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Full text of "Foreign crops, May, 1911-Apr. 1913"

UNiv OF CALii 

LOS ANGELES 

SEP 23 1952 

LIBRARY 
GOVT. PUBS. ROOM 



*I 



Issued May 25, 1911 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 
BUREAU OF STATISTICS— Circular 19. 

VICTOR H. OLMSTED, Chief of Bureau. 



FOREIGN CROPS, MAY, 1911 



PREPARED BY 



CHARLES M. DAUGHERTY, 
Chief of the Division of Research and Reference. 



94835° -11 WASHINGTON 



PRINTING OFFICE : 19 



ocjn 

no, 

FOREIGN CROPS, MAY, 1911. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Excepting the partial failure of the corn crop in Argentina and 
Uruguay and a backward state of vegetation and spring seeding in 
almost all Europe, the foreign crop situation at the end of April was 
in all its diverse phases fairly satisfactory. Excellent sowing weather 
has been experienced in Argentina, and the areas laid down to wheat, 
flaxseed, and oats are probably the most extensive in her history; 
corn husking, now drawing to a close, has, however, given the worst 
results in several years, and former estimates of an export surplus of 
20,000,000 bushels are now generally regarded as too high. The small 
corn crop of Uruguay is also reported a failure. In Australia it is 
doubtful if a full area has been sown to winter wheat, seeding having 
been widely interrupted by rains. The harvest of wheat and oilseeds 
in British India has with few exceptions made satisfactory progress, 
and by virtue of increased areas outturns are expected to equal or 
even surpass those of the most prolific years. In Canada the sowing 
of spring wheat has been in active progress; on probably 80 per cent 
of the land intended for this cereal the seed was in the soil on May 1, 
the total promising largely to exceed all previous records. 

Over almost all Europe temperatures during early April were 
abnormally low; frosts and heavy snowfalls in many countries 
checked the development of vegetation and brought spring field 
work temporarily to a standstill. As a consequence vegetation and 
farming operations are almost everywhere more or less in arrears. 
In Great Britain wheat is officially stated to cover an area 5 per cent 
greater than last year; the condition, though not of the best, is 
pretty well up to average. In France unseasonable cold, with heavy 
snows, early in the month interfered widely with farming operations; 
much injury was done to early fruits and vegetables, but growing 
cereals are said to have been effectively protected by the snow. The 
area under wheat is believed to show some decrease, but the condi- 
tion is better than at the same date last year. Although the cold 
weather also extended over Spain and Italy, there are no definite 
reports of damage to the staple crops. 

In central Europe the general agricultural situation, though fairly 
satisfactory, in not so promising as at the corresponding period a 

[Clr. 19] (3) 



year ago. In Germany the condition of winter wheat is officially 
rated average, but the much more important bread grain, rye, is 
under average, while the appearance of clover and alfalfa is the worst 
in years. Winter cereals in Austria are somewhat backward, and 
the spring-sown show unsatisfactory germination. In Hungary 
wheat was damaged by field mice and frost during the winter to the 
extent of 10.3 per cent, representing a loss of probably 15,000,000 
bushels. From the Balkan States there are no serious complaints, 
but reports are not so roseate as at this time last year, when predic- 
tions were already being made of the most bountiful season the coun- 
try had ever known. 

In so far as known, cereals in Russia seem to have wintered well, 
excepting in parts of some of the southern governments, where more 
or less extensive replowings were necessary. Winter was prolonged 
over practically the entire country until mid-April. Spring sowings 
were everywhere much delayed, and some apprehension is felt 
respecting the possible consequences to the important spring wheat 
crop in case of droughty weather later in the season. 

CANADA. 

All indications point to a heavy increase of spring-wheat acreage 
in Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba. Various causes have made 
this result probable. Immigration has been exceptional; over 48,000 
homestead entries were made during the last year, and a wide extent 
of new ground has been brought under the plow. Seeding about a 
fortnight later than a year ago, but favored, with rare exceptions, by 
almost ideal conditions of soil and weather, was mostly completed 
by May 1. It is officially stated that Manitoba and Saskatchewan 
had 70 per cent of the proposed area sown at the end of April and 
Alberta and British Columbia 80 per cent. Estimates of a 25 per 
cent increase over the area sown in 1910 are common; should they 
be verified over ten and one-half million acres will be under wheat 
in the three provinces this year. The surface under flaxseed, it is 
believed, will also be heavily augmented. 

