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Full text of "A forest flora of Chota Nagpur including Gangpur and the Santal-Parganahs"

UNIVERSITY OF B.C. LIBRARY 



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A FOREST FLORA 

OF CHOTA NAGPUR 

INCLUDING 
GANGPUR AND THE 
SANTAL-PARGANAHS 



A description of all the indigenous trees, shrubs and 
climbers, the principal economic herbs, and the most 
commonly cultivated trees and shrubs 

( WITH INTRODUCTION AND GLOSSARY) 



by 
H. H. HAINES, F.C.H.. F.L S.. I.F.S., F.R. Met. Soc. 

Conseroalor of Forests, 

Late> Imperial Forest Botanist 



WITH.A MAP 



M/S. BISHEN SINGH MAHEMIRA PAL SJNCH 

New Connaught PJace, Dehra Dim 

AND 
M/S. PERIODICAL EXPERTS 

42— D, Vivek Vihar, Delhi-32 

1910 



i 



PREFACE. 



TaB Flora Is based mainly on notes and collections made 
during several years' residence in Chota Nagpur, as Divi- 
sional Forest and Working- Plans Officer, chiefly in Singbhnm. 
These notes were very largely augmented during six weeks* 
leave (subsequently converted into special duty) devoted to a 
botanical walking tour in Manbham, Ranchi, Hazaribagh and 
Palamau during the months of May and June 1905. A 
subsequent tour dnring the cold season of 1907-08 extended 
from the banks of the Sone through the districts of Palamau 
and Hazaribagh. and through the whole length of the Santa! 
Parganahs.i 

The last tour, and the actual writing of the Flora in its 
present form, were undertaken during the writer's short 
tenure of the office of Imperial Forest Botaniat, and while 
on furlongh in England, 

It has been a source of regret that the notes aiid collections 
made during the comparatively lengthy stay in Singbhum 
were not compiled with aiy idea of subsequently writing a 
flora ; had it been otherwise, not only would much of the 
later work have been saved, but the present attempt more 
satisfactory. 

The book being intended for the use of those residents in 
Chota Nagpor 2 who may have no previous knowledge of 
systematic botany, as well as for forest officers and students, 
the writer bus endeavoared to meet the requirements of all 
three classes. For the first, a glossary and an artificial key 
has been compiled, with which the approximate position of a 
plant in the Flora may be quickly located. The descriptions 
of the species usually starts with a fairly popular account of 

' Spelt Sonthal Pargannaha on the map. 

' Chota Nagpox in this, and in similar caees, where no confusion can 
ariso, includes the Sautal Parganahs. 

S 



ii PREFACE. 

the habit and other easily perceived characters, 'vhile fuller 
details, useful to the student, are added in smaller type. In 
some genera herbs have been described which have no known 
economic value. Such descriptions of the plants closely allied 
to a useful species often more effectively prevent ^its mis- 
identification than a more particular account of the species 
itself, while they add to the botanical interest of the book. 
A few plants have been described in virtue of their beauty 
alone. 

The economic uses are generally restricted to tho£3 to 
which the plants are put in Chota Nagpur. An exception has 
been made in the case of some trees, the value of which 
appears to have been overlooked on account of their rarity, 
and in order to claim their protection. A description of the 
timbers has also been omitted, as nothing could have been 
added by the writer to Gamble's account of them. 

In regard to the limitation and multiplication of species 
the writer has adopted generally the views expressed by Sir 
D. Brandis on p. x of his introduction to " Forest Trees," 
but it is to be remembered that those views include the 
impossibility of a consensus of opinion in detail, and the limi- 
tation of particular species does not always coincide with thaifc 
of *' Indian Trees." Such difPerences of opinion are specially 
inevitable where the material on which conclusions have 
been based is difEerent.^ Where generic and specific names 
are given without explanation, or synonomy, they are 
believed to represent the plant or group of plants described 
under these names in the Flora of British India. Synonyms 
are given where the name employed differs from that for the 
same species in the Flora of British India, Brandis's Forest 
Trees, or Prain's Bengal Plants. 

It is held that in attempting to completely describe the 
Forest Flora of any locality, the existence of those trees 

1 "It is moreover not to be forgotten that all taxonomic distino- 
tiong, which have not been confirmed by physiologic tests, are only pro- 
visional * * * • it is absolutely impossible to reach definite conclu- 
eions on purely morphologic evidence " De Vries, Origin of Species b j 
Mut&tiono, English Edition, p. 248. 



PREFACE. iii 

slioTild be referred to of which the material obtained may be 
insufficient to put their identification entirely beyond doubt. 
Specimens of twigs with buds and leaves can, by thorough 
examination of their stipules, venation,^ and anatomy in 
comparison with known species, be usually quite correctly 
referred to their families, genera or even species. A very few 
of the species in this flora have h'ad to be determined ^ solely 
from such material, but in such cases, either a (?) has been 
appended to the name, or the facts have been stated. 

The books which have been most frequently consulted are 
** The Flora of British India " and Prain's " Bengal Plants." 
Much use has also been made of Wood's Plants of Chutia 
Nagpnr (Records of the Botanical Survey of India) and of 
Campbell's Descriptive Catalogue (prepared for the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition in 1886). A list of the principal worke 
referred to will be found on p. vi. The writer's thanks are 
specially due to Mr. Mclntire, Conservator of Forests, Bengal, 
without whose encouragemeut and help in the first instance 
the flora could not have been undertaken. Mr. Haslett, 
Bengal Forest Department, has rendered very great assistance 
in the collection of specimens, and in furnishing their 
Kharwari names, for most of which he is responsible. To 
him, Mr. Mee, and Mr. Moddef the writer's thanks are also 
due for marking down and subsequently collecting several 
species which were not in flower or fruit at the time of 
observation. This aid was most valuable in the Santal Par- 
ganahs' tour which was undertaken at the worst time of year 
for obtaining complete specimens. Thanks are also due to 
Mr. Grieve, Mr. Kirkpatrick and Babu Sunder Singh for 
specimens. To Colonel Prain, CLE., formerly Director of 
the Botanical Survey of India, and to his successor. Major 
Gage, the writer is greatly indebted for their generous 



1 M. Lj^urent on p. 331 of the Progressns Bei Botanicse, Vol. I, 
remftrks that " Lee botaniatee ne considerent pas assez lea feuilles dana 
Icur dernier e trame." 

2 Mr. N, E. Brown of Ke\r kindly determined for tne writer an 
Axietolochia from the twigs and leaves alone. SubsQqnent oomparison 
with other spooimonfl ehowod the determination to be uerfecUv correct. 



ir PREFACE. 

hospitality and assistance while he was working at the 
Calcutta herbarium. The writer regrets that more time 
was not available for a thorough examination of all 
the Chota Nagpur plants contained in that herbarium, and 
in the herbarium of the Revd. Dr. Campbell, who very 
kindly placed it at hi? disposal. Hr.d such been practicable, 
some errors and omissions would no doubt have been avoided. 
Through the kindness of Mr, Gamble the whole of 
his excellent herbarium was examined on receipt of the 
first proof, and several additions to localities made. 
Advantage was also taken of his advice in other matters. 
It is with much gratitude that the writer recalls his visit to 
Dr. Campbell in Manbhum, who has collected in Chota 
Nagpur for over thirty years, and from whom practically all 
the Santali names given in this book have been obtained, 
either directly, or from his Desoiiptive Catalogue already 
referred to. Dr. Campbell also kindly corrected the spelling 
of these rames in proof. The writer also wishes to acknow- 
ledge his indebtedness to Mr. Burkill for kindly checking the 
nomenclature of the Dioscoreacese, and lending specimens, to 
Dr. G. T.Walker, Meteorological Reporter to the Government 
of India, for assistance in obtaining some of the meteorolo- 
gical statistics ; to the Director of the Geological Survey for 
naming rock specimens ; to the Keeper and stafE of the 
Royal Herbarium at Kew ; to Dr. Ostenfeld and Dr. Paulsen 
©f Copenhagen ; and finally to the Hon. F. Slacke, C.S.I., 
C.I.B., formerly Commissioner of Chota Nagpur, for his 
sympathy and assistance in all matters concerned with 
forestry and botany during the writer's service in his 
division. 

H. H. HAINES. 
Tke 3Ut March 1908, 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Preface . • i 

Table of Contents ▼ 

List of Chief Works consulted vi 

List of Abbreviations ........ "^^ 

Introdnotioh :— 

General .... .... 1 

Topography ......... 2 

Geology ......... 9 

Climate 15 

General Character of the Flora 26 

Note on the Population and the Vernacular Names . S3 

The Map 42 

Classification : — 

General 43 

Description of Classes . . , . . . 47 

Synopsis of Orders and Families .... .'»4 

Artificial Key . 94 

List of the Angiospermous Families .... 127 
The Flora :— 

Filicin'eae 129 

Gymnosperms - 1^7 

Dicotyledons 139 

Choripetalaa . . . . . . . . 1^9 

SympetalsB . . . . '. . . . 40S 

Monocotyledons W.7 

Appendices :— 

I. Character of the bark and blaze of some Forest trees . 587 

IL Glossary of the Botanical Terms used in the Flora . 598 

III. Table for Conversion of Metric and English lengths . 634 

Index 635 



LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED 

having a direct bearing on the botany of Cbota Nagpur and the Santal 
Parganahs (excluding works on general botany). 

i'lora of Britiali India, by Sir J. D. Hooker. 

Indian Trees, by Sir D. Brandis. 

Bengal Plants, by D. Prain. 

Flora ludica, Vol. I, by J. D. Hooker and T. Thomson. 

Flora Indica, by William Roxbargb. 

Manual of Indian Timbers, by J. S. Gamble. 

Descriptive Catalogue of the Economic Products of 
Chutia Nagpur, by Revd. A. Campbell, annotated by George 
Watt. 

Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, by G. 
Watt. ^ 

Plants of Chutia Nagpur, including Jaspur and Sirguja, 
by J. J. Wood. 

List of Trees a^d Shrubs found in Chota Nagpur, by 
J. S. Gamble and F. B. Manson (Appendix to Report on 
Forest Administration in the Chota Nagpur Division by Dr. 
W, Schlich, 1885). 

Report on a visit to the forests of the Santal Parganahs 
made in November 1882 by J S. Gamble (published in the 
Forest Administration Report for British India for 1882-83). 

On the Flora of Behar and the Mountain Parasnath, by 
Thomas Anderson (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
1863. Vol. XXXII, p. 189). 

Himalayan Journals, by Sir J. D. Hooker. 

NovicieeB Indicae, by D. Prain (Papers published from 
time to time in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal), 

Ferns of British India, by Col. R. H. Beddoaie. 

A Review of the Ferns of Northern India, by C. B. 
Clarke. 

Miscellaneous articles and descriptions of trees, published 
in the Journal of Botany, Journal of the Asiatic Society, 
Annals of the Botanical Gardens, Calcatta, Indian Forester, 
etc., are referred to in the place treating of the genus or 
species concerned. 



ADDENDA AHiD CORRIGENDA. 

[ Obvious misprints ai;eomitted. ] 
P., 51. Line 4 /or Borgainvillea read Bougainvillea. 



P. 52. For Gnetinee read Gnetineag. 



P. 63. In Gamboge Family, for Ovary 4 12-celled read 
Ovary 4-12-celled. 



P. 67. Last line, after ovules 2 in each cell read or more in 
some Aurantiea). 



P. 76. In Ivy Family, after palmate read or digitate. 



P. 80. In Urticales, after allied probably to Polygonacess 
add anrl Euphorbiales. 



P. 82. In Myrsinacese, add Minute red glands usually 
present at the edges of the leaves and other places. 



P. 83. In Olive Family, the words Ovary 2-celled should be 
in italics. 



p. 86. See Blgnoniaccae, the star • is omitted from the foot- 
note. 



P. 8G. Acanthus Family, after exceptions see p. read 446. 
P. 90. Dioscoreaceee, the leaves are sometimes 8-5-foliolatc. 



P, 129. Alsophila. The indnsinm is absent in this genus. 
A tree-fern found in the hills of the Central Pro- 
vinces with a very prickly and aspe.ous stipes and 
rachis is Cyathea spinulosa, Wall. Cyathea has an 
indusium which envelops the young sori and is more 
or less permanent below. 



P. 143. Polyalthia cerasioides, L. sometimes glabrescent 
above. 



P. 146. Saccopetalum tomentosum, Pis. greenish or dark 
purple. Prt, carpels purple-black. 



P. 153, Litsasa sebifera, Pers. Cooke (Flora of Bombay) 
states that L. chinensis, Lamk. has. long priority 
over Persoon's name. 



P. 156. Crataeva reKgiosa, the flowers are^variously coloui?ed 
m cultivation. 



p. IGl. Casoaria tomentosa, L. punctulate. 



P. 1G4. Zetneria, Endl. The genus has been sunk in Melo- 
thria by Cogniaux, and the names of Z. umbellata 
and Z. Hookeriana become Melothria heterophylla 
Oogn. and M. perpusilla, Gogn. respectively. 



P, 171. Bryonia laciniosa, Cooke gives Bryonopsis laciniosa, 
Naud. as the name of this plant. 



P. 171. Mnkia scabrella, this is called Melothria maderas- 
patana by Cogniaux. 



P. 174. Cephalandya indica, Naud, should be Coccinia 
indica, W. S^' A . according to Cooke. 



P. 176. Gulgul (Galgal) is also a Hindi name for Cochlos- 
permum to which it properly belongs. 



P. 191. Thespesia Lampas^ DaXz^ Syn. T. macrophylla, 
Blume, There a,ve probably two species mix^d up 
under these names. The common Singhbum species 
has globose woody 4-5-valved capsules which are 
only slightly dehiscent, the upper leaves are usually 
simple. The other, which is apparently the more 
common form in Western India has oblong or ovoid 



4 



cuspidate, often 3-valved capenles, much more 
widely dehisccBt and more resembling those of a 
Hibiscus, while the leaves are nearly always broad 
and 3-lobed. 



P. 196. G. pilosa, the older sterna are 3-4-angled. 

P. 207. Eriolaena Hookeriana, line 13, for fid read fld. 



P. 210. Tribe Phyll&ntheae, line 5, add a comma after 
* rarely few.' 



P. 213. Eaphorbia neriifolia, L. Cooke apparently consi- 
ders that th^ correct name of this is E. lignlaria, 
JRoxb. and he calls E. Nivnlia, Ham. ' E. neriifolia, 
L. ' The matter appears to require further investi- 
gation. There is a much branched (from the root) 
species which is apparently undescribed and is found 
oa (^uartzite and sandstoiie rocks in the Ceutral 
Provinces not far from our area. It has broadly 
ovate leaves when young. 



P. 219. G. velotmum, ajter capsule J' read |". For petiole 
}" read Petiole l-J". For Fls. April read Fls. 
April -May, 

P. 222. Flueggea, for styles 3, read 2-3. 



tl 



p. 227. A. Bunius, line 4, for fid read fld. 

P. 239. B. Roxburgliii. For Hingax read Hingan 



P. 258. Buchanania latifolia. Cooke states that the name 
B. Lanzan, Spreng. has claim by priority. 



P. 260. Sapindus trifoliatus, this is S. laurifolins, Vahl. 
according to Cooke. 



P. 260. In Key, line 5, for H read Fl. 



P. 270. Z. Jujuba, Var. il is prooably a distinct! species. 
The habit.ia very uniform. It is doubtless included 
in Z. rotundifolia, Lamk. in the Flora , of the 
Gangetic Plain, between which and Jujuba it is 
intermediate. 



P. 288. A. pennata. There are possibly two species under 
this name. One is arboreous in the Central Pro- 
vinces. The shape of the pod is variable. 



P. 291. A. odoratissima v«hoald have been placed next to 
Lebbek, to which it is more closely allied than to A. 
piocera. 



6 

P. 297. B. VaKlii, line 13, for lama, K., read lamak'. 



P. 338. D. scandens, line 3, for cold, read'cdd, (^. e., 
coloured) . 



P. 354. Woodfordia floribnnda, seeds minute linear. The 
seedlings are mosfc minute with orbicular sessile 
cotyledons the size of a small pin's head. The jBrst 
pairs of leaves are minute broadly ovate and 
glandular. 



P, 356. Lawsonia alba, Lamh. Cooke gives L. inermis, L . 
as the name. 



P. 369. Heptapleurum venulosum, Drupe spherical J" diam., 
yellow, finally red with a compressed stone. Frt. 
June-July. 



P. 369. Heteropanax, the so-called Seeds are probably 
pyrenes. 



P. 404. M . indica, first line, for A. R. amjani read A. BO. 
Ramjani. 



P. 410. D. montana, Roxb. In the Central Provinces, not 
far from our area, is a third form, usually thorny, 



adult twigs and leaves beneath and or midrib 
above pubescent, sec. n. 6-10 prs., tertiarieo not so 
numeroTis or reticulate, or so conspicuous when dry. 
L. dry green. Fl. and Fr. not seen. 



P. 437. Dregea is included in Marsdenia by Mr. N. E- 
Brown and by Cooke. D. volubilis becomes M. 
volubilis, Goohe. 



P. 452. Hygrophila spinosa, is a synonym for Asteracantha 
longifolia, Nees the name adopted by Cooke. 



P. 465. Ipomsea, line 18, for ovary -2 or 4-Ciilled read ovary 
2- or 4-ceUed. 



P. 468. I. Turpethum, L. attain 6" and more in luxuriant 
specimens. 



P. 474. C. Macleodii, line 13, for on read or. 



P. 482. P. barbata, line 4, for never quite entire read very 
rarely entire. 



Pv 482. P. nov. sp. I have since met this as a large tree in 
the Central Provinces, it appo$i*s to be undescribed. 



8 

P. 484. Clerodeudron phloraoides, Willd. The name should 
be C Pliloniidis, L. f. according to Cooke. 



P. 496. A. Cadamba, Mig- Cooke states that A. indicT>«. 
A. Mich, is the correct name. 



P. 507. Canthium, Lamk. This is the qfenns Plectronia, L. 
(Genera Plantaram, P. 110). Cooke states that the 
hollows in the nerve axils of hia P. "Wightii are 
insect galls. 



P. 562. For P. montaum read P. montanup. 



P. 571. Line 1, Jot Gl. I 3 faintly 5-nerved, read Gl. I, 3- 
faintly ,5-nerved. 



Ipdex. The Appendices and addenda are not included in the 
Index. 



P. vii. For Hemp (Mauritius) 527 read Hemp 80, 527 



S. G. P. I.— No. 14 For, Zool.— 10-11-1910.— 250. 



INTRODUCTION. 



GENERAIi. 

The coTintry, the flora of whicli is here dealt with, has a 
total area of about 37,403 square miles. It includes the Chota 
Nagpur civil division which, with its political states, and the 
native state of Gangpur (2,484 square miles \ has an area of 
31,934 square miles, and the district of the Santal Parganahs 
(5,469 square miles) belonging to the Bhagalpur civil divi- 
sion. This district is included because it not only resembles 
Chota Nagpur botanically and copographically, but because 
by its inclusion the flora is made to embrace all the forest 
divisions in the west of Bengal, with the exception of the 
recently added Sambalpur district,^ which has not yet been 
botanically investigated. 

The woody vegetation of Sambalpur, as well as of the greater 
part of the Monghyr and Bhagaljpur districts south of the 
Ganges and the laterite plateau of Midnapur, though not 
nominally included, will probably present very few species not 
here described. Broadly speaking the tract dealt with lies 
between 22° and 25° N. latitude, and between 84° and 87^ 
longitude. It forms the eastern extension of the vast elevated 
region formed by the confluence of the Satpura and 
Vindyhati mountain ranges, and from which Bow the 
large rivers Narbada (dividing those ranges) to the west, 
the Sone, which forms a part of our north-western boundary, 
to the north, and the Mahanadi and the Brahmini to the 
south and ear,t. Some of the tributaries of the latter lie in 

1 Sambalpur belonged to tlie Central Provinces until the partition of 
Bengal in 1905. Before that date Chota Nagpnr also included the Natir© 
States of Sirguja, Jasbpur. Udaipur, Korea and Chang Bhakar, which are 
hence occasionally referred to in the flora', though their area is not in- 
eluded in the above statement. 



TOPOGRAPET. 

Chota Nagpnr. On the south the tract passes into the 
highliknds of Orissa, and on the north it extends at one 
point to the banks of the Ganges. It belongs therefore to 
the Deccan Province of the Flora Indica, to Mr. Clarke's 
province of Coromandelia, and to Colonel Plain's province 
of Chota "N'agpur. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

The essential feature in the physical aspect of the coantry 
is the prevalence of plateaux and hills, often rising into 
mountains which rarely exceed 3,000 feet in elevation. A 
very small portion of the area can be said to lie in the plains. 
This is the nan'ow strip aboat 170 miles long in the east 
and north of the Santal Parganahs along the loop line of the 
"Rast Indinn Railway, which belongs both topographically and 
botanically to the Gangetic plain. On the other hand the 
plateaux are frequently very low and may not exceed 400 
feet. This is the case in the open country near the Subar- 
nekha in the east of Singbhum, and over much of easterr 
Manbhum, A subsidiary; but characteristic, feature of manj 
of the plateaux are huge isolated rounded or conical bosseE 
of rock rising abruptly from the general level and visible for 
many miles. Good examples may be seen near Chinpina (on 
the railway), near Jhalda, etc. 

The edges of the higher plateaux, such as those of Ranclli 
And Hazaribaffht aro usually broken into steep scarps which 
appeal- as ranges of hills seen from below, and sometimes are 
actually hills rising considerably above the general level of 
the plateaux. While th'e larger plateaux of Ranchi and 
Hazaribagh attain respectively an average elevation of 2,000 
feet, and that of Palamau 1,200 feet, smaller ones or flat- 
topped mountains may rise as a third step to 3,000 feet or 
more. These are the so-called pats, ' They are best re- 
presented in Sirguja where the Main Pat ^ has an 

^''The Jtfainpcfe, or more correctly the Manipat, is 16 miles long and 
12 tuiles broad. lu-Summer it becomes a ast grazing gronnd for cattle 
from Mirzapur and Behar. Vide Imperial Gazetteer of India. 

2 



TOFOQEAPET, 

elevation of 3,850 feet. The tops of these pats *' are open 
grassy plains with a few scattered bushes, they are now used 
as pasturage and were once good hunting grounds for 
Nilgai."» 

The larger plateaux are usnally under cultivation, and 
in the dry season offer but a monotonous expanse of dried np 
fields with scai-cely any vegetation. From this cultivated 
country it is a relief to turn to their jnngle-covered scarps, 
albeit most of the forest has now been reduced to a state of 
scrub. It is in the rugged mountainous tracts, especially of 
Singbhum, the former Tributary States, and Falamau, where 
the chief beauty and interest of Chota Nagpur now lies, and 
where the manifestations of the destructive hand of man are 
least apparent. These tracts being also those where there is 
most forest, coincide to some extent with the areas marked 
in green on the accompanying map. (The forest in the 
Native States is however not shown, vide note on p. 1.) 

The districts of Ranchi and Hazaribagli are typically 
plateaux with forest on the scarps and on a few isolated 
hills, bnt the highest mountain of Chota Nagpur (Parasnath 
4,479 feet) occurs on the eastern boundary of the latter 
district, as the culminating point of an east and west broken 
range of hills which lies partly in Manbhum, the eastern 
portion being known as the Tundi hills. Parasnath is 
classic ground for the botanist, as its flora was studied by 
Sir J. D. Hooker in the year 1848. There have recently been 
proposals of building on this beautiful mountain which,, if 
carried out, would destroy most of its interesting vegetation. 

The Parasnath range is divided from the higher Hazari- 
bagh plateau and the broken hilly and jungle-clad country 
on its southern and eastern face by a, tributary of the 
Damuda. 



i Plants of Clmtia Naffpur, by Lieutenant-Colonsl 'J. J. Wood, p, 2. 
The writer has unfortunately never had an opportunity of examining 
these Fats. 



TOFOGJRAPEY, 

The lower northern Hazaribagh plateau east of Chatra is 
flat, bare of forest and the streams mostly dry in December. 
Borassns palms are fairly abundant in northern Hazaribagh 
and lend a feature to the landscape absent from the greater 
part of Chota Nagpur. The upper Baraka basin iy^ mostly an 
open barren plateau, sparsely cultivated and heavily grazed. 
The river is occasionally flanked by low hills. Towards 
Pachamba the scenery somewhat improves, and it is then 
flanked on the south by the Parasnath and Tundi ranges. 

The Baraka joins the Damuda on the eastern boandary 
of Manbham. The only reserved forests in Hazaribagh are 
at Koderma and Khurchuta. Koderma is situated on the 
scarps on the north of the lower" plateau and also occupies 
hills at its base. This forest is continuous with that of the 
Ganwan zemindari forest and the other jangle of the scarps. 
The small forest of Khurchuta lies close to the Monghyr and 
Santal Parganahs boundary. In this direction the plateau 
character is more or less lost and the jungle-clad scarps have 
disappeared. The hilly scarps of northern Hazaribao^h are, in 
fact, continued north wardd into Monghyr, where they ulti- 
mately become the Karakpur hillfe. 

There are still several private jungles in Hazaribagh 
chiefly belonging to the rajah of Kamgarh, and several 
patches of JTiDgle attached to the villages called Rahhauts. 
'Vh.e Damuda valley is much more diversified than that of 
the Baraka, and still contains considerable patches of jungle, 
though these are fast disappearing. 

The Ranchi plateau, except in the western hills, is generally 
very flat and open, with occasional small hill ranges and 
barren rocks of granite or gneiss. Tea gardens, and occa- 
sional patches of Sal coppice are met with, but it is practi- 
cally only on the scarps and in the river valleys that the forest 
still maintains itself. The Baragai moantain ^ on the northern 
ghats overlooking the Damuda is 3,445 feet high. Some of the 

* Quitted from the map. 



TOPOGRAPET. 

western mountains attain 3,600 feet and there is mucli forest 
aboat Bira and the watershed of the north and south Koel. 

Manbhum is generally a low-level undulating plateau 
dipping to the east, but there are cousiderable hills in the 
south and west, the principal of which are the Dalnia range, 
attaining 3,000 feet, and the hills of the Baghmundi plateau, 
attaining 2,220 feet (Gangabari Mountain). The last contains 
an area of Protected Forest situated in parganah Mahtah. 
The only other areas of Protected Forest in Manbhum are 
situated on the small bills of parganah Koelapal, to the east 
of the Dalma range, which last forms a natural boundary 
between Singbhum aM Manbhum on the south. 

The Dalma Range is interrupted where the Sub- 
hanarheka breaks through it, at the boundary of the 
two districts. Where this river crosses from Hazaribagh and 
Ranchi into Manbhum it forms a waterfall, known as the 
Hundru Gag, which is 320 ft. high Away from the 
mountains mentioned, however, Manbhum is flat or but 
slightly undulating, now and again dotted with the small 
isolated conical hills, or rocks, referred to above. The 
central portions are drained by the Kosai river, which flows 
ultimately into the Hughli. There are no reserved forests, 
and most of its zemindari forests and the recently protected 
blocks have long since been reduced to a condition of scrub. 
The desolation of the empty fields in the hot seasou, unrelieved 
b^ that touch of Nature which can even beautify the desert, 
resembles many parte of upper India. 

Except for a considerable plateau in its eastern centre 
Singbhum is i<< mountainous country. On the north the 
Porahat plateau, adjoining the higher one of Ranchi, is much 
diversified by ranges of mountains and deep rocky glens ; 
the homes of bears, leopards and tigers. 

The high ridge in the north-west corner, on the borderi 
of Ranchi, is sometimes known as the Layada Range, and 
leaches 2,900 ft. The Girga forest lies on some of its more 
ragged spurs. The valley of the North Karo, full of rooky 

6 



TOPOaEAPHY. 

pools, divides this from the main mass of Poratat, in which 
many monntains, such as the Bicha Burn, exceed 2,700 ft. 
The forest boundary is carried over the top of this mountain 
which lies on the western extension of the Dalma range. 
Parts of the Sougra forest, with an elevation of 1,100 ft. to 
2,000 ft., is characterized by large valleys which j- towards the 
ghats, fall away in precipitous slopes and waterfalls. The 
ravines are filled with immense boulders, so that it is 
necessary to ascend them bare-footed. In the south of the 
Sougra forest the Lokod Burn range attains 2,800 ft., and 
with the Seomari and Sanli ranges, protect some wide 
Talleys on their northern slopes. These were jhumed many 
years ago, but still contain some magnificent old trees, remnants 
of the former forest. Such jhumed areas are very common 
in the Singbhum reserved forests neajr the sites of old villages 
long since deserted. They are occupied by a new type of 
forest, referred to in the flora as ' second growth ' in which the 
species of the original forest only slowly reappear.^ The 
pretty custom of the Kols which preserves near the village a 
hongasarna, or sacred grove, is the cause of the preservation 
of some of the ancient giants of the forest. Some of the 
hills and upper valleys in Porahat are too exposed to drought 
to contain good forest, and such names as the jateserang 
(signifying a carpet of rock) aptly describes their character. 

Between Porahat on the north and the Kolhan Govern- 
ment estate on the south runs the Bengal-lSragpur railway 
in the valleys of the Sanjai (or Khorkai) and the KoH. 
These rivers run in opposite directions from a water- 
shed through which the Goilkera tunnel is bored (elev. 
1,100 ft.). The Sanjai flows east to the Subarnekha, the 
Koil, after receiving the North and South Karo and the 
Koina rivers, westwards to its confluence with the Sank in 
Gangpur, where the combined rivers flow south as tha 

1 Jhumed areas in the Santal Parjfanahs are known, as Karao. Qamble 
atatiBS that on old karaos bamboo frequently comes up in great abun- 
dance. and seedlings of Fterocarpus and Ougeinia are not uuoommon. 

6 



lOPOGEAFEY. 

Brahmini. The Kolhan Govermneiit Estate is generally 
very mouDtainous but there is a slightly undulating plateau 
in the east of it (and to the west of the estate of Dalbhnill 
and Seraikhela), which is only about 750 ft. in elevation. 
On this Chaibassa is situated. The portion of the 
Kolhan west of the Karo R. known as " Saranda* " the land 
of the seven hundred hills, is the most beautiful part of 
Singbhum and the richest in its flora and fauna. In conse- 
quence of the preservation of -its forests the splendid streams 
of the South Karo, the Koina and others, contain an 
abundance of water all the year round and are well stocked 
with Mahseer and other fish. The mountain ranges 
strike generally N.-E. and S.-W. and usually rise 
to close oh 3,000, ft.^ sheltering deep valleys with perennial 
springs, where the comparative coolness and humidity has a 
marked effect on the flora {vide infra) . The Saranda rivers, 
like those in Porahat, often have a gentle gradient for consi- 
derable distances and flow through broad valleys with fine 
forest. The whole aspect then suddenly changes, the valley 
closes in and rugged rocks, hung with bees' nests, overhang 
cascades and gigantic boulders 10-30 ft. in diameter. Wild 
elephants and considerable numbers of bison (Bos gaurufi) still 
occur in these forests, which, however, have a somewhat less 
pleasant feature in their numerous man-eating tigers. 

The district of Palamau is said to have an average 
elevation of 1,200 ft. On the Fouth and south-east are the 
mountainous ghats of the Ranchi, Hazaribagh and Sarguja 
plateaux which throw out long spurs and hill- ranges far iuto 
Palamau, and on which are situated the Barasand and other 
reserved forests. Some of the highest mountains in the 
south, in continuation of the 'pats of western Lobardaga 
(Ranchi district) and Sarguja, attain 3,500 ft. Flowing north 
from the southern highlands is the Urunga river, after- 
wards known as the North Koil, which joins the Sone. 

1 The highest is 3,041 ft. situated on the Keonjhnr frontier, while the 
lowest point of the Samta valley is only 750 ft. 



TOFOGRAPEY, 

Tlie extreme west, occupied by the hills of Naga 
Untari and other zemiiidan estates, is fairly covered with a 
poor forest, from which all large timber has been removed, 
and is interspersed with villages. Similar jungle-clad hills 
also occur in the east of > the district, where they join a 
confused mass lying in the west of Hazaribagh. From 
them tributaries of the Amanat i-iver flow westwards. The 
high land in the extreme south-e<iSt qf Palamau, in 
parganah Ton, is the watershed of the Amanat (which 
joins the Koil above Daltonganj) and the Damuda. It 
connects the Hazaribagh plateau with that of Ranch!. The 
forest on this watershed is not reserved. Below the ghats 
of the Palamau plateau in the North- West, is a small area near 
the Sone on a level with the Gaya plain. 

The Santal Parganahs district ie an oblong tract 
lying in a bend south and west of the Ganges. The south- 
west and western portion in continuation of the north-east 
of . Hazaribagh is of low elevation, but generally undulating 
and with numerous detached hills and small hill ranges. 
The eastern half is chieBy occupied by the long north and 
,3onth range of the Rajmehal Hills, which leave, however, a 
low alluvial highly-cultivated tract between them and the 
Ganges on the east The highest points of this range are 
only about 1,500 ft. and nowhere exceed 2,000 ft. ; they are 
usually flat-topped. These hills must once have been covered 
with dense forest, but all the large timber was destroyed in 
the construction of the East Indian railway about 1857, and 
hlthough a part was subsequently reserved under the Forest 
Act, control by the Forest Department has been again mostly 
withdrawn. Much of the area is jhumed or cultivated, and 
the greater portion of the remainder reduced to a state of 
scrub. The result of the denudation is that most of the 
streams become nearly dry early in the dry season, while they 
are violent torrents in the rains, only fordable with danger. The 
effects of excessive grazing and other destructive agfencies is 
well seen about Barhait, where the Sal trees are found with 



GEOLOGY. 

a foot or more of their roots exposed, appeai iug to stand on 
stilts. It is interesting to compare the present condition of 
much of Chota Nagpur with the prophecies of Mr, Hewitt, 
formerly ComraisBiouer of that province, in his Annual 
Administration Report for 1883-84, who foretold the results 
of the wholesale destruction of the forests, 

GEOLOGY. 

The land surface of Chota Nagpur is probably an 
extremely ancient one. Omitting deposits formed by recent 
Bftb-aerial denudation of the older rocks, incloding among 
these the laterites, there is no formation younger than the 
Gondwana system, which is believed to be contemporaneoua 
with the Upper Lias and Trias, and these Gondwana beds 
were apparently all deposited in shallow water. The fossils 
of the Gondwana system are chiefly equisetales, ferns and 
cycadofilices, while conifers are very rare.^ By far the greater 
part of the area is occupied by unfossiliferous metamorphio 
and submetamorphic rocks covered locally by shallow, or 
moderately deep, alluvial or sub-aerial deposits. The chief 
exception occurs in the Santal Parganahs, where enormous 
areas are covered with basalt and other trap rocks. Most of 
the rounded conical hills or bosses, alluded to on p. 2, 
consist of porphyritic granite, '^ sometimes called Dome 
Gneiss, The shelling off of the outer concentric layers of this 
rock, causing a continual exposure of fresh surfaces, renders 
it singularly bare of vegetation. On it species of Ficus, 
chiefly IT. tomentosa and F. gibbosa, and more rarely the 
Banyan, are the commonest plants. The detritus at their 
base however will grow most species of trees, and among it 
natural sown Tamarind is not uncommon. 

1" The plants of the Lower Gondwana include numerous Equisetalea 
while those of the upper are chiefly Cycads and conifers. The species of 
forns are distinct in the two divisions. " — Holland. 

2 Much of the gneiss in Chota Nagpur. exhibits no trace of foliation 
and is lithologically granite. The Dome Gneiss is doubtfully granitic in 
origin. 

9 



GEOLOGY. 

The Ranchi and Hazaribagh distnctg are ocenpied 
especially by the metainorphic rocks. Granitoid Gneiss, 
mostly Hornblende gneiss, ^ is one of the commonest. It 
decomposes into a somewhat sandy unfertile soil mnch 
favoured by the wild Custard Apple. Much of the Tundi- 
Parasnath range is composed of it. It is also common about 
Markaoho and over most of northern Hazaribagh and into 
Palamau. Tq Falamau it is found on the Kuru ^hats, in 
the Betlah forest and nnmerous other places. The Koderma 
hill is composed of gneiss, but mica schists (submetamorphio) 
are here most abundant. Pegmatite is a handsome crystalline 
granite with large pink masses of dull felspar and translucent 
quartz. It is often met with (especially in Hazaribagh) and 
occurs apparently overlying f probably intruded into) the gneiss 
on the Sitagarh hill near Hazaribagh station between Banki and 
Barwadib, at Chorparan, and in Koderma among other places. 
Pegmatite is said to occur in Hazaribagh in dyhes in, which 
the workable mica is found.^ Mica is extensively mined in 
Koderma and the vicinity. On ridges about Pachamba a 
form of quartz schist outcrops consisting of almost pare 
quartz with cavities lined with quartz crystals. 

The 'pats on the western boundary of Ranchi and in 
Jaahpur owe their flat- topped appearance to a horizontal layer 
of trap rock : 3 there is said to be but a small depth of soil 
on the top in which forest trees used to grow.* 

1 A pepper-and-salt looking rock, very crystalline on fracture but 
weathering black or deep grey-brown. Under the lens it appears to be 
composed of small blackish crystals of Hornblende and white crystals of 
quartz intimately associated. 

2 Bat the word pegmatite is used here in a somewhat different 
sense as a coarse mixture of quartz, felspar and mica. It often contaiixa 
tourmaline, of which some fine specimens are found in the Koderma 
mines. 

3 Vide Gazetteer. This capping rock of the pats is howovar elsewhere 
referred to as laterite (Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Vol. VIII. The 
Daltonganj Coal-field, by W. H. Hughes). Probably the two rocks are 
assooiated as is so often the case. 

< Vide p. 2. 

10 



GJEOLoar. 

In walking from Hazaribagfh to Ranchi clay sand carboni- 
ferous shales are met with at about the 2 let mile which 
belong to the Damuda series of the Gondwana system. These 
rocks are more or less evident all down the Damuda valley, 
and contain the coal-fields of Ramgarh and Karanpur in 
Hazaribagh. The GoQdwana system is also well developed 
in tbe Barakar valley, and tilted beds of sandstone north of 
Bagoda, as well as the micaceous shales composing some of 
the small hills north of the Barakar, possibly belong to it. 
The Gondwana system is important, as the Damuda series 
bears the coal measures of Raniganj (in Bard wan, but close to 
Chota Nagpur), Jheria (in the Damuda valley, Manbhum), 
Giridih (Barakar valley, Hazaribagh), Daltonganj (Palamau), 
and several less important fields. The formation is also 
interesting from the occurrence of similar coal-bearing 
Damuda beds in Sikkim and Bhotan, indicating a continuity 
of the land in that direction when sea occupied the greater 
part of the Indo-Gangetic plain and Himalayan area. In the 
subsequent elevation of the land we may assume the moun- 
tains of Chota Nagpnr not only to have been on a far grander 
scale but to have borne much the same flora as their extension 
into Assam and adjacent areas. As these conditions are 
believed to have existed right np to tertiary times, the 
presence of so many eastern Himalayan and Malayan types in 
Chota Nagpur might thus be accounted for. Ball states that 
the outlying hills and prolongations of the Chota Nagpur 
plateau owe their character and origin to denudation modified 
only by the inclination of the beds, and not to local or special 
upheavals. **That the general level of MaBbhuia corre- 
sponded to the rest of Chota Nagpur in times previous to 
the scooping out of the Damuda and other valleys, and the 
deposition of the coal measures and associated rocks, is 
proved, not only by the scattered hills, a few of which 
approach in elevation that of the Chota Nagpur plateau,but by 
the fact that the Subarnareka and many of its smaller tribu- 
taries pass at right angles through gorges cut deep 
through hard ranges of trap, quartzite, and tough mica 

11 



GEOLOGY, 

schists J. In the Santal ParganaHS the Rajmehal traps he- 
long to the Gondwana system, and are often interbedded 
with coal and carboniferons shale. In the Bisrampnr coalfield, 
in Sarguja, boulder beds of gneiss are characteristic of the lower 
Gondwanas. Of the less important areas of Gondwana rocks 
may be mentioned the Itkuri coal Held in northern Hazari- 
bagh, one on the Balamath-Chatra road, and one called the 
Chope Coalfield well on the Hazaribagh plateau at nearly 
2,000 ft. eleTation ! None of these is believed to be worked at 
the present day. 

The low plateau of Sinpj'bhuTIl is mostly metamor- 
phic rock (gneiss) overlaid by a stiffish clay, and is much 
intersected by trap dykes. The series best represented in 
Singbhum however is the snb-metamorphic ; in fact all the 
shief hill ranges are composed of these rocks. The sub- 
•jietamorphics . are principally quartzites, ferruginous and 
mica schists, siliceous clay elates, shales and phyllite. 
Hsamatite and other iron schists are very widespread ; whole 
ranges {e.g., the Lokud Burn ridge in the Songra forest) 
are composed of them. The clay schists are usually inter- 
bedded with quartz laminae. On weathering, the latter break 
up into numerous stones which often thickly strew the 
surface. The clays derived from these schists are usually 
very impermeable and are baked a stony hardness in the hot 
Season ; they support a poor forest growth often characterized 
by the presence of Gardenia gummifera both in Singbhum and 
in the protected forests of Manbhum. The soil derived from 
the iron-schists and quartzites is usually better or, at any rate, 
the forest growth is better, from the roots being better able to 
penetrate the numerous clefts and fissures which are 
jharacteristic of these rocks when superficial. In Kun- 
drugutu, and some other places,, magnesian schists (patra diri, 
Kol) are found, which are worked by the Kols into plates 
and ornaments. Deposits of laterite in. Singbhum occur in 
Saranda in large amygdaloidal reddish masses especially abont 

* Ball, Momoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XVIII, Pt. 2. 

12 



GEOLOGY, 

Ratamatia. Trap dykes are very common, and occasional 
hills, e.g. the Kita Bum in the Saitba forest, are composed of 
serpentine. " This raounte.in is strongly magnetic and clothed 
chiefly with grass and Phoenix acaulis^ (Kita, K.)" 

Manbhum differs in some important respects from Sing- 
bhnm, chief of whicli are jBrstly, the considerable areas of 
alluvial and sub-aerial deposits, among which the laterite is 
very conspicuous, and is the first rock met with in travelling 
westwards from Calcutta ; secondly, the extensive remains of 
the Gondwana rocks especially in the valleys of the Damuda 
and Baraka ; thirdly, the relatively poor development of the 
Bub-metamorphics. Metamorphic and sub-metamorphic rocks 
are well represented, however, chiefly in the southern mountains. 
Here also, surrounded by the sub-metamorphics, is a large area of 
intrusive trap forming a long east and west band up to 3 miles 
in breadth, thinning out past of the Dalma mountain and extend- 
ing into and across the valley of the Subarnarekha into Tama.r 
(Ranchi district), and curving south to Bichia Burn in 
Singbhum. Manbhum shows the most perfect examples of 
the conical hills formed by the porphyritic or dome 
gaesis.^ 

In Palamau again the metamorphic and sub-metamorphic 
rocks compose most of the hill ranges, but in the west and 
south-west, in the neighbourhood of the Kanhar river the 
flat-topped hills are capped by massive sandstones and late- 
rite.^ In the north-western hills Biotite gneiss and a brown- 
ish amorphous-looking or slatey rock (with a quite black 
dull fracture, lydianstone ? ) are frequent.* In these hills 
again a crystalline limestone is abundant, «.gr., about Bona- 
hatpur, where it is frequently hollowed out into cave 

1 Singbbum Working Plar, p. 2, and Appendix XIII, where the 
r ocks in different compartments are enumerated. 

2 There ib a good illti8tr9,tion of the Jhalda hill in Vol. XVIIl of 
the Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. 

' But see note on p. 10. 

< I'he " lydianstone " was found chiefly between BonaLatpur and 
MiraU 

13 



GEOLOGY, 

which form a refuge for bears. Limestouo occurs in various 
form's throughout Chota Nagpur, and quarries of crystal- 
line blue limestone are worked in Gangpur (where, the 
rocks are similar to those of Singbhum) and ^to a less 
degree in Singbhum. 

A considerable area of the central Palamau plateau, 
extending from near Loharsee to Garhwa, across the junction 
of the Ainanaty Jinjoi and Keel rivers (just north of Dalton- 
ganj) is occupied by Gondwana rocks (Talchir and Damuda 
series), chiefly sandstones, which are frequently calcareous, 
and some coal. Another area of these rocks also occurs near 
Latihar and in a few other places. 

The predominant feature of the geology of the Santal 
^arganahs is the trap, which covers some three-fourths of 
the Kaimehal hills, and trap boulders are common in the 
valleys. 

The trap rocks are usually very homogeneous, or amygda- 
loidal, brown 6v grey -black basalts, with a black or grey-black 
micro 'Crystalline fracture, which may be conchoidal, and 
usually breaks into sharp angular fragments. On the hills 
near Morjhora a variety (dolerite) is found with a grey 
fracture, with distinct blank or amber-coloured crystals under 
the lens. This weathers grey, or red with a rough surface 
easily* covered with crustaceous lichens. Laterite sometimes 
occurs on the top of the trap. Underlying the trap, and 
often including it, is a series of sandstones and grits, less 
often shales. These beds are usually met with in the valleys 
and outcropping on the slopes. Caibonaceous shales and coal 
beds^ with occasional limestone and conglomerate also occur, 
and are often in tei bedded with the trap. The intertrappean 
sedimentary deposits often contain plant beds. Underlying 
the Gondwana system the metamorphic rocks are again met 
with, and they are sometimes exposed well inside the 
Rajmehal hills, e.gr., at Chandna. They are, however, chiefly 
noticeable on the western flanks and, outside the Rajmehals 
proper, the small hills are chiefly composed of them. " These 

14 



CLIMATE 

rocks consist chiefly of gneiss alternating with micaceoas and 
hornblendic schists."^ 

The soils in tne Rajmehai hills are rarely of clay,^ and 
thus contrast greatly v/ith those of Singbhum. Cotton soil 
is very abundant in the valleys, perhaps due to the decom- 
position of the trap. It is also common in Hazaribagh, e.g., 
from Chatra to Itkari, in Palaman from Leslieganj to Bankf 
and at other places. The species of the cotton soil are largely 
Butea, Carissa, Zizyphus and Acacia arabica. Common trees 
on the basalt are Mohwa, Nyctanthes, Briolasna, Terminalia 
tomentosa, Wendlandia exserta and Heteropanax, bat none of 
these are peculiar to -it. 

CLIMATE. 

The climate is characterized by a dry and comparatively 
cool season from the middle of October to the middle of 
February, a dry and very hot season from the middle oJ: 
February to June, and a hot wet season from June or July 
to September. As might be anticipated from the great 
differences in elevation between the low plateaux on which, 
for instance, stands Chaibassa (^760 ft.) or Naya Dumka, 
(489 ft.), and the high plateaux on which, for instance, 
Ranchi (2,128 ft.) stands, there are considerable local 
differences in the climate. The high plateaux are compara- 
tively cool all the year round, and hygienically compare 
very favourably with most parts of Bengal. The climate of 
the jungle-clad hill tracts of Singbhum is, on the other hand, 
described in the Imperial Gazetteer as " so malarious that 
they cannot be visited with safety before the month of 
November." There are, again, considerable differences in 
the hot- weather temperatures between the open cultivated 
country and the high reserved forests, which is at once 
appreciable without the aid of instruments. Differences of 

^iGoology of the Sajmehal Hills, by V. BalL 

2 Cp., however, Loc. cit., p. 68. " Again, on the eastern flank of the 
hills, there are many outlying deposits of laterite with which white and 
purplish clajs are iuterbedded." 

15 



CLIMATE, 

temperature between the open country and scrub juDgles i&, 
however, not thne perceptible. As, at present, we have do 
forest mettorological stations, such differences cannot be 
shown in figures. 

The following table^ shows the absolute maximnm and 
minimum temperatures which have been recorded at Ranchi 
and Chaibassa, two of the stations for which records have 
been longest maintained, situated respectively on high and 
lew-level plateaux :— 



I 



36 



CLIMATE. 



•43 



Eh 

a 
a 

X 








rH«0 


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Dec. 


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June. 


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17 



CLIMATE, 



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o Ol do <b OS 

115 lO -* Tfl -rf* 


1 


OS ■* CO O ip 

■»H "^ 6s Ml CO 

rh^ Co ^ eo 




• • • 

a . be 5* ij 

■^ f^ S c3 
e3 rj «! .S bo 

JspmWPM 



a^ 

««H 43 
M 

® o 

^ 2 
® So 

«=!^ 

® 2 

-^ o 

>•§ 



^ ft 
ft 
pi 



18 



CLIMATE. 

Tcmperatm-es of 105-5, 108-9, 109'8, 112-0, 113'1, li3'l, 
llQ-l, reBpectively, were recorded from tlie lOth to the 16tli 
June at the Meteorological station at Daltonganj during the 
writer's walking tour in 1905. On the other hand minimum 
temperatures of 32 E. have frequently been recorded on the 
grass, or the roof of a tent, in Singbhum during January. 
On the Khuria plateau hoar-frost is said to be usual in the 
winter, but below the Tats frost is rare. 

The low temperature of the soil in December and January 
causes a very general cessation of gi'owth and the fall of the 
leaf in many deciduous trees. The renewed activity of the 
root-system, as the soil becomes heaoed in the hot weather, is 
the cause of many trees putting out their new foliage at the 
hottest time of the year, and of many otherc bursting into 
flower. Others, of a different constitution, and in consequence 
of the excessive transpiration in the hot weather not being 
compensated for by the increased activity of the root- system, 
remain more or less dormant until the May stprnis, which are 
followed by a considerable increase in the relative humidity 
of the air (see below) » 

The following table shows the average means of maximum, 
minimum and diurnal range of temperatures and the average 
mean temperatures corrected to true diurnal means in 
Chaibassa and Ranchi respectively : — 



19 



CLIMATE, 





o 


iO 


cq 


© 


CO 




^ 


10 


OS 


■<*' 


« 




00 


U5 



s 


OJ 






H 





§g 


CO 


1— ( 
CI 




P 


!>. 


"sP 


CO 


iH 


c5 


r^ 


Th 


In 


CO 




n 





3 


§5 




© 
ft 






CO 






i 


00 


CO 


o> 


<N 




^2; 


W5 


-^ 


cs 


tH 








CO 

CO 







Eg 




CO 









1 





CO 


10 


-* 





!>. 


CO 


\n 


'^l 




o 


S 


xd 




CO 


1H 




00 
CO 





00 


00 






'«3' 


i> 





£>■ 


^* 


05 


y-K 


00 


00 




S 




1> 






P4 
® 


00 


CO 


r-l 
00 


CO 




bb 
5- 


CO 
CO 


CO 
01 


CO 


1> 




bo 

<1 


CO 
QO 


p 




tp 


»4 

C! 


<3 


00 


t«- 


!>. 


tH 




00 


I> 


00 


iH 


<3 


J^ 








■^ 


T-l 


>^ 


CO 


U» 


-* 


rH 


s. 


r— 1 

S3 


■^ 


eq 


!>. 


r^^ 




•-3 


OS 


t.'» 


CM 


C3 


00 


t* 


t> 


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L** 


CO 


1-t 


a 


•-9 












t-9 














r-{ 


cc 


'^ 


10 




© 

P 


CQ 


CO 





'^ 




f3 


f-H 


"^ 


1—1 


CO 




CO 


00 


CO 


l> 


g 


•-S 


OS 


!>. 


00 


r-l 




cs 


l> 


00 


tH 


s 


►t 


«o 





CO 


CO 




>» 


>-( 





00 


1H 




ct 


OS 


CO 


CO 


CO 




c3 


J5 








U3 


bo 


1^ 


Ci 


I> 


00 


CM 




S 





00 


OS 


<N 


o3 
























•rf 






















o 


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r-t 


rH 


10 









CO 





■<H 


CO 


> 


a 


t^ 


<M 


■^ 


kO 




&< 


CO 


CO 


00 


r» 


-«fl 


<i 


CD 


t^ 


00 


<>» 




<1 



I— 1 


l> 


00 


Cfl 




u 


«o 


CO 


1-1 


CO 


(^ 


00 





10 


03 




d 

s 


I> 


CO 


m 


Tfl 




§ 


"^ 


E- 


OS 


l> 




00 


«o 


t» 


(M 




^ 


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CO 


i.>- 


C» 




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00 





'«}' 


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<M 


CO 


10 


OS 




00 


r^( 


CO 


CO 




10 


00 





S2 




f»4 


!>• 


»n) 


CO 


(N 




Ph 


00 


»o 




C9 






•rs 


^ 


OS 


00 


Mi 


^ 


1-4 


r-\ 


CO 




'"fl 





pH 


CO 




r-K 


Cfi 


*r> 


?8 




l> 


to 


CO 


C4 




H? 


OD 


»/s 


CO 


(M 






• 


• 


• 


© 






• 
1 


' 


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1 ^ 


a 

s 










Cs M 

c*S 




go 


bO 






N 


N 


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20 



CLIMATE. 



> 
w 

M 

a 



F? 


i 




a 


n 


0) 


• IH 


-M 


a 


^ 




cS 


1^ 


1— H 


«5 


<P 


1 


,£3 




eM 


*« 


O 


a 


OQ 


rfl 


-»-i 




1=1 


a 


a 





0) 



.5 <^ 






«R| 


r^ 


-*-» 


01 


0) 


a 


ns 




<u 


bo 




(3 




O 

•— 1 


a 

o 

<4-4 


4^ 


^ 


© 


a> 


^ 


c8 


H 


d 




O 




p— H 




•8 




O 



^' 


■^ 


Oi 


(M 


o 


CO 


«o 


Tfl 


!>• 


o 


OS 


OO 


1-4 


OS 


00 


o 


rf 


tH 


<? 


o 


o 


l> 


!>. 


lrt> 


CO 


(30 


00 


i/^ 


t>. 


t«. 


t>t 


i ^ 


00 


00 


OS 


OS 


00 


00 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


c5 


1 


<M 


OO 


CO 


o 


<M 


CO 


o 


<M 


t^ 


t^ 


00- 


OS 


c« 


« 


CO 


CO 


!>. 


OS 


t* 


«o 


CD 


CM 


1-i 


eo 


eo 


is 


«— 1 




M 


I> 




t- 




t* 


I> 


t» 


o 


Ud 


»o 


W5 


lO 


to 


t> 


-«f 


I> 


CO 


o 


«o 


1— 1 


o 


00 


00 


oo 


"^ 


1-i 


cq 


<p 


o 


22 


00 


eo 


^ 


eo 


d 


CO 


t- 


I>» 


o 


OS 


-M 


OS 


OS 


;?; 


t- 


t> 


eo 


00 


00 


00 


oo 


»o 


»o 


CO 


io 


iO 


ITS 


aO 


-f3 


OS 


to 


l-H 


(M 


tH 


o 


00 


o 


o 


(M 


eo 


1-« 


JO 


»o 


o 


2S 


fS 


OS 


OS 


O 


00 


CO 


CO 


1^- 


o 


o 


lO 


o 


1-1 


o 


00 


00 


00 


00 


OS 


00 


00 


CO 


co 


I> 


i> 


CO 


t- 


t- 


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<M 


oo 


o 


CM 


CI 


CO 


■^ 


tH 


lo 


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CS 


CO 


Ifi 


l> 


P4 


S 


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CS 


00 


00 


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CO 


r- 


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bb 


Ci 


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o 


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W5 


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o 


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r-l 


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OS 


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70 


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co 


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CO 


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OS 


CS 


1-1 


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CSi 


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Pa 


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CvJ 


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o 


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CO 


CO 


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CO 


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CO 


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CD 


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eo 


O 


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o 


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CS 


CO 


I> 


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^ 


t» 


oo 


o 


io 


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t* 


l> 


oo 


00 


t- 


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!>• 


^ 


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to 


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Irt 


U3 


SO 


^' 


Oi 


-# 


CO 


O 


t-t 


^ 


t^ 


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d 


o 


CO 


e> 


Oi 


<M 


OJ 


i>- 


OS 


CO 


^ 


CO 


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CS 


■^ 


'rff 


^ 


»-i 


■>-« 


>-s 


£•- 


I> 


i> 


t>- 


I> 


t^ 


t- 


kO 


»n 


iO 


lO 


rp 


«5 


« 






^ 




• 




cd 


• 


• 


M 


« 


• 


.„ 




bo 




I.. 


00 

e3 


c3 

•rH 

1— 1 

2 



OQ 

J3 


i 

to 
o 

-1.3 

-3 


n 

Q 

1 


5 




ba 

cS 
c3 


e3 


c3 

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m 




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tq 


Ph 


o 


ft 


^i 


W 


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PU 


o 


ft 


15 




^ 














•^ 















21 



CLIMATE, 



From the above, it will be observed tbat the coolest 
months' are December and January, that the temperature 
gradually rises until May, when it attains its mean maxi- 
mum. The more overcast skies of June produce a lower 
mean temperature in that month, but the absolute maximuin 
may occur in either Hay or June. From June the tempera- 
ture decreases again till December oi' January, except tbat 
the decrease in cloud during September causes a temporary 
increase in temperature during that month. The damp 
tropical heat of the period from June to September produces 
a wealth of terrestrial orchids, Scitaminese, Aroids and 
other tropical undergrowth, which dies back again to peren- 
nial rootstocks during the cool dry winter. 

In the following table the stations are arranged in the 
order of the heaviest rainfall. 

The figures are obtained from Volume XVII of the 
Meteorological Memoirs (ly 04), and are based on all avail- 
able data to the end of 1903. They are not exactly compar- 
able, inasmuch as some stations have a very much longer 
record than others, A comparison, however, of the figures 
with those recorded in the Meteorological Memoirs of 1886— 
1888 (Volume III, Part III) for the older stations, shows 
that there is no appreciable increase or diminution of the 
rainfall during the last twenty years. 



Station. 


No. of 
rainy 
days. 


Inches 

of 
rain. 


Station. 


No. of 
rainy 
days. 


Inches 

of 
rain. 


Sirgnia 
Palkou . 
Monharpxu . 
Jashpnr 
Katikhund . 
Gangpur 
Pakaur . 
Sahibganj 
Goilkera 


691 
67-7 
65-5 
82-9 
67-3 
69-9 
75-3 
63-8 
72-4 


64-97 
64-73 
64-67 
64-58 
63-57 
60-95 
60-39 
59-55 
59-47 


Ghatsila 
Naya Dnmka.. 
Asanboni 
Jhalda . 
Gobindpur 
Tamar . 
Ramgarh 
Chaibassa 
Barabhnm 


69-2 
79-5 
71-2 
66-0 
73-1 
70-5 
60-3 
75-4 
70-3 


58-66 
58-61 
55-67 
55-20 
55-19 
54-S3 
54-04 
63-80 
53-67 



^In Bonth Monghyr. 
22 



CLIMATE, 





No. of 


Inches 




No. of 


Inches 


Station. 


rainy 


of 


Station. 


ramy 


of 




days. 


rain. 




days. 


rain. 


Eajmehal 


64'Z 


53-34 


Giridih . 


75-3 


50-82 


Deogliar 


72-3 


5315 


Sili 


56-4 


49-82 


Purulia 


76-0 


52-77 


Eaganathpnr^ 


65-7 


49-23 


Chakardapur . 


72-3 


52-54 


Bhagalpur . 


60-8 


49-35 


Balumath 


621 


52-42 


Husainabad . 


50-6 


49-08 


Sarath . 


70-0 


5214 


Godda . 


66-4 


48-68 


Cliatra . 


66-5 


51-85 


Barhi 


62-0 


48-04 


Madhnpnr 


70-9 


51-84 


Monghyr 


60-0 


47-19 


Eanchi 


81-7 


51-57 


Garhwa . 


56-6 


46-59 


Ha25aribagh . 


75-8 


51-49 








Sarwan^ 


63-3 


5099 


Daltonganj . 


62-7 


44-54i 



Local conditions often radically affect the rainfall at 
particular stations. Thus, Godda, situated in the lee of the 
Rajmehal Hills in respect to the moist winds from the Bay 
of Bengal, has a rainfall much below the average of the 
northern Santal Parganas. Ghatsila, situated in eastern 
Singbhum, in a belt where the same moist winds are first 
forced to rise on striking the eastern Singbhum mountains, 
has a heavier fall than Chaibassa situated to the west of 
them. Apart from such purely local variations, the heaviest 
rainfall is seen to be in two well-defined regions. The one 
embracing Jashpur, Sirguja, western Banchi and western 
Singbhum and Gangpur, is a region of extensive high forest, 
as well as being nearest to the axis of minimum pressure 
towards which the two branches of the monsoon converge 
from the opposite coasts.^ The other lies in the northei-n 
Santal Parganas, a region which is exposed to the moist 
breezes blowing up the Gangetic valley, and perhaps also to 
the deflected monsoon winds which sweep the base of the 
Himalayas. 

^ Cp.-Blandford. Met. Memoirs, Vol. Ill, Part 3. 
2 jjastern Manbhum (not on map). 



23 



CLIMATE. 

The driest region is seen to extend from western Palaman 
(Gaihwa and Daltonganj) across northern Hazaribagh, to 
Giridih and southern Monghyr. It also embraces part of the 
high Ranchi and Hazaribagh plateaux, which on account of 
their elevation might be expected to have a larger rainfall. 
It is to be noted that these plateaux are singularly bare of 
forest. These differences in the distribution of the rainfall 
strikingly coincide with differences in the character of the 
TGgetation noticed on p. 28 and which is there proviaionally 
ascribed to differences in relative humidity.^ 

Figures on humidity are only available for very few 
stations. The following averages^ are for the last ten 
years (Purulia, 8 years), but in view of the great divergence 
in some of the figures, the extremes have also been quoted.^ 

^ The chapter on Climate was written after the completion of the 
rest of the Flora, as the figfures were only received immediately before 
Bending to the press. 

2 The averages are calculated from the details kindly supplied by 
tie Director General of Observatories, 

3 Figures in brackets are the extremes of m,ont}dij means of relfttira 
humidity, not extremes of relative humidity. Seeing that in some cases 
this mean is said to vary from 48 to ■ 86 for corresponding months in 
different years, and that hygrometrical instruments require a deal of 
attention which cannot perhaps be given by the observers at small 
meteorological stations, who are usually employees of other DepartmontB, 
Bome of these figures may not be quite correct. 



24 



CLIMATE, 






>» 

a 

^ 



ft 

<5 



S 



,0 
© 






Oi rT^rf o O C3-. 10 
t* J^i CO 00 !> 00 00 

17 I I M I 

O Oi 00 CO 'O tM 
10 "TT lO 10 "T !>• !>• 

CO CO ioco^ 00 

«£■ to I> t^ «0 00 00 



O »0 t-H »C CO C<J t*- 
CO 10 I> I> lO 00 t>- 

M I I I I I 

05 <X> Oi C55 O 00 1>» 
CO CO 'SI W5 tP iO uO 

t-i 00 tH -O !>■ 00 00 
»« ■<* CD to Tfl «0 «0 



Oi CD -^ 10 «C (M (M 

•rP -^ CD CD «0 I> I> 

I I I I I I 1 

lA CO OS cr. 1—1 00 00 

<M (M CO T? CO CO CO 
(N> CD O OS CI C J no 

■^ CO 10 o ■«# lO ifs 



i>oo<M cDCi cftca 

XO »0 t^ 00 1><X> CO 

i I I I H I 

00 tH 10 on 05 (JO eo 

C-J CO -P -^ CO CO CO 

JO -<S l> CD £- Tj< ^ 
tS "Wl iO CO iLfS 1/3 iQ 



00 CO »0 00 OS lO 10 
Jt>.I>00 00 00 00 i> 



CXJOOOOi 

III 

CD rH CO T-H •* 
•tJ* CD xO i/i 10 



oa 00 L-- '^i tp i> 00 

CO »/i CO I> !>• CO CO 



i 



O 01 O O CTi CO CO 
00 I> 00 O C/j 00 00 



00 CD 1-1 t- Oi CO <M 

ic "t CD i> 'X' CO r^ 

l^ CO (M 01 r- 1 CO 00 
CO^ t^OOOO «>!> 



e3 

. ^ . jg fl a j^ 

« . aj « pj g 
g S !^ cir-j >»«3 



<5 i2 00 OS CO c<- 1^ 

CO CO t- !>• 1> |> JO 

il ' ! I ' I 

»0 (M <M fO ri Tjf TiP 
CO CO l^ I> t> t^ t^ 



CO •«* I> -^ 01 (3i r-t 
^7 1^ i> 00 OS t* 00 

i M I I 11 

«-' »0 O OS Tjl 00 ^ 
U5 Tfl «o CO t^ CO CO 

<M o 00 o CO JO co' 
CO CO CO 00 r* i>. !>. 



'"- -^ 00 "* 00 CO CO 

CD vc r^ oo 00 00 !>, 

M I I I I i 

OS ?4 rH <M N I> to 

-!*< •^C0 1> I>COco 

O CO OS 00 CS tfj CO 
C O to CD t^ t~ ! >■ t» 

CD I>- -* t^ Oi CO ^ 
op 1>00 00 00 00 00 

I i I i I i i 

CO r-l (M (?t O "^ O 

lO^io t^ r> i> ^ ti 

OS CO t- I— ( I— ( o t» 
CO CO t> 00 00 00 !>. 




CO 00 •»? -^f* -^jt <© ci> 

CO^C^pO 00 1^ 00 GO 

oc CO !>• CO CO 00 r» 

CO 00 00 00 00 OQ 00 



e3 
g 2 P es;^ >>c3 



25 



GENEBAL CHARACTER OF THE FLORA. 

TaMng the averages, it is seen that the mean relative 
humidity in the hot dry season is, as would be expected, least 
in Palaman and Hazaribagh, greatest in Singbhum and the 
Santal Parganahs. In the cold season, however, the mean 
relative humidity becomes greatest in Palamau and Singbhum, 
least on the plateaux. The greatest drop in mean minimum 
temperature {vide p. 21) also takes place in Palamau, and 
indeed (though the table does not shew this), the mean 
relative humidity in the cold season frequently reaches 100 in 
the early mornings, and the copious dew has a most import- 
ant eSect in keeping the herbaceous vegetation green up to 
the end of January, and it is the season of flowering of many 
annuals and suffruticose perennials, esp. of Malvaceae. The 
actual tension of aqueous vapour is much greater at Chai- 
bassa than at Ranchi or Hazaribagh, but the statistics for 
other stations of equal elevation are wanting. 

GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE FLORA. 

The heavy rainfall confined to a few months of the year 
makes the climate essentially a forest one, and the province 
still contains a considerable percentage of forest-clad land, 
owing to the rocky nature of the surface preventing the 
spread of cultivation. This forest belongs to the monsoon 
type of the tropical zone, and is more or less leafless during 
the dry season, but the cool valleys, previously alluded to 
(p. 7), contain a flora which somewhat differs from the 
general type, and the tops of some of the highest hills, parti- 
cularly Parasnath, possess species of a moister climate. 
Although essentially tropophilous, there is yet a marked 
tendency towards xerophilous structure, which is seen, e.g., 
in the most characteristic tree of the area, the Sal. In the 
Sal tree the leaves* are very nearly persistent, and they thus 

^The upper surface has a thick cuticle and large epidermal cells rather 
deeper than broad. Beneath this are 2-3 rows o^ thin-walled palisade 
cells. This tissue is interrupted at frequent intervals by large thick- 
walled sap tissue opposite the vascular bundles and, with the numerous 
bast fibres of these bundles and a similar tissue opposite to the bundle 
interrupting the spongey parenchyma, forraa strong supporting strands 
which render the leaves very firm. 

26 



GENERAL CRARACTER OF THE FLORA. 

have to stand tlie hot dry winds of FebruaFy and March, 
while the new ones appear in May, when the relative 
humidity of the air is very low. They are therefore markedly 
coriaceous, and possess a polished surface which reflects the 
sun's rays. On the hills the trees become low and gnarled 
with relatively massive stems and small leaves. The Sal, 
however, is neither long enough deciduous, nor sufficiently 
xerophilous, to grow on the driest aspects, and it is there 
supplanted by other trees, e.g., Cleistanthus collinus, 
Anogeissus latifolia, Odina Wodier, Nyctantlies Arbor-tristis 
and other species which constitute much of the so-called 
" Mixed Forest " type. On the driest and most exposed 
rocks are found certain plants entirely xerophilous in struc- 
ture. Such are fleshy Euphorbias with corky bark and 
fleshy leaves appearing only in the rains, and Sarcostemma 
with fleshy quill-like branches and pretty waxy flowers. 
Most of the trees, however, escape the dessicating influence 
of the long dry season by shedding their leaves, or even 
(some Phyllautheae) their branches, and some, which are 
associated with the xerophilous plants above mentioned, have 
very thick twigs and remain without their leaves for an 
extraordinary time. TIlus Sterculia urens is leafless from 
November to May or even to June, Odina Wodier and 
Cochlospermum Gossypium from November to May. A 
thin, papery, flaky bark, or a very white stem, is character- 
istic of species growing on sun-scorched hills, and these white 
leafless giants, flinging their bare arms to the furnace blasts 
of the western winds of May give a wild and weird look to 
many of the hill tops. 

It is noteworthy that many of these trees which are 
leafless for prolonged periods have a chlorophyll layer under 
their white outer bark. 

A very prominent rock-loving species is Gardenia latifolia. 
The minute seeds germinate in the crevices of bare rocks, 
the crevices becoming filled with the growing rootstock which 
also forma a cushion over the top. The tree has a clean 

27 



GENERAL CEABACTER OF TEE FLORA. 

white stem and large coriaceous leaves, covered with a 
resinoua varnish while young. 

Gardenia guramifera has polished coriaceous leaves, also 
Tarnished while young, and its buds are protected by a large 
drop of resin. It and Gardenia turgida, one form of which is 
covered with strong opposite and decussate spines, has also a 
white bark. Ficus infectoria (wild form), F. glabella, and 
F. tomentoaa are all rock-loving species and often markedly 
xerophilous in structure. The leaves of F. tomentosa are 
covered with a dense felt of hairs. It may be seen growing 
freely on the old Palamau fort, the ruin of which it is helping 
to complete. 

The most arid tract is in the extreme north-west o 
Palamau, which in addition to its being furthest from the 
moist winds of the Bay of Bengal, is exposed to a very dry wind 
which blows down the Sone valley. It is characterized by 
Capparis sepiaria, Hardwickia binata, and Balanites, plants 
common nowhere else in our area. South and east the 
country gradually becomes somewhat; more humid. The most 
humid tracts are found in the deep valleys of the south-west 
of Singbhum, due apparently to the extensive clothing of 
vegetation, and again in the northern and north-eastern 
Santal Parganahs, due to the proximity of the Gangetic 
valley and the moist winds from the Bay.^ 

The increase in humidity is very marked iu marching 
from Dumka northwards through the Santal Parganahs, and 
a number of plants re-appear which have only been elsewhere 
met with in the Saranda tract of Singbhum. Others are 
confined to the Santal Parganahs district, so far as Chota 
Nagpui' is concerned, and belong rather to Bengal proper, 
Assam and the Sub-Himalayan region. The flora of the 
Rajmehal Hills must indeed, at one time, have been wonder- 
fully rich, though now disappearing through the destructioa 
of the forests. A number of plants, again, are found in the 

1 Cp. Climate, pp. 23 to 25. 
23 



GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE FLORA. 

aep Singbhiim valleys bnt not in the Santal Par^anahs or 
other parts of Chota Nagpur or Bengal, and these also belong, 
for tbe most part, to the Eastern Sab-Himalayan, Assam and 
Malay Flora. *■ 

Of plants peculiar to the Santa! Parganahs (so far as onr 
area is concerned) may be mentioned Glycosmis pentaphylla, 
Mallotus rej)andug, Bridelia tomentosa and B. stipularis, 
which are common in Bengal proper. Siphonodon celastri- 
neus, Nenracanthua tetragonostachyns, Ochna squarrosa, 
Dalbergia tamarindifolia, AlpLonsea vontricosa, Vitex glabrata 
and Ligastrum robaatum, which are chiefly eastern species 
not found in Bengal proper, though occurring perhaps in 
Orissa. 

The following are found both in the Singbhum forests 
and the Santal Pargan^ihs, viz.^ Mucuna imbricata, Side- 
roxylon tomentosum, Helinus: Cansjera Rheedii, Hyptian- 
thera stricta, Lasia, Uvaria Hamiltonii, most of which are 
essentially Eastern Peninsular or Sub-Himalayan species. 

The following are plants which are peculiar to the 
Singbhum (chiefly Saranda) forests of Chota Nagpur, vis., 
Pygeum acuminatum, Lasianthus lancifolius, Ardisia 
depressa, Cyclostemon assamicus, Michelia Ohampaca, 
Litssea nitida, Macaranga indica, Lysimachia peduncularis, 
Syraplocos spicata, Trevesia palmata, Raphisterama 
pulchellum, Sp<uropus pubescens, Laportea crenulata, 
Homalium nepalense, Musa ornata, Licuala peltata, Caryota 
urene, and a sweet, wild form of the orange, nearly all of 
which, again, are species of Sikkim, Assam and the Malay 
Peninsula as well as all (except perhaps Raphistenima and 
Cyclostemon) belonging to Chinese genera. 

Of the damp tropical dora Chota Nagpur possesses a few 
representatives besides those already mentioned as peculiar 
to speuial districts, such are Scindapgus and other Aroids, 
Piper longum, Heteropanax, numerous Ampelidacese, 
Garcinia Cowa, and many figs. One form of Beilschmiedia 
fagifolia cccurs in Singbhum, and another in the Santal 

29 



GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE FLORA. 

Parganalia. Referring to tte increased humidity of the top 
of Parasnath (in Hazaribagh), Sir J. D. Hooker says ** Of 
plants eminently typical of a moLster atmosphere I may 
mention the genera BulbophylJum, Begonia, Aeginetia, 
Dispornm, Roxbnrghia, Panax, - Eugenia, Myjrsine, ferns, 
mosses, and foliaceous lichens ; which appeared in strange 
association with such dry-climate genei*a as Kalanchoe, 
Pterospermum, and the dwarf palm, Phosnix. Add to this 
list the Berberis asiatica, Clematis nutans, Thalictrum 
glyphocarpum, 27 grasses, Cardamine, etc., and the mountain 
top presents a mixture of the plants of a damp hot, a dry hot 
and of a temperate climate, in fairly balanced proportions," 
Of the strictly Peninsular Plora, Walaura piscidia from 
Koderma has hitherto only been known from south of the 
Godavery, and Nauclea purpurea from south of the Mahanadi. 
The influence of the soil is, as usual, much less marked 
fchan that due to alight diftereoces of climate. Soil is, however, 
jhiefly accountable for the distribution of the Khair (Acacia 
Catechu) and Carissa. These occur over a very large area in 
Hazaribagh, Manbhum, and Palamau, chiefly on those rocks 
which yield a sandy soil such as the sandstones, quartzises, 
and horneblende gneiss. It is not always easy to say, 
however, how far th.e prevalence of these species is due to 
the soil alone. In parts of Palamau there is little doubt that 
human agency (including in this category fires, cattle-grazing, 
etc.) has favoured the Khair as against the Sal as, where 
the forests are protected, the Sal again tends to oust the 
Khair. Sal, probably, once reached the edge of the laterite 
plateau which extends into Midnapur. Its absence in many 
cases is almost certainly due to extermination, while its 
companion, the Mohwa (Bassia latifolia), has survived, 
according to the rule that timber trees are more liable to 
extermination than fruit trees. Its absence in many low- 
lying tracts is, on the other hand, due to edaphic factors, 
and it is also very frequently scarce or absent on some forms 
of trap and limestone. Gardenia gummifera is almost cou- 
iined to clay schists. 

30 



GEI^ERAL CEJEACTEH OF TEE FLORA. 

Next to cultivation the first radical change due to man is 
to reduce the forest to a coppice or scrub condition in which 
the species are exposed to the effects of selective browsing. 
The species which survive longest are apparently those rich, 
in tannic acid, or with a formidable armature of thorns. On 
some of the hills most subject to goat-grazing, as well as to 
annual fires, the coppice is nearly pure Cleistanthus collinns. 
In some cases, a coppice of Chloroxylon is very abundant 
although this is a comparatively rare tree in the forests. 
This sJso owes its preservation to the acrid nature of the 
leaves. 

Although thorn woodland is, in the main, a formation due 
to climatic factors, there is ample evidence that its production 
or extension in Chota Nagpur is largely a result of selective 
cutting and grazing. Man in his cutting avoids thorny 
trees and bushes as animals avoid them. The quantity 
he removes for fencing purposes is comparatively trifling. 
In the mixed Sal and Khair forests of Palamau, the Sal is 
the more abundant, in proportion to its distance from towns 
and villages. Carissa has found no footing at all in the 
comparatively dense forest areas of Singbhum; it thrives 
over the greater part of Hazaribagh, where the jungles 
are open formations, but more specially, as said above, on 
sandy soils. 

A statement of the relative abundance and of the asso- 
ciation of individuals of dominant genera and species fre- 
quently gives a better picture of a flora to a forester than 
can be obtained by liiere numbers of species in dominant 
families. This is especially the case with small families 
containing gregarious species. The Sal is a case in point, 
which, though giving a peculiarly distinctive character 
to the Bengal-Deccan flora, does not appear at all in a list 
of dominant families. For the forester then, the province is 
well characterized by the almost general association in large 
numbers, on the one hand, of Sal, Anogeissus spp., Bassia 
latifoliar Gardenias, Butea spp., Schleichera, and the grasses 

81 



GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE FLORA, 

Ischaemum angustifolium (Sabal grass) and Andropogon 
contortus (Spear grass). On the other hand, by the scarcity 
of such common sab-Himalayan associates of the Sal as 
Dillenia pentagyna and indica, Careya arborea and herbacea, 
Stereospermum chelonoides, and Sterculia villosa ; and by 
the complete absence in a wild state of all Cnpuliferao and 
ConifersE), of Sissu and of Teak. 

A second characteristic feature, or group of features, is 
the abundance of individuals of Rubiace93, notably of the 
genera Gardenia and Wendlandia (all the other Bengal 
epecies of Gardenia are confined to Chittagong), of Acantha- 
cesB, Bauhinia spp., Diospyros spp., Terminalia spp., Zizyphus 
spp., Cleistanthas coUinus, Nyctanthes, Mgle Marmelos, and 
of the bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus. 

Dillenia pentagyna, so common an associate of Sal in the 
Sub-Himalayas east of the 80th meridian, is in Chota 
Nagpur largely replaced by D. aurea, which appears to have 
been repeatedly conf ased with the former when in leaf, and 
with Cochlospermum when in flower. Dillenia aurea is a 
char£,cteristic species and extends into the Karakpar Hills, 
which, as already remarked, might well have been included 
in this flora. 

The Anonacese are fairly well represented, as also are the 
small families Monispermaceae (5 spp.), Capparidacese (8 spp.), 
Palygalacese Co spp.), Combretacesa (10 spp.) and Lythrace® 
(10 spp.). The families of Urticaceae, Magnoliaceas. Ranun- 
culaceae, Crucifer^, Guttiferae, TernstroemiacesB, Rosaceae, 
Umbelliferae, and Lauraceaa are poorly represented l;)oth in 
epecies and individuals. 

Following the method pursued to characterize the 
Botanical provinces in the sketch of the Flora of British India 
(prepared by Sir J. D. Hooker for the new edition of the 
Imperial Gazetteer), the approximate number of speciee in 
the dominant orders or families is given below : — 

Gramineae 150. 

%2 



VERNACULAR NAMES, 

Legnminos89 130 (Papilionacea 100, Cflesalpiniacea 20, 

Mimosace89 12). 
Gyperacece 70. 
Orchidacese 60. 
Compositee 60. 
Euphor1biace88 50, 
Acanthacese 45. 
Rubiaceaa 45. 
ScrophalariaceBB 40. 
Filices 40. 
Labiata9 35. 

Urticacese 35 (including UlmaceflB and Moraceee). 
Cucurbitacese 30. 
ScitaminesQ 20 (including ZingiberaceaB, Maiantaceas 

and Musaceas). 
Verbennceae 20. 
Commelinaceae 17. 
Aracese 15. 
Liliaceae 11. 

VERNACULAR NAMES, AND NOTE ON THE 
POPULATION. 

Chota Nagpur is said to be a corruption of Chntia 
Nagpur from Chutia near Ranchi, the former seat of the 
old Munda Rajahs and with the Santal Parganahs, it contains 
the largest proportion of aboriginal races of any of the 
administrative divisions of Bengal. These races belong chiefly 
to the Kolarian and Dravidian stocks, though with regard to 
this distinction, Sir H. Risley^ states that it rests solely 
upon linguistic peculiarities, and does not correspond to any 
differences of physiological type. Nevertheless it is usually 
possible for those who have lived among the aboriginal tribes 
to distinguish the two stocks, and it is more convenient to follow 
Hunter and Dalton and to treat them as distinct. 



1 Vide Sir H. H. Eialey in Tribes and Castes of Bengal. 

33 D 



VERNACULAR NAMES. 

The word Kol is used in a variety of senses and requires 
definition. Broadly it includes both Mundas and Oraons and 
practically all the aboriginal tribes of Chota Nagpnr. Col. 
Dalton,^ however, treats hs Kolarian, or Eols, tiiose races 
whose language is Munda or Kol, hence eifeluding the 
Oraons, (.londs, etc., but including the Santals, and of coarse 
including (though be does not specilically ,say so) those tribes 
obviously Kolarian who have now more or less lost the Kol 
language. Hunter again states that the scientific use of the 
•word embraces the Kolarian tribes of Munda, Ho, Bhumij 
and Khar war, and in another place he says that it is a generic 
word for the whole group of tribes included linguistically 
within the term Kolarian, but that it is often applied in a 
more restricted sense to embrace only the three principal 
tribes Munda Kols, Larka Kols or Hob, and Bhumij Kols. 
Inasmuch as the names of plants are usually the same or 
aimilar amoug these three tribes, the word Kol is used in 
the Flora in this last and restricted sense. In many cases 
Kol names will still be found in use among Kolarian tribes 
which have adopted Aryan languages,^ but on the other 
hand the Muudari, Ho and Bhumij names may be distinct. 
The difPerence often only consists in the elision of the Mundari'r 
accompanied in the Ho with the peculiar partial reduplication 
of the final vowel,^ equi\ralent to the c' or k' of the Santal, 
Thus a pot-herb is ara in Mundari or Bhumij a : in Ho, 
araW in Santal. Such trifling differences have sometimes 
been ignored in the Flora. 

Owing to the spread of Aryan languages among the abori- 
ginal races of Chota Nagpur, fosiored by the primary schools 
and the law courts, the Kolarian and Dravidian languages 
are unfortunately disappearing. Unfortunately, because the 

'• Col. Edward Tuite Dalton. Ethnology of Bengal, % moat interestinp 
work, puMished in 1872 and long out of print. 

^ This is an instance of Sir H. Bisley's contention t«hat .lapgaage is 
ndt a reliable gnide to race. 

s Usunllj written thas :, but diacritical signs have frequently been 
omitted in the Flora. 

34 



VERNACULAR NAMES. 



attributes of a^. people tend rapidly to ohange willi their 
language, and few who have dwelled some time in th e hmd 
of the Kola can desire the change. The non- Aryan languages 
are uauaMy replaced by a jargon of Hindi, sometimes i*ef erred 
to locally as Gawnwari. In some cases, especially on the east 
of the tract, owing to association witb Bengalis, a Bengali 
dialect has been adopted. For these reasons it has been 
necessary to include several Hindi and Beng-aii names. The 
latter, however, are not nnmerons, as Bengali names are chiefly 
confined to cultivated plants, and there are^few really BengaH 
names for purely forest species. Most of those mentioned hav6 
been obtained from a comparison of the names quoted by 
Gamble and Watt. To how great an extent Aryan languages 
have replaced the non-Aryan may be gathered from the 
following table,^ which also shows the total population 
and the number of persons per square mile in each dietrici.. 





Sing- 


Man- 


Hazari- 


Eancbi. 


Pala- 


Santal 


Try. 




bb.-axn. 


bhum,. 


bagh. 


man. 


P. 


States. 


Popnlstion . 


6,13,579 


13,01,364 


11,77,961 


11,87,S25 


6,19,600 


18,09,737 


10,01,429 


Pop. per Bq. 
















mile. 


163 


314 


168 


167 


126 


331 


62 


Percentage 














■ 


of abori- 
















^nal 
















tribes.s 


75 


61 


34 


74 


36 


59 


78 


Percentage 












; 




of persons 
















speaking 
















non- Aryan 
















languages. 


61-62 


14-15 


7-8 


56-57 


6-7 


^ 


21-sa 



1 Calculated from th3 figures g^ven in the' Censua of India, 1901, by 
E. A. Gait, IC.S. 

2 There ie sometimes doubt as to whioh to consider aboriginal 
»mong the Hinduized tribes, and the figures can only be approximate. 
The writer has been gaided as far as possible by Bialey (Tribes and 
C&ateapi Bangal) and by'Ddton (Ethnology of Bengal), ^^urmis are not 
included m the Santal Parganas, but they are for the other diEtriota. 
Koiris, Chamars, Goa]a», £umhars, Telia, etc., are all considered Aiyaa. 



S£^ 



Di 



VERNACVLAR NAMES, 

It might have been expected that the most isolated dis- 
trictB (e.^., Ranchi), and those containing the largest propor- 
tion of forest (nearly 20 per cent, in Singbham), would have 
been precisely those in which the aboriginal langnages would 
die hardest but it is difficult to explain the progress of Aryan 
tongues among the Tributary States. 

Sillgbhum. — The dominant tribe is the Ho, who form over 
87 per cent, of the population, and next to them come the 
Santals. Among other Kolarian races the Bhumij are very 
numerous in the east along the Subarnarekha, and in Dal- 
bhum, whence they extend into Manbhum, and in the north, 
in Porahat, the Mundas are predominant. The Dravidian 
element is not strong but there are over 6,00C Gonds and 
over 5,000 Oraona ; the latter, however, chiefly confined to the 
towns. The Imperial Gazetteer (1887) states that the whole of 
Saranda {vide p. 7) contains but a few poor hamlets nest- 
ling in deep valleys, and belonging to one of the least reclaimed 
tribes of Kols. The reference is to the Hos, and may the 
process of so-called reclamation be a long one ! The writer 
heartily endorses Col. Dalton's description of them ; they 
have " a manner free from servility, but never rude ; a love or 
at least the practice of truth ; a feeling of self-respect, render- 
ing them keenly sensitive under rebuke." They used to 
have, and indeed still madntain, a great reputation for bravery, 
and in 1820 a British force which entered the country with a 
view to bringing them under the subjection of the Rajah 
*' had to light every inch of its way out of the country agj^in, 
leaving them unsubdued."^ The Hos of the Singbhum 
jangles still carry their bows and battle-axes, and can use 
them with good effect. Although so essentially a forest 
tribe, it is to be noted that a considerable number of Saranda 
plants have really no Ho names. Unlike the Lepchas of the 
Eastern Himalayas, the Hos and other Chota Nagpur tribes 
only name the common plants and those of striking beauty or 
scent, and those of economic importance to them. Some 

' Quoted from Hunter in the Imperial CbKfitteer of 188 7. 

36 



VERNACULAR NAMES. 

species have names given to them in one village but not in 
another, and generally speaking when plants have a large 
number of different and dissimilar names none of thsse are of 
much value, and the writer has usually rejected those names 
which have not been repeated in several villages. A large 
number of the more educated Kols and Santals are no more 
conversant with the correct names of their trees than is the 
ordinary Englishman with those of the trees of his native 
land, and they are the very ones to most readily supply names 
from their imagination. Descriptive and compound names, 
especially those formed with sandi (male), enga (female\ 
huring (small), marang (large) and bir (forest, hence wild) 
as parts, are usually to be regarded with suspicion. The 
word daru (tree) is almost invariably added after the name 
of a tree by the Kols, but this has been omitted in the Flora. 

The forest Kols are well versed in the edible properties of 
plants, but their medicine is usually very crude. Among 
them, as among other primitive tribes, the Law of Signatures 
is firmly believed in :. a plant with milky juice is good for pro- 
moting the secretion of milk, the little plant Biophytum with 
sensitive leaves is valuable as a soporific. The Bhumij in the 
extreme east of Singbhnm and in Manbhum speak a dialect 
of Bengali, but in other parts mostly Mundari. One of the 
wildest tribes in Singbhum are the Birhors (meaning " forest 
people "). They are a wandering, and now a very small, tribe 
whose encampments used to be occasionally met with in the 
north of Singbhum, and about Biru in Rauchi district, but 
they are also reported from Hazaribagh. They live by 
snaring monkeys and by collecting the fibre of the Bauhinia 
Vahlii. The monkey skins form the ends of the large deep- 
toned drum (duntung) of the Kols, the body of which is made 
of earth or of jack, while the smaller drum (dulki) is usually 
of Gmelina. The monkeys snared, which are the small brown 
Macacus, called gari in Birhor, and gai : in Ho ; (the Huna- 
man, Semnopithecus, called Sara in Kol, I have never seen 
snared) also form their chief article of food, and the Birhor 
himself has acquired a very strong monkey odour. As far a^ 

37 



rEBNACULAJR NAMES. 

could be ascertained from a sliglit acquaintance, the lan- 
guage of tfee Birhors is ordinary Mundari. 

Manbhunfl. — The largest caste is the Hinduized Kurmis, 
and if theee are really of Aryan blood, the proportion of abo- 
riginal tribes in Manbhuni is under 50 per cent, of the totnl 
population. In the north of Manbhum the Santals are very 
numerous, so tbat tbey form over 14 per cent, of the popula- 
tion of the iwtole district. Santal names are similiar or dis- 
tinct from the Munda and Ho, but in some cases they are 
now the same as the Hindi, and on this account it has some- 
times been contended that the alleged Hindi names may be 
borrowed from the Santal. This, however, does not seem very 
probable when the other Kols still retain a distinct name for 
the plant in question, and seeing that so many Hindi word« 
have been borrowed by the Santals. Most of the Santaii 
names in the Flora have been obtained from the Rev. A. 
Cam'pbell, who is most perfectly acquainted with the Santal 
language in addition to being a botanist. 

RailChi. — The Ranchi district is the great centre of the 
Kolarian Mundas and the Dravidian Oraons, Munda names 
of plants are very largely used and have already been referred 
to. The list is probably not quite complete as the writer has 
been unable to recognize a number of Mundari totems which 
are said to be names of trees.^ Some of these, however, are 
certainly not trees native of the country now inhabited by the 
Mundas, and the names are usually considered Hindi ; suoh 
for instance as Gua (Areca Nut), while others though r.ative 
are under Sindi names, such as aura which is miral in 
Mundari, 'and arnba which is translated as mango, though the 
wild m&ngo is always knowir as UU. 

Oraon names are still a great desideratum' and of the few 
mentioned most have been gleaned from Mr. Gamble's works. 



1 See ■Riflloy'B TVibee and Castes of Ben^jal. 

) The writer, nnfortunately, loat the notes of Or»on nunes coUeoied 
for the trees of the Horb»p forest. 

38 



VERNACULAR NAMES. 

Tradition say ^ that the original home of the Oraons was in 
the Carnatic, whence they went up the Narbadda and settled 
in Behar on the banks of the Sone. Driven from Shahabad, 
the tribe spHfc ap into two divisions. One followed the 
Ganges and settled in the Rajmehal Hills, where their 
descendants are now known as Ma-le ; while the others 
ascended the bone into Palamau and turning eastwards alo^g 
the Koel, took possession of the north-west portion of the 
Ohota Nagpur plateau.^ Some Oraon have a resemblance 
to the Kol names, possibly through long association, thug 
madgi in Oraon is the madkum of the Kols. Bara (Ficua 
bengalensis) and Bhelua (Semecarpus) are evidently the 
Hindi, but the former is also Bari in Munda so that the 
real origin of this word ia doubtful. Other names such as 
Kirs Khochol= Pig's bones (quoted by Father Dohon) are 
among that class of descriptive names, which often appears 
to be applied by races to trees that they meet with in a new 
country, or when asked for the name of a tree which they do 
not know. It would be interesting were some residents 
among the Oraons to collect their names of the trees before 
they are finally lost. The Singbhum Oraons are i^sually 
singularly ignorant of them. The Oraons, often tattoo them- 
selves, and this is done with charcoal dust, mixed with 
Mohwa juice, and applied with the thorns of Flacourtia 
Ramontchi ' (called Kandeh in Malto, perhaps the Khochdl 
of the Oraons). Like other aboriginal tribes, they have a 
number of more picturesque and poetical customs, some of 
them in common with the Kols, such as the feast of Sarkulf 
or of the Flowering of the Sal Tree. 

Hazaribas^h. — In Hazaribagh the Hindus and semi* 
Hindnized tribes are predominant, and the names of the trees 



^ Eev. P. Dehon, S.J., in Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
Vol. I, 9. 

' B. B. BainbriQge in Memoirs of the Asiatic Sooiety of Bengal, 
Vol. II, 4. 

' Bialey in Tribes and CasteB of Bengal. 

a9 



VERNACULAR NAMES, 

given are usually Hindi. In the Koderma forest (where, 
however, there is a very mixed population working in the 
mica mines) the names are often peculiar, and the word 
Kodeima after a vernacular name has been used in place of 
specifying the language. Of the Hinduized alborigines in 
Hazaribagh the Bhuiyas are the most numerous of non- 
Hinduized tribes, the Santals 

Palamau. — Palamau was originally included with Ranchi 
in the Lohardagga District, which had in 1881 53'4 per cent, 
of aboriginal races. It is now a separate district and the 
most numerous castes are the Bhuiyas, the Goahis and the 
Kharwjtrs. There are, however, also a considerable number 
of Oraons. The Kharwars are aborigines whose original 
language is apparently entirely lost, but the mongrel Hindi 
dialect spoken in Palamau often contains names of trees die 
tinct from the ordinary Hindi, and is referred to as Eharwar 
A few of the Kharwari names quoted were collected by the 
writer, but the bulk were collected by Mr. Haslett of the 
Forest Department. 

Santal Parffanahs. — The Santals form over 36 per cent, 
of the total population of the district. In the Eamgarh Hills, 
which are south of the Brahmini River but are often 
included collectively in the term Rajmehal Hills, dwell the 
Dra vidian tribe known as the Mai Paharias who speak a 
dialect of Bengali. The few Mai Paharia names quoted have 
been obtained from Gamble's Manual of Indian Timbers. 
North of the Bansloi River, on the very summits of the Raj- 
mehal Hills, dwell the Dravidlan Saorias or Males (Mr. 
Bainbrid^e says that these are two distinct divisions), 
closely allied to the Oraons. and whose speech is known as 
Malto. Saoria names, as in the case of other Oraon names, 
are wanting, as the writer spent too short a time in the Saoria 
tract to render the collection of names of any value. Mr. 
Bainbridge says that *' the disappearance of the forest on the 
north of the Saoria Hills and the shrewd councils of business 
men 01 eated the important industry in Sabai grass. To the 

40 



VJERNACULAR JSaMES. 

native banker and middleman it has, in many cases, been 
profitable beyond the dreams of avarice ; to the Saoria it has, 
in the majority of cases, brought a temporary afflutnce wl)ich 
is the portal to wretchedness — abject poverty is no misnomer 
among the Saorias of to-day ."^ 

On this policy of permitting pushing races to indefinitely 
extend their cultivation at the expense of the forest tracts, 
Mr. BalP says that the jungles may be regarded as the 
saving of the lower races from famine, and did thev not 
aftord nutritious food in abundance, the result of a famine 
like that of 1866-67 would probably be not merely decimation, 
but utter depopulation throughout extensive areas. 

Tributary States. — The table above (p. 35) includes 
all the tributary states of Chota Nagpur-as they stood at the 
time of the census of 1901. It has to be recollected, how- 
ever, that politically most of these have since been excluded 
from Chota Nagpur. Their population varies much, and in 
Udaipur is only 43 persons to the square mile, in Sirgaja 
there were 54 persons in 1891 and 58 in 1901, Gangpur had 
76 and 95 respectively, while Kharswan has 252 persons to 
the square mile. The last as well as Seraikhela are practi- 
cally in Singbhum, and include a very large percentage of 
Hos. In Gangpur the Oraons, Gonds and the Kolarian 
Kharias are the most nuraerousi. Where Gangpur is shown 
after a plant name, this name is usually Kheria.^ The 
Kharias are also frequent in Ranchi and Singbhum, and are 
said to frequent the Dalma rauge in Manbhum. The Kerwaa 
are said * to be the sole inhabitants of the tableland forming 
the south barrier of Sirguja (or Sarguja) called the Main pat, 
but their plant names are not available and, taking the state 



V Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengral, Vol. II, 4. 
2 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. II, 1867. 
^ The caste name was not always specified in the field notes, henoe 
the locality only is stated. 

< HuntpiT. in Imperial Gazetteer. 

41 



THE MAP. 

»fl a wfcol«, Gonds are the moat numeroas tribe, while in 
Jasbpur the Oraons occupy this position. 

THE MAP. 

This hag been compiled in the Forest Survey Office^ 
chiefly from the topographical map of Bengal (Scale 16 
miles to 1 ioch) and the forest survey maps of the reserved 
and protected forests of Chota Nagpur. Reserved foiests 
are shown in green, protected forests in deep red, and other 
forest tracts in li^ht red. The distribntion of the last has 
been taken from the excellent small map published with the 
Report on Forest Administration ic the Cliota Nagpar 
Division by Dr. W. Schlich (1885), and are only approximate. 
The Santal Parganahs were not inciudtd in that report, and 
the general light colouration of so mnch of the eastern poitions 
of that district is an error. It should be remembered that 
many of the tributary estates now shown in the east of the 
Central Provinces were formerly in Chota Nagpur (see 
p. 1), and though they contain much forest this could not be 
depicted for w^nt of precise infor»Tiation. The map is primarily 
intended to display the physical features of the area dealt 
"With in the Flora, and to mark the position of the lociilities 
referred to. There are, however, some omissions owing to the 
impossibility of accurately fixmg a number of these. Names 
piinted thus leda are the names of Forest Blocks. 

The following names mentioaed in the Introduction are 
omitted from the Map : — 

Baragori or Baragai Hill. — On the Ranchi-Hazaribagh 
border, south of Ramgarh, on the Damodar ghats. 

Khuria plateau. — In northern Jashpur. 



' By Mr. A. Descubes, Superintendent of Forest Map Records, 
■3v \eT the supervision of Mr. T. A. Pope, Sup^riuteud^nt of Forest 
buryeya. 



42 



CLASSIFICATION. 

Main pat or Mani pat. — In southern Sargaja, extending to 

Udaipur. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

It is not possible to enter into naucli detail witli regard 
to tte reasons for the system of classiBcation adopted. The 
two chief systems in use at the present day are those of 
Bentham and Hooker adopted in the Genera Pla'ntarnm, 
and the German system of Endlicher adopted more or lesB 
closely by Engler in die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien.^ by 
Strasburger, Warming, and other European botanists. , It is 
now generally recognized that the apetalous class as consti- 
tuted in the first classification is unnatural as, of course, is 
the position assigned to the Gymnosperms in that classifica- 
tion.'^ On the other hand recent lesearches, especially ip 
Fossil Botany, appear to show that the supposed phylogenetip 
arrangement (as far as a linear system can be phylogenetic) 
of the German system is probably still far from being a 
correct one. As there is for the moment no work yet 
complete ^ which embodies the most recent vieWs on 
phylogeny, it has been rather difi^cult to decide on the 
correct line to adopt. Engler, believing that the apparent 
simplicity of the flowers of such families as the Willows 
and Peppers to be primitive, comparing them with those 
of the Comfeia3, which he believed to be somewliere " near 
the main line of descent of the Angiosperms, commences the 
linear arrangement of the Dicotyledons with tbose orders 
(after having previously disposed of the Casuarinaceaa on 
-the ground of its numerous embryo sacs *). But it is 
now more tlmn ever doubtful whether the simplicity of the 

i Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Nachtrage, p. 341 et seq. 

' Vide Genera Plantarum, Vol. Ill, Pt, I, p. vii, and Introdnotion to 
The Students' Flora of the British Islands, p. xi. 

'Dr. Rendle's classification of Flowering Plants is not completej Or 
this might have been adopted in its entirety. 

< A character which has since been shown not to possess the eignifoanoe 
attached to it. 

43 



CLASSIFICATION. 

flowers in tlie above and similar cased is not a derived 
ch&racter, anch flowers being due to suppression of parts 
present in more complex ancestors. It is also pointed out 
that these apparently simple flowers are nsunliy comHined 
into very complex inflorescences. In demonstration of the 
fact that some very primitive flowers were exceedingly 
complex, may be quoted Scott's very fascinating account^ 
of the flowers of the extinct Bennettiteae, which were 
probably much nearer the direct line of descent of the 
Angiosperms than the ConifersB. " The centre is occupied 
by the gynsacium, seated on the convex receptacle, and 
consisting of numerous long- stalked ovules, imbedded among 
the interseminal scales. Surrounding this central body is 
the hypogynous whorl of stamens, fused below to form a 
tube, and expanding above into the pinnate sporophylls, 
bearing very numerous compound pollen-sacs or synangia, 
filled with pollen. The whole is surrounded by an envelope 
of spirally arranged bracts springing from the upper part of 
■ the peduncle. The general arrangement of parts is manifestly 
just the same as in a typical angiospermous flower, with a 
central pistil, hypogynous stamens, and a perianth. The re- 
semblance is still further emphasised by the fact, long known, 
that the interseminal scales are confluent ar their outer ends, 
to form a kind of pericarp or ovary-wall. When to these 
jreneral features we add the practically exalbumiaous charac- 
ter of the seed, with its highly organised, dicotyledonous 
embryo, the indications of affinity with the higher Flowering 
Plants become extremely significant. The comparison was 
drawn by Dr. Wieland in 1901, immediately on his discovery of 
the hermaphrodite flower.***The flower with its great stamens, 
10 cm. long in some species, must have been a striking object 
when it opened. As, of course, we can know nothing of the 
colouration of the perianth and other parts, we cannot tell how 
brilliant its appearance may have been ; the bright tints of 



> Presidential Address to the Royal Micro. Society, published in the 
Journal Boy. Micro. Soo., April 1907, p. 139. 



44 



CLASSIFICATION. 

the carpels and ovules in some recent Oycads, such as 
species of Cycas and Eacephalartos, suggests the probability 
that the attraction of colour were not wanting to the more 
elaborate flowers of the older Cycadophyta." The eztraordi- 
narily strikirg analogy which is presented between the Bennet- 
titean flower and that of some of the Ranales leads to the 
conclusion that the earlier Angiosperms are not those with 
minute unisexual flowers, but some of those with large 
complex flowers and numerous sporophylls. To apfain quote 
from Dr. Scott : — ^ ** The complexity of this earliest known 
type of a true flower indicates the probability, as Dr. Wieland 
points out, that the evolution of the AngiospermouB flower 
was a process of reduction. " 

Again, in a most interesting paper ^ on the origin of 
Angiosperms by Messrs. Newell Arber and John Parkin, the 
Piperales, Amentif erse, Araceas and other orders with very 
simple flowers are regarded as derived from phyla with more 
complicated ones, while Nymphaeaceaa, Magnoliaceaa, and 
other polycarpic89 among Dicotyledons, Alismaceaa, Buto- 
macese, and Palmaceoe among Monocotyledons are taken as 
exhibiting many primitive features. But even if it be now 
a plausible theory that the Angiosperms sprung from seed- 
bearing plants, which had already large and well-developed 
flowers, and if it be conceded that on the whole the Ranales 
show most primitive characters, paleobotany still throws no 
direct light on the relative age of the several other Angios- 
permous groups. The appearance of the most widely separated 
groups is said to be sudden and simultaneous, and what are 
universally believed to be younger groups occur in the same 
beds with what are believed to be primitive. Even Gamo- 
petalae, and actually the Caprifoiaceag (Viburnum) are, if 
leaf diagnosis can be relied upon, found as far back as the 
Cretaceous period.* No light is thrown, even, on the relative 

1 JournaliEoy. Micro. Soc., April 1907, p. 141. 
' Journal of the Linnean Society, XXXVIII, p. 263. 
' Vide Laurent in Lea Progr^a de la Palo^botanique angioBpermiqn* 
dans la derui^re decade (Frogressas Bel Botanicse, Vol. I, pp. 360-361) 

45 



CLASSIFICATION. 

a^es of Monocotyledon^ and Dicotyledons. Rendle in his 

Classification of Flowering Plants begins with t}\e CycadG, 
Coniferae, and GneU.ceso, and follows with the Monocoty- 
ledons: The order of the two last groups adopted here is 
that of the Genera PLmtamm, the Dicotyledonous phylnm 
being considered on the whole as more ancient than that 
of the Monocotyledons, ^ which are probably a side branch of 
the main Angiosper.Tiic trunk. The arrangement adopted in 
this flora, then, is Eerns, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledoas, Mono- 
cotyledons. . The division of the Dicotyledons has been baaed 
on the German system in respect to the two great divisions 
of Choripetalas and Sympetaiae, and in the distribution of the 
Apetal89 among the former ; but for reasons indicated above 
the Choripetalaa start with the Ranales as in the Genera Plaii- 
tarum. To those already acquainted with Bentham and 
Hooker's system, this arrangement will present little difficulty ; 
most of theni will already be fatailiar with the German 
gystem from their botanical studies, or from having used a 
German flora in the field. To those unfamiliar with systematic 
botany, it is believed that the abolition of the Apetaloas 
class, as usaally constituted, will be the removal of a stumbling 
block, and save such often-repeated queries as to the reason 
of Jatropha, etc., being included in the Apetalae and not 
Casearia, etc., etc. They v^ill, however, understand that in 
no linear arrangement is it possible to commence with the 
most primitive forms nor, while keeping obviously allied 
forms and groups together, to steadily proceed from the older 
and primitive to the younger and more highly evolved. 
Some groups may show, on the one hand, old and primitive 
types simultaneously with obviously allied but highly 

1 It will be pecollocted that the MonocotyledouB show several points 
of resemblance with some of the Polycarpicae or Ranales, and that Van 
Tioghem placed the Nymphsaiceffl between the Mouocosyledons and the 
Dicotyledons. Benettites had two cotyledons, and several Dicotyledon* 
CHBoasioaally exhibit more than two, as is com.mon among the Uyrnnos* 
*Wrm8. 



46 



CLASSIFICATION. 

epecialised or rednced forms. Sometimes a whole gronp of 
families may be allied to a single family in another group, 
yet it would be ijnpossible in a linear arrangement to show 
this by the mere order of the families. As might be sup- 
posed, it is often the families at the hases of the several 
larger branches which show close affinities to the main trunk 
and hence to one another, but these could not be placed next 
to one another without at the same time severing the twi^s 
from the branches. 

These difficulties have been partly obviated by indicating 
supposed cross alliances of families or larger groups in 
brackets aftet* the name of the younger or both grou}is, where 
one has had to be placed at a distance from its supposed 
relative. 

DESCRIPTION OF CLASSES. 

The vegetable kingrdom may be divided into five main 
divisions, viz.^ Mycetozoa, Thallophyta, Eryophyta, Pterido- 
phyta (those tw) sometimes united as the ArchegoniRta), and 
Phanerogamia. Included in the large division of Thallo- 
phyta are the fungi, a group of importance to the forester, 
but not sufficient is known of the Chota Nagpur fungi to 
include them in this flora, which is limited to a few of the 
largest Pteridophyta, and to the Phanerogamia, or Flowering 
Plants. 

Division— PTERIDOPHYTA. 

CLAss—Filicinae (Ferns). 

Stems rafrely much branched, roots arising from them in 
acropetal succession (or from the petioles).. Leaves well 
developed and of large size in proportion to the stem, oftea- 
•very compound, rolled inwards (circinate) when young. 
Spores of one kind only (isosporous) , which produce 
monoecious independent green prothallia, they (the sporesj 
are formed in small roundish capsules (sporangia), which are 

47 



CLASSIFICATION, 

produced in large numbers on the back or margin of leaves 
(fertile fronds, sporophylls) and are nsanlly collected 
tooetner in small groups (sori). Fertile fronds either 
altogether resemble the barren ones or are specially modified. 
The prothallia when fully developed produce archegonia 
and autheridia. 



Order I. Filicales. (p. 54) Order II. lllarattiales. (p. 56). 



DivisiON—PHAIVEROG AMI 4. 

This division includes practically all the trees and shrubs 
of the present time. Spores of two kinds (heteiosporous). 
Male sp'n'eK (microspore, pollen-grain) borne on specially 
modified sporophylls (stamens) in sporangia (pollen-sacs). 
The female spore (macrospore, embryo-sac) cever quits the 
macmsporangium (nucellus), which becomes invested by one 
or more envelopes (integuments) derived from the parent 
plant, and with them constitutes the ovule. The prothallium 
(if formed I develops entirely within the mncrospore, and the 
fertilized bo^phere forms an embryo inside the ovule, which 
after further changes consequent on fertilization becomes 
the seed. The microspore on germination gives rise to the 
pollen tube. Sub-divisions. — Gymnospermse, Angiospermifi. 



Sub-division I.— Gymnospermae. 

Trees or shrubs (including snch well-known trees as 
the pines, yew, etc.), very rarely scandent. Fls. 1 -sexual 
often cone-like. Female sporophyll (carpel) bearing the 
ovules on its margin or surface, never infolded or coheriuy hy 
ihe edjes with other carpels to form a closed ovary {N.B. the 
ovulee may be concealed from view after fertilization by the 
overlapping of the carpels). Pollen grains borne by the wind 
direct to the exposed micropyle of the ovule, Frothallmin 

48 



CLASSIFICATION. 

(endosperm, albumen) of the macrospore formed before fert'di- 
zation and producing rudimentary archegonia near the 
micropyle. Classes (I). — Cycadineas (Cycada or Fern -palms) 
p. 56 ; (II). — ConifersD (Pines, Cypress, etc.) p. 57; (III;. — 
Gnetine89 (Shrubs, sometimes scandent) p. 57."" 

Sub-division IL— An^iospermae. 

Plants of very various habit (including all the wild trees 
^nd shrubs of Chota Nagpur except one). Fls. l-2sexual 
usually famished with a perianth. Carpels infolded bo that 
the edges unite, or several carpels in one wborl united to one 
another, in both cases to form a one- or onore-celled closed 
chamber or ovary. Ovules enclosed in the ovary, so that the 
pollen grains are unable to directly come in contact with the 
ovule, and fertilization is effected by the pollen tubes growing 
through a special conducting tissue of the carpel, which is 
often prolonged into a style bearing the stigma^ or organ for 
the reception of the pollen grains, (the styles of the several 
carpels may be free or connate, or absent ; if absent the stigma 
is sessile). Macrospore (embryo-sac) before fertilization 
contains nuclei but no distinct prothallial tissue or archegonia. 
An endosperm is formed after fertilization. Classes (I). — 
Dicotyledoneae (contains most trees and shrubs) ; (II). — Mono- 
cotyledoneae (contains the Palms, Bamboos, etc.) (p. 53). 

Class I.— Dicotyleledone* or Dicotyledons (p. 67). 

Planta of which the embryo has two seed-leaves or 
cotyledons. These often expand as the first green leaves of 
the plant, as in the mustard, bean, castor-oil, Grewia, Gmelina, 
etc., or they may remain in the seed and are then usually 
very thick and fleshy, e.g., the Mohwa tree (Bassia). Rarely 
there are three cotyledons, e.g., sometimes in Terminalia 
Arjuna. 

The dicotyledons comprise the great majority of flowering plants, and 
practically all our forest trees. They ufivrUly have the venation of the 
loaf reticulate or much branched. Externally the arborescent for ma are 

49 



cla:ssification. 

easily diBtingujahed from the arboreotis monocotyledons by ttie relatiTely 
copious branching of the Btem. Anatomically the stem is generally well 
distinguished from the woody tissue uniting outside the pith into a solid 
cylinder enclosed by a distinct cylinder of bark. In between the two is a 
very thin tissue (the cambium i which continually adds moce wood to the 
cylinder. The flowers when not reduced usually have their several parts 
(calyx, petals, etc.) in a's, 4's or 5'b, but S's are common among the 
Banales, and iii a few other families. 

Some leaves with palmate venation have the primary nerves more or 
less parallel and the secondary nerves more or less at right angles to 
these, e.g., some Zizyphus, some Grewia, some Laurels, etc. The 
absence of a sheathing base to the petiole and th6 tertiary venation is 
however distinctive in these cases. 



Sub-class I — Choripetalffl (Dialypetalas or Polypetalro) 
(p. 57). 

Perianth leaves, when present, free from one another (not 
appearing as lobes of a tube), or only those of the calyx united. 
Stamens free from the corolla (see exceptions below) often 
m;iny. Carpels rarely two, often one or more than two, free 
or united. Ovules usually with 2 integuments and a large 
nucellifjbs. 

The perianth in the Choripetalse is very various. It may 
be of many spirally arranged leaves (cp. water-lily) t.6., 
acyclic, or cyclic with 1, 2, or more whores, one or more of 
w hich may be petaloid. In many «a«e^ the perianth is much 
reduced," e.gr., Urticaceae, or obsolete, e.g., Piper, Salix. 
White or brilliantly coloured bracts sometimes replace it 
functionally but usually surround an inflorescence pot a flower, 
e.g.., Houttynia, Poinsettia. A gamophy lions perianth is not 
to be confused with a growth of a zone of the torus or recep- 
tacle around and above the ovary, termed a hypanthium, and 
•-.n which may be placed sepals, petals and stamens (cp. a 
Kose, Pomegranate, or Woodfordia), 

J^xceptions : — 

Petals sometimes united at their base or to the sta,minal tube in Mal- 
vaceae, MeliaoesB, Ternstce miaceas, Polygala, aud Leea. (Corolla gamo- 
petalouB in the male flower only of some Fapayacese, in both sexes in many 

50 



I 



CLASSIFICATION. 

Cufmrli/itaceaQ (the correct position of which is douhtful) and in many 
Mimofcaceaa (where it is very small). 

"Where there is only one perianth whorl, this may be coroUoid 
(petaloid) and gamophyllous, e.g., Mirabilis, Borgainvillea, Loranthus, etc. 

Carpels only two m Cruciferae, Umbelliferas, Moraceae, Ulmaceae, 
PolygalacesB, and in certain genera or species of Ampelidaceae, Euphov- 
biaceae, Capparidaceae, Bnrseracese, Amarantaceae, Onagxaceae, Myrtaceae, 
Lythraceao, Tiliaceaa and a few others in which the carpels may be 2-3 
in the same species. 

Series A (includes ThalamifloraB, Disciflorse, some ApetaloB 

and a few others of the Genera Plantarum) (p. 57). 

Perianth usually present 2- or more-seriate, of both calyx 

and corolla (heterochlamydeous) or acyclic with the sepals 

passing into petals. Sep., pet., and stafnens all bypogynous. 

Orders I to VIII 

Exceptions : — 

Perianth haplochlamydeons, or homochlamydeous and sepaliid in 
Lanraceaa. many Euphorbiaceaj, some Menispermaceae ; homochlamydeous 
and petaloid in Moringa and a few others ; wanting in a few Euphor- 
biaceae 

Petals are absent in some Ranunculaceae, some Lauraceae, some 
Sterculiaceae, many Euphorbiaceae, some Samydaceae and Bixaceas. 

The flower is somewhat perigynous in some Capparidacese, Lauraceae, 
Rhamnaceae and other Celastrales, some Samydaceae and Passifloracaas. 
It is epigynouB in some Rhamnaceae and in Cucurbitaceae. 

Series B (includes mp3t Calyciflorge and a few Apetalse 
of the Genera Plantarum). Perianth present 2 -seriate 
heterochlamydeous and perigynous or epigynous (vide also 
exceptions under A). Orders IX to XV. (p. 71). 

Exceptions : — 

Perianth homo-hlamydeons and sepaloid in Visenm, haplochlamydeons 
in Santalaceae and perhip.s in Loranthus. 

Sepals very small or obsolete in some UmbelUes, Clacales and Santtf- 
lales (?) 

Petals in some CaesalpiniaceaB, Combretaceae, Lytliraceae, and 
perhaps in Lorar.thacae. 

Fls. hypogynous in some Olacales, and nearly so in some Leguninoaai 
and Rusaceaj. 

Series C (includes the remaining Mor.ochlamydeu3 and 
Achlamydeea of the Genera Plantarum. 



CLASSIFICATION. 

Perianth absent, or if present haploohlamydeous and 
jepaloid. Perianth leaves free or more or less connate, hypo- 
gynoas or perigjuous (vide also exceptions under A and B). 
Orders XVI to XXI. (p. 77.) 

Exceptions :-— 
Pis. heterochlamydeous in some CaryophyllaceaB (see p, 77). 

Perianth petaloid in some Portalacaceae, Nyctaginaceas, Polygonaceae 
and Proteaceae, coloured but dry in some Amarantacege. 

Sub-class 2.— Sympetalae (or Gamopetalae) (p. 82). 

Perianth leaves always cyclic, and in two whorls, viz., calyx 
and corolla. Calyx 'persistent and often enlarged in fruit. 
Sepals usually 5 or 4 gamosepalous. Corolla- gamopetalous 
(see also some gamopetalous exceptions in Chori petal as), 
the corolla-tube with an entire or 2-lipped or 4-5-lobed or 
-toothed limb. Stamens usually adnate to the corolla, and often 
apf earing inserted on it (if the corolla tube is a petaloid zone 
of the torus, the stamens are actually inserted on it), usually 
4 or 5 or by reduction 2. Carpels usually 2 median. Ovules 
with one thick integument and a very small nucellns. 

Excerptions :— 

The families at the bottom of this sub-class show many exceptions 
thus : — The petals are very slightly coherent in some Myrsinacesa (or even 
free in Embelia spp). Oleaceae and Plumbaginaceae. 

Calyx annular or of 8-12 small teeth in Thunbergia. 

Sep. and Petals more than 5 in some Ebenales, Jasminum (Oleales), 
Cordia and Symphorema. 

Stamens free from the tube in Plumbago. 

Stamens numerous and carpels several in many Ebenales. Carpels 4-8 
in some Primulalea. 

Oviles with two integuments occur especially among Primulalea and 
Sbonales. 

A. Pentacyclic89, or less specialized sympetalaa. 

Floral whorls normally 5, i.e., two whorls of stjamens are- 



52 



CLASSIFICATION. 

present, but Primulales has one whorl rudimentary oi o,.,^^^l, 
or stamens are numerous ; if only one whorl of St. preseat 
then ovary of 5 carpels and 1 -celled. Flowers always regular. 
Corolla tube often very short and stamens sometimes sub- 
hypogynous. Ovary superior (exc. some Styracese) of 
more than 2 carpels (rarely 2 in some Ebenales). Orders I 
and II. (p. 82). 

B. Tetracyclicee or Bicarpellatsa. 

Floral whorls only 4 i.e., stamens in one whorl only 
very often reduced to 4 or 2, never numerous. Carpels most 
usually 2 only, forming a 2-1-celledovary. Fls. often irregu- 
lar. Calyx as well as corolla often tubular. 

Exceptions : — 

Corolla-tube hardly any in some Oleales and some Boraginacefe. 

Ovary 2-many-locular in a few RubiaceaB, 2-4-locular in a fe^v Convol- 
valaceae, often spuriously •tlocular in Boraginaceae and Labiatje, Datura 
and Pedaliaceae. 

1. Ovary superior Orders III to VTI. (superae, p. S3). 

2. Ovary inferior Orders VIII and IX. (inferae, p. 88). 

Class II.— Monocotyledoneae or Monocotyleaoiis. 

Plants of which the embryo iias only one cotyledon or seed- 
leaf, wbich may become free from the seed and forms the 
first green leaf, e.g.. Agave, or remains with its tip entirely or 
almost entirely enclosed in the seed from which it absorbs the 
albumen, e.gr., Dioscorea, Palms, the Grasses, etc. Sheathing 
bases to the leaves are very characteristic of Monocotyledons, 
even the cotyledon has a sheathing base which usually wraps 
round the young plumule. Sheathing bases are, however, 
found in some Dicotyledons, especially in the Ranales, 
Rosacea^, Umbellales. 

The monocotyledons are usually herbs, very sparsely branched. There 
are several exceptions : thus Asparagus is often copiously branched, and 
Smilax contains branched woody climbers. The root or perennial stem 
often develops into an underground tuber, or bulb or rhizome. The leaves 
usually have several more or less parallel primary nerves, and tho 
secondary nerves, if any, are mostly at right angles to them ; in many 

53 



CLASSIFICATION, 

Mnaaceag, Tioweyer, there is a strong mid-rib with nnmerons parallel sec. 
nerves, while some Araceae and Dioscoreacese and a few others have 
the venation copiously branched. Araceae have usually sagittate or 
peltate leaves, while Bioscoreaceje are climbers with underground 
tubers. In the few Monocotyledonous trees the stem is cylindrical and 
unbranched, e.g.. Toddy Palm ; the woody bundles are scattered through 
the ground tissue of the stem which has no cambium, and therefore no 
secondary growth (some of the arborescent Liliaceae and others are 
exceptions and have a secondary growth in thickness). The parte 
of the flower, when not reduced, are usually in threes. The inflorescence 
is very often enclosed, at least at the base, by a sheathing leaf base or 
spathe. 

Sub-class 1. 

Flowers usually sliowy, regular or zygomorphic, if small 
or homochlamydeous then perianth petaloid or ovary inferior. 
Perianth always present 2-seriate. Ovary always syncarpoas 
superior or inferior. Orders I to IV. (p. 89). 

Sub-class 2. 

Els. small. Perianth, if present, regular or somewhat 
oblique sepaloid or dry or fleshy, 2-seriate in the earlier 
orders, with the inner series somtimes differing in size from 
the outer, but not petaloid, reduced or absent in others. Fls. 
usually .densely collected into spikes or very compound 
inflorescences. Stamens many-1. Ovary superior, some- 
times apocarpous. Orders V and VI. (p. 92). 

SYNOPSIS OF ORDERS AND FAMILIES.^ 
Division— PTERIDOPIIYTA. 

Class— -Filicineae (Ferns). 
Order I — FHicales. 

Stems rarely branched. X, without stipules, usually 
clothed at the base with chaffy scales. Sporangia either 

1 The diagnoses of Orders and families are, in general, limited to 
genera included in the Flora. The diagnosis is sometimes extended 
howeviir, whore such limitation would ver ^ poorly characterise the group 
concerned, and in order to e^nbrace plants not included in the Flora, b:it 
found wild or cultivated in Chota Nagpur. Exceptions .-tre similarly 
limited. Characterg in italics are those which chiefly distinguish the 
group from allied groups. 

u 



CLASSIFICATION. 

ago;regated into small groups (sori) situated on the 
veius at the back or margin of the frond ; more rarely the 
sporangia are scattered over the whole of the lower surface. 
Wall of the sporangia of one layer of cells and furnished with 
an annulus (see glossary) which usually ruptures the wall by 
its straightening.^ 

1. The Tree-fern Family. 

Stem erect, often tall with a terminal crown of very large 
leaves, Sori round on a more or less convex hairy receptacle. 
Sporangia sessile or stalked, obovoid, with a complete nearly 
vertical annulua. Indusium 1, CyatheaceSB (p. 129), 

2. The Common Fern Family. 

Stem usually rhizomatous. Leaves in a terminal crown 
or scattered. Barren and feitile fronds sometimes dissimilar. 
Sori or sporangia naked, or covered by the recurved leaf 
margin, or by a variously shaped indusium. Sporangia with 
a distinct pedicel, and with a vertical annulus, which is not 
quite complete on one side. 2, Polypodiace85 (p. 1'29). 

The Horned-fern Family. 

A marsh fern with heteromorphous leaves. Fertile fronds 
with very narrow segments, their margins revolute. Spor- 
angia sub-sessile, scattered dorsally on the nerves, not united 
into sori. Annulus vertical nearly complete of very numerous 
transversely elongated cells, or {in the same species) more or 
less obsolete, Indusium ParkcriaceSB. 

To this family belongs the very interesting fern Ceratop- 
teris thalictroides, Brogn., frequent in wet places. 

3. The Forked-fern Family. 

Ferns with a creeping rhizome and scattered dichoto' 
mously -branching stem-like fronds with, unlimited growth. 

^ Microscopical characters are omitted as far as possible : the 
annnluB can usually be seeu with a good light aod a pocket lena magni- 
fying 10 diameters. 

56 



CLASSIFICATION. 

Sori terminal or on the back or fork of tlie veins, coneisting 
of few sessile or sub-sessile sporangia with a transverse or 
oblique annulus and vertical dehiscence. Indusium 0. 

3. GleicheniacesB (p. 135). 

4. The Climbing-fern Family. (Tribe LygodiesB.) 

Ferns with unlimited apical growth to their leaf rachis, 
which is solitary and resembles a twining stem, on which the 
primary pinnas resemble leaves or branchlets. Sporangia 
large borne dorsally on special spike-like lobes of the fertile 
pinnae ; each on a vein with an involucre-like indusium. 
Indusia imbricate. Annnlns small apical. 

4, Schizaeaceae (p. 136). 
Order II— Marat tiales. 

5, The*Angiopteris Family. 

Large ferns with a very short stont nnbranched stem. 
L, with a stipular sheath at the base of the swollen petiole. 
Pinnae articulate. Sporangia sessile closely collected in two 
ranks into sori on the under-surface near the margin of the 
unmodified fertile frond. Wall of sporangia of several cellft 
thick opening by a fissure without an evident annulus., 

6e Marattiaceae (p. l^X). 

Division-- PHANEROGAMIA. 

Sub-division I.— Gymnospermae. 
Class I.~Cycadineae. 
1. The Cycad or Palm-fern Family. 

Trunk short. L. large pinnate coriaceous. Male flowers 
in cones. Fern, sporophylls or carpels laxly imbricate on 
■ the main axis, carpels pinnatifid. 1. CycadaCCa; (p* 1'^')- 

56 



CLA SSIFICA TION. 

Class IL— Cohiferae. 
1. The Pine Family. 

Trunk attaining large dimensions copiously branched. 
Leaves scale-like or acicular. Fern, flowei-s, as well as the 
males in cones. 1, PinaceSB (p. 138). 

Class III.— Gnetinee. 
1. The Gnetum Family. 

A large climbing shrub with thickened nodes and nni- 
seiual fiiinate flowers arranged in panicled annulate spikes. 
Fls. with a sheath resembling a " udimentary perianth 

Ovules erect. 1, Giietaceae ^T>. 138). 

SuB-DiYisioN II. — AnsciFospermae. (p. 49). 

Class I.—Dicotyledoiis. (p. 49). 

Sub-Class I.— Choripetalae. (p. 50). 

Series A {vide p. 51), 
Order I.— Ranales or Polycarpicae. 

Trees, shrubs, or nerbs, often scandent, with simple alter- 
nate exstipulate sometimes dotted leaves. Fls. regular and 
2-8exual, acyclic or hemicyclic, or if cyclic then the whorls 
B-merous. St. and carpels usually, and perianth leaves some- 
times, numerous. If stamens few then in 3-merou8 whorls. 
Carpels free, sometimes stalked in fruit. 

Exceptions : — 

L. opp. and compound in Clematis family, sub-opposite or opp. in a 
few Lauraceae. 

L. stipulate in MagnoliacesB. 

I Fls. dicEcions iu Menispermacese, l-sexual in a few Laurace*. 
Fls. 2-4rmerous in Cissampelos, sepals 6-10 ia Stephania. Perianth 
•ometimes 5-cle£t in Lauracess. 

57 



CLASSIFICATION. 

Carpels reduced to 1 in some Mcnispermaceas and BerberidacesB. 

Carpels 3 united into a 1-celled ov iry in Lauraceaa, Carpels counat« 
in Anona. 

I. Anthers opening by slits. Carpels 3, several, or many. 

1. Clematis Family. 

Woody climbers with opp. compound leaves. Fls. showy. 
Sepals petaloid (4-8) valvate. Petals 0-12. Fruiting carpels 
capitate with feathery sr-ules. 1. Ranunculacese^ (p. 139). 

2. Magnolia Family. 

Trees with the led,i-buds enclosed in convolute deciduous 
stipules^ which leave an annular scar. Flowers large soli- 
tary, sepals passing gradually into petals, in 3-merous whorls. 
Torus elongate in fruit, carpels spicate. 

2. MagnoliacesB (p. 141). 

3. Custard-apple Family. 

Trees, shrubs or woody climbers. L. sometimes dotted. 
Buds naked. Fls. small or medium, often sub-solitary. 
Perianth of three 3-merous whorls, tepals often fleshy or 
ccriaceous, one or more whorls petaloid or not. Fruiting 
carpels usually stalked and umbelled. Endosperm usually 
ruminate. 3. AnonaceaB (p. 142). 

4. The Moonseed Family- 
Slender, rarely woody climbers, with palmately^nerved 

sometimes peltate leaves. Fls. small or minute, in a many- 
flowered inflorescence. Perianth sepaloid, of several, usually 
4, trimerous whorls. Fruiting carpels 3-12, rarely 1, dru- 
paceous with usually a characteristic horse- shoe shaped 

endocarp, 4. MenispermacesB (p. 147). 

Exceptions : — 
M. of Cissampelos is 4-meroti8 witli connate petala. 
II. Anthers 2-4-locular, locnli opening by valves. Carpels 
1, or 3 united into a 1-celled ovary. 

> Tribe Clematidese only, which ia poorly charaoteristio of the 

Family. 

5ft 



CLASSIFICATION. 

5. Barberry Family. 

Shrubs often spiny. FIs.etosXI or medinm sized, yellow^ 
in racemes. Perianth of four 3-merons whorls. Carpel 1 
with a large sessile Bcutiform stigma. Ovules several hasal. 

5. Berberidaceae (p. 149). 

6. Laurel Family. 

Trees or shrubs (Cassytha is a filiform parasite) with 
aroniatic often dotted leaves. Fls. small greenish 07 
yellowish. Perianth perigynous normally of two Smeroas 
whorls (sometimes apparently 5 cleft). Stamens in three or 
fonr 3-merous whorls (one usually reduced to staminodes). 
Ovule 1. Frnit baccate or drupaceous, often surrounded 01 
girt' at the base by the enlarged hypanthium. 

6. Lauraceae (p. 150). 
Order II. — Parietales. 

Herbs, more rarely trees and shrnbs, sometimes scar>.«^ent 
L simple alternate. Fls. regular, 2-1-sexual, cyclic, with the 
whorls often S-merous or 4'merous. Sepals and petals free. 
Stamens usually many (due to branching), or isostemonous or 
diplostemonous (3-5 in CucurbitaceeB, tetradynamous in 
Cruciferas), free. Disc present or not. Ovary syncarpous, 
sometimes on a gynophore, of 2-3 or several carpels, l-celled 
with parietal placentation. 

Exceptions : — 

L. compormd in Moringaceaj, pahnately divided in some PaseifloracesD 
and Cncnrbitaceae. 

Fla. irregular in Muringaceae, and homochlatnydeons (sepals petaloid). 

Petals are absent in some Bixacaae and Simydaceae. 

Stamens sometimes connate in CucnrbitaceaB, sometimes Tjnited into a 
tuba below in Samydaceas. 

Ovary apparently 2-cell6d in Crnciferae by formation of a replum 
Ovary sometimes 2-4~celled by intrusion of the plaoent-E in Cjipparis, 2-8- 
ceUed in Flacourtia among Eiixiceae, sometimes apparently 3-celled im 
CuciLrbi taces. 



CLASSIFICATION. 

N,B. — The PassifiorinesB are often placed as a separate order (PaBsi- 
fi )rales) in the Calyciflorae (series B) and then include the Sauiydaceoe, 
but the latter come equally well under series A (Thalamiflorge). Paeai- 
flora again is not more perigynons than many Oapparidaceae, and 
PapayacesB show wonderful variety in the insertion of corolla and stamens 
in a single species, varying from hypogynous to perigynons in the occa- 
aionally hermaphrodite flowers of the Papaya. 

The a,ifinities of the Moringaceae and of the Cucurbitaceae ar<* very 
doubtful. 

I. Families witli polypetalons corolla and mostly superior 
ovary. 

7. The Poppy Family. 

Herbs with milky juice, d-petals, many stamens, and a 
1 -celled ovary of 2'many carpels of which the margins may 
project invrards as plates. 7. PapaveraceaB' (p. 155). 

8. The Cabbage Family. 

Herbs with 4 petals and tetradynamous Siemens, Ovary 
of 2 carpels, divided vertically by a repluni. 

8. Cruciferae (p. JSb). 

9. The Caper Family. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with 4 sepals, 4 petals and 4, or 
many stamens (4-8 in some herbs). A large disc sometimes 
present. Ovary often on a long gynophore. Ovules numerous 
on 2-4 parietal placentae. Fruit capsular or baccate. Seeds 
exalbuminous with curved or spiral embryo. 

9. Capparidaceae (p. 155). 

10. The Arnatto Family. 

Trees or shrubs with usually small (very large in Coch- 
lospermum) 5-4-merous, sometimes apetalous, flowers with 
numerous stamens. Disc often present. Ovary sessile IS- 
celled. Fr. capsular, baccate or drupaceous. Seed albumi- 
nous, of ten arillate, embryo straight, 10. Bixaceas (p- 157). 

JH,B. — The disc in Capparidaceae is usually adnaie to a short hypan- 
thium, and beara the petals, in Bixacete usually hypogynous and glandular. 

60 



CLASSIFICATION, 

11. The Casearia Family. 

Trees or shrubs with leaves sometimes punctulate and 
small deciduous stipules. Fls. small 3'7'merous, soraetimes 
apetalous, stamens isostemonous or diplostemonous. alternating 
with glands or staminodeSj and sometimes united at the 
base. Ovary 1 -celled. Fr. capsular, usually 3 (2-5-) 
valved. Seeds usually arillate. 11. Samydaceas (p. 160). 

12. The Tamarisk Family. 

Small trees or shrubs with scale-like leaves and small 
■white or pink flowers. Sep. and pet. each 5. St iso- or 
diplo-stemonous on the margin of a crenulate disc. Placentce 
at the base of the ovary. Seeds comose. (Perhaps allied to 

Salicacese.) 12. Tamaricacese (p- 162). 

II. Families with either perigynons or epigynous flowers 
(vide also Capparidaoeae and Samydaceae above) or gamopeta- 
lous corolla or both. Sub-order P assiflorinece. 

The Passion Flower Family. 

Climbers with palmate leaves. Fls. perigynous 5-merons 
Vfith 3 bract eoles and furnished with a corona. Ovary on a 
gynophore. Seed arillate. PassifloraceSB. 

Passiflora fcetida, L. with greenish flowers has run wild in 
Singbhum in a few places. The Family is not further dealt 
with. 

The Papaya Family. 

Carica Papaya, L, a small cultivated tree (native of 
Mexico) with milky juice and palmate leaves. The flowers are 
large and dioecious (but sometimes bi-sexual) with a 5-merous 
corolla which is gamopetalous in the male. PapayaceaB- 

13. The Gourd Family. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, climbing by means of tendrils, and 
usually with palminerved or palmately- lobed Itaves. FIb. 
small to very large white or yellow 5-merous. Sep . ana 
petals superior and hypanthium sometimes produced beyond 

61 



CLASSIFICATION. 

the ovary. St. 5 or apparently only 3, often connate or with 
bent or conduplicate connate anthers. Ovary inferior with 3 
(rarely 4-5) placentae which may meet in the a:^i8. (Miiller in 
" Nat. Pflanzenfamilien " considers the placentation axile.) 
Frait a berry, or a Pepo. ^3. Cucurbitaceae (p. 163). 

in. Flowers irregular. Leaves compound. 

14. The Horseradish Tree Family. 

A small cultivated tree with 2-3-pinnate leaves and 5- 
merous flowers vvith both perianth whorls pet-iloid. Fruit 
an elongate 3-valved capsule. 14. Moringaceae (p. 174;. 

Ofder III.— Guttiferales (Allied to Orders 1, II 
and VI). 

Trees or shrubs with alternate simple and ''..j,ally entire 
penniveined leaves. Fls. regular, 2-1 -sexual, cyclic, usually 
pentamerous (sep. and pet. sometimes 4-7). Disc 0. St. 
manyy often more or less connate (in bundles or a central 
mass) Ovary syncarpous with 3-5, or several carpels, and as 
many cells as carpels. Ovules axile. Fruit indehiscent or 
capsular, never coccous. Stellate hairs very rare. 

Exceptions : — 

Learea of Garcinia are opposite. DilleniaceaB has the carpels conoate in 
the axis but with free styles, it is closely allied to Ranales- 

Flowers of TernBtrcemiaceaa are sometimes acyclic as ia Ranales. 
Flowers of Guttiferae often have sepals in decasaate pairs as in many 
Parietales. 

N.B. - The order is with difBcuUy separated from Parietales when 
considering genera outside Chota Nagpur, both parietal and axile plaoen- 
tation may occur in HypericaoeaB and other families, due to different 
degrees of the marginal infolding of the carpels. 

15. The Dilleuia Family. 

Trees with large strongly nerved leaves, and sheathing 
petioles (as in many Eanales). Flowers large. Anthers 
opening by small slits or pores. Carpels 6^20 cohering in 
the axis. Fruit indehiscent, enclosed in the large fleshy 
accrescent calyx, 15. DilleniaceaB (p. 175), 

62 



CLASSIFICATIO:^. 

16. The Tea Familv. 

Trees or shrubs with usually evergreen exstipulate leares 
and small or showy, sometimes dicecious flowers. Outer 
stamens in bundles and connate with the bases of the petals 
(and petals sometimes cohering). Ovary 3-5 locular. Stylet 
free. Fruit capsular, often 1 -locular by abortion of the 

other loculi. 16. TernstroBmiaceaB (p. 177). 

17. The Gamboge Family. 

Trees with a yellow milky juice, evergreen rarely stipu- 
late, opposite entire leaves, with the secondary venation often 
of very numerous fine parallel sec. n, at nearly right angles 
to the mid-rib. Fls. small or i medium, often 1-sexual. 
Stamens often closely connate in bundles, or in a dense 
central mass. Ovary 4 12-celled. Style connate or stigma 
peltate. Fruit usually baccate. 

17. Guttiferaceae.Cp. 177). 

18. The Sal Family. 

Trees abounding in resin, with entire leaves and caducous 
stipules. Small or medium flowers panic led. Sepals 5 
connate below. St. usually a multiple of 5. Ovary 3-celled 
with 2 ovules in each cell, usually only 1 developing. Styles 
connate. Stigma a point. Fruit a nut, enclosed in the 
calyx, of which 3 or more sepals develop into linear wings. 

18. Dipterocarpaceae (p. 178). 

Order IV. — Mfalvales. (Allied to orders Parietales 
Guttiferales, and Geraniales.) 

Trees or shrubs, more rarely herbs, with alternate simple 
or palmately compound usually stipulate leaves with stellate 
hairs and palmate venation. Fls. regular, or zygomorphous 
in some Sterculiacese, usually 5-merou8. Bracteoles often 
present below the calyx as an epicalyx. Calyx gamosopalous 
valvate. Petals 5 sometimes adnate below to the staminal 

63 



CLASSIFICATION. 

tube. Stamens usually many^ often mono- or poly-adeliphous^ 
more rarely diplostemonous, or with one whorl suppressed or 
reduced to staminodes. Ovary of 2- many carpels with 
axile placentatioD, but ovary often showing a ^tendency to 
become apocarpous in fruit (each carpel then becoming a 
coccus, drupel, or follicle ") 

Exceptions : — 

Stellate hairs few or absent in some Corchorus, Bombax and very 
fow Hibiscus. Petals in Sterculia. Carpel only 1 in Waltheria. 

19. The Hibiscus Family. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with regular flowers. Calyx 
usually persistent and gamosepalous. Epicalyx usually 
present. St. many united into a tube, or (Tribe Bombacesa) 
more or less free and pentadelphous. Anthers ultimately 1- 
celled, cell often sinuous. Ovary of 5 (rarely 3) -many 
carpels, separating into cocci when ripe leaving a persistent 
columella, or fruit capsular. 19. Malvaceae (p 179). 

20. The Jute Family. 

Trees, shrubs or undershrubs rarely herbs with regular 
flowers. Calyx deciduous with free sepals. Epicalyx absent, 
St. many not united into a tube, more rarely 10 or 5. 
Anthers 2-locular. 20, TiliaccaB (p. 192), 

21. The Sterculia or Udal Family. 

Trees, shrubs and undershrubs with reg. or zygomorphous 
often polygamous flowers with persistent calyx gamosopalous, 
with or without epicalyx. Stamens usually ten (obdiploste- 
monous), with the alternate whorl often reduced to stami- 
nodes, sometimes numerous, rarely 5, monadelphous or united 
into a tube below. Anthers 2-locular (young 4-locular) and 
extrorse. Ovary usually 5-locular. Frait usually capsular, 
but carpels follicular in Sterculia. 

21. Sterculiaceae (p. 203), 

64 



CLASSIFICATION, 

Order V.— Euphorbiales (probably allied to Malvales 
and Geraniales). 

Habit very various. Juice often milky. Hairs some- 
times stellate. L. simple, sometimes palmate or basal-nerved 
alternate, usaally stipulate. Fls. I'sexual small or minute, 
often trimerous, sometimes much reduced, (even to a single 
pedicelled stamen or ovary in Euphorbia, in which case the 
flowers are always arranged in an involucrate inflorescence 
resembling single flowers, and this may be surrounded by 
brilliantly coloured bracts, as in the Poinsettia). Perianth 
•usually B-S-merous. dichlamydeous, monochlamydeons or ; 
inner whorl (petals) when present rarely conspicuous (e.g. 
Jatropha). Stamens numerous, or often only 3 or 5, fre- 
quently connate in a central column. Anthers usually 2- 
celled. Ovary of 3 carpels and S-locular, or sometimes 
carpels several. Ovules J or 2 in each cell, axile. Fruit 
often splitting into 2-valved cocci^ or pyrenes, or fruit capsular 
more rarely drupaceous with a 3-(l)-celled stone, or 
didynious. Embryo typically large and straight with flat 
foliaceous cotyledons (as in many Tiliaceae) and copious 
endosperm. 

22. The Croton and Castor-oil Family. 

22. Euphorbiaceae (p. 209). 

Exceptions : — 

L. 3-foliolate in Bischofia, opposite in Trewia. 

Stamens 1-3, in Tragia, which has stinging haira. 

St. 2-5 in. spp. of Antidesma, 2-3 in Sapium, Anthers cells Bome- 
times confluent in Phyllanthus and others, cells 3-4 in Macaranga. iTnit 
suh-baccate in Kirganelia, Flueg^a, Bischofia and others, but eren in 
these not truly so, as there is a thin endocarp which may be dehiscent, or 
the pericarp finally hardens. 

Ordbb VI, — Geraniales (allied to Gnttiferales through 

OchnaceaB.) 

Trees, shrubs or herbs frequently with resin passages or 
cecretory cells, with alt. or opp., simple or compound leaves 

65 B 



CLASSIFICATION. 

often gland' dotted and aromatic, Fls. regular, 2-sexual. Sep. 
3-5. Pet. nsually 4-5 exceeding the sepals. Stamens diplos- 
temonous (or obdiplostemonous), or second whorl of stami- 
aodes, free, or connate by the filaments into a tube. Disc 
conspicuous (exG, sub-order Gniinales), sornetimes tubular 
hypogjnons, between the stamens and ovary. Ovary of 3-5, 
rarely more (Ochnaceae) or 2 carpels, syyxarpous but ovary 
frequently lobed, and carpels sometimes nearly fres in fruit 
(coccous). Ovules 1-2 in each cell, usually pendulous, 

Exceptions • — 

Fls. 3-6-TnerouB in some Biir8eTaeea& and Meliacea*. Sep, and pet. 
often more than 6 in Ochnaceae, some Citrus and other Eutuoege, and 
stamens numerous in Ochnacese and some Rutaceaa. Stamens in the 
hermaphrcdito flower of Ailanthus sometimes, only 2-3. Ovules axile in 
Ochna. Ovules severiil in some Meliaoeaa. 

I. Sub-order Gruinales. St. obdiplostemonous. Annular 
disc 0, but disc glands sometimes present at the base of the 
petals. 

23. The Flax Family. 

Shrubs or herbs -with alt. simple entire leaves, and pretty 
flowers with fugacious petals. Stamens 5 perfect conuate 
at the base, alternating with staminodes. Ovary 3'5-celled 
entire. Fruit capsular or drupaceous. 

23. LinaceaB (p. 235). 

24. The Geranium Family (including Oxaiidaceae). 

Herbs or undershrubs (or a tree : Averrhoa) with pinnate 
palmate or paUnately -nerved usually stipulate leaves, St. 10 
or 5 reduced to staminodes, free or connate at base. Ovary 
3-5-celled, and as many lobed. Fruit coccous, or a berry 

(Averrhoa). 24. Geraniaceae (p. 236). 

II. Sub-order Rutales. St. diplostemonous. Annular 
disc well developed, sometimes tubular. 

25. Ochna Family (closely allied to Dilleniace»). H 
Glabrous trees or undershrubs with alt. simple stipulate 

leaves. Fls. often showy yellow, sometimes umbelled. 

66 



CLASSIFICATION, 

Sepals persistent, and often deeply coloured in fruit. Petals 
5-10. St. many. Anthers often opening by pores. Ovary 
deeply 3-10 lobed, the lobes becoming drupels in fruit. 

25. OchnaceaB (p. 237). 

26. The Bitter Bark Family. 

Trees or shrubs with alternate pinnate leaves. Pig. 

small. Sepals connate below, decidiwus. Pet. valvate. St. 

10, free. Ovary deeply 2''5'lohed. Ovule 1 in each cell. 
Fruit of as many samaras as fertile lobes of the ovary. 

26. Simarubaceae (p. 238). 

27. The Desert Date Family, 

Shrubs or herbs, often, spiny, L. opp. or alternate, pin" 
nate (with only* one pair of leaflets in Balanites). Fls. 
white, yellow or greenish, Sep. deciduous, imbricate. Pet, 
imbricate. Disc annular or conical. St. 10, at the base of 
the disc. Ovary more or less sunk in the disc, of 5 carpels 
(sometimes more in Tribulus) lobed or, if entire, 5-angled in 
fruit. Fruit 5- or by abortion 1-celled, of spinous indehis- 
cent cocci, or (Balanites) an oily 1-celIed drape. Seed 
exalbuminous, 27. ZygophyllaceSB (p.|239). 

