness. Tha 'arkened wi" all ther might, to hear if Tiddy 
>[un answered 'em : but ther wor nothing but on-natr^ 
stillness^ An' then, just whan tha thov\'l 'twor noon 
good, ther broke out tha awfullest wailin^ an' whimperin' 
all round about em : it corned t)ack ards an for'ards. for 
all tha world like a lot o' little co'in' babbies greetin" as if 
to break ther hearts, an' none to comfort 'em : a sobbed an" 
sobbed therseis most quiet, an' then bt>;:an again louder "n 
ever, wailfn' an moanln' till a mad^* uns heart ache Co 
hear em. 

Legends of ike Cars. 155 

An' all to wanst the mothers cried out as 'twor ther dead 
bairns^ callin' on Tiddy Mun to tak tha spell undone^ an' 
let tha childer live an' grow strong ; an* tha pore innocents, 
fleein' above us i' tha darklins, moaned an' whimpered 
soft-like,as if thea kenned ther mothers* voices an' wof tryin' 
to reach ther bosom. An' tha wor women as said 'at tiddy 
hands 'ad touched 'em, an' cold lips kissed 'em, an' soft 
wings fluttered round 'em that night, as tha stood waitin' 
an' arkenin* to tha woful greetin'. Then alt at once, tha 
wor stillness agean, an' tha could hear tha watter lappin' 
at ther feet, an' tha dog ye'ppin' i' tha garth. But then 
comed soft an' fond-like from tha river hissen, th' aud 
pyewipe screech, once an' again a comed, an' fortrue, 'twor 
tha aud man's holler. An' tha kenned a'd tak tha spell 
undone, for ^twor so kind an' broodlin' an' sorry-like as 
never was. 

Ay dearie day ! how tha laughed an' grat together, 
runnin' an' jumpjn' about, like a pack o' brats comin' out 
o' school, as tha set off home, wi' light hearts, an' never a 
thought on tha boggarts. Only tha mothers thought o' 
ther dead babies an' ther arms felt empty an' ther hearts 
lonesome an' wearyin' for tha cold kiss an' tha flutterin' o' 
tha tiddy fingers, an' tha grat wi' thinkin* on ther poor wee 
bodies, driftin' aboot i' tha soughin' o' tha night win'. 

But fro' that day, mark ma words ! 'twor strange an' 
thrivin' 1' tha Cars. Tha sick bairns gotten well, an' tha 
cattle throve, an' tha bacon-pigs fattened ; tha men folk 
addled good wages, an' bread wor plenty ; fur Tiddy Mun 
had taken tha bad spell undone. But every New Moon as 
was, out tha went in tha darklins, to tha gainest dyke- 
edge, feyther an' mither an' brats; an' tha teemed tha 
watter i' tha dyke cryin', 

** Tiddy Mun wi-ouC a name 
Here's waiter for thee \ " 

An' tha pyewipe screech "ud come back, soft and tender an' 
pleased. But for certain-sure, if wan o' un didna go out, 


Legends 9/th£ Cars. 

c'ep a tvor Kictc, Tiddy ^Lxm tnfficed tin, an wor angered vA' 
un, an' laid tha spell on 'un "ardcr nor ever ; white a went 
wV tha (jthcis come next Nru- Monn, to av lh« ^pr*l 
umlonc. All' whan th;i batrnti uur ba<], ^ tclU u» aa 
Tiddy Mun ud fctt Vra ^way ^ an' a wor good as gold to 
once for iha kenned u» x'd do it. 

But thac ^^yi is gone by, an' folk now ken itowl about 
un. Ay. faix, is tt true for a' that ; a'vc seen an mysel, 
Itrnpin" by i' tha fog, all grey an' white an" sacechin' JiVe 
tha pycwipc, but "liji bug syne a's ben by, an' oVc Iccmcd 
tha watter out o' tha stoup too, but a'm too aud now, thou 
ftec^r an' a cannot wa!l<, ^incc year;; ^nc. But a guess 
Tiddy Mun's bin" frighted ai^ay wi* a' tha new ways an' 
ge^r, for folk dinna ken un no more, an' a nivcr hear say 
now, as wh: used to say when a wor young, an" amiybody 
bad a mrrt iVlrotiblc an' mischance, an" wry Kick, u« 

" Ah, thou aTnt bin out i' iha New Moor latH/, an* for 
ccrtain*sure, it's ill to cross Tiddy Man wi-out a name!" 

The next lefcciid wa::; obtained from a younf; f^iH of nine, 
a cripple, u'ho stated that she had heard it from her'* gran." 
Out I think it was tinged b)- her own fancy, which veemed 
to lean to eerie things, and she certainly revelled in the 
(jrnicsome desicriplions, fnirly naWirij^ my rte*ih creep with 
her word* and gestures. I have kept not only to the 
outline of her iitory, but in grciit \YAt\. lo her very wcirdA, 
which E think 1 aiuld not have made more effective cxxn 
If 1 liad wi:§l]ed to do ;io. 

Legends of thi C€irs, 


Tiie D£Atj Mo(>N' 



Long agon«, i'magran'i;tnime, thXar-lan's cloun by wor 
a" in bog5, as ihce's hccrd icll, mrbbc ! gra'at pooTs o" black 
wailtct,an'crrc|nTi'trick!i"?ii/ green ivnttrr, An' sijid^hy tncmlfi 
as'd soock owt in, as slept on un^ 

Wucl^my gr4n'it«cc) t<>s<i'ny» how Jong afworc hcrtoimc, 
itu aiocn*s k;!' wor towan^t dc'ad an* budcti i' iha ma-a^hca ; 
an' if tbcc Ail], all tcH thcc abocft it A5 she used for to tell 

Thfi moon tip >'ond", shone an" shone lo than» jest aa sl^c 
do now-, thoff Ihou moightn't ba' thowt it; an' whan she 
shore, she Joightcd oop a' tha bog-pads so's a body cu'd 
wa'alk abooi, motc 's *afc a« o'dayc, But when she didna 
shincj ihcn oot cam' a tha Thinc^ "^t doc»l i' iha Darknes-s 
ao' Slant aboot scckln' to do cvi) an' harm to all as woma 
safe bcttde thcr ain he":inhs. Harm an' oiiitchance 
an' mischief \ Bogles, an' dc'ad Things, an* crawHn" 
HorTX)rR: tha a' roomed oot o' noighti when the moon 
didna shinG. 

Wcel, It comcd so, *at iha Moon hecrd tell on a' this; an' 
ban' kin' an' K^ud — a.-* she be, ^yxttly, a^ihuiniii' fur us a' 
notghts, 'stead o' takin' her natVal rest; ihe wor main 
troubled to think o' w^hat went on ahlnt her baclc, loikc; 
an' says sbc : " All sec fur oiyscl, a wull ; it mebbc, at its 
ncnc »o bad ':t fo*ak mak' oot" 

So acwer "nulT. come tha month end. doun she atept 
hapt oop wi' a bhick cioak, an' a btaclc hood o'wct her 
yallcf shintn' hair; an' straight she went to tha Bog sdfi^, 
an' looked aboot her Watter here, an* vattcr there; 
wavm' tussoek.Sf an' trciTi'lin' niools^an' f^ra'at black snags a' 
miil«0 and bent ; an* afworc her, a' dark— dark, but the 
ghmmer o' tha niarn on tha pools, an' th^ luight ai romcd 
fro' *% 'atn white feet, stcalin* oot o' % black clo'ak On a 
went, ,'Ur into the mid' o' iha bog* ; an' ayt.- lojjliin' ^ibout 


Legends of the Cars. 

her ; w»* *l»w a morul quarc soi^t a« 'a looked on. Tha 
wttchet gtmed as ctu rode po^t on thct gm'at bUck cai^; 
an" tfiarvil Kyrglniw^red fm'tha da'arVc^^t ciimeni— on' tJu 
wilUii'-llid-wykt'T* cbncwl a* ;iImiH wi'tlicr Unlcrns swo^n' 
O^ thcr lucks. T^n tha <Ic'ad fo'ftk mac T thi w-^ttcr, 
nn' lookit fikiei' *cin in ivhitc t^tixin! fa'accA an' hd! 6fc T 
ihcr empty ccn-holc* ; an' tha slimy dnppEn' Dc'ad HaoV 
slithered aboot, hixkonin' an' pHntin*, and makin' y^ skin 
crawl wi' ihcr cowld wet feci 

'ilia moon drew 's cloak fA5lcr aboot her, an' ircmindt ; 
but a v«-QUldna gaw back, wPoot secin' a" thtr wor lo be seen, 
so or she went, steppin' liphl as tha win* in ftumraerfro't^ft 
totun, acwccn tha greedy gurglln' waiter hc'aU; an'j<*i 
a« ^e corned nigh n big blnck pool, 's Tut ^lipr, and a »<or 
nigh toomlin' fn— an' a grabb^ wP bo'otti han\ at a Ming 
near by, In steady "^se^ wi' ; but <n cum a* *hi? UmdHfd Jt. 
a turiTicd it^r round her wH^t^ loike^ pa'ir c' hanVLdfs.aji' 
gript her so '^ she cultlna move, SKc puUcd, an' Iwlstcdn 
an' FoM, but Iwor iiobn good ; a wcr fasi^an'a mo'o^tsU'ay 
fast ; so a' lookit aboot, an' wunncnd if help *<i coona by ; 
but a saw nowt but ahiftin' flurryin' evil Things, comin' S 
an* goin* here an' there busy wi' Ihcr ain iti wark, ^ 

Hut presently, a« a stond trcm'lin' i' tha da'ark a hccrd 
fiummat ca'allin' T tha dJstanco — a %'oice 'at ca'alled an' 
ca'alld, an* than dc"cd away wi' a jiob; an* then bej{an 
agean wi' a screech o' pain or fear, an' cad an' ca'cJ, till tha 
ma-ashes u-ccr full on tlia pUiftil cr>'ir* voice; an* than a., 
heerd steps floonderin' along, squbhin" i" tha miick, an" 
sllppjn' on' tha liifts ; an' ihrofT tha darkness, ^ >aw ban's 
caidiin' at the ^nagn art' Uia tussocks, an' a white face wf 
grc'at feared cycn, 

Twor a man ittiaycil i' tlia bogs ; an' a' roon' about un 
tha gimin" bogles, an' tha dc'ad fo'ak, an' tha crccpin' 
Morrors crawled an' crooded; tha voices mocked un, an' 
the Uc'ad Han's pJooclccd at un, an' ahcadi tha will o' tha 
wykea dani^elt thcr Untems, an' ahuk wi' eviJ clw. M \ 
led unfurder 'n furdcr fro' tharcct track. Mo-aacd wf fe>r 

Legends cf ike Cars. 





an' Irathin' for tha Thfrgsabool un, a stroaglcxl uii t<*«is 
iha flick'rin' loight« 'at [cHiked lnik<! Iic'p an' iVafcty- 

- ITiou >i>ndcr/' a'd frhrick. " Thou !— a'm Ci^tchcd i' tha 
bog-lim'> !— Hlost hear?— Gtjd i*n' Mii:y save 's fro" the 
Horrors — lic'p, thou yofjtlvi !'* An' then a'd stop nn' sob 
W moan an' ca' ni} a^ tba. ^aint* an' wiac iromcn an' God 
'i5>cl to fetch ufi 001. 

An' than a 'd break oot in a shriek as^ean, as tha slimy 
slithery thint^s crawled round un» till a couldna even ficc 
the fauie !jghb( afwc^re un* An' than, *s if 'twoma b&d 
anctigh a'rcady, the horrors 'd tak a* sorts o' thapce ; an' 
rampin' las£C« 'd keel: at un ui* bright cyeu^an' stretch OOC 
fioft ho'pjn' han'« ; but when ad ir>' to caich hof on un. a*d 
cha'an^ In '% grip to -ilimy things an' *h3(i>e]e*s wornu, 
an' iha wicked voices M mock mt wi' foul glee. An a' tha 
evil thoughts an' deeds o'$ life cam' an' whispct in 's car», 
an* dd'antx'fl .iZkjdI xn* \htKt\al ikiI tha <&E^n?t t)iin};>« i>\ 
ain heart, till a ^iickc:d du ^bU:d wi' pam an* ihame, an* 
the floTTors crawled an' gibbered rcon' aboot an* mocked 
un. At\' when tha poor Moon aaw 'at he wor coomin' 
nighcr an' mgher to the deep holc^ an' tha deadly quick^t 
an' furder 'n furdcr fro' tlie pad, a wor so mad an' so eovry, 
'at she Ktrof^lcd an' fowt an' pulled, harder nor ivcr. An' 
thoff a couldna get loose, wi a her twistin' an' touj^n', the 
black hood TcU ba'ack off 'a thoinJn' yaller hair, an' tha 
beautifu! light a; coomcd fro't druv away ilia darknei^ 

Ooh ! but tha man grut wi' py to i«e Gods ain light 
agc'an ; an' lowanst tha evil things fled baWk into tha 
da'ark eorficn : fur tJia canna bddc tha light. So tha left 
Hit, an' l^ed ; an' a could sqc whui a wor* and whiir ih^ p;id 
t^'or, an' hoo a'd hcv lo gaw fur to gc; oot o' tha jna'a^fi. 
An' a wor in sicb a ha-astc to get awa-ay fro' tha quicks 
an" tha bo^lan's, an" tha thing:i "at doolt IhuT, 'at a 9Ca'arce 
lookit at tha bra'avc light 'at coomed fro' tha beautiful 
thintn^ yaller hair Ktreamin' oot o'er the black cloak, ai^' 
bUin' to the waller at* feet. An' tha Moon's scl wor so 
tuk oDp wi' ^'avin' he, an' wi" rejoicin' at a wor ba'ack on 

158 Legends of the Cars. 

her ; an' 'twor a mortal quarc soight as 'a looked on. Tha 
witches girned as tha rode past on ther gra'at black cats; 
an' tha evil Eye glowered fro' tha da'arkest corners — an' tha 
will -o' -tha- wykes danced a' aboot wi'ther lanterns swingin' 
o' ther backs. Than tha de'ad fo'ak rose i' tha waiter, 
an' lookit roon' 'em in white twisted fa'aces an' heU fire i' 
ther empty een-holes ; an' tha slimy drippin' De'ad Han's 
slithered aboot, beckonin* an* p'lntin', and maktn^ yer sJdn 
crawl wi' ther cowld wet feci. 

Tha moon drew 's clo'ak faster aboot her, an' tremmelt ; 
but a wouldna gaw back, wi'oot seein' a* ther wor to be seen, 
so on she went, steppin' light as tha win' in summer fro* tuft 
to tuft, atween tha greedy gurgltn* waiter ho'als ; an* jest 
as she comed nigh a big black pool, 's fut slipt, and a wor 
nigh toomlin' in — an' a grabbed wi' bo'oth ban's at a snag 
near by, to steady 'asel' wi' ; but so cum as she touched it, 
a twined itsel' round her wrists lolke a pa'ir o' ban 'cuffs, an' 
gript her so 's she culdna moyc. She puUed, an' twisted, 
an' fowt, but twor no'on good : a wor fast, an' a mo'ost sta'ay 
fast ; so a' lookit aboot, an' wunncrd if help 'd coom by ; 
but a saw nowt but shiftin' flurryin' evil Things, comin' 
an* goin' here an' there busy wi' ther ain ill wark. 

But presently, as a stood trem'lin' i' tha da'ark a heerd 
summat ca'allin' i' tha distance — a voice 'at ca'aUed an' 
ca'aird, an' than de'ed away wi* a sob; an' then began 
agean wi' a screech o' pain or fear, an* ca'd an' ca'd, till tha 
ma-ashes weer full on tha pitiful cryin* voice ; an' than a 
heerd steps floondcrin' along, squishin' i' tha muck, an' 
slippin' on' tha tufts ; an' throR" tha'darkness, a saw ban's 
catchin' at the snags an' tha tussocks, an' a white face wi' 
gre'at feared eyen, 

'Twor a man strayed i' tha bogs ; an' a' roon' about un 
tha girnin' b<^les, an' tha de'ad fo'ak, an' tha creepin' 
Horrors crawled an' crooded ; tha voices mocked i^n, an' 
the De'ad Han's ploocked at un, an' ahead, tha will' o' tha 
wykes dangelt ther lanterns, an' shuk wi' evil glee) e> % 
led unfurdcr 'n furder fro' thareet track. Ma-azei 

Legends of ike Cars. i6l 

But tha dead Fo'ak writhed an' gimed about 'a, an' 
chuckled to therseVs. 

"Wc'se bury thee, bury thee, doun wi' us i' tha black 
mools !" 

An' age'an tha a' shouted wi* spite an' iU-wilL An' tha 
poor Moon crooched doun, an' wished a wor de*ad, an* 
done wi'. 

An' tha fowt an' squabbled what tha should do wi' her, 
till a pale gray light began to coom V tha sky ; an' it drew 
nigh the dawning. An' when tha saw that, tha wor feared 
lest tha shouldna hcv toime to work ther wuU \ an' tha 
catched hoi' on her, wi' horrid bony fingers, an' laid her 
deep i' tha watter at fut o' tha snag. An' tha dead fo'ak 
held her doun, while tha bogles fo't a stra'ange big sto'an 
an' rowled it o'top o* her, to keep her fro' rising. An' tha 
towld twae o' tha will o' tha wykes to la'ake turns i' watching 
on tha black snag, to see 'at a lay safe an' still, an' couldna 
get oot to spoil ther sport wi' her loight, nor to he'p tha 
poor car-fo'ak to keep oot o' tha quicks an' ho'als o'nights. 
An' then, as tha grey light corned brighter i' tha sky, tha 
shapeless Things fled away to seek tha da'ark comers, an' 
tha dead fo'ak crept ba'ack into tha watter, or crammed 
thersel's into ther coffins, and tha witches went ho'am to 
ther ill-do'ins. An' tha green shmy watter shone V tha 
dawnin' 'sif nae ill thing 'd aye coom nigh it 

An' thur lay tha poor moon, de'ad an' buried i' tha bog 
till sum 'un 'd set her loose ; an' who'd ken whur to look 
fur a? 

Weel, tha days pa'asscd, an* *twor tha toime fur tha new 
moon's coomin'; an' tha fo'ak put pennies i' ther pockets, 
and straws i* ther caps so's to be ready fur a, an lookJt 
aboot onquietly, fur tha moon wor a good fricn' to tha 
ma'ash fo'ak, an' tha wor main glad when tha da'ark toime 
wor ga'an,an' tha pads wor safe age'an, an' tha Evil Things 
wor druv back by the blessed Light into the darkness an' 
tha watter ho'als. 



Lfgrads of iht Cars, 

Utit <lays an' da'ay« p;ift^, an' th:i neu' moon nivcr 
ca'amc^vi' tha nif;hu wor aye daVk, an* th' EtII Tbtnj^ wor 
badclcr nor fvcf- Thcr wor no 'on a loaning «ife to travel, 
un* tha boge[an« crept an' n^ailcd roon' tha booses an' 
l<e«kit ifi at the wtndcf^ an' sraxpit at tha latchcft, till dia 
poor bodtcK mun kv'p lights a' nfght, ehe ilia horrors 'd a 
coonicd owcr tha varry dooisils. 

Ayc«o,thabog1ca o*W soilSKcmod tola' lost a'icaxfnV 
TfiA 1i(3wlcd an* lafft an' ^crcccht aroon', fit to ^a'akc tlia 
i|«'l<l thcricl's, an' tha Car-fo'ak mtin ^t trcmmlln' an' 
iihakin' by tba foirc, an' could nor sJccp nor rasl. nor ^t lit 
dcroAs tha sir, a' thac da'ark an' dreary nijchta. 

An' still tha da'ays went cn^ an' tha new moon nh'cr 

Nal'mlly thapoorfo'ak were stra'angc feared and ms.x^, 
nn* a lot o* ur went to thr wekc- woni;in wha <1t>olt V th' 
'iivrd mill, an' axed cf mj be S llid «:oulJ fin' vol wht-cr tha 
lni>on wor ira'^in. 

" Weel " '(.lid -**hc, artcr lookin' i* iha brewpoti and i' tha 
mlrrivr, an' i* thii Dook, " It be main quarc^ but a canna 
iwOy tell yc »hal'* hapt ui' her It be dark, dark, an' a 
caiiiin ncc now-t i" Iha spells. Co'a aloiiv, chtldcr, a 'II 
tldnk on ft, an' mappcn a 'l\ can hc'p yc yet U yc hear o' 
aVllitn^j coom by 'n tclt ma ; 'n annyivnys pit a pinch o' 
anhj a ttra'aw, an' a button on the door sil o' nights, an' thn 
llormfii 'II no can coom ower it, light or no light" 

Ho tha want ther wa'ays; an' afi d,i*a>'s want by, an' 
liKrr a mcon come, nat'rally Iha talked — ma wonl ! a 
IfvbMii tUa ifi^ la'alkf thcr ionics wagged like kenna 
h'hrtti a( ho'am, an' at th' Inn, an i' tha ^;4rtlL But no covnc 
lUV* dEi'A)\ a^ tha ?uLt on tha graal ^li\c V th' Inn, a man 
^\W Om fa'ar en' :>' th' bo^lan'» vti.% smokin' an li^tcnin', 
uhuii all to wan»t, a «at nop 'n slat>t 's knee. " Ma faicks !" 
^'in% V, " A 'd clean furt^ot, but a reckon a kens whcer Iha 
inintM be 1" an' He IcIH 'cm hoc a wor lost i' tha bog^, an' 
itsuk -ahrtt a vror nigh de'ad v-V flight, tha toight shone oot, 
t\W >t' t^aKvil Thmt^sfled ai\-a'ay, an' a fund tlut pad 'n ^ 

t^a^tnibi of the Car^ 

" An' a \iiOT so maied wi" fear, loikc." ftaya he,. " a didn't 
rcctly look whocr the light corned fro'; but ^ mind fine 
'twor njift an* white like ilia moon's scl*, An H corned fro' 
aulliin* iJaVk iuinin' nigh a black stiag i' tha matter An' 

didn't rcctly look," lays he age'an, " but a seem to miiui a 
^ihlntn" fa'ace an" yallcr hair i" (he miil'o' ihc daijlc, an' 
Vftd a sort n' kin* U)rik, loike tli' uml nirjoii \l^u1 ^boun tha 
Cart o' nights. 

So aff iha a' ^^-ant In Iha wise ivoman, an" lcl!l un aboot 
it, ui^ a looked 1an(; F ihc pot An* tim Dock agc'an. an' tluin 
a nodded '^ hc'adn 

'^ Its da'&rk 5tlU, chilcicr, da'ark I" says she, " an* a canna 
recti/ sccowt, but do '% a tell ycj an' yc'U fin' out for 
ycrsers- Go'a all on j-c, juU afwon; the night gather*, pit a 
sto'cn i' ycr gobs, an* tak' a battel twigi' ycr haii% ^ 
Itoy ne'er a word till j*er safe ho 'am a^e'an. Than wa\%II< or 
an' fear nowt, fair i«to thii tnid' o' iha ma'asli, till ye fin" a 
coffin, n can lie, an' a cross. Th^in yc '11 no be far frac 
ycr moon ; look, and mappen ye *ll fin'. 

Tha lt»okit each at ithcr, ;tn' scraUhcd thcV heads* 

" But whccr 'II us fin' her, inothcrr saya sine. 

'* An' hoo 'II OS goa ?" s^y^ t'other, 

" An >i-ull na' ilia bogle* fctt ua? " say.n arolher, an' mj on, 

"Houlif" 5.-i[d she. fratchcd loikc, •' tassel o' fools! 
A can tcU yc- nac moic; do as a tcllt cc *n fear nt>wt ; 'n' cf 
yc don't Icike, than st&'ay by tha hoosc, an' do ia i' outcn 
ycr moon cf ye w«ll" 

So cum tha ncx' night i'tha darklin's, oot tha want a' 
the^tlwr, iv-ery man wt" a ftto'oi in'* moath. an" a harcj- 
tivig in's han\ an' feelin'» ihou ma\ >l reckfrn, main feared 
an' creepy. M tba Ktummelt an'Klctlered aloiifi; tha pads 
loto the mid o' tha bogs ; tha seed rowt, rrirover, thoff ihrt 
iccrd iiighin'* an' fliM'iin*!; i' ther care, an' felt cowld wet 
inger> ttchin' 'cm . hut on iha ivaril, hiokin' aroon* for tha 
coffin, tha can'le. an' tha cross, while tlui corned n£gb to 
the prjol fl<tdr o'tha great sniig.whrtT the moon laybuncd 
An' a" timau-tl Iha sui^rt, ijui-ikiii' an' inajrrfd an' ^kccrv, fur 
itieer nxir tha ^ra'dt ^to'aEk, balf iit, half uiit, o* iha waiter, 

» 1 


L^^ends &f ih^ Cars. 

hit a' lb' warl' 1oik« a ilra'ange b^ cxiffin ; an* at thai bc'ad 
wor tha bl^ck snag, «trctcMn' oot's tivac arm^ in a <brV 
ffrewKtmc cra^; 411' on it a tVIdy liglil flkVcrvJ, 1lk:r a 
dccin* canlc. An' tha a* kndt down V tha niucK, aa' 
CTO!Li«d thcTMr.s,an'«iid,"Our Lord* fu'ri f(>r*ard 'cau«c o* 
tfia cross, an' then backward, to Icc'p off tlu Bogles ; but 
wi'oot flp'ftkin' cut, fur tha kcnn^ aa Iha Evil Thin^ 'd 
catch 'cm, cf tha didna do a« tha tti«c u'ocDan tcQt 'ctn. 

Tlian tha \h-art Tfi^hcr, an' tliA took hoi' on tha bag 
eto'an, an' shoved un oop, an' artcnvarxb tha said 'at fur 
wan t:d<ly minute, tha seed a stra'ang£ an' beautiful fa'acc 
lookir' ocpp at 'cm glad loikc oot o' tha black waiter ; but 
tha light doomed so quick 'an to white an' ^hinin', 'at tha 
slept ba'ack mar^d wi' k, an' ui' tha gie'ai angry watl as 
cootncd fro' tba ficein' Horrors ; an' tha varry nex^ minute, 
when they cikiild si^ a^'an, thecr wur \\va full lEWmn 1' tha 
sky. bright an' beautiful an" kin' V 'ivcr, shiiiin* an' ^mtlin' 
deun at 'cm, an' iiukiii' th^ bujfS an' du |3ad^ ^L^ clear jj 
da'ay, an' itcaliri' into tha varry comers, as tho/TsJie'd ha' 
dniv thn darknc.v<t an' tha Holies clean awa'ay cf a could 

So ho'am tha Car-fo'alc want, ^I^V ^'^^ ^"i' %ht hearts ; 
an' ivcr 3cncc tha moon shines brighter 'n clearer cwcr tha 
Hoji-1 than ither whccm ; fur a mind's fine, 'at tha Horrors 
coom wi' tha da'ark, an' mischance an* onischicf an' a' evil 
ihin^r an' at tha Car-fo'ak sowt her an' found her, u-han 
a wor dc'ad an' buried i' tha Bog, an* maVk my i> o'ds, it be 
a' true, fur tna grain 'aset a seed the snag wi' its Ivh-ac arms 
fiir a' iha warl'loilcc a great cro?«, an* tha green fdimy 
wetter at 's fut, wht'cr llm jjuor iihujm wur biinc<l, an* the 
ftto'dn near by 'at kep' a doun. while Uia wise woman wnt 'ft 
Car-fo'dc to set a loose, an' pit a 'm\ sky age'arL 

The following story U of a different character, more of 
\ihtX 13 known among folk'loi-i:(t; as a CrolL U acemj to 
be a continufttion of the stof>' dhut <f CVtf/, which I ^nt to 
Mr Lang £omc time ago, and which was pruited by him 
in L^pnatis M*^aaw, and af^cnvards in Folk- LORE. 
It was told mo by the same person. 

Legends of the Cars, 165 

A Pottle 0' Brains. 

Once i' these parts, an' not so long gone nayther, there 
was a foot as wanted to buy a pottle o' brains, for he was 
iver geltin' into scrapes through his foolishness, an* bein' 
laughed at by iveryone. Fo'ak telJt him as he could get 
everything a liked from tha wise woman as lived on 
the top o' the hill, an* dealt in potions an' herbs an' spells 
an' things, an' could tdl thee all as 'd come to thee or 
thy folk. So he tellt 's mother, 'n axed her if a should 
seek tha wise woman 'n' buy a pottle o' brains. 

*' That ye should," says she : " thou'sl sore need o' them, 
my son ; an' of a should dec, who'd take care o' a poor 
fooi such 's thou, no more fit to look arter thysel' than an 
unborn babby ? but min' thy manners, an* speak her 
pretty, my lad ; fur they wise fo'ak are gey'an light 

So off he went after 's tea, an' there she was,- sitttn' by 
tha fire, an' stirrin' a big pot 

*' Good e*en, missis/' says he, " its a fine night.*' 

"Aye,** says she, an' went on stirring. 

"It'll mebbe rain/' says he, an' fidgcttcd from one foot 
to t*other. 

" Mebbe," says she. 

"An' mappen 't 'ull no," says he, an' looked out o' the 

" Mappen/' says she. 

An' he scratched 's head, an' twisted 's hat 

"VVeel," says he, "a can't min' nuthin' else aboot tha 
weather, but lemme see ; the crops is gittin' on fine." 

** Fine," says she. 

"An*— an' — tha beasts is fattcnin*/' says he. 

*' They are," sajs she. 

"An'— an' — " says he, 'n comes to a stop— "a reckon 
we'll tackle business noo, hevin' done tha perlite hke. 
Hev' ye ony brains fur to sell ? ** 

1 66 

LegiKiis of the Cars. 

" 'riial tJcpcn's" say* site, "ef Ihou want^ king'* brainti, 
or MMlgcr'K brftinA, or ^hoolmc'astcr^s brains, a Oirma 
Kcci> 'cm," 

"Hout no." St^y6 he, "jist ord'nar brains— ftt Alt any 
fool — 3amc 'a every one hus 'bout here ; suthin* clean 

" Aye w." says tha wise woman, " &' mlglil mana^ that, 
tfsobclhouU hdpthyscr/" 

" Hoo 's that fur, missii? " says hc^ 

"J«at so" says she, lookin" iii s pot ;'* bring mc the 
he;trt o* tKa thing thou Wkc^ hetiK o' all, an' a *U tell thee 
where io get thy potllc o" brains," 

*'BLtt/' «ays he, scnitchtng his head, '*hoct can a do 

" That s no 'oi ftir me tn say." say^ she, *' fin' ooi fiir 
thyser, my \nd\ cf iTiuu cU^nii want In }ic ft fool a* thy 
ilays, Bui thou '11 hev' to read me a iiddlc so 'a a c^u we 
thcxi '^it bi'ouj^t the rcet thin^,', An' ef ihy hrainH in 'boot 
thcc. An' a 'vc suthin' else to sec to," says she, "so 
godc'en to ce/ arid »Ue carried the pcjt away vn' her into 
th;t hack pl&cc. 

So off goes the fool to 's mother, nn' tclli her vrhat tha 
w\$e woman said. 

*" An' a reckon a "11 hcv to kill that pig," says he, " fur a 
like fat bacon better nor iv'erythinV 

" Then df» t, my lad," siiitl '-i mmber, " fur sartiin 't 'ull 
be a stra'&ngc nn' good thing fur 'ce. cf thoi* canst buy 
a poTlIf? o* brains, an* be ab!i; to look arter thy ;i>n 

So be kitl^ 'i pig, ^n' t\c\' day oH a went to tha wise 
woman's collage, an* there slic sat, rcadin' in a g/cat 

"Godc'cn, mif^is," tay he. *a Vc brought thcc tha heart 
n' tha thins* ^ ^i^^^ hes^ ^' ^'1 i ^i^* ^ ptit it hapt i' paper 
on Iha tabic" 

"Aye so?" says she. an' Looked at him through her 
Kpcc'itals. *' Tell me this then, what rin* wt'oot feet ?'* 

L^'gcnds of th€ Cun. 


lie scratched 'shcad. ar*" Utowrt.but a couldn't 

"Go thy vjstyV'si^y^ !»b^>"t^<^u'^t ^^ ^^'^ ^c the reet 
thing yci. Tsc no'on bnins fur *cc to-day'V An'*hc cJapl 
the book togithcr, an' t'orucd 's back. 

So offtlia fool went to tell '^ mother 

But a* a got nigh the hoosc,oot came fo'ak runntn' to 
tcH un "at ^ mo:hL*r wn.i decin'. 

Ati' u-hcn hv got In. 's mother ony looked at an, an' 
smiled, *Ti K to say «lic could Ichvc tin wi' a qu\t:i min, 
Kcnct? A'd got bntiris 'null" m^ to look arlci % sel' — <iii' ifiun 
she dnU 

So doLn a sal. an' the more « th^wt aboot it tlic baddcr 
a fcclcd. He mindcJ hoo she'd nuss'l un when a ^*'or a 
laddy brat, an' hc'pcdon wi' '^Icwons an' cooked N dinners, 
an' mended '5 clouts, an' bom wi' '6 foolishncaa ; an' a iclt 
■icr 'n' sorrier while d began to sob an' greet- 

"Oh, ipcthcr, m»jlhcr!" t;iiyr» he, "who'll l,ik" care on me 
rj Tbou Wouldn't hev' lof mc alo'an, fur a Uked tbe« 

iter nor iverything I" 

An" as he said that, he ihow-t of the words o' die ui*e 
woman. "Hi.yi T ^iay^ he, " niiiiil a cut ool mother's heart 
an' lak' it to her ? A dlsna like the job^" an' lie took 00: 
a knife an' felt '* edge. 

"No!acan'ldo't."say»he, "Wliat'll a thi 1 what'll a 
lo to get that jioltlc o' biams noo a^m iilone i' iht wurl' >" 
So a thon t ail' tJiowl. an* next day a \vcnL un' burrDueJ n 

:k. an' btindclt > mntbcr in, an" carried it on 'a sJiowthcr 
up to th' wi:tc ^voman'- cottage. 

"Godc'cn, miwi^" days he. *'a rcdcon a \c fot 'cc the 
reel thing thin time, siirc/r/' an' he plumped the wickdoan 
kerilap ! in the duor^iiL 

"Mebbe," sa)-s i!ic v/ls.e woman, '^but read me this, 
noo. what's j*aljer an* Khinin' but isna goold ?" 

An" he sciatchcd '4 head, an' ihoivt, an" thowt, but a 
couldna trl], 

"Thovi^t no hit the reet thing, my lad/' $ay£ the. "I 

i^ L€g€mJs of the Cars. 

doubt thou's a Iri^er f<x^ eot a thoo^ T an' AA the 
door in ^s face. 

" See there T says he, an* sets doun hy tha road side an' 

" A\-e lost tha onV tR-ae things as a cared for, an' what 
else can a fin* to buy a pottle o* brains fti' !" an' he £air 
howled, till tha teais ran doun into 's mooth- An' oop came 
a lass as liv-ed gainhand, an' looked at un, 

" What's oop \^-i' thee, fool?" saj-s she, 

** Oo as killed ma pig, n lost my mother, an' a'm nobbut 
a fool m>-sel\*' saj-s he, sobbin\ 

" That's bad," says she ; "an' he\-na thee anybody to look 
arter thee ?*• 

'' Naw/' says he, " an' a canna boy my pottle o' brains 
fur thurs nuthin" a like best lef ! " 

'* What art ta'alkin' aboot" ! says she. 

An* doun she sets \yy him, an' he tellt her all aboot the 
wise woman an* the pig, an^ 's mother an' the riddles^ an' 
'at he was alo'an i' the warld- 

"Weel," says she, "a wouldn't mi nMookin* arter thee 

'* Could thee do 't ?" says ha 

"Ou, ay!" says she, "fo'ak says as fools mak' good 
husban% an' a reckon a'll hev thee, ef thou'st willinV 

" Can'st cook ?" says he. 

" Ay, a can," says she, 

"An' scrub?" says he, 

*' Surely," says she, 

" An' men' ma clouts?" says he. 

■^A can that," says she. 

" A reckon thoult do then 's weel 's anybody/* says he; 
" but what '11 a do 'bout this wise woman ?" 

" Oh, wait a bit," says she, "suthin' mowt turn up, an' it '11 
no matter ef thou 'rt a fool, s' long 's thou*st got me to 
look after thee." 

*' That's true," says he, an' off tha went and got married. 

Lfgrnds 0/ fir Cart. 


An' she kept 's house so dean an" neat, an* cooked 's 
dinner 30 fine, at one ni^jht a says to her : 

" Lass, A "m thinkin' a like thee beat o' iverythin^f, arlcr 

" Thit'fl gond hcarin"." says *he, " an' what then ?" 

" Hev 'a got to kill thcc, do*t thinV, an" take thy hcarc 
oo^) to the wiw itfomar for that jnUtli'- 1>' hrams?" 

"Law*, nol'^s^ys she, fookin' skccrctl/'a uTnna hev' (hat- 
nut sec here; thou ditln't cut oot ihy mothers heart, did 

" Naw ; but if a had, mehbe A'd a got my pottle o' 
braia*," aaya hc- 

"NqI a bit o'C Kays she; " ji^t thou take mc 's a be, 
heart 'r all, 'n a waRcr a HI help thcc read the nddlcA." 

"Can ihcc uo?'says he, doubtful like; "a reckon thon 'a 
too hard for wimmcn fo'ak." 

" Week" says she. " let e sec noo. Tell 's llie first 'un/" 

'* What rin» w-r oot feel ?" say* he 

" Why. watter V sayn the. 

" It i!o/" *ay?% he, iin' scratched \ ht^ad, 

" An' what s yallcr an' shmtrr\ bul isiia goold ?" 

"Why, the -HUH I'Says she. 

" Faix^it be !' says he *' Cooni, us '11 go oop to the wisr 
woman lo^Y,1ntt," antl oflf they went An' as they corned 
OOp the piid, she wor sittin* at the door, twinin' >lra;v^ 

" Uode'en, mitiw,'' -lays ha 

"Godc'en, fooi." my> she. 

"A reckon a 'i fo't e the rcet thtng to last,'' fays he, 
" thoflf a hevn't azac'ly cot th' heart oot. it be so moocky 

The wise wcman looked at 'cm both, an* yvtped her 

" Cansi It'll ine wliiii ih^t Ix.-, a^ has first nae legK, an' 
then t^ac leii>. jn' cn'a wi' fuAcr legs?" 

An' the fool scratched 's hcad^ an' thowt, an' tliout ; bul 
m coul<ina tell. 

i;-0 Lt'^iMik oftk£ Cars. 

An' the X^lss whispered in "^ ear : 
"It be a tadpole," 

" Mappen/' s^i>^5 he then. " it mout be a tadpole, missis." 
The ui-^e woman nodded s head. 

'That s roet." ^>-s she, "an' thou'st got thy pottle o' 
brains aVoady/' 
'' Wheer be the\"?" sav-s he, looktn' aboot, an* feelin' in *s 


** In thy wifos head.'' says she. ^ The on'y cure fur a 
foot 's a ^Oixl wife to look arter 'n, an' that thoii'st got; 
so jjode on U\ 'cm \" An' wi' that she nodded to 'cm, an* up 
and into the hoosc. 

$o thi?y went ho'am together, an' a niver wanted to buy 
a pottle o" brai[is a^* an» fur s wife 'ad cnuff fur both. 

M. C Balfour, 



ONE of the best known legends of da^ical authont 
n?tate« to a fibled nation of warlike women, 
deprived of tlie u*e of ont,* breast by a process of cauterisa- 
liofi and known as Amnzonn. According to a well- 
auth«ntic4tciJ cuslcjm, still c-wrrnif ;im<tiij| Ihr Clicrkrs or 
Adiehc, the Abklus, ami losumccxEciil aimjiij; tlicO«n<i<' 
the grovt^h of both breasts dufing maiilcJtlioLx^l i^ artifidally 
repressed by means of a leather cofwt. Tlir object of tliis 
paper li to offer on explanation foi the otieiii of the 
modem custom, and to show reason for believing it to be 
lineally descended from an older one anlcnor to the lime 
of Hcrodotu*, and having, therefore, a potuible ancestry of 
twenty- five centuries. 

In Ania, which at that j^riod wai separated from 
Europe hy the river Don, the arcicnl Greeks knew of 
Anuuons in two localitie*: on the lunkft of the Ther- 
modon near Sinopc, and on Ihr j^ihTniis noith of the great 
cliain of ihc Caiica-iuv It i.s pniUihle iht^y firsl herame 
acqu^IiUcd u ith those that lay nearcst lhem,ttittl accuuntc-il 
iot thoae they hc:ard of afterward* tn tlic neighbourhood of 
thcCauca5U5b>'animaginar>'fnigrat]on, such as Herodotus 
relat&L Some of the reports thai may have beer true of 

> AcconfiD^ to tOApfoUi, ihi« cusiom i» coalincd to t!ie O«ota& 
nohdHy. and i(. rni^viher niih Ihe dn^i^ and otticr ftihionv. sccma lo 
kaix been uIoj>iCd from Lhc <Joiniafttii AdT^fti^ rit^c The Oscts arc a* 
ron^uFatit^ly im.-ill, not very impfin<mt |>rcp1i?, lotmcd inncAfly cqiul 
numbers oa botb v*it% of the Creat Ch:ijn. Noihm>; is kncwn foe 
certjiin wlirn iliit ArytM-iprakini: |)cipiibiiciii rim^it'd ihc Couc^ttJi. 
TojuJiKC froiA vAtioo( pecdijiiiic« in their Un^vu^c, ii U probabl* 
llui \hcy u\v^t.i\a\ fTDQi ihc tout]i-B4if. 4ail l^uu xhtXi cajliul »c(t]c- 
tnentA licni «it cha tooth tide of ihc mounuini. 


lyj Au /fmazmian Cmhm in the Caucasus, 

the AtaxKonf of the TbennodoD were \-ct>' Iflcely trans- 
ferrcd without ia:nKicnt ground to the AmaiocM of the 
CuKtsiu. Whether there exEsied any nearer connection 
betw ttf i the nvo groiip« than ih;it tx>th performed some 
operation u|x»i the nght bvcsist, And lud vume customs in 
cammon, tk-cs not corKcm us here Wc may, (lieicfbre, 
dlsmiw the legends referring to the wcKlcrly Amazons ^n<) 
confine our attention to the eafltcrly variety. 

First, we hnvc to establish u nearly as possible their 
actuaJ geo(£r2phical poaition. Accooxlir^ to Herodotus, 
Aouucons were found among the Saufomatai. who lived 
between four and five day&' journey noith-ca^t of the upper 
end of the Seaof Azov. Hippocrates place»thc Sauromatai 
in Eurtipc, that i; tc *ay, wc*t of the Don and of the 
Sea of Azov, Hut Scy^lax, in his PtripiHs of Ihc EtucinCt 
locates them much in the same position as Herodotus, on 
the left bank of the Don and conligunu« to the Maiotai. 
5cymruj£ of Chios and the f«cond anonj'mouB author of 
the P/n'fi/»t. pl^ce them in Europe, and identify the 
Maioui with the Sauromatw. u-ho were themselves a tribe 
of the Sarmatai. Sirabo give* us three versions, n'hich do 
not greatly differ, According to one, the Amasons vrere 
bcHeved to live among the monntaiiTi above Albania (the 
lower valley of the Kur), but separated from the Albaniaiu 
by the Scj-lhian tribes of Gclai and l^gai/ and by the 
Mcrmadalis river* (Tcrck ?), Olhcrs mafntaincd lliat 
llie Amannii lM*rtkretI upon the GargareDSCs, whu lived at 
the northcnt foot of the Cauca.*<ian mountains, called 
Ccraunin, by which Strabo meant the AOUth^ca:«tcra end of 
the range. According to a third report, the country of the 
Ama;:on£ and of the Siracene^ \va:t travericd by a tcLpid 

I PcrliajM itir (Ulgni, A ChcchcntR irihc ort ihc norlhem «1opv of 

the nuun Ouiin nnii Ihc Lcsginns, in <^cor^mn LckL 
' Auitmtaty ofthcTertksIiH bear* the i»*meof Mrnnftlik 
• Acconlin^ lo Stmho, tlioy nomndi^od along the Akhanic«A, 

which hftJ iu 60iirc« u^ iht C-iucjuUh ^uid vinpiied imo ihc Sea of 


AnAnuxs$man Custom m ike C<in<asus, 173 

toTTcnl cftllt^d thf MrrmcKl;!'*, whfrh (lr';crrtdccl from the 
mfiunlain-'i and (JisdiargcJ into the Sea, of Ajov. 

From tlic?^c accounts (l may be assumed that cerlAin cu»- 
loni3,.sijinmaruciI under ihc Icrtn Am.v-on.prcvailcxl among 
tribes that occupied an area bounded on ihc aouih by ilw 
northern slopes of the Cauc^su^ though, perhaps, only as 
far 5011th as the Tcrck irom ihc point where tlib river 
bends c:Lstvv4rd,i ; on the cost by the Caspian Sea ; on the 
west by the lilack Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Don, 
pcrhap9 even by &fi unde^ncd line to the wc^t of tluit 
river i on the north the limits were undetermined by sny 
natural feature, but extended for & distance of three or of 
fifteen dayfi' march — llcrodotiiB gives both distanees in 

ftirent pa»afje* — north of the inoutii of Ihe Don. 

Having localised the area within which .'\ma20nlan 
ciistoin« were di-sseminated, the next 9Xt\^ in to identify, if 
po^ible, the Sauromatai» 1 tribe, as wc have seen, of the 
Sarmatai, with somt; of ihr^ existing nRCton? of the 
Cuicauius. Ah ethnic naiiien, both of thcne ;ire inidmitiEeHly 
tost, though It b alleged by a native Cherkes author that 
the word Sfmtnwt 13 ^till rcmcrnbcreid, iind that some 
Cherkcs families claim to be descended from the ancient 
Sarmatian^^ Mcrodctuj^ dislingutsbes between the 
Scythians west of the Don and the non-Scythlans to the 
tast of the nvcr, though at the isame lime he tiupposcs the 
Sauromatai to be a mixed race of Scythian men and 
AmaJ^on ^-omen from the barkft of the Thermodon, His 
theory' that the people were half-brcedi seems to have 
been framed by hiimelf or hU informant* to account for 
two fact*v or supposed facts ! the prevalcnoc of ccrtafn 
customs known to c:xNt in another part of Asia, which 
CDiild only be explained, ^o far as lie nr h\% mfarmant 
could see. by a migralioci — in reality ficliliou* — from there 
(o the Don region \ iJie fact, probiibly iiuhc crroncijus. that 
the Sauromatai spoke broken ScyiliiaD, a> tiK women 
Schora tickinurtin Mogmow, S.7^n m. UtJa^ da Ti^hert^ittn 

174 '^'^ Amm^MiOM Cmstffm m iki Camtmxms, 

doccnded fton the AmnoBi of Itae Tbcnaodon faul never 
leanit perfectly the Uo c mc e of tbcir hoabMxfa HtffV I 
take it the word Scythiui ic med io & wider aad looser 
MUM than to that gmenlly ottployed by HcrodoCos, for 
be gaiiKd the tnlbm^tioa throqgb hc!an=^,and Rn^lbefC- 
Ibrr be taken to fnchade a Canouiui langmfc If there i< 
a grain of tmth m the statctnent, it is thu the men and 
tttnien did not atwnys speak the mne dUlcct ; that the 
SaurDcoatai wcm in fact, like dtc Chcrkcs e3coeaflMMi& 
Ilippocntcv, who wrote & littk later than Hctodotiu; 
thcMKti He pbccs the b^urocrutas west of the I>oct b very 
p06itivc in lu5 a^aertion that they were diflereot &ocn other 
nations, aod therefore from the Sc>*ths. Strabo, whtini; 
shortly before the bef:innin$; of the Chmtian er^ says of 
seventy natiooi, all speaking dif1et«nt lanf;n^es, that wed 
to asserobte at tbc Cotchidian nuit of Diocotrios. that they 
vcf« chte^y S^vmaiuri^ but all of thefn Cauci^ar tnbet. 
Talking of th« ]berian«, the modem Imcrcttans and 
Geo^panfL. he mentioiu that thoie of them inhabiting the 
mountdns 1h<cd like the Sarmatians ^nd Scytiuans. on 
whoM country they bordered and with whom ihcy were 
connected by afBnity of rMC. The ScylhiaAs here rcfcfrcd 
to arc no doubt the G^ai and Lesai tribes bclon|rii]g to 
the Caucasus. He places the Albanians in the lower 
valley of the Kur, ca^^t of the Alazaii. and tnake^ the 
Caucasus their northern boundary-, Apparently conft:nng 
them to the plain. But as they were reported to speak 
twenty-^x languages, and amid biii^ a larger force into 
the Ikld than the Iberians, ft Is evklent that c^any hill 
tribci muHt be included in their number, and this people is 
now duubtlesH represented by the Lesgians. Of the natioti- 
allties occupying the northern slopes of the main Chain, 
the Lesgians. therefore* and perhaps the Chcchcnts, K the 
<rC-lai arc represented by the Galgai. are to be excluded 
from the Sarmatai, and then we arc left with the Chcrkcs 
and tiK: Ahkbas. A few centuries ago, the Adtgh^ 
occupied a great part of the area previously inhabited 

An Amazonian Custcnt w fir Canrasus. 175 

by the SaurcmAUi, MniotAi, and other SarmAtiAn tnbci. 
WTien Gcort;io Inlcriano visitcJ them 111 ihc middle of the 
15th century the Chcrkc-t extended from the Don along the 
Sc& of Aeov 09 far eouUi a^ vXbkhasia, which thu^ q^vc 
them, according to ht^ estimation, a coa^t line ot hvc 
hundred miSc^ Before hh time, till driven out by the 
Tautar9, they had settlements in the Crimea, Until 
recently Ihey penplcd the country bet\^ecn Taman and the 
confines of the Abkhas count]/, as u-cll a* the great and 
little Kabjirda There ^% therefore, eoHMtJorable ground 
for assuming thai the Sarmaiai, Including the Saurom3tai, 
MaintfLi. ami ihe many iitht^r Irilif^s into which thry were 
^ub-dtvidcd. whom anticnl writers aver to have Lcch 
CauciLMuns, to have h;td Mcijil aHinity with the Iberians, to 
have bccu different from Scytluani, in Hcrodotu*' narrow 
senae of the word, and to h^ivc had Amnions among them, 
urc now rcprc^ntcd 1:^ the Chcrken and AbWha^, or Ab^inCi 
who occupy, or have occupied, much of the same 
geographical area, whu) arc Cancor-ian^i, nho arc certainly 
more nearly related to the Georgians than to any non- 
Caucaiiian people, who ire anaryan and allophyl a£ regards 
Tatars, Mongol*, and Finno-iigrians. and who retain the 
custom of ila1tuuin}£ the brc;asts during maidenhood.^ 

It now remains to comparf^ what is rrportcd of the 
Atnii/on» v*ttl] existing customs of thi; Chcrkcs an J 

* Tbii pmpfJKd Idcntilkaiiua of the Sarmatu nilh Cuicx^ian tmx% 
runs couniVT 10 th«4fcneral Of>intdi> thitt lh«y vitn an Aryin spcokmg 
people now r^prcfeiitcd by icunc of tha ^a\- naiioniHiic^ Tor 
uiielou^tc<3iy in laTa" timet Komart tKiiicn ^pply the ietii\ Zf^niiaibc 
to tnhti dvcUmx ^u 6ir vesE a& the Dniotci ixnd tfic V'ihiul.t ; tfui 
thi* nay hp vnpluino!. Tliry wprp ilnbhr^il Sanwaii^in* from poisc&i-^ 
iax CcftJiin Ccti cu4tijai« and from livini; In SnnTUtli^ a |{«-''jcn»ptical 
ctprewon nfriiiric natun? which i^ratlually Expnndrd from a tmall 
area ikocib of Oic Cauca5U4 till ii co%-crcd the t^hoEc of EMUm 
Etfrape ; juii at 5ibtri;i, which onoe rnfunf a small icrriicry ^xn of 
Ihd Ural MonnUiifii, n<u^ icrvq* lo deii^iii.u thv- aholo of NDr.h«Tn 
Asia, anil inrludci tEVCial distinct rAcca, tsich af which mny Inc^oly he 


76 v4« AmazMtan Cmf&m m tke Cautastts, 


Ab)du«, According to HcrodotiB, the vromcn of the 
SauTomataidid net format diilmcl nalion like ifec Amajtoro 
of ihc Thcrmodon, from whom ibcy were imagined to 
dcwcnd- Though they wore the -"^^me drcM as nncn.and 
ffjuglit ^nd hunted on hor^back. thh was not alvrays o* 
necessarily by themselves, for iho" also did so in company 
vith thetr hu»iband3- Girls, however, could not marry un 
ihcy had killenl a man in battle, from which cujttom they 
received fn>m iheir Scythian neighbours the oiiilhet of 
" maiifilayer^", lUppocratw, dti^cnursing 00 the Sauromatai, 
mentions that ihe women, armed with bow and Javelin, 
hi llicir encmtt-a on horneback, btn only «> long a^ 
were in an unmaritcd suic> Th^'y might not enter 
matrimony till they had stain three cncnueH, and did not 
live with their hu^bamU till they had offered the- ^acnfiee 
fircscribcd by law. After murlAi^ vromcn cca^ to ride, 
save on a special emergency. During infancy mothen 
cauterised the nehl breast of their female children, by 
applying a heated mclal in-rtrumcnt made for the pnrpoae. ^ 
SUiibo enters into rather fuller particulars, but refers to f 
tribes dwcllJmg ioiith of the Sauromatai on the connter- 
Lrta oftlic mair Chain. From infancy the Amaion^ had 
the right breast cauterised to allow of the arm being uied 
with ijrcatcr case, especially when throwing the javelin. 
Wlien at home Ihcy ploughed, planted, pasiurod cattle, and 
trained horses. The Ktron^^rest spent much lime in bunting -, 
on horseback, and in practising warlike cxerdjie*. Infl 
apring.lhcy pasted two months on a neighbouring mountain, ^ 
tlie boundar>' bctwc^m tlicm and the Gargarcn^cs. The 
latter also asccndwl the mountain^ in conformity with 
ancient custom, to perform common 5acrifice3, and to have 
inlcrcourse with the t^omcn in secret and darkness, for the 
purpose of obUining ofTaprirg. each man taking the first 
woman heme! When the women became pregnant tbcy 
Were aenl away, Tlic female children were retained by the 
Amaxons, the males were taken by the Gargarcnse* to be 
brought up. The children were distributed among familic9 M 




yitt Amaz^ian Cu^mn in ihs Caaeasus, 177 

tn which ihc m^Mcr treated them entirely » his own. 
This evidently implies a system of foalcraec- 

JntcrA'eaving the sub5tarce of the abt^ve reports, after 
making due allowance for the evident tincture of the 
rabuk>us they cont^iin, with what is known of cxifstinf; cois- 
Iccns among the Chorketi and Abkhas, a slight liumirary 
maj' be con4truciecI of manners and customs that may. I 
think, xvith more or less reason be attributed to the Sar- 
mattann about the itixrh century b.c, thfmgh, of course, 
tliclr origin must be much o!df.T- It may not be amiss to 
tnention hrre that rich traces dT a very consicJerable dc^ec 
of civitiKati<)n> tci whidi archaologi^ts like VIrchow and E. 
Chaotic as^go a date of about 1000 V.C> but culminating 
about 700 sr^ have Ijcen found Jn the sepulchres of Kobdn, 
near the northern entrance of the i'ass of Daricl TbDugh 
meat of the meUiltic objects are of bronze, iron was known, 
and they belong to the early irt:n period. 

The SarmMian^, thou{^h without lixcd habitations, were 
possessed of a certain social organjt^tionr being divided, at 
any rate, into noblc« and vaesals, many cf whom w?re only 
fi]avc& They were also separated into exogamous tribes, 
for marriage withEn Ihe trit>e wag regarded as incest, and 
punishable '^{rh ele:iffi, perliap* by drowning, as was re- 
cently the ca!*r. ChQdrcn of bolh %cxe% were not brought 
up at home, but u-cic transferred to the care of foster- 
parents and only returned to the parental hearth when they 
had attained the age cf manhood or womanhoocT. Tht^ugh 
the women were ferocious enough towards tribal enemies 
their status at home wasverj- !ow, little better than that of 
ft slave, at any rate after marrittgc A II outdoor labour, such 
as ploughing and reaping, tendin;: iheep, cattk, and horses, 
w&s performed entirely by them, and in defence of their 
char^. when attacked, ihcy fought as savagely ai the oieo. 
Unmarried women — for tlie care of herding fell chiefly on 
them — dressed like men, and by reason of iheir duties were 
armed with Ujwk ;4nd javelin*;. Pcrhafi^ the belief thai a 
woman could not bc4r cuuragctju:* clnldrcn, and wa^ un- 


17^ --/« .-ImascniaK Cust^^m in ike C-fwasuj. 

^-Ofthy of becoming a mother, unl««« she her^ir had gwen 
proof or her own coitntgr by slaying at least otic trfiwl 
enemy, gave rise to the usaKr (h^l i \nr\ tnight not mnity ^^ 
till sbc had kilTed one, perhaps thicc irxlividuals. And rt> ^M 
dprocally it h far from improbable thAt among a race of 
warriors a man might not lake a wife t;D he had nhown 
hi* bravery in battle Lj' bringing home at least or»e bead 
The whole duty of man lay in fighting, robbing, avenging 
the death of rcbtives. man stcalinc;, and, for those that 
Hred on the eoa^, in piracy, ^till, the wild, untutored 
in«dnct that glorified act« like xhese was tempered by a 
sentiment ihat m»de a virtue of generocitj' and ho«pitality 
on the part of the nobler, and demaTided respect ton-ards 
old age from all ranlcs of aodcty. Largely on account of 
their vuc^tfonK, but pjiitly from a «ii|jer»titioD« di<Uke 
of the men, with their manly instincts, to be seen much tn 
company with K^-omcD, the »cxc5 lived or the whole 
rather separate lives, and intercourse between marncd ■■ 
couple* was of a clandestine nature. At certain annual ^^ 
fcsti^'alt in honour of some divinity celebrated in sacred 
groves, where ^acnficc was m^ide, aecompEinlcd by games 
and athletic spcrtfi. promiicuou^ tnlcrcourse was carried on 
aller <JarL It maybe the worship in spring of certain 
deities demanded it a& a nccestary rite. To obtain a wite 
a man had to pay a price for her in «heep, cattle, honws, 
or other valuables- Biit concurrent with this usage women 
were Komttimcs carried cIT, and sometimes they dimply 
consented to lii/e whh a man, without further ceremony, 
though iminr^ of thic HAliirr Acre chiclty prevalent in the 
lowest claw. AUct uiarria^^ a woman lost muth of her 
maidenly frcwlnm, nc Vmgcr roved after her flfxit* and 
herds rri society with other girls, but had to follcw her 
hujthftnd for the purpoice of pcrfonning the necessary 
menial duties he u^uld have disdained to do for himncir At 
an early age, perhaps between the ages of seven and ten as 
noiA-aday^, mothers began to flatten the brcaslsof their fcmaie 
children by couipressirg them with a broad leather belt 

j4n j4ma^man Cvsimn in fhe Cauccsns. 179 


■ Or conct, which w&s sewn round the chc5t, and u*as ovily 
H cut open by the bridegroom on thc^ wedding dfty'by mcan^ 
V of a dagger Such at Ica^t is the modem pmcticc; 

In the above recorfiTructior of facts >it4ted or htrted b>" 

IGTeek nritcrt I have ^iij^gcsted how it happened that tJic 
AtnaMns were thought tu be almost a race by ihenwelvei; 
ri Aforte \n a great measure from their occupation. It was 
u'omtm's w<»rk tt:t pasture the flocks and herrl^i, and there- 
fore 10 defend ihem if attacked. To do ihr% t!iey mu*i be 
amied. It need not be suppof^cd that the men never pro* 
tcctcd ihc hcKl^ ihcmieKcv They pnikdjiy dul «> when 
actual danger W7i5 ant id pa tod. but under ordinaiy circum- 
»1uiee9 it was lef^ to the unmarried women to .^icld the 

■ sheep and cattle from the auault^ of caAu^il marauders^ 
H That cauiertdatton of the ri^ht breast \\^k% ever practiced 
H in the Caucasus £cem^ to me highly improbable, though 
^1 it mayhrt^e been done L'hewhcrc- Some writers, Profcniwr 
H Sayce among them, maintain that the Amazons that 
H ovcnrar A*U Minor, and left traces of themselves at 
H Ephests, Smyrna, C>'me. and other places were priestesses 
^ of thcGrcatGoddcss. And ill* ronceivable these may have 

sacrilicei! their right breal!^ tf> her by searinjr them with 

a hot iron m such a way a^ to destroy their development 

lb Even GreeV iuid I.JlJn writer* were sceplind iin this |)niiit, 

H and the ic^bon alleged for tlic cuHom. to alluw greater 

freedom in casting a javelin fv drawing a bow, seemA 

unnecessary frfwn a physiclofiical point of view. Yet, 

undoubtedly, some operation u-as performed, or the Greek 

Icj^end would have had no foundation. If the rcoion for 

nattcnirt^ the brea5U iibout to be propoied i.t the true one, 

■^ there IS nothmi; improbable in believing that the exifttirg 

^fe custom has a long row of centuries behind it, quite enough 

" ttt throw it back in time beyond the sixth century tx- 

The grea: desire of women, more especially during a 
pcffod of warlilrc baH>arti«m, is to bear male children. 
Turning our attention to the re^tiU of Rattening a girl\ 
breaf^ts and letting her wear male attire, it b obvious that 


j»j Ah AmU'^ifHian Cntiom in Uie C auz a su s, 

^ ^>c ii\rti\\^xvA\ ll<b^ U:eii 'J L>j iterated, and ^e has bfmiTtfr 
cxuiTiijJly il^&j(lJiIaud to a male youtk Marcavcr, ibc 
^Aiy^x Jitf^ 4;v'idcijtl/ 1.fC4:ij iutenticAial. It would be so 
\,ii\\\u^%: Ui lilt (cas'^iiiJii^ jy^wers of the Sannalians to 
bLijjjiJjuj iJui tJicy l>elievcd a woman's chajices of bcaiii^ 
iJtjJc t liijilivij wcfL' vaatly euhanced by her weaiing a man's 
jJiL-^ii, ^ijij by liujn^ Oiiiformefi In some degree to tbe 
jiiJi: iyi*c Ly ft^n jUl' coinprcssuvn of the breasts during 
jiMJJuNJ^ii'jJ. 1 liL-y would uri^uc thus : a woman wants to 
|jL-4i nj^Il: iltihiruii, iherL'forc Tihc ought to be made as 
kjuiIj liKi: -i MUiii a^ jjofliililc, A conviction of this kind 
j:^ liuinuil liy ii jnoiVflS j>lL-iUtcal with the immature rea- 
^iiainfc; iltat uiukrlit;:^ \\\\^\ \^ lallcd sympathetic magic. 
|1l:ii: .1 [itiMMliLUt hy %\ Hyiiibiitical act expresses the long- 
iim^ vi|' lij-1 IWiHl in thi- muu- tan^ua^e of signs, under 
Ow va^u^ ho|i^ ibdl hi^ wj^ih will b^ granted either by 
Uw a^tinl i^t \\k\\k \\\ \\\^s^ (MwoT it lies to bestow such a 
^U'iiu", i.*i b> \i»iiu* *y^ <ut in^'ii^tiMe iuxvssit>\ the exact 
vwUuc \A \\hv*h hv v\*i^Us*t uth^Hi\ but in which he has. 
iu\ ouSv'l*..-*'*. thv Wk^'\"in\is^^i N-'Hit'i'. hi .A|*i>*ying thissrate- 
iHv"U U* "-^v K.Av^*3ii*.'^ s^' ;hv Ssti i^!dtiji:;,4 ihere seecos to be 
X;:->- ^vi hs'rt '..s \ >f^::i: ,■! d:* i'!-o.''mjreiIiDg ^ece?* 

.■1,0 .* Svi ^,v,^'*.■^.:!^ ;V j.fOi>;-T A :'x' br^iscs' That 

^ '-*■' *" ■'*"- *?.■ V . : ".-^ :-*;' j^ ^iji 

* >rt^ -.lit, -. ' -!^cef':TtXG 

-'^■- ■c^'-^-■ '^-■'' " * ^*>,:w- -^:x».";:; : :!t. ,-ic=ii^:^ 

-fc*iv ■-*» '^- *^ iJ.*.* *J^ :i»4* *i*v t _■, iiCJutia T"j h t^ - 







'1. *' 










'\ -* 

ii ' 

, '^ 

x> \ 

* *5. 



- ^j,: 


-% - 

1> \l 

, *, I -1 


^ "*' ^ 




- ;, 







An Amazonian Custom tn the Caucasus^ i<Sj 

men's clothing all her life ; but the act was performed 
before marriage to ensure the first child being, if possible, 
a boy. A similar explanation would account for the false 
beards worn by Argive brides when they slept with their 
husbands,^ and for the widespread custom, alluded to by 
Mr J. G. Frazer* of men dressing as women and women 
as men at marriage, if it could be assumed that the older 
custom was for women alone to dress in that way, and 
when the meaning of the ceremony was forgotten that 
bridegrooms also dressed like women ; a change which 
might arise from a growing spirit of buffoonery and froHc 
such as is never absent from rustic weddings, 

^ J. G. Fraier, T&tmtism, p. 79. 
' Tff/ifWMw, p, 79. 

John Abercromby. 


AMONG Ihc English fo!k--ta!ts ihai 1 h*vc lately been 
canceling aitJ in vest i gating, b/ far the? mo^ mterei?l- 
fng iA that or " ChtUIc Rowfantl". 1 have alresiiy called 
altciUioii lo some of ihc poifits of interest in my inne» on 
the wniion of it ihat I publi^ihcd in m>' volume on EngUsk 
Fairy Talfs. pp. 25^45- Btt It was iiiiposublc la such a 
way lo deal at all adequately wilh the folklore aspects of 
the talc, and 1 am glad of the prcacnt opportunity to do so 
at more ]cj\^h. lispccially 1 desire to make accessible the 
actuul form in which the tale was published by Jamieson 
in hv> lifHstrju'cMS of l^ortficm Anii^ities, lSr4, pp. 397 
«^. For the purposes of my booii I had to deviate frocn 
the pristine form in various way^. \ pt¥)cccd at once to 
give it in its originil form, 


When on & former occasion, in " Popular Ballade Vid Sonp^', 
vol, ii. jj. aa, ihc jTcscnl writer Inid befoireihe F>Liblte a tr^rwUHon 
of (he Hrst balbd of " Riismer". he c>iirtssed an opmion tliat 
this VM thr idrnticnl romnnrp cajoled hy E(lg,ir in A7*^^ //tfj-j 
whiehi ill Sliakc^pcaics idnc, vixs wdl known in England, aikd is 
Hiill ptvacrvcdf in however mutilated a atcitCi in Scot land. Having 
Ihe outline of Ehc «tory ao happily sketched to hii hnrrd, it wottld 
have rct^uired no very great exertion of lalem^i m induutry. for one 
c\crci«cd b the^c itudicir to have lueicnled ttii^ romance In r 
|>oeiical dxt^^^ f:ir more correct and (^eneraUr enj^iging than thai 
in v'hlch It can be expi;ci<^ to Iw lound ; but a^ he accounts an 
eri^irul, howcvei Imperfect, trhlch bear* Uie genuine mirlct oJ 
the a^t- which fiTEHtuLitd ii. und of ihc taste uf (hose who have 
picscrvcd it, much iiluic intcr^-fiing 10 tbc hutcriian or aJaiiquaiy 

Ckildc R&U'titnd. 

I S3 


thaji any raerc modem itCit oi the swnc kind, howcvtr anfuTty 
convinictcd, he his pr*:fcrr«d fiubjoining the Scoilj^h Icgcmi in 
^trrii ttaimraiihm^ in the hope thit the puhlicflilon of i\ may bo 
the means of cxciiing curiosity and procuring a more perfect 
copf of this sin^Ur cchc ; 

" King Arthur'* ions o* merry Cnrlitle 
Were iJkyin^ at (he W: 
Ard there vrit tlieir met Hurd £|I«D. 
r tho mi(b ionaiis ilicm a'. 

" Child Roivland kJ^lE^d ii vri* bi« Tom, 
And Iccppit tt in his knee i 
And ay, a* he pliiy'd oin ocr ihfm a", 
(y%t the kirlt he gat'd u flee. 

" Surd PJlcn rojnd about the {«]e 
To ie«k tb« ba' it sane ; 
Bui they iKide bti^ aod a/ lanEer, 
And the CAmcna t>ack again. 

"They sought her east, they MU):ht her weii, 
ThBY «OMght her np and down ; 
And virnc were the hcarta (In mciry Carli»lc]i 
Fur si^c was n^e tail found J '' 

At Uir hcT cidii brotbcr went to the Warluck Merlin [Myr^MK 
iVyidi)^ and aeked H be knew where his timr, ihe fair burd 
EUai, was. -The fair hiird F.IIcn/" raid the Warluck Merlin, 
"^b cairied awAy by the famcu. and is now in the cattle uf the 
King of Elfland ; J^d it vr«rc too bold an undcrutkirg for the 
stoutctt knight in Christendom to taring her bach.'' "h it 
po^blc to bring her back ?" *atd her [jroiher, "and \ will do 
il, or pemb in the attempt" " Poasrble ? mdecd it (5/' uiid the 
Wtftuck Merlin ; '*but woe to the man or tninUcr's aoa who 
Aiicmpb it. ii he is not well mstrucled beforehand of what he 
IS to do/' 

Infbmed no l«s by the glory of such an enterprise than by 
ihc desire of re»cuin^ hja aiatcr, the brother of the Tair buid 
Elkn revolved to undertake the adverturc \ and, aftct proper 
imtnctiofw from Mcrhti (which he (ailed in obseriin^, he >0t 
otit on hb perilous cxfcdLCion. 

Childc Ron/la^sd. 

"BuE they biidc Un^ ind Ay Ungcr, 
\Vi' doiil and mitkk maen ; 
A»U wae kvcic the hc;tfiii [m merry CArlule), 

For h« cameni bacV again,'^ 

The Mcond brotticr. in Kkr mnnncr, («t out, but foiled in 
observing tbo instructions of the Warluck Merlin, aiid^ 

''The/ bade Uti£ %tid ly Langcr, 
Wi' mickls doat Ard m^n ; 
AnJ wHC weic the ]ieArt> [m tncriy CAilitle]. 
tor he cxrnena back again." 

Child Rowland, the youngett brother of the foir burd EUcn. tbCD 
r««olved to g^i but was strenuously op|x»ed by the ^od queen 
[Gwcnevra], who wai of losing all her children, 

Ai last the gofid queen [Onenerr:!] give him her convent ond 
her blc4sinj[. He ^n on fin greet Tonn, and with all tkc 
aolcmnrty of itAccrdotal ccniecrntion) \i\% father's good (faymfirr 
[Ew^libai], that nt'ver struck in r*in, anil rrpaircd in ihc rjivr af 
the Wiirluck Mcrllr. 

The Warluck Merlin gave him all ncwaaaiy instructions for hi» 
jouftiey and conduct, ihe moat impotunt Of which were that he 
should kill ev^Ty person he mc: with aft«r entering the Und of 
FAiiy, and ^ihf^uld ncalier eat nor drmk of whar vi\ olTe-red hm 
in that country, whatever his hunger or thirst might be, for if he 
Uited or toueli^d in Etlhnd, he must remain in the power of the 
Elvc^i and nfrvcr «oc mitid/f f^^rtf a^^in. 

So Child Rowland set out on his journey, and travelled **on 
•nd &y fjirthcr on^', till he cftmc to where (sx.i he had been forr- 
warncd by the Worluclc Merlin) he found ihc King of Elfland^ 
hortc-hcrd feeding hts horses, "Onst thou tell me", said 
Rowland 10 Ihr hoise^hexd, "where ihe King of Elfland> cfl^tle 
ti? " *'I cannot lell lliee*', said the hoTsc-hcrd» "Miut go on x 
Utile finhcr, nnd thou wilt come to ibc cowherd, and he, 
perhaps* may tell thee/' So Chdd Kowljind drew the good cUy- 
more [Gxealihar] that never struck In vflin, and hewed off the 
besd of ilic hoLse-herd. Child RuwLind then weoi on a tiitlc 
faTthcr, till he caine to the King of Elfl^nd'a cow herd, who waa 
feeding hJs cows. " Cann thou tell me", laid Child Rowland to 
the cow^herd, "where the King of ElJland'^ caailc is?" "I 

Chilih Row fond. 


anrkot tell thee", aiid the cov-bcrd, '* bu^ go en a liIEk farther, 
' utd Ihou irilt come to the »h<fc[yhcrd, and tic, psrhapi, maf tcl! 
thee" So Child Rowland drew the good cloymore [Eotcolibfir], 
that nevwsTnjcl; in vain, and hewed off the h^a^lorthe cow-herd. 
Hc thrn vent :i liltk farther, till he i:xit>e lu the ^^erp-llCrlJ- - . . 
[Thf shcf^h€rdt goathtrd, a^d swsHt-ht*-d an ati, <^h tm his 
turn, S4n^ in tkc si^m^ mantier ; and fatlfy, fit is rt/trrtd A> M^ 

"Goon yci a lirdeninher", said the ben wife, "4JII ihou <:omc 
to X TOQod grccr hill surrounded with ringi {r^rra^s) from the 
boitom 10 the top ; ^o round it three times ^i'iJtrsfiim, and evetf- 
timc aiK : ' Open, door T open, door I and let me come in' ; and 
the third time thr door will open, and ynu may go in,"* Su Child 
Rowland drew the ECod cbymore [Bxcahbar], thai never struck 
in vain, xnd hewed dS the head of the heiwifc. Then went he 
three times widtrsMns r:>und the green hUl, crying; "Open, 
door ! opeiv door f and Jei me come In": and iho third time the 
door opened, and lie weiU m. !l tininediatdy dosed liehind 
him, and he proceeded Ehrougb A long pa^Aagc, where the ait 
w&b soil and agreeabLy warnu like a May evening, as la all the lir 
of Elfland The light wat a son of twflighr or gloaming, but 
there were ncJthcr window* i^ot randlcA. and he kntw not wlicnce 
il cflme. if it was not from the w\i|]» and roof, which were rough 
and arched hke a RTOttc, and composed of a dear and trans- 
jiarent rock, intrusted wjih shufssihiT and sttar, and various 
bright lEune^^ At last he tame lu iwu wide and Itifly folding- 
doors, which Mood ajar- He opened them, and entered a large 
sod spoaous hall, who^ richness and bndiance no tcnstie Ciin 
telln It seemed 10 ettend the whole length and height of the 
hiH, The *iujierb Gothic i^dlart, lij which the roof was snpponed, 
were «o lar^c and so lofty (said my sc^nruichy) that the pilbja 
of the Cbanry Kifk, ot of Pluscardin Abhry, arc no more to l>c 
COtnpartd 10 ihcm than the Knock of Alve^ ik to be compared to 
Balrnncx or Bcn^-chi. They werr? of gold and Kflvrr, and were 
fretted, like the west wind^jw of the Chaniy Kirk«^ with wreaths of 
lowers composed Kxi diamondii and preciouj stones of id! tnanncr 
Oif beaniiful colours- The keystoneu of the arch abovc^ instead 

' The Cathedral of Elpin. niitLirally enough, ^rni^hed limilcs in a 
nun whi>badfl«v«riDlnklife t>Mn twenty milea di£taotfrom it-— Fa», 


Ckiide /f&Ti'fantf, 

of coats of armj ia\d oCbcr devicca, were ofnamcnvcvi with dirsicn 
cidiMTtiondt in the wmc manner And from (he middle ofihc 
tooi, where Ihe f^rinci|i:U aiche;^ mci, vis httng, bf ^ S*^ chai% 
an nmnicnkc Itunp of unc h()lEow<^i prarl, perfectly transparent, in 
the mdbi cf vvbich rna suspended a luge caibunclc ih^u by tbe 
power of Tiuigici coniinuollT turned round, and shed over oH the 
Ha]l 4 clesr and mild light like the ei&tting &un ; \yai the lull vu 
lo br^ and tbeie tkixlin^ objeci& hg far removed, that their 
blended tadiancc cast no mofc iWn a plcastn^ luure» and cnciicd 
no othcT than oicrccablc scnsalforta in the eyes of Child Rowland 
The furniture of Ihc halt waii tiaitftbtc to in af ehileeture ; and 
at the farther end, under a sp1cndi<l ranop); vested on a gorgeom 
iofa of vdvcl, >ilk, a.nd gold, nnd»* 


" KcmbiDg her yellow hjitr wi' A silver Icemb, 
There was hii siiicr burd Ellen ; 
She stood up bim btfore/' 

'^ * Cod rue thecj poor luckleu fode,^ 
,Whath44i fh^tito drtherf N 

"And hwryc tUi*f my youngest hfUticr, 
Why b&deoa ye »L haniQJ 
Had ye a hundcf ah^ thousand Ilvc», 
Y(f eanno biooW ane o' than, 

*'Ard lit ihoa down ; and u-ac* O wjtc, 
That ever thou vta^ bom ; 
For c<iH>e Jhc Kmj; o* Elfland in. 
Thy Uccnm' U tortom ! " 

A loJig convcmticn then takci place. Child Rowland tells her 
the news [of merry Carlisle) and of hi^ on-r expeditieTi, and con- 
cludes vtith the ob«eT%ation (hat, after hk long and faifgufing 
pitmiry 10 ilie ciisth of the King c^fKIfland, he iirtry kut^gfjf. 

Bard Ellen looked wistfully and nioum fully at him, and &hook 
her head, but said nolhmg. ^Vcimg under the influence of n 
magic V7[>ich fhc could noi retut, the aro«c, And brought him a 
gfiHen howl full nf htKul ami milk, which »he pTdrmrd to 
him with the same timid, tender, and anxious cxprcasion of 

> Fodc— A«tfn ' Leccam— &yr< 

Chitdt Rtjwtand, 


Remembering the irutnictiona of the Worluck Merdf). ** Bnrd 
Ellen", taid ChiU Rowland, '' t will nciUivf la^tc nor touch lill 
I hiLte set thee fVee!'' Imn]cdiau.-iy the folding^door^ I^urst 
open viitli titniendou} violence, and in came the Km^ of Elfloiid ; 

I Kmeil (he blnod cf j^ ChriaUon uido ! 
Be he <JeAd- b« he li^'ing, wi' xs\f brand 
I'll <lft<ih hU hAra» ffac hU ham-poti \ * 

"Strike, then, Hoglc of Hell, if Ehou d^rett!** etcbimed the 
umbuAEed Child Rowlnnd, atatling u|j, and drawing thr good 
cla>'iiic]ic [E-viiiUbai], ih.ii never sinick in viin. 

A furious coinbAt cni^ucd^ and the King of Klflond waa felled 
to the ground, hut Child Rowland &i>Ared hin\ on condition thac 
he thoiiUl fe*lore him hi* vaw l)rmhet>, who lay in a trance in a 
corner of the hall, aitd hi» ibtcr, the lair burd Ltlen. Tbe King 

ElflAnd then produced a nmall cr>btal [ilitol, cotiUimns & bright 
red liquor, witti which he anoiuEed the Ijpst noatrila, eyelids, cars, 
2nd finger^ndi^ of ihe two young men, who immediately awoke, 
ak froma {Jrufuujid sleep, durmii which Ihcir wuU had quitted 
their bodies and they hnd seen. cte„ etc, cic. So they at! four 
returned in iriumpli to [mcnj' Carlisle). 

Such was the rude outline of the Romance of Child Rowland^ 
as it was (old to mc when I wa» about seven cr eight years tild, 
by a couniiy tador ihen at work in my fadici*^ house, He ua^ 
an ((inoTflnt and dull, good sort of honcsl riian, who Ticcmcd never 
to have questioned the truth of what he rclaied. \Vhere the 
H asttrat are put down, many curious jiarticiulArt luive been 
fpmrtled. I>ecauic 1 wa> afraid of beirg deceived by my mcnifiy, 

kd fiul]?ilJtuting one thing fur another. Eti^Ti^hlaliiotoadmoniih 
tbe reader tliat "The Wjuljck Merlin, Cliild RoA'bnd, and 

^ Thi« JinotATing the uaEt ol ihe rive hqiw (temt borrctftU Inun 
the fta'^EVtiiiem ai ti-trtmt nnclien in the Catholic Church \ but ttinmr 
t/ii'rwn (with h}o04.),/us/ntJiffrti'y <txfeier, tht sign tj ike i^^sijtrt^ikin^ 
irJh^aJ,±u^ jfrj'rr(*/>tr c/n'w, etc-, wtic in use amoBK the Golht 
^long btfarr ihe introductinn of ChnLhnnlty ; and the Mitrfi of our 
i*hofis are lineally descended from tbe radiated turhjuu uf the 
pr>e«t« of Mtthra, the P«Fiian G^ fj tkt Sun. Th« Homry m ubed 
ttytbe follower! <\ LfMn.t^ omonK l*ie Kalmuck*, etc.— J AailtU)0>\ 


CAil^ic Roufinrta. 

Burd EUen" wck the onTy ir^mff inttxtduccd in hit rtciuiioii, &nd 
that tli« oth«r« tnclOAcd within brackcu nr« fiuumcd upon the 
aiJihority of the Inraliiy givc^i) ii> thr Mnry hy tbr nvrrion of 
J/Wm. In every other respect I h^ve been a» uiiUful as 

It WAS ^ecit^d in ^ sort of formal, dro^vty, meanjrcd, nvonotoooui 
reciuitve, fniiitng pro^e and verfc, in the numterof (lie IceUndic 
%A%h3^ anJ u ill btiEl the nmnner of rtcitin^ t»IC3 &rd /aMax 
&nil/t in the nintcr eicnin^t, not only ciinortjc the hUnders, 
Nomcgiins, and Swedes, but alfio imong rhc LowUndors m tl;e 
nonh of Sroibnd, and among x\\^ Higljhntlcrs and IrUK Thit 
pectilionty, »q fnr aa [ny memory' could sct%c mc. I have 
endcftvoured to presen'e; but of ihe vtris$ which have been 
introduced^ 1 cannot answer for the exactne^ of ;iny. except the 
Itvia put Into ttie Tnouth of tli« King of Kin^ind. which vru 
indcltbl) imprestcd upon my mcmoiy. long before I Itnew nay- 
IhirtK of Sl^fiketpcarc, by chc odd And whinMiCAl inatwet la 
vhkh the tailor curled up hi^ nose, ^ind Km5cd &II about, to 
imitate the action which "fi, fi, fo, fuic!" is intended to 

Jamicson'A reference to Shakcj>[3csLre may lead us to 
direct our ;ittention \x\ the ^rwt pbce to the very dUtir.- 
guished literary history of our story, at least according to 
my opinion. Rrowning found in Kin^ Ltuw a line of daik 
Import — 

"Childe Rowland tc the Dark Tower came," 

and made out of it a mystical poem. He little thought he 
was draltng with it fragment af a fairy tale. Yc-t there 
c^n be little doubt ihaC Ed^'ar» in his mad Accric in King 
L<ar, is alluding to our talc:, which indeed has some fairt 
analogy with il* plot, when he breaks into the Hncs : 

"Chlldc Rowland lo the Oark Tower carac , , . . 
Hi« vroid W4LS still \ ' Fie, foil, and fuiTi, 
I saicll the blood of n Britbh' mnn/" 

King Lffjr^ act iti, »e. 4, ouf jfjr. 

' " Brilifth" f^ ** EnfjLith", Thii '\% one of the pointt that utile* 

Ckiide Rawiand. 


The bttcr rcfcrcnct is to the cry of the King of KlfUnd. 
Th4t totnc i^uch !;tory was current in Enfjland in Shake- 
spcaic*s time, is proved by that cun'ouft mHangt of nursery 
tale*, Peele'* Tlu Oid Wivti T^tU. The inain plo! of this 
is the search of two brothers Calopha and Thelea, for ^ Inst 
«atCT, Ddi;i, wlio hji3 been be&pe!lcd by a aorocrer. 
Sacra pant (the names arc taVcn from the OrMnJ^ 
FurtQStf). They iirc instructed by an tjd mail (like Mer- 
lin in "Childc Rowland") how to rescue their siMcr, and 
ultimately succeed. The play has besides this the themes 
of the Thankful Dead, the Three Heads of the Weil 
(which M:e), the Life index, and a ti^nsformation \ ^o that 
Lit is not to be wondered at if ^omc of the trait* of "Childe 
3wland" are obierted in it, V!(pecUEly s^ the name implies 
that It V3& made up of folk-taIc«, 

But a still closer parallel is afforded by Milton'** O'wus. 
Here again we have two brothers in search of a ^Utrr, 
who has got into the pi>wer of an imchanter, Ritt bc^dc^ 
thb, there itt tlic icfiisal of llic heroine to touch the en- 
chanted food» just aa Childc Rowland finally refuses. And 
ultimately the bcspcllcd heroine is liberated by a liquid, 
wfiich is applied to her /^/j ant^ fint^r-tifs^ just as Childc 
Rowland's brothers are un&pcllcd by applying fL liqutd to 
their eyelids, DOSthU. tips, find 6n;;:er tips. Such a minute 
rteoirblancc 38 thij? cannot be accidental, and it is there- 
fore probable that Milton used the uriginal form of " Childc 
RowlaTid ", or iome variant of it, a* heard in hi? youth, and 
adapted It to the purposes of the masque at Ludlow Castle, 
and of his allcgoij'. Certainly no orher fulk-tale in the 
vrOflJ can c!ahn ,hu dlHlnguished an ufTaprhi);, 

Whether thii be so or no, the^ llterojy parallels prove 
at Ica^t that our talc ha^ been told in these Islands for 
at Icafi 250>'ear3, from Shakespeare's youth till Mothcr- 

ihc dale M ihe piny : Jam» t wnt dc^UrH King of Grcai Brilaiift 
Ociobc* 1604. I may idd Lha( Motherwell, in hJs Minatnlsy. p. wv, 
mtf* te^hfies ihAi The itnry w,i^ ^u\\ ciunt m the niinery ai the time 
he wTat« (iSaS), 


CAildc R^wittnd. 

recited in his iJay, fSjS, m Scotch nur«er>c»H Thi5 
mdcpcndcnt testimony saves us tlic trouble of inrcMigating 
very closely the authenticity of Jamicson's v-crrfon, even if 
hia accontjanv-int: remarks did not prove, on ihc face of 
them, his obvious ^&Ha/i4ts. 

Here. then, we has^ happeoinf; m our ovrn land what wo 
fclk-l(^ri£!« ao often as«tifno Ic happen el«where. The 
story existed before Shakespeare, yet does not get written 
down till 300 year* after his death. The mere fact that it 
is uUimately wiitien down in the Lowlands of Scotland 
need not. 1 think, di^urb us from the concliisinn th;«1 it 
existed in Elizabethan Rnyland. frir I have been able to 
trace c\cry one of the fo!k-siorics which arc prenrncd 
in Lowland Scotch cither to En£iland or to the Highlands. 
The story of " Childe Rovbland" docs not. therefore, arise 
in LowEand Scotland, and as it b known by Shakespeare's 
quotation to have been in England tn the flixtccnih 
century, it i-s, nctwith:(tanding all Sulurday Rfvtcn^frs may 
say, an Enslieb fairy tale. But it bears within it marks 
of still higher antiquity than the sixteenth century. Merc 
wc reach those ptrfnts of contrast between Folk-tale and 
Customary Archscology with which Me«sr«, Gem me, 
Hanlaod, and Lsng have fainiliaH^ed u^ We may 
profilably. \ thtnk, devote some ailentfon to the "survivals" 
of urchriic life, which arc, t Ijelievc;. tu Ije fdunil in unusual 
profusion In " Diilde RuwlatiJ" 

I, Unctic/i ef Bxn€»nitits. — We may dismiss ratlicr 
curtly the youngest antiquity. Jamicson has already 
noticed that the way in which Burd Ellen's elder brothen 
arc restored to life by anointment of the ecats of the live 
senses — "unction of the extremities" we mtj-ht <aJl it—is 
derived from the extreme unction of the Roman Catholic 
Church. Thi4 Involves that the talc received \xs. 6nal 
form whife Fngbtid was vtill Roman Catholic. ;'r. before 
the sixteenth ctrrtury. h docs WJt neicessarily fo^kw th»t 
this touch was a pan of the original when first composed. 

C^M^ fioti'/aftj. 


Wc shall :»r>on sec, I think, that it^ Atmosphere woa not 
within the Chrinian fold. Jarnic.^on remarks, in an 
off-banci manrcr, that cxlrcmc unction with blood was in 
UiGc Hirnong the Goth.i long before the introduetion of 
Christianity, but I hav€ faiW to find any authentic 
justification for thU rtatemcnt It will be observed, 
however, tlmt it wa^ wiih "a bright rod liquor" thit the 
unetiun of the cxlfcmitlet was pcrfonned m tmr t;ilc, 

n. Wc oiay next lake the notion contafned in the 
ious word uifffrshhi.'i. In my book 1 adopted a 
ld'& flUt£gc»tion time tliiH word Ih ilerivcd from thr 
words tviAr. against, and jA/w, " the coarse of the iun\ 
For ihi* I hflve been taken to task by my friend Mr, j. 
Goltoncs in the Jfi-7</^w_;', who mforcn^ us.with an appalllni; 
array of Teutonic Icarninj;. that it la rather from zLt'dfr, and 
,a word sinn^ equivalent to ^'scnKc" but the very exigence 
lof which in £n;:)i«h has to be asaumed iui Itoc; so that the 
word simply mcanB '^contrariwific'. Or my pcintln}^ out 
l^tbat thifi doec not explaEn the sh In " widerfihinjs", nor the 
lal aen^e " opposite to the sun's course", Mr. Gollonex 
allows that "Khtne" had f>oine tnftuence on the word as a 
folk-etymology. '*Tvuas Twcedlediim," I said " No," 
say^ Mr Golloncz, "W^ Tweedlcdcc, with only ^n infusion 
of Tweedledum." But that etymology is so exact a waciice, 
one wQuld feci tempted to rtmilc 

But whether " contrariwiac" or "counterclockwise" w 
the mathematicians say, the idea Attached to unWtrsAtrrj h 

iciert, thou;:h not archaic. It points to a time of 
»ppo»ition between Christendom and paganism. To do 

lings in a way oppoiitc to the Church way ;vai to league 
ineself with the enemies of the Church. Hence the door 
if the Dark Tower open% to him that hau gone round it 
three times lut'ticrMns. jiiat as the Devil appeared to tIio*e 
who faid the ?;iterroster b:^ckw3rds- This element in the 
tlory pfjiniH, ihen^ to a time when Christianity was intro- 
duced irtolhc^c i^Uiid.i, and had th^ up|>crh^nd 

III. Yet there arc. seemingly, elements in it which must 


Childt Rowiand. 

iTa^e back lonj; bcrore that tim« for ilidr origin. Our 
hero i* Ihc? younger of thrrc brolhtrs, yti liP U ralltscl 
the ikUdi *yi hcfr. Have wc here a trace of the limc 
when the y':jiin£C4t «on was the heir?^ Tlut custom 
has Icf: traces cvcii upon English land, where it is known 
M " Borougrh English", and cxi*u *iill. I bclievx. in some 
few Engli^ manors. Yet it inosE prcU-ibly traces fn>m 
I he verfy eArliwt limes wti^o En^hshmen Vp-crc still 
wandering, and had net settled into tyfis. 

[V- The taboo a^Ji""*^ taking food in the cnem/s land 
has somctiiiiig liavagc and archaic .nbout 11, A4 i^ \ht cave 
with all taboo?i_ h U an incident tolerably frcqucni in folk- 
tales nr fa'ry talcs ^^ there is a diiSMCal example of it In 
ilie niylh of Pericphone. Mr 1 ianUnd. who ha» recently 
sttidic^ the matter, cornea to the conclusion that there b 
some relation between the laboo j^airH takinj^ food in 
EIHand and that against eating the food of the dead If 
we carried out thiii explanation in the preMnt instance, it 
would follow thai the Dark Toft'cr— if wc may so call the 
hilly palace of the Itrlkonigof our tale — i* the Undefworld 
peopled b>"the dead^andiheKtngofElftand is a i^-arlantof 
Pluto. Our ^t[iT>' would thu:^ be another instance of the 
well-known ihcinc uf Ihc Descent to (fell, Thb fnv-olvet, 
of oouF&e, that FaincH are Ghoatfl, which needs an explana- 
ti'on why people should belic^'c borh in f&iric$ and choat^ 

V, At:ain:»t Ihi* there arc certain indications in our 
story that tell for a recent theory of fairies that h more 
substantial in £o far as it supposes them to have realty 
existed. I refer to the recently publiiihed work oi Mr 
D. MacRiichle, 7Vrf Testittum/ of Tradififfn {Kcgaa 
Paul, Trench, TriibntT & Ca} iV., of tradition about the 
fairies and the rcM. ]3riefly put, Mr. MacRilchic's view is 
that the elvc^, trolls* and fairies repre»nted in pni>irlar j 
tradition arc really the n^ound -dwellers, whose remain^ 
have been discovered in some abundance in the form c^-f 

^ Not tec much itrrts n«edbBttid upon thi«,hc<rtTVr,<iirj)s to tt^^ 
JTOitvefilioDaJ EUC cf * CbiUc' la ibc RomiiK«^ 

Childi liowlan^i. 


green hiJloclw, which have bc«n ariificially rai«G<l over a 
long And low passaj^e Icadio}^ to a ccctral chamber open 
to ihc sky. Mr MacRitchic show^ thai in iicvcral in- 
stances traditions abotit trnllpi or *' good pcopit;" have 
attached themselves to mounds, which have aftcrvvftrds on 
invcMi^ation turned out to be evidently the former re^it* 
dcoci; of men of smaller build than the mortnis of today. 
He gocj on {urthct to identify these with the ficti^fairies 
are called " Fcchs"* in Scotland— and other early races, but 
wrth thete ethnologtcai equations we need not much con- 
cern ourselves, Ii is otherwise with the mound-traOiiJons 
:knc! their relation, if not to fairy talc*; in general, to tales 
abmf fairies^ trolls, elvs*, etc These are very few in 
nuinlicr, And generally bear ihc dutactcr of anccilctcs. 
The fairit^ elc, stc^il d childj tliey help a wanderer to s 
drink, and then disappear into a green hi!! ; they help cot> 
tagcrs viith their work at nif^ht, but disappear if their pre- 
sence is noticed ; human mldwivc^ arc aakcd to help fair>' 
moEhers, fairy mafdcn-i many ordinary men, orfiirb marry 
and live with fair>' hu^bands^ AJl such things m^iy have 
hi^pencd. and bear no such A priori marhs of imposeibility 
as tpeaking animaU, llyirg through the nir, ^nd similar 
incidents of ihe folk-tale pure and simple. If fis archxo- 
logisls tell uv, there was once a race of mea in Northern 
Europe, very liboTT and hairy, that dwell In tindcrground 
chambers anlftcially concealed by giccii liillocks, it doc^ 
not »ccin unlikely that odd survivora of the race hhoutd 
have li\-ed on after they hod been conquered and nnrly 
exterminated by Aryan invaders, and should occasionally 
have performed ^^omethinfr like the pranks told of fairies 
and tfollsv 

VI. Certainly the description of ihc Dark Tower of 
the Kinpof Elfland in -Chlldc Rowland" ha* a remark- 
able re«embl;mce to the dwtlHnjj* of the *'gond folk" 
which recent excavaiioiis hjve rex^ealeU. Mr MatRitehte 
givc^ llluMration-f of one of Ihe most interesting of thcM!, 
the Maes Mow of Orkney ; by his kindness I was enabled 
VOL. n. o 


^hildt Roiiff^itti 

to reproduce th>« in my £ft^iiik Fairy T4dts^ po^ 
This Is 3 green mound some loo ftct in length and 35 in 
breadlh at iis brcodeit pan. TndJiion had long located 
a goblin in its centre, but k was noi till 1861 that it was 
diKOvercd to be pi<:rccx] by x l^irg passage %% Eect bl 
length, zind orly two feet four mcHe« high, Ibf half of itt 
length. This led into a central chamber 15 feet sqturc 
and open to the »ky. 

NcAv it is remarkable how accurately all tlib a^rrevpondfi 
to the Dark Tower of "Childc Rowlands allo^ini; fur a 
little idealisation on the part of the narrator. We have 
the long dark passage leading into the wclMil ccntial 
chamber, ;ind all enclosed in a grcxo hill or mound, Mr. 
MacRttchie in a prfv&te cDmmunication points out that 
the bn'Itiant decorations of the jcterior may ha\« some 
connection with the brightly decorated mats hung on the 
walls of Esquimaux hut«. This Js perhaps going a little 
too much into mrnutt;c?, 

VIL Eijcnsucha nninute touch as the terraces on the bill 
in Oior story have their bettring, t believe, on Mr, Mac- 
Rftcfaie'^ " realistic:" viewii (if Faerie, Far in (juite anodber 
Lonneclion Mr. G. Lv Gomme, in his recent ViUa^t Com- 
munity (W- Scott), ppi 75^93. has given reasons and 
examplci^ for believing that terrace cultiv^ition along the 
sidc9 cf hills was a practice of the non-Ar>'an ai;d pre* 
Aryan inhabitants of these isles. Here, then, from a 
cjuaitcr quite unexpected by Mr. MitcKitchie, ^ve have 
evidence of the association of the King of Elfland with a 
non Aryan mode of cultivation of the soil. By .Mr 
Gomme'^ kirdnciis I was enabled to give an illuetration of 
this in my Engiish Fairy Toks. p, 744- 

If there is anything in these points, our story may ha« 
a certain amount of hiMorit basis, and give a record which 
history faih lo gn-e 01 itie very earliest conflict of race* in 
thciC \}Xvs, I d(f iiol wj&h lo prcw the point unduly, but 
it cerlainly ^ccms to me that it would be ^^onli while 
J T« thoto inay be added Icca ^d. Puk« of Argyll, /Md, p. 199), 

Ciiiltie R&u^fanJ. 


seeing if tbcrc arc any suflicicjil rumber of Irrrnccd hills 
with codo^cd chambers t]iat are associated in th^ popular 
mind with tlic fairies* clfs. pixies, 'good folk", ard the 
thou sand -and-orc other names Ihc people give to these 
cni^tTiitic being's, 1 have myself collected a list of tlic 
local names which are thus as^octnted with fatTics, and the 
rear future may perhaps lead 1o .something more tangible 
about the fiiincn than might be cNpectcd. 

VIII. T have left to the last a tr:iit that certuml/ necms 
arrhatc and savage, though l have no theory lo account 
for iL It i?( itif curious" off with their head* method by 
whJdi ChiUir Knwiand rewards thL- "ien'icc of the herds and 
ihL' htn-wife fur telling hfiii hln way. Why \\\\s should be 
done on any folk-lore pfJrcJplcs I am at a loss to unJcr- 

The 5tor>' of Childc Rowland would thus bean idealised 
account of a marriage by capture — another savage trait — 
by one of the prc-Aryar dwellers, with an Aryan maiden, 
and her recapiure by her brothers, an incident which was 
probably not urcommon wher the two races dwelt side by 
side, but in a ^tate of permanent liostillty. That is the 
conclusion thai some of thp abnve indications would leid 
M< lo if we study the tale merely with the view of tracing 
" survival". 

But lliert! ii aiKAhci wa/ of looking ^l \U ihat of the 
Science of Fair>' Tales properly fo-callcd, wliidi dc«ls with 
talcs as talcs, and without reference to their archaeo- 
logical rcfcrcncctt. Thi.^ hai Br^t to do lA-ith the ont^in of 
tbe tale in the sense of asking when ;ind where it was first 
told as a tal& Luckily here our problem is gEmple» There 
is nothing exactly parallel to the whole ftory out«ide 
England, »o Kngiant! wa*; iu on'ginal home.* The nearest 
parallel lA the Mor>- of the Kcd iiitin, wliere we have the 

' He iGrmuIn " Vtt fi f« fum* t» eiiemuUy Englithn though 
■nilcfobt oar)4 ncctxv almoiii cicrytvlirrc, and can be Irjited u far 



OnfA Rtmlamd. 

encluiiud ctalle vA the «M c ««fa l 

TIk Uncr ink b of 






J wg htct b i rrr^ifi il after tbc elder coo l&d &itotJ. bot 
I amcoarioecd that tfaccfaoioc of Ac > o aqpje aqd ua 
hcToo dDCto«ft»tk;iiotArcl»oloekBicnaa. Bnttfacre 
b ooc coDtnbntioo Aat die Kbchcc of tfae Coflc-tsk mvf 
make to ttw pvoUera of aa d^oi^ vUch ve have been 
hitherto diKming, and tint is bf dtradne otar fim 
atfcntioa to tfaey^vm of Cliilde RowbfMT. 

Thi« besios with verse, tben tvni«to[»o»e,aai! thfoiq^* 
o«t drops 3gun at mtervaLU into poetry tn a firiendly way, 
lilce Mr. Wegg' Now ths u a fcrm of wrftfo^ Dot tm* 
Icoown tn other branchei of titeraiure, the tattU-f^ii^KA 
which " Aocaftiifi ct NkoletCc" \s the okost disdngindMd 
example^ Nor 14 the umit-f^U confined to France. 
Many of the heroic vcnes of the Arabs contained In the 
iiamAsa would be untntcUigiblc wicbo«t accompanyiag 
narrative, which i< novradayi preserved In the cofiuneotai>'. 
The verve* imbedded in the Ara^ioH Ni£fUs gj^^ them 
MOKthlnir <^ tt^c character of a caxT^/a^, and the same 
liuy be said of the Indian and Persian stoT>*-bo6k|i, llioufh 
tiK verw U usually of a scntciHiovs and moral kbd, aa in 
the gSishas of the Buddhirt Jatalcas. The contemporary 
Hindoo ftoryteller»,Mr Hanbnd remarks, abo commingle 
veraeand prose. Even a« remote as Z^ilt^ar. Mr Lang 
notes, the folk-tales arc told a* (onu-fithtfs. There an 
even traces in the Old Testament of such icrced* of vcfse 
amid the pro»c narr;tlK7, a« In the story of Lamccll or that 
of Balaam. All this »itggest» that this is a very early and 
oummoo form of narrative; 

Amonff folktales there arc still many traces of the 
cttnU*fabU> Thus» in Grimm's collection, vcrsea occur in 
Nos. 1, 5* M, \2. 13, 1 5. 19. 31. ?4- =«. ,W 36. 33fl. ^, ^a, 
40, 45. 46. 47, out of the first fifty tales. 36 per cent. Of 
Chambers' twenty one folk-tales, in the Popuiar Rhymes of 

Chiiik RomiantL 


Sucthmi^ only fiv-e arc without interspersed verses. Of Ihc 
forty tales contained In my volume, thirteer contain 
rhymed lines, while Tour contain ** survivals" of rhymes, 
and two others are rhythmical if not rhyming As mott 
of the remainder aie dmlls, which have probably a dif* 
fcFCnt (origin* tht:re Mycins to be great probabilhy that 
ongmaUy all folk-talcs of a scHoua character were inter- 
^pcrwxiwiih rhyme, and took therefore the form of the 
asHlC'fabli, It I3 indeed unlikely tliat the ballad iLwlf 
b^ui as continuous verse, and the canU^/ttbU is pro- 
bably the protoplasm out of xvhich both bnllad and 
folk-takhave been differentiated, the ballad by omit ting 
Ihc na/rativc prose, the folk talc by expanding it. In 
" Chiidt Rowland" we have llic nearest ek;;mple to such 
protoplasm, and it is not d£I^CLlt to see how it could have 
been thortcned tnto a ballad or reduced to a prose folk- 
tale pure and sImiJle. 

Thus A consideration of Its form confirms our impreailon 
of the anlitpjlly nf iiar stor)* c<i,-<:w in its present form, aiMl 
combirei with our ftjlk-loic discu^ion of the archiiic 
elements of the talc to pn>vc thai in "Childc Rowland" 
we have the oldest of extant Hngliah fairy tales. That 
it js connected with ^uch names as Shakespeare. Milton 
and Browning cn&blci mc to contend as 1 did at the 
bcpnniDg of thif paper that "Childe Rowland" is the most 
interesting oi' otir native fair>' tales. 

JoscrK Jacois. 