In the eastern Provinces of the Dominion, excepting the unimpor- 
tant producer Nova Scotia, the culture of wheat is on the decline, 
the area having fallen from 1,676,000 acres in 1890 to 899,000 in 1910, 
whereas during the same period the acreage in the western Provinces, 
not including British Columbia, increased from 1,010,000 to 8,396,000 
acres. The statement following shows the development of the wheat- 
growing industry and of the wheat-export movement in the Domin- 
ion during the past 20 years, as indicated by census reports for 1890 
and 1900 and estimates of the Dominion Department of Agriculture 
for 1908, 1909, and 1910. 

[Cir. 19] 



Total area and production of wheat in the Dominion of Canada, and exports of wheat and 
wheat flour therefrom, in specified years. 



Area and production. 


Exports. 


Calendar 

year. 


Area sowd. 


Production. 


Year 

ended 

June 30. 


Wheat. 


Wheat flour. 


1890 
1900 

1908 i 

1909 i 
1910' 


Acres. 
2,701,213 
4,224,542 
6,610,300 
7,750,400 
9, 294, 800 


Bushels. 

42.223,372 

55,572,368 

112,434,000 
166, 744, 000 
149,990,000 


1891 
1901 
1909 
1910 
1911 * 


Bushels. 
2,108,216 
9,739,758 
47,840,324 
53,045,620 
32,240,622 


Barrels. 
I,5s3,084 
1,811,869 
1,953.884 
3,314,356 
2,045,812 



1 Not including British Columbia. 

2 Eight months ended February, 1911. 

Winter wheat, it may be added, is produced to a noteworthy 
extent in the Dominion only in Ontario and Alberta; the respective 
areas sown last fall for harvest in 1911 have been officially estimated 
at 682,500 and 107,800 acres, against 609,200 and 98,000 last year. 
The May 10 report of the Dominion Department of Agriculture says : 
In Ontario April frosts were destructive in some regions; and from 12 to 34 per cent 
of the area sown has been reported as winter-killed. The central counties north of 
Lake Ontario suffered worst, the average loss as reported being 34 per cent. In the 
western counties 27 per cent of the area in crop has been destroyed. In the southern 
counties north of Lake Erie the loss is 10 per cent; in the northern counties and dis- 
tricts, 12.6 per cent; and in the eastern counties, between the St. Lawrence and 
Ottawa Rivers. 15 per cent. For the whole of Canada the area winter-killed is reported 
to be 21 per cent, and the per cent condition of the growing crop is 82. 

ARGENTINA. 

From the fact that 20 years ago the acreage under wheat in Argen- 
tina was approximately the same as that in Canada, it is of interest 
to contrast the subsequent development of each country in the culti- 
vation and exportation of this cereal. Below are the official figures 
on the area, production, and export of wheat in Argentina for prac- 
tically the same years as shown above for Canada: 

Total area and production of vjheat in Argentina, and exports of wheat and wheat flour 
therefrom, in specified years. 



Area and production. 


Exports. 


Crop year. 


Area sown. 


Production. 


Calendar 
year. 


Wheat. 


Wheal flour. 


1890-91 

1. -ni 

1908-09 
1909-10 
1910-11 


Acres. 

2,970,656 
8,351,360 
14,981,920 

14,422,100 
15,451,000 


Bushels. 
31,048,117 
74.752.034 
156,162,327 
131,010,000 
139,625,000 


1891 
1901 
1909 
1910 
1911 


Bushels. 
14.534,009 
33,226,692 
92,377,517 

69, 209, 499 


Barrels. 

78,904 

806. 951 

1,310,241 

1,29S,104 







Within the 20-year period twelve and one-half million acres have 
been added to the wheat fields of Argentina and only six and one- 
half million to those of Canada, the areas in 1910 having been, respec- 

[Cir. 19] 



tively, 15,452,000 and 9,295,000 acres. The figures on production are 
not so accurate an index of the relative advance in wheat culture, 
since the frequent occurrence of drought in one or the other country 
often vitiates the value of these figures as a measure of comparative 
progress. As would naturally be expected, Argentina is regularly 
the more important exporter. The population of Argentina is about 
6,500,000, and of Canada about seven and three-fourths millions; the 
domestic wheat requirement, including seed, of the former is probably 
greater than that of the latter by only a few million bushels. 

The 1910-11 wheat crop of Argentina has turned out somewhat 
better than anticipated. A revised estimate (April 20) of the Argen- 
tine Ministry of Agriculture now puts the yield at 139,625,000 
bushels — preliminary estimate last December, 136,318,000 bushels — 
and final figures for 1909-10, 131,010,000 bushels. The provisional 
estimate (26,967,000 bushels) of the 1910-11 flaxseed crop has been 
reduced to 23,620,000 bushels, against definite figures for the previous 
year of 28,212,000 bushels. As corn gathering progressed during 
March and April, pessimism respecting the outcome became inten- 
sified, popular belief becoming more and more confirmed that, in 
consequence of the damage from drought, there would be little surplus 
for export. In recent ye«ars the exports of corn have largely exceeded 
those from the United States, as may be seen from the following 
statement: 

Production of corn in Argentina, and exports thereof as compared with those jrom the 

United States. 

[Bushels of 56 pounds.] 



Calendar 
year. 


Production, 
Argentina. 


Exports. 


From 
Argentina. 


From 
United States. 


1910.... 

1909.... 
1908.... 
1907.... 
1906.... 


175,330,000 
177,157,000 
136, 057, 000 
71,768,000 
194, 912, 000 


104,812,000 
89, 499, 359 
67,390,278 
50, 262, 705 

106, 047, 790 


42,692,961 
36.205,650 

37,577,717 
83,200,S72 
102,518,817 



During corn harvest, field work preparatory to getting in the 
autumn-sown wheat, flaxseed, and oats was in full swing. The 
weather is reported to have been generally propitious, opportune 
rains kept the soil for the most part in good workable condition, 
much new ground is said to have been broken in the Pampa and 
Cordoba, and confidence is expressed that the total area sown to 
each of the above-named crops will exceed that of any previous 
year. 

AUSTRALIA. 

Plowing for winter wheat, which began early in April, has suffered 
considerable interruption in some districts from excessive rains, and 

[Cir. 19] 



in the eastern States of the Commonwealth it is said the land seeded 
may be somewhat curtailed. In Western Australia wheat culture is 
likely again to undergo extension. 



NEW ZEALAND. 



The official preliminary estimate of the yields of grain for the 
current season, with a comparison of the actual yields for the pre- 
vious season, is given below : 

Area and production oj grain in New Zealand. 



Crops. 


Year. 


Area. 


Production. 




Per acre. 


Total. 


Wheat 


1910-11 
1909-10 

1910-11 
1909-10 

1910-11 
1909-10 


A ores. 
27 '4, 533 
311,000 

353,997 
377,000 

32,969 
41,500 


Bushels.* 
26.10 
28.97 

38.11 
37.01 

28.08 
30.51 


Bushels. 1 
7,164,181 


Oats 


9,008,322 
13,492,423 




13,953.128 
925,682 




1,266,098 



1 Winchester bushels reduced from imperial bushels. 



BRITISH INDIA. 

Harvest of wheat and oil seeds, now nearing an end, has been 
favored by good weather, excepting occasional heavy rains and high 
winds in the United Provinces and the Punjab; prospects of a 
bumper crop in this, in point of area, the third largest wheat-pro- 
ducing country of the world, are well maintained. The acreage 
exceeds all previous records but one. The highest yield in the his- 
tory of the country was 360,000,000 bushels in 1904, out of which 
there were exported 80,000,000 bushels. The statistical history of 
the production and exportation of wheat for the past few years is as 
below: 

Production and exports of wheat in British India. 



Area and production. 


Exports. 


Calendar 
year. 


Area. 


Production. 


Year 
ended 
Mar. 31. 


Wheat. 


Wheat 
flour. 


1911 

1910 
1909 
1908 
1907 
1906 
1905 
1904 


Acres. 
i 28,973,000 
27,919,000 
26,149,000 
28,824,500 
29,212,500 
26,357,400 
28,470,200 
28, 413, 700 


Bushels. 


1912 
1911 
1910 
1909 
1908 
1907 
1906 
1905 


Bushels. 


Barrels. 


357,941,000 
2S4,361,000 
227,983,000 
317,023,000 
319,952,000 
283,063,000 
359,936,000 


C-) 
39,221,437 
4,097,002 
32,870,475 
29, 920, 639 
35,004,872 
80,267,604 


( 2 ) 
265,275 
227,817 
281,657 
309,688 
340, 183 
390, 228 



[Cir. 19] 



1 Preliminary estimate. 



* Data not yet available. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

The wintry weather of March continued up to mid-April, seriously 
hampering field work and retarding the growth of vegetation, but 
warmth and sunshine the latter half of the month expedited the 
seeding of nearly all land intended for grain. Probably owing to 
additional sowings in February, the area under wheat has been 
officially returned as 5 per cent larger than last year. The condi- 
tion of the autumn-sown fields is said to be fairly promising, the 
principal exceptions being on those sown late, that is, after the 
heavy downpours of last November. February sowings are described 
as presenting an appearance of robust vitality. Oats is believed to 
have been sown on a much larger and barley on a smaller area than 
last year. Excepting for a somewhat retarded state of vegetation 
general prospects are quite satisfactory. 

FRANCE. 

Unseasonably low temperature prevailed intermittently throughout 
a great part of April. Snow, rain, hail, and sleet were reported from 
all regions within the first 10 days of the month, and in some places 
the mercury fell lower than in any April in 40 years. In the south 
early vegetables, vineyards, and early flowering fruit trees, such as 
almonds, apricots, and peaches, were seriously attainted by frost, 
but owing to a fortuitous covering of snow over most of the country 
no extensive damage seems to have been done the cereals. Subse- 
quent weather permitted resumption of the interrupted sowing of 
spring oats, barley, and wheat, and the preparation of the soil for 
planting sugar beets and potatoes, but continued low temperatures, 
with white frosts up to near the end of the month, caused constant 
anxiety over the fate of the more tender vegetation. Notwithstand- 
ing widespread apprehensions, the agricultural situation at the end 
of the month was on the whole spoken of rather favorably — certainly 
more hopefully than at the same time last year. Winter wheat 
probably covers a reduced area; the early sown, the bulk of the crop, 
is spoken of in general as having a promising appearance; but that 
sown in December and January is said in some localities, especially 
of the west, north, and east, to have a thin stand, because of poor 
germination. The condition of winter rye, which likewise probably 
covers a surface less than last year, is satisfactory; that of winter 
oats poor. The sowing of spring cereals, notwithstanding some delay 
from inclement weather, was practically finished by mid-April, or 
earlier than last year. Early growth was vigorous, but owing to a 
period of drought and heat in the closing days of the month, late 
reports were less optimistic. 

The French Ministry of Agriculture has recently issued its final 
estimates of the area and production of cereals in 1910; wheat has 

[Cir. 19] 



yielded 9,183,000, and rye 6,769,000 measured bushels less than 
originally estimated. The official data follow: 





Final area and production of grain crops oj France in 1910. 






Crops. 


Area. 


Production. 




By measure. 


By weight. 


Wheat 


Acres. 
16,209,500 
1,081,000 
3, 004, 200 
1,850,200 
9,766,700 


Bushels. 1 
259,181,000 
5,436,000 
44,981,000 
43, 676, 000 
296,088,000 


Bushels* 
254,507,000 




5,327,000 


Rye 


44,913,000 

44,842,000 

342,875,000 




Oats 







i Winchester bushels. 



1 Bushels: Wheat GO, maslin 58, rye 56, barley 48, and oats 32 pounds. 



SPAIN. 

Rather vague complaints of crop damage, due to low temperatures 
and frosts, have been reported from some districts. 

ITALY. 

Although abnormal weather for these latitudes — snow in the north 
and night frosts in the south — was experienced in early April, there 
have been few noteworthy complaints respecting the state of either 
the autumn or spring sown crops. Ample moisture to facilitate the 
preparation of the soil and seasonable development of vegetation are 
reported from most districts. 

GERMANY. 

In the report of the Imperial Statistical Office on the mid-April 
condition of crops in Germany, it is stated that the snowfalls of the 
winter of 1910-11 were of moderate proportions and short duration. 
Spring set in early, with summerlike days in March. Early April was 
unseasonably cold, warm weather resuming sway only during the 
latter half of the month. Respecting the state of the crops, the report 
is not especially assuring. The late sown are said to have developed 
poorly, having suffered from April frosts and from ravages of field 
mice. Replanting will be necessary on an extensive scale, but the 
extent can not be known until the issuance of the May report. Below 
are the official figures: 

Crop conditions in Germany April 15. 
[1— very good; 2=good; 3= medium; 4= poor; 5= very poor.] 



Crops. 




Nov. 15, 
1910. 


Apr. 15, 
1910. 


Apr. 15, 
1909. 


Apr. 15, 
1908. 


82.6 
2.7 


2.2 
2.4 
2.3 
2.4 


3.1 
3.0 
2.8 
2.7 


2.5 
2.6 
2.5 
2.5 









Average 
Apr. 15, 
1901-1910. 



Winter wheat 
Winter rye... 

Clover 

Alfalfa 



[Cir. 19] 



2.7 
2.6 
2.6 
2.5 



10 

AUSTRIA. 

According to the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture, wheat, rye, 
clover, and alfalfa emerged from the winter in good condition, but 
cold weather in early April retarded growth. At the date to which 
the report refers (April 15), potato planting had for the most part 
been finished, corn planting was still in progress, and the sowing of 
spring barley and oats had just begun. Owing to the low tempera- 
ture the spring-sown cereals had germinated poorly, and barley, 
when up, had lost color. Hops wintered well and are in good con- 
dition. 