28. Myrrh Family. 

Trees or shrubs often abounding in fragrant resins, with 
2M. 3-foliolate or pinnate leaves. Fls. small. Sep. 3-6 con- 
nate below, often minute, Pet. 3-6 exceeding the sepals. St. 
10 free. Ovary usually 3- sometimes 2-5-oelled. Ovules 2 
in each cell. Fruit drupaceous, containing 2-5 (usually 3) 
pyrenes. 28, BurseraceSd (p. 239). 

29. The Orange Family. 

Trees or shrubs with simple or usually pinnate, alt. or 
opp. exstipulate leaves which are always copiously gland- 
dotted. Fls. small or medium, 4-5-merou8. St, free 
usually diploatemonous (numerous in JE^Iq and Citrus) 
Ovary i-o-celled (many-celled in ^gle and Citrus), some- 
times lobed. Ovules 2 in each cell. Styles free or united 

67 s2 



CLASSIFICATION. 

Fruit various, usually a copiously glandular berry. Seeds 
never winged. 29. EutaceSB (p. 241). 

30. The Toon Family. 

Trees or shrubs with alt. exstipulate usually pinnate 
leaves, not gland-dotted (except Cbloroxylon). Fls. small 
or usually medium. Sepals 3-6 usually connate. Filaments 
connate into a tube (except in tribe Cedreleae). Ovary 2-5- 
celled. Ovules 2 (rarely 1), or 8-12. Styles always united 
into one. Seeds often winged. 30. MeliaceSB (p. 24)8). 

Order YII. — Sapindales (closely allied to preceding through 
Anacardiaceae and Malpighiacese.) 

Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, sometimes scandent. L. 
simple or compound, usually exstipulate. Fls. usually small, 
usually polygamous, irregular or corolla 0, or if calyx and 
corolla regular then stamens diclinous, or fewer than diplo- 
stemonous by reduction. Disc usually present, and outside 
the stamens. Ovary usually 3-celled with 1-2 ov^ules in each 
cell, axile or pendulous from the top or wall or from a basal 
f unicle. Endosperm usually abjSf^t. 

Eicceptions : — 

Fls. regular and diplostemonons in some Anacardiacese and the 
fitamens inserted on or outside the disc ; reduction in such cases takes 
place in the gynaeceum which usually consists of 1 carpel (Spoudias ia 
2-5-oarpellary and -celled) or if of more, the ovary is 1-celied or the other 
carpels early suppressed. 

Disc or inconspicuous in the M. fl. of Dodonaea, and st. outside 
the disc in the herm. fl. (but st. only 8). ~. 

Disc is obscure in Malpighiacea>, in Polygalacese, St. monadel- 
phous in Polygala. 

31. The Mango Family. 

Trees or shrubts, often resinous, with simple or compound 
alt. leaves. Fls. polygamous small or very small, usually 
4,-5-merous. St. often less than 10 (only 1-5 in Mango) 
ir^erted at the base of, rarely on the disc. Ovary Icellcd 
nuely of 2-6 free carpels (Buchanania), or 2-5-celled 

68 



CLASSIFICATION, 

Spondias). Ovule 1 in each cell, often pendulcuB from a 
basal funicle. Fruit a drcpe. 

31. Anac^rdiaceae (p. 255). 

32. The Soap-nut Family. 

Usually trees or shrubs (Cardiospermum ia a sleoder 
climber) with alt. simDle or compound leaves. Fls. incon- 
spicuous. St. 4-10, most usually 8 and declinate, Disc 
often oblique or unilateral. Ovary 3- rarely S-d-celled, often 
lobed. Fruit a membranous capsule, or capsular, or 
indebiscent. 32. Sapindacese (p. 260). 

Exceptions :•—• 

Dodonsea in many respects approaches Anacardiaceae. 

33. The Meliosma Family. 

Small trees with ait. simple or odd-pinnate leaves. Fls. 
with small bracteoles and sepals, very unequal petals and 5 
unequal stamens of which only 2 are fertile. Fruit a small 

drupe. 33. Sabiaces (p. 262). 

34. The Hiptage Family. 

Climbing shrubs^ yvith. opp. leaves. Petals 5-clawed, the 
5th diiferent. St. 10 deciiinate. Ovary S-lobed. Fruit of 1-3 
winged samaras, 34. MalpighiacCSB (p. 263), 

35. The Polygala Family. 

Kerbs or undershrubs with alt. simple leaves and small 
irregular flowers with two lateral sepals' wing-like and of ten 
petaloid. Corolla with 2 lateral petals rudimentary and the 
anterior developed as a keel. St. 8 monadelphous^ adherent 
to the base of the keel. Ovary 2-locular. 

35. Polygalaceae (p, 264). 
Order VIII.— Celastrales. 

Trees or shrubs, often climbers, with feimple (or compound 
in Ajnpelideceae) alt. or opposite leaves, stipulate or not. 

69 



CLASSIFICATIOJS, 

FIs. small greenish or white, regular 4-5nieroDS wltli never 
mort than 1 whorl of isomerous free stamens (or monadel- 
phons in some Ampelidaceea). Perianth usually hypogynousy 
Bometimes perigynous, or even epigynous (some Rhamnaceae). 
Disc well developed hypogynous or lining the hypanthium and 
usually bearing the stamens, sometimes enclosing the ovary. 
Ovary usually 2-5-eelLed with 1-2 erect or ascending ovules in 
each ^ell. Style short or 0. 

jExceptions:—" 

Petals in a few Rhamnaceas, and caducous orO in some Vitis. Ovary 
sometimes 6-oelled in Leea, of numeroas oells in the aberrant genus 
Siphonodon (Celastracese). 

I . Stamens alternate with the petals, 

86. The Spindle Tree Family. 

Trees or shrubs, somtimes scandent. L. alt. or opp. 
Sep. 4-5 small usually connate. Petals usually exceeding the 
tepals sessile inserted below or at the margin of the large 
prominent disc. Filaments short alternate with the petals. 
Ovary sessile free or enclosed by the disc. 2-5-celled (or cells 
many in Siphonodon). Ovules usually 2. Seeds usually 

arillate. 36. CelastraceaB (p. 265). 

II. Stamens opposite to the petals. 

37. The Buckthorn or Jujube Family. . 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent, leaves simple alt. 
most frequently with 3-5 hasal nerves. Sep. and pet. usually 
5 and perigynous or epigynous. Sep, valvate in bud and 
usually with a prominent mid-rib within. Petals usually 
imaller than the sepals, sometimes concealing the stamens 
which stand opp, to them. Disc thin and lining the hypan- 
thium or filling it. Ovary free or united with the hypan- 
thium, 3-2-(rarely 4) -celled with 1 basal ovule in each cell, 
Fr. 1-oelled and l^seeded (samaroid in Ventilago) or with 
a 2-4-cfclled endocarp, or 3-valved. 

37. Rhamnaceae (p. 268). 

90 



CLASSIFICATION. 

38. The Vine Family. 

Herbs or shrubs -witli simple digitate or ^innately com' 
pound leaveSf climbing by tendrils, or erect with jointed 
stems. Fls. small in umbels or panicles. Sep. and pet. 
usually 4-5. Pet. valvate, sometimes calyptrate, free or 
united at tbe base with the stamens. St. inserted' at the base 
of the disc, free or connate into a tube. Ovaiy 2, rai«ly 3-6- 
celled, with 2 collateral ovules in each cell.. Ernit-baccate. 

38. AmpelidacesB (p. 274). 

Series B [vide p. 51.) 

See also Parietales sub-order Passiflorines3 and Celaistrales 
and other exceptions under A. 

Obdeb IX — Opuntiales (perhaps allied to Banales and 

Parietales). 

Stout fleshy usually prickly plants with the leaves reduced 
to scales with spines or setae in their axils. Flowers often 
very large, usually solitary hemicyclic perigynous or 
epigynous. Hypanthium often produced beyond the oyary 
bearing the many sepals and petals which pass into one 
another and are often connate at the base. St. many. Ovary 
with many parietal placentea. 

39. The Cactus Family. 39. Cactacese (p. 281). 

Obder X — Rosales (probably allied to Banales). 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with alternate simple or compountl 
stipulate leaves (which, especially in the herbaceous genera, 
often have sheatlaing bases as in Ranales). Fls. rarely small, 
regular, perigynous or epigynous (or nearly hypogynous in 
some herbs) cyclic. Calyx with 5'10 usually imbricate sepals, 
the odd sepal superior (dorsal). Petals free, usually 5. 
Stamens usually many, usually incurved or circinate in bud. 
Ovary apocarpous, carpels 5-many free or if carpels adnate 
to the hypanthium then styles free. Carpel rarely cmly 1. 
and then with only 1-2 ovules and fruit a drupe. Ovnles 
l-severah Fmii of achenes, drupels or drupaceous, sometimes 

71 



CLASSIFICATION. 

included in the fleBhy hypanthinm (as in the Rose) or a pome 
(Apple, pear). 

40. The Rose Family. 40. EosacesB (p. 282). 

Order XI.— Leguminosse. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs often scandent, with alt. stipulate 

com'pound or unifoliolate rarely simple leaves. Fls. small or 

very showy, usually zygomorphous (always so in the gynascinm) 

perigynous, sometimes only slightly so, or even hypogynons. 

Calyx with 5-(4)-lobea, the odd sepal or lobe inferior {ventral}. 

Sometimes calyx 2-lipped or snb-entire. Petals free, or 

ventral pair connate, or corolla gamopetalous (Miraosacess), if 

corolla regular then sepals and petals always valvate in bud. 

St. definite or many. Ovary of 1 eloiigate linear (short or 

even globose in a few small berbs, e.g., Indigofera Unifolia) 

declinate carpel which hears usually several ovules in one or 

two series along the ventral suture. Fruit a legume (pod). 

41. The Mimosa Family. 

Trees ov shrubs, often scandent (rarely undershrubs) 

with 2' pinnate leaves^ and small regular 4-5-merous flowersy 
conspicuous by bsiug collected into dense heads or spikes. 
Calyx and corolla valvate, usually gamopetalous. St. free or 
monadelphous, diplostemonous or many. 

41. Mimosaceae (p. 284). 

42. The Cassia Family. 

Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, with pinnate or 2-pinnate 
leaves (or apparently simple in Bauhinia) and small or showy 
lowers always m,ore or less zygomorphous. Corolla imbricati , 
dorsal petal interior in bud. St. definite, diplostemonous, or 
fewer by reduction, free or united. 

42. CaasalpiniaceaB p. (294). 
43. The Pea Family. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs with simple, digitate or pinnate 
leaves pjid small or showy distinctly zygomorphous 

72 



CLASSIFICATION. 

(papilionaceaous) flowers. Corolla imbricate with the dorsal 
'petal {standard) exterior in hud, the other petals in pairs, 
lowest pair (keel) often connate. Stamens iO monadelphous, 
or diadelphous 9-fl, or 5 + 5, rarely the 10th altogether 
absent, very rarely stamens all free (Soph era). 

43. Papilionaceae (p. 308). 
Obdeu XII— MyrtaJes (allied to Hoss-les). 

Trees, shrnbs or rarely herbs with opposite or whorled 
simple exstipulate and usually entire leaves. Fls. rep-ular or 
(in some Lythracess and Onagracesb) rarely zy^omorphons, 
with generally a well' developed hypanthium enclosing the 
ovary, and frequently produced heyond it into a green or 
coloured tube. Petals not valvate ''n bud, sometimes very 
small. Ovary inferior 2-7-celled adnate to the hypanthium 
or rarely free in its tube, always syncarpous and with connate 
styles. Ovules axile. Seeds 1-very many. (The flowers 
are usually 4-5-merous in all the whorls with the stamens 
diplostemonous, sometimes however the stamens are numerous 
from branchiug and the ovary with 2-8 cells or carpels). 

Exceptions :— 

L. sometimes snb-opp. or alternate in Combretaceaa, Myrtaceae (C&reya 
and Barringtonia) and a few Onagracege. The submerged leaves in Trapa 
are pinnati-partite. Stipules present and interpetiolar in Ehizophoraceae. 

Perianth perigynous and ovary quite free in some Lythraceas. Petala 
sometimes suiipreseed in Lythraceae and C ombretacege. St. haplostemon- 
ous in some Onagraceae. Ovary only 1-celled in UombretacejB, and 1-celled 
by absorption of the septa in some Ammannia. 

Ovules pendulous from the top, or lateral near the top of the axaxj in 
Combretaceae, axile and parietal in the many-celled ovary of Punica. 

44. The Myrtle Family. 

Evergreen trees or shrubs with usually finely punctulate 
opposite leaves (exc. Careya and Barringtonia) which are 
quite entire and usually coriaceous with an ivtramarginal 
nerve. Fls. epigynous 4-5-merous with numerous stamenn 
often in 4-5 bundles, and with 2-5 rarely more cells in the 
inferior ovary, Fr. 1 -many-seeded. 

44. Myrtaceae (p. 350) 
73 



CLASSIFICATION, 

The Pomegranate Family (included in LythracesB in the body of 
the flora) differs from Myrtaceas in the leaf venation, in the ovary having 
the cells arranged in twro whorie and in some of the ovules having axile 
placentation. The calyx has usually 6 (5-8) sepals as in Lythraceae, but 
the ovary is quite adnate to the hypanthium. Fruit a berry with many 
cells and seeds. 

Punicaceae (p. 35 i). 

45. The Henna Family. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with often 4-angled branches, 
leaves rarely gland-dotted. Fh, regular l(zygomorphous in 
Woodfordia), perigynous. Sepals 3-6, often 6, valvate with 
sometimes intermediate smaller ones. Petals isomerous 
with the sepals (on the long petaloid hypanthium in Wood- 
fordia) sometimes minute or 0. St. diplostemonous (2-8 in 
Am;nannia) or very many, on the hypanthium which is long 
or very short. Ovary free from the hypanthium 2-6 celled. 
Ovules very many. 45. Lytlirace8& (p. 354). 

46. The Evening Primrose Family. 

Herbs, sometimes aquatic. L. opp. or alternate. Pis. 
regular or slightly zygoriorphous. Seps. and petals 4 (4-6 in 
Tussiea), St. 4 or 8. Ovary 2-4-celled adnate\to the hypan- 
thium (only half inferior in Trapa). Ovules many (solitary 
in each cell in Trapa). Seeds many (1 in Trapa). 

46. Onagraceae (p. 356). 

47. The Melastoma Family. 

Shrubs or herbs with opposite leaves characterized by 
sub-parallel primary nerves and usually parallel cross sec. 
nerves. Fls. usually handsome, regular or slightly zygomor- 
phous in the androecium. Anthers opening by pores. 
Ovary united to the hypanthium hy vertical walls, 

47. Melastomace^ (p. 357). 

48. The Mangrove Family. 

Trees or shrubs with. opp. glabrous leaves and interpetio- 
lar stipules. Fls. small greenish 5'8-merous. Petals and st, 
inserted on an outer disc lining the hypanthium which is 

74 



CLASSIFI'^ATION. 

mimitely bracteolate. St. diplostemonous. Inner disc lobed. 
Ovary S-S-celled^ septa soon disappearing so that the fruit 
•is 1-celltd and -seeded. Ovary cells 2-ovuled. 

48. EhizophoraceaB (p. 358). 

49. The Myrabokn Family. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent, -with leaves some" 
times sub.-opp. and alternate, occasionally ternate. Fls* 
usually small greenish (showy in the garden Quisqualis) 
<;apitatey spicate or racemed, with the hypanthium enclosing 
and constricted ahove^ or produced into a beak heyond, the ovary. 
Sepals and petals 4-5, or pet. 0, rarely 6-7. St. diplostemon- 
0U8. Ovary l-celled inferior. Ovules 2-7 pendulous from 

the apex. 49. CombretacesB (p- 359)^ 

Order XlH.-^Umbellales. 
Trees, shrubs or herbs with alt simple or very compound 
leaves, the latter usually with a sheathing base. If simple 
ihen often with 3 or more primary nerves. Fls. small regular 
polypetalous with valvate petals, frequently in umbels, 4-5- 
merous with ieostemonous stamens alternating with the petals 
(but see Alangium). Disc epigynous. Ovary completely 
inferior of 2-5 carpels and as many cells (or gyncecium 
polymerous in Araliaceas) adherent to the hypanthium which 
is not or scarcely produced beyond the ovary, Styles usually 
free. Ovule 1 in each cell pendulous. Embryo in albunien. 

Exceptions : — 

Marginal flowers of tunbels sometimes irregular. 

Alangixun is not at all typical of Comacese and is porhaps allied to 
Olacales. The flower is S-lO-merous and with many stamens, the ovary ii 
i.-celled and with 1 style. 

50. The Carrot Family. 

Herbs with usaally very compound leaves f..nd flowers in 
simple or compound umbels. Sep. 5 small or abortive. Ovary 
cells always 2 only, and fruit a schizocarp. 

50. Umbelliffcr® (p- 366). 
It 



CLASSIFICATION. 

61. The Ivy Family. 

Trees or shrubs with pinnate, or usually pixlmato leaves 
and flowers small in crowded umbels, umbels often panicled. 
Sepals small or abortive. Ovary cells 5 or 2-jnaiiy. FrvAt a 
drupe or berry. 51. AraliaceaB (p. 368). 

52 The Dogwood Family. 

^^11 tree with simple entire leaves and medium-sized 
flowi&rs in axillarv fascicles. Sepals minute connate below. 

Petals valvate 5-10 linear oblong. St. 2'3-times as many as 
the petals. Ovary l-celled. Prait a drupe crowned by the 

calyx tube, 52. ComaceaB (Alangium) (p. 369). 

Order XIV. — Olacales (allied to CornMceea ?), 
Shrubs or undershrubs often root parasites with alt. 
simple exstipulate leaves. Fis. regular. Calyx {or calyculus 
cp. Loranthacea9) minute or 0, or a mere rim which may be 
accescent in fruit. Tepals 4-6 free or connate, valvate. 
Stamens opp. to or near the edges of the tepals, or 2-3-time8 
as many, fertile or reduced to staminodes. Ovary free 
or enclosed in the accrescent calyx (or hypanthium), 1-celled, 
or 2-5'Celled below. Ovules pendulous from the apex of the 
incomplete axis or 1 erect. Style 1. Fruit drupaceous, some- 
times enclosed in the hypanthium or calyx rim (see above), 
I'seeded with the placenta sometimes embedded in the seed 
(cp. some GornaceaQ). Embryo small in albumen. 

53. Olacaceae (p. 370), 
Order XV. — Santalales (allied to Olacales.) 
Parasitid shrubs or undershrubs (Santalum'is a root parasite) 
with opp. rarely alternate simple '^xstipulate leaves, sometimes 
with 3-5 primary nerves, rarely leaves absent. Fls. small or 
medium greec or coloured, regular or somewhat zygomorphous. 
Calyx 0, or reduced to small teeth {calyculus, sometimes 
however the perianth is taken to be homologous with the 
calyx). Tepals 2-6 in one or two wliorls, free or connate. St. 
perigynous or epigynous isostemonous and opp. the tepals, free 
or adnate to them. Ovary 1-celled. Ovules 1-3, pendulous 
from a. free central placenta, or placenta fused with the ovary 
walls. Erait drupaceous or baccate, 

76 



CLASSIFICATION. 
51 The Mistletoe Family. 

Parasitic evergreen shrubs, leaves coriaceous or 0. Flfl. 
racemedor fascicled, often with an entire or toothed calyculus. 
Perianth short, or long and tubular below, sometimes zygomor- 
phous. Ovary inferior. Ovule 1. 

54. LoranthacesB (p. 373). 
55. The Sandalwood Family. 

A tree parasitic on roots (after the seedling stage) with 
opp. leaves and small haplochlamydeous 4-5-meroas flowers in 
terminal 3-chotomous cymes. Ovary at first free, ultimately 
half adnate to the hypanthium. Ovules 2-3 on a central 
placenta. Fruit drupaceous. 

55. Santalaceae (p. 377). 
Series C {vide p. 5].) 

See also exceptions under A and B. 

ORDEji XVI. — Cheoopodiales or Ciirvembryege (nearest 
all J Parie tales ?).* 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, with simple exstipulate entire leaves. 
Fls, haplochlamydeous regular small and mostly greenish (see 
exc), usually in close spikes or clusters (solitary or cymose 
in many Caryophyllacesa and Porfculacaceae), sometimes 
gamophyllous or perigynoua. St. t'^yice the nrimber of the 
tepals or fewer, if isomerous then opp. the tepals, hypogynous 
or perigynous. Ovary l-celled of 2-5 carpds with basilar 
placentation, ovules usually solitary cam,pylotropous. Embryo 
curved in a mealy perisperm. 

Exceptions :— ■ 

CaryophyllaceBD still retains nnmerona heterochlamydeoua members 
and being least modified is placed at the base of this order, but there are 
few and very unimportant representatives in Chota Nagpur {e.g. Saponaria, 
Spergula and Polycarpaea). Some showy garden flowers, such as the Carna- 
tions belong to it. The oalyx is frequently gamosepalous, st. often oti a 
gonophore. Some members still have the ovary incompletely 3-5-celled 
and many ovules. The flower is sometimes perigynous and the nodes of 
the stem often swoUen. The family is not further dealt with. 

• N.B.~OideiG XVI and XVII are sometimeB placed after Parietales. 

77 



CLASSIFICATION, 

The two median braftteoles of Portdaoacese are often regarded as 
Bepala, if so the flower is hetero - or homo-chlamydeous. 

Tlowers are white, yellow, or brightly coloured in some Caryophyllaoea 
PortulacaceaB and Nyctaginaceae, sometimes coloured hut scarious in 
Ajnarantaeeae, sometimea sxirrounded by brightly coloured bracts as in 
Bougainvillea. 

Stamens and ovules sometimes numerous in Portulaoaceas. Orules 
numerous in Deeringia among Amarantacene. 

Sepals and stamens sometimes only 1-3 in Amarantus and Alternan> 
thera (Amarantaceous herbs). 

56. The Portulaca Family. 

Herbs, often fleshy with inconspicuons (in garden species 

orilliantly coloured) flowers, and alt., opp. or Bub-verticellate 

eaves with stipulary hairs. Bradeoles or sepals 2. Tepals 

4'6 perigynous. St. 8-12. Ovary with 3-8'fid style. Seeds 

many. Fruit a pyxidium. 66. Portulacace© (p. 378). 

The Bougainvillea Family. 

Herbs or shrubs often with swollen nodes and opp. leaves. P&rianih 
single often brightly-coloured, e. 9., Mirabilis or Marvel of Peru, which is 
semi-naturalized in parts, gamo^hyllotis, more or less. 'persistent in fruit. 
Carpel 1. Ovule 1. 

Boerhaavia repens, L. A herb with minute pink capitate flowers is 
used aa a sag. (Family not further dealt with). 

Nyctaginaceae. 

57. The Amaranth Family. 

Herbs or nndershnibs (snb-scandent shrub in Deeringia) 
with alt. or opp. leaves and rigid or scarious flowers in spikes 
or fascicles with scarious bracts and hracteoles. Tepals 5-4r 
friee or only slightly connate. 8t. isomerous opp. the tepals 
connate into a short tube at the base^ sometimes alternating 
with staminodes, hypogynous. Fruit a utricle of 2-3 carpe' i 
with 1 seed (several-seeded berry in Deeringia). Rudimentary 
flowers, sometimes awn-like, are present in some genera, 

57. Amarantaceae (p. 378). 

58. The Beet Family. 

Herbs, sotnetimes climbing (Basella) and usually fleshy 
with alternate leaves. Perianth lepaloid fleshy and enclosing 

78 



CLASSIFICATION. 

'the nut in fruity 5-fid. St. 5 perigynous, free. Stigmas 3, 
Embryo spiral. 58. GheuopodiaceaB (p. 382). 

Order XVII.— Polygonales (allied to Chenopodiales). 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, sometimes scandent, often . with 
swollen nodes. L. simple entire usually alternate, with 
connate or ochreous memhranous stipules, "wliich sheath the 
terminal bad. Flowers spicate or capitate, small regular 
mostly 3-o-merous and homo- or haplo-chlamydeous, or 
perianth 0. St. hypogynons or slightly perigynous, 5-8 or 
sometimes reduced to 2, opp. the tepals when isomerous. 
Ovary of 3 (-2) carpels, 1 -celled with 1 erect basal orthotro- 
pous ovule. 

59. The Buckwheat Family. 

Herbs with ochreous stipules. L. convolute in bud, often 
dotted and acrid. Fls. small green, white, or pink. Tepals 
4-6^ rarely only 3, often connate. St. 5-8, rarely 9. Ovary 
2'S-carpellary. Fruit a 2'3-cornered nut. Embryo straight 
or curved, more or less excentric in the endosperm. 

59. Polygonaceae (p. 383). 

60. The Pepper Family. 

Herbs or shrubs with palmi-nerved dotted aromatic or 
acrid leaves, and intrapetiolar stipules which wrap round 
the terminal bud. Fls. much reduced, usually on a fleshy 
axis with peltate bracts, generally dioecious and acJilamydeous 
St. 6-2. Carpels 3-1. Fruit haccafe, 

60. piperaceae (p. 383). 

Order XVIII. — Aristoloclliales (affinities unknown, both 
it and the Piperaceae were at one tiiae considered 
to belong to the Monocotyledons.) 

61. The Snake-Root Family. 

Climbers with palmi-nerved leaves and base of petiole 
dilated or decurrent. Flowers 2-sexual zygomorphic haploste- 
monous with green or coloured gamophyllous perianth 
with inflated base and an entire limb, St. 6 united into 

79 



CLASSIFICATION. 

a column with the style of the inferior 6-celled ovary. 
Ovules many. Fruit capsular. 

61. AristolocMaceaB (p. 384). 

Obdbe Proteales is a large Australian and South Aftican order to 
which the commonly cultivated Grevillea robusta, A. Cunn. belongs. This 
is a handsome tree with twioe-pinnatifid leaves, and spicate 2-8exuaI 
4-meruu8 ytilow flowers in unilateral spikes. Perianth petaloid tubular 
below. St. epiphyllous. Ovary l-carpellary with 2 ovules and a very 
long style. 

Proteaceae (p. 385;. 

Orde? XIX. — IJrticales (allied probably to PoIygonaceaB). 

Trees, shrubs or herbs, sometimes with milky juice, and 
with simple frequently palmi-nerved (esp. 3-nerved) stipulate 
leaves. Stipales sometimes intra-petiolar and leaves often 
dotted (due to cystoliths in the hypodermal cells). Inflor- 
escence of cymes or clusters, rarely simple spikes, often 
developing into large v^eudocarps. Fls. small greenish 
unisexual (exc. Ulmacese), regular, M. 4-5 (in UlmacesB 4-8) 
-merous with iaomeroas (fewer in some figs) stamens opposite 
the perianth- tohes. Fern, sometimes naked, usually with a 
2-5-toothed or -partite perianth. Ovary superior 1-cefled of 
1-2 carpels. Style simple or 2-fid. Ovule 1 erect or 
pendulous, 

Exceptions : — 

Where the flowers are crowded inside a swollen fleshy axis {e.g. the figs ) 
they are often much reduced, the perianth may be 2-6 fid. or C, the stamens 
only 1-2. The leaves of Cannabis (the Hemp) are palmately divided 
and the seedling leaves of some Moraceee are all but pinnate. 

Fls. are polygamous or 2-8exual in Ulraaceae. 

62. The Nettle Family. 

Shrubs or herbs without milky jaice, sometimes ./ith 
stinging hairs. L. alt, or opp. usually 3-nerved. Fls. in small 
heads or cymes, heads often spicate. M. usually 4-5-merons. 
F. with usually a 2-5-toothed or -partite perianth. Ovary 
with only 1 style and stigma. Ovule erect orthotropous. 
Fruit an achene, sometimes embraced by the more or Wsa 
fietfhy perianth. 62. UrticaceSB (p* 385), 

SO 



CLASSIFICATION. 

63. The Elm Family. 

Trees or shrubs without milhy juice, alt. 3-nerved or 
penni-nerved leaves with caducous stipules and flowers 
in fascicles or cymes, often polygamous. Perianth 4-9- 
partite^ polyphyllous or gamophyllous, with isomerou 
stamens. Oar pels 2. Ovule pendulous anatropous or amphi 
tropous. Fruit a drupe or samara. 

6B.UlmaceaB (p. 388). 

64. The Mulberry and Fig Family. 

Trees or shrubs, often with milky juice, alt. rarely opp. 
leaves, which may be lobed especially -^hen young. Fls* 
densely aggregated in spikes, heads or outside or inside fleshy 
receptacles (Figs, Jack-fruits, etc.) Carpels 2. Ovule pendu- 
lous, more or less anatropous. Fruit of nuts, sometimes 
enclosed in the fleshy perianth {e.g Mulberry). 

64. Moracese (p. 391). 

Order XX. — Salicales (perhaps allied to Tamariscacesa 
and Euphorbiaceae). 

Trees or shrubs with alt. simple stipulate leaves and 
dioecious flowers in catkins. Perianth reduced to 1 or 2 
glands. St. 2 or moi'e. Ovary often stipitate, 2'3-carpellary , 
1-celled with parietal placentation and many anatropous 
ovules. Seeds with a pencil of hairs from the funicle, 

65. The Willow Family. 

65. Salicaceae (p. 402). 
Order Casnarinales. 

The Beef Wood Family. 

Trees with drooping branches, very Blender snlcate branchlets mf?i 
whorls of 6-^ seals-like leaves nnited into a sheath below. Fls. moncecious 
or sometimes dioBcious. M. fl. in slender cathin-Wce spihes terminating 
the twigs. F. capitate. M. with 2 lateral brace oles &nd 2 median hract" 
like sepals, connate below Stamen 1. ¥. with ? lateral bracteoles 
which become woody and valvate in frnit. Perianth 0. Pistil of 2 median 
carpels, the posterior barren. Stigmas 2 filiform. Ovules 2 erect. Fruit 
& 1- seeded nut, the whole spike having in fruit a general superficial 
resemblance to a oone. Testa adnate to the wall. Embryo straight. 

Casuarinaceae 

C. equisetifolia, Forst, is some times planted. 

81 



CLASSIFICATION. 

Sub-class II. Sympotalae (see p. 62). 

A. PentacjclicsB (see p. 52.) 

Order I.— Primiilales. 

Herbs, shrubs or rarely small trees, usually glaudnlai? 
with alt. simple leaves aud regular 1-2-sexual flowers. 
Stamens opposite to the corolla lobes, or sometimes a very rudi- 
mentary first whorl also present, adnate to the corolla or free. 
Ovary l-celled with free central ^lacentatioUy superior (half 
inferior in Maesa). 

ee. The Plumbago Family. 

Herbs or undershrubs. Fls. mod. -sized. Petals free o^ 
slightly coherent. St. free or adnate at base to the corolla- 
Styles 5 free. Ovules 1 basal anatropous. 

QQ' PlumbaginaceaB (p. 403). 
67. The Maesa Family. 

Trees or shrubs. Fls. often 1 -sexual, small or medium. 
Petals gamopetalous or free (some Embelia) . St. adnate to 
the corolla. Styles connate. Ovules sunk in the swollen 
central placenta. Fruit baccate, 1-several-seeded, 

67. Myrsinaceae (p. 403). 
Order II.— Ebenales. 

Trees or shrubs with alt. or (Diospyros sp.) sub-opp. 
usually entire leaves. Fls. small or medium 1-2-sexual. 
Petals cften more than 5. St. di'plostemonous or many or 
one whorl reduced to staminodes. Ovary 3^10 -(rarely 2) 
-celled. Ovules 1-few in each cell. 

^Q. The Mohwa Family. 

Trees with milky juice. Fls. 2'Sexual usually clustered. 
Calyx inferior with 4-8 imbricate sepals, sometimes (Mimu- 
sops) 2-seriate. Corolla tube short and broad. Petals as 
many or 2-4 times as many as the sepals. St. adnate to the 
corolla. Ovary 2-5-. rarely 6-12-celled. Style slender pointed* 
Ovule 1 in each cell. 68. Sapotaceae (p. 406). 

82 



CLASSIFICATION. 

69. The Ebony Family. 

Trees without milky juice. Fls. dioecious, M. in 3-inore- 
flowered cymes. F. solitary or several on abbreviated lateral 
branches. Calyx 4-5 rarely 3-lobed, often hardened in fruit. 
St. nsually 16 (8-64), bypogynoas or adnate to corolla. 
Ovary 4-10-celled. Sub-sessile stigmas 1-4. Ovule 1 in each 

cell. 69. EbenaceaB (p. 408). 

70. The Storax Family. 

Small trees, Fls. 2-sexual or polygamous. Calyx perigyn- 
ous or epigynous, sepals very small or almost obsolete. 
Petals spreading 5-10, almost free. Stamens numerous 
perigynous or epigynous adnate to the base of the corolla. 
Ovary 2-5''celled, style slender. Ovules 2 in each cell. Frait 
drupaceous, 1-seeded. 70. StyraceSB (p. 412). 

B, Tetracyclic89 (see p. 53), 

1. Super89. Ovary superior. 

Order III.— Olealos. 

71. The Olive and Jasmine Family. 

Trees or shrubs "without milky juice, with simple or 
pinnate penni-nerved exstipulate leaves. Fls. regular 2-sexual 
or polygamous, in terminal or axillary cymes or panicles. 
Calyx small 4 (5-9 in Jasminum) -lobed. Corolla 4 (5-9 in 
Jasminum) -lobed, petals sometimes nearly free, valvate or 
imbricate. St^ 5, sometimes nearly free. Ovary 2 celled. 
Ovules 1-2 in the inner angle of each cell. 71. OleaceSd 

(p. 414.). 

Order IV.— GentiaDales. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs, often with milky juice, and with 
opp. or ternate simple entire exstipulate often palmi-nerved 
leaves. Fls regular 2-sexual usually cymose. Calyx and 
corolla 4-5-nierous, corolla usually contorted in bud. St. as 
many as the petals and alt. with them, adnate to the corolla 
at least at the base, sometimes combined into a column with 

83 



CLASSIFICATION. 

toe pistil. Carpels 2 combined into a 2-or 1- celled ovary or 
distinct except in the styles. Ovules many parietal or covering 
a large axile placenta. 

Exceptions : — 

Stipules or stipular lines sometimes occur in Loganiaoeas, and L. Bome- 
times toothed in Bnddleia. Fls. irregular in a few Gentianacoaa and 
stamens fewer than the petals. 

Corolla often imbricate or valvate in Loganiaoeas. 

Ovales only 2-8 in each cell in a few Apocynaceae. 

72. Tli3 Strychnine Family. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with sometimes stipular lines. Juice 
not milky. Cymes usually dense. Calyx 4- 5 -toothed. Ovary 
2-celled. Fr. dehiscent or indehiscent. 

72. Loganiacese (p. 419). 

73. The Gentian Family. 

Serbs. Juice not milky. Fls. d'S-merous, often showy 
in dichasial cymes. If irregular, fls. small and stamens 
reduced in number. Ovary 1-celled with parietal pi acenta- 
tion, rarely placentaa meeting, and ovary 2-celled. 

73. GentianacesB (p. ^20). 

74. The Oleanier Family. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs, often climbing, abounding in milky 
juice, with opp, or whorled leaves. Calyx 5-lobed. GoroHa 5- 
lobed, rotate or salver-shaped, often with a corcma. St. wdth 
their anthers rarely distant, usaally conniving, and sometimes 
adhering by a point of the connective to the s^rollen base of 
the stigma. Ovary 2-celled, or of two distinct carpels connate 
in the style. Fruit baccate, drupaceous or of follicles. Seeds 
often with a coma of hairs. 74. ApocynaceSB (p- 423). 

75. The Asclepias or Mudar Family. 

Climbing herbs, rarely erect shrubs, abounding in milky 
juice (with very few exceptions), rarely leafless (Sar- 
costemma) differing from the apocarpous ApocynacetB essen- 
tially in the polleUi which forms one or two waxy, more rarely 

84 



CLASSIFICATION. 

granular masses (poUinia) in eacli anther cell. Pollinia of 
the right hand cell of each anther united by a candicle to a 
gland (corpuscle) to which is also attached the pollinia of the 
left-hand cell of the adjacent anther. Fruit always of 2 
free or connate follicles and seeds winged or comose. Fila- 
ments usually connate in a column round the pistil- 

75. AsclepiadaceaB (p. 430). 
Order V,— Personales. 

Shrubs or herbs, rarely trees, occasionally glandular and 
aromatic, with alt. or opp. exstipulate simple or compound 
leaves. Ms. usually zygomorphic (regular in most Solanacese, 
and sub-regular in the perianth in several genera of other 
families), bat not contorted in bud. The posticous stamen 
nearly always rudimentary or altogether absent (perfect in. 
Solanacese), sometimes only 2 stamens perfect. Ovary S- 
celled superior with many ovules. Fruit capsular, or baccate. 

Exceptions : — 

SolanacesB on account of the regnlar flowers is nsnally included in 
Polemoniales, but certain genera show zygomorphic flowers (not in Chota 
Nagpur) , and the ovary is that of Personales. 

Oroxylum (Bignoniaceae) has 5 perfect stamens. 

Ovary is 1-celled in ' Orobanchace83, Lentibulariacesa (little marsii 
plants common in rice fields), Gesneraoeae (herbs of moist banks), and 
Martynia. 

Ovary is 4-ceUed in Datura and by a false septum in some Pedalia- 
cesB. 

Acanthaceae lias-often only 2 or few ovnles in each cell. 

76. The Potato Family. 

Shrubs or herbs with alternate simple, rarely deeply- 
lobed or (Tomato) pinnate leaves Fls. regular in cymea. 
Sep., pet., and stamens 5. Ovary with 2 oblique carpels andL 
2 swollen axile placentas covered with ovules. Fr. a berry 

or capsule. 76. SolanaceaB (p, 438). 

<J6 



CLASSIFICATION, 

THe Snapdragon Family contains a very large number 
of herbs common in rice fields, etc., the leaves are opp, or alt. 
fls, irregular with 2 to 4: stamens. Ovary as in Solanacese, 

ScrophnlariaceaB. 

The Broomrape Family contains herbs parasitic on 
roots of other plants or saprophytes and are devoid of chloro- 
phyll. Orobanche indica is common on tobacco and mnstard 
and has pnrplish-blne flowers in spikes, ^ginetia indica 
is found in damp forests in summer, and has curious rather 
large solitary rose-purple flowers on long scapes. 

Orobanchacese. 

77. The Bignonia Family. 

Trees or shrubs Cclimbing in many garden species) with 
opp* pinnately compound, (simple in Tecoma) leaves, and 
large or moderate-sized zygomorphic flowers. St. 4 or 5. 
Fruit a linear capsule with winged seels. 

77. Bignoniaceae (p. 442). 

78. The Sesamum Family. 

B^erbs with opp. or alt. simple or pinnatifid leaves, and 
drooping racemose flowers. Ovary 1-2 or ultimately 4'celled. 
St. 4 didynamous. Ovules 1-seriate in each cell. Seeds not 

ringed. 78. Pedaliaccae (p. 444). 

79. The Acanthus Family. 

Shrubs or herbs, rarely (Thunbergia) scandent, frequently 
with swollen nodes, simple usually entire often lineolate 
leaves, and zygomorphic capitate or spicate or panicled flowers 
usually 4-ranked and with well-developed subtending bract and 
two bracteoles (for few exceptions see p 446- 44«7. jSt. 2 
or 4. Ovary 2-celled. Ovules 2-8everal vertica ly 2-8eriate 
in each cell. Seeds compressed seated on retinacula. 
Exceptions : — 

Thunbergia has two collateral ovnl68 in each cell, and the retinacnal 
are absent. Blepharis has sometimes only 1 ovule in each cell. Some herbs 
of the tribe Nelsoniese have papillaB in place of hard retinacula. 

79. AcanthaceaB (p» 445). 

L. often crowded and then not opposite. 
86 



CLASSIFICATION. 

Order VI.— Polemoniales. 
80. The Convolvulus Family. 

Climbers, rarely erect, often with milky jnice. L. alt» 
mostly simple cordate and palmi-nerved, sometimes palmately 
compound (Pinnate in Ipomoea Quamoclit, in Cuscuta) 
exstipnlate. Fls. regular completely gamopetalons with 
frequently an entire or only slightly 5-lobed limb. Sep. 
sometimes free and nnequal. St. 5. Disc usually prominent. 
Cartels 2 (rarely 3-5) combined into a 2-ceUed, rarely 1 
(Hejvittia) »3- or 4''Celled ovary. Style 1, stigmas 2 (styles 
2 in E volvulus). Ovules 2 to each carpel. ¥r. capsular or 

baccate. 80. Convolvulaceae (p. 459). 

Order VII.— Lamiales. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs very often with glands and 
aromatic, with alt., wborled or usually opposite simple 
exstipulate leaves. Fls. zygomorphic (or in most Boraginacea? 
regular) usually cymose. Calyx gamosepalous often tubular. 
St, 4 or 2 (h in Boraginaceae) with or without a rudimentary 
5th. Ovary entire and 2-celled or deeply lohed and 4-celled by 
the formation of a septum. Ovules 2 to each carpel, collateral, 
Fruit 1-4-seeded, usually of l-seeded pyrenes or nutlets. 

Exceptions : — 

L. are digitate in Vitex. 

Corolla is regular and 6-12-merons in Symphorema, regular 4-6-lobe<l 
in Cordiaceas. 

Styles 2 in Coldenia (a Boraginace6u8 herb), twice bipartite in Cordia, 
oapitate in Bhabdia. One etigmatic lobe sometimes suppressed iQ 
various genera, as also occurs in Personales. 

81. The Borage Family. Sub-family CordiaceaB. (Allied 
to Polemoniales). 

Trees or shrubs with alt. leaves. Fls. in dichotomous 
scorpioid cymes which are often corymbose (in few-fld. racemes 
in Bhabdia) regular. Calyx sometimes sub-entire. Corolla 

87 



CLASSIFICATION, 

4-6.1obed. Ovary not deeply divided. i)ru;pe with a 1-4- 
celled stone or L4 pyrenes. 81. BoraginaceaB (p. 472). 

Note.— While the fruit ofCordiacese resembles that ot.8ome Ver- 

benacese, the typioal Boraginaceoe are herbs characterised by the deeply 

J ovary, each lobe becoming a 1-seeded niitlet as in Labiat», the 

seeds, however, are epitropous and those in Labiatae apotrcpous. Cor- 

diacesa is better kept as a distinct family as is done by Warming. 

82. The Teak Family. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with opp. or whorled leaves. 
Corolla sub-regular to 2-lipped, St. 4 or 2 (as many as the 
petals in Sjmphorema). Ovary 2-4-celled, entire or rarely 
4-lobed Style terminal. Fruit a drupe with a 1 ■4'celled 
stone or with 1-4 l-seeded sometimes fleshy pyrenes. 

' 82. Verbenaceae fp. 476). 

Exceptions :— 

Earely there is only 1 ovule in each carpel (Lantana and Stachytar- 
pheta). Durantahasan 8-cel led ovary. 

83. The Labiate or Mint Family. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, abounding with aromatic glands, 
usually with a 4-angled stem, opp. or whorled often toothed 
leaves and dense axillary cymes or whorls of small flowers, or 
cymes or whorls spicate or panicled. Fls. from sub-regular to 
deeply lipped. Caljx sometimes 8-10-toothed (usually 
5-toothed or 2-lipped). St. 2 or 4. Ovary deeply 4-lohed 
with a gynohasic style. Ovule 1 in each lobe erect. Fruit 
of 4 nutlets. 83. LabiatSB Cp* 489). 

2. InfersB. Ovary inferior (see p. 53), 

Order VIII.— Robiales. (Closely allied to Loguaiacea^, 
from which separated easily by the inferior ovary. 
Allied also to Cornaoeae among the Choripetalaa). 

SA The Coffee and Gardenia Family. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with opp. leaves and interpetiolat 
stipules, Fls. small or medium, regular, 2-sexual. Sepals 
4'B usually small, rarely obsolete. Corolla 4-5-lobed, 

88 



CLASSIFICATION. 

valvate, imbricate or contorted in bnd. Diac epigynous. 
St. isomerous with the petals and alt. with them ou the 
tube or throat of the corolla. Ovary 2-celled. Style 1, 
Ovulos 1 or many in eacb cell. Prait various. 

84. Rubiaceae (p. 49 i). 

Excerptions : — 

L, wliorled without stipules in Eubia. 

Fla. 3-7-ni6rou8 in Lasianthus (or ovarj 7-9-merou8). 

Ovary 1-celled in Gardenia, 4-celled above in "Anthocephalus, 4-celled 
in fruit in Morinda and some others, S" (3-6)-cellod in Vangueria and 
Hamiltonia. 

Order IX.=— Asterales. 
85. The Daisy and Thistle Family. 

Shrubs or herbs, rarely trees. L. alt. rarely opposite, very 
rarely stipulate. Fls. small sessile in a dense head surrounded 
hy an involucre of bracts, the whole often appearing like a 
single flower. Fls. regular and tubular, or ligulate, some- 
times filiform, 1-2 -sexaal. Calyx obsolete, or of scales or 
hairs (pappus). Anthers connate. Ovary l-celled. Ovule 1 
basal. Fruit dry indebiscent. 86. CompOSitSB (p. 511). 

Class XL— Monocotyledonese. 

Sub-class I. — (p. 54). 

Order I.— Liliiflorae. 

Sbmbs or herbs, often with bulbous bases. Flov.er8 
regular with a 2-seriate 6-merous usually homochlamydeous 
petaloid perianth, tepals free or connate, inferior or superior. 
St. 6 in two whorls. Ovary 1 or 3 -celled of 3 carpels with 
axile placentation. Ovules anatropoas. 

Exceptions ;— 

The flower is very slightly zygomorphio in a few species, e.g. the 
cultivated Aloe. The DioscoreacejB (and some Liliaoese) are dicBcioua 
and the second staminal whorl is sometimes suppressed. 

89 



CLASSIFICATION. 

A. Ovary superior. ^ 

86. The Lily Family. 

Herbs, or climbing rarely erect slirabii. L.- simple with 
parallel or arcnate nerves sometimes reduced to scales 
(Asparagus). Fls. large and showy, or sometimes very small 
(Asparagus), perianth petaloid or sub-sepaloid (Smilax and 
Urgineaspp.) 86. LiliaceSB (p. 517). 

B. Ovary Inferior, 

87. The Amaryllis Family. 

Usually bulbous or tuberous based herbs (rarely shrubby 
e.g. Agave), with radical ensiform or lanceolate often plaited 
leaves &Rd flowers horr^e on naked scapes (scape very short in 
Curcnligo). Fls. with swj^eWor often gamophyllous petaloid 
jperianthi sometimes with a corona. Ovary 3-cell6d, 

87. Amaryllidaceaj (p. 522). 

88. The Tacca Family. 

Herbs with tuberous rootstock and tripartite vinnatifid 
leaves. Fls. unbelled greenish or purplish with filiform 
brs ^ts. Ovary 1-celled. 88. Taccaceae (p. 527J. 

89. The Yam Family. 

Climbers with tuberous rootstock and palmi-nerved simple 
or Z-K>-foliolate leaves. Fls. small spicate dioecious. Perianth 
in two 3-merouB whorls. St. in 1 or 2-3-merous whorls. 
F. with a 3-comered 3-locular ovary. Fruit a S-cornered 
capsule with 2-winged seeds in each cell. 

89. Dioscoreace© (p. 528). 
Order II.— Commelinales. 

Herbs, often tuberous. Fls. usually zygomorphic with 
heterochlamydeous perianth. Sepals 3 usually green. Petals 
free or connate below. St. in two whorls, 6 perfect or often 
only 2 OF three perfect, the rest reduced to gtaminodes or 

90 



CLASSIFICATION. 



obsolete, filaments usually with Long coloured hairs. Ovary 
superior 3-celled, or 1 cell reduced or absent. Ovules few in 
each cell, orthotropous. 90. CommelinaceSB (p. 53 4), 

90. The Spider-wort Family. 



Okper til— Scitamineae. 

Usually tuberojs-based berbs with erect simple leaves oi- 
leaves spreading from a short stem, rarely sub-arboreous as 
in the Plantain (Musa). Pseudo-stem often made up of 
convolute leaf sbeaths. Flowers zygomorphic or irregular y 
sepals and petals often dissimilar. Calyx often spathaceous 
and one or more of the stamens converted into staminodes 
or suppressed. Ovary 1 -3-celled, inferior. 

91. The Plantain or Banana Family. 

Pseudo-stem very stout, short or tall. L. very Jarge with 
horizontal close sec. nerves. Fls. 1 -sexual in the axils of 
large often coloured bracts. Calyx spathaceous. Corolla 
wrapped round the stamens and pistil. Stamens 5 perfect. 

91. MusaceaB (p. 536). 

92. The Ginger Family. 

Stem leafy or leaves radical. Fls. in the axils of green or 
coloured bracts. Calyx spathaceous. Fig. zygomorphic. Cor- 
tube with 3 petals. Outer whorl of stamens reduced to 2 
lateral staminodes or absent, inner whorl of 1 perfect dorsal 
stamen and two petaloid staminodes connate into a lip. 

92. Zingiberaceae (p. 537). 

93. The Arrowroot Family. 

Stem usually developed, sometimes with only one large 
leaf. Fls. very irregular. Calyx with free or slightly coher- 
ing sepals. Outer whorl of stamens reduced to 1 or 2 stami- 
nodes, inner whorl of a single stamen with only 1 anther -lobe 
perfect, and adnate to the petaloid expansion of the other lobe, 

ai 



CLASSIFICAI^aN. 

and of two hardened or petaloid staminodes which do not form 

a lip. 93. Marantaceae (p. 544). 

Order IV.— JGynandrae. 

This inclades the Orchid Family. Fl. strongly zygomor- 
phiCi usually with three petaloid sepals, two slightly modi- 
fied petals and the third forming a lip. Only 1 (rarely two) 
stamen perfect, the filament connate with the style into 
a stout column. Pollen grains united into masses (poUinia), 
an d anther often opercular. Orchidaceas. 

Sub-class 2, (p. 54.) 

Order V. — Spadiciflorae (The order is somewhat artificial, 
the families not being closely allied). 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with simple or compound leaves, 
and the inforescence always sheathed by a permanent or 
deciduous spathe. Fls. ebracteolate on a spike or spadix 
TiBually 1-sexual with either 3- mere as 2-seriate perianth or 
flowers much reduced even down to a single stamen or naked 
ovary without bracts or bracteoles. Spikes often panicled 
and spathes sometimes petaloid. 

94. The Palm Family. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing (canes). L. plaited 
in hudy rarely simple and entire except in the seedling plant, 
usually palmate or pinnatisect. FJs. usually 1-sexual. 
Spikes often panicled. Sepals and petals 3 each, petals fre- 
quently differing in size from the sepals and often with 
different aestivation, but more or less leathery or fleshy not 
petaloid. St. 3, 6 or many. Ovary of 3 carpels free or 
1.3-celled. Ovules 1-2 in each cell. 94. Palmae (p. 545). 

95. The Aroid Family. 

Usually stout succulent or fleshy herbs, sometmies 
scaudent. L. palmi-nerved and usually net-veined» simple cv 

9S 



CLASSIFICATION. 

pedatipartite or pinnati6d, often sagittate. Fl's. 1-2-geziial 
with a 4-6-pliyllouB perianth, or 'perianth reduced to scales 
or usually obsolete. Spadix fleshy, epathe green or coloured, 
often leathery. Ovary 1-3-celled. Ovules 1 or more. 

95. Araceae (p. 549). 
96. The Screw Pine Family. 

Trees or shrubs, often branched. Dioecious. L, long 
narrow "parallel-veined spinose-toothed 3-farious. Fls. 
crowded on a spadix without bracts, bracteoies or perianth, 
M..fl» with many stamens. F. fl. with a l-celled ovary the 
ovaries often confluent, and woody in fruit. 

96. Pandanacae (p. 555). 

Order VI.— Glumiflorae. 

Grass-like herbs or bamboos with narrow parallel-nerved 
leaves with a long sheathing base. Fls. 1-2-sexual with the 
perianth reduced to hairs or minute scales or 0, situated in 
the axils of bracts (glumes) which are closely spirally or 
distichousiy imbricate in small spikes (spikelets). Bi-acteoles 
usually present. St. hypogynous S-6, Ovary 2-3-carperary, 
1-celled, with 1 erect anatropous ovule. Embryo minute at 
one end of a mealy albumen. 

The Sedge Family. 

Sedges number some 60-70 species in Chota Nagpur. 
The stems are solid often 3-comered. L. 3-farious with 
closed sheaths and ligule or very inconspicuous. Spikelets 
usually with empty glumes below and often above, bracteoies 
0. Perianth or of 6 (2-6) scales or bristles. Anthers 
hasifixed. Style branches slender not feathery. Fruit a 
2-3 -cornered nut (in the Caricese enclosed in a utricle, which 
is said to be morphologically the bract of a secondary axis). 
The inflorescence is often corymbose, a very rare arrange- 
ment in grasses. 

CyperacesB. 

S3 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 

97. The Grass and Bamboo Family. 

Stems terete, often hollow with solid often swollen nodes. 
L. distichous with s'plit sheaths and usually with a conspicu* 
ous ligule . Spikelets composed of distichous imbricating 
bracts (glumes) of which the 2 lowest are usually empty, a 
bracteole (palea) is opposed to the glume on the very 
abbreviated floral pedicel, and often wraps round the flower 
and fruit (cp, Cariceae above). Perianth or of very 
minute swollen scales (lodicules). Anthers versatile. Styles 
2, rarely 3 with feathery stigmas. Fraii dry, usimlly terete. 

97. GramineaB (p. 555). 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 



Table I. 

The following families have their minute flowors crowded 
in such a way that the number of stamens in each flower may 
be difficult to ascertain :— • 

A. Flowors without bracts or perianth (a 
few Aracea? have a very reduced 
perianth), but a sheath or spathe may 
enclose the whole inflorescence. 

Stamens or anthers on a fleshy axis or 
spadix, the carpels or. ovaries occupy- 
ing a separate portion of the axis 

p. Perianth 0. Stamens or ovaries crowded 
mixed with peltate bracts on a fleshy 
axis. Stamens always on separate Piperaceas 
axes from the ovaries ... (p. C83) 

C Flowers crowded inside fleshy recep- Moracefs 
taclesorfigs • • . , . (p. 391) 

U 



Araceaa (p.549) 



ARTIFICIAL KEY, 



D. Stamens included with a number of 
hairs, and often with a stalked ovary 
within an involucre of bracts, Plants 
with very milky juice 

E. Stamens on very delicate filaments in 
the axils of overlapping bracts. (Cyper- 
aceae are not dealt with. Grasses and 
bamboos belong to the family) 

F. Flowers Collected into dense heads or 
spikes, but where the distinct florets 
may be discerned and the stamens 
counted, are found in Compositas, 
Rubiacese, Urticaceae, and many other 
families J and will be found in Table II. 



Euphorbiaceae. 
(p. 209) 



Graminege 
(p. 555) 



Table II, 

This table includes all families, and may be used in all 
cases, where male or hermaphrodite flowers are available. In 
the case of plants bearing male and female flowex'S on separate 
Individ aals, and only the female flowers are available 
Table III may be used. 



Stamen 1. 

Dicotyledons. (For distinction between dicotyledons and 
monocotyledons see. p. 49) 

Trees with slender branchlets and leares 
reduced to scales. 

Male flowers in slender spikes, female 
flowers in cones .... 

Trees or shrubs with milky juice. 

Fls. minute crowded inside (figs) or 
outside flashy more or leas globose 
receptacles ..... 



Casnarina (p. 81) 



Horace© (p.391) 



95 



ARTIFICIAL KEl. 



Fla. crowded in involncres which 
resemble a perianth. Branches 
usually stout and fleshy. Juice milky 

Tree with evergreen foliage. Juice 
T^vatery . . . • • , 

Herbs. 

Herbs with flowers as in Euphorbia 
(above) and milky juice . 

Herbs with opposite leaves, and irregular 
flowers with a distinct gamopetalous 
corolla. St. 1 perfect. Staminodes 
present . . . • , 

Moaocotyledons. 

Herbs. Fls. crowded on a fleshy axis, 
sometimes sheathed by a spathe. 
Perianth .... , 

Herbs. Fls. with an irregular, usually 
showy perianth. Stamen with a 
slender filament and 2 anther cells , 

Stamen petaloid bearing one anther cell 



Euphorbia 
(p. 212) 

Mangifera 
(p. 258) 

Euphorbia 
(p. 212) 



Canccora 
(p. 4.22) 



Aracese (p. 649) 

Zingiberaceas 
(p. 537) 

Marantaceaa 
(p. 544) 



Stamens 2. 
Dicotyledons. 

I. Fls. 1 -sexual minute, without perianth or perianth green 

inconspicuous or simple. 
A. Herbs, 
a. L. alternate. 

Flowers in dense spikes with peltate PiperacesB 
bracts. St. 2-4 . . . . (p. 383) 

Fls. in short slender racemes with 5-lobed 

perianth, St. 2-4. .... Sebastiania 

96 



ARTIFICIAL KEY, 

Fls. clustered in slender spikes with Amarantus. 
sepals 2-3 scarious . . . • (p. 379) 

h. L. opposite, 

St. 2-5 hypogynous, sepals unequal Altemanthera 
whitish ..... (p. 379) 

St. 2-5 perigynous, sepals minute Ammannia 
equal. Petals sometimes present . (p. 356) 

B. Trees or shrubs. 

Fls. in slender spikes. St. 2-3 or 2-7 Euphorb^aceae 

(Sapiumand An- 
tidesma) (p.209) 
M. Fls. clustered. F. sub-solitary. Putramiva 
St. 2-4 . . . . . . (p. 224) 

Fls. in fig-like fleshy receptacles. Juice 

milky Ficus. (p. 393) 

II. Flowers with both calyx and corolla 
distinct. 

A. Petals free. St. 2-3 usually with 

etaminodes. Trees with alternate 

leaves. 
L. simple. . . . . . Meliosma (p. 263) 

L. pinnate with coarsely toothed leaflets Ailanthus 

B. •Corolla gamopetalous. L. opposite. (p. 238) 
Trees or shrubs. Fls. reerular, . , Oleaceae (p. 414) 
Shrubs or Herbs. Fls. irregular. 

Ovary deeply 4-lobed. Calyx tubular . Labiatse (p.489) 

Ovary not deeply lobed 2-celled 

Ovules 1-2 in each cell, not superposed • Stachytar- 

'pheta (p.489) 
Ovules 2-several in each cell superposed Acanthacees 

(p. 445) 
Monocotyledons. 

Gi*asses. Petals 0. . . . , Gramineas 

(p. 555) 
Stamens 2 with etaminodes present. Gomelinacess 
Petals present .... (p. 634) 

97 F 



JETIFICIAL KEY. 



Stamens or Anthers 3. 



Dicotyledons. 



I. Perianbh 0, or small and inconspicuous, if white then 
not divisible into calyx and corolla. 



1. Herbs. 

Prostrate or scandent. Stamens among 
peltate bmcts in spikes 

Prostrate. L. opposite. Sepals dry or 
with scarious margins . , • 

Prect. L. alternate. FIb. in fascicles 
or spikes, as in Altemantbera 

2. Parasitic sbrubs .... 

3. Climbing woody shrubs, or a small 
undershrub. Fls. white with 3 fertile 
stamens and 5*6 2-fid staminodes 

4. Trees, shrubs, or herbs (scandent in 
Tragia) with small 1 -sexual flowers 
in spikes or fascicles. 

Perianth 3-6-fid herbaceous. Stamens 
S-6 often connate in the centre of 
the flower . . . 

II. Perianth composed of both calyx and 
corolla, or if corolla absent (Saraca). 
then calyx highly coloured. 

1. Trees or shrubs (Bauhinia Vahlii is 
a large climber). 

L simple. 

L. penni- veined. Fls. small white, 
vvlth 2-3 perfect stainens 



Piperacesa 

(p. 383^ 

Alternanthera 

(p.i379) 

Amarantus 

(p. 379) 

Viscura (p.376) 



Olax (p. 371) 



Euphorbiaceae 

(p. 209) 



Meliosma 



263) 



93 



ARTIFICIAL KEY, 

%, palmi-nerved, uanally deeply 2-lobed. Banhirda 

Fls. irregular . . . • (p. 295) 

L. pinnate. 

ris. small regular in large panicles , Ailanthna 

(p. 238) 
Fls. irregular in scarlet corymbs. Petals 
absent. St. 3-8 . . , . Saraca (p. 303) 

Fls. irregular in lax racemes. Petals 3 . Tamarindus 

(p. 303) 

2. Herbs, rarely shrubs, climbing by 
means of tendrils. St. often coniiiving 
with curved anther cells. Petals Cncarbitaceae 
white or yellow .... (p. 164) 

Monocotyledons. 

I. Herbs. 

Perianth 0, 

Fls. concealed by overlapping bracts. Gramineae 
Grasses , . . . • (p. 555) 

Flowers with con^icuous corolla. 

L. narrow often equitant. Ovary 

inferior . . . . . Iridaceae 

L. not equitant. Ovary free. Commelinaceaa 
Staminodes present.^ ... (p. 534) 

II. Climbers from a tuberous root. Fls, Dioscoreace89 
1-sexual in slender spikes. . . (p. 528) 

III. Trees or stout shrubs. Palms . Palmse (p. 545) 

Stamens or Anthers 4. 

Vide also Cansjera and Zizyphua under st . 5. 

Dicotyledons. 

I. Perianth or single or not distinctly differentiated into 
calyx and corolla. (Petals present or absent in Ammannia. 
Minute cupular corolla in Cissarapelos), 

S9 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 



1, Herbs or nnderelirubs. 

A. Stamens not connate in a column. 

a. Stamens hypogynous, or fls. 1 -sexual. 

Stout herb with stinging hairs and 
palmi-nerved leaves . 

Stinging hairs absent. 

St. 4-5 free. Staminodes 0. L. with 3 
primary nerves . . . , 

St. 4-5 connate at the base with alterna- 
ting staminodes .... 

h. Stamens 4-5 perigynous. . Herbs of 
damp places often with petals 

B. Anthers minnte on the top of a minute 
colmnn. Climbing under shrub with 
palmi-nerved leaves t • 

2. -Shrnbe. 

a. Parasitic. . . . , « 

h, Scandent, or sub-scandent. 

Glabrous, without staminodes . • 

Pubescent or woolly, with staminodes 
c. Erect. Anthers reversed in bud. 

Fls. in 2-cltotomouB cymes. L. very 

large, sometimes stingiDg • 

Fls. in spicate clusters. L. palmi-nerved 
Trees or in (Glochidion) shrubs. 
A. Leaves simple. 

1. Anthers connate in a sessile column; 

2. Anthers distinct 

a. Flowering while leafless, or with very 

young leaves. 
Fls. fascTcJed.- Fruit a samara 



Girardinia 

(p. 386) 

Pouzolzia 

(p. 388) 

Aerua (p. 381) 

Ammannia 

(p. 356) 

Cissampelos 

(p. 147) 

LoranthacesB 

(p. 373) 

Deeringia 

(p. 379) 

^rua (p. 381) 

Laportea 

(p. 386) 
Bohmeria 

(p. 387) 
Glochidion 

(p. 217) 



Holoptelea 

(p. 389) 



100 



ARTIFICIAL KEr. 

Fl^. spicate. The Mulberry . . Moms (p. 398) 

h. Flowering witli the leaves. 

Fls. capitate. (Female sub-solitary) . Streblu8(p.392) 

Fls. in small axillary cymes . , Trema (p. 390) 

Fls. in catkins. Perianth or of glands. 

Filaments much exceeding the woolly 

bracts . . . . . . Salix (p. 402) 

B. Leaves compound. 

Leaves 2-3-pinnatifid. Fls. in yellow Grevillea 

racemes (p. 385) 

Leaves pinnate. Fls. small greenish. Schleichera 

St. 4-8 . . . . . . . (p. 261) 

n. Perianth double, with both calyx and corolla. (The 
corolla of Vitis often falls off as a cap without expanding.) 

A. Corolla polypetalous (or petals Sometimes cohering to one 
another in Yitis, sometimes cohering at base only ist 
Embelia) videsXso St. 3-5 under St. 3 and St. 5. 

1. Herbs or soft-Ttooded shrubs. 

Aquatic, with floating deltoid leaves and 

white flowers . . . . , Trapa (p. 357) 

Terrestrial. L. pinnate. Fls. yellow . Cassia (p. 299) 

Climbers with tendrils. L. simple or 
digitate. St. 4-5 • . . ■ Vitis (p. 275) 

2. Trees or shrubs. 

Small tree or shrub. Fls. small white 
racemed. St. 4-5 . . . Embelia (p.404) 

Tree with pinnate leaves. Fls. small 
white panicled. St. 4-6 . . , Cedrela (p. 249) 

B. Corolla gamopetalous, or petals 
distinctly connate (sometimes only 
below in Boraginaces^). 

101 



AUTIFICI^L KEY. 



1. Fls, regular or sub-regular. Sta- 

mens not didynamous. 

a. Ovary superior. 

L. alternate. Style once or twice bifid 
L. opposite. Ovary deeply lobed. 
Shrubs or berbs, glandular 

L. •opposite. Ovary not lobed. 

Q-uary imperfectly 2-celled. Ovules 2 in 
each cell . . . . 

Ovary 1- or 2-celled. Ovules many. 
Herbs .•.».. 

Ovary 2-celled. Ovules many. Trees or 
shrubs • • . . . . 

h. Ovaiy iaforior. 

L. opposite \yitli iuterpetiolar stipules or 
whorled ... 

2. Fls. distinctly 2- lipped, or if sub-regular 

then stamens didynamous. 

a, L. simple or pinnatifid. 

i. Ovary deeply 4-lobed with 1 ovule in 

each lobe. Shrubs or herbs 
ii. Ovary ^not deeply 4-lobed (4-grooved 

m some Verbenacese). 

t Ovajy with 4 ovules not Super* 
posed. 

Trees or shrubs, rarely nerbs - • 
Weak climbing shrubs • • • 

ft Ovules 2 ot more superposed on each 
placenta or in each cell of the ovary. 

Herbs with drooping tubular flowers. 
Upper leaves alternate • ^ 



Boraginace89 

(p. 472) 

Labiatae (p.489) 



Callicarpa 

(p. 477) 
Gentianacese 

(p. 420) 

Loganiaceae 

(p. 419) 

RubiacesF 

(p. 494) 



Labiates (p.489) 



Yerbenacese 

(p. 476) 
Thunbergia 

(p. 447) 

Pedaliaceae 

(p. 444"^ 



102 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 



Shrubs or herbs. Leaves all opposite. 
Seeds not winged .... 

Shrub with orange-scarlet flowers. 
Seeds winged .... 

h. Leaves 1-3-pinnate. Seeds winged in 
long linear capsules .... 

c. Leaves digitate .... 

Mosiocotyledons* 

Stout climbers with aerial roots, ot 
spinous marsh herbs. St. 4-6 • » 

Stamens or Anthers 5. 



Acanthacess 

(p. 445) 

Tecoma (p. 444) 

Bignoniacese 

(p. 442) 

Vitex (p. 478) 



Araceaa (p. 549) 



(Small alternating staminodes sometimes present. Vid^ 
also Ammannia st. 4-5 not repeated here, and Salix st. 4-10 
without pei*ianth). 

Oicotyledons. 

I. Perianth simple, or if 2-seriate not 
distinctly differentiated into calyx 
and corolla. {Vide also Umbelliferse 
under II in which the sepals are often 
reduced or absent and some Rham- 
naceae in which the petals are exceed- 
ingly minute). 

a. Leaves simple. 

A. Fifl. 2-sexual. Ovai^y superior (St. 

perigynous in Polygonaceae). 
Perianth sepaloid or petaloid. Herbs 

with ochreous stipules . . , 

Perianth fleshy. Climber with fleshy 
stems . .. • . 



Polygonaceas 

(p. 383) 



Basella (p. 382. 



Perianth petaloid. Pis. yellowish 
Ciimbiog or sub-erect shrubs. 

103 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 



St. 4-5 alternating with staminodes 

St. 4-5. A sub- scan dent slirub with 
stipalar thorns . • • . 

B. Fls. 1-2-sexnal. Ovary superior. 

Herbs (or Deeringia, a rambling slirub) 
with dry or scarious or coloured and 
shining perianth. St. connate below. 
Stipules ..... 

C. Fls. 1-sexual. Perianth sepaloid, or sub- 

membranous. 
1. St. connate in a column in the centre 
of the flower, or if free, then alter- 
nating with disc glands, or anthers 
didymous, or anther cells divaricate EaphorbiacesB 



Cansjera (p,373) 
Zizvphus (p.269) 



Amarantace89 

(p. 378) 



on a broad connective 

2. St. free, usually spreading from the 
centre, one always opposite each tepal. 
Anthers more or less oblong, versatile 
or dor si- fixed. 

Trees. Anthers erect in bud . 

Shrubs or Herbs. Anthers reversed in 
bud . • • • • • 

D. Fls. 2-8exual. Perianth petaloid. 
Ovary inferior. Parasitic shrubs 

/3. Leaves 3-foHolate. Fls. small green 
panicled. Tree 

7. Leaves pinnate. Fls. in scarlet 
corymbs. St, 3-8 perfect. Tree . 

li. Perianth double, calyx and corolla both 
present (Sepals very minute in some 
Araliace» and Umbelliferse. T'etals 
very minute'in some RhamnaceeD). 



(p. 209) 



Ulmace89 


(p. 388> 


Urticace89 


(p. 385^ 


LoranthaceaB 


(p. 373) 


Bischofia 


(p. 227) 


Saraca (p. 303) 



104 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 



A. Petals free (or somewhat connate in 
Leea) (see also Embelia nnder B. 
Myrsinaceaa.) 

1, Fls. 1-sexual. Petals small or minute 

2. Fls. all (or most of them in an inflor- 
escence) 2- sexual. 

a. St. free (not united into a tube, or 
only connate at the base), 
t Leaves minute, scale-like , 

ft Leaves simple, not scale-like. 

a. Herbs or under-shrnbs, not climbing. 

Fls, Small yellov?^ clustered. St. 5-10 
free ... ... 

Stamens connate at base, alternating with 
glands or staminodes .... 

St. connate at base, without staminodes 

j3. Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent. 
Fls. regular or nearly so. 

Petals unequal. Ovary 2-3-celled. (Only 
2 stamens usually fertile) 

Stamens opposite the petals. Ovary half- 
superior 1-celled .... 

Stamens alternate with the petals. Ovary 
superior 1-celled .... 

Ovary 3-5-celled. St. alternate with the 
petals, St. perigynous 

Ovary 2-4-usually 3-celled. St. opposite 
to the petals. St. perigynous or epigyn- 



Buphorbiacesa 

(p. 209) 



TamarioacesB 

(p. 162) 



Corchorus 

(p. 203) 

LinaceaB (p.235) 

SterculiacesB 

(p. 203) 



SabiacesB (p.262) 

Homalium 

(p. 162) 

Anacardiacesa 

(p. 255) 

Gelastracesd 

(p. 265) 

Ehanmacess 

(p. 268) 



105 



ARTIFICIAL K:EY. 



y. Trees or immense cli rubers. L. pal- 
mi-nerved, usually deeply 2-lobed. 

"Is, irregnlar. Fertile stamens 3-5, usu- 
ally with staminodes .... 

'ft Leaves usually digitately compound, 
or deeply palmate or, if simple, palmi- 
nerved with tendrils. 

Herbaceous or verv soft-wooded climbers, 
yis. usually very small . , . , 

yis. large or medium-sized. Stamens on a 
gonophore ...... 

tttt L. digitate. Large climbing shrub 
without tendrils . . , 

ftftt L. pinnate or 2-3 pinnate. 

a. Fls, in simple or compound umbels. 
Sepals sometimes obsolete. St. epi- 
gynouB. 

Trees or shrubs • . , . . 
Cerbe 

5. Fls. racemed or panicled, 

Fls. yellow. Leaves pinnate . 

Fls. small white regular panicled L. 
pinnate ...... 

Fls. white irregular. L. 2-3-pinnate. 
Staminodes 5 .... . 

6. Stamens united into a tube. 

A tree. L. pinnate with 3-7 leaflets 

Herbs or shrubs. Leaves very large anO 
simple, or 1-3- pinnate , . . . 

B. Corolla gamopetalous. 

106 



Bauhinia (p. 37) 



Ampelidacese 

(p. 274) 

Passiflora (p. 61) 
Heptapleuram 
, (p. 369) 



Aracese (p. 549) 
Umbellifer® 

(p. 366) 

Cassia (p. 299) 

Cedrela (p. 249) 

Moringa(p.l74) 

Aglala (p. 255) 
Lcca (p. 278) 



I 



I 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 



1. Stamens free from one another (or 
slightly conniving: in Solanaceae). 

a. Stamens alternate with the petals or 
corolla lobes. 

i. Ovary superior. 

t Leaves opposite. Juice not milky. 

a. L. 2-3-pinnate. Small tree with a 
raceme of large iiTegular flowers 

|3. L. simple. 
Herbs, Ovary 1 or imperfectly 2-c^lle(l. 
Ovules many ..... 

Trees or shrubs. Ovary 2-4-celled. Ovules 
many superposed (seeds 1-many) . 

Trees. Ovary 2-4-celled. Ovules not more' 
than 4 . . . • • . 



tt L. opposite. Trees or shrubs with 
milky juice . . , . , 

ttt Leaves alternate. 

a. Ovules 1-2 in each ovary cell, not 
superposed. 

Twiners, rarely erect, juice sometimes 
milky 

Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs • 

/3. Ovules numerous on two swollen 
placentas . . . • . 

ii. Ovary inferior. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs with o]^posite simple 
leaves and interpetiolar stipules. Fls. 
sometimes aggregated in heads 



Oroxylum 

(p. 413) 

Gentianace89 

(p. 420; 

Loganiace89 

(p. 419) 

Verbenace99 
(Tectona, 
nallicarpa) 

(p. *76) 
Apocynacea3 

(p. 423) 



Convolvulacesa 
(p. 459) 

Boraginaceae 

(p, 472) 

Solanaceaa 

(p. 438) 



Bubiace» 

(p. 494) 



107 



ABTIFICIAL KEY, 

Climbers with palmi-nerved leaves and Oucurbitacefls 
1-dexnal flowers .... (p. 164) 

b. Stamens opposite to the petals or 
corolla lobes. 

i. Juice not milky. Ovary 1-celled. 

tJndershrub. Ovule 1. Styles 5 . . PiumbaginaceaB 

(p. 403) 

Trees or shrubs. Ovules mora than Myrsinacesa 
1. Style 1 (p. 403) 

ii. Juice milky. Ovary 2-3-celled. Sapotaceaa 
Trees or shmbs . . . (Sideroxylon) 

(p. 406) 

2. Staroofls united into a column, or 
anthers connate, or conniving in 
a cone round the stigma and ad- 
herent to it. 

&. Leaves opposite, jnice milky. Fls. 
not in dense heads surrounded by 
an involucre. 

Stamens in a column or, if free, pollen 
forming one or two masses. 

Climbers, rarely small trees or shrubs AsclepiadacesB 
(leafless in Sarcostemma) . . (p. 430) 

Stametis not in a column. Pollen gra- Apocynace89 
nular. Trees, shrubs or climbers . (p. 423) 

b% L. opposite or alt. Fls. ia dense 

heads surrounded by an involucre Compositea 

of .bracts (as in Daisy, Zinnia) . (p. 511) 

108 



f 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 

Stamens or Anthers 6. 

Voh. — Many plants of which the stamens axe normally 5, occasionally 
have 6 stamens. Vide also the following : Saraca St. 3-8. Schleichera St. 
4-8. Salix St. 4-10. Symphorema St 8-6. 

Dicotyledons.— 

I. Perianth simple, or of two or more . whorls bnt not 

distinctly differentiated into calyx and corolla. 

A. Perianth regular. 

Herbs with ochreous stipules and fls. Polygonacese 
in spikes. St. 5-8. . , . (p, 383) 

Climbers with palmi-nerved lep.ves 
and small flowers with several floral 

whorls, of which inner may be Menispermaceae 
petaloid . . • . . (p. 147) 

Trees or shrubs. 

Stamens central or below the pistil- Euphorbiaceae 
lode. Fls. l-sexual ... (p. 209) 

Stamens perigynous. Anthers open- Lanraceaa 
ing by lids .... (p. 150) 

B. Perianth irregular. Stamens 

united into a column with the Aristolochia 
style (p. 384) 

II. Flowers with distinct calyx, and corolla 

A. Stamens free. 

Herbs. Stamens 4 long and 2 Crucifersg 
short ..... (p. 155) 

Herbs. Stamens equal on a gyno- Capparidacese 
phore (p. 155) 

Shrub with yellow racemose flowers 
and spines. Anthers opening by 
lids Berberis (p.l49) 

109 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 

Tree. Stamens opposite the petals Homalmra 
with alternating glands , . (p. 162) 

Tree with very large obovate leaves. Semecarpus 
St. 5-6 not opposite the petals « * (p. 257) 

B. Stamens nnited into a tube. Trees 

with pinnate leaves ^ . • Amoora (p. 254) 

Monocotyledons. 

I. Perianth! 0, or brown, coriaceous or membranous. 

Inflorescence often enclosed in spathss. 

Bamboos, and a few grasses . . Grarainese 

(p. 555) 
Stout climbers with aerial .roots, or a 

stout piickly marsh herb, with 

flowers crowded on a spadix . . Araceae (p. 549) 

Tall trees with slender stems and large 
leaves, or if shrubs or shrubby 
climbers then leaves pinnate or 
pinnatifid . , . . . Palmae (p. 545) 

II. Perianth small regular of two 3-merous whorls, peta- 

loid or sometimes sepal oid. Inflorescence never 
inclosed in spathes. Climbers, or young sub-erect. 

Ovary superior. Leaves (cladodes) Asparagus 
acicular .... (p. 520) 

Fls. 1-sexual. Ovary superior. 

Leaves broad. Fls. in umbels . . Smilax ''p. 518) 

pis. 1 -sexual. Ovary inferior. Leaves Dioscoreaceae 
broad, Fls. in spikes ... (p. 528) 

III. Perianth moderate-sized,. usually showy or coloured. 
L Ovary superior. 

Fls. small blue cymose, often from im- Coramelinace?e 
bricating bracts .... (p. 534) 

Fls. solitary or racemose. Usually 

white or red . . . . Liliacese (p.517) 

110 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 



2. Ovary inferior. 

Leaves simplo . • 

L, 3-partite and pinnatifid 



Amaryllidaceaa 
(p. 522) 

Taccace^ 

(p. 527) 



Stamens or Anthers 7-11 (nsually variable). 

Vide also stamens 8, St. 9, St. 10, and St. 12. 

Dicotyledons. 

I. Perianth simple or 0. 

A. Trees or shrubs. 

1. Leaves simple. 

Fls. in the axils of bracts. Perianth 
of flesby glands or scales . , , 

Tla. 2-sexual or polygamons. Tree 
flowering before the leaves. Stamens 
opposite the sepals. Fruit a samara . 

Fls. 1 -sexual. Stamens in centre of 
flower, or anther cells on a broad con- 
nective ...... 

Stamens alternating with glands or sta- 
minodes, united in a tube below . 

2. Tree with pinnate leaves and scarlet 
corymbs . . . • . 

B. Herbs. 

Stipules ochreous. Green, white or 
pink flowers ..... 

Dwarf fleshy. Stipules or of hairs. 
Petals yellow .... 

II. Calyx and corolla distinct (vide also 
Portulacacea9 above which have two 
deciduous sepal-like members). 



Salix (p. 402) 

Holoptelea 

(p. 389) 

Euphorbiacege 
■ (p. 209) 

Casearia(p. 160) 

Saraca (p. 303) 

Polygonaceae 

(p. 383) 

Portulacacese 

(p. 378) 



m 



ABTIFICIAL KEY. 

Trees or slinibs. 

A. L. simple. Fls. regular. 

L. alternate. St. opposite the 6-7 Homalium 
petals . . . - • (p. 162) 

L. opposite or fascicled. Ovary inferior Eubiacese ' 

(p. 494) 

(Petals and stamena occasionally 6-10 in Gardenia, Randia, Morinda, 
etc.) 

B. L. pinnate. Fls. irregular. St. 3-9 Cealpiniac €8b 
perfect, oft<in with staminodea . (p. 294) 

Stamens or Anthers 8. 

Vide also St. 7-11. The following have normally 8 stamens. 

Petals present in all except Schleichera and Dodoniea 
(Sapindaceee). 

I. Stamens free. Fls. regular. Petals free. 

1. St. hypogynous. Leaves simple or 
pinnate (biternate in Cardiospermum). 

Leaves simple or pinnate, copiously 
gland-dotted Rataceas (p. 241) 

Trees or shrubs for Cardiospermum 

herbaceous) flowering with the leaves. Sapindacese 
St. 8-10 (p. 260) 

Trees flowering before the leaves appear Anacardiaceee 

(Odina and 
Spondias). 
(p. 255) 
Undershrubs or shrubs with clustered Triumfetta 

yellow flowers. St. b-1.5 . . . (p. 202) 

2. Stamens perigynous. Leaves simple. 

Ovary free. Petals 4-6 • . . Lythracese 

(p.354) 

118 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 

Ovary connected by vertical walls to the 
hjrpanthiiim. Petals 4. Herbs or MelaBtomacege 
shrubs "with 3-5-nerved leaves , (p. 357) 

3. Stamens epigynous. L. simple. 

Herbs. Ovary 4-5- celled. . . . Onagracese 

(p. 356) 

Shmbs. Usually scandent or dwarf. CombretacesB 
Osary 1-celled . . - . . (p. 359) 

II. Stamens united. Fls. irregular . , PolygaJacese 

(p. 264) 

III. Stamens free, or somewhat monodel- 
phous (in Himosacese). Corolla 
gamopetalous. 

1. Leaves simple alternate. 

Fls. dioecious. Stamens 8-niany , Diospyros 

(p. 408) 

Fls. 2-sexual. St. 8 with alternating Mimusops 
staminodes , . . . . (p. 407) 

2. L. opposite. St. 6-8. Fls. in capitate Symphorema 
cymes (p. 488) 

3. L. 2-pinnate. Fls. very small in 

globose heads . , . . Mimosa (p. 286) 

Stamens 9. 

Vide also St 7-11, and stamens 8-10 (Sapindacese). 

Dicotyledons. 

Fls. regular. Anthers opening by lids. LauracoBB 
Staminodes usually present , . (p. 150) 

Fls. irregular, papilionaceous . . Papilionacese 

(p. 308) 

Monocotyledons. 

Trees or shrubs with pinnate leaves . PalmsB (p. 545) 

U3 



ARTIFICIAL KEY, 



Stamens or Anthers 10, 

Vide also stamens 7-11. 

I. Perianth reduced to swollen glands. 
Fls. in the axils of small bracts in 
catkin-like spikes .... 

II. Perianth simple. Petals absent. 

A. Stamens free, or only united into a 
tube at the base. 

1. Leaves simple, not palmate, alter- 
nate. St. hypogynoas or perigynoas. 

Stamens with alternating staminodes 
united at the base . . 

Staminodes absent. A glabrous some- 
what resinous shrab . 

2. Leaves simple opposite. Stamens 

epigynoas .... 

3. Leaves pinnate .... 



Salin (p. 402) 



Casearia (p. 160) 

Dodon£ea(p.262) 

Combretacese 

(p. 359) 

Schleichera 

(p. 261) 



Sterculia 

(p. 204) 



B. Stamens in a column surmounted by 
a ring of sessile anthers. 
Leaves palmi-nerved, palmate, or 
digitate. Fls. while leafless 

III. Calyx and corolla both present. 

A. Flowers regular. Petals free or nearly so (except in 
some Mimosacese). 

1. Leaves scale-like, Erectshmti Tamaricacese 

(p. 1G2) 

2. Leaves well -developed. 

a. Stamens free. {Vide p. 116.) 

i. Trees flowering while leafles3, or occasionally 
(Boswellia) with the young leaves also. 

a Fls. in very slender spikes, 

green. Lflts. entire . , Odina (p. 256) 



114 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 



Boswellia 

(p. 240) 



Garnga 

(p. 240) 

SpondiaB 

(p. 259) 



/3 Fls. in stout racemes, white. 
Lflts. opposite, coarsely 
toothed .... 

y Fls. in terminal panicles. 

Calyx campanalate, 5-fid., val- 
vate. Ovary 4-5-celled. 
Lflts. crenate . • . 

Calyx small 5 -toothed, 
imbricate. Ovary 4-5- 
oelled. Ijflts. entire 
Calyx deeply lobed. Ovary 3- 
oelled, 3-lobed. Lflts gland Chloroxylon 
dotted . . . • (p. 249) 

ii. Flowering with the new leaves, or with fully 
developed leaves (exc. sometimes Limonia, a 
small thorny tree belonging to the Rutaceae). 
t Leaves simple. 

Tree. Carpels free, only one deve- 
loping. . , • . 

Undershrnbs. Fls. small yellow. 

L. sometimes lobed 
ft Leaves simple or compound, 

copiously dotted with oil 

glands. 
Trees or shrubs. Ovary 4-6- 

celled, sometimes lobed • 

ttt Leaves pinnate or 2-foliolate, 
not glandular. 

Tree. Lflts. mostly alternate, 
very coarsely toothed. Ovary 
deeply lobed • 

Tree. Lflts. mostly opposite, entire 
or serrate. Ovary 3- 5 -celled 
entire « • • . • 



Buchanania 

(p. 258) 

TiliacesB 

(p. 192) 



Kutacese 



(p. 241) 



Ailanthus 

(p. 238) 



Bursera 



(p. 241) 



lis 



AETIFICIAL KEY. 



Small tree or sbmb. Thorny. 

L, pinnately 2-foliolate 
Herb wiih opposite pinnate 

leaves (Fam, Zygophyllaceaa) . 
tttt Leaves 2 pinnate 

Small cultivated tree • 
b. Stamens united at the base or 

throughout into a tube. 
i. Leaves simple, not gland-dotted 
(external glands in Jatropha). 
o. Ovary superior. 

Leaves entire alternate with 

one primary nerve 
Leaves palmi- nerved, often 

deeply palmately lobed. 

Fls. 1 -sexual. Shrubs with 
thick branches 

Fls. 2-sexual 

j3. Ovary inferior. Leaves oppo- 
site. 

Herbs . • . • 

Shrubs or underahrubs 

ii. Leaves pimiate, alternate. 
Leaves g 1 a n d-d o 1 1 e d. 

Stamens irregularly connate . 
Stamens united at the base only. 

Styles 5. Cultivated tree 

Staminal tube long. Style 1 

iii. Leaves 2-pinnate. Corolla 
UBually gamopetalous 

116 



Balanites 

(p. 239) 

Tribulus 
Leucaeua 

Cp, 285) 

{vide p. 114) 



Erythroxylon 

(p. 236) 



Jatropha 

(p. 229) 

Sterculiaceas 

(p. 203) 



Onagracese 

(p. 356) 

Combretacea9 

(p 359) 

Rutaceae (p.241) 

Averrhoa 

(p. 236, 

Meliacese 

(p. 248) 

Mimosaceae. 

(p. 284) 



ARTIFICIAL KEY, 

B. Flowers irregular {vide p. 114) 

1. Leaves simple opposite • . Hiptage. 

(p. 263) 

2. Leaves alternate, simple 1-3-folio- 

late or pinnate. Fls. papiliona- Papilionaceae 
ceons ..... (p. 308) 

3. Leaves alternate, 1-2-pinnate. Csesalpiniaceae 

Fls. not papilionaceous • . (p. 294) 

Stamens or Anthers 12-16. 

See also Menispermaceaa with 6 stamens and 6 stamioodes, and 
under stamens many. 

Dicotyledons. 

I. Herbs or undersliriibs. 

Sep. 0, Pet. 3. St. 9-12 (but only 

3 nsnally perfect) . . . Olax (p. 371) 

Sep.^ deciduous. Pet. 4-5. St. 8-12 . Portulaca 

(p. 378) 
Sep. 4. Pet. 4. St. 12-20 • • . CapparidacesB 

(p. 155) 
Sep. 4-5. Pet. 4-5. St 8-15 . . Tiliacese 

(p. 192) 

II. Trees or shrubs. 

A. Perianth simple or, if double, not 
differentiated into calyx and corolla. 

1. Fls. 1-sexnal or stamens hypogynous. 

Anthers sessile in a ring on the top of a Sterculia 

column ..... (p. 204) 

Anthers not sessile. 

Fls. axillary clustered . . , Cyclostemon 

(p. 225) 

Fla. m long spikes or racemes . , Groton (p. 228) 

Fls. in heads of close umbels sur- 
rounded by whorls of imbricating (Lauracese) 
bracts. L. often aromatic . . (p. 150) 

117 



ARTIFICIAL KEY, 



Lanraceas 

(p. 150) 

CombretaceaB 

(p. 35y) 

Woodfordia 

(p. 354) 



2. Fls. 2-sexiial or polygamous. 
St. perigynous or epigynous. 

JFls. clustered or panicled Anthers open- 
ing by lids 

Fls in dense heads, or in spikes. Anthers 
not opening by lids. Ovary quite 
inferior ..... 

Fls. scarlet in short axillary cymes. 
Petals or 6 resembling the calyx lobes 
B. Perianth distinctly differentiated into 
calyx and corolla. 

^.B.— Fide also Croton above which .as greenish petals and Wood 
fordia which usually has petals. 

1. Petals free, or only adnate at base 
to the staminal tube in Kydia. 

Leaves opposite. Petals very small 
toothed. Ovary inferior . . 

Leaves alternate. Petals white. Ovary 
superior , 

2. Corolla gamopetalous. 
Leaves alternate. Fls 1 -sexual 



Garallia (p.359) 
Kydia (p. 192) 



Leaves opposite. Corolla with G-many 
entire lobes. Fls. 2-sexual 



Ebenace8e(p.40S) 

Symphorema 

(p. 488) 



Stamens or Anthers many 

Occasionally the nnmber is only 15 or 16 vide also Ijanraceffi above 
in which, from the fls. being collected in heads, the stamens may appear 
numerous. 

Dicotyledons. 

I. Perianth single. Petals absent. 
A. Fls. 1-sexual. 

1. Fls. green or yellow, not tubular. 

118 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 

Anther cells globose, terminal or adnate 
to a broad connective, rarely (Gelo- 
nium) anthers oblong and dorsifixed. 
L. alternate or in (Trewia) opposite. Euphorbiaceae 
Sepals 3-6 imbricate or valvate . , (p. 209) 

Anthors versatile. L. alternate. Sep. 

4-5 imbricate . . . ♦ Bixaceae (p. 157) 

2. Calyx tubnlar green or coloured. 

Anthers sessile on the top of a coiamn. 

L. alt. palmate or pal mi-nerved . Sterculia (p. 204) 

B. FJs. 2-sexaal Fls. -with large white 

sepals. L. opposite, compound , . Clematis ''p. 140) 

II. Petals present, but ! flowers small 
green or yellowish, in racemes or spikes. 
L. simple, Chrozophora, Croton, (Euphorbiaceee) 
Codiaeum (p. 209) 

'II. Perianth pale or coloured of two 
or more 3-merous whorls, the inner 
one or more of which may be dis- 
similar and petaloid. Carpels free, 
except in Anona (Custard-apple.) . 
Fls. large, solitary. Carpels on an 
elongate axis . , . . , Michelia (p.l41) 

Fla. small or moderate-sized. Carpels Anonacea? 

in a head or umbel .... (p. 142) 

IV. Perianth distinctly separated into 
calyx and corolla. 

A. Corolla polypetalous, or petals only 
united at the base (vide p. 122) 

1, Stamens hypogynous, or on a hypo- 
gynous disc {vide p. 121). 

a. Filaments completely united or only 
free at the apex. 

119 



ARTIFICIAL KEY, 



Stamens united into a flesliy mass in 
the M. fl. or into 4 masses in the 2- 
sexujw! flower. Leaves opposite. Juice 
yellow ...... 

Fls. 2-sexual. Anthers 2-celled on a 
column or tube, usually in groups 
or alternating with stamiuodes. L. 
alte -nate, nsnally palmi-nerved • 

FIs. 2-sexual. Anthers 1-celled crowded 
on the tube above. Staminodes 0. 
Leaves as in Sterculiaceae 

b, Filaments only united below, or ruite 
free, or loosely connate in some Ruta - 
ceaa and Camellia. 

i. Leaved simple or digitate alternate. 

t L. palmi-nerved, palmate or digitate. 
Trees or shrubs. 

Fls. small or medium, axillary, clustered 
or cymose. White or yellow 

Fls. rather large, yellow, solitary or 
panicled on the new shoots, with 
3-5 bracteoles and spathaceous calyx . 

Fls. large in terminal panicles. White 
or rose. Leaves glandular beneath. 
Cultivated 

Fls, in terminal corymbs. White, yellow 
or pink. Leaves 3-foliolate 

Fls. very large, scarlet, appearing before 
the leaves .... 

Fls. very large, yellow, appearing before 
the leaves. Carpels completely united. 
Style 1 (cp. Dillenia, below) .• 



Garcinia(p.l77) 



Sterculiace88 

(p. 203) 

Malvaceae 

(p. 179) 



TiliaceaB (p.l92) 

Eriolsena (p. 207) 

Bixa (p. 158) 
CratsBva. (p.l56\ 
Bombax (p. 192) 



Cochlospermum 
(p. 158) 



120 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 



ft L. penni- veined, simple. Trees. 

Els. very large or large, yellow and 
appearing before the leaves, or white 
and leaves evergreen. Carpels dis- 
tinct above or with distinct styles. 
Styles 5, 10 or 20 (op. Cochlosper- 
mum, above) .... 

The Sal Tree. Fls. white panicled. 
Style entire pointed 

fft L. penni -veined, simple. Shrubs or 
(Ochna squarrosa) a small tree. 

Evergreen. Fls. white solitary. Styles 
3-5 connate below. The Tea plant 

Deciduous (0. pumilais a dwarf under- 

shrub). Fls large yellow in corymbs. 

Ovary deeply lobed. Styles connate , 
Thorny shrubs. Fls. white or pink. 

Style 0. Ovary on a gynophore 

tttt Herbs with yellow juice and often Papaveraceae 
pinnatifid or prickly leaves , . (p. 155) 

ii. Leaves compound, or in some Kutacess 
1-foliolate. 

Leaves copiously pellucid punctate with 
oil glands ..... 

Leaves not glandular. A climbing shrub 
with the terminal leaflet usually con- 
verted into a tendril 

2. Stamens perigynoUs or, if epi- 

gynous carpels with separate styles 

Leaves alternate. Styles separate (N.B. 

^ Pygeum, as in the Plum, has only one 

carpel, and therefore only one stylo) , Rosacese (p. 282) 
Leaves opposite. Style 1. Sepals and Lagerstroemia 
petals usually 6 . . (P- 355) 

121 



Dillenia (p. 175) 
Shorea (p. 178) 

Camellia (p.l77) 

Ochnacese 

(p. 237) 

Capparis (p. 156) 



Rutace89 (p. 241) 

Naravelia 

(p. 140) 

{yide p. 119) 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 

8. Stamens epigynous. Styles connate 

into 1. 
a. 'Flesliy prickly shrubs with large 

flowers ...... Cactaceoe(p.28l^ 

h. Trees, sometimes small. Leaves alter- 
nate. 

Fls. medium-sized, white in axillary 
fascicles ..... Alangium (p.76) 

/Is, very large, white or pink, in short 

spikes ...... Careya (p. 353) 

Fls. medium, in pendulous racemes . Barring f'-^nia 

(p. 353) 
c Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite. 

Fls. scarlet Punica (p. 356) 

Fis. white. Leaves usually gland-dotted • Myrtaceaa 

(p. 350) 
B. Corolla gamopetalous. {Vide p. 119) 

1. Leaves simple alternate. 

1 Is 1-sexual. Juice not milky Ebenaceaa 

(p. 408) 
Fls. 2-sexual. Juice milky . , Sapotaceas 

(p. 406) 

2. Leaves 2-pinnate. Fb. very small Mimosacece 

in globose heads or in spikes . (p. 284) 

Monocotyledons. 

Small trees or shrubs with long narrow 
spinous- toothed leaves and small 
flowers crowded on a spadix wioh Pandanus 
white spathes. Perianth 0. . . (p. 555) 

Palms with pinnate and pinnatifid 

leaves with flabellif orm Iflts. . . Caryota (p.547) 

Table III. 

This table may be used in the case of dioecious plants 
when the males are not available. P]aiit.s with 1 -sexual 
flowers, but vf^onxcious are inclcded in Table II. 



ARTIFICIAL KEY, 



A. Ovary apocarpous with 3-12 free 

carpels each with a stigma. 

Climbing shrubs with .palmi-nerved 
leaves • . . . » 

B. Ovary syncarpous, or of one carpel only. 

I. Style or 1. Stio-ma 1 {vide aisc 
Lauracet© under III, in which stig- 
mas sometimes scarcely lobed) . 

t a. Perianth 0. 

Ovaries with disciform stigma crowded 
on a spadix. Spathe present . • 

6. Perianth present simple green. 

Sepals 4, or perianth 2-3-toothed. Stigma 
slender papillose or penicillate. Ovule 

JL. • • •• • • 

Sepals 3. Stigma subulate lateral. Ovary 
and capsule waxy. Ovule 1 . , 

Sepals 4-5. Stigma capitate. Ovules lew 
on parietal placentas , . , 

c. Perianth of calyx and corolla. Ovules 
few central , . . 

• Stigma large 3-lohed vide stigmas 3. , 

II. Styles, style arms or stigmas 2, some- 
times bifid. 

o. Perianth 0, or reduced to a gland. 
Flowers in spikes or catkins. 

Trees with slender branches and leaves 
reduced to scales connate in sheaths, 
Fls. in ovoid heads, bracteate and 
bracteolate .... 

Trees or shrubs. Fls. in long spikes with 
email hairy biactS; each with a lunate 

123 



!Melli^permfice89 
(p. 147) 



Arisa9ma(p.553) 



Urticacero 

(p. 385) 

Macaranga 

(p. 232) 

Xylo3ma(p.l59) 

Embelia (p.404> 

Cucurbitace89. 
(p. 164) 



Casuarina (p.81) 



ARTIFICIAL KEY, 



flesliy disc. Stigmas 2 snb-sessile 
lobed, or 4. . . • 

Climbing or prostrate herb with cordate 
leaves and ovaries crowded on fleshy 
spikes, mixed with peltate bracts • 

6. Perianth simple green; or, in 
Euphorblaceaa, with green or very 
minnte petals. 

1 . Ovary 1-celled. Ovule ] pendnlons. 

Fls. in spikes. Styles 2, or 1-2-partite, 
Sepals 4 accrescent in fruit. The 
Mulberry . . . . 

Fls. in axillary cymes (often monoecious). 
Style with two linear arms. Sepals 

Fls. peduncled solitary or few together 
axillary. Style with two long arms. 
, Sepals 4 embracing the ovary . 

2 Ovary 2-celled, or if O'jary 1-celled 
ovules 2 (Antidesm/ct) or several 
(Xylosma). 
Ovary usually 1 -celled. Fls. racemed. 
Stigmas lobed or bifid, , • 

Ovary 1-or imperfectly 2-celled. Stig- 
mas capitate. Fls. in short racemes. 
Sepals 3-5. Ovules on parietal 
placentas ..... 

Ovary 2-celled. 
Styles often 
often dilated 
2-lobed , . . . 

c. Perianth doable, with caiyx and corolla. 
Corolla gamopetalous. 

124 



Ovules 1-2 in each cell, 

twice-forked, stigmas 

and sessile, sometimes 



Salix (p. 402) 
Piper (p. 384) 



Moras (p. 392) 
Trema (p. 390) 
Streblus (p.392) 



Antidesma 

{p. 225) 



Xylosma (p.l59) 



EuphorbiacesB 

(p. 209) 



ABTIFICIAL KEl 



EuphorbiacesB 

(p. 209) 

LanracesB 

(p. 150) 



Styles or stigmas 2-4. Ovary cells 
4-10, usually 6-8. Ovules 1 in each 
cell. Trees, sometimes flowering while Diospyros 
leafless (p. 408) 

III. Styles, style-arms or stigmas 3, some- 
times bifld. 

o. Perianth or small green, sometimes 
2-seriate or with very small or green 
petals. Erect trees or shrubs (or 
Tragia, a climber). 

Ovary 3-celled or (Phyllanthus) several- 
celled. Stigmas 3 lainute, or styles 3 
often bifid, or stigmas simple or 
2-lobed. Ovules 1-2 in each cell r 

Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled. L. often 
aromatic and fls. capitate 

h. Perianth green or white, tepals usually 

6 in two series. 
Monocotyledonous climbers, often prickly. 

Shrubby, not twining. Fls. umbelled. 
Ovary superior .... 

Herbaceous' or shrubby. Twining. Fls. 
spicate. Ovary inferior 

c. Calyx and corolla quite distinct. Fls. 
usually large. 

Dicotyledonous climbers with tendrils 
and inferior ovary .... 

d. Calyx and corolla distinct. Trees with 
gamopetalous corolla and superior 
ovary. {Vide also supra) . • 

IV. Styles or stigmas 4 or more. 

Vide also above Euphorbiaceae under II and III. Several Euphor- 
biaoe5)UB genera, e.g., Cyclostemon Bischofia, Trewi* Mallotaa have 
occasionally 4 styles or stigmas ana a 4-celled ovary, but 2-8-celled 

125 



Smilax (p. 518) 

Dioscorea 

(p. 528) 



CucurbitacesB 

(p. 164) 

Diospyros 

(p. 408) 



ARTIFICIAL KEY. 



OTaries may be fonnd on the same individual, 
have a 4-lobed stigma. 



GacarbitacegB sometimea 



a. Petals O. 

Sepals 6, 2 seriate, or embracing the 
ovary as a tubular calyx. Disc glands 
O. Styles connate in a knob or column, 
stigmas very minute. Ovary 3-15- 
celled. Cells 2-ovuled 

Sepals 4-5. Disc-lobes 4-5. Styles 4-6, 
sometimes 4-11 capitellate small. 
Ovary 4-fi-celled. Small, usually 
thorny, tree ..... 

h. Petals 4-5, free imbricate, twice as 
long as the sepals. Stigma of 6-8 
spreading papillose rays. Ovary 
several-celled, usually 6 . 

c. Corolla gamopetalous. Styles 3-4 
short, sometimes lobed or bifid. vary 
4-10, usually 6-8-ceUed t 



Glochidion 

(p. 217) 



Flacourtia 

(p. 159) 



Garcinia 

(p. 177) 

Diospyros 
(p. 408) 



LIST OF THE ANCIOSPERMOIS FAMILIES. 



DICOTYLEDONS. 

CBORIPETALiE. 

I. Ranales. 

1. Eannnculaceae 

2. Magnoliaceffi . 

3. Aaouaceai , . . 

4. MenispermacesB . , 
§. Berberidaceiu , . 

6. LauraceiB . .. . 

IL Parietales. 

7. Papayerace-je . , , 

8. Cruciferfe . , , , 

9. Capparidaceae . , 

10. BixaceiB . . « . 

11. SamjdacesB , , , 

12. Taraaricaceje . . , 
Paesifloraceie . , , 
Papayaeeje . , , , 

13. Cucurbitacea? 

14. Moringaceix; . . . 

ni. GDttiferales. 

15. Dilleniacea? 

16. Ternstrccmfacese 

17. Gnttiferaceie . , 

18. Dipterocarpacete 

IV. Mai vales. 

19. Malvacece • . . • 

20. Tiliaoeic . . • . 

21. SterculiacGiB 

V. Eapherbiales. 

22. EuphorbiaccOT . . . 

TI. Geraniales. 



Paqe. 



139 

141 
142 
147 
149 
150 



155 
166 
]66 
157 
160 
1G2 
61 
61 
161 
174 



175 
177 

177 
178 



179 

192 
203 



209 



23. Linaeec 




236 


24. Geraniacecp 




236 


25. Ochuacete , , 




237 


26. Simarubaoo.T) , 




• 238 


27. Zygophyl laces . 




239 


28. Burseracea* 




289 


29. Satacese . . 




241 


30, Meliaceie . • 




2iB 


Vil. Sapindales. 




SI. A'lacardiaoea) , 


• « 


255 


'ii. Kai>iudacea> 


. • 


2G0 



33. Sabiaceae .... 

34. MalpighiacejB 

35. Poljgalaceae 

VIII. Celastrales. 

36. Celastracea; 

37. KharaiiaceiB . , \ 

38. AmpelidaceiB • . * 

LX. Opuntiales. 
39» Cactacea: . . , , 
X. Rosales. 

40. EosacesB .... 

XI. LegnmlDosse. 

41. Mimosaccie 

42. Csesalpiniacea , , 

43. PapilioDacea 

XII. Myrtales. 

44. Myrtace* • ., . , 

46. Lythraoeac , „ * ^ 

46 C'nagracea? . . 1 * 

47. Mclastomacea? 

48. Khizophoracea) , . ', 

49. Uumbretaceaj 

XIII. Umbellales. 

60. rmbelliferae 

51. Araliaccffi .... 

62. Cornaceaj . , , , 

XIV, Olacales. 

63. Olacaceae .... 

XV. Santalales. 

64. LoranthaGe<Ti ^ 

55. Saatalaccffi a ', ', 

XVI. CuTTenbryeae. 



.56. Portalaeaccoe 
Nyctag'.nace.-B 
57. Anjaraataocaj 
68. Cheuopodiace^ 



XVII. Polygonales. 



59. Poljfor.ciceiu 

60. Pj?e:t.i;eiL- , 



Pagi. 

262 
263 
264 



265. 
268 
274 



2S1 
282 



284 
294 
SOS 



350 
354 
SS6 
357 
353 
369 



366 

368 
3G9 



370 



378 

377 



378 

78 

378 

362 



383 
383 



LIST OF THE /^^GIOSPEKMOUS FAMILIE;^. 



PaOB. 



XTIU. Arlstoloelilales. 

€1. ArifltolochiacesB . , . 
Proteales. 
Protescea» . . • • 

XIX. Crtlcales. 

62. Urticaoese . • • • 

65. U^iQAuese • • • • 
64. Moracese . . • • 

XX. Salicales. 

66. Salicaceae . . . • 
CasaahDaces • • 

SYMPETALAE. 

I. Primalales. 

66. Plambaginaoesa , . . 
97. Myreinaceae . . . 

II. Ebenales. 

68. ?apotaceaB . . . *• 

69. Ebenacese . • • • 
yo. Styraco® ...» 

III. Oleales. 

71. Oleacese .... 

IV. Gentianales. . 

72, Loganiaceffl . • • 

73, Gentianacea • • • 

74. ApocjoacesB • • • 
76. AaolepiadaoesQ 

V. Personales. 

76. SolanaccsB . 
Scrophalariaoea. 
Orobanchaoeffl. 

77. Bignoniaee© . . • 

78. Pedaliaceae .... 

79. Acanthace» . . 

YI. Polemonialei. 

80. CouTOlvolacea . • • 



381 
386 



386 

388 
391 



402 
81 



403 
403 



406 
408 
412 



414 



419 

420 
423 
4:10 



438 



442 

414 
445 



469 



YU. Lamiales. 

81. Boraginacea . . • 

82. Verbenace» 

83. Labiatffi .... 

Yni. Rubiales* 
81. Babiaoea .... 

IX. Asterales* 
86. CompoBitffi ... 

MONOCOTYLEDONS. 
I. Liliiflorese. 

86. Liliacese .... 

87. AmaryllidaceaB . . 

8S. Taccacese . . • * 

89. Diosooreacese • . 

II. Commelinales. 

90. Commelinacese • . • 

III. Soitaminese. 

91. MaBiu;e» . . <" • 

92. Zingiberaoes . . . 

93. Marantacea . • * 

lY. Gynandreae. 

Orchidacea . • . 

Y. SpadicifiorsQ. 

91, PaloQffl . • . • 

95. Araceae , . . • 

96. Pandanace» . . . 



Paob. 



472 
476 
489 



484 



611 



617 

622 

627 ; 

628 



634 



6S6 
637 

644 



YI. Glamiflor». 



Cyperacec. 
97. QiaminesQ 



546 
649 
666 



666 



128 



\ 



THE FLORA. 

CLASS FILICIN-SJ. 

iTHE FERNS. 

FAM. 1. CYATHE VCEE (p. 55.) 

1, Alsophila, Brown. 

1. A. glabra, Hook. 



A tree fern usnally 10-20 ft. high. Petiole asperons. 
Rachis almost black-purple. Fronds 1-2-pinnate with 
pianse 1|-2J ft. long, pinnules S-B" bj 5-9'' wide glabroue 
beneath pinnatifid |th to | the way down. Veins simple or 
a few bifurcate (Beddome). 
Chota NagpuTj Train. 



°J 



Prain (Bengal Plants) saya '* a tall tree-fern." I do not recollect any 
lotW tree-fern in Chota Nagpnr. 

FAM. 3. POLYPODIACE j; (p. 56.) 

Stem never tall (unless scandeut), usually underground, 
with tho leaves scattered, or in a terminal crown. Fronds 
from simple to decompound. Sori usually dorsal, sometimes 
marginal. Indusium present or absent, or sori covered by 
the recurved leaf margin. Sporangia usually Jong-pedicelled 
with a vertical annulus, which is incomplete on one side 
near the pedicel, where it gives place to more transversely 
Blongated but thinner- walled cells (stomium) across which 
the sporangium ruptures when ripe. 

I Only the more striking ferns are described. 
12P 



2, POLYPODIACH^. [1. NirHBODiUM. 

A. Sori ronndisli * dorsal. Indtisitim roundish 

attached by its centre or a sinus, rarely 
evanescent, or present in some sori and absent 
in others. 

Indusium kidney-shaped or evanescent. Veins not 
anastomosing, or only the tips joining those 
from the next costa 1. Nephrodium^ 

Indusium peltate. Veins copiously anastomosing 2. Aspidium^ 

B. Sori roundish close to the margin or marginal, 

not confluent. Indu^sium present. 

Sori sub-apical on the lobes, indusium attached by 
base and sides S. OdontosoriaK 

Sori within the margin, indusium attached by the 
base only 4. Hwnata, 

C. Sori elongate dorsal, straight or curved. Indusium 

present. 
Sori attached sideways to the fertile veins • . 5. Asplenium. 

Sori short. Indusium often curved or hook' 
shaped over the vein ...... 6. Athyrium. 

Sori continuous along the rachis of the pinna . 7. Blechnum, 

D. Sori linear, close to the margin Or marginal. 

1. Stipes not black and polished. 

Sori on a marginal nerve, with a marginal 
indusium 8. Pteris. 

2. Stipes black and polished. 

Finnee not broadening apically. Sori at the 
thickened ends of the nerves, sometimes con- 
fluent. Leaf -margin recurved . . , .9. Cheilanihes, 

Pinnae or leaf segments faU'^shaped 
apically) 10. Adiantmn. 

E. Sori without any indusium, usually sunk in the 

frond. Stipes articulate to the rhizomo . 11, PolypodiiurL 



1. JVephrodinm, Schott. 

Stout ferns witb the fronds more or less coriaceotii 
Fronds 1-2-pinnate, the fertile similar to, or differing fron 
the barren. Venation quite free, or the veins of one tooth < 
segment uniting in an intermediate nerve w^th those of tl 

ISO 



2. POLYFOBIACEJE. [1. NbpheodiuK 

kdjacent eegments. Indusium roand-cordate, persisteni 
[except in moulmeiaenBe). 

[. Veins quite free. 

Fronds nearly or quite 2-pinnate. Fertile uulike 
the barren . . . . , . . . . !• cochlf^Htn, 

Fronds pinnate and pinnatisect, witli narrow 
falcate segments ... ... 2. falcilohum. 

2. One or more of the veins uniting with those of 
the next segment or costa. 

Pinnae pinnatilobed, lobes oblong . • .3. molle. 

PinnsB toothed. Indusium evanescent . . 4i. moulmeinenM. 

1. N. cochleatum, i)o». 

Barren fronds larg^, snb-2-pinnate, or pinnate and pinnati- 
sect, old glabrous, reaching 3| ft. by 15*. Fertile smaller, 
thickly covered on the somewhat concave under-surface of 
the pinnules with the brown indnsia of the large aori. 

On shady banks and near streams, common in Sal forests etc. Sing* 
bhum ; common on Parasnath (Hazaribagh) ; and on the Tundi Hills 
(Manbhum)i ; Sant. Par. ; Fr. Nov. -Dec. 

Khizome horizontal stont thickly covered with the old leaf -bat ua and 
with large light-brown shining scales at the apex. Fronds tufted. Stipes 
'np to Ijft. in barren and 2 ft. in fertile fronds, base scaly and hairy. 
Pinnos of barren frond 12-17 pairs sub-opp. lanceolate-acuminate,* basal 
■Qot parallel to the others ; pinnules j-lf '' lobed or orenate and distinctly^ 
serrate ; sec. rachis usually with a narrow wing. Fertile frond sometimes 
)nth long soft brown haira on the firm round rachis ; pinnules i-1'' 
ierrate. 

2. N. falcilobniU, Hooh. Syn, N. calcai-atum, var* 

falciloba, Bedd, 

A very elegant tufted fern with pinnate tufted fronds 
.bout 18" long, with close linear lanceolate deeply pinnatifid 
»inn89, and remarkable for the bract- like appendages on. 

^ ihe stipes and also at the base of many of the lower 

'' jinnae. 

, Along streams in the forest. Fr. March-April, 



^ Campbell under Lasirea Filix-maa* 
131 



G 2 



2. PI. NEPHBODirM. ] OLYPODIACE^. [ 2. Aspidium. 

Caudex erect often projecting considerably abov? the gronnd. Stipes 
ihortalmoBt glabrous. Pinnos^ about 4^" by i". Bachis and sec. rachis 
with fine hairs. Lobes oblong-lanceolate or falcate vwith prominent 
coBtffi. 8oH, small, indusium reniform. 

3. N. molle, Desv. 

Fronds tufted oblong -lanceolate 1-3 ft. more or less, 
softly hairy all over, pinnate. Pinnae caudate cut abont 
half-way down into rounded lobes. Lowest one or two veins 
of each costa nniting with an intermediate nerve opposite 
the sinus. 

Common near streams. Fr. Nov.'Dec. 

Stipes long, somewhat rongh below. Lowesfc one or two pairs of 
pinncp ."bovlQi and often deflexed. Custes stroag, veins rather obscure. 

4. N. moulmeinense, Bedd. Syn. Polypodium multilinea- 

tnm, Wall. 

A large fern with the pinnate fronds 3-5J ft. long 
arising separately from the nnderground rhizome. Pinnae 
sharply serrate. Easily recognized by the strong parallel 
cost89, and the regular veins uniting obliquely with an inter- 
mediate zig-zag or nearly straight nerve joining their apices. 

Damp shady places near rivers, Singbhnm. Tnndi hills. Campbell. Fr. 
Nov.'Dec. 

Stipes not scaly. Pinnce attain 12" by 1^", linear-lanceolate 
oandate, often with a large gland at the base. Pairs of veins 11-16 
coningate, and 5-8 in the perrature on the larger pinnae, and with a 
marginal nerve. Induiium can only sometimes be found in nearly mature 
Bori. 

5. N. aridum» Don. Somewhat resembles the last. Fronds attain 
5 ft., but the lower snrfaoo is hairy, and the piunaa cut about ^rd of the 
way down, and indnsium present. 

8. "N". truncatum, Fred. Has also fronds about 5 ft. Pinnas cut 
ahoot half way down and the lobes shallowly crenate. Indusium reni- 
form. Chota Nagpur, Wood. 



3. ispidinin, Swartz, 

Fronds more membranous than in Nephrodium, simple 
to pinnate. Feitilo and barren similar. Veuation reticu- 

132 






2, AspiDiuM.] 2. POLTPODIACUJE. [4. Humata, 

late with generally free included veinlets in the areoles. 
Indusium peltate or somewhat reniform. 

1. A. cicutarium, Sw. 

A tnfted fern with the fronds often 2|-3 ft. by 1 ft. 8* 

deltoid, pinnatifid, or pinnate below with the pinnsB deeply 

pinnatifid, rarely 2-pinnate. Sori at the ends of the free 

included veinlets. Indusium attached by the center, usually 

with a sinuB. 

Shady banks, common. Fr. Nov.-Jany. 

Btipes deep chestnut brown flattened, with few oblong scales. Pinnos 
pubescent above and on the nerves beneath, often much produced below 
pinnatifid with the lobes crenate. 



3. OdontOSOria, Presl. (Stenoloma, Fee.) 

Sori quite terminal on the lobes of the frond, theindnsium 
fused at the base and sides to the lobe, and, with it forming 
a terminal cup containing the sporangia . L. several times 
pinnate with veins forked free. Stipes not articulate to the 
rhizome. 

1, 0. chinensis, ^« Syn. Davallia chinensis, Sw. ; Steno- 
loma chinensis, Sw. 

A very beautiful fern with 3-pinnate fronds 2-3| ft. long, 
the pinnules cut into linear-obcuneate forked lobes bearing 
the sori on their expanded tips. 

Along streams in Saranda. Fr. April, 

Rootstoch tnfted with ?hiniDg-brown scales, stipes glabrous polished 
8-18" ; pinn(s 2^-4" distant alt. with the rachis flattened and grooved 
above. Apex of lobe minutely toothed. The cups often geminate. 

To the closely allied genus Humata belong two ferns, viz^ H. 
immersa, Wall, and H. pulchra, Don. with widely creeping rhizomes 
and thin 3-pinnate frords. The indusium is of similar shape to the last, 
but is not fused at the sidus, and the sori are intra-marginal. The 
segments of the frond in H. immersa are roundly lobed with the lobes 
«reiiate above in H. pnlchra, the lobes are narrow lancoolate. 

133 



6. AsPLENiUM.] 2. jPOLTPOBIACE^, [8. PiBBift. 

5. Asplenium, L, 

1. A. esculentnni, Fresl^ Syn. Anisogomum esculentum. 

A large f em with an erect stoat candex and a terminal 
tuft of 2-pinnate fronds 3-5 ft. long. Veins from the cost© 
tiniting in an intermediate nerve with those from the next 
costse. Sori linear, one on each vein. Indnsium opening 
io wards the cost a, rarely a sorus each side of the vein. 

Marshy places, frequent. Fr. Decr.'Jany. 

Stipes 1-2 ft. more or less 4-angled and grooved, pale with fe^ scales. 

PinncB often 1 ft., alternate rather distant. Pinnules 1-4" opp. or alt. 

linear-lanceolate acuminate sessile with a very truncate or slightly 

' sagittate or auricled base, margin crenate-serrate. Low^r Burface puberul- 

ouB. Sori -j^-^" long. 

Young fronds eaten. 

;.llied to this genus is Athyrium, to which "belongs A. Pelix- 
Jferaina, L a common European fern, frequent in damp forests in Chota 
Kagpur. Fronds lanceolate 2-3-pinnate and pinuatifid. The veins are 
quite free. The indusia are many of them cnrved. 



7. Blechnnm, L. 
1, B. orientale, L. 

A very large fern with simply pinnate fronds up to 4 or 
5 ft. long on an erect caudex. PinnaD sessile entire linear- 
lanceolate caudate with very numerous fine close veins 
epreading from the mid-rib (rachis) of the pinna. Sporan- 
^eia in a continuous line both sides of the rachis, with an 
^dusium opening towards it. 

Near streams, very common. Fr. Nov.-Jany. 



8. Pteris, L, 

Fronds tufted or not, on an erect or creeping candex 
l-pinnate, or pinnate and pinnatifid. Sporangia continuous 

131 



6. Pteeis.] 2. POLYPODIACJSJE, [1. Gleichenia.. 

along the marginal nerve, excluding the tips of the lobea. 
Indnsinm marginal. Lowest pinnae strongly produced on 
the lower side, with sometimes bipartite secondary depending 
pinnaa. Veins all free np to the margin, or the lowest 
uniting with those from the adjacent costae. 

1. p. biaurita, L. Syn. Campteria biaurita, Bedd. 

A handsome fern with a rather stent erect caudex and 
fronds 3-4 ft. long including the stipes. Pinna3 all deeply 
pinnatifid, lanceolate caudate, lowest pair 2-fid with the basal 
segment reflexed. 

Neap watercourses. "' Fr. April-May. 

Stipes l^-2i ft. naked and polished except at the base. Pinnce 8-11 
pairs sub-opp, 8-12" long- by 1^-2''. Lobes oblonj; entire, veins bifurcate, 
the lowest uniting with the adjacent ones from the next costa. 

2. P. longifolia, L. has simply pinnate leaves with simple linear or 
linear-lanceolate pinnaa. 3. P. pellucida, Presl., has pinnate leaves with 
the lowest pinnsB usually 2-fid. The veins are free in both. 

^ To the genus Cheilanthes, or Silver fems^ belong two species, both 
common. C. farinosa, Kaulf. has the leaves quite white beneath. 
C. tenuifolia, 8w., Nanha Dodhari, 8. is less coriaceous and the leaves 
green beneath ; it is used by the Santals when sickness or disease arises 
attributable to witchcraft or the Evil Eye.—Campbell. 

Adiantum lunulatum. Bum. Dodhari, 8. is a maiden-hair fern 
with simply pinnate leaves and fan-shaped leaflets 1-H'' diam. on slender 
black petiolulea $-|'' long. A decoction of the root is given in throat 
affections, Camp. Very common. 

A. caudatum, L. has wiry pinnate fronds often rooting at the tips. 



FAM. 3. gleichexiacej:. 

1. Gleichenia, Sm. 

Ferns with a creeping rhizome, richly dich-Aomously- 
branched fronds not tufted on the rhizome, ultimate blanching 
pinnate or pinnatifid. Proliferous shoots frequent from the 
froks. Veins free, forked from the base. Sori small dorsal, 
indusium 0. Sporangia sub-sessile 2-Yalved opening across 

135 



Gleichenia. ] 8. GLJEICEUNIACUJE, [ 1 Lyqodium. 

the top. Animlus transverse, or (in the same individnal) 
oblique and extending up each valve.^ 

1. G. linearis, 0, B, Clarke. 

A handsome fern, scandent and widely spreading by means 
of its often rooting proliferous shoots. 

Saranda, tjear etreains, and especially on white olay-scbists in open 
forest, but not oommon. Fr. Jany -Feby. 

Fronds coriaceous glaucous beneath with the pinnae in divaricate 
pairs at the forks, the ultimate pairs of pinnee sub-erect 6-9" long. 
PinncB pintiatieect. lobes broadly linear often emarginate to the apex. 
Innovations densely covered with ferruginous hairs. 



Fam. 4. SCmZJEACEJ). 

1. Lyo'odmm, Sw. 

Fronds solitary on the rhizome with a twining rachis and 
unlimited growth. Primary pinnee abbreviated ending in 
a but! -like tip, with one pair of divaricate secondary pinnaB. 
Sporangia in spikes, 2-seriate dorsal on special narrow 
fertile lobes of the pinnag, one on each vein embraced, by a 
supporting indusium, the several indusia imbricate. Annultis 
very small, crown-like. 

1. L. flexaosum, Sw, 

A beautiful climbing fern. Primary pinnae with the 
apex hardened and bairy. Sec. pinnae 1-2-pinnate or sym- 
podially dichotomous, or sometimes (always in young plants?) 
palmate. Fertile pinnules sub-similar to the barren ones, but 
margins pectinate with the sporangial spikes or lobes. 

Common in Sal forests. Fr. Sept.-Vec. The fronds are annnai in 
Chota Nagpur, they spring up at the end of May. 

1 The annulus of Gleichenia is always described as equatorial, but it 
la BOtrietimes very nearly vertical and may touch the short obpyramidal 
pedicel on the side. 

13<5 



1. Angioptebis. ] SCEIZJEACE^. [1. Ctcab. 

Tinnulei often crenate-toothed oblong, linear or lanceolate-oblong 
minutely Berrulate \-\'' wide with truncate or cordate base. Fertile 
lobes H'' long. 

Fain. ^. MARATTIACE^. 

1. An^iopteris, Hoffm. 

Spafangia dorsal arranged in ellipsoid sori near the enda 
of the veins, sessile, opening by a fissure above without an 
annnius. About 7-12 sporangia in each soma, somewhat 
laterally compressed by one another. Indusium 0. Veins free, 
simple or forked. 

1. A. evecta, Soffm, 

A magnificent%fem with a very stout, short, erect candex 
and ik-piDuate fronds 6-10 ft. long. Easily recognized by 
the stipular appendages at the base of the swollen articulate 
stipes, and by the swollen bases of the pinnae. 

In deep valleys along streams in Singbhum. '^Fr, March-May. 



PHANEROGAMIA 
GYMNOSPERM^ (p. 48). 

Class I. Cycadine*. Fam, Cycadaceae. 
1. Cycas. L. 

Woody plants intermediate in appearance between the Ferns 
and Palms, with an erect usually short trunk clothed with 
the hardened bases of the leaves and prophylls, and a crown of 
pinnate coriaceous leaves. Leaves of two kinds, large foliage 
leaves which appear in pseudo-whorls at intervals of a few 
months, alternating with similar whorls of scale leaves 
('prophylls). Pinnce linear* 1 -nerved circinnate towards the 
mid-rib in bud. Fl. dioecious. M. in large cones with 

137 



1. Ctcas. ] GYMNOSPUEM^. [ 1. GyETUM, 

crowded acyclic male sporophylls (stamens) bearing many 
sporangia (poller, sacs) on tlie under surface, which are 
sometimes collected into small sori. J^. proliferoas, the axis 
growing through the iaxly imbricate leaf-like female sporo- 
phylls (carpels) which bear 2-several ovules on the margins 
below the dila,ted pinnatifid upper half, 

1. C. revoluta, Thunb. Is grown in gardens in Chaibassa. The pinnae 
haye recurved margins. The male cones have a powerful and somewhat 
cbjectionable odour. 



Class II. Coniferae. Faiu» Pinaceae. 

A. Piiius, L. 

Kidhly monopodially branched trees with simple acicular 
leaves, one or more on abbreviated shoots in the axils of scale 
leaves. M, <fc F. sporophylls in cones, the latter woody int 
irnit. Ovules 2 at the base of each carpel, inverted. 

1. P. longifolia, Rox&. The long-leaved Pine is grown at Eanchi. 
Each abbreviated shoot bears 3 leaves about 9'' long. 



Class III. Gnetiuese. Faiu. Gnetacese. 
1. Gnetum, L. 

Climbing shrubs with opposite broad penninerved leaves 
and thickened nodes. Fls. minute, monoecioas or dioecious 
crowded in panicled spikes in the axils of annular bracts and 
mixed with dense cellular transparent hairs. M. perianth 
clavate in bud, the apparently single stamen breaking 
through it when ripe on a long filament, and opening by 
two terminal valves (two stamens). J^'ewi. perianth double, 
inner with 3 filiform teeth, minute, obliquely ovoid ; outer 
wi'h 3 minute obtuse teeth. Ovule 1 erect, with a single 
integument produced into a style-like tip. Fruit drupe-like, 
the seed enclosed in the fieshy accrescent perianth. 

138 



1. Gnktum. ] BANUNdTTTACEJS, 

(^ F.— The natnr© of the so-called perianth is 'donbtful. The inner 
perianth may be an integument, or of the nature of an arillug as in 
Tazna, or again it may represent an open ovary.) 

1. G. SCandenS, Boxb. Milgandi, K. 

An immense, dichotomonsly branched, woody climber 
■with elliptic or somewhat ovate entire leaves 3-8" by 2-4", 
and annulate spikes in trichotomous panicles, mostly from 
the old wood. 

Kumbia and other valleys in Singbham, but not oommon. Fl. April' 
May. Fr. r. s. 

L. with 6-10 prs. sec. n. shortly acuminate. Petiole i''. Fruit ellipsoid 
silvery-scaly when young, Ij" long when ripe. 

The flowers in this species are sometimes truly monoecious, and the 
female flowers which are in a whorl above the two series of males may ba 
perfect or imperfect. 

The flowers iu bud are entirely enclosed in the peculiar annular 
bracts. 

Tbe fruit is eaten. 



ANOIOSPERM^. 

Class I. Dicotyledonse. 

fam. 1. RAJ^UNCULACEiE. 

(Tribe Clematideee.) 

Climbing shrubs with opposite compound exstipnlat© 
leaves. Fls. regular axillary or panicled. Sepals nsually 4 
petaloid, petals or many. St, many hypogynons with 
adnate laterally dehiscing anthers. Carpels many free, each 
with 1 pendulous ovule, the styles becoming feathery in 
fruit. Fr. of achenes. 

Petals 0. Petiole or leaf rachis often twining 1. Clematis. 
Petals 6-12, linear. Eaohis ending in a tendril 2. ifaravelia. 

139 



1. Clematis.] 1. RANUNCULACEJE. [2. Nae^velia. 

1. Clematis, L. 

Sepals erect 1'' or more long. Filaments hairy . X, nufdPns, 

Sepals sub-patept \'' by i'' . , , . . var. patens. 

Sepals spreading under 1" long. Filaments glabrous 2. Gouriana. 
3. C. nutans, ^02/ Ze. Bonga ghanti, 8. 

A shrnb with pube8cen+ angled branches and odd pinnate 
or 2-piniiate leaves with sharply, coarsely, doubly-serrate 
leaflets which are simple or lobed. Terminal leaflet abont 2|" 
by 1|". Fls. large cream coloured nsiially 5 on axillary leafy 
branches or panicles. 

Singbhum, en haematite-schist roots at 2,500 ft Hazaribagh at 
Baragaon.— FFoo(Z. Common on Parasnath 3— 4,000 ft. Kerhang (Lohar- 
dogga, 2,500 ft.), Qamble, Fl. Nov.-Jany. 

Larger leafiets 5'' ovate with cordate base, smaller ovate-lanceolate. 
Bvds oblong acute over V long. 8epals 1|" by j ' with curled tips, 
Bilky pubescent. 

Var. patens. 

Buds ovoid under 1''. Sepals spreading 1^ by i'^ 5-7-nerved. 
Top of Sundi Bum in Songra forest. 

2. C. Gouriana, Rozh. 

A shmb with adpressed-hairy grooved branches and 
:2-pinnate leaves and entire ovate acuminate leaflets. White 
flowers |-j" diam. in pyramidal axillf'ry and terminal 
panicles. 

Very rare. TTundT-Qgutu ravine (Singbhum). Parasnath. Fl. Oct.- 
Nov. Fr. Dec.-Jany. 

Ljits. I'Zi" ovate-lanceolate acuminate with cordate base, sometimes 
with a fev distant teeth, nearly glabrous 3-5-nerved, articulate with 
some silky hairs at the joint. Sep. -^q'' ultimately revolute, ciliate. 

It is said to abound in an acrid poisonous principle. Watt. 

3. Naravelia, DC. 

1. N, zeylanica, DC. Chagal-bate, Beng, 
A climbing shrub with pubescent or tomentose branches, 
simply pinnate leaves with a single pair of leaflets, and the 

140 



1 



2. Naeavelia. ] 1. BANUNCULACE^. [ 1. Michelu. 

end of the rachis converted into a branched tendril. Fls. 
yellowish-green or whitish J-|" diam. in axillary and 
terminal panicles. Petals spreading eqnal to or shorter 
than the tomentose sepals^ 

Along ravines and nalasin Singbhum, not common. Base of FaTt»snath, 
And. Fl 8ept, Ec.Dec. 

Lflts. broadly or orbicular-ovate, aub-tomeatose beneath, nsuaJly with 
a short cusp or acumination. Panicles 3-10'. Hairj styles 2'' in ttniU 

Bopes are made from the stems. 



1. 91icbielia, L, 

Trees with simple alt. entire leaves, with chiWoli$te 
stipules sheathing the bnd and leaving a circnlar soar 
(resembling that of the figsj on falling off. Fls, axillary 
solitary usually showy, white or yellow. Perianth-leaves 
sub.similar free bjpogynoua in 3 or more 3-merou8 series. 
Staiaens oc. ^tl. flat with adnate introrse anthers. Carpels 
many free spir. Ly arranged on an elongate axis which is 
supported on a gyiiophore, coriaceous and dorsally dehiscent 
in fruit. Stigma decurrent. Ovules 2-12, 

1. M. Champaca, ^. Champa, Champaka, S, (the M. 
Champaca of Wood's list appears, to be Artabotrys !). 

A large tree 60-80 ft. high and C ft. girth wtth rosty- 
tomentose shoots, oblong -lanceolate or ovate-lane, long- 
acuminate leaves attaining 12" by 4", and aweet-.scented 
yellow fls. 2" diam. Fraiting ^pike of sub-seasiie carpels, 
3-4" long. 

4 rare and beaatiful tree inhabiting deep valleys cooled by pereimiftll 
Bprings, in the Tholokabad and Karampoda forests. Fl. April-May, Fr. 
.IvXy. Evergreen. 

L. Boftly-tomentose beneath when young, adult rusty-hairy on the 
15 pra. strong sec. nerves beneath, very reticulate between the sec. n. 
which are looped within the margin. Petiole \-\''. P^cJuncie with 3 
coriaceous silky oaducous bracts which sheath the yoaog flower-bud and 
leave an annular soar below it. Ovv.les 10-12, 2-seriat6. 

141 



1. MiOHELiA.] 2. MAGNOIIACJSJS. 

An excellent timber, especially enitablo for planking, the tree should 
be carefully tended on working these forests. 

Fam. 3. ANONACE^. 

Trees, or climbing or erect shrubs nsaally with lanceolate 
scaleless bads and alt. exstipulate simple entire leaves. Fls. 
often greenish and pendulous, sometimes bright-colonred, 
perianth- leaves in 3 (rarely 2 , in Anona) 3-merous whorls, 
outermost ' sepals ' small. 8t. oc with adnate anthers, con- 
nective often produced or dilated. Carj>els few or many, free 
(connate in Anona) on a rounded torus, usually stalked in 
fruit and resembling an nmbel of distinct fruits, indehiscent, 
1 or more seeded. The ruminate, often deeply lamellate, 
en^sperm of the seeds is very characteristic of this family. 
Quite small leaves very frequently occar on the twigs below 
the ordinary 'sized ones. 

A. St. closely packed with overlapping connectives 
. which conceal the anther-cells. 

1. Outermost perianth series small aepaloid, tkmer 

two series "petals " larger sub-similar. 

a. Petals flat without a concave base. 

- Ovules many. Fl. (in our species) scarlet. 

Scandent shrubs 1. Uvaria. 

Ovules 1-2. Erect trees. . > . .2. Polyalthia, 

h. Petals with a concave base which conceal 

the stamens 3. Artabotrys, 

2. Innermost (3rd) series of perianth leaves 

very small or obsolete 4. Anona, 

B. St. loosely imbricate, connectiveB not con- 

oealing tho anther-cells. 

1. Outer two series of perianth leaves small 

3epaloid, innermost "petals" larger, 
petaloid. 

Base of petals not saccate. Ovules 1-2 "• V. Miliusa, 

Base of petals saccate. Ovules 6-many. . 6. Baccopetalutn. 

2. Outermost perianth series small sepaloid, 

inner two series *' petals " petaloid. 

Ovules 4-8 . . • . i .7. Aiphonsea. 

142 



I 



3. UvAEU.] 3. AN ON ACE JS f^. roiYAiTHii 

1» tvaria, L. 

1. TT. Hamiltoni, a". /• # T. SelauK, K, 

A very large woody climber, often with circinate branch- 
lets. Shoots maty tomentose with ell. or oblong-obovate, 
finely acuminate strongly-nerved leaves stellately -tomentose 
beneath and deep scarlet flowers 2'' diam. Ripe carpels ^-1'' 
oblong tomentose many-seeded on stalks f-l'^ long. 

In damp shady valleys and stony ravines in Singhbhnm and the S. P, 
"El, May -July, Fr. sometimes persistent till Dec. Evergreen. 

L. from 3'' by 1^'' to 12'' by 5\'' on the same twig, base snb-cordate, 
iec, n. abont 18 prs. Fls, 1-4 on abbreviated lateral branchlets usually 
below the leaves. 

3. Polyalthia, Blnme, 

Usually straight growing trees with somewhat distich- 
onsly-spreading leaves. Fls. often on small tnbercies solitary 
or clustered axillary, extra-axillary, or below the leaves. 
Rep. 3. Pet. 2-seriate, flat. Carpels indefinite, succulent and 
1-seeded in fruit. Ovules 1-2. 

Cultivated. Branchlets glabrous. Fls. clustered with 

lanceolate petals .-1. longifolia* 

Branchlets tomentose. Fls. 1-3 axillary with ovate or 

ovate'oblong petals 2. eerwtiddet, 

fir. pubescent. Fls. 1*2 on email extra-axillary 

tubercles . ... . . - . . . .3. suberoMt. 

1. P- longifolia^ Benth. Deodar, debdar, Aao], Ve¥n, 
A straight tree with narrowly -lanceolate glabrous long- 

acumfnate undulate leaves and numerous fascicled green fls. 
with Iwiceolate acuminate petals ^-^" long. Frequent in sta- 
tions. Evergreen. Fls. and new leaves March- April. 

2. P. cerSiSiMes, Benth, and Hook. f. Sande Ome, K.i 
Panjon, 8. ; Kudumi, H, 

A small tree 20-30 ft. with patent branches, disiiehons 
dark-green lanceolate or oblong-lanc. caudate-acosmiate 

143 



2. i'OLTALTHiA. ] S.ANVNACUJE. [4. AnOna. 

leaves 5" by 1|" to 8|" by 3" and usually solitary axillary 
greenish fls- i" diam. on bracteate curved pedicels in the axils 
of the new leaves and from the leaf scars. Fruit an umbel 
of many slender- stalked bright red globose-oblong fleshy 
carpels ^'' long. 

Frequent in the valley forests of Singbimm, a^p. of Saranda. Also 
in Manbhum, Camp, and along ravines in the S. P'. Fl. April-May, Fr. 
May-Aug. Renews leaves April. 

Mature leaves softly hairy on the nerve?! beneath, somewhat hirsute 
on midrib above. Bee. n. about 10 prs. oblique and arching forward 
within the margin. Petiole \". Fraiting peduncles woody 1-1^^. i Stalks 
of carpels |-f " somewhat pubescent. Seed brown ovoid 4''. 

Fruit sweet, eaten. 

3. P. suberosa, Benth. and Hooker /. Bara Chali, Berf^ 

Recorded by Gamble (Indian Timbers) from Singbhum 
with the vem. name of the last. I have met with no wild 
specimens in Ch. Nag. It is a small tree with very corky 
iMurk even 'on the twigs, which are pubescent and lenticellate. 
L. oblong to obl.-lanc. or oblanceolate-obtuse or shortly 
suddenly acute 1^-6'', base obtuse. Petiole very short. Petals 
reddish-brown. Fls. Af,r%i'May, Fr. June- July. Some- 
tiipes cultivated. 

Artabotrys odoratissimns, S. Br. Champa, JET. 

4k large glabrous shrub with sarmentose branches, oblong or 
lancf^date leaves 2-8" long and solitary or paired green then yellow fls. 
on hc^ed or circinate illtimately woody peduncles. Ripe carpels large 
c>r#Bn or ultimately yellow. Fl. April'JM'ne and r. g. 

This ie probably the 'shrub' referred to in Wood's list nndei 
"Michelia Champaca." It is 'cultivated in gardens and has ah«av^ 
Jasmine odx>«!r.' 



4. Anuna, L. 

An exotic genus of which species have become n$turalized 
in India. Petals (2nd series of per. 1.) triqueti-oas with 
concave base. Carpels sub-connate, ultimately confluent 
into -an ovoid or globose syncarpous fruit. Carpels 1-ovuled. 

144 



4. Anona.] 3. ANONACEM. [5. Milicsa. 

1. A, squamosa L. Nenwa, Mandal, K, ; Mandargom, b. ; 
Saripha, E. The Custard apple. 

A shrub or small tree with oblong or oblong-lanceo. 
leaves, tite larger 4'' by 1}" to 6" by 2'' acute, obtuse or 
sub-acuminate; neasly glabrous, pellucid-punctulate and 
slightly scented. 1P\b. drooping yellowish-green ^-l^" long ; 
petals narrowly-oblong, 3rd series of tepals minute or 0. 
Fruit tubercled. 

Completely wild liow in the. jungles of western Palamau, and on the 
scrub hills of Hazaribagh and Manbhum. Also run Wild over the northern 
hiUsfof the 8. P. acQording to Gamble. Judging from the native names 
its ihtroduction must be exceedingly ancient. Fl. March'May. Ft, July 
B«!pt. 

Cultivated largely and is one of the fruits that thrive in Ch. Nag. 
The root and leaves are used medicinally and are a valuable insecticide. 

2. A. reticulata, L. Gom, 8. ; Bullock's Heart, 

L. larger, 5-8'', acuminate glabrous. FIs. 2-3 together, innermost 
tepals narrow-oblong. Fr. larger, areolate, but not tubercled. 
Occasionally cultivated. 



5« miliusa) Leschn. 

1. M, velutina, S. f- and T, Ome, K,; 8.; Siarbhuka, 
Kharw. ; Dom-sal, Kari, R. 

A tree sometimes 4-5 ft. girth with large or very large 
broadly ell. or ovate leaves more or less permanently 
tomentose beneath and green flowers on very long drooping 
pedie<>ls in few-fld. extra-axillary scorpioid cymes. 
Fruiting carpels |-f" ellipsoid downy on short stalks, |ruiting 
l«^icelB woody over 1^", often 3-5^. 

In valleys throughout the area, rather common in some valley Sal 
forests. 

PI. May with the new leaves. Fr. June. Deciduous. 

All young parts densely often villosely fulvous tomentose. L. 5^* 
by 4" to 10" by 6'' shortly acuminate, base rounded or cordate ; sec. ti, 
about 10-12 prs. strong nearly to margin. Petiole i". Cynies 2-7-9d 
mostly on the new shoots. Peduncle V or less. Pedicels 2-5' villous 

145 



5. MiLiusi..] 5. ANONACEM. [7. Alphonsea, 

Sepals ^''-^''. Pet. ovate With revolute mar^ns, V' ot more, reflexed 
zdtimately black. Carpels oc and villous, ovules 2. 

The timber is used for yokes and axles and the fruit is eaten. 

6. Saccopetalum. Benn* 
(Sometimes united With. Miliusa,) 

1. S. tomentosum, B". F. and T. Ome, ombe, K. ; 8. 
Cliarra,(S.; Kari, Kharw.\ lone, Kheria {Gangpur); ELirna, K. 

A small or mod.-sized tree with softly pubescent or tomentose 
eboote, and solitary dark-pnrple flowers on slender pedicel^ 
nearly all lateral from the previous year's shoots. Leaves 
cvate-oblong obtuse or with short blunt acumen, aromatic. 

Not very common in Singbhum and usually on the hills, very common 
in Palamau. fonnd also in all the other districts. Fl. May-June. Pr. 
June-July. Deciduous, new leaves in May or June. 

Attains 4-5 ft. girth, bu 'J^ually a small tree and frequently flowering 
as a bush like the last, which . some respects it much resembles, and 
has been confused with it. The bark and blaze are very similar, but the 
mature leaves rarely exceed 6", usually 2\" by 2" to 6" by 3^'' with obtuse 
rounded or sometimes cordate base, pubescent beneath, puberulous or 
quickly glabrescent between the nerves above ; sec. n. 5-10 pre; omitting 
short intermediate ones, looped or branching some distance from the 
leaf margin. Injiorescence very distinct, short peduncles (very rarely 
on new shoot) with 1, very rarely 2, fls. on pedicels rarely exceeding 
1|", usually much less (exceptional cases up to 3'' in fr.) Petals ^-f" 
erect saccate at base, ovate acute with recurved margins. Fr. much 
as in last. 

Wood strong, 

7. Alphonsea, H. f. & T. 
1. A. ventricosa, il. F. 8r T. 

A small (in C. N.) tree branched low down with ap- 
preseed fulvous-hairy twigs, distichous obloug acuminate 
leaves 4" by IJ" (at base of twig) to 9^" by 2|", beautifully 
polished above. Fls. clustered in brown-velvety sessile leaf- 
opposed bracteate cymes. Ripe carpels very large yellow 
tomentose. 

146 



7. Alphonsea.] 5. ANONACEM. [1. CissiMPELOS. 

Ravines near water in Raimehal hills, from Narganj to Banihi, 
rare. Fl. Fehy. Fr. (in Br. Bhotan) ripens Aug. Evergreen. New 
shoots Fehy. 'March. 

Buds tomentosely hairy. L. slightly hairy on the nerves beneath 
with obtuse or rounded base and 9-14 prs. very fine sec. n. visible 
both sides. Petiole thick {'' hairy. Cymes short and dense from 
the old wood mostly leaf opposed. Pedicels ^" with a minute 
ovate bract near the middle. Catyx ^" diam. with 3 broadly ovate brown 
tomentose lobes. Petals ^—^\". Outer ovate valvate in bnd, tomentose. 
Inner white ovate-lanceolate sub-erect acute with saccate base, brown 
pubescent. St. in 4 spirals, fil. very short broad, connective slightly 
produced, anth. cells extrose. Carpels 8 tomentose close elongate with 
about 15 ovules on the ventral suture. Stigma capitate. 

If this is really the same as the tall tree of eastarn Bengal, the 
fruiting carpels \which I have not seen in the S. P.) attain 2^'' and 
resemble small tomentose yellow mangoes. 

Fam. 4. MENISPERMACE^. 

Climhing herbs or shrubs with alt. exstipnlate palmi- 
nerved simple leaves with lobed or usually quite entire 
Tnargin. Fls. minute dioeciouB 3-5-inerous in cymes or 
racemes. St. as many as petals, opp. to them, 
embraced by the petals, or anthers connate in a ring 
round the top of a column. F. fl., carpels 1-6, when 
Tipe drupaceous with URually a very characteristic seed and 
endocarp, the latter being generally a borse-shoe shaped, 
often thickened and tubercled tube containing the seed, 
curved round a solid depressed center. 

M. fi. 4-merous. F. perianth leaves 2. Carpel 1 . .1. Cissampelos. 
M. sep. 6-10. pet 3-5. F. sep. and pet, 3-5 Carpel 1 . 2. Stephania. 
Sep. 6, petals 6, stamens 6. 

Pubescent. Carpels 3-6 . • . . . 3. Cocculug. 

