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Full text of "Forest fires and their prevention : including, Forest fires in North Carolina during 1910"

I 



NORTH CAROLINA f!l!||J|i 

GEOLOGICAL AND '■ 
ECONOMIC SURViP 

JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, STATE GEOLOGIST 



ECONOMIC PAPER NO. 22 




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Cullen E. Whitley 



RESOURCES 
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^tPARTMENT 



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DEPARTMENT Of 
.CONSERVATION AND DEVaOPMB^- 



This book is due on the date indicated 
below and is subject to an overdue 
fme as posted at the circulation desk. 



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EXCEPTION: Date due will be 
earlier if this item is RECALLED. 



NATURAL 



RESOURCES 



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150M/01-92— 941680 



GEOLOGY DEPAHT 
^3. C. STATE COLI 



NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 
JOSEPH HYDK PRATT, State Geologist 



ECONOMIC PAPER No. 22 



Forest Fires and Their Prevention 



INCLVDINC 



FOREST FIRES IN NORTH CAROLINA 
DURING 1910 



J. S. HOLMES, Forester 




RALEIGH 

Edwards & Brodqhton Printing Compaxt, State Printers 

1911 



GEOLOGICAL BOARD 



Governor W. W. Kitchix, ex officio Chairman Raleigh 

Fra.nk R. Hewitt Asheville 

Hugh MacRae Wilmington 

R. D. Caldwell Lumberton 

M. R. BuAswELL Rocky Mount 



Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist Chapel Hill 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Chapel Hill, ^^. C, August 1, 1911. 

To His Excellency, Honorable W. W. Kitchin, 

Governor of North Carolina. 
SiK : — I herewith submit for i^ublication as Economic Paper 22 of 
the reports of the Xorth Carolina Geological and Economic Survey a 
report on Forest Fires and their Prevention, including statistics regard- 
ing Forest Fires in J^Torth Carolina during 1910, which has been pre- 
pared bj Mr. J. S. Holmes, Forester to the Survey. The statistics are 
more complete and accurate than those collected for 1909 and mora 
intelligent answers were received from inquiries during this second year 
of collection. Yours respectfully, 

Joseph Hyde Pkatt, 

State Geologist. 






^_^^-«2.- 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction 9 

The Weather in 1910 10 

Tabular Statement 10 

Summary of Reports from Correspondents by Regions for 1910 and 1909. 

(Table 1.) 11 

Coastal Plain Region (Table 2) 12 

Pie.lmont Region ( Table 3 ) 14 

Mountain Region ( Table 4 ) 16 

Analysis of Tables. 

Comparative Statement of Averages by Regions for 1910 and 1909. 

(Table 5.) 17 

Number of Fires 17 

Area Burnt Over 17 

Merchantable Timber Destroyed 18 

Forest Prodijcts Destroyed 18 

Improvements Destroyed 18 

Number of Lives Lost 18 

Cost to Fight Fires 19 

Loss FROM Fires Not Included in Tables 19 

Causes of Forest Fires 20 

Tabular Statement of Causes in Percentages (Table 6) 21 

Preventive and Protective Measures 22 

Private Measures 22 

Co-operative Associations 2.3 

Associations Chiefly Educational 24 

Associations Chiefly Protective 24 

State Measures 25 

Present Laws 2.5 

Proposed Laws 25 

To Control Fires Set by Private Individuals 28 

To Control Railroad Fires 29 

To Organize a Fire Warden System 31 

National Measures 33 

Co-operation L'nder the W^eks Bill 33 

Educational Measures 34 

Arbor Day 35 

Teaching Forestry in the Public Schools 37 

Teaching Forestry in the Colleges 39 

Lectures at Farmer's Institutes, etc 39 

Forestrj- Associations 40 

Demonstration Forests 42 

Conclusion 42 



FOREST FIRES AND THEIR PREVENTION 



By J. S. Holmes. 



IMBODICTIOX. 



During 1909 the United States forest Service attempted to collect 
uniform data on the prevalence and destructiveness of forest fires iu all 
the various States. The !N"orth Carolina Geological and Economic Sur- 
vey co-operated with the Forest Service in this work in this State, and 
got together some very interesting figures. Though admittedly incom- 
plete, these "were published by the State Survey in Economic Paper Xo. 
19, "Forest Fires in Xorth Carolina During 1909." This publication 
has been scattered widely through the State, and is still available for 
distribution. It should be read in connection with the present report 
in order to best understand the application of the figures and to obtain 
much information which it was thought best not to repeat. 

Owing to the failure of many of the States to obtain sufficient reliable 
information, the general fire study of the Forest Service, which was in- 
tended to be annual and permanent, has been discontinued. The Xorth 
Carolina Geological and Economic Survey then had to decide as to 
the advisability of continuing the collection of these figures unaided. 
Though the data collected last year was far from satisfactory, still it 
was thought that the economic and educational value of such figures 
was great enough to warrant the expense of collecting them. With the 
hope, therefore, of increasing their accuracy and broadening their 
influence, the Survey determined to continue the collection of this infor- 
mation in regard to the annual destruction by forest fires. 

Accordingly, as soon as the year closed, question blanks were sent 
out to about eight hundred correspondents in all parts of the State, 
together with a stamped envelope for reply. These forms contained the 
same questions that were asked last year, but, in order to make the 
replies more definite and accurate, the correspondents were asked to 
confine their figures to one or more specified townships, and not try to 
estimate for the whole county. This method has succeeded much better 
even than was expected. Xo correspondent attempted to answer for 
more than one or at the most, two townships, and, as a consequence, the 
figures included in this report, though attempting to represent an even 
smaller part of the State than last year, are, it is thought, considerably 
more accurate. Still it must not be forgotten that all figures given are 



10 Forest Fires and their Prevextion. 

estimates, and sonietiiues only very rough estimates at that, as it would 
have been impossible to obtain definite figures without an immense 
amount of trouble and expense. 

THE WEATHER I\ 1910. 

As the condition of the weather, especially the amount and local 
distribution of the precipitation has a great deal to do with the fre- 
quency and severity of forest fires, a brief review of the weather condi- 
tions for 1910 will add interest and value to this report. 

The past year was notCAVorthy for two quite severe droughts, extend- 
iug over the entire State, though generally more severe in the eastern 
part. The greatest deficiency in precipitation occurred in March, the 
rainfall for that month being less than for any previous March for 
which there are any records. Practically no rain fell after March 
12th. This droughty condition, which lasted up to the middle of April, 
and was accompanied by high Avinds, made the danger from forest fires 
very great. Destructive fires broke out in many counties before the end 
of March and continued with increasing frequency and severity up to 
the middle of April, when a general rain restored normal conditions. 
June was a Avet month, the rainfall all over the State being markedly in 
excess of the normal. HeaA-y summer rains continued at intervals until 
September, Avhen dry Aveather again commenced, though in the moun- 
tains rain fell generally until October. The fall drought lasted until 
December 3d. November Avas very dry, only about one-fourth of the 
normal rainfall occurring over the Avliole State. Very seA'ere fires 
occurred during this season, both in the mountains and in the eastern 
part of the State. Altogether, the year 1910 showed a slightly greater 
rainfall than the previous year, though a little less than the normal 
amount of precipitation Avas recorded. 

TABULAR STATEMENT. 

The folloAving tables have been compiled from the information fur- 
nished by voluntary correspondents all over the State. There Avas only 
one county AA'hich did not send in any report, and most counties AA^ere 
represented by three or four correspondents. This, it is realized, is quite 
insufficient to get complete reports, but it is enough to give some idea 
of the magnitude of the loss Avhich is yearly experienced, and this, it 
must be remembered, is the chief object of these tables. It is hoped 
that another year the number of voluntary correspondents may be 
greatly increased, thereby enabling the Survey to publish much more 
complete figures. 



Forest Fires axd their Prea'extion. 11 



TABLE 1.— FOREST FIRES IN XORTH CAROLINA DURING 1910. COMPARATIVE 
STATEMENT. SUMMARY OF REPORTS FROM CORRESPONDENTS BY 
REGIONS, FOR 1910 AND 1909. 

! Mountain. Piedmont. Coastal Plain. State. 

1910. 1909. 1910. 1909. 1910. 1909. 1910. 1909. 

Total number of townships in region 166 450 364 ___ 980 

Number of tcTwnships reporting-..- 51 146 131 328 

Number of replies received 48 47 142 61 131 50 321 158 

Number of forest fires reported 1.36 249 258 86 312 272 706 607 

Total area burnt over, in acres .... 80,825 166,295 1.58,948 100,670 .3.39,780 1.39,100 579,553 406,065 

Total area growing merchantable 

timber burnt over, in acres 64,250 128,145 46,839 77,735 142,010 51.025 253.099 256,905 

Total area of second growth, not 
vet merchantable, burnt over, 
in acres 7,190 13,100 55,712 14. .5.55 78,7.35 27,050 141,637 54,705 

Total area of cut-over land burnt 

over, in acres 9,385 25,050 56,397 8,380 119.035 61,025 184,817 94,405 

Total standing timber destroved in 

M. ft. bd. measure 6,915 17,325 12,553 11,027 42,550 9,280 62,018 37,632 

Value of timber destroved, in 

.dollars.— S 25,095 8 47,520S 35,930-5 33,374 §108,995 -S 26, 360 $170, 020 S107, 254 

Value of forest products destroyed, 

in dollars -S 28,215$ 17,075 -SlOO, 415 -S 39, 425 $129, 545 -S .30, 245 $258, 175 S 86,745 

Value of improvements destroved, 

in dollars $ 19,375$ 26,550$ 25,615$ 14,750$ .53,805$ 17,105$ 98,795$ 58,405 

Number of lives lost 10 10 3 5 

Cost to private individuals to fight 

fire.... .-..$ 13,155$ 6,650$ 10,503$ 1,059$ 11,780$ 6,355$ 35,438$ 14,064 



12 



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Forest Fires axd their Prevextiox. 17 



TABLE 5.— comparative STATEMENT OF AVERAGES BY REGIONS FOR 
1910 AND 1909. 





Mountain. 


Piedmont. 


Coastal Plain. 


State. 




1910. 


1909. 


1910. 


1909. 


1910. 


1909. 


1910. 


1909. 


Percentage of townships reporting. . 


31 




32 




36 




33.5 




Average area of each fire, in acres. _ 


594 


668 


616 


1,171 


1,0S9 


511 


821 


667 


Average damage bv each fire, in 
dollars 


631 
1.585 


393 


668 
1,089 


1,030 


974 
2,594 


294 


775 
1,805 


439 


Average area burnt over per town- 
ship reporting, in acres.- 




Average damage per acre, in cents. 


1.06 


.59 


1.08 


.88 


.90 


.57 


.97 


.66 


Average cost to fight fires per acre 
burnt over, in cents 


.16 


.04 


.06 


.01 


.03 


.04 


.06 


■ OiVt 



NUMBER OF FIRES. 

Of the 800 blanks sent out, only 320, or 41 per cent, were filled out 
and returned. Though these covered only one-third of the townships 
of the State, it is probable that they include the greater part of the 
more important fires, though many other fires have occurred in town- 
ships not reported on. This has been ascertained from clippings taken 
from the local press of the State, which mention additional fires in at 
least ten counties. 

