I NORTH CAROLINA f!l!||J|i GEOLOGICAL AND '■ ECONOMIC SURViP JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, STATE GEOLOGIST ECONOMIC PAPER NO. 22 miie ^(H^P |Ctb vnrxtB ^nrtl| Carolina ^iaU NATU:^L d|ts book tnas prcsenteb b^ Cullen E. Whitley RESOURCES iBRARY -C o 03 ;^ Ill|!lll|ll|ir Il1'|iir':ri'lll!ll!lllllll!!ll S00793268 Z ^tPARTMENT ^^ GEOSC/ENCES DEPARTMENT Of .CONSERVATION AND DEVaOPMB^- This book is due on the date indicated below and is subject to an overdue fme as posted at the circulation desk. ^XnV EXCEPTION: Date due will be earlier if this item is RECALLED. NATURAL RESOURCES L!8 ^ARY •*■ ^ MAyi2m7ilAY3lB98 150M/01-92— 941680 GEOLOGY DEPAHT ^3. C. STATE COLI NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY JOSEPH HYDK PRATT, State Geologist ECONOMIC PAPER No. 22 Forest Fires and Their Prevention INCLVDINC FOREST FIRES IN NORTH CAROLINA DURING 1910 J. S. HOLMES, Forester RALEIGH Edwards & Brodqhton Printing Compaxt, State Printers 1911 GEOLOGICAL BOARD Governor W. W. Kitchix, ex officio Chairman Raleigh Fra.nk R. Hewitt Asheville Hugh MacRae Wilmington R. D. Caldwell Lumberton M. R. BuAswELL Rocky Mount Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist Chapel Hill LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Chapel Hill, ^^. C, August 1, 1911. To His Excellency, Honorable W. W. Kitchin, Governor of North Carolina. SiK : — I herewith submit for i^ublication as Economic Paper 22 of the reports of the Xorth Carolina Geological and Economic Survey a report on Forest Fires and their Prevention, including statistics regard- ing Forest Fires in J^Torth Carolina during 1910, which has been pre- pared bj Mr. J. S. Holmes, Forester to the Survey. The statistics are more complete and accurate than those collected for 1909 and mora intelligent answers were received from inquiries during this second year of collection. Yours respectfully, Joseph Hyde Pkatt, State Geologist. ^_^^-«2.- CONTENTS PAGE Introduction 9 The Weather in 1910 10 Tabular Statement 10 Summary of Reports from Correspondents by Regions for 1910 and 1909. (Table 1.) 11 Coastal Plain Region (Table 2) 12 Pie.lmont Region ( Table 3 ) 14 Mountain Region ( Table 4 ) 16 Analysis of Tables. Comparative Statement of Averages by Regions for 1910 and 1909. (Table 5.) 17 Number of Fires 17 Area Burnt Over 17 Merchantable Timber Destroyed 18 Forest Prodijcts Destroyed 18 Improvements Destroyed 18 Number of Lives Lost 18 Cost to Fight Fires 19 Loss FROM Fires Not Included in Tables 19 Causes of Forest Fires 20 Tabular Statement of Causes in Percentages (Table 6) 21 Preventive and Protective Measures 22 Private Measures 22 Co-operative Associations 2.3 Associations Chiefly Educational 24 Associations Chiefly Protective 24 State Measures 25 Present Laws 2.5 Proposed Laws 25 To Control Fires Set by Private Individuals 28 To Control Railroad Fires 29 To Organize a Fire Warden System 31 National Measures 33 Co-operation L'nder the W^eks Bill 33 Educational Measures 34 Arbor Day 35 Teaching Forestry in the Public Schools 37 Teaching Forestry in the Colleges 39 Lectures at Farmer's Institutes, etc 39 Forestrj- Associations 40 Demonstration Forests 42 Conclusion 42 FOREST FIRES AND THEIR PREVENTION By J. S. Holmes. IMBODICTIOX. During 1909 the United States forest Service attempted to collect uniform data on the prevalence and destructiveness of forest fires iu all the various States. The !N"orth Carolina Geological and Economic Sur- vey co-operated with the Forest Service in this work in this State, and got together some very interesting figures. Though admittedly incom- plete, these "were published by the State Survey in Economic Paper Xo. 19, "Forest Fires in Xorth Carolina During 1909." This publication has been scattered widely through the State, and is still available for distribution. It should be read in connection with the present report in order to best understand the application of the figures and to obtain much information which it was thought best not to repeat. Owing to the failure of many of the States to obtain sufficient reliable information, the general fire study of the Forest Service, which was in- tended to be annual and permanent, has been discontinued. The Xorth Carolina Geological and Economic Survey then had to decide as to the advisability of continuing the collection of these figures unaided. Though the data collected last year was far from satisfactory, still it was thought that the economic and educational value of such figures was great enough to warrant the expense of collecting them. With the hope, therefore, of increasing their accuracy and broadening their influence, the Survey determined to continue the collection of this infor- mation in regard to the annual destruction by forest fires. Accordingly, as soon as the year closed, question blanks were sent out to about eight hundred correspondents in all parts of the State, together with a stamped envelope for reply. These forms contained the same questions that were asked last year, but, in order to make the replies more definite and accurate, the correspondents were asked to confine their figures to one or more specified townships, and not try to estimate for the whole county. This method has succeeded much better even than was expected. Xo correspondent attempted to answer for more than one or at the most, two townships, and, as a consequence, the figures included in this report, though attempting to represent an even smaller part of the State than last year, are, it is thought, considerably more accurate. Still it must not be forgotten that all figures given are 10 Forest Fires and their Prevextion. estimates, and sonietiiues only very rough estimates at that, as it would have been impossible to obtain definite figures without an immense amount of trouble and expense. THE WEATHER I\ 1910. As the condition of the weather, especially the amount and local distribution of the precipitation has a great deal to do with the fre- quency and severity of forest fires, a brief review of the weather condi- tions for 1910 will add interest and value to this report. The past year was notCAVorthy for two quite severe droughts, extend- iug over the entire State, though generally more severe in the eastern part. The greatest deficiency in precipitation occurred in March, the rainfall for that month being less than for any previous March for which there are any records. Practically no rain fell after March 12th. This droughty condition, which lasted up to the middle of April, and was accompanied by high Avinds, made the danger from forest fires very great. Destructive fires broke out in many counties before the end of March and continued with increasing frequency and severity up to the middle of April, when a general rain restored normal conditions. June was a Avet month, the rainfall all over the State being markedly in excess of the normal. HeaA-y summer rains continued at intervals until September, Avhen dry Aveather again commenced, though in the moun- tains rain fell generally until October. The fall drought lasted until December 3d. November Avas very dry, only about one-fourth of the normal rainfall occurring over the Avliole State. Very seA'ere fires occurred during this season, both in the mountains and in the eastern part of the State. Altogether, the year 1910 showed a slightly greater rainfall than the previous year, though a little less than the normal amount of precipitation Avas recorded. TABULAR STATEMENT. The folloAving tables have been compiled from the information fur- nished by voluntary correspondents all over the State. There Avas only one county AA'hich did not send in any report, and most counties AA^ere represented by three or four correspondents. This, it is realized, is quite insufficient to get complete reports, but it is enough to give some idea of the magnitude of the loss Avhich is yearly experienced, and this, it must be remembered, is the chief object of these tables. It is hoped that another year the number of voluntary correspondents may be greatly increased, thereby enabling the Survey to publish much more complete figures. Forest Fires axd their Prea'extion. 11 TABLE 1.— FOREST FIRES IN XORTH CAROLINA DURING 1910. COMPARATIVE STATEMENT. SUMMARY OF REPORTS FROM CORRESPONDENTS BY REGIONS, FOR 1910 AND 1909. ! Mountain. Piedmont. Coastal Plain. State. 1910. 1909. 1910. 1909. 1910. 1909. 1910. 1909. Total number of townships in region 166 450 364 ___ 980 Number of tcTwnships reporting-..- 51 146 131 328 Number of replies received 48 47 142 61 131 50 321 158 Number of forest fires reported 1.36 249 258 86 312 272 706 607 Total area burnt over, in acres .... 80,825 166,295 1.58,948 100,670 .3.39,780 1.39,100 579,553 406,065 Total area growing merchantable timber burnt over, in acres 64,250 128,145 46,839 77,735 142,010 51.025 253.099 256,905 Total area of second growth, not vet merchantable, burnt over, in acres 7,190 13,100 55,712 14. .5.55 78,7.35 27,050 141,637 54,705 Total area of cut-over land burnt over, in acres 9,385 25,050 56,397 8,380 119.035 61,025 184,817 94,405 Total standing timber destroved in M. ft. bd. measure 6,915 17,325 12,553 11,027 42,550 9,280 62,018 37,632 Value of timber destroved, in .dollars.— S 25,095 8 47,520S 35,930-5 33,374 §108,995 -S 26, 360 $170, 020 S107, 254 Value of forest products destroyed, in dollars -S 28,215$ 17,075 -SlOO, 415 -S 39, 425 $129, 545 -S .30, 245 $258, 175 S 86,745 Value of improvements destroved, in dollars $ 19,375$ 26,550$ 25,615$ 14,750$ .53,805$ 17,105$ 98,795$ 58,405 Number of lives lost 10 10 3 5 Cost to private individuals to fight fire.... .-..$ 13,155$ 6,650$ 10,503$ 1,059$ 11,780$ 6,355$ 35,438$ 14,064 12 Forest Fires and their Prevextiox. s 2; 2 <; Sg Q •3JIJ JO iSOQ S3AFI •paXoj^B 0000 -aa ejnain o m m o -aAOJdinj — " ■♦ '' ■« JO aniBA «> •paXojjeaQ spnpoaj JO aniBA •pajtojieaQ §000 - jaqra.x ^c ' -^ ^ JO anjBA =^ paXojjsaQ § ii S = "■"JfluiIX ^- ~ =- HOJOK •saioy— « «= •sajoy -qiMOJO puooag •sajDV g = -aaqraix _■ „,- •qojaK i i s i I o c c o ■sa-iav § ;S g g I -^^Jng cc- c," « «- -BajviB^ox ~ - « I § I S § g s s I i o o •saiij JO -ON — o t^ 000 ■Baiida^ JO ON •Sunjoday ediijsu.\iox JO CM •Xjunoo I «, 0= w « ui sdixje "" -uMOx'jo I ON IB^OX I i 1 I I ■% i I I MP3HcaouoooacQQw m n >S - Forest Fires axd their Prevextiox 13 § 8 g 2 g S !2 g § S g Is o c» t~ o ao O — CJ o M CO U5 •^ C5 »0 •* 50 O I :2 1 =: = X X r-' =: ^ ^ 14 Forest Fires axd their Prevextiox. « . o o > o a w < d l6 JBO^ ■paXoJie -aQ e^nam ■ -SAOJduix JO aniBA W •paXoajsaa § g eionpoaj _- jaqniix _- JO aniBA •paXoi'jsaQ jaqtutx •qojaj^ ■sajoy — jaAO-jriQ •saaoy -q^AiOJO pnoaag -jaquiix _- 1 o o •sajoy ; S c5 eajviB^ox 1 § § g § I- 1 s s s § I S 55 § i eaj]^ JO -ON- •saijdaa JO ojsr in to o ■* <M U5 CJ •Sunjodajj = •« sdtqsu.ttox JO OK ■«•«•« •Xiunoj ni sdu(s -UMOX JO •on; ibjox ««=c-^^=-. -x^--^.--^;r = oo22 Co initios. i 4 s ? 5 1 < < -t s J 1 1 J 1 1 r .£ 1 C c i. 1 1 1 ToREST Fires axd their Prevextiox. 15 ill"! i § i g 8 § § S I I g g '--' g g s g i g O •* M 00 « — ■ 16 Forest Fires axd their Prevextion. jo?eoo •paXojiB -aQ 85 nam -aAoadaij JO anje^^ § § ■pa.toj^eaa ejonpoij JO ani«A •paXoj^eaQ jaqraix JO aniBA K paA'cj^eaQ jaquiix - i o o o o o C C C =: a, H OQ H S O 2 Q <: •saioy — jaAO-^nQ •eajoy ^ puooag j •eajoy -jaqraix •qoaajv •sajoy eajy ibiox S § S 2 g g § § g § g § g g g g g g g K O — I -^ •sajTj[ JO -ON ■Baijday JO -OM ■Sui^joda^ sdiqeuMox JO -ON -H rt 115 P) C<3 PJ to ■XjanoQ ui Bdtqs -UAiOx'jO •ON I^^OX lO PO 50 »0 CO CO ill I H II I 1 < < m C u 5 CO H :s >i Forest Fires axd their Prevextiox. 17 TABLE 5.— comparative STATEMENT OF AVERAGES BY REGIONS FOR 1910 AND 1909. Mountain. Piedmont. Coastal Plain. State. 1910. 1909. 1910. 1909. 1910. 1909. 1910. 1909. Percentage of townships reporting. . 31 32 36 33.5 Average area of each fire, in acres. _ 594 668 616 1,171 1,0S9 511 821 667 Average damage bv each fire, in dollars 631 1.585 393 668 1,089 1,030 974 2,594 294 775 1,805 439 Average area burnt over per town- ship reporting, in acres.- Average damage per acre, in cents. 