Glabrous. Carpels 1-3 . . . . i 4. Tinospora. 

Glabrous. Carpels 9-12 5. Tiliacora. 

1. Cissampelos, L. 

1. C. Pareira, i. Pitu sing, Ranu-red, K. ; Tejo malaj 
S»; Akanadij H», Beng, 

147 



1. CissAMPELos. ] 4. MENISPEEMACE^,. [ 3. Cocculus. 

A slender climber with usiTaliy peltate deltoid or broad- 
ovate leaves If by 2" to 3f by 3 f with 5-6 basal nerves. 
M.fl. in axillary corymbose often panicled cym«8. F.fl. 
clustered in racemes in the axils of large leafy bracts. 

Frequent throughout the area, esp. in open and rocky valleys. Shoots 
nsuajly annual. Fl. June-Oct. Fr. Nov.-Jany. 

L. obtuse, retuse or mucronate with straight or shallow-cordate base, 
somewhat glaucous and pubescent beneath or both sides. Peti. 1-3^''. 
M.fl. minute whitish yh" diam. in densely hairy cymes in the axils of 
foliaceous bracts on slender shoots or 2-chotomously cymose on the capil- 
lary |-1" long branches of axillary panicles. Sep. orbicular, Corolla 
cupular or peltate. A7iths. sessile on a short column, P. bracts large 
renif or m or orbicular. Dritpe orange or scarlet, stone i%" long. 

The plant has a long slender cylindric rhizome under Y' diam., 
often branched, this is used in the fermentation of rice beer [Hi], and 
in combination with Euellia forms the " Ili-ranu " of the Kols. The 
Santals give the root in diarrhoea and other complaints, Camp. Pelosine, 
a preparation of alkaloids derived from it, is an imperfect substitute for 
quinine ; the Pareira root of the Pharmacopoeia is an allied Brazilian 
plant. 

Stephania hernandifolia, Walp. Akanadi, Beng. 

Is a slender climber with somewhat peltate ovate or sab- 
deltoid leaves and capitate umbels. Anths. 6 on the column. 
Hedges and thickets, Prain, I have not seen it in 0. N. 



3. Cocculus, B.C. 
1. C. villosus D.G. 

A slender villosely tomeatose climbinft* shrub with deltoid 
to ovate-oblong obtuse leaves attaining 3'' by 2", smaller up- 
wards and oblong on the flowering branches, and axillary 
short -peduncle d small capitate cymes ot minute greenish 
M.fls. yV' diam. F. peduncles 1-2-fl.d. Druplets dark-purple, 
compressed. , 

Very common over prickly bushes in the Sone valley, Paiatnau, and 
Extending through Hazaribagh and the S. P.> but scarcer. Manbhum, 
CanvjSf. Fl. Nov.-Fehy. Fr. April. 

148 



II 



3. CoccuLus.] 4. MENISPEEMACEM, [Beb8EBI8. 

L. sometimes with large coarse teeth or triangnlar obtuse or acnte 
lobes, old hairy beneath. Feti. ^a-^- Petals bifid, with 2 inflexed lateral 
auricles enabracing the base of the stamens in the M., minute staminodet 
in the F. Carpels 3 glabrous. 

Tinospora eordifolia, Miers. Gurach, H.; Qnlencha, Beng., is a 
climbing shrub with succulent corkj stems, entire cordate leaves and 
yellow fls. in racemes longer than, the leaves. It sends down numerous 
peshy rootlets from the brunches. Prain says "in hedges and thickets 
Everywhere " but I have no record from C. N. nor can I find any either at 
Calcutta or Kew. 



6. Tiliacora, Oolebr. 

1. T. racemosa, CoUhr. Tiliakora, Beng. 

A large woody climber with striated bark and broadly 
ovate to ovate-lanceolate glabrous leaves 3J-6" long by 1|-3|". 
!Pls. yellow in axillary racemes or panicles, females snb- 
Bolitary on the branches, males nsually 3-7 together. Carpels 
about 10. Drupes reddish obovate laterally sub-compressed |'' 
long with a hard narrowly horse-shoe shaped putamen enclos- 
ing a bony plate. 

Eajmehal Hills (Bfkrhait) but not common. Fl. May- June. Fr. r. s. 

L. shining, base rounded or sub-cordate, s^c. n. raised beneath slender 
from near the base and decnrrent on the mid-rib, finely reticulate between. 
Peitoie articulate at the base i-1" long. i^em. racemes 1-2| long pubescent, 
males longer. Fls. 3-4rbraoteolate with 3 imbricate and 3 valvate sepals 
and 6 small fleshy quadrate or cnueate petals. Albumen ruminate. 



Fam. 5. BERBERIOACEiE. 

1. Berberis, L. 

Shrubs with pinnate, or mostly dimorphic leaves, those 
on main branches converted into 3-5-partite spines bearing 
in their axils abbreviated branchlets with simple fascicled 
coriaceous leaves, Fls. yellow, solitary fascicled or racemed, 
with 2-3 appressed bracts. Sep. 3 + 3. Fet 3-1-3; 8t, 6 opp. 
the petals, anths. opening by 2 valves. Carpel 1 with a 

149 



1. Bebbeeis.] 5. BEBBERIDACE^. 

peltate sligma* Ovules few erect basal. Fr. a few-seeded 
berry. 

1. B. asiatica, 'Roxb, 

A very pretty shrub with the spines small 1-5-partite, 
and coriaceone entire or epinons toothed leaves 1-3". Fls. j-|" 
in short corymbose racemes. Berry purple-blue with a 
glaucous bloom §". 

Parasnath 4,000 ft. Fl., Feby-A'priL "Ft. May-Jv/ne . Evergreen. 

Berries sometimes eaten. They are laxative. 

Fam. 6. LAURACEifl. 

Trees (or, in OassytJia, a parasitic climber) with alt, 
rarely (e.g. Beilschmiedia) opp. or sub-opp, entire leaves^ 
frequently clustered at the ends of the branchlets and with 
a characteristic aromatic smell, frequently gland, dotted, ex- 
stipulate, Fls. usually small, greenish, regular, l-2-8exual. 
Sepals 2i,nd petals usually 3 each, sub-similar, usually connate 
into a 6-cleft perianth, or perianth lobes 5, occasionally 
rndimentary or 0. St. in 2-4 3-merons whorls, usually 3 
whorls of stamens and one whorl of staminodes, more or 
less perigynous, inner fil. often 2-glandular at the base. 
Anths. opening by 2-4 deciduous lids. Ovary 3-carpellar)r 
1 -celled with one pendulous anatropous ovule. Stigma usual- 
ly 3-lobed. Fr. a one seeded berry or drupe, often surrounded 
more or less by the swollen hypanthiom. Albumen 0. 
Testa very thin. 

1'he Laurels (though not well exemplified in C. N. 
species) have usually a very characteristic method of branch- 
ing, only one or two of tbe axillary buds from the crowded 
leaves develops into a slender green shoot bare of leaves 
at the base. 

Trees. Perfect st. 9-12, anthers 2-celled, innermost 
whorl extrorae. 

L. Alt. and opp„ Perianth qnite decidaoas in 

fruit 1. BeiUchmiedian 

150 



6. LAURACEJE. [ 1' Beilscbmibdia. 

Trees. Perfect st. 6-12, anthers 4-celled, all introrse. 
L. usually sub- verticillate. Fl. bracts densely 

imbricate • . 2. Adinoda'phne* 

L. usually alt. scattered. Bracts forming a 

whorled involucre • . , . • 3. LitsoBa, 

A leafless twining parasite 4. Cassytha, 

1. Beilschiniedia, Nees. 

L. penninerved, opp. or alt. Fls. usually panicled and 
2-sexnal. Perianth tube short. Filaments of innermost 
series of perfect st. 2-glandular at base with extrorse anthers, 
one whorl of ovoid or cordate staminodes. Fruit from 
globose to very narrowly oblong or obovoid unsupported by 
the perianth. 

1. B. Roxburghiana, Nees. Syn, B. fagifolia, Nees, 

B. fagifolia. Nees, is included in B.Roxburghiana by 
Brandis, working no doubt on a large series of specimens. 
The two following varieties however look so like distinct 
species that they are separately described. 

Var, fagifolia, Nees, (sp.') Katea-Ratam, K. 

A large tree attaining 6 ft. gii-th with rather smooth light 
bark, linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate obtuse or slightly 
acuminate leaves 3" by |" to 6" by 1 1". Fls. in short cymes 
|-J" long from the leaf- scars. Fr. 1-1 1" long narrowly 
oblong-obovoid purple-black. 

Along rivers on the Porahat plateau (e.g. Saikata E.), rare. Fl. March 
when nearly leafless. Fr. ripens May. Nearly evergreen. 

L. tapering at the base, sec. n. 6-12 prs., intermediate very reticulate 
and fine, raised both sides. Petiole ^". Per. lobes -^4^" linear-oblong. 
Perfect st. in 3 or 4 series, usually 12, staminodes about 8 whit-e fleshy sopie- 
times, 2-8eriate. Testa rather coriaceous. 

It is said to be a good timber. 

Var. Dalzellii, Meissn. (Sp.) 

A small tree with green branches, alt. and sub-opposite 
fihiniDg ell.-oblong or narrow elliptic gland-dotted leaves 5* 
by If" to 9 by 3", narrowed both ends, but scarcely acuminate^ 

151 



1. Beilschmiedia ] 6. LAVBACJSJS. [3. Litsaj:a. 

Along: streams in the S. P» Fl. and Fr. not seen. 

Sec. n. distant about 7 prs, terciaries obscure until the leaf is dried, 
when they stand out both sides as very fine reticulations as in the last, 
midrib strong. Petiole f '' puberulous above and buds shortly pubescent. 
It ^^eatly resembles B. assamica, Meiftsn. in leaf and can only be distin- 
guished in the absence of inflorescence by its short, pubescent buds, 
while the former has lanceolate glabrous ones. 

2, Actiiiodaphne, Nees. 
1- A. angustifolia, Nees. 

A mod.-sized tree with large i ibverticillate elliptic-lanceo- 
late to oblanceolate leaves glaucous beneath and shining above. 
Fls. y diam. dioecious in silky crowded shortly-peduncled 
umbels below the leaf -whorls. Fr. }-|" diam. globose 
seated on the cnp-shaped swollen perianth tube. 

Valeys, esp. in the Saranda tract of Singbhum, not common. 

Fl. Aug. Ft. Nov.-Dec^ Evergreen. 

Shoots tomentose. L. 5"-12" by li-2^" acuminate with 4-10 prs. very 
oblique sec. n., the intermediate venation very obscure. Petiole |-|". 

3. Litsa'^a, Lamk. 

L. nearly always scattered and alternate. Fls. several in 
an umbel surrounded by an involucre of 4-6 concave sepal- 
like bracts, umbels pedicelled, again nmbelled, or raoemed or 
fascicled, axillary or from leaf or bract scars. Perianth 
lobes usually 6 but sometimes very incomplete or absent, 
base or tube sometimes greatly enlarged in fruit. Filaments 
of th^ 3rd (and 4th, if present) whorl of stamens, 2-glandu- 
lar. 

I. Perianth segments incomplete or rudimentary. 

Umbels clustered or corymbose, rarely racemose . 1. sebifera* 

II. Perianth segments well-developed. 

Umbols clustered or corymbose. Per. base not much 
enlarged in fruit, tertiary nerves of L. strong 
parallel 2. polyantha. 

Umbels racemed. Fr. invested by the enlarged 
perianth ........ 3. nitida. 

152 



6. LAUBACE^. [3. Lii8A2BA. 

1. L. sebifera, Per^. ChiTir, Kharw. Medh, menda, H, 

A small tree "with tomentose shoots, narrowly to broadly 
elliptic rarely ovate leaves quickly glabrescent except some- 
times on the nerves, sleiider petiole^ pmbels with pedicels 
J-J" long usually corymbose on slender peduncles, sometimes 
few on short peduncles. Fruit black shining globose ^" diam. 
on the slightly enlarged perianth tube. 

In valleys throughout the area but uQwhere common, also on the cool 
aspects of hills. Fl, June-July. Fr. ripe Oct.-Nov. Evergreen. New shoots 
appear in May. 

L. 3^' by If" to 8V by 4'' pale beneath usually acuminate, sometimes 
obtuse, base usually cuneate ; sec, n. 8-10 prs. rather stroner with numerous 
very fine cross-nervules Petioles f-2." Receptacle and filaments densely 
softly hairy or villous. St. 12-1.'). This laurel is often scarcely aromatic 
and the glands very inconspicuous. 

There are two forms or varieties :— 

Var. a L. under 6'' quickly glabrous beneath, peduncles of the 
corymbs i-^'' only with few umbels (sometimes only 1 or 2). Manbhum 
and Hazaribagh. 

Var. P. glabraria, J. D, H, Leaves attaining 8^" more or less tomen- 
tose beneath until the fruit is ripe. Peduncles attain li" often with numer- 
ous umbels. 

The usual form in Singbhum. 

The wood is said to be durable and not attacked by insects but the tree 
in C. N. is usually too small to yield timber. 

2. L. polyantha, Jus$, Ppjo, S., K, ; Kukur chita, Beng.; 
Baglal, Mai Paharia. 

A. small tree with brown- pubescent branchlets, sti'ongly- 
nerved ell.-or oblanceo.-oblong obtuse or sub-acute leaves 
4|'' by 2" to 9" by 4" and tomentose stout-pedicelled umbels 
clustered along the branchlets and axillary. Fr. ellipsoid or 
ovoid J-| " long, seated on the shallow saucer-shaped 
perianth base which is J-^ * diam. 

In valleys chiefly along streams, throughout the area but nowhere 
common. 

Fl. AprU'May. Fr. JiUy-Aug. Evergreen. The leaves are renewed 
in May, 

158 



8. ijiTSAJJA.] 6. LAURACEJE. [ 4. Cassytha^ 

L. pubescent and glaucous beneath with 7-12 prs. strong sec. n. and 
raised parallel cross nervules. Umbels 2-several in a cluster sometimes or 
a very short common peduncle, 5-6-fld. Special peduncle, in F. ^ — ^ and 
fruiting pedicels ^-f "• Sepals usually 5 linear-oblong nearly free. St, 9-13, 
■fil. hairy, reduced to 2-glandular staminodes in the F fl. 

The powdered bark is applied to bruises of the body and to fractures 
in animals. The seeds yield an oil which is used medicinally, Campbell. 

3. L. nitida, Roxb. 

A straight small or mod.-sized glabrous tree braiiche(: 
low down with large shining oblong to oblauceolate leaves 
12 by 3|", and long slender-pedicelled umbels in axillary 
racemes. ¥i\ J " red when ripe, invested by the enlarged 
fleshy perianth. 

Deep valleys in the Saranda forests, Singbhum. Fl. Jtme. Fi. 
SeptrOct. ^ iivergreen. 

A very distinct and handsome "tree. Branchlets 5-angled glossy aa 
are the leaves. Nervation faint. Petiole stout |-1". M. racemes l-l''. 
F. i-2". Pedicels f\ 

Fls. about 4 in an umbeh Peranth tube and filaments tawny 
pubescent. Tepah unequal glabrous very glandular. 

It is said to be a useful timber tree in Silhet. 



4, Cassytha, L. 

1. C. filiformis, L- Alag Jari, 8. ; Akasbel, Beng 
Amarbel, -H". 

A filiform leafless parasite attaching itself by means of 
uaustoria to Sal, Cariasa and other bushes, resembling Cuscuta 
but much greener. Fls. sessile -jV' white, with 3 broad, 
ovate imbricating bracts at base, in spikes k'H" long. 

Singbhum, Haza.ribagh, Manbhum (along Barakha E.) and probably in 
,ther 'districts, locally abundant esp. near Chorparan in Hazaritagh 
' hiefly on Carissa, Holarrhena, Zizyphus and Sal. Fi., Fr. most of the 
year, esp. Sept.-Dec. 

Stems pubescent or glabrous. Spiles pubescent from the axils of 
scale-leaves. Outer perianth lobes small orbicular ciliate inner oblong 
glabrous valvate. St. 3-seriate. First series petaloid with 2cell3 

154 



I 



6, LA VRACE^. [ 4. Cassytha, L. 

idnate to linear face ; second aeriea smaller similar dilated below ; third 
series hastate with 2 glands on the very short filament.' Staminodes 3^ 
leahy. Ovary tapering to a minute capitellate stigma. Berry 4'' enclosed 
by the inner perianth. 

» - 

Fam. 7. PAPAVERACEiE. 

Herbs "witli milky juice. Fl rag. Sep. 2 (or S)^ Pet. 
2 + 2 (or 3 + 3). Ovary 1-celled with 2-several parietal 
often lamellate placentae. Stigmas radiating often connate. 

Argemone mexicana, L. Sial Kanta, Beng. is a prickly thistle" 
like herb with yellow juice, sinuate pinnatifid green and whit© 
leaves and bright yellow flowers. Capsule opening at the top by small 
Valves. 

Naturalized and very common in waste ground. Fl. Fehy'June. 

Papaver soniniferum, L. Aphim, H. The Opium Poppy. Fls. 
large usually white. Cultivated in Hazaribagh, but cultivation 
recently discontinued under the scheme for the reduction of Opium 
export. 

Fam. 8. CRUCIFERJE. 

Herbs. ^Z^. racemed. Sep. 2 + 2. Pet. ^. St. 6, 4 inner 
longer in opp. pairs. Ovary 2-carpenary and usually 2-celled 
by a thin placental membrane. Ovules 2-seriate on parietal 
placent89 on the edges of the membrane. 

Brassica Napus, L var. dichotoma. Mani, K. and 
B, campestris, i. var. Sarson, Prain. Mustard. 

Are largely cultivated, and form fields of a beautiful yellow 
in the cold weather. 

j ^ The former is rather glaucous. L. radical and lower cauline lyrate 
I pinnatifid 3''. Sep. erect or erecto-patent. Corolla pale-yellow 
under i" diam. Pod$l^" exoluding the i* seedless beak, erect on 
; pedicels | ", glabrous. 

; The latter is a stouter plant with larger and hairy leaves And deeper 
yellow fls. (For vars. vide Prain in *• Bengal Plants "). 

Fam, 9. CAPPARIDACEJE. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing by means of 
Btipulary thorns, stipules sometimes 0, L. simple or digitate. 

155 



9. CAPPAEIDACJE:^. [2. Cappaeis. 

Fls. solitary umbelled or racemed, sometimes in extra-axillary 
vertical rows. Sep. 4. Pet. 4, hypogynons or on a large 
disc. St. 4-oc sometimes on i^ gonophore. Qvary sessile, 
or more f reqnently on a gonophore or gynophore whicli may 
become long and woody in fmit, 1-celled with 2-4 parietal 
placentsB and numerous campy lotropous ovules. Style short 
or 0, stigma depressed or capitate. Fr. capsular or baccate. 
Seeds ex albuminous, embryo incurved often spiral. 

Trees or shrubs 

L. 3-foliolate. St. adnate to the base of the 

gynophore . ' 1. CratcBva, 

L. simple. St. on torus at the base of the long 

gynophore 2. Capparis. 

Herbs 

Gonophore 3. Cleome. 

Gonophore conspicuous * . . • #4. Gynandropsis. 



1. Crateeva, L. 

1. C. religfiosa, Forst. Barun, Yaruna, R., Beng. 
A sniaU tree very handsome in flower with 3-fol, leaves 
and greenish-yellow or white flowers in terminal corymbs 5-7" 

diam. 

Along streams in Singbhum, eg. along Koina E. near Salai, very rare. 
Panchet in Manbhum, Camp. Fl. with the new foliage in March and April. 
Deciduous. 

Twigs with white lenticels. Lflts. ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 
gradually acuminate, pale beneath, ubout 4-|" by 1|." Petals l-lf' with 
slender claws. Gynophore 2" or more. Fr. a yellow berry 1'' diam. 

Sometimes cultivated in gardens, e,g, the Mission compound in 
Ohaibassa. 

S. Capparis, L. 

Trees or shrubs. L, simple often with stipulary thorns. 
Petals not clawed. St. at base of the long gynophore. Ovary 
1-celled (in C. N. species.) Fruit baccate, but often hare? 
Seeds many, cotyledons spirally rolled. 

156 



I 



Cappaeis.] 9. CAPPABIDACEM. 

1. C. horrid a, i./. Gatema, t.. ; Burn asaria, 8, ; 
Bagnahim, Kharw.; Bagnai. Beng. 

A sbrab sarmentose or climbing by means of its recurved 
thorns deneely brown tomentose on the innovations, with 
usually ovate leaves 2-3" long and white fls. l|-2'' diam. 
Fis. sub-solitary or in vertical lines above the leaf-axils, 
but as the leaves are often undeveloped at the time of flower- 
ing they may appear panicled. Berry ellipsoid IJ" scarlet 
when ripe. 

Cliiefly along rocky nalas. Singblium, Manbhnm, Eanchi, Palamau 
(common). Fl. March-April with the new shoots. Fr. ripena Sept. -Oct. 
Calyx brown or purple Filaments and petals turning pink or purple with 
age. Gynophore often 2" in fruit. 

2. C. sepiaria, L. Kaliakara, Beng, 

A large erect or straggling bush (a rather extensive wiry 

climber. Brain) with grey tomentose braDches, sharp curved 

stipulary thorns, ell. oblong or obovate leaves |'1|" long 

and small white flowers ^' diam. umbellate at the ends of the 

branchlets. 

Palamau, chiefly in the dry scmbby zone near the Soane. Fl. Nov.-Bee, 

L. tomentose when young, old slightly pubescent, somewhat narrowed 

at the obtuse or retuse tip, base obtuse or rounded. Petiole ^'\ PedA,cel8 

i-^''' slender from the uppermost axils and in terminal umbels. Fr. 

black pisiform F.B.I., only l-seeded according to Eoxburgh ! 

Three very cohimon herbs of this family may be found 

flowering in the rains, they are all called " Chamani " by th^ 

Kols. 

They are Cleome ihonophylla, L. with simple leaves ; Cleome 
viscosa, L. with digitate leaves and yellow fls. with 12-20 st. ; and 
Gynandropais pentaphylla, D.C. with digitate leaves and pale 
purple fls. with 6 stamens. 



Fam. 10. BIXAGiE. 

Trees or shrubs with alt. simple or digitate leaves with 
minute or stipules. Ms. reg. small and apetalous or large 
and showy, l-2-3exiial. Sep, 4-5 deciduous. Pet* 4-5 or 

157 



10. BIX ACM, [ 2. BixA, 

imbricate or contorted in bud. 8t. hypogynous, anths. 
with slita or pottBS. Disc hypogynous. Ovar'ij of 2-several 
carpels 1-celled witb parietikl placentas, which rareiy form 
by intrusion an incompletely 2-8-celled ovary. Styles free 
or united. Ovules several or many. ¥r. baccate or capsu- 
lar, sometimes hairy, with fleshy albumen, Embryo with 
foliaceous cotyledons. 

L. palmately-lobed. Fl. large yellow . . .1. Cocfclospermum. 

L. simple. 

Fls. 2" diam. Fr. capsular covered with soft 

spines . . ..... 2. JBixa. 

Fls. apetalons, small. Ovary 2-8-celled . 3. Flacourtia. 

Fls. apetaloTis small. Ovary 1-celled, or imper- 
fectly 2-celled ...... 4. Xylosma. 



1. CochlospermuiD, Kunth. 

1. C. Gossypium, i^O. Hupu, K. ; Hope, *S.; Galgal, 
JET. ; Sisibaha Vern. (Wood). 

A small straight very Bof t-wooded tree with palmately 
3-5-lobed leaves 3-8" diam. and bearing when leafless large 
handsome yellow flowers 4-5" diam, which are succeeded by 
large pear-shaped pendulous fruits. 

On dry hills throughont the area, rare in the S. P. Fl. Jany.'March- 
'Er.^arch'Jtme. Deciduons Nov.-May. 

L. tomentose beneath when young, shining above. Petioles 2-8.'' 
Btvpules linear caducous. Fls. in few fld. terminal panicles. Pet. 
emarginate. Capsules 3-4'' by 2i", 5-celled at the base, the coriaceous 
epicaip and papery endocarp dehisce on different lines. 8eed& many 
large remform densely cottony. 

It yields a gum and a fibre. The wood is used for torches. 

Bixa Orellana, L- Latkan, H., Beng. 

A small tree with cordate leaves and white and rose 
coloured flowers 1-2" diam. Often cultivated in gardens. 
m,f Fr. r.s, 

158 



B. PtACOUBTiA.] 10. BIXACJSJS. [4. Xtlosma. 

3, FlaCOUrtia, Commers. 

1. F. Bamontchi, L'Eerit. Merhle, K. ; Merlec,' S. ; 
Kanter, 8, ; Katai, fl^., Beng. 

A tree or shrub, nsually thorny, with crenate-serrate 
often olive-green leaves and yellowish-green fls. J" diam. 
either clustered or racemed or some also solitary in the axila 
of scales or leaves. Pedicels articulate below the middle. 
Sep. 4-6 pubescent or hirsute iV^tV i^ ^^ ^' "^^^Y early 
disclosing the yellow stamens. Disc-lobes 4-6 rounded often 
lobulate. Styles nsually 4-6 small capitellate. Ovules 2 
superposed in each cell. Fruit a berry |-|"^ diam, with as 
many pyrenes as seeds. 

Very common thronghont the area both in the valleys and on the hiUs» 
and in eeoond growth forest. M. Deer. -March. Fr. ripens April-May' 
Deciduous j ust before flowering, but the new shoots appear with or, in 
Home cases, a little later than the flowers. 

The fruit is very palatable. 

The following forms look very distinct : — 

a vVar. sapida F.B.I. ?, the racemes' are pubescent ) Small tree or 
shrub* young twigs slender reddish pubescent. L. 2\" by 1|" oblong to 
obovate, glabpescent. Bee. n. 3-5 prs. Petiole ^'', pubescent. Hills. 

/3. (Var. ocpidentalis F.B.I.) Similar but leaves often orbicular and 
permaiiently pubescent or tomentose beneath. Usually very thorny and 
Bhrubby. Hills. 

y. (Var. latifplia JF.B.I.?). A tree. L. often 5 by 2|'' ovate or ovate— 
lanceolate or narrow* ellip. acuminate, old glabrous except on mid-rib 
beneath. Mature twigs and petioles pubescent. Sec. n. 1-2 prs. from the 
base and 4-5 prs. above the base. Valleys. One specimen in Gangpur 
4r5 ft. girth with leaves 3-6'' long and fr. |" diam. 



4, Xylosma, Pors. 

i» Z. lOBgifolium, Clos. Dandal, Katai ; Katari, J5", 

A small glabrous tree, often with long thorns when young, 
with lanceolate acuminate shallowly toothed leaves 3-6* 
Long and small greenish fls. in short axillary compoiin4 

159 



4. Xtlosma.] 10. BIXACEJE. [1. Casbabu. 

racemes. Ovary imperfectly 2-3-celled (or 1-C6lled according 
to works consnlted).^ A pretty tree in fruit witk innumer- 
able deep-red globose berries j" diam. on pedicels ^-J* 
long, articulate near the base. 

Eavines and along nalas, Singbhnm (Xuia gara, Banskatta ravine, etc.) ; 
Kochang, Oamble. Fl. Nov.-Dec. .Fr. ripens April. Evergreen. Kenews 
leaves Nov, 

L. narrowed both ends with 6-8 prs. oblique sec. n. ; yonng somewhat 
gland-serrate. Petiole i-^''. M. racemes dense ^''-1'' compouud, fls. Mdth 
10 fleshy red disc glands and about 26 stamens. Bracts linear-oblong 
(ovate-aenm. FBI.) Stigmas 2 BmaXl capitate (or stigma capitate F.B.I.) 
Ovules few parietal. Berry with coriaceous pericarp and about 6'.a»<gled 
seeds, seated on the persistent calyx and disc. 



Fam 11. SAMYDACEiE. 

Trees or sbmbs with alt. often distichons simple leaves 
with small deciduous stipules, and often minutely punctate 
beneath. Flowers small greenish-yellow or white in axillary 
fascicles, racemes or panicles. Calyx-tuhe hypogynous or 
perigynous with 3-7 lobes. Petals as many or imbricate. 
St. definite or indefinite, sometimes with interposed stami- 
nodes, free or united. Ovary superior or half-superior 
1-celled; style 1, capitate or 3-iobed, or styles 3-5. 
Ovules several, placentation parietal. Seeds few to many on 
the median lines of the 2-5 valves of a loculioidal often 
succulent capsule, 

Fls. fascicled, petals , . • . . I. Casearia. 
Fls. panicled, petals present . • * 2. Homalium. 



1. Casearia, Jacq. 

Trees or shrubs. L. distichous. Pedicels short, J(;inted. 
Calyx inferior, deeply 4-5-lobed5 persistent. St» 6-10 

* Flacourtia and Xylosma .appear to me to be scarcely sepd-raMe as 
distinct genera. The one styler of Xylosma is Bometimes so short that 
the stigmas appear distinct. 

160 



11, SAIIYBAVEM. [1. Caseaeia. 

nnited into a tube with small petaloid staminodes or nearly 
free, hypogynous or snb-perigynons. Anthers introrse. 
Stigma capitate or 3-lobed. Capsule sacculent, ellipsoid. 
Seeds many, with a fleshy usually scarlet aril and straight 
embryo. 

L. oblong, more or less tomentose . . 1. tomeniosa. 
L. elliptic, glabrous .... 2. graveolens, 

1. C. tomentosa, i2oa;6. Rore, K,\ Chorcho, S.] Chur- 
cbn, E. ; Beri, Kharw, ; Maun, Leng, 

A small tree, or flowering as a shrub, with pubescent or 
tomentose twigs, leaves oblong or the smaller ones somewhat 
ovate or elliptic, pubescent especially on the ribs beneath . 
Fls. axillary on the new shoots J' diam. green. Capsules 
Boft green axillary and from leafless axils oblong 6-angular. 

Very common especially in waste ground in river valleys. PI.- March- 
May. Fr. April-May, Sub-deciduous Feh.-March' L. turn red before 
falling. 

L. from 2" at "^ase of twigs to 7'' by 2", obtuse entire or crenate, 
Bti'pules caducous, petioles ^". Sepals usually 5. 8t, 6-10 alternating 
with fleshy pubescent staminodes ; tube short. Fr. f-lj'. Seeds T7ith 
a scaxlet aril. There are often 2-3 cymes together on peduncles ^'' long. 

The fruits pounded with mud are thrown into dammed up streams 
for killing fish. Campbell says that the pounded bark is applied exter- 
nally in dropsy, fever and snakebite. 

2. C. graveolens, Balz. Syn. C. glomerata, Moxb. 
(according to Brandis) Reri, K. ; Nuri, 8. ; Chilla, R, 
Benchu, Koderma* 

A small tree with eU. or ell.-oblong or -ovate glabrous 
leaves. Fls. greenish in dense clusters from the leafless axils 
Fits, broadly ellipsoid f-f" long obtuse yellow. 

Common in the valleys. Fr. May-Jwie. Fr. May- July. The tree i,q 
nearly or quite leafless at the time of flowering, the new leaves appear en 
the barren branc'133 about the same time but not till later en the flower- 
ing branches. Old leaves turn copper-coloured in January. 

Twigs glabrous. L. 4t-S'^ by 2-3^' with often smaller ones at base of 
the twig, very shortly acuminate entire or crenate, usually rounded at 
the base. Petiole 5-^". Sepals 5, gland dotted, St. 6-8 alternating with 
linear oblong villous staminodes. 

161 



11. SAMTDACI:JE. [Tamaeix. 

2. Homalium, Jacq. 

1. H. nepalense, JBenth. 

A small tree 30-40 ft. with coarsely serrate prominentlj 

nerved leaves attaining 6^" by 3-4'' and axillary panicles of 

Bmall white flowers ^-^ diam. 

Singbham, Eirda Forest, raxe. Fl. May- June. 

Bark light coloured. Young twigs puberulous. L. ell. or ell.-ovate, 
diBntate with a gland in each tooth, acuminate, nearly glabrous, narrowed 
into the ^-1'' petiole. Sec. nerves very prominent 6-8 prs. Panicles 
2-5'' dense pyramidal pubescent. ' Pedicels io-rs'' P^s- densely hairy. 
Calytttube funnel shaped. Sepals 6-8 spreading linear. Petals as many 
linear-oblong valvate, perigynous. 8i. as many and inserted with an4 
opposite to the petals alternating with fleshy glands. Anther iooes very 
Bnort. Ovary half -inferior, hairy inside and out. Styles ^B. Ovules 
about 6 parietal, anatropous. 



Fam, 13. TAMARICACEiE. 

1. Tamarix, L, Tamariek, 

Shmbli or smaJl trees with alt. scale- like often sheathing 
leaves and small regular white or pink flowers in spikes or 
panicled racemes. Sep, and pet. each 5 free persistent. 8t. 5 
or 10 on the margin of a cremilate disc. Ovary free 1 -celled 
with 3, rarely more, free styles dilated into the stigmas and 
as many parietal placentas at the very base of the ovary. 
Ovules numerous and seeds erect comose, at the base of the 
3-valved capsule. 

1. T. ericoides, Bottl. Jao, Beng,<> R, 
A handsome shrub with erect broom-like branches clothed 
with sheathing amplexicaul minute leaves and with 2-sexual 
pink fls. in tei-fliinal racemes 4-8" long. St. 10. Capsule 
elongate beaked with 3 narrow-lanceolatp valves. 

In many of the river beds, e.g. Konor nadi, Hazaribagh ; Urunga it. 
and Koel R., Palamau ; Damuda valley, Maubhum ; Sirguja, Wood. Fl., 
F . Jany.'Aug, 

163 



Famarix.] 12. TAMAUICACEJE, 

2. T. dioica. Ttoxh. Jao,, Beng. 

A glaucous shrub or small tree witli elegant weeping 
lipanches, witli sheathing leaves. The pink fls. are dioecious 
in dense panicled spikes 1-2' long. M. -with 5 stamens. 
Santal Parganahs, banks of tha Ganges. Fl. Aug. 

Fam. 13. CUCURSITACEE. 

Herbaceous, more rarely shrubby, climbing by means of 
tendrils.^ L. alt. simple, lobed, or pedately divided. Venation 
palmate. Fls. I-sexual monoecious or diooecious. Calyjo atnd 
corolla superior springing from a common elongated zone of 
the torus (Hypanthium, Calyx -tube), which is often con- 
stricted above the ovary. Corolla either poly-or gamo- 
petalous. St, inserted at various levels on the hypanthium, 
rarely 5, usually 3, two of which have 2- celled anthers and 
the third l-celled. Anthers often connate, anther-cells 
straight or usually variously curved or twisted. Ovary^ 
usually 1-celled, the three parietal placentae often meeting in 
the ovarian cavity and only separated by mucilaginous lines, 
or ultimately 3-celled. Ovules anatropous, usually numerous. 
Style stout with 3-5 stigmas. Fruit a berry with an ultimately 
hard outer rind (when it is called a pepo) or entirely 
succulent, rarely dry. Seeds with a hard testa, exalbuminous, 
with straight embryo. 

The following species all belong to the tribe Cncumerinese ip which 
the ovules are mostly horizontal, leaves not compound, female flowers 
usually solitary. ■ 

The ovarian cavity in Cucurbita and others becomes filled with a 
succulent tissue plentifully supplied with spiral vessels. 

The affinities of Cucurbitaceaa are very doubtful. The family is some- 
times placed near the Campanulaceaa. 

1 For the morphology of the tendril see Warming, " Systematisohen 
Botanik," Sec. German, Ed. P. 367. 

- In all the genera examined by me, viz., Trichosanthes, Lnffa 
Momordiea, Bryonia, Cucurbita and Cephelandra the ovary is always 
initially 1-celled. In some cases the apparent septum is an exceedingly 
Bmall-celled tissue formed subsequently to the meecxng of the placenta, in 
Lufi'a the septa are the ingrown placenta. 

163 

a2 



13. CUCURBITACE^. [l. Zehnebu. 



A. Petals free or connate only at base. Flowers white 

1. Fls. small. ^ H^panthium tubnlar-campanulate. 

Petals minute ... . . 

2. Pis. large or m. s., Hypanthiun of M, long 

narroAv- tub alar 
Petals fimbriate ...... 

Petals entire or toothed .... 

3. Hypanthinm funnel-shaped. Fls. 2-4" diam. 

B. Petals connate at base or nearly half-way up. Pis. 
yellow, Hypanthium short. 

1. Fls. large (usually over l^* diam.), not 

clustered (M. clustered in Luffa graveolens). 
Stamens inserted near the mouth of the 

hypanthium. Petals nearly free. 
M. fl. solitary and racemed in same axil . 
Fls. all solitary . . . . 

2. Fls. mod.-sized, solitary on very slender 

peduncles. 
Corolla 5-partite. Tendrils simple . , , 

S. Fie. small or m. s., clustered (except Citmllus). 

a. Anthers straight. Pedicels very short. 

Tendrils simple . . . . • • 

h. Anthers curved or sigmoid. 

M. pedicels slender. Tendrils forked 

Fls. solitary. Tendrils 2-3-fid . . . . 

Anthers crested. Tendrils simple . • 

C. Corolla gamopetalous half-way up or more. 

Fls. all solitary, 

Fls. very large, yellow. Tendrils 2-4-£d . 

Fls. m. 8.> white. Tendrils simple 



It Zehneria. 



2. Trichosanthes. 

3. Gymnopetalum. 

4. Lagenaria. 



5. Lvffa. 

6. Benincasa, 



7. Momordica, 



8. Mukia. 

9. Bryonia. 

10. CitruUus. 

11. Cucumis. 



12 Cucurhita. 
13. Cej^halandra. 



1. Zehneria, Eudl. 

Climbing "herbs with, a tuberons root. Leaves polymorphous 
abounding in cystoliths (showing superficially when dry as 
small pastnles). Tendrils simple. Fls. small tubular- 
campanulate, monoecious or usually dioecious, in corymbose 
racemes or females solitary. Peduncles frequently with a 
long-stalked glandular bract at the base. Sepals minute. 



1 In the Fern, the 
othorvTiae specified 



part above the ovary only is referred to unless 



164 



i 



13. CUCUEBITACEJE. [1. ZEnyBEii, 

Petals small triangular white. St. 3 free, inserted near tb? 
bottom of the short tnbular-companulate hypanthinm ; 
anthers conniving, cells curved, sigmoid or transverse on a. 
thickened papillose connective. Ovary 1-celled with 3 
parietal placentas. 

(St. normally 3, 2 with 2-celled anthers and 1 with l-celled an^he^. 
Fls. however have been foand with 3 2-cell0d anthers, and again with 3 
stamens bearing 2-oelled anthers and a fourth stainen with a 1-celled 
anther.) 

1. Z. nmbellata, Thw, Chengor, K» ; At, 8.; Ban 

Kundri, Beng. 

Climbing or usually procumbent. Tubers spindle-shaped 
1" diam. in chains and at the ends of fleshy roots. L. cordate 
or sagittate with petiole under |". M. fls, J" long articulate 
on slender pedicels in short dense usually corymbose racemes. 
F. solitary on |-|" peduncles. Fruit ellipsoid 1|" scarlet with 
red pulp. 

Singbhnm, not common. Manbhnm, common, Campbell, Bara^raon 
Hill and Sargnja, Wood. Santal Parganahs. Fl. May-July. Ft. Juiie- 

Sept. 

Stem angled. L. minutely denticnlate (end of nerves mncronate), 
glaucous beneath, base 5-7-nerved. Petioles shorter than tho basal -lobes 
Or auricles. There are two very distinct forms in Chota Nagpur. 

(a) L. quite entire cordate or ovate with cordate base, attaining 
6" by 4|". 

Rocky ravines in Singbhum, Gneissic hills of western Hazaribagh. 
Stems and foliage persistent, at least until after November. 

(b) L. attaining 3", sagittate or halberi-shaped, with the basal lobsB 
sometimes again lobed. Center-lobe obtuse. Santal Parganahs, etc. 

This, I believe, dies down in the cold season as I have never observed 
it then. 

The tubers, leaves and fruit of both forms are eaten. 

2. Z. Hookeriana, Am. 

L, cordate angular or 3-5-lobed half-way down but with 
the center-lobe acute and the petiole longer than the basal- 
lobes or auricles. Fruit globose |" diam. 

Jaspur, Wood, Wood states that the root is used in fever and 
diarrhoea. 



16 



D 



13. CUCUBjBITACE^. Tg. Tbichoaanthis. 

2. Trichosantlics, L. 

Climbers, sometimes very large. Tendrils -2-5-ficL Fls. 
Vliite, males in long racemes (or rgiceme 1-fld. in dioica) 
with a solitary male or a female at the base of the raceme, or 
females separate. Calyx -tube above the ovary slender 
tubular dilated above. Corolla rotate, tube very short, petals. 
naiTow fimbriate. Filaments 3. Anthers connate (free in 
dioica) Fruit ellipsoid to elongate and globose, smooth. 
Seeds many, compressed, sometimes angular at margins. 

Perennial, lai^e. Eaceme with large Bheath- 
ing bracts . . « ... 1. palmata, 

. Annual, Bracts minnte. Anthers connate 2. cucumerina. 

Annual. Anthers free. Baceme usaally 
only l-flowered . . • •, • S^ -dioica, 

\' T- palmata,, Boxh. Kaubutki. K. ; Makal, JB"., Beng^ 

A large climber with cordate denticulate often deeply lobed 
leaves 3 by 5", white flowers 2|-3" diam. and bright scarlet 
globose or ellipsoid fruits 2-2|"' by 2" on axillary Siort stout 
peduncles. 

Singbhnm, valleys, and on the Banchi plateau. Falaman (f^e spinulose 
♦ariety at Miral). Santal Parganahs (Junju gara). Fl. Aug. k'x. Dec 
Jany. Deciduous. 

L, simple or lobed, lobes acute or acuminate, (in one variety sub* 
fipinulose) smooth and bright green above and minutely pitted, (usually 
Bppeariiig scabrous with smiU round diaCs—cyetoliths— when dry) pale 
beneath, base 3-5-nerved.' Petiole 1-2". Calyx-tube 1^-2^" long. Eind 
.ef fruit i' thick, seeds embedded in dark green pulp, oblong flattened 
riightly narrowed at base, ^''. 

Pr. and root boiled with mustard oil used for headache. 

%T. cucumerina, L. Bir Kaita^ K. ; Ban potol, Beng. 
A slender succulent climber with long«petioled deeply 




ultimately red, 

Singbhum valley Sv Fl. Aug, Sept. Fr. 8ept.-Novi 

166> 



2. TaiCF'^^ANTHHi. ] 13. CUCVEBITACE2E. [4. Li-GEXARii. 

u. su: oth to touch above, almost velvety between nerves below, main 
nerves pubescent or somewhat scabrous beneath, basal sinus very broad, 
smell foetid. Tendrils 3-fid. Moncecious. Mal& racemes 5-8". Calyx- 
tube H". 

Var, aDguiua, L. (sp.) Karta, K. ; Chachinda, H. The 
snake gourd. 

This is the cultivated form. L. 4-6" or up to 11'' diam. sometimes very 
deeply lobed with narrow sinuses except the basal one which is vety 
broad. Fls. l\-2''. Fr. very long attaining 2 ft. and often twisted, 
green with white stripes when young. There are all gradations between 
this and the wild form. 

3. T. dioica^ Boxh, Potol, Beng. 

Dioecious. Male peduncles usually only 1-fld. Fruit 

oblong or nearly spherical. 

*' In all the provinces," Prain. I have not seen it in Oh. Nagpur. 

L. ovate to oblong, not palmate. Sec. n. excurrent as email teeth. 
Petiole i-^'' only. Fls. about f diam. white. Hypanthium very slender 
2-3'' green striate with long white hairs. 8e;pals lineaij|-''. 

3. Gymnopetalam, Arn. 
- G- cochinchinense, J^wj^. Kaubutkila, K, 

A pretty climber \Hth bright green foliage, simple tendrfls, 
and white flowers 2" diam., M. solitary and racemed from 
same axil. Fem. solitary, or occasionally also paaicled like 
the male. Corolla lobes oblong toothed. Fr. 2" by 1 J" bright 
orange-scarlet, ovoid-oblong, with 10 strong ribs when young, 

Singbhum on Porahat plateau. Kanohi plateau. Fl. Au^.-Oct Fr. 
Bept-Nov. 

Btemg sparsely pubescent or hispid. L. lower'deeply cordate orbicular 
5-7-lobed and denticulate 2-4'', scabrous above hispidulous beneath, basal 
lobes rounded and sinus wide, others acute or acuminate. Raceme 5-9% . 
bracts foliaceous \'', obovate ouiieate, palmatisect. Calyx-tube curveel 
pubescent 1", sepals i". Anthers connate. Fem. calyx-tube |-|'' above 
pubescent ovary. Seeds -f^'' by i'' ini a blackish-green pulp, somewhat 
compressed, brown. 

4. Lagenaria, Seringe, 

1. L. VnlgariSi Seringe, Suku, Ho, ; Kadn, S. Lao, R^ 
Beng, The bottle gourd, 

167 



4. Lagenaeia.] 13. CUCURBITACEJS. [5. Luffa. 

A coarse glandular and softly liairy monoecious plant with 

2-fid. t€ndril9, ovate or orbicular cordate dentate leaves 7-8'' 

diam. 2-glandular at base and large solitary*^ white flowers 

S-4" diam. Ovary and yonng fruit hairy. 

Largely cultivated. Fl. July-Jany. 

Male peduncle 5-6'^ calyx-tube H'' and x&pah |". _ Petals oHen 2'' by 1" 
ovate w'^^h excurrent mid-rib. Fem. Ovary cylindric, villous, tube 
above ■^^ry short. Sepals 2[" linear , 

Fruit (Tumba, K.) various, eaten when young, with a hard shell 
when ripe, used for bottles, etc. 



5. liWffa, Cav, 

Tendrils 4-5-fid. Fls. monoecious. Males in long 
racemes (pedicels clustered in L. graveolens) with a solitary 
male or a solitary female from the same node, or female in a 
different axil. Bracts often glandular. Male calyx-tube 
obconic or campanulate, sepals 5. Corolla rotate from the 
top of the tube or lining the calyx-tube to the base. Fila- 
ments 3-5 inserted at base of corolla tube, anthers free or 
in 3 groupsj more or less exsert, cells sinuose or sigmoid 
on the margins of the often lamellate connective. Fem. 
calyx-tube scarcely produced above the ovary. Ovary narrow 
ultimately 3-celled. Fruit ultimately dry with a coriaceous 
epicarp. and fibrous mesocarp^ opening by a stopple. 

The placentation in the genus becomes axile or nearly so from the 
ingrowing of the placentas. 

Fls. 2-3'' diam. Filaments 5 free inserted near 

mouth of tube .1. CByypiiaca. 

Fla. I5-2" diam. Fil. 3 inserted low in the tube - 2. acuiangula. 

Male pedicels clustered, ebracteate . • • .3. graveolens. 

1. L. aegyptiaca, Mill, Doro, if. ; Pulu, Eo. ; Ghia- 
tomi, fl", ; Dhundnl, Beng. Egyptian Loofah. 

An extensive annual climber with orbicular-ovate 5- 
lobed leaves, attaining 13" by 1^'' scabrous both sides or slightly 
puberulous beneath. Fls. sulphur yi^Uow often 3-4'' diara, 

1(58 



5. LuFFA.] 13. CVCVRBITACEM. [6. Benikcapa. 

with a rotate corolla on racemes which attain 18" long. Fr. 
6-18" clavate or cylindrical, not ridged. 

Jungles in Singbhum, on old village sites apparently wild. This wild 
form has a fruit usually under 8'', quite smooth and cylindric. Cultivat- 
ed throughout Ch. Nag. Wild plant Fl. Axi.g.-8&pt. Fr. Nov.-Dec. The 
cultivated often also much later. 

L. sinuate dentate or denticulate usually with well marked acuminat-e 
lobes. Bracts with 1 or more large disciform glands occupying the whole 
Burface. Calyx-tube short campanulate, sepdis longer ^-|'' glandular, 
Fem, fl. Bolitary from same node as the male raceme, often abortive 

2 L. acutangula, Roxb. Jui, Ro, ; Paror Jhinga. 8, 
Jhinga, Ara-torui, H. ; Tita Dhundul, Beng. 

L. orbicular, 5-9" both ways, or broader than long 
nsually faintly lobed or lobes obtuse, margin more or leefl 
repand and ennticulate , texture of last. Fls. l|-2" diam,. 
corolla inserted low down with the 3 filaments, anthers only 
shortly exserted. Male racemes G-l^". Fruit with 10 
eharp ridges. 

Cultivated. Not found wild. 

3. L. graveoleus, -^oxl. 

L. 3" diam., scabrous above, reniform -orbicular, 5- 
angled, punctulate, scabrous above. Male pedicels clustered 
axillary. Female peduncle short sometimes with 2-3 
flowers each with a small ovate bract. Petals J". Fruit 2' 
by 1", papiliose, obscurely lO-striate. 

Eajmehal Hills, Eoxb.; Ch. Nagpur, Train. Fls. Sept. 

Stem grooved. L. ovate to kidney-shaped. M. and F, fl. from the 
, same axils. M. on separate stalks, F. often sub-panicled, and peduncle brao 
I teate. Fetals under ^''. 8t. 5 distinct, Fr. echinate. 



6» Benincasa, Savi. 

1. B- CCrifera, Savi, Rakhsa K. ; Kumra, Beng., H. 
Resembles a Cncurbita in its large solitary yellow flowers 
ind foliaceous sepals, but the corolla is only very slightly 

169 



6. BENINCA8A.J 13. CUCVBBITACEJE. [7. MoMoi«i>iCA. 

gamopetalous, the stameps are inserted near month of the 

tnbe, the densely hairy ovary has 3 flexuose stigmas. 

Occasioually cultivated. Fls. Dec-Jany, 

Hairy. L. cordate reni form-orbicular, toothed, sometimes also lobed 
Tertdriis forked. Fls. solitary about 2'' diam., the corolla lobes exceed* 
ing the tube. Fr. hairy. 

7. momordica, L. 

Tendrilg simple. L. nndivided or palmatisect. Fls. 
monoecious or dicecions, solitary pednncle often with a large 
bract. Calyx-tube campanulate. Corolla nearly polypeta- 
lonSk Filam. 3. Anthers with horse-ahoe shnped or con- 
,duplicate cells. Style long, stigmas 3. Fr. indehiscent or 
3-valved, smooth, muricate or yrith soft spines 

L. deeply cut. Fruit tub ercled . . . 1. CJia. u lUia, 
L. not cut. Fruit densely softly spiny . . 2. dioica. 

1- M- Charantia, L, Kirla, K.; Kanchan arac* (leaf), 
karla (fruit), 8. ; Karela, E. 

A soft rather slender climber with softly hairy stems 

7-palmatisect leaves, larger 4|'', and solitary flowers |-|" 

diam. on filiform peduncles with 1 orbicular foliaceous 

bract. 

Apparently wild, hedges and roadsides in the cooler parts of Sing- 
bhum. Wild in Manbhum, Campbell. S. P., common in hedges. EL 
Aug.- January . Fr. Aug -Fehy, 

L. segments lobed or sinuate and dentate. Peduncles oxten 3^." 

Fetals. distinct to ba^e, spreading. Fruit ovoid narrowed both ends l-S'' 
with tuberclod ribs, beaked, yellow when ripe. 

Leaves as well as fruit are eaten. 

2, M. dioica J Roxh. Ochen K, ; Kaksa, B". 
Slender nearly glabrous. L. cordate ovate acute denti- 
Gulate mucronate 3-4". 

Fem. peduncles l|-2" bracteate above the middle. 
Petals free to base, |" pubesceDt. 

Apparently wild in hedges.. Fl. .iwgr.-fifept. ¥v. Bept.-OcU 
Froit eaten. 

170 



S MuKiA.] 13. CUVVRBITACEJE. [10. Citeullus, 

8. Mukia, Am, 

h M. SC&brella, ^'rn, Kawa-tamar, Vern, (WoDdJ 
Bilari, H. 

A very scabrous herb with simple tendrils 8-7-aD^ulai', 
lobed and toothed very rough deeply cordate leaves, larger 
about ^^ by 3|" with petiole 2'\ but 6oral much smaller and 
mostly sessile, Fls. small yellow, M. and F. clustered in the 
same axils, sub-sessile, l-^^' diam. Anther cells straight. 

Common, climbing over bushes in low jungle and open places. Fl, 
Sept.'Oct Ft. Oct.-Nov. 

Very pretty in fruit with its clusters of scarlet berries f " diam. 

The placentas and stigmatic lobes are sometimes only 2. 



9. Bryonia, L. 

1. B. laciniosa^ L. Kahubotke, 8. ; Pachguria, Kharw. 
Mala, Beng. 

A climbing foetid herb with cordate deeply palmateiy 

3-5-lobed or partite leaves and 2-fid tendrils. Male and 

fern. fls. sntiall yellowish clustered in the same axils, pedi- 

celled, Fil. 3, two double and one single anther free from 

one another, cells curved or sigmoid. Fr. | — |" diam. 

globose succulent green or red with white stripes. 

Very common, scrub jungle and hedges. Fl. and Fr. April-Oct. 

L. sometimes pedately lobed beyond the middle with narrow sinnses, 
3-5'' long and broad, nearly smooth, lobes toathed or denticulate. FetwU 
I-IV- ^- pedicels very slender |-1". Fem. short. Petals ^'' light 
yellow. Seeds in a blue-green pulp, pear-shaped with a corragato 
V ertid^ band. 

Horses are fond of the fruit. 



10, CitruUus, Schrader, 

1. C. vulgaris, Schrad, Tarboj, K. larbuz, fl", Beng, 
The Water-Melon, 

171 



10 CiTBDLLUs.] 13. CVCVRBITACE^. [11. CucrMis. 

U^nallj prostrate with rather Blender stem pubescent or 
hairy or nearly glabrous and with aomewhat scabrid petioles. 
i. 3-5-rartite with the se^ment*^ pinnatifid, ^ sinuate and 
denticulate, about 6" by 5" with petiole 5", dotted beneath, 
tendrils 2-3-fid. FL solitary, rarely geminate, on a peduncle 
l|-2", monoecious. Hypanthium short campanulate, sepals 
linear J". CoroHa V diam. deeply-lobed, lobes strongly 3-5- 
Derved. /Si. 3j||istinct with sigmoid anthers. PecZwwcZe sub- 
tended at base (always?) by an oboYoid entire 3-nerved 
f oliaceous bract f long. 

Frequently cnltivated, and sometimes self-sown. 

2. C. Colocynthis, Bchrad. THe Colocynth has very deeply pam- 
ately-divided leaves 2'3'' diam. very scabrous and hispid with tubercle- 
based hairs, and somewhat resembles Cacumis trigonus when wild. It 
is said to occur throughout India, but I have not met with it in Chota 
Nagpur. 



11. Cucurais. L, 

Hispid or scabrid herbs with simple tendrils. Fls. 
monoecious. Males fascicled and females solitary, in the 
axils, shortly pednncled. Hypanthium short. Filaments 3. 
Anther cells conduplicate or only flexuose. Conrective 
produced into a crest above the anther. Ovary 3-sef)tate 
or septa not meeting in the middle. Style short, stigmas 3, 
obtuse. Fruit fleshy. 

1. C trigonus, i^oa;?). BingDimbu, K. The wild melon. 

Prostrate, .with scabrous stems and petioles. Leaves 

small deeply palmately 3-5-lobed to about the middle or 

more, sometimes merely angular ( see var.) Corolla,^'' diam. 

lobed beyond the middle. Fruit smooth ellipsoid or globose 

l|^"diam., striped green and white. 

Very common on banks and waste ground throughout the area. FL, 
Fr. Aug. -Oct. 

L. S'T^abroua on both sides, lobes with broad tips, which aro sometimes 
again ^obed Peti. about i-l|''. M. fls, sometimes solitary. Fed. i''. 
Oalyx and cor. and ovary hairy. 

17'4 



11. CucuMis.] 13. CUCVBBITACEJE. [12. Cucubbita. 

Var. a. L. sub-entire or lobed and fniit spherical. It only differs 
from a feral state of C. Melo in the leaves being under 2^" diam. and the 
absence of any soft hairs. Fi. r. s. 

2. C. IVIelo, L. The Melon and 3. C. sativuS, L. The Cucumber, 
are both cultivated and sometimes feral. C Melo is distinguished from 
C sativus by the smooth, nut muricate fruit, and by the leaves having 
both soft hairs a^d harsh ones, while C. sativus has the hairs nearly 
aniform on the leaves which are net, or only slightly, seabrid, and the 
fruit is muricate. The ovary and young fruit is often densely hairy iu 
both. 

A variety of Cucumis with angular leaves i\'' diam.,/s. |-1" diam., 
frt. sparsely muricate with scattered harsh hulbous-baaed hairs, and the 
leaves with many rather stiff hairs between the hispid nerves, may be an 
escape from cultivation of C. sativus, L. It is apparently wild in the 
Porahat jungles, between Nakti and Teba. Fl., Fr. 8&pt.-0ct. 



13. Cucurbita, L. 

Coarse hispid or hairy herbs witn 2-4-fid. tendrils, Fls, 
very large yellow solitary monoecious. Calyx-tube campanu- 
late, sepals often leaf-like. Corolla gamopetalous. St, 
inserted low down, fil. 3 short, anthers connate in a column 
with conduplicate cells. Style short. Stigmas large fleshy, 
3-5 often longitadinally lobed. Large epigynous cushion- 
shaped disc 5-lobed. 

The ovary is filled with tissue and the ovules are on large swollen 
parietal placentae which meet iu the axis and are recurved. 

The following diagnosis of the three commonly culti- 
vated species is from Prain'e " Bengal Plants." 

1. C. Pepo, ^'C, Karkaru, K. The Pumpkin. 

Leaf-stalks beset beneath with rigid, pungent hairs ; calyx lobes 
nari'ow-subiilate ; leaves deeply 5-lobed, with broad sinuses be tween the 
lobes. 



2. C- maxima, Duchesne. The Gourd. 

jaf-stalks with hairs uniform, not rigid nor pni 
)w-8ubulate ; leaves not deeply lobed, sinuses nai 

3. C- moschata, Duchesne. The Musk Melon. 

Cal 

173 



Leaf-stalks with hairs uniform, not rigid nor pungent. Calyx-lobes 
narrow-subulate ; leaves not deeply lobed, sinuses narrow. 



Hairs of leaf -stalks as in 2. Calyx-lobea broad-spathulate, leafy ; 
leaves very varioubly lobed. 



13. Cephalandba-I 13. CVCVRBITACE^. [1. Moeinga. 
13. Cephalandra, Schrad, / 

!• C. indiea, Naud, Knndri, K. ; Kanduri, Bhimb, Jff.; 
Tela-Kucha, Beng. 

A climber witli obinsely-angled, lobed, or palmately tri- 
partite leaves with the basal lobes again 2-fid. or-lobed. Ten- 
drils simple. Fls. dioecioTis white campannlate about 1" 
long, hairy within, ribbed. Fr. oblong narrowed at each end 
or only apically, scarlet j green with usually 10 white streaks 
when unripe. 

Common. Cultivated and in hedges. TL, Fr. July-Augutt. 

Stems 5-angled somewhat scabrous, otherwise glabrous. L. attaining 4'' 
diam. and 3-4'' long punctate above, with raised points when dry, denticu- 
late, glabrous, l-€%landulari beneath near the petiole. Petiole about 1,'' 
Calyx-tube campanulate, lobes'oblong acute spreading. Corolla-lobes ^-i'' 
ovate. 8t. 3 with exsert anthers. Style with 3 large 2-lobed spread^ 
Btigmas. ' ■ 

The fruit is yer^^cdtuitonly eaten as a vegetable. 



Fam. 14. MORIKGACE^. 

!• norin^a) Lamk. Horse-radish Tree. 

1. M. pterygosperxnaj Gartn, Manga-ara (a :, Ro), K, 
8. ; Munga, H, ; Sojna, Beng, 

A small tree with, elegant tri-pinnate leaves and small 
leaflets, white irregular flowers in axillary panicles, and pen- , 
dulous ribbed pods 9-18'' long. 

Cultivated throughout Ch. Nagpur. Fl. Jany-March. Ft. April- June. 
Dec. Dec.-Feby., or new leaves in January. 

Fix. 2'8exnal, 1" diam. Calyte cupular with 5 linear-lanceolate reflexed 
sepals. Pet. 5, anterior largest. St. b perfect, opp. the petals, alternating 
with 5 stominodes, inserted on the disc which lines the calyx-tube. 
Ovary stipitate 1-celled. Ovules numerous on 3 parietal placentae. Capsule 
l-celled 3-valred, corky and with pits in the valves in which the 3-gonouB 
winged seeds lie. 

174 



1. MORINGA. ] [1. DlLLENIA. 

"^he leaves, flower and fruit are eaten as vegetablei, and it is usually 
pollarded for the purpose of yielding the first nnd for fodder. It grows 
easily from cuttings. The pungent root is used as a vesicant and has 
the odour of Horbe-radiah, for which it is a subatitate and is used 
medicinally. 



Fam.Y5. DILLENIACEiE. 

1, Dillenia, L, 

Trees with large simple ex stipulate leaves "with strong 
parallel sec. nerves, alt., often crowded at tlie tips of the 
branches. Petiole with a sheathing base. Fls. solitary or 
fuoCicled, white or yellow. Sep. 5 persistent, accrescent and 
fleshy in fruit which they envelope. Petals 5. St. oc 
anthers linear dehiscent by pores or small slits. Carpels 5- 
many, united in the axis with free spreading and recurved 
styles. Ovules many. Fruit globose, composed of the fleshy 
calyx enclosing the indehiscent carpels. 

Fls. large white. Fr. (with calyx) 4'' diam. • • .1. indica. 
Fls. large yellow Fr. 2'' diam. . . ', , .2. aurea. 
Fls. yellow mod.-sized 1''. Fr. |'' diam 3. pentagyna. 

1. D. indica, L. Korkotta, K,, 8. ; Chalta, Beng. 

A beautiful small tree with dense crown, deep-green 
leaves 8-10'' by 2-4" and white solitary flowers 5-6" diam. 

Prefers muddy banks of streams, but in Singbhum is only found near 
villages and is probably always planted. S.T. (TToocJ) but I think doubt- 
fully wild there also. Fl. May- June. Fr. Vec.-Feby. Evergreen. 

L. lanceolate pubescent beneath with 30-40 prs. of clofte parallel sec. 
n. each running into a strong tooth. Petiole 1-2''. Carpels 20.; 

The large fleshy accrescent calyces which surround the fruit are eaten 
before they are quite ripe, usually after cooMng. 

2. D. aurea, Sm. Korkotta, Korkot, K., S. 

A small crooked tree with obovate, broadly-obloi^ or 
ellinfic leaves 12-20'-; by 4|-7'' and a distinct petiole 1-3* long 

175 



1. DiLLENiA. ] 15. DILLENIACEJ^. / 

It bears large solitary beautiful yellow ffs. terminating tie 
leafless branches, and which much resemble those of Cochbs- 
permum.* 

Dry hills in Singbhum, very common in places on clay schists. Gangpur, 
Manbhum, Hazaribagh (Sitagarh hill, Koderma forest etc.) S. P. near 
Silingi, hills near Morjhora. Palamau, hills between Banki and Barwadih 
on trachyte, ghats near Chandwa on reddish grit. Fl. April-3Iay. Ft. 
May-Junf.. The leaves drop at end of Jan. and the new leaves appear at 
end of May. 

I have cited localities rather fully from the cnrious fact that this tree 
has never before been recorded from Ch. Nag. It is, however, easily dis- 
tinguished from D. pentagyna by both habit and habitat. The leaves are 
nsaally smaller, when young beautifully silky above, tomentose Ibeneath 
between, and densely silky on, the close sec. n. (25-50 prs.) ; spinulose denti- 
culate ; adult pubescent or somewhat hairy beneath, margin sub-entire 
except for the excnrrent nerves. Peduncles stout pubescent 1-3'' with 
S-i recurved bracts, lateral, but close to the terminal bud. Sep- f-1". Pet. 
obovate-lanceo. 3" by 2''. Styles 10 free i" spreading and recurved. Ovules 
many 2-seriate in each carpel. 

The fruit is edible and is greedily eaten by wild elephaatSj which destrcy 
the trees to obtain them. 

3- D. pentagyna, Boxh. Kai, L. ; Sahar S. 

(Agor and Gulgul are vem. names ace. to Wood, but Korkot quoted 
in his list certainly belongs to the last. Agor is used in Moughyr.) 

A mod. -sized tree with ell. or narrowly- elliptic leaves 
12-36" long decurrent below on a short petiole. Fls. very 
numerous in umbels along the leafless branches. 

Confined to the valleys, not very common. Singbhum, Manbhum, 
Hazaribagh (2,000 ft. on Parasnath), Santal Parganahs. Fls. March- 
April. Fr. May. Deciduous end of Feh.-May. 

L. much like the last but adult nearly or quite glabrous between the 
see. n. beneath, margin distinctly repand crenate and together with the 
excurrent nerves forming teeth, the base is much more tapering and most 
often forms a wing on the petiole which hence rarely exceeds 1" in length 
or is absent, base of leaf or of petiole broadly amplexicaul. Peduncles 
slender, 1-2" ebracteate. Carples suid Styles 5. 

iTie wood gives an excellent charcoal. The fruit i^ eaten. 

1 1 have found sheets of this placed under Cochlospermum in a 
herbarium. 

176 



[1. Gabcinia. 
Fam, 16. TERlXSTRtEitllACEE. 

This family contains the genus Gamellia which includes 
the tea plant, and other handsome flowering shrubs. The tea, 
C. theifera, Griff, was formerly much cultivated on the 
Ranchi and Hazaribagh plateaux, but the climate of Chota 
Nagpur is far too dry for it, and the tea-planting industry 
has practically died 5ut in competition with the large outturn 
of more suitable localities. 

For botanical charactere see Introduction. 

Fam. 17. GUTTIFEKACE E. 

1, Garcinia, L. 

Trees with a yellow milky juice, opp. rarely etipulate, 
simple entire leaves usually with numerous spreading close 
parallel sec. n. Fls. polygamons (or in G. Cowa usually 
dioecious), usually solitary or fascicled. Sep. 2 + 2, or 5. 
Tet. 4-5 imbricate. St, ex: free or monodelphous, often in a 
central fleshy mass with 2- or 4-celled adnate or peltate 
anthers. F. fl. with staminodes. Ovary 2-12-celled with 
peltate stigma. Ovides 1 axile in each cell. Ft, a berry. 
Seeds arillate. 

1. G- Cowa, Itoxb, Soroa, Ho. *; Kowa, Beng. 

An erect tree 30-40 ft, with many slender and droopirg 
branches from quite close to the ground and dark shining 
broad-lanceolate leaves 3-5" with slender rather obscure 
sec. n. meeting in an intramarginal one. Fls. yellowish 
rather fleshy usually 1-4 in the loaf axils. Fr. yellow 
about 2*^ diam. grooved. 

Along streams in the Saranda and Porahat forests, not common. Fl. 
A'pril. Ft. May -June. Evergreen. 

The fruit ia edible. 



* But see footnote under Streblue as per p. 392. 

177 



1. Shobba. 1 18. DIPTEBOCABPACE^. 
^am. 18. DIPTEROCARPAGEiG. 
1. Shorea, Roxb. 

Trees, containing resin, with alt. entire simple leaves. 
Stifules cadncous, Fls, in axillary and terminal panicles, 
bracts often caducous sometimes 0. Calyx S-sepalons. 
Petals 5 contorted in bud, St. oc bypogynous, connective 
Bppendaged. Ovary 3-celled, cells 2-ovuled. Style subulate. 
Fruit a 1-seeded nut closely embraced by the bases of the 
greatly enlarged sepals. Cotyledons fleshy unequal, one 
embraced by the other, hypogeal in germination. 

1. S. robusta, Gaertn, Sarjom, E!., 8. j Sakua, Kharw ; 
The Sal tree. 

Throughout the area. In many of the deep vaUeys of Singbhtun, Bonai 
and Gangpur it attains 12 ft. girth and 120 ft, high, the soil being a deep 
loam derived from the decomposition of gneissic ropks. On the hills of 
clay schist it is a stunted tree attaining 30-40 ft., and it occurs in a very 
stunted form on the top of Parasnath at 4,400 ft. elevation which is above 
Jxe elevation it generally attains in the Himalayan region. Large trees 
are now very scarce in the other districts where the forests have been 
mostly ruined and the trees are mostly coppice shoots which frequently 
flower as mere bushes. 

Gamble records a tree in a sacred grove in the S. P. (at Talpahari) 
lOi ft. girth and 120 ft. high. 

Fl. March-April, in some years the flowering extends into May. 
Fr. June'July. Nearly or quite leafless in March. 

Btipuleg il" oblong, covering the young buds. The panicles arise 
direct from the old wood and on the new shoots, the flotvers are unilateral 
on the branches." Petals with a twisted acumen, free with overlapping 
bases. Filaments very swollen below. 

Campbell says the best time for cutting is October, and that the timber 
is then much more durable. The logs should, of course, always be barked 
immediately after felling. The fuel and charcoal are excellent, and the 
latter is said by the Kols to be the best available for iron smelting. 
The seeds are eaten but are said not to be very wholesome. It was 
previously much tapped and destroyed for resin before the reservation of 
the forests. The resin (dnnra, K. ; sar jom lore, 8 ) is used in medicine and 
for caulking. The leaf is the usual covering of the Kol cigarette (fikr). 
The seed should be sown as soon as ripe, but the earliest to fall are 
usually bad. The stalks of the cotyledons are very long, and if the 
primary shoot is injured or dies subsequent shoots arise from their 
axils. The flrst pair of foliage leaves are opposite. 

178 



19. MALVACU^. 

Fam. 19. lULVACE.fl. 

Trees, or more nsnally shrubs or herbs, mostly with 
stellate hairs and with very tough branches from the 
jjtrength of the bast fibres. L. alt. stipulate with palmate 
venation, simple or digitate. Fls, regular usually showy, 
nearly always with brdcteoles (not in Abutilou or Bombax) 
under the flower which often form an epicalyx. Sep. 5 
valvate usually connate below. Pet. 5 imbricate and twisted, 
sometimes adnate below to the stamiDal tube, St. oc (only 
15 in Kydia) more or less connate into a tube, from which 
free ends of the filaments may grow. Anthers variously 
shaped, ultimately 1-celled. Ovary 3-4- bat usaally 5- 
many-celled, capsular in fruit or breaking up into as many 
dehiscent or indehiscent cocci as carpels, which fall away 
from a persistent columella. Ovules 1-more axile curved. 
Albumen scant v or 0, Cotyledons usually crumpled or 
folded. 

The family abounds in mucilage, and most of the species 
yield a fibre. 

A. Shrubs or. herbs, mostly tindershruba. Androecium 
tubular (filaments long in Abutilon sp.) 

I. Carpels numerous (only 5 in one species). Ovules 

2 or more in each cell. Fls. usually orange . . 1. Abutilon, 

n. Carpels 5 (rarely 4, sometimes 6-10 in Sida). Ovule 
1 in each cell. " 

Styles as many as carpels. Fls. yellow or straw 
coloured 2. 8id<i. 

Styles 10. Fls. pink. Ovary cells opposite the 
petals 3. Urena. 

Styles 10. Fls. pink. Ovary cells opposite the sepals 4. Pavonia, 

IIL Carpels 5. Ovules 3 or more in each cell. Fruit 
capsular. 

Stigmas spreading. Bracteoles 5 or more . . 5. Eihiscus. 

Stigmas coherent in a clavate mass. Brctls. 4-8 small 6. Thespesia. 

Stigmas coherent in a clavate mass. Bretls. 3 large 
cordate . . , . . . , .7. Gossypium 

179 



19. MALVACEJE. [1. Abutilon. 

B. Large or small trees. Filamente all or some free 
above the base, nsnally pentadelphous. 

L. simple or lobed. Bracteoles 4-5 , , . . 8. Kydia. 

L, digitate. Bracteoles 0. FIs. very large • . . 9. Dombax. 



1. Abntilon, Gaert. 

Undershrubs more or less downy, with angled palmately- 
lobed or entire leaves and orange ebracteolate flowers nsnally 
1" diam. or more, opening in the evening. Pedicels articulate. 
Pet. connate below and adnate to, the st, tube which is divided 
at the apex into numerous filaments. Carpels exceeding 
5 (exc. polyandrum), in fruit separating as 2-valved usually 
2-3-8eeded cocci from the persistent axis, apex of fruit 
depressed or truncate, awns or mucros, if present, on the 
shoulders. 

Androecium only tubnlar at the base. Carpels 5 . .1. polyandrum, 

Staminal tube long. Carpels 15 or more. 

Not hairy except the fruits, peduncles slender, socci 
truncate usually shortly awned . . . .2. indicwn. 

Hairy as well as pubescent, peduncles stout, cocci 
founded muticous or mucronate , . . .3. graveolens, 

1. A. polyandrum, SchlecU. 

A tomentose and hairy shrab with long-petioled orbicular 
or ovate cordate acuminate leaves and yellow flowers Ij" 
diam. in loose panicles. Cocci awned. 

Tundi forest, Manbhum. Parasnath, Anders., Campbell ! Kochang, 
Gamble. Not common. Biennial or lower portions perennial. Fl. May 
and r. s. Fr. Oct. 

L. 4-5" repand-dentate densely shortly pubescent esp. beneath 
Btaminal-tube forming a hispid cone over the ovary then dividing into 
about 40 long filaments. Seeds 3-4 in each carpel. 

2. A. indicum, G. Don, Mirubaha, S. ; Kakhi, Khar.; 
Kanghi, H, 

An undershrub covered with a soft white close velvet 
with few or no long hairs intermixed. Fls. about 1" diam. 

180 



1. Abutilon.] 19. MALVACEJEi. [2. Sida. 

on very slender peduncles two to three times the length of 
the subtending petioles, and usually deflexed at the joint. 
Head of carpels truncate exceeding in diam. the fruiting 
calyx, usually with short awns on the shoulders, stellately 
hairy. 

Waste ground and usually near villages in all the districts but rather 
local. Fl. r. s. and np to December. Ft. chiefly Nou.-Jany. Ripe 
seed, however, also collected in June, and it probably flowers at moat 
times of the year. 

L, usually dentate and acuminate (var. populifolium, W'. and A.), some- 
times lobed, 1^-3". Stipules small deflexed. Petiole fths as long 
as the blade. Peduncles solitary axillary 1^-2^" sometimes appearing 
8ub-panicled before the leaves develoi/. 

3. A. graveolens, ^. and A. Barkanghi, E. 

Suffruticose 3-6 ft. high, the whole plant covered with 
a tomentum much as in A. indica, bat also with glandular 
pubescence and long soft hairs on the branches, peduncles, etc. 
Fls. 1|" diam. orange with a crimson centre, on solitary 
axillary peduncles together usually with another flowering 
branch let. Head of carpels rounded, muticous or rnucronate, 
densely pubescent. Fruiting calyx as broad as the fruit. 

Similar localities to A. indicum. Singbhum, frequent. Manbhum, 
Ball. Palamau (common near Japla). Fl. Aug.-Bec. Fr. Oct.-Jany. 

L. orbicular cordate, entire crecate or slightly toothed 3-6* diam. 
Petioles 3-6." Stipules spreading or reflexed. Peduncles usually 1^-2'' 
stout. Carpels 2-3-aeeded. Seeds with a yellow pubescence. 



2. Sida, L. 

Undershmba or sub-herbaceous,, with simple or lobed 
leaves, distingaished from Abutilon by habit (smaller size 
generally), smaller flowers (rarely I") generally a paler 
yellow with usually only 5 carpels and not more than 10. 
Fruiting head of carpels small not depressed at the top, and 
carpels awned near the apex, seed solitary. The sepals 
are connate below into a 5-angled or 10-nerved cup persistent 
long after the seeds have dropped. 

181 



2. Si DA.] 19. MALVACEM 

I. Lower petioles long, f " or more. L. ovate to orbi- 
cular with cordate base mostly 1" or more long. 
Erect or trailing. Carpels 5 .... 1. veronicifolia. 
Erect. Hairs glandular. Carpels 5 . . , var. glutiTiosa, 
Erect. Tomentose. Carpels 10 ... 2. cordifolia, 

II. Petioles under f" longer than the stipules. L. 

variable mostly |" (i-2'') hoary beneath. Carpels 5 3. spinosa. 

Ill, Petioles 5" or less, shorter than the stipules. L. 
usually narrow, but if broad , always with a 
cuneate base, 

L. pubescent beneath, 'often rhomboid or obovate. 

Peduncles ^-1" long <k rhombifoUa. 

L. glabrous beneath, always narrow oblong or 

lanceolate. Peduncles i" or less . . 5. acuta. 

1. S. veronicifolia, Lamk. Syn. S. humilis. Willd 
(F.BJ.) Bariar, S„ K. ; Junka, Beng. 

Varies from a procumbent herb on open pasture land to 
an undershrub erect or trailing 1-3 ft. bigh, always hairy 
with sub-orbicular or ovate cordate obtusely serrate acu- 
minate leaves attaining SJ" by 2|" (only \-V on some 
procumbent forms). Petiole and peduncles both slender 1-2", 
Carpels mucronate or cuspidate, rarely a"wned. 

In all situations and flowering and fruiting throughout the year, but 
especially at the close of the rains. 

The trailing and erect forest form is usually covered with long spread- 
ing hairs as well as stellate hairs. L. 8-9-nerved at base. Fls. straw- 
coloured or yellow \" diam. 1-2 axillary and loosely arranged in racemes 
or panicles from the reduction of the leaves. Peduncles equal to or rather 
shorter than the petioles, jointed about half way. 

Yields a good fibre. L. eaten as a sag, Camjp. jH 

Var. glutinosa, Cav. (sp.) Syn. S. mysorensis, W. and A. 
F.BJ.) 

Erect and covei^^a with glutinous laairs. Carpels awned. 

2. S. cordifolia, L. 

An erect undershrub 2-4 ft. tomentose all over and with 
thin hairs on the stem, with ovate or ovate-oblong cordate 
obtuse crenate leaves 1 J" by I" to 3'' by 2 J'' with petioles about 

182 



19. MALFACHJE, [2. Sida. 

ith-ftbs as long. Peduncles 1-2 axillary and snb-coryrabose 

with the lower ones attaining 1". Carpels 10-9 with 2 long 

retrorsely hispid awns. 

Waste places throughout the area, esp. in scrub jungles in Palamau, 
elsewhere not common. Fls. Aug.-Dec. Fr. Oct.-Jany. 

■ Easily recognized from the leaves being softly grey tomentose both 
sides, they are 7-9-nerved at the base. Flowers straw coloured ^" diam. 
Carpels with plaited sides and awns nearly as long as themselves. 

3. S. spinosa, i. 

An erect undershrub more or less stellately tomentose with linear- 
lanceolate ovate to obovate or sub-orbicular leaves ^-2" hoary beneath 
with obtuse apex and usually cuneate base, i 3tioles J-fths, as long as the 
leaves, often with 3 tubercles at the base. Fls pale (white, Roxh.). 
Peduncles equal or exceedine the netiole jointed close to the flower. 
Carpels 5 beaked. 

Chota Nagpur, Prain. On lands recently cultivated, Roxh. 

4. S. rhombifolia, L. Ipirpijon, K. 

An nndershrnb 1-4 ft. high with stellate hairs on the 
branches. L. narrowly or broadly rhomboid or obovate, 
always cuneate at the 3-nerved base,^ pale or hoary and 
always more or less stellate pubescent or tomentose beneath. 
Peduncles slender jointed at or below the middle, the lower 
(at least) far exceeding the petioles. Carpels 5-9. 

Very common and variable . In waste ground, forest glades, etc., 
throughout the area. Fl. Fr. Aug.-Dec, The following extreme forms 
occur : — 

a. Stems slender, often procumbent. L. broadly-rhomboid, obovate 
or rounded, crenate or crenate-serrate, sometimes only ^1" hoary beneath 
with stellate tomentum. Frui ting-calyx j" or less. Peduncles under Y' 
often densely clustered. Tongue of seed broad. Beak not 5th as long as 
the.carpel, sometimes obsolete. In dry places. 

*^. Stems erect, thinly stellate. L. rhomboid to lanceolate attainingf 
3i'' by 1^" acuminate or not, serrate except at the cuneate base. Glabrous 
above, pale and thinly stellate esp. on nerves beneath. Sec. n. 4-7 prs. 
Petiole i''. Stipules setaceous equal to or usually exceeding the petiole. 
Fls. solitary or few on short axillary branches or corymbose at the ends. 
Fruiting calyx i'' or more diam. Carpels usually 8-9 pubescent or hispid 

^ But anex of the wedge may be obtuse or sub-cordate. 

183 



S/SipA. ] 19. MAL VACJEM [ 3. Ubhka. 

with beaks or awns half as long as the carpel. Seeds black with a promi- 
nent tongue. In shady or damp localities. 

Yields a good fibre. 

5. S. acnta^ Burm. Syc S. carpiaifolia F.BJ. Ipirpijon, 
K. ; Ipirpich-ig, M ; Bir miru baha, 8 • 

An nndershrub 2-3 ft. high with very tongh sparsely 
Btellate-hairy steins, lanceolate to obovate-lanc. serrate glabrous 
leaves 1|-3|" by |-1" and pale-yellow flowers on jointed 
peduncles which are mostly shorter than the J" petioles. 
Stipules hairy linear, or one linear and one setaceous ureach 
pair, |"-|'^ or more long. 

Waste gTonnd. Common. Fl. and Fr. ' Aug.-Dec 

Frequently variegated with yellow. L. gradually tapering at the tip, 
flcarcely acuminate, base 3-nerved, sometimes rounded ; sec. n. 5-8 prs. 
extending nearly to margin. Fed. jointed about the middle. Acuminate 
<XLlyx-lohes ciliate. Carpels usually 5-6 reticulate, shortly 2-beaked. 

Yields a good fibre. 



3. fJrena, L. 

Undershmbs with stellate hairs, angled or deeply pal- 
mately-lobed leaves and pink solitary or clustered axillary 
fis., or clusters in more or less leafless terminal racemea. 
Bracteoles 5, adnate to the calyx and sometimes connate 
below into a cup. Petals 5 connate below and adnate below 
to the staminal tube. Anths. nearly sessile on the truncate 
or denticulate tnbe. Ovary 5-celled, cells l-ovuled, stigmatic 
branches 10. Ripe carpels sub-indehiscent separating from 
the axis when ripe. 

Carpels echinate. L. angled or somewhat lobed 1. lobata. 
Carpels echinate. L. palmatifid . . .2. sinuata. 
Carpels smooth. L. entire or slightly lobed . 3. repanda. 

1-. U. lobata, L- Bhidi janetet', 8, 

An undershrub 2-4j| ft. high with sub-orbicular angled 
or somewhat lobed leaves 2-4" diam. often broader than long 

184 



3. tBENA. ] 19. MALFACJSM [ 5. Hibiscc*. 

and with a gland on 1-3 of the nerves beneath. Pink flowers 

J" diam. not racemose. Carpels gl ichidiate. 

Very common in forest glades and waste land. Fl. and Fr. Aug. -Dec. 

L. cordate or upper on flowering branch.'S rhomboid anda.cute at base. 
Lobes 3-5 or more obscurely 7-9. Lower petioles long. 

Yields a fibre. 

2. U. siliuata> L- Mota bhidi janatet, 8. 

An nndershrub closely resembling the last, but easily 
distinguished by its leaves being lobpf'. beyond the middle 
into usually 5 oblong or lanceolate segmeats which are 
contracted at the base and often pinnatifidaud serrated. Fls. 
1'' diam. 

Associated with the last and flowuring at thfi same time and up to 
November. 

Yields a fibre. 

3. U. repanda, Boxh. Sikuar, S, 

A shrnb 2-4 ft. with stiff branches densely stellate-hairy, 
ronndish repand or somewhat lobed denticulate leaves 2|-3|'' 
diam. and pink flowers axillary and racemose. Carpels smooth, 
easily dehiscent on slight pressure. 

Frequent. Fl. Sept.-Oct. Fr. Nov.-Dec. 

L. very reticulate beneath and mid-rib with a gland near the base. 
Btipnles setaceous. Bracteoles united into a cup below, erect linear-sub- 
ulate above i-|." Calyx i", lobes linear-oblong connate fths the way up. 
Cor. i-1" diam. 6t. tube 1" long. 

Pavonia odorata, WiUd. is an erect herbaceous glandular pubes- 
cent herb with slightly 3-5-lobed cordate-ovate leaves and long peduncled 
pink flowers about f diam. clustered at the ends of the branches. 
Eracteoles filiform 10-12. Carpels smooth. Chota Nagpur, Prain. 



5. Hibiscus, Medik. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs, usually suffruticose annuals or 
with a perennial root. L. more or less palmately lobed. 
Fls. axillary or becoming racemose by suppression of upper 
leaves, Bracteoles 5 or more, rarely fewer or absent, free or 

185 



5. HiBractJS. ] 19. MALVACE^. 

connate atiae base. Sepals connate at base or combined into 
a 5-tootlied or spatbaceous calyx, valvate. Petals 5 adnata 
to st. tube at the base. St. tube truncate or 5 -toothed at the 
top. Ovary 5-celled, ovules 3-niore, style 5-fid. above. 
Capsule loculicidal with often a distinct endocarp. 

I. Wild species (5 also cultivated). 

A. Calyx spathaceous. 

1. Fls. yellow with purple eye. Bractaoles 

many filiform. 

Fls. mostly in terminal racemes. Casp^j.e 
with dense spreading persistent hairs . 1. cancellatvx. 

Fls. mostly axillary. Capsule with appressed 
deciduous hairs ' 2. Ahelmoschus. 

2. Fls. yellow with purple eye. Bracteoles 4-5 

lanceolate to ovate. 
Branched from the base, slightly hispid below 3. tetra'phyll'iig. 
Stout erect unbranched, very bristly all over 4. 'gungem. 

3. Fls. white or pink. Bracteoles very small 

caducous .5. jiculneus, 

B. Sepals 5 nearly free or calyx 5-cleft. 

1. Bracteoles not forked, linear, fls. white . 6. micrant'h'M. 

2. Bracteoles not forked. Fls. yellow with 

purple eye. 

Pubescent and with pungent and glandular 
hairs. Capsule wingless . . .7. 'pandurtBJormiA. 

Villous.' Capsule 5-winged . . .8. vitifolius.. 

3. Bracteoles forked. A prickly shrub . . 9. furcatus, 

II. Cultivated species {vide also 5). 

A. Herbaceous. Uses economical. 

Calyx spathaceous. Fls. yellow. Fruit 5-10'' 

long 10. esculentus. 

Calyx not spathaceous. Bracteoles not adnate 

to the calyx ....... 11. cannabinus. 

Calyx not spathaceous. Bracteoles and calyx 

a-ccrescent red 12. Bdbdariffa. 

186 



19. MALVAJFJP [6. Hib:8CF8. 

B. Laxge stont Blirnbs, ^own for tlieir showy 
flowers. 

Braeteoles 6-7. L. ovate acuininate 'serrate 

above 13. rosa sinensis. 

Bracteolea 6-7. L» cuneiform o"«^ate 3-lobed 

dentate • . . • . . . 14. syriacus. 

Bracteoles 10. L. 5-angled cordate serrate 

downy 15. mutahilis. 

!• H. cancellatus, Boxh. Usungid, Ro. ; Jojo ara, Bir 
kaskom, K.., S. (names of little value). 

A very hirsute or bristly herb with lower leaves sub- 
orbicular, upper ofteu sagittate. Large yellow fls. witi 
peduncles about V^ in terminal racemes or few also axillary. 
Capsule subglobose to oblong 1-1 1'^ very densely covered with 
yellowish spreading hairs, shortly beaked. Bracteoles fili- 
form very persistent |-1 J" with dense spreading stiff hairs. 

In forests, esp. in the hills, throughout the area, frequent. "Fl. Aug.- 
Nov. Fr. Oct.-Jany. It dies down after flowering. 

Boot fusiform. Branches often procumbent. L. very variable from 
round sub-entire deeply cordate coarsely crenate or dentate to acutely 
loted (but not lialf way down) and (upper only) sagittate with very long^ 
linear-oblong entire auricles. Densely softly hairy . or villous above and 
often with bristles on the nerves, beneath hairy and with stellate 
bristles. Eacemes often dense flowered with filiform 2-several persistent 
tracts at the base of the short peduncles. Capsules hirsute inside and 
out. Beeds sub-reniform grey-brown i'' glabrous with curved lines of 
dots. There are two forms :— a. Capsules ovoid 1-1^", bracteoles much 
exceeding the'capsules. 3* Capsules oblong li-lf '' often much longer than 
the bracteoles. Santara Forest division. This is very apt to be mistaken 
for the next species. 

The roo^ is eaten. 

2. H, Abelmoschus, Ij- Mushk-dana, E.^ Beng. 

A hirsute or hispid herb with polymorphous leaves often 
pesembling the last. Large yellow fls. with peduncles 2-3'' 
or more, usually solitary axillary, occasionally in lew-fld. 
racemes, Capsule oblong 2-2f" beaked, with rather sparse 
ftdpressed stiff hairs, glabrescent. Bracteoles linear ^-l' 
deciduouSf not densely hairy. 

187 



5, Hibiscus.] 19. MALTACE^. 

A rare plant in Chota Nagpur. Hundrugagh (Ranchi), Prain. Fl. 
and Fr same season as last. 

The leaves are often 3-5-lobed half-way down or more7 lobes serrate, 
sometimes very narrow. The leaves are less hairy than in ca nee? fa tw«, 
hairs stiff and also a few stellate bristles beneath. Peduncles clavate 
above in fruit. Seeds reniform striate musky. 

Var. sagittifoliuSj Kew, Eerh. Nearly glabrous. L, 
sagittate. ^ /. aiid Fr. small. The fruit is at once dietin- 
gnished from tliat of H. cancellatna by absence of bristles. 

Hazaribagh, C.B. Clarice ! 

3. H. tetraphyllus, Roxh. 

A berb or undershrub braDched from \.^e base with a thick 
tap root. Branches with few short hispid or prickly hairs 
and deeply-lobed leaves with sparse stellate (3-forked) hispid 
hairs beneath and very few above. Fls. primrose-yellow 
24"-3" diam. Bracteoles 4-5, ovate, lanceolate or ovate-laoceo- 
late. Capsule under 2'\ 

Ravines in the Santal P., on rocks. FL Oct.-Nov. Fr. Dec.-Jany. 
Perennial.^ 

About 3 ft. high only. L., radical attain 8'' diam., lobed more than 
half-way down, cauline usually about 3-4'' diam., deeply or shalloWly- 
lobed ; lobes usually 3 or 4 large and 2 smaller basal ones, ell. or oblong, 
acute or cuspidate, sometimes again lobed, coarsely toothed. Petiole as 
long or fths as long as the leaf. Stipules linear ^f. Fls. axillary and in 
short terminal racemes with the bract-like stipules. Bracteoles persistent 
f-f. Capsule oblong H-li" beaked covered with glandular and pungent 
hairs, 5-valved. Seeds black striate with rows of minute raised dots, 
striations with thin brown hairs. 

4. H. pungens, Boxb. 

A stout erect scarcely branched herb 6-12 ft. high, 
with bristly stem, palmately lobed c^r angled hairy leaves 
5-12" diam., and large yellow fls. 4-5" diam. in terminal 
racemes. Bracteoles broad-lanceolate shorter than the large 
oblong 2|-2|" long hirsute capsule. 

1 Seeds of this sown by me in the Forest Park, Dehra, germinated 
May-June 1907 and flowered in the cold weather of the same year. Mr. 
Subramania Iyer kindly informs me that the plant is still vigorous April 
1908, and looks as though it will flower again. 

188 



19. MALVACEM. [ 6. Hibiscus. 

In cool ravines in Singbhum and the S. P. not common. Fl. July -Oct, 
Fr. NovDec. 

Stems hollow often black or pnrple spotted. Lower leaves 5-7-lobed and 
coarsely toothed, upper 3-partite serrate hairy above, with scattered 
stellate hairs beneath. Lower petioles exceeding the blade. Raceme 
often 15". Bracteoles connate at base. Beeds black striate with cnrved 
most minutely pubescent lines. 

5. H. ficulneuSj L, Naita, Ho. 

A branclied lierb about 3 ft. with a thick taproot. Steins 
with small sharp tubercles or hispid hairs. L. palmately 
3-5-lobed. Fla., 1-2" diam, white with purple eye. Buds 
densely brown tomentose beaked with the 5 linear points of 
the spathaceous calyx, Bracteoles 4-6 caducous. Capsule 
1J-1|" covered with glandular and pungent hairs. Keeds 
striate, the striae with thin brown hairs. 

S. P. as an escape from cultivation, also in fields. Cultivated in 
Singbhum and other districts. Fl. Oct.-Nov. Fr. Dec.-Jany. 

L. somewhat hiapidly hairy, not sparsely stellate, variable from lobed 
to 3-partite. Stipules caducous. Peduncles 1" swollen above. Valves of 
capsule with long hairs on the margin (seen after dehiscence). Seeds 
somewhat as in the two last. Roxburgh, however, describes the bracteoles 
of H. strictus (the same plant) as small and subulate ; Masters (in F.B.I.) 
as lanceolate. They are sometimes, at any rate, short and linear. 
The plant yields an excellent fibre. 

6. H. micrantbus. L. 

An erect weedy-looking undershrub with Blender branches 

scabrid with stellate scattered bristles, and small ovate leaves 

|-1''. Fls. Y diam. white or pink with reflexed corolla. 

Capsule globose. 

Waste places, not common. Fl. Fehy.-June. 

L. crenate or toothed, simple or- .3-lobed. Btipules l-^''- Peduncles 
long slender articulate far exceeding the leaves, usually on short lateral 
branches. 

7. H. panduraeformis, Burm, 

A very tall herb 10-12 ft. Stems pubescent and with 
pungent hairs. Lower leaves ovate and lobed, upper oblong- 
lanceolate, all coarsely irregularly toothed. Fls. solitary, 
axillary and sub-terminal l-ij' diam.j yellow with purple eye 

189 



6, Hibiscus. ] 19. MAL VACE^. 

on very short (f-J") stout articulate peduncles. Ovary and 
capsule densely silky. 

Waste ground, Palamau and Hazaribagh (near the boundary), rare. 
FL. and Fr. Nov.-Jan. 

L, boary-tomentose both sides. Peii. 1-H'', thickened above. 8tip*ile» 
and bracts filiform caducous. Bracteoles 8 united into cup at base, linear - 
spathulate appressed to and much shorter than the calyx which has 
oblong acute 3-nerved lobes. Seeds about 10 in each cell, brown, densely 
pubescent. 

8. H. vitifolius, L. 

Usually hoary-tomentose or villous not bristly, with' simple or deeply 
S-5-lobed long-stalked ovate leaves with acuminate lobes. Petiole as 
long as the blade. Fls. 2-2 1'' diam. ^Bracteoles 8-12 linear persistent not 
spathulate. Capsule short sub-orbicular tomentose, but not with the long 
hairs of the last, beaked and 5-winged. 

Prain says common in all the provinces, but I have not seen it in our 
area nor are there specimens in the Cal. Herb, or K.ew from Ch. Nagpur. 

9. H. furcatus, Roxb. 

An erect undershrub, stem covered with soft down and scattered 
recurved prickles, with entire or 8-5-lobed serrate leaves and yellow 
flowers 4'' diam. Bracteoles 10-12 linear and f orkfi.-^ . 

Pitorea, 2,000 ft. Wood. 

10. H. escalentus, I*. Mindijinga, E. ; Ramjinga, S. 
Bindi H, Ochro. Lady's Fingers. 

Erect hairy annual 4-6 ft. with cordate 3-5-lobed and 
toothed leaves and large yellow flowers. Peduncles and 
bracteoles about 1". 

Cultivated for its unripe fruits, which owing to their demulcent 
properties can be safely eaten in case" where either vogetables are 
interdicted. 

11. H. cannabinus, L- Ji> Kotle, K. j Dare kudrum, S. 
Tall unbranched 5-6 ft., rather prickly, with large leaves 

of which the lower are entire and cordate and the upper deeply 
palmate. Fls. large, over 2" diam. white (yellow, F,B.L) 
-with purple eye. 

Widely cultivated for its fibre in Singbhum. Also Moabhum, Camg. 
Santal Par., Kurz, ; Ghatra, Wood. FL October. 



. Hibiscus] 29. MALVACE^. [7. GossYpium. 

12. H. Sabdariffa, i. Arhaipila, Ho. ;.Arbarjor3ora, itf. 
Arak Kndrum, 8. ; Patwa, S. • Hozelle, Red Sorre] 

Erect glabrous with often purple ti|em^, polymorphous usaally simple 
leaves and yellow fls. 2^'' diani. The 8-10 linear bracteoles accrescent to 
the calyx which is red and fleshy (in one variety, however the calyx ia 
green), and nsaaily maricate or setose. 

Cultivated everywhere. Fl. r. s. Fr. Jarf^ The calyces are maae 
into a jelly, and the leaves are eaten. 

13. H. rosa-sineHsis, £. Joba baha, 8. is a well-known ornamental 
shrub usually With scarlet or crimson fls. Called Shoe flower from the fla. 
having been used to black shoes. 

14. H. eyriacus, L. Usually taller and more slender, the leaves 
sub-rhomboid and fls. usually lilac with purple eye. 

15. H. mutabllis, L. A very large deciduous shrub, of which the 
handsome flowers open white and torn red by evening. 



6. Thespesia. Corr. 

1 . T. LampaS) I^clU. Reke, Ho. ; Bir katsom, or Kaskom 
K,f S. ; Boa.-kapsi, 8. ; (botli those names mean the wild or 
jungle cotton, a common epithet of these shrubs somewhat 
resembling cotton) 

An erect shrub 3-5 ft, high with palmately 3-lobed 
leaves 4-5" diam. and terminal solitary or 2-3 large yellow 
flowers 4-5'' diam. with crimson centre. It closely resembles 
Hibiscus, but the styles are not divided above but end in a 
club. Capsule woody sub-globose or ovoid, girt at base by 
the calyx- tube, not widely dehiscent. 

Very common in the forests throughout the area. Perennial and 
deciduous or often dying down to the root, and shooting out again at the 
end of May. Fl. Aug.-Oct. Fr. Oct.-Dec. 

Young parts covered with brown tomentum. L. sometimes simple 
softly pubescent beneath, hairy above, base cordate or rounded, mid-rib 
with a gland near the base beneath. Peduncles swollen above with 4-8 
subulate or setaceous deciduous bracteoles. 

Yields a strong fibre. The root and fruit given in gonorrhoea, Camp. 

Gossypium herbaceum, L. Katsom, K. ; Kaskom, 8. Cotton ia 
cultivated, but not on large scale, in Ch. Nag. The leaves, bracteoles 
and calyx are sprinkled with small blaok glands. Seeds covered with, 
cotton wouL FL NovrJany. 

la 



8. Ktdia.] 19. MALYACE^. 

8. Kydia. Eoxb. 

1. K. Calycina, IRoxh, Bita-goinr, K, ; Poska Olat*, 8. ; 
Derki, Kharw ; Pula, Baranga, H. 

A moderate- sized tree, or (var. ?) often jflowering as a 
slimb, very handsome wiien iDearing its pure white large 
panicles of flowers. L, sab-orbicalar palmately 5-7-nerved 
stellate pubescent or tomentose and always with a gland on 
1-3 of the nerves beneath. St. in a column with 5 spreading 
aiTQs, each bearing 3 or 4 anthers. Bracteoles 4-6 spreading 
enlarged and persistent in fruit J-J". 

Throughout the area in valleys and on hill slopes. FI. 8ept.-Nov. Fr. 
Dec.-M.ay, Deciduo-js in March, 

L. 4 — 6" diam. sinuate, angled, or somewhat lobed with strong parallel 
sec. nerves. Petioles 2-3". Fls. polygamous f" diam. Petals obcordato, 
very long clawed, densely pubescent (at least in the shrubby form), 
adnate to the staminal tube. Bracteoles oblong or oblong-spathulate, 
downy and glandular. Ovary 3-ceUed, cells 2-oviiled. Styles 3 hairy 
with peltate stigmas. 

9. Bombax, L. 

1. B. malabaricum, D.G, Bdel, E., S.; Simal, H, 

The Silk Cotton tree. 

A large tree with prickly trunk and branches (when 
young), 5-7-digitate leaves, and large scarlet flowers which 
mostly appear when the tree is leafless. Capsule ovoid 5-7", 

Generally distributed, chiefly in the valleys. Fls. Jany. -March. Fr. 
" March-May. Leafless Dec-March or even to April. 

The tree is easily transplanted when 2-3 yrs. old, but it is largely eaten 
by elephants and cattle. The cotton which thickly lines the inside of the 
capsule is used for stuffing pillows. The wood is now largely used for 
tea-boxes in the Duars, but it requires careful storing or it develops a bad 
smell duo to a fungiis. Immersion in water improves its durability, 

Fam. 30. TUAXCEE. 

Characters of the leaves, hairs, etc. of Malvaceae, but 
leaves rarely deeply lobed. Fls, often small, without bracteoles 
under the flower. Sep, 3-5, usually free. Fet. as many, 

192 



20. TILIACE^, [i. Gkewia. 

rarely 0, free, usually imbricate. St. (sometimes few in 
Triumfetta aud Corchorus) free or sometimes 5-adelphoiis.but 
not united into a tube, often on a gono'pkore ; anthers 2-celled.- 
Ovary 2-10-celled. Ovules anatropous. Frt. various, often 
drupaceous or deeply lobed. Seeds 1-many, exarillate, usually 
albuminoas. Embryo straight or slightly curved, 

A. Ajithers globose or oblong, opening by slits. 

Trees or shrubs. Petals usually with a glandular 

base. Fruit drupaceous, smooth . . . .1. Grewia. 

StHTubs or herbs. Fls. in dense cymes. Pet. eglan- 

dular Frt. ^tj echinate 2. Triumjetta. 

Annuals. Peduncles 1-3-flowered. Frt. capsular . . 3. Corch^rue, 

B. Anthers linear, opening by pores. Fr^^ drupaceous. 
Jrees .....*... 4. Eloioca'rp'ue. 



1. Grewia, L. 

Trees, shrubs or rarely undershrubs with stellate pubescence, 
simple 3-7-basal-nerved serrate or serrulate leaves and yellow, 
rarely white, flowers in axillary (not panicled in C. N. species) 
sessile or stalked umbels. Petals shorter than the sepals, the 
base usually occupied by a large gland with a pubescent rim.* 
St. numerous on a short gonophore (but see' Note). Ovary 
2-4-celled. Style 1 with 2-4 spreading stigmas or multifid 
peltate stigma. Ovules 2-several in each cell. Fruit often 
lobed of 1-4 pyrenes enclosed in a succulent or ultimately 
fibrous mesocarp. Pyrenes 1-2-seeded, Seed albuminous 
with large flat thinly-fleshy cotyledons. 

The number of species is greater according to some authors than 
those here retained, esp. in the asiatica series. The extreme forms of 
thcao variable groups can no doubt be easily distinguished, but the way in 
which others have been repeatedly changed about from one cover to 
another in herbaria by those who maintain their distin unese as species 
shews how many intermediate and connecting forms exist. Whether the 



*N0TE. — The glandular area at the base of the petals may be absenty a^ 
was niited by Sir D. Brandis, who founded the species leptG2)cfala on this 
character. The absence of the gland is, I find, always correl^-ted with 
the reduction of the gonophore and I hold the character to. be, variable in 
certain species. 

193 



1. Gbewu.] 20. TILIACEJS. 

©itreme forms of such groups in the present state of • erolutiou of the 
series should receive specific rank is of course a matter of opinion, in tho 
absence of data as to their constancy. 

A. Fls. white, or Bepals first white then turniflg 

colour inside. Bhruhs {exc. 4 ) Top of gono- 
phore (or top of pedicel in 2) ciliate or hirsute. 

I. Stigma capitate of radiating long papillae. 

Pet. under 4" half, or not half, as long as 

Bepals. Gonophore and sometimes pedicel 

pilose aboYe. 

Peduncles very short. L. ovate-oblong or 

ovate-lanceolate 1. hirsufa. 

Peduncles slender. L. lanceolate or linear- 
lanceolate « . Yar. heliderijolia. 

II. Stigma with 4 linear arms. Petals over half 

an long as sepals . ... 2. pilosa. 

HL Stigma peltate, more or less lobed. Fls. with 
sepals over V'- Petals rarely half as long. 
L. large sub -orbicular. Frt. large globose. 

A^rub . 3. sclerophylla. 

L. lanceolate. Frt. didymous or 4-Iobed. 

Usually a tree ...... 4. loevigata' 

B. Fls. bright yellow. Stigmas peltate entire, lobed, 

or somewhat fimbriate on margins when old, 

Bometimes 2-fid (in 8). Gonophore, when 

present, pubescent or tomentose above (rarely 

almost hirsute). Oyary villous. 
I. Tree. Fruits mostly didymous, small. Peti- 
oles over ^" (exc. on very small leaves) 
Blender (or thickened at top). L. glabres- 
cent, very oblique or auricled at base. 
Stipules mostly taloate with auricled 
base. 

Peduncles usually shorter than petiole and 
usually numerous . .... 5. tili<BJolia' 

II. Fruits globose. Petioles stout uniform or 
davate, flhort (rarely over ^" in very large 
leaves). L. never auricled at base, often 
oblique. 
8tiples subulate, linear or with setaceous tip 
(rarely some with aubaaricled base when 
young). 

(a) Peduncles long (op to 1\") ; alender and 
usually erect. Fl. buds ellipsoid or ob- 
long, over k'' ox if smaller then leaves 



I 



20, TILIACE^. [ 1. Gbbwia. 

abont as broad as long, old green beneath 

(in C. N.), not (or very shortly) acuminate. 
Tree, cultivatacj (always?). L. anbrotund. 

Petiole ^-|" 6. asiatica, 

TJnderahrub. L. oblong, orbicular or obo- 

vate. Petiole under i" . . . .7. sa^ida,, 
(6) Pedunclea unequal, rarely 1'' long, usually 

diTaricate. Leaves ovate to oblong, never 

as broad as long, sometimes persistently 

white or tomentose beneath, 5-7-nerved. 

¥1. buds globose or oblong, under i". 

Very tomentose. Buds globose. Fls. large. 
L. ovate, usually white beneath . .8. elatiica^ 

Less tomentose. Buds oblong. Fls. smaller 
with peduncles not longer than pedicels. 
L. oblong, finally green beneath . . var, vestita, 
(c) Peduncles very slender. L. narrow, lanceo* 
late, rarely narrowly oblong or lanceolate- 
ovate, permanently white beneath but 
never coarsely tomentose, often only 
3-nerved. Usually a shrub , . .9, Rothii. 

1. G. hirsnta, Vahl (Em. polygama, F,BJ., polygama 
Boxh. ?^ pilosa, Roxb.?) Seta beli, K. ; Seta kata, Seta andir 
S. ; Kukur bicha, H. ; Gursukri, Kharw. 

A shrub l|-3 ft. Ivgt^j usually with many stems from the 
root, tomentose cr steilately villous all over, with linear- 
oblong to ovate-lanceolate or broadly oblong serrulate very 
shortly petioled usually acuminate leaves stellate- tomentose 
beneath and also closely stellate above when young. Fls. 
polygamous or 1-sexual, buds ovoid under 5-". Fr. pilose 
with long deciduous hairs, fleshy with a crnstaceous rind. 

Throughout the area, chiefly in open forest, common. Fla. July-8ept, 
Er. lHov.'Jany. 

Very variable. The following forms occur :— 

G. hirsuta proper, (G. hirsuta Roxb. and perhaps G. pilosa, 
Boxh,) 



1 G.pelygama, Eoicb. 13 not the narrow-leaved shrub described under 
that name i h the F.B.I, and by Duthie and others. Eoxburgh's original 
figure shews broadly-lanceolate leaves and very short poduuclea as in 
hixsuta yroyer, 

195 1 2 



1. Gbiwta.1 20. TILIACE^. 

L. lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, boary and densely clottied with etel-* 
late and pilose-stellate hairs beneath, hairs deciduous above leaving u 
Bimple base. Peduncles few, or clustered, eqnal to petible. Pedicels as 
long. FIs. ( pening white, turning light-yellow and 6nally brown. Sep. j to 
nearly ^" Pet. ^^''-nearly }" oblortg entire, blade not much longer than the 
'land. M. nonophore eylindric bnt slightly expanded into a sinuous rim 
bove, top densely pilose, stamens 45 or more much longer than the hairs. 
Herm. fl. gonDphore not margined, hairs rather longer than the stamens. 
Ovory hirsute. In fruit the hairs at the top of the gonophore spread 
"beneath it. 

Form «. L. oblong, suddenly acute or acuminate, sometimes wider 
.jpwards and 3-lobed, green or scarcely hoary beneath^ base often oblique. 
Singbhumand Falamau. 

Form P, L. much larger, often i>" by 2", more membranous, green 
beneath. Palamau and Hazaribagh. 

Var. helicterifolia. Wall Svn. G. angustifolia. Wall., G. polygama 
F.B.I, now Roxh. 

As in G. hirsuta proper bnt stems slender, leaves very narrow, almost 
white but not tomentose between the raised nerves beneath, 2^" long, 
under t" broad. Peduncles 1-4 slender, attaining 1^". M. st. about 30 
only. Bt. in the herm. 11. slightly exceeding the hairs. 

Common in scrub jungle in the west of Palamau. 

Form y. L. linear-oblong, under |" broad, often 3 J" long with 
peduncles longer than petioles, but otherwise as in hirsuta proper ia 
intermediate. Mr, Witt has sent a similar specimen from Nimar, C. P. 

The fruit of all varieties is plea-sant eating, and is given in diarrhoea 
and dysentery. 

A decoction of the leaves is also said to be used. Watt Die. 

2. G. pilosa, Lamk} Syn. G. carpinifolia, Eoxb. non 
Jtt»s. Gnrsnkri, Kharw. ; Gursikri (Sirgnja, Wood). 

A large straggling shrtib -witli branchlets, leaves and 
inflorescence tireute "with stellate hairs, not villous. L. 
oblong or sometimes slightly bijoader upwards, suddenly 
narrowed to the tip,' or more rarely acuminate. Fl.-buds 
oblong mostly constricted in the middle J-J" long before 
opening. Stigmas 4 linear spreadii^g. Style stellate. I'rt. 
closely covered with very short ste)]r:,te hairs. 

^ Lamarck's description seems at first excellent, except that the fruit 
desnribed is that of hirsuta. The plant is certainly Wight and Arnott's 
Gi pilosa, Lamk. Mr. Drummond has, however, pointed out that Lamarck's 
nilosa is not this plant at all but G. orientalis, L., and he considers that 
the oQo here described is G. oommutata, D.G 

196 



i 



20. TILIACU^, [1. Gbewia. 

Hazaribagh, at Pachamba, Camp.: Parasnath, Anderson; Sirenja. 
Wood; Banchi (at Kuru ghat), Wood. Very rare. Fls. July-Oct. ir. 
Dec -Jany. 

^ Easily distinguished in flower, similar to some states of hirsuta in leaf 
It may however be distinguished by the stiff not softly villous hairs on the 
branches and fruit which bretik otf with age leaving a stellate base, also 
by the remarkable short medianly constricted terminally dilated cup- 
shaped gonophore which is recognizable in fruit and after this has fallen. 
Mr. Witt in forwarding excellent specimens from the Centi'al Provinces 
points out that the bare straggling habit, and especially the square stems 
below make it very easily recognizable in the field. 

L. 2'' by I" to 4'' by 1\" with rounded or sub-cordate base, often doubly 
serrulate. Sec. n. 4-5 prs. Petiole i". Pedwicles few i''. Sep. h^'' 
Petals more than half as long bifid. Anthers with a few long hairs. Otarti 
hirsute. • * 

3. G. SClerophylla, Roxh. Syn. G. scabrophylla, Boxb. 
Gaphni, K.; Tarse Kotap, S. 

A coarse bushy shrub about 4 ft. high with large ronndieh 
or broadly elliptic leaves. Fls. large white 1-1|" diam. Frt. 
globose |-1" diam. with 4 rugose pyrenes. 

Singbhum, ou wooded slopes ; Manbhum, Camp, and Watt (under i3 
^ villosa). Fl. May -Aug. Fr. June-Nov. the dried fruit may be often found 
I up to Pehy. of the following year along the branches below the leaves. 

A c,?l^^^Hf^^ stellately tomentose, young densely shaggily tomentose. I. 
I Vii ^ ^'^ °^^®° slightly lobed, serrate or denticulate, scabrid above and 
, stellate pubescent beneath, base rounded with 3 strong and 2 weaker 
i nerves, cross nfervules prominent. Petiole |-1" (in C. N.) Stipules linear 
I caducous. Peduncles and pedicels about ^" or shorter. Pet. obovate 
1 white about ^rd as long as sepals, sometimes notched. (In Campbell's 
No. 8712 the sepals are unusually short, only i".) 
The fruit is eaten. 

The distinction of the fruits of Grewia into fleshy and those with 
crustaceoua rind is not tenable in the field. The rind of this species only 
becomes crustaceous or coriaceous when old or dry, the rind of hirsuta 
lescnbed as fieshy in the F.B.T. ia crustaceous when fresh. 

4. G. laevigata, VahU Gara Bursu, K. ] Marang jowar, 

A small tree with shortly pabeacent slender branchlets, 
ari'ow leaves green both sides usually 3-6" by 1^-2", and 
hite flowers 1-1 1" diam., succeeded by simple didymous or 
lobed green fruits, drupels J-t" diam. 

1 197 

I 



i. 



1. Gbewia.] 20. TILIACHJS. 

Singbhnm, Manbhnm, Eanchi, Hazaribagh (Panchet), and S. P. 
Especially frequents the vicinity of streams at 1,000-2,000 ft. elev. FL 
Jv/ne-Oct. Fr. Dec.-Fehy. Evergreen. 

L. narrow elliptic or oblong-lanceolate aiSuminate serrulate attaining 
in favourable localities 9'^ by 3", slightly stellate beneath, base acute 3- 
nerved. Sec. n. 3-5 prs. oblique, cross nervules distinct. Petiole i-^". 
J*eduncles f-l". Pedicels |-J". Buds i" long ot more. Sepals 3-nerved, 
^" long. Petals less than |th as long orbicular or quadrate glandulsu, 
-with very small blade. 

5. G, tili86folia^ VaM. Syn. G. asiatica, var. tiliaefolia, 
Brandis. Jang Olat', S. ; Dhaman, Absin^, K. ; Dhaman, 
Kharvf., H. 

A tree with very broadly ovate to obovate obtuse or 
shortly cuspidate usually crenate (more serrate with age) 
glabrescent leaves with the cordate base usually auricled on 
4ime aide, slender petioles usually thickened at the top, mostly 
falcate stipules and peduncles usually much shorter than the 
petioles. Gonophore or long or short. 

Fruits mostly didymous. 
1P\. April'June^ Fr. Oct. Very common. 

c tilisefolia proper. L. large 5-7 -nerved mostly auricled 
Oi> or* 9 side, 6" or more long at the time of flowering, crenate. 
Fr'f^h'i'Vy only very young tomentose. Stipules falcate 
eetc' cordate ab base. Peduncles J-§" usually numerous and 
nlU'' : shorter than the petioles. Buds shortly ellipsoid to 
oblong somewhat tomentose, ribbed. Sepals under J". 

(Vahl*B type shews the leaves fully developed while the plant is still 
in flower, 6-7" long, nearly glabrous, with 5 'primary nerves and very 
distinct cross nervules. Petiole ^-j''. Peduncles few below but Jl.-buds 
crowded above. Buds 2-4 mm. -long ellipsoid tomentose ridged, buds 
however, vary much in shape according to age. Fls, small, but too 
crumpled for measurement.) 

Common throaghout the area. 

/3. L, only half -developed at theirme of flowering, oblong to oblong- 
ovate with often sub-regular base but very falcate and sub-cordate 
atipules. Peduncles ^Qv J numerous. Fls. larger. 6ep. over ^". Budt 
oblong. 

Singbhum. Palaman. 

y. L. not over 3^" '' the time of flowering. Stipules only falcate 
while young. ^ Buds gloOose and tomentose (sometimes ellipsoid jus* 
bofor J expanding). Fla. larger, Sepals over \" oblong. 

198 



no. TILT AC n^. [,. Ge«wia. 

Palamati. (also Central Provinces). 

Cusi:iir*ety-o5S„:).''"'«- ^'^ ^"^"^ s„b.pe«iste„t (tie, 

Santal Parganahs. 

The wood is the most highly prized of all tho species in 
Chota Nagpur for banghj poles, etc. The branches are 
lopped for fodder. 

pj^^^^G^asiatica, i.? Olat', 8.-, Pafc-dhaman. Kharw. 

A tree with tomentose shoota, very broadly ovate or sub ^ 
orbicular obtuse or shortly cuspidate leaves with regular or 
nsua ly oblique very rarely cordate base, sharply (often 
doubly) serrate leaves, tomentose when young. Petioles short 
8-2 Uniterm or clavate, usually stout. Peduncles several 

P^ult lobose ^^^""^ ^^""^^^ °^ ^®*'''^®' ^^°^P^^^« Jo"^- 

Fr.^Jmlr*''^''' ^^'^* ^^^" ^'^^ i*^^'^^**' Hazaribagh, et'*, Vl^Jtay. 

The C. N. plant is certainly G. asiatica of Eoxbnrffh, bnt aftmA.^lmf- 
differs from the Linnea^ type. This was collected at Sufat by bS i^d 
was almost certainly a cultivated specimen. It has tomentosf s Ws 'enb- 
vonn?>^\TP^^^*'..'^^'P^y ^°^^^y ^^^'^^ ?«ares aCt 3'' long '.sSi 
at .nfc Wl*^'/?r''/ ^-\^'^T'^ ^T'^' Petiole about TrathS 
nn ^n v/ 1 ^^^^*^- SiW^les sharply subulate about as long Peduncles 
/ifinSllV''"^; ^^^^""^^ broadly oblong. According to a note by B^ 
(kindly translated by Dr. Daydon-Jackson) tho berries are red Za^t 
, (this corresponds to an unripe condition). ^^ 

! i«= '^^® ^' ■'^* PJ,''^°* ^^^ ^^^^^» a^oit 4", sometimes sliffhtlv lobed mnrA nr 
' r a^nS * L.'ef rr ' beneath but ^r.en, pett sCt'^LTu^ S 
I k^e p "rpL\tep'e H^^ "^ ^° ^"' ^^^^^--^lly sSid. 

7. G sapida, Boxh. Syn. G. Campbellii TTa^r (in 
I Descriptive Catalogue). Barsa pakor. S « ^ im 

Lnril^ l^^^^^^s^^^^^^ith more or less pei-ennial shoots (if not 
Durnt) from a woody rootstock, with broadly oblong to sub- 
orbicular or obovate rounded or obtuse ser^te leaves oft«n 
jwitH cuneate S-nerved base,^ very short petioles xV'i", lanceo- 
! 199 



1. Gbewl .] 20. TILIACEJE. 

late or subulate stipules, and very long peduncles \'\Y . 
Bads large clavate, ^' or more before opening. Drupes 
globose, sometimes somewhat lobed with 1-3 l-seeded 
nuts. 

Singbhum, Manbhum, Hazaribagh and Palaman on the bills and fire- 
lines, or in scrub jungle annually burnt. Fl . A-pril-June. 

Like asiatica and elastica tins ex)ecies shows a series of forms from 
glabrescent (in C. N.) to white or white-tomentose (in the U. P.) or 
brown-tomentose (in the Sikkim Terai). The C. N.form (var. Campbellii) 
has shoots with few stellate hairs. L. attaining 4' sometimes sub-lobate, 
very rarely acute, with scattored stellate hairs, nearly glabrous except on 
the nerves when old. Peduncles liispid, usually 3-fid., pedicels {-h''. 
Sepals about ^". Pet. i'' usually 2-fid. Drupes i". 

The fruit is eaten. 

8. G. elastica* Royle Cera, G. cinnamomea, Gamble 
G. vestita, Wall.) Syn. (r. omi 2ca pro parte Brandis. Gonyer 
K. ; Nanha Olat ', 8. 

Tree with tomentose shoots, ovate oblong or elliptic 
acuminate serrate or serrulate 5-7-nerved leaves tomentose 
when young and often- persiBtently white or* tomentose 
benenth when old, with oblique base but not cordate. Petioles 
short (usually under J" in large leaves) stout uniform or only 
slightly thickened upwards. Stipules linear to setaceous, 
more rarely subulate. Peduncles few to many usually stout 
tomentose and divaricate, but sometimes slender in var. y. 
Bracteoles narrowly linear or setaceous, more persistent than 
in asiatica. Buds sub-globose to oblong. Gonophore present 
or absent. Fruit globose under J" diam. 

Throughout Chota Nagpur. Fl. April-May. Fr. Oct.-Jany. Campbell 
and Watt eay that veslHa (the tree reiorred to is elastica proper) is very 
plentiful on the summit of Parasnath at 4,500 ft.; but as far as 
Parasnath is concerned, it nowhere occurs below 3,500 ft., its place at tlie 
lower elevations being taken by G. asiatica (G. tilia3foliaP). On 
the Tundi Hills both apacios grow side by side at an elevation of 
1,500 ft 

The typical G. elastica, Royle, is a very tomentose form with ovate 
Reaves, found chiefly in the north-west Himalayas. Leaves on some ahoota 
will attain 11 inches. Typical G. vostita, Wall, is a green form with 
oblong leaves, short peduncles and smaller flowers, found chiefly in Nepal 
and the Eastern Himalayas. Th« following forms occur in C. N. 

a. elastica proper. Branches often drooping. Shoots shaggily tomen- 
tose when young with tomoutum white or (var. cinnamomea) tawny or 

200 



J 



20. TILIACEJS. \\. Gbewu, 

mfons. Twiri? reddish when old. L. 3-5" obliquely broadly ovate acumi- 
nate or acute, persistently white beneath when old, serrulate. (Royle's 
type is lobed). /S/i/^wies broadly linear or subulate. Petioles nhont ^". 
Peduncles ^-|". Brads linear or subulate. Buds large globose veT- 
tomentose. 8epah persistently tomentose without about y-|''. I 
oblong g-af. Stigma capitate with much lobed or fimbriate margin or 
deeply 2-fid. with lamellate branches. Fruit ^''. 

Singbhum, frequent in the forests : Manbhum, Tundi hills and 
Hazaribagh, especially on Parasnath. 

Well described by Campbell and Watt as a " small, much branched 
tree crowded with ovate oblique acute or acuminate leaves, densely 
rufescent, hoary beneath, above deep dark creen. Foliage thick dark 
coloured. Fruit less than 5", 2-seeded." 

M. Less tomentose. L. becoming quite green beneath, but permanently 
Btellately puberulous, attaining 6^" by 3%". bingbhum. 

y. vestita (JBengrai Plants, not typical). Less densely tomentose or 
villous than in a. L oblong or narrowly ov.le 3-6", scarcely cr verr 
finely tomentose, ultimately green or hoary baneath, finely acuminate. 
Stipules as long as petiole linear to setaceous, but sometimes with suV 
auricled base. Peduncles slender i-|".* Pedicels shorter than peduncles. 
Buds oblong or clavate before opening. Bracts setaceous. Sep. rh^" 
Pet. linear or linear-oblong i-fa"- 

Singbhum, frequent. (Some specimens, e.g., Singbhum No. 152 witii 
leaves hoary beneath are placed in G. excelsa in the Cal. Herb.) 

S vestita, Wall, is more densely brown-villous on twigs and 
peduncles. Peduncles very short and pedicels equalling or exceeding 
them. Oblong-acuminate leaves stellately villous beneath. Sep. -^5-3^". 
Pet. aV' linear-oblanoeolate. Not seen in C. N. 

The wood is much valued, but not quite as much as is that 

of tilicB folia, 

9. G. Rothii, J)-C' Syn. (7. -.xcelsa, F.B.I, non Vahl, 
G. salvifolia, JRoxh, non Heyne. 

Bursu, K, ; Cheli, K (f . Watt) ; Bichra (Sirguja, f. Wood). 

A pretty shrub or, rarely a small tree with hoary branch- 
lets, oblong -or ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, rarely oblong or 
lanceolate- ovate, acuminate serrulate or crentilate 3-5-Derved 
leaves always beautifully white beneath, short petioles rarely 
over J". Stipules broadly linear to linear-subulate (never 
setaceous as in elast-ica) equalling or exceeding the petiole. 
Peduncles 1-6, very slender, |-1", with usually 3 very slender 
pedicels clavate beneath the flower and lineo.r bracts ^'' long. 

201 



1. Gbewia] 20. TILIACE^. [2. Tbiumpetta. 

Gonopbore distinct, finely tomentose above. Ovary long- 
villous. Stigma not deeply lobed. Frait aboat V\ eub- 
persistentlj hoary, rarely lobed, nltimately purple. 

Singbhnm forests, comiaon ; Palamati ; Santal Parganahs ; Sirguja 
and Jaspar, Wood ; not reported by Campbell from Manbhum ! Fl. A^rii- 
Bept. Fr. June-Oct. Evergreen. 

a. "Rothii proper, A s?in*6 with the bright-yellow flowers often borne 
in great profusion. Ttoigs purple when old. L. lanceolate to ovate-lan- 
ceolate, never lobed, 2-3" but attaining 4-5" by l^", acuminate rarely 
acute. Peduncles H"> pedicels ^-Y'. Sepals i" linear or linear'Oblong. 
Pet. about |" entire oblong, blade 1^-2 times the claw. 

Distribution as above. 

/3. A tree. L. often lobed, ovate-lanceolate to broadly oblong with 
broad base mostly 5-nerved, attaining 4^ by 2", serrulate or sometimes 
even coarsely serrate, in one specimen blunt. Peduncles sometimes 6, 
and 3-4-6id. Santal Parganas. 

G. Rothii, is one of th© woods used by the Kola in producing fire from 
dry sticks. 

S. Triumfetta, L. 

Herbs, andersbrnbs or shrubs with simple or iobed serrate 
leaves, and small yellow flowers in dense cymes or fascicles. 
Fascicles axillary or running into terminal spikes from the 
reduction of the upper leaves. Sepals and petals 5. Sta- 
mens 8-15, on a fleshy lobed glandular torus. Ovary 2-5- 
celled. Cells 2-ovuisd. Style filiform. Stigma 5-toothed. 
Fruit bristly or with hooked spines, indehiscent or capsular. 
Seeds 1-2 in each cell. J 

1. T. pilosa, Roth, ^ I 

A shrub 8-6 feet high with stellately hairy stems and 
simple ovate lanceolate subcordate leaves, softly stellately 
hairy both sides. Oonsnicuous in fruit from the heads of 
hooked spines.. 

Shady moist woods in Singbhnm. Fla. SepL-Nov. Pr. Nov^-Jany. 
The flowers close in afternoon. 

BteUate hairs on atcm with red bulbous bases. Z-. attain 6'' by 2|* 
Dale and densely hairy beneath. Petiole i"-2" StipuJes i". Sepals .''j -f ' 
linear etellate-hairy apiculat^u Petals linear-oblong or oblanceolate i 
Bpreading. Stamens 10. Fruit |M" diam. including the k''-^ 'lon^ spmea 
4-ceUed S-eoeded. Spines hairy all round (gUbraua om aide> FMU."^ 

203 



2. Triumfetta.] 20. TILIACE^. 

2. T. rhomboidea, t/acg. Chikti, JEC, 

A herb, or undershrab 3-4 feet with more or leas pubescent 
branches and 3-lobed 5-7- nerved leavea, atellately hairy espe- 
cially on the ribs beneath. Fruits pubescent \^ diam. 
including the minutely-hooked spines. 

Throughout the area, attaining its largest size in damp shady places. 

Fl. and Fr., Oct.-Jany. 

Stems usually more pubescent on one side. L., lower with round base 
attaining 5^'' by 5'', 3-lobed and coarsely toothed with a petiole up to i'' 
long. Upper leaves gradually smaller and uppermost lanceolate. Fls, 
fascicled axillary and running into terminal spikes. 8ep. linear f " 
apiculate. Pet, oblong or spathulate, somewhat shorter. 

Yields a soft glossy fibre. Mucilaginous. 

The following species of Corchorus, viz., acutangulus, Lamfc. with 
narrow winged capsules and 3-fid beak ; fascicularis, Lamk. with nar- 
row leaves and beaked capsules ; olitorius, L. and capsularis, L. are 
found outside the forests. The last two give the fibre known as Jute. C 
capsularis, Kaskomrau, 8. with globose capsules is found sometimes 
apparently wild, the others are all probably truly wild. They flower in 
the rains. C. olitorius, Vem. Hatempa, Bo. Bir Narcha, 8. is eaten as 
a vegetable. It has broad ovate serrate leaves some, or all of them with a 
slender tail each side of the base, and a linear long-beaked capsule 
with transverse partitions between the seeds. 

Elasocarpus serratus, L. A tree with evergreen foliage and 
axillary racemes of white flowers with laciniate petals is sometimes growh 
in gardens. 



Fam. 31. STERCULIACEiE. 

Chaiacters of leaves, hairs, etc., of Malvaceae but fls. 
often zygfomorpbic, 1-2-sexual or polygamous. Petals some* 
times absent. St. sometimes definite and anther -cells always 
2. parallel or - divergent. Ovary sessile or stipitat©, of 2-5 
carpels loosely united and follicular in fruit, or connate into 
as many cells, rarely carpel 1 (Waltheria), OunZes anatro- 
I)ous. Frt^ capsular or follicular. Cotyledons leafy. Alb^ 
present or 0. 

A. Petals 0. St. column bearing a head or ring of 
anthers. Carpels in fruit distinct follicular. 
L. simple or digitate ..... 1. Bterculia. 

203 



21. STEKCUL1ACE2E. [1. Steeculia. 

B. Petals present. Carpels not follicular in fruit, 
(but 866 Helicteres) 

I. Fil. completely connate into a tube, or free 

above. Ovary on a long gynophore 
Anthers and staminodea anbsessile on the dilated 

tube 2. Helicteres. 

Free part of filaments and staminodos long and 

filiform ... .... 3. Ptero.<p6rmuTn,. 

II. Stammis with the filaments only connate below. 
Ova'y sessile . . . . . 

Stamens' very many. Shrubs . . . .4. Eriolaena. 
Stamens 15 fertile, staminodos 5. Herb . . 5. Pentapei'js. 
Stamens 5. Staminodes 5. Petals appendaged 6. Bxietineria. 
Stamens 5. Petals spathulate. Ovary 5-celled 7. Melochia. 
Stamens 5. Petals oblong-spathulate. Ovary 

1-celled 8. Waltheria. 



1. Sterciilia, L. 

Trees, characters as above. Fls. polygamous. The 5 
follicles stellately sprep-ding in fruit, sometiraes dehiscing 
long before the seed or seeds are ripe, bo that these ripen 
•fully exposed 

1. L. angled or palmately lobed. 

L. shallow ly 5-lobed tome ntosebenef,th. Lobes entire. 
Fls. vory small greenish-brown. Inflorescence densely 
glandular . 1. urens, 

L deeply 5-7-lob.od tomtntose beneath lobes again 
3-lobed rarely entire. Fls. ^'' diam yellowish with 
pink centre. 2. villosa. 

L. 3-lobed or in young plants deeply 5-7-lobed glabre* 
scent.- Fls. Scarlet 3. c^lorala. 

2. L. digitate. Fls. dull orange . . , . . 4. foetida. 

1. S. urens, Roxh. Teley, K., S,, Telhec ', S.\ Kaunjii, 
Kharw., Gulu, H. 

A large or raod.-sized tree with thin papery bark which 
appears white in the distance and gaunt spreading branches 
iLarked *vith lage scai-s. Panicles 4-7'' densely viscidly 
pubescent. Fls. ^" diam. Follicles pungent with briatles. 

204 



Is SrERcuLiA.] 21. STERCULIACEM. 

A conspicuous feature of the dry rocky hills of Ch. Nag. and les? rso 
in the S. P. Fls. Dec.-Fehy. Fr. April. It drops its leavos in Nov. Or 
Dec. and often remains leafless until the May storms. 

L. 9-16" both ways not deeply lobed (never half-way down) but 
usually broadly 5-cu8pidate, base deeply cordate rounded. Petiole 6-12'', 
Fls. reddish-brown tomentoso outside, green inside the oblong acute lobea 
which are bearded within at the base, and crimson inside the tube. 

It yields a gum "used by the Santals in throat affections". Camp. 
The seeds are eaten. The bark yields a fibre. 

2. S, villosa, Roxh, Sisi, K., Ganjher, 8,y Walkom, Pir- 
onja, M. ? ; Sisir, Oraon ; Udal, Kharw.j -if. ; Baringa, Gond. 

A large tree with pale but not popery bark. Branches 
with large scars. Panicles pendulous 9-li" rusty pubescent. 
Fls. I" diam. membranous. Ripe follicles tomentose, scarlet 
inside. 

Essentially a tree of the valleys. Singbhum,. frequent, but not com- 
mon. Parasnath, in Hazaribagh. Palamau. S. P. Probably in other 
districts. Fl. Jany.-Marah. Fr. May -June. Leafless Dec-May. 

L. appressed villosely-^omeotose beneath 9-16'' both ways, usually cut 
to the middle, lobes caudate or again .3-partite ; base deeply cordate. 
Petiole as long as leaf. Seeds several brown with a black shining aril, ^-^. 

A very strong fibre is obtained from the bast which accounts for the 
scarcity of the tree in some places. The wood is now used for toa boxes 
in the Duars, it is a very bad fuel. The tree coppices freely ; the seeds 
g(}rminate soon after falling in June. 

3. S- colorata, Roxh, Sisi, K. ; Udal, 8. ; Sisir. Oraon, 

A large or mod. -sized tree very beautiful in flower when 
the numerous panicles resemble masses of scarlet coral. In 
fruit it is easily distinguished by the very membranous green 
or rosy follicles which open widely, bearing one seed on one 
or both of the margins. 

Valleys in Singbham ; Manbhivn, Manson, Camphell ; Tamar, Wood ; 
Parasnath, Neterhat 2,500 fu. (taiamau) Gamble! S. P. (Mahuagarhi 
Gamble.) 

Fls. March- April. Fr. Ap til-May. Leafless Jany.-May, 

Ba,rk grey. L 6-12". with only scattered stellate hairs beneath. In 
young plants very deeply T-lobed or partite (Campbell's No S^T92 is 
almost certainly this), in old trees usually witli only 3 caudnto lobes and 
deeply cordate base. Fix. |" clavatc, ortni go -scarlet stellatcly tomontoso 
vith pedicels and rachis of panicle of the same colour. 

Yields a atrong fibre. 

205 



1. Stbbculia.] 21. STERCULIACHM. [3. Pteeospbbmfm, 
4. S. foBtida, 'L. 

Has been introdaeed into Purnlia. It was also reported Vy,. Anderson 
from Parasnath! 

PI. \\' dia]iL''red and yellow or dull purple in narrow i>anicl©fl &-12''' 
long, and with a most offensive smell, Brandu. Fl. J^prii-Jlfay. 



3. Helicteres, L. 

1. H. Isora*9 ^^ Poto-porla, sinkari, "K. ; also called 
Goinr from a confusion with Grewia ; Petcamra, B. \ Aitem, 
Kharw ; Maraphal, H. 

A sbrub or small tree with oblique naaally cordate broad- 
ly oblong or ronnded pubescent 5-7-palnii-nerved leaves, 
scarlet lateral zyg:omorphic flowers 1|" long, and a "woody frnit 
of 5 spirally rolled carpels on a very elongated gynophore, 
tardily follicular when ripe, and dehiscent aloDg their inner 
edge. 

Very common and often gregarious both in the valleys and especially 
on northern aspects in the hills. Fls. April-Dec. Ft. Od.-Jany., but the 
open carpels may be found up to Juna Deciduous in March and renews 
leaves in April. 

Shoots softly villous. L. rarely sjrmmetrical, bifarious 3-6" often scabr- 
ous above, densely stellate pubescent beneath, often somewhat lobed, 
serrate. Petiole ^"^ Pedwicles axillary or extra axillary 2-4 together 
dhort. Calyx i-f'^ oblique, stellate. Petals reflexed, Staminal tube embra- 
cing the gynophore cupular above and 5-toothed. 

The root, bark and fniit are given for colic, Camp, 



3. Pterospermnm, Schreb. 

1. p. acerifolium, Willd. Muchu kundi, K.; Mach- 
kunda, S. 

A large handsome tree with large palmately-nerved cor- 
date leaves white tomentose beneath and large white flowers. 
Capsule oblong woody 5-valved with winged seeds. 

Doubtfully indigenous. Messrs. Campbell and Watt believe it to be 
eo in the Tnndi forest. It is commonly juanted near villages thioufi^ut 
the area. The name Muchokunda is Sanscrit and is tide Hindi and 
Bengalee name for P. Buberifolium, Lam. 

20^ 



3, Ptebospebmum.] 21. STEECULIACE^. [4. Ebiol^na. 

Fls. March-July. The capsules open at the time of flowering in tho 
following year. Evergreen. 

Rusty tomentose. L. 6-15", lobed entire or coarsely toothed. Fh.^ 
regular or sub-regular, SepaAa 4-5". Petals Zl-4:\" linear-oblanceolato. 
St. 15, shorter than the staminodes, with filiform filam(?nts and linear 
anthers. S/amijiodes 5, 3|-3|-" long (including tube), pubescent, filiform 
slightly clavate. Cajpsule rough. 



4, Eriolaena, D.C. 

Trees or slirubs with palmately-nerved leaves and regu- 
lar yellow flowers axillary or panicled, bracteolate. Calyx 
spathaceous, 5-toothed or partite. St. tube abort with many 
anthers, cells parallel. Staminddes 0. Ovary sessile 5-10- 
celled. Style with as many spreading stigmas. Ovules 
many. Capsule woody looalicidal. Seeds winged above. The 
woody peduncles are often sharply flexed in fruit. 
Bracteoles pinnatisect large , . . , .1. Hookeriana. 
Bracteoles entire or lobed very small and caducous . 2. quinquelocularis* 

1. E. Hookeriana, W. Sf A. Bundun, IJidbulung, Hake- 
homo, K. ; Guaguli, S. ; Ponra, Oraon. 

A shrub or small tree with the new shoots densely, stel- 
lately scaly, leaves white tomentose beneath 3-6'. Yellow 
flowers 11-2" diam., 1-few on axillary or extra-axillary long 
peduncles. Capsule tubercled, ovoid. 

Common on the hills in Singbhum, Manbhum, Hazaribagh and Pala- 
yiau. Also found in the Santal Parganahs ; Sirguja, Wood. 

Fla. April-June. Fr. Nov.'Jany. New leaves at time of flowering 

L, broadly cordate coarsely toothed shortly acuminate, base 7-9 
nerved. Peduncles from the axils of deciducms bracts or of the young 
leaves, rarely terminal, far exceeding the petioles at the time of flowei'ing, 
2-4", either simple and 1-fid. or branched and few-fiid. often with 1-2 or 
a whorl of pectinate bracts about the middle. Bracteoles^ 3 laciniate ^-y. 
Calyt ovoid crowned by the free tips of the valvate sepals in bud, tomen- 
tose. 

The wood is strong and used for axe (hake) handles. The bark is 
aaid to yield a good fibre. 

2. E. quinquelocularis, Wight. Bhawat, Vem. (Wood). 



4..EBioLiENA.l 21, STEECULIACEJE. [6. Buettnebm. 

Much resembling the last but the flowers in large ter- 
minal panicles exceeding the leaves and the bracteoles as 
above. The capsule also is smoother and more oblong. 

Parasnath, Train ; Jaspur, Wood. 
Poultices of the root cures wounds, Wood. 

Pentapetes phoenicea, L. Bare baha, R, is a branched herb 2-5 
ft. high, glabrous, or with a few scattered hairs, easily recognized by it3 
long lanceolate sharply toothed leaves 3-5" long with only 1 primary nerve. 
Fls. large, red nodding on short 2-flowered peduncles. Capsule sub- ^ 
globose, bristly. 

In wet fields, not common. The root is used medicinally, Cdmp. 



6. Buettneria, L 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, sometimes climbing, with simple 
entire or toothed leaves. Fls. purplish small or minute cymose. 
cymes often umbellate and panicled. Petals with a hooded 
base and variously shaped horns or appendages. StamiDal 
tube short with 5 feitile anthers and 5 stami nodes. Ovary 
5-celled, cells 2-ovuled. Capsule globose more or less echinate, 
septifragally 5-valved. 

1. B, aspera, Golehr. 

A large woody climber (or tree f) with large cordate 

Bub-orbicular or oblong leaves with 6 basal nerves, and the 

minute flowers in axillary hoary cymose panicles. 

Eajmehal Hills, Train. Fl. May-J'itie. 

L. glabrescent shortly acuminate with 4-6 prs. sec. n. above the basal. 
Bep. triangular valvate, lurid purple-green. Pet. linear blackish with 
yellow pilose horns on the back, Clarke. Capsule li" diam. 5-celled with 
long curved spines. 

This plant is described as a tree in the F.B.I, and in "Bengal Plants- 
All the herbarium sheets (I have seen none from Chota Nagpur), which 
bear remarks as to its habit describe it as scandent. 

2. B. herbacea^ Jtoxh. . Idel sanga, K. ; Deku sindur, S, 
A branched herb with a perennial woody rootstock, distant, 

ovate-lanceolate acuminate toothed leaves 1-2|" long and 
ftxillary cymes of small purplish flowers, remarkable fcr the 

208 



\:' 



6, BrsTTKEEiA.] 21. STBRCVLIACJEM, 

long slender tips and-2-fid appendages of the petals. Capsnle 
softly 8 piny, ^" diam. 

Eooky gTotind in the forests, and also sometimes in the open. Fl- 
Au().-Oci. 

The rootstock is grotlnd and rubbed on swellings of the legs by the 
Kols. It is a^.so used in combination with Bael fruit, hesel gum, and 
Banyan root in cholera and diarrhoea. *It is given in the female com- 
plaint known in Sautali as pordhol, ' Camp 

Melochia corchorifolia, L. Thuiak'. 8. An nndershrub with 
oblong-ovate serrate plaited leaves 1-3" long with rounded or cordata 
base. Fls. small white or pink collected in dense heads. Calyx tvhe ^^ 
eurrounded by 4-5 bracteoles ^" long. Capsule depressed globose, nubes- 
cent, 5-grooved. 

Common in waste places, bunds of rice-6eld8, etc. Fl. and Fr. r.s. 
The leaves are eaten as a vegetable and the stem yields a fibre. 

•Waltheria indlca, L. A perennial hoary-tomentose nndershrub 
?-4 ft., j)artially dying down in some situations and shooting out again 
in May and June. Leaves velvety-ovate or ovate oblong sub-plicate 
toothed with 5-nerved base, larger 2f" by H", rarely 3" long. Fls. yellow 
or pink in axillary sessile or stalked dense capitate cymes with small 
lanceolate bracts and also running out into leafless spikes. Petals ^J 
narrow oblong, with a long claw. 8t. tube with 5 oblong anthers without 
staminodea. Capsvle -Jj" ovoid villous 2-valved with 1 black seed. 

Especially on rocks in open dry jungles, also common in waste land. 
Fl. r.s. 

Fam.^. EUFHORBIxiCEiE. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, sometimes with milky jnice. Leaves 
alternate (exc. Trewia) simple (exo. Bischofia), usnally 
stipulate. Fls. small or minute, l-sexnal, moncecious or 
dioecious. In Euphorbia rednced to single pedicelled stamens 
and naked ovaries surrounded by an inyolucre. Perianth 0, 
single or double, tisunlly sepaloid. St. 1-6 or numerous ; 
often central in the flower, with or without a pistillode. 
Anthers 2-celled, usnally small on a broad connective. Ovary 
superior of 3 carpels and 3-celled, more rarely of 2 or many 
carpels and cells (only 1-celled in Antidesma spp.), often 
3-iobed. Styles or stigmas as many as the carpels, some- 
times 2-fid. Ovides 1-2 in each cell, pendulous from the 
inner angle. Fruit usually capsular of three or more 2- 

209 



22. EUPHORBIACEJE. 



valved cocci, or a drape with a 1 -more-celled putamen. Seed 
eometimes aril late or with a caruncle. Embryo straight with 
6at foliaceous cotyledons in a fleshy albumen, ^very rarely 
exalbuminous with fleshy cotyledons. 

t. Cells of ovary 2-ovuled. 

A. Male fls. reduced to single pedicolled stamens, 

sttrrotmded by a calyx-like involucre, which 
Bometimes also includes a solitary pedicellfld 
ovary. 

Trees, shruDs, or herbs, often fleshy, with milky 
juice 1. Ewphorhia. 

B, Fls. not reduced to single sta^mens and pistils. 

1. Tribe Phyllanthese. Perianth 1-2-seriate. 
Petals sometimes present. St. 3-6 (sep. 
and anths. 4-12 in Glochidion spp.) free 
or connate. Ovary 2-many-celled. Fls. 
fascicled, rarely few in the axils. Stigmas 
not dilated. The leaves are often small 
and distichous, the twigs bearing them 
simulating pinnate leaves, the resemblance 
to such being very striking when, as is 
often the case, the whole twig is deciduous. 
(a) Petals present, very small. Sepals 

valvate. Stamens united into a column 

below. 



Ovary 2-celled. Fruit a drupe .... 

Ovary 3-celled. Fruit dry, ultimately dehiscent . 

(6) Petals absent. Sepals imbricate. 

(i) Calyx 4-6-lobed or partite, campanulate 
or spreading. St. 3 or more. 

Disc 0. Styles united in a column round a depressed 

center. Frt. multilocular capsular . . 
Disc of small glands. Stigmas sessile or sub- sessile. 

Frt. baccate . 

Disc of distinct scales (exc. P. Emblica). Styles 
slender. Pistillode . . . ... 

Perianth sub-petaloid. Styles slender recurved 
connate at base. Pistillode large 

(ii) Calyx of male swollen, sometimes 
thickened round a minute mouth, 
St. 3. 

Male calyx turbinate or homispheric . • 

210 



2. Bridelia. 

3. CleistanthviS. 



4. Glochidion. 

5. Kirganelia. 

6. Phyllanthus. 

7. Flueggea. 



8. Breynia, 



22. EUPEOBBIACEM 



Male calyx rotate or disciform ..... 
(iii) Calyx 3-6-lobed or partite, not swollen. 
St. 2 or more, free. Oyary 1-4-celled. 
Stigmas dilated or if minute, then 
flowers racemed. Disc or annnlar, 
sometimes lobed but never of dis- 
tinct glands. Frt. a 1-2-celled drupe. 
Fls. in axillary clusters spikes or 
racemes (M. axillary clustered and 
F. sub-solitary in 10). 
2-3-celled. Stigmas dilated . 
Ovary 2-4rcelled. Stigmas dilated. 



9. iSauroput. 



St 
St, 



Styles and stigmas 

• « • • • 

Fls. panicled. Frt. 



2-3. Ovary 

4 or more. 

Fls. clustered 

St 2-5. Ovary 1-2-celled. 
minute. Fls. spicate . 

2. Leaves trifoliolate. 
baccate 
II. Cells of ovary 1-ovuled 

A. Calyx valvate or imbricate in bud. Petals present 

in male or both sexes. 

1. Fls. in spikes or racemes. Stamens indefi- 

nite. 

Trees or shrubs. Eacemos axillary and terminal. 
Petals villous .... . . 

Glabrous cultivated shrubs with ornamental leaves. 
Racemes axillary . . . . , 

Tomentose undershrubs. Racemes axillary. St. 5-15 

2. Fls. in terminal 2-3-ohotomous cymes. 

St. 8-many .... 

B. Calyx valvate in bud. Petals 0. Styles long, 
often 2-multi-fid, 

1. L. opposite. M. fl. racemose. > F. solitary 

or few. Large tree . . . 

2. L. alternate. Fls. spiked> laoemed, or 

panicled. Stamens many. 

(a) Filaments not connate in bundles. L. 

.3-5-pal mi-nerved. 

Anther-cells 2 erect slender. F. fls^, with large bracts 

Anther-cells 2 globose. Trees or shrubs • . ' . 

Anther-cells 3-4 (rarely 2), or anther 4-valved. Trees 

Anther-cells 2 adnate on the snb-reniform anthers. 
Undershrubs . • , , . . . . 

(6) Filaments connate in bundles. An- 
ther-cells sub-globose divergent. 

211 



10. Puiranjiva, 

11. Cyclogtemon, 

12. Antidesma. 

13. Bischofia. 



14. Croton. 

Codi(Bum, 

15. Chrozophora 

16. Jatrapha. 



17. Trewia* 



18. Acalypha. 

19. Mallottis. 

20. Macaranga. 

21. Baliospermum. 



2-4. EUPROBBIACE.^. 

L. narro"^. Fls. spicato. Shrub . . . . 

L. very broad palmi-nerved. Fls. panicled. Oastoi'- 
oil plant ... . . 

3. L. alt. pellucid punctate Fls. in axillary 

contracted cymes or clusters, or sub- 
racemose. Stamens numerous 

4. L. alt. St. 1-3. Herb usually scandent, 

with swinging hairs . . . . 
C. Calyx of male open in bud. St. 2-3. An 
introduced tree 



[ 1. EUPHOBBIA. 

22. Homonoia. 

23. ♦EicMiM«. 

24. Gelonium. 

25. Tragia, 

26. Sapiurn, 



Manihot utilissiraa, PohL Taresan, 8. The Cassava. A sof^ 
wooded shrub with tuberous roots and Simal-liko digitate leaves is occa- 
eionally cultivated. 

1. EiipJiorMa, L. 

Trees or shrubs, often with swollen fleshy thorny branches, 
or herbs, always with milky juice. M. fl., a naked pedicelled 
stamen. F. fl. a pedicelled 3-celled ovary with 3 styles. 
The males are clustered in a calyx-like 4-5-lobed turbinate 
or disciform or campanulate involucre), the lobes of ^vhich have 
swollen glands at the .sinuses which sometimes develop a 
petaloid limb. One F. fl. is usually included in each involu- 
cre, the first of the cyme being generally male, and subse- 
quent ones 2-sexnal. Capsule of three 2-valved cocci separ- 
ating from a columella when ripe. 

Of the several small herbaceous species, the commonest is E. piluli- 
fera, L. Pusi-toa, K., 8., (Cat's milk), an erect (or, in one variety, 
prostrate) herb 6"-2 ft. high, with opp. shortly petiolod very oblique ser- 
rulated leaves j-l^' long. Involucres in axillary and terminal dense- 
flowered sessile or poduncled cymose heads. The root is given to allay 
vomiting, Camp. 



Fleshy 
thorns. 



small trees or shrubs armed with stipulary 



3-5-winged 



Branchlets prominently sinuately 

Stipiilar thorns iu the sinuses. 
Branchlets somewhat 5-angled from the sub- 
confluert prominences. Stipular thorns on the 
promijioiit'r>s (tubercles) . 
Branclilct.s terete, tubercles 
2k FiiiShy small tree or shrub, 
3. Cultivated HhiMb, not flo9hy, 
red leai.-fiko bracts • • 



ftat, not Confluent 
without thorns 
bearing brilliant 



1. antiqiiorum, 

2. neriifolia. 

3. tfii'ulia. 

4. TinicallL 

5. pulcheninvi. 



212 



i! 



1. EupeoRBiA.] 22. EVFRORBIACEJE. 

1. E. antiquorum, I^- Etkec', S, 

A shrub or sn^all tree np to 20 ft., usually leafless, or 
leaves few and decidaous, obovate-obloog with rounded tip. 
Involucres 3 nate, forming short-peduncled cymes in the 
sinuses. Styles 2-cleft. 

Occasional in village hedges. Given a«^ a cure for cough, Camp. 

2. E. neriifolia, L, Etke, K, ; Etkec', S. Syn. E. ligu- 
laria, Roxh. 

A shrub oc small tree 6-15 ft. with sharp stipulkir thorns 
on sab-confluent tubercles, arranged in vertical or spiral lines. 
L. usually present, narrowly obovate or obovate-oblong, 
usaally acute. Involucres 8-nate in small sbort-peduncled 
cymes l|-2'' long above the leaf -scars. Style 3 1obed. 

Apparently wild in western Palamau, among' rocks. Frequent in 
villagas, 

Fl. Feby. -March. Deciduous March-June. 

This is perhaps the E. ligulata which is referred to as being commoa 
along the Soane, in the Himalayan Journals. 

The c'vme.s begin as single maid receptacles, bearing two ovate-lanceo- 
late bracts at the base of the short stunt pedicel. lu the axils of these 
arise two (turbinate receptacles bearing t'emalo flowers, and again sub- 
tended by a pair of bracts' as long as the involucre, which are 3-lobed, 
mid-lobe being somewhat fimbriate. 

3. E. Nivulia, Sam. Etke, K. ; Etkec ', S. ; Sij, Beng, 

A tree 15-30 ft. high with thick rugose corky bark below 
when old, and spreading often whorled branches. Branchlets 
terete armed (or some unarmed). Prominences absent or 
represented by flat corky area^ L. obovate or oblanceolate to 
spathulate -obovate, 4" by 2j" to 9", by S|" with rounded or 
slightly retuse tip. Style columnar, 3-lobed. 

Frequent on barren rocks in Singbhum, Palarnau and the Eajmehni 
Hills (on trap). It is sometimes ali§o grown in villages, and is the true 
Etke of the Kols, who take the milkv juice as a violent purgative in casea 
of fever. 

213 



1. Efphobbia. ] 22. EUPEOBBIACE^, [ 2. Beidslia. 

ris. Fehy.-A'pril. Fr. April. Leafless usually Fehy.-June. 

' BrancTies often jointed. Btipulary thorns l-^." L. pale beneath, nerves 
only visible by transmitted light. Involucres yellow usually 3-nate in 
cymes from above the leafscars, and near the ends of the branches. 
Old cymes about twice forked 1^'' long with yellow involucres. Young 
with a central sessile disciform male and two lateral funnel-shaped 
female, or central neuter with linear-spathulate staminodes. Anthers 
purple with yellow pollen. Bracteoles between the stamens numerous 
fimbriate, as also in the last, between the fls. and inflorescence of which 
and of E. Nivulia good distinguishing characters are still wanting. 
Capsule ^'' broad, on a pedicel f ". 

4. E. Tirucalli, L. Siju, Beng, 

A small tree 12-20 ft. high. Prain says qnite naturalized in the western 
parts of Bengal. I have rarely seen it in C. N. It is a native of Africa. 
The branchlets are slender quill-like. 

5. "E. pulcherrima, Willd. The Poinsettia, a well-known garden 
plant, with brilliant scarlet leafy bracts surrounding the cymes of involu- 
cres. Fl. Nov.-Fehy. 



2. Bridelia, Willd, 

Trees or shmbs, sometimea scandent, witli entire usually 
etroDgly nerved leaves and Bmall monoecious or dioecious 
flowers in axillary clusters, or the clusters in terminal spikes. 
Calyx 5-lobed valvate persistent. Petals 5 shorter than the 
sepals, inserted outside the prominent annular slightly peri- 
gynoua disc. St. -5 on a gonophore with the pistillode. Ovary 
2-celled. Styles free or partially connate, or stigmas sessile* 
Fruit a drupe with a 2-celled stone, ultimately splitting into 
two 1-seeded 2-valved (always ?) pyrenes. 

1. Erect trees with very strong parallel sec nerves 

and straight cross nervules. 
Nerves 15-20 prs. Clusters axillary and in long 

spikes. Fr. globose 1. retusa. 

Nerves 8-16 prs. L. broadly obovate. Clusters all 

axillary. Fr. ellipsoid or oblong . . . .2. montana. 

Olusters axillary and in short spikes. Ij, elliptic 

acuminate. Fr. ellipsoid . . . . .3. puhescens. 

Large scandent shrub. Venation as in 1 . . 4t, stipularis. 

214 



\ 



2 BiiiDELiA.] 22. JEUFHORBIACFJE. 

3. Small treo or a shrub. Leaves only 1'3", rarely 
6', BBC. n. not very strong 5. tomentosa* 

1. B. retusa, Spreng. Karaka, M. ; Kaka, Ho, ; Karke 
anmn, Kadrapala, S. ; Kaj, kaji, Kharw, 

A small tree nsnaily with long conical thorns on the trunk 
when young, stiff ell.-oblong strongly nerved leaves, glabrous 
or pubescent, grey or glaucous beneath, and dioecious or 
monoecious fls. in axillary and spicate clusters. 

Common in all the districts. Fl. Aug.-Oct. Fr. Nov.-Jany. Evergreen. 

L. shining above, sometimes somewhat obovate, always acute with 
rounded base, 4" by 2" to 10" by 4|'', -• anally somewhat pubescent beneath. 
Peiiofc swollen i-^''. M. Jle. pedicelled. Petals of M. obovate coarsely 
toothed, of Fem. entire. Calyx y diam. in frt. Fr. ^''-^" diam. greenish- 
yellow or flesh-coloured, globose. Pyrenes ridged. 

The drupes are quoted as purplish-black by Brandis and in the F.B.I. 

This is so when over-ripe and when dried. They are usually eaten by 
birds before this stage, and are a favourite food of HornbUls, parrots and 
green pigeons. 

The leaves are largely used for buffalo fodder. 

1. B. montana, Willd. Vern. as in the last. 

A small, often straggling tree, without thorns, with glab- 
rous brown pustulate twigs and leaves sometimes rather re- 
sembling those of retusa^ but mostly obovate with a rounded 
tip, smaller and of a much brighter green. Fls. never spicate, 
and even the quite young fruit ovoid or ellipsoid. 

Common in rocky ravines in the Santal P. On Parasnath in Hazari- 
bagh. Fl. Oct.'Dec. Fr. Fehy. 

There appears to be some confusion in the F.B.I, between B. retusa 
and this species, the fruit of which is described (in the^.B.I.) as globose, 
and the leaves as shining above, whereas when the trees are seen growing 
in the same locality, one of the most obvious distinctions is the dull and 
lighter green colour of the loaf surface of montana compared with that of 
retusa. 

L. obovate or broadly elliptic, shorter in proportion than B. retusa 
and rounded or retuse at the tip, narrowed but not acute at the base, 
glabrous or puberolous beneath. Size about 4" by 2^" to 6* by 3f'', 
though occasionally some abnormally very large leaves occur as in other 
Bpeoies of the genus. Petiole i''. Fls. sessile or sub-sessilo, monoecious* 
M. with lanceolate or oblong-lanc. sepals, and obovate coarsely toothed 
petals. F. sepals triangular-lanceolate, pet. oblong entire. 

215 



^2. EUPEORBIACE^. [2. Bbidelia. 

3. B. pubescens, "Kurz. 

A small tree witli pubescent or toraeutose twigs, narrovly 
■elliptic acuminate leaveB, pilose or pubescent on the ne: ves 
beneath, and white flowers in axillary or apicate clusters. 
Drupe ellipsoid or oblong |'' by j". 

Along streams in the northern valleys of Sarauda, generally above 
2,CO0 ft. 

Fl. A<pril. Fr._ ripens the following cold weather, but like other Bridelias, 
if not eaten it dries on the tree, and may remain till the following April. 

L. 4^" by If" to 10'^ by 4'', some of the lowar leaves on a twig sometimes 
broadly elliptic, base rounded or acute. The leaves are much more m.^m- 
"branous than in the two last, venation similar bnt the tertiary nervaa 
much weaker, pubescent or pilose. FU. sometimes \" diam. when fully 
expanded, tomentose /Sep. deltoid acuminate. Pet. obov.cta or obcordato. 
Vise prominent, filling the tube. 

4. B. stipularis, Blume. Babu janga, 8. 

A large woody climber with pendent branches, broadly 
ell. -oblong strongly nerved leaves and numerous axillary or 
spiked or panicled clusters of green monoecioas flower-i, 
succeeded by oblong drupes J" long. 

Santal P. from Chandna northwards, alonp* the banks of naias and in 
ravines. Fl. May-Od. Fr. Dcc.-Feh. 

Branches pubescent. L. 4^" by 2j', much reduced on the flowering 
branches, soinetimes obovate, oVitnse or rounded at the tip. and witti 
rounded or sub-cordate base, hairy beneath. Sec. n 7-12 prs. strong and 
tertiarie? s^^ong and parallel. Calyx f '' diam. in fruit. Pet. obovate . 
Drupe reddish until over-ripe. 

5- B. tomentosa, Blume. 

A shrnb or a very small tree with usually small, lanceolate 
to elli[)tic leaves, pale glaucous beneath with the venation of 
the other species but very much finer. Clusters 6f flowers 
always axillary (in C. N.). Drupes blue-black J" diam. 
globose. 

Singbhum valleys, very rare. Eanchi, Wood. V<illey8 to the north of 
Burio in the S. P. Fl. 8ept. Fr. Nov. but the dry fruits will remain till 
end of Jany. 

Twigs rusty tomentose, L. usually 1" by Y' to 3'' by 1", but variable 
and few sometimes attain 6" ty 2^" membranous, acute or obtuse rarely 

216 



2. Britelia.] 22. EUPHOEBIACEJS, [ 4. Glochidion. 

sub-acuminate, not shining, softly pubescent beneath or quite glabrous 
with age, base acute or obtuse. iSec. n. 6-12 prs. Fetiole -^\-^" rarely i'' 
pubescent. M. fl. shortly pedicelled. Pet. broader than long, creuate. 
Fem. calyx yV) — k" diam. in fr. Sep. triangular. Pet. sub-orbicular entire. 
If the drupes are not eaten, the pericarp dries and splits into 6 valves, 
each of the pyrenes split into 2 valyes. Seed black somewhat cordate. 

3. Ckistaiitlius, Hoof, k. 

1- C. Collinus, Benth. Syn. Lebidieropsis orbicularis, 
Mtiell. Parasu, M.; Pasu, Ro.; Kargali, S.; Kargeli, Kharuo ; 
Kirla, H. 

A small tree with dark-colonred bark, distichous orbicular 
obovate or elliptic leaves 1-4" by 1-8' glaucous beneath. Small 
^reen flowers ^-|'' diam. appearing with the new leaves, the 
males clustered, the F. often solitary sessile. Capsules chest- 
nut coloured woody when ripe f diam., ultimately breaking 
up into three 2-valved cocci. 

Very common oa dry hills in Singbhum, and less common in other 
districts. A large form occurs also along nalaa. S. P. only south of th» 
Brahmini R. Gamble. 

Fl. April-May, occasionally flowers may also be found in Sept. Fr. 
ripans March-April of the next year, and burst with slight reports on hot 
evenings. Leafless March-April. 

Twigs slender. L. entire with rounded or retuse tip and rounded 
base, nervres fine reticulate glabrous, or faintly pubescent beneath when 
young. Petiole ^-5''. Stipules deciduous, hairy. Clusters 2-6-fid. Buda 
conical 5-angled. Fls. softly pubescent, petals minute fleshy, sometimea 
0. Qalyx-lobes often i'' in F. and often twisted. Capsule somewhat 
3-gonoua. 

All parts of the tree are very astringent, and the roots and fruit are 
poisonous. They are also used fco poison fish. Campbell says that the 
bark is applied in cutaneous diseases. The tree coppices freely, and as it 
ia not eaten by goats, it sometimes forms the only vegetation oa rocky hill 
sides. The wood ia durable. 

4r. Glocliidiou, Forst. 

Evergreen trees or shrubs with distichous shortly petioled 
entire leaves and small greenish or yellow flowers in axillary 
monoecious or dioecious clusters, the males frequently on much 
more slender pedicels than the females. Sepals 6, spreading 
iu 2 series, rarely 5, or 7-12 ; in the young female fl. calyx 

217 



4 Glochidion. ] 22. EUPEOEBIACE^. 

often campamilate toothed. St. 3-6, rarely 8-12, connate in a 
central column over the minute pistillode, or pistillode 0. 
Ovary 3-15-ceUed, styles connate in a short column lobed or 
toothed at the tip, or styles obsolete. Trait globose or 
frequently depressed and intruded at base and apex, of 3 
or more 2-valved coriaceous or crustaceous cocci, which 
separate from a central axis. 

Anths. 4-12. Sep. 6-12. Ovary 10-15-ceiieci. . . 1. muUiloculare, 
Antlis. 4-6 (rarely 3). Sep. 6-7. Ovary 6-8-celled . 2. lanceolarium, 
AntliS. 3. Sep. 6. Ovary 4i-7-celled • . . .3. velutinum. 

1. G. multiloculare, Muell. Nanha baria, Nandhum, 8, 

(So named from the resemblance of the f rnit to the pad which the 
bania pedlars wear on their back nuder the basket they carry, Cam'p.). 

A small gregarious bush pubescent tomentose all over or 
sometimes glabrous with angular twigs, oblong or ell. -oblong 
leaves 3-5", with 3-5 prs. of very oblique nerves and numer- 
ous fine cross nervules. Pedicels short stout. Capsules f 
diam., three-times as broad as long, intruded at the base and 
apex. 

- Manbhnm and S. P. (along Barakar E.). Fl. April-Oct. Pr. May (and 
probably at other seasons). 

L. acute or obtuse, and with acute base, shining and very minutely 
puberulous above, glaucous beneath. Petiole tts-s" stout. Stipules shorter 
acuminate to"? '• 8tylar-column short and broad. Beeds with red aril. 

The description is taken mainly from Dnars and Champaran speci- 
mens. 

2. G. lanceoiarium, Muell. Barhia Kandhum, 8, 

A small glabrous tree, or often a shrub with green 
rather flexuous and angular twigs, coriaceous glabrous dark 
green shining leaves and small axillary flowers, the females 
green 1-3 or many together sessile, the males yellowish i^'-j^ 
(^" F.B.I. !) diam. numerous on slender pedicels. Capsule 
orbicular depressed f-f " diam. and |-|" long. 

Common throrghout Ch. Nag. and S. P., especially near streams. 
Fl. March-May. Fr. Bept.'Jany. New shoots in March. 

218 



4 GiocHiDioK.l 22. EUPEOBBIACE^. [ f>. Kibganelia. 

L. 4i'' by 2" to 6r by 2^' rarely 7 by Z\", lower on the twigs much 
Bmaller, oblong to elliptiS aca'minate with 5-7 prs. slender sec. n. Petiole 4", 
Stip-ules y acuminate sometimes hardened. M. fls. on pedicels ^-|" long. 
F. fls. Y' long campanulate. Ovanj and prominent stylar-column pubescent 
stalked. 

*' Bark given medicinally when the stomach reYoltp aerainst food," 
Camp. The seeds give an oil used for burning. 

Var. L. narrowly lanceolate acuminate with very unequal acute base 
cloeely resembles G, Gamblei, Hookf., but petioles somewhat pubescent. 
Silingi, S. P. 

3. G. velutinum, Wight. '^ 

A small tree with nearly all parts pubescent or tomentose, 
L. elliptic to oblong or oblong-lanceolate 3-64'' ^7 1-2J" 
sbortly cuspidate or acuminate. Fls. axillary solitary and 
fascicled, M. and F. usually in same cluster, M. yellow, F, 
green. Capsule J" diam. pubescent. 

Valleys, rare. Singbhum. Fls. on tbo new ghonts in AnriL "Fr. Aug. 
till the following April. Evergreen. 

New shoots densely tomeiitose. L. persistently pubescent on the 
nerves beneath, with 4-7 pairs strong sec. n. and cross nervules. Base 
narrowed into the petiole. Petiole ^". Stipules persistent subulate 
shorter than petiole. M. fi. about g" diam. on pedicels ^", sepals 6 nearly 
free. F. fi. on shorter stouter pedicels. Styles in a sub-globose or sub- 
terete-column larger than the ovary, unaltered in fruit. Capsule depres- 
sed. 

5. Kirganelia, Baill. 

This genus which is sunk in Phy Han thus in the F.B.I. 
seems better kept distinct, it has 4-7 stamens, free or connate 
below, with or without S> pistillode. Anthers with longi- 
tudinal dehiscence. Ovary 5-12-celled with as many minute 
sessile or sub-sessile stigmas surrounding a hollow umbo of 
the ovary more resembling Glochidion than Phy 11 an thus. 
Ovules and seeds 2 superposed in each cell. Fruit with a 
fleshy epicarp and soft 5-12-celled endocarp. 

^ Gamble's specimens from Tattora and Sonua are placed under G. 
Heyneanum, Wight. The specimens are not in flower. Heyneanum is less 
pubescent and has a cylindric style twice the length of the sepals, while 
that of velutinum is short columnar and 4-S-toothed. The capsules 
have pedicels i' to nearly i'\ while those of velutinum are sub-sedsile. 

219 



5. KiBGANELiA. j 22. EUI-EORBIACEM [ 6. Pjiyllantuus. 

1. K. reticulata, Baill. Syn. P. reticulataSj Foir^ 

Panjoli, E. , Beng . 

A climbing shrub with slender glabrou8 or pubesceut 
branches, oblong leaves about If" by ~\ minute fls. and 
small black berries y\-i" diam. 

Chiefly along ravines and nalas in Hazaribagh (Damuda valley), 
Banchi, and Gangpnr. FI. Feby.-May. Fr. April-June (perhaps all the 
year). Dec. Jany.-Feb. 

Bravchlets fometimes dociduons at their base. The subtending 
bract and its two stipules often become converbed into three recurved 
thorns by means of which it climbs. L. sometimes attain 3", obtuse 
both ends, pale beneath, glabrous with 6-8 prs. of slender sec. n. Fls. 
usually 1 male and 1 female in each axil, frequently racemed from the 
reduction of the leaves, racemes sometimes fascicled. M. jl. -oViV" long, 
green or purplish, oampanulate, 3 outer sepals smaller than the inner, diso 
of 5 fleshy glands. 

6. Phyllanthiis, L. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with entire leaves often pinnately 
arranged and small or minute monoecious flowers in axillary 
clusters, male and female pedicels often of unequal length. 
Sepals 4-6 imbricate in 2 series. Disc usually of scales or 
glands (or sometimes in M. of P. Emblica). St. 3-5 free or 
connate in the center of the flower, anths. 2-celled or didy- 
mous. Pistillode 0. Ovary 3-celled. Styles elongate, free 
or connate. Fruit of 3 2-valved cocci with sometimes a 
coriaceous or fleshy epicarp, or drupaceous. 

A tree, leaves pinnately arranged on the twigs. Frt. a 
drupe ... . .... 1. EmhUca. 

An erect shrub, leaves pinnately arranged Fr. 

nearly dry 2. Lawii. 

Undershrubs or herbs St. 3. Styles 3. Fr. capsular. 

1. Anths. erect, slits vertical. Fr. echinate. 3. urinaria, 

b. Anths. didymous or reniform, (jells sub- 
globose. 
L. narrowly oblong to elliptic. Anths. sessile on a 
short column. 4. Niruri 

(pendulus). 
Stipules lanceolate. Fil. shoH, more or less free. 5. debiiis 

Jj. elliptic. {rotundijolius). 

Stipules somisagittato, FiL free. L. narrow linear 6. simplex. 
or linear .blong. 

220 



6. Phtlianthtts] 22. UUPHOBBIACEJE. 

1. p. Emblica, ^. Miral, K. ; Miral, 8. ; Aura, Aonla, 
J3".; Amla, JSeng. The Emblic Myrabolan. 

A small or m. s. tree with distichous close-set small 
linear-oblong leaves ^ — |" long. Fls. minate yellowish densely 
lascicled in the axils of the new leaves. Fruit globose buc- 
culent f diam. with a 6-ridged patamen. 

Common in the valley forests. 

■^1. May. Fv. Od.-ApriL Dec. March-Apru. 

A well-known tree, the branchlets of which closely resemble pinnate 
leaves and are often deciduous. Sep. 6. Disc of male of 6 minute glands or 
0, of fern, cupular. 8t. 3 monadelphoas. 

The putamen ia very tardily dehiscent. 

Fruits astringent, but sialagogr.e. and hence often taken by natives 
when thirsty. Largely used in Hindu medicine, the properties are said to 
resemble those of the chebulic myrabolan. It is eaten as a cure for cough 
in Ch. Nag., and the juice of the fresh fruit is used for inflammation of 
the ''■^es. Campbell says that boiled till it becomes of an oily con- 
sistency, it ia used for Kliasra, a skin disease. 

The fruits boiled with sugar make an excellent preserve. 

2. p. Lawii, Orah. Tirsibirsi, M. (possibly fictitious) j 
Jhawar Khandera, S, 

A shrub with numerous erect rigid stems 3-41 ft. high, 
close spreading slender branchlets with distichdas crowded 
sub-sessile small leaves J" by ^V"* ^^^ solitary or few minute 
pinkish flowers. 

Usually gregarious along the banks of rooky rivers with ajconstant 
water supply. Throughout the area, but very local. 
Fl. Jany.'March. Fv.Jany. 

Branches terete glabrous. L. linear-oblong obtuse glaucous, base sub- 
cordate, sec. n. 3-4 prs. faint. Stipules linear subulate 3-4 times as long as 
the minute petiole. Pedicels. iV's"* ^'^- tV" diam. Disc of m. of glands, 
of fern, a crenulate ring. Filaments connate to above the middle. Styles 
lamellate 2-partite. Frt. |-^" diam. 3-lobed. 

3. P. urinaria, L. is a slender sometimes decumbent plant with 
spreading or ascending branches like pinnate leaves, leaves close often 
imbricate, numerous minute subsessile flowers and capsules which are 
echiuate or pustulate. Fl., Fr. July-Jany. 

4. P. Wiruri, L. somewhat similar, is an erect herb or undershrnb 
l-2i ft., branches 4-6" long and close glabrous linear, obloner or elliptic 

221 



6. Phtllanthtts.] 22. EUPHOEBIACEM. [ 8. Bbeynia. 

leaves ^|". Fla. shortly pedicelled 1-2 axillary, or on very abbreviated 
axillary shoots crowded with setaceous imbricating bracts. Capsule \" 
diam. smooth. 

P. pendulus, Uoxh. appears to be a form of this with-4he *bracteate 
pedtincles.' It is common in Chota Nagpur. 

5. p. debilis, SoL'm, An erect herb or undershmb 1-4 ft. 
with often a woody rootstock and numerous erect stems, 
glabrous leaves ^-f " elliptic or obovate, Fls. pedicelled, often 
on abbreviated bracteate axillary shoots. 

I am inclined to think that much of the material in the P. debilis cover 
at the Cal. Herb, is P. rotundifolius, and that P. rotundifolius is more 
common in Gh. Nag. than P. debilis, the latter has nearly free stamens and 
a more slender male pedicel, whereas the common Ch. Nag. plant has 
filaments combined half to three-fourths of the way up or more. 

7. Flueggea, Wild. 

1. p. microcarpa» Blume. Sikat, Kharw, j Remre Horte 

8. 

A glabrous straggling shrub, often large, with thin elliptic 
or more often orbicular or obovate leaves 1-3" long rarely 
attaining 4^" by 2" glaucous beneath, axillary fascicled minute 
flowers on capillary ^-^ long pedicels, and pretty white 
berries J" diam., or fruits rarely dry and ~-^" diam. only. 

Valley forests in Singbhum, frequent. Also in Manbhum (Tundi hills, 
etc.) ; Ranchi (Baragaon) Wood ; Hazaribagh (Bagodhar) ; S. P. (hills east 
of Dharampur, etc.) Palamau (Bhirla Hat). Fl. May-Aug. Fr, July 
8ept. Evergreen, new leaves in May. 

Rarely thorny. Branchlets angled or compressed. L. with usually 
rounded tip rarely acute, base cuneate, sec. n. slender, or (in a S. P. 
variety) raised and prominent, 5-8 prs. with fine cross nervules. Petiole 
|-V' slender. Sep. 5 broad thin. 8t. 5. Disc of 5 glands in M., annular in 
P. Pistillode large 3-angled and with 3 recurved tips. Ovary 3-cellod with 
3 recurved bifid "styles. 

8. Breynia, Forst. 

Shrubs or small trees with small entire usually bffarious 
leaves and very small axillary monoecious flowers, M, fleshy 

222 



t 



8. Bbeynia. ] 22. EUTEOBBIACJE^. 

turbinate or campanulate truncate "with 6 miDnte inflexed 
calyx lobes. St. 3 united into a short column at the bottom 
of the tube, anths. linear 2-celled adnate to the column. 
F. perianth 6-lobed, sometimes spreading. Ovary 3-celled 
with a fleshy often depressed top, stigmas 3 minute sessile io 
the cavity, or style exserted with 3 2-fid arms. Frt. drupa- 
ceous with 3 pyrenes, each splitting into 2 indehiscent cocci. 

Stigmas capitellate in depression on top of the ovary . 1. rham,noide»* 
Style stout with 3 short 2-fid arms . . . .2. catena, 

1. B. rhamnoides^ Muell, Kadmpala, Karki, 8. 

A pretty shrub, when well grown, up to 10-ft. high, with 
close-set distichous small glabrous leaves about 1" by f " and 
minute green or pinkish flowers succeeded by red globose 
berries nearly J" diam. with a depressed umbo. 

Valleys in Manbhnm e.g. Topchanchee. Along streams in S. P. , 
frequent in the northerly half. FL, Er. Jany.-June (perhaps all the 
year). Evergreen. 

Somewhat resembles Kirganelia reticulata. L. f '' to 2^' oblong or 
ovate-oblong or sub-orbicular with rounded apex and usually oblique 
rounded obtuse or sub-cordate base. Sec. n. 4-7 prs. slender. Petiole 
iyV longer than the setaceous stipules. Fls. in axillary few fid. 
clusters, M. and F. often on separate twigs. M. green or pink turbinate 
y^-i'g" with 6 small inflexed teeth, pedicel j^^", F. calyx campanulate 
6-lobed, rapidly developing, and in fruit spreading and irregularly 
Bplit i^e" diam. 

2. B. patens, Benth 

A graceful little shrub with small distichous glabrous 
leaves and axillary small flowers on slender pedicels, the 
males being yellow and drooping, with campanulate calyx ; 
the females green with broader funnel-shaped calyces. 

Tundi Hills, Manbbnm, Campbell. Chota Nagpur, Prain. Fl. April' 
May. 

2-4 ft. high. L. ^1" with 3-5 prs. of sec. n. Fern. ft. ^4" diam. larger 
and shorter-pedicelled than in male, calyx gieatJj Golairged in fruit 
and often exceeding it. Fr. ^" diam. 

223 



9. Saubopcs. ] 22. EUPROBBIACE^. [ 10. Puteanjiva. 

9. Sauropus, Blume. 

Small shrubs or nnderslinibs with distichous ^^atire leaves 
and minute axillary solitary or clustered monoacious flowers. 
M. calyx disciform or turbinate with a very small mouth 6- 
lobed and with thickenings which meet round the 3-gOQous 
staminal column. Anths. sessile on the anglos of the 
colamn. F. calyx 6-cleft accrescent in fruit. Ovary 3-celled 
with rounded or concave top and 3 sessile spreading styles 
with 3 curved arms. Fruit as in Breynia but surrounded by 
the calyx. 

1. S. quadrangularis, Muell. 

A dwarf glabrous shrub with angled branchlets and very 
shortly petioled ell. or broadly ovate or obovate obtuse or 
subacute leaves about ^' by |". Fls. shortlv pedicelled, M. 
^" diam., F. -i". 

Manbhum, Gal. Herb. ; Karakpur Hills (near Monghyr). 

L. with 4-5 prs. sec. n,, margin minutely hispid. Petiole yVtV)''' 
Bep. of M. linguiform obtuse, of P. rounded. Fr. -g" diam, deproauad 
globose, narrower than the enlarged caljx. 

2. S. pubescens, Sook, f. 

An undershrub with compressed 2-ridged branches, and 
leaves on both surfaces pubescent or finely tomentose, 
glabrescent above. L. ^-IJ" by f-f broadly ovate o I 
elliptic with 3 prs. sec. nerves. Fls. iV-iV' solitary red 1 
Pedicels |" very slender. H 

Along dry nalas in the Singbhum forests. Fl. May-July Decidaouf; 
in February, 

Stems 3-4" higa with pubescent sometimes snb-alato branculotS. L, 
acnte or sub-obtuse with rounded base, pubescent beneath and margins 
recurved. Petiole -V' Stipules and bracts minute, very persistent. 

Fls. not noted in the C. N. plant., 

10. Putranjiva, Wall. 

1. P. Roxburghii, TFa/J Pitonj, S.i Putraiijiva, jia- 
puta, Beng. 

221 



i 



10. PuTRANJiVA ] 22. EUPHORBIACEJS. [ 12. ANTiDBgjiA. 

A handsome mod.-aized tree with drooping branches, 
bifarious broadly lanceolato leaves 1-3|" inclined forwards, 
often with a wavy or somewhat serrate margin. M. fl. in 
Duraerous minute yellow axillary heads or contracted racemes. 
F. fl. green solit.-iry on current year's shoots or in few-nd. 
racemes on the previous year's. Drupe ellipsoid hoary f'' 
crowned with the style bases. 

Manbhum Campbell ; S. P. but where I have seen it, probably planted. 
Mahuagari hill, Gamble I Sometimes planted oh railway platforms. Ever 
green. Fl. March- April ; Fr. Jany.-Fehy. 

Twigs and petioles tomentose. L. slightly pubescent both sides with 
obtuse or rounded base, very finely nerved. Sepals 5. 8t. usually 3, Jil. 
more or less connate. Seed with copious albumen and flat somewhat 
bent cotyledons. Fruiting pedicels |-|". The stones of the fruit are 
strung into rosaries. 

11. Cycles temon, Bl. 

1. C. assamicus, Sook. f. Ban Bokul, Beng. 

A small much-branched tree with exstipulate deep-green 
glabrons shining elliptic-lanceolate, ell. -oblong to ovate- 
lanceolate leaves 3-6|" by IJ-S" and greenish globose dioecious 
fls., M. clustered J" diam. St. many. F. solitary. Finiits 
Bcarlet ovoid- oblong somewhat didymoua ^-|" long, 

Eavines in the Tholokabad forest, Singbhum. Fl. Nov.-Dec, Fr. 
ripens April Evergreen. 

Young tvjig? and petioles somewhat rusty pubescent. L. rarely attain- 
ing 8" by 3" entire acute or acuminate with rounded or acute usually 
oblique base. Sec. n. 7-10 prs. fine and nervules reticulate. Petiole i4"« 
Perianth with 2 outer orbicular lobes and 2-3 inner imbricate larger 
ones, shortly appressed hairy. Disc annular thin hirsute on margin. Fil, 
and connactive pubescent. Ovary densely silky, stigmas 2 large sub- 
sessile half-orbicular, fleshy. Fr. velvety pubescent on the remains 
I of ^ the perianth, usually 2-celled and 2-seeded with red coriaceous 
I epicaip, pulpy eudocarp and seed with hard coriaceous testa, flat coty- 
ledons and copioas albumen. 

12. Autidesma, L. 

Small trees or sTirubs with alt. entire stipulate kaves, and 
Bmall or minute dicecious fls. in slender spikes or racemes 
produced on the new shoots. Calyx 3-5-lobed or partite. St. 
2-5, rarely 6-7 inserted on or around th.e disc, anther-eelle 

225 K 



12. AnTirEBMA.] 22. EUFEOHBIACEM. 

globose often on a broad connective. Ovary 1- rarely more- 
celled, stigmas 2-4), 2-fid. Ovules 2 pendnlons. Frt. a small 
more or less compressed drupe. Seed •with broad flat cotyle- 
dons. 
St. 2 (rarely 3). Fls. pedicel! ed. Ca.lvT 4-1rth0d . 1. diartdrum, 

St. 3-4. 
Calyx 3-4rfid. Fls. shortly pedicelled . • . .2. acuminatum. 
Calyx of M. shortly l-lobed, of F. entire. M. fl. 

eessiie ......... 3. Bunius. 

St. 5 (4-7). Spikes wooly. Fls. sessile. Calyx 5-7- 

partite ..<...,,. 4 Qhaessmhilla. 

1. A, diandmin, Uoth. Mata-ara. Mata-sura, K. ; 
Matba arak', S. ; Amti, Kharw. ; Mutta, Beng. Amtna sag. 
Mai Paharu 

A sbnib vpith obovate-laticeolate or somewhat rbomboidly 
elliptical leaves usually glabrous rarely 5" long, minute green 
flowers in mostly simple spikes ; M. 1-2" long, F. often 3" in 
fruit. Fr. sub-globose ^"-^-^^ diam. with a slightly com- 
pressed and rugose keeled, seed. 

Common, chiefly in the valleys, thronghont the atea, Fl. May^June. 
Fr. Nov.-Jany. Leaves turn red from J any. -March and then fall. 

Shoots usually pubescent, and a form occurs in Singbhnra with the 
leaves permanently sub-tomentose beneath. L. acute or acuminate vfith 
cuneate base, and 4-5 prs. slender sec. n., usually 1^-3^''' by t"li" 
Disc lobed glabrous or pilose. 

The young leaves make an excellent spinach. The fruits are eaten. 

2. A. acuminatum, Wall 

A small tree with oblong to elliptic usually caudate- 
acuminate nearly glabrous leaves about 6'' bj 2", minute fls. 
in panicled pilose spikes 2-5" long. Fr. ell. ^" long crowned 
by the style. 

Along streams in the Saranda forests. Evergreen ; new leaves and fls. 
in May. 

Branchlets pilose or tomentose. L. very dark green, sometimes 12" 
long or only 3-4* at time of flowering with generally rounded base and 
"7-12 prs. of inarchii^ sec. n. which are puuoscent beneafco. 

Fls. urieqnally pedicelled. M.sep. 3-4 glabrous outside. Disc fleshj 
glabrous 3-4 angu^. St. 3-4, long. Pistillode distinct. 

326 



12. Antidesma.] 22. EUPEORBIACEJE. \ 13. BiflrwopiA. 

3. A. Bunius, Sprmg, 

A small tree, sometimes 30 ft. somewhat resembling the 
last and distinguished by the characters e;iven above. L, 
oblong-oblanceolate glabrous and shining both/sides'. Racemes 
rather lax fid., 3-4" long simple or branched. Fr, ell. 

Parasnath. Fl. April-May. Fr. August. New shoots sometimes in 

August. ^ 

4. A. GhSBP.embilla, /^aer^. Mata-snra, E'.; Bhabiranj, 
Kharw.; Umtoa, (Hazaribagh) Wood, appears to be same 
word as Amtua (vide A. diandrum). 

A shrub with broadly elliptic or orbicular grey- or hoary- 
tomentose leaves 2 — 4| by 1| —2^". Fls. in densely tomentose 
panicled spikes. Frt. red to black oblong ^", 

A plant of much drier localities than the other species'; found chiefly on 
hill sides in Singbhum, Manbhum (also along Barakar E.), Hazaribagh, 
Palamau and S. P. Fl. May-June. Fr. September-October. 

L, rounded both ends. Sec. n. strong beneath 36 prs. Spikes |" to 
2i" in fruit. Disc 5-partite pubescent. F. fi. pedioelled. Ovary glabrous, 
pubescent or tomentose, exserted from the wooly perianth. 

13« Bischofla, Bl. 
1. B. javanica, Bl. Hajam, M.; Pader, 8. 

A mod-sized tree easily recognized by its Jong-petioled 
3-foliolate leaves, crenate or serrate leaflets and 1 -sexual green 
or greenish-yellow fls. Berry J'' diam. brown or black. 

Ravines in Singbhum and the S. P.; Parasnath. Evergreen. Fl. March- 
April. Fr. Oct.-Dec. New shoots March-April, 

Lfits. 3-6" oblong to obovate or ell., always with a sudden acumination, 
glabrous, rather strongly nerved and sometimes with glands in the nerve 
axils. Petioles 2^-6" and terminal petiolules |-1^". Panicles from the 
scale axils of the new shoots. F(s.^ usually dioBcious. Sex)- 5, hooded 
over the young stamens, caducous in the F. St. 5, inserted under the 
peltate pistillode. Ovary 3-4i-celled with linear recurved styles. 

An excellent wood for plankiug. 

227 K 2 



22. EUFEORBIACE^. [14 Cboton. 

14. Crotoii, L. 

Trees or sTirabd usually with scurfy, stellate or scaly hairs 
and leaves 2-glaudular at the base. Fls. green monoecious 
or dioecious, solitary or clnstered on the rachis of axillary 
and terminal bracteate racemes. Calyx 4-6-partite. Petals 
and disc glands as many as the sepals. St. on a hairy recep- 
tacle indefinite. Ovary 3-Crarely 2-4) celled with as many 
2-4rcleft styles. Capsule of 3, 2-valved cocci. 

Old leaves glabrons, inflor. lepidote, St. 10-12 1. ohlongifolius. 
L. and inflor. glabrous or nearly so. St. 15-25 2. Tiglium. 
L. and inflor. scurfily stellately hairy. St. 18-30 3. caudatus. 

1. C. oblongifolius, Roxb. Kuti, Kuti-konyer, K.; Gote, 
Kote, S.; \^ oter ^ Qraonf Bh&mBW&n, Kharw.; Putol, MaZ 
Paharia ; Maisonda (Koderma); Putri, Beng. 

A small tree with rather large coriaceous more or less 
toothed or repand oblong or elliptic-oblong penni-nerved leaves 
and long racemes of ^dioecious (or monoecious) fls. which 
appear when the tree is more or less leafless. 

Very common throughoat the area, esp. in open and scrub 
jungles. Fl. Jany,-Feby. Fr. April. More or less deci- 
duous afc the time. L. turn red before falling. 

L. 6-12" with long or short petiole, lepidote when yonng, acnte. 
Racemes numerous from the uppermost axils and terminal with numerous 
linear or sub-foliaceous oblancoolate bracts at their base, rachis nearly 
glabrous 5-12" long v^ith minute subulate bracts. M. fi. rather large 
on pedicels }'Ta'' long lepid te. Calyx ^" long, sep. villous ciliate. Pet. 
villous free ^ between the disc-lobes. F. racemes and pedicels shorter. 
Some of the Pet. often aborted. Ovary lepidote with 3 long branched 
styles. Capsule ^" diam. 

The plant is usually described as monoecious, I have often found it 
dioacious. 

The bark and root are given as a purgative and also as an alterative 
in dysentery, Catnpbell. 

2. C. Tiglium, L, Jaiphal, R. 

A small tree witn en. or ovate leaves 3-nerved at the base 
a7id with stelUte hairs beneath when y(?ung. 

228 



U. Ceoton.] 22. EVPHORBIACE^. [16. Jateopha. 

Chota. Nagpur, WootVs list. The tree is indigenous in the Eastern 
Himalaya and the Malay Archipelago. El. Jvyne. Fr. Aug.-Sept. (in 
Bhotan). The seeds yield the well-known Croton Oil. 

3. C. caudatus, OeiseL 

A sab-scandent shrub with stellately-pubescent leaves vith 
3-5-nerved base and long slender racemes 4-10". 

Chota Nagpur, Wood's list. Loc. ? It is common in the damper parts 
of Bengal and fls. March. 

N.B. — The shrubs with brightly variegated foliage commonly known as 
Crotona belong to the genus Codiadum. The styles are entire. 



15. Chrozopliora, Neck. 

1. C. plicata, -4. J'uss. Pango nari, S. ? 

A coarse herb or undershrub, often prostrate, stellate 
tomentose all over with sinuate more or less rugose or plfdted 
leaves and fls. in axillary short bracteate racemes. 

A common weed of waste land, described by Campbell as a common and 
abundant scandent hush in the Tundi hills '. FL, Fr. August— April. 

L. variable in siae 1-4" hoary, ovate. F. fi. pedicelled usually few or 
solitary at, the base, and the male fls. pale yellow crowded in the 
apper part of the raceme. 

16. Jatroplia, L. 

Usually shrubs, frequently glandular, with palmately 
nerved, entire or palmately-lobed leaves at the ends of the 
branches. Fls. moncecious in terminal corymbose cymes, 
usually petaliferous and calyx frequently petaloid, petals 5 
often more or less connate. St. 8 or more, the inner or all 
connate. Fr. capsular. 

Pet. red free or connate at base. Glandular . 1. gossypijolxa. 
Pet. yellow. Eglandular . . . ,2. Curcag. 

1. J. gossypifolia, L. Bhemda, verenda, E.; S., and JET.; 

Lal-bherenda, Beng. 

229 



16. Jatbopha.] 22. EUPRORBIACEJE. [17. Tbewu, 

JL sbrnb 3-6 ft. Tvith palmately 3-5-lobed leaves, easily 
recognized by the stipitate yellow viscid glanda whicb cover 
the leaf margins, petioles and stipules, and the small red 
flowers in glandular corymbose cymes. St. 10-12. 

A native of Brazil (F.B.I.) very common in waste ground and by 
TOlA-sideB. Deciduous in C. 8. FL, Fr. r. s. 

A glandular 3 &txcrpha, occurring in rochy ravines in the Santal P., 
seen by me in Jany. without leaves or flowers was possibly a completely 
liftturalized form of this, or else J. glandulifera, Roah. which can be 
distinguished by its greenish-yellow fls. with only 8 stamens. 

2. J. Curcas, L- Kulajara, K,; Totkabindi, M.; Bhernda, 
S., H. The Physicnnt. 

A shmb or small tree 10-20 ft. with glabrons (exc. when 
quite young) 3-5-angled or -lobed leaves 4-6" diam. and 
small yellow flowers with a campanulate 5 -lobed corolla in 
terminal cymose panicles. 

Very commonly planted in village hedges. Dec. in the cold season 
Wlieti it is frequently covered with the capsules. FL May-October, 
The oil of the seeds is a violent purgative and emetic. 

J. niultifida, L. with muUifid leaves, and other species are very 
omamental garden shrubs with scarlet flowers. 

17. Trewia, L. 

1. T. nndiflora, i. Gara Loa, K, ; Gada Lopong, S. ; 
Pitali, Beng. 

A large tree, superficially much resembling Gmelina arbo- 
rea (some vernacular names e.g. Khamara, Gamhar applied 
to this belong to Gmelina), with opp. long^petioled broadly- 
ovate cordate entire S-S-basal-nerved leaves, and dioecious 
fls. M. in long drooping catkin^like racemes 3-8' with 
slender pedicels. F. solitary or 2-3 on long stout peduncles. 
Frt. globose hard drupaceous 2-5-celled, 1-1 1" diam. 

Chiefly in river-beds, Saranda and Gangpur. Also in S. P. (Bokhra- 
band, etc.) Fl. Jany.-March. Fr. May. Leafless Dec. or Jany.-Feby. 

Young shoots mealy with stellate hairs. L. 4-6" sometimes tomentose 
or pubescent green not glaucous beneath, baf^e rounded or cordate. M. fi. 

230 



f 



17. TaawiA.] 52, EUPEOBBIACEM, [19. MiLiOTra. 

1-3 in a bract, pedicels jodnted on a small bracteolate pednncle. /Sep. 
3 orbicnlar, reflexed in fl. 8t. <*., Ovary closely invested by the nrceolate 
5-tootlied calyx, often 5-celled with as many large fimbriate stigmM 
as cells. 

if.B.— The first few seedling leaves are alternate. 



18. Acalypha, L. 

A large germs coDtaining several shrnbs with copper- 
coloured, or otherwise ornamental, leaves common in gardens. 

1. A. indica, L. 

A stiff erect herb or underahrnb 18"-2|' with spreading long-petioled 
rhomboii-ovate serrate leaves and very nnmorous axillary spikes with 
foliaceou8 bracts bearing green F. fl., the top of the spike ebracteate 
with minute M . fl. 

Hazaribagh, near Chorparan, etc. Fl. Dec.-Jany, 



19. MallotliS, Lonr. 

Erect trees or sarmentose or scandent large shrubs gene- 
rally covered esp. on the leaves beneath with small peltate 
glands or stellate haira. L. 3-7-nerved at the base and with 
strong cross nervules, sometimes peltate. Fls. dioecions, 
rarely monoecicns in spikes or racemes, the males clustered 
on the rachis. St. oc free, with two small globose or very short 
anther cells adnate to the frequently broad connective. Ovary 
and capsule 2-3- (rarely 4-) celled. Styles entire. 

Small tree. L. peltate 7-9-nerved 1. Boxburghianus , 

Smal- tree. L. not poltate, base 3-nerved . • .2. philippinensis. 
Large sarmentose or scandent shrub 3. repandiu. 

1. M, Roxburffhianus, Muell. Barui, 8. ; Dopsinga, 

Mai 

A small tree softly pubescent with simple and stellate 
hairs all over, with lon^ petioled orbicular or broad-ovate 
peltate sinuate -toothed leaves 4-7" diam. and t>crminal racemes 
as long as the leaves. 

231 



19.MAtioTU8. ] 22. HUPffORBIACEJS. [20. Macabakga. 

Santal P., in ravines, rare. Fl, May, Fr. 8ept. 

L. stellately-liairy and with yellow glands both sides, densely so 
beneath, above also simply pubescent (or, vide Prain. only simply 
pubescent) Petioles Ihi". Stipules linear ^''. M. sep. 2-5, Capsule densely 
echinate and glandular. 

2. M. philippinensis, Muell. Gara Sindnri, K.; Rora, 
8. ; Rori, Kharw.; Kamala, R. ; Daosindra, Mai. 

A tree 20-30 ft. branched low, with ovate or rliomhoid 
acnte or acuminate leaves covered beneath when young with 
a gi-eenish-yellow glandular pubescence (as are the shoots) 
and permanently with small red glands. M. fl. clustered in 
ra'.*emes 6-10" long, F. racemes 2-3" long. Capsule densely 
covered with red glands. 

Common throughout the area, in valleys. Fl. Od.-Nov. Fr. Fehy.- 
March. 

L. attain 9'' by 5'\ Sec. n. 3-4 prs. above basal. Petiole 2-3^". Caly* 
4-fid. in both sexes. 

The red glands from the capsule yield the Kamela dye. 

3. M. repandus, Muell. 

Snb-scandent with tomentose branches, ovate or cordate 
acute leaves 2|" by '.^" to 3" by 2| ", softly stellate-pubescent and 
closely covered with glands beneath. 

Dalbhum, Gamble I S. P., foot of Eajmehal hills in the Gangetic valley. 
11. Jany.'Feby. 

L. with 2-3 prs. of sec. n. above the 3-nerved base, nervules often 
ending in minute teeth. Petiole 1". M. fl. yellow, calyx 3-5-fid. F. 
green, sep. linear caducous. Ovary 2-lobed. Stigmas plumose sessile. 



20. Macaran^a, Thouars. 

A genus with most of the characters of Mallotus, and 
somewhat artificially separated therefrora by the anthers, 
which are usually said to be 3-4-locellate. The anthers 
are variable, in some species they are very distinct, opening by 
4 valves like the 4-valvate sepals of a flower ; usually tbey 
have 3-4 2-Yalved terminal cells, but in M. indica there are 

232 



r 



20. Macabanga.] 22. EUPHORBIACE^. [21. Baliospkbmuh. 

Boraeiimes only 2 cells and the anther may exactly resemble 
those of Mallotua except in the smaller connective. 

Ovary only 1-2-celled in the 0. N. species. 
1. M. indica, Wight, Boura, Beng, 

A soft-wooded tree with green or glancoua branches 
exnding a large quantity of very gummy sap when cat, long— 
petioled large peltate leaves and fls. in axillary panicles 
2-41" long with glandular bracts. 

Eavines in the Saranda forest, elev. 2,000 ft., very rare. FL Oct. Fr. 
April. Eyergreen. 

L. sometimes attain 12'' by 10'' orbioalar ovate glancons and hairy 
beneath and covered with small gk-ndu. Sec. n. 4-8 pra. aboTO the 
numerous basal nerves. ^Stipules lanceolate or ovate acuminate I". 
Frequently a large gland on 1 or 2 of the principal nerves. In the 
inflorescence the bracts may be rednced to these glands or be more or 
less foliacoous. Rachis of M, panicles zig-zag. Fls. minute, 8t. 3-8. F. fl, 
with a glandular and pubescent ovary. Capsule usually globose and 
1-oelled waxy, rarely didymous and 2-oelled. 

[This tree was named M. Roxburghii, '^Vight, in the Calcutta Herb. 
The latter tree however differs in its densely rusty toraentose inflorescence 
and bracts, and in the large lateral peltate stigma. The stigma of M. 
indica is also basal or lateral, but is subulate. The G. N. tree differs from 
typical M. iudica in its greater hairiness.] 



31. Baliospermum, Bl. 

1. B. axillare, Bl 

A shrub with numerous erect herbaceous shoots from 
the root, with variously lobed, sinuate or serrate ell., oblong 
or (upper) lanceolate leaves attaining 6-l0", and greenish 
fls. in fascicles either axillary, or from the axils of bracts on 
proliferous shoots or in contracted leafless panicles. Capsnle 
Y 3-lobed pubescent. Seeds with a brown caruncle. 

Valleys, esp. in shady places, Siogbhum ; Palamau (Betlah) ; Santal 
P. 

Fl. Dec-March and more or less all the year round. Sub-deoidaooB ia 

March. 

233 



\ 
21. Baxiospkbmum.] 22. EUPROEBIACEM. [ 24. Gblohjum. 

Twigs pubescent. L, with 3-5 nerves at or near the base irhich 
is often 2-glandalar. Fls. monceciona in the type. Di^ of 5-6 fleshy 
fflands in M., annular in F. Anth. cells vertical on the very broad 
connective. 

Var. dioica. L. with very strong parallel tertiary nerves. Fls. dicecioutt 
with the males fascicled iu naj:row panicles and. the femialea 1>3 axillary. 
Common. 

23- Homonoia, Lour. 

1. H. riparia> Lour. Gara-huri, gara-hui, K. ; Sunnkni, 
Gurjor, S, 

A large shmb with mimerous erect branches from near 
the root marked with prominent leaf acars. L. willow-like 
lanceolate or linear-oblong 3|" by |" to 10" by 1". Fls. in long 
axillary spikes. 

Rocky river-beds, throtig'hout the area but somewhat local. Fl. 
Slarch-Api'il with the young- shoots. Fr. May-8ept. Usually described 
fl» evergreen, but it is often completely deciduous in cold weather, 

L. pubescent and nerves raised reticulate beneath, the areolas closely 
lepidote ; glabrescent above and shiuing. Petiole 5-^". Stipules linear i* 
deciduous. F. fpihes 2-4" long, M. lono'"er. M. sepals 3, F. 5-8. Capsules 
^-^" diam. tomentose seated on the spreading calyx. Beeds bright 
ohmsou. 

Rioinus communis, L. Jara Bindi, K. is the well-known Castor-oil 
plant. The fls. are in panicled racemes, the lower female, often with 
brightly-coloured styles, the upper M. with copiously branched stamens. 
Capsules echinate. 

34^. Gelonium, Eoxb. 
1. 6. multiflorum, Hoxh. 

A email glabrous tree with oblong or oblong-lanceolate 
obtuse leaves 2|-6" long narrowed into a petiole J-J", dicecions 
yellow odorous fls. in pedancled contracted cymes or clusters. 
i?r. fleshy globose |-|'' diam. 

Parasnath, Campbell ! Fl. April. 

Nodes with stipular lines, stipules sheathing caducous. L. pelluoid 
dotted, entire or serrate. M. fl. ^ ^" diam. /8'^ 40-^0. Fil. freo Disc (k 
F dwc cupular, ovary 2-4-celled. " Frnit tardily dehiscent, the valyos 
Mp*rating from a persistent axis, seeds arillate," Brandis. 

234 



26. Teigia.] 22. EUFEOBBIACEM. 

35. Tragia, L. 

1. T. involucrata, Jj- Jipenda, Eo.\ Sengel aing, 5.; 
Barbanta, S, ; Bichati, Beng. 

A perennial uudershrab, v^oody below, witli erect or 
ecandent hairy branches, some of the hairs witli pungent 
points^ nettle-like serrate leaves, and minute green fla. in 
bracteate leaf -opposed or terminal spikes, or on short axillary 
branches. 

Sin^bhum, not rare ; S. P., common ; Hazaribagh. Probably in the other 
districts. Usually in open waste ground, scrub jungle or among rocks. Fl. , 
Fr. Dec.'Fehy. 

L 2-4^" by 1-2", young tomentose benaath, base 3-5-ner7ed 
rounded. Spikes ^y long U8u;illy with a solitary female b«low and several 
minute yellowish-green m. above, M. Sep. 3 broadly ovate, F. Sep. 6 linear 
persistent, villous with pectinate lobesi. Capsule septifragal of 3 ii-valTed 
cocci. Seeds globose strophiolate. 

36. Sapinm, P. Br. 

1. S- seMferum, Roxb. Chinese Tallow Tree. 

A tree superficially resembiiog Sissa, the leaves being 
broadly rhomboid acuminate or of much the same shape as 
Sissa leaflets. Fls. monoecious greenish, M. clnstered in 
simple terminal spiciform i-acemes 2-4" long, usually fern, at 
the base. Capsule 3-valved. 

Native of China. Frequently planted, esp. in Daltonganj . ¥\. Aug.' 
Sept. The open capsules may remain on the tree till Nov. ^ Decidaoot 
Nov.-March. 

Fan^ 33. LL\lCEiE. 

Herbs or shrubs with alt. simple leaves and regular 
I 2-Bexual flowers with 5 sepals and petals and 10 stamens, or 
j the alternate stamens reduced to staminodes. Filaments 
I united at base into a hynogynous or slightly perigynous ring, 
j anthers versatile, 2-celled. Disc or of 2-3 or 5 glands usually 
adnate to the staminal ring. Ovary entire, S'5-cdl©d. Styles 

235 



23. LINAGES. 

3-5 free, or soraewhat connate. Ovules 1-2. axile, pendulous, 
anatropons. Fruit a septicidal capsule usually splitting into 
3-8 1-2 seeded cocci or (in Erythroxylon) a drupe. Embryo 
nearly as long as seed, cotyledons broad. 

Shrub OT undershrub. Fls. showy yellow . , . , 1. Beinwardtia. 

Cultivated shrub, Fr. a drupe. Fls. white ... 2. Erythroxylon. 

Cultivated herbs. Fls. blae 3. Lijium. 

1. Reinwardtia, Dumort. 

1. R. trigyna, Planch. Lungora, Verfi. (Wood). 

A very pretty small shrub 2-4 ft. high with green herba- 
ceotLS branches, ovate-oblong to elliptic-lanceolate entire or 
crenate-serrate leaves and bright chrome-yellow flowers 1-1 J" 
diam. ou numerous small axillary branchlets, rarely solitary 
or in terminal cymes. 

Usually on damp shady banks near nalas, throughout the area. 

Fl. Oct.-Fehy. 

Glabrous. Branches erect or prostrate and rooting. L. up to 3-4" 
rarely sometimes with minute teeth, mucronate, narrowed into the 
slender ^1" petiole. Bepah erect. Petals obovate. Styles 3, or 4-6 (E. 
tetragyna. Planch.) 

Erythroxylon Coca, Lamk. has been grown on the Ranohi plateau 
lor the drag Cocaine derived from i's leaves, without, it is believed, 
much success. It is a native of th* Andes and Peru where the leaves are 
used as a masticatory. 

Iiinum usitatissimum. L Vern. TJnchi, K.; Tisi, R. The 
Linseed, is a common cold weather crop, and sometimes cultivated in 
gardens for its pretty blue flowers. 

Fam. 24. GERANIACEJE. 

Trib<^. OxalidesB. 

Averrhoa Carambola, L Vern. Karmaranga, H is a tree with 
droopins? branches alt. imparipinuate leaves and small reeular flowers 
Tariegawd with white and purple wh'ch are borne in panicles, sometimes 
from the old wood. Fr. 3" long oblong 5-anjrled, fleshy. Occasionally 
cultivated on the Kanohi plateau. The fruits are eaten. 

236 



[OCHNA. 

Fam. 25. 0C1IXACE.E. 

Ochna, L. 

Trees, shrubs or nndershrubs witli glabrous alt. simple 
serrate stipulate leaves. Fls. large yellow, in racemes or 
umbels. Sep. 5-7, persistent. Pet. 5-10, imbricate. Disc 
thick. St. ac inserted on the disc, filaments persistent, with 
deciduous anthers. Gvary deeply 5-10-lobed, lobes 1-ovaled, 
entirely separated on the enlarged tor as in fruit, ovule axile. 
Styles connate. Fruit of distinct drupels. Seed erect, al- 
buminous. 

1. 0. pumila, Sam. Champa Baha, S. 

A pretty undershrub with a long stout rootstock from 
which it sends up annually shoots 8-18'' high bearing umbele 
of showy bright yellow flowers 1|" diam. Conspicuous in 
fruit from the spreading deep red sepals. 

In open, especially grassy places. Singbhum, not common ; Manbham 
Camp. ; Hazavibagh ; Raiichi ; Palamau. 
Fl. Fehy.-June. Fr. March-July. 

L. broadly oblanceolate, 3-6" by 1-2", narrowed into the short petiole 
finely snb-spinuloaely serrate. Fls. on pedicels 1-2" Ion?, peinncle axillary 
1-3". Petals \-j\ Anthers opening by pores. 8tignuxs as many as ovary 
lobes. Drup'ils usually 4-6, greenish. 

Campbell staters that the root is asad by the Santals as an antidote to 
snakebite and modiciaally for certain menstrual complaints, consump- 
tion and atithma. 

2. 0. squarrosa, Roxh. Champa baha, 8. 

A small glabrous tree or shrub with ell., ell-lanceolate-or 
oblanc. acute or so -ne what acuminate leaves 3" by 1" to 7' by 
21" with very numerous fine oblique sec. n. Handsome 
bright-yellow fragrant fls. \\" diam. in short lateral sub- 
corymbose rarely panicled racoaies frotn the leaf scars. Sepals 
f* erect after flowering bat again spreading and deep purple 
in fruit. 

237 



OcHNA..] 25. OCHNAOE^. [ AiLAHTHrs. 

Baimehal hills, in ravinea and on rocky slopes, from Barhait north- 
wards. 

Fl. May. Fr. r.'«. Sub-decidnous Fehy.-March. 

Bnds pernlate. L. often clustered, finelv spinulose-serrate bnt points 
deciduous and then crenulate or serrulate, base acute. Petiole l-^J^ 
Pedicels 1-li'' articolate. 



Fam. 26. SIMARIJB\CE/E. 

Ailanthns, Desf. 

Large trees with bitter bark, large, alt., exstipnlate 
pinnate leaves which continne to grow for a coDsiderable 
time at the apex and are approximated at the ends of the 
brauchlets. Fls, small polygamous, in axillary panicles. 
Calyx 5-6-lobed, lobes imbricate. Petals 5-6 spreading, in- 
dnplicate valyate. Disc 10-lobed. iS^^. in male fl. 10, in 
harm. fl. sometimes only 2-3. Carpels 5-6 nearly free entirely 
free in frait, 1-ovaled, 1 or more developing into a large, 
linear-oblong saQiara with the seed in the centre, 

1. A. excelsa, Boxh. Pirinim, Ghorkaram (in Palaman 
f. Manson), Ghorkaranj, Kharw, 

A tree with light- coloured bark, stent hoary tomentose 
tjranchlets, large pinnate leaves with 10-13 pairs of very 
coarsely toothed leaflets and large panicles of small flowers. 

Along the Brahmini River in Grangpur.^ Satbarua Fort, Weod. 
Falamau, frequent. Hazariba^ (Ohorparan jangles). 

Fls. Jany. -March. Fr. May. Sub-deciduo is May. Benews leaves 
May-June. (According to Brandis, it, is leafless in the~ early part of the 
cold season, but I have found it in full leaf in November and January.) 

Smell foetid. Twigg \-\'' diam. with large leaf scars. L. 2-S ft. long 
with hoary tomentose rachis Ljits. opp. or alt , 8|-6'' by 2-3'', deasely 
pubescent beneath and pubescent above when young, aciite or acuminate 
with a very oblique base, sec. nerves about 12-20 pair Petiolule slender 
1-2''. Two hairy glands occur near the base of the petiole and sometimes 
also in the place of the lower leaflets. Panicles li;-20''. Fls. yellowiah. 
Samaras usually solitary, l|-2'' by ^'', strongly veined with a twisted base. 

The bark, ground, is used as a horse medicine " TVhen horsos fall 
down." 

238 



Fam. 37. ZYGOPHYLLACE.E. 
1 Balanites, Delile. 

1. B. RoxburgMi, Planch, Ingan, Kharw/f Hingux, H. 

A very thorny grey-green slirab with alt. coriaceonp, 
pinnate leaves of only 1 pair of leaflets, yellowish -greea 
fragrant flowers in axillary cymes or fascicles, and frn.it an 
ovoid drupe 11-2" long, 

Palaman, esp. in the extreme^ west near the Sone. In the Jonmals 
in describing that part of the Grand Trunk road in Hazaribagh lying 
between Dumri and Baghoda, Sir J. D. Hooker, aays " Balanites was 
not uncommon, forming a low thorny bush, with <£gle Marmelos fuul 
Feronia Elephantum." 

Fl. March-April. Fr. Nor. Also found in flower Nov. 

Thorns stout axillary, often elongated and bearing leaves. Lft$^ 
entire ell. or obovate puberulous f-l?''. Petiole hardly any. 8ep. and Pet, 
5 hairy. St. 10 at the base of the prominent disc which is 10-lobed. Ovary 
5-celled, by abortion 1-celled with 1 pendoloaa ovale. Drupe yellow, 
slightly 5-groved with a very offensive Bmell and with very hard 5-angled 
l~oelled and 1-seeded stone. 



Fam. 2S. BURSERACEJ3. 

Trees or shrubs secreting oleo-resms in the cortex, L* 
jilternate, impari-pinnate, nsnally with opposite leaflets, stipu- 
late or (in all the following) exstipulate. Fls. regular, 
small often polygomous in axillary or terminal racemes or 
panicles, Galyot often minute, lobes 3-6 imbricate or yalvate. 
Petals 3-6 imbricate or valvate. l)isc free or adnato to the 
base of the calyx. St. twice as many as the petals inserted 
on the margin of or underneath the disc. Anthers 2-celled 
dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary free, 3-5-celled. Ovules 2 
in each cell axile pendulous anatropous. Fruit a drupe with 
1-5 free or united pyrenes or stones or dry and dehiscent, each 
pyrene 1-seeded. Albumen 0. Cotyledons genei*ally twisted 
or crumpled. 

239 



28. BUBSEBACEJE. [2. GAsroA 

A Flowering before the new leaves. 

L. lobalate or coarsely crenate. Disc fleshy annular. 

Fr. capsular . , . .• . . . . 1. Boswellia, 

L. shallowly crenate. Disc thin lining the calyx tube. 

Fr. drupaceous 2. Garuga. 

B. Flowering on the new shoots. 

L. sub-entire or serrate. Disc small annular. Fr. drupa- 
ceous. . 3. Bursera. 



1. Boswellia, Roxb. 

1. B, serrata, Roxh, Saiga, Sail, K.; Saiga. 8.; Salai, Sali, 
JET., Khar IV. 

A pretty tree with green, grey or re(ldi8li bark 
peeling off in thin flakes, large exstipnlate impari-pinnate 
leaves 12-18" long with numerous opposite sessile coarsely 
crenate -serrate leaflets and nuinerous racemts of smallish white 
flowers at the tips of the branches, usually appearing when 
the tree is bare. 

Very common on dry hills, where it commonly attains 5 ft. girth. Rarer 
in the S. P. 
Fl. Jany. -March. Fr. May-June. Deciduous Jany.-May or .Tune. 

Branches drooping, L. approximated at their ends, Ljits. l|-3'' by 
i"4 ' opp. or sub-opp. 9-16 prs. lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate glaucous 
beneath and pubescent on the nerves above sometimes sub-lobed. Racetnes 
4-8' pubescent, sometimes with short branches, crowded but not retilly 
terminal, the apex of the branch growing through them, so that they are 
below the ne^v lea,ves in fruit. Calyx cnpular 5-6-lobed villous. Petals 5-6, 
i'' oblong-ovate with thickened base. 8t. 10. inserted on the outside of the 
scarlet fleshy annular papillose disc. Filaments sB'ort subulate. Anthers 
dorsi-fixed sagittate introrse. Ovary free 3-celled with a 3-ridged style 
and capitate stigma. Fruit 3-gonou8 ^'' long with 3 valves and 3 winged 
hard pyrenes. 

The wood is used for charcoal. The tree yields the Indian Olibanum, 
a golden-yellow gum-resin (laban, loban, 8.) very fragrant and trans- 
parent. The leivep hung up in a cattle shed are said to keep away flies. 
Can be grown from large cuttings. 

3. Garu^a, Roxb. 

1. G. pinnata^ ^oxh, Armn, K.; Kandwer, 8. ; Keknr 
Kenkar, Kharw ; Karur, Bhumij, Kosromba, Mai Pah, 

240 



2. GABroA.] 28. BURSJSRACHJS. 

A mod.-sized iiandsome tree when in full foliage, witli 
impari-pinnate leaves 12-18" long, opp. leaflets 4|'' by i|" 
Cauda te-acuminate, crenate, shortly pubescent both sides. 
The yellow campanulate flowers ^" h'ng are borne when the 
tree is leafless in numerous panicles 4-6" long from the leaf 
scars at the tips of the branches. 

Cliiefly in the valleys, and on the ghats, frequent throughout the 
area. 

Fls. March-April. Fr. June-Aug. Leafless March-May. Old leaves 
turn red before falling. 

Twigs stout pubescent. Lflts. ovate-lanceolate with 12-16 prs. sec. n. 
lowest pair of lflts. usiially very short reflexed. PetioJules h-s". Calyx- 
tube very hairy, sepals half as long as the erect linear-oulong petals. 
Filaments hairy. Fruit globose yellowish-green f " ciiam. with 2-4 stones. 

A good tree for reclaiming grass tracts subject to fire, it may be classed 
among " fire-hardy" species. " Grows readily from cuttings," Brandis. 
Fr. eaten. 

3. Bursera, L. 

1. B« serrate J Colehr. Kandior, K. ; Armu, 8, (It will be 
seen that the Kols and the Santals reverse the names of 
these two trees) ; Sari, Mai Fah. 

A mod.-sized tree with impari-pinnate leaves 6-12" long, 
opp. leaflets 3" by 1" to 5 J" by If" caudate, entire or more or 
less serrate, pubescent on the nerves beneath. The very small 
green flowers -J-" diam. (and as long) are borne when the tree 
is in leaf in lax panicles l|-3" long from the leaf axils or 
below the leaves. 

Common along ravines, and among rocks on the cool sides of hills. 

Fl. April. Fr. May. Evergreen or nearly so. New leaves in April. 
Twigs pubescent. Ljits. 3-4 prs. only, oblong with 6-12 prs. sec. n, Petiolules 
i-i". Calyx-tube very shallow with small lobes. Petals spreading above. 
Disc small free from calyx crenate with the stamens alternately on and 
between the crenatures. Style 0, or very short. Fr. globose red when 
ripo about ^-|" diam. with 1-S stones. 

Fam. 39. RUTACE.E. 

Tree or shrubs abounding in pellucid glands filled with 
essential oil,^ with opp, or alternate, simple or compoxind 

i Easily seen by holding a leaf up to the light. 
241 



29. BUTACE^. 

©xstipulate leaves. Flowers regular and usually 2-sexuaI in 
cymes or panicles. Calyx of 4-5 lobes oi sepals. Petals 
4-5 (or more in Citrus) valvate or imbricate. Stamens 
hypogynous, diplostemonous, i.e. 8 or 10, rarely (Citrus, 
-^gle) numerous. Filaments usually free and anthers 2-celled 
introrse. Disc within the stamens, crenate or lobed, sometimes 
large or long. Ovary entire or lobed 4-5-celled, or more celled 
(in many Aurantieae). Styles as many as carpels or united 
with terminal stigma. Ovules usually 2 in each cell, some- 
times numerous. Fruit very various. Seeds usually solitary in 
the cells, never winged, albumen fleshy or 0. Embryo straight 
or curved, radicle superior. 

An order usually readily distingaished by its glandular leaves and 
flowers, closely allied to the Meliaceae through Chloroxylon of that order, 
■which also has glai\dular leaves and distinct stamena, but is retained 
in Meliaceoe on account of its fruit and winged seeds. 

All the Chota Nagplur representatives of the order belong to the 
tribe Aurantiess in which the fruit is baccate. L. alt. in all. 

I. Ovules 1-2 in each cell. 
A. Unarmed. 

1. Style very short persistent, not jointed. Lflts. 

i-5 1. Qlycosmit, 

2. Style jointed on the top of the ovary and 

deciduous. 

a. Petals valvate, Lflta. over 3'' long (at least 

the upper) .... . . 2. Micromdum. 

h. Petals imbricate, Lfltss. mostly under 3' 

Fls. in cymes or corymbs. Filaments 

linear-sabulate . . . . .3. Murray a. 

Us. in elongate panicles. Filaments 

dilated below 4. Olaus&na. 

B Armed ....•••. 5. Limonia. 

n. Ovules more than 2 in each cell. Trees or shrubs 
usually armed. 

Leaves 1-foliolate • • • . • 6. Citrus, 

Leaves S-fyliolate 7. ^gle. 

Leavefs impari-pinnate 8. Feronia. 

242 



1. GLTC08MJ8.] 29. EUTACE^. [3. MUBBIYA. 

1, Glycosmis, Corr. 
1. G. pentaphylla, Gorr, Ashaura, Beng, 

A elirub 2-4 ft. with pinnately 1-5-foliolate leaves and 
large leaflets. Flowers small "white in axillary pubescent 
panicles. 

Paxasnath, Anders. \ Santal P. from Bnrio northwards, near rivers, 
gregarious. Fls., Sx. Od.-Fehy. 

Twigs minutely puberulous. Lflts. usually 5 alternate (rarely opp.) 
very variable, usually ell. or ell.-oblong 2-n" by 1-2^ entire or obscurely 
toothed, glabrous. Sepals broadly ovate obtuse puberulous. Pet. 4-5 
imbricate ^" oblong ob ovate erect gland dotted. St. 8-10 free filaments 
linear flattened suddenly pointed. Anthers with an apical gland. Ovary 
5-rarely 3-4-celled glabrous, mamillate with glands, style very short and 
stout, persistent. Ovules 1 in each cell, pendulous. Berry J-^* diam. 
depressed globose pinkish glassy 1-seeded. 

3. Slicromelnm, Blame. 

1. M. pubescens, Blume. Exsira, Vern. (TVood). 

A small tree attaim'ng 25 ft. with pinnate leaves, very 
large leaflets and terminal large corymbs of white flowers 
which are succeeded by foetid ovoid yellow or scarlet berries 
¥ long. 

Shady valleys in Singbhum. Hazaribagh (Baragaon, Wood), Fl. 
Jany. -March. Fr. May-July. Evergreen. 

L. 8-18". Lflta. 5-11 ovate to lanceolate attaining 8* by S^*, lowest 
sometimes only 1^" slightly pubescent, acaminate, base rounded oblique, 
rarely acnte sometimes cordate. Corymbose panicles pubescent or tomen- 
tose. Flowers ^-^" diam. Petals narrow oblong, valvate. 6t. 10, alternate 
shorter. Ovary 2-7 usually 5-celled ; cells with 2 superposed ovulee. Berry 
fleshy very foetid. Cotyledons crumpled. 

3, Murraya, Linn. 

Unarmed small trees or shrubs with impari-pinnate leaves 
and small alternate leaflets with oblique base. Fls. in axillary 
or terminal corymbose cymes rarely sub-solitary. Petals 5 
imbricate. St. 10, inserted round an elougated disc, filaments 
linear-subulate, alt. shorter. Ovary 2- 5-celled, narrowed into 

243 



3. MuBRAYi.] 29. RUTACEM. [4. Clausena. 

a long deciduons style. Ovules 1-2. Berry 1-2-celled oblong 
or ovoid, 1-2-se^ded. 

!• M. exotica, Linn. Vern. Otll K.; Athel, 8.; Kamini, 
jff., Beng. The Chinese Myrtle. China Box. 

A handsome small tree or shrub with pinnate leaves 4-5" 
long, small shining dark green leaflets |-2" long and white 
fragrant flowers in corymbs or few-fid. loose cymes. 

Wild (var. sumatrana) and not vincommou in rocky ravines (and on 
Parasnath) in Hazaribagh, Santfil P., and Singbhum where it some- 
times attains 25 ft. Commonly cultivated in gardens where it is usually a 
compact shrub. 

Fls. April- July. Fr. Dec.-Jany. Evergreen. 

Leaflets 3-8 rigid glabrous, entire. Fls. campanulate, very fragrant, 
with petals V long, oblong lanceolate. Ovary 2-celled. Berry red i" 
apiculate, sometimes |" by nearly ^" and spindle-shaped 1-2-seeded. 

Var. Rum£itrana Boxh. is distinguished by its few-fid. cymes or sub- 
Bolitary flowers, larger leaflets often 4 by If" and subulate sepals. One 
Santhal P. form has obtase sepals, and petals f " long. 

2. M. Koenigii, Spreng. Vem. Barsanga, R. 

A shrub or small tree with pinnate leaves 5-16" long, very 
oblique lanceolate or ovate leaflets 1-3" long and terminal 
short peduncled pubescent corymbs of odorous white flowers 
^-|" diam. 

Often near gardens, but not seen truly wild in C. N . 

Fls. March-May. Fr. July-Aug. A second flowering Bometimes occurs 
in August. Evergreen. 

Twigs pubescent. Leaflets entire or crenulate usually acuminate, lowest 
much smaller, 6-15 pairK, opposite or alternate. Petals linear oblong, i" 
long. Fruit succulent ovoid or ellipsoid, -3-5'' long, pink then black. Seed 
large. 

The leaves are used in curries and as a stomachic. 

4. Clausena, Burm. 

1. C. e:jcavata, 5wrm. Vem. Ote-armu, K. 

An under sliruh oi which the shoots attain l|-2 ft. only 
and die down annually, with alternate 10- or more-foliolate 

244 



4. Clausena.] 29. EUTACE^. [5. Likonia. 

leaves and terminal panicles of green flowers with 8 yellow 
stamens. 

Singbhum, common in Sal forests^ The new shoots appear in A'pril, 
Fla. May-June. Fr. July-Aug. 

Strongly scented. Branches tomentose from a perennial rootstock 
erect. Leaf-rachis tomentose 6-12'' long. Lfltp. 1^-3^'' ovate to oblong or 
lanceolate with very oblique base, acuminate, hairy especially beneath 
when young and with large marginal pubescent glands. Branches of 
panicle cymose. Fls. j-'' diam. hairy. 8epals 4 minute. Petals 4, 
3-nerved. Ovary 4-celled, villous. Style stout deciduous. Ovules 2 in 
each cell. Fruit |" ellipsoid. 

The dried and powdered rootstocks are used by the Kola for decayed 
teeth. In the Himalayas this plant becomes a large shrub or small tree. 

2. C. Wampi, Blarxo, Vern. Wampi (from the Chinese). 

A small tree occasionally caltivated for its edible berries 
which are greenish and about J'' diam. The leaves are 5-9- 
foliolate, 8-13", glabrous. Lflts. 3-5J" obliquely ovate. Rind 
of fruit full of glands. 
Fls. May. Fr. July. 



5. Limonia, L. 

1. L. acidissima) Ij- Belsain, Khar.; Beli, K. 

A small straight tree attaining 30 ft. with 1-2 axillary 
spines,^ pinnate leaves with winged rachis and usually 6-7 
leaflets, the small pale-yellowish white flowers in very short 
close racemes and the small globose fruits black when ripe 
and intensely bitter (not acid). 

Frequent in valleys in Palamau (Betlah Forest, etc.) The Belsain Pir 
in the Ranchi district appears to be named after it. Santhal P. (Ghor- 
mara, in the south). 

Sub-deciduous at the time of flowering. Fl. May-June. Fr. ripens 
Vov.-Dec 

Shoots pubescent. Lfits. opposite ell. or elliptic-ovate crenate 1-2" long 
with cuneate base and usually obtuse notched apex. Wings narrowly 
obovate. Racemes \-V', mostly from leafless axils. Fls. i" diam. long- 
pedicelled, 4-merou8. 8t. 8. Ovary 4-celled, sub-globose. Cells 1-ovuled. 
Style short very stout. Berry ^" diam. green until ripe. 

245 



29. BUTACEM. [6. Citeus. 

6. Citrus, Linn. 

Small trees or shrubs, nsnally with axillary -spines.^ L. 
1-foliolate with often winged petiole. Inflorescence lateral, 
flowers rather large, not greenish or yellow. Petals vai^'able 
in nnmber, imbricate. St. numeroas with more or less con- 
nate filanients. Ovary many celled. Ovules 4-8 in each cell. 
Berry many-celled succulent with coriaceous or fleshy rind 
COrange, Lemon and Citron). 

1. C. Aurantium, L. The wild orange. 

A small tree usually much branched from near the ground 
with green angular twigs and simple scented leaves. Fraits 
orange shaped globose or oblate not mamillate, juicy, 2-2J* 
diam. 

Rocky fleclnded vclieya in Singbhum (esp. near Bona! State.) Frtiit 
ripens April-June, 

Yonng shoots pale green. Branchlets mostly armed with straight axil- 
lary spines ^-f' ' long. L. ell. acute or somewhat acuminate and narrowed 
at base, sometimes faintly crenate 2|-5" by 1-2". Petiole i-^" narrowly 
winged or not. Fh. not seen. Fr. resembling a sweet lime in flavour, 
rind green not thick. 

This is a rare plant and quite unlike the wild forms of the orange or 
lemon hitherto described. Flowers are required. 

2. C. Aurantium, L. The orange : Narangi, BT. 

The ordinary form of C. Aurantium ia cultivated on the Eanchi plateau 
and to a small extent in other places. It ia a small tree with pure white 
flowers. L. 3-6" with petioles winged or not. 

3. C. medica, L. Ja^ira, K. ; Jambir, S» ; Nimbu, H, 

Usually a very spinous bnsh, young shoots purplish, L. 
3-6*. Flowers 1 -sexual, more or less pink, fruit mamillate at 
the apex. 

i The snines in the last four genera are often found laterally to a leaf ot 
fascicle oMeaves. In the leaf axils there usually arise 1-3 buds. Fre- 
quently one of these develops into a spine, sometiTies the two lateral 
develop as spines, in other cases one lateral bud develops as a spine and 
the other as a branch bearing one, or a fascicle of leaves, when the original 
Babtending leaf falls the spine iJius becomeg lateral to a leaf or fascicle. 

24.6 



6. CiTEua.] 29. RUTACF^. [8. Febonia. 

Often apparently wild in waste places especially on the Hazaribagb 
plateau, not indigenous. 

The cultivated forms are numerous, but mostly of recent introduction 
into the wilder parts of Chota Nagpur. They include the Citron, Lemon 
and Limes, some of the latter without mamillate fruit. 

4. C. decuman a. L. with leares 6-9" long and very large globoaa finite 
in the Pamalo or Shaddock, also cultivated. 

7. Egle. Correa. 

1. A. Marmelos, Gorrea. Lohagasi, K. ; Sinjo, 8. ; Bel, 
JET., JBeng. ; The Bael tree. 

A small tree 30 ft. with strong spines^ gpringing 1-2 
together from t]ie axils of the S-foliolate leaves. Lflts. ovate- 
lanceolate or elliptic 2-4" long crenate or nearly entire sessile 
with rachis |-1" loug and petiole 1-2|" long. 

Wild on the hills throughout Chota Nagpur. 

Fl. May-June. Fr. May-June of the following year. Sab-decidnouB in 
ApriL 

Fls. 1" diam. greenish white in very numerous lateral and sub-terminal 
simple panicles 1^-3" long appearing with the new leaves. Fr. 2-3" diam. 
(wild form) globose or ovoid, many-celled and seeded. Eind almost 
woody. Testa of sead wooly. A moat valuable tree, the properties of 
which are well known. 

Var. a. A moderate-sized thornless tree. Lflts. broadly ovate, some- 
times faintly crenate 2" by \^" to 4" by 2|" shortly obtusely acuminate 
puberulous both sides, lateral petiolules i", Bavinea in the Santal P. east 
of Narganj. 

8. Feroiiia, Gsertn. 

1. F. elephantum, Gorr. Kat-bel, Kochbel, 8. ; Katbel, 
n,; The wood-appie. 

A small spinous^ tree with dark green impari-pinnate 
leaves and opposite small sub-sesBile entire leaflets. 

Manbhum, Camphell. Hazaribagh, near Topchanchi. Palamau (near 
Japla). Fl. Feby.- April, Brandif. Ft. liov.-Jany. "Deciduous." 

L. fascicled, about 3" long with 5-7 elliptic or obovate leaflets about 
^"'V long. Margin notched at apex and with large marginal glands. Bachis 
narrowly winged. Fh. (not seen by me) ^"-i" diam. dull^red. Fr. 2|"-3* 
diam. 1-celled, many-seeded with a rough woody rind. 

The pulp of the fruit is edible. 

^ Sea footnote on page 246. 
247 



Fam. 30. MELIACE^. 

TreeB or shrubs without fexc. Chloroxylon) translucent 
glands in the leaves. L. alt. pinnate (2-3-pinnate in Melia) 
exstipulate. Fls. regular, usually in axillary panicles. 
Calyx 3-6-toothed, -partite, or sub-entire. Fet. 3-6, sometimes 
cohering at the base. 8t. 4-12 usually twice as many as the 
petals, more or less completely united (except in Cedreleea) 
into a tube outside the disc, tube often toothed. Fiso rarely 
absent, frequently tubular and sheathing the ovary, sometimes 
adnate to the st. tube. Ovary usually free, 2-5- rarely 
6-celled. Style 1, stigma disciform or capitate. Ovules 2 
or more in each cell, rarely solitary. Seeds sometimes arilled 
or winged. Albumen thin or absent. 

Note. — Chloroxylon is chiefly distingnished from the Rutaoea by its 
numerous ovulas and winged seeds. 

A. Ovules several or many. Seeds winged. 

I. St. not united into a tube (Tribe Cedraleae). 

Perfect st. 10, L. gland-dotbed . . . .1. Chloroxylon. 

Perfect St. 4r6,! Knot gland-dotted . . . 2. Cedrela. 

II. St. united into a tube (Tribe Swietienieae) 

Ovary 5-celled. Capsule S-valvsd . . . . .3. 8oymida. 

Ovary 3-celled. Capsule 3-valved (rarely ovary and 

capsule 4-5-ceIled) 4. Chickrassia. 

B. Ovules 1-2 in each cell. Seeds not winged, St, anited 

into a tube. 

I. Albumen thin. Cotyledons foliaceous. Leaflets 
often toothed (Twbe Meliese). Petals usually 
spreading. 

St. tube oblong. L. pinnate. Tree. . ^ . . 5, Azadirachta, 
St. tube oblong. L. 2-3-pini)ate. Tree . . .6. Melia. 
St. tube very short. A shrub . . . . .7. Cipadessa. 

II. Albumen 0. Cotyledons thipk. Leaflets entire 
(Tribe Trichiliese). Petals usually erect or sub- 
eroct (exc. 9). 

Petals shortly oblong. Disc annular. Lflts. 5-11 . S. Heynea. 

Petals ovate-oblong, spreading. Disc annular. 
Lflts. 3 9. Walsura. 

Petals narrowly oblong. Disc tubular . . .10. Dysoxylum. 

248 



30. MELIACE^, [2 Cbdbbla. 

Petals 3-5 thick, concave, white . . . .11. Amoora. 

Petals 5 concave, yellow. Shoots lepidote . . 12. Aglaia. 

N.B. - The length and shape of the staminal tube is usually correlated 
with that of the petals: concave petals = urceolate tube, oblong petals = 
cylindrical tube, etc. 

1. Chloroxylon. D.C. 

I. C. Swietenia, DG. Sengel-Sali, K. J Bharlml, Kharw. ; 
Bhira, H. Indian Satinwood. 

A small or mod. -si zed tree with thick corky bark, 
pretty, greyish or glaacous-green pinnate foliage, leaflets 
l0"20 pairs, about 1'^ long, gland-dotted. Fls. white j" diam. 
on the cymose branchlets of pubescent 3-5'' long panicles 
which are clustered towards the ends of the branches from 
the leaf scars. 

Sin^bbum, usually on northern slopes and local; Gangpur ; Palamau 
(woods near the XJrunga R., etc.), frequent. Fl. March-April when 
leafless. Fr. May-June. Deciduous Feby.-A/pril. 

Lflts. rhomboid-oblong with rounded apex, petiolule Ta4o"' rachis with 
petiole 8-12' long. Pet. with slender claws. 8t. 10 from the sinuses of 
the prominent disc. Ovary pubescent, 3-celled and -lobed. Capsule 
3-gonous, oblong-ovoid, 1-1^'', 3-celled with winged seeds. 

The wood is eagerly sought after, hence the scarcity of large trees. 
It is often found OQ the sides of hills in the form of coppice. The leares 
blister the skin if rubbed on it, hence the Kol name Sengel-Sali (Sengel= 
fire), and cattle will not browse on it. 

3. Cedrela, L. i 

Trees. L. pinnate. Fls. short-oblong white in terminal, and 
sub-terminal panicles, 4i-6' usually 5-merous. St. often with 
alternating starainodes, inserted on the fleshy disc, which is 
more or less adnate to the base of the ovary. Ovary 5-celled. 
Cells with several 2 -seriate pendulous ovules. Capsule 
eeptifragally 5-valved, globose when young, then ellipsoid 
or obloQg. Seeds many imbricate vi^inged at one or both ends. 

I' C. Toona, Ro-^b. Katangai, Roronga, Ro, ; Katangari, 
M. ; Tun, jg. The Toon tree. 

^ Vide Records, Botanical Survey of India, III^ 4, on the Indian Speoieg 
of Cedrela by G. De Caudolle. 

249 



2. Cedbela.] 30, M:ELIACJSJS. [3. Sotmidi. 

A mod.-sized tree with large spreading leaves 1-2| ft. long 
"with 5-12 prs. of alt. or opp. lanceolate or oblong-lanc. finely 
acuminate glabrous or pubescent entire or faintly nndulate 
Iflts. with oblique acute bases. Ms. ^--i-" long in drooping or 
sub-erect panicles on the new shoots. Seeds winged both 
ends. 

ValleyB in Siugbhnm, and Santal P. ; Parasnath in Hazaribagh but not 
attaining lar^e size and rather scarce. Loharda^a 2,500 ft., Oamble. I have 
not seen it wild elsewhere, but it is largely planted in all the districts. 
Fls. March-April. Fr. June-July, bnt the capsules often remain a whole 
year on the tree. Decidnons Dec.-Feby. 

The typical C. Toona has quite glabrous leaves, panicles glabrous loag 
and drot)ping, usually as long as or exceeding the leaves, Jls. without 
ataminodes. Anths. minutely apiculate. Captules i'' smooth. This la 
rarely, if ever, found in Ohota Nagpur, certainly not wild. 

Var. a=C. Hainesii, C. D.C. sp. 

L. 18'' long glabrous except the petioles and the axils of the sec. n. of 
the Iflts. Panicle puberiuous 8-9' only, erect. Fls. ^''. 8tamino(Jes 
5 filiform. The fruit is believed to bo that of the type a.nd about f '' long. 
Truly wild in the valleys. It may be a distinct species, but a larger 
Beriea of specimens is required. 

Var. 3 (This is also included in C. Hainesii by De Candolle ? but it 
appears to me not to differ from C. Toona, var. pubescens, Franch), 
L. sometimes 2 ft. in length with 10-12 prs. of Iflts. more or less perma' 
nently pubesceid both sides. Sec. n. 14-16 prs. with pubescent pita in 
their axils. Fls. not seen, and it is possibly the same as a- Chiefly in 
village lands. 

Var. y Haslettii. Lflts, opp. 6-10 prs. under 4''. Panicles erect 6" 
glabrous. Fls. |''. Anthers with, a tail i-ftha as long as themselves. 
JStmds. 0. Capsiiile under f with pmall white lenticles. Seeds as in 
type. Santal P. Khatikhund, Haslett ! 

The fact that the young leaves appear at the commencement of the 
hot weather make tho Tocn a most desirable avenue tree. 



o. Soymida, A. Juss. 

1' S* febrifug^a, ^- Juss, Rohini, K, ; Ruhen, S. ; Rohan, 
Rohana if., Khar. 

A large or moderate straight tree with dark brown bark 

260 



I 



3« CJOYMIDA. ] 30. MELIAC]£JS. [6. Azidisachta. 

thick wrinkled brancblets and pari -pinnate leaves 9-18" long, 
nsualLy red when yonng. Fls. greenish white in large terminal 
panicles. Tree often conspicnous from the large ellipsoid or 
obovoid pendent fruits, woody and septifragally 5-valved 
when ripe. 

Singbhum rare,, (at Chimbera); Gangpnr, common ; MaBbhnm, com- 
iBon in the Ttindi forest, Camp.; and in otber parts (e.g. along Barakka 
R.); Hazaribagh, frequent ; coppiced on the Tcpchanchi hills. Palaman, 
frequent. Small stunted specimens a few feet high are very common ia 
ruined forests ; the young leaves are easily recognized by their red 
veins and petioles. 

Fl. April-May. Fr. May-June (ripe P) when nearly bare of leaves, 
and new shoots appear in the same months. 

Ljlis. 3-6 pair, distant opp. or alt., 2-4" long, broadly oblong or elliptic 
obtuse with very oblique base, spriukied when young with small sessile 
glands otherwise glabrous. Sep. 5 short imbricate. Pet. 5 obovate. 
Bt.'tv^e cupnlar, 10-cleft, lobes again 2-toGthed, anthers between the 
teeth. Ovary 5-celled. Capsule '6" by 2'' (1-2' long only according to 
Bfandia) with a large 5-ra,yed central aiir and numerous large-winged 
seeds. 

The bark is bitter and astringent. Among the Santals a decoction ia 
given for rheumatic swellings, Caivp. Wood used for oil mills, etc., 
very hard. Kundur (gunpowder) is prepared from its wood in Gangpur. 

Cbukrasia tabularis A. Juss. (sometimes spelt Chickrassia). 

Iq a pamphlet entitled " On the Flora of Behar and the mountain 
Parasnath" by Thomas Anderson, formerly Superintendent of the 
Koyal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, it is stated that Chickrassia tabularis 
occurs on Parasnath from base to summit ! This is the only record, 
and I suspect an errur as I have failed to find it on Parasnath or any- 
where else in Chota J^Tr.gpur. C. tabularis has 6-12 prs. of leaflets. 
White flowers ^'' long with erect oblong petals -and a woody capsule 
about li-lf " long. 



5. izadjraclita, A. Jnss. 

1. A« indica, ^. Juss^ Syn. Melia Azadirachta, L. Nim, 
H. , Tho ISeem tree. 

A handsome tree with pinnate leaves, 6-9 pair of coarsely- 
serrate unequal-aided leaflets and axillary panicles of white 
scented flowers. 

251 



5. AzADiEACHTA.] 30. MELIACE^. [7. Cipadessi. 

Not indigenous, Lnt occurs wild in jungles in Hazarit.agh and fre- 
quently self-sown near gardens and villages throughout phota Nagpur. 
Fl. March-May. Fr. June- July. The seed germinates the same season. 
Evergreen. 

Fls. I'' diam., St-tube ^'' long, 10-toothed and anthers opposite the 
teeth. Ovary 3-5-celled. Drupe ^'' ellipsoid, yellow when ripe, 1-celled 
and l-seeded. 

A most valuable germicide and the ripe fruits are largely collected by 
the Kola for the oil which is especially useful in parasitic skin diseases in 
both man and animals. 

Brandis speaks of the fruits becoming purple when ripe, this is 
certainly not the case in Chota Nagpur. 

6. Iflelia, L. 

1. M. Azedarach, L» Bokom baha, 8. ; Bakain, R. ; 
The Persian Lilac. 

A small tree with 2 -pinnate leaves and axillary panicles 
of small sweet-scented lilac and pnrple flowers. Ovary 5-6- 
celled. Drnpe fleshy J- j" yellowish with a bony 5-6-celled 
stone, each cell with 1 long narrow seed with brown testa, 
thin albnmen and fleshy linear-oblong cotyledons. 

Common in gardens and villages, not wild. Fls. May-June. Ft. 
ripens Nov. -Dec, but often Remains on the tree throughout the cold 
weather. 

A pretty tree in flower but it is more or less leafless from Dec. to 
April. 

7. Cipadcssa, Blnme. 

1. C. fruticosa, Blume. 

A small tree or a large shrnb with long weak snb-sarraen- 
tose branches, leaves with 7-11 opposite variously toothed 
leaflets and axillary or extrsk- axillary small cymose panicles 
of small white flowers. 

Valley forests in Singbhum, frequent in Saranda and Porahat ; Paras- 
nath, And,ers. Fl. April-May with the new shoots. Fr. May-Nov. 
Deciduous in March. 

Variable. Whole plant usually more or less pubescent. L. 5-12''. 
Lfits. from f" (at base of leaf^ to 5 by 21', from entire to coarsely serrate 
or sub-lobed, acute or acuminate. Petiolules ^•^''. Panicles narrow 3-4'' 
long including the long peduncle. Calyx 5-toothad. Petals 5, valvate 

252 



7. CiPADEssi.] 30. MBLIACE^, [9. Walsubi. 

strap-Bliaped. 8t. 10 loosely cohering into a tube, fil. villous within, 
forked, and anthers in the fork. Ovary 5-celled. Colls 2-ovuled. Fruii 
nearly dry under ^' diam. 5-gonou8. 

8. Heynea, Boxh. 

1. H. trijuga, Boxh. 

A small tree with pinnate leaves nsually 12-18'' long, 
large opposite entire leaflets and small wliite flowers in lax 
corymbose panicles on slender peduncles 7-12" long. 

Valleys in Singlhum. Kolomda 2,000ft. (Lohardagga) Qamhle ! Wood 
gives iaragaon (Hazarihiigh) as a locality, but as he states that the 
vernacular is Ban-Simar, a name often given to Heptapleurum venulosum, 
and as also it is described as a large climber, there is probably some 
mistake. 

Fl. March-May. Fr. July-Sept. Evergreen. 

Lflts. 5-9 ovate acuminate, end one attaining 6|" by 3'', paler and some- 
times pubescent beneath, base straight, obtuse or rounded, petiolule J-l* 
or of end leaflet 1", slender. Panicles (excluding peduncle) 2-4' only. 
Fls. short-oblong ^ ' long. Sepals short broad pu.escent. Petals 4-5 
oblong. Fil. cohering into a tube atjout half way, pubescent or villous 
within, forked, anthers apiculate within the fork. Ovary sunk in the disc 
2-celled, cells 2-oTuled. Fruit ellipsoid ^ ' by /q,'' corio.ceous with fleshy 
endocarp, ultimately 2-valved. Seed 1 with a white thin fleshy aril and 
large fleshy cotyledons. 

9. Walsura, Roxb. 
1. W. piscidia, Boxh. 

A bnsby tree with chartaceons pinnately 3-foliolate leaves 
4"-6" long, oblong or somewhat ovate-oblong leaflets 3'' by 1" to 
5" by 2j" pale glancons beneath and very shining above. Fls. 
yellowish ^" long in panicles 3"-5" wide composed of several 
long-pednncled partial panicles from the upper leaf scars. 

Under the 8hade of immense gneiss rocks at the tops of the highest 
hills in Koderma. Fls. May-June. Partially deciduous at the time of 
flowering. 

Innovations brown tomentose. Ljits. rounded both ends with about 
nrs of alendnr sec. n., very finely reticulate between. Lateral 
petioiules g-fg', terminal f-1'. Peduncles oj panicles 1^-3" tnicKenea up- 
wards. St.'tabe half length of petals clett for tv70-thirds of its length 
into 10 bifid segments. Ovary 2-3-oelled, and fruit; brown tomentose. 

253 



10. DisoxiLUM. ] 30. ME LI ACE M, [11. Amooba. 

10. Dysoxylum, Blame. 

Trees witli lar^e pinnate leaves and quite entire leaflets. 
Fls. panicled. Calyx 4-5-fid or sub-entire, deciduous. Petals 
4-5 oblong valvate or slightly imbricate. St.-tube cylindrical, 
mouth usually toothed or crenulate. Anthers oblong 6, 8 or 
10. Disc long tubular. Ovary 3-4-celled. vales 2 in 
each cell, superposed rarely solitary {e.g. D. Hamiltonii) 
Capsule coriaceous 1-4-celled, loculicidal. Seeds arillate or 
not, plumule sometimes hairy. 

1. D. procerum, Biem. ?^ 

A tall tree with light bark and very large pinnate leaves 

3 ft, long crowded at the ends of the branches, leaflets 

attaining 12-14" by 4" decreasing in size towards the base 

of the leaf. 

Karampoda forest in deep valleys with rmming watsr. Young fruit 
in April. 

Lflts. 5-9 pair, opposite, oblong acute or acumino.te with oblique 
HBually rounded base, lowet often only 4^' by 2^ and Gomewhat reflexod, 
sec. nerves 12-20 pair, distinct strong, straight then curved upwards to 
near the margin. Ruchis grey microscopically tomeutose, with minute 
scales and a few minute brown scales on the nerves beneath. Petiolule f ''. 

Fri. (unripe) f tomentose in axillary panicles on short pedicels, 3- 
celled, 3-seeded. Calyx 3-fid, tomentose. 

11. Amoora, Roxb. 

Trees with large pinnate leaves and entire leaflets. Fls. 
globose sometimes dioecious, panicled, or (A. Rohituka) 
female spicatc. Calyx 3-5-fid or sepals nearly free. Pet. 
3-5, concave, sometimes crenate. Anths. 6-10 included 



V JV.B.— Only once found and the fruiting-speciiren with' the remains 
of the perianth, sent to Calcutta whore it was identified with D. procerum, 
but could not again be found on my visit. The species re^iuires further 
iuvestigation as the above description, taken from field notes, points to 
this tree being a species of Amoora rather than of Dysoxylum. It, in fact, 
closely resembles A. Wallichii, JBTtn^,, a tree whose r.aige is much more 
extensive than is supposed, having been found by me both in the Bhotaa 
Duara aud Sikkim TeraL] 

254 



11. Amooba.] 30. MELIACB^. 

in the tube. Diso obsolete. Ovary 3-5-cellecI. Cells 
1-2-ovuled. Capaniat 3-4-celled and -Beeded, localicidal. 
Seeds in a fleshy aril. 

The juice is sometimes milhy. 

I. A. Rollituka» W. 8f A. Sikm, Ho. Sikarom, if. 

Fitraj, heng. 

A handsome mod.-aized tree with a low spreading 
crown of large leaves 1-3 ft. long with 4-7 pair of large 
leaflets 3-9" by l^-^" decreasing in size towards the base 
of the leaf and small white flowers in lax simple (female) 
or branched (male) spikes. 

Along river banks in SingLhnm, chiefly in Saranda. Bavines in 
northern Santal P. Fl, Aug.-Sept. Fr. May- June. Evergreen. 

Dioecious. Branchlets stout, shoots brown pubescent glabrescent. 
Rcchis of leaves grey, but not microscopically pubescent, with scattered 
brown microscopic scales. Fetiolule ^''. Lflts. much as in last but base 
more oblique and nearly alA^ays acute, at least on one side. Panicles or 
f pikes mostly extra axillary and shorter than the leaves. Calyx 5-partite 
lobes obtuse. Fetais 3. Anth. 8. Ovary 3-celled. Capsule 3-valved, 
flesh coloured or yellowish 1|" diam. Seeds with scarlet arillus. 

2. A. Wallichii, King, See note under Dysoxylum pro- 
cerum. 

13. Aglaia, Lour. 
1. A. odoratissima, Blume. 

A moderate tree with impari-pinnate leaves 3-7'' long 
with 1-3 pair of leaflets 2-5" long and very small yellow 
flowers in elongate scaly panicles, 

Pitorea, Wood. I havo not seen thist tree. Pitorea is close to Eanchi. 
Shoots, young leaves and inflorescence with fermginoua scales. Fls. yt "•■ 
Calyx S-lobed. Teials 5 concave. Anthers 5. Ovary l-3-cel1ed. Fr, 
}'' diam., indehiscent velvety. Becds with a white edible arillus. 

Fam. 31. ANACARDIACEJ). 

Trees or shrubs with alternate simple or compound 
exatipulate leaves. Fls, small regular often polygamous, 

255 



31. ANACARDIACHJE. [ 1. Ot>ina. 

sometimes dioecious, usnallj panicled. Calyx of 3-5 sepals 
or lobes Petals as ojauy as the calyx lobes, Jmbricate or 
Bub-valvate. Disc rarely absent. St. normally twice as 
many as the petals, but usually fewer, sometimes only 1 per- 
fect, inserted under or on the margin of the disc. Ovary 
superior, of I -more, rarely of 2-5, united or (in Bucb.anauia) 
free carpels. Carpels with 1 ovule, either pendalons from 
the axis or from an ascending basal funicle. Fruit usually 
a l-seeded drupe, rarely drupe with a 1-5-celled stone 
(Spondias), exalbuminous. Embryo straight or curved, 
cotyledons plano-convex. 

Eesin passages in the Lark often filled with a caustic juice. 
A. Carpels solitary or 3-4 united in a 1-celled ovary or 
if 2-celled, with one cell early suppressed. 

L Ovule pendulous from the top of the cell or from 
above the middle. 

L. pinnate. Fls. before leafing, fascicled on numer- 
ous simple or branched iacemes. Styles 3 -4, 
rarely 6 .1. Odina. 

L. simple. St. 5. Drupe on a swollen receptacle. 

Styles 3 . . . . . . .2. Sernecar'pus. 

II. Ovule pendulous from a basal funicle. L. simple. 

St. 5-1. Style lateral. The Mango . . , Z. Mangifera. 

B. Carpels 5 distinct, one only perfect. L. simple. 

St. 10. Drupe small, not on a swollen receptacle . 4. Bvchanania. 

C. Ovary 2-5-celled. L. pinnate. 

Fls. before leafing white in a large terminal 
panicle ........ 5. Spondias. 

1. Odiua, Roxh, 

1. 0. Wodier, Boxh. Nanam, K. ; Doka, S. ; (Dhaunk, 
doka, also used by the Tantis and other Hindu castes); Genjan, 
Kiiarw. ; Farmi, Ghatw. ; Jhingan, H. ; Jial, Beng. 

A small or large tree with stout soft branchlets, odd-pin- 
nate glabrescent loaves clustered at the ends of the branchleta 
with 3-4 pairs of leaflets. Small yellowish-gieen dioecious 
flowers fascicled oa the rachis of numerous racemes towards 

266 



n 



1. Odina.] 31. ANACARDIACEM. [2. Sbmeoabpus. 

the ends of the bare twigs, succeeded by cnrved oblong 
compressed red drupes A' long. 

Very common in all the districts especiflUy in dry forests, where it 
is one of the first trees to lose and one of the last to regain its leaves. 
Fl. March-April. Fr. May- June. Dec. Nov. -May , but eeedlings keep 
their leaves till Jammry. 

Brayichfets with a large pith, thin wood and thick tongli white 
bark. Yonng shoots, leaves and inflorescence with stattered 
stellate h^iirs. Lfitf. 2^-5^" ovate opposite mostJy acuminate with 
oblique unequal base, lower smallei- shortly petiolulate, upper some- 
times sessile, terminal petiolule l-'-i". Racemes very numerous at th« 
ends of the t^igs » r from upper leafless axils, never truly terminal, erect 
or ultimately drooping. M. 3-8' often with slender branches. Sep. 
4 (-5), ovate ciliate, -^-\'e" imbricate. Pet. as many j" oblong acute. 
8t. 8 on the margin of the annular disc. Pistillode 4r5-grooved clavate 
truncate. F. racemes 3-6" elongating in fruit to 8", not or very shortly 
branched, per, 4-5 oblong obtuse g"- Staminodes 8 on a small disc at base 
of the 4-6-grooved oblong ovary. Styles 3-8 short thick with a papillose 
stigma, "vw/e cm a long pendulous funicle. Drupe with a thin fleshy 
epicarp and large stone, seated on the persistent somewhat enlarged (i\j") 
calyx. 

The tree contains an abundance of starch and is therefore easily 
raised fr -m cuttings ;^.i^i good for fodder. It yields a clear gum in 
considerable ■iiiaatiti^s '.he bark is astringent and gives a coarse fibre. 
The fruit is lar;;ely eaten by birds. 

2. Semecarpns, Linn. £. The Marking Nut. 

1. S. .Anacardium, L. So30, K., S.; Bhelwa, Kharw., H. ; 
Bhela, Beng. 

A small tree vith large simple oblong or obovate «troDgly- 
Berved leaves 8-18" long clustered at the ends of the branches, 
and small subsessible fascicnlate dull greenish-yellow male 
or polygamous flowers on the branches of a terminal panicle. 
Frait an oblong or obliquely ovoid drupe, bliick when ripe, 
seated on a fleshy orange cup (formed of the swollea accres- 
cent calyx-base and disc). 

Fairly abundant throughout the forest, but scattered. 

PL June-Sept. Fr. Dec-March. Dec. March-May. 

Branchlets stout, young pubescent or tomentose. L. ha^ry on the nerves 
beneath and grey between the nervules with a close-felted layer of mic- 
roscopic papillae, apex rounded. Sec n. 16-25 pairs reticulate within the 

li 257 L 



2. S2MECABPTJS.] 31. ANJCAEDIACE^. [4. Buchanania. 

thicTcened margin. Petiole 1-2''. Panicle stout pubescent as long as or 
longer than the leaves, Fh. i'' diam., polygamo-dioefious. C 'lyx i" long 
with 5 small teeth, tube accrescent with the receptacle. Petals oblong 
with rounded apex, greenish-yellow. 8t. .'». inserted outside and at the 
base of the disc. Ovary 1-celled tomentose with 3 styles. Drupe 1 " 
coriaceous. 

The juice causes blisters and woodmen therefore object to felling the 
trees. The ripe orange cup of the fruit is eaten and also, it is said, the 
kernel of tie fruiba bvt the pericarp is full of a black juice which is a 
powerful vesicant and is used for marking clothes. The fruits form an 
Important ingredient in some native medicines for dyspepsia, piles and 
ekin diseases. They probably give the active principle in the mixture 
used for " chobing" elephants' feet. 

3. Mangifera, L. Mango. 

Trees. Fls. small, polygnmous in terminal panicles, pedicels 
articulate. Calyx 4-5-partite. Pet. 4-5, only 1-2 usually 
perfect, inserted within the tumid lobed disc. Ovary sessile 
1-celled, oblique, style lateral, ovule pendulons from a sub- 
basal f uiiicle. Drupe large fleshy ; stone compressed, fibrous. 

1. M- indica, L, Uli, K. ,• Ul, <S,, and the fruit Amsi ; 
Am,H. 

The wild mango is very similar to the cultivated one and 
is a fine large tree 60 ft. high and up to 8 ft. or more girth. 
The fruit la 3-4" long with a very large stone, thin rind and 
very abundant pleasant juice but little flesh. 

Along rocky valleys and banks of streams, common in Singbhum. Also 
in Manbhum and on Par.isnath. Feasibly wild and indigenous through- 
out Chota Nngpur, certainly so in Singbhum, Fl. Jany. -March. Fr. May- 
June. Evergreen, renews leaves in June. 

An important food in times of famine ; large baskets of the fruit are 
boiled and the liquid drunk, while the kernels, after being steamed, are 
also eaten . 

4. Buclianauia, Roxb. 



; 



1. B. latifolia. lioxh. Tarub, K,; Tarop., S.; Piar, Eharxo.; 
I'iar, rial, H. 

A small straight tree with rongh bark, stiff entire strongly 
nerved oblong simple leaves 6-10" long and axillary and 

258 



I 



i 



4. BucHANANiA.] 31. ANACARDIACE^. [5. Spondus. 

terminal panicles of small sessile white flowers ^'•\' diam. 
Drupes globose black \" diam. 

Very common, but rarely more than a small tree of Z\" girth. Especially 
abundant in dry forests, Fl. Janij.-March. Fr. Ajpril-May. Nearly ever- 
green, but sometimes leafless April-May in dry years. Renews leaves in 
June. 

Innovations pubescent or villous. L. pubescent beneath rounded at the 
tip somewhat resembling oblong forms of Semecarpus, and nervation very 
similar but without rhe grey or white felt between the nerves. Petiole 
z-h" stout pubescent Panicles pyramidal densely pubescent. Sepals 5 
nearly fx-ee. Pet. triangular or obiotig. St. 10, erect as long as the spread- 
ing petals, inserted on the base of the fleshy lobed disc. Carpels 6 (very 
rarely 6) of which 4 are rudimentary, hairy. 

The fruit is largely eaten, the flesh is very palatable and the kernels 
somewhat like pistachio nuts. 

5. Spoudias, L. The Hog-plum. 

1. S. mangifera» Willd. Ambo ; Ho. ; Amburo, if. ; 

Amra, S., II, j Amara, Kharw. ; Katambolam Mai, P. , 

Ambra, Beng. 

A moderate or large tree with stout branchlets, odd-pin- 
nate glabrous sweet- smelling leaves clustered at the ends of 
the branchlets with 4-6 pairs of strong- nerved leaflets. White 
flowers j-|" diam. sessile in small cymes on the branches of 
a large panicle terminal on the bare branches, succeeded by 
large plum-like drupes. 

Wild in the lower lying forests especially near rivers, often planted. 
Easily recognisfid by its characteristic mango-like smell. 

Fl. Feby.-March. Fr. ripens in the following Jan. when the tree is 
leafless. Dec. Jany.-May. Renews leaves May-June. 

All parts quite glabrous. Lfts. opp. oblong acuminate 2-9" by 1-4'' 
shortly petiolulatu! with 10-30 pairs of horiz mtal sec. nerves joined by a 
strong intr i-ma,rginal one. Panicle fleshy pyramidal 1-2 ft. Calyx salver- 
shaped ^vith 5-G uvate acute lobes. Petals ^vhite ovateobloog. 8t. 10 
inserted under the large cusli ion-shaped lobulate disc, with short subulate 
filaments. Ciupdf, 4-6 free above united below into a 4-6 celled ovary, each 
with a very snort styles Drupel^" long, yellow -ellipsoid with a hard 
somewhat fib) ous aud grooTed 2-(?-ceiled stouw, usually 1-3-seeded. 

Fruit very astringent, greedily eaten by deer and other animals and 
ia occasionally palatable when quite ripe, 

259 Lj^ 



[1. Sapindcs. 

FaM. 33. SAPODACE^. ^ 

Trees or shmibs rarely herbs "vvith alternate exstipnlate 
gimDle or compoand leaves. FZ5. small usually polygamous, 
regolar or usually more or less irregular. Calyx 4-8-lobed 
or sepalous, valvate or imbricate in bud. Fetal s aa many 
av, or fewer tLan, the calyx lobes or 0, often bearded or 
squamate at the base. Stamens 4-10, very commonly 8, 
inserted inside rarely outside the disc, often declinate; 
anthers 2-celled basifixed or versatile. Disc sometimes 
imilateral, rarely in male flowers. Ovary entire or lobed, 
often excentric usually 3- (4-2) celled ; cells 1-2- rarely more- 
ovuled. Ovules axile ascending. FxuH capsular or iudehi- 
scent, sometimes bladdery, eptire, lebed or winged. Seeds 
often arillate, usually exalbuminous. Embryo stout, some- 
times spiral or plicate. 

St. inseKtofi inside the disc, L. compound. 

Trees. Pet. 4-5. St. 8-10 . . . 1. Sapindus. 

Tree. Pet 0. St. 4-8 . . . , • 2. Schleichera. 

Climbing hierb ... .3. Cardiosjpernmm. 
St. inserted outside the disc in Herm. H. Disc 

in M. L. simple A shrub 4. Dodonoea. 

To this family also belongs the Litchi (Nephelium Litchi, Comb.), in 
which only 1 lobo of the ovary usually develops fruit. The part eaten it 
the anl. 

1. Sapitidus, Plum. 

Trees with pari-pinnate leaves and entire leaflets. Pis. 
Bub-regular with 4-5 imbricate sepals and 4-5 petals which 
are furnished with a scale at the base. St. 8-10. Filaments 
nsually pilose. Ovary 2-4-angled or lobed, 2-4-celled. Style 
with J 2-4-lobed stigma. Ovule 1 in each cell. Fruit fleshy 
«r coriaceous, of 1-3 more or less distinct indehiscent carpels. 
Seed without arillus. 

Neither of the following two species are indigenous. A saponaceous 
principle is contained in the pulp of the fruit which is largely used in tbe 
place of soap, and to which it is preferred for the washing of certain 
fabric"?. 

Ovary ton^entoae. Leaflets 2-3 pair . . 1. trifoliatus. 
Ovary glabrous. Lflts. 5^ pair ... 2. Mukorotsti. 

260 



1. Sapindus.] 32. SAPINDACE^. [2. Schleiche3a. 

1. S. trifoliatus, L. Bor-ritha, Beng, 

A handsome tree with, leaves af-12" long, acuLiiiaaie 
ieaflets 3-6" long- usually pubescent h^ipeath with pale raised 
nerves, and large terminal panicles of -small dull-white 
flowers -^--^" long. 

Occasionally cultivated. Chatra, HazaribagK Wood. /-Appears to be 
wild, but very rare in Chota Nagpur, " Train. J"! Dec. Fr. Aprii. 

8t. 8. Ovary 3-lobed. Fruit of three siigiitly united yellowish-green 
drupels, ^-|" ^ong. 

2. S, Mukorossi, Gaertn. CSyn. S. detergens, Roxb.) 
Eitha, jff., Beng. 

A handsome tree with leaves 6-18 inches long clustered 
about the ends of the bi-anchlefcs, acuminate leaflets 2-6" by 
1-2" glabrous with numerous close secy, nerves, and terminal 
pyramidal panicles of white or purplish flowers yV long. 
Occasionally cultivated. FL May-June. Fr. Sept.-Dec. 
Deciduous. Renews leaves in April. 

Sep. and pet. ciliate. 8t. 8 (rarely 6). Filaments wooly. Ovary 
3-angled. JFVuii of usually only one sub-globose smooth yellow drupel 
1-1" diam. 

:2. Schleichera;, Willd. 
. 1. Schleichera trijuga, Willd. Baru, K., S. ; Kusum, 

jjff, Kharw. 

A hands-^me den se-foli aged large tree with pari- pinnate 
{leaves 8-16" long 2-4-pair8 of opposite entire leaflets 3-10" 
long, the basal ones smallest, and inconspicuoas greenish- 
yellow flowers in numerous lateral racemes appearing with 
the deep red new foliage. 

Throughout Chota Nagpur. Fairly common in the Singbhum forests, 
but the finest trees are usually those in village lands. Fl. Feby.-AJarcK 
Fr. June-July. Nearly evergreen. The new leaves appear Feby. -March. 

j Trunk attaining 7-8 ft. girth but not a great height. Crown rounded- 
It. ultimately dark green, rachis 3-6". Lflts. sessile, ell. or oblong, glabrous, 
•arely repand or sub-lobed usually entire, with 10-16 pairp. of distiact pale 
ilendez secondary nerves and intermediate shorter ones finely reticulate 
IMtween. Injiorescence tomentose. Fis. 1-aexual or polygamova faacicled 

' 261 



2. ScHLEicHBBA.] 32. SAPINDACE^. 

on racemes 2-6" long which are axillary or below the leaves and often on 
special abbreviated branchlets. Sepals -^Voo "> '^"6 piibescent. Petals 0. 
Vise annular. St. 4-8 w ith long slender glabrous filaments ^-f " long. Ovary 
glabrous 3-celled. Fr. mostly 1-celled, tonghly-coriaceous, 1-1^", ovoid, 
nsnnlly with a sharp point, sometimes slightly prickly. Seed entirely 
enveloped in the aril with a thick smooth brown testa. Embryo large 
korse-shoe shaped, the short radicle in a fold of the testa; 

The timber is good but the tree is rarely out in the village lands, being 
left for the cultivation of lac, which yields twice the price of lac grown on 
any other tree. Both the aril and the kernel of the seeds are eaten and a 
good oil for cooking is expressed from the seeds. Campbell says that the 
oil is used also for the treatment of certain skin diseases. 

The tree is very readily raised from seed sown as soon as ripe. The 
young plants should be put out in the second year, i.e., exactly one year 
from the time of sowing. 

Cardiospermum Halicacabum. L. Oalphul, Kharw., is a slender 
elegant climber with deltoid ternately divided and toothed leaves, and 
small white flowers in long peduncled axillary cymes, the lowest pair of 
pedicels developed as recurved tendrils. Capsule inflated membranous. 
3-celled. 

Common. 

FL Aug.-Seft. fr. Nov. 

4. Dodonaea, L. 

1. D. visCOSa, L' Mehndi, Vern. 
A light-green large shrub often 10 ft, high with simple 
oblanceolate glabrous sub-sessile leaves 1-3|" long and short 
cymes of greenish flowers. Capsule membranous 2-4-winged 
compresBed. 

Often grown in gardens, and apparently naturalized about Koderxna, 
"bnt not native in Chota Nagpur. 

Young leaves and flower-buds in Dec. Fl. Jan.-Feh. 

Shoots and Leaves somewhat resinous. Sec. n. numerous. Fls, poly- 
gamous. Sep. 5 (or fewer). Pet. 0. Oi;ary 3-4- celled. 

fam. 33. SABIACEJ:. ' 

Trees or phrubs with .simple or pinnate alternate exstipu- 
late leaves. Fls. small, with 5-3 sepals aod petals or appar- 
ently only 3 petals, the other two beiug reduced to scales 
St. as many as the petals and opposite to tiiem, but freauenth 

262 



I 



Meliosma.] 33. SABIACEJE, [Hiptagx. 

only two fertile and tbe otlters variously modified, inserted 
on or at the base of the usually small annular dis(\ Ovary 
2-3-celled, compresse.l or 2-3-lobed ; strjlcs distinct or 
connate often lateral in fruit. Oimle 1 or 2 in each cell, axile. 
Fruit drupaceoua or of 2-3 drupels.- 

Meliosma, Blume. 
1. M. simplicifolia, ^oxh, 

A small tree with large simple oblanceolate entire shining 
leaves 6-12" by lf-'l|" and rnsty-pubescent panicles as long 
as the leaves, of bmail yellowish while flowers or small keeled 
drupes. 

Deep ravines with a perennial water supply at 2,000-2,500 ft. in the 
Karampoda forest, Singbhum. ^\,D<ic.-Fehy.l^v March -June Evergi-een 

Twigs with prominent leuticels puberulous L. ^labrescent and 
shininar both sides, oblanceolate to oborate acuminate with base tapering 
into a slender pubescont petiole 1-1 T' long- which is thickened at its base. 
Sec. n. 12-16 p."ivB oljlique curvinsr np ipeido the marran; prominent. Fls. 
minute sessile. Sep. 3-1j larger and 2 smaller (bracteoleti ■•) ciliate. Pet. 
3 outer large orbicular concave the '^ inner bifid scale-like. Vriipe £' 
diam. 

lam. 31. MiLPIGHI VCE E. 

Climbing shrabs with opposite wmple entire leaves and 
regular or irregular flowers. Sepals 5 connate, one or mord 
furnished with a large gland. ■ Petals 5 imbiicato often 
fimbriate. Stmnens 10, one or more sometimes L.rger than 
the others. Ovary 3-celled. Ovules solitary in each celL 
Fruit of 1-3, 1-more-winged samaras. 

Iliptaj^e, Gsort. 

I 1. H. Madablota, Gcert, Sang Karla, o. ; jMadnViuta, 
I Beng. 

A large climbing shrub with elliptic or ovate-oblon? or 
loblong-lauceolate shortly acuminate leaves fiom -i'-?'' by 

263 



HiPTiGB,] 34.MALPIGEIACEJS. [I. Poltoala. 

2|" and showy whire flowers with one yellow petal in 
axillary pubescent, racemes or leafy pan ciles. 

Santal Parganaha iu ravines (Morjhora, Sahebganj, etc.). 

Fl. Feb.-March. Fr. May. Evergreen. 

Branches pale. Leaves shining penninerved with 4-6 prs. arched secy, 
nerves and numerous very faint intermediate, base obtuse. Petiole i''. 
Fioteers f-1" across. Pet. fimbriate. Each carpel in fruit with one larg« 
central erect wing and two smaller lateral. 

Fain. 35. POLYGALACEJE, 

1. Polyg'ala, L. 

Herbs or underslirabs with small alt= simple entire 
exstipulate leaves and irr^galar small green or coloured 
flowers. Sep. 5 of which the 2 inner are much larger than 
the others and are called wings^ they are often coloured. 
Fet. 3 one forming a lip and often cre/?ted. 8t, 8 more or 
less united into a split sheath. Ovary 2-celled. Oapsule 
usually herbaceous or membranous, flattened and 2-Beeded. 
Seeds usually strophiolate. 

1. p. glomerata, Lour. 

A twiggy undershrub 1-2 ft. high with pubescent branches, ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate sub-distichous leaves 1-1|" rarely 2'' by ^ f and green- 
ish inconspicuous flowers in extra-axillary racemes ^'' long. 

Valleys in the.Latua forest under shade, very rare, bat locally abund- 
ant. 

Fl. Dec.-Jany. Jtf'r. Jan.-Feh. Deciduous in the hot weather. 

If. ciliaie and somewhat hairy both sides acute with rounded base and 
3-5**pT8. fine rather obscure sec. n. Petiole pubescent i^." BacetM 
pubescent close flowered. Calyx persistent, wings |'' by ^Y falcately- 
oblong apioulate vith narrow scarious margins, nearly I'^^in fr. ciliate. 
Pet white oblong wirh a small scale near base, lip i ' sub-saccate with 
small fimbriate crest Ovary pubesceut; on margin. Capsule obcordate. 
Seeds with 3-lobed strophiole silky. 

Several herbaceous species are comTnon. P. chinensis L. Ghjghura, 
B. is a branched herb 3-10" wilh oblong, oblanc. or ob ovate L. }-iy 
and ^eenish fls. in short sub-capitate racemes or sub-solitary. The root 
ie given in fever. Common in grassy ground. Fl-, Fr, chiefly Augwt. 

264 



[ 1. Celastbus. 

Fam. 36. CELAST«ACE/t. 

Trees or shrabs with simple alternate or opposite leaves; 
«iid stipules small caducous or 0. L. entire or crenate, 
more rarely serrate. Fls. small 2.sexnal or polygamous in 
cymes or axillary clusters. Calyx 4-5-lobed, persistent, 
lobes imbricate. Petals 4i-b, inserted outside the disc rarely 
continuous with its margin, imbricate. St. 3-5, inserted 
either on the disc or on its margin cr arising from its inner 
side in which case tlie filaments are often connate as a 
membrane closely investing the ovary (e.g, Salacia sp.). 
Anthers 2-celled. Disc usually well developed. Ovary 
sessile free or somewhat sunk in the disc, 3-5-celled 
(sometimes 2-celled in Elaeodendron cells very many in 
Siphonodon). Style short or 0, Stigma simple rarely 
3-5-lobed. Ovules 2 in each cell, anatropous, erect (1 in 
each cell in Siphonodon, or more than two or pendulous in 
genera outside our area). Fruit various, often only 1 -celled 
and 1-seeded. Seed ariliate, sometimes winged, with or 
without albumen. Embryo usually large with fiat foliaceous 
coiyledons. 

L. alternate. Fmit dehiscent (Tribe Celastrese) — 
Soandent shmb, Fls. in elongate panicled 

cymes 1. Ceiastrus, 

Erect shmb. Fla. in small dichotomous cymes 2. Gymnosporia. 

L. mostly opposite and sub-opposite. Fr. indehisc- 
ent — 

A tree. Fls. in Tax dichotomous cymes . 3. Eloeodsndron. 
Anomalous genus. L. alt. Ovary with numer-* 
oas cells . • ^. Siphonodon. 

1. Celastrus, L. 

1. C. panicnlata, Willd. Kujri, K., S, ; Konjri, Kharw.; 
jOhii'on, Mai. Pah. ; Mai Kangni, Beng. 

A scrambling or climbing shrub with long lenticellate 
jbranches, alternate obovate serrulate leaves, green flowers ^' 

I 265 



I. CELAgTBUs.] 36. CELASTRACE2E. [3, Elaeodendeon. 

diam. in terminal panicles and yellow 3-lobed capsules "with 
red-aril led heeds. 

Common, especially in hedges^ throughout the area. Fi. A'pril-Jn'M 
with the ni w leaves. Fr. OctrJany. 

L-iy by 1" to 5" by 2V' Bometimea elliptic or oblong, always with a 
short sivMi-a acnmiuation, youn;^ (and vijung bi'anchlets) pubescent and 
bright gieeu, base acute, sec. nerves slender 4-7 pairs, ^^etiole |-^", 
Hipules minute, deciduous, raniclen 2-6" lanceolate. Bracfs minute. 
Sepa.s cvoso orbicular, Pet. ovate-oblong obtuse. fif. o on the margin 
of the dl3G. Oimry not nunk in the disc usually o-celleJ with 2 erect 
ovule?* in each cell. Stigma 3 lobed (simplo according to F.B I.). 
Capfule globose or obovoid ■/' 3-valved, 3-6-^ocded. 

The peeds are iiskI medicinally, and from them are obtained two 
valuable oils by expression and distillation respectively. The former 
method is tufi one usually employed in Chota, Nagpnr, and the oil so 
obtained is used J[or burning as well as for OAtt;rn;d nhd aitovnal nse. but 
is not so valuable as the so-called Oleum nigrum, obtained by distillation. 
The fruit is eaten before the seeds ripen. 



3. Gyninosporia, W. and A. 
1, G, montana, i^oxb. 

A shrnb with plender spine^'cent brancliCFi, sn])-orbicnlar 
crennlate leaves 1-3'' long, divavic.iting dichotomons cvmea 
of small white flowers ~" diam. and globose black 1-3-ci.iled 
capsules. The cymes are axillary or borne fafeciclud on the 
spinoss branchlets. 

Parasnath, Fl Oct. -Dec. 

L. irrey coriaceous sub-sessile. Fetalis 4-5 spreading. 'St. 4-5 inserted 
tin lor the dxsc Capavle ^-i'' usually 2-valved, seeds 1, 2, rarely 3, with or 
without an ardlus, Brandis. 



3. Elaeodcndroii, Jacq. 



1 



1. E. glaucuUlj P^^S' M^ri, K. ; Niari, S. : Rfiian-gamr 
Ghatio. ; Thanki, Asrur. 

A small tree with opposite for alternate on somf! shoots), i 
crenate or serrnlate leaves 5" by 2-^" and lateral divaricate; 
lax cymes of small white or bro vnish llowere which are 
b'lcceeded by nearly dry oblong or obo^-oid drupes V' long. 



260 



!i 



3. EtAEODENDEON. ] 36. CELASTRACEJE. [ 4. Siphon odok. 

Throughout the area usually in dry forests where it occura as a smaU 
tree only. Fl. 6ept-l)ec. Brandis however says Fe6^.-Juti€, so there may 
be two periods. The fruits may be found at most times of the year and 
appear to ripen about Fehy, Nearly leafless March-April and new 
leaves appear in May. 

L. deep gT-een glabrous 2-f5'' by 1-3'' ell., ovate to obovate, aonte or 
acuminate, coriaceous, nerves slender. Petioles -^-V grooved above. 
Cymes 2-4'' with long slender peduncles. Sep. unequal orbicular. 
Petals oblongs" dorsally pubescent brownish with a white thinner mar^nn. 
St.- inserted on the lobes of the disc near the margin recurved with eub- 
globose 2- celled anthers. Ovary conical, base only confluent with tue 
disc, 2-celled, (or 8-celled, Brandis) with 2 linear ovules in each cell 
apex tapering into the stigma. Fr. 1-seeded crowned with the atyle. 

A preparation of the bark is given in cholera.— Ca?np5e/i. 

4 Siphoiiodoii, Griff. 
1. S. celastrineus, Griff. 

A small erect tree with coriaceous somewhat distichotia 
ellip.-oblong more or less crenate leaves somewhat resembling 
those of Croton oblongifolious, white flowers |-|" diam. in 
3-fld. axillary cymes or in several- flowered cymes from the 
branches. Emit broadly pyriform lJ-2' long by 1-1 1" with 
Doriaceons pericarp, firm mesocarp and numerous pyreaes with 
ivoody endocarp. 

s Bavines in the Rajmehal hills, not common. Pis. April-Jvine, 
ft. ripens Pehy. Evergreen. 

' Glabrous. L. 4' by li" to 8^" by 3|" very shining above, acute or 

icumiaate with rounded rarely acute base, se'3. n. sleuder about 8 prs. 

tepressed above. Calyx with broad rounded lobes. Petals on the 

alyx-tube broad-oblong. Disc filling and adnate to the calyx-tube with 

. lobed margin bearing the stamens between the lobes. Filaments broad, 

attened arching over the pistil, with V(try broad connective bearing 

be oblique auther lobes on the margin, anthers laterally dehiscent 

'vary sunk in the disc hollowed out at the apex into a flask shaped 

ivity from the base of which rises what looks like a stout style and 

ipitate stigma. This style-like organ is s'irrounded by a collar of 

( minute appendages of the ovary (opp. the petals) which are said to bo 

lie stiffmas. There are also 5 still smaller points alternating with these. 

he ovary contains some 20-30 lenticular cells radially diaposjd, but 

iherwiae showing no other arrangoniyni , e-ich with one ovule with 

nicle directed towards the axis. Irregularly arranged <pyrenes laterally 

impressed. Test^' very thin, Cotyledons large, thick i^wlicle directed 

■ \ the axi. 

[Avery remarkble tree on account of the structure of tho pistil 
litherto only reported from Sikkim, Burma and .Tava. 

' 267 



[1. ZlZTPHUB. 

Fani. 37. RHAMXACE^, 

Trees or shrub?, often scrambliTig or climBing fumislied 
with tendrils in Gouania and He! inns (and rarely in Venti- 
lago). Frequently spinous or pnckly. L, simple, alternate, 
frequently basal-nerved. Stipules small, deciduous or 
changed into prickles. Fls. small, green or yellowish, in 
axillary cymes or running out into cymose paniclee Calyx 
4-5- meious, lobes triangular, valvate, often keeled within. 
Petals 4-5, rarely 0, inserted on the margin of the disc or 
on the throat of the calyx-tube (hypanthium) which is usually 
filled or lined with the disc, usually very small and often 
hooded over the small' stamens, which are alv\ays inserted 
opposite to the petals under or on the margin of the disc, 
and are hence f equently perigyuous. Anthers 2=celled. 
Ovary free or Funk in the disc, usually superior in fruit, 
but inferior in tribe GouaDiese, H-rarely 2-4-celled. Sty^e 
short simple, rarely cleft. Ovule 1 in each cell, erect anatio- 
pous. Fruit capsular or drupaceous, sometimes winged 
3- rarely 1-4-celled. Albumen fleshy, larely 0. Embryo large 
erect. 

A. Trees, shrubs or woody climbers with some of the 
stipules converted into prickles. Young fruit 

superior drupaceous 1. Zizyphui* 

B. Climbin<r shrubs without prickles. 

1. Branclilets rarely circinate. Fruit Buperior or 

halt inferior, with a terminal narrow wing . 2. Ventilago. 

2. Some of the branchlets alwayb ending in slender 
tendrils, l^'it. interior. 

L. with strong secondary nerves. Fruit 3- winged 
and3-Viilved 3. Couania. 

L. with few slender secondary nerves. Fruit not 

winged • .4. Eelinua. 

1. Zizyphus, Juss. 

Small trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent, usually ^ith 
stipulnry solitary or paired prickles ; when paired, one 
member of the pair is generally straight and the other 

268 



1. ZnTt*e^8.1 &^. BSAMNACF^, 

hooked. L. snl>l3ifariotis entire or toothed, basal-nerwd, 
Fls. in axillary fascicles or cymes^ or cymes forminc» terming 
panicles. Calyx 5- rarely 4!-6-fid j lobes spreading triangu- 
lar keeled within. Pet. very small hooded o-^r the stamens 
ultimately deflexed, sometimes (Z. rugosa). Disc more 
or less tilling the calyx tabe and often raised as a cushion 
above it or with a thin free margin under which the stamens 
are inserted. Ovary immersed in the disc 2-4-eelled. Styles 
2-4/ free or partially united. Fruit drupaceous rarely dry 
when mature, with a 2-3- rarely 1-or <l-celled stone. Albumen 
Tery little or 0. 

A. Cymes or fascicles axillary. Petals present. 

1. Peduncles of cymes or shorter than tUe 
pedicels. Ffait fleshy. 

L. densely toraentoae beneath. Drape yellow 

or red. Tree . . . . .1. Jujuha. 

L. densely tomentose beneath. Drupe yellow 

or red. Shrub la. 'Var. frviieosa. 

L. densely silky beneath. Drupe black . 2. (Enoplia, 

L. glabrous on both sides 3. vulgarit. 

2. Peduncles of cymes stout, mostly longer than 

the pedicels. Fruit dry when ripe or flesh mealy 4. xylopyra. 

B. Cymes in terminal panicles. Petals 0. Drupe 

white 5. rugosa, 

1. Z. Jujuba, Lamk. ^numjan, i/b. ; Dodari, M. 
Dedaori-janum, Jom-janum, 8. ; Dhani, Kharw. \ Bair, JET,,.; 
Ber, Bor, Beng. 

A small tree with pendulous branches and oblong or ovate 
dark green leaves I5 3" long densely tomentose , beneath, 
small green flowers in dense axillary tomentose cymes or 
fascicles, and yellowish fleshy drapes ^-|" diam. 

Not indigenous, I rgely cultivated and self-so'wn near villages. Fl. 
Ma^-ch-June. 'Ex. J any. -March Bfcnews leaves Marcfe*^^'^'^^- 

Branchl''is tomentose, with geminate thorns or often unarmed. L. 
w'th a white or red tomentum beneath, gla.brous above, usually minutely 
seTTtilate, or apex distinctly toothed, obtuse, rarely acute, with an 
oblique 3'nerved base. Cymes ^-|" long, sometimes with a short peduncle 

269 



^37. EEAMNACH^. [ 1. Ziztphub. 

under \'' long. Fh. l~\''' diam. on pedicels longrpr than the pedunclo. 
Peia/s minute spathulate reflexed white concave. Orary f^ells 2 and style 
S-fid. Fruit globose or sometimes (in gardens) ellipse id with a 2-celled 
stone, yellow, shining. 

The fruit is eaten and a drink is prepared from the sun-dried fruits. 

Var. fruticosa, (Sp ?) Janumjan, Bo. ; Bakura (m the 
Bible translation ' Bakula') if, j Kurit-raina. (Vulture'e 
talons), 8. 

A densely branclied thorny shnrb 3-4 ft. high. L. often 
symmetrical f-1^" elliptic to sub-orbicular minutely serm- 
late or with 3-moTe coarse teeth near the apex. Fruit 
globose yellow or red shining -^-^" diam. 

Common, sometimes gi-egarioiTS. Singbhum, Manhhum, usually in 
waste open places, railway embankments, etc. 

Fl. Avg.-8ept. Ft. Dec.-Fehv, Evergreen. In some respects it 
appears to come very near to Z. nuuimularia, with which it is sometimes 
confounded. 

Thorns geminate, one straight slender ^-V' long, the other much 
•horter curved. Petiole;s to"«'^- Cymes sessile. Flowers ^-^" diam. 
rarely 4-merous. In other respects exactly as in the tree form. 

Largely used for fencing. The fruit is eaten, but after being dried 
and pounded is chiefly used for a sherbert in the hot weather. 

2. Z. QSnoplia, Mill. Pathora, Kharw. ; Makai, R, ; 
Siakul, Beng. 

A straggling shrub or a large climber with single hooked 
(or rarely geminate) spines obliquely ovate or oblong-ovate 
leaves 1-2|''' with copious brown silky addressed hairs 
beneath, few-flowered axillary cymes and small black 
succulent fruits. Stone rugose compressed l-secded. 

Not very common in Singbhum. Freouent in Gangpur, where it ofter 
festoons large trees, also in Manbhum, Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Palamau and 
the Santal Parganas. 

Fl. June-Jttiy, Ft. Nov.-Vec. Evergreen or nearly so. EenewB 
.leaves March-April according to Hrandis. 

Branchlets brown-tomentose. Spines usually solitary small and 
hooked, if geminate 1 nearly strr.ight. L. a^'ute and cuspidate or 
sub -acuminate entire or faintly crenate with a very oblique 3-5-nervec 
base and very Mlcnder oblique silky sec. nerves. Petioles slender i-^''. 
Ci/j*!/'* under i" long. Z^ef. cucullate. Ovary 2-cellod. Fruit edible i" 
diam. 

270 



\ Z1ZYPHC8.] 37. RHAMNACEJE, 

A toonstrona form is common bearing dense fascicles of small branches 
■and tiny leaves, probably due to fungus attack. 

3. Z. vulgaris. Lamk. 

A small thorny tree with ovate -lanceolate quite glabrous 
leaves and dark red or black ellipsoid drupes |-|'' long. 

The only record of this from Cliota Na^ur is in Wood's list, wh/^se be 
gives " Santalia " as a locality. He also gives, however, the Santa? name 
" Kuritrama" for it. quoting Campbell and Watt as the authority. As a 
matter of fact, however, this name is given by Campbell and Watt for 
Zr oxyphylla. Edpew., to which species the shrubby form of Z Jujuba.was 
referred. I think it very probable therefore that Z. vulgaris does not occur 
in our area. It is certainly not wild there. 

4f. Z. xylopyra* '^^Hld. Karkata, K.; Karkat. S.; Kankor, 
Kharw. ; Kat-ber, H. ; Ghont, Mai. F.; Goit. Bhumij. 

A small usually straggling and thorny tree (old trees 
nearly thornless) with broadly elliptic or ovate leaves IJ-S" 
long more or less permanently pubescent beneath. The small 
peduncled cymose clusters of green flowers are borne in the 
axils of the bright green leaves of the new shoots or are 
panicled on lateral branches. Ripe fruits globose 1-1 J" diam., 
flesh dry and mealy. 

An exceedingly common small tree especially on the drier hills on a 
clay soil. 

The young plants are very bushy and very thorny with small leaveg 
and sharp geminate spines, 

Fl. Ajpril-June with the young shoots (so far as I hare observed^ but 
many herbarium specimens bear dates from November onward^. The 
fruits ripen in January or up to a year after flowering. Deciduous and 
renews its leaves April-May. 

New leaves and shoots tomentose often unarmed. L. glabresc^t 
above or somewhat permanently pubescent on> the narves^ obtuse, 
serrulate, rounded or subcordate at the somewhat oblique 3-nerved base- 
Cymes ^-1" tomentose, or leafless flexuous panicles up to -i''. Fls. ^-^*' 
diam. sometimes i-merous. Pet' spathulate hooded. Disc flat persistent. 
Style shortly 2-4 fid, very minute at first, ovary quichly rising above the 
disc on fertilisation and style elongating Fruit sometimes tomentose, 2-4 
usually 3-celied. Roxburgh says that the three valves of the nut separate 
when this has been for sometime esposed to the weather. 

The fruit and bark are enjployed in tanning. The kernel of the fruit 
is oaten. The wood is said to be hard and durable and is one of the woods 
used for obtaining fire by friction. 

271 



1. ZiZYPHUs. ] 37. RHAMNACE^, [ 2. Ventiiago. 

5. Z. rugosa, Lamk. Sirtar (or TsirliaJ K. ; Sekra, S. ; 
Pituar, KaraiJ, Khanv.; Hohnoi, Mai. P. 

A large shrab or small tree with long pendent or (in 
favourable localities) scandent branches, large elliptic 3-5 
nerved serrulate leaves and large tomentose panicles of 
greeiiish-yellow flowers arranged in peduncled cymes (or 
lower cymes axillary forked). 

Valleys in Singbhum, Manbhum, Camp. ; Eanchi and Jashpur, Wood ; 
Palamau, Haslett ; Hazaribagh ; Santal P., common. 

Fl. Feb.'March, PI. May-July. Evergreen. • New shoots Jan.'Feh. 

Yonng parts tomentose. Prickles usually solitary (a caducous triangu- 
lar stipule on other side). L. minutely serrulate 2-6'' long (attaining 
6" hy 4^") apex usually rounded and base sub-cordate. Fh. ji". Sep. 
5-6 whitish within. Petals o. Disc yellow iobed. Ovary pubescent 2-celled. 
Frt. ^-y diam. white fleshy, with a thin 1-celled and l-seeded stone. 