Xo doubt many fires also took place in townships making reports 
which the correspondents, owing to their location in a different part 
of the township, had not heard of. 

From tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 it will be seen that 726 fires were reported, 
or an average of a little over two fires to the township reporting. This 
is only slightly in excess of the total number of fires reported for 1909. 
While there were barely half the number of fires reported from the 
mountain region, there were nearly three times as many in the Pied- 
mont region as were reported for 1909. This is probably due in large 
part to the two droughts, which were so severe over the eastern part of 
the State, and which were much less felt in the mountains. The com- 
paratively small niunber of replies receiv.ed from the western part of 
the State might also partly account for it. 

AREA BURNT OVER. 

About 580,000 acres of land were reported burnt over during 1910. 
This is 43 per cent in excess of the amount burnt over last year. The 
comparative freedom of the mountain counties from fires shows itself 
in the 80,000 acres burnt over, which is less than half that was burnt 
over in that region in 1909. 
' 2 



18 Forest Fikes axd their Prevextiox. 

Nearly half of tlie burnt-over area of the State was supporting a 
growth of merchantable timber, though probably the greater part of it 
had been culled to some extent. The division of the area into mer- 
chantable timber, second growth, and cut-over, is only approximate and 
can not be taken as definite figures. Nearly all merchantable timber in 
the hardwood forests contains more or less second growth, while a great 
l^art of the cut-over lauds also contains much young growth. Such 
figures, therefore, can not be accurate, and are of use cliieily in giving 
some idea of the damage done by fires. 

MERCHANTABLE TIMBER DESTROYED. 

The amount of merchantable timber destroyed, compared with the 
area burnt over containing such timber, appears to be very small. This 
is due to the fact that, as a rule, mature timber is not killed outright by 
the ordinary forest fires in this State, unless the fire occurs in tlio late 
spring. Most fires, however, do seriously injure mature standing tim- 
ber, and often the death of timber Avhich is attributed to insects is 
really primarily caused by forest fires. In spite of this, however, there 
is a reported loss of 62,000,000 feet of merchantable timber from fires. 
This is nearly twice as much as was reported destroyed in 1909. 

FOREST PRODUCTS DESTROYED. 

The value of forest products destroyed in 1910 is about three times 
as much as that listed for 1909, and amounts to over a quarter of a 
million dollars. This includes sawlogs, lumber, cordwood, bark, and 
other material. 

Although this large item of loss is no doul)t much below the real 
figure, it is, however, enough to make peoi)le realize the a(lvisal)ility of 
taking acti^'e steps to prevent such fires. 

I.MPROVK.AIEXTS DESTROYED. 

Farm improvements, chiefly fences and outbuildings, are included 
under tbis head. Ninety-eight thousand dollars was lost by the de- 
struction of this class of j^i-operty alone, niore than half of it in the 
Coastal Plain region. This, as will be seen from Table 1. is also largely 
in excess of that of 1909. 

LIVES LOST. 

The year 1910 will long be remembered as one of the most destruc- 
tive to life and property from forest fires throughout the country. Dur- 
ing the month of August scores of lives were lost in the forest regions 
of the northwestern States. 



FoKEST Fires and their Prevention. 19 

- Though we are apt to think that our fires are altogether different 
from those in the West, yet a loss of five human lives through forest 
fires occurred in North Carolina in 1910. Besides the woman burnt in 
Cumberland County, referred to in last year's report, a colored girl 
and an old woman were burnt to death in Columbus County while 
trying to protect their property from the flames. Two men lost their 
lives fighting fire in the western part of the State, one in Haywood 
County, and the other one near Marion in McDowell County. Such 
deaths are usually spoken of as accidental, but they are preventable 
accidents, for they would not have occurred had it not been for the 
criminal carelessness of those who let the fires get out. 

COST TO FIGHT FIRES. 

More than $35,000 was spent by private individuals and lumber com- 
panies in 1910 in extinguishing forest fires, or two and a half times the 
amount spent the previous year. This does not comprise the total cost 
of fighting fire even in the townships reporting, for, as a rule, small 
fires and those on private land are fought, when any effort is made to 
extinguish them, by the voluntary help of the neighbors. A glance at 
the figures in Table 5 shows that about sixteen cents per acre burnt over 
was spent in the Mountain region to fight fii-es, while only about three 
cents per acre was spent in the Coastal Plain. This does not mean that 
the mountain people are not willing to fight fire unless paid for it, for 
they are just as ready as any one else to assist their neighbors in such 
emergencies. It means that the lumber companies and other timberland 
o^^aiers of that region are more alive to the destruction caused by fire 
than those of the Coastal Plain region. This is partly because many 
owners of mature timber in eastern North Carolina still burn to protect 
their timber from more destructive conflagrations, but chiefly because 
many of the eastern lumbermen own the timber without the land, and 
so have no interest in protecting the young growth, while those in the 
Mountain region usually own both land and timber and are anxious 
to keep fire out. It is an encouraging sign that while twice as much 
was spent in 1910 in fighting fires in the mountains as Avas spent in 
l909, only half as great an area Avas burnt over. While the weather 
was in part responsible for this there is no doubt that the increasing 
watchfulness and effort on the part of landowners is bringing results. 

LOSS FROM FIRE NOT INCLUDED IN THE TABLES. 

A loss of considerably over $500,000 in one-third of the townships of 
the State seems a large sum, and yet it is far from representing the 



20 Forest Fires and their Prevention. 

entire damage, even of the fires that were reported. The injurv to tlic 
standing timber which is not killed is often just as heavy as that caused 
hy the destruction of the trees. 

The damage done to young growth and reproduction is usually con- 
siderably greater than that done to the mature timber, but as it is in 
most cases difficult to put a cash value on this young growth, because 
it has no sale value, it is usually left out of all estimates of damage. 
There is now, however, a tendency to take into account the young 
growth destroyed by a fire, as is evidenced by two correspondents; one 
in the mountains, Avho estimated a loss of $5 per acre in the destruction 
of young growth; the other on the coast, who put down a loss of $1,000 
in young growth, caused by burning over 500 acres of land. These, 
which are no doubt very conservative estimates, go to show that some 
landoAvners are realizing the loss to the future forest that is taking 
place. Xext year an attempt will be made by the Survey to get corre- 
spondents to include damage to young growth by furnishing question 
blanks with a space for this purpose.* 

The gradual killing out and disappearance from the forest of such 
valuable species as poj)lar, white pine, and chestnut, and the substitution 
for them of the inferior, though more fire-resistant kinds, means a seri- 
ous loss to the landowner which will be appreciated more thoroughly by 
the next generation because the change is comparatively slow. Such a 
loss is hard to estimate for any one year, but it will manifest itself in 
the gradual decline in the value of the propcj-ty. 

The gradual, though certain, impoverishment of the soil through the 
constant burning of the leaves, causes great loss in the value of the land 
on which the forest is growing. This loss shows itself in the slower 
growth of the trees and in the decline in value of the land for agricul- 
tural purposes. 

The washing of the soil by the rains is one of the forms of (hiniaui' 
caused by forest fires. The coating of leaves ])rotects tlie top soil, and 
when this is removed the rains rush oft" to tlie streams, removing the 
surface soil, and filling up tlie sireambeds wi'li silt and sand, thereby 
damaging the land and seriously interfering with the navigability of 
the streams. 

CAUSES OF FOREST FIUES. 

The principal causes of forest fires, as given by the various corre- 
spondents for their own townships, have been compiled and are given in 
percentages in Table 6. 



•Damage to young growth from forest fires is discussed pretty fully in Economic Paper 10, "Forest 
Fires in North Carolina During 1909," page 25. 



Forest Fires and their Prevention. 



21 



TABLE 6.— CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES IN THE DIFFERENT REGIONS OF NORTH 
CAROLINA IN 1910, IN PERCENTAGES. 





1910. 


1909. 




Moun- 
tain 


Pied- 
mont. 


Coastal. 


State. 


State. 




8 
2 


23 
6 
5 

13 
3 


7 
6 
2 
22 
27 
15 
2 


13 
6 
3 
20 
20 
9 
5 

1 
3 


10 




16 




3 




11 

18 
8 


15 




17 




5 






10 
3 

1 
1 


3 












1 
3 


1 




8 


4 




2 




13 
16 
16 






2 
9 


13 


Malice or incendiary 

Unknown causes.. 


6 
4 


8 


4 

7 



This table shows that over three-fourths of the fires reported from all 
over the State were thought to be uuiutentioual. Forty-two per cent 
of all the replies given by correspondents can be classified under the 
head of individual carelessness, which is practically the same figure as 
was obtained last year. In the Piedmont region, however, where burn- 
ing to improve the range is practically eliminated as a cause of fires, 
fifty-seven per cent of the correspondents attributed the fires to indi- 
vidual carelessness. Farmers burning brush, grass, stumps, and rubbish 
are said to be responsible for about one-third of these "individual" fires, 
while probably a majority of those attributed to general carelessness 
should come under this head. This is by far the most frequent cause 
of fires originating from the individual. More care in the setting of 
such fires, and watching them till they are burned out and harmless, 
would prevent many of the most serious and destructive fires. 

Sparks from engines is a very fertile cause of forest fires, over one- 
third of the correspondents giving this as the principal cause in 1910. 
Railroad and logging locomotives are the chief offenders, twenty-nine 
per cent of all the correspondents accusing them. This is considerably 
more than fell to their share in 1909. These railroad fires are in large 
part preventable, and as soon as property owners along the lines of rail- 
roads unite in demanding protection, it can be secured. 



22 Forest Fires and their Prevention. 

According to tlie above table, intentional fires are most frequent in 
the Mountain region, where thirty-seven per cent are said to be pur- 
posely set. This is a large proportion, though it is an improvement over 
the report for the previous year, which showed that in the mountains 
nearly half the fires were set on purpose. This large number of inten- 
tional fires is in part due to the destructive habit of burning the woods 
to' "improve the range" for loose cattle, which ought to be confined to 
their owner's land, and in part to an unfortunate feeling of antagonism 
in some localities against large landowners who are trying to protect 
their forests. The large increase in malicious" or incendiary fires all 
over the State is a regrettable feature of the 1910 figures and one tliat 
is not easy to explain. It indicates very clearly, however, tliat more 
stringent laws and better law enforcement are needed in order to check 
this nuisance. 

PREVENTIVE A>D PROTECTIVE MEASURES. 

We have in Xorth Carolina a reported loss from forest fires in 1910 
of $560,000. This report covers only one-third, of the townships of the 
State, and does not include injury to standing timber, damaged, but not 
killed ; to young growth ; to soil and streams by any of the fires. There 
can be little doubt, therefore, that the total loss through forest fires in 
]^orth Carolina during 1910 amounted to at least a million dollars. In 
addition to this there was very serious loss of life from the same cause. 
Is it not time that North Carolina as a State, and we as individuals, 
took some steps to abate this nuisance? 