1.06 .59 1.08 .88 .90 .57 .97 .66 Average cost to fight fires per acre burnt over, in cents .16 .04 .06 .01 .03 .04 .06 ■ OiVt NUMBER OF FIRES. Of the 800 blanks sent out, only 320, or 41 per cent, were filled out and returned. Though these covered only one-third of the townships of the State, it is probable that they include the greater part of the more important fires, though many other fires have occurred in town- ships not reported on. This has been ascertained from clippings taken from the local press of the State, which mention additional fires in at least ten counties. Xo doubt many fires also took place in townships making reports which the correspondents, owing to their location in a different part of the township, had not heard of. From tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 it will be seen that 726 fires were reported, or an average of a little over two fires to the township reporting. This is only slightly in excess of the total number of fires reported for 1909. While there were barely half the number of fires reported from the mountain region, there were nearly three times as many in the Pied- mont region as were reported for 1909. This is probably due in large part to the two droughts, which were so severe over the eastern part of the State, and which were much less felt in the mountains. The com- paratively small niunber of replies receiv.ed from the western part of the State might also partly account for it. AREA BURNT OVER. About 580,000 acres of land were reported burnt over during 1910. This is 43 per cent in excess of the amount burnt over last year. The comparative freedom of the mountain counties from fires shows itself in the 80,000 acres burnt over, which is less than half that was burnt over in that region in 1909. ' 2 18 Forest Fikes axd their Prevextiox. Nearly half of tlie burnt-over area of the State was supporting a growth of merchantable timber, though probably the greater part of it had been culled to some extent. The division of the area into mer- chantable timber, second growth, and cut-over, is only approximate and can not be taken as definite figures. Nearly all merchantable timber in the hardwood forests contains more or less second growth, while a great l^art of the cut-over lauds also contains much young growth. Such figures, therefore, can not be accurate, and are of use cliieily in giving some idea of the damage done by fires. MERCHANTABLE TIMBER DESTROYED. The amount of merchantable timber destroyed, compared with the area burnt over containing such timber, appears to be very small. This is due to the fact that, as a rule, mature timber is not killed outright by the ordinary forest fires in this State, unless the fire occurs in tlio late spring. Most fires, however, do seriously injure mature standing tim- ber, and often the death of timber Avhich is attributed to insects is really primarily caused by forest fires. In spite of this, however, there is a reported loss of 62,000,000 feet of merchantable timber from fires. This is nearly twice as much as was reported destroyed in 1909. FOREST PRODUCTS DESTROYED. The value of forest products destroyed in 1910 is about three times as much as that listed for 1909, and amounts to over a quarter of a million dollars. This includes sawlogs, lumber, cordwood, bark, and other material. Although this large item of loss is no doul)t much below the real figure, it is, however, enough to make peoi)le realize the a(lvisal)ility of taking acti^'e steps to prevent such fires. I.MPROVK.AIEXTS DESTROYED. Farm improvements, chiefly fences and outbuildings, are included under tbis head. Ninety-eight thousand dollars was lost by the de- struction of this class of j^i-operty alone, niore than half of it in the Coastal Plain region. This, as will be seen from Table 1. is also largely in excess of that of 1909. LIVES LOST. The year 1910 will long be remembered as one of the most destruc- tive to life and property from forest fires throughout the country. Dur- ing the month of August scores of lives were lost in the forest regions of the northwestern States. FoKEST Fires and their Prevention. 19 - Though we are apt to think that our fires are altogether different from those in the West, yet a loss of five human lives through forest fires occurred in North Carolina in 1910. Besides the woman burnt in Cumberland County, referred to in last year's report, a colored girl and an old woman were burnt to death in Columbus County while trying to protect their property from the flames. Two men lost their lives fighting fire in the western part of the State, one in Haywood County, and the other one near Marion in McDowell County. Such deaths are usually spoken of as accidental, but they are preventable accidents, for they would not have occurred had it not been for the criminal carelessness of those who let the fires get out. COST TO FIGHT FIRES. More than $35,000 was spent by private individuals and lumber com- panies in 1910 in extinguishing forest fires, or two and a half times the amount spent the previous year. This does not comprise the total cost of fighting fire even in the townships reporting, for, as a rule, small fires and those on private land are fought, when any effort is made to extinguish them, by the voluntary help of the neighbors. A glance at the figures in Table 5 shows that about sixteen cents per acre burnt over was spent in the Mountain region to fight fii-es, while only about three cents per acre was spent in the Coastal Plain. This does not mean that the mountain people are not willing to fight fire unless paid for it, for they are just as ready as any one else to assist their neighbors in such emergencies. It means that the lumber companies and other timberland o^^aiers of that region are more alive to the destruction caused by fire than those of the Coastal Plain region. This is partly because many owners of mature timber in eastern North Carolina still burn to protect their timber from more destructive conflagrations, but chiefly because many of the eastern lumbermen own the timber without the land, and so have no interest in protecting the young growth, while those in the Mountain region usually own both land and timber and are anxious to keep fire out. It is an encouraging sign that while twice as much was spent in 1910 in fighting fires in the mountains as Avas spent in l909, only half as great an area Avas burnt over. While the weather was in part responsible for this there is no doubt that the increasing watchfulness and effort on the part of landowners is bringing results. LOSS FROM FIRE NOT INCLUDED IN THE TABLES. A loss of considerably over $500,000 in one-third of the townships of the State seems a large sum, and yet it is far from representing the 20 Forest Fires and their Prevention. entire damage, even of the fires that were reported. The injurv to tlic standing timber which is not killed is often just as heavy as that caused hy the destruction of the trees. The damage done to young growth and reproduction is usually con- siderably greater than that done to the mature timber, but as it is in most cases difficult to put a cash value on this young growth, because it has no sale value, it is usually left out of all estimates of damage. There is now, however, a tendency to take into account the young growth destroyed by a fire, as is evidenced by two correspondents; one in the mountains, Avho estimated a loss of $5 per acre in the destruction of young growth; the other on the coast, who put down a loss of $1,000 in young growth, caused by burning over 500 acres of land. These, which are no doubt very conservative estimates, go to show that some landoAvners are realizing the loss to the future forest that is taking place. Xext year an attempt will be made by the Survey to get corre- spondents to include damage to young growth by furnishing question blanks with a space for this purpose.* The gradual killing out and disappearance from the forest of such valuable species as poj)lar, white pine, and chestnut, and the substitution for them of the inferior, though more fire-resistant kinds, means a seri- ous loss to the landowner which will be appreciated more thoroughly by the next generation because the change is comparatively slow. Such a loss is hard to estimate for any one year, but it will manifest itself in the gradual decline in the value of the propcj-ty. The gradual, though certain, impoverishment of the soil through the constant burning of the leaves, causes great loss in the value of the land on which the forest is growing. This loss shows itself in the slower growth of the trees and in the decline in value of the land for agricul- tural purposes. The washing of the soil by the rains is one of the forms of (hiniaui' caused by forest fires. The coating of leaves ])rotects tlie top soil, and when this is removed the rains rush oft" to tlie streams, removing the surface soil, and filling up tlie sireambeds wi'li silt and sand, thereby damaging the land and seriously interfering with the navigability of the streams. CAUSES OF FOREST FIUES. The principal causes of forest fires, as given by the various corre- spondents for their own townships, have been compiled and are given in percentages in Table 6. •Damage to young growth from forest fires is discussed pretty fully in Economic Paper 10, "Forest Fires in North Carolina During 1909," page 25. Forest Fires and their Prevention. 21 TABLE 6.— CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES IN THE DIFFERENT REGIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA IN 1910, IN PERCENTAGES. 1910. 1909. Moun- tain Pied- mont. Coastal. State. State. 8 2 23 6 5 13 3 7 6 2 22 27 15 2 13 6 3 20 20 9 5 1 3 10 16 3 11 18 8 15 17 5 10 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 8 4 2 13 16 16 2 9 13 Malice or incendiary Unknown causes.. 6 4 8 4 7 This table shows that over three-fourths of the fires reported from all over the State were thought to be uuiutentioual. Forty-two per cent of all the replies given by correspondents can be classified under the head of individual carelessness, which is practically the same figure as was obtained last year. In the Piedmont region, however, where burn- ing to improve the range is practically eliminated as a cause of fires, fifty-seven per cent of the correspondents attributed the fires to indi- vidual carelessness. Farmers burning brush, grass, stumps, and rubbish are said to be responsible for about one-third of these "individual" fires, while probably a majority of those attributed to general carelessness should come under this head. This is by far the most frequent cause of fires originating from the individual. More care in the setting of such fires, and watching them till they are burned out and harmless, would prevent many of the most serious and destructive fires. Sparks from engines is a very fertile cause of forest fires, over one- third of the correspondents giving this as the principal cause in 1910. Railroad and logging locomotives are the chief offenders, twenty-nine per cent of all the correspondents accusing them. This is considerably more than fell to their share in 1909. These railroad fires are in large part preventable, and as soon as property owners along the lines of rail- roads unite in demanding protection, it can be secured. 22 Forest Fires and their Prevention. According to tlie above table, intentional fires are most frequent in the Mountain region, where thirty-seven per cent are said to be pur- posely set. This is a large proportion, though it is an improvement over the report for the previous year, which showed that in the mountains nearly half the fires were set on purpose. This large number of inten- tional fires is in part due to the destructive habit of burning the woods to' "improve the range" for loose cattle, which ought to be confined to their owner's land, and in part to an unfortunate feeling of antagonism in some localities against large landowners who are trying to protect their forests. The large increase in malicious" or incendiary fires all over the State is a regrettable feature of the 1910 figures and one tliat is not easy to explain. It indicates very clearly, however, tliat more stringent laws and better law enforcement are needed in order to check this nuisance. PREVENTIVE A>D PROTECTIVE MEASURES. We have in Xorth Carolina a reported loss from forest fires in 1910 of $560,000. This report covers only one-third, of the townships of the State, and does not include injury to standing timber, damaged, but not killed ; to young growth ; to soil and streams by any of the fires. There can be little doubt, therefore, that the total loss through forest fires in ]^orth Carolina during 1910 amounted to at least a million dollars. In addition to this there was very serious loss of life from the same cause. Is it not time that North Carolina as a State, and we as individuals, took some steps to abate this nuisance? If there was any one measure that would stop these fires we could easily be persuaded to adopt it, but, unfortunately, there is no such spe- cific. There is, however, much that we can all do and the following preventive and protective measures are strongly advocated. private measures. The OAvner of woodland, Avhether a corporation or a ])rivate individ- ual, can do much towards protecting his property from fire, though to achieve the greatest success all such efforts should have the hearty co-operation of the community and the State. Fire lines cleared out around or through a property are very effective in stopping a moderate fire. When a strong wind is blowing and the fire is very heavy, such a fire line is invaluable as a vantage ground from which to start a back fire. Adequate fire lines can be constructed at from $10 to $50 per mile, according to the nature of the ground over which it has to be made. Such a fire line has been made over the rough mountain country of northeast McDowell County at less than the higher figure. Forest Fires and their Prevextiox. 