The fruit is eaten. " The powdered bark mi^ed with ghee is applied 
to the swollen cheek in tooth-ache and for ulcers in the mouth," Camp. 



S, Ventilafl^o, Gaertn. 

Scrambling or climbing sbrabs occasionally with some of 
the branchlets circinately coiled into woody tendrils. L. pen- 
ninerved entire or toothed, sub-bifarions, stipules caducous. 
Flowers small greenish, 5-merous, 2-sexual, in terminal 
and axillary panicles. Calyx lobes keeled within. Petals 
cncullate or condtiplicate over the stamens which are incurved 
in bud. Anthers short, shortly homed (always .?">. Disc 
filling/ the calyx-tube below and lining it above, with a short 
tree margin. Ovaty sunk in the disc, 2-celled with a short 
thick 2-fid style, which develops in fruit into a large linear 
or oblong wing surmounting the globose nut. 

1. V. maderaspatana, Gaertn. Bonga-sarjom. (The 
Demon-sal) K. S.; Ter, Keonti, Kharw.; Rai-dhani, Pitti, 
H. ; Raktapita. Beng. 

A large scaitfJeiit shrub with bifarions elliptic oi' oblong 
acuminate glabrous leaves (young somewhat pubescent) 
about 5" long, and tomentose or pubescent fascicles of small 

272 



1 



I 



2. Ventilago. j 87. BEAMNACE^. [ 3. G quanta, 

yellow-green flowers ^' diam. arranged in interrupted panicles. 
The winged fruit is seated upOn the disc-like remains of the 
calyx. 

Chiefly along streams in Singbhnm ; Santal P. Fl. 8ept. -March' Fr. 
March. Evergreen. 

L. 3-5^* by H-2|'', often crenate or crenate-serrate, with 6-8 pairs of 
very slender, but distinct sec. nerves and very fine nnmerons parallel 
tertiary nerves. Petiole {". Calyx-lohes shorter than the tube. Petalt 
obovate-spathulate embracing the stamens -^-q'', mid-rib produced. "Wing 
of fruit linear oblong 1-2'' long coriaceous, glabrous. 

Bark yields a good cordage fibre. The seeds are said to be eaten when 
cooked and the oil expressed from them is used in cooking. The circi- 
nate woody tendrils are worn as charms by the Santals, Campbell. 

Var. calycalata, Tulasne (sp.). 

I This has been united with the last by King and the vernacular names 
are the same. The leaves are often ovate with an acute base, crenate 
and permanently pubescent. Panicles densely pubescent. Nut girt about 
the middle by the rim of the adnate calyx-tube. Wing often ^'' broad 
oblong pubescent surmounted by tho two arms of the style. 

Frequent in Singbhum, Manbhum, Palamau, Santal P. 

Fl. SeytrNov, (Feb.-March on some authorities). Fr. March-AfriL 

3. Goiiania, L. 

1. G. leptOStachya^ I^-G, BilHl-chand, S, 

A rambling or climbing sbrub with green branches^ often 
ending in tendrils, green flowers fascicled on. the rachis of 
simple or panicled terminal racemes, and 3-.winged capsular 
fruits. 

Valleys in Singbhum, not very common ; Dalbhum. Gamble ! ; Jaspur 
Wood ; Santal P. (barh:iit). 

Fl. Aug.- Sept. Fr. Nov.-Dec. Nearly leafless and renews leaves 
March-April. 

L. broadly ovate cordate coarsely crenate 2|-5'' by 1^-4^" sh i ning above 
nearly glabrous except on the 6-7 pairs of strong nerves. The lowest 
pair basal, crenatures glandular. Petiole 1-2^''. islacernes 6-i 8" pubescent. 
Petals hooded over the stamens. Ovary sunk in the disc 3-celled. Fruit 
inferior, coriaceous, ^-^" long, broader than long, top omarginate crowned 
by the calyx, splitting through the wings into 3 cocci each with a black 
shining compressed broadly ovate-oblong seed 

273 



1'/ 



4. Helinus.] B7. REAMNACE^. 

4. IleliiniS, E. Meyer. 
1. H- lanceolatus, Brandis. 

A bright green slender climbing shrub with some of the 
branchlets modified info tendrils, ovate or lanceolate acute 
entire leaves about 2|" by IJ" and very numerous small 
yellowish flowers in slender peduncled cymes which are 
axillary or paniculate by reduction of the leaves. Fruit » 
3-celled drupe. 

Singbhum in Eolahatnsada Gara, Jate Eoad, etc., rare ; Neterhat, 3000 
ft', Gamble I ; Saiital P. (Chandna). 

Fl. Jany.-March. Fr. March-April. 

Branches finely ridged, puherulous. L. glaucous beneath, thoee on 
inflorescence much reduced. 3-nerved with 1-2 pairs of Rec nerves and 
reticulate nervules. Stipules -J-^'' deciduous. Fls. i-i" diam. shallow. 
Petals 5 oblong folded round the filaments whitish. 8t. inserted on the 
free margin of the disc. Anthers exserted. Ovary aunk in the disc 
3-celled. Style 3-fid. Fruit i'' diam. 

Fam. 38. AMPELTDACEtE. 

Erect or climbing herbs or shrubs with the branches 
often transformed into tendrils in the vines (Vitis). L, alter- 
nate, simple or compound, stipulate. Fls, small in compound 
inflorescences, regular, often polygamous. Calyx small 4-5- 
lobed or truncate. Fetals 4-5, valvate, sometimes falling o£E 
in a cap without expanding (calyptrate). St. equal in 
number to the petals and opposite to them, sometimes united. 
Anthers 2-celled, introrse. Disc large. Ovary free or the 
base sunk in the disc, 2-6-celled with 1-2 ascending ana- 
tropous ovules in each cell. Style usually very short or 0. 
Stigma simple or sub-lobed. Fruit a berry. Seeds with 
copious endosperm. 

^,B. — Both the tendrils and the inflorescence in Vitis are morpho- 
logically main axes which get thrust aside with the growth of the strongeJ' 
axillary shoots and so appear leaf-opposed. 

Climbers usually witr. tendrils. Ovary usually 2-celled 1. ViiU, 
Erect without tendrils. Ovary 3-C-ceUed . • .2. Xeco. 

274 



3S, AMPELIDACJEJE, [ 1. Vitis. 

1. Vitis, L. (Vine). 

Herbs or shrubs climbing by means of a modi 6 cation of 
the stem or branches into simple or branched tendrils, wbich 
sometimes bear the inflorescence. L. simple and palmately 
nerved or digitate or pedate. Fls. 4-5-merous. Petals often 
calyptrate. Stamens free. Ovary 2-celled surrounded at tbe 
base or to the top by the disc. Ovules 2 in each cell. Berry 
1-4- seeded. 

Fls. 4-merous. L. not lobed, deeply cordate . 1. re\janda, 

Fls. 5-iDerous. L. not lobt.d, cordate, wooly . 2. lanata. 

Fls. 5-merous. L. simple palmately lobed. Inflor. 
on the tendrils. 
Glabrous (except inflorescence) . ' . • 3. latifolia. 
Tomentose ^s. tomentosa. 

Fls. 4-merou3. L. compound. 

L. 3-foliolate. Petioles 1^-3" . . .5. trifolia. 

L. digitately 5-(3) foliolate. Petioles 3i-7" . 6. auricuJata, 

L. pedately 5-foliolate. Glabr<^n8 . . 7. lanceolaria. 

It. pedately 7-foli')late. Pubescent . . 6. pedata. 

1. V. repanda, W. & A. Bod-lar nari, S. ; Harjarwa, 
Kharw. 

A large climber with a soft stem, corky bark, large deeply 
cordate simple denticulate leaves and tomentose long slender- 
peduncled umbellate cymes of small fiowers. 

Valleys in Singbhum, rare ; Manbhum, Camphell ; Santal P., rare ; 
Paraenath, Anderson ; Palaraau. Fl. May-Juve on the new shoots 
Fr. r. s. Deciduous Feby.-May. L. turn yellow in Dec. 

New shoots and inflorescence tomentose and hairy. L. sub-orbicular 
or broadly ovate 5-8'' diam. with large bapal auricles (from the deep 
cordation), sometimes repand, with the strong secondary nerves running 
out into small teeth, finally glabrous. Petioles 6-12'' long. Stipvles 
oblong obtuse. Inflorescence termirating the new shoots and becoming 
leaf opposed, on slender erect peduncles elongating to i?-rV', 3-5-rayed, 
and rays with umbel] ed pedicels 7-^'' l(mg, or again rayed. Petals caly- 
ptrate as a very obtuse constricted cone sometimes slit at the top. St, 4. 

The stem yields a large quantity of water, when cut in two places 
which is useful for quenching thirst. " The root, powdered and heated 
is applied to cuts and fractures. The bark and stalk yield a good cordago 
fibre. " Camjp/jelL 

275 



1. ViTis. ] 38. AMPELIDACE^. 

The localities given above by Campbell and Anderson, aa well as 
Campbell's note on the ropt and fibre (which also apply to V, repanda), 
all refer in the origrinal to V adnata. On the gronnds that I have never 
Been specimens of V. adnata from Chota Na^ur, nor does Col. Prain in 
" Bengal Plants " give Chota Nagpur as a locality, I have, perhaps wrongly, 
applied the references to V. repanda. 

2. V. lanata, Boxh. Kolo-nari, 8, 

A large climber with simple cordate serrate merabranonB 
leaves wooly beneath, small green Bowers in thyrsdid pani- 
culate cymes and round purple berries the size of a pea. 

Tnndi Hills, Campbell. 

L. cordate-ovate shortly acnminate 3-6" by 4|-3". Peduncle with » 
simple or forked tendril. Petals green calyptrate. 

3. V. latifolia, Roxh. Oteron, K,; I'c-ewer, 8.; 
Khopri, Kharw, ; Govila, Beng, 

An extensive but scarcely woody climber, glabrous, or 
nearly so, everywhere except the rachis of the inflorescence, 
with simple palmately-lobed leaves 4-8" long and broad, deep 
brown-red flowers and black succulent berries. 

Ver-:' common especially in low scrub jungles in Singbham, Manbhnfe, 
Hazaribagh and Pala.mau. Probably throughout Chota Nagpur. Fl. June- 
July. Fr. Sept.-Oct. The stems die down annually to the perennial 
rootstock which sends out long bare shoots ir May and June sometimes 
to a height of 10 ft. before the leaves expand, and it flowers before the 
leaves are fully developed. 

New ptems glaucous or quite blue, hollow and often producing the 
inilorescence before the leaves. L. 3-7-angled or lobed m^ealy when very 
young, cordate or retuse at the base, lobes crenate-serrulate or dentate, 
Fls. rarely 4-merous in pyramidal panicled cymes borne on a very stout 
pedimcle together with a forked tendril. Petals \^'' small oblong red 
expanding, saccate at the apex. Disc prominent lobed becoming adnate 
and often showing as a ring on the fruit- Style 0. Berry ^'' diam., 
Bweet and iuicy. 

4. V- tomentosa, Eeyne. Oteron, K. ; Ghora-lidi, 8. 

A climber with the same habit as the last, but densely 
tomentose and with 3-5-lobed leaves often attaining 10" both 
ways. 

In similar sitnations to the last and nearly as common. Fl. July-Sept, 
Fr. Sept.-Nov. 

276 



f 



38. J MPELIBACE^. [ 1. ViTis. 

Shoots covered with a dense cottony tomentnm. L. with a dense brown 
tomentum beneath, very deeply cordate with rounded basal lobea, serrate 
or serrulate. Petioles 3-6''. Fls. sessile red in divaricate cymes on a 
peduncle under 1" long which again is borne together with a tendril on a 
common woody peduncle S-6'' long. Pei.free. Berry black ^'' diam. 

5. V. trifolia, L. (Syn. Y. carnosa, Wall.) 
An herbaceous climber with succulent compressed stems 
springing from a stout perennial rootstock, with 3 foliolate 
leaves, crenate leaflets and small greenish flowers in lax 
divaricate long-peduncled cymes. 

On trees, or adhering to rocks by the tips of the tendrils, in valley 
in Singbhum and Palamau. Lohardaga, Gamble ! Not common Paras- 
nath, A7iderson. 

Fl. June- July. Fr. Nov.- Dec. The stems die down in Jany. and 
Feby. 

Stems weak or 1" diam. with a corky bark, branches brittle, young striate 
pubescent. Ljits., terminal elliptic or obovace coarsely crenate and dentj- 
cula; J attaining 3'' rarely "i" by 2f' shortly pi'.bescent, lateral usually 
broadly ovate and somewhat cordate at base. Petiole fLeshj %-4i'' . Ten- 
drils slender branched, often tipped with sucker discs. Petals white 
saccate at tip. Disc surrounding the whole ovary except the conical tip, 
4-lobed. Berries black, depressed globose, V'3iam. 2- seeded. 

6. V» auricula! a, Roxb. Baiang, K.-, Amar-lata, Kharw. 

A large sub- succulent climber with digitate S-foliolata 

leaves, kng-petioluled crenate-scrrate leckfiets, and large 

divaricating cymes on long succulent peduncles, with or 

without a tendril. Fruit the size of a cherry, red when ripe. 

Valleys, usually near watercourses in Singbhum ; Mata in l.lanbhum. 
Wood.; Koderma, £rag?etf ! Palamau. Fl. r. s Fr. Oct -Dec. Perenni.il? 
The fruit is said to be eaten. 

Toung parts pubescent. L. with a petiole 4-7'' long and with auricu- 
late stipules. Ljits. broadly elliptic to obovate 2-5'' shortly acuminate 
with petiolules |-2" long. Tendrils 2-3 fid. Seed 1; 

7. V. lanceolaria, Wall. 

An extensive climber with pedately 5-foliolate somewhat 
fleshy leaves, large coarsely crenate- serrate elliptic leaflets 
and small very shortly peduncled cymes of small vellowish 
flowers. 

Parasnath, Prain.; Santal P. -near Sahebganj. Fls. Jany.-3farcftu 

277 



1. VlTIS. ] 



38. AMPELIBACEJS. 



[ 2. Leea. 



Shoots glabrons except the lar^e oblong |'' stipules. Tendrils simple. 
Lflts. acuminate up to 6^' by 4" with 1 fine sec. n. to each tooth. Petiole 
2-6 . Petiolules stout. Cymes forked pubescent axillary sessile or sub- 
sessile on the old shoots, or sometimes rarely (on same plant) terminating 
long (2-4") leaf-opposed peduncles (taking the place of tendrils). Bracts 
paired at the forks oblong to ovate pubescent ^-^". Fls. papillose pubes- 
cent in stalked umbelled heads on the cymes. Buds oblong truncate each 
sepal with a spreading cusp. Pet 0. Ovules 2 in each cell. 

8. Vpedata, FaR 

A large weak climber with pedately 7-foliolate nsnally 
softly pubescent leaves, petiole 4-6" long and large 
sub-corymbose cymes as long as tbe petioles. Whole plant 
softly pubescent or glabrate. Lflts. 4-8" by l|-3", oblong- 
lanceolate acuminate, serrate. Frt. sub-globose, the size of a 
currant. 

Chota Nagpur, Prain. 

The descnption has been taken from the F. B. I. and " Bengal Plants .'* 



2. LEEA, L. 

Stout berbs, shrubs or small trees, usually with herbace- 
ous branches, erect and without tendrils. L. simple or pin- 
nately-compound or -decoraoound. Peduncles leaf-opposed. 
Fls. in corymbose cymes distinguished from those of Vitis by 
the marked staminal-tube. Ovary cells 3-8. Berry 4-6-seed- 
ed or fewer by abortion. 

A. Petals and inflorescence red. L. 1-pinnate . . .1. alata. 

B. Petals greenish-white. 

I. Herbaceous. Lowest one or more leaves very large 

and simple 2. macrophylla. 

II. Suffruticose. L. l-2-pinnat6. Sec. n. close and 
parallel as many to half as many as the teeth. 
Nerves 1 to each tooth. Corymbs sub-sessile . . 3. crispa. 
Nerves less than 1 to each tooth. Corymbs peduncled. 
Lflts. often setose between the nerves, base 

cordate. 4. aspera. 

Lflts. not setose, base rhomboid or rounded . 5. herbacea. 

278 



2. Lee A.] 38. AMPELIDACE^. 

III. Shrubhy. L. 2-3-pinnate. Sec. nerves much fewer 
than the teeth. 
L. glabrous . * . . • . .6. sa'nrihucina, 
L. pubescent, at least on the nerves beneath . 7. rohusta. 

Numbers 4 and 5 probably form one variable species and should be 
united. I keep them distinct in accordance with Clarke's "Eevision of the 
Indian Species of Leea" published in the Journal of Botany, Vol. X. 

1. L. alata, Edgew. 

A shrub 2-5 ft. higli with pinnate leaves and narrow 
oblong sharply serrate leaflets sometimes broader upwards. 
Easily recognized from the other species by the leaflets being 
sessile or sub-sessile and the inflorescence scarlet. 

Manbhum, Cam-phell ! Occasionally foi^nd in first class sal forestB. 
Gamble r,nd Manson. Fl. June-Aug. Fr. ripens Sept. 

L. with several serratures between each nerve. Peduncle of inflore- 
scence long and slender. Fruit red. 

2. L. macrophylla, Eom. Hafckan, S. ; Dholsamudra, 

Beng. 

A robust herb \ 3 ft. high, annual from a perennial 
stock, with large ovate-cordate leaves, very large stipules, 
and white flowers in sessile corymbs. Fr. black succulent 
^" diam. 

Singbhutn, Manbhum and Eajmehal hills but not common. 

Fl. Jnne. L. turn yellow in Ja),y., and plant dies down in Feby. 
Lowest leaf 1-2 ft. diain, A very distinct species. 

The root is applied externally to allay pain, Campbell. 

^- L. Crispa, L. Ban-chalita, Beng, 

Erect, 4-.") ft. snffruticose, stems annual from a perennial 
b'tock. Sti^ms, petioles and peduncles oft-^n winged. L. 
pinnate. Lfits, with very parallel sides, ce^&rsely serrate 
with one sec. n. earned right into each serrature. Corymbs 
3ub-seS!jilo 8tout. Ripe berry blue-black. 

SirJSbhii"^' ^ear C.araaria (pouth of Chaibassa). Fl. July AiL^. Fr. 
ii€pt-Qct The winged form does not occur in Chota Na^pui'. 

Sic. n. of Iflta. often 17 pr^., only i-J" apart. Ljits. not caudate. 

279 



38. AMPELIDACE^. [2. Leba. 

4. L. aspera, Bdgw. Hom, Ho. ; Horom, M. 

Erect spreading^ 6-10 ft. Btems animal or perennial never 
winged. Lower leaves 2- pinnate. Lflts. mostly elliptic or 
ovate caudate with a rounded or cordate base most of the 
sec. n, bifurcating near the margin and giving a branch to 
each pair of teeth. 

Tlie commonest species in onr area, and occnrring in every district, 
chiefly under sha^de in the valleys. Fls. July -Sept. Fr. Nov.-Dec. The 
leaves turn red after fruiting and the stems break off at a node cioso 
to the gronnd. 

Lflts. pubescent on the nerves beneath as in 3 and 5, also frequently 
hirtellous between the nerves above, often dotted. Teeth coarse. 
Peduncles sometimes slightly winged, usually long and slender, often 
geminate. Berries depressed of a green-slatey colour, finally black. 

5. L. herbacea, Sam, Hom. Ho. ; Horom, M. 

Stems usually several from the root, attaining 2" diam. 
and 15-20 ft. high, soft- wooded with very large pith, often 
longitudinally banded and with minute microscopic tomentam. 
Lower leaves 3 -pinnate up to 3 ft, long and 2 ft. broad. 
Serratures often shallow. 

Eavines in Singbhum, Santal P. Gamble Eerh.? PI. June-Aug. and Fr. 
same tiioQe as last, of which I believe it to be mere'y a robcst form. De- 
ciduous in Dec. and someticres dies down like the last. 

Lflts. from ovate to obovate-oblong not usually exceedino- 7" by 2|", 
punctate, sec. n. about 8-9 prs. above the 4-6-nerved base which varies 
from cuneate to sub-cordate. Cymes from the forks or leaf -opposed 
sessile or peduncles 2^'' nearly always bifurcate and branches com- 
pressed winged. Berry glaucous. 

6. L. sambucina, WUld. 

A very large woody shrub with 2-pinnate leaves and 
leaflets (on terminal rachis) 3-4 prs. very large, oblong or 
lanceolate acuminate coarsely doubly serrate with sec. n. 
much carved within the margin and 3-5-times as many teeth 
as nerves. Fls green with yellowish staminal-tube, in sab- 
sessile corymbs 3-6'' diam, Berries succulent black pruinose. 

Santal P., in ravines in the Eajmehal hills. Fl. June-Aug. Fr. Sept. 
The moat woody of the Leeas and not dying down. 

280 



2. Leea.1 38. AMPELIDACBM, 

Lflts. up to 12'' by 3^'' (Clarke gives 4" by 2^' only, but there is abso- 
lutely no doubt of the identity of the two. He trajosfers the arboreous 
Sikkim form to a new species umhracuHjera). Base rounded or cuneate. 
Sec. n. 7-15 pre. much raised beneath united by very fine parallel tertiaries. 
Petiolules ^-V. 

7. L. robusta, I^oxh. Hom, Horom, K.; Haramda, 

hatkan, S. 

' A large sub-woody shrnb 4-6 ft. with more or less tomen- 
toee branchlets, large 2-3-piniiate leaves with lflts. pubescent 
-beneath and large branched nsually geminate corymbs 7-15'' 
diam. The plant somewhat rerninds one of an Elder bush. 

In ravines or along nalas or on cool aspecbg , not unfrequent in Sing- 
bhum, and S. P. ; Hundrugagh, Prain i El. Aug, Fr. Nov.-Dec. Appar- 
ently dies down annually. 

L. 2-3 ft. Lflts. oblong to oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate, attaining 11" by 3^' with severe! serra,tures to one nerve, pale 
beneath, sec. n. about 11 prs. ab' ve the 5-7-nerved base, oblique with 
numerous strong' parallel tertiariee. Cyives 2-3 cbotomously branched, 
bracbiate Peduncles pubescent. Berry purple-black ^'' diam. depressed. 
Brads not persistent. 



Series B. (vide p. 51). 

Fara. 39. CACTACEyE. 

Dsnally sncculent shrubs with thick, fleshy often jointed 
stems, and leaves reduced to spines. Fls. regular, often very 
large, 2-8exual, torus sometimes sunk in the stem. Sepals 
and petals merging iuto one another. Stamens very numer- 
ous springing from the tube. Ovary inferior \^ith several^ 
parietal placenlse. Style one hollow, with as many stigmas 
as there are placentse. Fruit a berry. 

The structure of the TactaceaB is generally remarkably adapted to 
periods of drought, and the similar conditions have led to similar fleshy 
stems in some other groups of plants (fi.g. spp. of Euphorbia) which are 
Bometimea confounded with them. 

281 



39. CACTACE^. 

Tlie following (probably) Mexican species are more or 
less naturalized : — 

1. Cereus hexagonus, L. Bonga-daru, K, 

With erect columnar 6-ridged fleshy stems 4-6 ft. hish covered with 
clusters of sharp spines. Very large solitary white flowers, Much grown 
in hedges. Fls. Aug.-Sei^t. 

2. Opuntia Dillenii, Baw, Sapin, S. Prickly Pear. 

Branched with short oblong compressed 'joints and long straight 
thorns from tufts of sharp bristles. Fis. large bright yellow, often varie- 
gated red. 

Fls. eep. January y but more or less all the year round. Occasional 
near villages. 

Roxburgh considered this indigenous in India. 



Fam. 40. rosacea:. 

Herbs, sbrnbs or trees with stipulate altemat'^ siraple or 
compound leaves. Fls. regular, 2-sexual. Calyx lobes 
imbricate in bud, sometimes an epicalyx present. Floral- 
axis more or less hollowed out into a cupular or flask-shaped 
receptacle (" hypanthium" or " calyx-tube ") lined above, or 
entirely, by the disc and bearing the petals and usually 
numerous mvltiseriate stamens. Carpels 1 or more, more 
or less free at the bottom of tho calyx-tabe or aduate to its 
sides, 1-2-ovuled. Fruit very variable. 

A large order, to which belong the plum, apple, pear, 
hawthorn, etc., but poorly represented in Chcta Nagpur. 
The Pe<ich {Prunus 'persica) and the Loquat- (Eriobotrya 
japonica) are sometimes cullivated. 

Carpel solitary, not included in the calyx-tube when ripe. Fr. a 
drupe. Loaves simple 1. Pygeum. 

Carpels several, included in tho flask-shaped fleshy calyx-tube when 
ripo. Leaves compound 2. Rosa. ^ 



282 



I 



±0. nOSACEJE, [1. Pygeum. 



1. Pygeum, Gfflrtn. 

Trees or shrubs -witli simple entire or toothed leaves 
with small fugagious stipules and sometimes a pair of flat, 
circular glands at the base below. ^\f\. small racemose. 
Calyx-tube campnnulate or cupular, 5-6-toothed. Petals 
minute villous. St. 15-40. Carpel 1. Fr, a transversely- 
oblong obscurely didjmous drupe with usually scanty 
flesh. 

1. R acuminatum, Golebr. 

A small evergreen tree with coriaceous elliptic or oblong 
acute or cuspidate leaves 4" by 1|" to 6'' by 3", yellowish- 
green flowers and druptis |" diam. 

Along streams in the most shady valleys of the Saranda forests, 
e.g.i Eangan-gara, very rare. Fls. Aug. Fr. April-June. 

Twigs brown. L. with rounded base or acute on the petiole which is 
\" long and grooved above. Sec. nerves. 6-8 prs. impressed above. Glands 
present or not (on the same tree). Eacewies about 2*6'^ Pedicels very 
short. Calyx and corolla pubescent. 

2. P, lucidum, -^nd. (P. Andersoni, Hooh /.) 

A rig- id shrub somewliat resembling a Symplocos, quite 
glabrous except the margins of the petals. L. 2|-3|" by 1" 
conaceous oblong or oblong-lanceolate acuminate with 
sub-acute or obtuse base crenate -serrate eglandular (except 
the serratures) with 8-12 prs. of nearly straight ascending sec. 
nerves. Petiole |". Racemes \" dense-fld. Pedicels veiy short. 
Calyx -tuhe hemispheric glabrous within, lobes broadly ovate, 
obtuse. Petals twice the calyx-lobes, ell. with densely ciliate 
margins. St. 15 with transversely oblong 2-celled anthers. 
Ovary in the herb, specimen minute imperfect. 

This is a very interesting plant inasmuch as nobody seems to have 
found it except Anders(.n, on the summit of Parasnath. And he only 
found a solitary tree on the northern side of the central peak. 

FL and renews its leaves in November. 

283 



40. ROSACEA. [2. Rosa. 

2, Rosa, L. Rose. 
1. R. involucrata, Roxh, 

A pretty plant with arching branches, pinnate leaves of 
3-4 prs. of finely serrate leaflets, and white flowers 2'' diam., 
solitary or in short corymbs. 

Along the banks of the larger rivers. Fl. Feby -"May. Fr. r. s. 

Branchlets and inflorescence tomenl ie. L. 3-4''. Lflts. j-^l". Bracts 
large lanceolate pectinately gland-serrate. Sepals deciduous in fruit. 
fici/ie8 distinct. Fr. globose, tomentose. 

Fam. 41. MIMOSACE;E. 

Trees or shrubs, rarely (Mimosa pndica) nndershrubs. 
L. often sensitive,* 2-pinnate (pinnae and leaflets sometimes 
reduced to one pair). Fls. small regular, collected into dense 
spikes or globose heads with prominent stamens, but small 4-5- 
merous perianth. OaZi/ic tubular or campanulate, truncate or 
valvately toothed or lobed, sometimes minute. Petals valyate, 
free or more or less connate into a tubular or funnel-shaped 
corolla. St. as many or twice as many ae the petals or num- 
ex'pua, hypogynous to perigynous, free or monodelphous. 
Ovary l-curpelljiry, 2-many-ovnled. Fruit a dehiscent or 
indehi scent sometimes curved pod. 
I. Stamens definite, 4, 5, 8, or 10. 
a. Fls. spicate. An immense climber , . 1 Entada. 

h. Fls. in globose heads. 
Small tree. St 10 . . . 2. LeucoBna. 

Shrubs or under shrubs. St. 4 or 8 . . . 3. Mimosa. 

II. Stamens numerous. 

a. St. free. Erect or scandent prickly trees or 
shrubs . . .... 4. Acacia. 

h. St. monodelphous. Erect, rarely thorny or 
prickly trees. 

l:^od thin ligulate, not twisted, not or tardily 
dehiscent ....... 5. Alhizzia. 

Pod twisted and dehiscent .... 6. Pithecolobiwn. 

Pod fleshy and indehiseent, septate between 
the seeds 7. Enterolohium- 



* Exhibiting sleep movenientB vi otherwise irritable. 
281 



i 



1. Entada.] 41. MIlfOSACEJE. [2. LsuciENA. 

!• En tad a, Adans. 

1. E. SCandens, Benth, Kam K, ; Kari, Ehanv. ; Bid- 
hanta, 6. ; Gila, Beng. 

An immense woody climber witli 2- pinnate leaves ending 
in a 2-fid tendril, solitary or fascicled aidllarv or extra- 
axillary spikes 4-9" long of very numerous small green 
flowers. Conspicuous in fruit by the immense woody 
torulose pods, septate within and containing large discoid 
chebnat seeds l|-2'' diam. 

Valleys in Singbhum (e.g., Samta and Poradih garas), not common 
Baragai hills, Wood ; Palamau, Haslett ; Eajmehal hills, common. Fig. 
April. Fr. March-April of following year. Deciduous March. 

Stem attaining 3-4 ft. girth. Branches green. Pinna 2 prs. opp. end- 
ing in an abortive Iflt. Ljlis. 3 prs. 2" long, narrcw-ellip. to oh .vate, apex 
emarginate. StipuitiS j'. Spike pubeeeent. Calyx f campanulate 
truncate. Corolla lobes valvate green i" oblong-lane, acute, St. 10. 
Bracts minute linear. Pod 1-2 ft. The powdered seed mixed with ghee* 
is eaten as an anodyne during parturition' 

Note. — The germination is hypogeal and the seedling concentrates 
all its energy in getting to the light, so that at first the whole of the 
leaves are converted into 2-fid. tendrils, the rachis ending in a macro. 
At the base of the tendrils are two minute stipules. The tendrils gyrate 
very fast, describing many complete circles in the coarde of the day^ 



3. Leucaena, Benth. 

1. L. glauca, Benth. 

A small tree with 2-pinnate leaves, 4-S^ prs. of pinnae, 
10-15 prs. of linear glaucoas Ifits. f-|" long. Small white 
fls. J" sessiie in dense heads on fascicled peduncles, or the 
upper pauicled. Pet. free from the calyx -tube and twice its 
length. Pod about 6'' by f" flat dehiscent with transverse 
ovate seeds. 

Oh. Nagpur, Prain ', Planted about Eanchi, Wood ; Introduced 
from America, and naturalized in parts of India. Fls. MayJune. Fr, 
ripens following year. 

285 



J. Mimosa.] U. MIM0SACE2E. [4. Acacia. 

3. Mimosa, L. 

More or less prickly herbs or shrubs with digitate-pinnate 
or 2-pitniate leaves, and numerous small sensifcive Iflts. Fls. 
very small in dense globose heads, mostly 4-merous. Calyx 
campanulate, teeth small. St. as many or twice as many as 
the petals, much exserted. Pod flat dry breaking up into 
1-seeded joints separating from the sutures. 

1. M. pudica> ^' Lajak, Beng, The Sensitive Plant. m 
A well-known small undershrub with weakly-pricklj 

stems, and compound kaves with digitate pinnae and pinnate 
leaflets. Peduncles 1-2 axillary, Fls. pink. St. 4. Pod 
with weak prickles on the sutures. 

Sandy damp ground on the -plateaux, not common in the hotter drier 
parts. Said to have been introduced from Trop. America, now natura- 
lised. Fla., Fr. r.s. 

2. M. rubicaulis* Larrik. Kundaru, K. ; Sega janum 8. 1 
A weak very prickly shrub 6-12 ft^ with many branches 

from the root with 2-pinnate leaves, 4-12 prs^. of distant pinnae 
1-21" long and 8-20 prs. of small close-set Iflts. \-\'' long with 
the rachises beset with email recurved prickles. Fls. pink or 
whitish in dense heads J'' diam. on clustered long axillary 
peduncles, and running out into terminal racemes and pani 
cles. Pod rather falcate 3-4", 6-10-3eeded. 

V^ery common in the forests, esp., in glades and on waste ground, in 
the valleys. Fls. Aug. -Oct. Fr. Nov.-Jany. Branches die down or 
Bhed their leaves in the hot season. 

Brandies grooved downy. Ljlts. pubescent oblong one-sided. Corolla 
^'Mobes4. St. 8. 

The powdered root given for vomiting from weakness, Camp. The 
square joints of the pod easily distinguish it from the Acacias when 
in fruit. 

4. Acacia, Willd. 

Erect or climbing armed shrubs or trees, with 2-pinnate 
leaves and small Iflts. (exc. S). Flowers very small in spikes 

286 



^ 



4. ACACTA.] 41. MIMOSACEJE. 

or globose heads, usually 5-merous. Petals united below. 
St. inserted on a small bypogynous disc numerous, free, far 
exsert. Pod usually flat and dry (turgid in spp. 1-3) 
dehiscent or not, not septate or jointed (moniliform in A. 
arabica) . The rachis often bears one or more glands. 

A Fis. in globose heads. 

X. Erect trees or shrubs. 
Spines stipular only. Pod swollen . . .1. Famesxana. 
Spines 5-2'' long on stem and branches. Pod 
moniliform 2. arabica, 

2. Prickly climbers. Heads panicled. 
Lflts. 15-25 prs., \-%'' long. Pod flenhy . , 3. coTicinna. 
Lflta. 10-40 prs. fg-Yg" long. Pod flat dry . 4. Cassia. 
Lflts. 4iO«60 pr3. iB-fa" ^ong. Pod flat dry . 5. pennaia. 
B. Fls. in spikes. Erect trees. 

1, Lflts. small ligulate. 

Bark white. Corolla scarcely exceeding the 

calyx 6. Buma. 

Bark black. Corolla H-3-times as long as calyx 7. Catechu. 

2, Lflta. oblong f-l^" . . . . '. . 8. lenticularis, 

1. A. Farnesiana, Willd. Gabur, 8. 

n. shrub or small tree l2''/0 It. with 4-8 prs. of pinnae and 
10-20 prs. of miuute crowded leaflets. A pair of stipular 
spines |-|" long at base of each leaf. It bears very fragrant 
heads of deep yellow fls. on axillary pendunoles J-i'' loner. 
Pod 2-3" brown thick with somewhat pulpy mesocarp. 

. , Common, planted and 8emi-natur.ilized. Fls. Aug.-March. Fr. Jany.- 
July. Evergreen. 

2. A, arabica, Willd. Babla, Babur, K.,8.; Babul, R. 

A shrub or small black-barked tree armed with long 
straight white thorns (often thornless, when old), with 3-6 
prs. of pinnse, 10-20 prs. of crowded leaflets ^-}", and heads |" 
diam. of yellow fls. on short axillary fascicled peduncles. 
Pod whitish tomentose 3-9" long. 

Waste ground, ry. embankments, ''tc, occasional. Often planted and 
naturalized on cotton soil in S. P. Fls. AV'(l--Dec. Fr. J.t:iy.-March. 
Evergreen. Yields a Gutu-arabic. Pods form a good cattle fodder. 

287 



41. MIMOSACEJE. [4. Acacia. 

3. A. COncinna, -DC^. Kundam, Kimduni, K. 

A scrambling climber with 4-8prs. of pinnae and 15-25 
prs. of oblong oblique Iflts. J f '^ long by -jV broad and 
yeilowish-wbitH panicled heads of flowers. Pod thick fleshy, 
somewhat constricted between the seeds, 2-4" long. 

Valleys in Singbhum, rare. Fls. April- July ? Fr. Jany. -March. Ever- 
green. 

Branches nearly -white, armed as well as the leaf rachis with oopions 
small recurved prickles. PinnxB |-1" apart. This and the large leaflets 
easily distinguish it in leaf from the next two species. 

4. A' Caesia, W. and A. A, lutsia, var. Caesia. F.B.I, ; 
Kundarn, K. ; Kondro-jamun S, ; Arar, Kharw. 

A scrambling climber with .6-10 prs. of pinnae and 20- 
40 (rarely as few as 10 on some pinnae) prs. of oblong oblique 
Iflts. t\"t%" ^^^^ ^y To"l" bi'oad, and white copiously 
panicled heads of flowers. Pod thin flat dry with strong 
sutures, 3-5|'' by |-1'', cuneate both ends, rarely obtase, 
light brown. 

All the districts in forest and waste ground. Fls. May.-Sept. Fr. 
Jany.-March. Evergreen. New leaves in Marc/i. 

8tem angled and flated. Branches brown pubescent or tomentose 
with minute prickles, those on the r&chis often absent. PinncB only ^|" 
apart spreading stiffly, usually pubescent beneath. 

5. A- pennata, Willd. Kundaru, K. ; Arar, Kharw. 
A scrambling climber with 3-20 prs. of pinnae and 40-50 
pi'S, (sometimes only 20 prs. on short basal pinnae) of 
linear Iflts. tV"*" ^'7 2-/» and white copiously panicled. 
heads of flowers. Pod thin fiat dry with strong sutures, 
3-6'' by |-1'', suddenly tapering at the apex, deep brown or 
parple, margins occasionally sinuate. 

Fraqnent in Singbhum and Gangpur ; Jaspnr, Wood ; IHazaribagh, 
Qambie ;8 ¥ near nalas very common. Probably also in other districts. 
Fls. May^Jany, Fr. Jany. -April. Evergreen. 

Stem rounded with 5 lines of very small prickles even when oM.! 
Branches grey or brown glabrescent with few and small prickles,' which 

288 



4. Acacia.] 41. UIM08ACEM, 

are aaaally absent on rachis. PtnncB \^" apart feathery. Rachis pubes- 
cent, IJits, glabrous or nearly so. 

N.B. — The fiowen J all these Acacias turn yellow on drying ; hence 
they are often described as yellow in descriptions drawn from herbarium 
specimens. 

6. A. Suma, Buck. Ram. 

The following description is talcen from Indian Trees .— 

*' A large or middle-sized tree ; bark white ; branches stiff, flexnose ; 
branohlets and petioles downy, with soft pubesceuce. Prickles in pairs, 
infra-Btipular, conical, downy while young, brown shining afterwards. 
Petiole 4-10" long (includes rachis P), unarmed, with a large cup-shaped 
gland above the base. Pinnas 10-20 prs., Iflts. 20-50 prs., linear, appro::i- 
mate, imbricate, generally oUiate. FL white or pale yellow ; spilces lax. 
Petals not much longer than the calyx. Pod. 3-5" by ^", pnbescent when 
young." 

Chota Nagpur, Prain. I have not met with it there, but see remarks 
under A. Catechu. Fl. r. a. E02&. 

7. A. CatecliU, WilU. Khair, E,, S, 

A small or mod.-sized tree with dark colonred bark and 
slender branches armed with geminate hooked prickles. 
PihD89 4-2 i prs. Lflta. (30-50 prs. or only) 25-30 prs. (rarely 
more in Ch. Nag.). Petiole with rachis usually 3-4". Spikes 
axillary on the young shoots 2-3^" dense, nearly white' 
Petals L]-2-^mes as long as the calyx densely hairy and 
greenish with membranous margins like the calyx. Ovary 
glabrous, stalked. 

Manbhum ; Hazaribagh (esp. on sandstone), often with sal ; Palamau 
common, where lit is found mixed with the sal, both on clay and sandstone 

5. P. on cotton soil. ¥la. May.-Oct. Fr. ^ot;.-jPe6v. remaining till the new- 
flowers appear. 

Twigs pubescent. Bachis densely hairy, 2-6''' rarely 8", pinnae ^-1|'' a 
gland below the pinnaa and one bet^^een the uppotmost 1-6 pinnae. Ljits., 
^-^" imbricate, hairy. Peduncles V', sometimes paired. 8t. in 5 bundles 
at base of corolla with long glabrous filaments. Pod. 3-3^'' dehiscent, like 
that of Sama, but thinner and darker bro^-^^n, sometimes only l-24"^by \" 
and 1-3 seeded. 

I Baker, Braudis and Prain state that the corolla in Cateobu is ^-3- 
times the length of the calyx (and giye the number of pinnae and Iflts. 
as very much greater). Baker also states tbat the flowers of, Catechu are 
of a darker ;ellow thaoi those of A. Suma. The specimens oxumiued by 

289 u 



4. AcACiAo] 41. MIM03ACHM [5. Aibizzu. 

me in Hazaribagh and th« S. P. do not agree in either of these particulars 
and are in fact, in many respects, intermedichte between tiie two species* 
The corolla of the S. P. specimens is exactly tw4:e the ealyx» 

Kath is manuf aotored from tho wood in Manbhom aiid Hazaribagh 
but not apparently Catechu. 

8. A. lenticularis, Sam, 

A pretty tree, 20-40 ft. high, at first sight much 
resembling an Albizzia, with rough brown-grey bark and 
bright green foliage with large leaflets. Pinnae 2-4, more 
yarely 5, prs., 3-5" long. Lflts. 7-12 prs. oblong or obovate- 
oblong sub-sessile glabrous or nearly so f -1^" by f ". Spikes 
pure white 4-5" by f ' stout dense. Rachis hairy. Pod flat 
5-9" by 1 -If. 

Hazaribagh, freqnent, esp. onqnartzite (e.gf., Tatijheria.) jon clay 
slates near the Pamuda. Kamandi Beserve (Falaman), Gamble', Bajmehal 
mils, npt common. "FIb* May-June. Fr. Dec. 

Armed with slightly recurved geminate compressed spines i-f a" long. 
L. -rachis 5-1" glsbbvoua or slightly hairy with a gland below the pinnse. 
Ijjlts. margined with rounded apex and oblique base, mid-rib nearly 
central. Calyx slightly hairy, teeth nearly as long as tube. Pet. greenish 
nearly twice the calyx 

This is probably the tr«e called Kanta Siris in Campbell's list of 
which he says " the wood is very hard/' U so, Manbhum, Camp, should 
be added to localitieg. 



5. Albizzia^ Durazz. Siris. 

Unarmed trees with 2-pinnate leaves. Flowers very small 
in globose heads, usually 6-merous. Corolla gamopetaloua 
St, numerous, united at the base into a tube, far exsert. 
Pod flat dry strap-shaped, indehiscent or late in dehiscing, 
act septate. 

The fls. ure always sessile ; the so-called pedicel in A. 
Lebbek is a contracted part of the calyx-tabe and corolla and 
staminal-tube and includes the pedicel of the ovary. Most 
species have a gland on rachis below the pinnse and on 



290 



i 



5. AiBizziA.] it MIM08ACE2E, 

between the one ot more uppermost pinnae and sometimea 
glands on the pinnss between the.lflts. 

A. Fls. pedicelled. Heads (without stamens) over \" 
diam. 

Lflts. wider on lower side of mid-rib . . .1, Lebhek, 

B. Fls. sessile. Heads (withont stamens) nnder ^" 
diam. , 

Lflts. over V broad, wider on upper side of rib • 2, 'procera, 

Lflts. under i" broad.wider on lower side of rib , 3. odoratissima. 

C. Fls. sessile. Heads \" diam., more or less. Lflts. 
nnmerous, small, obliquely lanceolate, with mid- 
rib along the upper edge . . , » , , 4, stvpulata. 

1. A. Lebbek, Benth. Siris, fl*. ; East Indian Walnnt. 

A large or mod.-sized. tree with grey bark. Pinnce 2-4 
ra^rely 5 prs. with a gland below the 2-6 upper prs. of Itita. 
Lata. 5-13 prs. oblong |" by ^V to 2^" by 1* mostly about 1 1" 
by I" and always some over 1" long. Mid-rib not less than Jrd 
diam. of leaf from, and parallel to, its upper edge. Peduncles 
stout l|-4" long, 1-3 together in the axils of the leaves of 
the young shoots, sometimes appeai^ing sub-corymbose from 
the late development of these. Fls. with stamens 1^" long. 
Corolla exserted to twice t^e length of the calyx^ Pod oblong 
attaining 12" by H-2". 

** A large forest tree common on the Tnndi hills," Campbell. I have 
found it apparently wild on the Damnda Ghats and the Knru Ghats but, 
as it is frequently planted in stations and along roadsides, it may hav'e 
been introduced. Dalbhum and Palamau, (cult.) Chmble ! Wild near 
Silingi (in a ravine) in the Santal Parganahs. 

Fls. Avril-June with the new shoots. The pods ripen Jany. and 
remain on uie tree till March or April and make it oonspiouous when 
leafless. 

Shoots young leaves and inflorescence densely (often yellow-) 
pubescent. 8tipule» g" linear deciduous, 2 minute atipelliB above tho 
thickened petiolule when young. Base of leaflet 4-5 nerved. Fls. in a 
capitate raceme, scented. Pedicel iV,-i". Caly» i", teeth short treot, 
pubescent. Corolla ys"-^" tubular-ventricoa^ wightly hairy above, lobes 
nearly i". 

291 m2 



41. M1M08ACBM. [6. Albizzia, 

2. A' procera^ Benth. Pandrai, K. ; Safed-siris, H. ; 
Garso, Khar, 

A large tree witli characteristic greenish-white oi 
white bark. Pinnae 3-6 pra. with a gland below the 
upper 1-3 prs. of Iflts. or not. Lflts. 6-11 prs< bioadlj- 
oblong or rhomboid-oblong I" by i" to 2|" by If. Mid-rib 
nearer to the lower edge except at the tip. Peduncles 
A-1'' copiously panicled 1-4-nate, bracts caducous. Fls. 
with stamens |-f". Bxserted part of corolla l-l|-time3 
length of calyx. Pod 4-8 by -^-l" thin strap-shaped. 

In all the districts. Chiefly in the valleys. Campbell does not include 
it, 80 possibly bis A. Lebbek is this. Fls- Aug.-8ept. Ft. Dec-May. In 
May and June it may be nearly, or quite leafless for a very short time. 
There may be a second flush of new leaves in August growiag through 
tlie panicle. 

Youngest leaves silvery hairy, quickly glabrescent. Ivjiorescence 
nearly glabrous. Panicles ]&Yge or only 3-4". Calyx jh'i"> glabrous teeth 
unequal. Corolla greenish- white nearly -^'^ and lobes about ^rd as lon^, 
pubescent above. Fit. white, anthers yellowish. Bt.-tube exceeding 
the corolla. 

3. A. odoratissima, Benth. Kiachalom, Pandrai, K. ; 
Jang Siris, S. 

A large or (usually in Oh. Nag.J a small tree, graceful with 
drooping foliage. Bark grey or sand-coloured. Pinnae 2-5 prs. 
S-10" long with a gland below the upper 1-2 prs of lilts. 
rarely absent. Lflts. 6-24 prs. oblong or narrowly oblong 
rarely falcate, |" by f' to If by \" but mostly under 1". Mid- 
rib about Jth diara. of leaf from the upper margin. Peduncles 
|-1J" long, 1-3-nate in the axils of the young leaves and of 
bracts, and hence shortly panicled (or, forming ample deltoid 
terminal panicles vide F.B.I.) lis. with stamens |-1\ 
Exserted part of corolla 4-5 times as long as the small calyx. 
Pod 5i" by r to 12" by 1^", often contracted at the apex. 

In all the districts, frequent, chiefly in the valleys. Fls. May-July. 
Ft. Dec.'Feby. Evergreen. 

Shoots and inflorescence densely pubescent. Bachis pubescent, Ijlta. 
pale beneath, hairy or nearly glabrous except the margins and mid-rib. 

292 



5. Albizzia.] 41. MI^OSACEM. [7. Enteeoi.obium. 

Basal nerves 5-6 Calyx oampanulate o'g" pubescent scarcely toothed. 
Corolla hairy all over funnel-shaped, with lobes as long as tube, whiiish. 
There may be two vars. differing in the panicle and indumentum 
and shape of the leaves and po Js. The new shoots usually grow through 
the panicle. 

4. A. stipulata, Boiv. Japud, K.; Chapot, Kera- 
serom, S. 

A large handsome tree with feathery foliage. Pinnas 
aboat 14 pra. 3-5" long. Lflts. about 35-40pr8. ^-^V ^J tV 
with the mid-rib cioie to the upper margin. Fls. with 
stamens 1-1|^'' long on stout 1-3-nate peduncles in the axils 
of large cordate deciduous bracts. Pods dehiscent Si" by f " 
to 51" by f . 

Valleys in Singbhum, Occasional in S. P.. Gamble. Fls. May-June. 
Fr. Oct. -April. Evergreen. 

Very distinct from the other Chota Nagpnr species. Nearly all 
parts densely pubescent. Lfits. falcate, pubescent oo ribs and margin when 
old, whitish beneath. Peduncles in simple racemes or panicled. Large 
stipules and bracts deciduousyor shortly persistent. 

Pithecolobium dulce, Benth. Syn. Inga dulcis, Roxh. 

A pretty tree cultivated and deserving to be more widely 
BO. PinncB 1 pair. Lfits. one pair, oblique, small, 1-2*. 
Stipules spinose. Heads white J" diam. in narrow panicles. 
Fod twisted. Seeds 6-8 with a white pulpy edible aril. 

Fla. Jany.-Fehy. Fr. April-June. Pods form a srood fodder. Nativ* 
of Mexico. If repeatedly cut back, it forms a good hedge. 

Enterolobium Saman, Prain. Syn. Pithecolobium 
Saman, Benth, The Rain Tree. 

A mod. -sized tree with large spreading crown and dark- 
gi-ey bark. Often forked from the base. Pinnae 3-7 prs. 
Lowest with 2-3 prs. of lflts., larger with 8-10 prs. Lflts, 
rhomboid, the mid-rib diagonal. Heads rose-coloured, axillary 
or appearing racemed from arising in the axils of very young 
leaves. Pod 5-9" fleshy with firm sutures. 

Very commonly planted in stations. Fls. May -June. "Ex. March- Aj>riL 

Shoots nnd rachis pubescent. Petiole eglandular, but often a small 

glaud between one to all the pairs of pinnas. IJlU. usually 1" by 4" lo 2'' 

293 



41. MIMOSACJEJE. 

fcy 1" acate or obtage and mucronate, somewhat hairy beneath e<'p. on the 
nerves. Pedwtcles 1-3-nate 2-3" long:. Fls. distinctly podicelled with a 
bricton the pedicel. Calyx i". Corolla-tub^ rather longer than the 
calyx, lobes f'^ and filaments pink. 



ram. 43. C ESALPIlVIACEiE. 

Tree3, slirubs or herbs. L. sometimes sensitive 1-2-pin- 
nate, or if (Bauhinia) simple then palmately-nerved. Fls. 
large or siriali, zjgomorphic, usually racemose. Calyx some- 
times spathaceons, usually 5-mcrou8 and perigynous with a 
long or short tube (hypanthiiim), sepals imbricate rarely^ 
valvate. Petals 5, rarely fewer or 0, free, imbricate, pos- 
terior innermcst in bud. St. 10 or fewer by abortion, perigy- 
nous. Ovary and fruit as in Mimosaceae. 

L L. simple, OBnally 2-lobed, basal-nerved . , 1, Bauhinxa. 
II. L. once pinnate^. (Leaflets only 2 in Hardwickia). 

A. Calyx-tube short, disc sub-baaal. 

Petals 2. Hardwickia. 

Petals 5 3. Cassia. 

B. Disc at the top of an elongated hypanthium 

(calyx-tube). 

Petals 0. Calyx petaloid scarlet , • .4. Baraca. 
Petals 3 perfect, Flowers not showy . • 5. Tamarindus. 

HI. L. 1-2 pinnate on the same tree. Trunk with 

branched thorns .....* 6. Gleditschia, 

I /. L. 2-pinnate. (Bachis mueh reduced in Parkin- 
Bonia) 

A, Calyx-iobea imbricate, the lowest oncuUate. 

Bieot trees or shrubs or prickly climbers. 
Fls. braoteate. at least in bud. Pod wingless 7. CcBsalpinia* 

Prickly climber. Fls. ebracteate, calyx very 
oblique. Pod winged. . , , . , 8. Mezoneuron. 

B. Calyx lobes valvate. 

A tree, not prickly. Fls. showy '. . .9. Poinciana. 
pmall tree, main rachis abbreviated, priokly 10. Parkinsonia. 

294 






42. C^SALPINIACEJS. [1. Bauhisia. 



1. Bauhinia, L. 

Treea, sliruba or climbers with broad basal-nerved 2-lobed, 
rarely entire, leaves with rounded or cordate base, mid-rib 
(rachjs) usually ending in a bristle. Fls, mod.-sized or large 
and showy in simple or panicled sometimes corymbose racemes 
(only 2-3 axillary in tomentosa). Hypanthium (calyx -tube) 
usually thickened and tubular, limb lobedor spathaceous. 
Petals clawed, with the posterior lobe usually different from 
the others. Stamens normally 10, often reduced, occasionally 
only 1-3 perfect. Ovary stipitate, stipes free or adnate to the 
side of the hypanthium. Pod linear to oblong, coriaceous or 
woody, dehiscent, rarely indehiscent. 

I. Fertile stamens 10. Calyx with Bhort tube and 
Bpathacecus or 5-cleft limb. 

A. Fls, not showy. Small or modium-sized trees. 

L. mostly under 2'' diam. Eacemes simple. 
Pod swollen 

2'^ Eacemes branched. 



n. 



L. mostly exceeding 
Pod flattish ..•..., 

B. Fls. showy. Shrubs. 

Fls. 1-3 axillary, yellow . ' ♦ 

Fls. in axillary racemes, white. Buds beaked 

Fertile stamens 3-5. Calyx with an elongated 
base. 

A. Large climbers with large flowers 

B. Trees, rarely in B. purpurea only shrubby, 
a. L. not lobed. Fls. under 1^^ diam 

6. L. 2-lobed or cleft. Fls. large and showy. 
L. mostly 11-nerved. Buds acutely S-angled . 
L. mostly 13-nerved. Buds not angled 



1. raeemosa' 

2. malaharica. 

3. tomentosa, 

4. acuminata. 



J. Vahlii. 

6. retusa. 

7. purpurea. 

8. variegata. 



1. B* raeemosa, Lanik. Kaimu, K; E^atmonli, Kathui,, 

Khano ; Ghatouli, Oraon, 

A small tree with pubescent branchps, small leaTes broader 
;han long, tomentose or pubescent especially on the- nerves 

I 295 



1. Bauhinia.] 42. CJESALPINIACEJE, 

beneath, and simple racemes 2-3-2" ^^ng of^small whitish 
floweis with spathaceons calyx and linear-oblanceolate petals. 
Pod 4-7" rarely 10" long, thick and slightly torulose, septate. 

In mixed forest, Manbhum and Hazaribagh, (Tatijheria, foot of 
Parasnath, Koderma. etc.-; Ranchi on the ghats, (Damuda and Kuru ) ; 
Palamau, ( Betlah forest, etc) frequent; S. P. (Ghormara, Bokhraband). 
Fls. April-June. Fr, Nov. -Dec, but persisting till April Evergreen. 

L. 1-1-^-'' by li-2|" (rarely larger in Ch. Nag. specimens), pale- 
glaucous beneath, lobed ^rd, way down, lobes obtuse, base shallowly 
cordate 7-9-nervod Corolla scarcely exsert Pet. . oblanceolate. 
ylnt/iers densely villous. Seeds \"., 

2. B. maiabarica, Roxh, Laba, K. ; Jhinjit, S-.- ; Koinar, 
Turia, 

A small tree, attaining 4 ft. girth with a bushy crown 
and dark green leaves 1-4" diam. broader than long, glabres- 
cent and giey beneath. Fls. sub-regular whitish on slender 
pedicels in tomentose racemes 2-3" long which are mostly in 
a corymbose panicle. Pod 7-12" by about |" flattened, curved, 
lostrate. 

Singbhum on northern slopes and along valleys, common. Manbhnm 
and Hararibagh, Jower Parasnath hills, eto.) Santal Parganaha, 

Fls. Sept. -i^ov. Yv, Jan -March. Evergreen. 

Shoots pubescent or tomentose. L. lobed fth-^th way down, some- 
times pernianently minutely pubescent beneath. Base cordate 7-11- 
ncrved, Peti, 1-2'' usually black at the thickened tip. Calyx i-^'' 
limb shortly 5 lobed Pe i a Ls slightly exsorted, oulonp-spathulate. Pcd 
usually described as reticulato-venofie, but this only appears when dry. 

In Ch. Nag. the smaller leaves of B. raoemosa and its more delicate 
and pubescent nervation easily distinguish that species in leaf from B. 
malabarica. A very pubescent form of tho latter, however, occurs in the 
U.' P., and Kanjilal employs the acid taste ot the leaves to distinguish it 
from racemosa. This taste is very characteristic. 

3. B. tomentosa, L. is an ornamental ?hrub frequently planted. 
Wood, however, cites Tamar, £00-1,000 ft. as a locality. 

4, B. acuminata, L, 

A small tree or a sbrub 15-20 ft. high, with new shoots 
ipaiiugly pubescent, small leaves 1^-21" and neai-ly as broud, 

296 



42. CJESALPINIACE^. [1. Bauhinia. 

pale and pubescent beneath, lobed about half-way down, and 
lobes very acute. FIh. pure white handaome. 

Eajmehal hills. Wild according to a native collector. Frequent in 
gardens. Fis. May. Fr. ripens following April. Nearly deciduous in 
May and June. 

Well characterized by the long acuminate or beaked spathaceous calyx. 
and beaked buds. Fls. 2^-3' diam. in raceffies 1-3' long. Pods 5'' by §". 

5. B. Vahlii, ^. & ^. Itlung, K. ; Jom-lar, Lamak'lar, 
S.'j Maholan, Kharw.] Maljan, H. 

An immense climber attaining 2-4 ft. ^irth with deeply 2- 
lobed deeply cordate lea\^ from 3" to 18" diam. and corymbs 
of large white or cream-coloured flowers. Pod woody 6-12" 
longtyH-2", flat. 

Throughout the area, especially on the hills and in stony ravines. Fls. 
April-June. Fr. Dec.-March. ' Sub-deciduous. Eenews its leaves in 
May. 

The most destructive climber of the Ch. Nagpur forests but for- 
tunately of considerable value to the people. The bark yields a strong jBbre 
(chop, K., lamak'lar, S.) used for ropes. The leaves are used as platea 
(kalu : K.) and cups (pu : K.). The pods are known as lama, K., in Santal 
the small-seeded variety being cihri lavnak, and the large seeded variety 
dhalha lamah. These pods are opened by means of heat, and as the opera- 
tion is carried on in the forests, it is a fruitful source of forest-fires. Tha 
'jeeds are an important article of food. 

6, B. retusa., Bam. Laba, K. ; Birnju, Bunju, Jhlnjit 
j S. ; KatmauD, Katmauli, Kharw. ; Twar, Oraon ; Kanla, H. 

I A mod, -sized tree with entire or emarginate leaves 4-7" 
. broad, rather broader than long with a cordate or straight 
7-11-nerved base and ample terminal panicles of white flowers 
1" diam. in corymbose racemes. Pod straight oblong or 
usually rather broader upwards, 5-7" by Ij-lf" deep-red till 
ripe, thin. 

Common especially on northern slopes in Singbhum. Frequent also 
in the other districts. Very common on quartzite along the Konor nadi 
(Hazaribagh). Fla. 8ept.-Dec. Fr. Feby.-March. Evergreen. 

I L. green beneath, easily distinguished from the other species hy its 
entire or scarcely divided apex. Calyx-tube scarcely any. Petals long- 
clawed, 3 upper purple-mottled. 8t. 3. perfect. Buds ovoid apiculate. 

297 



1. Bauhinia.] i2. C^SALPINIACEM 

The bark yields a fibre and a gum, the latter is used in sweetojeats, 
Campbell says that the leaves have a bitter diBagreeableJ;aste, 

7. B. purpurea, L, SiDgara, M. ; Singa ; Eo, ; Sinhara, 
8. ; Koinar, Kharw. ; Kundrau, Mai Pah. 

A mod.-sized tree (but not nnfreqnently flowering as a 
sknib) with yery deeply-lobed leaTOS, cordate base 9-11-nerved 
and lobes with usually angular tips. Large purple fls. in 
terminal panicled racemes with acutely 5- angled huds. Pod 
6-12'' by j-l" flat, twisted and dehiscent when ripe with 
coriaceous thin valves. 

Frequent in all districts, eep. in valleys, and often grown in the villages 
throughout Ch. Nagpur- Fls. Sept -Dec. Fr. Jan.-March. 

Twigs glabrous. L. 5-7'' long and about as broad (though quite little 
-leaves may often occur on the same shoot) split from ^rd of the way dowii 
(seldom less) often to near the base, glabrous or minutely puberulous oi 
the nerves beneath, green scarcely glaucous, much more membranous thai 
in B, variegata. Petiole l-lj". Calyx spathaoeous, limb |", the turbi- 
nate tube j-f. Petals oblanceolat* 11-2'' long, often variegated white, 
long-clawed. Stamens 3-2 perfect and filamentous staminodes. Pod 
narrow below, nearly always broadening upwards. 

The bark gives a fibre. The leaves are eaten as vegetables. 

Var.a A small form with smaller pink flowers with darker center. Oij 
limestone, Naga Untari (W- Palamau) Fls. Dec. 

This is probably Roxburgh's B. triandra, which should perhaps be 
maintained as a distinct species. The leaves are broader with broader 
sinos, the petals cuneate obtuse. 

8. B. variegata j i- Buj, Bumju, Burnnga, JK". ; Jbinjhir, 
8, ; Kachnar, Kharw,, JET. ; Kundol, Bhumij. 

A mod.-sized tree with leaves lobed |-|rd of the way 
down, cordate base 13-15 -nerved (few L. only 11) and lobes 
ronnded at the tips. Lai^e pink or pure white flowers most- 
ly in short racemes from leafless axils with huds terete. Pod 
6-12^ by 1-1" flat, dehiscent. 

On the hills in Sing^bhnm (e.sr., Birda forest). Oommon in tbe Tnucli 
forests (D^nbhum, Cam'phell) ; Hazaribagh (near Bogoda) ; Palanpaa 
Gamble ! S. P. occasional and generally distributed wild and oultivated- 
Fls. F^.'March and the upper part of the tree leafless at the tii^e. ¥!•• 
April. 

298 



1. Bauhinia.] 42. CJESALPINIACE^, [3. Caasta, 

Twigs pubescent L. 2^" by 3" to 6" by 6i", usually about ^" by Sf" 
pubescent especially on tne nerves and grey-glaucous ben^th. Petiole 
\-\^'' pubescent stout. Calyx spathaceous, tube l-l?'', limb broad ovate. 
Tetals obovate 2-2V long, pure white (usually cultivated) or purple with 
one petal variegated with yellow, long-olawed. Perfect gtamens 5 (5-3, 
F.B I) without staminodes. Pod Very venose when dry (more so than in 
B. malabarica). Stalk 1'', 

" The bark jrields a fibre and is both eaten and used medicinally; 
Camphell. The flowers and fiower-buda are sometimes eaten. 



X 3. Hardwickia, RoxK 

1. H. binata? Roxh. Anjan, H., Khario. 

An elegant tree with pendulous branches and leaves 
resembling those of a Bauhinia (in which the two lobes have 
separated to the base as distinct leaflets) with palmate nerves. 
fc^lowers small in axillary and terminal lax panicled racemes. 
Salyx-tube hardly any. Sepals 5 sub-petaloid, persistent. 
Petals p. St. 10 alternate shorter. Ovary 2-ovnled. Pod 
ihin, 2-3" long, oblong-lanceolate, with one seed near the end. 

Palamau, eppecially towards the Sone, on the other ride of which, in 
ihe Kymore Hills, it is frequent and attains 120 ft. {Vide Himalayan 
Journals). " Gregarious in patches south of the Sone Eiver," Brandii. 
Fls. July. Fr. Fehy.-March. Evergreen. New shoots in April. 

Lflts. ovate-rhomboid, oblique 4r5-nerved 1-3'' long. Fls. greenish- 
fellow. 

Wood very hard and heavy, sometimes nearly black. Much lopped for 
"odder. Large trees are now very scarce but coppice shoots are frequent 
,u the west of Palamau. The bark yields a fibre. 



,), Cassia. L. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with pari-pinnate leaves and nsnally 

jhowy-yellow flowers in axillary racemes or terminal panicles, 

rarely small in axillary pairs. Oalyx-tnbe short, sepals 5 

'rubricate. Pet. 5 usually somewhat zygomorphons. St. 10, 

requently unequal or some reduced to staminodes, anthers 

I 299 



3. Cassia.] 42. CJSSALPINIACU^. 

dehiscing by a terminal pore or by a sKort slit. Ovary many- 
ovnled. Pod variable, septate, dehiscent or not. 

A large genus with several species cultivated in gardens not here 
referred to. Many possess purgative properties, " Senna Tea " is the 
leaves of two species of Cassia. 

A. Trees. St. 10 with aathers, 2-3 lower larger. Pods 

large, terete. 

Flowers yellow in long lax racemes . . .1. fistula. 

Flowers rose pink in dense corymbs with per- 
sistent bracts 2. javanica. 

B. St. 7 antheriferous, 2-3 lower larger, 3 posterior re- 

duced to staminodes. 

1. Tree. Leaf-rachis without glands . . .3. siamea. 

2. Shrubs or herbs. Leaf-rachis with glands. 

Lflts. 3-5 prs. ovate-oblong acute . • 4. occidentahs. 

Lflts. 6-12 prs. lanceolate acute , . .5. sophera. 

Lflts. 3 prs. obovate obtuse. 

Glands between each of the two lowest 
pairs of leaflets . , . .6. tora. 

Gland between the lowest pair of leaflets 
only 7. obtusifolia. 

C. Herbs. Sepals narrow. St. 4-10 all perfect without 

staminodes. 

Lflts. 2 prs. St. 4 8. ahsu9. 

Lflts. very numerous small, St. 5 . . .9. pumila, 
Lflts. very numerous small. St. 10 . . . 10. mimosoides. 

1. C, fistula, L. Hari, K. ; Mirjn-baha Name', S., 
and the pod Bandor-Iauri, S. ; Dhanrach, Kharw ; Bonurlati, 
Oraon ; Amaltas, R. ; The Indian Laburnum. 

A small or mod. -sized tree very handsome in flower, with 
large leaves and large closely veined leaflets, long pendulous 
racemes of large bright -yellow flowers which are followed by 
long cylindrical drooping pods 1-2 ft. long. 

In all situations but scattered in the forests, often planted. 
Fla. May-Aug. Fr. Jany.-Fehy., but the pods may be found on the tree 
n early all the year round and fall about April, Deciduous March-Aprii. 

300 



42. C^SALPINIACEM. [ 3. Cassia. 

Ljlts. 4-8 prs., 2-6'' long ovate or ovate-oblong acuminate with close 
stronfT secondary nervoa. Racemes 1-2 ft. F?«. 1^-2^' diam. Pod indehis- 
oent with numerous transverse septa and flat seeds. 

The flowers are eaten. Decoctions of the leaves and fruit are used as 
laxatives. The pulp surrounding the seeds is the Cassiae Pulpa of the 
British Pharmacopoeia. It; is made into a sherbert in Chota Nagpor. 
.The wood is strong and durable. 

C, javanica. L. is a low tree with long spreading and weeping branches 
pubescent branchlets and oblong leaves 6-8" long tomeutose. Ljlis 8-12 
prs- J-IV' long, minutely pubesent above, silky below, oblong obtuse or 
faruncate, apiculate. Fod about 9' by \'' (unripe), terete Baeds transverse 
embedded in ^esh, and separated by septa. Allied to C. fistula, flowers 
and ripe pods not seen. Planted in Dutnka station, esp. in front of the 
Circuit house. It may be C. marginata, Eoxh.^ Fls. not seen. 

3. C. siatuea, Lamk, Often called Siris locally. 

A inod.-8ized tree with leaves 6-12'' long, 6-14 prs. of 
oblong leaflets l^-^l" long and nameroua very large erect 
panicles of bright-yellow flowers. 

. Not indigenous, but very commonly planted and often self-sown. It is 
a wonderfully rapid grower attaining 20 ft. in 2-3 years, but is short-lived, 
and very little else will grow in its vicinity. The heart-wood is deep- 
brown but useless. Fls. 8ept,-Dec. Evergreen. 

Lflts. emarginate with a small bristle. Panicles of numerous corymbi- 
form racemes. Pods flat 6-9'' long. 

4. C. OCCidentalis, L, Kalu, K. ; Kasondi, H, 

An erect stout herb or nndershrub 2-4 ft. high with leaves 
6-12" long and abont 5 prs. of ovate or ovate-oblong lflts. 
l|-4'' long. Flowers yellow |-|'' diam., in axillary and 
terminal short racemes, sometimes panicled. Pod 4-5" long, 
flattened, septate slightly falcate with numerous seeds. 

Annual. Very common in waste ground during the rains. Fls. Sept.- 
Nov. Ft. Dec.-Jany. 

Foetid. Stems grooved. Petiole with a gland just above the base. 

5. C, sophera, L, 

A shrub 6-7 ft. somewhat resembling the last but leaflets 
3-12 prs. oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, finely acute or 
acuminate, mostly 1-3" long. Fls. l-l^" diam. ia short 

BOX 



3. CiS8iA.] 42. CMSALPINIACEM. 

axillary and terminal panicles. Pod less flattened than in 
occidentalis. 

Not nearly so common as the last, usually near Tillages. Fls. Aug.-T^ov, 
Fr. Nov.'Dec. 

6. C. torai L. Jomai-Kaiu £.; Bheda-deren, chakaodaj 
8. ; Cliekor, Kharw. ; Chakunda, H. 

An erect herb 1-2| ft. high with 3 pra. of obovate leaflets 
increasing in size from the base of the rachis npwards. Fls. ^' 
diam. solitary or paired axillary. Pods sub-terete or 4 angular 
slender, falcate 6-12" long, incompletely septate with 
numerous brown oblong seeds ^*', 

Very common and snb-^egariotis in waste gronnd in the rains. Fls. 
Bept.-Oct. Fr. NovrDec. Annual. 

The yonng leaves (Chakaoda ara, K.) and froi* are eaten. The plant 
has usually a foetid smell. 

7. C, obtusifolia, L. Syn. Senna, toroides, Eoxh. 

tike a tall variety of C. Tora with only one gland between the lowest 
pair of leaflets, while typical C, Tora has a gland between the two lowest 
pairs. Prain agreeing with Eoxburgh considers that it should be reckoned 
as a distinct species from C Tora as the leaves are less prominently 
veined, not glaucous and the flowers larger and pedicels longer. It is said 
to lack moreover, the foetid smell of C. Tora, and its pod is less quadrate. 
I have grown plants with leaves foetid and glaucous beneath, and only 
bearing 1 gland except on the lowest one or two leaves which had two 
and such plants may also be discovered in a wild state. 

8. C, absus, L. 

An erect viscous-hairy herb with only 2 prs. of leaflets and terminal 
racemes of small yellow or red flowers with only 4 perfect stamens. 

L. with petiole 1^-2''. Lfits. 1-2'' unequal-sided. Pod 5-6 seeded. 

In somewhat open stony jungles and waste ground, frequent. 

Fls. Aug. -Sept. Annual. 

9. C. pumila, Lamh. and C. mimusoides, L. Ot-kondro, B. are 
easily distinguished by their very numerous small Iflts., the latter is often 
an erect undershrub, but C. pumila diffuse and prostrate. The latter ^«" 
ooirmon in forest land and the former in waste land. 

C glauca* Lamh. Var. suffruticosa is mentioned by Campbell as 
occurring in Manbhum. It is a shrub with 10 perfect equal stamens, and 
pale yellow flowers in axillary corymbs. Probably only cultivated. 



302 



I 



4. Sasaca.] 4Z, CMSALI*INIACE^. [5. TAMAEiNDTr& 

4. Saraca, h. 

1- S. indica^ ^» Husangid-ba, K, ; Asoka, Beng, 

A strikingly beautiful tree when in flower with dense 
corymbs 3-4" broad of a brilliant orange-scarlet, each flower 
with 3-8 exserted stamens. The flowers are well set off by 
the dark-green pari-pinnate leaves of 6-12 large acnminate 
leaflets attaining 9"* by 2|'', 

Indigenons in the valleys of Singbhnm along watercourses, esp. in the 
ravines of Porahat. There used to be some fine specimens near Kendbai 
village in the Leda forest. Fls. March'April. Fr. Bept. and seeds 
germinate in Dec. Evergreen. The new leaves are red and drooping. 
Rarely exceeding 30 ft. with a low dense crown. L. sub-sessile. LJlt's* 
oblong or oblong-lanceolate acute (or obtuse, F.B.I.). Sepals scarlet i-^"» 
Petals 0. Ovary many-ovuled stipitate. Pod i-W by li«2", 4r8 seeded. 

" When this tree is in full blossom, I do not thiak the whole vegetabl<* 
kingdom affords a more beautiful object," Roxb. 



'5.Tamarindus, L. 

1, T. indica, L, Jojo, K. ; Jojos 8, ; Tetar, Kharw, , 
Imli, Amli, H. The Tamarind, 

A very large and very handsome tree with abruptly 
pinnate leaves with 10'20 prs. of small close oblong obtnse or 
retnse leaflets, abont \' long, and small red and yellow flowers 
in lax racemes, only the three upper petals and three stamens 
fully developed. 

Commonly planted in the villages and sometimes found in the forest 
on old deserted village sites, but it suffers much from fires. Naturalized 
among granite rocks near Kuril. Fls. April-JwM also in October.* Fr. 
V^c.-April. Evergreen. 

Fod curved fleshy and fibrous, with a brittle thin epicarp. 

Gleditschia sinensis, Lamk., is a tree commonly planted on rail- 
way platforms. It has the trunks and branches armed with copiously 
branched thorns, 1-2-pinnatp leaves, and small greenish flo77er3 in 
dense spikes. 

303 



42. CJESALPmiACE^, [7. Cjesalpihii. 

7. Caesalpinia, L. 

Trees or ebrubs, often scandeut and prickly, witli large 
abruptly bi-pinnate leaves and (nenallyj sbowy flowers in 
copious axillary racemes. Calyx-lobes imbricate, tbe lowest 
much tbe largest and cncnllate, tube very short. Petals 
spreading ( ere eto-pa tent in coriaria), usually orbicular and 
clawed, the posterior smallest. St. 10, free, declinate. Fil. 
often woolly. Ovary few-ovuled. Pod dehiscent or not. 

I. Unarmed tree. Lateral x>etals small whitish, suh- 

erect ......... 1. coriaria. 

II. Prickly tree Pinnae and leaflets 10-15 prs. . . 2. 8appan. 

m. Prickly erect or diffuse shmb. Pinnaa 6-9 pre. • S. pulcherrima. 

lY. Scandent priokly shrubs. Petals broad, Pods 
unarmed. 

a. Leaflets 2-3 pre. on each pinna . . . 4. Nuga 

h. Leaflets 6-12 prs. on each pinna. 

Leaflets i-|". Pod indehiscent, sab-fleshy. 

Stipales subulate . . . . . .5. digyna. 

Leaflets i-1". Pod sub-dehiecent, dry. Stipules 

semi-sagittate 6. sepiaria. 

y. Scandent prickly shrub. Petals narrovr. Pod echinate 7. BondticeUn. 

1. C. coriaria, Willd, Divi-divi. The American Sumach. 

A mod.-sized tree with a low-spreading crown and elegant 
2-pinnate leaves with very numerous close-set leaflets ^-J" 
long. PinnsB 13-17, 1-2" long. Fls. small whitish sweet- 
scented panicled. Pods spirally twisted. 

Introduced from Central America and often cultivated, esp. in S. P. 
There are some trees about 30 ft. high at Chaibassa. Seed was 
sent to Singbhum and Palamau for experiment. They germinated 
well in about a week, but it would probably be scarcely worth while 
glowing it on a larger scale ; Brandis says that the pods of C. digyna are 
said to be as rich in tannin. 

Fls. MaV'June. Ft. Aug. Evergreen. 

2. C. Sappan, L. 

304 



1 



7. Cj!8alptnia.] 42. CMSALFINIACEM, 

A email tree with small and few or no prickles. PinnsB 
10-12 prs. 

Planted at Eanchi and Hazaribagh. Fls. r. s. 

Leaflets sessile close ^ |" oblong oblique, 10-20 prs. FU. yellow. 
Pod 3-4" by 1^", polished, indehiscent, wider and beaked above. 

3. C. puleherrima, Swartz, Peacock-flower. 

A large erect shmb, handsome when yonng, but becoming straggling 
and unsightly when old, glabrous, with 6-9 .prs, of pinnae and 10-12 
prs. of leaflets \-\" long and gandy terminal panicles of yellow or scarlet 
flowers. Pod thin strap-shaped. A common garden plant. Fls. r. s. 

4. C. Nuga, Ait, Syn. C. panicalata, Boxb. 

In the Him. Journals Sir J. D. Hooker writes : *' On the way I found 
the C. paniculata, a magnificent climber, festooning the trees with itB 
dark glossy foliage and gorgeous racemes of orange blossoms." This was 
in Hazaribagh, not far from Parasnath, but it is the only record of this 
species in Chota Nagpur. Fls. c. «. and h. s. 

6. C. digyna, Eottl. Umal-knchi, Beng, 

A large scrambling prickly shrub' with 5-10 prs. of 
pinnse and 7-10 pre. of close oblong leaflets |-J" long 
appressed hairy beneath and slightly above. Flowers showy 
yellow in simple axillary or extra -axillary racemes. Pod 
oblong 1-2'' thick fleshy 1-4-seeded, stipitate, crowtied by the 
long style. 

Dhipa (Singbhutn), Oamhie ; Gangpur near the Brahmini B. ; ravines 
and hedges in northern Santal Parganabs. Fls. July- Oct, Fr. Jany.- 
March. 

L. rachis 5-8'' fulvous hairy with geminate prickles. Pinnce 1^-2'' 
with a distinct stalk i-^'' long. Peduncle S-l". Pedicels I-I5'' long with 
very obliqae spreading truncate oalyx-tube in fruit. 

6. C. Sepiaria, Boxh. Uchay, K. (f. Gamble), 

An extensive shrub rambling or climbing by means of 
the recurved prickles on the stems and leaf rachis with 8-10 
prs. of opp. pinnae each with 6-12 prs. of broadly oblong 
leaflets |-l" long, and simple racemes of ehowy sulphur- 
yellow flowers |-|" diam., the smaller 5th petal often with 
red lines. Pod 2^-4J" rigid, tardily dehiscent, cuspidato 

305 



7. CiJSALPiNiA.] 42. C^SALPINIACJSJE. [8. Mezoneueon. 

with the long hard style, the upper sature very narrowly 
winged. 

Rare, Saranda Forests in Singthnm, Gamhle. Occasional in gardens 
and hedges near Ranchi. Fls. Dec-May . T^r. May-Oct. Evergreen. 

Branchlets somewhat 5-angled and downy. , L. rachis about 12" pubes* 
cent. PinniB about 3-5". Leaflets contiguous, puberulous both sides or 
nearly glabrous above, with rounded or retuse tip. Stipules caducouB 
semi-sagittate. Racemes axillary several superposed, of which the upper* 
most is the first developed ; young pubescent with deciduous lanceolate 
recurved bracts |" long. 

7. C. Bonducella, Fleming. Bagni, S. ; Katkaranj, E.; 
Nata, Beng. The Fever-nut. 

An extensive climbing shrnb covered with short straight 
sharp prickles, those on the leaf rachis reflexed. PinnaB 
6-8 prs. and leaflets 8 prs. oblong or ovate- oblong ^-l" 
by I". Kacemes simple of pale-yellow flowers \'' by |" across, 
the smaller erect 5th petal marked with orange. Young 
pods softly echinate, old broad oblong, 2-3" long prickly, 
dehiscent, 1-2-seeded. 

I have only seeii it in hedges, where it is frequent in the S. K 
¥is. Aug.-Od. Fr. Dw.-Fe&y. Evergreen. 

^ranchlets fulvous hairy. Leaflets not contiguous, slightly downy 
beneath, with obtuse ranoronate tip. Stipules persistent large foliaceoue 
compound or pinnatifid. Racemes often above the axil, very elongate with 
age, lower flowers only fertile. Bracts long linear reflexed over the buds 
deciduous, |-|". 

The seed is a powerful tonic, Roxh. It is also used as an antiperiodio 
in fever. 

8. Mezoneuron, Desf. 

Differs from Ccesalpinia chiefly in its very oblique calyx- 
trbe, and its flat thin indehiscent pod broadly winged dowD 
the Tipper suture, and by the complete absence of bracts to the 
flowers. 1 

1. M. CUCUUatum, W, ^A, Baghin janum, 5,j Kokc 
botur, K, 

306 



8. Mbzoneubon.] 42. CMSAZV1NIACE^,[\0. Pibkinsonia. 

A large woody glabrone shmb scrambling or climbing by 
(the numerous small black sharp prickles on brancbes and 
leaves. Leaves ample 2-pinnate witb deep-green sbining 
ovate leaflets H-3|" long. FIs. articulate on pedicel 
bright-yellow in numerous panicled racemes mostly from 
the old wood. Pod 2-4i" long, 1-seeded. 

Valleyfi, esp. in the Saranda Forests ; Dalbhum, ufamole ; Santal P. 
along streams. FIs. 8ept.-Fehy. Fr. Feby. 

fitewifi with large conical bosses tipped by a prickle. Ir. rachis 6-12", 
Pinnce distant 2-5 pis. Lflts. 3-5 prs. opp., ovate to narrow elliptic. 
Calyx-tube shallow -cnpular thick persistent, two anterior sep. and ant. 
mecUan petal produced into a foot receiving the base of the aaiterior 
61aments. Ant pet. fleshy purple folded, deeply 2-lobed. Other petals 
and usually calyx, pedicel and rachis, yellow. 

Poinciana reg'ia, Bojer. The Gold Mohur tree, is a 
beautiful well-known tree with feathery 2-pinnate leaves, 
numerous small lflts., and large scarlet flowers in terminal 
corymbs. Often planted. The narrow-oblong seeds have 
a bony testa and often take two years to germinate. 

FIb. May-June. Fr. March-April, 



10. Parkinsonian L. 

1. P. aculeata, L. Bilaiti Kikar, E, 

A small tree armed with sharp thorns which represent 
the abbreviated main I'achis of a bi-pinnate leaf and bear 2-6 
pinnsB, with a much flattened rachis, at their base, and often 
2 recurved stipulary thorns. Lflts. numerous linear oblong 
J* or vei-y small or obsolete (the rachis performing the leaf 
functions). Flowers yellow in lax axillary racemes. Calyx- 
tube short. Petals 5 sub-equal. St. 10. Pod turgid dry 
moniliform, tardily dehiscent, 3-6" long. 

Apparently naturalized in waste ground in many parts, esp. on 
well-drained soil and growing very fast. Banks of the Sone (Palamftu) 
Saslett: FIs. Bept.-Oct. 

807 



Fam. 43. PAPILIONACEJ:. 



Trees, sTirubs or herbs with simple, 1-foliolate or compound 
leaves and strongly zygomorphic flowers. Calyx equally or 
usually unequally lobed, often 2-lipped, usually somewhat 
perigynous. Petals 5, imbricate, posterior (uppermost, stand' 
ard) exterior in bud ; 2 lateral (wings) more or lees declinate 
free or adhering to the keel ; 2 lowest usually more or less 
connate into a keel with an up-curved tip. 8t, rarely some- 
what adherent to the petals, on the disc lining the very short 
hypanthium, monodelphous, or diadelphous (5 + 5 or 9 -fl), 
or the 10th absent, very rarely all free (Sophora) ; alt. ones 
sometimes shorter or reduced to staminodes. Ovary as in 
Mimosaceaa. Pod very various, sometimes coiled up and 
included iu the calyx, or of 1-seeded joints, etc. 



L. simple or digitately 3-foliolate.* Pod dehiscent 
turgid, not septate. 

Herbs or shrubs. St. monodelphous 

Shrubs or undershrubs, usually gland-dotted. 



1. Crotalaria. 



St. 2-adelphous 



2. Flemingia. 



n. L. pinnately 3-foliolate gland-dotted. Pod turgid 
l-a-seeded. Climbers . . . . . 

III, L. pinnately 3-foliolate gland-dotted (exc. Atylosia 

sp.). St. 2-adelphou8. Pod with depressed lines 
between the seeds, 2-6-8eeded. 

Twiners. Seed with a large grooved strophiole « 

Erect, cultivated. Seeds without a strophiole . 

IV. L. pinnately 3-foliolat9, not gland-dotted. Pod 

dehiscent throughout, rarely with depressed lines 
(Pueraria) or^ septate (Teramnus, Glycine, 
Phaseolus, Vigna). 

A. Climbers (except Erythrina and Glycine sp.) 
Style beardless. 

1. Nodes of inflorescence not tumid, St. 2-adel- 
phous (exc. Teramnus). 

Petals little-exserted. St. 1-adelphous 

As in Teramnus, but sub-erect and st. 2- 
1-adelphous. Cultivated 



3. RhyncKoiia. 



4. Atylosia. 

5. Gajanus. 



6. Teramnvs. 



7. Glycine. 



* Barely 5-foliolate in Crotalaria. 
308 



43. TAPILIONACEJE. 



B. 



Standard not spurred exceeding the 
winga and keel .... 

As in Shuteria, but standard spurred . 

2. Nodes of inflorescence tumid. 

Climbers. Petals sub-equal. Fls. showy. 
Wings free .... 

Climbers. Petals sub-equal. Fls. showy. 
Wings adnate to keel . . . . 

Climbers. Petals very unequal 

Trees or dwarf shrubs usually prickly . 

Style bearded below the stigma. Climbers 
or sub-erect herbs. 

Keel and included style spiral. Pod more 
or less septate ..... 

Keel and style not or partially spiral. Pod 
septate 

Keel not spiral. Pod not at all septate 



V. L. 



pinnately 3-foliolate, not gland-dotted. Fed 
only 1-seeded and only dehiscent at the apex. 
Ovary 2-ovuled. St. 2-adelphou8. 

Trees or climbers. Fls. large scarlet . . 

Woody climbers. Fls. smallish, white 

VI. L. pinnate with opposite leaflets, the rachis 
usually ending in a tendril or l)ri8tle. St. 2- 
adelphoDS or the tenth absent. Pod dehis- 
cent not septate or jointed. Slender climbers 
(exc. Cicer and Lens;. 

A. L. with usually a terminal leaflet. St. 9 + 1. 
Fls. large showy. Petals very unequal • 
Fls. small. Lflts. toothed 

B. L. ending in a point or tendril. Style hairy. 

a. Staminal sheath oblique at mouth. 
Ovules 2 

}}. Staminal sheath truncate. 

St. 9 + 1, Style dilated above . 

• As in 22 but style with reflexed margins 
and laterally compressed . • • 

St. 9 



8. Shuteria. 

9. Dumasia. 



10. Canavalia, 

11. Pueraria. 

12. Mucuna. 

13. Erythrina. 



14. Phaseolus. 

15. Vigna. 

16. Dolichog. 



17. Butea. 

18. Spatholohus. 



19. Clitoria. 

20. Cicer. 



21. Lens. 

22. Lathyrus. 

23. Pisum, 

24. Ahrua, 



309 



43. PAPILIGNACHJS. 



Pod almost woody, 
• • • • • 

alt. Pod thin at the 

Pod thin. 



25. Pongamia. 

26. Pterocarpus. 

27. Dalhergia. 



VII. L. odd'pinnate with alt. or opp. Iflts. Pod flat 
indehiscent. St. 9, 9 + 1 or 10 or 5 + 5. 

A Trees. 

Fis. pink. Lflts. opp 

wingless 
Fls. yellow. Lflts. 

margins, orbicular . . 

Fls. white pink or pale yellow, 
oblong ..... 

B. Woody climbers. 

Pod asually thin. Lflts. alternate • . 27. BaJhergia. 

Pod firm, winged, Lflts. opposite . . 28. Berria. 

Pod hard, almost woody, not winged . . 29. Millettia, 

VIIL L. odd-pinnate* (even-pinnate in Sesbania) with 
usually opposite lflts. Pod dehiscent, not 
jointed, septate (not or obscurely septate in 
29 and 30). St. 9 + 1. 

Woody climber ...... 29. Millettia. 

Undershrubs. Anthers obtuse. Hairs basifixed 30. Tephrosia. 
Herbs or undershrubs. Anthers apiculate. 

Hairs usually laterally fixed . . . 31. Indigofera. 
Herbaceous or woody. L. even pinnate with 

numerous lflts 32. Sesbania. 

IX. Pod breaking up into 1-geeded joints, margin 
indented between the joints (only 1 joint in 
Lespedeza, and continuously dehiscent along 
the ventral suture, not breaking up, in two 
species of Desmodium). 

A. Herbs, shrubs or undershrubs. 

L. pinnate with numerous lflts. St. 5 + 5. 

Pod.straight 

L. pinnate. St. 9 + 1. Pod twipted up . 

L. 1-and 3-foliolate often intermixed. Pod 

twisted up 

L. pinnately 3-foliolate. Pod of 1 flattened 

joint . ... 

L. pinnately 1 -3-foliolate. Pod flattened 

not twisted up . . . . • 

B. Trees. L. pinnately 3-foliolate. Pod not 

twisted up . . . . 
X. St. free. L. odd-pinnate. Pod dehiscent moni- 
liform 



33. ^schynomene. 

34. Vraria. 

34. Vraria* 

35. Lespedeza. 

36. Desmodium. 

37. Oiigeinia. 

38. Bophora. 



» 3-1-foliolate in some Indigofera. 
810 



43. PAPILIONACFM [ 1. CBOTAiiBU. 

Note. — The genera with free stamens and pinnate leaves, being those 
most nearly related to other families of the order Legnminosae, ehoTxld 
logically have been placed first. The above key is somewhat artificial. 



1. Crotalaria, JL». Sakesing, K. ; Jhunka, S. 

Herbs or shrubs witb simple or 3- rarely 5-fcliolate 
leaves. Flowers yellow in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes. 
Corolla equalling or exceeding the calyx with a characteristic 
up-curved beaked keel formed of the connate anterior petals. 
Keel as long as the wings. St. 1-adelpbous with dimorphous 
anthers. Pod inflated, continuous . within, linear or oblong, 
usually many-seeded. 

Most of the genus yield a strong fibre. 

I. L. trifoliolate or 5-foliulate. 

Undershrub 2-1 ft. high. L. 3-foliolat3 . . ♦. !• striata. , 

Annual 2-4 ft. high with 6, rarely 3 linear Iflts. . 2. quinquefolia, 

A diffuse weed with sub-R-lobose 2-8eeded pods . medicayinea. 

II. I». simple or l-foliolate. 

A. Fls. in long terminal (and lateral) leafless 

racemes, bracts minute (exc. in sericea) 

1. A stout quite glabrous herb with glabrous 

pods and showy fls 3. sericea. ^ 

2. More or less silky. 

Shrubby. Calyx |-f ", pods velvety . . 4- juncea. 

Slender 1-3 ft. Calyx |'', upper calyx-lobes 
distinct . . . . ... 5. athida. 

Slender |-2 ft. Calyx under k"» upper calyX'- 
lobes connate $. Hnifolia. 

B. Fls. in short terminal (and lateral) few-fld. or 

capitate racemes. Bracts sometimes folia- 
ceoue. 

Calyx«f-1" long. Stipules minute deciduous '• 7. calycina. 
Calyx under ^" long. Stipules persistent linear 

i-a' • 8. mysorensiSm 

Calyx under ^'' long. Stipules ... 9. hirta. 

811 



1. Ceotalabia.] 43. PAPILIONACEJS, 

C. Fls. in short nltimately leaf-opposed racemes, 
sometimes sub-solitary. 

1. Stipules decurrent as a wing on the branches 10. alata. 

2. Stipules small or 0, not decurrent. 

L. ovate, stipules small acuminate . . 11. hirsuta. 

L. oblong, stipules 12. prostrata. 

L. oblonjf, often very small, stipules small 
linear reflexed 13. acicularis. 

1. C. striata, I^^C. Sakesing, K. ; Son-jhuDka, 8. 

An undershrub 2-4 ft. high with long-pefcioled trifoliolate 
leaves and terminal and lateral elongate racemes of yellow 
flowers J" long, nsnally streaked with purple. Pods l|-2" 
long by I'', 30-40-seeded, glabrous or very finely downy. 

Occasional in waste ^ound and along road-sides, sometimes cultivated 
for its fibre. Annual. Fls. and Fr^ Oct'Jany. 

Lflts. 1-2|'' broadly elliptic or ob ovate, with sparse ap pressed hairs 
beneath, base cuneate, tip rounded. Petiole 1-2'. 

2. C. quinquefolia, L, 

An erect annual 2-4-ft. high with 5, rarely 3, linear leaHets 2-4" long. 
Chota Nagpur, Prain. 

3. C- sericea, Retz. Sakesing, K. 

A soffruticose herb 3-4 ft. high with often hexagonal 
waxy stems, oblanceolate to obovate leaves 3-6" long with 
persistent stipules, long terminal paniculate racemes of bright 
yellow flowers and glabrous pods 1|" long. 

A handsome plant frequent in grass under light shade and along nalaa 
in Singbhum, Hazaribagh and S. P. Fls. Bept.-Fehy. Fr. Dec-May. 
Biozmial. 

L. appressed silky beneath with short stout petioles. Racemes often 
1 ft. with persistent spreading or reflexed ovate .acuminate leafy bracts 
^'' long. Fls. over 1" long. Fruitmg-calyx |". 

4. C. juncea, L. Jiri (the fibre Jiri-bair), M. ; Ji., Ho.; 
Son, S. ; San, H. ; The Sun Hemp. 

312 



i 



43. PAPILIONACE^. [I, Ceotalabia. 

A shrub 4-5 ft. high with slender erect sulcate branches 
linear or oblong leaves 1^-3" long, bright-yellow Bowers 
abput f-1" long in loose long racemes. Pod sessile velvety 
l-lf" long, stout. 

Cultivated and sometimes appareniSy wild in Singbhum. Sili, Jonha 
jungles (Eanchi scarps), Wood, f Is. Dec.-Jany. Fr. Jany. 

Beaked sepals, pedicels and pods all softly closely pubesoent or velvety, 
usually brown. Corolla slightly exserted, standard 1'' broad and long,' 
veined red, silky Vithout. 

5. C. albida, Eeyne. 

An erect undershrub or herb 1-3 ft. sparingly branched 
with erect appreysed-hairy or silky branches, narrow leaves 
and yellow dowers J-^" in terminal leafless 10-25-fld. racemes 
with a scarcely exserted corolla. 

One of the commonest forest crotalarias, very abundant on hard clay 
soil on hilly ground. Fls., Fr. 6ejpt,-Jany. Apparently amjual. 

L. linear-oblong, oblong or oblanceolate 1-3'' by ^-f obtuse mucronate 
pubescent above glaucous and' silky beneath, base narrowed to a very 
short petiole. SUpules 0. Calyx very silky, two upper lobes oblong 
obtuse. Pod glabrous i" slightly exserted, 6-8-seeded, on pedicels f long. 

6. C. linifolia, L. /. 

An annual |-2 ft. bigh 8ome\jrhat resembling tho last, but with the 
upper lip of the calyx emarginate, not deeply lobed, leaves usually shorter 
aud pod as long as the calyx. 

ChotaNagpur, Frain. 

7. C. calycina, Schranh. Mota bir-jhunka, S. 

A herb 1-2 ft. high with brown silky branches and lanceolate or long 
linear loaves. Easily recognised by the pale-yellow corolla being shorter 
than the very large |-1" long calyx which is densely clothed with long 
brown hairs. Pod included. Seeds white. Frequent. Fls. in the rains 
Fr. Nov. 

8. C- mysorensis, l^otK 

A herb 3-4 ft high with erect branches covered with long 
spreading bairs, stssile linear-oblong or linear leaves 2-3" 

313 



1. Cftof ALAEiA.] 43, PAPILIONACJEJS. 

below, smaller upwards, with long linear foliaceous Btipules 
ny to |-" long. Fls. few in few-fld. bracteate terminal racemes. 

Hills, Singbhum and Santal Parganahs. F\a. AugrOcfEv. Dec-Jany. 

Lower tepals linear acuminate |-|'' villous with brown hairs, upper 
broader lanceolate, the two linear ^racteoles similar. PocZ exserted 1" 
by i" grooved above, shining glabrous with 40-50 sujall shining black 
seeds. 

9. C. hirta, Willd. 

A diffuse nndersliub somewbat resembling the last. 
Brancbea densely clothed with short patent brown hairs. 
L. linear or linear-oblong, hairy, exstipulate. Fls. only 2-4 
snb-capitate with lanceolate foliaceous bracts. Calyx I" with 
teeth all linear acuminate. 

Tirilposi savanah. Fls. March. 

10. G; alata, Earn, Marang jhunka, S. 

A herb or undershrub 1-2 ft. with sub-sessile elliptic 
usually oblique-based leaves 1-2". Easily recognized by the 
large decurrent stipules forming wings on the branches. 
Racemes at first terminal, ultimately becoming leaf -opposed, 
3-4." in fruit. 

Frequent. Fls. Aug.-Bept. Fr. Sept.-Oct. 

11. C. hirsuta, Willd, 

An erect herb 2-3 ft. with broadly-ovate leaves about 2\" 
by 1|" acute and sometimes slightly oblique, racemes few-fld. 
ultimately leaf-opposed. Stipules linear-subulate reflexed 
slightly longer than the very short petiole. 

Common in rocky jungles. Fls. Aug.-Bept. Fr. 8ept-0ct. 

Stems with soft spreading hairs. L. soft, usually mucronata. Sepals 
linear acuminate. ' Pod f-1'' with spreading hairs, about 6-seeded. 

12. C. prostrata, -Roajb. Nauha jhunka, Katie' jhunka, <9. 

A silky herb with spreading or long trailing branches, 
close oblong obtuse silky leaves attaining 1^" by f",i glaucous 
beneath. Racemes soon leaf -opposed 2-4-fld, 

Very ooxnmon on clay in open Sal forests, etc. Fie. r. s. Fr. Dec. 

814 



1. Ceotalaeia.] 43. FAPILIONACEj^. 12. Fleminoia. 

L. oblique at base. Stipules 0. Racemes attaining 3''. Calyx-lobea 
short densely villous ^'' lon^. Pods |-|'' glabrous, shortly stipitate. 
Used iu certain disorders of the stomach, Campbell, 

13. C- acicularis, Ram. 

A procumbent very hairy weed, with a woody rootstock, often very 
conspicuous on cold mornings from the dew adhering to the hairs and 
giving it a silvery appearance. Fla. j''. Small black pods i-|''. Fls., Fr. 
Dec.-Jany. 

2* Fleminoia) Boxb, 

Shrubs or suffruticose herbs, with l-or digitately 3- 
foliolate leaves usaally gland-dotted below. Fla. small or 
medium, white or pink, in small cymes racemes or panicles 
with often conspicuoas bracts, ebracteolate. Corolla included 
or only slightly exsert ; petals equal in length. St. 2-adel- 
phous. Ovary 2-ovuled. Pod oblong turgid, usually 
2-seeded. 

I. L. simple. 

A. Fls. enclosed in large persistent folded bracts, which are arranged 

in simple cr branched racemes. 

L. narrow, Shrub 4-6 ft. Branches not prominently 

angled 1. strohilifera. 

L. narrow. Shrub 1-3 ft. Branches 'angled, shaggy 2. bradeata. 

L. very broad . 3. Chappar^ 

B. Fls. in fascicled or paniclod racemes with small 

bracts . .,.,,» . . . . 4. paniculata. 

II. L. 3-foliolate. Fls. in dense subspicate'racemes. 

A tall scarcely branched erect annual shrub 5-6 ft. . 5, strida, 

A branched shrub 4-5 ft , .6. congesta, 

A diffuse undershrub 1-2 ft. with narrow leaflets • 7. prostrata . 

A dwarf undershrub with very broad leaflets . . 8. nana. 

1. p. strobilifera, -B. Br. 

A bushy shrub 5-8 ft. high with appressed silky tereto 
or slightly angular branches, lanceolate or ovate-lane. 

315 



2. Flemingia.] 4S. PAPILIONACE^. 

acuminate leaves 2-6" by f-3" with rounded base and 
numerous axillary and terminal racemes 2-83-'' lOngr of small 
white flowers -jV long in ehort few-flowered cymes in the 
axils of folded membranons cordate bracts. 

Beds of ravines in the Porahat forests. Shady forests, Saranda. 
Eanchi, 1,500-2,000 ft., Wood. Parasnath. Santhal Parganahs near 
streams (Banjhi, etc.) Fls. Jany. -April. 

L. densely covered with small red glands beneath, and fnlvons hairy 
on the nerves. Sec. n. 10-13 prs. strong straight. Petiole slender ^-f. 
Btipules linear ^-f as long as the petiole. Bracts (unfolded) ovate-cordate 
acuminate or apiculate puberulous, i-1?'', usually about IJ'' broad by f " 
long, puberulous. Calyx hairy and glandular, lower tooth linear nearly 
as long as flower. 

2. p. bracteata, Wight. Syn. F. strobilifera, Var. brac- 
teata of F.B.I. Sim-busao' 8. 

A shrub 1-3 ft. higb with shaggily pubescent angled 
branches, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate acuminate leaves 
3-7'' by 1-2|^" witb sub-cordate base and mostly terminal 
panicled racemes 2-5" long of large folded deeply cordate 
bracts broader than long. 

Singbhum, in forests and nsaaUy in drier places than the last ; 
Manbhnm. 

Fls. Jany.'AprU. 

L. with very few or no glands beneath. Petiole densely pubescent i" 
only.' Stipules linear setaceous with a filiform tip ^1'' much longer than 
the petiole. Brads (unfolded) very broadly orbicular and deeply cordate 
pubescent, i' by Is". Racemes usually with a zig-zag rachis. Fls. i" 
pinkish. 

The above two species were united in the F.B.I. They were again 
iieparated by Col. Prain in " Bengal Plants." The two Chota Nagpur forms 
appear to differ even more than is indicated in that work which states for 
both: " Axis of racemes zig-zag, bracts hardly broader than long" and 
proceeds to discriminate them by the number of sec. nerves (which I 
do not find holds good in my specimen) and as follows : " strobilifera : — 
bracts 1", finely puberulous, usually all obscurely cuspidate, sometimes 
the highest slightly emarginate ; hracteata .—bracts f ", softly hirsute 
with long hairs, us a ally all slightly emarginate, sometimes the lowest, 
obscurely cuspidate." 

Boots sometimes given for epilepsy. Camp. 

316 



4.9. PAPILIONACF^, [2. Flemingia. 
3. F. Chappar, Bam, Ulu, K., S. 

An erect shrub 5-10 ft. with pnbescent branches, strongly- 
nerved orbicular-ovate cordate cnapidate leaves and several 
axillary racemes of secund 2- seriate large folded bracts 
enclosing the small cymea of white flowers. 

SinglshTim forests, often forming a dense undergrowth, Manbhum ; 
Hazaribagh. 

Fls. Jany.-March, but the bracts are well-developed in Oct. Ft. 
April' May when the bracts are brown and dry. It is deciduous in April ; 
new leaves appear May or June. 

Petioles 14'', thickened both ends. Bracts f-l'' by H-1^'' (when un- 
folded), cordate emarginate. Fls. 5-^'', opening one at a time successively 
and then becoming visible between the parted margins of the bract, few 
in an umbel, pedicelled. 

<l. F. paniculata, Wall. 

A shmb 4-6 ft. high with rasty downy branches, rather 
large ovate-cordate simple cuspidate membranous leaves and 
small white or reddish flowers about -^\" in short rather 
dense axillary and terminal panicles or fascicled. 

Valleys in Porahat and Saranda, rather rare. Valleys in S. P. (Mor- 
jhora). Fls. Fehy.-March. 

L. about 5V' by 3V» base sometimes nearly straight and oblique. 
Petiole f-li". Stipules caducons. Racemes densely hairy sometimes very 
short solitary and axillary or in the same plant forming terminal panicles 
6" long. Bracts dry ovate or lanceolate strongly nerved ^4''. Calyx-teeth 
hairy with filiform tips. Pods ^". 

5. F. stricta, Roxh. 

A tall very distinct scarcely shrubby species 6-8 ft. high 
"with large 3-foliolate leaves and dense axillary racemes of 
purplish flowers, conspicuous in bud by their densely im- 
bricating brown linear-lanceolate bracts. 

Valley-forests in shade, Singbhum, rare. Banchi, 1,500-2,000 ft., Wood. 
Fls. Jany.'Feby. Shoota annual. 

Branches triquetrous. Lfits. lanceolate or ell.-acuminate 6-10'' long 
! with numerous parallel nerves hairy below. Petiole 3-quetrous, snlcate, 
5-6.'| Stipules and louer bracts 1-3^'' acuminate. Upper bracts ^'' brown 
deciduous when the flowers expand, finely acuminate. Fls. ^". 

317 



2. PLBMiKQii-l 45- PAPILIONACEJij. 

6. F- Congesta, Boxh. Var. semialata. Syn, F. semia 
lata, Roxb. Bir-but, S* 

A shrub 4-6 ft. high Bomewhafc resembling F. stricta, but 
much more branched and woody with densely pubescent or 
yillous angular branches, 3-fol. leaves with narrowly winged 
petiole. Fls. purple ^'^ in densely bracteate axillary spikes, 
bracts brown silky, scarcely acuminate caducous. 

Valleys in Singbhum, rare. Manbhum Camp. Paraanath. Fie. Oct.' 
Jany. Bipe fr., aJlso found in Dec. 

Petiole H-4". Lflts. elliptic acuminate 4-8^'' by 1^-4^'' with red glands 
below and very silky on the nerves. Base 3-nerved. Spikes 1-3", sessile, 
OP ahortly-atalked often fascicled or sub-panicled. Bracts i". Calyx 
silky. Lower sepal aa long as the flower. 

7. F. prostrata, R^^^- Syn. F. congesta, Var., F.B.L 
Bir-but, S. 

A diffuse undershrub with a woody rootstock, brown 
tomentose angular branchlets, 3-foliolate leaves with lance- 
olate leaflets 4i}/ by 1'' and fls. in dense sub-spicate axillary 
racemes about 1" long with sub-persistent brow a bracts and 
very slender silky calyx lobes, the lowest equalling the oblong 
podc 

Singbhum forests frequent. Manbhum, common in the dry foreate 
of the Gobindpup sub-diviaion. Fls. Aug.-Oct. Fr. Oct.-Dec, 

Petiole 1-2'' not winged. Ljits. brown hairy or pubescent beneath eap. 
on the raised nerves. Stipules linear-lanceolate ^'^.'' Inflor. much as in 
last. Pod and lower sepal ^-f ''. Pod pubescent. 

The ground root is applied to ulcers and swellings, mainly of the 
neck. The fruit is eaten, and the poda are said to yield a dye. Camp. 

8. p. nana, Roxb, 

A dwarf undershrub 1 ft. high with a very short brown 
tomentose stem springing annually from a woody roots took, 
very large (or sometimes small) 3-foliolate leaves with long 
winged petioles and congested racemes or panicles of small 
reddish flowers shooting out before the leaves. 

Forests in Singbhum, under shade or on fire-lines. Manbhum. Fls. 
March-April. Fr. April-May. The loaves do not, however, appear nntil 
the rains, and the/ last until the succeeding Feby, The plant leaves a 

318 



g. PtBMiNQiA.] 43. PAPIZZOMACU^. [3. Rhtnchosia. 

deep orange stain on the hand, esp. in fmit» from the numerous red 
iflanda. 

Lfits. broadly-elliptic or rhomboid, 5^^" by 3^5" (1-2'' only F.B.I.) not 
acuminate, lateral very oblique. Petiole sometimes 10'' long. Petiolules 
tomentose i''. Kacemes 3-4'' densely pubescent. Bracts caducous. 
Corolla exMrt i". Lowest «ej?al i". Pods |-i" 

3. Rhynchosia, Lonr. 

Twining herbs or shrubs with pinnately 3-foliolate leaves 
gland-dotted beneath. Fls. axillary or racemed with often 
very large snb-eqnal calyx lobes. Corolla included or exsert. 
St, 2-adelphoiis. Ovary 1-2-ovuled. Pod 1-2-seeded. 

1. R. rufescens, -D.O. 

A scarcely-woody rusty-pubescent often glandular-hairy 
climber with slender whip-like branches, rhomboid or ovate 
Bcarcely-acumicate leaflets 2^'' by l^-", long petioles, and 
innumerable lax few- flowered racemes of smallish yellow 
flowers, the corolla and the pod included in the lai'ge deeply 
6-fid calyx. 

Nalas in Singbhum, rare. Koderma forest among rocks, commoni 
Fls. JanyrFeby. Fr. Fely. Eipe fruit also found Dec. 

Stems woody below, glandular-pubescent above. Lflts, gradually 
smaller upwards pubescent both sides, base 3-nerved, other nerves raised 
reticulate, sessile glands microscopic. Peti. 2^3''. StipeUce minute. 
Racemes 1^-2^' laxly 3-5-fld. Calyx ^" in fl., i'' in fr., segments broai 
oblong. Ovary silky 1-ovuled. Pod sub-quadrate flattened hairy beaked. 
8eed with a large grooved strophiole. 

2. R. minima, JO.O. Var. laxiflora. 

A very slender annual climber with glabrescent stems and 
leaves, rhomboid leaflet^ 1-2" long, and lax elongate racemes 
of small yellow flowers with the corolla twice as long as the 
jaly^. 

I L^f8. acute or obtuse. Bacemes 24'' long. Pod i-|", glabrescent, 
iurgid, mostly 2-seeded, 

Chota Nagpur, Prain 

319 



43, FAPILIONACE^, [ 4. Atylosia. 



4. Atylosia, W, ^ A, 

Twining herbs or shrnbs with leaves usually gland-dotted 
beneath. Fls. yellow or reddish in axillary clusters or 
racelnes. Corolla more or less exsert, keel not rostrate. 
Ovary sessile ; ovules 3-6 rarely more ; style filiform, glabrous 
or pubescent not bearded, stigma capitate. Pod linear or 
oblong, with depressed lines between the seeds, which have a 
conspicuous 2-fid strophiole. 

1. A' crassa, Train, Bir rambara, K. ; Bir malhan, 8. 

A suffruticose climber with downy stems, gland- dotted 
strongly-nerved leaves and moderate-sized yellow flowers in 
pedicelled paifs on short axillary racemes or panicles. Buda 
varnished. Pod 1-]-^" by |" with oblique depressions between 
the seeds. 

Not unfrequent in the damper Singbhtim valleya ; Manbhum ; Ghats 
between ManbLnm andKanchi ; Sirguja, Wood. FL. Jany.-Fehy. 

Branches striate. Terminal leaflet usually rhomboid attaining 4" by 
Sf", sec. nerves 2-3 prs. above the 3-5-nerved base and with strong cross 
nervules, brown pubescent. Petiole 1-4". Racemes' usually in panicles 
shorter than the leaves 1-4'' long with large deciduous concave oblong 
parallel-nerved bracts ^-f'' long ; the leaves on long flowering shoots are 
Bometimes suppressed. 1^/s. |-1". Calyx |", teeth 4, -^-fths as long as 
tube, the upper two combined into one obtuse or emarginate. Standard 
and wings auricled. Ovary yellow glandular on sides with pubescent 
margins. Btyle bent at a right angle and pubescent all round abova the 
flection. Seeds 3-5. 

2. A- SCarabaeoideS) Benth. Gaisani, K. ; Bir horec', S. 

A copiously branched slender twiner with small sti-ongly- 
nerved leaflets l-l-}" long, smallish yellow or reddish flowers, 
the corolla not much exceeding the densely grey silky calyx 
and small oblong hairy pods |- 1" long. 

On clay soil, very common, esp. in sorab jungle. Throughout the area. 
Fl8.,Fr. Aug. -Dec. 

Terminal leaflet elliptic or obovate-oblong, pabescent, base 3-nerved. 
Peduncles i-'i'' slender, few-flowered. Fls. ^''. 

320 



4 Atylosia.] 13, PAPILIONACE^. [8. Shutzbia. 

The seeds are said to be eaten. Campbell says that the plant is givt-ii 
to cattle for diarrhcaa. 

None of my specimens have the leaves glandular, though this character 
is always given as generic. 

Qajanus indicus, Spreng. Arhi, K.-, Arhar, H. ; The Pigeon Pea or 
Dal. 

An erect shrnb 4-8 ft. high with slender grey silky grooved branches', 
hairy leaflets 1^-2^' long and yellow flowers |" long in axillary racemes 
or terminal panicles. Pod 2-3'', 3-5-8Heded with oblique depression 
between the seeds. Generally cultivated, but not on a large scale. 

Teramnus labialls, Spreng. A slender climbing shrub with sparsely 
hairy stem and 3-fol. leaves. Ljits. ell. or rhomboid acute 1^-2" appressed 
hairy beneath. Fls. \'' reddish in slender racemes 1-4' long. Podi linear 
falcate 1^-2" beaked, twisted when ripe. Seeds red oblong. 
Palamau, frequent. Parasnath. Fl. 8ept.-0ct. Fr. Nov. 

Glycine hispida, Maxim. Hende disum Horec', 8. ; Gari-Kalai, 
Beng., ia a sub-erect annual herb distinguished from Teramnus by the 
alternate anthers bding abortive. It is occasionally cultivater) 

8. Shuteria, W. Sf A, 

Climberfl with 3-foliolate stipellate leaves and oonspicnons 
persistent bracts and bracteoles. Flowers small or middle- 
sized racemose. Calyx-tube gibbons ; teeth shorter. Standard 
not spurred exceeding the wings and united keel petals. 
Pod flat linear usually recurved, 

1. S. vestita, W,8rA. Var, deni^iflora. Syn. S. detisi- 
flora, Benth, 

A slender twiner with pubescent stems, very sleadet 
petioles, membranous leaves and small white and purple 
flowers in dense axillary fascicled racemes remarkable by 
their persistent brown striate bracts. 

In the damper valleys of Singbhamu Kare. Fl. DecF^y, Ft. J^ny.- 
March, 

Lflts. nearly glabrout 1-2V' attaining rarely 3" by 2", terui&ajl ovata 
or rhomboid, obtuse or emarginate, apiculate. BocMe very slender. 
Uacemes i-H", sessile with hairy raohis. Pedicels \'' raoatly genvinatd. 
Brficteoles lanceolate striate as long as calyx i-jV* • Corolla \' mucl» 
longer than the wings and ke^l, Po^ strap-shapea tmti 6-8-Beedda. 

331 IT 



8. Shutbbu.] 45. TAFILIONACE^. [11. Pueeaeu. 

Prain ( Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal) says that t^iis. species is very 
distinct from S. vestita and that it is easily recognized by its glabrous 
pods and by tha more horizontal, early-forking secondary nerves of its 
burger leaflets. 

Dumasia villosa, P.C. 

A slender twiner with stems densely clothed with grey or ferruginous 
"hairs. 

Fls. raoemed, 3'- long. Calyx with obliquely truncate mouth. Corolla 
J-f " yellow or purplish. Fod 1|'' velvety, 3-4-8eeded. 
Only reported from Paraanath. 

10. Canavalia, D.O. 

Stont twining herbs with, stipellate 3-f oliolate leaves and 
Bhowy flowers fascicled on a nodose racbis. Calyx 2 -lipped. 
"Wings shorter than the large rounded standard, equalling 
the incurved obtuse keel. Pod large with a distinct rib on 
either side of the upper suture. 

1. C. ensiformis, I^-O. Tihon, 8.\ Makhan sim, B&ng, 

"Wide-rambling and twining. Lfits. glabrous or with few adpressed 
hairs above, ^' ovate acute. Peduncles and racemes each 3-6" or ped- 
uncle attaining 12'' and raceme few-flowered. Fls. geminate li". 
Pedicels very short. Calyx ^'' with short teeth of which 2 upper larger 
projectiai? rounded and 3 lower acute. Standard 1'' broad red-purple 
jetuse strongly reflexed, claw 0, base auricled. Winga waved auricled. 
fod 6-9 " by Mi". 

Cultivated and often apparently wild, Fls. Aug.-Oct, Fr. B&pt' 
Vov. The pods are used as vegetables. 

'2. C. virosaj ^- ^ ^' (Syn. C. ensiformis var. virosa). 

This is regarded by Baker merely as the wild form of 
the last, but ia kept distinct by Prain who distinguishes it by 
the leaflets beipg obovate and by the pod being narrower, 
ojily |-|" wide and fewer-seeded, seeds 4-6 instead of 8-X2. 

Chota Nagpur, Prain (in Wood's list), 

11. Pueraria, B.C. 

Twining shrubs or herbs with stipellate 3-fol. leaves and 
often showy flowers fascicled on tho swollen nodes of long 

823 



I 



11. PuEEAEu.] 43, PAPJLIONACE^. [12. Muccna. 

often panicled racemes. Two upper teeth of caljx oonsate. 
Standard as long as the obtuse wing^ and keel. Pod linear, 
fiattish (usually under |" broad). 

1. P. tuberOFa/^.O. Jan tirra, S.\ Shimia batraji, Beng.; 
Tirra, E. 

A handsome large woody climber, flowering when leaf- 
less, with simple or branched fascicled racemes of blue-purple 
flowers I" long.^ Standard, wings and keel ^" spurred or 
auricled. St. diadelphous (always ?).' Pod 2-3" bristly 
(or.young densely brown hirsute), somewhat depressed between 
the seeds. 

Chiefly on the banks of streams. Tan di forest, oommon, Campbell ; 
Palaman, Qamblej Jaspur, Wood ; Parasnath. Fls. Feby.' April. ¥r. r.s. 

Branches downy. Lflts. roundish 6-12", whitish with adpressed hairs 
beneath. Eacemes 6-10'' long. Fls. dense geminate or in threee, 2-bracteo- 
late beneath the calyx. ?Tode often with an abortive tip. Calyx brown 
silky tVI '> limb spreading. Standard emarginate clawed. Ovary^ silky. 
Style glabrons. Ovules about 10. 

The tuberous root is eaten. It sometimes attains an enormouB size. 
Campbell mentions one from the Grobindpur district nearly 2 feet long and 
2^ ft. in circumference. He also states that it is used in rcnnl complaintH 
and to kill fish. 

13. Maeana)' Adans, 

Large twiners. L. ■n8^ally stipellate. Stipules decidaous. 
Flowers large rather leathery, black when dry, on the tumid 
nodes of long often fascicled racemes. Calyx widely cam- 
panulate, two upper teeth connate, lowest longest. Standard 
much shorter than the wings and long rostrate keel. 
Anthers dimorphous. Ovary eessile hairy ^ Pod leathery or 
woody, usually covered -with irritating bristles. Prain ia 
inclined to reconstitute the followiDg sub-genera as genera :— 

Snbgen. 1. Zoophthalmum, P. Br. Perennial dim- 
bers. Seeds large flat with a circumferential 
hUum. 

Pods winged i^nd plaited . . ... 1. ,%mlricata. 

* Measured from tip of standard to keel. 

^ They axe waally described as monadelphooi^ 

323 



12. MuouNA,] 43. PAPILIONACEM 

Snbgen. 2, Stizolobinm, P. Br. Stems dying down 
annually. Seeds small ovoid with a small 
lateral hilnm. 

A. L. silky beneath. 

Pod grey with decidnou a briatles. Fls. pnrple 2. pruriens. 
Pod black with velvety persistent tomentum. 
Pis. pnrple 2a. uHUs. 

B. L. glabrescent beneath. 

Pod as in 2a. Fls. white. L. glabrescent 
beneath 2&. nivea. 

Pod shortly velvety, glabrescent . . . ?c. capitata. 

1. M. imbricata, D.C. Marang atkir, K. ; Itikar orEtka, 
iS. 

A large climber with slender sparsely hairy braDches, 
3-foliolat6 Btipellate leaves sparsely siiortly yellow-hairy 
beneath, dull purple flowers in pentlolons few-fiowered lax 
racemes about 6-12" long, and pods 5" by 2", easily recognized 
by the two wings on each suture and the obliquely, plaited 
faces of the pods. 

Eavines in Singbhnm, e.g., those north of Longa Bnm in Porahat. 
Rare. Parasnatb. Santal Parganahs (Narganj). Fls. r,« Fr. Decr.-Fehy. 
Pods remain long on the plant and were found on Parasnath in May. 

Bachis of leaves exceedingly slender 3-5" long including the petiole. 
Petiolules stouter i". Ljlts. membranous, the end one 4-6" ell.-lanc. all 
cuspidate. Pod oblong, the plaits with ferruginous bristles. Style persis- 
tent as a hard slender beak. 

2. M. pmriens, D.C. Alkusi, Atku-, K. ; Etka, S.; 
Kivach, H., whence the English name of Cowhage. 

A slender climber with stiptUate 3-foliolate leaves silky 
beneath, drooping short peduncled racemes 6-12'' long of 
purple flowers 1^-1^' loag. Pod turgid, not plaited, 2-3", 
densely clothed with brown or grey intensely irritating 
bristles. 

Chiefly in scrub and grass jungles, frequent. Fls. Sept-Nov. Pr. 
Jan.-Feby. 

Branches with few aipressed hairs. Lilts, membranous, apiculate, 
terminal rhomboid 3-5" by 2^-3", lateral larger with lower side very f 

324 



12. MucuNA.] 43. PA:B1LI0NACEM. [13. Eettheini. 

produced and rounded, Petioles often 10". Racemes usually elongate. 

Pod curved at the ends. 

Varioua medicinal virtnes are ascribed to the plant, sonie probably 
imaginary. Campbell states that the root is given for delirinm in fever 
and that a paste made from the powdered root is applied for dropsy. 
The hairs of the pods are anthelmintic and were at one time indnded 
in the British Pharmacopoeia. Both the root and seeds are included in 
the Hindu Materia Medica. An intoxicating liquor " Khasuna " is 
said to be prepared from the plant in Palamau. 

The following appear to me to be only varieties of M. 

pruriens : — 

a M. ntilis, ^''all. Alkuahi, Beng. A cnltivated variety 
with a black velvety pod ^hich (like M. piTiriens) is eaten as 
a vegetable when young. "In badly grown plants the 
racemes are often short and few-flowered, sometimes only 
l-2-9d." Prain. Chota Nagpur, Prain. 

/3. M. nivea, D.G. Khamach, Beng. Cultivated in Ch. 
Nagpur, Wood. Fls. white. 

7- M. Capitata, W. iljr A. The flowers are nsnally in 
short-peduDcled ffcw-flowered corymbs and the pod is 5-6' 
long, with the bristles much shorter than in M. prnriens. 
The leaves also are glabrescent. Prain (" Some additional 
Leguminosse ") says : — ^" The racemes of this are iiot always 
short, nor are the racemes of M. pruriens always elongate ; 
the species are only distinguishable by their pods,'* Ch. 
Nagpur, Prain. 



13. Erythrina, L. 

Trees or (resnpinata) nndershrubs with lai^ showy 
scarlet flowers in dense racemes, usually produced before the 
large 3-fol. stipellate leaves. Calyx spathaceous, campannlate 
or turbinate, oblique or 2-lipped, when spathaceous spliting to 
the level of the thickened disc. Petals very nneqnal, stand- 
ard usually narrow and far exceeding the other petals 
Upper St. nearly free or connate half-way op . Ovary stipitate 

325 



13. Ebtthbina] 43. PAPILIONACJEM. 

many-ovtiled. Pod linear more or less tornlose, stipitate, 
deluscent. 

1. E. SUberosa, Roxh, Piri, K. ; Bnru Mftrar, 8. ; Pha- 
rar, Kharw. 

A small very prickly tree with thick corky bark, leaves 
covered with white-brown tomentum beneath, and scarlet 
flowers in capitate racemes. 

Dry hills, common in Singbhnm ; TMidi Hills (Manbhum) ; Hazari- 
bagh 'Sitagarh hill, etc.); Damuda wiats (between Hazaribagh and 
Rjuichi). .-fc'ls. March-Hay. Fr. rs. Leafless np to June. 

Innovations brown-tomentose. Trunk, branches and sometimes petioles 
ptiC^ ly. Friclctes usually straw-coloured. Terminal leaflet 6-8'' broad, 
broader than long, lobed a^d sinuate with trunciate or cuneate, but not 
rounded base. Petiole 6-7'' tomentose. Racemes capitate only 1^3" long 
(excluding the peduncle). Calyx turbinate 2-lipped- Standard Z-4-timeB 
as long as broad and twice the keel. Upper st. nearly free. Pod 4r6". 

Bark gives a fibre, and see note under E. indica. 

2. E. indica, Lamk. Marar, 8. ; Pharar, Kharw. ; 
Hadbad, Ghatw. ; Palita Mandar, Beng. 

A prickly tree with the prickles small and black. L. 

glabroas beneath, the base of the terminal lea9et rounded. 

Racemes much longer than in the last, often 6" excluding the 

peduncle. Calyx split spathaceous with very oblique mouth. 

Pod torulose stalked. 

Eanchi, planted. Wood ; Palamau, Haslett; Pokharia and Tundi hills, 
Campbell. 

Campbell says •* common on the lower slopes of the Tundi hills. The 
bark yields an excellent cordage fibre of a pale straw colour. The wood, 
ash and the bark are used as dyes ; the latter and the leaves are also 
used medicinally." Part of this may, however, refer to the last species, 
which is not given separately in Campbell and Watt's list. 

3. E. resupinata, i2oa;6. 

An interesting undershrub with a perennial rootstock 
■which sends up annually racemes of bright scarlet flowers 
without any leaves, the herbaceous shoots succeeding them. 

Paiaanath. C. B. Clarke. Fls. April-May. 

S26 



43. FAPILIONACFJS. [14. PnifliOLrs. 



,14. Phaseolns, L. (French and Kidney Bean). 

Twining or sub-erect herbs with stipellate leafleU, small 
or mod.-sized flowers on the tumid nodes of axillary racemes. 
Corolla much longer than the campanulate calyx, charac- 
terized by the keel being long and spirally twisted, and en- 
closing the filiform style. Stigma very oblique. Pod 
usually linear, more or less septate. 

1. P. calcaratus^ ^oxb. Sutri, S., H. 

A slender twiner with that part of the stem bearing the 
racemes often leafless, stems and petioles with reflex ed 
brown hairs. Small yellow flowers in very short often long- 
peduncled racemes. Podrlf by ^", pubenilous. 

Wild (or an escape) in Sal forests in Singbhum {e.g^ between Nakti 
and Tebu), Santal P., Wood (wild or onlt. ?). Fla. Aug.-Sept. Pr. Sept.- 
Oct. 

Lflts. softly hairy both sides, broad-ovate or rhomboid acaminate, or 
npper narrow-oblong, usually more or less lobed, base straight or obtuse, 
larger 4 by 3". Stipules oblong |", base produced rounded. Peduncleg 
2-4". Racemes 5" elongating to 1". Fls. | broad. Bracteoles setaoeoaa. 
Pod 9-12~seeded. 

2. P. aconitifolius, /acg. Mnng, K. ; Bir-moch (The 
wild form) S. ; Moth, H. 

Procumbent with long spreading hairs. Easily recognized by* its 
leaflets being deeply cut into 3-5 linear or linear-oblong sagments 1^-3* 
long, hairy. 8ti/pules f" lanceolate acuminate, attached above the base. 
Stipellae setaceous. Lower petioles 4-5''. Peduncles 3-3^". Rdoemei 
3-6-fld. Bracts setaceous ^". Calyx minute, tube ^V, teeth 5 equal aboat 
half as long. 8t. i" broad. Pods about 8-seedjed. 

Wild in dry situations in Manbhnm, Camp.; Santal P., TTood, wild? 
Often cultivated on a small scale in the other districts. 

3. P. trilobuS, -^ii' Mugani, Beng, 

Very similar to the last but stems nearly glabrous, the oentral lobei 
of the 3-lobed leaves spathulate instead of ILaeaxroblong and stipales 
oblong. Said to be wild in all the provinces of Bengal, Prain. 

4. P. sublobatus, Eoacd. Syn. P. trinervluB, F.B.L Ghora mang, 
! Beng, 

327 



14 Phaseolus.] 43. PAPILIONACE^. [15. Vigna. 

A climber similar to P. oaloaratus, but poda, like the stems, densely 
beset with rusty hairs, slightly compressed, septate. Eacemes eubr 
capitate. 

Ch. Nagpnr, Prain C* Bengal Plants "). 

Several species of this genus are cultivated as field and 
garden crops : — 

5. P. Mungo, L. Var. Roxburghii, Prain (P. radiatus, Roxb.) Ramrt 
K. ; Bir san, 8. ; Urid, H. ; Mash-kalai, Beng. Not Mung, Beng. 

6. P. radiatus, L. (P. Mungo, Boxb.) JIugi, K. ; Mung, Beng. Th : 
Green Gram. 

P. vulgaris is the French or Haricot Bean and P. multiflonit 
the Scarlet Bunner. 

For an elucidation of the synonomy of the Phaseoli vide Prain, 
Joornal of the Asiatic Society, LXYI, II, 2. 



15. Vigna, Savi. 



Habit and characters of Phaseolns, but the keel not spij-al 
(except in V. vexillata which is iatermediate). Ovary many- 
ovuled. Style long, filiform, bearded along the iuner face 
below the oblique stigma as in Phaseolus. 

1. V. vexillata, Benth. Bir ghangra, S, 

A slender twiner with tnberoxiB roots, scabrid stems, 
narrow leaflets, and large flat pale purple flowers in few-tid. 
capitate racemes on very long peduncles. 

Especially ihe higher Porahat forests in SingbhtiiD"; Manbhum, Camp. 
Fls. July-Oci, 

Lflts. lanceolate 6|'' by If" oiten flashed with white near the mid-rib, 
minutely scabridly hairy above and on nerves beneath, base rounded. 
P«iio/e 2-3". Peduncle 6-9". Racemes 2-4rfld. Fls. U" diam. keel nearly 
spiral. Pods narrowly linear straight 4" by ^s" with short brown hairs, 
aiHODore seeded. 

The roots are eaten as well as the beans. 

2. V. Catjang) Endl. Galjaramba, Ho. ; Rambara, M. ; 
Qhangra, S.; Barbati, Beng. 

An erect herb with long trailing branches 2-3 ft.f or a 
climber (var. sineneis, Prain). Terminal leaflet rhomboid or 

328 



I 



15. ViGNA.] 43, PAFILIONACEM [16. Dolichos. 

sab-hastate acute with obtnse base. Fls. 1'' genuuate on the 
swollen nodes of few-fld. axillary racemes, nsnally pale yellow 
tinged with purple or pale blue and white (in the var.) Pod 
long linear 8-12" and 15-seeded or (in the twiner), 1-2 ft. 
and 23-seeded, with intervals between the seeds. 

Commonly cultivated. Fls., Fr. Aug.-Nov. 

Nearly glabrous. Terminal leaflet 2|'' by Ik" to 5" by ^\ Baehis |- 
14", and petiole 3-5'' chanelled or sub-alate. Stipules |-|'', rarely only I*," 
oblong aouminate with a lanceolate often curved auricle. Pedundet 
exceeding the petioles. Standard sub-orbicular, with 2 ridges and 2 
email callosities above the claw ( ? absent in the erect formj. Stigma sub- 
capitate in the twiner, very oblique in the erect form. 



16. Dolichos. L. 

Sab-erect or twining herbs with minute sob-persistent 
bracts bracteoles^ and stipules. Fls. several axillary, or 
racemose with sharply bent obtuse or rostrate keel. Ovary 
many-ovuled. Styles bearded down the inner face (D. 
Lablab) or round the terminal stigma (D. bifloms). Pod 
flat recuryed. 

1» D. Lablab, L. Sim, Sirmi, E. ; H. ; Malhan, malal, 
5., M. ; Shim, Beng. 

A twiner with rather stout puberalous branches and red- 
purple flowers I" long in terminal racemes 3-6* long on long 
peduncles. Pod 1|-2|", often only slightly recurved, wider 
upwards and tipped with the style, frequently white with the 
margms slightly crisped. 

Very commonly cultivated by the Kola and Santals on sticks or Imahes 
near their houses. Fls. Od.-Oec. Fr. Nov.-Jany. Perennial, bat 
cultivated as an annual. One variety is sub-etect. 

', Lilts, slightly pubescent esp on the nerves, terminal 2-3* long and 
I broad, broadly ovate or deltoid, shortly finely acuminate, base 5-n^rved. 
Feti. 3'. Brctls. closely adpressed to calyx ^a'- Calyx \''. Seeds 2-4. 

j 2. D. biflorus, i. Here, M.; Hoe: fi^o.7 Horec, 8.; 

Kurti, Kulti, E. The Horse Gram. 

,1 329 



16. DoLicHos.] 43. PAPILIOHJACE^. [17. Bdtba. 

Erect with twining branclies, pubescent or hairy all oyer. 
Fls. 3-4 together, axillary on a very short peduncle, 
yellow. 

One of the commonest field crops in Singlibum and jrenoral througl - 
out Chota Nagpnr. ^\b. Oct.-'Nov^ Ft. Nov. -Dec. 

Ljlts. 2'' by 1" or Bmaller, o^ate-oblong acute. Stipules ^'' lanceolate. 

Standard | by ^^^''. Keel oblong falcate. Pod 1^-2'', hairy, falcate, 
4r6 seeded. 

Eaten by the natives bat said to be inferior, chiefly grown as a cattle 
and horse food. 

17. Butea, Roxb. 

Trees or climbing shrubs with large tS-foIiolate stipellate 
leaves and large showy red flowers fascicled in axillary or 
terminal racemes or panicles. Calyx broadly campanulate 
with short teeth. Petals nearly equal. Standard recurved. 
Keel much curved. St. diadelphous. Ovary 2-ovuled. 
Pod coriaceous splitting round the single apical seed. 

1. B. frondosa, BoAh. Morud, K.; Mump', S. ; Paras, 
Beng., Kharw. ; Dhak, H, 

A small or mod.-sized tree with crooked trunk and black 
nodose branchlete, with handsome flowers which are produced 
in great profusion on the thickened nodes of the branches ; 
and are l|-2" long. 

One of the commonest trees in Chota N^ptir and often gregarions 
in ooltivated and waste lands, especially in Hazariba^ET and Falamao. 
Fls. Feby.- April. Fr. May- June. Dec. Fehy.-May. 

Young shoots tomentose. Lfits. 4-8" strorgly veined and silky 
beneath with a pecaliar greyifih bne when seen from a distance. Pedicels 
and calyx brown-velvety. Pods 4-7" by 1^2'', 

On blazing the tree a red juice issnes which hardens into a red 
astringent gum nsed in diarrhoea. The seeds are anthelmintic. The 
leaves are nsed as fodder and for manure. The bark of the roots gives 
a fibre for ropes, and the flowers a dye. Lac is sometimes cultivated un it, 

2. B. snperba, Boxh, Morud, K,; Nari-murup*, 8,; 
Doiang, Kharw, 



330 



H 



17. BtJTEA.] 43. PAPILIONACBJE, [18. Spatholobus. 

A large woody climber witli very large leaflets and the 
branches crowded when leafless with gorgeous orange-scarlet 
flowers 2-21" long. 

Common in the dry forests of Singblitim, amd Manbhnm. Commoa 
on the Damnda Ghats and in the Urunga River valley (PalamauK 
HaZaribagh. Probably thronghout Cholia Nagpur. Fla. March-April. 
Fr. June-July. Deciduous Feb.-May. 

The leaves are sometimes confused with those of Spatholobas, Dnt the 
leaflets are very much larger uanally 12'18'' and attain sometimes 20'' 
in young plants, submgose and dull above and more strongly nerved 
beneath wiuh the nervales raised and distinctly pubescent while the 
areoles are nearly glabrous. Racemes 12'' long. Pedicels S-times as loi^ 
as calyx. Pod like that of B. f rondosa. 

The economic properties are very similar to those of B. frondoaa. 

Roxburgh remarksthat " the colours are so exceedir^gly vivid that 
my best painter has not. been able, with hia utmost skill, to imitate their 
orightness. When in flower, I do not think the vegetable world offers 
a more gaudy show." 



f8. Spatholobns, Hassk. 

Large ^pody climbers, twining Tat least in S. Eox- 
burghii) from right to left. Stipnles small, Iflts. stipellate. 
Fls. small fascicled at the nodes of panicled racemes, nodes 
tnmid or only slightly so. Calyx campanulate. Corolla 
exsert, petals sub-equal or standard largest. Keel nearly 
straight, obtnse. St. 2-adelphous. Ovules 2. Pod like 
I that of Butea. 

I 1. S. RoxburgMi, Benth. Bandu, Bandan, K". ; Cihnt, 
) S. The fruit ' Bando ' : Bendo in Jaspur, Wood ; Bibri, 
! Kharw. ; Mania, H. (The Kol name Moru sometimes quoted 
1 arises from confusion with Butea), 

j Trunk attaining 2-3 ft. girth, Jjark smooth. Wood with 

i deep-red concentric bast bands. Lflts. 4-9" by 3-6^", 

obtnse or shortly acuminate cuspidate shining aboye-strongly- 

nerved (but tertiaries not very prominent), minutely silky 

beneath. Fls. cream-cold., ^V' ^ong 2-3 togeiiier on the nodes 

331 

i 



18. SP1TH0L0BU8.] 43. PAPILIONACEJS. [24. Abbu». 

of the dense racemes. Pods 5-4" bj^ |-1|', brown velvety, 
stipitate. 

Common, especially in the Sal forests in the valleys. Fls. Aug.-Bec. 
Ft. Decr.-Jany. 

The seeds give an oil used for cooking anu for anointing. The bark 
gives a fibre. The red gum resembles that of Botea. Lac is sometimes 
eoHected from b('th it and the Butea. 

Clitoria ternatea, L. The Massel-sheU creeper. 

A very pretty slender climber with large blue flowers 1^2''-^ 
ITanaUy near houses, not indigenous. 

Cieei arietlnnin, L. Moral jam, K. • Bhut, 8., H. ; Ghana. 
Beng. The Gram, Chick-pea. A pretty much branched viscous herb 
6^ high.. The rachis with pinnate leaves 1-2" long, toothed leaflets 
and single axillary binieh-purple flowers f-|''. Pod oblong |-1", 2-8eeded. 

A common cold-weather crop. Fls., Jany.-Feby. 

Houses are largely fed on it as well as sheep. 

X*eii8 esculenia, Moench. (Cioer Lens, Ervnm Lens, L.) Masur, 
Masut, Maanri-dal, H. The Lentil. Has a somewhat similar habit, 
1-SS ft. high. The rachis of the leaves ends in a bristle or small tendril, 
•8 also does the short axillary peduncle which bears about two small 
white or pale-bloe flowers. Lflts. pubescent narrow. Pod 2-seeded. 
VIb, Jany. 'March. Occasionally cnltivated. 

Lathyms sativus, L. Kansari, K., H. is a very pretty little 
nlant with winged stems, L. with 2 linear lflts. and a tendril, and solitary 
bright blue flowers f". Cultivat<<d on a small scale and apparently wild.. 
The dal if eaten largely produces paralysis both in cattle and human 
beings. 

XiathyrtiB Aphaca, L. is a small herb very interesting morpho- 
logically from the entire reduction of the leaves to tendrils, and the 
large development of its stipules which assume the leaf functions. Fls. 
yellow. Not unc<^mmon in fields. ' 

Pisum arvense, L. Batura, K.; Batui, Ho.; Matai H, The Field 
PM is f^ten cultivated. Fls. March. 



24:» Abrns, u 

Shmbby or sufFrnticoae twiners with pari-pinnate leaves, 
nnmerons lflts. and racbis ending in a point, Fls. small 
pedicelled fascicled on the swollen nodes of axillary racemes 

332 



or short axillary branclilefcs. Calyx campanulate with very 
short teeth. Standard ovate short clawed slightly adnate to 
the staminal tube. Stamens 9 tube slit above. Oyary 
sub-sessile, ovules several. Pod flat or turgid. 

1. A. precatorins, i. Kawet, S, ; Karjain, h.narw, ; 
Rati (The seeds) H. ;■ Karjani, Oraon .?, M. ; Indian 
Liquorice, Crabs-eyes (The seeds). 

An elegent twining slender shrub with leaves 2-3^" long 
of 10-20 pairs of leaflets |-|" by ^-\", small reddish or 
white flowers |" in crowded racemes 3 -3" long. Pode about 
1\'' long turgid. Seeds polished round scarlet or white with 
a black eye. 

Hedges and waste ground on bushes, in all the districts, frequent. 
Fls. Sept.'Oct. Fr Nov.-Dec. Ripe seed also found in May. Deciduous. 

Very pretty in ripe fruit when the pods open and disclose the 
scarlet seeds. The seeds contain a powerful poisonous alkaloid and are 
said to be used for poisoning cattle by hypodermic injection. They «e 
used for nervous affections and externally in skin diseases, alopecia, etc. 

35. Pougamia, Vent. 

A tree with impari-pinnate leaves and opposite exstipulate 
Iflts. Pis. pink in fascicles on the rachis of axillary racemes. 
Calyx campanulate, nearly truncate. Cor. exserted. Keel 
obtuse with petals cohering at tip. St. monadelphous, or 
upper JSI. free at the base. Ovary sub- sessile 2-ovuled. Pod 
flattened woody, indehiscent, oblong with a short curved 
point. 

1. P. glabra. Vent. Karanj, K. ; Kuruinj, S. 

A small or mod.-sized tree with leaves 8- 14" long with 
5-7 shining leaflets 3-8" long and lilac flowers |", 2-4-nate 
with pedicels |-f" 'in fruit. Calyx brown. Pod l-seeded 
H-2" long. 

Frequently self-sown and apparently wild along nalas in Singh ham. 
Seldom, if ever, found wild in Manbhum, Camp. Very commonly 

Slanted throughout Chota Nagpur. F\b. May -June. Fr. Dec.-Jowy. Dec. 
fay and renews leaves at the end of the same month. 

333 



i 



25. PoNQAMU.] 4,9. PAPILIONACJEM [27. Dalbeboia. 

The pods are very largely collected by the natives for the valuable 
oil which is largely used for skin diseases and for burning. 

A wonderful tree for adapting itself to diverse conditions, growing 
well with its roots in salt water, or fresh water, or exposed to the hot 
dry winds of Cbota Nagput on road embankments. 

26. Pterocarpus, L. 

Large trees. L. with alt. exstipellate Iflts. Fl©. yellow in 
copious panicled racemes. Calyx turbinate curved in bud, 
teeth short. Corolla exserted. Petals crisped, keel obtuse, 
petals not or slightly connate. St. 10, monadelphous, or 
9 + 1 or 5 + 5. Ovary stipitate 2-ovuled. Pod flat orbicular, 
winged all round, seed 1 rarely 2. 

1. P. Marsupium, Roxh. Hid, K. ; Murga, S. ; Bia, 
Kharw. ; Bija-sal, Paisar, H. 

A large or mod.-aized tree with 5-7 close parallel- 
veined Iflts. and terminal and axillary crisped yellow flowers. 

Valleys and north aspects near valleys. Singbhnm, freqnent 
Manbhum ; Hazaribagh ; Ranchi ; Palamau ; S. P. (Gumra Protected 
Forest). Fls. Oct. Ft. Vec.-Feby. Evergeen or nearly so, the leaves are 
renewed May-June. 

Lflts. oblong obtuse both ends, or apex retuse, 3-5'' long, glauoons 
beneath. Racemes dense flowered in panicles 6-10" long and broad. 
Calyx brown»green, longer than, and articulate with , the pedicel. Corolla 
twioe the calyx, ^". St^minal-sheath 2 -fid. Pod 1-lf" diam. 

A red juice exudes on blazing the tree similar to that of Butea. It 
Boon hardens and forms the Gum Kino of European medicine, an astrin- 
gent, valuable in diarrhoea. The leaves are a good fodder. 

Var. acuminata, Prain, Lflts. ovate acute or acuminate. Poda 
mnoh larger than ;in the type. Bajmehdl hills, Prain. 

The best tree for planking in Ch. Nagpur and deserves to be 
largely planted as the supply is very limited. 

27. Dalbergia, L. fll. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent. L. with alt. exsti- 
pellate leaflets. Fls. small in axillary or terminal panicles. 



834. 



i 



"£1. Dalbeeqia.J 43. FAFILWJSACMM. 

Corolla usually only shortly exserted. Wings oblong as long 
as the broad standard, keel obtuse, petals joined at the tip. 
St. 910, monadelphous or diadelphous 9-f-l- or 5 + 5 
Ovary stipitate few-ovuled. Style short, stigma capitate 
Pod flat, usually oblong, thin and veined opp. to the seeds, 
indehiscent, seeds 1-4. 

Eoot-suckers are very common in this gonna. The ^ pods usnally 
remain long: on the tree, and the seeds germimte within it after it has 
become softened by the first monsoon rains, the radicle penetrating tke 
pericarp close to the suture. 

Trees. St. 9, sheath split along the top, Lflts. 
large roundish. 

Lflts. 3-5 cuspidate. Corolla yellowish • 1. Sissoo. 

Lflts. 5-7 orbicular obtuse or emarginate. 

Fls. white . , . . • , 2. latifolia. 

Trees. St. diadelphous, 54-5. 

Fls. pedicelled. Corolla pale-pink. Upper 

calyx-lobes obtuse • . . • 3. lanceolaria, 

Fls. sub-sessile. Corolla bluish-white. All 

calyx-lobes acute . . • . • 4. paniculata* 

Climbing shrubs. 

St. 5 + 5. Lflts. 1" and more long . . 5. voluhilis. 

St. 9 + 1. Lflts. |-1" long , , , . 6, tamarindifolia^ 

!• D. Sissoo, Roxh. Shisham, H, The Sissu. 

Lflts. usually 5, broadly ell., ovate or obovate or orbicular 
CTispidate, 1-3'. Panicles dense, densely pubescent, 2-3" long. 
Cor. yellowish, twice the calyx or less. Pod strap-shaped 
stipitate with cuneate base 1-3'*, 1-3 rarely 4-seeQed. 