If there was any one measure that would stop these fires we could 
easily be persuaded to adopt it, but, unfortunately, there is no such spe- 
cific. There is, however, much that we can all do and the following 
preventive and protective measures are strongly advocated. 

private measures. 
The OAvner of woodland, Avhether a corporation or a ])rivate individ- 
ual, can do much towards protecting his property from fire, though to 
achieve the greatest success all such efforts should have the hearty 
co-operation of the community and the State. Fire lines cleared out 
around or through a property are very effective in stopping a moderate 
fire. When a strong wind is blowing and the fire is very heavy, such a 
fire line is invaluable as a vantage ground from which to start a back 
fire. Adequate fire lines can be constructed at from $10 to $50 per mile, 
according to the nature of the ground over which it has to be made. 
Such a fire line has been made over the rough mountain country of 
northeast McDowell County at less than the higher figure. 



Forest Fires and their Prevextiox. 23 

Patrol is probably the most effective single means tliat the individual 
can put into practice, though quite expensive. Efficient patrol will cost 
from one to three cents per acre per year. Some companies, especially 
in the mountainous part of the State, employ one or more men to look 
after their forest land, and often part of their duty is patrolling. If 
this were more generally practiced many fires would be prevented, and 
many more extinguished before they had gotten beyond control. 

Warning notices, calling the attention of the passers-by to the danger 
of forest fires, are used to a large extent in the National Forests of the 
West, and are employed on many of the private or corporate holdings 
in the l^orth and East, and to some extent in the South, though in this 
State they are little used, except to include a prohibition against setting 
fire to the woods in a general trespass notice. A carefully-worded re- 
minder, posted where it will be seen and read, is calculated to help 
materially in suppressing the ^'careless" fir'e.* 

Farmers can do much to prevent the disastrous, spring fires by burn- 
ing in the winter as much as possible what brush and rubbish it is 
necessary to remove in this way, and by never leaving even an innocent- 
looking fire until it is quite out. Renters, who very often own no land 
and are absolutely irresponsible, should be bound by a contract not to 
set out fire in dry Aveather. If every renter who let fire escape and 
burnt up his landlord's woods were in the future denied a place to rent in 
that neighborhood, this class of offenders would learn to be more careful. 

A stipulation against setting fire to the woods should always be in- 
cluded in a contract for the sale of timber. There is no more reason for 
the purchaser of mature timber to destroy all the reproduction and 
young growth on the ground by fire than there is for a man who buys 
the apple crop to cut down and destroy an orchard in order to harvest 
the fruit, and the sooner landowners realize this the better it will be for 
their interests. 

co-operative associations. 

Co-operation between individuals for the purpose of fire protection 
adds very much to the effectiveness of private efforts. The individual 
suffers as much and sometimes more from fires that start beyond his 
boundary than from those originating on his land; especially if he is 
patrolling and his neighbor is not. Xo matter how careful a man may 
be or how much he spends on fire protection, the fires that originate and 
develop great headway before they come onto his property, can not be 
controlled. Besides the attainment of efficiency through co-operation. 



•Fire lines, fire patrol and fire notices are more fully discussed in Economic Paper 19, "Forest Fires 
North Carolina During 1909," pp. 43-47. 



24 Forest Fires and their Prevention. 

the cost of protection is reduced to a inininiuiu. Oue man can patrol 
much more territory if he feels responsible for all the area that comes 
within his vision than if he has to look out for boundary lines and his 
operations are restricted. Some form of co-oju'ration is essential for the 
most successful fire-fighting. 

The value of co-operative associations has been pretty clearly demon- 
strated in several of the far westeni States dui'ing the past two or three 
years. Two separate kinds of associations for forest protection have 
been formed; the one chiefly educational, the other engaging in the 
actual protective work. 

Associations Chiefly Educational: — The Oregon Forest Fire Associa- 
tion is a representative of this class. It does not itself engage actively 
in fire work, but is a rather loose affiliation of individual patrol systems, 
each doing its fire work independently, but using the central facilities 
for legislative and publicity purposes and particularly to stimulate the 
installation of further individual i)atrols. The formation of local co- 
operative patrol associations is also encouraged. In fact, its main pur- 
pose is for the general promotion of patrols in the State, of giving out 
information regarding the best methods of protection, endeavoring to 
induce the public to be more careful in the use of fire, and tiying to 
persuade owners to maintain patrols. There is a large amount of Avork 
of this nature to be done and it will belp the general movement, but of 
course, the only way to prevent fires is to have patrolmen on the ground. 
Such an association denotes a less advanced stage in co-0])erative effort — 
for a large number of independent patrols cannot etpial systematic co- 
operative management of the work in either economy or results — nor 
does it have the same public standing. Moreover, without actual work 
to do the association finds it hard to gain members or preserve its solid- 
arity. Such an organization in North Carolina would not be of the 
greatest value. The field is covered already, to a certain extent, by tlie 
North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, which is only kej»t 
fz'om doing much more in this line by lack of funds. 

Associations Chiefly Protective: — What is wanted among timberland 
owners in North Carolina is a close organization which can go ahead 
and carry out ])atrol and other means of protection. This is being done 
in the northwest by the Washington Forest Fire Association and the 
several Idaho timber protective associations, which latter, it is gener- 
ally conceded, afford the most efficient protection in the country. The 
organization of these Associations includes a board of directors who 
have power to levy and enforce the payment of assessments to defray 
expenses in proportion to the number of acres owned by each member. 



Forest Fires axd their Preventiox. 25 

The actual work of protection is put in the hands of a committee which 
hires patrohnen and fire fighters and incurs all other expenses necessary 
to protect the territory from forest fires. In one of the most successful 
of these Associations the patrol averages one man to sixteen thousand 
acres, and although they have had some hazardous seasons their loss has 
always been very small. It is figured that it is a better policy to main- 
tain a close patrol to discover small fires when they first start than to 
cut down the expense of the patrol, and then rely upon putting a large 
force of men on to fight fire after it gets well started. The cost of this 
association averages about three cents per acre per year, though on 
account of a very exceptional season it went over that in 1910. The 
total cost of the Washington Forest Fire iVssociation was 2.3 cents per 
acre in 1910, and only 1.4 cents in 1909, though much more than the 
acreage belonging to members Avas patrolled, in order to better protect 
their own lands. 

]^ot only do these associations do their own protective work, but they 
co-operate with the State and ISTational Governments in fire protection. 
In ISTorth Carolina there is a large opening for this feature of their 
work. The State has at present no fire-fighting force with which to 
co-operate, but it is hoped that this will be provided for by the next 
Legislature. The \J. S. Department of Agriculture, however, is anx- 
ious to spend part of the amount provided for co-operation Avith States 
by the Weeks bill in fire protection in Xorth Carolina. It Avas sug- 
gested that the basis of such co-operation might be furnished by a 
Forest ProtectiA'e Association Avorking through the State Geological and 
Economic Survey. It has been decided, hoAA'ever, that this does not 
come within the meaning of the Act. 

There are endless Avays in which the activities of such an Association 
could Avork for the better protection and consequent enhancement in 
value of our forests, and the timberland owners of the State are recom- 
mended to look thoroughly into this question and, if possible, make trial 
of this method of protection. 

state measures. 
Present Laws. 
In 1777 the General Assembly of North Carolina passed a statute 
making it unlaAvful for any one to set fire to the Avoods, except it be his 
OAvn property, and in that case not Avithout first giving tAA^o days notice 
in AA'riting to adjoining pro])erty oAvners. After 13-4 years this laAv still 
remains on our statute books, the best and practically the only laAv Ave 
have on the subject. In its present form in The Revisal of 1905 it reads : 



26 Forest Fires axd their Prevention. 

334G. Woods. — If any person shall set lire to any woods, except it be his own 
property, or, in that case, without first giving notice in writing to all persons 
owning lands adjoining to the woodlands intended to be fired, at least two days 
before the time of firing such woods, and also taking effectual care to extinguish 
such fire before it shall reach any vacant or patented lands near to or adjoining 
the lands so fired, he shall, for every such offense, forfeit and pay to any person 
who shall sue for the same fifty dollars, and be liable to any one injured in an 
action, and sliall moreover be guilty of a misdi'ineanor. 

The law therefore forhids setting fire to Avoods, even though it be 
one's own property, Avithont giving tAvo days notice in Avriting to adjoin- 
ing landowners. This laAv is rarely enforced, because the "tAvo days 
notice in writing" is considered an impractical measure, and also be- 
cause the strong objection among most people to prosecuting their 
neighbors acts as a deterrent. One of the most frequent causes of fire, 
that from burning brush while clearing up ncAv grounds in the spring, is 
not covered by this law, for the courts have held that these "new 
ground" fires do not come within the statute. This laAv is susceptible of 
considerable improvement and should be amended. 

Since the great extension of railroad facilities all over the State, the 
practice of hauling farm crops and merchandise long distances to 
market, which used to be the universal custom, has almost ceased. In 
the rougher and more remote pai-ts of the State, hoAvever, Avhere more 
than one daA^'s trip is required to reach the market the abandoned camp- 
fire is still a menace. That Xorth Carolina has a laAV against leaving 
such fires unextinguished is often not knOAvn by Avagoners, and a notice 
quoting the folloAving section posted near frequented camping places 
Avould often be of great advantage to the passer-by, as Avell as a safe- 
guard to the property OAvner. 

3347. Wooflf!. from Co tup Fires. — If any wagoner or other person encamjjing 
in the open air shall leave his camp without totally extinguishing the camp fire>;, 
he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined 
not exceeding fifty dollars, or imprisoned not exceeding thirty days. 

These tAvo laAvs, the most important dating back some 130 years, con- 
stitute the present working forest-fire laAvs of Xorth Carolina. Even 
these, hoAvever, are rarely enforced. 

In order to ascertain as nearly as possible to Avhat extent these laws 
were being carried out, the Xorth Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey asked all their forest-fire correspondents the following question : 
"Has any one, so far as you know, been prosecuted for setting fire to 
forests in your county or township during the past year? If so, with 
Avhat result ?" 



Forest Fires axd their Preyextiox. 27 

This question was answered in the negative by 195 of the correspond- 
ents. Out of the 218 who answered this question usually in one word as 
''Xo," '^Xone/' or "Nobody," only 23 mentioned any action being taken 
against those who set out fire, and of these only nine could have been 
brought under the law against setting fires, the rest being civil suits for 
damages, chiefly against railroads and lumber companies. The sum 
total of convictions, for the careless or intentional setting of at least 
700 fires in this State during 1910 is four; two in the mountains, in 
which the parties were "fined light, say $5 each and costs," and two in 
the Coastal Plain region, one of whom was let off by pa^dng "good" 
costs; and the other, to the honor of Pitt County be it said, was given 
the maximum fine, $50 and costs. The other suits wei*e, in the words 
of the correspondents, "j^ol prossed," "Compromised, defendant paying 
$37.50 damages," "Case before grand jury, hut no bill found," "Xot a 
true bill/' "Case not yet tried." 