23 Patrol is probably the most effective single means tliat the individual can put into practice, though quite expensive. Efficient patrol will cost from one to three cents per acre per year. Some companies, especially in the mountainous part of the State, employ one or more men to look after their forest land, and often part of their duty is patrolling. If this were more generally practiced many fires would be prevented, and many more extinguished before they had gotten beyond control. Warning notices, calling the attention of the passers-by to the danger of forest fires, are used to a large extent in the National Forests of the West, and are employed on many of the private or corporate holdings in the l^orth and East, and to some extent in the South, though in this State they are little used, except to include a prohibition against setting fire to the woods in a general trespass notice. A carefully-worded re- minder, posted where it will be seen and read, is calculated to help materially in suppressing the ^'careless" fir'e.* Farmers can do much to prevent the disastrous, spring fires by burn- ing in the winter as much as possible what brush and rubbish it is necessary to remove in this way, and by never leaving even an innocent- looking fire until it is quite out. Renters, who very often own no land and are absolutely irresponsible, should be bound by a contract not to set out fire in dry Aveather. If every renter who let fire escape and burnt up his landlord's woods were in the future denied a place to rent in that neighborhood, this class of offenders would learn to be more careful. A stipulation against setting fire to the woods should always be in- cluded in a contract for the sale of timber. There is no more reason for the purchaser of mature timber to destroy all the reproduction and young growth on the ground by fire than there is for a man who buys the apple crop to cut down and destroy an orchard in order to harvest the fruit, and the sooner landowners realize this the better it will be for their interests. co-operative associations. Co-operation between individuals for the purpose of fire protection adds very much to the effectiveness of private efforts. The individual suffers as much and sometimes more from fires that start beyond his boundary than from those originating on his land; especially if he is patrolling and his neighbor is not. Xo matter how careful a man may be or how much he spends on fire protection, the fires that originate and develop great headway before they come onto his property, can not be controlled. Besides the attainment of efficiency through co-operation. •Fire lines, fire patrol and fire notices are more fully discussed in Economic Paper 19, "Forest Fires North Carolina During 1909," pp. 43-47. 24 Forest Fires and their Prevention. the cost of protection is reduced to a inininiuiu. Oue man can patrol much more territory if he feels responsible for all the area that comes within his vision than if he has to look out for boundary lines and his operations are restricted. Some form of co-oju'ration is essential for the most successful fire-fighting. The value of co-operative associations has been pretty clearly demon- strated in several of the far westeni States dui'ing the past two or three years. Two separate kinds of associations for forest protection have been formed; the one chiefly educational, the other engaging in the actual protective work. Associations Chiefly Educational: — The Oregon Forest Fire Associa- tion is a representative of this class. It does not itself engage actively in fire work, but is a rather loose affiliation of individual patrol systems, each doing its fire work independently, but using the central facilities for legislative and publicity purposes and particularly to stimulate the installation of further individual i)atrols. The formation of local co- operative patrol associations is also encouraged. In fact, its main pur- pose is for the general promotion of patrols in the State, of giving out information regarding the best methods of protection, endeavoring to induce the public to be more careful in the use of fire, and tiying to persuade owners to maintain patrols. There is a large amount of Avork of this nature to be done and it will belp the general movement, but of course, the only way to prevent fires is to have patrolmen on the ground. Such an association denotes a less advanced stage in co-0])erative effort — for a large number of independent patrols cannot etpial systematic co- operative management of the work in either economy or results — nor does it have the same public standing. Moreover, without actual work to do the association finds it hard to gain members or preserve its solid- arity. Such an organization in North Carolina would not be of the greatest value. The field is covered already, to a certain extent, by tlie North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, which is only kej»t fz'om doing much more in this line by lack of funds. Associations Chiefly Protective: — What is wanted among timberland owners in North Carolina is a close organization which can go ahead and carry out ])atrol and other means of protection. This is being done in the northwest by the Washington Forest Fire Association and the several Idaho timber protective associations, which latter, it is gener- ally conceded, afford the most efficient protection in the country. The organization of these Associations includes a board of directors who have power to levy and enforce the payment of assessments to defray expenses in proportion to the number of acres owned by each member. Forest Fires axd their Preventiox. 25 The actual work of protection is put in the hands of a committee which hires patrohnen and fire fighters and incurs all other expenses necessary to protect the territory from forest fires. In one of the most successful of these Associations the patrol averages one man to sixteen thousand acres, and although they have had some hazardous seasons their loss has always been very small. It is figured that it is a better policy to main- tain a close patrol to discover small fires when they first start than to cut down the expense of the patrol, and then rely upon putting a large force of men on to fight fire after it gets well started. The cost of this association averages about three cents per acre per year, though on account of a very exceptional season it went over that in 1910. The total cost of the Washington Forest Fire iVssociation was 2.3 cents per acre in 1910, and only 1.4 cents in 1909, though much more than the acreage belonging to members Avas patrolled, in order to better protect their own lands. ]^ot only do these associations do their own protective work, but they co-operate with the State and ISTational Governments in fire protection. In ISTorth Carolina there is a large opening for this feature of their work. The State has at present no fire-fighting force with which to co-operate, but it is hoped that this will be provided for by the next Legislature. The \J. S. Department of Agriculture, however, is anx- ious to spend part of the amount provided for co-operation Avith States by the Weeks bill in fire protection in Xorth Carolina. It Avas sug- gested that the basis of such co-operation might be furnished by a Forest ProtectiA'e Association Avorking through the State Geological and Economic Survey. It has been decided, hoAA'ever, that this does not come within the meaning of the Act. There are endless Avays in which the activities of such an Association could Avork for the better protection and consequent enhancement in value of our forests, and the timberland owners of the State are recom- mended to look thoroughly into this question and, if possible, make trial of this method of protection. state measures. Present Laws. In 1777 the General Assembly of North Carolina passed a statute making it unlaAvful for any one to set fire to the Avoods, except it be his OAvn property, and in that case not Avithout first giving tAA^o days notice in AA'riting to adjoining pro])erty oAvners. After 13-4 years this laAv still remains on our statute books, the best and practically the only laAv Ave have on the subject. In its present form in The Revisal of 1905 it reads : 26 Forest Fires axd their Prevention. 334G. Woods. — If any person shall set lire to any woods, except it be his own property, or, in that case, without first giving notice in writing to all persons owning lands adjoining to the woodlands intended to be fired, at least two days before the time of firing such woods, and also taking effectual care to extinguish such fire before it shall reach any vacant or patented lands near to or adjoining the lands so fired, he shall, for every such offense, forfeit and pay to any person who shall sue for the same fifty dollars, and be liable to any one injured in an action, and sliall moreover be guilty of a misdi'ineanor. The law therefore forhids setting fire to Avoods, even though it be one's own property, Avithont giving tAvo days notice in Avriting to adjoin- ing landowners. This laAv is rarely enforced, because the "tAvo days notice in writing" is considered an impractical measure, and also be- cause the strong objection among most people to prosecuting their neighbors acts as a deterrent. One of the most frequent causes of fire, that from burning brush while clearing up ncAv grounds in the spring, is not covered by this law, for the courts have held that these "new ground" fires do not come within the statute. This laAv is susceptible of considerable improvement and should be amended. Since the great extension of railroad facilities all over the State, the practice of hauling farm crops and merchandise long distances to market, which used to be the universal custom, has almost ceased. In the rougher and more remote pai-ts of the State, hoAvever, Avhere more than one daA^'s trip is required to reach the market the abandoned camp- fire is still a menace. That Xorth Carolina has a laAV against leaving such fires unextinguished is often not knOAvn by Avagoners, and a notice quoting the folloAving section posted near frequented camping places Avould often be of great advantage to the passer-by, as Avell as a safe- guard to the property OAvner. 3347. Wooflf!. from Co tup Fires. — If any wagoner or other person encamjjing in the open air shall leave his camp without totally extinguishing the camp fire>;, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined not exceeding fifty dollars, or imprisoned not exceeding thirty days. These tAvo laAvs, the most important dating back some 130 years, con- stitute the present working forest-fire laAvs of Xorth Carolina. Even these, hoAvever, are rarely enforced. In order to ascertain as nearly as possible to Avhat extent these laws were being carried out, the Xorth Carolina Geological and Economic Survey asked all their forest-fire correspondents the following question : "Has any one, so far as you know, been prosecuted for setting fire to forests in your county or township during the past year? If so, with Avhat result ?" Forest Fires axd their Preyextiox. 