THERE is, further, thai pcnili;ir rountry ^arras^ men* 
tiuncd ii:» the Und whence; llie Santcnu «jim& 
The nomenclature in these romances* both that of persons 
and that of places* is one \\hich dc?icrv-c±L a cairful investi- 
gation. If wc could succeed in lixingsomcof the most im- 
portant besides, much wHI be won for the date, age, aiW 
probable on^^ir* of the sources, I cannot Imgfcr ovcf that 
imporrant f|iicslion hrrr, nor rvi-ti touch h morf than I 
have done. It opens a wide prospeci where (unt:y would 
display itself in etymological pTays riddles and ^utions. 
The country of Sarras i^ one of IhcK. A% far o^ I have 
botn iahXt to investigate thai: b no trace of a country 
bearing ^uch a name in the Co^t Looking to the legend 
of Alexander, I think llic mystery will be solved After 
k&vinj: the Temple of the Sun, Alexander voxnX to the 
eouDtry of Xerxes and delivered decisive battles [so to 
ValcrJus)^ In the French version (;'. G, Taris. J, p. 
189-190) of Thoma* of Kent^ wc have there (chap, ocxxx) 
&ub^lituted for Xerxes and hii army : " de gen* lou»r niia 
sMi\X a|>cllei xrnrs," and in ch. ccxxicii, ccxvxJii, "del 
pople qi/psl a|*ell^s Srrrei lI dc hir <ireilure", ''eoment Ic* 
Sfrrfj guicrcnc Alix." The gymiiosophist* lake the place 
of the Persians and &re cjiCled the jKraplc cif Xcr?tes. Out 
of this Senvj'X^rjcfj grew the Sana* of the Grail cycle. 
These few examples suffice to cstabliih a close connccticw 
ttbo betw'cen minor details in the Alcxandrcid and in the 
Gr^L The central portion hfu been taken over bodily and 
forms the central portion of the Grail, with all the pccu- 


The Lf^grnd of ike Graii 


liantics which lend to explain the Further development this 
legend went ihrotig^h, until it readied that stage in which 
we find it 

By being connected vWlh Alexander** journey to Paradia^ 
[the legend of the Quent, which in its prirnitive form rnjst 
"Bhohave been a search Hft<?r it. U brought fnto dose fllltance 
with th<" numpmiifi fale^ of saints journeying to Paradise: 
tht- legend of the three moiik?^, thai nf St Macnrm* in 
the desert' (Jrt itMrlf only a modificalion of Alexftndcr's), and 
St. Brendan, not to mention ever 3o nULny more. 

The description of the palace or castle is revived and 

amplified in (he famous kttcr of Prcatcrjohn, which became 

hiiowii at that tine, and ]« dimtty qmtfd by Wolfram* 

Here the Christian element bci^ins to creep in ar<i kad-5 

Ihe w^y to the other profound modificatiofis ivhich the 

[legend underwent. We ean see the tr:inHition from the 

lesiHen temple to a Chri^ti^n palace (church) with a king 

[priest) ; cominj; thus nearer to certain forms of the Grail 

sgend. In another place I Intend studying the letter 

of Prcsrter John, ;md of shiju'ing the souTce* whence It was 

deriv<ec!. It will l>e lihown there that It nwe* it* origin, lo 

some extent, to Jewish talc^ nnd Jewish dcsizriptlons of 

traveln ; and iomc Ught may be thrown on Flegetanis the 

lew, to whom, .iccotdinj to Wolfram. Kyot owed ihe 

iginal of the Grail Ic^nd, 

I mu£t incidentally mention that a careful compari&on 
of Chresticn*3 jxjcm with the French "Chansons dc Gcsic" 
will reveal the g/cat dependence of the former tijxjn the 
latter. Many an Incident, many a defteriptioQ is urt- 
doubledly talcen over, I limit mj"setf here to one, t>ecauie 
'Mr. Nutt give* il siich prominence ; I mean the Stag hunt. 
[iKtcad nf having anything lotto with rhe 'May of the fool", 
the conTiectJoo with it being far from clear, or convincing, 
the true cxpianiUion is given in incident 70 of the Qucste 
(Nutt. pi 49> ; tbc« we read : " On the morrow ihey meet 


Thi Lfg^nd of ikt Grail, 

fc-vhiteatas kil by four lions \ these come to a bcri]ilta|*e^' 
ittAIIta^nttSBithr Mag Ixxuiii^sa manmiJ ?iiUon llieahv; 
thf^ iions become a man, sn eagle, a Ivxt, and «n ox, all 
winged." There is not the ^ci^hk^t <kiubt il^ to wtui \s 
represented here under tbc f^iMir of a Mag ; it b CUrbt with 
the four Apo^tlc:!. cAch in that form in which they have 
been rcprcientcd by art. 

This :i>Tnbotiftm i* not the iiuthor of the Que^lc's o»ti 
invention- We meet it more than cnce in tfaC Chansons 
de Gcstc" (V. P. Rajna. I^onf^idtit tf^^fl-tt /ranffu, 
Florcnee, iS% p. 357 ami p, 706 A). It can be traced 
even to a mudi older source, vit-, the famuut life of Sl 
Bunachlifi Flaclda. sn dowly ^c<«^mbl1ng the frame work 
of a nifnancr, that it h^-H indeed become a popular talc» 
and k ha> been iRcoqK>ratod into the Gf$ta /^pmamarmm^ 
cd. Oertcrley (ch. 110), aiid L^emdn amna oT Jacobus ^ 
Voragine, Thb hero-saint b drvwn away from hi> com- 
panioRs by the appcanirrce of a atag, whom he pur? ucn and 
whtch tnm^ out afterwards to be Christ himself The stag 
bft» thti3 a 5ymbo(ical meaniAg, and i^ c^f pureJy Cfariatian 

The greatest iDodttcation tn the talc^ howtvcr, b that 
wTOi^t in the chaiactcr aod attnbcitca of the Hoiy GniL 
I procc«l, tbcfcfefCt to invotigate thn second meat nz^or- 
tant dement o£ tlw IcgeiKL 

Thereti^firU, the? quoctionwbenof the name? What U the 
roeanirq^ of it^ Thb question b tbc nxn nccrvsary, as 
the oldest writer* thcmjchro do not know jta exact meaning 
and have rvcoiir>c to exptanatiocis which in the best caac 
are men playv upon the word. PaidiQ Tarn, tn hta 
-Xmww ^ Jb« r.iWr .ipMrfGr, nies«<ts that the name Cf#^b 
■oUmc^ ebc but a moJiScihtion oC ibe Latin fTrWb^fi, the 
name of a book lucd tn the Ktut^oftlie Cbitrdi, wbcrtmi 
thetalewaa written dowti TItetotAaiKotbefBsdvedafcfd 
e7camp)» enon^ 10 coaaccx the tale wM boola pcvcrfrd 
fai ihrCbindi; tbc incnidoctiOQ to Ifac Gnnd St Gfa^ lets 
the booli COOK dMm «ttrcctly (rwn hoKvoL 

The Legend of the Grail. 201 

f can adduce another positive proof, viz., that a book 
used in the Church did bear the name of Grael. Philipp 
of Thaiin, one of the oldest Norman poets (iioo-1135), who 
wrote his Cmnputus undoubtedly before the first half of the 
I2th century, ^f,, at Seast 50 years before ChrestJen, gives 
a list of books which every good clei^yman is expected to 
possess. He says : I90 fut 

li saltiers 

E li antefinlers 

Baptisteries, Graels 

Hymniers e li messels 

Tropiers e le^unier, etc. 
(M, F. Mann, Physiologic, I, Halle, 1884, p. 6-7.) 
This being the case, the Grail must have been either a 
book containing psalms chanted during the litui^, or a 
description of some sort of theolc^ical legend or tale 
connected with the litu!^. 

If the book was called Sanct Grael, and by popular 
etymolc^ connected with J^w^ (blood), we can easily un- 
derstand one of the main developments of the legend, for 
nothing would be simpler than to explain it first as the 
blood of Christ, and then as the vessel destined to receive 
it. But this is undoubtedly the youngest of all the vari- 
ations, and must be studied together with the sources and 
origin of the early history. 

Chrestien and Gautier knew nothing of its previous 
history, and in the few passages in which the Grail occurs 
it Is vaguely indicated as having food-giving properties 
without any other spiritual or theological gifts. Again, in 
Wolfram's version it has quite a different character alto- 
gether : it is a stone which yields all manner of food and 
drink, the power of which is sustained by a dove which 
every week lays a wafer upon it, is given, after the fall 
of the rebel angels, in chat^e to Titurel and his dynasty, 
is by them preserved in the Grail castle, Mont Salvatsch, 
and is guarded by a sacred order of knighthood whom it 
chooses itself (Nutt, p. 25). 


The Lc^ind of ifu CraiL 

If w^ WUm «p ckrtely Ihc dift»em vcnions we can 
e^ily observe U-^ increase of the propenJe^ ass^xM^ to 
the Grad. *nd through the Grail to ihe Grul-ln^rpcr and 
Grail-«eckcr, Wc can flee Ikovr the author of each new 
vermm tried to outdo hb predccesMjr, and thiu in linK a 
complete hiitor>- of the Grail appears, of whJch nothing «n» 
knovD bcfofc. 

The GOCTftcctioD* further, with Britua is one of the latest 
developments, a/sd has nothing whatsoever to do wi^ 
the primitive hbtory of the Gnil, with which it became 
bier connected- I mu^ Ica^'c that point untouched, as 
I irinh To go ttraight to the qtie»licn of the Grail itxIC I 
ha\v already stated. aC the b^'nnir^, that the temple of the 
Grail in the pcem \s the teinple of Jenittlcn, and the 
Grail in it« dotibte character a certain ucrcd stone In the 
Holy places 

The change from the temple of the sun to a ChHstkn 
church vs only natural and quite In accocdance with the 
sjurit of the lime. Decides, the legend of Premier John with 
klA palacc-chtirch paved the way for the traxiHtion, aruf 
certainly none waft hetCcr ki^own or more renowned Uun 
thai of Jerusalem, of which numerous legends were circu- 
lated by pilfirima from the Holy Lai:d fiwarming through 
Europe not to ftpeak of the crusades and the numerous 
expedJtionii to Palestine, We am trace those loecnds, 
which I fchall mcntior latf*r on more fully, throtig^h a great 
number of Christian writer*, ranging from the twelllh 
century back to the third. From such legendE b derived 
also the dotjblr chfiraclct A.sMgned to the Grail, thai of a 
holy cup or vchsciI, with an cucharlslical symbolism, and 
that of a sacred stone existing from tlic creation of the 
world, aid earned about by the an^cU of heaven. Both 
are dcr[\cd from a more primitive notion, viz., frum the 
legends connected with a aacrcd stone which scnxd a^ 
an altar in that verj' church. In thi^t peculiar character 
we cm trace it back to the iirsC century, and. pettaps^ 
to an earlier tradition preserved by J^jvviih wrJtcra. 

Th Ligind of i&c Graii, 


wilh the temple of Solomon have been adapted Jn later 
timCH in ftrrvc Chrhtinn notions^ I menlion, fcir insUncc, 
the kgcnd of Golgotha and thchcadof AdfltOH ihc legend of 
the beam ir the temple which became aftcnvaid* the cross, 
that of the <iuccn of Shcba* and the Sybilla, and so vcr>' 
many other legends and apocryphal tale:*, some of which 
arc also to be foimd ir the Grand St Graal, nay, form the 
greater part of iti cortentft. 

No»' there WAS current «;t the time a poculiar le^^fid 
connected with a certain slone that \s, >tiil in cxiutencc; it 
IS that sronc which ^candt im<?er a b^ldachfn in the 
Haram^ murc^ pn=ci>e1y, in the Kubbet'CS^StuAra^ th<? 
Tffnplf of ifie Rock. It is that famous buitditig erected by 
Button nt*McTik toward.s the end of tfic achcnlh cenlur^', 
which so deeply impressed the Crusaders and the Tcm* 
plars. that Ihcy thought it na.'i the real icmpic of Solomon. 
In order to vvaich Ihi^ temple and Icecp h affainst the 
mfidcis, the Jcnighthood ol" the Temjilars arose ot the 
bcgmnin^- of the eleventh century- They took the image 
of that dome aw a cresL Many a church in Europe was 
built after chl^ model ; if [ am not miiuken, i\v& Temple 
Church in LdtkIoii, where the quartertt of the Knig^hts 
Templar were, as iveU as similar building in Laon, 
Mct7, etc 

The te»tfc of thai building is the lOck. famous dlilte in 
Jewish, Mohamcd<in»and Chri^itJan Iq^cnd^ ; it i» rturrounded 
by a Itdli^ of iron, with four lattice doors wrought by 
Frendi arlizans of the twelflh ccntjry-, and ia co^'crcd 
with red Mmilc and gold fringes 

It would be ulmo:tl imposiible to fi^ve here all the 
legends that arc told of this rock. I select only a few 
bcsfirg on cur subjecL [ begin with the oidc»l, that 
taken from the Jewinh literature 

The first impulse to legendary development n the 
passage of thr Hibh? : (Isaiah, xxviii, 16) *' Therefore, thus 
s;uth the Lotd Gud, Itdtuld, 1 lay in Ziun for a founda* 


Tke Ligend of tkc GraiL 

lion a stone, a precious corner stone of sure foundation," 
(Cf. I Pet ii, V. 6.) L;kter fane/ saw !n thut rock the 
slome of foLiTiflMtEon, endowed i! i*ith MJiirm;itiir-il oiigm 
aikd power, and yavc li the name of " Ebcii ^Ju^ya"^ "the 
stone of foundation. This stone is the centre of the 
world, upon it ^tdnds ihc Temple, and that ia the stone 
upon which jAcob ^Icpt and siiw the wonderful ladder 
with God sianding on top of it" So runs ore legend 

Another, more elaborate one» says : " When God created 
the worJd he took a stone (undoubtedly a precious one), 
engraved H is holy and mysterious Name upon it, and sank 
it in the abyss to stem the undet^roitnd waters ; for when 
they behold the Holy Name they get overawed; and «hrink 
back into their natural boundaries- Whenever a man 
nitcfs an oath that *iIone cones up and receives rh;»f oath, 
and returns to Us former place. If the oath is a true one, 
then the IcUcrsof the Holy Name gel more deeply cngjaved, 
but if it is a fahc oath the letters arc washed away by the 
waves, which surg^c and rise, and would overflow the world, 
if God did not send an angel, /cM^w/, who poasc.ises the 
seventy keys to the mj'sterious name of God, to cngmv'c 
them anew, and thus to drive the flood back, Tor cthcf- 
wise the world would be flooded," 

As a continuation of this legend there exist?^ another, 
according to which David, when he rnicnded to lay 
the foundation of the Temple, brought that stone up from 
the depth, and if not for Divine intervention, would haw 
brought about a second flood. 

More ancient \% ihi? bdief that upon that rocif the holy 
ark, idth the stone table* of the ten commandments, used 
to rpi^t, and that they were hidden inside the rock at the 
mEjmcnl of the destruction of the first temple.' 

In the accord book of the Maccabees the concealing of 

' /rfwi, f 53*, r S-i6; TanhuHug^ wt. Biiber, ii, pL 39, No. 59, 60k 
61 ; I^vit. hi^.jjcct. ao; Numb. r*^i>-y rtci. la^ Cant. »v*,, a<L ch. iii, y, 
tS; Prrtiiitis r-jft., *p(i. 47: Midrnsk Psa/m^ Pit. 91, v. II; Kj/1*; 
Sim., i. f- JSi ( IW, f 4^^ 1 145» dc. 

The Legend of ike Gratl. 


thff hc^y vcK*eU in a tocIc scaltd with the ifirfT?I>li? name 
of GocI, Is ;iitribuictl lo the Piophet Jeremiah — as i* also che 
CcLsc in a ccrt;im apocr/phsE tcgcmJ of jcfcmioli, wherein 
alflo an tJicidcnl occuia, which h Absolutely Identical with 
the Ic^ndorthellolyGmil, Both the keys of the temple 
&nJ the Holy Grail arc taken up to hcavea by a mystcnoua 
hAfitl reaching down from on high. Uut this i mention 
only incidciilally. Let us proceed further with liic £frfw 

As the oldest tr;idttion will have it, it was in the tompTc 
from the time of the ^rst prophets, that I*, it ii recorded 
as having been from that time tt was therefore placed in 
ihc purtlim wh<rrc the ark u^ed to be l*cfori.\ in ihc Holy of 
Holies of the Temple \ the High-prJesl crlctcd iheic once 
a year to burn "»vbt:et incense". This act waa considered 
to be of symbolic importance, and the populai belief 
endows the rock with food-f^tving properties. '* It in thence 
tha.t hracl ^ot abundance of food" ; so runs the passage 
in tlic original- 'i o complete the characieriiitLcn cf thia stone 
I have only to add another legend, whjcb brmgs us directly 
fa connection with Christianity, An old ^intl-Chnstian 
writing— perhaps tliat mentioned in ihc seventh century, 
but modified in later lines^ — has a peculiar talc about thfs 

It runs as follows >— 

" Now, at this time (»>., ifi the lime of Jesus) the 
unutterable name of God was engraved In the temple 
on the E6fn Skatya. For when King David laid the 
foundations, he found there a stone in tJic t:>ciund on 
which the name of God wa^ engraved, 4iid he iixik it and 
placed it in the Holy of Holies. But as the wise men 
feared lest some inquisitive youth should learn this Name, 
and be able thereby to destroy the world, they made by 
magic two brazen Hons, which they sat before the entrance 
of the Holy of Holies, one on the right, the other on the 


^ Lipiiuf, Pt'Iafirr vfrrV/r, p. z^. 

"Now ifanycne were to £fowfthin and team the Holy 
Name, then the Hons wcjllM hcgin to roar a« he came out, 
so Uiat out ofalarQ] and bewiML:nncitt lie would Icoc his 
presence of mind, And forget the Name 

"And Jcaus left upper Galilee and came secretly to 
Jerj^alcm, and went into the temple, and learned there the 
holy writing, and after he had written the tncifable Name 
on parehment, he uttered it, with intent that he might Ced 
no pain, and then he cut into hifi fleshk and hid the pareh- 
ment with the inicnpUon therein. Then he uttered the 
Name once more, and made so ihat his fle^h hcakd up 

"And when he went oiit of the door the lions roared, 
and he forgot the Name. Therefore he hastened outside 
the town, cut into his f^esh, took ihe writing out. and when 
he had suBrcicntly studied the ^igns he retained the N«me 
in mcmotj-. ' and ihur^ he wrought all the miracles through 
the a(jency of the ineffable name of God'"^ 

Taking ail these elements together we have here dearly 
nil llie properties assi^ed to the Grail : the precious stone, 
the centre; of the temple, ard further, ihe Keeper of the 
great secret, the mysterious woirds given to Jojieph, and 
handed down by hfm in his descendants, the lions at the 
entrance again-st which Lancdol fought 

These arc the primary detnerts for the lator develop- 
ments by Christiana and Mohamedan? ; as that »tone was 
equally holy to both, and the primitive legends were 
adapted to the altered circumstances, so, as wc ^hall ace, It 
became the altar upon which mass was celebrated, and the 
tabic of the l-Jisi Supper, the primitive form from which 
the later spiritual one was derived. 

Well ^nown is the tiiterpfctation of the text of Uaiah 
from which I started, In the first Eptslle of Petf*r, c. ti, v. tf, 
theaevery word^ are quoted, to^etJier with those from J'tiaira 
cxvii], 22, and Jesus is identified with the corner-stone, 
which in its turn was identified with the J^ltn S^/iiyrt, ihe 

Tiu Ltf;4nii of ike Craii. 


ir>c or the world £ foundidon : He the itone, the Altar, the 
rtfic<;, thuK the Kucbarl«t- 

Al ihc place where cho Tcmpic stood a church was erected, 
or the Temple tumfurmed into achutch, called ihc Church 
of Mount 2ion, first the abode of the Viiigin Mao". then the 
Church of St. Janc5. One of the fir»t pilgrims whose 
record 19 ill existence, one from Bordeaux, ^ct. ^33, &hov«the 
first pha^e of thin transformation ; he saw ciircady there the 
" bif- comcr'Stcnc of M-hich the Psalmist speak*."' 

Antoninus, another, of the year 570, knows already more 
about it, for he says ; " When you put your ear w it, you 
can hear the voice* of m;iny men." -According to the 
Mohamcdan legend one hears the noise of water. Both tale* 
derive*! from the old legend mentioned abovc,thatihe5tone 
shut* wp the waters of the depth. 

This church founded there is the molhcr church founded 
by the Apoatlcs; and with this agrees the whole Christian 
antiquity. In the ?^arue manner Fvodtus, Epiphaniu^. 
I licronymurt, and xcizxiy other ecclesiastical historjars, 
unarimously assert tliat the accnc of tJie Last Supper took 
pUtceon Mount Zion. John of Wurxburg [i iCo-'o: anoidcr 
eontempor^iry of Chric^lien) says : " Tk4 C&tnaatiuft^ ta on 
Mount Ston. in the very ipot where Solomon reared his 
splendid building, of which he speaks in his ' Son^ of 
SofigsV The tabu of the Last Supper was also «hown there 
u late as the twelfth and thfrleentli centuries; and this table 
was Edcntilied wJlh the aitar upon which the Apostle John 
celcbTaied mass, which altar stands for that corntr-ifrnt, 

Thcreisa very interesting passage inMandfviUcs dcscrip- 
lion, a synchretistlc account of what he naw on Mount Sinn : 
"And (JO paces from that church (St jaincs) i^ Mount 
Sion, where there 11 a fair church of Our Lady, where i^hc 

dwelt and died and there \% the stone which the 

angel brought to Our Lady from Mount Sinai, which is of 


The L^end ^f ihc GmiL 

the same colour as that of St. Cathiinnr/* And fttrtlicron : 
" There is a pari of the uUc on uliich Our Ijord made Hb 
Supper, when he made hb MaunOy with his di«ciplc5 and 
g&vc dicoi hi» ilcnh and blood in forni of brcjid and wine. 
And under thai chapel. b>- a descent of thirty-two steps, is 
the place where Our Lord wA-^^hcd hb disciples' feet, and 
the vessel which contained the water is atill preserved. . . - 
And there is the altar where Our Lord heard the aDf^els 
sing mass." 

Almost identical with this description is ihat of Philip^ 
of the twelfth or thirteenth century. TJie idenlifieftlion of 
Bione and altar, and further altar and ma«, >* to be met 
with also elsewhere. It is In f;ic( no mtire than a simple 
adaptation of the old notion, that the ark stood upon that 
*tone and that the stone took the place uf the itltar. To 
identify the altai' in tlic church and Uic sacrament with tlK 
fundamental cvent:i in the life and the tCAchtngr^ of Jesti.^ 
is in perfect accord with the allegorical snd mystical inlcr- 
pretationf indulged in .tince ancient timed. The ma^s in 
the oriental church ha^ throughout only a ^mboh'cal 
meaning, and the Grail parlftlces thu^ of a double interpre- 
tation. To one it i« merely a vessel or a cup, a portion for 
the whole, the natural chan^^c from the altar and mast to 
tlie moat prominent /c?/'/'^^ of It ; to another ft it still 
%. primitive rock made by hsnds of angels, and the tfood* 
givinj^ wafer is brought by the dove which rcprcKrnti the 
Holy Spirit. 

In rjMc tlic change is more radical, and witti ihe lime 
becomes more ri>Atica1 and symbolical; in ihc other the 
original form i* better retained, and offers tliiismorc clement* 
for the icconat ruction of the oldest form of the legend. 
The Afuns<ih'as<^e, where the castle standi;, is nothing d»c 
than tlic " Mount of Salvation"— the Armenian church on 
Alount Sion isdcdicitcci lo the "Holy Saviour" the Sai valor; 
and Wolfram wa& not altogether wrong when he accused 
Chre^tien of having departed too much from the origioftl 

Tk€ Lcfftnd 0/ fkt Grail, 


In connection wiih the prccL^ing, I will add now the 
interpretation of another rnmc^ C^rbmtt, not infr<iqucnt in 
the Grail romances, a name of *ome imporiancc According 
to Qwtff, Incident 13 (Nmt/p. 73). Ca»tle Corbcnic i« the 
place wherein lheM^^m/f/^/W^rfo«i&; further, Incident 76 
(p. 50) the 'ainr h again meni!cned a« the Ca:(t[e of Peletir^ 
uT the Muhnetl King. i.f., the rrsting-plaoc of the Grail 
In the Grand St Graal. Incident 51 (p. 6j) we read : " Here 
}S ihc rc>1ing-pUcc of the Ilo^y Grail, a lordly castle is 
built for it hight Cffr&ertr'c, wliich Is CMdefy an*! signilrcn 

Thb mterprctAticn I's only half true, in so fara^ the word 
C^r^mi can be traced to a Hebrew or Chaldcc word 
d>rfrj«rt, the meaninj^ of which h^cfftring, sacrifice, xtn^ not 
that which is assigned to it.fcy the author of the Grand St 
Graal, Ihit of ficJy vasttL 

This explanation agrees perfectly with the identification 
cf the Grail with the AHar-r-X^in^, the place of flacrificea, 
mystical, symbolical or matefial. 

Starting from [he Slavcmic, especially Rut^^ian legend*, 
about the iny^terbiis Altar-stone, ^ihlth he broii^Jit In 
connection with the Grail, Prof. Wcssclofsky has tried to 
prove it* ii!entily with that Mone of ihc Cliriitlan Church 
of Z(on mentioned by the pilgrims quoted above* The 
Jewish legends, however, which I have been able to add, 
have enabled mc to trace that identity farthcr.snd to fumish 
those links which were mtssin^. and to show the last aourcca 
to whom those Christian Icgcnda owed their origin. The 
n&jne"Alat>V, which remained unexplained, ifi nothing el» 
but the v?//^'atonc, as I luvc proved it to be. 

The taine caui^es, /y,, the «ame Palestinian legends, bad 
the same result, vir, to produce an ifitftJ sfom both for the 
East and the We-st of Europe, but it remained to the 
gentU^ of ihc difTcTcnt Irouveurs, or Kal&ki pcrrhojfe, to 
develop th<it idea according to the skill and perfection 
po*ktib1e in those Iao lei^iona. The one inirotluccd it into 
the famous legend of Alexander, in order to aubatiimc it 


Tk€ Legend of i&tr Grail 

for the mcamnjilcss Btone mcniionctl Uierc ; the oihcr 
connected it with other apocryphal talw and iegcnds, and 
formed the ramous Gulubinaya Kniga of the Rtt&sfan 
b The legend or the J \o\y Gr^il hkd slEll to pass another 
slagc of development, before it became whai It i? m 
lomc at Ica-Ht of the rornancc^ It had to be entirely 
spiritualised* The Christian element £o prominent in the 
CniMdea pervaded the poem so thoroughly that to some 
it waft nothing hut the outcome of purely ChH^tian 
canonical and noncanorical writin]^. }{y leaving the 
classical and local elements out of account, the Grail had 
still Temained a pu^cjite to be solved. 

1 do not even attempt now to «how all the parallels to 
the Chn'vtian apocryphal literature which we meet with in 
the diflferent vertion?i of the romance. The whole early 
history gives itself as such a tale : later on I may be per- 
mitted t" show how inextricably Interwoven with it are the 
apocryphal legends of Adam and Seth, ihc history oF the 
Cross, a peculiar legend i;f Solomon aJid the Queen of 
Sheba, the le^nd of Sunday, and ever .so many more 
allusions to such and ^imilfir apocryphal talcs. 

Hut there .-itsll rcmtiins the liLurgical character which is 
giver to the Grail in some of the version* of the romance. 
It icrvca to bring home to the reader or hearer a ccrtiiin 
dogmatic teaching about the myatcry of the Eucharist. 
The myi^tica] procession, with the description of everything 
that occurred, points clearly to the fact of the transub- 
fttantiation of the sacrament, as a thing that did occur in 
the sight of the bystanders, as if it were a proof more to 
the truth and accuracy of this dogmalie teaching- 
Has tJie author of ihe romance evolved it out of hU own 
fancy, or docs he follow here also some legend, which he 
adrjpis fo Fits purposes? 

Thcfx: 13 no doubt that the question of the reality or 
non-rcalily of tritn substantiation was at the time a buminjl 
one The author or authors have shown themselves well 

Tks Legend 0/ tk4 CruH, 


versed in ChiUtlart ainl hcatbcci loic, iiitd on tlic other 
hand not much given tt» invent oiil of their own biains. 

I do not know whether aiij-body haa already pomtcJ 
thia out, or has brought in connection with it the Icgcudj 
which occurs to mc as an almost direct source for that 
portion of the loniAnccti of the Grail. 

It IE bcEldcfi locskli^ed in Jeru&^lem, and \% directly con- 
nected with that very same church on Mount Slon of which 
the tiy^izv stent Ugends speak. [ will deal now with this 
legend before conchiding ihis, ncces^inly short, :ittem{^ 
to solve thr <jncNtion of ihc origin of ihc Gratl, I ht^vc 
had tc> amline myself in many 04sir« merely tii iiH!Jcatiii}{ 
in a few word^ what required a »pccia( monogjdph. and 1 
may rctun^ at another time to the »tudy of those details 
at greater IcngtlL 

M. Gaster- 

Bv Alfred Nutt. 

Accordint; to Dr. Caster, to explain the origin of the 
Grail legend's we iruM "look for one central lalo, con- 

* tatning a MiffLcicnt number of incident*, complete in 
itself • ... it most contain the most important incidents, 
and that of ihc Grail as one of them" (stj^ra, pp. 53-54)- 
He finds this tale in a parttcutar episode of the Alexander 

I legend fpjx 59 63^ Herein he makes no new dJicovery. 

I Ir 1850. Wei*mann, in his edition of Lamprrcht's 
Akxatuiir^ commented a^ followu tipon the *ao^e cpt- 
ftode: "This description ^how** marked :Jmilariiy with 
that of the Grail in medi.^val tcxtv A» the legend 
has itv origin in the K^^^t, »nd rn^y \m\^ taken ^4pc in the 



Tkt Legaid of i&i Crail. 

first century* it b not strange lo fii>d it noticed bcrc; 
ttu3 iMs^aige probably contains one di the earliest re- 
fcrtnces lo if' {^. dt^ vol. ii, p. 2!2, wit4% Lamprcchi'* 
poem and Vl'etunann's anibigiK>us hint urere pfobably 
Tjimiliar to other siudciits of the Gr^il cjelc as th*^ 
were to me. Dr. Gutter is the first, to my knowledge, 
to take WHsmann's hfnt em s/rirux. 

Before rxamitiing the hyjx>lhc^t«. T would note ■ slate* 
iTient in which, if I may symture !o say yy, the Callacy 
underlying Dr, Gastcr*» whole ar^ment w c^pecUlly 
prumitKiiL 1 refer lo the charaeterisation of tlie twdfti)- 
centuiy French Alexander roflnances {sh^^ p. 59J : "One 
has only to see how tHcy dealt with their orif^nals, bow 
they tninsfcrtcd the whole scenexy from bo&n^ antiqutty 
to their oun time, and to their own eoun», to undemaod 
the liberty a poet of tbo*e time* cotild take with hb 
originAlt." So far from the mcdi.tval poet transferring 
hoary antiquity to his own time, he projceted htf own 
time back into hear)' antif^uiiy — a very dtfterent matter — 
and this he did because he was unccnscioiu of any 
difference between the two^ In the words of the mou 
eminent liviitg mailer of intdiK\'al literature, " Le mci)'cn 
2ge n'8 jamais cu conscience dc ce qui le dUEinguaft 
profomkinent de rantiqull^; il s'e*t toujours represent^ 
k monde eomme ayant i\k de tout temps ce tjull le 
\'oyait £tre ; tl se figurait nar\'ement Alexandre avcc ses 
capitaincs comme un roi de France ou d'An^leterrc 
entotir^ de ftes barMu.'^ What follows? this— the me- 
diwat poet never felt the need of renaming his antique 
heroes, of shifting the scenes of their exploits. An hypo- 
thesis which startfi with the assumptioD that a tu-eliUi- 
century wriier look an Alexander »tory and tran&ferrcd 
ft into the Anhnr c>'clc, changing name^ and loeah, at 
onee excilcft mi^kkxi- The thing is not, indeed, Im* 
possible, but II is cxticmcly uniDtely. We kno»'almoc4 

Tfu Legend of iAs Craii 


exactly how a mcdfaival port wowld bavi^ actetl- In Uiis 
very cycle we have ;in instance whicli tculd rol well be 
bettered, Wolfriiin vou Eschcnbach lays the scene of hh 
Par2ival at Arthur's court or in the Arthurian region, but 
the father nf liis ArthiirJari hciu Is a knight-errant in the 
pay of the Sddat of Babylon. NdI the Attempt ii 
made to d]sguL§c Uic Orient*] Ucii/e- It may safely be 
3Atd that if any mcdijcval poet had formed tbe idea of 
the Gr*il legend in the Alexander cycle, he would have 
tetabicd some, if not most, of the namcE^ of persons and 

I pass from tliia prelimmary objection to the conaidera- 
tion of the episode which Dr Gastar seeks to equate with 
the Grail Quest, And I would at once aik Dr, Garter 
why he quotes from Pseudo-Call isthenes and from Julius 
Valerfiis instead of from the French romances based upon 
these works, and \rhlch alone could have been used bjTi 
Chrestien or any other nfthc Grail romance wrfters? f thInW 
I shall have JiUlc difficulty in answering the question pre- 
sently, fn Pscudo-Ca!listhencs the episode farina pjin of 
Alexanders account, in his letter it* his mother, of the 
mar%cl5 he ^vitncs5c^ and the adventmes he pas?c<i through 
after he has overcome the Amazons ; he describe* ihin 
3trug;:le, then his visit to the temple of the sur, to the 
mountain of Ny5ft,ttnd to the palace of Cynis (the passages 
c;uoted by IJr, Grwter), then hii strife with the cannibal: 
and his walling up of Ihcna and their leaders. Cog and 
Ma{[0^, and finally hU dclhery of C^ndaulcf, son of the 
Indian queen Candace, ■'rc^m the Turk* and Armenians. 
Tlic letter fills seven page* in Wcifimann's edition, of which 
two are devoted to the tempi* of the sun and lo Mount 
Nyiiii, and half-a-page to Cynu' palace. In Juliu* Valerius 
the IcTlcr fills a page only in Weismann'^ edition, the *un 
temple ii described in four lines Xcrxe«' palace in five, 
Alexander's visit to Taradijie, the marvels of which be 
bcholdi quite jit his case, had ahcady been ilescribed. as in 
P^udo-Ca]li3thcuc*,at a muchciirlicr period and ma quite 


Tfu: Legiud of the CraiL 

different connection. The two e^^sodes have absolutely 
norhing to do with each other. The oldest form of the 
French rom&nce (that of Aiibry of Bpsan^on [>r Brian^on) 
hu been lost, save a small fragnicni, but the 3ubfitance of 
it has been preserved by the Gcrcnan trsm^lation of Lamp- 
rccht There \^ nothing corresponding ti> the temple of 
the sun nor to Ihc pahcc of C>Tun in P:icudO'CaIli3thcncs, 
only the middle portion of the passage quoted by Dr. Gasier 
(it., the dcscnptionof thcmomitiin of Nyna) is reproducciJ 
by Aubry-1-amprccht, The differences between the lu-o 
areas follows : In Lamprecht, access to the ca^Je on the 
hill is given by golden chains, which hang down^andup 
which the vbilor* climb ; there are tpo^ steps instead of 
150; there is no mention of f he images of gotlsnorof an olcf 
man, but theic is of a golden vttjc, which cncomJla^^^^ the 
bed. ^nd the gntpes of which aic jL'rtcl^ ; the old tnan rrti 
the bed IS descnbcd as asleep ; there is no attempt on 
Alexander's part to carry off wny pfccioua objects ; no 
threatening bird ; no stirring of the old man \ no remon- 
strance on the part of Alexander's friends (Lamprccht. 
verses 5260-5315)- 

\ think il is now perfectly plain why Dr. Gaster did not 
' quote the French version (which alone could have been 
known to Chrestienj, and why he did quote the mucli 
older Greek and Latin versions. Had he quoted from the 
French it would at once have been evident that the only 
point of contact between the two cycles i* this '. In some 
of the Grail romaiice-s the hero comes to a castle, in the 
hall of which he lind^s an old man lying on a bed (in one, 
Chrciticn. be had already met this old man Ashing, ia 
others tiic old man is at once described as dangerously ill, 
in none i^i he described as sleeping) ; in the Alexander 
story the hero comes to a castle in which is an old mun 
lyinf; aftleep on n bed- With the best will in the world 
there is no poasibihty of bLtlding a theory on such a 
foimdatinn as this. 
Now f^ the fur ^ Paradisum, of which, according tn 

Ti€ Legetid of the GraiL 


Dr, G^tcr, the passaccft he has quoted form a pare, a state- 
ment for which there \% absolutely no foundation whaicver* 
This i% an addition, probabl/ of Jewish origin, to the 
account ^vcn by the Creel: and Latin wiitens^and, nccord- 
fng to M. Paul Me)'er {AUxamirt U Grand^ if, 49), may be 
fl^jcrilx-d to the first half of ih^ I2th ecntur^'. !t has been 
allied in L^itin l)y Z;icher in iS^^. iini) in Frcndi by M. 
I'aiil Meyer (/^cj^;^*o*V xi, pp. 228-241;, and '* '^ Lamp- 
rccUt'i German version of Aubrj' (vcritc:* ^}!^ ad Jinan). 
The contents arc briefly as follows: Alexander having 
ccncjuercd the known world, full of presumption, acts forth 
to exact tribute from Faradiic, He cmbarkson the Ganges 
and after a month'5 jourrcy comes to a walled city; one of 
the inhabtant^ hands the king a jewel in the form of a 
human ey?, ard bids him begone. The stone is of this 
nature which none but an aged Jew can explain ; it out- 
weighs anyamount of gold, but i^ itself outweighed by a 
handful of <a]gt ; It is a s) irtbol of human desire which no 
gold can safsfy, but which at lasr must be content wilh a 
littlt? eiirlh- Alexander humbles himself, repttJls, and in 
due course des an edifying death. 

It wiil be admittc^d, I thinks that it would be difitcult to 
pick out two legends which have leas fundamental klnahip 
or Ics.^ similarity in detail than the story of Alexander*^ 
fruitless attempt on Paradise, and the storj- of Pcrciva)'* 
or (jawain'9 visit to the Grail calcic. 

The reader has row- before him the facts necessary for 
the appreciation of Pr. Caster's hypothesis ; but even if 
the?e testified in its favour, I fail to see how anj' theory of 
det^flopment could be based upon them. We must assume, 
in hirnes* to Dr. Garter, a fttage intermediate belwccn the 
Alexander romances and Chresiien, the oldest of the Grail 
legend wikerv Let un call this »tage .r, ^nd try and 

(The iftr tuf PitTK^itUHt H <|uiie difT^neuf from Ihc visit 10 pmndtM 
dcHibcd in Ale^^tndcr's Idler 10 AriMf>tk(Bogk iij, di, 17. of/Wvnbx 
C#f.>. The <ltief man ett <tMCfibc(l in the vnu lo pir^it* are tbe 
jnab iknd female prophetic tne» ol (be »un uid niuoji. 


T&c L^tnd of the GruU. 


rcati-*^ in nhit wiiy tlic author of x ivent to work. H&vin]; 
before him the Frcncli romance of Aubry, he picked out a 
particular cpi?;odc upon which absolutely no !ttres5 u-hat- 
ever b biU, ^hich i^ but one of t^*cnty of thirty other 
cpifiodec, all |i05se«sing equal interest of conception and 
dcUil; he carefully c!imJnaic<l all traces of ihe original 
personage* and iocalt, he thtrn modffipd every detail, and 
finally worked k inlo the ArthurUr* cycle, As Aubiy^s lOO 
llne^did not give him r-Tioiighmnttnr,this irthrrntnywriter 
went back Uj Julius Valcriu.^ am! in Pstutlo-CaU^llw^nc*, 
and spiced 1ii^ narralivc with *l misccHAiicous a^ortfnent 
of fcaturcn, selected now from one now from ihc other. 
But even thcr he iva^ not content but went ot a roving 
expedition throu£;h the Talmudic and Mldro^hlf literature 
of the day. culling what he thought would lit in wKh his 
plan. All this while, wi I h the severest self-denial hc rejected 
the many m&rvcllous epitiodcs wtildi must ha\x come 
beFore him in the course of his reading;, and scrupuloudy 
rcfirained from retaining an>'thir:ff that couU betray the 
Ea»tem origin of hi* narrative. 

The asaumpiIfMi of x It a fufficfent l;x upon our 
credulity, but nothing to what is involved In the after 
developtnent of tJie legend according to Dr. GvMter^s 
ihcor)'. The legend writers fall into two dasscs: (i) the 
oldc^l of them al[,Chrc>ticii ; (*) all the Utcrwntcrs. But 
these latter contain a hoj^t of details not to be fourd tn 
Chrcsticn, ar^ai they must have been present in x for 
1 do not suppose that Dr. Caster imagines there wtA a 
bev)' of writers at the close of the 12th centur>- Ctipabc of 
hannorising P»udo<CalLj&then(!s and tl^e Tulmud. Pow, 
how did the«c later writers act ? The>' would «ecn to 
hav€ (pone upon the principle — ivhen in doubt, consul a* 
h'or while in the m;un their presentment of the l^i4 Is 
that of Chrciticn, each wilier picked out some spcial 
feature [>f x which imik his fancy, and addr'd it tik Clrcs- 
iIcii'h jtccciLint. 

All who an; aci^uamted with ihe inethod$ and natui: of 

The L€Cfnd of ih € GraiL 


medieval romanoc need no assurance that not a rt-ritcr ofthc 
period evtt acted ns Dr, Gitslcr po^tijli\tc:!\ Iwlf-.-i^rioscn 
having acted 

In ihcrCp then, nothing at all in the series of parallcU 
-braught forward by Dr. Gaster? Just this much. One 
vwjiionof the Grail quest, that of Wolfram von Ktichcnbach, 
does undoubtedly show traces of Oriental irflucncc, as he 
him^df 4tate*, Whether these arc due to Wolfram him^lf 
or to the French model he followed tt is impo«<iblc to say. 
The nature ;ind origin of theOritrntal iraiu in Wulfram arc 
\tTtl u'onh dism^sTng, and Dr Gaoler li;i* bmught tc^ihcr 
*<oine valuahit? iltLi?vtrative material BuL it mu^l be iilearly 
understuud that ligbt U thustbrown, not upon tlic nrigincrf' 
the Grail legend, not upon the nature of the GraiT, but 
Mrnply and iolcly upon the speci&l secondary form of tJic 
legend found m Wolfram.^ 

I have thought it bcHt to deal at once with the only 
wUd portion of Dn Gaetcr's argument, and to sho^v how 
baseless it i& Because 1 say nothing cf the other points 
which he adduces, I would not have it cho4]f[ht that ! have 
no objections to urge against them. As a matter of fact 
1 do not tfafnl: there ih a single definite coneUiition of hts 
concerning the Grail legends In which I do not takt ex- 
ception, not one which I anJiI tint, if ^lacc were allowed 
mc, »how lo be improbable if not impossible. 

At the end of this number of FOLK-LoRK nil! be found 
the reprint of an article ^^'hich Appeared ir the last number 
of th« Revti< Ciitiquc^ lo the courtesy of whose director, 
Monsieur H. d'Afboi$ do Jubainville, 1 .im indebted for its 
appearance hcra In it I defend my^lf against the 
5trictarc« paiwcd upon my " Studies on the Legend of Uic 
Holy Grail" by three eminent German scholars. A* the 
FoJlc-lorc Society did me the honour of j&£uing my work 

^ It will eel Iravo ocapcil Jioiice tliat mo?t of Dr. Tjajict^ jcwiit 
paralEeU \xt lo Wolfram, Und^r Th« circumit;incctt "urcly Dr 
Gasiei's first object 9<hnuM lute l>tr^ Tcj piuvc l?iai Wolfhun leprc- 
«nti at; earlitr lUg^ o( ihc legead than Cbrecticii- 


Tit£ Legend c/ ike GraiL 

to iu members, I fell It waa right, a feeling shared by the 
Director of ihc Society- and b>- the E^ditor of FoLK-LoRE, 
that the*c should have the opportiinity of aeelng what I 
had to VHV in my dfrfcnoe- 

{ itvAy Iw pcrniiUcd lo add a few gcrirraj coii.HidtrnitiaiT£ 
upon ihc crilidsm of the Grail romarccs. No theory con- 
ccmii^^' the urigin and st^iftcAtion of the le^nd can be 
acceptable whichdoesnotcxplam the relation toonc another 
of the vanoua romance:^, v-htch doc» not Kccojnt in ft fairly 
iniellijarible nanncr for the development of the idea^t and 
incidents contained in them. Nolhirg is easier than to 
pick out^ as Dr, Gastcr has done, this or thai feature in this 
Immense body of rom^incc, to adduce parallels id ii, and to 
fanc>' the probTcin solved; nothing harder than to Itt all 
the features of alt llic versiions into an orderly scheme of 

At the same time no theor>- can, I think, be successful 
which makes any one existing version the f^ns et ^rigp of 
the whole cycle. Kvcn if we had not positive statements, 
which there is no reason to di£beHcve> wc should be com- 
pelled to assume an earlier wrttUn stfl^c than any we now 
p035e.i5. Behind this xvnftcn stage we discern an oral stage 
in which the incidents of the legend were singularily vajjuc 
and formlesR, but in which they still hiinjr together, I con* 
jectured that they did this because they came to the French 
wandering minstrels or story tellers, to whom the first 
spread of the legend in France was due, mainly from one 
source and connected with one group of personages. The 
facts that the oiajority of these personages be^r Celtic 
names, some perfectly recognisable, others greatly dis- 
figureri and tfjal the scene of thelt exploits is. h\ the main. 
U;ids dwelt in by Ccltic-spcaking populations, seemed to me 
to warrant the conclusion that the tradition:* undcriying 
the romance came to the French fiom Cells {whether 
Bretons or Welshmen i,i indifferent), and were essentially 
Celtic, U,, had pasgcd through the mind of Cells (whether 

The Legend of the GraiL 


Gaels or Brythons is indifferent), and had received the dis- 
tinctive stamp of the Celtic temperamenL 

Three years have passed since I formulated these con- 
clusions. I have striven to keep touch of the subject since 
then ; I have recently had occasion to review it in all its 
bearings. With all respect to my learned opponents, I 
may venture to assert, not only that my conclusions have 
not been controverted, they have not even been seriously 


Silent ttttii f^nMonittf von W, \\. Rr^idiff, Mil clntm Anbu)^ 
vtsn N. C. Politis uber die bpi deti Neu£ri«cb«a vorhindBntQ 
VcrtttcUun^cn vom Mondr. Ldptig, Tcubncr | 

/Wtf g^eikisckrn SftlrnlatttrtHmtr. By Dr. Paul Sr^c^t, Bcm^ 

DUttormaire dtj AniiquiUt Cr^cfM^t t* R^mainst^ Darombcrg ct 
Saglio. Fascicule ijci 14* Paris, iB9a 

THAT Selene Is the moon is^ perhapi^ ont of the 
things wliich even a mythinloglst with a ibeory nouM 
not venture to deny. Ilis therefore ittc^timojiy In the spread 
of folk-lore methods that even a treatise on the mythology 
of an acknowledged nature-goddess is unable nowmdays 
to ignore the folk-lore of the subject And the testimony 
15 still more striking when the treatise in question ia written 
by one of the straitest of the sect of meteorological 
rrythologists- For of such ^vc must consider ko9;cher to 
be, in spite of his protests. He proicsta that, if in hi* pre* 
vTous mythological studies he has found nothinj; but wind 
and weather myths, ihc reason simply 1* that wind and 
weatlier myths h^ive arrddeittally happened Sx> fcjnn the 
subject of his pTGVEOus studies. Be this as it may, it ta 
matter for much satisfaction that lie tells tu in the preface 
he has employed the comparative method, and ha> sought 
for parallcis rot cnly amongst peoples related to the 
Greeks, but also amongst peoples not related to them. 
Still more satisfactory is it to hear him expretiH his " con- 
viction lliat genuine folk-myths are for the most part much 
older than the writers who have accidentally transmitted 

Rfpori 6n Grt4k Mythology. 


them to ua'*, and cor^-^qucrtty ihAt ihc ^cnuindy antique 
" is very often preserved in it* purest form in late, and 
ev«n in the latetit^ authcnties". It ia to be rejcrettcd that 
Kosher ha^ not formally stated on v^hat principle he 
decider whether the vcrsior of a nriylh presented by a late 
authority \% or is not primeval ; for though he sometimes 
aeti on the right principle, he aho vometime^ acts or the 
wrorg one Indeed, it seems as ihough he had nc\'cr faced 
this question of mythological method, or t-ven realised the 
exlMcnc^ of the que*ylioiL The result is that his book is 
valuable principally as a eomprt'heiisivi- collcrtion of 
material from the cla^^^ii:^, The ^dliic of ht?» condusiotis 
5ccms to mc extremely unc\^n ; but let mc place fome of 
them b<fotc the reader. i:i oidcr that he may judge for 
bim5clf And I will begin by giving lomc Institnccs in 
which Rcteher haa, as it 'Cems to me, acted on the rifi;ht 
principle— the principle that a belief, tale» rite, or custcm^ 
however late the authority for its existence, may tie re- 
garded as primitive, provided that it can be shown to exist, 
or hnvc existed, among seme other savage or primitive 
peojjle. The wrong principle, iihich 1 will also illustrate 
from Rc^cher J>i that a belief^ etc., may he regarded a* 
primeval becauie it appears "^fmple**, fir because tt Is 
common in classical prctn-. cr because Aristotle or Galen 
adapted it- 

Tbu5, the Ijclicf that ilie spirits of tbe tlead lake up their 
abode in the moon, even if the belief were mentioned as 
existing in Greece by no authority earlier than Plutarch, 
would be rightly regarded, as it is rc^'ardcd by Ko^^chcr, A5 
primiti\-e, on the pround that some Scuth American tribes 
fliRO cfitcrlain it Readers of FOLKlXiitE, remembering Mr- 
Frazcf's demonstration [vol, i, pp. 148 ff) that the wrcdom 
of Pythagoras wait but the folk-lcre of the |>ea>iant. will be 
pleased to And t^at Pythagoras also regarded the moon at 
the abode of the departed (lamblichu«i, Vita Pytkf^., xriil^ 
S2;, Again, that the sun and moon are a pair of lovers, or 
a marrird cHiple, is a conceptron iit'htch is rightly vln- 


Report an GreeA Myihol^gy^ 

dicatcd by Ro,*cheT as primctive, with a reference to 
LithufuiiAn and Ru^stan folk-sntig-t, awA 1^tlUh,Tculonic, 
antl Olftheitian ^agds, So» too, tlic belief lluil ihe mcion i« 
an all-.iccing eye is shown by lioscher to be pjiiniLivc by 
a reference to itsexhtcncc amorf: the Gcrmani, Cgyptmns, 
ard MongoTa Finally, the belief that anything <ione or 
suffered by man o\\ a waxing moon tends to develop, 
whereas anything done or suffered on a waning moon tends 
to diminish, is rightly eUimed as primitive by RcrfCher on 
the ground that il is widely spread amongst all peoples. 

On the other hand, ihe eonncetion between ihc moon 
ard menstruation, on which Ro^cher base^ a gcod inany 
of bis mfcrcnccs cannot be regarded as ^^ rime va! merely 
because it seems to Rmcher "extremely simple and 
natural"- To primitive man the connection may or may 
not seem obvious - but his notion of simplicity Is not 
always the same a^ ours, and, until instances aic produced 
of savsgts believing in the connection, wc have no right to 
say that the idea is so simple and ''natural" that it mun 
be primitive. Nor does this idea of Koscher's necessarily 
derive support, as he imeif;incs, from the primitive belief 
that pregnancy and delivery are affected by the moon. 
This belief can be satisfactorily explained as a case of that 
general sympathy between the waxing or the waning of 
the moon and the fortunes of man (or woman), which W'c 
noticed In the last paragraph Again, Aristotle, Cicero^ 
Pliny, the StoicSj and others may have imagjncd ihai dew 
was deposited by the moon, and that for this rrasrm the 
growth of vegetation was the work of the moon ; bjt i*c 
must refuse to accept the ^pecutations of tate phiTosophcra 
as evidence of what primitive man thinks on the subject. 
For one thing, it is not dew tlut the savage pcaya to the 
moon for. He prays for what he wants. Thus tbe 
Hottentots say, or said, to the moon : " l aalulo you ; you 
are welcome- Grant us fodder for our cattle, and milk in 
abundance" (Kolben, Prtstnt Stnu of the Capf of Good 
Hifr, !?3i)> For another thing, the crops are frequently 

Re^ri OH Greek Afythohgy^ 


uginod to gfovr sympathetically with ihc waxing of iha 
^fnoon^ Aj^ain, Ko»Lcher Industriout^ly collects the various 
epithets lavifihed by the classical poet* on the moon ; but 
ihc moon a^ it ajifjoars to the poet maybe a difTereiit thing 
from the moon as it appears to a plair citizen, and ti prctl)' 
certainly vEny dlRcrc^nt from the iJeas crteitainetl by 
primitive man or the ancient Greek peasant 

The Above arc iattJmcc& in which^ as it seems to mc, Res- 
chcr, on insufficient or crroncotia grounds, ascribes to primi- 
tive man conccptionri or beliefs which are only found in later 
authorities. There arc ^Iso other errors of mctho<j tn 
SrUm which naturally fall to be mentioned here. Thus, 
'Boschcr'5 demonstration ihiit Artcmii is a moon-goddess 
t(lo which he calls the reader's special attention in the pre- 
face) IB cfTccted largely by ignoring the possibility of the 
plurality of causes. For instance, the inference thai be- 
cause Artemis makes trees and plants to flonri^h, and the 
jmocfi does the same, therefoic Artcmi* is the mnon, can 
mly hold good as long as wc overlook the possibility tlmt 
Other goddesses than moon -goddesses may make vegeta- 
tion profpcr — in otlicr vroids, Artemis may be a goddess 
[of vcgctatlonp So, loo. it docs not follow that because 
Cowi are offered to Artemis as well as to the moon, or 
l>ecaute both goddesses arc represented in cow shape, 
therefore the moon and Artemis are idenlical. The reader 
of ihe G^<Un Bough knows that the ticc-spint appear* as 
a bulJ or cow amongst primitive men ; and the writer of 
the G»lHtn Bmtgh^ if he adopted Roschcr'e method of 
lytholojjiving, mfght with equal justice claim that Sdenc 
a trer-vpiric and not the moon at all. Again, the 
sAcred marnage" celebrated at Athens between the Sun 
id the Moon does not* when compared with the ^aocd 
larrj'a^ celebrated elsewhere in Gicctc between Zeus and 
[era, prove that Zeus is the Sun, and Hera the Moon, 
^Dy more than it proves that Helics and Selene arc the 
ird and the Lady of the May respectively. 
RoMher concludes his re^archcs with an appendix on 


Report en Gmk Myfiatogy, 

ihe myth of i'an and Sclcnc ; and as he expressly rcfcn to 
it in his preface as an iJIuatration of the principle that 4 
laic authority may preserve the pfimttiTC form of a myth, 
it wtl!, L hope, not be conrJidvrctl hypercritical tf this 
attempt to estimate the value cf Roschcr'a myihotosical 
methods concludes with Fin cxAmmation of hij; appendix^ 
The myth, at preserved in Ihe ivords of PhiUr^rius (ad 
Vfrj*^ Get^., iif, 390 le, " Pan cum Lunae amorc fl^raret, 
ut illi formcMUK videreiur, nive:4 velleribu^ se circurcdedit 
atquc fta cam ad rrrm vrncream illcxlt," The problem Is 
to txplair the myth. The solution which Rosclier oflfcr*, 
aflcr making eicry inquiry into Pan^ antecedents — 
as indeed he was bound to do, tf he was to put PanN 
alleged conduct in the proper light— is that " originally 
Fan wa£ feci a god of light or a sun-god" — as under the 
circumstances one might have hastily irfcrrcd — '*but 
nothirg more than a divme or supemutural type of the 
gcfitherds and shepherds of ancient Greece." He wa% if 
we may explain Roschcr's meaninir, the ai/tC'i-<^tv<t, the 
Mcrdsnan an su^.or Hcrd-in-himscif, living, of courM, 
iv ovpai'ia> ri'rr^. This ct>ncrptior tfi so "simple and 
naturar' ihat *omc of Ro^cher's readers perhaps will 
rcjufre no fiinhtr proof rliat it is primitive. Never- 
iheless, Rofichcr proceeds to prove it Shepherds live in 
caves ; Theocritus and Athillrs Talius say thnt Pan Uvea 
in caves. Shepherds trove with their flocks from pface to 
place: "prcciscily the same roving Hfc is led by I^n ac- 
cording to the Homeric Hymn, v. S ff " Many herdsmen 
fish, and so docs Pan (" 0pp. //«t/. 3, tS ; mehr b. Welckcr 
Gr. G^Url 3 S» 662"). Does the shepherd love his pipe ? 
Pan ]o^'ei Syrinx too (poets passtiHy Sliepherds lo\^ to 
lie in the shade^ and '* this universal custom of the herds- 
men has obviously gii^cn rise to the it3ea that Pan thus lies 
and sleeps at noon. Cf especially Th. i, 15 ff" 

Now lo 5ay that all this only shows how poel^i delighted 
to ptcture Pan to themselves, and that it doci not nhow 
what conception thdr peasant contemporaries had ofhtm. 

Hcpcfi OK C$t^i Afyt&cUgy. 

22 5 

tint tess how Pad appeared to the mtnd'^ tyt of their 
primitive ancestor*, would on\y be to repeat what has been 
*iid ;iU)V(;- My coin|ilaint here U tU«i RoHcher* explana- 
tion does not cxptain, Lcl us grant thai Pan is a hunter, 
lliai tlie hunter nleqH out of nights tlut the Muon IooIm 
down on hiin, oi visits him. even as she visited Endymion 
—still the most rctnarkabic feature in Philiirgyriu*' myth 
requires explaining, that is. why did Pan wrap himself 
"nivew vdlcribw"? As for Philargyrius" c>cplnnaitjcn 
that it WM "lit illi formosus riderctur" — credit Ros- 
^lerius, Or if this sounds diirespectful to Roscher — and 
Rotcher is entitled, as the editor of the AuafvArh'cfus 
L0jei/:i>H, to the reapect and gratitude of every student 
of mytholr^* — let mc put it this wayr — Roscher has 
proved many things, but he hiia omilCcd to prove that 
the gcirb ir question was considered tit rigicfmr in a 
wooer, by the shqiheid ^wain^i of Greece antl their mays. 
Yet it vtas cvidcnttyindtst>ensableon thisccca^Ion. With- 
out it Pan would not have worked his vrtcked will. In 
fire, it is of the essence of the myth ; and if it had been an 
ordinary costume for the purpose, Philarffyrius would not 
have mentioned it, or would not have thought an explana- 
tion nccewary. 

And here I munt mention it as ca\^ of the deficieneies ot 
Siiint, that Roseher never uses iftual to acoouni for 
tnoon-mylh^i^ It mny of course be sitggrsled that it ftcci* 
dentally happens tli^t no moon-mylh can be explained 
from ritual Rut I would venltne to [M^lnt to thitt myth of 
Pan and Selcnc. If Manabardt and Frafcr arc rt^ht in 
rcganiing the "sacred marnage" of Zeus and Hera as a 
piece of "sympathetic magic" designed by pnmittve man 
to effect the union of two spirits of vegetation, and 90 to 
ensure the fertility of his fields and Rocks ; and if, further, 
ihey arc tight ir regar<dmg Van as a spirit of vegetation, 
who appears most frequently aK a ^oai, or in ^mi-goat 
ahapc ; then it is obvious that the myth cf Pan and 
Selene \% a tnytli having it£ origin in ritual. Someu'hcrc 

VOL. ir. Q 


Rtfcri m Gn£& Myihoiugy. 

in Greece a sacred marriage wa4 celebrated between Tan, 
u a trcG'&piril, 3n<l Sdcnc, as a goddess influencing the 
growth of vegetation ; and in ihli rite the person who re- 
presented Pan played the part in the dress a[>propriatc itt 
a goal-gtxJ. 

Thii Selene did fgurc m Greece m a ^tiered marria^ \% 
provcfd by rrocIu,<( jid Hct., 0. '/ /)., 780: the Athenians 
united SclcEK and lldioa in such a marriage, [n Athens 
this "thcogamy" took place at the time of the new moon, 
and the new moon Ja regarded by the folk a5 a ^ood time 
for tnanying, in many places {€.^. the Higlilands, Kirk- 
michael, iitaiistkal A^ycnut of ^totland^ xii, 457}, Agaiii) 
that Jtuch ceremonies took t. dramatic form in Greece 
appears Trom Euscb . /^r^w/. Ev,^ lij, 1111,3, where it ^s stated 
that In the mysteries at ElcusU one celebrant got Into the 
image of Hf."liosand another tntn that of Selerre. 

If the myth of Pari ard Selene may be explained frtsm 
ritual, then the myths of two moon -heroines, Europe and 
Pasiphac. may be explained in the same vray. The kernel 
of both myths is the union of the moon-spirit (In human 
shape) with a bull. Roth m>'ths, then, have to do with a 
sacred marriage ; the only question 13, what 3pint was 
represented in the rite ^ a buEP On the one hand wc 
know both that Selene was united at Athens to Helios, 
and that the victim nffered to (and therefore reprcscntatiine 
of) Helios wa£ a bull. On the other hand, Selene marries 
Pan, a spirit of vf^etation ; and such spirits frequently 
manifest themselves a* bull, cow, or ox. Of course, ifZeus 
turns out lo be the spirit of the oalc-tree, as Mr Fraaer 
wishes, the cjuestion would be settled as regards Europa. 
?4canwhilc, it sceim probable that the sacred marriage 
was in both cases between the Moon-ipirit and the Sun- 
Spirit Perhaps J may .idd that the Moon-j^plril not un- 
frequently appeared to primitive man in the shape of 
cow, and the Sun-spirit in human shape. The sacred 
ri-^ges in which both spirits were hitman, or both 

Rtpori QH Gn€k AfytAology. 


have naturall)' given rise to no myths, whereas the ritual 
in the Gk^ oi Eurof^fi &nd Pa^phac required explanation 

Since Roacher has resolutely dssrlined to seek the ex* 
pbnation cf any piece of Greek moon-lore in primitive 
ritualjual as he has refused to refer to the possibility that 
Artcmi*. Hcra» and Pan may be cpiril^ of vegetation, k is 
perhaps allowable to point out that rlUial may possibly 
afford the explanation of that practice of drawing down 
the moon which -ippear* in both mtjdern and ancient 
Greek folk-lore. Indeed, it is a» certain as thing^s of this 
kind can be that on the occaiiun uf « tiered marria^ the 
MooH'^pinl mu^t have been conjured into the cow which 
represented the ^oddcaa ', and it b not improbable that 
this way of bringing down the Moor iiirvivcs in Utcr 
folk-lore aj a picee of witchcraft (cf, Luciar, /W/t/j., 14), 

But if this wcr« all the cvidencei there would be nothing 
more than a prettvmption in fflvour of ihe suppositioa 
The (^resumpiion, however, may be strcngthenedn To 
begin with, there v& a difTcrcncctMtwocn bringing down the 
moon for the purpose of a sacred marrhgr, and bringing 
her down a* a piece of witchcraft- In the former case the 
object Is to eniure f^^rtility to field and flock ; in the Ullcr 
ij«Udl]y to gain infoimalfon not otherwise to be obt&ircd. 
Now in folk-tiile^t spiril^ itiay Ije c^iught, aa ihc sea-spirit 
Tioteus, was caught by Menclaus, in order that questions 
may be answered by them ; and the moon-spirit may ha\"C 
been caught by primitive man for the same purpose. The 
question i;^;, whether primitive man did ns a matter of fiict 
(and not merely in talcs) bring the moon-spinl down to 
earth and obtain infonnation Irom htm. It is possible^ 
fortunately, tc show that he did- Strabo (503) telU \y% that 
Ihe Albanians of the Caucasus worshipped Selene above 
all other gods. The priest of her temple wa^ the most 
honourable man in ihe countr>' next tri tht king, and wa* 
nilcr both o\'ct ihc land dedicated to tlic tempTc, whicti 
wa^ extciuive and popidnuii, and over thr ?«4cre<t *^lavc<. 
who at Liinea became |>oase%%edr smd whu frequently |fro<- 



Jiipart on Gruk Myihohgy* 

phesied, When any or them was so far possessed as to 
wander in the woods ftlonc^ the priest, if he oouJd czUch 
him and fasten Kim with a certain sacred chain, entertained 
him luxuriously for a year ; and at the end of the year he 
wa3 otTcrcd as a sacrifice to the gcddcss along with other 
victims ; and prognoslicatiors were drawn from hi* cotpsa 
It lit plain that here we have an irstance of " killing the 
Rod", whieh is parallel to those given in chapter lil of 
Th€ CMtn Strv^A. The moon-spirit resided in the human 
victim, in the same way as she was conveyed into the eow 
at a sacred marriage ; and part at least of the purpi^sc 
with which she was conjured Into the human victim was in 
order that shi^ night afford informalion not otherwise to 
be ohuinc J- Duubtlcss part of the purpose was also to 
ensure the safe and continued existence of a spiiit so 
iinportant as the Moon. 

When once the practice of bringing doth'n the moon had 
become familiar to the primitive Greek, who saw It done at 
aacrcd narrtagcs and other rites, he was provided with an 
explanation of lunar eclipses: some other fellow was 
bringing down the moon for his private ends. And at the 
present day in Greece the proper way to stop a lunar 
eclipse is to call out, '* I !>ee you!" and thus make the 
worker of this deed of darkness desist So completely did 
this theory of eclipses, whtch we must regard as pcculiariy 
Greek, establish [tself in ancient Greece, that^ strange to 
'iay, not a trace of the earlier primitive theory, according to 
which some monster swallows the eclipsed miuon^ U to be 
found in classical Greek Hlcralurc, unless the beating of 
metal iiifitrument^ to frightcti away the monster (Theoc-, 
ii, 36) be a survival of primitive practice. 

One more survival from primitive ritual: Rose her quotes, 
but makes no attempt to explain, Pollux, vi, 76, where it 
is stated that cakes called "moors", from their shape, were 
offered to Selene. In China, cakes on which is stamped 
the Tmage of the moon, or which sometimes are circular, in 
imitation of the shape of the moon, play a part ia the 

Report on Cr/ei Afyikology^ 


festrval known as '^congratulating" or "rewarding* the 
mwjii (M. Hue, Tmvtis in Tartary, tfc, i, 6\, and J Doo- 
littlc, Social Lift of tht Chintic^ % 65]. En Lanc^hire 
■^ there exist? a precisely similar custom of making cakes 
in honour of the Queen of Heaven" (Dcnnj-s, Foik-^orc cf 
Qima, p. 38), Jeremiah, vii, 18, saya, "The women knead 
dough, to make cakes to the Queen of Heaven." Plainly 
these are all survivalfi of the primitive rite of " eating the 
god '. Fertility was thereby secured in this case. In 
modem Greek folk-lore 3 "magic cske" is i]«ed a« a t>ait 
wherewith to catch the moon, 

Finally, there remains the wvagetheory which U Implied 
in the terms irO^¥jmii^^^€\ffii. iutiattci, mtiott'Siruck^ Rd%' 
cher'5 view is that the moon inflLiencei menstruation, as 
Aristotle holds; th^t frieguUr menstruation produces di^ 
ea^e^, as Galen hath it; and therefore all diseases including 
epilepsy, are ascribed to the inlliicncc of die moor- But 
primitive man did not read Aristotle, or ever Galen. Wc 
want some le^s recondite explanation* One thing is cer- 
tain : the connecttcm between llic moon and disc&ae was 
something that to primitive man wds *clf-cvidcni. It is 
recopmscd in Brazil {Brinton^^/ZAj ^/ /A^ Ncuf Wcri4^ 
134) a« well a£ in Denmark (J. T. Dunce, Fmry T^ics^ 151), 
in Mexico (Brinton, i 33) as well as in Iceland (Jon Arna- 
son, hfg^nds tf ialnmi^ 535)- Another thiTig we kno^v, 
that Is that diseases arc regarded by primitive man a« the 
work of spirits entering into possession of the sick pcr>ion. 
And H-e have already seen that tfie moon Is held by prlmf* 
tive folk, including Pythagoras, to be the abode of departed 
j^irEls, Is not this the connecting link? D[> nut the 
spiHbi dait straight from the moon into any person who 
is not on his guard against them, or is for any special 
reason an easy prey for them ? According to Porphyr., 
Dt Antre A^\ 28, Ja '" theologians" say the sun and the 
moon are the ^tei by which departed ^ouU pa5:( from and 
to the earth ; find the moon is the gate by which they 
come down to the earth. In Iceland, "if a pregnant 


Jtffiarf OH Grttk Mytkohgy. 

woman ^its with her face turned towards Uic moon, her 
child will bo ;i )ui];itk" (Amfisoo, mfr&\ '* The BraiiU&n 
mother carofuTly shiddrd hrr infant from the lunar ra; 
Wlictving ihiil ihcry wouUl |irtjiUjce MirWrnrwi" (BrintOQ,^ 
suj*rA). In Greece, " nujr^cs take cvcxy prccaulitni u> ximd 
cx^xj^tiip mfaiiU to ihc moon" (PluUirch, Q. Cortr., in, x, 
3]. And it is hanily ncccwary to remark that (^cw-lxwn 
children and puerpcnc arc alike tabu, ard i>ftnicu]ar]y 
liable to po5^5^ion (as regard? cla^ical antiquity, cf. Suid, 
fi^iZfiOfiMtt ^^ Censorin., 2J£ dU nut.^ c tt, 7, p. 2S, 

Dr. Stengels book on the Ritual Antiquiiies af Gre/a 
h pan of Iwan von Mullcr's valuable scrt^of manuala 
of classicat srtiquitte^ We in;iy, perhaps, not vnreA5( 
ably regard it as a sign of the times worth noting in Folk- 
IhORF that the German schooKlmy will be h(^nce forward 
lau^'ht that Uic Greek religion was no "nature-religion", 
that the attempt to iclcrntify Greek gods with nature- 
powcf6 or natural phenomena U a failure He i\ further 
to be taught that similnirity between the myths of dlttcrcnt 
natioiu does not ncces-sarlly imply borrowing, or even 
joint inheritance from the beliefs of common ancestors: 
it presumably points only to ^Lmilarlty itt tiie mental 
constitution of diA'crent peoples. And, further, the capaclt>- 
to believe in the actti^il, visible, and tant^ible ^ippearancc of 
GUpematural beings wai; not confined lo prc-hisioric times, 
but lived ever fn^h and I!ourishinf; rif^ht throughout his- 
toric ivmes. All thU is most excellent. But it is quite 
reccisary in folk-lore a* in (xtlitica " to be always a^kii 
for everything }'ou can think of, to be always taking all 
you can get, and be always grumbling about what you 
have not got" Then come, let us gmtnble. 

In the lir^t place it is striLnge that, in a wofk dealing 
with ritual from the polul of \icvf just dcscrS^ed, thi 
ii% no recognition of the fact that, amongst the ihii 
which myths arc in^^nted to explain, arc ritcft tbemscK^ 
And this 19 the more surprising because the Uionysta are 

Rtpari on GretA Afyihohgy^ 


imittcrf in Roscher"^ Lexik^n to be the source of TOmc cf 
the Diort>£05 myths. In the next place, altliough wc ina>" 
iMdmIt that In a manual there is not room for llltistrationa 
from the nte^^ and beHerA of nor-c1a«sical peoples, and that 
Dr. Stengel has only to do ivith Greek ritual, as he pleads 
CP" 97); ^"'^ w^ must protest that it is impMsiblc b> 
conslrxict a sound account of evi?n GtctcU ittuu! u'rthiitit ;i 
previous scaffoiding of non-Greek cnatcrial. For ini^tdncf, 
though the Greeks may Iiavc brirrowcd the notion of "nin" 
and *'ain-ofl!ciings*' ftom Semitic sources, no uoc who is 
aware how widespread, Indeed universal, is the belief in 
the possibility of tron^fcrrinff sickness and other ills {from 
^-^j\x- upwardji) Jrom the ^sufferer to animate or inanimate 
objects, will admit that the notion of the " scapegoat" ivaa 
at any time forei^ to the Greek rrird. The absence of 
any reference to this mode of purilicatlon in Homer can 
scarcely be rc^rded a^ coriclusivc. And this brings us to 
a third grumble — on ;l question of method. Or, Stengel 
begins by laying down the statement that, in the matter 
of myths and gods, foreign influence is only to be detected 
in po^t- Homeric times, and for !^evem] centuries afrer llie 
Homeric age it v-a^ extremely small This, taken as fi 
statement of rcsulu, Is, pcrliapa, somewhat too sweeping ; 
but refj^rded ^s the expression of a resolve to admit 
borrowing to have Uken place only where and when 
intercourse between tlic people borrowing and the people 
lending can be demon-^tratcd to have existed on !Kiti»- 
factory grounds, it is a laudable position to take up. It 
is the method of carr^'inf; out thi* praiseworthy resolve 
that iii open to protest, Thuj, Dr Stengel is apparently 
satisfied that purification (and abo human sacrifice) must 

I have been borrowed by the Greeks from the East Neither 
rite is mentioned in Homer, Intercourse between Greece 
and the East was constant and active In post-Homeric 
times. Therefore Itic riles were borrowed in historic 
times. The whcJc issue, Iheo, luni^ ati ihc cpicKtion 
ivhet!icr \\ is Justitablc to assume lliat a rite did not 


Report on Greek Mythology^ 

exist in Komcnc timc^ because it Is not mentioned in 
Hoircr. TbH U a quetttion of the fTsoe nature 9S whether 
y/t are jo^Tified in a^^umiig thai a myth or x folk t&le did 
not exut at a time earlier than it£ liret recorded mention 
in literature ; atid the answer seems to be the same. If 
the rite or myth can be shown to be one common ;»mongit 
primitive jieople*, the argument /jrVm/w has little weight , 
and as regards human sacriRcc and puri^cation. Mr. 
FraJicrhas ain|>ly pravcJ that \.\\t-y arc primitive, THrre 
IS nu mure rrasoa to im^giTie thit llic Greeks borrowt-d 
thctn from the East, whether in pre- or post'llomerlc 
times, than tliat the Ea?it boirowcd them from the 

As 1 have spoken of IJr. Stengcr^ book as one for 
achool-boys, I ou^Ht. perhaps* to add that it 13 al»o intended 
for university students* and anyhoiiV that it 15 a vct>' 
valuable coUectlon of facts and references, which folk- 
\QnsX% will find useful. Those interested in tabu and 
totemism will note that the priest of PoseiJon at MegaA 
and Ihc priestess of Hera in Argos were forbidden to eat 
fith. They \\-\\\ aUo note that the priestess of Athena 
Pollas at Atheiu wan forbidden to eat the native cheew: 
Finally, Dr Siengers treatment of My*Jt(?ries is rather 
d[^]>jK>inttng, lie h, doubtle^tt, qviite right in .^ying that 
the hold which they took over the mirds of ihc Greeks 
wa,^ due to the fact th?tt they taught the doctrine of a 
future life ; and it It not improbable that the scenic repre- 
sentations which took place were dramatisations of mylhit 
whose central feature \va5 the resurrection of some god. 
But it 13 al5o probable that some of the central rites 
round lAhich tliis teaching gathered were survivals from 
savage ritual One ^uch rite at I^lcu:(i5 is that in which 
Hdiofl and Selene figured (Eusebius, i. c\ whether the 
interpretation be th^it which \ su^^geslcd above or not. 

If wc may take Daremberg and Saglio's tnajj^ificent 
Dictionary of Classical Antiquities as fairly representative 
of the attitude of cU^^cal scholars in i-'rancej there is no 

Rcfiori Oft GrccA MylhoUgy. 


coimtry in Europe in which folk-lore mc:ho<i& have made 
so littk impression or students of dassicaJ antiquities. 
In the two numbers of the dictionary last is^iued there 

tstc three article* of I mpo nance to fnllc^lorisls : Dionysia, 
Dioscuri, Mid Dfvinatin. M. Remach, the writer of the 
arliclc Dinsruri, \s mdtfts! not ignorant of what has been 
done from the side of folk-lore on his subject He can 
even *]aolc, fmm La Afy/Mo^u pur Antirtw Lan^^ 
parallels to the Dio^cuii amongst the aboriginal Ada- 
■Ualians and the Bushmen, Bui, ala^! he only quotes 
them as curfo.iilicv With the article Dh'iuntU, which ii a 
man-ellou^Iy comprehensive collection of inateri^Ll, thint^.'S 
Kare still worse. The numerous survivals still extant of pri- 
mitive methods of forecasiini;: the future are not quoted even 
ik titr^ ^e a$rhsitS. And, what is worse, the writer deli- 
berately dedino>> to consider parallels from other nation* 
Ihan the Greeks, Romans, and Etru$can«,on the ground 
that so much are all nations alike in these beliefs that 
study of other peop] en would pmbably only add a mul- 
HlJtude cf fact?» similar to those already known to the 
"classical students, but would not npen up ^ny rew 

points of view ! 
H Consistently enough, M, Bouchi-Leclcnq*s method is 
Hpurety k priori: grant him a couple of propositions which 
H&rc sctf-cvidcnt to cdjcated man of the nineteenth century. 
Hftnd he will deduce from them the faith in divination in 
^all its branchc:^. And yet if there is a thing which 
civilisc<i educated inaj« can not do, it is to nay d pricri 
»how things will strike the savage mind For illustration 
fve need i*fl no further than M. liouch^-Lecfcrq',^ funda- 
mental assumptions, vlk., tliat all we require to a«£Uine 
order to believe in divination w that the gods are 
isble to communicate information, and that being able 
wy arc willing, But M. Bouchc-Lcclcrq has at the v^ry 
Inning overlooked a contingency which is not unknown 
In *;avagp cxpcncnce, however unlikely to occur A fricri 
a modern saviinl : the gods may not be willing In 


Rep&ri on Greek Mylkology, 

that caw they have lo be made to tell ; and pHmttivc 
man wrestles (in th© case of Proteus literally) with then. 
Thus, the modem savant's two assumptions may be 
reduced to one, vir, that the gods arc able id communicate 
Jnformation ; and ig not that superfluous? In many or 
most of the methods of divfriaticn common m modern 
folk-lore iherc Is no suggestion that tJw desired inrorm- 
atfon is obtained from supernatural beings. Nor is \x 
re!cv;int to rejoin that the modem method.s arc survival* 
from modes wliich were in llie first inatance intermgattnn^ 
addre<ised to supernatural bcmgs. Be this true or not, the 
fact rcmams that the folk believes in the pn?t^ibility of 
divining the future without supernatural aid You can 
tell from the state of the moon what the weather is going 
to be, and you can aUo tell of what acx your next child 
will be. But the many educated pers&ns who still divine 
changes in the weatlicr^ and the uneducated few who 
practise the other form of divination, are both innocent 
of any ;ittempl lo obtain their information from super- 
natural bcingi, In fine, primitix'e man has other modes 
than the supernatural of forecasting coming events, juet 
^% much as scientific man ; and ff there ever wa5 a ^tage 
In human evolution uhen man had not yet ttttafned to 
the idea of the supernatural, divination may welt have 
been practised in thai stage Doubtless, the inference that 
bcing5 who are supernatural have knowledge of the future 
is a conclusion which naturally follows from the premises. 
But we do not find that all the gods In the same pantl^con 
have alike the power of prophecy ; and if some ffods 
have it not, it fs evidently not a neccssar}* attribute of 
supernatural beings. In this connection it may be xn* 
tere^ting to point out that even Apollo did not always 
forecast the future by the exercise of an inherent power 
of supernatural foresight. Like Pythagoras^ he {or the 
workers of his orade) put his faith in folk-lnre. At any 
nittr, this IS the inference which I draw from the arwwcr 
given by the god of Delphi (and preserved in EusebL^ 

ftefiar/ ctt Grtfk Mythology. 


Pnu^ £V., VI, I, 2) to a pcnon mquinrig what sex his 
next chiJd would be, The oractc is mdocd somewhat 
obscure; but when ijluttr^itcd by th& folk-lore recorded 
in F.'L. /.. V, p. 30S, an<l vi, 91, it may be seen to be based 
on !be belief that if a birth take* place on ihe growing of 
thr moon, the rcxt child wHI be of the same sex \ if on 
A waning moor, rot 

lr> fine, )C fs impo_ssib!e to Jividc primilive modes of 
fofcc^flling tlic future into ^upernaiural *md non*:iUpcr- 
nAturetl. and confoc the term "divination" to the former 
clas3. Tlicre is scarcely a member of cither claa* which 
may not pass ovct into the other cle*5. What may have 
bccM nupematural in its origin, survives ai somethmg 
not supcrnatum!. What was in its origin possibJy fllo- 
gicnl but certainly not supernaturAl, comes to be explained 
as supernatural in agei when belief in this mode of com- 
munication between man and god is orthodox, as, for 
iniitance, it) the time of the Stoici. This method of classt- 
ficallon, then, confoimds togr^thcr things uhi^h have their 
iri|{m \i\ very difiert-nt Icndende:i of the human mind. 
,t the same time it obscures the relation of divination 
"sympathetic magic", botli of which are based on the 
l>clief that if one of two similar {or related) things is 
affected in any way. the other will be aBcctcd in a timitar 
wayn This belief when employed in Observation results 
in divination: when employed in Experiment, re^ult^ in 
what may be conveniently called sympathetic magic, 
though there \a not neecsesarily or originally anything 
supernatural about it It is a mere matter of logic- 
savage, perhaps, rather than scientific, but still of Ir^ic, not 
ofwupcniiiEion — That if (itie member of a pair of similar or 
related ihiiign v* in your |>owcrr you can affect the other 
as you w i»h : and that if one member is ivithin the range 
of your db-^ervatioit you can tcli liow the other is fftrii^ 
Thus, a lock of hair places the person from whose head 
It IK cut (and to whom it ui relalcdi according to the 
primtLivc intcr|>rctalion of the category of Relation) in 


Report on Gmk Mythtdogy. 

Ihc power of the person into whose hands it » given. 
Thus in the AUtsfk, Death draws his sword to cut off & 
tress of the hair of Akeitis, 

*' for lacrcd to u* c^ds bclo«, 
That head vho« tiaif thii suord iliall ianctiJj'.* 

And amongst modem Greeks at a christening, "three 
tiny locks of hair, if these can be found, are cut from the 
baby's hend and thro^^Ti into the fdrt. ' in the name of the 
Father, Son, and Holy Gh<»t" (Miss Unrnctt. Tkc 
WomfH <*f Turkey, p. 73), So, too, in folk-tAlcs> a portion 
of the hero'* apparel, etc., serves to inform him or her 
with whom It is left whether the hero 1* or U not still 
alive. May not the custom of preservrng lock* of hair tD 
oeketSj etc, have had it* origin in some belief of this 

Be this as it may, iii dealing with divination Die im- 
porUnt thing 15 to rcmcinbei- that in the definition of ll 
as " supernatural communication" ivc have a Lhc<jry em- 
bodied. That theory is cue originated by the Stoica ; and 
conformable as it may have been to the knowledge of the 
age in which it was formulated^ it does not satisfy the 
requirements of scientific folk-lore. When some Mill of the 
future come? to write the " Principles of SaN'agc Logic", 
it witl be clear to all that many modes of divination 
and much magic are but methods of observation and 
experiment which in one age were, and in a subsequent 
age were not. considered valid by logicians. It xvill be 
al^o dear that there is not that absolute hfatuii between 
savage and scientific logfc which is generslly assumed. 
On the contrary, the Ljiw of Continuity holds here as else* 
ivhcrc. The difference betAvcen the two logics is not, for 
instance, that the Methods of Agreement and Difference art 
known to the one and not known to the other ; nor even 
that the savage imagines points of likeness or diPTcrcnee 
where they do not exi^t ; but that savage and scientific 
man (iiffer as to what points of similarity or dia^imilarit/ 

Report 0H Grcik AfyiAoh^y, 



are essential — and not even Mill professes to lay down 
rules for distinguishing the essential from the nor-eascn- 
ttal fealure^s of the phenomena to be Investigaled- The 
difference between scientific and primitive procedure is in 
this case entirely extra-logtcal Again, tlie Method of 
Concnmitaiil Variations h, as we have seen, llie baiis of 
much divination and oiagk ; and here again the diflercncc 
between the two logics is largely cxtra-Iogical, Related 
or similar things vary together ; but what things arc related 
or similar? The similarity which the primiti^-e 10|;tdan 
detects between the variaticns of the apparent size of the 
rooon on the one handj and of the ;icti]al ^i^e of sub-lunar 
growing or decaying objects on the olhtr^ is rot regarded 
a^ essential by the man of ?;ciencc ; and, speaUitig generaJlj', 
wc may say that is impossibie to say 4 priori what points 
of almilarty or dift»imt1artCy primilive man will set^e on 
a« cardinal. And this amounts to saying that a complete 
hiMory of logic Trom primitive times can only be written 
by the aid of fulk-lore. 

Hypothesis is another instrument of thought which is 
common to both stages of logic, and which ;» of interest to 
the folk-IcrisL Indeed, if wc accept the definition of folk- 
lore ipvcn io F.-L.J., iv. p, 196, that it la "the popular ex- 
planation of observed facts", then Hypothesis is the whole 
of folk-lore- iJut even if we limit ourselves to the state- 
ment that dl popuhr explanations of observed facts are 
folk-lore (and this ha^ the advantage of not excluding rites 
and customs), the importance of Hypothesis is^ still con- 
siderable. And here, again, the difference between ravage 
and scientific man is wot so considerable r boih may 
accept Mill's definition that " an hypothesis ts any siippoiti* 
tioji which wc make in order to endeavour to deduce from 
it conctusions in accordance with (acts which are known to 
be f ear\ The principal diifcrence lies in a diflerenccof 
opinioo as to the nature and recen»it>- of verification ; and 
with regard to piimiti^'e hypotheniis a* prcjcrved in myths, 
we may say that it consists In cxpZaiiiing the thing that is 


Riport on Grcei Myiholcgy, 

by the tbmg th^t Is not. The bearing of chcfic remarks 
may be seen tn thcfr Application to some of the f&yth9 
quulecl ill the article Dtiti^'sia. in Daretnbcrg aid Snglro, 
The wfltci of Iho article, M. Jules Girand, righlly rollcin-ft 
Roscher's Ltxihtn in \aHoiH pnint^^but unrorttin^tely docs 
nol follow tlic Lixikon in adopting Mannhardt's cxplana' 
tioo cf the orgiastic elements in the wor3hip of Dionysoi, 
Ag:aiQ. he is unforttjnate in following the Ltxik^n ict 
deriving the or|*ia»tie elements from Thrace, and datinf* 
their spread in the time after Homer. 1 say unfortunate 
fbr two reasons : first, because while accepting the LcxtHtts 
view, he apparently unconsciously rejects the evidence on 
which alone It i* Uised ; and, second, because the view is^ 
as I will proceed to suggest, itself unsatis^ctory. If 
Maniihardt's explanation {Wold" und FddhtUcX 534 f) •* 
correct, then ihc mad dances and shouU, ^vhich arc the 
orgiastic elcmcnlj, date from at least Aryan tim&s and 
must have been known to the GrceVs not only bcfcffc the 
time of Homer, but bcfc>rc the Greeks appeared in Greece. 
They arc primitive man's way of wal<ening the spirit oC 
vefeUtion from Its winter clumber. There can have 
been no borrowing by one Greek tribe from another ; each 
Greek tribe brought this piece of primitive magic ;;]oiig 
with it. What, then, is the evidence for the assertion that 
these orgiastic rites vere borrowed from Thrace? It is^ 
fir»t, that they wtrrc not known to Homer (or fts Lobock^ 
Aghofdu. 288. more cautiously says, were at the most 
known to the Greeks only by rumour) : next, that the 
worship of Diony^o? ha& every mark of having cxiited 
from the hoariest antiquity amongst the Thmciars: and. 
third, cert&in legend:^ or myth;^ about the introduction of 
the mad ntes into certain places in Greece. With regard 
to the 6rst lEcm, there is a passage in Homer fJL^ vJ, 
133 ff,) which all admit to refer to the or^taiiic worship 
of Dionysos, but not al! admit to be genuine- Now, we 
may either reject thi^ passage, wiih F. A. Voigt, the writer 
in the Ltxikoni or retain tt, with M, Girard. Rut ^t does 

Ii€p0ri 0H Creek AfyfkcUiy. 239 

not Hcem ^dmissihle to tlo as M. Girfild tfo&c, und accept 
Voigt's conclusion while disagreeing wilh his premises. 
In uthcr worcJa, if the argi^istic rite*^ existed in Homcnc 
Greece, the sccood piece of evidence given above loses its 
vftke : the inference, that the Greeks borrowed the rite* 
from the Thracians. has some cogency cn!y so long as we 
believe that the latter wereearlier in possession of the rites 
than the former. ITiere remam the myths alluded to, 
Thtjse agree amongst themselves in representing the god 
as punishing those who resisted the intn^duction of his 
orgies, and they are regarded as " evidently reminiicences 
of opposition ofi'eTed to the introdnaion of a new and 
foreign woitihip^ But i*> Itnd rein]nJECcnce>i of huvtorical 
fact in myths h to extract gold from the sunbeams. If 
myths arc folk-lore, and folklore is primitive hyjK>th&(is, 
the one thing certain is that the assumed historical 
occurrence whicli the " popular cxpljtn&tton " uses to 
account for its "observed facts" is not historical at alL 
W hatever the etymology of "Shotovcr" Jlill, it was never 
shot over by Little John ; nor does this primitive hypo 
thesis; cont^im a rc;minisccnce of any historic;il fict. The 
cne thing wa can Infer with certainty is that theoHginal 
name of the hfli wa« near enough for the folk to confound 
it with the worda "shot over". So, too, the one thing we 
>can be certain of in these myths is that ihcy were designed 
to explain the orgies. Why did tJic women of Elcuihcrj^, 
a village at the foot of Cilhieron, dance in this mad way 
at the Dionyaia? Because Dionysos sends the madness 
on them. What! on hi^ wotaliippcrs ? Ah! but they 
were not always worshippers of his: once Dionysco ap* 
pcarcd in a black gcat-skin to the daughters of Eleuther, 
and they derided him ; so he sent hi^ madness or thcm^ 
and did not withdraw it until their father, after consulting 
ApoUo, adopted the cull of Dionysos of the Elack Goat- 
fiklD (Suidati J, V^ ^tXavaiyiha ^wtnjcoy). So, tOO, the 
daughters of PrcotU'; of Tiryna were driven mad by tho 
god because they refused to enter into his orgiastic rites 


Report on Grcci Jt/ytMUj^y. 

(Apollod., ti, ii, 2). [n the Elcuthcra.* myth it is Dionysos 
whu liJri.Htir introduces hi* own worship, scndi the mad- 
ness, and cures ii. In the Tiryns rnytb, Dionysos ««nds 
the fnadncs^v and Mc:Umpus, the 3ccr, cures it But inas- 
much as Herodotus (ii.49) say* that Mclampus introduced 
tile worship of Dionysos into Greece* ard jn view of the 
re^mblarce between the names MeUmpus ard MelaDaigis, 
is it Tanciful to suggost that " iJlack-fooi" was an cphhet of 
the god in ArgOi^ juntas "B!acJ:-*kin"wa?i at Eleuther* ? 
7 -saving this suggestion for what ft is worth, l« 115 turn to 
the most famous of this class of niylJis, that of Lycurgus, 
the son of Dtyas, who chased the nurses of frenzied 
Dionysos, and smote ihcm with the nuiderous poTe-axe, 
while Dionysos ficd trembling to Thclis for refuge in the 
aca (//., Yi, 142). Here it is not the women of Thrace, but 
the king who resists the god. The king* however, U 
punished with madness because of his resistance (Apollod,} 
in. V, i-X lil*c the daughters of Eleuthcnc and the women 
of Argos ; and we might not unreasonably class all three 
myths together as primitive hypotheses of the same kind 
But the mention of the pole-axe, and the retreat of 
Dionysos, may point to an initance of " killing the god". 
The god may havp appeared as a bull in this rite, in the 
same way that he did at Bouphonin — hence the ^ovr-XiJf. 
The Bouphotiia, according to the story, was inj^tittited in 
ordei to put an end (o draught and famine, and is there- 
fore probably a harvest festival {Goiiii-n Bouj^, W, 41). 
Drought and famine also play a part in the £tor>- of 
Lyctrgus (Apoll. / c.)\ and we may perhaps regard this 
m>lh as the " popular explanation' of a harvest festival in 
which the god of vegetation was killed Originally the 
god ^vas killed "only as a necessary step to his revival or 
resurrection in a better form", But when this xvas for- 
gotien^ the killing requited explanation. An enemy alone 
would kill the god, ^nd he must have killed him because 
be objected to his mad rites. He mu^t, therefore, have 
been some one having autlionty — a king. IJut the god 

Report on Greek Mythology, 


was unlikely to let his enemy go unpunished ; therefore he 
sent drought and famine, as a god of vegetation naturally 
might And \n commemoration of the termination of the 
drought, which ended when Lycurgus had been torn in 
pieces by horses, this very harvest festival was instituted. 
This may or may not be the explanation of the Lycur^s 
myth ; but it is more in accordance with folk-lore methods 
than the "reminiscence'' theory. Anyhow, the upholders 
of the theory that the worship of Dionysos was borrowed 
by the Greeks from Thrace, ought not to cite Lycur^s in 
their support ; for if his myth is a " reminiscence of opposi- 
tion offered to the introduction of a new foreign worship", 
then, as Lycurgus was a Thracian king, the new and foreign 
worship did not originate in Thrace. 


VOL. [I. 



Among the paper* tn appe;ir in the enduing nuinberc of 
FOLK-Loxii will be a symtsosiuin on " CEnderelU", b^ 
M(!ssr:4, E, Clotlil, fi. K Gnmmr, R S, Harllmid* Joseph 
Jdcobs, AlffcJ Nutl, and uUicis ; ProrcsMM Rhys' paper 
on Manx Folk-Lore, the conclusion of Dn Caster's paper 
on the Holy Ciail, Rev. F. Sibx-cN paper on Malagasy 
Bird-lore, and Mr. Cecil Smith's Rcporl on Greek Arch* 

Dr. WesterMARCK'S u-ork on the Origin of MArnagc 
will be published by Messrs. Macmillan almost immc- 
djatcly, Mr. WaUocc prefaces the volume. 

TflK "Statulfjiy" Ninth InternnlinnM Congress of 
OricnUlisU, which is to be held this year from the 1st to 
the loth September, has a seclion on '*ComparAU\c: Reli- 
gion, including MythoIus>- and Folk-loru, Philosophy and 
Law, and Uricntal l!ir.tor>- and Sciences*". 

Mr. RI3I-KV'5 paper on the progrew cf Ethnographic 
Research in India <sec ///M>^, s.v. JcHfinU cf Anthrt^, 
lastituu) urges that custom should be henceforth used as 
a means of research. Mr, Rislcy. however, docs not seem 
to be aware of the Folk-Lore Society** Hatid^oQk^ a-s he 
recommends the use of the AHtkn^polGgi^ai Ncm and 
QucvUs^ a very <^xccilcnt buC now somewhat obsolete 
volume, which is, besides, out of print. 

Two new volumcfi of Waifs and Sfrnys ef Ct/fk Trtx- 
dithn will be published almoH iminodiatelyn Fcik and 
Jffra Ta/f s /fvm Ar^'/ZsJIrrrft coWccXod, cdilcdj traiulaicd, 

Naics and News. 


and aitnotatcci by tlic Rev. James MacDougalJ, with an 
Inlrcduciion by Alfred Nutt; ftl*i0 Tlu Fmjw. tradilion* 
in prose and verse, collected during the laj*t forty years 
by the Rev. J. G. Campbell of Tircc, 

The prospects of Ihc Folk-lore Congress are very 
promising. Papers find nddrc»cs ^\\\ be forthcoming 
from the president. Mr. Andrew Lartg:* and from Sir 
Frederick I'ollock, TrofcMors K JJ, Jc\'ons» Rhys, and 
Sayce, Drs. Guter Tylor, and Wintcrnilz, Mcisr^, E. 
Clodd, J. G> Krazcr. F, H. Groomc G, L, Gommc, K- 
S. Hortland, Jo^ph Jacob.-^, Alfred Nutt, besido:^ others 
from foreign folk^lorists. 

The fourth and coucltiding part of the Rev. S. BaHng- 
Gould's Sengs tf/tfn Wtst merits record \n this place, both 
for the important masE of cnaterialji i; cciituin^ on the 
EnglUh Tolk-Soig and for the detailed analysis of the 
whole work, u-ith parallels, etc, coniaincd In the introduc- 
tion to thi* part. 

The second and concluding volume of Mt«i5 Garnelt's 
work tm the Folk-lore of Turkey will be ahorlly Usucd by 
Mr, Nutt, 

Papers for the next (Scptombcrj number of Folk- 
LouK mu^t reach the Ofl^ce, 370, Strvid. on or before 
August ISL 




V Those relating to Hunting and Traj>iiing. {Suotmn 
^ttusan mtiinaifrtt Taii-a/a^ I. AFttsas/y^ (aikoja), Hcls' 
iiigfoih. la^l, pp. 243, 

Mr, Matti Varonkn, tli*? editor of thl^ collcdion, Ttas 
with great skfll and success grouped togclhc:r in loj;ic;tl 
order, aad classified under mAny licadings, a perfect mine 
or folk-lore material It contains 782 itcm^ in a» man/j 
sccUoDS, not including «i couMtdcrablc number of variant 
given in the Appendix. 'J'o each section is appended in n 
footnote the name of the collector, the pl^e of collection, 
together with the age and 2e>E of the narrator. 

The variety of game in Finland is still very considerable, 
and include;; the bear, rerndeer, stag, wolf, lynx, fox, otter, 
mariln, hare^ and squirrel, not to mention birds of \^rious 
k'fnd& But to be a succcsrful hunter or irappcr many 
precautions are necessary. The guardian spirits of tlic 
forc5t miKl be ^inapitlalcd, thongh this may be less 
nccc3aar>' if the huntcrj like Esau, is a hdry man from his 
birth, for that alnays ensures success at the chase, Hls 
luck may be destroyed by the evil eye of another, though 
there are several ivays of counteracting; this mnti^^ in- 
fluence, such as by bringinf; a litter of young foxes 
tecretly into hi« house and feeding tlicm in a dark place ; 
or it may be injured through his own imprudence, by play- 
ing, for instance, with his daughters late at night Mucll 
depends on having a good dog, but more on being the 
owner uf a straight shouting gnn. During thr* shooting 
season, to keep it in good condition, i( «?iould tie given a 
vapour bfith every Saturday. If it won't go off^ the best 



p\w\ IS to put bmAikiiimbs under the bullet wlicn loading-. 
Tiic tjfTcct of puttirg \i\ brtNulcnimb^ over ihc hi\\\ is that 
the mi^Mlc enters the body nf the antmnl nhnt at ftjr ecrtain. 
A gun shm^H if wa^^hcd with the blood of a carrion- 
CAting bird, or if lubbcd with the fAt of a corpse ; it kills 
dead if the inside of the barrel is smeared wttli snake-fat 
or mcfcurial ointment A gun will Ictll if at the time of 
purcha-ic it is rubbed thiicc againBt tlic left leg, or if put 
into an anthc^p for Ihc night, or if the mu?j:Zc is heated in 
a fire and then plunged Into water. If It won't kill, the 
huTiicr must take off his coat, suspend it to a branch bc^ido 
the gun, take three knives, and then slash at his coat in a 
tovvcrirg passion. If a gun k washed invide and outside 
with water and the hlaid tif the j^rodsbcak, it not only kills 
;vell but remains unaflfccletl by hoNtlle «|x!lh. A gun is 
often spoilt for Miootin^, by an enemy without hh ever 
hdvint: sutn iL For if the enemy, on licaiing the hunter'* 
»hot» turns on hi* right heel with the wordi, " A snake into 
the gun, a lizard for a pliij: \ " the latter mi;;ht shoot for c\'er 
so long without hitting til) he had cleaned his gun. The 
same result would ensue were the enemy, on heartni; the 
report of tilt: gun, to fling himself upon the ground on his 
belly- The shooting powers of a gun are detiro>"cd by 
putting dowr the barrel the fat of a spawning li«h, or by 
mixing sugar wtth the powder, or by wiping it with tlie 
dirtj' frock of an old harlt»t. These powers, however, can 
be renewed by leaving the gun all night in the *hc^|vpen, 
or by digging a hole through an ant-heap and then passing 
ihroufrh it thrice, gun in hand. If a gun has hrcn iiio 
ruined by the evil eye Uiat t: wont kill, wun'l evm t;" off, 
a5nakc.<«houid be induced to crawl down the barrel and 
act as a wad to the cliargc. The gun la then 6red into the 
air The woml of this treatment is that it usually bursts 
the ffuiL The hunter's chance? of aport arc injiircd i( he 
mentions ;inimdk by their real names, and the animals 
themselves seem sometimes to Like it ami^.'^. iJcncclhc 
lynx j& termed cuphuisticaliy "iho forest cat", lest it should 



devour the sheep. The fox and hare ;»rc only spoken of 
^A "game", and the btter during the? hunting season tnust 
never be cal!ed "bad". Ti is tmlucky lo shoot the black 
woociprrlcrr. imd it is a bad omen should one be Citught in 
A Erap or a snare. So, toc^ to shoot a cuckoo, " tht? birds* 
pricit", \s to iticLr minfortunc 

John Abercrohbv. 



Sir,— With regard to the note of Mr» W- P, Kirby in 
FoLK-LORU (vol, ii\ p, 132), 1 would point out the fol- 
lowing remark of E. Taylor to his translation of the 
Grimms* folk-tale, '* RumpeUiitzchen*' (which word he 
changed into '* RiimpeUtilt^kin")- '* Wc rcnicmbcT to have 
hcnrd a similar story from Ireland, in which ihc song ran : 

" * Uttlo doe* my Lady wot 
Tl:al irjy name la Tril-B,-TioL' " 

t drew aHoilioii lo this remark of Taylor's so long ago 
AS 1370, m my note* to p. Si of Gonzenb^Lch* ^idfiaHis^kt 
Miir^tt, which Mr. E. Clodd appears to have overlooked. 



E«comraaaicatfid Pen on*.— Du men I, in his Vcya^ U the LcvaKt 
<u;inUaiHl i6y6), mcntbns twofsupcitsjitiofis concerning wt^^iiununU 
CAUd persons. Jn I lo, pp, 1 1& 7. h« d««crib» a Icarrut tlonn he 
encountered In 1 pAWi^^ fjom l.cfliom la MaIi^ Tlic vbip wa^ 
struck by lightningn and hn molion wii to violent (hat '^ont of \\\t 
Ship-Iio>-i wlio lay ^mlkinj: in tlic Foit-C»Uc. was ibroun upon ilic 
Hatchet in the otbcr end of ibc Shi^, and to Lruib'd, nrid black wltb 
Cgntuilon* . . - Ihal nc Iiavc Mill rcAiuiL tc doubt of hi» rectiv«ry. 
The M ariner* concluded Ihal ihe /Vw/ was the Author cf \\\ the*e 
DUordera, and thai there v^^ lomc Pcnon in Lhc Company under a 
Smtence of /ircvmmunt^'^i/iitn." A j^iln, in \a. iSj p. 595 : ■' You have 
doubtlcM obicrv'd that tbc KtimiMHutr hnve an extreme Venendion 
for those Persons vhoae Bodi^? remain free ftnin Futrr/acticn after 
their dcAtU . . . iHhcrtab the ^'nv't^ pretend ttiM tiaonly nn EflVet of 
Excattmunii^atiOfV J and whfri ihey And a Bnfly in ihat CoAdltLnn,ih#5 
XMYzt leave Prn^in^ for the fcul of ihc dcctd Pcnofif till hU Body be 
potre^d and corttipicd,'' 

Turki&b Suprratition.— *' I &hall [rt the ncAl pbcc proceed 10 z>\t 
you a brief nccfHint of ihc T^rf j thai live in ^gf^t before I nniih 
my Letter. They are ^o citrcojnLy Sufxr^titious, dial when they £0 
abroad in the mormni:* 'f ^hc ftTut Perion they i\\tvi be n CAririMt^ 
they fcttjni immedjaiely, and hftvinji wuh\l ihcnisclvci, stay at home 
all the rett of the day ; for ihcy bdievc thai sovac great MUfnittme 
wou'd certainly befall 'em, if ihty uhou'd venture to go abrotid 

■gl]v/ C'bV., let. 16, ^ tog.) Gr.KM.DtNA GciSSKLlJi. 