The apparent inefliciency of the law is due to the inadequacy of the 
laws themselves and to the indifference of the people in the matter of 
burning the woods. This is well illustrated by the folloAving replies 
from a few of the correspondents in answer to the above question in 
regard to prosecutions under the fire laws: "IN'ot one. We need more 
stringent laws as to the careless handling of fire" ; "]^^o one. ISTeed 
more laAvs" ; "Cannot get sufficient i^roof to get true bill or convict"; 
"Xobody prosecuted, everybody seems to be afraid to prosecute for fear 
of being burned out" ; "I think not. It would be difficult to convict as 
it is a 'sport' engaged in by a large percent of our people"; "Xo ; but 
ought to have been"; "Don't know of any. They are hard to catch 
and hard to convict in a fence-law territory" ; "One was threatened with 
prosecution" ; "Xo ; only for want of officers to enforce the law." 

The General Assembly of 1909 passed a law allowing the Governor, 
at his discretion and on application of the owner, to declare any wooded 
land which lies above 2,000 feet above sea level a "State forest." The 
Governor may then, at the request of the owner, appoint such forest 
wardens as the owner of the land may request, said wardens to have the 
power of arrest without warrant and to be paid entirely by the owner. 
For this privilege the landowner pays an annual tax of half a cent per 
acre into the county treasury for the benefit of the school fund. 

Xo property owner has yet taken advantage of this law, and it is prac- 
tically a dead letter, the owners probably thinking that the efficiency 
gained by giving the wardens power of arrest is not worth such a sub- 
stantial tax. 



28 Forest Fires axd their Prevextiox. 

Prcrjjosed La us. 

As we liave previously seen, the largest inuuber of fires are due 
to the carelessness or indifTerence of individuals, and to the negli- 
gence of railroads, lunibernien, and other operators of engines. In 
order to successfully cope with this situation, Ave need: (1) Better laws 
to control the private citizen; (2) Stricter regulations controlling the 
railroad and other engine users; (3) A system maintained by the State, 
or the State and counties together, to properly enforce the forest-fire 
laws. These three features may be combined in one act, as was done in 
the bill which was introduced into the last Legislature, or they may be 
passed as three separate acts, as is here proposed. 

Fires Set by Private Individuals: — The present law, which has pre- 
viously been "given, should be amended to include grassland, bvit the two 
days written notice required should apply to woods only, or should be 
eliminated altogether. B}'' broadening the second section to make it 
include hunters and other persons, some approach to controlling that 
fertile source of forest fires would be made. 

In Xew Jersey and several other States to the north and west of us, 
the burning of woods, brush, stumps, rubbish and other material is not 
allowed during a dry season, and in some cases throughout the year, 
without a written permit from the proper officer. This has been found 
to work well in preventing fires, especially the destructive early spring 
fires. In ^N^orth Carolina, however, avc are hardly ready for such a 
law. A law to compel all who burn material to watch it till it is 
extinguished would seem to meet a definite need and would be more 
easily enforced. 

The following suggested bill contains all of the above features: 

A Bill to be Extitled Ax Act to Protect the Fokests of This State fko.m 
Fire. 

The Gericnil Assinibhi of \nrlli Cdiolhin do ninrl : 

Section 1. Tliat section tliree tlioiisiuul tlirw liuiulred and forty-six of The 
Revisal of one thousand nine hundred and five be amended to lead as follows: If 
any person shall set fire to any grassland, brusliland or woodland, except it he 
his own property, or, in that case without first giving notice to all persons o.vn- 
ing or in charge of lands adjoining to the land intended to he fired, and al-o 
taking care to watch s\ich fire while burning and tiiking etVcclua] rare tu cx- 
tinguish such fire before it >liail icacli any lands iieai' fi) m- adjniniiig the land 
so fired, he shall for evfery such offense be guilty of a niisdcnieaiior and I)e fini-d 
or imprisoned in the discretion of the court. 'Iliis -hall not jirevcnt action for 
damages sustained by the owner of any property. 

Sec. 2. That section three thousand three hundred and forty-seven of The 
Kevisal of one thousnnd nine hundred and five l)c anicndcd to read as follows; 



Forest Fires and their Prevention. 29 

Any wagoner, hunter, camper or other person who shall leave a camp-fire without 
fully extinguishing it, or who shall accidentally or negligently, by the use of any 
torch, gun, match or other instrumentality, or in any manner whatever, start 
any fire upon any grassland, brushland or woodland, without fully extinguishing 
the same, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be punish- 
able by a fine of not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than fifty dollars or 
imprisoned not exceeding thirty days. 

Sec. 3. All persons, firms or corporations who shall burn any tar kiln or pit 
of charcoal or set fire to or burn any brush, grass or other material whereby any 
property may be endangered or destroyed, shall keep and maintain a careful and 
competent watchman in charge of said kiln, pit, brush or other material while 
burning. Any person, firm or corporation violating the provisions of this section 
shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Railroad Fires. — The railroads and lumber conipaiiies, though great 
offenders, having caused probably one-third of the fires in the State 
in 1910, are also great sufferers, being generally held respoiisible for 
injury and made to pay damages. A few of the replies to the ques- 
tion asking about prosecutions are here quoted : "Railroad paid for 
several acres of timber" ; "Railroad compromised, nothing done about 
the' rest" ; "No ; the railroad people always pay damage" ; "The 
railroad has paid about $1,000" ; "Xo ; Railroad Company paid about 
$2,000" ; "The Railroad Company goes over the ground and sees how 
much it burns over, and pays about thirty-five cents per acre" ; "Set by 
traction engine, and damage paid" ; "Lumber Company sued for 
$5,000" ; "Lumber Company forced to pay damages" ; "Suit entered 
against one lumber company." These prosecutions are, of course, as 
said bei'ore, brought under the civil law, and do not invoke the present 
fire laws. They do, however, show that it is as much to the interest 
of the railroads as to that of the owners of woodland that fires should 
be prevented. Until there is some general demand, howef'er, that the 
railroads take necessary precautions, they prefer to drift along in 
the old way, paying damages now and then, — the average cost of which 
they know — rather than advocate new laws, which, though they might 
save them money, still would cost them an unknoAvn amount to carry 
out. When reasonable laws are once passed the railroads will undoubt- 
edly co-operate actively in their enforcement, trusting thereby to cut 
down their large annual bill of damages. 

During the last sesion of the Legislature the following bill was drawn 
up, after careful discussion and criticism of every point by the repre- 
sentatives of the people and of the railroad and lumber companies. It 
was at first introduced as part of the general forestry bill, but was 
later drawn up as a separate law. It is in this form that its passage by 
the next Legislature is strongly urged. 



30 FoKEST Fires axd theik Prevention. 

A Bill to be Entitled An Act to Require the Railroads of the State to 
Take Certain Precautions for the Prevention of Forest Fires. 

The General Assenibli/ of Xortli Carolina do enact: 

Section 1. All persons, Hnns or corporations operating any railruad, logging 
road or traniroad through woodland within this State shall keep their right of 
way cleared of all combustible materials within a horizontal distance of one 
hundred (100) feet, nowhere to exceed one hundred and fifty (150) feet surface 
measurement, from the outer rail on each side of the track, by burning or otiior 
method. Combustible material, as referred to in this act, shall be construed to 
mean only such brush, grass, leaves or other material tliat would ordinarily be- 
come ignited from a spark from the engine. \\ luii the right of way owned does 
not extend to the width of the cleared space or (ire line licrein required, the right 
is hereby granted to said persons, firms or corporations to enter upon adjoining 
lands not owned by them, for. the purpose of clearing oflf and maintaining the 
cleared space or fire line herein required. If any landowner should object to the 
clearing ofi" and maintenance of the fire line herein required, he shall not be enti- 
tled to collect any damages thereafter occurring from fires caused by sparks from 
the engines of said persons, firms or corporati(jns. Each railroad, logging road 
or traniroad affected hereby shall be required to clear off each year not more than 
one-fifth (1-5) of the total length of the fire line required by this section until all 
has been completed, and shall continue to keep such fire line clear after it has 
once been cleared off. The part of the mileage to be cleared off by such railroad 
shall l>e designated by the Geological Board after conference with the proper 
oflicer of such railroad, logging road or traniroad. Any railroad wilfully violating 
the provisions of this section shall be liable to a penalty of not less than ten 
($10.00) dollars or more than twenty-five ($25.00) dollars for every mile or 
fraction thereof of fire line not cleared according to the provisions of this section : 
Provided, that this section shall not be construed to prohibit or prevent any 
railroad company from piling or keeping upon the right of way, crossties or other 
material necessary in the operation or maintenance of such railroad or ntaterials 
intended for shipment over such railroad; nor is it intended to require the re- 
moval of buildings, fences or other necessary or vahmble improvements from the fire 
line herein required: Provided further, that tlie notice to the adjoining landown- 
ers required by section three thousand three huiulrcil and forty-six of The Re- 
visal of one thousand nine hundred and five sliall nnt ai)i)ly to any biniiini; neces- 
sary to carry out the provisions of this section: I'roriilcd fnrtlnr. Ihat nothing 
in this section shall be construed to require tlie railroad romiiaiiy to clear the 
fire line on property not owned by said (■iiin])aiiy ^lnmid tlie owner oliject. ami no 
failure on this account shall l)e charged against tlie railroad coinijany as a viola- 
tion of this act. 

Sec. 2. When engineers, conductors or trainmen employed by any railroad 
discover that fences or other material along the right of way or woodland ad- 
jacent to the railroad are burning or in danger from fire, they shall report the 
same promptly at the ne.xt telegraph or telephone station at which the train is 
.scheduled to stop, or at any other stops necessary in the operation of the train. 
The reporting of such fires shall not be construed to mean that the lailroad com- 
panies making .such report are responsible for such fires, nor shall smli report he 
used in evidence in a suit arising from such fire, but is simply for the purpose of 
giving information as to the existence of a fire. In seasons of drought the rail- 



Forest Fires and their Prevention. 31 

road companies shall give instructions to their section foremen for the prevention 
and prompt extinguishing of fires originating on their right of way, and they 
shall cause warning placards, furnished by the Geological Board, to be posted at 
their stations in the vicinity of forest lands. Any railroad company wilfully 
violating the requirements of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
railroad employees wilfully violating the requirements of this section shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Sec. 3. For the purpose of this act woodland is taken to include all forest 
areas, both timber land and cut-over land, and all second growth stands on areas 
that have at one time been cultivated. 

This law requires the railroads to clear oif a strip 100 feet wide on 
each side of their track, where it runs through woodland. It has been 
demonstrated after careful study that most of the live sparks from rail- 
road locomotives fall within the zone between 50 and 100 feet on each 
side of the track, and very few fall beyond that distance. Keeping this 
strip clear would then prevent most of the fires caused by railroads and 
logging roads, Avhich, as we have seen above, constitute about one-third 
of the fires in the State. 

