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UNiv OF CALii
SEP 23 1952
GOVT. PUBS. ROOM
Issued May 25, 1911
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF STATISTICS— Circular 19.
VICTOR H. OLMSTED, Chief of Bureau.
FOREIGN CROPS, MAY, 1911
CHARLES M. DAUGHERTY,
Chief of the Division of Research and Reference.
94835° -11 WASHINGTON
PRINTING OFFICE : 19
FOREIGN CROPS, MAY, 1911.
Excepting the partial failure of the corn crop in Argentina and
Uruguay and a backward state of vegetation and spring seeding in
almost all Europe, the foreign crop situation at the end of April was
in all its diverse phases fairly satisfactory. Excellent sowing weather
has been experienced in Argentina, and the areas laid down to wheat,
flaxseed, and oats are probably the most extensive in her history;
corn husking, now drawing to a close, has, however, given the worst
results in several years, and former estimates of an export surplus of
20,000,000 bushels are now generally regarded as too high. The small
corn crop of Uruguay is also reported a failure. In Australia it is
doubtful if a full area has been sown to winter wheat, seeding having
been widely interrupted by rains. The harvest of wheat and oilseeds
in British India has with few exceptions made satisfactory progress,
and by virtue of increased areas outturns are expected to equal or
even surpass those of the most prolific years. In Canada the sowing
of spring wheat has been in active progress; on probably 80 per cent
of the land intended for this cereal the seed was in the soil on May 1,
the total promising largely to exceed all previous records.
Over almost all Europe temperatures during early April were
abnormally low; frosts and heavy snowfalls in many countries
checked the development of vegetation and brought spring field
work temporarily to a standstill. As a consequence vegetation and
farming operations are almost everywhere more or less in arrears.
In Great Britain wheat is officially stated to cover an area 5 per cent
greater than last year; the condition, though not of the best, is
pretty well up to average. In France unseasonable cold, with heavy
snows, early in the month interfered widely with farming operations;
much injury was done to early fruits and vegetables, but growing
cereals are said to have been effectively protected by the snow. The
area under wheat is believed to show some decrease, but the condi-
tion is better than at the same date last year. Although the cold
weather also extended over Spain and Italy, there are no definite
reports of damage to the staple crops.
In central Europe the general agricultural situation, though fairly
satisfactory, in not so promising as at the corresponding period a
[Clr. 19] (3)
year ago. In Germany the condition of winter wheat is officially
rated average, but the much more important bread grain, rye, is
under average, while the appearance of clover and alfalfa is the worst
in years. Winter cereals in Austria are somewhat backward, and
the spring-sown show unsatisfactory germination. In Hungary
wheat was damaged by field mice and frost during the winter to the
extent of 10.3 per cent, representing a loss of probably 15,000,000
bushels. From the Balkan States there are no serious complaints,
but reports are not so roseate as at this time last year, when predic-
tions were already being made of the most bountiful season the coun-
try had ever known.
In so far as known, cereals in Russia seem to have wintered well,
excepting in parts of some of the southern governments, where more
or less extensive replowings were necessary. Winter was prolonged
over practically the entire country until mid-April. Spring sowings
were everywhere much delayed, and some apprehension is felt
respecting the possible consequences to the important spring wheat
crop in case of droughty weather later in the season.
All indications point to a heavy increase of spring-wheat acreage
in Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba. Various causes have made
this result probable. Immigration has been exceptional; over 48,000
homestead entries were made during the last year, and a wide extent
of new ground has been brought under the plow. Seeding about a
fortnight later than a year ago, but favored, with rare exceptions, by
almost ideal conditions of soil and weather, was mostly completed
by May 1. It is officially stated that Manitoba and Saskatchewan
had 70 per cent of the proposed area sown at the end of April and
Alberta and British Columbia 80 per cent. Estimates of a 25 per
cent increase over the area sown in 1910 are common; should they
be verified over ten and one-half million acres will be under wheat
in the three provinces this year. The surface under flaxseed, it is
believed, will also be heavily augmented.
In the eastern Provinces of the Dominion, excepting the unimpor-
tant producer Nova Scotia, the culture of wheat is on the decline,
the area having fallen from 1,676,000 acres in 1890 to 899,000 in 1910,
whereas during the same period the acreage in the western Provinces,
not including British Columbia, increased from 1,010,000 to 8,396,000
acres. The statement following shows the development of the wheat-
growing industry and of the wheat-export movement in the Domin-
ion during the past 20 years, as indicated by census reports for 1890
and 1900 and estimates of the Dominion Department of Agriculture
for 1908, 1909, and 1910.
Total area and production of wheat in the Dominion of Canada, and exports of wheat and
wheat flour therefrom, in specified years.
Area and production.
9, 294, 800
166, 744, 000
1 Not including British Columbia.
2 Eight months ended February, 1911.
Winter wheat, it may be added, is produced to a noteworthy
extent in the Dominion only in Ontario and Alberta; the respective
areas sown last fall for harvest in 1911 have been officially estimated
at 682,500 and 107,800 acres, against 609,200 and 98,000 last year.
The May 10 report of the Dominion Department of Agriculture says :
In Ontario April frosts were destructive in some regions; and from 12 to 34 per cent
of the area sown has been reported as winter-killed. The central counties north of
Lake Ontario suffered worst, the average loss as reported being 34 per cent. In the
western counties 27 per cent of the area in crop has been destroyed. In the southern
counties north of Lake Erie the loss is 10 per cent; in the northern counties and dis-
tricts, 12.6 per cent; and in the eastern counties, between the St. Lawrence and
Ottawa Rivers. 15 per cent. For the whole of Canada the area winter-killed is reported
to be 21 per cent, and the per cent condition of the growing crop is 82.
From the fact that 20 years ago the acreage under wheat in Argen-
tina was approximately the same as that in Canada, it is of interest
to contrast the subsequent development of each country in the culti-
vation and exportation of this cereal. Below are the official figures
on the area, production, and export of wheat in Argentina for prac-
tically the same years as shown above for Canada:
Total area and production of vjheat in Argentina, and exports of wheat and wheat flour
therefrom, in specified years.
Area and production.
69, 209, 499
Within the 20-year period twelve and one-half million acres have
been added to the wheat fields of Argentina and only six and one-
half million to those of Canada, the areas in 1910 having been, respec-
tively, 15,452,000 and 9,295,000 acres. The figures on production are
not so accurate an index of the relative advance in wheat culture,
since the frequent occurrence of drought in one or the other country
often vitiates the value of these figures as a measure of comparative
progress. As would naturally be expected, Argentina is regularly
the more important exporter. The population of Argentina is about
6,500,000, and of Canada about seven and three-fourths millions; the
domestic wheat requirement, including seed, of the former is probably
greater than that of the latter by only a few million bushels.
The 1910-11 wheat crop of Argentina has turned out somewhat
better than anticipated. A revised estimate (April 20) of the Argen-
tine Ministry of Agriculture now puts the yield at 139,625,000
bushels — preliminary estimate last December, 136,318,000 bushels —
and final figures for 1909-10, 131,010,000 bushels. The provisional
estimate (26,967,000 bushels) of the 1910-11 flaxseed crop has been
reduced to 23,620,000 bushels, against definite figures for the previous
year of 28,212,000 bushels. As corn gathering progressed during
March and April, pessimism respecting the outcome became inten-
sified, popular belief becoming more and more confirmed that, in
consequence of the damage from drought, there would be little surplus
for export. In recent ye«ars the exports of corn have largely exceeded
those from the United States, as may be seen from the following
Production of corn in Argentina, and exports thereof as compared with those jrom the
[Bushels of 56 pounds.]
136, 057, 000
194, 912, 000
89, 499, 359
50, 262, 705
106, 047, 790
During corn harvest, field work preparatory to getting in the
autumn-sown wheat, flaxseed, and oats was in full swing. The
weather is reported to have been generally propitious, opportune
rains kept the soil for the most part in good workable condition,
much new ground is said to have been broken in the Pampa and
Cordoba, and confidence is expressed that the total area sown to
each of the above-named crops will exceed that of any previous
Plowing for winter wheat, which began early in April, has suffered
considerable interruption in some districts from excessive rains, and
in the eastern States of the Commonwealth it is said the land seeded
may be somewhat curtailed. In Western Australia wheat culture is
likely again to undergo extension.
The official preliminary estimate of the yields of grain for the
current season, with a comparison of the actual yields for the pre-
vious season, is given below :
Area and production oj grain in New Zealand.
27 '4, 533
1 Winchester bushels reduced from imperial bushels.
Harvest of wheat and oil seeds, now nearing an end, has been
favored by good weather, excepting occasional heavy rains and high
winds in the United Provinces and the Punjab; prospects of a
bumper crop in this, in point of area, the third largest wheat-pro-
ducing country of the world, are well maintained. The acreage
exceeds all previous records but one. The highest yield in the his-
tory of the country was 360,000,000 bushels in 1904, out of which
there were exported 80,000,000 bushels. The statistical history of
the production and exportation of wheat for the past few years is as
Production and exports of wheat in British India.
Area and production.
28, 413, 700
29, 920, 639
( 2 )
1 Preliminary estimate.
* Data not yet available.
The wintry weather of March continued up to mid-April, seriously
hampering field work and retarding the growth of vegetation, but
warmth and sunshine the latter half of the month expedited the
seeding of nearly all land intended for grain. Probably owing to
additional sowings in February, the area under wheat has been
officially returned as 5 per cent larger than last year. The condi-
tion of the autumn-sown fields is said to be fairly promising, the
principal exceptions being on those sown late, that is, after the
heavy downpours of last November. February sowings are described
as presenting an appearance of robust vitality. Oats is believed to
have been sown on a much larger and barley on a smaller area than
last year. Excepting for a somewhat retarded state of vegetation
general prospects are quite satisfactory.
Unseasonably low temperature prevailed intermittently throughout
a great part of April. Snow, rain, hail, and sleet were reported from
all regions within the first 10 days of the month, and in some places
the mercury fell lower than in any April in 40 years. In the south
early vegetables, vineyards, and early flowering fruit trees, such as
almonds, apricots, and peaches, were seriously attainted by frost,
but owing to a fortuitous covering of snow over most of the country
no extensive damage seems to have been done the cereals. Subse-
quent weather permitted resumption of the interrupted sowing of
spring oats, barley, and wheat, and the preparation of the soil for
planting sugar beets and potatoes, but continued low temperatures,
with white frosts up to near the end of the month, caused constant
anxiety over the fate of the more tender vegetation. Notwithstand-
ing widespread apprehensions, the agricultural situation at the end
of the month was on the whole spoken of rather favorably — certainly
more hopefully than at the same time last year. Winter wheat
probably covers a reduced area; the early sown, the bulk of the crop,
is spoken of in general as having a promising appearance; but that
sown in December and January is said in some localities, especially
of the west, north, and east, to have a thin stand, because of poor
germination. The condition of winter rye, which likewise probably
covers a surface less than last year, is satisfactory; that of winter
oats poor. The sowing of spring cereals, notwithstanding some delay
from inclement weather, was practically finished by mid-April, or
earlier than last year. Early growth was vigorous, but owing to a
period of drought and heat in the closing days of the month, late
reports were less optimistic.
The French Ministry of Agriculture has recently issued its final
estimates of the area and production of cereals in 1910; wheat has
yielded 9,183,000, and rye 6,769,000 measured bushels less than
originally estimated. The official data follow:
Final area and production of grain crops oj France in 1910.
3, 004, 200
43, 676, 000
i Winchester bushels.
1 Bushels: Wheat GO, maslin 58, rye 56, barley 48, and oats 32 pounds.
Rather vague complaints of crop damage, due to low temperatures
and frosts, have been reported from some districts.
Although abnormal weather for these latitudes — snow in the north
and night frosts in the south — was experienced in early April, there
have been few noteworthy complaints respecting the state of either
the autumn or spring sown crops. Ample moisture to facilitate the
preparation of the soil and seasonable development of vegetation are
reported from most districts.
In the report of the Imperial Statistical Office on the mid-April
condition of crops in Germany, it is stated that the snowfalls of the
winter of 1910-11 were of moderate proportions and short duration.
Spring set in early, with summerlike days in March. Early April was
unseasonably cold, warm weather resuming sway only during the
latter half of the month. Respecting the state of the crops, the report
is not especially assuring. The late sown are said to have developed
poorly, having suffered from April frosts and from ravages of field
mice. Replanting will be necessary on an extensive scale, but the
extent can not be known until the issuance of the May report. Below
are the official figures:
Crop conditions in Germany April 15.
[1— very good; 2=good; 3= medium; 4= poor; 5= very poor.]
According to the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture, wheat, rye,
clover, and alfalfa emerged from the winter in good condition, but
cold weather in early April retarded growth. At the date to which
the report refers (April 15), potato planting had for the most part
been finished, corn planting was still in progress, and the sowing of
spring barley and oats had just begun. Owing to the low tempera-
ture the spring-sown cereals had germinated poorly, and barley,
when up, had lost color. Hops wintered well and are in good con-
Wheat prospects deteriorated considerably during the winter, the
Ministry of Agriculture on April 9 putting the loss at 10.3 per cent.
The greater proportion is attributed to the ravages of field mice, the
loss from that cause being 7.2 per cent and from winterkill only 3.1.
The surface under wheat shows some increase on both sides of the
Danube, but elsewhere a small decline. Rye, barley, and oats are
believed to cover a diminished area, as compared with last year.
Wintry weather, with snow and night frosts, were reported from all
parts of the country during a great part of April. Farm work and
spring sowings were interrupted, but no losses of an irreparable
character are believed to have been incurred.
The weather during April was warm and spring-like with plentiful
showers over the greater part of the country, and work in the fields
progressed under favorable circumstances. Corn planting is now in
progress. Autumn-sown grain, especially wheat, is generally spoken
of as looking well, although in some districts reso wings were necessary.
Crop prospects are in general satisfactory.
The German consul at Varna reported April 6 that notwithstand-
ing repeated frosts and snow in March, crops in that district were
everywhere satisfactory. The winter was on the whole favorable
for spring sowings, then in full progress or even in some places
ended, excepting in the case of corn and beans, the planting of which
had not begun.
The striking feature of the beginning of the agricultural season of
1911 has been the late advent of spring throughout the entire country.
During the first half of April farm work was almost everywhere inter-
UC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY
rupted by heavy falls of snow, and, though subsequently there was
fine weather, sowings are much in arrears. In many places opera-
tions were only begun at a date that in ordinary years marks their
completion. The delay is undesirable in that it may jeopardize the
chances of the spring crops, particularly the important spring wheat
crop, becoming well rooted before the heated season sets in. The
general impression seems to be that excepting in some southern gov-
ernments, notably Bessarabia, Kherson, the Crimea, the Don terri-
tory, and a few others, winter cereals have successfully passed through
the rigors of winter. The central statistical committee, in a report
early in April, relating to 61 governments, stated that snow cover
during the winter had been sufficient in 19, not quite sufficient in 25,
and entirely insufficient in 17 governments, but no definite figures
are available indicating the amount of damage done on unprotected
The director of statistics in the Turkish Ministry of Agriculture,
Mines, and Forests has recently issued a report on agricultural pro-
duction, covering all of European Turkey except one vilayet, and cer-
tain mountainous districts in another from which returns had not yet
arrived. Although European Turkey comprises less than 6 per cent
of the area, it contains nearly 25 per cent of the population of the
Ottoman Empire ; and the statistics of its production have, therefore,
an interest considerably in excess of that which they would derive
from its mere territorial extent.
Area, production, and value of cereals in European Turkey.
Other cereals .
13, 443, 431
$19, 530, 370
4, 440, 537
8, 360, 743
2, 605, 095
48, 532, 980
1 Bushels of capacity.
Peas, beans, lentils, and chick peas (dry), with potatoes added,
amounting to 52,315,200 pounds, and worth $877,978, were grown on
86,591 acres. Other crops grown are:
Tobacco | 62, 415
Cotton, flax, and hemp 24,895
Sesame, opium, canary seed 54,278
19, 947, 863
These, with the addition of olives, olive oil, and cocoons, for which
areas are given, are valued at $6,591,451. Grapes, wine, and brandy,
valued at $3,319,847, were obtained from 181,035 acres in vines.
Fruit trees yielded $50,190, and animals and animal products,
$14,131,847. The grand total is $73,504,293, of which the cereals
contributed nearly two-thirds.
Secretary of Agriculture.
Washington, D. C, May 10, 1911.