Poflt-Mortecn UurUgc^A writer in lh« N^rlA CAina I>ai/y JV^tvr 
records A(.ii>c or^ouielhing Ukc ^post-TH^rhtu mairUi^e, In whkh a 
Chinese g\t\ tfc«ntly dece«i«d, was married to a deocL boy in another 
vlUij^- ^'U uot vjLtfiei|ucutly huppcuV't be cjipUiuSr * thai the son in 
tJ^ f&mily dioi before he ifl married, nnd tbai ti UdealrabTe lo adopt 
ft j^anddoo. The family cait about for some youQC t^rl vtio has aIm 
died rtdemly, and a pmpotirii™ i« miide for the union of the two 
corp*c?> in the bonds of niotrimony. If jt ia accepted there ii a com- 
binaiion cf a ueddin^ titiA a Aineral, in ihe procet^ of «^iL'h the 
deceased bride i% taken by a lai^c number of bearers to the cemetery 
of thcoiher fvnlly and laid be«^dehcrhu(band/' iFAil Matl O^tttt^ 
(Hev. I £90^} 

milktA Aftd Miiricfc««U, depcndcni on tbe Govcm»csi t4 Cipe 
Drffoa' M7M^ pp- J7>3S> ni«ni>on% tic wprndUooft ok Bad* bf 
native ;umfkn of liwr-wsCCT is vJilch be»v«rtb«]| lliarlwti. ^TW 
(Ttftl tccrct cpf ihcMT ;u{fWn ccnwits iu baifac ji frtai MwMt 
[bowl] Tvll of vaief. fron my ri^^M- in iiluch it wm Inowit th«ra svra 
Irurn bci3> Tbcn lic uka i ^crLAiA ncmbri of circuiir tiir»( ffKind 
UiU «orAklc^ u Pt fUnd« os ib« i^ro^ac^ pooovndi^ aH l^ time wiiJi 
B low voBcc a Uwl cf £il)b«nih of brokea vocds. Aficr \\\\\ be ilmw) 
neir la ih« bowl, and bmilmg T«ry lov, or refect l}ing over R, loob 
»t hrn^Mlf in il At in « tl*^ If he *ee itic v«bcr in ibc kui nniddy 
or uaieitlcat, be recoven hb erta p^^iiutc tsd beg lu bis nuodf 
ftj[u&i tin be 6nd« the ■tucr ■? <lair ^ he cot^ kUh l4 for bis 
purpofe, and lb«k he provotuKts over it his nuck *ocdi If, oAtf 
hatiaf rcpc^c4 tbefn tince or thrice, he doci not find the 
propocKiI cm bim rraotrcd by ihib tnnicctioa of ihe water, nor t1 
wondirt h« vtAli operated by it, be tiyi v^h a load voice uid ft 
giBw; toocif that ihe Afnrt*fM , . > would not deduc hlxntetf IJQ rvciy 
oo« of the jtuiMinii chould hav* lotd him (tho jnaler) m ihe 
whal were ht> Jkctiu! Ihou^^hu or grcju^st KCrct." 

Witche* io Comirftli.- Utlid in nuchc* And itl-vkhing 
Jiofen tfl CorawoU. Wltbia tvo mike of PenuiKe live two fnnil 
OS Adjnccnt iMrm%. For twdvc aoo:hi tbe irhote of ibe Jf 
bouiehold 1ia«e b«tivvftl that Mn. CtArb^, Ibrir oetghboof, vrho 
s?vtn'.y-<inc y««r» of ft|rc, ««« ft atLch, ja(1 bod iQ-wIsbcd tbei 
hr^^<»t, to ihitt tfcey itiddenly refused lo pull And narted kicking^' 
On Toud^r tTcaing two fouoi; men of iht Jdbart leciily went lo 
Mfi. Ctifke*! brcn. and tbrtacen^l lo murdrr Mn. Clifke, ubo com- 
pUJned to the poJicei nnd warrutu were osued. At ihc Teatinco 
Pfllirv-ccnin yeutrdny the elder bpoihcr swore ihnf hf b^lTered Mtt,^ 
Clarke UJnUhed thrir hor*et, ^o^itiji; thorn to lac): and jib. Both' 
yoyntf men were boi^ad io jC^*r CMhi wllb t turtiy cf ^?o, lo ke^p 
Ihe pettce for lin monchv iSfaMfani, March 7, 'S^o; 

Huflfttriui Ciutooi. -" bUAUOKlH (Pun), fifty nufvari4n womeii 
Kcte th(u«-n imo the rfvcr by dKaasodmiiwrs, sndkffit intbe wattr 
vnttl jilmoit dfowno± TIte woman proirokod Ifae mincrr byfoUovof 
a muvm alleged to be m vogne naortf the HunfirUn pMnsttin 
tiircipp. Tlir men an* htTppoied (o bathe at EiLteti&dc, utd, by way 
of 4 hiDt, ihc women tbrc«' WAter over ftU the men ih^y met fcrihe 
Am <Uy tir iwo after Easier Suaday. TMi vis tbo iiuiett' wav of 
reUkUatin^* (J&3*^ Apttt lotb, 1S90S p. 3.) 




\En^lUk l&^kt ^itifithcd M Lendfim^ Frtntk 60^ im Parity 

Atkinson iRf^.J. C-> Varty Yean inn MoorUnd Parish. Rcminl- 

«cci>ce^ and Rcsi^aEchci in Uanl^r ia CkTclaod $vo. 457 PP' 

Miipi kind illuiimijctvi. Macmillan. 
Burton [A.) Rub-bearing: a Hiatory of tho Old Custom. (Hull 

l.rL Club.} 
Gouis CD, Celt.) Bocaaica popular, limo. vi, 151 pp, Bircdona. 
Coni^T p'AijiVTClJ^, La mijfrAitoii iIkh iymho\v>~ tii^ J4- pp> 

Numerous clu, 
Hu-LWALD (r. von), K]hno£TApZki«cbc RottcbprUdgc. Kultur- 

und vcrf;«tchjchcticha Bilder und SktnciL Svo. Lcipiif:, 
Ir4i>icuLU9 arr-EtRSTmoKVM £t paoa^harum. Ein Vcnelchniw 

h«idnuchar uiid abcrglaubiecbor Gcbr^uche und Mcinuiijien aus 

^t j^Li KajU do Ciut^cn, ^un fut^cih; vlclchtciiigcn Scbriflcc 

crlaukrt von il. A. Sauppc^ 410- J4 PP' Leip'Jg- 
KNOOf (OUo). rUudem^cbca ^as inmctftjirnncin. Zireite S^min' 

lurig, 4to, RojftMn, 
KltAVt& (E.) Tuisko-Und, d«r AriscKcn Slhrnnie und Cdttcr 

Urheimat, ErlameruTigf n »iim Sa|;cn»bAtte derVeden, Kdda, 

Hint und OdyM*. Svo. Clo^au, 
Mallkhv (G,) Orceijpg by (;r&turf (rrcni /*afi. SdfMct Monikfy). 

N*w VorV (AppT«ton\ 
Prr^a (?) 11 Fcslc d'iVprik- S"^ edli- pjdenno. Sva ppi ij, 
TUCKWKLL (Kci'. W-) Tongueft in TrMs nnd S«nnonfc In Scones. 

G.AUcfl. (ContaiDi chAptcr* on pUot MklarcL) 


BftAXBIHABiN (J') ^c:3 plus iincicns ^tanaoauicn fran^ais (ii* 
iUdo^ FtuniMIlM^ Pant (Bouil1o>>). 

£ltKA?<r (A,) Uic Mpuchcn dei Papyiui Wc^tcor. Ucbcnclomif, 
Etnleilung untd Comnwntar. {Mitibfilunfirn acif den on^oUdit- 
c)i«n Sdtinmluxifcn. Hoft V.) Sm-fdl.?: ppi Jopholo-^LC^iaulo 

FoLK'LOHeAKD Lecekdb. Sccond Scrics; {j) Ruuiaa i (4) Nortb 
American Tudinna^ Gibbingt. 


Folk-hrt Bil^iography. 

MiixrBf (A,) Cl)At3U popdjtire* de U Grice, de la Scrbic, ci du 

Momifn^o, %\o^ \\\, 175 pp^ 
rtHEALiL.) L<»conUipopuUire»du Pottou- lamo, v. 316 pp. 
TonitB {X) Kuhrrilifn ttA Khhrd^cn, Ifldcl und lodclUctl la 

Apfjcn^dl, J^vOv Zuncb. 


ASDMKt^ fA.) Die rimsiigeT, F.ihn4?grap]itt^cli b^EracbleL. Mileiacii 

Tofcl. £ro. xi, 15: pp. Bntns^^'ick. 
Mrvir« (E. H-) Hie tdrfische Kosmo^ome. Eio 3eitr«e zur 

Ceichichie dcr Kosmogomc des Alicrtiim< und d«r MilttUlten. 

MVLLSR (M»x). I'nysicaJ Religion : I'hc (;iflbrd Lecturer ddivered 
before the Univeisity ofCbbgov in lE^jo. £vo. Lddx™<^^ 

Rhys tJohnX Studies In the Anhurian l.(^«ric^ Svo- 4 ro pp. Claren- 
don Prefix, 

bcitwAiur {{'.] KtiXt der Wodaiik(i]:o& in dec Gegcnwart- Svo- 


Artholr cm* Mkkm>. Niich d« Audiinltck-Hs. n<rbii iwfli 

B«i]aji-(m hernu^iit^bcn von E. KtHbin};:. i^me. djcxnix, 500 pp. 

LcipiiiC. j8w. 

Haiutt (W, C*rei*). Studiet m Jocular LiteraEurc. Elliot Stoet 

Mus^AMft CA') Siudlen ui den iniiteliillerlkben Miirieul?i:endaQi 

Hjui IV, Svo. L^etpfig. 
ZiMMmtOl-) Ueber die fruhcsLcn BerLthmniJien der Iren ntit den 
Nordgennanenr {Erir. Sitiungttiericlile dps Iconiglit^ti preuMU- 
dien Akadcmic der WUseDachnftcn lu Deilici. No. xvi, 1B9K) 


Academy. Feb, j4. Aif. AW/^Piof. Zjiiimet's Tljcoiy oF the Oi^umLc 
Sa^a.»Fftb. 38. Whitfey Ste^^t, Klytnologyof Hanr and F^ne, 
— Mar. 2]. A' AV^Arr, Tlic Eagle cf Etan-Gil^^nioi^ uml hit 
Ictndred in Ko]k-lar«. 

AfdutologUCunbreoBu, Jan. tS9r 
a Water VcnetaLion. 

AV', £//^ C>«vfl, Holy Wdb, 

pAtUoo uid Fucy, V, 7, May Itf?' (^1- LouU, Miuouh}, Tbe Re- 

sukliotib And OUiisalbiib uf Cuchulhind^ A lierok ule trunv 
Uted from the Ihih {Boelr ^/ iMast^), and oov fii«t pul>3ubtd 
by ike Kcv> J(ame«) KCeegan). 

Foik'lore Biiiitgre^fy. 


JOLiEU] of Americui PolkJoire, J.m, u> Mar. :S9T. F. Boat, D1tt«mi* 
nali&n of Tilts amonj; ihc NfttiTci of North America- //. C- 
Ssiton^ Somt- HAnaif-m P^iBiiinrfi. /■'- Sfurr^ K<hlk'tore of Stone 
Tool* ff. yi' Kunr, Kxhibttion «f Gem* uioJ xt Amulcl*. 
etc / D^m/. Tlic Dauel^icL of (lie Sun. A CicHiiijn Mylh 
of ihp T«iiniUi)^os of Nflrl1w«4t E&ritiih Columbia. E. A. /^ aCt 
Cwrrfr^ Games and Topalfkr SupcrvLiliooi of Nicva^a. ffC 
M. Rfaucknwp^ IrnctuDis Notft«. r /- Fdivardt^ -Sdmo TaTcs 
from Drih.irn.-i Folklore. F. SUrr^ A ra^e of Cbild-Lorfi v4//^ 
C FtfUkfT^ Tht tnrtinn Mesviab. C. /?. f7rA»w^/. Accouni of 
the Northern Chc^ynnncs concerning th« McAnah Superstition* 

JOitmal of th^ Anthropologkal Institute. lUr 3^ AWa /„ TJL H'^rrfz/'j A 
F«ttkliT or U L% ff om L/ikc NyosML ^. //. Uhltf^ Tlw Study of 
£ihnolagy In ladU [r;iisine Imporunt t^ucilioni :ii lo the rcEuiion 
bct^gfln folk-lore and fac<| T. >//f/, Tho Vourouka of Astft 
MiAor.— 1.1^ 4- ^UA. /^>^ It-V/^y, All Hppvtr«Q( PArAdoxIn Mc&tHl 

NoUi usd Qu«rJoa, Jan.-May iS^t, J&n. 3, Swedish Folklor^^ KiiD' 
Low Folk -to It —Jan. 10, UnfdAcninij: a Door al DcAtb.— Joii. 17, 
Yorkshire WitdicrafL— Jan. 34, TbewAlian Follc-lort— Jin. ji, 
SupcratJtion io EiacK.— Feb, 14. '^^ ^- BhM^^ Folk-lore of 
L^nu^e -—F^b, 31, TtiT»dfl ^md Corrli Unfait^niitj; Hoot at 
DcAtU.— Feb. 23, fr. A. Chi^tt<M^ Cumolaitvc NurtcrY Storic*. 
Old Ocford CuiTOTQtt Lftst Obipnmnce of aa Old Cunom.*- 
Mat. 7> Superatition in Euex-— Mar I4i W- A. Ci^mt^ity Toniui 
An^ilot^iir of :in ^~4<3p\ Krihlr I'fllk-Eorr^^Mar. 
sC, FiincriL] Cuitomi Hurct^riixn Cutrom, Tuntnjc the C&ndle- 
Mick-— April 4> liapibmal Supcrsli lion. '"May j. Funeral Cus' 
toms, SiD^tikir Stiperttilion, Ii;iptiSfnal Supenitlion, Uib>''« FirKl 
Tnmh. — May iH. ir. A. Curtistoif^ Pounuln of Job,->May aj, 
** Spiting'* * Neighbour, Cipiy Chirm*. 

Procccdin^of the Society of BIblic*] Afch4»»loC7, xiii, 4- ^f'x Z. 

SfiiiitcKtifrJ, lr»<rrip(u>n» rrlAlinj^ eh Sntt^ry In Cyprus. 

Providence (New Kninswicb), Sund:ry J^urnil^ April 13. On lome 
Icdiiin Folk-lore. Atponquin SCorieih by An Chmobhoa Aoibhina 
(DoLi^lAA Hydn) 

M^luKine, v, S, La Fiuternraation ; ix, En Uknine, Th. VfiJkfft'; jl, 
]>ijitc Schmol]i», //■ Oiiii^i. FijttlAiiltr^ Lca Acqucduca. O, 
Cpvrjiv^ l/Op<^rnlion d'KtcuUpc. // ^<rj/ik<f , Let di'vt&fttei d« 
liL MfttooloKic- Jcaa dc I'Ojrx Lcs chcrcux jQUgci. /. 
Tidtitmattnt Xa FMcioailoa- H. Gmdot, Les Soniou de M. Lnitl* 
Le« ehenuai dc fei. 


Folhiorv BiSliop'aphy, 

Revue de THidoire de» Rcligloiu, j^ iSgt- i^ X/v/. Le Boutidhiim« 
r( lc» GiccB, /'. /'flWi buHrtir ftrchAilo£i*^ue dc la rcli^on 

Bcwc iJca Rdigioas* i, iC^i* /f^^ /^ifiiy, Ktadcs »ur la reU^ioD 
Cbald^-A«5yhenne (cooiiiiticd in No. ii). Otsfftnttf /its Fonts, 

Revue tSes Traditions Po|>uU*r««r F/5. i£^1. />. Fi/xgtrfittI, Sur 

hitionquet. t^. ^aihtH^ La ponQC Femme ti Bmnw: i, 
Noimifidic. R S"., Haiitc-Brctagncj ii- A Sibilht^ Trtdi- 
dittofi^ ct &up«r«tULOTvs <tes poms cl <TiAU«s^e4 : Till, Lcs 
I\>ni5 (Ponl^ hanl^E, Supersiilicus divcriea), A. J/anmfhM 
chr-mirs de fer {futtf) '. it, Supefstrimnv P. S^ FacifCies et 
CspresiioDS pitlonisquc*, ,t. Afarirt, Dcvin«H&3. P- iyjv/^iij^, 
L*s RouieSn iJ fsw'U), ^mi^'t^iisj^i, ftibliographft dii Fotk- 
lore ea Pologne. vT. Crrt^HX, PHtrins cl pllenoafiet: ^lit Wl*- 
nn;iees au^ Cii3rfa du Libor. Z'. 5^, Lcs minea ct les uiincun: 
in, L«s Statues dar^ Ie« mines. A\ Pgniy^ F&Ee& el Lroyacccft, 
X. Jitu/ Huiitf^ AUusiont Jl dc» CanEca popuTatics {sttiS^)- 
Iju/itiiy, Les CLacheti : ii, Presages ei SiipersiiiiOTi*^' ffxffvl 
£itytM, Lc Poiiplcct lcs Mvaumcnls^ I, Picrits^tavifca, Ritphtt^ 
hlnrKhar.i, F-virait« ct leciLin;^' Sotcellerio rUns Us H^utes- 
ALpc£. — il/a/vA, /^ S3ii/0lj Tr^d^iLons ci &upcrsiitlons dt» 
ponts et diauu^H: vli. Lei Pont«: RueE de la centtnic- 
tloo. //< H^ruJU^ Lc Pont d'Artoa, chant albmaiv /W^ 
j^tgj V\bc.ti de monnak daat Irs fondsttlorifi. Lib^irions 4 U 
pose de ia clef dc voCiie. A 5,, Le* tf^^ata, viU. /* ^'#/( 
Clianson dpi iivitoi l, ArWKe. J*. (7Ajr*/j>i, Les poiCToni fan- 
UstiqucH: I. Le pnuPton Nlc»lc. A'. M. Lkuvo, Lcs cent Cthius, 
cnnit pniievin. f?, ^/if Oist/lfum^ \jp% niioei el les mineuri: vm» 
AddLtioni. A. Sttsse/, 5&1aiman dans les l^cndes miiialmoDOs; 
vi| Lc3! Objel!» inervcillcLtx (suiU). J. Thnct^ Pa^lJcbca dt 
ch4inson» popu1aire«, it. Jl. Ptrmuti^ Trtdilion« et iupcri<tiiioiu 
du Dauphitid, IL /J, Orr/trva, La Goletlc dc pain, l^Geode utobe, 
//. PiUittony SupersliEions btamaiict^ /^^ liflift, Voyigeun 
ffarii^ais et ^trani^:s : i| Thcvcrnrd. Mmt. Murray Ay^Ujf\ 
Une L^gendf <1c aorcclltrie cr AngleEerr«- A. BtittrSt Le Culie 
du iimiteau: J, Chci lcs Liihuiakns » Ic saleil caplLf. {7 FvHpi, 
Ltf^ndei et luper^tilion* pfAi«orit(ue5'viiijPi*rTen|iiitouraent 
en Eorc-ct-l-oire, If- Ji-i-iift, Lcs ViUes engt^ulies: li, l^^\^, 
P.'M. /.eii'ffief. La Li^H^"dt dii l)[jLble dans le pays de Vannei. 
J?. Sojutt L'CJ RlI«i» dc la Ccmouucuen^ i, 5acr[lic<« humaina ca 

FQlk4ort Bibiiop^ky. 


Ocbini<!. M' Crrgor^ En Ero«e, ii. L. Mortn, LiiTM popn- 
lairtn ; ii» Chnnton cd fomo do compl^iatc du Jefi^in Hubusi 
Deux inndes (t'difantt; Aulic. y^ Tifrsei. Scepticj^me pc>i>ulalrrT> 
W. fJareu, Orifime dw toses mons«ute$, ]^g*iidc d'Anveri- 1^, 
Jfj^^tj La Danst ties Fi!c3, lifficndc li'Au/crtin:. 

RoaumU, jMit^ry. Tfi. HaSioufhk^f^ T^drrhni^ducDrpict der,LTie,i, 
G. DmcUux^ La dionaon dc )a P«rfiet£c. ^. /'ririVf Reviciv of 
FUriter» Erccu. Enida 

Li Tradltfoi^ Feb. 1891^ T IXrtffiiien^ Kl^mcnc* de TiadiilnnrLltmc 
ou KoHc'lore; 11^ Le Cull* dei Aocttrei. //. Viin Ei^ta^ Li 
SuTcctkfic au MoycQ'AKt. 1. Coup d'oU hiMOn^uc^ V/. G»'wk 
CI/, Nk^Ltiiiti\ L« KoJh-lor« do Cooalftftllnoplc; 1, Supcrsiitionfi 
ct Clo)'xqcc» den Tkiica. If. Canwy. Lcs rommicri en ^ai, 
P. Combis, Li[tjniuT« populatr^ de V'iElfrnciiv^iur-Lut, A. 
tlanjv, Lc roIk'Jorc dc )a Bclu^ve: xii, \jti Cfanu. /. /Vii/T' 
Af/y/J, l-M (hctfatkni do P^pegiu, t. F. i(e Hemtrtpatrf^ Chlti- 
loni populntici dc Qucrcy- ^^ Ci4jf^cTjir4>tt, Lo cmprcmlci met- 
veUlpa»*f vi. — Mirch ifi^i. V/. Ciiwiii)' et /. Nia^lmdes^ LeFollc- 
lort do ConaLantmijplG: i, SupersLitions at Croy^ncca dca Turcs 
\miii). F. ^ Bfsi^trffun'tf^ Chansnn? f>npulJiir«t du Qucrcy: lit, 
Lo SflboU; iv, Vcrdujctlc. Vcrdiiroti. T. DaiiJr^rr, CldmcnCs 
de Trjididonnismc on Folk-lore: 111, Le Cuhe dcs AnimAux. C 
S4 W^rhy. Saint Uarnabtfi pairon d«t Aniourcux. J/. tU 
Zm{grGdslti„ Lc Kolk-kire potonAis. Cr^covir ti a«*i ^nvironit 
Iv, Lfl Mddccinc. // C, Lo icoi( de M;ii, xir. v4. CAali^^atf, 
Lc» cmpfeinies mtuvcLlLcuicn, vil. £fr. B^trsgtr-FirMut, Conlca 
de Provence, L >^. (M^A; Let SaiatB cUtl^B. P. HisUlAttl^, 
Ijm Vu»enitto en ATjiflLC'L*j;riLifjt 

ArchiTio per lo itudio dclU TradUioni PopolAfl, viii, 4, fi:, /*i/iV; 11 
Pe*ffr ri'Aprtlf- hti&ilo tfi ioi Rtya y Flerrnfia^, Sffw y 
Objpctoi Suprcfialut^ca de FilipinM*. C. Simiam, U*i, Lc£" 
gende r rregiucl]f[ \yip. TntpatesI- <7. /Vrmfi^i Cnnti pop. 
Pornupani c MonferriniH //^ If. G^ISeN^ Uil e Crvdearc 
ninppnrirHl- O. Sti^rJ, Lcilcraiuia pop, delk Colonic 
A!banc3c di Piooi dei Ored^ K. GiugriiLi^ Poesia pep. 
Uramniiiiica in SidUa, 5. Vixo/h Folklore del Miir. F. Stv^t, 
Le Servn-il« pei ^S- Criqpmo« Oi^pmiano in Pincrolo>^i«, 1, 
C, ^imf^ni^ UsJ, Lcg^endc c I'lrgiudiik pop. Trapuicsi, F. 
Afksfni, Uvr c Cottumi degli Sloveni Veneti, A. 7\ Pirts, 
CoDCos ^tanlinios dc PoriU):a1, Af- Mat^him^ Cmli pop. 
Homani- /- />/ y>tsqiiaUyKxc<Q,\\;iA\ Pmvcrb) Calahrt. /C /'ruilp, 
U Mnic. A MazsHcchi. UsI c C<f]iLmii del Fopolo ocir A)(o 


Fofl-hre Biifi(>grafiAj\ 

GtifHitln, Ulw Sifrt Rappr*<*nta>ioni in Torino nd SkoIo XV, 
C. D. CfrsL Vila Scoac-u, Z| C. Fifktm^rt^ Trad. pop. 
Abbnintii P. M*i:t$i{^hi. Provtrbi pop^ rffi FobsIrP, >r. 
Nffnd^Ciific^ La Coltivftiionc del C»nap& ncl Beniinisft A. 
Kamm, l^ijniic tii FbUmlc. K 0>ui, UnA rreghicm di FcUc- 
grioi <Icl Scoolo XV. G^ M^j^sa McUti^ Cinti Kuncbri. Vilu- 
tullun. /-. Of J'-u^¥4iU, RiKX- di Proverbi Cilabri. /*, S^floi, 
CoDicH de Mjinnfi. </, .Vj'avAmi^ Uai, «(c^ pop. Tnip:Ln««<. .If, 
Jfni/^j», Canii pop. Romjuii. S^S^tamotu Marino^ 11 '*Tab- 
baranu''. C Kfrrjr,>, Canti pctp^ i'annjgiani e Mc>nfcrrtnt u, 
3, C Afiu'Mfit, l\ Sua Cjjuvaiici ElatiJsLn a VcneiikL />. /\ 
i'^t^ini, a S. G, U. ncll' Agofdmo, -*, Anrda-U/^/U, Sal 
S. G, B< /*■ 5d^rj, La Fctu di S. G. D. in PicmonM, ^< A 
Corsi, El l^racda o U Ciorno di S. O- B- in Si«na. £v^fym 
Marfiwri/^if-CisateKiittT'i^n di S.G. F* S. fCrau^. L« r«te<lel4 
Snini-Jrrin chfri I«s STiviH ^u Sud^ Sf^ /^as/tr^ TI Fuocr di S. G- 
»uU' t i*ij:<bir2. ^/. Z)t MariiHf>, La Fena di S. G. in nntnndia. 
f, VfJri, II .S^mno <1i S. G, R ^, /^ /^7mi, Ta Tt*.Vk At S. G. 
ncU' Abruuo. //- Car^^t^ Uuc Crcd. diS- G* neUo Scblcawix- 
HobUiu. G. KagKiauVoM^ C\m\ Funchri. C?. Pitr/^ La 
L«ggf:ndA di Cola P(«c«. C ^. O/irm^, NoM di Tndiziooi c 
Lt^eode, <:;, ^ffMcf^ Sinrkllc pop- -f- i?. Ijim^iir, V%\, 
Crcdento, Lff^erido, J/. Mt/f^hmi, C*nii pop. Komooa. ^, 
Mit^^ni^ Ubj e Co^uml dc^ti Mavcni VeneiL, P. SUtlioi, ContCS 
dc Marms. — iai, 4. A. N*tr^C»hi2<^ La CohiviuHdnc dd Canspe 
Dcl Uelltincic. F^ S. A'raair, Le AillkiunJ di Trojatio. C. /fm, 
DiJ Novallier* di CoDo Maltvf^nL /'. S/^'JM^ Conic* de 
M&Tina. ^< /^. /jiM^fi'Jc', Vh\t Crcd.. LcKtf< <'■ ^' Ccru\ Seoa 
Vctus. C7. Cfimtffi CiHdKfy Coitumiftfi N:vitnD«, C^- /Viy/, 
Folk-IOTC Giurldico dcj Fandulli in SiciSu, P. AfjsruttAi, Vxm. 
pop. del Pckiinc F. Afutffitr, PcptLuhair. Nov. pop. Slovcca. 
Af. ttffnr^itjAj, Canti pop. Romniii. /. So'jt£jt\ It V'c^pro 5[utiano. 
V. OifffmiMHt Due Uitiochi t ancjulLcscbi In Fiblt- 

AlcoMLiuua. jrviii. 3 (i£go)- ZtfoiAinifiT, Volk»sj:co lit Ucbcrlingvn. 
Birfin^/r, Vorarlbcrgcr Sng«Ei, 

Am UrqaeO, II, i, A. S, CMrckitt Di« Windhos«. HaHd^auan^ 
Zur ncirwrptchm SK);rnfopicl!)un^ I'cont. in tii), M. tVin^fmrfi, 
Dai Kind bei den Jiidcn (com, m ii). y. A''jr/«*a«Vr, iJio Lichts- 
lanfo hpj ricn l^olpti (ciini, !:» Il), Krtivss, Die -Vtctischenwerdung 
dca hciligtD Pantclcimon^ (7. Kvfic^imiff, Volk^mtdtfin (copt m 
ii iij, iv}, AViiiuj, pLc PiEiuc^iQ vgn EntfUad (Slovak ballidji 
//. yaiAiMOftn, Volkswkii in Kuitcln. y. SfwiiF^^it!, 0&tpr«iu* 
^iche Sprichwdrbcr, VolkMciJiic uad rnrvmiLiliuiicn (cam, in 

FoiA-Urc Bibtiographf, 


ii-v])- a. V. HTni/ivfa^ ZiiEeurwrUufe in Non!uD£UA Krausu 
U«hcima S|irachw<i»en {cc»dI> in ii-vij. W. f. Ht^j^t^ und //. 
VoihsmtiiUiy Volka^ltubciL, lL //. Gaidaz, Rxtnata b^ Wdglii 
(conE- in liif iv). Pordu, Ti-ink(;tffui« in 3Dsni«D- \\\^ H. v. 
H'iifif^ki. ^till;yn»ibcllt^ Licbcftiaubcr^ ff- Frii^h^Uf, Uer Ei<l 
tm VoUukbcD. K. KniiitlJit^ Sagcn iind >Urchcn^ i/^ A. H. 
Paitt Daj VoLksIcben ds Vn^^nschaflUclici rroblcm. JT- 
A'AwrAf, Dftt Alpdrucken ia Schk«4iea a St^i, .St. MAirim- 
U|f Ieh Bcrsuehcn. v. /. MoHioy^ Die Kosmogonic dcr 
Ch»ol;«& j1/ ^iiAtfAw," Novelet.' AT //tv/'tfr, Du 5cerb«ii in 
Oborbaycni, //- SmttJfrmo'mt 04tfxi«aitchu VoUutum. M 
ri?/iUAvaj«fl, VolksmciIt/inH 

BeriLiiti; dra fivirn dfutKbcn HodiBtUtes xu FiRulcTufl ^ M- ^hhen^ 

D\9 My^hcn i[i» Altt-fthiim- 

B«richCecfvmtchiJ(cbenO«wllichaftdK WifaosfbAfteo.F.'ut i<iffgD). 
Ii7niiisth, Miii:iaclic Fonncin in AEl-kUchcu (subsraniially r«- 
phm«d in the AW-w Cttti^ut, tii, i). *?'« ni(rf^, i) le EcbiuL* 
CAplivi (uiigni jidJLie of aboui 93^39)- 

Ccrauaia, *xv, j {18901. Lkbrtt^t^ Zu* Volkslctintlc (Eupplanrat to 

hU wrlT-known work). 

CfittiaKisdte gckhitc Aiuelgcd, Ko. 5 rMarcb i). H- Zimmci 
levitws Uc Smedt"i and De Bacber'ft ^rfv/j Sjmianrm fiihrrnUr 
fjr^W.^d/jnid/4tfHftf,«Add;»cuucainkcci<ifNo(tbcin htntbcnUm 

ka the Irkih Saints* I1p». 

jAiirbucb riir G«a<hkbtei Sprsche and Littentar Elns* LothruiffCni, 

vol, vi (iS^oJ, >7M/^, KE;ui\i(irhp Volk^ftswn iiFhd VolifiiiHen. 

Uui»fdder Blftttcr, ir |iC^). Crihikr, MAiiitfcldcr VutkasUtcu iiiaU 

MEtUi«naog«n dM tntfaropoloffiichen GtttlttchAfl Ui Wlefi, wi, 1. 
/». J^U/itA^ M.itciialicn iuf Vc»r£fjclikiitc vnd \'o)k}kuiidc 

Z«it9chnft fUr dcutscbe PhiloEojrir, xxiji, 1-5 (iSqo), /a^Mt Die 
^rriTinnitrhr (i^^dkn HEiuUnii (rqiiatrt bcr with Knhfl and mak«t 
her vrifc d Tt\xt), 

Zoitschrift fur deutschcftATterlhum oad deut«ch« LLterttB^ >i9cv. JSf. 

indcratl««C«a U«bcr]i«fcruD£ dcrinschcQlitldcnsnge; Uripnin|- 
and EiKwii-kcluiij: ilct l-itiu-{OiiiMi') i.iKt ; die vikiogo IdandE 
Tn5sg«^C«idiichituiid Kccbt<ica inn^^Sr^ aifra, Academj. 


Foti'tort Bihiiograpky. 

Zciuehrift 4«a Verrini fbr Vollokudc. H«ft 3- A^ Mnitm, Land 
und Leate dcr SAAlrccctBdcn. /*. 5. AVuivij, Dcr Tbd In Site, 
Brweb tmd GIsuxben dcr S^idtli^cr- C>. i'. ZiMgfH^ Sagm uad 
Iluloillld Aui cintc IIS. d« Kv )Ah.'bK //. Prain^ Gfaufac and 
Itrauch rn drr M^rk ^rAr<1rnburj;, /. 7"^ AmMJ^fn^ Voft«ia|CCQ 
«ii« den Ufihmet&Tidd Kletfic M iixcilun^at. BOfhertiuciccn 

Zcftschrift flU VclkBloinde, vol. iii, 6. DiimwirtJtt DcuUches Element 
milavenbchco Sa£tn dctkftrnLCscheaOberTOftentluks MaSand, 
Dcr Flucb in ftiebeDbofgiscb^rufnOniftchen Volkspoesie^ Kirivi*- 
Utdt^ W«»diw:be S.-igen dcr Ni^drrbuitU^ Jantik. Attuneidscbc 
>1uf^i^ uid J^chvinke. ifranky, Volksiiberlielerangen mi5 
On^trieidi. CaUtU^ VoIkiLkcdti au> lliDlcrpoiiuiiCfD- A'tfie/'- 
M^Ajv, Findlinffe lur Volktkunde^ Knfiofi, PolnUcber ucid 
dtubciict AbcneUubc end i^rau^h ^ub Poien-— 7' fCrehn, Die 
KAl4W4tft vAm juiheflifben Standpimktv bctnchtei. Kw.*^ 
Die InduencB. Vei):<Hstet/t, Wendiscbc Soccn der KEcduUiii^u. 
Jarmti, AlbanMi»ch(? M:irthi»ft iind SirhwunVfl. f^njitfy, Volkl 
iibcilicfbninjcen *ui Oe«(trrcicti. /.jm./, Die a1e«d T)ordi*cbca^ 
Fruli]iu|:«rcftlQ>"-$i A'nvAn, Die Ktklcwiili vuiM^jttiiHiacIicu Sued' 
punkt bctrtichtcE- Jofni^, AlbanesKche Marchea tmd SdivrA&kt^ 
J^n^/, Volk^ibetlicfcniak'^ii avs Ooicircidi, /V^x/i Riunl- 
ittKChe VoIktTOTiirtnzen, Au« Sachten ; \ D«t t'ettkAlffndct vm 
lIotTiburjj; in Side, Lriucb und Schwank, initifcicilc ixia f, 
Vecktrtitfdt. Trcth^ Die alien nf>rditchcn t'TiihJinjtafeite. >« 
Vfikets^icdl, Diicberbcsprcchungcn fcridcismi on MAnithaLidt'i 
ineihodt AQit rpfulLs, And comnnEmJrAtEonft rv<ipeciinf[ his ^wn 


voi- n.) 


[No. llh 

CA/{S,—P^RT lU 


IN the last number of POLK-LOitE were given tlir^c 
t»lci» collected, along with som« othcra, during my 
rcAidcncc in the northern districis of Lincolnshire; ^^hen 
1 Also descnbcd, %o far ^ poKAJblc, the courtry uid 
surroundings :o which d^^cll ihc people amongst whom 
these legends h^vv originated- It i^ not easy, in no «hort 
a notice, to prcsnil vividly the curious mixture of ni^ilcicy 
and savagery, of Miperstition And indifTcrcncr. of ignorance 
und ^hrewdncMK which is fuund In these peasants, And it 
wniddmjuirc greater powers than 1 po&»cM to do justice to 
them in a more itnishcd study. During the compamtively 
^loit time I spent amongM them, close observance of their 
vrays of life and thought assured me that the old and 
simple heatheridom still lay untouched, though hidden* 
bclovr :iuccessive vamtshcs of superstition, religion, and 

Perhaps some other time I may be permitted to show 
hew this betrays itwlf. even in the vulgar speech and com- 
nton Iffc, and amongst those, moreover, whom one would 
have thought la be above the re^ach of It ] but the leaven of 
ihe ancient paganism hni spread it?«eir thr ma«^ 

VOL. n. s 

■incclnxhir^ Cars. 

tiTI ihcrc arc few \r\ whom some trace of it, ho^rcver un- 
con«cfniii(, may not be found. 

Thc folTowlng talcs were collected in the *:Lme district. 
They arifj prrhupH, more cotntmmplncff than " TWcly 
Muii"or"TI)c Dead Moon", but much dciJcrnU rm the 
n^urjitor. And thc%c; f;)ur were tuld by mm who had nnt a 
strong and inMinctivc ^n?(c of the diamalic art of M»ry* 
mukin^. 1 may say, in »pitc of their rcceptivcncss tow&rdft 
things miirvellous, that ^cy were otherwise practical and 
^oincwhat untma^in^tivc, and accepted the talcs thoy had 
heard from their fathers, w ith respect, indeod. but content 
not to aik themselves for absolute belief Thus; it U naort 
a« vestiges of a bygfine religion that these talc* may 
interest, ih^n as naniplcs of modern credulity. 

In the "Green Mist" and '^Thr Strangers' Share*; for 
inilamn^, there arc liaces of ancienL rite-\ ^iltt^fnl of ob- 
servance, but emptied of their pjimitlvc dcvotiun, which 
le^d lift back into a very dim aiid miMy region before th<^ 
lamp of histor>' was lit to light the way. And in "The 
Dead Hand" there t* an intimate ncquaintance with the 
bog-?*[)irits thai cortrasts od<ily wUh the later inl^ucnccof 
modern Christianity tn the alino^t biblical lamentation of 
the mourning mother 

There are *lil1 by me the note* from one or two tales 
treating of clc;iih ancJ the ;ift£n"-life, and at least one which 
show-^ the curious ntictwrsciou* immorality of very primitive 
minds — the immorality wlikh i* irflectcd in our mo«t 
familiar fairy u1l-s, where inuiUet and ihefl aird lying arc 
often accepted a>i the naturftl path towards success, a^ well 
in the hvc-T of these wonderful culd-blotjdcd barbaric 
prtiKCs and princcaaca of slorydom, the ideals of our child* 
hood, as in the simpler but pcrhap8 more poetic It^nda 
still lingering amid the people in thi* lonely corner of the 
Parts of Lind&G>'. 

Legends of ike LiKcolnskirc Gtrj< 259 

"THt Gkekw Mist." 

So thou 'si hccrd tell 0' th' bofjgarts an' all the h<yrrid 
thinij^ o' th" au'd toime*? Ay ; they wor niiichancy, qh- 
pleasant sort o' bodies lo do wi', an' a 'm main gUd as ilicy 
wor all go'an afore roi da'ay*. I ha* niver seed newt o' 
ihat sort; cep' mappcn a bogle or Ko^^ntithin wu'th 
tdlin' cf. But (f thou likes them 30rt o' ta'alei, a can 
IcU Ve .4ome as m^i au'd gr^n'thcr tnjid us when ;l wor 
nohhEJi A i\Ai\y brat. He wor n\dm ^u'd, nt^^h a liunner 
ytstr^ f(j*iik said ; an' a wor ma fa'alhcr's graii'thcr rcelly 
spcakin'. so ihou can b'Iccve ts a knowcd a lot *bout th* au'd 
toimcs. Mind, a wunnut say a^ alii th'ta'alcs be trc*uc ; 
but ma grar'thcr said a.i they wor, and a b'lcevcd un ahl 
hiit^cL'. Annywii>'s a 11 tell um As a hccrd um ; and that's 
ahl as a can do. 

Wa'alt i' they toim«s ^*ak mun ha' bin gcyan unloike 
to no^-H *5tead o* doin' their work o' da'ajs, n smokin' 
ther pipe* o' Sundays, \ pe'ace *n comrori, iha wor alius 
bothcrin* ihcr he'adit 'bout njinrrat "r other— or the cho'ch 
uor dnin' It for 'unu Th' prit-sts wor alluR at "un 'bout 
thiir sowls : an', what wi' hell an* Ih' bogga^ls^ ther mclnds 
wor niver vi\%y. An' ihcr wor thing:! atk didn't 'lonjj to th' 
cho'ch. an' yil— a can't rcctly 'splain to 'ce ; but Ui' fo'ak 
had tdeci o' ihcr o'an, an' wa'ays o' ther o'an, a?t a'd kcp' 
oop years 'n years, 'n ftknatrds o' years, since th' toioie 
when ther worn't no cho'cli, leastwise no choch o' that 
sort ; but tha gi"n thinjis to th' bogles 'n sich, to kc'p un 
friendly. Ma j^ran ther said 's how the bojjles 'd wan*t bin 
thowt a deal more on, an* at daarklins ivery noi(;ht th' 
fo'ak "d bear lolght* \ ther bar's roon' ther ha'ouaei:. Ka'ain' 
■we'd* to kc'p "um oflT; an'a'd smear blo'od o' Ui'drior-sirto 
skeer awa'ay th' horrors; an' a*d put bre'ad and salt o' th' 
flat ifttounfi set onp by th' la'ane ^de to grt a good ha'ar- 
vt'iii i an' a'd spill waller i" th' fewer <Ti'ncrs o' lb' i^dds, 
when a wanted rain ; an* they thowt a deal on ih' >«n, ftir 


l6o Legends of iht Lirtc&inshire Cars, 

tha reckoned as a ma'ad« th*yanh,4n'br(Hii 1h*good an til 
chance; an' a ckk'ant know what ahL A cani iHl 'rr Trclly 
what they bVev-ed-; fur "tvror afore ma gnn'ther'Ti loime. 
ahl ihat ; an' ihal's morc*na hunncid 'n fifty >fdrf agonc, 
5ccn-tha ; but a reckon iha maidc nigh u-^rythtn' a^ tbcy 
»cd 'fi hccrd into sort o' erc*at bogLcs, an* th^ «ror alius 
gi'un 'um things, or aa'ayin' io*X o* prayers loike, to keep 
um iro' dcin* tb* fo'ak anny c^^I- 

Wa'al tbat wa5 a \on^ toime agonc, \^ a iAi<A aforCt an' 
twor fio'oci «o bad i' nu gran'tbcfs da*ay; but, nathe]cs% 
'twomt fur^t, an' 4ome o' th' foak b1«eved tt ahl kuII, an' 
said lh«r au^ prayers or spclte-loike, o* ih' fily. So iher wor, 
so to ia*ay, t^-o dvo'chea; th' wan «i' pri«t« »)' cui'Utft 
an* a' that ; th' other ji«r a lot o* au'd w^a*a)'«. Icep *oop abl 
onheknnwn an' biddcn-lcHkc, mid th' fb'ak ihrrvLt ; an' 
the}' ihowi a deal more, ma gran'ther sakl. on th' au'd spdK 
'^ on th' Ku>icc i' th' cho'ch it?icL' But 's toitnc want on 
tha two i^ot 9o*t o* mixed oop ; an' some o' tha fo'akfl cudnt 
ha* toutd thcc. cf 'twor fur won or t' other as tha done th* 

To Yule, i th' eho'chei, thurn-or|^n'sarvtcc9,wi'caA~Ur» 
an' flafif an* what noc ; an' i' th' cottagts thur wor caxillcs 
'n ca'akcs 'n cran' dotn'v ; but tha priests nivcr knowcd ax 
mony o" lb' foak wor on'y waktn' ih' dyin* year, an' *a( iba 
vHne teemed upu' tha door-?ci1 to first cock-crtnr wor to 
bring good luck in th' cmtw yrar. An a* reckon foroe o' th' 
fo'ak therteIN *d do th' ao'd heatlicn wa'ayi 'n ^jxg hynm« 
meantime, wf oeer a ihowi of tha stra'angcncs^ o't 

Still, thur wor many 's kcp' to th' au'd va'ays ahl to- 
Kitbcr. thoff tha done it hidden (oike ; an' a'm eoui* to tcU 
cc of wan &m'b4)- as nua gran'ther knoircd fine, aiul bcnr 
they waked th' sprinn; wan ><ear 

As a said alim. a can't, e^^cn ef a wud, tcU'ce ahJ th' 
tbing« a£ tha us«ter do : but ihccr w04 wan totme o'tb 
year '* they p'rticlar ly want in fur ihcr «pclL« n prayrr% 
an' that wor th' )'ar1y spring. Tha iKoui as th' >'arth wor 
sleepin' ahl Ifa* mater -, an* at th' bi^^tci*- ca'all mxx what c« 

Lej^nds 0/ iic Limoltishirx Cars, 361 

wuTl — 'd nobbut to do but mischief fur tlicy d newt to f-cc 
to i'tha fields; tolhcy wor feared on tb' long d^Vk winter- 
days 'r noigbts, i* tha mid' o iM so'ts-o unseen fearsome 
ihin^, ready 'n waitin' fur & cbancc to p1a*ay un evil Irkka. 
Bnt AS ths winter wnnt by tbcy ihout as 'twor toimc to 
w^kt? th' yartli fro 'la Mccpin* 'n m:1 the bogles tc wc/lc, 
carc'n' fur lb' growiV things "n bringin' th' barvcsl. Eftcr 
ihat th* yaitli wor loircd, an* wor ainkirr to tilccp ^k^c;^in ; 
an^ tba usctcr sing biL^hicby songa 1' tha fields o tb' A'tum 
cvena. Buti'th' spring, tim want — tha fo'ak did&« blcc^'cd 
in th' au'd wa'ays— ^to every field in lo'n, n lifted a spud o' 
yartb fro" th' mools ; an' tha said stra'ange *n t|uare no'da, 
as tba cudn't RCi'arce unnerstan' iherselt : but ih' same as" d 
bin said for hiinnervU o' ye'ar*. An' ivery mornin" at lb' 
iir?it diiwii, tba «tood o' lb" doot-?^iI,^vi■5ah an' bre^id 1' thfr 
han'sj walchin" n wattJn' for tb' green '» roic fro th" 
fields St tunlil at th'yiirtli wor awake agc-in : an*lhMife wor 
comin' to th' trees an' the pla'anU, an' th' weds wor bu»ttn' 
wi' ih' beginning o' th' spring. 

Wad thcr wor wan fam'bly as "d done Abl that, year 
artcr year, fro^s long as they knowd of, jest '3 ther gran- 
'th«rE *d doro it afore un; an' wan winter c'n, ntgh cui a 
hunnerd r' ibutty year gone to now, tha wor makin' rentiy 
for wakin" the spring. Th' ad had a lot o" iroobJcthfuirth" 
winter, sickne*i"n what not 'd bin bad i" th' pla'ace ; an'th' 
dartrr. a rampin' young maid, wor grnw'd whoitc n wafflJn' 
loike a bay o' t>o3n4. uttad o' beln' th" purtit*t la« i" th' 
village a*i aM bin afore Day artcr da'ay a growcxl whiter 
'n »iUicr, lib a cudn't 5tan upo's feet more 'n a new bom 
babby. an'acud on'y lay at th* winder watcbin' an' watchin* 
tb' wirier crcp' awa'ay. An" " Oh mother." a'd kcp ^a'ayin* 
ower 'n owcr agin ; " ef a cud onV wake lb* spring with *ee 
affin. mebbc th' Greer Mist 'd mck ma strong 'n web. loikc 
th' trees an' th* flowers an* th' cxj'n i' th' fieldJ^"" 

An' tha mother 'd comfort her loikc. 'n promise 'at the'd 
coom wi' em agean to th' wakin", an' grow ** stronjj 'n 
Atraight s. iver But da*ay artcr da*ay a got whiter 'n 

262 Ltgtnds of the Lincolnsktrt Cars. 

wanner, till x looked, ma gran'th«r ntd, lQik« a 9now*fl&'akc 
UAxxC j' ih' Sim ; an* day artcr da'a/ Ih' w tnicr crcp by, an' 
til' wakin' o' th' .nprirc vror arrxut thccr. Th' pore maid 
watched 'n waited for th' toJmc fur goin' to th' fields ; but 
a 'd got v> weak 'n %ick 'at a kno\v^ a cudn't z^X ther wf 
tb' rast But a wudn't gi'n oop fur nhl that ; an' '« mother 
mira »ik«er 'at she 'd iifl lb' la&s to th' door-sit, at th' comin' 
o' the Green Mist, so '« a mowi toss oot th" bread "n salt o' 
tb' yanh her o'an scf ar' wi' her o*an pore thin hanV 

An' !it]11 Eh' d^'ayK u-iTnt t^, an' th' fncik iiix>r ^an* o' 
j-arly morns, to Jtfi llic spud i" ih' fttcln ; an' tli' comin" 
o' ih' Green Mi>t wor Inokit for tvcty dawning. 

Alt wan even th' lass, aa 'd bin layin'. u^i 's cync fixed 
o' th' lillle gy'atdcti said to ** mother: 

■ Eftha Green MUt don't come i' iha mom's dawnin'—a'il 
not can watt fur 't longer. Th' mooln Ln ca*a]lin*ma,an' tha 
seeds is brustin' as'll bloom ow^r ma hc'ad; a knov^'t wa'al, 
mother ^'n )-Jt, ifa cud on'y «ee th' vprini; wak« wantt aj^in 1 
— mother — a swccr a'd axe no more *n to live *s long s wan 
o' them cowilips aa coum ivrry year by t]i' Ra'atc, an' to 
die wi' th' fni;t or 'cm when iha summer 's la* 

The mother whislit iha maid in fear ; fur Iha bottle* \\ 
thrns^ as they b'Iccvcd tn wor allu* gAJrhand, an' cud 
hear owt a^ wor said. 1 hey wor nivcr sa'afc, niver aloan, 
tho pore fo'ak to than, wi' th' thiii^ as tha cudn't itcc, Vkt% 
cndn't he'ar,2llu3iroon 'cm. Hut ih' dawn o' th' ticx'da'ay 
browt th' Green Mist. A corned fro' th'mooh, an" happed 
a*er foon' ivcrythin', grccn * th' grass V *rtjmmcr sunUiine, 
'n wvi^-«mrllin '*; th' yarb^ o' th" ipring ; aif th" lass wor 
earned to rh' duor'Sil, wheera croom'icd th' bread "n salt on 
to th' y^rth wi' N o'an han'i an' sakJ tht- stra'ange au'd 
wo'da o' welcoming lo th' new sirring. An a kjokil to the 
ga'ate, wheer th' cow^lipa £r(>wcd, Ati' ihan wor tftok tia'ack 
to *s bed by th^ winder, when a &!ep loike a habby, an' 
dreamt o' summer an' flowcnt an' hiippincss, l^ur flther 
'twor Th' Green Miai as done it, a can't tcllee more 'n ma 
^Tan'iTier said, but fro' thzit da'ay a growod sitrongcr 'n 


L^gtntii of ti£ Lnuohshire Cars, 263 

prettier nor ivcr, an' by th' toimc th* cowslips wor buddrn' 
a ^^'o^ runnfn' :iboot, an' laughin' loikv ivcry !tunbc^ni i" th' 
jLi'd cottage. Bill ma gran'ther tould 's as a wor allu^ «o 
w>iite "n wan, while a lookit loike a wi!l-u-tl\'-wykc flittin' 
abnnf ; an' o Ih' rniilcl rfa"ay« a**l sit Rhakiti' nwxrr tli' foiTC, 
au" 'd louk iii^ih de'ad» but whdii lU" ?^«ii 'J cooai out, aVt 
da'anoc iW siog i' th* loight, 'n stretch ofil '^ arm^ to 't 'sif a 
on'y liv^d 1* th' wArmncs* o* t. An' by 'd by ih' cowslipi 
brust thcr hud*, an" coom i" flower, an' th" maid wor growcd 
aoetra'angc an' beautiful at they wor nigh feared on her 
— an' ivcry mornin' ad kneel by th" OQWslips 'n wattcr 
'r tcrd 'cm 'n cb'anccto 'cm ith'stinshinc, white ih" mother 
'd Ktan' bet;j;in' her to leave cni, 'n cried 'at «hed ha\M! "cm 
pu'd oop by th' raots *ii throwcd awc'ay. Butth'las^ 'deny 
loolc stra'ange at a, *n sa*ay — swft "n 1t>wloike -. 

"Ef ihce arc'nt liretl o' ma, moihL-r — iiivtrr pick wan n' 
them flawers ; they'll f;idc n'lhrrKcIN snon rmifT — ay, sonn 
friuiiir— ihou knort-s !" Ati" tha inoLhcr W y.Lj'a Kick hj th" 
cottage n greet ower th* »vo"k ; but a mvcrsaid nowt of her 
Irooblc to lb' nccbori — not till artcr'ds. But wan da'ay a 
lado' ih' village slopped at ih' ya'alc lo chat wi'cm, an" by- 
'r-by, whiles ;l wor tio^sipin' a picked a tow^^lip 'n pUi'aycd 
ViX 't IV lax» didn't sec what a'd done \ but ns he ^aid 
gocdbyc, a ?.cttl th' flower a* 'd Ta'allen to th' yarlh at 'a 
Yeet, ''Did thee pull that cowslip?" a «ijd — lookiii'Hra'angc 
•n white vA' wan han' laid ower her he'art, 

"Ay^ eaid he — 'n liflin" \ cop, a gin il In her cmilin' 
loike, 'n thinkin" what "n *a pretty man! it wor 

She lonkrd at th' flowct an' at ih' latl^ an' ahl roon' riboot 
her ; iit th' K^eeii trees, an' fh' ^piouifn' i;TiL>s, an' ih* y^lkr 
bio55omf ; an* oop at th' gowldcn ^hinin* nun iLscI'; an' ahL 
to wanat, shrinkin' 'i» If th' light a 'd loved no mooch wor 
brcnnin' her. a ran into th' hoot<c» wi'oot a spoken wo'd. on 'y 
a flo*t o* cry, loike a dumb beast i' pain, an" th' cowiilip 
catched clo«e af^in her brc'ast. 

An' then -b'leove it or not as'eewul) — a nlverspo'ak agtn, 
but Ift'ay on th' bed, «tajin a: Ih* Dower in 'shan' an^^fadin' 

364 LegtnHs of the Linc<>insAirc Cars, 

as 1: fAfted ahl thrufl* \h' dWiky. An' At tH' <ljiwnin' ther 
wor ony layin' o* lh' bed a wHnklod, whoft^. «hnink<m ckad 
thing, wi'iii 's hiin' a nhrivt^llcd cowslip; nn' tli' nn^thcr 
covE^cd 't owcr wi* tli* clo's an' ihowi o" ih' bcaullful joyful 
TUftid di'ancin* lofkc it bir<i i* xK ,*iun«h)nc by th' gowdcn 
noddin' blos^m^, ozCy th' da'ay go'an by. Th' bo^l^ '^ 
hccrd a an' a'd gi'o '1 wtfih ; a'd bloomed wi' th' cowslips an* 
ft'd fa'ded wi' th'fjr^t or 'cml and niAgran'thcrsaid ^ Wor 
ahl 's trcue '^ dc'ath \ 

A've hw^rd tell as Jiow tlia hogles an' bogtjarM wor iriAiit' 
tuid in tfiA aiJ*d toiinE^s^ but a can'l ri.-et]y s.tay as a ivcr 
Kcd ony o' i^n ma^el' ; not rcctly bogl&t. th«t b., bite a'll 
tell thcc 'bout Yallcfy Brown — efa woml a boggdit.a wor 
main near il, an" a knowed un masci'. So it5 a'al true — 
*trA'an^ an' Ituc a' leil thee. 

A wor workjn' on Iha High Farm to than, an' nobbut a 
lad o* tixtccn or mebbe aw teen years— an' ma milhcr an* 
roak» doolt down t>y tha pond yonner, at Iha far en' o' tha 
village, A had iha stable*; n such to ucc to, an' tha hosscs 
to hc'p wi', an" odd jobs to do, an" iha wo'k wor hazard, but 
tha pay gcxxl. A reckon a wor an idle «cAnip, fur [ cudn't 
abide ha'^rd wn'k, an a lookit forrard a'al tliaweek tn Sun* 
days, when ad wa'alk dnon hnamj an* not gn'a back till 
darklina. By tha green lane a cud get to tha fa'artii in a 
matter o' twenty minuter, but thcr used tev be a p*'ad "cross 
tha wc5t field yonncr, by tha J'idc o' tha spinney, an" on past 
tha fox cover an" so to tha ramper, an" a used tcr goa that 
aw-a'^y; twor loHRer for one thing, an" a worn't river in a 
hurry to gel ba'ack to tha woV, an' t wor stilf an" pleasant 
loikeo'*ummornoightfi,ooti' tha broad silcnc field s.midthii 
amelt o' tha growin' things, Fo'ak said as thaspinney wor 
ha'anled, an' fiir ^ure 3 ha* seed kU& u* fair^' stones ^n' rtngK 
an' rhat, 'long tla grass edge; but a nivei seed nojt i' tha 
way o" horrors an" bopgahs. let alone Yallciy Brown, a»a 

Leginth 0/ ike Lintdtnskire Cars. 265 

s^i'Aid arore. But thccr, a must git on f&'astcr. W&n Sun* 
day a wor wa'alkin' cross Iha west field, Wcr a. beauttrul 
July noighc, wa'arm an' U<U an' th' air wor full o' little 
sounds 'silioflftlia trees* "n gra** wor thattenn" to thcr-sel*. 
An a'al to Wfifist thcr catn 3t bit iibr;id n' mc the pFHfullest 
fircclin' s 'ivcr a hccrd. sob, snbbin', luikc a biim syivrtl i*i* 
fcar, an* nieh heart -bro'^kcn ; brcakin' aff into a moan an' 
thin rbin' ai^ean in a lonj^ n-himpcrin' wailin' 'at ma'ade ma 
feci aick nobbut to ha'ark to "t. A wor allu^ fon" o" babbies, 
too, an' a began to look ivcryu-hcew fur Ilia pore crcctur. 
'"MiinbeSally UratlonV.alhout to oiasel'; "atror alius a 

rtghty thing, an' mvcr looked arter th' brat Like "3 not, 
Ha'antin' bout tJi" launes, ar "* clean furgot iha babby," 
But ihoff a looked an' lookerd, a cud see nowL Na'aihlew 
tha Mibbln' WOT at ma very ear, so tired loike "n norrtjwriil 
that a kej/ cr>'iii' oot — '* Whisht, ban, whisi ? a'il tak thee 
h^'wck to tha iiiithtfT cf ihet^'lt my hush tha jjreetinV* 

But fur a'al ma Icokin' a' cud fin' no^L A kcckil unncr 
tha hedge by tha spinney side, an" a dumb owcr 't, an" a 
wjwt up an' doon by, an* mJd tha trccs^ an' throff tha long 
^raM an' weeds, but a on"y froightcd %ome slecpin' bjrd», an' 
sting'd ma own ha'and« wt tha nettles. A fa'ound nowt, 
an' a fair* f^uv' oop to la"ast ; *so a stood ihcr scra'atchin' ma 
hoc-ad an' clean bc't wi' "t a'al, ;in' presently tha wimperin' 
gat louder 'n stronger i' tha quietness, an' athout acud mak' 
oot wo'ds o' Jtome sa't, A barkened wi' a'al ma cun, an' 
tha sorry thing wor saayin* a'al mixed oop wf* sobbin'— 

" Ot 4)h ! tha stoan, tha great big stoan I 00b ! coh 1 tliA 
stoan on top !" 

NalralTy a wondered whocr thaatoan mowt be, An'alookh 
agear,an"thccr by tha hedge bottom wor ogrc'at Rat sto'an, 
njghbwicd j"tha moots, an' hid i' tha cotted ^rau an' weeds, 
Won o* they fitojint at; wer used to ca'all tha "* Strfingcra' 
Tables"'— what sa'ay— OhI all tell thee 'bout 'cm crter'dB, 
but tha Sira'angers (iha'at '% tha good fb'ak. %tc%t tha) 
da'anrrd no tm o' moonloight noighrs *n «) n n-or nivcr 
maddlcd wi", nat'rall)'; t is ill luck> thou knantVu i' cros^ tha 

366 Legends of tht Linc^htsktre Cars. 

TidJy People, Hawivcr, doon a fcH on ma knee-bfJu^i by- 
lh:i Sloan, an" harkened A^.in, Clearer nor !vrr, but Hrcdl 
ar>' liprnt wi' grt'etin' c;itn tha little: srihhin' voire— " Ooh! 
oohl tha stoan, tha stoan'on top." A wot jrcy^ar mi** 
loiktrn' to rnaddk wi' llu ihinj* Uui a cutliia %can' iha wtiira- 
pcrin' babby. ar* a tore loikc m<id at the stoiin, till a felt un 
Ijflin' fro' tha mools. an" a'al lo vi-ansi n cam wi' a itough, 
cot o' Iha damp yarth an' tha langS'd grass 'n gfowrin" 
thlngi^ An' thcr, i' tha hoai laay a tiddy thinj^ on *s ba*ad 
blinkrn'oop at tha mnonan'atmr Twr.irno'anhfggrT'n a 
yt'ar au'd bt-if, but a**l loiiy coUcd h^iir an' bt.';in3, IwintcJ 
mon' An' ronnS body W» a cudna A<rc*s clouts ; An' tha hah 
wcr a'al yallcr an' ^hniin' an' silky. L^kc a Uim'a ; l>ul ilia 
face o't wor au'd an' 'h if tVcr hunncrd^ o' years sin' *iwcr 
younc an* amooth. Just a hc'ap o' wrinkles, an' two bright 
blii'fick cynci'tha tnidt^et In alut o' .'''t^iTiin' yallcr hair ; an' 
tha skin wor tha colour o' tha fresh turned yorth i' Lha spring 
— brown 's brown cud be, an's baichan'fi an' feet wor brcwn 
loike the fa'acco'iin, Tha grcctin' *d stoppit but tha tears 
wor Ktannin' un's check, an" th;i tiddy thing lonkcd mailed 
loikc i' tha moonshine an' iha night air, A wor wciinerin' 
what a'd dn, hut by en by he scrammcIVd fMit o* rha hoal^ 
iin' Mudd Uiukin' 'Wrti un, an^ at ma-^cl', \W wor'nl uop 
lo ma knee, but a wor Iha querent crcctur a jvcr ad eyes on- 
IJnjwn an' yallcr a'al over ; yallci an' brown, as a towd tha 
afworc, an' wl'aich n a glint in 'scync, an' sich *nawcc£en'd 
fa'acc, 'at a felt feared on tin, fur a'al 's wor so tiddy 'w 


I ha creetur"* eync pot aotnc used loikc to tha moonloif^ht, 
an' presently a looVit oop i' ma fa'ace '* bould 'k iver wor. 
" Tom," liayt he, ''thou'it a good lad T' s cool 's tliou can 
lliink, say* he, " Tom, ihou'tc a gond lad !" an's voice wof 
stoft an' high an' pipin" loike a little bird twiiterin'. 

A touched ma hat, an' beg^m to thfnk what a'd oiightrr 
vsC^y 1 but a wcr ckmmcd wi* froight an' a cudn'l open ina 
fioU "Houlsrsays tha thing agean, *'Tha needn't be 
fcofcd o^ ine ; thouSt done inc a better to*n ncr lUa knowat. 

LegeHifs &f the Lin€*>lnskirt Cnrs^ 167 

ma lad, an* a'II <1d S much fur Ihcc" A cudn't spc^ifc yet, 
but a ihowt. " Lord ! fur auic *tu a bof^lc T' 

■*Noa!"says he *<; qmck *s quick, "a be no'on a b<^1c, 
but tba bent not ask ma wlial a be ; imnywitya a be a good 
fricrd o' thine" Ma very kncc-bocica stnjck, for urtainly 
an ord'ncr bod>' ciidn'i ha" fcnox^'d u-hai a'd been ihinkin' lo 
Hiasd', but he l(K)kf<l *;«? ktiirui Iciikc, un' sjioke -iwc fair, 
tha'-it a ma'ade bold to get oot, a bit quavery Mke — 

" M<3wt A be axiTi" tn km^w'ii ycx honour's ncamc ?" 

" irm," %a'ay* ^<^h i^ullin^ * bc^rJ, " as for tha'at"— «n' he 
thow't ii bit — ^" ay so/" he went on lo 1a*iut, " Yallcry IlKmn 
tha nmy it ca'al mc, Yallcry Brown ; t'ls ma naiur »ccil Iha, 
an' as for a ncAiric *t will do \ ivcll *3 ony other, Yallcry 
Brown, Tom, Yallery Brown '* thy friend, ma lad," 

" Th^tnkce^ rieaster," fta"ayw a, qtjite incek loikc. 

" All' tiow," he sa'ays, " a 'm in a hurry to noiKht, but tell 
mc quick, wha*aC *ll a do fur tha. Wilt hcv' x wife ? A can 
give tha iha ramplnl^i la^i i' tha toiin. Wilt be rich * A 'II 
give thee gonld '* much H-i ihon ran carry; orwilrhnvc 
he> wl' thy ii-o'k ? OnV say tha wo'd." 

A scTiKih'l ma hc'ad, " WHI, 's fur a wife. a hcv no han- 
kcrin' cftcr sich ; they're but bothersome: budira. an" a 
hcv wimmen fo'atc to hoam ai 11 men' ma clouts ; an' fur 
gou'd tha'ftt *3 as may be," fur. scest thou, a ihowt he wor 
ta'alkin' on'y ; an mebbc he cudna do 'd much \-t he sa'aid, 
"but for wo'k.thecr, 1 cayn^t abide wo'k, an' cf thou U jfive 
ma a hc'pin' hand in t a "U thank" — "Stop," ^a'aye he» 
quick B lightcnin\"a 11 hc'p tha "n welcome, but ef iver 
tha «a*ayiit tha^ai to ma — if ever Uia ifio'ank <na, vec^t iha? 
thou 'It nJL'cr 5CC ma more Min" that now ; a wa'ant no 
thn'ank*,a']l f^v riu tha'aiiksdu thahcHJ?" an" he ^Uoipt *5 
tlUdy foot on tha yarth an* looked '^ wicked 'a a ragin' 

■' Mill* tha'at now, grca'at lump 's tha be/ he n-c'cru on. 
ca'almin' d*jun n bit, " an* cf iver tha need 's he'p, or gels 
Into irooblc, call on ma an' ji*t sa'ay, *Va]lci> Rrowr, 
come iVo tha mools, a want Ihn!' an' a 11 be wi* Urn to 

368 Le^inds of ihe LincclHskire Cars. 

wnn^^t : an* now," says he, pickln' a dindelinn pufr«'g<xKl 
nuit^ht lo iha." an' he blowcd \i oop. an' it jt^al coom in ma 
cync an* cahi. Soon ':4 a cud wc af^cjin thit tiddy crcctur 
WOT (^'onc. an but fur tha ^tOAn cii en' an' thA ho'al at 
ma feet, a '<! a Ihowi a "d bin cJrcamin\ 

Well, a want ho'am ;in' to bed ; an' by tha mo*nin' a*d 
ntgh fur^Tot ahl aboot un, But when a went lo th' wok, 
thur wor riont^ to do ! ahl wor done a'resd)', th" hos*c* seen 
to, tli-i ^tables cleaned ooi, Iincrythln" in 's proper pla'ace, 
^T\' a 'd nowi to dubm sit wi' m^ han\ in ma pockrtt. An' 
?M) 't wcnl on da'ay Arler da'iiy. ahl tb' wo*k done by VxH»?ry 
Urown, 'n bctttf dcjiie, too, than a cud ha done t iii4i«r. 
An' cf iha mcastcr gj'r ma more wok. a sat doon by, an" 
iba wok done itsel', tha singin' ironn» or tha bciom. or 
what tiot, 'set XO. an' wi' ne'er a han' put to un' d pet thruff 
in no toime. l-'ur a niver 4ecd Yftllcry Brown o' da'ay- 
lilfbt ; on'y m th' da'arklms a ha seed un hoppin' aboot, 
loikc a wull-o-th'-wylte wioot 's lanthom. 

To fust, twor mighty fine fur ma ; a 'd nowt to 6o\ an' 
good pa';iy fur 'l ; but by-'n-by, thing* 'gun to go arsy< 
var»y, Ef iha wo*k wor done fur me'a,'tworwj7dore furlh' 
other lads : ef nia boockels wo» filled, t/uffrs wnr oopsct ; ef 
ma tools wor ttha'arped, ihccrs worbUiiitcjd '« Hp'iled ; rfww 
hossei* wor clean 's daisies, thttrs wor sp]a'a.sbed wi^ mooek, 
an' 5o on ; day in an'da'ay ootn *swof ^llu^the sc'ame. An* 
th' lads seed Vallcry Broiv-n flittin' aboot o' noighls, an' tha 
seed tha things wo'kin' wi'oot ban's o' da'ays, an* tha seed 
a5 ma wo'k wor done fur ma, tx\ theer^ Mwdonc fur them ; 
an' rafrally they 'gun to look shy on ma, an' th;i wudn't 
Speak orcoomnigh ma, an' tha carried ta 'ales toth'mcaater 
an' sn things want fro' bad to wusi 

Fn)', seest tha? a end do nothm' masel"; Iha brooms wud*fit 
vta'ay in ma liAn\th' plough ran awa'ay fro' ma, th' hoekcp' 
oot o' ma grip A'd Ihowt nfl a?' ad do ma o'an wok arler 
al^ W3** mebtjc Yallery Bro^^n "d leave me 'n ma nerbours 
alo'an. But a cudn't — treuc 's de'ath a cudn't. A cud on'y 
Mt by'n look on. 'r hev th' could shouthcr to'ricd nn ma, 

Le^nds of ike Limcinskirt Cars. 36g 

whflcK th' onrat'rat thing wor madrllin' wi' th' others, *ii 
wo'kin" fur me*a- 

To last, ihing* got so bad thai th" mca-^tcr gi'n ma Iha 
sack/ncrhchadn\adob"]ccvcasahl th" rcsl ti'ih' !ad*y 
a sacked him. iwx tha swore as thaM rol ^tU'ny on fln'amc 
garth wi' mca. Well, naturally a felt bad ; "iwor a main 
food p];L'ncc, at' tC<>od pa'ay too; an' a wor lair mnd wi' 
Yallcry Brown. as 'd ("ot maintosich 'n a irooblc. So eforc 
a knou-t a ^huk mu fist i'th*air an' called oot 'w lood 'nacud. 
" Vallcry Brown, coom fra tha mools ; tliou scamp, a want 
tha r 

Thou'll sca'arce bipcvc it. bur a *d 'ardlybning oot th" 
w<»'c1s iis a felt stithin' Iwcakin' ina leg tirhm\ wliilr ;i 
joomped wJ" th' smart o' "t ; and soon 's a looked doon, 
thccr wor th* tiddy thing, wi' 's ^inin* hatr, "n wrinkled 
fa'dcc, an' wicked glintin' black cync 

A wor in a line rage, an' d loiked to ha' kicked lin^ but 
'twor no'on gtJod, tJicrc w'ori*l cnuiT or un to git ina boot 
agin'; but a s^iid to-wanst. " Look here, mcastcr, ahl thank 
thee to leave ma alo'an artcr this, do5t hear? a want none 
o thy hc*p, an' all hcv nowt mere to do with «c — see now." 

Th' horrid thing brak oot wi' a screeehin' laugh, an' 
plnted *s brown finger at ma, " Ho, ho, Tom I" says a, 
"* Thou«t dia'aiiVed nic, na lad, an' a towld thee no% a towld 
thriT notr 

" A don't waul Ihy h<f'p, it tell Ihcv/a yelled at iir— *'a 
ony w^nt nivcr to src Ihce ageari, an' to ha' riowt more to 
du whh *ec — thou can go — " but a Vhon't icIL 'cc ahl a Mud, 
fur a wor fair ma'ad. 

Tha thint: on'y laught' 'n screeched 'n mocked, ':« long 's 
a went on swccrin*, but ao soon 's ma brc'ath gi'r oot, — 

'* Tom, ma lad," h« said wi' a grin. " all teirce ^umnat, 
Tom. True '* trc-Lc s'll nivcr he'p ihcc ag'ean, an' call 's 
ihoa will, thou'll nn-er see ma artcr to-da'ay ; but a nirer 
said 't a 'd leave thee alo'an, Tom, an' a niver wull, ma lad I 
A wor nice an" ca'afe unner th' *toUTi, Tom, an' cud do no 
ha'arm ; but thou let ma cwt thy-scl', an' thou can't put ma 

hack a^cnn ! A wutl ha bin ihy fricnj 'n wo'k fur*« pf ihou 
'<! a bin rtJsc ; but sin ihou bcc'st no more 'n a bom (bol 
al p^'^ '^ '1*^ more 'n 'a bom foors luck ; an' when M goes 
arsy-vftrsy. an ivcrylhin' a gcc— ihou'll mind &£ its Vallcry 
Brown's doin\ tholT mappcn thou didn't soc ua Ma'ark 
ma vvo'ds, wul! cc?" 

An he gan to ain^, dandn' roon' ma, loikc a barn wi" 'a 
yaller hair, but lookin* au'dcr nor ivcr \\jV "s grinnin' 
wrinkled bit o' a fa'acc : 

" \\o\ afl ihotj Willi 

ThntJ'll nlv*'? tin well ; 

H*o*k ns ihau irowi 

Thou'll nivcr gain owt; 
For hw™ an' mischance an* Yilleiy Brown 
Thou 'ft ki oot thy-sr^V fro" unncr ih* no'an." 

A ! a said thr/ vcrry wrt'd*, an' Ihp/ ha nnj^rd tn ma cars 
Jver SL»n«r, over *r) over agean, IfJike a bell tollin" fur iha 
burying an' facks, it ii>or \K buryin' o* ma Inck — Ait a nivcr 
M any scnc:& Hawivcr, th' imp ^tut^d thccr mockin* 'n 
grinin'at ma. an" choocklin' bike tb' au'd dc'U's o'an wicked 

An', man ! — a caa'l rcctly min' what he saJd ncx*. Twor 
ahl cun-iir* 'n callin' dncin' misfortin nn nrra ; but a wor so 
fna'a£cd in froight that a cud on'y stan' ihccf, j^hakin' all 
OwcT ma^ 'n stann' doon at th' horrid tiling ; an' a reckon 
cf he'd a ff^nc on long, a "d a tummek doon in a fit But 
by-'n-by, si yallcr shinin' hair — a can't abide yallcr hair 
scncc that — rii; cop in th'air. an' wrapt itsH roon'un, while 
a kH>kit fur itil \W worl loikc a ^raxi dandHion pulT; 'n a 
flo'atcd awa'ay on tli' win' owcr Uia wa'll 'n out o* sojght, wi' 
*i partin* skirl o 'a wkkctl voice *n snccrir' lau^. 

Alcll thcc.a wor nigh dc'od wi fcar,an'3cayn't sca'arccly 
tell how a ivcr i^ot hoam at all, but a did somehow, a 

Well, thnt'i all \ it'a not much of a la'ftlc, but it's M-uf, 
wGry wo'd u't, an' llKcr's others aside mca ai ha accd 

Lt^fftids of tfu LifuoimhitT Cars. 371 

Yflilerj' Brown an" know'd '3 c\it Iricka — an' did it come 
/rw^, 4ii>'at tha? Mawo'd! butitdid. -^m-c 'sdc'ath! Aha' 
wo'ked here an' thccr, an' to'ncd ma haii" lo this'n that, but 
U alius want agee. an' tia M Vallcry Brown's ddn\ The 
childer died, an' ray wife didn't — thou knows what siif be. 
Thou can hear her tongue a mile ofT; n a cud ha jipa'ared *rr 
^— ihii 1i(?Astv nivcr f;ittc!d,an'nutliir'cvrrdid wcllu'I'ma; a'ro 
gc>an au*d noo, an' a'11 mu*t en' ma da'ay* in th" Hncwe, a 
reckon, but lill ii'm dc'adan'huTie<I,»n' mafipcn even ancr'ds, 
thccrU be noW en lo Vallciy Brawn'a sjiitc at ma \ an'daA/ 
in an* d^'ay oot a hearun sa'ayin' whiles a sk here tcem'Hn' — 
"Wo'k av ihoLi wuU 

Tlioull nJvcr do ft-till; 

^V'o'kaB ihuu moflvt 

Thou'll TiwcT ^in owt ; 
Fiif harm an' mischance an" Yallcry Brown 
Thou'i Irt ot>t Ihy-sci' fn/ umr^r ih* %tci'nn," 

Ay. the Cars wor 4 fear^nmc ]>h'acc i' they d'l'ays if all 
Unlet be true. Twor afore my toime; but I hc%- liecrd 
mony a stm'angc thinp aboot nn as *d make ihy skin Cfccp 
to hafkcn to, A can't sa'ay if ihcy be all true ; but a 
wudn't loike to sa'ay at the/ bent A reckon thcer wor 
quarc thinf^ to than, an" tnappcn, fur alia knowrt, jest 's 
qu^rc aboot '^ to year ; ony wer ^Towed loo gtiin' to seen 
un. Anyways— s wudn't loike to do '& Long Tom PatttMin 
did, 'cai;ea mout come tu th'*a'ameen'. Ntvcrhccrd onun ? 
ooh, a'l can thee 'bout i^<ii^ an' a reckon i^afs a true ta'ale 

He w£>r i wild slip of a lad, alius in misdictf, nubody \\ 
an evil vfoW ngin un ; fur wi* all » tricki, a wor a decent 
lad, on'y too full o' 's fun, an' too wai^lc^hcAded to inin* 
i^'hal a wor doin' most toimc»> Well, tothar. as a ^aid 
afore, ihccx 'kot hc'aps o* la'ale^ eboot, of botx^rt:! 'n hom-om 
n sich, a cayn't tell thee rcctly what all ; fo'ak ^or gcyan 

372 Legends of the Limolnskire Cars. 

^kccTcd o' gruesome things an' *Lid nivcr goa oot o* nol^hta 
Eilo'ftn b>' thcrscU In ih' inn o" evens allth* mcn-fo'iLk 'ud 
wait, wan upon other, while the cud nil go ho'am to^ithcr ; 
an' even then, tKa misloikcd tha shadows an' tha da'ark 
corner -pla'aces. an' fingered thcr safekeeps all th' wa'ay 
ho'am,— What? — Oh, tha wor sort o' spells loikc ; nigh 
ivcry wan had suihin' to ke'p th'evil ihings off, an' ma 
father ha' tould ma on many «4i a 'd seed. Ay, an' a ha 
seed un masel', bits o' paper wi" varscs oot o' th' Ribk, 
crinkleil nup hi ^ nutshell ; ihue slraw^ 'n a clover Icaftietl 
wl a hair off of a dead man ; or mebbc the ctippins o* a 
dead wuminanS nails, ef a cud ^rct uiu That wor a rnam 
good safc-kccp, a ha' hccrcd sa'riy. But i" ma toimc, twor 
mostly Bible-^tpclls or varscs writ by a wise woman 'n 

Wal, Long 'J om ivor nigh th" onV man i* Ih' pla'acc as 'd 
niver & safc-kcep at all ; an' ivery wan said as he 'd rue t 
some da'ay an "s mother wor alius b^gm' an' prayin' un 
to carr>' wan wi' un as she 'd got fro' au'd Molly, lh« wise 
woman as dooji gainhun" to th" mill 

But he nn'y laughed, an' nivor a safe-keep would a hcv. 
An' o" noighu he 'd motk at th' men-fo'ak 'cawe lliey wor 
feared o' th' darklins, an' he *d mak* oot as he seed things 
i" tha black corners, so 's to set ihcm skccrcdcr nor ivcr. 

But wan nolght at th' inn th' mcn-bcxiics to'rcd on 
th' ladf an' satd as he wor main ready to get 'a fun oot o' 
them» but fur all that he woni't no'on better nor th' rest of 
'urn, when "t cum lo madtJlin' wi' ih' bogles, or crosain' th" 
cans to ^vens T tha darklins, Ar' tha silly Lad, as 'd 
mebbe took more bocr 'n he 'd onghter, fired oop, an" 
« wore as a feared nowt, seen or unseen, an' a 'd cross th' 
cars wl' nobbut a lanlhorn o' tlV da'arkest noight o' ih' 
year Theer wor nigh a row at ih' inn that noight, but to 
lait they ca'almcd thersclS doon a bit, an* 'twor sattlcd as 
Long Tom 'ud goa by tha pad 'cross tha Car' en', an' 
round by iha willow-snag on th' verry rex' noighl s tver 
wor; an' ef a rued \i, a nun gi'n oop Aoutin' at ither 

Lggmttx of Uic Lincolnskin Cars. 273 

fo'aks fur tf tlin' fe'ajiid V Ih' daVklina ; " Bcgov,* ^aid tli* 
9\\\y crcctur, " a'l not me from ma \vo"d, a promise 'ee; 
pack o* fools as / arc, what fur shu'd a cum to ha'arm i' th" 
C-irs, whceramungoiinigh ivery da'a/inmareg'lar wo'k?" 

All' i\ sjwk SCI IkhiU! an' cmny-lcjikc thai ^umc o' tli' 
youn^tci's '^'un lo think ^At mcbbc a wor rcct artcr s\\, 'n 
thit iha bogles wor no'on no bla'ack, '^ th' aa'aytn' is, '1 iha 
uor painted, llut th' au'd una know*d bcttcr'n that, an' 
ahuk Cher hc'ad^, an' withal 'at no ha'arm 'd cum o tJi' 
bo)""s folly ar' onbclicvin' wa'ayu. Well, ncx' d^'ay, they 
all Ihowt a?i lorn 'd rue *5 wtj'd Bcon'fl a'd thowt on it 
a bit ; but fur all that th' men an' lads met at th' comer o' 
th" green lane, agin the cottage wheer a doolt wi'a morlivr, 
cum the da'arklins. Whan they got thccr tha cud hc^ 
th;* u-uVl ivomun sobbin* an' sciildin" i' th' kitchi^n ; an they 
*gan to ivun'ncr If, arter all, th' lad ra'aly meant to cross 
lb' Car^ akj'an, An by*n by iha cliicir *Y)r fUn^nl oj»cri, 
'11 oot he E:ain* lau^bin' loike mac), an' pullin' awa'ay fio'a 
au'd mother, as wor tiyir' to put »uthin' in '9 pocket* an' 
grcctin* fit to break her heart 

" No'fl. mother, a tell tha," tha Ud wor sa'ayin', *' a'i hcv 
none o' tha spells 'n bobberies ; stop iha whimpcrin', will 
Ibo', A'll cum back »a'afc 'n »our* b>-c "n bye; don't 
tha be a fool loikc tha rest o' um, dosi hear/' An' a 
sna'atched tha la'anthorn fra th' au'd woman, an' runn'd aff 
a-auRhin' 11 flotuJn' th' laad^, t'ords the Car'cn', 

Tha men, w>me of un, tried t" tttop th' ta'«l. an' begged 
un not to goa, sccst tha P an* Willie Kirby sa'aid : " A'll 
rue ma wo'd* ef tlia clr/a-art rue thine ; an' iha can flout *s 
so jnuch as Uiec loiles, on'y Ma-ay by, 'n do'anl ^oa 
yonncr. TTia do'ant knaw what mowt "appcn lo tha"; 
but Tom on'y b'aughcd a^an, an* ^nappit 'a fin^crH I* 
Willy's fa'acc. •' Th<ii fur tha bo^^rt, an* thcc to'oa I" « 
cried, an' ni'an th' fo*a*(ler. So th' au'd fo'ak waffled ther 
heads an' went hoam hopin' Ttir th' best, but feclin' sore 
mischancy, Howivcr, stifnc o' tb' voungHters thought 
ahaame t' be feared^ secin' fts Tom recked nowt 0' 

VOL. It T 

*74 Legentb of the Lhu^mskirc Cars, 

Ih' horron, vi' R»cbbe a dozm o' ttcn fbilered im down ^ 
th' pft'«d *ft kd U> Ui' Can ; IkK tha wof oo >o sure o' thei^ fl 
•d*, an' WOT nk«f>' cnuflT wWcn tha ^'and th' squfshy ^ 
ya/lh wincf Jboi, an* caw iha glint o* tha lanthom 
tfa'alUn' 00 tha bla'ack wattw hcali, g;Unh4'>nd to th' 
pa'ad ; but on tha nmt, Lung To'^m ntfbbe thuty 
ya'ard* ahc^, «ijigi<i* on' whtatltn' 's IkhiM 'is cud be, an' ^ 
bdtoind. tlu la'atK kcqiin' clo'a«c t't:ithcf, but ^tin' lexft f 
Icafcii aa tha got furdcr 'n furdcr tnlu lh* C^n, wrooc ac«io' 
€>wt Q^ tha boglci 'n tha horrors. Havircr. ^ tha eoom 
nigh tha wiDa'-iinau. th" win" eoom oop tha \'alle>-.wi' a la'ang 
aou|£htn' moa-an™chill n da'airtp a cooro'd fro" lh' aca — 
wa'ailtn' 'k ir a earned vi't a'alil th* <*v-tl thirt'c ax dool T 
th' da'ar knc«4 an' tha thadow^L Oot ive'efii To'ana's U'an* 
Uiom. an' «Fcb'n a «keery 4o*on o' cbilJ cum fi.-V th' 
Kughfn' win", 'ar lh" la'ad flopt '« singin' 'n sto'nd ^toclc 
ittil) \vy tlL4 wrilLi-rma'Ag. Tha biiy^ alvjitid utir wu-<« nor 
hiin, tha (Uifc'nt goa b^'ack ^n' Iba dan^'nl goa Torra'd, tha 
cud on'y ^(tan* trcmlin' an' prayin' 'n holdiii' m\ to ifi«r 
sa'afe-kccpK i* th' da'arknc^ ;iii' waitm' fur suthin' t4 

An" than, tha things 'at To'am »'<>r so onbelccvin* 
about, tha'ay coomcd, tha\iy did— th' horrors ^' th' air, an* 
lh" horror* o" tV wattcrs, an" tha slimy, crcq>in' thJnf;^. 
ati' th'cryjn' wa'ailin' things — lil) tha noight, as 'd bin so 
quiet 'n still, wof full o' movln' shadows an' dim gi'rain' 
&'aceft vd' b]a'a;cin* eyne 'n wa'ailin' voices. 

An' closer 'n clnscr iha for>m roond La'anff To'am 
na a itUicitl wi k tn';ick ;i^i:n tha ^na'^g an 'v ha'sinds in 
'a ]>ocbets, iryin' to keep 's hcajl oopi Tha vtriy cJa'ark- 
nwsi nccmed aloivc wi' uu, an' th' nir wor thick wi' thcr 
wra'aQin'- Tha la'ads ahoind \xu. ^vor on thcr knec-boancs by 
nc'<nv, prayin' for dear loifc.stn' ca'allin' on tha «a'aint» an' lb' 
Vargin an' iha wise wimmcn to Hi'ave am \ but tha cud see 
aftTo'am ivor^ta'an'in'wi 'sba'ackagcn thcsna^aj:, an'secd 
"a whoite fa'acc an' ant:ry e>"ne thrufF tha throrgin' shadows 
atwccn «m. An' prcscni!y, tha sa'aid cftcr'rds, tha hccrd 

Lejtnds of tht Lincolnskire Cars. 275 

To'am shoutin' an' *wccr*i' as tha bU'ack things cum 
clo'ascr 'n clo'aser, so "« tha cud onV jjlimiwe tim nf>w an' 
tha*;in. an' iben's 's arms wor L^mwn oop sn' a 'pcar'd to 
be foighlin* an* stmoglin" wi tlia thitigs aboot um, an' 
bye: an' bye iha cud hear nobbut ih" *kirlin\ la'aflin\ 'n 
wa"ailjr\ an* moanh'o* 111" horrors, an' tliacud sccuobbucth' 
shiftin' bla"acknc*3o' tha crowd in" shapes (ill ti'al to wan^t 
tha da'arkncsi* opcn'd ont an' straight afore um Ihcy seed 
Lon™ IVam sta'anin' by th.i sna'ag, 's fa'acc "s whoitc *s 
de-;ith -^fi siarin' eyne, holdin" on wi wan ha'an to iha 
willa an' \v\ th' olhcr streich'd ooi an' di'afipd in a ha'an 
wi' oot a body, as pulkd un an' pulird un wi' a dreadful 
fi!rongnc<9 I'ords tha bla'ark hcijj hcytmt tli" pa'ad An' 
tha cud see "at iha Np-ht a» flicktrcd on Tom*^ Ta'acc 
corun Tro' iba Dead Han' itscl, wi lb* mltin" flesh droppin" 
olT tb» iiMiufdy bo'ana, an' lL*( drcfidful fingers grjppin' tight 
hoi' o" Tom's ban*, 'jcif tha wor growcd together. Strmtgcr 
'n stronger it pulled, 'an to lul tha litd pi'n cop '* hold, 
an' wor dr3ggc<! fro' tha snag an' off tha pad, an' nbrickin' 
wi' a great cry, lotke tncbbc a ttowl in hell, a wor swallcrcd 
oop r tha da'arltncsa. Efter that th' lads cud aca'arcc tell 
■what hapt wi cm. Th' horrtjrsi cutn roond urn, an' skirled 
an' flouted Vm ; but iha nivcr ha'cirmed tin 'case of their 
safe-keeps an' thcr prayers; but tha howled at wti» an' 
ploockcd at un, till tha port^ things wor clean tn&aed wi' 
froi({ht, an' sick ^*i" tha a'afulncs* o' it . An* a can*t ra'ly 
tell "ee wliai'n a wa'ay iha wor pot orit o* tlia ti^r'hle bng* ; 
aVc heerd Icl] as wan crccpit oop th' pad on \ ban's an' 
krtecbo'ans, an'anotlicr wor funMayln' in a wattrr-ho'al, 
an' flo, by 'n by, th' foak as'd coom doon fro' th' tuiii. ^t 
'cm abl oot : but tba lads wor ^ir oot o' thcr ivitA wi' fear, 
an' tha cudn'c tell what 'd coom o' Long Tom. Whenivcr 
tha fo'ak axed wliccr a niovvt be. tha 'gun to screech an* 
aob wi' terror, so tba cud get nuthin' oot o' Ih' critlern 
that notiKbt. but tha nex' da'ay, when they hcerd ahl 
aboot un, th' fo'ak went, natVally i' th" good sun loight, 
into ih' cars, an" tha sowi, an' *owt fur I-ong Tom, an' 's 

276 Legends of (be Lin^&lnsktre Cars^ 

poof au'd mother ca'a1k<l an' cried on 'on, an' sworo 'ai 
ciicLna live wi'oot her on'y iofl, her biibby, an* she 2 
widtlcr wornan. BiH ne'er a Ira'aceo' tha lad cud a fin'. 
Thft women luk ih* au'd mother ba'^tck to th' cottage, an' 
tried to comfort her 'n hush her greetfn'; but iha trcetur 
tore awd'ay Tjum mi, luikc a itiAi) thing. An'riii back Ld 
th" Car3,4n"gunca'sl1in' '11 ca'allin' on her^orijiu 'h&foi 
to cuni back tu 'a poor lone mother, 'n she a widow, O1 
n o^ver Agin a cried 'n wailed utcr a' son, an' tba cud Jq 
nowt to hush a'. So tha mun It'avc her a!o'an, fur tha 
cud Kn' tiowt o' tha Ud, an' as th' da'aya went on th' twai; 
want to ther u-o'k A^in, an' th' boyx as 'd fotlercd Tom Into 
th' rna'a^es crep aboot scared 'n whoite \\ Ircmlin'. ar' a*d. 
amosi think a*i iveiyihin' wor ill" i^a'Ame as "d bin afore. tmCj 
Tom W fiivrrcoiim !>ack. An'mjight anrrnoijjht thur Wi 
a lii ainf> fianV In th' winder o' th' cotiaj^e at ih' lane en' 
Av\ th" au'il imithcr iiiil thecr Wrticin' t>n her bo'oy, an" thj 
doof stud open fro' tha daxl<llji3 to tha dawnin'. An* ahl 
d^'A/ long, the «u'd wciman wao'cTcd aboot th' Cai 
ca'allin' an' ca'aUin' on her son to coom ba'&ck, coom bacl 
to 5' mother, 'n »he a widder I 

■Jha foak wor sort o' skeered on her. an' "d git oot o'l 
wa'ay to let her ^ by, fur a flitted abcot loike vran o' XYt\ 
bog thing* thersel's, a wor ao jjrey *n bent 'n wrfnkled '1 

So iha da'ay^ want on, &n' 'tnor m* seventh even 
Tom *d b\T\ (IfSk^tgged into ih' maVshe^ when all to wan^t 
jist iiftjte lb* da'aiklins, ih' fo'^k ^'antciin' by th' cd^ o' ih' 
Cars as a 'd took to doin'ninoc th' lad 'd bin lost* well, th' 
fo'ak hecrd a grc'ftt cry, '0 ^can n great ery» so full o' 
wunncr "n joy, 'at it wor sort o' (jmcdomc to ha'arken to *t 
An' u^ tha stood waitin' an' wonncrin' tha seed tlia au'd 
mother i«:urry«r along o' th' pad t ordi un, beckonin' "n 
wavin' loike mad. 'Twor a bit skeery* but iialh'cle^^, off 
tha w^ent after a, vo fa'aat aih ther bu'ans 'd tak urn, cmt 
Into th' ma'aiihe^ an' oop to th' willcr-snag. an' thecr, 
while tha ca'ht oop vri' a, »! Lonu Tom. vri 'stack a^tp 

Legentfs 0/ fht LtNcotmAifr- Cars, 277 

th* snog, an' 's feci t th' waiter ! Thccr a sat, wi" S mother 
grcclin* o^vcr un, iin* ki^sin" i\^ry bit o' un by lo'n* ; but 
m-1 faith! what "ii a cha'angcd cnccn^r a wot ! A*s bact< 
worbcnl, an' '» liinbs wor shakin* loiLic an iu'd gran'th^r, 
'« grt'at bU'azin' cync glared in *i; whoitc wrinkled fa'ac^, 
an' ** hair, a* "d bin no bra'oxm *n cf>1y, wor hangin' i' long 
wi^p5 o' whoitc "n gr*y Kcry ^a'ay^ lo waHRt. 

Wi" wan him', a kK\'^ jVinlin", p'inlm* Ht ^uthiii', an' starin* 
at suthm'f '* if a se^^tl iiowt else i an' whur th' uihtr han" *d 
cufihlcT bill, th* han' as 'd bin gnpt by th' dreadful Dead 
Fingers — ihcr wor robbut a race:cd bkcdtn' slumis— -th' 
lian' 'd bin pulled dc^n off! An" thccr a ?iat. gibbcriri:, 
gimm', an* grinnm" at th' horrors, as nobb^t hissclf cud 
sec ! Ah ! — an' none fver l;nowcd what a littt sec, or wtiat 
a *d seed ahl th' avvfull noights 'n da'aysa* "d doolt wf th" 
horrors, none ivcr knowed whecr a 'd bin, or what wa'ay a 
coom back, ntori^'n iha bleediiV slump cud tell um of a 
sircitogle an" a trwiggin' fur dear loife, wi' th* a-hful Haii\ 
fur Long Tom Pattison niver &po*ak a wo'd agin, after ^ 
wtjr fun" hy th* stiag, wI'k rnotht^r crntinin' an' fciiidliri* abtK^t 
ua Ahl di"ay Irjnj; -a\\ *]t V th" *uii, ur by th* fjirc, 
grinnin' an* gimin* ; an* ahl nolght tong, a 'd iv^n'ncr rooti 
th* edge o' th' Car.i, scrRcchin' an" moanin' lolkc a thing i' 
torment, wi' *3 porc aii'd mother foUcnn" loikcadogathccl, 
bcggin'an' prayin' no lo coom ho'ain, 'r 'if won 0' "a aw*d 
m^'atcs 'd ,stop lo look at un, 'a mother 'd sa'ay — pattin" th' 
hc'atl o' th" pore siily crcetur— " A said a'd coom hoarn, an' 
a did \ ma babby did acoom ho'am to 's mother, n she a 
widdcr woman !" 

Ay — that's ahl iheer wor of tt ; it'* nnt much of a story — 
but sccil iha, 't ahl coom rf 's onbelievln' ways, as Jed un 
into 'c to fusL U^h^l? Ni>a, a duln't live muic'n aboot 
a year mappcn, An' whan a wor dc'ad th' women took '3 
mother awa'ay, an* tried to kep' a fro' eittin' ba'ack to un ; 
but whf^n tha wart to put th' lad in 's coffin fur th* bur>in\ 
Ihecf t^he wor, itoock oop i" th' co'ner of th' bed, wf him i" 
bcr a'arma, nu^sin" tin ax d utcd to do whde a wor a tiddy 

278 Legends 0/ the LimolKskirc Cars. 

thing, :*i>' dc'ad— <le'ad — lolkc tha son npn' Iwr Wiirrs. Th« 

but o* ih' fa'&cc o' him, ah, thccr wor 'n tf4/iv/ look, 's if th' 
h<3rr(>r% "d fullered un an' fotl un fur thcr o'aa 

An' tba do tdl '9 Long Tom nivcr mtcd in 's pla'acc t* 
th' kirk^arth. an' that o' dark noights afore th' Can n'or 
dM.iincd, a want TTifianin* oop on' doon by Ih' cdjte o* 
bo^, wi" s au'd m'jther trailrn" efwr "m. an' i* th* mid o* 
shrickin' an' bobbin' fo'ak said a* iha cu'd hear iha au'd 
woman's vdIcc, whimpcHa' oot, as VI doiw so often I' irfe: 

" A ctjom back to 's mother, 'n she a widdcrT 

Tni: STKANGKas' Sii^^rk. 

A dcfisa'ay "s fo'ak ha' tdlt *ec hc'ap^ bout 'u tha bogks 
'n ahl o' they thinga i' th' ati'd toimw. A ha" hccrd 
Mra'artgc ta'alc^ ma«cL', from th" granlhcr 'n gran'mur ; but 
tha 'Kox main grewEomc loikc ta'alcs^ as a M*t ma ihakin* 
on'j- to Karkcn to when a tt^r a brat ; a loikcd better wl 
tha ta'alked o' th' Stra 'angers. Ha?in't ihou heord tdl on' 
ihrm ? Thst'^ oflsl, now. Thrcr wor hc'ap* on rm, to than ; 
ay, iwi' 4 U." iiill, a Icll 'ec — a'vc seed un no la'ater n — bul, 
thecr, thou 'W oiVy flout at ma. cf a tell "cc they aw'd ta'alci 
Wa'al — cf 'cc wull — mun ha' tiiy wa'ay ! Maids be fr 
tloua bodies when they're crossed — nigh so bad 's th'' 
Str&'an|Ecn» thcracl'e \ 

\\M\y moind, thouM no tcU th' «imn[Kn<tb'ah ; fur cf th^j 
thowt a» a b'lecvcd tl^ey ta'alc^i, tha 'd set th' pa'as^on 
'bout ma yearn to \sTinftt- Kf a do b"lec\'c 'cm raalj'? 
Ou — let that flea bide ! Mappcn th' pa'asson fo'ak bcn'nt 
so WW "% tha «ct oop to be'a ; an* *i'ud be ahk'ard 
artcT a boJy died, a fun'asth' an*d fo'sk 'd bin i' tli' roight' 
arter ahl \ Aiinyua'ays a k(>tn<I »' rvckon 'tis m-^1 to 
kc'p in wi' ba'ath — fce'bt tha? — an' sorto' b'lcc\-e nutliin' 
an' Evcrythin'— in a wa'ay, 

WwX 'bout tl/ Slra'anger*. Thou knows what ihey 
be — ay— thoa ** gc>-an ready wi' th* wo'dt but it bc'nt 

Legauis c/tke Umolttshire Cars. 279 

iflncy lo ca'&II *cm sach! Noa ; an" cf thou'd seed '4 
much on *cm a» u done, thou'd twist thy tongue into 'nothcr 
jfiha'apc, thog 'ould. Ko'ak i' tKe«c pu'arts, tha ca'allcd um 
mostl)' iha ■■ Sira'angcis"' : or ih' " tiddy people", "ca'se tha 
wor nunc so big "* ;i new-bom babby ; or th" " Greencoatics", 
fro' ther green jacket* ; or mcbbt^ th' " YarthVin". gcncc rfia 
duult r \\\' immK But miwtly th' Stra'aiijiiT-s a* a sxtri 
Afore: fur sira'angc iha be — i' looks *ii wa'ayi — atC quarc 
\ tJicr loikhy an" stra atiijcri T Ih' mid o' th' fo'ak— Hcv « 
seed an ? — Ay. thftt a hcv ; often 'n often, on' no later 'n 
lu-Ht .HpririE:. Tha be main tiddy critters, no morc'n » spun 
lioigh. wi' a*arm.i 'n Ic^ '^ thin 'a thread, but ^rc'at \xz feet 
'n han'ds, 'n he'ful^ rowilin' 'bout or thcr ihouthcrs. Tha 
wceni pra'afls-itreen JAckcti 'o breeches, 'n yaller booncta. 
fur ahl th' wo'ld loike lowdie-striols o" ther he'adi; ; 'n qu^re 
bit ia'aces, wi* long nosen, an' wide gobs, 'n great led 
tongues hangin' oot "n fap-Happinaboot. A niver heetd 
un !(p*akio' *» a c^n moinJ on ; but whan iha bc^ frjitcticfd 
wi' owl, Tha girn« 'n yc-'ps hiikc^ '\\ ^ngry hound, an' whan 
tha feulK (;a'iiy 'n croud Ic^rnc, iha twJllci'^ an' chec^iii \h 
soft an" fond 's th" liddy bi'ds. 

In ma yoong da'iiya, an' T ma ^ran'thcf's afore ma. tha 
Stra'AngcrH wor more aba'out \\ to now, an' fo'ak wor no'on 
so feared on 'un s thou'd ha' thcwt Tha wor mi^hccvioui 
fractious bodies ef tha wor cro^^cd, but so bc'a Um wor let 
alc'an tha dcitic no'on ha'arm nor inaddlcd wi'annybody; 
Till' cf fo'iik wor good to m^ tha tuvcr furgot it, an" tha'd do 
owt to hc'p vir \' s' to'n, 

O' summer nofghts tha da'arccd T tha moonshine o' th' 
great flat sto'atis^s thou sees abti "out ; ^do^ai^t I^naw'awhcer 
tha come fmm, hut ma gran'lher sairt 's how 'k gran'ther's 
i;ran*thcr 'd touM 'cnu 'at lon^ a^jonc th' fu ak set Cxxr. un tha 
slo'ans, 'n smeared uii wi' blood, an' thowt a deal more on 
'un than o' tli' pa'd!h»on bodies an' th' cho'ck 

An' o' wiiilcr evens tha Stra'angers 'd d*aarcc o' nifihts 
c' th' firc-plaacc.vrhan tha fo'ak wor to bed : an' tha crickets 
pla'aycd fur "nwi'roight good will, An' tha wor alius thccr. 

tfgK-wfs &f tbt: Lin(&imA!rt 


^OHfii u' co'n, 'it tum'lcd mi<l th' fttooblc, *o wffa««ied «i A" 
<jp|kliT ho'niln; an' i' Ih' ^uir^^ o' th' year tha vaat to 
tbu'ikin' 'w |tlncliiii' the trcc*b(idx tomak^'em oo^ o'pca; 
mi' twn<ibiiV llm fl<»wcf-t>i]<l?, 'n ch<Vi.«m' ih' buccertfeeCk 'i 
|4ii)|t1n' ill' n<<>'iii« not u' th* )'Arth ; allun pla'ayin* loOec 
ftujla, liul hiipfiy iiiiii:hccvEoii«^ bitcTcciur«, so loc^ '& tin 
wnr'nt crtM*riL Tliiju'd tm'y to ho'd qin't 'n kcp stiTI *s dc^joh 
Bji' flum'il iti^ti th' buiy UOJy tilings rimiui' 'ii (flA'^ym' aU 
riMiiiik lIuL 

FoAk thowt AM tha Slra'ang:Grs hc'pc<I th' cx>*n to npcn, mat 
Aht ill* ^K«ii llilni^n to f^ow'a; an' lu tha p'intcd th* pwt^ 
coloLir^ ti' XW iV-wci^. nn' ih' rwl* *n bra'ou-nii o' ih' fruit i* 
VAliim' An' \\\ ynllerfn* Icavoi. An' t)ia thowt 's how;ef tba 
wor frAtclicil.lh' (K1n^« 'd dwinc an' \\idder an' th'har»t*cl 
rAfl, an' tb' fii'iK i{^t haii|;cr^. So tha diJ &bt'« tha end 
think on' to iiWaic tli' litlrfy peupic, an' kcjp" frwjnd* tri' 
Uii- r lb' n/flrtlun-i ih' (list flowers, 'n ch* firn fruit, 'n ih' 
f\x%\ C4ibt>iij;r, or wiitU ixil, 'd he ttxjk to th' ni^hcst Aat 
»tij'an. 'n laltl ihccr fur tha StiVanj-cis ; i' tli' iicld^ th* fitft 
ycnmi tj' I'o'n, ur III' funl tuicr^, wor guv to th' tMJy poij|ilc< ; 
an' l» luVaiin fti^orc th^ 'kuti to y'cAt their viltlc?^. & bit o* 
brc*ad 'w a <lroji o' milk or beer, wor spilled o" th' ftrc piacc» 
to kcp" th' nrciMic£«Hlc* fro' hunifcr 'o thuSt But 'a to«me 
went on tU' foak ){rowcd io't o' carclc^n, 'i ha want mappcn 
more to tti' chu'di an' thowt ks3 on th' Stra^n^cn, an' th* 
AU*d wa'ay* o' ther fa'alhcrs ^fon^ mi ; tha fur^ot tb' ati'd 
tValcA AH 'd bill tuwld cm by tt^ur t;ran't)icrs ; or inebbe iha 
ttiosvt tha ttor got »o wl*c ft*; tha knowcd belter nor ahl th' 
To'ak o' da'ayN gone by. ArnywA>'s, an' liaviiver 't eoom, 
tlV flat sto'iins o' th' Stra'angcTs ivor bare, an" th' fustlba o' 
th' yarlh wor krp' Ui'ack, an' ih' vhllea ivor swalluucd, wi' 
nc'rr a critmb fur th* liic pU'<Kc ; an' th* tidily jicople wor 
IcFl lo \iK\\c aricr Clicr^iirr? an' tu hunj^c^r 'n ihn'-it a% tha 

A reckon tha Stm'anger^ cudn't mak' 't cot to fu'sL 
Mebbc thu u'.dked il owcr 'rnanjf ihumcl ^, a cayn*i j^'ay ; 



Legends 9/ th€ Limolnshirc Cars. 2&% 

hawivcr fur lorrc toamc tha kci>' 5ti)l, nw" nivcr showed "s 
iha wor fratchcd wi' tb' fo'aks onfrJcndly iv^'ay^. Mappoii 
to fufit thu cudn't b'le»7vc ah th' people 'd to'n corclcjLs on Ui' 
yaxthkiii' as 'd bin (;ood neebnn; to *m iiuncc 1or;^r 'n a can 
toll cc ; bitl *s tojmc want on iha cudit't hc"p ta'akin' il fur 
treue, fur th" fo'atc got whm; *n wuntcr iver}* da'-iy. Ay> 
an' iha iLk iha vcr>' stc'ans o' th' Stra'angers fro' iK fields 
ar* ill' ]a';iii« %\t\c%, ar' thrung 'cm awa'ay. 