Fire Warden System. — The most important problem in the formula- 
tion of forest laAvs is providing effective machinery for putting them into 
force. Eighteen States have already organized fire protective systems, the 
purpose of which is to enforce the forest-fire laws of these States. Little 
or nothing has been accomplished in States without such systems, though 
several, like our own, have some excellent laws. A fire warden system 
generally consists of district, township, or county wardens, who, as a rule, 
are responsible to some one State official, either the State Forester, the 
State Forest Commissioner, or State Fire Warden, who is specific; II7 
charged with fire-protective work and usually also with the forestry 
work of the State. It is the duty of the Avardens to extinguish fires, 
arrest offenders against the fire laws, investigate the causes of fires, 
post warning notices against fire and in some cases to patrol the forests 
during dry weather. They are paid by the State, or by the county, or 
by the State and county combined, usually by the hour or day, for the 
time actually employed. In fixing a rate of payment, care is taken not 
to make it high cnougli to tempt unscrupulous men to set fire to the 
woods with the object of drawing pay for extinguishing it. This prac- 
tice may, of course, be occasionally resorted to, even where the pay is 
not high, but an efficient county fire warden would soon discover the 
perpetrators or at least have his suspicions aroused, and one or two 
drastic sentences, upon conviction, would put a stop to the practice. 
There are many counties in JSTorth Carolina where fire wardens are not 



32 Forest Fires and their Prevention. 

needed, but in counties having fifty per cent and over of their area 
in woodhuid they Avoukl quickly pay for their cost. If only a few coun- 
ties were given tlie advantage of such a law to stail with, tlie demand 
for fire wardens would rapidly spread, as their usefulness became appar- 
ent. The following hill, in a somewhat different form, was introduced 
into the Legislature of 1911, but failed to pass, chiefly because a special 
tax of half a cent per acre on all woodlands in the State was asked, to 
provide levenue for its enforcement. This method of raising the 
necessary money is perfectly fair and equitable, but until the system 
can be inaugurated and tested in those counties that most need fire pro- 
tection, it is thought that a direct ap])ropriation would be much simpler 
and more i)racticable. 

A Bill to be Entitled An Act tq Ai tiiohizi; tiik Ari'oiNT.MKXT and Pay.mk.nt 
OF FoRE.sT Wardens. 

The General As.senihli/ of XortJi Varoliiio do enact: 

Section 1. On petition of four or more owners of timlier lands in any one 
township, owning: in the aggregate five thousand acres or more, or the owners of 
one-third of tiie forest hind in the township, the comity conunissioners shall 
appoint, subject to the approval of the Geological Board, a forest warden for that 
township and as many deputj' forest wardens to act with liim as the Geological 
Board may deem necessary for the proper enforcement of this act. All forest 
wardens and deputy forest wardens must be legal residents of tlic counties in 
which they are employed. 

Sec. 2. Forest wardens and deputy forest wardens sliall have cliaige of meas- 
ures for controlling forest fires; they shall make arrests for violations of the 
forest laws: shall post along highways and in other conspicuous places copies of 
the forest fire laws and warnings against fires which shall be supplied by the 
Geological Board; and they shall perform s\ich other duties as shall be consid- 
ered necessary by the (Geological Board for tlie protection of forests. The forest 
wardens of the township in which a fire occurs shall within ten day^ make such 
rej)ort thereof to the Geological Board as may be prescribed by tlicm. Each 
deputy forest warden shall promptly report to wardens any tire in liis district. 

Sec. 3. Any person who shall maliciously or wilfully dcstioy. deface, remove 
or disfigure any sign, poster or warning notice, postc<] by ordci- of the Geological 
Board under the provisions of this or other act for tlie purpose of protecting the 
forests in this State from tiif. shall be guilty of a misdcuicauoi- and upon con- 
viction shall be puiiisliabje by a line of not less liian t<'n dollars or more tlian 
fifty dollars or iinprisdiicd not exceeding thirty days. 

Sec. 4. Any poson discovering any forest fire shall imuicdiatety give notice 
to the nearest forest warden or deputy forest warden in tliat or adjoining town- 
shi])s. All able-bodied male persons between eighteen and foity-tive years of age 
can be summoned by forest wardens or deputy forest wardens to assist in e.x- 
tinguishing forest fires and shall be paid for such services at a rate not to exceed 
fifteen do) cents per hour. Any person summoned by a forest warden or his 
deputy and not attending, without reasonable excuse, shall be subject to a fine 
of five ($5) dollars. 



FO'^EST FlBES AXD THEIR PrEVEXTION. 33 

Sec. 5. Forest wardens and deputy forest wardens shall have the same power 
as deputy sheriffs, so far as the provisions of this act are concerned. Neither 
forest wardens nor their deputies shall be liable for trespass while acting in the 
performance of their duties, nor shall any person be held guilty of trespass for 
going on lands when summoned by an ofiBcer to control fire. 

Sec. 6. Forest wardens and deputy forest wardens shall receive compensation 
from the State at the rate of twenty cents per hour for the time actually engaged 
in the performance of their duties and reasonable expenses for equipment and 
transportation incurred in fighting or extinguishing any fire, according to an 
itemized statement to be rendered the Geological Board every month and approved 
by them. Forest wardens shall render to the Geological Board a statement of 
the services rendered by the men employed by them or their deputy wardens, as 
provided in this act, within one month of the date of service, which said bill shall 
show in detail the amount and character of the service performed, the exact 
duration thereof, the name of each person employed, and any other information 
required by the Geological Board. If said bill be duly approved, it shall be paid 
by direction of the Geological Board out of the State Treasury; and the State 
Treasurer is hereby authorized and required to collect one-half of the wages and 
expenses incurred by the forest wardens and deputy forest wardens under this 
section and section three (3) of this act, from the county in which they arc 
incurred. 

Sec. 7. The svun of ten thousand dollars annually is hereby appropriated, out 
of any moneys in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the purpose of 
carrying out the provisions of this act, the same to be drawn upon as directed 
by the Geological Board. 

XATIOXAL ilEASrRES. 

Co-operation- Under the ^Yeel•s Bill: — With the recent passage by 
Congress of the ^V^eeks Bill (Pub. Xo. 435) "to enable any State to co- 
operate with any other State or with the United States for the protec- 
tion of the watersheds of navigable streams, etc." an opportunity has 
been opened to secure fire protection, for at least the mountain portion 
of the State, at one-half the actual cost of such protection. This bill 
provides, among other things, as follows : 

Sec. 2. That the sum of two hundred thousand dollars is hereby appropriated 
and made available until expended, out of any moneys in the national treasury 
not otherwise appropriated, to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to co-operate 
with any State or group of States, when requested to do so, in the protection 
from fire of the forested watersheds of navigable streams; and the Secretary of 
Agriculture is hereby authorized, and on such conditions as he deems wise, to 
stipulate and agree with any State or group of States to co-operate in the organi- 
zation and maintenanc-e of a system of fire protection on any private or State 
forest lands within such State or States and situated upon the watershed of a 
navigable river: Provided, that no such stipulation or agreement shall be made 
with any State which has not provided by law for a system of forest fire protec- 
tion: Provided further, that in no case shall the amount expended in any State 
exceed in any fiscal year the amount appropriated by that State for the same 
purpose during the same fiscal year. 
3 



34 Forest Fires and their Pkevextiox. 

Under this law tlie Federal Govenunent is empowered to co-operate 
with the various States in the organization, direction, and extension of 
a fire protective system, by putting in a sum of money equal to that 
appropriated by the State for this purpose. It can, however, only 
co-operate with States which have some form of State fire protection 
already. Xortli Carolina has no such system, and though the Federal 
officials have sliowed a strong desire to spend part of this money in this 
State, nothing can be done to take advantage of this proffered co-opera- 
tion until a regular State system of fire protection can be established. 
Should the Legislature in 1913 pass a law like that suggested on pages 
32-33, appropriating $10,000 for fire protection, an equal sum might, 
under the Weeks law, be procured from the Federal Government, making 
$20,000, with which a good start could be made towards the prevention 
of forest fires in Xorth Carolina. 

Owners of forest land should make every effort to take advantage of 
this great opportunity by seeing to it that men actively in favor of 
forest protection are nominated aud elected to the next General As- 
sembly. 

EDUCATIONAL MEASURES. 

The majority of our people have been raised where there was always 
abundance of wood for fuel and for other local necessities, and Avhere 
the selling of timber oft' the land has been looked upon as something 
extra made over the ordinary income. Timber has never been rated at 
its true value, namely, its cost value to grow, because there has been 
abundance of timber ready grown to our hand. It is not strange then 
that there is so much indifference to the growing necessity of fire pro- 
tection. Economic conditions have been changing so rapidly of late 
years that it is only those who are in close touch with the markets of 
the country and w^ho are studying the progress of events that realize the 
necessity for conservation of our forests. 

A campaign of education along these lines must be carried on all over 
the State, not only to show the property owners themselves and the other 
groAvn citizens that it is to their interest and that of their children to 
protect and perpetuate the forests; but also and probably chiefly, to 
educate the children, to bring them up to realize that a new condition 
exists, and that the trees and the forests are really growing crops, and 
very necessary and valuable crops, and that as such they require care 
and attention as much as any farm crop. 

The children of today are the proi)erty owners and lawmakers of 
tomorroAV, so while we do not cease to advocate forest protection 
amongst the present-day citizens, let us at the same time train our 
future citizens to appreciate its necessity. 



Forest Fires and their Prevention. 35 

arbor day. 

Probably tbe best and most attractive as well as tlie most practical way 
just at present, to inculcate a knowledge and love of trees among even the 
smallest cbuldren, is to make the observance of Arbor Day an annual 
feature in all the schools of the State. This would reach all of the chil- 
dren of the State once each year and would give them information in a 
form in which it would be remembered. 

FcAv children, or grown people either for that matter, can distinguish a 
longleaf from a shortleaf pine seedling, know the conditions most favor- 
able for the best growth of even our commonest forest trees, or can tell 
one oak or one pine from another by the bark, the buds, the leaves or the 
fruit. 

In order to foster a love of trees among children and to teach them 
elementary facts about them, as well as to encourage the planting of 
trees and the intelligent care of forests by their elders, the practice of 
observing Arbor Day has been introduced into nearly every State in the 
Union, and in many States it is a legal school festival. In ISTorth Caro- 
lina the day was observed as far back as 1893, but unfortunately it has 
never received general recognition. Only a school here and there has 
observed the day with appropriate exercises, when some of the teachers 
or patrons have been especially interested in the subject. 

In 1896 the School Committee of the town of Durham passed a law 
providing : 

Section 1. That tlie second Friday in April of each year shall hereafter be 
known in the Durliam Public Schools as Arbor Day. 

Sec. 2. In order that the children in our jniblic schools shall assist in the 
work of adorning the school grounds with trees, shrubs and flowers, to develop 
and stimulate a love and reverence for nature, to inculcate economic and 
testhetic purposes which will result in beautifying the home and increasing the 
comfort and happiness of our people, it shall be the duty of the Superintendent of 
Schools to provide for and conduct such exercises as shall best accomplish these 
results. 

An Arbor Day program was prepared and published in a twelve-page 
leaflet. This program, as carried out on April 10, 1896, is here given, 
by headings, in order to convey to those who have never attended such a 
celebration some idea of how attractively it may be carried out. 

Durham Public Schools. 

ARBOR DAY. 

Assembly Hall, April 10, 1896. 

1. Music Orchestra 

2. Arbor Daj^ Song. 

3. Responsive Exercises (in the words of Scripture). 



36 POREST FiRKS AND THEIR PrEVE>-TION. 

4. Prayer (to be recited in coiieert). 

5. Music Orcliestra 

6. Class Exercise, Telling' About Arlx)r Day. 

(a) What is Arbor Day? 