27 This question was answered in the negative by 195 of the correspond- ents. Out of the 218 who answered this question usually in one word as ''Xo," '^Xone/' or "Nobody," only 23 mentioned any action being taken against those who set out fire, and of these only nine could have been brought under the law against setting fires, the rest being civil suits for damages, chiefly against railroads and lumber companies. The sum total of convictions, for the careless or intentional setting of at least 700 fires in this State during 1910 is four; two in the mountains, in which the parties were "fined light, say $5 each and costs," and two in the Coastal Plain region, one of whom was let off by pa^dng "good" costs; and the other, to the honor of Pitt County be it said, was given the maximum fine, $50 and costs. The other suits wei*e, in the words of the correspondents, "j^ol prossed," "Compromised, defendant paying $37.50 damages," "Case before grand jury, hut no bill found," "Xot a true bill/' "Case not yet tried." The apparent inefliciency of the law is due to the inadequacy of the laws themselves and to the indifference of the people in the matter of burning the woods. This is well illustrated by the folloAving replies from a few of the correspondents in answer to the above question in regard to prosecutions under the fire laws: "IN'ot one. We need more stringent laws as to the careless handling of fire" ; "]^^o one. ISTeed more laAvs" ; "Cannot get sufficient i^roof to get true bill or convict"; "Xobody prosecuted, everybody seems to be afraid to prosecute for fear of being burned out" ; "I think not. It would be difficult to convict as it is a 'sport' engaged in by a large percent of our people"; "Xo ; but ought to have been"; "Don't know of any. They are hard to catch and hard to convict in a fence-law territory" ; "One was threatened with prosecution" ; "Xo ; only for want of officers to enforce the law." The General Assembly of 1909 passed a law allowing the Governor, at his discretion and on application of the owner, to declare any wooded land which lies above 2,000 feet above sea level a "State forest." The Governor may then, at the request of the owner, appoint such forest wardens as the owner of the land may request, said wardens to have the power of arrest without warrant and to be paid entirely by the owner. For this privilege the landowner pays an annual tax of half a cent per acre into the county treasury for the benefit of the school fund. Xo property owner has yet taken advantage of this law, and it is prac- tically a dead letter, the owners probably thinking that the efficiency gained by giving the wardens power of arrest is not worth such a sub- stantial tax. 28 Forest Fires axd their Prevextiox. Prcrjjosed La us. As we liave previously seen, the largest inuuber of fires are due to the carelessness or indifTerence of individuals, and to the negli- gence of railroads, lunibernien, and other operators of engines. In order to successfully cope with this situation, Ave need: (1) Better laws to control the private citizen; (2) Stricter regulations controlling the railroad and other engine users; (3) A system maintained by the State, or the State and counties together, to properly enforce the forest-fire laws. These three features may be combined in one act, as was done in the bill which was introduced into the last Legislature, or they may be passed as three separate acts, as is here proposed. Fires Set by Private Individuals: — The present law, which has pre- viously been "given, should be amended to include grassland, bvit the two days written notice required should apply to woods only, or should be eliminated altogether. B}'' broadening the second section to make it include hunters and other persons, some approach to controlling that fertile source of forest fires would be made. In Xew Jersey and several other States to the north and west of us, the burning of woods, brush, stumps, rubbish and other material is not allowed during a dry season, and in some cases throughout the year, without a written permit from the proper officer. This has been found to work well in preventing fires, especially the destructive early spring fires. In ^N^orth Carolina, however, avc are hardly ready for such a law. A law to compel all who burn material to watch it till it is extinguished would seem to meet a definite need and would be more easily enforced. The following suggested bill contains all of the above features: A Bill to be Extitled Ax Act to Protect the Fokests of This State fko.m Fire. The Gericnil Assinibhi of \nrlli Cdiolhin do ninrl : Section 1. Tliat section tliree tlioiisiuul tlirw liuiulred and forty-six of The Revisal of one thousand nine hundred and five be amended to lead as follows: If any person shall set fire to any grassland, brusliland or woodland, except it he his own property, or, in that case without first giving notice to all persons o.vn- ing or in charge of lands adjoining to the land intended to he fired, and al-o taking care to watch s\ich fire while burning and tiiking etVcclua] rare tu cx- tinguish such fire before it >liail icacli any lands iieai' fi) m- adjniniiig the land so fired, he shall for evfery such offense be guilty of a niisdcnieaiior and I)e fini-d or imprisoned in the discretion of the court. 'Iliis -hall not jirevcnt action for damages sustained by the owner of any property. Sec. 2. That section three thousand three hundred and forty-seven of The Kevisal of one thousnnd nine hundred and five l)c anicndcd to read as follows; Forest Fires and their Prevention. 29 Any wagoner, hunter, camper or other person who shall leave a camp-fire without fully extinguishing it, or who shall accidentally or negligently, by the use of any torch, gun, match or other instrumentality, or in any manner whatever, start any fire upon any grassland, brushland or woodland, without fully extinguishing the same, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be punish- able by a fine of not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than fifty dollars or imprisoned not exceeding thirty days. Sec. 3. All persons, firms or corporations who shall burn any tar kiln or pit of charcoal or set fire to or burn any brush, grass or other material whereby any property may be endangered or destroyed, shall keep and maintain a careful and competent watchman in charge of said kiln, pit, brush or other material while burning. Any person, firm or corporation violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. Railroad Fires. — The railroads and lumber conipaiiies, though great offenders, having caused probably one-third of the fires in the State in 1910, are also great sufferers, being generally held respoiisible for injury and made to pay damages. A few of the replies to the ques- tion asking about prosecutions are here quoted : "Railroad paid for several acres of timber" ; "Railroad compromised, nothing done about the' rest" ; "No ; the railroad people always pay damage" ; "The railroad has paid about $1,000" ; "Xo ; Railroad Company paid about $2,000" ; "The Railroad Company goes over the ground and sees how much it burns over, and pays about thirty-five cents per acre" ; "Set by traction engine, and damage paid" ; "Lumber Company sued for $5,000" ; "Lumber Company forced to pay damages" ; "Suit entered against one lumber company." These prosecutions are, of course, as said bei'ore, brought under the civil law, and do not invoke the present fire laws. They do, however, show that it is as much to the interest of the railroads as to that of the owners of woodland that fires should be prevented. Until there is some general demand, howef'er, that the railroads take necessary precautions, they prefer to drift along in the old way, paying damages now and then, — the average cost of which they know — rather than advocate new laws, which, though they might save them money, still would cost them an unknoAvn amount to carry out. When reasonable laws are once passed the railroads will undoubt- edly co-operate actively in their enforcement, trusting thereby to cut down their large annual bill of damages. During the last sesion of the Legislature the following bill was drawn up, after careful discussion and criticism of every point by the repre- sentatives of the people and of the railroad and lumber companies. It was at first introduced as part of the general forestry bill, but was later drawn up as a separate law. It is in this form that its passage by the next Legislature is strongly urged. 30 FoKEST Fires axd theik Prevention. A Bill to be Entitled An Act to Require the Railroads of the State to Take Certain Precautions for the Prevention of Forest Fires. The General Assenibli/ of Xortli Carolina do enact: Section 1. All persons, Hnns or corporations operating any railruad, logging road or traniroad through woodland within this State shall keep their right of way cleared of all combustible materials within a horizontal distance of one hundred (100) feet, nowhere to exceed one hundred and fifty (150) feet surface measurement, from the outer rail on each side of the track, by burning or otiior method. Combustible material, as referred to in this act, shall be construed to mean only such brush, grass, leaves or other material tliat would ordinarily be- come ignited from a spark from the engine. \\ luii the right of way owned does not extend to the width of the cleared space or (ire line licrein required, the right is hereby granted to said persons, firms or corporations to enter upon adjoining lands not owned by them, for. the purpose of clearing oflf and maintaining the cleared space or fire line herein required. If any landowner should object to the clearing ofi" and maintenance of the fire line herein required, he shall not be enti- tled to collect any damages thereafter occurring from fires caused by sparks from the engines of said persons, firms or corporati(jns. Each railroad, logging road or traniroad affected hereby shall be required to clear off each year not more than one-fifth (1-5) of the total length of the fire line required by this section until all has been completed, and shall continue to keep such fire line clear after it has once been cleared off. The part of the mileage to be cleared off by such railroad shall l>e designated by the Geological Board after conference with the proper oflicer of such railroad, logging road or traniroad. Any railroad wilfully violating the provisions of this section shall be liable to a penalty of not less than ten ($10.00) dollars or more than twenty-five ($25.00) dollars for every mile or fraction thereof of fire line not cleared according to the provisions of this section : Provided, that this section shall not be construed to prohibit or prevent any railroad company from piling or keeping upon the right of way, crossties or other material necessary in the operation or maintenance of such railroad or ntaterials intended for shipment over such railroad; nor is it intended to require the re- moval of buildings, fences or other necessary or vahmble improvements from the fire line herein required: Provided further, that tlie notice to the adjoining landown- ers required by section three thousand three huiulrcil and forty-six of The Re- visal of one thousand nine hundred and five sliall nnt ai)i)ly to any biniiini; neces- sary to carry out the provisions of this section: I'roriilcd fnrtlnr. Ihat nothing in this section shall be construed to require tlie railroad romiiaiiy to clear the fire line on property not owned by said (■iiin])aiiy ^lnmid tlie owner oliject. ami no failure on this account shall l)e charged against tlie railroad coinijany as a viola- tion of this act. Sec. 2. When engineers, conductors or trainmen employed by any railroad discover that fences or other material along the right of way or woodland ad- jacent to the railroad are burning or in danger from fire, they shall report the same promptly at the ne.xt telegraph or telephone station at which the train is .scheduled to stop, or at any other stops necessary in the operation of the train. The reporting of such fires shall not be construed to mean that the lailroad com- panies making .such report are responsible for such fires, nor shall smli report he used in evidence in a suit arising from such fire, but is simply for the purpose of giving information as to the existence of a fire. In seasons of drought the rail- Forest Fires and their Prevention. 31 road companies shall give instructions to their section foremen for the prevention and prompt extinguishing of fires originating on their right of way, and they shall cause warning placards, furnished by the Geological Board, to be posted at their stations in the vicinity of forest lands. Any railroad company wilfully violating the requirements of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and railroad employees wilfully violating the requirements of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. Sec. 3. For the purpose of this act woodland is taken to include all forest areas, both timber land and cut-over land, and all second growth stands on areas that have at one time been cultivated. This law requires the railroads to clear oif a strip 100 feet wide on each side of their track, where it runs through woodland. It has been demonstrated after careful study that most of the live sparks from rail- road locomotives fall within the zone between 50 and 100 feet on each side of the track, and very few fall beyond that distance. Keeping this strip clear would then prevent most of the fires caused by railroads and logging roads, Avhich, as we have seen above, constitute about one-third of the fires in the State. Fire Warden System. — The most important problem in the formula- tion of forest laAvs is providing effective machinery for putting them into force. Eighteen States have already organized fire protective systems, the purpose of which is to enforce the forest-fire laws of these States. Little or nothing has been accomplished in States without such systems, though several, like our own, have some excellent laws. A fire warden system generally consists of district, township, or county wardens, who, as a rule, are responsible to some one State official, either the State Forester, the State Forest Commissioner, or State Fire Warden, who is specific; II7 charged with fire-protective work and usually also with the forestry work of the State. It is the duty of the Avardens to extinguish fires, arrest offenders against the fire laws, investigate the causes of fires, post warning notices against fire and in some cases to patrol the forests during dry weather. They are paid by the State, or by the county, or by the State and county combined, usually by the hour or day, for the time actually employed. In fixing a rate of payment, care is taken not to make it high cnougli to tempt unscrupulous men to set fire to the woods with the object of drawing pay for extinguishing it. This prac- tice may, of course, be occasionally resorted to, even where the pay is not high, but an efficient county fire warden would soon discover the perpetrators or at least have his suspicions aroused, and one or two drastic sentences, upon conviction, would put a stop to the practice. There are many counties in JSTorth Carolina where fire wardens are not 32 Forest Fires and their Prevention. needed, but in counties having fifty per cent and over of their area in woodhuid they Avoukl quickly pay for their cost. If only a few coun- ties were given tlie advantage of such a law to stail with, tlie demand for fire wardens would rapidly spread, as their usefulness became appar- ent. The following hill, in a somewhat different form, was introduced into the Legislature of 1911, but failed to pass, chiefly because a special tax of half a cent per acre on all woodlands in the State was asked, to provide levenue for its enforcement. This method of raising the necessary money is perfectly fair and equitable, but until the system can be inaugurated and tested in those counties that most need fire pro- tection, it is thought that a direct ap])ropriation would be much simpler and more i)racticable. A Bill to be Entitled An Act tq Ai tiiohizi; tiik Ari'oiNT.MKXT and Pay.mk.nt OF FoRE.sT Wardens. The General As.senihli/ of XortJi Varoliiio do enact: Section 1. On petition of four or more owners of timlier lands in any one township, owning: in the aggregate five thousand acres or more, or the owners of one-third of tiie forest hind in the township, the comity conunissioners shall appoint, subject to the approval of the Geological Board, a forest warden for that township and as many deputj' forest wardens to act with liim as the Geological Board may deem necessary for the proper enforcement of this act. All forest wardens and deputy forest wardens must be legal residents of tlic counties in which they are employed. Sec. 2. Forest wardens and deputy forest wardens sliall have cliaige of meas- ures for controlling forest fires; they shall make arrests for violations of the forest laws: shall post along highways and in other conspicuous places copies of the forest fire laws and warnings against fires which shall be supplied by the Geological Board; and they shall perform s\ich other duties as shall be consid- ered necessary by the (Geological Board for tlie protection of forests. The forest wardens of the township in which a fire occurs shall within ten day^ make such rej)ort thereof to the Geological Board as may be prescribed by tlicm. Each deputy forest warden shall promptly report to wardens any tire in liis district. Sec. 3. Any person who shall maliciously or wilfully dcstioy. deface, remove or disfigure any sign, poster or warning notice, postc<] by ordci- of the Geological Board under the provisions of this or other act for tlie purpose of protecting the forests in this State from tiif. shall be guilty of a misdcuicauoi- and upon con- viction shall be puiiisliabje by a line of not less liian t<'n dollars or more tlian fifty dollars or iinprisdiicd not exceeding thirty days. Sec. 4. Any poson discovering any forest fire shall imuicdiatety give notice to the nearest forest warden or deputy forest warden in tliat or adjoining town- shi])s. All able-bodied male persons between eighteen and foity-tive years of age can be summoned by forest wardens or deputy forest wardens to assist in e.x- tinguishing forest fires and shall be paid for such services at a rate not to exceed fifteen do) cents per hour. Any person summoned by a forest warden or his deputy and not attending, without reasonable excuse, shall be subject to a fine of five ($5) dollars. FO'^EST FlBES AXD THEIR PrEVEXTION. 33 Sec. 5. Forest wardens and deputy forest wardens shall have the same power as deputy sheriffs, so far as the provisions of this act are concerned. Neither forest wardens nor their deputies shall be liable for trespass while acting in the performance of their duties, nor shall any person be held guilty of trespass for going on lands when summoned by an ofiBcer to control fire. Sec. 6. Forest wardens and deputy forest wardens shall receive compensation from the State at the rate of twenty cents per hour for the time actually engaged in the performance of their duties and reasonable expenses for equipment and transportation incurred in fighting or extinguishing any fire, according to an itemized statement to be rendered the Geological Board every month and approved by them. Forest wardens shall render to the Geological Board a statement of the services rendered by the men employed by them or their deputy wardens, as provided in this act, within one month of the date of service, which said bill shall show in detail the amount and character of the service performed, the exact duration thereof, the name of each person employed, and any other information required by the Geological Board. If said bill be duly approved, it shall be paid by direction of the Geological Board out of the State Treasury; and the State Treasurer is hereby authorized and required to collect one-half of the wages and expenses incurred by the forest wardens and deputy forest wardens under this section and section three (3) of this act, from the county in which they arc incurred. Sec. 7. The svun of ten thousand dollars annually is hereby appropriated, out of any moneys in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this act, the same to be drawn upon as directed by the Geological Board. XATIOXAL ilEASrRES. Co-operation- Under the ^Yeel•s Bill: — With the recent passage by Congress of the ^V^eeks Bill (Pub. Xo. 435) "to enable any State to co- operate with any other State or with the United States for the protec- tion of the watersheds of navigable streams, etc." an opportunity has been opened to secure fire protection, for at least the mountain portion of the State, at one-half the actual cost of such protection. This bill provides, among other things, as follows : Sec. 2. That the sum of two hundred thousand dollars is hereby appropriated and made available until expended, out of any moneys in the national treasury not otherwise appropriated, to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to co-operate with any State or group of States, when requested to do so, in the protection from fire of the forested watersheds of navigable streams; and the Secretary of Agriculture is hereby authorized, and on such conditions as he deems wise, to stipulate and agree with any State or group of States to co-operate in the organi- zation and maintenanc-e of a system of fire protection on any private or State forest lands within such State or States and situated upon the watershed of a navigable river: Provided, that no such stipulation or agreement shall be made with any State which has not provided by law for a system of forest fire protec- tion: Provided further, that in no case shall the amount expended in any State exceed in any fiscal year the amount appropriated by that State for the same purpose during the same fiscal year. 3 34 Forest Fires and their Pkevextiox. Under this law tlie Federal Govenunent is empowered to co-operate with the various States in the organization, direction, and extension of a fire protective system, by putting in a sum of money equal to that appropriated by the State for this purpose. It can, however, only co-operate with States which have some form of State fire protection already. Xortli Carolina has no such system, and though the Federal officials have sliowed a strong desire to spend part of this money in this State, nothing can be done to take advantage of this proffered co-opera- tion until a regular State system of fire protection can be established. Should the Legislature in 1913 pass a law like that suggested on pages 32-33, appropriating $10,000 for fire protection, an equal sum might, under the Weeks law, be procured from the Federal Government, making $20,000, with which a good start could be made towards the prevention of forest fires in Xorth Carolina. Owners of forest land should make every effort to take advantage of this great opportunity by seeing to it that men actively in favor of forest protection are nominated aud elected to the next General As- sembly. EDUCATIONAL MEASURES. The majority of our people have been raised where there was always abundance of wood for fuel and for other local necessities, and Avhere the selling of timber oft' the land has been looked upon as something extra made over the ordinary income. Timber has never been rated at its true value, namely, its cost value to grow, because there has been abundance of timber ready grown to our hand. It is not strange then that there is so much indifference to the growing necessity of fire pro- tection. Economic conditions have been changing so rapidly of late years that it is only those who are in close touch with the markets of the country and w^ho are studying the progress of events that realize the necessity for conservation of our forests. A campaign of education along these lines must be carried on all over the State, not only to show the property owners themselves and the other groAvn citizens that it is to their interest and that of their children to protect and perpetuate the forests; but also and probably chiefly, to educate the children, to bring them up to realize that a new condition exists, and that the trees and the forests are really growing crops, and very necessary and valuable crops, and that as such they require care and attention as much as any farm crop. The children of today are the proi)erty owners and lawmakers of tomorroAV, so while we do not cease to advocate forest protection amongst the present-day citizens, let us at the same time train our future citizens to appreciate its necessity. Forest Fires and their Prevention. 35 arbor day. Probably tbe best and most attractive as well as tlie most practical way just at present, to inculcate a knowledge and love of trees among even the smallest cbuldren, is to make the observance of Arbor Day an annual feature in all the schools of the State. This would reach all of the chil- dren of the State once each year and would give them information in a form in which it would be remembered. FcAv children, or grown people either for that matter, can distinguish a longleaf from a shortleaf pine seedling, know the conditions most favor- able for the best growth of even our commonest forest trees, or can tell one oak or one pine from another by the bark, the buds, the leaves or the fruit. In order to foster a love of trees among children and to teach them elementary facts about them, as well as to encourage the planting of trees and the intelligent care of forests by their elders, the practice of observing Arbor Day has been introduced into nearly every State in the Union, and in many States it is a legal school festival. In ISTorth Caro- lina the day was observed as far back as 1893, but unfortunately it has never received general recognition. Only a school here and there has observed the day with appropriate exercises, when some of the teachers or patrons have been especially interested in the subject. In 1896 the School Committee of the town of Durham passed a law providing : Section 1. That tlie second Friday in April of each year shall hereafter be known in the Durliam Public Schools as Arbor Day. Sec. 2. In order that the children in our jniblic schools shall assist in the work of adorning the school grounds with trees, shrubs and flowers, to develop and stimulate a love and reverence for nature, to inculcate economic and testhetic purposes which will result in beautifying the home and increasing the comfort and happiness of our people, it shall be the duty of the Superintendent of Schools to provide for and conduct such exercises as shall best accomplish these results. An Arbor Day program was prepared and published in a twelve-page leaflet. This program, as carried out on April 10, 1896, is here given, by headings, in order to convey to those who have never attended such a celebration some idea of how attractively it may be carried out. Durham Public Schools. ARBOR DAY. Assembly Hall, April 10, 1896. 1. Music Orchestra 2. Arbor Daj^ Song. 3. Responsive Exercises (in the words of Scripture). 36 POREST FiRKS AND THEIR PrEVE>-TION. 4. Prayer (to be recited in coiieert). 5. Music Orcliestra 6. Class Exercise, Telling' About Arlx)r Day. (a) What is Arbor Day? (6) Tell sonietliinji; of the origin of Arbor Day. (c) Why do we observe Arbor Day? (d) Why do you name your trees for some celebrated person? (e) How are books and trees related? (/) Tell me something about tree religion. (</) What about trees as living things? ( /; ) ^^■hy should the forests be preserved ? ((I What do we get from the forests? I j I "^ ou haven't told me anything about flowers. (A) What trees do you think the best for school grounds? ( / ) Tell me how to jilant a tree, size, etc. 7. Some Things said About Ohscrvinu- Arbor Day. 8. Song of Dedication. 9. Reading — The Tree of the Field is Man's Life. 10. Reading— The Talk of a Tree. 11. Music Orche>tra 12. Recitation — Selections from Bryant, Irving, Emerson, and others. 13. Recitation — Resolution Protesting Against the Destruction of Trees. 14. Exercise — The Arbor Day Queen. 15. Reading Letters About Arbor Day from Distiiiguislied North Carolinians. 10. Recitation — The Woodman and the Tree. 17. Music Orcliestra 18. Song — The Chorus of the Flowers. 19. Acrostic — Arbor Day. 20. Song — Love of Nature. 21. March — Washington Post. 22. Exercises at the Tree. (Pupils from each schoolroom march, to ihc school grounds, fire of the class carrying spades, the liandlcs being decorated with school colors — ichite and orange — and form a circle around the spot where the tree is to be planted.) (a) Placing the tree in position. ib) Tree planting Song. (c) A brief statement by the teaclier concerning the persim to whom the tree is dedicated. (d) Recital of quotations from writings of persons thus honored. (e) Pupils place the soil around the tree with their spades. if) Marcli to class room. Recently the Forester of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey Avas invited to make an address at an Arbor Day celebration at Southern Pines, in which the whole town took a gratifying interest. The Civic Club, an organization of the women of the place, was the prime mover, while the teachers and the school children united with the club to make the occasion a great success. Trees and shrubs Avere Forest Fires and their Prevention. 37 planted on the school grounds in the morning and in the afternoon drills, songs, and recitations, illustrating the child's relation to the trees and flowers around him, were very well given by the children in the large school auditorium. Such a celebration might be held annually by every school in the state with great profit to the children, and with increasing interest on the part of the parents. There is a growing tendency among the men to leave the education of the children more and more to the women, and the next generation will have special cause to bless their mothers for opening their eyes to the beauty and usefulness of the trees if the women, who, through their clubs are doing such good work for civic im- provement and the betterment of education, would take up this matter all over the State and work for a general Arbor Day observance. In most States some special day is selected as Arbor Day by the Gov- ernor or Superintendent of Education, or some other authority, and all schools are expected to observe that particular day. In North Carolina, where the school year varies so in the different counties, and where the time for planting trees varies with the different regions of the State, it would probably be better for each County Superintendent, or even each School Principal, to set the day which would be most convenient to him and most appropriate to the season and locality. Where only a summer and fall school session is given, October in the mountains, I^ovember in the Piedmont section, and December in the eastern part of the State would be suitable times, while where a nine or ten months school is the rule, March or x\pril would be more suitable, as children, and older folks too, for that matter, naturally turn to the woods and fields in the spring- time. Some Friday would usually be selected as interfering less with the routine of school work, though such interference really often turns out to be rather a help than hindrance to the work. FORESTRY IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. There are two ways in which Forestry can be taught in the Public Schools without adding another course to the already crowded curricu- lum : first, by means of an auxiliary reader ; and second, by correlating the various phases of Forestry with those courses taught in the school which are naturally connected with it. 1. The present system in l^orth Carolina requires the use of "basal" readers in the various grades. These are supplemented by auxiliary readers on a great variety of subjects, such as: geography, household economics, etc. The use of these is optional, the County Superintend- ent or the Principal deciding on the subject which will be most helpful 38 Forest Fires and their Prevention. to each particular class. So far there is no auxiliary reader on the sub- ject of Forestry, or even on the more general and comprehensive subject of Conservation. There is room for a book of this character, and it is to be hoped that one will shortly be provided. Such a book should set forth in simple language the fundamental principles of Conservation and then show how these are related to the economics of everyday life. 2. In his circular "Forestry in the Public Schools" (Circular 130, Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture), Prof. Hugo A. Winkenwerder advocates and outlines plans for the study of Forestry in connection Avith studies Avhich are already being taught. He states that the object of this circular is to indicate to teachers Avho are inter- ested the courses in which Forestry deserves a place and to assist them in choosing the proper subject-matter. A description of the location, extent, and character of the forests of the locality in which the teaching is done, of the State, and of the country as a whole, should form part of the study of geography as taught in all the common or secondary schools of I^J'orth Carolina. Their economic value as sources of useful products, for conservation of water, for protection, and their influence on erosion and soil protection, as well as their fcsthetie value, should be brought out as well as the necessity of forest protection, especially for protecting them from fire. Nature study, where it is taught, opens the way for some elementary forestry ; in fact, the study of the trees, the shrubs, and the seedlings found in the woods is the most attractive foi-m of nature study, and develops very rapidly the habit of observation, which is the chief object aimed at in all such training.* In the High Schools, along with United States History, can be taught the importance of the forests to our development, the growth of the forestry movement, and of the National Forest Policy. The pro- tection of forest property and the policies relating to public lands should form a part of the course in Civics. A course in physical geog- raphy is not complete without considering the relation of forests to climate; the influence of forests upon water and soil conditions; the relation of forests to erosion, and to reclamation. Commercial geog- raphy must include the importance of forests as a national resource, the distribution of forests, the products of the forest and the influence of forestry on commerce. It is impossible to enumerate the opportunities which the forest offers to teachers of botany. In the farm-life schools and others of a similar nature practical for- estry should be one of the important studies, and the school-farm should *A special circular, "Forestry in Nature Study," issued by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, gives outlines of instruction in this subject for all terms and grades in the public schools. Forest Fires and their Prevextiox. 39 fumisli sufficient area in woods to give practical work in forest man- agement. Xearly all Xortli Carolina farms contain a large proportion of woodland, and it is as important for farmers to know how the yield may be increased on this as on the cleared land. FORESTRY IX THE COLLEGES. In order to bring this important problem before the young men who are yearly leaving our higher institutions of learning to take part in the management of the State, courses in Forestry should be given in all our colleges and in the State University. Complete courses are not re- quired, but enough should be taught to give the students some idea of the forest problems that confront us and the best way to deal with them. In the A. & M. Colleges more complete instruction should be given; courses calculated to give the student a knowledge of how to manage a wood-lot, how to measure and sell standing timber and log it if neces- sary, how to protect the forest from fire and insects, what trees to plant and hoAv, when, and where they should be planted. According to the President of the A. t^- M. College, who would be glad to add a course in Forestry to the curriculum, only one additional man would be required for this purpose. The same is true of the State University. Courses in Botany, Entomology, and Engineering are now given at both institu- tions. By adapting such courses to the needs of the forester and then founding a Chair of Forestry proper, which would include silviculture, forest management, and lumbering, an excellent course in Forestry could be given. Funds for the foundation of such a chair, however, are not available at either place, and probably will not be until a more gen- eral demand for such a course is made. The timber crop is second only in importance to the cotton crop in Xorth Carolina, and most farmers have a larger acreage in woodland than in all other crops combined. It seems, therefore, that more recognition should be given this subject in our State Agricultural College, as well as in the State University. LECTURES AT FARMERS* IXSTITI'TES, ETC. It is not only through the Farm Schools and the A. k M. College that the State is trying to teach the farmer improved methods. For several years past it has been sending experts to all the counties of the State to lecture on improved methods of farming, from soil improvement to poultry-keeping. The timber crop is the only subject that has been en- tirely omitted from the list of subjects discussed. A talk on forest man- agement or forest protection should be included in every program, for the subject is of the greatest importance to most farmers. Latterly the 40 Forest Fires axd