HUNGARY. 

Wheat prospects deteriorated considerably during the winter, the 
Ministry of Agriculture on April 9 putting the loss at 10.3 per cent. 
The greater proportion is attributed to the ravages of field mice, the 
loss from that cause being 7.2 per cent and from winterkill only 3.1. 
The surface under wheat shows some increase on both sides of the 
Danube, but elsewhere a small decline. Rye, barley, and oats are 
believed to cover a diminished area, as compared with last year. 
Wintry weather, with snow and night frosts, were reported from all 
parts of the country during a great part of April. Farm work and 
spring sowings were interrupted, but no losses of an irreparable 
character are believed to have been incurred. 

ROUMANIA. 

The weather during April was warm and spring-like with plentiful 
showers over the greater part of the country, and work in the fields 
progressed under favorable circumstances. Corn planting is now in 
progress. Autumn-sown grain, especially wheat, is generally spoken 
of as looking well, although in some districts reso wings were necessary. 
Crop prospects are in general satisfactory. 

BULGARIA. 

The German consul at Varna reported April 6 that notwithstand- 
ing repeated frosts and snow in March, crops in that district were 
everywhere satisfactory. The winter was on the whole favorable 
for spring sowings, then in full progress or even in some places 
ended, excepting in the case of corn and beans, the planting of which 
had not begun. 

RUSSIA. 

The striking feature of the beginning of the agricultural season of 
1911 has been the late advent of spring throughout the entire country. 
During the first half of April farm work was almost everywhere inter- 

[Cir. 19] 



UC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 




11 



rupted by heavy falls of snow, and, though subsequently there was 
fine weather, sowings are much in arrears. In many places opera- 
tions were only begun at a date that in ordinary years marks their 
completion. The delay is undesirable in that it may jeopardize the 
chances of the spring crops, particularly the important spring wheat 
crop, becoming well rooted before the heated season sets in. The 
general impression seems to be that excepting in some southern gov- 
ernments, notably Bessarabia, Kherson, the Crimea, the Don terri- 
tory, and a few others, winter cereals have successfully passed through 
the rigors of winter. The central statistical committee, in a report 
early in April, relating to 61 governments, stated that snow cover 
during the winter had been sufficient in 19, not quite sufficient in 25, 
and entirely insufficient in 17 governments, but no definite figures 
are available indicating the amount of damage done on unprotected 
territory. 

EUROPEAN TURKEY. 

The director of statistics in the Turkish Ministry of Agriculture, 
Mines, and Forests has recently issued a report on agricultural pro- 
duction, covering all of European Turkey except one vilayet, and cer- 
tain mountainous districts in another from which returns had not yet 
arrived. Although European Turkey comprises less than 6 per cent 
of the area, it contains nearly 25 per cent of the population of the 
Ottoman Empire ; and the statistics of its production have, therefore, 
an interest considerably in excess of that which they would derive 
from its mere territorial extent. 

Area, production, and value of cereals in European Turkey. 



Crops. 



Wheat 

Rye 

Barley 

Oats 

Corn 

Other cereals . 



Total. 



Area (acres). 



1,001,225 
258, 845 
510,677 
297, 187 
726, 568 
157, 363 



3,011,865 



Product 
(bushels). : 



19,461,778 
5,808,165 

13, 443, 431 
6,526,483 

16,658,136 
2,989,770 



64,887,763 



Value. 



$19, 530, 370 
4, 440, 537 
8, 360, 743 
2, 605, 095 
11,902,963 
1,687,272 



48, 532, 980 



1 Bushels of capacity. 

Peas, beans, lentils, and chick peas (dry), with potatoes added, 
amounting to 52,315,200 pounds, and worth $877,978, were grown on 
86,591 acres. Other crops grown are: 



Crops. 



Acres. 



Product 
(pounds). 



Tobacco | 62, 415 

Cotton, flax, and hemp 24,895 

Sesame, opium, canary seed 54,278 

[Cir. 19] 



49,177,190 
9,262,717 
19, 947, 863 



12 

These, with the addition of olives, olive oil, and cocoons, for which 
areas are given, are valued at $6,591,451. Grapes, wine, and brandy, 
valued at $3,319,847, were obtained from 181,035 acres in vines. 
Fruit trees yielded $50,190, and animals and animal products, 
$14,131,847. The grand total is $73,504,293, of which the cereals 
contributed nearly two-thirds. 

Approved: 

James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 

Washington, D. C, May 10, 1911. 

[Cir. 19] 

o