(6) Tell sonietliinji; of the origin of Arbor Day. 

(c) Why do we observe Arbor Day? 

(d) Why do you name your trees for some celebrated person? 

(e) How are books and trees related? 

(/) Tell me something about tree religion. 

(</) What about trees as living things? 

( /; ) ^^■hy should the forests be preserved ? 

((I What do we get from the forests? 

I j I "^ ou haven't told me anything about flowers. 

(A) What trees do you think the best for school grounds? 

( / ) Tell me how to jilant a tree, size, etc. 

7. Some Things said About Ohscrvinu- Arbor Day. 

8. Song of Dedication. 

9. Reading — The Tree of the Field is Man's Life. 

10. Reading— The Talk of a Tree. 

11. Music Orche>tra 

12. Recitation — Selections from Bryant, Irving, Emerson, and others. 

13. Recitation — Resolution Protesting Against the Destruction of Trees. 

14. Exercise — The Arbor Day Queen. 

15. Reading Letters About Arbor Day from Distiiiguislied North Carolinians. 
10. Recitation — The Woodman and the Tree. 

17. Music Orcliestra 

18. Song — The Chorus of the Flowers. 

19. Acrostic — Arbor Day. 

20. Song — Love of Nature. 

21. March — Washington Post. 

22. Exercises at the Tree. 

(Pupils from each schoolroom march, to ihc school grounds, fire of the 
class carrying spades, the liandlcs being decorated with school 
colors — ichite and orange — and form a circle around the spot where 
the tree is to be planted.) 

(a) Placing the tree in position. 

ib) Tree planting Song. 

(c) A brief statement by the teaclier concerning the persim to whom the 
tree is dedicated. 

(d) Recital of quotations from writings of persons thus honored. 

(e) Pupils place the soil around the tree with their spades. 
if) Marcli to class room. 

Recently the Forester of the North Carolina Geological and Economic 
Survey Avas invited to make an address at an Arbor Day celebration at 
Southern Pines, in which the whole town took a gratifying interest. 
The Civic Club, an organization of the women of the place, was the 
prime mover, while the teachers and the school children united with 
the club to make the occasion a great success. Trees and shrubs Avere 



Forest Fires and their Prevention. 



37 



planted on the school grounds in the morning and in the afternoon 
drills, songs, and recitations, illustrating the child's relation to the trees 
and flowers around him, were very well given by the children in the 
large school auditorium. 

Such a celebration might be held annually by every school in the 
state with great profit to the children, and with increasing interest on 
the part of the parents. There is a growing tendency among the men 
to leave the education of the children more and more to the women, and 
the next generation will have special cause to bless their mothers for 
opening their eyes to the beauty and usefulness of the trees if the 
women, who, through their clubs are doing such good work for civic im- 
provement and the betterment of education, would take up this matter 
all over the State and work for a general Arbor Day observance. 

In most States some special day is selected as Arbor Day by the Gov- 
ernor or Superintendent of Education, or some other authority, and all 
schools are expected to observe that particular day. In North Carolina, 
where the school year varies so in the different counties, and where the 
time for planting trees varies with the different regions of the State, it 
would probably be better for each County Superintendent, or even each 
School Principal, to set the day which would be most convenient to him 
and most appropriate to the season and locality. Where only a summer 
and fall school session is given, October in the mountains, I^ovember in the 
Piedmont section, and December in the eastern part of the State would 
be suitable times, while where a nine or ten months school is the rule, 
March or x\pril would be more suitable, as children, and older folks too, 
for that matter, naturally turn to the woods and fields in the spring- 
time. Some Friday would usually be selected as interfering less with 
the routine of school work, though such interference really often turns 
out to be rather a help than hindrance to the work. 

FORESTRY IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

There are two ways in which Forestry can be taught in the Public 
Schools without adding another course to the already crowded curricu- 
lum : first, by means of an auxiliary reader ; and second, by correlating 
the various phases of Forestry with those courses taught in the school 
which are naturally connected with it. 

1. The present system in l^orth Carolina requires the use of "basal" 
readers in the various grades. These are supplemented by auxiliary 
readers on a great variety of subjects, such as: geography, household 
economics, etc. The use of these is optional, the County Superintend- 
ent or the Principal deciding on the subject which will be most helpful 



38 Forest Fires and their Prevention. 

to each particular class. So far there is no auxiliary reader on the sub- 
ject of Forestry, or even on the more general and comprehensive subject 
of Conservation. There is room for a book of this character, and it is 
to be hoped that one will shortly be provided. Such a book should set 
forth in simple language the fundamental principles of Conservation 
and then show how these are related to the economics of everyday life. 

2. In his circular "Forestry in the Public Schools" (Circular 130, 
Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture), Prof. Hugo A. 
Winkenwerder advocates and outlines plans for the study of Forestry 
in connection Avith studies Avhich are already being taught. He states 
that the object of this circular is to indicate to teachers Avho are inter- 
ested the courses in which Forestry deserves a place and to assist them 
in choosing the proper subject-matter. A description of the location, 
extent, and character of the forests of the locality in which the teaching 
is done, of the State, and of the country as a whole, should form part 
of the study of geography as taught in all the common or secondary 
schools of I^J'orth Carolina. Their economic value as sources of useful 
products, for conservation of water, for protection, and their influence 
on erosion and soil protection, as well as their fcsthetie value, should be 
brought out as well as the necessity of forest protection, especially 
for protecting them from fire. Nature study, where it is taught, 
opens the way for some elementary forestry ; in fact, the study 
of the trees, the shrubs, and the seedlings found in the woods is the most 
attractive foi-m of nature study, and develops very rapidly the habit of 
observation, which is the chief object aimed at in all such training.* 

In the High Schools, along with United States History, can be 
taught the importance of the forests to our development, the growth of 
the forestry movement, and of the National Forest Policy. The pro- 
tection of forest property and the policies relating to public lands 
should form a part of the course in Civics. A course in physical geog- 
raphy is not complete without considering the relation of forests to 
climate; the influence of forests upon water and soil conditions; the 
relation of forests to erosion, and to reclamation. Commercial geog- 
raphy must include the importance of forests as a national resource, the 
distribution of forests, the products of the forest and the influence of 
forestry on commerce. It is impossible to enumerate the opportunities 
which the forest offers to teachers of botany. 

In the farm-life schools and others of a similar nature practical for- 
estry should be one of the important studies, and the school-farm should 



*A special circular, "Forestry in Nature Study," issued by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
gives outlines of instruction in this subject for all terms and grades in the public schools. 



Forest Fires and their Prevextiox. 39 

fumisli sufficient area in woods to give practical work in forest man- 
agement. Xearly all Xortli Carolina farms contain a large proportion 
of woodland, and it is as important for farmers to know how the yield 
may be increased on this as on the cleared land. 

FORESTRY IX THE COLLEGES. 

In order to bring this important problem before the young men who 
are yearly leaving our higher institutions of learning to take part in 
the management of the State, courses in Forestry should be given in all 
our colleges and in the State University. Complete courses are not re- 
quired, but enough should be taught to give the students some idea of 
the forest problems that confront us and the best way to deal with them. 
In the A. & M. Colleges more complete instruction should be given; 
courses calculated to give the student a knowledge of how to manage 
a wood-lot, how to measure and sell standing timber and log it if neces- 
sary, how to protect the forest from fire and insects, what trees to plant 
and hoAv, when, and where they should be planted. According to the 
President of the A. t^- M. College, who would be glad to add a course in 
Forestry to the curriculum, only one additional man would be required 
for this purpose. The same is true of the State University. Courses in 
Botany, Entomology, and Engineering are now given at both institu- 
tions. By adapting such courses to the needs of the forester and then 
founding a Chair of Forestry proper, which would include silviculture, 
forest management, and lumbering, an excellent course in Forestry 
could be given. Funds for the foundation of such a chair, however, are 
not available at either place, and probably will not be until a more gen- 
eral demand for such a course is made. The timber crop is second only 
in importance to the cotton crop in Xorth Carolina, and most farmers 
have a larger acreage in woodland than in all other crops combined. It 
seems, therefore, that more recognition should be given this subject in 
our State Agricultural College, as well as in the State University. 

LECTURES AT FARMERS* IXSTITI'TES, ETC. 

It is not only through the Farm Schools and the A. k M. College that 
the State is trying to teach the farmer improved methods. For several 
years past it has been sending experts to all the counties of the State to 
lecture on improved methods of farming, from soil improvement to 
poultry-keeping. The timber crop is the only subject that has been en- 
tirely omitted from the list of subjects discussed. A talk on forest man- 
agement or forest protection should be included in every program, for 
the subject is of the greatest importance to most farmers. Latterly the 



40 Forest Fires axd their Prevention. 

Forester of tlie Xorth Carolina Geological and Economic Survey has 
joined one of the parties in the western part of the State for a short 
time each summer and talked to the meetings on this subject, but this is 
only a very small beginning. An extension of this work all over the 
State is strongly advocated. 

But lecture-work need not be confined to the colleges and the fanners' 
institutes. Addresses should be made all over the State as opportunity 
offers, and forest protection advocated before all kinds of audiences. K'ot 
till the people begin to think about the subject will they realize the im- 
portance of immediate action. 

forestry associations. 
On February 1, 1911, a Forestry Convention met in Raleigh for the 
purpose of discussing proposed forestry legislation. Though the attend- 
ance was not large it was quite representative. Delegates from eighteen 
counties of North Carolina were present, including lumbermen, furni- 
ture manufacturers, railroad men, timberland owners, farmers, forest- 
ers and educators. The forestry bills then before the Legislature Avere 
discussed in detail, and much interest Avas shown in them, as Avell as in 
a State-wide stock law. A new forestry bill Avas draAvn up at the meet- 
ing, Avhich it was recommended be substituted "for the two already in- 
troduced. This bill, Avhich combined all the features in the three laAvs 
suggested on pages 28, 30, and 32, Avas later introduced in both houses, 
but failed to pass. The folloAving resolutions Avere adopted by the con- 
vention : 

Whereas, It lias been estimated that tliere is in Xorth Carolina snllicient 
forest land to maintain perpetually a supply of raw material for our furniture 
factories, our pulp mills, and our tanning extract plants, if these forests are con- 
served and protected from fire; and. 

Whereas, The forests of North Carolina and the industries dependent upon 
them represent about one-sixth of the wealth of Xorth Carolina; and, 

Whereas, These forests are being deA-astated by frequent fires, causing enor- 
mous present and future loss to the OAvners of forest land and indirectly to the 
people throughout the Avhole State; therefore. 

Be it resolved, That we thoroughly endorse legislation that will protect our 
forests from fire, and urge the General Assembly to pass such measures as will 
enable those portions of the State that desire it, adequate fire protection for their 
forests; and as the best results can only be obtained when the stock law is in 
force, 

Be it further resolved, That we endorse a State-Avide stock law for Xorth Caro- 
lina, with a provision allowing any territory voting for that purpose to be ex- 
empted therefrom upon erecting proper fence around such exempted territory. 

Be it further resolved. That Ave advocate the teaching of the principles of 
forestry in the public schools and the introduction of a course in forestry in the 
A. & M. College. 