their Prevention. Forester of tlie Xorth Carolina Geological and Economic Survey has joined one of the parties in the western part of the State for a short time each summer and talked to the meetings on this subject, but this is only a very small beginning. An extension of this work all over the State is strongly advocated. But lecture-work need not be confined to the colleges and the fanners' institutes. Addresses should be made all over the State as opportunity offers, and forest protection advocated before all kinds of audiences. K'ot till the people begin to think about the subject will they realize the im- portance of immediate action. forestry associations. On February 1, 1911, a Forestry Convention met in Raleigh for the purpose of discussing proposed forestry legislation. Though the attend- ance was not large it was quite representative. Delegates from eighteen counties of North Carolina were present, including lumbermen, furni- ture manufacturers, railroad men, timberland owners, farmers, forest- ers and educators. The forestry bills then before the Legislature Avere discussed in detail, and much interest Avas shown in them, as Avell as in a State-wide stock law. A new forestry bill Avas draAvn up at the meet- ing, Avhich it was recommended be substituted "for the two already in- troduced. This bill, Avhich combined all the features in the three laAvs suggested on pages 28, 30, and 32, Avas later introduced in both houses, but failed to pass. The folloAving resolutions Avere adopted by the con- vention : Whereas, It lias been estimated that tliere is in Xorth Carolina snllicient forest land to maintain perpetually a supply of raw material for our furniture factories, our pulp mills, and our tanning extract plants, if these forests are con- served and protected from fire; and. Whereas, The forests of North Carolina and the industries dependent upon them represent about one-sixth of the wealth of Xorth Carolina; and, Whereas, These forests are being deA-astated by frequent fires, causing enor- mous present and future loss to the OAvners of forest land and indirectly to the people throughout the Avhole State; therefore. Be it resolved, That we thoroughly endorse legislation that will protect our forests from fire, and urge the General Assembly to pass such measures as will enable those portions of the State that desire it, adequate fire protection for their forests; and as the best results can only be obtained when the stock law is in force, Be it further resolved, That we endorse a State-Avide stock law for Xorth Caro- lina, with a provision allowing any territory voting for that purpose to be ex- empted therefrom upon erecting proper fence around such exempted territory. Be it further resolved. That Ave advocate the teaching of the principles of forestry in the public schools and the introduction of a course in forestry in the A. & M. College. Forest Fires and their Prevention. 41 Such a meeting as this is calculated to do a great deal to advance the cause of forest protection by awakening interest in the question and by unifying effort. With these ends in view it was unanimously decided to organize the convention into a permanent body to be known as the North Carolina Forestry Association, this association to have a Presi- dent, Secretary-treasurer, and one Vice-President for every Senatorial _ District in the State in which sufficient interest in forestry had been manifested. The work of the Association was placed in the hands of an Executive Committee, consisting of the President, Secretary-treasurer, and five other members, to be appointed the first year by the president of the Association. The object and aim of the association was declared to be "the protection and perpetuation of the forests of ISTorth Carolina." Dr. D. H. Hill, of the A. & M. College, Kaleigh, was elected President of the Association, and Mr. J. S. Holmes, Forester of the N'orth Caro- lina Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill, Secretary-treasurer. The President subsequently appointed the following gentlemen as mem- bers of the Executive Committee : Col. B. Cameron, Raleigh ; Mr. Clar- ence Poe, editor Progressive Farmer, Raleigh; Dr. J. H. Pratt, State Geologist, Chapel Hill; Mr. H. M. Shaw, president Southern Wheel Company, Oxford; and Mr. E. B. Wright, manager Butter's Lumber Company, Boardman, jST. C. The very fact that such prominent men are behind this movement speaks well for its future success and use- fulness, and also inspires the confidence of the public in any recommen- dations it may make. The organization of county or district associations, in connection with this State Association, to stir up and direct local sentiment, would do more to make the society effective and to forward the forestry move- ment than any other kind of work that could be undertaken. The good roads movement has received its greatest impetus from town and county good roads associations, though the State organizations have done splen- did work. In the same way local forestry clubs, societies, or associa- tions, or forestry branches of other bodies, acting in accord with the State Association, may do a great work in educating the people to a realization of the importance of forest protection. There are forestry sections of several of the women's clubs in the State that are doing good educational work, and the number might, Avith advantage, bq increased. Different phases of forestry will appeal to different organizations ; street planting to civic clubs, protection of watersheds and regulation of stream flow to Chambers of Commerce and Boards of Trade, perpetua- tion of the timber supply to labor organizations and lumbermen, the management of the wood-lot to Farmers' Clubs; but protection of the forests from fire should appeal to all. 42 Forest Fires and their Prevention. demonstration forests. One iiiofliod of educating the public in iniprovod methods of forest management which is Avidely practiced in Europe and has been adopted by several of the northern States is by the proper management of State Forests. In different parts of the State areas of land of larger or smaller extent are acquired by gift or purchase, or reserved by the State for the purpose of demonstrating the most practical form of man- agement for that particular locality and for that kind of forest, and on which to conduct experiments to determine practical questions in forest management. In many ^ases land is given or bequeathed to the State by public-spirited citizens for this purpose. If the people can be shown the results of proper treatment of the forests in successful fire protection, conservative lumbering, profitable tree planting, and advantageous thinnings, more would be accomplished than by countless lectures and bulletins. On an area in the high moun- tains experiments might be made to determine the best way to cut spruce for pulp while insuring the perpetuation of these forests. In the mountain hardwood forests methods to increase the proportion of pop- lar, chestnut, and other valuable species in the second growth might be demonstrated. In the Piedmont region the profits in judicious thinning of shortleaf pine stands could be shown. In the Coastal Plain region successful reproduction of longleaf pine might be demonstrated and ex- periments made to determine whether longleaf or loblolly pine was the most profitable tree to grow on certain types of soil. On "the Banks" the fixation of drifting sand by forest growth could be shown by plant- ing up the sand dunes, and the profitable use of such areas made appar- ent by propagation of turpentine yielding pines. All such demon- strations, besides their value for experiments and for showing improved methods of forest management, involve, of necessity, adequate fire pro- tection, and the successful accomplishment of this alone would make the acquirement and management of such demonstration forests justifiable, and fnllv compensate the State for their cost. COXCLUSIOX. Reports from correspondents in but one-third of the townships of the State give an estimated area of 580,000 acres of woodland burnt over during 1910, Avith a consequent loss of over half a million dollars in timber and personal property. If the losses from this cause in the re- maining townships could be ascertained, and the enormous damage to young growth, soil and streams could be computed, it is very certain that the total loss to North Carolina by forest fires for the past year FoKEST Fires and their Prevention. 43 would reach a million dollars. jSTot only this, but a loss of five human lives was caused directly by these same fires, which were in large part due to carelessness, and might and should have been prevented. In 1909 the damage from forest fires amounted to several hundred thousand dollars, and every year it is much the same, and w^ill continue to be the same until N'orth Carolinians wake up and take some active steps to stop this destruction. There is pressing need for more effective laws to protect the forests from fires resulting both from the railroads and from individuals. Such laws when enacted must have the support of the people, or they can not be efficiently enforced. What is needed in this as in other lines of busi- ness is education. The timber crop is second only in importance to the cotton crop in North Carolina, and occupies ten times the acreage of that staple, yet there is not one school or college in the State in which even elementary forestry is taught. Is it any wonder that the people show such indifference to forest destruction? A more general interest in forest protection must be aroused and more definite knowledge of practical forestry methods imparted to both the young and the older> citizens of the State, and this can best be done, by teaching the princi- ple of forestry in our schools and colleges. PUBLICATIONS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY BULLETIN S. 1. Iron Ores of North Carolina, by Henry B. C. Xitze, 1893. 8°, 239 pp., 20 pi., and map. Postage 10 cents. 2. Building and Ornamental Stones in Xorth Carolina, by T. L. Watson and F. B. Laney in collaboration with George P. Merrill, 1906.' 8°, 283 pp. 32 pi., 2 figs. Postage 25 cents. Cloth-bound copy 30 cents extra. 3. Gold Deposits in Xorth Carolina, by Henry B. C. Xitze and George B. Hanna, 1890. 8°, 196 pp., 14 pi., and map. Out of print. 4. Eoad Material and Road Construction in Xorth Carolina, by J. A. Holmes and William Cain, 1893. 8°, 88 pp. Out of print. 5. The Forests, Forest Lands and Forest Products of Eastern Xorth Carolina, by W. W. Ashe, 1894. 8°, 128 pp., 5 pi. Postage 5 cents. 6. The Timber Trees of Xorth Carolina, by Gilford Pinchot and W. W. Ashe, 1897. 8°, 227 pp. 22 pi. Postage 10 cents. 7. Forest Fires: Their Destructive Work, Causes and Prevention, by W. W. Ashe, 1895. 8°, 66 pp., 1 pi. Postage 5 cents. 8. Waterpowers in Xorth Carolina, by George F. Swain, Joseph A. Holmes and E. W. Myers, 1899. 8°, 362 pp., 16 pi. Postage 16 cents. 9. Monazite and Monazite Deposits in Xorth Carolina, by Henry B. C. Xitze, 189.5, 8°, 47 pp., 5 pi.. Postage Jf cents. 10. Gold Mining in Xorth Carolina and Other Appalachian States, bv Henry B. C. Xitze and A. J. Wilkins, 1897. 8°, 164 pp., 10 pi. Postage 10 cents. 11. Corundum and the Basic Magnesian Rocks of. Western Xorth Carolina, by J. Volney Lewis, 1895. 8°, 107 pp., 6 pi. Postage 4 cents. 12. History of the Gems Found in Xorth Carolina, by George Frederick Kunz, 1907. 8°, 60 pp., 15 pi. Postage S cents. Cloth-bound copy .30 cents extra. 13. Clay Deposits and Clay Industries in Xorth Carolina, by Heinrich Ries, 1897. 8°, 157 pp., 12 pi. Postage 10 cents. 14. The Cultivation of the Diamond-back Terrapin, by R. E. Coker, 1906. 8°, 07 pp., 23 pi., 2 figs. Postage 6 cents. 15. Experiments in Oyster Culture in Pamlico Sound, Xorth Carolina, bv Robert E. Coker, 1907. 8°, 74 pp., 17 pi., 11 figs. Postage 6 cents. 16. Shade trees for Xorth Carolina, by W. W. Ashe, 1908. 8°, 74 pp.. 10 pi., 16 figs. Postage 6 cents. 17. Terracing of Farm Lands, by W. W. Ashe, 1908. 8°, 38 pp., 6 pi., 2 figs. Postage Jf cents. IS. Bibliography of Xorth Carolina Geology. Mineralogy and Geography, with a list of Maps, by Francis Baker Laney and Katherine Hill Wood, 1909. 8°, 428 pp. Postage 25 cents. 19. The Tin Deposits of the Carolinas, by Joseph Hvde Pratt and Douslass B. Sterrett, 1905. 8°, 64 pp., 8 figs. Postage k cents. 20. Waterpowers of Xorth Carolina: An Appendix to Bulletin 8, 1910. 8°, 383 pp. Postage 25 cents. 