This well-known tree is not native in Ch. Nagpur, and is never seen to 
gti it advantage there, though commonly planted. Miserable specimens 
put into hea\ry' clay, a soil entirely unsuited to it, are often seen along 
road-sides. Fls. with the new leaves in March-April. The pods ripen in 
next cold weather and usually remain on the tree until the flowerinf 
season. Seeds germinate June- July f 

2. D, latifolia? Boxh. Kiri, X, ; Mahle, Sfttsayar, S, ; 
Sitsal, E, J Blackwood, Rosewood, 

335 



i 



43. FAPILIONACE^. [27. Dalbebgu. 

A small tree. Lflto. sub-orbicular with round t)r emargiuate 
tip, 1-4", glabrous. FIs. pure white in very numerous lax 
axillary and termii^al panicles 2-4" long. l*od relatively 
brcader than in Sissu 1-3 rarely 4-seeded. 

Not uncommon as a small tree. esp. on cool asoects and along streams, 
but it has been largely cut out in Singbhum. A large tree, common in the 
Tundi forests, Campbell ; Hazaribagh (Topchanohi, Sita^arah hill); 
Palamau (Kuru-Chandwar, etc.); 8. P. scarce. 

FIs. Sept., when the tree is in full leaf, often from the old leaf scars. 
Fr. Jany.-Feb. A valuable wood. 

Lflts. usually very unequal on the same rachis. Petiolules ^4*' 
Pedicels ^"-i". Calyx white J^*. Corolla tvp^>« as long. Pods 1^'' 
by |"-|'' stipitate. 

3. p. lanceolaria, L' Koiad, Kiacbalom, K.; Chapot 
Siris, S.; Hardi, J^harw. 

A mod.-sized tree« somewliat resembling a 'Sins', but 
leaves simply pinnate reaching 1 ft. with 9-12 (or on the 
smaller leaves fewer) oblong, ell. or obovate-oblong lflts. 
FIs. white or tinged with pink with a purple calyx on 
unilateral racemes arranged in axillary fulvous-pubescent 
panicles 2-4" long. Pod 2-4" by J-f", 1-3-seeded narrowed 
both ends and often sinuate between the seeds. 

Valleys in Singbhum and Gangpur, usually near water. Manbhum and 
Hazaribagh, frequent on the hills. Banchi, esp. on ghats. Palamau. S. P. 
(Silingi, Gamble). Fla. April-May with the new leaves. Fr. Bept-Jany 
Nearly evergreen. 

Innovations yellow-sillty. Btip*jJes linear-oblong caduco 8. Lfiti- 
reaching 2^'' by \\" emarginate with few short scattered hairs both sides, 
base obtuse rarely acute. Sec. n. numerous oblique, reticulate between. 
Fh. \" articulate. Calyx ^". Stalk of pod H". 

A young forest of suckers springs up around tms tree suosequent to 
the trampling of the surface roots by cattle. 

There are two forms : — <*• Panicles and racemet lax. FU. nearly J" 
CaZyx hs^ry with the anterior- lobe about ^-fth length of tube. 

/3. Roxemes very dense in very numerous close panicles. Fl8.-<^"-i''. 
Calyx densely hairy with the anterior lobe as long as tube. S. P. 

4. D. paniculata, Roxb. 

The only record of this from Ch. Nagpur, or indeed from Bengal, ia 
by Gamble in a list at the end of a Forest Report (1885). It is so like D. 



336 



f 



27. Dalbebqia.] 43. FAFILIONACE^. [28. Deebis. 

lancGolaria in leaf that it is quite possible that a mistake was made in 
identification ; on the other hand it is possible that it has been mistaken 
for lanceolaria by other observers. In addition to the characters given 
in the key, it is easily recognized by the bands of phlo6m in the wood 
(vide Brandis in Indian Trees). Gamble (Ind. Timbers) states that it is 
easily recognized by its tall grey stem. 

5. D. Volubilis, Roxh. Nari Siris, K., 8. 

A sarmentose and scandent shrub with long green branches, 7-13- 
foliolate leaves and pale-purple flowers in ample terminal panicles. 

Valleys Singbhum, Gangpur, Manbhum, S. P. Pis. Feby. Fr. Af ay- 
June. 

L. 3-10" long. Lflts. oblong attaining 3i'' by 1^" but usually only 
|-H" on flowering branches, obtuse or retuse, apiculate, nearly glabrous. 
Panicles rusty pubescent or tomentose up to 20" long, lateral branches 
3-5". Fh. H'' pedicelled, dense. Pods oblong 2-3^" by H", stipitate, tip 
rounded. Seeds 1-2, ellipsoid slightly renif orm iV''« 

6. D. tamarindifolia, Roxh. 

A large shrub scrambling or climbing by means of its 
recurved peduncles, with the branchlets and leaf-rachis 
fulvoua ptfJDescenfc. L. 4-7" with 12-20 prs. of oblong leaflets 
|-1* long. Fls. white in brown-pubescent panicles. Pod 
1^-3", 1-3-seeded, linear-oblong. 

Eavines in the northern Santal Parganahs (north of Banjhi). Fla. 
March'April. Fr. April -May. 

Lflts. sub-sessile oblong with oblique base somewhat gibbons on the 
upper side, appressed fulvous-hairy beneath, apex rounded or retuse. 
Fls. in congested sessile axillary panicles with corymbose branches 
{F.B.I.), or in lateral short ovate dense racemes (Roxh.). The old inflor- 
escences in the S. P. appear to have been large and terminal, probably 
due to the falling of the upper leaves. 

38. Derris, Lour, 

Derris ia very closely allied to Millettia, the habit is 
identical, and except for the greater adhesion of the wing aiid 
keel the flowers are similar. The pod differs by. always being 
winged either on one or both sutures and is usually thin. 
The pod is always indehi scent. 

Lflts. lanceolate 1-3". Pod i" or less broad , . .1. scandens. 
Lflta. oblanceolate 1^-7^", Pod over J" broad . . .2. cuneifdia. 

337 



28. Deebis.} 4S. PAFILIONACE^, [29. Milletia* 

1. D. scandens, Benth. 

A very large evergreen climber with leaves 3-6" long, 
3-6 prs. of lane, or ell. lanceolate Iflts. 1-3" long and rose 
cold, fis. witli slender pedicels fascicled on the nodes of 
slender axillary racemes 6-10", i.e., much longer than the 
leaves. 

Pods narrow 1-3" by J-|" winged along the npper suture, 
1-4-seeded. 

Prain states that this is found in all the Bengal provinces, but I have 
no record of it from Ch. Nagpur. It occurs, however, in Bankura. Fls. 
Jvly. Ft. c. s. 

2. D. cuneifolia, Benth. 

A large woody climber with tnbercled branches. Leaf* 
rachis 3-10" long, thick at base. Lflts, 4-5 rarely 3 prs., 
oblanceolato, oblousf-obovate or narrow-ell. attain 7|" by 3", 
but may be only 1 J" by |" at thel)ase of the rachis. Racemes 
very short, 1-4" only. 

Eavines in the Santal P. near Banjhiv Fls. April-May, Fr. Nov.- 
Jany. 

L. od|d or even-pinnate. Young lflts, slightly ferruginous-pubescent, 
base roun.ded, sec. nerves 8-10 prs., slender, finely reticulate between. 
Petiolule % blackish. Fruiting calyx I'' diam. Pod about 2|'' by 1'' very 
thin, very narrowly winged down both sutures (or, down the upper suture 
only, F.B.L), venose, sessile in the calyx. 

39. Millettia, W. ^ A. 

Large woody climbers or sub-erect in youth, with odd- 
pinnate leaves and opp. leaflets, Fls. in axillary or terminal 
simple or panicled racemes. Petals with long claws, standard 
broad, keel not beaked. St. mon- or di-adelphous. Ovary 
sessile linear few-ovuled. Style filiform incurved glabrous. 
Stigma capitate. Pod linear or oblong, 1- or few-seeded. 

Standard not auricled. St. diadelphoua. Pod torulose, 
dehiscent !• racemosa. 

Standard auricled. St. monadelphous. Pod flat, very 
tardiiy dehiscent 2. aurimlata. 






333 



I 



29. MiLLETTiA.] 43. PAI'ILIONACEJS. [30. Tepheosia, 

1. M. racemosa, Benin, 

A large climbing shrub with leaves about 1 ft. long and 
5-7 prs. of nearly glabrous Iflts. Fls. |" close in axillary, and 
terminal panieled racemes. Pods 4-8" by J-|" linear, torulose 
with 2-4 tapering segments, black and readily dehiscent 
when ripe. 

Valleys, Santara Forest, rare ; Eajmehal hills in ravines, rare. 

Fls. A^ril -May^ Fr. NovrJany. Dec. in March. 

Innovations tomentose. Lflts. oblong-obovate shortly often obtusely 
cuspidate sometimes wavy, brown-silky beneath along the midrib, 
terminal largest about 3" by 1^", or 4'' by 2''. Petiole thinly silky. 8tipell<» 
setaceous exceeding the petiolule. Corolla (vide F.B.I., I have not seen it) 
H" whitish. 

2. M. auriculata, ^aA;er. Hel, K.i Hehel, 8, ; Gurar, 
Kharw. 

A large shrub sub-erect or climbing with leaves 1-2 ft. 
long and 3-4 prs. oi strongly nerved leaflets thinly silky 
beneath. Fls. |-|" cream-cold, fascicled on numerous racemes 
4-9" long which are oftea clustered on short stout axillary 
peduncles. Pod flat woody tomentose, 4-6" by |" with 
thickened sutures. 

Often erect sind in this state forming a dense undergrowth in many of 
the valley forests of Singbhum. Sal forests and valleys throughout Chota 
Nagpur. Fla. April- June. Fr. J any. -March. 

Innovations silky-tomentose. Lflts. obovate-oblong cuspidate 3-8" 
long, terminal longest. Sec. n. 8-12 prs. StipellcB minute. Bacemet 
dense silky. Fls. fascicled. 

Cut as a fodder. The root, like some other species of Millettia, is 
used to kill fish. It is also used for killing insects on cattle sores. 

30. Tephrosia^ Pers. 

Shrubs or herbs with odd-pinnate leaves and opposite 
lflts. exstipellate. Fls. fascicled axillary or on racemes which 
are usually leaf-opposed. Calyx teeth 6 sub-equal. Standard 
sub-orbicular distinctly, clawed. Keel incurved not spurred. 

$39 



aU. TEPHBOSIA.J 4iS. I'AlflhlUJSAVJi^. [31. iNDIGOFEBA. 

St. 94-1, anthers oblong, obtuse. Pod linear compressed, 
several -seeded, not or obscurely septate within. 

1. T. purpurea, Fers. Sarphuka, Kharw, 

Shrubby 2 ft. high with downy angled branches, leaves 
2-6" long with 4-9 pra. of oblong to oblancealate Iflts. |-1" by 
i" 2 ' appressed silky beneath and purple or purple-grey flowers 
in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes. 

Waste ground, very common and often gregarious. 

Fls. July-Jany. Fr. Oct-June. 

Lfits. obtuse apiculate with distinct parallel oblique nerves. Calyx 
i"^'' canescent, teeth 8ubulate=tube or two upper rather shorter. Corolla 
k'' silky. Pod 1^2'' slightly curved flat 6-12-seeded. 

2. Var. pumila, Pers. (sp.). Stems prostrate, ijfits. seldom more than 
4-6 prs. This is kept distinct in " Bengal Plants, " but there appears to 
be no distinction except the habit, the other characters given are 
variable. Common. 

3. T, Candida, B.C., is a handsome shrub with racemes 
of white flowers. RSnchi, cult. Fls. r. s. 



31. Indigofera, L. 



Herbs or shrubs with usually adpressed forked hairs 
(I. hirsuta has simple basifixed hairs) and odd-pinnate rarely 
1-3-foliolate leaves. Fls. reddish bracteate in axillary 
racemes or spikes. Calyx teeth 5 usually many times longer 
than the tube, sub-equal. Standard ovate or orbicular. Keel 
petals gibbous or spurred. St. 9-}- 1, anthers apiculate. Pod 
various, usually more than 1-seeded and narrow, septate. 

I. L. 5-or more-foliolate (rarely fewer in 3). 

a. Shrubs. 

Fls. H". Lflts. 13-17 oblong or obovate- 

oblong . !• arhorea. 

Fls. i". Lflts. 9-13 obovate . . .2. tinctoria. 

b. Suffruticose or herbaceous. 

Eacemee lax 2-4-fld. ... .3. glabra. 

Eacemes very dense, spiciform . , . .4. hirsuta. 
Eacemee capitate. Branches trailing . . 5. §nneaphylla 

340 



1 



II. L. 3-foliolate. 

Erect 2-3 ft. End leaflet sessile . . .6. trita. 
Branches trailing or sub-erect. End leaflet 
stalked 7. trifoliata. 

III. L. simple. 

Small weeds only, of which I, linifolia has a 
small quite globose 1-seeded pod. The 
roots are often copiously tubercled. 

!• I. arborea, Roxh. (Syn. I. puUhella of the P.B.I, 
and the better known name, but vide Prain " Bengal Plants '* 
p. 1274). Hutar, Utar. K.; Dare hntar, S.; Jirhnl, Jirul, 
Kharw. 

A much-branched shrub 4-8 ft. high with impari-pinnate 
leaves 3-6" L^ng, usually 6-8 prs. of oblong or oblung-obovate 
opp. and sub-opp. Iflts. j-l" long and numerous rather dense 
racemes of bright pink flowers. Caducous silky bracts only 
covering the very voung buds. Pods straight slender 1 J-2'' 
loDg, sutures thickened. 

Very common in forests on the hUls. Fls. Nov.-Fehy. Fr. Feby.- 
April. Quite deciduous in very dry seasons, usually, partially so. 

Branches sulcate with grey appressed hairs, glabrescent. Lflts. i'' by 
V to 1^'' by f, obtuse or emarginate apiculate appressed hairy both 
sides. Base rounded. Racemes axillary and from leaf scars 1-4" with 
oblong cuspidate brads j-^''. Fls. |-|'' pink. Calyx small cup-shaped 
oblique subpetaloid 5-toothed pubescent. Standard broadly elliptic ^'' 
broad, not clawed or spurred. 

The flowers are eaten. " A decoction of the root is given for cough," 
Camp. 

A form is found in Manbhum with black scalea in addition to the 
ordinary hairs. 

2. I, tinctoria, L, Ceylon Indigo, JNil, Lil, 5". 

An erect shrub with thinly-hairy branches and leaves 2-3" long. 
Pods nearly straight 8-12-seeded. 

Prain distinguishes I. tinctoria and I. sumatrana. They are united in 
the P.B.I. I have no specimens. It is said to occur wild in Chota Nagpui, 
Vid Wood says that it is cultivated in Manbhum. 

3. I. glabra, L. Syn. I. peutaphyila, F.B.L 

341 



31. Indiqopeba.] 43. PAPILION'ACHJE, [32. Sjisbanu. 

A common plant about 1-2 ft. high with very numerous hranches. 
Pods very slender 1-1^'^ long. Often only a dwarf weed. *. Chiefly on sandy 
soil. Fls., Fr. Aug.-Jany. 

4. I. hirsuta, L. 

Erect 2-3 ft. high. Whole plant with spreading pubescence or on the 
leaves ad'pressed hairs. KacetYies 1-2'' long. Fods terete strongly reflexed 
^1" long hairy. Frequent. Fls. Aug. Fr. Dec.-Jany. 

5. I. enneaphylla, L. and 7. I. trifoliata, L. are mere weeds of 
waste ground. 

6. I. trlta, L. is a rare woody undershrub. Ch. Nagpur, Prain, 

33. Sesbaiiia, Pers. 

Slender soft-wooded trees or shrubs of quick growth 
and short duration, n;iore rarely herbaceous. L. pari-pinnate, 
with numerous usually ligulate leaflets. Fls. in axillary 
racemes. Corol'a much longer than calyx with lon^-clawed 
petals. Ovary linear stipitate many-ovuled. Style filiform 
incurved. Pod very slender, dehiscent, septatfe between the 
very numerous seeds. 

1. S. acaleata, Fers. Chaipijan, K. 

An. annual shrub 8-6 ft. high obscurely muricate or 
with weak prickles, pinnate leaves with 20-40 prs. of 
Iflts. 1-1|'' long and yellow flowers dotted with black on 
slender racemes 4 6" long. 

In damp open grassy ground, common. Fls. Aug.-Sept. Fr. Sept.-Gct. 

L. 6-12". Fls. ^'. Pod. straight or curved 6-9". 

, 2. S. segyptiaca, Fers, Var. bicolor, W. ^ A. 
Jainti, Beng. 

A large shrub or small tree with leaves 4-6" long end- 
ing in a point, 12-21 prs. of close=aet linear-oblong leaflets 
f-1 J" long and lax axillary racemes of orange and deep red 
flowers. 

Gardens and waste ground. Often coming up in a curious spontane- 
ous-like way. FIp., Fr. Nov.-Jany. 

Racemes shorter than leaves 2-8-fld. Fls. I" long, standard f-l'' broad. 
Pod twisted 6-9'' 

342 



3. S. grandiflora, Pers. Agati, Vern. is a liandsome verj short- 
lived small tree with very large white flowers often seen in gardens. 

iEschynomene indica, L. and 2E. aspera, L. both occur in wet 
places, the former is common but the latter, the pith of which gives ' sola,' 
is very rare. They are both soft-wooded undershrubs with small linear 
leaflets, the former with the habit of Sesbania, the latter very much 
stouter. The pods somewhat resemble those of Desmodium and split up 
into 1-seeded joints, those of aspera being usually scabrous opposite the 
seed. 

The genus Smlthia may be distingxdshed by the joints of the pods 
being folded together and included in the calyx. 

34. Uraria, Desv. 

Undershrubs, often with the habit of Desmodium, bnt 
leaves 1-9 foliolate, stamens often exserfced from the keel. 
Pedicels and setaceons lower calyx-teeth hairy or bristly or 
plumose. Pod of 2-6 small turgid 1-seeded indehiscent joints 
which are often abruptly bent on one anotlier so as to be 
placed face to face. 

L. 1-3-foIiolate often both on the same plant. 

Branches prostrate and ascending . , 1. lagopoides. 

Erect. Racemes very dense 2-4i'' • . 2. alopecurioides. 

Erect. Racemes lax 4-8'' . . . . 3. hanwsa. 

L. 5-9 foliolate, or with I-loliolate intermixed . 4i. picta, 

1. U. lagopoides, B.C. 

Branches from a perennial woody rootstock about 1 ft. L. 
orbic. or oblong 1-2". Heads dense oblong with plumose 
persistent calyx teeth. Joints oblong ^". 

Common in forest and waste ground. Fla., Fr. Aug.-Oct. 

2. U. alopeeurioides, Wi^ht. (U. repanda, F.B.L). 
Vide Prain in Jour. As. Soc. 

L. ovate obtuse 2-4", often clouded. Racemes very 
similar to last with the cuspidate bracts closely imbricate 
in bud and the racemes conspicuous in flower and fruit from 
the hairy pedicels and calyx lobes. 

Common. Jimgles in Hazariba^h. WoocU Fla. r. f» 

a4a 



34. UsAEiA.] 43. PAPILIONACEM, [35. Lespedeza. 

3. U. hamosa, Wall. 

A shrub 3-5 ft. with brown-pubescent branches, ell. 
ovate or oblong Iflts. 2-5|" by 1-2|" and purple fla. in rather 
lax racemes 4-8" long. 

Valley forests, esp. Kundrugatxi block, elev. 2,000 ft. Fls. 8&pt.'0ct. 
Fr. Bee. 

Lflts. acute or obtuse apiculate, base acute or ronnded. Sec. n. abont 
13 pairs strong beneath parallel up to margin with parallel cross nenmles, 
shortly pubescent. Btip. f setaceous. Petiole ^''. Racemes sometimes 
glandular, hairy. Fls. ^^-g''. Calyx-teeth longev th&n tube -fV". Bracts 
orbicular-obovate cuspidate ^-5'. Pod ^'', 6-7-jointed (4-6 F.B.I.) joints 
iV' brown. 

4. U. picta, JDesv. 

An undershrnb 2-4 ft. with the upper leaves 5-9- 
foliolate and with linear leaflets usually clouded along the 
centre. Fls. in dense cylindrical racemes. 

Waste ground in Singbhum, common. Probably in all the districts 
(but it is not mentioned in Wood's list). Fls. 8ept.-Nov. 

Stems pubescent. L. very variable on the same plant, the first are 
usually small and orbicular ; these are succeeded by 3-5-foliolate leaves 
often intermixed with large simple oblong-lanceolate leaves up to 6' by 1^"; 
the leaflets of the upper leaves are usually 5 in number, 4-8'' by $-1". 
The inflorescence is sometimes clothed with golden-yellow hairs (in the 
Duars). Calyx-segments plumose. 



35. Lespedeza, Mich. 
J. L. sericea, Miq. 

An undershrub 2-3 ft. high with long erect slender 
branches and close-set very shortly-petioled 3-f oliolate leaves 
with linear cnneate leaflets in the axils of nearly all of 
which are abbreviated bracteolate racemes of 2-4 small 
white-purplish flowers. Pod of one small oblong 1-seeded 
indehi scent joint. 

Higher hills of Chota Nagpur, Prain Fls. r. s. Pr. Dec.-Jany. 
Suloate sterna and strongly-nerved leaflets silky. Fls. ^''. 

344 



43, PAPILIOSACE^. [36. Desmoijvl' 



36. Desmodiam. Desv. 



Herba or shmbs with pinnatelj 1-3-foliolate stipellate 
leavee, dry nsuallj striate stipnles and sroall white yellow or 
usually recL flowers in uinbels, fascicles, racemss, or jaDicles. 
Corolla exsert with broad standard and wings more or less 
adnate to the keel. Upper stamen connate with the others 
or free. Style incurved. Stig-ma minute capitate. Pod 
crenate at one cr bjth sutures, ultimately dividing into one- 
seeded joints at the indentations, cr in one section c-ominu- 
ously dehiscent aloEg the indented suture. 

A geaus weU repiresented in Chota Nagpur. The following key ia 
taken almost veroatim from Prain's ^' Bei^zL Plants." 

L Pods breakii^ up into 1-eeeded joints. 

A. Leaves trifoliate 

a. Stems diffuse, prostrate 

exceeding 



Fls. 



1. Lflts. not exceeding i"" 
Stems slender tzaaling. 

Fls. 1-3 axillary 

Fls- e-10 in lax 

2. Lfltf, 2-3 \ Sterna etont 

racemed and panicled . 

Stems oeei orrab-ereet. 

1. Baeenes witii large 2'foliolate 

f cliaeeoos Inaets . . . . 

2. BraetB Email simple decidnooB 

t Fls. in short'pednneled axillary 
ambelB. Sbnib 

ft Ha. in man or leas dongate 



B. 



Joinls of pod delnaeent, not longer 
tbulvoad 

Joints c£ pod indeidaeent, moeh 
lomger than htc»d 

Learra 1-foliolate. 
a. Sterna diffoae (or ereat in ChoiaHagpar). 



L. rounded eordate. 



Baeemea deaae 
345 



1. frtjfonxm. 

2. parvijior>jLtn. 

3. dif-'jimTn. 



4- pvlchellum. 

5. CejihaUtet. 

6. polycarpum 

7. lazifiorum. 

8. brachyri<ichyum. 



36. Desmodittm.] 43, PAFILIONACE^. 

h. Stems ereot or snb-eroct. 

Lflts. longer than broad. Eacemes 
lax. Pods glabrescent ... 9. gangetiewm. 

Lflts. broadly ovate. Eacemes dense. 
Pods very pubescent. . , .10. latifolixkm. 

II. Pods continuously debiscent along the ventral 

suture, 

Undershrubs. Lateral lflts. very small or 0, 

linear . . . '. . . ,11. gyrans. 

Large shrub. Lateral lflts. small, oblong or 
ovate . . . 



12. gyroideg. jM 



Spp. 1-3 are frequent in pastures, waste-land and on roadsidaa. 
They flower chiefly in the cold and rainy seasons. 

4. D. pulehelluna, Benth. Bir kapi, S. 

A shrub 3-5 ft, high with grey-hairy branches, easily 

-recognised by the inflorescence which far exceeds the leaves 

and bears double rows of pinnately-2-foliolate coriaceoaB 

bracts (the rachis of which ends in a filiform point), which 

bear in their axils fascicles of small yellow flowers. 

Valleys not uncommon. All the districts. Fls. r. s. Fr. Nov.-Dec. 

Lflts. shortly grey-hairy beneath and on the nerves above, end one ell.- 
or ovate-oblong 3-5'', often sinuate. Sec. n. 7-10 prs. with parallel cross 
nervules. Side leaflets about half as large. Brads orbicular strongly- 
nerved on a short raohis ending In a filiform point. Joints of pod 1"^, 
usually 2. 

5. 0. Cephalotes, Wall' Ramdataon Kharw. (Bir 
jhawar, 8. is almost certainly an error). 

A shrnb 3-6 ft. high with much the habit of the last. 
Branches distinctly 3-cornered, shaggy. Bracts minute 
deciduous. Fls, numerous yellow (red. F.B.I.) in dense 
axillary short-peduncled umbels, often running out into leaf- 
less racemes. 

Valleys, not uncommon in Sal forests in Singbhum ; Mapbhum ; 
Ranchi, fVood', and Palamau, Haslett. Fls. Aug.-Od. Fr. DecJany. 

Lflts. sUkily hairy on the nerves beneath, nearly glabrous above, end 
one ell. acuminate 3-6''. Sec n. fine strong 13-20 prs. with indistinct 
parallel cross nervules. Side leafl'ets half to ftha as long. Fod ^f very 
silky, joint^- 2-5, uauajly 3. 



346 



I 



43. P AP 11.10 N AC J^Jt]. [ 36. DE8M0DIUM. 

6. D. polycarpum, D.G. Basphol. 8, 

A shrub 2-4 ft. usually with very numerous stems. 
Branches with appressed pubescence. Lflts. densely appreas'ed 
silky beneath or glabrescent except on the nerves. Fls. 
purple f in dense terminal often panicled racemes, conspicu- 
ous in bud by the densely imbricating |;"-long bracts. Pod 
brown hairy 5- 7 -jointed. 

Common, especially on the edges of Sal forests in Porahat; Manbhum j 
Hazaribagh (Chorparan jungles). Fls. Sept-Oct. ' Kr. Nov.-Dec. 

Lilts. 1-3" long, end one about l^twice as long as the side ones usually 
2" by V broaplly ell.-oblong or obovate, tip rounded. Bracts with a 
setaceous tip. Pedicels |". Pods |-1'', suture indented about 4th way 
down. Joints g-^'' long and broad, indehiscent. 

7. D. laxiflorum, D.G. 

An undershrub with thin twiggy angled branches clothed 
with short hairs. Long laX often branched racemes of small 
flowers with yellowish-white standard and keel, and wings 
edged with purple, Pod linear 3-7-jointed, joints about 
S-times as long as broad. 

Shady banks in the forests e,^., Latua Block, rare; Hazaribagh 
(common on Parasnathi ; S. P. (Ghormanra). Fls. 8ept.-0ct. Ft. Dec. 

Rootsloch woody but stsms often sub -herbaceous 2-3 ft. End Ifit. 3^-6" 
by H-3'' rhomboid or ell. acute, silky beneKth, side ones about half as 
lonjf. Ro.cetnes reaching 8-10''. Pedicels 5-^'', distant. Joints of pod with 
.miunte tubercle-based hairs. 

The elastic stamens are enclosed in the keel petals and wings, and 
shoot ttie pollen to a distance when the latter are depressed. 

I 8. D. brachystacliyum, Benth 

I Undershrub 1-2 ft. stems adpressed hairy, often erect. 
;L. usually strongly reflexQd on their petioles 1-1 1" by |-|" 
broadly -oblong to sub-orbicular with rounded or sub-cordate 
xise. Fls. small deep-purple in axillary and terminal dense 
racemes f — 1" long. 

j Under light cover in open jungles, Porahfit, eap. neax Hesedi in 
IJiagbhum. Fla. Sept.-Oct. Ft. Dec. 

Lflt' with long adpressed hairs beneath, slightly hairy above, tip 
ottkded or retuae. Brads ovate acuminate ta" pereiatent. Pedicels not 

347 



36, DssMODiUM.] 13. FAPILIONACEM. 

quite aslongr, the end sharply deflexed after flowering. Standard J'' diam, 
Po(Z 1-3-jointed. Joints h' ^7 ra" widely dehiscent when ripe, slightly 
hairy. Seed shining yellow peppered red. 

9. Di gang'eticuin, D.O. Tandi Bhidi Janetet', S» 

An nndershrub or snb-herbaceous with sub-erect or erect 
or trailing stems 3-4 ft. long. Lflts. oblong or ovate-oblong 
3-6'' long Fls. J-^" white or red in ascending lateral and 
terminal lax often somewhat branched racemes 6-12'' long. 
Pod falcate, ^-|" long, 6-8-jointed. 
Common in forest and waste-land. 

Fls. March-Oct. Pr. June-Jany. Probably flowers most of the year. 
Lflt. with rounded base and gradually tapering at the acute tip, with 
thin adpressed hairs beneath. A very variable plant. 

10. D. latifolium, D.G. 

An erect shrub 3-6 ft. high with densely brown-pubescent 
branches. Lflts. sub-coriaceons broad-ovate 3-6" by 1|-3J". 
Fls. ^-^" purple in numerous axillary and terminal oftea 
panicled dense spiciform racemes 2-7" long. 

Frequent in shade, Singbhum ; Eanohi ; Hazaribagh (Parasnath> 
Damuda valley); Palamau, common, Haslett ! ; S. P., frequent. Fls. 
Aug.-Bept. Fr. Oct.-Jany. 

Lflts. often sub-repand with rounded or aoute tip and truncate or 
cordate base densely brown pubescent beneath and appressed hairy above. 
Pod ^V, 4-6-jointed, clothed with minute hooked hairs. 

11. D* gyrans, D.G. Gora Chand, Beng. The Tele- 
graph Plant. 

Perennial 3-4 ft., branches often sub-herbaceous gJabrons. 
Terminal leaflet oblong lanceolate 3-4" by 1-1 1", side lflts. 0, 
1, or 2 about |-l" very narrow. Fls. f-|" in axillary terminal 
racemes 2-6" long, with large bracts concealing the flower- 
buds and forming a terminal club. 

Common on damp shady banks in Singbhum. Tamar. Tori and 
Sirguja, Wcod. Fla. Aug. -Nov. Fr. Oct.-Dec. 

Lflts. nearly glabrous, sometimes flushed with white, obtuse, and base 
rounded. Sec. n. distinct but fine, tertiaries very inconspicuous. Stipulei 
^" setaceous from a' broad base. Terminal raceme often branched. Pod 
1-li'' shortly pubescent, slightly indented. 

The small side-leaflets move by jerks in warm damp weather. 



348 



i 



36. DE8M0DIUM,] i3. TAPILIONACE^. [38. Sophoba. 

1*^. D. gyroides, n.U. Jatangsing, M. 

A shrub 6-20 ft. high with softlj hairy branches, Lflts. 1-3 
drooping, end one obovate obtuse attaining 3j" by If, side 
leaflets rarely 1|". Fls. |'' deep parple in short axillary 
and terminal racemes 1-2" long, with large deciduous bracts 
as in the last. 

Valleys on the Porahat plateau. FIb. Aug.-Nov, Fr. Oct-Jany, 

Ljlts. appressed-hairy both f^idea, sec. n. 6-8 pre, and tertiaries distinct.-. 
Terminal raceme often branched rarely elongating- to 4". Bracts large 
ovate T^" by i". Pod li-2", hairy, G-lO-seeded, lower suture indented. 

37. Ou^einia, Benth. 

.1. 0. dalbergioides, Benth. Rula, K. ; Eot, 8. ; 
Sandan., JT. ; Pandan, Kharw. ; Panan, H. 

Usually a small and crooked tree with Blonder grey 
branchlets, pinnately 3-foliolate leaves and copious smallish 
white or pink fiowiers in fascicled racemes appearing before 
the new leaves. 

Common in the hills but seldom above 3| ft. girth in Chota NagpT;Lr. 
i Fls. Fehy -April. Fr. May-June, Deo. Feby. -April. 

L. often sub-tomentose beneath. Terminal IfiL ovate, orbicular or 
j'' obovate 3-6" long, obtuse, entire or crenate with 5-10 pairs strong sec. 
' nerves. Fls. 2-3 together on slender peclicela. Calyx i-^" campanulate, 

teeth distinct. Corolla far exsert, standard sub-orbibular, keel obtuse. 
] Ovary linear, manyovuled. Pod linear or linear-oblong 2-5-jointed, or 

joints obscure. 

Large pieces are prized for the " patura " or hubs of the sagar wheels 
and it is in request for agricnltural implements. On being blazed a red 
gum exudes resembling that of Butea, and a decoction of the bark is 
used when the ucine is too dark coloured. The leavea form a good fodder. 

38. Sophora, L. 

1. S, Bakeri, Clarke, 

An erect shrub 4-5 ft. with tomentose impari-pinnate 
[leaves 5-8" long, sub-opposite leaflets l-l^^" or up to 2* by f* 

349 

li 



38. SoPHOBA.] 43, PAPILIONACU^ [1. Eugenia. 

and leaf -opposed racemes of purple flowers "witli 9 very 
loosely cohering or free stamens. Pod 3w-4i" moniliform 
beaked, dehiscent, hairy. 

Dry ridges in Singbhum e.g. Lonri Btirti ; Parasnath Anders,, Clarke ; 
Manbhum, Camp. Fla. May-June. Fr. Oct-March. 

LJlts. oblong sub-sessile mucronate silky about 5-7 pairs, glabresceni 
above. Racemes 2-3''. Calyx campanulate purple pubescent i-j", teeth 
ehort. Standard narrow-oblong deep-purple notched. Wings narrow- 
oblong, long-olawed. Keel purple-veined auricled. 

Fam. 44. MYRTACEiE. 

Trees or shrnba with opposite and gland-dotted leaves 
(more rarely altetiiate or without glands) which are simple, 
entire penni-veined and usually with an intramarginal nerve. 
Siipules or small and caducous. Flowers regular. ( Calyx 
superior. Petals rarely 0, inserted on, or on the margin of 
theepigynous disc or disc lining the hypanthium. /S'^. usually 
indefinite inserted on the disc, sometimes with filaments 
more or less combined. Anthers small with longitudinal 
dehiscence. Ovary inferior 2-many-celled with axile placen- 
tation. Style 1 and stigma simple. Frioit various 1-many 
seeded usually crowned by the calyx. Albumen 0. 

N. B. — Barringfconia and Careya are not typical Myrtaceas, and axe 
Bometimes placed in a distinct family Lecythidaceaa. 

L. opposite. Often gland-dotted. Fr. a berry. 

Fls. (in Ch. Nag. sp.) cymose. Seeds few large . 1. Eugenia. 

Peduncles axillary 1-3-flowered. Seeds many, small 2. Psidium, 
L. alternate, not gland-dotted. Fr. angulfl-r or berry- 
like. 

Fls. in elongate racemes • . • • .3. Barringtonia. 

Fls. large, 1-3 in short spikes . . . . .4. Careya. 



1. Eugenia. 

Usually glabrous trees or Shrubs with often quadrangular 
branclileta and. opp. rarely alternate leaves. Fls, usually 

350 



1. Eugenia.] U, MTBTACMM 

white, axillary or racemose or more usually (always in Ch. 
Nag. species) in trichotomous cymes. Calyx-tube or 
hypanthium oboonic or globose truncate or with 4-5 calyx 
lobes, and prolonged above the ovary. Petals 4 rarely 5, 
sometimes falling ofi as a calyptra on the stamecs expanding, 
St. many with small versatile anthers. Ovary 2-rarely 
3-celled; style filiform, stigma small. Ovules many in 
each cell. Fruit a beny with few seeds. Embryo thick, 
radicle short, cotyledons large fleshy. 

A. Venation fine close and parallel. 

Tree. L. ovate or broadly oblong. Berry ^" 
oblong ... ... 1. Jarnbolana. 

Tree. L. ovate-lane, or lane, acuminate 
Berry pisiform Var. caryopTiyllifolia, 

Shrubby. L. narrowly objong or lane. 
Berry oblong or ovoid ^'' . . . .2. Heyneana. 

B. Secy, nerves 10-15 prs. distinct. 

L. broadly elliptic or ovate • • • ,3. operculata, 
L. oblanceolate or oblong-lanceolate . , Far. ohovata. 

1. E.. Jarnbolana, Lam. Kuda, K.; SorKod, 8, 
\ Jamun, H., Kharw.\ Jambun, Oraon. 

A large or mod. -sized tree with dense crown, dark-green 
; broadlj^-oblong or ovate usually acuminate leaves about 6'' by 
! 2|-8*' with close sub-parallel venation. Fls. white sessile in 
, threes in 3-chotomous panicles mostly from the leaf scars. 
' Berry ^-|" long oblong. 

This is the form commonly found in the villages. Fig". May. Ft. July- 
Aug. 

Var. a. L. ovate-oblong tapering 4|-5" by lj-2i". Pani-' 
lekf 2-2J", Oalyx -^\" truncate with small glands. St, 
oglandular. 

Along rivers. Fls. June. Evergreen. 

Var. 3 = Var. caryophyllifolia, Lamh, (sp.) ? Buru- 
Kuda, K.j Bir-Kod, S. 

361 



U MTRTACE^, [ 1. EDQE5IA. 

A small tree with bright green lanceolate or lanceolate^, 
ovate acuminate leaves 3-6 by 1-1 1". Calyx-tube \" 
tmncatej, Connective of anther gland-tipped. Berry pisi- 
form. 

A very common hill form and perhaps as distinct a species as E. 
Heyneana. 

Singbhmn, Palamau, Manbhnm. Fls., Fr. with the others. 

The ijroiit is eaten and is said to be nsefnl in dysentery. 

2. E. Heyneana, Wall. Gara-Kuda, K. i Chndnk' 
*Kud, or Kodi 8. ; Kat-jaman, Kharw. 

A shrub or small bijishy tree 8-20 ft. high with narrowly- 
oblong-elliptic or iauceolate aciiminate leaves 3-5'' by 
|-1'' and lateral cymes of capitate white flowers from the 
old leaf scars. 

Along streams. Common in Singbhum, commcm about Dnmri 
(Hazaribagh) ; Manbhnm ; Palaman ; and probably other districts not 
specifically noted. Fl. May -June. Ft, July- Aug. 

L. with the glafads more numerous and pellucid than in Jambolana 
and usually longer-peduncled cymes 2-3'' with braohiate branches. Fla. 
sub-sessile, usu^y several in a head, calyx-lobes small, petals oalyptrat^ 
as in 1. Berry ^f oblong, crowned by the cup of the hypanthium. 

The fruit is eaten» 

3. E. Operculata, Jttoxh. Topa, K. ; Totonopak', S, ; 
Paiman, H. 

A low tree with broadly elliptic or ovate leaves 5-7 by 

3 3i" and sessile Eowers'in threes in braohiate patiicles 3-6* 

long mostly from old leaf scars. Berry globose J-^". 

Forests in Singbhum but not as common as the next. Usually in grassy 

f lades ; Hazaribagh (along Konor nadi) ; S. P. (Silingij. Fls. April-May. 
'r. June. The leaves turn red before falling. 
Twigs usually quadrangular. L. obtuse or shortly bluntly acuminate 
base acute or sutr-obtuse, sec. n. 8-12 prs. arcuate, tstiole i-|''- CcUym 
oboonic about Vb'' loug and broad. Sepals^ 4 transversely oblong ^'' , 
broad glandular. A large gland also On the tip of the connective. 

Var. obovata, Kurz. 

Very different in general appearance and perhaps a 
distinct species. L. oblanceolate or obovate about 7" by 1^-2." 

352 



1. Eugenia.] U. MYRTACE^, [4. CAiiETA, 

More evidently glandular, esp. on the flowers. Pctak some- 
times expanding. 

Valleys in Singbhum, Manbhura, S. P. (rare), etc. Fls, April-May. 

Campbell says that the fruit is eaten for rheumatism, the root boiled 
down (the extract ?) to the consistence of gur is applied to the joints by 
rubbing, the leaves are much used in dry fomentations. 

Psidium Guyava, L. The Guava. Ambaru, K. 
A small tree largely cultivated. Indigenous in Mexico. 

3. Barringtonia, Forst. 

1. B. acutangula, Gcertn. Dundi, Saparang, K, 
Hinjor, S. \ Ingan, Kharw. ; Hijal, Beng, 

A small, or large tree (in Manbhum), with alt. obovate 
or oblanceolate denticulate leaves reaching 9" by 4'' clustered 
at the ends of the branches, and long drooping racemes of 
flowers conspicuous from their bright red stamens. Fruit 
blong quadrangular truncate about P. 

In nalas in Singbhum ; Tundi Forests, Manbhum, Camp. ; Grangfpnr. 
Flfl. May. Fr. BepL 

Rarely over 25 ft. in C. N. L. narrowed into the ^'' petiole. Racemes 
attaining 2 ft. glabrous. Pedicels 5''. Calyx \", tube acutely 4-angled. 
Petals pale pink very caducous. : Ovary 2-4-celled. Ovules 2-8 in each 
cell. Fruit 1 -seeded, exalbiiminous* 

4. Careya, Roxb. 

[ 1. C. arborea, Roxh. Asanda, K. ; Kumbir, S. ; Kumb, 
I Kumbi, Kharw., Beng. 

' A small tree with large obovate or obovate-oblong leaves 
dnstered at the ends of the branches, large white and pink 
flowers in few-fld. dense spikes succeeded by large globose 

, green fruits 2|«3" diam. crowned with the persistent calyx. 

i 

' Valleys in Singbhum j Manbhum ; Hazaribagh (Bagodar and Damuda 
valley) ; S. P., scarce, Gamble ; Sarjuga, Wood. Fls. Apnl-May. Fr. July. 

353 



\. Caeeya.] 44. MYRTACE^. [1. Woolfobdii. 

L. 6-15" long, glabrous, slightly crenate-denticnlpite, sec. n. 10-12 
pra. not very strong, Fls. 3'' with large bracts and braoteoles, sessile or 
ecarcely pcdicelled. Sep. 4 ovate obtuse. Pet 1|" white. Fil. pink, 
very numerous, the middle ones alone fertile. Ovary 4-celled. (Jvulei 
numerous. Seeds in a fleshy pulp. 

The bark gives a fibre suitable for rough ropes. Campbell says that 
the fruit is eaten. The root is used to kill fish in Oangpur, 



Fam. 45. LYTHRACEiE. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs witb often 4- angled branches. L. 
usually opposite and entire, exstipulate. Fls. 2-sexual, 
regular or zygomorphous. Sepals 3-6 with sometimes 
intermediate smaller ones, valvate. Petals perigynous as 
many as the sepals, rarely 0. St. definite or inde^nite, nearly 
hypogynous or perigynous (epigynous in Punica). Ovary 
2-6-ceiled. Stigma capitate. Ovules very many axile (or 
parietal in Punica). Fruit coriaceous or membranous, 
dehiscent or not. Seeds many, albumen 0. 

Punica is better placed, as is done by Engler, in a separate family. 

A. Trees or shrubs. 

Fls. zygomorphous with declii^ate stamens . . 1. Woodfordia, 

Fls. regular. 

Petals 5-8, rarely 4. Capsule 3-6-valved . . 2, Lagerstrcsmia, 

Petals 4. Capsule irregularly breaking up . 3. Lawsonia. 

Ovary completely adnate to the hypanthium, 

cells 1-3-seriate ..... 4. Punica. 

B. Herbs of wet ground with minute flowers . . 5. Ammannia. 

1. Woodfordia, Salisb. 

1. W. floribunda, Salish. Icha ; K. ; Ichak', 8. j Phnl- 
dawai, Dhai-phul, Kharw. ; Dadki, Bhumij. I 

A bushy shrub 4-6 ft. with simple ssssile or sub-sessil 
linear-lanceolate distichous acumiuate leaves 2|-4" loDg, silver 
finely pubescent and gland-dotted beneath, and scarlet show 
tobular flowers |-J'' long in fascicled cymes, axillary aD 
from the old wood. 



354 



s 



I 



1. WooDFOBDiA.] 45. LYTHRaCE^. [2. Laqeestbcemia. 

A very common shrub, especially on clay in open places, and as seoond 
growth. Fls. Jany.-April. Fr. April-May. Nearly leafless in March 
when in brilliant flower, and leaves often not renewed till end of May. 

Hypanthium petaloid slightly curved and oblique with 6 outer greenish 
tooth-like sepals, 6 very small scarlet petals, and 6 linear hair tipped 
scales. 6i. 12 exserted. Capsule enclosed in the remains of the hypan- 
thium, very thin, splitting irregularly. The stamens are trimorphic. 

It is a favourite flower of the Kols who often mention it in their aojiga. 
The flowers yield a dye. 

3. Lagerstrcpiwia, L. 

Trees or sbmbs with opp. or snb-opp. disticboas entire 
leaves and flowers (usually showy) in axillary and termiiial 
panicles. Sepals and petals 6-9 on the margin of the 
tubular hypanthium ; petals very long-clawed, wrinkled, erosd 
or crisped. St. very many, hypogynous with long, often 
curled and barren, filaments. Ovary 3-6-oelled. Capsule girt 
by the persistent calyx 3-6-valved and celled partially adimve 
to the calyx- tabe. Seeds winged. 

Hypanthium strongly ribbed. Pis. large dark mauve . 1. Flos-RegitUB, 
Hyp. not ribbed. Fls. V' white . . . , ,2. parviflora. 
Hyp. not ribbed. Fls, 1^2'' white, pink or purple . . 3. indica, 

1. L. FlOS-Reginse, Retz. Kwiri, M.; Gara Sekre, 
Ho. ; Jarul, Beng. 

A large or mod. -sized but usually crooked tree and often 
flowering when only 20 ft. high. L. ellip. to lanceolate 4-8*; 
Very handsome when covered with flowers which are 2-3 
diam. 

Along the larger rivers in Singbhum and Gangpur and in the muddy 
aide nalas. Fls. May -June. The old capsules remain on the tree till the 
next flowering season. 

1. glabrous with 6-12 pra. strong sec. n. : base usually rounded. 
Petiole very short. Hyp. strongly ribbed, whitish, woody in fruit. 
Capsule septifragally 5-6 valved, sub-globose, 1-1^' woody, 

2. L. parviflora, Eoxb. Sekre, K. j Sekrec', S. ; Sidha, 
Kharw.j if., Beng. 

355 o 2 



2. Lagee8TE(emia. ] 45. LYTHBACEJ^. 

A tree, or in Ch. Nag. a elirub or small tree," -witli narrow 
ell. or oblong or ovate-lanceolate apute or acuminate distichous 
leaves and delicate white flowers in trichotomous panicles with 
petals under j". 

Common, nsually in poor valley forest and on clay soil, often as a scrub 
jungle (in the forests of the sub-Himalaya it is a large tall tree). Fls. 
A-pril'May. Fr. Dec-Jany. Deciduous Fehy. -March, and flowers on the 
young shoots. 

All the Gh. Nag. specimens belong to the var. majuscula with leaves 
3-5'' long and axillary panicles often simply racemose and capsule ellip- 
soid or oblong ]-l^" long. 

L. coriaceous when old pale or glaucous, glabrous or shortly pubescent 
beneath with 6-10 prs. sec. nerves. Peduncle and pedicels slender, bracts 
linear. Hypanthium woody in fruit, partially embracing the capsule* St. 
fow long and many short. Capsule 3-4rvalved. 

Used for agricultural implements. 

3. L . indica, L. A handsome shrub, largely cultivated in gardens, 
ria. May-Aug. A native of China. 

Ija'wsonia alba, Lamh. Mehnde, H. The Henna is a small tree 
or large shrub somewhat resembling a Myrtle, often cultivated, with 
lanceolate or narrow-rhomb.ud leaves, and very fragrant small cream- 
coloured, red or white yis. \'' diam. Capsule i-rg' diam. depressed globose 
irregularly dehiscent with very numerous angular seeds. Fls. and Fr. at 
various soAsons. 

Puniea Granatum, L. Anar, H. The Pomegranate. Is a well 
known handsome shrub with deep green foliage and large scarlet flowers. 
The structure of the flower is peculiar, by the infolding of the wall of the 
ovary, the cells come to lie in tiers and Puniea is sometimes placed in a 
separate order, the Punicaceae. 

Amm.jinaia is a genus of herbs, some minute, others 2 ft. or more'. 
At least 'light species occur in Ch. Nagpur. Petals 3-5 or 0. St. 2-8. 
tSepta of the ovary sometimes quickly absorbed so that the placenta 
becomes free central. 

Fam. 46. OIVAORACE^. 

A family nsnally easily recognized by the floral- whorls 
being in multiples of 4 (rarely 5), and the wholly inferior 
ovary with many axile ovules in each cell. Traps is some- 
what exoeptionaL 

356 




46. ONAGRACEM. 



1. Trapa, L. 

1. T. bispinosa, Eox}f^ Singhara, H., K. 1?lie Water- 
cbeBtnnt. 

A pretty floating herb witli pinnati -partite- snb^ierged 
leaves, and a rosette of longipetioled rhomboidal floating leaves. 
Fls. solitary axillary, pare white, |" diani. Ovary 2-celled, 
half -inferior. Ovule 1 in each cell. Fruit hard spinescent. 

Tanks. Fls. Aug.'Sept. "Fr. Nov.-Dec. 

SeOTients of submerged leaves capillary. Petiole swollen in the middle, 
villoira^ above. Blade 1^-2'' diam. sharply dentate on the two anterior 
margins, villous beneath. 

The kernel of the fruit is largely eaten. 

Jussiea sufFruticosa, L. Dak' ichak', 8. ; Parsati (Jasptir, Wood)\ 
is an'erect herb^2r4 ft. high, common in wet places. It has lanceolate 
leaves about-S' long and yellow flowers. Wood says that a decoction of 
the root is drunk for f e ver. 

J. repeus. L. is a smaller prostrate plant with 5-6 petals, also 

common. 



Fam. 47. MELASTOMACEJE. 

SuB-p AM . — nelas tomese. 

Herbs or shrubs. L. opp. entire with basal nerves 
exstipulate. Fls. regular or slightly zygomorphous, 2-se2ual. 
Galyx'tuhe or hypanthium united by vertical walls to the 
ovary, with 4-7 usually deciduoas sepals. Petals as many 
as the sepals. Stamens perigynous as many or twice as many 
as the petals, an^Ws opening by pores and, connective oiten 
appendaged. Oyar^/ 3-7-celled. Style simple. Ovules, very 
many, axile. Fruit capsular or beriied. Seeds minute, Very 
many, albumen 0. 

Shrubs. Alternate anthers unequal and dissimilar . • !• Melattofna 
Shrubs or herbs. Stamens equal or sub-equal, all sinular 2. Oabeekia. 

357 



A7. MELA8T0MACEM, 

1. Melastoma, L. 

I. M. malabathricum^ L, Indian Rhododendron (a 
misnomer). 

A beautiful bushy shrub with 4-aDgled brauches, 3 7- 
basal-nerved rough broadly lanceolate or elliptic leaves 3-4* 
long, and numerous bright mauve-purple fls. 1-1|" diam. 
in terminal clusters with conspicuous yellow dimorphoas 
stamens. 

Along water-courses in Singbhnm, not common. S. P. (Btjream near 
Kuskira) Qamhle ! Fla. March-May. Fr. r.s. Evergreen. 

Stems 4-6 ft. strigoae. L. with adpressed hairs. Petiole ^''. 



S. Osbeckia, L. 
I. 0. chinensis, L, 

A perennial-rooted erect herb 1|-2| ft. with 4-angled 
sparsely adpressed hairy stems, linear or rarely oblong 
basally 3- nerved leaves and handsome mauve flowers 1" diam. 
in terminal capitate cymes. 4| 

Ijsnaiiy on clay eoil and common in grassy forest. Singbhum 
Santal P. ; Paraanath ; Palamau (Neterhat). Fls. Aug.-Od. 

Larger L. 2-2^* by f'', acute, margin very obscurely serrulate. Sepal 
4 ith alternating Btellate scales. St. 8 yellow, awned. 



2. 0. tmncata, I^on. A smiill variety of this specie 
(Knrzii) only 2" high occurs on Parasnath. Anthers no 
awned. j 



J 



Fam. 48. RUiZOPHORACE^. 

Trees or shrubs with opposite usually coriaceous glabror 
leaves with interpetiolar caducous stipules. Fls, usually i 
axillary cymes or clusters, rarely solitary or spicate. Call 
superior, 4rl4j-uBaally 4-8-lobed, lobes valvate persistei 



I! 



358 






48. RBIZO RORACEJE. 

Petals often small, free, caducous, alfe. witli the sepals. St, 
twice as many as the petals. Ovary inferior or half- inferior, 
5-1-celled (in Carrallia usnally 4-celled), styles connate 
stigma capitate lobed. Ovules two in each cell, pendulous (in 
Carallia from the axis). Fruit coriaceous, usually indehiscent 
1-celled and -seeded. Albumen fleshy or 0. 

In the Mangroves which belong to this family, the seed 
germinates on the tree. 

A tree, Fls. small shortly cymose Ovary inferior -, • 1. Oarrallia. 

1. Carrallia, Eojh 

1. C. lucida, Hoxh. Syn. C. integerrima, JD.C, Jur, 
Aramata, K.^; Kierpa, Beng. 

A small tree with opp. shining leathery oblong elliptic or 
obovate shortly acuminate leaves and stout dense 2-3- 
chotomous cymes of small greenish sessile flowers, with 
inconspicuous white erose petals. 

Singbhum, frequent along the banks of streams and dry nalas. , 8^ P. 
Fls. Dec-April. bT.r.s. Evergreen, ^ew le&Yea in March sLnd April. 

Branchlets somewhat quadrangular. Buds |-|" long acuminate 
enclosed in the caducous stipules. L. 3' by If" to 6" by 3i'' with numerous 
close fine oblique parallel nerves reticulating within the margin, base 
acute. Petiole ^4"* Cymes stout dense 1-2'' long. Fls. y^" loug obeonic. 
Hypanthium produced above the ovary. Sepals 6-8. Petals sub- 
orbicular or quadrate, equalling the sepals, shortly clawed. Disc 
epigynous, lobuJate. Ovary (3-) 4-celled. Stigma (3-) '4-lobed. Fr. ^" 
globose, coriaceous, crowned bv the persistent sepals and style. 

Fam. 49. COMBRETACEiE. 

Trees or sbruba, sometimes ^scandent, with opp. or sub- 
opp., more rarely quite alternate simple exstlpulate leaves. 
Fls, generally small, sometimes 1-sexual, usually in spikes or 

^ There appears to be no specific Kol name, the names givnn neiong 
properly to two other trees, viz., Canthium and Antidesm^. 

359 



49, COMBEETACE^. [1 Terminalia. 

racemes or heads, generally sessile. Hypanthium enclosing 
the ovary and often prolonged above it into a "beak carrying 
a more or less tnbular or campanulate 4-5-lobed limb or 
* calyx-tube,* Petals between the lobes, or 0. St. 2-seriate, 
twice as many as the lobes or one series reduced or absent, 
fiometimes doubled. Ovary inferior 1-celled with few 
pendulous ovules. Style simple. Fr. 1 cceded usually dry 
and indehisoent generally 2-5-angled or winged. Seed 
exalbuminous. 

All parts usually ricKin tannin. 

A. Trees. Petals 0. 

Fls. in spikes or raoemes, often panicled . . 1. Terminalia, 
FIb. capitate . • . . • . . . •2. Anogeisiw. 

B. Shrubsi often sarmentose or climbing. Petals 4-5 

rarely 0. 

Fls. small greenish, bracts sometimes petaloid . 3. Comhretwn. 

Fla. showy. Calyx-tnbe above ovary very long • 4. Qwisqualis. 



1. Terminalia, L. jd 

Trees with opp. sub. opp. or alt. leaves sometimes clustered 
at the ends of the twigs and often bearing large glands on 
the petiole or base of the blade. Small greenish ^5. in the 
axils of caducous bracts, in simple or panicled spikes 4-6- 
merous. Hypanthium not beaked above the ovary, *' calyx- 
tube " campanulate. St. twice as many as the calyx- lobes 
inserted above the hairy disc. Ovules 2-3. Fruit drupaceous 
or dry, endocarp 4r5-angled, or when dry the pericarp pro- 
duced' into wings (5 in our species). 

4.. Fr. drupaoeons, not winged. 

I. L. alt. and oluBtered at the ends of the twigs. 
Spikes simple. 

Petioles ver^ short. Fr. glabrons compressed 
elliptic . . . . . . . .1. Catappa 

Petioles V and more. Fr* tomentose, globose 
or pyrif orm . -, . .... 2. helerica. 



360 



I 



1. Terminalia.] 49. COMBRETACE^. 

II. L. not clnstered at the ends of the twigs, petioled. 
Spikes panicled. 

• Pr. glabrous ellipsoid, 5-angled when dry. L. alt. 

to opp . . . 3. Chehula. 

B. Fr. with 5 (-4) snb-equal wings. Spikes panicled'. 
Petioles very short or L. sub-sessile. 

Bark pale. L. glabro as, smaller ell. .larger oblong ii. Arjuna^., 

Bark dark. L. tomentose beneath ell. or ovate . 5. tomentosa. 

Bark dark. L. very large oblong tomentose beneath, and bark dark, 
L. ell. or ovate glabrous beneath are varieties of tomentosa. 

1. T. Gatappa) L, Eadam, Beng. The Indian Almond. 

Frequently planted, but the tree does not succeed well in Ch. Kag., 
the climate is not sufficiently humid. 

2. T. belerica, Roxb. Lupung, TT. ; Lopong, S. ; Behra 
Bahera, Kharw, H. ; Bohera, Beng. The Beleric Myrabolan. 

A large tree with broadly ell. or obovate leaves clustered 
at the ends of the branch lets (they may be alt. and distant 
on some branches) on petioles 1-2|" long and solitary axillary 
spikes 4-6" long of small greenish-white or -yellow fls. y^-i' 
diam. Fr. |" diam. grey-tomentose, only showing faint 
furrows when quite dry, uenally pyriform. 

I Bather common, chiefly in the valley forests. Fls. Fehy.-May. Fr. 

Jany.' April. I>eo.Jany.-Feby. 

Trunk usually straight and tall. L, with cuneate base andacuteot 

'rounded tip, 3-8' long generally dotted above, eglandular. 

1 The fruits h-^ve scarcely any market value in Singbhum, their sale 
in Calcutta only just covers the cost 'of export. The kernels are eaten, 
but are said to produce vertigo if taken iU'excess, they are a favourite 
food of monkeys and cattle. " It yields a gum which is eateii by the 
Santals," Camp. 

3. T. Ghebula, Betz. Rola, K. ; Rol S^ ; Hadra,, Oraon- ; 
Hara, Hari-taki (the fruit), If., Beng. The Chebulic Myra- 
iX>lan. 

A small or mod.-sized tree with a rounded crown, 
isually sub-opposite ovate or elliptic entire leaves 4^^ by 2^" 
;o 7^" by 4" and whitish flowers in spikes from the upper 

361 



49, POMBRETACEJS. [ 1. Tbeminalia. 

axils and in small terminal panicles. Fr. a drupe, ellip- 
soid |-1 J" long glabrous, 5-ribbed when dry. 

rJommon on the lower hills, and especialljrin the protected forests 
of tba low plateaux, frequent' on a hard clay. Fls. 4pril-May. Fr- 
Nov.'Fehy. New shoots ApriUMay. 

Young leaves usually beautifully silvery -hairy, adult pearly glabrous, 
acute or obtuse with a rounded rarely acute base and 7-9 pairs promi- 
nent sec-nerves. Often 2 glands at the top of the ^-1' long petiole. 
Bpihes 2-3^"' Bracts linear as long as the young flowers, caducous. Fls. 
very densely white villous within. 

Much used as a tanning' material and iii^Hindu medicine 

A variety on the top of Parasnath occurs with the leaves very 
shaggy beneath and small fruit only f long. C B. Clarke. 

4). T. Arjuna, Bedd. Kowa, Gara-Hatai^aj K. ; Kauha, 
8 .; Kahua, Kharw. ; Arjun, H, 

A large tree with a pale bark, lon^ inclined branches 
with opp. or sub-opp. oblong leaves 2-3-time3 as long as 
broad (smaller ones only at bases of shoots are elliptic) 
sub-sessile, soon glabrous. Fls. -1%" diam. white in shortly 
panicled spikes. Fruit 1-1 J" long, wings less than |" wide 
usually premorse above, with ascending striations. 

Common along nalas where it ' sometimes attains an immense size* 
All districts. Fls. March-July. Fr. March-April. Evergreen. 

L. 6-8'' with 2 glands at base or on the very short petiole (under V') 
entire or crenate but nerves not excurrent as teeth. Seedlings may have 
soothed leaves. 

5. T- tomentOSa> W. ^ A. Hatana, atana, K. ; Atnak*, 
8 .; Asan, Sain, H. 

A large tree with dark cinerous rough bark, opp. oi 
sub-opp, ell. or ell.-obovate or oblong leaves snbsessile # 
petioled, with distinct tertiary nerves, permanently pubescent^i 
beneath or in one variety glabrescent. Fls. as in 4 bu' S 
panicles often larger. Fruit J|-2" long sometimes attaining jj 
3 by 2J* wings over ^" broad with horizontal striations. |,j 

Common in the forests, especially in the damper valleys. Ver; 
common in the village lauds where it is pollarded fur the Tusser Sill) 

362 I 



I. Tbbminalia.] 49, OOMJBRETACEJS. [2. Anoobiwub. 

irorm which is reared on it. Fl. May-June. Fr. Feby.-MarcK 
Deciduous March'May. 

L. 5-9'' with 2 glands beneath near the base or on the short 
;>euiole, entire or the nerves excurrent as teeth. Petiole sometimfw \''. 

The young ovaries are attacked by a cynips so that panicles of ffal^s, 
ire very common on the tree and are sometimes mistaken for fruits. 

N. B. — The glabrous variety which is not uncommon in Ch. Nagpnr 
8 sometimes difficult to distinguish from T. arjuna in herbarium gpeoi- 
nens. The pubescent form has the leaves usually green beneath. I dt> 
lot remember in 0. N. the peculiar grey form common in the Sub- 
B[imalayas. There may be differences in the timber between these 
rarieties. Hybrids occur between this and Arjuna. 

3 Anogeissus, Wall. 

Trees or shrubs with opp. or sub-opp. and alternate 
mtire petioled leaves and small greenish flowers in globose 
ixillary peduncled heads. Ovary inferior and hypanthium 
produced above it into a beak and then into a campannlate 
S-lobed *' calyx-tube. " Petals 0. St. 10 in two series adnate to 
the campannlate tube. Disc crenate hairy at the base of 
khe tube. Ovules 2 pendulous. Fraits small indehiscent 
compressed 2-winged beaked, in densely packed heads. 

Bark smooth pale. Old L. glabrous 1^3^'' . 1, lattjovta. 

„ „ ,, „ tomentose „ • var tn*nent€td. 

Bark rough dark. Old t. hairy beneath 

1-3" 2. acuminata. 

Bark light. Old L. silky beneath 1-2" . . 3. sericea. 

1. A. latifolia, Wall. Hesel, K., S,; Dhaunta, Kharw. ; 
Dhaura, R. 

An erect mod.-sized or large tree with whitish bark and 
aJt.'to opp. ovate or ell. leaves 2-4" long usually obtuse 
both ends and becoming glabrous with age. Peduncles 
mostly in short axillary racemes. 

Very common, especially on the drier hills, where it forms a large 
proportion of the growing stock. Also frequent in second growth. Pis. 
June-Sept. ¥t. Dec-Jany, Deo. Fehy .-April. Leaves turn red or brown 
in December, 

3fi3 



2. AlsroGBisstJS.] i9.%C0MBI^ETACE^. 

L. sometimes aoute or emarj^inate with 8-l4i prs. of sec. uerves. 
Petiole 5-f". Heads ^'' diam. Fruit (excluding beak) *about as long as 
broad rarely i'^. Beak at length usually deQiduOUs> equalling or rather 
shorter than the diameter of the fruit. 

It yields a copious gum "used by the Santals in cholera," Cawip. 
4'he leaves contain much tannin. The very strong wood is lai|;g()ly used 
for agricultural implements and carts. 

Var. tomentoea,, twigs and leaves, esp. beneath, persistently tomentose. 
Near the Barak^r river in Manbhum ; on the hills in the extreme east of 
Palamau, and west of Hazaribagh (about Barwadih). Eipe fruit in Decem- 
ber. 

2. A. acuminata, Wall, Parsia, Gara-hesel, K.; Chakwa, 

An erect straight large beautiful tree with slender droop- 
ing branches, or flowering as a small tree. Bark dark. L. 
mostly snb-opp. narrowly ell. acute at both ends, more 
rarely broadly ell. and very obtuse and mucronate, esp. when 
young, always densely silky pubescent when young and more 
or less so beneath when old with 4-10 prs. fine distinct sec. 
nerves. Heads and peduncles rugty tomentose, mostly from 
the previous year's shoots solitary axillary or from leaf scars 
or several together. - Wings of fruit net jagged. 

In valleys in Singbhum, esp. along water courses. 
There seem to be two or three different forms of which complete 
material < in all stages) is wanting :— 

(a) Small tree in full leaf and flower in April. L. narrowly ell. lJ-2* 
by t — I'' acute at both erxds, thinly pubescent beneath. 
Teduncles solitary. Bravchlets very slender. ♦" 

(6) A tree in flower with new leaves in April. BrancElets stouter. 
Innovations very villous or silky-pubesoent. Old L. broadly 
ell. 2i" by 14'' more densely pubescent beneath, aoute both ends 
or obtuse and mucronate. Peduncles usually clustered and 
branched. 

(c) A tree 6-7 ft. eirth with very slender branches, flowering in March 
and fruiting in April. Frt. I^" long and ^" broad with a beak 
to ' lonSfj top of fruit villous pubescent. L. as in (a). 

Wood used for oart wheels and ploughs. 

3. A. sericea, Brandis. 

Described in the Indian Forester Vol. XXV, p. 287 as follows :—** A 
mod.-aised tree, branchlets and underside of leaves olothed with long 

864 






J 



2. Anogeissus.] i9. COMJBEETACEJE. [3. Combeetum 

silky hairs. L, 1-lV long, elliptic, shortly acuminate, on short petioles. 
Sad', nerves 4-6 prs. Flower-heads f '' diam. single, on long peduncles, 
wUch frequently bear a number of leafy bracts. Fr. tomentose, with the 
wings broader than long, win|g8 jagged. Calyx often persistent, at the end 
of the long tube. " 

One of the vars. above, of which I have only incompleta specimeuB,. 
♦nay bdjeferable to this species. 



3. Coiubretuni, L. 

Usuallv large sarmentose shrubs (0. nanam is a dwarf 
shrub) with opp. or sub. -opp., more rarely alt, entire leaves. 
Fls. sraall in paniched spikes or racemes, sometimes with 
white petaloid bracts, polygamous. Hypanthium or recep- 
tacle constricted above the ovary, urceolate or tubular above 
and bearing 4-5 small sepals and as many, or 0, petals and 
twice as many stamens in two series. Ovules 2-5 pendent. 
Fr. with 4-5 angles or wings. Seed 1. 

A. "Fls. 5-merous. Fr. 5-winged .... 1. decandrunu 

B. Fls. 4i-merou8. Fr. 4-winged 

a. Hyp. not produced into a narrow tube abov6 the 
ovary. 

large sarmentose shrub 2. ovalifolium, 

Undershrub . . , . . , .3. nanum, 

b. Hypanthium produced into a cylindrical tube above 

the ovary 4. extensum. 

I.e. decSLXldvum, Boxh. Phalando, Palandu, K, ; 
Aten, S. ; Rateng, KJiarw ; Gorunda, Oraon ? 

A large scrambling climber, sometimes covering thj 
highest trees and conspicuous from the large white bracts on 
the inflorescence. 

Very common especially along nalas. Fls. Nov.-Fehy. Fr. April-June. 

Innovations densely rusty villous. L, coriaceous oblong shortly 
suddenly acuminate 3-5" rarely attaining &' by 3', shining above, somewhat 
appres&ed hairy or with tufts of hairs in the axils of the strong nerves 
beneath. Bpiket, rusty villous ^-1'' in large axillary and terminal panicles. 
Hypth. urceolate ^'' diam. densely pubescent, sepals ultimately reflexed. 
Fet. ovate acummate hairy. St. 10. Fr . 1-1^", oblong or eUiptio. 

365 



3. CoMBBETUM.] 49. COMBRETACE^. 

The leaves on the panicle turn white in JNTov., while thehnds.are 
unopened. 

2. C. ovalifolium, Eoxb, 

Habit of last ; with or without the white bracts. L. ovate to lanceolate 
from an acute base usually about 4^' by 3'', shining, glabrous or slightly 
hairy on midrib beneath. Racemes lateral and terminal panicldd. • 
Calyx-tube glandular and slightly pubescent, Fr. f long and about 
M broad nearly glabrous, 4-winged. 

Ch. Nagpur, Train. Bare. Fl. Fehy.-Mar. L. tui'ii dark red before 
falling. Dec.-Feby. 

3. C. nanum, Earn. Phirtol-rel, Andaikaj K, 

An undershrub with woody rootBtock, 1-2 f^et high with 
nnmerous erect branches 1-2 feet high, opp. or $,It. leaves and 
rather dense racemes of white flowers, Fr. l-lj", 4-winged, 
of a pretty pink or red colonr. 

Dry burnt jungles, fire-lines, etc., Singbhum, Manbh^m, CUmp., 
Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Palamau and probably in the other distticts. New 
shoots and flowers Ajpril-May. Fr. JuncAug. L. turn brilliant red in 
Dec. before falling. 

L. young red then bright green, orbicular obovate to l^ceolate 
retuse or obtuse 21" by 2" to 4" by 3^. Petiole i", RacemeB^S", O.-tube 
obconic. Petals far exceeding the sepals. 

4. C. extensum, Boxh, 

A scandent shrub. L. 4-8'' ovate or ell. acute, glabrous or nearly bo, 
punctate when young. Racemes dense lateral rarely divided, terminal, 
Bub-paniculate usually elongate 4-6' long. Calyx-tube funnel-shajed. 
Petals narrow obovate. Fr. 1^'' long aud nearly as broad. 

Chota Nagpur, Prain. I have not seen it. Fls. c. 8. 

QuisqualiS indica, L. is a rambling sub-scandent shrub often 
found in gardens. Fls. in spikes showy rose or scarlet with a very long 
Blender hypantbium li-2i" long. Fr. dry 5-angled. 



Fam. 50. UMBELLIFERJB. 

Herbs with fistular stems, ccmponnd (simple and kidney- 
shaped in the creeping Hydrocotyle asiatica, L.) leavlps with 

366 



I 



Sp. UMBELLIFEBJt^. [3. Pimpinblla. 

a sheathing petiole, and small wliite or yellow, often 
polygamous flowers hi simple or compound umbels, the 
exferior flowers sometimes irregular with the outer petals 
larger. Sepals superic^, very small or 0. Pet. 5. St, 5 in 
the male and herm. fl., epigynous. Disc large. Ovary 2-celled.' 
Ovules 1 in each cell. Fruit of 2 cocci (mericarps) separating 
from a columella (carpophore.) 

Bracteoles 84. Fruit strongly dorsally compressed . 1. Teucedanwm, 
Bracteolea 0-2. Imit didymous, broader than long , 2. Fi'irvpineUa. 



1. Peucedaiium, L. 

1. P. nagpurense, Prain, ^•■nnndom. oponom, K. j 
oponom, 8, 

An erect stout herb 3-4| ft. high with a fusiform root, 
polished siriated stems, and twice ternately- compound leaves. 
Bracts or 1. Bracteoles 3-4 lanceolate below long caudate, 
spreading and reflexed in fruit. Umbels terminal 2-3" diam. 
Fls. i-i" diam. 

Forests, frequent in Singbhum, Manbhum, Palamau and S. P. Fla. 
Oct.'NoV' Ft. Dec. 

Lovrer petioles 8-12''. Lflts. ovate or rhomboid attaining 6" by 3^'' 
eoaraely serrate glabrous except the ribs beneath, upper very narrow. 
Bepali minute. Petals green or brownish, oblong lanceolate with 
an iuflexed tip. Mericarps ^'' elliptic-oblong truncate both ends, winged, 
brown with the ridges white, 4 vittss (oil channels) on the outer and '6 on 
the inner face. Carpophore 2-fid to the base. 

The stems are used for shepherd's pipes (rotu). The root is used aa 
% etomachic. 

3 Pimpinella, L. 
1. P. Heyneana, Wall. 

A slender erect branched herb 1-3 ft. high with glabrous 
striated stem, and 1-2-temately compound leaves. Bracts 
0. Briacteoles or 1, rarely 2, setaceous, j" or less long. 

367 



2. PiMPiNELiA.] 50. UMBJELLIFEBJS. [1. Tebvbsu. / 

Umbels leRf-opposed l|-3" diam. Ms. minnte, scarcelj -j'^* 
diam. 

Damp pla(?Ga, common. Fls. Oct. Pr. BecJany. 

Lower petioles 2''. Ljits. rarely 2", finely doubly-Berrate, lanceDlate 
or ovate-lauc. shortly pubescent both sides. Sep. 0. Pet white, with an 
inflexed tip. Mericarps -^-g'' smooth. Vittje 8. 

Boot used in fever, Wood. 



Fam. 51. ARALIACE/E. 

TreeB or shrubs, often scandent, with usnally palmately- 
nerved and lobed or digitate more rarely 1-3 pin ate leaves, 
petioles with a sbeatbing base, stipnlate or not. Fls. small 
regnlar, 2-sexual or polygamous. Sepals small sirperior or 
0. Pe^aZs 5 rarely 6-7, valvate or snbrimbricate. Si. alt. with 
the petals, inserted ontside the epigynoas disc. Ovar?/- inferior 
2-several-celled. Styles as many as the cells orunitetj.i 
Ovule 1 in each cell, pendulous. Fruit usually drupaceous with 
1 or more cells and seeds. Albumen sometimes ruminated. 

Small tree. L. palmate (or young digitate) . , 1. Trevesia* 

Climbing shrub. L. digitate 2. Heptaplemum, 

Small tree. L. 2-3-pinnate 3. Heteropanax. 



1. Treves la, Vis. 1 

1. T. palmata, Vis. L 

A small erect scarcely branched soft-wooded prickly tree 
with hairy shoots, large palmate sub-orbicnlar leaves 1-2 ft. 
diam. a^id white flowers in large panicles composed of 
numerous umbels. m 

Valleys in Singbhum (e.g., Leda JBlock, Jui gara), rare. Fls. Jany.- 

Fehy. Fr. May-June. Evergreen 

Attaining 15 ft. Lobes of leaf sharply harshly serrate. Panicles 18 
Sepals minute. Petals 8-10. 

368 



51. ABALIACEJE. 

3. Heptaplenrnm, Gaertn. 

1. H. venulosum, Seem. Sukrirayaj Sukrimn, Z. ; 
Snnum jnr, 8.\ Ban Simar, Beng, 

A large climbing or epiphytic shrub attaining 3 ft. girth ^ 
with digitate 5-7-foliolate leaves, and pale or yellow flowers 
in panicled umbels. 

Valleys in Singbhum ; Hazaribagh ; S. P. ; Knrughat (Palaman). Fls. 
May- June. 

Lflts. unequal 2-6" by 1-2'', -glabrous, acuminate. Petioles 3-6", 
Petiolules 1-2". Stipules connate within the petiole. Vmhels Y diam. 
racemed on the 6-8" long branches of the short panicle. Braoteoles 0. 
Calyx truncate. Pet. 5-6, S-nerved. Of ary-cells as many. Styles 0. 

3. Heteropanax, Seem. 

1. H. fragrans, Seem. Rengebanam, K. 

An erect small tree up to 2 ft. girth with enormous tri-pin- 
nate leaves 3-4 ft. long and 2^3 ft. across, elliptic or ell. ovate 
glabrous entire leaflets 3-7" long and small yellow flowers in 
umbels on the branches of large panicles. Fruit a laterally 
compressed 2-seeded berry. 

Valleys -n Singbhum and S. P. ne^r streams. Very common on 
north aspects on the trap of the Eajmehal hills near Dharampur and 
Morjhora. Fls. Dec. Evergreen. 

Pinnce sometimes 4-5 often together with a single leaflet, at the 
nodes of the main rachis. Lflts. with a short acumen, 1-7 on the ultimate 
branches of the leaf, base usually rounded. 

Fam. 53. CORNACEiE. 

Trees or shrubs with opp. or alt. simple ex stipulate 
leaves often basal-nerved, Fls. regular in cymes or panicles, 

i Clark says (Journal L. S. XXI, 252) " I noticed that Heptapleurum 
eommenoes its life here (i.e., on Parasnath) as a scandent epiphyte, but 
■ubsequently reaching the ground, it grows to a large size as a tree, 
and Bhows no signs of its early history." 

869 



52. COENACEJE. 

sometimes capitate. Sepals 4-10 superior or calyx-limb 
truncate, persistent. Petals 4-10 or 0. 6'^. epigynous 1-3- 
times as many as the petals. Epigynoue disc usually conspic- 
uous. Ovary inferior 1-4 celled. Style 1. Stigma capitate 
or. branched. Ovule 1 in eacb cell pendulous (rarely 2-3). 
Fruit generally a berry or drupe. Albumen copious fleshy 
arid embryo large with flat cotyledons. The endocarp, 
sometimes infolded as a plate into the seed. 

I. . alt. St. 2-3-time8 as many as the petals. Ovary 1-celled. 1. Alangiwn. 

1. Alang'inm, Lamk. 

1. A. Lamarekii, Thwaites. Ankol, K. ; Dhela, 8. 
Kharw, ; Kumri, Mai Pah. ; Akar-kanta, Beng. 

A small bushy tree attaining 25 ft. usually thorny, with 
oblong or elliptic leaves 3-6'' by 1-2" pubescent when young, 
moderate-sized white flowers in axillary fascicles or from 
leafless axils. Peta]s 5-10. Stamens 20-30. Fr. i-f" ellip- 
soid, black, succulent, with bony endocarp,. crowned by the 
calyx, appearing ribbed when dried. Albumen not ruminate. 

A. very common tree in waste ground and on the hills. "Ela. March' 
May. Fr. June- July. More or less leafless at the time of flowering. 
New leaves appear May- June. 

L. with unequal base, first pair of sec. n. at or near the base, upper 
Burface with pubescent nerves, beneath sparsely hairy and with gland 
pits, or tufts of hairs in the axils of the sec. nerves. Bee. n. about 6 prs., 
tertiaries more or less parallel. Petiole ?''. Calyx-limh minutely toothed. 
Anthers very long and slender. Disc hirsute. Cotyledons flat with 3- 
nerved base. 

The fruit is eaten. The bark and root are used in iaundice. The 
frood ia strong. 

Fam. 53. OLACACEJS. 

Trees, shrubs, undershi-ubs or climbers, sometimes root 
parasites, with alt., simple, exstipulate entire leaves often 
several -nerved at the base. Fls. regular, 1-2-sexual or 
dicacious. Calyx (hypanthium) small, 4-6-toothed, or 

370 



53. OLACACEJE, [1. Olax. 

obsolete, base free or actuate to the disc or ovary, in fruit 
often enlarged and enclosing the fruit. Petals 4-6 free 
br connate, valvate in bud, rarely imbricate. St. as many as 
the petals (often only 3 fertile) and opposite to them or 
2-3-times as many. Anthers 2-celled with longitudinal 
dehiscence. Ovary free at the base or enclosed in the torus, 
1-celled, or 2-5-celled at the base. JPlacentce usually free 
axile from which 1 rarely 2 long anatropous ovules depend 
into each loculus, or otary 1-celled with 1 pendulous or 
erect ovule. Style with small stigma. Fruit 1 -seeded 
usually drupaceous, the placenta often embedded in a cleft of 
the seed. Seed with a thin testa and copious albumen. 
Embryo usually small and apical. 

Stamens more than the petals, calyx accrescent . • .1. Olax. 
St?!nen8 isomerous with the petals alternating with stamin- 

odes or disc glands. 
Bracts orbicular caducons. Fls. slender pedicelled . . 2. Opilia. 
Bracts minute subulate. Fls. sesBile . . . .3. Cansjera. 

1. Olax, L. 

Calyx very small in flower, truncate; greatly enlarging 
in fruit and more or less enclosing it. Petals or perianth 
leaves 5-6. Stamens 9-12, occasionally fewer, usually 3 
fertile, the rest staminodes. Ovary free, J-celled or at the 
base 3-celled. Ovules 3, linear pendulous from the apex of 
the free central placenta, two soon abortive. Drupe surround- 
ed by the accrescent fleshy calyx(or hypanthium). Embryo 
minute. 

(The fertile ovule pushes the central placenta to one side, so that 
the latter appears as an ascending basal funicle in fruit). 

A considerable shrub usually scandent .... 1, scan dens. 

A dwarf undershrub ....... 2. nana. 

1. 0. SCandens, Roxh. Rimil, Rimil-biri, K.; Hund, 8.; 
Koko aru, Beng. 

371 



1. Olax.] 53. OLACACE^. [2. Opiiu. 

Sometimes an erect slirub,^ tiaually scandent with woody 
trunk attaining 1 ft. diam. with pubescent branchlets and 
white flowers in short axillary racemes. Fruit yellow fleshy, 
J" diam. more than half enclosed in the truncate calyx. 

Stony ground, especially near ravines, common. Singbhum, Manhhnm 
and throughout Ch. Nagpur. S. P. Fls. April-June. Fr. Oct.-Bec. Ever- 
green. .' 

Earely thorny. L somewhat distichous, coriaceous elliptic or elL- 
ovate or oblong, obtuse, with rounded base, attaining 3" by 1|'', rarely 4|'' 
by If". Sec. n. slender, not raised, lowest close ^o the base. Petioles |4" 
pubescent. Fls. on short pedicels, often distichous sometimes panitled 
from leaf suppression. Calyx oiliate. Petals narrow, {-^'' long. St. 7-10 
at base of corolla, only 3-5 fertile, staminodes 2-fid. Disc thin, cupular. 

The fruit is eaten. It is insipid and somewhat viscous. A sherbert 
is made from it in Hazaribagh. 

9. 0. nana, Wall. Merom-met', S. 

A suffruticose perennial with a woody rootstock, sending 
up annually erect strict herbaceous shoots 1-2 ft. high with 
Bub-sessile oblong-lanceolate or linear-oblong leaves and 
solitary axillary small white flowers. 

Open places, and scrub jungles, Manbhum. Fls. May. Ft. May. 

Shoots striate. L. glabrous, reaching 3'' by ^-f " obtuse. Peduncles \" 
long. Fls. ^'' white when expanded, buds oblong. Calyx rudimentary 
in flower, growing up and enclosing the fruit with a fleshy scarlet 
covering. Petals 3 linear-oblong. Fertile St. 3, Stmnds. 3, white 2'fid. 
Fruit (with calyx) y diam., oblong or obovoid. 

3. Opilia, Roxb. 
1. 0. amentacea, Boxh, 

A scandent shrub with fulvous-tomentose branchlets and 
lanceolate or lanceolate-ovate leaves. Fls. very small green- 
ish slender-pedicelled in threes, racemose, concealed when 
young by orbicular-rhomboid ciliate bracts which are arranged 
in catkin-like axillary and, extra axillary epikea |-1|' ^ong. 

1 A root parasite. Vide Studies in "Boot Parasitism by C A. Barber, 
Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India, Botanical Series, 
Vol. II, No. IV. 

872 



2. OiPiLiA.] 53. OLACACE^. 

Calyx-tube nearly obsolete, annular. Filaments 5 Tery 
sleiider alternating with 5 large green fleshy dise lobes. Fr. 
globose or ellipsoid, tomentoae (at least when young). 

Singbhum, Saranda forest in open glassy places. Santal Pargfanahs 
(Kuskia, Gamble). Fls. April-May, Fr. July. 

L. H-4" long mostly acuminate, rather coriaceous, with distinct fine 
and irregular sec. n. usually, over 5 pairs, tertiaries distinct reticulate. 
Petiole iVi"' Racemes solitary or clustered with pubescent or tomentose 
rachis. Pedicels ^''. Tepals 5 yellowish. 8t. opposite the tepals. Anths, 
▼ereatile. Drupe about ^" pedicelled. 

3. Cansjera, Juss. 
1. C. Rheedii, Gmel. 

A large, usually scandent, shrub^ with pubescent, sometimes 
very green and lenticellate, branches and shining ovate or 
lanceolate- ovate leaves. Fls. very small yellowish sessile 
tomentose, subtended by minute subulate bracts on tomentose 
spikes 1-1" long. Calyx-tube obsolete. Filaments 4-5 slender 
slightly adnate to the perianth-tube, alternatinir with 4-5 
subulate staminodes (or disc lobes). Fr. a fleshy scarlet 
ellipsoid drupe with thin hard endocarp. 

Along ravines and near water. Singhbhum and S. P. (east of 
Chandna). Monghyr. Pis. Nov.'Dec. Fr. April-May. 

L. 1|" by 2 " to 4^" by 2", mostly acuminate, often minutely translucent- 
dottod, somewhat puberulous beneath when young. Sec. n. rarely over 5 
pairs, of which the first 1 2 prs. 'lose to the often oblique base, tertiaries 
very indistinct. Petiole ^o-^" . Fi«. 2-EGxual. Perianth tubular^campanu- 
iate i" long with 4-5 recurved lobes. Drupe g-i" sessile (it often appears 
long-peduncled from only a single terminal flower at the end of the spike 
developing fruit). 

Fam. 54. LORANTHACEvE. 

Green parasitic shrubs attaching themselves by means of 
haustoria to the branches of other woody plantt^. with opp. 
or alt. simple entire leaves, or leaves reduced to scales and 

1 A roct parasite, vide loo. cit. Vol. II, No. 5. 
373 



54. LOU ANTE ACEM. [1. Loeavthus. 

their functions assnmed by the flattened ^een branches. Fls. 
from very small, regular and inconapicuons, tou brightly 
coloured and with a tendency to zygomorpby, 1-2 sexnal. 
Ovary completely sank in the floral axis and united with it, 
the axia sometimes growing up as an entire or toothed ring 
C" caly cuius"). PeWan^^ sepaloid or petaloid of 4-6 leaves 
free or on a perianth tube. Stamens as many as the per. 
leaves and opp. to them. Ovule and placenta not differen- 
tiated, completely filling the ovary, with nsnally 1 rarely 2-3 
embryo sacs. Fruit baccate, rarely drupaceous with a viscid 
inner layer, by means of which it becomes adherent to the 
future host. 

Calyculus present. Fls. 2-8extial, often conapionous . 1. Loranthus. 
-Calyculus 0. Fls. l-sexual, inconspicuous . • .2. Viscum. 



1. Loranthus, L. 

L. opp. or alternate usually broad. Perianth usually 
more or less tubular with free or connate tepals, St. epiphyl- 
lous. Anthers adnate or versatile, 

A. Fls. in tomentose fascicles or sub-racemose. Braote- 

oles 0. (Bracts present in all). 

L. under 3'' broad, base rarely sub-cordate usually 

cuneate 1. scurrula. 

L. over 3'' broad, base cordate or rounded . . •2. cor dif alius. 

B. Fls. distincly raoemed. 

Bracteoles 0. Calyculus tubular toothed . . .3. longiflorug. 
Bracteoles 2 connate. Calyculus entire . . .4. globosus. 

!• L. SCUrrula, L, Huring sum, K. ; Banda, S.^ IT. 

A tufted epiphytic shrub, young parts with a brown 
stellate or scaly tomentum. L. ovate-oblong or elliptic 2" by 
1" to 4" by 2|", younof rusty, mature often glabrous. Fls. in 
sub-racemose fascicles or contracted raceraes axillary and 
clustered at the old nodes. Perianth tomentose J-f" long 



374 



J 



1. LoBANTHus.J 54. LORANTHACEJE, 

^een split with 4 linear lobes J-fV ^o"&» filaments bright 
red. Fr. clavate |" stellate. 

Common tliroughout the area, chiefly on Woodfordia and Wendlandia. 

Fls. Nov.-Jany. Fr. Dec.-Jany, 

L. obtuse or snb-acute, base nstially cuneate and decnrrent on the 
^'' long petiole. ■ Sec. n. 4r5-prs. faint. Peduncles uy to k" lo^i?-. Brad 
minute ovate-acuminate. (Jalyculus minute entire. Per.-tuhe inflated 
below. 

(When quite ripe the outer covering of the fruit consisting of an 
epidermis, a parenchymatous tis&ue with little chlorophyll and an inner 
sheath of very fine cells becomes detached leaving a somewhat 4-gonou3 
olavate body probably corresponding to the seed. This has an outer 
transparent very small celled layer and an inner thicker tissue very rich in 
chlorophyll which secretes the mucous). 

2. L, CordifolinS) Wall, Ichac' banda, S. 

As Sir J. D. Hooker remarks, this is scarcely more than 
a variety oi L scurrula, differing in its greater size, more 
rounded and cordate leaves and the copious white tomentum, 
which gives it a very different aspect from the ordinary state 
of L. scuiTula, 

Hazaribagh ; Manbhum, Camp. ? (CampbeH's plant L. buddleioides, a 
synonymn for this, may be L. scurrula, which he does not mention. The 
vernacular name means the Loranthus which grows on the Woodfordia.) 

Fls. Dec. 

3. L. longifloruSj Desr. Sum, K. ; Banda, 8., E.y etc. 
A. shrub, glabrous (exc, sometimes the puberulous 

racemes). L. variable in shape and size, usually about 3-7\ 
Fls. in axillary and extra axillary racemes 1-4" long. Peri- 
anth 1-2" loiig slender red and orange with 5 linear-oblong 
often green lobes. Fruit oblong J" glabrous crowned with 
the caly cuius. 

The commonest Loranthus, found on a large variety of trees including 
the Sal. Fls. JVov.-Fe6y. 



4. L. globosus, Roxh. 

A 
or acu 



— O' > 

quite glabrous shrub with elliptic-lanceolate sub-acute 
minate leaves, very obscurely nerved and 3-7 fls. ^ 



375 



B. 



1. LoBANTHus.] U. LORANTHACE^, [2. Viscum. 

long in short axillary racemes, and from the leaf soars. Peri- 
anth-tube oblong 5-6 angled inHated even in bud with 5-6 lin- 
ear spathulate lobes nearly as long as the tube. Fr. globose. 

Manbbum, Oamp.! Fls. April. 

3. Viscum, L. Mistletoe. 

^ L. opp. sometimes reduced to scales. Fls. small or 
minute, solitary or fascicled. Perianth leaves 3-4. Anthers 
sessile adnate to the perianth leaves, opening by pores. 

A. Branches leafly. 

L. lanceolate or elliptic acute. Ftuit oblong . 1. moTwicum, 

L. obovate to oblong obtuse. Fruit globose . . 2. orientale. 

Branches flattened, leafless ..... 3 articulatum. 

1- V. monoicum, Boxh. 

A shrub with slender terete branches compressed at the 
ends, narrowly elliptic often oblique (or obliquely ovate, Prain) 
leaves 1|" by I" to 3" by IJ" rarely attaining 5", and minute 
greenish flowers in sessile, or very shortly-peduncled fascicles 
at all the nodes. Fr. oblong J" green polished with white 
veins. 

Manbhum, on Helicteres Isora, Camp. (The Pantal name quoted by 
Wood, viz., Pet chamra Banda merely means this) ; Pitorea (Ranchi) 
TFood ; Santal P. Fls. Nov-Dec. Fr. Jany. 

2 V. orientale, WUld, 

A shrub with terete greenish 2-3-chotoraous or sub-verti- 
cillate branches, obovate or ell. -oblong (or, linear-oblong, 
F.B.I.) leaves about 1|''' by -f" or less, with a mat surface, and 
usually slightly crimped margins. Small yellowish flowers 
j\" long sessile in axillary and terminal sessile or stalked 
fascicles. Fr. globose nearly J" diam. 

Singbhum (on Zizyphus, Croton and other trees). Hazaribagh at 
Lnnkta, Wood ; " also in the Damuda valley, Manbhum, Caiwp. Fls* 
May 'June. Fr. Nov. 

376 



I 



2. ViscuM.] 54. LOEANTHACE^. [1. Santalum. 

Branchlets ridgecl and grooved. L. rarely 2^" subseseile. Peduncles 0-i''. 
Heads usually 3-5-fld. subtended by 2 boat-shaped bracts connate at base 
sometimeB heads compound and bracts in decussate pairs. Per. leaves 4, 
ji " long. 

Campbell says this plant is believed to derive its medicdnal properties 
from the tree on which it grows, and these are therefore as numerous as 
its hosts. 

3. V. articulatniXl) Burm. Katkom janga, 8. 

A leafless slirab with sap-green striate often snb-verticil- 
late flattened branches contracted at the nodes. Internodea. 
1-2" by iV(iip *o J" in one form which I have not seen in our 
area^. Fls. minute, fascicled at the nodes with cup-shaped 
bracts, 3-4-merous. 

Common, Singbhum ; Hazariba^h, esp. on Diospyros ; Manbhum, very 
common on Bassia and Diospyros and several other trees, Camp. ; Kur- 
wandi reserve, Falamau, Gamb^. \Fls. Dec-Jany. 



Fain. 55. SANJALACEtE. 
1. Santalum, L. 

1. S. album, L. Sandal- wood. 

A small glabrous evergreen tree, a hemi-parasite-like 
Loranthus, but terrestrial with haustoria attached to the roots 
of trees. L. opp. l-2j" long elliptic or ovate-lanceolate acute 
or sub-acute. Fls. small in terminal trichotomous panicles 
perianth ^" diam. at first pale then deep red rotate. Fr. a 
fleshy globose^ shining black drupe. 

Collected by the Revd. A. Campbell on Parasnath. Fls. March. 
Fr. Nov. 

Fls. regular 2-sexuaI. Perianth campanulate with 4-5 spreading 
lobes, with a tuft of hair behind the stamens which are inserted opp. 
the lobes on the margin of the disc which lines the tube. Ovary 
perigynous at first, ultimately half inferior with long style and short 
2-4rlobed stigma, 1-celled. Ovules 2-4 inserted below the summit of a 
loDg free central placenta. 

377 



SKRIES C. [1. PoBTCiAci. 

F^m. 56. PORTULACACEiE. 

1. Portulaca, L. 

Diffuse succulent herbs with alt., opp. or (below the 
inflorescence) whorled leaves and small yellow (brilliantly 
coloured in cult, species) solitary or clustered fls. Sep. (or 
bracts ?) 2 connate below, the free part deciduous. Pet. 4-6 
perigynous. St. 8-12 inserted with the petals. Ovary half- 
inferior 1-celled. Style 3-8 fid. Ovules ex: central. Cap- 
sule transversely dehiscent. 

Two commoB herbs largely usaa as vegetables are 1. P. oleracea, 
L. Dalia : , Ho. ; Mota uric 'alang, 8. 6-12'' high with alt. cuneate 
truncate leaves i-l|" whorled above. 

2. P. quadrifida, L. Suni a : , Ho. Diffuse with ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate opp. leaves ^-i'' and terminal solitary fla. 

The beautiful little garden plant known afi Portulaca is a Brazilian 
species. 

Fam. 57. AMARANTACEiE. 

Herbs, rarely sbrubs with opposite or alternate simple, 

exstipulate leaves and small white or green, dry, regular 

flowers in simple or panicled spikes, cymes or clusters, 

some of the flowers frequently more or less rudimentary or 

altered. Bracts and 2 bracteoles scarious. Perianth-lobes 

inferior 5 free (rarely 1-3) persistent, hyaline or scarious 

imbricate in bud. St. 1-5 opposite the lobes, sometimes 

with alternating staminodes, filaments connate below. Anths. 

1- or 2-ceIled. Ovary 1-celled ; styles 1-3 ; ovules 1 or 

more, often ampbitropous, basal with capillary funicle. Fruit 

usually a utricle, rarely a berry or capsule, seated on or 

inclosed in the perianth. Seed erect compressed, with 

auDular qr horse-shoe-shaped embryo surrounding a mealy 

albumen* 

Ovalesfew ormany. Rambling shrub with red berries . X. Deeringia. 

Ov^ule 1 orect. 

Herbs with alt. leaves and 1-sexuaI fls. . . .2. Amarantvs. 

Herb with alt. leaves and 2-sexual fla. . • .3. Digera. 

378 



57. AMARANTACE^. [2. Amabintus. 

Ovule 1 BTispended from a basal funicle. 

Fls. clustered with mdimentary one reduced 

to hooked awns 4. Pupa^ia. 

FIb. all perfect. Perianth lobes spineacent . h. Achyranthet, 

Fls. all perfect. Perianth lobes soft . • .6, Aerua. 

Celosia cristata, L. often with a cockscomb-shaped inflores- 
cence is common in gardens, and Celosia argentea, L. with white 
or pink scarious flowers in spikes, is a common weed (Sirgit arak' S.) 
whose leaves are eaten. There are also other weeds of the order not 
described here, e.g., Altemanthera. 

1. Deeriiigia, R. Br. 

1. D. eelosioides, Br. Latman, E. ; Gola mohani, Beng. 

A rambling or sub-scandent shmb witb arching branches 
alt. petioled leaves, and small greenish white flowers in 
panicled spikes. Conspicuons in fruit by the tnimerons small 
scarlet berries J-^ diam., containing small blacic seeds. 

Only seen by me, in Chota Nagpur, in the low lands of Palamau 
near the Sone. Fls.^pi. 'Et. Dec J any. 

L. ovate or ovate-lanceolate acuminate. Fls. ^'' diam. 2-sexual. 
Stamens 5 (4-5, F.B.I.) connate at the base. An annular hypogynous due 
filso present. Stigmas 2-4. 

2. Amarantns, L. 

Herbs with alt. leaves and small greenish 1-sexual flowers 
in axillary or panicled-spiked clusters. Sepals 2-5, and st. 
as many without staminodes. Stigma 2-3. Utricle com- 
pressed. Embryo annular. 

1. A. Spinosus, L» Januma : , Ho. ; Jannm Ara, if. 

An erect glabrous copiously oranched weed armed with 
sharp axillary spines and bearing axillary clusters and long' 
terminal often panicled spikes of green 1 -sexual flowers. 

A very common weed. In all districts. Fls. and Fr. most of the year. 

Stems ^ preen, red or striped 1-3 ft. L. 4-4" long narrowed into the 
slender petiole. 

379 



2. Amaeantus.] 57. AMABANTACE^. [4. Pupalia. 

The leaves aro eaten. The ash of the plant is used as ^ dye. 

The numerous sjpecies of Amarantus are known genetically as 
Leper ara (or a: la Ho.) in KoL, and Gandhari arak', in 8. e.g., 
A. gigauteus, Konig is marang leper a : , A. gangeticus, L. is ara 
leper a : , or naguri leper a : , according to variety, etc., etc. 

Digera arvensis, Forsk. Kari Gaadhari, 8. is an erect or prostrate 
herb with long-petioled ovate leaves and axillary long spikes of small 
pink flowers. Fls. distant i" long, 2 outer tepals cymbiforoj, 3 inner deep- 
magenta broadly-oblong. Bracteoles with forked g^een fleshy scales in 
their axils (imperfect flowers ?). Very common, used as a pot-herb. Fls., 
Fr. r. s. 



4. Pnpalia, Jass. 

Herbs or undershriiba with opposite leaves and small 
greenish flowers in spiked clusters. Outer fls. in the cluster 
reduced to awns beariug stellately spreading hooked bristles. 
St. 5. Staminodes 0. Style slender, stigma capitellate. 

1. P. lappacea, Moq^, Kuya-duya, Beng. 

A pubescent or tomentose undersbrub with long 
straggling branches, shortly petioled softly pubescent ovate- 
oblong leaves. Chiefly noticeable from the barbed heads of 
fruits J" diam. which tenaciously adhere to the clothes. 

Rocky places in Palamau. Fla. 8ept.-0ct. Fr. Nov.-Dec. 

L. 2-1)" with acute base. The heads consist of perfect flowers with 
densely wouly 3-nerved sepals, and stalked stellate spines in threes with 
a persistent bract from below their point of origin, the whole on a toagb 
peduncle. The number of such spines is 4-7 in a whorl. 

2. P. atropurpurea, Moq. 

A herb with long stragglfog branches, distant pairs of 
petioled shining leaves and green flowers, aboat 2 perfect in 
globose clusters J-^'' diam. along a spike, with a number of 
sterile ones, which develop in fruit into stellately spreading 
red hooked bristles. 

Waste ground, esp. edges of fields and jungles in grassy places 
frequent. Singbhum, etc. Fls., Fr. NovrJany, 

380 



4. PuPALiA.] '57, AMARANTACE^, [6. ^EUi. 

Branches glabrous or roughly pubefloent. I. l^'^^ovate or ell. acute 
apiculate, narrowed into the petiole. Spikes reaching 1 foot, globose 
sessile clusters distant. Bracts pungent. Sepals 3-nerved wooly at base 
and sides, sparsely hairy on back, pungent. 

Aehyranthes aspera, L. Sitir Kedn, M. ; Chipchirit', 8. ; Apang, 
Beng., is a common weed with opp. leaves and long spikes of flowers, which 
are soon deflexed and very troublesome in fruit from the spinescent 
bracts, bracteoles and perianth segments running into the hand and 
adhering to the clothes. 

Var. porphyristachya is sab-soandent and common in the forest. Fls., 
Fr. Oct. -J any. 

6. ^rua, Forak. 

Herbs or undershrubs, sometiines climbing, with alt., opp. 
or wborled leaves and small or minnte flowers in solitary or 
panicled dense spikes. Perianth segments 4-5, short 
membranous, all or the 3 inner wooly, Filaments connate 
at base into a cnp with intervening staminodes. Stigmas 1 
capitellate or 2. Fruit a utricle or circumscissile capsule 
with coriaceous apex. 

1. A. scandens, Wall. Nuriya, Beng, 

Stem woody below with branches 2-4' ft. high or sub- 
scandent, pubescent or hoary- tomentose. L. alt., or opp, 
and alt., elliptic or ell. lane, lower attaining 6'' by 2j', upper 
often only 1". Fls. white in dense oblong axillary, terminal 
and panicled spikes j-2" long. 

Forests, not unfrequent, Singbhum, Hazaribagh, etc.,Fl., Pr, March' 
Dec. 

Stems striate. L. sub-acuminate, base deourrent on the short 
petiole. Sec n. about 8 prs. Fls. 4-5 on short branches of the spike, 
each subtended by a hyaline shortly awned bract ■^" long exac^y resem- 
bling the wooly or villous softly aristate sepals. Capsule thin rupturing 
irregulary transversely. Seeds black. smooth. 

2. A. lanata, Juss. 

Branches many from a woody rootstock, erect or prostrate, hoary 
tomentose about 1 ft. with small alt. elliptic to orbicular leaves ^-V 
and numerous axillary spikes ^" long of small wooly flowers. 

A common weed. Fls., Fr. Nov.-Jany, 

381 



6. iEnuA.] 57. AMARANTACE^. [1. Basblljl. 

3. A. Monsonia, Mart, is a small plant with opposite or 3-nately 
whorled filiform leaves \-\" and solitary or sub-panicled peduncled 
spikes ^1'^ long of rose-coloured flowers. Hazaribagh in Sal forest. Fls. 
Nov-Dec. 



Fam. 58. CHEXOPODIACEiE. 

Herbs or elirubs with alt. simple exstipulate leaves and 
small usually regular 1-2-sexual flowers. Calyx heTh&ceoxis 
or , membranous of 3-5 free or connate sepals or 2 or in the 
female. Pet. 0. St. usually 5 opposite the sepals nearly 
always free at base, hypogynous or perigynous, anths.; 2-celled. 
Ovary 1 -celled, stigmas 2-4. Ovule 1 basal or lateral 
campylotropous. Fr. a utricle enclosed in the often enlarged 
fleshy calyx. Seed alb. or exalb. Embryo, curved, annular 
or spiral. 

The cultivated Beet and Spinach belong to this family, and two or 
three weeds which are used as pot herbs. 



1. Basella, L. 

^ 1. B. rubra, L. Utu a :, Ho. ; Pui, E. 

A fleshy twining much branched herb with ovate shining 
rather , fleshy leaves and small sessile pinkish fleshy 
flbw'ers* in distant spikes, succeeded by ovoid pointed black 
l-seeded berries (utricle enclosed in the fleshy perianth) l" 
diam. 

Grown on trellises and hedges in all Ch. Nag. villages. Fls., Fr. 
March-Dec. "^'■ 

Btems often red. L. 1|" by 1^" to 3" by 2" slightly acuminate with 
straight or rounded base. Si^ikes H" long with fleshy rachis. Flf. 
2-8exual, urceolate, with a smaft ijreen bract and 2 adnata coloured 
bracteoles. Perianf?i 5-fid, fleshy mth deep purple juice in fruit. St. 5 
perigynous. Styles 3, 

A pot-herb. 

382 



1. Polygonum.] [1. Pipbb. 

Fam. 59. POLYGOXACEJE. 

1, Polygonum, L. 

Herbs or rarely undershrubs with alt. simple, entire 
rarely lobed sometimes gland-dotted leaves and ocreate 
stipules. Fls. small 2-sexual clustered, clusters azillary or 
in spiciform racemes, with ochreate bracts and bracteoles. 
Perianth 4-5-partite, more or less enlarged or sometimes 
fleshy in fruit which it encloses. St. 6-8 rarely fewer, free, 
often wider at the base and adnate to the perianth base or an 
annular disc. Ovary free with 2-3 free, or more or less 
connate, styles and 1 erect orthotropous ovule. Fr, 
compressed or 3-quetrous, with a hard pericarp. 

Ten species of the genus occur in Chota Nagpur, but they 
are of no forest importance. Several, however, are used as 
pot-herbs, and medicines. Among them— 

p. plebejum, Br. Mania, Muni ara K. ; Mnio', i8^. A very common 
diffusely branched prostrate herb with piak flowers in the axils of the 
leaves, is eaten both by human beings, as a sag, and by horses. It 
resembles in appeaxence our English Knot-grass. 

P. glsibvum, Wiild. Sauri arao*, /8 An erect species 3-4 ft. high 
growing in marshy places |" thick and woody below, with lanceolate 
acuminate leaves about 5|". by |" (attaining 10" by 2' in luxuriant 
plants) dotted glabrous shining narrowed into a very short petiole. 
8ti'pules truncate not ciliated. Spikes dense pinkish 1^-3" long about 
2-5 in a panicle. 8t. 6-8. Style 2-fid. Fls. Dec- J any. Eaten as a sag. 

To the Polygonaceae belongs the beautiful Mexican climber 
Antigonon leptopus, H. and Am., with palmately-nervc d leaves which 
at the ends of the shoots are often modified into tendrils. Fls. bright 
pink. Three outer tepals acores.oent in fruit. Common in gardens. 

Fam. 60. PIPERACEJE. 

1. Piper, L, Pepper. 

Shrubs or herbs sometimes scandent, with swollen nodes, 
simple alt. entire often unequal-sided aromatic basal-nerved 
gland' dotted stipulate leases and minute dioecious flowers in 

383 



1. Pipes.] 60. PIPEUACE^. [1. Abistolochia. 

leaf-opposed or terminal spikes. Spikes usually with thick 
rachis and peltsfte bracts sometimes adnate to anH decurrent 
on the rachis. Perianth 0. Stamens usually 2-3, rarely I, 
4 or 6. Ovary 1-celled, with 2-5 stigmas. Ovule 1 erect 
orthotropous. Fruit fleshy. 

1. P. longum, L. Narjom red, Ralli red, E. ; Ralli, 8, 
Long pepper. 

A creeping and ramblimg herb with distant alt. long- 
petioled or sessile cordate shining leaves with a seven-nerved 
base. M. spikes yellow about 3" long. F. spikes |-|". 

Moist places under dense shade in Singbhutn (Saranda and Porahat) 
Manbhum, Camp.; S. P., (Silingi) not common. Fla. Aug.-Dec. Ft. 
Jan^.-Fehy. 

Quite glabrous, or pubescent above. Lower leaves V' by M' deeply 
cordate acute with petiole 3'. Upper smaller and narrower nearly 
sessile and amplexicaul. Peduncles 1-1^''. Bracts stalked peltate. 
Fruiting spihes sub-erect with berries ■^" diam. 

Both the root and fruit are used medicinally. They are stimulant 
and carminative, and used fot cough. Campbell says that the root is 
used to ferment rice beer. 

Piper Betle, L, The Fan is oooasionally oultiyated in grass ^een 
houses in Palamau. 



Fam. 61. ARISTOLOGHIACEiK. 

1. Aristolochia, L. 

Climbing herbs or shrubs with simple entire alternate 
exstipulate leaves, usually palmi-nerved with cordate base. 
Base of petiole dilated or decurrent on the stem. Flowers 
2-sexual veiy zygomorphic, haplostemonous with petaloid 
gamopetalous perianth tube inflated at the base and 
constricted above the staminal column, hairy within. St. 6 
fused into a column (gyno8tenium)with the style above the 
inferior 6-celled ovary. Placentas parietal meeting in the 
axis. Ovules many horizontal. Fruit capsular, usually 
dehiscing from the base. 

384 



1. ABI8T0I0CHIA.] 61 ARISTOLOCEIACE^. 

1. A. indica L. Gad, 8. 

A glabrous shrub with a woody rootstock, slender sulcate 
branches, membianoas, panduriiorm leaves (L. variable from 
linear to obovate-oblong, F.B.I.), and greenish flowers 
usually 2 or more on a peduncle with slatey-purple 
(0, B. Clarhe) or brownish (i^. B. I.) lip. Capsule 1^-2" long, 
oblong, grooved. Seeds winged. 

Santal Pargaoahs, Sundarpahari, Haslett I Fie. Jwie-Aug, Fr. Dee. 

L. 2-4" by 1-2'', always broadest above the middle, mostly 
acmninate. Basai nerves 1 or 2 on each side of the mid-rib. Petiole 
slender ^''. Perianth straight, tube shortly fnnnel-shaped with oblique 
trumpet- shaped mouth and short oblong obtuse lip. 

Boxburgh says the root is nauseously bitter. Haslett says ths^t 
it is used as a cure for snakebite. This is probably from a fancied 
resemblance of the flower to the head of a serpent, and is interesting 
inasmuch as several species have enjoyed a similar reputation in both 
North aad South America (f. Solereder). 

2. A. bracteata, Retz. 

■ stem slender decumbent or trailing with a long slender rootstock and 
striate branches 12-18' long, reniform or broadly-cordate leaves 1^-3'' 
both ways and petiole 1-11". Fls. solitary on a bracteate peduncle ; lip 
erect linear dark-purple with revolute edges. Fruit V ovate grooved, 

Chota Nagpur according to Wood's list (without locality;, but I have 
seen no specimens from our area. 



Fam. PROTEACE.E. 

A large non-Indian family of which there are some 590 
Australian species, the remainder being chiefly African. To 
it belongs Grevillea robueta, A. Gunn., which is often planted 
though not growing well in Cbota Nagpur. It bears golden- 
yellow spikes of flowers in April- May. 

Fam. 63. TRTICACEiE. 

Herbs, shmbs, or small trees without milky juice, some- 
times with stinging hairs. L, alt., rarely opposite (spp, of 
Boehmeria and others not of C. N.) with usually 3-nerved 

385 9 



€2, URTICACHJS. [ 2. Gibabdihu. 

base and often marked by opaque dots (dne to cystolitbs). 
Stipules nsTiallv membranous, Bometimes intrapetiolar. Fls. 
l-aexual in cymes or clasters which are sometimes spicate. 
Sep. 4-5 free or nnited into a tnbe in the female, sometimes 
2-3-merons or 0. St. one opposite each sepal. Ovary 1 -celled, 
1-carpellary with 1 erect oithotropouB ovule. Fr. a utricle, 
■ometimes enclosed or girt by the enlarged fleshy perianth. 

71a. cymose 2-5-meron8. 

F. calyx carapanulate 4-lob ed. L. (in C. N. sp] 'jntire 

or nearly so .... . .1. Laportea. 

P. perianth tnbnlar 2-3-tootlied. L. distinctly serrate . 2. Girardinia.. 

Fla. fascicled, clusters sometimes spic ate. 

Shrubs. Fla. clusters spicate. L. toothed . . .3. BcBhmeria. 

Herbs. Fls. dusters axillary. L. entire • . . 4i. Pov>8oh%a» 

1, Laportea, baud 
1. L. crenulata, Gaud. 

A soft stemmed shrub 3-8 ft. with white etotit branches, 
hixgQ shining elliptic penni-nerved leaves and greenish flowers 
in. divaricate cymes. Utricle inflated white. 

Deep shady ravines in the Karampoda forest. Evergreen. Fls. Sept.- 
Ofcfc Fr. Nov.-Dec 

L. 12" hj 4|'' or more, quite entire m C. N. specimens, nunutely 
pustular and with few scattered hairs. Infioreacevce covered with hairs. 
The sting of this nettle is most virulent, the effects sometimes lasting 
for days and producing sleeplessness and fever. It has been noted, 
however \Hook. ^m. .]our, and by others), that it is worst in the autupnn, 
and indeed I have often found it quite innocuous at some times of the 
jear. This is due to the fact that the hairs are deciduous, and they arft 
especially abundant on the inflorescence. WhUe cutting coupe lines in 
Hov. in the Sikkim Terai where the plant is abundant, the coolies hav» 
been attacked with sneezing, catarrh and ultimately vertigo from, appft^ 
xeatly, inhaling the nomerona minute hairs. 

S. Giiardinia, Gaud. 

1. G. zeylanica, Decaisne, Syn. G. heterophylla, vm. 
seylaniea, F,B.L Nettle. 

886 



3. GiBABDisu.] 62. UETICAOBJE. [3. Bcehmbbia. 

A Buffruticose herb 4-6 ft. high, covered all over with 
stout stinging bristles, with coarsely lobed gi-nd serrate leavea 
4-8'' long and broad, and claatered flowers, the M. mostly in 
snb-cylindric spiciform cymes from the lower axils, the 
F. in somewhat reniform compact panicles from the npper- 
axils. 

Chota Nagpur, Train. Fls., Fr., in the cold season. 

"The bark abounds in fine, white, glossy, silk-like, strong fibres. ** 
HokhMirgh. 

3. Boehmeria, Jacq. 

Shmbs or small trees with opp. or alt.- toothed leaves 
S-Dcrved at the base and flowers in clusters which are 
axillary or spiked or the spikes panicled. Sep. 3-5 in M., 
calyx tubular 2-4-toothed in the F. Stigma filiform per- 
sistent. 

L. very long, narrow-lanceolate • • .1. macrophylla, 
L. broadly ovate or elliptic . . , ,2. scabrella. 

1. B. macn T)hylla, Den. 

I A large shrub easily recognized by its long opposite 
1 narrow serrulate leaves and globose clusters of flowers in loDg 
I drooping spikes. 

Deep shady ravines in Saranda, very rare. "Ela.Sept. 

^ Twigs strigose. L. 6'' by V to l.V by 3^'', strongly 3-nerved, candate, 
reticulate uervules depressed above raised beneath. Petiole |-3'. 8jpi1te» 
about as long as the leaves. 

2. B. scabrella. Gaud. SyH. B. plafcyphylla, Don. var. 

I scabrella, Wedd.^' 

• Fide Bengal Plan+,3, but the Saranda form is rather B. platyphyila 
▼at 9 of WeddeUvS monograph, and var. niacrosfcacbya of Eew Herb. 
Weddel's var. macrostacbya has pendulous spikes. The very ragoBB 
i \ iMved form (scabrella of C. B. Clarke) is chieliy coanued to Parasnath. 

387 P 3 



8. BffiHMESu.] .62. UBTICACJSJE. 

A shrub 4-10 ft. with snb-strigose branches large elliptic 
or ovate obtuse to acuminate leaves 4-8" bj 3-B" and minute 
clusters of flowers in erect or inclined spikes attaining 1 ft. 
in length. 

Kavines on the Porahat plateau as well as in Saranda, not common, 
Parasnath in Hazaribagh. Fla., Fr. Bept-Jany. 

L. opposite 3-nerTed scabemlons both sides, crenaie-dentate, dotted 
with cystolithe. Base obtuse to sub-cordate. Petiole2-6'\ 

Yields a good fibre. 

The Parasnath plant has the leaves very areolate beneath and rela- 
tively shorter petioles. 

4. i*ouzoizia, Gaud, 

Pouzolzia differs from Bcehmeria by the leaves being 
usually (always in our species) entire and the style articulate 
to the ovary and deciduous. The M. sepals have often 
abruptly inflexed tips, so that the buds appear abruptly trun- 
cate or shouldered. , 

1. P. indica, Qaud, is a perennial herb with creepuig rootstook and 
long weak branches found on moist banks and sides of rivers. It has 
BCabrid stems and alt. small basally 3-nerved leaves (with only 1 pair 
above the basal) and minute axillary greenish fls. M. buds globose and 
apiculate, stri^ose. 

2. P.pentandra, Benn., is suffruticose with trailing stems and 
ascending often bright red slender branches and numerous close alt. 
small ovate floral leaves barely 5 ' long upwards. M. buds truncate. The 
achene is samaroid with two lateral concave wings and a dorsal fleshy 
lobe. Biver banks. 

3. P, auriculata, Wight., is a tall erect perennial with alt. leaves 
If^'' long, several-nerved above the base and buds not truncate. 

4. P. hirta, BassTc., is a slender sub-erect or decumbent herb or 
sub-scandent, with opp. .leaves and truncate buds. Both the last are very 
rare. 

Fam. 63. rLHAGEJB. 

Trees or shrubs without milky juice with alt. simple dis- 
tichous stipulate leaves. Fls. small 1-2-Bexual with a 4-9- 
lobed perianth. St. as many as and opposite to the perianth 

388 



63. ULMACE^. [1. Holoptblea 

obes, rarely twice as many. Ovary 1 -rarely 2-celled 
Styles 2 free, or connate, or stigmas two sessile. Ovule 1 in 
each cell, pendulous. Seeds exalbuminoas. 

1. Fls. appearing before the learea. L. 

entire. Fr. a samara . . .1. Holoptelea. 

2. Fr. drupaceous. Fls. in the axils of deve- 

loped leaves, cymose . . . .2. Trema. 

1. Holoptelea, Planch. 

1. H. integfrifolia, Panch. Chilbil, Kharw. ; Charha. 
8. ; Churla, Mai Pah. 

A large or small, tree (according to locality), in some 
states somewhat resembling a teech. L, ell. or ovate entire 
(or toothed or crenate in very young trees) usually 2'' by 1|* 
to 4|* by 2|". Fls. green in very numerous fascicles or short 
racemes on the leafless branches. Samara btoadly elliptic 1\ 
on a slender articulate pedicel, notched between the two 
stigmas. 

Usually in valleys, Manbhum and Hazaribagh scarce ; Santal Farga- 
nahs ; Palamau, common. Occurs also on the hills in Palamau in a 
stunted form. It flotrers March or April, the flowers only last a few 
days, and the fruit is ripe by the end of May when the tree is in full leaf. 
The small hill form does not produce its leaves till Jtme. 

Twigs white. Young shoots and leaves beneath tomentose. L. 
usually glabrescent shortly acuminate or cuspidate, base rounded, oblique 
or slightly cordate, sec. n. 5-7 prs. raised beneath, very reticulate between 
the lowest 2-5 usaally quite close to the base. Petiole ^-^'' . Btiptbl^ 
linear caducous, scarcely leaving a scar. M. and F. fis. in the same cluster. 
Sep. and 8t. 4-8. 

There are three, if not four, very distinct forms which require fnrthw 
examination in different stages. They may be distinct species : — 

o. Branchlets with raised round lenticels, puberulous. L. under 
3^' long, quickly glabrous (May), base oblique or rounded « 
only in few sub-cordate. Petiole slender ^''. 

P. Branchlets with few scarcely raised lenticels, glabrous or pub«r- 
ulcus. L. mostly up to 5^'' or 6' rather membrauona, pub- 
escent beneath (at least up to July). Base sub-cordate, Qt 
unequal. Petiole only ^". This closely oorrespouda to 
rhvvaites No. 2381 from Ceylon, called Tar. tomentusa xa 
Kew Herb 

lt89 



1, HoioPTELBA.J 63, ULMACUJE. [2. Teema, 

y- Twigs very pubescent hiding the lenticels. L. rather coriaceotis 

3-4'' lonor, base distinctly cordate, beneath tomentose with 
stout raised nervea atid tip very obtuse or with very obtase 
short cusp. Petioles ^-f stout. It has somewhat the faciea 
of a Cordla, from which, however, the L. can at once be 
distinguished by the nerves looping within the margin, while 
in Cordia they run into tho margii5 or are excnrreut. 

Eastern Palamaw "no. Western Hazaribagh. 

S. The shrubby form of the Palamau hills has not been collected in 
mature leaf. It has a very white bark, and some of the 
twigs have circular raised lenticels. The young leaves are 
very tom^itose. 

% Trema, Lour. 

Usually small trees -with the leaves serrate, 3-7-ba8al- 
nerved and often oblique, small green flowers in axillary 
cymes, and fruit a small drupe seated on tlie persistent calyx. 
Fls. dioecious, monoecious or polygamous, 4-5-merou8. Ovary 
1-celled, 1-ovuled. Style 2-fid. Fruit a small ovoid drupe. 

L. silky beneath, base oblique. Twigs ad- 

pressed-pubescent. Cymes lax . . L orientalis, 

L. tomentose beneath or silky, base oblique. 
Twigs with spreading pubescence, cymes 
aense Far. amboinensis. 

L.. scabrid beneath, base sub-regular . . 2. politoria. 

1. T. orientalis, Bl. Roronga, K. ; Jhawar, 8. ; Rukni, 
Kliarw. ; Kokoara, AaL PaK 

A fast-growing tree attaining '6b ft. marked with stipular 
scars, with bifarioas ovate or ovate-lanceolate caudate leaves 
3-6" long, mostly very obliqne at the base, more or less white 
or silvery beneath with silky hairs and scabrid or not above. 
Panicles usually much branched and ultimately longer than 
the petioles. 

Throughout the ayea, chiefly in moist valleys, .tls., Fr. Nov.-April, 
Var. o, == T. amboinensis, Bl. There are two specimens so named from 
C. N. iu the CaL Herb., one from Manbhum, apd one from Parasnath 

390 



2. Tebma.] 63. ULMACJEM, 

collected by Clarke. These only differ from T. orientalis by the somewhat 
more spreading pubescence and smaljjer denser cymes, which are, how- 
ever, still yonng. Another specimen found by me on Parasnalh, and other- 
wise similar had large laxer cymes (f ''). Singbhum, Valleys in Saranda. 
It can be distingaished from the type by the beautiful whiteness of the 
leaves beneath (T. orientalis is green or silvery beneath) and by the 
ehagginess of the pubescence. The veins are sometimes red. 

2. T. politoria, "Planch, Kaksi (from the rough leavesy, 
K,\ Tila, Kharw. 

A small tree attaining about 25 ft. with pubescent twi^a, 
stifi oblong or ovate-lanceolate serrulate leaves 2-4" long, 
scabrous both sides, and compact cjmes usually shorter than 
the petiole. 

Frequent, often on roadsides. Fls. Aug.-Sept. Fr. March. Evergreen. 

L. with a rounded or cordate base acute or somewhat acuminate, thinly 
hairy on the secondary and tertiary nerves, not silky between, and reti- 
culations not raised beneath as usually in T. orientalis. Stipules longer 
thaji the j-^'' petiole. 

The rough leaves are sometimes used for polishing wood, and tne 
frnita are made into an acid jam. 



Fam. 64. mORACEJ;. 

Trees or shrubs usually with milky juice, sometimes 
climbing or epiphytic, with alt. (rarely opp. eg. Ficus 
hispida) simple, frequently dotted,^ stipulate leaves. Stipules 
in some genera. sheathing and caducous leaiing a permanent 
circular nodal scar. Fls. small greenish, usually in dense 
inflorescences, often crowded on or inside (as in the figs) a 
fleshy receptacle formed or the aggreg-ate axes, unisexual, 
mon- or di-oecious. Sep. usually 4, seldom 2-6 in the male, 
free or connate. St, isomerons opp. the sepals or only one 
(in Artocarpus and some Ficus).' Ovary 1-celled of 2 caj'pels 
with one pendulons anatropous or amphitropous ovule. Fr. 

* Dots due to cvstoliths and not therefore pellucid. 
.^91 



64, MOBACF^. [2. MoBU8. 

small, an achene or drnpe, trequently aggregate into large 
fleshy pseudocarps from the growth of the axis or perianth. 

Fls. not enclosed in, nor on, broad fleshy receptacles. 

II. . in pednncled heads. F. 1-few, pedtmcled . • 1. Strehlug, 

JS.. and F. fl. in catkin-like spikes 2. Mprut. 

Fls. crowded on, or enclobed in broad fleshy receptacles. 

Fls. on the ontside of ^obose or clavate receptacles . 3. Artocarpus. 

Fls. enclosed in the receptacles (IBecepts, Figs) • . 4. Ficva. 



1. Streblns, Lour. 

1. S. asper. Lour. Kakasa (rough), Ote, Ripi-chnm. 
K ; also Soor, Ho} ; Sahra, 8, 

A small tree vith tough stringy bark, rigid very scabrid 
rhombic ell. or obovate leaves 2-4", male capitula |-J" diam. 
F. fl. long-peduncled inconspicuous "with 2 very long styles, 
perianth yellow fleshy in fruit. 

Not uncommon in valleys, thronghout the area. Evergreen, new L. in 
March. Fls. March-May. Fr. May-June. 

Jmce very slightly milky 'in the cold weather. L. slightly toothed, 
acuminate, scabrid both sides, sub-sessile. Peduncles i-^" in both sexes 
axillary and from leaf -scars, 1-4 together. F- fl. usually surrounded at the 
base by 3 bracts, and the ovary enclosed in the perianth. Fn t with a 
thin coriaceous pericarp, ^'' diam. including the succulent perianth. 

Often grazed down by goat-p, 

Morus indica, L. Indian Mulberry and M. lasvigata. Wall., are 
both sometimes cultivated ; the latter is a tree with a slender cylindrical 
npike of pale yellow fruits. The fleshy part is the enlarged perianth. 

^ This is the same word as " Soroa " M. applied to Garcinia Cowa, but 
as it is apparentlv allied to the Santal name and to tie " Sahora " of the 
Curcakpur hills, it probably belongs to Streblus. Hara saijang, oukh 
eaijang, sometimes quoted mean bullock's ribs, pig's ribs respeotiveiy and 
are names often applied to Auogeissus acuminata, and to many trees wit'* 
prominent side nerves. 

392 



3. AnTocABPUs] 64. MORACEJB. |4j Ficui. 

3. Artocarpn^, Forst. 

Trees with large coriaceous leaves, those of seedlingb 
often quite difFerent from the adult, being usually deeply 
lobed or pinnatifid while the adult are usually entire. 
Stipules leaving a circular scar, very large and coriaceous 
and sheathing the inflorescence on flowering shoots, or smaljl 
in some species. Perianth of male 2-4-lobed or -partite, of 
P. tubular, sunk in the receptacle. 

1. A. Lakoocha, Boxh. Daho, Dahu K., 8,, H. 

A mod. -sized tree with large ell. or ovate obtuse orshortlj 
acuminate leaves 6-10". M. inflorescence ellipsoid or globose 
1* diam. deciduous. F. inflor. irregularly sub-globose 2-4". 

Frequent in villages thronghont the area ; truly wild in the Saranda 
hills, Singbhnm ; in the Manbhum forests, Camp^ ; Ranchi (Damnda- 
ghats) ; Hazaribagh (Parasnath). Sub-deciduous March. Ho. and new leaf 
April. Ft. May ajxd Oct.-Nov. (There appears to be two periods). 

Branchlets tomentose. L. pubescent or tomentose beneath with 8-12 
prs. of sec. n. Petiole ^-V. Btijpules ^'\ lanceolate. The fruit is eaten. 

2. A. integrifolia, L. Poros, K. {fide Gamble) ; Kathal, 
JB". ; Kauthar, if., S, The Jack-fruit. 

Cultivated throughout the area, but not growing well in the drier parts 
of Singbhum and Palamau ; abundant on the plateaux and the S.P. The 
wood largely used for the large native drums (dumung). Fls. Decr.-feftv* 
S^. r.8. 

A native of the Western Ghats. 

On flowering shoots each pair of large condupiicate stipules bears a 
naked inflorescence,! a lateral bud, and the succeeding leaf and its stipules, 
the bud continues the branching in a similar manner, and so does the 
succeeding leaf, so that the Jack fruits are complicately panicled. 

4. Ficus, L. Pig. 

Trees or shrubs, often epiphytic when young, sometimes 
scandent. Stipules sheathing the bud and leaving a circjlar 
scar on falling. Mouth of recept closed by bracts. Fls. 
mon-rarely di-oecious and recepts usually^ androgynous. 

393 



4. Ficxjs.] 



64. MORACEM, 



Sep. 2-6 more or less connate in male, gometimes imperfect 
in fern. St, 1 or 2 rarely 3-6. Style often lateral with entire 
or 2- fid. stigma. 

^ote.— Special fem. fl. (Gall fls.) ^th reduced styles are used by 
certain ChalcididaB in which to lay their eggs. The mature insects in 
escaping from the recepts brush against the M. fl. which frequently occupy 
a zone near the mouth of the recept, and so carry away the pollen. 

L Recepts c^uline or ratoeal, clustered or on special 
scaly more or less leafless branches ; rarely also a 
few among the leaves. 

a. Shrub. L. narrow -lanceolate . . 

&. Trees. Eecepts mostly on short leafless cauline 
branches. 

L. under 4'' broad, more or less ovate or 
oblong, alt 

L. 4-12'' broad, broadly ovate or sub 
orbicular, alt. .... 

L. under 4'' broad, some or ail opposite 
Eecepts fascicled .... 

c. Eecepts usually on long leafless branches. 

L. ^-sagittate . . . • • 



1. lanceolata. 

2. glomerata. 

3. Roxburghii, 

4. hispida. 

5. Cunia. 



n. Eecepts 1-2 (sometimes more in gibboea) axillary, or 
from the leaf scars just below the foliage. 

1. Eecepts distinctly stalked (sometimes sessile in 
glabella). 

a. More or less scabrid or tomentose. Sec. n. 
3-5 prs. above basal. 

L. broad sub-rhomboid. Bracts at base of 

peduncle . . . • , • .6. gihhosa. 

Xi, ell. or ovate. Bracts at base of peduncle . 6a. cuspidifera* 
Scandent shrub often rooting at the nodes. 
Bracts near top of peduncle . . .7. scandens. 

6. Glabrous (or young parts pubescent in 
glabella) and smooth. Sec. n. over 5 prs. 

Bracts at bdse of peduncle. L. oblong . 8. nervosa. 

Bracts at base of recept. Petiole undet. 1". 
Sec. n. close, over 10 prs. . - .9. glabella. 

Bracts at base of recept. Petiole, over V. 
Seo. n. distant, rarely 10 prs. . . .10. infectoria. 

894 



64. MOB AC E^, , [4. Ficus. 

2. Eeoepts sessild. 

a. Petiole i-3" long, or ^rd length Ojf leaf. L. 

glabrous. 

t Stipules \" or lesa. 

L. narrow-ovate or oblong-ovate • . . • 10. infedoria, 

ft Stipules over y. 

L. ovate gradually tapering ; base not cordate . 11. Eunvphii. 

L. ovate suddenly acuminate or cuspidate, base 
often cordate .... , , 12. Arnottiana, 

L. caudate acuminate with tail half as long as 
rest of blade . 13. religiosa. 

h. Petiole short., less than 1'' 

i. Glabrous. See. n. very fine and numerous, 
or intermediate nearly as strong. 
L. oblong or ell.-oblong, base narrowly sub-cordate 9. glabella, 

L. broad, obtuse or obtusely cuspidate, base 
cuneate ...... 14, rettisa. 

L. broad, cuspidate or acuminate, base obtuse or 
rounded 15. Benjamfna, 

a. Pubescent or tomentose, or if glabresoent 
sec. n. few and strong. 

L. beneath and recepts permanently tomentose . 16. tomentosa, 

L. beneath and recepts glabrescent or puberu- 
lous 17. hengalensis. 

1. F. lanceolata, Sam, Gara Loa, K. (but this name is 
also applied to Trewia). 

A glabrous shrub 3-5 ft., usually with prostrate branches 
lanceolate acuminate leaves S^-T' by |-1|" dotted beneath, 
Recepts 5-6 clustered on short lateral branches, l|-2'' diam. 

In the rocky beds of streams, Singbhum and S. P., not common. Fr. 
June. 

L. sometimes remotely toothed narrow-lanceolate or narrow-oblong, 
base 3-nerved rounded. Petiole i-f. Recepts reddish flattened at top, 
young more or less ribbed and warted. Fed. V much swollen at top in 
ripe fruit. 

Fruit very palatable. 

2. F. glomerata, Boxh. Loa, K.-, S.j Gular, Kharw. \ 
Jagidambar, J5ew^. 

395 



Ficus.] 64. MOBACEJE. 

A mod.-sized. tree with ovate, ovate-Ianc, or elV dark -green 
leaves 4-7|" by If -3 J" narrowed to an obtuse or snb- acute tip. 
Eeoepts l-l|" diam. globose or pjrifomi pubescent on canline 
and rameal brancbes which may be 2 ft. long, occasionally 
axillary recepts are found as well. 

A common fig in valleys and northern elopes throngfhoat the are? 
Excepts ripen May'June. It is deciduous Oct-liiov. and renews its leaves 
in Deer, or Jany. ! 

Buds pubescent L. pale beneath and pubescent on the nerves, base 
rounded rarely acute, S-nerved, sec. n. 4-7 prs. Peti. f-lf '' pubescent. 
Btijpults ^'V. 

Fruits eaten. 

8. P. Boxburghii, Wall. Gara Sosokera, Ro, ; Kota, M. 

A handsome low spreading tree with very large cordate 
leaves reaching 18" by 12'' pubescent beneath with a 6-7-nerved 
base. Recepts 2" diam. with peduncles 2-3'' clustered on 
cauline knobs or short leafless branches. 

Along streams above 1,500 ft. in Saranda (Kumbia Jhora) and on the 
Porahat plateau. Kochang, Wood and Gamble. Fr. April-Sept Ever* 
green. 

L. usually more or less repa-nd-toother' 

A good fodder, and fruits eaten. 

4, F, hispida^ i. Sosokera, K. ; Kotang, M. j SetaPodo, 
S. ; Dumar, Kharw. ; Poroh, Mai Pah. 

A tree 10-25 ft. high with ihick hollow branchlets, easily 
distinguished by always having some or all of its leaves 
opposite. Recepts numerous fascicled on both the trunk and 
branches or on leafless drooping branches or also axillary. 

Along nalas, throughout the area, not very common. Fr. Jany.-Fehy. 

L. ovate-oblong 4-12" by 2-5i" scabrid above and hispid beneath. 
Secepts V diam. yeUowish and hispid when ripe. Fr. eaten. 

Bark yields a fibre. 

5. P, Cxmia. Eam, Aie, Ho.; Podho, Ari, M,; Hor 
Podo, 8 

39$ 



$4. ^'iOEACE^. [ 4. F1CU8. 

A small or mod.-sized tree easily recognized by its short 
petioled leaves with a semi-sagittate base. Recepts in pairs 
or clusters on long (often several feet) usually leafless droop- 
ing branches, especially near the root. 

Common, esp. near nalas and on cool northern slopes. Eecepts borne 
most of the year, ripe May'June. Evergreen, or leafless in May. 

L. 6-15'' long, ell. or oblong-lanceolate, entire or serrate. Btipulet 
f-l*. Rec&pts ^f ", red-brown or quite white, eaten. 

Lac is often onltiyated on the branches, sold at As. 2 per seer in 
Singbhtim. 

-6. P. gibbosa, Bl. Sub-sp. parasitica. 

A large epiphyte frequently becoming an independent ti-ee, 
with large sub-rhomboid leaves 2i-8" very hispid above and 
paler pubescent beneath with 4-5 prs. prominent sec. n. above 
the 3-nerved base. Recepts J-J" diam. fascicled or in pairs 
densely hispid, with prominent umbo. 

Chiefly on the Porahat plateau in Singbhnm ; on gneiss rocks at 
Tati]heria (Hazaribagh) ; Kuru ghat (Palamau). 

Fr. Fehy.-April. 

L. with few large reticulations and inconapicnoua ones between. Peti, 

Sub-sp. cuspidifera, Miq. (Sp.) Var. 

A large epiphyte, or erect with obovate or ell. leaves np to 8'' by 3^* 
very stiff, hispidulous beneath, cuspidate or acuminate, base cuneate. 
Eecepts {'', 1-2 axillary or from leaf scars, pyriform, puberulous, narrowed 
into slender pubescent pedicels l-^" long which have 3 minuto connate 
bracts at their base. S. P. , January. 

7. P. SCahdens, Roxb. Madhur lata, 8. 

A shrub creeping or climbing on rocks or trees with ovate 
acute leaves 2" by 1" to 4" by 2}". Recepts t" by yV' yellow- - 
iah-brown, puberulous or hicpid, umbo small depressed at 
top, pedicel J". 

Valleys in Singbhnm ; Manbhum Campbell ; and S. P., but rare ; 
Parasnath, on northern side, common. Secepts Jany.-May. 

New shoots maty. L. pale beneath between the very reticulate sunk 
gte^n nervules ; base rounded 3-nerved, about 2-5 prs. seo. n. above 
tha basal, looping within the margin. Petiole ^-f''. 

397 



4. Ficus. ] 64. MOEACE^, 

8. F. nervosa, Both, 

A usually straight tree aboTut 30 ft. Twigs donse-colonred 
"witb appressed tomentnin, L. oblong or oblanceolate cuspidate 
very dark and Bhininor above attaining 10" by 4', but usually 
smaller. Becepts sub-globose |— iV diam. axillary and 
irem leaf scars on slender pedicels |-^" long. 

Chiefly along nalas, Singbhum, S. P. Eecepts Jany.'April. Eyer- 
green. 

L. somewhat "buUate, glahrona except some fine hairs along the 
mid-tib. Sec. n. 5-11 prs. looptd within the margin. 

9. F. glabella, Bl. var. afBnis. Putkul, Eo. 

A tree with oblong or ovate-lanceolate acuminate or 
cuspidate leaves with close sec. n. and intermediate nearly 
as strong, and small white or yellowish (ripe purple ? 
F.B.I.) recepts solitary or in pairs sub-sessile or on slender 
pedicels chiefly from the leaf scars. 

Kocky ravines (Komeai Lor, Oraibura valley, etc.) in Slngbhnm. 
Becepts Jany.-May. 

Larger leaves 5| by 2", base acnte or obtuse, sec. n. 7-14 prs. with 
intermediate scarcely finer, parallel and reticulate, and fine reticulations 
.raised above between the loops and the fine cartilaginous margin. 
Peti. i i". Eecejpts j-|'' diam. umbonate with deciduous basal bracts. 
Pedurcle ^^''. 

10. F, infectoria, Boxh. Baswesa, Pepe Hiasa, Jojo 
Hissa, K. ; Pakaie, S., Pakar, S. ; Beng. 

A tree with long-petioled glabrous oblong or oblong- 
ovate sharply acuminate or cuspidate leaves 3" by 1|" to 7" by 
3|" with distant distinct sec. n. above a 3 nerved obtuse 
rounded rarely sub-cordate base. Eecepts J-|'' diam.* globose 
or sub-pyriform whitish sessile or pedicelled. 

Form 1. Chiefly in rooky ravines, Singbhum. S. P. (Silingi jhora). 
Kecepts .lany.-Feby. 

• -'A^' fide King in Annals of Calcutta Botanic Gardens. Gamble'i 
Koderma spocimcn has L. 3|-5^" with Bub-cordato base and 5-6 prB. eee. 
n. Petioles 2-2i". Eecepts i" Bubsessile. This is nearly typical. 

398 




64. MOEACJSJE, {^ Picua. 

A small tree. L. about ^'' by 2^" abruptly shortly caudate, margiiu 
undulate, sec. n. about 9 prs. looped within the u)ar(.'in, very reticulate 
between. Petiole slender whitish lii-24". Eecepti^ i-\" diam. sub- 
globose with 3 short orbicular bracts at base. Pedicel very stout i-^" 
pubescent. Fruits eaten. 

Form 2. Chiefly in cultivated lands and villages. Secepts Deer.- 
June. More or less deciduous, new leaves appear in the hot weather. 

A large tree. L. up to 7^'' by 3|'' oblong to ovate-lanceolate witb 
petioles 1^3^". Eecepts white globose-pvi-ifim |'' diam. Pedicel 
puberulous. The lea£ base is sometimes cuneate on the petiole on rapidly 
growing shoots. 

The Kol name is uncertain, sometimes ic is called Baraa Hesa. Tha 
fruit is eaten. 

11. F. Rnmpilii, Bl. Duranga Hesa, K. 

A spreading mod.-sized. tree with ovate or broadlj ovate 

leaves gradually taperiug to the acuminate tip and with 

straight or obtuse not cordate base. Recepls oblong-obovoid 

1'^ long sessile from a very broad base, in pairs axillary and 

from leaf scars. 

Along nalas frequent, Siugbhum, Hazaribagh, etc. Often in village 
lands and planted along roadsides where it doe3 well, and is frequently 
mistaken for the Pi pal, than which it is a much smaller and less handsome 
tree. Becepts Jany. -March, 

Twigs often puberulous. I. about 5-6" by 3-4" often confused with 
the next from which it may be distinguished by the base hardly ever 
cordate, by its banger gradual acumination, the ner^^nles not areolate 
with fine reticulations, and by the surface being miuut. ly punctnlate. 
Petiole ^rd to ^ihs as long as the blade, much stouter and stiff er than ia 
the true Pipal. 

12. F. Arnottiana, Miq, G*njar, (f . Gamble) Duranga 
Hesa, K. ; Sunum jor, S. 

A small tree or sometimes a shrub with broadly ovats 
leaves abruptly acuminate or cuspidate and with a cordate 
base. Recepts 1-2 chiefly from leaf -scars globose VV"!* 
diam. globose or pyiiform sub-sessile or stalked faintly 
verruoose. 

Chiefly on dry rocics or in rocky places on dry hilla, Singhbhum. 

Hasaribagh, etc. 

Leafless April, new leaves in May reddish. Secepts March-June 
black when ripe, 

399 



4. PicFS. ] 64. MORACJEJS. 

L. about 6" by 4ri^'' with cuap only |-|'', base with 3 strong and 
2-4 muoh weaker ' nerves and 5-8 prs. of strong: translucent straw* 
oolonred sec. n. above the basal, looped v/ithiu the cartilaginous margin, 
▼ery minutely reticulate between and outside the aec. n. Petiole about 
half as long as leaf or rather longer. Stipules 1-2'' acuminate. 

13. P, religiosa, L. Tepe He&a, K. ; Hesak,* S. ; 
Pipal, H. The Pipal Tree. 

A large tree, epiphytic when yonng, with broadly ovate 
caudate-acuminate leaves with the long slender tail |rd to 
half the entire length of the leaf, slender petiole 3-4* 
Recepts in axillary pairs depressed-globose |" diam. 

Very common and often planted. Nearly deciduous. EeceptB 
Jlafch'June. 

The bark is peculiarly .pitted when old.^ The branches are mnch 
lopped for fodder and the fruit is eaten. 

1"^. P. retusa, L. Buti Hesa, Chuman Hesa, K. ; Jir, 
Beng. 

A small or very large tree, epiphytic when young, witlf 
rotund, obovate, oblanceolate. or ell. leaves, always with a 
cuneate' S-nerved base and very slender sec. n. about 5-12 
prs. with intermediate nearly as strong. Recepts in axillary 
pairs sessile divaricate sub-globose ^-\'' diam. with 2-3 basal 
bracts. 

Form a. L. 2" by V to 3" by 2i'' obovate or broadly ell. with shortlj 
cnspiflate obtuse apex and sec. n. few. Petioles i'^'', Recepts red to 
purple when ripe V' diam. 

Valleys in Singbhum, and Santal P. Eecepts Oct.-Nov. 

Form ^. L. 2" by 1" to 5" by 2^" mostly ell. with acute, sub-acnminat« 
or obtuse tip and 5-12 sec. n. Petiole i-^". Recepts ^-J' diam. whitish 
Bub-verrncose, usually ordy 2-bracteat©, often clustered above the leaves 
as well as axillary. Usually in ravines or epiphytic, Singhbhum, 
Hazaribagh, and Santal P. Eecepts Fely.-May. 

15. P. Benjamina, L, Pokaha, S. 

A very handsome largo tree with slender drooping 
branches, broadly ell. or ovate abruptly acuminate or caudate 

» The bark is said by Mr Innes to be ground, made into flqui and 
eaten in tim«8 of famine (at Balrampur, Ondh). 

400 



I 



64. MORACEM, [ 4. Ficus, 

leaves with a rounded or obtuse base and very numerous fine 
parallel sec. n. spreading from tbe mid-rib, those at tlie base 
quite similar to the others. Recepts divaricate globose |- J* 
diam., yellow or reddish when quite ripe, in axillary pairs, 
sessile with a narrow base. 

In valleys, Singbhum, Hazaribagh, and Santa,!. P., bnt not common. 
Evergi'een. Recepts ripen Jany.-May. 

L. 2'' by V to 3V' by 2". Main sec. n. are about 12 prs. scarcely 
itroDger than the numerous intermediate ones. Petiole ^~1". Bracts 2 
almost concealed by the base of the recept. 

16. F, tomentosa, Boxh, Janapa Hesa, K. ; Capakia 
bare, S.; Barun, Eharw. 

A large or small tree with tomentose or wooly branchlets 
and frequently with thin aerial roots. L. very variable in 
size, easily recognized by the more or less persistent t omentum 
and very prominent venation beneath, by the cordate base 
and a curious longitudinal glandular depression on the 
mid-rib a little above the base beneath. Recepts white or 
grey tomentose 5-I* diam. globose sessile. 

Among dry rocks, often on the most rocky and arid hills, throughout 
the area, occasionally on old buildings as on the Palamau Fort. Ever- 
green. Eecepts appear in the axils of the new leaves in June and 
remain over a year, the old ones being at the leaf scars. 

L. ell., oblong, ovate or somewhat obovate, 2\" by 2" to 8^'' by 4^", 
or T' by o\'', sec. n. 5-8 pre. above the many-nerved base. 

17. P. bengalensis, i. Bai, Eo. ; Bare, M. S. ; Barh, 
Kharw., R. ; Bor, Beng. The Banyan. 

A large tree with the shoots pubescent when young, 
branches sending down aerial roots which in favourable 
localities become as thick as the parent stem. L. ovate to 
elliptic obtuse with rounded or sub-cordate 3r5-nerved base, 
old glabrous or slightly pubescent beneath. Recepts sessile 
in pairs |-|'' diam. scarlet when ripe puberulous. 

Wild iix tba damper valleys of Singbhaa and the S. P. Recepts may 
be fouiid ail «ha year round ;• they ripen Sihcut. April-May and again 
Vec-Jany. and are eaten. Nearly evergreen. Beuews leaves May-Jv/ne, 
The tre*? may be propagated by large cuttings. 

401 



[1. Salix- 

Pam. 65. SALICACIe! 

1. Salix, L. "WiUow.. 

Trees or shrubs witli simple alt. stipulate leaves and fls. 
in 'dense spikes (catkins), each in the axil of a small bract, 
dioecious (very rarely 2-8exual in solitary specimens). 
Perianth 0, but 1 or 2 fleshy glands or scales situated 
posteriorly, or post, and anterioily, at the base of the flower 
may represent' a perianth. (In S. tetrasperma 2 smaller 
lateral glands are often added in the male). St. 2 or several, 
fil. often connate at the base. Ovary of 2 rarely 3 combined 
carpels and the same^ number of stigmas, 1-celled. Seeds 
few or many parietal, with a pencil of hairs from the 
base. 

1, S. tetraspelrma, Roxb. Kachal, K. ; Gada sigric', 
Sunu^ikui (vide Hompnoia), iS^. ; Chihur, Kharw. 

A tree, or in one form a shrub, with silkily-pubescent 
shoots, lanceolate or oblanceolate t( ovate-lanceolate acunji- 
nate leaves sparsely hairy and pale-glacuous beneath. 
Catkins terminating the short lateral shoots, l|-4" ion^ 
pubescent. Disc, glands very broad. 

Along rivers and streams, in all the districts, but nowhere very 
common. Pis. Oct., on the new shoots. Seed ripens Dec.-Jany. Daciduoua 
in 8ept. In some districts of Bengal it flowers in the hot season ! 

L. about 4' by 1^" in the broader forms, bat often only H" by |" on 
the flowering ehoots, entire or crenate with ronnded or acute base 
Sec. n. very slender 10-19 prs. Petiole ^ |". Bracts almost wgoly ijr-}-*' 
much shorter than the 5-10 very slender filaments. Disc glands in tha 
male usually of a larga anterior and posterior lobe and two small lateral 
aide lobes, of the feraele (8"metimes also of the male r) 1 semi-circular. 
Capsules ^'' pubescent or glabrous, on pedicels nearly as long as them- 
selves. Style hardls^ any. Stigmas 4, or two 2-lobed. 

There are two varieties well marked by habit. One a tree, with 
narrow leaves, and ^ec. n. scarcely visible beneath. Growing chiefly along 
river banks. The other, a small tree or a shrub, with broader more 
crenate leaves, and roo. n. fine but raised beneath. This also has 
the semi-circular disc. Found along amall streams, often in thick 
forest 

402 



Sub-class II. — Sympetaiae. 

Fam. 66. PLiMliAGfXAC.:^. 

Herbs or nnderslirnbs with alt. leaves and fls. in terminal 
heads, spikes or panicles. Bracts usually fbeathing the 
flowers and with scarious margins. Calyx inferior, tubular, 
6-10-ribbed, scarious. Petals 5, polypetalons or gamopeta- 
lous. St. 5 opp. the petals. Ovary superior 1-celled, 5- 
angnlar above; styles b, free or only connate below. Ovule 
1, pendulous from a basal funicle, anatropous. Fruit mem- 
branous or the apex hardened, circa msciss or rupturing or 
apex 5-valved. 

Calyx glandular, fls. spicate, styles connate 
except above 1. P lumlago, 

1- P- Zeylanica, L. (Jitar Kathi, Jog Kathi, St 

A shrub with long rambling green branches very glan- 
dular above, pale green clustered leaves and Icng panicled 
spikes of pretty long- tubed white fiowers |-J'' diam. 

AiDong rocks on the Eanchi plateau ; Manbhnm, Camp. Fls. Sept.- 
Nov. Fr. Nov. 

L. ovate or ovate oblong, the base suddenly narroweu into a short 
amplexicanl petiole. Calyx persistent ^" densely covered with stalked 
glands. FLlaments slender free the whole length of the tube, with purple 
anthers. Fruit as long as the calyx included 5-angled. Seed largo 
albuminous. 

P. rosea. L-, with red flowers, and P. capensis, Thunh., a very 
pretty plant with blue flowers, are often cultivated. 



Fam. 67. MYK8I^ACE.E. 

Shrubs or small trees with alt. simple exstipulate leaves 
often with minute glands (generally red) on the leaves and 
flowers. Fls. reg. often polygamous or dicecious. CalyxhjTpo- 
gynous or perigynons (Maesa), persistant and often enlarged 
in fruit. Corolla polypetalous (some Embelia>, or usually 
gamopetalous with 4-5 petals and as many stamens opp. 
the petals. Ovary 1-celled with few or many ovules on a 

403 



67. MYRSINACEM [2. Embelu 

swollen central placenta; style slender, stigma simple or 
rarely lobed. Fruit usually a berry and I-seeded or more 
rarely many-seeded. Seed generally with an excavate base, 
albumen pitted or ruminate, embryo transverse. 

Calyx half perigynous. Corolla small gamopetalous. Berry 
many-aeeded . - . 1. Mossa. 

Calyx hypogynous. Fruit 1 -seeded. 

Corolla nearly or quite polypetalous, very small white or 

greenish . . . . . • • • • .2. Emhelia, 

Corolla gamopetalous, small or mod.-sized, pink . . .3. Ardisia, 

1. Maesi^, Forsk. 

1. M. indiCa, Wall, Syn. M. montana, A.R amjani 
Beng. 

A shrub 4-8 ft. high with markedly lenticellate branches 
ell. ovate or ovate-lanceolate coarsely serrate leaves 3|-6" by 
]|-8" and small white flowers in simple or compound 
racemes 1-3" long. Berry y'^-J" diam, ala^ost entirely enclosed 
in the calyx- tube, ultimately sub-coriaceous. 

Valleys on the Porahat and Eanchi plateaux. Kochang, QamhlelFla. 
March- April. Fr. Aug. -Dec Evergreen. 

L. acute to caudate-acuminate, shining above, pale beneath and nearly 
glabrous with 6-7 prs. of sec. n. Fls. ^'' diam. Calyx-lohes sub-orbicnlar, 
ciiiate, lineate.^ Petals veined sub-orbicuiar. Fil. very short on the 
coroUa-tabe. Pedicels ^'' bracteate. 

2. Embelia, Burm. 
I. E. robusta) Boxh. Gointa mata, K. ; Bhabri, S, 

A shrub or small tree with light grey lenticellate branches, 
ell. or obovate acuminate or obtase leaves pale beneath and 
small dioecious greenish-white flowers in axillary and extra- 
axillary - racemes J-1^" long. Fr. red sub-globose J-^" diam. 

1 in the Kochang specimen, but only microscopically ciiiate in other 
Singbhum specimenf^- imd not lineate. The Singbhum plant, however, 
appears to come nearest to M. indica as defined by Mez in his monognph 
than to any of his other species. 




2. Embblia.] 57. MYRSINACEJE. [3. Abdisia. 

with a crnstaceonB epicarp and flesb^ endocarp, tipped by the 
style 

Bather common throngnout unota Nagpnr, esp. in open ecrub jungles. 
The branches in the type are glabrons. Fls. May-July, ~Fr. Dec.-Jany. 

Tmps rusty pubes'^ent or toinentose. L. very variable on the same 
plant li-6'', entire or denticulate above, with a very short rusty some- 
nmes^tellate pubescence esp. beneath, narrowed at base into the \-\'' long 
pubescent petiole, sec. n. 5-9 prs. Pedicels i". Bracts shorter linear. 
Ca^V* P"^©scent without 15-^^" diam, '-deeply 5-lobed, glandular. Corolla 
t"^" diam. puberulous. 

The fern. fl. has short imperfect epipetalous stamens- 

3. Ardisia, Sw. 

Small trees or shrubs. Fls. racemed or in umbels v?ith 
small deciduous bracts. Calyx persistent, sometimes accres- 
cent in fruit. Corolla 5-partite, often fleshy, petals acute 
twisted to the right in bud. Fil. very short with acute ovate- 
lane, anthers. Ovules few. Berry with a large globose seed. 

A shrub or small tree. Fls. over ^" diam 1. solenacea. 

A shrub. Fls, under i" diam. 2. depressa. 

1- A. solenacea* Roxh. Syn. A. humilis, (F.B.I.) Gara 
boi (the stream earring) K. 

A small tree or shrub attaining 25 ft. with large bright 

green rather fleshy leaves clustered towards the ends of the 

branchlets and moderate-sized rose-cold, waxy flowers with 

yellow stamens in peduncled axillary often contracted 

racemes. Berry |-|" diam., depressed-globose, black when 

ripe. 

Along the sides and beds of streams under shade, common. Fls. 
April-May. Fr. Oct'Jany. Evergreen, 

L. 4-8'' obovate-oblong narrowed into a petiole ^* long. Ted^ncla 
1-8" stout, and raceme often 2-3". Fh. f-1''. 

2. A. depressa, Clarice. 

A shrub 6-8 ft. with dark green obscurely-nerved wavy 
leaves and small pinkish flowers in raceme(\ ambels 
Deep valleys in the Karamnoda forest, near stream"?. Very rare 

405 



3. Aedisia.1 67, MYRSINACE^. [1. Sideeoxtlok, 

Fls. March-May. 

Twigs insty tomentose as also to some extent are^the petioles and 
inflorescence. L. lanceolate or oblong-lanc. acuminate 2-4", beneath 
with namerons scattered rusty scales or glands and few above, seen, very 
fine numerous. Umbels cymose on peduncles ^-V long, axillary or 
clustered on small shoots. Pedicels |4''. Calyie-lobes spreading pubes- 
cent acute. Petals waxy white with pink or brown scales, i'' long. Berry 
globose i" diam. (fide F.B.L) 

Fam. 68. SAPOTACE^. 

Trees or^slirnbs often with milky juice, with the innova- 
tions often rusty pubescent. L. alt. coriacious entire ; Sti- 
pules or caducous, Fls. small or mod. -sized axillary (often 
from leafless axils) and fascicled, bracts and bracteoles minute 
or 0. Calyx per sistent, lobes 4-8 imbricated, or 2-seriate with 
the outer series valvate. Petals as many as, or 2-4-time8 as 
many as, the calyx lobes. St, on the corolla-tube as many as 
the petals and opp. to them or 2-3 seriate, if isomerous with 
the petals then with alternating staminodes, Fil. short, 
Ovary superior, 2-8-ce]led; style linear, stigma' a -pdint, 
ovules solitary in each cell usually axile. Berry indehiscent, 
1-8 seeded. Testa usually crustaceous. Embryo straight, 
etalbuminous with large cotyledons, or albuminous ; radicle 
inferior. 

Calyx-lobes and petals each 5 and imbricate . . .1. Sideroxylon, 
Calyx- lobes 4, 2-seriate, petals 6-12 . • . .2. Bassia. 
Calyx-lobes 6-8, 2-8eriate, petals 16-20, 2-3-seriate • 3. Mimusops. 

1. Sideroxylon, L. 

1. S. tomentosum, Boxo. 

A small tree with tomentose twigs, and branches often 
armed with straight spines |-|" long, with elliptic obovate 
or oblanceolate leaves,- tomentose or very hairy beneath, 
smallish white flowers solitary or fascicled from the old leaf 
scars'-and yellowish sub-globose or ovoid fruit 1-1 J" diam. 

Valleys in the Latua and the Saranda forests* but not common ; S. I', 
(stream near Bokra-band, Karcho, etc.) 11b. May-June, Fr. ripens the 
following April, 

406 



1. SiDBEoxTLON.] 68. SAPOTACFJE. [8. Mimusops. 

L. 3-6'' by l|-2^'', obtuse or suddenly acute, glabrescent above, base 
narrowed int© the i-i" lohg petiole, sec. n. 912 prs. straight strong. 
Pedicels ultimately reflexed. Calyx campanulate, 2 outer lobes pubescent 
or tomentose ovate-oblong, inner narrower. Corolla tubnlar-campanulate 
i'i'' long, petals twice as long as the tube. 8t. 5 alternating with a 
corona of 5 ovate petaloid staminodes with filiform tips. Ovary tomen' 
tose, 5-celled. Fr. with very bitter flesh. Seed 1 large deep brown com- 
pressed with-a very thick testa, long hilum and copious albumen. 

2. Bassia, L: 

!• B. latifolia. Boxh. Madkom, Matkom, Mandakam, 
K".', S.; Mahua, H. The Mohwa, 

A large or m. s, tree with low dense crown, pnbesceni 
or tomentose twigs, large leaves clustered at the ends of the 
branches with petioles 1-1 J" long and numerous ovoid- 
campanulate cream-coloured flowers on long rusty- tomentose 
pedicels clustered at the ends of the b'-^Tiches, from the leaf- 
scars. Berry ovoid 1-2'' long. 

A well-known tree common throughont Chota Nagpur, but in the forests 
chiefly confined to the hills. Fls. Fehy.-A'priL Fr. June- July. It is more 
or less leafless at the time of flowering and the new loaves appear abou< 
May. 

L. 6-8" by 2-|-3|'' shortly acuminate with lO-liS prs. of strong sec. 
nerves, tertiary «. strong. CorolJa f' fleshy with 7-14 short erect teeth, 
fifi. 20-.30 3-seriate sub-sessile Seed^ large 1-4 with thick fleshy coty- 
ledons and no albumen. 

Corollas eaten raw and cooked and are also eaten largely by animals. 
A spirit (daru, H. ; arki. K.) is also distilled from them. The fruitia 
eaten. A cooking and lighting oil (Kuindi sunum, 8.; dola, A') is 
expressed from the seeds (Kaiijdi, /S.) The wood is good and used for 
oil-mills, but living trees^are never felled by the Kola. 

3. Mimusops, L. 

1. M. EleDgi, L. Bokul, Beng, 

A tree often cultivated, with phining glabrous broadly-oblong finely- 
nerved leaves about i'' long with petioles ^''. Fls. white about 1'' 
diaoo. in fascicles with pubescent pedicels about ai=^long as or shorter than 
petiole. Calyx segments 8 acuminate. Coiolla-lobes 2-seriate, inner 8-10, 
obovate-oblong, outer linear -oblong. 8t. 8 alternating with lanceolate 
staminodes, anthers acuminate hirsute. Berry narrf>wly ovoid or fllip- 
Boid, 1" long, orange, l-seeded. Flesh eaten, very astringent when umipe. 
Fla. Aj^rU'May. Evergreen. 

407 



[1. DiOSPYBOS. 



Fam. 69. EB£^\4€EJ!:. 



1. Diospyros, L. 

Trees, rarely slirnbs, with alternaie (or sub-opp. oropp. in 
D. tomentoaa) entire leaves with alt. sec. n, and email or m. 
8. green, white, or yellowish, dioecious flowers ; the males in 
3-more flowered cymes, the females usually solitary. Oalyx 
8-5-lobed, often nearly to base, persistent and usually 
enlarged in fruit. Corolla tubular, salver-sbaped or campa- 
nulate with lobes twisted to the right, Jf.j/J. with 8-64 
stamens, often in pairs, hypogynous, anthers linear, pisfcillode 
present. F,fi. with 0-16 staminodes. Ovary 4-10-celled, 
alternate dissepiments Bometimes imperfect. Cells 1 -ovuled. 
Styles short 2-4. Fr. a berry, sometimes nearly dry, 2-8- 
seeded with usually remains of the suppressed cells. Seeds 
oblong. Albumen ruminate (D, tomentosa and sometimes 
D. sylvatica) or jiot. 

L. oblong or oblong^lsfticeolate tinder 4'' pubescent, 

base cordate 1, cordifolia. 

L. ell. glabrons or glabreflcent '3-6", ''acnte or obtuse, 
finely reticulate between the 7-11 prs. sec. n. 

L. ell. 4-8'' glabrons narrowed or acuminate both ends, 
not finely reticulate between the 4-8 prs. slender 
inarching sec. n. ...... . 

L. oblong or narrow-oblong 3-9'' glabrous, not acumi- 
nate, base rounded, sec n. not raised 

L. oblong or ell-oblongf 7-10'' glabrous base sub- 
obtuse or cuneate, see. n, distinct raised beneath • 

L. in shape and size much as in 5, silvery silky beneath 

L. broadly-ell. to sub-orbicular with rounded base 
4-12', more or less hairy or tomentose beneath. 
Nerves strong. Eeticulations impressed above 

As in 6, but L. narrowed both ends Eeticulations 
raised above • • 

1. D. cordifolia, Roxh. Syn. D. 

(part). Bangab, Beng, 

A small tree, sometimes spinose, with very rugose dark 
bark, pubescent twigs and small oblong pubescent leaves 1-3' 



2. montaria, 

8. sylvatica, 

4. EmbryopicTiS. 

5. vavT^gata. 
(discolor), 

6. tomentosa, 

7. meianozylon. 
montana of F,B.I, 



408 



I 



1. DiosPTBos.] 39, EBENACE^. 

long "with cordate or rounded base. M. cymes usually 3-fld. 
F. fls. solitary on slender pedancles J-J" long. Sepals tri- 
angular-ovate usually acuminate. 

Puralia, Manbhum, C B. Clarice \ Monghyr. 'SIa, April. Fr. ripeiw 
follovdng March-Aipril. Deciduous. New leaves April. This tree is 
easily separable in the fore<?t from D. montana, Roaeb. and indeed usually 
also in the herbarium. It is rare in Chota Nagpnr, but occurs also at 
Monghyr ckjse by. 

^. rarely attain 3^" by 1^'', lanceolate or mostly oblong-ovate or ovate- 
lanoeo. Very small ones at base of twigs often obtuse. Sec. n. weak, 
usually 1-3 prs. near base and 4-5 prs. above base. Peti. ^'\ M. in 
8-rarely more-fld. cymes, buds conical ^". 8t. about 8 prs. F. white, 
turning brown below whitish above on drying, not black. Ped. ^-^''. 
Calyx f '' diam. lobes twice as long as tube, enlarged to ^" not hardened in 
fruit. Btaminodes variable 9-13. Berry yellow globose not at all apicn- 
late, about 1-li'' diam. Flesh very bitter. Albumen gcmswhat 
corrugate. 

2. D. montana, Roxh. (includes D. Kanjilali, DutUie)* 
Sakamliara, if. ; Saratiril, K. ; Gada terel, 8.; Patwan, Kha/rw. 

A small or m. s. tree rarely spinose, with smooth reddish 
flaky bark, glabrous shoots and twigs, and ovate-oblong, ell. 
or ell.-ovate glabrescent leaves 2-6" with obtuse rounded or 
sub-acute base. M. fls. green in 3-5 or often more-fld. cymes. 
Buds conical. F. fls. ^-f" diam. solitary on peduncles which 
rarely attain ^^ Cexcepfcionally however J"), sepals 4 broadly- or 
ovate-oblong with rounded apex coriaceous in fruit. 

Along rivers and nalas, frequent in Singbhum, Palamau and Santal 
Parganahs ; Manbhum, Gamp. ; also near Topchanchi, Hazaribagh (Sitagarh 
hill, etc.) ; Eanchi, Clarice ; Eanchi ghats above Eamgarh ; Gangpur ; Santal 
Pai^nats (Ghormanra, etc.) 

Fls. April-June. Fr. Dec.-Fehy. Deciduoua. 

Twigs sometimes puberulous in the form with pubescent leaves. L. 
quickly glabrous or with a permanent minute pubescence beneath, at first 
membranous ultimately coriaceous, obtuse or suddenly acute, more rarelj 
shortly acuminate, base rarely cordate or retuse, sec. n. 7-11 prs. from a 
very broad mid-rib, raised beneath when old, the first 2-3 prs usually 
close to base, very finely and evidently reticulate between. Petiole ^-\.'' 
M. buds conical. St. about \6: P. Calyx flat without a distinct tube in 
fruit, sep. 4 pubescent or puberulous, i'' in fruit sub-coriaceous ovate- 
oblong spreading or reflexed. Petals purple-black when old. Ovary 8- 
ceUed. Styles 4. Fr. I" globose to somewhat oblong or with eliort 
oo&ical tip, seeds 4-S rarely 2. Albumen equable. 

409 



69. EBENACEj^u [1. D1O8PTBO8. 

This tree attaine 4 ft. girth, but is not much used. The leaves contain 
much tannin and are used to kill fish. The form witJ^ leaves pale or 
minutely pubescent beneath is found in drier places as on shady sides of 
hills. 

•(Note.— There may be two species included here, but T). Kanjilali as 
described and figured in Ind. For. XXXI, 307, appears to Dr. Hiem and 
myself as almost typical montana of Roxburgh's figure and description. 
The only positive characters that difiPer are in the nunaber of staminodea, 
but I find both number of stamens and esp. of staminodes p, most va^riable 
character, the latter may be 2, 4, or 8, the number of flowers in a cyme is 
also very variable. D. cordifolia on the other hand is quite distinct a« 
Eoxburgh described it, ( Vide also Addenda.) 

3. D- sylvatica, Boxh. Gada tiril, gara tiril, K.; S»'> 
Maka kend, 8, (but the true Maka kend is No. 4). - 

A tree sometimes large (60 ft. by 5 ft. girth) with smooth 
black and white bark, twigs uanally tubeiculate or pustulate 
with lenticelS; narrow elliptic or ell .-oblong generally acumi- 
nate glabrescent leaves 4" by 2" to 8'' by 3}^ with cuneate or 
sub-acute rarely obtuse base. M. fls. in small dense cymes, 
cymes racemed, buds globose. F. fls. 1-3 together very 
numerous, sub-sessile on a short very stout peduncle under ^* 
long. Clusters often racemose. Calyx in fruit with a short 
but distinct campannlate tube, sepals often only 3, sometimes 
5, about ^" long, broadly oblong obtuse, very coriaceous, 
usually with refiexed margins. Fr. only ^-|" diam. 

Singbhum, along streams, rather scarce. Santal Parganahs in similar 
situations, frequent. Fls. April. Fr. Jany.-Fehy. 

Crown large and low. Twigs pubescent or glabrous. L.- glabroae, or 
puberulous on the ribs. Sec. n. 4-S prs. slender arching some distance 
from margin, not finely reticulate between, first 2-3 prS' i^i>ually close to 
base. Leaf-buds linear tomentose. Petiole -k-^''. St. about 20. Fr. olive- 
green globose or oblong glabrous or nefirly so with broad base, very 
rarely attaining 3'^ usually very numerous below the lenves, the calyi> 
cireumsoBS at base leaving the short nobbed pubescent peduncles. Seeds 
1-4, testa with a crimson juice. Albumen ruminatod or nearly equable. 

4. D- Embryopteris, Fers. Gara tiril, Kendu, K.j Makar 
kenda, S.'; Tend, Kharw, 

A handsome tree with low Bpreadmg branches almost to 
the ground, with smoothish black bark, coriaceous oblong or 
narrowly oblong glabrous shining leaves 5" by li" to 8* by 2t* 

410 



I 



1. DI08PYR03.] 69. EBFNACEJR. 

or more, acute or oMuse with rounded base. M. fls. white 
fragrant in axillary osually 4- fid. umbellate cymes, budg 
ovoid-oblong with 4 small silky patches. F. fls. 1" diam. 
solitary. Fruit covered "v^ith a deciduous red tomentum, 
globose, 2|-3'' diam. 

Common along streams in the Singbhum valleys, rarer in Manbhum 
and Palamau. Very rare now in the Santal Parganahs and chiefly in the 
northern valleys. ¥1. April-May. Fr. ripens the following April. Ever- 
green, the new leaves which are bright criuison appear about April. 

JBttds lanceolate silky. Sec. n. scarcely raised, soon inclined very obli- 
quely forward, very reticulate. Petiole i-f'-'. M. peduncles ^-^" pubes- 
cent. Calyx ureeolate silky. Corolla nearly ^'' campanulate or urceolate 
with short bub-orbicular lobes. 8t. 20-35 or rnore, nl. in pairs from near 
the base, pubescent. F. peduncles stout j". Sepals V' broadly ovate or 
sub-orbicular, 1" in fruit foliaceous. Cor. -lobes 1-5, ^'' diam. 8eed$ 
about 8 large in pulp which is largely eaten by monkeys, sometimes by 
human beings, but is said to produce great thirst. I firi that it barns 
the throat. 

5. D. variegata, ^urz ? 

A tree with smof^th bark and pink blaze, very large oblong 
or elliptic-oblong leaves mostly 10" by 3|", easily distinguished 
from the last by the prominent 7-8 prs. of sec. n, raised 
beneath, first spreading then more or less arched within the 
margin, raised and reticiJilate nervules, and by the sub* obtuse 
or cupeate base. 

Found in ravines in the northern Santal Parganahs in January, but 
I have been unable to procure flowers. It compares exactly with speci- 
mens in the Sibpur Herbarium of D. variegata, Kurz, from Assam. Tim« 
, of flowering probably April-May. 

I The M. fls. of D. variegata are described as in very short sparingly 
pubescent cymes 'with a salver-shaped corolla nearly glabrous without 
and with about 16 stamens. 

B. discolor, Willd. A specimen, from Ranchi, probably cultivated, 
collected by Gamble has leaves 9' with numerous slender nerves, easily 
recognised by being silvery-silky beneath. Bears a large red velvety 
ledible frait. Fis. April. Fv. Dec. 

i 6. D. tomentosa, Jfoxb. Terel, Tiril, K., 8,; Tend, 
Khano.; Kend, H., Beng. 

I A small or sometimes a large tree with black rugose bark, 
jniBty-tomeiitose shoots and large broadly ovate leaves mostly 
! 411 



1. DiosPTBOs.] 69. EBENACEJE. [1. STMPLOCoa. 

with a roanded base, which are permanently more or less to- 
mentose pubescent or hairy beneath. M. fls. in peduncled 
tomentose simple and branched cymes with narrow-ellipsoid 
buds j" long. F. solitary, the calyx, with wavy reflexed margins 
to the short broad lobes, 1" diam. in fruit. Fr, 1'1|" diam, 
smooth and yellowish when lipe. 

One of the commonest trees thronghout the area, often small in acrnb 
jnngle, sometimes attains 6 ft. girth with a long clean bole in virgin forest. 
It reproduces itself copiously from root-suckers on cultivated lands, and 
coppices freely. Fls. May. Fr. ripens the following May. Evergreen. 

L. 4'' by 2\" to 8'' by 5'' vary from elliptic to orbicular on the same tree 
tip obtuse or rounded, old coriaceous with usually impressed tertiary 
nerves and rugose appearance above, rarely glabrescent. Sec. n. 9-12 
pre., often branched and irregular. M., Calyx funnel-shaped, acutely- 
toothed ; St. about 16, connective pilose. Fr. solitary axillary sub-sessile, 
globose to ovoid, densely hairy when young, 3-4-seeded. Albumen 
run^inate. 

The black heart-wood is used for carving in the S. P . G. Mission school 
at Chaibassa. The wood emits showers of sparks when burnt. The 
fruit is excellent eating when just ripe. 

7. D. melanoxylon, Roxh. Is included in Wood's list 
and said to be common in scrub jungle. All the speci- 
mens in the Oal. Herb, labelled D. melauoxylon from Chota 
Nagpnr appear to me to be D. tomentosa. Brandis, however, 
unites the two in his Forest Flora and, I think, correctly. 

At Kew there is a specimen labelled D. melanoxylon collected by C. B. 
Clarke from Eanchi 2,000 ft. dated 22nd Oct. 1873. L. ell. to very broadly- 
elliptic 5-7" tomentose to glabrescent beneath. Sec, n. 9-10 prs. 
Petole ^''. The tertiary nerves are scarcely raised above, and the fact 
that they are not depressed above appears to be the only reason for includ- 
ing this in D. melanoxylon. 

A specimen of D. melanoxylon collected by E. Thomson in the 
Central Provinces has elliptic-oblong leaves 12'' long and petiole under ^^ 
and in nervation very closely resembles D. variegata (see above) but is 
very pubescent beneath. This is quite a different looking plant from the 
Chota Nagpar specimens called D. melanoxylon. 

Fam. 70. STYRACEifi. 

1. Symplocos, L. 

Trees or shrubs with alt. ex stipulate leaves and 2-8exual 
regular white or yellowish flowers in axillary spikes or 

412 I 



1. Sympiocos.j 70. STYRACE^. 

racemes, bracteate and with. 1-3 bracteoles at tlie base of 
each flower. Calyx with 4-5 small imbricate sepals persist- 
ent superior. Petals 5 imbricate, usually connate only at 
the very base into a very short tube bearing the numerous 
stamens, rarely quite free. Anthers shortly oblong. Ovary 
inferior, 3- rarely 2-4-celled ; style slender, stigma small 
Btib-3-lobed. Ovules 2, pendulous from the inner angle of 
each cell. Drupe ellipsoid, endocarp 1-3-seeded. Seeds 
oblong, albuminous, straight or curved ; embryo straight or 
curved. 

L. 2-5'^ Fls. pedicelled, sepals mimitely pubescent. Fr. 
oblong .......... 1. raeemosa. 

L. 4-7'. Fls. sessile, sepals glabrous. Fr. globose . . 2. spicata. 

1. S. racemosa, Roxb, Ludam, Z, ; Lodam, S.; Lodh - 
H,i Beng.y Oraon. 

A small tree with oblong, elliptic or ell-lanceolate coriaceous 
shining leaves which are entire, crenate or serrulate, and white 
flowers, turning yellow with age, in axillary simple or 
compound racemes 2-3" long. Drupe oblong |-|" by ^-J^ 
crowned by the calyx. (Diseased globose drupes occur.) 

Throughont Chota Nagpnr and Santal Parganahs abundant, esp. in 
poor open forest. Fls. Oct-Jany. Fr. Dec-May. Evergreen. 

L. 3^" by H" to 5^" by 21" glabrous or slightly pilose on the mid-rib 
acute or obtuse both ends, or acuminate, nerves slender irregular. 
Petiole i'i". Bacemes pubescent or hairy, pedicels -Ig-i'', sepals broadly 
oblong connate below. Corolla ^-i'' diam. 

The bark is used in conjunctivitis. A concoction of the leaves is used 
as a mordant for the Chaili (Al) dye. Campbell states that the bark ia 
used as a dye and the wood-ash as a mordant. 

2. S- Spicata? Boxb. Marang Ludam, K. 

A small tree with very shining elliptic or oblong serrate or 
§errulate acuminate leaves often attaining 9" by S''', and white 
flowers in simple or branched axillary spikes 1-3|" long. 
Drupe globose ovoid J" diam. crowned by the small glabrous 
calyx. Seed and embryo curved. 

Deep valleys near streams in the Sarands foreest, rare. Fls. Dee. Fr 
May. Evergreen. 

413 



1. Symplocos.] 70. STYRACEJE. [1. Jasminum. 

L. pale beneath, narrowed at the base, often sinnately or sharply 
serrate above the middle, glabrous, sec. n, fine distinct 7-9 prs. oblique, 
fifpifces, small ovate hract, and hradeoles rusty pubescent. 

Fam, 71. OLEACEiK. 

Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent, with opposite simple 
or pinnate exstipalate leaves. Fls. regular -^nsually 2-3exual, 
usually in 3 chotomoas cymes or panicles. Calyx small 
truncate or 4-lobed or sometimes 5-9-lobed. Corolla 4-9- 
petalous rarely 0. St. 2 hypogynous or on the corolla-tabe. 
Ovary 2-celled, style 1, stij^ma simple or 2-lobed. Ovules 1-2 
in eacb cell, axile. Fr. Hebiscent or indehiacent. Seeds 1 or 
2 in each cell, erect or pendulous ; albumen present or not, 
embryo straight. 

I. Corolla I" diam. or mora, lobes imbricate. Fr. capsular 

or a berry. 
Shrubs sometimes scandent. ^CoroUa-ttibe white. Fruit 
baccate ..;•..... 1, Jasminuw- 

Small tree. Corolla-tube yellow, Fr. a coriaceous 
capsule 2. Nydanthes. 

Tree. L- pinnate. Fls. brownish. Ft. a pyrifonn woody 

capsule 3. Bchrebera. 

II. Corolla under V diam., lobes valva+^e, x?r. a drupe. 
Petals in pairs, distinct or nearly so. Panicles 

axillary ,....•».. 4. Linociera. 

Corolla tubular. Panicles terminal . . . .5. Ligustrum. 
1. Ja^minum, L. Jasmine. 

Shrubs often scandent or with sarmentose branches, with 
simple leaves (in the Chota Nagpur spp.) articulate petioles 
and white or pinkish flowers in ii-3-chotomous cymes. Calyx 
with or 4-9 linear teeth. Corolla salver-shaped with 
narrow tube and 4- 10 spreading petals. Ovules 2 in each 
cell near the base. Berry simple or didymous, seed one in 
each carpel, erect, exalbuminous. 
I. Cymes lax. 

(a) Cymes about 1-7-fld. Calyx lobes i.'' Eipe 

oarpels globose 1. Sambac. 

414 



I 



1. Jasminum.1 71. OZEACEM. 

(6) Cymes 7-many-lId. Calyx-lobes nnder \''^ Eipe 
carpels oblong. 

Ij. glabrescent. Calyx-lobes iV4" • • • 2. atlorescem, 
L. Boiftly tairy both sides. Calyx lobes under 



10 



3. Roxburghicmv/m, 
II. Fls. STit-se&sile in dense enb-capitate cymes . 4. fuhescens. 

1~ J. SambaC, Ait, Mallika, K. ; Chameli. E. ; Bel, 
Beng, 

A climbing or, in cultiyation, sometimes an erect 
ebmb witb pubescent branches sub-sessile nearly glabrous 
leaves and white very fragrant flowers in usually about 3-fld. 
pubescent cymes. Ripe carpels 1-2, globose J'' diam. black 

Saranda forest, Gamble (bnt as this is the only Jasmine in the list, 
it may be an error); Chota Nagpur, Wood's list {without locality). I have 
only seen it in cultivation where it is very variable and often double. 

Fla.~May-July and also at other times. 

L. 2-3', sometimes 1-5'', ell. rotund or usually ovjate, shortly and 
obtusely acuminate. Calyx lohes 5-9 linear or subulate half the length 
of the corolla-tube or more, hairy. Corolla-tube f '', petals ^'' oblong. 

2. Jo arborescenSj Boxb. Hundi, K, j Gada Huiid 
Baha, S. 

Sub-erect with thick trunk and long drooping branches 
or Bcandent, with young branches, leaves and cymes pubes- 
cent, nearly glabrous in fruit. L. ovate- lanceolate to 
very broadly ovate, acute or usually acuminate, pecioled. 
White flowers in lax 7-many-fiowered 3-chotomous cymes. 
Ripe carpel usually solitary oblong or ellipsoid often curved 
nearly J" long black. 

rhe commonest Jasmine in Chota Nagpur but not abundant. Usually 
by the sides of rocky nalas. In all the districts. 

Fls. April-May. Fr. June-July. Deciduous. New shoots in March 
and April, 

L. l|-3'' in flower, Bometimes wit! two very small ones at base of 
shoot, often attaining 5" by SJ" (sometimes 7" t)y 6") in fruit and then 
quite glabrous ; sec. n. 4-8 prs. ; petiole ^-|" in fl., up to |" in fr. Cymes 
rarely with only 8-5 fls. glabrescent. Calvx-lohes liJXQax aVi"» or ItV 
la fruit. Corolla, tub© i", lobes H'' narrow-oblong. 

415 



1. jASMiNUitt.] 71. OLE ACE JE. [3. Nyctanthbs. 

3. J. Roxburghianum, Wall. Hundi, K, 

A large climbing shrub or sub-erect as iiTtlie last, with 
tomentose-pubescent branchlets, ovate strongly-nerved leaves, 
tomentose beneath, softly shortly pabescent above, and 
tomentose cymes of white flowers much as in the last. 

Forests of the Porahat plateau, not common. 

L. 2-4" by lf-2^" acnt e, base obtuse straight or sub-cordate. Sec. n. 
6-9 prs. reticulate some distance from the margin. Petiole j-^'* 
Xufloresoence much as in the last but calyx-lobes OTen smaller. 

Fi'jit said to be eaten 

4i. J. pubescens, Willd. CI imeli, E. 

A sub-scandent shrub with drooping densely pubescent 
or tomentose branches, ovate or ovate-lanceolate acnte or 
sub-acuminate leaves 1" by |"to 3|" by If and white flowers 
in capitate cymes on 2-bracteate axillary peduncles or termin- 
ating short axillary branches, dimorphic. Fr. ellipsoid l-f* 
long (globose according to Frain and F.B.I.) surrounded \>y 
the long hairy erect sopals. 

Santal Parganahs, along ravines. Jaspur end Sirguja, Wood. Fla. 
Jan.-March, Fr. May. 

L. pubemlous beneath and pubescent on the nerves, nearly glabrous 
above, base usually ruunded, slender sec. n. 3-4 pre. of which the first 
pair is from the base. Petiole -^-s"- Bracts same shape as the leaves. 
Larger flowers up to If" diam. shortly pedioelled, calyx fulvous hairy, 
teeth 7-9 setaceous i'-rs'. CorA'ahe f long. Anthers apiculate. 
Bmaller flowers |" diam. sessile, calyx-teeth ^-J", cor.-tube f-^'' long. 

Tlif ?e appears to be no difference in the length of style or positioa 
of the ouamens, both ioi ds occur closely associated. 

3. Nyctanthes, L. 

1^ N. Arbor-tristis, L. Saparom, K., 8. ; Kula marsal, 
if. ; Snamshihar, Khariu. ; Harsinghar, R. ; Sephalika, Beng, 

A small tree with usually weeping 4-angalar branches, 
rery scabrous ovate entire or somewhat toothed acute leaves, 
and white salver-shaped flowers with yellow tube in bracteat© 
heads which are disposed in ample terminal 3-chotomoiU! 

416 



I 



3. Nyctanthks.] 71, OLEACEM. [4. Linocibra. 

cymes. Capsule orbicular compi^s^o'^ papery or leathery 
2-celled. 

Very common esp. on steep northern aspects. On some slopes of 
hiding haematite schists layered parallel with the slope, it is sometimeB 
jearly the only tree, and as it coppices readily is useful for fuel. 
Common aa second growth on the Eajmehal trap. 

Fis. 8eyt.-0ct. I'r. Dec-Jany. Deciduons April-May ~ 

Branches scabrous. L. about 4^'' by 2V and jpetiole ^''. 

The seeds yield a medicinal oil and a prepacatiou from the roots ia 
given for rough skin, Camjpbell. The root is eaten, Diller. 



3. Schrebera, Roxb. 

1. S. SWietenioides> Roxb, Sandapsing, K, ; Jarjo, K. 
(fide Watt) ; Akasara, S. ; Gte ka lundi, H* ; CbapBing, 
Kharw. ; Gbanto, Oraon, 

A mod.-sized tree with opp. impari-pinnate leaves witti 
3-7 leaflets, and terminal panicled 2-3-chotoniotis cymoso 
panicles of salver-shaped flowers |-|" diam. Capsulen 
with small worts, nsually few with the fully developed foliage, 
pyriform 2|'' by 1", 2-ceUed with 2-4f large angular seeds in 
sach cell. 

Fairly common on the hills in Singbhum. Also in Manbhum, Hazari- 
)agh and Palamau. On the trap in the Santal Parganahs. Fls. May-Juna 
ifiththe young leaves. Fr. Oct.-March. Deciduous Feby. -March, 

i. 9-12'' pubescent when young. Lflts. articulate, opp., 3-5" l)y 2-3* 
oblong to ovate-lanceolate sub-acuminate, finely reticulate and pale 
beneath, base narrowed into a short or very Bhort pet iolule or petiolole of 
terminal Iflt. 1-2", rachis finely pubescent. Inflorescetxce pubescent. Fls. 
with minute brown scales. Oi^lyx irregularly lobed persistent. Corolla- 
tube \". Anthers slightly exserted. Ovules 4 in each oell. Albumen 0. 
Cotyledons large crumpled. 

4. LinoGiera, Swartz. 

I !• L. intermedia, Wight. Suli-Udi Kuda, K.; Deor- 
knda, K, (f. Gamble). . 

A small glabrous tree with ell. -oblong or obovate leaves 
3J* by IJ" to 8" by 3", axillary pyramidal pauicloa l^-^' long 

417 o 



4. LiHOciEEA.] 71. OLEAChM. [ 5. Ligustbum. 

of small white flowers and broadly-oblong or OToid drupes 
about ^". 

SingTahvtm near etreaniB, not common ; KochaTig ; Neterhat, Gambia ; 
Parasnath ; Santal Pargauahs, along etrearae. Fis. Feby. -March. Fr. 
ta4iK3B over a year to npen. Evergreen, renews leaves in Feby. 

L. chartaceoue acute olDtuso or Bhortly acuminate rarrowed at ba»!e 
into the l-V pe+iole ; seen, abont Ic pi*8. distinct. Fls. in subBOseiU 
clnsters on the opposite branches of the short panicle. Calym yj". 
Petals 4 nearly diatinct ^-^'' long oblong with incurved margins. Ovary 
2'celled. Ovnies 2 in each cell, pendulous from the apex. Albmnen 0. 

Var. Rozburghii, G. B. ClarU. 

A small gnarled tree Terj coinmoii on the top of Paras- 
natb, not collected in flower, is this, according to exactly 
similar specimens, in the Cal. Herb, and at Kew. 

Flowers juBt over in Dec Eipe fruit May, 

Quite glabrons with erecto-patent oblong shortly enflaenly acuminate 
leaves about 4.j" by \\" with- weak aeo. nerves reticulate within the 
xnar!?in. Fruit a blua glaucous broadly oblong obtuse drupe \'' long. 
Seed with endosperm. 

I doubt this being a variety of L. intermedia, Wight. From the 
albuminous seed it should be an Olea. 

Prain {Bengal Plants) includes all Chota Nagpnr specimens in var. 
BoxburghiL 

5. Ligostruni, L. 
1. L. robustum, Blume. 

A small tree with bifurcate cnrly-pnbescent twigs, and 
opp. lanceolate acuminate very shortly-petioled distichous 
eaves li-3|''. Fls. Rmall white in terminal pubescent 
panicles 3-8". 

Eavinee in the E-ajmehal hills, vei., *are. 

Via. June. Fr- Dec.-Jany* (I have only aen old inflorescence.) 

Lenticellate pale branohleta comrressed at the nodes. L. glabroiw 
(at least when old), narrowed at base. Sec. n. about 6 prs. rather obscurfl. 
Petiole i'' articulate at base, the i vo first bracts of the axillary buda 
often simulating intrapetiolar siipules. Calyv shortly 4*toothed. 
Corolla^uU aa long aa the calyx. Brujic ^-i" oblong. 

413 I 



M 



[2. bTBYCHNOS. 

Fam. 72. LOGARflACEiE. 

Trees, shrubs or herbs with opposite simple leaves veith or 
without stipules. Fls. regular, cymoso, cymes often sub-capi- 
tate in spikes or pauicled. CaZj/a; inferior, small, 4-6-toothed 
or lobed. Corolla gamopetalous. St. 4-5 on the tube and alter- 
nate with the petals. Ovary free 2-Cfclled, style simple, stigma 
capitate or 2-partite. Ovules 1 or more in each cell, axile 
or basal in the inner angle. Fruit, capsular septicidal or 
indehiscent sind baccate, 1-many-seeded. Albumen copious ; 
embryo straight, long or short. 

Shrub. L. penni-nerved. Fr. a small capsule . .1. Bvddleia. 

Trees. L. 3-5-iierved or Bub-penai-nerved. Fr, a berry * 2. Sirychnot, 

1. Buddleia, L. 

1- B. asiatica, Lour. Nimda, Beng. 

A pretty shrub 3-7 ft. clothed on the branchlets and often 
on the leaves with a hoary or grey tomentum, with lanceo- 
late acuminr.te leaves and small white flowers ^-|" in small 
cymose clusters on axillary or terminal spikes which are 
often panicled. 

Near st'-oams in Singbhnin, not common ; Santal Parganahs, rare. 
Fls. Dec.-Fehy, I"r. March. Evergreen. 

L. 3-6'' narrowed at the base into a short petiole, e:Tstipulate. Sp'tke 
3-6". Fls. 4-merous. 8t. 4 on the corolla-tube, anthers sub-sessile. 
Stigma olavate. Capsule {'' refleied when ripe, <i5epticidally 2-valTed* 
Seeds very many ellipHoid. 

3. Strychnos, L. 

Scandent shrubs or (in Chota Nagpur) trees with 3-5-basaI- 
nerved leaves (or in S. potatorum sometimes sub-penni- nerved) 
exstipulate, but with stipular lilies. Fls. ■i-S-merous iD 
terminal or lateral cymes. Petals valvate. St. 5. on the tube. 
Berry 1-2 or many-seeded. Seeds often large, embryo snrall. 
L. petiolcd 5-ucrved. Cymes terminal . . ,1. JVux-Fomtca, 

L. aubaeselle 3ub-3"-o-cerved. Cymea lateral , . 2 potatorum^ 

419 Q a 



J. Stbtchnos.] 72, LOGANIACFJE. 

1. S. Nux- vomica, L. Kuchila, H. The Stryclmme 
tree. 

A niod.'Sized rather handsome trefi with shining green 
shoots, short-petioled shining leaves about 3|" by 2'' to 4" by 
3' and small greenish-white flowers f-^" long in small 
terminal corymbose cymes. Barry globose \vith a coriaceous 
pericarp orange when ripe and a white pulp. Seeds several 
discoid I" diam. with a grey satiny lustre. 

Dalbhum, Wood ; Occasional in Singbhum and Palaman ; MegaTJurt 
(Hazaribagh), Haslett I bnt always near villages, and I do not think 
indigenous. Parasnath, Camp. Herb ! 

Fls. Jany. Fr. Dec. Evergreen. 

L. elliptic to sub-orbicular rounded both ends, reticulate beneath, 
two lateral basal nerves fine. Petiole 4-£''. 

The dried ripe seeds are the Nux-Vomica of the Phannacopceia. 
Merely jKJwdered, they are a valuable tonic and useful in atonic dyspepsia, 
both iu human beings and horses. They are the chief source of 
Strycnnine. 

2. S. potatorum, L. f. Nirmali, H. ; Kuchila, S. The 
Clearing Nut. 

A small tree with elliptic to ovate sub-sessile glabrous 
leaves united by a stipular ridge and white (or greenish- 
yellow, lioxb.) fragrant flowers ^-J" long in lateral sub- 
sessile cymes. Berry sub-globose black when ripe ^|* 
diam. Seeds 1-2, J- J" diam. 

Chota Nagpur, Prain. Manbhum, Camp, whether wild or not 11 not 
stated. I have not seen it ia C N. It occurs along the Sone, Hooli. 
iEim. Journals). Fls h. «. Fr. Nov. 

L. 2-3''. Corolla-tube campanolate hairy within. 

. The seeds rubbed round the inside of a vessel are used to clear 
muddy water. The pulp is eaten. 

Fam. 73. GENTIANACEiK. 

Herbs usually glabrous with opposite entire exstipulate 
often basal-neryed leaves. Fls. regular or irregular usually in 
ebract^ate cymes. Calyx inferior, lobes 4-5 imbricate in 
bad. Corolla fuunel-iihaped or rotate. Stamens on the tube, 

420 



13. GENTIANACE2E, [ 1. Swebtia. 

an many as the petals and altercate with them, all equal or 
eome smaller than the others or altogether suppressed, 
anthers dehiscirg longitudiually or by apical pores. Disc 
or of glands. Ovary free 1 -celled or more or less 2-celled, 
style simple, stigmas 2. Ovules numerous. Fr. capsular. 
Seeds numerous. Albumen copious. 

I. Flowers regular 

Ovary 1- celled. Fls. white with 1-2 glands at base 

of petala . . . . . . . . 1. Sweriia. 

Ovary 2-celled. Fie. blue (rarely white). Petals 

eglandular . . , . . . . .2. Eaacum. 

II. Flowers irregular 

Ovary 1 -celled. Fls. white or pink. Stamens unequal 3. Canscora. 



I. Swertia, L. 

Erect herbs with 1-5 -basal- nerved leaves and 4-5- 
merous flowers in panicled cymes. Corolla rotate, tube very 
short . Ope or two orbicular glands at the base of each petal 
often covered by a scale or with a fimbriate margin. iStyle 
or very short, stigmas 2. Capsule 2-valved. 

1. S. angustifolia, Sam, Var. pulchella, JBurkillf 
Chiretta, H. 

A pretty erect herb 1-3 ft. high with stems 4-nngled 
above, linear-lanceolate sessile 3- nerved or sub-S-nerved leaves 
and white or very pale-blue 4<-merous flowers |-f" diam. 
in numerous panicles. 

. Frequent in grassy glades in the valley lorests, Singbhum, Manbhum, 
Hazaribagh and Palamau. Fls. Oct.-Dec. 

Petals usually with black or purple streaks or dots and each with 
1 orbicular gland near the base. 

The above includes the two specias of the F.B.I. S. pnlcLollA 
Ham. and S. afEnis, Clarke. I have adopted Burkill'a .nomenclature 
(Journ. As. Soc. II, 8), especially as I had already noted a SinghbhufO 
variety as being intermediate between S. angustifolia. Ham., and 
S. palchella. An infusion of the plant is used like that of the Englisli 
Centaury " as a tonic and Btoujachic. 

421 



2. ExACUM. ] 73, GENTIANACE^, [3. Cakscora. 

S. Exacnni, L» 

Erect herbs with ovate or lanceolate 3-5-nerved leaves 
and 4-5-inerouB blue or white flowers m terminal or axillary 
cymus. Calyx-lobea often winged. Corolla rotate. Style 
long, stigma email sub-capitate. Capsule globose, septicidal j 
2-valved. Seeds very many, minute. 

Fls. blue, petals \-\", Stem 1-4 ft. . . ,1. tetragonMm. 

Fls. blue, petals H''- Stem 3-12'' L. If by \'' . . 2. pediincwiatum. 
Fls. white or very pale blue. Stem 3-12". L. 3 by If 3. •petiolar^x 
1. E. tdtragonum^ Itoxb, Kuchuri, Beng. 

A lovely plant with 4-angled stems, sessile 5-nerved 
leaves about 5" by 1|" and panicles of azure-blue flowers 
wibh broadly-elliptic or ovate petals and erect large yellow 
lanthers. 

Grassy glades not uncommon. Singbhum, Eanchi. Fls. Oct.-Bvc. 

Eoot given in fever, Wood,, 
The other species are small plants of damp places. 

3. Canscora, Lamk. J 

Herbs with flowers in terminal dichotomous cymes. Calyx 
often keeled or winged 4-toothed. Corolla more or less 
Irregular, St. 4 one larger perfect, three shorter smaller 
barren or nearly suppressed. Capstile 2-valved. 

Calyx -winged, Fls. white • !• decv^sata. 

Calyx not winged, Fls. small rose-colotired. 

Cyme. branches with small subulate bracts . . .2. decvirrent. 

Cyme branohes with broadly-ovate foliaceoua bracts . 8. diffusa. 

1. C. deCUSSata, Boem. Kalmeg, K, ; Sankhahuli. JJ 
Stem 4-20. inches high, 4-winged. L. i-2" obloog- 

lanceolate. 

Common on olayev cround in the forest* Fls. 8ept.-Nov 
Used as a tonio, laxative and in fever. 

2. C. decurrens, Dalz., is a small plant 6 -1 ft. high «rith 
lanceolate leaves somewhat decurreut on the «^«m and small flowere, 

422 



ii 



3. Cajtscoba.] 73. QENTIANACEM. 

tricliotomous panicles. 3. C. difiFusa, Bar. is a pretty little plant 6-18 
high and has dichotoraons panicles with foliaceous bracts at the foika. 
They are both frequent on wet banks. 

Fam. 74. APOCYNACEiE. 

Trees, stmbs or herbs, often climbing, with opposite or 
whorled (alt. in the cultivated Thevetia and Plumeria) quite 
entire simple exstipulate leaves and usually milky juice. Fh, 
regular, 2 -sexual, cymose or axillary. Calyx inferior with 5 
imbricate lobes. Corolla usually rotate or salver-shaped 
(funnel-shaped in Thevetia). St, 5 rarely 4, on the corolla, nofc 
connatoas in the Asclepiadaceae but with their anthers usually 
conniving over the stigma and sometimes adhering to it 
Pollen granular. Disc often large. Ovary 2-celled or 
usually of two more or less distinct carpels united by the 
style, the top of which ip usually enlarged. Ovu'es 2 to many 
in each cell, rarely 1 only . Fr. of follicles, * more rarely a 
berry or drupe. Seeds often with a coma of silky hairs or 
winged. Albumen present or not. 

I.— Anthers not adhering to the stigma. 

(a) Ovary 2-celled. Fr. a berry or drape 

A spinous shrub. L. opposite . * • .1. Carissa. 

A larte unarmed shrub with narrow alt. leaves . 2. TJievetia. 

{h) Ov2 y of 2 distinct (sub -connate in 4) carpels united 
by the style— 

A small tree or shrub with alt. large leaves . • 3. Plumeria, 

A shrub with 3-4-nately whorled leaves. "Fr. a drupe 4. BauwolUa* 

A tree with whorled leaves, Fr. of follicles . . 5, Alstonia. 

A small tree or shrub, L opposite. Fr. of follicles 6. Holarrhena. 

n. — Anthers adhering to the stigma by a point. Ovary of 
distinct carpels united by the style. Fruit of 2 
free or united follicles. 

(a) Mouth of corolla with scales— 

1. Anthers exserted, ISmall tres. Follicles oonaate 7. Wtightin. 

2. Anthers included— 

Erect shrub. L. whorled . , , . .8. Nerium, 
Climbing shrubs- L. opposite. Petals eattdaie. 9. Strophanthvk9» 

4.23 



74, AFOCYNACE^, [1. Cibibsa. 

(b) Month of corolla without Bcales. All climhing 
shrubs. 

1. Anthers exserted. Fls. white \"^" diam. . . 10. Yallarit. 

2. Anthers included-' 

(i) Corolla very large, tubnlar-campanulate • 11. BeaMmontia. 

(ii) Corolla small or medium-sized. Petals 
overlapping to the right in bud — 

Petals nearly straight in bud. Cymes tomen- 

tose 12. Aganosma. 

Pet, sharply twisted to the left in bud. 
Cymes glabrous . . ... 13. Anodendron, 

Pet. as in 13 but the tips inflezed. Cymes 
pubescent . • » . . . .14. 7c/inocarpuc. 

1. €arissa, L, 

1. C. Carandas, I'. (Including C. spina ram, A.V.G.) 
Kannwanj K, if. Gamble,) Oraon (/. Watt); Karwak, janum, 
Karwat', S. ; Karaanda, E, 

A rigid dicbotomously branched small or large shrub, or 
small tree, with pairs of divaricate simple or branched tborns 
at the nodes, elliptic ovate or rounded coriaceous leaves l-lj* 
and small white or pale-pink flowers. Fr, a globose or 
ellipsoid berry first red then black. 

Very common over the northern parts of the province, chiefly 
frequenting sandy soils and rapidly diminishing on clay, while it is 
absent from the forest tracts of Singbhum and Gangpur. Chiefly in thi 
north-west of the S. P., Oamhle. 

In full flower April-May, but also flowering up to Sept. Fr. 
ripens Hov.-Dec and onwards to March. Evergreen, the new shoots 
appear in March. 

There are two species recognized in the F.B.I, of which C. spinarum 
ia said to be sub-erect and shrubby, tip of leaves mucronate or apiculate 
spines more slender, corolla only |" long and berry i'' diam. 
Bub-globose, while C. Carandas is large and erect, often arboreous, tip 
cf leaves rounded or obtuse, corolla ^-1'' long, and berry ellipsoid 
^-1". Brandia snggssted that the latter is a form of the former, and 
as the Chota Nagpur plant is often a small tree 25 ft. high with most of 
the other charactera of C spinarum, and the large berried form is usua ly 
only seen in cultivation, the forms are i better united.. A small variety 

424 



1. Caeibsa.] 74. APOCYNACEM. [5. AisTOTfiA. 

*' Jiirsuta " with branches and cymea and leaves beneath pubescent is 
also found in Chota Nagpur. 

The fruit is eaten. 

Thevetia neriifolia, Juss. Berenjo, 8., is a very common large 
evergreen shrub in gardens, of qaick growth, with crowded 1-nerved 
linear leaves and large yellow funnel-shaped corollas. Fruit a large 
green drupe with a very hard usually 2-celled stone. 

Plumeria acutifolia, Pair. Champa pungar, gnlanj baha, 8., is 
another small trea very commonly cultivated. It has very thick round 
branches, leafless in the hot weather and large narrowly elliptic leaves 
with strong horizontal parallel sec. nerves which are crowded at the ends 
of the branchlets. FIs. about 2'' diam. fragrant white with a yellow 
eye in terminal cymes. Fruit follicular. 

4, Rauwolfia, L. 

1. R. serpentina* Benth. Chandra, Beng. 

A pretty glabrous underslirub 1-2 ft. high with Dright 
green shining opposite or 3-4-nately whorled oblong or 
obovate acute leaves 5-7'' by 2-2|" and small white flowers 
with pink tabes in peduncled bright red cymes. 

Valleys esp. in grass lands, rare. FIs. May- July. Fr. July- Aug. 

L. narrowed into the i-|'' petiole. Pedicels red. Drupes i-J* 
diam. black. 

The root is a reouted cure for snake-bite. 



5. Alstonia, R. Br. 

1- A. SCholaris, -R. Br. Kunumung, K. ; Chatni, S. 
Chatawan, H. 

A uenally straight handsome tree with the branches and 
leaves whorled and greenish-white flowers in nmbellately 
branched cymes. Fruit of two slender follicles 1-2 ft. long, 
pendulous. 

Valleys in Singbhum, not common ; Tundi hills in Manbhi^m 
Hazaribagh, rare ; S. P. (Silfngi). FIs. Nov.-Jany. Fr. r.s. Evergreen. 

L. 3-7 usually 6 in a whorl, 4-8" by 1-2^" oblanceolate or obovate 
glabrous whitish beneath, base narrowed into the ^-^ '' petiole. 
See. u. numerous close horizontal. Inflorescence puberul<)us sesflilo 

425 



6. At8T0NU.] 74. APOCTNACE^, [7. Wbightia. 

or stdlkfld, brancnea 2-4'' with often 2-3 whorls of sec. brancnea 
i 1'' long bearing the anb-capitate umbels. Corolla ^\" diam. throat 
with refldzed hairs. Follicles terete only ^" diam. 

- 0. Holarrhena, R. Br. 

1. H. antidysenterica, Wall Knar, Tnar, K. ; Hat, 
Br, Knrclii, if., Beng. ; Koraiya, Kharw. ; Korkoria, Oraon. ; 
Kurdu, Mai Pah, 

A large slirnb or small tpee with somewbai disticlionsly 
ppreading sub-sesaile leaves 6-12" by l|-5"- strongly 
nerved beneath and terminal corymbose cymes of sweet- 
scented white flowers |-1|" diam. Follicles slender 8-16" 
divergent. 

Very common, esp. in open glades in the valleys and in waste 
grrnnd. Fls. May-July. It. Dec.-ieby, Dec. Feby.-April, it flowers 
with the new shoots. 

New shoots pabescent First pair of leaves on a twig broadly 
elliptic 3'' long, others ovate-ell. or ell.-oblontr shortly 
Rouminate with obtuse base, glabrous or pubescent beneath. Sec. n. 
;-) — 13 prs. Cymes 3-6" diam. Corolla-tube slender |-|'' with 
stamens low down in the tube. Disc 0. Seeds (Inderjao, H.) linear- 
oblong with long brow" coma. 

An excellent cure for bad dysentery. A case in Chaibassa of 
nearly a year's standing was cured in a few weeks by a native 
practitioner. The patient wag a European, who gave mo a few of the 
seeds for identification. " The leaves are distasteful to cattle and goats/' 
Gamble. 

7. Wrightia, R. Br. 

1. W. toineiltosa> ^oem. Tnar, E.; Bnm machkunda, 
S.; KhiiDa, Kherua, Kharw, 

A small tree with slender pnbescent branches and 
distichons elliptic shortly candate-acnminate fomectose leaves 
with 8-14 prs. of strong sec. nerves and greenish-orange or 
cream-cold. Fls. with deep-orange 6r scarlet coronal-scales in 
tomentose corymbose cymes. The follicles are connate into a 
compressed grooved pendant cylinder, greeni&h with white 
tubercles. 

426 



7. Wbightia.] 74, AFOCYNACE^, [iO. Taiiabh. 

Valleys in SiT)gT3lium bnt not common ; Maul: hum and Hazaribagh, 
oocaBional ; Palamau ; Santal Parganahs, occaBional. Fls. April-July. 
Fr, Dec.'Feby. Dec. Fehy .-March. 

Milk yellowiph-white. L. 3-5'' by 1^-2^'' base acute. Sec. n. etronjf 
10-]4 prs. Petiole i'' . Fls. 1" diatn. ; coronal scales 10, toothed. 
Fr. 6-12" by ^-f. Seeds slender with white coma. 

Kerium odorum, Boland. Raj baha, 8.; Kaner, H. ; Oleander 
Eng. is a common handsome shrub ofttn cultivated (and as if wild, 
Pram) in Chota Nagftir. The leaves are linear or lir ear-lanceolate in 
whorls of thr^e, and it bears handsome white or rose-cold, flowers 1-1^" 
diam. in terminal cymes. Follicles connate till ripe. Seeds tomeutose 
si.d with a brown coma. 

9. Stroplianthus, D.O. 
1. S. Wallichii, A.B.G. 

A climber "witli lenticellate branches, oblong cnspidafe 
glabrons leaves Vitb minute stipules and terminal 2-cliotomor.a 
cymes of pale -coloured flowers remarkable from tbeir long 
twisted caudate petals. 

Eavines in Singbhum. Fls. April-May. 

Juice watery. L. 3 by 1" to 4" by 2^'' with about 6-10 prs. of fine nerves 
reticulate within the margin. Petiole i-^'. Cymes S-V with renurved 
linear bracts at the forks, lax. Calyx-lobes linear-subulate ^''. CoroUa-tv'^^e 
constricted in the middle |" with lobes nearly 2'', veined purple within 
and throat with 6 deeply 2-fid. scales. 6t. with long filiform appendagas. 

10. Vallaris, Burm, 

1. V. Heynei, Sjpreng. Adaka red, K, 

A climber with light grey tougb lenticellate cord-liVe 
stems, oblong or ell. acuminate nearly glabrous leaves and 
cymes of pretty white flowers |-|'' diam. with broad 
roundish spreading petals and exserted stamens, con- 
epicuous by. the large dorsal gland and basal spurs. Pruit 
6" by 1^', terete, of perfectly united carpels, ultimately 
dehiscent. 

Valleys in Singbhum and Gangpur. Pochra (Palamau), Wood. 

T\a. April-May. Ft. Nov.-Jany. New leaves in Jlf arc/i, a light bright 
green. 

427 



10. Yallaeis.] 74. APOCYNACEJE. [13. Anodbndsoh. 

L. J^' by I' to 4 "by H'' meml^ranoua, sometimes distinctly pellucid 
punctate, witb 5-9 pra. of arching fine but distinct sec. n. ; base a<5ute 
or obtuse somewhat decurrent on the ^-l'' petiole. Fruit sub-truncat* 
at base, tapering above the midde to a blunt apex. Seeds 2-Beriate ovato 
flat with a silky coma. 

Bark very bitter, and astringent, chewed by the Kola for fixing loose 
teeth. 

Beaumontia grandifiora. Wall., an immense climber often 
grown in gardens. It has rusty-pubescent shoots, large obovate-oblong 
abruptly acuminate leaves and very large handsome (vhite flowers. 
Tubular portion of the corolla short campanulate above with large 
rounded lobea. 

13. Af^anosma, G. Don. 
1. A. Caryophyllata, G. Don. Eaten, S. 

A large climber -with ovate or ell. acute, obtuse, or shortly 
acnramate leaves 3-5 1" by l|-3" and lax pubescent cymes 
of Jasmine-like white flowers 1|" diam. with broad falcate 
petals I'' long. Follicles densely yellow tomentose when 
young, spreading, or recurved, or cornate and cohering by 
their tips. 

Pandra (Manbhum), Camp. ! Eocky ravines in the Santal Parganahs, 
Trequent on trap rocks ; Monghir, Hamilton, 

Fls. Aug. Fr. Jany.-Fehy. 

Young shoots densely tomentosely hairy. L. glabrous or tomentose 
beneath, base rounded ; sec. n. 2-5 prs. often red very oblique minutely 
reticulate between. Petiole \'^''. BepahJ^'' tomentose about equalling 
the pedicels, Cor.-tuhe ^" first very narrow then wider with villous ridges, 
petals twisted to the right in bud. Anthers almost awned, bases sagittate. 
Follicles very variable in size 4-14" long and ^-f diam. tapering gradually 
to the tip. Seeds flat |-1'' long and coma rather longer. 

t3. Anodendron, A.D.C. 
1- A. paniculatum, a.jd.G. 

A large climber with stout green stems |-1* diam., 

coriaceous ' Sal '-like lower leaves and small pale-yellow 

balver-shaped flowers in very lax slightly branched axillary 
and terininal brachiate panicles. 

428 



I 



13. Akodbfdeon.] 74. APOCYNACEJS. fU Ichnooip'^b. 

Along streame in Singbhum but very re^re. j?l9 ''^^rm.^A'pril ajid fiuil 
takes a year to ripen. 

Lower leaver 7-8" by 4-5'', very coriaceous, entire or gli^htly waved 
and with alightly reflex ed rcargrins, shortly (;uspidate with 12-3 prs. (jt 
strong nearly Htraight nerves, shining above, quite glabrous, or pnberulou* 
beneath, petiole f '. Upper leaves narrow-oblong 4-5" by H ', cuspidate , 
Panicle}^ 3-6''. Fh: Z-nate. Corolla i" long. Mouth contracted, lob«« 
narrow Y', throat villous. Anthers sagittate and shortly spurred. F^iliclt 
spreading 5-6' by |'' at base, narrowed to an obtuse base. Hairs oi 
coma 2' long. 

Said to produce rubber. 

14 Ichnocarpus, Br. 

Climbing shrubs with small salver-shaped flowers in 
axillary and terminal panicled cymes. Corolla throat con- 
tracted, lobes overlapping to right, narrow with the upper 
half inflexed in bud. St. at or below the middle of tube, 
anthers sagittate adhering to the stigma, sometimes spuried. 
Disc 5-lobed. Carpels pubescent with about 10 ovules. 
Follicles very slender divaricate. Coma deciduous. 

1. I. frutescens, -R- '^r, Onol-sing, K,; Dudhi-lota, S. ; 
Saon-lar, Khario. 

Large rambling shrub woody below with rusty-tomentose 
branches, ellip. or broadly- oblong acute or shortly acuminate 
glabrous leaves and narrow panicles of small white flowers 
^^"'diam. with narrow twisted bearded lobes. 

Common, especially in hedges in moist localities:. Fls. Hcpt.-J}cc. Fit. 
Jany.-March. The leaves turn brown or reddish iu Feb],, and are probably 
deciduous. 

L. H" by 1'' to 4.^'' by 2''ipale and finelv reticulate beneath, base rounded 
or acute, sec. n. about 5 prs. Petiole ^^". Panicleii usually leafy with 
short branches. Pedicels YS'i'' Calyx with 5 linear glands alternating 
with the small erect sepals within. Follicles 3-b*^" linear divaricat* 
slightly flattened, -yV)' broad only with a brownish thin tomeutum. Seed 
about V' linear, or with coma j', grooved, pale-frown. 

Is much used for tying. 

2. 1, ovalifolins, ^.I>.a 

Said to occur in Chota Nagpur. The distinguishing characters ara 
dflflcri bed as the coroll»-tubo pubescent and the mouth puberulooa, while 

429 



14. ICHNOCABPUS.] . 7i. APOCYNACE^. 

in the last the coroUa-tube is said to be glabrous and the motith villons ; 
the leaves are also described as much larger and broacTer. The corolla, 
tube of I. frutesoens, however, is usuallj pubescent. 

Chota Naerpur, Prain. A specimen from Jhirioi (Santara forest) may 
be this, which 1 consider only a varieH of I. frutescens. 

Fam. 75. ASCLEPIADACEJB. 

Usually climbiBg shrubs or herbs, rarely erect. Differing 
from the Apocvnaceae chiefly in respect of the audroecium. 
The stamens are sometimes free, but more usunlly connate in- 
to a fleshy column surrounding the pistil and generally bear 
dorsal processes collectively termed the *^ staminal corona** 
(to distinguish it from the scales or processes which are 
Bomelimes present on the corolla and which are termed the 
*' coroUine corona'^). The pollen forms 1 or 2 masseg 
{'pollinia) in e^;ch anther lobe, and these pollinia are united to 
a gland (corpuscle) lying between the several anthers so that 
the pollinium (or pollinia) of the left-hand lobe of one anther 
is connected with the ^olliniura (or pollinia) of the right-hand 
lobe of the next anther. Carpels 2 distinct Styles united 
in the stigma. Fruit normally of 2 follicles. Albumen 
copious and embryo large. 

I. Filaments free. Pollinia granular. Staminal 

corona 0. 

Fls. in lax cymes. Petals overlapping . . .1. CrypMe-pii. 

Fls. very small in dense axillary cymes. Petals 

valvate ........ 2. Hemidesnwa 

II. Filaments connate into a column. Pollinia waxy. 

Anthers with an inflexed membranous tip 
(except in Ceropegia). 

A. Erect shrubs or herbs. Corona staminal only. 

L. broad. Coronal processes fleshy laterally 

compressed . . . . . . .3. Calotropit. 

L. lanceolate. Fls. red. Coronal processes 

erect spathulate . . . . .4. Asclepias* 

Leafless. Fls. white . . <» . .5. Barcostemma, 

B. Climbers. Pollinia pendulous, i.e., the corpuscle 

is above the pollinia which are attached to it 

430 



75. ASCLEPIADACEJS. [1. CBirTOLBPis, 

by Btalka (sometimes very short) Corona 
staminal. 

1. Corolla campannlate l-ii'\ Coronal processes 

slender ligulata ...... 6. EajphtVfemtna. 

2. Corolla aalver-shaped f diamJ Coronal pro- 

cesses snbulate . . . • . .7. Dcemta. 

3. Corolla rotate. 

Corolla 1-1^'' diam. Corona 10-lobed . . 8. RoU$temma, 

Corolla 4-^'' diam., green or purplish. Corona 
toothed 9. Cj/notnch-utn. 

C. Climbers. PoUinia erect, %.e^ f7t«tr staiifcg usually 
reflxed. 

1. Corona corolline only. Fls. small. Petals 

overlapping 10. GymuKinck. 

2. Corona staminal only. 

Corolla oampanulate. Fls. green, under \'' 
diam. . . . . . .11. Marsdenia, 

Corolla salver-shaped. Fls. yellowish over i'' 
diam. , . .... 12. PergulaHa, 

Corolla rotate. Petals overlapping. Fls. green 13. Dregea. 

Corolla rotate. Petals valvaf-e. Fls. white, waxy lit. Hoya, 

Corolla li-2" long with a lou^ tube. . . 15. Ceropegia. 

1. Cryptolepis, R. Br. 

1. C. Bncliaiiani, Raem. Utri dudbii, S. ; Dudhla 
lar, Kharw. ; Karanta, S. 

A large twining shrub witli glabrous oblong pr elliptic 
entire leaves shining above and very pale-glaucouB beneath, 
and axillary 2-chotomoiis cymes of pale yellow flowers with 
petals contorted in bud. Follicles 2|-4" long, ^-f diam. in 
the middle. 

Valleys in Singbhum, occasional. Common in Manbhum. Hazaribaghi 
Damuda valley, frequent. Eanchi, Palaman, and Santal Parganahs. 

Fla. May^June. Fr. BecrFeby, Evergreen. 

With copious milky juice. L. 3^" by If to 4|" by 2" rarely 6" long, with 
very numerous slender nearly horizontal nerves united within the margin, 
and reticulate nerrules ; base and tip rounded or latter cuspidate. Cyme4 
panicled with opp. divaricate braoteate fleshy bcanohes constricted af. th« 

4ai 



1. Cbtptolepis.1 75. ASCLBFIABJCE^. [3. Caloteopis. 

nodes, 1-2'' long ana oroad. Pedicels |''. ;8'epaL<? orate tg'- CoroUa-tubt 
i^s's'i lobes ^'' linear-lanceoiate. Coronal-scales clavAte fleshy in the 
tabe< Pollinia very minute linear. 

Campbell says that a preparation of the plant is given to children as » 
CTxre for rickets. It is also given to nursing mothers when the supply of 
milk failH. The remedy is apparently suggested bythemill^ juice, 
■peciee of Euphorbia being given in the same way, 

Z. Hemidcsmns, K. Br. 

1. H. indicus, -K. Br, Dudli, Kharw.; Annantamal, 
Sans., II. 

A slender twining shrub Tvith oblong to linear-lanceolate 
rarely ubovate acute or acuminate or obtuse leaves whitish 
beneath and small greenish-purple fl«>wers in opposite dense 
sub-sessile cymes. Follicles glabrous often puiplish slender, 
divaricate 4-5'' long, sometimes 6" by y^". 

Bather common, usually in fairly dense shade, but alsb in scrub 
jungle. Fls. r.s. Fr. Oct-Dec. Evergreen. 

New shoots pubescent. L. very variable from 1-4" long and ^1^'' 
broad, very frequently with a white central streak above, base rounded, 
■ec. n. few. Petiole ^-5^". Sepals glandular within. Coronal-scales on 
the throat alternate with the corolla-lobes. Pedicels with ovate imbri- 
cating bracts. Calyx in -fruit spreading i'' diam. 

The roots which have a pleasant smell are taken to relieve fever and 
also in skin diseases. In Hindoo medicine it is sometimes used in conjunc- 
tion with the roots of Ichnocarpua frutoscens, which it often much 
lesembles. 

3, Calotropis, H,. ^f^- 

Erect herbs or shru bs with Droad sessile or sub-sessile 
leaves and mod.-sized bluish or reddish flowers in umbelli- 
form or sub-racemose cymes. Calyx 5-partite, glandular 
within; sepals lanceolate Corolla campanulate or sub-rotate, 
petals valvate. Staminal-column with 5 radiating fleshy 
compressed dorsally spurred or tubercled coronal processes. 
Pollinia flattened. Follicles very stout. 

Corolla 1-H" diam. with spreading petals . . . .1. gigaittea. 
Corolla under 1" diam. with erect p.etals, about \" long . 2. procera. 

432 



3. Calotbopis.j 75. ASCLEPIADACEM. [6. Sabcostemma. 

1- C. gigantea, JR. Br, Palati,'E".. ; Akaona, 8.\ Akacn, 
Kharw. -y fiadar, H. ; Akanda, Beng. 

Sometimes a small tree with trunk 1 ft. girth, usually a 
shrub with oblong-obovate coriaceous leaves white felted 
beneath as also are the branches and peduncles. Fls. reddish 
or light-purple or lilac, coronal processes shorter than the tall 
column, tips with two small fleshy lateral tubercles and base 
with a fleshy curved spur. Fr. much as in the next. 

Waste ground, railway embankments, etc., common. Fls. Dec.- July. 
"St. Fehy.-June. Evergreen. 

Yields the well-known Madar fibre. Various- medicinal virfcnes ar« 
ascribed to the plant. The Kols nse it as a drastic purgative and fever 
medicine, but they prefer the Euphorbia. The Santals give a decoction of 
the root in infantile convulsions and delirium during fever, Campbell. 
Mahouts use the leaves as warm fomentations in treating abscesses on 
elephants. 

2. C. procera, i^. Br. Vernacular names as above. 

A shrub 3-4 ft, closely resembling the last Ti^hen not in 

flower. 

Waste ground, chiefly in Palamau ; Manbhum, Camp, : Common from 
Barhito Koderma (Hazaribagh) ; Santal Parganahs (Morjhora, etc.). 
Fls. and Fr. periods much as in last and uses the same. Fls. osp. 
Bec.-Jany. 

L. usually suddenly often sharply acute or sub-mucronate, old glabrous 
beneath. PedtwcZe*' numerous, (f ten 2 from an axil 1'3'' long, tomentope, 
Fls. with erect petals which are white with a deep purple blotch on tho 
upper half within and acute. Coronal-procs. with a purple obtuse tip and 
fleshy dorsal upturned white spur. Follicles 3" by 1 V' obtuse, Bomewhat 
Bausage-shaped, outer and inner coats with fibrous tissue between. Beedi 
obovate densely imbricate ^'' flattened. 

Asclepias eurassavica, L. Is a pretty erect perennial with 
lanceolate or oblong-Ian reolate glabrous leaves and many -flowered 
umbelliform cymes of scarlet flowers with reflexed corolla and 5 erect 
spoon-shaped coronal-scales adnate to the stipitate column. A native of 
the West Indies often found in village lands. 

6. Sarcostemnia, R. Br. 

1. S. brevistigma, Wight. Kula-tuar, K. 

A leafless jointed shrub with terete green straggling 
branches and terminal sessile umbels of white waxy sweet- 
smelling flowers J-J' diam. 

483 



5. Sabcobtbmma. ] 75. A8CLEP1ADACE2E. [ 7. Djbmia. 

On arid rocks in SingLhnm. Fls. Bept. 

Occasionally bears small linear-oblong lea-oes \-^'' teng in tha \xny 
leason. Column short and stout with slits between the anthers. Co^ rusl- 
procesacs large fleshy cbtuse. Poi/ima linear, stipitate. 

The milk is used in the same way as that of Calotropis, it is said to 
be * very pov^erf ul' (the name eignifies Tiger's milkj, in fact EnrojCdaos 
would usually call ib a rank poison. 

6. Raphistemma) Wall. 
1. R. pulchellum, Wall, 

A very large twining' shrub "with cordate ovate leaves 
3-7" and handsone pure -white or cream rather fleshy cam- 
panulate flowers 1-1|'' long in long-pednncled axillary 
umbelliform cymes. 

Evergreen forest near streams in deep valleys, Singbhum. Fls. Aug.' 
Sept. 

L. with 5-7 strong primary nerves, a wide basal sinus and 
glandular at the base of the mid-rib. Fls. well marked by the thick 
^hite coronal scales at the bftok of the anthers being produced into slender 
tails and meeting over the stigma. Follicles 6'' by l|'', fusiform {,F.B.L). 

7. Diiemia, R. Br. 

1. D. extensa, -R. Br, Chagnl-bati, Beng. 

A slender subhispidly hairy or glabrate foetid climber with 
membranoas orbicular or broadly ovate deeply cordate acu- 
minate leaves 2-4" long and broad, and green, or yellowish - 
green, and red salver shaped flowers f-f diam. in long- 
stalked corymbose droopincr panicles. Follicles l|-2" lanceo- 
late, clothed with long soft spines. 

Palamau, not general. Chiefly in hedges. Fls. Oct.-Dec. Ft. Dec- 
J any. 

L. pubescent beneath, basal lobes rounded incurved. Petiole about as 
long as- loaf. Peduncles 2 6'. Pedicels capillary, ^2''. Sepals short 
erect ^'' with 2 small glands within, pubescent. Cor.-tube slightly longer 
i»ith spreading densely villous-ciliate linear- or ovate-oblong green 
petals with reflexed margins. Corona (outer) adnate to cor.-tube 
elightly exceeding it with 6 oblong truncate petaloid lobes and (inner) 
small intermediate inflexed lobes carrying long white fleshy acuminate 
processes adnate to the anthers and meeting over the stigma, dorsally 
■purred below. 

43i 



8. HoLOSTBMMA. ] 75. ASCLEPIADACE^. [ 10. Gtmnema. 

8. Holosterama, Br. 

1. H. Eheedei, Wall. Aptmg, K. ; Moron arak', 8. 

A twining glabrous slirnb "with membranous triangnlar 
ovate or oblong-ovate coidate leaves 3-6" long, the large basal 
Jobes of which are often incurved and meet, sub-globose purple 
and white large flowers 1-1 1" diam. and short thick smooth 
acnte follicles. 

Common in Manbhnm, Camplell. Eavines in Singbhtim, rare. Chap 
knlia (Dalbhnm), Gamble. Fls. July-8ept. Pr. Jany. • 

L. sometimes faintly pubernlous, baeal lobes ronndfed spreading or 
incurved. Petiole 1-3'', glandular at the base of the mid-rib above. 
Cymes nmbelliform or in irregular racemes, peduncles and pedicels 
1-2''. Anthers very large obloug, horny, shining, cohering into a 
10-winged column. 

Leaves eaten as a pot-herb. A decoction of the root is given for 
cough, Camp. 

9. Cynanchnm, L. 
1. C Callialata, Bam. 

A glabron 8 or sparsely hairy twiner with acuminate leaves glaucous 
beneath, with a contracted cordate base spreading obacuro nerves 
and shortly pednncled axillary umbels of glabrous flowers I'' diam. 
Corona shoit-cupular irregularly 5-toothed and crenate. Follicles 2- 
winged- 

Top of Parasnath, Hooker. I have not seen it. 

10. Gymnema, Br. 

Fls. small in crowded umbelliform cymes. Calyx 5- 
partite. Corolla sub-rotate with thick lobes, and fleshy 
coronal processes on the throat which are produced downwaids 
on the tube as double villous ridges. ^Follicles slender, 
smooth, acuminate. 

1. G. sylvestre, Br. 

A rather slender woody climber with densely appressed- 
hairy branchlets and broadly ell. to oblong, acute or acu- 
minate leaves 2|-S" by 1^-1|" with rounded or sab-cordate 
base. Calyx hairy J" diam. in fruit, 

435 



10. Gtmnema] 75. ASCLEPIADACE^. [11. Marsdbnia. 

Palamau, and common on the low hills beyond Akbarpur. Only eeen 
in fruit and may be the same as the next. Fr. Dec. 

L. somewhat pubescent both sides eap. on the nerves beneath, not 
pronouncedly basal-nerved, sec. n. about 5 prs. Petiole \-^''. Follicle$ 
2-2i " poniard-shaped, only ^'' broad. Peduncle cf cyme cnly ^-i". 

[This plant is intermediate between the '• G. hirsutum "' collected by 
Sir J. D. Hooker in the same locality, and typical G. sylvestre. The two 
are probably only varieties of one species as he suggests.] 

2. G. Mrsntum, w. & A. 

A twiner with all parts densely softly pubescent, broadly 

ovate or covdate acute or acuminate leaves H-2|" and flowers 

I" diam. in 2-nate sub-sessile cymes. Fetala ciliolate. 

Follicles 2-3 by f. 

Tundi hills, Manbhum, Camp. Herb ! 

Var. DecaiBneanum, Wight. Moronarak, 8. L. oblong or cvate 
with wide cordate base 8|" by 2' but much smaller at base of shoot, 
those quite at base sub-orbicnlar }/' only. C^wes simple forked or 
3-nate I -1'' diam. dense sub-aeseile. Tundi Hills. FIb. July. 

11. Marsdcnia, Br, 

1. M. tenacissima, W. &A. Jiti, cMti, (Pal. and 

Rajmehal) ; Siti (Koderma) H. ?; Kongat, S. 

A stout tough twiner with very milky juice, all parts 
densely softly pubescent or tomentose, broadly ovate suddenly 
shortly finely acuminate leaves about 5" by 4' with deeply 
cordately lobed base, and green flowers J" diam. sub cam- 
panulate with spreading lobes in dense corymbosely -branched 
cymea. Follicles ^o-S^" by H-li?'' finely pubescent, or 
velvety. 

Tundi hills opposite Topchanchi ; Manbhum ; Singbhum very rare ; 
Palamau, common, thence extending B]iorailicall.v in scrub jungles through 
Hazaribagh to the Eajmehal Hills. Fls. April-June. Fr. ,} an >i. -March. 

L. 3" by 2^" when in flower, adult 4-7" by 3-5" occasionally oven 9'' by 
Si" velvety above softly pubescent and pale beneath, basal lol>e8 rounded 
Bometimea incurved ; bane 4-5-noi ved, one pair sec, n. usually close to 
base and 1-2 other prs. above. Petiole 1\-S'. Calyx -^Y ^'^''^S' 5-partite, 
seprJs oblong. Petals oblong about as long as the tube. CnrGnat-prvce.sse» 
erect adnate to the stamens and extending above them, ligulate, grOovod 
and thickened below. Follicles thickest a little above the obtuse basa 

436 



11. Maesdenia.] 75. Al^CLEPIADACEJS. [13. Dbbgea. 

tbet) tapering to a blunt opex, solitary, slightly grooved on one side^ 
Beeds flat margined, with a coma 2''. 

It has a very strong? fibre used for bow-strings, and which Eoxbnrgh 
refers to an one of the strongest he had met with in the vegetf.!:!© kingdom 
(FIb. Ind. II, 56). It has been several times recommended for cultivation. 

12. Pergalaria, L. 

Differs from Marsdenia chiefly in 'the mtich larger flowers 
vrith a distinct tube, and the transversely-bifid or 2-lamellate 
large coronal scales. These are often described as simple in 
P. pallida, bnt as a fact the two lamellse though often connate 
are distinguishable, the long ligule extending to above the 
anther evidently being the inner lamella. The coronal scales 
are only shortly adnate to the anthers. 

1- P. pallida, W. & A. Kongat, Kharw,, 8. 

A twining shrub with sub-watery juice, ovate or ovate- 
cordate acuminate leaves, and greenish or yellowish-vv hite 
flowers |-1" diam. in axillary nmbelliform cymes. Follicles 
deeply grooved solitary about 4" long acuminate. 

Palamau and Santal Parganahs, chiefly in nalas and scrub-jungle. 
Fls.May. Ft. Dec-Jany, Bene ws leaves at time of flowering. 

Stems somewhat furrowed and pustular glabrous when old. Young 
leaves seldom deeply cordate, eld usually deeply cordate with nerves 
beneath shortly pubescent but otherwise nearly glabrous. Petioles IV' 
(often only ^" when in flower]. 

The three species Marsdenia tenacissima. Dregea volubilis and this 
are frequently mixed up in the forest, and without floM'ers are somewhat 
diflBcult to distinguish. Marsdenia is npually known from its dense 
pnbescence. Dregea is more pubescent than the Pergnlaria and may 
be known from both by its almost invariably paired follicles. Its leaves 
too are less cordate, or even acute at. base. 

13. Dregea, E. Meyer. 

1. D. volubilis. Benth. Marang Kongat, iS. 
A stout twiner with often pustular branches, ovate or 
broadly-ovate leaves more or less acuminate, with roanded or 

437 



13. Dbeqea. ] ASCLEPIADACEM 

rarely cordate but scarcely lobed sometimes acute base, greeo 
rotate flowers |" diam, and stout follicles 3-4" by 1-1|" diam. 

Manbhum, Palamau, in scrub jungle. Fls. June, 

Usually hoary with a fine curled pubescence, and L. 3-6" by 2-4|'' 
etrongly nerVed, often glandular at the base of the mid-rib above ; 
petiole 1-3' with generally a curved thickened baqe. Fls. in dense 
umbels which are sometimes several on short branches, pedicela ^-1'',. 
peduncles l-;i''. Calyx o-partita, sepals yg' ovate oblong obtuse.* 
Petah broadly oblong, longer than the tube, pubescent outside. Column 
very short truncate, coronal-processes sub-globose horizontal. " 

This also yields an excellent fibre. 

14. Iloya, Br. 
1. H. pendula, Wight, 

A climber with twiggy pendulous branches oblong flesby 
Bmooth_^ shining leaves with the venation not visible, and 
white flowers f" diam. with a truncate stellate corona in 
short-pednncled pendulous umbels. 

Parasnath, Anders. A Singbhum Hoya, act collected, maybe this. 

15. Ceropegia, L. 
1. C. hirsuta, ^. Sr A. 

A hirsute climber with pale spreading' hairs, lanceolate 
leaves up to 5" by 1|'' with rounded base and tubular flowers 
If" long with a ventricose base and sab-erect oblong obtuse 
ciliate petals. 

Manbhum, near Pokhuria, Camp.Herb. ! Fls-, Fr. Aug. 

Fls. greenish blotched with purple. Follicles erecto«patent 3''. 

^ Fam. 76. SOLA]\ACE.E. 

Herbs or sbifubs with alternate simple, entire lobed or 
pinnatifid (pinnate in Lycopersicum) exstipulate leaves. Fls. 
regular 2-8exual in lateral or terminal axillary or often 
extra-axillary cymes, sometimes with additional solitary 

438 



76^ SOLANACE^, [1. Soianum. 

flowers, more rarely all the flowers solitary or cluster- 
ed ; bracts and bracteoles 0. Calyx inferior n snail y per- 
sistent and often larger in fruit. Corolla fannel-sbaped, 
rotate or campanulato, limb sometimes sub-entire, petals 
usually 5. St. 5 on the tube, anthers dehiscing by apical 
pores or longitudinally. Ovary normally 2-celled ; style 
linear ; ovules very many ort prominent peltate placentaa. 
Fruit baccate or capsular, usually 2-celled (4-celled in Datura) 
and many-seeded. Seeds compressed, embryo curved round 
the albumen (straight in Tobacco). 

Besides thoae deBcribed> the following •well-known plants belongs 
to this order :— Soianum tuberosum, L.. the Potato; Lycopersi- 
cum esculentum, Mill., the Tomato, which often has numerous 
placentas in cultivation; several varieties of Capsicum, Chillies and 
Nepal pepper, some of which are naturalized ; Phy salts peruviana, L^ 
the Cape Gooseberry; Pbysalis minima, L., a wild plant, can be 
recognised by its similarly inflated calyx -^ Nicotian a Tabacum, L^ 
the Tobacco, is cultivated in Chota Nagpur on specially manured plots of 
land near the homestead only,- or down near the edges of rivers. Its Kol 
name " sukul " merely means smoke. The wrapper of the Kol cigarette 
CT " fihr" is a Sal leaf. 

Corolla rotate. Anthers opening by pores. Fruit a berry. I. Bolanum, 

Corolla tubular-funnel-shaped. Fruit capsular , . .2. Datura* 

1. Solanuiii, L. 

Shrubs or herbs, rarely small trees, often spinous, 
pubescence often stellate. L. sometimes in sub- unilateral 
T'airs. Fls. in dichasial or sympodial cymes. Calyx 5- or 
10-lobed. Corolla rotate, limb usually 5- rarely 4-6-merou8, 
plaited in bud. Anthers conniving in a cone, opening by 
pores or short slits. Seeds discoid. 

I. Unarmed, Fls. sub-umbellate or corymbose. 

Herbaceous or suffruticose, glabrous or nearly so 1. nigrum. 

A large shrub, densely stellate-tomentose . , 2. verbascifolium 

II. Armed, rarely unarmed in S. Melongena, cymes 
sympodial, or fls. sub-solitary. . -?.^- 

A diffuse very prickly herb ... ,3. xanthocarjpum. 

Shrubs or under shrubs 

439 



1. SotANUM.l 76. SOLANACB^. 

ris. white. L. not prickly on the nerves . 4. torvum. 

Fla. blue. Nerves prickly. Peduncles usually "^ 
5-many-fld. ...... 5. indicum. 

Fls." bine. Nerves prickly or not. Peduncles 
1-6-fld. , 6. Melongena. 

1- S. nigrum, L. Makoi, B. ; the Black Nightshade. 

An erect herb 1-4 ft. high with ovate or oblong sinuate toothed or 
lobed leaves, small whitfe^oioers^-^'' diam. in cymose umbels on extra- 
axillary peduncles and small black berries ^" diam. 

A common weed. Fls. and fr. more or less all the year round. 

The berries are said to be eaten. 

2. S- verbascifolium. L. Bondu, M. ; Arosa, Urusa, 
Beng. 

A large shrub 6-15 ft. densely stellately tomentose all 
over, -with corymboBe cymose panicles of white flowers Y 
diam. and globose yellow berries §' diam. seated on the persis- 
tent campaniilate tomentose calyx. 

Waste ground and scrub jungle. Porahat plateau. Yla. Aug. -UTov. Ft. 
Oci.-Dec. Evergreen. 

L. ovate to ovate-lanceolate acute or acuminate 612" by 3-6" softly 
tomentose. Corymb?: 3-5" diam. Pedwxdes stout 1-4'' in fl., 3-4'' in 
fr. Calyx in fl. 4'' with teeth half as long as tube, enlarged in fr. 

3. S. xanthocarpum, Schrad. Rangaini janum, S. 
Ringni, H. ; Kantakari, Beng. 

A procumbent very prickly rather pretty herb with 
glabrescent bright-green very prickly leaves copiously armed 
with straight h" long spines. Fls. deep-blue 1-1^" diam. 
with bright-yellow anthers. 

Common in open waste ground. Fls., Fr. Dec-June. 

L. sinuate or sub-pinna.tifid. Berry ^-|" diam. green or yellow when 
ripe, often variegated with white or greeu, 

The fruit, uoiled in ghee, is given for cough and toothache, Cawpbell. 

4. S. torvum, Swartz. Hanjjid, K. ; Bergar betahet', S. 

A tomentose shrub 4-8 ft. high with entire or shallowly 
lobed leaves not prickly on the nerves and laieial dense usual- 
ly bifurcate cymes of white flowers. 

440 



1. SoLiNUM.] 76. 80LANACEJS. [2, Datuea. 

Waste ground, but not nearly aa common as the next. Fls. Fr., nearly 
all the year round. 

L. n^ually with rounded or sub-cordate base and shallow lobes. Fl$. 
J-1" diam. Berry yellow i'' diam. exceeding the unarmed calyx. 

The fruit is said to be eaten. 

5. S. indicum, L. Hanjad, Anjed, Hanjid, K. ; Barhanta, 
S. ; Baiakur, Beng, 

A stellately tomentose shrub or nuderslirub 3-6 ft. liigli 

with usaally deeply lobed leaves always more or less prickly 

ou the nerves beaeatli, and with lateral usually simple cymes 

of blue flowers. 

Waste ground, very common. Fls., Fr.' nearly all the year. 

L. with acute, uneven or straight rarely rounded base, 3-6", usually 
acuminate. • Inflorescence usually and calyx-lobes sometimes spinous. 
Fls. 5'' diam. rarely nearly white. Fruiting-pedicels often 7 or more, 
erecto-patent. Berry yellow ^'' diam. exceeding the calyx. 

The berries are rubbed on the forehead for headache. 

6. S. Melongena, L. Dhoko (wild form), Bengar, Z^; Baigan, F, 
The Brinjal (when cultivated) Var. insana, Frain (S. insanum, Willd) 
Erect herbaceous 2-6 ft , branches stellate tomentose, covered with 
straight straw-coloured prickles on stems, leaves, inflorescence and calyx. 
Fls. blue li" diam, Fruiting-ped uncles stout with 1-4 or 5 reflexed 
pedicels. Berries globose or oval 1-2'' diam. yellow. 

Waste ground, occasional, and Supposed to be an escape from cultiva- 
tion. Fls., Fr. .Jany.-June. 

Each calyx-lobe has usually a long recurred spine. 

.^. Datura, L. 

Large coarse sub- sbrubby herbs with large simple leaves 
and very large tubular-funnel-shaped flowers. Calyx tubular 
circumscisB above the base in fruit. Corolla limb plaited 
entire or shortly lobed. Ovary 2-, or by further partitions, 
4-celled. Capsule 4-celled, 4-valved or opening irregularly, 
spinous. 

1. D. stramonium, L. Var.Tatula. Dhatura, H., K. 
Thorn-apple 

A large annual 2-4 ft. high with ovate toothed or 
sinuate leaves 6-8" long and large purple flowers 3-6'' long 

441 



2. Datuba.] ra. SOLANACE^ 

with 5 linear teeth. Capsule 4-valved ovoid seated on the 
BwoUen calyx base. 

Waste ground near villages. Fls., Fr. c.s. 

Yields the well-known poison. The powdered seeds are said to be 
used in the Kolluui for stupefying coolies whom it is desired to take to 
Assam. 

2. D. fastuosa, J^. Dhatura. E., K. Thorn-apple. 

A large annual 2-6 ft. high with ovate glabrous entire 
or toothed leaves 6-8" and large white flowers usually 7" by 
5". Capsule irregularly dehiscent sub-glol se seated on the 
swollen calyx base. 

Gardens and waste ground near villages. 
Same properties as the last. 

Fam. 77. BIG?JONUCE^. 

Trees (exotic species often large woody climbers) with 
opposite usually 2-3-pinnate, more rarely 1-pinnate or 
yimple, exstipulate leaves. Fls. large or showy, irregular, 
2-8exual, in racemes or panicles. Calyx campanulate, 
sometimes spathaceous, lobes valvate. Corolla tubular- 
vantricose, lobes sub-equal. St. 4, with the 5th. often rudi- 
mentary or suppressed, rarely perfect. Disc pulvinate or 
annular. Ovary 2-celled ; style long, stigma 2;lobed. 
Ovules numerous, anatropous, nsnally many-seriate. Fruit 
pod-like, loculicidally or septicidally 2-valved. Seeds 
flattened winged, exalbuminous. 

Species of Tecoma and Bignonia, erect shrubs or climbers, with hand- 
Bome yellow, orange or red flowers, are common in gardens. Anderson 
quotes " Heterophragma Eoxburghii, D.C," a tree with l-pinnate leaves 
and woolly panicles as occurring on Farasi^ath ! 

I. St. 5 perfect, Small tree with 2-3-piunate leaves. 1. Uroxylum, 

II. St. 4 perfect, L. 1- or 2-3-pinnate. 

L. 1-pinnate. Septum of pod thick aubteifete . 2. Btereospemwm 

L.l2-3-pinnate, Septum of pod flat . . .3. Millingtonia, 

III. St. 4 perfect L. simple . • . ^ 4. Tecoma. 

442 



1. UBOXTLUM.J 71. HHjrJSUlMAVJiJtJ. L^. Of BEE08PEEMUM. 

1. Oroxyluiii, Vent. 

1. 0. indicum, Vent, Rengebanam, K. \ Bana hatak', 8.", 
Sonpatta, Kliarw. ; Sona, S. ; Dantkura, Mai Fah. 

A email tree rarely over 25 ft. in Chota Nagpar, with but 
few branches and terminal clusters of very large ternately 
2-pinnate leaves 2-4 ft. long and broad. Flowers large 
fleshy purple, but not showy, in terminal stout racemes. The 
tree is easily recognized when leafless b}^ its large leaf scars 
and immense fiat pods with woody valves and fiat- winged seeds 
2-3' diam. 

Common, chiefly in ravines, Fls. July- Aug. Fr. DecMarcn. Decidu- 
ous Dec-June. 

Lfitn. alh out 5" by 3" acuminate, Corolla 2-3" long and broad. Fifth 
ntamen rather shorter than the others. Capsule 1-3 ft. 

Seeds purgative Wood. They are, however, sometimes eaten. Mr. Innes 
Bays that in times of famine they are parched and ground into flour ! ^ 

2. Sicreospeimum, Cha'- 

Trees with pinnate leaves and entire or tootbed leaflets. 
Flowers mod.-sized, in lax terminal panicles. Corolla 
bilabiate with 5 sub-equal orbicular rcore or less toothed 
lobes. Capsule long terete or obscurely angular with a much 
thickened septum. Seeds (in Chota Kagpur species) sub- 
trigonous, winged Qach side. 

1. S. SUaveolenS) J^.O., Huesi, K. ; Pader, 8. ; Panrar, 
Kharw. ; Paroli, Mai Fah. ; Parul, Beng, 

A handsome large or mod.-sized tree with young parts to- 
mentose, large odd pinnate pubescent leaves with 5-9 Ifits., and 
dull crimson fragrant flowers \\" long in large glandular 
pubescent panicles. Pod 18" by |", terete, often cork- sere w- 
like, the thick corky septum occupying most of the cavity, 
seeds embedded in notches. 

Frequent in the valleys in Singhbhum. Manbhum, not atimdanl, 
Catnp. Eanchi, Hazaribagh, Palamau. Fis. A'pril-May. Fr. Bept.-Jany. 
Deciduous March, 



» Appendix to " Indian Forestet " for Feb. 1Q08, p. 5. 
443 



2. SxEEEOSPERHUM.] 77. BIGNONIACE^. 

Lflts. broadly-elliptic or oblong shortly suddenly acuminate 3-7' by 
24-3', in young plants harsh and spinous-serrate (in quite young seedlings 
Bimple, as they also are in Oroxylum and numerous other pinnate-leaved 
plants). Venation beneath^ strong. Petiolule xV-i'- Tialyx l-^'' glan- 
dular-hairy, lobes 3-5 short broad. Corolla yellow within, petals crisped- 
crenate. 

2. S, chelonoides, J^-O, 

A large tree glabroas except the flowers, wifch odd-pinnate 
leaves with 5-9 lflts., and pale rose-cold, and yellow or 
light-purple flowers J-1" long in very lax glabrous panicles. 
Pod 12-20" by ^-J", somewhat angled. 

Bare. Valleys in Saranda. * Parasnath?' Anders. Fie. April-May, Fr. 
Dec. 

Lyifs. elliptic caudate-acuminate. Petiolules ij-'f''. Calyx {" with I 
short teeth. One of the most difficult woods to split. 

Millingtonialiortensis, L., sometimes called the Indian Cork trao, 
is a tall very handsome tree with 2-d-pinnate leaves and pendent panicles 
of fragrant white flowers with long corolla-tubes. The tree is shallow 
rooted and apt to be blown down. Fls. Nov.-Dec. 

4* Tecoma, Juss. 
1. T • undulata, 0» I>on. 

A shrub or small tree with narrowly oblong undulate 
leaves and orange red flowers in terminal corymbose racemes. 

Falamau, wild ? Fls. April. Specimens of this shrub were collected by 
Dr. J . P. Hendley on waste land in Palamau, and had everv appearance of 
being indigenous or naturalized. 

Young shoots grey puberulous. L. about 6'' by 1|" short-pefcioled. 
Calyx tubular-campanulate, 5-toothed. Corolla 1^" tubular-ventricose 
with 5 rounded sub-equal lobes. Capsule 8' by ^''. 

N.B. — The cultivated species of Tecoma have compound leaves. 

^Am. 78. PEDALIACE.E. 

Herbs or nndershrubs with opposite leaves, or the 
upper alternate, often deeply lobed or pinnatifid. Flowers 
irregular axillary ebracteate or bracts very small. Corolla 
tubular ventricose, lobes imbricate. Stamens 4 didynaiaous. 

441 



78. PJSDALIACJEJS. 

Ovary 1-2-celled, or 4i-celled by the growth of a second sep- 
tum, not lobed. Style slender with a 2-lobed stigma. Ovules 
few, or if many in one series, not scattered all over a broad 
placenta (as in Scrophulariacese). Fruit capsular or indehis- 
cent. Seeds wingless, exalbuminous. 

Oyary l-locular with 2 parietal placentae. Fr. with 

indehiscent endocarp . 1. Martynia. 

Ovary 2-spurioiisly 4-locular. Capsule dehiscent . 2. '8esamum. 

Martynia diandra, Glox. Bilai sarsar, K,, is a handsome stout 
vigcidly-liairy herb with bro idly ovate cordate sinuate-toothed leave* 
3-6" both ways on long petioles, and drooping purplish flowers 1^" long 
in short racemes with pink bracteoles. Fruit sub-drupaceous but the 
outer fleshy pericarp 2-valved. Endocarp armed with 2 sharp curved 
claws. 

An American weed, now abundant in waste ground. 

Fls. r. s. Fr. c. «. 

Sesamum indicum, B.C. Tilming, K. The Gingeli oil plant is b 
herb widely cultivated, 1-2 ft. high, more or less foetid and glandular, 
with the opp- lower leaves often lobed, pe^^atisf^ct or toothed, upper 
narrow sub-entire or toothed. Fls. purple or white drooping 1^" long. Cap- 
sule T' long, narrow erect hairy. Fls. Od.-Dec. Ft. Dec- Jan. 

Fam. 79. ACANTHACEJE. 

Shrubs or herbs or often undershrabs with opp. exstipulate 
simple, rarely aromatic leaves, often with slender raitied 
nerves and lineolate with raphides. Leaf scars usually 
conspicuous. Fls. irregular in beads, spikes, cymes, or 
panicles, rarely solitary, bracteate and 2-bracteolate, rarely 
either bracts or bracteoles absent. Corolla lipped or lobes 
sub-equal. 8t, 4 or 2 inserted on the corolla-tube ; anths. 
2- or 1-celled. Disc often large. Ovary superior 2-celled 
never lobed, usually linear or oblong with 2 or more super- 
posed ovules in each cell (very rarely 1 only, e.g., Blepharis, 
or collateral, Thunbergia) Capsule loculicidal. Seeds (exc. in 
Thunbergia) ceated in the axils of upcurved hard supports 
(retina(jula), often haiiy. Albumen 0. 

I. Calyx inoonepicnouB annular or 10-15-toothed. 
Climb«xB » 1. TJtimiergia. 

445 



79. ACANTRACE^ 

II . Calyx distinct, 4-5-partit9. Corolla aubregular 
or two-lipped. 

A. Petals twisted in bnd. Anthers with 2 cells 
parallel, level, or one only a little a.bov8 the 
other (Tribe Euellise). 

1. Ovules 2 in each cell. Corolla not distinctly 

lipped 
Cor.-tube long slender. St. 2.' Antha. 

muticous ...*... 2. I)<Bdalacafith>it 

Cor. tubular ventricose. St. 2 or 4. Antha. 

muticous 3. Btrobilanthes. 

St. 4, Anthers distinctly spurred. Fls. large 

white . ... ... 4, Petalidium. 

2. Ovules 3-12 in each cell. 

Cor. not distinctly lipped. Bract 0. 
Bracteoles large leafy . o . . 5. BuelHa. 

Cor. not distinctly lipped. Bracts large. 
Brateoles 6. Hemigrapku. 

Cor. distinctly 2-lipped. Herbs with narrow 
leaves 7. Hygrophila, 

B. Petals imbricate in bud. Antha. with 1 

or 2 cells. When 2-celled, one cell often 
placed considerably above the other (Tribe 
JusticieaB). 

1. Ovules 2 in each cell Corolla not distinctly, 

or rarely, lipped. Sepals 4, the two outer 
much the larger. 

Fls. yellow or blue. Anths. 2-celled . • .8, Barleria. 
Fls, orange, Anths. labelled .... 9. Crossandra. 

2. Ovules 2 in each cell. O'^Tolla distinctly 
2-lipped. 

a. Stamens 4. 

Upper anthers with only one cell perfect. Fls. 

blxie 10. Neuracanthus. 

nthers all 2-ceIled. Fls. usually white or purple. 11. Lepldagatkis. 
h. Stamens 2. 
i. Corolla large H'' white. Stout shrvh . 12. Adhatoda. 
ii. Corolla unclBr 1|" or with very slender tube, 
t Lower anfcher-oell with a white spur. 
Spur minute. Spikes terete or 2-i- ranked . 13' Jv.sticia. 
Spur very evident^ Spikes dhort unilateral . 14. Rungia 
tt Anthers muticous. 

446 



79. ACANTEACE^. fl. Thunbebgia 

Bracts paired rneqnal, one or both longer 
than calyx, fascicled in reduced axillary 
and terminal dense cymee. . . . 15. DicHpf era. 

Bracts paired unequal, one or both longer 
than calyx, 2-4 prs. only, terminal . ,16. Peristrophe. 

Bracts and bracteoles minote i^s'long or 0. l*!. Rhinaeanthue. 

3. Ovules 3-10 in each cell. Corolla 2-lippecL 

Stamens 2. 

Herbs or undershrubs. Corolla small with 

slender tube . . . . . ,18. AndrograpMs. 

Shrub with showy curved brick-red corolla . 19. Phleg acanthus. 
III. Calyx distinct. Corolla 1-Iipped only, the 
upper lip obsolete. 

Herbaceous. Ovules 2 in each cell . , ,20, Bl^harix, 

1. Thimbergia t. f. 

Climbers witli axillnry or racemed flowers, and large 
bracteoles enclosing the flower bads. Corolla large witli a 
ventricose curved tube and 5 rounded petals. St. 4 didjna- 
mous. Disc conspicuous. Ovary cells 2-ovuled. Capsule 
very characteristic, being globose with a flat hard sword-shaped 
beak. 

1. T- fragrans. Boxh. "Var. Isevis. 

A slender climber with ovate or oblong leaves 1-3'' by 

j"l|", lower with cordate or hastate base, and white flowers 

1\" long solitary or paired in the leaf axils. Calyx teeth 

14-20 lanceolate yV-iV'- 

Singbhum onPorahat plateau. Fls. Fr. Od.-Not 

Glabrous, puberulous or hairy. Pedicels 1-2'' thickened upwards in 
fruit. Fls. not fragrant (they are fragrant in the type). Calyx-teeth 
hard in fruit and then j" long. Fruit puberulous depressed globose with 
4 rounded excavate seeds. Beak with grooved edges. 

2. T. tomentosa, Wall 

Similar but calyx -teeth in flower filiform much longer than the tube 
often V'. hairy, and capaul© viiloaa. Fla. 1^''. 

Chota Nagpur, Prain, 

4,47 



1. Thunbeegia.] /i^. ACANTHACE^. [3. Steobilaicthss. 

T. alata, Bojo with winged petioles and yellow corolla with a browa 
or purple eye, and T. graadiflora, Hoxh., with blue flowers inraoemeg, 
are often cultivated. 

3. Di^dalacanthus, T. And. 

Shrubs or undershmbs witb tbe leaves marked with 
raphides. Fls. showy, red or blue, in spikes with large 
nsaally prominently nerved, often imbricating, bracts. 
Corolla with slender tube and spreading rounded lobes. St. 2. 
Ovary glabrous, cells 2-ovuled. Style long, stigma simple. 

1. D. nervosus, T. And. 

A shrub 2-6 ft. with ovate acuminate entire glabrous 

leaves attaining 9" by 4', 7ery handsome in flower with blue 

flowers 1-lJ'' long and |" diam. Iq ternately panicled terminal 

spikes with white green-veined imbricating bi-acts. 

Eavines in Singbhum, not nncommono Fls. Jany. -March. 

L. with very tapering base, and about 7-12 prs. of rather strong sec. 
n. Fetiole ^-If . Bpikes 1-3''. Petals \'' elliptic. Bracts f' concav- 
elliptic. Antha, exserted, Capsule \". 

2. D. purpurascens, T. And, Gulsham, K. 

Similar to last but smaller, 2-4 ft. Spikes solitary and 
ternate, axillary and terminal but not usually panicled. Corolla 
lilac or rose-purple 1-1^" long;, tube pubescent. Bracts 
similar but ovate or rhomboid, long-acuminate, pubescent 
beneath and margins long-ciliate. 

Associated with the last, but alpo in drier valleys and much more 
common. Singbhum ; Manbhum ; Sirguja, Wood ; Hazaribagh ; Palaaaau, 
in ravines ; S. P. Fls. Jany. -March. 

Stems shortly pubescent, 4-angled. L. ovate and base decurrent on 
the petiole, rarely exceeding 6'' by 4" and with 6-8 prs. sec. n. Spikes long 
or short pedunoled, oblong, dense li-2'' often very numerous. St. scarcely 
exsertod. 

There is a form without the long cilias to the bracts. 



3. Strobilanthes, BlumQ. 

Shrubs or horbs with loaves otten unequal in the pairs, 
and often bearing raphides. Inflorescence various, but always 



f 



3. Stsobilanthes.] 79. ACANTSACE^. [4 Petalidium. 

close and spicate in the Chota Nagpur species Calyx deeply 
5-fid. Corolla tabular-ventricose with 5 sub-equal spreading 
rounded petals. St. 4 didynamous. Ovary cells 2-ovuled. 
Style long, stigma simple. 

1- S, auriculatus, ^ees, Hutid, K. ; Gada Kalha, S. 

A shrub 2-6 ft. with usually unequal leaves, hairy above, 
with auricQlate base, and axillary and terminal linear spikes 
of blue flowers, spikes 1-3'' long with densely imbricate obovate 
obtuse bracts with recurved margins, velvety pubescent or 
usually with spreading white cilia j" long, (Yar. Edgewor- 
thiana). 

This plant ^often forms a dense undergrowth under Sal in the Singbhnm 
forests, it flowered in 1898 and flowers gregariously every 6 years. The 
seedlings were 2-3 inches high in Jan. 1899 but there were also a few 
old plants flowering. Jaspur, rocky hill tops, Wood. Manhhum, '* very 
common on |the banks of nullahs " Campbell. ; Hazaribagh (Koderma 
forest, etc). Fls. Dec.-Fehy. Pr. March-Ajpril. 

L. sessile oblong or ovate or lanceolate crenate, the larger one of a pair 
BOmetimes attaining 10" by 2j', sometimes sub-equal. Sec. n. 10-13 prs. 
Corolla blue 1" long slightly curved. Bracts densely covered with stalked 
glands beneath. Bracteoles 0. Capsule V glabrous. 

The pounded leaves are rubbed on the body during the cold stage 
of intermittent fever. Camp. 

2. S. scaber, Nees. 

A herb with creeping rootstock, rather stiff entire or 
crenate leaves and yellow flowers 1" long in bracteate capitate 
spikes. 

Along watercourses in Saranda forep.ts and Santal Parganeihs. Fls* 
Jany.-April. 

L. ell. or ovate 2^5'^ with raphides above, scabrous bea«'ath. Spikes 
I'H' from upper axils and in short terminal panicles. Brads f-l^' 
lanceolate caudate, hairy or glandular. Corolla tubular for |'' chen ventri- 
cose, 1'^ long and f '' diam. villous within. Capsule ^'' downy. Seeds 2 
(sometimes 3 !) in eaoh cell with broad, membranous margins and long 
•ilky hairs. 

4. Petalidium, Nees. 
1. Petalidium barlerioides, Nees, 

•A straggling shrub with largish white flowers sub-soli- 
tary or in opp. decassate pairs in dense or sub-capitate spikes , 

449 B 



4. Petaiidifm.] 79' ACAN^SACEJE. [5. RrrELiu. 

Cabbreviated lateral brancbes). Leaves (very few at time of 
flowering) 2-4" ovate tootbed or crenulate, acuminate, some- 
times attaining 6'' by 4". 

Singbhum, in Sal jmigles (Bera forest, Ankiia forest, etc.); Hazaribagh 
(Chorparan, Koderma, etc.) ; Parasnatb, Anders, Palaman, Gamble ! 
8. Parganahs. Fls. Fehy.-A'pril. Fr. April. Nearly deciduous March- 
April. 

Twigs siraw-coloured. L. pubemlons suddenly decurreni on. the 1-2" 
long petiole. 

Readily recognised by the large green-veined pairs of bracteolee f* 
long, strongly ribbed lower lip of corolla and the long fulvous hairs 
within it. Anbhs. 4, with long spurs. Capsule ^'\ 

5. Rnellia, L. 

Herbs or nndersbrnbs with sessile or sub-sessile, solitary 
or clnstered, large or m. s. flowers subtended by two leaf-like 
bracteoles, witb tubular- ventricose more or less oblique 
corolla. St. 4 didynamous. Antber-cells muticous, glabrous. 
Ovary-cells 3- 10-ovuled. Stigmas simple. Capsule clayate 
ellipsoid with solid base. Seeds imbricate, bairy. 

Stems prostrate or rambling. L. ovate, not very 
Uneolate . . . . . , . .1. prostrata. 

Stems erect, or sometimes in suffruticosao L. very 
Uneolate. 

L. oblong-lanceolate, acuminate. Els. 1^-2" • 2. cernua, 

L. elliptic acute. Fls. 3'' 3. Beddomei- 

L. oblong or elliptic obtuse. Fls. 2'^,long • • 4t. suffruticosa. 

1» R. prostrata. Lamk. 

Creeping or rambling, often rooting at the nodes, scarcely 

shrubby, with ovate leaves 1" by f" to If" by 1" (or up to 3" in 

var. dejecta) and axillary solitary purple flowers f" diam. 

and about 1'^ long. if i 

Shady banks, common. Fls. July-Bept. 

Stems nearly glabrous except at the nodes. L. obtuse or sub-acute (or 
acute in rar. dejecta) slightly hispid or hairy above, more so on the veini 
beneath, with 6 prs. distinct oblique nerves. Fls. caducous, falling before 
midrday, very shortly pedicelled, tube about 3''. Sepals linear, ciliate. 
Ovary downy with about 6 ovules in each cell. Stigma tongue-like. 

^460 



i 



6. RuELLii.] 79. ACANTEACE^. 

2. R. cernua, Boxh, (see however note under 
R. Beddomei). 

A strict erect herb or nndershrub 1-2 ft. high, from 
a slender woody rootstockj with lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate 
acuminate leaves 3-5" by 1-lj" Fls. \^' light purple with 
petioled elliptic acute or acuminate leafy bracts. 

Frequent in valleys among the Singbhum mountains ; Parasnath. Fls. 
Aug.-8ept. Fr. Dec. 

Stems obtusely 4-gonou8 and often grooTed (as also in tbe following 
species), strigose with adpressed hairs. L, hairy above hairy and strigoee 
on the nerves beneath. Petioles slender. Capsule |-1'' slightly beaked. 

3. R. Beddomei) Clarke. (R. cernua partly of Anderson 
and Prain). 

A branched erect herb or undershrub 1-2 ^t. high, from a 
slender woody rootstock, with elliptic or ovate-lanceolate acute, 
not acuminate, leaves l|-3" long. Fls. 3" purple with 
petioled ovate acute leafy bracts. 

Valleys in Singbhum. Fls. Aug.-Sept. 

Stems minutely strigose. L. somewhat hairy above, with only a few 
iiairs beneath. . Bracteoles ovate, less acute than in cernua, of which it is 
sometimes considered a form. If so, the name of both forms should be R. 
Beddomei rather than cernua, in view of the great dissimilarity of both 
Eoxburgh'e figure and description of R. cernua to any form of this plant. 
Roxburgh's R. cernua was a glabrous plant with small pale-pink flowers in 
the leaf axils. 

I , 4. R. SUffruticOSa, Boxib, Brunaia, Charpatu, K, ; 
Chaulia, S, 

A perennial herb or dwarf undershrub with many long 
Seshy tuberous roots, stems to 18" high, both stem and leaves 
s^ith many white hairs. Leaves broadly elliptic or oblong 
)btuse 2-5". Fls. white or purple 2'' loDg. 

Singbhum and Manbhuai, common in dry jungles ; Hazaribagh ; Santa I 
*arganahri ; probably general. Fls. May'Sepi. Fr. Auj^.'Oct, 

Often forming a rosette on the ground with scarcely any stem in May ; 
he stem frequently elongates in the rainy season. The plant is very much 
lore hairy than are the preceding species. L. I5-2' only when first 
owering, petioles ^-^''. Peduncles shorter than or exceeding the leaves 
1 fruit. Sepals 4'. Petals rounded i". Capsule i"-f'' with 12-14 thinly 
Iscold marginate seeds. 

451 s. 2 



6. RuELLU.] 79. ACANTHACFJE. [8. Faelebu, 

It is one of the herbs known colleotiTely as Ili-rann (Eice-beer medi- 
ftine) by the Kols, by whom it is used in the fermentation of rice-beer 
(Hi, K. ; Handi, Handia, B, Oraon). Campbell says that the root is used 
in gonorrhoea, syphilis and renal affections. 

6. Hemi^raphis, Nees 
1. H. latebrosa, ^ees. 

A softly hairy diffuse nndershrnb abont 12-18* high with 
loDg petioltd coarsely crenate-dentate leaves and pretty bright 
blue flowers f -J" long with curved tubular corolla and sub- 
equal spreading petals. 

Frequent in rocky jnngles in Singbhnm, Palaman, Haearibagh and 
probably throughout Chota Nagpur and Santal P arganahs. Fls. J^ov.-Jany. 

Fli. opposite ir^ sub-capitate spikes. Bi. 4. Cells of ovary 4-OTuled. 



7. Hygrophila, Br. 



1. H. salicifolia, Nees, and 2. H. Bpinosa, T., And., are conepicnoui 
ditch or marsh herbs with lipped flowers in axillary whorls and didjna- 
xnous stamens. The fonper attains 3 ft. and the latter 4 ft. or more» 
though both are often dwarf. H. spinosa, gokhula janum, 8. ; Eanto 
Kalia, H., has long willow-like loaves and dense spiny whorls of hand* 
some purple flowers, the lower lip ^-|'' broad with a yellow palate. 
Spines usually 6, often 1'' long. Fl. Nov.-Dec. The former is unarmed with 
linear leaves and has about 22 seeds in its linear i'' capsule. Fls. Sept.- 
Nov. 

8. Barleria, L. 

Herbs or undershrubs, sometimes prickly, with entire 
leaves and showy sessile flowers, axillary or in spikes, the 
latter sometimefe very dense and unilateral. Sep. 4, the 2 
outer mucji. larger than the inner. Corolla-tube long. Pet. 
5 sub-equal. St. 2 perfect and 2 or 3 rudimentary. Disc 
large. Seeds with silky hairs. 

Fls, yellow. A prickly shrub 1. Prionitit. 

Fls. blue or red. Unarmed 

Fls. few or clustered or spikes capitate, not secund. . . 2. crietata. 
Gpikes second •••...••. 8. strigota. 

452 






1 . B. Frionitis, L» Kanta phul, 8. Karita jati, Beng. 

A prickly nnderslirub 2-5 ft. high with elliptic leaves 1^* 
by J" to 4" by 1|" and yellow flowers, one to three together, in 
the axils and in terminal spikes with elliptic spine-tipped 
bracts 1-1" long. 

Gangpur near the Brahmini River Manblmin, grown as a hedge 
plant, Camp. ; S.P., near villages (Jurmoondee, etc.). Fls. Fr. Dec-June. 
Doubtfully wild. 

L. acuminate both ends, narrowed into the |-f "petiole or upper Bub- 
fiessile, mostly with axillary spines. Corolla Ij". Capsule |" beaked. 

2. B. Cristata, L- Uaila baha, S. ; Jati, Beng. 

An erect or diffuse nndershrub 1-3 ft. high with narrow 
leaves and bright rose-colonred flowers solitary or paired in 
the leaf axils (in shade) or forming dense capitate spikes on 
the branchlets (in sunny places). 

Very common on rocky hills in Singbhum and occurs throughout Chota 
Kagpur, often covered with flowers and then very handsome. The colour 
of the flowers is quite different to that of the Himalayan plant. 

Fls. 8ept.-N^v. Fr. Oct.-Jany. 

Sterns sub-terete strigose. L. ell. to oblong-lanceolate 2-5^" by 
\-l^'' sub-acuminate both ends, rarely obtuse, sparsely adpressed hairy 
above. Seen, about 4-6 prs. Petiole ^-\''. Outer sepals ell. or rhomboid 
f ", pectinate, strongly nerved, with adpressed yellowish hairs. Cor.-tube 
1^' long. Upper lip 4-loued, lower ^-|" long. Perfect and imperfect st, 
each 2' Capsule |'' glabrous shining compressed. 

3. B. strigosa, Willd. Raila baha, S. ; Dasi, Beng. 

An nndershrub 2-4 ft. high with ovate acuminate leaves 
4-8' by 2-5"decurrent on the petiole and large handsome azure 
blue flowers 2" long and 1 Y "wide in dense bracteolate l-sided 
spikes. 

In shady places only. Singbhum. Fls. Oct.'Iiov. Fr. Dec. 

Easily recognized by the two larger sepals being imbricate in a row 
on the upper side of the spike and the bracteoles in two lateral rows. 

Crossandra undulaefolia. Balish, is an nndershrub 2A ft. high occur- 
ring in hedges about Chaibassa under shade, with narrow leaves 2\-b'' 
with wavy margins ard pale beneath. .Flowers deep orange-red, in linear- 
oblong spikes with imbricating bracts. Cor.-itt6e curve i slender f long 
and 1 " diam. Fls. July-Oci. 

453 



10. Nemracanthus, Nees. 
1..N. tetragonostachyus. Nees. 

Suffrnticose 1-2| ft. with perenDial creeping root, sub- 
terete stems with two lines of hairs, membranous ell.- 
acaminate leaves about S\" by 1|" and bright blue 2-lipped 
flowers ^" long by I" diam. in 4-ranked axillary and terminal 
•essile spikes 1-1|" long with imbricate ell. white-hirsute 
veined bracts y\" long. 

Frequent on trap - rocks in the Eajmehal hills. Previously only 
reported from Burma. Fla. Jany.-Fehy. 

L. narrowed into a very short petiole hispid-pubesoent on the neryes 
beneath. Calyx 5' lobes linear 2 larger than the other 3, with long white 
hairs. BradeoJes 0. Corolla tube conical, then suddenly ventricose. 8t. 4 
in the throat didynamous with very short filaments. Upper anthers 
with only 1 perfect cell. Ovules 2 in each ovary cell. Stigma linguif prm. 



11. Lepidagathis, Willd. 

Herbs or undershrubs with sessile flowers in heads or 
spikes, usually aecand and with bracts longer than the sepals. 
Sepals unequal, two anterior more or less connate. Corolla 
sraall 2-lipped, very swollen at base or in the middle, lower 
lip ^-lobed usually spotted. St. didynamous. Capsule 2- or 
4-seeded. 

1. L* fasciculata, Nees, Serendri dumbu, Bile-mata a:, 
K. 

A small highly aromatic viscous hairy herb 1-2 ft. much 
branched from the creeping rootstock, with crenate ovate 
acuminate leaves and small white lipped flowers in numerous 
bracteiate sub-capitate spikes rarely exceeding \'' long, 

Conamon among rocks in the Sal forests of Singbhum, also in graai 
near nalas. Fla. Jany.rAj)ril. hv. March. April. 

Stems with 4 raised green lines. Leaf-blade suddenly tapering into 
the winged petiole,' larger 5'' by, 2' including the petioles. Bracts i' 
3 -served herbaceous. Calyx 8ub-<?-lipped ^\'', lower sepals linear, lateral 
ftcicular. Cor. 1%'' Anther-cells beaked or macrouate at hsse, nearly level 
S eedH 4. The loavea aro eafcen. 

454 






11. Lepidagathis.] 79, ACANTEACE^. [13. Justicia. 

2. L. hyalina, Nees, A branched herb 1-2 ft high with root of fleshy 
5brea. Stems with short curly pubescence above and 2 green linea 
iecurrent from thej)etiole8. 

L. lanceolate, ell-oblong or ovate entire, decurrent on petiole as in last, 
attaining 7" by 2i ' including the petiole, upper narrow-lanceolate sub- 
sessile, hairy both sides. Fls. ^'' in 1-aided clustered spikes ^1^'' long 
(vith lanceolate cr linear finely-aouminate hnerved bracts r"ia ' ^ong, with 
long white cilia. 

Similar localitiea. Fla. Nov. -Feby. 

3. Ij. purpuricaulis, Nees. Very closely allied to last, often with 
)iirple stems. Bracts striate lanceolate mucronate. 

4. Ij. trinervis, Nees., has linear or Unear-lanceolate glabrous leaves, 
)Tate or obovate sub-spinescent bracts and flowers sometimes conglo- 
merated near the roojt^. The sepals are not spinescent. 

5. L. Hamiltoniana, Wall., with linear leaves is a common herb 
m dry slopes, remarkable from its flowers being always conglomerated in 
ipinesoent cushions on the ground. The bracts and sepals in this are 
)oth apinescent. Fls. Dec.-Feby, 

12. Adlfatoda, ITces. 

1. A. Vaflica, Nees. Vasaka. Beng., is a bushy shrub or undershrub 
iften occurring in compounds and near villages but with no claim to be 
»onsidered * indigenous in our area. It has large minutely pubescent 
illiptic leaves with a foetid smeU, acute both ends, and with many strong 
ec. n. The large white lipped flowers are borne in dense terminal spikes. 
•Evergreen, 

An insecticide. 

I 13. Jnsticia, L. 

I Strnbs or nnderslirubs or usually herbs Tvith einall lipped 
:owers nsually sessile in bracteate epikes. Sep. 4 or 5. St. 2, 
ntliB. 2-celled, lower cell with a small white appendage, 
ieeds 4, compressed, not hairy but more or less tubercled or 
lochidiate. 

I I* J. Betonica, L. Had-pat, K. 

I Shrubby below with many stems 2-4 ft. high from a 
erennial rootBtock, ovate-lanceolate leaves acuminate both 
ids' and small white rose-spotted flowers in mostly terminal 
3-flate spikes conspicuous tvom the closely -serijite white 
, eon- veined ovate mucronate bracts. 

455 



13. JusTiciA.] 79. ACANTHACBM. [15. Dicliptera. 

Singbhutn forests common. Eocky ravines in Hazaribagh and 
Palamau. Jaspurnagar, Wood. Probably in all districts. Pis. Fr. lHov.' 
Jany. 

Stems swollen above the nodes, terete striate (sub-tomentose in Var, 
villosa). L. pubescent both sides or glabrous, larger 4^" by if ".margin 
sometimes faintly toothed, sec. n. 6-"^ prs. fine raised, Petiol" ^-i'. Spikes 
2-6''. Bracts ^-|'' and bracteoles similar, aepals ^'' subulate. CapsuU 
^'' clavate pubescent. Seeds with a corrugated testa. 

Used in diarrhoea. 

2. J Gendarussa, L. f. Jagat madan, Beng., is an erect undershrub 
2-4 ft. sometimes cultivated and occurring as an escape. It has narrow 
leaves, interrupted spikes 2-5' long and linear bracts. 

Four other species of Justicia occur, they are only herbs. 

Rungia parviflora. Nees. Var. pectinata. Bir lopong arak', 8. 
is aherb 6''-2^ ft., the stems with dense recurved pubescence at the 4 
angles, narrow leaves, and very small blue flowers in 1-sided spikes 
i«|" long with white-margined bracts. Very common esp. in rociy 
ravines. 

Fls. Nov.-Jawy. 

The root is given in fever. 

M 
15, Dicliptera, Juqs. ^ 

Herbs or nndershrabs. L. ovate, one of eacli pair some- 
times decidnoas. Inflorescence fascicled. Fls. 3-5 of which 
1 or 2 only are perfect in a contracted cyme, each cyme in a 
pair of unequal posterior and anterior bracts of which the 
posterior are larger. Cymes often in one or more transverse 
series^ eacb series within a pair of lateral bracts, and the wholf 
in the axil of a floral leaf. Each flower of a cyme has alsc 
its own bract, with or without bracteoles, and 5 linear sepals, 
or sepals lanceolate in perfect flowers. Corolla rose, parpli 
spotted within with a narrow npper lip and a sab-equa 
recurved 3 toothed lower lip. Anth.-cells superposed. 

The Cor.-tube is often twisted so that the anterior lip becomes superioi 

1. D. Roxbnrghiana, Nees, Var. ^ 

A tufted undershrub about 2 ft. with 4-angled striat 
stems and swollen nodes, pubescent, especially on two sides. 
Eocky jungles, Singbhum. Pitorea (Ranchi District, Wood. Typa ?) 

456 



L6. DicLiPTEEA.] 79. ACAJSTHACEJS. [17. Khjnacanthus, 

Fls. Fr. Nov.'Vec, 

L. acnminate 3|" by 2'\ base cuneate, shortly densely hairy beneath and 
lairy above, nerves oblique strong. Petiole i-H'' hairy. Heads of flbwera 
;erminal and on leaf-opposed branchlets |-1'' long. Cor. -tube y^'', upper , 
ip ligulate, lower ^" broad minutely 3-toothed. Ct/jp^w/es jVi'' pubescent 
md with long hairs. Seeds densely papillose. 

N.B.—T). Roxburghiana is described in the F.B.I. as having leaves ' 
thtcxirely pubescent or glabrous. In the C. N plant the proper bracts of 
jach flower are setaceous 5'', the larger cyme bracts (which are perhaps 
jhose referred to in the F.B.I.) oblanccolate \'', and the smaller %'' long. 

2. D. micranthes, Nees., is a diffuse herb with a corolla only k!' ©» 
ess. 

16. Peristrophe, Nees. 

!• P- bicalyculata) 2^ees, Barge Khode baha, S, ; Nasa 
jliaga, Beng. 

A laxly panicnlately branched herb 3-6 ft. high with 
swollen nodes and sharply 6-angled stems, ovate leaves and 
smallish light purple 2-lipped flowers in lax axillary and. ter- 
minal divaricate panicled clusters of two flowers. 

Very common in hedges, also under light shade in waste groond where 
not browsed. Fie., Fr. ^ov.-Jawy. 

Lower leaves 4i" by 2^", floral often lanceolate, hairy, base somewhat 
decurrent on the U-2" slender petiole. Panicles with setacons ^'' bracts. 
Each cluster (or pair) terminal with an outer linear or linear-spathulate 
bract \\ times as long as the calyx and an inner smaller one, hracteoles 2 
prs. but one fiower sometimes abortive. Sepals ^'' connate at base. 
Cor Auhe ^''twisted. Posterior lip (lower) elliptic obtnse entire i-fW*, 
anterior ^'' long very shortly 3-lobed or divided into 3 linear petals. 
Ca'psule ^" solid below. Seeds glochidiate. 

It is liardly separable generically from Dicliptera. 

L. acuminate 3^" by 2", base cuneate, shortly densely hairy beneat 
and hairy above, nerves oblique strong. Petiole ^-1^". Hean« of flower 
terminal and on leaf-opposed branchlets ^-l" long. Corolla hairy, tub 
i^"* upper lip ligulate, lower i" broad minutely 3-toothed. 

j 17. Rhiiiacanthus, Nees. 

*1. R. communis, Nees. 

A slender divaricately branched shrnb with elliptio 
obovate, or ovate-oblong leaves 3-7'' by |-3J" and white 

i "457 



17. RHiyAGAHTHiTB.] 79. ACANTSACEM. [19. Phiogacakthus^ 

flowers V loDg with a slender pnbeacent corolla-tube. Calyx 
^' deeply 5-partite longer than the minute clustered bracts. 

Eocky ground under shade. Karampoda and Porahat forests, 
Keonjhur boundary. Palandu (Ranchi), Wood,. Koderma, GomfcZs. Fla. 

L. narrowed both ends. PefioZe Blender. Upper lip of corolla shortly 
l-^fid, lower with 3 broad lobes ^ long. 

18. Andro^rajiihis, Wall. 

Herbs or small nnderslirubs with small 2-lipped pnbea- 
cent flowers in axillary and terminal- often 1 -sided racemes 
with small bracts, and bracteoles or minute. Anther 
cells parallel, base bearded. Capsule 6-12 -seeded. Seeds 
glabrous, not compressed. 

1. A- paniculata, '^ees, Kalmeg, *9., K ; Chiretta, Benq, 
(The true Chiretta, however, is a Swertia.) 

An erect herb 1-3 ft. with square stems glabrous 
below, lanceolate glabrous leaves about 21" and flowers J* 
long vertical on spreading panicled racemes. 

Commcffl, often seen on fire-lines before they are cleared. ""'Is. B&gX,- 
April. Fr. Dec-May. 

L. narrowed both ends. Petiole 0-j''. Infiorescence glanduJar-hairy. 
Cfcpsule narrow f-f. 

Used in fever (a decoction of the whole plant). Also given "in 
di^rhoea, convulsions, and epilepsy," Camp. 

2. A- echioides* ^ees. Bir Kubet, 8, 

Erect herb 8"-2 ft. with pubescent stems, sessile oblong 
leaves IV by J" to 3 J" by 1|'' pubescent or somewhat hairy 
both sides, and flowers vertical on spreading simple or 
branched (but not panicled) racemes from all the axils. 

Similar localities. Girga Forest, etc. FIb. JtUy-Nov. Fr. 8ept.-Jan. 

Sepals Blender ^-{'^ Capsule ellipsoid. jA 

19. Phlo^canthus, Nees. 

1. P. thyrsiflorns, Nees. 

A handsome shrub with entire dark green elliptic leaves ' 
6-8* long and widely tubular 2-lipped curved brick-red 

i58 



le, Phloqacanthus.] 79. ACANTHACEJS. 

flowers in terminal thyrses. Bracts linear. Bracteoles 0. 
St. 2. 

Pamp ravines in Singbhnm, rare. Fls. April. 

(I find that I have no specimen or note of occnrrenc© of this fdmiliar 
Bhrub, and memory may Tbe at fanlt in quoting it from the Singbhum 
forests.) 

30. BlephariSj Juss, 

1. B. boerhaavisBfolia, Pen, 

A herb or undershrub about 2 ft. higb with a creeping 
Tootstock. Sterna pubescent. L. in unequal pairs or 3-4- 
nately wborled 2^ bj f to 3^" by If elliptic with cuneat* 
base, with a few small teeth. Fls. nearly f" long" solitary 
axillary and terminal on many-bracteate reduced branchlets. 
Corolla with a white narrow-urceolate tube ^^ long with a 
truncate rim on one side and one narrowly-obovate 3- 
toothed lip pubescent with pink veins. 

Among rocks in Palamau jungles. Fls. and Fr. Nov.-Dec. 

L. acute or very acute and apiculate. sparsely hairy both sidfes. Petidt 
^g-i'' Bracts with retrorsely hispid awna obovate. BradeolM 
Bpathulatd. 

I 2. B. molluginifolia, Fers., is somewhat similar but with obtuaa 
't^ves and with the 2 seeds shaggy, whereas iii the last they are densely 
covered with thick fleshy compound hairs (described as spinous in 
{Bengal Plants) and are viscous when young. Chota Nagpur, Train. 

Fam.— 80, CONVOLVrLACEJS. 

Usually twining herbs or shrubs, sometimes with milky 
juice (Cnscuta is parasitic^. L. alternate (0 in Cuscuta) 
iyjstipulate. Fls, regular usually cymose. Se'pals 5 imbri- 
satv, often persistent and accrescent. Corolla campanulate 
)t funnel -shaped, rarely rotate, petals often very short 
iesiivation usually plicate and usually also contorted. St 
> on the tube. Ovary 2- (rarely 3- or 1-) or 4- celled. 
i5tyle 1 (rarely 2 or 0), stigmas 2 (rarely 1,5-lobed). OvuUi 
' altogether (i.e., 2 in each ^ carpel), erect, aaat^'opous 

459 



80. CONVOLVULACEJE. [1. Ebycibb. 

Fruit dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes fragile. Seedt 
2-4 rarely oaly 1. Albumen or scanty. Cotyledons 
generally plicate. 



1 



I. Climbing shrubs. Ovary l-celle<i. Pr. a l-seeded 

berry . .1. Erycile. 

II. Climbing shrubs. Ovary 2-celled' Pr. dry 1- 

seeded, sepals enlarjfed into wings in fruit 2. Porana, 

III. Climbing or prostrate herbs. Stigmas linear, 1 

oblong or ovate oblong. Fr. dehiscent. ' 

Ovary I- (or incompletely 2-) celled^ hirsute . . 3. Hewittia. 
Ovary 2-celled. Style 1. Pis. white • . ,4. Convolvulut, 

Ovary 2-oelled. Styles 2. Pis. blue . . . .5. Evolvulus, 

IV. Erect or climbing. Stigmas linoar-oblong. Ovary 

4-celled. Frt. indehiscent . . , ,6. Bivea. 

v. Stigmas 2, globose 

(a) Fruit indehiscent. L. tomentose or adpressod 
hairy beneath, not lobed. 

Ovary 4-celled . . . . , . . 7. Argyreia. 

Ovary 2-celled 8. Lettsomia. 

(6) Frnib dehiscent. L. not tomentose or etrigose 

beneath. Ovary 2-, 3-or 4-celled . . .9. IpomoBa. 

VI. A filiform yellow-green parasite without leaves i . 10. Cv>scuta. 

Prain'a division of Ipomaea in " Bengal Plants" into yevera\ genera if 
more natural and consistent with the separation ^ Argyreia and 
Lettsomia, but it involves many unfamiliar names. This classification 
has been indicated under Ipomaaa. 

J 

1. Erycibe, Roxb. 

1. E. paniculata> Boxb, Ummin, Hurmi, K.i 
Kari, S. 

A large climbing slirnb with conical protuberances on the 
trunk, rusty -tomentose shoots, entire oblong, rarely oblan- 
ceolate or obovate, acuminate leaves about 5 by 1^" and 
terminal rusty-tomentose cymose panicles of yellowish- white 
flowers I" diam. with crisped emarginate petals. Berry 
black I" with dark-purple flesh, seated on the spreading 
persistent calyx. 

460 



1. Eeycibk.] 80, CONVOLVULACEJE. [4. Convolvulcts. 

Generally near nalas, frequent, Singbhum ; Dalbhum, Qamble ! 
Manbhum ; Hazaribagh (common in Koderma forest) ; Sirguja, Wood ; 
Palamau ; and Santal Parganahs. Fla. May- June, Fr. ripens following 
May. Evergreen. 

L. 3-6'' tomentose when yonng, long- or Bhortly-obtuaely acnminate 
Aining and glabrous when old, sometimes punctulate beneath, with 
4r6 prs. of oblique not prominent nerves, base narrowed into a i" 
r«ddish petiole. Panicles narrow 6-7'' long. Corolla-tu.he as long as 
ctlyx. 8t. 5 at base of corolla included Stigma sessile sub- globose 
bached (2-lobed nccording to F.6. I.) Ovales 4 ereot. Seods ellipeoid \.'' 

The fruit is ewe^t and is eaten. 



3. Porana, Burm. 

1. p. paniculata> jRo.t6. Ei-a-bair, K. ; Panjot nari, 
8>\ Bhuria lar, Khariv. ; Bridal creeper. 

A beautiful climber forming large pure "white patches in 
the jungle with innumerable, panicled, small white 
flo^^era, and softly white-tome ntose ovate-cordate leaves. 

Singbhum, in stony nalas and banks but not very common. Hazari- 
bagh, (Parasnath, Barwadih, etc.) ; Ohutupalughat and Jaspur, Wood ; 
Palimau, Haslett ; Santal Parganats. Fls. Oct. -Dec. Ft. Jany. 

]/. 1" by i'' to 5" by 3' rarely lower leaves 6'' diam., acute or acuminate, 
bas* 5-6-n6rved. Corolla i"-^'' campanulate. Fruiting-sepals, three 
f" ly i', two z' linear, or all enlarged in fruit. Co/psule membranoas 
f Ioh>se hairy or tomentose j'' diam. 

3. Hewittia, W. & A. 
1. H. bicolor, Wight. 

A. twiner with pubescent stems, peduncles, petioles and 
nerves, cordate ovate simple or somewhat lobed acute or 
cuspidate leaves and pale yellow flowers 1-1 J" diam. with 
purple throat. 

Hedges, eto., Porahat. Fls. Jany.-Fehy, 

L ^" by 3" to 5" by 4'' shining both sides. Peduncles 1-3-fld. Outer 
»epai$ ovate V'. Ovary villous. 

Ck)nvolvulus pluricaulis, Choisy, is a diffuse hairy perennial 
with white flowers. Sirguja, Wood. 

461 



5. Evoivuius.] 80, CONVOLVULACE^. [7. Aegybeia./ 

Bvolvulus alsinoides, L., is a small diffuse pereniiial with verj 
pretty small bright blue flowers. Common in sandy peaces. 

6. Rivea, Choisy, 

Erect or climbing sbrnba. Peduncles axillary 1-7-fli. 
Corolla large hypocrateriform. Ovary 4-celled. Capsme 
tbinly woodj breaking transversely a little above tbe bape 
and eyposing a central white spongy endocarp withj4 
seeds, the septa remaining as 4 persistent vascular bundles 
in pairs, 2 outside and 2 inside the endocarp. j 

1. E. hypocrateriformiS) Chois. Kalmi lata, Beng. \ 

A climber with silky stems orbicular-cordate cuspi^te 
leaves, 2-3|" diam. often broader than long, white yith 
adpressed silky hairs beneath and long-tubed white floVers 
2"-diam., solitary axillary or terminal, jointed on the 
peduncle, rarely peduncles 3-fld. 

Scrub jnngles in Singbhum, not common. Sirguja, Wood. Hsiari- 
bagh (Koderma forest, etc.); Falamau and Santal Parganahs. j 

Fls. 8e<pt. Frs. NovrDec. \ 

L. with rounded or cuspidate iip. Petioles about as long as the 
leaves. Sepals ovate ^^. CoroUa-limh glsihrouB or pnbemlous wit^out> 
tube 2'' long tubular. Capsule sub-globose apiculate f seated on the 
1'' diam. calyx. 

2. R. ornata* Chois, ! 

Erect, otherwise very similar. L. 3-5" diam. much more tom«ntoBG 
beneath. Peduncles 8-7-fld. Bepals lanceolate, ^-f". Corollcrlimb 
silky without. 

Jaspur, 12 ft. high, Wood. In the Duara it is usually ahout 5^ ft. 
And fls. in the rains. 



7. Argyreia, Lour. 

Climbing shrubs with silky hirsute or pubescent leaves. 
Flowers showy in capitate or corymbose cymes. Sepal9 
adpressed to, and often somewhat enlarged in fruit. Ccrolla 
funnel-shaped, very shortly lobed. St. included. Ovary 

462 



7. Aboyeeu.] 80. CONVOLVULACE^. [8. Lettsomta. 

'•-celled, Disc annular often large, Fr. baccate or dry, 
^1 -seeded. 

!• A» speciosa* Sweet. Kedok* arak', 8, ; Bistarak, 
hng. The Elephant Creeper. 

A large twiner with ovate-cordate leaves white eilkily 
toaentose beneath and large light -purple flowers 2-3" diam. 
su»-capitate on stout peduncles 3-10" long, 

lanbhntn. Camp. 

ttems tomentoee. L. 3-12'' glabrous above, long petioled. Brads 
up b 1^'' oyate-lanceolate acute woolly. Be-palf ovate woolly. Fr. i" 
dian, brown-yellow nearly dry. 

lie plant yields an oil. " The root is applied to the running soret 
on tb legs and feet known in Santali as raiphutao. The leaves are 
eateias a pot-herb," Camp. 

i- A. Daltonii OlarUe. 

i large handsome climber with large ovate-oblong leaves 
Tvithadpreased yellowish hairs beneath and bright red-purplo 
flow<rs over 2|" diam. ia 3-7-flowered cymea on stout 
pedmcles 1-5" long. 

Paahat plateau (in Singbhum) on the highest ridges ; Jaspur, Wood. 
FL. Sept'Oct 

Btms adpressed-pubescent- L. reaching 8^ by 4'' or even larger, base 
tonnd)d, not, or very slightly, cordate, petiole 1-2'. Cymes rather dense 
with foliaceous persistent spathulate or linear-oblanceolate bi^cti 
i-f ong. Pedicels short. Sepals ^-f outer oblong, inner smaPer 
fancedate, silky. Corolla-tuhe H' with long soft hairs outside. Bt.Vv 
}"dian. 

8. Lettsomia, Roxb. 

More or less hairy climbing shrubs with usually cordate- 
basei leaves and tubular-funnel-shaped flowers in axillary 
bradeate peduncled densely corymbose or capitate cymes, 
Septls often somewhat enlarged in fruit. St. included or 
exsaiied. Ovary 2-celled, disc annular often large. Fr. 
iijdfhiscent baccate or sometimes dry and papery, 4-1-seeded, 
tLfiuUly more or less enclosed in the persistent calyx. 

463 



8. Lbttsomia.] 80. CONVOLVULACEM. 

1. L. aggregata, Itoxh. 

Branclies, and leaves beneath, white- tomentoBe or \Toolly, 
Fls. f" long rose, capitate with orbicular woolly sub-persis 
tent bracts |-|'' long and ovate \\hite tomentose sepal 
Fr. dry J" red and fruiting sepals red within. 

On the ghats Tainmarato Btindn, Wood. 

L. glabrous above. Peduncles 0-2''. Closely allied to next. 

2. L. bella. Clarke, Jamu chalura, K. 

Branches and leaves beneath silkily white-tomentose. Bs. 

|-1'' long funnel-shaped white with a crimson border, capitite 

with spathulate or oblong bracts \-^" long, and oblong or 

elliptic densely white villous or hirsute sepals ^-Y long in 

flower and in fruit. Fruit dry |" diam. scarlet subtenled 

by the spreading hardened calyx which is deep red within qid 

white silky without. I 

.1 
Grassy glades in Singbhtiin, not uncommon. Gnrhma, C. B. Clorhe I 
FaX&m&xi, Gamble \ Sirguja, Wood. 

Fla. Aug -Bept, Fr. Dec-Jan, 

A very pretty plant both in flower and in frnit- L. snb-orbiinlar 
or ovate cordate 2^-5" diam., obtuse to cuspidate, softly hairy wore. 
Petiole ^-^^'' Peduncles 1-y. Corona villous outside. Anthers exerted. 
Seeds black glabrous. 

(The fruit breaks up irregularly like many Tpomaeas, the epicap is 
papery, and the endocarp a white dry papery or pithy substance exteiding 
r.etween the seeds.) i 

3. L, setosa, Boxh. ' 

A large handsome climber with milky juice, stems and 
leaves beneath covered with adpressed hairs, flowers fumel- 
shaped 1-1 J" diam with a short spreading purple limb, in 
dense regularly branched long-peduncled corymbifcrm 
cymes. 1? ruit an ovoid berry, 4-2-seeded. ( 

Bichia Burn and other mountains in Singbhum 2,000-3,000 ft. ; Eockng 
Oambh I Jaspur, H'ooa ; Sirguja, Clarke ! Fls. Oct.-Nov. 

L. cordate-ovate to cordate-oblong acute or acuminate 4" by 2" to 5' by 
8', slightly hairy above, sec. n. 8-10 prs. Peduncles stout 3-5" and cynea 
IJ-S* diam. covered witia adpressed hairs. Bract$ Bilkily-hirsute lirge 

464 



i 



8. Lettsomia.] 80. C ONTO LVUL ACE JE. [9. Ipomba, 

persistent ol>long' or broadly elliptic obtuse ^". "Bepalif ^-^" oblong obtnse 
outer ^" broad, fleshy and accrescent in fruit. Corolla If" long, white except 
the short light-purple petals, densely hairy without. Fil. with enlarged 
woolly base curving over the ovary. Fruit globose orange yg" diam. 
2-celled and seeded. 

9. Ipomea, L, 

Prostrate or climbing herbs rarely shrubs, with palmi-Bei^'ed 
or palmately-divided (pinnatisect in I. Quamoclit) leaves 
usually cordate at base. Fls cymose, or on 1-fld. peduncles. 
Sepals often unequal. Corolla funnel-shaped or campanulate, 
scarcely lobed, limb plaited in bud. St. unequal. Ovary 2- 
celled with 2 ovules in each cell, more rarely 4-celled (3-celled 
in I. Nil), style slender with 2 globose stigma tic lobes. 
Capsule valvular or irregularly dehiscent, epicarp and endo- 
carp often separately dehiscent, dry often papery. 

Tbe following sections are conterminous with the separate genera 
adopted in Prain's " Bengal Plants " (but with the additiori of Pharbitis), 
and which are themselves old genera resuscitated. 

A. Corolla campanulate tubular-campannlate, or funnel- 
shaped wMte, yellow or orange Pollen not spinescent. 

Sec. I. Merremia, Dennst (genus). Vertical bands 
on corolla usually with 5 purple lines. Pt. unequal. 
Anthers included or exserted, usually twisted. 
Ovary-2 or 4-celled. Capsule 4rvalved. 

1. Spaces between bands badly defined. No purple 

fines. Corolla l-lf". 

Cymes compact sub-nmbellate. Fls. pure white 

or cream . . . . . . . 1 . cymosa, 

Fls. sub-racemose, yellow, shaggy without . . 2. petaloidea. 

2. Spaces between bands well defined. Lines 

usually present. 

o. Corolla 1^'' long. L. palmately lobed. Fls. 

yellow 3. vitifolia, 

h. Corolla i-f '' long. Fls. pale yellow. 
Prostrate. L. rarely over l''BOssile hastate 
oblong ........ 4. tridentata. 

Twining. L. 1-2'' ovate-cordate. Peduncles J-8'' , 5. chryseides. 
Creeping. L. i-li' reniform or ovate-cordate. 
Peduncles 0-i" fi- renifarmis* 

465 



», IPOKEA.] 80. CONVOLVULAC^. 

Sec. IL Opercnlina, Manso (genus), Stems and 

peduncles winged. Pis. white tubnlarr ^ 

campannlate. Anthers at length twisted. 

Ovary 2-celled. Caj)sule with epicarp cir- 

cumaciss above the middle . , . .7. Turpflt^ttm. 

Soc. III. Aniseia, Choisy (genus) Fls. white, solitary 
on the peduncle, outer sepals cordate much 
larger than inner. Ovary 2-celled. Cap. 
4-valved 8. martinicensit. 

B. Corolla usually funnel-shaped and purple, some* 
6mes blue or white. St. included. Pollen spinesoent. 

Sec. IV. Ipomgea proper. Fla. usually cymose, rarely 
solitary, anthers straight or twisted. Ovary 2- or 
4-celled. Capsule 4-valved. 

1. Ovary 2-celled. 

a. L. not distinctly Ibbed (sometimes sub-lobed 
in reptans.) 

+ Corolla 1" long or less. 

Peduncles short few-fld. Sep. very unequal in fr. . 9. calycinci, 

Fls. in sessile heads., Sep. sub^equal unaltered 
in fr. . . . .... 10. hispida. 

Peduncles long 1-3-fld. Corolla ochroleucous, 
purple at base 11. ohscura. 

+ + Corolla If long or more. 

Hirsute, Ped. 1-fld. Sep. f lanceolate, larger 
in fr. . • . ... . .12. harlerioidei. 

Nearly glabrous. Pod. 1-5-fld. Sep. |'' ovate, 
unaltered in fr.' . ... . .13. reptant, 

Fls. uub-umbelled. Sep. ovate i" Pedicels 
clavate in fr. ...... 14. sepiaria, 

h. L. digitate, palmate or palmately lobed. 

L. palmately-lobed. Fls. f-li''diam. only . 15. pes-tigridis. 

L, palmate Fls. white IJ'' diam. Seeds 
glabrous, crested . . . . .16. quinata, 

L. palmate. Fls. purplish 2'' diam. Seeds 
villous . 17, pulchella. 

2. Ovary 4-celled» L. more or less lobed. 

L. palmately 5-7-lobed. Seeds wooHy . . .18. paniculata, 

L. angular or somewhat lobed. Seeds glabrous. 
Root tuberous ... ... 19. Batatat, 

Sec. V. Pharbitis, Chois (genus). Corolla tubular- 
funnel-shaped. Anthers included. 

Qj^-^J 3rcolled,6-ovuled Capsule 3-celled. • • 20. Nil, 

466 



1 



80. CONVOLVULACFA [9. Ipcmea, 

d. fioroUa hypocrateriform. Pollen spinescent. Els. 
scarlet or white rarely purple. Stamens exserted. 

Sec. VI. Calonyction, Clioii (genuB). Stems often 
muricate. Peduncles 1-2-fld. only. Fls. purple 6r 
white. Ovary 2-celled. 

CoroUa tube 3''. Limb 3-5" diam. white . . 21. lona-noa. 

Corolla tube 1-2". Limb 2-2^" diam. rose- 
purple . • .22. muricata. 

8eo. VII. Quamoclit, Moench (genus). Fls. scarlet 
in few-fid. cymes. Ovary 4-celled. 

L. ovate-cordate . . : » • • .23. cocctnea. 

L. pinnatisect with linear segments . . .24. QuamocliU 

!• L Cymosa, Soem, Syn. Merremia umbellata, 
JEallier, 

Witli oblong or ovate-oblong leaves with strong parallel 
nerves, and hastate or cordate base. Pure white (or tinged 
yellow, F.BJ,) flowers in shortly peduncled umbelliform 
cymes shorter than the leaves. 

Usually Dear rivers or streams. Singbhumi, rather common. Palamau. 

Fls. March-April. Ft. May, The flowers open at noon. Evergreen. 
the new shoots appear in June, 

Stems tough. Corolla pubescent towards the tip in bud and seeds 
very hairy. Bracts caducous, pedicels stout, about as long as peduncle. 

2. I, petaloidea, Chois. Syn. Merremia crispatnla, Train, 

L. ovate acute or upper lanceolate 5'' by 3|" with rounded 
or sub-cordate base. Fls. yellow sub-racemose. 

Chota Nagpur, Train, 

^.B.—Crispatulus (Convolvulus crispatulus ; TTa?? No. 1403) is the 
older name> but does not appear to have been published until after 
^taloidea. 

3. I, vitifolia, Sweet. Syn, Merremia vitifolia,ira7 iJier* 
A large hairy sub -herbaceous twiner with bright sulphui'- 

coloured flowers and palmately 5-lobed leaves. 

Valleys in Singbhum in the damper localities. Kewatbar, Palaman, 
I Wood 4r Gamble J iFls. Jany.- April. 



9. Ipomea.] 80. CONVOLVULACE^, 

L. 2-6" diam. Pedwichs 1-4", 2-7-fld. Pedicels swollen below the 
flowers. Sepals ^-f ", outer hairy hirsute, inner glaBroas. Filamentt 
dilated below. Corolla about 2'' diam 

Var. Sepals glabrous. Santal Parganaha. 

4« I, trideutata, Both. Sjn» Merremia tridentata, 
Hallier. 

A prostrate glabrous herb with a woody rootstock and 
narrow hastate lyrate or obovate-oblong leaves rarely up to 
If' long, usually truncate with 2-3 teeth at apex and several 
sharp teeth at the base. Corolla small yellow. 

Singbhum, damp places. Fls. Fr. r. «. 

Peduncles sometimes far exceeding the leaves. Capsule i" diam. 
papery 4-8eeded, sepals j" long in fruit. m 

5- I. ChryseideS) ^^r. Syn. M. chryseides Hallier. " 
A twining herb. Cymes usually forked on very long peduncles. L. 
1-2 '. 

Singbhum, damp places and hedges. Fls. Oct.-Nov. 

6. I. reniformis, Chois. Syn. M. emarginata, Eallier. 

A prostrate creeping herb rooting at the nodes. Peduncles very short 
1-B-fld. Corolla ^-|'' yellow campanulate. 

Chaibassa. Fls. Nov. 

7. I. Turpethum, Br. Operculina Tnrpethum, Manso, 
Bana etka, S.; Piiohri, H, ;'Tohri, Beng, 

a' climber with narrowly 3 -4- winged stems, ovate cordate 

acuminate or acute leaves and 2-5 -fld. cymes of white 

flowers 11-2" diam, 

Lobgabera in Singbhum, scarce; Kolban, amble \ Manbhum, 
Campbell ; common about Garhwa (Palanoau). Fls. Oct.-Dec. Fr. Dec.-Jany. 

L 2 V by 2'' to 5" by 4^'' shortly pubescent as are the steins and 
inflorosoenoe. Petiole |-3". Cymes about 3'' long. Pedicels l-lk" 
lengthening and stouter in fruit. Outer sepals f ' broadly elliptic, inner 
membranous, all enlarged in fruit. Endocarp of fruit quite transparent. 
Seeds 1-2. 

The powdered root made into a paste is applied in rheumatism, 
Campbell. Roxburgh states that the Dark of the roots is employed 
aa a purgative. 

8. I, martinicensis, ^^y- Syn. I. uniflora, Roem. 
Aniseia martinicensis, Chois. 

468 



1 



80. CONVOLVULACE^. [D.Ipomba. 

Creeping or twining. L. about 3" by 1''. Corolla 1" campanulate 
hairy without. Chota Nagpur, Frain, 

9. I. calycina, Benth. 

A villous twiner with ovate-cordate hairy or glabrate leaves 2-3'' and 
rose-colon red or white tubular-funnel-shaped flowers about §'' long* 
Sepals enlarged in fruit ultimately cordate or sagittate. 

Chota Nagpur, Prain. 

10. I, hispida, lioem. Syn. 1. eriocarpa, F.B.I. 

A slender very hairy twiner with narrow lanceolate to 
deltoid or ovate acuminate cordate-based leaves and axillary 
dense capitate cymes of small purple campanulate or urceolate 
Bowers. 

Not uncommon in jungle and Arhar fields, Singbhnm ; Palamau, 
Gamble I Iviahretta and Jaspur, Wood. Fls., r.s. Fr. Sept.-Nov. 

L. 2^ 3' Cymes I'' diam. sometimes with a peduncle ^-\''. Sepah 
very imbricate hairy 2 outer with long cusp. Capsule 2-4i-valved 
globose hairy, ^'' diam. 

11. I. obscura, Ker. 

A slender twiner with hairy stems, sub-orbicular or ovate 
deeply cordate leaves. Corolla |" diam. yellow or white with 
the bands yellowish and always with a purple eye, 

Budia-Lotwa Toa Estate, Wood ; Palamau, frequent in the west in 

hedgerows. 

Fls., Fr. Oct.-Dec. 

L. about 2|'' each way, hairy, petiole 1^'. Peduncles axillary l-|2-fld. 
i'V long, pedicels nearly as long clavate upwards. Capsule ovoid i* 
2 (-4) -valved with 4 brown velvety seeds;, 

12. I. barlerioides, Benth. 

Hirsute, leaves ovate-oblong pedunclps 1-fld. 1-4'' long. Corolla 
2-3i" long, 2V diam. parple or purplish-white. 

Chota Nagpur, C. B. Clarice. 

13. I. reptans, Pair. Syn. I aquatica, F.B.I. 

*' Creeping ov floating with narrow h;' state or cordate leaves 3-6' long, 
long petole and pale-purple fls. 2' long by 1^'', or fls. white with a 
purple eye. Seeds glabrous or minutely hairy. 

Ponds and muddy places. Singbhum, Palamau, but not common in 
Chota Nagpur. Fls. Nov.-March and at other times. Tender shoots eaten 

469 



9. Ipomea.] 80. CONVOLVULACE^. 

14. I. sepiaria, Koen, Ban Kalmi, Beng, 

Twining. L. ovate-cordate. Fls. 1^'' or more, pale-pnrple or white, 
with a dark-parple eye, sub-umbelled on long peduncles. PediceU 
clavate in fruit. Seeds woolly. 

TT ^°^^^"™' occasional near streams. Sirguja, in similar sitoationB, 

15. I. pes-tigridis, I>. Langnli lata, Beng. 

A twiner with spreading hairs and deeply palmate 5-9-lobed leaves 
With the lobes contracted at the base. Corolla funnel-shaped 1-1^'' pink 
or pale mauve. Sepals H"- Bracts V. 

Common everywhere esp. in fields. Fls. r.«. Fr. Bept-Nov. 

16. I. quinata, Br. 

Usually twining with palmate or digitately 5-foliolate 
leaves with sessile or sub-sessile elliptic acuminate leaflets and 
■white flowers 1|" diam. 

Singhbhum, in open jungles, frequent. Manbhum, Oamhle I Fls. Au^. 
Oct. 

Lflts. attain 4 by 1^" on the lower leaves with acute or cuneate base. 
Petiole hairy 2'' or shorter above. Peduncles solitary or paired usually 
S'ud. f-2" long. 

17. I. pulchella, Both. Syn. I. palmata, F.B,L This is tH6 
well-known Eailway-creeper. Often cultivated but not indigenous in 
Chota Nagpur. 

18. I, paniculata, Br. Syn. I. digitata, F.B.I. 

A large glabrous climber with large palmately 5-7-lobed leaves 3-7* 
diim. with petiole 2-5", and vfidely campanulate pink-purple fiowen in 
dense long pad uncled cymes, with peduncle attaining 6". 

Chota Nagpur, rare, Prain. 

19. I. Batatas, Lamk. Uku Sangar, K. ; Sakakanda, 
E. The Sweet Potato. 

Prostrate, juice milky. L. simple or somewhat lobed. Fl. Fehy. 

Often cultivated, but I have never seen it flower in Chota Nagpur. 

20. I. Nil, lioth. Syn. I. hederacea F.B.L, . Pbarbitis 
Nil an(i P. hederacea, Ghois. 

A hairy climber with ovate cordate deeply 3-lobed leaves 
^nd handsome bright-blue or rose-coloured flowers on 1-5- 
fld. peduncles^* 

470 



9. Ipomba.] 80. CONVOLVVLACE^. [10. Cuscuta. 

Cosimon in hedges near villages only. Fs. Avg.»^ov. 

Lobes ovate acuminate. Sepals hirsute ^-1" linear acuminate above. 

21. I, bona-nox, L, Syn. Calonyction boDa-nox, Boj. 
Tbe Moon -flower. 

Easily distinguished by the very large white flowers. L .ovate with 
cordate base acute glabrous. Capsule 1". 

Near stations and villages. Not seen wild in Chota Nagpur. 

22. I. muricata, Jacq. Syn. C. mnricattim, Bon, 

Stems inuricate. L. cordate-ovate glabrous. Peduncle, 
mnch SMollen in frait. 

Siiguja, in village jungle, Wood I Hazaribagh (Barwadih). 

Fls. Sept-Nov. Fr. Bee. 

23* I. cocc^nea, L. and 24. I. Quamoclit. L. are both found 
more or les^ naturalized near stations and villages. The flowers aro 
crimson or scarlet, sometimes white. 

10. Cascnta, L. Dodder. 

1. C, reflexa, Boxh. Jansing, E,i Alaj-jari, Kharw, 
Algasi, Beng, 

Slender yellowish -green or reddish thread-like branches 
adhering by means of hanstoria. Fls. white or pinkish 
\'l" tubular- campanulate with short reflexed lobes, soli- 
tary or in 2- or few-flowered cymes or sub-spioate op 
racemose. Scales at the base of the corolla emarginate 
fimbriate. Ovary narrowed into a very short style with 2^ 
lanceolate stigmas. Ovules basal on a very spongy thick 
placenta, erect, anatropous. Unripe fruit with black marks 
or warts. Seeds often only 1 or 2 (4 according to F.B.J.), 

Especially common on Zizyphus. In all the districts. Duranta 
hedges are sometimes ruined by this parasite. 

Fls. Od.-Dec. Fr. Dec.-Jany. 

2. C. chinensis, Lamk. ManbhuLa, on Guizotia abyssinica. 
Camp, Smaller, pale yellow. Fls. in dense racemes or cymeg; 
Scales shortly fimbriate. Ovary and yoang fruit obtuse with 
2 elongate styles and capitate stigmas. 

471 



[1. COEDIA. 

Fara. 81. BORAGIMCE^E. 

Trees, shrubs or more tisnally herbs, with alternate 
exstipulate simple leaves and regular flowers usually in 
dichotomous scorpioid cymes. Corolla gamopetalous often 
with scales in the throat, petals 4-6 imbricate or sub-valvate 
with the tips infiexed in bud. St. alternate with the petals. 
Ovary snperior often lobed and style terminal or from 
between the lobes, 2-celled with each cell 2-o'vuled or 
4-celled, or 4-celled in fruit. Stigma capitate or 2-lobed 
or style twice bipartite. Fruit drupaceous or of 4 (or 
fewer) 1- seeded nutlets. Albumen present or not. Radicle 
snperior. 

A larg'e number of herbs belong to this family with 4, often 
glochidiate, nutlets which adhere to the clothing. Cynoglossuni 
denliculatum, A.D.C. especially, is a great pest. 

Small trees or shrubs. Calyx shortly 4-8-lobed. 
Style twice 2-partite 1. Cordia. 

Small trees. Calyx small Bub-5- partite. Style 2-fid. . 2. Ehretia. 

Shrub. Calyx 5-partite. Style undivided. Stigma 
2-lobed 3. Rhahdia. 



1. Cordia, L. 

Trees or shrubs. Fls. in corymbose sometimes fascicled 
cymes, polygamous. Calyx tubular or campanulate with 
very short lobes or, sometimes (C. My sea), lobes about as 
long as the tube, often unequal, accrescent in fruit. Buds 
often apiculate, corolla tubular or funnel-shaped with 4-8 
recurved petals. St. 4-8 usually hairy at base, anthers 
large exserted. Ovary 4-celled. Drupe with a hard 1-4- 
celled stone. Albumen 0. L. often furnished with cystolith 
cells, which may appear as superficial discs {old leaves are 
required however for comparison). 

A. Trees. L. over 3" long. 

L. ol^long, ell., or obovate. Superficial discs absent 
or as small dots. Petiole slender usually i-^rd 
as loiDg as blade 1. Myxa, 

472 



1. CoBDiA.] 81. BOBAGINACE^. 

L. broadly ell. or ovate, not tomentose, nsually 
repand-toothed. Discs visible superficially. 
Petiole stout not 5th blade , . . • 2. obliqua. 

L. broadly ovate cordate, often tomentose beneath. 
Discs not very distinct. Calyx glabrescent 
below not ribbed 3. Wallvchii, 

L. broadly ovate cordate, and twigs densely white 
felted, sub-rugose above with discs distinct or 
not. Calyx tomentose, usually ribbed . . 4. Macleodii, 
B. Shrub. L. under 3" long, scabrid above with white 

discs ......... 5. tnonoiciu 

1. C. Myxa. ^m Hemrum, K. ; Buch, 8, ; Bahnar 
Kharw.', Lahsowra, H. ; Bohari/^engr. 

A small tree, nsnally with drooping branches, with ashen 

twigs onlj hairy when young, orbicular, ell., oblong or obovate 

but never cordate leaves 2|-5" obtuse rounded or bluntly 

acuminate, rarely slightly sinuate ; base 3-6-nerved or with 

3-5 strong nerves from close to base which is cuneate or if 

rounded always acute on the slender petiole. Fls. in 

numerous terminal irregular or sub-corymbose cymes 2-4" 

diam. 

Common in valleys, often along streams. Fls. March- A'gril, Fr. Jw?y» 
Aug. 

L. usually permanently hairy in the axils of the nerves beneath 
otherwise glabrous, tetiary nerves not very straight, very reticulate 
between, with raised nervules. Discs often visible in old leaves as small 
white dots. Calyx saucer-sbaped in fruit ^-1" diam. Fruit conical 
when young, old shining yellowish glassy with very viscous pulp l-seeded. 

The fruit is eaten. 

2. C- obliqua, WUld, ? Included in C. Myxa, X. in 
** Indian Trees.'* 

A small t ree with brown striate pubescent or puberulous 
twigs, broadly-ovate or ovate, rarely ovate-oblong, leaves 
3-b'' by 5 1" with rounded or sub-cordate base acute or sub- 
acumiuate or blunt, always mucronate, usually sinuate or 
coarsely dentate ; principal nerves above the base usually 
with 1-3 prs. below and 2-7 prs. above them. Base usually 
decurrent on the stout ^-Ij" petiole on one side only. 

Singbhum and Hazaribagh, esp. in dry nalaa in the Koderma forest ; 
Santal Farganahs (Chandna, etc.) I have unfortunately never ooUected 

473 



8U BOUAailHACEM. [1 Coedu. 

tte inflorescence, but the tree is quite distinct from the last and ia soma 
epecimens rather tesemblea C. grandis. It requires furthewnvestigation. 

L. not hairy in thp nerve axils bat paberulous between the straight 
prominent tertiary nerves beneath, nervulea not. raised or very distinct. 
Dr&cz on old leaves usually yellowish, not distinctly raised. 

3. C. WallicMi, 0. Ifon. Syn. C. obliqua, Willd. yar. 
Wallicliii. 

This is probably a variety of tbe last, but again I have never collected 
its inflorescence. The leaves are entire, broadly-ovate, Isub-oordate, 
denieely stellately pubescent beneath. Petiole, nervation, and discs as 
in l6,Bt. According to Prain, the calyx is glabresceat beneath, 
villous but not ribbed upwards. 

Singbhum, on the hills. 

4). C. Macleodii* Sdoh. /. §• T. Porponda, Eo.; Toraisiug, 
M. ; Jugia, S. ; Bharwar, Belwanjan, Kharw, 

A small tree with twigs, leaves beneath and inflorescence 
covered with a dense, felted white or tawny tomentnm, 
broadly- ovate entire often deeply cordate obtuse or very 
shortly bluntly acuminate leaves about Y' by 5|" with 
venation as in obit^t^a, or nerves 3-5 quite basal. Petioles 
much longer l|-3". Discs usually numerous and in old 
leaves often giving the upper surface a rugose appearance. 

Throughouu the area,- not uncommon on the hills. Fls. March'April, 
JPr. May-June. Evergreen or nearly so. 

L. attain 10" but usually 4-8" appressed cottony glabrescent above. 
Fls. white in dense tomentose extra-axillary on leaf -opposed corymbs, 
huds clavate. Calyx in iruit broadly campanulate, |" diam. toothed or 
lobed, tomentose, usually distinctly ribbed but not always. Petals 
recurved. Young fruit very acuminate, ripe globose |" long by ^-J* 
diam. and yellowish somewhat tomentuse, apiculate. 

5. C. monoica, Boxb. 

A shrub usually under 6 ft or a small gnarled tree witii 
the flowers and new leaves fascicled on short shoots. L. 
hoary when young, old ell., ovate or obovate 1-3* obtuse 
d^htate or denticulate from the strong excurrent nerves, 
pubescent beneath scabrovrs above. Nervules strongly 
reticulatG. 

Gangpur, Hazaribagh and Palamau in dry jungles. Gommon oo the 
jfttota? cliffs. Jt la. JMayJune. Fr. ripens Nov.-Dec. 

474 



Calyx ^4'" campanulate in fruit. Berry ovoid scarcely exceeding 
the calyx. 

3. Ehretia, L. 

1. E- laevis, Boxb, Pusi pan, 8. ; Bhairo, Xharw, ; 
Chamror, datranga, H. 

A small tree with white bark, or ovate glabrons broadly 
or narrowly ell. or elliptic oblong, rarely obovate, entire 
leaves usually with small tafts of bair in the axils of the 
nerves beneath, and small white sessile or sub-sessile flowers 
-j5g-|" diam. in 2-chotomou9 and scorpioid pubescent 
corymbose cymes. 

Frequent, chiefly near river beds. Throughout the area. Fls. Pe6y.- 
ISarch with the old leaves, or wlien leafless or with the young leavcS. 
Fr. March- A;pril. Deciduous Feby. or March. 

• Innovations rusty pubescent or tomentosp glabrescent. L. 4 6" by 
2-^" rarely 7" by 4" sometimes oblique, shining acute or acuminate with 
5-6 prs. of sec. nerves. Base usually cuneate. Petioles |-1''. Inflorescence 
axillary or sub-terminal 2-4" diam. Calyx very small pubescent, 
lobes longer than the tube, acute. Petals acuminate. Ovary 2'-celled. 
Style long 2-fid. Fr, a sub-globose black drupe with 1-4 1-seeded, 
pyxenes. 

The leaves are used for fodder, the fruit is eaten. 

Var. a A form in Betlah forest (Palamau) has thinly hairy 
Bhoots, flowers under Y' diam., and calyx 5-partite nearly to base with 
lanceolate sepals i^". Fls. June, 

3. Rhabdia, Mart. 
1. R. lycipides, Mar^, Tipa, K. 

A shrub with very tough erect or prostrate and rooting 
branches, linear or oblor\g-oblanceolate leaves |-1J* by |'', 
and small pink flowers ^-|" diam. usually 2-3 at the ends of 
short lateral branchlets. 

In river and stream beds but not very common, Singbhum, both in 
Saranda and on the Porahat plateau. Fls. Oct.-Jdny. Fr. Dec.-Fehy. 
Evergreen. 

Twigs appressed hairy. L. acute and narrowed at the base into a 
petiole -^^ long, with very faint 2-4 ^ec. n. shining or almost silvery 

475 



3. Rhabdu.J . ai. JfUMA{^ijy^uMj±!i. 

beneath. Calyx persistent 5-partite, sepals acuminate. Ovary S-celled. 
J)rM,'pe I" orange-red with 4 crustaceous 1-aeeded pyrenea. 

Fam. 82. VERBEXACEJS. 

Trees or shrubs or more rarely herbs, often with stellate 
hairs and often with a characteristic foetid or aromatic smell 
generally arising from small or miscroscopic peltate glands. 
Branches 4-angled or not. L. opposite or sometimes 3-nately 
whorled, simple or (in Vitex) digitately compouni 
Stipules 0. Fls. asnally zygomorphic, never solitary. Calyx 
gamosepalous persistent 6ub-entire or 4-5-or (^Symphorema) 
4-8-toothed. St, usually 4 rarely 2 or more than 4 (Sym- 
phorema). Ovary superior 2-4-celled, 4-oYuled (but see 
Duranta). Style simple terminal, entire or shortly bifid. 
Fr. usually a drupe with 1-4 pyrenes, sometimes nearly 
dry. Albumen 0. 

[. Inflorescence of lax, corymbose, or 
panicled cymes. Fr. adrupe witLl-4 
pyrenes or a 1-4-celled stone, or of 
drupels, or nearly dry in Caryopteris. 

A. Fls. regular. St. exserted spreading. 

Panicles axillary, corymbose . . . .1. Callicarpa. 
Panicles very large terminal . . • .2. Tectona. 

B. Fla. irregular. St. didynamous. 

L. digitate. .•.••.. 8. Vitesi, 

L. simple. 

Trees or shrubs. Fls. very small white or 
greenish 4. Premna. 

Shrubs. Fls. with a long slender corolla tube . 6. Clerodendron. 

Shrub. Fls. blue with short corolla- tube. Fr. 

8ub-capsular 6. Caryopterif. 

Tree. Fls. over 1'' yellow, corolla tubular ven- 
tricose 7. Qmelina. 

A woody climber with patelliform scarlet calyx . 8. Holmskioldia. 

II. loflorescence of capitate ^ cymes, or con- 
tracted or elongate spikes. 



Fls. in capitate spikes. Drupe succulent . . 9. Lantana. 



il 



FIb. as in Lantana but fruit dry . . .10. Lippia. 

Fla in involncrate 3 9>flowered capitate cymes . 11. Bymphorema. 

Fls. in elongate spikes. St. 2 12. Btachytarpheta. 

III. Fls. in pendulous racemes. Ovary 8- celled • 13. Duranta. 



1. Callicarpa, L. 

Trees or Bhmbs with the young pf^rts stellately tomentose. 
Fls. small often glandular in axillary usually corymbose 
peduncled cymes. Calyx very small, 4-lobed. Corolla sub- 
regular, tubular with 4 (-5 ) lobes, purple or red. St. 4-5 
exserted. Ovary imperfectly 2-celled. Style long, stigma 
capitate sub-entire or 2-lobed. Drupe small, with 1-4 free 
pyrenes. 

1* C. » arboreaj Roxb. Bomud, Bodudn, K. ; Dam 
Kotokoi, 8.; Bagodi, Kharw. ; Sakrela, Mai Pah. 

A small or mod. -sized tree with compressed 4-angled 
tpmentose branchlets, large ovate to ovate-lanceolate or ovate- 
oblong acute or sub-acuminate entire leaves, tomentose 
beneath (both sides when young), and small lilac-purple 
flowers in 2-chotomous corymbous cymes 3-5" diam. on 
peduncles lJ-2'' long. Drupe purple. 

V^leys in Singbhum, but rare. Dhadka (Manbhum), Wood. Common 
on the northern slopes of the Paras nath range (Hazaribagh and 
Manbhuon). Palamau, esp. on the ghats. Eajmehal hills, frequent. 

Fls. May-June. Fr. AugrNov., rarely DecJany. Evergreen, 

L. 5\" by 2f " to 12" by 5i'' usually about 9 by 4", rarely slightly toothed 
base rounded. Sec. n. 8-12 prs. with strong cross tertiaries. Petiole 
Hi"- Cor. i' diam. Fr. y^g-i" purple or black seated on the yV'-broud 
calyx. 

2. C. macrophylla, Vahl. Bundudn, K,; Buddhi 
ghassic', <S.; Mathara, Beng. 

A stout shrub with the branches leaves beneath and 
infiorescence densely woolly. L. larg'e elliptic rarely CFvate- 
lanceolate long-actiminate crenate or crenate-deutate. Fls. 

477 



1. Callicabpa.] 82. VEEBENACE^, [3. Vitex. 

rose-cold., in dense 2-cliotomous cymes about 1" long and 2' 

diam. on pednncles |-1" long. Dmpe |-t\" diam. whitei. 

Singbhutn, Saitba forest, (Raugamati) ; Porahat plStean frequent ; 
iPalamau, Gam6fe ! Manbhum, Carnp. Nearly alway a in open jungle ot 
waste land. 

Fl8. 8epb.-Nov. Fr. NovrBec. Evergreen. 

L. 5'' by If to 10'' by 4i^", base usually rounded, upper surface more or 
less stellate. See. n. strong 10-15 pra. Petiole i-lr'. Calyx 2^" with 4 
minute teeth. Corolla ja''. 

Tectona grandis, L. The Teak, is planted at all the stations but 
Its growth is slow and the tree does not thrive. L. very large, often 
over 1 ft. tomentose beneath. Fh. small white. Fruit with a 4-celled 
endocarp and spongey nearly dry pericarp ^'' diam. enclosed in the much 
enlarged bladdery calyx. 

Fls. July 'Aug. Fr. Nov.'Jany. Benewa its leaves in May. 

3. Vitex, L. 

Trees or shrubs otten glanauiar witb opp. or 3-nately 
wborled digitately 3-5-foliolate leaves and rather small lipped 
flowers in panicled or dichasial cymes. Calyx tubnlar- 
campanulate, usually enlarged in . fruit, shortly toothed or 
truncate. Corolla 2-lipped, upper lip 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed 
with central lobe larger than the others. St. 4 didynamous . 
Ovary 2-4-celled. Stigma of 2 unequal subulate lobes. 
Drupe with a 1-4-celled bony putamen. 

A. -Shrubs or sub-arboreous (V. leucoxylon is a tree 

in other parts of India). 

Panicles mostly terminal dense. Lflts, 3-5 white 
tomentose below 1. Negundo, 

Panicles all axillary dichasial. Lflts. 3-5 under 
5" long c 2. leucoxylon. 

B. Trees. Panicles all axillary. 

Panicles dichasial. Lflts. mostly 5, attaining 8". 

Petiolules over^' • • • • • • 3. glahrata. 

Panicles narrow-oblong. Lflts. 3, 3-7". Petiolides 

under ^'', .....•• 4. peduncularit. 

1. V. Negundo, L. Bigana, Sursing, ffo.; Huri, M.; 
Sindware,, Sr, Sinoar, Khartv ; Shivari, H. 

478 



8. Vmbi.] S2. rUBBUNACU^. 

A large strongly scented shrub 6-12 ffc. sometimes snb- 
irboreons, covered Tvitli a fine hoary tomentnm, with 3-5- 
foliolate leaves and white or lilac flowers in oblong panicles 
2-8" long. 

Frequent in waste gronnd and hedges in all the districts. Fls. and Fr. 
most of the year, eap. May-June. Evergreen. 

Lfits. lanceolate entire or orenate glabrate above 2-6", lateral Kessile or 
■shortly petioluled, other petiolules i-1". Panicles with short branches 
Vf " long. Fls. i-^ greatest diam, puberulons ontside, palate hairy, lobea 
of apper lip smaller and paler than the lateral. Drujpes globose i" diam. 

It is nsed as a stomachic. 

Var with mnch smaller 3-foHolate leaves, petioluled leaflets and very 
dense contracted panicles of white flowers i'' across. Drupes 2-seeded. 
Kear the Sone mixed with the ordinary yariety. 

2. V. leucoxylon, L.f, 

A large shrub 4-12 ft. with pubescent shoots, 3-5-foliolate 
nearly glabrous leaves, lanceolate leaflets, and white lipped 
flowers I" across (greatest diameter) in divaricate peduncled 
cymes, often sub-sessile in the forks (but not so regularly 
dichasial as in V. glabrata). 

Along rivers in Gangpur. Also near Pachamba in Hazanbagh. 
Camy. Herb ! (The latter a 3-foliolate variety with panicles exceeding 
the leaves). 

Fls. May-June. Fr. Oct.-Nov. Evergreen P 

2/. rarely reduced to one small leaflet. Lflts. entire or in very young 
plants serrate, V by i" to 4|" by 1^" acuminate coriaceous shining above 
pale beneath, often woolly on either side of the mid-rib beneath, otherwise 
•glabrous. Mid-rib prominent, sec. n. scarcely raised, more distinct above, 
finely reticulate between. Petiole 1^S"» Petiolulea ^-1". Pa nicZes 3-6* 
long peduncled with usually 2 linear bracts 1'' long at the first fork only. 
Calyx yV Cor-tuhe nearly twice as long, corolla densely ap pressed hairy 
without. Mid-lobe of lower lip i" viIIoqb. Dru^e ^-f'' seated on the 
enlarged scarcely lobed calyx. 

3. V. glabrata, B-Br. Bhadu, S. 

A tree, often large attaining 6 ft. girth, with thinly 
pubescent shoots and tomentosely-hairy buds, mostly 5- 
foliolate leaves sometimes resembling those of the Simal tree 
(V. bombacifolia was Wallich's very happy name for it) with 
large leafletb permanently sparsely appressed hairy beneath. 

479 



3. ViTEx.] 82. VERBENACEJE. [4. Pbem¥a. 

Fls. about y long with a bluish lip (Fls. purplish-blne, 
Haslett) in very regular dichasial panicles, each fork with 
a shortly pedicelled flower. 

Eajmehal hills, usually along streams but ascending to the tops of 
the hills in favourable situations (e.g. Dhowdi, and between Narganj 
and Silingi). Very local. 

Fls. May- June. Fr. June- July. Perhaps deciduous March-April. 

Twigs light-grey somewhat 4-angled. Lftts. ell, broadly ell, 
or obovdte 3^' by 2'' to 8' by 4 ", usually suddenly acuminate glabrous 
shining above, nerve-axils glandular, base usually cuneate, sec. n. S-l'i 
prs. rather strong, others obscure. Petioles 2|-6" Petiolules f-2''. 
Peduncle 2-4''. Pedioelx i-g"- Calyx i" campannlate in flower, deeply saucer- 
ehaped \'^" diam. in fruit. Corolla densely grey-pubescent lobes rounded 
reflexed, mid-lobe of lower lip shortly quadrate then concave orbicular, 
throat hairy. Drupe oblong obovoid ^-f" long. 

The timber of this tree is likly to prove useful, and it should be 
protected. 

4. V. peduncularis, Wall. Simjanga, K. ; Bhadu, S, 

A tree sometimes attaiDing'5 ft. girth and 50 ft. high but 
usually small, with pubescent shoots and constantly 3- 
foliolate leaves, well distinguished when young and even some- j 
times in the adult (var. Roxburghiaca) by the winged petiole. 
Panicles primarily monopodial, the shape mu6h as in V. 
Negundo, 6-11'' long and exceeding the leaves. 

Valleys in Singbhum and Gangpur, especially along streams, but also 
on northern rocky slopes ; Manbhum and Hazaribagh, very common and 
attaining large size on the northern slopes of Parasnath ; Koderma ; 
Palamau, esp. in ^bat forests ; Santal Parganahs, frequent. Fla.May-Jmie, 
Fr. Aug.-8ept, Evergreen. 

Ljits. narrowly ell, or lanceolate 3" by i^'' to 7'' by 2'' acuminate glabrous 
concolorous, punctulate above. Sec. n. above 20 prs. very slender. Petiole 
1^-3''. Petiolules }'' OT blade often decurrent on them. Lateral branches 
of panicle 1" or less, cymose. Calyx |" campannlate very shortly toothed 
with yellow glands Cor. upper lip erect, mid-lobe of lower lip shovel- 
Bhaped with rounded tip. Drupe ^'' diam. with a 3-4-celled stone. 

Wood good for yokes. Bark applied externally to allay pain in the 
chest, Camp. All young plants have distinct wings. 

4, Premna, L. 

Trees or shrubs (P. herbacea, a herb) with opp. or temate- 
ly whorled entire, or toothed, often nnequally paired, leaves 

480 A 



m 



,. Pbemna.] 82. VERBENACE^. 

nth a foetid or aromatic smell. Fls. small wliite or greenish, 
nb-regular or 2-lipped in pabescent usually corymbose 
ymose panicles. Calyx small 2-^-toothed or sub-entire, 
ometimes lipped. Corolla tubalar, thioat hairy, petals 4-5. 
)t. 4 didynamous. Ovary 2-4-celled. Drupe small with 
, l-4-celled, 1-4-seeded stone, seated on -the usually cupular 
jalyx. 

xV^ote.— The Chota Nagpnr species of Premna reqtiire furtlier in- 
restigation. Some flower in July, a month in which I have never been, -on 
tour. The following key is based therefore mainly on the leaves. A ? 
,s appended to doubtful forms. 

i. entire 2-6", drying blue-black. Corymbs 2-5'' diam. 1. latifolia, 

L more or less serrate 2^-8'', drying green, old nearly 
glabrous. Corymbs 1-2^'' . . « . . 2. harhata. 

L. dentate ovate 6-12'', old minutely glandular and * 

pubescent on nerves beneath . . .3. sp.? 

L. entire ovate or elliptic 5-9'', old only stellate on 
nerves beneath. Corymbs 4-7" diam . . 4. hengalensis. 

L. entire ovate acumii^^te 4-6", old stellately 
tomentose beneath. Corymbs 2|-4i'' . . .5. tomentoia. 

L. entire oblong to ovate 5-10'', pubescent or villous 
{not stellate) beneath. Corymbs 6" ... 6.\flave8eens. 

Leaves as in flavescens but serrate . , .6a. Var. ? 

Dwarf with leaves appreased to the ground . , 7. herbacea, 

1. p. latifolia* Eoxh, Sande sabar, Dandra sea, S. 
Bakar, H. 

A low bushy tree with trunk up to 4 ft. girth, or shrubby ; 
with usaally ovate, sometimes elliptic leaves attaining 6^* 
by 2f " entire acuminate, and small white flowers in terminaJ 
corymbose 3-chotomous panicles 1-5" broad. J)rupe black de- 
pressed globose J'' diam. Stone ridged, 4-celled, usually 1- 
seeded. 

Gangpur, along banks of streams (tree form with usually elliptic 
leaves and cuneate base); Hazaribagh (Neaiiaghar,. Tatijheria); Man- 
bhum, a common bush, Camp. ; Rajmehal hills, frequent on trap (small 
tree or bush with leaves rounded at base but shortly cuneate on the 
petiole) 

481 . S 



82. rUBBENACEM. [4. Pbbmna. 

Pis. AprH-Mayt on the new shoots. Pr. May*June. 

Shoots puhfescent, often rusty. L. minutely hispichilous above when 
yonng, pubescent on the nerves beneath. Sec. n. 5-8 pre. Petiole i— i". 
Calyx Ye' ^ flower with 5 small sub-equal teeth, saucer-shaped i\*-i' 
diam. in f mifc. Cor. ^^-j'' long, upper lip oblong obtuse entire, lower 
l(»iger with spreading obtuse lobes. 

2. P. barbata, Wall. 

A small trs9 attaining 30 ft., "with yellow-brown 
glabrous twigs (but new sboots hairj), ovate- lanceolate, 
ovate or obvate-obloiig leaves 4-8" by 2-4" (or smaller at base 
of shoot) acuminate and nsually coarsely toothed, never quite 
entire above. Nerves only persistently slightly ha'ry or 
pubemlous beneath. Petioles f-2J". Corymbs of small white 
flowers under 3" diam. Drupe globose or pyriform, stone 
verrucose, 3-4-celled, 1-2-seeded. 

Singbhum, in ravines. Bajmehal hills, common. Pis. April'Ma^. 
Fr. May-June. Deciduous March. 

Base of leaves usnally rounded or obtuse with 3-5 nerves at or near the 
base and 4-6 pirs. above, tertiary nerves not straight and parallel* Calyn 
minutely glandular lobed. Corolla ^". 

3. P. nov. sp. ? 

A tree sometimes attaining 3 ft. girth with large 
broadly-ovate opp. or 3-nate membranous acuminate 
dentate leaves 7-12" by 4-8" often with sub-cordate base, not| 
or only very shortly, acuminate. All nerves beneath minutely 
pubescent and with Jferj minute glands between. Petioles 
5-4". 

Bocky ravines in Falamau. Eajmehal hills. Especially on limestoBe. 
PlB. not .seen. 

Twigs same colour as in harhata, puberulons even when old, yftung 
tomentose and glandular. L. aromatic with small glands like those 
of a Clerodendron. Sec. n. 7-8 prs. very strong, two or three basal 
or close to base, tertiaries strong sub-parallel. Petiole 3-4'' straw-coloured, 
petioles joined by a densely villous and glandular line. 

This interesting little tree might possibly be a new species, the 
gl«nd9 and stipulary hairs and indeed the whole leaf remind one muoh 
of a Clerodeadrcn. It was well matched with P. pinguia by Babn JaiiA- 
da of the Calcutta Herbarium, but its hahit is different. 

482 



4 Peemna.] 82. VEBBENACEJE. 

4. P. bengalensis, GUrl^e, 

A small tree with large narrow-oil. to ovate acnminate leaves 5^ by 
2^'' to 9'' by 6" closely stellately pubescent beneath when young and permap 
nently stellate pubescent on the nerves. Panicles 6-8'' diam. of -tninnt« 
white 2-lipped flowers stellately pubescent. Drape globose or oboToid. 

Tnndi hills, Manbhum, Camp. Herh.X Fls. June-July. 

L. with 8-12 prs. strong sec. n. Petiole 1". Calyx sub 2-lipped. Throat 
of corolla villous. 

5. P. tomentosa, WUld. 

A tree with branchlets, leaves and inflorescence densely 
clothed -with a tawny stellate tomentum. L. ovate acuminate 
2|-6" by 2-3" with rounded or sub-cordate bnse, permanently 
Btellate tomentose beneath. Panicles compact 2-4" diam. 
somewhat rounded or pyramidal with small greenish- 
yellow flowers. Drupe ovoid. 

Hajmehal hills, Gamble, BrarAis. I can find no specimens of it from 
our area either at Kew or Calcutta or in Gamble's HrfJb, and Brandia 
probably quotes Gamble (Indian Timbers). 

Fls. March-April with the new leaves. Fr. ilfcy. Deciduous. 

L. with about V p^rs. sec. n. Petiole 1-1^". Calyx shortly 5-lobed. 
Ovary very hairy. 

There are minute peltate glands between the hairs also in f.Ma 
species. Old L. in C. F. attain 10 ^ 

6. P. fiavescens^ Ram, Aria Kasmar, &'. 

A small or mod-sized tree with grey or brown twigs, 
pubescent even when old, large oblong to ovate-oblong, more 
rarely ovate acute scarcely acuminate leaves 6" by 2^" to KT 
by 6" with rounded sometimes oblique base, densely pubescemfc 
(but not stellate) esp. on the nerves beneath. Panicles 5-7* 
diam. tomentose. Drupe globose I". 

Singbhum in the v£illeys ; Santal Parganahs along stieamB and 
rocky nalas in the hills ; Gurhma (Lohardaga), 0.£^ Clarke. 

Fls. June-Jnly. Fr. Aug.-Jany. Evergreen? I have obtained many 
specimens in fruit and young bud but not in flc arer. 

L. usually minutely hairy and pubescent on the nerves above. S«c. n. 
6-8 prs. strong beneath as also are the sub-parallel tertiaxies. There are 
glands between the hairs very similar to those of (3) and with a similax 
aromatic scent. Petiole Ij-^V- Bracts at the forks linetu: i-f". Calyx gl:ui- 

1 483 8 2 



4. PBBMifA.] 82. VHItBENACEJE. [5. CLiEorBNDBOH. 

dnlar and Bomwhat puteBcent, BTib-2-lipped, lips Bcarcely toothed. Btont 
ueolate. 

Note.-^A specimen of this collected by Gamble at Tatkora, Singhbhnm, 
is placed under P. villosa in the Cal. Herbarinm. P. villosa, Clarke, 
•Ithongh widely separated in the Flora of British India, is very closely 
allied and only distingnishable by its oompletely truncate calyx and 
shorter bracts. 

Var ? Almost exactly as in 6, but orenate-toothed mnoh as in 3. From 
ills near Chandna, S. P. Coll. in Jany. without inflorescence. 

7, P. herbacea^ Boxh. Ote chamba, -ff". ; Kada met*, S. 

A curionB little iiiiderslinib with herbaceous shoots 1-4*' 
ixigh from a woody stock. L. usually closely appressed to 
the ground, sessile, obovate, coarsely serrate, 2-4" sometimes 
6* by 4" and repand. FIs, very small white, in small corymbi 
1 Y diam. on a short peduncle. Drupe J'' diam. 

On clay in open gronnd, e.g. fire lines, etc., common. Fls. May-Jun9, 
Fr. June-July. 

A decoction of the root is given internally for rheumatism, Camp, 



o. Clerodendron, L. 

Trees or shrutjs or sub-herbaceous with opp. or temate, 
frequently palmate-nerved and gland-dotted aromatic or 
foetid leaves, and usually conspicuous flowers in axillary 
cymes or terminal panicles. Calyx campanulate, often 
brilliantly coloured in fruit. Corolla tube slender with a 
more or less oblique 5-fid spreading limb. St. 4 exserteil 
Ovary imperfectly 4-celled. Drupe usually succulent, separat- 
ing into i-4 pyrenes. 

li. nnder 2i'^ Fls. white 1. phlomoides, 

L. over 3'' long. 

L, ovate. Fls. white, or t^hite and pink • . 2. xnfortunatum 

L. oblong or elliptic, often terriate. Fls. blue. 
Cor.-tubefi" 3. serratum. 

I/, narrowly or linear-lane, 3-4-nate. lis. white with 
tnibe 3-4'' , . « 4. Biphonanhut. 

484 



;. Clbbodendbon.] 82. VEBBENACE^. 

1. C. phlomoides, Tj, /. Panjot, S,-, Umi, E. 
A large shrub with somewhat hoary pubescent shoots 
mberulous ovate or sub-rhomboid crenate-serrate or sub-entire 
eaves about 2 by 1^", and axillary and terminal cymose 
)anicles of white flowers |" diam. Odorous at night. 

Usually in hedges and often introducing itself into gardens, but doubt- 
ully indigenous. Singhbbum, Palamau, Santal Parganahs. Fls. Bept- 

Old Uav&s nearly glabrous, acute or sub-acuminate. Petiole i-^"^. 
Jymes H-3" 3-12 flowered. Calyx purplish ^-f lobed half-way down into 
triangular acute lobes. Cor.-tubel". jFruif nearly dry ^-i'', separating 
ato 4 pyrenes. 

Given to cattle for diarrhoea and worms. 

2. C. infortunatum, Gcertn, Kula marsal, Chamgar, 
Io.\ Barni, Varni, S.; Gokhola, Kharw.; Bhant, jB"., Beng, 

A robust under-shrub or shrub 4-6 ft. with densely 
alvous-hairy branches, large ovnte usually cordate- leaves 
-8" long and broad and large terminal 3-chotomou8 corym- 
ose panicles of white and pinkish flowers 1' diam. Con- 
picuous in fruit from its large red calyces and often red- 
ening branches. Drupe bluish-black, at first enclosed by the 
ilyx which however opens widely when it is ripe. 

In all the districts, along streams and in shady places and edges of 
ades. Often gregarious. Fls. Feby.-May. Fr. May 'July. 

L. persistently hairy, entire or dentate with very strong sec. and 
ittiary nerves. Minute " glands numerous. PawV:?e tomentosely-hairy, 
ten leafy. Calyx lobes ^-1'' long in fruit Cor. -tube f-f long. Lobes 
posterior and 4 obliquely spreading. Stamens 1^2" long. 

3. C- serratum, Spreng. Saram lutur, 8,; Barangi, H. 

A shrub, usually with tall annual branches 3-6 ft. high 
•om a woody stock, with opp. or 3-nate sub-sessile ell., 
x)vate or oblanceolate leaves 3-6" by 1-2'' and sub- 
^ramidal terminal panicles of blue flowers 1" or more 
jross. Drupe of 1-3 succulent usually green pyrenes, 

Singbhum, valleys -and snady slopes, not common. Tundi hills 
mmon, Cam'p. ; Palamau, Gamble ! Fls. April Nov, Fruiting shortly 
ter flowering. The stems do not always die down, and it is then an 
regularly branched shrub with smaller fleshy leaves. 

485 



6. Clbbodbndbon.] 82. YERBENACE^. [7. Gmelika. 

L. glaTbrons, coarsely eerrate above. Petioles \". Panide-hranches 
and peclicelB shortly hairy with persistent ovate bracts. Co.lyx -I" very 
shortly lobed. Corolla with an anterior blue-oblong^ petal f long with a 
larp-e nectary at base, other lobes obliquely spreading. Tube i-^.'' Bt. 
bluish very declinate. 

Boot given in fever, also used in the fermentation of rice-beer, Gamp, 

4. C. Siphon anthus, ^r. Barangi, E.; Bananhati, Beng. 

A slimb, or herbaceous with tall annual hollow stems 

3-6 ft. high, with 3-5-nately whorled rarely opp. sessile 

or sub-sessile narrowly-lanceolate entire or sinuate glabrous 

leaves 5-8" by |-l|"j and pretty white or cream-coloured 

flowers in axillary cymes forming a large terminal panicle. 

Drupe blue on the large red calyx. 

Along river banks and in moist localities, Singbhum, Ranchi, Palamat^ 
and probably in all districts. Fla. June-Aug, Fr. Aug.^'Nov. 

%. Caryopteris, Bunge. 

1. C Walliclliaiia, Schauer. 

A laxly branched shrub with 4-angled sub-tomentose 
shoots, and lanceolate sub-entire or serrate leaves 2-4" long. 
Easily recognized by the numerous yellow glands, and the 
spreading blue or light purple flowers in small cymes 
which are arranged in narrow axillary and terminal 
thyrses, somewhat as in Clerodendron serratum. 

Santal Parganahs, Gamble (in Sonthal Parganahs list). The (Mily 
-«»cord. Fla. Dec. 

Peti. short. Calyx deeply 5-6-fid. Ovary 1-celled above. Placenta 
2 ^th incurved tnargins, ovules pendulous from a thickened funide, 
Fruit dividing into 4 valves with incurved margins, embracing the I 
seeded slightly winged pyrenes. 



i 



7. Gmelina, L. 

1. G- arborea» J^» Kasmar, K. S, ; Gambhar, Gamhar, E. 

A mod.-sized or large tree with broadly ovate acuminate 
uBually cordate leaves 4-i)" by 2i-8" usually glaucous 
beneath, petioles 2-6" long, and large reddish, or brown 

486 ' 



. Gmblina.] S2, VJSBBENACE^. [8. Holmskioldu. 

md yellow irregular flowers 1-1 J" long in lateral or 
erminal panicles. Fruit a succulent drupe 1" diam. with 
usually 2-celled stone. 

Throughout the area, esp. on the cool sides of hills. Fls. Feby, -April 
rhen more or leas leafless. Fr. May-June, 

L. in the type stellately-hairy beneath, hase 3-5 -nerved and nsnally 
mneate on the petiole, some or all with glands at the base between the 
)rimary nerves. Seo. n. 4-6 prs. above the basal, tertiaries more or less 
parallel. Panicles 3-4" (or attaining 12' fide F.B.I.), Bracts i-^" linear- 
anceolate. Calyno^-i'' campanulate "with small teeth. Corolla tubular 
)elow, ventricose ; anterior lobe shovel-shaped yellow. 

The seedlings have oblong fleshy cotyledons, and the first leaves 
je strongly toothed. The wood is largely used for making drums, it is 
rhite, easily worked and does not warp or shrink. Cattle and deer are 
ery fond of the fruit. 

Var. o. glaucescens, F.B.I. L. large 6-10" g.labrons and gr ^avcows beneath 
ihe glaucous appearance being due to dense microscopic glands or scales 
these however are present also in the pubescent forms). Tertiary nerves 
lot much raised or only slightly raised. Panicle usually large. Commoner 
han the type. In all districts. 

Var. M. canesoens, L. 3-6'' sub-coriaceous, grey-pubesoent beneath 
ffith simple not stellate hairs. Terfiar^'nervei strongly raised beneath. 
'anicZe 3-4'' strict. Santal Parganahs. 



8. Holmskioldia, Betz. 

1. H- sanguinea) Ee^ Jhimbria, iS^. 

A large climbing shrub with angular drooping branches, 
3Vate crenate- serrate or sub-entire leaves 2-6" by 1J-3|" yery 
liandsome in flower. Fls. with a scarletitubular curved corolla 
1-1" long and an orange or scarlet patelliform calyx 1" diam. 
which is persistent in fruit, arranged in short racemes |- 1* 
long from the leaf axils and running out into terminal pani- 
cles. 

Eocky ravines in Bandgaon and Porahat ; Pitorea East hill (Ranchi), 
Vood ; Manbhum ; Camp. ; Tatkora, 2,500 ft. Gamble ; Chorparan ghats 
Haaaribagh) ; Patasnatb, Camp. Fls. Nov.-Jany. 

L. slightly pubescent acuminate with 4-6 prs. oblique seen. Petiole 
1-2*. Drupe obovoid 4-i'', with 4 spreading lobes, 

487 



9. Lamaka] 82. VERBENACE^. [11. Stmphobbma. 

9. Lantana, L. 

RambliDg pubescent scabrons or prickly shrubs with 4- 
angled branches, crenate, often rugose leaves, and small flowers 
in peduncled> olften capitate spikes. Bracts exceeding the 
membranous truncate or sinuate- toothed calys. St. 4 
didynamous included. Ovary 2-celled. Drupe with 2 1-celled 
pyrenes. 

1. L. indica, ^oxh, 

A shrub with adpresaed scabrid-pubescent stems and 
branches, cordate serrate rugose leaves 3-4'' by 2-3* and 
light-purple scentless flowers in numerous axillary ovate 
heads. 

Chota NagpxLT, TFood** list. 
Fls. and Fr. chiefly in the rains. 

2. L. aculeata, L- Syn. L. Camara, L. 

A straggling or scandent shrub with small recurved 
prickles on the branches. L. much as in last or smaller. 
Fls. orange coloured with pink tube, strongly scented. 

An American shmb widely spread in Pome parts of India, occasionally 
semi-natnralized in Chota Nagpur (e. g, about Ohorparan). 

Fls. and Fr. principally in the rainy season. 

It makes an excellent hedge if continually «at back, and grows freely 
from cuttings. 

lilppia geminata, E.B. and K., occurs in Wood's list without remark 
or locality. It ia an erect shrub " so closely resembling Lantana indioa 
that without fruit it is^difficult to distinguish," C. B, Clarke. .Branches 
and L. softly strigose. L. ovate-oblong crenate. Pedxmcles mostly 
oppoait-- tracts ovate acuminate, softly hairy. 

11* Symphorema, Roxb. 
1. S. polyandrum, Wight 

A large sub-scandent shrub with ovate Pilous coarsely 
toothed leaves usually 4-5" long reaching 8-9* by 4*. Easily 



] 



1 



11. Stmphoebma.] 82. VERBENACE^. 

recognized in flower by its whorls of grey involucral leaves 
Burrounding a 7-flowered cyme of white flowers with a 12- 
16-partite corolla and an equal number of exserted Btamens. 

Dry Sal forests in Singhbhum. Fls. A'pril. Decidu^s at thfl tipie of 
flowering. 

Petiole \-\''. Bracts lobovate 1-H" long foliaceoue, toothed above. 
Corolla ^" long. Fr. included in the calyx, nearly drv, l-aeeded. 

2. S. involucratum, Eoacft., which is found in the Monghyr hills, 
may very likely occur in the Rajmehal hilla. It may be distinguished by 
its smaller size and the corolla only i'' long and 6-8 lobed. 

Btachytarpheta indica, Vahl. (Syn. S. jamaicenBis),i8 a herb 1-24 
ft. high with spikes of blue flowers sunk in the rachis, a pestiferous weed 
in many gardens which have been under the plough. 

Fls. r. 8. 

One or two other species of Stachytarpheta are garden shrubs ijfith 
red or purple flowers. 

Duranta is an American genus with an 8-celled ovary, and the drupe 
with 4 2-celled pyrenes. D. Plumieri, Jacg., with panicles of pretty 
small blue flowers, and yellow drupes is frequently cultivated in hedges. 
D. Ellisii has white flowers. 



Fam. 83. LABIATJS. 

Herb6, more rarely shrubs or nndershrubs, usually very 
aromatic with oil glands. Stems often 4-angled. L. oppo- 
site, sometimes whorled. Stipules 0. i^Z^. sub-regular and 4-5- 
merous, or usually irregular and 2-lipped usually ia con- 
tracted axillary cymes or whorled, more rarely solitary or 
few, cymes or whorls sometimes forming spikes and panicles 
from the reduction of the leaves or bracts. Calyx persistent, 
teeth 4-5 or ] 0, sometimes 2-lipped. Corolla tubular below. 
St. ^ or 2 more or less suppressed. Disc prominent. Ovary 
superior of 2 2- ovnled carpels, usually deeply 4-lobed, and 
each carpel ultimately dividing into 2 dry 1 -seeded lobes 
(nutlets). 

A. Fls. sub-regular, with flat corolla lobes, stamens straight diverging or 
ascending. Anther cells short, 1-celled. 

4»9 



83. LABIATJS, [1. Pogostbmoj 

Fla. in panicled sub-capitate cymes. FiUmentB bearded 1. Pogostemon. 
Whorls in dense panicled spikes. Fls. minute, whito^ 2. Colelroohia, 

B. Fls. distinctly 2-lipped. Stamens declinate. 

Whorls 6-8-fld. panicled. Lower cor, lip long boat* 
shaped • • 3. PledranthuB. 

Fls. in dense oblong spikes. Lower cor. lip long 
concave ....•..£• 4. Anisochilus. 

Cymes axillary and panicled. Lower cor, lip 3-lobed, 
mid-lobe saccate . . . . . • • 5. Syptis, 

C. Fls. distinctly 2-lipped. St. 4 didynamous ascending 
nnder the erect, often hooded, upper lip of the corolla 

Upper cor. lip nearly fiat. St. exserted . • ,6. Anisomeles. 

Upper cor. lip hooded, villous. 

Fls. white. Bracts not spinescent . • • . l.'Leiicas. 

Fls. scarlet. Bracts spinescent . • • .8. Leonotis. 

1. Pogostemon, Desf. 

1. p. plectranthoides, I^esf. Jin, Beng. 

An nnderslirab sometimes attaining 6 ft. h\gh. with large 
ovate acute coarsely crenate leaves and small white flowers 
conspicuous from the light-purple bearded stamens. Fls. 
in dense sub-capitate 1-sided bracteate cymes which are 
secund on the branches of a large panicle. 

In damp localities, somewhat local. It sometime forms dense thickets, 
as in the Karampoda forest in Singbhum. Along rivers in Santal 
Parganahs. It also occurs i^ ho hills. Fls. Jany.-Fehy. 

Btem with 4 rounded com«rs, glabrous or hairy. L. about 4^'' by 3J*. 
very sparsely hairy above and with a short mealy pubescence and minutely 
glandular beneath, but never hoary (as usually described). Sec, n. 4ro 
rs. very oblique, strong. Crenatures serrate. Cymes sub-globose about 
a'' long with narrow-oblong white-villous bracts, on a raceme with elliptic 
obovate or rhomboid decussate bracts. Calyx tubular j~^" glandular and 
hairy with 5 equal acuminate teeth. Upper lip of corolla with 3 rounded 
1 obes, lower entire lanceolate acute, 8t. 4 declinate villous at base and with 
pink jointed villi in the middle. Style 2-fid. 

The odour is strong, but chiefly from the inflorescence. 

490 



I 



CoLEBBOOKiA.] 83. ZABIATJE. [3. Plbctbanthus. 

3. Colebrookia, Smitli, 

1. C. Oppositifolia, Sm. Bhainsa, 5. 
A large spreading soft shrub 5-10 ft., with stout 
hitish branchlets, large white tomentose crenate leaves and 
bTj small white flowers densely whorled in pauicled spikes, 
he caljx teeth elongate and become plumose in fruit. 

Valleys; Singbhum; Eanchi (Pitorea), Wood; Hazanbap:!! (on 
irasnath, and yalleys in Koderma) ; Valleys in Santal Parganahs. Fla. 
sc.-Feby. Fr. Feby .-March. 

L. sometimes 3-nate, 4-8'' elliptic or elliptic-oblong 'acnminate 
ith about 12 prs. oblique sec. n. Feiiole ^-l^''. Spikes 2-i". Corolla 
inute 4-lobed. N«t</efs hairy. 

A preparation of the root is given in epilepsy, Camp. 

3. Plectrantlius, L'Herit. 

Herbs or shrubs. Fls. in 6-8-fld. racemed or panicled 
^mes. Calyx lobes 5 sub-equnl or 2-lipped, Corolla 2 -lipped, 
ibo exserted from the calyx often decurved, upper lip 
Bually short broad 2-4-fid recurved, lower much longer 
itire boat-shaped, narrow at the base. St, 4 declinate. 
Is. whit© densely crowded. Calyx equally 5-toothed . 1. ternifolius. 
la. reddish lax. Calyx 2 lipped 2. incanus. 

1. P. ternifolius, l^on. 

A shrub 3- 5 -ft. densely white tomentose all over, with 

krict eiect branches, opposite, or usually 3-nately whorled 

bortly-petioled lanceolate acuminate serrate rugose leaves 

-7" long and sub-sessile white flowers in dense cymes crowded 

1 panicled racemes. 

Parasnath in Hazaribagh, Fls. Nov.-Jany. 

1 Corolla very short villous, tube inflated and lips very short. Upper 
p 2-fid. with pink spots at the base. 

' 2. p. incanus, Link. 

An erect coarse herb or undershrub 3-4 f I", with square 
©ms, long-petioled velvety ovate cordate crenate leaves v. ith 

1 .491 



3. Plbcteanthxts.] 83. LABIATM [6. Anisomblss. 

a strongp smell, and terminal racemuso panicles of small pale 
lilac lipped flowers ^" long, arranged mostly in opposite 
pairs in the axil of a small f oliaceous bract. 

Waste ground near villasrea in Singbhum. Common near Mnhrui 
Eanchi. Sirguja, among dry rocks, Wood, Fls. 8ept.-0ct. 

Whole plant softly shortly puhescent. L. 2" by If" to 4," by 4" acute 
glandular punctate beneath. Petioles up to 3-4''. Calyx ^'' enlarged in 
frait with ap upper broad ovate lobe, and lower 4-8ubuIate-toothed lip. 
Corolla-tube slightly exsert. Pedicels ^-^". 

Anisochilus carnosus, Wall. Gitil ran, 8., is a herb 1-3 ft. high 
with very stout sterna belo-v. Branches 4-angled villous. Lower leaves 
4^" by 3i'', long petioled ovate crenate rather fleshy. Spikes 1-1^'' 4^ 
gonous in bud from the 4-ianked deciduous bracts, inflorescence with 
red glands. Corolla purple. Common on rocks Singbhum, Palamau, 
especially on limestone* 

5. Hyptis, Jacq. 

1. S. SUaveolens, PoU. Gangatulai,'^. 

A tall coarse strong-smelling herb 4-5 ft. with patently 

hairy obtusely 4-angled stems often |" diam., large ovate 

sinnate and erenate-denticulate leaves and small blue-lipped 

fl owers in axillary stalked cymes running out into terminal 

panicles. 

Waste ground. A native of America but quite naturalized and 
firequent throughout Chota Nagpur and the Santal Parganahs. Fls. Oct.' 
Nov. Fr. Dec.'Jany. 

Glandular. Lower leaves 4V by 3^'' slightly cordate- Calyx-tube i' 
in fruit, lO-nerved with 5 sul-equal sub-spinose teeth, tube with a 
hirsute margin inflexed in fruit, hairy and very glandular outside. 
Corolla nearly i'', upper lip shortly 2-lobed, lower 3»lobed, mid- 
lobe folded at base and saccate at apex. Nutlets compressed oblong- 
eraarginate ribbed, pointed below ^'' long. 

The plant, pounded, is applied in parasitical cutaneous diseaBes, 
CamphelL 

6. AnisomeleS) R. Br, 
1. A. ovata, B.Br. 

A coarse strong-smelling softly pubescent herb 3-6 ft. 
high with ovate coarsely crenate acumiaate leaves and 

492 



11 



t;. Anisomebes.] 85. LABIATM [" LBUcii. 

purplish flowers in axillary denaa flowered whorls and 
terminal spikes. 

Waate ground, frequent. Eanchi plateau ; S. P., common. Pla. Sept." 
Not. Fr. Bea.'Jany. 

Calyx ^'' hirgute -within and without, with sub-equal acuminate teetn. 
Corolla upper lip pale or greenish nearly flat entire, lower purple spreadinjf 
3-lobed, mid-lobe longest vertically compressed notched. St. exserted 
upper pair slightly longer with 1-celled antherg, lower 2-celled. Filament 
purple bearded. Nutlets a'a-rs" black polished. 

7. Leucas, R. Br. • 

Herbs or undershrubs, usually tomentose or villous with 
white flowers in axillary, more rarely terminal, whorls. Calyx 
lO-nerved, 6-10-toothed, mouth sometimes oblique. Coi*.- 
tube included. Upper lip erect hooded villous, lower spread- 
ing 3-fid, with very large mid-lobe. Anthers couniving, 
cells divaricate, at length confluent. Style simple. 

1. L-mollissima, Wall Gitil a:, Eo. ; Gitil arak', 8, 

An undershrub or he with many annual branches 
8*-2 ft. long from a perennial rootstock, with hairy or 
pubescent or almost tomentose shorfc petioled ovate or oblong 
crenate-serrate leaves about 2" by 1" and white flowers |' 
long in axillary 6^14-fld. whorls. 

Very common in rocky jungles, also in waste ground. FIb. fifept.-Dee. 
Ft. Nov.-Bec, 

Branches occasionally 4 ft. among undergrowth, 4-angled with 
reflexed appressed hairs. L. attaining 2\'' by H'', smaller upwards, acute 
or obtuse. Petiole H"- Calyx-tube \ ^" cylindric 10-ribbed, teeth 10 
Tery short, hispid (var. soaberula) or woolly. Cor. upper lip small, 
lower with two small recurved side lobes and a broad spreading loundcki 
mid -lobe. 

The leaves are eaten as a pot-herb. 

There are some 9 other species of Leucas in Chota Nagpur, mostly field 
weeds. Among these L. Cephalotes, Spreng, Andia durap arak', 8., Ib 
conspicuous from its large sub -globose terminal whorl with many large 
awned bracts. " The seeds of this yield a medicinal oil," CampbeU, a£d 
the leaves are eaten as a pot-herb. Fls. DecrJany. 

Ijeonotis nepetsBfolia, B. Br. Dare dhompo, janum dhompo, 8.^ iM 
» tall herb 4-7 ft. high usually occurring near villages, sometimes also in 

493 



7. LiucAS.] 8B. LABIATES. 

rocky waste gronnd, with large ovate crenate leaves and scarlet ffbwere ra 
dense globose axillary whorla with spinescent bracts and^spinescent caljrz 
teeth. FIb. Od.-Jany. 

*' The aah produced by bnxning the flower-btida is applied to bums uid 
•oalds," Camp. 



Fam. 84. RLBIACEJ!. 

Tre^, shrubs, or lierbs of various Labit witb opposite simple 
entire leaves witb interpetiolar stipules, more rarely wborled 
or mth intrapetiolar stipules. (Stipules sometimes incon- 
spicuons, esp. in fascicled leaves, or absent and replaced by 
leaves in Tribe Stellatae.) Calyx superior, sepals usually 4-5 
sometimes minute or 0. Corolla gamopetalous, petals 
usually 4-5. Si, isomerous, on the corolla tube ; anthers 
usually dorsifixed with lateral or introrse dehiscence. Disc 
epigynous. Ovary inferior 2- sometimes 5-10-celled, style 
simple ; ovules either 1 or numerous in each cell, rarely 2 or 
few, on axile placentsB. Fmit various, 2-lG-celled or of 
2«mQre pyrenes. Albumen fleshy or horny. 

A. Omles nnmerons in each cell. 

I. Kb. small in dense globose heads. Coroll'' 
fvnnel-fihaped ( Tribe NancleaB.) 

a. Bracteoles 0. Stipules and bads lanceolate. 

Sepals 5. Peduncles solitary . • • 1. Anthoce'phalvs. 

h. Brmcteoles between the flowersjaarrow. 

Stipules connate by their edges over the broad 
bad. 

Sepals Bobolate. Peduncles terminal solitary 
orpanicled 2. Navclea. 

Sepals linear. Peduncles az'Uary mostly 
3-nate , . . 3. Adina. 

Sepals 0. Peduncles lunate • • • 4. Btephegyne. 

(Mitragyna). 

n. Fls. not in dense globose heads. 

a. Ft. cap3ular 2-celled, or of 2-4 dehiscent 
or indehiscent cocci. Seeds small. 

Fls. in drooping thjrsoid panicles. Tree . 5. Hymenodidyon. 

494 



84. BUBIACEJS. 

FIb. in erect panicles, small, wHte. Small trees 6. WenSlandin, 

\ Fls. in clos9 or capitate cymes. Herts . 7. Hedyotis. 

\. Fr. indehiacent, a berry or drupe, some- 
times dry. 

1. Petals Talvate in bad. Fls. yellow, 

corymbose 8. Muttaenda. 

2. Petals twisted in bud. (Tribe Gardenieae) 

Stigma fusiform. Ovary 2-4-celled. Seeds 

many in eacb cell 9. Sandia. 

Stigma fusiform. Ovary 1-celled. Seeds many 10. Gardenia, 
Style-branches 2 linear. Seeds few . . 11. HyptiatUkera. 

B. Ovnle aclitary in each cell. 

L Corolla lobes twisted in bud. Fr. a 2-4rcelled 
berry or drupe, or with 2-4 pyrenes. (Tribe Ixoreaa.) 

a. Fls. corymbose or panicled. 

Style not twice as long as the corolla-tube . 12. Ixora, 

Style twice as long as the corolla . . . 13. Pavettcu 

6. Fls. axillary fascicled or solitary . . ..14. Cofea. 

tl. Corolla lobes valvate in bud. 
a. Erect trees or shrubs. 

1. Fls. small green or white, axillary, 
fascicled. 

Ovary 2-«elled. Stigma large mitrif orm. Fr. 

small black . . . . . .15. Canthium. 

Ovary 3-5-celled. Stigmas connate into a 

globose head. Fr. large green . . .16. Vangueria. 

Ovary 4-9-cell0d. Stigmas 4-9 short obtuse. 
Ft. small blue 17. Lasianihut* 

2. Fls. m.-s. in dense globose heads . . 18. Morpida, 

3. Fls. in terminal 3-chotomous panicled 

cymes 19. HamUlUmieL. 

h. Climbing foetid shrub with small white fls . .20. Pcederia, 
€. Herbaceous or sub-herbaceous. 

Tall herb 21. Knctefa, 

Scrambling herb, with leaves in whorls (Tribe 
Galiee) 22. Bubia. 

495 



I. AsTflOCEPHALUS.j 64. RUBIACUJS. [2. Nauc-ea. 

1. Ant]iocephalus> A. Kicbi 

1- A. Cadamba, Miq. Sanko, K. Kadam, 8., R. 

A large and (in the forest) very straight tree ^^■itIl spread- 
ing snb-whorled branches and large ell, -oblong or ovate, 
Bometimes cordate leaves 5-10'' long, small orange coloured 
flowers in dense heads with prominent styles and stigmas 
becoming in fruit a fleshy orange globose psendocarp 2-2^* 
diam. 

Valleys in Singbhtun, chiefly on- the Porahat plateau. Planted in 
Eaachi and elsewhere. Eli^. May-July. Fv. Aug.'Oot. Evergreen. 

L. shining above with nsnally sub-cordate base, o? where base acute 
leaf widest below the middle, eec. n. 8-15 prs. usually 12. Stipules narrow, 
lanceolate ^ |'' long. Sep. 5. ^g'a'' linear-oblanceolate. , Cor. J''. Antha. 
•piculate. Fls. without bracteoles. Ovary 4-oelled above, 2-celled below, 
pJacentsB twice bifid. Each fruit consists of 4 horny cocci above, which are 
separable from the fragile lower part and contain most of the ntwnerou* 
angular punctulate seeds (seeds few, fide F.B.I, but I have counted over 50 
from one. fruit). 

FBendocarp is eaten. 

3. Nauclea, L. 
1. N. purpurea, Boxh. 

A small tree with pale glabrous twigs and large oblong 
stipnles |-f" long enclosing the terminal bud as in Adina. 
L;5"by2i''*to 10" by 4f" elliptic ell. -lanceolate or ell.-oblanceo- 
late acute or sub-acute--^uite glabrous, shining above, base 
narrowed into the petiole. Sec. n. prominent beneath with 
glandular pits in the axils of some, other nerves obscure. 
Petioles |-l|"x rather slendei:. 

Eavines in the Santal Parganahs, very rare. 

Fls. not seen in the Santal Parganahs tree, hence there must, for the 
present, be some doubt of the identification. N. purpurea has not hitherto 
"been recorded north of the Circars. The stipules at onc6 distinguish it 
from Authocephalus. Qlandular-pits in the nerve axils are very rare and 
ebscure in Sarcoc 'phalus, absent in Authocephalus and Cephalanthua . 
but frequent in Adina, Stephegyne and Nauclea. 

496 



3. Nauclea.] 84. RUBIACE^. [4. Miteagtha. 

The floral characters of N. purptirea, Rozh. are as follows :— 

Heads \\" diam. terrainal 1-3 together on peduncles 2-3" long which are 
bracteate near the middle, the receptacle with conical bristle-like bracteoleB 
between the flowers. Calyx silky 5-lobed. Corolla tubular-funnel-shaped 
glabrous with short imbricate lobes. Fr\bit of 2 dehiscent many-seeded 
cocci. Testa winged, 

3. Adina, Salisb. 

1. A. COrdifolia. Sooh. f. Kumba, Ho. ; Kurumba, M. 
Karam, 8.., S, 

A large tree witb broadly ovate or orbicular cordate leaves 
4-8" long and broad and sub-orbicular stipules enclosing the 
terminal bud. Heads long peduncled usually in a vertical 
axillary row of three. Capsules of 2 cocci dehiscent from 
below and towards a persistent colamella. 

Fairly common in all districts and attains 7-8 ft. girth with a straight 
clean trunk in some of the Singbhum forests, especially on the tops of some 
of the more sheltered hills. 

Fls. June'July. Pr. Fehy.-May, Dec. Feby.-May. 

L. pubescent beneath with 5-8 sec. it., usually shortly abruptly acumi- 
nate. Petioles 2-3''. Peduncle with 2 small bracts. Heads |-1'' diam. 
Bracteoles filiform slightly clayate. Receptacle hairy ^" in fr. CorclUt- 
tt*6e i'' pubescent. Stigma sub-globose. 

A fair timber, but planks are apt to split badly on drying. 

4. Mitragyna, Kortb (Stephegyne, Korth). 

1. M. parvifolia, Korth ; S. parvifolia, Korth ; Sande- 
kumba, Ho. ; Guni, M.^ Kheria ; Guri, Kharw,, H, ; Gore, 8* 

A mod. -sized tree with silver-grey twigs, broadly ell. 
obtuse leaves 4-6" by S-A" and oblong keeled stipules covering 
the buds, deciduous. Heads of fls. 1" diam. 2- 3- together or 
solitary, each with 2 pale- coloured leaves (bracts) near the 
top of the peduncle. Capsules of 2 dehiscent cocci, as in 
Adina. 

Frequent in all districts, chiefly in the villages. Pis. May-June. Pr 
following March and April, but ripe seed also oollectod in Nov. Deoi» 
duous May. 

497 



4. MiTBAQTNA.] 8i. BUBIACEM, [6. Wendlandia. 

L. glabroTia except near the axils of the 7-10 prominent nerves, base 
ronnded. Petides |-1'', Fls. surrounded by palaeaceous bracteoloa. 
Heads f diam. in frtiit. 

It is sometimeB pollarded for fodder, 

5. Hynienodictyon, Wall. 

1. H. excelsum, Wall. Borkauda, K. ; Bhorkond, 5., 
Kharw,; Bharkul, H".; Bharwar, Gond. 

A large or mod.-sized tree with leaves at the ends of the 
branches ovate to very broadly elliptic 4-10" by 3-6", Fls. 
greenish, crowded in dense sab-erect or drooping tomentose 
panicles 3-6" long, which are subtended by a pair of spread- 
ing long petioled leaf -like bracts. Capsules |-|" long ovoid 
or ellipsoid loculicidal. 

Common usually in dry rocky situations, but also in valleys. In 
all districts. Fls. Aug. Fr. ripens Jany. ? It is leafless from^ou. to May 
when it may be easily recognized by its large pyramidal persistent 
panicles of small dry reflexed capsules and by the dry persistent pair of 
foliaceous bracts. 

L. softly pubescent, abruptly acuminate, base acute, sec. n. 7-10 prs. 
Stipules deciduous. Petiole 1-4)''. Calyx-tube with sepals ^a''. Corolla i" 
with a very slender tube and small campanulate limb. Ovary 2-celled. 
Style slender exserted. 

" The inner bark and root are given in fever of the tertian type," 
CampbelL 

6. Wendlandia, Bartl. 

Small trees or shrubs. Fls. small white in terminal dense 
panicles, 2-3-bracteola.te. Sepals 4-5, small persistent. 
Corolla with long or short tube and 4-5 lobes imbricate in 
bud. Ovary 2-celled, Ovules on small globose axile 
placentae. Capsule small globose 2-valved with minute 
compressed seeds. 

1. W. exserta, D-G, Tilai, K.; Hundm, S. (The Kols and 
Santals reverse the names of these trees); Tiruwa, Mai Pah. 

A handsome small tree, hoary-pubescent or tomentose all 
over, with oblong- or ovate-lanceolate acuminate leaves, 

498 



I 



S, Wbhdlandia.] 84. BUBIACEJE. [8. Mussskda. 

persistent recnrved stipules, and panicles of very fragrant 
small white flowers. 

Common, esp. in second-growth forest and on "broken ground. Light 
iemanding. Fls. Jfarc?i-Jpnl. ^x. Avril-^ay, livergreen. 

L. 4-8" by l-2i" with 12-16 prs. of prominent sec. nerres- Corolla-lohn 
.qnger than the tube. Capsules hoary pubescent xV' diam* 

2. W. tinctoria, D-G, Hnndru, Undrn, K. ; Tilai, 8. 

A small tree or shrub, mnch branched, with nearly 
^labrons ell., oblong or obovate leaves 4-8" by 2-3|" acnte, 
Qarrowed into the petiole. Stipules |" erect orbicular with 
laterally flattened acumen. Corolla |- J" long, lobes much 
jhorter than the tube. 

• \ ery common in Sal foreBts. Shade-bearing. FIb. Jany. -March. Fr. 
ilarch-A'pril. Evergreen. 

L. shining above, pubescent on the 8-12 prs. of sec. nerves beneath* 
Petiole i-f. Panicles 6-8''. The iiowers open before the corolla-tuba 
.engthens. Capsules somewhat pubescent, brown, rather larger than in 
;he last. 

7. Hedyotis, L. 
1. H. vestita, Br. 

Diffuse herb 1-3 ft. from a slender twisted nodoso 
tuberose rootstock with pubescent or sub- villous branches, 
jlliptic soft pubescent leaves 2-3" by f -1'' and small flowers ia- 
ixillary 3-5-nate cymes, - - 

Sal forest, Latua block, etc., in the valleys. Fls. Od.-Nov. Fr. Dec. 

Petiole ^''. i6f%w?es connate below with 1-3 excurrent setse |-:^''long. 
lymes^-^". Calyx-tube glohoae. Sepals 4-, -^Y'. Fr. indehiscent. 

H. hispida and H. pinifolia are small annual species common 
n Sal forest and open ground, but of very different habit. 

8. Mussaenda, L, 
1. M. incana, Wall. 

An undershrub 1-3 ft. densely clothed with appressed 
bairs, with ell. ovate or oblong hairy leaves 4J" by 2|" and 

499 



8. MtjsszendaJ 84. BUBIACFJE.* [9. Randii. 

Bub-sesBile corymbose cymes of chrome-yellow flowers, 
remarkable from one of the sepals being large foliaceous and 
cream coloured. Berry §' diam., with adpressed hairs. 
Seeds minute. 

Forests on the Porahat plateau, rare. Pis. July-Aug.l^r. Sept. -Oct. 

If. pale beneath, acute or snb-acnte, nearly sessile, base acute or 
ronnded, nerves strong 9-10 prs. 

M. macrophylla, Wall., a considerable shrub, also conspicuous by 
its large white calyx leaves, is cultivated in gardens in Eanchi (fide 
Wood.) The species usually cultivated in the plains is M.Roxburghii, 
Hoohf., which may be distinguished from M.^macrophylla by its persistent 
sepals, those of M. macrophylla are deciduous in fruit. 

9. Raudia, L. 

Small trees or shrubs, often armed with strong axillary 
thorns. L. often fascicled on short branchlefcs. Fls. large 
or m.-s. solitary or fascicled or in axillary or leaf-opposed 
cymes, white turning yellow. Often dimorphic. Anthers 
Bub- sessile, liaear or oblong. Ovary 2-rarely 3-4- celled. 
Stigma usually large, fusiform. Fruit a 2-celled many- 
seeded berry. 

Calyx-lobes linear, L. ovate. Berry small, black . . 1. fasciculata. 

Calyx-lobes ovate to obovate. L. obovate. Berry ^-li" . 2. dumetorwn. 

Calyx-lobes short sub-orbicular. L. obovate to oblong. 
Berry 2" 3. uliginosa. 

1- R. fasciculata, -0.0. 

A shrub or small spreading tree with ovate or elliptio 
acuminate leaves 1-3", straight slender axillary thorns, 
white flowers f-l|" diam. with a slender corolla- tube |-1 J* 
long, and small purple-black berries ^", slightly contracted 
upwards with a* prominent disc. 

Valleys in Singbhum. Fls. April-May. Fr. ripens following Jany.- 
Fehy. 

Twxgs pubescent. L. nearly glabrous exc. mid-rib beneath, sec. n. 3-4 
pra. Petiole i"*. flttpule* linear caducous. Fls. 1-few together axillary. 
Calyx hirsute. 

600 



9. Bjlndi A. ] 84. B UBIACE^. 

E. tetrasperma, Bent^. & Hoofc./. Kota, K, mentioned in Manson'i 
list as occurring in Lohardugga, is probably E. fasciculata. 

2. R. dumetoram> Lamh. Potu, Ho ; Potab, K.; 
Portolio, M. ; Loto, Boi bindi, S. ; Mowan, Kharw. ; Saro, if oi 
Tah. 

A small tree or sbmb with oblanceolate to obovate obtnee 

Or shortly acuminate leaves, fascicled on the old branches 

and especially in young plants, armed with straight axillary 

thorns. Fls. white, J-IJ" diara. turning yellow, with a short 

campanulate corolla-tube f-|" and ultimately reflexed 

obovate or oblanceolate lobes. 

Common eep. in the valley forests. Fls. April-June. Fr. Aug.-Jany, 
Dec. March-A'pril. 

L. 1-3" or Bometimea np to 5'' by 2'' (including the petiole) glabrous 
or pubescent, narrowed into the short petiole. FU. solitary terminal on 
new shoots or (in one variety in Singbhum) in 3-4-fld. sessile cymes, 
Bubsessile ot with pedicels i". Fr. yellow when ripe globose or ovoid li'' 
diam. crowned by the calyx-tube. 

The fruit is used to intoxicate fish. It is also occasionally eaten 
according to some authorities, but the Kols say that it is not edible, and 
though it has a pleasant smell, it produces a most uncomfortable burning 
in the throat.^ Campbell states that it is applied externally in fever and 
that the bark is given internally and externally for fever, and that it is 
also used as a dye. 

There are believed to be at least two very distinct varieties included 
under this name (Cp. Gamble, Manual of Indian Timbers, 2nd Ed., p. 415). 
It is possible, however, that the solitary and cymose flowers correspond 
with sexual forms, as in Gardenia spp. 

3. R. nliginosa, I^'G, Kumbikum, K. ; Pinde, 8. j 
Pindar, Kharw.; Mohwan {Koderma) ; Pindaro, Mai Pah. ; 
Piralo, Beng. ; Perar, H. 

A small tree or a shrub with thick black branch lets, 
handsome when in flower, with large elliptic or obovate 
fascicled leaves 2-8" by 1-4" and numerous solitary pure 
white flowers 1-2" diam. Berry large ellipsoid 2-2^" grecD 
or yellowish. 

^ Since writing the above the reprint of Mr. Innes's Famine Foods find. 
Forester, February 1908) has appeared. He states that th6 unripe fruit is 
boiled and eaten, but the ripe fruit is rather poisonous. 

501 



9. Bandia. ] 84. BUBIACEJS. 1 10- Gabdenu. 

Valleys; Singbhnm, • Manbhnm, Hazaribagh, Palaman, Santal 
Patj^anahs ; not nncommon. Fls. May-July. Fr. Dec.-Feby. Deciduona. 
Feby. -April. L. turn colour Dec.-Jany. 

Sometimes thorny. L. obtuse narrowed into the short petiole. Fls. 
dimorphic, large and sessile or small and peduncled, but many Eandiaa 
▼ary considerably in these characters. Some flowers Ij' have a peduncla 
over 1''. The corolla of the large flower has a ring of hairs inside and a 
fusiform 2-lobed stigma, that of the small form has a very short tube 
glabrous within and an entire stigma. 

The fruit la eaten and makes a good vegetable when cooked. 



10, Gardenia, L. 

i'rees or shrubs, armed with axillary thorns in a few 
species. L. opp. or 3-nately whorled, or sometimes fascicled 
in the thorny species. Fls. large or m.-s. naaally solitary 
axillary, more rarely fascicled or terminal, often dimorphic, 
white, or tnrcing yellow. Petals 5-12. St. as many, 
anthers fiub-sessile, linear, included. Ovary 1 -celled. Style 
Btout, stigma clavate or fusiform, sometimes 2-cleft. 
Placent£3 2-3, fruit a berry or drupe, many-seeded. 

A. Thorny. Small tree? or shrubs. Pis. 

1^" or less in diam. dimorphic. 

A tree. Corolla salver-shaped. Endocarp bony . 1. turgida. 

Shrub. CoroLa-tube campanulate. Endocarp not 

bony .2. campanulata. 

B. Unarmed. Fls. 24^-" diam. 

L. H ~ 3^". Usually a shrub . . , • 3. gwnmifera. 
L. 4-10''. Usually a tree 4, latifolia. 

1. G. turgida^ Boxh. Dudni, Durdi, K.; Dundukit', S.; 
Karhar, Kharw., Oraon ; Kharkar, Mai Pah ; Dhauuk, T. 

A straight erect small tree with white or pale-grey bark 
and rigid branches armed with sharp straight thorns. L. 
1-4" elliptic or nsually obovate, glabrous or pubescent 
beneath, or (Var. • montana) often orbicular and densely 
tomentose beneath, 1-4" long. Male flowers s^ib-solitary or 
fascicled, |-1" diam. ; female solitary, about f"-l" diam. 
length of tube variable, fruit large globose l|-3'' diam% 

502 



10. Gabbenia. ] 84. RVBIACE^. 

grey-green with fleshy pericarp and thin woody or bony 
endocarp, with 5 or 6 placentjse and densely packed with 
hard angnlar seeds. 

Abundant in dry forests, esp. on slopes of clay and quartz-stones. 
Also frequent in second growth forest. Fls. April-May, mostly when 
leafless, but also at other times. Fr. takes about a year to ripen. 
Deciduous March-May. 

L. narrowed into a short petiole. Calyx of male truncate, or* with 
minute teeth, of female campanulate with lanceolate, ovate or f oliaceous 
teeth. 

Fruit sometimes eaten. 

A membranous-leaved glabrous variety with elliptic or ell.-obovate 
leaves with the sec. n. all oblique and parallel (not sub-'flabellato as in 
the common form) is indistinguishable from G. campanulata except by the 
flowers. F. fl. only f" diam., tube not exserted. I suspect Eoxburgh may 
have been right in making two species. "iThe fruit is wrongly described 
by authors as always beaked, the beak may entirely disappear. 

2. 6. campanulata, Boxh. 

Has only been recorded from Parasnath (by Sir J* D. 
Hooker and Anderson). • 

If. membranous ell.-obovate or oblanceolate. M. corolla under |* 
diam. campanulate. F. ^-^'' diam. with very short lobes. Calyx-teeth 
linear-lanceolate. Fr. |-lj'' diam. 

3. G. gummifera, Lf. Bnrnri, 1/. ; Burni, Eo. 
Brum, Bhumij. 

A handsome shmb, eometimes 12 ft. with sub- sessile 
shining oblong to obovate leaves l|-3" and, at certain 
seasons, a clear drop of gnm completely covering the leaf- 
buds. Large white nearly sessile flowers with a tube 2-21* 
lopg and 5 oblong lobes 1-lf by ff. Fr. 1-lf beaked 
with the calyx. 

In most of the distripts, but peculiarly local. It occurs sub-gro- 
gariously on many of the dry hills with a clay soil covered with quarta 
fragments in Singbhum, Manbhum and Gangpur, but is absent from the 
Tundi hills and the Santal Parganahs. Fls. March-May. esp. in April, 
when the bushes are bare of leaves. Fr. June-July. 

* Mr. Innes says boiled and eaten when unripe chiefly in Jul^ 
Augwt. When ripe becomes rather poisonous. 

503 



10. Gardenia.] 84. RUBIACEJE. [ 11. Hyptiabtheba. 

L. often cordate at base with 12-16 prs. of sec. n. Stipules connate 
trnncate. Fls. 1-3-together apparently terminal Calydt with a tubular 
limb about i" long and triangular acute keeled teeth. Corolla-tube 
often pubescent. Endocarp hard tiiin. 

It yields a clear yellow resin from wounds in the bark. The fruit if 
eat«n. 

4. G. latifolia, Ait on. Papa, Ro. ; Papara, M, ; Popro, 
B.; Papar, E^^ar 07. ; Pempri, Mai Pah. 

A small tree with a round low crown of large opp. or 3- 
nate broadly- ejlip. or orbicular obtuse leaves and large 
solitary white flowers 3-4}" diam. Fr. l|-2" diam. crowned 
by the calyx. 

On the 'hills, Singbhum ; Manbhum ; Hazaribagh (Sitagarh Hill) ; 
Santal Parganahs (often on trap hills). Fls. chieflv in April when leafless, 
and with new leaves in May but also at other times. Fr. young found 
at all times from December to June, ripens about 8 months after flower- 
ing? Chiefly in the rains. Deciduous March- April. 

Bark whitish. Twigs very stout and buds gummy. L. sub-sessile, 
see. n. about 12 prs. glandular-hairy in the axils beneath. Stipules large. 
Calyx tube mealy, limb campanulate with unequal teeth. CoroUa-tub$ 
2-3'' pubescent. Petals 5-9, heavy-scented. Endocarp woody. 

The tree is remarkably xerophytic. The seeds often germinate in the 
erevices of bare rocks, over which the stem forms a large cashioQ. 
Gamble states that it is frequently epiphytic on large trees. 

The fruit is eaten. 



11. Hyptianthera, W, & A. 
1. H. stricta, Tf . ^ X 

A shrub, or small tree attaining 16-20 ft. with sharply 
4-angled horizontal decussate branchleta (terete according 
to F.B.I.)y spreading lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate acumi- 
nate glabrous leaves 3-6" by |-1|'', small white sessile flowers 
in axillary fascicles and black globose- oblong berries j-iV' 
diam. crowned by the linear acute calyx lobes. 

Cool valleys, rare, Singbhum ; Morjhora, Bhera nadi (east of Chandna) 
and other ravined in Santal Parganahs. Fls. April-May. Fr. ripens 
F«by. -March, Evergreen. 

504 



11. HiPTiiifTHEEA. ] 84. RVBIACEJS. [12. Ixoba. 

L. often i:ndnlate glabrous and shining "both sides, (or nerves beneat)i 
pnbescent F.B.J.) sec. n. 6-7 prs, slender, others obscnre. Petiole {-\". 
Stipules acuminate persistent, hairy. Corolla-tuhe ^'' hairy within, with 
4-5 spreading lobes. Style included 2-fid. Ovary 2-celled. ^eeds 4-5 
in each cell, somewha.t angled with a characteristic fibrous testa, about 
i" diam. fleah of unripe fruit viacoua. 

13, Ixora, L. 

Small trees or shrubs with opp. or temate leaves and 
flowers \rx terminal 3-chotomou8 often corymbose cymes, 4- 
very rarely 5-meroTis. Calyx-tube ovoid, limb persistent. 
Corolla-tnbe very long and slender with 4 spreading lobes. 
Stamens on the month with usually very short filaments and 
slender linear anthers. Ovary 2-celled style filiform, exsert ; 
stigma slender fusiform with 2 branches. Fruit with 2 
coriaceous pyrenes. Seeds peltate. 

L. acuminate. Lower cyme-branches 2" long or more • 1. undulata. 
L. rounded at apex. Lower cyme-branches under 2'' long . 2. parvijlora. 

1. I. undulata, Boxh. Kota, K.? 

A large shrub with oblong or lanceolate shining leaves 
6-9" by l|-3'' and lax brachiate panicles with slender- peduncled 
branches of white flowers -jV long with linear petals. 
Fr. J" diam dull-DurpIe or slate, with two plano-convex 
pyrenes. 

Near streams ; Saranda forests and also in Manbhnm and Hazari- 
bsigh ; Santal Parganahs common. Fls. April-May. Fr. ripens Aug.-Sept. 
Evergreen. 

L, with undulate margins, glabrous, acute or acuminate. Petiole ^-1*. 
Stipules broad with slender compressed cusps. Panicles pubescent witli 
a pair of reduced leaves at their base, sessile or long peduncled, 6-8'' with 
lowAT internodes 2-3" long. .Fl.^uds ^'' slender. 

2» I, parviflora, VahL Pete, K. ; Merom met', 8.; 
Datranjin, Kharw, ; Kholan, Qhatw. ; Kontbra, Mai Pah ; 
Kota Gandhal, Loha jangia, H. j Rangan, Beng. 

Usually a small tree with smooth very coriaceous oblong 
or elliptic sub-sessile leaves 3-6* by J|-2^'' and compact 

505 



12. IxoEA. ] 8i. RUJBIACE^. [ 14. Coffba. 

panicles of smallish white sessile scented flowers J'' long 
with. 4-5 linear-oblong lobes |'' long. Fr. J-|" diam. 
depressed globose black shining. 

Common, often in Sal forest, Singblium, Gangpur, Manblinm, Palamau, 
Santal Parganahs, etc., in drier localitiea than the last. Common on 
eotton soil. 

FIb. March-May, Pr. May- June. Everg3?Ben. 

L. ohtuse with rounded or cordate base, glabrous. Fanidea 2-6'. 
Anthers linear tailed. 

The fruit i3 eaten. Brandis states that the green branches are used 
as torches. The fruit is described as didymous in the F. B. I. 

13. Pavetta, L. 

1. P. indica, ^^ Sikriba :, sikiba:, K. j Buddhi ghasse' 
8. f Barhi, Kharw. ; Jui, Beng. 

A large shrub or small branched tree with ell. or obovafce 
softly pubescent leaves '3-8" long and large trichotomona 
corymbose panicles of slender white flowers ^- J" long and 
very slender styles exserted f-l" beyond the corolla throat, 
Frait globose black |'' diam., with 1-2 pyrenes. 

Valleys and shady slopes in the forests, all districts, but not very 
common. Fla. June-Aug. Fr. Oct.-Dec. and shrivelled berries may be 
found later. 

L. acute or obtuse, rarely acuminate in Chota Nagpur speoimena , 
base cuneate, sec. n. 11-15 prs. strong ; petiole j-V, stipules broad. 
Panicles pubescent. Petals oblong ^". 

A form found along the Konor nadi, Hazaiibagh had leaves tomento$$ 
beneath. 

14. Coffea, L. 

1. C bengalensis, Roxh. 

A shrab 3-4 ft. high with bright green ovate acnminate 
leaves 3-4" by 2- 2 J", setaceous stipules and pure white salver- 
shaped flowers 1-14" <iiam. with tube J" long. Fr. an ovoid 
drupe \"t 1-2-seeded. Seed grooved. ' 

Forming semi-thicketd in damp low ground under dense shade, in 
Singbhum, but rare. Its habit in other parts of Bengal is rather that of 

606 



i 



U. CoFFEA. ] Si.BUBIACE^. [ 16. Vangueeu. 

a small underslirub in the open. Fla. with the new leaves April'Ma}} . Fr. 
Feby.' April. Dec. Fehy.- April. 

L. puhescent on the ribs beneath (at least when yonng). Base con- 
tracted. Petiole o'i''. Fls. 2-3 in a terminal fascicle sessile. Calyx-limh 
obsolete or of several minute glandular teeth. Anthers slightly exserted, 
iessile, i" long, apiculate. Stjle short, stigma 2-fid. 

2. Carabicfti L. The Coffee is cultivated on the Ranchi 
plateau. 

The leaves are 4-6" long, bifariona shining and the corolla 
funnel-shaped. 

15. Ganthiam, Lamk. 

1. C. didymanii Boxh. Jur, K, Garbha gojha, iS. 

A small tree with spreading or drooping branchlets flattened 
above, bifarious dark-green ovate or lanceolate-ovate acumin- 
ate leaves 4-6'^ by 2|-3" and greenish flowers in very dense 
shortly-peduncled corymbose cymes. Fr, black globose J*^ 
diam. with two pyrenes. 

A very common tree along the sdgoa of dry wateroonraea, Gtc.» in 
Singbhum ; Manbhum ; Santal Parganaha ; Sirguia. Wood . 

Fls. Fehy.- April. Fr. May. Evergreen, 

L. dark-green shining above pale beneath with 4 prs. distinct seo. n. 
with large axillary glands. Petiole ^". Corymbs pubescent (always ?) 
peduncle with 2 connate bracta. Pedicels J-V in fruit. Fls. 5-merouB. 
Calyx truncate or minutely toothed. Corolla \" diam. rotate with cam- 

Sanulate tube woolly within and lanceolate lobea. St. on the throat. 
tyle long, stigma mitriform. Ovary 2-Cdlled. Stones slightly ragose. 

The fruit is eaten. 

The Chota Nagpur variety appears to differ from the type in some of 
the leaves having glandular axils, and in the fruit (vide F.B.I.) not being 
didymous. 

36, Vangncria, Joss. 

1- V. spinosa, Boxh. Serali, Kataiara, K, ; Boi-bindi; 5. 
Monphal, Kharw. ; Mainphal, R. 

A small tree or shrub, often with long straight spines, 
ovate ell. or oblong acute or acuminate leaves 3-4'' rarely 

507 



16. Vanqtteeu. ] 84, RUBIACEM. [ 18. Moeinda. 

few 6" by 3" (ouly 1|-2|" at time of flowering),^ small green 
flnb-globose flowers in dense axillary cymes, and globose 
fruits 1-1|" diam., marked with a large apical areola. 

Singbhnm, valleys, not very common ; frequent in both Manbhnm and 
Hazaribagh, ofteu on the hills; Ranchi; Santal Parganaba. Fls. A^ril-May 
with the, new leaves, ^x. Aug. -Oct. Deo. March-A'prU. L. turn yellow 
Jany. 

Twigs nearly glabrous and leaves hairy or pubescent. L. often 
fascicled. Fl.-buds ovoid-oblong constricted, crowned with the cusps of 
the petals. Calyx-tube very short, teotji 5 linear, spreading. Corolla-tuba 
ji'' both ways, lobes triangular cuspidate, throat villous with white jointed 
hairs. Anthers introrse sub-sessile on the throat. Ovary 5 -celled, free 
above. Style exsert. Stigma large globose. Drupe ( i-1'' diam,/. 
Brandis) wi.th 1-5 woody pyrenes. 

The ypung leaves are eaten as a vegetable, the fruit is also eaten. 

A form niearly resembling the glabrous type is found in the Santal 
Parganahs ; the ordinary Chota Nagpur plant belongs to the var. mollis 
(P.B.I.^ and is very pubescent and sometimes unarmed. Some spinous 
forms closely resemble the large-leaved variety of Eandia dumetorum, 
and the fruit is sometimes said to kill fish, possibly through confusion 
with tbe Bandia. 

17. LasianthuS) Jack. 
1. L. lancifolius, Hooh, /. 

A shrub 4-6 ft. somewhat resembling Hyptianthera, with 
appreesed shortly-pnbescent branchlets, lanceolate acuminate 
leaves about 5J'' by IJ" and axillary fascicles of sessile 
inconspicuous white flowers. Fruit blue succulent ovoid 
downy surmounted by the calyx- tube, with 5-4 l-seeded 
pyrenes. 

Deep shady valleys in the Tholokabad forest, Singbhum. Very rare. 

Fl., Fr. 4pril-May. 

L. often undulate and variegated yellow, pubescent on the nerves 
beneath, narrowed both ends, with 7-9-prs. of oblique arched sec. n. 
etrong beneath and numerous sub-parallel cross nervules. Fetiolel-i". 
Calyx. 3-toothed or truncate in fruit. Corolla tubular, densely pubescent 
within with 5 sessile anthers, sometimes calyptrate. Overy 4-5-celled. 
Ovule basal erect. 

18. llorinda, L, ^ 

Trees or shrubs. Fls. in peduncled heads more or less 
coherent. Calyx-tube short truncate or with one foliaceous 

508 ^ 

i 



18. MoEiNDA. ] 84. RUBI4CEJE. [ 19. Himiitonu. 

sepal. Corolla salver- shaped, petals 4-7, nsnally 6. Fil. phort. 
Disc pulvinate. Ovary 2- rarely 4-celled. Style slender. 
Stigmas 2 narrow. Pseudocaip consisting of the connate 
succulent fruits of the several flowers each with 2-4 l-seeded 
pyrenes or a 2-4-celled putamen. 

1. M. tinctoria, Boxh, Syn. M. citrifolia (Brandia, in 
"Forest Trees" ?) ChaHi, K., S, ; Sali, M. ; Al, ach, E. 

A small tree 15-25 ft. with large ovate obovate or broadly 
elliptic leaves or upper oblanceolate and white flowers in 
solitary or 2-nate leaf- opposed or terminal stalked heads. 
Pseudocarp whitish- green. 

Valleys in Singbhnm and Santal Farganahs. Near villagea in Man> 
bhum. Fls. May. -Sept. Fr. Jany.-Fehy. 

Bark cracked. Twigs light brown, oblong in section. 

L. 6-11'' by 4-6'' shortly suddenly acuminate and base suddenly 
narrowed into the 1" petiole. Stipules acute or acuminate. Corolla J-1'' 
diam., tube ^ — |'' long. 

2. M. tillctoria» Boxh. Var. tomentosa. Syn. M. 
tomentosa, Heyne ; Chaili, K., 8. 

A laffge shrub or small tree with pubescent branchleta, 
elliptic tomentoso or pubescent not shining leaves 4-6" by 
lj-2i". Stipules caudate. 

Valleys in Singbhum, undoubtedly wild. Fls. May- June, 

A very different looking tree from the last, but usually united with iit 
The bark of the roots is collected for dyeing. 

19. Hamiltonia, Hoxb. 

1. H. suaveolens, Boxb. Selauli, Sarkapi, K.; Kudia, K. 
(f. Gamble). 

Shrub, foetid when bruised, sometimes 6 ft. high 
(15 ft. in Santal Farganahs) with erect branches, stiff leaves 
4-9' by 1^-3" and large terminal tri-chotomous panicles of 
small sweet-scented 4-5-merous lilac* flowers. Fr. a 5-valved 
capsule, 1-celled from the absorption of the Septa, with 1-5 
3-quetrous seeds. 

509 



19. Ham' .onu. ] 8i. RUBIACEM. [21. KnoxU. 

Singbhum, on rocks on northern aspects, Manbhnm ; Hazaribagh ; 
Eanchi ; Santal Parganahs. Fls. Aug.-Jany. 

L. elliptic-lanceolate or -oblong, or ovate acnte, morl or less pubescent 
beneath with 16-20 pra. strong sec, nerves and reticulate nervnles. 
Petiole 4-|''. Fls. capitate on the branches of the panicle ^-f long 
pubescent. Calyx hairy with linear sepals. Ovary 5-celled. Style 
filiform, 5-fid above. Ovule basal erect in each cell. 

The root is used in diarrhoea and cholera. The flowers are mach 
frequented by Humming-bird Hawk moths. 



30. PaedfTia, L. 

1- P. foetida, L- Gandhali, JET.; Gandha bhadnlia, -Ben^. 
(Id allusion to the smell). 

A slender wiry climbing foetid shrub with ell. -ovate acute 
or acuminate leaves 3-4" by 2", nearly sessile dingy- 
purple tubular-fannel- shaped i3s. ^" long in axillary and 
terminal cymose panicles. Fruits dry compressed with a thin 
fragile veined epicarp separating from 2 oblong compressed 
winged pyrenes. 

Mixed forest and scrub. , Eanchi -Manbhum ghats ; Ranchi Hill near 
Pitorea, Wood. Fls. Aug.-Od. Fr. Dec. 

L. glabrous with rounded or sub-cordate base. Petioles 1-2'^ often 
twisted. Panicles 4-6" pubescent. Calyx-lobes 4-5 small obtuse. Petah 
ith as long as the corolla tube oblong with white incurved crisped 
margins, tube glandular hairy within. Bt. in the tube. Ovary 2-celled. 

21. Knoiia, L. 

Erect herbs or undershrubSj stems with 2 lines of hairs. 
Stipules connate with the petioles into an entire or bristly 
sheath. Fls. very small cymosely or spicately arranged on the 
branches of the corymbose cymose panicles. Sepals 4 minute. 
Corolla-tube long, throat villous, petals 4. St. in the tube. 
Ovary 2-celled. Fruit dry of 2 indehiscent cocci, which 
Bometimes remain united, the whole fruit separatit g from a 
slender persistent columella which leaves a perforation 
through the axis, or columella deciduous. 

510 



21. Knoxia.] 84. BUBIACEJE. 

1. K. corymbosa, WUU. 

Erect sparingly branched 1-4 ft. with longlnarrow sessile or petioled 
leaves and minute white or purple flowers spicato on the cyme-branches. 
Fruit separating from the persistent columella. 

Very common, attaining its largest size in damp raTinea. Fla. Aug.' 
Oct. Fr. Oct -Dec. 

2. K brachycarpra, BL 

Erect strict herb 2-4 ft. with sessile linear-oblong obtuse leaves 2-4* 
by i-f ." Cymes capitate or open. Fls. not apicate. Frnit falling away 
with the columella. 

Paraanatb, Train. 

22, Rubia, L. 
1. R. cordifolia, L. 

A herb scrambling by means of its scabrid stems and whorled ovate- 
cordate loug petioled leaves. Fls. minute yellow in panicled cymes. 
Corolla rotate. Ovary 2-celled. Frt. i-^'' diam. fleshy, didymous or 
globose from the suppression of one carpel. 

Paraanatb- Anders. 

FaiK.85. COMPOSITE, 

Shrubs or usually herbs, very rarely trees. L. usually alter- 
nate, generally simple, stipules 0, base of petiole sometimes 
sheathins:. Flowers clustered into dense heads resembling 
single flowers, heads surrounded with an involucre of bracts. 
Fls. in a bead all similar, i.e., either all tubular or all ligulate 
or dissimilar^ i.e., either inner tubular and outer ligulate or 
outer of much more slender tubes (and sometimes with a 
different number of petals) than the inner. Calyx 0, or a 
pappus or scales. Anthers connate. Ovary quite inferior 
Ucelled. Ovule 1, basal, erect, anatropous. Fruit djy 
Bdehi scent. 

Some 60 species oconr in Ch. Nagpur, nearly all herbs, of which only 
k few of the most striking are here mentioned. 

Heads with the fls. all tubular, similar and 
bisexual. Not spinous. 

L. alt. Fls. purple. Pappus long . 1, Vemonia. 
L opp. Fls. lilac. Pappus paleaceous 2. Agtratsim 

511 



85. COMPOSJTJE, [ 1. Veekofu 

II. Heaas with the fls. all tubular and similar, 

often dioecious. L. and invol. bracts apinous . 3. Cnicui. 

III. Heads with the fls. all tubular, but outer filiform 

2-3toothed and much more slender than the 
inner which are 5-lobed or toothed. 

a. Anther lobes without (or with short free) tails. 

Style arms of center fls. terminated by a oone . 4. Conyza. 
Style arms not terminated by a cone . . 5. Laggera. 

b. Anther lobes each with a tail, the tails of adjacent 

anthers Connate, BO that there are 5 in all . .. €. Blu1nea^ 

IV. Heads with the outer fls. ligulate, inner tubular. 

a. Receptacle not paleaceous. Pappus present . 7. Vicoa. 
h. Receptacle paleaceons. Pappus or of bristles. 

5 outer invol. bracts large spathu late glandular . 8. Biegesheikia. 

Outer invol. bracts subequal, inner paleaceous. 

Fls. large yellow 9. Guizotia. 

Outer invol. bracts small, inner membranous. 

Ray fls. white 10. Bidens. 

1. Vernonia, Schreb. 

Shrubs or herbs or (not in Chota Nagpar) small trees 
with alt. often toothed leaves and purple (sometimes white) 
dowers. Invol. ovoid, globose or campanulate, bracts 
many-seriate, inner longest. Receptacle naked or shortly 
hairy. Corolla slender tubnlar or narrow-cam pamil ate above^ 
lobes 5. Anthpr bases sagittate or tailed or obtuse (F.B.I,), 
Frt. striate, ribbed or angled, rarely terete. Pappus hairs 
copious often with an outer ring of short scales. 

I. Heads solitary or few, axillary or terminal, sub' 

sessile ........ 1. teres* 

II. Heads panicled, ^-V'long. 

Involucre bracts all appressed . . .2. Koxhurghii. 

Involucre bracts free and spreading above often 
constricted 3. anihelmintica. 



1 The cbaracterg separating these genera are unsatisfactory. Conyra 
is widely separated from Blumea in tbe P.B.I, and included in the 
Asteroideae, but it seems in somfe respects more naturally included in the 
InuloidesB. The anther lobes are often tailed, and the style ''charact«rs 
not at all well marked. 

512 



4 



. Vebnonu. ] S5. COMPOSITE. 

[II. Heads panicled, small, under i'' long. 

Shrubby, 4-8 ft . . • • • • • 4. divergent. 
Herbaceous, 1-3 ft. • • • • • t 5. cinerea, 

1. V. teres, Wall. 

A rigid herb, somewhat resembling the English knapweed, 
cabrid, with harsh sub- sessile obovate or obovate- or ell.- or 
bloug-lanceolate acute serrate leaves, 2-5" by 1-2''. Outer 
ivol. bracts often squarrose. Fruit silky. 

Common, esp. in open scrub jungles, l^ls. Oct.»Nov. 

2. V. Boxburghii, Less, Dora bohok', S. 

Somewhat resembling the last, but larger 3-4 ft. and more 
ranched and heads panicled. L. harsh sub- sessile or petiuled 
cuminate serrate, up to 7' by 2|''. Invol. |" cylindric or ovoid 
f very nutnerous imbricating often reddish bracts, outer 
nbulate or lanceolate, inner linear apiculate or pungent, not 
quarrose. Fr. J", ribbed. Pappus dirty white. 

Waste places and jungles, common. FJs.. Oct. -Nov. Fr. Jany. 

3. V. anthelmintica, Willd, Syn. Centrathemm 
nthelrainticum, 0. Kuntze ; Saoraj, St 

A tall coarse annual 2-7 ft. high, with coarsely toothed 
ab-eessile ell. or obovate acuminate leaves tapering at the 
ase, lower often 8" by 3", upper gradually smaller ell- 
inceolate toothed. Heads with a short thick peduncle, oblong 
' loDg. Easily recognized by its linear-oblong involucral 
racts which are constrictea Deneatn she free foliaceous green 
r coloured tips. 

Especially common in waste land and near villages under thfe shade 
f trees. Fls. Sept.'Dec. Fr. Nov. -J any. 

Stems sometimes as' thici as the thumb below, with tomentose 
ranches. Corolla teeta sometimes 6, jrd as long as the dilated part of 
tie tube, anthers rlightly exserted and often tailed. 

513 T 



L Veenonia.] 85. COMPOSITE. [4. Contz*. 

4. V, diverg^ns, Benth. Bara pathol, S, 

Stout perennial 4-8 ft., leaves petioled serrate 2-5 by 
1-4*. Heads Y- -Pr. glabrous lO-ribbed. Pappus reddish- 
brown or dirty-white. 

Common on Parasnath (= V. saligna of Anders. ?) 

5. V. cilierea> L^ss. Bahu tuturi, Barangoui, 8. 

An erect pubescent herb 1-8| ft. with boothed ovate or 

lanceolate leaves 1-2|" decurrent on the petiole and termioal 

sub-corymbose panicles of small beads J" long of light purnle 

flowers. 

Very common everywhere. Fls. most of the year exc. the hot season. 

luvol. narrowly cainpanulate. Outer invol. 6raci« very narrow, softly 
awned, much shorter than the linear 3-nerved inner. Anthers shortly 
tailed or sagittate apiculate. Fr, ^'' with adpressed pubescence. 

The leaves are eaten. 

Ageratum conyzoides, L., is a very common hairy annual with 
petioled ovate orenate leaves and small lilac heads in dense terminal 
corymbs. The upper leaves are sometimes alternate. 

Fl. Oct.-Jan. and also at other times. 

Cnicus arvensis, Hoffm. This is a common European thistle ofter 
f oond in the fields of the cooler parts of Ghota Nagpur, hardly ever iz 
Singbhum. It is dioecious. 

Echinops echlnatus, B.C. with one flowered heads collecte<3 
together, in dense prickly balls like single heads, id found about Hazari 
bagh, etc. Balls 1-2'^ diam. 

4. Conyza, L^ss. 5. La^g^era, Sch. Bip. 6. Blumea 

Annual or perennial, usually glandular, pubescent or wooll; 
herbs with entire toothed or lobed, sometimes rigid an< 
decurrent leaves. Heads corymbose, panicled or fasciclec 
ra^ly racemed, het,erogamoqs« Outer fl. female, filiforn 
2-3-often minutely -toothed. I)iso fls. hermaphrodite usuftll 
yellow, tubular, 5-toothed, Involute ovoid or campana late 
braciH usually mauy-seriate, narrow, outer smaller. Becej 
tacle usually flat and naked, rarely (in some Gonyza) oonvej 

614 



4. CoNYZA. ] 85. COMPOSITE [ 6. Laoueba. 

pitted and fimbriate. Anther bases, obtuse and entire (some 
Conyza), or sagittate with auricles, tailed (most Blumea) or 
not (most Laggera). Fr. very small ; pappus slender 1- 
seriate, often caducous. 

There are 13 species in Chota Nagpur, mostly weeds of 
waste ground. 

1. C. viscidula, Wall, 

A stout herb 5-6 ft. high with very numerous obliquelj 

spreading lateral pubescent or tomentose branches with 

lateral and terminal leafy panicles of pinkish flowefS. Stems 

ivith a close curled pubescence, cauline leaves lanceolate or 

>11. acuminate attaining 8" by 2|'' shallowly crenate, the 

linuees mucronate, narrowed below into the very short half- 

tmplexicaul petiole, puberulous beneath and on the nerves 

ibove. L. on the flowering branches lanceolate entire. 

Grassy glades, Porahat and Hazaribagh. Fls., Fr. Jany.-Feby. 

Heads i" oblong, with slender pedicels i" long, in loose cOr3Tnb8. 
nvol. campannlate with about 20 3*seriat6 bristle -pointed l-nerved 
reen narrowly scarious linear bracts ^" hairy and glandular. Recept^ 
epressed, Atdher-cellB apiculate not tailed. Achenes compressed, 
uberuloua. 

2. C. strkta, WilW 

A stout herb excessively fastigiately branched and leafy 

ith heads only 4-' in extremely numerous peduncled corymbs. 

Pitorea and Jaspur, Wood. 

Invol. bracts narrowly lanceolate without scarious margin. Pappoff^^ 
)ddish. 

3, L. flava, Benth. 

A herb l4tt|t. erect with lower leaves atnplexicani 

aricled attaining 6" by 2|'' irregularly toothed and denti- 

ilate. Heads very numerous bright yellohf ^-J" long 

ith green shining involucre. 

Very common on clay soils in poor open forest. Fls. Nov.'Jany, 

A very distinct species, glabrous. Seads oampanulate in numeroir 
mous clusters on leafless branches, often 1-sexuali^ 

515 

t2 



6. LiGoiEA. ] 85. COMPOSITE [T.Vicoa. 

4. L. auritaj Sch, Bip. 

A coarse Btrong-scented grey-green villous and glandular 
weed 2-25 ^^' ^ig^» often mucb branched f;oni the large tap- 
root. " Stems densely clothed witk deeply lobed or pinnatitid 
leaves and their decurrent basal lobes. Fls. pale-purple in 
ovoid heads |-|" long. 

Waste ground, common. Fls. Jany, -March. 

L. 1?-2V) sharply lobed and toothed. The anthers are often shortly 
tailed and the tails of the adjacent anthers connate '• 

5. L. alata, Sch. Bip. 

A stout leafy herb 2-4 ft. much branched pubescent or 
tomentose. Fls. purplish, heads drooping in fruit, racemed 
on short winged branches. 

Fls. Nov.-.Tany. 

Easily recognized by the continuons wings of the stem. 

6. B, lacera> D. G. Gada pachwani, 8, 

A herb 1-3 ft. with strong camphorous smell,* softly hairy 
or villous and more or less glandular hairy. L. obovate or 
upper oblong, dentate and spinulose-toothed or (var. glan- 
dulosa) very acutely serrate. Heads yellow, J" long eaid 
broad clustered in narrow panicles ; invol. campanulate. 

Waste ground, common. Fls. Jany -March. 

L. on robust plants often 8'', on others only 2'' often pinnatifid at 
base, sessile or petioled, silky-pubescent beneath. Gland-hairs rery 
short. Here also the heads are frequently functionally female, the diac 
:fla. have staminodes ocly, low down in the tube. 



I 



Vicoa auriculata, Cass, is a usually much branched annual with 
■lender rigid stems, sessile lanceolate or oblong lan^||ate leaves 1-3' 
and yellow bead" of flowers ^-| diam. on slender peduflflK 

Very common in open jungles and much resembling a " ragwort.". 
Fla. Nov.'March. 

L. with broad rounded auricled base. Anthers tailed. Fappus baiii 
■lender. 

* Camphor ia prepared from some species of Blumea. 

516 



85. COMPOSITJS, 

Siegeebeckia orientalis, L. is a branched coarse annual 2-5 ti. 
with opp, leaves and pubesoent branches and minute yellow flowers. It 
is easily recognised by the 6 spreading clavate or linear-spatulate glan- 
dular involuoral bracts, 

Fls. Fr. Oct-Dec, 

Guizotia abyssynica, Cass. Sarguja, K. This is a stout leafy 
herb with large yellow heads f-l'-dism. wi)ich is rather largely cultiva- 
ted for its oil seeds, and forms beautiful golden yellow crops in Nov. and 
Dec. 

Bidens pilosa, L. A tall erect herb 2-4 ft. with opposite 3-foliolate 
or 1-2-pinnatifid leaves and heads of yellow disc fls. and few white ray 
fls. or ray 80tj;etimes absent. Easily recognized by its angular long 
narrow fruits |'' long and pappus of 3 rigid retrorsely hiepid bristles 
by which it adheres to the clothes. Common. Fie. Sept -Oct, Fr. Novr 
Jany. 

CLASS II.— moivocotyledonej:. 



Fam. 86. LILI4€EiE. 

UBnally bulbous or rbizomatons perennial berb&, more 
rarely tougb climbing sbrub^. L. usually parallel- veined, larely 
net-veined (Smilai) or reduced to minute scales or spines 
(Asparagus) with the leaf function assumed by slender 
cladodes. Fls. usually 2-&exual (exc. Smilax) and regular. 
Perianth in two whorls of 3 niembers, usually similar and 
petaloid. St. in two whorls of 3 members, rarely more. 
Ovary superior of 3 carpels, 3-celled with usually many 
axile anatropous ovules. Seeds albuminous. 

(Note.— A very distinct physiological type of Liliace» is represented 
by the fleshy or leathery often spiny leaved Aloes, Yuccas and some 
Dracaenas. Some of these become arborescent and shew a secondary 
increase in thickness. The Agaveae would appear to be closelyjillied, 
and are often called Aloes, but they are placed in the Amaryllidace» on 
account of their distinctly inferior ovary.) 

I. Climbing usually prickly shrubs with- inconspiouous floweri. 
Anthers introrse. 

L. with several nerves from the base. Fls. 
umbelled 1. Smilax. 

L. not evident. Cladodes acicular. Fla. 
xacemed • • . . , .2. AspaTaguls. 

617 



86. LILIACE^. [ 1, SMitAX. 

IL. Eraot or climbing herbs or nnderslinibs with 
a leafy atem, creeping or tuberous rootstook 
and couBpiouous flowers. Anthers eitrorse . 

Climbing by the cirrhose leaves. Fls. hand- 
some solitary ....•• 3. Qloriosa, 

Erect branched. Fls. -J-l" in umbels . . 4. Bis'gorum, 

III. Herbs with bulbous or oormose rootstock, 

or fleshy roots, stem short or 0. 
Eootstock very small with fleshy roots. Fls. 

racemed. Perianth spreading white . . 5. ChlorophyHm. 

. Bootstock a bulb. Fls. iraoemed. Perianth 

spreading purple 6. Bcilla, 

Bootstock a bulb. Fls* racemed. Perianth 
.campanulate 7. Urginea, 

Bootstock a corm. Fls. erect corymbose. 
Perianth spreading • . . . • 8. Iphigenia. 

1. Smilax, L. 

L. ■witli several strong curved primary nerves reticulate 
between, base of short petiole sheathing often winged or 
anncled and nsually bearing a pair of stipnlar tendrils. Fls. 
veiy small dioecious, nmbelled. Umbels usually in bracteate 
cymes or panicles* Perianth leaves 6. St. (5, sometimes more. 
Staminodes in the F. fl. 3 or 6. Style 0, stigmas 3. Ovules 1 
or 2 in each cell. Fruit a berry. 

I. Umbels panicled with slender peduncles.. 

Sheath often auricled • . . • !• prolifera. 

II. Umbels 1-3. 

a. Sheath without large auriclesi 

Branches ter6te. L. 6-18", 5-7,-nerved. 
Sep. i* . . . • . • 2. macrophylla. 

Branches angled. L. 5-7", 3-5-nerved. 

Sep. ^-i'' 3. seylanica, 

h. Sheath with large apricles often embracing 
the branch 4. RoxJmrghiana, 

1, S. proliferav^o^^' Atkir, K, 

A stout prickly climber with stipular tendrils (m the yonng 
shoots, and elliptic, rarely elliptic-ovate leaves, with sheath 

518 



1. Smtlax. ] 86. IILIACE^. 

winged and wing more or less auricled one or both ends. 
Umbels in axillary and terminal panicles 8-6" long with 
nsually a zig-zag racbis and 3- (1-4-) nate slender peduncles 
about 1" long. Bracts at the nodes inconspicuous, usually 
under \". 

A very distinct species (thonph apparently sometimes confused with 
S. macrophylla, vide F.B.I., p. 310} found in ravines in Singbhum. 

Fls. Feby.-ApriL Fr. Nov. 

Branchlets terete or angled, prickles under ^". L. 5" by 2V to 7|" by 4^'' 
obtuse Ti'ith a short deflexed cuspidate tip, base rounded sub-actite or sob- 
cordate with 2 lateral basal nerves and two others connate with mid-rih to 
about f" above the base. Petiole stout about ^-|" above the winged 
sheath, the cirrhi arising at the apex of the wings. Common peduncle 
1-2". M. special pedwwc/es slender 1-U", F. |-1A". Pedicels i-^", M. sep., 
linear-oblong ^". Petals linear as long, l-nerved. F. sep. rather broader 
about ^-i^i" hvo&d, petals much broader than in the M/ below, the upper half 
ultimately breaking off leaving the almost ovafe-lanceolate base, often 2- 
nerved. Sepals and petals recurved in both sexes. Staminodes 3 fili- 
form. Berry red ixg'' ^ong, not quite as broad. 

2. S. macrophylla, Ifioxb. Atkir, K., S. ; Raupawan, 
Kharw. 

Habit of last but attaining a larger size sometimes 1" 
diam. L. broadly ell. or orbicular, sheath not winged 6r 
auricled. Umbels 1-3 rarely 5, in axillary cymes rarely 3^ 
long on short peduncles less than the diara. of the umbel. 
Bracts at the nodes ovate or truncate over |". 

The common Smilax of Chota Nagpur, found in all the districts, 
frequent in the valley forests. Fls. Af*ril'June. Fr. Nov.-Jany. Sub- 
deciduous in May. 

Branches quite terete or with 4 lines. Prickles small. L. 6" by 5" to 
12" by 12" with a short hard cusp as in prolifera, base rounded or sub- 
cordate or suddenly acute and decorrent on the petiole usually T-oostato^ 
sometimes even 9-costate in the larger leaves, 3 often produced as ribs 
on the petiole. Base of petiole sheathing, triangular in section, enclosirig 
a hard bud, sheath not broadly winged, but its edges infolded and meeting 
above at the base of the petiole proper where the two cirrhi thus arise 
almost base to base. Commov-peihincle ^-V, M. special pednncles 4-'^'^ 
F. i-f ''. Pedicels H"> or f in irait. Berry H'' diam. glubose, l^se^ded, 
seeds biconvex. 

A preparation from the root is applied for rheui'iaitipm and palna in 
tiie lower extremities, Camp. 

519 



LSmilax.] S6» LILyiCEJE. [ 2. AsPAEAors. 

8. S. zeylanica, L. 

Branches more or less 4-argled. L. 4" bjT 1|" to 7" by 4, 
elliptic usaallj S-nerved from the base (or above the bJise, 
F.B.I.) with 2 fainter nerves. Petiole very shortlj slieathing 
at the base. 

Sirgaja, Wood, 

4. S. Roxburghiana, Wall. 

Branches terete. L. acuminate without a hard cusp, and 

tlie sheathp with large auricles. 

Parasnath, Santal Parganahs (see below). 

A specimen from Chandna, Santal Parganahs, collected in fruit in 
May without leaves is probably this. It has branches of the panicle up to 
3'', special peduncles i-2'' (on same plant) and fruiting pedicels \'', berry 
\", seeds 1-2 biconvex, reddish. 

The variability of the length of the special peduncles is characteristio 
of this species. 

S. Asparagus, L. 

1. A. racemosilS, Willd, Huring Atkir, K,\ Kedap 
nari, iS'. 

A slender climber with tuberous roots and annual woody 
prickly shoots with reflexed spines. Cladodes acicular |" 
aomewhat curved, 3-quetrou8. Small, white fls, \" diam. on 
fsliform articulate pedicels \-^' long in Very short racemes. 

Common in the forests and scriib jungles. Fie. B&pt.-Oct. Fr. Dec. 

Var. a This is a very distinct plant from the ordinary A. racemoBUS 
in its very short cladodes. Btems with strong straight reflexed thorns i" 
long below. Branches spreading short 3- quetrous. Cladodeam groups of 
3 . rarely 2- or 4-nate divaricate, tip with a minute white point ana angles 
minutely scabrous. Bacemes i-H" mostly 2nate, simple or slighfly 
branched, bracts minute. Berries To'i" diam. scarlet. Seed usually Gtdj 
1, black somewhat ellipsoid>globose. 

j3. Branches striate not S-quetrouei, racemts un «t \" long. 

Cladodes as short as in the last slightly 3-grooved. The coircon form 
in Singbhum, and as Col. Prain remarks,, a very puzzling form. 

Roxburgh draws a distinction in the position of the embryo in the 
tpecies raoemosut) and acerosus. As far as this is intelligible the embryo 
nfVar. ri IB inat of his aoerosus : the radicle starts iu the umbilical 

5:20 



2. AsPABAous. ] 86. LILIACEJE. [ 4. Dispobum. 

hemisphere low down and the filiform embryo aaoenda in a large semicircle 
remote from the *• nmbilicns " and down aorain to the equator the other 
Bide.. The arch, however, is not in one plane but wavy. The ifeedling from 
the very commencement only shews scale-leaves and cladodea. 

"A decoction of the root is g^ven in fever," Camp. 

3. Gloriosa, L. 

1. G, SUperba, L. Bunum ki chuog, Bing ki clmng, 
K. ; Sinie' sanianora, 8, ; Karihari, Kharw. 

A well-known and beautiful plant 3-10 ft. high with a 
large torulose tuberous rootsfcock, sessile or sub-sessile lanceo- 
late leaves 6' long with the tip more or less converted into a 
tendril, and large red and yellow flowers solitary, or sub- 
corymbose at the ends of the branches. 

Hedges and thickets throughout the area. Fls. and Fr> in the ratnt 
and dying down in the cold season. 

Perianth-leaves linear-lanceolate crisped reflexed* Capsule 2" long 
eepticidal. 

The root gives one of the ' seven minor poisons ' of Sanscrit writer* 
and is used medicinally. It is also said to yield a violent poison with 
which the Kols once used to poison their arrows, nevertheless it is eatea 
by them after preparation. 

4. Disporum, Salisb. 

1. D. pullum, Salish, 

A stout herb 3-4 ft. with tuberous rootsfcock and thick 
fleshy' roots, stem often J" diam. dichotomously branched 
with opp. and alt. ovate-lanceolate leaves 3-5'^ by 1^-1|''. 
Fls, I" long about 5 in an umbel with very short peduncle. 
Fr. black succulent depressed globose and sub-trigonous J* 
diam. 

Shady damp forests in Singbhum- Parasnath. Fls. July- Fr. Dee 

L- acute or acaminate. Very short petiole decurrent as a line on the 
etem. Peduncle ^'' or less fluted, at first terminal, ultimately appearintf 
lateral by growth of a lateral axis. Pedideh 1-1 J'' angled or flated, 
d ecurved. Seeds 3 light-browiii rounded'Oblong, auddr i'' hnogw 

621 



86. LILIACE^. 

Chlorophytum arundinaceum, Baker, is a pretty Herb with 
fleshy roots, a tuft of lanceolate linear leaves about 6-9'' long and a simple 
or flli^htly panicied ralceme 8-18'' high of pretty white*^ flowers with sub- 
erect and spreading perianth leaves \" long- Common on fire-lines and 
in light forest in Singbhum and Santal Parganahs ; Jaspur and Sirg^ja, 
Wood Probably occurs throughout the area. Fls. April'June- 

Scilla indica) Baker, is a small herb with scaly bulbs which ar( 
said to have the properties of the Scilla or Squill of the British Pharma- 
Gopoeia (Stimulant, expectorant, diuretic and cardiac tonic). It ia not 
pommon. 

Urginea indica» Kunlh, is a common herb with globose-ovoid 
necked bulbs l^-li" diam. of connate fleshy scales without smell. It ha3 
long very slender scapes which rise above the ground in the hot season 
before any leaves appear, and bear distant oblong flowers i-f long on 
pedicels which are at^rst erect, then droop when the flowers open and 
i^fain become erect and'elongate to 1^'' in fruit. 

Perianth leaves greenish with a brown streak and pubescent at the 
tips. 

The bulb is said to have the same properties as the last, and also to 
be used for sizing cloth, 

IpMofenia indica* Kunth. Chutia chandbol, 8., has a globose corm 
I* diam. vsdth a neck 1-2'' long, flexuous stems and reddish or purplish 
small erect flowers with clawed, spreading and reflexed linear-subulate 
perianth leaves. Manbhum, Camp. 

The flowers are said to yield a red dye. 

Fam. 87. AMARILLIDACEJ!. 

Herbs with a perennial tuberous or bulbous underground 
steiU) rarely with a short stoat erect stem. Flowers usually 
large and showy (small in Curculi^o and Hypoxis) usually 
oil a leafless scape and enclosed in bud by spathaceous bracts, 
sometimes ^A.gave) in an immense panicle. Fls. regular or 
slightly zygomorphio as in the Liliacese, except that "the 
ovary is quite inferior and the corolla is often furnished with 
a petaloid corona. Fruit capsular or indehiacent, not 
l)accate. 

A. Bulbous plants with radical not plicate leaves 
and an nnbelliform inflorescence enclosed 
by two or more spathaoeoos bracts on a 
leafless scape. 

522 



\ 



87. AMARYLLIDACJEJE. 1 1. Cbiituii. 

Filaments free ....... 1. Cfinuih, 

FilamentEunitedby a cnp-shaped membrane . . 2. Pancratium 
B. Small rhizomatoaa plants with plicate leaves 

and yellow flowers . .....* 3. CSiradigo, 

C« Rhizomatons shortly caulescent suffrntioose 
plants with many thick fleshy leaves and 
flowers in a large panicle. 

Flowers erect. St. longer than the perianth . , 4. Agave. 

Flowers drooping. St. shorter than the 
perianth .*...•.. 5. Furcrosa. 



1* Crinum, L. 

Stout herbs with tunicate bulbs and narrow fleshy 
leaves. Fls. handsome white or blush-red umbellate with 
long linear bracts. Perianth funnel-shaped with a long tube^ 
sometimes slightly zygomorpbic. Anthers versatile, dorsifixed. 
Fruit bursting irregularly with a few large seeds. 

Per. lobes linear to linear-lanceolate. Anthers 

linear f grey 1. defi^m. 

Per. lobes lanceolate to oblanceolate. Anthers black 

under ^'' long crescent-shaped. St. deolinate , 2. latijolium, Var. 

1. C. defixum, Ker, 

L. V broad. Perianth- tube 3|-4**, longer than the 
linear-lanceolate lob^ Stamens not quite as long as tlie 
perianth lobes (much longer, F.B.L). Fruit beaked with the 
tube. 

Muddy banks of rivers, common. Fla. Aug.'ISept, 

2. C. latifolium, L. Var. Campbellii. Sikiyom Baha, 8. 

L. attain 30" by 4 J" (about half way up) or more, tapering 
gently to a sharp point, Oamp, A beautiful species with 
stout compressed scapes and 8-10 drooping white or rosy 
flowers with a slightly curved tube 4-5" and oblanceolate 
perianth lobes 4-5" long. St. 3-4" with linefn-oblong black 
anthers curved into a semicircle. 

523 



LUBiNtTM.j 87. AMABYLLIDACE^. [ 3. Curcijligo. 

Dry jnnglea. Singbhuro, Qangpnr, Manbhum and Hazaribagh 
(Tatijheria jungles). Fls. May-June. The leaves appear June. 

Bulbs globose 5'' diam. with a long neck 3-5''. Scnpe 1ft by V broad. 
Spatbaceous bracts broadly-lanceolate 3-4" by i^". Linear bracts 3". 
Ovary |" on the pedicel ^-^''. Fr. 2«2^" diam. with membranous epicarp 
■tr^ate with about 25 vertical lines. Seeds large but variable in same 
capsule, about 12 angular. 

" A decoction of the root is given internally, and pounded and made 
into a paste, is applied externally in dropsy ; also used for diarrhcea in 
cattle," Canipbell. 

This differs considerably from C. latifolium, L. and is probably a dis- 
tinct species, but the whole of thief section of Crinum requires elucidation. 

There are two beautiful fiowering plants of the genus 
Pancratium conspicuous in hill forest in May and June, 
these are : — 

1. P. verecundum. Ait. Gering ba, K., with stout compressed wape 
12-18" long, 3-5-fld with 2 spathes. Fh. with a tube 4'' long and narrowly 
i>blanceolate apiculate lobes 2|-3" long. Tube of the obconic staminal- 
cup about 1|" with teeth i-l''. The flowers only last for one day, 

2. P. biflorum, itosr?). A smaller species but with longer filaments 
ftnd an erose, not toothed staminal corona. Spathes 3-4. 

3. Curculigo, GsBrtn. 

Flowers few or capitate on short, or sometimes very short 
•nd subteri'anean, scapes. Perianth rotate, on a more or 
less elongated beak like-hypanthium. Fruit indehi scent. 

1. C. Orchioides, Gcertn.^ Turam, K. 
A small plant, first conspicuous after the jungle fires 
by its small bright yellow 6owers which rise just a little 
above the soil, accompanied, or not, laterally, by the new 
leafy shoot. 

Hill forests, common. Fls. May-June. Leaves appear June. 

Plicate leaves about 10", glabrous or hairy. Bcape 2-8-fld. Bractt 
luirrow colourless hairy about f ". Fls. thrust above the ground by means 
of the hypanthium (peiianth-tubo?) which is about |" long. Perianth- 
lobes 4-i" or i'l" (perhaps according to sex) oblong, hairy without. 
Anthers green. 

The long tuberous roots, about the thickness of a pencil, are boiled and 
••ten. 

524 



5. UrECriTGO. j 6^/. AMAUYLLIDAVM^. [ 4. AOAVl. 

2. C. recurvata, Dryand. 

A herb with palm -like leaves 2-3 ft. long and yellow 
fls. collected into a decurved head 2-4" diam. on a scape 
8-9" long. 

Shady marshy places. Fls. May-June, 

Hypoxia a urea, Lour, differs from C. orchioidea in the absence of 
any bealc to the suiallor flowers which are borne 1-2 together ou a filiform 
ecape. L. linear. 

4. Agave, L. 

stout shrubby rhizomatous plants with a short aerial 
stem more or less concealed by the leaf bases, and with 
thick iBeshy spine-tipped and often spinosely-toothed leaves. 
Flowers somewhat funnel-shaped, erect, paired or fascicled 
on the branches cf the panicle which is terminal and usually 
very large. Hypanthium produced into a shoit tube above 
the ovary. Tepals narrow erect or slightly spreading. 
Ovary 3-celled. Stigma 3-lobed. Capsule loculicidal with 
many seeds. 

The Agaves are usually propagated by bulbils, which are 
often formed in tbe place of the fruits. Wood relates 
a case of one plant producing over 3,000 bulbils. The 
following descriptions are taken from the *' Notes on Agave 
and Furcraea in India " by J. R. Drumraond and D. Prain 
(Bulletin No. 8 of the Agricultural Series, published by the 
Bengal Secretariat, 1906). 

I. Perianth segments not constricted towards the tip. 

'O. L. broadest in the middle, tapering to 
both extremities. 

L. oblong-lanceolate, neck sharply constricted • 1. americatia. 

L. linear-oblong, neck not constricted . , .2. Vera-Crut. 

b. L. linear-lanceolate, hardly widened in the middle 3- Cantula. 

II. Perianth seerments narrowed from about the middle 
to the ligulate tip. 

L. straight and narrow, often spineless • . 4. sisal ana. 

525 



4. Agave. ] 87. AMARrLLIDACEM 

1. A. americana, L. * 

L. commonly variegated yellow, stout, sharply constricted above their 
swollen "bases. Margin distinctly sinuate bearing the mostly renexed 
prickles on the eminences. Apical-spine 1-2" long. 

Common in gardens. Not known to be of any economic value. 

2. A. Vera-Cruz, Miller. Syn. A. Cantnla, Bengal 
Plants ; Moraba, K., 8.; Mordha and Mnrga are given as 
vernacular names in the Notes. 

A stout plant usually producing nnmerous slioots from 
the rhizome, which render it polycarpic. L. very deep green 
and glaucous 4-6 ft. long and attaining 10" in width, 
scarcely constricted above the base. Margins not, or only 
jglightly, sinuate. Apical spine J-l" dark-brown. 

More or less naturalized in Singbhum, e.g., about Anjedbera ; Hazari- 
bagh, e.g., Tatijhgria, Daltonganj, etc., but all these citations require 
confirmation by comparison of the characters with those now given. 
Fls. Bept.'Dec. 

L. often rather concave at the widest part (just above the middle) 
early curving upwards, ends more or less recti rved. Interval between 
spines ^'' or less, rarely |". Main branches of panicle 3-chotomou8, 
curved or flattened. Fls. in pairs with a subsidiary bud laterally 
developed at a different level. Tepals linear-lanceolate pale amber 
tint. Anths.