So 't want on. an' th" yorwigsters ^ruwcd oop to men 'n 
wimmcn, an' KcaVcc hcctd trfl on ih' tiddy people a* "d 
bin so rncndly-lolkc wi' ilici forbcdi*, Aji' lb* duM fo'ak M 
nieh fur^t iihl aboot 'cui But ih* Stra'angcrs had'nt 
furgot — noa I tha minijcd wa'&l. tha did, an' Uia wcjr nobbut 
waitin' fur a j^ocd cha'ancc to pny b^'ack ihc fo'«k fur thcr 
mismanncffi. An' lo lasi "t coom. Trtor slow— jist aa ih' 
To'ak 'd bin slow I' furfietlm' iber wa'ayji wi' lb* tiddy people ; 
but 'twor turc— 'tiA'or sure *s hell-fire. Soomer aner Soomer 
th' 1i:ir'Kt f^'ailedr an' th' i^rcen things dwined, an' lb' bea:(U 
took sfck ; Soomer arier Soomef the crops ccom to nowi, 
an' ih' favcr growtd ivut*, 'n lb' childer (leaked 'n died, 'n 
wcTylhiiT iha put tber lian'i lo want wrong n' arsy-varsy. 
Socnncr aitcr S^^omcr *Lwor, till th' fo'^k ki^t heart, *]i ^tcaJ 
o* iivo'kin r th' fields a sat o" th" doorsil', or by ill* foire^ "r 
waited fur th* cootnin' u* better loock. Hut nivcr a sotght 
o' hotter loock coom by ; on' tha vJttlcs got sca'arcc, on' th" 
cUiUler t;fal wi' hunger, an' th' babbies pnicd awa'ay. An' 
whan th" fa'nthcr* looked to th' wimmhi fo'ak, wi' Iher dead 
babbii^* at ihcr brcAsU, n iher hungered cyne lo'ned fro' th' 
sickly bratft a»i grat fur bread, what end tha do but drink 
till tha wor jolly 'n thcr tr^ioblcs furgoc till nox' da'ay? 
/\t\' by "u by snmc n' ih* wirnrnrn trjok to ih' sa'amc sot o' 
comfort, an' th' othem tcjok lo catiii' therse1';i atuojiid wi' 
oji'um, 'soft's tha cud get it, an' tha childer died th' fa'AMcr, 
an' alil wor m> tcr'ble 'at th' fo'ak ihout a:i 'iwtjr Uiu j<jud^c- 
mcnl an" Ui' bcginnin' o" hell 'iscT. 

Hut wan d.Vay th" women met together an' tha did 
th' drcffLil ihinij'a 'ji tha nivcr spc'jik on. wn' wi' th' foirc "n 

382 Legends of the Lin<cinskir^ Cars^ 

tW blood tlia fund oot Ih' rwts o't An" th;i want thnifl" 
ih' tA'nun% itr' thruff th' garths i>Ti* intn iW inn^, 'n o<^ 
']i (]auu]i ill* U'and>, *ii l!id ta'iilik'J uot ici lli' fa'iik lo u\vX 
"cm th" ncx' even ctx^rm dA'arklinii, An th' fo'ak wunncrd 
an' scratched thcr IicWs, but th' rex* iittTht. tha coom Ahl 
to th* mcctin'-pla'acc by th' crossroads to j-car th' wise- 

An' thn tdlt un ahl aia 'd Tund oot ; \\\v, tcllt cm aft' th' 
Stra'anj;crs wor wo'kin agin 'cm, mftddlin' wi' i^erythin'; 
wi' th' cropA ;tn' Iba bcast«, an' tha babes 'n th' chJIdor; 
an' at thcr on'y cha*ancc, wor to mal< "t oop vri* th* liddy 
|woplc- An' tha idlt un, how ther forbear* "d it»cd tcr 
kcp friendly \nl\h Stra'angers ; an' how tha gi'n 'em ih' 
fustlings o'aM— i Ml' fields an' th' gyardciis, "n th* vittlei. 
jin' hnw by'n by tha gi'n oo^j ah! u" that sn'l, V fair In'nrd 
tlici b.Vacks o* th' grccncoaties. An th^ tclh cm ai ih* 
tiddy pcciplc d bin main pa'aticnt 'n 'd w;a'aitcd 'n wa'aitcd 
fur long, to MC cr tha fo'ak 'd coom bnck to 'm ; an' how 
to U-it, ih' toimc d coom to pa'ay 'm ba'aek, an' th' tmoblc 
an' th' bad loimc^ d coom as tha knowcd wa'al. An' tt«t 
oricd on ivery man as 'd seed 's bea^t» dwtnm' aW ahl as n 
put han' to ^oan arsy-varsy; an' to ivery woman as 'd 
hccfd ih' brats grtx'i fur brc'ad 'n had none to gi' un, an' 
as 'd buried ih' liulc weakly wans fro 's arm^i, lo tak" oop 
wi* th' an'd wa'ays, 'n th' an*d ta'ales, 'n mak" friends 
jigc'an wi th' tiddy |>ei>plc "n gil th" ill cha'ancc look olT of 
'cm ; an' by "n by th' men wor gnppin' Jmn's 'ptin t\ an Ih' 
wimmcn wor jjrctTlin' as tha tliowlon th'dcad Uibbies'n th' 
huL%ei\l diildcr — an' tha ahl Wfinl ho'am to do thcr b»L 
to put th' wrong rcct. 

VVa'all— a caynl till 'cc 't ahl, but a.V th' cum o' IV 
Stra'angcra cooin, so \ ging; slowly, slowly th' mischance 
wor bettered. Tha tiddy people wor fraiehcd, an* "twom't 
wan da 'ay ncr yit wan Soomer aa 'd win ba'ack th" and 
toimcs. But th' fusihns wor laid "pon th' Sloans, whecr- 
ivcr iha cud be fund ; an' th' brc'ad an' th' drink wor spillt 
o' th' bearth-£idc as afore tolme, an' th' au'd fo'ak teH't th' 

Legends of the Lincolnshire Cars. 283 

childer ahl th' au'd ta'ales, an tow't 'em to b'leeeve 'em an' 
to think a deal on th' bogles an' bc^garts 'n th* green 
co'ated Stra'angers, An' slowly, slowly, tha tiddy people 
gi'n oop ther Fractiousness, an" tha took oop agean wi' th' 
fo'ak, 'n took off th' mischance as 'd laid on 'em; an' 
slowly^ slowly, th' har'sts bettered an' th' be'asts fatted, an' 
th' childer he'd oop ther he'ads, but t'worn't natheless ahl 's 
it us'tcr bin. Tha men 'd took to th' gin an' th' wimmen to 
th* op'um ; tha favcrs shuk 'em allers> an' th' brats wor yaller 
'n [Ugrowed, an' ihoff th' toimes bettered, an' th' fo'ak thruv^ 
an' th' Stra'angers wor no'on onfriendly, still t'worn't none so 
ga'ay 's afore th'evil da'ays, whan tha hadn't knowd what 
'twor to hunger 'n thu'st, an' afore th' kirkgarth wor so full 
wi' th* tiddy graves, an' th' cradles to ho'am so teem 's to 
than. Ah! 'n ahl that coom o' to'nin' fro' th' au'd wa'ays, 
an' a reckon 't's best to kep to 'm, lest mischance 'd be sent 
i' pa'ayment fur mismanners. 

M. C. Balfour. 


THE followmg paptr exhausts no port of the mbjcct: 
it simply embodies the fiubalancc of my notes of 
conver«Ations which I h^vc had u'iiU M;inx man and Manx 
vvomrn, whose name*, together with mich oihcr particuUrs 
a& I conid get, ^rc- in my poaacssion. I Itavi; jvut^wvely 
itvoidc^d Eradiii^ ujj ific subject in iirtnlnT hiHtk> ; hut thnsc 
vtho \\\jA\ to 5Cl; it cxhaualivcly UcJilcd may be Oiicctcd tu 
Mr Arthur W, M<iorcs bix>fc en The Fotk-kn of tht Islt 
of Mail, which has just hccn published by Mr Nult, 

For tlic !(tud4:nt of folk-lprc the Lilc of Mar i^ very 
fairly stocked whh inh^ibitaiita of the imagiimr/ order, 
bKclin,-- her fairies ard her gjant?, her mermen and brownies* 
her kclpicii and ^^Ater^bullfi. 

The ^v;Lle^-bull or /^r/w us/iuy^ ai he Is called m M^nx* 
is a creature about which [ have not been <iUc to lorn 
much, but he? i« tlocribcd :k>i a lort uf bull who dUportS 
lumseif ^Uitit the i^oU and AWAmpf^. Kor instance. [ waa 
told at the village of AndrcA^, In lite f^At c<>urtr>- forming 
the noilhcin end of the island and kro^n as the Ayrc, 
that there L^ed to be a tanvo u^hUy between Andreas and 
the ^a to the wc^t : that w'os before the ground had been 
drained as W is now. Ai^d an octucenari^n captain at I'ccl 
related tcJ nie how he h;:td once when a boy heard a farrt?a 
nslii^: the bcilowingfi of the brute made the i^rouod 
ti'umbJc, but otlitrrwixe the captain vas unable to give mc 
;iiiy very inteillgible description. This bull is by no mcarts 
t\i ttte Hame brtvd ui the bull th^ come* from Wealth 
laKo tu mix with ilir farmer's cattle, for in Wale?* the 
reauU i» I'rcat fertility dLiKJEtj; tl^c atock aud an ovcr^w of 

Manx Fo!k'-hr€ and Supifstiiions. 2S5 

inilk iXwX <l;iiiy |)nKltic<!, bul in llic bic of Man the tarrw 
Hshtty ^xdy begets tnor^tci's and strangely formed beajtt^ 
The kclpic, or. rather, what I lake to be ft kelpie, wiu 
IJcd by my informAnU 9^ ^mhtytt-^ uud Kdly, in his Manx 
UtsGHixry^ describes the object mesnt as '*a goblin, an 
Tmafjinary animal which rises out of the water". One or 
tvfo of my informants confused the glasht)Ti witb the 
Manx brownie. On the other hand, one of ihem was %*ry 
definite in hi4 belief thai it had nothing hnnnan »boiit it, 
but was a sort cif grcy cult, frequeiuinft ilic banks of Lakes 
at ni^^ht, and never seen except ftt night. 

Mermen and incnnfLidK disport them%etvc?« on the eoastJs 
of Man, but ] have to confess that I havx: made nu cajcfut 
inquiry into what is related about them ; and my inform- 
;tllon about the giants of the island is equally scanty. To 
tell you the truth, I do not rccolieet hearing of more than 
one giant, but that U'as a giant; for 1 have seen the marks 
of his huge hands impressed on the top of two massive 
monoliths* They stanJ in a field at Italia Kecill PhcTtck^ 
on iho way down from the Sloe to Colby. I was told 
th«rc were uriginally ftve of ihEtsir sttunc^ standing tn a 
eirelc, all of them marked in the .*iumc way by the same 
gi'anl a» he hurled them down there from where he stood, 
mtlet uway on the top of the mountain calkd Cronk y\\ 
Irrec Laa. Here I may mention that the Manx word for 
a giant \s. f&ntur^ in which a vowel-danked 'w hA% been 
spirited away, as shown by the modern Irish spelling, 
fimJtor, Thi-v in thi^plara] in okl Irish, ap|i(-<ars astbe iiAmr! 
of the Fffinoru so well known in Irish legend, which, how- 
ever, docs not always represent ihcni as ^ianla, but rather 
as monsters. ] have been in the habit of explaining the 
word as meaning jAr^wrf^/«/; but no more arc they invariably 
connected with the sea. So another etj'mology rceommends 
itself, namely) one which makes the fft^r in /i>mch to be of 
the name origin at the marc in the English nightjiw^f^, 
French caucheiwtfr, G«rman rnakr^ 'an cir, and cognate 
wordv. Thi% sogge^lion comes from Dr Whitley StokciL 

s86 Manx Folklore and Superstitions. 

The M;inv brmvnle fs caflcil the Ftnodyrtt, and he is 
described sis a bairj'»c!iim*y rdlriur, who would, for JnstuKC^ 
thriuli H whole barnful of com In a single n^ht for ihr 
pcoj>lc to whom he Tclt well disposed ; and onoc on a time 
he ur<lcrtciuk to brinf down for the farmer bb wethers 
frotn Sii;cfc:ll When the l''cno<iyrcc had safely put Ihcm 
in ftr> outhouse, he K;Ltd that he ^ome trouble n ith the 
little ram, as it had run three times round Snidell that 
morring. The farmer did not quilc undervtand him, but oa 
({oiiig to look at the sheep, he found, to his inffnite siupmc; 
tli«it the little rniTi w»h no other thai^ ^ harc, whkh, poor 
crcatvrr. \%'jls dying of fright ^nd fatigue, I need scarcely 
point uut the aimiUrity between thi» and the atofy of 
Pcrcdur, who, as a boy, drove home a doc with hi* moUier'jt 
lEOftt^i from !hc forest : he o^^Ticd, as you will remember, 
to hovinf; hnd i^ome trouble with the goat that so long 
run wild as to have lo^t her horns, a circum;:tance whieb 
had greatly imprcwcd him." To return ta the l-enodyroc, I 
tm not lure that there were more thnn one in Man ; but two 
localities at lenst are assigred to hlnn.namoly^a farm called 
Ballacbrinlc, in Colhy, in the ^oulh. And a farm called Lan- 
jaghan fn the parish of Conchan, near Douglas. Much the 
name Htorienjinwevcr, appear to hecTirrcnl ahniil him in th« 
two places, and one of the most curioUsSof iheiii Is f hat whtcb 
rctatcs how he left. The fanner so valued the ^^^vices of 
the Fcnodyrcc, that one day he look it into his head to 
provide clolhini; for him. The Fcnodyrce examined each 
article carefully, and cxprc-wcd his idea of it. ai^d specified 
the kind of disease it was calculated to produce. In a 
word, he found that llie clothes would m;Lke head and foot 
«ick. and he departed In <ii«gu»;t, saying to the farmer, 
"Though thi* place i« ihine^ ihe ^reat Gleti of Rudien ii 
not" Glen Rushcn Is one of the most retired glens in the 
island, and it drain.>fc dowji thmiigh Glcn Mray to the coast, 

' For the \r.x\ see ihc Oxforil rdHion of the MnhiHtigi/iKt pp^ )93-4, 
and for ccmpari sons of the incident $cc Nail'^ JlcJy Cmi/, p^ 154 
ffjfq.; arid Hhy^' Ar//iurjtiJi Ztj^ritjf, pp 7^-6, 

Manx Foik-i(tre and SttftrrsiritMS. 2S7 

some milc3 to the south of Peel ll h to Glcn Riuhcn. 
thtw. that the Fonixlyrcc iti Auppoficd to be ^one \ but 011 
visiting thM valley la^tt year in qiiCRt of Minx speaking 
peasants^ ' could And nobody there who knew anythinf^of 
hlra [ ^ici^pect th;tt the spread of the Kngh'^h Ungiugc 
rvcn there ha** forced him to leave the Uland altogether 
LjtHtly, with tt^garH to the tifrm FftiOffyr^f, I may rnenluir 
tlirTt it U the word used in the Manx lUblc of rSrg for 
sni^'t in Lv xxxiv, 14,^ where we (cad in the English Rtblc 
as follows : " The wild be^ts of the desert shall also meet 
wilh the w^ld bca^ti of the i:d:ind, and Ihc ?rntyr r^hall cry 
to \WA fellow." In the VuIk^ic the latter clause road* : " cl 
piloaus cUmabil alter ad altcrum." The term Fm(>^yni 
bus beer) explained by Crcgcen in his Mftnx Dirfwftat-j^ To 
ncirn one who ha*; hair for siockinj^^i or hu^tf That sinssvt'Ts 
to the description of ilie hairy satyr, and seems fairly well 
to *cati>ify the phonelics of ihe c;i!^e, ihp ivorfk fmm which 
he (JeHve* the coiniJound being fynntj? * huir', and tituJtyr, 
'a stocking*; but as eashyr .<«ccfnK to come from the old 
Nor^ic h<>sur. the phiral of hoia. ' Jtiru or stocking', tl>c term 
Ffmf'^yrf£ cannot dale before the corning of the Norsemen ; 
and 1 am inclined to think the idea more Teutonic than 
Celtic ; at anyratc I reed not point ont lo you the English 
counterparts of this hairy ntyr in the hobgoblin," Lot> lie 
by the Fire", and Milton** Lubber Fiend, whom he describe* 
a!£ ore that 

*' Basks ai ilie fia" his hairy sirmgLh, 

And crop-full ottt of doon he flin||i^ 

Ere the first coct his maitn rings.' 

' The apcUtng ihere iiwd ii pkynnotiti/rrf, to the pervtreiiy of 
which Crc^cn ao-IU ancmion tn hi& DkU'm^rf. 

• 1 am inclined 10 Jhink thrit thr tel pare nf vlie w«fd fyn&ityrtf Ic 
n<A /jtnnry^ tlie Manx word ior 'halK, but the Scandinavian word 
wbic^ *iiivivc* in ihe Swedish /Tuji, -dot^n'. Thus /rKn-AftTar (for 

except ill 6nal <~f» wlikh ib obidiic. Coinp^c nlio ihc ma|;ic biTtcki 
z^WrrA /irtn-^nrJir (^o \ iftlonon'i Diz^ \. v. /ijntrj^ lo ivhich Mr^ 
Ftumivici kindly C'llU my AUcntian. 

z8S Manx Folk-hrt and SnpcrstUzons. 

The fftirjc^ claim our attention next, and u the only 
other fairicB tolerably well knonn to mc atc tliofir of 
Wales. I can only compare, or ccntr^LM, the Manx faTncs 
wiih the WcUh ones. Tlicy arc CAlkd in Manx, SUih 
^fi^Xi Of Liltlc People, find /'^ns/ryn, from the MnglUh 
word /atn^J, fl* it would iQcm. Like the Welsh f^iincA, 
they kidnap babies; and 1 hav« he;ird it related how a 
woman in Dalby had a ilrupgle with the faiiks over h«r 
baby^ which Ihcy were trying to drag out of the bed from 
her. Like Welsh fairies, al§o, they late posse^iion of the 
hniirlh afirr iht finriticf ard his family an^ gime to lird. A 
f^vnicr in Ddlby iij^ed to hear ihem makinj; a big fire In 
his kitchen ; he nscd to hear tie ctaelding and bumiitc of 
the fiic when nobody else iimJd have been there cxcc(;l 
the fajric* and their rrictids. 1 said "friends", for they 
sometimes l&kc a man with tl'icir, and allow him 1o cat 
with them at the e?cpen4« of others. Thus, some men 
from the parish, Kirk Hride, went once on a 
time to Pott Erin, in the South, to buy a supply of fish for 
the winter, and with them went ^ Kirk Michael man who 
had the reputation of being a fa-sona gvafa w^th the 
fntriet. Now one of ihr Port Erin men asked a man fiom 
the North who thcr Mtch^iel man mi^ht he : h^ wa> curious 
to know hjs name, a*^ he had seen him once before, and then 
the Michael maci wa:t with the fairies at his house— the 
PoTt Erin moil's house— ic£aling himself %ilh bread and 
cheese in company with the fairies. 

Like Welsh faitics. the Marx ones lake men away with 
them and detain them for years. Thus a Kirk Andreas 
man was absent from his people for four yc.irs, which he 
Spent with the fairies. He could not tell how he retLrned, 
but [t seemed as if, having been unconscious, he woke up 
at last in ihis world. The other world, however, in which he 
wnsfor the four year* wa.* riot far anay, nshp could see what 
hi^ hrollu-r.i and the rest of the family were doing evety 
day. altJiough they could not see hini. To prove this, he 
incntione^l to them how they were occupied on such and such 

Manx Foik^iort and SupcrseittOfts, 


ILd^y, and, amonjj other things, Tinw they took their com 
on a parltCLilar d^y ro Kam^^y. H<^ rurnindeO iht^m alio 
of their hnvinj; heard a Snitilclen ^h^qi crack a« the/ uerc 
piissin^ by a ihoni-busb he n£tncd, aifil lunv ibcy were so 
st;^rtl[n! thill uii*- nf tlicm wduld have- run haiM lK'm<\ He 
asktrd thetn if ihcy rciiictnbcicd Uiai, and they ^^aid they 
did, only tco wcil. lie tlicn explained to them the mc^in- 
ingof the noise, ranicly, thai oncof ti)c faiiics with ^hom 
he had been galloping jibout the whole time 'ik'Sin about to 
let fly an arrow at liis brother&, but that as he was ^oin^ 
to do thiti, hc(the nii.s-tin}; brother} raided a plate and inrer- 
ccptcd ihc arrow ; that was the sharp noi^c ihcy had hc:pird. 
Such was the account lie had to give of hU *ojoum in 
Faery. Thi« representation of the world of the fairie^t, a* 
coiuained within the ordinary world of mortals, is very 
remarkable ; but it is not a new idea, as wc ficem to detect 
tl inthc Irish Mory of Ihc al^tluclion of Conla Rt^ad*: tl«r 
fairy >vho cuinc?^ tu fetch hiiii tells him thai the Folk of 
Tclhra, whom *hc rcprc^cnt^. behold him every day « he 
takes part m the assemblies of hi:» counlrj' and ails among 
hi* friend*. The commoner way of putting it is ,-^imply to 
represent Ihe fairies as invisible to mortal^i at will \ find 
ore kind of Welsh (tor/ relates how the mortal midlife 
accidentally touches her eyes, while drewing a fairy baby, 
with an ointment which makc« the fairy world ri»it>le 
to her. 

Like WcUh fairtc^^the Manx one* had, as you have seen 
from this, horses to ride; ihey had also (iogs, just a* the 
Welch onc^ h;u!. Tbi^ 1 teAm from aiioiher story, to the 
erfcLt ih4t a fishciinan, taking a fiesh fish home, was 
pursued by a pack of fairy dog?. 50 that it wa* only mth 
L'Lvrxt trouble he reached his o-hi% door. Then he picked 
up a stone imd threw it at the d<^», which at once dis- 
appeared ; but he did not escape, aa he was shot by the 
fairies, and .^o hurt that he lay ill for fully mx mcntbs 
from that day- He would have b«co left alone by the 
I See WiiLdi»di*3 iriit,^ GrwHnuiik. p. lao. 

\0\- I L. U 

290 Afanx Folk-iorc and Supcrstiltom. 

fjiinCN, I wa« told, if he huei only ukrn care to put a pjiich 
of Mil in llic lisVs mouth before setting oiit, for tl»r Manx 
rtiriErn cunnot ^liincl <uilt <rr UnptiMii. So chilOiCJi tliAE. 
have bctrn baptised arc, as ici VValc^, 1c3» lUblc to be 
kidnapped by then: clvcn than Uiu.^c t}iat have noL I 
scarcely need adJ thfit a twig of cuifn' nr rowan in al«o a3 
elective ajcujn^t fairies in Man as it is against them In 
Wnlc<, Manx faints ^eem to have been musical Jikc their 
kinamoR ciscwhcn; ; for 1 have heard of an OrrifidAJc man 
crouing the neiylibouriny momuiiiiw ai nij^hi xuid he*rii>g 
f;LJry music, which took lit> f;inty sii much Umt lie litlrrtcrd, 
and tried to remember iL He had, however, to icturr*. il 
ta siiitl, three limc5 to the place before he oould carry il 
away complete in his mind, which Ik succeeded in doin£ 
at \3aX jmt an the day wan breaking and the municians 
disappearing. This air, \ am told, i:* now kno^^i by the 
nanu! of Uie Boihn Bant^ or White Wort 1 bclicw that 
there arc certain Wdiih airu cTmil^irly mppoi^ to h^vc 
been derived from the fairies. 

So far I have pointed out h;trdly anything but stimi* 
larltles between Manx fairies and Wehh ones, and 1 find 
very little irdicarivc of a difference. First, with regard lo 
j^alt, ] am u]i;ible ti) <(iiy anythin^^ in this ilinfctioii, a^ I tto 
not happen to know how Welsh f*iirte,i regard salt; it \% 
not improbable th4t thc>- c-schew salt as well an baptism, 
especially <tA ihc Church of Rome hns long ruisociated iialt 
with bajjtiam. There \% licw^cvcr, one [»>uit at least of 
diifcrcnce between the fnirics of M^tn and of Wales : the 
latter arc, so far as I can call to m\t\'\, ncv^r known to 

' Tbe MiutK word for the rowati-irtc, incorrccily caIIccI a mouutaici 
a^i iv ctiim^ which in ir lri>»h cmtrrJiiAftmn, Scotch Gaelic ^a/imrtH ; 
bat In WeiiJi bookt \x il itrddtHy tinf^uUr (trddintn^ aod in the 
npokc^i liUiEuagc mostly itrMH, i<ndi'i^. ^in^;uUJ ientin^en. Ihis 
vnriatioTi apumE to mclic^le tliil Ihest; yrotd^ hnv« beea borfowcd tiy 
Ihc WeUh fiom a Goidclk sDurcc ; but the bcri> is kaowu in Whiles 
by The niiEve name of trta/oU from whicli ibe wood |e li^ucnUy 
CAllcd, vspcuAlLy ii^ Nonh Wolci, Koai <riafei, binfular xtHUtrt 

Manx Fotk4oT€ and Sttfiersfitions. 391 

discharge arrows At men or vrotncni or to hnndic a bow' at 
all, wherca* Manx fAiri«« arc aJwayi txrady to shooL May 
wc, therefore, provinioiTully re^^ard thi* irAil of the Manx 
faificA as derived fram a Teutonic source? Ac any rate 
English and Scotch eh-e* were ftuppoftc^ to shoot, and 1 
am indebted lo ihc kindness of my collcagut, Prof. Napier, 
fur calling my xttc^nrimi to thi^ Saxiva L/frfifiom!^ for ca:tc« 
m pninl 

Nuw that mnnt of t^c imaginaty inhabilants of Man 
and Ll3 coa!il5 have been lapidly j)a.-i<4cd in review before 
you. I may aay something of others whom I regard « 
scmirmagioary, real human beini^ to whom impossible 
attributes are nscribcd ; 1 mean chiefly the witches, or, as 
they arc sometirics called in Manx Englbh.^ff/cA^-j-* That 
term I take to be a vari;int of the English word teiuk, 
produced under the Inlluence of the verb tmviu/f^ which 
wa* reduced In Manv Knglish to a form ^uUk, especially if 
one bcai in mfnd the Cumbrian and Scotch pronuncfation 
of thrtc words ^^ 7vuff/t and f>f7i'U(ch. Now witches Khifl 
their form, and ! hdve heaitl of one old wjich changing 
: hcr»c)f into .i pigeon ; but th^t I am brmnd to r^ard as 
^exceptional, ttic rc^^ufar form into whkh Manx wttchcs 
pa»s at their pleasure being that of the hare, and .%uch a 
swift and thick-skin acd hare that no greyhound* except a 
black one without a ntnj^lc white hafr, can catch it, ard no 
[ihot, except a aiiver coin, pcnetr3te its body. Both thvsc 
peculiarities are also well kno;vn in Wales. [ notice a 
difference, however, between Wales and Man with regard 

^ I am wmy to »ajr i\\^i it iicvcr cfccurred 10 mc to a»k vLcthci the 
«hooiing UM doT^o with Mjcb modem \h\n%^ a« gun*, Eut Mr. vbvnj J bivc tubmitKd the prvor»h«cu of ibia pnpcr, 
atiurert mc diai li is olmtys iindcriEoad 10 be bow* and ^irrowi, not 

' Edited tiy Otwnld Cockayne lor ilie Mabier of the Rotltt (Loa* 
don, \%^\i>) I M« moT* ctpcciftlly vol ii, pp. 156^ r^; ^ 390, 291 ; 
j|oi ; vol ill, \%^ 54 \at\ 5S, 

' Mr Moore h not fimiliar mib (hit urTn^ but 1 beard 11 ai Surby, 
In the Soudu 

If 1 

iga Mavvjc pQlk-hrt and Su^r^lithns. 

to the hare witchcfl: in Wales orly the ^vomco can become 
hares, and thi^ property nai£, so ^ as t knov« in ccitaEn 
families. I have known many *ucli, and my €>wn nuRW 
belonged to one or them, so iliai my moihcr was reckoned 
to be Talher rccklMn in entrusting me to^^tf, ot"ihe 
Ctiity One", as she miglit run avay at any nKimcnt, 
IcRvirg her charge to tiikc care (if itself. But [ lure 
never heard of^ny mar or boy of any aiLch family ttiming 
hfmM:lf tnto a hare, whereas in the hie of Man ihc witt-he« 
may bclt'iic. if I may say so. to cither sex. I am not sujc, 
however, thnt n fnnn ^vho turnn him^clf into a hnrc would 
he called a witard or witch; and 1 recollect hc.irinp m 
the neighbourhood of K^imiiey of a man nicknj;rr<c<l the 
gitaut mwan^h^ that is to say, " the hare smith", the reaxon 
being that thiV p:%rticn]ar ^mith now and Ihen a»Jumc£ the 
form of a hare. 1 am not «iuin? &iirc that gnaut mic^agA 
is the name rf a ctas>«. though ! Kitlier infer that it lk. \( 
^, It mii^C he regarded as a survival of the magic slrll! 
asMiciT-itcd with .smiths in ancient Ireland, •jls evidenced, 
for instance, in St Patrick's Hymn in the eleventh or 
twelfth century maiiu^cript iit Trinity College, Dublin, 
known as Che Lib^r J^ymHorHm, in which we have m 
prayer aguin^t 'Uhe .'ipell:; of won^cn, and of smiths and 

The persons who had the pOT;^'er of turning thciruech^cs 
into hare* were bcJievcd to be abroad ard very active, 
together with the wholcdemcm world, on the eve of May-day 
of ihe Old Style And a rniddlcr-a^ed man frcm the parf^ 
of Andreas related to me ho^v he came ihre^ or fonr limes 
acroas a woman, reputed to be a witch, carr}-ing on hex 
evil practices at the junction of cross-road*, or tire meeling 
of three boundaries^ This happened once very early on 
old May morning, and aftcnvards he met her several tifrtcs 
as he was reluming home from vjiiiiin^ hin »u-cetbcart 
He warned the witch that if he found her again that he 
would kick her : that fa what he says. Well, after a while 
he dfd surprise her again at work at four cr^s-roidst 

Manx Faik'iorc and Snfirrffi/icrr-C 

iomewlitfre near Le^tayrc- SJic had a cirdd he said, as 
1-trgc as ihat made by hona in threshing, swept clean 
iirijund her. He kicked her and look aw:iy her bcsDm, 
wliicti he hid lill die middle of the day. ThcT» he made 
ih*: (mm Iki)"* fetch some dr)' goric, and he put ihc witch's 
bL"Sum ou ilxc tup Kit h. Tlii'ir-iipon fin- wii* attt Uy the 
gonvc and. tvondcrful to iclalc, tin: besom, aa it bunicd, 
cacklciJ and made rcin^tt.i like ^ims going off In fact, 
the noise could be heard from AnJrcaa Chu/di— that i* to 
fay, miles away. The bettoin on it ^'acx-cntecn sorts 
ofknot:;'^ he s^id, And the woman ovght to have bccn 
bumod ; in fact, Iw add^'d tliat ^hc did not lonf£ sun'ive 
her be«om. Ttic m^n tvho rcUtcd this to me Lfi hale and 
slronff, living now in the ^^rittb of Michael, and not in Ihat 
of Andre;*?*, where he wak bom. 

There is a tradition at St. John'*, which i* overlooked 
by the n^nnril^iiLi cdlcil Stir'^iiL Whnalli^in, thai U'ilrhcs 
ii\etl >it uiic time li? be piiuihhcd by \KUm >et to roll doiAH 
the 9tocp »idc ol the mountjun in spiked b^rcls ; bi^t* 
fhort of putting them to dcatli. there were various vrays of 
rendering the machinntlon.H of witches innocuous, or of 
undoing the miRchicr done by them; for the ch^fmcrA 
aupply variouH meana of meetinf^' them triumpliantly, and 
in ca&o an animal ii; the victitn, the burning of it aUays 
provev an efleciive means of bringing the o^ender to 
book. I shall have (urca^ion to reiurn to thfs under 
another heading- Thctv is a belief that if you c;in draw 
bloocii hoi^xver liltic, from a tvitch or o^c wlio has the 
evil t>^, he loicii his power of harming you ; and I 
h4vc Uxn told ihal formerly this belief was sometimes 
acted upon- Thu^, on Icavinj; church, for insftance, the 
man who fancied himself in danger from another would 
S^o up to him, or w^lk by his Mde, and inflict on him a 
alight jicratch, or some other trivial vi'ound, which elicited 
blood ; but this raxiAi have been a course always attended 
with more or les« danger. 

The persons able to undo the vnicbes' «i^tk, and re- 

Manx Folk-lore and Super%iiiions. 

tnovo the malignftnt tnflu«noe of the evil eye, are kr>ou-n 
in Manx Enf:liAh as channers* and fiom«lh>n(j munt now 
be fiaid of them- They have various iv>ys of i>rocccd1ng 
to theJr work- A lady of about ihfriy-fivL\ living nl PccI, 
related to ine, how^ when she wju a child iulTcnng from ft 
swelling in the neck, she had it charmed by an olil lA^uman- 
Thi^ charmcT brought wilh her no Icaa than nine pieces of 
iron, consisting of bitA of old pokcn. old naiK and other 
odds anti cnda of the 5amc metal, making in all nine 
pieces. After invoking the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost, she began to rub the cirl'* nock with the old 
iron^; nor wa« she i^ali-^fTcd wilh that, for she lubbed the 
doors, the walla, and the furnUtjrc likewise, with the metal. 
The result^ I wan atiHred, was highly t^ttlsfaetorj', ** <he 
\\K% never been troubled with ;i sweHing in Ihr thmat since 
that d^y. SninE^times a jiJiiMage from ihc Bible i^ iiwii 
use of in charming, as, foi insUrcc^ in the case of b'eedii 
One: of the vcrscH then pronounced is Er.ekicl xvi. 6, vrhti 
runs thus; — "And when I pft^sod by thcc, and iwiw tl 
polluted in thine own blood, I said unto thee when tbou 
want in thy blood, Live ; yea, F siid unto ihec when thou 
wait in thy blood, Live." Ibis was told me by a Laxcy 
man, who \% over jievcnty yc^trs of age. The methods of 
charming; away waits aie various^ A woman from ll 
neigh bonrhootl of St, John'* explained to me how a charrm 
told her to gel rid of the wart?< cm her hands. Sht wa* to 
t^ke a filring nnd make a knot on it f'lr every wsrt si 
h;ul, and then tie ihe HiriMtl ruund \\tx hand, or fici^er.s- 
forget which; and I think my informant, on her pai 
forget la tell me a vital part of the formula, namely, thi 
the string was to be dcMroycd. However, she assured mi 
that the warts dt^ppcarcd, and never relumed since, 
lady At Andreas has a sttll simpler method of filing ri4 
of warls. She nibs a anail on tlic wartn^ :vnd then plai 
the *aiail on one of ihe points of a bbcklhorn, and, in 
leaves tlie snail to die, transfixed by the thorn ; and aft the 
"inail die*, the warts disappear. She has done ihls in 

MoMX Folk-lore and SnpersiitioHS. 295 

case of her niece wiUi complete iucces*. 40 far as the wart 
was concerned ; but she ^as *orry tn <ay that *he hajtl 
fur^'otten to notice ivhelher tlie *tn<^i! had also succumbed 

The lady who in ihis case applied the remedy cannot be 
in any sense called a c:baniicr, however much one nay 
imint on calling what she did a ch^rmH In fact, the term 
charmer tends to be aaAociatcd with a particular cl&nn of 
charm mvolvinj; the i/se of hciba. Thus there used M ome 
time to be a famQU!« charmer living near Kirk Michael to 
whom the fishermen were In the habft of resorting, and m)' 
informant told me that he had been deputed more than 
once by his fellow-fishermen 10 go to him in mnM-qiic-nce 
nf Ihrir Inrk nf ^^rcru I'n the fishin>^. Tlii» channer gdX'C 
him a packet of herbs, cut smalt, with direction* thai ihcy 
should he boiled, iiiid the water mixed with •»omc spinls — 
rum, I ihJuk — and partly drunk in the boat by the captain 
and the crew, ard partly sprinkled (;vcr the buat and 
everything in it. The charmer clearly defined tiis pt/iition 
in the m;Lttcr to my informant- " \ cinnot^ he said, "put 
the fiah in your nets for you ; but if ihctc is any miiiehicf 
in the way of your luck, I can remove that for you.*' The 
fishermen them&clveft bad, however, move exaggerated 
mHioiiH fjf xh^. cl^i;irmL»r** funrtioTw ; for once nn a time my 
informant spcnton drink for his boon companions the monry 
which he wiL« tt> ^ivi* tlie charmer, aikI then he collected 
hctb_H himself — it i^A\ not much matter what herbs — and 
took them to his capt.iin. who, with the cicw, wrnt through 
the proper ritual, and made a mo&t successful haul that 
night In fact, the onI>' source of discontent x\-iis ihc 
channcr*s not having: distributed the fish over t^o night*. 
instead ol endangerinj^ their nets by in exce^<^^Ivc haul all 
in cmc night They regarded him as able to do almoot 
anythiTij; he liked In the matter. 

A lady at Andreas ga\'e me an account of a celebraited 
charmer who lived between thert? and theofKwt lie worked 
on her hu^band'^ f^irm, hnl \wn\. to he freqiicnily called away 
to be consul ted. Her usu^dly cut up wx^rmwood for the people 

396 M<imx FoikUn ami Snperstiii^^ 

who 04B>c Ici him, and if the« ws iwn* to he had. 
did no* scrwplc lo n* the pa'dcn of anj' sma" *P^^ 
conuincd of cabUec or the liV€. He »ouW chop ibcni 
ajnall and ptvc direction* abowt bofltng then and, 
diinking the water. He ust»lt>- ch*^ *u>we Icftvrftg^ 
him lo sprak lo nobody on the w^y. I<^t Itc breAk tbsT 
charm, and thU foyrteriousnes* m* eridcntly an impor- « 
lant clement in his profe««ioQ. Bui he w-a^ oevcrthelcs*^ 
a lhriftlfr« fellow, and when ho- wcni In Pccl. and T«ot tbe^ 
crkr round to annoOTKW his arrival,ai>drccdvedai;p»ddc*l 

of mitvey frtwi ihc fiJtrrEnm, he scWom 50 conducted hii 
self a*i to bring much of it boinc. He died miserably 
»c\tn or cifflU >'car5 ago at Kanasey, and left a wi 
in en^4t poverty. A* to the present day, the daughter 
a chormcT now dead is tnarrkd to a man IH-li^ tn a villj 
on ihc toutt^cm side of the ifiland, and she appears 
ha\T inheHicd her fatl^r'^ repuTatkw for chaiming, as the 
(ishi-rm^n from M part* are «iid to flock to her for luck 
lnci<tctiun>; I hav* Heant in ihc South more ihan o«Ke o^ 
her beiiig cortit^Itcd m raso of Midden and dangerous tUfl 
ncss, even after the best medical advice has been obtained • 
in foet, she scemn to have a considerable practice. 

In answer to my question, how tbc charmer, who died 
ai Ramsey, u*od to Ris-e the cailord luck in the lithiug. my 
informant at Andrea* coutd not *ay, except that hc ga« 
ihL-m hcrb« as already described, and she thought also 
that he sold them wisju to p!ace under tl«ir pillows, ^ 
gather that the charms u-crc chiefly directed lo the re- 
moval of suppofied impediTncnls to succe»( in the fishing, 
rathrjr than to any act of a more positive naiuni So far 
a* I Have been able lo ascertain, charminj; ia hereditary-, 
and they wiy th:it it deHCi^nd.i frr»m father tn diiiijjhicr, and 
then frwm daughter to son, and so fii — a reir^rLaWc k 
ordc:fCcnt, on which I should be (^Idd 
of Mr. Elton. One of the best M 
ieland rt'lated to me how some fii 
\\\a doinf* the charmer for them 

Manx Ft^ik-foTf ami SnptrstiisaHs. 397 

such and such a fanuly, and how he made fools of tbcm. 
Il IK my imprctoion that tht charming rarnilies arc cono- 
parAlivclyfcwinnumbcr^aTid ihisboksa^ if rhcj'dc^ccudtfc! 
from the fiimily p]iy«]cian« or drutd^ of one or two chief- 
tains \n Ancirnr times, It i* vi^ry lilcrly a question 
whkli could ]jc cIciiiL'i] t>|i by ;t |{ic;il uM\\\ faituliar with 
the isUntl aiitl all that whidi tradition has to say on the 
subject of Manx pcdigicc^. 

In the ca5c of Animals ailing, the herhs were ft1?to 
TCSOTtcd to; and, if the bea^itt happened to he crilch cow<t, 
the herbd had to be boiled in some of their milk. Thb ^h% 
suppotvd to produce ^^onclcrtul re-suTt^, described a£ lollops 
by a man living on the way from CaKlletcwn up South 
BarrulcL A fanner in his parish hiid a cow tliat inilUcd 
blood, 3« he de»icribrd it, and that in consequence of 
a witch's nUwflJ. He went to the charmer, who ifave Mm 
some hrrb<» which ^c w«* to boil in the ailing cow's milk, 
and llic diaritiei chjr^^^ him. uhAi<-VE;r hr did. not 10 quit 
the concoction while it wa» oit the fiie. In spite of any 
noUcj he mi^'ht hear. The farmer uxnt home And pro- 
ceeded that night to boil the herbs a& directed, but he 
5tiddenly hcArd a violent tapping at the doer, a terrible 
lowing of the catlle in the cow-house, and stones oominj; 
down tJi« *' chumley": the end of it was that he suddenly 
fled and sprang into bed to take shelter behind his wife. 
He went to ihe ch.anner af^'ain^ ard related to him what 
had happened : he was told that he must havo moro 
eoowuse the next time, itnleu lie wUhtxl his cour I0 die: 
He pmmised I0 do his best, and this lime he sloot! Iifs 
);riimid ir JiptLe of ihe noises and the creakin^^ nf the 
nindov6— 'until. in fact, a back-window burst into pieces 
and bodily let a witch in, who craved bis pardon, and 
peomlsed never more to molest him or hi\ This all 
„ bappemd at the form in 4uestion in tlie lime of the 
H pre»;Gnt farmer's ^andfalher. The boiling of the charnKr's 

■ herl- 

■ Ic^ 

*k alw^Lvt jjrodiiced a great commotion and 
the cattJCp and it invariably cures Uw ailing 

zgS Manx Foik-lor^ and Supersttitons. 

onw: thi* is firmly believed by respectable faTmers whom 
1 cou[<l name, in The No*th of ihc isIanJ b pvliculsr, and 
I am sltiiding ti tncn uhom ycni might consider fairly 

Magic tFike^ us back to a very primitive and loor^ <vay 
of think It 1^ ; so ihc marvel lou^tly cany v^ay in uhich it 
idcnti6es rtny tic of association, however f imsy, with the 
insoluble bond of relationship which educated men find 
women regard a?i connecting cause ond effect. Tenders even 
simpler means than 1 have described <milc equal lo the 
undoini; of the evils resulting from the activity of the evil 
eye, Thus, let us suppose that a person endowed with 
llie evil eye has jusi passed by the farmer* herd of cattle, 
and & cair has suddenly been seized with a scrioiis rlliw^s, 
the former hurries ;iftcr the man nf llii; evil eye to t;et ihc 
du«t from under his feet If he objects, he may, as ha*i 
sometimes been very- uncercmoniou:?]/ done, throw hirn 
down by force, tnlcc ofT his shoe*, antl :icrapc off the dust 
adhering to their soles, and carT>* it back to thiow uvcr the 
calf Even that \s not alway^t neceJta;ary, as it ;jpj>ean( to 
be quite eoouf^h if he takes up du«t where he of the e^-il 
eye has just trod the ground. There arc inniimefable 
ciuesi en folk record of both means proving cnifrcly eftVc- 
tlvc. A similar question £if i^ycholcif^y pni'^ent* itwif in a 
practice^ intended a^ a pre*4L-rvative against the evil eye 
rather than as a cure. \ allude to what I have heard 
about tvTfi maiden Udic?! living in a Manx villd^c whjcfa 
I knnw very well: they aie native:* of a nciglibcfljnng 
pariaht and [ am assured that whenever a stranger cntcra 
their house Ihcy pr*icecd» as soon Oii he goc; aw^y, to 
strew a little duat or sand over the spot where he stood. 
That IS nnderatood to prevent any malij^ant inftttencc 
resulting from hU visit This tacit identifying of a man 
with his footprirt* may be detected in a more precarious 
and pleasing form In a quaint conceft familiar to me ir the 
lyric« of rustic life in \Vale«, when, for example, a coy 
maiden leaves her lovesick swain lioily avowing his perfect 

Manx F<^k lore and Supersiiticns. 299 

iraJlnc^i^ tu ottrtFtu oi ti thrtUii, dial ts, to do on IliA 
kncc^ ^|] the stage* of her pftlh acmv-s the mciutow, ki*.'** 
ing the grountl whcrcvci' h has been honoured with ihc 
ircad of her dainty foot Let mc lake another Cluc, m 
which the cord of as^ocifttion is not so inconcciV^ly 
rtlcnder, when tWD or more person* iftandJn]; in a close 
relation to otic another are mistakenly treated a litttc too 
much as if mutually independent, the objection may be 
mude that it matlcn; not whcihc*r it \% A or 1), that it la, 
in fact, all iht ^ame, as they belong to the iame concern t 
ill Wrlsh this is wimi'timr*; rvprewetl hy N-iying, Vr un 
jjtihj^' Nttui'r Giyn t^i ^loc^. that i*. " Whether you Lalk of 
I Imv'r Glyn» or of his wooden show^ it Is all the same/' 
Thciu when >-ou speak '\t\ English of a man "standing \x% 
anclhcr'5 ihoen", \ am by no means certuir that you are 
not employing an expression which meant something more 
to tht33c who hxtX used it than it doe; to us. Our modern 
idioms, with all their filrniriing after the abstract, are but 
primitive man's mental tooli^ adapted to the requ[rementfi 
of civilised life: ihcy betray the form and shape which ihc 
neolithic worker's chipping and polishini^ gavt them. 

ft i^ difficLilt to arrange these ?icrap^ under any clearly 
clA^f^ifird Iie^adingH, and nnw that \ have led ynu into the 
midil i»f maUeis magical, pcihaps 1 may just as well go on 
to Ihc mention of a few more : \ alhidcd to the boiling of 
the herbs according to the charmer's orders, wilb t]ic rc^iult, 
among other things, of bringing the witch to the npot- This 
is> however, not the only instance of the imporiancc aiid 
strange c:Ricac>' of fire. Hor when a be;iit dica: on a farm, 
of course tt dies, according to the old-fa^hioncd view of 
things, ya I understand it, from tlie influence of the evil 
eye, or the interposition of a witch ; and if >r>u want to 
know (o whom you arc Indebted for the Io»a of the beaM, 
>-ou have :timply to bum its carcase in the open air 
and watch who comes first on the spot or who l^rst 
paMsca by; for that ia the criminal to be charged with the 
death of the animal, and he cannot help coming there: 

JOO Afanx Folk-lore and Su/^trsiilwns. 

such i« iKc effect of the fire. A Michael vronuin, u-ho 
U now abofit thirty, relatL-d to roc bow ftbe %vaiched 
whilr the: Tflrr^^iE,- of a hrwilrbt^ci ro!( w^* hiimini*, and 
hijw slii^ siw the wllcli cxjinui^, iiiul how %hc icmtrmljcis 
her EthrivcHcd tice, ivith nwc and chin in clo^ proximity. 
According to anulhcr native of Mkfajicl. a ;tc^l'iiifcint]cd 
middlc-Agcd man, ihc cinimal in question wa5 oftci>C5L a 
calf, and it wa^ worU to be burnt wliolc, »Icin and all The 
object* according to him, is invariably tobrin^ the bcwitdicr 
on the spot, and he always comes \ but i am not clear what 
happens to hfm, when he appears My informant £id<k<l, 
however, that it was believed thai, unless the beu-itcher got 
po«JC«ir>n of the heart of the bca^^t burning, he lost all his 
power of bcwitcMng. He reUttd, alio, how hi* father and 
thrcE* other mm wt^rc onci^ out fi^ihing t>n the west coast of 
the inlajid, when ouu «if the three suddenly t^xprcvird his 
wish to tand. As they were fishing MKccssfully soinc Iwa 
or tlircc miles from the ^Ho^c, they vrould not liear of it. 
He. however, innistcd that they must put him ashore at 
once, H'hich tn^idc hb comrades hi.t-My indi^^nant ; but tbcy 
had soon to give way, as ihcy found that Ik was determined 
to leap overboard unless they complied When he got on 
shor« Uicy watched him hurrying away toivaids & •jmoke 
where a bca.-;! was burning in the comer of a field. 

Manjc stories merge this burning in a very perplexing 
fashion with utot may be termed a sacrifice for luck- The 
following scraps of information will make It clear what 1 
moan: — A respectable ^irmur fnirn Anrtrpas t«!d mt' that 
he wai drifiMu with his wife to the n<:i^hbuurlng paiisli of 
Jurby some years ago, and that on the way they beheld the 
earcftsc of a cow or an ox buming in a field, with a womui 
enpL^red in stirring the fire. On reaching Uic vilia|;c t9 
which they were ffoing, they found that the burninji bea^ 
|}e1onged to a farmer whom they knew. They were further 
told it was no wonder thiil the said farmer hati one cif hts 
cattle burnt, af* t*«eral of iheni had recently died Whrtlicr 
this w£s a caHc of sacrifice or not I cannot say. But let 

Afanx Folk-lore and Superstitions. 301 

me give yoo anotlicr Instance ■ a man whom I have already 
ii)cntioncii> s^w at a farm ncafcr llic ccnire of thir islmrd a 
livt; calf bcinj; burnt The owner br-jirs an Knglish nan>c, 
bill his family has long been settled in Mdri. The farmcr't 
c xp Lira lion lo my informant w^^ that the calf t^as bmnl lo 
secure iucl< for the rcat of the herd, ^omc of whkh were 
thrcatenin£* to die. My inrormaril thought there was 
absolutely nothing the matter wiib ihcm. except that 
they had too littk to eat. Jfc that as it may, ihc ODC 
calf was sacrilnccd a& a burni-oflTi^Tlng to secure luck Tor 
the rest of tin; cattle Let me here also cjuole Mr, Moore's 
note in his Mftnt Sttrniima, p. 184, on the place-name 
Coital yn Ottral f.ozkl, or tlie Cliapcl of Iher Burnt Sacrificr, 
" This name"*, he says, " records a circiTmsianoc ^vhfch took 
pli^cc in the nincEeciith century, biJl which, it is lo be hoped, 
was nci-cr cujiiomary in the Isk- of Man. A farmer", he 
goes on to say, " who had lo*t a number of his ahccp and 
cattle by murrain, burned a calf as a propitiatory c^cnng: 
to the Deity on this spot, where a chnpcl was afterwards 
built. Hence the name," Particulars, 1 may say, of Ittne, 
place> and person could be Cnisily ftddcd lo Mr. Moorc'js 
statement, excepting, perhaps as lo the dcii>' >n question ; 
on that point [ hav*5 ne^'er been informed, but Mr Moore 
b probably right in the use of the rapital */, a* thf sacrificcr 
\% according to all accouritn, a hi(fhly dev<JLi1 Chritdi^n. 

Otfc mcie i[istancc: an octc^cnanan woman, born in the 
parish of Bride, and now living at Kirk Andrew, aiiw, when 
she was a " lump of a girl" of ten or fifteen years of age, a 
live ^heep bein^ burnt in a Held In the pariah of Andrcoip 
on May-day. tvhcrcby j-hc mcrnnt the first of May reckone<l 
according to the Old Style, She a»*erU very decidedly that 
jt vnA satt &urai^ " a« a sacrifice", aii ?hc put it, and " for an 
object to the public" ; those were her words when she ex- 
prtssedhcn&clf in Rnj^l^h. Further, >;he made the statement 
that \\ was a ctistrjn Eo burn a ^eep on old May-day for a 
s.icrifire. I n'ii-'< fully altve to thr intercut of ihix cvidenci^ 
antl tTOSi-cxamined her :m> far ai her age al]ow^ uf it, and 

302 Jitanx Folk'hre and Sup^ndiwns. 

I RikI that &hc aiihercs to her statement with all finnncss. 
I dbtinguisli two or three point:* in her cvtJcncc: K I 
hAVC no doubt that she saw, as she vi»>^ |>aMing \>y a 
certain tie)d on tlie borders of Andrea.'* pan^h, a live sheep 
bctni; burnt on old M;L7-day. 2, liut her stiitcment that it 
was Sim ountl, or as a sacrillcc, was [probably only an in- 
ference drawn by hcT, jiossibly ycare afterwards, on hearing 
things of the kind discussed, 3> Lastly I am convinced 
that she did h<^ar lUc Mity-day siicrifice (tiscnj-vicd, tx>th fn 
Manx and In Ent^li^i; her ^ord,*&, "for an object to the 
public",Arc her imperfect recollection of a phraK used in her 
hearinf; b>- somebody more ambitious of employing Engli^ 
abKtr.%ct terms thar she is; and the formal nMure of her 
statement in Manx, that it was cuuomary on May-day to 
bum as a sacrifice one head of »heep (I,aa SicaJdyH va 
(fiaghify ify ioitpy son ourtU un bna^ keyrr&gf^ producer 
the ssLtne impri^ssinn on my nnnci, that she uc only 
nrpcatuig somebody ehe's wofd?^. I mcniion this more 
especially B3 I have failed to 6ud anybody clac hi Andreas 
or Bride, or indeed in the whole island, who will no\r 
confess to having ever heard of the -Hhccp sacrifice on c^d 

The time assigned to the sheep ^acntice, namely May-day, 
leads me to make some remarks on the importance of 
tliat day among the Cclt^. The day meant is, as 1 have 
already said, old May-day, in Manx Shenn Laa B^aldyn^ 
This was a day when systematic eflbrts w<?re made to pro* 
tecl man and beast against elves and witches ; for it wa* 
then that people carntrcl cro&se^ of rowan In ihcir hat:4 and 
put May flowers on the tops of thdrdoors and elsewhere as 
picscrvativc^againslall malignant inducnces. With thcutmc 
object also in view crosses of rowan were likewise fastened 
to the tails of cattle, amall crosses which had to be made 
without the help of a Icnifc. Early on May morning one 
went out to ;;atl\er tl^e dew a^ a thing of great \irtuc, as Jo 
other countries. One woman vho had been out on thb 
errand yean ago told me that she washed her face with 


Manx Polk'hre and Sft^rMions. 303 

10 order to i^ecurc luck, a |::ood complcxicn, and 
Immnrit)' against witches The brc^ik of this day is also the 
£ign;i1 for firing the ting or the ^otsc, which uftcd to be 
tione in order bo bum out the wttchn fond of taking tlic 
fnrm nf the hare ; and even guns, I am loM, wt^re frcdy 
u^cnl tti-^hoiit any j^amtf iix^t i\ith tm that nunnin^^ WJtll 
the proper chaigc M>nic of the wilchcs were now and ihcn 
hit and wouiidc-d, whcicupun they rcHujiict! the human foim 
find icm&ircd cripples for ihc rcsl of ihcir lives. I'irct 
hctvcvcr, appears to have been the chivf agency relied on to 
clear away ihe ^vttchcs and olhcr maltgnacit beings ; and I 
hAve heard c1 this ube of liie Iiavii^^ been corned so far that 
a practice vras sometimes observed — as, for example in 
LetayrC^of buniing gorse, however little, in the hedge of 
each field on a farm ir order to drive away (he wtich« and 
secure luck 

The nmn who told tnc this, on licing aslcL-d whetlii^r he 
liad ever heanl of critic; being driven thrTKi|;h &re tjr [>e- 
twccn two 6tt:f on May-day. replied that it wis not 
known to him aa a Manx cn^ttom, but thut it w^ a5 an 
lri«h one A cattle-dealer whom he n&med u^cd on May- 
day to drive bia cattle through fire so ets to fiinge them a 
iHtle, a£ he believed that would preserx'e them from harm. 
He was an Irishman, who came to the island for many 
yean(,and whoi^e children are ivtlldl in the island now. On 
my asking him If he knew whence the dealer came, he 
anicu'Cred, " Krnm the mourtairs over there", pointxrg to the 
Moiiniains of Mournc looming Indefinite In the mists on the 
western horixon^ Tlic fr[^ll cu:^t(im knuwn ttj my Manx 
lofoLmaEU jiinierciUng both as thiowing light on the Manx 
custom, and as being the continuation of a \cty ancient 
rite mentioned by Cormac, That writer, or somebody in 
hi* name, ssiys that Hcttanc, May-day, ^^-a» ao called from 
the " tacky fire", or the " two fires" which the drulds of 
Hrinn tiittsl to make on that d^y with great incantatioiv:; 
and cattle, he add^;, u«ed to be brought to tho«e firec, 
or driven between thcm^ as a safcguafd ;4^in%t the disease* 

304 Manx Folk-hrc and Supersiiiiom. 

of the year. CormAc' ftays notbing, ft will be noiiced, as' 
one of the cattle rjr thcr whrcp XxXvif^ AAcHlicct] for ihc sake 
prospcfily to the icvL Uowcvc(. Scotch' May-J4y ttMtocni 
point to ji sacrifice having been once u^ual And thi 
possibly of human beings, and not of sheep, as bi the Isk 
Man. [ have elsewhere* tried to equate ihcttc Celtic May-' 
day practices with the Thargelia' caf the Athenian:^ 
antiquity. The Tharj^clla were chAraeierUetl \ty pectiKj 
ritCK, and amon^r other things then done, two adult persjoi 
were lead abour, a>4 it wrrre scapcgoai^, and at the end th< 
wCTC >^CTified and buml, sri thut thnr Anhrs rrtij^hr be 
d^perecJ. Here we seem to he on the track of a ^■«y 
ancient Aryan practice^ although the Celtic date docs., 
quite coincide with the Greek one- 

It U probably in some ancient May-day custom thaf 
arc to look for the key to a rcmerkablc place-name oocurru 
several times in the inland: 1 allude to that of Cr^mk pt 
Irrce Laa. which literally means the Kill of the Rise of the 
Day. This is the name of one of tlie mountamic in ih« 
SDUthof thekhnd, tnit it i« also borne by one or the knoitt 
near the eastern end of the range of low hilla ending 
abruptly on the coast bciwecn Ramsey and Uride Parish, 
and qiiitcr ;i sinatl knrill bcar^ the name near the chtirrh of 
Juiby^ I have hc^rd of d fourth inMarcc, which, howirvci 

' See ihc Siokcft'O^DoQQvan cdiiion of Curmac (Calcutta, %\ 

' Si( foUn Sii^clair'i Sfafhiita/ AcifUtit of S<^f//uu/t »'» 610; 
Fenoani'i Ti>yr in Si^tMnd in i;6o 13rd ^itiod. Warrini^on, 177^ 
it 97i 1^ 19O • ThoowiA SicplicnV GtidMiifi, pp< 1^-6 i and Di 
Murray In ihtj AVffJ /Cnj^fiik nklirmnry, *, v, ftftMta. 

' In my Illbbcrt LctUirc* on Oltii Htaffteftdcmt pp. Si7-2T> 

* As !o ihe Th.iritrliii ami Delia, see Prf Her'* Gn'/Msik4 Afjri^&' 
t<}j;it^'\, ?^io, And A, MommicfL's JJ^iyrf^^ft, pp^ 414 15, 

^ It \i my lmprc»»ion ;ba1 il is crowned nilh a. iRiaU Lumulus, am 
that it forms thv higheit j^r^tind in Jurby, ivhtch wucrct un itl 
itbclf' Tl^c (inc between RAmtcy And fJridc i« «bu prubal 
higheit point of th« tnnge- Bui Ihcie ate qu«iior» whtch I si 
tike to ace furilicr cxbmtnudt s^y in the paEc» of the M«nx ]utti 
edited hy Mr- P. M^ C, K«rmatie, the J-i^ar AfemnimigA. 

Manx Folk-lore and Suprrsiitwns. 

[Escaped both my memory ^nd notc-booU. t1 lias been 
tmplcd to cxpUin the name m mcatiinft the Hill dF the 
\^'utch by Day, in reference to the old mstitxilJ^n of >Vatch 
and WurJ on conspicucms places m th« Island ; but that ex- 
lion IK mAdmiT^fttblc a< doin^r violence to the phonetics 
fHie words in f^uc^tion^ 1 am rather inclined to think that 
Ihi! n»ine everywhere refer* to an cmitn:'nci> to *h(ch the 
surrounding inhabitants resorted ftir a relL;;iuu>i purpc^e 
en a parLtcular day in the ycnr. I should Miggcst th*t it 
was CO do homage to the Sun on May morrn'ng:, but this 
I conjecture \s> offered only to awnit a belter ex pi an M ion. 
The next great d&y in the pagan calendar of the Cclta 
is called in Manx Laa Lk»nys.\x\ \i\%\i Lu^assad^^\k\A 
was asiocialcd with the ramc of the pod Lug. Thifl 
BhoaJd eorrc^tpond to Lamma«, but, reckoned as it is, 
occordinf; lo the Old Style, It falls on the twelfth of Augun, 
which nscd to be a great day for bu*ine** faim in the 
Isle of Man as In Wales, But for holiday- making the 
twelfth only suited whrti it liapjieiird to he a Sunday; 
when that \ii\s nut the case, the fir?il SundLty after the 
twelfth was fixed upon. It is known, accordingly, as the 
Fiisi Sunday of Harvest, and it ii*cd to be celebrated by 
crowds of people visitini: the tops of the mountains The 

I Vmd of interference to which 1 have alluded with ftgaixl 
to ar ancient hohday, u one of the regular renulb: of the 
transition from Roman Catholicism to a Protestant flyetcm 


' Crffnltyn Trrt* I^ti H the fiAme » ii \% ufcd b/a,EI Manxmen 
wlioic pronundaiLon hat noL beco ujnpcrcd itilli by jintitjuaHftni. 
T^ c«»vey ihe ruber mpinin^, refi-rring to ihe day wiTcb, the nflme 
would hAvc to be Crimk ny ff*u-rty La*!; in f^t, a part nf the tloivc 
in ihp ^nmh of ihc hLird \% rnllrrt Cr/ml ny Hnrrry, ^'x\\t Hill of the 
Waich'. Mr. Moore telU tnc that the Jutby C™* uai one of ibc 
emmrcic^fifor " Waicli nml \Var<r; but h* ii now of opinion thar the 
hl^h tnountikin <ir Crank yn Irreo LaA io (hv South viu ngt. Ai to 
the Joty of die inhabiiantu to keep " W-itch an^l Ward" ov*t tho 
iiJand, «m the pasAgc <oa<«rrLmg it cxtricicd from the Maiu 
Siainien (vol. >, p, ^%\ by Mi- Moon; in hU Mnni Sur^^mes, pp. \ti* 
I 03 ; alto my prcfioe to the same wodr, pp^ v-viii, 
■ VCL,1L X 

3o5 Manx Folk-lcre mid SuperstUu^ns. 

with only one flxctl lioliJny, rinnicly, Sunilay. The kahic 
shifliii^; has partly liappciiod in W&lcs, lAhcfc LAmouui b 
Gtvj'! Awst, or the fcAilvul of Au};u3tii,H. Aircc the birth- 
day of Aui^ustus, aiMpiciousl/ for him ^nJ the celebrity of 
his dfiy, i'cll in with the {rrcal day cf the god Lug in the 
Celtic world Now the d^y for going up the Van V*ch 
mounuin in BrecUnuck was Lamma^t, but untler a Fro- 
testant church it became the first Sunday in August, 
and even modified in ihat way U could not long wrvtve 
iir>rtrr a vignrmi* rTolf%tiint n^gtm^ ['ii^hrr iti Wales or 
Man, Ah tu the latter in particular, t have h»T<! it related 
by y>rfsons who were present, how ihe crowds on the top 
of South UajtuIc on the first Sunday In Ilar\'C3t were dc- 
nouncctl at pagans, by a preacher called William Giclc,30cnc 
seventy years ago; and how another man called Pane Begt 
or Little i'alric);, prcadurg to the crowd* on SnarfcII, 
in milder terms, used to wind up the service with a collec- 
tion, which appears to have proved a speedier method of 
reducing the dimensions of these meetings on the moun-^ 
tam-lops. Be that as it may, they seem to have dwindl 
since then to comparative i n signifies nce. 

If you ask i\vz rca-snn for thus custom now, for it \% 
yet quite extinct, you are told, first, that it is merely 
gather ling berries; but now and then a quasi -rdigioin 
rcaaon is given, namely, that it is the day on ;vhich 
Jcphthab*3 Daughter and her companions went forth on 
the mountains to bewail her virginity: somehow, s<yaki 
Manx people make believe that they arc doing likewi: 
That is rot a'l, for people who have never themscivi 
thought of going up the mouniaini on the first Sui 
Harvc^it or any other, will be found devoutly readii 
home about Jephthah's Daughter on Ihal day \ was tol 
this first in the South by n clergyman s wife, who, finding 
woman in the parish reading the chapter in qiir^fion 
that day, asked the reason for her fixing on ihal pijrticiih 
portion of the Bible. She then had the Monx view of 
natter fully explained to hen and ^\z has since foui 

Maftx Folk-hrc Q9ui SupcrsiUums^ 307 

more inrormation About It, and so have I. This. Is a 
vciy curious insi^incc of & p^g^n practice profoundly 
modified to procure a new lease of life ; bm it is ni^'iflcsK 
for mcT to liAy iliat E do not ipiitr undc^ncUnd how 
JephlhaU's Dau^Iilcr came lt> be intruJucctl, and that I 
should be glftd to hfivc light shed on the qucntioa 

[ notice, ivith regard to most cf the mourttairs climbed 
on the fif-'tt Surclay of Harvest, that they ^ceiii to have 
near Uicir summits wells of some celebrity \ and these 
wclU appear to be the ^OhIL of the viaitorn' pere};rmatioii!f. 
This is the ca« with South Datrule^ the spring near the 
lop of which c^innot, it ia iaid^ be found when sought a 
Kccoml time ; »lsii wilh Srvi-fcll aiKl Muiij^luikl Hmd^ 
which boosts one of the ninst famous springn in the- i^ltind. 
When I v[^ited it 1a«t nuininer, in company with Mr. 
Kcrinodc; wc found it tocortein a considerable mtmbcrof 
pin^ ^oTTic of which were bent, and m^ny buttons- Some 
of the pins were not of a kind usually carried by men, and 
moM of the buttons decidedly belocif^ed to the dress of the 
other sex. Several people ;vho had resorted m^ny years 
ago to St Maughold'a Well told me iliat the water i« 
good for vorc eyei;, ;md that after using it on the f^pot. or 
filing a boiilc witli It to take home, one was wont to drop 
a pin, (ir tiead, or button, intft the* well. Rut it had eIk full 
vlituc only when visited on the first Sunday of Harvcht, 
and that only during the hour tJic books were open at 
church, which, shifted back to Roman Catholic times, 
means doubtless the hour when the priest i? cngaj;cd 
Sftyinc Mass- This restriction, however, is not peculiar to 
St Mau^^hold's W'ctl, 05 1 have hc^d of it in connection 
wilh other wells, such asChibbyr Lansh in Lc^ayre pahfh, 
and with a well on Slieau Ma^^j^l, in which »ome Ktrlc 
Michael people have a gre^^t belief Rut even sea-iA^ter 
was bflie\Mrd to have cunsideiablt- virtuti if ytm wanhed in 
it while the books were open at church, as I was told by a 
wunmn ^vhn WmX tn.^ny ytram ;<j{a repiMttdly takm her WAit 
^i&tcr to divert welbdfid to the ^ca during the service m. 

3o8 Manx Folklore and Sup€rsiiU0m. 

Sunday, in order tti have her eyw cured of tlwir chmnk 

Tilt jcmuiiiini', lirc'id tliiy m iiw. V.c\i\c yfiir is caill 
Sauiii Of Laa lluuiic/, fii ln>ti, S^tinliaiiM'.enittiix-Saiidinj 
the Manx call it in English Ih^htniidf^ a vhord derived fr 
ihc English £cm'uvc i>lvjraJ, W/M^/rfW/i,' ^ot Ad Hall 
TUe (W /'tff. This d^y i» also reckoned in M*n accordin^i 
the Old that it is our lath of November. That \s 
day whcr the tenure of land termirtaCc^tt and when r^rvanl 
men go to ihcir places. In other words, it is ih« bcfiinmof- 
ft new year; and ICclly^ in his MtJttX'Rngtish Di£iMnafy\ hsu^ 
under the word tktn. "year", the following note : "Valancey 
tays the Celt* began their year vAih January : yet in the 
Ule of Man thf^ first of November H called New Ycar^ 
Day Xry the Mmnini^rs, wh^^ <m llie eve, W^^^xu tlidr ^letftron 
in iJu^i; wuidi; ' To-nii-lJt U New VcAr's uiglil, Hug-ui> 
nan,' cte,' " It is a pity that Kdly, whilst he was on this 
subject, did not give the rhyme in Manx, and -l!! Ihc nnorc 
90. as the miimmcr^t of the present day have chanticd thea^^ 
word^ into A'£>gJit &U li&umy^ that is to say, Tonight ^| 
Sauin Nigjht for llallowccn). So I had deripaircfi of finding 
anybody who could corroborate Kelly in hia statement, 
when I h:ippcned last sunimcr to find a man at Klrtf Michad 
who was (jiilte familiar with this way of treittinj; the y* 
I aslcttl him if he could explam Kelly's absurd slatemcnt- 
I pill my fiutstion de^^igncdly in that form- He sai 
he could, Init thai there was nothing absurd in it He 
then told mc how he had heard some old people talk of 
it; he i.i himself nciwiiboutMxty-scvca He had been a farm- 
scrvart from the age of sixteen till he was twcnty-r-ix to 
same man, rear Rcgabyin the parish of Andreas, and he 

^ Sec Ihc Nr^ Et^liik DUi., t^. v. Ailh^ittfifi. 

' Thifl comes n*ir the prommcianon usual in Roxburghahire 
the South uf Scoi];tnd K^^ncfdJIy, whith i&»as D(. Munay liifotrnt mev *ithoui tii* m occurrinj- ju the otl^fr f[>rmfi lo bo ntei 
tiohcd picicnLly. iJut to f.Lr jl» 1 liftvc been ublr tu (iud« die Mj 
pronunciation U now JMdy nua^ whicb I have hc^iid in rbe Noi 
tmt iMju Mild i% the prcivlcui form la tho South. 

Manx F^tii'lorc and SupcrsiiiwHs. 309 

iTK*iFil>vi,s ht4 maiitcr ami a iicar lEcif^^hlxmr of his rli^usnng 
lliclcrm NcwYcar's IDaya^ftppKctilulhc first of Novi-nhcr 
and cx(?1dimtii; tti ihc younj^cT incn tliat I1 had always been 
so in old times. In fact ic seemed to him natural enovi;h,iu 
all tenure i>f land endi at thai time, and a:* all servant -men 
be^in tiic-ir iM^rvicc fit that d.ite. I crofl^-ex^Lmiricd him, 
without succeeding in any way in shaking his evidence. I 
should have been jjl^d a few years ngo lo liave ctinie acro^ 
Ihit piece of infortnation, or even Kelly'* note, when I waw 
cl!scuss[ij^ ihf Celtic yea* and trying to prcve' that il begin 
At Ihr hf-}^tnnmg of winter, viith May^iay fut the beginning 
of its Acuijiitl half 

One of the chnmctcrbtics of the beginning of the Celtic 
year with the commencement of nirter wai ihc belief that 
indications Cdii be obt.-;incd on the cvcof that day regarding 
the events of the year ; but with the calendar year gaining 
grounds it would be natural to expect that the Calcnd;; of 
Jaru^-try would have some of the ajisociacions of the Calends 
of Winter trai:!dferred to them, and vift versa. In fuct, this 
can,:'* it were, he ivarchrd row going on in the Ulc of Man_ 
Fipit, 1 may mwjiion that tlir Manx nnjmmer^ n^cd to go 
about singing, in Manx, ri sort of Hogmanay song,' re- 
minding one of that usual tn Yorkshire ajid other part:i of 

* S« Hiy HMtri LfUutfs. p|j. 5i4'5> 

1 J am inJtbled To Mr Kicon, M-K, for Tef«rcncc» on ihU tubj«ei 
lo IfuliU'a eoilion of Hn^nds Pofiultr Anti-^rtirin fLonJisn, 1870), 

pp, iB6k 187, where the followidc is girea u suns »t Richmond in 
Vurlahiit \ 

*To-Dlsht ll is ihe New-Yc4r'fl niglil, to-motrow ib the day. 
And wc arc cumc for oiir richt. ind for oLir ray, 
A« v« i\wA \a i\(\ in nirl Kin;; H^nr/H it,t)^, 

Siog, fdlowi, line, HiiC'nA'i-hcijth. 

" If you tco 10 ihe bACOQ-flick, cut me a good bit ; 

Cut, <ut snd lav, ti«WM« «f your staw ; 
Cut, cm uiJ found, bcMrnrcof yt>ui thumb, 
Thhi inr anri my n^rrry mrn niny have uime> 

Sic^, etc 

3IO Manx Fo!k-hn' and Skptrstiihiu. 


Great Britain, and itipiwHed m be of SouidiujivlAn ongtn. 
The time ftJT it IP thi* cmimry was New Year's Ew» 
according to thcurdiciary oilcmldr, buLtnllic I^lcof Mun it 
liju always beer IloIlantiMcEvcacconJJfigto ihc OldStyJc,^* 
ftiid this is the mght when hoys now ^o about continuin^^H 
the custom of the f)M mummcT^ There is no hesitation in ^" 
this caftc between Hollaniidc Eve and New Vcar** tl^-c. 
But with the prDf^no^tications for the yoftf it 19 different, 
and the following; practices have been u»uaL I may, bow- 
evvr, premiKC that as a rule I have abstained Trocn incjufring 
too closely whether they silll ^ on, but lu^re and there [ 
have h:ic3 the Tnformalion vohmteercd th;it they rfoi 

1, I may mcniion fiwt a salt profpiosiication, which was 
described to nte by a farmer in the North, whose wife prac- 
tises It OEice a yciir rc^iularly. She caicfuUy Till^ a ttiiinl>le 
with salt in the evening and upsets it in a neat little hc3|» 
on a plate : she docit thcit for ci-cr>' mefnbcr of the family, 
and ^\xiy guest, too, if there happen to be any. The plate 
IS then left undisturbed tiU the inommt;, when ^cexaminc^ 
the heaps of salt to sec if sny of them have fallen ; for 
whoever i:« found rcprc»:iitcd by a fallen heap vill die 
durmg the year. She does not herself, I am a^ured, 
believe 10 it, but «he like« to continue a custom which she 
has learned from her mother. 

2- Next may be mtnticired the a*he?i bein^j carefully 
swept to the open hcarih, and nicely flattened down by the 
wcmen just liefoir going In bed. Ir the nuirniilK thi-y 
look for footmuiK^ un the health, and if tfiey And such 
footmarks directed towards thcdoor, It means, in the course 
of the year, a death in the family, and if the reverse, they 
expect an addition to it by marrin;^' 

" If yuu RQ \*> the bkt4*4rk liiifig mc X mark: 
Ten m^rk. i»n pound, [h«»*- it <lcm'n upun th* f[roiind, 
Tbai nic and my mcirjr mcfi niAy Imvc some. 

' On bcinj; -iikcd^ aficr rtatlin;; di^3 paper, nlui way ai-ipposcd to 
mnkv ttw fodinwirki in ifac ashci. i had to coafctt thai t bod tM*B 


Manx J'oi^-icn: and Si€p<:r£iiiioHS. 31 1 

^ TTiffTi there Is an elaborate processor caws-cropping 
mommerttlLtl ta yiiung womrn ciinoLii£ to kiKiw tlidr 
hu»bandV names: a girl would go with lier moulh full of 
water and her handa full of ^AU Uj the ilotir of tIic rican:?>t 
ncighbour'i house, or ralhcr to that of the nearest neigh- 
bour but one, for f hive been eircfuUy eorrcctcd incirc 
than oiice on th^it point. There she ivould lir^tcn, sind the 
first nanc slic caught would prove to be that of her 
future hua;band. Once a girl dJJ 10, as 1 wiu tcid by % 
blind tisheman in the South, and heard two brothers 
tjuurrellinjj inside the hcnJ^e at whtk^e (loo^^he w;is llMLTfi* 
ing. I're^rntly the ytmng men's mother exclaimed that 
the devil wotifd iiol Irt Tnm lc-;ivc John iiltiiie, Al ihc 
mention of thai tiia^l ilic ^\A bur^l into the bouse, Uughing 
and spillinj; the fnoiithful of water ino:it incontinemly. 
The end of \i was i}\&\ before the year was out she maniod 
Tom, the second per^n mentioned: the lir^t cither did not 
count or proved an unaasaUablc bachelor. 

4. There ii al^^o a Wtunl for enabling a |;ir] to obtain 
other information respecting her future hunband : ve*9els 
placed aboal the room have vanou.'i tilings put into ihcm, 
such as clean w^ter, earth, meal, a piece of a net, or any 
other articlt thoujjbl appropriate, The candidalc for 
matrimnny, wiih her eyes bandHgcd. feels hrr way about 
the houM-* until she puL\ her liAud in une uf the aforesaid 
vessels. If what she lays her hand on is the clejin wAter, 
her husband will be a hwidMJinc man' ; if it b the coith. ho 
will be A farmer: ifthe meal, a miller; if thcnct.a^aherman, 
and so oil into as many of the walks in life as may be 
thought worthy of consideration. 

ctxcUci eoougli never to have julccd tbe c^iie&tioa. I have referred 
\i tu Mr. Moort. who infcnnt mc ih.ii nobody, as 1 cxpcttcJ. will 
venture on on cjcplAnuiion, by whooi the foot-markii are mAJc. 

' Thia feeina Lo imply the a(ipll<«fion n( the tAine Ailjcciivcp lome 
time or oilier, (*> dMn nciier and a J^aifJf^Mt man* jvtt a» «e tpeok 
ID ^ oah Ciu di^anyhijc oi Jter £/Jn, " pa^c vAia\ »ad ^cAgai £li«, 
"* hnoHliome bay.*" 

3 r 2 Ji/anx Folk-lore and Superstitions. 

5h Lastly, recourse muy be had to a iiluul uf xhn larac 
nature aA that obscnxd by the dniid of aDcScnt Erinn. when, 
burdcrcd u-ith a hcuvy meal of the l^cab of a red p^, 
belaid bim down for ihc night in order toaw&it a pro* 
phctic dream as to the manner of man the ncb]«s of l^rUH 
a^cmbicd at Tara were to elect to be their king. The ind^ 
dent b Riven in the story of Cvichulainn's sick-bed; and 
you aJ] know the passage abrjut Brian and the tagkairm ta 
iJie 4th Canto of Scoit*s Lady of tht Lt^kt. But die Manx 
girl ha^? only in r-tt a Kalt hrrrin]^, iHnnirf ai^d all, vtiThout 
drinlcin^ or ultmnt; a word, and to retire backwartls ^| 
bt'd. When A\ii slt'cps iind dreamy ahc will behold h^^ 
ftilunc husband a]jproaching to give her drink. 

Fn>bably none of the practice* which I have enurac* 
rated, or nin^ilar ones mentioned to mc, are In «ny sen^e 
pccL»liar to the Jslc of Man; but what interests mc IL 
them ir* the divided opinion a£ to the proper night for thc^| 
in the year. \ am sorry to say that E have very tittle 
infonnation a* to the blindmai's-baJT ritual (No, 4}; wh^L 
irformattor E have, to u-it, the evidence of two perso^H 
tn the South, fixes [t on Holbntide Eve, But as i^ 
the others (Nos. 1, :^, 3, 5), they art observed by v>mf 
that nii;ht,imd tiy others uu Nc a- Year's Evr, ^oinctrmi 
jtccMi-Jing to the Old Siylc' and sc-metimw the Ni 
Ftirlbcr, tho^tc whw arc wont to przictisc the Salt \\\ 
rittml, for inMoncc, on llollantidc Kve^ would be «ry 
indiLfnant to hear that orybcdy should think New Year's 
live the proper night, and rw rvj^. So by biingii 
wx>men bred and burn in different parishes to co«n| 
notev on this point, 1 haxc witnoned arguinff hai 
less eaniest tlian ih^t nhkh characterfscd the am 
conirover.^v beiwL'L'ii ]^^ll^h "m^^ ]t;ilifLn cecleslaHlIc* 
tn ilio proper time for keeping Hasten 1 have 
beL'ii ab]e to icMpthe i^and ^Kxordlii^ to the practiceifr 

* Thi« i« called m I'litlltpt l*r-iycrr-book /.i vis>IUk y htsg^^^^ \S\ 
K*tiviiy Dayi'anil LA xftran ^iitHYt "TIk Day of the YcAr*a Zi 
areanio;: uf cour«« the fojuier, nm tho Uitvr. tnd cifihcr^Ar, 

Manx Fotk'iort and SufcrstUwns. 313 

valcnt at tfollnntidc ctnd the bc^^irnlnf; of Jaruary, but 
iocal folk-loriistA could probitbly do i\ without much 
difficulty,^ My imprcssior. however, U that January Is 
gradually acquiring the upper hand. In Wa]c* tin's must 
have been decidedly helped by the EnflticncL' cf Roman 
rule and Roman iciea^; but even in Wale* the adjunctsof ihc 
WInicr Calond? h^vc npver been wholly transferred to ihir 
Calenda of January- Wilness for insiancc^ the women ;vho 
used tc congregate in the parish church to Hitcovc-r vrhcj ljT 
the pBrLshioncr;! ^liould die during the year.* That custom, 
in the ncifihboLii hoods jcportcd to have piactiscd it, con- 
tinued to Attach itftctf to the bat, so far as E know, to the 
bcghining of November- In the Isle of Man the fact of the 
ancient Celtic year having ^o firmly held its own, accnu 
to point to tlic probable fact that the year of the paf^an 
Norsemen pretty nearly cotncidcd with that of the CcIIr-' 
For llicrc are reasons to think, as I have endeavoured else- 
where to thow, that the Norw Vulr was originally at the 
end of summer or the commencement of vjntcr, in other 
*rord3,thc days afterward* kiiovrn as the Feast of the Winter 
Nights. Thii wa? the favourite ciatc in Iceland for hstcnfnj; 
to soothsayers prophcsyini* vith regard to the winter Ihcn 
beginning. The late JJr. Vi^iisa^oti had much to say on 
this subject, and how the local Sybil, rcfiuminj; her elevated 
9e»t at the opening of each suceeuis'C winter, gave the 
author of the Vchspd his plan of that remarkable iK>em, 
which ha* been described by the same authority as the 
highest ^fritu^ elTcrt of the heathen poetry of the Nurtlv 

< Here, Again, 1 roust appeal ID Mr* Kertnodc and Mr. Moore. 
■ See my HMfrt Lnhtt^t, fji. 514-5, anJ i\\f BrytAan for tt^ 

pp. 30, I3A 

* 1 hii has been Tciuchtd upon in my Hihbtrt Lectmti. p> t»;<l ; tjut 
1(1 Ihc rvft&c^ns th&rc bnclly mcniioncd ihouM tjc mlilcii ihc position 
aUvttcil tu ir-icii:aluir fiiomhs \x\ Lhc Nu(»c ciTcnd^i. nAdiclv, 4t the 
■ end u^thc ii^iumrr, iljti is, an I thiukjit ilic tiiii ci ihr aJicj^Lt None 




V the frllowing paj;cs I *h^l! iirtt emuUre iho ex 

orif^n cf our rlrama to (he medieval jii)rHdc-|j1ays in a «uly 
trwlittonnry manticr. IF ihcy could be questioned a,*i to 
why they did ihi.t, 1 feci pcisuackd tbcy could gi\v 
belter amiver Ihnn that which ever ddi^htn ihe ear* of t 
folk-lore collector: *' Hccauac uur fathers did it/' I f< 
tliut FuLK LoKK i^ not the place to tnimplo on tradition; 
but this particular tradilicn is of literary origin, and I hope 
the mention of that fact alone will enlist the reader's sym- 
pathtes on the side of the iconoclast. 

The author of a recent work on the English s' 
work in many respects of grcar importance arw] uscfuinc 
even prQte^iLs again:st t lie taking into account of early acti 
in rural disulcls and provincial town* in connection wi 
*thc Ecncr-il history of the Mage". All such matters 
leaves aside as having no place in a booh intended '' us 
aid to the litcrjity student". 

The English drama, itisevidcrt, is regarded as a lite 
institution, for which an arbitrary literary origin \% to 
accepted. Conformably with this conccplior, the same 
author icTnarks : "The principal reason for the esciiit 
of any players at all must be looked for in Court fashi 
and Royal jjatKinagc." It is very dear that the peop 
the folk, are ncpwhciB in tJiis jtccount. The usual cod 
lion of the origin of our drama may be staled in a \ 
words -as follows ; It arose from the miracEe-piaya aiid m 
tcncj?, which gave way to moralities and intcriudct; \ t 
were succeeded by the Eliin-ibethan drama, which was 

Folk- Drama. 




cniM of the RcnaiMaiicc, whnsc pUywiiyUt^ wiou^lit 
under ihe iii^pirntiun of the clft-vsical drama of Gicccc 
and Rome 

U i5 to be noted, in the first place, that the Elizabethan 
theatre was bcfurc all ihincs a popular institution. Now if 
wc connicJcf on the o[ie hand the character of the plays 
]>re£i?ntcci, and on the other the average culttirc of the 
people, that popularity is surprising, tt seems to me the 
explanation k to be fnund in the natuntl aplitiide oftho 
English jieojjle for the drama, an aptltui.]e which *htjw* 
iUeir throiiKhf*iit our history, Thertr wun: htindrrtlv of 
dramas extant \x\ die Kli;iiabcU)aii lime which arc now lotit 
to u» ; if that is k), it is highly probable there were many 
more belonging to an carliei pcrirxi similArly loil. The few 
morality -plays and interludes that hove cone down to u5 
do not repfc^nt the pre- Elizabeth an drama* There was no 
reason for the preservation of obsolete plays ; jn the more 
conficious da>'s c^f Elizabeth's time, the old playe ^vcre 
rejected and ficomed from the art standpoint, and the MSS 
ripcrayed or wrne destroyed, Tht?fcw that havesnrvlved prob* 
ably did ho by selection, and so are not represcni^ti^^. The 
same |Koplc who in their youth listened absorbed at llw 
pcrFormance ofinlerludcs and moialitica, in mtddlc-a^^eaaw 
the ra caricatured in the humours of Hottom and lu^t fellows. 
ift levelled at the player rnther than the old play^i \ Jt i« the 
gibe of the professional at the amateur All over Knffland 
before Shakespeare's time there were companies of playerSr 
and they were all amateurs ; servant* attached to the great 
houses of the land, who, with allowances for caricattircv 
rehearsed plays in the manner of Bottom and Quince* and 
Sim;;, and on fc^tivr occasions wtrrr admitted into the great 
bouses and gave their peifornjiinces in prrsLiice of the 
company assembled These players, too, were permitted, 
by license of their masters, to vi^t ncii^hbourln^ towns, and 
,pcffonn there forilic sakcof the fcwaids bcstowcil oa them. 



EniricN of rcwanlii to siich playtrr* swarm in Corporation 
AccoufitS and k i< the tlotng« of these oompvilcs of actors 
which arc rulcti uut of ocjud 1iy ihc author 1 have allude<l 

The dramatic acti\'ity in our cotJnlTy before ihe Shako- 
5pcjtrc e^KJs IS cxlrauidinary, If wc cllT^^i(J^r Its quantity 
merely. Uut because it wu crude, and wa) iiiitncdiatcl/ 
followed by surpaaaing art, it cannot be divoic^ Trwa 
that art. The dramatic aptitude of the Enfibh folk, 
And the encrp^ that murl have been tiirown into obsolete^ 
lost, and forgotten dramas, had their reward when culture 
and f^eniua condescended lothem. They had made a oon- 
diiit pipe through u-hfch could flow mu«ic stnd wisdom from 
the hi^fhest to the lowest. But the Rifilcing of tb;it pijie 
bc'lt^gs ti> ihr fclk. Ami wir an? In cortsulrr th^tt ho\t«i^H 
open to ridicule the follt>pUycis might be -li iu AftWjvm^ 
mer iV(gA/s Drntn*, or to correction jU in ii&mUi, the 
acting of the best of Ihcm, who naturally gravitated to ibc 
metropoIU, mu^t liavc been f^ood to have attracted a^^ 
retained the attention of cultura The word "drani^| 
primiirily sipiiBcn '"action"; and however the p la j^w rights 
may have ransacked elasaical sources for their plays, the 
dr;irnatic action they could nut borrow. That at least wa£ 
original and if not original traditional. 

All *i'mbfilic or concerted action and gesture arc ex< 
ingly traditionary. It is a point to i^hich I shall allude] 
another connection presirrtly ; but I intrnduce it 
because It appUc:i to every stage of development. In 
matter we arc still children, and rc^jcnt variation. Wc all 
remember that when Mr. Irving waft unfolding his scries 
Shakeitpearean conceptions some yeara a^oat the Lyt 
how his new renderings were rejected by many, Wc alwaj 
want to see plays acted as we have seen them acted beft 
It IK onty recently that the venerable stage -trad it ion 
Hamltt, by *hich the First Gravcdigger wasmade to lake off 
inmimcrahk wai»!cn;it?( befc^re netting to wnrk, ha^ giver 



"woy"!© crittcism — a Trnditioti nmonc plnycrn from the 
Elu^^bcthan period. Those who regard Eli/abcthar pbys 
as literature only, surely forget that thvy were written for 
actor; a!rc;id/ in existence, with their tmdition? and play* 
of a cnidcr form. But the remembrance of tiiat fad is aecet- 
sary to the criticfsm of thp plays »« literary ma i^lcr pieces. 
Wc should u^l lidic hinl the pUiys l>ul for tlie cundtlton^iL 
It w;u) the popular dmuiu and quick dnunatic ^tcnsc A'hich 
begot the higher drsma of culture and classical colour. 

Then: are facts antiecedcnt to the Shakespeare dramn, 
facts of folk-lore eiiscntialJy, to which the attention of 
students of the drama may be approphatoty invited in 
ihc^e pagc«- When "wc are told that the origin of the 
English drama \v^^ the miracle and mystery- pUys, which 
were or(;aniKtfd hy the priest* an<l fn«nk?i of rehgioac 
houses^ wc, who seek for cau^res, ask : Wh^ did the Church 
or{;ani-<«c iheM- dramatic rcprc^rntationn ? In mo^l ca<ti» 
wr receive no antiwc^r. But ''a French writer", quoti'd 
by Warton» and others from him, hints that llic object 
was to "bupcntcdc tlic dancing;. mu.Hic^ mimicry, and 
profane mtimmcrics" Ko which the folk were addicted. 
Still quest ion irgj wc mquire into the nature of Ihcac 
clancing and profane mummcricK, l^ut the hiAtorian^ 
cannot tell us; they priid no heed to tradition; their 
object is literary crillcUm. Again wc ask: Whj/ it was 
thought ad viable or nerc«*mrj- to provide the^c dramatic 
reprc^ntati»n« of Scripture and Church lejiendf* : but 
wc receive no answer In fact, wc canrot get beyond 
the miracles and mysteries ; tim -h-^s the bcginnlnf;:, a 
starting-point which haa become traditional in dramatic 

The explanation b the same as in the casc of those 
writers wtio can sec no connection between the sudden 
perfection of the Ktiiabethan drama and the crudities 
that preceded it. The mimclc-plays and the mysttjries 
exist- The MSS. have been prcscn/cd, have httn 



printed, edited, Tuniiihed with copious exe^i* and cocn- 
mcDlaiy. They have been studied as literatura Now 
their value aa literature Is siirel/ taken on Irtist The 
JJicc:^'^ were written clown U> the nidc piignn mmd. and 
their value Wcs in that circumstance. They were devised 
to c^iptivatc the cyCf to arrest atleiitiou, to itnprcss on 
iHiwilline or indiiTcrciit minds, innocent of all cultivation, 
the perrionalities and the storica of the Christian culL If 
VfC may not deny them a place n$ literature, wc rtiM.y 
re^rd them as they are, exotics, fareiffn to the people m 
their origin. Their position in relation to liCerattire cor- 
responds, perhaps, to that of chap-books ; radc versions of 
literary subjects prepared for unlettered people. The 
Rlble is literature, and Homer, and the Sagas: but these 
plays, deviled by eceJe^iastics for didactic ptirpns!*<, have a 
very different origin and development. lit rcUlLun Iti the 
medieval history of England they are extremely im- 
portant I and when Ihcy arc so stutiJcd, the obvious 
direction of inquiry ^vill t>e into the condition of thin^ 
amid which they were introduced, into those pat^n per* 
formance^ of a dramatic character which they were devised 
to supplant 

For tlic sake of clearness it U perhaps not superHuouK to 
set down the fact that tbe Saxon invasion of England 
preceded the introduction of Christianity. From this 
•iource.and from the later Danish immigrations, arc derived 
the original elements, Teutonic and Scandinavian, of 
Engliih folk-lore. Of these elements, those of which it 
tnay be predicated most clearly that they belong to the 
Northern mytholr^y, are song and dance, and combined 
or concerted imitative action of any kind Why these 
elumenta never intermarried, and so never produced a 
Northern literary drama, h due probsbly to political caustt; 
t>ecause In the jwetry of the Edda,s, in the religious rites 
of the warlike worship of Odin, in the power of expression 
HA bhuwn by tlic scntd**, and tlie musical cap;bcit>* st% -shoijvn 



the Saxon gkcmcn, wc have tlw constituents of ihc 
dfama fts clearly as In the South and in India. In the 
ftword'darce performed by young warriors in honour of 
the chief Teutonic god, as described by Tacitas, wc have a. 
parallel to the Dorian choral d^tnces rcprc:^cniing mihtciry 
roovcmeut*. in honour of Apollo, the god of war and 
miistc. To thp RhapsoclUts, fn who*e union with the Dorian 
cbom^t*. thi? B;u:thic dances, und the Dionysian rftcs wo 
ftrd the origin of Gteek drama, wc may oppow the 
Norllicm :*aiUI:^, And may wc nol conclude that had it 
not bcc« for tJic inlruduclion uf Chrisliamtj' wc sl]t>uld 
)iavc had in the North a dnima corresponding lo that of 
Greece, a direct outcome of the myChobgy of the EddiLS 
and the ritcn of the worchip of Odin? Ihc constituents 
existed : the combination was wanting. Now It is the 
SLir\*tvaU of those elements in the folk lore and traditionary 
customs of our country that I venture to call En^h'sh 
folk-drama. These va/ious links of tradition, when com- 
pleted and placed In order, will carry us up to that 
embrj'nnic state fjf natural dramatic dcvclopmtfnt which 
preccdc-d the Intrcxluction of a foreign clement in Ihc 
sliape of miracle-plays and mysteries. 

In the accompanying diagram I have attempted toplace 
in parallel lines the development of the drama amcn|f the 
European diviaion^of the tndO'lJermanie race. It will be 
seen then that while the Greek and Roman drama have 
developed regularly and independently from pagan rcli^ous 
observances^ In the case of the Teutonic and Scandinavian 
branches the dct'elopment has been deflected by the tntm- 
duetion of Christianity, 

In India the devHnpmcnt has brcn nnrm;il thrntightnif, 
Monti^T WiUiam.'s i" his Indian Wisdom, thus d(^<<c:rila^ 
the (irigici of the iliudii drama : — 

" In alt likdihoed the ficrm of Ihe droniatjc rcprcscntntien* of 
the Hifid&s. as of the Greeks, is 10 be ^ou^ht for m public eKhi- 
hlElonvof dancing, whicrh ronsiiiied at firn of simple movements 


Folk- Drama. 

<4 tbc bodjr, GiccuLcd m linrmony witb singing and mmic 
Indeed, Ihc root ttat and the nourrs jvrl^ and rtdfaJLty whicii arc 
noit applied tc dnmaiic acimg, ure probably m^re civtiiptions of 
iTffV, CD 'dfuicp:*, "f^^'^ 'danHng'. an^ mirfiiJta, 'fldanopy. Of 
Ihift dancing vuiout ft>lc« were £r*Ldu.illy invented* such u ibc 
Zdr^ja and Tditi^az/at to cxprvas difTcrcnt actioiu or roncnu sok 
tin] en U ami (rmotions. 

"Vriy soon d'inciriK*^* rsnt-rdrd ic {ndude jmntomlralc gi'ttt' 
culations iiccompanicd witti more cbboritc nuuic^l poformoikoes, 
and thtf&e gcMicuUtiona vtvtt aided by occnnonal oeckiDAtions 
1vTv£-cn [hi^ inirrv^h of ringing. PInAlIy. nfltnrftl Itn^ostgr took 
l)ic plicc of mtu^c and singing, vTiile (e^tlitnlatiofl became 
merely subservient to emphasis in dramatic dialogue,'' 

Such was the odgiD of the Indian drama, and dramatic 
HteraturCj comparable in every nenie with that of Greece 
and Rome : find a ctcvclopmeri of chc drama In northern 
Kiirnpc, in the ^b^ence nf Greere, ;ind Rcinic, And of 
Christiamty. would probably have yielded a very clo«c 
parallel to tlifit of India. But it i» to the actual effect 
of Chrbtianily upon the dr&cna of Europe to which I 
desire to direct altcrlion^ 

In the fullox^ing diagram 1 have endeavoured to give in 
(graphic form my ccjrception of the lines of development 
of the claiwicaJand European tlrcima, with the special object 
of showing the influence of Chn&tlamty on the latter. It 
will be obser^ that there is nothing to correspond to 
elofisical dram^ in Teutonic countrir^i, in which to some 
ext>:rt tlie actual classical drama w^ utilised. 


DsH>id Clbtiud 

1 PlnlnWtlnr 



My reading: of the pcncalocy <A the Englifih qiic drama 
\% the fnc«ting of two forces, Fagan and CbriKtian, re^ulllnf; 
in the concession of the miradcpUy and cr>*«tery; that 
aloni;Aidc the miraGkpb>'£,th<;tT:uJitionaIcml>ryonic drama 
oonttnued to exist, competition with which led cverHwally 
to mlxlni; or debasing :he miracle-play representations and 
ultimately to their abolition ; Xh^X. at the Kcnaisiance the 
popular acCors became providt^ wiih vkriticn scciilai play's 
founded partly on traditional subjects ; that in the coin[x>- 
ntion of pageants or ma«;ues the popular pagan traditions 
became combined with reproductions of Creek and Roman 

VOU If. T 



daasfaal tbcoKs; that a amibr oocDbimtMTO occurTC<l 
Ife Etuftbd&ftA dmmA, ooubly ia Sbakcspcarc where the 
biry mytbotof^ of the folk is iot erw c a ve d wttb the plots 
fti>d storicft of the p)ay«. And thtu, b}- repeated e^ortsv 
the de%-eEopm>cilt was brooght back as Car as po»blc co the 
line, and ^e ncial character of our drama wa.« mleetned- 

It leefTu to me that th£s b lo gth^c our drama a rrKirc 
illii9trinn« tinrage. ami a more natural ocigiti, th^n b>' 
axribans it to ibe cib^clc-ptays cfUtc Middle Ages. Wlul 
may have been contHbuud by the mtncle-play — but nx 
cannot be sure — b the form of dklo^uc, the conduct of a 
story by speaking characters. But this the ecclesiastics 
borroved from Greece and Kome Our Saxon focefalhcn 
may even ha^x had a rude form of it thexvud^^es. It is 
pondble that traditions of the dramatic action u»d by the 
■calda in their recitaU of the Eddai — parts of which are m 
dialogtie form —may have lingered among tbcm ; noc 
shoutd it be forgotten that the rolk-talen oTa race urith xudi 
remarkable dramatic prDpens]tkC5 uould mxivc a driiinatk 
rendering in rccitatic^n* In the Eliiabcihan drama 1 6nd 
not a trace of the mirac)e-p)ay. On the other hand, I do 
fiodf^^soffic of the ckmcnta which inrrc thrust into the 
mlfacle-playa, when the dramatic ^aiius of the people, rude 
as it may have been, could no longer l)e restrairK:d, and 
unconsciously stro^x to make the reljgiotts pia>-s bold the 
cnliTOr up to nature^ And nhcn I come to Shake^tpoare 1 
feel that the clafih of arms, the battles, the warlike proocs- 
slocis, belo«^ by right of blcod and ancestry to the swoid- 
dance of Odin. 

The facdity vnth whicli folk-clrama became combaned 
with the literary dr<ima b explaJnabW by the fact of their 
common origin. The cOEnbination was of crude and tm* 
dcvc]{>pcd dramatic elements, existing in the body of the 
national traditkm. with the reflected drama of cia&sicat 
Greece .itid Komcboth havinj; a common origin, the Nonhem 
undeveloped, the Southern developed, 1 ntius sense Lnglish 
drama has carried on the spirit of the ancient eluskal 



dr^TriA from the point or decadence- If it were necessary to 
dfiinoaatrUc that the e^irly Kl[2ah(ftii;in dmin:itic ^mCeT<( 
reAeeted the anciettt classic liiemturp, it couM be done by 
rnumrncting the pUy*. when il would appear that an over* 
whelming proixjrlJoii nf them w«e tiikf-n frnnt thU •*narcr. 
Bbit the way in whidi tlic native element entcted into this 
rcfleetc>d drama is cquall)' clear — the combination of the 
folk-dran^a with the literary, [n Shakespeare hiinaelf tt is 
peculi^arly evident ; and the 1attcr-4ay German appreciation 
of Sh.-tkc»;pearc Is explainable on this ground. He ]» full of 
th« Teutonic spirit, as w^ll a^ ot~ the Southern culture ; and 
M« power rcftt« upon his extraordinary- educational influenca 
He not only poetiaed t!ic nntionot history ; he interpreted 
to his nation the higher mental (urnitiire of another branch 
of the *ame race. He pcrsoniiies in htinielf die tnion of 
folk-diama with the literary drama. 

As in the eaw cif folk-lii!e\ ^o with rnlk-dniiTiA, the tra- 
ditiuna] beniEiic* iibsuibcJ by the Uterary. find the Iradi* 
tional gocA on ju^t the nnme, in obedience to tJie \\v\fs of it:t 
exiskncc. apliuing up, taking fresh colour, changing and 
yet rcUinJn^ identity; and by-and-bye comes the com* 
mentator, who, noting the rescmbtancc^^ to the literary form 
would» if he couJd, dianiit»5 Ihe^ poor honei^ n^alfi^ and 
£trays A4 mere limbs of Uterary origin. J{ccau»e all that 
was artiittically possible In folk^drama became absorbed In 
the literary drama, we will not feel lc*s, but more, interest 
ir the*e iraciitionary contributions to a noble art By way 
of taking a nearer view of folk-dnim^, let us examine one 
of the chief channels by which ihe traditions flowed. 

The Gilds were a thoroughly Saxon restitution. Dr E. 
W. Wilda, in his J!J<w Gi/dtnst^sat itt Mitu/a/Ur, ascribes 
their oripn to the sacrificial feasts of the Teutonic peoples, 
l^ppcnbcrg adopts the *amc view, which i^ supported also 
l>y Thofpe in his Dtf^icmafariutn AHj^iicum. Grimm has 
the following on the origin of the word "GiW; "Gildan, 
k«Uan among its many meanings, has also to do with 
mM>rshlp and sacrifice; it was from the old sacrificial baii- 



quels that our ;^ildK took their name.** Dr. Lujo Brcntano, 
in his Essay cm lA^ Hitiory and D^vtU/^mcnt of GHds, c\:^\mt 
that tlic first gildi; were formed on the basis of the family, 
nnd that thry itcrc sacridcial unions from which later on j 
tlic religious gilcU wcr? developed fnr :t¥>a)C]ation in prayen* ^^ 
and gcod works. Mr Toulmin Smith denies the origin In ~ 
pu^^n HACriJidal feasts ', but on the airtiquily of English 
gDds he is emphatic HeAa>-»: ^En^^lish Gilds, asa system 
cf wi^lcaprcftd pMciicid tn^titutjon?^* arc older than «my 
kings of England. They ere lold of in the books that con- 
tain the oLdcst rclicfl of Kni^li.'^h laws. The old laws of 
King Alfred, of Kinc Ina, of Kinp Athd>lan, of King 
Henry U reproduce still oJdcr laws in which the universal 
exigence of GlIcIk U treated a« a matter of w'ell-kno^^T1 fact, 
and in which it i% taken to be a mattcroreounethate\«ry- 
one bdoni^ed to aorne Gild" An ori(^n that looks back 
frr>m the timr of Alfrc-d ii prarticaliy vpcaldng Teut«>nic or 
Scandinavian ; and here ive have acliannel from whidi the 
traditions of sacnfidal riles (lowed niHth lev* inlcmiptton 
thcLii where the fdk were: nujrc immcdjatdy under priestly 
iiiriiieni^c. It 1% true Uiat llic religious chaiactcr of the 
gilds changed from pAgan to Christian, and as Christian 
became ultimately associated nith the mira<le-play5 ; but 
the point 1$ the independence belon^ng to an A^grrgation of 
individuab, organised according to tradition, as an agency 
for maintaining tradition. In hi^ intcr»tinj:>^ lUtle book on 
Stratford on Avon, Mr. Lcc ha* the following passaf:^ 
which dcRcribei: these instiiutions when they had become 
clearly English as distinct from Tcnionic : — 

" Thv e^idy Engli^li guilds must not be confounded with the 
inodtrm survival in the City of London. The guOdcowcd tbrir 
origin to poptTar religions ohii^tvnnccs, and de^-elnped into hiwi- 
tudonn nf Inrvil self-hcln Thty wtre sDcicliea nt once rpltgioDt 
and friendly, ' collected for the love of God and oui aoul'a need'* 
Mcrabcrt of both ^oxcs— and ih^wom^n wrt; atmoBt as nmncrona 
tu the men— wcTfv aamitte<l Oi\ [>aymcnl of a small annual tubcchp- 




tion. Tins priinru-ily »vcurt<d for thent the peHormanc^eftcf certain 
rrligiou^ riivii, whirh wrp nion; valued Ihan life itfolf^ Wtuk tlid 
ntimtlH^rs livcil) 1>iJt iruirct crj^iK^illy aiict ibcif <]r4th, lighted 
upcTii were duly dinirtbulcd in their bchilf, before the nltitrs of 
the Virgin and of their patron taints in the parittti ctku»:h. A 
poctr man In the Vliddio Ages foufid i\ very difttcull, vitbout the 
mlcnvTLtiun qC ibc f;uildbi, lo lotij lliiri itrjd to wlvaliun alwjy* 
open. Relief cf the poor ard of ncee»sitou» members dUo formed 
port of tlie gtitld'i objects, and gifts wsrv freciu^dy awarded to 
iiii-niben anKtous to luako- pll^rttiiage to Cintt-rbLiry, and if times 
llic h^iiii^tcr mccnbcn received dowries from the JLUOciatioii. The 
rt-|;ulntion which compellc^d the mcmben to attend the TuncTal of 
Ai)>' of their fellows united thi^tn among Ihem&elves in do^e bonds 
of intini;ic^'. 

*'5ut the vocial spirit was mainly fostered by a great annual 
meeting. On that occ^iofl all members wfri; expected to attend 
in tpceia] untforin. With hnnnert dying* they riarchcd in pro- 
CCiAton 10 rhnrrh, nnri mibsi^iifnlly i;it di»wn rngrlhrt to a 
Ut)£^ fcait- Tlic g\jM* were stiictiy Uy x^nocidlionv I^ricit*, 
in many CovriA, were cadtidcd irom them, and where rhcy were 
admitted hdd no moiv proniinrni pLicp thiin ihe laymen. The 
giiildi t'ln^kloyed uml^h [nn-^U to tdebratc tlieir letigrous strvicts, 
liui they wcic the paid servants of ihe frntcmiiy. Every ntcmljer 
WM expected lo leave at hii dtaih as much property m he could 
Bpart to the guildi, and thus in cotinie of time they became 
wfvibhy cnr|*iifari*ins. They all wcie g^nremctl by thnr own 
dcctcd ot^ccra — ^wcLrdcn^, aldermen, bcadica, and derki, and a 
common council lortncd of their rBpresvnuiJvcs kept watch over 
their projwny and righw," 

That shows a ixjrfcctly indc[jcfidcnt orgamsation, and if 
murh nn tirj^ani^atiun undcrliiDk the ]>cT(i)iniancc nf mirade* 
l>biy\ it was <kt no priestly dicUlion, The gr^datlun was 
perfectly natural, by which tmdicion^ry rite?( wx:rc replaced 
by rnintcle-playtt on the occa^i^m:! at the ^[[d fesiivahL 
And tlic body of tradition thus ftbcltcrcd under the wing 
of the gildi^ far into the in<.'di;t^val period, was consider' 
Able; n<*r did it bocomc wholly displaced or absorbed, 
but Km cofitiiiued a slouly diminisliing quantity ever 



tXvKtL Thifi waft the channel by which a l*PRe patf 
EngEMi folk^drama kept An inclepen^eni cxi:aencc. 

Thus il u wr miivt IntiV to miinrdpal and local trttstonT 
anJ ob-icivancc fwr irailiUoTis uf ilrjuiiilic tmjHirt Wc 
find ihat at Coventry, ore of the chief homes of the 
miracle- pliiy, on the occasions of roy*] visits l^) tlic city, 
waseTchtbitcd* among other ps^cant^ the pagcam of* St. 
George", which \s^& i^ccular and kgcrdary in ehamcter 
The word pAgeont scem,'^ to have under^nc a good deal 
of modification in iLt application and mcaiiinfi:— from being 
employed to describe the performance itstelf, it citmc to be 
applied to the movable stage on which niracleplays were 
prc^entcrd, and its it«t? appears to h;tve ncime connection 
with the dissociation of the miracle-plays from the churches 
vrlierc- ihey were originally jwrfoniieil. This trAfi^ltion 
probably did not escape Warton, and lie pohil-i out that 
the pa^c.^nt.^, which on civil occa-sion:^ derived great pan 
of their decorations and characters from hi^toilcal fiict, 
were a nenrer apprcjxi motion to the regular drama than 
the nnyflterics. Mysteries and mJr;tcle*plays, and paj;^nt9 
consi^tmg of the dramatic presertatior of legendary 
£ubjects, eccm to have alternated as occasion served or 
suggested. Let \x% take a pariicular town — Leicester. 
Here the religious gild; flourishrd ; miracjc-plays were 
performed, and pageant* were preseiitM. In this tov^D 
one of the tcligicnjs (^ilds wiL*^ dcdicaterd to St. George, 
the patron saint of England, whose festival is on the 2jrtl 
April* tLnd hence at L.eiccntcT the populof celebratioas in 
honour of St- George were kept up with remarkable vit'our. 
Now L am not f^oing to tdcntily St George, or analyac 
tlie legend ; I am not even at this moment going to inquire 
whether the Saint has been fastened upon a legend that 
came here with cur Teutonie or Scandinavian fathera 
But 1 lind the celebrations in his honour at Leicester to be 
entirely secular, popular, organiied by a gild, and unin- 
fluenced by n(.Ttt-sT atticism. The same celebrations took 
j>lacc every year at Stralfurd-on-Avon, and in tf«s cod* 



rtection it is curious to note tbc date of the festival of St, 
Ceore;c; the 23rd April, Shakespeare'^ birthdi^y, That 
day used to be a general holiday in StmtfoM in the Middle 
Age^ ;i« it ougtit to be no^v for a prouder c^tue: There 
4re some notices of tlie^c cclcbrfttlons at Leicester, at 
Stratford, at London, and clwwhcre, which 1 will briefly 
rpfer lo, in order that wc m;iy not*" ttir dements of the 
legend and their drama lie preieiitation. 

In 14 i(^, at Windi^nr, a jK^rformancc took place before 
the Eraijcirar Sigi^muiid and Henry V, divided into ihxee 
piit-H, fir^i, "the annyrg of Scint George, and an Angrl 
doyng on his npwre-V [spurs] : secondly, " S^Lint George 
ridyo^ and fighi/ng with the dragon, with his spear in his 
hand"; and thirdly. " a castell, and Saint George and the 
KyDf^'s daughter ledyn^ the lambe in at the caste] g4te5." 
No speeches are mentioned ; probably it was all panto- 
mime, a£ wc should »y now, the original me;inm^ of the 
word drama having bec^omc changed. But a^unfdly a 
very pretty spcclacfc, in The ye^LT after Agincourt, where, 
fioiibflevt, many a sptritrd [:hai):e wiLs made in the name 
of the English -^aml, iis Sh^krspcH/e inake*^ the King 
invoke hiin in Henry V, Ijcforc llaiflcur; 

" Upon this eliat^- 
Cry God foi Haiiy, England, aEid Saint Geurse I" 

This wa« a royal affair ; we will glance at tome local 
eeIcbration& It is to be noted, by the way, that the 
spectacles of St. George were invariably arranged \r\ con- 
nection wiih a uel! 01 waler-conduil. In a deieriptifjn of 
the n-ccptioTi nf Prinri- Kdw;trd at Cnvmtry in 1474, 
printed in Shaipc':^ Coi'ottry Mj/iirh^s. among various 
lagcanta, and ipceches, and minstrelsy, the following 
;urs L " Upon the Condite ir the Crosse Chepyng was 
seint GeoiTpe armed and Kyngc^ doughr knclyng afore 
hym v^ a lambe and the fader And tke moder be>'in^ in 
a loure a bovcn bch^jldynj; seint Geo^ce sa^'yng their 
dought' from the dragon. And the Condite rcnnying wine 



in liij places And mynatniltcy of Organ plcyinf^c ^nd seint 
Gcor£:e havyine thia spcchc under xvr>'iicn " 

In proof of the legend huvitii; been the subject of A 
folk-play, it i^ to be noted that at ihc performance of 
the play of "St Gcorpc** at Bafiingboorne in 1511, John 
Hobaidj a brotherhood priest, received 2t, M. for^bcaf- 
ing the book", or. in other words, for filling the office of 
prompter (J. P. Collier, Nt'sL Dram. Pmi.% Thro*by. 
the hiMorian of ljcT::c";tffr, dr^icribcs the " Riding of ibe 
Gciir^^c" i**i "tbc ^rinde>1 Miltmnity of the tnwn". It was 
a point of honour with the Gild of Sl George In Lckcslcr 
to maintain the custom. An Act cf the Corporation 
Common HclLI, passed in 1467, made it incumbent od all 
the mhabiliint? to attend the trAyOT"for the Hiding of the 
George/' Penalties ;vcrc infltclcd bythc Corpomtion upon 
Jti^elf or its officers, for faiUirc to uphold the cer«nion>*. 
In 1523 it wa« ordered by the Common Hall that whoe^«r 
should be master of St- George's Gild, " should c^iuse the 
George to be ridden, twroraing to thf M antteH/ ctu/om, 
that h to say, between Sl Gcorgc'?i d^yanJ Whit^undaj." 
In case nf negli^ct a pirn;ilty of five |Kmml^ wns to be 
liifictcd; and if Uic titaytJi' and chanibcrUins failed to 
enforce it, they were lo be fined rcspcctiwly jfe StJ^ and 
6j, 8rf. i'Vom an entry in the Chamberlain's Account in 
!S3^ *^^ ^n item 'far dressing oJ the dragon", wc may 
Infer that the Leicester ceremony was of tlie uaual kind, 
although \i IS iilways t|n-iinily styled "the Riding of tJie 
Geurj^i:'*, Thrrc was a Gild of S(- Gcnrgtr al Norwich, and 
the pageant of "St. George and the Dragon'* always accom- 
panied the mayor and corporation in their pro<cs:tion*. 

Passing now from the dramaLs»:d versions of Ihc legend 
of Sl Geor^ and the Drngon, let us briefly review another 
folli-dramo, the Robin Hood play. This play, which \s 
printed in Gutch*^ J<t?din llc&d, is the direct outcome of the 
May Games. When we survey the early English celebra- 
tion of the gre^t s^^ring fevtival we become already con- 
scious of resemblances to the folk-lore of other races; the 



Mtiy-pole, Aft the May-trrc, mny br cUimerl .xh thcCcltfc 
variant of ihc world-lrcc, an Ea^^lem IcRcnd, which Agnin 
hits beer idcnliHcd with Ihr a^h YgdrA%]|l ; and thcongfnal 
ciflhc mo%l intct^stinB; pcniona^c of llic May game or pUy 
may be denied to the North and Ascnbcd to the Southern 
goddcsd Flora, who by ihis supposition was brought hither 
by the early nin,'.ionaric3. But th,it the sjirint; festival was 
celebrated mdcpcndcntly by the Noithcrn peoples there can 
be no doubt 

In conrectfon with the popular custom of celebrating the 
strife bci^nreti winitT and summer — cummoii to both 
Tciitnr and Celt — Grimm ^ays -. 

" I hope I have proved the nntiquiiy and siRnificancc of the 
LCL'pCiont of Summer And Winter, but Chcfe is oni^ jioirU I wlsIi 
dwell upfin more minuiely. The drtismgijp of fhe twn 
itjions ill foliix^c aW^frtn-m, in straw and KVtss^ die dialogue 
thai prt^bflbly paued between Ihcm, the accompanying eliofus 
of tpcclators, a31 exhibit ihv lint rude bIiiUs o( dramatic arL| and 
a hiMfjty nf ihr- niTnian ^tagf might to hrgin wilh fiiirh prriiirm- 
oncea. The wmpp^c \A kaics lepicscnu ihc rfagc-diei* and 
maaka of a later time. Once before (p^ 594). in the solemn 
proOGSiion Tor mtrv wv ftaiw fucb leafy b*arb. Popular cuicom 
exhibits & ntinibt^r of variation^ having pristrrvLnt ontr fr^mcni 
berc and Another dicrc. of the orii^nal whole.'* {Gtinin'* 
Ttmt&itk Jfy/\fJojj\ ii, y&40 

In llie wTKtihi|i and ritua] of Odin ^nd hi the? cr^lE^hntionA 
of the >ea3ionn tic ihe bcgiimings of our Northern drama ; 
and there is no call to regard the devloun HtrcJirn of tntdi- 
tton from thif ^urce in the spirit that denies, or with 
wilful sccpiici^m The adaptive power of tradition is a 
source of difhculty to the atudent^ but it u that which 
fjivcs its peculiar value to tradition. Robin Hood became 
Kii^ of th« May, a ^unuinc Mnghih product; ^nd the 
QiiMn of the May became indiffcfcntly, Maid Marian, 
\3ti\y. or queen. The king and (|iieen, or lord and lady, 

■elided over the May games. They led the procc^vtonit 
[jken wunU Aere mtriKluccd ; Friar Tuelc and olhet 



character* were otlJct), and to the Robin Hocxl pUy 
evolved. A genuine folk-play, wlildi, by the way, 
been the theme of the libretto of ft recent comic apcr;t. 

An to the national cliarfictcr of this foUc*p)ay, J have 
wish to exaf:cerate. but I fancy there i* hardly & diMrict 
England where it was unknown. Nearly all the parocbi 
records and nccounbt contain notices; of t1. It lk fre<)ucntl 
described a* the King Play or the King Game, or the Game 
ofKfnpr and Queen. Oueof the earlieM notices i Icnow of 
i^mntaincd in ihc j8th Canon of the Council of Woree«lcf^ 
held m 1240, where, in Tcfererce to the fn^.t that Robin 
llnod. rmtU'* ns he was, found Mnctjary ivithir the churdi, 
clci^ymcn, itfter bcinc forbi<3dcn to join in cti^rcpuublc 
gamcf or dancings, or to play at <3ioc, arc enjoined that 
they ^all not alloiv giumcs of Kiner and Queen to be acted 
In Machyn'ft Oary, under date 24th June 1559. we read: 
" There was a May-Rame, with a };iart, and drums, and gunft, 
and the Ik worthies, with speeches ; and then SaintGc<:'iKC 
and the Dragon, the morris-dance, and after Robin hh 
and Lhtle John, and Mafd Marion, and friar Tuclc, and 
had «peechcA, round about London. The xxv*^ day 
Jnnc tb^ same May-gamr went unto thi? paWc ;it Greei 
wich> i>liying afore tlic Queen and Counci!/* The nden^nce 
ttj Uic Nine WorlVie^ * with speeches", is to the f'agcant of 
'"The jx Wortbys and King Arthur", which is rccordeti a^ 
having been performed at Coventry on the occasion of llic 
vj^it to that town of Prince Arthur, eldest son of Hem 
Vll. in 140S ; and the rcfcrcncx; to Kohin Hood and 
fellows *'with specehes" is to the " Robin Hood" play» 

It is noticeable here that the combination of vanoi 
distinct play* or pageants are tpokeu of as a" May Gami 
And the same entertainment was often gixt-n at Kajtier 
WhitMinlide. Other play* which occasionally %ured 
the propramme were the pageant of the "Thrrr Kin^ 
Cologne", antl the page;int nt the *' Ix>id of Mi>rul( 
altWjugh this Utter was more frequently represented 



(aps it vfiw from tht» custom of acting sc\*cral 
paccant4, or plays, on the same occasion that they lout iiuli* 
vidunlity at :i later d;itc. Another c&mc of corfu^ion never 
to be lo3t sight of. was the break of continuity under the 
J'uritiin domination- The various traditional plays ^liich. 
roughly speaking, have been recor<Jed duruif; the pa»t 150 
yeare are certainly mixed In character. The« arc alraoet 
always a^aocfatcd with Chmtma& I will not now enter 
upon a detailed analysis of thew plays, generally known a* 
Murnmers' Plays, ?^omc of which h^vc been j^rinleJ In iho 
fi<forti iind Jauntal of ihc Folk-lore Sociefy. In the 
Cornish version wc have 5t George and the Draf^on and 
the King of E£>-pt's Daughter ; in all of them wc hav'c St- 
Gcorgc, in most ol them the IJrA^^on fiparc?:. Wc may 
safely conclude thai the body of these traditional plays ii 
derived from ihe pageant of "St. Geori;© and the Dragon"; 
and the Turkish Knight, who invariably figiircs in the plays 
and fights with St. George, may have been inirodiiccd after 
the Crusade*, as Is generally supposed Tile Doctor, who 
hcal^ the romb;n^fit* when tliry are supjHit^i ro he slain 
in the ^hls ihaC always take pUcc. wa» 110 doiihi origin- 
ally a inagiciAn, and the lon^ MaH* (vhit:h he UMiAllycafries 
suppi-^rta that conclusion. For a long time 1 could not :iec 
the application of the rhyme in Scott's M%\rmi^n — 

" Vrliu liatt LnajT lil itiL-ir Muiiiijiin^Mie 
Tiaccs of anient mystery," 

But a vxrrfiion printed by Halliwell m Tht Arthmfif^st^ 
which t havx! now made acijtifiinunce wilh, contains the 
character of Jnda'S, tifi d(jiihi takcii from tJic mysteries. 
He enters saynig : 

" Here etniica In Judat — JutUs Is mj tiatiic. 
Come drop acme silver in the bfti— it was for that I cafcc." 

There is a reference, at the bef>innln(; of this play, to this 
Feast of Fools. In many vcrtionft, St, George became 
Prmce (icorge, or King George, In compliment to our 



Hanover so tfCTei|{ns. In this pArlicubr vefNifun^bothoccur 
— St, George, and Prince George. A title Is gfvcn lo Uik 
]jic::t% apiMTiriilly taken fruiii an cilil bbck-Ttlh^ frditicm of 
the play: "Chn* his ragcant T Jay, or Myslcnc, (rf 
St George, as played by the ttincrfint Actors and Mummcr» 
in the Courts of the Nobility and Gentry, the College*, in 
the halU of the and«nt Corporjition^ .ind Guild McrchSfllSk 
and in Public HostcliJes and Taverns," 

Arolhcr version, which miiy not be known to the readers 
of FoLK-LuKt, ts the mnmmcr-play performed at St, Mary 
Hojinip, H»rib<, prints! by Mr. Stevens in hi* Par^kiai 
History of St Mttry iharnf, tSSS. The charflclcr* are; 
Old Tathcr CU^i^^mil^^ Mince Pic, A Turkish Knight. Sl 
Gcofcc, An It^Han Doctor. Little John. The la*L " Uitle 
Jtjhn", was a character in the Robin Hood p\^y. lie \^ 
introduced^ as Judas wis in the version above referred to. 
to collect the* money. 

The piece entitled "The Momce Danccr3 at Rcvc*b>-'", 
uhich was editi^d by me and printed in vol vii of the 
Fa/^'Ur/ Jmtma!^ \% the fno»t strangely composite piece of 
folk-<lrama I have yet encountered, Thcewcntial pajtof 
ft, the most arcfcnt, the pan to whfch the dfaloj^ue may 
have hern fiict'd from tec nUett inns of a miimmrr's pUy, Is 
the various daiiccj^, which are danci^ in t:i3n<:4^rt| a fxeC 
which raiws a pn^umption of inb:j;rily as X^ their dcscwiL 
It b an amalgam of the rites of the Ploufth Mcm<i-qr 
festival and a Christmas mumming- play, a thing of later 
date. But the clement of the plough, with tlic clement of 
the sword-dance and the thorun cJ swords, arc Teutonic 
remnants of the worship of the (goddess Fneg, One of 
the characters of the piece i* called "the Fool", ;tnd the 
others tell him he must die. The Fool knceUdown, and 
ihcy all place their swords about his neck. Then there \% 
some parlej'injj, chiefly by the Fool, who makes a rUiculotts 
will. This i* follcwL-ri by action, for which the drn^rtion 
i»: "Then they ilraw their swords, and tlic Fool falb on 
the floor, and the Dancers walk once ruuiid the Fool, and 



ffrktc Mcrring [cue of the characters] ^lampit with hw 
foot, and tJie Fool rij*tN on hi* kneea agL'un." A Uiile 
more parlcymg, and "'Thai the Dancers, puUmg their 
swords round llie Pool's neck again," tlic Pool prtK^eds to 
make further absurd 1x:qucsU. The same kind of thing is 
rcpcatcdn with 3crdj>« of M>ng and dialot^ue between the 
placing of swordd about the Fool find the thre«;ts that he 
is to die. This action, tjtken in connection with the title 
of the piece, " The J'Jow Itoys or Morris Uancene," esla- 
blifthes it as a Teutonic tradition— a Lincolnshire variant of 
the combination of the sword-dance with the " Fool Plough" 
fr*itival which was peculiar to the nonhcrn counties — els 
ttic fuUawing p^uu.tge from Griirmi will Nhow:— 

^^igs, the iliughtLT of Fi^rgynn, as eonsiort of the highest 
god, takiX rank abcvc oil other' ^cl<lcitcs ; she knoira the I^EO 
of men, U ccsnsuUvd by Odtnn, ajdminitt^'n oaths, JtAndmaldi 
fuIAl her hesi,«he pr^idetover ntf'Vrrrtf^i.and hf*r Aid if Implnrod 
by tl»L" diilt]tL-«; litncc Uiooa^jraa la &lso called Frtg^nr^fut. 
Wc inny remember thurtc mstldcns yet anmarricd bctn)* yoked io 
ihc plough of Ihe goddc«s whose eommindfi ihey too lon^ 
dc6f?d. In somi:? pans of >J<irthrrn Fnglnnri, in Vofkslure, 
C9c|)ccU]ly ll^lbmNhirr, popuhi i:uMornx sJkjw itninAEiia of llie 
vorship of l""ricg. In the ncit:hl>oiirhood of Ocnt, pt certain 
eirawns of ihv year, «ifpvcial]y autumn, the country lolk hold 
a proc«*lon »nd perform o)d dancf^ one filled The glant't 
dance: th*^ Icadi^ii^ ^-Mnt ihcy nftnic UWti, ;Lnd bis wife fr/^gitt 
the princijwl aclion of the pby consiKtin^ in two svordi being 
i«ung and cluhcxl together about the neck of a boy without 
ling him/'* 

In thi; C3^, perhaps ^^^ tmportanrc of the acllon of the 
piece is «[> dear that it uccd not be iiinislcd upon. But in 
all folk-drams It i^ the same. What is of lirst conse- 
quence \s the action and the character rcprestcntcd \ the 

' Communicated by J. M- KomTsIr, ffom th» mamh of "an old 
Vurk%]ii<cm<Lir. [ .iC<:uLinl for (he tvord by ihe Ancient ljm of (h^l 
Wttiipon at wcdilingt' 



dialogue iH of tecondairy iinpt>rtance altc3gcth<?r. Those of 
my hearers who have seen these tradilionafy p1«y« per- 
fnnnc!cJr cjinnot fml Ui hive; remarknil the unaltcrabk 
adhcrmcc lo custom and iratlltion by ihc actors; nol a 
5tcp U jillowcd to be chjinged, not a gesture. A folk-play 
a« pcffomic<l by one ^ncration Is an exact rcproductaon 
of t^^c play n-s performed m tlic previous gcrerAlion. Very 
ollcii Uic performers themselves are obviously oblivious of 
tlic meaning of Oicir gestures and words ; old words are 
ti3C<I, which are quite obsolete In the dialect of the district; 
actions arc rendered withastodious adherence to traditiott, 
but sometimes a littJc removed from the exact part of the 
dialo^e to which they belong, and when that happens the 
«o1enintty of ihe actors appears a Httlc groips^tie:. But 
what f5 important for \i*> to nntc, i% ihr? fact that that 
pc-rm;Lncmce of tr^icliliomil acliTif; t;ivc4 us ^u^nething far 
older Id tlicse folk-dramas than the dJAlogue, which in 
moat ciiics appears to belong to tlic seventeenth ocntufy. 
Soh too, with regard to the populiu* dances. They are all 
called, almost without exception, " Morris Dances" But, 
as in the pkcc 1 have been alluding to — "The Morrioc 
U.tnccrs at Keve^by" — the dance is the sworddarce, or 
vai'iant^ of it, or pcrpular traditional dances^ to which 
something of the Morisco became added, just as the folk- 
plfij-a took in alIii«ionx to the CruHudc% and in modem 
timet inmed St. George Into Prince GcoTfie. 

[ hope in a future pAi^cr to jiresenl the retiilt* of an 
aiialy?ii.» of Kngllsh tradiLJonal plays, or folk-plays, side by 
side with an analysis of the pre- Shakespearean drama. OQ 
the lines laid down in the present paper. This wPI yield 
a two-fold contribution to folk-lore and the drama respect* 
ivcly ; and I am rot without hope that collectors of folk' 
lore, en the one hand, may be induced to look to this 
department of the subject with tncreawd interest, while, on 
the other, literary students may Iw convinced of the im- 
pnrtanrc of traditionary brgmning^, Lrt it be understood 
that the aim is to recon?<truct from tnidition the embryo on 




which the miracle-play was grafted ; Jet the prior import- 
ance of dramatic action, of which so much has passed away 
without record, not be lost sight of, and folk-lore may 
bring its light to bear on yet another of the branches of 


T. Fairman Ordish. 



DURING previous Turloughs tn England — from twelve 
to eight years ago^ I liad the pleasure of contribut- 
ing acvcml papers on Mftdn^ucar folk-tore to the Rt<»rd^ 
and to the Jcumal of this swricty, my latest contributions 
bcin^ a scries of articles on "The Oratory, Songs, Legends, 
&nd Folktales of the MAl.-i^asyV ^i^h tran^tbtion^ of 
numerous flpcciincns of these productions of the native 
mintj^ In theiie papers a few references were made to 
Malagasy superstitions about the birds of their country; 
but a* I have rewntly paid some aitention to Nfadafcascar 
omilhotogy, and have writtcr *;cveral article*; or ihc subject 
for An annual pubHcatiiiii whkh I have cdite^l for .tevrrftl 
years past, -md which Es printed at AntsninarU'O, the 
capital of the island/ I have collected toother much addf* 
tonal informftticn on the folk-lore ol Malagasy birds. My 
papcn will be given in full, i^-ith further addition^ in the 
quvirtefly numbers of the /lis for this year; but 1 thought 
it might be intetxiKting to select from them what is inost 
noteworthy as regards the bird-loreof the people, including 
the legends, popular rotions^ and proverbs relacJng to thi( 
subject, ro^ftber with a few rereience* to the very stgnifi* 
cant native namr^ for m^ny of llif? htRUtif Mndag7tsc£f. 1 
shall now proceed to do this, noticing tlic birds in the order 
of ihcir present cla^sif cation by the best omithotogi^its, 
c&pectally that followed by Mr. K. Bowdlcr Shaipe, F.Z^S. 

' 5cc *^ Mol-if^Euy Folk-lore *nd Poputjkr Super* tSlionET, fif/Jhtffr4 
Rftcrd, r£j9 : pp. 15-46. **Somp Additional Fatk- lore from Uida- 
guacar^', i/fV,, j££j i pp, 4S'fl> 

■ Sec /'i'tt /Ofr/flwrffiiy, Jrm,*Nov, 1883 ; p. ict^ 

• Tk4 AmtaniH.triti^ Artrtuai and Ma^aj^aUitr Maj^m£/ Ccfiicd 
by Rev, J. Sibicc, F.R.C.S., «ud Rev. R- B;aoa, F.L^, F,G.3. ; Nc& 
kiii (i£&j) &ad jiiv (ifc'ooj. 


The Foliihri of Afaiagasy Birds. 337 

Before, however, giving the icsults of my rcsearclies on 
thcM vATiouK poii^ts, I wilL venture to indicate in h^f-a- 
dozcn sentences what it \a that c^^cs great interest to the 
study of Macljt^ji.-(CJtr ornilhology. 

The avi-fauna of the island comprises, as at present ascer- 
tained, about 240 species, including Heabird^.iuiiongwtiieh 
tbere arc natiir^ily numerous wide-rargmi: forms eomm on 
to many other countries; and amon;- the^.- latter there is, 
of eowve, litilt? th^c h p^colJar or of Any special iiUerefft. 
It b among tl^c Untl-hircE^ proper, numbering I50»pccieg — 
and omitting rnnny short- and tvaii-r bfrds a< ^ell a« several 
of pov^'crful fliijht iuul therL'foit of wide diMribiition — that 
we find ^mc of those pcculiiir and i^jlatcd typos of bird 
which, u Mr. Alfred R. Wallace rcmarlcH, "«peak to tu 
plainly of enormous antiqully, of long-continued iscJatioi), 
and not lc£:» plainly of a lost .... continental island 
[or archipelago of large islands], in which so many, and 
various, and peculiarly ort^aniredcrcaturci^ could hnxvc been 
(^dually developed in a conncaod faiina, ofwhich uehavo 
hem but the fragmentary remains". 

Madagascar possc-tscs a consirferjible mimber of genera 
and Fpecies of birds ^^cullar to Itself; ^5 genera arid 129 
Species* di^ribiitc^d »mnn]^ 35 fmnilie\ one nf which vt at«i 
peculijirand confined to ihc island. The icsull of a detaitcd 
study of the Malajjaay avi-fauna is, %^ys^ M. Crandidicr, 
"lliat it has a very specialised chnr;vctcr. and that, noi- 
wsLhstandinE the small distance ivhich separates Madagaa* 
car from the African continent, \U afllimtics arc much 
greater v-'iih the extroma East than with Africa ; sinee, if 
wo leave on one side all the bird* of po^^-crful flight, there 
are about t^ilce a^ many mnrc allied 10 Oriental than to 
African spe<:ics, besides whkh. the greater part of the 
characteristic African gaiera are entirely wanting." 

Madagascar is indeed a kind of cnuscum of antii^uJties 

as regards its animal life as a wholcj and this is eminently 

the case with respect to many of its birds. For, while on 

^ the continents innumerable ancient forms of life have 

I vol. ti z 

338 Thj& Folk-hrt 0/ Malagasy Birds. 

bocomo ex h'nct, cither from chanj^ca of dimGttc, or from 
introduction of other and more i>owcrrul rormK, better iitlod 
to hold their own in the stru^lc for existence, here, in ttfl 
great iKlant^ cii the conirai>", freed from the Incursion ^ 
other crcanircs. ihcy have maintJtined thdr ground, and thus 
are Mill living wimcwc* to a very antique fauna, extlna 
everywhere clw. And so ft corner lo paw thi*t nviny 
Malaga?iy birds stand alone, idolatcd fioin all other living 
fbrm;i, and have thu^s been a pu^tzlc tc nAtumlists, being 
extremely diRiailt to clasA, so thfLt in some ca^cs a special 
lacntly Jim had to be formed for their reccpttori. It U not 
that the M:ida^a»car birds arc remarkably beautifid orlorg^ 
or sirikinp in ajvpearsncc — allbouiih there art plenty of 
beautiful fcjrmK among thein — it ic ibc remote affinities of 
Oifiny of them which gives such an interest to the avt-fauna 
of the island. ^H 

!. — Tht*re are twenly-«wo !ii>ec!e*t of Rapacious BIR^P 
in M^dagiiscar, the msjorily buing vfirious l^frtd^ of Iiaw 
kites 311^ buEsards, but including several owLs «nd 

The most commor bird of thii order ta the Px^^ngo, 
Egyptian Kite {MOvus ^gypti<tis\ a large bird of almori 
worldwide distribution, and found ait over thei-ilaod It 
is the drciid and detestation of the counlry-dwclling Mala- 
g4sy, for it swoops down upon their chickens and pigeons 
and is only scared aw;iy by ihefr loud cries and exe<ration(i 
From these habiu come-; one of Els provincial na 
TiitntUaJuf, £t, "The-onc-who-docs-iiot-ask", but ta 
without saying " By your Icavc''^ Several Malui^isy pov 
refer to the Papaiigo, t^., to its rapacity iiud boldnc^, 
the following: *' Acting like a kites claws: not laki 
gently, but greedily" ; and " The wild-cat 1,1 \\«ary, for 
fowl {it was seeking) is carried off" by the kite". Occa^* 
ally it seems that it catches more than it can eat, foran 
proverb says: " The kite thut caught a tortoise: it certai 
got it, but it did not get much aflcr all," And it« occasi 
food of locusts is menifored In this : " Not (Hke) a lit 

The Fdlk-lore of Malagasy Birds, 339 

flwarmof locusts and afralii ofa kite" One of the native 
//^Hff'/^^/ or "oratoncal flourishes" says: "The kite is an 
arrant Ihicf, the crot\' U blear-eyed^ and ihc brown stork is 
long necked : oil arc rojfues and abuse one another." 

Ancplher vcfy widely -spread r;ipacious bird i* the little 
lively and noUy J/lw'j^tfsr^tJ, or Kestrel, which in found in 
or aliouE every village, often perched uix'.n the gable 
" herns" of the house*, or even on the extreme point of the 
lij^htiung-conduclor^ lis widc1y-»^rcad name 1* probably 
an imitation of Us peculiar i^ucrtjlr^ui ciy. Several lutiic 
proverbs refer to the kcstKVs qmck rcMless flii;hl ami Its 
fjTtquent habit of ho^'erirtcf aloft, poised almost motionless, 
en with an occasional quivering of the winga ; and Ihti*, as 
it 19 very like the Malagasy -so-ealicd dancinj;, which conaati 
rather of a {-raceful poaiurinf; and movement of the hands 
than of the feet, is ahx) called by thtf people "dancing' (^wta- 
^iAy)- jSx-j"The ke*tnrl is at home in dancinf;, and the 
Ittflc-gricbe is at home in ihc water"; " The ketirel H not 
bov«ring (//a 'dancing*) without reason, for there below Is 
iomcthing (in the shape of prey;"; and (^m : " Dance, 
O kestrel, tlial we may also team (to do ii) in har\e*t-tfme:" 
And its habit of driving away the robber E^ap^ngo, but ft* 
«elf a jijinipri^l in}; Hxc kite's intended piey, is rcfcricd to h\ 
a proverb applied to one who was expected to be a bene- 
factor, but turns out an opprc^^^r, thu,t : *' He was thought 
to be tL kestrel to be honoured (or, to protect the birdd)» but 
" becomes a falcon (l^^rcmaJi^ry) c:irr>*ing offihc chicken*," 
Among some tribes, or, perhaps, only certain families, the 
kestrel is a sacred or tabooed bird, M, Pollen says : "Being 
one day hunting fn the neighbourhood of An6rontsAriga, I 
killed one of thrsc kr^lrrUj whm n farmer camr to meet tis, 
aayiTiK that I had coinmiitcd saciilcge in killing, as he said, 
a sacred bird He bcggod me to leave it to him, so that he 
might bury it tn a sacred place I hesitated, except to 
grant him the beak of the kestrel, which had been broken 
by the shot. The good man. accompanied by a slave 
^ carr>'tni; a load of sugar'cane, aiid happy to tike away 



340 The Folk4ar€ ^/ Maiagasy Birds, 

Any part of the ^.icrcJ bml, tried tn express hi$ gratitikk 
by oflciing mc hair Ihc load. I liavc. however, obiicrvecl 
that thU bird t« not nucrcd amon^ the AntankArAiiA, the 
U^lsitnifl^raka, ard other Iribca." U seems pretty certain 
that the ketitr;:] wa^ formerly wcinhip;)ed, and a »m^I ptcce 
of the Icffs or winf^ or body was given by ihc divirtcra to 
be u^tetl as a charin, or prcsetitcd oa a sort of f>acnlicc when 
praying to ihc aVj', or IdoL Many of the ignorart MjLki^^acy 
fttlll vciwr:tie the bird and make lupplication to ir. 

Anothrr noliri.-ahlc MaUigai^y h;iwk, altliough miich less 
otiinnion ihun tht twti pri-'viuusly ini^iiiitJtit-d ones, i* the 
Vdrftma/^ryft or Lester Falcon, a ^^cnall but very courage* 
cHt» bird, which ha*t hmj: attracted tlic aitcnliitn of the 
MabgAsy for its swiftnc^^ and fearlessness. Jts native 
rainc, which means "Powerful bird", is abo thnt of the 
tribe Cif Hova Malagasy who inhabit the capital and its 
rear neighbourhood ; and pmbably from th^^t circumstancv 
thiA falcon hax been adopted as a kind of crent or emblem 
by the central Government, and It i^ onL^ravcd on some of 
the "iralv Ksrge mctkl fignrcft of a bird, popularly 
mppoved to be thi* V^romahtry, are fixed on the ridge of 
the roofs 'if the two l;irgcst royal palaces, and also over 
Xhv palrtce j^ittitway. One (if Utc pnivi-rbs rufenrrg to thii 
falcon ha!i already been quoted. Another says ; " Falcon's 
cg^s on the face of die cliff: that whidi ;«crearrs out i% itJA 

The vorocious tearing up of their prey is noticed in the 
names e^vcn to ^levcral of the Malagasy hawks those m 
which the words firdsa or J^ftndrdsa, tlie " Tcarer" or 
" Divider", or, more freely, the " Hiilcher", appear cither in 
these sitnple forms or combined with other words. This 
is the niune of the Mada^:i>it;]r Sp;irrow- Hawk, which is 
also called Vatidraski^t '" QoatUeatcr". Another hai#k is 
termed Parlafidy^ " Disj»ci*»i:r-orcjirdinal-l«nI%'\ as if feed^ 
laiigely on these brightly coloured little birds; and il x% 
also named -^ffjr/^m/fjtj*/^^iri'-tv<*^, "QuaiU'-hcad-brcaker^. 
i'\iK4ir^Sk^^mbi>. " Wiid-boar-butchcr ', is the name of other 

The Faii-lore of Malagasy Birds. 341 


hawks* Others, A^m, are known by Uic name of HlnJry 
or Fanlftdry, wor<l3 dcri\'cd from roots meaning; "to prtss 
down", "to pounce on", and douMlcj^ referring lo ihcir 
fiwoopirg down upon their prey. The lonff pinionfl of the 
Grey Hobby, projecting c\'cr) bcyood the tUl, arc itoilced 
In Us n^mc of L^i^^Ititra^ /-/,, "' Long-wings*'. Thc*e hirrt?* 
Rppr^Rr in MutbgnNnir rmly in the r^iiny sesLvm, mroiD^ 
from Africa in jiiirsuit of Ihc clouds of locusts which 
frequently <:tx>>% the MojAnibiquc Channel, and on which 
they principally feed. Their flight b rapid, like that of 
a swallow, and they may be .^ecn purMjIrt; the Icjcusla as 
the swallows do gnat^ A Sakalava name ofl this bird ts 
'Jsiasara^ r>., " Notfound-in-lhc-dry-scason". It wfll tw 
seen that thii group of rapacious bird^ presents f^ood 
examples of the Malagasy poik'er of giving striking and 
approj>nate namew to the living creatures of their criuntfy. 

Two species of eaple are found in Msdajjascar, of on« 
of which, Iher AnkaAjf, a fishing or sea cAgle. much that 
is intcreslini; has been iili?4:rvc-d as reganU it» liAibit? ; but 
I knnw of nothing yet as to Any native supcr^lUion* con- 
nected with it, as the wcstcni tnl>c» arc mill little known 
snd thij* bini i* only found on the west side of the island 

Six or seven spcciea of owl are known tn Madagaiicar 
two of which, the Scoprt and the Ham Owl, are very 
plentiful The last mcrliorcd appears to tic exactly iden- 
tical with the ahnoi^t world-wide bird of that name^ As 
among most other peoples, the owl is regarded by the 
Malaga^cy as a bird of ill-omcrr ; they call it V^tvmiAio, iV., 
"Spirit-bird", or "Ghosl-biril'\ thinking it an cmbodiitient 
of die spirit?! of lltL- wicked ; and witcm itn startling M:rccch 
IS heard in the night, they believe it to be a presage of 
misfortune to ^meone* There arc numerous fablea and 
dtartc-s about the c^wl, illu:itrat]ng the popular dread of aud 
dtNlikc to the bird, M. GrandidJcr says the provincial 
name of the Scops Owl, Atlrck^, rnean^ '* t am goini; to 
ftay** (inoTC exactly, ** to point out"), and that sonic Mab- 
g3)iy consider It as a menace when they hear iL Like the 

Tht Fofkhri of Malagasy Birdt. 

owU in ml] other ptnts of the inx>rld. the Mi 
apocicA arc rcilly pubHc benefactor^ by kccplnif down th 
lar^ numbers of raU £ind mice; but thdr noctunu 
hfiblu, their Utrgc i>taring eyes, the "UDcanny** c^r-lik 
feathen of some, and especially their unearthly ^creecl 
have all combined to mate them objcrts of dread. The* 
nnd other pnptiUr roitr^n^ a-4 well ax ob->ter\'ation ai lo th 
hablcs of ihc bird, at<^ shov^n in the rolfnwSng proverbf 
** Dnn't act like? an nwl : Milky in anolher perKnn'% houK^ 
"A wild-tal laughing at an owl; the one thai crcc| 
ridicules the one that fiics/' (Wild-cai^—A'rfr)" — arc ( 
tnuch objects of ditilike as owL% and arc frcfjucntly cIajim 
vvith Ihcm by the MaJa^iiBy.) And again: " Bent don 
in gficf and dejection, although i^otblng has befallen yo 
like an owl" ; " h U the tufted umber (Soffits um^mtt 
thai finishct a rt::^, but k is the owl whosuclU out an 
^ivL-?i ItNclf aini" ; " An out ap^x^iritif, ul I^^ daytuiic^^^ 
all who -see it t^vvoop down upon it" 

The I a.^t- mentioned proverb is Jlluslmlcd by the 
injj Mala>33y fable : — 

^'Oncc ujjona time, thc>' say, all th? birdx of the air 
and agreed 10 chooiv one of ihetr mLmhcr to be king and teade 
but ihc owl. IE a »«id, did nol come, for his m-tlr rluinccd to \ 
sitting yuii thern. So all the birds agreed together Uiat anyoi 
*iho thould i«e the owl, and did not atuck him, cluuld I 
exiielM llie coimminii)' and Eiff ni'ronni^ an enemy- And th 
\i \t\iy llic ovt] dues not go aliuul in iLic diL}'tiEiJe» but only 
night; for if any birds 3ce blm. they aH Act upon htm to bfl 

*^And the falcon al»o, It is said, wanted 10 Ix.' ktng^ ai 
appointed himiclf, but ihc rest diJ not a^rce to it ; ao he left 1 
his comfonioni and became their enemy. So if Ihe ialGon u 
an)' other bird, he carrier it oiT forthwith, bcciuAC it is his enccn 
and su the birds uhuhie <inp ^f thrmfcclvrs ti> bu iht-if king. Ai 
Ibcii choice fdl on the forlc-miicd shiikc {Dt^ttrat fit^taiKS, I 
becauM ol hiE i;ood (>ctmx'iour and his long cr»t, and abo 1 
account of hi« many toned voice. 


The Folk'hre cf Malagasy Birds. 343 

'*Afid tl];it, ihfi7 «ny, \\ vhy this thrilee in roniddcrvd !>/ lh« 
l>copk to be king <%i the binis," 

If.— The second Order of birds [ncARI.lO comprisce 
those which in some points re^mbic the wotfdpeckeis in 
thcJr habits, althou^^h the woodpeckers proper have no 
repre«rmativc in Madagascar Of the wven ra-mUi^a of 
the first »ub-order, the Climbind-bfrds, tu-o only arc re- 
p^cv^ntc^d In the inland, vijt,, the I'arrot* and ihe Cuckooi, 
as io each of which there ».%c some interesting^ ^^oint^ tc) be 
noted. The two Nf Adi^a,«^c^ species of parrot have none 
of those brilliiiu lints whkh adorn many of this family of 
bird) in other pirt.i uf the tropica, one being dArk-grcy in 
colour and the other slaty bUck, A native proverbs whose 
" moral" in to re;>rove a too ciuy-goinE. chanRcablc dbpo- 
sition. speaks of '*a parrot seeking fruit in ihc forest : he 
finds a luscious nior»;cl here, hut in iir invtart \% oft to get 
another llicre." The Grey Parrut. M. GrandiJier says, id 
/aJj\ or sacred, to one of the royal familic* of the Vizo 
SikalAv^L, and he givc« the following,' ^cory as accounting 
for the vcncraiion in which they hold it : — 

" LiLhimcriKCL, King of Fihcri^nano, told sic that one of hi* 
aiiCt>(Iurt w^tH (me fl:iy walking alcMii? m tine of his TTiiinicir^ plnn- 
laEicjnb at tniuxi: dijUnirc inaii tlic royal vilb^t. wIkh he was 
vurpriacii hy a bund of robbcns on a raanitiding expedition from 
the BAm country. 'Vhijy did not know the king, who hod nothing 
in hiK Appfdnrc* or drr^ t<y denote hi« r^nV. Utit iccir^ h\K 
thick chain of gold ^rJnnntf unOi;j ihv kn<jfi« of h^ir covered 
with ETcflic and vhilc clay, they tonic him uiUHarci, apcATcd hire, 
tmt poaa&tiiniz tht-mi<;lv« ol' tht' covetwl priac^ threw the body 
Into a hatiUy dog gnve, and droanij>«d. How long he remained 
there lie LoulJ iiui ic^ll; IjuL he >vaa not dead, only bcriou«1y 
woandcd ; and on rccovcnnx eonictoutncss and icccini; nothing 
but darkness firound him, and fc^vhi^g the earth ptcdnn^ hvavily 
on hift chc(t, hi? htlicvHl hiinst^lf tn the other world. He was in 
profound tfititu^t; when suddenly he eccccied tohcaiahriUpicrdng 
crieo^ as if & flock o^ pirrots liad pa^cd Over hii bead. He 


^^asy Birds. 

U«encd attentively; the criw which met his ears were appmarliin^ 
tiCiUcr. Douljtlca a Ijabbling and rc^tlevi cxowd of them «u 
perched on t [td^hbouiing tree. ' Bui there «rc no puroU ia 
the ciher world,' thought our h&tQ; *l oon net <i«a<L V He look 
rotii-:iKi-, an(T freeing himivrir hy A trnnrnrlotH cfTf^rc Oom ebr 
Inyrr of raitb nlifch rovcTcd hut body, he pcircivcd the bti^bt^ 
ahininx of the Jiun, in whoM n.y% the parrot? were s^por^ng in 
ircuc Around him. Hope rervivcd uiUun hsm^ and he nude 
wajr, not without diflkuUy, to hi*; \411ige, w!icre, *ftcr the 
caie and nui^uig, he crinitLi^illy nx'uvtit.'O aLnfn^tli. In ihank- 
fulncw to the binld ^hwc cries had routed tiim from hifl torpor, 
and given him courage to free himself trora hi* tomb, he tokmnlr 
voncd for himKdf and hi« descendants to the btua gencntion, 
that ihcry wguld never kill partiHK/' ^^ 

Mont of the namcft by which ihwc birds arc know^^ 
appear to be imiUitivc of their hnrsh cry ; while some of 
thu!^ by which the Mudaga^c^r rnrrntcect h known mean 
"dcgcncrnlcd", or "become small", the people apparently 
holdirtc the strange notion that it is a dwarfed species of 
pnot- H 

There are no less than fcurteen species of Cuckoo fotJi^P 
in Mfldagascflr, of which tm'elve bolong lo a genus, Coua^ 
peai[i4ii' to the i>^1;LTid, ;tnd are ;iniong thcM^ rumerotM tni 
wiiith ^U'C 4 special characU-r Ic its a^i-C^una. Of 
llluc Cou^, ilic pt^rplc 5Ay th^t when its cry 19 heard 
<Iay wDl be wet ard driizly, ScverBlofthc*c birds' nai 
arc dcscnptivcof their babit3,a3" lioad-crcs«r^,"ClInibci 

'I'hc mo^t common bird of this family is the KoffM/ofrOt 
or Grey-headed Cuckoo, vthich cones up into the higher 
interior re;;[on n« the warm season approaches and tia 
moncitonous btit not urpleating cry of Hctif-Jt&w^ knv-Jti^^ 
may be he^rd wherever there arc ircc^, all day long. T^P 
Malagasy make il< arnv;tl a xi|^nal fcir draring thdr^nmnd 
fiir pbntin^ the Utcr crop of rice; in some native JiaiH- 
fJnj'oi "oratorical adonimeTit:^** the Karkafotra in said to 
maa^xi uj faemi, ;>., '' lo charge'*, or ratlicr, " to , 

Tke FoUs't&rt of Ma/aga^ Birds. 345 

ic chance of Ihc year". lU various neimcs seem lo be all 
more or Ic^s descriptive of it^ notCn Like the nune of our 
KneUah species of ciicko<x Thb bird has Ihe s&nw habit 
«<i its European eousin^cf b>-ing itn eggs in other birds* 
nests, the intruder when hatched pushin™ the yount; of tho 
proper owner out of the ne*t. Several children's vongs 
refer to the cuckoo and iu fnjiirlng other bird*, especially 
a fipccics of Fan-uikd Warhlcr {O'sticola mad.,igautxr- 
icrrsis). Here t* an example: — 

" Kao-Jtattf Kaf&trat '* Kjio-hao, Cuckoo, 

Mafy ^atiitttiirm ; Dead i* Mr W;iiblcr ; 

KftG-kao, Cuekcro, 

1 buried him yesterday; 
Ka*tno, CurlciKJ, 

He Kcnclh already-" 

The remaintn|f bird of this groups the TVM^ or Lark- 
heeled Cuckoo, utter) a mellow, flute-like whistle, vhich 
connbtft of fic^'Cral note« runnirg down the scale. This 
bird is considered ^& fatfy, tabooed or fiacrcd, by one of 
the pfincJpal tribes of M^nnb^ (W, Coast)> M. Grardidier 
Rflv^ that, having on one occasion shot one of theiie liinis, 
he tva* obH^jed. fn order not to grieve the family of the 
diief, tn Icavi; ttic bndy cif the ciickon, which w;u iininc- 
dmicly reverently buried The reii^on of the cxticme 
respect in which ihcsc S^kalav^ hold the Toloho is as 
follows: "One of tlicir ancc?torb, who wai fearlessly 
awimmin^ acrovi the river Tsfjob^nin^i. wa* caught on the 
way b>'a crocodile. It is well known that these fearful 
reptiles do rot devour their prey on the shore, but carry it 
to their lurking' places under or cfose to the water, so tJ^t 
tt may become half putrid before being eaten there. Our 
hcrfj was carried, quite M^o&eiess, to a large hole in tlw 
bank of ibe <&tream, which scrvrd as the habitual retreat 
of the monster, and which the ebbing tkle had left partly 
dry. It wai frnm ihJn fc^irtiinale chancp thai Ihr virlifn'* 
head was left just above tlic tiurfdce taf thi^ walLt. Suddenly 


^re of Afaiagasy Birds. 

h* wac roiucd from hit torpor by the repented cry 
Tol&ho. Now, we krow ihat ihl* cuckoo clioosc* damp" 
places, and hops about fmm biisJi to fcjii?Ji nil ihc Jivi 
banks; It W4ui Ihcr \x:r>' i^-iiurjil tli;it the luud mellow 
of tbc Tolibc* should reach the cars of a mao who 
Ving only a ili^:ht depth below ;^tuund SUrting ottt 
his IctbAr^j', il was not lorg before he comprehended that 
he was not buried ver>- deeply, :iincc the notc» of the bird 
could be recHi^niscd ; and so. wUhout waUirg for Ihe rrtuni 
cf the replile, which was waiting; patiently at the entrance 
of Ihe cave, he u«ed hi:G handt und naiU to Huch elTect ihai 
in a little time he saw daylight. He wat saved in recog* 
nttion of the iervicL% all uncoiiscioutc and involuntary as It 
was, which Ihe birx^ h;)d rendered Ic llicir ancestor, 
children ami ^rpindchiLdrfrn vowuit that neither lliey 
their descendants would ever killaToli^ho i and %o^ 
eludes M. GrandidiCT, " that i? why the Paris MuKum had 
one specimen less of the Ccfttfvfis*^ mtuia^uvariffuu*' 

There \a a li^tnimi.-t^ka aayin^ that if you throw 
a Tolobo over the houjc thfce tinief> you will be able to 
roast it. I f you do not do this, they jay it all rune to i^rcase, 
find j'ou only get the bare bones. The Malagaj^y hav-c an 
amusing fable about thu bird and the nJtafra.Of Brown 
Stork, In which the fotmcr h dcccribrd ax invitrd 
a ftuKt at the hou^e of the latter; but he disgracefully 
pays the hospitality of the stork by turning him ant 
hoUM' 'ind homi; and taking ji4u>c-%->jnn of it himself FrotfA* 
thia fdblc (whith ^itobdbl/ ciitUjiiics some facts as to thi^ 
bird), it would appear that thw cuckoo^ like tJ:c Kdnk&fotra, 
has something of the habits of its European coiisin in 
iraking use of other birds' ncfll.i. Perhaps ll^ia is 
referred to in one of its provincial names of AtUmi 
i^i-t *" Hase, or Slavish bird". 

The second sub-order of the Ficari^, that of the \Vi( 
gaping birds, includes twelve families, half of which are 
represented in Madagascar. 

FifGt to be noticed here of these is the beautiful lil 

Tjftf FciA'ton of Malagasy Birds. 347 

ptiTplrsh-bluc K'ngfishcr, OT VlntJj. Dy some tnt>cs il is 
callcii V^rotHir^, *' Money (or Silver) bird", and some 
n&tive aupct^titLor« arc connected with It; thus ^wc find it 
said thai ''The kin^Ebhcr and the black-moth are dead 
people who bavc been charged intoanlmaLs. 'I1ic common 
people reverence thciTtfand say Ihat ihcy are their ancestor*." 
And, again, tl^cy say." tfyoa t*kc the nest of a kingfisher, 
you become bald ; If that of a bro^i-n ;itcrk, you become 
a leper." By ihc Taim&ro pcop!c (S E Coast) lis name j« 
person I fiei:i by the prefix J^rr : RavUii^. 

Taasiiijj by ihr H<xjpnr< and Hrc-caters of which I have 
POlhiui; lo icjiiaik as rej;i«t]-s f[>lk-!ore, wcc^jiiie to another 
family, that of the Ground Rollers, birds nhich live cnlirdy 
on the ground, and only cinine out at dusk. One of ihcac, 
the Kirombo Uollcr. called also I'ir^mii^o by x\\c Mala^A^j 
pUys IL prominent part in the chants and rclipous observ- 
ances of the ft-estcrn tribes. It h considered unlucky by 
the people, and it u; said that if one of them settle* on 
a hotline, the owrors will leave it. There are a number of 
folk'tales \i\ which a *trance hatry monster called ItrimoM 
pla>T; 'A pn>mirent paa; and in one of these the Vicondrio 
apj)carsand delivi^n the heroine from danger, a.%fbIlour«>^ 

'•After (haia Rfeo bird cwne, repratiafi itsciy, *Ii^, r^rh\' 
nhirh, when [fAm skw, fthe called 10 thu : 

" * O yonder Kko, O yondtt- JUo ! 
Take me to faiher'i well. 
And I will imoodi tlj)^ Ull/ 
*' ' /tft>, /A», r^,' mEJ tlip birdt 'come, lei me carry jvu amy, 
my loAs. for I fed for ihc aorroivful/ So the bird took her 
iway and placed her on a tree |u» above the «cll of het father 
aiid moiher." 

Thu Roller alfio figures to aidv4nta(te m tl>c folloiwii^ 
piece, cnihled " Don^t send a fool on an errand" : — 

"Ihc weaver-finch (7>(*/>^/>) longs for» and the tun-b«rd 
(^j') if. sorrow (ul—b;il don't *cnd ihe K-Jiiblcr (//Apfrn), tor 
whi^n he goc« loio ihe phtmaUon, he viU be o91 The flcaicr< 


Tht Folklore of Maiagusy Birds, 

finch longft Tor, and the mn-blnl ii sommTu]— liut iloa'l attid 
the cairliru^hLn! (^%^>, for when he meetii A Tricnd, lie vill 
for^ iD about it The weaver -hini longi Tor, and ibc tan- 
bird » flOiTovfiit — CO acpd tho rolU-r {I'^finjri^), tor he «lll 
hoth rhitjk and dclfrer hla mcsia^e.* 

The names of most of ihcw Rollent arc tlc^wnplive of 
their habits ; atul the Violet Roller h called T^nMutditf. 
which would appear to mean " Lncitiy' probcibly from 
Kxnc superstition about it. 

Of the two other famili^t of Wide gaping "binis Tound 
In Madagascar, the GoaUuckcm ard the SwifU, 1 have only 
to rcmaik that their rath« names clearly rccr>gni<c the 
n<»ctum:i1 habii*; of \hv first, uhich arc called MatM^min, 
!>,, "'Dfly-^ik'epeni"; while the S^il'ls are termed " Day* 
walchinen". " Day-birdK". and " Day-lials", in ^dditkin U> 
their more: coatiiLun iiaiiic o( TsldiatiUiinA, U^ " FlicnT, 
/tf/- exc<J/encc. 

HI- — The third Order into which bird* nre divided by 
mo5t naturalists £5 the one which contains that lar^c and 
i]e!i\;lilful j^nnip of frathrrrfl tn-alun-s whiHi ixxf. iHp prtiv 
cipal sojit-Murb of llic wuwK There are about sixty 
3pGac9 of Perching bikds found in Mftd^tga^can the 
frrcnicr proportion of ihcro being seen only in ihc lower 
and wooded rc^iciu of the islmid. The majonly of tJ>C9C 
Arc of somewhat sombre plLiuiagc of browns and grtyf, 
with tlic exception of the Sun-birds, the Orioles, some of 
the Shrikcf, the two species of Paradise- bird a, and the 
Wc«LVcr« Many of th? birds found In Madagascar are 
by no means dtficirnt in the pcjwcr of producing *wccC 
sLjunds with considerable: variety of role, and there arc 
ivomc few whose iioitg hfu been considered to cquid ibat 
of Ota* European nightingale 

Jq several account* which hiive bccfi given by travellcni 
of their journeys through vatiou* parts of the country. 
refercACe U made to the Mlencc of the woods tind to the 
apparent paucity of animal life Now. while it is quite 


7iitf Faik-iort ef Malagasy Birds. 349 

Jc t?iat the m?unma1£an lift of Madagascar !d veT>' scaiity, 
I think tl>cse descriptions have been somewhat exug- 
geratcd ; indeed, most of *uch journc>*s have been made 
in the cold Ht^t*«on, whrn the wood* are comparsth-ely 
slleiH, But they are tertainly not so at all Times of tlic 
year; and ilnririg the? wanner inonlhi:, rjqiecially from 
November to Janujity, tlic note of one bird or Another \s 
never client all the day long, while some arc heard aJMi 
late into the night 

The lirst bird to be rolJccd here in the arrangement of 
thi» Order i& the Collared Crotv, a ver>' prominent member 
of X\iZ Madagascar avi-raura. Tbij; bird, called GoAikt^ hy 
the Malaga*iy, probaWy froTD his harsh crmnk. h;is gtossy 
black plumage, but with d collar of pure white and a square 
white p&ich on hia brcut, »o that he has a aomewhat 
clerical appcamncc, and i.t not nearly so :iombrc oiid 
undertaker- 1 ike as hia English cousin. He fs a bold aiMj 
impudent bird, and. as might be expected, is referred to In 
many Malatjasy proverbs, two or tlirte of which miiy \k 
here quoted. Thun : "Like the crow's coat; finitihed 
while it ii young" ; " Don't be lustrous outside only» like 
a erow"; "Many arc the crf^wt, and «ne can't tell which 
b male and which female, for all have while necks" ; " Do 
like the Holdicrit: get tip Ix-fort? the craw^, awake liefitre 
tiic w;irb!cr»". This bird ia aUo a]ludcd to in a nati\^ 
song^ in the ^-crscs of which the kite, the brown stork> 
the tark. and the cardinal-bird are aueee^sively men- 
tioned ; and the la^t vcrac n:nn aa follows ; "Where arc 
ywi from, old fellow, you crow there?' "I come from 
Anlatiinarlvo." "How about the proclamation there ?^ 
said I, 'The proclamation", *jid he. "u^s severe enough,'* 
" What wa* it all about ?" »aid L " Thieves," said he, " are 
to be kiKed!" 

Oneof the Madagascar Slirikes^callcd Ritiltt^y or Rati^mho 
by the nativc?v is alluded lo in several of their fables and 
talc* a* " a i»-<!ll-U' hived bini, with a long crest, and having 
a variety of note". One of its provincial names corner from 

350 Ths Folk-lore of Malagasy Birds, 

a root, dbv^. An encrry, [M-obably Troni tome i&upemtition 
conn^cictt with \l. 

With regard til the Wiirblers, Btilhii!?*, B;i!>h!rrs and oth« 
allied tliltI?^, wc have at pi^Micnt no infomjulicn in the ckpiul-* 
mcnl of follc-lorc ; »omc of their nam«, hovfcvcr. are 
dcacriptive of thctr vocal powers. And others of their appc^r- 
anoc and habit3^ Thai, one of then is from n root mcsinlng 
" well delivered" or " recited" ; another is *' Beautiful eyes^ ; 
while nevcni! mean " Watchcnan", cr " Spy". Our p j cjcn t 
folk lore knowledge is equally defective with ref^afd lo 
the Shrikes, Flyoilchers, Uutcher-birdi;, and Xuthatchcs, 
Although much that is interesting might be said about thdr 

The bcttutirul liltlr Sdn-birds hsvc alrrAdy been referred 
tu as being jnuntinfieil in many fjiWes iinil stories in eonnec- 
tion with other feathered cicdtuics ; ihcy seem to be re- 
garded a» melancholy b!rd:i on account of ihelr plaintire 
iittJc note ; while thdr bcauliful plumage is referred to in 
sorre of their namc:t. 

In the central regions of Madagascar no bird is mort 
frcquentlj' r.ecn in conniderable numbers dt:ring the hot 
season than the brilliant little scarlet /-tv/j-, or CardinaJ- 
btrd- The male bird only takes on this bright colouring 
durinfj the pairing season, the hen being as soberly coJoured 
a* a Kparrruv, ac is al^o her mate during the colder sea^oa 
These little biids^thjit is, ihe tnak.s — are most piignaciou^ 
and in tlic months of October and November pass the time 
in fierce conflict for the possession of ihe hen-bird^ who 
appear to be far Ic^s numerous than tfic male^. Being *n 
plcrtifuland conspicuouii, it is not to be wondered at thai the 
P5dy — ai least* the male bird, or Fbditdhiintna, as they call it 
(that is, " Red-:nalc-f6dy">— has long attracted the attention 
of the Malagasy, and is frequently alluded to in their folk- 
talen, provcrbr:, and children'^ games. Of the lint of these 
clas^ea of native wisdom one or two examples have been 
already given in speaking of other birds ; cf the proverbs 
referring to this bird, the following may serve as lipccimens : 

Th€ Falk-hrc of Mala^a^- Birds. 35 1 

" Do not forbid lo oat, likcii fWy", pnibiibly meaning llial 
ihc bird cats so ntnch ncc that lliorc in iilllc left far the 
ow^ncf. Tiic iA\nc voniciui[% habit b referred to a^mn in 
the Myinu ; " It \% not right to act like a fAdy when the 
n« b ripe : tAMing before the owner" Again, pretiuming 
to be equal to one's betters is reproved in another pr4>vcrb, 
which 5aj"S : " A rice-bird ( Tsikirity\ going together with 
n ibdy : il h not the leader, but only a follower." Thia 
Tsikinty is a bird of the satne family om the f6dy, but of a 
diflTerent genus and much snaller. Other species of Weaver 
are known u " Forest F6dy", and * Crafty F6dy", from the 
ingenious v^y in %hkh their retort- (shaped nests arc 
«n«£H-ndrd over ttrriimfi at thr extremity iif ii br-uich, so as 
to protect the young from scrjjcnts and other enemies. 

Ifcforc leaving the wcavcr-bW;*, I will ja^i give a speci- 
men of children^ cacica, in which the cardinal -bird plays 
a prominent part, quoting from a paper of my friend ami 
brother mii^ionary, the Rev. J, Ricbardson, 

*'Thc native sonKS." he yays," arc sung to a l^indof chaot* 
one or two voiees leading in the song, and the others joining 
in as a ehorus ^t the end of each stanxa- The children join 
h^d^ and the ftn^t two take Up the Strain, saying : 

*We bid you come, wc bid vou>' 
Then they are answerrd by iht- whclc body : 
' We'll not go Ihdx^ we'll not gc^' 

The leaders again sing out : 

',\ml why [not come), and why [not]!' 
The whole bcxly then reply again : 

* Jf< ndiher rice nor yam/ 

The Ica^lcTs ery out, and lift up thctr arm? with hands 
joined, as in a couniry dance : 

*ll'fi the eardinAl-bird'ft hou«c/ 

To which the whole troop of children cry out as they 
PASS under: 


35^ The FolM'/crc of AfaJagasy Jhrds- 

And these Ust two strainc are repedited uocil all have 
passed under. I append music ard ^'crds in the original : 

K»f F or E. IXC 


■ :— .■ 

; ni 

r : 

-.f : 4 

Tlic Icddon: Mao- 

A tt 



h^f m;in 

Thf rpiT I T«y ho 

A * ry 




Thclcndcrv: Na- 




hy, na^ 

The rat : Ta^ bo 

vi ■ ry 



by, uy 

The l«4dcr» 
ThcrMi : 

Trtno m^- 

Thh little thing 14 very popular among the yoonestcrst 
and they apcrd hours upon hour^ over tt" 

A fipccies of Lcirk is a native of MAd:^aA:ar, and b ^'cry 
common on the bare dov^i]s of the intanor pro\'trtc«8. Iti 
habits and appearance thi« bird is very much like the 
European species, but its song Is less ftill and varied. 
Many native proverb* ix'fer to the Sor^hiSra, the Hova 
name for this lark-, ^ome of wliidi are oliscure ; but tlic 
folfowing seem to refer to its peculiar fight, suddenly falK 
tng to the gmuhd as ITshot or butt: '^ A lafkfalUngintbc 
forest, because it doesn't know how to fly" (tit. ° is a fool in 
flyj^e")' "■ Thrown at. but not to be eaten. like a lark on a 
grave/' The unprotected 5totc of the younj; Iwtda when 
the hen is driven off the nest is referred to in the following : 
" A lark's nestlings by the roadside : I did not cast them 
off, but they were forsaken by ihtrir mother" The Hova 
name appears to be derived from a root, rbkitra, meaning 
" to go with a n\<\i\ or "to go In companies". Its SAkaUva 
name of Kffhhi>foIdny apparently nrfers to its nesting on 
t[ie barr grouiuE, from fcolokhio, " chciiahed, cared for", aad 
tiknjy "earth, ground". 

Although I knoiv nothing as regards its folk-lore, I wiU 
jgst mention that the last bird in the arrangement of the 
Order of I'afiaercs, the Euryceros J'rrt'osfi, or Pr£vo8t*» 
tlclmct-bird, U one of the most curious and interesting of 
the whole Malagasy avi-fauna, from its abnormal simctUfC 

Tfu Folk-lort of Malagasy Birds- 353 

Gtnd remote Telatiorti^hips. The aEOolo^^ical ^flmttics of this 
remarkable bird were for a long time a puaalc to omitholo- 
gist*, who fiuccessivdy placed il amonfi or near the Toucans, 
the HornbiSlii, ihe Swallows, the Ctow5, the St;trlJng«, and 
the Speckled Pic* ft is. howcvcn so differcnr from any other 
famity iJiiit a spediil one ha* been fonncti for it< rrCL-^itinri 
(Hurycc^cxJtuUi:), of which thi& biiO b the solitary gcrus and 
species. The liHryan^s 'f^ rrmarkniblc for a l>ciik formed 
like a very capacioua helmet, whicli is considerably larger 
than the skull. It i% about the sue of a starling, velvety 
ilaladc ia colour* &nd with a saddle-ihapcd patch of light 
Hairm on the back. 

IV.— The PlGECys and aome few allied birds fonn. tn 
Mr, R, B. Sharpens claasiiicau'on, an Order of ihcmsclvcs, 
snd include the extinct Dodos of which five :^ccie3 at least 
lived in the Mascarcne Islands until withm the la^t 250 
years, but no remains have yet been found in Modj^scar 

Of the four fipccie«of pLgeon known in Madagajtcar,tbdf 
namcft arc chiefly descriptive. One, however, has the strange 
appellation nf Tsiti^flrt^fttiitfrta^ i'^,, *■ Un^ipcakablc", or " Un* 
fncntionabte", among the Tan^U or forest inbe«, possibly 
becauve its more eotniTi<in name of Kati^ had bect^me 
tabuocd or tiocrcd tJtiou^h h^vir^^ furinE:d part of llic name 
of one of their chJefs. This seems to )x confirmed by the 
&ct that tliis other name i» aiiid tu bclonf;to"abtrdcf bad 
omen," Mr, Cowan says, speaking of the Uaro country-: 
*' The Katoto is tabooed or lacrcd here, even lo its name* 
to \t IS ftpciken of u the Tsi-Un4?xiita (' Not-to-be-men- 
liened'). U is a remarkable fact that most, if not aJl, of 
ihe bird* common to Ka^item Africa and Madag^car are 
fiacrcd, or regarded with a kind of superstitious fear. Of 
tbene the Kat^fc^ the tufted umber, the owl, etc, are 

v.— The fifth Order, that of the Gallinac or G.\ME BIRDS, 
ha.^ a few representatives in Modogiucar, of which the 
vou 11. a A 

354 The Folklore of Atalagafy Jiirds, 

Guln«^*rowl is mcnttonccT in a t^ood many native provcftKL 
Thun, an aaM:m1>!aj;c of pt^tiplc uho ^rt »uhyxt to the some 
chicrtain li termed " -^^Jw^ii Ujr rAa twA*'*, />., "Guinca- 
fouvb of the .^amc plumage", Homcthmc like cur ^ying, 
"Biriia of a feather tlock together". A^in, "A guinea* 
fowl ^oir;: into the forc^ : Vi-tutini; for the rain to clear off, 
but caught by a tte^dy downpour." The ciUFtculty of 
catchiiif; the bird Is rcCerrred to in the saylnj^ " £«ejn|c a 
boaiilifiilly marked piinca-rowl, ;«nd throwing avay the 
fo\*l at hom<^ iji one's house"; reminding ore thai " A bird 
in ihcf haiu] h wrjrth two in Thr bui«h"- And ^gstiD, the 
maxim that "' Union is streiigih", is enforce*! by tlic proverfi, 
" Guincii-ftJwIs going in ft fleck arc not scattered by the 
dogs". Here Is a fal>lc referring: ^o Hus bird i " Once upon 
a time, they say, r ^incfi-fowl went to vi»t hi* fncnds 
beyond the forest ; but when he got Into the mid^t of Llic 
woods he ^rcw g:iddy and fcJl, breaking his wing. lliCD 
he Inmcntctl nnd said : ' To go on, to go on, J cannot ; if I 
rcturi), I loTHj for my relations." And from that, they say, 
the people got Iheir song, which says, 'A guinca-foni 
cnterinjaf the forest : go on, he cannot ; rcttim, wing broken; 
stop whcrr hf^ is, he longs for hU relative*,' " 

or thtt Mada|;ascar Partridge, M. Gnindielier itnys that 
It hyi from fiflrcn to twenty eggs, and that, according to 
S<^ka!^va belief, any one who, having found the nest of ifkc 
TjffiAj' (as it is called), ^oC3 not brcftk the eggs. cau»c;) the 
death cif hi,i mother ; but if. on the contrary, he de^^^troys 
them, he causes the death of his father ! This superstition, 
us he say's, probably comes from the rarity cf fiitcitng the 
ncfit at all. The Quail is called KiiicffhJc^ #>,, 'Spirit* 
quail" by the Kitra, And about thi^ bird the B^t5ile6 have 
a saying that "The qtiail delays its proper uork in the 
autumn, and leaves it until the spring" ; and that then they 
know by tt^ tioic the proper time for planting iice. Of the 
Bu?tUird-i;t]ail, who^e names aie all compounds of the i^ipc 
word {Kldo) as that by which the olJicr (|iiail U known, 
M. Pollen says that ihc foot of this bird, hurg round the 

The Fotk-hn o/Malag4tsy Birds. 355 

npct, ?* btlicvcrd by the 5sik;il\vn lolx^^n uirilliUlEf remedy 
for disoiiJcrs of llic stomach, the ralivc word for which is 
aLso k\b<*. \ tliinl; it \% probable tlut the twcj worcU are of 
irdcpcndcrt and different origini and that iJic belief in 
the remedial v.-^luc of the bird for Atomnch complaint.% has 
arisen Trom the similarity of the two words^ o kind of 
homoropathic principle cf which Ma!aRas>' foJk-Iore (espc- 
cidlty phnt'lorc) and ^upcr^tLtion arc full of examples, a« 
may be seen by looking at Mr. Dahl2'ft papers on V}niann 
and «V/>r.^("I3c*ttnyand DKination")in Hkv^ Aninn^ar\v^ 
j^*tf«tf/,Nos. X, xl, and xi J, or indeed by carefully examining 
thr Mfdii^asy Etigitxh f)ir/iiin^ry, M. Grandidier rcIiTrs a 
ntnry about two young Mahaf^ly women having been 
saved from driith by snmc of these quails, in Cfjrsequtrttcc 
of which the bird has become a sacred or tabooed bird to 
their dcticendantd- 

VI,— Of the Order of Grails or \V-U)INC BiftPS, with 
Hk thirty species faund in Madagascar, there \% but little to 
be said from s folk-lorist*s point of view, except that the 
name^ of many rjf them ar^ very desLTipIive and appro- 
priate. Thus, those of tlic J^canas seem to contain a root 
ft'/T, " pa*scd iTinJu^h". '' walked on", anti would thercfurc 
refer to the habits of these birds in stepping from leaf to 
leaf of the vhTLtcr-plants. Then those of some of the Rails 
mean '* artifice, deceit, srarc", and ^o refer to their tricki to 
escape capture ; while anoUicr name means "ambush", no 
doubt from the bird rapidly taking to cover when hunted. 
So again with the Waturhen^, liomeof whofio natne^ mcAn 
" todip'', " to plunge^ referring to their constant habit of 
diving. Jn the N&me descriptive fai^hlon the Sandpiper 
is called " Sand-stepper" and " Watergkimmcr**, and the 
Plo^'ersare termed ■* Runners"/' Shore-birds'\ and "Rovinff- 
birds"; while the Tum^ione, from Its habit of warning 
other bird»of approaching danger, is called Kirhy, that 
is, " Proclaim er", or " Aceuser"*. 

The Madagascar Rail is regarded with great respect by 


35^ Tk€ Fotk'hre of Malagasy Birds^ 

the north -ivc5tcm SilkaBva, as the)' bdicvc It brinj^ them 
rain in vcr>- dry weather, so they irill rot kill it Among 
the birds of Ihia Order are Iwo species classed by M. 
Gr;wdidicr in a distinct fuTii'.y, and termed Mesitinji^ ; he 
speaks of them as " vcf>- curious and specialised bcrtlt, 
takhig their place between thi- RaiU and the Herons*, He 
says fuTTlior. that, acconlirg lo iho ralive accoimt*, when ^ 
the nc^r.^ of iheic /lA-^/VfTj, which -irc: mrvctly plmrcd in d ^| 
low sttualion. arc flooded, Ihc paieiil l*iids draiy tltcnn to 
where ihcy will be free from injury by the water. If any- 
one takes their younsf, they follow them into the viJIa^c. 
and on account of this love for thctr oifaprin^, they vc 
Gon^tdercd ifiucrcd {/ady) by thcf B^C«imii(araka, because^ 
say the natives, they arc ii this like human bcinj;^. 

Vir — The four famiU<!smtnwhirh the Order ofHKAOKS 
IS dfvi<]i^d an; «tU rcpreisenlcd iti Maflaj^a^car, and include 
fivc-and-twcnl)' s]>pc^es belonging to the true Herons, the 
Storks, the Spoonbills and Ibiscn, and llic Flamingoes, 
Of these bird^ more than half the number (fourteen) 
bclon^r to one g^nu,s the heron,*i, which is thus die moA fl 
numerously represented genus in the island ^^ 

The most common of the herons, as well as perhaps 
the moat noliecahle bird one sees when travelling in aity 
part of Madagaiicar, is the Whiie-egrcl, or Ver^mp^y^ §^ 
■' White-bcrd". WhcTCvcr herds of cattle are feeding, there 
it will bti «een in numbers proportionate to thoise of the 
oyen Thcie animaU it follows, to feed upon the tick* 
which infe^t their >kin and larmetil thrm inrr^sanlly. On€ 
may often sec ihcflC egrets pciclieJ on the back of the 
oxen, ami thus clearing them %.>t thrit tormentors. It is, 
therefore, not siirprlsinf; that iuch UM:ful binU arc venerated 
by the IVlaIfiea*y- -"w thnt they cannot sec one of thctn 
shot hy foreigners without extTcmc displeasure, and they 
would think it a kind of sacrilege were they themselves to 
cha^e or injure ihcm. Some of thi* egret's names refer to 
\U habit of following; the catile, as l^n^wiCJtify/' Ox -bird", 

Tke Folk'hre of Malitgaty Birds^ 

and r^ivff/J^^dof^/'Dird'lovcd'by'-oxcn^ T heir pure u^hite 
plunna^c (3 rcforrcd to in one of the proverb*: "Clean 
clothing, like the whitec^jret, but he gel* his living by 
picking up tcrapfin" Its mounting on ihc hack of the oxen 
Is referred to In aiiotlief proverb: "Don't seek to be 
* mitnljpr oner", like an rgrrt" And Ag;iin. IIvh ■di4r|)*e)ect 
vigilance is noted in another, which says; "An c^tctpcrdicd 
oil a crooked br^uich : I ta^y him, but lie kcc|j» his eye 
on ma" 

Axiotbcr heron, known a^ Fiisittlatra, i.€,, "^ WliitC'win|^&", 
H alr'O known by the queer name of f-'atij^tamctivoiiy, 
ifthich miy be translated " Crocodile'i^-eyG -cleaned; so ihat 
it probably docs the same kind ofRott for the crocodiles 
that the while egret doe* (i>r the oxen. 

The f:inii1y of the Siurk't cjuiiaiTii in MadagaHCar three 
^pcdc«> one of them ^icculi^r to the itJAnd The most 
lAell-kmiwii bud of this family is t!ic TAktUra, or Tufted 
Umber, ft brown ?tork, frcqucnlly flccn in the marahc* and 
rkc-iiclds» Thb bird builds Bn Gxtnhordinarlly large nc*t, 
often vi-Mble at a conMdcrable distance, and in placet! either 
on the fork of a large tree, or on the very c<]^ of over* 
hfu^t^ing Tockf and i» from four- and -a-Half to ^x feet in 
diimcicr. Probably from thJB conspicuous rc^, a« well 
aji fiXJin the ^ave and i;edate way in which the T;lkatra 
marches about seeking for its food, many native <*uper« 
stition>« havr g^thereil ahnot thit bird, une of which i\ 
ihdi iho^C! who deUroy its ne?^t will become lepctH. And 
while the H<A'a and central tnbca were Mill idol^ter^, it 
waA believed that it v:sts very unlucky should a T-ikalra 
fly across the path along which the idob were being carried; 
in aucb ciL^c ihcy were immediately taken back to Ihar 
dwc)Jing-hou5C Another belief is that, if the T^katra 
lakes the hair of any person from whose hcjad it lia.-: just 
been cut, and usee ii as material in building iu nest, tuch 
person become* at <*nce bald. 

A coniiderable number of Malagasy prtivrrlw refer lo 
this birdj some of vthith may be here translated Tl 

3S8 "^^^ Folk'Utr of Afahgasy Birds. 

its plume or crest at the back cf the hcnd \^ mcnti' 

thciic: "Stooping down and showing the crest, l»k< 

Aork 5talkmff ailer a frop"; "Hair in a large knot, lik 

»Eork'& plume" Uf habiu arc raticcd in the foUowii 

"Going along the stream, like the siork"; and, "A atorfc 

the wiiter-iiide ; not ^Iccrptng^ but in dvcp thought*; i 

!ta nest in these; " The stork liiitshcd a nest, h> the \ 

gave him^f -aint"; and, " A sttjrk's iieat entered by 

QVi\, the stingy one li injured by the crii one." (Sec a 

the fable previously given, p. 346, about the Toldho cud 

and tlie stork.) There U a pun. or at Icaat a pUy of wod 

in thc« two; " ha^ /dhr/rf ay ttwa, hay Hay uamak 

7'dAvi/rat!' i>., " DoinK one's ulmoM {f^kitira\ said the i 

who wan entertained by a Tiikatra"; and, * Toy tty oiaMil 

T^kaira: raka fitly, Mw^-MrTOKAKA ; raha cry^miA 

MITOKIKV/ I.A, " Like the TAkatra* njinpathj- : when > 

arc gUd. \\t^ la\ighs with you ; when jou are sorrowful, 

slirinloc 1>aclc with you"; that H, 1 iiiippc«e, it tfi ftJl \ 

same to htm whatever bcGtIU yoLi, for h]« note mik 

altera. ■ 

The names for some tjf thin Ortler o( Wnls arc m 

dcKtiptive ; thus, the Open-billed Stork is called Far^A 

aJt^ra^ or " ShcIl-brcakcr"; and the Spoonbill's rai 

(S^fravdta) is of exactly the iame racEiring as in EtigVts 

it is also called " Spade-mouthed" Several of the Ibis 

ns well OS the Cormori^nts. arc named from a word whi 

means lo"pratjfy, satiate, or indulge"; ivhilethe Flaming 

very long lc(jfi give it* name of Samak^, Lt., " Disunited" 

"Split". It is alio called 5fJw*i^>. "LargC'inouthed", a 

Anjiytftfjpna, from its Irumiielirg cry, amfi'mhatia befn^ | 

Thine for a krgc species of Tn'ton shell used as a tnimpe 

VIII.— There arc ten species of Wild-duck, Wrii 
nriiSE, and WaTEK-FOWL fnund in Mndn^ascar. and the 
are fourd in immense numbers in the numerous marsh 
and many ^mall lake? and mcrcK, as well as in the extc 
sive lagoons of the eastern €oa>it- Here rtgain, &£ with 

The Folk'lort of Mult^aty Birds. 359 

of tlic uthcr Malaifiuy birds, mnny of the nnmcs arc 
lei^ptivcr 3omc of their screafnittg eric?, ai^d othci^ of 
their appcarftfice. The VVhitc-wmcod Utving-duck i« 
known o^ A^^i/a^iaia, i>.. " Foolish*', because it does not 
fly avray until one b very near it, and i»! ccnsequcnlly \xty 
easily shot. The natives £ay that the hcn-bifd experiences 
M>m«; difficulty in the Uytng of her eRRS which are very 
large in proportion to the siic of her body. Indeed, the 
paftiagc of the eg^ \% sate! to make the bird faint and be* 
come unconscious. If found jii:^! <it thi» time she may be 
taken off her re^t with the IiAfid. On ateount of ihu 
Itcculiaiity. this bird \^ /dtiy, or tsboocd. by alt native 
vomeii, who think that tiKy would experience a similar 
difliculty in childbirth were they to cat the bird. 

IX.— Of the ninth Order of bird* (Tl-LICAKS), including; 
tlic Frigate- birdfl. Tropic-birds and Pelicans proper, all 
rcprcf^cntcd m oramund IM:idaga)(car, I can «Ay but httlo — 
noihinfl. Indeed, of the iwo fir$i- named famJIIcs— as regards 
fo1k-1ore« although thcfrr u much t1i;4t is tnfc-re.vting about 
them from a natutalist's point of vicM. Tliu namc_*( nf the 
African Connonmt describe iti habits, tKc SlkaUva calh'ng 
it Kenhofiy. />„ " Mother (or Gtiardjan)-of-Crooodilc»", 
£or they in.ii»t that it acta a^ a sentinel for these TC]>tilc3. 
They say that when one of the t>jrd:fi is fiecn pcrchcJ en 6 
tree by the river, one is certain to see, not tar off, a number 
of erccodilcs. Other and !iinii[ar namc« Tor this cormorant 
are Si>Jk^Uami*i*^y, "Crccodilcs^frlcrni "» anJ Arcn^^^^ 
" Guardi;»n-of-!hf-enfiny* r>,, .The crocodile, tfic cn^rrty /vr 
cr/^/Uftrf, and the mo^i feared of all xhty living creatures 
in thr l^land^ It is uLscj tehried V&rhxtpis^fy, rV, the 
" Bill!- that -Idkcsf prey)- from -the- water'", and FamdfikoM- 

X. — A-1 rcf^J^ the SllA-DlRDS proper, inchiding a score 
<t|)ei:Ees of Tern, Noddy, Gull, and Petrel, I can hjy ewn 
less than about the prcriotia Order, as but few £uropcaii> 

Th£ Folk-hn of Malagasy Birds. 

living on the coasts of Madagascar haw paid Attention 
the Jiabiii of tlwsc powtnfully whgcd s]>ccics or colkcl 
u'brtlrvrr fragmrfiE* nf fo^k-Uirp may happcril to C3< 
iiiiioii^ tlie i:cEi^ulwdIij:g Malagasy with r^ard, 
occA:iic birds. 


XL— The Uat Order of birds, called in Mr K- B- Sharp 
classification, the DiVKRS, includes In Madagascar t 
species of FuiTin and two of Gtxrbc. Of thcnc lattert 1 
lesser species or Dabchick, appears to be almo&t :dcntii 
with the bird foumi over Europe, Africa, and pari of Aa 
Jt is very ix'inmon in all pieces of frcnh water, where 
may be seen swimming, diving down at any afarm, 
H-'appcmr iti a minute tir two at a eon^tidenible diatan 
It K known by the name of Vhy, probably imliati^^ of 
pUtntive liltle cry, ^^ 

A]thojt;li irax rapid iiurvey of tlie btrd* tndit^enouji 
Madagascar, and still to be found throughout its fore 
and plains, and iu ri^-cra arcl sca-coosts, ia now complcti 
a word or two may be added v^ re^nrd^ two or thi 
specicn of Birds nqw Extinct, bLt which, at no vc 
remote period, scoured \X% plains, and must have been v« 
letHlcing members of its avi'fauna. Thew were species 
a struthious bird, allied to the ostrich, and Mill more neai 
to the only recrntly extinct Moa or Dmfjrni?* of Nj 
Zealand Thelarge*it Kperirnof thU bird, named jEpy^n 
n*ajn$nuSt apjiears 1o have 1>cen about Wi lar^t? ^tta full-stir 
ostrich, but with cxircmcly mvi^^ivc legs and fccL But 
wa5 Atitl more peculiar from having: laid the largest of 
known ejci^a ; these have a longer ax if of twclvc-and 
quarter inches, with a shorter one of nine-and- three- etg}! 
inches ; they were therefore equal in capacity to eix oetrl 
eggs, and to t50a^T^agc-si7Cd hens' eggs. 

In the ri[iint(m uf vime writers the? «iirange stories In t 
Arabian Nights about an enormous^ biid called the Rec^ 
iitilh, whicli waH able to take up an elephant ir its lalo 






7 Ac F^k-torc 0/ Malagasy Birds. 361 

and which darkened the air as It ^oaiwJ a'oft — i*ith other 
like marvcU— took Ihdf rise, or were suggested by, ihc 
exblcDcc of thf^sc Jmmcnsc j^^)yornis q^g* ffum M.ida- 
gAscar, It 11 wril kncnvn that ihc Arabs have hud tcitcr- 
coui"sc With the bUnd from very ancient timc^-ind It w 
povMblc that. liGvini: Mxn an c^ Uial so largely exceeded 
in SI2C thcitofany other bind, they concluded that the bird 
byinc 5uch an e};^ mu^t have been able to do iHcr >vondcrru1 
things ascribed to it in their popular j:tciric«, A& may be 
seen, however, by lookJOf; at the structure of its feet, the 
j£pyoraix wa^ not only incapable of holding e\*cn a mouse 
in Its clawfi, but it iirobahly nnuld never have liftni itself a 
yard from the ground. Vet. in the absence of any know^ 
tedgcof the bird iLselCthcconclui^ons the Araba drew from 
the i)2e of the cgg5 were not very absurd, especially in dn 
aeevrhcn all the unJ^nown was utanclloust and when so 
much that ^'a^ both wonderful and true wa^ being constantly 
discovered by their darin(>: navi^-ators and explorers. 

In this concludln(T uection of the paper I will gather 
together a few particulars about the DoMKSTicxTEn UIRI?^ 
of Madagascar, about whieh there U naturally more folk-Tore 
material aViiiUble lh<in Iv. the c^lsc with rei^^ml tti thnnc birds 
Vfhichaiconly occdsiL>iially — ^omcoflhcm rarely — seen and 
observed by the people. The mo*: imporiantand valuable 
additiOTts made to the indi^noun avi-launaof theeourtr>' arc 
the Fowl, the Duck, the Goose, the Turkey, ar>d the Muscovy 
Duck. The last of Iheiie Is the least common, alihouf;h ft 
is fitill tolerably plentiful, but al) the other* arc very widdy 
spread over the couiitij-, and form mcnt valuable additiofis 
to it* food-supply. Almost every cottage in the island 
luei if* ri;>\*'l%, and in the Interior provincrs large (|uantitir% 
of ducks and gccsc arc reared, not ouly fur licme consump- 
tion, but al^o for ncndin^ down to the coast, and for sale to 
tlie foreign shipping. 

The lurkcy ia called b>' the Malagasy P^drTUfst'Idxat 
whicli literally mcana the '* Nol-fcrce-bird" — an odd name 

362 The FolkUrt tj/ MaUtgasy Sir&, 

which ha« probably come about In the follot^irg w. 
vihrn fit^i introdiic:rcl> its loud gobble, brighl red ocat 1 
wdltlcrs, iildfincd ibc pcuptc, aii bdongmg to a sava^ b 
a veritable X'^romidta ; btU jt wa^ soon !*ccn that tli^rc ' 
nothini: much to tic fcftrcd,&nd so its ctftmc became y^ 
TSlUsa, "the: bird which is w^ savAGic", allcf alt So 1 
of the native provcfbs£ay&: " K^r<w/jifflj^.' not fierce (/Ai 
»ti]l,when taken, fierce cnoujjh." Another one says: ^Di 
brag, like a turkey; whiatlcd for, and then iiprcadm|r 
its leathered' Another dcicribe* ii^ appearance and hal 
thus: " Don't act like the turkey : who bui hc; though 
a girl, c!nLg< hi« clothing tm thegTf>nnd> who but he;thoi 
there's no bull-figbu hoots and shouts ^ who but Ue, ihoi 
not a matmn> wearn a coral necVlacc ? uho but be, thoi 
not a drum, makes a terrible din?" 

The Gooac U known in Im^ina by the name of Fdrwi 
"Big-bird", on account of its aiic, and is al^^o called C 
from the Hnj^liah "gccsc*'(thc plural, be it observed, not 
ain^rular "goose"), AmongBi the SihAnaka the rcarinj 
gecAc and ducks i% an occupation only second in imp 
ance lo the keeping of citcle. They are bred in inuTK 
numbers, and geese, cither alive or killed, arc always ] 
ficnted as s. mark of ro.tpect to strangenc Goose-quills 
pens form pan of the armiial tribute paid by ihe Sibikn 
to the sovt-'reigi^ at Antaninar'rva Two or ihrce prove 
may here be qutaed ; e. g., " Big-bird ( Vdnmibi), little q 
"A gander eating growing rice ; ihc one takln}; othrr fo 
piopcrty makes the loudest noise"; "Giving one's hcJf a 
likca^osc not fit for eating." Tbi^bird formsafavou 
dish wfth the lower-cla--i!i Mnla{:asyatvfirioL]stimesof fe 
ing or family gatherings, and its value, as compared wii 
fowl, is noticed in the following: "As for killing a f< 
that's all right ; but to kill a goose, that makea one ft; 
(as by far too great a stretch of hfjspitality). 

The Duck is hardly less plentiful In the Interior of Mi 
gascar than are hens ami chlcken-t, am] in the mai 
districts very large (locks of them arc reared. I1 is ca 

TAi Folk^hn of Malagasy Birds, 363 

in fm^rlna V^fvrnbasd/ta, t\ t., "Foragncr's bird". aitJ »q !» 
probably cf comparatively recent introcJuclInn, In oilier 
partfl of the country it 13 known by ihc name of Drakit/rdky 
and Ganagdm, the fir*t certainly, and the Litter probably, 
imitative of its quack. The following proverbs refer to this 
bird: 'Thin and Hat-mouthed, like 2 duck"; ""Do like the 
ditrVs: the dntc whn leads has least to say" ; " tt is the 
dLek« that inake a noisCj stj ilie frogs are alarmed" ; " If 
turning hciid cner heels is to be done, the duck will get 
Mxnething lirst"; " Like a duck lying en its back, its feet 
are flat ard thin; bending do\vn, its beak is flat and IhTn." 

Last, but by no means least in importance, to the Mala- 
gasy, ir- the domestic Fowl, reared ever>'whc;re, and called 
by them Akbho, a word mc4t probab^^' oiiomatopoctic in 
origin, although ft may be more immediately connected 
with the Swahili huA'it. It wais no doubt introduced into 
Mtbdaga^car in very early iimei*, and the nuinerout: words, 
verbal forms, ard compound word-a, dcHvrd from the name 
of the bird, a?c well a^ thif imm]ncr4b1e refcrrrrcefi to it in 
native folk-lore, legends, orittory, and provtfbs, all tcMify 
to the prominent place it holds in the otimalicjn of the 
people. In ibe fullest collection of MaiagA^ proverbs yet 
published there are more than miiety which refer to fowls — 
(whether as cocks, hens, or chickcrs— and there arc several 
also :ibout ^^^i, from each of which classes a few of the 
mo<<t noteworthy will now be quoted. 

Firsts then, as to Chickens : a bit of natural theology Ea 
seen in the ffitlowing: "A chicken drinking water: it 
obfiierves what i^i on the earth, but also looks up to heaven," 
Tbc smxic-tiei nf a hen whu h;L% brought up a brood of 
diKklingi !:» thus noticed: "As a }icn which ban hatched 
ducklings: if she clucks aAcr ihcm, tlicy arc not hers : if 
she [cavc5 them alone, they are a troublcson^ family" 
Others will explain ihcmsclves: *' A chicken fallen into a 
ditch : it ^tnigg!cs to get oHt, but can't ; it calls out, but it* 
voice LH weak ; it tsbops there, it is in danger of the wild- 
cat'' ; * Chickens having rice tlirown totlicm: they arc 

364 Thf Folk'hrt 0/ Malagasy Bmis, 

both frighicncd and {^Imf '; ■■ Wc arc not chickens bal 
in the winter, doAii-hcarterd, «nd weak -winged i but (SOA 
lingH hatched m llie summer |wficn food in more pIcntiAil] 
and therefore strong ard lusty." 

or course Uicre arc many rcTcrcncet to the Coclc and tf 
coctc-crowtngj at. ' A cock coming into Ihc market : Bd 
(pmof of] stimjjlh, but regret for the villajFe he ha% Irft* 
" Mary cock* Tn the compound, cvrryon^ wants to croV 
"A cock'!! spur: it's aluqj crHiuj;!!, but it'-n low ciowa*' 
" Honoured as the father of the brood, and yet picking itj 
#crapik iirdcr the ricc'poundcr^; *^ The cock rct^ta he hai 
wiii^ for he is caught by the wijd-cat" ^| 

l'roiri:tca not borr.e out by pctfortnajices ^Tt »pok<ffl 
in th«c ; '* Don't du like the fowl's early risif^ ; he wakei 
early vnoxtf^K but H still south of the l^^arth" (that is^lu 
is still in th;tt part cf a native housv where the fourU rooit 
he has not gone out to do any work). So again, "Up 
early, yet nfit gone U^\, like a fowl" \\\a pbce in thi 
h'ousf% again, fs mcrntiorcd thus : " It is nrti Ihc fowl's foTly 
that he lives in the corner, for that is \\\% ^h^irc of the 
dwelling." Here is a piece of good adticc about married 
life : " Let wedlock be like tJie fowl's clothmi>, only parted 
with at death." Native superstitions about treading on Uu 
totnb of one of the Vaximba (the ^uppo«cd aborifrinal tn< 
habitants of Im^rina, the central provincc)are thus referred 
to: "Th*? Vay^mba Imji bi^en trampliMj on, so the ftvKVi 
head vnust bccul ofT' — that i^, a« a sacr]lic& Taking mucli 
titmble fur un^ll results is tiius T^pokcn of: " It 's abiurd Ic 
seek for an axe, when you only want to carve a fowl' 
Our laAl specimen needs no remark : " Likea cock'a taO 
the best of him ^5 behind." 

Mere \a a fable explaining why Cowls scratch the earth 
and why kitet scream as they fly; "A fowl borrowed 1 
needle from a kite, but the needle being loiit, the kite said 
' I am not contentcti with yotir losing my needle; so tfaal 
is why the fowl ^crutches the ^Tound, and why the kll4 
carries away die chickens inMcad of his needle. An 

Tis Potk^Urs of Malagasy Sirds^ 365 


icn it is spimi'-limc, (he Y\W. Rcrcamfi nuW fi/aJ^kpAAA^r', 
[/7ff, A Ticcdic ; a^^.o, a fow\\ calling on the fowl for his 
lust iiccdlc/" 

Here flTc two or three proverb* about Eg?*, fflostlx re- 
ferring lo tbo^c of ihc fowl : " E^rfi'* can't fight with Monc^'; 
"Egps not sflt on won't become chickens"; "Words art 
Ijk« CKSS. when hatched, they have winp*," There arc 
sc^'cral populnr sfjpcrstitions ^bout egg*; thus, for a hen 
to lay cither a very lari^e or u very smulL ^^ i» eoniidcrcd 
lo be omfnou'& of evil or good : and so, also, an egg Ufd 
withoLht a proper shell (aihfimcUmy) U thought to forebode 

TwDOf tlirec quol^liuns from ihe proverbs referring to 
WrJ* gcreridly may anicliiOe ill fs section ; thus: "Dont 
cry for a bird all but obtained ", *" Dim'l reckon on (or cry 
for) a bird still tn the air"; " Words arc carried by a flying 
bird" (cf. Hicctca. x, so) ; *'Thc bird may forget the srurc, 
but the 3nare doc3 not forget the bird," 

I have now completed what I proposed to do at the 
otitJict of Ihin paper, viz,, to gather together all that I 
believe is at present knoivn a$ to the fottc-lorc of the birds 
of Madagas<::tT. It is, of course, a very small contrjbotion 
to the snbject, specially when contra'ited with such a 
ehannin]^ 41^1 iTunpleie briiik as that of ihe Rrv, C. 
Swainson on the Fitik-iore of Briiish Birds, and [&«ucd by 
this Society ihrrc or foi^r years a^^ix But 1 jisk tli^t it rn^y 
be remembered thai this is new ground; that there arc 
still comparatively few Europeans living in Mada^a:icar, 
and that of these there arc probably* hardly haIf-a-do:Ecn 
who take much interest in folk-lore. Bc^ide-s this, a good 
many Malagasy tribeji are only very itlightly known > and 
even from those peoples whom dc know best, but little 
Soformation or folk-lore maMcrs ha^ yet been collected. 
Doubtless there is still v^xy much in all sach ^ubjectJS to 
reward the cfTorta of those who may Ira\c1 more widely m 
the great ijiland,and u-ho will more thoroughly investigate 





366 The Folk-lore of Malagasy Birds. 

the superstitions, proverbs, and folk-tales of the Malagas] 
people as a whole. 

Meanwhile, I offer the foregoing as a small instalment o 
a lai^e subject ; and I trust what I have been able here ti 
gather together has not been without interest 

James Sibree, Jun. 


TO the accord volume of Miss Garnctt's Womm tf/ 
Turkey and thtir p&lk't^rt ("Jewish and Moslem 
Womcn"3, Mr. Stuart-Glcnnic has abided a stijcly on the 
"Or^infftf Matriarchy^, in which he treats this puij:Un(; 
hiHtitution ai: sn cxciDphlication of hi» gcncril theory of the 
origins of clvilisatfon, and «Geks ^pport for his contention 
ui the folk-tale- Hi« arfruniert thus hat cf^pccial intere:£t 
for folk-torbts, and. p<^nt]ing; a detailed notice of the woric 
to appear shortly in ForK-LORB, I wish to call attention to 
the itn}H>it;mce of ihe points raiM-d by Mr Sluarl-Glmnic, 
As is well knourn. Mr Stuart-Clcmiic socks the dcier- 
mining impetus towards our present state of civillsaticn in 
the jclations between primitive white races (whom he 
dcrtignatcs Archaiar.) and cohjurcd racca of an altogether 
inferior mental and noral strain. These relation swero in- 
variably ones of subordination on the part of the lower races. 
But thift subordination varied in dcyree, anrf wvifi at limes 
and in places consistent with marriage between women of 
the higher and men of llie lower race. In ihcsc case* the 
wife aould retain such |>o1itica I, social, and i>erM»nal rights 
as wc find in matriarclial ccnninunitics. To ^'crify the hyix>- 
thc^^ Mr. Stuart-GIcnnic ATiAly.<(es the folk-lore re!«Lting to 
marriage of the peoples living around the eastern Mcdi- 
tcrrancan, under three head$; (i) Family usages; (3) 
in&rti^;€ sanctions; (j) vi^ddinf; cacmonic^ Historic* 
ally, as he points out> tbe patriarchal family has been the 
dominant type in this ref^on for over 2,000 years ; yet» in 
»pite of this the fo1k*lorc presents marked matriarchal 
features. Thus, the chief sanctions of the patriarchal 


Tkg Origins of Matriarcky^ 

marriage arc racc-idcrtity, contract, asacnt ; the chief cere- 
mony £s the propitiation of tLrcc^tor& But of matri- H 
archal m&rriagc th? chief sanctions are non-kinship, cap- ^ 
lun% consent ; the chief ccrcmon/ if propitiation of the 
powcn of nature. Numerous arc the still surviving customs 
which can best he ox^lainc^d hy the matriarclia! conccpttoo 
of society. But it \s in folk-povsy, even more than in folk- 
custom, that Mr Sluart-Cjlennie seeks for matiiarchaJ 
survivfth, and it ia cHpceiatlly m the Swar-Maiilcn ^roop 
of tale;n that he iindr; them. Here he palemiM::^ a^UJist 
Mr. KaTiland iri what seems to me &n unnecessary way. 
the polemic havlnj; tittles heann$r upon the main conten- 
tion. Bui 1 will leave Mr. HattlarKJ to defend hia vie*^, 
ax he it xo well able to do. It is iir^ed, then^ that in the 
Swan-Maid group the father Is cither unmentloned cr 
autmrdinfite; the wife or mother in <cupremc, the family and 
not ilic father consent lu ui refuse the marriage, llic hero 
is, as a rule, a fatherlc^ss chitcL Attain, the Sttan'Mftid U 
always described \\\ terms that differentiate bcr racially 
from liic hero; she is only to be won by achievement, 
whctlici capture of herself, killing of her guardian, oc 
performance of ia*ks ; finnily, the talc nearly cL]wa>'s includes 
submJBsion of the husband to a taboo, the breaking of 
which entaiU for him the loss of the wife. 

This brief recapitulation of Mr. Stuart -Glen nic's points 
will «how of uh;it iniporT;Lnce hix Arj^ument is to all 
who essay to ex[)tain the facts of folk-lcirr, I may at 
once exprev* my opinion thai little would be nccdcti to 
bring Mr- SluaiL-Glcnxiic*s and Mr. llartland's cxpUtia- 
tion:^ into line with each other. They imprus me aA being 
complementary rathc:r than antagoniUic Both writers, 
in oflcct, treat the alorics as cvidcrcc of a bygone iK)cia]| 
intdleetuat, and moral ^tate, which state datc^ back to 
a hoary aniiqiiity, That in intcrpreiing; the survival! 
from such a remote period divergences *hoiiM arise is but 
natvnK But if it is oner agreed dial the atorics dA 
contain traces of a jiast state of humarity, correct inter* 

Tig Ort/xins of Afairiarcky. 


can only be a matter of time and study. But 
if the 5torjc3 coniain no such traces, or al k&^t only 
traces of a state of aiTatn which obUiincd amongst ct small 
section of humanity, and tf the Ucvclopmcnt of the atones 
has not been conditioned \>y custom, but by the simple 
desire to make the tale varied and exciting? How are 
wc, then, to di^criminftte between what is the rcooid or the 
symbol of custom or of belief, and what U simjily the play 
of free fancy? Hen?, again, the fundanicntal question of 
fo I It -lore crops. Is ihN lore (n the main the outcnne of 
tlic sixijil and mentaf pbasc^ through which a race fras 
passed, or Is it a ini^Ecellaiieous find meaningless collec* 
t>on of boiTowingj t 

It is evident that any historical theory of progress wtifch 
fits Ibe facts of folk-lore into tlic general scheme favours 
the fir^t of these views, [n so far 1 hold the anthropo* 
school may daim Mr Stuart-Clcrnfe as their 
however much divergence there he on questions 
of cnelhod and nomcnelaturc, even of butodcal evolution 
large. The m^n point is that there has been cvolti- 
I, and that folk-lore testifies thereto. 

1 do not ihtnfc that Mr Stuart- Glen ule's working out of 
his views is as yet 5iiffiCFcntly exhaustive tf> allow of satis- 
fiitturj' trilici-Mn, It \mxs the Iml^t inj;c(jiou> and taking 
look ; but acceptance must be deferred until not only the 
Swan-Maid croup of talcs haa been analysed in greater 
detail, but until other groups of folk-talcs ha\-G shewn 
tficmselvcssusccptiblcofa like interpretation. It isfrreatly 
to be hoped that some workers al folktales will apply Mr 
Stuart <Gler Die's principles and methodfi. The examina- 
tion cf the m^rchen oorpui is too formidable a task for one 

As re(*ard« Mr. Stuart -Glenn ie's f^cneral theory of matrf- 
archali7;ni, ( would urge that it does not dcriv*e «ap]>ort 
from recent history. When of late higher races have 
come in contact with In^^r ones, Tn;irr[jq;e between wrnneii 
tjf the (biincr and meii of the Utter has seldom obtained. 



TAe Origins of Matrianhy. 

True, OTIC of the conditions or raatriftrchaUsro obtains in 
such hstuncea of racc-cont-ict— the practical fatherless- 
nc** of many children of the women belcn^ing to the 
lower race. But, Zi Mr. Stuait>Glcnni« most rightly 
insIvtMhr problem of m^ubrchdi^m lies not !n uncertain, 
or rather undt'danrd p.-icttrnity, but iri the supiemacy ol 
the vroman. Mr. Sluari^Gleiinie's explanition of thii 
problem \% fi^isciiiHtfng, but is il trac? In any cue 
deserves moat serious altE:ntioTi. 

Altred Nutt, 

SiNCi; 1 became acquainted with Mr. Stuart-Glennie'S' 
ingenious views of the ori^ri of civilisation^ 1 hnve been 
especially interested in it We that are content \i we readi 
what we consider to be «ome approximation or the Cnith, 
in one small department of some limited section of 
definite diviKior of the knowable, cannot but admire 
confidence and the vigour with which Mr StiUTt-Glermit 
settles the aftairs of humanity in the epochs before hiMoiy^ 
Thrrc^ iH Ttocnelhiii^ Titanic about the whole nf his 
.heHidL(!H that compels bdmuatiun for thr exploit. Per« 
5ona]ly [ have a »ncaJiiin£f regard for ^ theory of dvil 
which makes it oric huge example of the Borrow I n£-Thco*y, 
to which I have, most untcicntificfllly, 1 fear, pinned my' 
partiality, 30 that I am ready to welcome it cvxn where no 
facts exist on which to base our judgment. Bat where no 
fact9i or few facts, or t^till unverified factt exist, we have no 
choice but to revert to hypothesis— provided wc have the 
courage of Mr. Stuart -Glennie, and arc content to fall with 
cur hypothesis when facts prove unkind and refuse to fall 
intu the pigeon-holes we h;ive jircparcf! for them, 

Therr." Is one to^ltx jirinciplc nf human nature which tetlt 
Strongly for Mr, Gkinnc's hjpullicais to w]uch I ilf^irc on 
the pn^ic'ot occasion to draw attention. Civilisalicm i«a 
matter of culture ; culture, again, is a matter of IciMJrc 
Now, under early economic conditions (are they mi 

Tke Or-igim of Mairiarthy, 

37 J 




difTcrcnt nowadays?) (eifurc i« onl/ po«tibIc with ^avc* 
labour Again, stave-labour ad ^n organbcd Institution i» 
only poft^iblc: on a Inr^ ^fc^k when there is a strong and 
marked di^rcncc of «ic« between alave-owner atid slave. 
Hence it becomes k pn<?ri pof^iblc, ond even likely, that 
when the cJcmenU of civilisation arose—a dt;; in fied archi- 
tecture, a norm of nwnner! and ceremonial — there rw>t 
have existed a marked diJTerence of race, with consequent 
slave-labour, Allthb EcEU for Mr Stuart-Glennic. 

Bui whelber matriarchy arose :ks a renult of thU, with 
ctmnahtum bt-lwcen fcm^ilc ^lave-owncrs and ihrrr slavrt, 
dcpciid» (ii) cviJcitcc, drid c^vitlertce ii hiclly iA-aiiliiL|^ biitli 
in ardent and modern times in tbiA direction. Indeed, so 
Jarasitfc^es, it tend» othcnvards^ tlic 3Utu» of the child 
foUon'5 that of the mother, it is truci in alJ archaic cyot 
Systems \ but ho^- rarely, when status difTcr^ between the 
parents, i! that of the mother the higher! Ju*l at present, 
too, with Dr. Wcstcrmarck's book belorc us, need we hypo- 
thesise about matriarchy as a theory when matriarehy as a 
fact is on it£ trial? 

Again, a! to Mr, Glennle's views on tlie Swan-Maiden 
rtory, is it not somc^bal embaTra:'*ing for him that tJ>e 
interest and sympathy of the audience Are always itivoked 
for the husband who loses his eerie wife? Qu4 mar. In lie 
not reganlcvl a^ ibr Mjpt.-rJi>r iif llii-' ftckle, mysterious maid 
that leaves him for the break of a taboo? And what cv:*- 
dencc, a^aln, have we that the SAnn-Maidcn type of 
story ha^* lasted on from the lime.-* of the While Arcliaian 
Kacct whose earliest vbibic bc]finninfi:s on the banks of the 
Nile arc anlerior to 14.700 years ago, whcnabouts the 
Zodiac \va£ invented ? 

[ have thought it right to tx'^rc^a mydoubti about tlie&e 
more recent developinenls of Mr, Stuart-Glenmcs view^ 
as they might cause attention lo be detracted from the 
more promi:<ing part of his hyiwihcsls, the probabilities 
that civilisation had its origin in snmc ilmnTnaitt r4U.'> arid 
wab pj^^'tcd uii fruin th^L race toothers, lldif the battle i^ 


372 The Origins of Matriarchy. 

won in a scientific problem when we know where to look 
for a solution : all the rest is but detail work. If Mr 
Stuart-Glennie is not looking just at present at the right 
objects, I think there can be little doubt he is looking in 
the right direction. 

Joseph Jacobs. 


THE arrAngfinerjtsforthc Congress Are noiv practlci^lly 
coiTiiilete, ami pro[iii*.(.- wdl for its succesit The func- 
tion* of such a meeting arc twofold, social and sdc^tiiiCtaDd 
Ixjtli hides of ihc Congress have been cOitritrntly caned for. 
Some ridicule hix^ of l^te years been casl upon the socla] 
side of Congresses. Vet the tdca of bringing into friendly 
i^Ontact the oommon adherents of a doclrinc, or the fellow^ 
9hidcnl3 of a particular branch of knowledge, is obviously a 
50urd one. It only cesses to be soond when cnrried cm for 
too long a period, wlicn the habittt/s of a CongrcM hftvc 
become well koown to one another. 'I'hirj is ob^'ioiuly not 
the caic with the Intcmntional Folk-lore Congrets of :8pr, 
which i« only the second that has been held, and is the first 
feathering of Briti'sh folk-lorltt^ yet held. For the first 
time since the science has taken a position among the 
organised methods of <tud>ing the past, its adherents m«t 
for the piirpij^c nf bcciiming Ltiowh to one another and 
putting their headi together to dificover tl^e best methods of 

I promoting their fovouritc study. 
Not aloiic will Briti-^h folk<Ic;n,sti meet their fellow- 
sLudents ill CoDgrcss assembled, but they will h;tvc an 
opportunity of meeting aevcral of the mo&t vmtncnt 
Hudcnt^of the science from abroad. Among the tlt%tin- 
Blllshcd visitors fromlhc ot^ntincnt may be mentiancd M. 
Cosquin, the learned editor of C^rtta dc Lcrrame^ and the 
greatest " story ologist" living, unless wc ha>-« !oexcept Pio- 
feasor Kcinhard Kohler, who ii unfortunately prevented 
Irom aitcndinf: the Congrcse by illheaith. l'"rojn France, 



Folk-/or^ CongreiSt 1891. 

toob wc arc to ha\*c the presence of M . Ploix, president of tfae 
Sociilif dcs Traditions poi>uI{itre.% nnd of M, ?aul Sfbillolt 
ihc fndcfaiigabic secretary of the Soci^te and the collector 
of French tonUi J^pniatris. M. Coirdier will al*o ailcfid 
the Congress. Profcwor Monaeiir of LIbgc, president of 
Xh^ Soclfl^ du Fotk-lon.' Walloti, wfti niicnd In his ofllkUl 
capAcily, The American Folk-lore Society *-iU be rcpre- 
acnted by it* erudite HccretAry, Mr. W. W, NeucIL Far^ 
of I'inland will send M. E. Krohn, member of a family 
that ha\'C dooc much for FlniitHh follc-lorc, Mr. C. G. 
LclfLnd>or Hatts Bratmarm fame, will form the point of 
corittct between the Congrc5^ and the Gip»y4onc Soc)ct>', 
which will also be represented by Mr. F. Hindes Groome, 
The Anthropological Institute ha? de1e;;ated MrC-H-Reid, 
of the Dhu^h Muhuum, to represent a closely- allied »ciene«k 
The Glasgow Society of Antiquaries scnd^ Mr. W. G. Black, 
known to readers of FoLK-LoRH u the author of that 
interesting volume, J^olk Mcdkm ; and Ireland sends Mr 
Cockran, Altogether, it will be seen, a goodly number 
of foreign and afTjliaied Brilish *ocietk-s will be repre- 
sented by some of their mo5i distingni^hcd members. 

TI1C .incial interests of this concoiirse of fellow-Miident* 
have tiecii conitldered by Uie Organising Commiliee, -uiinay 
be judged fnim the folkjwing programme of the Congress 
which lict-1 hccv issued to members — urdcr revision, nf 
course, as moc!L6cation may be made up to the Uat 
moment, of which due notilicatioii will be given to the 
members. The meetings will be held in the looms of the 
Society ol Antiquaries, the Council of which body have 
kindly placed their apartments at the scrviec of the 

Thursday, Oci. r, r.30 pm.— OpRNiwr, oi the CoNf'KKSS~Rfrcepillon 
nnil !id^tcs% by (he I'roklcnt Mr Andrev Lu^o, 

Appnimmrnt of An 1ntfmmlon;i! Fntk'lnre CnunclL 

Friday Oct. r 1 1 ii,iii, - Meeting of th^ FoiK-TAlE SeCTTON — 
Addrcat of ihc Ch^nnun. Mr E- SiDMEV Harila»D, 

InUrnalioHat Fotk^hre CcHgress^ iS^r. 575 

z^so piTn.^ Pipers on subjects lYlftiln; to thU SccHnn. 

SuortUy, OtL 3, 11x5 a-m.—From Poddin^-ton to OxTord ; Lunchco" 
at Mcflfni Collegt, S/ invit^rbn of ihc J'rcildcni oJ" the 
Ccn)£TeB>i lad at J«u& CoUcgc at Ebe innuiion of Tro' 
toor Kby^ ; Vinil lu the PiLU-KUcr Muwuiii. 

Vitit to th« Britith Museum, 

Mondaj^Oct, %, 11 a.m— Mcctinj: of tlic M^TKOLOGICAL SKCTTOS 
-^Address of ihe Lh^iirniant iToTtMor JO^tK Rhvs, M,A.. 

^jo p.itL.— rapcii on ALibjccit relative to lhi» SeUiuiw 

8, JO 5i,m,— Ai ihc Merccf*' H J], by kinJ permiMioji of tl*3 
Mercers' Companjr, Converiaiionc, niih repre^fnmian 
of Eogliil] Mumming V\ky, Cliiktrcn'i L^nmeft, ^vvord 
Daiicf, Savo^'c Moskt And Folk-So^g). 

TDCidar, Oct- 6, n»<»— Meetinc of the [praTiTuriopjg Section— 
Address <if ibe Chairman, Sir Fj<kiicku:k Pui-ixict;, 
Bait,, :Lnd ]*a))crB. 

3, JO p,m-— Pftptts on lubjcci) rdsiios to thi* Seciloa, 

7^ p.nii—Consmi dLont^r (details will be noncunced). 

WcdoetdAyf Oa, 7.— Reports of Committees ^uid BusincM Mcetisj: — 

One item cf tin; programm* u-ill attract aitciitlon for Jt< 
comt^natfoii of amusement and instniciion. The Convcr* 
sszinnc will consd-st in n large mea^uic of an eatertammcnt 
in u'hidi cxcxy itcin will be cf folk-lore Interest, a^n will be 
«ce» by the following liAt of the items, vrhich, however, Is 
oalyiaAucdasaprclimmary announcement. Thccbildrcn'3 sho«id bcobicnxd, have been left entirely un- 
altered in form, the ^upcrviaion extending only to tlie 
time allcittcd to each game, and some trifling ncccsf 

376 IniertuUion&t Folk'iort Congress, i8^f. 


8-33 p^m. 

CiiiLDltBX*5 Games — Thr^Ail-ilif-Xf^dlf Came: Omngri and Le- 
mons; Cboml Guncs: Poor Mjuy is a 
W«eping {Smrrtfii Oats uid Heuu and 
Baricy {Shr^h'rt) \ In »ad Oui tbc Wm- 

11)r tbe children af B;imct ViUAg« School, uodftr tht 

'* _ 

FOLK-SoiifG ^. ... „. HontlngSoaf. 

Accompanied by MUk L^ Sunif^ 


FOlk-Talk "Torn Til Tc*' {Sai^Qt). 

liy EuwAKii CiA>i>li,Etq. 

HiGHiAKD Sword-Dance avd BAcru'V AccoMfANiUKwr. 


Accompanied by MUs SktiTH. 


CnrLiiREM^ GAUEfi^DnTnatti: GAjncs : Three SiiLlon (<tf£dU/«iwar}; 

Nui5 In May , Jennr Jonea fSArui^^n); 

When I wai ;i Voung Girl {Kttf>y 

B/ Ihe Uaxcics VlEU^c Schuol, undci tbc tuperviiaoa 

of Mft GciMMlL 


PART n. 


By — CAK)tlcriJl£Lt £34|. 

Gvrs£R$ I'uiv C^TArroKusiiiKi:}. 

Optn tht Door «. ... W. a 11. BuKT<e, Esq. 

Sir Uuy W. H. Ca^Son, Kiq. 

A'i'Hf (fV(>f^« Gh Vavoha!* Ijjiowrf, £at^ 

//-»*// Sofditr K- H. BuftsriE, Eiq, 

LiitU Dt^^&r -. „. H. \\\ Mawti E»C|. 

iV/fif:^ Princf iff Paradtrt ... 

FnitmatxQHal Folk-lore Congrtss^ 1891. 577 
m}fyMt9£(^ r. A. MiLjtfK. Ktq. 

LiUUJ*Kk D^Ki J. Mje>\vjktkii, Esq, 


FOlK'Tau Kejcitatiox, ■■ King John and Utc Abbot of Cviterbucy. 

By E. SiuNf;y HartlaHd, Em- 



Ikimi Jig. 


i-OLK'TALft ReCTTATIOK " Ct^ O* RuShM." 


Jtauax Ikca^tateo^ C. C Llla»d,£m|. 

Exhibition ok Objects, 

Thcfoliow[jig are some of the objects promised up to 
ihe tifnc of gotng to prc3(?t : — 

Zulu OnjCCTS, Ical b>' Mi»v Lyun. 

Elk SrovDi^ltni by Dt. John K*an«, PtenldftTit of the Society of 

PoRTHAiT* Cif E^IKP-NT FoiK-LoRj^is, tmi by Airtcd Null, E*q., 

Mif» tturnc. G, U Gommc. Ea().| Mi>j Lyon, Miu Lloyd, 

V. CiFfvn, K«r| , Misi Hti^lc, And oihcn:. 
A>^>£NT MVTTic .Account or rne Codiva Cerbmokv, tout by 

Tut Dumb Borsholder of Chart, leni by the Rev. S. H< 1>hilllpa. 
Ckvi.ok Charm.s w^ntlcr Oft palm Icavc*, lent by Hugh Ncvill, Eiq. 
UrtCHEs' Lai>i»k. 
^iit-fHicKDh' Ch[J|]K3, km by B. H. BaveiKotk, Eiq. 

AitCLirrs A>JD HlWUOO OOlWt km by H, ii. Ashbcc, Etq., F.S..\, 

Japaxbsb SKKrtfK roR DouRTnc WoitsHir, aod oiher objccu. lent 

by E. Sidney Hftrtlftcid, E«q., F.S.A. 
KKHTf llABit^ Icni by Mb» Curnc, rrofc^aOr Henry Bftlfour, Mn. 

GocDTne. and }, G, Kfuer, Etc|, 
Bull RoaRIK, lent by Profcuor Hjuldoti' 
Kl'^ian CiuxMik (:),leni by MUiToulmin Smith. 
NfLOJ-ntiic Celt, t;sei> as a Cieartli, Icnl by Profesi^r Balfoiir 
Pack EfXS, lent by Mils Bante. 

InUmaiional Folk-fore C0n£ress^ iSgr. 

FiGUKt^ov Dbiiies. ^t by W. Rome,Ef^ F^&A. 
Akt Iuvstration^ of FOLK'CVSTOU. 

CHJJtvft. Amuletj, elc 

The rcfrcslimcnts will, A5 Ear as po^iblc, be in chAriacr 
«-Uh the occasion. A very br^ number of comtncmora- 
tii'C cahc£ hare disappcar«l from Iccal cuftom in England, 
but the Erlcrtainmcni Committee have obtained as nuny 
as could he procuT'cd, in the hope that attention may be 
directed to these Interesting relics of bycgonc cufttom. 

It ;s hojKrd that any re;ukr» of FoI-K-Lokk who may 
have objects likely to be of interest to the stu<lcnt» of Ibi 
science wlU lend them iit Uic Convertaxir^e* ^nJ eommu- 
ricitte for that puipow with the lion. Sccrct.iijt f,f ij 
Entcitainmciit Committee, yit^ G. L. Goaimc, t, Be\i 
Vi I !a-H, Barnes Comrnon.S.W. In particular it isde^tiicd^ 
have reliable portrait.<i of ffrcal foreign folk-lorists of tlic ]ka^ 
and present, and as complete a oollcction an po»»ib1c of por- 
traits of Engli?Ji folk'lorcM-orihicft who arc no longer with u9l 
The Entertainment Commiiicc ha^-c drawn up th« follow- 
ing provisional list of porlraitfl the/ would like tobaiix: — 

F^mpt, — Asbjornven, H. Andcrncn, Madame d'Aulnoy, 
Benfy, Comparctti, Dc Gubcmat, Jacob GHmm, Wilhdm 
Gn'mm, Feman Caballero, von Halin, K, Krohn, Kulm^ 
Liebi^hi, Mannhardt. G, P^ris Pcrraiilt, Giti^ppc Pitr^ 

^rfcTwA^Auhrcy, Itournc^ Dmnd. Campbell of I: 
Botlrel. W, Chambers, Ccx>tc. Sir W, D^cf^t, MalliwcIT 
Plitllippft, Ilcnderscm, Hunt, Kennedy, Rabton, Stephens, 
Sir W. Scott, Thorny Thorpe. 

Any reader of this lint who possesses a portrait of any 
of tfac^ wort>ucs is rcqucstcc! to communicate with Il^| 
Gcmmc^ ^| 

As regards the excursion to Oxford, arrangements havfi 
been made with the railway for special fadtUIes to mem- 
bersv When in Oxford ihc Congress will vUlt tho 
Museum, with iti^ utinv;i11ed PilT^Rux:r« coitcctioti. Noc 




Initrmiioni^i I'ciJi'Ure C(mgr4ss, 1891. 379 


will the rratcrlal comfortiFS of the; vMffir* In? di^n^^irdccl. 
The Preiicknt will olTcr lunch to pati of the cx(.ur«ioniKtK 
at his old College, Mcnon, while Professor It hys proffers 
the Ii0i»|>it<i1ity of Jciu^i Cullcgc to ihc rcmAioilcr. 

%x\ much for the social side of the Congress, whkh, oiving 
to the youth of the science. K jis yxc have seen, of greater 
imptjrtancc thai in more firmly established seiences. Yet 
the youth of the science ha.i advant;^:cft in the more scxxrc 
And theoretical sides abo. With science pa^ the fcrmation 
period all that remains to be done is the amplification of 
det^LiI and the devctopmerit of method already made une of 
In folk'I'>rc there \s «ti]l the pleasure of hope to attract 
the researcher. He n^ay hope to solve problenns ivhich 
have evaded the sVill of former inqtJtrers, lie may even 
di*covri- new nieilu>ds of arriving at ihc truth of things 
fotk-lorical, if that be Ihc proper adjective. The papers of 
thtr Con^jiess will not lie devoted to mmutc details, tul 
will mainly deal A^ith the broader problems of the subject, 
chiefly on the Lines laid down by the Literary Committee 
of the CongrcB^^and expounded in their circulars of last 
September (printed in FuLK-LORE, vol. i^ p. 510). 

First come the four presidential addresses— of the Prt- 
sident, Mr Andrew Lanf;, the Chairman of the Kollc-tale 
section, Mr. E. Sidney Hartland, the Chairman of the 
Mytholc^ical section, I*rofe*?wr Rhy*, and the Chairman 
of the Insiiiutfons gectfoTi, Profefwr Sir Frederick Pollocic, 
Bart On the Folk-talc day papers are tc> be read, amor^ 
others, by M. E. Cosquin, on '"Incidents common to 
EufO|>car and Iv^'itcni Folk-taW; hy Mr, Joseph Jacobs, 
on "the FrijIjlLrttiofDirTusion''; by Mr, F. Hindc-s Gniome, 
on " the Gipsy Element in Eiiropcan Folk^talcs" ; and by 
Mr. Mac Ritchie, on **the Historical Tia.tis of certain Folk- 
talc Personages". On the day set apart for Myiholc^y, 
among the p«pcr,i read will be one by Mr, J. I\ I'rajier, on 
" Ddugc Myths" ; by Mr. W. R Patoii, on "Holy Names 
of the Elcusinian Priesis" ; and by Mr H. B. Jcvons^ on 
tbc '' Primitive 14o<nc of the Aryans" ; by Miss Onxn, 00 

380 InUrnati&nai Folk hrc Congress^ 1891, 

"Voodoo Magfc"; by Mr. C G. Lelatid, on "Etroscan 
Magic^'. Thp ^rction on 1 tiKlitiit ions vr 111 IndiKle a paper 
by Mr. G. 1* Gamine, on "TIjc Non-Aryan KIt'fnrnti of 
Ikitish [fistUlltions"; and Ui. E. Winternitjr, mi " Ar>--m 
Burial Cuntomn" ; bcMdcft papers on Ihc Folk-origui of 
the Jury Sj'sicm^ and oF Bi>rou<^Ii EtiKli^-^h, llGtidcs ihcsc 
more general papc^^ special and more particular cooimuni* 
caEion.i will be interspersed amon£: them. Di-icuasioo vtOI 
be welcomed from fill members on any of the papcn. In 
addition to the papers, there wdl be held, cmt-iidc Congress 
hours, mcccingfi of a Methodological Committer, whkfa 
Willi it i« anticipated, afford a p^m (t^fiai for cofitinuoiD 
work for any Tutwc Congrciics. Those gentlemen wrili 
have to con^rdnr -such (|iiefttinnfG nit a standard list of 
folW-tale Kicldenu, a standard nomenclature for Tollc-lorc 
research, a common plan for Tt fi)lk*1nrtr bihlingraphy, and 
a univrTKal ^tjUonxmrt of folk'toic. If ihin eoiniiiittec 
sets tnternationAl committees at work on thc^c important 
subjects, lo be rc|x>rtcd on at future Con£;re^^c&^ ita wotk 
will U not the le^t important or u^ful of the Congress 
of 1891. 

Almost for the finit lime. Eng^Hsh Folk-lore 13 about to 
cmci^c before the public ga^c, and to show its cloiou for 
treatment oa an object ivorthy of stud>- and rc5eajeh. Tbc 
leaders of the Concress have done their best that this 
d^bnt shall be worthy of the icieiict It remains for tbc 
members to help towards this consummation by aldliif; 
the various committees to the best of their po^^cr. The 
day is past when exaggerated topes were held of the 
action of Congressc* on the progress *if science. But the 
day will ncip*er lie when a touch of goocl*fdlou^ip 
did not promote the personal side of rcsc^ircb. Let us 
hope that the Folk-loic Congrcda of C891 will not be 
wanting ifi tliat partlevilar side of the promotion of re- 




H. LlCHTENJiERCER Svo. 432 pp. Parlfi : Hachetlc 

After the Hofncric pocnui mor^ diAcu^sion has been given 
to the NJbclungcnIIcd than to any other of the gr^at 
impcfsoiial heroic i^ng^vt. DUcuK^ion began shortly afler 
the rediscovery nf ihr poem, and has been csmcd on ever 
»'ncc tr M:nrc-» of »|ieci»l IrcHlitt&c, inhiimlre(S^urpiLmpht<t:s 
and articles- In the coiipic of research certain results have 
cnmc in be gaittfllly iitlmittcd : cxpCTts -irc; fairly ^rccd 
an to the orthodox theory by which a ,s[ti(;tiLu!y complex 
nias5 of facts should be cxplaircd Up to the present 
there hxs been no work in which the hintoo' »tid rc^uUs 
of the research applied tothc Nibelungcn legend have been 
clearly set forth for the gcncml reader of I-Varcc and 
England. M. LichtOTbcrgcr has now written that work* 
ind had made every educated man free of what hitherto 
was the sole domain of the spccialiu. 

To «ay thin itt sufficient to recommend thifi work to many. 
Let tnc add iha: M. Lkhtenbciprr has brought to his task 
the national gifts of hirid and nrtlrrly {insngriTimt, 
of clear and lively presentment, tJiai he deali with hi* 
text at flr^t hand, tliat lie is (with some exceptions to 
be noted presently) familiar wit)i tlie entire ranf^e; vant 
thout;h it be, of the Ulciatuic devoted to his subject, and 
that he everywhere approver him^rir sane and ncn^iblc. 
In this latter respect he is at one with most German invcs* 
ttgatoni of the past ten or fifteen ycara. A certain pedes- 
trian sobcmc:^) has of late characterised German crtidilion, 
a somewhat morotonoui; unlfomiity of method and tone^ 
To carr>' oneself back from the pages of Paui's Gmruftw, 
that moist admiiahlc and typical example of contemporary 



German sdioUrihip, to ihe world of GHmni aiKJ Lachfnaan, ^j 
F. II. X. d llagcm Ami W. Mnlfcr, k to KAy good-bye (oUiC ^| 
Prtiasiao Jilll icigcanl with ihc Iwt edition of ihc Extrciw ^^ 
rigi€m4ni \n his hand, nnd lo stind bttidc ^-rr ^mmt 
Hagtn as he holds the door of the fated hall alone c^Brt 
the cn^ct cf the Ilunmah hoat- ^H 

But the adventurous daring of the pioneer miwt give ^| 
place to the more humdrum virtue's of the settler. Ic Is oo 
disparapcmert of M, Lichicnbcrgcr to say that in the 
absence of marked onthuKiAstm for hU i^ubject-matter. in the 
preservation of a dispuitionaiely judicial frame of mind, he 
faithfully reflecrs the current tone of sciciitl6c research. 

M- Lichtenber^er'% view of the development of the 
Nfbctungen legend Is as follows:^ 

" Ir tht:yo;ir43rtGijmlicjiTrtiN, King iif the* TliiTgiimtsanv ^ 
ildin. and his pcciple weU-nijili exlciijiinatc^i by the Hun& 
A remnant take refuge in Savoy. About the >xar 500 
Uicir king Gondioc promulgates a code in uhkh be names 
HA \m prcdccciwor* Gibica, Goodomar, Gialahar, Gundahar. 
In these hisloricaJ Uurt^'undian kin-^s we have the Gibidi and 
hia Ihrcc sons, Gunthcr, Gisclhcr, and Gemot of the Icf^cad. 

" In 45 3 A t til a we^dii lidico and periflhet: mytiteriouAly the 
same night. The imagination of the German tribes, struck 
by the^G facts^ connected them. Attila became the 
destroyer of the Burgiindian kings, forwhich his ovp-h death 
was an ad of revenge wronght by JItiico, who wai figured 
as a BdrgundUn princess." 

So far the lirctind part of the story; the first i« fumiiihcrf 
by the adventure,^ of S leg fried, piisthinnous snn uf Sie^muiMlt 
brought u|> in the forest by a wizard smith, slayer of a 
dragon, winner of a m^vgic tredsurc, wakcr of a maklen 
sunk in ^upcrnaturcvl slumber, hu^b^tnd oi Gunther's sister 
(Grimhild ^ I Idicoj, wooer fjf Brunhild for his biN^thcr-tn^lAWf 
treacherously ai^sa^inatcd by Gunthcr aod bjs chiefcst 
warrior Hagen. 

The two ponions of the story thus easily fall into on* 



After Siegfried* murdcf the Ucasarc passes into Gunlhcr's 
hand». Jt la tc gain pLj»cs»ii>i) of ihc Uraiurc ihdt Auila 
wjxla Ihc Uur^undian princess, im ilea her brothers lo Hia 
court, and there ha,-^ them tre^^chcron^ly slaughtered. It \% 
to avenge her brethren that Grimhild first iJays the two 
children ihe had by Attilfl. and then fires the latter^a hall 
and thereby jjlayn him too- 

This i> the foim of the legend as it most have existed 
Icwards the middle of the fifth century, and as it occurs 
substantially 7n the Nf^nhem ver<iion (in certain heroic 
|)ocins founcf in a collection commonly l<noWTi a* the 
Song Edda, and ningtng in dair Trfim the ninth tci tlic 
eleventh centuries, and in the iwdftli-cciitury VolsuTiga 
Saga ba^ed upon thoiie poemf^ and iitx»n othcri now lost). 
The chief difference to be noted in the Northern version 
is that the heroine is styled Gudrun, and not Grimhfld, 
the latter name being aisi^Ticd to her mother, who gives 
Siegfried a magic potion and thereby ensures his wooing of 
Brunhild for Gunthcr^ Jlut to effect thif wooing Siegfried 
mu£t deceive the warrior maiden. This deceit is the tragic 
caii*e of his own death, whilst the f^iithicssness of Gunlher 
to his blood -b rot bet and the avaricious lust of Atli (AHila) 
for the Niblung treasure, arc the tragic causes of the woe 
pictured in the <econd part of the story. 

Between the legend as It is fotmd in the Norse ?«juTecs 
and a^ it apjiears fn the nrrmari (ine^ (whether iJie Lovr- 
Germnn ballads paiaphrascd ?n the ihirteenth century 
Norn: Thidtcks saga or the liigh*German Nibdungenlicd) 
dicrc is a profoujid dineiencc, Siegfried is no longer 
moved to wed Kricmhild by the power of a magic potion ; 
they have tovcd one another from the firat.thcy are destined 
forcachothcr. Kriemhild'alovesun'ives beyond the grave. 
Instead of being, at in the earlier stage of the legend, the 
Itprcscntaiive of tJie principle of the biood-Teud in its most 
extreme form, sacrificing children and husband to avenge 
her brothers, f;he becomes the incarnation of wifely devotion, 
consumed by passion for her husband during hts life, by 



the desire to «ivciigc: him even upon her own brothers afier 
his dcfith. The Icgcrd rcsolvcE itself into a Ein^k 
between Sicgfriod and H;^cn, terminated hy the formers 
treacherous slaughter, and followed by ihc vcngcaxice 
taken upcn HAgen by SiV^friccl'v widow. The chanctei 
of Etiel (AttiU) charges in consequence; be Is no tcMiger 
the tfCAchcruuA And Avaricioun ck^pot who lutes the 
Ilurf;undiaiia to tbcir doom, but sinks into a mere rtoncntltx. 
Again man/ of Siegfried's >-oLithful k9,\^ «re omitted u 
ineonaiatcnt with h:s passion for K^iembild. The BcunhikJ 
cpi£odc 15 £cnou&ly modified and it^ tragic import ob- ^^ 
»curcd. ^fl 

Such is the legend as we have it in the Nibdungcolicdi ^4 
thouj^h c;u^flit scrutiny revc^iU many tr;ieeH of the coriift 
version. The Nibclunjjcnlicd itsdf is a rtanU fa^tkt of 
balladswovcniiitoacontinuoutscriet Initc present form it h 
djite.'t fiiini the iiul nf the twi^lflh ccnlury. In thedescrip- ^ 
tion of manners, customs^ &n<I feelings it show^ ihe marked 
influence of Ihc ^KJcm^ of knii^ht-crr-intry introduced into 
Germany from France In the charactcmation of the , 
personages it frequently acccpta the con vcjitJons current in ^| 
the contcmporar)- narrative pocma of the RhcnNh vAlIcy, ^1 
such as King Kothcr or Orcndcl Vet thicugh the t^x:lfth- 
century dress we can plainly difrtini:ui&h the stem ^d 
gigantic fornts of the fifth-cenlury wtniors. 

So far M. Lichtenbergcr suinmarisjing and harmonisii^ the 
views of many German scholars;. One \% at once struck by 
the lnfinite«im;Ll influence which lii^torjc fact has cxcrciied 
upon Ihc growth of tbe legcntl. TJie historic Allila had 
no hand In the dei^truction of the historic Gunther ; the 
historic lldico, if she had any hand in iht death of Ath'la — 
and tlijs is doubtful in the last degree — had nothing whal*^j 
ever to do wilh the Itur^undlan chtrf^t, slain when she wasdt^l 
babc^orpeihapsci'cii before her biith. Iflhe Imend really ^^ 
started xvith thcjc tv-o hjjitoric events (overthrow of ibc 
Burgtindianst suddcii death of Attila) it fLJrthwith utterly! 
transformed Ihcm. Uul did it start thus? Tlic Erst pflit 




Ctf the lefrend (the saga of Siegfried) h^ atlmUtPclly no 
historic basis thai wc can Urco. !t is by commor con^f^rit 
inylhic, though whcilicr ih;.* myih rL'prcsculs a natural tir 
jLii lii-%t<jric process is not JcUlccJ- But i?t tlic legend ccjutics 
before us in lis eldest, ihe Northern, form it is an organic 
whole. Wc cannot separate the youth ard tragic fotc of 
the hero from tlic doom wrought upon hL5 slayers, and 
from the final cata5trophc which the «amc doom brings 
with it Wc CAnnot, even if there were not prc^nt in the 
story an element 1 have hitherto left unnoticed. Apart 
from tl:c moral forces involved, sufficient themselves alone 
to fumiiih the thread and to necessitate the tragic result, 
there Is a niylhoIo{|[lcal force — the curse tii>on t)ic Nibelung 
treajtiirc pronouncc:d by ih<: first owner from whom it vntA 
Tvrun^ by craft ami viuli^rcf. Ihh wo/^inirn;lL'swilh, an<l 
smgiiJarly reinforces, the huiri^n passions, the growth and 
fihixrV cif which ttialii^ up the siary. H;itrc"il,!n'rtchc!rj-,;md 
lust tjf ^oM arc: tlicicby invc:iltd with a falefut chaiattier 
from which they gain dignit>' and pathce. This is so in 
the Northern version, but in the Nihelungenlicd the aigni* 
Acancc of the hoard is completely obscured. It continues 
to exist in the stcr>\ but the siory-telters know not whut to 
make of it So far from leinforcing the moral motive. 
the hoard uxakens it Kricmhild, who can only win our 
sympathy in virtue of her overpoweriut: love for her 
treacherously filain lord, is made to hanker after the trea- 
sure in a repulsive fashion ; at times avarice seems to 
guide her as much as: revenge; 

Bearing all the faas in mind, I ask. Is It likely that the 
second part of tlie legend (the doom on Siegfried's slayers) 
originated solely in ccriair hUicric occurrences of the fifUi 
cenlury, and that ihc Nihc*1ung saga b the result of the 
fusion of lAis narrative witJ^ ore of tlie birtli, youih, nnd 
tragic dc^ith of Siegfried? It may be so, but then tl^, 
presumably, Nortlicm poet to vrlicjm we oim: the version 
pfcser*/cd in the Kdda and the Voliunga saga should luvc 
hia due as one of the greatest creative poets of all time 
VOL. IL c c 


















v.\Oi *' 

' than the 
' We have 
= centuQip 

^ agnostic. 
°f current 
> incident, 
O full and 
»e definite 

JJl^ century 
«>na might 
S produced 

*«f5ion, as 
'^''W from 
y- Again, 
^ distintt 
* that the 
«* and in 

*e differ- 
*"d of the 
instance is 
■'^"nga saga 

"^ vengeance 
"ly with her 
although the 
> *c incident 

te one of thj 
£f remainec 
ago 1 

bIc of Bnirwcn, 
rtcj^fricd Nilxrlunjj cycle. 
NidSciit is found here in sub- 
I'orm as \rx the Nibcluni^licd If I am 
-rinj: ha* talicn place, the Wcishmafi 
second vcriiion of the Nibclunj; legend. 
A whole, is certainly anterior to the Intro- 
jnchfom of tlie Artliunan romaiKir imo 
,jrtothctivclfch century. InatI pvobability 
fin the Iflfc tciuh or early elcvcnlh century* 
Uial date (or. Indeed, at any other) could 
5llcr have heard the second version of the 
The first, the Northern version, w«9 well 
England. Stones, upon which episodes from 
ire sbindmf: to thiit day, But the second 
^won tx hiff>thfsit there is no trace of it in 
t thejie circumstancre^ the quei^ticri arises 
Chtcnbcrger^e contention is sourd, and 
!d-ft!aiJ|^hter incident of the Nibcl tin gen lied 
fa ia indocd wliolly derived from that other 
Vd by the Vc3t«itnga %aga, 
fse, would depend iipcn the d£.tc assigned 
[ation of thp early Lntn the later form of the 
^teiiber;gcr docs not di.)(>niiLtNr^ up'ir ibis 
(SO, In my opinion, the critend icticd upon 
b Mihulam for cHtubRshing a precipe c hrono- 
iTcnt versions bcingofasccoudury character. 
Dr more dogmatic coviccrmng the cause of 
Iot. He seems to view itasbclongirg tntHc 
ric psychology. The heroine of the caily 
the virtue of fidelity to the kin, A time 
virtue ceased to appeal to the b^ithdsin^er's 
it of wifely devotion was JJub^itrtuted for it* 
\ is complicated by tl:e fact, which M, 
lotiecs but upon whidi he lays ro stress, 
kp »ga {i.i.. the chief repre^i^entative of the 
K legend) has a clow parallel to the second 





Or, raiher, I** not ilie Icgeinl as a whole far o3dcr thj 
fifth ccnnif)', but, as it ^as comr dcwn lo \t% influenced i 
certain evmlH^ and partly acla]i1crc) (hnw >]igfi|ly wR ha 
seen) lo ibc lives of ccrEain pcrionagc* of thai ccnlur; 
On tlicsc (jucsibns M, Lichtcnbcrgrrs aUhudc i$ <ignc»l 
Here again he faithfully rcRcdn ihc temper of cuut 
German scholarship. But his final)'srs of each iiKidci 
and of the tifc-h)3tory of each pcT.*tona^, ii k> full ai 
acute, that bis readers arc enabled to form a more dcGiii 
conduMon if tHe>- like 

If the legend as a whole e:c;3tc<l pHor to thclifihc«ntu 
there would be ;t iilcelihood of its being pan-Germani 
and in ihis case ihc dJfTercoces between the vcrsiors mlg 
be set down to ihc original legend-germ havtrg prcduc 
difTcreiit growths in North atid South. Against thU |x 
nihility l^ thr undoubrcd fart that thr Nnrthmi vi^rsion, 
we have il, shuws iLnmihtij-kablc- triers of dtTivation lio 
Germany, and in especial from the Rhine vall<^- Agil 
if it can he ^honn that ihc lalcr vrr>ion, differ ho%vsoinni 
it may from the earlier onc» has yet prcscived distin 
traces of it. a strong presumption ia created that ti 
legend had its origin among one distinct race and 
one distinct series of c^'cnls, J have already alluded 
M. Lichtenberger's ingenious exptaration of the diflc 
encc between tlic Alii of llie Volsunga eaga and of ll 
Htxcl of the Nibclurgenljcd— the tatter has tran^fenN 
his active c^■il nV^ to Kricmhild. Another instance 
made much of by M. Lichtenberper. In the \"oUiinga ea^ 
Gudrun f\xyf her children by Atli aspart of her vengean 
upon her kinamen'^ murderer. In the Nibclungcnlk 
Kriemhild's child by Eticel isaUo^lain, apparently with h 
conseni. Evidently, liay^ M, Lfchlt'iiheri^t-r, ^llhou^h tl 
moii\T for the rhild slaughter has disappeared, thi? \im 
itself ha.s s;jb!iiKti-d, 

In this tonnfclion I may be allowed to nole one 
few instances fn which M- Lkhlenbcrgcr has rcmaiti 
ignorant of previous rcsearck Nctarly ten years ago. 



in thcflc pafjcs that Ihc Welsh tale of Brstm^'cn, 
WOB probably mOucnccd by ihc Siegfried Nibclunij cycle. 
Now the child -slaughter incident En found lictc in sub- 
i&tantiatly the itame form »a tn the Nibe1unt;lierl. If I am 
cornect, and borrowing ha* uk<"n plar^, the Wckhmar 
bturtfcwrcl from ihe jietund vcf?iiuri of ihe Nibduuj{ Iq^iinl. 
Now Branwcn, as a whole, is certainly aiitcitoir to the iouo- 
ductjoii of the French form oftJic Ailhufian romance into 
\VaJc5, j>H, anterior to the twelfth ccnttJr>'< In all probability 
tl was rcduGtod in the late tenth or early eleventh century. 
From whom at that dale (or, indeed, at any other] couJd 
a Welsh itory teller have heard the second \^rflion of th« 
Nibelunggaga? The first, the Northern version, was well 
known ir .\'or*e England. Stones, upon which epij^odcc from 
it were graven, arc standing to this day. But the second 
vercionl nave Branwen £r/j"/r7^A/jj', there is no trace of it in 
BHt^ifa Under these circumsianccs, the question anse* 
whether M. Ltrhtrnhrrgi-r'* contention Is sound, and 
wht-Uter the chiUUMau^hter incldenl uf the Nibelun^^rnlied 
and Tludreks saga is Indeed wholly denved frum thai other 
inddcnl preserved by the V«Uijnga %aga. 

Much, of course, would depend upon the iJalc aligned 
to the tranAformatton of the early into the later form of the 
legend. M. Lichtcnbcrgcr docs not docmatijic upon this 
poirL KigMIy 30, in my opinion, the criteria relied upon 
by some Gennan scholars for e^tabliflhinf; a prcc isc chrono- 
logy of the different versions; being of a secondary character 
Not is our author more dogmatic concerning the cnu^^e of 
this transformatioa He seems to view it as belon^inf^ to the 
domain of hf^toric psychology. The heroine of the early 
version typifies the vMue of fidelity to ihe kin. A time 
came whm thU virtiif ceaned to appeal to (be ballad -iin jeer's 
hearer*, and that of wift-Iy devotion was M)1miti:1cd for ir. 

The problem Is complicated by iht- f:icl, which M. 
Lichtenbcrger nctices but upcm which he lays no sHrss, 
that ihc VulsunK^ sa^a. {it., tite thief rcprtstnUvtivT.- nf the 
eaily form of the legend) h<i^ a clo^e parallel to the second 



paJTl or the fitory. The grandmother or Sfegfried is wedded, 
even as hu wife t% Utcr^ to a surly aiid tfCAcherous tynmt 
he invites her father and brethren a ric] h;^^ thrm ^latir^hii^reid; 
she avenges her kin even to the death of her hii^band and 
children. Have we here the representative of the eoncla" 
aion of the oriEinal Siegfried "Ntbclung saga before it w» 
remodelled to Til a framcworlc furnished b>' the live.^ of fifth- 
century perAonoj^s, or is the story of Siee^cd's grand- 
mother a Northern innitation of the doom wrought upon his 
slayers^ and of the ven^caneo enaetGd therefor f M. Lich- 
tenberger*^ faUure to f^rapplc wiUi ttievc questions » to my 
mind the chief defect in his work 

The growth af tlie lcg<^nd, according to M. Lichtenbefj>er, 
Is chiefly due to the individual dingers who niaOc It thdr 
theme, anil who urcrc !iiihjeet Lj all the tiiiliieTices, T^oeial and 
literary, of their day. This insEstctue un ill e part play lxI hy 
those countless min.ilrcla. who wandered from land to land 
keeping tl:c old stories alive, ia ilmcly. But M. Ltditcn* 
better should not have passed over Dr. Wolfpang Colther'a 
theory accounting for the shapes which the le^icnd »ueccs- 
sively assumed by tbe fur^ion in it of independent, and at 
timcu contradictory, folktales. The tiarmonj«in£^ process 
needed to weld these into an organic ^hole detenmncd the 
form of the whole 

The problems of the NibelunK sa;ja art thtue of herc^c 
legend generally. In how far is the lacier indebted to hij- 
toric fact; in what manner docs it transform historic Gict 
to its own needs ; what is the nature of the portion whkh 
owe& nothing Lu history and which wceall mythic ; does this 
picture forth man's memoiy of his past, or embody hifi 
ancient imaginings of the material universe : is the marked 
ftjinilarity tvhich obtains t>etv\ccn the great heroic cycles due 
to a common conception of Iifc> to descent from a common 
original, or to borrowing one from another ? Any answer 
to these questions must satisfy the c^c of each npccja) 
laga. The first roquisitc is to grasp cJcarly all the clcmcnta 
of the problem. Thix M. Lichtcnbcrgcr enables u« to do 



for ore or the most famous and noblest of hci^ic stones, 
the story of Si^ricd's fate and of the atrcaa of the 

M. Lkhlcnbcrgcr'9 rtmarka fch, 13-15) upon the con- 
ventional character of the personages In the Iwclfth- century 
miniitrel narrative-poems aire full of intercflt to the folk- 
lorisL The conventionii arc largely those which obtain 
in ihc ordinary manJtiit. We Irave the king, father of 
a beauiiful princes*, whcm he denies to all suitors; the 
kiny <3r pHiite wlio gtK's in [jiirst of the hcromc, or of 
some other adventure; tlic king or prince who can accom- 
plish no adventure unaided, but ha^ at hh side a bold and 
cunninj: flcr\"anl or relation (in one case, Oswalt, tliis 
factotum tfi an animaU a crow); skill and ctinnirc are 
greatly iniiUted upon, and form ns csscnnal a part of the 
hero's equipment as strength or valour ; finally, the heroine 
19 always fain. alwa>^ prepared to Irick her father and 
turn h^ baek upon her k!n when the hero whUtles. In 
all these rcsptrts ihe^c^ poem? differ greatly from those of 
the mafUrc <it Hreta^t. But il *tt"TiM be notrd that the 
earlier prose stratum of Arthurian tales, of which Kilhwch 
is th(^ tmly representative, nhown the >aine charactcnhticti. 
A ft-aluit: of these German minstrcl-nanalivcs is the 
almost invariable Crusading framework in which they are 
aet ! would 3ugeC5l thalthcyaregrcally apunoutvcrMona 
of the folk-taIe--i current at the time, provided with nnmed 
pcrsonuEes, and filled into what was, for twelfth-century 
Germany, the most picturcflciwc and interesting etidrt. 

In App.G, M.Lichtenbcrgerdiscusaes Professor Zimmor'a 
views respecting the influence of the Nibelung upon the 
Cuchulhn cycle, which I commcnied upon h these pages 
{^Ar<h.Rn\, Oct. iSSS). M. IJchlenbergcr H inclined to 
concede more tci I'rufesor ZImnier than I should, but in 
the main he rejects the theory as decisively a» I do, 



Canti fo?olari SiatuNJ. raccolt! cd iUustral 
GtUSBPrB PITR& Prcccduti da uoo studio critico \ 
dc^iti da melodic popoUrL Nuova cdizionc, intent 
menu rifusa. Ctirlo Clausen, Torino and Pali 


Compibta da GlU^^EPPE PETKE. Schcric intcmn 
KionilL. Same publislicra. i voL crown Sva. 
on hand- nude pa^>cr 


TVz fir»t of these two works U a reprint with addhSooa 
notc5 up to date, t^hich hax long been a dcsdcrattim 
of Dr ?itrc*9 splendid coUcciicn of Sicilian folk*son];9 
Some vco' lev of thc5c have been made known to folk 
lofUts in thctr restricted place in my J'M-s^mj^ of liafytha 
the complete collection is a model of scholarly a'ork of it 
class, and the Treatise on the subject in the Preface {ty^ ppi 
is a most rnstrucnVe account of the place SicUy holds, i 
hi^ly importani one, in the ^cientllic re^oas of folk-lore- 
a place ivhich some may think h a signl6cart hndmark o 
the migration* <>t folk-soTijis. Thr work has litrcn rtitirelj 
recifil (rj/ttjo), and numerous atCdtliuns incojporalcd. 

The work which sliinds j^ccond on our heading is cvei 
more important for the nar-ltalian folk-lon»ts. as^uiUi ihi 
great linguistic knowledge and professional pcrscs'Y:rancc b 
haa at command, Dr. Pitri knows how to brin^ together ai 
exhaustive c>'clopjcdia of works in all languages bcarin] 
on the folk [ore of Italy. The whole family of folk-Jo» 1 
io inlimatcly interconnected, that nothing which is import 
ant to one branch of it can be without tjearing on ever 
other And Jost as the spcclmcn-prc^raminc we haw 
received shows that neither ihe workft which Engllih no 
American wrUcri have contributed to iho subject are wrant 
ing to the list, among purely Italian ones wQi appear ii 
which arc at present IJiile, if at •ill, known in this 



At the same time exact titles of works and m^azine 
articles, etc., cognate to the subject, are invited, and may be 
sent to the publishers. Those subsequent to the letter B 
will still be in time for insertion. 

This universality will make it indispensable to the 
library of all students of folk-lore in every country, while 
the specimen further shows that it will be a handsome 
volume of some 600 or 700 pages, an ornament to their 
shelves. It may truly be described by the Italian epithet 
of un iavoro di BencdeUino — a labour of collection of mate- 
rials for more hurried labourers to "enter into". 

R, H. BUSK. 


The present nitmhcr of FoLK-LORE has been debyedfin 
i*iKue it order lo cronr:iIn as Uie. as full, and as niithcfitk 
Informatior nf the fnnhcoming Congress as pcmiVilc, ll is 
hoped th'AX iht: cIcTjitIs given ir these jnges may deternuDe 
ihuM! reader* of Folk-Lore uho have rint yet made up 
their minds to attend and aid the 5uccc£5 of the lind Folk* 
lore C»ngIc^:^ held \\\ Kiij-jlunil. 

Amo><; the papers to be published in the December 
number of Fulk-Loku will be two ImportAnt Reports, one 
long prrjmiscd, by Mr, Cecil Smith, on Greek _Arrh;rii|<^ ; 
and unc on RtH.T?nt Research m luslitutions, by Mr. G. L 
Gomme. Other pa]x:rs have been pmsviOLsly iuinounced. 

Among the announcements of the forthcoming pub- 
Uflhing season are several of interest to students of folk- 
lore, vii.: — 

Prof. M- MuLUfiB, Anifircf^if^paii Hi/i^oft. (Longmans.) 

Dr. C> HoRsrwANN, I^^H^.t Anx/t^r. (Clai, I'rcu.) 

Prof De t-A 8au«U7b; AfanuaJ fi/ tAf SfUftu c/ RtH^hn. 

Frof R]i>^ and J. M. JortcSi Tht: EUiidatimt^ tVe/*A text. 

(Cbr. Pitas.) 
E< FaulkhnkR] Cdwrj, Anritni and OrstntAL {Longmui&) 
C. E. NoxniALL^ Daaiptive Coik^ihn of En^Hsk A/t 

Ji^ynus. (Kegan Paul, Trubncr and Cot) 
JoSRTii Jacobs. Ctific J^iry Taia. (Nmi.) 
W. B. Yeats, Irish Fairy Taifs. (Unwin.) 
Rev. J. C. AtKiViON, Mng/Uh Fairy Tahs. (MaerniHan.) 

TTic revived inlcrcit in the Tolk-talcs of the Bnti^h Islea 
is a striking characteristic of thcac announccmcntA. 

Nates and News- 393 

Mr. G. L, Gomme is writing a volume on Folk-lore and 
Ethnology, which will contain a deRnitive and exhaustive 
statement of his views on the functions of folk-lore as a 

means of ethnological research, and the principles to be 
applied in the scientific analysis of custom and belief 

The Handbook of Folk-lore^ prepared for the Folk-lore 
Society, is now nearly out of print A second edition is in 

Miss Roalfe Cox's volume of variants of Cinderella 
has been sent to press, and may be expected as one of the 
publications of the Folk-lore Society for 1S92. It will pro- 
bably be preceded by a symposium on the subject by 

prominent students of the folk-tale» 

The Denham Tracts are passing through the press, and 
the volume is to be issued to the members of the Folk-lore 
Society as the issue for 189T. 

Communications for the next number of FOLK-LoRE 
shoufd reach the Oflicei 270, Strand, W»C., on or before 
Nov. [Qth* 




^kjtlJI^REws (WO OM Chiirch Lore. Svo. 2j7 pp. SEmptdo. 
'KnmiC£ U- G-) Scatalo^ic Kit« of a\\ N«t;oni* A Dii4cnAliQ[| eo 

ilie Prnplnxtrvri nf Rvrrrmenilihuft Rem«dla1 Aftati ic Religion, 

Thenpculics, Difinitiw, Witchcraft, Love^Pbiltort, •tc- 3*0. 

£<w pp. Luwdcritiilk (Waablitutun, L^S.). 
CABSim' (L. M.J.J TIjc Women of Torkey and ihcir FoUc-Iok. 

Willi concluding tbaplcr* on ihc Ofit:m of MaiiiafcliyfcbT Jolia 

S, Stoart-tiknmt TJae Jcwiih and Moslem WoiTien, flvo xvi, 

6^6 pp- U. Nuit 
M00)iK(A. W.) The Kolk-larcof tbo \\\tx ol Man : being An account 

of iii Myllis, L^cnds, Supcr&Uiioi^is. Cusloma* an^ TiOTGrbi. 

lima >^ 193 pp. D. Nu«. 
PABLIASIENTARV JVvrEUs. Chhx No. i. Anli-ForciiH) Uiwis in 

China. Kyrt ami !^poui£wo(ide. [Camnins KOmecurKitit Li«nu] 


jAbt&s (M. H-) Utjj^ic Tulc^ of Ed&t Anglid. P^w&ey &nd Hayc* 

WAifS A«o Stkays op Celtic Til\dixio«. Areylbhir* Serica. 
Vol. ill. Folic and Hero TaIi^s. Collected, edited, and LrantUted 
bjr Lbc Iter. J. \UcDou£aIL Wicli un IniroductLDn by Alfrtil 
Nmc- Svo. XVII, 31? pp. U, NuTt 

VoL It, The Fintu ; or, Storin, Pocmsiand TradiLionf ot 

Fionn Anit hU W*frlnr Pand. Crillfcfed entirely frnin OtjX 
SouTccjibyJ.G.CAmplMll, MinijiUf or TlfcCp With Introduciion 
Atid Blb|iogiaphic!:il Noitfs by Alfred Nvitt, and Ponrait of 
Qinipbell of liUy. £vo. Ix, 391 pp. D. Nuitt, 

FoU-iort Si&iiograpAy, 393 

ItACEiTsx-MoLirm fO,) Pnc^U flH Popoli i^tvaggi o poco dvfit 
L&ochcr (TurinJ- 

M. C^Kiof) rnnt in the fi^-nt Cri'tf^M ai tinportamt for (bo com' 
pontile hiMcty of Euri^pejii balU6 poeiry.] 

DSCKBR (J. H-J l>i4 ZwU]iii&;m,'i<:« aUo SchliLA^el mr Dcutucg 

DVKIL <L) Sludiciof the Gods in Greece Svo^ 461 pp. Mncmillnn. 

G£/)Clt 0' ^) ^'^ .Synilralik dcr Diencii und ihier Piodukic in 

Sas«, Dichtung, Kultus, Kunil und Brauchen d«r VCllcer. WeU« 

Iliisc3f£ TiixvK ma Ucbcn«uungon iind Wfirtcibu^h^ H«fitu- 
IpqE^ben ^on Wiiitlcr Siokes und E. Wiadiich. Vol- \\\, t- Bva 
ill, 7IS3 pp. Leipitf. [Coinpiii«i i#kt ind toniUtioQ ortever^l 
iiniwtlAitt myiliutok-icjl lexti.] 

LiCHi'KKiiicROKK ;H-> Lc pcktmc fit Iei Ifgendc dcs Nlbdung^eQ, Svo, 
4*2 pp. 

LTAU-tSifA) NjiturfllRplig^on in India. Th« R«d« Lecture, tvo. 

MCu-KMUorr (K.) Dr^uttchtf AlirrcunntlCErndc. Kiinftfr Rind 
Sva 417 pp> Wddcnano (EttfLia)> [Conuioft c»4y on Bilder 
Sag* in answer to BuH^-e.] 


Bftrtfropr (U. G.) Th» Ani«ricAa Kae«L A Lin^uitEic Qiuitu^ion 
and El^(ltlK'AI'^l■^ Dct^ripiii^rk of [lie KniiifcTrib^ of Nurlli lAfld 
Si^vlh AincDCa. *^A 351 pp. Hodge* (Uotioiir U.S.). 

BUCKI-Axn (A W.) Anthropological Studies, d/o. ^i^pp Word 
and Downey. 

Cloi>d CE.) Mythft «nd Drcnm*. Second edition. Lonfmuu. 

COOBi^OTriju JR. H.; Tlie MeUnettant Scadipi: in rhpirAnrTifo- 
poh^fV and Foik'lorc- 3vq. 456 pa^;c9p CLfLicndon Prcs*. 


Caster (M-) CbrnLoinathie Rouniainc. Tdtci impHfn^s ec nuna- 
vcritt du \ffi an 19' iif cU, accompii^<5fi d Ufie ^r^mmrLire el d'un 
elo^Uklre roitmijn-frui^ai^ a vats. £ro. cdix, 368, 561 pp. 
Leiprig. [Srr:iion V i^ di^voicd <o " L3tii5rKtunT popuUire''.] 

HBtjOEit (Dr. G.) UdMr dtc Trojnncra&jccn der FrAnkcA und Nor- 
manncn. Kvn. L^indAu, 


FoiA-lore Bibliography. 

N6LDE1CE (Th.) D:Lt anl>ifchc Mardi«n vom Dcct^r u&<l Gircoch 
Hcrjt]i;^;ifcbvj)r Ub«rs«t£t und U »La<ni liUcrar. ZiminmcEJuoxe 

ZinsT, Ukly c LE:)kyi:1uIi:iin kutLuinicli. [Thetc " FnitncnU ul a 
Hit'-oryof CrviUtJiiion m liohcm'u* contain, Arcofdmg eo H, L. 
Lc£C(, asmdy of the Mcluiba k^fcad ui Dolicmi^] 


CARCA4 (P.) Lc£ MitUin: rc«herch«i inr ijuctc^uM vcuiget iS«a 
Tormcs ancicnncs de U propruftj en Bc^iquc- 

WETTEfttlA'Rn: (E.) Ttl* Hi««ry oF Hiiii):tn MnrriigC- Br^ 664 pp- 
Miicmilljiti , 

(Review will fallaw In Df^tmber rnimW, MeanwhEU am 
tkon may be colled t^^ (lie itnponaai nuturc cf thUtxiJunat u eoi 
lali^nj^ 1I1C Ivucfti 111 Juciton of fAi:is on ihe subject of wbich It 

WiawdwaCG,) Dc (rriiK nnni Romunoram vemiiiulmL chtorvnrlonM 
«»l«clJ^ 4CO. i; pp« Marburg. 


Jounul or AiDcHcut Pi>Ik>tortf April [o June [B91. O. 7". MtU9n^ 
Naiunl tTi^Torynfrolk-lotc, If, IK A'., Tli« Indi^in Me^iab. Z_ 
Kwrt'ffff, Nat-Wof^hip ainong (he Uurme^^ /, IK .^/tt^f, A 
Sujz^rstinn as EO lb? meaikFnj! of iht Moki Snnki^-dAnce. 7: 
WtlXffrf. Atnulet Collection cf i'f of- K*lucci. £. H.iyastrJ, Popdnr 
Namet of Amcricnn PE.-Lrjt?*. K D. lUrgen j«i(l W. \%\ jYitw//, 
Topics foE collection of FollC'loro. Bibliographic^] Notca. 

Amerinn Antbropolo|rt«, April [K^r. vnK Iv, No. r (Wimhlnjctfin.) 
a; a /'^('j^/r. The Indian Messiah* C. Tham^i^ The Story of 
p Mound : or* The SlinuiLcct in pre-Co1unibi<in Timea- W^ H. 
^tf/ww,Thc Thruilon TnblcL / li^ /Vr;'^^, On ZfmOe 
Sanio DomingOn W. W. RtKlhiU. N<rt(-* im ^^xwt of I] 
Lawn, CUEiam^T ^^^ Supcr^iiiiont of Korea. A*. FUUh^ 
Qairicr!/ Piblioi^raphy of Am^rritan Ulrr^Liurc. 

American AotJ<iuajian and OrisEiUl Joun^^ March \'^\^ voL mli, 
Na J. <Mcndoi;, lll/i IV. / ,l/,{rff, S*mc Principlct of 
Evidence rolAting to The Amitjulty of M^. E. Gntmswy, Th« 
AlA»kan Nativca of Fon Wransel. / £>nuiJt The Story of 

Foi&'hre Ui6/u^-ra^Ay, 


Sk4s4 KoluB. 5L J?. Pttt^ i\\\4i Mourns ud Ash Piis. 
Ct>iic3^c^jjJenc*. ^rr. Af. AynetUy^ Sun utd Vut ^yiribolimip 
MOtterMj^ 1 tic;At}'U)fi and ific Indiana. 

AaifnVin News *nd QueriM, M.-irirh ?, iK^r. (Philaddphi*.) Pot- 

ArckitoioGriA, vol. lii, pc 2> £, /3. HW/ij^/Tvi^, On the Ui^rAtic 
PiLpTtu^ ^ Ndi Anuu, a Srrihc In ihc Temple of Am«n-)Ca a| 

Jcvnml of ibc G7p»7 Folk-lore 5odet7, April 1891, iroL 11, Noh & 
(EdiDburgfa.} C G. JMunJ^ Slivlcr ^. v. Satt'a^O PhQro Satc« : 
B SloTak-GypiT Tile /. A'^frnkAi, Tbc Witch; a Polish 
Ci]jfy FoUc-lnKv D. MoiKt/i^Mf^ Scottish Gypslcft under the 

Lttify Uurtfj/tf An ]>pi*od« Irotn ib« LtF» of Sir Richard BurEon- 
Rcvic^L NoicK and Queries. 

Joitrai ol lit Authropol«t:lail tiutiiute, Augnit \%iy vol. vc[, No. 1. 
Rtv. C. J/ivrfjBu. Rclii^ion and Fundy aaiaiis ihe Haldaa 
(Qutcn CI);iHoUe Ubndfi). /./. Ufitr, Kotc£ on ibc Natives 
of FalcAufu Cl^u^HcU liLi[id)» Vattyn Group, 

&o)l«lia ^« Itt SociHfr do Folk-Iort Wallon, i. M. WiJitafU^ U 

R]mc«tlcvdoigl»^ i\ il/pwf/n'rj L'c5 ^^ai chanie. tJ. Ce/r^m, Lm 
nDnudela M6^m;:c- J. D<fr9\-hiuir^ FcimuletLesdepoiscaszon. 

fil^lusdDc, Iv, 9. Gaitka^ Lc chet^lier aj lion— IeicldUIIoq enain^ra- 

iWc — t.AfrAl«tr»aii[>n- Lik c'^uindrU vt«. /^M^rrJ^ Lvcourroux 
dc TairiDi Jif jQ^ — La bGi):£( c iif>i£iii^ 7«AAAVLum, Ui £a«:iikaiioa 

Md*^p, No-^- //fjr/iTi, Lea Rc1ik'ioD» delft Chbc; 1, 1^ RcKciondca 

ptcmicis O^inois, le Uicu tupti^mcv SbAng-Ti st tc Ciel ou Flcn. 

Etcne ArcJ>iclofP4oe. JnCnFcbi //, ^ArMr di jMj»rrf//r, Los 
Tetooignag^s Ungi.iiiti<itiOi de U rLvilfKAtlnn communr aux Celtet 
ot auK Germaina pendant lc >< ci^ Si^clct av&M J, C 

Ritoe dc rHUti^re dc» RtUgioEU, No. 3. Ba&e^vttt La Tra^Ilioo 
pbiygicrmc du D^lu^- 

lUn* d«t Traditions P<^aUureo, May 1891 . G. Di^a^intr, Lo CydQ 
dc MinTc MirJc-Madddae dana In ibaiuon populoirc. Jfutf. P. 
SJh'fioi. Le Kouignol, ctum^cir de \x Haute- Uretagoe. W- //onw, 
Le^KitodeUcumUuctJun; iii,Laca:b*draledeTrives. P^S/^- 


Fott'hrs Biblio^aphy, 

Uiy Tndiiions ft huportthioni dc» Pond ct Oiittft^t* : vU, L«ft 
Pom*: f 4«I-^('pE^1'mrrvdl1riix. R^Batsti^ Pnnt (JclUnibcnci 
1« I'coit <Ie pa>lli>. i?. A'/ttiftri Sec. I [/v^/), l^> K>tt« d« It 
cuiislTuaLun \ Lc PoTtt djITcc: ; Lc J'lwt de Kcrvcmh^ ft. ^cij^rf, 
vi, 1*1 chau»4cc tl Itt digufsi : iii, Lti I'hxrtf, ^. /farvi, Le* 
Qochc*: ii", Cloclicii cnglQUiiea, M. de Zmignnisli. W. Deri- 
AOllM ff croy^nctft (t« I'Ukrainr. f. CkardiD, MflmJne nn 
Chftmpbene. A^„PQftIc«»UTd«»tlihi^>popuUIfci: ij,EinilG 

uaa^s dc U ^cmainc lAinic. ^. D<j^spft Coi»e» atabes «t otkc- 

lhcmn]c» cl miij^r-iki, »i- A. Ftrra/x^^ TmditionB cl Su|>CT- 

//. Zrf Uaurnisifn^ Lc l^mier dimanchc dc Carfmc : ii* Dads 
TArtoift tl W Iloulonnuis^ A, Narfu, Lfh Mintri «t \& Minrurs 
XI, £upcrPtLiiona tilvcnei [Bc1j^ctuc)i ^. MilU^ri, Let Pourquoi: 
Iv, Pouiijum k li*vw 4 k bjibinc fcndue. — June, A". fC^sf^rti^ 
Anci«nne(4 dc qnelciuvK tocuCiont u4uailt«, /'^''TWffdV'«,1[jut1qae« 
i»j<^Cb dc l.j Sfjtittiiic «diiUc ; III D.iLi» tcb LKndir<»- A 7VVrj£v', 
Si j'^lALs Hiroodcllc: i. Forme motvand file : ii, (ormcnonnatd* 
A. /iusset. La hfusoatAt <Io Didun (jtf//^>: i, La pcnu dc bccuf 
coup^^ en Jani^rfffi ; IL Iji n<^Hi^Lutinii pnr U vrhiK ; v, Dflimi- 
Uiion pjLf Ia vuc ilA f/t^ Zmij^iitisJit^ Lcs Mliica ct lu Miocun, 
xiii : Cotnumes, croy^iin'*^? «r nkinor* d*!* mioeurt poloruJi, 
M. Orfa/art, Tmdttions cl supcrsiitions d«» Pont» cl ChaiiM&* : 
v;i, l.t^ Prtnii^ i^itriu) ; Ldgcndr dn pont dr U Obd« Sh Saini- 
RjipLftCl Jf^ Uttsul^ Lcs dcMfuclctJt? dc partti ; let Ponts 
myih^iics; Lci fh»iis£^« et |«s digues, vi [jwi/f), t Murtit^ 
Lc» Chctnin^ dc Kcr, li. ^. tfif Losm^w^ Folk Tore do Lonainc : 
la M»^«i]«. Z'. A/»Vr, BId&on iinpuUire (lc 1a 1,f^ire-lnfifri«ure. 
N. /fa^uf. La CUnnsoti d£ Bricou, vi <;u//^U A J}'.^ Second 
Copgr&5 dc3 TiiiduHjns popuUircs P. S. l4 Car^ut/, Supenil- 
ttom do Cap-Slrun.— July. A S/i^'UffyLe peuph <t Ihiiloire ; vi, 
Lai E'^cnde Mnpolckimcnnc. C. ^j/t^,Dcux Cli'iiifitJij^ boun^ui- 
gnonnet: i, Lc frtre **i la «tpur; ii, L« Galani de vdUgo. 
At. UttH^mft Scc^jndc vuc el intci»gnc>: \\\, EntericincnC vu i 
I'avnncc. V„ Morin et /*. ^., ltaFif'ni#6 d« pontft i. Amtv, 
Lo Pi^iitv du Diablc : lc Poai dc Ccn<^i4y. T* VcUt^v, L» 
poni* harm'H : ii, Lei Chcmins Je fcr (jifr//)i vl» Une ^ue^liLi^n 
dTlhiio>;rAphic. A Af. LiJi^ftt'l^ Ui li^codc du Diablc tJjCt lc» 
Urpiont du pLi)'s dtf Vanncs ^sniu). G- F&uju^ Lcs pr^curteure 
dc noEi «BU(I«« ; vii. Li^gcndes n[)nv>:Lnd«s du muscle dc Dieppe. 
R. Stustt^ Lcs Ord^ic^ : J, P«r lc fcr lou^c: ; ij. Par l^cau boull- 

Fbik-hre 8i&ii<3grafiJ^. 


0. dtia CA^/vfi?rr. Ltt CUxritit tn Nt^runJk, F, F^rfianift 
Lc» Cliitnvaiis: i', Le CliAiJdanc en SainLonjc A^ C^rfritx, 
SM-i>nd C(>ngrH4l««Tr4Jiiionipopu]afrFi. H. B^t$ei^lxi vi]]«« 
cnglouttti iiMiie), tiUvtin /«. /W^'B'f, i»l, La b^uc de Xmn< 
train**. /'.,S'-,iic.LavJIedcC;aidif)nc,-'Aosufti- A*. JViUff /.Coatn 
arnbc3 fil oricnuux : >ii, Lci Ccni nuLu ct Ic KlLab ccfi ClJcIlVd ; 

cilc^^crivainsfran^iis ; vit, S^nina^ //. //ir/nA-ic, Lctpciuiquoi: 
vti, Potfrquoi le§ pluinr^dr pAtm jTurif n i inalh^ur. .if.A.Ji^r^i^ 

Sfllnt'lUaiic, iv. /^ Afofin, Com« tmyrn* (wflVj. *J. Crrfmr, 
La DntaiUv dci K^&<^ cfi Orient- jL C J/uf/crj, Supct^tltion* 
du ivd tlu i^iyH dc G^Ile). ^, ffartm. Lcs Minn rl lu Minriit^^ 
^. Jtarrri, Lt r«Ji 5aiat-£J<ner :i, Le poM dM rooiu £h Javn. 
PttravkA^ \je ponE qui conduit ^u cicl. JIf. Bdsul^ Le pont 
d« MaulribJr^ ; L« pcAt d« MitardlA, <V. C^tguitlatim^, xu L«< 
cbtutiu6 de fci [fjv^i')- /^- Ftninti/!^ La pii^tc du Cttlli^rir eh 
ChAmpngrie' /'. J>-, MtcttcKdc f oik'taro paiiitcn« hvil ; Bljfaon 
(lOpiiUiic nu xviL* 9ttdt. a. UiiSKt, Let vi]}e> cri^louLe><jtBiif<]. 
j/ww. Dtstriski^ Lfi ro*eiax qoi chant«nr, iv. 

L&TndI1idD,M4viS9r iV. AV^'ttv^^dSnaM^, Lc Feu dc PromM^ 
che? ki rrorcncauxdc noi jouri. ^.5. J^'u/aUii Conie d'AndM« 
dc N«rciftt dAHfl une ni^iivcElo populxlre Lvotirn^tK in^cJito, 
M, di y.migrodikt Le Folk-loic polonai* : iT,M^clccinppopiit;(Jre 
{suiii^. Ji. T'^iT AVtvfl, L<B l'r(>t'^dc Scircfltorie au Moycn-A^ i 
ii, Juri^piudcntc cl FjiA:6iuic en uiHiitia Jc SuiLcUcrlc- 
//. i.'-irn£iy %\J. ^'Uchttiits. Lc f olk-^crc d« ConHt^ntinopEe : ji, 
Supcriiitioiu ci CrDyAac:c»dca Chr^lieii* ficade Ccinslmtiiioplc. 
A- Dtsm&sM'mx^ Mcvntti«ft cc G^antft : xi, L«t C^aaiv 4t rOp 
Sis:i^i>fkc£i dc MAlinct- J. Ftan(tM{i$, Lc« Chtvxlictrdu P«pc|:ai, 
Lu<— June, D. Biftng^tr-FfTitUiiyXjtQtMCy^ d'CEdipc daiit iin conE« 
piuvcuv^l (Oiitcni^LAin. A. Gtunn^ Cl^anMDft popuUirct tie U 
CarnioLfr, xiii ei xiv l/»). Traduaion dc jViVa >"- rf^ titmfSky 
ct <7. LhftcitHx: Dr. S^ Pr^h^ Uc Ceoce d« Grfcourt diA) unc 
iiouvfJ]«popvbircd(Ov»Ib«c-L J^S^'Ui, LoutSept U«bUdou 
Catcoua- /A *UJ3 £fi^n^ Lci Prcc^ dc Sorccllcric au Mfiyctt* 
A5f*| U [Skiti). F. iff SSntitrfifi^n, ChantODs populair^ do 
Qucrcy- vil t\ ^iti, /- Phnt^Mu Lcs devainen du Papccoii ii. 
T. CrtB«fTJ>»»T>. CTiarnciTTi piipiil.'iir^i Sirilienn^a. P Vi^nf, 
Cr£»^ftnco ti Ccutumc* lu Dofaonicy. G^ IhKHvta:^ Le roi 


Foll:-hrc liiblicp'Qpky, 

RcrL^ud : version 1inioi];Dti& //. it/^nvr, Cli&naciQSpopuLuTudc 
la ficirdie, itf. K Ot Ct^UfftlU, XieiWa Berceuse. 

Voriakuadc Tijdschrift vocn KcdefUuid*ctic Follt-lorc^ J^^^- iT,adcT. 

Z«Il»Chn(t Tttr fomftRtflche rhitologic, 3-4- 
Gcbie'.c<!Gr fjiuiWisthcn IkUtcnsije. 

Otltrkagf^ S:9dJcn im 

Zcitschrilt fbr Volkvlctuid^ Band iii, heft ^ O. A'i»if^ Die neu 
cntdcckicn Cotteij^c^taltcn ^ni HajL ^. JCrv^jt, Die Kalcwila. 
j4- i'M/r/M^r, ^agea vora SchraieJ- ScMk/^ Die "jrotto" 
wcniJi^cUc HocliECJt. — HcH la AfnUff, (cant- UahsI. fic^n 
Kianiih), F. Jfranfy, Volk«iibvrfiH>mDi;«n aia Oeilfrrelcb. 
J?. Hikitr. Oc( Sdiwcjiuuc von Atlcla. 

ZelUchriltde* VereUu fiirVctkskimde>3- M, iii>tdiii4rtVic S^e voa 

Arboiten <tttr bUven vornchnillch 0(kat Kolbergt. ^K Sckmrrft^ 
VcllitcuLnlkltG Schl^lichtet, II. .t/', //ti^/r, Die Kakodcr- 
HeiLigen al* Krjinlchcit» Patron© ta Bayern. /- /, Ammat^H^ 
Votk&^E<n aus dcm Bohmcr^ald. 0. v. ^I'njyrU, Sc]p:co and 
Hcilmittcl au^ c. W^l^ihiunrt Ht dei 15 Jflliih. C Artn4t^ 
Modcmc chiccsLicbc TicHabda und Schwtiak^ U* Jakn c 

Vol. IL] 

DECLM3CU, iagi< 

[No. iV, 

CAHS.—Vakt riK 

THE following thrw talrs rMintrr, 1 think. & *hort 
explanation. Tlicy rfifTt-r, In almmi e«ry wny, from 
the filorics I have alrciidy given. They *rc, in the first 
pUcc, las legends than drolb, thc^ugh their 3ubjcctA Are 
gTim enough. They arc, beside*, lea* cflc<ti**c a^ HtoriciL 
It wu probably for this reason that [ did rot write them 
out fully Croro my short notes taken at the time. In the 
case of all the other tale» I did thb on arriving home 
within a day of he^ria^ the fitories ; but in the case of 
the following three I had only Uie fx^ugh notei, and have 
had to write them out from these. At the suggestion of 
the Editor of Folk-Lokk, I have appended In each case 
the rough notr% ko th;it tho.^e whu mxy u^e ihem for 
scientific fulk^loie purposes may know exactly the charac- 
ter of the m^tcriJil they arc usinif, 1 have endcAVourcd to 
keep nLrictly to what I heard, and I have tried to truly 
prc!>cnl them in all their tnconiicquencc, and even mco- 
hcrcncy. All three resemble, at least in parts, those talc* 
t\'hich arc called *'drolls"i and none of them can be said 
to be looked on by the narrators a« in any sense true. The 
two latter arc, 1 im;v^Lne, portions of the same talc, al- 
though told me at different Ume:^ and b>' different people. 
I have given titles to these, as the narrators gav^ none, 
but otherwise I ha^'c added and altered nothing. 
VOI^ II- £> D 

4'^2 L^gvtidf of the Lin£olHihire Can, 

Of Cich, Sn turn, I vrould like to Jiy a few wordR " Tfec 
F1)nng Childrr' va« told mc under that fi:uuc> ihoui 
considering the Ulc llstlt ll might to appoaprii^ldy have' 
been called «n>'thi:ig else 1 rcgrd to «iy I can reiucfubcr 
littk ftbout the pcraon who told it to mc; I nc\^r knew 
hi* (lame. I met him in a imall inn wmc distance Trom 
whc« I lived, where I had one day to spend an hour; and 
except that he came Erom the Wotds, and Chat I after- 
wardii «Aw him once or twice dnvinj; towards the market* 
town, I Icnow no more of him. He did not believe in 
bogte« nor wi1che«; but Iw confeued to a good many 
supor^tilfoiis, and to a real drend of tlie F^vil Hye^ which 
hi; dccl;in-d he knew Id be a true and IcfTtbfe cbin^. 

Ifc iivav a poor stor)' -teller, and did not Kem to realu 
the incoherency of the tala He s&id quite limply that hd 
did not support it wa-s true; but Ik ifnplie<i a \^ay strting 
reservation as to murderers bcinf* pursued, after death, by 
their victims. I also found that he believed — and 1 think 
it is not an uncommon the^iry — thnt all dead pcr&ona are 
" bogle*", capable of feeling, ^pcakini^, appearing to livinj* 
eyei, ;iml cjf working g(»od and evil, till corrnption Juts 
finidly completed its work, and die b<«liLrt no longer 

These two Ideal gfrantod w poMible belicf<b, the talc is 
no longer quite so unintefCflting ot absurd &» it Kenai on 
Hm sight, and ft may be that it wajv very different \n its 
original form. There can be little doubt that \x is either 
viully inaiinplelp, or has brcnme confuwd with anotiicr 
tale, which, pcihftps, filh the gap where the true vcrr^ion 
has been fortoltca However it came to pass. Et is certain 
that the whole cpbodcof the Tailor, the Wim: Woman, and 
the Old Man, ia apt to make the reader quote Mr, Kipling, 
and exclnim, " But that i« another iptory 1" 

I should like n> add that cutting off the feet and hand! 
of a dead body often occurs in folk-tale^, thouf^ I cannot 
remember that it has ever been nniiarked or. |n Lincoln- 
shire. 1 lound it appc;irinK in Jack tJic Gunt-Kilkr, Beauty 

Leginds ofiAe LiH^dnshire Cars, 403 

and the BrA^t^ and nnr fnigmrnt (T think) of Cimltfrrtlsi, 
besides *" The Flyirig Childcr" ; and I have come across it 
in at Irafii one ScDtch talc, I'crhap* ^omctnic learned in 
(he subject may he able 1u explain iL 

" FrciJ the I ooi" svas lt>IJ me by the same person m the 
6r3t tftlc, an<l needs tittle explanation. It secm» to be a 
droll, or to resemble one, nnd I am inclined trt tliirk that 
it 13 really the tirat portion of the last tale, which 1 hive 
ealled '*Sam'l*s Ghost'*, though somewhat incorrectly, a^ 
the Utter is n-x a Liiicohishire word. This lAaa told 
by Kanny, the child who narrated "^The Dead Moon"; but* 
^e tvas very mjc4: les*! Toterested (n It, and it is altogether 
A Inwrr rlaw nf story. She knew nothing of the Jifc of 
"SainT, norhuw he came to be burnt. 

TiiK Flvin' Chiloer. 

A'm ^kers <ure H"a can tell 'cc 't ahl right, but a gtieii 
mind il iLN 't wt>r tdl't tiie'a. l^Vstr, uhW- ! Thcer w( 
n-antt a chip a wor gra'at fur tha wimmen-lb'ak, an* cud'n't 
kcp out o' tha iva'ay cf a tried cvci so ; th" vaxry soight 
o' a pitt>'co't ha'f a n^ilc cff *r th' road 'd ca'all nn fur to 
follcr'n. 'N' wan d&'ay, aa't mout be» a come kcr-banc: 
ra'ound a eo'nCT, *tC theer wor a nunpin' maid, ^ettin* her 
loan an* A^aehin' ascV, an' th' fond chap wor ahi outer's 
wit"* to wan^ An' th* upithot o' "t wor, "» a tweer a d 
wed her, ef lier'd come ho'am wi' 'm ; 'n' says she : 

" AH come, 'n welcome \" say* die, " but Ihou'Jl mun 
«wecr as thoull wed ma." 

" A will" «iy^ he, ";i ^wecr'l T— an' a thrvwt lo'mopr, 
" ower th' let ?*howtIier. that T 

"Thou'll mun wed ma 1' cho'ch,' says she. 

^ A will 1" says he—" Ef a ivcr put foot ir^" be thowt to 

'* M ef thou do'ant, whatU a forspel! 'ce?" says she. 

" Lauics," says he, fur a wor feared o' bein' forspcllt, 

404 Lfgcndi of th4 Lincolnskirt Cars^ 

whkh be main mfaduncy. *eest tha ; ■■do'ant W overlook 
ma, «fn'ant 'cc! Ef a do'ant wrd tha, mout ih" wo'm» e**t 
ma**— ''(Ther ba'oun* fur lo do 't annywa'ay* ^ thinVs 
h^rto'mscl;— ^an'ih'chil*Jcihcvwing»'n*llyawaV'" (An* 
none gra'at matter cf tba do T' says he to ^tnscV.) 

Uut th' maid ^i^tCl know as a w^»- tliinktQ\ an' a want 
wi' 'm. An" by'n'-by tha coom to 'n' cho'ch. 

" lliou'll can wc(3 ma hcsrc-by/' taya she, tuv^cakin 's arm, 

"No'al" say* be, "th'pa'a^son "sahunlm,' So tha went 
on a bit funJcr, ar' ccom to 'nctber cho'ch- 

" War, hereby- r says she. 

'* No'a l" i^y% he ; ^[la'asson "i none »ober "nuflT, "ii' clerk's 

■ War r .-ciy> nbc, " mcbbc thaU cui wed \ fui ahl tbar 
i" liquor." 

" Houts !" %\y% he, an' %\% her a kkk. 

So on tlia want a^can, an' by-'n'-by, a tncet5 wt' a t'ylor- 
inan» an' a tays, *ays a, * Whccr's th' me'astcr ?* 

" Oob, da'own-by ! " wy* th' au'd feller. 

So a Av^nt on a bit furder, while tha coom to a wis« 
woman, plsftin' straws, an' a says to a, " Wlieer'x th* au'd 
inun r 

" I)ft'own-by V says she, 

So on tba ivanc, while a coom to 'n bit cottage by th* 
la'anc side, an" a knockil an' kicked at ih' dw^r tell t 
shuk, but nivcr a wo'd coom f'om mn'ard. So a vji'dlketl 
ra'at tn. an' thwr wor 'n au'd mun lyin' slepin" 'n' anoria' 
on 's bed. 

War, th" young chap kcck't aba'oul 'un for summat 
handy, 'n' seen "n axe, so a oop wi" 't V biaincd iV au'd 
feller, 'n' chopped "a feet V han\ ofTn "iim, An" than a set 
to V cleansed oop th" pla\icc, 'n'thrimg ih' eorp out o' 
windcr/a' lat fire i' th' hearth, while M u-or jimart 'o' natty. 

An" by-n'-by, kcckin' owcr S showther, a xal th' wise 
wonmn ^tea]m' th' corfi siwa'ky v/i' a. 

" 1 Ii !"■ say* th' chap ; " th" corp'a mine, sees* iht What 
thoudo'n' wi"m?" 

Legends of He Lincolnshire Cars. 405 

" A'll barry 'm fur tha," says she. 

"No'a thou wunt." says he, "a'U do 't maser." 

" Wall, then/' says she, " A'll stati" by." 

"No'a, thou wunt!" says he, "a'll can do 't better ma 

" Ta'ake thy wa'ay, fool/' says she, " but gi' ma th' axe, 
then, 'stead o' th' corp." 

" No 'a, a wunt 1" says he ; "a mout want her age'an," 

" Hi !" says th' wise woman, " none give, none have ; red 
han' an' lyin' lips 1" 

An' a want awa'ay, mutterin' an' twistin' 's fingers. 

So th* chap buried th' corp, but less a furgot wheer 't wor, 
a Icf wan arm stickin' oot o' th' gra'oun', an' th* feet 'n' 
ban's a chuck to th' pigs, an' says he to th' gal : 

" A'll ga 'n snare a cony ; see thou kep to th' ha'ousc"* ; 
V off a want 

Th' gal diddle-daddled aba'out, 'n' presently th' pigs 
'gun squealin' 's if a wor kilJ't 

" An' oh !" says th' gal, '* what 'n *s amiss wi' 'm, fur so to 
squeal ?" 

An' th' dead feet up an* said, " We be amiss, us'll trample 
th' pigs tell thou bury us 1" 

So a look th' feet, an' put *em i' yarth. 

An' by-*n'-by th' pigs la'ay da'own 'n' died, 

" Oh ! oh r says th' gal, '^ what be th' matter wi' 'm fur 
so to die ?" 

An' th' dead han's up an* cried, '* We be th' matter, we's 
chocked um !" 

So a want 'n* harried 'em too. 

An' by-'n*-by a heerd summat a-caJlin', 'n' a-callin' on 
her, an' a want fur to see what a wanted. 

" Who be a-ca'allin' ?" says she. 

" Thou *s put us wrong 1" said th' feet an* ban's \ *' wc be 
fcclin', an* wc be creepin', an' we ca'ant fin' th' rest o' 's 
annywheers. Put us by th' au*d mun, wheer *s arm sticks 
oot o* groun', or we'll tickle tha wi' fingers an' tread, i^^ . 
wi' toes, til! thou loss tha wits." 

4o6 Ltgmds of tke Lim&lnshire Cars^ 

So a di^ 'ttn up. V put 'cm hy W wi'd mutu 

An' by-'n'-by th" youn^ chap coom back, an' ca'allect fur 
's difincr. 

"Wheel's lb' AiJder?- *ay* he. 

" Ooh, RatU'rin* berries r says sbc. 

" Bcrric* r sf>riiig T <a)"< ht^ ; an' kep on nl' S tatin'. 

Hut whca nutght coom an' tlu womt ho'ain : 

" Whc«r'* lb' rhUdtr T *Ay* be 

" Gone a lwhm\" says slit 

- Ayr says he, " 'n* ih' b*bby. too ?" 

An' coom tb' mormn', a shuk tb' gal oop sudd^, an' 
bawled In '» cam : 

"Whccr'H tb'cHIL&BRr 

"0>hr says (he *n a hun>', " Jlowrn aw^a'ay, lb' childcr 

" Tba hc\' ?" says ht " Then tbou'fl «n goo aitcr 'm T 
An' a oop wi" ih" ;ixc n' choiipH bcr T piccr^ V »buv ih' 
brl» unnw th" bed. 

W:il. by-i/-by, th' chiUli:r coom fiyin' back, an' keck't 
Ab-i'iJut fur tb' motlicr, but tha seed iwvrl- 

" Whccr"* motbcr ?"^ tha said to tb* chap* 

" G<jnc lo buy bacon," aay;^ he. fcelir* oneaS}\ 

" DtLCon ?" says tha ; " an' wf SUchcs hanein* ready T 

'N' presently tha corner *igc'an» V say* ; 

"Whccf'a mother niioxvT 

" Gone to seek M^w," i^ays; a, »liakin* cnner th' elo'es. 

"AyTaaj's tha, "an* we hereT' 

An' fore a cud t;ct oot o' bed tha cooin ahl x% ound itn, 
an' poinicd at un wi' '5 fingers: 

'' Wheer's inothcr TO-Na'Ow?" 

*• Ooh V a stjiicalcd, " unncr th' bed !" An' a put 's head 
unner th* bhinkeU 

Tha cHildcr pulled «Dt th* bit*, an" fell to wccpin'an' 
walliu' as tha pieced un toguhcr- An' tli' ch*ip, a want fur 
t& cr^ to th' door 'n' £i:ct awa'.iy, but tha cot un, an' took 
»k' axe 'n' chopped un oop loikc th' gal, an' IcT un lyin* 
^hlh» tha want awa'ay grattin'. 

Krgrnds of ike LimolmMrt Cars. 407 

Soon "a a wor tsurc a wm" de'od, up a got 'n' shook 's sel\ 
an* thccr wor Ih" £.1), stannin" waitin' fur 'n wi' 's long clawi 
a'out, an' '* teeth gibbcrin" an* '* c>*ne blaun* loitfc a giecn 
cat, gan' to spring. An* naturally ih* chaj> vor feared^ an' 
a ninnedr ^1' runncd, vlu' runncd, so '« ro gic a\^a'ay ; but 
sh(* ninncd cftcr, wi" '* long claws suo! oui, till a cii'd feel 
ui) tiukdln' th* hack tV *s reck, an' Ktrainin' wi' ih' longin* to 
dJock iir. An* a called a'out to tlic thuiincr : 

" Strike ma tle^id 1" 

Hut Ih' thiiJincr wud'n'ii for a w-or deW a'rcady. 

An' a riu^itcd l*j th' fire an' begged : 

*^ Hum ma oop 1" 

But tha ftrc wud'n't. fur tb* chill o' de'ath put 'n 

Ad' a thning "* set' in ih* waten an* said : 

'^ Draown rac blue I" 

But lb' wattcr wudn't, fur ih' deatli^colour wor comin' 
in s fa ace already, 

An* a ti]lc th'axc'n' tried to ciit 's tliro'at, but ill" axe 

An* Ut laM, a thrung \ ^eV into Ih' gra^ound, an' ca'alkd 
fur tb' wu'ms to cat un, ao 'a a cu'd rest in '« grave an' be 
quit o' Oi" woman. 

But b>--'n'-bx oop crcp a gra'at wo'm. an" a ftnt'ange an' 
Z^kX thing 't WOT, wi" th* gaV* head o' th' en' o' its long 
slimy body, an" \ crep oop aside un an' ra'oun" at>out. 'n' 
over DHt ^liilc a <lniv awa'ay all th' other wo'mtr an' than 
a Mt to, to eat un 's ad*. 

"Ooh, eat ma quick, cat maquicV!" a *iquee!*- 

■* Sliddy, naow !" says lb' wu'in^ " good food's wuih th' 
meal^iobnc. Thou ho'd aiill, n' let ina 'njoy mascl'." 

** ICat ma quick, r^t rna quick !" said he. 

"Do'ant tbciu basttf ma, a tell "ee," says tb' wo'm, " a 's 
gettin' on line. ThouNi ntgb gone na'ow/' An* a smacked 
's Itp^ wi' th' gocxlncs* o" 'l> 

" Quick 1" a rtbL^pil age'im. 

" Whist, thou'&t 'n onpaticnt chap." says th* wo'm. 

4g8 Lfgentii of the Lineofnshire Cars^ 

An' a swaUercd th' last bit, an' th' lad wor ail go'an, anj 
'd got awa'ay Turn th' ^ to iMI. 
An* that's ahl. 

KOt'c;!! NOTES, 

Not qtilTc fttirc if renumb^-^think can tell as told me. Orc« 
vni a M— fond of gLvl^— couldn'i Vtt^ awo^ from p«tliccat& 
Cdinc round comer ''Lctb^iije" ujt ^iri wa&buig bcncif— ^woic 
bt'cl wird htr, if Kh*-'d follow him. She Tnakcs him swear — -he 
doci it ■•ower (hMcf nhouihcr'*. In church, she wys. Say« ht 
»J1, "ifcvcrhijKoc* in" faaide). ThKoicn» to"foTCspcll"hiia if 
lie i3nt-*n"i. He wys "Mom ih' wo*m^ Ml ma cf a don't" — 
" Boutid do It anywny"^aTid children fly away — " no gicftl matter'" 
{fttidcV So ihcy went on — came to church-^girl vanis to %o 
in- He »av« nc^ pardon bunting, Co on to ncti chmch — »ayfs 
"No; |iaruin\ tip*y, and clerk'* dnink."* She say? tn^ghi wd 
them for all that. He kicks het- M«ot a uilor — juik him for 
the master- '* Down-by". Meet wise voican plaiti&x *t™*<' 
"WTicer^b au'd niun?' '" Down-by/" Come to collage knock— 
no answer, go in— f^ld nun a£lccp on bed. I^d taket axe, 
brains bm, chops feel and handi^—throRSOUt of window. CIcanod 
place — lit fire, VVi*c vFomnn triei to alcal corpse ''Hi, that'* 
nunc." "Ill bury iL" -No, do \ ina*cl\" * ['11 siand by" 
" No, do belter alone," "Civ« a« instead." '^ No, rnjchi n<>od 
il," "None give, none have; red liond. Ivin^ lipa." He buri*a 
corpse— (cavcb urm Mickiiig up^-^icct and luindb [o the pii^s. 
Says ro gal, "Cer roiy ; yoii kc^p hniiw," Girl dfddle^addlea 
— pigiaqiieal '*\\bai'» annss?" Dead feel tay,"Wc trampie 
ptgs— bury us." Shcdocs- Pig) die. "UlwtS matier?" Dead 
bund* *ay, "Choking pig* — bury us.'' Shi.- docs. They call — she 
goct Say, " Can^i feci body — m^sl be bunrd by ti, or hanni her." 
Siicdcx-*. I Ad comes home, "Where's ehtJdcr y* "GaihcTm>; 
bciiitV '*\\\%^\\i\]lT Niybicomes, '"Ubcic'schildcf?"' "FUb- 
Jng," "Baby too?' M<imiii(»,--walcra her suddenly. ^"Wktr^i 
iMiidfrV ''tlowr away.' "^ rtugoioon"' Chot«^»c'— P"'*^"dcr 
bed. Children comeback- -^Where's roochcr?" " Buyina bacon." 
** With rilches here?" "Whcci'smotber?" • Socking you," ^Wc 
hcpc?" Crowd round bed- "IVJi/f/imct/tfrT' "Under bed!" They 
pull hiT out — weep — chop him up too. He gc!a up— tbake*. Girl 
up lot>^'* *'[■ long clawB oui" — gibbering— L-yes grccn» He luns 
^-ahp nins after — efaws oui— ticWe his reck — longs ro choke him. 
He calls thunder— strike him diead. '* No. dead alread)'/ To 
fjrc, "Bumma oojj." "No, ' chill o'deaib' put out fire," Water, 
'* Drown ina blue." " No, dt'ad hlue alR^dy/' Axe, " Cut (htoaL" 
WoiUdnL Went 10 ground, calU worms — great worm comes — 

Lfgends of thi Lincoinskir^ Cars. 409 

drircsol^ctha*. Girrshcad 'Eii ma cinkk." *'Good food'* 
vmt\\\ riKil tjint. " "l\;it mi qukk." '*Nc> haste — nigh (larc.* 
"Qaick-'' "Vou're impalicnt,'^ Uut bll— oil gonc^got rid of 
giri- ThiCs flli. 

Suppoic all rubhisTi — bul murderers niay be di^ed by |jcn]jle 
thfiy kiil— Uiij^k Itkd}, 

Fred tii' Foou 

ThccrS an au'd tnuit wi' iis as 's hocrd tcti on a lad — 
Fred WOT '9 to name, an' 'a fu'ak wor B.iddclcyH : Ica^twiae. 
a think 's much ; a*m not jist saii^^in. A luk sarvicc wi' 
a ^'armcr, t'other aide th' Wolds an' a cooni to a main 
bad en, a did. 

A dtinnca»t*'rcctly//v-«tf. thai'aasmcbbc, but a reckon 
they wor Jitll 'n' rou^h toimo tc4ban, and like coufT 't 
jw^/ be Iriic Annywaya, th' au'd mun tells 't so, an" vay^ 
a hc<jrd it fro' "s gran'thcr or *ich, lis fiobbul aiihart ta'ale. 
Wal', Fred wora fond sort o* critter 'n* wor aJlus ^\\xin' in 
a intist VL'i' summat V other, an' a tvor, th' au'd c1iap *ay<, 
ih' ahfollesT lad 10 e"ai *s Iver tha 'd sec annywhccrR, 

Bacon ar" 'tatcr« an' bfe'3d^^4;ide« an' sacks 'n* bakin'* of 
'oi — a'd ^waller 'm da'own '% if a'd a batlomlcss pit, as lb' 
pa'a.iMin Vjiys 'stead o* a ChrU'en stummick, ]<fike other 
fo'ak; ail' yit a wor a thin hinabl slip o' a lad, ab looked 'a 
if a nivcr ate owt. 

Wal", th' fa'armcr seed ur, as a wot 5tannin' wi* th' rest 
o' *m to th" hirin's. 

" Thc€r*s a chap a* 'II not coat much to kip I" says a ; 
■^•11 nivcr ate th' la'arder bare, not he— a's got no room fur 
a store o" viUlea ! Wheer Ran', lad ?" 

" Whecr thaTI lak' ma," says Fred ; fur ih" fa'anncrs o" 
Cliff wa'ay "d hev nowt 10 do \\V un, what wi' 's catin'. an" 
'ft irii'itin* an \ fond ua'ays, 

" A guew Ihou aren't wuth a wa'age," *ays Ih' fa'armcr, 
wi' a eye to ticttin' a bargain. 

" A rinrkuii A ^icn't iiiudi,'* ^a>■a the lad, fur a vor used 
tc bcjii' tellt thaL 

410 Z-egtudi of tk€ Lmeolnihirr Cars. 


"War. thou tf/v a Iboiraaj-s th' fa'arracr. 
he'ad, ^tclliit' mc that! jishan^ giv' thu »u na'; t 

vum. Wilt coom fur tha Wcp?" 

■That a wii!/' *ay* i-Vcd, pcckin' oop, "ef thou'll kcp 
ma honest i' vitilcs an' does," 

* A11 do that," s^ya the r^L^armer, caJ'datin' oa au*d clo'cs 
an' ha'ou^c bii(( 'd n^gh kep uq gooin . Bui, lord f a knfm^ 
DOu't i>' Fred! ThcHi in^y tcrkofi as *l wmrn't U«Jg afcxc 
» fun' out as a'd ma'adc none such a stra'ange 'a' aily 
baigaiii Daythcr. A'ti m'ountcd '* ntlk wi' ii pair o' 
cailvcs to ivcry hcifcr, *b th' sayia' is. fur Fred *d ate ih' 
ha'ou^ bare, an' then vow a \yoc ckmmcd wi* bunfcr. 

An i^orno'onL^cfurtobctun.lon'ynia'adcuri wuswr; 
an" so wi' wokin' an* kickin' an' tuch, ad ale mon? "n iver 
artor'ds, whxic th' mfi'a^tcr thowt as *d be fair 'd' clc'an 
<loiic fur. 

■' WalV says Fred to 'a id', " hart a be, an' loikc to «plJt 
wt' htjfiger. A'd nivcr a bite to 'mom, nobbut a boodcct o' 
"truer* an' a ca'ake o' bread, or m:rhbe two; an' *^h.i*/sdiat> 
A can't nind 5Uch tiddy bll^.an' a'ra rcg'Jar tccmin' cmpiy^ 
Th' inefiHtcr ^aiil as 'd Icip ma w\' vttllDi, an 'a iiuc!&& all gdo 
'n' try ih* 9Lord>ousc. l^hcor's a side o' bacon ihecr, AU* 
mcl>bc beef; ih' wruWii Inncd, but ih' Lord be pia'bcd ! 
a'm thin. A'll mcbbc tjiC ihiufT' 

So oFT a ^^x;^t 

But aoon as th' foo" criltcr got 's bead an* showthers 
atwccnth' b&rs.astoock fa'ast!— a did,an'cud'nt goo back 
nor for'ard^ Wal', a hadn't no sense, as a «aid afoorc, so 
'^tcad o' waitin' an' mcbbc ihinkin' o' ^ummat as *<! git un 
a'out, what "d a do but screech a'oui, '< if a wor fcilt an* 
murthcred, while th' me'attcr *fi sel' cooin^an' fun' iin, ba'af 
in, an' bij^er ha'afa'out, o'lh' storehouse wincirr ! 

" Whar thou doin' thiir, don th^i^' rufued th' fa'aitnjcr, 
" CiM'm a'cul o' tlmt, a IcU 'cc I" 

" Goddlc-moight)-. ef a cu'd a got a'out a cu'd a got b 
toot" says Fred, (aIt V at:};cred. "Cant lliou aoc as 'in 
atoock r 

/.tgentis taf ikf Lin€i>inskir€ Cars. 411 

" An" vrhiA fur thou pm", ihcn. bom fool >" fcrccchcd th* 
'mt'attcr, clean tuk a-back^Fred wor so simpk. 

•^ A coom to git summai t'atc, o* coorsc" says th' critlcr, 
kiclcia" awa'iy ahl th' toimc, wi' '% hind legs. '^ Miitress wor 

'* Throng, says a?" yelled th' fa'armcr, dancin' wf rage, 
" Thou 'ft a (hEeff; a ihicf, a li-ll W, an* VIl Tarn 'cc to strtl 
ma mc'al I" 

An' aoopwi* '« Klict. an* 'gun tobcl un wi'ahl 's moight. 
An" Fred, Hccsl llia, wcr in a slra'angc V handy attithoi>c!c, 
as a m-ju't ^y, an' guv' a fine pla'acc fur the bcUin" to fall 
oa But by-'n -byoop coom th' miatrcvi an' ^quccb a'out ; 

"Stop!" wi'av'iccloikcapigbcn' kil't '*Kf thou bet lui, 
icWtcT, a'll ate u,-( out cr ha*oiiac n' home, a vrill ; do'ant 
'«, doant "cc now. whalivcr thou do'a T 

"That's iol" says th' fa'xirmer, stroock ahl o'a he'ap; an' 
Ihovrt a bit 

" Wal', a reckon, a'U mak' tha min' aa a cot iha sto'aliii' 
anny^^yt !" ^ayii a; an a «et to 'n* pulled uff a nail fum 
Fred'« thiioinli an' It-t un giio wi' a !a«' kick, 

Fri-'tL wor main glad to ha* done wi" 't, '4 thou may rcckor, 
an' didn't RTtm to fret 'ha 'outs nail to spcjik on. 

But by-'n'-by a fun 'i* clo'c* ahl to rnnr^, an' a cu'dnH 
barety ho'd un togithcr, so S to hide un's skin. 

"A mun be daccnt, a gucaV **y^ a Ic '5 scl". *'Tha*H 
nivcr Jcmmc goo nackt, a reckon. Ay. th' mc^a^tcr said '^ 
'd kip ma T clo'ca, an' 's koI hc'ap^ o' '» o'an, so 11 goo 'r' 
git suinmat to wansl." 

An' a off to th' ha'octite, 'n' tuk th' fa'iimicr'* new 
brcrchci an 'a best co'at, an' who so fain o* 's scV as Fred, 
tholTibAH-or^^u-ideas a mun ho'J em oop in ^ Twn han'^ 

Uttt jis: a:& a got to tit' duor, th^ mc'astcr an' 'a wife cot 
un agc'an. 

"What thou got /A-tfr/'" screeches th' miasis. "Ma 
me'asters bcfi'cb'es. Aniv^! What 'II ado nex"?" Thou 's 
th" biggest fool an th' fon'c^L" 

- Th" domdist thief tha be I" ydls th' fa'armcr, green wi* 

Lfgends of tht Limolnskirg Cars. 

ani^ sn' bristliV loJkc a prick>--oUbin. "Ahl kick tha 
while tha be black '% rotten to'ntps, a m-Ul T 

""Nay r crjet th* cnissi^ "Thou'll nivcrl a'Natc ahlsta 
bacon, cflhado!" 

But what wi' '% wife bangin' on 'i arm, an bltn* wi* raLgc; 
th' me'astcr oop wP th' axe In 's other ban', an' Atroock at 
Fred, an* off fell V han* at ih' wnu'-bo'an. 

Th' me'astcr scratche^l 's hc'ad, an' Fred howled, 

"\Wik\\ a dsdri'l gcK* fur to do't!" «iy% th" fa'anwr. a 
t^'t Teiared Icike ; " but cr thuii tells fo'ak a» a t!oru: "f, a'll 
ca'ahl th" poli> an' gin ec oop for tbicrin'; so thecr !" 

But, Lor' bless 'eel Fred wror »uch'n a fool, a'd oiver 
"n idee a* a cu'd a had oop th* mc'aAler fur 't an' a tuk t 
'stead o' a bettin' ; but a reckon a'd rather bin bet* a 

Wal', thou tinnenetan' u 't 'Kom\ kmg afore Fred 
'n a muss af^e'an ; an' this toimc 't wor wi' «tealtn' mooeyj 
A don't min' jUt how a eoom to lin' it, but ann>'ways a 
did, an' a tuk 't. an' "t wor a hell o' a row — beg^in' yer 
po'ardon i — fur th' Kc'amcL 

Th' me'aster wor Ji^t eie'an out o' "s wits wT fur>' : an' this 
toinip a tbrutig iitjniniat as (l-iltcd Frtd (V th' gra'mjrd, an' 
hruck 's arm an' i biid to bt tuk off. A misreHieuiber that 
part o' th' tA'alc a bit. but that's what coom to 'm. An* 
:to FrcJ Ins" 's arm; an' thou'd think a'd a gone awa'ay, 
wu'dn'l 'ee ? But a didn't, th' pore fool ! A said : 

" Ooh \ a'd loa' ma han' afuore, an' ma naiJ afnore that, 
an' a 's gpt kin' o' used lo 't, seest tha ; so a reckon a' 
Stay. T'ull hev to be ma bead nex' toimc, aD' that's 
9oai«y topull oflT 

But a wor wrong, dkou'H see 

Til' fa'arnier «-or itni'ai^ an* misloiWcd i' tb' cou 
side, an' 'd heerd sa'ay as fyome da'ay a'd git oop i 
a»' fin' '« rkk:t brunt ; ati' a war gcyan* skcary o' *L A 
iver>' noijght wan u' th' ban'^ man kep watch i' tb' gaftlj 
«tulc th' dawnin\ 

Wal', soon 'a Fred wor aunt o' th' doctor's lutn's th' 

Ltgtnttso/iMe Lincofnskirt Carr. 413 

mc'astcr tcllt tin ofT fur th* watcKin', as ft worn't much good 

" A'U do 't;' *ay5 Fred, " cf thou II Icmmc skp i' da'ay," 

Hul fio'a, Ui' me'aiter wu'dn'l do that. A mun run 
errin'ao" da'ay, ao' do light jobs, tin' a cu'dn't wok projicr; 
ail' that Ivor nuthin*. A mun am '3 kep, an' K*atch ahl 
noight, or d tn*n 'm *'oul 

■ Wai; hci^s tiymT lays Fred, •'^x{ tli" Lord kep 'm 
off ih' rick». cr a goo t' sicp !" 

Til' fust noi)flit or two a kcp 'wa'ake moat alt! tli* toimc, 
but cftcid's a tuk to slcpin' 's soun' 'a if a wor in 's bed. 
An* nat'ially to last, 't coom as 'd bin thowt. 

'L h' Ta'anncr wor woke oop wi* a bright shinin', an' £oort 
'a a look^ a'out o' winder, thccr wor 'n ricks ahl a blazUi', 

Da'oun a gan' in 's bare legs, ugin" 'vC swccrin' whik ih' 
divft's sel' d a bin 'shamed on 'im. 

" Whccr's that sccun'rcl }" a ycllcdn 

An* ahl to u-an^t a »ccd un, slcpin i' th' moock, loun' 'a 
a bablay, 'side tb' pigs, i" th" garth. 

War, a reckon ih' fa'armcr 'd nowt strong 'miff i* th* 
ftweerin' wa'ay to fall back on. A jbl said nawu but a 
looked lolkc a white dcvil, «hinin' thro^ wi' evil an' spite 
an' diokcd wi' bad WLi'd^, 

A jist wa'alkcd over 'n' pick cop th' lad an' dragged un 
artcr 'm to th' blavin^ ricks ; an' 'fore Fred 'd clc'an ma*ade 
oop'a xtdvC cf th' pigs wor tnk bad wf th' coIic» or cr'l wet 
a yanhquick, the faartocr oop wi' n n' heaved un i" ih" 
mid o' th' blazin' rick. 

''Kep off!" a said, stulterin* an' stacnmlin' wi' ^n^r; 
"a'll kill :Lnnyw;in js \\V% a han' to he'p tin !" an' a ttik 
ho*d en ft gre'at sto'on' an' look round '« wicked \ wicked. 

An' th' £e;1lerx wiir fcarf.'d or tin, an' mi cuni'al 'fore tha'd 
clc'an sattled what iha'd do, Fred wor burnt ahl cop V ih* 
mid o' th' rick, whccr a'd cot i' th' roops 'n' cu'dn't git loose, 

An' that'* th' en'. Wal". t m&ut be true, 's a tcHt 'cc; 
tha wor atr«'angc 'n quarc fo'ak to than. Annywaya 
that's a5 a hccrd it. 

414 Legends of ike Liniolmhin Cars^ 

Old BUin told mc 1^ Fih!— folic, Baddr^Icy- -rr»r>'j tMt!*-!* 
yont efae Woldi — bad end, Maybetrvfi — rough : 
routE^^*' Old ruAn «iyi hod it from gmidEither. V\\.:. 
— ilvays in Mrnpci. and icttiljJc cater — bacon, pautors Incad- 
IccuIk — no "Chriticn smmmict'*— bottumlCiH |jil TJwn, uraUI 
bd. K&rincr sees him a1 the hinn(;v -won't oott Buich kcci> — ni 
room mt^cb tbod *' Where going ^ " Where I con.* "Noiftnilil 
va^' " No ; u*«! Ui h«r that." " Btim ftn^l m ^x^ thai--wo»>'!l 
givewa^c- !Coq>r' "Ye* — hot»tftt »itilts nnd ckwbcs_*' V^jxart 
think: old Aufl^ 11 do — found wroa^ Krcd cats house ti&n 
stilt hungi)'. licatcn^goi liungrrcr — vxitliog — *tc ; 
near rumttl, Kted sayi, "SjiliKii^ with hnn^- i 
— bucket o' Ulen, etc, — not worth m«ritonin^- U)' ^w^^tiiwiM- 
bacon, maybe Ijccf — hsurod— but I'm thm.' Stuck b^— >clis — | 
rna^kter ttimes. "What lUiing there? Coaic €wl," '*Cint." 
"What you ncalirg^'" "Food, 'MittrwsihTi^n^/' Mister liiruu* 
- b^auhim posiiion handy. WiCcComei. *'&toi> m-xkc htm cat 
more — don't hot him.'' lanncr puUa off n,— It^ts him g& 
Frtd's t1othe« raggf^d. "Niver Irnime goo nackL Ma»tc-rhM 
lot»— help myidf/' Take* bt:*t suii— loo big^holds iheoi op— 
meet* viAMcr and mbiia- very txt^tf. '^ Itct tha % black 's rotccn 
to*tiip« !" WUtf sloj» hun. 3» Iscfore. He cut* tjff Fr»rs hami 
— thitatenc caU iwlice if h<; t«IU— Frtd fool— wy* nothii^, 
NeiEt be Gteab TDont^y. "Hdlotarow." ycuincT thro*vs ^mcthin^ 
— Frod gcis arm tn^kcn — has to be taken off (tcl^r forfcu 
poiticulara hc^rc). I-V(?d iiluy? on— «ay» getting uKeid *^ Ifmd neii 
lim*— not %o eaa>-.'' Wrong. 

Fanner unpopular— ricks ihrcftteficd— waicbcd aii;bl». Fred 
better — night vtork — not let sIdc;: by day — kept vale fitfi ntghbi 
— afteraanis slept *ound- 

Fjjmei wakes— sees liifhl — goes dOwri — bare len- '5ireonQj[ — 
devil ashamed, "Where's scoundrel?" Fred askcp nvith piffi. 
Miistct too angty to sjv^k — driii^i liini to rrLks— ihiiw* tijn in. 
Kred twrely awake. "Kill iiny^KMly help*' \ten frightened. 
Frt^d caught in rope burnt to death. <^e«r lolk then Uial'a 
told nic. 

Sam^l's Oiio&t. 

A do'ant Vnw as a unncratan' tvhat tha me'an 
"ghosiis". Ef tha spe'alis o' t^^Us^ na"<yu\ or corp* or 
audi ? Onh — ! IVad fo'ak 2S u-a'alkV ? A*v^ b«rd an 
ca'allcd Eioglci su' Fetch^rs, an" a'vc h«erd on hc'aj»» but a 
canlt A&'ay a:i n scod on>- tnafici*. ThQcKs a r<!d uiinmiiii 

Lfgtnds oj ift€ LiKCoinskirc Cars- 415 

« ivn'alks r Ih' spinnry nTgh wTwct a (Tool, an* tlipcr wror 
a l;id wi' ne'er x hc'ati nn %x\\ "al iiiii mother «crci, wbiin 
a war a makf. An o' Vulc, titor's ft loight ^s Js cJtr't 
aba'out Ih* la'own, on'y none c^in't ?cc th' Ii-in' as c.ii** il ; 
wxi e( *t Htoj]-*« at u r](KJ^^i)V ?tui:itiiun 11 dfe T tiral !ja'uu-*ti; 
afore Ih' year's a'out. 

Thccr"$ lot."* o' ta'alca 'ba'out bogles o' thai flOrt, but ih' 
arciVt purty, tb' aren't creepy, loikc th' Moon ta'dk s a 
towd Cha on. A likes th* creepy VfAns, do'ani thou? An' 
a can't sort o' min' Ihcy so'l ; the/* ncbbut wfmmen an' 
lolt^hts nn* thin^^i an' no senile in cin. But theer, a*(l 
rawthor not mcci wi' 'm fur ahl that I A guess they bo 
fearsome to see, cf thcr nobbut silly to yarken to- 

Ay, a mind wan ta'ale 'b^'out a <Ic'^ man, but t*alnt 
much ; but ef ihfju IciJke 

h*s mcbbe on^y a ta*, fur a. gLic^s fo'aV c!o'an*1 know '« 
it'hat '11 cnciin Icj "s when wc't' dead ; lca?(twiM!, "crp" what 
lit' [u'ai^on Ntys, 411' that's mrbbe line! 

Anriywd'aya, iha to^vd ma as thcxr wor a lad — gran'thcr 
ca'allcd un Sam'l — aa wor brunt to dc'ath. an' ahl gan' to 
a^hcs, an' mcbbc cinders. But mcbbc 'n while, a got orjp 
— ih" miide o" un, a mc'an [thou unncmtiin' ?} an' gin Scl' 
a sha'akc, ao' thowi u-hsi a man do ncx", fur nai'mlly a 
wom't used to thtngn. an" a wnr kin" o' fltra'angc loikc. 
An' iwould be so't o' quarc, a reckon— lota o' bocles an' 
things ahl 'b:i"out un, Mcbbc a wor a t»t ft'aftd-loike to 
fu>L Wail, by-'n'-b)-, suthin" said to 'n ! 

"Thou mun goo In ih' yarth-pla'acc, an' tell ih" Bi(r 
Wo'm *ft ihoifji dr'ad, n* axe un fuf to hcv tha ate oop, or 
thouli nivcr rcit i' tlia mools." 

■' Mim a r %ny^ th' lad " Wai, am willing 

Sti 4 jjan' list, axin' '» wa'ay, an' itibbin* ihowlhcrs wV 
ahi th' horrid thing* 's gl<>^^^icd roun" 'ba'out 'im. 

An'by-*n''by a cooni lo a (^ra'at pla'acc whccr 't wor 
da'ark, wi' glimmcrin' bights croasin' 't. an' fuU o" a yartHy 
smcU loikc tb' moob o' spring, an' whiHs o' a ohful 5tiiik, 
aii d to'n un «ick 'n' karcd ; an' vinnerfoot i^'or creepin' 

4l6 Lfg^nds &f the Lincotn&hirt Cars. 

fluLtcnn' ibiogs, an' th' air 

ihlnfS, an 'ara'ound vk-or crav 
wor hot an' moocky; an' at th" en" o' tb' pla'acc wora 
horrid ^r^'at wo'm, co'lcd ck>|> 'n a Bat sto'on, wV '« sllmf 
hc*ad movin' and j^wingin' fum side to 'sidz 'a if a wor 
amellin' fur 's dinner. 

A reckon SamM wor m*in feared when a hccr'd 's ne'^in 
ca'aticd, an' th* bvo'm shot a'out ^ horrid hcW rcct in 's 

'*Tbou, Sam1 } So thou' re do'ad an' buncd, an' food fur 
th* wo'm*, be tha } Wal", whccr't Iha body V 

"Plc'asc^ycrwu^hup"— Sam'l didn't wranifur t' anger 'n, 
natrally— ■' A'm ahl here," 

■' No'a," said th" wa'm, '* does thou think as w« can ate 
tiiou ? Th* art dcW, ma lad ; mun fot tha corp, cf tba 
wants to rest V ih' mooU." 

'' But whccr ift 't ? Ma corp T said Saml, scratch'n* 's head, 

" Whccr is 't buried t" said th' wo'm. 

" Tair't buried ; that'* jist it T said Sam! *' T'is ashes ; 
a wor brunt oopn" 

<'Hir*aid th' wo'm^ ^' that's bad; thou'll U'asle no'on 
BO good. Niver fret ; go fot th' a^hes. an' bring *ni here, 
an" wtfr'il do ahl wcr can,'^ 

Wal\ Sam'I want back, an" a locked an' looked, an' by* 
'nM)y a got ahl th* ashes together '* a cu'd sec, an' tuk 'm 
off in a sack to tb' gm'at worn. 

An' a opened th' «^ck, ad" th* wo'm cia'alled da'oun an' 
»mc!t 'm an' to'iicd 'in over 'n' over. 

"S^im'l," says he, by-'n'-by, "suihin's miasin*" says ht 
"Thou'si no'oii ahl here Sam'l, whccr'a th' rest on tha ? 
UTiou'U hcvloscekit/' 

" AV(? brung ahl a cud fin\" said Sam'l. ihakin" "a head, 

" Nay r said the worn, " thccr's an arm missin*." 

"Ooh ( thiit'; so !" said Sam1, noddin'. " A'd to*' 'n ann, 
a had : tut off, 't wor," 

"Tliou muiifot it, Sam'l-' 

" Wal'. a\e no'oii idee whrer ih' doctor put her, 1>uc all 
gar' ic&" 

Legends of the LiKCoitaUire Cars, 4 1 7 

So oft a want age*an, an* lookec^ here *in looked tliccr» 
an* by-'n'-by a goc it 

Back a wont to th' wo'm, 

" Here's til' ai'm/* «a)'s he. 

An' the wo'm tn'nc-d tt o'er 

" No'a, ihccr's sutiuiiat .lUll, Sainl," &ays a, " Had t!w>ii 
Ion" annythin* d« ?'' 

" Lcrnmc sec,'" »ayi Sami, thirkin^ ; "a'd los' a nail, an" 
'\ (liver grow'd agc'an," 

•That's *t, a reckon." says the wo* m. "Thou'i gotto fot 
it, bam'i;' 

" A reckon a'll nivcr fun' that, tfa^n, me'a^ter/ saya 
Saml. "but a'm willin* to try." 

An' ofiT a vrant. 

But a fi:ii]'«an ai^y matter Ko loss, secst tha^an'a ha^^rd 
thing to f^n', an* thoff a 5o*t an' a sg\ a cuM'nt Jin' nuthln', 
so to laV a want liack to th* wo'm. 

" A*vc J»o't an" a*vc so't, an" a've fun' iiuwt," xiiy?* b& 
"Thju man tak' ma wi'out ma iml] — iU no gia'aE lo9% 
a'm thinkin*. Can't 'cc m^k' shift wi'out it?" 

" No'a !" said th' wc'm^ '' a can't ; an' cf thou can't lin' it 
— *arc thou sartainsurc thcu can't, Sam'I ? " 

" Sartain, vtliss lock I" 

"Thou'il mun wa'alk th' yartii while thou do fin' tt» 
then r 

"But ef a can't niver?" 

"Then thou'U raun wa'alk ahl tV toimeT A'm main 
sorry fur tha, Sami, but ihtiull hev lot:* o' compiny T' 

An' ahl th'crepin' things an^ th' crawlin' things tiik 'n' 
to'ncd Sain'la'out; *n' ivcr Hcnce, efa'i^ncjL fun' 's nail, a's 
wa'alkln' 'ba'out accliln* fui 't 

That'll aht ; |fran*ther tell 't ma wan da'ay '3 a wor axin' 
whccr ahl th' bogles cootn fum. T's not much on a ta'alc< 
but a can't min' anuthcr to na'ow, and it':t so't o' funry, 
ain't it } 

vol- Hi 


4I& hegtnds of the Limolnshiri Cars. 

Whafstthrrtr?— lir^W?— mfp»?— "nh,tlcnil folVwiJH* Call 
them bo^lc$ and fcccfcc* - heard of lou — seen none — R^ wonun 
in ipinncyat home 1^ headless- seen bymoihcr whcr maid' 
l.ighl .11 Vulc — irvivibk [utiid — if »lcip At door, mhiicqdc diet. Not 
jitctiy Of creepy — prefer crtcpy ^'^ 1'fc^ " Moon*- No ficnw m 
these. Don't warn meet tuglcs— fearsome lo see — fitnpid to Idl 
of. One toic of dc^d mnn — mcl>bc not true — don^ know whaiTJ 
rnm«; wlic-n dc»il. latl r-alkd S;im'I— Iiomc — gea ijp— th,ikcs 
KcJC Not used — fccts t^tietT — boglci tound him. Something 
says, '* Ckr to grcflt worm — tell you're d^ad — ask to be enicti- the 
you'll rest in grave." "Ill go/* Aska w^y — comes to pi 
dark — flickering lights — smcH of firdi — tud ^rnell^ — crtvpin^ an< 
crawling things — greU worm on flat stone— slimy — waving 
—Same's name called. '^ \V'*nt to Ijc eaten/' " Whcrc'a body?' 
"tieee." ^'Nt*-r.tJri»e— fetth it" .Samt ^ys, "Bumt*' "Ta*lK 
bad— fetch a&hes." Suni gets them — in sack — wonn imtTli ihcm. 
''Not all heK'— flrm miwng." "l-ott aim— cul off-" ''Mujil fcirh 
it" " Dori't k^c™r whctc doctor f)ui it," Sought and sought — got itj 
- — took \\ wonii^worm louks ;il ii. ** N<ji ull Ltnr yet. Ijjit an] 
thingmorer '* VeKjoajl." "Muitfelchii." "I'll ne\er find thaL 
Nail caay lo lotc. hard to fmd." Seeks cvcT^herc* " Kuvnd nothing. 
Can't you do •^ichoutr "No. Sure can't find?" "Vw,"! 
'■Thi.'n must walk Ml you du," "'HuJ il nevtr?" ''Then wAlkoll lime 
—plenty of company." Creejiin^ and crawling things icm bioi out- 
ir hc'i not found nail, wilkinj yet. 

(irjndiuD:hez tnld me t^le— ! a^ked where lu^eit cwmc fruin. 
Can't mind anuiher " bo't o' funny." 



THE religious senlimcnt of the Apacbc frdian h the 
underlying principle of hb nature, entering into 
all the acts of hb life, and irfii,"^ing among tha*ic of a 
more commonplace character a fccliiic of dependence 
upon the spiritual powers not to be expected from a 
savage whose beet-delincd attribute is a ferocious self- 

The foundation-stone cf this relif^lon ie fear: fear of 
the un&een, the unknown, the unl<nowable. It may M 
first glance scrni mconsislcnt tliat a people whose exist- 
ence has \ycvf\ An unlntrtrLipti'd TshmarlitiKh warfare, 
concjueruig all Irilcs about lliem and Ln^inLaiiiing against 
the EuropCfvn the most oh^tinatc &[id succc^fut rcnUtance 
he h^H encountered on the American continents sliould, in 
dealing* with the invi.tibte world, be a prc>' to puerile 
apprehensions ; yet st:ch is the fact. 

A second, and ecjually marked, peculiarity is the jea- 
lousy with which the Apache preserves from the know- 
lodge cf the profane the meaning of ritCJi, ceicmonie*, 
and incantaticnd which he could, under no circumstances, 
he induced to neglect No marter how great may be hi* 
friendship for ih*? white man, he impart?^ with relucTaTicc 
any infonnatifin whirh iii;iy serve i\s t\\\\\ to the arcanum 
of Ins religious belief and practices. 

From the moment of his barth until the silent grave 
claims him as its victim, the Apache i* completely en- 
flla\-cd by hL» superstitions, [n siehnesa, in peace, 
or in war, he looks for guidance and counsjcl to the Ax/- 
nanian^ or " medieine-man", who combjncs in Mmaclf the 
Ivnctions of priest, prophet* and physician. 

X 1:3 

430 fy/^^iOM of the Apacki Indians. 

The ApAchc 19 blnscd or cLmocI, aa wc m&y i:1kx»c to 
virw, with a multiplicity of ghostly guardians, many of 
whom may be i£r:orc<l in timc3 of prosperity, but none of 
whom it would be wise to contemn in Uic hour of danger 
find adversity. 

It may be weJl lo commence with the 

Chidin or Chikdi. 

The interpretation given for thb word by the Mexican 
captivu, living: among the Apaches and Navajocs, b 
diatioSt or devil5. but the correct translation is "Ehoat*", 
They arc the spirits of the dead, who> in a coHcdivt: 
scnse» may be taken as the ancestors of the trib^ wn 
consequently, at the cutset, there is formed a cuU alm< 
identical wilh the ancestor-worship of the Chinese and 
Romans^ It 1^ not improbable ihat, tn the earlier periods 
of their history, the dwellers along the Yang-tie and the 
Tiber offered to the collective manes of their horde or 
diiti the sacrifices afterwards reserved by each family for 
its founders. 

This ghost- worship, or ancestor-worship — there b no 
need to quibble about names— is the most widcly-rcc< 
riscd feature of American aboriginal rcJigion. 

The earliest Spanish missionaries ascertained that thai 
Tueblo Indians in the valley of the Rio Grande were in 
the habit of making oblations of fond to the spiriE^ of 
their dead : a fact taken ad*jariage of by the shrewd friars, 
who quietly ^iib^tituled the Kcast of All Sainls for the 
jbLgan festival occurring almost on ihc same dale (Novcm- 
lic't \s\\ Until the present time thr Indians of Jcleta 
^Ncw Mexico) cover the floor of their church with delicious 
specimens of culinary skill at the hich-mass of the sub- 
stituted festivals In like mai^ncr, mnong the Hurona : 

1 Miiny of our lodianB to this day viU at each m«af tlirow a 
cnj»l of bir^id or finKcncnl of meat jnic iho fuCj layjni; m tLc uiiie 
llae : " Loi, tpinu of my ancestors.'' 

Riiigicn <if ike Apa<k£ Indians, 431 

Partman' narratei that iHe French priests who ffrst pcoe* 
tmtcfl to thp interior of C^nud;! foiird these pecp!c in 
gTTst r^ar of the Oki, or 4|>1ritj wliFcli flittt^cl abovit iti^m^ 

Siig(;c*ti(jns of Ihc same worship obtriiilc thcmsctvc^ In 
the sun Jaiicc of ilic Sicux of Dakota. 

These Chidin nre gcncnlly maleficent genii, addicted lo 
hcvcTing in the vicintty of their miu^danc haunts^ &nd not 
above a pclty and spiteful tornicntinff of the rcEutivci left 
bdiind- The/ arc given to holding converse with oiortal^ 
cither in dreims, in visions, or in iobcr reality, in the 
d;u^kne¥s of night The mortal thuB fax'ourcd. or pestered, 
!ows no trmc In making known the ch^2cter of his 
coivenattnn to the nearer uiirviving kin of the tlcceased, 
who thereupcm mmnitm the "medfcinc-inen" to Uy the 
unquiet msncs to rest with the tKxcn!»T>' dancing And 

The Indian who ha5 conversed with the Chidin must 
be presented with a pon>- or something: elae of value ; and 
his participation in the (ubscctucnt exercises is belic^-cd 
Co be attended with particul^ elticacy. 

A failure to thus appcAsc the fipirltd, aU informants 
apree, would be followed by new death* and grievov* 
mi«fortunc*4- Communtcalion* with the upint-world are 
no: invariably through the ghosts of the departed as such. 
Frciiuently, mediums are selectc(3> the most grncral one 
being: that biid of iU-omcn the Bfl, or owl. The htxfting 
€j/ the Rfl at ri^ht is jiortmtous «jf trouble; it always 
ineaiia lliat ^omc one of the hearers xa hoon to be called 
away. Scvcriano and Antonio both assert that itmeana 
tH vas d marir ("thou art going lo die'). 

The oracular powers attributed to the hH may be 
summed up In the belief that it is the repository of soroc 
human iouh 

The Apaches have in their thcolog}- a faJnt trace of the 
doctrine of Iran emigration of Kcu^ which shall be more 
fully outlined in in proper place. 

432 Rtl^icm o/ihi Ap<uke Indians, 

Not mfiny years sbicc, a party of General Crook's 
Ap;u:1icT KnUiim hn<1 camped by night doftc to a pretty 
inotiniam-spiing under the sbadour of a cluirp of scnib- 
oakit. They were &I1 wamora of repute, pndin.? them- 
selves upon valour in battle Corversation Qo^^-cd un- 
checked, with no tbouffht of dauif^er to mar its mctri* 
mcnt Suddenly, from the brunches above their tiead^^ 
ranK out the ominous co% " Boo-hoo ! Boo-hoo!" Fe%r 
lent speed to their ljmt>£ ard drove them tn f^ht from 
their camp-fire. 

The flames nf the dr;»H ?.rc nri-er nieiitionecl among the 
Apachrs. Thej' preserve upon this subject a religious 
sitcrcc, broken only in Ihost" cxccptionnil instances where. 
<-iflrr the bipsc of yeara^ the cUnaincn of the deceased inay 
5CC fU to perpetuate hb memory b>' jmpasmg hii name 
upon a ycmn^ chifd. 

The Apaches on the Verde (Ariiona) Re^Aervt^tion, In 
187J, used to be very fond of frequenting the trader's 
store. They soon wore out their weloomCj and became a 
fjreat nuisance; The cleric, a young gentleman of leisure, 
vva« desirous of Introducing a syAtem of houri which liht^uld 
give him from half-pai^t nine in the momirg until six in the 
cvrTiTijr for ii siesfa upon the Cfsunter. He wan one ufj 
thoKe prrsuii4 who, as we are told, weic burn iifcj. Just 
a^ soon Ai« he h^d stretched Himself out for a snooee,, 
the door would fly witlt; open, letting In a stream of sun< 
li^ht. Apaches and flici^. The Apaches would »quat Cft 
the floor, while tJic burning; rays would irradiate the young 
counter jumper V. lace and the bu::;:ing flicn seek a roosting- 
plocc in his gaping mouth. Such a stateof things could 
not be allowed to coiuinue unchecked. Our mercanttia 
fledgling w3k only hum^in, ;^i\6 cased his weary soul as much 
jia possibli? by copious profanity, none of which did him the 
slightest good, the Apaches not understanding a word of iL 
But, by chance, he learned of thi* abhorrence of anytlung 
connected witli the names of the dead. 

One of his tormentors died suddenly, and George — that 

Rciigion of the Ap<ukc Indians. 423 

was the clerk's (larne — hit upon the novel plan of driving 
uut the liiilian^ vrhu InfcKtcd ibc <ftore, by rcpcatinf; the 
sfjir^/nti oi him who h;4d jit^ joined the 4ngel band, or 
whfttcvcr It m^/ be th^t Ap^dic^ join when th<;y di€. 
When the L»ual throng a^iscmblcd next morning and 
Crouched dovrn on their hum-H alonj; the ^klc^t of the roocn, 
a muffled groan issued from behind the coiinter, "EspidJ, 
(Quail) t M^pidiV Hark! it was the dend mar's name. 
It wafi repeated with emphasi^ithc wooden vault of the 
counter acting !U a «ounding-board and adding volurtic to 
the cry " E*pidf ! Espidf 1*' The Apaches looked at each 
othuT, ce^^ed smoking, and gathered up their bl^inkots 
and ealioo mantles, 

Wliilc m itii* stage of worry aind uneertatnty, Gcor^ 
turned the scale of their fc^irs ard put them to prcclpUate 
flight byspnn>:irig aver the counter, ycUing the aIo^u^ — 
"Kspkh! I■>ili^ill 

Tlie I>r^ve?il (ted hi |iiui!c, ncir would ihey a^atn venture 
inside while George showed the slightest disposition to 
sound the drccuJcd word. But it came to pass tti^t the 
servant who prepared the hA^ih and otiicr luxuries of 
Gcoi^*s tnesCf w&a c&lled from this vale of fiorrot^^, and the 
Indian boy£ gloated aK they assured themselves thai now 
indeed was the hoor of sweet revenge. They hurried to 
the entrance of the store, and shouted at the top of Thc^l^ 
voices: ''Jack! JacL ! Jack!*' locikmg with <ldight ujMin 
George, wl low discomfit 11 re thfiy awdiicd wlU) a chucklo. 
To tlwir HstcniihTDcnl, Gcotgc did not tnav«, and laughed 
a^ heartily as ihcy did. 

The repugnance to mention the names of the dead 
extended to their own names. No Apache ^vill give his 
name to a stranger, lc;iririg some hidden power may thus 
be placed in tile stranger's hand to his detriment ; neither 
will they name thetr mother-in-law, or» for that matter, 
speak to or look at the amiable old lady. This dulncll- 
nation does not apply to the American nicknames of which 
soldiers are io Javish. An Apache scout does not reijuire 

494 ItfJ^n of the A^k£ /ndi^sns. 

mtich pcTKUA^^on In induce him to admit that he b * Slclony^, 
" No»c>''', Of ■* P4l Murphy^ ; but when Im (^iicsiioncT gfi 
further, and^vcckj his tdbdl appdUtion — his riamo In 
own language and among his own people—^ w'iU rci 
obstinately »lmt until ik friend approuhcftand teilswliohc 

All that pertains to the cicad is treated by the A] 
with a co<nmcndablo respect 1\\e " vrickyvp" is bumnl 
down, or, among the Xavajcec, the ^t>^*' ii allowed n> 
fall into nita Craves are nev*cr cfo&sed A oocabJe 
example occurred in General Crook's eampafgn in the 
Sierra Vadfc (MoxfcoX fn 18S3. 

A prairic-fire threatened ihe camp with destrticlton, and 
all handK-— ^ifHcert, voldien, packer^ Ajistche iicntil^t, and 
the amreiMlcred Chiricahuos — men, vroraen, siid chittlren, 
were turned out to »uppr&Li it Armed with broomt of 
willcwbushp the Apaches did noble work, and soon h^J the 
fiamcs under control; but, in doinf; this, tJH:y careftilly 
avoided crossing or sweeping two or three Iialf-obliteratcd 
grav-ea which lay directly in the path of the dc^-ouring 


As a direct corollary of ancestor- worsliip, spiriluallnm, 
ajf wc undcr^und the term, may be looked for and fcoind 
AIL American Indians arc earnest bclicvc^^ in ^pintualbTn 
In the Apaehe tribe, "medicine men' are almost daily 
annoLtncinf; to crudulou^ hearcra con^municatioflfl from the 
Chidin. Their claims go farther ; ihcy boldly asftcrt that 
Uiey can and do, in trances, viiit the Cki^tn^Kumgiia, or 
*■ hf^use of gh*>4t*", zn^ there learn the view of the immortaN 
moM interested in the welfare of their people; One or two 

1 ''Hogans* are Ihe hnvw« of the Nnijon. Tbe ttont is M 
Spanish oiipr, beinj: decivcil froni Airpf- "a hcnrxh", T^v word 
for "hotitiTt in the idiom o\ Nairtfaet and Apnrhet, U Ktrng^*^ 
"Wkkpip*, in iho vcrnncvUr of Arizona, ik the shelter of boiighs 
and hranclm crtcicd by llu: A]>adiFi. 

Jifiigipn efthi Aptuhi Indians. 


Itjcky hiU arc stiffident to cstablksh ihc fcpulalion of a 
cUinroyaoL \\\ tliis class are to be found individuate 
superior lo their fellows in shrewdness, pcrspicocitj-, and 
general worldly ]<nowIedgc : it is, therefore, not Burprifiing 
that a succession of verified forecasts :ihould lift a prophet 
tc the highest pinnacle of respect and influence 

In \%%\y a seer, prophet, or Sfuiman, named Na-kay- 
da<kl£rni, or, »!( he vms known to the white men, Itobby- 
da-klifini, rose to eminence among the Apaches. Kb 
airogatcd to himsdf great powers of divination, held 
constant communication uith the Ckidin^ and asserted 
that he had power to raise the dead from their graves. 
One dead man he had pulled out of his tomb as Ear as th« 
knecrs but could not get him any further; the reason for 
the failure being that the spirit declined to come back to 
AriionA so long x^ the white« rcm;tined in the country. 
He prophesied that the whites would have to leave 
when ihe com ripened. Me preached ihAt tht: red men 
must cease fighting each other and must unite and be one 
people ixs thry once hud hem, Hr drilled the various 
bands near Port A[>ach<L* in a dance to which they 
attached (jreal impoiljince. [t was entirely different from 
utytbing ever before seen amons them. The participants, 
men and women, arranged themselves in filc^, f-ucin^ a 
common centre, like Uie spokes of a wheel, and, while thus 
dancing, Ihddiniin and eomrnca] were thrown upon them 
in profusion. 

This "prophet", or "doctor", was killed in the engage- 
ment in the Cibitu Csifion, Arizona, AtigM-tt 30, iSSi> 

In all thar r^Iarcs to war, fmm the bW^ing of the war- 
bunnet to the match iJ]>un tht? trail ami a M^lcction nf the 
auspicious moment fof at lack, tJic Influence uf the ''medicine- 
niiin" Xf' AUprcmc. He %u]icr!ntendH the war-dance before 

' Tb« powc« poftws8Cil over the niind) of ibe Indisns of lb* 
Mistiuippi Villcy, one gcncraikon ago, by the Prt>phef, equalM, If 
II did not aurpaf9« ihat wiel<led b)' ibe etclii chief Teemuscb 

426 JieJigion of the Apatke Indians. 

%X7aX\n^y he con«u!ti; tKc^ipiriu nightly, and prcdicUmocess 
or advises retreat ; and to him arc commuted the affan(;«' 
mcTil of the dance he^d upon the return to th«f mnefuria 
ihc raiders, driving before ihem the ^pol) of the N'a-k:iy-d4 
or Mexictuw. 

It li not ettenlUt that a "mftlicine-man" be old fji 
years ; anyone, possessing the requisite fhrcvrdness, pene- 
tration, |)lausjbt]ity, and " check", can aspire to and all 
this prot;d dignity. Tven Mexican capti\x$ arc not 
debarred from the oflicc /Vntonio HcUask vrhllc & ^a^'c 
among the Apaches, became one of their mo5t inHuential 
" medicinemen", and other ins^t&iKCS may be cited were it 
deemed necessary. H^d in hand with ihii goc* a »ort of 
herediiar}' succession, exemplified in the penons of yo«ng 
boyi:, who can be seen on mo«t important occations sittii 
apart u-iih the old rt^n^ engaged in the «Y>fk of divmatj 

Wcinrn arr not absolutely exehidol fnim partici]>ati< 
in tlic minor offices, but to the more recondite, such as are 
celebrated in sacred cave?^, thcry jire rigoriAisly dcni* 
a<Jn^L3SLon, the theory obtaining among Apaches (as 
does among Sioux, Ch<ycnnc£, and others) tliat thi 
mere presence of women, in certain conditions, viY>iild' 
render nu^tory the best directed efforts of the most 
potent *" m cd J cine-men", 


Omens are constantly uratched by the Apachei. Ni 
such as the Roman soothsayers noted — the entraris 
animals or the prckin^s of chicketi.v*— but ax atreadj 
uritien. tlie hootinj of owls, tlic flight of parrots, and ll 
IraU of serjmnt^. 

On the SJertA Madre expedition, rme of tlie commai:dci 
(Mr. Randall) caught an owlet, x^liicb he fastened to thC; 
|)onimcl of his saddle W hen Uic ugly bird bcj^an its Iow-h 
muttered notes, the excitement among the Apache scouts^ 
»^i» soincthint; wonderful to witnc^ Their hcad-mcn 

J?f/rpi>n ofih€ Ap€(€ki Indians. 427 

Rpiproachrd General Crook find icmonfitrAlcd dgamst IIk 
rctcntiun of thU lurc pru^octtic of defeat 


Zunis and Moynis po;(Ac?tK many id^ls, not merely 
fetiche^*, but nell-dcfirtcd iinngcs of wood 4ind litonc, and 
Uw gij;antic Koyamashc/ or icrror-inapiring; exaggerations 
of the hum^in form, eompc/vcd of basket framework^ covered 
vUh sacred t>Iankct*ir and ^urrcninded by a fearful head 
u'lth on uglyj projecting bc^ak or sni>uc of hard wtjcd^ 

Tlirse Koyamashc, or Shalocu, arr bomc o^icnly through 
the MrceL\ of 7.\\\\\ \\\<i^\\ !ljr Jiouldfrt of thi: " iiieditiiie* 
men*', who .icknowlcdgc the humble pmycr^ And .<uu:riJ^cc» 
of the devotees by making the idor^ beak snap with a 
:icneti of loud* ^harp cracks ; and by callinf^ out from their 
covcrtct in shrill erica, which may or may not be oracular 

Amonp the Apncti« no stich idols are to be seen, but 
tl;cir " medicine-oicn^ certainly act as oracles at times. 


Three divisions of pnycrt xxv^ be rccogniGcd among the 
Apaches: smokinfc, vocal 5uppUcalton^ sad ^bbciiah. 

Smokini; t« at all limes &n act of praivc, or prayer, or 
a thankofferin^ and thii whether among the Indiana of 
the grc;it plains of the Miii^oiiri or ihc fierce dentzcni; of 
tlic mouTiialns of Ari/cna and Sonora. 

' Thift fiHm of ir1nT4 itai. In ibc prplilKiarfr rlAyn, vonhippcd by Jt^l 
ibe icdcQlary Endlani ol New A3nu<o and Ariionn. Tlie amvcil of 
the Spaniard) was followed b> their ove;diraw. Hblory fcUics ibat 
in tfaa rtvoJl of ih« km <;nndt tribtt^ m i^^o^ the old rtLi^ion wac 
lettoicd wiih ouberint joy, lite rcxonqucic in 1694 Hhneuod tlie 
n iDvenmitnt of &paAi«h i^overonntni utd faith vx dtv iani« moment^ 
the AubjuKatcd aboripnci cbahnlini: ibo "* Al^bados ' {a furm of LitJiar)^ 
SBd piomlilfig a iliifontiniiDinro oX tIicit old rtllgic^us Htet, nUcli 
bcTKcforlh were prutiKd odI)' 10 ihc duknea* and Kdusion of diQ 

4^8 Religion ofihc Apache Indians. 

When an Apache; xnmkc^ he blovr% finA to tl^c sVy^ 
to the earth, then in a horifont&l j>Une to tltc four wZndfl, 
mjikinf a nicking, gnuitinc nutsc with each moliun ; tJica 
he prays a» follow:! : 

Dc jcockI. O Suii ] Keep mc frvm dnth. Be food. 

D^AieiL Shild. Aav^^ Tudtobtadl/s<dd. 

O KC<Ia 1 Mjr Cuhera^ Keep mc firooi death. DiaY Icl mc aickcA. 

(awordcJ cmF^AiSft^) Doa'tkilme. Coodeartk. Be £Ood- 

Keep mc from dcilh. He £00(1 O »4tida V Ke<p ntc froon death* 


' This laal rcqucA is not so cdd M it nicy. M first fcodioci 
leexn, Miilnrl:^ hM alwDyt b«en \ tcoui^c io ih* ilMrcut^, intl 
0omciimcf, ilir^d aa^o^c ckpi>fcd lo (he cold, damp valicyt Add 
TjivlnM of Aiiionx Not dlone ir> ibe Apuhe of iO'd:Ly, bui as nvll 
to the mhnbil&nia whooi he d)»po^^3sed1 and whoM nvn<4 Hone 
dwcltlrgK line the dilft and dnt [hfl higbrKi " mmflB** of ner sooth* 
tv«»tem lemlory. In do cam cah these prchistorie rauu be /owmI 
rJbcwbcrc tlatiii on Lbe niqsl elevated »tjitioni, ubcre ther would tMX 
on]]r be Bc-cTtrc ftgainii humAn ToeSi bui protected froia tho more 
iTiAlJi^n inHucnco of nuilArla of the ii<iu»giit <mv>bei3> 

|[ may be inrcTtJting to knew that Ihe ome pnyw ba» b^en in 
UBO aEtionj* ralion& widely srpaiated. The Iwactito were tlu«4lciied 
with a ■'burning a]|u«" ^chiLl* and lev«r;, in Levlticuit cj^l h^I, v, j6. 
In the /V^^nf, of ThEledclpbla, of Feb^u^ry iSSot appe^'cd 4 muA 
iniFreciirg deirnptton of tr^irelt made to cuid among the Kallin rsl 
Af(;hanJBLaa, by Mr. MountKUArt ICIphinilonc and Mt. McNoir. Tko 
Urter, in il^e dlcgiTiKo of a miivc ^^/^i^, or dnotor^ (acevrded la 
rcA^binglhc intcfbr of their lerritary,andobuLLned a^uchufteJul iitfbr^ 
maiion. Among other irrmn, he iufv« that thefr prayer W: ''Ward 
off fever from ub- InereiiAe our kc«mb, kdl Ibc MuauJma&a, aad^ 
Kfxrr dfaib. adinli u« to Paradises" la »cvei;il oibef reiptcn these 
Kaffirs of tbe Hlndu-Kusb retembletbe Moyniand Zntu loduot; in 
furiii And uiutcria] uf IiuufiOi ci^Imucc thcicio by Uddcrtiuac of dnod 
ntanuro of ca:ilc xk tool ; in the shape and potiaon of leoiplei, 
correMpoDdinjf to iTie £sftifiu ui AVdiu of the tiibea abave naittct^ aa4 
in other feaiitf et. 

JteligiffH of the Apmhe Indians, 429 

Thf; wfiTcl "Gon/ulc" i^i an important contribudon to 
linguistics, since it comprch«nil& the imjierative form of 
the copulative vcrK^ 

Thctvord "Did^en" LA evidently an Innovation orsp^ininh 
origin, supplanting a former substantive like "Chfdin". 
'lakcn tn connccticwi with *■ Shili". we may niflkc bold to 
tnin.^Ute It : *' O I sacred ghosts of my fathers T' 

'* Ana/ilc" is an abbreviation of " Ishana/ilc". " Tu— <ia" 
IK equiv;t1cnt to the French "re — pas", but differs from it in 
being applicable to a negation of nouns, idjoctives, and 
adverb* a* well as verbs. 

'Moguiin** Is a compound of In/u (good) or Inchi (grcal)^ 
and GH*An wr Guxflnutli CKarth), the Goddess — Earth— 
n^oth-?r— adored by Ajjaches. Navajocs, PueblOK, and 
Imli-iiiM formerly living in the MisMwippi Valley. 

'' EtCfeo" contains tJic word ^' Eud" do not. or "be aurc 
not'', and is a petition or supplication that a certain thing 
be not done. 

The correct translation of this pra>xr would then scorn 
to be: 

" Be £food (to mc} I Sun I Keep me from death (or 
harm). Be Good (to me) 01 Sacred ghosts of my 
ancestors ! Keep me from all danger, I implore; Pro- 
tc<t mc from sickne?>«, be good (to mc) O \ Great (or 
Good] Mother — Eanh I Keep me from harm I Be good 
(to me) O ! yc winc1« I Keep me from h^rm ! Keep mc 
from chills and fever !" 

J, in tUilic.% tn Guiyulc, ctc^ has the pronunciation of the 
Frcnchy Xnjtunt^jtune^t. 

> Tlie foUonriof remarks by no cmioept tcholAr bcju upon ibe 
point : " The ct>mpltj(hy of the North Aiiicticau LinsuM^ies ia, in x 
f^ttax m«a»urc, duo to th< nbkcncc ol the copulative v<rb. TlkO 
ttuiilluy vrrli * to be' U cntiicly absent In most Amcncui lui^iugea^ 
utd ihe GoascqiieQce it thiLi they lutn atl their adjeaive* and rkoun* 
IdEO verba, uid umjuxate them tliroui:h all the ICDtts* pcnona and 
mood*." Caltititti quoted by LabbodCf On^m tj CMUmU^h^ 

430 RtligioH o/tiu Apmh€ Indians. 

Gibberish b crnp1o>'od by the • medidnc-nwn^ in thdf 
inc4ntationfi. Th« fidelity with which all ippaftntly 
■dherc to one !(et cf words sygguts that IhcfiC may hat« 
dtfoondcd from a tAnguage long since passed out of ccmmoD 

A varUtion fmm the ;ibove rule should be noticed. One 
of the Apiihc-Tonio scouts bdng dcspcrstdy sick <d 
pneumonia during the Sierra Xladre campaign, the " mcdi- 
cltie-rneri" were duly cumulled and applied aU their »kill. 
but tn vain. The duom»! man became moie and more 
Feeble, until at U^t life hung hy a thread. Then k was 
that Uie mo»t able of the ]zz^*aantan was called upon 
to make a last efTort for the restoration of his broken-down 
brother The singing redoubled in \H>lt:n:e, the musk of 
Tittles and dnims waxed louder, while hi^ above all 
founded, in rude rhyme, a refrain like this : 

" CUwpur, CUwpur, suickvin slawpur, 
Clukum, Clukum, suickum, mwpttr," 

in which were incorporated the names of Crawford, the 
onkcr Immediately ir command of them, and of General 
Crook. The surround] it}{ ImlianK wittchetl and li-Hteued 
wilh bre^tliles5 anxiety. The Itbeul use of theic military' 
names proved of cfTiCiicy, and " John" began to improve 
from that night 

The *' mcdic!nc-man" cnjoj-s no sinecure among the 
Apaches. His servicer arc in requisition at almost all 

' Uponihli sulgect Nh 11. Ganctcfc sa^; "The soag lani^iajrc of 
the Mtitcjuiioes (of Cfnlral Amtrica) i?ifl>T« gffatljr fiom tbAt 
employed in (x^nvcimtion* a iiuaint old iJmc style \jc\nt xpparenily 
preserved in \heir lyiict" {N'.tttvr Ra^ftj P^ui^ SFaptj vnl. H, 7=7)- 
A kiiruIfLr (UlTcicnce between ih? bn^D-tfi; oi iacAniaiion 2nd that ^i 
rrtiy-dar \\lt hai bc«i described by ilw auihor of Lift in Fif\ who 
tlwAki of ''the unknown lonsuc of Piii iji whUk »onj;f ntc ^unc''- 
fi'nA^it Leeornuni^ in CAaJdfon MiigJ€, staowH \\\\\ tlie Chaldeans, 
lu iheki lituaf* ptticrvcd tli« kngcji^e of thdr predecessors, tbe 
tK%vadiftTis» at a «ort of gibberiilt. 

Utiiffiw ofiMt Apache Intticm, 431 

Hmcfl, «p<*ciftlly at nightp (n cases of dirTicah kbcnjr hi* 
rattling and singing arc freely heard. 

Newly-borr children urc washed in tepid water. For- 
merly, the " oicdkine-mcn" rubbed them with fine Ashcst, 
The Utter cuMom woti once widely di^.*^eTnmatcd. It 19 
not unl^nown lo the Zunis and Rio Grande Pueblos, and 
waA in vogue among the Maya« of Southern Mocico,^ 

The knowledge of the medical properties of the herb:;!, 
rootA, and fitJwerN of hi* own mountatTis, the li;;(f'n;iotaji 
pG.sscascs lo a greater extent than is t^'irncrrally supfw^ed, 
and he ha^ -comr? ari|i);Lirt;inoe- with human and animal 
anatoiiiy. WIten a buuc Is broken he can make a service- 
able spUnl of Vfillow twigs: he ha» good ideas of the 
time and manner of adrrtiiiistcring diaphorctica, cnemA-s, 
and emetics, and, in c=l5ca of no consequence, effects cures 
without miEch delay, aided always by the line conatitution.t 
of hi^ patients Generally, simpic ^lilmcnts are cured, or 
alleviated, by exposure to the heat and moisture of the 
Ta-a-chJ or Surat Lodgt, 

In diieaiet of a graver type he fatb back upon his 
powers as an excjrdst. With drum and rattle and song, 
he «ecbi to drive awa,y from the sick man the bad Chfdin 
who has seized uiwn him, IjtcatitTcs nf piiin arc c^rly 
astpTtahral and altatktxl by llic JtiLtof, wIhj ?iucki with 
such severity aa to raise blisters. These may often, by 
counter-irritation, induce a cure ; but if they do not, the 
next thing lo be done by the "moclicincmao" is to spat 
out little frog«, tttoned^ Uionu, or anything clftc the cre- 
dulit)' of tl^c ^ick man and his friends may accept as 
the cause of di*caiie. 

Among other insianecfi tnay be mentioned Scquonjrtt, 
chief of the Hualjnii*, who was Mnekrn down wfth spiral 
par^lyciv His back was sucked and blistered in half-a- 
doicn places, Ju«t below the ^hort ribs^ and worms, stones 

^ "A.«h«ft were mbbnl on acw-bom babes to ^trrnciLca tbcm 
avid prevent th*ir brce* fr^rn becoming looie.* ( Bancroft, iV*rf«v 
RM4t^ Pof^ ^fif, vol. ill ^77 aod &S4.) 

Rfiigicn ofih€ Apache Indians. 

and oUitf alleged aourccs of mSrmily ejected from the 
riKiuth of the offtdatine "* medicine* nun". AH thi^ availed 
f»othine, aod S6qiion>'ft, a lev weeks before bJa death, 
sought the advice and treatment ci army surgeons. 

Thcf Apache, u^hile yielding implicit respect to these 
* medicine- men", prof^Keu, locthiayent, or Shamans (they 
partake of ihe chafactcra of all thrac) visil* upon thooe 
Ki'ho are pn^vcd deficient m medical knonlcdgc aivd skill 
a pujU2ifamcnt that might well be imitated by tlie Cau* 
ca^ian in Ki^ dcalint: with quacks. 

A "mcdicinC'tnan'* who fails to save a e^'vcn number of 
patients is put to death. What the exact number is, it is 
difficult to tell, as dilTcrcnt numbers arc gis^n by diiTcrcnt 
Indbnii at dilfcrent timeii: ^omc say three, some fi^x, 
others seven. They all agree in the statement that death 
\% meted oot af^r several failures have stamped the'medi- 
c!nc-man" as a fraud. 

Thi* leads up to tine topic of 


All Indians believe In it. and all are In dread of wiiehes 
or winirds. The line of s^aration between the Irwi- 
naotan »nil Ihe wrt^s-rd would be hard tii dcJine In 
general terms, the lallcr may be regarded a* an inde- 
pendent performer uho, if fartunate in hi,% prcdictiovis and 
medical pr-tcticer may draw about him a iv^'^i'P ^^ admiring 
dknt^; but, if he fall, will rccch'C the vor^ ^te the 
[dBocdcc of the legitimate practitiovtcrs can secure — that 
of being stoned to death. 

Another characteristic: ascribed to witches and wizards 
is maleficence. The "medidtie-man'* \% credited with a 
pa^fiotic interest in the welfare of the tribe: the witch 
ijint and plots only for evil to crop«. to cattle, to health 
^penons or of the wholt tribe, bringing upon them 
disease, and destruction. 

Xt^ naUgnant work is concocted and carried out wJth 

Reiigum ef ike Apache Indians. 433 

drcumt^cction and secrco'. Detcctior of the criminal 
is consequently rare. Scv^riano-— a Mexican captive, 
brought up in the ide^ of the Apaches and married m 
the tribe — complained ihat no lc$> than four of hift 
children bad been beuitched and had died. Mr. CooTcy, 
the chief of «couU M ihe? TJt-i^hlwJuririij post of Fort 
Apadie, ;i h^^i'I^^^'^^" Familia: with the faciei diagnosed 
llic disease at »cai let* fever. 


Associated with the idea of prayer, oC^en, if Dot alway^^ 
win be discovered amulets and tAlitmanc, 

The Apaches Jiave no fetiches, at least none of the 
STnftll arimal -figures trCft^urcd by Moqtiis, 'AxiwU, ard Rio 
Grande Pueblo* ; but nu cue of tliem 11 *o poor that he 
cannot provide him^lfwlch talismans of conceded potency. 
These may \v (hr taitlr nf a snake, llic brak nr rlaw of 
b,u erti;!e, the cldw^ of tht <n, iiH>re frcriuenlly, 
small fragments of petrified wood, quartx crystals, or 
twl^-s which Have been knocked by the lightning from 
the parent 5tem. Bear*cUi;r!» wiil be worn a^ a ncckhicc. 
9CJ\irg the double purpose of amutct and dccorAtloii. 

No explanation has been obtained why petrified wood 
should be v-encratcd In the country of the Moquis [who 
live north of the Apaches and v^cst of the Na^.'^jocit) this 
^Jicificd wood occurs in great quantity and in Jarge 
pieces. Petrified forests ftirni&h an inexhaunible supply. 
The Moquis make the larger fragment* do duty as idols. 

It is not strange that crystalline quartz should be re- 
garded as *■ medicine', becaiisr, in the fnrm nf dog-toodi 
spar, it t:e;irs a strung re%e[ubtince 1u ilie fang uf a wolf 
or otiicr wild animal, capable of doing hArm. 

If the people of Ceylon^ with their comparatively 
grejitcT enlightct^mcnt, can bend the knee to a fossiX 
elephant's tusk, saying It b the tooth of Buddha, it U not 
vol* It- F r 

surprising that ihc Ajifirhe shcauld Look wftli awf* upun 
the- pnrtt)-, rlirntjctilatcd cr>'&tals of stika.' 

Twigs cut «Jawn by lightning arc [>crhd|tv, the mntt 
highly rcgxrdod of all tAlbinan^ cmplo>-cd. THia results 
loi:ically from the irorship paid to lightning — a worship 
prevailing ajt well luaof)); Che Sioux and Chc>*«nr)C3 of tbc 
CrcAt PUins. where l^htnmg is fo vivid and dc^ftnjctivc* 

On the Siem Madrc cxpeditioit, one of the >*ounc 
" mcdictnc-mcn" excited curios;t>' by the carefulncj^ with 
which he presenvd from scnitiry a little t>uckvktn b>j;, 
elaborately dotted with brass-beaded iack*s After much 
pcr<u;ii^icn. he allou'ed <everal officers la exaiDiiie it, td 
feel li» and to peer into, hnr not to empty Xx. t: contaitiod 
a couple cjf th<T%e twij^^ ami oine or more pieces t^T Mnne 
uf tome kind. 

Under the head of mortuary customs, the Apache ircat*^ 
[nent of the bodies of the dcoul shculd be fnore fully 

1 Fa:h«r Baua, id Ibe JitgittTs YuisUft^, ttysi they (ihe ^fayu) 
ci>naa](e<l a cn'^i&l. or iraaspvcat nonCi ca]k4 Zftlod, br whkh ib«y 
pFeicnd(;(l v^ dttlnc tha nrtftn nnd r^uut of in/ ttcknesL (Uancrvf^, 
.V^w ^^/j, Avjjfir ^/^ vcl ii, p&£G 6^0 

' The follovfinjit i« the prayer of the Sloax Dpon raUiiif down 
lacred tr«« f»r lh«tr sun-dmcQ : 

*' Wc nr« mnleinc; a j^d wotld, w« are fnakiiLj; a good djiy. 
M> fiieiit^ louk ai mc ; I am niakio^ medicine. 
I tnll h&rc a bappy^i6& 
tircit S}jiiit I jtjn pruml^ me a bull robc- 
Vi\ity \t our rnvnrj ? Th« Liglitoic^ H Obf FriMdL 
Willi ik OUT fricnii ? Tl» Lljebinifi^ it our ftlcnd-* 

Cnw liiiiJi of ihe ''ni«4lciDe*mes' vere here extended, palntt 
tow&tdithc fclcy, but a^t joined) 
*' Who it OUT friend? The Tbund<r \\ otir fri«n4. 

Wko i» our friond ? Tlic Tbu&d«r is uli friend. 

Wlui it oirr friend \ Tfae Ball (i>f the bu^lo bull) u oui friond* 

Jl mifEht bo add#d thai the vmoking pr&y«i and BOlaonK of the 
SEoaft ciij'ttiti LhcaAmecloAorcacinbUiKC; aoO lltiL &rc, aUhoofhnot 
:iny ton^r mtde by fnciion of it:clct. is u th* tun-dinc« ieindied 
by th« Sioux **fncdiunc-inco*'iiiLh ^iot ftadBieel.ioiteadi 

/t^^gion pfthc Apcuhc Indians. 433 

dt5CU5Scd. At thi* (HMiit if 'w nor pmprr tonutline morr, 
Uian tlic fcligiou* ideas upon the subject 

Ttc Apaclic la as&urctl tlial the touch of a corpse is de- 
filement, and» whcncNCt powiblc, wtll, after paying llic la,%t 
rites to the dcfid, subject himself to copious lu&lrations. 

A belief and custom Almoit idcntic<i1 prevailed among 
the ancient Israelites, Aztcc3, and Farsts. 

TKc spirit of the gocd Apcichc is accompanied to it» 
abode in the *' house of ghosts" by the essence or spirit of 
ill property which can be of service. For this reuon a 
horcc ift killed (if the deceased possessed on« dunrjjlife); 
bowd And 3rr<jw!( kid by the corp^, if that of ^ man, anda 
full supply of clothing wrapped about tt More thaii thb, 
in former days widows followed their lords in death at in 
life. Then? are no traditions to th*? f^lTect that Suwedsm 
prevailed among the Apaches, but the cutting off of the 
^UiLw's hutr i< r1inj|j|]i-ss a «Lu\'ivul uf a far more bloody 
sacrifice, one whldi, among the OieycnncA, is yet typified 
by the slashing of arms and legs, and even the amputation 
of finger- join ta. So, likcwiac» ^calpinf^, among the Indian 
tribes which practise it. rccalU decapitation and the torture 
of captives, human ^crifice, tf not cannibalism. 

A general wor^ip of animals and reptiles, especially of 
^^nomoua ones, and of those necevary z% food, can t>e 
diMinctly tmcrd :imon^ tht? Amtiican fndi^n^ Snake- 
worship, pure and simplc.has been i^clinp;;tcd in a previous 
treatise.^ It U openly practhcd, with well-defined ritual, 
among thr^ Mihjiii.'* of Oriwjna. Itsforrocf cxiilcncc is ad- 
mitted by PucblDs and Zunis ; vcatigca of it fcmain among 
the Sioux, and it is to be found, in a mild fo^m^ among 
the Ap>acbc3, These people will not kill a snake when it 

> Ti^ SwU^i Damct of tht Afa^uit 0/ On'ttma, by tlic author. 
Lopdoa: SocAfMon Loa uid Co., lUf 


436 Rtligion of ikf Apache Indians, 

cAfi be avoided, and nc^'cr when the reptile has cntcrtd 
within the cunp. 

On three separate occastonv the writer has been asked 
to kill snakes, di»co^y^r«d near the fire^ or the .Afnche 
acottti; who probably thought that any rhAalscmc-nt to 
follow would fall on ht« sHoulden alone. fnquii>' developed 
no rart5 beyond thnsr abcxc *t3trd, and thr cxUlciiee of a 
holf-uiidf^mlood cuiincctHin bctwzx'ii ihr Tin^kci Ami the 
"o!d men" or "dead men* of the tribe. On ihc last 
occasion the anake w^< kiUci! oubii<Je the camp, but much 
to the disgust of a "rDcdi<uic*man^Mv1io happened to come 
along shortly after the execution. When the trail of ji 
snake is found to have erosscd the path of a war-party 
the omen in looked upon ^^ unlortunate The march 
must stop until the "raedfcine'roen", ^ti^ to the front, 
rub out the snake-mark with their feet, using appropriate 
prayers and sacrifices. ^n 

Any Apache upon meeting a snake (especially the ^| 
CTotaliB, so oomiton b Orlxona and Sonora) throwt upon ^^ 
its trail a pinch of lloddentin^ and addresses It as follows : 



Gd Qwajr Iront h«re. 


Dool fo About hm. 

Be good. 

Tunn;3dl-iJa. A1i3h> 

Daat go^ Snakes 

Stay. (Cav«) your hoT«. Stay. 

The meaning beint;; '*3o good^ Ol Snake I Be £00d, 
Get aw-iy from hcrcl Go not here u-herc children and 
women go. Stay in your cave (or hoIc)> Don't go about 

k fn Italics t« ^n exploded consonant- 

Wht^i a " medi cine* man" is prcNcnt it li htK oAice to 
recite ttie supplicalioa 

Not only in Uicrc AOtnc connection^ in the mind of tlie 
Apache, between the veneration he pays tl>e Miake am] 
that which be accords to the manes of hi^ anccators, but 

Rtligi&n ofiht Apathy Indians. 


Iberc is also a rcUlion bclwccii the spirits of other AulmaU 
and thoiK: of hl> own dcaul, wliicli amounts to ^n cmmcia* 
tion of a belief in the doctrioe of transougrMion. 

Some of them think, nftcr death, they turn into cayotcs, 
bcara, and other animnla. On the other hand, man/ con- 
tend th^t they arc to enact the r^s of unquiet ghcat^ and 
fljt about at ni$:ht infesting the ^^cene of Ihefr abode 
on earth untrl 'Maid" with the ceremonies and offerings 
already pointed our.' 

In the rooma of the Seoret Society of the Zunls, to 
which the *Miter wa* introduced by Mr. Cusbing, wa« to 
be milicrtl ihr imjig«; aX the L'[ifl*.-< wallow, a bird which 
would iiatuf^ly be found in (lie list of gods of a tribe 
addicted to ancestor- worship, from the fact thai it builds 
Ms nratH in the cliffs in whicli the Ancestors cf the Zuni^ 
once dwelt The Apaches do not admit that this little bird 
b comprehended AmoD^ their deities, but they say they 
have uaditions to show that it is entitled to a ^rtat 
amount of respect from havin£^ been the first creature to 
build houses. 

The following animaU occur among the gode of the 
Zunts^ Moquii, and Rio Grande PuebloH: — The wild cat, 
cayote, elk, deer, antclopt*, rabbit, porcupine, eagle, mole, 
bear, Rocky Mountain lion. Representationft of these arc 
depleted upon the wslU of Estu/as, or other places 
devoted In rrligiou* ccrcmunie-v The vcnetjilifm of the* 
rabbit (Jackass rabbit) ought to obtain among all the 
Hibcs roaming over what was once known a» the Great 

^ Tlic Mojaves. Ilrinic aJenfr the Colorado rivor, ace more distJoct 
in their eiplanjilian, They M4<*rt thar aftr^r il^nih the ^nul of man 
pftucs throujcli four dLfcrcat animate, ih« Itml being always the 
vftier'bcctle ; after wliich it betoiiiB nnihiiii;, ur tni«<i Into vhat 
tnigllt be called Nirv&n«. 

Th? auihnriL/ for this biatcn^eni In reference to ihe MoJarM is 
Captain F. £. rricv, lU InEa^niiy, U.S. Aitny, <oininaading Fofi 
Mejavft, Oricona : and peiaonat iuument> from meailien of ibai 
tribe to ibe author. 

438 /tg/ifim ej ike Ap^he Indians^ 

AmericBn Dn^rl, It bore in thnr iilmmt the nainv 
economic rrftitton tlui tlir i:amH tloc^ lo tlic Dakruin, the 
retrulecr to the Laplander It supplied, with Krarccly toy 
labour, a nutritious Hbcat-food, and fuintUKd from its pdt 
a coat, cloalc. and bUnkci notkcablc Tor waimtlip Hghtncft^ 
^tivi elegance, and ^^acA by all tribes yvtsl oX the Rocky 
Motintaiiu Trom Alaska to Mexico 

ihc elk, deer, or antdope mtsht, and did at times, 
capriciously desert fovouritc ranges, but the rabbit re- 
mained conBtint to tU burro^v under the ihadow of the 

The Rocfcy Mountain Hon occupies a conspicuous placelti 
the reltgicus systrm ofHll Indirtiis w^t of the MNsotni.' 

The Apadics being Icm given to pktu^^idphic work 
than other native tribes are so much the bcUcr ^ble lo 
conceal their religious »3'mboliim from profATc ga^c; but 
to all the ab{>vc arc assigned positiooa of honour in so 
much cf tlidr religion a« relates to aninial vorshifx 

Before fioinfj out on hunts for deer, antelope or dk, it 
was their custom to rc^rl to sacred caves, in which, with 
prayer and sacrifices, the "medEcine-men" endeavoured to 
propitiate the animal god& whose progeny they interred 
to destroy. 

An Did Nai^jo chief once eyplaEned that when his 
people made an antelope ''drivi^, one at least of the 
animals was allowed to c^cajx: from thi^ enchiKurci 

Doth Navajocs and Apaches look upon the lion as a 
huntin^^od, and quivcnt made of its skin are Jn great 
demand as a " medicine" for those who arc about to pursue 
elk or deor. 

In these hunting ^acrific^^ offcrinefs are made of bosketa, 

■ Abort tfce Poeblo erf Cochiu, on lbs Rio Grande, b a mined 
town of sK>od aiic, wbtre arc two larjce «onc itli^U, (^in^ in \ht 
upmlilanr* ai ihii itfriblc bcasi. The mhabzt»m« ol iho Pit«bk> 
bdow sdU auin tfce mouthi ti ibcsc dcitica with red painr. a 
souvenir, no doubt, of Ojc kwjeI oUI divi w1i«a hRnAs bJood ticoked 
on th«7r Altars. 

Uti^OH of ike A^<he Indians. 

branches of pint and cedar, stone, petTificd wood> and 
plume-^iick^ These I<ist, consisting of iitlfc twigs, tipped 
wiih thedown of eagles and other birds, are buried in their 
Aeldft 1^ Zunis» Moqvits and other Pueblo Indians, but 
tW above is the only example of their use among the 

The turkey, i|t];ti1, Miulrrel, arid rat are, nr li^vc been, 
impoftam sources of forni-supply to the Aj>ache. Po*t- 
ticma of prominence ^htjuld h.ive bccii accorded them 
in the Olympus of their beneficiaries,' The Apache 
ic%ic>U3 *3^tem is babied, howrcwr, almost entirely upon a 
SC1UC of fear and apprcfacnaion, find in no degree upon one 
of gratitude. 

None of the ammab now mentioned h cndovcd with 
power ; and none, excepting may be the turkc>', has the 
ability to move over great distances. In this tliey differ 
from the vcniEon, every varicty^ of which \% deified and 
wOKhipped with becoming honours. 

ft should be remarlcrd that from The htmting-sacrificcs 
m^dr in the caves, care is taken to t^xcludir women; 
Severiano, Antonio Besw, Notl, and lnj«-na-klcsb J'*Hc 
made it good") uU concurring in the H^Utcment that were 
a pregnant woman to be present her child would be bom 
looking Hke a deer. 

The antiquity as well aa the religious ^i^lficancc of 
these ceremonies i;i dcmonntralnl by the circumMance that 
fire is made by the friction of pieces of dry wood, in place 
of motchc?;, or flint and Ktecl. 

The conservative character of religion Is a wcll-esubliahed 
fact It is quite Hkely that in theie aLremeeiings the 
Apaches commemorate troglodyte or cave-dwelling an- 
cestors^ They«tnd (he Navajorn have- tradiTion\ that thHr 
people " came up out of the ground", that is, that they 
dwelt in cavcm*L 

* Then; If a tradiiioD among the ApMhei af a clelujc nhidk aearly 
swept awAT the earth. In this story the turke)' 6^e» as lh« fneml 
and saviour of the liuniaa lacc- 


JU/ifpon of fh€ Apcuks Indians. 

Eagle and h&wk feathers &dom tbc bonnets of warrion. 
The pluma^ of the wild turkey, cut to simulate vclvd, b 
extensively used in the same manufacture. Thcac war- 
bonnelf^ arc sokntnly blessed by the " medicinc-mcn". and 
ina<Jc A9 much as possible of materials of reputed potency 
in wardinj; oflT dan^r, and in imparting valour and skill to 
the wearer. It may be surmised that hert U a liint a« to 
the " medicfiM" powers of the turkey. 

The l)car is foremost In the esteem or fear of ihiji brave 
people. He is never mentioned except in terms of 
rcMpccI, and ulw^y^ with llie pri^(ix cf "Oilm" (literally 
"old man*", but a rcvcrcntial corresponding to the Latin 
word Afnatfr,) 

Tho killing of a gruxly is the sq^^oal for a var-dancc, m 
which the *' mcdicine-mcn" appear in all thdr glorj'. The 
pelt U carried about in acirclc. borne first on the -ihouldcrs 
of the '!la>TT, and then upon those of the other warriors 

Stranj^e to »ay, that peculiar animal, the mule, receives 
from the Apaches a reverent corsideration. Whether thiif 
be from fear ofasuddenanddeadly kick, or for some other 
reason, cannot be positively asserted. Revered as a god 
durinjr life, the mule, after death, \& ravenously eaten by 
the »vage devotee who so ^ort a time before had referred 
to it mih the same reverential term, "'Ostin", applied to 
bear, tnaVe, and lightning. 

A sacred origin is ascribed to the hor&e. In thi.i all 
American Indian tribes agree. History telh that the 
ArtecH wcredi.-^poscd to fall down and worship the horses 
brought in by Cortex, sprinkling the air with flour of -sacri- 
fice, And in cveiy vray trcatintr tJiem as gods \ so did the 
Moqui^ the horses of Don Antonio Espcjo in isSa The 
Sioux c^l the horse the " great medicine " {i^e.. the -nacrcd) 
dop. The Chcycnnes style it the ''great medicine clk*\ 
The Apache word is Thttn or Jhliu, 

One of the divisions of the great Tinnch race, living 
under the Arctic circle, to which the Aruona, Navajocs, 
and Apaches belong, designates itself the Thlin-eha, or dog* 

Ritigiim ^f tke Apackt Indians^ 


rib people. This would shoiv that the Apache word for 
horse b in reality thelf old word for dog, that now given 
being Tchltn-cha, 

Anciong the Indian-t ftlong the Rio Grande p<irrot*aTc 
vciicratcJ. The feathers of these birds arc preserved with 
grcftt care by these Indiun^^u well oa by Mocfub and 
Zunis. Th« birds thenuelvea arc kept in caf-cs in the 
Pueblo of Santo Domingcx Neither the parrot nor the 
cnacAVi- bdongs to Aritona;. although the former appears 
occasion:iUy near Mount Graham, a short distance north 
of the Mexican bourdary, U infrequently seen in the 
Sierra Madre, Mexico; and when General Crook led 
bift expedition Into that predpitcus range; hit Apache 
scouts let no opportunity e<«cap:^ for securing each one 
which C9Lme near camp. 

The centipede, tarantula, scorpion, or **gtla monster'*, 
and all vaHrlics of H/^rd, ;ire rpuercrnccd in the direct 
ralic cf iheir real ur imputed virulence. Upon thii point 
Aotonto BchU?! may be quctcd, giving hi!i exact language, 
as transcribed fit the moment ; " 1 was once a ' medicrnc- 
inan', and 1 want you to know what is the very la*it thing 
that the Apache ' mcdicinc-men' can do for their sick ; it 
in all the same if a * padre' (priest) were to go visit a dyin^ 
Chrbtiaa" (Meaning that tbc ceremonies to be described 
partook of the sacred and solemn Import of the adminis- 
tration of the la*t tacrament of the Church.) • When a 
man is side, and has about reached his last hour, the linal 
remedy i; this : They (the " medicine- men") make a circle, 
in which they erect a close 'jaca[' (lodge) of branches, 
sprinlcling its floor with fine sand. They next gather 
tngrthcr and grind up dilTerttikt rolaurnl earths, yellow, 
ml, etc.j and with these make upon Ibc Kinded floor 
a representation of «i big centipede, around which are 
delineated, in the coloured earths, raltlonakes, 'gila 
monsters', lizarcls, swifts, deer, toads, etc. After tliU iliey 
paint *mono5' (literally "monkeys", but explained by 
Antonto a^ down-like figtues of men, that ts to ny. gods 


Rflif^iiftt of ih€ Apacht Indi^ns^ 

of different kmdft. M>mc with crowns (hc^d -dresses) and 
some without. They draiv the iigLre of the " mono', called 
In the- Apachr langiwgc A'rf«, which fe represented as 
clfmciri|; wilh ^ Iti^^^ doubk-jKiIntcd rjip ;in<! ina.<k, 

"After having |>Ain1cd or rJrawn all these in ttic sind. 
tlicy bring tn the aick mftn And put him in the middle of 
the ring, r*cc downvaid. upon the figure of the centipede. 
Upon the »ick nt&n*s face ctnd back have bccik painted t/l 
scorpion And a centipede. They (the *mcdicinc-mcn") 
pick up A pinch of caitli from each fi^rc of reptile de- 
lineated tipon the ^and, and rub thitda-^ upon the body of 
the fick man, at same time blowing upon him, fiinfitni; and 
dancing. Then at a^vcn signal, they all run oiit^ tneskcd 
men&ndal)/' (Hchadprcviouelysaid that four of the head 
" mcdi cine- men"* wore maj^k« during the incantation.) "This 
\% the very U^t thing the Apadie 'doctor*' can do for a 
sick nan." It corresponds, so Antonio ploa&ly reiterated, 
to Extreme Unction \ 

A belter tdca of the appearance of llicsc *" monoid" will 
be derived by rscamining the represent aliens of war-shirtx 
and svjshcn of a pictograph obtained in Pueblo of Jcmci, 
N.M, and of wall decoration in school-buJldings at Saa 
Cirlos Agency, A. T.^ 

The ltmb,s and bodice cf Apaches are rarely disftgoretl 
by tattooing, but when they are ^o marked the dcngna wil 1 
almost invariably be snakes, centipedes, mid scorpions, or 
the same rain and cloud symbol as i5 used by the Ztinb 
and Moctuis. The Zunis and Mcjquis worship every oncof 

■ Th« natives of Mrvico hnd rclr^ou; usAgpf^ ^ilmosi ii^frntifal with 
the for«f;<im>;T At th« birlh of childnin \ 'dn^i^ "to i mcdi5cd cuicni 
exisi ro ihe prr^rni i]ft>. When a woman wjts aboiu to be confined 
the relatives assembled in ibe but and comment^ed to dniw on the 
flooc Ji^uies af v^bua aniiTmls, rubUbE^ each one ctui as soon a« it 
wu eompEeted. llittL ojicratien conlmuM until the momenE of btrth, 
and ihe iigures of figure [hAt \\\tx\ rcmAhied sketched upcin Ihr 
ground n.-tscalle^titiechild'c/^niq^ or second self." (BancroR (speaking 

Rifligion of ike Apac/U fudsam. 443 

the animals included ir the above^ list. Neither Moqub 
nor Apnch« worship the bufTalo ; aX least, the AHrcna 
Apaches do rot, for the very good reason th^t the buffalo 
hat never beeii in their country. 

Variatior« 2nd petty discrcpande; of thU kmd count 
for nothing, Ceremonies may change Tvith surroundings, 
and 9o, too, an animal ^e^^c!red jnc»nc locality on account of 
it* venomous nature, or becavne jt is a »tapTe artidc of 
focd, may ir anotlicr ifot be venerated at aJI ; and Uic 
rrason in each Ccuc will be either that it docs not live in 
tlie new locality, or ihat it*k place tir the dietary h;i.s 1>een 
taken by -lomcthing else. 

To the elements, fire, water, earth, and air — or. to »pCAk 
more strictly, the four wlndd — l!je Apaclic pays the same 
earnest devotion rendered by all red men. An old and 
very intcll)F:ent chief met in one of the Pueblos, north of 
Santa Vi (New Mexico), insisted that tlic tribes of the 
50Utb-wcst had once the same belief and the same ob- 
servances. The more the matter is [ooked into, the more 
clear will it become that he wa« both truthful and accurate. 

Ii i£ true ihat feast* of dr^ are not celebrated by the 
Apaches a; by the Zunis and others , but, in the hunting- 
sacrifice outlined above, it has been 5hown that one of the 
features was the kindlfngof fire by rubbing it ick 4 together, 
and in the harvest dance, givrn aftrr the crops have been 
gathered, tli« same ceremouial I'l^aitiun U otnerved. 

Water, as water, does net apj>ear to be venerated : but 
the frog ard the toad, in^qiAmhly aasocintcd wilh this 
worrthip by tlie Puebloa, arc found amone the Apache 

The Zunis and Moquis have sacred aprings. One. near 
the Moqui village of Mushangncwy, Arizona, Ls furnished 
with on altar or shrine, and ha^ rccci\'ed many votive 
olTctings of pcutficd wood and plume-sticks. Spring oi 
this kind are not ^^en in the country of the Apaches; 

Rain, hail, and the r^nbow occur in all symbolifm of tho 

444 Rrtigion of ike /tirade Indians. 

Thufider 13 a gfid amonj; lh« American aborigiincs, with- 
out dbtinction of tribe ; n\ every esse it ia represented 43 
a bird. It thus appears aroonf; the Sioux, Cheyennes» 
and As.<imaboincf ; on the ha^kct-work of the Moquis ; on 
the walls of the oW Catholic church in the pueblo of 
AcomA (CCM.); an<3 in the few piclogTaph« of Apache 

AlfuKion hat hrtm marl? to the rcliglcii^ irrpoHanrc of 
Hghtninsf. bolh tr drHcrihin^ t;i1itm^iiu am] in rqicalinc; 
one of the prayers of the Sioux " mcdiclne-mcn" at their 
aun-ditncc ; there only remains to be added that when an 
Apache or Navajo is killed by lighinmg, Ihc subsc<iucm 
funeral acrvtccs embcdy an unusual amourt of ringing 
and dancing by the " mc<iKinc-mcn">* 

The prayer to the wind-deities has been mentioned under 
the reference to smoking. 

The last elemert, the earth, t« personified by a goddess 
— '*Giiaanutli". or, as known to the Navajoeg. " A^^unutlL" 
She ii the givpr of many blessings ^ the introducer of 
corn, mclons.and fruits; ihcone whofsthe spcffa! gu^Uian 
of both Na\'ajocs and Apaches, to whom she imparted 
al<nuwleJf,cofhi-Mj?iainlofthc"nialchihuiir- Slie ia "the 
woman of double sex"; her home is in the ocean, in ibc 
West Many of the Navajoc* ^pcak of her ai '* the Woma*] 
in the Wc5t" — a title suggestive of a migration from, and 
a former home closer to» the Pacific Occ^m,^ 

' Bancroft rayi tbat ■ t>ic Inttiacs nf Nonh*rn M«iici> vonliS not 
lcv<h a muk wbo had bc<Q struck by Ijtchtninj: ; would leave him to 
dip alnnr, or, if ricafl, would not bury him." (AW/7ir K^4t, Wr., 
vol. ii. sSS.) 

' Th* N^hanni^ of Alaska, .a btaoch of rlit TinnHi stocki from 
which Navajoo* and Apiichcs are an offthoot, pay ]i:»mag« to ihe 
KAmc i;nd[lc«^. 

" It is not a little remarkable thai this warlike and lurbulfat hofde 
waft at one time govcracd by a woman- Fame gives her & Utt com- 
plexioni with re^lar rcatures. and gieil int«JUgcnce. Hvr Inflvinco 
over brr Hriy |ir<i|)]e» ic is ^M^ vas perfect, while bcr wATziorif ilic 
terror and scourge ef the scirrounding country, quailed berore her 

Riligion oftkt Apatki Indiams, 445 

Tht3 ffoddess is well kno^n to tlur Pueblos alons th€ 
Upper Rio Gritndc who ascribe to her the saimc attributes 
as do ihc Navajoes and Apaches, but pcrsidt in speaking 
of bcf fts Our Lady of Guadalupe and Our Lady of 
Soledad — a diatortion cf tilk which givci Rround to tbo 
inference that the Sp.-ini^h miKsionaric* ensued Ihc Uboun 
of conversion by quietly adoptlflg this goddess (nto ihclr 
calendar ofv^tinK 

The diffusjon of the worship of the eatth^molheT amcng 
the rativc tribes w<is more extended tlian h cnn^monly 
AuppiMcd. Attcrtiun inuy be (.-ailed to the r&inaxk of 
Teciunsch, in his conference with ihc American gcncrAl. 
lUrriion : " The eAith ia my mother, and upon her bosom 
m\\\ repose." 

The pruycrr to Guzanutli ha^a been ^ivcn at ]cnf;th stxfra 
on p. 42 & 

TTiere \% another goddess, almost equally powcdul 
among the ApacbeiE, of whom an aeeount was ;;[ven by an 
old man, E«hk^-endei;ti [the Brave Man who hid away), 
a member of the Kiyajanni or Alkali clan. The name H 

cyt. Her word •k%v Uw, nnd ikis obpyrd wilh marvcJlnus kl»cri1>% 
TliTough tcr inllucncc, chc condition of (be wctmcri of her tiibc vas 
grttaily raiwJ."" (Rancrc-ft, Nalivf f^tKft, Pttti/it Sittpf, \\ >3S-> 

This LinJoublcdly refers Eo Guiinuitii itUiouKh A oampromiac xt\hy 
hr rfti^ricri upon thr hypckihf^its LhAi Guunuih Is a detrted Amazon. 
The Nchnnni would preserve bet memory oa thai of a mighty ruler ; 
whti* to rhe Apiirh«, l>inh<rr removed /rnm ihr sccnr uf btr cipLoits^ 
btic vrould readily prc*ont herself u of dirbc origin. 

It iTtay be well 10 remeinbcf ihftt N«vaJo woincn sro not alwnjs 
tilcDt, or wiihaat influence, in Ibe tribal couacils, nciiher ore iho«c 
of the Apacbeu. 

Th« ^dd««& KuAnoK, of the J:ipftn«Mt >n^Shi, in ill but name, be 
•ubMJtuCed fui GufAiiutlti ftncJ w otic <»uIJ detect llie dUTercnt-T^ 

The deity teic tpoken ^^f as icmolc \s £cneraliy described as moleT 
and u accompaaicd by To-vAV-di-cb^ai <"The hlivt ii»ii;s ou die 
Vi'At«T'^), another god of power. There veother godf it^ fljeat numbtrr 
with m^thicAl JuiLntalt, £enii, o£Te» of dtlfcrcni MiU, fuordinjc prtd* 
picee, #E<-| bat ao further rcicrencc will be made to them on die 
pfCMiit QCQiiiionr on account of limiuLlioas of space* 

,^^ Sia/ i^ im pfik€ Apa^ht Indians. 

Antonio |>frii«tod in translating this as 

•Woi God wu usassiiiAtcfil, ^ht- rrmainrH on r^nh. 
ttlbtafcancf hb children, and vrlicn GocI CAiitif up fnitn 
tlw jiwJ acau),shc united wiili htm." Antuntu Bcuu 
pat dctmniocd to colour the convcr^iitlort with his ovm 
vicvik but it ts nnmisukably cviJcnl that tbc RoitiAn 
CktheGc idcfts of hb childhood, blended no doubt with 
fiontf abftofbcd by the old man from Mexican captivc», 
bad oincicd witli tlie aboriginal thcofog>'» 

Sych an admixture is to be vigilantly w^aiched for in all 
at ftf Both Apaches and Navajocs have, at times had 
niQch a«»ociat>oit u-ith the Mextc^nie, Many of the women 
and duldrtfi of each race have been taken captive by the 
other, and thm corfu»ed notions of Roman Catholic 
UwofaP- iiintn and fe<iival^ have crept In among the 
j^^Mfi; Ya*yrnna<^-gannt^ i*sina!1 lik(^Hh<)od.thcgrx^de--«4; 
^§jjt. Such a goddess is adored by theZunis^ The 
pOft 9iCfVd ceremonies of the Apache riLuai Are cclebiated 
^ ckws at the Salt Springs on the Rio Pricto, iihicb 
^^^Wrt the A55umption le^^ violent. 

I^^tk^-emlc&ti oontinucd : "When the day davits we 
^jq^HKAd ourulves to ttic Li^^ht, and do the same to the 
Sitfi mha^ be appears. The S^n is a god, and &o is the 

It a convwsaticn with Esklminzin, one of the pro- 
_j^jgit Apttcbe chiefs, It was learned "that when the 
*^y|^ M> on ihi? war-path, hunt, <>t plaint, thr^- slw^y^ 
^h^am a f fayh of conL'incal or HudJeiilti^ lu the sun, 
^^ ' with the favour of the- Sun, or permission of the 
<^lk I *^ l^'^S ***'^ ^^ ^s''^ fhunt or pbnt, as ihc case 
,^ .T^l I want the Sun to help inc.* The Apachea 
>4 lun's power, because they always see him 
•Q«iiJ the eartli. and even when they £0 on a 
i^ytptHcy pwy that tbc sungod may grant them 

_^ ^ f^ Afi^clc^ " The Father of the Faeblos*. by Sylvester 
ft^^s M*mtkfy. ;une, i££3. 

Rfitgion o/tkr- Apache Indiam. 447 

lonf; life and yvnr^ «]>cnt according to hi£ will. Good 
Apaches have another world to E^xpccl when ihcy die. 
Bad Ap4che:( are «tuck in the ground, and that is the last 
of them," (In repeating the prayer, EsVimin^m was 
carerul to addre^ the sun as Ostin.) 

Stone- WoRSnir, 

The worship of atones \% cnooimtcred among all the 
tribci of the South-Wc?»t Under the head of *' Talismans" 
ftlluAion has been made to the appearance of quaj't£ and 
petrified vrooJ. 

The list can properly be increased by the addittoit of 
the SAcred t(jrctuoisc<Iike (JhalchihuitE. Jt 15 scarcely c\^r 
to be discovered amon^ the Apfichcs of to-day. Fourteen 
or fifteen years ago no di&tingaUhed chief or warrior was 
wanting in ibis part of his cquiptncnL lu 'medicine" 
pc>wer& were rccogniiied ^^ wcil by Navajocs as by Apaches, 
both of whom paid high prices for the precioiu mineral tc 
the thrifty tradeniof thr Rio Grande Pueblos Necklaces 
gei^erally containtd one or more beacU of it ; **mallcr 
particles were «e»ed to the war-shirt» and fragments inlaid 
!n the Ntocki of carbines or Hno.' 

The Apache post-ofliccs. dotting out-of-the-way moun- 
tains bnd t&bTc-tand!i in Arizona, were " prayer-heap^ '^* in- 
creased by each pasnng warrior, who added a stone and a 

^ To bhow the vaIllc placed upon ChHlchihuitl by thv Endia&s 
furtber to the south, HorcrDfl (Nitim Rsut, Pt^i SUfif, vol ii« 
4}S) quctci Lu Ciiu a> ^yjng : *' tic ihat nn\c prcciotis Monri, 
more «ipe<^iallif the Etone c&ll«d Chakhibuitl, no maitcr froiD vhcnce 
htt took it| wj\ aloucd lo death in the market-place, beuniM oo tnari 
of tfic lever order VfXA ftllowad lo pOteUfc thia tton^/' 

* Or|jraycr-hcAp», Dancrofi uys (^atfi^ fiaiet. J*a£i/k i'ArjW, 11, 
7j3) : " [n CrUAiemib. cinuIL chapelt w«r« placvd ;)t ihort intcrvaU 
oa idl lines of ifAvd, wbicrc cnch paa»er htlied for a few mtnnc&t^ at 
Icatti ipnthcrcd a handful af hfibi, tpar revcrr^ncly iipoa itiem, »ri<I 
pUeed (hem praycrfutly upon clic altar, vmh a solaU aionc, and «orlc 
ui^ms offering of pepper^ **Tr. ami cacao" 


Rciij^cu of ihi Apa^ht Indians. 

fiprig of gra-Vfi, while reciting a suppllcailion for tlie happy 
eliding or his himl or raiiL The ncighbounng tribes luvc 
the sunc rorm nf l^x»r^h)p; anJ \\\c Hu2lpai», « people 
nngtog next to the Apaches on Ihc "Mi^t, and thcv 
counterpart in atmoM atl thin^^ lavc Jnngungc and mof- 
tuary ccrcmonka. have, so Mr Charles SpciKcr* reports, i 
■Ttill more decided peculiarity. 

In their country, rear Kingmtin, oo the Atlamic and 
Pacitic railn>ad, \% a sacred rock, ^[atntt vhlch, a1 the 
moment of Jnlclation, or upon occafiioiM of special import* 
ancc, ^ medidne-men'* rtib thdr badoL AnntHcr ncred 
rock Is in the territory of the MoquEs. and there arc sevenl 
in the Sinux country. 

Finally, in taking an oath, as civilised people would call 
it. the ApAche places a Monc vipon the ground in froni of 
him, and ^aya ; " My wx>rds shall endure while this Mone 
Ia«a," By 5uch a ccrcfnony ha-f-c Ki^kiminiin. Dclichi5 
(the red ant). Chaut-U-pun (the buckekin hat>, Hieronyrao 
(Jerome}, nt various time« during the past fifteen yean 
added streni^ and i-ukmnity to their protcstattonf of 
friendship. The v^ryKimc, or a *tTikirglyfiimibT, ceremony 
wa« noticed in New England wlien the ncwly-arriv-ed 
English colonists m&de a treaty with Bomaiun, at Fal- 
mouth, in ififOL* 

Tfc asseverations of the Sioux were once made (vhQe 
hdlding a bufTalo *'dnj)'° iti excli haiid. 

PtANTs AND Trees 

^1^ not worshipped ; traces of Mich veneration are dts* 

cemiblc, but too laint and too complicated with other 

phages of the religious impulse to merit special rtcc^^i* 


The reader may labiilatc for himself those mentioned In 

' Mt^ Ch^e« ^pcf^<Tr. a C^vemmenl it(ouf. b^ lived aiooBf; the 
Hunlpiu for tocnty yura, uidspciiks iheir lBfj£ii;i);e perfectly 

Rtligion of Ike Apa<h£^ Indians* 449 

the c<^urse of IhU ^rtkle : Tobacco^ pin«, c«dar, li£htning- 
»tt«ck twign, etc Me:4cal, or ccninr)' planl (Ihc fa%'Ountc 
food of ihesc people), corr, bc;tnv, pumpkins, tne.'cciuite or 
acacrin, Sf^anUh tKiyoTXrt, atuI sunflower, receive' a «upcriicfal 
vcnrtatinn ; but it is nh'^currd \i\ \ht. grraicr reverence 
cntcrUincd for Guxaiiutt^ who fiist suppllnl tlicm, 

Thi* ^oration of planU. earth, and vriuds has never 
been cvoUed into a worship of Nature, In Ihc Ap^hc quit, 
5UTI, moon, ram, earth, i^-indN ete^ arc itcpAfAtc and inde- 
pendent powers, petitioned and placated when reeded ; 
and ignored, pon^ibJy derided, "^hen the mDmcnt for their 
intervention hofi parsed. 

To the voti^ offerings of petrified wood, ptnc bntnchcs, 
baskets, plumed sticks, etc., used In religious celebrations, 
must always be added the sacred, the Indispensable 


Thin i* made nf the flour <^x pollen of the Tuif a^ari/ia 
fellow lute), h carried In a small buck&kln pouch attached 
to the waist-belt of every tnic Apache, and is the analogue 
of tlic ucred pou-dcr, used by Zunis, Moqub and Rio 
Grande Pueblos, and called by the fimt Kungnc^ 

As by them so by Apache*, it h thrown to the sun in 
the orisons of early morning, \^ cast upon the trail of 
snakes. 611a the air in wardancc« of unusual »DlcmnUy, 
and 19^ used most freely around the couch of the dying. 

A description of one " medicinc-«ing", or incAntation, 
will ierve a« a fair specimen of an extended aerie* A full* 
grown man lay strercherl upon a bed of hay ; he wa^ as 
could be delected from lus appcatance, suffering from a 
low-fever, and a squaw remarked, satto iwr, and nude 
sifns that he vas tut^t>s!auH [vtty aick) in Itcad and 
chest. Twenty $ympathbing fncnds crouched about him. 
t>oth sexes anci all ag<e3 being represented, A wind-bfakc 
of willow -saplings had been erected on one side of the 

VOL f I. u c 

450 Rehgion &J ikt Apathe Indians. 

patient, but beyond thid »impk contrivance not mtich 
5olicittide was cvirKi^d for hU comfiSTL The youfiif boy« 
of the party played m&rb!c«, indulged Jn fi^cuf^, thrcrvr 
dirt uport each othcr^ ydlcd, and in other lAayv niJide 
thcmwlvcs promincni, *f n»t ii&cful, mcmbcra of ihc con- 

The *ifng1ng conflsted ofa rcHtation by a irio of " mnii- 
cinc-tuDtr* ATid a choral rcfT^in fnim the uiiiin] vi)ict*s of 
sU prc^ciiL The time vras net bad, aliltoiigh the C3cccu< 
tiun vnL% fK^or enough* ^^^hcn ihc nn^rv became liicd, 
tbcy stopped for a minute or two, and tlicn resumed the 
chant with rercwcd fervour. 

At intcrviLKEin old squaw, seated at the head of thcaick 
man, and near the drummer and *^incdtcine-men", would 
uiee, and, wiih mucli mumbling and taystic manlpuiatioii, 
sprinkle Hoddentin over the headi of the " mcdicinc-ntcn", 
then of the choriBifirs, and laitlyovcr and around the couch 
of theftick man. 

The in^itrumental miiMc wm ftimishird by raiUcs and a 
drum, which iaiter wiut m^rlr in this m;inncrr An Iron 
cauip-kcttk u'd£ partly li]locl with water and uurercJ 
tightly by a v\kX cloth, well soaked- The ^ick wax a long 
willow switch, curved into a rin^ at the end, >^hich struck 
the drum. No flute.^ were uied and no vrhistlea, alihougb 
the /^pachc£ make and play ;hcm both. Neither did the 
performeramtroducelheLr favourite ^>r/ rV/[74J/(or ** muaic- 
wood'), the native fiddle, formed of a section of the stadk 
of the century plant. 

Scvcriano gave the followfng e^cplanation of thh par* 
licular ceremony. The Hoddcnttn, !>e ^id, W4S sprinkled 
around the ^ick man's couch, and, in form ofa cmss upon 
hi* brc4?»t and abdomen- While mi do«n^% tlv sprinkler 
should mumble the foUovking fcrmuUo': "Ounjulc. Akudc^, 
Sichfti.Gunjulc*" llic ftrst and fourth word* he traniUtcd 
as; ""I pray, or we pray yon be good." 'l~hG»cond,hcex- 
plaincdj was a compound of Aku « here, and/uifV, the 

Rfiigion ofihe Affocht Indians. 

people' The thlM word Sci^nano h^d much difficulty 
in translatiT^- KmaKy, he aaid he thought that it 
meant "ftwtir'V "boon", or "protection". If ihfs be 
SGv the pra>-cr freely put into English woulcJ mean, " Be 
good, %vc bcgj jtrtd grant favrnir In the people (Apaches) 

ExpCficQCC has taught that the trnn^ation of words out 
of the common run, m&dc by Mexican CAptivcs like Scvxrri- 
ano. should not be ha:»ti1y accepted, i'he word Sic/tiM 
docs fioi mean "favour", "boon" or •* protection'*. On the 
Cf)>', it is a contraction of three words well known; 
ii or <iAj mcanirifj " mine"or"our", whicJi i« |jrcfixcd to 
every noun concerning whidi the Apache [s especially 
desirous of making known hfs pos^ewory right Thns, all 
pArts of the face and head, the limbs, etc., are combined 
with this particle. An Apadic always says, "m^ nosc^, 
*'ftfy nir", "mjr hair", ;md vol vtmjily^ n<>sp, i-ar^ hair, etc, 
and, til aiuch ihcsamcway, licwil! telladtian^croocn^nling 
a vocAbulni>% "m^ father", "w^ mother", etc The next 
syllable b the abbreviation for ChfJin or ghosL 

The ultimntc syllable m is the terminal of ineU^t, or 
''great", or It may be £i — (the word is pronounced both 
.S'r<^jjr/ and -V/V^/rif)— and a contraction of ii*/== ^medi- 
cine", used in the sense of " pcnverful", wliich would amount 
to about the Aame tinng. If thiJ^ ^bttitution be accepted, 
SieAi&f U equivalent to "our great, our powerful spirits". 
In otJier resjiects the tr;tn«lation remains a^ Iscrfore. 

Tn the word,/^^(M/i^>^ is an exploded consonant, sounded 
with the Zulu dick. 

Scvcrlano, who had often assisted at such cctcmoniea 
and claimed to be nomcthing ofa "mcdicinc-man" lumsclC 
gave the following jumble, which, he alkgod, never failed 
to restore health when intoned in time; 

' Tfac ApLjichet ca.11 thcmadvc* Judd — ihc people. Tat vdrd 
Api^kfr iTtcirdo« noi b^lon^ ia ihcir loitguagr, i% not rMporxIed to 
b>' Enmiy of the wiM^r pcrlions of the ttibct acd ia »uppoKJ Ic be a 
Maricopa Kord, sijnifyJo^ "eocmtcs'*. 


4$2 Jif/igicn of ike Ap^tikc Indians. 

""We ask the farour of GcnI. By Mix favoar H'c exist 
«1n-ayx The word nfOod is gtxxL Allhongh Gtid hAs not 
put WAter on our hcA^& (iluit is. baptixcd u^> Go^ Mill 
ft1wAy» be kind to u^ Wlicii God uUIa a man ahall die, he 
<ltc& If Gcd want» a man to live to be old, he will live. 
J am tery icliuL J think that bad people n-ili not {;o up 
•bovCi but doiA'H bc3ow. l>,eTe are uintt whose prayers 
vill send rain to water tbc little spettr« of gra;^ ^hootbg 
oat of the ground. i'erhapA this man will dk, if God to 
wilL God «cs all : He hears all" 

No comment rm the nbovr i% neerled ; it vt. u]>p:in:iil that 
Sei'erianu wa!i trying 1o fecall in ht« incantations vague 
memoric* of a priiycr learned nt Ilia mtrfbers knee, or, 
pcrhapa, in tlic church orhb/uWf/& 

The Apache imitjiten the Roman in boldly adopting or 
stealing whatever appeals to his imagination as being xwxH, 
mysterioua in the religion of those about hica Tbc 
Mexican ha« been unaM for centuries to force the Apaelie 
tosubmI^ion,butthcdo£;niia^ preached by theftrat Spani^ 
mi«fiionariei; «ecm to have captivated ^a fancy. 

Tlie Apache decorate* himself with eroue«, medals, 
ard flints' picture?, taken from the bodies of murdered 

The Chlric^hiia Apaches, in the Scr^rra MwJrc, nx^re each 
and every one ornamented with thc?ic t.ilismans and held 
them in the lieht of "bin medicincV 

Upon attaining manhood, all American Indiana, in the 
savage state, leave tlicir lodges and villa£» to ?icek the 
jseclusion of ea^oii, uood, or mountain, there* with fasting 
and pra>"cr, to «upplicatc Hie Kpirii chosen as Uicir tutelciry 
deity. The severer Uie privation* endured, the more pro- 
longed the Tattt to which the devotee subjects him^lf, th« 
greater tlie merit and Lhe more iiitured will be ht« success 

1 A diTbicD of the Apnch» -probably Ehcic very Chiric&hoA^^ 
mi de^gnaied liy Mrxicnn wiiccn <^\ a gcncrmian or iwo AgOk, ih* 
V>iU4do», or 4T0jr/if Indium. Th&y may. even in lt>os« dnyi, have 
tuwn 4lkrin£ui«heil fcrr the biirnv moJp of dccorTiiiur. 

Xeiigion of the Apacks Indians. 


in life. The mo^ arducnis ^lount£Lin^ arc sc^ed in thc:;e 

This custom cbtain« amon^ the Apaches. The young 
warrior atUining manliood and going upon the war-path 
for the £r«t time nuke& x vow to abstain from certain food!^ 
not to scratch Mit head with ht* fingers, and not to let 
waler timch hJa liiJti. Tin: last iwn .sUpjUiJuiu xxv. cvjdcd 
most cUTHiingly, FCc provides Iiimwir x\ith ^ small ^tick 
with which to do tlic ncccAsary Acr^icbing : ard. will; cqtud 
ingenuity, hoUow:^ out a rccd through which to ^uck all the 
water wanted wlicn thirsty. 

There is no sij^n or semblance of the brutal and dugunt- 
ing sun-dance which, with its attendant gashing^ ard 
mutilations, is the proniinent religious festival of the 
tndbns of the Plain*. The reason* for the absence of 
thU rite are not ea*y to conjt'Ciiire ; inost ji«urcdly they 
carnot dcpciul upon ^ny *qiic<imi\hiics»i on the Mibject of 
hlooiT- let ting. 

In two tmpoiUnt pomts, the religious syslcin of the 
Apaclie \% at variance witli that of the Pueblos nearest 
him — the liunis and Moqui-v It \a simpler in form, as 
might be expected from the dilfcrenoc in .surroundings; 
the Zunis and Moqui* inhabit town^ the Apache :s & 
noin^d, Kii iclieious thought is pr«LclicilIy idc]ktic4.1 with 
that i>f hifi neighbours, but its exprc^sTon is 1e»s uert^imminufl 
and elaborate 

^ Cloud Pc»t, Thf high**! point in th» Bijt Horn Moanuins, 
Wyoming* ia « conf^rca of bald g^rnniLc pinn^clo, fining Au Above 
tfcmber-|m^. and for y^ari coriMdrri^l innccessiblv: \\\ it^toT va« 
aLtelOpilcd without iu«g(--i liy 4 LimnWof (l>irln|! ATTirtir officcn and 
sr«uu. It Wjis ai len^lb cftcacd by Major St^nron, of tho EnaJn««r 
Corp«, and U*iit, StBoreo, Jfd Ca^alrr. Tli^y pickfd th«if way 
ilowly, And iiel ImikIi .ind Icxt, 4]r)njf a ^'ku^fe-cil^r' wliidi 1«J altnosi 
to th« ap«N. On cnch iid« they gUnccd wiih dfcid iniu yawning 
chEuntt. nhilt ihc bccilinie crjzt co^iriunting ihcm j^aire m> vi^nt of 
occupancy' invt by ih«tcreftmjnjt,<teriAnr«k£l*^ Aiidy«f toihit niOKi 
f:liMniy and K^ludcd ipoL a piotLs aiid fboEliAidy Sjjux or Guyeoae 
h^d made his wiy lo conmlt the ipiriti wiLh naming and kKnA<«, 

454 Religion of ike Apache Indians. 

The Apache has no temples, such as the Zunis and 
Moquis have in the underground estufas^ or chambers 
devoted to religion, conference, and labour- Neither has 
he altars, niches, or shrines, unless in such a category be 
put the stone " prayer-heaps" described in the earlier 
pages of this article. Yet, if less attractive to the eye, 
his religion is less repugnant to decency. It contains 
fewer obscene suggestions of the Phallic worship once 
prevailing among all the inhabitants of Arizona, and in 
our own generation practised openly by the Zunis, who 
have orgies so disgusting that the merest allusion only 
is permissible ; while the Moquis, until the last decade, 
indulged in bestiality and abominations. 

John G- Bourke, 



THE following Sarooan stones wcr? Iianslnlcd by l\\c 
Kcv. G- Pratt, Tor many years mi«ii>niii>' on the 
bland of Savaii, and author of n i:rAmmAr and <iictionary 
of the Samoan lnn;:uagc. The MS. was presented to me 
by Mr, John PVaser, at Sydney, in July 1H91, for the uac 
of the Foilc-lore Society, Unforturatclyt it is unprovideid 
with note*, ard thoiiK^ ^ h.^ve been able to supply a few 
ffDoi G» I'limer's S^atfa, there are sttU some allusions 
and sentences which arc not ficrfectly clear It may be 
well |rt ffiiiinrJ cmr u-^idrrv lliat S-mfifi consi^t^ of a group 
of volcanic i^1jllld», the ptinciir.'il ores of u-hii^, in the 
direction from west to cast, are Savaii, U]njlu. Tutuila, 
Ofu, and Tau. 

There waji a woman called Fans"- She brought forth 
a daughter, whose name was Papa (flat). She li^d no 
vagina ; her body was all in one. She wjvs exceedingly 
beautiful, and msny men desired to obtain /'<!/«, but her 
huobanda deserted her. Then she lived with Another 
chief who«e name wi« Q/^mataua. The chief O/oMataua 
felt and he perceived that tl^e woman w;i^ u one pvccc 
He did not divorce her, because great was hFs love for 
(he v'oman, t>ecau4c »he was bcJUtiful. The chief *atd one 
day to Poffi, " Let us go to wnrfc" Thry went to work, 
and when their work wiu dune they rested. Then they 
bathed, and went lo their hnutc and laid cfoAn, The 
woman slc\:i t<j\xu6\y. The chief then felt the unman that 
he might kncfv--. Then he thought of a plan. IHc took a 
shark's tooth, and made an inciaJOD into the private parts 


Samoaft Siorirs^ 

of his wif«, ai^d \ett the Rhafk's tooth in the part It wa« 
laid the Mark's tooih became tlw private paits of the 
woman. The chief wasl rejoiced hecAu^ he had got his 
wifr. That is the tale of (he ^-oman. They began then 
1oeoh;ibttt jind the woman became pregnant and 1>cre a 
son, VfH/itMHnstsf^ by name. His father be!onf[ed to the 
conKiuercd (jarty. Ara^isi/o was the chiefs name.* Ata- 
stuat wa* conc[ueror. A^a^sui/a wm tnxldeii dcmn, and 
U/M/iinifitjvsr^ ran away because his father the chief A/tr- 
sisi/e was conquered, Uit4f'iiHM<isesee ran away and came 
to Falelalai* and dwelt in the mountain. 

U/u/afmas/^ec ^^SLs always ^lidini; oi^ the ivavc:^ at Mauu ; 
that wai his occupation, hic Kaw tiic craves breaking at 
Fangafofu; then he went down there tof^hde on the wave*. 
He )e^ hi* girdle of Jeavefi and hi« hair-band on the be^ch 
while he \h'a« gliding- A certain lady, SffwMicf/utH by 
name, wirh her altendant girlg. went down thmc. The 
lady saw Ufu/ttnmasfsu, and silie fell in love with him. 
Then she took his k-^r^ji^irrUe and his haJr-band and Hid 
them. i//r4/itffnaifffr coulcl nnl fiiiil his things *^t^ he 
said: *'La(ly» tie not angry; have ;tny of you M^en my 
things }" The I^dy sdtd. '' Chief, whcic did you leave your 
thingit? We do not know/' I^! ihc AOman continued to 
bide them. The chief again rt^kcd, '' Lndy. have 3*ou acen 
my thin(^ * Be ijuick, for 1 am i^olnz" Then ihe aJjowcJ 
faiin his le.-kf'girdlc and his hair-band. And the bdy »A[d, 
" Chief, what think you ? Let us drink inland.'^ Then they 
went and talked- Lonp did SiHai^Joft4fu talk to Uh* 
/anuof/t//, s^ytn^ : "What do you think? 1-el us dwell 
together and I will be your wife.* The chief then married 
her, and put away the other woman. 

* Above he h c»tled Oivfrrataita. In nnoihcr iiory Ata Is c^lTcd 
wdittrici— af a -»/ifii und ara-sciaf can mean veitern and eitttm 
^<%t rcBpeciivdy ; »o pcthap? nt^'t/jif*' >m rcAUy the ditiricl Qv«r 
vhlrh OJfimi^taua ml^rt anil Aru-^auw wns thr rminify nf the tf\T\- 
quering p^ny. 

* ^fbe liatiir of fjifa/, a village in Upulu- 

Sanmaa Rictus. 


SifmMU/uth became prpRiiant and brought forlh lVr\> 
girl* — Iwms, ITiey were not separated but wxrc joiiKd 
• topclher in iheir baclii. Their n^mcs u-cro : the oiw Uiu^ 
the fl!her A'-r. Thew were thHr namtN ; & ('/umiir-na was 
called from ihc wAtcr which sprang from th<^ w/w; it 
fbulnidn! («/^>iHa) an<t rjt:i ;iWAy Cowards tlic? hi*9L^ Ttidt 
Wit what ihcii nainc^ aiosi; frcin. They lived riuny 
moniliK; ihc years wcic not known [till] the girU tvcrc 
Crrown up. 

One day the girls nafd thui* lo their family: "Friend*, 
when our famity return from viork let them 6/5t give us 
warning hy crying; out tuhn^ and then throw down the 
lo^ of fircu-Dod, lest we should be startled, for we me 
going to sleep." Thcr ihcy slept. The faniily came 
down, did not give wjirning, but threw down their fire- 
wood. The girls were *laitlcri in their ^Icep, and ran oul- 
ilde. each bj- her own opening. Tlieir budien were *epa* 
rated by the intervening po!?t, and they uerc jiarted from 
the other* Kadi one ran away. Tlic>- left thai country.* 
The father cried out, ' 1 am (^f Uic <oiic)ucred pany."" 

' The vcrd can aUo beJii-idcd « uJm mss a wj. Vt» ■n't Xa. 
* An apologHit word owd on cnurbg the hou»e of a god, m mh^n 
about to make a sudden noise, or oa bc|;iaaiTi|: a Bpc«<lk. (5«w. 

' A Samoftn hnu^c i> aomcthinc like a ^tjcitmic bce-hlve. thirty- 
five fett la diameter, raUad hom the K^ound by a munbrr of shon 
potti at inlcrvaU of fbur feet from each oihvr iiU round. Tbc ))>a;«9 

UaS ^todi. Uann^ the day ihc blindi Arc pulled up. {Tymtr,^^ 15a.] 
' Mr. Turacr hai 4 variant of this Mory. TW^d atid ?/«' ncrc 
Iba nvnaa <*f two houHV hold ^odi in 1 ftnnily a1 th« tut «r*J of thv 
Saroaan evouji. Ilicy were Lwini«iid Siitmr4e. Their bod:e» verc 
united bark 10 back. Ihey i»un ftom the raU, u^d at ih^y rame 
aUos thf ore *ard lo ihe other t " Wh*i a inty il i* that #e can only 
hearefi<hfiih»'ft voire hnt eatinot we we?! nihpr"s fare *.*" On ibr4 
thef were itfuck by a wavevhich c1ca««d uundcr the jomia; And 
upiaratcii rhem. Menben af the bmily ([otng on a joomey were 
Kippcned to hiivc thr»e £0d« with tbvm na tWrr |E«ardiiii miEeli. 
F.rM>ih3a;£ lAfMiUr— w<t at x double )nm. etc. — wmk tarred, aft4 


Sa^tcan StcrUs. 

This i* tbc Mory of the departure of Uhi and Ona} who 
left Uidr land and swam by sea and arri^^d at Tutuila. 
They dwelt <it Tutuila. On a certain night there came a 
chief, Mofxrnoanititi by name, who lived in tlic buah. He 
came to the Indict. He did not como in the light. Ihc 
wnmen said to the chief, "Come into the Jijiht/ Tlie 
chief afiFJwercd, " 1 cannot crtcr ; my eyes ar^ daftlcd by 
the light, for they are sore," Tbey were not sore tt was 
hh lie, th:(t he might conceal hn «hEime from the wotnco ; 
for he had a large nose like a cockscomb. That i^ the 
rca^ftn why hr lived in the bii«h. that he luighi not be 

They spread their mats ard Uy dowh. and the chief 
slept between tlxm \ lie bccd the \romen. He tunied to 
one woman and aftcrwaidA turned to the Other. Then the 
chief Maamtffintiia said to the women ; " Women, do you 
keep awake, and when the cocks crow quickly awnkc me 
I CO off very curJy. k&t my weak eyes should be dazcl 
by the sun." 

The cocks crew and the women awoke the chief, sayings 
" Chief, awake !"" Tlie chief was startled, and went away 
into the bush, where he lix*cd alone. He did ;hus for many 
nighty and htAh the women were with child by the chief, 
liut they h;ui rot seen one another, because the chief wcnl 
away by night. 

Then one of them said to the other : " Lady, what do you 
llurk? Mere wc arc near oui confine men Is, and we have 
not seen who the chief is like" The chief csme down on<tj 
night, and the women dallied witli him in order that 
might sleep soundly. 1 he chief became sleepy, and &h 

cot t>> be used under pcfTdtty of dtrxik. le un« aIko forbidden (< 
afiy mriiiljei of tbc hmlly lo !»]i hjtrk in b:krk, l«ti ii iihoutd he can* 
ai<lcr<cd mockery ahd inbuU to tht goda, tkvd mcur their diapleosai 

I The Mb. hat U taia Unti ^ It t^ita a V/u and Opui^ Th« 
*-aad** Is written over ad erased ma, and Onu ahouIJ, J tlvnV, b« 

Sar^toafs Si&rUs, 


soundly. When It was momfng the women wait aficl 
ptillccl up tbc houAC blmdn. und each stcxxi at one end of 
the home. Tbc house n-a£ liRht for the aud hIioiw into 
it Then the/ woke up the chief, laying: " M^amtfafmta, 
AWAhc, it i* moming/' The chief was staitlcd, The 
women saw his noscv and be ran ofT into the bush, llic 
women laughed aloud, saying : " A god, a (;od !" They ran 
away and left that country. They swam out to sed be- 
caus;e they Icnew he was a god. They swam between 
Tut^iU and Manna,' brought fcrth in the water, deserted 
their children, and were* carried by ibe curieiu to Aieifata^ 
It M -^ahI they wE^re changed into gods. The wnmr-n s'u-am 
on# and ibcy ia\\ li^hl excienicni ducting by. One of ihc 
women [said], " l-ndy, that ffhall be my rame." The other 
iaid. 'What?" [She answered]. "Taewar^ Again ihcy 
reached a ,tpni of n aail floating about They swam on, 
and the sprit turned round and round. The other woman 
«aid, *'\^hat neme?" The other Answered, " Ti/i^Ei^jntfu^' 
(sportive iprit of a sail). Thete are their two nnmcs to 
each of them, Uhi and Ona their f n^t names ; Tacma ard 
Tilafatnga their names nftcrwards. They continued to 
swim^snd reached land. 

This Ik the talc ahonl the land named Pnhfn} They 
say it is the land of geds, (inch as] Saz^it-stuUo.^ He 
decretN war<(; but it in not kmiwn whrlhc-r ft i^ a tnce 
country. Tiuttta in^rriect Savea^m/rff, After vjtne time ^he 

1 1'hU name cnrthmect Ofu, TflVr and mf^th^r fmAll itUnd %t tt\9 
eiM end of the S^moAA Krotip- Mt^fiaii mcjuis wounded. Av the 
siory ran*, tht rocks send ihp EArih niAni«d, nnd t^d a ditldr wbicti, 
when bom, wa» covered wuh wounds. { TWtbuf-. p. ity) 

' A dlilhci At ihp efl« end of LpolH- 

* 7W («xCccmenO,TurTter ifoniiEUci T^f*^ by '*filialemn£ Wick'. 

* HieHndei of ibe Samdans^ Ton^fans, and Fijian*. Il4 tncaning 
eugl^t n pkotant, sfrecabTa, t>efliitiful pl^tco. 

^ *'Jun'M of tbc Echo (tiiilfo'r *a% kmjolthc lovrcf rcgionv The 

t upper p«rl ef hi& body V4ft human, and ft^lined in a boutc in com- 
uuir with ihc cHicb whu gat^icicd round tiim ; the lower p^rt hu* 
Hiyi asd vtreUkod 3»3y into Eb« i<a. ( /errivp, p, 359.) 


SamMn Si&rf€s, 

tt-a* prcmaliin*!)* d«lt\^r«d of A/ua/uMtf (clollcd bloc<l); 
this she wrappL-d up carefully and hid hi the gardca 
Aftt-r R &Ay or two it was beard to cry. People ran w 
\hc {i\-M:u ur'hcre it wni^ 1)iint>1, hhc) ihry brniiglil {awit)r] 
tbcgirL She was called /\^t^anua (htd m the r-irUi), be- 
cause !she v'As pliiccil tlicic when firsl born,' They 
broughL it from the place in which it -Ata placed, ft 
coul<3 not be quieted ; it cficd for inany days and night& 
The chief Strv^a-sM^ ordered the l<'« tree (Caskaritw 
iqumtifolio'] m Ongca to be cut down to quiet tl>e girl 
with. The toa Irtc was cut down and given to the girl, 
but she was not qtjictcd \ &hc still continued to cry. Then 
the chief com in a Tided to cut down the Tt^-rna-Mi> to quiet 
the girl with. The chief ordered a bread^fiuil tree to be 
brought firit. Thej' brought h tree, and the girl was 
quieted when ihcy brought the tree to her ; she cried no 
more. Thr girl grrw tn ntaturitj-, but the number cf her 
years I* not known because the talc h only by word of 

T'lwwitf rcracnibercd the tiaying cf her father," Remember, 
1 am of the conquered party.'* Ttiana ^iaT<1 tr> her child 
Nafanutx. ■*! feci -•'C'rr>' for my fathei bejug in the eon* 
qucrcd party." N^ifaHua aslccd her mother; "Who is 
your fftlher? Where i* he?" (She answered] *' He b in 
Samoa." The girl was sorry for hi» bein^ conquered, and 
she &Aid : " Let us visit him." 

TiutHQ and Ti/a/ain/^a s^-am away, and took with tlicm 
the Tr>a-ina'Ulef, They swam in the sea and icachcd a 
land calfed F-iji. Thi-y heard tattooera g^i^^g About in tlie 
land. Taiftta said to Tifa/aingft thai they should call in 
at that land and nakc trial nf the tree. They went aabore. 
Ta/ma covered her brea^Es and the two went a>hore. The 

' J^a-fifituj^hXd^en inland) v.i« the n^mp of ^ go(!l<^e«« of a dittnet 
in iLic vm end of Smvu't. She vrm ihc r3»ui:htcr of SatvaaikUff^ 
th* god of FtiiAiu, nnrl ««» liW<1rn ^nlanrl, or in ilir Ninb, wlxpn an 
infani, bv her mother, who %^u a^hnnvtd of h<( tllcKiiimiLfe Indh, 

Samcan S/aries. 


women To^iijht ail the women of Fiji, Ttiarta ^prtiig 
up with the tree, and ^iji was defeated. Three timc?i waa 
Fiji repulsed, >^ain they fought and Fiji v,fa3 defeated, 
CLod [it* people] were chased to the cave in which they 
dwelt. They reached the end of the cave when the lady 
«tmclc her head aj^airst the basket of tattooing instru- 
ments. She tooV hnld oX ir tn take it down to the sea, 
Tlity *wain here to Samoa with ihe l«Lske!, and thu* Th*^y 
san^: '* The women -itc marked iitul tht men left" The 
clam 4icll, Lined a& a cup. fell, and they dived for it. When 
tJicy rose up they h^id forgotten the £oiig, " Taitoo the 
women, but leave the men", snd they made n mi.-«take, 
sayinc'^Tatloo the men, but Icavc Ihc women". This was 
the origin of tatlooin^t in Siimoa ; but For thij, they would 
not have been tattooed.' 

They reached Fa!ea4upo{a settlement at the wcat end 
of S<ivaii)H Two boys were keeping watch tlicre^ The 
women said to the hoy% '•Children, where are your 
parcnii?" The l)oy* answered, ''They h&vc gone to 
work/" They said to ihein, " Vou go to them and tay, 
'There is a travelling; |iMrty of lariict by the «?a.' Come 
(jUEckly; and when you con^e, do not throw down any- 
ll-ir-g, Icsl weshnuUI bi^ %liLil1c(l,"' 

The hoys wc:nl to fcttfa ihcii panriits^ Tlietr fatlier >s»\t\ 
to ihcm. "What is 1X7'* They answered, "There U a 
travellinj; party of ladies by the ^ca. who Mty that you mc 
to come quickly," 1 he man ran down, for he doubted 
whether visltDrs had come to the house where the ladies 
were. He saluted them with, '• Vou arc cornel" The 
ladies said, 'Yes; come here. What is the noise f«« 

' TWmh and Tihfainjc^ fthc tponivc) were ihe k*^^'*^ ^f the 
laUoMfV. Th«y iwnm IfOm KijI to lnEro<!uc« eb« cnift 10 Mm&a. and 
on Inrlnii FUi 4erv commlMtoned to ^ing all the wny ■ *' l^ctnoo ibc 
«Dm», txit not the men/' Tbey got nnu<ldkd over 11 ia [he long 
Jaumey, and iriivcd Jii ^^imvi ain;:iJi|{» "Tacion :hc iiien, nnU pot Ltc 
vi^men/' Ant) hcnc« ih« utij^^rMl extfn;ike of ihr ^lackenEcg art on 
the turn f4lhcr llinii qh tbe MOuni. (TVnuT. p. ss>} 


Samoan Storict. 

h»r]r The mnn A^id, ''It is cauwd by the cruelty of 
Uic conquering party/ The women asked, *" How so?" 
The man answered, " The slale of the conquered party If 
very grievous. They kill p:?oplc, and r;iiic thr 6iigeT-nail« 
of oihent"' The ladle* xvcjjt, and lold the m^n that he 
should go to the pUcc when; the conquering (?) pctrttCA 
weic defeated and x^ac thcmsdvca from subjcclioa' The 
Dian sdtd^ *^ Ladies* prjiy Jo not niAkc use of iuch words, 
lest the oonquCTing l>^ty should hear." The man tu^ 
pcctcd that they would be illumed. The women still con- 
tinued ; great wm« the di»cu;itiion. 

Then all the people of the town coUcctcd toscthcr to 
show Ihis thing. The people were di&tre^Kcd, bcca.u» if 
ihey were aRain defeated they would not live. The 
u^men said. ** Do not be dt^treciced, but leave the matter 
with u* tipva" Tlie people agrcod to this. Then they 
dr^svc away the pcrtccuton; belonging to the conqiicriii]^ 
party, ?iayi[ig: "You go; we are going to revest-" The 
conijucring party bcairl of it, and called a cx)Uncfl. They 
were an^iy. The trotvjiA for the war CEilltrcted ; aII Ai^^ 
sasae came At^^t-stst/t^ said to the women : " How about 
this -ivar?" The women answered thus: " When you ^ght, 
all of you confine yourselves to tl^c inland [side] of the 
road, and we will confine ourselves to the seaward &Ide of 
the road. Let none of you pasa over to tlic sea side of the 
road, and neither of us will cros* over to the land side of 
the ro:id ; we will not pass to and fro. Vou fij^ht fir^t and 
we will come after." They fought and (the) Atasisifa 
wen^ defcAtt^d The two women saw they were defeated, 

^ Jf a ttory about A'j/^huj. "u is snU she came from Pulotu At m. 
lime vvlicu xht rulinjE powti v/as t,a oiit^reiHive an lo coir-pel the 
paoplc tc cUmb coco^-nul lrc» nith thuir feet tijMVJirdJi ihcir htads 
duwiiwAidv and [w pluck ihc ruts wiih^thflr xoct,. . {Turji^^ ^y jijj 

" Ihc *en(*iice is unmieUigible, U should rXltcr run, -'-flnd told 
ihc man he shodd go Ig the pUtc »hcic ilic cunqaercd,partltsWre 
dcr«ai?d, And Induce them to raise chcinwi^'u from puljjcciioa'. 

' See M^if I, p. 2. 

SawtNtis Siarus. 


and tlut they omio along anyhow by :lie sea side or the 
ro;ni. The women* marie a rush ird struck the nwn 
becauTte he had broken the law. Then die women' in;>cle 
a static! ; the women' held the troopK in chcclc. A^-sajai 
ih-as defeated and beaten. Ata-satae was conquered and 
Aia-sisifi was vi<:t<>r. 

This wiL-H why lln-"*c two had coinc b^ck (nym PuUlit: 
the sELyfng of Vitt/aittm^csct, " I am of the cumqucicd parly; 
rcincn^bcr ma" T'hcy brought their two professions, the 
profeuion of Utiooing and the profciiaion of war* The 
profe^ion of war was accomplished ; tbcjf father was 

That talc i^ ended. 

Tins 13 A Tale op tiie Origin of TArrooiwo. 

These two \q\\ the district of Aca and came to the liu* 
tttod, ard thiry came to Saiotu.' I'hc name of its chief wa5 
Seve^ He was asleep, for it was night Thu« they called 
hiiTi ; " Stvt^ 5«v / do you wi*h to engage in our pro- 
sion ?" When these two came the chief waa slanled, 
and he totd his dream !o the family, -staying: " Friends, this 
iv my dream. A travelling parly of two called out to me^ 
Raying, ' Sn^, do yon wish to i^ga^- in n»r profession?*'' 
^\1lcn] the? iminiini; wii:t l^t^ht, Sfve Mid tu his ditughlcr, 
" Woman, let u* go lo the east to my friend." Tbcy caoic 
to Siilelavalu tu hi% frleiid Ma/ua^ the name of the chief. 
The traveUiti^ ladies were with him, and M^ua v*as pre- 
]>arui|r food for them. He spread lots of £cx:d thii^s 
before tlic travellers, SctH and J\i5 daughter entered the 

* MS., ''ihe woman.'' 

> h Ivokt » thouxb 7d»>v^ one of Ehc g^ddcitcft of (Aieooiaj:, hatj 
bwn ^onfoimded with Tacma. a iraT'god. ftcmrriimiM in(^ani;iTe \n <he 
kJuffAihcr bihi, sometimDi pr«t<at in a bundio of *huk>* tcctb- (Cf 

> Tlto.caph«] of lu-taoa, which w^'the name for tlK a«rib «id« of 
Savaii. (TVrtfj-r, p. ejs) 


SatNOan Sfcrus. 

house of ^f<^Ha} The ladies said: "Vou l;&vc come/' 
Srv€ anawcrcd, " You arc sitting there." Then they 
exchanged salutatiors. Mafua also saluted StV€, because 
h« was fill friend. Then he ^ve the fine mat or the 
dauj^hter of Sr^t to the Udie*. The ladies felt ktndly 
tovvardfi Stvt, arid gave him some of the tattooinji iiulni- 
mejitA. Then they went to their own tnwn of SafoDi with 
their profession, because they said: "Whether does Stvt 
d»3rc ihnr prtifession?" That i< one branch of the family 
oftattoucis. Siituiatiena i» tU tiacuc Th^it i.-* a svty large 

This is the Tals about Mafua, 

He li^-od with the women. They said to M^fua^ " Mafua^ 
come and tattoo towards the sea, When you tattt:o any- 
one let yi-^ur kava be fir^t ; <io rot reject it in favour of 
another chief, but drink it yoiir^iclf for it i« our kava to 
bring success to your profession."^ Ma/u^ trcnt lo tattoo. 
The kava was made and wa« f\vM offered to Aia/Ma. lie 
refused it, and went on with his tattooing. The talTOQiT^ 
was accomplished, and again they made kaus. The fir*t 
cnp w;is ofliTrd to Ata/ua, a^'Ain he refuicd, saying : " Lei 
the diicf lie fipvl. and let my k^va be aflcr," He tlien w«nt 
to hi* houw, where the women were sitting who had the 
profession of tattooing, They said ; "You rest from your 
work.'* //cf/j^a answered : "Yon arc wishing 5uccc5s." The 
women said: "Come and tcU us whether you fo]lcw-cd 
your profession ft5 we directed." He replied ; *' i wcnt,and 
tliey made kava and screed it out, bringing me Uie first 
cup. I refused, telling them to take it to the chief They 
took it to him first, and 1 apain tattooed. When it was 
done tlicy again made ka%'a. and brought me the finit cup ; 
again I refused fsaying], that the thief should be sen--ed 
first Thc^' took it firil to the chief, and 1 camr after." 

^ Tlie MS. hns Seve. obviously an trrtir 

■ Kava II alw:4yi offered Eo persons in order of rank, btx*"'^'"^ 
trkhtlie highest. , 

Samcofi Sicrfes. 


The women *aijl tu Ma/ua, ^ Mt^tm/yoKi hav« limkcm 
covenant, you have given away Ibe kAva^ for we told you 
that yoat kavA sthcjukl be f^r^t to make youi t^icupAtion 
pro5pcroii3. You i^hall no more cnK^gc m the occupation 
because you have broken covenant" Ihcn they took Away 
from J/tf/(/<3 the oecupatioaortattoocr; he did not tattoo 
again because he h^d brckcn covenant Again he became 
poor, and regretted uselessly because the prc^t^ble occupa- 
tion had i>a?«eii froni hint- 
Then the lai]ic?( ag^im >Wciin to Upolu, ard reached the 
let; end of the UUnd. There was a man J1^1tin|; ; Puif wns 
hb name; lie said: "My love to the travellini; ladies. 
Come, whence have you journeyed ?" Thc>' replied : '*You 
have &pokcn. Wc ha^'c come fron:i S&vaii" [He &aid] 
" Conac here and take the lish I bavc eau;:h1 to make tt 
meal of." He gave all tlie fi^bh he had caught to the 
travellers. The ladJcs asked, "* Where is your home ?" 

PhU said, "It is *ofne di^t^^nce inland. Ccmc and 
partake of some food/' They went to his honte and ntc. 
Then hi^ iirepared ,i fc;mt Great wjis the love of PtiJe for 
the ladJc& The ladies said to PuU, "Do you take our 
occupation of tattoc^era and make UK of it When you 
an cng:agcd in U your kava muM be Gr«t. to bring micccm 
to your occupation. Now wc arc going/' 

I'hcy vrent toward^t the co^t Ihcy n<cnt along the 
mountain range till they reached the mountain of Olotapu, 
inland of Safata.^ There wa^ a man, At^ifn by name, v^ho 
iraa a sktlful workman. He planted every kind of food, 
banana-\ kava, >';ims, and tarn. All locked very U'dL 
The iravellfrg xvomen came as vl/<^jtf was al work- Afttfu 
looked asi the traveller* came in ftlght Orrat waj; the 
a^loni^mcnt and companion of Altt/m. He nin and 
spread good mats in the hoo*c: Tl:cn he said, "Come 
inlo die hou^c and sit down while I pull op acme kava." 
He brought some kava, and the xtomcn «Aid: '^Thc good 
trind cannot be concealed, tc is the road of prosperity 

A harbour oo ihe voutb iid^ eT Upotu. 




Satnoan S/orits. 

which is ii*^k«d or-" Ar^^ ran oflf to bring cold food, 
ripQ ba(una& They ate, and d^co Ata/v said to die 
bditt : " Do JXJU recline whil« I go to cook some food, for 
I am all alone." He then vh-ent odT to prepare food- He 
prepared tt nicely with ddlght Then he brought it aod 
addressed his word to ihoe^ in the house; ** TuUmtth^t 
awake, anii take nnmc food/' ^^ 

The vh^mcn said. "Come here, you arc wearied ; I am flj 
wirry for >'Oii,'' They also &did lo him, " Aiafm, when to* ^^ 
morrovr comC3 wc will give you our occupation, thai ynts 
may engage in it" On the morrow they explained to , 
him what he must do : " When Icava is Acned out. yctir S 
kava muit be first, to bring success to yc*jr occupation." ^^ 
Then vJ/*yff went to tattoo. The kava uas 5en-cd out, ^ 
anci Aiiifiit asked them to bring a pair of uatcr-bottlea to S 
him. They brought ihe ^^ater-bottlefi. They dealt out 
the kava, Aiafu's uns fir%t. They brought it to him ; he ii 
dEd not drirk it, but poured it into one of the bottles: flj 
They al^o brought him cold food- Atapu told them to 
put it into a basket ; but he did not cat nor drink unit! 
ihe tattooing was tinished, as he intended to take Ihe fnod 
to the ladies who had E"vcn him orders. When be finitihed 
tattooing, they brought more kava; Atafii^s wa» fint 
He put it into the other bottle. Then they brought food 
and native property. Atafu did not cat, icr he meant it 
all fur the ladies 

He went inland [smd found] the ladies were seated each 
jUie by a post It the doorway of the house. They rtld, 
"Vou have rested from work," Mr replied, " Vou are 
willing tuccew-" They Kiid, *' Come and tell js how you 
did your work*^ He answered. "I wenl, and they pre- 
pared the moniing kava, My kava was first, and J jxjured 
it into X bottle \ and tlus cold food i did not eat, 
but kept it to bring lo you two. Then I tattooed> When 
it waa done they again prepQicd kava, and my cup iA'ad 
first: and I poured It into the second bottle; also I did 
not cat the food until wc should all cat together." Great 


Samoan Sioriss. 


was their affection for him, and they said : " Love to you 1 
It is the road of prosperity which is travelled." 

Then they Had their meal. When it was done they said 
to him, ^^Atapu, very pleasing is your kind conduct* Now 
we are goings and we leave these things that you may 
properly work at your profession. Although Tulautna 
engaged in it, his work was incomplete ; he will be under 

These are the two great branches of the family : Sa- 
Tuiauma is one great branch, the king of which is Seve ; 
and Pe-o-Sa-sua is the other great branch, the king of 
which is Atapu^ 

That is the end 

John Abercromby. 

{To be continued.^ 

H H 3 

THE Tollowing folk-lore on the weather h^s 
collcctc^tl for the most j>art from the fisher-folk* 
along iht iiurih-cait of Soot land. The vill;ijp? nr %'itliige« 
ill whkli Uic obscnalion has b«a mcl wjili arc rrcordcJ, 
Kcfcrcncc has been ma<lc to two wxnki on folk vtcathicr- 
lom— viz., i"i/nja/J>VrtwAW-e5. No,ix; IV^tttk^r Prtntrbs — 
prepared under the direction of IJri^dicr and Brcrct 
Majur-GcncfAl W, LS. Hazcn, Chief Signal Officer of tha 
Army, by H. H. C. Dunn-oody, First Lieutenant, 4th 
Artillery, ,\. S O, ^nA Atwt, quoted » />., and On tli9 
J'<tf>u/ar Wtrnttrr Ppvgnt^srics c/ Scotland, by Artlmr 
Mitchell, A.M., M,D-, mt^mbcr of Council of the Metcoro- 
lojjical Society, clc, <iuotccl as M. 

L— TriE Suw, 

before tnP 

A " low <Jawn'— /^., when the rays of Uie «un, 
Eun corner above the hortKcm, iltumtnate tiic clouds only 
a little above ihe horizon — Wicjites foul wearlier(PiHulic). 
On the other hand, " b hi^h dawn" indicates a fair day.' 

Daybreak is atUcd " iky-castlrni" or " sky*inal:ing". 
If the '^sky cast" prclly far tOAards the south, the day is 
not to be depended on (Pittulje] : if well to the caat^ it 
to be depended on. 

When Ihcf'Un risefl '* fiery" it is a aifj^ of drought, wli 
"white", '• sick", or " sickly ",of mm' (PitiuliV Macduff, Roa 

When It rises "whTte and sick", both vrtnd and 

^ D^\h, 7$.«n<lci "Low ftod Hiiih Dawn". 

■ /iia, p. 7^ under " I'cik Sunriic'. * i>-i p- 7<' 

WcaiJur Folk-hrf of tht Sea. 469 

follow, with (he winJ from the souih or soinh-w«t (Rose- 

I f the snn rises wJth a glanng, glassy sort of light accom- 
panied with MTiaJl glittciing cloud?^ stormy wcAthcr la 
locVci] Tor thai ddy. 

If fiftcr the M;n has risen for an hour ard a half or lw> 
hours his r&ya appear to shoot down to ihc horizon, the 
wind in a :thort tiinc blow'4 from caM by south or xiulh^ 
south-east. Such rays go hy tlic name of *' back-stays" 
(FinJochty). la Macduff they arc calicd *' gUanart*"*. 

When the txkv\ rises "red aa blood" a i^alcisat haiki, 
tnnstly from ihc south* (Raaeheariy), When it appears 
icd, but rxit vifty rvA^ ^hout " in-Ln-hcIcht" aTmivi^ the 
horuon, a fine day follows, with the wind from ilic south 
tjr jiuuth-nctt (Roschcajty), 

If the sun comet up unclouded, £hine% brif^hlly for a 
lime, and then becomes hid by clouds, a common tCQiaik 

tw, "lie's p , an ganc t' bed". Such o thintf is &ia 

indication of dull cloudy weather^ (I'cnjian}, 

When the £t;Ei appears "sick and foul", that is, when the 
sun is covered with a grey or ''ais>'' [ashy) haic, rain 
follow:^ in summer, and £now in winter (Rosehearty). 

In rainy weather, if the sun &eis behind hc.ivy blsclc 
elouds ^-ith ''clear bole/' In them, "^ roving", /*,, unsettled, 
weather follows with the wind westerly.* 

A l>l;iek clcnid rising m the west tow;irds stunset b called 
'* a growan-up". and is a precursor of a near burst of stormy 
weather (Pjttulic), 

A lari^'c bUck heavy cloud in the west when the sun 1^ 
not far from the horizon is called "*! bajik", and is iJic 
forerunner of a strong breeze from the west The fcllowitig 
are the forntuln :— 

" ^lien Ihc sin sets in a dear, 
Masterly wir' yc nccdna fcor j 

' A, p. TSl ■ P., p. 79, nnder "Sunris*"- 

> D^ p. 76, under ''Cloudy Sunact ud Dark Ciouda'*. 

470 IVcaiA^r Folk-lore of ike Sea* 

1\licn ilic nn fcts in a Imnk 

Westerly win' jc viniii waol." (Buckie) 

A westerly ween yc winru wmh ; 

If ihc set clear 

An ciksicrly wccn it near.'' (Mjicduff.> 

A variATt of the last line is : — 

" An easicfl^ ween will 9tfeo be here." (Pcnnan.) 

" Fin tbc sin scli in a clcftr. 
A waaierly yr\xC yc nccdrui far ; 
yin Ihe sin acts in a tnink 
A waslerly win' ye winna want* (Cnwie.) 

'' A clear tn the nor' ne\'cr hairm nac man," raid a 
Porte^Aic man. It \^ a common opinion that all the IkuI 
weather " makes up'* In the goulh-wcst (PortessJ*). 

" Whrri it lhtcj«"ni in the wast/' said a man of PortcssiCj 
" it will be southerly tLtnd'^ i[| the f rlh/' 

Of ft summer afternoon tlic rays or the sun stretch at 
!inies doivn to thtr hnrf/nti. The sun \^ then said to be 
" ahaflit", aitd Elnrru is a formula ; — 

*' A shaftit Gin 
That*) the sign o' it stiixnin wiQ^'' (Crovic-) 

Of a summer iflcmoon, when tbc sun is weltering, there 
is at times a peculiar glassy-like glitter on the sea. Some 
fishermen say that it Is an indicauon of coming atormy 
weather or of rain (i'ittnlie). 

A halo^ round tbc sun is called "a sin bow"^ and is 
regarded as the foreninner of rain. The opening in the 
halo Jndicatcft the point from which the wind is to blow 
(rittulie). Jt indicates foul weather (Roschcarty), 

A mock-sun goes by the name* of: — Dog (general), 
falcon (Buckie, Ponc^sie), fcrriclc (general), sin-ferrick, 
jsinHlog (j^ncra!). The fishermen of Buckie !&peak of a 

1 Z>., p- 77. unde« " Halo'- 

Weather Folk4ore of the Sea, 471 

" falcon" hunting the sun, and say that Jt indicates stormy 
weather. The following rhymes give the folk-notion of 
its appearance and position with regard to the weather^: — 

*'A sin before, 
The gale is o^erj 
A sm behind. 
The gale yell quickly find." (Buckie.) 

*' A fiin afore 
Ye see no more ; 
A sin ahia' 
Yell shortly fin\" (Crovie.) 

** A sin before 

Youll find no more; 

A sin behind 

You're sure to find." (Port ErroL) 


You soon shall (ind ; 

One before 

You see no more." 

" A dog afore 
III gar you snore ; 
A dog ahin' 
ril gar you fin'." (Rosehearty.) 

At times the order is reversed : — 

" A sin behind 
Ye soon shall find ; 
A sin before 
Ye get no mo'"c" (MacdulT.) 

'*A sin behind 
Ye soon shall find ; 
A 3tn before 
Ye shall no more/' (Footdee.) 

' Z>., p, 79. under " Sun-dogs". Afl, p. 16 (7)- 

472 iVfathtr Foik-lcrt ef ih S^a, 

^ A fcnkk a^wasi iUc tAti^ 
A sin A-wAAl (he scm ; 
A'D cliw bcuki t* luc man. 
An fifle man "CI clivv heuks t' me." 

lirlaiiJ, dbout OnljquhilL ainurig ultl Iblks Uic ffiymc 

" A fcrrici ftfore, 
Ayont I he kcttc ; 
A fcmck ahin* 
Ve'U shortly finV 

n, — The Mcwn, 

"ASalBcrday's ineen 
Aa » Sundit/t fill (aamc luoon}^ 
Is never fi:ood. 
Nor never win."» (Piinint) 

If the new moon Is seen shortly after her incoming, uo- 
ftdllcd weather is [ookcd for Cficncral), 

The new iroon lying on her back,' auitl havin^r the 
poinu *m*llj is lookc<l u[x>n is a b;ii moon (St Cocnb's), 

Tbc new moon lying oii her back ist llkenetl to a cup (o 
hnJfl water, whirh ^n cmptii.'d during htar coitrtc. On the 
other liaiiilH [f (he new Trnxni stiuid^ well up^ it i^ rc^rarilcd 
AS a 61)^11 of^^uuJ wc'itlicr (i^ncral). 

Wbcn the flew moon is *' shaip i' the comer*", ihc saylnc 
i(^: " 5lie':i nac a good moon." Wheii ahc i.i btunt ar>d 
round she h a good moon. There is another saying; : 
" She's ower like a coo's horn to be good" (Roselieaxty). 

When she appears "stiacht (iitr^ght] and TuVsct*' she 
in look-ed upon sls a fpood moon (Roschearty), 

Tf there arc heavy clcuds ahoiu the ttme of moon-rise 
the ii^liennctt w^^tch wh^t will follow. If the clouds di>i* 
pt'TNe xhc W(^»ttleT remains ^oo(l> but if the clouds rciniiin 
tlicic h foul wcatlicr at hand (Ko^cheaity^. 

' A. p. 59^ 

' v., p. 6j, ueda '* New Moon^ J/,, p. i6 ((*> 

iVid&er Foih-hre of ike Sm> 473 

A drck round the moon is called: A bfoch (gcncialX 
mccn-bow (Koichcarty, Broad^ca), mccii-nng;, Uic rim 
(Niiirn), the wheel, *ind the big wliccl (Nairn), 

In St. Comb's Uic expression b : "The bisr^cr the bow, 
the rje.TiCT the weather'*; and in Covc^*'Tbc bigger the 
rin;^, the nearer the brccwi",' 

When there is; much of a green colour in the circle it 
is an Indication of rain ; but if ii% colour Is pale, windy 
wt--:ither i* at hand (Cuirnbulg) 

Ifthe imier edge of the circle 15 ()Tctty bright in green 
and yrllow, It is an indic.itiim of r<ijn (N^iirn). 

Often there is an opening in it. It indicates the dircc* 
tion from which ihc wind \i^ to bl"w (general). 

The amail halo thtit appears round the moon, somewhat 
like a corona fiocd, by the name of " Cock'a Eye" (general) 
and " Kcclan's ^c", ix., the eye of the ^mall cod'lish. It in 
believed to indicate etormy weather. 

HI.— The Stars. 

When Ihe stars txvinkic much, or when they loclc near, a 
change of wcath^jr is looked for ( Koschcarty) 

When the fitapt in a calm, durinf; weather without frost, 
begin to twinkle — *' Ump'*— with more brightne^, wind t* 
not tar diilanl' (Pittulic). 

When the stars an; reflected very brightly in the pools 
left by the tide, and twinlcle much — "' lamp" — during frosty 
weather, it ik regarded ai; an indicatJcin nf a change of 
we^iChtT (Pitiijlic). 

When a laigc Mar is near the moon Mnrmy weather i» 
IcHiked uiiun iis not far off (gcncial). It goes by the 
namcof'^Madgc" in Macduff, and the saying ia i " I^adi:e 
is owcr rear the mcen," 

In i'ortcs^ic the poriition of the star is taken into aecount^ 

* A,|x6o,iJndtr"Halft',*ftdp,6i,iii»d«"MooaHala-. Jf,, p. 
■ I?., pu jj, undtr " KlickeriBB," and p. 7|» ui>d*r " T*inkl;nf . 


Weather F&lk*hre of ike Sm- 

vihcther ' afore" or " (ihin" the moon. If before tlic moon, 
f^., to the west, fttormy weather follows; but if behind 
or to the east, fair weather ; wid one speaks of the " ihip 
towin the boat", and ihe " boat towin the *htp". 

Shcjoitng ai^n, "nhccUn or fa'fn stams", imllcatc the 
direction to which the w£nd will blow (RoM^iearty). 

IV.— TiiK Raisrow. 

"A rainbow in the moming 
Bids the «jilor uke w&ming i 
A rainbow Hi nighi 
U the !khcphcrd's delight." 

" A rainbow lit the morning, 
Sailors lake vammg ; 
A r^Liibuw at night 
Is the sailor'* liclifiht"' (General) 

A picc€ of a rainbow on the horiton is called Blocrie 
(Macduff). Bleeze, rx., bla^e (MacdufT). Bonnie thinff 
^MacdiifT). Fire (BucVic) Fiety Ec (Macduff)- Fiery 
teeth, /f.. tooth (Macduff), GiUin (St Comb's). Rawnfe, 
/./., small roe (Macduff). Rose (Nairn), Silk-n^pkio 
(Crovfe). Terth. <>., tooth (general), 

Robbie Bucliaii — tins name was applied by an old 
fisherman of Broadsea, near Fraserburgh. He died ab<nii 
fifteen years ago, at the age Df eighty. This seems, how- 
c^-cr, a mere fancy name. 

Its appearance is looked upon as forecasting unsettled or 
" royit" weather, particularly if it h behind the sun ^ncral). 

The fishermen of MacduJT believe that a breeze ^vJII blow 
In a short time from the quoTtcr in which it appears. Thus 
thcj" tay : *' There** a rawn (roe) roastln' V the nor' -wast ; 
we'll hae a broczc shortly."' 

If a " rose" ai>pcar* in the south-cast ^'Ith & flocx! tkle, 
O., a ilowing tide, and the wind blowing from south-wMt, 

" H, p, ?r under "Nigtii and Morning R^fntrnw'*, .W.,p. i6 (SJ, 

IViothtr Folk^krg of tAt Sia, 475 

the wind shortly bfow:* from S.R. If the tide in cbbii^ 
ihc Vfiod will blow from ntjiUi-wcst, with rain (Nairn), 

v.— The Aukoka Borkalis. 

The Aurora Barcalis is <:alTul DunccTs, Merry Dancer^ 
Nurilicrn Lichta — »>., Lights and Strvamets, 

ir the Aurora appean during «pnn^, soinc fishermen 
(MacdafT) observe that soon after the wind blows '* into it", 
that i\ from the opposite quirtcr. When it appcuri in 
autumn the wind blows from the quarter \r\ which it makcfl 
its appearance.* 

The Aurora is the forerunner or^tithcrly mnds (Rofie- 

If it remalnic pretty low on xhf. northern horizon, it fndi- 
eaie^ no change of wcatlicr, but, in iht? opinion of some, 
with the wind fi-om the nortk If it nse^ high, and 
pa^es " [he line", />.. the zenith (Fitlulie), or " the aap o' 
the air", towards the south-west, stormy weather follows 
(Pittulie, St Comb's), with wind from the south according 
to some 

If the 5ky Is dark below the Aurora, some fishermen 
a^ert that fioutheriy windi^ arc at hand 

VI.— LioHTNma 

Lightning at ntght without thunder is commonly called 
" fire flaucht". and is looked upon va- the prccur*or of windy 
weather [general), "rtaLchty wcaihci" (i*ittu!Jc) About 
the month of September it indicates x westerly brecxc, and 
within TU3 long time after it^ appe;trancc. Thus if it appears 
early in the evening the breeae springs up by morning.' 

VII.— Tjiunder. 

Thunder in the forenoon is said to be followed by a 
brecic from the f»orth or north-easL Thunder in the 
afternoon \» follo^vcd by fine warm xfc-caihor [Roschearty). 

476 Wtai&cr Foii-lcr^ of t&c S^a. 

VIII.— TUE Skv. 

"A strong >ky^ U when great cloudfi— cuonilus — nev 
alonff the horfson- The sky U then ufd " to be growtn"*, 
and 2 brcesc i« looked upoo a^ at hand. The clouds 
tliemselvcs ^q by the name of " a (rrowan up" (Piltu)ie), 

^'A grc^isy sky" is the indication of slorm/ wcalhef 
vn^in a short time (gcnt7T;J)- The fiky h'A% a pecijIUr 
gHttcr all aloetg the hoii^oo. and for a few degrees above 
it* and la ikMkcd vh-ith light-colourcd confused clouds 
hEiving the lame gUttern My own obflcrvntion confirms 
this tf^athcr-sign. 

''A stiff sky" is when it is filk^ tip willi Im^ vrhit? 
clouds having their edges tinged with red, and indicates 
un^etck^d we;ilher. 

Forecast* are drawn from the colour of the sky at sud- 
rise and sunset, ju ihc fallowing formula shows : — 

" A rrd *ky at nighi 
Is the soilor^a delight ; 
A red sky in the morning 
Is ll:te sailor's good wamJng."^ (Nairn.) 

*' An cvcninj; red and a moNijii^ gnr/ 
Arc ecrtftiii si^ne o^ & bonnic day."' 


IX.— CLOtT)3. 

If b!ack cloudjj shaped somewhat like a whale, and 
lyirg in one direction, appear to wcBtward, a broc^e from 
the west shortly follows (l^ittulic). 

Lar^ b)ac:kish clouds on the southern horizon, with 
a few clojds or clear sky towards the north, ut., over the 
sea, indicate ^ north wir>d- This ^ign holds ^ood chieRy 
in si>ring «ml Miinmrr, If the sky in the morning i* 
overcast, with the wind fnnri north or nurlb^wc^'^t, and 
if there Appear? on the wind a amall space of blue *ky» 

^ Af^r P^ >3 iS- ' /^'i r> 44, under " Evening and Morninif^. 

WtulAer Folk^lert of tkt Sea, 477 

^U much u make a HicU-in' fn«in',<i kilt" (Dumbarton], 
tiie cldudi soon dUpcrsc, aod the day proves finc^ (gene- 

Small cIoucTa coming up from the horizon in the «riy 
morning arc called ^*", and arc looked 
upon iw an indication of a brcetc from the riiiarttr from 
vrhkh tbc duuch rise (Piitulie). 

Tlicrc !» a kind of cirro-stratus that stretches from 
a point ill each horizon, always wMcniof; to the zenith* 
Some SAy the wind will tn a short time blo\r along it from 
one of the ends. J f it lic.-^ north and south, the wind will 
ahortly blow from the soutK according to othcrfl ; whilst, 
accordinf^ to others (Rosehearty), it wiU blow from ctlhcr 
end. There i« at timen a hre^k m it, which \v^ tiald to 
indicate the quarter from which the wind will shortly 
blow ( Ro*t»be;irty). 

In Shclland 11 is believed that if It lies from north-east 
In «ni]th-wrj«t in the morning the day will prove finp, hut 
if il Uca from mjulh'C;L^l D north-west the Jay will be 

It ^oc3 by various names: Horn (Nfacduff), ?ur4C moo 
(mouth), Skull gab, Skull 1' the Rk>- (Pcnnan). Wcalhcf- 
head fShclIand)^ Wind-bow (Koachcarty). 

The cloud called " Mare'* taiS" goes by the names of 
Goat's hair (general), Vapour (NsJni> 

Such cloudft are looked upon as a cure indication of 
stormy weather They for the most part rise towards the 
south and south- west, no matter from what quarter the 
wind b]ow<L The slorm may itot come for two or thre-c 
day-\ *' -1.1 the *in conquers rhr cloiidV. Fur example, a^ 
my mformaiil^ (Findochty) said, if Jiey inaie Uicir appear* 
Ance on Monday, then on Wednesday, or at faiihcst on 
Tliur^day, between 11 and t2 at night, the bad weatlicv 

■ CompMc P., p, *7. uudflf *' S&limu Clouil*^ 


JV€aih€r Fcik-lore of ikt Sea. 

The cloud "Mare"* tail', accompanied by "macki 
back" clouds, indicates stormy weather »— 

'^ MAdtcrd ha^t and Burca' tub 
Makes \okf thipn cany low Haila.*^ 

There b a particular form of the " Marc's tail" 
called by the Bi^henncti about J'cEcrhcad " the white piarc*a 
lair\ which they look upon as tlw «ure indication of a 
coming gale 

When "the sky up*cu" tou^ardM the north, thai IB. when 
large masses of cloud of different hues lise towardJi the 
nrirth, dt, aecorxlin^ in an c>:prcs£ion sometimes used, 
"when rawns arc rajiUn"*, from the reddish hi*es in the 
clouds, with the wind from the south, the wind for a time 
overcomes the clouds ; but tlic sayiny is : " Therc'.i warin* 
atwccn the north an the south, an thci'c 711 be nac pcaco 
till the north get the %ictor>\" The wind toes round to 
the north, and blows a brccxc, it may be for a day or tn^. 
When tC appears as a big solid mass— &s aome call it 
** a kiltin"'— and, as it were, not tar olT, the storm is dose at 
hard* (Koschearty), 

When a h^sc covers the whole sky during mootilight, so 
as to partially darken tJie moon, the saying is: "The 
mecn's uydin'" (wading) — riun follows, or snow, if during 
winter (KEHth, inland). 

X.— MIST. 

A blAck, wetting mist always goes off with a breeze 
(Rose hearty). 

When mitt appears on Mormond, the saying is ; " Mor- 
mond hU on 's eaip (cap) and rain is near at hand" (Pit* 
tulic), particularly if the wind blows from the south. 

When miii appears on ilie Kmrick and Bin, two htlU in 
Ban^shlre some miles inland, during spring and summer, 

1 £"-. p. 4S- «"**«' " Wack*»«l Clauds". 

" D., p. 4^ undtr " Black Cloudi". 

Wcsthcr FolA4ors of (fie Sia, 479 

with the vrtnd blo\/ing from the rtorlh^wcstt the wind 
commonly goes out to the north. 

Mist or Troup Mead, a high heodluid in the pari-nh of 
Gamrie, Banffshire, with the wind Trom the tK>uth or douUu 
Cflbfti indicated a stanciing wind (Macduff), 


A common saying Is : " As lang foul, as lang fair/* It Is 
a general belief that a severe winter is followed by a fine 

The wind hhiws for tlirec mnnthi from the .^amc qu;irtcr 
from which il blows at Iwclvc o'clock on ihc RochI r>ay. 
Thid refer:! to OS* As the finhcrmaTi said : " Man may 
change and styles, but not sca^ona" (St Comb's). 

During the month of March the saying is. that however 
long the wind blows item the south-east the north-itrcst 
payn it bacl< (Pittu!ic)< 

if the wind does not change on Easter Sunday, ''Pai^a 
Sunda/', the wind will blow for six weeks from the same 
quarter (Piltulic). 

The firjt twelve day* of Janufify indicate the kind of 
weather for each month of the year (Pitsligo, inland). 

XII.— Wind. 

When a soft, warm wind blows from the south tn the 
Moray Firth, the wind will tbortly veer to the west and rise 
to a breexe. 

In fine weather with a land wind, if thc'*saogo*lhcsca" 
arise and come towards the land, that is, a;;ainst the wind, 
and if the wind '* anstverf the song an' goes roon t' the 
back o' the sang", that is, goes out to seaward after the 
coarse of the &un, fair weather foUows next day. If the 
wind docs not -answer the sang", then a breeze is at 
hand (Pittulic). 

If the wind bacV« at sunrise, w>^ch the fishermen of 
PJttulie call "harsin the sin", a brccse follou-s (Pittulic), 

48o lV<aikcr Fo/jt-Un 0/ ikt Sea, 

If the wind b1ov3 Trom the HT«t or nofth-we«^ and t&- 
ivainlK fvctjtng gtx% to thi? nntih, it is caII<»I the '* wifr &M 
goes out at even", and soon spring up Into a bneic 

Jf the wirul blovrs from th« south-wot, with bUcknc«s in 
the wc»t and a bank of ctoitd to the c^t, the MtnJ bddcs 
to the frouth before the bleuJcncsa in tlic wc9t. and nics to 
a breeze (I'lttulie). 


ir hoar frost, or " white frost", cofiiinticfl for two day\ It 
commonly end5 on the third da)* with foul weather. 

"Three white frosts all in a row 
Krvdc ^ith«T in ftoit or 3do«", 

|9 a Kincardinc^re vbymc. It is looked upon u a fore- 
ninner of a breeze (Rovehearty). 

The Rfihcrmcn have a saying tb^t froftt " grips cloon, or 
eoiiqtjerft^ the wi.^n and the tea" ^general)^ 

XIV.— Hills. 

If diKtant Iitlb are -seen cleariy, rain is nut far offl 
When the hiUs on the north side of the Mojraj- Firth aire 
seen from the south »ide in Banff and Aberdeenshire, a 
chan^G of vreathcr b looked for wjUvn a short tJme 

XV.— LtvjKG Creatures. 

The dog* eating graw, and the cat washing Us face.' arc 
indication:! of rain not far oflf (f^cncRkl, inland). 

The " loupe r-dcig"t the porpoise) plunging through the 
aaa IndKatc:^ approaching stormy weather <St. Comb% 
Pittulie, etc> It goes ^tgainft the wind. 

* V^ pp. 39, 30, 3T. orn!« " Ou md DogV- 

IVioiAtr Foik-lofT of tAc Sta, 

48 r 

When fCA-birdi fly high *toriny u-eattier is not far off 

When fica-birds fly high and wheel round and round 
before tUe wind, a breeze is not far off. \\'hcn the bree^c^ 
come* the bir(U f^tct it [M^cdufT). 

Wlien >ea-liTtdi fly high in circlev itonny weather b at 
hand, Wlicn they fly to sea eastward it 15 a sigu of settled 
14-eathcr {Sl Cwmb\i). 

Biid^ flying hi^h and wheeling round and round Indicate 
A "ehangir win" (IHttulie). 

If the scratt (cotinorani) fly through the ^Itxd at night it 
is an indication of fair weather, but, if the bird i\y before 
it, stormy weather is looked for (Macduif}, 

WhcT^ the in;Lwr or qucct, in the early iroming, ultcr» 
out at sea the notes ur-r-r-r, " a line ea»tcily haar Is comin 
up" (I'tttuHe). 

When gulls fly high " In the top of the air*' a northerly 
breeze is not far olT(Macdnff). 

If dueU^ d;irt throu^^h the pond they an* swimming ir 
and flap their wings, it is looked upon iii tndicatint; a 
coming brccjtc (Kdth, inland). When doing so, ihcy arc 
*aiil to be "Icukin for ween,"' 

When Pwallo^^,'; fly low stormy weather is at hand-* 

A larger number of mid^'Cs than ordinary h an indieA* 
tiofl of rain. 

When herring riiie and swim in *hoab on the surface, 
whieh some fishermen (Macduff) call " brushin", the saying 
is ; " The herrin's brushin ; the/ll get a gale i* their tail." 

When maclccrcl rise to the sur£ice and rush through the 
water (lapping their tall^ a breeic i« approaehing (Pittulie, 

If fialmon are seen leaping in numbers a brttexe is 
approaching (Macduff). 

When the 'Saithc*' — the young of the cod-ftsb->comc^ to 
the surface in shoal.% a breeze is lorjkcd for (Rosehearly). 

" A» p. 4ft under " Waterfowl". 
' i?,p 40tuncl«r "Swallow*; Af^p. «(?)- 
TOl™ II, 1 1 

483 lV$uiksr Folk-br^ of ik$ Sm. 


The Milky Way is called « The White Strip" CNaim> 

John Stro is the name of the " Man in the Moon" He 
is the Jew that gathered sticks on the Sabbath day in 
the Wilderness, and was stoned to death (KeHli) ; and he 
is spoken of as "the man wi' the htm o' sticks on 'a. 

The three stars of Orion's Belt bear the name of ' The 
Lady's Elvan" (ell-wand) ; and the Hyades that of "The 
Sawen Stams" (Keith). 

Venus, as the Momtng Star, is called " The Star of 
Bethlehem" (Naim> 



IN Mr E, S- Hartland's report on *' Folk-tale Rcwarch'* 
(supta, p. 99), icfcrcncc was made to c1iATgt?s rhat had 
been formuUtcd n^Ainst Dr. £. Vcckcnsti^dt with regard to 
the authenticity of ccrtam Lithuanian myths, wanAfn, ^n6 
le^ndi i>ub[iahcd by him. The Council of the Inter- 
national Folk-lore Congress called Dr. Vcckcnslcdfs 
attention to thcdc diftrgc«> and demanded 3ome explana* 
tion before they could proceed to nominate Or Vcckcn- 
Medt on the International Folklore Council. At the 
Asinie time the pagei of Folk-Lqkh were tlirown open to 
any defence Dr. Veckcnstcdi mfgbt desire lo oflTer to 
charge* repeated in '\x% pagrs. A paper was ultionatdy 
sent by Dr. Vcckf:iwtcdt vvhith w-us fell tt> be uitfiatUfactory, 
and in Dr. Veckcnstcdt's interest wa* returned to him with 
a request for further detail.*! on vanoiis potnla. This was 
sent with the required modifications and additioni and 
Vf3a put up in type in the orij^inal German for the present 
number of FOLK-LORE. Proof was sent early in October 
to Dr, Vcckenatcdt, with rec[ue« for it* speedy return. No 
answer wa? £-ivcn to this, and as the time of publication of 
FOLK-LOKE drew near, Dr. Veckenstedt wos requested by 
leleKrjph to return the proof cnrrtctcd, A (rtlcr dated 
Nov, 37tk which r<^ached the edlior's hand? Nov, 29th. 
absolutely refused permission to publish thirdefcnce, on the 
o^tenMblp grounil that he hud Intended it to ap^x^T \xh>w 
the Congress, which was already over more than six 
weeks. U that had been Dr. Vcckenatedl'a intention, he 
should surely ha^-c communkalcd it as aoon as he rc> 
ceived the proof of hia article, and his omboion to dc so 
vfiLB a grave infraction of the laws of courtesy^ 

1 1 3 

4^4 ^-l" Ej:pliXMatian. 

Dr, VtTcksTT^tetit may pc:=jjibly be acting in his own best 
intenrst in ihit* irbi^raHIy withdrawing hU defence, Cer- 
taicly our re^iier^ have not lost much by its withdrawal, 
except so far ^s i: his caused some delay in the issue of 
due present number. But we desire to put on record that 
the pages of this review have been duly thrown open to 
a defence tc charts made in it and that after that favour 
had been accepted at th»; hands of the incriminated party, 
it was uncraciouslv refxijeii at the last and most incon- 
vcoient moment. Ever%- folk-lorist will be easily able to 
put his o«^ construction on Dr. Veckenstedt s action. 


I- The History ef Hyin^K AfatH^^. By EdivArd W^ttfrsurck^ 

London: MAcmillas* 1S91. 
s. ThtH'&VftfiofTairtiyafititAtirFiit^lf'iort. ByMiuL»qrGu*eil- 

With <hji|>F«rs on ibe OriRio of )il«tri4TchTt by J. 5, Stuftrt- 

Glcnnie^ Lomlun : N^iit, 1S91. 

J, AV/r/ en /^nJ J'^nurr .utii I^c<t! /istitvtfAttt £tt OUJafam. By 

the laicDr- D. B, Simmons; edited by J. Jl. Wigiiiorc. AaUtic 

Sodity or jspjin. 
4. Of^j^f/t Gf Property in Land, fly Furtel dc Coulaaces. Wlh u 

IntrorfuCTorj Chapter on ih*; Engliih ^Unt^r, by W. J, Albby- 

London; Sunncnschcin, iGqi, 

Im^i ha^ii/i 4n fnmtt^ P» IL iXA^lwis de JulMimriLtc 

PArU: Tborin^ 1A9O- 
b. Afffdtrvi Cus/ffrrrt ^td An^ni Li^i ^f Ruuia. By Majiimo 

Kovilfviky.!on : Nut, i^t. 
7. liKt^rtt 4H th* GrtvMh <?/ C'imirMt Law iif AnHmt C^mmuiiiiitt, 

By Dr Richard R CVicrry, IjjntVn ; M.^crmillan, iSyo- 
B, F^rf/ Viort in j Mtwrlind ParitA- iiy Rcc. J- C, AtklCttOO. 

Londun : M4iiiiilUu, i89J> 
9. Ffith-i^rt i,ff$tj;rtit, tK^i. Cu^lomt And Indilolionft Stctloo. 

INSTITUTIONS, as at present unddincd, cov^r a wide 
field of re^caich, ai maybe gathered by a glance at 
the titles of the works w^ arc called upon to examine, in 
order to take t.tock of our present po^iticn, Delimtion in 
this, as tn other branches of fotk-lore, Ik sadly needed. We 
^ould know v hat an institution is as di^inct from cnstora 
and u^age. All custom and usage U ccrtatnty not Instttit* 
tional in its character and scope ; as certainly we thirk 
institutions are de^'clopmcnt* from custom and usage, and 
not vk9 ti*/xrf. 

486 RcccHi R^siotxk on IttsHtutu^M, 

Much ini^tiliitional vrcirk 1% and ttat bc?cii ?hAiUy nr^lcctcd 
bystudcnts ; nhilcsomc departments have been almo*! ovcr- 
whclminiity nltcndcd to. MdrrUgc comes under ihc UttCf 
cAtcgory- Trcaljsc aAcr treatise baa appeared often rci!* 
to be rclegnted to tSc accumulated mus of Uisclna )ite'> 
tare. But the cfTeet of thb cooatant attention lo the 
subject of marria^ as a matter of reMareb is, that ti »i 
lifted out of iu position as one of the ckmcnt* of hutnai) 
ir«titutions, and inuie to stand by luelf as 80n>e thing quUe 
apart frorn everything elw. Bot i« thi< n'ght ^ Ha« mar- 
riage no *ort of relation*^Ip to other insniuiions ? Tlifa 
question muKt be answered hy nolsng vrluit \% goin^ on in 
the ^tudfcrt relAlir^ lo the early history of maa 

It iswcil known that chcK depend upon the compantivt 
method of study for their chief result*. So much has been 
done by this method that tt seems almost too late to 
suG:G:est that a very important element in this atudy hai 
been almost entirely overlooked. The work of comparison 
haiJ hitherto been chiefly occupied v^-ith certain definite 
characteristics of early man: as, for instance, animism in 
the researches of Dr Tylor ; bride-capture in Mr. Mcl^pen- 
nan*$ great wcrW ; or with cenain stages in man's social 
development, fts,foTin*tance,to!emi*m. Wherever examples 
of these or other characteristics have been found they have 
been carefully considered and ctauiGciLr^o that «« may get 
a sufficiently wide aiea of ot>servation from whkh to draw 
some ^CFicral conclusion5 as to the attitude of early man 
upon these subjects. But m thus grouping the praetEcea 
of early man wc lose sicht of one very important source of 
fresh evidence. When wc eubtnuct a particolar custom 
of a tribe to compare it with a similar cttstom subtracted 
from another iribc, \vc have hitherto taken but little count 
of the place this cu«lom so subtracted occtipiei In the life 
of the rcspeci] ve peoples ; we have never asccnained whether 
It is a dominant factor in irilwil custom tir ii su1v>rdtnate 
Eactor ; whether it is on the line cf further ctevclopmcnt or 
on the line of decay, and what relationship Jl bears to other 

Recent Research on InsiiihiioHS. 


customs of the tribe or poetic where lE obtains. Just as in 
cxcavat[on£ of prehistoric lumuli. or in geologic formations, 
ft IS ncoe££Ary to notice the i^tr^tA ^md evact position of the 
Vftrious objects a.s they ccjtne w light, so is it iicctiiary in 
^\'i:ty excavation into hiitnAn Koci'ety to note thc! strata axid 
exact positiaii of tlic v^ricui phenomena as they arc 
brought into prominence. I do not biggest that such a 
line of in<iuic/ 15 needed in order to iubat^ntiate conclu* 
sions already firri^Yd at ] do not Aug^^t even that before 
the comparison of custom with custom was undertaken the 
oompanson of tribe with tribe .ihculd have been dealt with, 
I merely wish to put it forward ^s a proposition u-hich is 
worth while considering at this *t3(;c ir the history of the 
comparative sciences : that some attention should be given 
to the «tudy of comparative custom bai&ed upon the exami- 
nation of group With group. 

Bath Mr, Spencer and Dr. Tylor have >een the Tm- 
)rl)ince oftliis aspect i»f coiuparAtitfC cUHtcJia The tiioi- 
pilation of the elaborate tobies of Descriptive Sociology by 
Mr, Spencer -^uppIicTt us with a very good example of the 
method required for such a study , and Dr, Tylor'a recent 
Lttempt to elaborate a more «:ientifjc method for the 
'3tudyof institutions is the moat valuable contribution to 
comparative cu^om which has yet been made. Hy the 
process so carefully elaborated by Dr. Tylor we arc taught 
to claKEify the rclationiihip of one custom or belief to 
another, 10 pick out what wc may call the natur&l adhe- 
sions to any given custom r^r group of customs. That is 
trt say, given a cuilom A, tve should expect to find a*so- 
claicd with it in close rcUlionshlp cumdihs W. C, and D. 
Rut U lhi?i all 7 1 venture to llunk that we may even go a 
step fuftlicr and declare th^t other customs, say. E. F. and 
Gt cAnnot cxi^t ^idc by >l<1c In natural co-rclatiun:dii'p with 
the primary group A, B, C, and D. A ii*ef>' important 
conclj-iion foUowi frt>m this. If in any given country or 
land two such group* of custom are found to exist side by 
4ide the phenomenon must be due to some stbnormal 


Re^tHi HacarrA en /usitlitiipru. 

conditfoiu vrhich reed explAnatlnn and in\-««li^t>oe. 
The ^Tt^^ I am [r>cliiu*d to by iipoo thr phenocn^ioo oT 
incoii«i4iency in custom and belief, as opprM^ed to rutunl 
association of custom and belief, lia^s nc%vr, so far &s I am 
uware, been confirmed by otlier writers, but 90 far fts VW^ 
uvvn rc%aichcs havx: letted it \w some limited &pbcrcit 
it prc:icnt!i to the inquirer a flel of facta which need to bc 
taken into account sonKwhcre. 

What in here stated of comparative research cencoBy 
IS pre-omincnlly applicable to the ca» of studies on mar- 
ria4;c tniititutioru. After the epoch-m«lung Vp-ofk of Mf. 
McLennan, iid th« laborious tabular re«uU<i of Mn L^wtt 
MoT^an, no work of Kuch importance hus been i««ucd as 
that of Mr Weitcrmarck's. And >x?t Mr. Wc*Hicrmapck 
^eems to appnwrh hts ^ludy of human marrii^e with \cam 
than ii»ual emphasU on the adjective \^htch he r>r the fir« 
tlmL^ introduces, 3rd also with less attention to the insti- 
tution of marriage a« a part only of the social sy^tsnt of 
humanity. He InMits ti|ion the nori-i>n?j'.ariiiuxi«rw of 
early man. and turns ft>f proof of this to the ^trctclied 
outcasts of savafi:t society, such as the Voddahs. Btiahmco, 
etc.. who have no trace of tribal orsantsationH But is the 
absence of tribnl oi^nisation a necettnary proof of non*^ 
(^rceariottsncss and of famiiy interdependence? The use of 
the word family to describe the asfiociationf of the «cxc« 
araonp the rudest specimens of modem man scenic pecu- 
Hart)' unfortunate, and ft !cavc« out of coaTilderation the 
focal organlsatfoii which ii at the bottom of these as^ocVa- 
iion« nf human bdngs, Mr Darwin ha* taught u* the 
influence of locality in the development of specie*, so that 
rm the biological evidence, upon which Mr. Wotcrmarck 
pmpcHy lays so much strew, it is not the small separate 
groups of human bcing:»> wrorgly termed families, but the 
whole local group whidi must bc considered as the 
starting point It i^ the local group of Hudimeni of 
Veddahs, of Victorian savages, of ancient Finns, etc.. 
vrhich ftrst present tbemftelve^ for obnen-aiion and for 

Rcceni fif4c4irsh on /n-:lif»iioHS. 


inqulr>% aiid which make up unities \i\ aiitliropologkal 
d;itiL Thf ?imiillcr intidc groups ire formed by causes 
ind kept up by causes, of ivhich at present we knowr but 
little, except that the/ are dependent upon the br^r 
local group; they arc not piinwiry. but sccondaty phe- 
nomena \r\ the history of institutions. 

GK-cn^ tJien; the local group with no tribal or(*^nisat^Ei, 
Mr. Wcstcrmwck's evidence dee* not greatly Alter Mr- 
McL«nnan'^ eonecptioii of the horde; if we cut out of the 
eijiidtlor Mr. McLcnnan's unfortiiratc and misleading 
U4C of the lenn promiscuous. Temporary- monandry 
within the local horde W the feature whfch Mr. Wcstcr- 
inarck's evidence 1c!flcU us to ulentify jlh thr e^iHitf^t Eunn 
of hum^in association. 

or the trcmcmlou-^ step from thift tu tribal society baaed 
upon blood kinship, Mr. Wcstcnnarck finds little to .«y, 
except by way of criticism of Mr McLcnnan's theories, 
Hui in this criticism the point 1* miaacd* that, althouf^h the 
f:ict of blood kinship between both pftrcnts and offspring 
could never have been unJmown to man, the nst of that 
fact for the purpo^« of social organisation ib altogether a 
different matter. At tlifs stage human manrlat.'c enicra 
into clnvu ami intimate rcUlion*hip with other sctcla) 
institutions— it ii, In point of fact, for the first time an 
inMltution, a ai*lom, that N, used b/ man for ^cxaal or 
politioul orj^aiLisutiun. And at thtn stai^e I venture to 
think m<infagc cannot be scientifirally considered apart 
from itA aurrountiing^ in the society of ^vhlch it forma a 

[f tlic^c remarket express one of the critical objccttoiis 
against Mr, Wester marc k's method, let it not be understood 
that they are intended to go further than to point out 
what is conceived to be an omission from a n-ork which ta 
called History of HumaK MorriAj^-^^xx omI«^cn which 
might yet be supplied from the dat^ given by Mr. Westcr- 
xnarck himself All that can be said on marriage In its 
several forms, real and symbolfcalj ?;ccms to have been said 


Sittttt Jiiuafri oh ImstJiuiioHS. 

in thi5 splendidly cxhau»l!vc ttcfttbe. The %vay b ibnv- 
fofc prepared for marrwge to be trcUcd su( part and pared 
«f « larger grDUp of mstitutJons* In »o far as it b foustkd 
upon nature] Instincts in Rvui it« fcaturcfi may be traced 
through all humAti tccietie« ; in so far as ii^ forma ha vt 
been affected by social requirements its fcattifcs ma»td^&t 
according to the gndes of social development with «khkh 
it is assodatet!. 

Mr, Wr^tenrirck lays almost too much <ttres« upon some 
of the natural featum of nvimage, at all es'Cnts in so farfts 
they are u^ as materials for its bi^iiory. For tn-^ncc; 
man n« the nourbiher of his wife and offspring is coi>sidcfcd 
at M>mc length, and evidence is produced from a gnat 
tiumbcT of »va£c and barbarous peoples ran^n^; from the 
FueiipfLna up to the Arabs. Whcn^ therefore, we meet in 
folk-lore 5uch .1 ca^ctom as Mika Bume mentions as obtain* 
ing in Shropshire — "if a Itusband failed to maintain hii 
^ife she might give him back the weddtng-ring, and then 
she would be free to marry apain" (p. 295)--how are we to 
ariiingeAnd da.V';iry thi>i siin^iviil ? The effect of such a 
practice would lead uh Inclc to a state of Icrnpomxy 
inonandry, and would not account for the beginning of 
permanency in the marrfage-tle. If t])c condition of man 
as the nourishcr is put ronrard as a xtra causa for the 
hy-pothcsia that in primitive limes man. woman, and 
children, formed a rccognixabic social unt, the supporters 
of such a hypothesis must answer the obvious ol^ection 
suggested by the piece of Shropshire folk-lore, that when 
lie ceased, cither from inability 01 caprice, to nourish, the 
social unit of which he was a necessary element Vk^nx to 

On the other hand, some of the forms resulting from the 
efTects of a conscious use of natural marriage for Midal 
organ isatioai arc scarcely treated with sufficient length. 
Thus> the bars to marriage between mcmbem of different 
races arc set forth in some detail, and the evidence is mo*t 
important ; but the corresponding evidence of marriago 

Jtec9fsi Rguarfh on fnsflfufions. 

between people of different rficcs is whoHy ignored, though 
Mr Crawfurd. from cx»mp!c?^ he Toured in tlic Malay Archi- 
pelago and clacwhcrc, deemed this intcrniv^rrjapc between 
difterent races to be one of the rundamenCiU duta for the 
proper consideration of ethnological problems, and Mr. 
Stuart Gleiinie ha* ii*cd tlie same argument, though with- 
out (adducing any proof, In hT$ racial hypotlirsis a^ to (he 
^rtgiTi of the matriarchafc. One f^kimmt, though not plea^tant 
detail in ihc hi^ior/ of marnagc is dealt with by Mr> 
Wcttcrniarck with refreshing power, namely, thcj'itspn'ma 
nacih. Since Schmidt's ivoik on the subject it has been 
aK?umcd that there vis nothing more to be naid, but Mr. 
Wcsicnnarck proves that a rcvtcw of this treatise is 
nccessar>' in order to pick out what particular theory of 
feudal law Schmidt ha$ succeeded in demolishing without 
necessarily d&ctroying the evidence for a rule older than 
feudal law. 

It is iirpcHiKibIc to touch upon the question of the eth- 
nology of custom and institutions without bearing In mind 
how much th^t !<ubject came to the front ;it the recent 
Folk-lore Conjures*, and in ilie paper \yy Dr Winicmiljt on 
Aryan marrifigc riles and ccrcmomcs, a brave attemj^t 
wa* made to separate ofl" from the collective body of 
maniagc rules those which might with propriet>' be 
classed as Aryan. The point is one of some importance 
in view of such a treatise as Mr. WcAtermaxck's. If ethnic 
peculiarities arc stamped upon the rules of maniafie. the 
^t supplies ui^ with a strong argument for the pof-ition 1 
have advanced, that marriaf^ aa an institution must bo 
considered in conjunction with the in^itutions with which 
It Is connected . 

Mr, Wrtlermarck lays great ard very proper stress upon 
one tuch consideration in the hittory of marrijige, nnmdy, 
the effect Df common residence In producing prohibitory 
laws against inter marriage. Now, close living toother. In 
the sense supplied by Mr, WcslE^rmaitk^ ndtnit^bly ar- 
ranged evidence, ia one of the mo%\ important elements in 


Jie^rn/ Rrsiank on /ns/i/u/umj. 

thtf hbtory or instituliona, and it is the b.i-'- ■-- ''k 
development of many of the principles un*j. tic 

foimation of ihc viiUf^e commtiiij^. Worked back aiDocif 
the various tribes of »avage mAn we tind it fncidcnol 
cv-erj-wherc lo Ihc ^rktiltural «agc of economical de- 
velopment, thousU, of course, exlfting In v*arying degr^^ 
of pCTfcction- That agriniltijral life K more primitive ihsc 
p4-<it<irjil Ufa IN oiw C'f the f-itts nhidi, f think, irill hr 
proi,ed \jy ihc hhtory of the % illflgc community- whcnever 
that hbtar}' b wTittcn. And alort^Mdc of iJns tnuu be 
considered ihc hiatorj- of the concepHon of incest— <»nc <d 
the mc9t iniport&nt chapters cf which Mr. Westormatclc 
has given us. 

It is imposfiible, pcrh»p«, to do more than touch apoQ 
ftome of ihe Twties broutj[ht about l>y Mr. We*rtcrtnarclc's 
book, ThAt I am conrcTned more vrith the tnstittjl tonal 
side of m:irr[a)c<^ ^^^^ made mc «^y more in apparent 
oppositifjn lo Mr, Wciicrmarck'* vic«'* than. perhA^n. I 
atTi really |iiep*rei] for, Undouble^llj he is right tit blating 
that studenls of cthrography cannot be loo comprdieii>i\e 
in their search for materials ; but fo armlyHng his evidence, 
as I am doing at ^ome Icrgth vrithojt the possibUity of 
producing the results in this review, I am slrack whh the 
remarkable manner in which he ha« manajfed to piece 
together In good liicrary form *o complex a study- The 
power i% almost to be dreaded. It carrier ntth It some- 
thing more than the bare equations of a ^entlAc problem, 
anil il tK ihis "something more*' whkh ha« to be i^uardod 
againsl by the student 

An examination of some of the dctaiU of !bach a imrk 
as Mr. Wcstcimarck'!* la the only p;>5*ab!c mcaii5 ttbcreb>* 
to test the value of its general ccirclusions. If we dispute 
his initial concluAioi> that '* among our earliest human 
ancestors the family, not the tribe, formed the nucleus of 
c\'ery social group, and in many casea was itseJf, perhaps, 
ll>e only social (;roup'\ it is more, pcrhap*, a queUlon of 
terminolog)- than an actual dtfTerence of opinion on the 

RecoU Research on InstifuHons, 


vital qti^tlon of iIjc atdriing point ui" human society, 
because it h conceivable that if Mr. WcMerniarck had 
oondrucd hU view somewhat further, instead of stopping 
short lit ihc temporary connection between the sexes, he 
would have seer that the local group was the necessary 
anteecdcnt to even that tcmporar>- connection. We im- 
plicitly follow hilt lead to the next «t;i£0. where he de:ccis 
that the "socfability of man sprang ^« Ihe main from pro- 
grwiiw intdlectual and matenni civilisation", and we are 
prepared lo cut out communal marriage from the «icric^ of 
esaXy develnjiin*nit% uf m^rriagi^ form*, ^x\<\ translate It to n 
place where it mu^t he consideicd the special (lulcumc of 
mamage considered from its institutional side. On the 
remaining points he has considered, all v/c have to obacr%'e is 
that they belong rather to the natural history of marriage 
than to the institutional and that while ihcy exhaust all 
that :s to be said, at all events iox seme time to come, under 
that head, they form only a part of the history of human 
marriage as a whole— a necesfiary and vital part — which 
must be studied and understood before the other part 
should be apprn^iched. 

To pass from Mr Wester marc k to Mr. Stuart Glennie 
ts to cmpb-isisc the fact ihat whifc the fnrmcr !:*i>cs hi* 
TCTciirchen upun a wide diid ohdUsU^e >Ciics of mmute 
dclailic carefully aiiangccJ and tabulated, the latter ba^o 
his researches upon brilliant suggcalions coupled with an 
intense belief in the validity of his argum^nti, without 
the neccsiity of providing proofs. One should always be 
grateful for suggcstionsc Thai somewhere In the history 
of marriage Mr, Stuart Glcnnie's conception of the 
matriarchate will find a place \% I venture to th:olc, 
certain. But what place? is the a 11 -import ant qucstfoa 
With Mr Nmt's and Mr Jacobs' critici^vm^ in these 
pa^es [ agree on the whole. Undoubtedly the facts 
of ethnolcj^y must be brcjught iiUo the tiucstion of the 
oiigin of marriage institutions ; undoubtedly theconqucst 
and serfdom of a people is a factor to be reckoned with. 


Recent Re starch on fnitiiuiiotiS. 

tooL Mr. Stuart Glennio lia3 struck the rleht line when be 
suggest*, t>^ me^n^ of Miss Gamctt's admirable collection 
of folk lore, that sex in folk^loro ba subject to be noted 
and t^cn count of, and it ftecms to me quite possible that 
the women of a conquered race, feared as thej' often were 
by their contjucrors a* the devotee* of the i^aS deltle«, 
mL^ht u^ that fi-ar under &ome conditions to esiabltrb a 
place of power tthich ha% left it» mnrk on the history of 
marriage. Beyotul t1ii?i It is nut ut [iic.Hcnt ptjuiblc to go. 
This, I think, is the mii^stng link in Mr Stu^it Glennic's 
line of ar^mctit, and he wouki do well to consider it. 
That without thia essential link he should yet haxx chiilkcd 
out the path of a new line of rescoi^ i^ what the critic 
fcafl to note, and to thank Mr. Glennio for. What we 
have to guard against and w;tTn others about is the 
tendency' to consider olV-hard that this new line leads U> 
vast stretcheti of undiscovered country^ whereas it may 
only lead to a rw/ dt sac, with the undiscovered countiy 
stretching (nr beyond — tn view, but unattainable by thie^ 

ll will not bi^ surprising to those who haver follcwcd 
thu:^ far ihaC I am pix-'paic'd to \id.s^ from marriage in^t- 
tutious to village irstituttons. In Mr, Wigiuore'a adinlr* 
able treatise on the Japanese 5y»tcm of land tenure 
there is much to show the relationship between the tw^o. 
The village unit of Japan is, of course, not the small 
monogamous family, but the group of descendants from 
a common ancestor under the lordship of the family 
head — a g''oup produced by the long use of the fact of 
blood-kinship and marriage ties, resulting in the evolution 
of a political unit, Mr. Wigmore treads upon p^nound 
which U made familiar to us now by the writings of 
such masters as Maine, Stebohm, aiid others, but it is 
not certain whether the U!*e of common Term^ in such. 
inve&ti^aUoiis doc^ not lead to ccnclusiuns not quite in 
accord with the facts, Feudalism, for fnatancc. is a dart- 
gLTQUA term to use outside of Europe, thoug^h it ts difTicult 

Recfni Ris^arch ^n /nsiitutt^ns. 


to suggest a better. Oiic of the most mlcicUing sections 
of IhiH treatise is tliat on :(crrdom. And it recognises the 
influence of race traditions in tictermmirg some poinli in 
the history of Japanese ttcrfdom. We are glad to observe 
that an inBucntial committee on ethnography has been 
formed by the Asiatic Society of Japan, vrho hAVC 
alreA^y issued A code of questions relative to locat 
institutions, the answers to ^^'hich, if properly gathered, 
should prcnrc of the utmost value. We hope to hear 
more of Mr, Wigmore's Japanese reisearche*, and wc 
should like to sec his code extended to other yet 
unexaniineJ count^ie^ under the sway uf the Asiatic 

Mr. A:^hley has done good servtce in editing Fustel de 
Cculangcs' trcatUe. AH that this distinguished scholar 
wrote is worth prcscrvirg. He disposes of the "mark 
theory" in Teutonic institutions, but Mr. Ashley seen* lo 
think that this fLct of dcstniction, very necessary wc admit 
to the proper study of in^ttitutions, is to be identified with 
an act of construction whereby the old theory of Roman 
origins is once more advanced. \\v. Asihtcj- is angry with 
rrofessDT Rhys for suggesting thai phitolo;{ical evidence 
proves the late survival of a ron- Aryan race of people; he 
b contemptuous about my own researches to pro^'c the 
survival of non-Aryan elements In EngHsh village instftu- 
lions. BiU.with the Tnark theory" cleared nut of the way, 
it is not too much to a^ert that ruom hai been made for 
ihe pie-Cekfc iheot>% (f I may so term it Fustel de 
Coulangcs could see ro history outside the evidence of 
documents. The ir^ts harfrarvrtim wrre to him the- hasi^ 
and hupcr^tnccluicof hiM AOik. Dut there ia<lan(;er in thi.f 
Hmitalion. For instance, in criticising Von Maurcr, M. 
Fustel de Coulangcs lays too much stress upon the term 
and status of "tenant". What were these tenants? 
Something more, most certainly, than the law>'crs' coivccp- 
tion of them H'ould enable us to detenninc. Tenants they 
may have been, because of the over-lord imposed upon 

4g6 Rcceni RcsetmA on /nsftfuiions. 

them by jjoliifcal mo\<(ncntJS of which they look little 
heed ; biii tcnanU with a hblary that began loiig l>cfore 
la^vj'^r* were knou'ii- It is ihal hiM<>r>- uhkh Mr, AA]ey 
and his school ^rnurc, by patt-datnn; '' ^o the timoa (Jt 
legal Ire^vtist-'*. 

Il IS ciuilc impoa^^bIc to <Jc> justice to M. D'Arl>o(i <I« 
Jub^mvillc's learned trcoti^te. It takes up the c[LK'.Mton of 
the origin of property in land from a dilTcrcnt star>cl|kotnt lo 
that of FuHld dc Coulangat, and the a^ithor brings to hU 
task the rare combination of a thorough knowJcdgc. Ixjih 
of philological and historical sdcnca His dcnvatiom of 
place-names in France during the Celtic and RomAn 
periods, showing that pbces are named from their owners, 
arc invalu.^hle lo the student, ^r\6 few thmgi an: better 
worih the attention of EnglUh phllnlogists than the corrc- 
sjionding evidt-nre, if it cxi-iti, in Bfiiain, The chaptiGn 
on the inequaliiy of tl)c people of Gaul ai the time of 
Ca^Mj'a co^qtJc^t, and un agrlcultuic in Gaul, arc par- 
ticularly iricicstmg. Of course the old que-\lions crop up: 
who were the client class of the people of Gaul? who were 
the flgriculiumts? Cicero's estimate of the Gaul'?! objec< 
tion to manual labour, objected lo by cur author on tl 
score of oratorical exaggeration, might be jiistiiicd by m< 
than one comparison with haughty Aryan tribes h'ving with 
a subject riftn-Aryan class at their feet. But the question is 
ever present to the student of iiiiropcin social phenomena, 
as to how far he may legitimately inteqiret evidence, so 
overladen ^^ilh a political termtnologj-, which is still a 
living terminology, by the ligJu of evidence which has Po 
such difficulty to contend with, I confess thai M. U'Arbois 
de Jubainville'^ ticatise does not le»seii this difficulty, 
because by throwing such a iiowei"ful light upon historical 
cvfdcnccji it pu»hcft into the background what is to be 
gained by comparative evidences. 

If Profcwor Kovalevskj's and Dn Chciry's lectuien do 
not obtain a very long notice in order to ?how their coo* 
nection with the be:it recent literature of institutions, it U 


R€€cni R^uarch on InstUutions. 


not hecnuse ihey arp othcnrkc ihAn fully woflhy of IL 
The study of Russian mairii^^e by rrofesnor Kovalcvsky 
hclpn to^4-Ardr« the ducidu(:on of th« Aryar hiMory of mar* 
ria^ccuitom>and use haj^bc^n mftdcofthc popular baUads* 
old legends, and folk-taJc^ in the iUu&tr&tion of this 
JntCTCStifig and obscure section of the subject llut here 
also lh« qiieetion of cthni^Iot:^ CTop:i up \ AX\*!i the queilion 
of wrifc-purehafie, at cxcmplilicd by the Russian evidence, 
oeed^ careful consideration by tho«e who are inclined to 
rhink that race; do nnt commingle by mpan^ of marriage, 
Dr, Cherry dcaU witli a aomtiwhiit uninviting subJL*ct, but 
he^ucceed^ in supplying unlooked-for help in the eUici- 
JiilitJiL uf one of the inosi inierL*?itiii^, of folk-loic problcnis. 
Mi* object has been to compare the early ideas of several 
nations at to crimes and their puniihinent ; and he has 
selected legal fty:»tem?; as far apart from and a** much 
independent of each other as poi^iblc, with a vicv^' of 
showirg that identity of u^agc did not arise from the 
adoption by one nation cf the la^^-s or inr^titutionK of 
another, but rather from the inherent principles of human 
nattire. Dealinj;; with Iri^h, E',n{;lish, and Roman penal 
law, he lurnt then t^i lltbrew^ and Mohammedan law, and 
succeeds in eMabltthLnj,- sume moit important fact*. We 
think he pnivc* hi< main thrsis named above, but it feopcn 
to quciCHin whether lus chtHCe of examples is bc?il for hia 
purpose. Me would ha\^ found more to the point in 
the kx taiionis of the Afghans, in tlic lawa of Sumatra, and 
in the code of Mu'un^ Ihai of Siatn, where he would have 
found proofs which arc not tainted by the poKMbilitics of 
borrowing, which some ficholar^ will be inclined to urge 
af^alnst him Jn respect of the examples he ha^ chosen. 
But l^K treatise is an important contribution to that 
portion of the subject k Is designed to iJlustrate, and it 
presentc some singularly clear iMiue« to those of us who 
have been dealing with the more extended area which 
unforluii^lely almost all branches fif foik-lore compel \ts 
to travel uvci- 
TOU If. K K 


Jti^eni RiSfar^k on fru/i/M/wtts. 

Dr Atkinson'9 title for his book %Tiu1d KuggMt iu 
a«»ocLatl(Mi with institutional TO:tearch. and in a qu£ct cffiec- 
ihT" way one gets to know how much rolk-locr x% bounded 
b>' h^ wrapfta^c ii( xiW^^t^ Vitc. I liAve ur^^ed before now 
th.xt folk-lore belongs to individual who arc now mcmbe» 
of a parish or village iiinliiull(jn, and that lt» oTiciDab 
belonged to individuals who were membcn of « sociil 
g:i'oup. Dr, Atkinsons book helps towards a rcalis&ttoo 
this view, and, apart from the frc^ocw and reality of hia>' 
narrative, thin seems to me not an unimportant consideTa- 
tion to apply to the subject- His witch notes arc particu- 
larly valuable for some detail* which are not generally 
given 1^ explorers less careful to note scientifically than, 
Dr AtkhiHon. 

Is *t then, WL' may fairly ask, artmittctl t!wt cusloini 
.ind innUtulIonH iuc witliin the domain of f(Jlk-lorc^ 
Because they formed a section at the recent Cooii^ress it 
doc» not entitle ui l<i aay that in future they must bc 
reckoned with as port of folk-lorc Hut at Icwt, no one vritl 
doubt my own opinion if they follow the cibservationd 1 
have ventured to make in the course of this report I 
i^hould like to emphasise this opinion by pointing: out that 
the range of traditional practices and ide;i« it not com- 
pleted without admitting eti&toms and Institutions; and 
that frequently in types of early society, and in savage 
society c^ to-day, one canncrt get m b(?lief and myth wiili* 
nut approachmg them thmiigh the institutiEinK to which 
Iht^y are ;iltadied- Dr. OwiritigtoTi's valuable re&earclie^ 
into the folk-lore of the McUncsians^ Majur ElltVd books 
on the Tshi and Ewe people, arc examples of the intimate 
connection between institutions and belief. In totcmism 
wc may see how the luo subjects run into each other 
without the poi^ibility of divorce. The belief in the 
power of animali, the mythic conception of animal life m 
general, h (n some places developed into a system ti-hich 
acts powt-rfully on the social organisation, In totemUm 
the connection is apparent. In other branches of folk-lore 

Recent Research on Institutions. 


It has been left out of account too frequently^ and we hope 
that the new departure will help outsiders to see that what 
they are apt to scoff at as the Fairy-tale Society deals 
scientifically with subjects which, when studied together, 
can take us back to the beginning of our race. 

G. Laurence Gomme. 

K K 9 


Among Iho papers \r\ the next number will be Mr Alfred 
Nutf * on " The Lai d'Eliduc and Schnccw^^|chcn"; Rrv W 
Gregor on ^ Spirits of Wells and Lurlt*"; ihc ountinu!Min 
of Mr Abffrcrnmbyi -.Samnan Tales\aiKl Mr. E S, Hart- 
Und's anrtiial rrport on Folk-lAle RcscardL- 

TMZ most important event of the quarter h2», of coiuse; 
been the meeting of the Jntematiotia) Folk-lore Congr««> 
at the rooms of the Society of Antiquariei, Oct 1-7. On 
thii it 1% ftufficient to say in thbt place that its succan 
exceeded all that Its mo*t sanguine welt-vn«tiars had 
aritictputed, Tlie TntKsmlvJHs, cdticrd by Mr, Joseph 
Jacobs and Mr Alfred Nutt (Chairman aitd lion. Sec 
respcclivcly uf llie IJteratry CommUloc nf the Cong res*]. 
iiill be published, it is coniidently cxjiectcd, by Easter of 
next year. The readers of FOLK-LOKC will perhaps be 
grateful for the hint Ihnt the ^b^ription Ust of haJf-«- 
guinea will be clo^d before puhlicatioa 

One result of the Corngrvss will probably be an adeqtiatQ 
collection of the Game-sDng^ of Rn^lLih children. Mrs. G- 
L. Gommc. who conducted so efEicicnily the chnc!ten'<t 
gaznea ^t the Congress entertainment, 13 collecting the fast- 
dUappcaring game'songs and rhymes still current tn Eng- 
land, and would be glad to receire any known to readers 
of Kot.K LOUK, whether they have appeared io prtnt or 
not Her address is 1, Beverley Villas, Barnes CommoD, 

FoLK-LOR£ has to dejilorc the Iocs of two emifieoi 
foreign atudcntJ of the science. Profc&sor ^^iickc devotedj 
himself mainly to what may be termed the literary side ol 

Nofes and News. 


tKc subject, tc which he contributed valuable researches on 
the Ic^nd of Prcster John. Professor Wilkcn, of Leydcn, 
was ore of the moKt valued etudcnt? of archaic cuMom, 
espedalty a^ current in the Eo&tern coloniejt of his nAti've 
country. Me wa* the author of many monographg on euch 
topic* ai hair &acrliicc, on matriarchy atnong the Semites, 

English foiic*lorc ha^ also to deplore tlic lossor two 
efficient workers durinf; the past quarter Mr. W. Hcmkr- 
son was author of T/u holk-hn of tfu Northern Cufutfrrj^ 
a. model book of ita kind, Mr. Henderson kindly granted 
the Folk-Lore Society die privilege of including the second 
edition of the book amonf* its publications. The other 
loss is that of the Rev. J, G CamphcII of Tircc, whose 
work on T^f fr'ans was only r^cefilly published by Mr 
Nutt, and has been rccogni*icd as »n important cofilHbu- 
Cion to Celtic trulitioT- 

TlIE present number concludes the second volume cf 
FOLK-LOKEj and givc« us an opportunity cf thanking the 
tolaf!^ who have been (food cnouf;h 1o contribute to our 

iRes, especially tho^c who have kepi our readers oat 
ttmrani with recent research hi their Reports. 

It 15 desired that for the future, Members cf the Kolk- 
Lore Society would send up any jottings they may Ami, 
howev'cr trivial, bearing on the science. Endeavour will 
be made to print every communication of this character 
which reaches the Etlitor^ though some lime may elapse 
before the appearance of any particular item. 

Communications lor the next number cf KOLK-LO^ 
should reach the office, 370, Strand, on or before Febi 1 


March 18, 1891- 

THE Council has TO report a steady prepress m tlu 
work of the Society during the pa»t yev, Indudit^ 
the clearing up of some important arrears. 

The Handbook of Fafk^t^rt^ which had been in prepara* 
tlon for three years, was Usucd in October last, ancl ihe 
Council K^lieve thut thi« will be the iiieunn tif enUHting tnon: 
assistance in llie important work of collection than any 5tep 
whict* the Courcil has hitherto taken. The book has been 
forwardod to crtiy mcnibcr of the Society, and widdy dis- 
tributed to Ihc press throughout the country. Arrangements 
have a(»o been made for placing a certain number of copies 
at the disposal of members of the Council, and of the Sec- 
retary of the Geographical Society, for the use of travellers 
and others who are likely to assist in the Society's work- 

The tabulation of F^ilk-tales has been actively pro- 
ceeded with, owing to the great attention given to th« 
subject by Mtn-i Roalfe Cox, and h in hoptril ihat be^>re the 
next annual mrrlfng a volume will Im- in f^iir pmgre^ 
if not actually ready, on tlw Cinderella group uf >toriea 
tabulated and analysed on a plan which will pxovc to be of 
ccnflidcrabZe value toaludciila. 

During the past yxar the Council has ifsucd the £>/w//a 
pf Jacques de Vitry, edited by Professor Crane, and the 
Brst volume of FoLK-LORE. the new scries of the ofBcial 
or^an of the Society. In both these publications the 
Council think that the Society has cau£e for central u I at ion. 

The publicationc for the new year will be the Denham 

Annual RcP&rL 


TMCts, edk(?d by Mr Jamc^ Hardy^ and Vol, V\ of Folk- 
LoKK. The triinsUti^vn (jf Stixc^Gmmmitsicus 1% finixlied, 
And It is hoped that the volume may be issued to members 
varly Jti 1892, 

The mosi JmiioriaiH subject which has engaged the 
attention of the CouhclI ha^ been the tvfisistance which it b 
naturally calkd upon to give to tlie forthcomtng Interna- 
lional Folk-Lore Congress. The OrganUfng Committee of 
that CongTcss ha^ been in constant communication with 
the Council on matters of importance for the suocg5« of tKc 
Congrew, Many members of the Society have already 
expressed thctr intention of being prc*cni, and the Council 
hope iliat every member of the Society will give ihc Con- 
gress their support. This \% the fir^t occA^ion on which 
Hnglifth Folk-loHfiin will have the opportunity of weU 
coming their fomgn brethren : and the members of the 
Society nharc with the Coinjre** lUcIf the rcsponMbility of 
according a proper wckocnc I0 the vibitor^. 

The roll of members of the Scxicty has increased from 
369 to 379. The Society has to lament the death of its 
dccond prcildent, the Earl Itcauchamph who took a deep 
irtCTCSt in its welfare, and always gave a ready support 
to any plana which were iiii^nted from time to time for 
the furtherance of our science, 

livening meeting* have been held on the following 
datei: — January 28lh, Fcbmary 25th, March 35th, April 
19th, May 27th, June a4th, November n>th, December i/lh. 

The papers read at these meetings were \ — 

ITic Dcvclopmcnl of the 0«^rie Sa^t Ky Mr. Alfivd Nuit. 

Icj^mis of the Iftlond KnsianA. B/ Mr. WUl^m i;«org« Black, 

Licly Godiva. By Mr. B. Sidney Hanlind. 

K<]1es oi) i)ic FolUoic of Beetles. By Mr. W. F Kiibj. 

The GraaJ and Loc^ PjiksUnian l^cn^s. By ihc Rev. Dr. 

A Rtghbud Tall! by Campbell and its Foundition in Usage. ^ 

Mr ft- I* fiomme. 
Reoent Theories on the NIbelungeiilicd. By Mr. Alficd Hutt. 


Fo/Jt'hre Socuty. 

All iMditcd Ehgtish Folk-Uila By Mr. ToMpb Jacobin 
MirrUgfr Cuoonu of the MordviHL Byth« Hon. J. 
IV Criieciion of Ea^lhS FoBc-locie. By Mtt* Bvme: 
Huiiphia Folk4orc By Lcwu H> Kn^fir 

The opening Acidross of the scs^on \Z<yy^\ was 
on November igth^ by Mr. G. L. Goiame, IMrector 

The II»t of members proposed fbr the new Council U 
follows >-• 

Prrtf/fifrU; A»drbw LA3ra» M.A 

Hon Sir John Lubbocjc, DjihT, P.R.S., M.?.. Lt^iltc. Pi 
RivsitsD.c;.U K.R-S,,Tii«KARLor J*o«n9. 

Ihrti'Ser: &. L GOVKS, F.&A^ 1, BvwrJey \l]lu. 


Thr Hon. Johh AnftotONSv. 
Ds, Karl Blikd. 
Udward Bhavrook, FpS-A, 
MltSC. &£i;iUfR. 
, G. FltAZER, M.A- 

%. GAsrsP. 



A GranoirHittt, r,SJL 
J- Jacobs. 


T Fairuav ORIUSH, F3Jl« 
Major ft. C^TUipll 


//kur. TViMArrw; EowARO Clodo, r^, CAilvtoa Road, Tvfn<n 
Puk, N. 

Awdiiffn.* C. 1- ArrRRMX, JOUMToUtVtTT, F.S^A. 


£,tffit/ iktcniaHMt7 Irdtad, Frafettor HAOIKW and C. B* 
KiNAHABi : South ScQtUnd, WtLXUJ« Gr^UKtii: nLAi:K ; Konb 
Scotl^LDd, R£V. WALmK G»:iX>:>lt ; I»db, MAJOR R. C TKIIPLI \ 
China» J. Stxwart Ix»ck»Iart ; Pertj«, /. J. Fahtb 

Hftnorarf SttrUary; |. J, P"cj!ni!R, Ott Home, t'pper Tooiintr 

The aceourls of the Society arc appcncfcil lo thi* rcj 
and the Council think tbcfc is soroe catue fo* oofi)>Ta1iilj 
lion in the financial condition of the Society. Eltmlnotii 

Annual Report 


the balances and items not belonging to the year 1890, the 
receipts and expenditure for that year are as follows : — 


£ t- d. £ s. d. 

5 8 


Pwd "■ 335 
doe .„ 40 o o 


atuma ... 
Interot on 

375 5 8 
^ 91 1 3 
. 6 iS 9 

jf 403 6 8 


£ t. d. 

Bj PrintiDf Accounl : — 

Tuqii«id«Vltrr^„ 115 o 

Folk-lore ... 110 o 

Whititig ud Co.... 30 4 

ProqwctnK*, &c.., lo 4 
„ Pablifliia's PcHtages, 
Curiagc of Books, 

&c 40 a 

„ Biodinf ucoont .- 5 5 

„ Hire of Rooms & S 

„ AdvetdtemcDls — 3 o 

„ Petty Cub li 18 

Baltncc ouncd for- 

345 a Eo 
58 3 'o 
£4Pi 6 S 

A. LANG. Praideni, 

G. L. GOHHE, Dirrctor. 


Folk-lore Society. 
















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5o8 Felk-lare Society. 


The Annua] General Meeting: of the Society was held on Wednesdajr, 
March iSth, at 7.4; p.u,, at the Ro)'aI Asiatic Society's Rooms* 31, 
AJbemarle Street, Mr. G. U Gommc, F.S.A., Director of the Society, 
in the chair 

The Annual Report of the Council was read, and it was moved, 
seconded, and resolved that the same be adoptcd- 

The Treasurer's account for the year ending 31st December 1890^ 
as audited, was read, and it was moved, seconded, and resolved that 

the same be adopted. 

[t was mo^-ed, seconded, and resolved, thai the Council and 
Officers as nominated by the Council on page 504 be elected for the 
ensuing year. 

It was moved, seconded, and resohed that the Council be 
instructed to organise an Exhibition of Portraits of Folk-lorists in 
connection with the projected Imemationai Folk-lore Congress. 



NoUl oa ProfttMrr J. RhT^'i M^iut Folk-tor^ and SoperitttliMkt. — 
The following: notro relative to the old bdicf* which itill survive 
amonc the ilf*«ii<lflni* of x\\t Vikmjf* in Linroln^tlurc h;ive been piil 
togdhcf ic sbow [he iirkmg ilfnity exi^in;; haiwccn ibo cn&:cm 
countiei folk-lore acd ihe Manx lupcnTltionK rctojilrd by PirJetior 

Whether the wAtCE'bulI still inhaLili uur »tic«fua b Juubiru1» but 
the deep pools formed by the aciioo of the dows-Howing water at the 
beajdaofour countiy becks are knoiti 4a■'buU'En>l«^afwi lhcT*lier- 
foil, Tatter-Lolf, or Sbng-foAl, at l]« la variously nani*<l,it itill To be 
heajrd cif, although his visiis arc zxkx ihjhn they wcie before Ibc Fens 
ftnd fnrs were dtained, and the cp«Ti fie Idn atid ce<inrnoni encloted. 
Tbi» Tattcc'foal ia a coblin, who appcaia in the ^apc of a utaU 
tic^ne, or yearlirg foNl,m l» rough, unkempt coar.and beguile* lonely 
tmrcUcn with irtntimcnible iHcka ; % favourite device with him bcinK 
to Turr an uniuipecting wayfaier into a ttreain. iiwafnp, or wAicr-hoTr, 
idler which exploit he vani&het trjih a long outburst cif mocke/Vi half 
ndiJjJialf hujii^n taiiEhlrr. Withirrfcirtice ir>i|it M^ni; KenoUyrce. 
I ina> mczLlion, that he had iillJMclya diniLnutLve Lin-:o]rL»hLfe couaiTii 
who. liltC ihr Vork^hir? Hcbi and Robin- Round'C^p, ^mJ (he DinLsb 
MiUf utcd to befriend the people of the houtc in whjcbhedweiL Ihe 
atorr nin» that " not )q very many yearv fone by* a farvn ia the 
pariib of Coihlll (nr \r\ the n^iK^tw