Forest Fires and their Prevention. 41 

Such a meeting as this is calculated to do a great deal to advance the 
cause of forest protection by awakening interest in the question and by 
unifying effort. With these ends in view it was unanimously decided 
to organize the convention into a permanent body to be known as the 
North Carolina Forestry Association, this association to have a Presi- 
dent, Secretary-treasurer, and one Vice-President for every Senatorial _ 
District in the State in which sufficient interest in forestry had been 
manifested. The work of the Association was placed in the hands of an 
Executive Committee, consisting of the President, Secretary-treasurer, 
and five other members, to be appointed the first year by the president 
of the Association. The object and aim of the association was declared 
to be "the protection and perpetuation of the forests of ISTorth Carolina." 
Dr. D. H. Hill, of the A. & M. College, Kaleigh, was elected President 
of the Association, and Mr. J. S. Holmes, Forester of the N'orth Caro- 
lina Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill, Secretary-treasurer. 
The President subsequently appointed the following gentlemen as mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee : Col. B. Cameron, Raleigh ; Mr. Clar- 
ence Poe, editor Progressive Farmer, Raleigh; Dr. J. H. Pratt, State 
Geologist, Chapel Hill; Mr. H. M. Shaw, president Southern Wheel 
Company, Oxford; and Mr. E. B. Wright, manager Butter's Lumber 
Company, Boardman, jST. C. The very fact that such prominent men 
are behind this movement speaks well for its future success and use- 
fulness, and also inspires the confidence of the public in any recommen- 
dations it may make. 

The organization of county or district associations, in connection 
with this State Association, to stir up and direct local sentiment, would 
do more to make the society effective and to forward the forestry move- 
ment than any other kind of work that could be undertaken. The good 
roads movement has received its greatest impetus from town and county 
good roads associations, though the State organizations have done splen- 
did work. In the same way local forestry clubs, societies, or associa- 
tions, or forestry branches of other bodies, acting in accord with the 
State Association, may do a great work in educating the people to a 
realization of the importance of forest protection. There are forestry 
sections of several of the women's clubs in the State that are doing good 
educational work, and the number might, Avith advantage, bq increased. 
Different phases of forestry will appeal to different organizations ; street 
planting to civic clubs, protection of watersheds and regulation of 
stream flow to Chambers of Commerce and Boards of Trade, perpetua- 
tion of the timber supply to labor organizations and lumbermen, the 
management of the wood-lot to Farmers' Clubs; but protection of the 
forests from fire should appeal to all. 



42 Forest Fires and their Prevention. 

demonstration forests. 

One iiiofliod of educating the public in iniprovod methods of forest 
management which is Avidely practiced in Europe and has been adopted 
by several of the northern States is by the proper management of 
State Forests. In different parts of the State areas of land of larger 
or smaller extent are acquired by gift or purchase, or reserved by the 
State for the purpose of demonstrating the most practical form of man- 
agement for that particular locality and for that kind of forest, and on 
which to conduct experiments to determine practical questions in forest 
management. In many ^ases land is given or bequeathed to the State 
by public-spirited citizens for this purpose. 

If the people can be shown the results of proper treatment of the 
forests in successful fire protection, conservative lumbering, profitable 
tree planting, and advantageous thinnings, more would be accomplished 
than by countless lectures and bulletins. On an area in the high moun- 
tains experiments might be made to determine the best way to cut 
spruce for pulp while insuring the perpetuation of these forests. In the 
mountain hardwood forests methods to increase the proportion of pop- 
lar, chestnut, and other valuable species in the second growth might be 
demonstrated. In the Piedmont region the profits in judicious thinning 
of shortleaf pine stands could be shown. In the Coastal Plain region 
successful reproduction of longleaf pine might be demonstrated and ex- 
periments made to determine whether longleaf or loblolly pine was the 
most profitable tree to grow on certain types of soil. On "the Banks" 
the fixation of drifting sand by forest growth could be shown by plant- 
ing up the sand dunes, and the profitable use of such areas made appar- 
ent by propagation of turpentine yielding pines. All such demon- 
strations, besides their value for experiments and for showing improved 
methods of forest management, involve, of necessity, adequate fire pro- 
tection, and the successful accomplishment of this alone would make the 
acquirement and management of such demonstration forests justifiable, 
and fnllv compensate the State for their cost. 

COXCLUSIOX. 

Reports from correspondents in but one-third of the townships of the 
State give an estimated area of 580,000 acres of woodland burnt over 
during 1910, Avith a consequent loss of over half a million dollars in 
timber and personal property. If the losses from this cause in the re- 
maining townships could be ascertained, and the enormous damage to 
young growth, soil and streams could be computed, it is very certain 
that the total loss to North Carolina by forest fires for the past year 



FoKEST Fires and their Prevention. 43 

would reach a million dollars. jSTot only this, but a loss of five human 
lives was caused directly by these same fires, which were in large part 
due to carelessness, and might and should have been prevented. 

In 1909 the damage from forest fires amounted to several hundred 
thousand dollars, and every year it is much the same, and w^ill continue 
to be the same until N'orth Carolinians wake up and take some active 
steps to stop this destruction. 

There is pressing need for more effective laws to protect the forests 
from fires resulting both from the railroads and from individuals. Such 
laws when enacted must have the support of the people, or they can not 
be efficiently enforced. What is needed in this as in other lines of busi- 
ness is education. The timber crop is second only in importance to the 
cotton crop in North Carolina, and occupies ten times the acreage of 
that staple, yet there is not one school or college in the State in which 
even elementary forestry is taught. Is it any wonder that the people 
show such indifference to forest destruction? A more general interest 
in forest protection must be aroused and more definite knowledge of 
practical forestry methods imparted to both the young and the older> 
citizens of the State, and this can best be done, by teaching the princi- 
ple of forestry in our schools and colleges. 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY 



BULLETIN S. 



1. Iron Ores of North Carolina, by Henry B. C. Xitze, 1893. 8°, 239 pp., 20 
pi., and map. Postage 10 cents. 

2. Building and Ornamental Stones in Xorth Carolina, by T. L. Watson and 
F. B. Laney in collaboration with George P. Merrill, 1906.' 8°, 283 pp. 32 pi., 
2 figs. Postage 25 cents. Cloth-bound copy 30 cents extra. 

3. Gold Deposits in Xorth Carolina, by Henry B. C. Xitze and George B. Hanna, 
1890. 8°, 196 pp., 14 pi., and map. Out of print. 

4. Eoad Material and Road Construction in Xorth Carolina, by J. A. Holmes 
and William Cain, 1893. 8°, 88 pp. Out of print. 

5. The Forests, Forest Lands and Forest Products of Eastern Xorth Carolina, 
by W. W. Ashe, 1894. 8°, 128 pp., 5 pi. Postage 5 cents. 

6. The Timber Trees of Xorth Carolina, by Gilford Pinchot and W. W. Ashe, 
1897. 8°, 227 pp. 22 pi. Postage 10 cents. 

7. Forest Fires: Their Destructive Work, Causes and Prevention, by W. W. 
Ashe, 1895. 8°, 66 pp., 1 pi. Postage 5 cents. 

8. Waterpowers in Xorth Carolina, by George F. Swain, Joseph A. Holmes and 
E. W. Myers, 1899. 8°, 362 pp., 16 pi. Postage 16 cents. 

9. Monazite and Monazite Deposits in Xorth Carolina, by Henry B. C. Xitze, 
189.5, 8°, 47 pp., 5 pi.. Postage Jf cents. 

10. Gold Mining in Xorth Carolina and Other Appalachian States, bv Henry 
B. C. Xitze and A. J. Wilkins, 1897. 8°, 164 pp., 10 pi. Postage 10 cents. 

11. Corundum and the Basic Magnesian Rocks of. Western Xorth Carolina, by 
J. Volney Lewis, 1895. 8°, 107 pp., 6 pi. Postage 4 cents. 

12. History of the Gems Found in Xorth Carolina, by George Frederick Kunz, 
1907. 8°, 60 pp., 15 pi. Postage S cents. Cloth-bound copy .30 cents extra. 

13. Clay Deposits and Clay Industries in Xorth Carolina, by Heinrich Ries, 
1897. 8°, 157 pp., 12 pi. Postage 10 cents. 

14. The Cultivation of the Diamond-back Terrapin, by R. E. Coker, 1906. 8°, 
07 pp., 23 pi., 2 figs. Postage 6 cents. 

15. Experiments in Oyster Culture in Pamlico Sound, Xorth Carolina, bv 
Robert E. Coker, 1907. 8°, 74 pp., 17 pi., 11 figs. Postage 6 cents. 

16. Shade trees for Xorth Carolina, by W. W. Ashe, 1908. 8°, 74 pp.. 10 pi., 
16 figs. Postage 6 cents. 

17. Terracing of Farm Lands, by W. W. Ashe, 1908. 8°, 38 pp., 6 pi., 2 figs. 
Postage Jf cents. 

IS. Bibliography of Xorth Carolina Geology. Mineralogy and Geography, with 
a list of Maps, by Francis Baker Laney and Katherine Hill Wood, 1909. 8°, 428 
pp. Postage 25 cents. 

19. The Tin Deposits of the Carolinas, by Joseph Hvde Pratt and Douslass B. 
Sterrett, 1905. 8°, 64 pp., 8 figs. Postage k cents. 

20. Waterpowers of Xorth Carolina: An Appendix to Bulletin 8, 1910. 8°, 
383 pp. Postage 25 cents. 

21. The Gold Hill Mining District of Xorth Carolina, bv Francis Baker Laney, 
1910. 8°, 137 pp., 23 pi., 5 figs. Postage 15 cents. 

22. A Report of the Cid Mining District, Davidson Countv, X. C, by J. E. 
Pogue, Jr., 1911. 8°, 144 pp. 22 pi., 5 figs. Postage 15 cents'. 



46 Publications. 

ECONOMIC I'AI'KKS. 

1. The Maple-sugar Industry in Western North Carolina, l.y \V. W. Ashe. 1807. 
S°, 34 pp. Postage 2 cents. 

2. Recent Road Lefjislation in North Carolina, by .T. A. llolmcs. (tut of print. 
.3. Talc and Pyrophyllite Deposits in North Carolina, hy .Toseph Hyde Pratt. 

1900. 8", 21) pp., 2 maps. Postage ,i cents. 

4. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1000, by .loseph Hyde Pratt, 

1001. 8°, 3(> i)p.. and map. Postage 2 cents. 

Takes up in some detail Occurrences of Gold, Silver, Lead and Zinc. Copper, Iron, Manganese, Cor- 
undum, Granite, Mica, Talc, Pyrophyllte, Graphite, Kaolin, Gem Minerals, Monazite, Tungsten, 
Building Stones, and Coal in North Carolina. 

5. Road Laws of North Carolina, by .1. A. Holmes. Out of inint. 

(5. The Mining Industry in North Candina During 1001. by Joseph Hvde Pratt, 

1002. 8°, 102 pp. Postage .', cents. 