21. The Gold Hill Mining District of Xorth Carolina, bv Francis Baker Laney, 1910. 8°, 137 pp., 23 pi., 5 figs. Postage 15 cents. 22. A Report of the Cid Mining District, Davidson Countv, X. C, by J. E. Pogue, Jr., 1911. 8°, 144 pp. 22 pi., 5 figs. Postage 15 cents'. 46 Publications. ECONOMIC I'AI'KKS. 1. The Maple-sugar Industry in Western North Carolina, l.y \V. W. Ashe. 1807. S°, 34 pp. Postage 2 cents. 2. Recent Road Lefjislation in North Carolina, by .T. A. llolmcs. (tut of print. .3. Talc and Pyrophyllite Deposits in North Carolina, hy .Toseph Hyde Pratt. 1900. 8", 21) pp., 2 maps. Postage ,i cents. 4. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1000, by .loseph Hyde Pratt, 1001. 8°, 3(> i)p.. and map. Postage 2 cents. Takes up in some detail Occurrences of Gold, Silver, Lead and Zinc. Copper, Iron, Manganese, Cor- undum, Granite, Mica, Talc, Pyrophyllte, Graphite, Kaolin, Gem Minerals, Monazite, Tungsten, Building Stones, and Coal in North Carolina. 5. Road Laws of North Carolina, by .1. A. Holmes. Out of inint. (5. The Mining Industry in North Candina During 1001. by Joseph Hvde Pratt, 1002. 8°, 102 pp. Postage .', cents. Gives a list of Minerals found in North Carolina; describes the Treatment of Sulphuret Gold Ores, giving Localities; takes up the Occurrence of Copper in the Virgilina, Gold Hill, and Ore Knob districts; gives Occurrence and Uses of Corundum; a List of Garnets, describing Localities; the Occurrence, Associated Minerals, Uses and Localities of Mica; the Occurrence of North Carolina Feldspar, with -■Vnalyses; an extended description of North Carolina Ciems and Gem Minerals; Occurrences of Mon- azite, Barjtes, Ocher; describes and gives Occurrences of Graphite and Coal; describes and gives Occurrences of Building Stones, including Limestones: describes and gives Uses for the various forms of Clay; and under the head of "Other Economic Minerals" describes and gives Occurrences of Chroinite, Asbestos and Zircon. 7. Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1002, by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1003. 8°, 27 pp. Postage 2 cents. 8. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1003, by Joscpli Hyde Pratt, 1004. 8°, 74 pj). Postage // cents. Gives decsriptions of Mines worked for Gold in 1903; descriptions of Properties worked for Copper during 1903, together with assay of ore from Twin-Edwards Mine; Analyses of Limonite ore from Wil- son Mine; the (Occurrence of Tin; in some detail the Occurrences of Abrasives; Occurrences of Monazite and Zircon; Occurrences and Varieties of Graphite, giving Methods of Cleaning; Occurrences of Marble and other forms of Limestone; .\nalyses of Kaolin form Barber Creek, ,Jaekson Count.v, North Carolina. 0. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1004. by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1905. 8°, 05 pp. Postage // cents. Gives Mines Producing Gold and Silver during 1903 and 1004 and .Sources of the Gold Produced during 1904; describes the mineral Chromite, giving Analyses of Selected Samples of Chromite from Mines in Yancey County; describes Commercial Varities of Mica, giving the manner in which it occurs in North Carolina, Percentage of Mica in the Dikes, Methods of Mining, Associated Minerals, Localities, L^ses; describes the mineral Bayrtes, giving Method of Cleaning and Preparing Barytes for Market; describes the use of Monazite as used in connection with the Preparation of the Bunsen Burner, and goes into the u.se of Zircon in connection with the Nernst Lamp, giving a List of the •Principal Yttrium Minerals; describes the minerals containing Corundum Gems, Hiddenite and Other (iem .Minerals, and gives New Occurrences of these Gems; describes the mineral Graphite and gives new Uses for same. 10. Oyster Culture in North Carolina, i)y Robert E. Coker, 1005. 8°, 30 jjp. Postage 2 cents. 11. The :Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1005. by Joseph Hyde Pratt. 1001). S°, 95 pp. Postage 4 cents. Describes the mineral Cobalt and the principal minerals that contain Cobalt; Corundum Localities; Monazite and Zircon in considerable detail, giving Analyses of Thorianite; describes Tantalum Minerals and gives description of the Tantalum Lamp; gives brief description of Peat Deposits; the manufacture of Sand-lime Brick; Operations of Concentrating Plant in Black Sand Investigations; gives Laws Relating to Mines, Coal Mines, Mining, Mineral Interest in Land, Phosphate Rock, Marl Beds. 12. Investigations Relative to the Shad Fisheries of Nortli Carolina, by John N. Cobb, 1000. 8°, 74 j)p., 8 maps. Postage (> cents. 13. Report of Conunittee on Fisheries in Nortii Carolina. Coiui)iled bv Joseph Hyde Pratt, 100(1. 8°, 78 pp. Postage .'/ cents. 14. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During lOOO, ])y .loscpli Hyde Pratt, 1007. S°, 144 pp., 20 pl.,'and 5 figs. Postage 10 cents. Under the head of "Recent Changes in Gold Mining in North Carolina," gives methods of mining, describing Log Washers, .Square Sets, Cyanide Plants, etc. and dctaili'il ilcsiriplions i)f Gold Deposits and Mines are given; Coi>per Deposits of Swain ( 'i)Uiit.\- an- ilescrilicd; Mica Deposits of Western North Carolina are described, giving Distribution and General Character, (icneral (ieology, Occurrence, Associated Minerals, Mining and Treatment of .Mica, Origin, together with a description of many of the mines; Monazite is taken up in considerable detail as to Location and Occurrence, Cieology, includ- ing classes of Rocks, Age, Associations, Weathering, method of Mining and Cleaning, description of Monazite in Original Matrix. Publications. 47 15. The Mining Industry in North Carolina During 1007, by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 190S. 8°, 176 pp., 13 pi.,' and 4 figs. Postage 1') cents. Takes up in detail the Copper of the Gold Hill Copper District; a description of the Uses of Mona- zite and its Associated Minerals; descriptions of Ruby, Emerald, Beryl, Hiddenite, and Amethyst Localities; a detailed description with Analyses of the Principal Mineral Springs of North Carolina; a description of the Peat Formations in North Carolina, together with a detailed account of the Uses of Peat and the Results of an Experiment Conducted by the United States Geological Survey on Peat from Elizabeth City, North Carolina. 16. Report of Convention called by Governor R. B. Glenn to Investigate the Fishing Industries in Xorth Carolina, compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1908. 8°, 45 pp. PosUuje ', cents. 17. Proceedings of Drainage Convention held at Xew Bern. Xorth Carolina, September 9, 1908. Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1908. 8°, 94 pp. Postage 5 cents. 18. Proceedings of Second Annual Drainage Convention held at Xew Bern, Xorth Carolina, Xovember 11 and 12, 1909, compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, and containing Xorth Carolina Drainage Law, 1909. 8°, 50 pp. Postage 3 cents. 19. Forest Fires in Xorth Carolina During 1909, by J. S. Holmes, Forester, 1910. 8°, 52 pp., 9 pi. Postage 5 cents. 20. Wood-using Industries of Xorth Carolina, by Roger E. Simmons, under the direction of J. S. Holmes and H. S. Sackett, 1910. 8°, 74 pp., 6 pi. Postage 7 cents. 21. Proceedings of the Third Annual Drainage Convention, held under Auspices of the Xorth Carolina Drainage Association; and the Xorth Carolina Drainage Law (codified). Compiled by Joseph Hyde Pratt, 1911. 8°, 67 pp., 3 pi. Post- age 5 cents. 22. Forest Fires and their Prevention, Including Forest Fires in Xorth Caro- lina During 1910, by J. S. Holmes, Forester, 1911. 8°, 48 pp. Postage 5 cents. Vol. I. Corundum and the Basic INIagnesian Rocks in Western Xorth Candina, by Joseph Hyde Pratt and J. Volney Lewis, 1905. 8°, 464 pp., 44 pi., 35 figs. Postage 32 cents. Cloth-bound copy 30 cents extra. Vol. II. Fishes of Xorth Carolina, by H. M. Smith. 1907. 8°, 453 pp., 21 pi.. 188 figs. Postage 30 cents. Vol. III. The Physiography and Geography of the Coastal Plain Region of Xorth Carolina. In Press. BIEXXIAL REPORTS. First Biennial Report, 1891-1892, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1S93. 8°, 111 pp., 12 pi., 2 figs. Postage 6 cents. Administrative report, giving Object and Organization of the Survey: Investigations of Iron Ores, Building Stone, Geological Work in Coastal Plain Region, including supplies of drinking-waters in eastern counties. Report on Forests and Forest Products, Coal and Marble Investigations of Diamond Drill. Biennial Report, 1893-1894, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1894. 8°, 15 pp. Postage 1 cent. Administrative report. Biennial Report, 1895-1896, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist. 1896. 8°, 17 pp. Postage 1 cent. Administrative report. Biennial Report, 1897-1898, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1898. 8°, 28 pp. Postage 2 cents. Administrative report. Biennial Report. 1899-1900, J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1900. 8°, 20 pp. Postage 2 cents. Administrative report. Biennial Report, 1901-1902, 3. A. Holmes, State Geologist. 1902. 8°. 15 pp. Postage 1 cent. Administrative report. 48 Publications. Biennial Eeport, 1903-1904. J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, 1905. 8°, 32 pp. Postage 2 cents. Administrative report. Biennial Report, 19Q5-1906, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1907. 8°, 00 pp. Postage S cents. Administrative report: report on certain swamp lands belonging to the .State, by \V. W. Ashe; it also gives certain magnetic observations at North Carolina stations. Biennial Report, 1907-1908, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1908. 8°, GO pp., 2 pi. Postage 5 cents. .Administrative report. Gives special report on an Examination of the Sand-banks along the North Carolina Coast, by Jay F. Bond, Forest .\ssistant. United States Forest Service; certain magnetic ob- servations at North Carolina stations; Results of an Investigation Relating to Clam Cultivation, by Howard E. Enders, of Purdue University. Biennial Report, 1900-1910, Joseph Hyde Pratt, State Geologist, 1911. 8°, 152 pp. Postage 10 cents. Administrative report, and contains Agreements for Co-operation in Statistical Work, and Topo- graphical and Traverse Mapping Work with the United States Geological .Survey; Forest Work with the United States Department of Agriculture (Forest Service); List of Topographic maps of North Carolina and counties partly or wholly topographically mapped; description of special Highways in North Carolina; suggested Road Legislation; list of Drainage Districts and Results of Third Annual Drainage Convention; Forestry reports relating to Connolly Tract; Buncombe County, Transylvania County .State Farm, certain Watersheds, Reforestation of Cut-over and .\bandoned Farm Lands, on the" Woodlands of the Salem Academy and College; Recommendations for the Artificial Regenera- tion of Longleaf Pine at Pinehurst; Act regulating the use of and for the Protection of Meridian Monu- ments and Standards of Measure at the several county-seats in North Carolina; list of Magnetic Declin- ation at the county-seats, January 1, 1910; letter of Fish Commis.sioner of the United States Bureau of Fisheries relating to the conditions of the North Carolina fish industries; report of the Survey for the North Carolina Fish Commission referring to dutch or pound-net fishing in Albemarle and Croatan sounds and Chowan River, by Gilbert T. Rude, of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey; His- torical Sketch of the several North Carolina Geological Surveys, with list of publications of each. Samples of any mineral found in the State may be sent to the office of the Geological and Economic Survey for identification, and the same will be classified free of charge. It must be understood, however, that no assays, or quantita- tive EXAMINATIONS, WILL BE .MADE. Samples should be in a lump form if possi- ble, and marked plainly on outside of package with name of sender, post-office address, etc.; a letter should accompany sample and stamp should be enclosed for reply. These publications are mailed to libraries and to individuals who may desire information on any of the special subjects named, free of charge, except that in each case applicants for the reports should forward the amount of postage needed, as indicated above, for mailing the bulletins desired, to the >S7a/e Geologist, Chapel Hill, W. C. DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPiAENi.