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PUBLICATIONS OF THE PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY
OF THE COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA III
Forges and Furnaces
Province of Pennsylvania
THE COMMITTEE ON HISTORICAL RESEARCH
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY
By THE PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY OF THE COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA
THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY
COMMITTEE ON HISTORICAL RESEARCH.
MRS. JAMES M. LONGACRE, Chairman,
MRS. WILLIAM J. ROSE,
MRS. FRANCIS B. GUMMERE,
Miss ANNE HOLLINGSWORTH WHARTON,
MRS. THOMAS S. KIRKBRIDE,
MRS. JOSEPH P. MUMFORD,
Miss SUSAN CARPENTER FRAZER,
MRS. ALFRED COPE,
MRS. EDGAR W. BAIRD,
MRS. EDWARD BROWNING MEIGS,
MRS. ROBERT E. BROOKE.
THIS book, a tribute of the Pennsylvania Society to
"the days of old, the years of ancient time," is the
labor of love of our own members. As far as possible we
have gone to original sources for information and verifica-
tion, and have consulted many living authorities, whose
valuable counsel has been freely given us. We wish to
express our indebtedness particularly to Mr. James M 1 .
Swank, the Hon. S. W. Pennypacker, President of the
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Dr. John W. Jordan,
the Hon. E. W. Biddle, Dr. Chas. F. Himes, Mr. H. C.
Grittinger, Mr. B. F. Fackenthal, the Hon. W. U. Hensel,
Mr. J. A. Anderson, Mr. W. M. Mervine, Miss Martha
Bladen Clark, Mrs. A. Saunders Morris, Col. Henry D.
Paxson, Mr. Thomas Eakins, Mr. P. Hollingsworth
Morris, Mr. Ernest Spofford, Mr. B. F. Owen.
" If you're off to Philadelphia this morning
And wish to prove the truth of what I say
I pledge my word you'll find
The pleasant land behind
Unaltered since Red Jacket rode that way.
" Still the pine woods scent the noon
Still the cat bird sings his tune
Still autumn sets the maple-forest blazing.
Still the grapevine through the dusk
Flings her soul-compelling musk
Still the fire flies in the corn make night amazing!
u They are there, there, there, with Earth immortal
(Citizens I give you friendly warning).
The things that truly last when men and times have
They are all in Pennsylvania this morning."
FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA
Nearly two hundred years ago, in the early days of the
"Holy Experiment," the wonderful natural resources of
the province of Pennsylvania, the great ore beds, the
thickly wooded country giving endless charcoal, and the
strong streams promising water power, impelled many
capable and hopeful men to attempt the making of iron.
Besides capacity and hope, however, money was needed for
even the smallest beginnings; and in going over the records
one finds, in many cases, that a few years sufficed to bring
the undertaking either to permanent grief or to a new
owner. While this was the fate of some, others, faithful
to the early visions of being great ironmasters, held on their
way and realized their dreams ; handing down to our day
their names, their industries, and their fortunes. We still
have with us the descendants of Thomas Rutter, and
Thomas Potts, and Anthony Morris; of James Logan, and
Peter Grubb, and Robert Coleman; and of many others.
Of those who fell by the wayside, the " iron band of
Circumstance" being too much for them, the most noted
possibly is Henry William Stiegel; and why should we
doubt that the place he occupies in our tradition and his-
tory ; picturesque, brilliant, unfortunate, may be to him
some compensation if his shade ever returns for the yearly
Giving of the Red Rose in his memory?
As far as it is possible, some account of each of these
pioneers will be given in the sketches which follow, of
the forges and furnaces started in Pennsylvania before
FURNACES IN THE
17 %6.> l : -\^e;rffiist Hiclaim however any intention to touch
on the scientific side of the making of iron ; that is utterly
beyond our scope: we shall be satisfied if we are able to
give glimpses of the life on these great estates (for
" great" many of them grew to be), and to put on record
the names more or less important, of the founders of the
early wealth of Pennsylvania.
Until 1682, the year of Penn's arrival, the settlers on
the Delaware, under the Swedes, the Dutch, and the Duke
of York, seem to have made no effort to manufacture iron
in any form. The energy of Penn changed all that. He
wrote in 1683 f the existence of "mineral of iron and
copper in various places." Having iron furnaces himself
at Hawkhurst in England, he naturally wished to encour-
age the manufacture of iron in his own province. Al-
though there is no record of the Proprietor's connection
with any iron making in Pennsylvania, there are a few allu-
sions to a mining venture of which he had great hope,
which seem of sufficient interest to mention.
A contemporary English historian, John Oldmixon,
gives some side lights on Penn's more practical and worldly
outlook, of a kind not freely afforded us by his biographers,
but which tally with much in his letters to his Secretary
Logan, and others, when dealing with personal and bus-
iness matters. Oldmixon visited the Colonies while Penn
was here, and also made extensive journeyings in the West
Indies. In speaking of the notable men who had wel-
comed him on his arrival he says, 1 " Mr. Docwra and Dr.
Cox were both so kind as to inform me fully of the Jerseys,
and Mr. Pen did me the same favor for Pennsylvania.
those three gentlemen doing me the Honour to admit me
into their Friendship." " Mr. Pen," he continues, "was
a very sanguine person: he was generous and free of his
1 British Empire in America, II, London, 1741.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 3
Thoughts and Expressions, which were not always suffi-
ciently guarded/* In speaking of the early settlements
here he says, "Sir William, Mr. Pen's Father, had a
Kinsman who was one of the first planters at New England,
and it was from him doubtless that he had exact and partic-
ular Information of the Advantages that might be made
of Lands and Settlements in this Continent of America ; but
young Mr. Pen having filled his head with Quakerisms did
not for some years apply himself strenuously to solicit the
promised Grant, till at last finding his friends the Quakers
were harassed all over England by Spiritual Courts, he
resolved to put himself at the head of as many of them as
would go with him and remove to the Country of which
he obtained the Grant" (in I68I). 1 Dean Swift said of
this many-sided Penn that he talked very agreeably and
with great spirit. While dwelling on his gayer side,
the comment of Friends in Reading Meeting might be
recalled: that he was "facetious in conversation." He
rarely made use of the terms "Thee" and "Thou,"
and as is well known he wore buckles and wigs; the
latter from necessity, it is said, having early lost his
hair. With much political acumen and experience he was
not a skillful judge of character; hence arose many of his
difficulties. A fortunate man in many respects, he was for
years especially favored in the devotion of the Secretary
of the Province, James Logan, who agreed and remon-
strated with him, advised and obeyed him, in the most
faithful and patient fashion.
Anxious and harried as Penn was in his later years by
stress of political, financial, and family troubles, he seems,
at this time, to have had a short period of confident expec-
tation as to the relief that might come to him if mines of
value were actually discovered in his Pennsylvania domin-
1 British Empire in America, II.
4 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
ions. Rumors reached him in 1708, only four years be-
fore his final breakdown from paralysis, that the King of
the Shawnee Indians was quietly working mines for
Mitchel, a "Swiss acquainted with mining " and others,
including Governor Evans. His eager pleasure is shown
in the following letter to Logan: "I am glad . . . that
mines so rich are so certainly found, for that will clear the
country and me of all other encumbrances, and enable me
to reward those that have approved themselves faithful to
me and my just interest. Clap somebody upon them, as
servants for me, and by next opportunity send me some of
the ore, to get it tried by some of the ablest separators
here." And later he writes : " Pray go to the bottom with
Colonel Evans about the mines, and what has become of
Mitchel? Who are let in the secret where they are?"
To this Logan replies, in due time, that he is trying to
get the desired information. It must be remembered that
the path of the faithful Secretary was seldom other than
thorny: constant watchfulness was needed as early as 1707
to circumvent the French in their efforts to undermine
the allegiance of the Indians to their English neighbors,
and trading among the Indians was not allowed except
under special license. Despite prohibitions the Frenchmen
crept in, as traders, miners, or colonists. 1 A few of them,
James Le Tort, for example, and Peter Bezalion (whose
grave is in the Episcopal Churchyard at Compass, in Lan-
caster county; he died in 1742, aged eighty years) were
licensed and valuable traders ; valued, that is, except when
they seemed to swerve from their allegiance, in which case
they were called to Philadelphia and given a taste of jail
life. Mitchel and T. Grey are also mentioned in the
Colonial Records as fellow workers.
Disappointment, his usual portion in his later years, was
1 Lancaster County Indians, by H. Frank Eshleman, p. 173.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 5
again meted out to Penn : and he writes to Logan early in
the next year: "Mitchel has been with me, and by him
and T. Grey I learn the misunderstanding between the late
Governor and thy self, if they say true, has cost me dear:
for they assure me he and company may, and they believe
do, make 100. if not twice told, weekly. The Indians
chiefly discovered the mine and work it on the spot, and
he told me the way of it. It is the King of the Shawnee
Indians, and some few of his subjects that perform the
business for him, viz., Colonel Evans."
Logan somewhat later writes of Evans, "That story of
his getting, by the mines, I believe to be very fiction. Evans
has been very free with me upon that head (mines).
There has been none opened, and I f ear Mitchel has tricked
us all, he has gone over to England with an intention
we believe of putting his countrymen, the Swiss, upon pur-
chasing from the Queen a tract beyond the Potomac,
where, he thinks, they lie. It will therefore nearly con-
cern thee to have an eye to all his motions. He is subtile
and scarce to be trusted." 1
These debatable mines may possibly have been the cop-
per mines on Mine Ridge, a few miles south of Lancaster,
near the Philadelphia Pike, where, " in 1843 tne remains of
an ancient shaft were visible. They were supposed to
have been opened by French adventurers or persons from
Maryland, about the time of Penn." 2 An early mention
of iron in the Province is in a " Description of Pennsyl-
vania " by courtesy called "rhymed," written in 1692 by
Richard Frame, and published by Bradford :
"A certain place here is where some begun
To try some mettle and have made it run,
Wherein was iron absolutely found
At once was known about some forty pound."
1 Logan and Penn Correspondence, Vol. II.
2 Day's Historical Collections, p. 388.
6 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
But just where this " mettle " was found he does not say.
Although we avoid entirely, and that for the best of
reasons, the scientific and technical side of iron making, it
seems advisable to give, as concisely as possible, the prim-
itive processes of the early forges and furnaces and the
usual method of charcoal burning.
Early bloomaries in Pennsylvania were very like the
Catalan forge or bloomary which originated in Catalonia,
Spain, about the tenth century. They were not unlike a
large blacksmith fire with a deep fire pot, in which the
blast was introduced at the side instead of the bottom of
the fire, and while yielding but a small output a day they
were used on account of the small expense and labor in-
volved in their erection. 1
In the fires of the forges pig iron was converted into
blooms which were usually round pieces of metal, about a
foot long. The word bloomary was often used to describe
a forge. This was because the product derived from the
heated ore was obtained in the form of a lump or bloom
of malleable iron. The word is derived from the Anglo-
Saxon bloma, a lump. The product of the early forges
was blooms and hammered iron in the shape of flat or
square bars ; these were shaped into vessels by blacksmiths
and skilled artisans, who made a specialty of that class
As a rule the old furnaces were built into the side of a
hill, in order that the ore, limestone, and charcoal could
be filled from the upper level into the stack. Built upon
one general principle, the charcoal furnaces varied ma-
terially in size and appearance. "The interior of the
furnace-stack was lined with a wall of fire brick, or else
with fine-grained white sandstone, both of which were well
adapted to resist the extraordinary heat to which it was
1 Cornwall Furnace and Ore Banks, by H. C. Grittinger.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 7
exposed. The lining was constructed a few inches from
the main stack, the space between being filled with frag-
ments of stone, sand, and occasionally coarse mortar. This
served to protect the stack from the decomposing effect
of heat. The furnace stack was, moreover, secured from
expansion by strong iron girders embedded in it. The
quantity of material filled in the top of the furnace stack
was measured and called a charge. There were two charges
or heats in the twenty-four hours.
The iron, melted in the furnace and run into " pigs " in
the sand bed was not fit for other than casting use until it
had been re-heated, puddled in a forge, and hammered
into blooms. Puddling meant stirring and turning it with
long iron bars in a small oven. In this way certain im-
purities were eliminated.
Two and one-half tons of ore, and 180 bushels of char-
coal produced about one ton of metal. The output of iron
was about 28 tons a week, as against the 75 to 600 tons
a day produced by the modern furnaces. The limestone
introduced was for fluxing or eliminating impurities, and
the quantity used depended on the richness or metallic con-
tent of the ore. " Before using the ore it was washed by
a big water wheel attached to a long lateral shaft which
had heavy iron teeth running around it spirally and which
revolved in a trough. The teeth stirred the ore in the
water and finally threw it out in a pile from which it was
gathered up in a cart. Lumps of ore that were too large
to wash were purified and reduced by burning. They
were stacked in the oven, charcoal filled between, and the
huge pieces heated enough to break them." 1 Besides the
ordinary furnacemen, cast boys, miners, and colliers, there
were two keepers who took turns of twelve hours each to
watch the furnace, a master miner, a chief collier, and a
1 Pictorial Sketch Book of Pennsylvania, by Eli Bowen.
8 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Charcoal burning required both skill and patience. The
process was intricate, depending for success on the state of
the weather as well as on the watchfulness of the colliers.
Necessarily there was great difference in the value of wood
for making charcoal ; the more compact and fine-grained it
was the better coal it yielded, chiefly because of its contain-
ing less water and sap. Tough oak, therefore, was worth
more than pine. "The trees were felled, and trimmed,
and cut into lengths four feet long, and ranked in cords,
by the wood choppers, who were paid so much a cord.
They were followed by the colliers, who stacked the wood
in a conical shape, standing the sticks on end. The cones
at the base were about 25 feet in diameter, and up through
the middle the sticks were put sufficiently far apart to form
a chimney. After the wood was thus carefully arranged,
brush wood and loose earth were thrown over the pile, so
as to smother the flame, and prevent it bursting out from
the mass of wood. For the purpose of attracting the fire
all around the wood, holes were made in the sides to create
draft through which the watery elements of the wood
were expelled, by the heat of the hydrogen, oxygen, and
carbon, which was, in turn, held in check by the exclusion of
atmospheric air. Were the air allowed to circulate the
entire mass of wood would be reduced to ashes. The
burning lasted two or three days and nights, according to
the nature of the wood, and the success attending the
Nearly all Colonial Furnaces cast stoves, and "hollow
ware," commonly called pots and kettles. Of the deco-
rations of these early stoves we cannot do better than quote
Mr. Henry C. Mercer, an authority on the subject. He
speaks of " the existence of plates of cast iron about two
feet square, elaborately decorated with Biblical scenes,
hearts, tulips, mottoes, and Scriptural quotations," which
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 9
within the last twenty-five years have been rescued from
scrap heaps, or " found as pavings for fireplaces, smoke
houses, and bake ovens, or as the sluices of dams and the
bridges of gutters." 1 The most valued plates found now
are those of the five-plate jamb stove, or wall warming
stove. " Made of five plates, sometimes without, some-
times with a sheet iron pipe, and sometimes connecting its
smoke egress with an adjoining chimney through the wall
brick end, it was cast at the old furnaces in Pennsylvania
from the year 1741 or earlier until about the year 1760.
Built with an open end against a wall through which its
fuel was introduced from outside the room into which the
stove protruded, it is to this wall box that most of the
important decorated plates pertain." 2 These stove plates
were evidently intended, as the tiles of the times were, to
instill moral lessons, and, with the accompanying texts or
mottoes, they undoubtedly served as object-primers for
Carrying their moulds from furnace to furnace, the Ger-
man workmen wrought well: Many of their designs are
imaginative and fine, if primitive, and the elastic and pho-
netic spelling on the plates is more than interesting; to de-
cipher it is an art. The names of the German peasant
artists have almost entirely perished ; the gathered-up rem-
nants, " iron heirlooms," show indeed a " leaven of art " in
even the early household necessities of the Province.
Firebacks as well as stoves were made at an early date.
These were placed at the back of the open fireplaces, to
protect the bricks or mortar; often there were side pieces
as well, forming a fireplace lining. Illustrations of these
/* The Decorated Stove Plates of the Pennsylvania Germans, by H.
2 The Decorated Stove Plates of the Pennsylvania Germans, by H.
10 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
and the stove plates will be given in connection with the
furnaces where they were made, as far as we have been
able to procure them. The process of moulding firebacks
is interesting. The patterns were made in wood, and then
pressed into sand which had been wet and pounded, to
make it hard and unyielding enough to retain the impres-
sion of the wooden pattern, which was then carefully re-
moved, and the melted iron allowed to flow into the im-
pression thus made.
It may be well to begin our chronicles of the early iron
works and their owners, with a quotation from J. Leander
Bishop's "History of American Manufactures": "There
are," he says, " few reliable statistics either of the number
or product of iron works in any of the States in the eight-
eenth century." With these chastening words perpetually
in mind, we go on, having in view two objects; the first, to
be accurate as far as possible within our narrow limits;
the second, to bring together, in fairly chronological order,
some of the overlooked and forgotten details of early pro-
vincial existence, in the great State of which we are so
Augusta M. Longacre.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. II
PHILADELPHIA COUNTY, LATER BERKS.
The first successful attempt to establish iron works
in Pennsylvania was that of Thomas Rutter, an English
Quaker, who about 1716 built a bloomary forge called
Pool on Manatawny Creek, near Pottstown. Jona-
than Dickinson writing in 1717 says, "This last summer
one Thomas Rutter, a smith, who lives not far from
Germantown, hath removed further up in the country
and of his own strength hath set about making iron.
Such it proves to be as is highly set by, by all the
smiths here, who say that the best of Sweeds' iron doth not
exceed it, and we have heard of others that are going on
with the iron works. It is supposed there is stone (ore)
sufficient for ages to come and in all likelihood hemp
and iron may be improved and transported home . . . if
["American iron was sent to England in 1717 and so
much jealousy was excited by it in the mother-country that
in 1719 a bill was introduced into Parliament to prevent
the erection of rolling and slitting mills here; it was then
rejected, but in 1750 such an act was finally passed; the
exportation of pig metal to England free of duties was
however, allowed."] 1
The original patent of William Penn to Thomas Rutter,
of three hundred acres in Manatawny, issued in 1714-15
is still in the possession of a descendant. Two Pool
Forges existed here, within a few miles of each other, for
a short time. The authorities differ as to their dates and
1 Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr., p. 26.
12 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE ^
precedence, and it seems probable that one simply suc-
ceeded the other, under the same owners. Situated about
three miles above Pottstown, on the Manatawny, this
bloomary forge was probably of the most primitive de-
scription, iron being made directly from the ore, as in an
ancient Catalan forge.
In a list of passengers from London to Barbadoes in
1635, is the name of Thomas Rutter aged 22. 1 Whether
this Rutter is in any way related to the first ironmaster of
the same name is dubious. The marriage of Thomas
Rutter and Rebecca Staples took place in Friends' Meeting
at Pennsbury, loth month, nth, i685. 2 On Holmes's
map printed in Penn's time Thomas Rutter is mentioned
as the owner of a tract of land bordering on Germantown,
opposite Cresheim Creek, adjoining that of Thomas Mas-
ters. The place was called Bristol township, and is not
far from Milltown, now Abington. Rutter and his wife
became members of Abington meeting in 1685. He was
a Public Friend and an active member there until the
schism among the Quakers, led by George Keith in 1.691.
At that date he subscribed his name, with sixty-nine others,
to the paper issued at Burlington in defence of Keith: a
document not sufficiently well known. Rutter was bap-
tized in 1691 by the Rev. Thomas Killingworth, and as he
was already a preacher, he now set forth the doctrines of
Keith, who taught that Christ the external Word, and the
visible sacraments He commanded, were of higher value
than the "inward light." Rutter organized several so-
cieties of this persuasion, among them being one at Lower
Dublin in 1697 in the house of Abraham Pratt, which,
after vicissitudes, seems to have developed into Trinity
1 John Camden Hotten, The Original Lists of Persons of Quality, Emi-
grants, Religious Exiles, etc., 1600-1700.
2 Records of Middletown Monthly Meeting, Bucks County.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 13
Church, Oxford, one of our most venerated churches,
which possesses a chalice of silver presented by Queen
Anne. Evidently a man of general interests, Rutter suc-
ceeded Pastorius in 1705-6 as Bailiff of Germantown.
In 1717 he removed "up the Schuylkill" and was for
years active in every phase of iron making as then under-
When Rutter and Nutt settled on the Manatawny and
French Creeks, they were in the midst of the Delaware or
Lenni Lenape Indians: the "original people." In deal-
ing with them, Penn, Pastorius, Rutter and Nutt had been
friendly and earned their good will. William Penn's
estimate of the Indian character, as he found it, is so
fine, even if rose colored, that part of it must be quoted
here. Writing to the Society of Free Traders, he says:
"In liberality they excel; nothing is too good for their
friend ; give them a fine gun, coat, or anything, and it may
pass twenty hands before it sticks. Light of heart, strong
affections, but soon spent. The most merry creatures that
live: feast and dance perpetually; they never have much,
nor want much : wealth circulateth like the blood. None
shall want what another hath, yet exact observers of prop-
erty. Some Kings have sold, others presented me with
several parcels of land; the pay or presents I made them
were not hoarded by the particular owners. . . . They
care for little because they want but little ; and the reason
is, a little contents them. In this they are sufficiently
revenged on us; if they are ignorant of our pleasures,
they are also free from our pains. They are not dis-
quieted with bills of lading or exchange, nor perplexed
with chancery suits or exchequer reckonings. We sweat
and toil to live; their pleasure feeds them, I mean their
hunting, fishing and fowling, and this table is spread
everywhere. They eat twice a day, morning and evening,
14 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
their seats and table are the ground. Since the Europeans
came into these parts, they are grown great lovers of
strong liquors, rum especially ; and for it exchange the rich-
est of their skins and furs. If they are heated with liquors,
they are restless, till they have had enough to sleep; that
is their cry, Some more and I will go to sleep. Biit<
when drunk they are one of the most wretched spectacles
in the world."
After the noted attack on Pool Forge in May, 1728,
by unfriendly Indians, when they were repulsed with
small loss, by the workmen, there was a call sent out by
Governor Gordon, to Sassoonan, the King of the Dela-
wares, and the other chiefs, to a council or treaty at Phil-
adelphia ; presents were prepared for them, and they were
hospitably entertained during their stay. At the first meet-
ing, in the Court House, many Indians, Government offi-
cials, inhabitants and interpreters being present the Gov-
ernor made a high flown and conciliatory speech, gave
presents of blankets (Strouds, a kind of blanket made at
Stroudwater 4 in England), shirts, powder, lead, knives,
scissors, and finished by giving to the relations of the
deceased Indians "these six handkerchiefs to wipe away
their tears"! Another meeting was held the next day,
but the excitement was so great that the Court House was
too small, and they adjourned to the great Meeting House,
a vast audience filling the house and all its galleries.
Sassoonan, on being called to speak, asked his friend
Thomas Rutter, Sr., "to sitt near him," and spoke warmly
of what he would do to clear the path between the place
where he lived and this town, he would "cutt up every
bush and grub that may stand in the way." As applied to
1 " A town long famous for its woolens, and supposed to owe much of
its prosperity to the peculiar qualities of the stream called Stroudwater,
which is admirably adapted for dyeing scarlet." Lewis, Topographical
Dictionary of England.
The Arms of Great Britain, painted on the panel in the Court House,
behind the Judge's chair, 1707. Presented to the Historical Society of
Pennsylvania when the Court House was taken down, 1837.
Stoveplate from old house, Chestnut Hill.
The Seal of the City of
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 15
Rutter, this language seems to show his standing with
neighboring Red men.
Besides the first forges, Thomas Rutter with others
erected the first blast furnace, Colebrookdale, in the prov-
ince. The original owners of Pool Forge and Colebrook-
dale Furnace were almost identical.
In 1731 Pool Forge was owned by
Anthony Morris % part
Alexander Wooddrop % part
Samuel Preston %e part
William Attwood %e part
Jno. Leacock VIQ part
Nath 1 . ffrench %6 part
Geo. Mifflin VIQ part
Tho 3 . Potts and G. Boon . . M.6 part
The other % belonged to the Rutters. 1
This man of many interests and enterprises did not live
out his allotted years. The Pennsylvania Gazette, Phil-
adelphia, March 13, 1729-30, has this entry: "On Sun-
day night last died here Thomas Rutter senior. He was
the first that erected an iron work in Pennsylvania." At
this date he was probably a little over sixty. Among the
great names in our early iron industry, those of Rutter and
Potts stand preeminent; their descendants have intermar-
ried for six generations, during a period of one hundred
and forty years. The list of forges and furnaces on the
Manatawny and its branches, owned by the families of
Rutter and Potts, before the Revolution, is most imposing.
It includes Mount Pleasant Furnace and Forge, Spring
Forge, Colebrookdale Furnace and Forge, Amity Forge,
Rutter's Forge, Pool Forges, Pine Forge, Little Pine
Forge and McCall's Forge. 2 Augusta M. Longacre.
1 Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr., p. 26.
2 Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr., by Mrs. James.
16 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1 7*9 COVENTRY FORGE.
The beginnings of this noted forge on French Creek are
somewhat misty. Evidently the earliest venture of Sam-
uel Nutt, 1 it was a Catalan forge, and dates from 1718 or
1719. By 1724, the iron made there was in demand.
Just when William Branson became a partner with Sam-
uel Nutt is uncertain, but it was before 1728, for there is,
in an early newspaper, the offer of a reward of forty
shillings, under their joint names, on March 29 th of that
year, for one Richard Snaggs, who the Weekly Mercury
of Philadelphia stated had deserted from the works on
French Creek. The following winter, Nutt at the iron-
works, and Branson at Philadelphia, offer the same sum
for the recovery of John Bartam, a tailor, and Nathaniel
Ford, who both ran away from the works. 2
In the oldest Coventry Ledger extant, there are entries :
" Sept. 9, 1727 To William Branson " etc
His name occurs frequently.
"March 7, 1727.
To bringing up a Cag of Rum by Anne Robert's Cart
"March 27, 1728. To the weaving of n yds and J^
Stuff by John Hibbert, omitted last reckoning, "
"Nov. 27, 1729. By a Bridal for the Mrs."
" To one qt. malossos for Indian Daniel taking up your
1 For Samuel Nutt, see Reading furnace.
2 Futhey and Cope, Chester County, 344.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 17
The keeper at the works was paid twenty shillings per
week. An ore bed was discovered at Coventry in the early
days, by an Indian. The reward, which was given to his
daughter, was an iron pot, of the value of two shillings. 1
There was an agreement, March 15, 1736, between
Samuel Nutt and William Branson of the first part, and
John Potts, of the second, in which the latter agrees to
carry on a furnace called "Redding" recently built near
Coventry, for the two former, who are "joint owners."
William Branson had taken out warrants for additional
land in 1733. Some of this property adjoined that of
Samuel Nutt, which may have been a reason, both for
their partnership and for the disagreement which was being
adjusted at the time of Samuel Nutt's death. In connec-
tion with the surveys, a correspondent writes to the sur-
veyor, November 26, 1735 : " I have not seen Samuel Nutt
since I received thy letter, which informs me of his returns
being sent up. I hope that Wm. Branson's are also sent,
that thereby the long-depending affair between them may
be at length settled." 2 A man of enterprise, Branson,
on the dissolution of partnership with the heirs of Samuel
Nutt in 1739, is said to have taken Reading Furnace as his
share; and a little later, in 1742, he became the owner of
Windsor in Caernarvon township, and built a forge and
the mansion. 3 He was also the pioneer in steel, being the
owner in 1737, of the Vincent Steel Works on French
Creek in Chester county. Just when Branson's steel fur-
nace was started in Philadelphia is not certain, but it is said
to have been "near where Thomas Penn first lived on
Upper Chestnut street." The other one, Stephen PaschaFs,
was built in 1747, and stood on a lot at the northwest cor-
1 Book B. Ledger, Coventry, in collection of the Hon. S. W. Pennypacker.
2 Pott Memorial.
3 See Windsor Forges.
18 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
ner of Eighth and Walnut Streets. To complete the list
of steel works in Pennsylvania at that time, we must men-
tion a plating forge with tilt hammer in Byberry, Philadel-
phia county, owned by John Hall, who was a grandson of
Thomas Rutter, son of Joseph and Rebecca Rutter Hall.
Of the Vincent works, Acrelius says in 1756: " At Branz's
works there is a steel furnace, built with a draught hole and
called an * air oven.' In this, iron bars are set at a distance
of an inch apart. Between them are scattered horn, coal
dust, ashes, etc. The iron bars are thus covered with
blisters and this is called * blister steel.' It serves as the
best steel to put upon edge tools." 1
William Branson was the son of Nathaniel Branson, of
the parish of Soning, in Berkshire, England. Nathaniel
Branson had purchased of William Penn twelve hundred
and fifty acres in Pennsylvania, but he never came out to
claim his tract. By deed of August 28, 1707, this tract
was conveyed to his son, William Branson, who the next
year became a passenger on the Golden Lion and who took
up his property by two separate warrants. For many
years he lived in Philadelphia, occupying a house on the
east side of Second street. His four daughters became the
wives of well-known Pennsylvanians : Samuel Flower,
Bernhard Van Leer, Lynford Lardner, and Richard Hock-
ley. He died in 1760. It is so difficult to obtain any
clear information as to the ownership of the Coventry
Iron Works from 1740 on, that one may be pardoned for
a final impression that "Anna Nutt and Co.," were large
owners; they are mentioned in a petition, 1741, as " owners
of ironworks at Coventry and Warwick " and Mrs. James
tells us that Mrs. Robert Grace bought back part of the
Coventry estate. Thomas Potts (1735-1785) married
Anna Nutt at Coventry in 1757, and established himself
1 Iron Making in Pennsylvania, Swank, p. 23.
Stoveplate supposed to have been cast at Coventry. wY B.'= William
Branson. K. T. F. = Coventry Furnace. Owned by Mr. A. J. Steinman,
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 19
in business in Philadelphia, for the sale of iron, with his
uncle, Thomas Yorke. By his marriage a share in the
forges and furnaces of the two Samuel Nutts on French
Creek came into his hands. In 1765 he bought from his
wife's mother and her husband, Robert Grace, all their
rights in Coventry. The winter house of Thomas Potts
and his wife was in Front Street, Philadelphia, then a
fashionable quarter of the city. He was one of the orig-
inal members of the American Philosophical Society, was
interested in the navigation of the Schuylkill and other
large State interests, and a warm adherent of the patriotic
side, on the breaking out of the trouble with the Mother
country. He removed to Pottstown in 1768, where
Washington was frequently his guest at the Mansion. 1
For years he was a member of Assembly. Mrs. Grace
entertained officers of the Army at Coventry Hall, during
their stay at Valley Forge.
1 See Pottsgrove Forge.
20 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1719 COLEBROOKDALE FURNACE.
PHILADELPHIA COUNTY, LATER, BERKS.
Those enterprising colonists, Thomas Rutter and
Thomas Potts, having demonstrated beyond a doubt that
the early experiments at the mouth of the Manatawny
could be developed into a great iron industry, went to Phil-
adelphia to seek capital for investment in their new enter-
prise. The time had come when they could no longer
work single handed. The expense of building a furnace in
those early days was about five hundred pounds. To this
must be added the wages of men employed, and the cost
of horses, oxen and wagons to transport the wood and
iron. An area of woodland two miles square was sufficient
to feed the furnace, but this had to be cut and made into
charcoal. Without capital it was impossible to venture
farther. Accordingly we find that about 1720, new fur-
naces were projected along the Manatawny, and one on
Iron Stone Creek, a branch of the former. This was
called Colebrookdale, and was managed by a company in-
cluding Rutter and Potts and the Philadelphians Anthony
Morris and James Lewis. The original lease is in-
"Lease Dated the 13 th day of January 1724 Between
Thomas Rutter sen r of the I st part, Tho 8 Rutter and John
Rutter of the 2 nd part, and Evan Owen, Maurice Morris,
James Lewis, Robert Griffith and Thomas Marke of the
" For a certain tract of Land Scituate upon Ironstone
River in Manatawny in the County of Philadelphia con-
taining 100 acres, To hold from the date above, for, and
Stove plate cast at Colebrookdale Furnace. Owned by the Pennsylvania
Museum in Memorial Hall.
Elijah fed by ravens. Mate of the " Seal of Philadelphia " plate.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 21
during, and unto the full end and Term of 28 years from
thence next ensuing and fully to be complete and ended
under the yearly rent of L 30
"Also a deed of copartnership Between the said parties.
The above Lease and Deed are Left in the hands of
Charles Brockden to be kept indifferently between the
2nd "Thomas Potts sen r Leased Colebrookdale Fur-
nace Jan y 13 th 1724 at the rate of 48 Tonn piggs pr annum
Each Tonn being valued at L 5 How much does the Rent
amount to to the 13 th of January 174% being 24 years?" 1
Swank's "History of Iron Making in Pennsylvania"
"The first furnace in England to cast pots and kettles
and other hollow ware by the use of sand moulds, was
Abraham Darby's Colebrookdale furnace in Shropshire,
which he leased in 1709. It was a small charcoal fur-
nace and had been in existence for a century. He died in
1717. As he was a Contemporary pioneer in the iron
business and a Friend or Quaker, as were most of the
pioneer iron masters of Pennsylvania, it is easy to imagine
that our colonists should have called their first furnace
after the Colebrookdale furnace in Shropshire."
Famous as the first blast furnace in Pennsylvania, Cole-
brookdale had a long and prosperous career. It is men-
tioned in the Potts Memorial as still standing in 1785
though not in active operation. Though Thomas Rutter
was the largest owner, the management from the first
seems to have devolved on Thomas Potts. Thomas
Rutter died in 1730, and in the following years the com-
pany was reorganized by the persons whose names are
here given and the proportion of shares held by each
1 Ledger of Colebrookdale Furnace, in collection of the Hon. S. W.
22 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Nath 1 ffrench % 2 , Alex. Wooddrop % 2 , Sam 1 Preston
y 2 W m Attwood % 2 , Anth Morris %2, Jno Leacock % 2 ,
Geo Mifflin K 2 , T. Potts and G. Boon #2.
Mrs. James in the Potts Memorial copies the record of
the cost of this rebuilding verbatim, the oldest document
she is able to discover. It is written very handsomely on
a folio sheet of paper, and is Thomas Potts's account with
the company. Among other items we find
" % gallon of Rum given to the workmen at the Limekiln,
% Gallon of Rum given to the workmen helping up with
To paid Timothy Miller for dyett, and customary allow-
ance of Rum to the workmen when getting Inn Wall
stones over the Schuylkill 1-5-8.
An interesting item in the Company's minutes reads as
" To the Persons in this minitt named, viz : Alex a Wood-
rupps, W m Attwood, W m Pyewell for Thomas Rutter,
Anth. Morris, George Mifflin and Thos Potts, Being a
majority of the Proprietors of Colbrook ffurnace Mett
This 16 day of 6 mo 1736.
" And on a Complaint y* some of the Own ra of sd ffurnace
were deficient in finding their proportion of wood for Coal
for Carrying on the Blast of sd ffurnace According to
articles of Agreement with Thomas Potts, Therefore made
Inquiry Thereunto And find that there is a deficiency
Chargable upon the Persons under named And it is now
Agreed & Concluded that they & every of them Immedi-
ately find & Provide the Quantity of Woodland annexed
to their Names and y* y e possess Thos. Potts with the
wood thereon Standing for the use of the sd. Colebrook
ffurnace the next ensuing Blast. On failure whereof 'tis
Concluded & Agreed y* the sd. Thomas Potts reserve &
Sell so much of their part & share of the Pigg Iron Cast,
or to be runn & Cast as shall or may fully purchase or pay
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 23
for their full Proportion of wood according to the und r
Estimate made the day and date above, viz
Thomas Rutter, deceased to make good 5 5 acres woodland
John Rutter deceased & Thomas Potts 75 Ditto
Samuel Preston 75 Ditto
Edw'd ffream 75 Do
Nath 1 ffrench 75 D
Jno Leycock 75 Do
Geo. Boom 37% Do
Taken from the Minutes of sd Comply and signed by us.
W M ATTWOOD
THOMAS POTTS "
The amount of wood consumed by these charcoal fur-
naces was simply enormous. Some of them when in blast
used from five to six thousand cords of wood annually,
the product of about two hundred and forty acres of wood-
land. This was an advantage to the infant colony, since
lands were thereby rapidly cleared which might be used for
No doubt Indians were employed to some extent at the
forges since their names are found in lists of workmen as
"Indian John" and " Margalita " : 1728. Though
Thomas Potts was connected with many of the furnaces
in the Manatawny region, Colebrookdale was the scene of
his greatest activities. He became possessed of g|reat
estates and built not far from the furnace a fine mansion,
still standing, called Popodickon, from an Indian King,
24 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Popodick, who is buried under a magnificent chestnut tree
about five hundred yards from the house. Tradition says
the Ironstone Creek was originally called the Popodick.
When in 1732 Benjamin Franklin established the Phila-
delphia Library Company Thomas Potts was one of the
fifty subscribers to the project, thus indicating his interest
in literary matters as well as in extending his material pos-
sessions. Before his death in 1752 in the seventy second
year of his age, he saw all his sons and daughters married
and settled around him, and engaged in the iron business
he had assisted in establishing. In his will he leaves his
two thirds of Colebrookdale furnace and iron mines to his
son Thomas, who by his marriage with Rebecca Rutter
was already part owner in the Colebrookdale plant.
Thomas was married twice and had seven children who
lived to grow up. In his will he says: "I order my
part of the furnace with lands, together with house and
lands I now live on, to be rented out till my son David
arrives at the age of twenty one years, and if he inclines to
rent, to have the refusal." But David did not take the
Colebrookdale furnace, nor did any of the others so far as
we can learn, succeed to this fine old patrimony. In Nich-
olas Scull's map of Pennsylvania, 1759, Colebrookdale
furnace is located, and that was probably the period of its
greatest activity. A stove plate cast at the furnace in
1763 was exhibited at the World's Fair in Philadelphia.
Mary E. Mum ford.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 25
Reading or Redding Furnace so the name is spelled on
old plans and maps on French Creek, Chester county,
the second in Pennsylvania, was built probably in 1720.
It is said its site was at or near Coventry forge of earlier
date. 1 For a time it was very productive, but the ore ran
out and it was then dismantled and vacated. This is the
short story of the original Reading Furnace. The second
of the same name, built in 1736 or 1737, was a mile distant
from the first.
Their founder has a lasting record. As the quality of
the root or the seed determines after growth, so does Sam-
uel Nutt, land-buyer, iron worker and untiring builder of
forges and furnaces focus in himself, as it were, all the pos-
sibilities of Pennsylvania's present iron industry. He was
a member of the Society of Friends. Advanced religious
thought and convictions doubtless helped to draw him to
Penn's colony, but before leaving England and his town of
Coventry on the 4th of May, 1714, he bought of Benjamin
Weight of the same place 1250 acres in Pennsylvania,
some of which were laid out in Sadsbury township. 2 A
characteristic act this, and before touching American soil
he was already land-owner by purchase, not by grant. His
certificate from the monthly meeting of Coventry dated
Second month, Seventh day, 1714, was presented to Con-
cord, Pa., meeting on the Tenth month, Thirteenth day
1 History of Chester County, by J. Smith Futhey and Gilbert Cope, p.
2 Ibid., p. 670.
26 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
of the same year. 1 There followed years of extraordinary
initiative and accomplishment ; his energy turned the hidden
ore of the primeval forest into marketable iron. He soon
came in touch with Thomas Rutter and Samuel Savage,
Rutter's son-in-law. These men, Rutter and Savage and
Nutt, are the three pioneers of Pennsylvania's greatest in-
dustry her earliest " Iron Kings." Nutt probably in his
work was not directly associated with the two others, but
similar interests and experiences in the wild region of the
upper Schuylkill welded these men together.
In Virginia English capitalists helped the early iron
workers; these of Pennsylvania were men of means, as well
as of ability, and they seem to have had, and to have asked
no outside aid.
Having taken up land on the west bank of the Schuyl-
kill, Nutt went thither in 1716 or 1718, and built there
as already stated, Coventry Forge and later Reading fur-
nace. He is said to have returned early to England com-
ing back with skilled workmen, and at French Creek the
first steel in America was made. 2 The . following letter
proves that he had set up a forge on French Creek before
"PHILADELPHIA, July 2nd 1720.
"My Good friend
" I was in hopes I should have seen thee at the Forge
before this time but suppose some other Important affairs
Prevented it however since I had not that happiness; I
make bold to Trouble thee with a ffew Lines; to acquaint
that Wee proceed on; In our Intentions of putting up an-
other fforge this ffal upon the ffrench Creek a Little above
James Peughs upper Line and shall Dam up above the
fforks of the North & South Branches; so that we shall
1 Ibid., p. 670.
2 " Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr.," by Mrs. Thomas Potts James, p. 31.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 27
be under an absolute necessity of taking up all that Tract as
lyes betwixt the said James Peughs line & Phillip Rodgers
upon the North branch & although I do not think the Land
is Inviting to any other body to meddle with it yet if any
one should attempt to do so ; I desire thee to Interpose thy
good offices In our favour & in doing so thou will In a
Perticuler manner obleige thy ffr to serve thee at all times
" I intend to take a turn Down Into Chester County In a
Little time & to pay thee a visit. In the mean time pray
give my Respects to thy wife & family and accept or the
same Thy Self . . . vale
"To Doctor Isaac Taylor at his House in Thornbury in
From 1717 to 1721, the "absolute necessity" noted in
the letter to Dr. Taylor, of taking up land, came frequently
upon him and "very inviting" were the forest acres for
on October 2, 1717, he obtained survey for two hundred
and fifty, an iron mine therein included. This tract was
patented to him in 1718 and the warrant for taking it up
dated September 18, 1718, called for four hundred acres.
Another warrant October 2, 1718, called for eight hundred
acres near the branches of the French Creek; three hundred
acres of this were laid out in Coventry two years later.
Six hundred and fifty acres on French Creek including the
subsequent site of the Warwick furnace, were conveyed to
him on May 2, 1719, and one hundred and fifty acres more
on October i, 1720. On May 23, 1721, he purchased
from James Peugh three hundred acres on French Creek
in Coventry. 1
Years elapse and no more is heard of land ventures until
1 History of Chester County, by J. Smith Futhey and Gilbert Cope,
28 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
January 6, 1732 or 1733, when James Steel wrote from
Philadelphia to John Taylor, the surveyor :
" Our ffrd Saml Nutt having paid a Good sum of money
to me for the Prop's use hath requested a further addition
to his Lands to accommodate his Iron Works, which the
Proprietary was pleased to Grant him. I doe therefore
request thee to make such surveys for him as may answer
Long before this latest purchase, iron interests came
still closer to him, in fact, iron entered into his heart
happily not into his soul for in 1720, or soon after, he
married Anna, daughter of Thomas Rutter and widow of
Samuel Savage, and thus Anna Nutt was daughter of one
of the pioneers, wife, and for a short time, widow of the
second, and wife of the third whom she also survived. 1
Some of the acres referred to in the following order
have special interest in connection with the marriage :
" To JACOB TAYLOR Surveyor. General.
" By the commissioner of Property. Pensihania. ss.
" At the request of Samuel Nutt now of Chester County
that we would Grant him to take up near the Branches of
the ffrench Creek the quantity of Eight hundred acres of
Land for which he agrees to pay to the use of the Trustees
Eighty pounds money of Pensilvania for the whole, and the
yearly quit rent of one Shilling Sterling for each hundred
acres. These are to authorize and require thee to Survey
or cause to be Surveyed unto the said Samuel Nutt at or
near the place aforesaid according to the method of ye
Townships appointed, the said quantity of Eight hundred
acres of Land that has not been already surveyed nor
appropriated nor is Seated by the Indians, and make re-
turns thereof unto the Secretary's office, which Survey in
case the said Samuel fulfil the above agreement within ....
1 Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr., p. 29.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 29
months after the Date hereof shall be valid, otherwise the
same to be void as if it had never been made, or this War-
rant ever Granted. Given under our hands and Seal of
the Province of Philadelphia ye 2d October. Anno D'ni
To part of this tract Nutt gave the name of Coventry
and from it to Philadelphia " a distance of 40 miles he laid
out, it is believed, and made at his own expense the first
road of any extent in the Province. It is still called by
aged people in the neighborhood the Nutt or Great Road;
it passes through Valley Forge, crossing the creek of that
name near Washington's Headquarters." 1
On a hillside within these acres, near the branches of
the French Creek, he built a home for his Anna and him-
self like the old houses in his English town the frame of
great hewn logs between which were cemented stones. No
children were born to him in Coventry Hall but devotion
to his wife's daughter, Ruth Savage, caused him to summon
from England his nephew, Samuel Nutt, Jr., to be her hus-
band. Fortunately the young people approved the match
and the wedding took place Fifth month, seventeenth day,
Z 733- The bride could not have been sixteen years old;
her wedding dress was of brocade with high heeled buckled
shoes to match, and tradition says, "her rich dowry was
far outweighted by her personal and mental charms."
Tradition also affirms that her step-father, Samuel Nutt,
was the younger son of a baronet and the coat of arms he
brought from England has on it a crescent, the mark of a
second son. 2
1 Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr., p. 32.
2 Ibid., p. 31.
30 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
In the imagination of Mrs. James the historian of the
Potts family Samuel Nutt is pictured as " a fine English
gentleman with no sign of the Quaker garb and plainness ;
the careful appointments of his magnificent horse, his lace
ruffles and cocked hat, all show that he was a man having
authority." 1 Authority in reality he had, for he was mem-
ber of Assembly from Chester county from 1723 to 1726
and when a new Commission of Peace was issued on Pat-
rick Gordon's becoming Governor, Nutt was appointed one
of his Majesty's Justices. Other indications of his high
standing as a citizen are found. In 1728, he was chosen
with eleven others by the Governor and Council to run a
division line to separate Lancaster county for the old
Chester county, though he does not appear to have acted
in this matter. His name heads a list of taxables in 1724.
Emanuel Swedenborg, in 1734, in a Latin treatise on Iron
writes: U A works was built on the Schuylkill River by
Master Samuel Nutt with furnaces and hearths." In
Bishop's "History of American Manufactures," we read:
"In 1718, Jonathan Dickinson mentions in a letter that
the iron works forty miles up the Schuylkill are very
great." The historian adds: "the reference here was
probably to the Coventry forge on French Creek in Coven-
try township, Chester Co. This bloomery was built by a
person named Nutt who made other large improvements
at the place."
The nearness of Nutt's furnace and home to the scene of
the only hostility of the period in Pennsylvania between
Indians and settlers, explains the following letter. Mal-
anton, the place from which it was written, is a misprint for
Morlatton, near Colebrookdale ; part of it is now called
Douglassville. It is forty-four miles from Philadelphia,
on the Reading Railroad. It was settled early by the
1 ibid., p. 51.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 31
Swedes, and the name is supposed to be derived from a
district in Sweden. An old Swedish church still stands
there, called St. Gabriel's. The Governor of the Province,
news of trouble having reached him, had visited the region.
Believing that affairs were again peaceful, he was about
to return to Philadelphia when Nutt's communication
reached him by express :
"MALANTON, May n 1728
"May It Please The Governour
"Just now I RVed the Disagreeable news that one
Walter Winter and John Winter have Murdered one In-
dian Man and Two Indian Women without any cause
given by the sd Indians; and the said Winters have brought
two girls (one of which is Crippled) to George Boon's to
receive some Reward. I desire the Governour may see
after it before he goes Down, for most certainly such
actions will create the greatest antipathy between the Sev-
eral Nations of Indians and the Christians. The Bearer
John Petty has heard the full relation of this matter, to
whom I shall refer the Governour for a more full account
and remain the Governour's most hearty friend and Serv't
Immediately upon the receipt of this letter, the Governor
issued a proclamation, commanding the people, in his
Majesty's name, " to levy Hue and Cry with Horse and
with Foot within the Province of Pennsylvania," for the
apprehension of these murderers who were afterwards
tried, convicted and hanged.
The circumstances connected with this one unfortunate
episode in the otherwise peaceful relations of the Penn-
sylvania colonists and the Indians are strikingly picturesque
and rich in the coloring of the wild places and the time.
In 1736, the second Reading furnace recently built, was
32 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
handed over by Samuel Nutt and Wm. Branson, joint
owners, to John Potts, to carry on upon the following
terms. 1 He was " to cast the quantity of twenty-eight
hundred weight of Cart Boxes, Sash Weights or any other
Particular small Castings every Month during the Contin-
uance of the said Blast. . . . And they also covenant that
ye said Owners or their Clerks or Agents for the Time
being, shall deliver no Quantity of Rum to any of the
People Belonging to the Furnace or therein concerned,
without a Note or Token from the said John Potts or his
Agents or Assistants." 2
In an inventory taken of the estate of Nutt when start-
ing his partnership with Branson, mention is made of " a
ring round the shaft at the old furnace." and of u one tonn
of sow mettle at the new furnace."
Over Nutt's signature we have a glimpse of labor
conditions in an advertisement from the Pennsylvania
Gazette, July 1737, for a run-away. The man was a Re-
demptioner or Redemptionist, the name used to designate
persons sold on arrival by contractors or captains of ships
to pay for their passage from abroad.
" FRENCH CREEK IRON WORKS CHESTER COUNTY
"July 3 4 d 1737.
" Run away from the iron works aforesaid, a servant-
man David McQuatty; by trade a Hammerer & Refiner,
but has forermly followed shaloping up & down the Bay
from Egg Harbor. He is a Scotchman but speaks pretty
good English, middle siz'd about 28 years of age of a
thin visage & a little pockpetten, with a Roman nose & a
few spots of Gunpowder under his right eye.
He is a talkertive man, given to liquor, & then very
quarrelsome He has such a trembling in ther nerves that
1 Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr., pp. 34 and 35.
2 Ibid., p. 51.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 33
he can hold nothing in his hands steadily, he has a very
small mouth and thin lips. He had on when he went away,
a new drugget coat & jacket of a kind of yellowish or snuff
color a good new fine shirt a new castor hat a dark-
ish silk handerkerchief a cotton cap a pair of new linen
drawers or a pair of Osenbrigs trowers, & a pair of Irge
carved brass buckles in his shoes.
"Whoever secures the said servant so that his master
may have him again, shall have 3 if taken up in this Prov-
ince, or 5 if taken up in any other Province & all reason-
able charges paid by
SAMUEL NUTT "*
Samuel Nutt was busied with his chosen work until the
end, for he died in 1737. The inventory of his estate
taken in May, 1738, is divided into two parts. That
which he held in company with Wm. Branson amounted to
2912; to be divided equally between them. His private
estate amounted to 5444.
The following extract from the inventory of the private
estate contains items characteristic of the time :
One tonn of sow mettle at new ffurnace L 5-105.0
18 Stove plates 10 cwt. L.8-i6s.o
The mine trace containing 250 acres of land L 1500-0.0
650 acres of land in Nantmill on which the
new ffurnace is building with Sundry out-
houses L 5 25-0.0
267 acres of land in Coven tyr being the land
on which Samuel Nutt's house stands L 300.0.0
A negro boy named " Cudjo " L 30.0.0
A negro boy named "George" L 15.0.0
2 hhds Rum L.26-is.o
78 ells Oxenbrigs 2 L 7-75.0
1 Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr., pp. 51-52.
2 Ozenbriggs. A very heavy linen, made originally at Osnabruck,
Hanover, used in great quantities in America during Colonial times for
shirts, breeches and clothing for hard use. It was sold in large bales,
particularly in the South, for use by the slaves.
34 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
His will, dated September 25, 1737, bequeaths one half
of his estate in Reading furnace and Coventry forge to
Samuel Nutt, Jr. and Rebecca, his wife, and the other
half after payment of some legacies, to his own wife,
Anna. He particularly directs that she is to have one hun-
dred and twenty acres of land on the South Branch of
French Creek one hundred and thirty perches in length on
which to build a furnace, and leave to cut as much timber
upon the lands adjacent as would suffice to erect the same.
His idea seemed to be that she and her sons might carry on
this establishment while her son-in-law managed Cov-
Nutt's busy brain glowed, while his mortal life flickered,
with thoughts of the furnace that his wife and her sons
were yet to build. He then lighted fires which burned for
many decades and the land on which stood Warwick fur-
nace, is still owned by the descendants of Anna, wife of
Samuel Nutt, Sr. 2
For forty years, from the time of Nutt's death, little or
nothing is found recorded of the Reading furnace. In
1777 it blazes forth with unexpected brilliancy; for a
letter from Washington written on his memorable way
between Brandywine and Valley Forge with an impover-
ished army, is dated :
"19 September 1777.
" READING FURNACE, 6 o'clock P. M.
"Dear Sir. I have received yours of half past 3 o'clock
having wrote to you already to move forward upon the
enemy, I have but little to add Generals Maxwell & Potter
are ordered to do the same, being at Potts' Forge. I could
wish you and these generals would act in conjunction to
1 Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr., p. 53.
2 History of Chester County, by J. Smith Futhey and Gilbert Cope,
Stoveplate, Reading Furnace, 1772. Owned by the Pennsylvania
Museum in Memorial Hall.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 35
make your advance more formidable, but I would not have
too much time delayed on this account. I shall follow as
speedily as possible with jaded men some may probably
go off immediately if I find they are in condition for it.
The horses are almost all out upon the patrol. Cartridges
have been ordered for you. Give me the earliest informa-
tion of everything interesting, & of your moves, that I may
know how to govern mine by them.
The cutting off the enemy's baggage would be a great
matter, but take care of ambuscades,
GEORGE WASHINGTON. 1
Gen. A. Wayne
Baker's Itinerary gives details of Washington's move-
ments at this time 2 but makes no mention of Reading;
this letter proves his presence there.
Here its story ends for us. Upon the foundations of
Colonial government and English traditions rises the
changing order of a new nation, the home of all races,
the land of the people's rule. Let it not be forgotten, now
that Pennsylvania's iron wealth is one of the largest mate-
rial assets of our great Republic, that Washington, when
his faith in its future was most sorely tried, tarried awhile
at Reading Furnace.
Eliza B. Kirkbride.
1 Ege Genealogy, p. 79. The original letter is in the Wayne Collection,
Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
2 Itinerary of Gen. Washington, by Wm. S. Baker, p. 91.
36 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1724 SIR WILLIAM KEITH'S FURNACE.
Sir William Keith, the last deputy governor of Penn-
sylvania appointed by William Penn, was born in England
in 1680 and died in that country in 1749. He was heir to
an empty Scotch title, being descended through the re-
nowned Keiths of Ludquahairn from many of the nobility
of North Britain, his own family having been formerly rich
and powerful, and at one time reckoned amongst the great-
est in the Kingdom of Scotland.
Sir William had been well educated by an uncle, and in-
herited much of the ability and statesmanship characteristic
of his race and name.
He was early in life appointed by Queen Anne, Surveyor-
general of the royal Customs in the American Colonies at a
salary of 500 pounds per annum. He spent many of his
days at this time in the colony of Virginia where the gen-
erous mode of living of the wealthy planters, and the
beauty of the Southern women were much to his taste.
The accession of the Hanoverian line to the throne cast
Keith out of office, and he came north to Philadelphia.
Shortly after this, having obtained through the influence
of his friends the appointment of deputy governor of
Pennsylvania, he immediately brought his family from
England, arriving in Philadelphia on the 3ist of May
The governor's household consisted of his second wife,
Lady Keith, her daughter by a former marriage, Anne
Diggs, his three sons, Alexander Henry, Robert, and Wil-
liam Keith and his young kinsman, a Scotch physician,
Weather Vane from Residence of Sir William Keith, Graeme Park.
Owned by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 37
Thomas Graeme, who later married his stepdaughter,
In 1719 Sir William Keith bought a large tract of
twelve hundred acres of what was then wild land, nineteen
miles from Philadelphia in Horsham township, Mont-
gomery county, two miles northwest of the Doylestown and
Willow Grove turnpikes, and in 1721 built a house sixty-
five by twenty-five feet in size, two stories high with a
gambrel roof, the walls of stone and over two feet in thick-
ness, the kitchen and offices detached and flanking each
side of the main building. The drawing room is a fine
room for those times, twenty-one feet square, with a fire
place having the coat of arms over it, and adorned with
marbles brought from England. Dutch tiles, then much
in fashion in the colonies, were used in the other rooms.
The house is panelled throughout in oak, and has
a good colonial stairway. It was probably finished in
1722, this being confirmed by the old iron weather vane
formerly upon it. This old vane was in 1855 in the pos-
session of Hugh Foulke of Gwynedd, who is said to have
purchased it from the Lukens estate in 1829 for old iron.
" It was of wrought iron, thirty-eight inches in length.
The part bearing *W. K. 1722' which was seventeen
inches in length was cut out in it after the manner of a
stencil. At the lower part was a screw with which it
might be secured to its place."
There is also an iron plate in a hearth in a second-story
bedchamber bearing the date of 1728. On this estate Sir
William Keith lived in great style with seventeen slaves,
four horses for his coach, seven riding horses and nine for
farm work. The grounds were mostly maintained as a
hunting park and stocked with deer and other game.
This mansion and grounds were later bought by Keith's
son-in-law Thomas Graeme, and were known as " Graeme
38 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Park." The house is still standing though in very bad
repair, and the grounds left to run wild. Sir William
Keith's granddaughter, Mrs. Fergusson, inherited the
estate, and it was finally sold to Samuel Penrose whose
family still own it.
Sir William Keith's administration as Governor of Penn-
sylvania lasted from June 1717, to 1726. Probably about
1724 he bought a tract of land in Delaware (then part of
Pennsylvania) at Iron Hill on Christiana Creek, near
Newcastle, where he built the first iron furnce and forge in
Delaware. In 1717 he wrote to the Board of Trade in
London that u he had found great plenty of iron ore in
Emmanuel Swedenborg in his "DeFero" printed in
1734, mentions smelting works on Christiana Creek built
by Sir William Keith in the latter part of his administra-
tion, which produced large quantities of iron in the first
two years of their existence, but were abandoned the next
year owing to the difficulty of smelting the ore. All traces
of this forge and furnace seem to have disappeared, nor is
there to be found any specimen of the work.
Margaret C. Yarnall Cope.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 39
McCALL'S OR GLASGOW FORGE. 1725
PHILADELPHIA, Now MONTGOMERY COUNTY.
Along the banks of the Manatawny Creek, which rises
in Rockland township, Berks county, and empties into the
Schuylkill River at Pottstown, several furnaces were sit-
uated, among them McCall's Forge or Glasgow Forge, by
either of which names, according to Colonial records, the
place seems to have been equally well known. The
tract of land containing it was conveyed in trust by William
Penn to his son John, October 25, 1701, and comprised all
of the present township of Douglas and the upper half of
Pottsgrove; and the whole of Pottstown to the Schuylkill,
14,600 acres in all. This was sold by John Penn, June
20, 1735, for the sum of two thousand guineas, $9>333
to George McCall, the son of Samuel McCall of
Glasgow, Scotland. 1 " Fully ten years before the date of
this purchase, in company with Anthony Morris, 3rd,
George McCall had erected an iron forge (called
"McCall's Forge," on Scull's map of 1759) at Glasgow
on Manatawny Creek, which he named for the place of
his nativity. Some time after, he engaged Nicholas Scull
to survey plantations on a certain part of his property for
which he permitted his five sons to draw lots."
He had also an interest in Colbrookdale Furnace, then
managed by Thomas Potts, Jr., which supplied McCalPs
Forge with pig iron. 2 Thomas Potts, Jr., was acting for
Anthony Morris, who was a relative of his, and also for
George McCall, in the management of McCalPs Forge.
1 McCall Family, by Frank Willing Leach.
2 History of Montgomery County, by W. J. Buck.
40 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
A merchant of note and enterprise, McCall rapidly ac-
quired a fortune. He had a store and wharf at Plum
Street ; and was said to have invested largely in real estate.
In 1722, he was elected a member of the City Council. He
married Anne Yeates in 1716; was a vestryman of Christ
Church, and in 1718, a tenant of the parsonage house, con-
tributing largely to the rebuilding of the church. 1 He died
in 1740, and by his will, dated September 21, 1739, be-
queathed 500 acres of what, until 1753, was known as
McCall's Manor, to his son, Alexander McCall, and which
subsequently became known as the Forge Tract. Here
the McCalls, Samuel, Archibald and Alexander, engaged
extensively in manufacturing interests, and operated the
old forge and a grist and saw mill. Samuel McCall, on
September 8, 1752, sold the old forge property to Joseph
and John Potts and James Hockley, and in 1789, it was
sold at Sheriff's sale to David Rutter and Joseph Potts, Jr.
Later in the same year Rutter sold his share to Samuel
Potts, and it continued in the Potts family until 1832.
In 1820, there were at the place a small sheet iron mill,
two bloomeries, a grist mill, a saw mill, two mansion
houses, ten log tenant houses, and two stone tenant houses,
and at the present time work is carried on there by the
Glasgow Iron Works and Rolling Mills.
As the name Manatawny (meaning, "the place where
we drink ") , indicates, there were a number of Indian tribes
in the neighborhood, who viewed with dismay the large
amount of wood used to make charcoal for the furnaces.
To their far-sighted Chiefs, this wholesale destruction of
woodland presented a melancholy picture and possibly con-
tributed not a little to their disaffection.
Probably the life at forge or furnace in those days dif-
fered not materially from that of the sixties in the last cen-
1 Descendants of Joran Kyn, by Gregory B. Keen, p. 7&
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 4!
tury, when the workmen lived scattered over several miles
of country, and were wakened to come to work by one
long blast of five minutes, blown at four o'clock in the
morning. So much a subconscious part of the day's rou-
tine had this whistle become, that the manager of one iron
works was startled awake one morning by the fact that the
whistle had not blown, and by inquiring the reason from
the engineer later in the day, confirmed the impression that
"it was no use trying to fool * Mister' even when he was
Margaret Wister Meigs.
KURTZ'S IRON WORKS. I72 6
Kurtz, possibly an Amish Mennonite, is supposed to
have established iron works in Lancaster county in 1726.
Egle says on Octorara Creek. These works are said by
Day to have been the first in the county although Peter
Grubb's were a close second. Information about this
undertaking is not to be found in the usual records.
42 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
I72 g ABBINGTON FURNACE.
In 1701 Welsh settlers coming to Delaware from the
"Welsh Tract" in Pennsylvania, obtained from William
Penn a grant of three thousand acres of land which was
known as the "Welsh Tract." Most of this Welsh
Tract, of the lower counties, is in Pencader Hundred.
One of these settlers, James James by name, selected
Iron Hill and the land northward to Christiana Creek,
twelve hundred and twenty-four acres in all, and had deed
for it from William Penn in 1703.
Iron Hill is the most marked feature of the neighbour-
hood, and is mentioned by name in a letter of May, 1661,
in which Vice Director Hinijossa relates the killing there
of four Englishmen by the Indians.
Part of this land coming to Samuel James, son of James
James, he built upon it a forge about 1723. His success,
and the iron ore near by attracted the attention of some of
the leading iron masters in Pennsylvania, eight of whom
formed a company of which Thomas Rutter was one, and
in 1726 erected on Christiana Creek a furnace and forge to
be called "Abbington Iron Works." They, however,
never made a success of it; Samuel James continued the
works until 1735, when they were finally sold out by the
sheriff. Since that time saw mills and grist mills were
operated there until a fire in 1883 made an end of the
Curiously enough, (1913) the site of these old iron
works, three miles from Newark, Delaware, has been
bought by a Philadelphia capitalist, and is now in the hands
of experts, German and American, who confidently expect
to make these old pits profitable, in the production of
platinum and gold.
Margaret C. Yarnall Cope.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 43
DURHAM FURNACE. 1727
From time immemorial, whenever a new country has
been about to be settled, there has been included in its con-
cessions, charter rights or other legal agreements, some
mention, at least, of the mineral wealth which later occupa-
tion of the territory might disclose. The " Conditions or
Concessions " which accompanied William Penn's " Frame
of Government," in the sixth clause, reads : " That notwith-
standing there be no mention made in the several Deeds
made to the purchasers, yet the said William Penn does
accord and declare, that all Rivers, Rivulets, Woods, and
Underwoods, Waters, Water-courses, Quarries, Mines,
and Minerals (except Mines Royal) shall be freely and
fully enjoyed and wholly, by the purchasers into whose lot
they fall." 1 But however far-reaching their outlook, Wil-
liam Penn and his associates little dreamed of the vast
stores of wealth and energy locked up in the coal and iron
mines of his beloved Pennsylvania. It is certain that the
earliest settlers in the province, the Swedes, were in-
formed of the existence of iron ore in several parts of the
eastern division of Pennsylvania, but meagre resources did
not permit of any development of mining, in the modern
Of the three counties into which Pennsylvania was orig-
inally divided, Bucks was the easternmost. The subdi-
visions of this county into townships, left one of the small-
est of these, known as Durham, in the extreme northeast-
ern corner. Much earlier in date than its neighbor,
1 Colonial Records of Pennsylvania, Vol. I, p. xix.
44 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Northampton, [Easton], which was not settled until 1752,
there were white settlers in the township of Durham in
1682. James Claypoole wrote on June 4th of that year:
"We are to send one hundred men to Durham to build
houses, to plant and improve land, and to set up a glass-
house for bottles and drinking glasses, and we hope to have
wine and oil for merchandise, and hemp for cordage, and
iron and lead and other minerals." 1 A beautiful stream,
known as Durham Creek, enters the Delaware in the ex-
treme northern portion of the county, and about a mile
and a half from its mouth are the remains of a curious cave,
which is the earliest relic of the white man's effort to heat
and mould iron near the spot. This great natural cavern
was regarded as a wonder, and visited by every newcomer
or prospective settler, and famed afar, before it was blasted
and its beauty ruined in order to quarry its limestone.
The frequent Indian village sites in the township furnish to
the antiquarian many fine specimens of pipes, pottery and
stone, important for the use of the student.
It is interesting to note that William Penn became an
owner of land in New Jersey, Andover Township, in what
is now Sussex County, by a warrant from the Council of
Proprietors dated March 10, 1714. Later on, about 1760,
this region, containing one of the richest mines of iron ore
in New Jersey, was opened up and a furnace set in opera-
tion. The product of these Andover Iron Works was
carried upon pack-horses and carts down the valley of the
Musconetcong to Durham on the Delaware, and thence
transported on "Durham Boats" to Philadelphia.
In the year 1717 (September 8th), a portion of Dur-
ham township was patented to Jeremiah Langhorne, and
John Chapman. Another, of twelve hundred acres, was
deeded to Langhorne alone, but the larger part, by warrant
1 Penn-Logan Correspondence, II, p. 323.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 45
and survey, became the property of James Logan. A
famous Indian Treaty was begun at Durham in 1734, ad-
journed to Pennsbury, and finally concluded in Philadel-
phia, August 25, 1737. The infamous "Walking Pur-
chase " was completed through this section, September 2Oth
of this year.
The iron ore in the neighborhood drew the attention of
the settlers, and in 1726 a company was formed to erect a
blast furnace, manufacture pig-iron, cast pots and pans,
and make firebacks. The furnace was located at the vil-
lage of Durham, near a school and church, and was prob-
ably the second erected in Pennsylvania. James Logan
in 1728 wrote to William Penn, "There are four furnaces
in blast in this colony." One of these we know to have
been Colebrookdale ; it is probable that the others, besides
Durham, were located on French and Christiana Creeks.
Among the fourteen original owners, James Logan is
said to have held one fourth part. Jeremiah Langhorne
of " Trevose," Bensalem Township, " Gentleman," was
another large owner, and others were Anthony Morris,
brewer, Chief Justice William Allen, from whom Allen-
town takes its name, Joseph Turner, Robert Ellis, George
Fitzwater, Clement Plumsted, John Hopkins, and Charles
Read, father-in-law of James Logan, all described as
"merchants." To these were joined Andrew Bradford,
the famous Colonial printer, and Thomas Lindley, " an-
chorsmith." Griffith Owen and Samuel Powel were
A visitor to the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia in
1876 might have seen among the curiosities connected with
the manufacture of iron and the industries, an old stone of
peculiar shape bearing the date 1727. This was the key-
stone of Durham Furnace, of honorable history. Opera-
tions were begun at the new furnace in the autumn of
46 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1727, and in November of the following year James
Logan shipped three tons of pig-iron made at Durham to
England. The furnace is described 1 as built of stone,
thirty five to forty feet square, widest at bottom, and thirty
feet high. The large leather bellows used to increase the
blast was operated by a water-wheel turned by the creek.
The iron was dug close by the furnace, and the charcoal
fuel used in the process was made in pits, which being lo-
cated close at hand, filled the air with a disagreeable odor
from the wigwam-like structures which covered them, and
in which the wood for the charcoal was burned. From the
top of the furnace, into which were poured the ore, char-
coal and limestone, issued at intervals bright flames which
lighted up the picturesque surroundings when the blast was
forced, and illumined the dark forest and its darker negro
and Indian inhabitants, as the twilight shadows fell. The
intermittent character of the work permitted the farmhands,
who were negro slaves during most of the colonial period,
to pursue their work on the farm near by in the interval
of filling and drawing off the ore. When the iron was
ready to be tapped, a horn was blown and the slaves
presented themselves. The foreman or founder, with an
iron pole or bar, opened or " tapped the bottom of the fur-
nace, allowing the molten iron to run into the moulds of
sand below. Durham turned out about two tons of iron
in the day of twenty-four hours. Two tons of iron ore
yielded one ton of pig-iron." Acrelius, writing in 1758
says, " Durham may be regarded as the best ironworks in
the country. It has a rich supply of ore, water, sand and
limestone. The ore is so near the furnace and the furnace
so near the forges, that there is not three quarters of a mile
of hauling about the works. The forges are little more
than a mile to the station on the Delaware River, whence
the iron is conveyed by water to Philadelphia."
*V. Von A. Cabeen, The Colonel and the Quaker, p. 81.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 47
Dr. John W. Jordan furnishes an interesting item, show-
ing the varied existence of one of the Durham slaves called
Joseph, or " Boston." Born in Africa in 1715, at the age
of twelve he was taken with a cargo of slaves to Charles-
ton, South Carolina, where he was sold to a sea captain,
who took him to England in 1727. In 1732 he was sold
to the Island of Montserrat, and thence with a new master
was brought to Durham Furnace, with ten other slaves.
In 1747 he was living in the household of Squire Nathaniel
Irish, and while there was married to "Hannah," but his
master hired him to a furnace in New Jersey. In 1752 he
was baptized by the Moravians at Bethlehem, and his
owner, John Hackett, of the Union Iron Works, Hunter-
don County, New Jersey, in 1760 sold him for fifty pounds
to the Moravians. He died on September 29, 1781.
"Hannah" was born July n, 1722, at Esopus, New
York, and in 1748, with her son, was sold to the Morav-
ians for seventy pounds. She died November 24, 1815.
In locating their furnaces through the wilderness, as was
necessary in order to procure fuel supplies, these pioneer
iron-masters were obliged to reckon with the Indians, who
were becoming increasingly dangerous upon the frontier.
Nevertheless, the peaceable Quaker tactics pursued by the
furnace owners appear to have succeeded in gaining for
them general immunity from disturbance. There was a
good deal of traffic with the Moravians near the middle
of the century. One Durham memorandum reads
May 28, 1745.
The Moravian Company,
Dr. To Robert Ellis & Co.
For i ton 15 Ibs. Bar Iron 30 4"
There is reason to suppose that as early as 1734 there
48 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
were two furnaces here, 1 but the fact that Durham was
owned by a large company may partially at least account
for its neighborhood being very sparsely settled before the
period of the Revolution. There was local government,
and the furnace formed not only the industrial but the
financial and social centre, around which all the interests of
the community, simple and primitive to a degree, revolved.
Accounts were kept here, as in all the iron manufactories in
the colony, with every purchaser, and the transactions were
in kind. Trade was in every possible commodity, from
tobacco, bonnets, shoes and tea, to oxen and hides, wood
and lumber. The remarkable collection of ledgers and
account books of the old Pennsylvania furnaces, owned
by ex-Governor Pennypacker, shows an almost patriarchal
system of life going on in the country regions about these
great iron centres, each a complete community within itself,
supplying all the actual necessities of life, and for those
days, even some of the luxuries, if among these we include
molasses, rum, and tobacco! The private account books
of Richard Backhouse, who bought Durham Furnace when
it was confiscated during the Revolution, are among the
oldest original records connected with Durham, and were
given to ex-Governor Pennypacker in 1862 by his grand-
father, one of the owners. They begin with the accounts
of a village store keeper in Anne Arundel County, Mary-
land, and name payments for " Rumm, striped linen, osna-
briggs, flannel, and a Boyes Hatt," the latter probably of
beaver, at " Three and six." Osnabrigg was a heavy home-
spun linen, named from the German town whence it came,
and largely used for shirts in the Colonial period.
Firebacks and stove plates were made at Durham from
its first year, 1727, until 1794, when operations were sus-
*J. M. Swank, Iron Making in Pennsylvania, p. 17. Scull's Map of
Pennsylvania for 1759 shows an old and a new furnace at Durham, as well
as a forge a second forge was built before 1770.
'>' t 4
Fireback at Stenton, the residence of James Logan. Made at
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 49
pended. A fine example of a Durham fireback is at Swift-
water Inn, near Pocono, in Monroe County. The earliest
examples, however, of Durham firebacks are undoubt-
edly those at Stenton, the home of James Logan near
Philadelphia. Here may be seen today eight of these
early backs. Three of them bear date 1728, at which time
James Logan was owner of one fourth part of Durham
Furnace; this was also the year in which was made the
first foreign export. On one of the backs are the initials
"I L." Stenton was built in this year and there is no
reasonable doubt that the backs are genuine Durham pro-
ductions. In order, however, to render assurance doubly
sure, the committee were gratified to be able to refer the
question to an expert. Mr. B. F. Fackenthal of Riegels-
ville, 1 for years a student of the history of the iron indus-
try, and a scientific chemist in this department of the arts,
kindly examined into the matter for us, and we are glad to
be able to quote his authority. Borings were carefully
made by him September 12, 1912, and the chemical analy-
sis that followed proved clearly that the iron from which
the interesting old backs were made, was of the same com-
position as that produced at Durham.
The decorative stove plates of a rather later date are
even more attractive to the antiquarian than the firebacks.
Many of these have inscriptions in German, and some
light is cast upon this feature when we recall that the Deed
of Partition for the Durham tract was drawn in 1773 ; that
administration as a township began in Durham June 13,
1775 ; and that after one thousand acres were reserved for
the purpose of the furnace and iron manufacture, the re-
maining portion of the tract was largely settled by Ger-
mans. Many of the inscriptions on these old stoves run
1 Mr. Fackenthal was until recently president of the Thomas Iron Com-
pany, of Easton, Pennsylvania.
50 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
around all the sides, and are in German. One, for in-
stance, known as the "Adam and Eve," reads, "Die
Schlang Adam und Efa Betrug." (The snake betrayed
Adam and Eve). Another is the "Cain and Abel";
" Cain Seinen Bruter Awel tot Schlug." (Cain killed his
brother Abel) . Both of these date from 1741, the earliest
preserved, and show the Durham analysis. Some of the
plates bear towering grenadiers, and refer to the Hessians
who frequently settled in this country, many of whom never
returned to their native land. An interesting journal of
this period is the "Travels Through Berks County in
1783," by Dr. John D. Schoepf, Surgeon of German
Auxiliary Troops in the Service of England. 1
Travelers on the way from distant points often made
detours to see the wonders of the furnace, even at some
expense of time and trouble, for colonial roads were bad
indeed. Thus Elizabeth Drinker, whose Diary is a mine
of information as to the mode of life at this period, men-
tions a visit to Durham. Her distances are not accurate,
but the trip was by chaise to Brunswick, New Jersey, with
digressions for visits. She writes under date
"September 3, 1764.
^ " Left home after dinner, R. Booth on Horseback, and
his man Robert, H. Drinker and Elizabeth" (herself and
husband) "in chaise: Drank tea at Red Lion, 13 miles
from Philadelphia, lodged at Alex. Brown's 13 miles from
town: good accommodations. Breakfasted there y e 4th:
then went to James Morgan's at Durham Iron Works, 48
or 50 miles from home. Roads very bad: stayed there to
dinner : walked to the furnace, where we saw them at work
casting iron bars, &c."
The pig-iron and other products of Durham furnace
must, when completed, be transported to Philadelphia, as
the nearest distributing centre. The broad Delaware
1 Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. V, p. 74.
|^ " ^y^- >
.''tefcZ'Si .-, ... t il V: -**#
7 ** f|, . .<- ' /r i '***'! '= 1 - I f *' **i *
Hi , ijy
:; - : " ! 1 ^*^**>
Cain and Abel. Durham Fvirnace. Owned by Pennsylvania Museum
in Memorial Hall.
Stoveplate, Durham Furnace. Owned by Mr. H. C. Mercer.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 51
offered of course the only means of transportation, but
there lay between the tidal river, which begins below
Trenton, and the reaches of the upper Delaware, at " The
Forks" (the early name for the point where the Lehigh
enters the Delaware, at what is now Easton), a succes-
sion of rapids and falls dangerous in the extreme for
the ordinary boats for burden-carrying, then known to the
Englishman. Wells Falls, Foul Rift and Rocky Falls,
still bear their ancient reputation for the modern canoeist.
An old map published in London, in 1648, calls the Falls
at Trenton "The Falls of Charles River," by which name
the early navigators knew the Delaware. These later be-
came the " Falls of Delaware." Fallsington still lingers in
memory of this. The rocky channel, in a distance of
thirty-five hundred feet, has a fall of ten feet. No ordi-
nary craft could carry a load through this rapid.
In the solution of the problem Indian woodcraft, as
often before, was applied, and the graceful canoe of the
aborigines became the model for what is still known as the
" Durham boat." Abraham Haupt, a German blacksmith
whose shop stood near the original furnace, some distance
back from the river, gives the earliest information regard-
ing these interesting boats. It was in Haupt's shop that
the date-stone referred to was found, used by his men for
cracking nuts, which accounts for the depression plainly
shown in the photograph! Haupt asserted that the first
Durham boat was built near the mouth of the cave by
Robert Durham, engineer and manager of the furnace,
after the model of an Indian canoe, and that the works
were probably named after the builder of the boat. The
boats were in use within ten years after the first shipment
was made, and the Durhams were settled in Bucks County
as early as 1723. These boats were used on the Delaware,
and also on the Susquehanna, for more than a century, for
every purpose of freight and produce-carrying. The raft
52 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
and the coal "ark" could make the descent of the river,
under skilled guidance, but they were unable to perform
the return journey, and were themselves sold as a part of
the cargo upon arrival at their destination. Only the
staunch and sharp Durham craft could be forced up against
the swift and dangerous current. 1 The shape of the Dur-
ham boat was very long in proportion to its width, its sides
being nearly vertical, a slight curvature only meeting a
similar curve at the bottom, which was quite flat. Fore
and aft, the sides were straight and parallel, curving in to
meet the stem and stern posts at about fourteen feet from
the end, at which point the boat was decked over, the
middle of the boat being open. The usual length was
sixty feet, width eight feet, with a depth from top of gun-
wale to the twelve inch keel-plank of forty two inches,
with the additional height of some ten inches at the ends.
These flat boats, with no loss of space, usually carried from
fifteen to twenty tons down the river. The return journey,
with the load consisting of products for home consumption
and Indian trade or barter, was reduced to about two tons,
from the necessity to maintain the readiest response to
Coming down stream, the boat floated with the current,
aided if necessary, by a pair of eighteen-foot oars. Mov-
ing up-stream, the boat was propelled by "setting poles,"
twelve or thirteen feet long, and shod with iron. On the
thwarts was laid on each side a plank twelve inches wide.
Along these walking-boards two members of the usual
crew of three, starting at the forward end, with poles on
the river bottom, the tops set against their shoulders,
walked to the stern, pushing the boat forward, and rapidly
returning to repeat the process. The captain steered, using
an oar on a pivot to hold the boat from going back with
1 We are indebted for the description of the Durham Boats to Navi-
gation on the Upper Delaware, by J. A. Anderson.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 53
the current, or when necessary, pushing it forward by
"setting" with a pole in the short distance which the
length of the stern deck permitted. The steering oar was
thirty three feet long, with a blade twelve inches in width.
In addition to this equipment, each boat carried a mast
with two sails, and with a fair wind could outsail all other
craft on the river. The lack of a center-board, as well as
the great proportionate length, prevented sailing to wind-
ward, but with two men to steer, it was possible to sail up
the rapids with a fair wind.
The Durham boat was generally painted black, prob-
ably with due regard to the effect of its usual inky cargo on
any other color ! The boat-horn was a prominent feature
of the equipment. Accommodations for the crew were of
the most primitive character, and the furniture carried of the
simplest. A large iron pot, with a side hole near the
bottom for draught, served as a cook-stove, with pieces of
flat iron to hold the pan. There was a coffee pot, a water
bucket, and for each man a tin cup, plate, knife, and pos-
sibly a fork, with the unfailing gallon jug of whiskey for
all. An old boatman has stated that drinks were only
taken at certain places on the river. The men slept on
" barn feathers " or straw, in the forward end under the
deck, dignified by the name of " cabin."
The men who formed the crews of these romantic boats
were a hardy lot. Their labor was severe at times, but they
toiled through the livelong day with the poles at their mus-
cular shoulders, forcing their way against a rapid current
at the rate of from one to two miles an hour. The boats
drew but twenty inches of water when loaded with fifteen
tons of iron, and in appearance were not unlike the keel
boats of the western rivers. Jest and song beguiled the
weary hours of the long journey, and it was usual for sev-
eral of the boats to go in company, sometimes as many as
twenty-five at once dotting the sweeps of the river under
54 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
sail in a fair breeze, when the effect was extremely pictur-
esque. The Durham boat moved so easily through the
water that she left the run aft in passing almost as still
as she found it. Clawson's Tavern, on Water Street
above Vine, was the popular resort of the Durham boat-
men, 1 who made fast their craft below this point, and spent
here the interval before their return.
The Durham boat figures in an important incident of the
Revolution, and was evidently known favorably to General
Washington who, when preparing to abandon the line on
the Hudson, and make his way across the Jerseys, wrote
from New Brunswick ordering boats to be collected for the
expected crossing at Trenton. Trevelyan states 2 that he
made a point of securing the Durham boats, and his order
mentions the fact that one of these could carry a regiment
a pitiful intimation of the depleted state of the American
army. These boats were again brought into requisition at
McKonkey's Ferry for the attack upon Trenton, and about
forty were on the Delaware at the time. The form of the
boat as shown on the Trenton Battle Monument is more
nearly that of the Durham boat than those drawn in E.
Leutz's picture of the crossing. 3 Besides being active
and hardy to an unusual degree, these boatmen were fear-
less, sportive and trustworthy. One authority states that
their faithfulness became a proverb, and that their stern
honesty was such that no single instance of defalcation is
known in the heavy remittances which they carried. 4
During the War of the Revolution, shot and shell were
made at Durham in large quantities. 5 In the year 1789
twelve slaves escaped from Durham Furnace to the Brit-
1 A. Ritter, Philadelphia and her Merchants.
2 G. M. Trevelyan, History of the American Revolution, II, p. 21.
Washington to Col. Hampton, 1776.
8 J. A. Anderson, Navigation of the Upper Delaware.
* J. A. Anderson, Ibid.
5 Ringwalt, Transportation Systems in the United States.
Durham Boats. Continental Army crossing the Delaware. Bronze Relief
by Thomas Eakins. Trenton Battle Monument.
Stoveplate door, Durham Furnace. Owned by Mrs. Arthur Maginnis.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 55
ish lines. 1 During this year, over two tons of shot and
shell shipped to the Continental army in November alone
were valued at 25 per ton, and the total for the year was
1,076, is. 2.i/2d. Three and nine pound shot were cast,
and some double-headed. The shell weighed from twenty
to sixty or more pounds each. A quantity of these were
left until so late as 1806, piled against the old furnace
walls. Specimens of them may be seen in the Bucks
County Historical Society's collection at Doylestown,
The partnership of 1726, with which our history began,
and of which on March 4, 1727, Griffith Owen and Samuel
Powel became trustees, was to continue, according to the
agreement, for fifty one years. Before that period of time
had expired, the property had been freed of the trust, and
none of the original owners remained, having been re-
moved by death, failure, or the sale of their interests. An
amicable Deed of Partition was therefore executed, Decem-
ber 14, 1773, and the property, which had been added to,
then comprised over eight thousand acres, including the
entire township of Durham and one tier of farms in North-
ampton County. Included in the tract which thus fell to
Joseph Galloway and his wife Grace, the daughter of
Lawrence Growden, were the eight hundred and eighty
nine acres and forty eight perches which practically consti-
tute the Durham furnace of today. Joseph Galloway thus
became the first individual owner of the furnace.
At this period, for five years, the furnace was leased to
George Taylor, for two hundred and fifty pounds per
annum. Taylor was born in Ireland, came to Pennsyl-
vania as a " Redemptioner," and at one time was a " filler"
at Durham furnace, which he finally leased and conducted
alone. At the summit of his career, he had the honor of
signing his name to the Declaration of Independence.
1 Pearce, Annals of Luzerne.
56 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
While lessee of Durham, he cast stoves bearing the in-
scription "Durham Furnace, 1774." A plate of one of
these stoves, thus inscribed, is fastened against one of the
walls of the Post Office at Easton. George Taylor died hi
The disturbances of the Revolution rendered business
very uncertain. Upon the charge of treason against Gal-
loway, who allied himself with the British, his property
was confiscated and sold by the Commissioner of Forfeited
Estates and confirmed by the Council, to Richard Back-
house, September 14, 1779, for the sum of i2,8oo. 1 The
latter appears for some time previous to have had an offi-
cial connection with the works, and was a Justice of the
Peace. His account books have been quoted.
The period of the Revolution finds several well known
names in the history of the country directly connected with
this old furnace. There is a long list of the forges which
Durham supplied with pig-iron for manufacturing pur-
poses. Besides George Taylor, the name of George Ross,
another signer, meets us at Bloomsbury Forge, New Jersey,
near by, where much material was sent ; Ross was a prom-
inent owner. James Morgan, of an old Welsh family of
the name, " Iron master," was an owner of Durham before
the partition. His home was near the banks of Durham
Creek, not more than three quarters of a mile from the
works, where he would appear to have been actively em-
ployed. Here his son Daniel was born in 1736, destined
to become one of the distinguished generals of the Revolu-
tion. As a boy, Daniel assisted his father at the furnace,
and tradition even makes him a charcoal-burner. When
the war broke out, Daniel enlisted and his later career
is matter of history. It is interesting to note that the
General's father, James Morgan (who may or may
not have held an interest in Valley Forge as well), in
1762, which is remarked as a year of unusual building
1 Colonial Records, Vol. XII, p. 104.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 57
activity in the Colonial period, built a beautifully simple,
but plain and substantial house for himself at Lower Prov-
idence, Montgomery County, in that neighborhood, which
he called " Mill Grove." The date-stone in the gable re-
mains, and the house is the shrine to which pilgrims come
to revere the memory of a later distinguished resident,
John James La Forest Audubon, the great ornithologist. 1
At one period after the death of James Logan, the
works were operated under the name of William Logan
and Company. Part owners at times more or less briefly,
are Richard Peters, Edward Shippen, Israel Pemberton,
and Hon. James Hamilton, who for a time held an interest
when Lieutenant Governor, in 1749. Lawrence Growden
was a prominent owner; his daughter, Mrs. Joseph Gal-
loway, died in 1782. Her trustees in 1803 succeeded in a
suit against the heirs of Richard Backhouse (died 1793),
who were dispossessed because of proof that Joseph Gal-
loway, who devised his property to his daughter E. Roberts
of London, held the property only in right of his wife,
Grace Growden. An Act of Legislature in 1808 appropri-
ated $415 to reimburse Mary, widow of R. Backhouse, to
compensate her for cost of defending herself in the pro-
Durham remained in active operation, with occasional
periods of suspension during the hard times of the war and
after, until 1794, when it finally "blew out." In 1829
the old furnace was demolished to make room for a grist
mill. Just before the Civil War two new furnaces were
built, using anthracite coal, and these in turn made way
for a large new furnace in 1874.
Amelia Mott Gummere.
1 Thomas, brother of James Morgan, at one time kept an inn here. In
1771, the property was sold to Rowland Evans. It was bought in 1776 by
John Penn, and after several transfers, was in 1789 sold by Augustine
Prevost to John Audubon, the Admiral, and father of the famous orni-
thologist. (See Eberlein and Lippincott, "Colonial Homes of Philadelphia
and its Neighborhood," p. 1991.)
58 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1729 SPRING FORGE. I.
PHILADELPHIA, LATER BERKS COUNTY.
Though this forge was of undoubted importance among
the primitive iron works, we do not find much data relating
to it in the early records we have been able to consult.
The date of its construction seems to have been 1729,
and on a map dated 1792 and dedicated to Thomas
Mifflin, Governor* Spring Forge is indicated on the Mana-
tawny Creek, just on the dividing line of Amity and Dis-
It seems to have been the personal financial venture of
Anthony Morris of Philadelphia, but there is no indication
that he specially managed the works in the capacity of
director or iron-master. His interest in the development
of the iron industry was so keen, and his help of such im-
portance that it may be well to sketch briefly the life of this
typical colonial citizen.
Anthony Morris, 3rd, the son of Anthony Morris, 2nd,
and Mary Jones his wife, was born in London, March 16,
1 68 1, and brought by his parents to America when he
was about ten months old. He was destined to be an
important member of the infant colony. His youthful
education was probably under the guidance of Enoch
Flower, master of a public school which the early Friends
In the simple annals of the day we are told that he was
at the age of fourteen apprenticed for a period of seven
years to learn the " art and mistery of brewing." In the
indenture, still extant, he promises his master and mistress
that " he will well and faithfully serve them, their secrets
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 59
he shall keep, their commands lawful and honest every
word he shall obey, their hurt or damage he shall not con-
trive or do, nor suffer to be done ; and the said master and
mistress, beside teaching all the mistery and art of brew-
ing, promise that he shall be allowed sufficient meat, drink,
washing, lodging, and mending of his linen and woolen
cloathes, and that they shall not put him to drive the dray
or cart, carrying of casks, grinding at the hand-mill, or
such like slavish work not fit for an apprentice of his
Young Anthony "served his time" to such good pur-
pose that at the age of twenty-five he became part owner
of the " brew-house and utensils" of his father, building
up a business which has since been carried on by the lineal
descendants of these pioneer brewers.
At twenty-three he married Phoebe Guest, whose parents
were among the settlers who lived for a time in caves in
the bank of the Delaware until they could build houses to
Before he was thirty he was elected to the common coun-
cil of the infant city, an office of much greater dignity than
now, the tenure of which was for life. His biographer says
of him, " he was a man of good repute, carriage, bearing,
and estimation and filled many offices with credit." He
represented his city in the Provincial Assembly, was Asso-
ciate Justice of the local court and was one of the com-
mittee who drew up an address to Governor Gordon on
his arrival in Philadelphia.
At the age of forty, then, Anthony Morris might have
been described as a "man of parts." With a goodly for r
tune acquired in the brewing house, a broad outlook as a
foremost citizen and enterprising business man, no doubt
he had a keen eye to the possibility of developing large
60 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
fortunes through the rich natural resources of this favored
We can fancy with what interest he followed the venture
of Thomas Rutter and Thomas Potts when they opened
up the iron mines in the trackless forest which bordered
the Schuylkill and its tributaries, and we are not surprised
to find him furnishing the capital which should give their
enterprise success. He was part owner of Colebrookdale
Furnace in Berks county, one of the fourteen founders of
Durham Furnace, Bucks county, also a shareholder in
Pool and other forges.
No family is more closely connected with the early his-
tory of Pennsylvania than that of Morris, and none has
been more valued for its business ability and its sturdy and
loyal citizenship. It is said that the Anthony Morris now
living is the eighteenth of the name.
Mary E. Mumford.
Fireback, 1734. Found in West Chester by Dr. Wm. T. Sharpless.
Design somewhat similar to that of fireback in residence of Mr. Joseph Ury
Crawford, Ury, Foxchase.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 6l
One of the most interesting firebacks in Pennsylvania is
in the ancient fireplace of the entrance hall at Harriton.
Bryn Mawr. The house was built in 1704 by Rowland
Ellis, one of the settlers of the Welsh Tract, and has
since fortunately undergone very little alteration. In 1719
Richard Harrison, son-in-law of Isaac Norris, came from
Maryland and bought the estate. Upon the marriage of
Hannah Harrison, his daughter, to Charles Thomson, the
distinguished Secretary of the Continental Congress, the
latter, in 1774, became master of Harriton, which has
since remained in the possession of his wife's relatives, in
the Morris line.
The fireback bears the date MDCCXXVI, with a very
interesting design somewhat resembling a true lover's knot
at the side. There is as yet uncertainty as to its origin.
If it was brought from Maryland, it probably came with
Richard Harrison, fifteen years after the house was built.
Its rough form would indicate an early experiment in the
moulding. Several of the owners of the furnace at Dur-
ham were relatives or intimate friends of the Harrisons,
and it is possibly one of the first made at that place. It is,
at all events, noteworthy, as among the most curious speci-
mens which have so far been found in Pennsylvania.
Another fireback bearing date 1734, was brought to our
notice by Dr. William T. Sharpless, of West Chester. It
resembles in shape and general decoration, the Durham
fireback, of 1728, at Stenton. We cannot, however, say
that it was made at Durham furnace.
62 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Before PINE FORGE.
PHILADELPHIA COUNTY, LATER BERKS.
While the exact date of the construction of Pine Forge
is not known, it was, no doubt, among the earliest of those
erected in the Manatawny district. The tradition per-
sists in the Rutter family that here the pioneer iron-master
Thomas Rutter made himself a home and laid out an
estate. The original patent of W m- Penn conveying these
lands to Thomas Rutter is preserved among the archives
of the family. The present owner of the property says:
" It is supposed that Thomas Rutter (I st ) must have come
from Warwickshire, England, as the many old homes on
the estate were named for Warwickshire places, as War-
wick, Stowe, Coventry, Stratford, and Colebrookdale.
Also that he chose this grant of land because of its resem-
blance to the Warwickshire district, a similarity often
noticed by our friends. Another tradition we cherish is
that he crossed the ocean on the good ship ' Amity ' and
named the pretty little village nearest us ' Amityville.' '
Thomas Potts, who was associated with Rutter in the iron
industry, had an interest in the Forge, and carried on the
business, while his son John in his will, 1767, gives the
following description of the acres accumulated under his
" Item: whereas I stand seized in fee simple of a forge
in the County of Berks by the name of Pine Forge, with the
following tract of land thereunto belonging; viz. 300 acres
which I purchased from Mary Rees, 150 acres which I
bought from Seeny Savage, 200 acres which I bought from
John Jones, 150 which I bought from Marcus Rulings Jr.
The stream at Pine Forge, named by the Indians " Manatawny," the
place where we drink.
Mansion, Pine Forge.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 63
125 acres which I bought from the Trustees of the Loan
Office, and 100 acres whereon the said house now stands,
containing in the whole 1280 acres of land."
If he had an idea of establishing a great barony after
the custom of his English forbears his plan was not real-
ized, for after his death the lands were divided and sold in
.separate lots. The Forge with three hundred and fifty
acres surrounding it was bought by David Potts for the
sum of two thousand pounds. In the previous year he had
married his cousin Anna, daughter of John, and the newly
wedded pair settled at Pine and lived there until they died.
Their heirs were two daughters, and the property was
again sold, August, 1783, this time to David Rutter, the
great-grandson of both Thomas Rutter and Thomas Potts.
He married about this time his cousin, a daughter of John
Potts the royalist. David repaired and partially rebuilt
the house, and carried on the works until his death in 1815.
It is a singular fact that in this country where no entail
exists, the old demesne at Pine (with the exception of
about sixty years, 1844 to 1907, when it was in possession
of the Bailey family) , has been owned and occupied by the
descendants of the original purchaser. Constant inter-
marriage of the families has brought this about, the latest
occurring in 1913, when the son of the present owner mar-
ried a direct descendant of Margaret Rutter, who was
born at Pine, October 15, 1790, one hundred and twenty-
three years ago.
There is every evidence that the group of early forges
and furnaces including Pine, Pool, Colebrookdale, War-
wick had a general interchange in their business affairs.
Their old day-books and ledgers in the possession of ex-
Governor Pennypacker, at Schwenksville, Pa., show that
the owners of these plants were almost identical.
In one of the Pine ledgers we find a statement of the
64 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
output of Pool Forge from May to November, 1734, to
be one hundred and twenty tons of bar iron distributed
among the following men: Capt. Atwood, Alex Wood-
ropp, George Mifling, Thomas Yorke, Anthony Morris,
Nathaniel French, John Leacock; while the owners of Pine
Forge about the same date are Thomas Potts, Geo. Boone,
John Leacock, George Mifflin, Alex Woodropp, Edward
Farmer, W m- Atwood, Morris Morris.
W m - Bird at this time, 1733, was cutting wood for the
use of Pine Forge at two shillings ninepence a day. Ten
years later, 1743, we find him renting one eighth of Pine
Forge at forty pounds per annum the modest beginnings
of one who later became an important factor in the iron
Thomas Yorke, after a few active years in the forge
country, settled in Germantown where he became a sort of
factor or agent for the iron interests. In an entry in his
day book, February 7, 1748, he speaks of his one third
interest in Pool Forge as yielding 6 2 %oo tons of " Barr
Iron," and his yield from % of Pine Forge as 6 tons.
His business transactions for the Pine Forge Colony,
aside from his iron commissions, cover a wide field of
domestic needs. Under date of January 3, 1 75 2, he charges
the estate of Thomas Potts with :
3 yds Muzling 8 4
1 2 Ibs muscovado sugar 8 6
i . Ib Bohea tea 7
Ditto for Edward West 7
J4 Ib cinnamon . 6. 8
i oz cloves 2. 6
i pair of gloves 2. 6
i oz of mace 3. 6
Coffin handle & Screws. 4 .5
Sent per Tommy West for ye funeral. "
Meadows of the Manatawny, Pine Forge.
Oldest building at Pine Forge, showing gong.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 65
He also charges shoes and gloves and other articles
bought for "Miss Fanny" and her bills for board in
Germantown are also paid by him. In May, 1753, he
notes " paid for a Quarters' Schooling of your sons Samuel
and Johnny at G. Academy 2. is."
The management of the old forges was patriarchal in its
character. The Grist mill, saw mill, and village store were
all under the control of the Company. One could recon-
struct the domestic life of the colonial period from the old
accounts preserved in day book and ledger. One learns the
cost of foods and fabrics, and notes the frequent use of
strong drinks, especially of rum. One finds what wages
were earned, and what was spent for daily needs down
to the item of " a bleeding one shilling." The region of
the old Pine Forge is teeming with the human interests of
an earlier day.
Mary E. Mumford.
66 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1733 GREEN LANE FORGE.
This forge, on Perkiomen Creek, twenty miles north of
Norristown, was built in 1733 by Thomas Maybury,
" The foliage covering the rocky hills north and west of
Perkiomen Creek, and the narrow crooked lane that led
from the highway around the base of the hills," to the
forge, are responsible for the attractive name.
The earliest settler in Marlborough township was
Thomas Maybury, who bought in 1730 a tract of
land, twelve hundred and forty acres, on which he erected
this forge, which before 1747 was supplied with pig iron
from Durham furnace. He married a descendant of the
first Thomas Rutter.
Green Lane Forge was owned by Rev. George Michael
Weiss before 1763. The workmen here, at one time,
were chiefly negro slaves. "For many years the best
blooms in the market were produced here. In those days
the country blacksmith purchased his bar iron at the forge,
and converted it into the hardware used in building houses,
from the wrought nails in the floors, to the hinges, and
latches of the doors. Iron was a commodity that eighty
years ago was fashioned into a thousand forms by the vil-
lage smith ; forms which are now produced by the foundry,
and sold at the village store." The transition has changed
the face of affairs at this village. The forge has long
since gone into decay; "the old water wheel, the huge
bellows, the ore crushers, the cone-like charcoal kilns, the
famous weekly teamsters who made their trips to town and
back ; the huntsman and his hounds ; these are all gone ;
and Green Lane is an ordinary railroad village." 1
1 T. W. Bean, History of Montgomery County, p. 721.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 67
THE DAVID JONES FURNACE.
David Jones, who built one of the first furnaces of Co-
lonial Days in eastern Pennsylvania, emigrated from Mer-
ionethshire in Wales in 1721 and settled upon the Welsh
reservation at Radnor in Chester county, Pennsylvania,
where that clannish people, to use their own language, " de-
sired to be by themselves, for no other reason or purpose
but that they might live together as a civil society, to en-
deavor to decide all controversies and debates amongst
themselves in a Gospel order, and not to entangle them-
selves with laws in an unknown tongue, and also to preserve
their language that they might ever keep correspondence
with their friends in the land of their nativity."
David Jones with many of his countrymen removed
from Radnor in 1730 to the valley of the Conestoga, in
Caernarvon township, Lancaster county, where he became
an extensive land owner and iron-master, and where
there are old mines which still bear his name. The site
of the old Jones furnaces, or "Jones's mine holes" as they
were called in the quaint language of that day, is most
picturesque. In this place his three sons were born : John
Jonathan and Caleb. John was a major of the committee
of safety in 1774 and a major in Grubb's battalion of
militia. Caleb was a justice of the Peace. Jonathan
Jones was born in 1738. He was appointed a captain in
the regular Continental Army, October, 1775 promoted
to rank of major after active service in Canada in 1776,
and to lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, March, 1777.
His constitution was so shattered by the hardships and ex-
68 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
posure of the campaign against Canada, that he was
obliged to return home in the winter of 1776-77. He re-
joined the regiment in the spring of 1777, the command
of which devolved upon him, after the resignation of Col.
James Irvine. Increasing ill-health obliged him to resign
his commission in the latter part of July. In December,
1778, he was a member of the General Assembly of Penn-
sylvania. His health continued to decline, and he was
shortly afterwards stricken with paralysis, of which he
died in September, 1782, at the early age of forty-four.
He was buried in the Bangor churchyard at Churchtown.
His family had been wardens and vestrymen of this church
from its earliest foundation.
Katharine Jones Wallace.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 69
WARWICK FURNACE. J 737
Samuel Nutt, who died in 1737, directed in his will that
his wife, Anna, " shall have one hundred and twenty acres
of land on the South branch of French Creek, on which
to build a furnace, and also leave to cut as much timber on
lands adjacent as shall suffice to erect the same." 1 This
furnace, called Warwick, was begun the same year, and
became one of the greatest iron works of Pennsylvania.
When in blast, from five to six thousand cords of wood
were used there annually, the product of about two hun-
dred and forty acres of woodland. The cost of the large
bellows, run by an immense water wheel, was nearly two
hundred pounds. Twenty-five tons of iron a week was
the usual product. In an "Account Book of Warwick
Furnace" 2 we find sundry entries, such as " 1759 April 23
Paid the County Tax, four shillings." " Provincial
Tax four shillings." " Potts and Rutter, to loads pigg
iron from 27th April to loth May 1759, n tun." "To
Sarum Forge, from 4th April to 3rd May 1759, 13 tuns
and 15 Ibs. pigg iron."
This furnace produced both pig iron and castings, the
latter being stoves, pots, kettles, andirons, smoothing irons,
clock weights and other articles.
William Branson 3 had been a partner with Samuel Nutt
for years. This partnership was continued at Warwick
by Anna Nutt and her son-in-law, who was also her step-
1 Potts Memorial, 53.
2 Collections of the Hon. S. W. Pennypacker.
3 See Coventry Forge.
70 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
son, Samuel Nutt, Jr., until the death of the latter in 1739,
the value of the property having in the meantime greatly
increased. This is the period when the partnership was
dissolved, Branson taking Reading alone, and Warwick
going into the care of the firm trading as Anna Nutt and
Company, with the addition of Robert Grace, who mar-
ried the young widow of Samuel Nutt, Jr., in 1740. The
name of Nutt then became extinct.
Next year, the new partners brought suit against Bran-
son, charging him with taking iron ore from their property,
while Branson, by John Kinsey, brought a counter suit for
a suitable accounting for the time " when they were baliffs
to him, the said W. B." They made the defense that they
had never been his bailiffs, and John Tench Francis, their
attorney, appears to have settled the matter finally, for no
other proceedings are traceable.
War was declared with Spain in 1739, and in response
to a call for enlistments, which Governor Thomas in his
proclamation of April 14, 1740, called: "a Glorious un-
dertaking," many of the indentured servants at the fur-
naces and in other employ departed unceremoniously.
Since the Governor did not discountenance this proceeding,
the Assembly could only endeavor to reimburse the mas-
ters, and on June 4, 1741, there is record of a petition
from Anna Nutt and Co. for several hundred pounds dam-
ages because of the enlistment of ten servants at one time,
some of them colliers, whose abrupt departure had put a
stop to the works. 1
The name of Robert Grace has an additional interest as
the friend of Benjamin Franklin and the first manufacturer
of the noted Franklin stoves. Born in 1709, of fine Irish
stock, Grace was brought up in the house of his grand-
mother, whose second husband was Hugh Lowden. The
house was on the north side of High Street, below Second,
1 Futhey & Cope, History of Chester County, p. 49..
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 71
then the most eligible part of the city. The Town Hall
or Court House stood in the center of the street, nearly op-
posite, where all royal or colonial proclamations were read
to the people from the balcony. When Grace was seven-
teen, this house became his property, and here the warm and
lifelong friendship with Franklin was begun. Franklin, in
his Autobiography, describes Grace as a young man of some
fortune, generous, lively, witty, fond of epigrams but more
fond of his friends. In the well-appointed rooms of this
house the Junto met, and the first public library in Amer-
ica was organized and maintained for ten years. In the
inventory of furnishings the parlor has: " i 8 day clock,
2 black walnut tables, carpet and looking glass, writing
desk and spice box. 20 leather chairs, couch and Squabb,
i Skreen, i great Bible and stand, 2 pr. dogs, fire shovel,
Tongs, Poker, bellows and fender, i Jappanned Montiff, 1
a lamp, glass and Earthernware." 2
Franklin's gratitude to Grace must be recorded here.
Franklin and Meredith, his partner (about 1729) had
been sued for 100. u ln this distress," he says, "two
friends, whose kindness I never have forgotten, nor ever
shall forget while I can remember anything, came to me
separately, unknown to each, and without any application
from me offered each of them to advance me all the money
that should be necessary to enable me to take the whole
business upon myself, but they did not like my continu-
ing the partnership with Meredith. . . . These two friends
were William Coleman and Robert Grace."
Franklin mentions, in the codicil to his will, that his
reason for leaving 2000 sterling to the cities of Boston
and Philadelphia for the purpose of setting up young mar-
ried artificers in business was because " I was assisted to set
up my business in Philadelphia by kind loans of money
1 Query, were monteiths ever japanned?
2 Potts Memorial.
72 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
from two friends there, which was the foundation of my
fortune and of all the utility in life that may be ascribed
to me." 1
The Autobiography of Franklin has the following entry :
" . . . Having in 1742 invented an open fireplace for
the better warming of rooms, and at the same time saving
fuel, as the fresh air admitted was warmed in entering,
I made a present of the model to Robert Grace, one of
my early friends, who having an iron furnace, found the
casting of the plates for these stoves a profitable thing, as
they were growing in demand."
These stoves were manufactured at Warwick, and had
the words " Warwick Furnace " cast on the front plate in
large letters. 3 They were very popular with the well-to-do
for the next fifty years, and some fine examples of them are
still extant. Their manufacture was evidently remunera-
tive, as also their final sale, if one may judge from an
"Account with Benjamin Franklin," in a Ledger of War-
wick Furnace. 2
Oct. 5 To one Tun Fireplaces pr
1751 July 15 To two tonn Fire Places
pr. Owen Richards.
Aug. 3. To one tonn Fire places pr.
" 6 " " " ditto pr. Mathias Brooks.
" 19 " " " pr. Wm. Ball's team
20 " " " per Saml. Cryble.
Oct. 26, To 4 plates of ye Neweste Fashion Stove
1752 Nov. 4. To 22 Fireplace plates
per Owen Rodgers."
1 Potts Memorial.
2 Collections of the Hon. S. W. Pennypacker.
3 See Sequence of Franklin Fireplaces.
Stoveplate, John Potts, 1757. "The life of Jesus what a light."
****" * 'V*
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 73
Christopher Sauer was one of the first agents for the sale
of these stoves.
Towards the close of the eighteenth century Franklin
stoves were much used in Paris. One of the French min-
isters was asked whether he had, as yet, put them into his
reception rooms. "No," he replied, "for the English
Ambassador would not then consent to warm himself at
my fire." 1 In the eulogy pronounced by Dr. William
Smith, first Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, on
the death of Dr. Franklin, he speaks of "the New In-
vented Pennsylvania Fireplace, the open stoves now in gen-
eral use, to the comfort of thousands who, assembled round
them in the wintry night, bless the name of the inventor,
which they yet bear! " At the end of this book a short
sequence of Franklin fireplaces will be found. It is an
imperfect effort to show the earlier shape and style of
these stoves, and the improvement in appearance as they
were gradually made at many different furnaces.
During the Revolution, the furnace at Warwick was
busily engaged in casting cannon and shell for the govern-
ment. Some imperfect cannon are said to be still im-
bedded in the bank of French Creek. The fact that it
was such an arsenal of supplies led to its choice by Wash-
ington as his headquarters after the battle of Brandywine,
from the eighteenth September, 1777, until the twentieth,
when he crossed the Schuylkill at Parker's Ford, in at-
tempting to interfere with Howe's march to Philadelphia.
The soldiers took from the inhabitants everywhere, all the
leaden clock-weights upon which they could lay their hands,
in order to run them into bullets. They were replaced by
iron ones, which were cast at Warwick in great numbers.
1 The American Revolution, by Sir George Otto Trevelyan, III, p. 459.
74 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
WASHINGTON TO THE PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.
"Wednesday Sept 17 1777
At Yellow Springs.
"Yesterday the enemy moved from Concord by Edge-
mont Road with the evident design to gain our right Flank.
This obliged us to alter our position and march to this
place, from whence we immediately proceed to Warwick.
We Suffered much from the severe weather yesterday and
last night, being unavoidably Separated from our tents
On the 1 8th September, 1777, at Warwick, Washington
wrote: "The army here is so much fatigued, it is impos-
sible I should move them this afternoon. 1 ' 1
("Part of the army went to Warwick Furnace on the
1 7th. Warwick is 8 miles North of Yellow Springs & 9
Miles from Schuylkill. They were joined by rest of army
on day following. Warwick Furnace was a depot of manu-
facture of cannon of which 60 were cast for Continental
army of 12 to 1 8 Ibs calibre in 1776
From note "Itinerary.")
Warwick Furnace and its adjoining lands have never
been out of the possession of the descendants of the elder
Samuel Nutt, but are held by members of the Potts family :
although in 1771 Thomas Rutter purchased therein a half
interest from Samuel Potts.
Amelia M. Gummere,
Augusta M. Longacre.
1 Washington's Itinerary, by W. S. Baker, p. 91.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 75
MOUNT PLEASANT FURNACE AND FORGE. 1739
PHILADELPHIA COUNTY, LATER BERKS.
Situated only a mile apart, on Perkiomen Creek, about
thirteen miles above Pottstown, this furnace and forge
were undoubtedly under the same management, although
there is little definite knowledge of their early history.
Mrs. James quotes from a family document: "In 1743
Thomas Potts, Jr., gave to his son David 1 one full and un-
divided sixth part in a certain furnace and forge com-
monly called Mount Pleasant, and of and in several tracts
of land thereunto belonging." No remains of this old
forge are now visible. David Potts, born 1722, carried
on the Mount Pleasant works until his death in 1752.
His wife was Rebecca Rutter, granddaughter of the first
Thomas. Of the frequent intermarriages in the iron-
making world of " the good old Colony times," it is surely
not censorious to suggest that the background of many
acres and active furnaces undoubtedly enhanced the charms
of the daughters of Pennsylvania.
Little is known of the subsequent history of Mount
Pleasant. "A few feet of crumbling walls" mark the
site. Both furnace and forge are mentioned in a list of
the iron industries, compiled by Samuel Potts, for the in-
formation of Congress when it was enacting a tariff law in
1789. It must therefore have been active at that date.
1 Memorial of Thomas Potts, Jr., p. 120.
76 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1740 HAY CREEK OR BIRDSBORO FORGES.
CHESTER COUNTY, LATER BERKS.
William Bird, whose marriage is recorded in the old
Swedish church register at Morlatton, now Douglassville,
in 1735, to Brigetta Hulings, daughter of Marcus Hul-
ings, built the first of these forges in 1740, on Hay Creek
near its entrance into the Schuylkill River in Berks County.
There is nothing left now of the early forges.
He obtained, by warrant and survey much property in
this section and at his death his estate is reported to be
"three messuages (dwellings) 3 forges, . . . 2400 acres in
Union and Robeson townships ; one messuage, one iron fur-
nace and two thousand acres in Heidelberg township."
The latter is the Berkshire Furnace. We find according
to Montgomery 1 " The Berkshire Furnace was erected by
William Bird about 1760 . . . the name first given to it
William Bird's widow married in 1762 John Patton,
whose name appears in partnership with George Ege in the
running of the furnace.
We find William Bird's tombstone at Douglassville
which is four miles from Birdsboro. " In memory of W m
Bird Esq. who departed this life Nov. 16. 1761, aged 55
The residence built by William Bird is still standing,
though much depreciated in value by the encroachments
of the town and of the Schuylkill Canal. Mark Bird, his
son, was probably born here. At that time, it is said, the
1 History of Berks County.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 77
house was surrounded by a deer park, sloping to the river,
which must have been a means of communication with
other places, as well as a natural beauty of the property.
Watson, in his "Annals of Philadelphia," mentions the
interesting circumstance that upon the occasion of thle
wedding of Magdalena Hulings, a native of Morlatton,
and daughter of one of the early settlers, Marcus Hulings,
to Matthias Holstein, of the Swedes Ford, the bride
with her entire retinue made the journey thither in the
canoes. So cannot we picture Marcus Hulings* other
daughter on her way to the Bird Iron Works ?
Mark Bird, according to Montgomery, 1 "after his
father's death, took charge of the estate, and by partition
proceedings in the Orphans Court came to own the proper-
ties. ... By the time the Revolution broke out, he had
enlarged his possessions very much and had come to be
one of the richest and most prominent and enterprising
men in this section of the state. . . . In 1775 and '76 Mark
Bird was the Lieutenant Colonel of the 2nd Battalion of
the County Militia, which was formed out of companies
in the vicinity of Birdsboro; and in August, 1776, as a col-
onel he fitted out three hundred men of his battalion with
uniforms, tents, and provisions, at his own expense."
The disturbance of business by the Revolution, and the
monetary troubles after its close, brought about his failure.
"At the Sheriff's Sale in 1788 the forge property was
purchased by Cadwallader Morris, James Wilson and
others of Philadelphia; and in 1796 John Louis Barde
became the owner. Matthew Brooke married a daughter
of Barde and subsequently purchased the property. It
has since remained in the Brooke family." 2 We find in
Mr. Swank's "Iron Making in Pennsylvania," page 30:
1 Berks County in the Revolution.
2 Montgomery, History of Berks County.
78 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
" Mark Bird built a rolling and slitting mill and a nail
factory at Birdsboro about the time of the Revolution.
He also built Spring Forge in Oley Township and Gibral-
tar forges in Robeson Township. At Trenton, New Jer-
sey, he manufactured wire. The town of Birdsboro, in
Berks County now the seat of the extensive iron works of
Messrs E. & G. Brooke was named after William Bird."
Mark Bird's wife was Mary Ross, daughter of Rev.
George Ross. His daughter married James Wilson, the
About 1788 Mark Bird moved to North Carolina,
where he died. We find his name, together with that of
his brother-in-law, Edward Biddle, and of his step-father,
Colonel John Patton, very prominent in the early Revolu-
Cornelia L. E. Brooke.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 79
NEW PINE FORGES.
Information as to these forges in Union township has
been gathered exclusively from the "Cole Book" and
ledgers in the manuscript collections of the Pennsylvania
Historical Society. Evidently William Bird was the owner,
and the records mention a Lower, Middle, and Upper
forge. One of the earliest books is entitled "New Pine
Forge Cole Book," 1744-1760. A coal book gave de-
tails of the making and hauling of charcoal and its later
disposal. A heading, for a carefully spaced page runs:
"Account of Coles made and sent to Hopewell Forge by
John Surrie for the year 1744." " Pigg Iron from War-
wick Furnace upon acco tt of Mr. Robert Grace. For the
Euse of Mr. W m Bird at Hopewell Forge for the year
1744." "Account of Pigg Iron sent to Hopewell Forge
anno 1745, since Silvanus Maybury came to work."
Another: "Oct. 1756. New Pine Forges to Rokx-
burry Furnace, D r ."
An interesting entry is: " Compiled by John Fegan, for
the Middle Forge; an account of the building of the
Middle Forge. The first stone laid on Foundation July
the 29 th , 1757. The raffters raised August 19 th , The Fore
Bay made August 26 th . The Covering finished September
5 th . The geers raised October the fifteenth. The Anvil
Block fixed October 25*. The shafts fixed the 29 th d.
The Chiefry and hammer wheel finished November the
19 th ."
From New Pine Wast Book: "Dec. 1757. John
Huling D r to 23 Shovel plates.
" Francis Morris IX to i Bake Plate
80 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
"Yorke & Potts D r . to i ton Barr Iron by Andrew
From Cole Book: "The new wagon measured at the
Lower Forge, and it measured 8 Seams. Each seam
" Memorandum, that I have this 14 th day of November,
1757 agreed with William Bird Esq r . to begin ... to
serve him as carter for i year, at the rate of L 19 per year,
meat, drink, washing & lodging.
CONRAD + WISHON
On fly leaf: "Day Book, Kept at New Pine, Union
Township, County of Berks, for William Bird Esq. 1759."
" John Lincoln Cr. by self and boy taking 3 tunn barr
iron in a canoe to Spring Mill, Feb. 1760."
"Patton and Bird" the owners of "Rocksburry" Fur-
nace a frequent term from 1760: and in 1763, "Patton
and Bird D rs for the stock received from W m Bird."
" 1760. Jacob Lenan got stoves, midlen and small."
"Paid Mr. Mark Bird's expences to Phil a i-n-6
"22 July 1761, Nicholas Scull for hauling i Hhd Rum
" Roxberry " Furnace frequently bought bar iron, items
at store, etc. in 1760-61-62.
" Wood taken up by Stephen Doughten on Abram Lin-
coln's Plantation for the year 1760."
"Reading, March 17, 1764. Mark Bird . . . from
the time his partnership broke off, at 14 Feb. art the
Forge " etc.
In the New Pine Forge Ledger, 1775-1777, the follow-
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 8 1
ing names, (with others) are mentioned under Forge
Charge. John Patton, Paul Zantzinger, Curttis Grubb,
George Ege, Adam Kalbach, Joseph Krebs, Hanes Zerby,
Charles Stedman, James Old, George Veneada, Thomas
Mayburry. The entries in this book end April, 1778.
The rest of the volume is filled with Charming Forge
accounts, beginning January, 1823.
"Lawrence Doyle, Dr. to rum when you was sick. . 4
to syder when you was ditto. 3"
"Agreement made 29th of February 1762 with James
Foley and Patton and Bird to do team work for one year."
"Agreement on the part of Gabriel Hughes of Exeter
township Berks Co. July ist 1762 to deliver wood to
"Oct. 6th 1762 Agreement between John Boyer and
Patton and Bird to drive team one whole year from the
date hereof, for the due performance of which said Patton
promises to pay him the sum of twenty six pounds and
two pair of shoes."
"Agreement with John Shaw July 23rd 1761 to stock
the upper Forge, and at any time to assist in stocking at
any of the other two forges when he has not stocking to do
at the said upper forge. The said Shaw is to be paid for
the faithfull performance of the above agreement eighteen
pounds and a pair of shoes, and if he does not get drunk
above once in three months, a pair of stockings and his
"By Negro Dick's board 21 Nov. 17 to 14 Feb. 1763
New Pine Forges D r . to Rocksburry Furnace April 29,
1760. Mark Bird, To Cash paid at Roxburry Furnace
82 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
20. Bird & Patton D r . To hauling 3 tun of Stoves from
the furnace 60-0.
An interesting question arises from the finding of these
old ledgers and the quaint Cole Book. Were these the
original iron works of William Bird (Hay Creek or Birds-
boro forges) under a name unknown until now? The
writer of the articles on Hay Creek Forges and Hopewell
Furnace is quite confident they are the same.
Augusta M. Longacre.
1742 HOPEWELL FORGE.
LANCASTER COUNTY, LATER LEBANON.
Peter Grubb erected this forge on Hammer Creek, six
miles southeast of Cornwall, before building the large
blast furnace at the latter place. He had taken up the
land in 1737. Hammer Creek was the largest stream in
the neighborhood and furnished excellent water power.
Two Hopewell forges were built here, but at what time is
not known. Mr. Grubb may have run one as a bloomary
or Catalan forge, bringing the ore from Cornwall for that
purpose. 1 Here Peter Grubb had his home. He was
born at Marcus Hook, 1707-8, and died in 1754. Com-
ing into possession of Curtiss and Peter Grubb at their
father's death, these forges became finally the property of
Robert Coleman when he bought Cornwall. In early
life he had been here as a clerk with the Grubb brothers,
but soon, by rapid steps, became himself an iron master.
1 H. C. Grittinger, Cornwall Furnace and Ore Banks, p. 14.
Stoveplate, Joseph and Potiphar's wife, 1749.
Curtiss Grubb's Furnace. " In God is my Salvation.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 83
LANCASTER COUNTY, LATER LEBANON.
Foremost among the natural glories of Pennsylvania are
the great ore banks of Cornwall. Before the develop-
ment and opening up of our western country, no traveler
from foreign lands was content until he had seen these
mountains of magnetic iron ore; three solid hills, from
which rich ore was dug, at very low cost. They were
called the Large Iron Hill, Middle Hill and Grassy Hill.
Roughly speaking, the total area of these ore mines is some-
thing approaching one hundred and ten acres, and now,
after having been worked for one hundred and seventy
years, they seem inexhaustible, and require no mining,
simply to be quarried.
Acrelius, the Swedish historian, writing in 1756, of
" Cornwall, or Grubb's Iron Works in Lancaster County,"
said: "The mine is rich and abundant, forty feet deep,
commencing two feet under the earth's surface. . . .Peter
Grubb was its discoverer." And this statement of the old
Swede seems to be the final verdict to-day, as to the first
recognition of the possibilities of these wonderful hills.
Mr. H. C. Grittinger, in his able monograph on " Corn-
wall Furnace," says: " It is to be presumed . . . that it was
Peter Grubb who first developed and used the ore, as the
two individuals who preceded him in the ownership of the
land, and who both sold their holdings for nominal amounts,
evidently knew little or nothing of the ore deposits; and
they were both iron masters, and members of the com-
pany that had built and were operating Durham Furnace
in Bucks County in 1727."
On the 8th day of May, 1732, John, Thomas, and
84 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Richard Penn, for the sum of 500, money of Pennsyl-
vania (a pound Pennsylvania currency being worth $2.66-
2/3 of our present money) granted a warrant for five
thousand acres of land in the Province of Pennsylvania to
Joseph Turner of the city of Philadelphia, who afterwards
assigned it to William Allen. By agreement, April 5,
*734> William Allen sold three hundred of the five thou-
sand acres of the land called for in the warrant, to Peter
Grubb for the sum of 135, who procured a patent deed
for it from the proprietaries on the 3Oth day of November,
1737. This grant, however, did not entirely embrace the
ore hills, so the evidently clear-sighted Peter Grubb made
two other purchases of land from the Proprietaries, which
made him sole owner. The two brothers, Peter and Samuel,
were the sons of John Grubb, who came from Cornwall, Eng-
land, in 1692, landing near Wilmington, Lower Counties,
on a spot afterwards called Grubb's Landing. He was a
member of the Provincial Legislature of Pennsylvania
from 1694 to 1698. He is buried in the Swedes' grave-
yard, Wilmington. Mr. James M. Swank, the great au-
thority on iron, thinks that Peter Grubb's first essay in iron
making was with a bloomary forge in 1735, near the site
of the later Cornwall Furnace. The existence of this
early bloomary is attested by the traditions of Cornwall.
About a mile from the great furnace, small pieces of slag
and several pieces of white iron were found by Mr. Grit-
tinger, one of which he presented to the Lebanon county
Historical Society as a sample of the first iron made in
Lebanon county. From this small beginning and it was
so small that the spring run on which it was situated was
too insignificant to furnish water power to run the bellows,
so that it must have been worked by hand from this has
come the greatest of Pennsylvania iron industries.
Cornwall Ore Banks. View from Big Hill.
Cornwall Ore Banks, Robesonia Cut and Hoist.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 85
An indenture in possession of the Grubb family, reads as
"On the 22nd day of September in the thirteenth year
of the reign of King George the Second over Great Britain,
France &c, Anno Domini 1739, between Peter Grubb of
the township of Warwick in the County of Lancaster, of
the Province of Pennsylvania, Iron Master, with Samuel
Grubb of East Bradford, in the County of Chester, a Char-
coal Furnace to be built, & to be called Cornwall "
Planned thus in 1739, and first in blast in 1742, Corn-
wall furnace, about the size of Warwick furnace, began its
long existence, being named for Peter Grubb's ancestral
county in England. Having been blown by its owner
for three years, it was, in 1745, along with the Hopewell
forge which belonged to Mr. Grubb, leased to twelve per-
sons, 1 who managed it for a few years only, under the
name of the Cornwall Company. For the remainder of
the term it was conducted by Jacob Giles, a Quaker of
Peter Grubb remained sole owner of the ore banks un-
til his death, in 1754, when they became the property of
his two sons, Curtis and Peter, Curtis as elder son, under
the intestate law of that day, receiving two thirds and Peter
one third. These men have a patriotic record, having
both been colonels in the Revolution. To judge from an
account of the gayeties of Hessian prisoners, at Hebron,
Lebanon county, in August, 1777, the officer in charge,
Col. Curtis Grubb, must have had his own trials. Much
to the distress of church members, the prisoners were quar-
tered in churches. The Moravian church seems to have
suffered most, as the Hessians destroyed fences and other
property, and taking the Church violins, solaced themselves
with playing and dancing. 3
1 Acrelius, 1756, speaks of its being rented then to Gurrit & Co.
2 Bishop, American Manufactures.
3 Publications of the Lebanon County Historical Society.
86 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Under the ownership of these patriotic colonels, Corn-
wall furnace, during the war, cast cannon, shot, shell, and
stoves for the Continental Army. A letter relative to
cannon cast at Cornwall is interesting.
"PHILADELPHIA 18 September 1776
" To Col. Peter Grubb,
" Sir, By Capt. Joy I understand you have at last made
some i2-Pounders, but I fear they are heavier than they
ought to be. Those made by Col. Bird weigh but 27 c and
" You have drawn on the Committee for 1500, it is not
sent because the matter is not understood. We can't sup-
pose you want such a sum to carry on the Works, & you
certainly don't desire the Cannon to be paid for before they
" The sum you draw for is the value of the Guns already
made, & as the contract was made with your Brother, Col.
Curtis Grubb (Tho' you may be equally interested with
him), yet I should like to hear from him before so large
a sum was paid; however, I have sent you by Capt. Dan'l
Joy one thousand dollars. I mentioned to Congress your
inclination to have some of the prisoners from Lancaster to
work for you, but it was supposed the Committee of Lan-
caster would object to it. I hope you will make all ex-
pedition in making the Cannon & getting them down, for
they are much wanted.
" The Cannon must be proved with two shott, or they
will never be put on board the Ships. I am your hum'l
Serv't." R. T. PAINE." 1
In 1783 Curtis granted and conveyed inter alia to Peter
Grubb, his eldest son, and to his heirs and assigns forever,
the full equal undivided one-sixth part of all his estate,
including the Cornwall ore banks or mine hills. In 1785,
Peter Grubb, 3rd, son of Curtis Grubb, entered into articles
of agreement with Robert Coleman to sell and convey
to him, all his right, title and interest of, in and to the
1 Egle, History of Lebanon County.
Front plate of Stove. Cornwall Furnace, 1772.
Cornwall Furnace, 1776.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 87
said undivided one-sixth part of the estate above referred
to. In 1798 Robert Coleman had purchased from the
various Grubb heirs five-sixths of the ore banks the re-
maining one-sixth being held by Henry Bates Grubb.
It is now more than a century and a quarter since Robert
Coleman became the chief owner of this great mine so
identified with his name and that of his heirs. Although
his children and descendants have lived at Cornwall, he did
not. In the history of his life, in his own handwriting
(the property later of his grandson, George Dawson Cole-
man) Robert Coleman states that he was born near Castle-
finn in County Donegal, Ireland, on the fourth day of
November, 1748, and in 1764, when sixteen years of age,
came to America to seek his fortune. His capital then
consisted of a sound body and a good education, the latter
not a common thing in those days. He brought a letter
of introduction to Blair McClenachan and the Messrs.
Biddle, and by them was recommended to Mr. Read, Pro-
thonotary, Reading, Pennsylvania, in whose employ as
clerk he remained nearly two years. The young man,
however, had higher ambitions than being a clerk in an
office, and like many of his day and since, started out into
the wild country to seek his fortune. He quickly found
himself in the iron ore district and obtained work from
the Grubbs at Hopewell Forges. Six months after he got
a better position at Quittapahilla Forge (afterward known
as New Market Forge) , about eight miles west of Lebanon,
then operated under a lease by James Old, who was also
the owner of Speedwell Forge, located on Hammer Creek,
a short distance below the Hopewell Forges. Mr. Old
found the young man so intelligent, industrious and gen-
erally satisfactory, that when he moved to Reading
Furnace on French Creek he gave Coleman a higher posi-
tion and took him with him. While at this furnace Robert
Coleman married Anne Old, a daughter of his employer,
88 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
October 2, 1773. Soon after, finding that he had accumu-
lated enough capital to set out for himself, he rented Sal-
ford Forge, near Norristown, for a term of three years.
From Salford Forge he removed in 1776 to Elizabeth
Furnace, where he lived until 1809. He never made his
home at Cornwall, although his interests there were great,
extending even to the beautiful gardens which were planned
under his direction, by a Frenchman, who also laid out
the gardens at his home, the Mansion, at Elizabeth, which
Mr. Coleman practically built after purchasing the
A man of strong character, and great capacity, Robert
Coleman was the most noted iron master in Pennsylvania.
For an estimate of his business ability by a contemporary,
we cannot do better than quote from Hazard's Register of
1831 : " R. Coleman Esq., became the most successful pro-
prietor of iron works: to untiring industry and judicious
management he added the utmost probity and regularity in
his dealings, and to him Lancaster county is especially in-
debted for the celebrity it has acquired from the number
and magnitude of its iron works and the excellence of its
manufacture." While, during the struggle of the Col-
onies with the Mother country the Grubb brothers were
eminently patriotic, Robert Coleman, then at Elizabeth
Furnace, was in no whit behind them.
He was an officer in the Pennsylvania militia during the
Revolutionary War, a member of the State Convention
which framed the Constitution of 1790, and a member of
the Legislature. He raised and commanded a troop of
cavalry during the Whiskey Insurrection, was twice a Pres-
idential elector, and an Associate Judge in Lancaster for
nearly twenty years. 2
notes furnished by Mrs. Horace Brock, great-granddaughter of
Robert Coleman. See Salford Forge.
2 See Elizabeth Furnace and Salford Forge.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 89
He retired from business and moved, in 1809, to Lancas-
ter, where he died on the I4th August, 1825.
His son, James Coleman, inherited Elizabeth, while the
younger sons, T. Bird Coleman and William, were settled
at Cornwall. Later Robert Coleman's grandson, Robert
Coleman, with his brother, G. Dawson Coleman, removed
to Lebanon and built furnaces there on the Union Canal,
which was then the great means of transportation. Coal
could be received and iron shipped from there better than
from Cornwall or Elizabeth, whence they had to be hauled
by teams; and by that time charcoal furnaces were going
" Both Cornwall Furnace and the early bloomary were
near the old road that had been the original thoroughfare
through the southern part of what is now known as Leb-
anon county between Harris's Ferry and Philadelphia.
On some of the old maps this is called 'The Paxton
Road': tradition says the name was given because 'The
Paxton Boys' had marched over it on their way to Phil-
adelphia at the time of their insurrection in February
Of the output of these great mines we are told that
" prior to the development of the Lake Superior iron ore
region the Cornwall mines were annually the most produc-
tive group of all the iron ore mines in this country and this
distinction they held for several years after Lake Superior
ores came into general use."
"Down to 1908 these mines had produced more iron
ore than any other single iron ore property in the United
States, including the most productive of the Lake Superior
Augusta M. Longacre.
1 Grittinger, Cornwall Furnace and Ore Banks, p. 14.
2 Swank, Progressive Pennsylvania, p. 2191.
90 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1742 MOUNT JOY, OR VALLEY FORGE.
Every good American associates with Valley Forge
events which deal with military rather than industrial his-
tory. Yet an early forge was located in Chester County
on the western side of Valley Creek, a little more than
half a mile from its mouth. The "mountain" opposite,
from which the forge first took its name, is said to have
been named "Mount Joy" by William Penn, who also
owned a manor so named on the Schuylkill. The tradition
is that a nearby hill was called Mount Misery by the
Founder, as the ascent was most difficult.
Evan- Ap-E van, a Welshman, in the year 1686, emi-
grated from his native land to take up and occupy a tract
of land comprising some two thousand acres, including
what is now known as Valley Forge. Some of the de-
scendants are still in possession of a portion of the original
grant of 1684, to Evan-Ap-Evan by the proprietor. 1
Early data regarding the founders are very difficult to ob-
tain. It is certain that there was some manufacture of iron
products at this spot in the early years of the eighteenth
century. Mr. J. M. Swank 2 mentions an early and misty
tradition that the forge was built by an Englishman named
Walker, who came over with William Penn. Possibly
this was a relative of the later owner, for there are in the
possession of ex-Governor Pennypacker, who owns a large
and priceless collection of original ledgers and accounts,
connected with some of the earliest Pennsylvania iron-
1 Henry Woodman, in Bucks County Intelligencer and Moorestonvn
Herald, 1*971 Art, " Valley Forge."
2 Ironmaking in Pennsylvania, p. 28.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 91
works, the ledgers of this forge, showing the ownership
In that year a forge was erected under the firm name
of Walker and Company, by Daniel Walker, Lewis Evans
and Joseph Williams. They sold out on March 12, 1757,
to John Potts, of Potts Grove. Indications are that there
was an earlier forge, for Acrelius 1 mentions two iron works
in 1759 in the "Great Valley," and Futhey and Cope, 2 re-
ferring to these, say that this may have been in the neigh-
borhood of Valley Forge. They add, "September 26,
1751, a Stephen Evans and Joseph Williams advertise for
sale a two thirds interest in three hundred and seventy five
acres near the mouth of Valley Creek, with forge and saw
The earliest entry in the account book referred to is
dated March 18, 1757. The firm owned two hundred
acres of land in Chester County, and one hundred and
seventy-five in Philadelphia County. A forge and saw
mill stood on the south side of the creek, on the latter tract.
Daniel Walker had held a mortgage on one third of the
tract, which he had foreclosed. Ex-Governor Penny-
packer owns an interesting " peel," made by Walker and
Company, at the Valley Forge of Mount Joy. It is a
spade-shaped implement, with a very long handle, used by
housewives to take from the oven the bread and pies which
could not otherwise be reached in its depths. Under the
Potts ownership, James Hockley was put in charge. His
name occurs in a cash account so early as 1738, and he had
probably occupied that position under former owners.
"James Hockley, Cr. by cash paid toward getting Wag-
gons to go to Ohio, two and six. June 7, 1738." " Cash
paid to yr. Wife five shillings."
1 History of New Sweden.
2 History of Chester County, Pa., p. 316.
92 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
John Potts immediately began improvements on the
property. He erected a grist mill, a blacksmith shop, a
cooper shop, and started a store. Samuel Watkins, a
blacksmith, was paid thirty pounds a year. People as far
away as Coatesville bought their shoes at the forge store,
while four tons of iron at a time were piled up, and hauled
by wagon to Philadelphia. The work was done by negro
slaves and by two white men classed as " servants" on the
books, and who were really " redemptioners," named
Thomas Connor and Henry Seligman, who had been
bought for thirty pounds each. Teamsters were paid
twenty pounds a year. Candlesticks, sleeve buttons, " mo-
haire," camblet, and " callicoe," " green Knap," molasses,
jacket buttons, men's shoes and snuff boxes, molasses and
" garters for your wife " are all jumbled up promiscuously
and delightfully in the accounts. Philip Piner bought a
" bake-plate " weighing twenty-seven pounds at three pence
per pound, for which he paid six shillings and nine pence.
The hire of a pair of negroes for "Negro Strephon"
(probably to assist him) cost one shilling and six pence.
On the tenth of August, 1758, " a heifer hyde, wt. 371
Ibs." was sent to Isaac Wayne, and October 24 of the same
year, "hydes" were sent to Isaac Wayne's son, afterward
famous as " Mad Anthony " Wayne. The " First Artikel "
at Mount Joy Forge is noted as having cost " two hundred
shillings," but very unfortunately, we are not told what
the " artikel " was.
From the year 1771 Colonel William Dewees, son of
William Dewees, Sheriff of Philadelphia, was associated
with the Potts family, and appears to have been a resident
manager at Mount Joy. In 1773 he bought an interest in
the business, but the manufacture of iron ceased to flourish
on Valley Creek after the outbreak of the Revolution.
The iron used at Mount Joy was brought from the furnace
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 93
at Warwick by heavy teams over a road which Samuel
Nutt, Jr., of the latter place, had been at great pains to
open and improve. Another road in the county which was
located and built through his father's efforts in 1735, still
bears his name.
For several years during the Revolution the forge at
Mount Joy, so sadly misnamed, became the scene of far
other incidents. Its history takes on the red hue of " battle,
murder and sudden death," rather than the fiery glow of
a great iron industry. The battle of the Brandywine was
fought September n, 1777. The British army under
General Howe lay for a few days in Tredyffrin township,
and while there, a detachment was sent to the Valley
Creek, which destroyed Mount Joy Forge, together with
property belonging to William Dewees to the amount of
4171 or $11,000 Pennsylvania currency, including u two
large stone dwelling houses, two coal houses, four hundred
loads of coal and twenty two hundred bushels of wheat and
rye in the sheaf." The detachment that committed this
depredation was in charge of Colonel Gray, the superior
officer of Major Andre, at Paoli. One historian of this
disaster tells us that his mother, as a young girl, accom-
panied her aunt in a frightened search for her cousin John,
and upon their return, beheld the forge a smoking ruin.
The conflagration was witnessed from the top of Mount
Joy, the hill from which the forge took its name, by
Colonel Caleb North, of the Continental forces. One or
two venerable trees were spared, which were recently living.
The massacre at Paoli followed in a few days (Septem-
ber 19) and this enabled Howe to move unmolested. On
the twenty-third, after a futile attempt to cross the Schuyl-
kill at Swede's Ford, he made a successful effort by divid-
ing his forces, one half crossing at what is now Phoenixville,
and the other at Fatlands Ford, close under Mount Joy,
94 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
after which the united army successfully moved toward
Philadelphia, which it triumphantly entered September 26.
The greater interest for Valley Forge, however, comes
to us for far other reasons than that an invading army
crossed the Schuylkill at this point. General Washington,
encamping for a time near the Perkiomen Creek, at Penny-
packer's Mills, disputed the possession of Philadelphia with
the British at Germantown in October, and eventually re-
tired for the winter to those quarters which have since
made Valley Forge a spot so famous and so sad. The se-
cluded situation was probably the chief reason for its
selection. General Washington made his headquarters in
the house of Isaac Potts, and the property remained in the
possession of that family for many years after.
The firm of Potts and Rutter, in 1757, cast at War-
wick a bell, marked P. R. 1757 which was used to call the
men to work for more than a century. 'In May, 1874,
it was sent to Colonel J. M. Fager by Thomas W. Potts,
Jr., and interest is doubly given to this old bell by the fact,
that while Washington was at Valley Forge, it was rung
to assemble the citizens to bury the cannon, that they might
not fall into the hands of the enemy. This bell was pres-
ented by Colonel Fager to the city of Philadelphia, and
was an object of great interest at the recent reopening of
Directly opposite Valley Forge stands a fine estate,
called Fatlands, or Vaux Hill, from the name of the owner,
James Vaux, who came to America from England just be-
fore the outbreak of the Revolution, and located at this
point. The ford leading to Valley Forge is that where
General Sullivan was deputed by Washington to construct
a pontoon bridge. Over this, at the evacuation of Valley
Forge, the army crossed, passing up the lane near the man-
sion. The dam constructed for the later forge obliterated
Bell rung at Valley Forge as signal to bury the cannon on alarm of
approach of enemy. Cast at Warwick Furnace, 1757. Now in Congress
Hall, the gift of Col. Fager.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 95
the ford, and the point where stood the bridge is marked
by a small monument.
James Vaux was a Quaker, and with the non-partisan
sentiments of his sect although he was all along a patriot,
and afterward joined the militia his house was open to
all comers. After the retreat from Brandywine, while
the Continentals were lying at Pottsgrove, the British lay
at Valley Forge. Washington, with the intention of in-
specting the enemy, arrived at the house of James Vaux on
the afternoon of September 21 and obtained an excellent
view of the opposing forces. He supped and passed the
night with his host, and left after breakfast next morning.
That same afternoon, Sir William Howe arrived, re-
marking to his host that from what he had seen through
his glass, he thought some distinguished rebel officer must
have been there the night before. On being told that it
was Washington himself, he was greatly vexed, declaring
that had he known his identity, he would have tried to
make him prisoner ! Howe also supped and remained over
night, sleeping in the same bed occupied by the "rebel"
the night before.
The close of the Revolution saw a revival of the iron
industry, and a second forge was erected on the Valley
Creek, three quarters of a mile farther down the stream.
The building of a new dam raised the water above the
level of the old site, and Mount Joy Forge became sub-
merged. The later industry which sprang up on the
new site was hereafter known as Valley Forge, and the old
name was forgotten.
Amelia Mott Gummere.
96 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1742 SARUM IRONWORKS.
CHESTER COUNTY, LATER DELAWARE.
At an early day between 1740 and 1750 there were two
iron enterprises, a forge on Crum Creek, and a rolling and
slitting mill on Chester Creek, in Thornbury township,
where Glen Mills now stand, built by John Taylor. These
were named Sarum Ironworks.
In September, 1750, John Owen, Sheriff of Chester
County, certified to the Lieutenant Governor that Sarum
had been in operation until June of that year. After this
time the British government had interdicted the further
employment of rolling and slitting mills in the Colonies.
We cannot learn whether Mr. Taylor long obeyed this
decree, but it is said that his works were carried on with
energy until his death in 1756.
Acrelius, writing about the time of Taylor's death, says :
" Sarum belongs to Taylor's heirs, has three stacks and
is in full blast."
Peter Kalm states that at Chichester (Marcus Hook),
" They build here every year a number of small ships for
sale, and from an iron work which lies higher up in the
country they carry iron bars to this place and ship them."
This "iron work" was probably Sarum.
John Taylor was the descendant of an English settler in
the province. His rolling and slitting mill was the first in
Margaret C. Yarnall Cope.
Stoveplate, about 1756.
Stoveplate, 1742. The Pharisee and the Publican.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 97
CRUM CREEK FORGE. 1742
CHESTER COUNTY, NOW DELAWARE.
John Crosby and Peter Dicks built this forge on Crum
Creek near Chester, about 1742. In Kalm's Travels into
North America, 1749, we find: "About two miles behind
Chester I passed by an iron forge; the ore however is not
dug here but 30 miles hence where it is first melted in the
oven and carried to this place. The bellows were made of
leather and both they and the hammers and even the hearth
were but small in proportion to ours. All the machines
were worked by water, the iron was wrought into bars."
Peter Dicks, a Friend, son of an early settler in Bir-
mingham, married Sarah Powell in 1716, and became a
man of note in his neighborhood. In 1756, he and three
others vacated their seats in the Assembly at the request
of the Council, in London, as it was desirable that there
should be no Quaker in the Assembly during the War. 1
He was also the owner of Peter Dick's Bloomary in York
1 Hazard's Register, V, p. 115.
98 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
*743 WINDSOR FORGES.
Although the Province of Pennsylvania may not have
boasted a Tubal Cain as early as Virginia, for so Colonel
William Byrd facetiously dubbed Governor Spotswood, it
appears that she outstripped the latter colony in the manu-
facture of bar iron which was made in Pennsylvania in the
first quarter of the eighteenth century. In Colonel Byrd's
entertaining account of "A Progress to the Mines," he re-
corded in September, 1732, that as yet there was no forge
erected in Virginia, adding that Mr. Chiswell, manager
at one of the Virginia furnaces, had told him that " There
was a very good one set up at the head of the Bay in Mary-
land that made exceedingly good work. He let me know
that the duty in England upon Bar Iron was 24 shillings a
Tun and that it sold there from 10 to 16 pounds a Tun.
This would pay the charge of Forging abundantly, but he
doubted the Parliament of England would soon forbid us
that improvement lest after that we shou'd go forth, and
manufacture Our Bars into all Sorts of Ironware as they
already do in New England and Pennsylvania."
Most of the early Pennsylvania furnaces had forges con-
nected with them, and in some cases forges were built
without furnaces, as were Pool Forges, Coventry, and
Windsor Forges, all in Lancaster County.
During the summer of 1910, an iron marker was placed
near the high road at Coventryville, and a granite boulder
in a field nearby, where are still to be seen the remains of
an old forge. The tablet and boulder were erected by
the Chester County Historical Society to commemorate the
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 99
founding of Coventry Forge, which played an important
part in the iron industry of Pennsylvania, being the second
in the Province! 1 To add a touch of picturesqueness to
the historic interest of Coventry Forge Mr. George B.
Johnson tells us that Mordecai Lincoln, ancestor of Presi-
dent Lincoln, was part owner and blacksmith at Coventry
Of somewhat later date was Windsor Forges, which
with its post office, Churchtown, is situated near the center
of Caernarvon Township, in the northeastern portion of
Lancaster County, bounded on the north by the Forest
Hills and on the south by the Welsh Mountains. In
among these mountains are the head-waters of the Con-
estoga, the Crooked Creek of the Indians of this region.
As its name indicates, Caernarvon Township was settled by
a colony of Welshmen, some of whom had emigrated to
Chester Valley in 1700. Tempted by a desire to further
explore this beautiful and fertile region, these pioneers
pushed on to Lancaster County; among them was John
Jenkins, son of David Jenkins who came to Philadelphia
from Wales in 1700. John Jenkins and his family are
said to have lived in a cave until he was able to build a
block-house for their accommodation. Upon the Windsor
Forges property the remains of this cave, or dugout, are
still to be seen, and also a substantial little stone house
which was once used for the storing of ammunition and
food in case of an attack from the Indians. Mrs. John
W. Nevin, a direct descendant of the first John Jenkins, in
her sketch of Windsor Forges, tells of an Indian settle-
ment under the brow of Maxwell's Hill between Church-
1 The writer had the pleasure of seeing both the tablet and the boulder
in September, 1913. A. H. W.
2 Address delivered at Phoenixville, July &, 1910, upon early iron in-
dustries of Chester County and their relation to American Independence,
by George B. Johnson, Esq.
100 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
town and Morgantown. These were friendly Indians, she
says, as her father, the Honorable Robert Jenkins, told her
of hunting and fishing with them in his boyhood. This
Indian settlement finally became a part of the farm of Mr.
Jenkins, and the ploughshare of the white man, now and
again, turned up Indian relics. At a solitary place on the
edge of the mountain a large stone was found, some years
since, bearing a rough sketch of an Indian profile and
tomahawk with the words " Wymus grave." " Most prob-
ably," says Mrs. Nevin, "Wymus was 'the last of the
Nine years later Mr. John Jenkins sold this property to
William Branson, of Philadelphia, who then owned Read-
ing Furnace. This was December 28, 1742, and soon
after this, Branson built on this property the lower Wind-
sor Forge, the date on the stone over the door was 1743.
The upper forge and the mansion house were built a little
later. This house was substantially built, as its appear-
ance to-day testifies, and not being disposed to belittle the
importance of his possessions, Mr. Branson named his
residence Windsor after the palace of the King of England.
The old house has evidently been added to at different
times, but a portion of the mansion belongs to the earliest
period, and although both forges have long since disap-
peared, it is still in excellent condition. The lawn at the
back of the house is terraced down to the Conestoga, mak-
ing with its shrubbery, fine trees and parterres of old fash-
John W. Nevin, whose narrative has been quoted frequently in
this sketch, said of it: "You may depend on this account being thoroughly
accurate, as it is taken directly from the old account books. David Jenkins
was my grandfather. My father, Robert Jenkins, inherited Windsor from
his father. I was born there." The writer of this paper regrets that she
has not been able to consult the " account books " of which Mrs. Nevin
speaks. No one at Windsor Forges, at present, seems to know of their
The Mansion, Windsor Forges.
Stone house built at Windsor Forges for protection from Indians.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. IOI
ioned flowers a charmingly picturesque setting for the long,
low mansion with its many latticed windows. This fine
old house, with its extended facade which looks out upon
the road, and its wide, hospitable doorway, is redolent of
cherished memories of the past. These memories, the
present owner of Windsor Forges has gathered together,
and in some verses in which she laments the loss of a beau-
tiful old tree on the lawn, she has taken occasion to cele-
brate the virtues of several chatelaines of the mansion
house. 1 Of Martha Armour of Pequea, wife of David
Jenkins who worked the forges in 1773, herself of Scotch
Irish ancestry, and a valiant soul like many of her race,
Miss Nevin has given a spirited picture.
" Martha Armour. She who put to flight
And foiled by strategy the Doanes one night.
" Coming one day from harvesting the hay
Men found her by the old well, where she lay
In a dead faint, her baby in her arms
Held tight, and screaming, full of vague alarms.
They ' brought her to,'
But all she knew was that she saw her child
Fall in the well. Then she went wild,
This only she remembered, nothing more;
But both were wringing wet, and bruised and j&ore.
How she got up none knew. Twas thought
Climbing, the baby in her teeth was brought."
With Mr. Branson were associated in his business at
Windsor Forges, Samuel Flower, Richard Hockley, and
Lynford Lardner. 2 These three gentlemen afterwards
1 These verses and others used in this paper were written by Miss
Blanche Nevin, the well-known sculptress, who still lives in the beautiful
home of her ancestors where she cherishes the traditions of the house, and
exercises a hospitality like that of an earlier time.
2 Mr. Lardner married Mr. Branson's daughter Rebecca, and lived in
Philadelphia. Among other claims to distinction he was one of the
founders of the first Dancing Assembly of that place.
102 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
bought out Mr. Branson's interest and carried on the work
at Windsor Forges for thirty years. In 1773, David
Jenkins, son of the original owner John Jenkins, bought a
half interest in the company for 2500 pounds, and later
when the war of the Revolution was imminent, the remain-
der, including the negro slaves and the stock used in the
business, was sold to him for the sum of two thousand
four hundred pounds. David Jenkins carried on the works
successfully there until his death, in 1779, when he left
them and about 3000 acres of land to his son Robert Jen-
kins, including the upper and lower forges on the Con-
The other sons of this family were William, an eminent
lawyer, and David, a farmer. Both David Jenkins and
his son Robert were members of the Pennsylvania Legis-
lature, and the latter from 1807 to 1811 represented his
state in the Congress at Washington, or as his biographer
expresses it more picturesquely, " sat in the halls of Con-
gress." Mr. Jenkins' services were given during the im-
portant years before our second war with Great Britain,
and in the heated discussions of that period his voice, it is
said, was ever raised in the cause of justice and true
There seems to have been an unwritten law in the Jen-
kins family that the eldest son of David should be Robert
and vice versa, consequently we find Davids and Roberts
alternating quite regularly in the ownership of Windsor
Forges. The Honorable Robert Jenkins was in possession
of the forges from 1799 until his death in 1848, his son
David in turn carrying on the works until his death in
The establishment of iron furnaces drew to Caernarvon
County, at an early date, a large population of Welsh
workmen, who were skilled operators. The first David
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 103
Jenkins who emigrated from Wales in 1700 married Re-
becca Meredith of Philadelphia, whose ancestry is given
in the following lines written by one of her descendants :
"... grandchild of Colonel Rush, who fled
After the Roundheads cut off King Charles' head
Of Cromwell's army he, of stubborn faith,
Whose daughter so the ancient Bible saith
Was the first white girl born of Englishmen
Within the settlement of William Penn."
Sarah Aurelia Rush, said to be the first girl born in
Philadelphia, was the mother of Rebecca Meredith who
married David Jenkins.
The Honorable Robert Jenkins married Catherine M.
Carmichael, daughter of the Rev. John Carmichael, of
Chester County. The history of this lady, says Mr.
W. U. Hensel, is one of the unwritten romances of Lan-
caster County. 1 The Rev. John Carmichael, who was
pastor of the Presbyterian Church at the Forks of the
Brandywine during the war of the Revolution, illustrated
upon many an occasion a strength and loyalty of char-
acter which proved his daughter's most precious heritage.
While the patriot army was encamped at Valley Forge,
during the severe winter of 1777 and '78, Mr. Carmichael
preached to the soldiers whenever occasion offered. He
also impressed upon his congregation the importance of
giving everything at their command to General Wash-
ington's destitute army, himself setting them an example
by stripping his own home of every commodity that could
be spared. Upon one occasion Mr. Carmichael appealed
to the women of his flock, insistently calling upon them
1 To the Honorable W. U. Hensel, whose learning and accuracy have
made him par excellence the historian of Lancaster County, the writer is
indebted for valuable data and suggestions during the preparation of this
104 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
to divest themselves and their children of all superfluities
in the way of clothing and food for the benefit of the suf-
fering soldiers at Valley Forge. To this eloquent appeal
the women replied that they had given everything that they
could spare except their flannel petticoats. " Cut them
off and send them," was the resolute answer.
Although we may be at a loss to know what use soldiers
could make of flannel petticoats, there can be no doubt of
the patriotism and self sacrifice of a pastor and people who
could so deprive themselves of the necessities of life, and
as a proof that the devotion and patriotic service of this
pastor and his flock were appreciated by the commander-
in-chief, there has been preserved a letter from General
Washington in which he thanks Mr. Carmichael and his
congregation for their generous and timely donations of
clothing and other necessities for the use of his army.
Mr. Carmichael died while still in the prime of life,
leaving his daughter Catherine, aged eleven, in the care of
her uncle, the Reverend Robert Smith, D.D., pastor of the
Presbyterian Church at Cedar Grove. After the death of
her granduncle, Dr. Smith, in 1793, Catherine Carmichael
lived for several years with a relative at Strasburg, Lancas-
ter County, and later receiving a cordial invitation from
Mr. and Mrs. Buckley to make her home with them, she
removed from Strasburg to the vicinity of Pequea. Mr.
and Mrs. Buckley treated Miss Carmichael as their own
daughter and in their hospitable home, which was the
resort of many interesting people, she enjoyed a delightful
social life. Here Miss Carmichael met one of the favo-
rite habitues of the house, Mr. Robert Jenkins of Windsor
Forges, whom she afterwards married. The marriage
was from the home of Mr. and Mrs. Buckley in Septem-
During her residence at Windsor Forges, Mrs. Jenkins
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 105
took great pleasure in entertaining pious and learned men,
and in elevating the character and improving the condition
of her dependents. Her husband being engaged in cul-
tivating the land and carrying on the forges, had neces-
sarily a number of hands in his employ. In all his en-
deavors to do them good he was assisted by his wife's
counsel and cooperation. The following anecdote, which
illustrates Mrs. Jenkin's strength of character and high
principles, was related by the Rev. John B. Laman in a
sermon delivered at the funeral of this estimable lady, in
September, 1856, at Cedar Grove Presbyterian Church.
" At this period and in this section of our country, vice
and immorality stalked abroad in high and low places.
The wine-cup and the gambling-table were the chief sources
of amusement among many of the rich and influential ; and
the rum-bottle, among those in the humbler walks of life.
In the midst of all this, what could a tender female do?
With that energy and decision which had attended her
during all the vicissitudes of the past, Mrs. Jenkins re-
solved to do what she could. An opportunity soon pre-
sented itself to call forth her efforts. The hands engaged
about the farm and forges frequently came to the table at
their boarding-house, in a state of intoxication. Mr. Jen-
kins, learning this fact, had endeavored to reform them in
this respect, but the temptation was too strong to yield to
his efforts. Mrs. Jenkins, at length, came to his assistance,
and, with all the influence of female eloquence, portrayed
to the offenders the injury they were doing to themselves,
and the great sin they were committing against that kind
Being whom she adored as her God. These admonitions
proving ineffectual, she resolved to employ more decisive
means. ^ She obtained, through one of the domestics, the
bottles in which the hands kept their rum. When the din-
ing hour arrived that day, they were surprised and cha-
grined to see their bottles standing in a row upon the table,
with their precious contents reflected through the glass.
At this moment Mrs. Jenkins enters the room, and in her
106 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
usual cheerful manner, says, that she is in possession of a
number of bottles belonging to them, which she desires to
restore to their respective owners, and hopes they will now
come and take them. As none of the offenders were will-
ing to acknowledge the ownership of the bottles, under the
circumstances, she says : ' They are now in my possession,
and, as you will not take them, they are, of course, at my
disposal. 1 She then conveys them to an open window, and
strikes them against the wall until they fall in shivers upon
the ground. The bottles being demolished and their con-
tents thus destroyed, she turns to the men and says, in a
mild but decided manner, ' If they be replaced by others,
they shall share the same fate.' "
In the winter of 1808, while Mr. Jenkins was a member
of Congress, Mrs. Jenkins accompanied him to Washing-
ton, and entered into the social life of the capitol. This
was during President Jefferson's administration. To quote
again from Mr. Laman:
"In the autumn of 1824, during the triumphal passage
of Lafayette through the country, he was invited by the
inhabitants of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, to visit their place.
Mrs. Jenkins met him at the baptismal ceremony at the
house of George B. Porter whose child was named for the
great man. Mrs. Jenkins, always interested in the relig-
ious views of famous people, took this occasion to inform
Lafayette that she was the daughter of a clergyman who
fiad taken a very active stand in the cause of liberty; she
was accordingly delighted to hear the great man's freely
expressed admiration for the American clergy and their
high moral influence."
I have dwelt at some length upon the characteristics of
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Jenkins because they are notable
types, admirably representative of a distinct phase of Penn-
sylvania life in the last century, a life which no longer exists,
which indeed was possible only in earlier days, before rail-
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 1 07
roads, telegraphs, and telephones had brought the whole
world in touch. In that earlier time, the iron furnace with
its u big house," its workmen's houses, and several depend-
encies, formed a little world in itself. Indeed the relations
then existing between the old iron master and his workmen
were of a character that would be little understood by the
operator in iron and steel industries of to-day. The work-
men's homes were erected on " the Bank " near the furnace,
that being the name commonly given to this settlement
whether really on the bank or by the side of a level road.
The workmen's houses at Windsor, of which two are still
standing, were built near the winding Conestoga. In these
settlements they lived their lives and brought up their
families, father and son working for the iron master and
his son, and often entertaining for them an affection and
loyalty very like that of the retainer of an older time.
Only those who have lived at an old iron furnace have
any adequate conception of the almost feudal relations ex-
isting between the employer and employed. It was a con-
dition of interdependence with an underlying sense of pro-
tection and friendliness. If these workmen had been
called upon to arm themselves and go forth to fight for
their chief, as in feudal times, they would doubtless have
gone without a murmur. As it was, the only lists that
they were called upon to enter were to be found at the
polls. At election times the hands were all sent in huge
wagons to vote for whatever candidate represented the pro-
tective tariff, the fetish of the iron industry in the early
years and in the middle of the last century, as it has been
in later times. Even if the farmers in the surrounding
country represented other shades of political belief, the
hands at the furnace were true blue to a man, not in any
sense feeling that they were " taking orders" from their
employer, but rather as reflecting the opinion of one whom
108 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
they looked up to and considered much wiser than them-
selves. In material things these work people were child-
like in their dependence upon the "big house," as the pro-
prietor's mansion was called. Their supplies came from
the store, which was not called the company store in those
days, but simply the store, and was an actual necessity as
the nearest town and base of supplies was often separated
from the furnace by from twelve to twenty miles of heavy
clay or mud roads. To the wares in this store the pro-
prietor, in many cases, gave his personal supervision, and
there being no middle man the workman whose flitch and
flour, coffee and sugar, did not please him had only to
speak to the manager or to the iron master himself.
In some of its phases the life at the old iron furnaces of
Pennsylvania was like that upon a southern plantation.
Indeed, the early iron masters frequently spoke of their
estates as plantations, including as they did many acres
upon which, in early times, slaves were employed. The
old account books of Windsor Forges give a long list of
slaves employed at the works and upon the farm. These
slaves, who were usually Guinea negroes, were frequently
named from the place where they were bought, as " Phila-
delphia Jim," "Lunnon Boat" and "Slave Boat Swain,"
names indicating purchase from a slave ship. Other
negroes were given or retained such odd names as
"Quash" "Cooba" and "Negro Mig." In the second
generation, the classic names of Greece and Rome prevailed
and "Pompey," "Caesar," and "Scipio" were among the
names at Windsor Forges. The women slaves were often
given names immortalized by English poets in addresses to
their mistresses, as "Chloe," "Phyllis," " Priscilla,"
"Clarissa," "Diana" and "Venus." By the laws of
Pennsylvania there was gradual emancipation for these
slaves, their children served until they were twenty-eight,
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 109
the children of the third generation were born free but were
bound to the former owner's family until they were eight-
een or twenty-one. Every family had at least two of these
servants who were usually faithful and took great pride in
the members of the family to which they belonged, and
by whom they were generally treated with great kindness.
One of the oldest inhabitants of Churchtown recently re-
called a wedding at Windsor, with " Quash " as the groom,
when the fair bride, whose name she forgot, was arrayed
in a white frock with low neck and short sleeves, a wreath
of marigolds adorning her head. This wedding was
attended by members of the Jenkins family who provided
a generous collation.
In cases of illness the "big house" was invariably ap-
plied to, and severe indeed were those ailments which the
iron master's wife was not considered able to relieve with
the remedies that she was always expected to have within
reach. One of my own earliest recollections is of hearing
the wives of two iron masters comparing notes with regard
to their medical practice among the furnace hands. One
of these lovely ladies, whose face rises before me as I write,
had supplied herself with Dr. Hering's book, and a box of
tiny bottles warranted to cure all ills to which the flesh is
heir, with these, she was wont to say that she practiced
with considerable success. The other lady, being the
daughter of a physician of the older school, adhered, in
the main, to the more heroic system of her fathers. Both,
being wise women, used, in the treatment of the cases
brought to them, their native wit and common sense in a
larger measure than the drugs in their medicine closets.
After the death of the Honorable Robert Jenkins the
work at the forges at Windsor was carried on by his son
David Jenkins, who was, like his father, a kindly and
benevolent employer, deeply interested in the wellfare of
110 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
his workmen and their families. Mr. David Jenkins was
not married, and after his death in 1850 the work at Wind-
sor Forges seems to have been abandoned chiefly on account
of sharp competition in the iron business, the lack of facili-
ties for transportation, and the more modern machinery
with which some of the neighboring furnaces were
equipped. In addition to these causes, the scarcity of
wood, which seriously interfered with the iron industry in
certain localities of Pennsylvania, may have had much to
do with the abandonment of the forges at Windsor. The
charcoal used in these old furnaces and forges naturally led
to the despoiling of large tracts of woodland. At one
Pennsylvania furnace, where the writer of this little paper
spent many years of her childhood, the coal for the fur-
nace was charred in the South mountain and carted across,
miles of bad roads to the furnace, which was then sur-
rounded by arable land. This carting of the charcoal, of
course, added materially to the expenses of the making and
moulding of iron.
In the course of years Lancaster, which was at one time
a great iron-making county, became one of the richest of
Pennsylvania's agricultural counties. The Indian trails,
over which the German, French, and English artisans
transported their iron upon pack horses to the neighbor-
ing forges, became in time the high roads over which grain
was conveyed to the commercial centers of the Middle
States. With the abandonment of the old charcoal fur-
naces and forges there passed away a picturesque and in-
dividual phase of the rural life of Pennsylvania.
Anne Hollingsworth Wharton.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. Ill
PHILADELPHIA NOW BERKS COUNTY.
When the forges built on the Manatawny Creek had
been in operation a few years, and had demonstrated that
there was "money in it" for the canny investor, Phila-
delphia capital began to flow in that direction and in
1744 one John Ross, "Gentleman," formed a company
and took into partnership two men from the iron region,
John Yoder and John Lesher of Oley. About ten miles
from the confluence of the Manatawny with the Schuylkill
was a little hamlet called "Oley Churches" and the place
selected for the new Forge was about one quarter of a mile
south of the quaintly named village. They purchased
from Sebastian Graeff a tract of one hundred and ninety-
seven acres situated along the Manatawny Creek, adjoin-
ing lands of Robert Stapleton and John Yoder, and upon
the "Great Road" leading to Philadelphia. Here they
erected a forge for the purpose of "manufacturing pig
metal into bar iron," constructed a water pond, water
courses and the necessary buildings, and they also looked
to their future supply of wood for charcoal by purchasing
warrants for taking up lands on the adjacent hills.
In 1750 John Yoder sold out his one-third interest to
John Lesher, and Lesher and Ross kept their respective
holdings until the death of the latter. John Lesher
(17111794) was born in Germany and came to Penn-
sylvania in 1734. Settling in Berks County near the Oley
Churches, he became one of the strong men of that neigh-
borhood and for fifty years was identified with iron inter-
112 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
ests. He represented the county in the Constitutional
Convention of 1776, and served in the General Assembly
from 1776 until 1782. While in the Convention he was a
member of the important committee which prepared and
reported the " Declaration of Rights." During the
Revolution he acted as one of the commissioners for pur-
chasing army supplies. Suffering, as did many others,
from the unceremonious manner in which supplies for the
army were demanded and taken, John Lesher wrote to
the Supreme Executive Council on the 9 January, 1778 :
" I conceive it to be my duty to acquaint you that I am
no more master of any individual thing I possess ! for be-
sides the damages I have heretofore sustained by a number
of troops and Continental wagons in taking from me 8 tons
of hay, destroyed apples sufficient for 10 hhds. of cider,
eating up my pasture, burning my fences, etc. and two
beeves, I was obliged to buy at i sh. per Ib. to answer
their immediate want of provisions,, and at several other
times since, I have supplied detachments from the army
with provisions. There has been lately taken from me
14 head of cattle and 4 swine. The cattle at a very low
estimate, to my infinite damage, as they were all the beef
I had for my workmen for carrying on my iron works.
" I had rather delivered the beef and reserved the hides,
tallow, etc., but no argument would prevail! all must be
delivered to a number of armed men at the point of the
bayonet. As my family, which I am necessitated to main-
tain consists of nearly thirty persons, not reckoning colliers,
wood cutters, and other day laborers ! My provision and
forage being taken from me, my forge must stand idle!
My furnace (which I am about carrying on) must of con-
sequence be dropped ! which will be a loss to the public as
well as myself as there is so great a call for iron at present
for public use, and some forges and furnaces must of nec-
essity fail for want of wood and ore. The case in this
neighborhood is truly alarming when the strongest exer-
tion of economy and frugality ought to be practiced by all
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 113
ranks of men! Thereby the better to enable us to repel
the designs of a daring Enemy who are now in our land.
" It strikes me with horror to see a number of our own
officers and soldiers wantonly waste and destroy the good
people's properties by such conduct. They destroy the
cause they seek to maintain. Instead of judicious men
appointed in ever} 7 township, or as the case may require, to
proportion the demands equal according to the circum-
stances of every farmer and the general benefit of the
whole, these men under the shadow of the bayonet and
the appellation * Tory ' act as they please. Our wheat, rye,
oats and hay taken away at discretion and shamefully
wasted and our cattle destroyed. I know some fanners
who have not a bushel of oats left for seed, nor beef suffi-
cient for their own consumption, while others lose nothing
as a man who had 100 head of cattle lost not one.
Such proceedings I think to be very partial. Many far-
mers are so much discouraged by such conduct that I have
heard several say they would neither plow nor sow. If
this takes place the consequence may be easily foreseen,
unless some speedy and effectual method be taken to put
a stop to such irregular proceedings, and encouragement
and protection extended to the good people of the Com-
monwealth. I shudder at the consequences. I humbly
submit the whole to your serious consideration." 1
John Ross was a rather picturesque character, an officer
of the King and a half brother of George Ross, Signer of
the Declaration of Independence. Graydon says of him:
" Mr. John Ross, who loved ease and Madeira much better
than liberty and strife, declared for neutrality, saying, that
let who would be king, he well knew that he would be
In the settlement of his estate litigation arose with
Lesher, and while this was going on Lesher sold out his
two-thirds to his son Jacob, an iron master, and his sons-in-
1 M. L. Montgomery's History of Berks County in the Revolution.
114 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
law John Potts, and Jacob Morgan. After a number of
changes, Frederick Spang of Oley became the owner in
1794, and he and his descendants carried on the iron busi-
ness here for seventy years; the plant being known as the
Before the country was cleared of its forests the Mana-
tawny and its affluents had a sufficient volume to operate
numerous mills and small factories, some of which are still
carried on. The stream at Oley Forge afforded a strong
water power, the dam covering about forty acres. This
perhaps explains why Oley Forge had a continuous history
and was in active operation for one hundred and twenty
Mary E. Mumford.
1 M. L. Montgomery, History of Berks County.
Harpsichord of H. W. Stiegel, 1765. Presented by the family of Mrs.
Henry Morris, his great-granddaughter, to the Historical Society of
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 115
CHARMING FORGE. J 749
A forge was built on Tulpehocken Creek, some miles
north of Womelsdorf in 1749, by John George Nikoll,
a hammersmith, and Michael Miller. Calling it Tulpe-
hocken Eisenhammer, they immediately " at their joint ex-
pense erected an Iron work, or Forge and Dam, and dug a
Race or water-course, and made other great improvements
for the commencing of forging and the manufacturing of
A worn account book, alphabetically divided, in the
Mss. of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania has this
inscription, in German writing; "Tulpehocken Eisenham-
mer, 1757, Michael Reis and [?] brenner in company."
Another, similar, dates back to 1754, and a third, dated
1760, has the name Stein added: a possible partner.
About 1762 Henry William Stiegel bought lands adja-
cent, from Michael Reis and Garrett Brenner, and in
February, 1763, he bought an undivided half of the Forge
with appurtenances and eight hundred and fifty-nine acres
of land from C. and A. Stedman. 1 By 1770 he had added
to his holdings of land here so largely that he owned
thirty seven hundred acres.
Stiegel called this Forge, Charming; the name being
simply descriptive of the great natural beauty of the neigh-
borhood. In his desire for land he more than once ex-
changed tons of iron bars for coveted acres. An undoubt
edly industrious man, able and hopeful, he was a stimulant
in many ways to his contemporaries. His workmen, who
1 Ledger of Charming Forge, at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
116 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
were always well treated, loved him, and tried, as they
could, when his evil days came, to help him. The musical
interest was great, between them. One can imagine the
pleasure of being summoned from the heat of forge and
furnace, to welcome the Master on his return home by
"playing on instruments." And these same instruments
seem to have cost something. In a valuation of his pos-
sessions, in his own handwriting, one finds:
L S d
" By Musical Instruments 375 12 2
House Furniture 483 o 5"
" My clear estate after deduction
of debts is worth this day, July i,
1763, 9891 o 5"
Landed property (enumerated) 4540 o o" 1
Of all these musical possessions two only seem to be
extant. In one of the Museum rooms of the Pennsylvania
Historical Society is a plain oddly shaped harpsichord on a
curious trestle support. The shape really is not sc odd, as
it strongly resembles that of a "Baby grand," and the
smooth brown wood shows no breaks or marks. Pur-
chased by Stiegel about one hundred and fifty years ago, it
became later the property of his daughter Elizabeth who
married William Old, son of James Old, the noted iron-
master. Descending finally to her granddaughter Caro-
line Old, who, in 1830 was married to Henry Morris, so
well known to Philadelphians of a generation or so ago, it
rested for many years at Solitude the charming! "coun-
try in city" home of Mr. Morris. At Mrs. Morris's
death, 1889, tne harpsichord was given by the family to
the Historical Society. A Stiegel guitar or lute also the
1 Ledger, Elizabeth Furnace 1762^-65, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 117
property of Mrs. Morris, is now in the possession of her
daughter, Mrs. James Wood of Mount Kisco.
On July, i, 1763, he values his Manheim town and lands,
" 10 lots Heidelberg and others," enumerated, at 4540.
Two or three of Stiegel's own entries in the day book are
interesting: as, a long account with " Curtis Grubb," in
1773: "By Pigg Mettal." And, much later, when he
no longer owned the forge, in 1779, "Daniel Benezet's
Account, lent by Mr. George Ege, pro memoria,
L S d
Bonds and Mortgages 3000
To 4 years interest on same 720
Ditto, bill the Day (illegible) 540
Ditto, to September 1779, Interest 900."
By 1772 his financial embarrassments were beginning to
crowd around him. In a Day Book of Charming Forge
we find an entry showing the lease on May i, 1772, of
" one full undivided half part of Charming Forge with all
the lands and estates thereto belonging for a yearly rent to
Mr. Paul Zantzinger . . . and whereas said Paul Zant-
zinger and George Ege by another instrument in writing
hath mutually agreed to carry on the said Forge in Com-
pany, preparations were made . . . for accounts of said
company the transactions and accounts of which are as
By I 775> possibly earlier, George Ege was the sole pos-
sessor of Charming Forge, as the inscription in one of the
Day Books in the Pennsylvania Historical Society shows :
" Charming Forge
Day Book, May I st 1775
George Ege Proprietor."
1 See Elizabeth Furnace.
118 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
The George Ege here mentioned, was Stiegel's nephew
by marriage, the son of Michael Ege, who served in the
French and Indian Wars, and grandson of Bernhard Ege,
who came to this country in 1738 from Wurtemburg. On
the death of George Ege in 1759 his widow and two sons,
George and Michael, were most hospitably taken into
Stiegel's family at Elizabeth Furnace, George then being
eleven years old. These boys were carefully trained by
Stiegel in the best methods of iron making, and in after
years did his teaching great credit, becoming, the one in
Berks county, the other in York and Cumberland, two of
the greatest iron masters in the country.
In July, 1776, the Executive Council of Pennsylvania
passed a resolution authorizing the employment of Hessian
prisoners of war, at Lancaster and Reading, and in the
furnaces of Chester, Lancaster and Berks counties, which
were casting cannon and shot for the government. Early
in 1777 Mr. Ege purchased from Congress the services of
thirty-four Hessian prisoners for the purpose of cutting a
channel through a bed of rock to supply his slitting mill
with water power. The mill race, about twenty feet wide,
was cut through a mass of solid slate rock as smoothly as
if done by a broad-axe. It was used until 1887 when the
forge was abandoned. 1 For the services of these channel
cutters he allowed the United States Government, Novem-
ber 5, 1782, the sum of iO2O. 3
Augusta M. Longacre.
1 Pennsylvania, Colonial and Federal, by Jenkins.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 1 19
About 1750 a small furnace was built by John Jacob
Huber, a German, on a tributary of Conestoga Creek, near
Brickersville, in Lancaster county. An earlier date might
possibly be given, as, in Wast Book A, Elizabeth Furnace,
1756* there is an entry evidently taken from another book,
" Began to take the hearth out of the Furnace, Oct. 6,
Of Huber, personally, little is known, except that on a
stone in this furnace he had these words inscribed :
"Jacob Huber, der erste Deutsche Mann
Der das Eisenwerk vollfuhren Kann."
One other title to fame he has: that, on the 7th of
November, 1752, his daughter, Elizabeth, was married to
Heinrich Wilhelm Stiegel. This small furnace had the
fortune to be owned by two men, Stiegel and Robert Cole-
man, whose names, for different reasons, are to-day per-
haps the best known among the earlier Pennsylvania iron
Many tales and traditions have come down to us, of the
prosperities and adversities of Henry William Stiegel,
popularly called Baron, one of our few upper class Ger-
man settlers. Evidently an interesting and impressive
personality, he, for years supplied his simple country neigh-
bors with dazzling glimpses of the " pride of life"; and it
is small wonder that they should consider him an amazing
and marvellous creature, of a kind not usually abounding
1 Manuscript Collections, Historical Society of Pennsylvania,
120 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
among Pennsylvania Germans. His later misfortunes
have overshadowed the remembrance of his follies, and
with the latent perfume of the yearly Feast of Roses, his
name seems to come softly and pleasantly down to our
Henry William Stiegel came to Philadelphia in August,
I 75> by the ship Nancy , from Rotterdam and Cowes.
He was then about twenty years old. Sifting the evidence
for and against the traditional title of Baron, which per-
sonally he does not appear to have claimed, it is possible
that he came from Mannheim, Baden, Germany, after hav-
ing quarrelled with his family ; a proof of this is, that while
in after life, he went once or oftener to England, he seems
to have made no effort to go to his early home. He
brought with him, to Pennsylvania, a considerable sum of
money. The estimate of one writer, that the sum was
40,000 is questionable, even when compared with Stiegel's
lavish outlay later, in lands and buildings. 1 If, he were
of noble birth he must have changed his name, as " Stiegel "
is not to be found in the nobility lists of Germany. He
may have belonged to the Stengels. An interested inves-
tigator, Dr. J. H. Dubbs, found that a young Stengel had
left Mannheim for America shortly before the date of
Stiegel's landing here, and that a younger line of the
Stengels belongs in Baden, their ancestral home, Strengel-
hof, being near Mannheim. Once, in America, Stiegel
signed his name "Henrich (sic) von Stiegel," to the con-
stitution of the old Lutheran Church in Brickersville. Or-
dinarily, his signature was simply Stiegel, or Henry Wil-
liam Stiegel. However this may be, his birth, noble or
simple, was not a matter of great moment to him, in his
stirring life in America. Of good family he undoubtedly
1 C. F. Hucfy Mitteilungen Des Deutschcn Pionier Vereins von Phila-
delphia, Fiinftes Heft, 1907.
House of Henry William Stiegel, Elizabeth Furnace. His offices
at rear of house.
House where the charcoal was stored at Elizabeth Furnace.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 121
was. He had had an excellent education, and was a man
of cultivation and taste : this is shown in his technical and
musical knowledge, 1 and later in his mode of life and the
equipments of his residences. Of distinct capacity and en-
terprise, he was also sanguine, credulously trustful, and
with a great love of ostentatious living. These latter ten-
dencies, together with outward circumstances utterly be-
yond his control for who could foresee the Revolutionary
War? brought on his mortifying failures.
StiegePs married life, with Elizabeth Huber, was happy
and short. In 1757 he bought Huber's furnace, and built
on the old site a much larger one, naming it for his wife,
Elizabeth. She died in February, 1758, leaving two
daughters, Barbara and Elizabeth.
There is in existence a stove plate 2 decorated with Heart
and Tulip, bearing thd inscription:
H. William Stiegel und Compagni for Elizabeth 1758.
That the words " for Elizabeth " are to honor the mem-
ory of his dead wife, one can hardly doubt; even though
within the prescribed year of mourning after her death
he should have paid her that subtlest of all compliments
according to some philosophers, a speedy remarriage, and
with another Elizabeth Elizabeth Wood, or Holz, of
Roxborough, near Philadelphia. This marriage is said to
be on record at St. Michael's Church, Germantown. They
had one son, Jacob.
In buying Elizabeth Furnace, Stiegel had partners; John
Barr and the Stedman brothers, Alexander and Charles;
the latter of Canadian origin, being well-to-do merchants
in Philadelphia. An unfortunate connection this seems to
1 c. F. Huch.
2 In collection of G. H. Danner, Manheim, Pa.
122 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
have been. In his transactions with the Stedmans,
through a number of years, their business shrewdness was
greatly superior to his. They apparently tied him up with
contracts in which the advantage was generally on the Sted-
man side, while Stiegel's industry and enterprise were no
match for their clever astuteness. They were presumably
men of importance in Philadelphia, as their names, as also
others of the early iron masters, are on the Assembly lists
of the time.
Another hindrance to Stiegel's permanent success, was
the buying of land, in unnecessary quantities. Evidently,
he brought with him from Germany traces of the tendency
called there Erd-hunger; and this adding of acre to acre
was one of the causes of his financial embarrassment and
downfall. For a period of at least ten years, however, he
prospered greatly. A sister of StiegePs second wife,
named Anna Catherine Holz, had married George Michael
Ege. At the latter's death in 1759, his widow and two
sons, George and Michael, were taken into the family at
Elizabeth Furnace. Stiegel, the guardian of his nephews,
educated them, and had them trained in the rudiments of
iron making, in which they became later, experts. Pros-
perity marked Elizabeth Furnace from 1760 on. Seventy-
five persons were employed, and, near by, twenty-five work-
men's houses were built, some of which are still there. In
autumn and winter, many of the workmen were busy felling
wood in the neighboring hills, for charcoal burning.
A list of all Stoves cast at Elizabeth Furnace, 1771,
L S d
Bigg 10 plate 5 10
Small d. 5
Bigg 6 plate 5
Middle ditto 3
TrWf.^ v .l;r.'-"j^
<&. - ^-~~~*~~*~
* fr 1 *- I ' -, ' IMF* W'J iP *
?: S^TJ S ! f iJ^"J- ; ;
Mansion of H. W. Stiegel, Manheim.
Stoveplate, called the Medallion plate, Elizabeth Furnace, 1769. Owned
by Mr. M. H. Banner, Manheim.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 123
L S d
Small ditto 2 5
Bigg 5 P\ate 5
Middle ditto 4
Small " 3
Moravian Stove 3
An open 6 plate half Stove 4 IO 1
On the 20 September, 1762, Stiegel bought two hundred
and forty three acres of land from C. and A. Stedman and
speedily laid out a town, calling it after his supposedly
native place, Manheim. All that had stood there before
this ambitious planning, were two little block houses; by
Stiegel's energy and exertion, however, in a short time a
number of buildings were erected (sold on the ground
rent plan), and early in 1763 he began to build his own
mansion. This not very imposing "castle" as the neigh-
bors called it, was a strong, well-built brick house, forty
feet square. The bricks were possibly imported, but cer-
tainly were brought from Philadelphia in his own wagons. 2
The interior ornamentation, tiles and furnishings, probably
came from England, as Stiegel was there on business in
that year. One of these blue tiles is to be seen at the
Historical Society of Pennsylvania and at the Museum of
Mr. G. H. Banner in M'anheim are many memorials of
Stiegel. It is a curious thing that no likeness of this
widely known man is in existence, or, if in existence, it is
practically unknown. One large room in his house was
fitted up as a chapel where he held religious services for
his family and workmen, and also for the neighbors, who
came, many of them, on foot, and often from a distance
of ten or more miles.
Early in 1763 Stiegel bought lands adjacent to Tulpe-
1 Ledger of Elizabeth Furnace, in Manuscript Collections, Historical
Society of Pennsylvania.
2 C. F. Huch.
124 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
hocken Eisenhammer, near Womelsdorf in Berks county.
On the fifth of February, 1763, he bought an undivided
half of that forge, with eight hundred and fifty nine acres,
from C. and A. Stedman. He later added largely to
these holdings of land, and called the Forge Charming.
The Stedmans retained the other half of the property.
Extravagant, kindly and sanguine, Stiegel's life for
some years now was outwardly prosperous, and his period
of ostentatious living came to its height. He provided his
German workmen with musical instruments, which, with
the inborn musical talent of the race, they used with skill
and pleasure. The story goes, that when he returned to
Manheim from a journey, in his coach and four, a cannon
was fired, at some distance from the house, and, on arriv-
ing he was greeted by favorite airs, played by his work-
man band, gathered in the large balcony on the roof of
the mansion. An attractive picture, if somewhat vain-
glorious. He built also, a tower, on a hill not far from
Elizabeth Furnace, called to this day Tower or Cannon
Hill, which, except the foundations, was of heavy timber,
fifty feet at base, seventy-five feet high and ten feet square
at the top. It contained a number of rooms. He built
this, Heaven alone knows why, unless possibly to enter-
tain friends, or to have a retreat for himself; as, with all
his open heartedness he was suspicious of his surroundings,
fearing robbery, or danger to life. 1 On this structure, he
had one of his favorite cannon for salutes.
In 1772 he gave to the Lutheran congregation in Man-
heim a piece of ground on which to build a church, taking
the sum of five shillings to make the transaction legal, and
exacting an annual rental of " one red rose, when the same
shall be legally demanded. " After disuse for many years,
1 Ege Genealogy.
Cannon Stove made by Stiegel, 1759. Owned by the James Spear
Stove and Heating Company, Philadelphia.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 125
this custom was taken up about twenty-five years ago, and
on the second Sunday in June, now, the " Feast of Roses "
attracts crowds to the "Baron Stiegel Memorial Church"
(erected in 1857), in whose tower a peal of ten bells has
been dedicated to his memory. At these services, a de-
scendant of StiegePs receives the red rose, addresses are
made, and the chancel is often filled with red roses,
dropped there by the audience, individually, as a tribute.
First in Pennsylvania to attempt the making of flint
glass, he did more than attempt, he succeeded; and for
ten years his factory made bottles, tumblers, wine glasses,
vases, jugs, dishes, playthings and colored glass, supplying
the needs of the distant colonies as well as his own. Bear-
ing the general title, "American Flint Glass," there are
three old account books in the manuscript collections of
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The earliest one
is inscribed "Ledger A. No. i. Begun the 6th of Octo-
ber, 1764, for Manheim Glass House, by Henry William
Stiegel." This is probably the date of the formal opening
of the works. As usual, in building this factory his ideas
were bold, and too great for his pocket. On the corner
of Charlotte and Stiegel Streets, in Manheim, he erected
a brick building so large that a double team could drive
in and turn around. The height, to the top of the dome
was one hundred feet.
To quote an authority, Dr. Edwin Atlee Barber: "He
secured skilled workmen from the best factories of Europe,
and the wares produced after the most approved methods
of the period, found their way into the homes of the well-
to-do people of that day, and many examples are still
preserved. Improvements were made in the manufacture
from time to time, as is shown by an original agreement
dated June 4, 1773, in possession of Mr. George H.
126 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Banner of Manheim, between Henry William Stiegel,
owner of the American Flint Glass Manufactory and Laz-
arus Isaac, glass cutter of Philadelphia, described as ' cutter
and flowerer ' who was to receive wages of five pounds ten
shillings a month. By the term Gutter' we do not un-
derstand that this workman actually cut and polished
glass in the modern sense, as no examples of true cut glass
have come to light, which could be attributed to this fac-
tory, but numerous specimens of blown glass, ornamented
with surface etched or engraved designs of tulips and other
floral devices have survived, which were made at these
works. In these pieces the ' cutting ' and * flowering ' have
been done with a wheel or sharp instrument, the strokes
of the hand work being distinctly visible, and entirely dis-
tinct from the frosting produced by means of acids. The
Stiegel glassware was of better quality than any produced
elsewhere in the colonies down to the period when its man-
ufacture ceased. A considerable quantity of glass must
have been produced, as many identified pieces are to be
found in the possession of collectors. Mr. Robert Cole-
man Hemphill of West Chester, Pennsylvania, possesses a
set of the dark blue sugar bowls, which, without their lids,
now serve the purpose of finger bowls. These were made
for his ancestor, Robert Coleman." 1 As a modem touch
one might say that a Stiegel tumbler sold in New York
recently (1913) for $21 and a Stiegel mug for $19. A
number of letters of Stiegel's to John Dickinson (evidently
his creditor, but, as evidently, a kindly one), are among
the Logan Papers in the Historical Society of Pennsyl-
vania. The following letter is inserted, to show his pleas-
ure and interest in his newest venture, the Glass Works,
and his amazingly care-free outlook, even when telling Mr.
1 Bulletin of Pennsylvania Museum, January, 1906.
Stove door plate, cast at Elizabeth Furnace. Owned by the Pennsylvania
Museum in Memorial Hall.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 127
Dickinson to sell the iron works, on which the latter prob-
ably had a mortgage with Daniel Benezet.
"ELIZABETH FURNACE, June 24 th 1771
"Your favour of the ist instant I Received and am
obliged to you, I make no Doubt but you Recomand and
Encourage the Manufactory all you can as an undertaking
so advantageous to the Good of the province and Country
I now go on with great perfection in that Art so that
Alexand 1 ". Bartram who was here and Viewed the same
aknowledged that it was equal with any that ever he saw
from Great Brittain and Agreed with me for a large Quan-
tity with a resolution to stop his importation and Take all
from me. Concerning the works they are too High and
no body at present times will give near the price for them,
if you can sell them, I have no objection, any thing I can
serve you In you will freely command Mrs Stiegel joins
me in our best Compliments to you and Spouse and am
" Your most Humble Servant
"HENRY W. STIEGEL."
" To John Dickinson Esq*-" 1
The care-free days were nearly over, however. His
reputation as a rich iron-master was a soon pricked bubble.
Daniel Benezet held a mortgage for 3,000 on Stiegel]s
share of Elizabeth Furnace, from 1768; and in 1770 his
entire Manheim estate was mortgaged to Isaac Cox for
He was active in getting up a Lottery in 1765 for the
benefit of the Pennsylvania German Society, and in 1773,
one seems to have been opened to which his own name was
attached, and which was for the benefit of his private un-
dertakings. There is a Broadside in the Historical Soci-
ety's Collections, running thus :
1 Logan Papers, Vol. 38^ no. 87-, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
128 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
"WRIT OF LEVARI FACIAS
" 1/3 part of Elizabeth Furnace seized and taken in Ex-
ecution of the above writ, being late the property of H. W.
Stiegel ; to be sold by
"August I3th, 1774"
It is useless to detail the business embarrassments which
were now overwhelming him. From his letters one
gathers that among his creditors, Daniel Benezet and John
Dickinson treated him with great consideration and for-
bearance. Others were not so forbearing, and in the
autumn of 1774 he was arrested for debt, and lodged in
jail. He was liberated by special act of Legislature passed
December 24, 1774. Under the title Warrants to affix the
Great Seal we find the following :
"To Edmund Physick, Keeper of the Great Seal of
Pennsylvania, 28 April 1775. These are to authorize and
require you to affix the Great Seal to .... an act for the
relief of Henry William Stiegel, a languishing prisoner in
the Gaol of Philadelphia County, with respect to the im-
prisonment of his person.
"Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Province
of Pennsylvania." 1
Just why four months should elapse between passing the
Act which promptly liberated the prisoner, and the affix-
ing of the Great Seal, is a question.
Early in 1777 great anxiety was felt in Philadelphia as
to the possible approach of the British forces, and on April
14 Mrs. Robert Morris wrote to her mother, Mrs. Thomas
1 Manuscript Collections, Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Residence of Robert Coleman, Elizabeth Furnace.
A corner of the Coleman garden, Elizabeth Furnace.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 129
"We are preparing for another flight, in packing up
our furniture and removing them to a new purchase Mr.
Morris has made 10 miles from Lancaster no other than
the famous house that belonged to Stedman and Stiegel at
the Iron Works, where you know, I spent six weeks ; so am
perfectly well acquainted with the goodness of the house
and the situation. The reason Mr. Morris made this pur-
chase, he looks upon the other not secure if they come by
water. I think myself very lucky in having this asylum it
being but eight miles, fine road, from Lancaster, where I
expect Mr. Morris will be if he quits this, besides many of
my friends and acquaintances. So I will now solicit the
pleasure of your company at this once famous place, in-
stead of Mennet, where perhaps we may yet trace some
vestages of the late owner's folly and may prove a useful
lesson to his successors." 1
In a private record, Mr. Robert Coleman, of Lebanon,
" In the year 1776, possessed of but a small capital, and
recently married, I took a lease for the Elizabeth Furnace
estate for the term of seven years, not anticipating at that
time that before the expiration of the lease I should have it
in my power to become owner in fee simple of the whole or
a greater part of the estate. Success however crowned my
endeavors. A new and regular system was adopted, by
which the business of ironwork was made to resemble more
a well-conducted manufactory than the scenes of confusion
and disorder which had before that time prevailed in that
business. During the continuance of the lease I made
several purchases of lands contiguous to the estate, and in
the year 1780 I purchased from John Dickinson, Esq. the
one undivided third part of the Elizabeth Furnace and
lands thereunto belonging, he having before that time be-
come the owner of all the estate and interest which Alex-
ander Stedman held in the same. In the year 1784 I pur-
chased out Mr. Charles Stedman, who also held an undi-
vided third part of the estate. The remaining third part
of the original estate was not purchased by me from Daniel
1 Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, I, p. 225.
130 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Benezet until the year 1794, he either not being inclined to
sell or asking more than I thought it expedient to give." 1
Having been placed by Robert Coleman at Elizabeth
Furnace as foreman, Stiegel wrote to Jasper Yeates of his
precarious position, and soon after, large orders were re-
ceived from the government for shot and shell. In the
spring of 1777 the furnace became overtaxed and he sug-
gested to the authorities that more power could be had by
conducting the water from Saw Hole around the base of
Cannon Hill to Furnace Run. The government sent him
about two hundred Hessian prisoners, taken at Trenton,
to dig this canal, over a mile in length. Many of the
Hessians remained and became good citizens; it is just
possible that they may have been induced by the offer of
Congress of 29 April, 1778, under which "50 acres of
land were granted to any private soldier who deserted
from a foreign regiment in British pay. The execution
of this project was confided to Benjamin Franklin, who
speedily had the eloquence of Congress translated into
very plain and intelligible German, and printed inside the
covers of parcels of tobacco made up in imitation of those
which were sold across the counters of a rural store.
Franklin contrived that a number of these packages should
fall into the hands of General Von Hiester's foragers, and
the event showed that many a Hessian grenadier, as he
ruminated over his pipe, had dwelt lovingly on the tempt-
ing offer which he found within the wrappers." 2 In pay-
ment for the work done at the furnace for the govern-
ment, Hessian prisoners were sent there. In the Pig
Iron Book, under date of August 14, the management
is credited to twenty- two prisoners, six months, twenty-
four and one-half days at eight shillings per week, and
four prisoners at forty-five shillings per month.
1 Iron making in Pennsylvania, by James Swank.
2 The American Revolution, Sir George Otto Trevelyan, III, p. 29.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 131
Stiegel left Elizabeth finally in 1778, and shortly after,
his connection with iron making ended. Few and evil, from
a worldly point of view, were his last years. His nephew,
George Ege, had been the owner of Charming Forge since
1774. Stiegel seems to have found work and a home
there, as book-keeper. Later, for a while, he tried to
support himself and his wife by teaching school. His
former workmen did all they could; they cared much for
him, and sent their children to be taught. He struggled
manfully against poverty and disaster, until the death of
his wife; he seems, then, to have gone back to Charming
to die. The end came in 1783, when he was nearly fifty-
four years old.
In 1776 Robert Coleman's residence at Elizabeth Fur-
nace began. His patriotism has been spoken of else-
where. 1 Of thd other aspects of his life there, the verse
"Not slothful in business, fervent in spirit" might be
quoted as a condensed description. A Sunday School was
kept up there for the children on the place : when no clergy-
man was available, Mr. Coleman read the service. When
a visiting clergyman arrived, he had a hearty welcome
(a shade less warm perhaps, if he happened to have Tory
leanings) and immediately the unbaptized children on the
place, whether Mr. Coleman's or those of his workmen,
were summoned to be christened. When the reverend vis-
itor left Elizabeth his usually lean pocket book was com-
fortably filled and he was sent on his way rejoicing.
Robert Coleman had the honor and pleasure of enter-
taining Washington there, as friend and guest, and at the
request of his host, Washington, later, sat for a portrait
to Gilbert Stuart, which is now owned by Mr. B. Dawson
Coleman. On retiring from business, in 1809, Mr.
Coleman, with his family, removed to Lancaster, where for
1 See Cornwall Furnace and Salford Forge.
132 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
years his house was a centre for the social life of the time.
It was probably a matter of the slightest moment to him,
that he was a handsome man, with the Irish beauty of
blue eyes, dark lashes and hair, which some of his children
inherited. There are many traditions yet told over Lan-
caster tea cups, of the lovely Coleman sisters, Robert's
daughters, two of whom died young. It is said, one can-
not say how truly, that the Rev. William A. Muhlenberg
later the founder of St. Luke's Hospital, New York, who
was engaged to Sarah Coleman, threw into her grave the
engagement ring and the rough copy of a hymn he had
just written, " I would not live alway."
In these days, when people are so afraid to take stands,
or make public their religious beliefs and practices, it is
well to remember that our grandmothers were not. Robert
Coleman and his wife, Anne, were very religious and not
ashamed of their religion. They were liberal supporters
and devoted parishioners of St. James' parish. As there
were no bishops of the Episcopal Church until after the
Revolution, Anne had never been confirmed. The first
time a bishop came to St. James', Lancaster, she said she
wished to be confirmed. The bishop suggested a private
service for her; but she would have none of it. So at
eighty years of age, she, who had been a communicant and
leading parishioner for years, came up with all her children
to receive the grace of confirmation. 1 Robert Coleman's
active and beneficent life ended on the fourteenth of August
1825. He is buried in St. James' Churchyard, Lancaster.
Elizabeth Furnace was in almost continuance operation,
until 1856, when it was abandoned. The property is still
in the possession of the Coleman family.
Augusta M. Longacre.
1 Notes furnished by Mrs. Horace Brock, great-granddaughter of Robert
Ten Plate Stove cast at Hereford Furnace, 1768, by Thomas Maybury.
Owned by Col. Henry D. Paxson.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 133
HEREFORD FURNACE. 175
For this paper we wish to give full credit to Mr. H.
Winslow Fegley, of Reading, from whose article, "Old
Charcoal Furnaces in Eastern Berks County," it is taken.
"The first map made of Hereford township is in exist-
ence, the property of Horatio K. Schultz. It was made
by David Schultz ( 17 17-1797) , an able colonist, surveyor,
Hereford Furnace stood on the west bank of the west
branch of Perkiomen Creek. It was in blast in 1753, and
stoves were cast there as late as 1767. Of Thomas May-
bury's early history little is known. 1 The first settlers of
Hereford of whom we have a record are mentioned in
Rupp's History as settling here as early as 1732, being
the time when the Schwenkf elders the pilgrims of the
Perkiomen Valley arrived from Europe. Maybury was
a power in the neighborhood and, at one time, a rich man,
employing fifty to one hundred men. Some of them were
wood choppers, who got from thirty to fifty cents a cord for
cutting. Then came the teamsters, who, with either a pair
of mules or a yoke of oxen hauled the logs together.
Each boasted as to his ability to drive a mule through the
cutting over stumps and stones to the coal hearth without
upsetting his load. Some of the haulers used a horse and
sled, the runners of which were well greased with bacon
so as to slide the load over the small stones and brush, to
The charcoal burners always travelled in pairs, and as the
1 See Green Lane Forge.
134 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
charring needed constant watching, they were obliged to
remain with the burning heap. While one was on active
duty for twelve hours his partner was in the hut, sleeping.
These huts were made of saplings and the interstices filled
with leaves and earth. In such huts they spent many days.
Their bill of fare was not elaborate. It consisted gen-
erally of breakfast, flitch and potatoes; dinner, potatoes
and flitch, and for supper, meat and potatoes. A stove
was exhibited at the World's Fair Chicago, 1893, which
was three feet long, one foot wide, box shape, with an
oven above. On both sides this inscription is cast : " Here-
ford Furnace, 1767, Thomas Maybury." A placard
below said " The Oldest Cooking Stove in America." It
is owned by the Michigan Stove Company. Besides
stoves, Maybury manufactured everything the earlier
settlers needed. In his palmy days, on his trips to Phil-
adelphia, he would get ten dollar bills changed into small
coin. On returning to the furnace he would call the child-
ren of the workmen together, and, taking one handful of
coin after another, throw them broadcast, much as one
feeds chickens. In this his delight is said to have almost
equalled that of the children. He died poor, after many
years of toil. His bones now rest beneath large trees, just
such trees as he had cut down for his industries and on the
very land where his men burned the charcoal. Although
unmarked, generation after generation respects this ground
as the Maybury burial plot."
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 135
QUITTAPAHILLA FORGE. J 75<>
LANCASTER COUNTY, LATER LEBANON.
This forge, called afterwards Newmarket, was built
about 1750 on land taken up on a warrant granted to
Gerrard Etter, a German, December 16, 1747. It was
owned and partially operated by him and his son, until
1793) when it was sold to Adam Orth.
Leased by James Old in 1767, it was operated by him
for several years, and is chiefly noted in these days as a
place where Robert Coleman learned much of the mys-
tery of iron making, and also where he probably first met
Anne Old, who later became his wife.
MARIA FORGE. 175*
Little is known of this forge beyond the name, and the
fact that it was situated on Poco Creek near Weissport. A
blast furnace was built later, which was finally abandoned
in 1861. The owner, Rev. George Michael Weiss or
Weitzius, was a native of the Palatinate on the Rhine.
Coming to America in 1727, he settled at Skippack, Mont-
gomery county, and seems to have been interested in both
iron making and the cure of souls, as he had charge of
various Reformed congregations in Pennsylvania and New
York. He died about 1763, and is buried in the church at
New Goshenhoppen. On his tomb are these words :
" Hier ruhet der Ehr
Herr Weiss!" 1
!Life of Rev. Wra. Smith, p. 89.
136 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
I7S i MARTIC FORGE AND FURNACE.
On Furnace Run, a small branch of Pequea Creek which
runs into the Susquehanna, near the village of Coleman-
ville, in Lancaster county, may be seen to-day an old cinder
heap. Inquisitive minds questioning the placing of the
cinders there, will find that this is all that remains of the
old furnace with the odd name " Martic."
It was originally called Martock, for a village of that
name in Martock hundred, Somerset, England, evidently
named by an early settler, with the feeling of the immigrant
for the old country. "The name is said to be derived
from mart and oak, from the fact of the market having
formerly been held under an oak tree in the old English
town, the site of which tree is now occupied by an elegant
fluted column." 1
Martic Furnace was built in 1751 and 1752. It was
built and run by the brothers, Thomas and William Smith. 2
In 1752, Thomas was sheriff of the county and in 1769
he was put in jail for debt. Edward Shippen writes
" Tom Smith, the Sheriff, was almost ruined by the office " ;
those holding such an office to-day seldom have this ex-
In the same year, 1769, Martic Furnace and Forge were
sold by the sheriff, the advertisement reading thus :
" By virtue of a writ to me directed, will be exposed to
sale by public vendue, on the 30 day of January inst., at
10 o'clock in the morning at Martic Furnace in Lancaster
1 Lewis's Topographical Dictionary of England.
2 History of Lancaster County, by Ellis and Evans. See Chain of Title
Stoveplate, Martic Furnace. Owned by Mrs. A. J. Steinman, Lancaster.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 137
County, the said furnace and forge, together with upwards
of 3,400 acres of land thereunto belonging. The improve-
ments at both furnace and forge are very good, viz. : At
the furnace, a good dwelling house, stores, and compting
house, a large coal house, with eight dwelling houses for
labourers, a good gristmill, Smith's and Carpenter's shops,
6 good log stables, with 4 bays for hay, a number of pot
patterns, and some flasks for ditto ; stove moulds, &c., &c.,
a good mine bank abounding with plenty of ore, so con-
venient that one team can haul three loads a day; about
15 acres of good watered meadow, and as much adjoining
may be made : The Forge is about 4 miles distant, now in
good order, with four fires, two hammers, and very good
wooden bellows, a dwelling-house, store and compting
house, with six dwelling houses for the labourers, two very
good coal houses, large enough to contain six months' stock,
three stables, Smith's and Carpenter's shops, two acres of
meadow made and about 1,500 cords of wood, but in the
woods at both places; there is plenty of water at said works
in the driest season, and they are situated in a plentiful
part of the country, where they can be supplied with neces-
saries on the lowest terms : And to be sold the same day, a
very good plantation, containing 200 acres of patent land,
clear of quit-rent, adjoining the lands of Benjamin Ashle-
man, the Widow Haiman, and others, in Conestoga town-
ship. Also two slaves, one a Mullatoe man, a good forge
man, and the other a Negro man, and three teams of horses
with waggons and gears &c. All late the property of
Thomas Smith, James Wallace, and James Fulton : seized
and taken in execution, and to be sold by
James Webb, Sheriff."
A glimpse of the tragic and historic side of Martic is
given in the following story related by Ellis and Evans in
their History of Lancaster County.
" In and about Lancaster County, there was a group of
men banded together to drive out the Indians, and under
Capt. Lazerus Stewart, these men,, who were called the
138 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Paxton Boys, in Dec. 1763, started toward Conestoga, an
Indian town, purposing to destroy it and its people.
They did murder six Indians and burned their buildings.
One boy made his escape and gave the alarm at the place
of Capt. Thos. McKee, manager of the ' Indian Farm.'
The same day, Bill Sock, an Indian famous in those parts,
having committed numerous murders and much feared and
hated by his neighbors, went with several other Indians to
sell baskets and brooms at the Iron Works of Thomas
Smith, (Mar tic Furnace.) When Sock and those who
accompanied him did not return, other Indians who lived
near Harrisburg Turnpike became much alarmed and
decided to go to Lancaster here they were put in the
work-house for safety The work-house was attached to
the jail. The Paxton Boys had murdered the others and
Herr, who resided in the Manor House, brought news of
the dreadful massacre. On Dec. 27, 1763, Sheriff Hay
wrote Gov. John Penn that fifty or sixty Indians had been
killed by the Paxton Boys. This band of men became so
vicious and so vindictive that the Indians were afraid to
hunt and finally were driven out altogether, and the iron-
workers at Martic saw no more of the red men."
The furnace went out of blast during the Revolution, al-
though it was in existence as late as 1793.
The forge in connection with Martic Furnace was
started in I755- 1 In 1760, the whole property was sold
to William and Samuel Webb and Ferguson Mclllvaine.
The latter became manager.
Many times did the property change hands between
1760 and 1883, when it was last in operation.
Robert S. Potts, who died in 1886, the last owner of the
" There used to be a small rolling mill near the Forge
that stopped running some fifty years ago. There was also
a charcoal furnace called Martic Six miles east of the
1 Swank, Progressive Pennsylvania, p. 187.
Complete Fiveplate Stove, 1760. Martic Furnace. Owned by Col.
Henry D. Paxson.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 139
Forge, but I have been unable to ascertain its history be-
yond the fact that it was owned and operated by the
Martic Forge Company; when that was, however, or how
long it was in blast, I can not learn. The old cinder bank
is still visible. During the Revolution round iron was
drawn under the hammer at the forge and bored out for
musket barrels at a boring mill, in a private road, doubtless
with a view to prevent discovery by the enemy."
One thing more told by Robert S. Potts is that negro
slaves were employed at Martic from the very beginning,
and it is interesting to know that until it ceased operation
in 1883, negroes continued to be the chief workmen. A
long row of stone houses was occupied by these men.
Through the interest and courtesy of Col. Henry D.
Paxson we are able to give a complete Chain of Title of
CHAIN OF TITLE OF MARTIC FORGE.
6th Sept'r James Webb, Esq., Sheriff, sold Furnace and
Forge and 3404 acres of land in Martic
Township to Ferguson Mcllvaine, as the
property of Thos. Smith & Co.
1 2th Sept'r Ferguson Mcllvaine sold Furnace and Forge
to Adam Hoopes.
2nd June. Adam Hoopes and wife conveyed Furnace
and Forge to John Malcolm, George Mun-
roe, Samuel Patterson and John McCalmont,
to each one-fourth.
25th May. John Malcolm and others sold the one-eighth
part of Martic Forge and 1275 acres of land
to Joseph Musgrave.
22nd June. John Malcolm and others sold the one-fourth
part of Martic Forge, &c., to John Fox and
140 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Daniel Longstreth, in trust, for William Juto,
Robert Harris, James Haldane, William
Hazlewood, Nicholas Barnard, Stacy Ne-
pham, Peter Sutter, James Fulton, Alexander
Graham, John Kidd, Peter Young, Anthony
Yeldale, James Bernwick, James Longhead,
John Clark, Zachariah Nieman, Robert
Graves and the said John Fox and Daniel
Longstreth, William Hazlewood, Peter Sutter
and Alexander Graham each to have one-
thirty-five part, the rest to have two-thirty-five
1 8th Feb'y John Malcolm and others sold one-fourth part
of Martic Forge, &c., to William Montgomery
and Matthew Wilkin to each a moiety of
the fourth part.
do. John Malcolm and others sold one-eighth part
of Martic Forge, &c., to Michael Hillegas.
23d Feb'y. John Malcolm and others sold one-eighth part
of Martic Forge, &c., to John Welsh.
28th Sept'r Matthew Wilkin sold a moiety of one fourth
part of Martic Forge, &c., to William Mont-
gomery, who then held one-fourth part of the
8th Dec'r. William Montgomery sold his one-fourth part
of the Forge and lands to Michael Hillegas.
5th Sept'r. Joseph Musgrave and wife sold his one-eighth
part of Martic Forge, &c., to Michael Hille-
In the preceding conveyances to Michael Hil-
legas, the one undivided fourth part of Martic
equal to six-twenty-fourths, purchased from
William Montgomery; the one-eighth part,
equal to three-twenty-fourths, purchased from
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 141
Joseph Musgrave: and the one-fourth part,
equal to six-twenty-fourths, purchased from
James Fulton and others, amounting in the
whole to fifteen-twenty-fourth parts, were
purchased by the said Michael Hillegas in
partnership with Matthias Slough and George
Ege, tho' the Deeds were in the name of M.
Hillegas alone. These are only conveyances
for twenty-one thirty-five parts of the fourth
purchased from James Fulton and others the
remaining fourteen-thirty-five parts being
claimed or released.
26th June. Geo. Ege conveyed his interest, amounting to
five-twenty-fourth parts, to Matthias Slough,
who then held ten twenty-fourth-parts.
27th Sept'r. Michael Hillegas conveyed to Richard Foot-
man and others, surviving assignees of Mat-
thias Slough, then a Bankrupt, the interest
which Matthias Slough owned in the works
and the title to which was in his own name, as
well as Mr. Ege's share, which had previously
been sold by him to Slough, amounting in the
whole to ten twenty-fourth parts of the Forge,
nth March. Richard Footman and others, surviving
assignees of Matthias Slough, sold his share in
the estate (viz: ten-twenty-fourth parts
thereof to Geo. Ege) .
1 3th March. Michael Hillegas sold to Robert Coleman
and George Ege the one-eighth part, equal to
three-twenty-fourths, purchased from John
Malcolm and others, and his third part of
fifteen twenty-fourths, equal to five twenty-
fourths, which he held in partnership with
Matthias Slough and Geo. Ege, the whole
amounting to eight-twenty-fourth-parts.
142 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
3Oth Sept. John Miller, Sheriff, sold the one-eighth part
of Martic Forge and land, to Robert Cole-
man and Geo. Ege, late the property of John
8th July. Geo. Ege sold to Robt. Coleman his one-half
of all the Martic Lands purchased and held
by Robt. Coleman and Geo. Ege in Company
or granted and conveyed to them in Fee as
tenants in common purchase money 2500.
Same day. Geo. Ege sold to Robt. Coleman all the share
and interest in the Martic property which for-
merly belonged to Matthias Slough and which
he purchased from his assignees considera-
3Oth Jany. Robt. Coleman his one undivided half part of
Forge and lands to Edward Brien for 6500.
One does not easily fathom the motives and intentions of
those who preceded us in Pennsylvania by a century or so,
but to a casual reader of the names of purchasers of Martic
on June 22, 1772, in the foregoing Chain of Title, it seems
as if taking a " share " in an iron property had been a rather
popular kind of speculation. Reading further on, we find
a name, known to students of American History, but not so
familiar as it should be in our own state. Michael Hillegas
was a Philadelphian who, distinguished early for his per-
sonal gifts, his success as a merchant, and his philanthropy,
became later the first Continental Treasurer (in 1775).
In 1777 he was appointed the first Treasurer of the United
States, 1 and continued in that responsible office until 1789.
Mabel Rogers Balrd.
1 Journals of Congress, III, 301.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 143
POTTSGROVE FORGE. **-
PHILADELPHIA COUNTY, NOW MONTGOMERY. I 7S 2
This ancient forge takes its name from the Potts family,
whose annals might almost be said to cover the history of
the iron industry in eastern Pennsylvania. The name is
connected with the first furnace erected by the earliest
settlers under William Penn, and in continuous line they
followed the manufacture of iron, until the annual output
of their industries was reckoned in the millions.
The German colonists, under their leader Pastorius,
must be credited with the enterprise which first opened up
the rich iron deposits of eastern Pennsylvania. Letters of
William Penn, written to James Logan early in 1700, refer
often to the iron mines in the Schuylkill region, and express
a great desire to have them opened, but it was not until
1716 or 1717 that Thomas Rutter, a man of much ability,
who had succeeded Pastorius as chief magistrate, left the
German settlement and went to the banks of the Man-
atawny, a stream which joins the Schuylkill about thirty-
five miles above Philadelphia.
In the Germantown colony was a family by the name
of Potts recently come from Wales. Their little son,
Thomas, though born across the ocean, was brought up
among these Germans who had transplanted a bit of the
fatherland to this country. Their language was to him
like his native tongue, and his marriage at the age of
nineteen to Martha Keurlis (Kerlin), a member of one of
the twelve families who came with Pastorius to America,
allied him still closer to their interests. He was educated
as a Quaker and from the record of his marriage it would
144 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
appear that both he and his bride were members of meet-
ing. We know that his uncle, Thomas Potts, senior, was
an active Friend, and that Peter Keurlis was nominally one,
and that the young people conformed to Friends' custom.
They passed, as it is called, two meetings, and at a monthly
meeting at Abington, third month, 1699, were formally
joined " in the unity of Friends."
After he married, young Thomas held several posts of
honor in the settlement. The German tongue was uni-
versally used, and yet the presence of English Quakers
made it important to have officials who could speak both
languages. He was influential with both parties, and lived
happily in or near Germantown, until the death of his wife,
which took place about 1716. It was probably while his
family was broken up by this affliction that he was induced
by Thomas Rutter to emigrate to the M ana tawny. Here
he purchased lands married a second time (Magdelen
Robeson) about 1718, and, after the death of Rutter,
became the principal owner and manager of the iron works
on the M ana tawny.
History gives us only the merest glimpses of the exist-
ence of this early forge; the " Potts Memorial" says: "A
large tract of land was owned by the family, and it is be-
lieved that here they had early a forge or furnace, some
remains of which a local antiquary said he had seen near
the river." Andrew Robeson, whose sister was the second
wife of Thomas Potts, wills to his son in 1719, "that
Foundement and the house where John Owen lives " the
word foundement being an obsolete word for foundry. It
was rebuilt in 1752, by John Potts the great proprietor
(son of Thomas Potts, Junior). Confirmation of this is
to be found in the following entry in the old Day Book of
the Potts Iron Works. 1
1 Now in possession of Ex-Governor Pennypacker.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 145
"March 1759 Credit Henry Read hauling one day
with his team at the new Forge los."
And that it was in use contemporaneously with the larger
enterprises of the Valley, Warwick and Pine forges, is
shown by this record,
" April 3rd 1758.
Credit Martin Glass for sundry work
86% days at Pottsgrove
2iy 2 " " Warwick
117% " " the Valley
Making four Racks
a garden at Pine "
Another entry Jan. 1758
" Smith Shop Dr. to Bar Iron L S d"
made and drawn at Pottsgrove 112
" Sundry accounts Dr. to Michael Paul
Mt Joy Forge for hauling 1 8 tons Pigg Iron
Pottsgrove Forge for hauling 2 tons Pigg Iron "
The old forge did not fade from memory, even when its
usefulness was passed for it gave its name to the district
at the confluence of the Schuylkill and the Manatawny, and
the town laid out there by John Potts in 1752 was called
Pottsgrove. 1 This town was! laid out after the manner
of Germantown in one long street a hundred feet wide,
called after the English custom, High Street. The lots
were sixty feet in front, extending back three hundred feet
At the end nearest the river was the mansion of the
founder, looking down upon the town. The houses
1 Afterwards changed to Pottstown.
146 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
erected by himself and his sons were large stone buildings,
intended to serve many generations. John Potts 7 son
Thomas, at his father's request, occupied the mansion, and
was living there in 1774. No doubt during the years of
the Revolution Washington was often his guest, and it was
here perhaps that the great Commander formed the plan
to winter his army at Valley Forge on the property of
Thomas's brothers and cousins who seem to have willingly
relinguished their houses to accommodate the general and
his officers. 1
A granite tablet has been recently erected by the Mont-
gomery County Historical Society (1913) to commemo-
rate the Continental Army's stay at Camp Pottsgrove in
1777. The tablet erected reads thus:
" Camp Pottsgrove. General Washington's Continen-
tal Army occupied this and adjoining farms September 18
to 26, 1777. The outposts were at Washington Hill,
Pottstown, Jackson Hill, near Sanatoga ; Swamp-door, east
of Fagleysville. Washington's headquarters with Colonel
Frederick Antes and Samuel Bertolet, Frederick, Pa.
Erected by the Historical Society of Montgomery County,
Mary E< Mumford.
*Mrs. James' Memorial.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 147
OFFLEY'S ANCHOR FORGE. *754
In the middle of the eighteenth century there appear to
have been three "iron works" in the city proper of Phil-
adelphia. Two of these were the steel furnaces of Paschal
and Branson. The third was an important and conspic-
uous feature of the iron industry of the town, and was
known far and wide as the "Anchor Forge" of Daniel
Offley, who manufactured anchors for a thriving maritime
trade, and who was succeeded by his son, the famous
Quaker preacher of the same name.
Daniel Offley (1724-1789) established this business on
the Front Street bank of the Delaware River, opposite
Union Street, about 1750-55. His father, Caleb Offley,
of Duck Creek, Newcastle County, was the son of Michael
Offley, who in 1687 took patent of the Duke of York to a
tract of land in the Lower Counties, which he called " High
Offley." Except for two years, 1848-50, this estate has
remained in the possession of the family, the present owner
being John S. Stockley, Esq., whose mother was Margaret
Daniel Offley, Jr., the noted Quaker preacher, was prob-
ably early trained in his father's business, the making of
anchors, many being made by them for the use of the
government. Daniel, Jr., and his brother Caleb signed
the " Remonstrance " to the Governor's Council presented
1 See Family Chart of Michael Offley, in Mss. at the Historical Society
of Pennsylvania. This chart was prepared by Mr. Richard P. Tatum, to
whose courtesy the writer is indebted for the genealogical material here
148 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
by the Friends, September 6, 1777, against depriving cer-
tain of their fellow-citizens of their liberty, and sending
them unheard into exile. 1 On July 4, 1789, Daniel Offley,
Jr., Caleb Offley and Henry Shaw were imprisoned by
Captain John McCalla for a refusal to pay the militia tax.
Caleb was discharged a few days later, but Daniel re-
mained in prison for over a month, when Captain Mc-
Calla, on August 9, went to the prison between eight and
nine at night and discharged him without demanding either
fee or fine.
The personal appearance of the Quaker ironmaster must
have been striking. Several traditions unite in describing
him as a handsome, powerfully built, blond man, with
regular features and muscular body, strong and broad-
shouldered, five feet ten inches in height. His voice was
noted for its quality and power. It rose above all the din
when the iron rang upon the anvil; and when speaking
under deep emotion, the rich melodious tones in which his
sermons were delivered lent great impressiveness to his
Speaking of the forge, John F. Watson remembered
"looking through the Front Street low windows down
into the smoking cavern below, fronting on Penn Street,
where, through the thick sulphurous smoke, aided by the
glare of light from the forge, might be seen Daniel Offley,
directing the strokes of a dozen hammer-men, striking with
sledges on a welding heat produced on an immense un-
finished anchor, swinging from the forge to the anvil by
a ponderous crane, he at the same time keeping his pierc-
ing iron voice above the din of the iron sound." 2 Watson
1 Gilpin's Exiles in Virginia.
2 John Fanning Watson, Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania, I,
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 149
quotes, with no clue to the author, the following lines
written upon Offley at his forge:
"The high sun sees not on the earth such fiery, fearful show;
The roof-ribs swarth, the candent hearth, the ruddy, lurid row
Of smiths that stand, an ardent band, like men before the foe,
As, quivering through his fleece of flame, the sailing monster, slow
Sinks on the anvil ; all about, the faces fiery glow ;
' Hurrah ! ' they shout, ' leap out, leap out ! ' bang, bang, the sledges go !
A hailing fount of fire is struck at every squashing blow,
While Offley sternly cries, ' Strike ! Strike ! while yet our heats do glow.' "
Daniel Offley was a well-known minister among the
Friends. In 1783, in company with George Dillwyn, he
traveled through New England, and through the neigh-
boring states of Virginia, New York and New Jersey,
with the endorsement of his own meeting. In November,
1786, he went with Samuel Emlen to the Barbadoes, where
they found all the five Quaker meeting houses destroyed
by a recent hurricane, but were aided in their attempt to
hold public meetings by the kind attentions of the governor.
The ship they made the voyage in was the Cyrus of White
Haven. Before returning, Daniel Offley included in his
ministerial visits Antigua, Tortola and Santa Cruz.
The yellow fever appeared in Philadelphia in August
1793, and by the end of that month its spread had become
so rapid and so fatal, that most of the well-to-do citizens
left for the country. Certain persons, however, volun-
teered to assist the guardians of the poor, whose hands
were too full to care for all the destitute. Daniel Offley
was not at first one of these, but at the end of a few days
he joined the faithful band. Very soon he devoted every
moment of his time to attendance on the sick and the
dying. On September 17, he called on Miss Sarah Rod-
man, of Newport, Rhode Island, who was near her end,
and on the twenty-fifth he comforted her sister, Hannah
150 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Fisher, with the remark, "She is the Lord's: let Him
take her." He watched her breathe her last next day, and
assisted at the interment which followed a few hours later.
There are horrors of that period in Philadelphia yet
unwritten, when so many died quite unattended. Wives
fled from husbands on their deathbeds, and husbands
abandoned wives; parents left their dying children, and
children neglected aged parents in distress. The cour-
age of those who remained in the plague-smitten city may
be imagined, when the bells were finally forbidden to toll
their ceaseless lament, and great composure was needed
merely to walk down the street, where the sick-cart and
the hearse were met at every hand. Daniel Offley joined
Doctor Wistar, and these two were together faithful at-
tendants on the victims, until the doctor was smitten; he
recovered, and survived for many years. Fatigued by six
weeks of strenuous labor, under such awful circumstances,
Daniel Offley finally fell ill on the third of October, and
lay, patiently awaiting his expected end. On the seventh
he told his distressed wife that he was comfortable in mind
and ready to go, and on the eleventh, he died at the early
age of thirty-six.
He is said to have made a prophesy regarding the
scourge of which he died, in a letter to Dr. Peter Yarnall
at Concord, Pennsylvania, dated 8mo. 7, 1781. He
wrote: "Oh, Philadelphia! Had the many powerful vis-
itations which have been extended to thee been reached
forth to Sodom and Gomorrah, they would have repented
long ago in dust and ashes. ... It would be no marvel
at} all to me if the Lord's anger should rise yet higher,
and he should pour out the' vials of his wrath upon the
inhabitants of this once favoured city!" 1 Margaret
Morris, the widowed daughter of Dr. Richard Hill, wrote
1 Biographical Sketches and Anecdotes of Friends, pp. 1316^137'.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 15!
to her son, Richard Hill Morris, from Philadelphia, under
date "twelfth of tenth month, 1793, " herself stripped of
her children by the plague, "Last night D. Offley was
carried to the silent grave."
Amelia Mott Gummere.
PETER DICKS' BLOOMARY FORGE. 1755
In starting this forge, about 1755, on a branch of Co-
dorus Creek, Peter Dicks, 1 of Chester County, opened ore
mines along the Southeast slope of the Pigeon Hills near
Hanover. No information seems attainable as to this
enterprise, except that Spring Forge, III, is said to have
taken the place of it, a few years later.
1 Prowell, History of York County.
152 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1755 ROXBOROUGH, LATER BERKSHIRE,
William Bird, an Englishman, built this furnace in Hei-
delberg township just south of Wernersville. Most
authorities give 1760 as the date, but an entry in a ledger
of the New Pine Forges, 1 which were also his enterprises
gives: " Oct. 1756. New Pine Forges to Roxkburry Fur-
nace D r .," which makes 1755 a reasonable inference. Foe
a few years Wm. Bird was sole owner here; he died how-
ever, in 1761, in middle life, like many other early iron-
masters. They worked hard in those days, and lived well,
they hunted, and, at times, drank deep; need this have
shortened their lives?
Sometime in the next year John Patton married the
widow of Mr. Bird, and from that time seems to have
been more or less in authority, although from 1764 George
Ege is said to have carried the furnace on, under a lease
with Mrs, Bird-Patton, until he purchased the property
in 1790. There are ledgers and journals of Berkshire
Furnace in the collections of the Historical Society of
Pennsylvania, from which we give some extracts.
"1767. Nov. 9. Spring Forge, D r .
i o Beef cattle 33-0-0.
Mark Bird n ditto, 33-15-0
1769. John Old, to pigg mettal
Great Spring D r . to P. Herlinger
Spring Forge, D r . to castings
1 Manuscript Collections, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 153
1774. Anthony Rush, work and wages for 15 months &
20% days in the Mine Hole 43-6-3
"April 1774, John Lesher D r . to Pigg Mettle Charm-
ing Forge D r . to Pigg Mettle pr. the Forge Team Mark
Bird Esq. D r . to Pigg Mettle for 3 tons Piggs for John
Old, pr. Furnace Teams sent to the care of Mr. Fricker
in Reading. May 1774, Curtis Grubb D r . to forge cast-
ings sent to Womelsdorf."
There is evidently a close connection with a "Spring"
work of some kind. The "Spring Book" is constantly
alluded to, also a mention of harvest at Great Spring.
" To sundrie in old Spring Book
1776. Sept. Geo. Ege D r . to Pigg Iron delivered this
month, 1 6 tons 112.
1776. Aug. Owen Biddle, D r . for ace*. Committee of
Safety To Cannon Shot, 18 p'd'rs, I2d. 32 d. 24 d.
6 d. 4 d.
1777. March 31. To Cannon Shot sent by Conrad
Wanamaker to Reading."
In 1783 George Ege rendered an account to the " United
States " for shot and shell furnished the government, Nov-
ember 14, 1780, to the value of 2894-11-6.
John Patton in a letter to the Board of War dated
"Berkshire Furnace, 12 Aug. 1780," speaks of it conclu-
sively as "my Furnace." It is said that Ege removed
" Berkshire " to Robesonia, towards 1800. Just when the
change of name occurred it is difficult to determine. In
the Ledgers of New Pine Forges, " Roxkburry " Furnace
is mentioned from 1756 to 1763, possibly later. The led-
gers and journals of Berkshire Furnace run from 1767 on.
Augusta M. Longacre.
154 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1759 HOPEWELL FURNACE.
The early pre-Revolutionary history of the furnace is
somewhat shrouded in obscurity. Tradition gives the date
of 1759 for the building of the furnace and the iron mas-
ter's house. Mr. Swank, in his " Ironmaking," says:
"Hopewell Furnace was built in 1759 by William Bird."
A forge was evidently in operation before the furnace and
we have interesting proof of the early date of the same, as
it is spoken of in the article in this volume entitled New
Pine Forges. In this old record we have account of iron
delivered to Mr. William Bird at Hopewell Forge, from
Warwick Furnace, a near neighbor, in 1744. In 1772,
after the death of Wm. Bird, when his son Mark had ac-
quired the property, we have evidence of a prosperous iron
business by the stoves, cast with much-detailed designs,
and marked with Mark Bird's name. The Revolutionary
spirit is shown in a motto on one of these which reads " Be
Liberty Thine." 1
On Scull's map of 1759, we find the old road running
from Lancaster through what is now Morgantown, and
then down the French Creek Valley to Valley Forge. The
first twenty miles from Lancaster, it is marked " to Wind-
After this is passed it is marked " to Reading Forge."
This was evidently the old highway between the French
Creek Iron Works, both to Lancaster and to Philadelphia.
Hopewell is four miles from this road, and the stoves made
there were transported by wagon from the furnace, not set
up, but in their separate parts, through the neighborhood,
and to Philadelphia. The road is now called the Ridge
Road, before reaching Morgantown, where the old Cones-
1 See Sequence of Franklin Fireplaces.
Hopewell Blast Furnace. Built by William Bird, 1759.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 155
toga Road runs into it, and from there to Lancaster, the
In Irving's Life of Washington, 1 we find an account
of Washington's troops, after the battle of Brandywine,
and before the battle of Germantown, in September, 1777 :
"All day, and for a great part of the night they marched
under a cold and pelting rain, and through deep and miry
roads to the Yellow Springs, thence to French Creek. A
weary march in stormy weather for troops destitute of
every comfort, and nearly a thousand of them actually
barefooted. At Warwick Furnace ammunition and a few
muskets were obtained to aid in disputing the passage
of the Schuylkill, and the advance of the enemy on Phil-
Warwick Furnace is about seven miles from Hopewell,
and at both of these places cannon were cast for the Revo-
lutionary Army, and buried for safe keeping, when the
arrival of the British was feared at the time of their ad-
vance up the Schuylkill River.
"On the 2ist, Sir William Howe made a rapid march
high up the Schuylkill on the road leading to Reading, as
if he intended either to capture the military stores there,
or to turn the right flank of the American Army. Wash-
ington kept pace with him on the opposite side of the river
up to Pottsgrove, about thirty miles from Philadelphia." 2
The iron ore which supplied the furnace was derived
from the Hopewell Mine, nearby. The fuel was charcoal.
Some of the iron from the furnace was worked in forges at
Birdsboro, four miles away. At a later date, we have this
description, taken from a local paper. "The land cdn-
nected with the furnace property was 5,163 acres, prin-
cipally woodland. It was a cold blast one-stack furnace.
Hematite and magnetic ores were used. Fifteen thousand
1 Page 214.
2 Irving's Life of Washington, p. 217.
156 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
cords of wood were consumed annually in creating char-
coal, and 170 men and boys were employed. The dwell-
ers in this little town were iron moulders, furnacemen,
wood cutters, charcoal burners and teamsters. Fifty years
ago the village contained two hundred souls. The making
of pig iron smelted from ore dug in underground mines,
which were scarce two miles away, and converting this iron
into ten-plate stoves was its chief industry. A charcoal
furnace stood almost in the center of the village, at the
foot of the Hopewell hills, and here the raw ores were con-
verted into the, at that time, celebrated Hopewell stoves.
These stoves were used in the kitchen and parlor and
sometimes in the bed room, by rich and poor alike, until
supplanted, some years later, by the cook stove, the range
and the heater. Water from the Hopewell Creek fur-
nished the motive power. A dam was constructed one
quarter of a mile above the furnace, and from there the
water for power purposes was directed into a race, and
carried with slight incline to the big water wheel, with
sufficient force to keep it in motion and drive the machin-
ery of the entire plant."
To revert to the Revolutionary time; we find two
records of supplies forwarded by Mark Bird. 1 On May
1 8, 1776, he addressed a letter to the Committee of Safety
of Philadelphia, in which he made mention of muskets,
etc., as follows:
" If the Committee of Safety will send me the price of
100 muskets and accoutrements, with orders on the Com-
missioners to deliver to me such as they have ready on my
paying what they cost, I am of the opinion in two weeks
after the receipt of their orders and cash, I shall be able to
deliver in Philadelphia the number mentioned. If each
County will do the same, all the troops now in the pay of
the Continent and this Province may be armed in three
1 Montgomery, Berks County in the Revolution.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 157
weeks from this date. I mean Continental troops in the
barracks at Philadelphia. I am convinced you may col-
lect in the different counties one thousand muskets, but
few accoutrements. If you send the cash to the different
counties to some person you can confide in, the arms will be
ready immediately, but till you send the cash to pay the
smiths, they will deny giving up the muskets. They like
to see the cash without having the trouble of going so far
as Philadelphia for it."
Also February 19, 1778, a report was made to the Ex-
ecutive Council that Colonel Mark Bird had sent by water
to Philadelphia one thousand barrels of flour during some
We also have an account in Montgomery's " History of
Berks County" of Mark Bird's embarrassments. The
first mention of Hopewell Furnace is suggested in a mort-
gage dated 1772, made by him to his sister Maria and
brothers William and James, to secure the payment of cer-
tain trust moneys. Becoming subsequently embarrassed
he, in 1785, was first compelled to borrow money (200,-
ooo Spanish milled dollars) from John Nixon, a merchant
of Philadelphia, on a mortgage in which, among other
properties, he describes the Birdsboro Iron Works and
eight thousand acres of land, which included the Hopewell
Furnace property; and then, finding he is insolvent, he, in
1786, transferred the property to Nixon in trust to sell
and satisfy debts, etc. Nixon, accordingly, exposed it to
public sale and in 1788, transferred one-third to Cad-
walader Morris and two-thirds to James Old, both iron
masters. At that time the furnace lands comprised five
thousand one hundred and sixty-three acres. In 1790,
Cadwalader Morris sold his one-third of the premises to
Benjamin Morris, and in 1791, James Old sold his two-
thirds to the same person. In 1793, Benjamin Morris re-
sold the entire furnace property to James Old. After the
158 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
lapse of seven years, Old became embarrassed, and was
forced to yield up his title through the law and the sheriff
to his creditor, Benjamin Morris, who bought it at the
sale. This was in 1800. In August, 1800, Morris sold
it to Daniel Buckley of Lancaster county, Thomas Brooke
of Montgomery county and Matthew Brooke, Jr., of Berks
county for 10,000 pounds. The furnace was rebuilt in
Matthew Brooke died in 1821, after which time the
Hopewell estate was divided, and one-third of the land
was given to Birdsboro. The furnace and surrounding
woodlands, farms, etc., are now the personal property of
Mrs. Edward Brooke of Birdsboro, great-granddaughter
of Thomas Brooke.
Hopewell Furnace to-day is not dismantled, although
idle for many years. The iron master's house is in good
repair, and the village street of iron workers' homes is
much as it must have been in Revolutionary times.
Cornelia L. E. Brooke.
Before SPRING FORGE II.
This forge was situated on Pine Creek, a branch of the
Manatawny, four miles north of Oley Churches in District
Township. "Its history is obscure. In 1760 Rebecca
Potts purchased at sheriff's sale a one-sixth interest in it.
In 1773, her executor sold it and a like interest in six tracts
of land together containing eight hundred and thirty eight
acres to John Old, an iron master of District Township.
In 1778, a part interest passed to Mark Bird." 1
1 M. L. Montgomery, History of Berks County.
The Mansion, Hopewell Furnace.
Village street, with workmen's houses, Hopewell Furnace.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 159
SPEEDWELL FORGE. 177
LANCASTER COUNTY, LATER LEBANON.
On Hammer Creek, a short distance below the Lower
Hopewell Forge, James Old, about 1760, erected this
chafery or bar iron forge, on land bought from David
Caldwell, who had purchased it from Jacob Huber, the
warrantee who had first owned Elizabeth Furnace. The
name of James Old Stands high in the record of the early
iron masters. A native of Wales, he developed rapidly
into a man of enterprise and ambition. He married Mar-
garetta, daughter of Gabriel Davies, and had at least two
noted ironmasters as sons-in-law, Cyrus Jacobs, of Pool
and Spring Forges on Conestoga Creek, and Robert Cole-
man, both having been in his employ. Coleman came to
Speedwell as clerk from Quittapahilla, and made such a
good impression on Old that when the latter removed in
1768 or thereabouts, to Reading Furnace, he took Coleman
with him, and at Reading Furnace, in 1773, Coleman mar-
ried Anne Old. Margaretta Old married Cyrus Jacobs, and
her brother William married Elizabeth, daughter of
Henry Wm. Stiegel, on March 23, 1773; and, in the end-
less sequence of " iron " marriages, William's son Joseph
married later Rebecca, the only daughter of George Ege.
James Old was a member of the Legislature in 1791-92-
93. His son William seems to have inherited Speedwell
and to have lived here. We have the testimony of Haz-
ard's Register that " the Olds were known as industrious,
punctual and prudent ironmasters."
160 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1761 MARY ANN FURNACE.
Three noted men, patriots and statesmen, were interested
in the building and early running of this, the first blast
furnace west of the Susquehanna, George Ross the
Signer, George Stevenson, one of the first lawyers in York
county, and William Thompson, Stevenson's brother-in-
law, later distinguished as a general in the Revolution.
From an entry in a "Mary Ann Wast Book, No. i. Jan.
1762 J>1 to the effect that "Cash was debtor to Messrs.
Stevenson and Ross for 50 rec'd of George Ross last
Dec 1 ". " it is evident that this furnace was established in
The four-acre tract of land on which it was built had
been leased by Ross, probably from John Hunseker, a
German, who had it by grant from the Penns. Furnace
Creek ran through the property which had been named by
William Matthews, the Quaker surveyor, "Friendship."
The title of the furnace " Mary Ann " is said to have been
given by Ross to combine the names of his wife Ann Law-
ler, with that of his mother-in-law, Mary Lawler of Lan-
caster. This is just possible! In 1763, the owners peti-
tioned the York County Court for a road from their " fur-
nace lately built at great expense" to connect with the
road to the Conewago settlement, leading to Baltimore,
and in 1766, they petitioned for another road from their
furnace to the Monocacy Road.
A few entries in the Mary Ann Account Books are of
interest: "March 1762. To Cash Received of George
1 Manuscript Collections, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. l6l
Stevenson Esq r . by William Thompson, L5 " "Feb.
1762. Store D r . to George Stevenson Esq r . for i Hhd
Molasses, 109 gallons, 17. n. 3. To D i Hhd Whis-
key, 99 g 118 12-7-6" There is also an "Account of Sun-
drys in Stock rec'd from George Stevenson Esq r . viz, Jan-
uary 12 1762, i Feather Bed Bolster and Pillows, i
Sute courtains, i new Bed Tick, i Bed quilt, 3 Rugs, I
Bedstead and Cord, i Trunk, i Canister, i Tea pot, 3
stone cups and saucers, 3 axes, i Table cloath."
In combination with the names and date of the Mary
Ann Stove plate, the following entry seems to settle defi-
nitively the fact of Ross, Stevenson and Thompson being
the first owners of this furnace :
" I promise to pay, or cause to be paid to Messrs. Ross,
Stevenson and Thompson, ironmasters in Comp a , the full
sum of Jacob Miller's debt in Their Book at Mary Ann
Furnace, the eighth day of January, 1763. . . . N. B.
This note is on condition that any of the above Comp a does
not take said Miller before he gets to Lancaster.
W M SMITH
Thomas B. Barr "
It is probable that this early partnership was of short
duration; the ledgers preserved at the Historical Society
of Pennsylvania, are naturally not consecutive as to date,
and as George Stevenson removed permanently, in 1765,
to Carlisle, Cumberland county, where he took later an
active interest in iron works, his connection with this fur-
nace had then very likely ended.
On the stove plate made at Mary Ann Furnace in 1763,
the placing of the names of the proprietors is more than
ingenious. The heart and tulip design so evidently be-
loved of the German workman, is there, as well as the
162 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
arch and columns; "Mary Ann Furnace" in the middle
line, is placed correctly. Then begins the trouble to put
Ross, Stevenson and Thompson in the cramped space left.
The result is not exactly happy, but with effort one can
decipher, on the upper line, " George Ross George Stev "
and as "William Thompson" fills the lower line neatly,
the remainder of Stev comes in above, EN and SON on
either side of the conventional tulip.
George Ross (1730-1779), son of George Ross, "the
Rector," of Newcastle, Lower Counties, and Catherine
Van Gezel, was of excellent Scotch stock (the family
traced their descent from the Earls of Ross), a man of
parts, who had had a classical education. He read law
with his half brother John, and was admitted to the Lan-
caster bar in 1750. Marrying in 1751, he rose rapidly in
his profession, which did not prevent an interest in the
making of iron. The records show that he was an iron
master when he died. In 1768 he was chosen a member
of the Assembly of Pennsylvania, and from this time on,
his short life of forty-nine years was crowded with civic
and patriotic duties, while the state and general govern-
ments honored him with many positions of trust. He was
a leader in the Assembly in encouraging measures for the
defense of Pennsylvania against British encroachments.
In 1775, Governor Penn having written a message disap-
proving any protective measures on the part of the colonies,
Mr.; Ross drew up a strong and convincing reply. 1 He
was a steadfast friend of the Indian, serving as Commis-
sioner at Fort Pitt in 1776, a member of the Committee of
Safety for Pennsylvania, Vice-President of the Constitu-
tional Convention, Colonel of the First Battalion of Asso-
ciators for Lancaster county, Member of the Continental
1 From paper by Charles Willson Peale,* read before the Sons of the
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 163
Congress, and as a fitting climax, he signed the Declara-
tion of Independence. He took his seat in Congress on the
twentieth of July, 1776, and he signed his name on the
second of August.
George Ross as a signer did not sit in the Continental
Congress from November 3, 1775, to July 20, 1776, in
which interval the vote of adoption took place. Not alone
from Pennsylvania, but from other colonies as well, dele-
gates who occupied seats on the Fourth of July and voted
for the adoption of the Declaration, ceased to be members
before the second of August, when the signing took place,
while some who were not members on the fourth of July,
became members before the day of signing.
Ill health forced him to retire in January, 1777. On
leaving office the citizens of Lancaster voted him a piece of
silver to cost 150, which he declined to receive. In the
minutes of the Supreme Executive Council, Philadelphia,
March i, 1779, we find:
"Resolved, That the Honorable George Ross, Esquire,
be commissioned Judge of the Admiralty of this State,
under the late Act of Assembly : That this Board highly
approve the firmness and ability he has hitherto shown in
the discharge of his said office."
His house in Lancaster stood on the site of the present
Court House, East King and Duke Streets, and his coun-
try home was a farm in what was then a suburb of Lan-
caster, now a part of the city, and called in his honor, Ross-
mere. He was a Churchman by inheritance, and was
vestryman and warden of St. James' Church, Lancaster,
contributing liberally to its various interests. Genial, kind
and considerate, his sense of humor evidently lightened the
cares of his strenuous life. He died on July 14, 1779.
A Philadelphia newspaper 1 of July 15 has this entry:
1 Pennsylvania Packet, July 15, 1779.
164 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
" Yesterday died at his seat near the city, the Honorable
George Ross, Judge of Admiralty of this state." He was
interred in the church yard of Christ's Church, Philadel-
From the Minutes of the Executive Council, Philadel-
phia, Wednesday, July 14, 1779:
"Information was received of the death of the Hon-
ourable George Ross Esquire, Judge of the Court of Ad-
miralty, and an invitation to his funeral, to-morrow, at
nine o'clock in the forenoon.
"Resolved, That this Board will attend the said funeral,
and proceed from the Council Chamber to the late dwell-
ing house in North St. Hudson's Square." 2
A letter from Edward Burd to Jasper Yeates, July,
1 779, says:
" Poor Mr. Ross is gone at last. I was one of his Car-
riers. He said he was going to a cooler climate, and be-
haved in the same cheerful way at his exit as he did all thro
the different trying scenes of life." 3
George Stevenson, who was born in Ireland, in 1718,
of excellent parentage, had been destined by his fam-
ily to the ministry. He studied at Trinity College, but,
not taking kindly to an ecclesiastical life, he left Ireland
abruptly for America about 1741, where school teaching at
Newcastle, Lower Counties, occupied him for a short time.
He soon found a larger field for his capacities. " It is said
that Thomas Cookson, deputy surveyor of Lancaster
county, who surveyed the York townlands in 1741, never
1 Records of Christ Church.
2 Colonial Records, XII. 46.
3 Burd Papers, p. 112.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 165
returned the survey into office. To supply this deficiency
George Stevenson resurveyed them in December, I742." 1
He is mentioned as a deputy surveyor under Nicholas
He married Jane Geddes, daughter of Henry Geddes,
of Mill Creek Hundred, and moved to York in 1744.
She died before 1748, as Stevenson is mentioned in a deed
recorded at Newcastle in that year, as "George Steven-
son Esq. of York Co. Pa., as guardian of his sons Henry
and George by late wife, Jane Geddes." Some years
after, he married Mary Thompson, widow of Col. Thomas
Many offices and honors in the newly created York
county fell to Stevenson in 1749. He was made justice
of the peace, register of wills, clerk of orphans' court, pro-
thonotary 2 and clerk of quarter sessions, and in the next
year was given a title which is probably unique in this coun-
try, and never used, before or since that of Chief Ranger
of the Province of Pennsylvania. To quote again the
History of York County. 3
" George Stevenson who was so much honored in the
early days of this county, supported an office which is now
unknown to our laws. James Hamilton, deputy Governor
of Pennsylvania, constituted him 7 th January, 1750, Chief
Ranger of and for the Country of York granting * full
power and authority to range, view & inspect all our woods
& lands within the said county & to seize, take up & ap-
propriate to our use all & every such wild colts & young
horses, cattle & swine as shall be found ... not marked,
There is another commission extant beginning " George
1 York County, by Carter and Glossbrenner, p. 37.
2 Commission now owned by his great-granddaughter, Miss Anne Mc-
3 Carter and Glossbrenner, p. 138.
166 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
the Third, etc. etc. to Robert Strettell, William Till, Ben-
jamin Shoemaker, Lawrence Growden, Joseph Turner,
.William Logan, Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, Ben-
jamin Chew and Thomas Cadwallader Esq rs , members of
the Proprietary and Governor's Council, and to Thomas
Armor, John Blackburn, Patrick Watson, George Steven-
son, John Pope, Hance Hamilton, Richard Brown, Hugh
Whiteford, Michael Banner, Martin Eykelburger, Archi-
bald McGrew, David Kirkpatrick and Abraham Noblitt
of the County of York and Province of Pennsylvania,
Esquires, greeting " "which, with many words, goes on
to make the above named, Justices, of the Peace, and of the
County Court of Common Pleas etc., the date being 23 rd
day of April 1761 "and in the first year of our Reign"
It is signed by James Hamilton, and although under
glass, is crumbling.
As his letters in the " Colonial Records " and
" Archives " show, he was active in the troublous times of
1755-6, and was appointed by Sir Jeffrey Amherst, then
Commander-in-Chief of the King's forces in America, on
a commission to audit accounts of Fort Duquesne.
On Scull's map of 1759 " Stevenson's" is just north of
York. Removing about 1765 to Carlisle, he became one
of the leading lawyers there, and was largely interested in
iron-making ventures in the neighborhood, chiefly at Pine
Grove, where, according to the records, he was an owner
for eight or ten years from 1764. He had one son,
George, afterwards so well known for his service during
the Revolution, and as a leading citizen in Pittsburgh and
Wilmington; and three daughters: Nancy, married to
John Holmes of Baltimore; Catherine, married to John
Wilkins of Pittsburgh, and Mary, who became the wife of
Dr. James Armstrong, son of General John Armstrong.
Of Brigadier General Thompson, the third of these
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 167
early partners, our knowledge is limited, but full of inter-
est. Born about 1736, his birthplace is not known. He
owned and lived upon, a farm near Carlisle, on the Con-
odoguinet Creek, and probably belonged by family or
personal ties to the group of Scotch-Irishmen of the better
class, who fought so bravely and persistently as frontiers-
men, for "their hearthstones and their fires" against the
slowly retreating but naturally vindictive Indians. When
twenty years old Thompson served under Colonel John
Armstrong in the noted fight at Kittaning, and in 1758 was
made a Captain of Light Horse. The relations of these
three partners were evidently friendly, as on March 29,
1762, Thompson (then Stevenson's brother-in-law) mar-
ried Catherine Ross, a sister of George Ross.
" In the public library of Carlisle, Cumberland County,
there is hanging upon the wall, the commission issued to
William Thompson on June 25th, 1775, as "Colonel of
the Battalion of Rifle Men Rais'd in the Province of Penn-
sylvania " This was probably the first commission issued
to a Colonel, and was certainly the first one that was issued
and made operative by acceptance. I think that Colonel
Thompson's troops were the first that were mustered in by
order of Congress, and they were the first soldiers to reach
Boston from south of the Hudson River." 1
These riflemen are described by Thatcher as being re
markably stout and hardy men, many six feet in height,
dressed in white frocks or rifle shirts and round hats, and
of great accuracy of aim, striking a mark with certainty at
two hundred yards distance. One company, while on
quick advance fired their balls into a target of seven inches
diameter at a distance of two hundred and fifty yards.
"On the 20th April, 1776, Congress urged Washington
i Letter of the Hon. E. W. Biddle, Carlisle.
168 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
to hurry troops destined for Quebec, and on the 2ist he
despatched four battalions under Thompson of Pennsyl-
vania as Brigadier." Of the Canadian campaign, a for-
lorn hope, indeed, though so bravely contested, no more in-
teresting account can be found than that of Bancroft. For
our purpose, a few words will suffice to tell of the disaster
at Three Rivers :
"As day began to appear (June 8th, 1776) the Ameri-
cans who were marching under the bank of the River were
cannonaded from the ships; undismayed, they took their
way through a thickly wooded swamp, above their knees in
mire and water, and after a most wearisome struggle of
four hours, reached an open piece of ground where they
endeavored to form. Wayne began the attack . . . they
displayed undisputed gallantry, but being outnumbered
more than three to one, were compelled to retire. . . .
Thompson and Irvine, who were separated from the rest
of the party, were betrayed by the Canadians, and taken
The next mention we have is " As prisoners, I3th June,
General Thompson and Mr. Bird ordered on board Blonde
ship of War," and on the twenty-fifth General Thompson
transferred to the Union transport." 2 Although not
regularly exchanged until October 26, 1780, General
Thompson was paroled and allowed to return to his family
in I777- 3 He died at Carlisle September 3rd, 1781 and
is buried in the old graveyard. His widow Catherine
drew a pension from the State. 4
Definite information as to the later proprietors of
" Mary Ann " is to be had in a Day Book for 1773?
1 Bancroft, V, pp. 291-29$.
2 Journal of Colonel William Irvine, of the Sixth.
3 History of Cumberland County, by C. P. Wing, p. Six.
* Colonial Records, XV, p. 286.
5 Manuscript Collections, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 169
L S d.
"March 31. To George Ross, for half 357 10 o34
To George Ege for d
Then in a Day Book, 1774 "George Ross and George
Ege, joint Proprietors." And on March 3ist, 1775,
" George Ege, D r . to George Ross, for i year's rent, Fur-
nace and Forge Lcoo.
L S d.
To George Ross for half the profits 361 5
George Ege for t'other half 361 5 "
According to entries found in these books the relation
between this furnace and Spring Forge on the Codorus,
some miles above York, were close, and possibly the
"Forge" mentioned above was Spring Forge; as in some
books the entries for either are mingled indiscriminately.
For instance, March, 1772, "Spring Forge D r . to John
Like most of the furnaces during the Revolutionary
period " Mary Ann " manufactured cannon balls and grape
shot for our army and navy. Some balls were found on
the farm where the furnace had been. They varied in size
from a minie ball to a four-inch cannon ball. In operation
for over fifty years, and having passed through the own-
erships of John Steinmetz and John Brinton, both of Phil-
adelphia, and finally of David Meyer, these noted iron
works ceased to exist early in the nineteenth century. In
the pits where the charcoal was burned, the soil is yet black
along the hillside, and the race through which the water
passed, is still there.
Caroline Hale Steinman.
Augusta M. Longacre.
1 See Charming Forge.
170 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
About MOSELEM FORGE.
A valuable ore bed called the " Moselem mine " was
known as early as 1750 to the iron workers of the M ana-
tawny region, and contributed of its rich deposits to the
Oley, Spring and other forges.
Finally a forge was erected on Moselem Creek near by,
in the township of Richmond, Berks county. The date
is not known, but it must have been considerably earlier
For we find from the records that in August, 1767,
" Jacob Shoffer of Manatawny, yeoman, for the considera-
tion of five hundred pounds sold one undivided fourth part
of a tract of land containing one hundred and seventy five
acres situate on the Moselem Creek in Richmond township,
also one fourth part of all forges, mills, etc thereon erected,
to Christian Lower of Tulpehocken, a blacksmith." 1
The forge is also referred to in a description of a road
laid out in 1768 leading from the Moselem Forge to Read-
ing. The records of its history are very meagre.
1 History of Berks county, by M. L. Montgomery.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 171
SPRING FORGE III. About
It seems evident that this forge on the Codorus, some
miles above York, was in close relations with the Mary
Ann Furnace, and was probably owned by George Ross,
with or without the other partners. A " Spring Forge" is
frequently mentioned in the Mary Ann Ledgers and account
books and the expression " at the Spring " is used. Entries
in a Mary Ann Ledger run :
" March 1772. Spring Forge to John Giger Dr. 66-1-
Spring Forge to Edward Musgrove Dr. 5-1-4"
Michael Ege, George Ege's brother, afterwards of
note as an iron-master in Cumberland County, worked
here as a youth; and married Dorothea Wolff, of this
neighborhood. One authority says briefly, of this forge,
that it was built to take the place of Peter Dick's bloomary,
and was active many years.
172 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1762 CARLISLE IRON WORKS.
BOILING SPRINGS, CUMBERLAND COUNTY.
An early forge, built probably after 1750, is said to have
preceded this well-known furnace. In 1762, Richard
Peters, of Philadelphia, obtained a patent for three hun-
dred and eighty-eight acres of land called Boiling Spring,
and immediately executed a deed to John S. Rigby and
Company for twenty-nine acres "on which they had al-
ready commenced the erection of a blast furnace." At the
same time they bought two ore banks at the foot of South
Mountain, and shortly after added sixteen hundred and
fourteen acres of land, so situated that they embraced all
the land between these ore banks. These tracts were then
called the Carlisle Iron Works. Shortly after, John Arm-
strong and Robert Thornburg became part owners, and to
Thornburg's skilled management much of the success of the
works is due. He died in 1774.
As so often happened in Pennsylvania, the iron-making
interest of a father, in this case Anthony Morris, 3rd, 1 the
well-known iron investor, was reproduced here in his sons,
Samuel and John, who with Francis Sanderson and Robert
Thornburg bought this furnace from Rigby in 1764. It is
said that in 1768 Michael Ege, Amos Stilwell and Robert
Thornburg bought out the former owners, and that finally in
1792, Michael Ege became sole owner. 2 Boiling Springs
produced twelve to fifteen tons of metal a week, making as
did most of the early furnaces " loops " and blooms chiefly,
but also stoves, fire backs and hollow ware. The illustra-
1 See Spring Forge and Colebrookdale.
2 Blast Furnaces of Cumberland County, by B. K. Goodyear.
Stoveplate cast at Carlisle Iron Works, 1764. Owned by the Historical
Society of Pennsylvania.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 173
tion, a stove plate, shows the usual irregular and quaint
style of inscription of the travelling German workman, and
may be deciphered thus :
Mr. Thornburgh, A for Armstrong. M for Morris,
and Seandson for Sanderson. It looks as if Thornburg
and Sanderson loomed larger in the minds of the workmen
than did either Armstrong or Morris, but in one way or
another all the partners are commemorated.
Writing to James Young, Esq., Paymaster, from Phila-
delphia on January 28, 1764, John Penn, Esq., Lieuten-
ant-Governor, says: "When you arrive at Carlisle you
will immediately engage the gunsmiths or armourers in
and about that place, and order them to repair such arms
of the Provincial troops as are out of order, as fast as
they arrive there." 1
In 1776 and throughout the War, anthracite coal was
taken in arks from the Wyoming mines, above Wilkes-
Barre, down the Susquehanna, to the Armory at Carlisle.
The first cargo sent down the Susquehanna is said to have
been the first shipment of anthracite coal made in this
" During the Revolution the Continental Congress es-
tablished and maintained an Armory at Carlisle where
muskets, swords and wrought iron cannon of great strength
were made." 2 In an unfinished] paper by the late' C. P.
Humrich, Esq., on " Washingtonburg " the early name for
the Carlisle Barracks, it is stated that a company of Artific-
ers were stationed there from 1777 to 1781 and probably
later, whose "duties were to cast cannon, bore guns, and
iRupp's Cumberland County, p. 401.
2 Jenkins, Pennsylvania Colonial and Federal.
174 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
prepare ammunition for the use of the Army." A com-
pany with similar duties was also located in Philadelphia. 1
And just here let us try to clear up the insistent tradi-
tions of the wonderful wrought iron cannon of Cumberland
county. Many of the books on Pennsylvania mention
them, with varying details. Briefly, the tale is, that Wil-
liam Dunning of Middlesex, in this county, made, presum-
ably about 1776, two wrought iron cannon of great
strength, one of which was in use at the battle of Brandy-
wine, was captured by the British, and deposited finally in
the Tower of London. The story runs that the British
government offered a large sum of money and an annuity
to the person who would instruct them in the manufacture
of that article; Dunning's patriotism, however, withstood
the alluring offers. He attempted another and larger
cannon, but could get no one to assist him who could endure
the heat, which was so great as to melt the lead buttons on
his clothes. This unfinished piece is said to have a resting
place, now, near Carlisle, but just where, no one knows.
William Dunning died December 19, 1830, aged 93, at
his home near Newville. 2 To settle the question of the
wrought iron cannon reposing in the Tower of London,
the authorities there were written to, who promptly replied,
in the following courteous letter:
TOWER OF LONDON
LONDON, E. C.
12. 3- 13-
" The Governor of the Tower has handed me your letter
of the 4th March. I regret to say that I cannot trace the
cannon which you mention.
1 The Hon. E. W. Biddle, Carlisle.
2 Hazard's Register, VII, p. 48.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 175
" It is more than probable that it was destroyed in the
fire of October 3Oth, 1841, which destroyed the Grand
Storehouse which contained the "Train of Artillery."
In any event we have the glory of the tradition, and
possibly a cannon.
Michael Ege, brother of George, the noted ironmaster
of Berks county, was born 1753, and brought up at
Charming Forge, by his Uncle Stiegel. He was employed
first at Spring Forge, York county, and at the age of nine-
teen married Anna Dorothea Wolff, daughter of a well-to-
do German farmer. Soon after his marriage he settled at
Boiling Springs, Cumberland county. By 1786 he was
part owner of the Carlisle Iron Works, there, and in 1792,
became sole owner. A few years later he built a mansion,
beautiful for situation, with graduated terraces leading
down to the Boiling Springs lake and stream. He brought
up three sons in the iron interest, and had several other
ventures himself, notably Pine Grove Furnace. He died
at the age of sixty-two in 1815, leaving a comfortable for-
tune to his children.
Augusta M. Longacre.
1 76 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1765 OLEY FURNACE.
About the year 1760 a valuable deposit of iron ore was
found on Furnace Creek, a branch of the Little Mana-
tawny, in Oley township, a short distance north of Fried-
ensburg, and near the line between Oley and Ruscomb-
Manor townships. This ore was doubtless used in the
forges in that vicinity, notably the "Oley" and the
" Spring." A few years later, probably in 1765, a furnace
was erected near the mountain, known as the Oley Furnace.
It was built most probably by Dietrich Welcker, 1 an iron
master of Skippack, and it is possible that William May-
bury was a joint owner in the beginning. In 1768 the fur-
nace was certainly in existence and in operation, for
Welcker at that time borrowed one hundred pounds from
John Lesher, iron master, of Oley Forge, and executed a
mortgage to him, in which the furnace is mentioned, and
five tracts of land.
During the Revolution Oley Furnace became the prop-
erty of General Daniel Udree, and was carried on in con-
nection with the Rockland Forges situated several miles to
the northeast. Eventually the works passed into the
hands of the Clymer family, and was known for some time
as the Clymer Iron Works. A plate with " 1770 " on it is
built into the stack, but it must relate to some other fact
than the beginning of the furnace. Beside that obtained
from its own mine, ore was supplied to it from the Mose-
lem mine, in Richmond township, lying eight miles to the
1 He may have been a son of Dietrich Welcker, who in 17516 kept an
inn at Skippack, Montgomery county, where the sign, a Weeping Willow,
hung for many years.
2 Berks County, by M. L. Montgomery.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 177
CODORUS FORGE AND FURNACE. 1765
A furnace and forge were erected by William Bennett
on Codorus Creek near its junction with the Susquehanna,
in Hellam township in 1765, and continued under his
management until May, 1771, when they were sold by the
sheriff to Charles Hamilton. Hamilton in turn sold them,
November, 1771, to James Smith, the Signer, who besides
his mental capacity and learning had a great fund of humor.
This seems to have sustained him in that bitter school of
experience, iron making. Many were the gibes and jests
he directed against the two managers he had at Codorus
Forge. One, he said, was a knave, and the other a fool.
After losing 5000 in this venture, James Smith, in April,
1778, sold the forge and furnace to Thomas Neil. 1 These
works are said to have made ammunition for the army
during the revolution.
1 York County, by Carter and Glossbrenner.
1 78 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Before WINDSOR FURNACE.
With the enterprising industry so characteristic of the
German, many of the settlers of Berks County undertook
almost single handed the manufacture of iron wares, most
of them of simple domestic use, but cast in forms of real
One of these settlers began his work so early that his
little enterprise gave its name to the pretty stream he made
use of under the shadow of Blue Mountain, and which is
still known as " Furnace Creek." In course of time the
water power was further utilized; and when, in 1768, the
estate was sold to Jacob Winey, of Philadelphia by one
Henry Moll, who had bought it at sheriff's sale from Fred-
erick Delaplank, a reputed iron-master, it is described as
comprising one hundred and seventy-six acres of land, to-
gether with a forge for the manufacture of bar iron, a
grist-mill and a saw-mill.
After this sale, work at the forge seems to have been
discontinued for a time, and we next learn of the establish-
ment of a small charcoal furnace on the site, by Valentine
Eckert, an enterprising iron master in the northern part of
the county. Later George Reagen became the manager,
and the plant was operated in connection with Union Fur-
nace and the forges in Albany township. 1
Though the furnace has had a checkered existence, and
has been out of commission at times, it is entitled to special
consideration for remarkable artistic work, done\ early in
1 Berks County, by M. L. Montgomery.
Crucifix cast at Windsor Furnace, Berks County. Owned by Mrs
George de Benneville Keim.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 179
the last century, under the management of Jones, Keim
& Company. This firm made castings of various; kinds
with definite artistic intention, one of its most admired
productions being a copy of the Last Supper after the
celebrated painting at Milan by Leonardo da Vinci. This
was presented to the Philadelphia Exchange by D. M.
Keim. Cast directly from pure ore, in common sand, and
oiled, it was the first attempt to bring to perfection cast-
ings of this description. A crucifix, also of great beauty,
is given among our illustrations, as showing the height
to which Pennsylvania finally attained in this art. While
this work was done long after our colonial date, yet the
furnace which had the honor of accomplishing it was dis-
tinctly a colonial furnace ; so, technically, we are within our
limits, and the beauty of these castings is an ample excuse,
if any is needed. Mr. George May Keim (1805-1861),
a well-known Philadelphian, was an owner of Windsor Fur-
nace, and a member of the Keim family so long identified
with the State.
180 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
1768 GULF FORGE.
Gulf Forge, on Gulf Creek in upper Merion township,
Montgomery County, near the village of Gulf Mills, is
mentioned as existing in 1768, and shown on Scull's map
of 1770, but no trace of it is now to be found, nor is any
information obtainable on the subject. By those who know
this beautiful neighborhood, a description of " The Gulf,"
from Buck's History of Montgomery County, will not be
considered too irrelevant.
"The Gulf is where the Gulf Creek passes thro' the
Gulf Hill and for the purpose of a passage, has cleft it to
its base. The stream and the wood by its side wind
thro' it somewhat in the shape of an S, and at the nar-
rowest part there is just room enough for both, the whole
width not being more than forty feet. The hills on either
side are pretty steep and are covered with rocks, bushes,
and trees to their summits. Near the old Gulf Mill on
the South side of the entrance, a rock juts out at the road-
side to an elevation of about fifteen feet, which has shel-
tered people from the rain."
Harriton, Bryn Mawr. Showing cheese-room. Residence of Charles
Thomson, Secretary of Continental Congress. Now owned by George
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. l8l
PINE GROVE FURNACE.
The furnace I knew best was Pine Grove, with its
twenty-seven thousand acres of woodland, nestled in the
South Mountain, midway between Carlisle and Gettysburg,
about fifteen! miles from either. In placing charcoal fur-
naces, streams and forests were the first consideration,
the one to furnish power, and the other to provide char-
coal. The next essential, iron ore, could be hauled from
adjacent mines. At Pine Grove this was found in the sur-
rounding hills. A vivid recollection remains with me of
the working of the furnace, the molten iron and all that,
but as the early process is given in our introduction, I shall
not repeat it. In making charcoal the chestnut, oak, and
hickory of the forest were cut into prescribed lengths by
the wood-cutters, to be later piled on end in a cone-shaped
stack about six feet high and slowly charred for a week
or so, for use in the furnace. The wagons that brought
it in, were long with high sides, and drawn by six mules.
Each board of the bottom was moveable with a heavy
iron ring in the end. These were drawn by detaching the
leading mules from the tongue of the wagon and hooking
their chains into the rings in the board at the back of the
wagon and thereby drawing out of the bottom a board at
a time, which deposited the coal where it was wanted, at
the " coal house."
Furnaces were often called by women's names, a compli-
ment personally to members of the family, and the fires,
when convenient, lighted by women. I know of an in-
182 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
stance during the Civil War, when, at the " blowing in " of
a furnace great care was taken not to light the fire with a
Democratic newspaper ! When a bride visited a furnace,
her slipper was taken (ladies did not wear shoes) and kept
by the men until she promised a "treat."
While my recollection, naturally, does not go back to
colonial days, I am sure the life was not changed in any
particular from the building of the furnace in 1770 to the
begininng of the Civil War. My personal knowledge
begins with 1848. There were no railroads, and a journal
of my grandmother's records long journeys to Baltimore or
Philadelphia in carriages, or on horseback, with servants in
charge of the luggage. Our old carriage at Pine Grove
had a large trunk rack behind, which was strapped up
against the back when not in use.
Iron was conveyed from place to place in wagons or on
the backs of mules. In some instances the bars of iron
were bent to fit over the mule's back. Canals were a
welcome improvement in transportation, till railroads
Laborers at the four furnaces in the South Mountain,
Pine Grove, Mt. Alto, Caledonia, and Katocktin in Mary-
land, were nearly all English ; there were few Irish names
and almost no Germans. They were the same race as those
found in the West Virginia and Tennessee Mountains ; the
mountains are of the Blue Ridge chain in which the old
furnaces were, and the lives they lead to-day are just as I
am trying to describe, except for the feuds. At the Penn-
sylvania furnaces they were tamer and gentler people, from
the influence and contact with the family of the Big House,
but their primitive instincts and superstitions were the
same. The Tennessee mountaineers are said to be of the
purest, most unmixed blood in this country and are a most
interesting people. Craddock uses a word " survigerous "
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 183
the Pine Grove people said " savagerous " for
Mr. Jas. M. Swank, in his "History of Iron," tells us:
"The authority of those old Pennsylvania iron masters
was indeed baronial, but it was also patriarchal. A tie
of common interest closer than exists to-day under similar
relations, bound master and workman together." They
were dependent on the Big House for everything concern-
ing their welfare, and were looked after in their births,
marriages and deaths, with most affectionate interest, giv-
ing in return unbounded loyalty and affection. An old
man I know after an interval at other work, thought he
would return to a furnace, and told me later he could not
stand it, he was only known by a number and was simply
part of a machine, this describes modern conditions, the
old personal element no longer exists. To quote again
from Swank those " good old Colony Times, when Penn-
sylvania was still a British province, are gone and their
medieval flavor, their picturesqueness, and their placidity,
are also gone."
The cottages of the laborers were logs and plaster, with
stone chimneys, simply furnished with painted wooden fur-
niture and huge feather beds, and their prosperity was
gauged by the number and variety of their patchwork
quilts. There was a good deal of the joy of life in the mak-
ing of these, the various patterns had names, "The
Garden of Eden," "Sunrise," etc. The designs took
months to accomplish, and the final quilting was an occa-
sion of merrymaking. The food and clothes of the people
were provided at the "store." (The wagons that took
away iron, brought back these necessities.) Calico for
their dresses and sun-bonnets, linsey-woolsey (a rough
woolen material) for their petticoats; they spun and dyed
the wool for their stockings which they knitted themselves.
1 84 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Coarse, heavy shoes came from the "store," also flour,
"flitch" (salt pork), molasses and tobacco. Many of
the women smoked. The more thrifty of the families had
cows, which roamed at will, procuring such food as they
could, and at milking time they were easily followed and
recovered, by the sound of their tinkling bells. Each cot-
tage had a garden, and they all had chickens and eggs;
and again, the more thrifty had pigs.
Apple-butter boiling, spelling bees, in addition to the
quilting bees, made up their amusements. These festiv-
ities generally ended with a dance, on the sanded floor,
when the young men arrived to take the young women
home. The music was provided by a self-taught fiddler
with probably a home-made fiddle, and the lights were
tallow candles. Brides drove away with their swains to
the nearest " preacher," to be married, and were greeted on
their return by a " charivari," or as they called it a " cala-
thumpian," ending in a "treat."
These mountaineers were very religious, and held what
were called "protracted meetings" on which occasions
they all became converted, or as they expressed it, " found
religion." But as they had generally lost it when meet-
ing time came around again, there were always candidates
for the "mourners' bench." Most of them were very
restless and loved the excitement of a flitting, with neigh-
bors all gathered in, and a feast at both ends of the line,
to say nothing of the six-mule wagon with a turret of gay
bells and red flannel streamers on the harness. The four
furnaces I have mentioned as neighbors, were visited in
turn, but they were people of strong affections, and a little
grave on the hillside often held them, or brought them
back. It was a sweet God's acre, in the primeval forest,
with the sunshine slanting between the big trees standing
guard, and year after year, covering those sleeping there
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 185
with their softly falling leaves. It was a strong magnet
for them all, as you see by the interesting tales of the
Tennessee Mountains. It was the custom, after a burial,
for all the friends for miles around, to return to the house
of the mourning family for the " funeral baked meats,"
and great were the preparations, and many and various
were the pies and jams.
Christmas Day was always looked forward to, with
much excitement, for the children on the place got all the
apples and cakes they could carry when they came to visit
the Children's Tree, at the " Big House," and the heads of
families longest on the place were given their Christmas
dinner. Of course there were not then the endless books
and toys that children have now. Our old rag dolls had
clean faces and new dresses for the occasion, and we loved
them dearly and were proud of their new looks.
The old house was very large, and the situation beau-
tiful. We had only wood for fuel, and the big blazing
fireplaces are a charming recollection. We were lighted
by lard lamps except on occasions of entertaining, when
candle-boards were fixed over each door-way, decorated
with evergreens, and a row of wax candles in each. Part
of the work of the house-hold was moulding candles,
pounding spice with a mortar and pestle, and cutting the
white sugar which came in a " loaf." In the nursery a
thing called a "witch" made a night-light, it was a piece
of paper twisted and lighted, floating on melted lard. AU
house supplies were bought in large quantities, barrels of
crackers and sugar, boxes of tea and coffee, and wines in
proportion, for there were no shops where such things
could be obtained. Nutmegs were sold for their weight in
silver. Flour was ground at the mill on the place, for
there were many acres under cultivation to supply the fam-
ilies and animals. The haymaking was done by a long
1 86 FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
line of mowers, twenty or more, with scythes, stepping in
a rhythmic movement; and in the same way, the wheat
and oats were cut with " cradles." There was a carpenter
shop and a blacksmith shop ; and the trade of wheelwright
was in much demand for the only power known was water
power which meant a big wheel. We are told that Egyp-
tains 1500 B.C. blew their furnaces by artificial wind de-
rived from treading on goat skins filled with air. Modern
furnaces are operated by powerful gas engines.
No one thought the distance from Carlisle too great for
driving, so there was always plenty of company, and of
course they came for the night or for several days. The
old garrison in Carlisle added too, to the gaiety. In those
days, when there were fewer people in the world, all per-
sons of consequence knew each other, if not actually, at
least by reputation, and they were expected to stop if they
came into the neighborhood as a matter of course, and it
was a source of mutual pleasure and satisfaction.
The recorded ownership of this old furnace dates from
a Proprietary Grant, 1762, for four hundred and fifty
acres on Mountain Creek to Thomas Pope ; thence by deed,
1764, to George Stevenson, who, in 1772, conveyed it to
Finley McGrew, who in turn, 1773, conveyed it to Jacob
Simon. The furnace was built probably in 1770 by
Robert Thornburg and John Arthur. In 1782 Jacob
Simon conveyed Pine Grove Furnace and land to Michael
Ege and Thomas and Joseph Thornburg, sons of Robert.
In 1803, Michael Ege became sole owner. 1 Operated
chiefly by the Ege Family until 1838, the property then
came into the hands of Mr. C. B. Penrose and the Hon.
Frederick Watts. Finally, in 1845, Mr. Wm. M. Watts
took possession, and operated furnace, forge and farms
1 Ege Genealogy, pp. 90 and 93.
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA. 187
very successfully until 1864, when Mr. Wm. G. Moore-
head became the owner.
" Perhaps the most royal hospitality of all dispensed at
any residence in the county was that of the Peter Ege
family who lived at Pine Grove. Connected by ties of
blood and friendship with Carlisle and its people, Mr.
Ege and his wife, a Miss Arthur of Virginia, have left
many traditions of their princely manner of entertaining.
In later years the spirit of hospitality was fully sustained
by William M. Watts, Esq., who succeeded Mr. Ege in
this place of delightful memories, so picturesquely located
on the sloping sides of the South Mountain, and so inter-
woven with the social life of the town as to have been prac-
tically a part of it." 1
It is pleasant to be able to say that this fine property
has fallen into good hands. Some years ago it was pur-
chased by the State Forestry Association.
Sarah R. Watts Rose.
1 Carlisle, Old and New, p. 139.
188 FORGES AND FURNACES.
1771 SALFORD FORGE.
The fact of Robert Coleman's connection with this forge
is its chief interest. His first venture for himself, he came
here shortly after his marriage in 1773, when the trouble
with England was brewing. Mr. Coleman's grandson
has a document of rare interest illustrative of Revolu-
tionary experiences at Salford Forge. It is endorsed
" Robert Coleman's memorial, presented August 26th
1776, asking permission for his clerk and three forgemen
to be exempted from marching with army to Amboy " ; it
sets forth that he had rented a forge for three years at a
rental of two hundred a year, the lease of which would ex-
pire in three months; and that the "principal part" of his
workmen were Associators, who, if obliged to march with
the militia, would cause him great loss and entirely prevent
him from working up his stock in hand. The request of
Mr. Coleman was granted the same day by the Council of
Safety to whom it was addressed. While at this forge he
manufactured chain bars, which were designed to span the
Delaware for the defense of Philadelphia against the
approach of the enemy's fleet. 1
1 Ironmaking in Pennsylvania, by James Swank, p. 27.
SEQUENCE OF FRANKLIN FIREPLACES.
Franklin's First Model.
From " An account of the new invented Pennsylvanian Fireplace,
delphia, Printed and sold by Benjamin Franklin, 1744."
A Franklin Model. The original in possession of the American
Franklin's Model for Stove in the form of an Urn. Full description in
"Transactions of the American Philosophical Society," Vol. II, 1786.
Judge Jasper Yeates, writing from Lancaster, December 26, 1777, to
Col. Burd at Tinian, says : " Hon'd Sir, ... I also enclose you a copy of
verses on the celebrated urn of Doctor Franklin. They are, in my opinion,
exceedingly well wrote and contain the true Attic salt. 1
" Inscription on a curious stove in the form of an urn, contrived ini
such a manner as to make the flame descend instead of rising from the-
fire ; invented by Dr. Franklin.
" Like a Newton sublimely he soared
To a summit before unattained,
New regions of science explored
And the palm of philosophy gained.
" With a spark which he caught from the skies
He displayed an unparalleled wonder,
And we saw with delight and surprise
That his rod could secure us from thunder.
" Oh ! had he been wise to pursue
The track for his talents designed
What a tribute of praise had been due
To the teacher and friend of mankind.
" But to covet political fame
Was in him a degrading ambition. . ,
The spark that from Lucifer came I *\ * t *
Enkindled the blaze of sedition. "o" ' V -.
" Let candor then writ* 1 on his urn ,""-, ^ ^ ^ "*"'"'
Here lies the renowned inventor n > ?*"*,! *il '-.
Whose flame to the skies ought to burn
But, inverted, descends to the centre." 1
These verses are supposed to have been written by Hannah Griffiths,
granddaughter of the first Isaac Norris.
1 Shippen Papers, by Thomas Balch, p. 264.
1 Life and Writings of Benjamin Franklin, by Albert Henry Smyth, I,
Fireplace of primitive design. From Lossing's Field Book of the
Fireplace in Mansion, Pine Forge, owned by Mrs. David Rutter. Made at
Warwick Furnace, probably from earliest design.
it Stenton. the home of James Logan. 1/50 to 1760.
Fireplace. About 1750. Harriton.
Fireplace from home of Susanna Wright, Wright's Ferry, 1760. Owned
by Mr. S. F. Houston.
Fireplace Top, 1772. Hopewell Furnace Berks County. Owned by the
Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Fireplace, Hopewell Furnace, showing style of design after 1776.
The motto " Be Liberty Thine " on a fireplace, fixes its date as after the
Fireplace owned by Mr. A. J. Steinman, Lancaster. " Be Liberty Thine."
Hessian andirons were much in use at the time.
Fireplace owned by Dr. William T. Sharpless, West Chester.
Made shortly after the Revolution.
Fireplace in residence of Mr. J. H. Osborne, Summerseat, Morrisville,
once Washington's Headquarters. " Isaac Potts, 1795-"
ABBINGTON FURNACE, 42
Abbington Iron Works, 42
Allen, Chief Justice William, 45
Allen, William, warrant to, for
5000 acres of land, 84
Amboy, march of Army to, 188
American flint glass, 125
American Philosophical Society, 19
Amherst, Sir Jeffrey, 166
Ammunition for Army, 173, 174,
Anchor Forge, 147
Andover Iron Works, 44
Andre, Major, 93
Antes, Colonel Frederick, 146
Anthracite coal, first shipment of,
Arks for shipping coal, 52, 173
Armor, Thomas, 166
Armory at Carlisle, 173
Armour, Martha, 101
Armstrong, Dr. James, 166
Armstrong, Brigadier General John,
166, 167, 172, 173
Army supplies during Revolution,
Art in early iron work, 9, 127, 178,
Arthur, John, 186
Artificers, company of, 173
Artificers, Franklin's bequest to, 71
Ashleman, Benjamin, 137
Assembly of Pennsylvania, 68, 97,
Associators, 162, 188
Attwood, Capt, 23, 64
Attwood, William, 15, 22, 23, 64
Backhouse, Mary, 57
Backhouse, Richard, 48, 56, 57
Bailey family, 63
Ball, Wm., 72
Bar iron, duty on, in England, 98
Barde, John Louis, 77
Barnard, Nicholas, 140
Barr, John, 121
Barr, Thomas B., 161
Barracks at Philadelphia, 157
Bartram, Alexander, 127
Battalion of Associators for Lan-
caster Co., 162
Bees, quilting and spelling, 184
Bell at Valley Forge, 94
Benezet, Daniel, 117, 127, 128, 130
Bennett, William, 177
Berks County, forges and furnaces
in, 11, 20, 58, 62, 75, 76, 79, 111,
115, 118, 133, 152, 154, 158, 170,
BERKSHIRE FURNACE, 76, 152. See
also ROXBOROUGH FURNACE.
Bernwick, Jas., 140
Bertolet, Samuel, 146
Bezalion, Peter, 4
Biblical scenes as decoration of
Biddle, Edward, 78
Biddle, Owen, 153
Bird, Col., 86
Bird, James, 157
Bird, Maria, 157
Bird, Lieut-Col. Mark, 76, 77, 78,
80, 81, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157,
Bird, Mr., a prisoner, 168
FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Bird, William, 64, 76, 79, 80, 82,
152, 154, 157
Bird Iron Works, 77
Bird and Patton, 82
Birdsboro and Hopewell estate, 158
BIRDSBORO FORGES, 76, 82, 155. See
also HAY CREEK FORGES.
Birdsboro Militia, 77
Blackburn, John, 166
Blast furnace, first west of Susque-
Blister steel, 18
Blonde, the, ship of war, 168
Boats, Durham, 51, 52
Boiling Springs, 172, 175
Boom, Geo., 23
Boon, Boone, G., 15, 22, 31, 64
Boone, George, 64
Booth, R., 50
Boyer, John, 81
Bradford, Andrew, printer, 45
Brandywine, the, battle of, 34, 73,
93, 155, 174
Brandywine, retreat from, 95
Branson, Nathaniel, 18
Branson, Rebecca, 101
Branson, William, 16, 17, 18, 32,
33, 69, 70, 100, 101
Branz's works, 18
Brenner, Garrett, 115
Brewing, " art and mistery of," 58
Brickersville, Lutheran Church in,
Brien, Edward, 142
Brinton, John, 169
British, capture of cannon by, 174
Brockden, Charles, 21
Brooke, Mrs. Edward, 158
Brooke, E. & G., iron Works of, 78
Brooke, Matthew, 77, 158
Brooke, Thomas, 158
Brooks, Mathias, 72
Brown, Alex., 50
Brown, Richard, 166
Buckley, Daniel, 158
Buckley, Mr. & Mrs., 104
Bucks County, forges and furnaces
in, 43, 51
Burd, Edward, 164
Byberry, plating forge in, 18
Cadwallader, Thomas, 166
Caldwell, David, 159
Camp Pottsgrove, memorial tablet
Canadian Campaign, 168
Canals for transportation, 182
Candles, moulding of, 185
Cannon, burial of, at Hopewell and
Cannon, burial of, at Valley Forge,
Cannon, casting of, 73, 86, 118, 153,
Cannon, wrought iron, 174
Cannon Hill, 124, 130
Capital invested in forges, 20, 110
Carbon County, 135
Carlisle, 161, 166, 181
Carlisle, social life of, 186, 187
Carlisle Barracks, 173
CARLISLE IRON WORKS, 172, 175
Carmichael, Catherine M., 103, 104
Carmichael, Rev. John, 103
Catalan forge, 6, 12, 16, 82
Chain bars, manufacture of, 188
Chalice, silver, presented by Queen
Chapman, John, 44
Charcoal burning, 6, 8, 133
Charcoal, charring and carting of,
Charcoal furnaces, abandonment of,
Charcoal furnaces, construction of, 6
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Charcoal furnaces, consumption of
wood in, 23, 156
Charcoal furnace, working of, 181
Charles River, the Falls of, 51
CHARMING FORGE, 115, 153, 175
Chester County, 16, 25, 67, 69, 76,
90, 96, 97, 118, 151
Chew, Benjamin, 166
Chiswell, Mr., 98
Christ Church, Philadelphia, 40, 164
Christiana Creek, 38, 42
Church, Baron Stiegel Memorial,
Church, Lutheran, at Brickersville,
Church, Lutheran, at Manheim, 124
Church, St. Gabriel's at Morlattan,
Church, St. James', Lancaster, 132,
Church, Trinity, at Oxford, 12
Churches, Hessian prisoners in, 85
City Council of Philadelphia, 40
Clark, John, 140
Clawson's Tavern^ 54
Claypoole, James, 44
Clymer Iron Works, 176
Codorus Creek, 151, 177
CODORUS FORGE AND FURNACE, 177
" Cole Book," 79, 82
COLEBROOKDALE FURNACE, 20, 30
Coleman, Robert, 1, 82, 86, 87, 119,
126, 129, 130, 159
Coleman, Robert, at Quittapahilla
Forge, 135, 141, 142
Coleman, Robert, at Salford Forge,
Coleman, Robert, entertainment of
Washington by, 131
Coleman, Sarah, 132
Colonial furnaces, casting in, 8
Committee of Safety for Pennsyl-
Committee of Safety of Philadel-
Company, a, store in provincial
times, 108, 183, 184
Concord Meeting, 25
Conewago Settlement, 160
Conestoga Creek, forges on, 102, 159
Conestoga, Settlement, attack on, 138
Conestoga Turnpike, 155
Conestoga Valley, 67
Connor, Thomas, 92
Conodoguinet Creek, 167
Continental Army, accoutrements
and arms for, 156, 157
Continental Army at Camp Potts-
Continental Congress, 61
Continental Congress, delegates to,
Continental Congress, establishment
of Armory by, 173
Constitutional Convention, 162
Cookson, Thomas, deputy surveyor,
Copper mine, old, near Lancaster, 5
CORNWALL FURNACE, 83, 85
Cornwall Furnace, indenture con-
Cornwall Mines, product from, 89
Counties, lower, 36, 42
Court House at Philadelphia, 14
COVENTRY FORGE, 16, 25-27, 33, 34
Coventry Hall, 19, 29, 62
Cox, Dr., 2
Cresheim Creek, 12
Crosby John, 97
Crum Creek, 96
CRUM CREEK FORGE, 97
Cryble, Saml., 72
Cumberland County, 171, 172, 181
Cumberland County, cannon made
Danner, George H., 126
FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Danner, G. H., museum of, 123
Danner, Michael, 166
Darby, Abraham, 21
DAVID JONES FURNACE, 67
Davies, Gabriel, 159 '
Davies, Margaretta, 159
Decorations on stoves, 8, 49, 50, 121,
Delaplank, Frederick, 178
Delaware, discovery of iron ore in,
Delaware, Welsh, settlers in, 42
Delaware County, iron works in, 96,
Delaware Indians, treaty with, 14
Delaware River, chain bars to span,
Dewees, Col. William, Sheriff of
Dickinson, John, 126, 128, 129
Dickinson, Jonathan, 11, 30
Dicks' Bloomary Forge, 97, 151
Dicks, Peter, 97, 151
Diggs, Anne, 36, 37
Dillwyn, George, 149
Docwra, Mr., 2
Doughten, Stephen, 80
Doyle, Lawrence, 81
Drinker, H., 50
Dunning, William, cannon made by,
Durham boats, 51, 52, 54
Durham firebacks, 48, 49, 61
DURHAM FURNACE, 43, 60
Durham, Robert, 51
Dutch settlers, 2
Eckert, Valentine, 178
Edgemont Road, 74
Ege, Bernhard, 118
Ege, George, 76, 81, 117, 118, 141,
142, 152, 153, 159, 169, 171
Ege, George Michael, 122
Ege, Michael, 118, 171, 175, 186
Ege, Rebecca, 159
Egle, Dr., 41
Election times in iron regions, 107
ELIZABETH FURNACE, 119, 121, 122,
Ellis, Robert, 45, 47
Ellis, Rowland, 61
Emlen, Samuel, 149
England, first furnace in, for cast-
ing pots and kettles, 21
Etter, Gerard, 135
Evans, Governor, as mine operator, 4
Evans, Lewis, 91
Evans, Stephen, 91
Executive Council of Pennsylvania,
Export of iron, restriction of, 11
Eykelburger, Martin, 166
Fager, Col., J. M., 94
Falls of Delaware, 51
Farmer, Edward, 64
Fatlands Ford, 93
Fegan, John, 79, 80
Fergusson, Mrs., 38
Ferree, John, 128
ffream, Edw'd, 23
ffrench, Nath., 15, 22, 23, 64
Firebacks, early, 48, 49, 61, 172
Firebacks, moulding of, 10
Fireplaces, Sequence of, 189
Fisher, Hannah, 150
Fitzwater, George, 45
Flint glass, manufacture of, 125
Flower, Enoch, 58
Flower, Samuel, 18, 101
Foley, James, 81
Footman, Richard, 141
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Ford, Nathaniel, 16
Forge Tract, 40
Foul Rift, 51
Foulke, Hugh, 37
Fox, John, 139, 140
Frame, Richard, 5
Francis, John Tench, 70
Franklin, Benjamin, 24, 70, 71, 130
Franklin fireplaces, 73
Franklin stoves, 70, 72
French, the, early mining ventures
French Creek, 13, 16, 19, 25, 26,
27, 28, 29, 34, 69, 87
French Creek, Cannon imbedded in,
French Creek Iron Works, 154
French, Nathaniel, 64
Fricker, Mr., of Reading, 153
Fulton, James, 137, 140, 141
Furnace Creek, 160, 176, 178
Furnace Run, 130, 136
Galloway, Joseph, 55, 57
Geddes, Henry, 165
Geddes, Jane, 165
George the Third, commission from,
German iron workers, artistic wares
of, 9, 161, 178, 179
German settlers, 49
Germantown, 65, 143, 144
Giger, John, 169, 171
Giles, Jacob, of Baltimore, 85
GLASGOW FORGE, 39. See also Mc-
C ALL'S FORGE,
Glass, Martin, 145
Glassware, Stiegel, 126
Glen Mills, 96
Gold in Delaware, 42
Golden Lion, 18
Gordon, Patrick (Governor of Prov-
ince), 14, 30, 59
Government, shot and shell for, 130
Governor's Council, "Remon-
strance " to, 147
Grace, Robert, 18, 19, 70, 71, 72, 79
Graeff, Sebastian, 111
Graeme, Thomas, physician, 37
Graham, Alex., 140
Graves, Robt., 140
Gray, Colonel, 93
Great Spring, 152, 153
Great Valley, 91
GREEN LANE FORGE, 66
Grey, T., 4
Griffith, Robert, 20
Growden, Grace, 55, 57
Growden, Lawrence, 55, 57, 166
Grubb, Col. Curtis, 81, 82, 85, 86,
Grubb, Henry Bates, 87
Grubb, John, 84
Grubb, Peter, 1, 41, 82, 84, 85
Grubb, Peter, Jr., 86
Grubb, Peter, 3rd, 86
Grubb, Samuel, 84
Grubb's Iron Works, 83
Grubb's Landing, 84
Guest, Phoebe, 59
GULF FORGE, 180
Guns, boring of, 173
Hackett, John, 47
Haiman, Widow, 137
Haldane, James, 140
Hall, John, 18
Hall, Joseph, 18
Hamilton, Charles, 177
Hamilton, Hance, 166
Hamilton, James, deputy Gov. of
Pennsylvania, 57, 165, 166
Hammer Creek, 82, 87, 159
Harris, Robert, 140
Harrison, Hannah, 61
FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Harrison, Richard, 61
Harriton, Bryn Mawr, 61
Haupt, Abraham, 51
HAY CREEK or BIRDSBORO FORGES, 76,
Hay, Sheriff, 138
Hazlewood, Wm., 140
Hebron, Hessian prisoners at, 85
Heidelberg, 76, 117, 152
HEREFORD FURNACE, 133
Herlinger, P., 152
Hessian prisoners, 85, 118, 130
Hessian prisoners, channel cutting
Hibbert, John, 16
Hill, Richard, 29, 150
Hillegas, Michael, 140, 141, 142
Hockley, James, 40, 91
Hockley, Richard, 18, 101
Hollow ware, casting of, 8, 172
Holmes, John, 166
Holstein, Matthias, 77
Holz, Anna Catherine, 122
Holz, Elizabeth, 121
Hoopes, Adam, 139
Hopewell Creek, 156
HOPEWELL FORGE, Grubb's, 82, 87
HOPEWELL FURNACE, 154
Hopkins, John, 45
Howe, Sir William, at Valley Forge,
Howe, Sir William, march of, to
Philadelphia, 73, 94, 128, 155
Huber, Elizabeth, 119, 121
Huber, Jacob, 159
Huber, John Jacob, 119, 121
Hughes, Gabriel, 81
Ruling, John, 79
Hulings, Brigetta, 76
Hulings, Magdalena, wedding of, 77
Hulings, Marcus, 76, 77
Hulings, Marcus, Jr., 62
Hunsecker, John, grant of land from
the Penns, 160
Indentured servants, desertion and
enlistment of, 70
Indian barter, 52
Indian character, Penn's estimate of,
Indian Commissioner at Fort Pitt,
Indian Council at Philadelphia, 14
Indian pottery, 44
Indian trails as highroads for grain,
Indian Treaty, 14, 45
Indian woodcraft, 51
Indians as mine workers, 5
Indians at Manatawny, 40
Indians employed in forges, 23
Indians, hostility of, 30, 31, 47
Indians, lands seated by, 28
Indians, murder of, 31, 137, 138
Intermarriages in iron-making
world, 63, 75
Irish, Nathaniel, 47
Iron, export of, in 1717, 11
Iron, importation of, 127
Iron industry in 1789, 75
Iron in Province, early mention of, 5
Iron, manufacture of, primitive proc-
Iron masters, patriarchal life under,
Iron ore in Pennsylvania, early
knowledge of, 43
Iron works, early, statistics concern-
Iron workers, skilled, brought to
Iron Hill, 38, 42
Iron Stone Creek, 20, 24
Irvine, Col. James, 68
Isaac, Lazarus, 126
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Jacobs, Cyrus, 159
James, James, 42
James, Mrs., the historian, 18, 22,
James, Samuel, 42
Jenkins, David, 99, 101, 102, 109
Jenkins, John, 99, 102
Jenkins, Hon. Robert, 102, 103, 106,
Jenkins, William, 102
Johnson, George B., 99
Jones, Caleb, 67
Jones, John, 62, 67
Jones, Lieut.-Col. Jonathan, 67
Jones, Keim & Company, 179
Jones, Mary, 58
Jones's mine holes, 67
Joy, Capt. Dan'l, 86
Juto, Wm., 140
Kalbach, Adam, 81
Kalm, Peter, 96
Keim, D. M., 179
Keim, George May, 179
Keith, Alexander Henry, 36
Keith, George, 12
Keith, Sir William, Governor of
Pennsylvania, 36, 37
Keith, Sir William, furnace of, 36
Kerlin. See Keurlis.
Keurlis, Martha, 143
Keurlis, Peter, 144
Kidd, John, 140
Killingworth, Rev. Thomas, 12
Kinsey, John, attorney, 70
Kirkpatrick, David, 166
Krebs, Joseph, 81
KURTZ'S IRON WORKS, 41
Laman, Rev. John B., 105
Lake Superior iron ore, 89
Lancaster, old copper mine near, 5
Lancaster, road from Philadelphia
Lancaster County, 41, 67, 82, 85, 98,
118, 119, 135, 136, 158
Lancaster Co., first Battalion of As-
sociators of, 162
Land grant to soldiers, 130
Langhorne, Jeremiah, 44
Lardner, Lynford, 18, 101, 166
Lawler, Ann, 160
Lawler, Mary, of Lancaster, 160
Leacock, Jno., 15, 22, 64
Lebanon County, forges and fur-
naces in, 82, 89, 135
Lenan, Jacob, 80
Lenni Lenape Indians, habits and
traits of, 13, 14
Lesher, Jacob, 113
Lesher, John, 111, 113, 153, 176
Le Tort, James, 4
Leutze, E., 54
Lewis, James, 20
Leycock, Jno., 23
Lincoln, Abram, 80
Lincoln, John, 80
Lincoln, Mordecai, 99
Lincoln, President, 99
Lindley, Thomas, 45
Logan, James, 1, 29, 45, 46, 49, 57
Logan, James, as Secretary of the
Province, 2, 3
Logan, William, 57, 166
Longhead, Jas., 140
Longstreth, Daniel, 140
Lower Counties, 36, 42
Lowden, Hugh, 70
Lower, Christian, 170
Lower Forge, 80
Lower Hope well Forge, 159
Lower Providence, 57
FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Malcolm, John, 139, 140, 141
Manatawny Creek, 11, 15, 20, 39,
58, 62, 111, 143, 144, 145, 158, 170
Manheim, 117, 123, 127
Manheim Glass House, 125
Marcus Hook, 82, 96
MARIA FORGE, 135
Marke, Thomas, 20
Marriages among the iron masters,
MARTIC FORGE AND FURNACE, 136
MARY ANN FURNACE, 160, 171
Masters, Thomas, 12
Matthews, William, the Quaker
Maxwell, General, 34
Maybury, Silvanus, 79
Maybury, Mayburry, Thomas, 66,
Maybury, William, 176
McCall, Alexander, 40
McCall, Archibald, 40
McCall, George, 39, 40
McCall, Samuel, 40
McCalla, Capt. John, 148
MCCALL'S or GLASGOW FORGE, 39
McCalmont, John, 139
McClenachan, Blair, 87
McGrew, Archibald, 166
McGrew, Finley, 186
McKee, Capt. Thos., 138
McKonkly's Ferry, 54
Mcllvaine, Ferguson, 138, 139
McQuatty, David, 32
Meredith, Rebecca, 103
Meyer, David, 169
Middle Forges, 79
Mifflin, Geo., 15, 22, 23, 64
Mifflin, Thomas (Governor), 58
Mifling, George, 64
Military service, exemption from,
Miller, Jacob, 161
Miller, John, 142
Miller, Michael, 115
Milltown (Abington), 12
Mine Ridge, 5
Mitchel, a Swiss miner, 4, 5
Moll, Henry, 178
Monocacy Road, 160
Montgomery County, forges in, 37,
39, 57, 66, 143, 180, 188
Montgomery, Wm., 140
Moorehead, Wm. G., 187
Moravian stove, 123
Morgan, General Daniel, 56
Morgan, Jacob, 114
Morgan, James, 50, 56, 57
Morlatton, Malanton, 30, 76, 77
Morris, Anthony, 1, 15, 20, 22, 23,
39, 45, 58, 60, 64, 172, 173
Morris, Benjamin, 157, 158
Morris, Cadwallader, 77, 157
Morris family, 61
Morris, Francis, 79
Morris, Henry, 116
Morris, John, 172
Morris, Margaret, 150
Morris, Maurice, 20
Morris, Morris, 64
Morris, Richard Hill, 151
Morris, Robert, purchase of Stiegel
home by, 129
Morris, Mrs Robert, letter of, 128
Morris, Samuel, 172
Moselem Creek, 170
MOSELEM FORGE, 170
Moselem mine, 170, 176
MOUNT JOY, or VALLEY FORGE, 90,
Mount Joy Forge burned by the
Mount Joy Forge, submerging of,
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
MOUNT PLEASANT FURNACE AND
Muhlenberg, Rev. William A., 132
Mules, transportation of iron by, 182
Munroe, George, 139
Musgrave, Joseph, 139, 140
Musgrove, Edward, 171
Musket barrels, boring of, during
Muskets for Continental Army, 156,
Muskets from Warwick Furnace,
Navy, cannon and shot for, 169
Neil, Thomas, 177
Nepham, Stacy, 140
New Goshenhoppen, 135
New Market Forge, 87, 135
NEW PINE FORGES, 79, 154
Nieman, Zachariah, 140
Nikoll, John George, 115
Nixon, John, 157
Noblitt, Abraham, 166
Norris, Isaac, 29, 61
North, Col. Caleb, 93
Nutt, Anna, 18, 28, 34, 69, 70
Nutt, Rebecca, 34
Nutt, Samuel, 16, 17, 19, 27, 33, 69,
Nutt, Samuel, Jr., 29, 34, 70, 93
Nutt's dealings with Indians, 13
Nutt Road, 29
Octorara Creek, 41
Offley, Caleb, 147, 148
Offley, Daniel, 147, 148, 149, 150,
Offley, Margaret, 147
OFFLEY'S ANCHOR FORGE, 147
Old, Anne, 87, 135, 159
Old, Caroline, 116
Old, James, 81, 87, 116, 135, 157,
Old, John, 152, 153, 158
Old, Joseph, 159
Old, William, 116, 159
Oley Churches, 111, 158
OLEY FORGE, 111, 170
OLEY FURNACE, 176
Ore, discovery of, reward for, 17
Ore, iron, washing of, 7
Orth, Adam, 135
Osenbrigs, Oxenbrigs, Ozenbriggs,
Owen, Evan, 20
Owen, Griffith, 45, 55
Owen, John, 96, 144
Paine, R. T., 86
Paris, Franklin stove used in, 73
Parker's Ford, 73
Paschal, Stephen, 17, 147
Pastorius, bailiff of Germantown, 13
Pastorius, German colonists under,
Patchwork quilts, 183
Patterson, Samuel, 139
Patton and Bird, 80
Patton, Colonel John, 76, 78, 81, 152
Paul, Michael, 145
Paxton Road, 89
" Peel," use of, 91
Pemberton, Israel, 57
Pen, Sir William, 3
Penn, Governor John, 39, 57, 83, 84,
Penn, Richard, 83, 84
Penn, Thomas, 83, 84
Penn, William, 36, 39, 42, 143, 162
Penn, William, dealings of, with In-
Pennsbury, Indian treaty at, 45
FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Pennsylvanian Fireplace, 73
Penrose, C. B., 186
Penrose, Samuel, 38
Pequea, 104, 136
PETER DICK'S BLOOMARY FORGE, 151,
Peters, Richard, 57, 166, 172
Petty, John, 31
Peugh, James, 26, 27
Philadelphia, approach of British to,
73, 94, 128, 155
Philadelphia, early iron masters in,
121, 122, 147
Philadelphia, hauling of iron to, 92
Philadelphia, historic bell presented
Philadelphia, old highway to, 89,
Philadelphia, sale of iron in, 19
Philadelphia County, forges in, 11,
20, 39, 62, 75, 111, 143
Physick, Edmund, Keeper of the
Great Seal, 128
Pig iron, 66, 79
Pig iron, conversion of, into blooms, 6
Pig iron, exportation of, 11, 46
Pig-iron, transportation of, 50
Pigeon Hills, 151
Pine Creek, 158
PINE FORGE, 62, 63, 145
Pine Grove, 166, 187
PINE GROVE FURNACE, 175, 181
Plumsted, Clement, 45
Poco Creek, 135
Pontoon bridge at Valley Forge, 94
POOL FORGE, 11, 60, 63, 64, 159
Pool Forge, Indian attack upon, 14
Pool Forge, original owners of, 15
Pope, John, 166
Pope, Thomas, 186
Popodick, Indian King, 24
Porter, George B., 106
Potter, General, 34
Potts, Anna, 63
Potts, David, 24, 62, 63, 75
Potts, John, 17, 40, 62, 63, 65, 91,
92, 114, 144, 146
Potts, Joseph, Jr., 40
Potts, Rebecca, 158
Potts, Robert S., 138, 139
Potts, Samuel, 40, 65, 74
Potts, Thomas, 1, 15, 20, 21, 22, 23,
24, 60, 62, 63, 64
Potts, Thomas, as host to Washing-
Potts, Thomas, Jr., 39, 75, 144
Potts, Thomas, Sr., 144
Potts, Thomas W., 94
Potts' Forge, 34
Pottsgrove, 39, 145. See also Potts-
POTTSGROVE FORGE, 143
Pottstown, 39, 75, 145
Powel, Samuel, 45, 55
Powell, Sarah, 97
Pratt, Abraham, 12
Preston, Samuel, 15, 22, 23
Prisoners of war, Hessian, 85, 118,
Prisoners quartered in churches, 85
Profits from iron making, 111
Proprietary and Governor's Coun-
cil, members of, 166
Provincial troops, arms of, 173
Public Library, first in America, 71
Puddled iron, 7
Pyewell, Wm., 22, 23
Quakers absent from Assembly, 97
Quakers as ironmasters, 11, 21
Quakers, non-partisan sentiments of,
Queen Anne, silver chalice pre-
sented by, 13
QUITTAPAHILLA FORGE, 87, 135
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Ranger, Chief, of Province of Penn-
Read, Charles, 45
Read, Henry, 145
Read, Prothonotary, 87
Reading, march of British to, 155
READING FURNACE, 16, 17, 25, 34, 70,
Reading Furnace, second, 31
Reagan, George, 178
Redding Furnace. See Reading
Redemptioners, 32, 55, 92
Red Lion, 50
Rees, Mary, 62
Reis, Michael, 115
Richards, Owen, 72
Ridge Road, 154
Rifle Men, Battalion of, 167
Rigby, John S., 172
Robert, Anne, 16
Roberts, E., 57
Robeson, Andrew, 144
Robeson, Magdelen, 144
Rockland Forges, 176
Rodgers, Owen, 72
Rodgers, Phillip, 27
Rodman, Sarah, 149
Rolling Mills, 40, 96, 138
Rose, red, as annual rental, 124
Roses, Feast of, 120, 125
Ross, Catherine, 167, 168
Ross, George, the Signer, 56, 113,
161, 162, 169, 171
Ross, George, the Rector, of New-
castle, 78, 162
Ross, John, 111, 113, 162
Ross, Mary, 78
ROXBOROUGH, later BERKSHIRE FUR-
NACE, 76, 79, 80, 81, 152, 153
Royal proclamations, reading of, 71
Rum, restrictions concerning, 32
Rush, Anthony, 153
Rush, Colonel, 103
Rush, Sarah Aurelia, 103
Rutter, Anna, 28
Rutter, David, 40
Rutter, John, 20, 23
Rutter, Margaret, 63
Rutter, Rebecca, 18, 24, 75
Rutter, Thomas, 1, 12, 15, 18, 20,
21, 22, 23, 26, 42, 60, 63, 66, 144
Rutter, Thomas, Jr., 74, 75
SALFORD FORGE, 188
Sanderson, Francis, 172, 173
SARUM IRONWORKS, 96
Sassoonan, King of the Delawares,
Sauer, Christopher, 73
Savage, Anna, 28
Savage, Ruth, 29
Savage, Samuel, 26
Savage, Seeny, 62
Saw Hole, 130
Schoepf, Dr. John D., 50
Schultz, David, 133
Schuylkill Canal, 76
Schuylkill River, crossed by invad-
ing army, 93, 94
Schuylkill River, navigation of, 19
Schuylkill region, iron mines in, 143
Schwenkfelders' arrival from
Scotch-Irish frontiersmen, 167
Scriptural texts on stoves, 8, 9
Scull, Nicholas, surveyor, 24, 165
Scull's maps of Pennsylvania, 24,
39, 48, 154, 166, 180
Seligman, Henry, 92
Shaw, Henry, 148
FORGES AND FURNACES IN THE
Shaw, John, 81
Shawnee Indians, King of, 4, 5
Shell, casting of, 54, 55, 73, 86, 153
Ship " Amity," 62
Ship Cyrus, 149
Ship Nancy, 120
Shippen, Edward, 57, 136
Shoemaker, Benjamin, 166
Shoffer, Jacob, 170
Shot, casting of, 54, 55, 86, 118,
Simon, Jacob, 186
SIR WILLIAM KEITH'S FURNACE, 36
Slitting mills, 96
Slough, Matthias, 141, 142
Smith, James, the Signer, 177
Smith, Rev. Robert, D.D., 104
Smith, Thomas, 136, 137, 138, 139
Smith, Dr. William, first Provost of
University of Pennsylvania, 73
Smith, William, 136, 161
Snyder, Henry, 72
Society of Free Traders, 13
South Mountain, 172, 181, 182, 187
Spain, origin of bloomary in, 6
Spang Forge, 114
Spang, Frederick, 114
SPEEDWELL FORGE, 87, 159
Sping, Andrew, 72
Spotswood, Governor, 98
Spring Book, 153
SPRING FORGE, I, 58
SPRING FORGE, II, 158
SPRING FORGE, III, 151, 169, 171,
Staples, Rebecca, 12
Stapleton, Robert, 111
State pension, 168
Stedman, Alexander, 121, 129
Stedman, C. and A., 115, 123, 124
Stedman, Charles, 81, 121, 129
Steel first made in America, 26
Steel furnace, pioneer, in Philadel-
Steel, James, 28
Stein, , 115
Steinmetz, John, 169
Stengel family, 120
Stenton, firebacks at, 49, 61
Stevenson, Catherine, 166
Stevenson, George, 160, 161, 165,
Stevenson, George, as Chief Ranger
of York Co., 165
Stevenson, Henry, 165
Stevenson, Mary and Nancy, 166
Stewart, Capt. Lazerus, 137
Stiegel, Barbara, 121
Stiegel, Elizabeth, 116, 159
Stiegel glassware, 126
Stiegel, Henry William, 1, 115, 119,
Stiegel, Jacob, 121
Stockley, John S., 147
Stove bearing patriotic motto, 154
Stove invented by Franklin, 70, 72
Stove, wall warming, 9
Stove plates, decoration of, 9, 121
Stove plates, decoration of, Biblical,
Stoves, casting of, 8, 133
Strettell, Robert, 166
Stroudwater blankets, 14
Stuart, Gilbert, portrait of Wash-
Sullivan, General, 94
Supreme Executive Council, 163, 164
Supreme Executive Council, Lesh-
er's letter to, 112
Surrie, John, 79
Susquehanna River, boats used on,
Susquehanna River, shipment of
coal, down, 173
Sutter, Peter, 140
Swede's Ford, 77, 93
PROVINCE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Swedes, settlements of, at Morlat-
Taylor, George, 55, 56
Taylor, Isaac, 27
Taylor, Jacob, Surveyor-General, 28
Taylor, John, 28, 96
Tariff law in 1789, 75
Tariff, protective, votes for, 107
Tennessee mountaineers, 182, 185
Thomas, Governor, proclamation of,
Thompson, General William, 160,
Thompson, General William, Col-
onel's commission to, 167
Thompson, Mary, 165
Thomson, Charles, Secretary of the
Continental Congress, 61
Thornburg, Robert, 172, 186
Till, William, 166
Tower Hill, 124
Tulpehocken Eisenhammer, 115, 123
Turner, Joseph, 45, 84, 166
Udree, General Daniel, 176
Union Canal, 89
Union Furnace, 178
Union Iron Works, 47
Union, transport, 168
United States, first Treasurer of, 142
VALLEY FORGE, 29, 34, 56, 90, 145,
154. See also MOUNT JOY FORGE.
Valley Forge, Continental Army at,
Valley Forge, evacuation of, 94
Valley Forge, headquarters of Wash-
ington at, 94
Valley Forge, preaching at, 103
Van Gezel, Catherine, 162
Van Leer, Bernhard, 18
Vaux, James, 94
Vaux, James, Washington at house
Veneada, George, 81
Vincent Steel Works, 17, 18
Von Hiester, General, 130
Walker, Daniel, 91
Wallace, James, 137
Warwick, Washington at, 74
WARWICK FURNACE, 63, 69, 154, 155
Washington, General George, and
Canadian Campaign, 167
Washington, Gen'l George, as guest
of James Vaux, 95
Washington, General George, as
guest of Robert Coleman, 131
Washington, General George, as
guest of Thomas Potts, 19, 146
Washington, General George, at
Valley Forge, 95, 103, 104
Washington, Gen'l George, letter
of, to Gen. Wayne, 34
Washington, Gen'l George, letter
of, to President of Congress, 74
Washington, Gen'l Geoege, march
of, to French Creek and Potts-
Washington's Headquarters, 29, 73
Watson, John F., 148
Watson, Patrick, 166
Watts, Hon. Frederick, 186
Watts, William M., 186, 187
Wayne, General Anthony, 35, 92
Wayne, General, at Three Rivers,
Wayne, Isaac, 92
Webb, James, 137, 139
Webb, Samuel, 138
FORGES AND FURNACES.
Webb, William, 138
Weight, Benjamin, 25
Weiss, Weitzius, Rev. George
Michael, 66, 135
Welcker, Dietrich, 176
Wells Falls, 51
Welsh, John, 140
West, Edward, 64
West, Tommy, 64
Whiskey Insurrection, 88
White, Thomas (Mrs.), 128
Whiteford, Hugh, 166
Wilkin, Matthew, 140
Wilkins, John, 166
Williams, Joseph, 91
Willow Grove turnpike, 37
Wilson, James, the Signer, 78
WINDSOR FORGES, 17, 98, 154
WINDSOR FURNACE, 178, 179
Winey, Jacob, 178
Winter, John and Walter, 31
Wishon, Conrad, 80
Wistar, Doctor, attendance of, on
fever victims, 150
Wolff, Anna Dorothea, 175
Womelsdorf, 115, 124, 153
Women's work at furnaces, 181
Wood, consumption of, in furnaces,
23, 110, 156, 181
Wood, Elizabeth, 121
Wooddrop, Alexander, 15, 22, 23, 64
Woodland, destruction of, 40
Woodman, Henry, 90
Yarnall, Dr. Peter, 150
Yeates, Anne, 40
Yeates, Jasper, 130, 164
Yeldale, Anthony, 140
Yellow Springs, 74, 155
Yoder, John, 111
York County, 97, 118, 151, 160, 171,
Yorke & Potts, 80
Yorke, Thomas, 19, 64
Young, James, Paymaster, 173
Young, Peter, 140
Zantzinger, Paul, 81, 117
Zerby, Hanes, 81
14 DAY USE
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APR 2 9 1959
OCT 9 '68
University of Californu
YC 685 1 !