Gives a list of Minerals found in North Carolina; describes the Treatment of Sulphuret Gold Ores, 
giving Localities; takes up the Occurrence of Copper in the Virgilina, Gold Hill, and Ore Knob districts; 
gives Occurrence and Uses of Corundum; a List of Garnets, describing Localities; the Occurrence, 
Associated Minerals, Uses and Localities of Mica; the Occurrence of North Carolina Feldspar, with 
-■Vnalyses; an extended description of North Carolina Ciems and Gem Minerals; Occurrences of Mon- 
azite, Barjtes, Ocher; describes and gives Occurrences of Graphite and Coal; describes and gives 
Occurrences of Building Stones, including Limestones: describes and gives Uses for the various forms 
of Clay; and under the head of "Other Economic Minerals" describes and gives Occurrences of 
Chroinite, Asbestos and Zircon. 

7. Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1002, by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 

1003. 8°, 27 pp. Postage 2 cents. 

8. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1003, by Joscpli Hyde Pratt, 

1004. 8°, 74 pj). Postage // cents. 

Gives decsriptions of Mines worked for Gold in 1903; descriptions of Properties worked for Copper 
during 1903, together with assay of ore from Twin-Edwards Mine; Analyses of Limonite ore from Wil- 
son Mine; the (Occurrence of Tin; in some detail the Occurrences of Abrasives; Occurrences of Monazite 
and Zircon; Occurrences and Varieties of Graphite, giving Methods of Cleaning; Occurrences of Marble 
and other forms of Limestone; .\nalyses of Kaolin form Barber Creek, ,Jaekson Count.v, North Carolina. 

0. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1004. by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
1905. 8°, 05 pp. Postage // cents. 

Gives Mines Producing Gold and Silver during 1903 and 1004 and .Sources of the Gold Produced during 
1904; describes the mineral Chromite, giving Analyses of Selected Samples of Chromite from Mines 
in Yancey County; describes Commercial Varities of Mica, giving the manner in which it occurs in 
North Carolina, Percentage of Mica in the Dikes, Methods of Mining, Associated Minerals, Localities, 
L^ses; describes the mineral Bayrtes, giving Method of Cleaning and Preparing Barytes for Market; 
describes the use of Monazite as used in connection with the Preparation of the Bunsen Burner, and 
goes into the u.se of Zircon in connection with the Nernst Lamp, giving a List of the •Principal Yttrium 
Minerals; describes the minerals containing Corundum Gems, Hiddenite and Other (iem .Minerals, 
and gives New Occurrences of these Gems; describes the mineral Graphite and gives new Uses for same. 

10. Oyster Culture in North Carolina, i)y Robert E. Coker, 1005. 8°, 30 jjp. 
Postage 2 cents. 

11. The :Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1005. by Joseph Hyde Pratt. 
1001). S°, 95 pp. Postage 4 cents. 

Describes the mineral Cobalt and the principal minerals that contain Cobalt; Corundum Localities; 
Monazite and Zircon in considerable detail, giving Analyses of Thorianite; describes Tantalum Minerals 
and gives description of the Tantalum Lamp; gives brief description of Peat Deposits; the manufacture 
of Sand-lime Brick; Operations of Concentrating Plant in Black Sand Investigations; gives Laws 
Relating to Mines, Coal Mines, Mining, Mineral Interest in Land, Phosphate Rock, Marl Beds. 

12. Investigations Relative to the Shad Fisheries of Nortli Carolina, by John 
N. Cobb, 1000. 8°, 74 j)p., 8 maps. Postage (> cents. 

13. Report of Conunittee on Fisheries in Nortii Carolina. Coiui)iled bv Joseph 
Hyde Pratt, 100(1. 8°, 78 pp. Postage .'/ cents. 

14. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During lOOO, ])y .loscpli Hyde Pratt, 
1007. S°, 144 pp., 20 pl.,'and 5 figs. Postage 10 cents. 

Under the head of "Recent Changes in Gold Mining in North Carolina," gives methods of mining, 
describing Log Washers, .Square Sets, Cyanide Plants, etc. and dctaili'il ilcsiriplions i)f Gold Deposits 
and Mines are given; Coi>per Deposits of Swain ( 'i)Uiit.\- an- ilescrilicd; Mica Deposits of Western North 
Carolina are described, giving Distribution and General Character, (icneral (ieology, Occurrence, 
Associated Minerals, Mining and Treatment of .Mica, Origin, together with a description of many of 
the mines; Monazite is taken up in considerable detail as to Location and Occurrence, Cieology, includ- 
ing classes of Rocks, Age, Associations, Weathering, method of Mining and Cleaning, description of 
Monazite in Original Matrix. 



Publications. 47 

15. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1007, by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 
190S. 8°, 176 pp., 13 pi.,' and 4 figs. Postage 1') cents. 

Takes up in detail the Copper of the Gold Hill Copper District; a description of the Uses of Mona- 
zite and its Associated Minerals; descriptions of Ruby, Emerald, Beryl, Hiddenite, and Amethyst 
Localities; a detailed description with Analyses of the Principal Mineral Springs of North Carolina; 
a description of the Peat Formations in North Carolina, together with a detailed account of the Uses 
of Peat and the Results of an Experiment Conducted by the United States Geological Survey on Peat 
from Elizabeth City, North Carolina. 

16. Report of Convention called by Governor R. B. Glenn to Investigate the 
Fishing Industries in Xorth Carolina, compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State 
Geologist, 1908. 8°, 45 pp. PosUuje ', cents. 

17. Proceedings of Drainage Convention held at Xew Bern. Xorth Carolina, 
September 9, 1908. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1908. 8°, 94 pp. Postage 
5 cents. 

18. Proceedings of Second Annual Drainage Convention held at Xew Bern, 
Xorth Carolina, Xovember 11 and 12, 1909, compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, and 
containing Xorth Carolina Drainage Law, 1909. 8°, 50 pp. Postage 3 cents. 

19. Forest Fires in Xorth Carolina During 1909, by J. S. Holmes, Forester, 
1910. 8°, 52 pp., 9 pi. Postage 5 cents. 

20. Wood-using Industries of Xorth Carolina, by Roger E. Simmons, under the 
direction of J. S. Holmes and H. S. Sackett, 1910. 8°, 74 pp., 6 pi. Postage 
7 cents. 

21. Proceedings of the Third Annual Drainage Convention, held under Auspices 
of the Xorth Carolina Drainage Association; and the Xorth Carolina Drainage 
Law (codified). Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1911. 8°, 67 pp., 3 pi. Post- 
age 5 cents. 

22. Forest Fires and their Prevention, Including Forest Fires in Xorth Caro- 
lina During 1910, by J. S. Holmes, Forester, 1911. 8°, 48 pp. Postage 5 cents. 



Vol. I. Corundum and the Basic INIagnesian Rocks in Western Xorth Candina, 
by Joseph Hyde Pratt and J. Volney Lewis, 1905. 8°, 464 pp., 44 pi., 35 figs. 
Postage 32 cents. Cloth-bound copy 30 cents extra. 

Vol. II. Fishes of Xorth Carolina, by H. M. Smith. 1907. 8°, 453 pp., 21 pi.. 
188 figs. Postage 30 cents. 

Vol. III. The Physiography and Geography of the Coastal Plain Region of 
Xorth Carolina. In Press. 

BIEXXIAL REPORTS. 

First Biennial Report, 1891-1892, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1S93. 8°, 111 
pp., 12 pi., 2 figs. Postage 6 cents. 

Administrative report, giving Object and Organization of the Survey: Investigations of Iron Ores, 
Building Stone, Geological Work in Coastal Plain Region, including supplies of drinking-waters in 
eastern counties. Report on Forests and Forest Products, Coal and Marble Investigations of Diamond 
Drill. 

Biennial Report, 1893-1894, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1894. 8°, 15 pp. 
Postage 1 cent. 
Administrative report. 

Biennial Report, 1895-1896, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist. 1896. 8°, 17 pp. 
Postage 1 cent. 
Administrative report. 

Biennial Report, 1897-1898, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1898. 8°, 28 pp. 
Postage 2 cents. 
Administrative report. 

Biennial Report. 1899-1900, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1900. 8°, 20 pp. 
Postage 2 cents. 
Administrative report. 

Biennial Report, 1901-1902, 3. A. Holmes, State Geologist. 1902. 8°. 15 pp. 
Postage 1 cent. 
Administrative report. 



48 Publications. 

Biennial Eeport, 1903-1904. J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1905. 8°, 32 pp. 
Postage 2 cents. 
Administrative report. 

Biennial Report, 19Q5-1906, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1907. 8°, 00 
pp. Postage S cents. 

Administrative report: report on certain swamp lands belonging to the .State, by \V. W. Ashe; it also 
gives certain magnetic observations at North Carolina stations. 

Biennial Report, 1907-1908, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1908. 8°, GO 
pp., 2 pi. Postage 5 cents. 

.Administrative report. Gives special report on an Examination of the Sand-banks along the North 
Carolina Coast, by Jay F. Bond, Forest .\ssistant. United States Forest Service; certain magnetic ob- 
servations at North Carolina stations; Results of an Investigation Relating to Clam Cultivation, by 
Howard E. Enders, of Purdue University. 

Biennial Report, 1900-1910, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1911. 8°, 
152 pp. Postage 10 cents. 

Administrative report, and contains Agreements for Co-operation in Statistical Work, and Topo- 
graphical and Traverse Mapping Work with the United States Geological .Survey; Forest Work with 
the United States Department of Agriculture (Forest Service); List of Topographic maps of North 
Carolina and counties partly or wholly topographically mapped; description of special Highways in 
North Carolina; suggested Road Legislation; list of Drainage Districts and Results of Third Annual 
Drainage Convention; Forestry reports relating to Connolly Tract; Buncombe County, Transylvania 
County .State Farm, certain Watersheds, Reforestation of Cut-over and .\bandoned Farm Lands, 
on the" Woodlands of the Salem Academy and College; Recommendations for the Artificial Regenera- 
tion of Longleaf Pine at Pinehurst; Act regulating the use of and for the Protection of Meridian Monu- 
ments and Standards of Measure at the several county-seats in North Carolina; list of Magnetic Declin- 
ation at the county-seats, January 1, 1910; letter of Fish Commis.sioner of the United States Bureau 
of Fisheries relating to the conditions of the North Carolina fish industries; report of the Survey for the 
North Carolina Fish Commission referring to dutch or pound-net fishing in Albemarle and Croatan 
sounds and Chowan River, by Gilbert T. Rude, of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey; His- 
torical Sketch of the several North Carolina Geological Surveys, with list of publications of each. 



Samples of any mineral found in the State may be sent to the office of the 
Geological and Economic Survey for identification, and the same will be classified 
free of charge. It must be understood, however, that no assays, or quantita- 
tive EXAMINATIONS, WILL BE .MADE. Samples should be in a lump form if possi- 
ble, and marked plainly on outside of package with name of sender, post-office 
address, etc.; a letter should accompany sample and stamp should be enclosed for 
reply. 



These publications are mailed to libraries and to individuals who may desire 
information on any of the special subjects named, free of charge, except that in 
each case applicants for the reports should forward the amount of postage needed, 
as indicated above, for mailing the bulletins desired, to the >S7a/e Geologist, 
Chapel Hill, W. C. 



DEPARTMENT OF 
CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPiAENi.