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NEW YORK 1917 




C ^4?- 


Aviong the many wrongs done the Filipinos by Spaniards, to be 
charged against their undeniably large debt to Spain, one of the greatest, 
if not the most frequently mentioned, was taking frotn them their good 

Spanish writers have never been noted for modesty or historical 
accuracy. Back in 15S9 the printer of the English translation of 
Padre Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza's "History of the Great and Mighty 
Kingdom of China'' felt it necessary to prefix this xvarning: 

* * * the Spaniards (foUomng their ambitious affections) do 
usually iti all their tvritings extoll their oivn actions, even to the setting 
forth of many untruthes and incredible things, as in their descriptions 
of the conquisles of the east and icest Indies, etc., doth more at large 
appear e. 

Of early Spanish historians Doctor Antonio de Morga seems the 
single exception, and perhaps even some of his credit comes by contrast, 
but in later years the rule apparently has proved invariable. As the 
conditions in the succe.'isive periods of Spanish influence were recog- 
nized to be indicative of little progress, if not actually retrogressive, the 
practice grew up of correspondingly lowering the current estimates of 
the capacity of the Filipinos of the conquest, so that always an apparent 
advance appeared. This in the closing period, in order to fabricate 
a sufficient showing for over three centuries of pretended progress, led 
to the practical denial of human attributes to the Filipinos found here 
by Legaspi. 

Against this denial to his countrymen of virtues as well as rights. 
Doctor Rizal opposed two briefs whose English titles are "The Philip- 
pines A Century Hence" and "The Indolence of the Filipino." Almost 
every page therein shows the influence of the young student's early 
reading of the hereinafter-printed studies by the German scientist 
Jagor, friend and counsellor in his maturer years, and the liberal 
Spaniard Comyn. Even his acquaintance with Morga, which eventually 
led to Rizal's republication of the 1609 history long lost to Spaniards, 
probably was owing to Jagor, although the life-long resolution for that 
action can be traced to hearing of Sir John Bowring's visit to his uncle's 
home and the proposed Hakluyt Society English translation then 


The present value and interest of these now rare books has suggested 
their republication, to make available to Filipino students a course of 
study which their national hero found profitable as well as to correct 
the myriad misconceptions of things Philippine in the minds of those 
who have taken the accepted Spanish accounts as gospel truths. 

Dr. L. V. Schweibs, of Berlin, made the hundreds of corrections, many 
reversing the meanings of former readings, which almost justify calling 
the revised Jagor translation a neiv one. Numerous hitherto-untrans- 
lated passages likewise appear. There have been left out the illustrations, 
from crude drawings obsolete since photographic pictures have famil- 
iarized the scenes and objects, and also the consequently superfluous 
references to these. No other omission hu^ been allowed, for if one 
author leaned far to one side in certain debatable questions the other 
has been equally partisan for the opposite side, except a comment on 
religion in general and discussion of the world-wide social evil were 
eliminated as having no particular Philippine bearing to excuse their 
appearance in a popular work. 

The early American quotations of course are for comparison with 
the numerous American comments of today, and the two magazine 
extracts give English accounts a century apart. Virchow's matured 
■views have been substituted for the pioneer opinions he furnished 
Professor Jagor thirty years earlier, and if RizaVs patron in the scientific 
world fails at times in his facts his method for research is a safe guide. 

Finally, three points should constantly be borne in mind: (1) allow- 
ance must be made for the lessening Spxnish influence, surely more 
foreign to this seafearing people than the present modified Anglo-Saxon 
education, and so more artificial, i. e., less assimilable, as well as for 
the removal of the unfavorable environment, before attempting to from 
an opinion of the present-day Filipino from his prototype pictured in 
those pages; {2) foreign observers are apt to emphasize what is strange 
to them in describing other lands than their own and to leave unnoted 
points of resemblance which may be much more numerous; (3) Rizal's 
judgment that his countrymen were more like backward Europeans than 
Orientals was based on scientific studies of Europe's rural districts and 
Philippine provincial conditions as well as of oriental country life, so 
that it is entitled to more weight than the commoner opinion to the con- 
trary which though more popular has been less carefully formed. 
University of the Philippines, 
Manila, March 11th, 1916. 


T f m PAGE 

Jagor s Travels IN THE Philippines . j 

(The out-of-print 1875 English translation corrected from 
the original German text) 

State of the Philippines in 1810. By Tomas de Comyn 357 

{William Walton's 1821 translation modernized) 
Manila AND^SuLu in 1842. By Com. Chas. Wilkes, 

/Ar " 1- ' ■ • • -459 

{Narrative of U. S. Exploring Expedition 1838-^2, Vol. 6) 

Manila IN 1819. By Lieut. John White, U. S. N.' 530 

{From the ^'History of a Voyage to the China ^m") 

The Peopling of the Philippines. By Doctor Rudolf 

Virchow ••....... 536 

(0. T. Mason's translation; Smithsonian Institution 1899 

People AND Prospects of the Philippines. By an 

English Merchant, 1778, and a Consul, 1878 . 550 
{From Blackwood's and the Cornhill Magazine) 

Filipino Merchants OF THE Early 1890s. ByF Karuth 
F.R.G.S . «uxu, 


Abaca (Manila Hemp) — ^Abaca, 293; Manila hemp, 293; abacA districts, 294; 
Undetermined plant relations, 294; Peculiar to the Philippines, 295; Su- 
periority of fiber, 295; Banana varieties, 296; Cultivation, 296; Cutting, 
297; Prejudice against cutting after blossoming, 297; Differences with abacd, 
297; Extracting the fiber, 298; Lupis and bandala, 300; Grades of lupis, 
300; Lupis fabrics, 300; Profit, 300; A Pre-Spanish product, 301 ; Bandala 
fabrics, 301; Abacd production and prospects, 304; Export of "Manila 
hemp," 305; Large local consumption, 305; Sisal-hemp, 305; Varieties of 
sisal. 306; Profit, 307; Banana substitute unsatisfactory, 307; Manila 
hemp, 469; Abaci, 274. 

Agriculture — Fertile fields, 42; Java-like rice fields, 73; A famous plantation, 
65; Sweet potatoes, 141; A French planter, 185; Isolation of fertile regions, 
188; A populous fertile district, 194; The people and their crops, 199; 
Rotation of crops, 199; Locusts, 260; Plan for. their extermination, 261; 
Lack of capital for large plantations, 291; Increasing culture, 361; Estates, 
370; Locusts, 471. 

Americans — Mongolian vs. Caucasian in America, 336; Chinese problem in 
America, 337; China and America, 354; Growing American influence, 354; 
The mission of America, 355; Superiority over Spanish system, 356; Amer- 
ican hemp ships, 459; Advantages of Sulu (American) treaty, 528. 

Amusements — ^Visitors to festival, 74; A Filipino theater, 99; An indifferent 
performance, 99; Interest in festival, 100; A danceless ball, 165; Amuse- 
ments, 282. 

Animals — The carabao, 42; Cattle and horses, 141; Black cattle, 142; Sheep. 
142; Swine, 143; Cattle, 187; The flying monkey, 229; A promise of rare 
animals and wild people, 230; East Indian monkeys, 238; Snaring swine, 
269; Scarcity of stock, 275; Swine, 276; Sheep and goats, 276; Draft animals, 

Bamboo — Bamboo, 43; Strength, 43; Convenience, 43; U.sefulness, 44; Bamboo, 
raft ferry, 74. 

Bisayas — Bisayas, 54; Superstitions regarding the "Bisayan" bean, 255; Leyte, 
259; The Bisayans, 271; Leyte. 281; Cebu, 287; Cebu island, 287; Iloilo, 
289; Panay, 495; (see Samar). 

Cacao (Chocolate) — Cacao, 89; High quality, 90; Scanty production, 90; 
Culture, 91; Neglect, 91; Damage by storms, 91 ; Diseases and pests, 92 ; 
Chocolate, 93; An uncertain venture, 94; Use in Europe, 94; Cocoa, 365. 

Chinese — Spanish coins in circulation on China coast, 2^2; Similarity with' 
Chinese conditions, 118; Chinese monopolize trade, 145; Anti-Chinese 
feeling, 303; Importance of Chinese, 329; Early Chinese Associations, 32 9; 
Industrial and commercial activity, 330; Unsuccessful attempts at restriction , 
330; Early massacre of Chinese, 331; Chinese laborers limited, 331; Lima- 
hong and the Mandarins' visit, 331; Another massacre, 332; The pirate 

I n d e X — (Continued) 

Kog-seng, 332; Another expulsion, 332; Thrifty traders. 333; Anda's and 
1819 massacres, 333; Oppressive taxation, 334; Expulsion of merchants 
from Manila. 334; Excellent element in population. 335; Formidable com- 
petitors, 335; Sphere of future influence. 335; Efficiency and reliability 
of Chinese labor, 336; Chinese cleverness and industry, 337; Chinese tax, 416. 

Climate (See also Earthquakes) — The monsoons, 49; Winds, 51; Storms, 52; 
Sunshine and rain, 52; Storm-bound shipping. 78; Change of season, 102; 
Storm damage, 104; Storms. 179; Winds and planting season. 207; A 
muddy dry season, 211; Seasons and weather, 218; Winds and storms. 219. 
Typhoons, 460. 

Cock-Fighting — Cock-fighting, 26; Probably Malay custom, 27; The cock- 
pit, 27; Its bad influence, 27; Game cocks a Spanish innovation, 200, 
Provincial cockpit revenue, 411; Cockpit licenses, 411; Cock-fighting, 478. 

Coffee — Coffee. 95; Highest grades, 96; Exports, 96; French preference, 96; 
Prices, 97; Javan and Ceylon crops, 97; Philippine exports, 97; Coffee, 365; 
Coffee, 470. 

Commerce — Future in American and -Australian trade, 2; Philippine Islands 
commercially in the New World. 3; Slight share in world commerce. 5; 
Little commerce with Spain. 5; Former Spanish ships mainly carried foreign 
goods, 5; Customhouse red tape, 9; Antiquated restrictions on trade, 10; 
Laws drove away trade. 11; Exports taxes, 11; Discouragements for foreign 
ships. 11; Pre-Spanish foreign commerce, 12; The 1869 reform, 12; Bet- 
tered conditions, 12; Early extension under Spain. 13; Jealousy of Seville 
monopolists. 13; Prohibition of China trading. 14; Higher limit on sus- 
pension of galleon voyages. 14; The "Philippine Company" monopoly. 
15; Subterfuges of European traders, 15; Losses by bad management, 16; 
Daraga market, 102; Tagalog women traders, 177; Trade. 200; Illogical 
business, 258; Disproportionate prices, 258; Uncertain trading, 259; No 
markets, 279; Barter, 279; Exports, 286; Ports of entry, 286; Customhouse 
data, 288; Unbusinesslike early methods. 302; Change to a safer basis, 303; 
Money juggling. 325; Neglected market. 363; Ship building advantages. 
367; Internal commerce handicapped. 377; Scanty exports. 377; Local 
markets. 378; External commerce. 379; Business irregularities, 380; Mer- 
chants discouraged, 381; Capital employed in commerce, 382; Large sums 
hoarded, 383; Mercantile shi pping, 385; Royal Philippine company, 386 
Need of nautical school, 386; Local progress under adverse conditions, 387 
Handicapped in outside trade, 388; Profit percent to go to Spain, 390 
Need of special privileges, 390; Spanish commerce in its infancy, 391 
Extension of monopoly urged, 400; Slight concession to the Company, 403 
Shipping reform, 422; Business, 461; Commerce, 462; Customs dues, 512 
Filipino merchants of the early 1890s, 552. 

Dress — Pretty girls in gay garments. 29; Dress of the poorer women. 30; Men's 
clothing. 30; The " Principales," 30; The servants, 31; The dandies, 31; 
Mestiza costume. 31; Clothing, 148; Women's extras. 277; Clothing coat, 

Dwellings — Native houses comfortable and unchanged. 25; Board houses and 
their furniture. 58; Homes. 145; Household affairs, 147; Furniture. 148; 
Household furniture. 278; Dwellings. 461. 

I n d e X — (Continued) 

Dutch — Dutch and English stand well in their colonies, 32; Dutch colonials 
well educated, 33; Different English and Dutch policy, 120; Death customs, 
201; Dutch opposition, 349. 

Earthquakes — Scanty data available, 8; Former heavy shocks, 7; The 1610 
catastrophe, 8; The 1863 earthquake, 6; Destruction in walled city, Manila, 
7; Damage in Cavite, 7; Frequent minor disturbances, 8; Earthquake evi- 
dences, 77; Sorsogon earthquake, 107; 1628 Camarines earthquake, 129. 

English — Capture of "Santa Anna," 21; Dutch and English stand well in their 
colonies, 32; English occupation, 349; Contract with English colonies, 353; 
English-Sulu treaty, 515; Sulu victory over English, 517; Balambangan 
Island (English), 523. 

Filipinos — Dreary and unprogressive life, 26; Native distrust of Europeans, 32; 
Social standing of Filipinos enhanced, 34; Spanish-Filipino bonds of union, 
34; Initiative and individuality missing, 35; Imitation instilled and self- 
respect banished, 35; Native art-sense spoiled, 36; Educated Filipino 
unnatural, 36; Indolence from absence of incentive, 36; Weakened character 
and want of dignity, 37; Carelessness from lack of responsibility, 37; Cir- 
cumstances have favored the Filipinos, 37; Have fared better than the 
Mexicans, 38; Change from Malayan character, 46; Filipino hospitality, 
79; A native captain, 82; Amateur scientists, 97; The native clergy, 123; 
Family income, 149; Woman's work, 150; Marriage age, 150; Infant mortal- 
ity, 151; Imitation-mania, 152; The sickness in Siberia, 152; The itch, 152; 
Running amuck, 153; Sense of smell, 154; Respect for women and aged, 
200; Sexual crimes, 203; Native contempt for private Spaniards, 211 ; Caroline 
Islands' possible influence on Filipinos, 243; A pleasing people, 262; Debts. 
279; Public charity not accepted, 281; Morals, 282; Great infant mortal- 
ity, 283; Origin of race, 359; Filipino farmers, 371; Restriction of native 
ordinations recommended, 443; Native efforts for self-defence, 446; Native 
assistance, 451; Natives, 508; Superiority of women, 509; People and pros- 
pects of the Philippines, 550; Filipino merchants of the early 1890s, 552. 

Filipinos. Ancient — Burial customs, 248; Assistance from history, 545; Hair 
differences, 545; Ancestor worship, 546; Tattooing, 546; Teeth alterations, 
547; Skull flattening, 548; Hope of Filipino and American study, 549; 
Comparison of Indio and Negrito skulls, 550; (See Philippines, Pre-Spanish) . 

Fishing — Picking fish, 57; Plunder, 84; Lived by seafishing and rain water, 241 ; 
Fishing, 251; Fish, 479. 

Food — Easy food, 41; Meals, 146; Cost of food, 276. 

Foreigners — M. de la Gironniere, 67; Tardy justice to foreigners, 304; Com- 
petition of foreign merchants, 389; Magellan, 462. 

Friars — A convento and the parish priest, 60; Unwelcome hospitality, 63; An 
early friar attempt (Mt. Mayon), 88; Priestly assistance. 111; The priests' 
importance, 112; Franciscan friars, 112; Young men developed by re- 
sponsibility, 113; Poor architects, 114; Superiority over government officials, 
115; Former legal status, 116; A scientific priest-poet, 154; Friars an impor- 
tant factor, 352; Their defects have worked out for good, 352; Pious and 

I n d e X — (Continued) 

charitable funds' capital. 383; Standing of parish priests. 434; Friars 
only check on officials, 436; Missionaries' achievements, 436; Curtailing 
priestly authority, 437; Friars bulwark of Spanish rule, 438; Unwise to 
discredit priests, 439; Testimony in their behalf, 439; Ecclesiatical organiza- 
tion, 440; Dual supervision over friars, 441; Allowances from treasury, 441; 
Need of more European clergy, 442; Monasteries, 482. 

Galleon -Trade — Galleon story sidelight on colonial history, 17; Chinese part 
in galleon trade. 18; Division of space and character of cargo, 18; Favoritism 
in allotment of cargo space. 18; Profit in trade. 18; Evasion of regulations, 
19; Route outward, 20; Length of voyage. 20; Water-supply crowded out 
by cargo, 20; California landfall, 21; Galleon's size and armament, 21; 
Speedy return voyage, 21; Value of return f.'»ight, 22; "Philippine Com- 
pany and smugglers cause change, 22; Gambling rather than commerce, 22; 
Undervaluation of galleon goods, 403; Variations in valuations, 405; Gal- 
leon graft, 423. 

Government — Low taxes. 39; Unreliability of government reports, 54; Wine 
and liquor monopoly a failure, 7 1 ; Handicapped officials. 106 ; Funds diverted 
to Spain. 107; Alcaldes formerly in trade. 116; Their borrowed capital, 117; 
Improvement in present appointees, 117; LTnidentified with country, 118; 
Similarity with Chinese conditions, 118; Dependence on interpreters, 119; 
Fear of officials' popularity. 120; Different English and Dutch policy, 120; 
Papal concessions to Spain. 128; Schools. 149; An unfortified fort. 165; 
Policy of non-intercourse with heathens, 192; A policy of peace, 194; No 
protection from Government. 212; Electing officers. 222; Palapat Revolt, 
222; Ornamental but useless forts, 232; Speculation with public funds, 317; 
Wholesale rate higher than retail from government. 325; Unthinking policy 
of greed, 344; The feudal ' 'encomiendas," 345; Extortions of encomenderos, 
346; Many minor uprisings from local grievances, 350; Cavite 1872 mutiny. 
351; Menaces to Spanish rule. 353; Restricted cultivation, 360; Confiscating 
unused lands, 372; Improvement in public finances 393; Economy over 
Spanish-American colonial administration. 393 ; Custom house, 401 ; Former 
customs usage, 401; Unbusinesslike customs w'ays, 404; Folly of monopoly 
plan. 407; Community funds, 416; Disbursements and general exprenses, 
421; Defence expenses, 422; The navy, 424; Objectionable office-holders, 
426; Evils from officials in trade, 427; No check on extortion, 429; Less 
complaisant laws needed, 430; Pioneer Philippine government a theocracy, 
434; Governmental lenience, 445; The governor-general, 473; Government, 
484; Government, 510. 

Industries (See also Agriculture and Fishing) — Tapis weaving, 58; Petaca cigar 
cases, 59; Preparation of material, 59; Costly weaving. 59; Kupang iron- 
foundry, 62; Trade in molave, 75; Nito cigar cases, 98; Pineapple fiber 
preparation. 131 ; Slight industrial progress, 144; Gold mining, 166; Abandon- 
ed workings, 169; Manufactures, 201; Oil factory, 256; Weaving, 301; 
Machine-spinning. 307; Fiber-extracting machinery. 308; Methods of 
Manufacture. 361; Manufactures, 375; Native cloth weaving, 375; Aptitude 
for, but no development of, manufacturing, 376; Improved methods and 
machinery needed, 376; Pifia, 475. 

Labor — Servant subterfuges, 101; Petty robberies, 101; Wages, 149; A clever 
pilfering servant, 163; Unreliable excuses, 182; The Filipino as a laborer. 

I n d e X — {Continued) 

IS^- Forced labor, 206; Carpentering difficulties. 215; Losing a clever 

assUtant. 216; Unsatisfactory forced labor. 223; Wages. 278; Laborers 

work and wages, 299; Good work for good pay. 304; Compulsory labor. 372. 

No legal obstacle to forced labor. 374; Wages. 470. 
Lakes-The Lagoon of Bay, 63; Maycap Lake. 60; Lake Palakpakan. 69; 

Batu-The lake. 121; Lake Buhi. 128; Changes in Batu Lake. 208; Jaruanan 

Lake, 265; Bito Lake. 267. 
Land-S^a's encroachments. 108; Land for everybody. 145; Land leases. 149. 

A bare plain and wretched village. 194; Land tenure. 273; Land tenure. 

287; Land disputes, 291. 
Luzon-Luzon. 48; Luzon Provinces and their languages and populations. 53; 

Coasting Luzon, 80; Camarines. 109. 

Manila-Foreign mail facilities, 5; City's appearance mediaeval E-';°P-"- ^^ 
Manila's fine bay. 6; Shelter for shipping, 9; Few foreign vessels, 10, Silt ng 
Tpof Hver mouth, io; Manila's favorable location, 12; British occupation 
inspired new wants. 15; Manila opposition to trade innovations. 15, Port s 
importance lessened under Spain, 16; Trade free but port charges discri- 
minating. 16; Entrance of foreign ships and firms, 16; The ja led ctY oj 
Manila, 23; Population. 23; Discomforts and high cost of living, 24, Bridges. 
23 Neglec ed river and canals offensive. 25; Feminine attractiveness^ 28 
The Luneta. 28; The Angelus. 29; Botanical garden. 29; Frequence of fires. 
56; Commercial importance of early Manila^348; Manila as capital of a 
va t empire. 348; Manila's population. 359; P^-'^.^^'^^-'f ^J"^ 46 Ti; 
A Spanish oriental city, 459; Twin piers, 460; City of Manila, 462. The 
Luneta. 477; The cemetery. 481. 

Mestizos (Half-castes)-Friction between classes. 23; Mestizas^28; Clever 
Mestizos Uiaii , society. 31; Mestizos, 31; Danger from 

business women, 31; ill at ease in sutici-y. ^ , 

mestizos and Creoles, 351. 
Micronesians-Pearl divers from the Carolines, 239; Hardships and perils 
of thervoyage?239;Castaways from the Pelews,240; Not the first time for 
one 241; Previous castaways, 241; Other arrivals of Micronesians, 242. 

Mindanao-Mindanao, 54; Old Zamboanga fort. 286; Mindanao and Sulu 
independent 343; Council of war recommended, 450; Mindanao also needs 
attentTon 452; A plan for future policing, 453; Mindanao, 497; Zamboanga, 
499. (See "Moros.") 

Minerals-A primitive rock breaker, 167; An -"-^^-■.^'^^•^^^it'utuTc'esshii 
The clean-up 168; Copper. 172; Paying minus dividends, 172, Un.uccesstu 
Ioppefnrin?ng,172;Igorot-mining successful 172;Copperke«le^^^ 
to Negritos, 173; Copper-working a pre-Spamsh art. 173 The Igorots 
Method 174-TheSmelter. 175; Smelting, 175; The copper stone, 176 

Pu'f fng th; product, 176; Miners' ^^^^^f^^^^^^'^^^'Zl 
179; Wild Cat Mining, 179; Jasper and coal, 235; Gold, 368, Copper, .»05. 

Cinnabar, 369; Iron. 369. 
Mountaineers-A negrito family. 62 ; Remontados. 124; Iriga settlements, 126; 
PoTson arrows, 126; Crucifixes, 126; Mountaineers' arrow P-son, 132 
PrmiUve mountaineers. 191; Christian Mountaineers villages. 193. A 

I n d e X — (^Continued) 

heathen Mountaineers' settlement, 197; A giant fern hedge, 198; Simple 
stringed instruments, 198; Religion, 200; Medicine, 201; Marriage, 202; 
Farewell to mountaineers, 205; A forest home, 268; Mountaineers, 271; 
Foreigners and wild tribes, 358; Mountaineers, 483. 

Mountains — Mt. Arayat, 57; Mt. Iriga, 126; Another attempt at mountain 
climbing, 130; Rain prevents another ascent. 132; Mt. Isar6g, 190; Compa- 
rison with Javan Mountain district. 195; At the summit, 203; The descent, 
204; Mt. Iriga, 207; The ascent, 207; Altitude, 208; Ascent of Mt. Mazaraga, 
209; Altitude, 210; Climbing Banajao, 488; Mt. Maquiling, 492; 

Moros — Moro pirates, 103; Pirate rumors and robberies, 108; Real pirates, 109; 

Power of Moro pirates, 211; Government steamer easily eluded, 213; 

Steam gunboats more successful, 213; Renegaa:;s join pirates and bandits, 

214; Pirate outrages, 222; A pirate base, 224; Moro depredations, 443; 

Authority for war not lacking, 445; Moro piratical craft, 446; Growth of 

Moro power, 448; Pirate craft, 502. 
Palms (Coco, nipa, bonga)- — Coco-palms, 42; Nipa-palms, 42; Palm brandy, 69; 

Bought by government, 70; Profit in manufacture, 70; A pretty fan-palm, 

170; Making palm-sugar, 183; A petition for liquors, 206; A secret still, 269; 
, Coco and nipa wine monopoly, 398; Buyo monopoly unsatisfactory, 406. 

Pasig River — River resorts, 40; Sleeping pilots, 40; River's importance, 41; 
Riverside gaiety, 41; The Pasig, 64. 

Philippines, Pre-Spanish — Ancient Filipino civilization, 143; Guesses at 
history from language, 143; Regard for the sleeping, 154; Prehistoric remains, 
155; Ancient Chinese jar, 156; Used as tea canisters, 156; Prized by Japanese, 
157; Strict search in Japan, 157; $3,500 for a jar, 158; A speaking jar, 158; 
Found in Borneo, 158; A consecrated jar, 159; Tea societies, 160; Ceremo- 
nies, 160; Their object, 160; Reward of valor, 161; Superstitions, 162; 
Burial caves, 244; Objects destroyed but superstition persists, 245; Skulls 
from a rock near Basey, 245; The cavern's contents, 246; Impressive loca; 
tion of burial cave, 246; Burial caves, 247; Chinese dishes from a cave, 247- 
Embalming, 248; Slaves sacrificed, 249; Suitor's service, 282; Superstitions. 
283; Festivals and shrines, 284; Ancestor worship, 284; Ancient literature. 
284; Old religion, 285; Creation myth, 285. (See Filipinos, Ancient.) 

Poultry — Poultry, 276; Ducks, 479; Duck farms, 486. 

Philippines — A compromise civilization, 35; Spanish rule not benevolent, but 
beneficial, 37; A land of opportunity, 3S; Fortunate factors, 39; Labor- 
saving conditions, 40; Archipelago's great extent, 47; Favored by position 
and conditions, 47; Soil and sea alike productive, 48; Harbors and water 
highways, 48; Provinces and districts, 53; Population, 53; Language and 
dialects, 53; Outlying islands, 54; Importance of interpreter in Philippines, 
119; Progress under Spain, 144; Similarity to Indian Archipelago condi- 
tions, 192; Yap camotes from Philippines, 241; Spain's discovery and occu- 
pation, 342; Numerous names, 343; Spanish improvements, 343; Spain and 
Portugal united, 348; Phillippine history unimportant and unsatisfactory, 
349; Summing up, 352; Powerful neighbors, 354; Nearing predominance 
of the Pacific, 355; Need of Phlippine awakening. 356; Population, 357; 
Plans for progress, 371; The undeveloped Philippines, 373; Philippines a 
burden to Spain. 391; War popular in Philippines, 451; Importance of peace 
for Philippine progress, 457; Resources, 465; Population, 472; Population, 511. 

I n d e X — {Continued) 

Products (See also Food, Coffee, Cacao, Bamboo and Palms) — Quicksilver, 107 
A neglected product, 122; Pina, 131; Red lead, 166; Edible bird's nests, 169 
Lead and mica, 170; Chrome-lead ore, 170; Batatas, 199; Molave, 231 
Ignatius bean, 253; Strychnine, 254; Coconuts, 255; Getting coco oil, 256 
Sulphur, 263; Prices, 263; A solfatara, 264; Danan solfatara, 265; Balao oil 
274; Other products, 274; Wax, 275; A valuable by-ixroduct, 293; Paper 
making materials, 309; Increasing use of wood and straw, 309; Preferability 
of discarded cloth, 309; Cotton, 359; Mulberry trees, 362; Silk, 362; Bees 
wax, 363; Black pepper, 363; Cinnamon, 365; Nutmeg, 366; Timber, 367 
Dye and cabinet woods, 367; Pearls, 370; Sulphur, 370; Tobacco belt, 395 
"Tuba," 399; Coco-wine, 399; Nipa brandy, 400; Hardships on areca-nut 
planters, 406; The areca-nut, 406; Cotton, 470; Indigo. 471. 

Punishments — Pleasant prison life, 45; Frequent floggings little regarded, 46. 

Rice — Rice cultivation. 139; Rice land production. 140; The harvest. 140; 
Rice and abaca exported, 144; Rice-farming, 272; Mountain rice, 273; 
Rice, 366; High yield, 366; Rice, 467. 

Rivers — Mapon river, 73; Sapa river. 133; Quinali river. 136; River highways. 
188; Many mountain water courses. 195; A changed river and a new town. 
225; Up the river. 225; On the Calbayot River. 227; Numerous small streams, 
235; Down the river, 237; Basey and its river, 249; Up the Maiiacagan, 263; 
Up Mayo River, 267. (See Pasig River.) 

Roads — Albay roads and bridges, 105; Neglected roads, 184; Social and poli- 
tical reasons for bad roads, 189; Bad roads raise freights, 189; Lack of roads, 
291; Poor roads, 234; An unpromising road, 267; Communication, 279. 

Samar — Off to Samar, 216; Samar. 217; Former names. 217; Only the coast 
settled, 219; Catbalogan monopoly of interisland traffic, 224; Catbalogan, 
228; Beauty of Samar-Leyte strait, 243; People of Samar and Leyte, 280. 

San Bernardino Strait — The straits, 79; Importance of straits, 80; San Ber- 
nardino current, 82. 

Snalces — Snake bite and rabies remedy, 151; Serpent-charmers, 231; Big 
pythons, 236; A sea snake, 247; Cholera and snake-bite cure, 254. 

Spaniards — Spaniards transient, 24; Few large landowners, 24; Spanish officials 
undesirables, 33; Spanish lack of prestige deserved, 34; Latin races better 
for colonists in the tropics, 34; Spanish-Filipino bonds of union, 34; .A. worthy 
official, 85; A suspicious medal, 88; Spanish prejudice against bathing. 165; 
Spanish economic backwardness. 190; Native contempt for private Spaniards, 
211; Obliging Spanish officials, 260; High character of early administra- 
tors, 344; Conquerors on commission, 345; Salcedo "most illustrious of the 
conquerors," 346; "The Cortes of the Philippines," 347; Undesirable emi- 
grants from Spain, 349; Credit due Spain, 352; Spanish planters, 370; 
Legaspi, 464; Courteous Spanish officials, 474. Sulu victory over Spaniards 

Springs — Los Banos hot springs. 66; Igabo hot spring, 134; Naglegbeng sili- 
cious springs, 134; Carbonic acid spring, 205; A tideland spring, 237; 
Hot spring, 264; Los Banos, 490; The hot springs, 492. 

Sugar — Sugar venders, 258; Sugar, 289; Sugar prices. 291; The future sugar 
market. 292; Sugar. 361; Sugar. 470. 

I n d e X — {Continued) 

Sulu — Sual's foreign trade, 287; Jolo, 449; Sulu. 500; Sulu harbor, 501; Visiting 
the Sultan, 503; Treaty with United States, 504; Interior travel prohibited. 
505; A stolen granite monument, |506; Sulu history, 513; Tawi-Tawi, 514; 
English-Sulu treaty, 515; Sulu victory over Spaniards, 516; Sulu victory 
over English, 517; Sulu piracies. 518; Suppression of Sulu pirates, 519; 
The Bajows, 520; Cagayan Sulu, 521; Balabac straits, 522; Balambangan 
Island (English), 523; Dyaks, 524; Diwatas, 525; Headhunting, 526; Cre- 
mation, 527; Advantages of Sulu (American) treaty, 52?. 

Time — Magellan's mistake in reckoning, 1; Difference from European time, 1 ; 
Change to the Asian day, 2. 

Title — The Pope's world-partition, 3; Faulty Spanish and Portuguese geog- 
raphy, 3; Spain's error in calculation, 4; Extravagant Spanish claims thru 
ignorance, 4; Moluccan rights sold to Poruagal, 4. 

Tobacco — Buyo and cigars, 147; Tobacco monopoly wars, 193; Tobacco prohi- 
bition, 270; Tobacco. 274; Tobacco revenue, 310; Injustice of the monopoly, 
310; Resume of regulations, 311; Tobacco from Mexico, 313; High grade of 
Philippine product, 314; Manila tobacco handicapped, 314; Hampered 
by government restrictions. 315; Origin of monopoly, 316; Governor Basco's 
innovations, 316; Different usages in Bisayas and Mindanao. 318; Changes 
bring improvement. 318; Crude system of grading. 318; Burden knowingly 
increased, 319; "Killing the goose that lays the golden egg," 320; Gift to 
Spain of unusable tobacco, 320; De La Gandara's proposed reforms, 321; 
Slight real profit from monopoly, 321; Suffering and law-breaking thru the 
monopoly, 322; Growing opposition to the monopoly, 323; Directions for 
cultivating tobacco, 326; Opposition to tobacco monopoly, 394; Doubling 
of insular revenue thru tobacco, 395; Cigar factories, 474. 

Travel — Pleasures of travel, 45; Village rest houses, 45; The familiar field for 
travellers, 46; Carromata, 55; To Calumpit by carriage, 56; Calumpit, 57; 
To Baliwag, 58; Town of Bulacan, 55; Arrangements for travellers, 61; 
Talim island, 67; Santa Cruz, 72; Scenery along |Lucban-Mauban road, 72; 
Lucban, 73; Hospitality of tribunal, 74; Calauan, 76; Majaijai, 76; Pila, 77; 
Mariveles, 78; To Albay by schooner. 78; Batangas coast, 81; Batangas 
exports, 81; An intermittent voyage, 83; Legaspi,84; Sorsogon, 84; Daraga, 
85; Bulusan, 104; Casiguran, 107; Batu, 121; Nabua, 124; Prison as hotel, 
133; Nueva Caceres, 137; Naga, 137; The Bicols, 138; Land of the Bicols, 
138; Bicol language, 139; Yamtik and Visita Bicul, 162; Trip with Internal 
Revenue Collector, 164; Rooming in a powder-magazine, 171; Labo, 178; 
Indang, 179; On foot to San Miguel bay, 180; Colasi, 181; Pasacao, 186; 
A beautiful coast, 187; Cabusao and Pasacao harbors, 188; Useful friends, 
196; A tedious but eventful voyage, 220; Dini portage, 236; Lauang, 
220; Paranas, 233; Running the rapids, 234; Hammock-traveling. 234; 
Loquilocun, 234; Along the coast, 237; A futile sea voyage in an open boat, 
243; A portage, 250; Tacloban to Tanauan, 261; The height of hospitality. 
262; A country excursion. 486; Recent elevation of coast. 252; To Dulag, 
266; Paragua, 456; Mindoro, 494; San Jose, 496; Caldera fort, 498; Ma- 
rongas island, 507. 

Volcanos — Volcanic stone quarries, 59; Llanura de Imuc, 68; Tigui-mere, 68; 
Leaf imprints in lava, 68; Bulusan like Vesuvius, 81; A chain of volcanos, 
110; Ascent of Mayon, 86; The descent, 87; Estimates of height, 89; Un- 
reliable authorities, 130; Four volcanos, 164. 

The Former Philippines 
thru Foreign Eyes 


WHEN the clock strikes twelve in Madrid,* it is Difference 
8 hours, 18 minutes, and 41 seconds past eight Ei^opg^n time 
in the evening at Manila; that is to say, the latter city 
lies 124° 40' 15" to the east of the former (7 hours, 54 
minutes, 35 seconds from Paris). Some time ago, 
however, while the new year was being celebrated in 
Madrid, it was only New Year's eve at Manila. 

As Magellan, who discovered the Philippines in his Magellan's 
memorable first circumnavigation of the globe, was ^"cfconLr 
following the sun in its apparent daily path around the 
world, every successive degree he compassed on his 
eastern course added four minutes to the length of his 
day; and, when he reached the Philippines, the differ- 
ence amounted to sixteen hours. This, however, appar- 
ently escaped his notice, for Elcano, the captain of the 
only remaining vessel, was quite unaware, on his return 
to the longitude of his departure, why according to his 
ship's log-book, he was a day behind the time of the 
port which he had reached again by continuously sailing 
westward, f X 

* New York noon is Manila 1:04 next morning. — C. 

t Navarrete, IV, 97 Obs. 2a. 

J According to Albo's ship journal, he perceived the difference at the Cape de 
Verde Islands on July 9, 1522; "Y este dia fue miercoles, y este dia tienen ellos 
por jueves." (And this day was Wednesday and this day they had as Thurs- 


Change to The crror remained also unheeded in the Philippines. 

the Asian j^ ^^^ ^^jjj^ ^^^^ there, the last day of the old year, 

while the rest of the world was commencing the new 
one; and this state of things continued till the close of 
1844, when it was resolved, with the approval of the 
archbishop, to pass over New Year's eve for once alto- 
gether.* Since that time the Philippines are considered 
to lie no longer in the distant west, but in the far east, 
and are about eight hours in advance of their mother 
country. The proper field for their commerce, how- 
ever, is what is to Europeans the far west; they were 
colonized thence, and for centuries, till 1811, they had 
almost no other communication with Europe but the 
indirect one by the annual voyage of the galleon between 
Manila and Acapulco. Now, however, when the eastern 
shores of the Pacific are at last beginning to teem with 
life, and, with unexampled speed, are pressing forward 
to grasp their stupendous future, the Philippines will 
no longer be able to remain in their past seclusion. No 
tropical Asiatic colony is so favorably situated for com- 
munication with the west coast of America, and it is 
only in a few matters that the Dutch Indies can compete 
with them for the favors of the Australian market. But, 
Future in on the Other hand, they will have to abandon their 

American and ^^^f^^ ^-^^ China, whosc principal emporium Manila 
trade. originally was, as well as that with those westward- 

looking countries of Asia, Europe's far east, which lie 
nearest to the Atlantic ports, j + 

* In a note on the 18th page of the masterly English (Hakluyt Society) 
translation of Morga, I find the curious statement that a similar rectification 
was made at the same time at Macao, where the Portuguese, who reached it 
on an easterly course, had made the mistake of a day the other way. 

t Towards the close of the sixteenth century the duty upon the exports to 
China amounted to $40,000 and their imports to at least $1,330,000. In 1810. 
after more than two centuries of undisturbed Spanish rule, the latter had sunk 
to $1,150,000. Since then they have gradually increased; and in 1861 they 
reached $'2,130,000. 

+ The Panama canal prevents this. — C. 

JiKjor's Travels in the Philiitpines 5 

When the circumstances mentioned come to be real- Commfrdaiiu in 
ized, the Philippines, or, at any rate, the principal market "'* *^*"' "'"■'''• 
for their commerce, will finally fall within the limits of 
the western hemisphere, to which indeed they were 
relegated by the illustrious Spanish geographers at 

The Bull issued by Alexander VI,* on May 4, 1493, The i;,,>€s 
which divided the earth into two hemispheres, decreed '""^ '"" ' ""'* 
that all heathen lands discovered in the eastern half 
should belong to the Portuguese; in the western half to 
the Spaniards. According to this arrangement, the 
latter could only claim the Philippines under the pretext 
that they were situated in the western hemisphere. The 
demarcation line was to run from the north to the south, 
a hundred leagues to the south-west of all the so-called 
Azores and Cape de Verde Islands. In accordance with 
the treaty of Tordesillas, negotiated between Spain 
and Portugal on June 7, 1494, and approved by Julius II, 
in 1506, this line was drawn three hundred and seventy 
leagues west of the Cape de Verde Islands. 

At that time Spanish and Portuguese geographers FauUy Spanish 
reckoned seventeen and one-half leagues to a degree "'"' "'■'"''""'' 
on the equator. In the latitude of the Cape de Verde 
Islands, three hundred and seventy leagues made 21° 55'. 
If to this we add the longitudinal difference between the 
westernmost point of the group and Cadiz, a difference 
of 18° 48', we get 40° 43' west, and 139° 17' east from 
Cadiz (in round numbers 47° west and 133° east), as 
the limits of the Spanish hemisphere. At that time, 
however, the existing means for such calculations were 
entirely insufficient. 

The latitude was measured with imperfect astrolabes, 
or wooden quadrants, and calculated from very deficient 

* Navarretc, IV, 54 Obs. la. 


Extravagant ' 
Spanish claims 
thru ignorance. 

Spain's error 
in calculation. 

Moluccan rights 
sold to Portugal. 

tables; the variation of the compass, moreover, was 
almost unknown, as well as the use of the log.* Both 
method and instruments were wanting for useful long- 
itudinal calculations. It was under these circumstances 
that the Spaniards attempted, at Badajoz, to prove to 
the protesting Portuguese that the eastern boundary line 
intersected the mouths of the Ganges, and proceeded 
to lay claim to the possession of the Spice Islands. 

The eastern boundary should, in reality, have beeu 
drawn 463 2° further to the east, that is to say, as much 
further as it is from Berlin to the coast of Labrador, or 
to the lesser Altai; for, in the latitude of Calcutta 463^-2° 
are equivalent to two thousand five hundred and seventy- 
five nautical miles. Albo's log-book gives the difference 
in longitude between the most eastern islands of the 
Archipelago and Cape Fermoso (Magellan's Straits), 
as 106° 30', while in reality it amounts to 159° 85'. 

The disputes between the Spaniards and the Portu- 
guese, occasioned by the uncertainty of the eastern 
boundary — Portugal had already founded a settlement 
in the Spice Islands — were set at rest by an agreement 
made in 1529, in which Charles V. abandoned his pre- 
tended rights to the Moluccas in favor of Portugal, for 
the sum of 350,000 ducats. The Philippines, at that 
time, were of no value. 

The distance from Manila to Hongkong is six hundred 
fifty nautical miles, and the course is almost exactly 
south-east. The mail steamer running between the two 

* According to Gehler's Phys. Lex. VI, 450, the log was first mentioned by 
Purchas in an account of a voyage to the East Indies in 1608. Pigafetta does 
not cite it in his treatise on navigation; but in the forty-fifth page of his work 
it is said: "Secondo la misura che facevamo del viaggio coUa cadena a poppa, 
noi percorrevamo 60 a 70 leghe al giorno." This was as rapid a rate as that of 
our (1870) fastest steamboats — ten knots an hour. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 

ports makes the trip in from three to four days. This 
allows of a fortnightly postal communication between 
the colony and the rest of the world.* 

This small steamer is the only thing to remind an 
observer at Hongkong, a port thronged with the ships 
of all nations, that an island so specially favored in 
conditions and fertility lies in such close proximity. 

Although the Philippines belong to Spain, there is 
but little commerce between the two countries. Once 
the tie which bound them was so close that Manila was 
wont to celebrate the arrival of the Spanish mail with 
Te Deuvis and bell-ringing, in honor of the successful 
achievement of so stupendous a journey. Until Portugal 
fell to Spain, the road round Africa to the Philippines 
was not open to Spanish vessels. The condition of the 
overland route is sufficiently shown by the fact that 
two Augustinian monks who, in 1603, were entrusted 
with an important message for the king, and who chose 
the direct line through Goa, Turkey, and Italy, needed 
three years for reaching Madrid.! 

The trade by Spanish ships, which the merchants 
were compelled to patronize in order to avoid paying 
an additional customs tax, in spite of the protective 
duties for Spanish products, was almost exclusively in 
foreign goods to the colony and returning the products 
of the latter for foreign ports. The traffic with Spain 
was limited to the conveyance of officials, priests, and 

Foreign mail 

Slight share 
in world 

Little commerce 
with Spain. 

Former Spanish 
ships mainly 
carried foreign 

* The European mail reaches Manila through Singapore and Hongkong. 
Singapore is about equidistant from the other two places. Letters therefore 
could be received in the Philippines as soon as in China, if they were sent direct 
from Singapore. In that case, however, a steamer communication with that 
port must be established, and the traffic is not yet sufficiently developed to bear 
the double expense. According to the report of the English Consul (May, 1870), 
there is, besides the Government steamer, a private packet running between 
Hongkong and Manila. The number of passengers it conveyed to China amounted, 
in 1868, to 441 Europeans and 3,048 Chinese; total, 3,489. The numbers 
carried the other way were 330 Europeans and 4,664 Chinese; in all, 4,994. 
The fare is $80 for Europeans and $20 for Chinamen. 

t Zuniga, Mavers, I, 225. 


fine bay. 


The ISG.i 

their usual necessaries, such as provisions, wine and 
other liquors; and, except a few French novels, some 
atrociously dull books, histories of saints, and similar 

The Bay of Manila is large enough to contain the 
united fleets of Europe; it has the reputation of being 
one of the finest in the world. The aspect of the coast, 
however, to a stranger arriving, as did the author, at the 
close of the dry season, falls short of the lively descrip- 
tions of some travellers. The circular bay, one hundred 
twenty nautical miles in circumference, the waters of 
which wash the shores of five different provinces, is fringed 
in the neighborhood of Manila by a level coast, behind 
which rises an equally flat table land. The scanty 
vegetation in the foreground, consisting chiefly of bam- 
boos and areca palms, was dried up by the sun; while 
in the far distance the dull uniformity of the landscape 
was broken by the blue hills of San Mateo. In the 
rainy season the numerous unwalled canals overflow 
their banks and form a series of connected lakes, which 
soon, however, change into luxuriant and verdant rice- 

Manila is situated on both sides of the river Pasig. 
The town itself, surrounded with walls and ramparts, 
with its low tiled roofs and a few towers, had, in 1859, 
the appearance of some ancient European fortress. Four 
years later the greater part of it was destroyed by an 

On June 3, 1863, at thirty-one minutes past seven in 
the evening, after a day of tremendous heat while all 
Manila was busy in its preparations for the festival of 
Corpus Christi, the ground suddenly rocked to and fro 
with great violence. The firmest buildings reeled visibly, 
walls crumbled, and beams snapped in two. The 
dreadful shock lasted half a minute ; but this little interval 

./(Igor's Traieln in the, Phitippinei 7 

was enough to change the whole town into a mass of 
ruins, and to bury ahve hundreds of its inhabitants.* 
A letter of the governor-general, which I have seen, 
states that the cathedral, the government-house, the ■ 
barracks, and all the public buildings of Manila were 
entirely destroyed, and that the few private houses which 
remained standing threatened to fall in. Later accounts 
speak of four hundred killed and two thousand injured, 
and estimate the loss at eight millions of dollars. Forty- 
six public and five hundred and seventy private buildings 
were thrown down ; twenty-eight public and five hundred 
twenty-eight private buildings were nearly destroyed, 
and all the houses left standing were more or less injured. 

At the same time, an earthquake of forty seconds' O'lmaye in 
duration occurred at Cavite, the naval port of the Phil- 
ippines, and destroyed many buildings. 

Three years afterwards, the Due d'Alencon (Lucon et De/^trurtion in 
Mindanao; Paris, 1870, S. 38) found the traces of the "'""''' '''"■ 
catastrophe everywhere. Three sides of the principal 
square of the city, in which formerly stood the govern- 
ment, or governor's, palace, the cathedral, and the town- 
house, were lying like dust heaps overgrown with weeds. 
All the large public edifices were "temporarily" con- 
structed of wood; but nobody then seemed to plan any- 
thing permanent. 

Manila is very often subject to earthquakes; the most Former heavy 
fatal occurred in 1601; in 1610 (Nov. 30); in 1645 (Nov. ''""'"■ 
30); in 1658 (Aug. 20); in 1675; in 1699; in 1796; in 
1824; in 1852; and in 1863. In 1645, six hundredf, or, 
according to some accounts, three thousand t persons 
perished, buried under the ruins of their houses. Their 

* Dr. Pedro Pelaez, in temporary charge of the diocese and dying in the cathe- 
dral, was the foremost Filipino victim. Funds raised in Spain for relief never 
reached the sufferers, but not till the end of Spanish rule was it safe to comment 
on this in the Philippines. — C. 

t Zuniga, XVIII, M. Velarde, p. 139. 

t Captain Salmon, Goch., S. 33. 


Frequent minor 

Seartty data 

The 1610 

monastery, the church of the Augustinians, and that of 
the Jesuits, were the only public buildings which 
remained standing. 

Smaller shocks, which suddenly set the hanging lamps 
swinging, occur very often and generally remain un- 
noticed. The houses are on this account generally 
of but one story, and the loose volcanic soil on which 
they are built may lessen the violence of the shock. 
Their heavy tiled roofs, however, appear very inappro- 
priate under such circumstances. Earthquakes are also 
of frequent occurrence in the provinces, but they, as a 
rule, cause so little damage, owing to the houses being 
constructed of timber or bamboo, that they are never 

M. Alexis Perrey {Mem. de V Academic de Dijon, 1860) 
has published a list, collected with much diligence from 
every accessible source, of the earthquakes which have 
visited the Philippines, and particularly Manila. But 
the accounts, even of the most important, are very 
scanty, and the dates of their occurrence very unreliable. 
Of the minor shocks, only a few are mentioned, those 
which were noticed by scientific observers accidentally 
present at the time. 

Aduarte (I. 141) mentions a tremendous earthquake 
which occurred in 1610. I briefly quote his version 
of the details of the catastrophe, as I find them mentioned 
nowhere else. 

"Towards the close of November, 1610, on St. Andrew's 
Day, a more violent earthquake than had ever before 
been witnessed, visited these Islands; its effects extended 
from Manila to the extreme end of the province of Nueva 
Segovia (the whole northern part of Luzon), a distance 
of 200 leagues. It caused great destruction over the 
entire area; in the province of Ilocos it buried palm trees, 
so that only the tops of their branches were left above the 

Jaijor's Traiels in the Philippines 

earth's surface; through the power of the earthquake 
mountains were pushed against each other; it threw 
down many buildings, and killed a great number of 
people. Its fury was greatest in Nueva Segovia, where 
it opened the mountains, and created new lake basins. 
The earth threw up immense fountains of sand, and 
vibrated so terribly that the people, unable to stand 
upon it, laid down and fastened themselves to the ground, 
as if they had been on a ship in a stormy sea. In the 
range inhabited by the Mendayas a mountain fell in, 
crushing a village and killing its inhabitants. An 
immense portion of the cliff sank into the river; and now, 
where the stream was formerly bordered by a range of 
hills of considerable altitude, its banks are nearly level 
with the watercourse. The commotion was so great in the 
bed of the river that waves arose like those of the ocean, 
or as if the water had been lashed by a furious wind. 
Those edifices which were of stone suffered the most 
damage, our church and the convent fell in, etc., etc." 


The customs inspection, and the many formalities which Cusiomhou^. 
the native minor officials exercised without any considera- 
tion appear all the more wearisome to the new arrival 
when contrasted with the easy routine of the English 
free ports of the east he has just quitted. The guarantee 
of a respectable merchant obtained for me, as a particular 
favor, permission to disembark after a detention of 
sixteen hours; but even then I was not allowed to take 
the smallest article of luggage on shore with me. 

During the south-west monsoon and the stormy shelter m 
season that accompanies the change of monsoons, the 
roadstead is unsafe. Larger vessels are then obliged 
to seek protection in the port of Cavite, seven miles 
further down the coast; but during the north-east 
monsoons they can safely anchor half a league from the 
coast. All ships under three hundred tons burden pass 

ship piny. 


Silting up of 
river mouth. 

Few foreign 

restrictions on 

the breakwater and enter the Pasig, where, as far as the 
bridge, they He in serried rows, extending from the shore 
to the middle of the stream, and bear witness by their 
numbers, as well as by the bustle and stir going on 
amongst them, to the activity of the home trade. 

In every rain-monsoon, the Pasig river sweeps such 
a quantity of sediment against the breakwater that 
just its removal keeps, as it seems, the dredging machine 
stationed there entirely occupied. 

The small number of the vessels in the roadstead, 
particularly of those of foreign countries, was the more 
remarkable as Manila was the only port in the Archi- 
pelago that had any commerce with foreign countries. 
It is true that since 1855 three other ports, to which a 
fourth may now be added, had gotten this privilege; but 
at th time of my arrival, in March, 1859, not one of them 
had ever been entered by a foreign vessel, and it was a 
few weeks after my visit that the first English ship sailed 
into Iloilo to take in a cargo of sugar for Australia.* 

The reason of this peculiarity laid partly in the feeble 
development of agriculture, in spite of the unexampled 
fertility of the soil, but chiefly in the antiquated and 
artificially limited conditions of trade. The customs 
duties were in themselves not very high. They were 
generally about seven per cent, upon merchandise con- 
veyed under the Spanish flag, and about twice as much 
for that carried in foreign bottoms. When the cargo 
was of Spanish production, the duty was three per cent, 
if carried in national vessels, eight per cent, if in foreign 
ships. The latter were only allowed, as a rule, to enter 
the port in ballast. t 

* The opening of this jxjrt proved so advantageous that I intended to have 
given a few interesting details of its trade in a separate chapter, chiefly gathered 
from the verbal and written remarks of the English Vice-Consul, the late Mr. 
N. Loney, and from other consular reports. 

t In 1868, 112 foreign vessels, to the aggregate of 74,054 tons, and Spanish 
ships to the aggregate of 26,762 tons, entered the port of Manila. Nearly all 
the first came in ballast, but left with cargoes The latter bcv»-h came and left 
in freight. (English Consul's Report, 1869.) 

Jaoor's Travel.'! in the l^hilippiiies 

As, however, the principal wants of the colony were Discouragement 

for for 

imported from England and abroad, these were either ■'<"■«»'"' 

kept back till an opportunity occurred of sending them 
in Spanish vessels, which charged nearly a treble freight 
(from £4 to £5 instead of from £13-2 to £2 per ton), 
and which only made their appearance in British ports 
at rare intervals, or they were sent to Singapore and 
Hongkong, where they were transferred to Spanish 
ships. Tonnage dues were levied, moreover, upon ships 
in ballast, and upon others which merelj'^ touched at 
Manila without unloading or taking in fresh cargo; 
and, if a vessel under such circumstances landed even 
the smallest parcel, it was no longer rated as a ship 
in ballast, but charged on the higher scale. Vessels were 
therefore forced to enter the port entirely devoid of 
cargo, or carrying sufficient to cover the expense of the 
increased harbor dues ; almost an impossibility for foreign 
ships, on account of the differential customs rates, which 
acted almost as a complete prohibition. The result 
was that foreign vessels came there only in ballast, or 
when summoned for some particular object. 

The exports of the colony were almost entirely limited Export taxes. 
to its raw produce, which was burdened with an export 
duty of three per cent. Exports leaving under the 
Spanish flag were only taxed to the amount of one per 
cent.; but, as scarcely any export trade existed with 
Spain, and as Spanish vessels, from their high rates 
of freight, were excluded from the carrying trade of the 
world, the boon to commerce was a delusive one.* 

These inept excise laws, hampered with a hundred Laws drove 
suspicious forms, frightened away the whole carrying " "" 
trade from the port; and its commission merchants were 

* In 1868 the total exports amounted to $14,013,108; of this England alone 
accounted for $4,857,000, and the whole of the rest of Europe for only $102,477. 
The first amount does not include the tobacco duty paid to Spain by the colony, 
$3,169,144. (English Consul's Report, 1869.) 


location . 

The 1869 





frequently unable to dispose of the local produce. So 
trifling was the carrying trade that the total yearly 
average of the harbor dues, calculated from the returns 
often years, barely reached $10,000. 

The position of Manila, a central point betwixt 
Japan, China, Annam, the English and Dutch ports 
of the Archipelago and Australia, is in itself extremely 
favorable to the development of a world-wide trade.* 
At the time of the north-eastern monsoons, during our 
winter, when vessels for the sake of shelter pass through 
the Straits of Gilolo on their way from the Indian Archi- 
pelago to China, they are obliged to pass close to Manila. 
They would find it a most convenient station, for the 
Philippines, as we have already mentioned, are parti- 
cularly favorably placed for the west coast of America. 

A proof that the Spanish Ultramar minister fully 
recognizes and appreciates these circumstances appears 
in his decree, of April 5, 1869, which is of the highest 
importance for the future of the colony. It probably 
would have been issued earlier had not the Spanish 
and colonial shipowners, pampered by the protective 
system, obstinately struggled against an innovation 
which impaired their former privileges and forced them 
to greater activity. 

The most noteworthy points of the decree are the 
moderation of the differential duties, and their entire 
extinction at the expiration of two years ; the abrogation 
of all export duties; and the consolidation of the more 
annoying port dues into one single charge. 

When the Spaniards landed in the Philippines they 
found the inhabitants clad in silks and cotton stuffs, 
which were imported by Chinese ships to exchange for 

* La Perouse said that Manila was perhaps the most fortunately situated 
city in the world. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines /■> 

gold-dust, sapan wood,* holothurian, edible birds' 
nests, and skins. The Islands were also in communi- 
cation with Japan, Cambodia, Siamf, the Moluccas, 
and the Malay Archipelago. De Barros mentions that 
vessels from Luzon visited Malacca in 151 1.+ 

The greater order which reigned in the Philippines ^"''^ extension 

r t e~K • 1 1-n i under Spain. 

after the advent of the Spaniards, and still more the 
commerce they opened with America and indirectly 
with Europe, had the effect of greatly increasing the 
Island trade, and of extending it beyond the Indies 
to the Persian Gulf. Manila was the great mart for 
the products of Eastern Asia, with which it loaded the 
galleons that, as early as 1565, sailed to and from New 
Spain (at first to Navidad, after 1602 to Acapulco), 
and brought back silver as their principal return freight. § 

The merchants in New Spain and Peru found this -Jealousy of 
commerce so advantageous, that the result was very monopolists. 
damaging to the exports from the mother country, whose 
manufactured goods were unable to compete with the 
Indian cottons and the Chinese silks. The spoilt 
monopolists of Seville demanded therefore the abandon- 

* Sapan or Sibucan, Caesalpinia Sapan. Pernambuco or Brazil wood, to 
which the empire of Brazil owes its name, comes from the Caesalpinia echinat 
and the Caesalpinia Braziliensis. (The oldest maps of America remark of 
Brazil: "Its only useful product is Brazil (wood).") The sapan of the Phil- 
ippines is richer in dye stuff than all other eastern asiatic woods, but it ranks 
below the Brazilian sapan. It has, nowadays, lost its reputation, owing to its 
being often stupidly cut down too early. It is sent especially to China, where 
it is used for dyeing or printing in red. The stuff is first macerated with alum, 
and then for a finish dipped in a weak alcoholic solution of alkali. The reddish 
brown tint so frequently met with in the clothes of the poorer Chinese is produced 
from sapan. 

t Large quantities of small mussel shells (Cypraea moneta) were sent at this 
period to Siam, where they are still used as money. 

+ Berghaus' Geo. hydrogr. Memoir. 

§ Manila was first founded in 1571, but as early as 1565, Urdaneta, Legaspi's 
pilot, had found the way back through the Pacific Ocean while he was seeking in 
the higher northern latitudes for a favorable north-west wind. Strictly speaking, 
however, Urdaneta was not the first to make use of the return passage, for one of 
Legaspi's five vessels, under the command of Don Alonso de Arellano, which had 
on board as pilot Lope Martin, a mulatto, separated itself from the fleet after 
they had reached the Islands, and returned to New Spain on a northern course, 
in order to claim the promised reward for the discovery. Don Alonso was dis- 
appointed, however, by the speedy return of Urdaneta. 


ment of a colony which required considerable yearly 
contributions from the home exchequer, which stood 
in the way of the mother country's exploiting her Ameri- 
can colonies, and which let the silver of His Majesty's 
dominions pass into the hands of the heathen. Since 
the foundation of the colony they had continually thrown 
impediments in its path.* Their demands, however, 
were vain in face of the ambition of the throne and the 
influence of the clergy; rather, responding to the views 
of that time the merchants of Peru and New Spain were 
forced, in the interests of the mother country, to obtain 
merchandise from China, either directly, or through 
Manila. The inhabitants of the Philippines were alone 
permitted to send Chinese goods to America, but only 
to the yearly value of $250,000. The return trade was 
limited to $500, 000. t 
Rrohibition of The first amount was afterwards increased to $300,000, 
China iradinu. ^-^j^ ^ proportionate augmentation of the return freight; 
but the Spanish were forbidden to visit China, so that 
they were obliged to await the arrival of the junks. 
Finally, in 1720, Chinese goods were strictly prohibited 
throughout the whole of the Spanish possessions in both 
hemispheres. A decree of 1734 (amplified in 1769) once 
more permitted trade with China, and increased the 
maximum value of the annual freightage to Acapulco 
to $500,000 (silver) and that of the return trade to twice 
the amount. 
Hiyher limit on After the galleons to Acapulco, which had been main- 
su^penswn of ^gjned at the expense of the government treasury, had 

galleon voyayes. ^ ■= -' ' 

stopped their voyages, commerce with America was 

* Kottenkamp I., 1594. 

t At first the maximum value of the imports only was limited, and the Manila 
merchants were not over scrupulous in making false statements as to their worth- 
to put an end to these malpractices a limit was placed to the amount of silver 
exported. According to Mas, however, the silver illegally exported amounted to 
six or eight times the prescribed limit. 

Jagor's Traveh in (lie PliiU p-jiini-s 15 

handled by merchants who were permitted in 1820, to 
export goods up to $750,000 annually from the Phil- 
ippines and to visit San Bias, Guayaquil and Callao, 
besides Acapulco. 

This concession, however, was not sufficient to com- Uriiuh 
pensate Philippine commerce for the injuries it suffered °''"'^"^^""' 

inspired neiv 

through the separation of Mexico from Spain. The wants. 
possession of Manila by the English, in 1762, made its 
inhabitants acquainted with many industrial products 
which the imports from China and India were unable 
to offer them. To satisfy these new cravings Spanish 
men-of-war were sent, towards the close of 1764, to the 
colony with products of Spanish industries, such as 
wine, provisions, hats, cloth, hardware, and fancy 

The Manila merchants, accustomed to a lucrative Manila 
trade with Acapulco, strenuously resisted this innova- "oTJde""' 
tion, although it was a considerable source of profit to innovations. 
them, for the Crown purchased the Indian and Chinese 
merchandise for its return freights from Manila at 
double their original value. In 1784, however, the last 
of these ships arrived. 

After the English invasion, European vessels were Subterjuues oj 
strictly forbidden to visit Manila; but as that city did f"^'"'««" 

•' •' traders. 

not want to do without Indian merchandise, and could 
not import it in its own ships, it was brought there 
in English and French bottoms, which assumed a 
Turkish name, and were provided with an Indian sham- 

In 1785, the Compania de FiUpimis obtained a mono- The 
poly of the trade between Spain and the colony, but it compaw"" 
was not allowed to interfere with the direct traffic be- monopoly. 
tween Acapulco and Manila. The desire was to acquire 
large quantities of colonial produce, silk, indigo, cinna- 
mon, cotton, pepper, etc., in order to export it somewhat 


Losses by bad 

Entrance of 
foreign ships 
and firms. 

Trade free 
but port 

lessened under 
.Spain . 

as was done later on by the system of culture in Java; 
but as it was unable to obtain compulsory labor, it 
entirely failed in its attempted artificial development of 

The Compania suffered great losses through its erro- 
neous system of operation, and the incapacity of its 
officials (it paid, for example, $13.50 for a picul of pepper 
which cost from three to four dollars in Sumatra). 

In 1789 foreign ships were allowed to import Chinese 
and Indian produce, but none from Europe. In 1809 
an English commercial house obtained permission to 
establish itself in Manila.* In 1814, after the conclusion 
of the peace with France, the same permission, with 
greater or less restrictions, was granted to all foreigners. 

In 1820 the direct trade between the Philippines and 
Spain was thrown open without any limitations to the 
exports of colonial produce, on the condition that the 
value of the Indian and Chinese goods in each expedi- 
tion should not exceed $50,000. Ever since 1834, 
when the privileges of the Compania expired, free trade 
has been permitted in Manila; foreign ships, however, 
being charged double dues. Four new ports have been 
thrown open to general trade since 1855; and in 1869 
the liberal tariff previously alluded to was issued. 

Today, after three centuries of almost undisturbed 
Spanish rule, Manila has by no means added to the 
importance it possessed shortly after the advent of the 
Spaniards. The isolation of Japan and the Indo- 
Chinese empires, a direct consequence of the importu- 
nities and pretensions of the Catholic missionaries,! 

* La P6rouse mentions a French firm (Sebis), that, in 1787, had been for many- 
years established in Manila. 

t R. Cocks to Thomas Wilson (Calendar of State Papers, India, No. 823) .... 
"The English will obtain a trade in China, so they bring not in any padres (a» 
they term them), which the Chinese cannot abide to hear of, because heretofore 
they came in such swarms, and are always begging without shame." 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 17 

the secession of the colonies on the west coast of America, 
above all the long continuance of a distrustful com- 
mercial and colonial policy — a policy which exists even 
at the present day — while important markets, based 
on large capital and liberal principles, were being estab- 
lished in the most favored spots of the British and Dutch 
Indies; all these circumstances have contributed to this 
result and thrown the Chinese trade into other channels. 
The cause is as clear as the effect, yet it might be erro- 
neous to ascribe the policy so long pursued to short- 
sightedness. The Spaniards, in their schemes of colonisa- 
tion, had partly a religious purpose in view, but the 
government discovered a great source of influence in the 
disposal of the extremely lucrative colonial appoint- 
ments. The crown itself, as well as its favorites, thought 
of nothing but extracting the most it could from the 
colony, and had neither the intention or the power to 
develop the natural wealth of the country by agricul- 
ture and commerce. Inseparable from this policy, was 
the persistent exclusion of foreigners.* It seemed even 
more necessary in the isolated Philippines than in America 
to cut off the natives from all contact with foreigners, 
if the Spaniards had any desire to remain in undisturbed 
possession of the colony. In face, however, of the 
developed trade of today and the claims of the world 
to the productive powers of such an extraordinarily 
fruitful soil, the old restrictions can no longer be main- 
tained, and the lately-introduced liberal tariff must be 
hailed as a thoroughly well-timed measure. 

* ;;: :!; ;•: :i; :!: :i; :}: H« 

The oft-mentioned voyages of the galleons betwixt GaUeon story 

. . nidelight on 

Manila and Acapulco hold such a prominent position ,y,ioniai history. 

* As late as 1857 some old decrees, passed against the establishment of 
foreigners, were renewed. A royal ordinance of 1844 prohibits the admission of 
strangers into the interior of the colony under any pretext whatsoever. 


Chinese part in 
galleon trade. 

Fatoritism in 
allotment of 
cargo space. 

Dirision o:' 
space and 
character of 

Profit in trade. 

in the histon,' of the Philippines, and afford such an 
interesting ghmpse into the old colonial system, that 
their principal characteristics deserve some description. 

In the days of Morga. towards the close of the sixteenth 
century, from thirty to forty Chinese junks were in the 
habit of annually \'isiting I^Ianila (generally in March) ; 
towards the end of June a galleon used to sail for Aca- 
pulco. The trade with the latter place, the active opera- 
tions of which were limited to the ti»ree central months 
of the year, was so lucrative, easy, and safe, that the 
Spaniards scarcely cared to engage in any other under- 

As the carrying power of the annual galleon was by 
no means proportioned to the demand for cargo room, 
the governor divided it as he deemed best: the favorites, 
however, to whom he assigned shares in the hold, seldom 
traded themselves, but parted with their concessions to 
the merchants. 

According to De Guignes,* the hold of the vessel was 
divided into 1.500 parts, of which the majority were 
allotted to the priests, and the rest to favored persons. 
As a matter of fact, the value of the cargo, which was 
officially limited to S600.000. was considerably higher. 
It chiefly consisted of Indian and Chinese cottons and 
silk stuffs (amongst others fifty thousand pairs of silk 
stockings from China), and gold ornaments. The value 
of the return freight amounted to between two and three 
millions of dollars. 

Everything in this trade was settled beforehand; the 
number, shape, size, and value of the bales, and even 
their selling price. As this was usually double the 
original cost, the permission to ship goods to a certain 
amount was equivalent, under ordinary circumstances, 
to the bestowal of a present of a like value. These 

* Vide Pinkerton. 


Jayor's Travels in the Philippines 19 

permissions or licenses (boletas) were, at a later period, 
usually granted to pensioners and officers' widows, 
and to officials, in lieu of an increase of salary; these 
favorites were forbidden, however, to make a direct 
use of them, for to trade with Acapulco was the sole 
right of those members of the Consulado (a kind of 
chamber of commerce) who could prove a long residence 
in the country and the possession of a capital of at least 

Legentil, the astronomer, gives a full description Evasion of 
of the regulations which prevailed in his day and the 
manner in which they were disobeyed. The cargo 
consisted of a thousand bales, each composed of four 
packets,* the maximum value of each packet being 
fixed at $250. It was impossible to increase the amount 
of bales, but they pretty generally consisted of more 
than four packets, and their value so far exceeded the 
prescribed limits, that a bolcta was considered to be 
worth from $200 to $225. The officials took good care 
that no goods should be smuggled on board without a 
boleta. These were in such demand, that, at a later 
period, Comynf saw people pay $500 for the right to 
ship goods, the value of which scarcely amounted to 
$1,000. The merchants usually borrowed the money 
for these undertakings from the ohras pias, charitable 
foundations, which, up to our own time, fulfil in the 
Islands the purposes of banks. + In the early days of 
the trade, the galleon used to leave Cavite in July and 
sail with a south-westerly wind beyond the tropics, 

* Each packet was 5 X 2 ' ^ X 1 ' 2 = 18.75 Spanish cubic feet. St. Croix. 

t Vide Comyn's Comercio exterior. 

X The obras pia!< were pious legacies which usually stipulated that two-thirds 
of their value should be advanced at interest for the furtherance of maritime 
commercial undertakings until the premiums, which for a voyage to Acapulco 
amounted to 50, to China 25, and to India 35 per cent., had increased the original 
capital to a certain amount. The interest of the whole was then to be devoted 
to masses for the founders, or to other pious and benevolent purposes. A third 
was generally kept as a reserve fund to cover possible losses. The government 
long since appropriated these reserve funds as compulsory loans, "but they are 
still considered as existing." 


Route outward. 

crowded out hy 

Length of voyage. 

until it met with a west wind at the thirty-eighth or 
fortieth parallel.* Later on the vessels were ordered 
to leave Cavite with the first south-westerly winds 
to sail along the south coast of Luzon, through San 
Bernardino straits, and to continue along the thirteenth 
parallel of north latitude! as far to the east as possible, 
until the north-easterly trade wind compelled them to 
seek a north-west breeze in higher latitudes. They 
were then obliged to try the thirtieth parallel as long 
as possible, instead of, as formerly, the thirty-seventh. 
The captain of the galleon was not permitted to sail 
immediately northward, although to have done so would 
have procured him a much quicker and safer passage, 
and would have enabled him to reach the rainy zone 
more rapidly. To effect the last, indeed, was a matter 
of the greatest importance to him, for his vessel, over- 
laden with merchandise, had but little room left for 
water; and, although he had a crew of from four hundred 
to six hundred hands to provide for, he was instructed 
to depend upon the rain he caught on the voyage; for 
which purpose, the galleon was provided with suitable 
mats and bamboo pails. i 

Voyages in these low latitudes were, owing to the 
inconstancy of the winds, extremely troublesome, and 
often lasted five months and upwards. The fear of 
exposing the costly, cumbrous vessel to the powerful 
and sometimes stormy winds of the higher latitudes, 
appears to have been the cause of these sailing orders. 

When the trade with Acapulco came to an end, the principals could no longer 
be laid out according to the intentions of the founders, and they were lent out 
at interest in other ways. By a royal ordinance of November 3, 1854, a junta 
was appointed to administer the property of the obras pias. The total capital 
of the five endowments (in reality only four, for one of them nc longer possessed 
anything) amounted to nearly a million of dollars. The profits from the loans 
were distributed according to the amounts of the original capital, which, however, 
no longer existed in cash, as the government had disposed of them. 

* Viile Thevenot. 

t According to Morga, between the fourteenth and fifteenth. 

i Vide De Guignes, Pinkerton XI, and Anson X. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


As soon as the galleon had passed the great Sargasso California 
shoal, it took a southerly course, and touched at the ''*'"'^''"- 
southern point of the Californian peninsula (San Lucas), 
where news and provisions awaited it.* In their earlier 
voyages, however, they must have sailed much further 
to the north, somewhere in the neighborhood of Cape 
Mendocino, and have been driven southward in sight 
of the coast; for Vizcaino, in the voyage of discovery 
he undertook in 1603, from Mexico to California, found 
the principal mountains and capes, although no European 
had ever set his foot upon them, already christened by 
the galleons, to which they had served as landmarks.! 

The return voyage to the Philippines was an easy one, speedy reum 
andonly occupied from forty to sixty days. i The galleon ''"y<'se. 
left Acapulco in February or March, sailed southwards 
till it fell in with the trade wind (generally in from 10° 
to 11° of north latitude), which carried it easily to the 
Ladrone Islands, and thence reached Manila by way 
of Samar.§ 

A galleon was usually of from twelve hundred to Galleon's size 
fifteen hundred tons burden, and carried fifty or sixty "'"^ «'"««"'«"<■ 
guns. The latter, however, were pretty generally 
banished to the hold during the eastward voyage. 
When the ship's bows were turned towards home, and 
there was no longer any press of space, the guns were 

San Augustin says of the Santa Anna, which Thomas Capture of 
Candish captured and burnt in 1586 off the Californian "'^'""'' '^""" ' 
coast: "Our people sailed so carelessly that they used 
their guns for ballast; .... the pirate's venture was 
such a fortunate one that he returned to London with 

* Vide Anson. 

t Randolph's History ef California. 

t In Morga's time the galleons took seventy days to the Ladrone Islands, 
from ten to twelve from thence to Cape Espiritu Santo, and eight more to Manila. 

§ A very good description of these voyages may be found in the 10th chapter 
of Anson's work, which also contains a copy of a sea map, captured in the Cava- 
donga, displaying the proper track of the galleons to and from Acapulco. 


Value of 
return frei-ht. 

Gambling rather 
than commerce. 

Company" and 
smugglers cause 

Spanish coins 
in circulation 
on China coast. 

sails of Chinese damask and silken rigging." The 
cargo was sold in Acapulco at a profit of 100 per cent., 
and was paid for in silver, cochineal, quicksilver, etc. 
The total value of the return freight amounted perhaps 
to between two and three million dollars,* of which a 
quarter of a million, at least, fell to the king. 

The return of a galleon to Manila, laden with silver 
dollars and new arrivals, was a great holiday for the 
colony. A considerable portion of the riches they had 
won as easily as at the gaming table, was soon spent by 
the crew; when matters again returned to their usual 
lethargic state. It was no unfrequent event, however, 
for vessels to be lost. They were too often laden with a 
total disregard to seaworthiness, and wretchedly handled. 
It was favor, not capacity, that determined the patron- 
age of these lucrative appointments.! Many galleons 
fell into the hands of English and Dutch cruisers. | 
But these tremendous profits gradually decreased as 
the Campania obtained the right to import Indian 
cottons, one of the principal articles of trade, into New 
Spain by way of Vera Cruz, subject to a customs duty 
of 6 per cent; and when English and American adven- 
turers began to smuggle these and other goods into the 
country. § Finally, it may be mentioned that Spanish 
dollars found their way in the galleons to China and the 
further Indies, where they are in circulation to this day. 

* De Guignes. 

t The officer in command of the expedition, to whom the title of general was 
given, had always a captain under his orders, and his share in the gain of each 
trip amounted to $40,000. The pilot was content with $20,000. The first 
lieutenant (master) was entitled to 9 per cent on the sale of the cargo, and 
pocketed from this and from the profits of his own private ventures upwards 
of $350,000. {Vide Arenas.) 

t The value of the cargoes Anson captured amounted to $1,313,000, besides 
35,682 ounces of fine silver and cochineal. While England and Spain were 
at peace, Drake plundered the latter to the extent of at least one and a half 
million of dollars. Thomas Candish burnt the rich cargo of the Santa Anna, 
as he had no room for it on board his own vessel. 

§ For instance, in 1 786 the San Andres, which had a cargo on board valued at a 
couple of millions, found no market for it in Acapulco; the same thing happened 
in 1787 to the San Jose, and a second time in 1789 to the San Andres. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


The city proper of Manila, inhabited by Spaniards, '^|'l^^^^^^|'J ^'"'^ 
Creoles, the Filipinos directly connected with them, and 
Chinese, lies, surrounded by walls and wide ditches, 
on the left or southern bank of the Pasig, looking towards 
the sea/'^ It is a hot, dried-up place, full of monasteries, 
convents, barracks, and government buildings. Safety, 
not appearance, was the object of its builders. It 
reminds the beholder of a Spanish provincial town, 
and is, next to Goa, the oldest city in the Indies. 
Foreigners reside ou the northern bank of the river; in 
Binondo, the headquarters of wholesale and retail com- 
merce, or in the pleasant suburban villages, which blend 
into a considerable whole. The total population of city population. 
and suburbs has been estimated, perhaps with some 
exaggeration, at 200,000. A handsome old stone bridge nridges. 
of ten arches serves as the communication between the 
two banks of the Pasig, which, more recently, has also 
been spanned by an iron suspension bridge. t Very 
little intercourse exists between the inhabitants of 
Manila and Binondo. Life in the city proper cannot Frietion between 
be very pleasant; pride, envy, place-hunting, and caste 
hatred, are the order of the day; the Spaniards consider 
themselves superior to the Creoles, who, in their turn, 
reproach the former with the taunt that they have only 
come to the colony to save themselves from starvation. 

* In 1855 its population consisted of 586 European Spaniards, 1,378 Creoles, 
6,323 Malay Filipinos and mestizos, 332 Chinamen, 2 Hamburgers, 1 Portu- 
guese, and 1 Negro. 

t The earthquake of 1863 destroyed the old bridge. It is intended, however, 
to restore it; the supporting pillars are ready, and the supenncumbent iron 
structure is shortly expected from Europe (April, 1872) —The central span, 
damaged in the high water of 1914, was temporarily replaced with a wooden 
structure and plans have been prepared for a new bridge, permitting ships to 
pass and to be used also by the railway, nearer the river mouth.— C. 

Few large 



Discomforts and 
high cost of 


A similar hatred and envy exists between the whites 
and the mestizos. This state of things is to be found 
in all Spanish colonies, and is chiefly caused by the colo- 
nial policy of Madrid, which always does its best to 
sow discord between the different races and classes of 
its foreign possessions, under the idea that their union 
would imperil the sway of the mother country.* 

In Manila, moreover, this state of things was rendered 
worse by the fact that the planter class, whose large 
landed possessions always give it a strong interest in the 
country of its inhabitance, was entirely wanting. At 
the present day, however, the increasing demand for 
the produce of the colony seems to be bringing about a 
pleasant change in this respect. The manner in which 
the Spanish population of the Islands was affected by 
the gambling ventures of the galleons, at one time the 
only source of commercial wealth, is thus described by 
Murillo Velarde (page 272): — "The Spaniards who 
settle here look upon these Islands as a tavern rather 
than a permanent home. If they marry, it is by the 
merest chance ; where can a family be found that has been 
settled here for several generations? The father amasses 
wealth, the son spends it, the grandson is a beggar. 
The largest capitals are not more stable than the waves 
of the ocean, across the crests of which they were 

There is nothing like the same amount of sociability 
amongst the foreigners in Binondo as prevails in English 
and Dutch colonies; and scarcely any intercourse at all 
with the Spaniards, who envy the strangers and almost 
seem to look upon the gains the latter make in the coun- 
try as so many robberies committed upon themselves, 
its owners. Besides all this, living is very expensive, 

* Roescher's Colonies. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S3 

much more so than in Singapore and Batavia. To 
many, the mere cost of existence seems greatly out of 
proportion to their official salaries. The (European 
style) houses, which are generally spacious, are gloomy 
and ugly, and not well ventilated for such a climate. 
Instead of light jalousies, they are fitted with heavy 
sash windows, which admit the light through thin oyster 
shells, forming small panes scarcely two square inches 
in area, and held together by laths an inch thick. The 
ground floors of the houses are, on account of the great 
damp, sensibly enough, generally uninhabited; and are 
used as cellars, stables, and servant's offices. 

The unassuming, but for their purposes very practical Native houses 
houses, of boards, bamboos, and (nipa) palm leaves, are '^"'"f"''''^^^' 

^ ^ -^ ^ and unchanged, 

supported on account of the damp on isolated beams or 
props; and the space beneath, which is generally fenced 
in with a railing, is used as a stable or a warehouse; 
such was the case as early as the days of Magellan. 
These dwellings* are very lightly put together. La Perouse 
estimates the weight of some of them, furniture and all, 
at something less than two hundred pounds. Nearly 
all these houses, as well as the huts of the natives, are 
furnished with an azotea, that is, an uncovered space, 
on the same level as the dwelling, which takes the place 
of yard and balcony. The Spaniards appear to have 
copied this useful contrivance from the Moors, but the 
natives were acquainted with them before the arrival 
of the Europeans, for Morga mentions similar 6flia7a/fes. 

In the suburbs nearly every hut stands in its own xegUcted river 
garden. The river is often quite covered with green "'"^ canau 


scum; and dead cats and dogs surrounded with weeds, 
which look like cabbage-lettuce, frequently adorn its 

* A brief description of a nipa huose, accompanying an illustration, is here 
omitted. — C. 



Dreary and 



Cock-fighting . 

waters. In the dry season, the numerous canals of the 
suburbs are so many stagnant drains, and at each ebb 
of the tide the ditches around the town exhibit a similar 

Manila offers very few opportunities for amusement. 
There was no Spanish theatre open during my stay 
there, but Tagalog plays (translations) were sometimes 
represented. The town possessed no club, and contained 
no readable books. Never once did the least excite- 
ment enliven its feeble newspapers, for the items of 
intelligence, forwarded fortnightly from Hongkong, 
were sifted by priestly censors, who left little but the 
chronicles of the Spanish and French courts to feed 
the barren columns of the local sheets.* The pompously 
celebrated religious festivals were the only events that 
sometimes chequered the wearisome monotony. 

The chief amusement of the Filipinos is cock-fighting, 
which is carried on with a passionate eagerness that must 
strike every stranger. Nearly every man keeps a fighting 
cock. Many are never seen out of doors without their 
favorite in their arms; they pay as much as $50 and up- 
wards for these pets, and heap the tenderest caresses 

* The following figures will give an idea of the contents of the newspapers. 
I do not allude to the Bulletin Official, which is reserved for official announce- 
ments, and contains little else of any importance. The number lying before 
me of the Comercio (Nov. 29, 1858), a paper that appears six times a week, 
consists of four pages, the printed portion in each of which is 11 inches by 17; 
the whole, therefore, contains 748 square inches of printed matter. They are 
distributed as follows: — • 

Title, 27 J 2 sq. in.; an essay on the population of Spain, taken from a book, 
10232 sq. in.; under the heading "News from Europe," an article, quoted from 
the Annals of La Caridad, upon the increase of charity and Catholic instruction 
in France, 403-2 sq. in.; Part I, of a treatise on Art and its Origin (a series of 
truisms), 70 sq. in.; extracts from the official sheet, 20 '2 sq. in.; a few ancient 
anecdotes, 59 sq. in. Religious portion (this is divided into two parts — official 
and unofficial). The first contains the saints for the different days of the year, 
etc., and the announcements of religious festivals; the second advertises a forth- 
coming splendid procession, and contains the first half of a sermon preached 
three years before, on the anniversary of the same festival, 99 sq. in., besides an 
instalment of an old novel, 154, and advertisements, 175 sq. in. ; total, 748 sq. in. 
In the last years, however, the newspapers sometimes have contained serious 
essays, but of late these appear extremely seldom. 

Jagor's Trareh in the Philippines 27 

on them. The passion for cock-fighting can well be 
termed a national vice; but the practice may have been 
introduced by the Spaniards, or the Mexicans who 
accompanied them, as, in a like manner, the habit of 
smoking opium among the Chinese, which has become 
a national curse, was first introduced by the English. 
It is, however, more probable that the Malays brought Probably Malay 

. cuslojn. 

the custom mto the country. In the eastern portion 
of the Philippines, cock-fighting was unknown in the 
days of Pigafetta. The first cock-fight he met with 
was at Palawan. "They keep large cocks, which from a 
species of superstition, they never eat, but keep for 
fighting purposes. Heavy bets are made on the upshot 
of the contest, which are paid to the owner of the win- 
ning bird."* The sight is one extremely repulsive to 
Europeans. The ring around the cockpit is crowded The cockpit 
with men, perspiring at every pore, while their counte- 
nances bear the imprint of the ugliest passions. Each 
bird is armed with a sharp curved spur, three inches long 
capable of making deep wounds, and which always 
causes the death of one or both birds by the serious 
injuries it inflicts. If a cock shows symptoms of fear 
and declines the encounter, it is plucked alive. Incredi- 
bly large sums, in proportion to the means of the gam- 
blers, are wagered on the result. It is very evident that 
these cock-fights must have a most demoralising effect its bad 
upon a people so addicted to idleness and dissipation, 
and so accustomed to give way to the impulse of the 
moment. Their effect is to make them little able to 
resist the temptation of procuring money without work- 
ing for it. The passion for the game leads many to 
borrow at usury, to embezzlement, to theft, and even to 

* Vide Pigafetta. 





The Luneta. 

highway robbery. The land and sea pirates, of whom 
I shall speak presently, are principally composed of 
ruined gamesters.* 

In the comeliness of the women who lend animation 
to its streets Manila surpasses all other towns in the 
Indian Archipelago. Mallat describes them in glowing 
colors. A charming picture of Manila street life, full 
of local color, is given in the very amusing Aventures 
cVun Gentilhommc Breton.] 

How many of the prettiest Filipinas are of perfectly 
unmixed blood, it is, I confess, difficult to decide. Many 
of them are very fair and of quite an European type, 
and are thereby easily distinguished from their sisters 
in the outlying provinces. The immediate environs 
of Manila can boast many beautiful spots, but they are 
not the resort of the local rank and fashion, the object 
of whose daily promenade is the display of their toilettes, 
and not the enjoyment of nature. In the hot season, all 
who can afford it are driven every evening along the 
dusty streets to a promenade on the beach, which was 
built a short time back, where several times a week the 
band of a native regiment plays fairly good music, and 
there walk formally up and down. All the Spaniards 

* Cock-fighting is not alluded to in the "Ordinances of good government," 
collected by Hurtado Corcuera in the middle of the seventeenth century. In 
1779 cock-fights were taxed for the first time. In 1781 the government farmed 
the right of entrance to the gatleras (derived from nallo, rooster) for the yearly 
sum of $14,798. In 1863 the receipts from the galleras figured in the budget 
for $106,000. 

A special decree of 100 clauses was issued in Madrid on the 21st of March, 
1861, for the regulation of cock-fights. The 1st clause declares that since cock- 
fights are a source of revenue to the State, they shall only take place in arenas 
licensed by the Government. The 6th restricts them to Sundays and holidays; 
the 7th, from the conclusion of high mass to sunset. The 12th forbids more 
than $50 to be staked on one contest. The 38th decrees that each cock shall 
carry but one weapon, and that on its left spur. By the 52nd the fight is to be 
considered over when one or both cocks are dead, or when one shews the white 
feather. In the London Daily News of the 30th June, 1869, I find it reported 
that five men were sentenced at Leeds to two months' hard labor for setting 
six cocks to fight one another with iron spurs. From this it appears that this 
once favorite spectacle is no longer permitted in England. 

t The raw materials of these adventures were supplied by a French planter, 
M. de la Gironiere, but their literary parent is avowedly Alexander Dumas. 


gay yaniients. 

Jagor's Travels in ihe Philippines 29 

are in uniform or in black frock coats. When the bells The AngeUs. 
ring out for evening prayer, carriages, horsemen, pedes- 
trians, all suddenly stand motionless; the men take off 
their hats, and everybody appears momentarily absorbed 
in prayer. 

The same governor who laid out the promenade Botanical 
established a botanical garden. It is true that every- 
thing he planted in it, exposed on a marshy soil to the 
full heat of a powerful sun, soon faded away; but its 
ground was enclosed and laid out, and though it was 
overgrown with weeds, it had at least received a name. 
At present it is said to be in better condition.* 

The religious festivals in the neighborhood of Manila Pretty giru in 
are well worth a visit, if only for the sake of the numerous 
pretty Filipinas and tnestizas in their best clothes who 
make their appearance in the evening and promenade 
up and down the streets, which are illuminated and 
profusely decked with flowers and bright colors. They 
offer a charming spectacle, particularly to a stranger 
lately arrived from Malaysia. The Filipinas are 
very beautifully formed. They have luxuriant black 
hair, and large dark eyes; the upper part of their 
bodies is clad in a homespun but often costly material 
of transparent fineness and snow-white purity; and, 
from their waist downwards, they are wrapped in a 
brightly-striped cloth {my a), which falls in broad folds, 
and which, as far as the knee, is so tighly compressed 
with a dark shawl (/ap/.s), closely drawn around the 

* Botanical gardens do not seem to prosper under Spanish auspices. Cha- 
misso complains that, in his day, there were no traces left of the botanical gardens 
founded at Cavite by the learned Cuellar. The gardens at Madrid, even, are 
in a sorry plight; its hothouses are almost empty. The grounds which were 
laid out at great expense by a wealthy and patriotic Spaniard at Orotava 
(Teneriffe), a spot whose climate has been of the greatest service to invalids, 
are rapidly going to decay. Every year a considerable sum is appropriated 
to it in the national budget, but scarcely a fraction of it ever reaches Orotava. 
When I was there in 1867, the gardener had received no salary for twenty-two 
months, all the workmen were dismissed, and even the indispensable water 
supply had been cut off. 


figure, that the rich variegated folds of the say a burst 
out beneath it Hke the blossoms of a pomegranate. 
This swathing only allows the young girls to take very 
short steps, and this timidity of gait, in unison with 
their downcast eyes, gives them a very modest appear- 
ance. On their naked feet they wear embroidered slip- 
pers of such a small size that their little toes protrude 
for want of room, and grasp the outside of the sandal.* 

Dress of the The poorcr women clothe themselves in a saya, and 

poorer women. -^ ^ so-called chemise, which is so extremely short that 
it frequently does not even reach the first fold of the 
former. In the more eastern islands grown-up girls 
and women wear, with the exception of a Catholic 
amulet, nothing but these two garments, which are, 
particularly after bathing, and before they get dried by 
the sun, nearly transparent. 

Men's clothing- A hat, trousers, and a shirt worn outside them, both 
made of coarse Guinara cloth, compose the dress of the 
men of the poorer classes. The shirts worn by the 
wealthy are often made of an extremely expensive 
home-made material, woven from the fibers of the pine- 
apple or the banana. Some of them are ornamented 
with silk stripes, some are plain. They are also fre- 
quently manufactured entirely of jusi (Chinese floret 
silk), in which case they will not stand washing, and can 
only be worn once. The hat (salacot), a round piece 
of home-made plaiting, is used as both umbrella and 
sunshade, and is often adorned with silver ornaments 

The "Princi- of considerable value. The principalia class enjoy the 
special privilege of wearing short jackets above their 
shirts, and are usually easily recognizable by their amus- 
ing assumption of dignity, and by the faded cylindrical 
hats, yellow with age, family heirlooms, constantly 


* For a proof of this cide the Berlin Ethnoyraphical Museum, Nos. 294-295. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines SI 

worn. The native dandies wear patent leather shoes on The dandies. 
their naked feet, tight-fitting trousers of some material 
striped with black and white or with some other 
glaringly-contrasted colors, a starched plaited shirt of 
European make, a chimney-pot silk hat, and carry a cane 
in their hands. The servants waiting at dinner in their The servants. 
white starched shirts and trousers are by no means an 
agreeable spectacle, and I never realised the full ludi- 
crousness of European male costume till my eye fell 
upon its caricature, exemplified in the person of a "Manila 

The mestizas dress like the Filipinas, but do not wear -^i«stiza 


the tapis, and those of them who are married to Europeans 
are generally clad in both shoes and stockings. Many 
of the mestizas are extremely pretty, but their gait 
drags a little, from their habit of wearing slippers. As 
a rule they are prudent, thrifty, and clever business <^'«""' 

J business women. 

women, but their conversation is often awkward and 

tedious. Their want of education is, however, not 

the cause of this latter failing, for Andalusian women 

who never learn anything but the elementary doctrines 

of Christianity, are among the most charming creatures 

in the world, in their youth. Its cause lies rather in in at ease 

this equivocal position; they are haughtily repelled by 

their white sisters, whilst they themselves disown their 

mother's kin. They are wanting in the ease, in the 

tact, that the women of Spain show in every relation 

of existence. 

in society. 

The mestizos, particularly those born of Chinese and 
Tagal mothers, constitute the richest and the most 
enterprising portion of the native population. They are 
well acquainted with all the good and bad qualities of 
the Filipino inhabitants, and use them unscrupulously 
for their own purposes. 





Aadre dastrust 
of Europeans. 

Dutch and 
English stand 
well in their 

A Scotch merchant to whom I brought a letter of intro- 
duction invited me with such cordiahty to come and 
stay with him, that I found myself unable to refuse. 
While thus living under the roof and protection of one of 
the wealthiest and most respected men in the city, the 
cabmen I employed insisted on being paid beforehand 
every time I rode in their vehicles. This distrust was 
occasioned by the scanty feeling of respect most of the 
Europeans in Manila inspired in the minds of the natives. 
Many later observations confirmed this impression. 
What a different state of things exists in Java and 
Singapore! The reason, however, is easily explained. 

The Dutch are as little able as the English to accli- 
matize themselves in tropical countries. They get all they 
can out of countries in which they are only temporary 
sojourners, the former by forced service and monopoly, 
the latter by commerce. In both cases, however, the 
end is accomplished by comparatively few individuals, 
whose official position and the largeness of whose under- 
takings place them far above the mass of the popula- 
tion. In Java, moreover, the Europeans constitute the 
governing classes, the natives the governed; and even 
in Singapore where both races are equal before the law 
the few white men understand how to mark the difference 
of race so distinctively that the natives without demur 
surrender to them, though not by means of the law, 
the privileges of a higher caste. The difference of 
religion does but widen the gap; and, finally, every 
European there speaks the language of the country, 
while the natives are totally ignorant of that spoken 
by the foreigners. 


Jatjor's Travels in tlie Philippines SS 

The Dutch officials are educated at home in schools /-•«'<'' cnio„i,ih 
specially devoted to the East Indian service. The art 
of managing the natives, the upholding of prestige, 
which is considered the secret of the Dutch power over 
the numerous native populations, forms an essential 
particular in their education. The Dutch, therefore, 
manage their intercourse with the natives, no matter 
how much they intend to get out of them, in strict 
accordance with customary usage (adat); they never 
wound the natives' amor propio and never expose them- 
selves in their own mutual intercourse, which remains 
a sealed book to the inhabitants. 

Things are different in the Philippines. With the Spanish „]juuiu 
exception of those officials whose stay is limited by the 
rules of the service, or by the place-hunting that 
ensues at every change in the Spanish ministry, few 
Spaniards who have once settled in the colony ever 
return home. It is forbidden to the priests, and most 
of the rest have no means of doing so. A considerable 
portion of them consist of subaltern officers, soldiers, sail- 
ors, political delinquents and refugees whom the mother- 
country has got rid of; and not seldom of adventurers 
deficient both in means and desire for the journey back, 
for their life in the colony is far pleasanter than that 
they were forced to lead in Spain. These latter arrive 
without the slightest knowledge of the country and with- 
out being in the least prepared for a sojourn there. 
Many of them are so lazy that they won't take the trouble 
to learn the language even if they marry a daughter of 
the soil. Their servants understand Spanish, and 
clandestinely watch the conversation and the actions, 
and become acquainted with all the secrets, of their 
indiscreet masters, to whom the Filipinos remain an 
enigma which their conceit prevents them attempting 
to decipher. 



Spatiish lack 
of prctige 

Social xtandiriQ 
of FiliTpinos 
thus enhanced. 

Filiphio bonds 
of union. 

Latin races 
better for 
colonists iti 
the tropics. 

It is easy to understand how Filipino respect for 
Europeans must be diminished by the numbers of these 
uneducated, improvident, and extravagant Spaniards, 
who, no matter what may have been their position at 
home, are all determined to play the master in the colony. 
The relative standing of the Filipinos naturally profits 
by all this, and it would be difficult to find a colony in 
which the natives, taken all in all, feel more comfortable 
than in the Philippines. They have adopted the religion, 
the manners, and the customs of their rulers; and though 
legally not on an equal footing with the latter, they are 
by no means separated from them by the high barriers 
with which, not to mention Java, the churlish reserve of 
the English has surrounded the natives of the other colonies. 

The same religion, a similar form of worship, an 
existence intermixed with that of the indigenous popula- 
tion, all tend to bring the Europeans and the Indians 
together. That they have done so is proved by the 
existence of the proportionately very numerous band 
of mestizos who inhabit the Islands. 

The Spaniards and the Portuguese appear, in fact, 
to be the only Europeans who take root in tropical 
countries. They are capable of permanent and fruitful 
amalgamation* with the natives. f 

* Bertillon (,.A.c climate ment et Accli.matation, Did. Encycl. des Sciences 
Medi'-ales) ascribes the capacity of the Spaniards for acclimatization in tropical 
countries to the large admixture of Syrian and African blood which flows in their 
veins. The ancient Iberians appear to have reached Spain from Chaldea across 
Africa; the Phoenicians and Carthaginians had flourishing colonies in the penin- 
sula, and, in later times, the Moors possessed a large portion of the country for 
a century, and ruled with great splendor, a state of things leading to a mixture 
of race. Thus Spanish blood has three distinct times been abundantly crossed 
with that of Africa. The warm climate of the peninsula must also largely 
contribute to render its inhabitants fit fcr life in the tropics. The pure Indo- 
European race has never succeeded in establishing itself on the southern shores 
of the Mediterranean, much less in the arid soil of the tropics. 

In Martinique, where from eight to nine thousand whites live on the proceeds 
of the toil of 125,000 of the colored race, the population is diminishing instead of 
increasing. The French Creoles seem to have lost the power of maintaining 
themselves, in proportion to the existing means of subsistence, and of multiply- 
ing. Families which do not from time to time fortify themselves with a strain 
of fresh European blood, die out in from three to four generations. The same 
thing happens in the English, but not in the Spanish Antilles, although the cli- 
mate and the natural surroundings are the same. According to Ramon de la Sagra, 
the death-rate is smaller among the Creoles, and greater among the natives, 
than it is in Spain; the mortality among the garrison, however, is considerable. 
The same writer states that the real acclimatization of the Spanish race takes 
place by selection; the unfit die, and the others thrive. 

t An unnecessary line is here omitted. — C. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


A compromise 

The want of originality, which among the mestizos, initiative and 

r , , • • , ... .1 individuality 

appears to arise from their equivocal position, is also jniasing. 
to be found among the natives. Distinctly marked 
national customs, which one would naturally expect to 
find in such an isolated part of the world, are sought 
for in vain, and again and again the stranger remarks 
that everything has been learned and is only a veneer. 

As Spain forcibly expelled the civilization of the 
Moors, and in Peru that of the Incas, so in the Philip- 
pines it has understood how to set aside an equally well- 
founded one, by appropriating in an incredible manner, 
in order to take root itself the more quickly, all existing 
forms and abuses.* 

The uncivilized inhabitants of the Philippines quickly imitation 
adopted the rites, forms, and ceremonies of the strange *";?"j^g"[^ 
religion, and, at the same time, copied the personal exter- banished. 
nalities of their new masters, learning to despise their 
own manners and customs as heathenish and barba- 
rian. Nowadays, forsooth, they sing Andalusian songs, 
and dance Spanish dances; but in what sort of way? 
They imitate everything that passes before their eyes 
without using their intelligence to appreciate it. It is 
this which makes both themselves and their artistic 
productions wearisome, devoid of character, and, I 
may add, unnatural, in spite of the skill and patience 
they devote to them. These two peculiarities, moreover, 
are invariably to be found amongst nations whose civiliza- 
tion is but little developed ; the patience so much admired 
is often nothing but waste of time and breath, quite 

* Depons, speaking of the means employed in America to obtain the same end, 
says, "I am convinced that it is impossible to engraft the Christian religion on the 
Indian mind without mixing up their own inclinations and customs with those of 
Christianity; this has been even carried so far, that at one time theologians raised 
the questicn, whether it was lawful to eat human flesh? But the most singular 
part cf the proceeding is. that the question was decided in favor of the anthro- 


out of proportion to the end in view, and the skill is the- 
mere consequence of the backward state of the division 
of labor. 

Educated If I entered the house of a well-to-do Filipino, who 

Fihpiuo spoke Spanish, I was received with the same phrases 

his model, a Spaniard, would employ; but I always had 
the feeling that it was out of place. In countries where 
the native population remains true to its ancient customs 
this is not the case; and whenever I have not been re- 
ceived with proper respect, I have remarked that the 
apparent fact proceeded from a difference in social forms, 
not more to be wondered at than a difference in weights 
and measures. In Java, and particularly in Borneo and 
the Moluccas, the utensils in daily use are ornamented 
with so refined a feeling for form and color, that they are 
praised by our artists as patterns of ornamentation 
and afford a proof that the labor is one of love, and that 
Natue -i-7-se/ise it is prcsldcd over by an acute intelligence. Such a 
spoiled. sense of beauty is seldom to be met with in the Phil- 

ippines. Everything there is imitation or careless 
makeshift. Even the piiia embroideries, which are 
fabricated with such wonderful patience and skill, and 
are so celebrated for the fineness of the work, are, as a 
rule, spiritless imitations of Spanish patterns. One is 
involuntarily led to these conclusions by a comparison 
of the art products of the Spanish-American communi- 
ties with those of more barbarous races. The Berlin 
Ethnographical Museum contains many proofs of the 
facts I have just mentioned. 

Indolence from The oars used in the Philippines are usually made of 
absence of bamboo polcs, with a board tied to their extremities 


with strips of rattan. If they happen to break, so much 
the better; for the fatiguing labor of rowing must neces- 
sarily be suspended till they are mended again. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 37 

In Java the carabao-carts, which are completely Carelessness 
■covered in as a protection against the rain, are oma- /''<"'*''";*-■''/ 


mented with many tasteful patterns. The roofless 
wagons used in the Philippines are roughly put together 
at the last moment. When it is necessary to protect 
their contents from the wet, an old pair of mats is thrown 
over them, more for the purpose of appeasing the prej- 
udices of the "Castilians" than really to keep off the rain. 

The English and the Dutch are always looked upon Weakened 
as strangers in the tropics ; their influence never touches <^'""""'''^'" ""'' 

want of (lif/ntlij. 

the ancient native customs which culminate in the religion 
of the country. But the populations whom the Spaniards 
have converted to their religion have lost all originality, 
all sense of nationality ; yet the alien religion has never 
really penetrated into their inmost being, they never 
feel it to be a source of moral support, and it is no acci- 
dental coincidence that they are all more or less stamped 

with a want of dignity 

With the exception of this want of national individual- Spanish rule 
ity, and the loss of the distinguishing manners and cus- f' benevolent, 

but beneficial. 

toms which constitute the chief charm of most eastern 
peoples, the Filipino is an interesting study of a type 
of mankind existing in the easiest natural conditions. 
The arbitrary rule of their chiefs, and the iron shackles 
of slavery, were abolished by the Spaniards shortly 
after their arrival; and peace and security reigned in the 
place of war and rapine. The Spanish rule in these 
Islands was always a mild one, not because the laws, 
which treated the natives like children, were wonder- 
fully gentle, but because the causes did not exist which 
caused such scandalous cruelties in Spanish America 
and in the colonies of other nations. 

It was fortunate for the Filipinos that their islands circnmstances 
possessed no wealth in the shape of precious metals or '^ famred the 

Ti 1-1 r ■ • rr- Filipinos. 

valuable spices. In the earlier days of maritime trarnc 


there was little possibility of exporting the numerous 
agricultural productions of the colony; and it was scarcely 
worth while, therefore, to make the most of the land. 
The few Spaniards who resided in the colony found such 
an easy method of making money in the commerce with 
China and Mexico, by means of the galleons, that they 
held themselves aloof from all economical enterprises, 
which had little attraction for their haughty inclinations, 
and would have imposed the severest labor on the Fili- 
pinos. Taking into consideration the wearisome and 
dangerous navigation of the time, it was, moreover, 
impossible for the Spaniards, upon whom their too large 
possessions in America already imposed an exhausting 
man-tax, to maintain a strong armed force in the Phil- 
ippines. The subjection, which had been inaugurated 
by a dazzling military exploit, was chiefly accomplished 
by the assistance of the friar orders, whose missionaries 
were taught to employ extreme prudence and patience. 
The Philippines were thus principally won by a peaceful 
Have fared better The taxes laid upon the peoples were so trifling that 
' "" .' * they did not suffice for the administration of the colony. 

The difference was covered by yearly contributions from 
Mexico. The extortions of unconscientious officials were 
by no means conspicuous by their absence. Cruelties, 
however, such as were practised in the American mining 
districts, or in the manufactures of Quito, never occurred 
in the Philippines. 

A land, of Uncultivated land was free, and was at the service 

opportunity. Qf Qj^y Qj^g willing to make it productive; if, however, 

it remained untilled for two years, it reverted to the 


* As a matter of fact, productive land is always appropriated, and in many 
parts of the Islands is difhcult and expensive to purchase. Near Manila, and 
in Bulacan, land has for many years past cost over ^.225 (silver) an acre. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 39 

The only tax which the Filipinos pay is the poll-tax, Low taxe> 
known as the tributo, which originally, three hundred 
years ago, amounted to one dollar for every pair of 
adults, and in a country where all marry early, and the 
sexes are equally divided, really constituted a family- 
tax. By degrees the tribute has been raised to two and 
one-sixteenth dollars. An adult, therefore, male or 
female, pays one and one-thirty-second dollar, and that 
from his sixteenth to his sixtieth year. Besides this, 
every man has to give forty days' labor every year to the 
State. This vassalage (polos y servicios) is divided into 
ordinary and extraordinary services: the first consists 
of the duties appertaining to a watchman or messenger, 
in cleaning the courts of justice, and in other light labors; 
the second in road-making, and similar heavier kinds 
of work, for the benefit of villages and provinces. The 
little use, however, that is made of these services, is 
shown by the fact that any one can obtain a release 
from them for a sum which at most is not more than three 
dollars. No personal service is required of women. 
A little further on, important details about the tax from 
official sources, which were placed at my disposal in the 
colonial office, appear in a short special chapter. 

In other countries, with an equally mild climate, and Fortunate 
an equally fertile soil, the natives, unless they had reached 
a higher degree of civilization than that of the Philippine 
Islanders, would have been ground down by native 
princes, or ruthlessly plundered and destroyed by for- 
eigners. In these isolated Islands, so richly endowed by 
nature, where pressure from above, impulse from within, 
and every stimulus from the outside are wanting, the 
satisfaction of a few trifling wants is sufficient for an 
existence with ample comfort. Of all countries in the 
world, the Philippines have the greatest claim to be 
considered a lotos-eating Utopia. The traveller, whose 



knowledge of the dolce far niente is derived from Naples, 
has no real appreciation of it ; it only blossoms under the 
shade of palm-trees. These notes of travel will contain 
plenty of examples to support this. One trip across the 
Pasig gives a foretaste of life in the interior of the country. 
Low wooden cabins and bamboo huts, surmounted with 
green foliage and blossoming flowers, are picturesquely 
grouped with areca palms, and tall, feather-headed 
bamboos, upon its banks. Sometimes the enclosures 
run down into the stream itself, some of them being 
duck-grounds, and others bathing-places. The shore 
is fringed with canoes, nets, rafts, and fishing apparatus. 
Heavily-laden boats float down the stream, and small 
canoes ply from bank to bank between the groups of 
bathers. The most lively traffic is to be seen in the 
liendas, large sheds, corresponding to the Javanese 
Jtarongs, which open upon the river, the great channel for 

They are a source of great attraction to the passing 
sailors, who resort to them for eating, drinking, and other 
convivialities; and while away the time there in gambling, 
betel chewing, and smoking, with idle companions of 
both sexes. 

At times somebody may be seen floating down the 
stream asleep on a heap of coconuts. If the nuts run 
ashore, the sleeper rouses himself, pushes off with a long 
bamboo, and contentedly relapses into slumber, as his 
eccentric raft regains the current of the river. One cut 
of his bolo-knife easily detaches sufficient of the husk 
of the nuts to allow of their being fastened together; 
in this way a kind of wreath is formed which encircles 
and holds together the loose nuts piled up in the middle. 
Labor-sawu The arduous labors of many centuries have left as 

their legacy a perfect system of transport; but in these 
Islands man can obtain many of his requirements direct 

.SI, ,in,„j i„tvU 


EdXji fi/ixt. 

Jagor's Trarels in the Philippines ^1 

with proportionately trifling labor, and a large amount 
of comfort for himself. 

Off the Island of Talim, in the great Lagoon of Bay, 
my boatmen bought for a few cuartos several dozens 
of fish quite twelve inches long; and those which they 
couldn't eat were split open, salted, and dried by a few 
hours' exposure to the heat of the sun on the roof of the 
boat. When the fishermen had parted with their con- 
templated breakfast, they stooped down and filled their 
cooking-vessels with sand-mussels {paludina costata, 
2. a G.), first throwing away the dead ones from the 
handfuls they picked up from the bottom of the shallow 

Nearly all the dwellings are built by the water's edge. /?/«■,•.. 
The river is a natural self-maintaining highway, on which ^'""""'" 
loads can be carried to the foot of the mountains. The 
huts of the people, built upon piles, are to be seen thickly 
scattered about its banks, and particularly about its 
broad mouths. The appropriateness of their position 
is evident, for the stream is at once the very center of 
activity and the most convenient spot for the pursuit 
of their callings. At each tide the takes of fish are more 
or less plentiful, and at low-water the women and children 
may be seen picking up shell-fish with their toes, for 
practice has enabled them to use their toes as deftly as 
their fingers, or gathering in the sand-crabs and eatable 

The riverside is a pretty sight when men, women, and nim-.-^ui 
children are bathing and frolicking in the shade of the '■'""'"' 
palm-trees; and others are filling their water-vessels, 
large bamboos, which they carry on their shoulders, or 
jars, which they bear on their heads; and when the boys 
are standing upright on the broad backs of the carabaos 
and riding triumphantly into the water. 


Coco-paimt. It IS here too that the coco-palm most flourishes, a tree 

that supphes not only their food and drink, but also 
every material necessary for the construction of huts 
and the manufacture of the various articles which they 
use. While the greatest care is necessary to make those 
growing further inland bear even a little fruit, the palm- 
trees close to the shore, even when planted on wretched 
soil, grow plentiful crops without the slightest trouble. 
Has a palm-tree ever been made to blossom in a hot- 
house? Thomson* mentions that coco-trees growing 
by the sea-side are wont to incline their stems over the 
ocean, the waters of which bear their fruit to desert shores 
and islands, and render them habitable for mankind. 
Thus the coco-tree would seem to play an essential part 
in the ocean vagabondage of Malaysia and Polynesia. 

Nipa-paims. Close to the coco-trecs grow clumps of the stunted 

nipa-palms, which only flourish in brackish waters ;t 
their leaves furnish the best roof-thatching. Sugar, 
brandy, and vinegar are manufactured from their sap. 
Three hundred and fifty years ago Pigafetta found these 
manufactures in full swing, but nowadays they seem to 
be limited to the Philippines. Besides these, the pan- 
dcmus-tree, from the leaves of which the softest mats 
are woven, is always found in near proximity to the 

FeHiie fields. Towards the interior the landscape is covered with 

rice-fields, which yearly receive a fresh layer of fertile 
soil, washed down from the mountains by the river, 
and spread over their surface by the overflowing of its 
waters; and which in consequence never require a*ny 

Thecarabao. fertilizer. The carabao, the favorite domestic animal 
of the Malays, and which they keep especially for agri- 

* Ind. Arch. IV; 307. 

t In Buitenzorger's garden, Java, the author observed, however, some speci- 
mens growing in fresh water. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 4S 

cultural purposes, prefers these regions to all others. 
It lcv=s to wallow in the mud, and is not fit for work 
unless permitted to frequent the water. 

BambDos with luxuriant leafy tops grow plentifully Bamboo 
by the huts in the rice-fields which fringe the banks of 
the river. In my former sketches of travel I have 
endeavored to describe how much this gigantic plant 
contributes to the comfort and convenience of tropical 
life. Since then I have become acquainted with many 
curious purposes to which it is turned, but to describe 
them here would be out of place.* I may be allowed, 
however, to briefly cite a few examples showing what 
numerous results are obtained from simple means. 
Nature has endowed these splendid plants, which per- • 
haps surpass all others in beauty, with so many useful 
qualities, and delivered them into the hands of mankind 
so ready for immediate use, that a few sharp cuts suffice 
to convert them into all kinds of various utensils. The 
bamboo possesses, in proportion to its lightness, an strength. 
extraordinary strength; the result of its round shape, 
and the regularity of the joints in its stem. The parallel 
position and toughness of its fibers render it easy to 
split, and, when split, its pieces are of extraordinary 
pliability and elasticity. To the gravelly soil on which 
it grows it owes its durability, and its firm, even, and 
always clean surface, the brilliancy and color of which 
improve by use. And finally, it is a great thing for a 
population with such limited means of conveyance Convenience. 
that the bamboo is to be found in such abundance in all 
kinds of localities and of all dimensions, from a few 
millimeters to ten or fifteen centimeters in diameter, even 

* Boyle, in his Adventures amonrj the Dyaks, mentions that he actually 
found pneumatic tinder-boxes, made of bambao, in us; among the Dyaks; 
Bastian met with them in Burmah. Boyle saw a Dyak place som; tinder on a 
broken piece of earthenA^are, holding it steady with his taunb wnil; he strack 
it a sharp blow with a piece of bamboo. The tinder took fire. Wallace ob- 
served the same method of striking a light in Ternate. 


sometimes to twice this amount; and that, on account 
of its unsurpassed floating power, it is pre-eminently- 
fitted for locomotion in a country poor in roads but rich 
in watercourses. A blow with a bolo is generally enough 
/usefulness. to cut down a strong stem. If the thin joints are taken 
away, hollow stems of different thicknesses can be slid 
into one another like the parts of a telescope. From 
bamboos split in half, gutters, troughs, and roofing 
tiles can be made. Split into several slats, which can be 
again divided into small strips and fibers for the manu- 
facture of baskets, ropes, mats, and fine plaiting work, 
they can be made into frames and stands. Two cuts 
in the same place make a round hole through which a 
stem of corresponding diameter can be firmly introduced. 
If a similar opening is made in a second upright, 
the horizontal stem can be run through both. Gates, 
closing perpendicularly or horizontally in frames moving 
without friction on a perpendicular or horizontal axis, 
can be made in this way. 

Two deep cuts give an angular shape to the stem; 
and when its two sides are wide enough apart to admit 
of a cross-stem being placed between them, they can be 
employed as roof- ridges or for the framework of 
tables and chairs; a quantity of flat split pieces of 
bamboo being fastened on top of them with chair-cane. 
These split pieces then form the seats of the chairs and 
the tops of the tables, instead of the boards and large 
bamboo laths used at other times. It is equally 
easy to make an oblong opening in a large bamboo in 
which to fit the laths of a stand. 

A couple of cuts are almost enough to make a fork, 
a pair of tongs or a hook. 

If one makes a hole as big as the end of one's finger 
in a large bamboo close under a joint, one obtains by 
fastening a small piece of cloth to the open end, a syphon 


Jagor's Travels in the Pliilippines 4J 

or a filter. If a piece of bamboo is split down to the 
joint in strips, and the strips be bound together with 
others horizontally interlaced, it makes a conical basket. 
If the strips are cut shorter, it makes a peddler's 
pack basket. If a long handle is added, and it is filled 
with tar, it can be used as a signal torch. If shallower 
baskets of the same dimensions, but with their bottoms 
cut off or punched out, are placed inside these conical 
ones, the two together make capital snare baskets for 
crabs and fish. If a bamboo stem be cut off just 
below the joint, and its lower edge be split up into a 
cogged rim, it makes, when the partition of the joint 
is punched out, an earth-auger, a fountain-pipe, and 
many things of the kind. 

Strangers travelling in the interior have daily fresh puasures <,j- 
opportunities of enjoying the hospitality of nature. ''"'''^'• 
The atmosphere is so equitably warm that one would 
gladly dispense with all clothing except a sun-hat and a 
pair of light shoes. Should one be tempted to pass the 
night in the open air, the construction of a hut from the 
leaves of the palm and the fern is the work of a few 
minutes; but in even the smallest village the traveller VMn/e 
finds a "common house" {casa real), in which he can '*•'"'"""""• 
take up his quarters and be supplied with the necessa- 
ries of life at the market price. There too he will 
always meet with scmatieros (those who perform menial 
duties) ready to serve him as messengers or porters for 
the most trifling remuneration. But long practice 
has taught me that their services principally consist 
in doing nothing. On one occasion I wanted to send a 
man who was playing cards and drinking tuba (fresh 
or weakly-fermented palm-sap) with his companions, 
on an errand. Without stopping his game the fellow ,„ 
excused himself on the ground of being a prisoner, and prison ///<•. 

little regarded. 

Change from 




one of his guardians proceeded in the midst of the intense 
heat to carry my troublesome message. Prisoners have 
certainly little cause to grumble. The only inconve- 
nience to which they are exposed are the floggings which 
the local authorities very liberally dispense by the dozens 
for the most trifling off'ences. Except the momentary 
bodily pain, however, these appear in most cases to 
make little impression on a people who have been accus- 
tomed to corporal punishment from their youth upwards. 
Their acquaintances stand round the sufferers, while 
the blows are being inflicted, and mockingly ask them 
how it tastes. 

A long residence amongst the earnest, quiet, and dig- 
nified Malays, who are most anxious for their honor, 
while most submissive to their superiors, makes the con- 
trast in character exhibited by the natives of the Phil- 
ippines, who yet belong to the Malay race, all the more 
striking. The change in their nature appears to be a 
natural consequence of the Spanish rule, for the same 
characteristics may be observed in the natives of Spanish 
America. The class distinctions and the despotic 
oppression prevalent under their former chiefs doubtless 
rendered the Filipinos of the past more like the Malays 
of today. 

The familiar 
field for 


The environs of Manila, the Pasig, and the Lagoon of 
Bay, which are visited by every fresh arrival in the 
colony, have been so often described that I have restricted 
myself to a few short notes upon these parts of the coun- 
try, and intend to relate in detail only my excursions 
into the south-eastern provinces of Luzon, Camarines, 
and Albay, and the islands which lie to the east of them, 

great extent. 

Jagor's Travels i7i the Philippines 47 

Samar and Leyte. Before doing this, however, it will 
not be out of place to glance at the map and give some 
slight description of their geographical conditions. 

The Philippine Archipelago lies between Borneo and 
Formosa, and separates the northern Pacific Ocean from 
the China Sea. It covers fourteen and one-half degrees 
of latitude, and extends from the Sulu Islands in the 
south, in the fifth parallel of north latitude, to the Babu- 
yans in the north in latitude 19° 30'. If, however, the 
Bashee or Batanes Islands be included, its area may be 
said to extend to the twenty-first parallel of north latitude. 
But neither southwards or northwards does Spanish rule 
extend to these extreme limits, nor, in fact, does it always 
reach the far interior of the larger islands. From the 
eastern to the western extremity of the Philippines the 
distance is about nine degrees of longitude. Two 
islands, Luzon, with an area of two thousand, and Min- 
danao, with one of more than one thousand five hundred 
square miles, are together larger than all the rest. 
The seven next largest islands are Palawan, Samar, 
Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, Negros, and Cebu; of which 
the first measures about two hundred and fifty, and the 
last about one hundred square miles. Then come 
Bohol and Masbate, each about half the size of Cebu; 
twenty smaller islands, still of some importance; and 
numerous tiny islets, rocks, and reefs. 

The Philippines are extremely favored by their posi- Favored by 
tion and conditions. Their extension from north to p""'""^ 

and conditions. 

south, over 16° of latitude, obtains for them a variety 
of climate which the Dutch Indies, whose largest dia- 
meter, their extent in latitude north and south of the 
equator being but trifling, runs from the east to the 
west, by no means enjoy. The advantages accruing from 
their neighborhood to the equator are added to those 


acquired from the natural variety of their climate; and 
the produce of both the torrid and temperate zones, the 
palm-tree and the fir, the pine-apple, the corn ear 
and the potato, flourish side by side upon their shores. 
Harhorsand 'pj^g larger islands contain vast inland seas, consider- 

able navigable rivers, and many creeks running tar into 
the interior; they are rich, too, in safe harbors and count- 
less natural ports of refuge for ships la distress. Another 
attribute which, though not to be realized by a glance 
at the map, is yet one of the most fortunate the Islands 
possess, is the countless number of small streams which 
pour down from the inland hills, and open out, ere they 
reach the ocean, into broad estuaries; up these water- 
courses coasting vessels of shallow draught can sail to 
the very foot of the mountains and take in their cargo. 
soti and .sea Thc fertility of the soil is unsurpassed ; both the sea 
"' ! ,. around the coasts and the inland lakes swarm with fish 


and shell-fish, while in the whole archipelago there is 
scarcely a wild beast to be found. It seems that only 
two civets happen to appear: Miro {paradoxurus phil- 
ippinensis Tem.) and galong (riverra tangalunga Gray). 
Luzon surpasses all the other islands, not only in size, 
but in importance; and its fertility and other natural 
superiority well entitle it to be called, as it is by Crawfurd, 
"the most beautiful spot in the tropics." 
Luzon. The mainland of the isle of Luzon stretches itself 

in a compact long quadrangle, twenty-five miles broad, 
from 18° 40' north latitude to the Bay of Manila (14° 30') ; 
and then projects, amid large lakes and deep creeks, 
a rugged promontory to the east, joined to the main 
continent by but two narrow isthmuses which stretch 
east and west of the large inland Lagoon of Bay. Many 
traces of recent upheavals betoken that the two portions 
were once separated and formed two distinct islands. 
The large eastern promontory, well-nigh as long as the 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines . j^9 

northern portion, is nearly cut in half by two deep bays, 
which, starting from opposite points on the south-eastern 
and north-western coasts, almost merge their waters 
in the center of the peninsula; the Bay of Ragay, and the 
Bay of Sogod. In fact, the southern portion of Luzon 
may be better described as two small peninsulas lying 
next to one another in parallel positions, and joined 
together by a narrow neck of land scarcely three miles 
broad. Two small streams which rise nearly in the same 
spot and pour themselves into the two opposite gulfs, 
make the separation almost complete, and form at the 
same time the boundary between the province of Tayabas 
on the west, and that of Camarines on the east. The 
western portion, indeed, consists almost entirely of the 
first-named district, and the eastern is divided into the 
provinces of North Camarines, South Camarines, and 
Albay. The first of these three is divided from Tayabas 
by the boundary already mentioned, and from South 
Camarines by a line drawn from the southern shore of the 
Bay of San Miguel on the north to the opposite coast. 
The eastern extremity of the peninsula forms the prov- 
ince of Albay ; separated from South Camarines by a line 
which runs from Donzol, on the south coast, northwards 
across the volcano of Mayon, and which then, inclining 
to the west, reaches the northern shore. A look at the 
map will make these explanations clearer. 

There are two seasons in the Philippines, the wet and The monsoons. 
the dry. The south-west monsoon brings the rainy 
season, at the time of our summer, to the provinces which 
lie exposed to the south and west winds. On the north- 
ern and eastern coasts the heaviest downpours take 
place (in our winter months) during the north-eastern 
monsoons. The ruggedness of the country and its 
numerous mountains cause, in certain distri::ts, many 
variations in these normal meteorological conditions. 


The dry season lasts in Manila from November till 
June (duration of the north-east monsoon) ; rain prevails 
during the remaining months (duration of the south- 
west monsoon). The heaviest rainfall occurs in Sep- 
tember; March and April are frequently free from rain. 
From October to February inclusively the weather is 
cool and dry (prevalence of N.W., N., and N.E. winds); 
March, April, and May are warm and dry (prevalence 
of E.N.E., E., and E.S.E. winds); and from June till 
the end of September it is humid and moderately warm. 

There has been an observatory for many years past 
in Manila under the management of the Jesuits. The 
following is an epitome of the yearly meteorological report 
for 1867, for which I am indebted to Professor Dove: 

Barometrical readings. — The average height of the 
mercury was, in 1867, 755.5; in 1865, 754.57; and in 
1866, 753.37 millimeters. 

In 1867 the difference between the highest and lowest 
barometrical readings was not more than 13.96 milli- 
metres, and would have been much less if the mercury 
had not been much depressed by storms in July and 
September. The hourly variations amounted to very 
few millimeters. 

Daily reading of the barometer. — The mercury rises in 
the early morning till about 9 a. m., it then falls up to 
3 or 4 p. m., from then it rises again till 9 p. m., and then 
again falls till towards day-break. Both the principal 
atmospheric currents prevalent in Manila exercise a great 
influence over the mercury in the barometer; the north- 
em current causes it to rise (to an average height of 
756 millimeters), the southern causes it to fall (to about 
753 millimeters). 

Temperature. — The heat increases from January till 
the end of May, and then decreases till December. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines St 

Average yearly temperature, 27.9° C. The highest 
temperature ever recorded (on the 15th of April at 3 
p. m.) was 37.7° C; the lowest (on the 14th of December 
and on the 30th of January at 6 a. m.), 19.4° C. Differ- 
ence, 18.3° C* 

Thermometrical variations. — The differences between 
the highest and lowest readings of the thermometer 
were, in January, 13.9°; in February, 14.2°; in March, 
15°; in April, 14.6°; in May, 11.1°; in June, 9.9°; in 
July, 9°; in August, 9°; in September, 10°; in October, 
11.9°; in November, 11.8°; and in December, 11.7°. 

Coolest months. — November, December and January, 
with northerly winds. 

Hottest months. — April and May. Their high tempe- 
rature is caused by the change of monsoon from the north- 
east to the south-west. The state of the temperature 
is most normal from June to September; the variations 
are least marked during this period owing to the un- 
interrupted rainfall and the clouded atmosphere. 

Daily variations of the thermometer. — The coolest 
portion of the day is from 6 to 7 a. m.; the heat gradually 
increases, reaches its maximum about 2 or 3 p. m., 
and then again gradually decreases. During some hours 
of the night the temperature remains unchanged, but 
towards morning it falls rapidly. 

The direction of the wind is very regular at all seasons winds 
of the year, even when local causes make it vary a little. 
In the course of a twelvemonth the wind goes around the 
whole compass. In January and February north winds 
prevail; in March and April they blow from the south- 
east; and in May, June, July, August, and September, 

* Centigrade is changed to Fahrenheit by multiplying by nine-fifths and 
adding thirty-two.— C. 


Sunehine and 


from the south-west. In the beginning of October 
they vary between south-east and south-west, and settle 
down towards the close of the month in the north-east, 
in which quarter they remain tolerably fixed during the 
two following months. The two changes of monsoon 
always take place in April and May, and in October. 
As a rule, the direction of both monsoons preserves its 
equilibrium; but in Manila, which is protected towards 
the north by a high range of hills, the north-east monsoon 
is often diverted to the south-east and north-west. 
The same cause gives greater force to the south-west wind. 

The sky is generally partially clouded; entirely sunny 
days are of rare occurrence, in fact, they only occur 
from January to April during the north-east monsoons. 
Number of rainy days in the year, 168. The most con- 
tinuous and heaviest rain falls from June till the end of 
October. During this period the rain comes down in 
torrents; in September alone the rainfall amounted to 
1.5 meters, nearly as much as falls in Berlin in the course 
of the whole year, 3,072.8 millimeters of rain fell in the 
twelve month; but this is rather more than the average. 

The evaporation only amounted to 2,307.3 millimeters; 
in ordinary years it is generally about equal to the down- 
fall, taking the early averages, not those of single months. 

The average daily evaporation was about 6.3 milli- 

The changes of monsoons are often accompanied with 
tremendous storms; during one of these, which occurred 
in September, the velocity of the wind was as much as 
thirty-seven or thirty-eight meters per second. An official 
report of the English vice-consul mentions a typhoon 
which visited the Islands on September 27, 1865, and 
which did much damage at Manila, driving seventeen 
vessels ashore. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 53 

The Philippines are divided into provinces (P), and Provinces ar^d- 
districts (D), each of which is administered by an alcalde ''"'"■<:'•'• 
of the 1st (Al), 2nd (A2), or 3rd class (A3) (de termino, 
de ascenso, de entrada) ; by a political and military gov- 
ernor (G), or by a commandant (C). In some provinces 
an alcalde of the 3rd class is appointed as coadjutor to 
the governor. These divisions are frequently changed. 

The population is estimated approximately at about Population. 
five millions. 

In spite of the long possessions of the Islands by the Language 
Spaniards their language has scarcely acquired any footing "'^ diaiecu. 
there. A great diversity of languages and dialects prevails" 
amongst them the Bisayan, Tagalog, Ilocano, Bicol, 
Pangasinan, and Pampangan are the most important. 


Rank of | 

































Camarines Norte 
Camarines Sur . . 


Ilocos Norte .... 

Ilocos Sur 







Nueva Ecija. . . . 

Nueva Vizcaya. . 










Prevailing Dialect 


Bicol WW 

Tagalog, Pampangan 


Igorot, Ilocano, Pangasinan. . . 

Suflin, Ilocano, Igorot 


Ibanag, Itanes, Idayan, Gaddan 
Ilocano, Dadaya, Apayao, Ma 

Tagalog, Bicol 


Spanish, Tagalog 

Ilocano, Tinguian 



Ibanag, Gaddan, Tagalog 

Tagalog, Spanish 

Igorot, Ilocano 

Tagalog, Spanish. Chinjs; 


Tagalog, Pangasinan, Pampan- 
gan, Ilocano 

Gaddan, Ifugao, Ibilao, Ilongote. 

Pampangan, Ilocano 

Pangasinan, Ilocana 


Tagalog, Ilocano, Ilongots 


Tagalog, Bicol .. . . 

Different Igorot dialects 


Zambal, Ilocano, Acta, Pampan- 
gan, Tagalog, Pangasinan .... 































Luzon Proviruei 
and their 
languages and 

























Rank of | 


































Antique (Panay). 



Caoiz (Panayl . . 


Iloilo (Panay) . . . 


Masbate, Ticao., 





Prevailing Dialect. 










Cebuan, Panayan, Bisayan. 


















D. 1 


Misamis (J).. . . 
Surigao (J) . . . . 
Zamboanga (J) . 


Spanish, Manobo . 

Mandaya, Spanish. 







G a3.IP. 
G a3. P. 
G. P. 


Batanes Ibanag I 8,381 I 6 

Calamianes Coyuvo, Agutaino Calamiano ... 17,703 5 

Marianas Chamorro, Carolino | 5,940 | 6 

of government 

The statistics of the above table are taken from a small 
work, by Sr. [Vicente] Barrantes, the Secretary-General 
of the Philippines ; but I have arranged them differently 
to render them more easily intelligible to the eye. 
Although Sr. Barrantes had the best official materials 
at his disposal, too much value must not be attributed 
to his figures, for the sources from which he drew them 
are tainted with errors to an extent that can hardly 
be realized in Europe. For example, he derives the 
following contradictory statements from his official 
sources: — The population of Cavite is set down as 115,300 
and 65,225; that of Mindoro as 45,630, and 23,054; that 
of Manila as 230,443, and 323,683; and that of Capiz 
as 788,947, and 191,818. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippinet SS 


My first excursion was to the province of Bulacan, on to Buiacan 

the northern shore of the Bay of Manila. A couple ^vs<eamer. 

of hours brought the steamer to the bar of Binuanga 

(not Bincanga as it is called in Coello's map), and a 

third to Bulacan, the capital of the province, situated 

on the fiat banks of an influent of the Pampanga delta. 

I was the only European passenger, the others were 

composed of Tagalogs, mestizos, and a few Chinese; 

the first more particularly were represented by women, 

who are generally charged with the management of all 

business affairs, for which they are much better fitted 

than the men. As a consequence, there are usually 

more women than men seen in the streets, and it appears 

to be an admitted fact that the female births are more 

numerous than the male. According, however, to the 

church-record which I looked through, the reverse was, 

at any rate in the eastern provinces, formerly the case. 

At the landing-place a number of cai'wmatas were Carromaia>. 
waiting for us, — brightly painted, shallow, two-wheeled 
boxes, provided with an awning, and harnessed to a 
couple of horses, in which strangers with money to spend 
are quickly driven anywhere they may desire. 

The town of Bulacan contains from 11,000 to 12,000 '''o"^'''"/ 
inhabitants; but a month before my arrival, the whole 
of it, with the exception of the church and a few stone 
houses, had been burnt to the ground. All were there- 
fore occupied in building themselves new houses, which, 
oddly enough, but very practically, were commenced 
at the roof, like houses in a drawing. Long rows of 
roofs composed of palm-leaves and bamboos were laid 
in readiness on the ground, and in the meantime were 
used as tents. 



of fires. 

To Calumpil 
by carriage. 

Similar destructive fires are very common. The 
houses, which with few exceptions are built of bamboo 
and wood, become perfectly parched in the hot season, 
dried into so much touchwood by the heat of the sun. 
Their inhabitants are extremely careless about fire, 
and there are no means whatever of extinguishing it. 
If anything catches fire on a windy day, the entire village, 
as a rule, is utterly done for. During my stay in Bula- 
can, the whole suburb of San Miguel, in the neighbor- 
hood of Manila, was burnt down, with the exception 
of the house of a Swiss friend of mine, which owed its 
safety to the vigorous use of a private fire-engine, and 
the intermediation of a small garden full of bananas, 
whose stems full of sap stopped the progress of the flames. 

I travelled to Calumpit, a distance of three leagues, 
in the handsome carriage of an hospitable friend. The 
roads were good, and were continuously shaded by fruit- 
trees, coco and areca palms. The aspect of this fruit- 
ful province reminded me of the richest districts of Java ; 
but the pueblos here exhibited more comfort than the 
desas there. The houses were more substantial; numer- 
ous roomy constructions of wood, in many cases, even, 
of stone, denoted in every island the residence of official 
and local magnates. But while even the poorer Java- 
nese always give their wicker huts a smart appearance, 
border the roads of their villages with blooming hedges, 
and display everywhere a sense of neatness and clean- 
liness, there were here far fewer evidences of taste to be 
met with. I missed too the alim-alun, that pretty and 
carefully tended open square, which, shaded by uaringa 
trees, is to be met with in every village in Java. And 
the quantity and variety of the fruit trees, under whose 
leaves the desas of Java are almost hidden, were by no 
means as great in this province, although it is the 
garden of the Philippines, as in its Dutch prototype. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 67 

I reached Calumpit towards evening, just as a proces- Caiumpn. 
sion, resplendent with flags and torches, and melodious 
with song, was marching round the stately church, 
whose worthy priest, on the strength of a letter of intro- 
duction from Madrid, gave me a most hospitable recep- 
tion. Calumpit, a prosperous place of 12,250 inhabi- 
tants, is situated at the junction of the Quingua and 
Pampanga rivers, in an extremely fruitful plain, fertilized 
by the frequent overflowing of the two streams. 

About six leagues to the north-west of Calumpit, Mt. Arayat. 
Mount Arayat, a lofty, isolated, conical hill, lifts its 
head. Seen from Calumpit, its western slope meets 
the horizon at an angle of 20°, its eastern at one of 25°; 
and the profile of its summit has a gentle inclination of 
from 4° to 5°. 

At Calumpit I saw some Chinese catching fish in a 
peculiar fashion. Across the lower end of the bed of a 
brook which was nearly dried up, and in which there were 
only a few rivulets left running, they had fastened a 
hurdle of bamboo, and thrown up a shallow dam behind 
it. The water which collected was thrown over the 
dam with a long-handled winnowing shovel. The shovel 
was tied to a bamboo frame work ten feet high, the 
elasticity of which made the work much easier. As soon 
as the pool was emptied, the fisherman was easily able Pickirig fish. 
to pick out of the mud a quantity of small fish (Ophio- 
cephalus vagus). These fishes, which are provided with 
peculiar organisms to facilitate respiration, at any rate, 
enabling them to remain for some considerable time on 
dry land, are in the wet season so numerous in the 
ditches, ponds, and rice-fields, that they can be killed 
with a stick. When the water sinks they also retire, or, 
according to Professor Semper, bore deeply into the ooze 
at the bottom of the watercourses, where, protected by 
a hard crust of earth from the persecutions of mankind, 



they sleep away the winter. This Chinese method of 
fishing seems well adapted to the habits of the fish. 
The circumstances that the dam is only constructed at 
the lower end of the watercourse, and that it is there 
that the fish are to be met with in the greatest numbers, 
seem to indicate that they can travel in the ooze, and 
that as the brooks and ditches get dried up, they seek 
the larger water channels. 

To Hniitmy- Following the Quingua in its upward and eastward 

course as it meandered through a well-cultivated and 
luxuriantly fertile country, past stone-built churches 
and chapels which grouped themselves with the surround- 
ing palm-trees and bamboo-bushes into sylvan vignettes, 
Father Llano's four-horsed carriage brought me to the 
important town of Baliwag, the industry of which is 
celebrated beyond the limits of the province. 

I visited several families and received a friendly recep- 
tion from all of them. The houses were built of boards 
and were placed upon piles elevated five feet above the 
ground. Each consisted of a spacious dwelling apart- 
ment which opened on one side into the kitchen, and on 
the other on to an open space, the azotea; a lofty roof 
of palm-trees spread itself above the dwelling, the en- 
trance to which was through the azotea. The latter 
was half covered by the roof I have just mentioned. 
The floor was composed of slats an inch in width, laid 
half that distance apart. Chairs, tables, benches, a 
cupboard, a few small ornaments, a mirror, and some 
lithographs in frames, composed the furniture of the 
interior. The cleanliness of the house and the arrange- 
ment of its contents testified to the existence of order 
and prosperity. 

Tapix weaving. I found the womcu in almost all the houses occupied 
in weaving tapis, which have a great reputation in the 
Manila market. They are narrow, thickly-woven silk 

Hoard houses 
and their 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 50 

scarves, six varas in length, with oblique white stripes 
on a dark-brown ground. They are worn above the 

Baliwag is also especially famous for its petaca* petaca doar 
cigar-cases, which surpass all others in delicacy of work- '''^''*'''- 
manship. They are not made of straw, but of fine strips 
of Spanish cane, and particularly from the lower ends 
of the leaf-stalks of the calamusart, which is said to 
grow only in the province of Nueva Ecija. 

A bundle of a hundred selected stalks, a couple of t'reparaiion .,/ 
feet long, costs about six reals. When these stalks have 
been split lengthways into four or five pieces, the inner 
wood is removed, till nothing but the outer part remains. 
The thin strips thus obtained are drawn by the hand 
between a convex block and a knife fixed in a sloping 
position, and between a couple of steel blades which 
nearly meet. 

It is a task requiring much patience and practice. cv*".7 iveavim/. 
In the first operation, as a rule, quite one-half of the 
stems are broken, and in the second more than half, 
so that scarcely twenty per cent of the stalks survive 
the final process. In very fine matting the proportionate 
loss is still greater. The plaiting is done on wooden 
cylinders. A case of average workmanship, which costs 
two dollars on the spot, can be manufactured in six days' 
uninterrupted labor. Cigar-cases of exceptionally intri- 
cate workmanship, made to order for a connoisseur, 
frequently cost upwards of fifty dollars. 

Following the Quingua from Baliwag up its stream, Voicanic sJu.-n 
we passed several quarries, where we saw the thickly- 
packed strata of volcanic stone which is used as a build- 
ing material. The banks of the river are thickly studded 
with prickly bamboos from ten to twelve feet high. 

* Tylor (Anahiiac 227) says that this word is derived from the Mexican 
petlail, a mat. The inhabitants of the Philippines call this petate, and from the 
Mexican pella-calli, a mat "house," derive petaca, a cigar case. 



The water overflows in the rainy season, and floods the 
plain for a great distance. Hence the many shells of 
* large freshwater mussels which are to be seen lying on the 
earth which covers the volcanic deposit. The country 
begins to get hilly in the neighborhood of Tobog, a small 
place with no church of its own, and dependent for its 
services upon the priest of the next parish. The gentle 
slopes of the hills are, as in Java, cut into terraces and 
used for the cultivation of rice. Except at Lucban 
I have never observed similar saivas anywhere else in the 
Philippines. Several small sugar-fields, which, however, 
the people do not as yet understand how to manage 
properly, show that the rudiments of agricultural pros- 
perity are already in existence. The roads are partly 
covered with awnings, beneath which benches are placed 
affording repose to the weary traveller. I never saw 
these out of this province. One might fancy oneself 
in one of the most fertile and thickly-populated districts 
of Java. 
Aconvento I passcd the night in a convento, as the dwelling of the 

parish priest is called in the Philippines. It was ex- 
tremely dirty, and the priest, an Augustinian, was full of 
proselytish ardor. I had to undergo a long geographical 
examination about the difference between Prussia and 
Russia; was asked whether the great city of Nuremberg 
was the capital of the grand-duchy or of the empire 
of Russia; learnt that the English were on the point 
of returning to the bosom of the Catholic Church, and 
that the "others" would soon follow, and was, in short, 
in spite of the particular recommendation of Father 
Llanos, very badly received. Some little time after- 
wards I fell into the hands of two young Capuchins, 
who tried to convert me, but who, with the exception 
of this little impertinence, treated me capitally. They 
gave me ydtes de foie gras boiled in water, which I quickly 

■and the 
parish priest 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 61 

recognized by the truffles swimming about in the grease. 
To punish them for their importunity I refrained from 
telling my hosts the right way to cook the pates, which 
I had the pleasure of afterwards eating in the forest, 
as I easily persuaded them to sell me the tins they had 
left. These are the only two occasions on which I was 
subjected to this kind of annoyance during my eighteen 
months' residence in the Philippines. 

The traveller who is provided with a passport is, 
however, by no means obliged to rely upon priestly 
hospitality, as he needs must do in many isolated parts 
of Europe. Every village, every hamlet, has its com- Arrangements 

for travellers. 

mon-house, called casa real or tribunal, in which he 
can take up his quarters and be supplied with provisions 
at the market price, a circumstance that I was not 
acquainted with on the occasion of my first trip. The 
traveller is therefore in this respect perfectly independ- 
ent, at least in theory, though in practice he will often 
scarcely be able to avoid putting up at the conventos 
in the more isolated parts of the country. In these 
the priest, perhaps the only white man for miles around, 
is with difficulty persuaded to miss the opportunity 
of housing such a rare guest, to whom he is only too 
anxious to give up the best bedroom in his dwelling, 
and to offer everything that his kitchen and cellar can 
afford. Everything is placed before the guest in such 
a spirit of sincere and undisguised friendliness, that he 
feels no obligation, but on the contrary easily persuades 
himself that he is doing his host a favor by prolonging 
his stay. Upon one occasion, when I had determined, 
in spite of an invitation from the padre, to occupy the 
casa real, just as I was beginning to instal myself, the 
priest appeared upon the scene with the municipal 
officials and a band of music which was in the neighbor- 
hood pending the preparations for a religious festival. 



A negritu 

He made them lift me up, chair and all, and with music 
and general rejoicing carried me off to his own house. 

On the following day I paid a visit to Kupang, an 
iron-foundry lying to the N.N.E of Angat, escorted 
by two armed men, whose services I was pressed to 
accept, as the district had a bad reputation for rob- 
beries. After travelling three or four miles in a northerly 
direction, we crossed the Banauon, at that time a mere 
brook meandering through shingle, but in the rainy 
season an impetuous stream more than a hundred feet 
broad; and in a couple of hours we reached the iron- 
works, an immense shed lying in the middle of the forest, 
with a couple of wings at each end, in which the manager, 
an Englishman, who had been wrecked some years 
before in Samar, lived with his wife, a pretty mesiiza. 
If I laid down my handkerchief, my pencil, or any other 
object, the wife immediately locked them up to protect 
them from the kleptomania of her servants. These 
poor people, whose enterprise was not a very successful 
one, had to lead a wretched life. Two years before my 
visit a band of twenty-seven robbers burst into the place, 
sacked the house, and threw its mistress, who was alone 
with her maid at the time, out of the window. She 
fortunately alighted without receiving any serious hurt, 
but the maid, whom terror caused to jump out of the 
window also, died of the injuries she received. The 
robbers, who turned out to be miners and residents in 
Angat, were easily caught, and, when I was there, had 
already spent a couple of years in prison awaiting their 

I met a negrito family here who had friendly relations 
with the people in the iron-works, and were in the habit 
of exchanging the produce of the forest with them for 
provisions. The father of this family accompanied me 
on a hunting expedition He was armed with a bow 

Jagor'a Travels in the Philippines 63 

and a couple of arrows. The arrows had spear-shaped 
iron points a couple of inches long ; one of them had been 
dipped into arrow-poison, a mixture that looked like 
black tar. The women had guitars (tahaua) similar to 
those used by the Mintras in the Malay peninsula. They 
were made of pieces of bamboo a foot long, to which 
strings of split chair-cane were fastened.* 

Upon my return, to avoid spending the night at the Unwelcome 
wretched convento where I had left my servant with 
my luggage, I took the advice of my friends at the iron- 
works and started late, in order to arrive at the priest's 
after ten o'clock at night; for I knew that the padre 
shut up his house at ten, and that I could therefore sleep, 
without offending him, beneath the roof of a wealthy 
mestizo, an acquaintance of theirs. About half-past 
ten I reached the latter's house, and sat down to table 
with the merry women of the family, who were just having 
their supper. Suddenly my friend the parson made his 
appearance from an inner room, where with a couple of 
Augustinian friars, he had been playing cards with the 
master of the house. He immediately began to com- 
pliment me upon my good fortune, "for had you been 
but one minute later," said he, "you certainly wouldn't 
have got into the convento." 


My second trip took me up the Pasig to the great Lagoon The Lagmn «/ 
of Bay. I left Manila at night in a hanca, a boat hoi- ^"^ 
lowed out of a tree-trunk, with a vaulted roof made of 
bamboo and so low that it was almost impossible to sit 
upright under it, which posture, indeed, the banca- 
builder appeared to have neglected to consider. A 

* Four lines, re an omitted sketch, left out. — C. 

The Pasig. 


bamboo hurdle placed at the bottom of the boat pro- 
tects the traveller from the water and serves him as a 
couch. Jurien de la Graviere* compares the banca to 
a cigar-box, in which the traveller is so tightly packed 
that he would have little chance of saving his life if it hap- 
pened to upset. The crew was composed of four rowers 
and a helmsman ; their daily pay was five reals apiece, in 
all nearly seven pesos, high wages for such lazy fellows 
in comparison with the price of provisions, for the rice 
that a hard-working man ate in a day seldom cost more 
than seven centavos (in the provinces often scarcely 
six), and the rest of his food (fish and vegetables), only 
one centavo. We passed several villages and tiendas 
on the banks in which food was exposed for sale. My 
crew, after trying to interrupt the journey under all sorts 
of pretences, left the boat as we came to a village, saying 
that they were going to fetch some sails; but they forgot to 
return. At last, with the assistance of the night watch- 
man, I succeeded in hauling them out of some of their 
friends' houses, where they had concealed themselves. 
After running aground several times upon the sandbanks, 
we entered the land and hill-locked Lagoon of Bay, and 
reached Jalajala early in the morning. 

The Pasig forms a natural canal, about six leagues 
long, between the Bay of Manila and the Lagoon of 
Bay, a fresh water lake, thirty-five leagues in circum- 
ference, that washes the shores of three fertile provinces, 
Manila, Laguna and Cavite. Formerly large vessels 
full of cargo used to be able to sail right up to the borders 
of the lake; now they are prevented by sandbanks. 
Even flat-bottomed boats frequently run aground on the 

* Voyage en Chine, vol. II., page 33. 

Jagnr's Trarels in the Philippines 65 

Napindan and Taguig banks.* Were the banks removed, 
and the stone bridge joining Manila to Binondo replaced 
by a swing bridge, or a canal made round it, the 
coasting vessels would be able to ship the produce of 
the lagoon provinces at the very foot of the fields in 
which they grow. The traffic would be very profitable, 
the waters would shrink, and the shallows along the 
shore might be turned into rice and sugar fields. A 
scheme of this kind was approved more than thirty 
years ago in Madrid, but it was never carried into execu- 
tion. The sanding up of the river has, on the contrary, 
been increased by a quantity of fish reels, the erection 
of which has been favored by the Colonial Waterways 
Board because it reaped a small tax from them. 

Jalajala, an estate which occupies the eastern of the 
two peninsulas which run southward into the lake, is 
one of the first places visited by strangers. It owes this 
preference to its beautiful position and nearness to 
Manila, and to the fantastic description of it by a former 
owner, De la Gironniere. The soil of the peninsula is 
volcanic ; its range of hills is very rugged, and the water- 
courses bring down annually a quantity of soil from the 
mountains, which increases the deposits at their base. 
The shore-line, overgrown with grass and prickly sen- 
sitive-plants quite eight feet high, makes capital pasture 
for carabaos. Behind it broad fields of rice and sugar 
extend themselves up to the base of the hills. Towards 
the north the estate is bounded by the thickly-wooded 
Sembrano, the highest mountain in the peninsula; on 
the remaining sides it is surrounded with water. With 

,4 famous 

* According to the report of an engineer, the sand banks are caused by the 
river San Mateo, which runs into the Pasig at right angles shortly after the latter 
leaves the Lagoon; in the rainy season it brings down a quantity of mud, which is 
heaped up and embanked by the south-west winds that prevail at the time. It 
would, therefore, be of little use to remove the sandbanks without giving the 
San Mateo, the cause of their existence, a direct and separate outlet into the 



the exception of the flat shore, the whole place is hilly 
and overgrown with grass and clumps of trees, capital 
pasture for its numerous herds — a thousand carabaos, 
one thousand five hundred to two thousand bullocks, 
and from six to seven hundred nearly wild horses. As 
we were descending one of the hills, we were suddenly 
surrounded by half-a-dozen armed men, who took us 
for cattle-thieves, but who, to their disappointment, 
were obliged to forego their expected chance of a reward. 
LosBanoshot Beyond Jalajala, on the south coast of the Lagoon 

of Bay, lies the hamlet of Los Banos, so called from a 
hot spring at the foot of the Makiling volcano. Even 
prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, the natives used 
its waters as a remedy,* but they are now very little 
patronized. The shore of the lake is at this point, and 
indeed all round its circumference, so flat that it is 
impossible to land with dry feet from the shallowest 
canoe. It is quite covered with sand mussels. North- 
west of Los Banos there lies a small volcanic lake fringed 
with thick woods, called Dagatan (the enchanted lagoon 
of travellers), to distinguish it from Dagat, as the 
Tagals call the great Lagoon of Bay. I saw nothing of 
the crocodiles which are supposed to infest it, but we 
flushed several flocks of wild fowl, disturbed by our 
invasion of their solitude. From Los Banos I had 
intended to go to Lupang Puti (white earth), where, 
judging from the samples shown me, there is a deposit of 
fine white silicious earth, which is purified in Manila and 
used as paint. I did not reach the place, as the guide 
whom I had with difficulty obtained, pretended, after 
a couple of miles, to be dead beat. From the inquiries 

* They take baths fcr their maladies, and have hot springs for this purpose, 
particularly along the shcre of the king's lake (Estang du Roy, instead of Kstang 
de Bay by a printtr's mistake apparently), which is in the Island of Manila. — 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 67 

I made, however, I apprehend that it is a kind of sol- 
fatara. Several deposits of it appear to exist at the foot 
of the Makiling.* 

On my return I paid a visit to the Island of Talim, Taiim island. 
which, with the exception of a clearing occupied by a 
few miserable huts, is uninhabited and thickly over- 
grown with forest and undergrowth. In the center of 
the Island is the Susong-Dalaga (maiden's bosom), a 
dolerite hill with a beautifully formed crest. Upon the 
shore, on a bare rock, I found four eggs containing fully 
developed young crocodiles. When I broke the shells 
the little reptiles made off. 

Although the south-west monsoons generally occur ^- ^e la 
later in Jalajala than in Manila, it was already raining 
so hard that I decided to go to Calauan, on the southern 
shore of the lake, which is protected by Mount Makiling, 
and does not experience the effect of the rainy monsoons 
till later in the season. I met M. de la Gironniere in 
Calauan, the ''gentilhomme Breton" who is so well 
known for telling the most terrible adventures. He 
had lately returned from Europe to establish a large 
sugar manufactory. His enterprise, however, was a 
failure. The house of the lively old gentleman, whose 
eccentricity had led him to adopt the dress and the 
frugal habits of the natives, was neither clean or well 
kept, although he had a couple of friends to assist him 
in the business, a Scotchman, and a young Frenchman 
who had lived in the most refined Parisian society. 

* "One can scarcely walk thirty paces between Mount Makiling and a place 
called Bacon, which lies to the east of Los Banos, without meeting several kinds 
of natural springs, some very hot, some lukewarm, some of the temp3ratur; of 
the atmosphere, and some very cold. In a description of this place given in our 
archives for the year 1739, it is recorded that a hill called Natognos lies a mile 
to the south-east of the village, on the plateau of which there is a small plain 
400 feet square, which is kept in constant motion by the volume of vapor issuing 
from it. The soil from which this vapor issues is an extremely white earth; it is 
sometimes thrown up to the height of a yard or a yard and a half, and meeting 
the lower temperature of the atmosphere falls to the ground in small pieces." — 
Estado geoyraph., 1865. 


Llanura de 


Leaf imprinis 
in lava. 

There were several small lakes and a few empty 
volcanic basins on the estate. To the south-west, not 
very far from the house, and to the left of the road lead- 
ing to San Pablo, lies the Llanura de Imuc, a valley of 
dolerite more than a hundred feet deep. Large blocks 
of basalt enable one to climb down into the valley, the 
bottom of which is covered with dense growths. The 
center of the basin is occupied by a neglected coffee 
plantation laid out by a former proprietor. The density 
of the vegetation prevented my taking more precise 
observations. There is another shallower volcanic 
crater to the north of it. Its soil was marshy and covered 
with cane and grass, but even in the rainy season it 
does not collect sufficient water to turn it into a lake. 
It might, therefore, be easily drained and cultivated. 
To the south-west of this basin, and to the right of the 
road to San Pablo, lies the Tigui-mere. From a plain 
of whitish-grey soil, covered with concentric shells as 
large as a nut, rises a circular embankment with gently- 
sloping sides, intersected only by a small cleft which 
serves as an entrance, and which shows, on its edges 
denuded of vegetation, the loose rapilli of which the 
embankment is formed. The sides of this natural am- 
phitheatre tower more than a hundred feet above its 
flat base. A path runs east and west right through the 
center. The northern half is studded with cocopalm 
trees and cultivated plants; the southern portion is full 
of water nearly covered with green weeds and slime. 
The ground consists of black rapilli. 

From the Tigui-mere I returned to the hacienda along 
a bank formed of volcanic lava two feet in thickness and 
covered with indistinct impressions of leaves. Their 
state of preservation did not allow me to distinguish 

Jatjor's Travels in the PhiUppiiies 69 

their species, but they certainly belonged to some tropical 
genus, and are, according to Professor A. Braun, of the 
same kind as those now growing there. 

There are two more small lakes half a league to the 
south-east. The road leading to them is composed of 
volcanic remains which cover the soil, and large blocks 
of lava lie in the bed of the stream. 

The first of the two, the Maycap Lake, is entirely ^f<^y':ap Lake. 
embanked with the exception of a small opening fitted 
with sluices to supply water to a canal; and from its 
northern side, which alone admits of an open view, the 
southern peak of San Cristobal may be seen, about 73° 
to the north-east. Its banks, which are about eighty 
feet high, rise with a gentle slope in a westerly direction, 
till they join Mount Maiba, a hill about 500 feet high. 
The soil, like that of the embankments of the other 
volcanic lakes, consists of rapilli and lava, and is thickly 


Close by is another lake, Palakpakan, of nearly the 
same circumference, and formed in a similar manner 
(of black sand and rapilli). Its banks are from thirty 
to one hundred feet high. From its north-western edge 
San Cristobal lifts its head 70° to the northeast. Its 
waters are easily reached, and are much frequented by 

I About nine o'clock, a. m., I rode from Calauan to Paim brandy. 
Pila, and thence in a northeasterly direction to Santa 
Cruz, over even, broad, and well-kept roads, through 
a palm-grove a mile long and a mile and a half broad, 
which extends down to the very edge of the lagoons. 
The products of these palm trees generally are not used 
for the production of oil but for the manufacture of 
brandy. Their fruit is not allowed to come to maturity; 
but the buds are slit open, and the sweet sap is collected 



Bought by 

Profit in 

as it drips from them. It is then allowed to ferment, 
and subjected to distillation.* As the sap is collected 
twice a day, and as the blossoms, situated at the top 
of the tree, are forty or fifty feet above the ground, 
bamboos are fastened horizontally, one above the other, 
from one tree to another, to facilitate the necessary 
ascent and descent. The sap collector stands on the 
lower cross-piece while he holds on to the upper. 

The sale of palm-brandy was at the time of my visit 
the monopoly of the government, which retailed it in 
the Estanco (government sale rooms) with cigars, stamp- 
ed paper, and religious indulgences. The manufacture 
was carried on by private individuals; but the whole 
of the brandy was of necessity disposed of to the adminis- 
tration, which, however, paid such a high price for it 
that the contractors made large profits. 

I afterwards met a Spaniard in Camarines who, 
according to his own account, must have made consider- 
able and easy gains from these contracts. He had 
bought palm-trees at an average price of five reals apiece 
(they usually cost more, though they can be sometimes 
purchased for two reals). Thirty-five palms will furnish 
daily at least thirty -six quarts of tiiha (sugar-containing 
sap), from which, after fermentation and distillation, 
six quarts of brandy of the prescribed strength can be 
manufactured. One man is sufficient to attend to them, 
and receives for his trouble half the proceeds. The 

* Pigafetta says that the natives, in order to obtain palm-wine, cut the top 
of the tree through to the pith, and then catch the sap as it oozes out of the inci- 
sion. According to Regnaud, Natural History of the Coco-tree, the negroes 
of Saint Thomas pursue a similar method in the present day, i metho-i that 
considerably injures the trees and produces a much smaller quantity of liquor. 
Hernandez describes an indigenous process of obtaining wine, honey, and sago 
from the sacsar palm, a tree which from its stunted growth would seem to cor- 
respond with the arenya sarcharifera. The trees are tapped near the top, the 
soft part of the trunks is hollowed out, and the sap collects in this empty space. 
When all the juice is extracted, the tree is allowed to dry up, and is then cut into 
thin pieces which, after desiccation in the sun, are ground into meal. 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 71 

administration pays six cuartos for a quart of brandy. 
My friend the contractor was in annual receipt, there- 
fore, from every thirty-five of his trees, of 360X3^X5 
cuartos = $40.50. As the thirty-five trees only cost him 
$21,875, his invested capital brought him in about 200 
per cent. 

The proceeds of this monopoly (wines and liquors) wine and Uquor 
were rated at $1,622,810 in the colonial budget for 1861; a failure. 
but its collection was so difficult, and so disproportion- 
ately expensive, that it nearly swallowed up the whole 
profit. It caused espionage, robberies of all sorts, 
embezzlement, and bribery on a large scale. The retail 
of the brandy by officials, who are paid by a percentage 
on the consumption, did a good deal to injure the popular 
respect for the government. Moreover, the imposition 
of this improper tax on the most important industry of 
the country not only crippled the free trade in palms, 
but also the manufacture of raw sugar; for the govern- 
ment, to favor their own monopoly, had forbidden the 
sugar manufacturers to make rum from their molasses, 
which became in consequence so valueless that in Manila 
they gave it to their horses. The complaints of the 
manufacturers at last stirred up the administration to 
allow the manufacture of rum; but the palm-brandy 
monopoly remained intact. The Filipinos now drank 
nothing but rum, so that at last, in self-defence, the 
government entirely abandoned the monopoly (January, 
1864). Since that, the rum manufacturers pay taxes 
according to the amount of their sale, but not upon the 
amount of their raw produce. In order to cover the 
deficit occasioned by the abandonment of the brandy 
monopoly, the government has made a small increase 
in the poll-tax. The practice of drinking brandy has 



Santa Cruz. 

Scenery along 



naturally much increased; it is, however, a very old 
habit.* With this exception, the measure has had the 
most favorable consequences. 

Santa Cruz is a lively, prosperous place (in 1865 it 
contained 11,385 inhabitants), through the center of 
which runs a river. As the day on which we passed 
through it was Sunday, the stream was full of bathers, 
amongst them several women, their luxuriant hair 
covered with broad-brimmed hats to shade them from 
the sun. From the ford the road takes a sharp turn and 
inclines first to the east and then to the south-east, till 
it reaches Magdalena, between which and Majaijai the 
country becomes hilly. Just outside the latter, a viaduct 
takes the road across a deep ravine full of magnificent 
ferns, which remind the traveller of the height — more 
than 600 feet — above the sea level to which he has 
attained. The spacious convento at Majaijai, built by 
the Jesuits, is celebrated for its splendid situation. The 
Lagoon of Bay is seen to extend far to the north-east; 
in the distance the Peninsula of Jalajala and the Island 
of Talim, from which rises the Susong-Dalaga volcano, 
terminate the vista. From the convento to the lake 
stretches an endless grove of coco-trees, while towards 
the south the slope of the distant high ground grows 
suddenly steeper, and forms an abruptly precipitous 
conical hill, intersected by deep ravines. This is the 
Banajao or Majaijai volcano, and beside it Mount San 
Cristobal rears its bell-shaped summit. 

As everybody was occupied with the preparations for 
an ensuing religious festival, I betook myself, through 
Lucban on the eastern shore, to Mauban, situated amidst 
deep ravines and masses of lava at the foot of Mount 

* Pigafetta mentions that the natives were in the habit of making oil, vinegar, 
wine, and milk, from the coco-palm, and that they drank a great deal of the wine. 
Their kings, he says, frequently intoxicated themselves at their banquets. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 75 

Majaijai. The vegetation was of indescribable beauty, 
and the miserable road was enlivened with cheerful 
knots of pedestrians hastening to the festival.* 

I reached Lucban in three hours; it is a prosperous J-ncUan. 
place of 13,000 inhabitants, to the north-east of Majaijai. 
A year after my visit it burnt to the ground. The 
agricultural produce of the district is not very important, 
owing to the mountainous nature of the country; but 
considerable industrial activity prevails there. The 
inhabitants weave fine straw hats from the fibre of the 
leaf of the huri palm-tree (corypha sp.), manufacture 
pandanus mats, and carry on a profitable trade at Mau- 
ban with the placer miners of North Camarines. The 
entire breadth of the road is covered with cement, and 
along its center flows, in an open channel, a sparkling 

The road fr(5m Lucban to Mauban, which is situated JuMi-uke rice 
on the bay of Lamon, opposite to the Island of Alabat, 
winds along the narrow watercourse of the Mapon river, 
through deep ravines with perpendicular cliffs of clay. 
I observed several terrace-formed rice-fields similar to 
those so prevalent in Java, an infrequent sight in the 
Philippines. Presently the path led us into the very 
thick of the forest. Nearly all the trees were covered 
with aroides and creeping ferns; amongst them I noticed 
the angiopteris, pandanus, and several large specimens 
of the fan palm. 

Three leagues from Lucban the river flows under a Vcp^n river. 
rock supported on prismatically shaped pillars, and then 
runs through a bed of round pebbles, composed of vol- 
canic stone and white lime, as hard as marble, in which 
impressions of shell-fish and coral can be traced. Further 
up the river the volcanic rubble disappears, and the 

* A number of the Illuslraled London News, of December, 1857, or January, 
1858, contains a clever drawing, by an accomplished artist, of the mode of 
travelling over this road, under the title, "A macadamized road in Manila." 



Bamboo raft 

Visitor K to 

Hospitality of 

containing strata then consist of the marble-Hke pebbles 
cemented together v/ith calcareous spar. These strata 
alternate with banks of clay and coarse-grained soil, 
which contain scanty and badly preserved imprints of 
leaves and mussel-fish. Amongst them, however, I 
observed a flattened but still recognizable specimen of 
the fossil melania. The river-bed must be quite five 
hundred feet above the level of the sea. 

About a league beyond Mauban, as it was getting 
dusk, we crossed the river, then tolerably broad, on a 
wretched leaking bamboo raft, which sank at least six 
inches beneath the water under the weight of our horses, 
and ran helplessly aground in the mud on the opposite 

The tribunal or common-house was crowded with 
people who had come to attend the festival which was 
to take place on the following day. The cabezas wore, 
in token of their dignity, a short jacket above their 
shirts. A quantity of brightly decorated tables laden 
with fruit and pastry stood against the walls, and in 
the middle of the principal room a dining-table was laid 
out for forty persons. 

A European who travels without a servant — mine 
had run away with some wages I had rashly paid him 
in advance — is put down as a beggar, and I was over- 
whelmed with impertinent questions on the subject, 
which, however, I left unanswered. As I hadn't had 
the supper I stood considerably in need of, I took the 
liberty of taking a few savory morsels from the meat- 
pot, which I ate in the midst of a little knot of wondering 
spectators; I then laid myself down to sleep on the 
bench beside the table, to which a second set of diners 
were already sitting down. When I awoke on the fol- 
lowing morning there were already so many people 
stirring that I had no opportunity of performing my 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 76 

toilet. I therefore betook myself in my dirty travelling 
dress to the residence of a Spaniard who had settled 
in the pueblo, and who received me in the most hospit- 
able manner as soon as the description in my passport 
satisfied him that I was worthy of a confidence not 
inspired by my appearance. 

My friendly host carried on no trifling business. Two Trade in 
English ships were at that moment in the harbor, which '""'<»''«• 
he was about to send to China laden with niolave, a 
species of wood akin to teak. 

On my return I visited the fine waterfall of Butucan, Butucan 
between Mauban and Lucban, a little apart from the '^''''«'"/'»"- 
high road. A powerful stream flows between two high 
banks of rocky soil thickly covered with vegetation, 
and, leaping from a ledge of volcanic rock suddenly 
plunges into a ravine, said to be three hundred and 
sixty feet in depth, along the bottom of which it is hurried 
away. The channel, however, is so narrow, and the 
vegetation so dense, that an observer looking at it from 
above can not follow its course. This waterfall has a 
great similarity to that which falls from the Semeru in 
Java. Here, as there, a volcanic stream flowing over 
vast rocky deposits forms a horizontal watercourse, which 
in its turn is overshadowed with immense masses of 
rock. The water easily forces its way between these 
till it reaches the solid lava, when it leaves its high, 
narrow, and thickly -wooded banks, and plunges into the 
deep chasm it has itself worn away. The pouring rain 
unfortunately prevented me from sketching this fine 
fall. It was raining when I reached the convento of 
Majaijai, and it was still raining when I left it three days 
later, nor was there any hope of improvement in the 
weather for another month to come. "The wet season 
lasts for eight or nine months in Majaijai, and during the 
whole period scarcely a day passes without the rain 
falling in torrents."— Estado geograph. 


Majaijai. To asccnd the volcano was under such circumstances 

impracticable. According to some notes written by 
the Majaijai priest, an ascent and survey of Mount 
Banajao was made on the 22nd of April, 1858, by Senors 
Roldan and Montero, two able Spanish naval officers, 
specially charged with the revision of the marine chart 
of the archipelago. From its summit they took observa- 
tions of Manila cathedral, of Mayon, another volcano in 
Albay, and of the Island of Polillo. They estimated the 
altitude of Banajao to be seven thousand and twenty 
Spanish feet, and the depth of its crater to be seven 
hundred. The crater formerly contained a lake, but 
the last eruption made a chasm in its southern side 
through which the water flowed away.* 

Caiauan. j reached Calauan in the pouring rain, wading through 

the soft spongy clay upon wretched, half-starved ponies, 
and found I must put off my water journey to Manila 
till the following day, as there was no boat on the lake 
at this point. The next morning there were no horses 
to be found; and it was not till the afternoon that I 
procured a cart and a couple of carabaos to take me to 
Santa Cruz, whence in the evening the market-vessel 
started for Manila. One carabao was harnessed in front ; 
the other was fastened behind the cart in order that 
I might have a change of animals when the first became 
tired. Carabao number one wouldn't draw, and number 
two acted as a drag— rather useless apparatus on a level 

* Erd and Pickering, of the United States exploring expedition, determined 
the height to be 6,500 English feet (7,143 Spanish), not an unsatisfactory result, 
considering the imperfect means they possessed for making a proper measure- 
ment. In the Manila Estado ijeographico for 1865, the height is given, without 
any statement as to the source whence the estimate is derived, as 7,030 feet. 
The same authority says, "the large volcano is extinct since 1730, in which year 
its last eruption took place. The mountain burst into flames on the southern 
side, threw up streams of water, burning lava, and stones of an enormous size; 
traces of the last can be observed as far as the village of Sariaya. The crater 
is perhaps a league in circumference, it is highest on the northern side, and its 
interior is shaped like an egg-shell: the depth of the crater apparently extends 
half-way down the height of the mountain." 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 77 

road — so I changed them. As soon as number two felt 
the load it laid down. A few blows persuaded it to pick 
itself up, when it deliberately walked to the nearest 
pool and dropped into it. It was with the greatest trouble 
that we unharnessed the cart and pushed it back on to 
the road, while our two considerate beasts took a mud 
bath. At last we reloaded the baggage, the carabaos 
were rehamessed in the original positions, and the 
driver, leaning his whole weight upon the nose-rope of 
the leading beast, pulled with might and main. To my 
great delight the animal condescended to slowly advance 
with the cart and its contents. At Pila I managed to rua. 
get a better team, with which late in the evening, in the 
midst of a pouring rain, I reached a little hamlet opposite 
Santa Cruz. The market-vessel had left; our attempts 
to get a boat to take us across to the village only led to 
barefaced attempts at extortion, so I entered one of the 
largest of the hamlet's houses, which was occupied by a 
widow and her daughter. After some delay my request 
for a night's lodging was granted. I sent for some 
oil, to give me a little light, and something to eat. The 
women brought in some of their relations, who helped 
to prepare the food and stopped in the house to protect 
its owners. The next morning I crossed the river, teem- 
ing with joyous bathers, to Santa Cruz, and hired a 
boat there to take me across the lake to Pasig, and from 
thence to Manila. A contrary wind, however, forfced 
us to land on the promontory of Jalajala, and there wait 
for the calm that accompanies the dawn. Betwixt the 
extreme southern point of the land and the houses I f-<^>'fhquake 


saw, in several places, banks of mussels projecting at 
least fifteen feet above the surface of the water, similar 
to those which are so frequently found on the sea-coast; 
— a proof that earthquakes have taken place in this 




To Albay by 



Towards the end of August I started from Manila for 
Albay in a schooner which had brought a cargo of hemp 
and was returning in ballast. It was fine when we set 
sail ; but on the following day the signs of a coming storm 
increased so rapidly that the captain resolved to return 
and seek protection in the small but secure harbor of 
Mariveles, a creek on the southern shore of Bataan, 
the province forming the western boundary of Manila 
bay. We reached it about two o'clock in the night after 
cruising about for fourteen hours before the entrance ; and 
we were obliged to remain here at anchor for a fortnight, 
as it rained and stormed continuously for that period. 

The weather obliged me to limit my excursions to the 
immediate neighborhood of Mariveles. Unfortunately 
it was not till the close of our stay that I learnt that there 
was a colony of negritos in the mountains ; and it was not 
till just before my departure that I got a chance of 
seeing and sketching a couple of them, male and female. 
The inhabitants of Mariveles have not a very good 
reputation. The place is only visited by ships which 
run in there in bad weather, when their idle crews spend 
the time in drinking and gambling. Some of the young 
girls were of striking beauty and of quite a light color; 
often being in reality of mixed race, though they passed 
as of pure Tagal blood. This is a circumstance I have 
observed in many seaports, and in the neighborhood 
of Manila; but, in the districts which are almost entirely 
unvisited by the Spaniards, the natives are much darker 
and of purer race. 

The number of ships which were seeking protection 
from the weather in this port amounted to ten, of which 
three were schooners. Every morning regularly a small 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 79 

pontin* used to attempt to set sail; but it scarcely got 
a look at the open sea before it returned, when it was 
saluted with the jeers and laughter of the others. It 
was hunger that made them so bold. The crew, who 
had taken some of their own produce to Manila, had 
spent the proceeds of their venture, and had started on 
their return voyage scantily provided with provisions, 
with the hope and intention of soon reaching their home, 
which they could have done with any favorable wind. 
Such cases frequently occur. A few natives unite to 
charter a small vessel, and load it with the produce of 
their own fields, which they set off to sell in Manila. 

The straits between the Islands resemble beautiful The straiu. 
wide rivers with charming spots upon the banks inhab- 
ited by small colonies ; and the sailors generally find the 
weather gets squally towards evening, and anchor till 
the morning breaks. 

The hospitable coast supplies them with fish, crabs, Filipino 
plenty of mussels, and frequently unprotected coconuts. 
If it is inhabited, so much the better. Filipino hospital- 
ity is ample, and much more comprehensive than that 
practised in Europe. The crews are accommodated in 
the different huts. After a repast shared in common, 
and washed down by copious draughts of palm-wine, 
mats are streched on the floor; the lamps — large shells, 
fitted with rush wicks — are extinguished, and the occu- 
pants of the hut fall asleep together. Once, as I was 
sailing into the bay of Manila after a five day's cruise, 
we overtook a craft which had sailed from the same port 
as we had with a cargo of coconut oil for Manila, and 
which had spent six months upon its trip. It is by no 
means uncommon for a crew which makes a long stay 


* From ponle, deck; a two-masted vessel, with mat sails, of about 100 tons 



Coasting Luzon. 

Importance of 

in the capital to squander the whole proceeds of their 
cargo, if they have not done it before reaching 

At last one evening, when the storm had quite passed 
away, we sailed out of Mariveles. A small, volcanic, 
pillar-shaped rock, bearing a striking resemblance to the 
Island of the Cyclops, off the coast of Sicily, lies in front 
of the harbor — like there, a sharp pyramid and a small, 
flat island. We sailed along the coast of Cavite till we 
reached Point Santiago, the southwestern extremity of 
Luzon, and then turned to the east, through the fine 
straits that lie between Luzon to the north and the Bisayan 
islands to the south. As the sun rose, a beautiful 
spectacle presented itself. To the north was the peak 
of the Taal volcano, towering above the flat plains of 
Batangas; and to the south the thickly- wooded, but 
rock -bound coast of Mindoro, the iron line of which was 
broken by the harbor of Porto Galera, protected from 
the fury of the waves by a small islet lying immediately 
before it. The waters around us were thickly studded 
with vessels which had taken refuge from the storm in 
the Bisayan ports, and were now returning to Manila. 

These straits, which extend from the south-east to 
the northwest, are the great commercial highway of the 
Archipelago, and remain navigable during the whole 
year, being protected from the fury of the north-easterly 
winds by the sheltering peninsula of Luzon, which pro- 
jects to the south-east, and by Samar, which extends 
in a parallel direction; while the Bisayan islands shield 
them from the blasts that blow from the south-west. The 
Islands of Mindoro, Panay, Negros, Cebu and Bohol, 
which Nature has placed in close succession to each other, 
form the southern borders of the straits ; and the narrow 
cross channels between them form as many outlets to 
the Sea of Mindoro, which is bounded on the west by 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 81 

Palawan, on the east by Mindanao, and on the south 
by the Sulu group. The eastern waters of the straits 
wash the coasts of Samar and Leyte, and penetrate 
through three small channels only to the great ocean; 
the narrow straits of San Bernardino, of San Juanico, 
and of Surigao. Several considerable, and innumerable 
smaller islets, lie within the area of these cursorily 
explained outlines. 

A couple of bays on the south coast of Batangas offer a Satangas coast. 
road-stead, though but little real protection, to passing 
vessels, which in stormy weather make for Porto Galera, 
in the Island of Mindoro, which lies directly opposite. 
A river, a league and a half in length, joins Taal, the 
principal port of the province, to the great inland sea 
of Taal, or Bombon. This stream was formerly navig- 
able; but it has now become so sanded up that it is 
passable only at flood tides, and then only by very small 

The province of Batangas supplies Manila with its Batangas 
best cattle, and exports sugar and coffee. 

A hilly range bounds the horizon on the Luzon side; 
the striking outlines of which enable one to conjecture 
its volcanic origin. Most of the smaller islands to the 
south appear to consist of superimposed mountainous 
ranges, terminating seaward in precipitous cliffs. The 
lofty and symmetrical peak of Mount Mayon is the 
highest point in the panoramic landscape. Towards 
evening we sighted Mount Bulusan, in the south-eastern 
extremity of Luzon; and presently we turned northwards, 
and sailed up the Straits of San Bernardino, which separ- 
ate Luzon from Samar. 

The Bulusan volcano, "which appears to have been Buiusnnuu 

- , . . , ,-, -I . . Vesuvius. 

for a long time extinct, but which again began to erupt 
in 1852,"* is surprisingly like Vesuvius in outline. It 

* Estado Geogr., p. 314. 



has, like its prototype, a couple of peaks. The western 
one, a bell-shaped summit, is the eruption cone. The 
eastern apex is a tall, rugged mound, probably the remains 
of a huge circular crater. As in Vesuvius, the present 
crater is in the center of the extinct one. The intervals 
between them are considerably larger and more uneven 
than the Atrio del Cavallo of the Italian volcano. 

San Bernardino The current is SO powerful in the Straits of San Ber- 
nardino that we were obliged to anchor twice to avoid 
being carried back again. To our left we had continually 
in view the magnificent Bulusan volcano, with a hamlet 
of the same name nestling at the foot of its eastern slope 
in a grove of coco-trees, close to the sea. Struggling 
with difficulty against the force of the current, we suc- 
ceeded, with the assistance of light and fickle winds, in 
reaching Legaspi, the port of Albay, on the following 
evening. Our skipper, a Spaniard, had determined to 
accomplish the trip as rapidly as possible. 

A native On my return voyage, however, I fell into the hands 
of a native captain; and, as my cruise under his auspices 
presented many peculiarities, I may quote a few pas- 
sages relating to it from my diary The skipper 

intended to have taken a stock of vegetables for my 
use, but he had forgotten them. He therefore landed on 
a small island, and presently made his reappearance with 
a huge palm cabbage, which, in the absence of its owner, 
he had picked from a tree he cut down for the purpose. 

On another occasion the crew made a descent 

upon a hamlet on the north-western coast of Leyte to 
purchase provisions. Instead of laying in a stock for 
the voyage at Tacloban, the sailors preferred doing so 
at some smaller village on the shores of the straits, where 
food is cheaper, and where their landing gave them a 
pretext to run about the country. The straits of San 
Juanico, never more than a mile, and often only eight 



Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 83 

hundred feet broad, are about twenty miles in length : yet 
it often takes a vessel a week to sail up them ; for contrary 
winds and an adverse current force it to anchor frequently 
and to lie to for whole nights in the narrower places. 
Towards evening our captain thought that the sky 
appeared very threatening, so he made for the bay of a>. intermnteHt 
Navo, of Masbate. There he anchored, and a part of 
the crew went on shore. The next day was a Sunday; 
the captain thought "the sky still appeared very threaten- 
ing;" and besides he wanted to make some purchases. 
So we anchored again off Magdalena, where we passed 
the night. On Monday a favorable wind took us, at 
a quicker rate, past Marinduque and the rocky islet 
of Elefante, which lies in front of it. Elefante appears 
to be an extinct volcano; it looks somewhat like the 
Iriga, but is not so lofty. It is covered with capital 
pasture, and its ravines are dotted with clumps of trees. 
Nearly a thousand head of half-wild cattle were grazing 
on it. They cost four dollars a-piece; and their freight 
to Manila is as much more, where they sell for sixteen 
dollars. They are badly tended, and many are stolen 
by the passing sailors. My friend the captain was full 
of regret that the favorable wind gave him no opportu- 
nity of landing; perhaps I was the real obstacle. "They 
were splendid beasts! How easy it would be to put 
a couple on board ! They could scarcely be said to have 
any real owners; the nominal proprietors were quite 
unaware how many they possessed, and the herd was 
continually multiplying without any addition from its 
masters. A man lands with a little money in his pocket. 
If he meets a herdsman, he gives him a dollar, and the 
poor creature thinks himself a lucky fellow. If not, 
so much the better. He can do the business himself; 
a barrel of shot or a sling suffices to settle the 


Plunder. As wc Sailed along we saw coming towards us another 

vessel, the Luisa, which suddenly executed a very extra- 
ordinary tack; and in a minute or two its crew sent up 
a loud shout of joy, having succeeded in stealing a fish- 
box which the fishermen of Marinduque had sunk in 
the sea. They had lowered a hook, and been clever 
enough to grapple the rope of the floating buoy. Our 
captain was beside himself with eny>' of their prize. 

Leoaspi. Lcgaspi is the principal port of the province of Albay. 

Its road-stead, however, is very unsafe, and, being 
exposed to the north-easterly storms, is perfectly useless 
during the winter. The north-east wind is the prevailing 
one on this coast; the south-west breeze only blows in June 
and July. The heaviest storms occur between October 
and January. They generally set in with a gentle 
westerly wind, accompanied with rain. The gale pres- 
ently veers round to the north or the south, and attains 
the height of its fury when it reaches the north-east or 
the south-east. After the storm a calm generally reigns, 
succeeded by the usual wind of the prevailing monsoon. 
The lightly -built elastic houses of the country are capi- 
tally suited to withstand these storms; but roofs and 
defective houses are frequently carried away. The 
traffic between Manila and Legaspi is at its height 
between January and October; but during the autumn 
months all communication by water ceases. The letter- 
post, which arrives pretty regularly every week, is then 
the only link between the two places. At this season heavy 
packages can be sent only by a circuitous and expensive 
route along the south coast, and thence by water to 
Manila. Much more favorably situated for navigation 

Soriooon. IS the port of Sorsogon, the mouth of which opens to 

the west, and is protected by the Island of Bagalao,. 
which lies in front of it. Besides its security as a harbor, 
it has the advantage of a rapid and unbroken communica- 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 85 

tion with the capital of the archipelago, while vessels 
sailing from Legaspi, even at the most favorable time 
of the year, are obliged to go round the eastern peninsula 
of Luzon, and meet the principal current of the Straits 
of San Bernardino, frequently a very difficult under- 
taking; and, moreover, small vessels obliged to anchor 
there are in great danger of being captured by pirates. 
The country about Sorsogon, however, is not so fertile 
as the neighborhood of Legaspi. 

I took letters of introduction with me to both the a worthy 
Spanish authorities of the province; who received me 
in the most amiable way, and were of the greatest use 
to me during the whole of my stay in the vicinity. I 
had also the good fortune to fall in with a model alcalde, 
a man of good family and of most charming manners; 
in short, a genuine caballero. To show the popular 
appreciation of the honesty of his character, it was said 
of him in Samar that he had entered the province with 
nothing but a bundle of papers, and had left it as lightly 


My Spanish friends enabled me to rent a house in Daraga. 
Daraga,* a well-to-do town of twenty thousand inhabit- 
ants at the foot of the Mayon, a league and a half from 
Legaspi. The summit of this volcano was considered 
inaccessible until two young Scotchmen, Paton and 

♦ Officially called Cagsaua. The old town of Cagsaua, which was built 
higher up the hill and was destroyed by the eruption of 1814, was rebuilt on the 
.spot where formerly stood a small hamlet of the name of Daraga. 



Stewart by name, demonstrated the contrary.* Since 
then several natives have ascended the mountain, but 
no Europeans. 
Ascent of J gg^ q^^ qj^ September 25th, and passed the night, 

by the advice of Sefior Muiios, in a hut one thousand 
feet above the level of the sea, in order to begin the ascent 
the next morning with unimpaired vigor. But a number 
of idlers who insisted on following me, and who kept 
up a tremendous noise all night, frustrated the purpose 
of this friendly advice; and I started about five in the 
morning but little refreshed. The fiery glow I had notic- 
ed about the crater disappeared with the dawn. The 
first few hundred feet of the ascent were covered with 
a tall grass quite six feet high ; and then came a slope of 
a thousand feet or so of short grass succeeded by a quan- 
tity of moss; but even this soon disappeared, and the 
whole of the upper part of the mountain proved entirely 
barren. We reached the summit about one o'clock. 
It was covered with fissures which gave out sulphurous 
gases and steam in such profusion that we were obliged 
to stop our mouths and nostrils with our handkerchiefs 
to prevent ourselves from being suffocated. We came 
to a halt at the edge of a broad and deep chasm, from 
which issued a particularly dense vapor. Apparently 
we were on the brink of a crater, but the thick fumes of 
the disagreeable vapor made it impossible for us to guess 

* I learnt from Mr. Paton that the undertaking had also been represented as 
impracticable in Albay. "Not a single Spaniard, not a single native had ever 
succeeded in reaching the summit; in spite of all their precautions they would 
certainly be swallowed up in the sand." However, one morning, about five 
o'clock, they set off, and soon reached the foot of the cone of the crater. Accom- 
panied by a couple of natives, who soon left them, they began to make the ascent. 
Resting half way up, they noticed frequent masses of shining lava, thrown from 
the mouth of the crater, gliding down the mountain. With th^ greatest exer- 
tions they succeeded, between two and three o'clock, in reaching the summit, 
where, however, they were prevented by the noxious gas from remaining more 
than two or three minutes. During their descent, they restored their strength 
with some refreshments Sr. Munoz had sent to meet them; and they reached 
Albay towards evening, where during their short stay they were treated as heroes, 
and presented with an official certificate of their achievement, for which they had 
the pleasure of paying several dollars. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 87 

at the breadth of the fissure. The absolute top of the 
volcano consisted of a ridge, nearly ten feet thick, of 
solid masses of stone covered with a crust of lava bleach- 
ed by the action of the escaping gas. Several irregular 
blocks of stone lying about us showed that the peak had 
once been a little higher. When, now and again, the 
11 gusts of wind made rifts in the vapor, we perceived on 

the northern corner of the plateau several rocky columns 
at least a hundred feet high, which had hitherto with- 
stood both storm and eruption. I afterwards had an 
opportunity of observing the summit from Daraga with 
a capital telescope on a very clear day, when I noticed 
that the northern side of the crater was considerably 
higher than its southern edge. 

Our descent took some time. We had still two-thirds The descent. 
of it beneath us when night overtook us. In the hope 
of reaching the hut where we had left our provisions, we 
wandered about till eleven o'clock, hungry and weary, 
and at last were obliged to wait for daylight. This mis- 
fortune was owing not to our want of proper precaution, 
but to the unreliability of the carriers. Two of them, 
whom we had taken with us to carry water and refresh- 
ments, had disappeared at the very first; and a third, 
"a very trustworthy man," whom we had left to take 
care of our things at the hut, and who had been ordered 
to meet us at dusk with torches, had bolted, as I after- 
wards discovered, back to Daraga before noon. My 
servant, too, who was carrying a woolen blanket and an 
umbrella for me, suddenly vanished in the darkness as 
soon as it began to rain, and though I repeatedly called 
him, never turned up again till the next morning. We 
passed the wet night upon the bare rocks, where, as our 
very thin clothes were perfectly wet through, we chilled 
till our teeth chattered. As soon, however, as the sun 



A suspicious 

An early friar 

rose we got so warm that we soon recovered our tempers. 
Towards nine o'clock we reached the hut and got some- 
thing to eat after twenty -nine hours' fast. 

In the Trabajos y Heches Notables de la Soc. Econom. 
de los Aynigos del Pais, for September 4th, 1823, it is 
said that "Don Antonio Siguenza paid a visit to the 
volcano of Albay on March 11th," and that the Society 
"ordered a medal to be struck in commemoration of the 
event, and in honor of the aforesaid Siguenza and his 
companions." Everybody in Albay, however, assured 
me that the two Scotchmen were the first to reach the 
top of the mountain. It is true that in the above notice 
the ascent of the volcano is not directly mentioned ; but 
the fact of the medal naturally leads us to suppose that 
nothing less can be referred to. Arenas, in his memoir, 
says: "Mayon was surveyed by Captain Siguenza. 
From the crater to the base, which is nearly at the level 
of the sea, he found that it measured sixteen hundred 
and eighty-two Spanish feet or four sixty-eight and two- 
third meters." A little further on, he adds, that he had 
read in the records of the Society that they had had a 
gold medal struck in honor of Siguenza, who had made 
some investigations about the volcano's crater in 1823. 
He, therefore, appears to have had some doubt about 
Siguenza's actual ascent. 

According to the Franciscan records a couple of monks 
attempted the ascent in 1592, in order to cure the natives 
of their superstitious belief about the mountain. One 
of them never returned; but the other, although he did 
not reach the summit, being stopped by three deep 
abysses, made a hundred converts to Christianity by 
the mere relation of his adventures. He died in the 
same year, in consequence, it is recorded, of the many 
variations of temperature to which he was exposed in 
his ascent of the volcano. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 89 

Some books say that the mountain is of considerable Estimates of 
height; but the Estado Geogrofico of the Franciscans for *'" '' 
1855, where one could scarcely expect to find such a 
thoughtless repetition of so gross a typographical error, 
says that the measurements of Siguenza give the moun- 
tain a height of sixteen hundred and eighty-two feet. 
According to my own barometrical reading, the height 
of the summit above the level of the sea was twenty- 
three hundred and seventy-four meters, or eighty-five 
hundred and fifty-nine Spanish feet. 

I SPRAINED my foot so badly in ascending Mayon that An accident and 
I was obliged to keep the house for a month. Under the " '"°""''' "*'• 
circumstances, I was not sorry to find myself settled in 
a roomy and comfortable dwelling. My house was 
built upon the banks of a small stream, and stood in the 
middle of a garden in which coffee, cacao, oranges, papa- 
yas, and bananas grew luxuriantly, in spite of the tall 
weeds which surrounded them. Several over-ripe ber- 
ries had fallen to the ground, and I had them collected, 
roasted, mixed with an equal quantity of sugar, and 
made into chocolate; an art in which the natives greatly 
excel. With the Spaniards chocolate takes the place 
of coffee and tea, and even the mestizos and the well- 
to-do natives drink a great deal of it. 

The cacao-tree comes from Central America. It Cacao. 
flourishes there between the 23rd parallel north and the 
20th south latitude; but it is only at its best in the 
hottest and dampest climates. In temperate climates, 
where the thermometer marks less than 23° C, it 
produces no fruit. 


iiiuh quaiitu- It was first imported into the Philippines from Aca- 

pulco; either, according to Camarines, by a pilot called 
Pedro Brabo de Lagunas, in 1670 ; or, according to Samar, 
by some Jesuits, during Salcedo's government, between 
1663 and 1668. Since then it has spread over the greater 
part of the Island; and, although it is not cultivated with 
any excessive care, its fruit is of excellent quality. The 
cacao of Albay, if its cheapness be taken into considera- 
tion, may be considered at least equal to that of Caracas, 
which is so highly-prized in Europe, and which, on 
account of its high price, generally is largely mixed with 
inferior kinds.* The bushes are usually found in small 
gardens, close to the houses; but so great is the native 
laziness that frequently the berries are allowed to decay, 
although the local cacao sells for a higher price than 
the imported. At Cebu and Negros a little more atten- 
tion is paid to its cultivation; but it does not suffice to 
supply the wants of the colony, which imports the defi- 

productioii. ciency from Ternate and Mindanao. The best cacao 
of the Philippines is produced in the small Island of 
Maripipi, which lies to the north-west of Leyte; and it 
is difficult to obtain, the entire crop generally being 
long bespoke. It costs about one dollar per liter, where- 
as the Albay cacao costs from two to two and a half 
dollars per "ganta" (three liters). 

* From 36,000,000 to 40,000,000 lbs. of cacao are consumed in Europe annual- 
ly; of which quantity nearly a third goes to France, whose consumption of it 
between 1853 and 1866 has more than doubled. In the former year it amounted 
to 6,215,000 lbs., in the latter to 12,973,534 lbs. Venezuela sends the finest 
cacaos to the European market, those of Porto Cabello and Caracas. That of 
Caracas is the dearest and the best, and is of four kinds. Chuao, Ghoroni, 
O'Cumar, and Rio Chico. England consumes the cacao grown in its own colo- 
nies, although the duty (1(7 per lb.) is the same for all descriptions. Spain, the 
principal consumer, imports its supplies from Cuba, Porto Rico, Ecuador, 
Mexico, and Trinidad. Several large and important plantations have recently 
been established by Frenchmen in Nicaragua. The cacao beans of Soconusco 
(Central America) and Esmeralda (Ecuador) are more highly esteemed than the 
finest of the Venezuela sorts; but they are scarcely ever used in the Philippines, 
and cannot be said to form part of their commerce. Germany contents itself 
with the inferior kinds. Guayaquil cacao, which is only half the price of Caracas , 
is more popular amongst the Germans than all the other varieties together. 

Jagor's Traiels in the Philippinefs 91 

The natives generally cover the kernels, just as they <^'"''""' 
are beginning to sprout, with a little earth, and, placing 
them in a spirally-rolled leaf, hang them up beneath 
the roof of their dwellings. They grow very rapidly, 
and, to prevent their being choked by weeds, are planted 
out at very short intervals. This method of treat- 
ment is probably the reason that the cacao-trees in the 
Philippines never attain a greater height than eight or 
ten feet, while in their native soil they frequently reach 
thirty, and sometimes even forty feet. The tree begins 
to bear fruit in its third or fourth year, and in its fifth 
or sixth it reaches maturity, when it usually yields a 
"ganta" of cacao, which, as I have mentioned, is worth 
from two to two and a half dollars, and always finds a 

The profits arising from a large plantation would, x^vieci. 
therefore, be considerable; yet it is very rare to meet 
with one. I heard it said that the Economical Society 
had offered a considerable reward to any one who could 
exhibit a plantation of ten thousand berry -bearing trees; 
but in the Society's report I found no mention of this 

The great obstacles in the way of large plantations are i^mage by 
the heavy storms which recur almost regularly every 
year, and often destroy an entire plantation in a single 
day. In 1856 a hurricane visited the Island just before 
the harvest, and completely tore up several large planta- 
tions by the roots; a catastrophe that naturally has 
caused much discouragement to the cultivators.! One 
consequence of this state of things was that the free 

* C. Scherzer, in his work on Central America, gives the cacao-tree an exis- 
tence of twenty years, and says that each tree annually produces from 15 to 20 
ounces of cacao. 1,000 plants will produce 1,250 lbs. of cacao, worth $250; 
so that the annual produce of a single tree is worth a quarter of a dollar. Mit- 
scherlich says that from 4 to 6 lbs. of raw beans is an average produce. A liter 
of dried cacao beans weighs 630 grains; of picked and roasted, 610 grains. 

t In 172 7 a hurricane destroyed at a single blast the important cacao planta- 
tion of Martinique, which had been created by long years of extraordmary care. 
The same thing happened at Trinidad.— .Utf.'-c/ifr/ic/i. 



importation of cacao was permitted, and people were 

enabled to purchase Guayaqual cacao at fifteen dollars per 

^Diseases and quintal whilc that grown at home cost double the money. 


The plant is sometimes attacked by a disease, the 
origin of which is unknown, when it suffers severely 
from certain noxious insects.* It is also attacked by 
rats and other predatory vermin; the former sometimes 
falling upon it in such numbers that they destroy the 
entire harvest in a single night. Travellers in America 
say that a well-kept cacao plantation is a very pictur- 
esque sight. In the Philippines, however, or at any 
rate in East Luzon, the closely-packed, lifeless-looking, 
moss-covered trees present a dreary spectacle. Their 
existence is a brief one. Their oval leaves, sometimes 
nearly a foot long, droop singly from the twigs, and form 
no luxuriant masses of foliage. Their blossoms are very 
insignificant ; they are of a reddish-yellow, no larger than 
the flowers of the lime, and grow separately on long 
weedy stalks. The fruit ripens in six months. When 
it is matured, it is of either a red or a yellow tint, and 
is somewhat like a very rough gherkin. Only two varie- 
ties appear to be cultivated in the Philippines. t The 
pulp of the fruit is white, tender, and of an agreeable 
acid taste, and contains from eighteen to twenty-four 
kernels, arranged in five rows. These kernels are as 
large as almonds, and, like them, consist of a couple of 
husks and a small core. This is the cacao bean; which, 

* F. Kngel mentions a disease {mancha) which attacks the tree in America, 
beginning by destroying its roots. The tree soon dies, and the disease spreads 
so rapidly that whole groves of cacao-trees utterly parish and are turned into 
pastures for cattle. Even in the most favored localities, after a long season of 
prosperity, thousands of trees are destroyed in a single night by this disease, 
just as the harvest is about to take place. An almost equally aangerous foe 
to cultivation is a moth whose larva entirely destroys the ripe cacao beans; 
and which only cold and wind will kill. Humboldt mentions that cacao 
beans which have been transported over the chilly passes of the Cordilleras are 
never attacked by this pest. 

t G. Bornoulli quotes altogether eighteen kinds; of which he mentions only 
■one as generally in use in the Philippines. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 9S 

roasted and finely ground, produces cacao, and with the 
addition of sugar, and generally of spice, makes choco- 
late. Till the last few years, every household in the 
Philippines made its own chocolate, of nothing but cacao 
and sugar. The natives who eat chocolate often add 
roasted rice to it. Nowadays there is a manufactory 
in Manila, which makes chocolate in the European way. 
The inhabitants of the eastern provinces are very fond 
of adding roasted pili nuts to their chocolate.* 

Europeans first learnt to make a drink from cacao in Chocolate. 
Mexico, where the preparation was called chocolatl.'\ 
Even so far back as the days of Cortes, who was a tre- 
mendous chocolate drinker, the cacao-tree was exten- 
sively cultivated. The Aztecs used the beans as money ; 
and Montezuma used to receive part of his tribute in 
this peculiar coin. It was only the wealthy among the 
ancient Mexicans who ate pure cacao; the poor, on 
account of the value of the beans as coins, used to mix 
maize and mandioca meal with them. Even in our own 
day the inhabitants of Central America make use of 
the beans as small coins, as they have no copper money, 
nor smaller silver coins than the half-real. Both in 
Central America and in Orinoco there yet are many 

* Pili is very common in South Luzon, Samar, and Leyte; it is to be found in 
almost every village. Its fruit, which is almost of the sire of an ordinary plum 
but not so round, contains a hard stone, the raw kernel of which is steeped in 
syrup and candied in the same manner as the kernel of the sweet pins, which it 
resembles in flavor. The large trees with fruit on them, "about the size of 
almonds and looking like sweet-pine kernels," which Pigafetta saw at Jomonjol 
were doubtless pi7j-trees. An oil is expressed from the kernels much resembling 
sweet almond oil. If incisions are made in the stems of the trees, an abundant 
pleasant-smelling white resin flows from them, which is largely used in the 
Philippines to calk ships with. It also has a great reputation as an anti-rheu- 
matic plaster. It is twenty years since it was first exported to Europe; and the 
first consignees made large profits, as the resin, which was worth scarcely any- 
thing in the Philippines, became very popular and was much sought in Europe. 

t The general name for the beverage was Cacahoa-all (cacao water). Choco- 
latl was the term given to a particular kind. F. Hernandez found four kinds 
of cacao in use among the Axtecs, and he describes four varieties of drinks that 
were prepared from them. The third was called chocolatl, and apparently was 
prepared as follows: — Equal quantities of the kernels of the ponholl {Bomhax 
eeiba) and cacahoatl {cacao) trees were finely ground, and heated in an earthen 
vessel, and all the grease removed as it rose to the surface. Maize, crushed 
and soaked, was added to it, and a beverage prepared from the mixture; to which 
the oily parts that had been skimmed off the top were restored, and the whole 
was drunk hot. 


unpenetrated forests which are almost entirely composed 
of wild cacao-trees. I believe the natives gather some 
of their fruit, but it is almost worthless. By itself it 
has much less flavor than the cultivated kinds. Certain- 
ly it is not picked and dried at the proper season, and 
it gets spoilt in its long transit through the damp woods. 

An uucertaiii Sincc the aboHtion of slavery, the crops in America 


have been diminishing year by year, and until a short 
time ago, when the French laid out several large planta- 
tions in Central America, were of but trifling value. 
According to F. Engel, a flourishing cacao plantation 
required less outlay and trouble, and yields more profit 
than any other tropical plant; yet its harvests, which 
do not yield anything for the first five or six years, are 
very uncertain, owing to the numerous insects which 
attack the plants. In short, cacao plantations are only 
suited to large capitalists, or to very small cultivators 
who grow the trees in their own gardens. Moreover, 
as we have said, since the abolition of slavery most 
of the plantations have fallen into decay, for the freed 
slaves are entirely wanting in industry. 

Use in Eur«i>f. The Original chocolate was not generally relished in 
Europe. When, however, at a later period, it was 
mixed with sugar, it met with more approbation. The 
exaggerated praise of its admirers raised a bitter opposi- 
tion amongst the opponents of the new drink; and the 
priests raised conscientious scruples against the use of so 
nourishing an article of food on fast days. The quarrel 
lasted till the seventeenth century, by which time cacao 
had become an everyday necessity in Spain. It was first 
introduced into Spain in 1520; but chocolate, on account 
of the monopoly of the Conquistadores, was for a long 
time secretly prepared on the other side of the ocean. 
In 1580, however, it was in common use in Spain, though 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 96 

it was so entirely unknown in England that, in 1579, 
an English captain burnt a captured cargo of it as use- 
less. It reached Italy in 1606, and was introduced into 
France by Anne of Austria. The first chocolate-house 
in London was opened in 1657, and in 1700 Germany 
at last followed suit.* 

The history of coffee in the Philippines is very similar to 
that of cacao. The plant thrives wonderfully, and its berry 
has so strongly marked a flavor that the worst Manila 
coffee commands as high a price as the best Java. In 
spite of this, however, the amount of coffee produced 
in the Philippines is very insignificant, and, until lately, 
scarcely deserved mention. According to the report of 
an Englishman in 1828, the coffee-plant was almost 
unknown forty years before, and was represented only 
by a few specimens in the Botanical Gardens at Manila. 
It soon, however, increased and multiplied, thanks to 
the moderation of a small predatory animal (paradoxurus 
jnusanga), which only nibbled the ripe fruit, and left 
the hard kernels (the coffee beans) untouched, as indi- 
gestible. The Economical Society bestirred itself in its 
turn by offering rewards to encourage the laying out 
of large coffee plantations. In 1837 it granted 
la Gironniere a premium of $1,000, for exhibiting a 
coffee plantation of sixty thousand plants, which were 
yielding their second harvest; and four premiums to 
others in the following year. But as soon as the re- 
wards were obtained the plantations were once more 
allowed to fall into neglect. From this it is pretty 
evident that the enterprise, in the face of the then 
market prices and the artificially high rates of freight, 
did not afford a sufficient profit. 


* Berthold Seemann speaks of a tree with finger-shaped leaves and small round 
berries, which the Indians sometimes offered for sale. They made chocolate 
from them, which in flavor much surpassed that usually made from cacao. 




Highest grades. 


In 1856 the exports of coffee were not more than 
seven thousand piculs; in 1865 they had increased to 
thirty-seven thousand, five hundred and eighty-eight; 
and in 1871, to fifty-three thousand, three hundred and 
seventy. This increase, however, affords no criterion 
by which to estimate the increase in the number of 
plantations, for these make no returns for the first few 
years after being laid out. In short, larger exports may 
be confidently expected. But even greatly increased 
exports could not be taken as correct measures of the 
colony's resources. Not till European capital calls large 
plantations into existence in the most suitable localities 
will the Philippines obtain their proper rank in the 
coffee-producing districts of the world. 

The best coffee comes from the provinces of Laguna, 
Batangas and Cavite; the worst from Mindanao. The 
latter, in consequence of careless treatment, is very 
impure, and generally contains a quantity of bad beans. 
The coffee beans of Mindanao are of a yellowish-white 
color and flabby ; those of Laguna are smaller, but much 
firmer in texture. 

Manila coffee is very highly esteemed by connoisseurs, 
and is very expensive, though it is by no means so nice 
looking as that of Ceylon and other more carefully pre- 
pared kinds. It is a remarkable fact that in 1865 
France, which imported only $21,000 worth of hemp 
from the Philippines, imported more than $200,000 
worth of Manila coffee, a third of the entire coffee produce 
of the Islands.* Manila coffee is not much prized in 
London, and does not fetch much more than good Ceylon 
($15 per cwt.).t This, however, is no reproach to the 
coffee, as every one acquainted with an Englishman's 
appreciation of coffee will allow. 

* Report of the French consul. 

t Myscre and Mocha coffees fetch the highest prices. From $20 to $22.50 
per cwt. is paid for Mysore; and as much as $30, when it has attained an age 
of five or six years, for Mocha. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 

California, an excellent customer, always ready to 
give a fair price for a good article, will in time become 
one of its principal consumers.* In 1868, coffee in 
Manila itself cost an average of $16 per picul.'\ In Java, 
the authorities pay the natives, who are compelled to 
cultivate it, about $3.66 per picul. 

Although the amount of coffee exported from the 
Philippines is trifling in comparison with the producing 
powers of the colony, it compares favorably with the 
exports from other countries. 

In my Sketches of Travel, I compared the decrease 
of the coffee produced in Java under the forced system 
of cultivation with the increase of that voluntarily grown 
in Ceylon, and gave the Javanese produce for 1858 as 
sixty-seven thousand tons, and the Cingalese as thirty-five 
thousand tons. Since that time the relative decrease 
and increase have continued; and in 1866 the Dutch 
Indies produced only fifty-six thousand tons, and Ceylon 
thirty-six thousand tons.f 

During my enforced stay in Daraga the natives brought 
me mussels and snails for sale; and several of them 
wished to enter my service, as they felt "a particular 
vocation for Natural History." At last my kitchen 
was always full of them. They sallied forth every day 
to collect insects, and as a rule were not particularly 



Javan and 
Ceylon crops. 

* In 1865-66-67 California imported three and one-half, eight and ten million 
lbs. of coffee, of which two, four and five millions respectively came from Manila. 
In 1868 England was the best customer of the Philippines. 

t Report of the Belgian consul. 

t Coffee is such an exquisite beverage, and is so seldom properly prepared, 
that the following hints from a master in the art (Report of the Jury, Internat. 
Exhib., Paris, 1868) will not be unwelcome: — 1st. Select good coffees. 2nd. Mix 
them in the proper proportions. 3rd. Thoroughly dry the beans; otherwise 
in roasting them a portion of the aroma escapes with the steam. 4th. Roast 
them in a dry atmosphere, and roast each quality separately. 5th. Allow them 
to cool rapidly. If it is impossible to roast the beans at home, then purchase 
only sufficient for each day's consumption. With the exception of the fourth, 
however, it is easy to follow all these directions at home; and small roasting 
machines are purchasable, in which, with the aid of a spirit lamp, small quan- 
tities can be prepared at a time. It is best, when possible, to buy coffee in large 
quantities, and keep it stored for two or three years in a dry place. 

.1 maleur 


fortunate in their search; but this was of no consequence; 
in fact, it served to give them a fresh appetite for their 
meals. Some of the neighboring Spaniards paid me 
almost daily visits ; and several of the native and mestizo 
dignitaries from a distance were good enough to call 
upon me, not so much for the purpose of seeing my 
humble self as of inspecting my hat, the fame of which 
had spread over the whole province. It was constructed 
in the usual judicious mushroom shape, covered with 
nito* and its pinnacle was adorned with a powerful oil 
lamp, furnished with a closely fatting lid, like that of 
a dark lantern, so that it could be carried in the pocket. 
This last was particularly useful when riding about on 
a dark night. 

Nito cigar j^ ^j^g neighboring pueblo cigar-cases were made out 

of this 7iito. They are not of much use as an article of 
commerce, and usually are only made to order. To 
obtain a dozen a would-be purchaser must apply to as 
many individuals, who, at the shortest, will condescend to 
finish one in a few months. The stalk of the fern, which 
is about as thick as a lucifer match, is split into four 
strips. The workman then takes a strip in his left 
hand, and, with his thumb on the back and his fore- 
finger on the edge, draws the strips up and down against 
the knife blade until the soft pithy parts are cut away, 
and what remains has become fine enough for the next 
process. The cases are made on pointed cylindrical 
pieces of wood almost a couple of feet long. A pin is 
stuck into the center of the end of the cylinder, and the 
workman commences by fastening the strips of fern 
stalk to it. The size of the case corresponds to the 


* A creeping, or rather a running fern, nearly the only one of the kind in the 
hole soeciea. 

whole species. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 99 

diameter of the roller, and a small wooden disk is placed 
in the bottom of the case to keep it steady while the 
sides are being plaited. 

When my ankle began to get better, my first excursion a FHiptno 
was to Legaspi, where some Filipinos were giving a 
theatrical performance. A Spanish political refugee 
directed the entertainment. On each side of the stage, 
roofed in with palm leaves, ran covered galleries for the 
dignitaries of the place; the uncovered space between 
these was set apart for the common people. The 
performers had chosen a play taken from Persian history. 
The language was Spanish, and the dresses were, to say 
the least, eccentric. The stage was erected hard by a 
public street, which itself formed part of the auditorium, 
and the noise was so great that I could only catch a 
word here and there. The actors stalked on, chatter- 
ing their parts, which not one of them understood, and 
moving their arms up and down; and when they 
reached the edge of the stage, they tacked and went back 
again like ships sailing against the wind. Their counten- 
ances were entirely devoid of expression, and they spoke 
like automatons. If I had understood the words, the 
contrast between their meaning and the machine-like 
movements of the actors would probably have been 
droll enough; but, as it was, the noise, the heat, and the 
smoke were so great that we soon left the place. 

Both the theatrical performance and the whole festival An indifferent 
bore the impress of laziness, indifference, and mindless p'^'"^'""'""'"^''- 
mimicry. When I compared the frank cheerfulness I 
had seen radiating from every countenance at the reli- 
gious holidays of Europe with the expressionless and 
immobile faces of the natives, I found it difficult to 
understand how the latter were persuaded to waste so 
much time and money upon a matter they seemed so 
thoroughly indifferent to. 

IiUeiext in 


Travellers have remarked the same want of gaiety 
amiongst the Indians of America; and some of them 
ascribe it to the small development of the nervous system 
prevalent among these peoples, to which cause also they 
attribute their wonderful courage in bearing pain. But 
Tylor observes that the Indian's countenance is so 
different from ours that it takes us several years to 
rightly interpret its expression. There probably is some- 
thing in both these explanations. And, although I 
observed no lively expression of amusement among 
my native friends at Legaspi, I noticed that they took 
the greatest possible pleasure in decorating their village, 
and that the procession which formed part of the festival 
had extraordinary charms for them. Every individual 
was dressed in his very best; and the honor of carrying 
a banner inspired those who attained it with the greatest 
pride, and raised an amazing amount of envy in the 
breasts of the remainder. Visitors poured in from all 
the surrounding hamlets, and erected triumphal arches 
which they had brought with them ready-made and which 
bore some complimentary inscription. I am obliged 
to confess that some of the holiday-makers were very 
drunk. The inhabitants of the Philippines have a great 
love for strong drink; even the young girls occasionally 
get intoxicated. When night came on, the strangers 
were hospitably lodged in the dwellings of the village. 
On such occasions native hospitality shows itself in a 
very favorable light. The door of every house stands 
open, and even balls take place in some of the larger 
hamlets. The Spanish and mestizo cavaliers, however, 
condescend to dance only with mestiza partners, and 
very seldom invite a pretty native girl to join them. 
The natives very rarely dance together; but in Samar 
I was present on one occasion at a by no means ungrace- 
ful native dance where "improvised" verses were sung. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 101 

The male dancer compared his partner with a rose, and 
she answered he should be careful in touching it as a 
rose had thorns. This would have been thought a charm- 
ing compliment in the mouth of an Andalusian. 

The idle existence we spent in Daraga was so agree- senwu 
able to my servants and their numerous friends that ■^"'''^'•''"'"'* 
they were anxious I should stay there as long as possible; 
and they adopted some very ingenious means to per- 
suade me to do so. Twice, when everything was pre- 
pared for a start the next morning, my shoes were stolen 
in the night ; and on another occasion they kidnapped my 
horse. When a native has a particularly heavy load 
to carry, or a long journey to make, he thinks noth- 
ing of coolly appropriating the well-fed beast of some 
Spaniard; which, when he has done with it, he turns 
loose without attempting to feed it, and it wanders 
about till somebody catches it and stalls it in the nearest 
'Tribunal." There it is kept tied up and hungry until 
its master claims it and pays its expenses. I had a 
dollar to pay when I recovered mine, although it was 
nearly starved to death, on the pretence that it had 
swallowed rice to that value since it had been caught. 

Small robberies occur very frequently, but they are Petm rohon-ie 
committed — as an acquaintance, a man who had spent 
some time in the country, informed me one evening 
when I was telling him my troubles — only upon the 
property of new arrivals; old residents, he said, enjoyed 
a prescriptive freedom from such little inconveniences. 
I fancy some waggish native must have overheard our 
conversation, for early the next morning my friend, the 
old resident, sent to borrow chocolate, biscuits, and eggs 
of me, as his larder and his hen-house had been rifled 
during the night. 



Daraga market. Monday and Friday evenings were the Daraga market 
nights, and in fine weather always afforded a pretty 
sight. The women, neatly and cleanly clad, sat in long 
rows and offered their provisions for sale by the light 
of hundreds of torches; and, when the business was 
over, the slopes of the mountains were studded all over 
with flickering little points of brightness proceeding 
from the torches carried by the homeward-bound market 
women. Besides eatables, many had silks and stuffs 
woven from the fibers of the pine-apple and the banana 
for sale. These goods they carried on their heads ; and 
I noticed that all the younger women were accompanied 
by their sweethearts, who relieved them of their burdens. 


Change of 

■During the whole time I was confined to the house 
at Daraga, the weather was remarkably fine; but un- 
fortunately the bright days had come to an end by the 
time I was ready to make a start, for the north-east 
monsoon, the sure forerunner of rain in this part of the 
Archipelago, sets in in October. In spite, however, of the 
weather, I determined to make another attempt to 
ascend the mountain at Bulusan. I found I could go 
by boat to Bacon in the Bay of Albay, a distance of 
seven leagues, whence I could ride to Gubat, on the 
east coast, three leagues further, and then in a southerly 
direction along the shore to Bulusan. An experienced 
old native, who provided a boat and crew, had appointed 
ten o'clock at night as the best time for my departure. 
Just as we were about to start, however, we were told 
that four piratical craft had been seen in the bay. In 
a twinkling, the crew disappeared, and I was left alone 
in the darkness; and it took me four hours with the 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 103 

assistance of a Spaniard to find them again, and make 
a fresh start. About nine o'clock in the morning we 
reached Bacon, whence I rode across a very flat country 
to San Roque, where the road leading to Gubat took a 
sharp turn to the south-east, and presently became an 
extremely bad one. After I had passed Gubat, my 
way lay along the shore; and I saw several ruined square 
towers, made of blocks of coral, and built by the Jesuits 
as a protection against the Moros, or "Moors" — a term Moro pirates. 
here applied to the pirates, because, like the Moors who 
were formerly in Spain, they are Mahometans. They 
come from Mindanao and from the north-west coast 
of Borneo. At the time of my visit, this part of the 
Archipelago was greatly infested with them; and a few 
days before my arrival they had carried off some fisher- 
men, who were busy pulling their fish-stakes, close to 
Gubat. A little distance from the shore, and parallel 
to it, ran a coral reef, which during the south-west 
monsoon was here and there bare at low tide; but, when 
the north-east wind blew, the waves of the Pacific Ocean 
entirely concealed it. Upon this reef the storms had 
cast up many remains of marine animals, and a quantity 
of fungi, amongst which I noticed some exactly resemb- 
ling the common sponge of the Mediterranean. They 
were just as soft to the touch, of a dark brown tint, as 
large as the fist, and of a conical shape. They absorbed 
water with great readiness, and might doubtless be made 
a profitable article of commerce. Samples of them are to 
be seen in the Zoological Museum at Berlin. As I went 
further on, I found the road excellent; and wooden 
bridges, all of which were in good repair, led me across 
the mouths of the numerous small rivers. But almost 
all the arches of the stone bridges I came to had fallen 
in, and I had to cross the streams they were supposed 
to span in a small boat, and make my horse swim after 


me. Just before I reached Bulusan, I had to cross 
a ravine several hundred feet deep, composed almost 
entirely of white pumice stone. 

Bulusan. Bulusan is so seldom visited by strangers that the 

"tribunal" where I put up was soon full of curiosity- 
mongers, who came to stare at me. The women, taking 
the places of honor, squatted round me in concentric 
rows, while the men peered over ^heir shoulders. One 
morning when I was taking a shower-bath in a shed made 
of open bamboo work, I suddenly noticed several pairs 
of inquisitive eyes staring at me through the interstices. 
The eyes belonged exclusively to the gentler sex; and 
their owners examined me with the greatest curiosity, 
making remarks upon my appearance to one another, 
and seeming by no means inclined to be disturbed. 
Upon another occasion, when bathing in the open air in 
the province of Laguna, I was surrounded by a number 
of women, old, middle-aged, and young, who crowded 
round me while I was dressing, carefully inspected me, 
and pointed out with their fingers every little detail 
which seemed to them to call for special remark. 

sinrm damaye I had travelled the last part of the road to Bulusan 

in wind and rain; and the storm lasted with little inter- 
mission during the whole night. When I got up in the 
morning I found that part of the roof of the tribunal 
had been carried away, that the slighter houses in the 
hamlet were all blown down, and that almost every 
dwelling in the place had lost its roof. This pleasant 
weather lasted during the three days of my stay. The 
air was so thick that I found it impossible to distinguish 
the volcano, though I was actually standing at its foot; 
and, as the weather-wise of the neighborhood could hold 
out no promise of a favorable change at that tim.e of 
the year, I put off my intended ascent till a better oppor- 
tunity, and resolved to return. A former alcalde, Pene- 

Jayor's Travels in the Philippines iq-, 

randa, was reported to have succeeded in reaching the 
top fifteen years before, after sixty men had spent a 
couple of months in building a road to the summit; and 
the ascent was said to have taken him two whole days. 
But an experienced native told me that in the dry season 
he thought four men were quite sufficient to open a 
narrow path to the plateau, just under the peak, in a 
couple of days; but that ladders were required to get 
on to the actual summit. 

The day after my arrival the inspector of highways Arrimi of 
and another man walked into the tribunal, both of them "*"«'«"^^- 
wet to the skin and nearly blown to pieces. My friend 
the alcalde had sent them to my assistance; and, as 
none of us could attempt the ascent, they returned with 
me. As we were entering Bacon on our way back, we 
heard the report of cannon and the sound of music. 
Our servants cried out "Here comes the alcalde," and 
in a few moments he drove up in an open carriage, 
accompanied by an irregular escort of horsemen, 
Spaniards and natives, the latter prancing about in silk 
hats and shirts fluttering in the wind. The alcalde 
politely offered me a seat, and an hour's drive took us 
into Sorsogon. 

The roads of the province of Albay are good, but they aumu roads 
are by no means kept in good repair: a state of things "'"' ^'''''c"- 
that will never be remedied so long as the indolence of 
the authorities continues. Most of the stone bridges 
in the district are in ruins, and the traveller is obliged 
to content himself with wading through a ford, or get 
himself ferried across upon a raft or in a small canoe, 
while his horse swims behind him. The roads were first 
laid down in the days of Alcalde Pefiaranda, a retired 
officer of the engineer corps, whom we have already 
mentioned, and who deserves considerable praise for 
having largely contributed to the welfare of his province, 


and for having accomplished so much from such small 
resources. He took care that all socage service should 
be duly rendered, or that money, which went towards 
paying for tools and materials, should be paid in lieu 
of it. Many abuses existed before his rule; no real 
services were performed by anybody who could trace 
the slightest relationship to any of the authorities; and, 
when by chance any redemption money was paid, it 
went, often with the connivance of the alcalde of the 
period, into the pockets of the gobernadorcillos, instead 
of into the provincial treasury. Similar abuses still 
prevail all over the country, where they are not pre- 
vented by the vigilance of the authorities. The numerous 
population, and the prosperity which the province now 
enjoys, would make it an easy matter to maintain 
and complete the existing highways. The admirable 
officials of the district are certainly not wanting in good- 
will, but their hands are tied. Nowadays the alcaldes 
remain only three years in one province (in Peharanda's 
time, they remained six); their time is entirely taken up 
with the current official and judicial business; and, just as 
they are beginning to become acquainted with the capa- 
bilities and requirements of their district, they are obliged 
to leave it. This shows the government's want of con- 
Handicapped fidence in its own servants. No alcalde could now 
possibly undertake what Penaranda accomplished. The 
money paid in lieu of socage service, which ought to be 
applied to the wants of the province in which the socage 
is due, is forwarded to Manila. If an alcalde proposes 
some urgent and necessary improvement, he has to send 
in so many tedious estimates and reports, which frequently 
remain unnoticed, that he soon loses all desire to attempt 
any innovation. Estimates for large works, to carry 
out which would require a considerable outlay, are 
invariably returned from headquarters marked "not 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 107 

urgent." The fact is, not that the colonial government ff^nds diverted 
is wanting in good-will, but that the Cnja de Comunidad 
(General Treasury) in Manila is almost always empty, 
as the Spanish government, in its chronic state of bank- 
ruptcy, borrows the money and is never in a position 
to return it. 

In 1840 Sorsogon suffered severely from an earth- ^o^sogon 
quake, which lasted almost continuously for thirty-five 
days. It raged with the greatest fury on the 21st of 
March. The churches, both of Sorsogon and of Casi- 
guran, as well as the smallest stone houses, were destroyed ; 
seventeen persons lost their lives, and two hundred 
were injured; and the whole neighborhood sank five 
feet below its former level. 

The next morning I accompanied the alcalde in a C'asiffu'-an. 
falua (felucca), manned by fourteen rowers, to Casi- 
guran, which lies directly south of Sorsogon, on the other 
side of a small bay, of two leagues in breadth, which it 
took us an hour and a half to cross. The bay was as 
calm as an inland lake. It is almost entirely surrounded 
by hills, and its western side, which is open to the sea, 
is protected by the Island of Bagalao, which lies in front 
of it. As soon as we landed, we were received with 
salutes of cannon and music, and flags and shirts streamed 
in the wind. I declined the friendly invitation of the 
alcalde to accompany him any further; as to me, who had 
no official business to transact, the journey seemed nothing 
but a continually recurring panorama of dinners, lunches, 
cups of chocolate, music, and detonations of gunpowder. 

In 1850 quicksilver was discovered on a part of the 
coast now covered by the sea. I examined the reported 
bed of the deposit, and it appealed to me to consist 
of a stratum of clay six feet in depth, superimposed over 
a layer of volcanic sand and fragments of pumice stone. 
An Englishman who was wrecked in this part of the 




Pirate rumors 
toiid robberies. 

Archipelago, the same individual I met at the iron works 
at Angat, had begun to collect it, and by washing the 
sand had obtained something like a couple of ounces. 
Somebody, however, told the priest of the district that 
quicksilver was a poison; and, as he himself told me, so 
forcibly did he depict the dangerous nature of the new 
discovery to his parishioners that they abandoned the 
attempt to collect it. Since thtn none of them have 
ever seen a vestige of mercury, unless it might be from 
some broken old barometer. Towards evening Mount 
Bulusan in the south-east, and Mount Mayon in the 
north-west, were visible for a short time. They are both 
in a straight line with Casiguran. 

Every year the sea makes great inroads upon the 
coast at Casiguran; as far as I could decide from its 
appearance and from the accounts given me, about a 
yard of the shore is annually destroyed. The bay of 
Sorsogon is protected towards the north by a ridge of 
hills, which suddenly terminate, however, at its north- 
eastern angle; and through this opening the wind some- 
times blows with great fury, and causes considerable 
havoc in the bay, the more particularly as its coast is 
principally formed of clay and sand. 

When I reached Legaspi again in the evening I learnt 
that the alarm about the pirates which had interrupted 
my departure had not been an idle one. Moros they 
certainly could not have been, for at that season none 
of the Mahometan corsairs could reach that part of the 
coast; but they \vere a band of deserters and vagabonds 
from the surrounding country, who in this part of the 
world find it more agreeable to pursue their freebooting 
career on sea than on land. During my absence they 
had committed many robberies and carried off several 

* The official accounts stated that they had kidnapped twenty-one persons 
An a couple of weeks. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines io.9 

The beginning of November is the season of storms; 
when water communication between Albay and Manila 
entirely ceases, no vessel daring to put out to sea, even 
from the south coast. On the 9th of the month, how- 
ever, a vessel that had been given up for lost entered 
the port, after having incurred great perils and being 
obliged to throw overboard the greater part of its cargo. 
Within twelve days of its leaving the straits of San 
Bernardino behind it, a sudden storm compelled it to 
anchor amongst the Islands of Balicuatro. One of the 
passengers, a newly-arrived Spaniard, put off in a boat 
with seven sailors, and made for four small vessels which 
were riding at anchor off the coast; taking them for 
fishermen, whereas they were pirates. They fired at Kmi piraieK. 
him as soon as he was some distance from his ship, and 
his crew threw themselves into the water; but both he 
and they were taken prisoners. The captain of the 
trading brig, fearing that his vessel would fall into their 
clutches, slipped anchor and put out to sea again, escap- 
ing shipwreck with the greatest difficulty. The pirates, 
as a rule, do not kill their prisoners, but employ them as 
rowers. But Europeans seldom survive their captivity: 
the tremendous labor and the scanty food are too much 
for them. Their clothes always being stripped off their 
back , they are exposed naked to all sorts of weather, and 
their sole daily support is a handful of rice. 


No favorable change in the weather was expected in 
Albay before the month of January. It stormed and 
rained all day. I therefore determined to change my 
quarters to South Camarines, which, protected from the 
monsoon by the high range of hills running along its 
north-eastern boundary, enjoyed more decent weather. 



The two provinces of Camarines form a long continent, 
with its principal frontage of shore facing to the north- 
east and to the south-west; which is about ten leagues 
broad in its middle, and has its shores indented by many 
bays. From about the center of its north-eastern shore 
there boldly projects the Peninsula of Caramuan, con- 
nected with the mainland of Camarines by the isthmus 
of Isarog. The north-eastern portion of the two prov- 
inces contains a long range of volcanic hills; the south- 
western principally consisted, as far as my investiga- 
tions permitted me to discover, of chalk, and coral reefs; 
in the midst of the hills extends a winding and fertile 
valley, which collects the waters descending from the 
slopes of the mountain ranges, and blends them into a 
navigable river, on the banks of which several flourish- 
ing hamlets have established themselves. This river 
is called the Bicol. The streams which give it birth 
are so abundant, and the slope of the sides of the valley, 
which is turned into one gigantic rice-field, is so gentle 
that in many places the lazy waters linger and form 
small lakes. 
A chain of Beginning at the south-eastern extremity, the vol- 

canoes of Bulusan, Albay, Mazaraga, Iriga, Isarog, and 
Colasi — the last on the northern side of San Miguel bay 
— are situated in a straight line, extending from the 
south-east to the north-west. Besides these, there is 
the volcano of Buhi, or Malinao, a little to the north- 
east of the line. The hamlets in the valley I have 
mentioned are situated in a second line parallel to that 
of the volcanoes. The southern portion of the province 
is sparsely inhabited, and but few streams find their 
way from its plateau into the central valley. The range 
of volcanoes shuts out, as I have said, the north-east 
winds, and condenses their moisture in the little lakes 
scattered on its slopes. The south-west portion of Cama- 


Jagor'a Travels in the Philippines 111 

rines, therefore, is dry during the north-east monsoon, and 
enjoys its rainy season during the prevalence of the 
winds that blow from the south-west. The so-called 
dry season which, so far as South Camarines is con- 
cerned, begins in November, is interrupted, however, 
by frequent showers; but from January to May scarcely 
a drop of rain falls. The change of monsoon takes place 
in May and June; and its arrival is announced by violent 
thunderstorms and hurricanes, which frequently last 
without cessation for a couple of weeks, and are accom- 
panied by heavy rains. These last are the beginning of 
the wet season proper, which lasts till October. The 
road passes the hamlets of Camalig, Guinobatan, Ligao, 
Oas and Polangui, situated in a straight line on the 
banks of the river Quinali, which, after receiving numer- 
ous tributary streams, becomes navigable soon after 
passing Polangui. Here I observed a small settlement 
of huts, which is called after the river. Each of the 
hamlets I have mentioned, with the exception of the last, 
has a population of about fourteen thousand souls, although 
they are situated not more than half a league apart. 

The convents in this part of the country are large, Priestly 

,.,,. j^i-- 1 ^ 1 assistance. 

imposing buildings, and their incumbents, who were 
mostly old men, were most hospitable and kind to me. 
Every one of them insisted upon my staying with him, 
and, after doing all he could for me, passed me on to 
his next colleague with the best recommendations. I 
wished to hire a boat at Polangui to cross the lake of 
Batu, but the only craft I could find were a couple of 
barotos about eight feet long, hollowed out of the trunks 
of trees and laden with rice. To prevent my meeting 
with any delay, the padre purchased the cargo of one 
of the boats, on the condition of its being immediately 
unladen; and this kindness enabled me to continue my 
journey in the afternoon. 



The prieais- If a traveller gets on good terms with the priests he 

unn<>rnni-<. seldoiTi meets with any annoyaiices. Upon one occasion 
I wished to make a little excursion directly after lunch, 
and at a quarter past eleven everything was ready for 
a start; when I happened to say that it was a pity to 
have to wait three-quarters of an hour for the meal. 
In a minute or two twelve o'clock struck; all work in 
the village ceased, and we sat down to table: it was 
noon. A message had been sent to the village bell- 
ringer that the Senor Padre thought he must be asleep, 
and that it must be long past twelve as the Senor Padre 
was hungry. // est Vheure que voire Majeste desire. 

Most of the priests in the eastern provinces of Luzon 
and Samar are Franciscan monks (The barefooted 
friars of the orthodox and strictest rule of Our Holy 
Father St. Francis, in the Philippine Islands, of the Holy 
and Apostolic Province of St. Gregory the Great), 
brought up in seminaries in Spain specially devoted to 
the colonial missions. Formerly they were at liberty, 
after ten years' residence in the Philippines, to return 
to their own country; but, since the abolition of the 
monasteries in Spain, they can do this no longer, for 
they are compelled in the colonies to abandon all obe- 
dience to the rule of their order, and to live as laymen. 
They are aware that they must end their days in the 
colony, and regulate their lives accordingly. On their 
first arrival they are generally sent to some priest in 
the province to make themselves acquainted with the 
language of the country; then they are installed into 
a small parish, and afterwards into a more lucrative 
one, in which they generally remain till their death. 
Most of them spring from the very lowest class of Span- 
iards. A number of pious trusts and foundations in 
Spain enable a very poor man, who cannot afford to send 
his son to school, to put him into a religious seminary, 

developed by 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines US 

where, beyond the duties of his future avocation, the 
boy learns nothing. If the monks were of a higher 
social grade, as are some of the English missionaries, 
they would have less inclination to mix with the common 
people, and would fail to exercise over them the influence 
they wield at present. The early habits of the Spanish 
monks, and their narrow knowledge of the world, pecu- 
liarly fit them for an existence among the natives. This 
mental equality, or rather, this want of mental dis- 
parity, has enabled them to acquire the influence they 
undoubtedly possess. 

When these young men first come from their seminaries Young men 
they are narrow-brained, ignorant, frequently almost 
devoid of education, and full of conceit, hatred of heretics, 
and proselytish ardor. These failings, however, grad- 
ually disappear; the consideration and the comfortable 
incomes they enjoy developing their benevolence. The 
insight into mankind and the confidence in themselves 
which distinguish the lower classes of the Spaniards, 
and which are so amusingly exemplified in Sancho Panza, 
have plenty of occasions to display themselves in the 
responsible and influential positions which the priests 
occupy. The padre is frequently the only white man 
in his village, probably the only European for miles 
around. He becomes the representative not only of 
religion, but of the government; he is the oracle of the 
natives, and his decisions in everything that concerns 
Europe and civilization are without appeal. His advice 
is asked in all important emergencies, and he has no 
one whom he in his turn can consult. Such a state of 
things naturally develops his brain. The same indi- 
viduals who in Spain would have followed the plough, 
in the colonies carry out great undertakings. Without 
any technical education, and without any scientific 
knowledge, they build churches and bridges, and con- 


Struct roads. The circumstances therefore are greatly 
in favor of the development of priestly ability; but it 
Poor architects, would probably be better for the buildings if they were 
erected by more experienced men, for the bridges are 
remarkably prone to fall in, the churches look like sheep- 
pens, and the roads soon go to rack and ruin. I had 
much intercourse in Camarines and Albay with the 
priests, and conceived a great liking for them all. As 
a rule, they are the most unpretending of men; and a 
visit gives them so much pleasure that they do all in 
their power to make their guest's stay as agreeable as 
possible. Life in a large convent has much resemblance 
to that of a lord of the manor in Eastern Europe. Nothing 
can be more unconstrained, more unconventional. A 
visitor lives as independently as in an hotel, and many 
of the visitors behave themselves as if it were one. I 
have seen a subaltern official arrive, summon the head 
servant, move into a room, order his meal, and then 
inquire casually whether the padre, who was an utter 
stranger to him, was at home. 

The priests of the Philippines have often been re- 
proached with gross immorality. They are said to 
keep their convents full of bevies of pretty girls, and to 
lead somewhat the same sort of life as the Grand Turk. 
This may be true of the native padres; but I myself 
never saw, in any of the households of the numerous 
Spanish priests I visited, anything that could possibly 
cause the least breath of scandal. Their servants were 
exclusively men, though perhaps I may have noticed 
here and there an old woman or two. Ribadeneyra 
says: — "The natives, who observe how careful the 
Franciscan monks are of their chastity, have arrived at 
the conclusion that they are not really men, and that, 
though the devil had often attempted to lead these holy 
men astray, using the charms of some pretty Indian 

Jagor's Travels in tht Philippines 116 

girl as a bait, yet, to the confusion of both damsel and 
devil, the monks had always come scathless out of the 
struggle." Ribadeneyra, however, is a very unreliable 
author; and, if his physiological mistakes are as gross 
as his geographical ones (he says somewhere that Luzon 
is another name for the island of Cebu!), the monks 
are not perhaps as fireproof as he supposes. At any 
rate, his description does not universally apply now- 
adays. The younger priests pass their existence like 
the lords of the soil of old; the young girls consider it 
an honor to be allowed to associate with them; and 
the padres in their turn find many convenient opportu- 
nities. They have no jealous wives to pry into their 
secrets, and their position as confessors and spiritual 
advisers affords them plenty of pretexts for being alone 
with the women. The confessional, in particular, 
must be a perilous rock-a-head for most of them. In 
an appendix to the "Tagal Grammar" (which, by-the- 
bye, is not added to the editions sold for general use) 
a list of questions is given for the convenience of young 
priests not yet conversant with the Tagal language. 
These questions are to be asked in the confessional, and 
several pages of them relate exclusively to the relations 
between the sexes. 

As the alcaldes remain only three years in any one Superiority over 
province, they never understand much of its language; (''"'«'■"'»«"' 


and, being much occupied with their official business, 
they have neither the time nor the desire to become 
acquainted with the peculiarities of the districts over 
which they rule. The priest, on the other hand, re- 
sides continually in the midst of his parishioners, is 
perfectly acquainted with each of them, and even, on 
occasion, protects them against the authorities; his, 
therefore, is the real jurisdiction in the district. The 
position of the priests, in. contradistinction to that of the 



Former legal 


formerly tn 

government officials, is well expressed by their respective 
dwellings. The casas reales, generally small, ugly, and 
frequently half-ruined habitations, are not suited to the 
dignity of the chief authority of the province. The 
convento, on the contrary, is almost always a roomy, 
imposing, and well-arranged building. In former days, 
when governorships were sold to adventurers whose only 
care was to enrich themselves, the influence of the 
minister of religion was •^ven greater than it is now.* 
The following extract from the General Orders, given by 
Le Gentil, will convey a clear idea of their former 
position: — 

"Whereas the tenth chapter of the ordinances, where- 
in the governor of Arandia ordained that the alcaldes 
and the justices should communicate with the missionary 
priests only by letter, and that they should never hold 
any interview with them except in the presence of a 
witness, has been frequently disobeyed, it is now com- 
manded that these disobediences shall no longer be 
allowed; and that the alcaldes shall make it their busi- 
ness to see that the priests and ministers of religion 
treat the gobcrnadorcillos and the subaltern officers of 
justice with proper respect, and that the aforesaid 
priests be not allowed either to beat, chastise, or ill- 
treat the latter, or make them wait at table." 

The former alcaldes who, without experience in official 
business, without either education or knowledge, and 
without either the brains or the moral qualifications for 
such responsible and influential posts, purchased their 
appointments from the State, or received them in con- 
sequence of successful intrigues, received a nominal 
salary from the government, and paid it tribute for the 
right to carry on trade. Arenas considered this tribute 

* Le GentU, in his Travels in the Indian Seas, (1761) says: "The monks are 
the real rulers of the provinces. * * * Their power is so unlimited that no 
Spaniard cares to settle in the neighborhood. * * * The monks would give 
him a great deal of trouble." 

Jagor's Tratels in the Philippines 117 

paid by the alcaldes as a fine imposed upon them for 
an infringement of the law; "for several ordinances were 
in existence, strenuously forbidding them to dabble 
in any kind of commerce, until it pleased his Catholic 
Majesty to grant them a dispensation." The latter 
sources of mischief were, however, abolished by royal 
decree in September and October, 1844. 

The alcaldes were at the same time governors, magis- ^*<'»''" horrovoed 
trates, commanders of the troops, and, in reality, the '^"^''" ' 
only traders in their province.* They purchased with 
the resources of the ohras pi as the articles required in 
the province; and they were entirely dependent for their 
capital upon these endowments, as they almost always 
arrived in the Philippines without any means of their 
own. The natives were forced to sell their produce to 
the alcaldes and, besides, to purchase their goods at 
the prices fixed by the latter.* In this corrupt state 
of things the priests were the only protectors of the 
unfortunate Filipinos; though occasionally they also 
threw in their lot with the alcaldes, and shared in the 
spoil wrung from their unfortunate flocks. 

Nowadays men with some knowledge of the law are improvement in 
sent out to the Philippines as alcaldes; the government IppHuees. 
pays them a small salary, and they are not allowed to 
trade. The authorities also attempt to diminish the 
influence of the priests by improving the position of 
the civil tribunals; a state of things they will not find 
easy of accomplishment unless they lengthen the period 
of service of the alcaldes, and place them in a pecuniary 
position that will put them beyond the temptation of 
pocketing perquisites.! 

* St. Croix. 

t There are three classes of alcaldeships, namely, cntrada, astcenso. and tennino 
(ride Royal Ordinances of March, 1837) ; in each of which an alcalde must serve 
for three years. No official is allowed, under any pretence, to serve more than 
ten years in any of the Asiatic magistracies. 



Similarity with 



vith country. 

In Hue's work on China I find the following passage, 
relating to the effects of the frequent official changes 
in China, from which many hints may be gathered: — 

"The magisterial offices are no longer bestowed 
upon upright and just individuals, and, as a con- 
sequence, this once flourishing and well-governed 
kingdom is day by day falling into decay, and is 
rapidly gliding down the path that leads to a terrible 
and, perhaps, speedy dissolution. When we seek 
to discover the cause of the general ruin, the 
universal corruption which too surely is undermining 
all classes of Chinese society, we are convinced that 
it is to be found in the complete abandonment of 
the old system of government effected by the Man- 
chu dynasty. It issued a decree forbidding any 
mandarin to hold any post longer than three years 
in the same province, and prohibiting any one from 
possessing any official appointment in his native 
province. One does not form a particularly high 
idea of the brain which conceived this law; but, 
when the Manchu Tartars found that they were 
the lords of the empire, they began to be alarmed 
at their small numbers, which were trifling in com- 
parison with the countless swarms of the Chinese; 
and they dreaded lest the influence which the higher 
officials would acquire in their districts might 
enable them to excite the populace against their 
foreign rulers. 

"The magistrates, being allowed to remain 
only a year or two in the same province, lived there 
like strangers, without acquainting themselves 
with the wants of the people they governed; 
there was no tie between them. The only care of 
the mandarins was to amass as much wealth as 
possible before they quitted their posts; and they 
then began the same game in a fresh locality, until 
finally they returned home in possession of a hand- 
some fortune gradually collected in their different 
appointments. They were only birds of passage. 
What did it matter? The morrow would find them 
at the other end of the kingdom, where the cries 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 

of their plundered victims would be unable to reach 
them. In this manner the governmental policy 
rendered the mandarins selfish and indifferent. The 
basis of the monarchy is destroyed, for the magis- 
trate is no longer a paternal ruler residing amongst 
and mildly swaying his children, but a marauder, 
who arrives no man knows whence, and who de- 
parts no one knows whither. The consequence is 
universal stagnation; no great undertakings are 
accomplished; and the works and labors of former 
dynasties are allowed to fall into decay. The 
mandarins say to themselves: 'Why should we 
undertake what we can never accomplish? Why 
should we sow that others may reap?' * * *They 
take no interest in the affairs of the district; as a 
rule, they are suddenly transplanted into the midst 
of a population whose dialect even they do not Dependence on 
understand. When they arrive in their mandarin- interpreters. 
ates they usually find interpreters, who, being per- 
manent officials and interested in the affairs of the 
place, know how to make their services indispen- 
sable; and these in reality are the absolute rulers 
of the district." 

Interpreters are especially indispensable in the Phil- 
ippines, where the alcaldes never by any chance under- 
stand any of the local dialects. In important matters 
the native writers have generally to deal with the priest, 
who in many cases becomes the virtual administrator 
of authority. He is familiar with the characters of the 
inhabitants and all their affairs, in the settlement of 
which his intimate acquaintance with the female sex 
stands him in good stead. An eminent official in Madrid 
told me in 1867 that the then minister was considering 
a proposal to abolish the restriction of office in the 
colonies to three years.* 

I mporlance uf 
interpreters in 

The law limiting the duration of appointments to this short period dates 
trom the earliest days of Spanish colonization in America. There was also a 
variety of minor regulations, based on suspicion, prohibiting the higher officials 
trom mixing in friendly intercourse with the colonists. 


Fear of officials' 

English and 
Dutch policy. 

The dread which caused this restriction, viz., that 
an official might become too powerful in some distant 
province, and that his influence might prove a source 
of danger to the m.other country, is no longer entertained. 
Increased traffic and easier means of communication 
have destroyed the former isolation of the more distant 
provinces. The customs laws, the increasing demand 
for colonial produce, and the right conceded to foreigners 
of settling in the country, will give a great stimulus to 
agriculture and commerce, and largely increase the 
number of Chinese and European residents. Then at 
last, perhaps, the authorities will see the necessity of 
improving the social position of their officials by decreas- 
ing their number, by a careful selection of persons, by 
promoting them according to their abilities and conduct, 
and by increasing their salaries, and allowing them to 
make a longer stay in one post. The commercial relations 
of the Philippines with California and Australia are 
likely to become very active, and liberal ideas will be 
introduced from those free countries. Then, indeed, 
the mother country will have earnestly to consider 
whether it is advisable to continue its exploitation of 
the colony by its monopolies, its withdrawal of gold, 
and its constant satisfaction of the unfounded claims 
of a swarm of hungry place-hunters.* 

English and Dutch colonial officials are carefully and 
expressly educated for their difficult and responsible 
positions. They obtain their appointments after pas- 

* A secular priest in the Philippines once related to me, quite of his own 
accord, what had led him to the choice of his profession. One day, when he was 
a non-commissioned officer in the army, he was playing cards with some com- 
rades in a shady balcony. "See,"' cried one of his friends, observing a peasant 
occupied in tilling the fields in the full heat of the sun, "how the donkey yonder 
is toiling and perspiring while we are lolling in the shade." The happy conceit 
of letting the donkeys work while the idle enjoyed life made such a deep impres- 
sion on him that he determined to turn priest; and it is the same felicitous 
thought that has impelled so many impecunious gentlemen to become colonial 
officials. The little opening for civil labor in Spain and Portugal, and the pros- 
pect of comfortable perquisites in the colonies, have sent many a starving caha- 
llero across the ocean. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 121 

sing a stringent examination at home, and are promoted 
to the higher colonial offices only after giving proofs of 
fitness and ability. What a different state of things 
prevails in Spain! When a Spaniard succeeds in getting 
an appointment, it is difficult to say whether it is due 
to his personal capacity and merit or to a series of suc- 
cessful political intrigues.* 


In an hour and a half after leaving Polangui we reached '^'»'"- 
Batu, a village on the north-western shore of the lake 
of the same name. The inhabitants, particularly the 
women, struck me by their ugliness and want of clean- 
liness. Although they lived close to the lake, and drew 
their daily drinking water from it, they never appeared 
to use it for the purpose of washing. The streets of 
the village also were dirty and neglected ; a circumstance 
explained, perhaps, by the fact of the priest being a 

Towards the end of the rainy season, in November, The lake. 
the lake extends far more widely than it does in the dry, 
and overflows its shallow banks, especially to the south- 
west. A great number of water-plants grow on its 
borders; amongst which I particularly noticed a delicate 
seaweed,! as fine as horse hair, but intertwined in such 
close and endless ramifications that it forms a flooring 
strong enough to support the largest waterfowl. I 

* The exploitation of the State by party, and the exploitation of party by 
individuals, are the real secrets of all revolutions in the Peninsula. They are 
causi^d by a constant and universal struggle for office. No one will work, and 
everybody wants to live luxuriously; and this can only be done at the expense 
of the State, which all attempt to turn and twist to their own ends. Shortly 
after the expulsion of Isabella, an alcalde's appointment has been known to 
have been given away three times in one day. {Prussian Year-Bouk, January, 

t According to Grunow, Cladophona arrisgona Kuetzing — Conferva arrisgona 


saw hundreds of them hopping about and eating the 
shell fish and prawns, which swarmed amidst the meshes 
of the net-like seaweed and fell an easy prey to their 
feathered enemies. The natives, too, were in the habit 
of catching immense quantities of the prawns with nets 
made for the purpose. Some they ate fresh; and some 
they kept till they were putrid, like old cheese, and then 
used them as a relish to swallow with their rice. These 
small shell-fish are not limited to the Lake of Batu. 
They are caught in shoals in both the salt and the fresh 
waters of the Philippine and Indian archipelagos, and, 
when salted and dried by the natives, form an important 
article of food, eaten either in soup or as a kind of potted 
paste. They are found in every market, and are largely 
exported to China. I was unable to shoot any of the 
waterfowl, for the tangles of the seaweed prevented my 
boat from getting near them. 
A neiiiecied When I rcvisited the same lake in February, I found 

its waters so greatly fallen that they had left a circular 
belt of shore extending all around the lake, in most places 
nearly a hundred feet broad. The withdrawal of the 
waters had compressed the tangled seaweed into a kind 
of matting, which, bleached by the sun, and nearly an 
inch thick, covered the whole of the shore, and hung 
suspended over the stunted bushes which, on my first 
visit, had been under water. I have never either seen 
elsewhere, or heard any one mention, a similar phenom- 
enon. This stuff, which could be had for nothing, 
was excellent for rifle-stoppers and for the stuffing of 
birds, so I took a great quantity of it with me. This 
time the bird-hunting went well, too. 

The native priest of Batu was full of complaints about 
his parishioners, who gave him no opportunities of 
gaining an honest penny. "I am never asked for a mass, 
sir; in fact, this is such a miserable hole that it is shunned 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 123 

by Death itself. In D., where I was for a long time 
coadjutor, we had our couple of burials regularly every 
day at three dollars a head, and as many masses at a 
dollar apiece as we had time to say, besides christenings 
and weddings, which always brought a little more grist 
to the mill. But here nothing takes place, and I scarcely 
make anything." This stagnant state of things had 
induced him to turn his attention to commerce. The 
average native priest, of those I saw, could hardly 
be called a credit to his profession. Generally ignorant, 
often dissipated, and only superficially acquainted with 
his duties, the greater part of his time was given 
over to gambling, drinking, and other objectionable 
amusements. Little care was taken to preserve a 
properly decorous behavior, except when officiating 
in the church, when they read with an absurd assump- 
tion of dignity, without understanding a single word. 
The conventos are often full of girls and children, all 
of whom help themselves with their fingers out of a 
common dish. The worthy padre of Batu introduced 
a couple of pretty girls to me as his two poor sisters, 
whom, in spite of his poverty, he supported; but the 
servants about the place openly spoke of these young 
ladies' babies as being the children of the priest. 

The guiding principle of Spanish colonial policy — to rhe native 
set one class against another, and to prevent either from 
becoming too powerful — seems to be the motive for 
placing so many native incumbents in the parsonages 
of the Archipelago. The prudence of this proceeding, 
however, seems doubtful. A Spanish priest has a great 
deal of influence in his own immediate circle, and forms, 
perhaps, the only enduring link between the colony and 
the mother-country. The native priest is far from 
affording any compensation for the lack of either of 
these advantages. He generally is but little respected 



by his flock, and certainly does nothing to attach them 
to Spain; for he hates and envies his Spanish brethren, 
who leave him only the very worst appointments, and 
treat him with contempt. 

Nabua. I rode from Batu to Nabua over a good road in half 

an hour. The country was flat, with rice-fields on both 
sides of the road; but, while in Batu the rice was only 
just planted, in Nabua it already was almost ripe. I 
was unable to obtain any explanation of this incongruity, 
and know not how to account for such a difference of 
climate between two hamlets situated in such close 
proximity to one another, and separated by no range 
of hills. The inhabitants of both were ugly and dirty, 
and were different in these respects from the Tagalogs. 
Nabua, a place of 10,875 inhabitants, is intersected by 
several small streams, whose waters, pouring down from 
the eastern hills, form a small lake, which empties itself 
into the river Bicol. Just after passing the second bridge 
beyond Nabua the road, inclining eastwards, wends in 
a straight line to Iriga, a place lying to the south-west 
of the volcano of the same name. 

Memontados. I visited a Small settlement of pagans situated on the 

slope of the volcano. The people of the plains call them 
indifferently Igorots, Cimarrons, Remontados, In- 
fieles, or Montesinos. None of these names, however, 
with the exception of the two last, are appropriate ones. 
The first is derived from the term applied in the north 
of the Island to the mixed descendants of Chinese and 
Filipino parents. The word Cimarron (French, marrow) 
is borrowed from the American slave colonies, where 
it denoted negroes who escaped from slavery and lived 
in a state of freedom; but here it is applied to natives 
who prefer a wild existence to the comforts of village 
life, which they consider are overbalanced by the servi- 
tude and bondage which accompany them. The term 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines li-5 

Remontado explains itself, and has the same significa- 
tion as Cimarron. As the difference between the two 
states — on account of the mildness of the climate, and 
the ease with which the wants of the natives are supplied — 
is far less than it would be in Europe, these self-constituted 
exiles are more frequently to be met with than might 
be supposed; the cause of their separation from their 
fellowmen sometimes being some offence against the 
laws, sometimes annoying debts, and sometimes a mere 
aversion to the duties and labors of village life. Every 
Filipino has an innate inclination to abandon the hamlets 
and retire into the solitude of the woods, or live isolated 
in the midst of his own fields; and it is only the village 
prisons and the priests — the salaries of the latter are 
proportionate to the number of their parishioners — that 
prevent him from gradually turning the puehlos into 
visitas* and the latter into ranchos. Until a visit to 
other ranchos in the neighborhood corrected my first 
impression, I took the inhabitants of the slopes of the 
Iriga for cross-breeds between the low-landers and 
negritos. The color of their skin was not black, but 
a dark brown, scarcely any darker than that of Filipinos 
who Have been much exposed to the sun; and only a 
few of them had woolly hair. The negritos whom I 
saw at Angat and Mariveles knew nothing whatever 
about agriculture, lived in the open air, and supported 
themselves upon the spontaneous products of nature; 
but the half-savages of the Iriga dwell in decent huts, 
and cultivate several vegetables and a little sugar-cane. 
No pure negritos, as far as I could ascertain, are to be 
met with in Camarines. A thickly-populated province, 
only sparsely dotted with lofty hills, would be ill-suited 
for the residence of a nomadic hunting race ignorant 
of agriculture. 

* A visila i? a small hamlet or village with no priest of its own, and dependent 
upon its largest neighbor for its religious ministrations. 



Poison arrowti 


Mt. Iriga. 

The ranches on the Iriga are very accessible, and their 
inhabitants carry on a friendly intercourse with the 
lowlanders; indeed, if they didn't, they would have been 
long ago exterminated. In spite of these neighborly com- 
munications, however, they have preserved many of 
their own primitive manners and customs. The men 
go about naked with the exception of a cloth about the 
loins; and the women are equally unclad, some of them 
perhaps wearing an apron reaching from the hip to the 
knee.* In the larger ranclios the women were decently 
clad in the usual Filipino fashion. Their household 
belongings consisted of a few articles made of bamboo, 
a few calabashes of coconut-shell, and an earthen cooking- 
pot, and bows and arrows. These latter are made very 
carefully, the shaft from reeds, the point from a sharp- 
cut bamboo, or from a palm-tree, with one to three sharp 
points. In pig-hunting iron-pointed poison arrows are 
used. Although the Igorots are not Christians, they 
decorate their huts with crucifixes, which they use as 
talismans. If they were of no virtue, an old man re- 
marked to me, the Spaniards would not employ them so 
numerously. t The largest rancho 1 visited was nomi- 
nally under the charge of a captain, who, however, had 
little real power. At my desire he called to some naked 
boys idly squatting about on the trees, who required 
considerable persuasion before they obeyed his summons; 
but a few small presents — brazen earrings and combs 
for the women, and cigars for the men — soon put me 
on capital terms with them. 

After a vain attempt to reach the top of the Iriga 
volcano I started for Buhi, a place situated on the 

* Pigafetta mentions that the female musicians of the King of Cebu were 
quite naked, or only covered with an apron of bark. The ladies of the Court 
were content with a hat, a short cloak, and a clotli around the waist. 

t Perhaps the same reason induced the Chinese to purchase crucifixes at the 
time of their first intercourse with the Portuguese; for Pigafetta says: "The 
Chinese are white, wear clothes, and eat from tables. They also possess crucifixes 
but it is difficult to say why or where they got them." 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 137 

southern shore of the lake of that name. Ten minutes 
after leaving Iriga I reached a spot where the ground 
sounded hollow beneath my horse's feet. A succession 
of small hillocks, about fifty feet high, bordered each 
side of the road ; and towards the north I could perceive 
the huge crater of the Iriga, which, in the distance, 
appeared like a truncated cone. I had the curiosity 
to ascend one of the hillocks, which, seen from its sum- 
mit, looked like the remains of some former crater, 
which had probably been destroyed by an earthquake 
and split up into these small mounds. 

When I got to Buhi the friendly priest had it proclaimed Advertising. 
by sound of drum that the newly-arrived strangers 
wished to obtain all kinds of animals, whether of earth, 
of air, or of water ; and that each and all would be paid 
for in cash. The natives, however, only brought us 
moths, centipedes, and other vermin, which, besides 
enabling them to have a good stare at the strangers, 
they hoped to turn into cash as extraordinary curiosities. 

The following day I was the spectator of a gorgeous ^ church 
procession. First came the Spanish flag, then the 
village kettle-drums, and a small troop of horsemen in 
short jackets and shirts flying in the wind, next a dozen 
musicians, and finally, as the principal figure, a man 
carrying a crimson silk standard. The latter individual 
evidently was deeply conscious of his dignified position, 
and his countenance eloquently expressed the quantity 
of palm wine he had consumed in honor of the occasion. 
He sat on his horse dressed out in the most absurd manner 
in a large cocked hat trimmed with colored paper instead 
of gold lace, with a woman's cape made of paper out- 
side his coat, and with short, tight-fitting yellow breeches 
and immense white stockings and shoes. Both his coat 
and his breeches were liberally ornamented with paper 
trimmings. His steed, led by a couple of cabezas, was 



appointed with similar trappings. After marching 
through all the streets of the village the procession came 
to a halt in front of the church. 
Papal This festival is celebrated every year in commemora- 

s^iT*""' " ^^^^ '-'^ ^^^ concession made by the Pope to the King 
of Spain permitting the latter to appropriate to his 
own use certain revenues of the Church. The Spanish 
Throne consequently enjoys the right of conferring 
different indulgences, even for serious crimes, in the name 
of the Holy See. This right, which, so to speak, it 
acquired wholesale, it sells by retail to its customers 
(it formerly disposed of it to the priests) in the estanco, 
and together with its other monopolies, such as tobacco, 
brandy, lottery tickets, stamped paper, etc., all through 
the agency of the priests ; without the assistance of whom 
very little business would be done. The receipts from 
the sale of these indulgences have always been very 
fluctuating. In 1819 they amounted to $15,930; in 
1839 to $36,390; and in 1860 they were estimated at 
$58,954. In the year 1844-5 they rose to $292,115. 
The cause of this large increase was that indulgences 
were then rendered compulsory; so many being alloted 
to each family, with the assistance and under the super- 
intendence of the priests and tax-collectors who received 
a commission of five and eight per cent on the gross 
amount collected.* 
Lake Buhi. The Lake of Buhi (300 feet above the sea-level) pre- 

sents an extremely picturesque appearance, surrounded 
as it is on all sides by hills fully a thousand feet high; 
and its western shore is formed by what still remains 
of the Iriga volcano. I was informed by the priests of 
the neighboring hamlets that the volcano, until the 
commencement of the seventeenth century, had been 
a closed cone, and that the lake did not come into 

* One line here omitted. — C. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 1S9 

existence till half of the mountain fell in, at the time of 
its great eruption. This statement I found confirmed 
in the pages of the Estado Geografico: — "On the fourth 
of January, 1641 — a memorable day, for on that date 
all the known volcanoes of the Archipelago began to 
erupt at the same hour — a lofty hill in Camarines, in- 
habited by heathens, fell in, and a fine lake sprang into 
existence upon its site. The then inhabitants of the 
village of Buhi migrated to the shores of the new lake, 
which, on this account, was henceforward called the 
Lake of Buhi." 

Perrey, in the Memoires de V Academie de Dijon, i';;is CamaHnea 
mentions another outbreak which took place in Cama- '^"'^ 9"«"- 
rines in 1628: "In 1628, according to trustworthy 
reports, fourteen different shocks of earthquake occurred 
on the same day in the province of Camarines. Many 
buildings were thrown down, and from one large moun- 
tain which the earthquake rent asunder there issued 
such an immense quantity of water that the whole 
neighborhood was flooded, trees were torn up by the 
roots, and, in one hour, from the seashore all plains 
were covered with water (the direct distance to the 
shore is two and one-half leagues).* 

It is very strange that the text given in the a mis- 
footnote does not agree with A. Perrey's translation. "■'i"''««""' 
The former does not mention that water came out of 
the mountains and says just the contrary, that trees, 
which were torn up by the roots, took the place of 
the sea for one hour on the shore, so that no water 
could be seen. 

* Apud Camarines quoque terram eodem die quator decies contremuisse, fide 
dignis testimoniis renuntiatum est: multa interim asdificia diruta. Ingentem 
montem medium crepuisse immani hiatu, ex immensa vi excussisse arborss per 
oras pelagi, ita ut leucam occuparent aequoris, nee humor per illud intervallum 
appareret. Accidit hoc anno 1628. — S. Eut<ebius Xierembcrgius, Uistona 
Naturae, lib. xvi., 383. Antwerpiae, 1635. 


Unreliable The data of the Estado Geografico are apt to 

auihoniies. create distrust as the official report on the great 
earthquake of 1641 describes in detail the eruptions 
of three volcanoes, which happened at the same time 
(of these two were in the South of the Archipelago 
and one in Northern Luzon) while Camarines is not 
mentioned at all. This suspicion is further strengthened 
by the fact that the same author (Nierembergius) 
whose remarks on the eruptions of 1628 in Camarines 
are quoted, gives in another book of his a detailed 
report on the events of 1641 without mentioning this 
province. If one considers the indifference of the 
friars toward such events in Nature, it is not improbable 
that the eruptions of 1641 when a mountain fell in in 
Northern Luzon and a lake took its place, has been 
transferred on the Iriga. To illustrate the indifference 
it may be mentioned that even the padres living at 
the foot of the Albay could not agree upon the dates 
of its very last eruptions. 
Another atiempt When I was at Tambong, a small hamlet on the shore 
of the lake belonging to the parochial district of Buhi, 
I made a second unsuccessful attempt to reach the highest 
point of the Iriga. We arrived in the evening at the 
southern point of the crater's edge (1,041 meters above 
the level of the sea by my barometrical observation), 
where a deep defile prevented our further progress. 
Here the Igorots abandoned me, and the low-landers 
refused to bivouac in order to pursue the journey on 
the following day; so I was obliged to return. Late 
in the evening, after passing through a coco plantation, 
we reached the foot of the mountain and found shelter 
from a tempest with a kind old woman; to whom my 
servants lied so shamelessly that, when the rain had 
abated, we were, in spite of our failure, conducted with 
torches to Tambong, where we found the palm-grove 

at mountain 

Jagor's Travels ui the Philippines 131 

round the little hamlet magically illuminated with 
bright bonfires of dry coconut-leaves in honor of the 
Conquistadores del Iriga; and where I was obliged to 
remain for the night, as the people were too timorous 
or too lazy to cross the rough water of the lake. 

Here I saw them preparing the fiber of the pine-apple Pineapple fihi 
for weaving. The fruit of the plants selected for this p'"*?"'""'"'" 
purpose is generally removed early; a process which 
causes the leaves to increase considerably both in length 
and in breadth. A woman places a board on the ground, 
and upon it a pine-apple-leaf with the hollow side up- 
wards. Sitting at one end of the board, she holds the 
leaf firmly with her toes, and scrapes its outersurface 
with a potsherd; not with the sharp fractured edge but 
with the blunt side of the rim ; and thus the leaf is reduc- 
ed to rags. In this manner a stratum of coarse lon- 
gitudinal fiber is disclosed, and the operator, placing her 
thumb-nail beneath it, lifts it up, and draws it away 
in a compact strip ; after which she scrapes again until a 
second fine layer of fiber is laid bare. Then, turning the 
leaf round, she scrapes its back, which now lies upwards, 
down to the layer of fiber, which she seizes with her 
hand and draws at once, to its full length, away from 
the back of the leaf. When the fiber has been washed, 
it is dried in the sun. It is afterwards combed, with 
a suitable comb, like women's hair, sorted into four 
classes, tied together, and treated like the fiber of the 
Iwpi. In this crude manner are obtained the threads 
for the celebrated web nipis de Pina, which is considered PifM. 
by experts the finest in the world. Two shirts of 
this kind are in the Berlin Ethnographical Museum 
(Nos. 291 and 292). Better woven samples are in the 
Gewerbe Museum of Trade and Commerce. In the 
Philippines, where the fineness of the work is best 


Rain prevents 
another asceiit 

arrow poison 

understood and appreciated, richly- embroidered costumes 
of this description have fetched more than $1,400 

At Buhi, which is not sufficiently sheltered towards 
the north-east, it rained almost as much as at Daraga. 
I had found out from the I go rots that a path could be 
forced through the tall canes up to the summit; but the 
continual rain prevented me; so I resolved to cross the 
Malinao, returning along the coast to my quarters, and 
then, freshly equipped, descend the river Bicol as far 
as Naga. 

Before we parted the Igorots prepared for me some 
arrow poison from the bark of two trees. I happened 
to see neither the leaves nor the blossoms, but only the 
bark. A piece of bark was beaten to pieces, pressed dry, 
wetted, and again pressed. This was done with the 
bare hand, which, however, sustained no injury. The 
juice thus extracted looked like pea-soup, and was warm- 
ed in an earthen vessel over a slow fire. During the 
process it coagulated at the edges; and the coagulated 
mass was again dissolved, by stirring it into the boiling 
fluid mass. When this had reached the consistency of 
syrup, a small quantity was scraped off the inner surface 
of a second piece of bark, and its juice squeezed into 
the vessel. This juice was a dark brown color. When 
the mass had attained the consistency of a thin jelly, 
it was scraped out of the pot with a chip and preserved 
on a leaf sprinkled with ashes. For poisoning an arrow 
they use a piece of the size of a hazel-nut, which, after 
being warmed, is distributed uniformly over the broad 
iron point; and the poisoned arrow serves for repeated 

* At Fort William, Calcutta, experiments have proved the extraordinary 
endurance of the pine-apple fibre. A cable eight centimeters in circumference 
was not torn asunder until a force of 2,850 kilogrannmes had been applied to it. — 
Report of the Jury, Londoti I nternational Exhibition. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines tSS 

At the end of November I left the beautiful lake of s«p»j river 
Buhi, and proceeded from its eastern angle for a short 
distance up the little river Sapa,* the alluvial deposits 
of which form a considerable feature in the configura- 
tion of the lake. Across a marshy meadow we reached 
the base of the Malinao or Buhi mountain, the slippery- 
clay of the lower slope merging higher up into volcanic 
sand. The damp undergrowth swarmed with small 
leeches; I never before met with them in such numbers. Leeches 
These little animals, no stouter when streched out than 
a linen thread, are extraordinarily active. They attach 
themselves firmly to every part of the body, penetrat- 
ing even into the nose, the ears, and the eyelids, where, 
if, they remain unobserved, they gorge themselves to 
such excess that they become as round as balls and look 
like small cherries. While they are sucking no pain 
is felt; but afterwards the spots attacked often itch the 
whole day long.f In one place the wood consisted for 
the most part of fig-trees, with bunches of fruit quite Fig-trees 
six feet in length hanging from the stems and the thicker 
branches; and between the trees grew ferns, aroids, and 
orchids. After nearly six hours' toil we reached the 
pass (841 meters above the sea level), and descended 
the eastern slope. The forest on the eastern side of the 
mountain is still more magnificent than that on the west. 
From a clearing we obtained a fine view of the sea, the 
Island of Catanduanes, and the plain of Tabaco. At 
sunset we reached Tibi, where I quartered myself in Pn-sun 
the prison. This, a tolerably clean place, enclosed with 
strong bamboos, was the most habitable part of a long 

* Sapa means shallow. 

t To the extraordinary abundance of these annulates in Sikkin, Hooker 
{Himalayan Journal, i, 167) ascribes the death of many animals, as also the 
murrain known as rinderpest, if it occurred after a very wet season, when the 
leech appears in incredible numbers. It is a known fact that these worms have 
existed for days together in the nostrils, throat, and stomach of man, causing 
inexpressible pain and, finally, death. 


shed which supplied the place of the tribunal destroyed 
in a storm two years before. At Tibi I had an opportu- 
nity of sketching Mount Malinao (called also Buhi and 
Takit), which from this side has the appearance of a 
large volcano with a distinct crater. From the lake 
of Buhi it is not so clearly distinguishable. 
loabo hot Not far from Tibi, exactly north-east of Malinao, we 

spring. fouud a Small hot spring called Igabo. In the middle of a 

plot of turf encircled by trees was a bare spot of oval form, 
nearly a hundred paces long and seventy wide. The 
whole space was covered with stones, rounded by attri- 
tion, as large as a man's head and larger. Here and 
there hot water bubbled out of the ground and discharged 
into a little brook; beside it some women were engaged 
in cooking their food, which they suspended in nets in 
the hottest parts of the water. On the lower surfaces 
of some of the stones a little sulphur was sublimated; 
of alum hardly a trace was perceptible. In a cavity 
some caolin had accumulated, and was used as a stain. 
Nagiegbeng From here I visited the stalactite springs, not far 

distant, of Nagiegbeng.* I had expected to see a cal- 
careous fountain, but found the most magnificent masses 
of silica of infinite variety of form; shallow cones with 
cylindrical summits, pyramidal flights of steps, round 
basins with ribbed margins, and ponds of boiling water. 
One spot, denuded of trees, from two to three hundred 
paces in breadth and about five hundred in length, was, 
with the exception of a few places overgrown with turf, 
covered with a crust of silicious dross, which here and 
there formed large connected areas, but was generally 
broken up into flaky plates by the vertical springs which 
pierced it. In numerous localities boiling hot mineral 
water containing silica was forcing itself out of the 


* Gemelli Careri has already mentioned them. 

Jagor's Travels'in the Philippines 133 

ground, spreading itself over the surface and depositing 
a crust, the thickness of which depended on its distance 
from the center point. In this manner, in the course 
of time, a very flat cone is formed, with a basin of boil- 
ing water in the middle. The continuous deposit of 
dross contracts the channel, and a less quantity of water 
overflows, while that close to the edge of the basin 
evaporates and deposits a quantity of fine silicious earth ; 
whence the upper portion of the cone not only is steeper 
than its base, but frequently assumes a more cylindrical 
form, the external surface of which on account of the 
want of uniformity in the overflow, is ribbed in the form 
of stalactites. When the channel becomes so much 
obstructed that the efflux is less than the evaporation, 
the water ceases to flow over the edge, and the mineral 
dross, during the continual cooling of the water, is then 
deposited, with the greatest uniformity, over the inner 
area of the basin. When, however, the surface of the 
water sinks, this formation ceases at the upper portion 
of the basin; the interior wall thickens; and, if the 
channel be completely stopped up and all the water 
evaporated, there remains a bell-shaped basin as even 
as if excavated by the hand of man. The water now 
seeks a fresh outlet, and bursts forth where it meets 
with the least obstruction, without destroying the 
beautiful cone it has already erected. Many such 
examples exist. In the largest cones, however, the vapors 
generated acquire such power that, when the outlet is 
completely stopped up, they break up the overlying 
crust in concentrically radiating flakes; and the water, 
issuing anew copiously from the center, deposits a fresh 
crust, which again, by the process we have just described 
is broken up into a superimposed layer of flakes. In 
this manner are formed annular layers, which in turn 
are gradually covered by fresh deposits from the over- 



A wotH- 

flowing water. After the pyramid of layers is complete 
and the outlet stopped up, the water sometimes breaks 
forth on the slope of the same cone; a second cone is 
then formed near the first, on the same base. In 
the vicinity of the silicious springs are seen deposits 
of white, yellow, red, and bluish-grey clays, overlaying 
one another in narrow strata-like variegated marl, 
manifestly the disintegrated produce of volcanic rocks 
transported hither by rain and stained with oxide of 
iron. These clays perhaps come from the same rocks 
from the disintegration of which the silicious earth has 
been formed. Similar examples occur in Iceland and 
in New Zealand; but the products of the springs of 
Tibi are more varied, finer, and more beautiful than 
those of the Iceland Geysers. 

The wonderful conformations of the red cone are 
indeed astonishing, and hardly to be paralleled in any 
other quarter of the world.* 


Quinaii river. On my sccoud joumcy in Camarines, which I undertook 
in February, I went by water from Polangui, past Batu, 
as far as Naga. The Quinaii, which runs into the south- 
eastern corner of the lake of Batu, runs out again on 
the north side as the Bicol River, and flows in a north- 
westerly direction as far as the Bay of San Miguel. 
It forms the medium of a not inconsiderable trade be- 
tween Albay and Camarines, particularly in rice; of 
which the supply grown in the former province does not 
suffice for the population, who consume the super- 
fluity of Camarines. The rice is conveyed in large 
boats up the river as far as Quinaii, and thence trans- 

* I discovered similar formations, of extraordinary beauty and extent, in the 
great silicious beds of Steamboat Springs in Nevada. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 137 

ported further on in carabao carts; and the boats 
return empty. During the dry season of the year, the 
breadth of the very tortuous Bicol, at its mouth, is a 
little over sixty feet, and increases but very gradually. 
There is considerable variety of vegetation upon its 
banks, and in animal life it is highly attractive. I was 
particularly struck with its numerous monkeys and 
water-fowl. Of the latter the Plotus variety was most ^''"'"s 
abundant, but difficult to shoot. They sit motionless '""""-^'^'^' 
on the trees on the bank, only their thin heads and necks, 
like those of tree-snakes, overtopping the leaves. On 
the approach of the boat they precipitate themselves 
hastily into the water; and it is not until after many 
minutes that the thin neck is seen rising up again at 
some distance from the spot where the bird disappeared. 
The Plotus appears to be as rapid on the wing as it is 
in swimming and diving. 

In Naga, the chief city of South Camarines, I alighted A'wa 
at the tribunal, from which, however, I was immediately 
invited by the principal official of the district — who is 
famed for his hospitality far beyond the limits of his 
province — to his house, where I was loaded with civilities 
and favors. This universally beloved gentleman put 
everybody under contribution in order to enrich my 
collections, and did all in his power to render my stay 
agreeable and to further my designs. 

Naga is the seat of a bishopric and of the provincial Nueva 
government. In official documents it is called Nueva ^"'■*'"''* 
Caceres, in honor of the Captain-General, D. Fr. de 
Sande, a native of Caceres, who about 1578 founded 
Naga (the Spanish town) close to the Filipino village. 
At the beginning of the seventeenth century it num- 
bered nearly one hundred Spanish inhabitants; at the 
present time it hardly boasts a dozen. Murillo Velarde 
remarks (xiii, 272), in contrast to the state of things in 


America, that of all the towns founded in the Philippines, 
with the exception of Manila, only the skeletons, the 
names without the substance, have been preserved. 
The reason is, as has been frequently shown, that up 
to the present time plantations, and consequently proper 
settlers, have been wanting. Formerly Naga was the 
principal town of the whole of that district of Luzon 
lying to the east of Tayabas, which, on account of the 
increased population, was divided into the three prov- 
inces of North and South Camarines and Albay. The 
boundaries of these governmental districts, those be- 
tween Albay and South Camarines more especially, 
have been drawn very arbitrarily; although, the whole 
of the territory, as is shown by the map, geographically 

Land oj is very well defined. The country is named Camarines; 

but it might more suitably be called the country of the 
Bicols, for the whole of it is inhabited by one race, the 
Bicol-Filipinos, who are distinguished by their speech 
and many other peculiarities from their neighbors, the 
Tagals on the west, and the Bisayans on the islands 
to the south and east. 

The Bicols. The Bicols are found only in this district and in a few 

islands lying immediately in front of it. Of their coming 
hither no information is to be obtained from the compre- 
hensive but confused histories of the Spanish monks. 
Morga considers them to be natives of the island; on 
the other hand, it is asserted by tradition that the 
inhabitants of Manila and its vicinity are descended from 
Malays who have migrated thither, and from the inhabit- 
ants of other islands and more distant provinces.* Their 
speech is midway between that of the Tagalog?; and the 
Bisayans, and they themselves appear, in both their 

* Arenas thinks that the ancient annals of the Chinese probably contain 
information relative to the settlement of the present inhabitants of Manila, 
as that people had early intercourse with the Archipelago. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 139 

manners and customs, to be a half-breed between these 
two races. Physically and mentally they are inferior 
to the Tagalogs, and superior to the inhabitants of the i^^coi 
eastern Bisayan Islands. Bicol is spoken only in the ^'^""^"^'^ 
two Camarines, Albay, Luzon, the Islands of Masbate, 
Burias, Ticao, and Catanduanes, and in the smaller 
adjoining islands. The inhabitants of the volcanic 
mountain Isarog and its immediate neighborhood speak 
it in the greatest purity. Thence towards the west 
the Bicol dialect becomes more and more like Tagalog, 
and towards the east like Bisayan, until by degrees, 
even before reaching the boundaries of their ethno- 
graphical districts, it merges into these two kindred 

In South Camarines the sowing of the rice in beds iUce 
begins in June or July, always at the commencement of '"""'''"'"• 
the rainy season; but in fields artificially watered, 
earlier, because thus the fruit ripens at a time when, 
the store in the country being small, its price is high. 
Although the rice fields could very well give two crops 
yearly, they are tilled only once. It is planted out 
in August, with intervals of a hand's-breadth between 
each row and each individual plant; and within four 
months the rice is ripe. The fields are never fertilized, 
and but seldom ploughed; the weeds and the stubble 
being generally trodden into the already soaked ground 
by a dozen carabaos, and the soil afterwards simply 
rolled with a cylinder furnished with sharp points, or 
loosened with the harrow (sorod). Besides the agricul- 
tural implements named above, there are the Spanish 
hatchet (azadon) and a rake of bamboo (kag-kag) in 
use. The harvest is effected in a peculiar manner. 
The rice which is soonest ripe is cut for ten per cent, 
that is, the laborer receives for his toil the tenth bundle 
for himself. At this time of year rice is very scarce, 



Rice land 

The harvesi. 

want is imminent, and labor reasonable. The more 
fields, however, that ripen, the higher become the 
reapers' wages, rising to twenty, thirty, forty, even fifty 
per cent; indeed, the executive sometimes consider it 
to be necessary to force the people to do harvest by 
corporal punishment and imprisonment, in order to pre- 
vent a large portion of the crop from rotting on the stalk. 
Nevertheless, in very fruitful years a part of the harvest 
is lost. The rice is cut halm by halm (as in Java) with 
a peculiarly-formed knife, or, failing such, with the 
sharp-edged flap of a mussel* found in the ditches of 
the rice-fields, which one has only to stoop to pick up. 

A quinon of the best rice land is worth from sixty to 
one hundred dollars ($5.50 to $9 per acre). Rice fields 
on rising grounds are dearest, as they are not exposed to 
devastating floods as are those in the plain, and may 
be treated so as to insure the ripening of the fruit at 
the time when the highest price is to be obtained. 

A ganta of rice is sufficient to plant four topones 
(1 topon=l loan); from which 100 ?/?ano/os (bundles) 
are gathered, each of which yields half a ganta of rice. 
The old ganta of Naga, however, being equal to a modern 
ganta and a half, the produce may be calculated at 
75 cavanes per quinon, about 9'^i bushels per acre.f 
In books 250 cavanes are usually stated to be the average 
produce of a quinon; but that is an exaggeration. The 
fertility of the fields certainly varies very much; but, 
when it is considered that the land in the Philippines 
is never fertilized, but depends, for the maintenance of 
its vitality, exclusively upon the overflowing of the mud 
which is washed down from the mountains, it may be 
believed that the first numbers better express the true 

* Probably the Anodonta Purpurea, according to V. Martens, 
t 1 ganta = Z liters. 1 guifion=100 lodnes= 2.79495 hectares = 6.89 acres. 
1 cohare = 25 gantas. 


Jayor's Travels in the Philippines HI 

average. In Java the harvest, in many provinces, 
amounts to only 50 ca vanes per quinon; in some, indeed, 
to three times this amount; and in China, with the 
most careful culture and abundant manure, to 180 ca- 
banes.* Besides rice, they cultivate the camote (sweet 
potato. Convolvulus batatas). This flourishes like a Sweet 
weed; indeed, it is sometimes planted for the purpose of 
eradicating the weeds from soil intended for coffee or 
cacao. It spreads out into a thick carpet, and is an 
inexhaustible storehouse to its owner, who, the whole 
year through, can supply his wants from his field. Gobi 
{Caladium), Ubi {Dioscorea), maize, and other kinds of 
grain, are likewise cultivated. 

After the rice harvest the carabaos, horses, and bul- Caiiieand 


locks, are allowed to graze in the fields. During the 
rice culture they remain in the gogonales, cane-fields 
which arise in places once cultivated for mountain-rice 
and afterwards abandoned. (Gogo is the name of a cane 
7 to 8 feet high, Saccharum sp.). Transport then is 
almost impossible, because during the rainy season the 
roads are impassable, and the cattle find nothing to 
eat. The native does not feed his beast, but allows it 
to die when it cannot support itself. In the wet season 
of the year it frequently happens that a carabao falls 
down from starvation whilst drawing a cart. A carabao 
costs from $7 to $10; a horse $10 to $20; and a cow 
$6 to $8. Very fine horses are valued at from $30 to 
$50, and occasionally as much as $80; but the native 
horses are not esteemed in Manila, because they have 
no stamina. The bad water, the bad hay, and the great 
heat of the place at once point out the reason ; otherwise 
it would be profitable to export horses in favorable 
seasons to Manila, where they would fetch twice their 

* Scherzer, Miscellaneous Information. 


value. According to Morga, there were neither horses 
nor asses on the Island until the Spaniards imported 
them from China and New Spain.* They were at first 
small and vicious. Horses were imported also from 
Japan, "not swift but powerful, with large heads and 
thick manes, looking like Friesland horses;"! and the 
breed improved rapidly. Those born in the country, 
mostly cross-breeds, drive well. 

Biad: caitic. Black Cattle are generally in the hands of a few 

individuals; some of whom in Camarines possess from 
1000 to 3000 head; but they are hardly saleable in the 
province, although they have been exported profitably 
for some years past to Manila. The black cattle of the 
province are small but make good beef. They are never 
employed for labor, and the cows are not milked. The 
Filipinos, who generally feed on fish, crabs, mussels, and 
wild herbs together with rice, prefer the flesh of the 
carabao to that of the ox; but they eat it only on feast- 

Sheep. The old race of sheep, imported by the Spaniards 

previous to this century, still flourishes and is easily 
propagated. Those occasionally brought from Shanghai 
and Australia are considered to be deficient in endurance, 
unfruitful, and generally short-lived. Mutton is procur- 
able every day in Manila; in the interior, however, at 
least in the eastern provinces, very rarely; although 
the rearing of sheep might there be carried on without 
difficulty, and in many places most profitably; the 
people being too idle to take care of the young lambs, 
which they complain are torn to pieces by the dogs 

* More than one hundred years later, Father Taillandier writes: — "The 
Spaniards have brought cows, horses, and sheep from America; but these animals 
cannot live there on account of the dampness and inundations." — (Letters from 
Father Taillandier to Father Willard.) 

t At the present time the Chinese horses are plump, large-headed, hairy, and 
with bushy tails and manes; and the Japanese, elegant and enduring, similar to 
the Arabian. Good Manila horses are of the latter type, and are much prized 
by the Europeans in Chinese seaport towns. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines /^g 

when they wander about free. The sheep appear to 
have been acclimatized with difficulty. Morga says 
that they were brought several times from New Spain, 
but did not multiply; so that in his time this kind of 
domestic animal did not exist. Pork is eaten by wealthy 
Europeans only when the hog has been brought up from Swine. 
the litter at home. In order to prevent its wandering 
away, it is usually enclosed in a wide meshed cylindrical 
hamper of bamboo, upon filling which it is slaughtered. 
The native hogs are too nauseous for food, the animals 
maintaining themselves almost entirely on ordure. 

Crawfurd observes that the names of all the domestic Guesses at 
animals in the Philippines belong to foreign languages. \an7ualT" 
Those of the dog, swine, goat, carabao, cat, even of the 
fowl and the duck, are Malay or Javanese; while those 
of the horse, ox, and sheep, are' Spanish. Until these 
animals were first imported from Malaysia, the aborigines 
were less fortunate in this respect than the Americans, 
who at least had the alpaca, llamanda, vicuna. The 
names likewise of most of the cultivated plants, such as 
rice, yams, sugar-cane, cacao and indigo, are said to be 
Malay, as well as those for silver, copper, and tin. Of 
the words relating to commerce, one-third are Malay; 
to which belong most of the terms used in trades, as well 
as the denominations for weights and measures, for the 
calendar — so far as it exists — and for numbers, besides 
the words for writing, reading, speaking, and narrative. 
On the other hand, only a small number of terms which 
refer to war are borrowed from the Malay. 

Referring to the degree of civilization which the Phil- Ancient 
ippines possessed previous to their intercourse with the ciilii"aHon 
Malays, Crawfurd concludes from the purely domestic 
words that they cultivated no corn, their vegetable 
food consisting of batata (?) and banana. They had not 
a single domestic animal; they were acquainted with 

progress under 


iron and gold, but with no other metal, and were clothed 
in stuffs of cotton and alpaca, woven by themselves. 
They had invented a peculiar phonetic alphabet; and 
their religion consisted in the belief in good and evil 
spirits and witches, in circumcision, and in somewhat 
of divination by the stars. They therefore were superior 
to the inhabitants of the South Sea, inasmuch as they 
possessed gold, iron, and woven fabrics, and inferior 
to them in that they had neither dog, pig, nor fowl. 
Assuming the truth of the above sketch of pre- 
Spain. Christian culture, which has been put together only 

with the help of defective linguistic sources, and compar- 
ing it with the present, we find, as the result, a consider- 
able progress, for which the Philippines are indebted 
to the Spaniards. The influence of sociaj relations has 
been already exhibitecf in the text. The Spaniards have 
imported the horse, the bullock, and the sheep; maize, 
coffee, sugar-cane, cacao, sesame, tobacco, indigo, many 
fruits, and probably the batata, which they met with 
in Mexico under the name of camotli.* From this 
circumstance the term camote, universal in the Phil- 
ippines, appears to have had its origin, Crawfurd, indeed, 
erroneously considering it a native term. According 
to a communication from Dr. Witmack, the opinion has 
lately been conceived that the batata is indigenous not 
only to America, but also to the East Indies, as it has 
two names in Sanscrit, sharkarakanda and ruktaloo. 
Slight industrial With the cxccptiou of embroidcry, the natives have 
progress. madc but little progress in industries, in the weaving 

and the plaiting of mats ; and the handicrafts are entirely 
carried on by the Chinese. 
Rice and ahaca The cxports cousist of ricc and abaca. The province 
exported. exports about twice as much rice as it consumes; a large 

* Compare Hernandez, Opera Omnia; Torqueniada, Monarchia Indica. 

Jagor's Traveln in the Philippines Ho 

quantity to Albay, which, less adapted for the cultiva- 
tion of rice, produces only abaca; and a fair share to 
North Camarines, which is very mountainous, and little 
fertile. The rice can hardly be shipped to Manila, as 
there is no high road to the south side of the province, 
near to the principal town, and the transport by water 
from the north side, and from the whole of the eastern 
portion of Luzon, would immediately enhance the price 
of the product. The imports are confined to the little 
that is imported by Chinese traders. The traders are Chinese 
almost all Chinese, who alone possess shops in which ''*°'^°p°^'^« 
clothing materials and woolen stuffs, partly of native 
and partly of European manufacture, women's embroid- 
ered slippers, and imitation jewelry, may be obtained. 
The whole amount of capital invested in these shops 
certainly does not exceed $200,000. In the remaining 
pueblos of Camarines there are no Chinese merchants; 
and the inhabitants are consequently obliged to get 
their supplies from Naga. 

The land belongs to the State, but is let to any one Land for 
who will build upon it. The usufruct passes to the ""''^^'"^"^ 
children, and ceases only when the land remains un- 
employed for two whole years ; after which it is competent 
for the executive to dispose of it to another person. 

Every family possesses its own house; and the young Glomes. 
husband generally builds with the assistance of his 
friends. In many places it does not cost more than 
four or five dollars, as he can, if necessary, build it him- 
self free of expense, with the simple aid of the forest- 
knife (bolo), and of the materials to his hand, bamboo, 
Spanish cane, and palm-leaves. These houses, which 
are always built on piles on account of the humidity 
of the soil, often consist of a single shed, which serves 
for all the uses of a dwelling, and are the cause of great 
laxity and of filthy habits, the whole family sleeping 


therein in common, and every passer-by being a welcome 
guest. A fine house of boards for the family of a cabeza 
perhaps costs nearly $100; and the possessions of such 
a family in stock, furniture, ornaments, etc. (of which 
they are obliged to furnish an annual inventory), would 
range in value between $100 and $1,000. Some reach 
even as much as $10,000, while the richest family of the 
whole province is assessed at $40,000. 

People not In general it may be said that every pueblo supplies 

its own necessaries, and produces little more. To the 
indolent native, especially to him of the eastern prov- 
inces, the village in which he was born is the world; and 
he leaves it only under the most pressing circumstances. 
Were it otherwise even, the strictness of the poll-tax 
would place great obstacles in the way of gratifying the 
desire for travel, generated by that oppressive impost. 

Meals. The Filipino eats three times a day — about 7 a. m., 

12, and at 7 or 8 in the evening. Those engaged in 
severe labor consume at each meal a chupa of rice; the 
common people, half a chupa at breakfast, one at mid- 
day, and half again in the evening, altogether two chupas. 
Each family reaps its own supply of rice, and preserves 
it in barns, or buys it winnowed at the market; in the 
latter case purchasing only the quantity for one day or 
for the individual meals. The average retail price is 
3 cuartos for 2 chupas (14 chupas for 1 real). To free 
it from the husk, the quantity for each single meal is 
rubbed in a mortar by the women. This is in accord- 
ance with an ancient custom; but it is also due to the 
fear lest, otherwise, the store should be too quickly 
consumed. The rice, however, is but half cooked; and 
it would seem that this occurs in all places where it 
constitutes an essential part of the sustenance of the 
people, as may be seen, indeed, in Spain and Italy. 
Salt and much Spanish pepper {capsicimi) are eaten 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 147 

as condiments; the latter, originally imported from 
America, growing all round the houses. To the common 
cooking-salt the natives prefer a so-called rock-salt, 
which they obtain by evaporation from sea-water pre- 
viously filtered through ashes ; and of which one chinanta 
(12 lbs. German) costs from one and one-half to two 
reals. The consumption of salt is extremely small. 

The luxuries of the Filipinos are buyo* and cigars — - Buyoand 
a cigar costing half a centavo, and a buyo much less. *^""*" 
Cigars are rarely smoked, but are cut up into pieces, 
and chewed with the buyo. The women also chew buyo 
and tobacco, but, as a rule, very moderately; but they 
do not also stain their teeth black, like the Malays; and 
the young and pretty adorn themselves assiduously 
with veils made of the areca-nut tree, whose stiff and 
closely packed parallel fibers, when cut crosswise, form 
excellent tooth-brushes. They bathe several times 
daily, and surpass the majority of Europeans in clean- 
liness. Every native, above all things, keeps a fighting- 
cock; even when he has nothing to eat, he finds money 
for cock-fighting. 

The details of domestic economy may be summarized Household 

r 1 1 affairs. 

as iollows: 

For cooking purposes an earthen pot is used, costing 
between 3 and 10 cuartos; which, in cooking rice, is 
closed firmly with a banana-leaf, so that the steam of 
a very small quantity of water is sufficient. No other 
cooking utensils are used by the poorer classes; but 
those better off have a few cast-iron pans and dishes. 
In the smaller houses, the hearth consists of a portable 
earthen pan or a flat chest, frequently of an old cigar- 

* Buyo is the name given in the Philippines to the preparation of betel suit- 
able for chewing. A leaf of betel pepper (Chavica betel), of the form and size 
of a bean-leaf, is smeared over with a small piece of burnt lime of the size of a 
pea, and rolled together from both ends to the middle; when, one end of the roll 
being inserted into the other, a ring is formed, into which a smooth piece of 
areca nut of corresponding size is introduced. 


chest full of sand, with three stones which serv e as a tri- 
pod. In the larger houses it is in the form of a bedstead, 
filled with sand or ashes, instead of a mattress. The 
water in small households is carried and preserved in 
thick bamboos. In his bolo (forest-knife), moreover, 
every one has an universal instrument, which he carries 
in a wooden sheath made by himself, suspended by a 
cord of loosely-twisted bast fibers tied round his body. 
This, and the rice-mortar (a block of wood with a suitable 
cavity), together with pestles and a few baskets, con- 

Furniture. stitutc the wholc of the household furniture of a poor 

family; sometimes a large snail, with a rush wick, is 
also to be found as a lamp. They sleep on a mat of 
pandanus (fan-palm, Corypha), when they possess one; 
if not, on the splittings of bamboo, with which the house 
is floored. By the poor oil for lighting is rarely used; 
but torches of resin, which last a couple of days, are 
bought in the market for half a cuarto. 

Clothing. Their clothing requirements I ascertained to be these: 

A woman wears a camisa de guinara (a short shift of 
abaca fiber), a patadion (a gown reaching from the hip 
to the ancles), a cloth, and a comb. A piece of guinara, 
costing 1 real, gives two shifts; the coarsest patadion 
costs 3 reals; a cloth, at the highest, 1 real; and a comb, 
2 cuartos; making altogether 4 reals, 12 cuartos. Women 
of the better class wear a camisa, costing between 1 and 
2 r., a patadion 6 r., cloth between 2 and 3 r., and a 
comb 2 cu. The men wear a shirt, 1 r., hose, 3 r., hat 
{tararura) of Spanish cane, 10 cu., or a salacot (a large 
rain-hat, frequently decorated), at least 2 r. — often, when 
ornamented with silver, as much as $50. At least 
three, but more commonly four, suits are worn out 
yearly; the women, however, taking care to weave 
almost the whole quantity for the family themselves. 

Jagor's Travels iti the Philippines 1^9 

The daily wages of the common laborer are 1 real, ""'»»««• 
-without food; and his hours of work are from 6 to 12, 
and from 2 to 6 o'clock. The women, as a rule, per- 
form no field labor, but plant out the rice and assist in 
the reaping; their wages on both occasions being equal 
to those of the men. Wood and stone-cutters receive 
1.5 r. per day, and calkers 1.75 r. 

The Tercio is a pretty general contract in the cultiva- ^"'"^ leases. 
tion of the land. The owner simply lets arable land for 
the third part of the crop. Some mestizos possess several 
pieces of ground; but they are seldom connected together, 
as they generally acquire them as mortgages for sums 
bearing but a small proportion to their real value. 

Under the head of earnings I give the income of a Family income. 
small family. The man earns daily one real, and the 
woman, if she weaves coarse stuff, one-fourth real, and 
her food (thus a piece of guindra, occupying the labor 
of two days, costs half a real in weavers' wages). The 
most skilful female weaver of the finer stuffs obtains 
twelve reals per piece ; but it takes a month to weave ; and 
the month, on account of the numerous holy-days, must 
be calculated at the most as equal to twenty-four work- 
ing days; she consequently earns one-fourth real per 
day and her food. For the knitting of the fibers of the 
ananas for the pina web (called sugot) she gets only an 
eighth of a real and her food. 

In all the pueblos there are schools. The schoolmaster Schooh. 
is paid by the Government, and generally obtains two 
dollars per month, without board or lodging. In large 
pueblos the salary amounts to three dollars and a half; 
out of which an assistant must be paid. The schools 
are under the supervision of theecclesiastics of the place. 
Reading and writing are taught, the writing copies 
being Spanish. The teacher, who has to teach his 
scholars Spanish exactly, does not understand it him- 



Marriage agn. 

WuTnan'a work. 

self, while the Spanish officers, on the other hand, do 
not understand the language of the country; and the 
priests have no inclination to alter this state of things, 
which is very useful to them as a means of influence. 
Almost the only Filipinos who speak Spanish are those 
who have been in the service of Europeans. A kind 
of religious horn-book is the first that is read in the lan- 
guage of the country (Bicol) ; and after that comes the 
Christian Doctrine, the reading-book called CasayayaJi. 
On an average, half of all the children go to school, 
generally from the seventh to the tenth year. They 
learn to read a little; a few even write a little: but they 
soon forget it again. Only those who are afterwards 
employed as clerks write fluently; and of these most 
write well. 

Some priests do not permit boys and girls to attend 
the same school; and in this case they pay a second 
teacher, a female, a dollar a month. The Filipinos learn 
arithmetic very quickly, generally aiding themselves 
by the use of mussels or stones, which they pile in little 
heaps before them and then count through. 

The women seldom marry before the fourteenth year, 
twelve years being the legal limit. In the church-register 
of Polangui I found a marriage recorded (January, 1837) 
between a Filipino and a Filipina having the ominous 
name of Hilaria Concepcion, who at the time of the 
performance of the marriage ceremony was, according 
to a note in the margin, only nine years and ten months 
old. Frequently people live together unmarried, be- 
cause they cannot pay the expenses of the ceremony.* 

European females, and even mestizas, never seek 
husbands amongst the natives. The women generally 
are well treated, doing only light work, such as sewing, 

* Twelve lines are omitted here. — C. 

A patriarch. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines ISl 

weaving, embroidery, and managing the household; 
while all the heavy labor, with the exception of the 
beating of the rice, falls to the men.* 

Instances of longevity are frequent amongst the 
Filipinos, particularly in Camarines. The Diario de 
Manila, of March 13th, 1866, mentions an old man in 
Daraja (Albay) whom I knew well — Juan Jacob, born 
in 1744, married in 1764, and a widower in 1845. He 
held many public posts up to 1840, and had thirteen 
children, of whom five are living. He has one hundred 
and seventy direct descendants, and now, at one hundred 
and twenty-two years of age, is still vigorous, with 
good eyes and teeth. Extreme unction was administered 
to him seven times! 

The first excretion of a new-born child is carefully -S'^a^^ bi<« and 
preserved, and under the name of triaca (theriacum) is '^^ '" '^^'"^ "' 
held to be a highly efficacious and universal remedy 
for the bites of snakes and mad dogs. It is applied to 
the wound externally, and at the same time is taken 

A large number of children die in the first two weeks infant 
after birth. Statistical data are wanting; but, according "* ' " ''^' 
to the opinion of one of the first physicians in Manila, 
at least one-fourth die. This mortality must arise from 
great uncleanliness and impure air ; since in the chambers 
of the sick, and of women lying-in, the doors and windows 
are so closely shut that the healthy become sick from 
the stench and heat, and the sick recover with difficulty. 
Every aperture of the house is closed up by the husband 
early during travail, in order that Patianac may not 
break in — an evil spirit who brings mischief to lying-in 
women, and endeavors to hinder the birth. The custom 
has been further maintained even amongst many who 

* Four lines are omitted. — C. 


attach no belief to the superstition, but who, from fear 
of a draught of air through a hole, have discovered a new 
explanation for an old custom — namely, that instances 
of such practices occur amongst all people. One very 

The Itch. widely-spread malady is the itch, although, according to 

the assurance of the physician above referred to, it may 
be easily subdued; and, according to the judgment of 
those who are not physicians and who employ that term 
for any eruptions of the skin, the natives generally live 
on much too low a diet; the Bicols even more than the 
Tagalogs.* Under certain conditions, which the physi- 
cians, on being questioned, could not define more pre- 
cisely, the natives can support neither hunger nor thirst ; 
of which fact I have on many occasions been a witness. 
It is reported of them, when forced into such a situation 
as to suffer from unappeased wants, that they become 
critically ill; and thus they often die. 

Imitation- Hcncc ariscs the morbid mania for imitation, which 

is called in Java Sakit-latar, and here Mali-mali. In 
Java many believe that the sickness is only assumed, 
because those who pretend to be afflicted with it find 
it to their advantage to be seen by newly arrived Euro- 
peans. Here, however, I saw one instance where indeed 
no simulation could be suspected. My companions 
availed themselves of the diseased condition of a poor 
old woman who met us in the highway, to practice some 
rough jokes upon her. The old woman imitated every 
motion as if impelled by an irresistible impulse, and 
expressed at the same time the most extreme indigna- 
tion against those who abused her infirmity. 

The sickness in Jn R. Maak's "Joumey to the Amour," it is re- 
corded: — "It is not unusual for the Maniagri to suffer 
also from a nervous malady of the most peculiar kind, with 

* In the country it is believed that swine's flesh often causes this malady. A 
friend, a physiologist, conjectures the cause to be the free use of very fat pork; 
but the natives commonly eat but little flesh, and the pigs are very seldom fat. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 153 

which we had already been made acquainted by the 
descriptions of several travellers.* This malady is met 
with, for the most part, amongst the wild people of 
Siberia, as well as amongst the Russians settled there. 
In the district of the Jakutes, where this affliction very 
frequently occurs, those affected by it, both Russians 
and Jakutes, are known by the name of 'Emiura;' but 
here (that is, in that part of Siberia where the Maniagri 
live) the same malady is called by the Maniagri 'Olon,' 
and by the Argurian Cossacks 'Olgandshi.' The attacks 
of the malady which I am now mentioning consist in 
this, that a man suffering from it will, if under the in- 
fluence of terror or consternation, unconsciously, and 
often without the smallest sense of shame, imitate 
everything that passes before him. Should he be offend- 
ed, he falls into a rage, which manifests itself by wild 
shrieks and raving; and he precipitates himself at the 
same time, with a knife or any other object which may 
fall to his hand, upon those who have placed him in this 
predicament. Amongst the Maniagri, women, especially 
the very aged, are the chief sufferers from this malady; 
and instances, moreover, of men who were affected by 
it are likewise known to me. It is worthy of remark 
that those women who returned home on account of 
this sickness were notwithstanding strong, and in all 
other respects enjoyed good health." 

Probably it is only an accidental coincidence that Running 
in the Malay countries Sakit-latar and Amok exist 
together, if not in the same individual, yet amongst 
the same people. Instances of Amok seem to occur 
also in the Philippines. f I find the following account 
in the Diario de Manila of February 21, 1866: In 

* Compare A. Erman, Journey Round the Earth through Northern Asia, vol. 
iii, sec. i, p. 191. 

t According to Semper, p. 69, in Zamboanga and Basilan. 



Regard for the 

Sense of smell. 

Cavite, on February 18, a soldier rushed into the 
house of a school-teacher, and, struggling with him, 
stabbed him with a dagger, and then killed the teacher's 
son with a second stab. Plunging into the street, he 
stabbed two young girls of ten and twelve years of age 
and wounded a woman in the side, a boy aged nine in 
the arm, a coachman (mortally) in the abdomen, and, 
besides another woman, a sailor and three soldiers; and 
arriving at his barracks, where he was stopped by the 
sentry, he plunged the dagger into his own breast. 

It is one of the greatest insults to stride over a sleeping 
native, or to awaken him suddenly. They rouse one 
another, when necessity requires, with the greatest 
circumspection and by the slowest degrees.* 

The sense of smell is developed amongst the natives 
to so great a degree that they are able, by smelling at 
the pocket-handkerchiefs, to tell to which persons 
they belong ("Reisesk.," p. 39); and lovers at parting 
exchange pieces of the linen they may be wearing, and 
during their separation inhale the odor of the beloved 
being, besides smothering the relics with kisses. f 


A scientific 

From Naga I visited the parish priest of Libmanan 
(Ligmanan), who, possessing poetical talent, and having 
the reputation of a natural philosopher, collected and 

* The fear of waking sleeping persons really refers to the widely-spread super- 
stition that during sleep the soul leaves the body; numerous instances of which 
occur in Bastian's work. Amongst the Tinguianes (North Luzon) the worst of all 
curses is to this effect: "May'st thou die slaepin^!" — Informe, i. 14. 

t Lewin ("Chittagong Hill Tracks," 1859, p. 46) relates of the mountain 
people at that place: "Their manner of kissing is peculiar. Instead of pressing 
lip to lip. they place the mouth and nose upon the cheek, and inhale the breath 
strongly. Their form of speech is not 'Give me a kiss,' but 'Smell me.' " 



Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 166 

named pretty beetles and shells, and dedicated the most 
elegant little sonnets. He favored me with the following 
narrative : — 

In 1851, during the construction of a road a little Prehistoric 
beyond Libmanan, at a place called Poro, a bed of shells 
was dug up under four feet of mould, one hundred feet 
distant from the river. It consisted of Cyrenae (C 
suborhicularis, Busch.), a species of bivalve belonging 
to the family of Cyclades which occurs only in warm 
waters, and is extraordinarily abundant in the brackish 
waters of the Philippines. On the same occasion, at 
the depth of from one and a half to three and a half feet, 
were found numerous remains of the early inhabitants — 
skulls, ribs, bones of men and animals, a child's thigh- 
bone inserted in a spiral of brass wire, several stags' 
horns, beautifully-formed dishes and vessels, some of 
them painted, probably of Chinese origin; striped brace- 
lets, of a soft, gypseous, copper-red rock, gleaming as 
if they were varnished;* small copper knives, but no 
iron utensils ; and several broad flat stones bored through 
the middle;! besides a wedge of petrified wood, embed- 
ded in a cleft branch of a tree. The place, which to 
this day may be easily recognized in a hollow, might, 
by excavation systematically carried on, yield many 
more interesting results. What was not immediately 
useful was then and there destroyed, and the remainder 
dispersed. In spite of every endeavor, I could obtain, 
through the kindness of Seiior Focinos in Naga, only 
one small vessel. Similar remains of more primitive 

* Probably pot-stone, which is employed in China in the manufacture of 
cheap ornaments. Gypseous refers probably only to the degree of hardness. 

t In the Christy collection, in London, I saw a stone of this kind from the 
Schiffer Islands, employed in a contrivance for the purpose of protection against 
rats and mice. A string being drawn through the ston;, ona end of it is sus- 
pended from the ceiling of the room, and the objects to be preserved hang from 
the other. A knot in the middle of the string prevents its sliding b;low that 
point, and, every touch drawing it from its equilibrium, it is impossible for rats 
to climb upon it. A similar contrivance used in the Viti Islands, but of wood, 
is figured in the Atlas to Dumont D'Urville's "Voyage to the South Pole," 
(i. 95). 



•Chinese jar. 

.Used as 
ttea canisters. 

inhabitants have been found at the mouth of the Bigajo, 
not far from Libmanan, in a shell-bed of the same kind; 
and an urn, with a human skeleton, was found at the 
mouth of the Perlos, west of Sitio de Poro, in 1840. 
At the time when I wrote down these statements of the 
priest, neither of us was familiar with the discoveries 
made within the last few years relating to the lake dwel- 
lings (pile villages) ; or these notes might have been more 
exact, although probably they would not have been so 
easy and natural. 

Mr. W. A. Franks, who had the kindness to examine 
the vessel, inclines to the opinion that it is Chinese, and 
pronounces it to be of very great antiquity, without^ 
however, being able to determine its age more exactly; 
and a learned Chinese of the Burlingame Embassy 
expressed himself to the same effect. He knew only 
of one article, now in the British Museum, which was 
brought from Japan by Kaempfer, the color, glazing, and 
cracks in the glazing, of which (craqueles) corresponded 
precisely with mine. According to Kaempfer, the Japan- 
ese found similar vessels in the sea; and they value 
them very highly for the purpose of preserving their 
tea in them. 

Morga writes: — 

"On this island, Luzon, particularly in the provinces of 
Manila, Pampanga, Pangasinan, and Ilocos, very ancient 
clay vessels of a dark brown color are found by the natives, 
of a sorry appearance; some of a middling size, and 
others smaller; marked with characters and stamps. 
They are unable to say either when or where they obtain- 
ed them; but they are no longer to be acquired, nor 
are they manufactured in the islands. The Japanese 
prize them highly, for they have found that the root of 
a herb which they call Tscha (tea), and which when 
drunk hot is considered as a great delicacy and of medi- 
cinal efficacy by the kings and lords in Japan, cannot 
be effectively preserved except in these vessels; which 


in Japan. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 157 

are so highly esteemed all over Japan that they form 
the most costly articles of their show-rooms and cabinets. 
Indeed, so highly do they value them that they overlay 
them externally with fine gold embossed with great skill, 
and enclose them in cases of brocade ; and some of these 
vessels are valued at and fetch from two thousand tael 
to eleven reals. The natives of these islands purchase 
them from the Japanese at very high rates, and take 
much pains in the search for them on account of their 
value, though but few are now found on account of the 
eagerness with which they have been sought for." 

When Carletti, in 1597, went from the Philippines to S(rict 
Japan, all the passengers on board were examined care- 
fully, by order of the governor, and threatened with 
capital punishment if they endeavored to conceal "certain 
earthen vessels which were wont to be brought from the 
Philippines and other islands of that sea," as the king 
wished to buy them all. 

"These vessels were worth as much as five, six, and ^'«^«' '^'J 


even ten thousand scudi each; but they were not permit- 
ted to demand for them more then one Giulio (about 
a half Paolo)." In 1615 Carletti met with a Franciscan 
who was sent as ambassador from Japan to Rome, who 
assured him that he had seen one hundred and thirty 
thousand scudi paid by the King of Japan for such a 
vessel; and his companions confirmed the statement. 
Carletti also alleges, as the reason for the high price, 
"that the leaf cia or tea, the quality of which improves 
with age, is preserved better in those vessels than in 
all others. The Japanese besides know these vessels by 
certain characters and stamps. They are of great age and 
very rare, and come only from Cambodia, Siam, Cochin- 
China, the Philippines, and other neighboring islands. 
From their external appearance they would be estimated 
at three or four quatrini (two dreier) It is per- 
fectly true that the king and the princes of that kingdom 
possess a very large number of these vessels, and prize 


them as their most valuable treasure and above all 
other rarities .... and that they boast of their acquisi- 
tions, and from motives of vanity strive to outvie one 
another in the multitude of pretty vessels which they 

^'*"'"' *" Many travellers mention vessels found likewise 

amongst the Dyaks and the Malays in Borneo, which, 
from superstitious motives, were estimated at most 
exaggerated figures, amounting sometimes to many 
thousand dollars. 

$3,600 for St. Johnf relates that the Datu of Tamparuli 

(Borneo) gave rice to the value of almost $3,500 for a 
jar, and that he possessed a second jar of almost fabulous 
value, which was about two feet high, and of a dark 
olive green. The Datu fills both jars with water, 
which, after adding plants and flowers to it, he dispenses 

A speaking jar. ^^ ^jj ^^^ ^-^j^ persous in the country. But the most 

famous jar in Borneo is that of the Sultan of Brunei, 
which not only possesses all the valuable properties of 
the other jars but can also speak. St. John did not see 
it, as it is always kept in the women's apartment; but 
the sultan, a credible man, related to him that the jar 
howled dolefully the night before the death of his first 
wife, and that it emitted similar tones in the event of 
impending misfortunes. St. John is inclined to explain 
the mysterious phenomenon by a probably peculiar 
form of the mouth of the vessel, in passing over which 
the air-draught is thrown into resonant verberations, 
like the Aeolian harp. The vessel is generally enveloped 
in gold brocade, and is uncovered only when it is to be 
consulted; and hence, of course, it happens that it speaks 
only on solemn occasions. St. John states further that 

* "Carletti's Voyages," ii. 11. 

t "Life in the Forests of the Far East," i. 300. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 169 

the Bisayans used formerly to bring presents to the 
sultan ; in recognition of which they received some water 
from the sacred jar to sprinkle over their fields and 
thereby ensure plentiful harvests. When the sultan 
was asked whether he would sell his jar for $100,000, 
he answered that no offer in the world could tempt him 
to part with it. 

Morga's description suits neither the vessel of Lib- 
manan nor the jar of the British Museum, but rather a 
vessel brought from Japan a short time ago to our 
Ethnographical Museum. This is of brown clay, small 
but of graceful shape, and composed of many pieces 
cemented together; the joints being gilt and forming 
a kind of network on the dark ground. How highly 
ancient pots of a similar kind, even of native origin, 
are esteemed in Japan down to the present day, is shown 
by the following certificate translated by the interpreter 
of the German Consulate : — 

"This earthen vessel was found in the porcelain factory 
of Tschisuka in the province of Odori, in South Idzumi, 

and is an object belonging to the thousand graves 

It was made by Giogiboosat (a celebrated Buddhist 
priest), and after it had been consecrated to heaven was 
buried by him. According to the traditions of the peo- 
ple, this place held grave mounds with memorial stones. 

That is more than a thousand years ago In 

the pursuit of my studies, I remained many years in 
the temple Sookuk, of that village, and found the vessel. 
I carried it to the high priest Shakudjo, who was much 
delighted therewith and always bore it about with him 
as a treasure. When he died it fell to me, although I 
could not find it. Recently, when Honkai was chief 
priest, I saw it again, and it was as if I had again met 
the spirit of Shakudjo. Great was my commotion, 
and I clapped my hands with astonishment; and, as 


A consecrated 


often as I look upon the treasure, I think it is a sign that 
the spirit of Shakudjo is returned to life. Therefore I 
have written the history, and taken care, of this treasure. 


Baron Alexander von Siebold communicates the fol- 
lowing : — 

Tea societies Xhc valuc which the Japanese attach to vessels of 

this kind rests upon the use which is made of them by 
the mysterious tea societies called Cha-no-yu. Respect- 
ing the origin of these societies, which still are almost 
entirely unknown to Europeans, different legends exist. 
They flourished, however, principally during the reign 
of the emperor Taikosama, who, in the year 1588, furnish- 
ed the society of Cha-no-yu at Kitano near Myako with 
new laws. In consequence of the religious and civil 
wars, the whole of the people had deteriorated and be- 
come ungovernable, having lost all taste for art and 
knowledge, and holding only rude force in any esteem; 
brute strength ruling in the place of the laws. The ob- 
servant Taikosama perceived that, in order to tame these 
rough natures, he must accustom them to the arts of peace, 
and thus secure prosperity to the country, and safety 
for himself and his successors. With this in view he re- 
called the Cha-no-yu society anew into life, and assembled 
its masters and those acquainted with its customs around 

Their object. The objcct of the Cha-no-yu is to draw man away from 

the influences of the terrestrial forces which surround 
him, to plant within him the feeling of complete repose, 
and to dispose him to self-contemplation. All the 
exercises of the Cha-no-yu are directed to this object. 

Ceremonies. Clothcd in light whitc garments, and without weapons, 

the members of the Cha-no-yu assemble round the mas- 
ter's house, and, after resting some time in the ante-room, 
are conducted into a pavilion appropriated exclusively 
to these assemblies. This consists of the most costly 
kinds of wood, but is without any ornament which could 
possibly be abstracted from it; without color, and with- 
out varnish, dimly lighted by small windows thickly 
overgrown with plants, and so low that it is impossible 


Jayor's Travels in the Philippines 161 

to Stand upright. The guests tread the apartment 
with solemn measured steps, and, having been received 
by him according to the prescribed formulas, arrange 
themselves in a half-circle on both sides of him. All 
distinctions of rank are abolished. The ancient vessels 
are now removed with solemn ceremonies from their 
wrappings, saluted and admired; and, with the same 
solemn and rigidly prescribed formulas, the water is 
heated on the hearth appropriated to the purpose, and 
the tea taken from the vessels and prepared in cups. 
The tea consists of the young green leaves of the tea- 
shrub rubbed to powder, and is very stimulating in its 
effect. The beverage is taken amidst deep silence, 
while incense is burning on the elevated pedestal of honor, 
toko; and, after the thoughts have thus been collected, 
conversation begins. It is confined to abstract subjects; 
but politics are not always excluded. 

The value of the vessels employed in these assemblages 
is very considerable; indeed, they do not fall short of 
the value of our most costly paintings; and Taikosama 
often rewarded his generals with vessels of the kind, 
instead of land, as was formerly the practice. After 
the last revolution some of the more eminent Daimios 
(princes) of the Mikado were rewarded with similar 
Cha-no-yu vessels, in acknowledgment of the aid render- 
ed to him in regaining the throne of his ancestors. The 
best of them which I have seen were far from beautiful, 
simply being old, weather-worn, black or dark-brown 
jars, with pretty broad necks, for storing the tea in; 
tall cups of cracked Craquele, either porcelain or earthen- 
ware, for drinking the infusion; and deep, broad cisterns; 
besides rusty old iron kettles with rings, for heating 
the water: but they were enwrapped in the most costly 
silken stuffs, and preserved in chests lacquered with 
gold. Similar old vessels are preserved amongst the 
treasures of the Mikado and the Tycoon, as well as in 
some of the temples, with all the care due to the most 
costly jewels, together with documents relating to their 

of viilor 


and Visita 



Superstitions . 

From Libmanan I visited the mountain, Yamtik 
(Amtik, Hantu),* which consists of lime, and contains 
many caverns. Six hours westward by water, and one 
hour S.S.W. on foot, brought us to the Visita Bicul, 
surrounded by a thousand little limestone hills; from 
which we ascended by a staircase of sinter in the bed 
of a brook, to a small cavern tenanted by multitudes 
of bats, and great long-armed spiders of the species 
Phrynus, known to be poisonous. f 

A thick branch of a tree lying across the road was 
perforated from end to end by a small ant. Many of 
the natives did not venture to enter the cave; and those 
who did enter it were in a state of great agitation, and 
were careful first to enjoin upon each other the respect 
to be observed by them towards Calapnitan.l 

One of the principal rules was to name no object in the 
cave without adding "Lord Calapnitan's." Thus they 
did not bluntly refer to either gun or torch, but devoutly 
said "Lord C.'s gun," or "Lord C.'s torch." At a thou- 
sand paces from this lies another cave, "San Vicente," 
which contains the same insects, but another kind of 
bat. Both caves are only of small extent; but in Lib- 
manan a very large stalactite cave was mentioned to 
me, the description of which, notwithstanding the fables 
mixed up with it, could not but have a true foundation. 
Our guides feigned ignorance of it; and it was not till 
after two days' wandering about, and after many debates, 
that they came to the decision, since I adhered to my 
purpose, to encounter the risk; when, to my great as- 
tonishment, they conducted me back to Calapnitan's 

* According to Father Camel ("Philisoph. Trans. London," vol xxvi, p. 246), 
hantu means black ants the size of a wasp; amtig, smaller black; and hantic, red 

t According to Dr. Gerstaecker, probably Phrynus Grayi Walck Gerv., bringing 
forth alive. "S. Sitzungsb. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, Berl." March 18, 1862, 
and portrayed and described in G. H. Bronn, "Ord. Class.," vol. v. 184. 

t, Tagal and Bicol, the bat; calapnilan, consequently, lord of the 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines IBS 

cave; from which a narrow fissure, hidden by a projec- 
tion of rock, led into one of the most gorgeous stalactite 
caves in the world. Its floor was everywhere firm and 
easy to the tread, and mostly dry; and it ran out into 
several branches, the entire length of which probably 
exceeds a mile; and the whole series of royal chambers 
and cathedrals, with the columns, pulpits, and altars 
which it contained, reflected no discredit upon its descrip- 
tion. No bones or other remains were to be found 
in it. My intention to return subsequently with laborers, 
for the purpose of systematic excavation, was not carried 

I was not lucky enough to reach the summit of the Unsucceaifui 
mountain, upon which was to be found a lake, "from ''*"*■ 
where else should the water come?" For two days we 
labored strenuously at different points to penetrate 
the thick forest; but the guide, who had assured the 
priest in Libmanan that he knew the road, now expressed 
himself to the contrary eff"ect. I therefore made the 
fellow, who had hitherto been unburdened, now carry 
a part of the baggage as a punishment; but he threw it 
off at the next turning of the road and escaped, so that 
we were compelled to return. Stags and wild boars are 
very numerous in these forests; and they formed the 
principal portion of our meals, at which, at the com- 
mencement of our expedition, we had as many as thirty 
individuals; who, in the intervals between them, affected 
to search for snails and insects for me, but with success 
not proportionate to their zeal. 

Upon my departure from Daraga I took with me a deter 
a lively little boy, who had a taste for the calling of a ^gj^^nt" 
naturalist. In Libmanan he was suddenly lost, and 
with him, at the same time, a bundle of keys; and we 
looked for him in vain. The fact was, as I afterwards 
came to learn, that he went straight to Naga, and, 



Trip with 

Four volcani 

identifying himself by showing the stolen keys, got the 
majordomo of my host to deliver to him a white felt 
hat; with which he disappeared. I had once seen him, 
with the hat on his head, standing before a looking- 
glass and admiring himself; and he could not resist the 
temptation to steal it. 

In the beginning of March I had the pleasure of accom- 
panying the Collector (Administrador) of Camarines 
and a Spanish head-man, who were travelling across Daet 
and Mauban to the chief town. At five p. m. we left 
Butungan on the Bicol River, two leagues below Naga, 
in a falua of twelve oars, equipped with one 6-pounder 
and two 4-pounders, and reinforced by armed men; and 
about six we reached Cabusao, at the mouth of the 
Bicol, whence we put to sea about nine. The falua 
belonged to the collector of taxes, and had, in conjunc- 
tion with another under the command of the alcalde, 
to protect the north coast of the province against 
smugglers and pirates, who at this time of the year are 
accustomed to frequent the hiding-places of the bay 
of San Miguel. Two similar gun-boats performed the 
duty on the south coast of the province. 

Both the banks of the Bicol River are flat, and expand 
into broad fields of rice; and to the east are simultane- 
ously visible the beautiful volcanos of Mayon, Iriga, 
Malina, and Isarog. 

At daybreak we reached the bar of Daet, and, after 
two hours' travelling, the similarly named chief city 
of the province of North Camarines, where we found 
an excellent reception at the house of the alcalde, a 
polished Navarrese; marred only by the tame monkey, 
who should have welcomed the guests of his master, 
turning his back towards them with studiously discourte- 
ous gestures, and going towards the door. However, 
upon the majordomo placing a spirit flask preserving 


Jagor's Travels in the. Philippines 166 

a small harmless snake on the threshold, the monkey 
sprang quickly back and concealed himself, trembling, 
behind his master. In the evening there was a ball, 
but there were no dancers present. Some Filipinas, ^ <i<i>ie.eie8R 
who had been invited, sat bashfully at one end of the 
apartment and danced with one another when called 
upon, without being noticed by the Spaniards, who 
conversed together at the other end. 

Our departure hence was delayed by festivities and Sva,u.<h 
sudden showers for about two days, after which the spir- agaii-it batunu. 
ited horses of the alcalde carried us within an hour on 
a level road north-west, to Talisay, and in another 
hour to Indang, where a bath and breakfast were ready. 
Up to this time I had never seen a bath-room in the 
house of a Spaniard; whereas with the Northern Euro- 
peans it is never wanting. The Spaniards appear to 
regard the bath as a species of medicine, to be used only 
with caution; many, even to the present day, look upon 
it as an institution not quite Christian. At the time of 
the Inquisition frequent bathing, it is known, was a 
characteristic of the Moors, and certainly was not wholly 
free from danger. In Manila, only those who live near 
the Pasig are the exceptions to the rule; and there the 
good or bad practice prevails of whole families bathing, 
in the company of their friends, in the open air. 

The road ends at Indang. In two boats we went down An „nj.,ru/ie.i 
the river till stopped by a bar, and there at a well-sup- ^'"^'' 
plied table prepared for us by the kindness of the alcalde 
we awaited the horses which were being brought thither 
along a bad road by our servants. In the waste of Barre 
a tower, surrounded by two or three fishermen's huts and 
as many camarines, has been erected against the Moros, 
who, untempted by the same, seldom go so far westward, 
for it consists only of an open hut covered with palm- 
leaves — a kind of parasol — supported on stakes as thick 


as one's arm and fifteen feet high; and the two cannons 
belonging to it ought, for security, to be buried. We 
followed the sea-shore, which is composed of silicious 
sand, and covered with a carpet of creeping shore plants 
in full bloom. On the edge of the wood, to the left, 
were many flowering shrubs and pandanus with large 
scarlet-red flowers. After an hour we crossed the river 
Longos in a ferry, and soon came to the spur of a crystal- 
line chain of mountains, which barred our road and 
extended itself into the sea as Point Longos. The horses 
climbed it with difficulty, and we found the stream on 
the other side already risen so high that we rode knee- 
deep in the water. After sunset we crossed singly, with 
great loss of time, in a miserable ferry-boat, over the 
broad mouth of the Pulundaga, where a pleasant road 
through a forest led us, in fifteen minutes, over the 
mountain-spur, Malanguit, which again projected itself 
right across our path into the sea, to the mouth of the 
Paracale. The long bridge here was so rotten that we 
were obliged to lead the horses over at wide intervals 
apart; and on the further side lies the place called Pa- 
racale, from which my companions continued their 
journey across Mauban to Manila. 

Red lead. Paracalc and Mambulao are two localities well known 

to all mineralogists, from the red lead ore occurring there. 
On the following morning I returned to Longos; which 
consists of only a few miserable huts inhabited by gold- 
washers, who go about almost naked, probably because 
they are laboring during the greater part of the day 
in the water; but they are also very poor. 

Gold mining. The soil is composcd of Tubbish, decomposed fragments 

of crystalline rock, rich in broken pieces of quartz. The 
workmen make holes in the ground two and one-half feet 
long, two and one-half broad, and to thirty feet deep. 
At three feet below the surface the rock is generally 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 167 

found to contain gold, the value increasing down to 
eighteen feet of depth, and then again diminishing, though 
these proportions are very uncertain, and there is much 
fruitless search. The rock is carried out of the holes 
in baskets, on ladders of bamboo, and the water in small 
pails ; but in the rainy season the holes cannot possibly 
be kept free from water, as they are situated on the 
slope of the mountain, and are filled quicker than they 
can be emptied. The want of apparatus for discharging 
water also accounts for the fact that the pits are not 
dug deeper. 

The breaking of the auriferous rock is effected with ^ vomitive 

. , , , rock breaker. 

two stones; of which one serves as anvil, and the other 
as hammer. The former, which is slightly hollowed in 
the center, is laid flat upon the ground; and the latter, 
four by eight by eight inches in dimensions, and there- 
fore of about twenty-five pounds weight, is made fast 
with rattan to the top of a slender young tree, which lies 
in a sloping position in a fork, and at its opposite end 
is firmly fixed in the ground. The workman with a jerk 
forces the stone that serves for hammer down upon the 
auriferous rock, and allows it to be again carried up- 
wards by the elasticity of the young tree. 

The crushing of the broken rock is effected with an An arraatre. 
apparatus equally crude. A thick stake rises from the 
center of a circular support of rough-hewn stones (which 
is enclosed in a circle of exactly similar stones) having 
an iron pin at its top, to which a tree, bent horizontally 
in the middle, and downwards at the two ends, is fixed, 
Being set in motion by two carabaos attached in front, 
it drags several heavy stones, which are bound firmly 
to it with rattans, round the circle, and in this manner 
crushes the broken rock, which has been previously 
mixed with water, to a fine mud. The same apparatus 
is employed by the Mexican gold-washers, under the 


G»u-washi,i.j. name of Rastra. The washing-out of the mud is done 
by women. They kneel before a small wooden gutter 
filled with water up to the brim, and provided with 
boards, sloping downwards, in front of the space assign- 
ed to each woman; the gutter being cut out at these 
places in a corresponding manner, so that a very slender 
stream of water flows evenly across its whole breadth 
downwards over the board. With her hand the work- 
woman distributes the auriferous mud over the board, 
which, at the lower edge, is provided with a cross-piece; 
and, when the light sand is washed away, there remains 
a stratum consisting chiefly of iron, flint, and ore, which 
is taken up from time to time with a flat piece of board, 
and laid on one side; and at the end of the day's work, 
it is washed out in a flat wooden dish (hatea), and, for 
the last time, in a coco-shell; when, if they are lucky, 
a fine yellow dust shows itself on the edge.* During 
the last washing the slimy juice of the Gogo is added to 
the water, the fine heavy sand remaining suspended 
therein for a longer time than in pure water, and thus 
being more easily separated from the gold-dust. t 

The ch:an-u,,. It is further to be mentioned that the refuse from the 

pits is washed at the upper end of the water-gutter, 
so that the sand adhering to the stones intended for 
pounding may deposit its gold in the gutter or on the 
washing-board. In order to melt the gold thus obtained 
into a lump, in which form it is bought by the dealers, 
it is poured into a small heart-shell (cardiiun), and, 
after being covered with a handful of charcoal, placed 

* In only one out of several experiments made in the Berlin Mining College 
did gold-sand contain 0.014 gold; and, in one experiment on the heavy sand 
remaining on the mud-board, no gold was found. 

t The Gogo is a climbing Mimosa (Entada purseta) with large pods, very 
abundant in the Philippines; the pounded stem of which is employed in washing, 
like the soap-bark of ChiVi (QuiUaja saponaria); and for many purposes, such as 
baths and washing the hair of the head, is preferred to soap. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 169 

in a potsherd; when a woman blows through a narrow 
bamboo-cane on the kindled coals, and in one minute 
the work is completed.* 

The result of many inquiries shows the profit per head 
to average not more than one and one-half reals 
daily. Further to the south-west from here, on the moun- 
tain Malaguit, are seen the ruins of a Spanish mining 
company; a heap of rubbish, a pit fifty feet deep, a large 
house fallen to ruin, and a stream-work four feet broad 
and six feet high. The mountain consists of gneiss 
much decomposed, with quartz veins in the stream- work, 
with the exception of the bands of quartz, which are of 
almost pure clay earth with sand. 

On the sides hung some edible nests of the salangane, Enhu 
but not of the same kind as those found in the caverns 
on the south coast of Java. These, which are of much 
less value than the latter, are only occasionally collected 
by the Chinese dealers, who reckon them nominally 
at five cents each. We also found a few of the nest- 
building birds (CoUocalia troglodytes, Gray).! 

Around lay so large a number of workings, and there 
were so many little abandoned pits, wholly or half fallen 
to ruin, and more or less grown over, that it was neces- 
sary to step between with great caution. Some of them 

* A small gold nugget obtained in this manner, tested at the Berlin Mining 
College, consisted of — 

Gold 77.4 

Silver 19.0 

Iron 0.5 

Flint earth 3 . 

Loss 0.1 


t The nest and bird are figured in Gray's "Genera of Birds"; but the nest 
does not correspond with those found here. These are hemispherical in form, 
and consist for the most part of coir (coco fibers); and, as if prepared by the hand 
of man, the whole interior is covered with an irregular net-work of fine threads 
of the glutinous edible substance, as well as the upper edge, which swells gently 
outwards from the center towards the sides, and expands into two wing-shaped 
prolongations, resting on one another, by which the nest is fixed to the wall. 
Dr. V. Martens conjectures that the designation salangane comes from langa- 
yan, bird, and the Malay prefix sa, and signifies especially the neat as something 
coming from the bird. — ("Journal of Ornith.," Jan., 1866.) 




Lead and 


A pretty 

were still being worked after the mode followed at Longos, 
but with a few slight improvements. The pits are twice 
as large as those excavated there, and the rock is lifted, 
up by a pulley to a cylindrical framework of bamboo, 
which is worked by the feet of a lad who sits on a bank 
higher up. 

Ten minutes north of the village of Malaguit is a moun- 
tain in which lead-glance and red lead have been ob- 
tained; the rock consisting of micaceous gneiss much 
decomposed. There is a stream-work over one hundred 
feet in length. The rock appears to have been very poor. 

The highly prized red-lead ores have been found on the 
top of this same hill, N. 30° W. from the village. The 
quarry was fallen to ruin and flooded with rain, so that 
only a shallow hollow in the ground remained visible; 
and after a long search amongst the bushes growing 
there a few small fragments were found, on which chrome- 
lead ore was still clearly to be recognized. Captain 
Sabino, the former governor of Paracale, a well-informed 
Filipino, who, at the suggestion of the alcalde, accom- 
panied me, had for some years caused excavations to be 
carried on, in order to find specimens for a speculator who 
had in view the establishment of a new mining company 
in Spain; but the specimens which were found had not 
been removed, as speculation in mines in the Philip- 
pines had, in the interval, fallen into discredit on the 
Exchange of Madrid ; and as yet only a little box full of 
sand, out of a few small drusy cavities, has been fixed 
upon and pounded, to be sold as variegated writing- 
sand, after being carefully sifted. 

A peculiarly beautiful fan-palm grows on this hill. 
Its stem is from thirty to forty feet high, cylindrical 
and dark-brown, with white rings a quarter of an inch 
broad at distances of four inches, and, at similar inter- 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 171 

vals, crown-shaped bands of thorns two inches long. 
Near the crown-leaf the stem passes into the richest 
brown of burnt sienna. 

Notwithstanding a very bad road, a pleasant ride ^oo^^^o 
carried us from Paracale to the sea-shore, and, through majazine. 
a beautiful wood, to Mambulao, which lies W. by N. 
I alighted at the tribunal, and took up my lodgings in 
the room where the ammunition was kept, as being the 
only one that could be locked. For greater security, 
the powder was stored in a comer and covered with 
carabao-hide ; but such were my arrangements that my 
servant carried about a burning tallow light, and his 
assistant a torch in the hand. When I visited the Fili- 
pino priest, I was received in a friendly manner by a 
young girl who, when I offered my hand, thanked me 
with a bow, saying, "Teiigo las sarnas" ("I have the itch"). 
The malady, which is very common in the Philippines, 
appears to have its focus in this locality. 

A quarter of a league N.N.E. we came upon the ruins 
of another mining undertaking, the Anda de Oro. Shaft 
and water-cutting had fallen in, and were thickly grown 
over; and only a few of the considerable buildings were 
still standing; and even those were ready to fall. In a 
circle some natives were busily employed, in their 
manner, collecting grains of gold. The rock is gneiss, 
weathered so much that it cannot be recognized; and 
at a thousand paces on the other side is a similar one, 
clearly crystalline. 

Half a league N. by E. from Mambulao is the lead- ffomhhnde and 

, . _ _,• • XT , tt < , hornblende slate. 

mountain oi Dinianan. Here also all the works were 
fallen in, choked with mud and grown over. Only 
after a long search were a few fragments found with 
traces of red-lead ore. This mountain consists of horn- 
blende rock ; in one place, of hornblende slate, with very 
beautiful large crystals. 

Gneiss and 
crystalline rock. 




Paying minus 


and consider- 

A league and a half S. from Mambulao a shallow hollow 
in the ground marks the site of an old copper-mine, which 
must have been eighty-four feet deep. Copper ores are 
found in several places in Luzon ; and specimens of solid 
copper were obtained by me at the Bay of Luyang, 
N. of the Enseiiada de Patag, in Caramuan. 

Very considerable beds of copper ore occur in Man- 
cayan, in the district of Lepanto, and in the central 
mountain-range of Luzon between Cagayan and Ilocos, 
which have been worked by a mining company in Manila 
since 1850; but the operations seem to have been most 
unsuccessful. In 1867 the society expended a consider- 
able capital in the erection of smelting furnaces and 
hydraulic machinery; but until a very recent date, 
owing to local difficulties, particularly the want of roads, 
it has not produced any copper.* 

In 1869 I heard, in London, that the undertaking 
had been given up. According to my latest information, 
however, it is certainly in progress; but the manage- 
ment have never, I believe, secured a dividend. The 
statement of 1872, in fact, shows a loss, or, as the Span- 
iards elegantly say, a dividendo pasivo. 

What Europeans yet appear unable to accomplish, 
the wild Igorots, who inhabit that trackless range of 
mountains, have carried on successfully for centuries, and 
to a proportionally larger extent; and this is the more 
remarkable as the metal in that district occurs only in 
the form of flints, which even in Europe can be made 
profitable only by particular management, and not 
without expense. 

The copper introduced into commerce by the Igorots 
from 1840 to 1855, partly in a raw state, partly manu- 
factured, is estimated at three hundred piculs yearly. 

* Spanish Catalogue of the Paris Exhibition, 1867. 

In Neoritos. 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 17 S 

The extent of their excavations, and the large existing 
masses of slag, also indicate the activity of their opera- 
tions for a long period of time. 

In the Ethnographical Museum at Berlin is a copper f"»vi'er keities 
kettle made by those wild tribes. Meyer, who brought 
it, states that it was made by the Negritos in the interior 
of the island, and certainly with hammers of porphyry, 
as they have no iron; and that he further found, in 
the collection of the Captain General of the Philippines, 
a large shallow kettle of three and one-half feet in 
diameter, which had been bought for only three dollars; 
whence it may be inferred that, in the interior of the 
island, the copper occurs in large masses, and probably 
solid; for how could those rude, uncultivated negritos 
understand the art of smelting copper? 

The locality of these rich quarries was still unknown Copper- wnrkinQ 
to the Governor, although the copper implements brought ^ ^"■«-'Sp"n>s'i 
thence had, according to an official statement of his 
in 1833, been in use in Manila over two centuries. It is 
now known that the copper-smiths are not Negritos but 
Igorots; and there can be no question that they prac- 
ticed this art, and the still more difficult one of obtaining 
copper from flint, for a long period perhaps previous to 
the arrival of the Spaniards. They may possibly have 
learnt them from the Chinese or Japanese. The chief 
engineer, Santos*, and many others with him, are of 
opinion that this race is descended from the Chinese or 
Japanese, from whom he insists that it acquired not only 
its features (several travellers mention the obliquely 
placed eyes of the Igorots), its idols, and some of its 
customs, but also the art of working in copper. At all 
events, the fact that a wild people, living isolated in the 
mountains, should have made such progress in the science 
of smelting, is of so great interest that a description of 
their procedure by Santos (essentially only a repetition 
of an earlier account by Hernandez, in the Revista Minera, 
i. 112) will certainly be acceptable. 

* "Informe sobre las Minas de Cobre," Manila, 1862. 


Theigorois' fhe present mining district acquired by the society 

mentioned, the Sociedad Miner o^meialurgica Cantabro- 
filipina de Mancayan, was divided amongst the Igorots 
into larger or smaller parcels strictly according to the 
number of the population of the adjacent villages, whose 
boundaries were jealously watched; and the possessions 
of each separate village were again divided between 
certain families; whence it is that those mountain dis- 
tricts exhibit, at the present day, the appearance of a 
honeycomb. To obtain the ore, they made cavities, 
in which they lighted fires in suitable spots, for the pur- 
pose of breaking the rock into pieces by means of the 
elasticity of the heated water contained in the crevices, 
with the additional assistance of iron implements. The 
first breaking-up of the ore was done in the stream-work 
itself, and the dead heaps lay piled up on the ground, so 
that, in subsequent fires, the flame of the pieces of wood 
always reached the summit ; and by reason of the quality 
of the rock, and the imperfection of the mode of proce- 
dure, very considerable down-falls frequently occurred. 
The ores were divided into rich and quartziferous ; 
the former not being again melted, but the latter being 
subjected to a powerful and persistent roasting, during 
which, after a part of the sulphur, antimony, and arsenic 
had been exhaled, a kind of distillation of sulphate of 
copper and sulphate of iron took place, which appeared 
as "stone," or in balls on the surface of the quartz, and 
could be easily detached.* 

* According to the Catalogue, the following ores are found: — Variegated 
copper ore (cobre gris abigarrado) , arsenious copper (c. gris arsenical), vitreous 
copper (c. rilreo), copper pyrites {pirila de cobre), solid copper (mata cohriza), 
and black copper (c. negro). The ores of most frequent occurrence have the 
following composition — A, according to an analyzed specimen in the School 
of Mines at Madrid; B, according to the analysis of Santos, the mean of several 
specimens taken from different places: — 

.4 B 

Silicious Acid 25.800 47.06 

Sulphur 31.715 44.44 

Copper 24.640 16.64 

Antimony 8.206 5.12 

Arsenic 7 . 539 4 . 65 

Iron 1.837 1.84 

Lime in traces — 

Loss 0.263 0.25 

100.000 100.00 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippinea 175 

The furnace or smelting apparatus consisted of a "^^^ Smelter. 
round hollow in clayey gound, thirty centimeters in 
diameter and fifteen deep; with which was connected a 
conical funnel of fire-proof stone, inclined at an angle 
of 30°, carrying up two bamboo-canes, which were 
fitted into the lower ends of two notched pine-stems; 
in these two slips, covered all over with dry grass or 
feathers, moved alternately up and down, and produced 
the current required for the smelting. 

When the Igorots obtained black copper or native Smelting. 
copper by blasting, they prevented loss (by oxidation) 
by setting up a crucible of good fire-proof clay in the 
form of a still; by which means it was easier for them 
to pour the metal into the forms which it would acquire 
from the same clay. The furnace being arranged, they 
supplied it with from eighteen to twenty kilograms of 
rich or roasted ore, which, according to the repeated 
experiments of Hernandez, contained twenty per cent 
of copper ; and they proceeded quite scientifically, always 
exposing the ore at the mouth of the funnel, and conse- 
quently to the air-drafts, and placing the coals at the 
sides of the furnace, which consisted of loose stones 
piled one over another to the height of fifty centimeters. 
The fire having been kindled and the blowing apparatus, 
already described, in operation, thick clouds of white, 
yellow, and orange-yellow smoke were evolved from the 
partial volatilization of the sulphur, arsenic, and anti- 
mony, for the space of an hour; but as soon as only 
sulphurous acid was formed, and the heat by this pro- 
cedure had attained its highest degree, the blowing 
was discontinued and the product taken out. This 
consisted of a dross, or, rather, of the collected pieces 
of ore themselves, which, on account of the flinty contents 
of the stones composing the funnel, were transformed by 
the decomposition of the sulphurous metal into a porous 


mass, and which could not be converted into dross nor 
form combinations with silicious acid, being deficient in 
the base as well as in the requisite heat ; and also of a very- 
impure "stone," of from four to five kilograms weight, 
and containing from fifty to sixty per cent of copper. 

Theropvn- Scveral of these "stones" were melted down together 

for the space of about fifteen hours, in a powerful fire; 
and by this means a great portion of the three volatile 
substances above named was again evolved; after which 
they placed them, now heated red-hot, in an upright 
position, but so as to be in contact with the draught; 
the coals, however, being at the sides of the furnace. 
After blowing for an hour or half-an-hour, they thus 
obtained, as residuum, a silicate of iron with antimony 
and traces of arsenic, a "stone" containing from seventy 
to seventy-five per cent of copper, which they took 
off in very thin strips, at the same time using refrigerat- 
ing vessels; and at the bottom of the hollow there re- 
mained, according as the mass was more or less freed 
from sulphur, a larger or smaller quantity (always, 
however, impure) of black copper. 

PuTifymii The purified stones obtained by this second process 

were again made red-hot by placing them between rows 
of wood, in order that they might not melt into one 
another before the fire had freed them from impurities. 
The black copper obtained from the second operation, 
and the stones which were re-melted at the same time, 
were then subjected to a third process in the same 
furnace (narrowed by quarry stones and provided with 
a crucible) ; which produced a residuum of silicious iron 
and black copper, which was poured out into clay moulds, 
and in this shape came into commerce. This black 
copper contained from ninety-two to ninety-four per 
cent of copper, and was tinged by a carbonaceous com- 
pound of the same metal known by its yellow color, and 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 177 

the oxide on the surface arising from the slow cooling, 
which will occur notwithstanding every precaution; 
and the surface so exposed to oxidation they beat with 
green twigs. When the copper, which had been thus 
extracted with so much skill and patience by the Igorots, 
was to be employed in the manufacture of kettles, pipes, 
and other domestic articles, or for ornament, it was sub- 
mitted to another process of purification, which differed 
from the preceding only in one particular, that the 
quantity of coals was diminished and the air-draught 
increased according as the process of smelting drew 
near to its termination, which involved the removal 
of the carbonaceous compound by oxidation. Santos 
found, by repeated experiment, that even from ores 
of the mean standard of twenty per cent, only from 
eight to ten per cent of black copper was extracted by 
the third operation; so that between eight to twelve 
per cent still remained in the residuum or porous quartz 
of the operation. 

It was difficult to procure the necessary means of Tagaiog women 
transport for my baggage on the return journey to 
Paracale, the roads being so soaked by the continuous 
rains that no one would venture his cattle for the purpose. 
In Mambulao the influence of the province on its western 
border is very perceptible, and Tagaiog is understood 
almost better than Bicol; the Tagaiog element being 
introduced amongst the population by women, who 
with their families come here, from Lucban and Mauban, 
in the pursuit of trade. They buy up gold, and import 
stuffs and other wares in exchange. The gold acquired 
is commonly from fifteen to sixteen carats, and a mark 
determines its quality. The dealers pay on the average 
$11 per ounce; but when, as is usually the case, it is 





offered in smaller quantities than one ounce, only $10.* 
They weigh with small Roman scales, and have no great 
reputation for honesty. 

North Camarines is thinly inhabited, the population 
of the mining districts having removed after the many 
undertakings which were artificially called into existence 
by the mining mania had been ruined. The gold- 
washers are mostly dissolute and involved in debt, and 
continually expecting rich findings which but very seldom 
occur, and which, when they do occur, are forthwith 
dissipated; — a fact which will acount for champagne 
and other articles of luxury being found in the shops of 
the very poor villagers. 

Malaguit and Matango, during the dry season, are 
said to be connected by an extremely good road; but, 
when we passed, the two places were separated by a 
quagmire into which the horses sank up to their middle. 
Labo. In Labo, a little village on the right bank of the river 

Labo (which rises in themountainof the same name), the 
conditions to which we have adverted are repeated — 
vestiges of the works of former mining companies fast 
disappearing, and, in the midst, little pits being worked 
by the natives. Red lead has not been found here, 
but gold has been, and especially "platinum," which 
some experiments have proved to be lead-glance. The 
mountain Labo appears from its bell-shape and the 
strata exposed in the river bed to consist of trachytic 
hornblende. Half a league W.S.W., after wading through 
mud a foot deep, we reached the mountain Dallas 
where lead-glance and gold were formerly obtained by 
a mining company; and to the present Jay gold is- 
obtained by a few natives in the usual mode. 

* According to the prices current with us, the value would be calculated at 
about $12; the value of the analyzed specimen, to which we have before referred, 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 179 

Neither in the latter province, nor in Manila, could '^'''' ^''' 

.... Mining. 

I acquire more precise information respecting the his- 
tories of the numerous unfortunate mining enterprises. 
Thus much, however, appears certain, that they were 
originated only by speculators, and never properly 
worked with sufficient means. They therefore, of neces- 
sity, collapsed so soon as the speculators ceased from 
their operations. 

North Camarines yields no metal with the exception Smaii output. 
of the little gold obtained by the natives in so unprofit- 
able a manner. The king of Spain at first received a 
fifth, and then a tenth, of the produce; but the tax subse- 
quently ceased. In Morga's time the tenth amounted on 
an average to $10,000 ("which was kept quite secret"); 
the profit, consequently, to above $100,000. GemelU 
Carreri was informed by the governor of Manila that 
gold to the value of $200,000 was collected annually 
without the help of either fire or quicksilver, and that 
Paracale, in particular, was rich in gold. No data exist 
from which I could estimate the actual rate of produce ; 
and the answers to several inquiries deserve no mention. 
The produce is, at all events, very small, as well on 
account of the incompleteness of the mode of procedure 
as of the irregularity of labor, for the natives work only 
when they are compelled by necessity. 

I returned down the stream in a boat to Indang, a imiang. 
comparatively flourishing place, of smaller population 
but more considerable trade than Daet; the export con- 
sisting principally of abacii, and the import of rice. 

An old mariner, who had navigated this coast for storm>. 
many years, informed me that the same winds prevail 
from Daet as far as Cape Engano, the north-east point 
of Luzon. From October to March the north-east 
wind prevails, the monsoon here beginning with north 
winds, which are of short duration and soon pass into 


the north-east; and in January and February the east 
winds begin and terminate the monsoon. The heaviest 
rains fall from October to January, and in October 
typhoons sometimes occur. Beginning from the north 
or north-east, they pass to the north-west, where they 
are most violent; and then to the north and east, some- 
times as far as to the south-east, and even to the south. 
In March and April, and sometimes in the beginning of 
May, shifting winds blow, which bring in the south- 
west monsoon; but the dry season, of which April and 
May are the driest months, is uninterrupted by rain. 
Thunder storms occur from June to November; most 
frequently in August. During the south-west monsoon 
the sea is very calm; but in the middle of the north- 
east monsoon all navigation ceases on the east coast. 
In the outskirts of Baler rice is sown in October, and 
reaped in March and April. Mountain rice is not 


On foot to Sending my baggage from Daet to Cabusao in a 

San Miguel i i r -l i 

bay. schooner, I proceeded on foot, by the road to that place, 

to the coast on the west side of the Bay of San Miguel. 
We crossed the mouth of the river in a boat, which the 
horses swam after; but they were soon abandoned from 
unfitness. At the mouth of the next river, Sacavin, 
the water was so high that the bearers stripped them- 
selves naked and carried the baggage over on their 
heads. In simple jacket and cotton hose, I found this 
precaution needless; indeed, according to my experience, 
it is both refreshing and salutary to wear wet clothes, 
during an uniformly high temperature; besides which, 
one is thereby spared many a spring over ditches, and 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 181 

many a roundabout course to avoid puddles, which, 
being already wet through, we no longer fear. After 
having waded over eight other little rivers we were obliged 
to leave the shore and pursue the road to Colasi along 
steep, slippery, forest paths, the place lying right in the 
middle of the west side of the bay. The sea-shore 
was very beautiful. Instead of a continuous and, at 
the ebb, ill-smelling border of mangroves, which is 
never wanting in those places where the land extends 
into the sea, the waves here reach the foot of the old 
trees of the forest, many of which were washed under- 
neath. Amongst the most remarkable was a fringe 
of stately old Barringtoni, covered with orchids and 
other epiphytes — gorgeous trees when in flower; the 
red stamens, five inches long, with golden yellow anthers 
like tassels, depending from the boughs; and their fruit, 
of the size of the fist, is doubly useful to the fisherman, 
who employs them, on account of their specific gravity, 
in floating his nets, and beats them to pieces to stupefy 
the fish. The foremost trees stood bent towards the 
sea, and have been so deflected probably for a long time, 
like many others whose remains still projected out of 
the water. The destruction of this coast appears to 
be very considerable. Amongst the climbing palms 
one peculiar kind was very abundant, the stem of which, 
as thick as the arm, either dragged itself, leafless, along 
the ground, or hung in arches above the branches, 
carrying a crown of leaves only at its extremity; while 
another, from its habitat the common calamus, had 
car y Ota leaves. Wild boars are very plentiful here; 
a hunter offered us two at one real each. 

The direction of the flat coast which extends N.N.W. CoUui. 
to S.S.E. from the point of Daet is here interrupted by 
the little peak of Colasi, which projects to the east, 
and has grown so rapidly that all old people remember 



By tea to 


A shipwre 


it to have been lower. In the Visita Colasi, on the 
northern slope of the mountain, the sea is so rough 
that no boat can live in it. The inhabitants carry on 
fishing; their fishing-grounds lie, however, on the south- 
ern slope of the mountain, in the sheltered bay of La- 
lauigan, which we reached after thee hours' journey over 
the ridge. 

A four-oared haroto, hired at this place, as the weather 
was favorable, was to have conveyed us in two hours 
to Cabusao, the port of Naga; but the wind swung round, 
and a storm ensued. Thoroughly wet and not without 
loss, we ran to Barceloneta, a visita situated at a third 
of the distance. The intelligent Teniente of Colasi, 
whom we met here, also confirmed the fact of the rapid 
growth of the little peak. 

In opposition to my wish to ascend the mountain, 
great obstacles were said to exist when every one would 
be occupied in preparations for the Easter festival, which 
would hardly occur during the succeeding weeks. As 
these objections did not convince me, a more substantial 
reason was discovered the next morning. Inland shoes 
are excellent for the mud, and particularly for horse- 
back; but for climbing mountains, or rough ground, 
they would not last a day; and the one remaining pair of 
strong European shoes, which I reserved for particular 
purposes, had been given away by my servant, who did 
not like climbing mountains, on the pretext they were 
very much too heavy for me. 

The shore from Barceloneta to Cabusao is of the same 
character as the Daet-Colasi but running north and 
south; the ground, sandy clay, is covered with a 
thick stratum of broken bivalves. The road was very 
difficult, as the high tide forced us to climb between 
the trees and thick underwood. On the way we met 
an enterprising family who had left Daet with a cargo 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 183 

of coconuts for Naga, and had been wrecked here; 
saving only one out of five tinajas of oil, but recovering 
all the nuts.* They were living in a small hastily- 
run-up hut, upon coconuts, rice, fish, and mussels, in 
expectation of a favorable wind to return. There were 
several varieties of shore-birds; but my gun would not 
go off, although my servant, in expectation of a hunt, 
had cleaned it with especial care. As he had lost the 
• ramrod whilst cleaning it, the charge was not withdrawn 
before we reached Cabusao, when it was discovered that 
both barrels were full of sand to above the touchhole. 

The coast was still more beautiful than on the prece- i^inking 
ding day, particularly in one place where the surge 
beat against a wood of fan-palms (Corypha sp.). On 
the side facing the sea, in groups or rows stood the trees, 
bereft of their crowns, or lying overthrown like columns 
amid the vast ruins of temples (one of them was three 
feet in diameter); and the sight immediately reminded 
me of Pompeii. I could not account for the bareness 
of the trunks, until I discovered a hut in the midst of the 
palms, in which two men were endeavoring to antici- 
pate the waves in their work of destruction by the prepa- 
ration of sugar (Jtunguleh). For this purpose, after strip- 
ping off the leaves (this palm flowering at the top), 
the upper end of the stem is cut across, the surface of 
the incision being inclined about five degrees towards 
the horizon, and, near its lower edge, hollowed out to a 
very shallow gutter. The juice exudes over the whole 
surface of the cut, with the exception of the intersected 
exterior petioles, and, being collected in the shallow 
channel, is conducted by a piece of banana -leaf, two 
inches broad, and four inches long, into a bamboo-cane 

* In Daet at that season six nuts cost one cuarto; and in Naga, only fifteen 
leagues away by water, they expected to sell two nuts for nine cuartos (twenty- 
sevenfold). The fact was that in Naga, at that time, one nut fetched two 
cuartos; — twelve times as much as in Daet. 



The money 


attached to the trunk. In order to avert the rain from 
the saccharine issue, which has a faint, pleasantly aro- 
matic flavor as of barley-sugar, all the trees which have 
been tapped are provided with caps formed of bent and 
folded palm-leaves. The average daily produce of 
each tree is four bamboos, the interior of which is about 
three inches and a half in diameter. When removed, 
they are full to about eighteen inches ; which gives some- 
what more than ten quarts daily. 

The produce of each tree of course is very unequal. 
Always intermittent, it ceases completely after two 
months — at the utmost, three months; but, the propor- 
tion of those newly cut to those cut at an earlier date 
being the same, the yield of the incisions is about equal. 
The juice of thirty- three palms, after evaporation in an 
iron pan immediately upon each collection, produces one 
ganta, or (there being four such collections) four gantas, 
daily; the weekly result being twenty gantas, or two 
tinajas of sugar, each worth two dollars and a half on 
the spot. This statement, derived from the people 
themselves, probably shows the proportion somewhat 
more unfavorable than it really is; still, according to 
the opinion of an experienced mestizo, the difference 
cannot be very considerable. Assuming the above 
figures as correct, however, one of these magnificent 
trees would give about one dollar and two-thirds, or, 
after deducting the laborers' wages one real per diem, 
about a thaler and two-thirds; not a large sum truly; 
but it is some consolation to know that, even if man did 
not interfere, these trees would in process of time fall 
victims to the breakers, and that, even if protected 
against external ravages, they are doomed to natural 
extinction after once producing fruit. 

Cabusao lies in the southern angle of San Miguel 
Bay which is, almost on every side, surrounded by high 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


A French 

mountains, and affords good anchorage for ships. From 
here I repaired across Naga to the south coast. Four 
leagues from Naga, in the heart of Ragay, on the south- 
ern border of Luzon, is the small but deep harbor of 
Pasacao; and two hours by water conducted us to the 
intermediate Visita Pamplona, whence the route is 
pursued by land. The still-existing remnant of the old 
road was in a miserable condition, and even at that dry 
season of the year scarcely passable ; the bridges over the 
numerous little ditches were broken down, and in many 
places, right across the road, lay large stones and bran- 
ches of trees which had been brought there years before 
to repair the bridges, and, having been unused, have 
ever since continued to obstruct the road. 

In Quitang, between Pamplona and Pasacao, where 
two brooks unite themselves into one little river debouch- 
ing at the latter place, a young Frenchman had establish- 
ed a hacienda. He was contented and hopeful, and 
loudly praised the industry and friendliness of his people. 
Probably because they make fewer exactions, foreigners, 
as a rule, seem to agree better with the natives than 
Spaniards. Of these exactions, the bitterest com- 
plaints are rife of the injustice of the demands made 
upon the lower classes in the settlement of their wages; 
which, if they do not immediately find the necessary 
hands for every employment, do not correspond with 
the enhanced value of the products; and, according to 
them, the natives must even be driven from public 
employments, to labor in their service.* 

The Filipino certainly is more independent than the The Filipino 
European laborer, because he has fewer wants and, as a "' " i<iborer. 

* N. Loney asserts, in one of his excellent reports, that there never is a defi- 
ciency of suitable laborers. As an example, at the unloading of a ship in Iloilo, 
many were brought together at one time, induced by the small rise of wages 
from one to one and one-half reales; evtn more hands than could be employed. 
The Belgian consul, too, rep>orts that in the provinces where the abacd grows 
the whole of the male population is engaged in its cultivation, in consequence 
of a small rise of wages. 


native landowner, is not compelled to earn his bread 
as the daily laborer of another; yet, with reference to 
wages, it may be questioned whether any colony what- 
ever offers more favorable conditions to the planter than 
the Philippines. In Dutch India, where the prevalence 
of monopoly almost excludes private industry, free 
laborers obtain one-third of a guilder — somewhat more 
than one real, the usual wages in the wealthy provinces 
of the Philippines (in the poorer it amounts to only the 
half); and the Javanese are not the equals of the Fili- 
pinos, either in strength, or intelligence, or skill; and the 
rate of wages in all the older Slave States is well known. 
For the cultivation of sugar and coffee, Mauritius and 
Ceylon are obliged to import foreign laborers at great 
expense, and to pay them highly; and yet they are 

From Quitang to Pasacao the road was far worse than 
it had heretofore been; and this is the most important 
road in the province! Before reaching Pasacao, evi- 
dent signs are visible, on the denuded sides of the lime- 
stone, of its having been formerly washed by the sea. 
Pasacao is picturesquely situated at the end of the valley 
which is intersected by the Itulan, and extends from 
Pamplona, between wooded mountains of limestone, 
as far as the sea. The ebb tides here are extremely 
irregular. From noon to evening no difference was 
observable, and, when the decrease just became visible, 
the tide rose again. Immediately to the south, and 
facing the district, the side of a mountain, two thousand 
feet high and above one thousand feet broad, had two 
years ago given way to the subterranean action of 
the waves. The rock consists of a tough calcareous 
breccia, full of fragments of mussels and corals; but, 
being shoeless, I could not remain on the sharp rock 
sufficiently long to make a closer examination. 

Jailor's Trarels >n the Philippines 187 

For the same reason, I was obliged to leave the ascent 
of the Yamtik, which I had before vainly attempted 
from Libmanan, unaccomplished from this point, 
although I had the advantage of the company of an 
obliging French planter in a boat excursion in a north- 
westerly direction along the coast. Here our boat 
floated along over gardens of coral, swarming with magni- 
ficently colored fishes; and after two hours we reached 
a cavern in the limestone, Snminahang, so low that 
one could stir in it only by creeping; which contained 
a few swallows and bats. On the Calebayan river, 
on the further side of Point Tanaun, we came upon a 
solitary shed, our night-quarters. Here the limestone 
range is interrupted by an isolated cliff on the left bank 
of the little river, consisting of a crystalline rock chiefly 
composed of hornblende; which moreover, on the side 
exposed to the water, is surrounded completely by lime- 

The surrounding mountains must swarm with wild 
boars. Under the thatched roof of our hut, which serves 
as a shelter to occasional hunters, more than a hundred 
and fifty lower jaw-bones were set up as hunting tro- 
phies. The place appeared as if created for the breed- 
ing of cattle. Soft with fodder grass, and covered with 
a few groups of trees, with slopes intersected by rustling 
brooks, it rose up out of the sea, and was encompassed 
by a steep wall of rock in the form of a semicircle; and 
here cattle would find grass, water, shade, and the pro- 
tection of an enclosing rampart. While travelling along 
the coast, we had remarked a succession of similar local- 
ities, which however, from lack of enterprise and from 
the dread of pirates, were not utilized. As soon as our 
supper was prepared, we carefully extinguished our fire, 
that it might not serve as a signal to the vagabonds of 
the sea, and kept night watches. 

.1 bc-.iuttful 




A delusive 

Isolation of 
fertile regions- 

River highways. 

Cabusao and 



On the following morning we intended to visit a cave 
never before entered; but, to our astonishment, we found 
no proper cavern, but only an entrance to a cavern 
a few feet in depth. Visible from a distance, it must 
often have been passed by the hunters, although, as 
we were assured by our companions — who were aston- 
ished at the delusion — no one had ventured to enter it 
from stress of superstitious terror. 

The north coast of Camarines, as I have frequently 
mentioned, is, during the north-east monsoon, almost 
unapproachable; while the south coast, screened by the 
outlying islands, remains always accessible. The most 
fertile districts of the eastern provinces, which during 
summer export their produce by the northern ports, 
in the winter often remain for months cut off from all 
communication with the chief town, because there is 
no road over the small strip of land to the south coast. 
How much has been done by Nature, and how little by 
man, to facilitate this intercourse, is very evident when 
we reflect upon the condition of the road to Pasacao, 
lately described, in connection with the condition of 
matters in the east, as shown by the map. 

Two rivers, one coming from the north-west, and the 
other from the south-east, and both navigable before 
they reach the borders of the province, flow through 
the middle of it in a line parallel with the coast (taking 
no account of its windings), and, after their junction, 
send their waters together through the estuary of Ca- 
busao into the Bay of San Miguel. The whole province, 
therefore, is traversed through its center by two navig- 
able rivers, which, as regards commerce, form only 

But the harbor of Cabusao, at the bottom of the Bay 
of San Miguel, is not accessible during the north-east 
monsoon, and has this further disadvantage, that the 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 189 

intercourse of the whole of the eastern part of Luzon 
with Manila can be carried on only by a very circuitous 
route. On the south coast, on the other hand, is the 
harbor of Pasacao, into which a navigable little river, 
above a mile in width, discharges itself; so that the 
distance between this river highway and the nearest 
point of the Bicol River amounts to a little more than 
a mile. The road connecting the two seas, laid out by 
an active alcalde in 1847, and maintained up to 1852, 
was however, at the date of my inquiry, in so bad a 
condition that a picul of abaca paid two reals freight 
for this short distance, in the dry season; and in the wet 
season it could not be forwarded for double the price.* 

Many similar instances may be brought forward. b<^^ '■<"'<^« 
In 1861 the English vice-consul reported that in Iloilo a 
picul of sugar had risen more than 2 r. in price (as much 
as the cost of freight from Iloilo to Manila), in conse- 
quence of the bad state of the road between the two 
places, which are only one league asunder. 

If, without reference to transport by sea, the islands •^""'"^ ""'' 

political reasons 

were not favored in so extraordinary a manner by for bad roads. 
innumerable rivers with navigable mouths, a still greater 
proportion of their produce would not have been con- 
vertible into money. The people, as well as the local 
authorities, have no desire for roads, which they them- 
selves construct by forced labor, and, when completed, 
must maintain by the same method; for, when no roads 
are made, the laborers are so much more easily employed 
in private operations. Even the parish priests, generally, 
are as little favorable to the planning of commercial 
intercourse, by means of which trade, prosperity, and 
enlightenment would be introduced into the country, 
and their authority undermined. Indeed the Govern- 

* An unfinished canal, to run from the Bicol to the Pasacao River, was once . 
dug, as is thought, by the Chinese, who carried on commerce in great numbers. — 
Arenas, p. 140. 




ment itself, up to within a short time since, favored such 
a state of affairs; for bad roads belong to the essence of 
the old Spanish colonial policy, which was always direct- 
ed to effect the isolation of the separate provinces of 
their great transmarine possessions, and to prevent the 
growth of a sense of national interest, in order to facilitate 
their government by the distant mother country. 

Besides, in Spain itself matters are no better. The 
means of communication there are so very deficient 
that, as an instance, merchandise is sent from Santander 
to Barcelona, round the whole Iberian peninsula, in 
preference to the direct route, which is partly accom- 
plished by railway.* In Estremadura the hogs were fed 
with wheat (live animals can be transported without 
roads), while at the same time the seaports were import- 
ing foreign grain. f The cause of this condition of affairs 
in that country is to be sought less in a disordered state 
of finance, than in the enforcement of the Government 
maxim which enjoins the isolation of separate provinces. 


Mt. isarou. The Isarog (pronounced Issaro) rises up in the middle 
of Camarines, between San Miguel and Lagonoy bays. 
While its eastern slope almost reaches the sea, it is 
separated on its western side by a broad strip of inun- 
dated land from San Miguel Bay. In circumference 
it is at least twelve leagues; and its height 1,966 meters. t 
Very flat at its base, it swells gradually to 16°, and higher 

* La Situation Economique de V Espagne. 

t Lesage, "Coup d' Oeil," in Journal des Economisies, September, 1868 

% From barometrical observations — m. 

Goa, on the northern slope of the Isarog 32 

Uacloy, a settlement of Igorots 161 

Ravine of Baira 1,134 

Summit of the Isarog 1,966 

Jaqor's Travels in the Philippines t91 

up to 21° of inclination, and extends itself, in its western 
aspect, into a flat dome-shaped summit. But, if viewed 
from the eastern side, it has the appearance of a circular 
chain of mountains rent asunder by a great ravine. On 
Coello's map this ravine is erroneously laid down as 
extending from south to north; its bearing really is west 
to east. Right in front of its opening, and half a league 
south from Goa, lies the pretty little village of Rungus, 
by which it is known. The exterior sides of the mountain 
and the fragments of its large crater are covered with im- 
penetrable wood. Respecting its volcanic eruptions 
tradition says nothing. 

The higher slopes form the dwelling-place of a small Prnmuoe 

- ,, ., , 1,1 , f mountaineers. 

race of people, whose mdependence and the customs of 
a primitive age have almost entirely separated them 
from the inhabitants of the plain. One or two Cimar- 
rons might occasionally have been attracted hither, 
but no such instance is remembered. The inhabitants 
of the Isarog are commonly, though mistakenly, called 
Igorots; and I retain the name, since their tribal rela- 
tionship has not yet been accurately determined; they 
themselves maintaining that their ancestors always 
dwelt in that locality. There are some who, in the 
opinion of the parish priest of Camarines, speak the 
Bicol language in the purest manner. Their manners 
and customs are very similar, in many respects, to what 
they were on the arrival of the Spaniards ; and sometimes 
they also remind one of those prevailing among the 
Dyaks of Borneo at the present day.* These circum- 
stances give rise to the conjecture that they may be the 
last of a race which maintained its independence against 
the Spanish rule, and probably also against the little 

* The skull of a slain Igorot, as shown by Professor Virchow's investigation, 
has a certain similarity to Malay skulls of the adjoining Islands of Sunda, 
especially to the skulls of the Dyaks. 



Similarity to 

Policy of 
with heathens. 

tyrants who ruled over the plain before the arrival of 
the Europeans. When Juan de Salcedo undertook his 
triumphal inarch round North Luzon he found every- 
where, at the mouths of the rivers, seafaring tribes living 
under many chieftains who, after a short struggle, were 
slain by the superior discipline and better arms of the 
Spaniards, or submitted voluntarily to the superior race; 
but he did not succeed in subduing the independent 
tribes in the interior; and these are still to be found in 
all the larger islands of the Philippine group. 

Similar conditions are found in many places in the 
Indian Archipelago. The Malays, carrying on trade 
and piracy, possess the shore, and their language pre- 
vails there; the natives being either subdued by them, 
or driven into the forests, the inaccessibility of which 
ensures to them a miserable but independent existence.* 

In order to break down the opposition of the wild 
races, the Spanish Government forbade its subjects, 
under the penalty of one hundred blows and two years 
of forced labor, "to trade or to have any intercourse 
with the heathens in the mountains who pay no tribute 
to his Catholic Majesty, for although they would ex- 
change their gold, wax, etc., for other necessaries, they 
will never change for the better." Probably this law 
has for centuries directly contributed to save the bar- 
barians, notwithstanding their small numbers, from 
complete extermination; for free intercourse between 
a people existing by agriculture, and another living 
principally by the chase, speedily leads to the destruc- 
tion of the latter. 

* Pigafetta found Amboyna inhabited by Moors (Mohammedans') and 
heathens; "but the first possessed the seashore, the latter the interior." In 
the harbor of Brune (Borneo) he saw two towns; one inhabited by Moors, and 
the other, larger than that, and standing entirely in the salt-water, by heathen. 
The editor remarks that Sonnerat ("Voyage aux Indes") subsequently found 
that the heathen had been driven from the sea, and had retired into the moun- 


monopoly wars. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 193 

The number of the Igorots of the Isarog has, however, '^'"■^^'■^o.n 


been much diminished by deadly battles between the villages. 
different ranchos, and by the marauding expenditions 
which, until a short time since, were annually under- 
taken by the commissioners of taxes, in the interest of 
the Government monopoly, against the tobacco fields 
of the Igorots. Some few have been "pacified" (con- 
verted to Christianity and tribute); in which case they 
are obliged to establish themselves in little villages of 
scattered huts, where they can be occasionally visited 
by the priest of the nearest place; and, in order to render 
the change easier to them, a smaller tax than usual is 
temporarily imposed upon such newly-obtained subjects. 

I had deferred the ascent of the mountain until the Tobacco 
beginning of the dry season of the year; but I learned 
in Naga that my wish was hardly practicable, because 
the expeditions against the ranchos of the mountain, 
which I have already mentioned, usually occurred about 
this time. As the wild people could not understand 
why they should not cultivate on their own fields a 
plant which had become a necessity to them, they saw 
in the CuadriUeros, not functionaries of a civilized State, 
but robbers, against whom they were obliged to defend 
themselves by force; and appearances contributed no 
less to confirm them in their error; for these did not 
content themselves with destroying the plantations of 
tobacco, but the huts were burnt to the ground, the 
fruit-trees hewn down, and the fields laid waste. Such 
forays never occurred without bloodshed, and often 
developed into a little war which was carried on by 
the mountaineers for a long time afterwards, even 
against people who were entirely uninterested in it — 
Filipinos and Europeans. The expedition this year 
was to take place in the beginning of April; the Igorots 
consequently were in a state of great agitation, and 



A policy of 

A populous 
fertile district. 

A bare plain 
and wretched 

had, a few days previously, murdered a young unarmed 
Spaniard in the vicinity of Mabotoboto, at the foot 
of the mountain, by bringing him to the ground with 
a poisoned arrow, and afterwards inflicting twenty-one 
wounds with the wood-knife (bolo). 

Fortunately there arrived soon after a countermand 
from Manila, where the authorities seemed to have 
been gradually convinced of the harmful tendency of 
such violent measures. It could not be doubted that 
this intelligence would quickly spread amongst the 
ranchos; and, acting upon the advice of the commandant 
(upon whom, very much against his inclination, the 
conduct of the expedition had devolved), I lost no time 
in availing myself of the anticipated season of quiet. 
The Government have since adopted the prudent method 
of purchasing the tobacco, which is voluntarily culti- 
vated by the Igorots, at the ordinary rate, and, where 
practicable, encouraging them to lay out new fields, 
instead of destroying those in existence. 

The next day at noon I left Naga on horseback. The 
pueblos of Mogarao, Canaman, Quipayo, and Calabanga, 
in this fertile district follow so thickly upon one another 
that they form an almost uninterrupted succession of 
houses and gardens. Calabanga lies half a league from 
the sea, between the mouths of two rivers, the more 
southerly of which is sixty feet broad and sufficiently 
deep for large trading vessels.* 

The road winds round the foot of the Isarog first 
to the north-east and then to the east. Soon the bloom- 
ing hedges cease, and are succeeded by a great bare 
plain, out of which numerous flat hillocks raise them- 
selves. Both hills and plain, when we passed, served 
for pasturage; but from August to January they are 
sown with rice; and fields of batata are occasionally 
seen. After four hours we arrived at the little village 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 195 

of Maguiring (Manguirin), the church of which, a tumble- 
down shed, stood on an equally naked hillock; and from 
its neglected condition one might have guessed that 
the priest was a native. 

This hillock, as well as the others which I examined, Many mountain 
consisted of the debris of the Isarog, the more or less 
decomposed trachytic fragments of hornblende rock, 
the spaces between which were filled up with red sand. 
The number of streams sent down by the Isarog, into 
San Miguel and Lagonoy bays, is extraordinarily large. 
On the tract behind Maguiring I counted, in three- 
quarters of an hour, five considerable estuaries, that 
is to say, above twenty feet broad; and then, as far as 
Goa, twenty-six more; altogether, thirty-one: but there 
are more, as I did not include the smallest; and yet the 
distance between Maguiring and Goa, in a straight line, 
does not exceed three miles. This accounts for the 
enormous quantity of steam with which this mighty 
condenser is fed. I have not met with this phenomenon 
on any other mountain in so striking a manner. One 
very remarkable circumstance is the rapidity with which 
the brimming rivulets pass in the estuaries, enabling 
them to carry the trading vessels, sometimes even ships, 
into a main stream (if the expression may be allowed), 
while the scanty contributions of their kindred streams 
on the northern side have scarcely acquired the import- 
ance of a mill-brook. These waters, from their breadth, 
look like little rivers, although in reality they consist 
of only a brook, up to the foot of the mountain, and of 
a river's mouth in the plain ; the intermediate part being 

The country here is strikingly similar to the remark- Comparison 

with J avail 

able mountain district of the Gelungung, described by Mountain 


* On Coello's map these proportions are wrongly stated. 


Junghuhn;* yet the origin of these rising grounds differs 
in some degree from that of those in Java. The latter 
were due to the eruption of 1822, and the great fissure 
in the wall of the crater of the Gelungung, which is 
turned towards them, shows unmistakably whence the 
materials for their formation were derived; but the great 
chasm of the Isarog opens towards the east, and there- 
fore has no relation to the numberless hillocks on the 
north-west of the mountain. Behind Maguiring they 
run more closely together, their summits are flatter, and 
their sides steeper; and they pass gradually into a gently 
inclined slope, rent into innumerable clefts, in the hollows 
of which as many brooks are actively employed in con- 
verting the angular outlines of the little islands into these 
rounded hillocks. The third river behind Maguiring 
is larger than those preceding it; on the sixth lies the 
large Visita of Borobod; and on the tenth, that of Ragay. 
The rice fields cease with the hill country, and on the 
slope, which is well drained by deep channels, only 
wild cane and a few groups of trees grow. Passing by 
many villages, whose huts were so isolated and concealed 
that they might remain unobserved, we arrived at five 
o'clock at Tagunton; from which a road, practicable 
for carabao carts, and used for the transport of the abaca 
grown in the district, leads to Goa; and here, detained by 
sickness, I hired a little house, in which I lay for nearly 
four weeks, no other remedies offering themselves to me 
but hunger and repose. 
Useful friends. During this time I made the acquaintance of some 
newly-converted Igorots, and won their confidence. 
Without them I would have had great difficulty in ascend- 
ing the mountains as well as to visit their tribe in its 

* "Java, seine Gestalt (its formation)" II. 125. 


Jagor's Traiels hi the Philippines 197 

farms without any danger.* When, at last, I was able 
to quit Goa, my friends conducted me, as the first step, 
to their settlement; where, having been previously re- 
commended and expected, I easily obtained the requi- 
site number of attendants to take into their charge the 
animals and plants which were collected for me. 

On the following morning the ascent was commenced. ^ heathen 
Even before we arrived at the first rancho, I was convin- 
ced of the good report that had preceded me. The 
master of the house came towards us and conducted 
us by a narrow path to his hut, after having removed 
the foot-lances, which projected obliquely out of the 
ground, but were dexterously concealed by brushwood 
and leaves. t A woman employed in weaving, at my 
desire, continued her occupation. The loom was of the 
simplest kind. The upper end, the chain-beam, which 
consists of a piece of bamboo, is fixed to two bars or 
posts; and the weaver sits on the ground, and to the two 
notched ends of a small lath, which supplies the place 
of the weaving beam, hooks on a wooden bow, in the arch 
of which the back of the lath is fitted. Placing her feet 
against two pegs in the ground and bending her back, 
she, by means of the bow, stretches the material out 
straight. A netting-needle, longer than the breadth 
of the web, serves instead of the weaver's shuttle, but 
it can be pushed through only by considerable fric- 
tion, and not always without breaking the chains of 
threads. A lath of hard wood (caryota), sharpened 
like a knife, represents the trestle, and after every stroke 
it is placed upon the edge ; after which the comb is pushed 

* An intelligent mestizo frequently visited me duting my sickness. Accord- 
ing to his statements, besides the copper already mentioned, coal is found in 
three places, and even gold and iron were to be had. To the same man I 
am indebted for Professor Virchow's skull of Caramuan, referred to before, 
which was said to have come from a cavern in Umang, one league from Cara- 
muan. Similar skulls are also said to be found at the Visita Paniniman, and on 
a small island close to the Visita Guialo. 

t They are made of bamboo. 


forward, a thread put through, and struck fast, and so 
forth. The web consisted of threads of the abaca, 
which were not spun, but tied one to another. 
A giant fern Tht huts I visited deserve no special description. 


Composed of bamboos and palm-leaves, they are not 
essentially different from the dwellings of poor Fili- 
pinos ; and in their neighborhood were small fields 
planted with batata, maize, caladium and sugar-cane, 
and enclosed by magnificent polypody ferns. One of 
the highest of these, which I caused to be felled for the 
purpose, measured in the stem nine meters, thirty centi- 
meters; in the crown, two meters, twelve centimeters; 
and its total length was eleven meters, forty-two centi- 
meters or over thirty-six feet. 
simvie sirinyed ^ youug lad produccd music on a kind of lute, called 


haringbau; consisting of the dry shaft of the scitamina 
stretched in the form of a bow by means of a thin tendril 
instead of gut. Half a coco shell is fixed in the middle 
of the bow, which, when playing, is placed against the 
abdomen, and serves as a sounding board; and the string 
when struck with a short wand, gave out a pleasing 
humming sound, realizing the idea of the harp and 
plectrum in their simplest forms. Others accompanied 
the musician on Jews' harps of bamboos, as accurate 
as those of the Mintras on the Malay Peninsula; and there 
was one who played on a guitar, which he had himself 
made, but after a European pattern. The hut contained 
no utensils besides bows, arrows, and a cooking pot. 
The possessor of clothes bore them on his person. I 
found the women as decently clad as the Filipino 
Christian women, and carrying, besides, a forest knife, 
or bolo. As a mark of entire confidence, I was taken 
into the tobacco fields, which were well concealed 
and protected by foot-lances; and they appeared to be 
carefully looked after. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 199 

The result of my familiarity with this people, both ^''« p«°p'^ ""'^. 

,.,. . ii-n their crops. 

before and after this opportunity, may be briefly sum- 
med up: They live on the higher slopes of the mountain, 
never, indeed, below 1,500 feet; each family by itself. 
It is difficult to ascertain how many of them there may 
now be, as but little intercourse takes place amongst 
them. In the part of the mountain belonging to the 
district of Goa, their number is estimated at about fifty 
men and twenty women, including the children: but 
twenty years before the population was more numerous. 
Their food consists principally of batata, besides some 
gabi (caladium). A little maize is likewise cultivated, 
as well as some ubi (dioscorca), and a small quantity of 
sugar-cane for chewing. 

In laying out a batata field, a wood is partially cleared. Batatas. 
the earth loosened with the blunt forest knife (bolo), and 
the bulbs or layers then planted ; and within four months 
the harvest begins, and continues uninterruptedly from the 
time the creeping plant strikes root and forms tubers. 
After two years, however, the produce is so much dimin- Rotation of 
ished that the old plants are pulled up, in order to '"^°^^' 
make room for new ones obtained from the runners. 
The field is then changed, or other fruits cultivated 
thereon, but with the addition of manure. A piece of 
land, fifty brazas long, and thirty wide, is sufficient for 
the support of a family. Only occasionally in the wet 
season does this resource fail, and then they resort to 
gabi, which appears to be as easily cultivated on wet 
as on dry ground, but is not so profitable as batata. The 
young shoots of the gabi are planted at distances of a 
vara, and if consumed in a proper manner, ought not to 
be cropped till after a year. Each family kills weekly 
one or two wild hogs. Stags are rare, although I ob- 
tained a fine pair of horns; and they do not use the skin. 
Bows and arrows are used in hunting; some poisoned, 




Game cocks 
a Spanish 


Respect for 
women and 

and some not. Every rancho keeps dogs, which live 
principally on batata, and also cats to protect the fields 
against rats; and they also have poultry, but no game 
cocks; which, having been first introduced into the Phil- 
ippines by the Spaniards, are seldom, if ever, wanting 
in the huts of the Filipinos; but the inhabitants of the 
Isarog are as yet free from this passion. 

The few products of a more advanced civilization 
which they require, they obtain by the sale of the spon- 
taneous productions of their forests, chiefly wax and resin 
(pili),* apnik, dagiangan (a kind of copal), and some 
abaca. Wax, which is much in request for church solemn- 
ities, fetches half a dollar per catty; and resin averages 
half a real per chinanta. Business is transacted very 
simply. Filipinos, having intercourse with the Igorots, 
make a contract with them ; and they collect the products 
and bring them to a place previously agreed on, where 
the Filipinos receive them, after paying down the sti- 
pulated price. 

Physicians and magicians, or persons supposed to be 
possessed of secret powers, are unknown; every one 
helps himself. In order to arrive at a clear understand- 
ing of their religious views, a longer intercourse would 
be necessary. But they certainly believe in one God, 
or, at least, say so, when they are closely questioned 
by Christians; and have also loosely acquired several 
of the external practices of Catholicism, which they 
employ as spells. 

Hunting and hard labor constitute the employment 
of man in general, as well as in the Philippines. The 
practice of employing women as beasts of burden — 
which, although it exists among many of the peoples of 
Europe, for example, the Basques, Wallachians, and 

* The fruit of the wild piH is unfit for food. 

Jagor's Trarch in the Philippirjes SOI 

Portuguese, is almost peculiar to barbarous nations, — 
seems to have been lost in the Philippines as far back as 
the time of its discovery by the Spaniards; and even 
among the wild people of the Isarog, the women engage 
only in light labor, and are well treated. Every family 
supports its aged and those unfit for labor. Headaches 
and fevers were stated to me as the prevalent maladies; Medicine. 
for which burnt rice, pounded and mixed to a pap with 
water, is taken as a remedy; and in case of severe head- 
ache they make an incision in the forehead of the sufferer. 
Their prevalence is explained by the habit of neutralizing 
the ill effects of drinking water in excess, when they are 
heated, by the consumption of warm water in large 
doses; and the rule holds with regard to coco- water; 
the remedy for immoderate use of which is warm coco- 
water. Their muscular power is small, and they are not 
able to carry more than fifty pounds weight to any con- 
siderable distance. 

Besides the chase and agriculture, their occupations Manufactures. 
are restricted to the manufacture of extremely rude 
weapons, for which they purchase the iron, when re- 
quired, from the Filipinos, and of the coarse webs 
made by the women, and of wicker work. Every father 
of a family is master in his own house, and acknowledges 
no power higher than himself. In the event of war 
with neighboring tribes, the bravest places himself at 
the head, and the rest follow him as long as they are able; 
there is no deliberate choosing of a leader. 

On the whole, they are peaceful and honorable towards i^^atJi customs. 
each other, although the idle occasionally steal the fruits 
of the fields; and, should the thief be caught, the person 
robbed punishes him with blows of the rattan, without 
being under any apprehensions of vengeance in conse- 
quence. If a man dies, his nearest kinsmen go out 
to requite his death by the death of some other individual, 


taken at random. The rule is strictly enforced. For 
a dead man a man must be killed ; for a woman a woman ; 
and for a child a child. Unless, indeed, it be a friend 
they encounter, the first victim that offers is killed. 
Latterly, however, owing to the unusual success attained 
by some of them in representing the occurrence of death 
as an unavoidable destiny, the custom is said to have 
fallen into desuetude; and the relatives do not exact 
the satisfaction. This was easy in the case of the de- 
ceased being an ordinary person; but, to the present day, 
vengeance is required in the event of the death of a 
beloved child or wife. If a man kills a woman of another 
house, her nearest kinsman endeavors to kill a woman 
of the house of the murderer; but to the murderer 
himself he does nothing; and the corpse of the victim 
thus slain as a death-offering is not buried, nor is its 
head cut off; and her family, in their turn, seek to avenge 
the death by murder. This is reckoned the most honor- 
able course. Should the murderer, however, be too 
strong to be so overcome, any weaker person, be it who 
it may, is slain in retaliation; and hence, probably, 
the comparatively small number of women. 

Marriage. Polygamy is permitted; but even the most courageous 

and skilful seldom or never have more than one wife. 
A young man wishing to marry commissions his father 
to treat with the father of the bride as to the price; 
which latterly has greatly increased; but the average 
is ten bolos, costing from four to six reals each, and 
about $12 in cash; and the acquisition of so large a sum 
by the sale of wax, resin, and abaca, often takes the 
bridegroom two years. The bride-money goes partly 
to the father, and partly to the nearest relations; every 
one of whom has an equal interest. If there should 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines SOS 

be many of them, almiost nothing remains for the father, 
who has to give a great feast, on which occasion much 
palm-wine is drunk. 

Any man using violence towards a girl is killed by 'S«^"<*^ crimes. 
her parents. If the girl was willing, and the father 
hears of it, he agrees upon a day with the former, on 
which he is to bring the bride's dowry; which should 
he refuse to do, he is caught by the relations, bound 
to a tree, and whipped with a cane. Adultery is of 
most rare occurrence; but, when it does take place, the 
dowry is returned either by the woman, who then 
acquires her freedom, or by the seducer, whom she then 
follows. The husband has not the right to detain her, 
if he takes the money, or even if he should refuse it; 
but the latter contingency is not likely to arise, since 
that sum of money will enable him to buy for himself 
a new wife. 

In the afternoon we reached a vast ravine, called Basna raime. 
"Basira," 973 meters above Uacloy, and about 1,134 
meters above the sea, extending from south-east to north- 
west between lofty, precipitous ranges, covered with 
wood. Its base, which has an inclination of 33°, con- 
sists of a naked bed of rock, and, after every violent 
rainfall, gives issue to a torrent of water, which dis- 
charges itself violently. Here we bivouacked; and the 
Igorots, in a very short time, built a hut, and remained 
on the watch outside. At daybreak the thermometer 
stood at 13.9° R.* 

The road to the summit was very difficult on account At the summit. 
of the slippery clay earth and the tough network of 
plants; but the last five hundred feet were unexpectedly 
easy, the very steep summit being covered with a very 
thick growth of thinly leaved, knotted, mossy thibaudia, 
rhododendra, and other dwarf woods, whose innumerable 

* 17.375 Cent, or 63 Far.— C. 


tough branches, running at a very small height along 
the ground and parallel to it, form a compact and secure 
lattice-work, by which one mounted upwards as on a 
slightly inclined ladder. The point which we reached 
* * * was evidently the highest spur of the horse- 
shoe-shaped mountain side, which bounds the great 
ravine of Rungus on the north. The top was hardly 
fifty paces in diameter, and so thickly covered with trees 
that I have never seen its like; we had not room to stand. 
My active hosts, however, went at once to work, though 
the task of cutting a path through the wood involved 
severe labor, and, chopping off the branches, built there- 
with, on the tops of the lopped trees, an observatory, 
from which I should have had a wide panoramic view, 
and an opportunity for taking celestial altitudes, had 
not everything been enveloped in a thick mist. The 
neighboring volcanoes were visible only in glimpses, 
as well as San Miguel Bay and some lakes in the interior. 
Immediately after sunset the thermometer registered 
12.5° R.* 
The descent. Qn the following moming it was still overcast; and 

when, about ten o'clock, the clouds became thicker, we 
set out on our return. It was my intention to have 
passed the night in a rancho, in order next day to visit 
a solfatara which was said to be a day's journey further; 
but my companions were so exhausted by fatigue that 
they asked for at least a few hours' rest. 

On the upper slope I observed no palms, with the 
exception of calamus; but polypodies (ferns) were very 
frequent, and orchids surprisingly abundant. In one place 
all the trees were hung, at a convenient height, with 
flowering aerids; of which one could have collected 

Ferns and 

* 15.6 Cent, or 60 Far.— C. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines SOS 

thousands without any trouble. The most beautiful 
plant was a Medinella, of so delicate a texture that it 
was impossible to preserve it. 

Within a quarter of an hour north-east of Uacloy, a Carbonic 

acid spring. 

considerable spring of carbonic acid bursts from the 
ground, depositing abundance of calcareous sinter. 
Our torches were quickly extinguished, and a fowl 
covered with a cigar-box died in a few minutes, to the 
supreme astonishment of the Igorots, to whom these 
phenomena were entirely new. 

On the second day of rest, my poor hosts, who had f''""«'^'«" '" 


accompanied me back to Uacloy, still felt so weary that 
they were not fit for any undertaking. With naked 
heads and bellies they squatted in the burning sun in 
order to replenish their bodies with the heat which they 
had lost during the bivouac on the summit; for they are 
not allowed to drink wine. When I finally left them on 
the following day, we had become such good friends that 
I was compelled to accept a tamed wild pig as a 
present. A troop of men and women accompanied me 
until they saw the glittering roofs of Maguiring, when, 
after the exchange of hearty farewells, they returned 
to their forests. The natives whom I had taken with 
me from Goa had proved so lazy and morose that nearly 
the whole task of making the path through the forest had 
fallen upon the Igorots. From sheer laziness they threw 
away the drinking water of which they were the porters ; 
and the Igorots were obliged to fetch water from a con- 
siderable distance for our bivouac on the summit. In 
all my troublesome marches, I have always done better 
with Cimarrons than with the civilized natives. The 
former I have found obliging, trustworthy, active and 
acquainted with localities, while the latter generally 
displayed the opposite qualities. It would, however, 
be unjust to form a conclusive opinion as to their com- 



Forced labor. 

A petition 
for liquors. 

parative merits from these facts; for the wild people are 
at home when in the forest; what they do is done volun- 
tarily, and the stranger, when he possesses their confi- 
dence, is treated as a guest. But the Filipinos are reluc- 
tant companions, Polistas, who, even when they receive a 
high rate of wages, consider that they are acting most 
honorably when they do as little as possible. Atany rate, 
it is no pleasure to them to leave their village in order to 
become luggage-porters or beaters of roads on fatiguing 
marches in impracticable districts, and to camp out 
in the open air under every deprivation. For them, 
still more than for the European peasant, repose is the 
most agreeable refreshment. The less comfort any 
one enjoys at home, the greater is the reluctance with 
which he leaves it; and the same thing may be observed 
in Europe. 

As the Igorots were not permitted to have cocoa- 
palms for the preparation of wine, vinegar and brandy, 
so that they might not infringe the monopoly of the 
government, they presented me with a petition entreat- 
ing me to obtain this favor for them. The document 
was put together by a Filipino writer in so ludicrously 
confused a manner that I give it as a specimen of Phil- 
ippine clerkship.* At all events, it had the best of 
results, for the petitioners were accorded twice as much 
as they had prayed for. 

* Sor Inspector por S. M. 

Nosotros dos Capnes actuales de Rancherias de Lalud y Uacloy comprension 
del pueblo de Goa prov.a de Camarines Sur. Ante los pies de vmd postramos 
y decimos. Que por tan deplorable estado en que nos hallabamos de la infede- 
lidad recienpoblados esta visitas de Rancherias ya nos Contentamos bastante- 
mente en su felis Uegada y suvida de este eminente monte Je Isarog loque havia 
con quiztado industriamente de V. bajo mis consuelos, y alibios para poder 
con seguir a doce ponos (i. e. arboles) de cocales de mananguiteria para 
Nuestro uso y alogacion a los demas Igorotes, o montesinos q. no quijran ven- 
dirnos; eta utilidad publica y reconocer a Dios y a la soberana Reyna y Sora 
Dona Isabel 2a (que Dios Gue) Y por intento. 

A. V. pedimos, y suplicamos con humildad secirva proveer y mandar, si es 
gracia segun lo q. imploramos, etc. Domingo Talesf. Jose Laurencianof . 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 207 

The south-west monsoon lasts in this region (district ^^ndaand 

plantiiig season. 

of Goa) from April to October. April is very calm 
(navegacion de senoras). From June to August the 
south-west winds blow steadily; March, April, and 
May are the driest months; there are shifting winds in 
March and the beginning of April; while from October 
to December is the time of storms; "S. Francisco (4th 
October) brings bad weather." Rice is planted in 
September and reaped in February. 


From the Isarog I returned through Naga and Nabua ml iriga. 
to Iriga, the ascent of which I at length accomplished. 
The chief of the Montesinos had received daily rations 
for twenty-two men, with whom he professed to make 
a road to the summit ; but when, on the evening of the 
third day, he came himself to Iriga, in order to fetch 
more provisions, on the pretext that the work still 
required some time for execution, I explained that I 
should endeavor to ascend the mountain on the follow- 
ing morning, and requested him to act as guide. He 
consented, but disappeared, together with his companions, 
during the night; the Filipinos in the tribunal having 
been good enough to hold out the prospect of severe 
punishment in case the work performed should not 
correspond to the working days. After fruitless search The ascent. 
for another guide, we left Buhi in the afternoon, and 
passed the night in the rancho, where we had previously 
been so hospitably received. The fires were still burn- 
ing, but the inhabitants, on our approach, had fled. 
About six o'clock on the following morning the ascent 
began. After we had gone through the forest, by avail- 
ing ourselves of the path which we had previously 


beaten, it led us through grass three or four feet in height, 
with keen-edged leaves; succeeded by cane, from seven 
to eight feet high, of the same habitat with our Arundo 
phragmites (but it was not in flower), which occupied 
the whole of the upper part of the mountain as far as 
the edge. Only in the ravine did the trees attain any 
height. The lower declivities were covered with aroids 
and ferns; towards the summit were tendrils and mosses; 
and here I found a beautiful, new, and peculiarly shaped 
orchid.* The Cimarrons had cut down some cane; and, 
beating down our road for ourselves with bolos, we arrived 
at the summit a little before ten o'clock. It was very 
foggy. In the hope of a clear evening or morning I 
caused a hut to be erected, for which purpose the cane 
was well fitted. The natives were too lazy to erect a 
lodging for themselves, or to procure wood for a watch- 
fire. They squatted on the ground, squeezed close to 
one another to warm themselves, ate cold rice, and suf- 
fered thirst because none of them would fetch water. Of 
the two water-carriers whom I had taken with me, one 
had "inadvertently" upset his water on the road, and 
the other had thrown it away "because he thought we 
should not require it." 

Altitude. I found the highest points of the Iriga to be 1,212 

meters, 1,120 meters above the surface of the Buhi 
Lake. From Buhi I went to Batu. 

Changes in The Batu Lake (one hundred eleven meters above 

the sea) had sunk lower since my last visit in February. 
The carpet of algae had increased considerably in breadth, 
its upper edge being in many places decomposed ; and the 
lower passed gradually into a thick consistency of putrid 
water-plants (charae, algae, pontederiae, valisneriae, 
pistiae, etc.), which encompassed the surface of the water 
so that only through a few gaps could one reach the bank. 

* Dendrobium ceraula, Reichenbach. 


Jayor's Travels in the Philippines S09 

Right across the mouth of the Quinali lies, in the lake, 
a bar of black mud, the softest parts of which were 
indicated by some insignificant channels of water. As 
we could not get over the bar in a large boat, two small 
skiffs were bound together with a matting of bamboo, 
and provided with an awning. By means of this con- 
trivance, which was drawn by three strong carabaos 
(the whole body of men with evident delight and loud 
mirth wading knee-deep in the black mud and assisting 
by pushing behind) we succeeded, as if on a sledge, in 
getting over the obstacle into the river; which on my 
first visit overflowed the fields in many places, till the huts 
of the natives rose out of the water like so many ships: 
but now (in June) not one of its channels was full. 
We were obliged in consequence to continue our sledge 
journey until we were near to Quinali. 

At Ligao I alighted at a friendly Spaniard's, a great 
part of the place, together with the tribunal and con- 
vent, having been burnt down since my last visit. After 
making the necessary preparations, I went in the even- 
ing to Barayong, a little rancho of Cimarrons at the foot 
of the Mazaraga, and, together with its inhabitants, -^«c«"^' "^ 

. . Ml. Mazaraua. 

ascended the mountain on the followmg morning. 
The women also accompanied us for some distance, and 
kept the company in good humor; and when, on the road, 
a Filipino who had been engaged for the purpose wished 
to give up carrying a bamboo full of water, and, throw- 
ing it away, ran off, an old woman stepped forward in his 
stead, and dragged the water cheerfully along up to 
the summit. This mountain was moister than any I 
had ever ascended, the Semeru in Java, in some respects, 
excepted; and half-way up I found some rotten rafflesia.* 
Two miserable-looking Cimarron dogs drove a young 
stag towards us, which was slain by one of the people 

* Rafflesia Cumingii R. Brown, according to Dr. Kuhn. 




with a blow of his bolo. The path ceased a third of the 
way up, but it was not difficult to get through the 
wood. The upper portion of the mountain, however, 
being thickly overgrown with cane, again presented 
great obstacles. About twelve we reached the summit- 
level, which, pierced by no crater, is almost horizontal, 
smoothly arched, and thickly covered with cane. Its 
height is 1,354 meters. In a short time the indefatig- 
able Cimarrons had built a fine large hut of cane: one 
room for myself and the baggage, a large assembly-room 
for the people, and a special apartment for cooking. 
Unfortunately the cane was so wet that it would not 
burn. In order to procure firewood to cook the rice, 
thick branches were got out of the wood, and their com- 
paratively dry pith extracted with great labor. The 
lucifer-matches, too, were so damp that the phos- 
phorus was rubbed away in friction; but, being collected 
on blotting-paper, and kneaded together with the sul- 
phurous end of the match-wood, it became dry and was 
kindled by friction. Not a trace of solid rock was to 
be seen. All was obstructed by a thick overgrowth 
from where the path ceased, and the ground covered 
with a dense bed of damp wood-earth. The following 
morning was fine, and showed a wide panorama; but, 
before I had completed my drawing, it again became 
misty ; and as, after several hours of waiting, the heavens 
were overspread with thick rain-clouds, we set out 
on our return. 

Numerous butterflies swarmed around the summit. 
We could, however, catch only a few, as the passage 
over the cane-stubble was too difficult for naked feet; 
and, the badly-stitched soles of two pairs cf new shoes 
which I had brought from Manila having dropped off 
some time before I reached the summit, I was compelled 
to perform the journey to Ligao barefoot. 

Jayor's Trarels in the Philippines SI I 

On the following day my Spanish host went twice Native contempt 
to the tribunal to procure the carabao carts which were slanilrdl 
necessary for the furtherance of my collections. His 
courteous request was unsuccessful; but the command of 
the parish priest, who personally informed the Gober- 
nadorcillo in his house, was immediately obeyed. The 
Filipino authorities have, as a rule, but little respect 
for private Spanish people, and treat them not seldom 
with open contempt. An official recommendation from 
the alcalde is usually effectual, but not in all the provin- 
ces; for many alcaldes do hurt to their own authority 
by engaging the assistance or connivance of the native 
magistrates in the furtherance of their personal interests. 

I here shot some panikes, great bats with wings nearly <?«»«< bats. 
five feet wide when extended, which in the day time 
hang asleep from the branches of trees, and, among 
them, two mothers with their young sucking ones un- 
injured. It was affecting to see how the little animals 
clung more and more firmly to the bodies of their dying 
parents, and how tenderly they embraced them even after 
these were dead. The apparent feeling, however, was 
only self-interest at bottom, for, when their store of 
milk was exhausted, the old ones were treated without 
respect, like empty bottles. As soon as the young ones 
were separated, they fed on bananas, and lived several 
days, until I at length placed them in spirits. 

Early in the morning I rode on the priest's horse to a muddy 
Legaspi, and in the evening through deep mud to the ^''^ season. 
alcalde at Albay. We were now (June) in the middle 
of the so-called dry season, but it rained almost every 
day; and the road between Albay and Legaspi was worse 
than ever. During my visit information arrived from 
the commandant of the faluas on the south coast that, 
as he was pursuing two pirate vessels, six others suddenly Power of 
made their appearance, in order to cut off his return ; ^'"'° virates. 


No proleclion 
from Govern- 

for which reason he had quickly made his way back. 
The faluas are very strongly manned, and provided with 
cannon, but the crews furnished by the localities on the 
coast are entirely unpractised in the use of fire-arms, 
and moreover hold the Moros in such dread that, if the 
smallest chance offers of flight, they avail themselves 
of it to ensure their safety by making for the land. 
The places on the coast, destitute of other arms than 
wooden pikes, were completely exposed to the pirates, 
who had firmly established themselves in Catanduanes, 
Biri, and several small islands, and seized ships with 
impunity, or robbed men on the land. Almost daily 
fresh robberies and murders were announced from the 
villages on the shore. During a plundering expedition 
the men caught are employed at the oars and at its 
close sold as slaves; and, on the division of the spoil, 
one of the crew falls to the share of the dato (Moro 
chief) who fitted out the vessel.* The coasting vessels 
in these waters, it is true, are mostly provided with 
artillery, but it is generally placed in the hold of the 
ship, as no one on board knows how to use it. If the 
cannon be upon deck, either the powder or the shot is 
wanting; and the captain promises to be better prepared 
next time.j The alcalde reported the outrages of the 
pirates by every post to Manila, as well as the great 
injury done to trade, and spoke of the duty of the Gov- 
ernment to protect its subjects, especially as the latter 
were not permitted to use fire-arms ;+ and from the 

* According to E. Bernaldez ("Guerra al Sur") the number of Spaniards and 
Filipinos kidnapped and killed within thirty years amounted to twenty thousand. 

t The richly laden Nao (Mexican galleon) acted in this way. 

t Extract from a letter of the alcalde to the captain-general, June 20, '60: — 
"For ten days past ten pirate vessels have been lying undisturbed at the island 
of San Miguel, two leagues from Tabaco, and interrupt the communication with 
the island of Catanduanes and the eastern part of Albay. * * * They have 
committed several robberies, and carried off six men. Nothing can be done 
to resist them as there are no fire-arms in the villages, and the only two faluas 
have been detained in the roads of San Bernardino by stress of weather." 

Letter of June 25: — "Besidesthe above private ships four large pancos and four 
small vintas have made their appearance in the straits of San Bernardino. * * * 
Their force amounts from four hundred and fifty to five hundred men. * * * 
Already they have killed sixteen men, kidnapped ten, and captured one ship." 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 

easily eluded. 


gunboats more 

Bisayan Islands came the same cry for help. The Gov- 
ernment, however, was powerless against the evil. If 
the complaints were indeed very urgent, they would 
send a steamer into the waters most infested; but it 
hardly ever came in sight of pirates, although the latter 
were carrying on their depredations close in front and 

At Samars, the principal town, I subsequently met Government 
with a Government steamer, which for fourteen days 
past had been nominally engaged in cruising against the 
pirates; but the latter, generally forewarned by their spies, 
perceive the smoke of the steamers sufficiently soon to 
slip away in their flat boats ; and the officers knew before- 
hand that their cruise would have no other result than 
to show the distressed provinces that their outcry was 
not altogether unnoticed.* 

Twenty small steam gunboats of light draught had 
shortly before been ordered from England, and were 
nearly ready. The first two indeed arrived soon after in 
Manila (they had to be transported in pieces round the 
Cape), and were to be followed by the rest; and they 
were at one time_ almost successful in delivering the 
archipelago from these burdensome pests ;t at least, 
from the proscribed Moros who came every year from 
the Sulu Sea, mostly from the island of Tawitawi, arriv- 
ing in May at the Bisayas, and continuing their depreda- 
tions in the archipelago until the change of the monsoon 

* In Chamisso's time it was even worse. "The expeditions in armed vessels, 
which were sent from Manila to cruise against the enemy (the pirates) * * * 
-serve only to promote smuggling, and Christians and Moros avoid one another 
with equal diligence on such occasions." ("Observations and Views," p. 73.) 
* * * Mas (i. iv. 43) reports to the same effect, according to notices from the 
secretary-general's office at Manila, and adds that the cruisers sold even the 
royal arms and ammunition, which had been entrusted to them, whence much 
passed into the hands of the Moros. The alcaldes were said to influence the 
commanders of the cruisers, and the latter to overreach the alcaldes; but both 
usually made common cause. La Perouse also relates (ii., p. 357), that the alcal- 
des bought a very large number of persons who had been made slaves by the 
pirates (in the Philippines) ; so that the latter were not usually brought to Batavia 
where they were of much less value. 

t According to the Diario dp Manila, March 14, 1866, piracy on the seas had 
diminished, but had not ceased. Paragua, Calamianes, Mindoro, Mindanao, 
-and the Bisayas still suffer from it. Robberies and kidnapping are frequently 
carried on as opportunity favors; and such casual pirates are to be extirpated 
only by extreme severity. According to my latest accounts, piracy is again 
•on the increase. 

SI 4 


Renegades join 
pirates and 

Plants from 

in October or November compelled them to return.* 
In the Philippines they gained new recruits among 
vagabonds, deserters, runaway criminals, and ruined 
spendthrifts; and from the same sources were made up 
the bands of highway robbers (tulisanes), which some- 
times started up, and perpetuated acts of extraordinary 
daring. Not long before my arrival they had made 
an inroad into a suburb of Manila, and engaged with 
the military in the highways. Some of the latter are 
regularly employed in the service against the tulisanes. 
The robbers are not, as a rule, cruel to their victims when 
no opposition is offered. f 

In Legaspi I found awaiting me several chests with 
tin lining, which had been sixteen months on their 
passage by overland route, instead of seven weeks, 
having been conveyed from Berlin by way of Trieste, 
on account of the Italian war. Their contents, which 
had been intended for use in the Philippines exclusively, 
were now for the most part useless. In one chest there 
were two small flasks with glass stoppers, one filled with 
moist charcoal, and the other with moist clay, both 

* The Spaniards attempted the conquest of the Sulu Islands in 1628, 1629, 
1637, 1731, and 1746; and frequent expeditions have since taken place by way of 
reprisals. A great expedition was likewise sent out in October, 1871, against 
Sulu, in crdtr to restrain the piracy which recently was getting the upper hand; 
indeed, a year cr two ago, the pirates had ventured as far as the neighborhood 
of Manila; but in April of this year (1872) the fleet returned to Manila without 
having effected its object. The Spaniards employed in this expedition almost 
the whcle marine fcrce of the colony, fourteen ships, mostly steam gunboats; 
and they bombarded the chief town without inflicting any particular damage, 
while the ^/!c^os withdrew into the interior, and awaited the Spaniards (who, 
indeed, did not venture to land) in a well-equippsd body of five thousand men. 
After months of inactivity the Spaniards burnt down an unarmed place on the 
coast, committing many barbarities on the occasion, but drew back when the 
warricrs advanced to the combat. The ports of the Sulu archipelago are closed 
to trade by a decree, although it is questionable whether all navigatiors will pay 
any regard to it. Not long since the sovereignty of his district was offered by the 
Sultan of Sulu to the King of Prussia; but the offer was declined. 

tThe Diario de Manila of June 4, 1866, states: — "Yesterday the military 
commissicn, established by ordinance of the 3rd August, 1855, discontinued 
its functions. The ordinary tribunals are again in force. The numerous bands 
of thirty, forty, and more individuals, armed to the teeth, which have left be- 
hind them their traces of blood and fire at the doors of Manila and in so many 
other places, are annihilated. * * * More than fifty robbers have expiated 
their crimes on the gallows, and one hundred and forty have been condemned 
to presidio (forced labor) or to other punishments." 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S16 

containing seeds of the Victoria Regia and tubers of red 
and blue nymphae (water-lily). Those in the first flask 
were spoiled, as might have been expected; but in that 
filled with moist clay two tubers had thrown out shoots 
of half an inch in length, and appeared quite sound. I 
planted them at once, and in a few days vigorous leaves 
were developed. One of these beautiful plants, which had 
been originally intended for the Buitenzorg Garden in 
Java, remained in Legaspi; the other I sent to Manila, 
where, on my return, I saw it in full bloom. In the 
charcoal two Victoria seeds had thrown out roots above 
an inch in length, which had rotted off. Most likely they 
had been torn up by the custom-house inspectors, and had 
afterwards rotted, for the neck of the bottle was broken, 
and the charcoal appeared as if it had been stirred. I 
communicated the brilliant result of his mode of packing 
to the Inspector of the Botanical Gardens at Berlin, 
who made a second consignment direct to Java, which 
arrived in the best condition; so that not only the Vic- 
toria, but also the one which had been derived in Berlin 
from an African father and an Asiatic mother, now adorn 
the water-basins of Java with red pond-roses (the latter 
plants probably those of the Philippines also). 

Being compelled by the continuous rain to dry my carpenurinu 
collections in two ovens before packing them, I found J'ffi<:''i^'««- 
that my servant had burned the greater part, so that the 
remains found a place in a roomy chest which I purchased 
for a dollar at an auction. This unfortunately lacked 
a lid; to procure which I was obliged, in the first place, 
to liberate a carpenter who had been imprisoned for 
a small debt; secondly, to advance money for the pur- 
chase of a board and the redemption of his tools out of 
pawn; and even then the work, when it was begun, 
was several times broken off because previous claims of 
violent creditors had to be discharged by labor. In 


five days the lid was completed, at the cost of three 

dollars. It did not last long, however, for in Manila I 

had to get it replaced by a new one. 

Off to At Legaspi I availed myself of an opportunity to reach 

amar. ^^ island of Samar in a small schooner. It is situated 

south-east from Luzon, on the farther side of the Strait 

of San Bernardino, which is three leagues in breadth. 

At the moment of my departure, to my great regret, 

my servant left me, "that he might rest a little from his 

fatigue," for Pepe was good-natured, very skilful, and 

Losi7iga always even-tempered. He had learned much from 

'^'*''^'" the numerous Spanish soldiers and sailors resident in 


Cavite, his native place, where he used to be playfully 
called the "Spaniard of Cavite." Roving from one place 
to another was his delight; and he quickly acquired 
acquaintances. He knew especially how to gain the favor 
of the ladies, for he possessed many social accomplish- 
ments, being equally able to play the guitar and to milk 
the carabao-cows. When we came to a pueblo, where a 
mestiza, or even a "daughter of the country" (creole), 
dwelt, he would, when practicable, ask permission to 
milk a cow; and after bringing the seiiora some of the 
milk, under pretext of being the interpreter of my wishes, 
he would maintain such a flow of ingeniously courteous 
conversation, praising the beauty and grace of the lady, 
and most modestly allowing his prodigious travelling 
adventures to be extracted from him, that both knight 
and esquire beamed with brilliant radiance. A present 
was always welcome, and brought us many a little 
basket of oranges; and carabao milk is excellent with 
chocolate: but it seemed as if one seldom has the oppor- 
tunity of milking a cow. Unfortunately Pepe did not 
like climbing mountains, and when he was to have 
gone with me he either got the stomach-ache or gave 
away my strong shoes, or allowed them to be stolen; 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines SI 7 

the native ones, however, being allowed to remain un- 
touched, for he knew well that they were fit only for 
riding, and derived comfort from the fact. In company 
with me he worked quickly and cheerfully; but, when 
alone, it became tedious to him. Particularly he found 
friends, who hindered him, and then he would abandon 
his skinning of the birds, which therefore became putrid 
and had to be thrown away. Packing was still more 
disagreeable to him, and consequently he did it as quickly 
as possible, though not always with sufficient care, as 
on one occasion he tied up, in one and the same bundle, 
shoes, arsenic-soap, drawings, and chocolate. Not- 
withstanding trifling faults of this kind, he was very 
useful and agreeable to me; but he did not go willingly 
to such an uncivilized island as Samar; and when he 
received his wages in full for eight months all in a lump, 
and so became a small capitalist, he could not resist 
the temptation to rest a little from his labors. 


The island of Samar, which is of nearly rhomboidal Sa 
outline, and with few indentations on its coasts, stretches 
from the north-west to the south-east from 12° 37' to 
10° 54' N.; its mean length being twenty-two miles, its 
breadth eleven, and its area two hundred and twenty 
square miles. It is separated on the south by the small 
strait of San Juanico from the island of Leyte, with 
which it was formerly united into one province. At the 
present time each island has its separate governor. 

By the older authors the island is called Tendaya, ^orm 
Ibabao, and also Achan and Filipina, In later times 
the eastern side was called Ibabao, and the western 

cr names. 

Seasons and 


Samar, which is now the official denomination for the 
whole island, the eastern shore being distinguished as the 

As on the eastern coasts of Luzon, the north-east 
monsoon here exceeds that from the south-west in dura- 
tion and force, the violence of the latter being arrested 
by the islands lying to the southwest, while the north- 
east winds break against the coasts of these easterly 
islands with their whole force, and the additional weight 
of the body of water which they bring with them from 
the open ocean. In October winds fluctuating between 
north-west and north-east occur; but the prevalent ones 
are northerly. In the middle of November the north- 
east is constant; and it blows, with but little intermis- 
sion, from the north until April. This is likewise the 
rainy season, December and January being the wettest, 
when it sometimes rains for fourteen days without inter- 
ruption. In Lauang, on the north coast, the rainy season 
lasts from October to the end of December. From 
January to April it is dry; May, June, and July are 
rainy; and August and September, again, are dry; so 
that here there are two wet and two dry seasons in the 
year. From October to January violent storms (baguios 
or typhoons) sometimes occur. Beginning generally 
with a north wind, they pass to the north-west, accom- 
panied by a little rain, then back to the north, and with 
increasing violence to the north-east and east, where 
they acquire their greatest power, and then moderate 

* According to Arenas ("Memorias," 21") Albay was formerly called Ibalon; 
Tayabas, Calilaya; Batangas, Comintan; Negros, Buglas; Cebu, Sogbu; Min- 
doro, Mait; Samar. Ibabao; and Basilan, Taguima. Mindanao is called Cesarea 
by B. de la Torre, and Samar, by R. Dudleo "Arcano del Mare" (Florence, 1761), 
Camiaia. In Hondiv's map of the Indian islands (Purchas, 60 5) Luzon is 
Luconia; Samar, Achan; Leyte, Sabura; Camarines, Nebui. In Albo's "Jour- 
nal," Cebu is called Suba; and Leyte, Seilani. Pigafetta describes a city called 
Cingapola in Zubu, and Leyte, on his map, is in the north called Baybay, and 
in the south Ceylon. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines £19 

to the south. Sometimes, however, they change rapidly 
from the east to the south, in which quarter they first 
acquire their greatest force. 

From the end of March to the middle of June incon- Winds 
stant easterly winds (N.E.E. and S. E.) prevail, with a '""^ *""''"' 
very heavy sea on the east coast. May is usually calm; 
but in May and June there are frequent thunderstorms, 
introducing the south-west monsoon, which though it 
extends through the months of July, August, and Sep- 
tember, is not so constant as the north-east. The last- 
named three months constitute the dry season, which, 
however, is often interrupted by thunderstorms. Not 
a week, indeed, passes without rain; and in many years 
a storm arises every afternoon. At this season of the 
year ships can reach the east coast ; but during the north- 
east monsoon navigation there is impossible. These 
general circumstances are subject to many local devia- 
tions, particularly on the south and west coasts, where 
the uniformity of the air currents is disturbed by the 
mountainous islands lying in front of them. According 
to the Estado geografico of 1855, an extraordinarily 
high tide, called doJo, occurs every year at the change of 
the monsoon in September or October. It rises sometimes 
sixty or seventy feet, and dashes itself with fearful 
violence against the south and east coasts, doing great 
damage, but not lasting for any length of time. The 
climate of Samar and Leyte appears to be very healthy 
on the coasts; in fact, to be the best of all the islands 
of the archipelago. Dysentery, diarrhoea, and fever 
occur less frequently than in Luzon, and Europeans also 
are less subject to their attacks than in that place. 

The civilized natives live almost solely on its coasts, Only the 
and there are also Bisayans who differ in speech and '^°"*' »«"'«^- 
manners from the Bicols in about the same degree that 
the latter do from the Tagalogs. Roads and villages 


A. tedious 
hut eventful 


are almost entirely wanting in the interior, which is 
covered with a thick wood, and affords sustenance to 
independent tribes, who carry on a little tillage (vege- 
table roots and mountain rice), and collect the products 
of the woods, particularly resin, honey, and wax, in 
which the island is very rich. 

On the 3rd of July we lost sight of Legaspi, and, 
detained by frequent calms, crawled as far as Point 
Montufar, on the northern edge of Albay, then onwards 
to the small island of Viri, and did not reach Lauang 
before evening of the 5th. The mountain range of 
Bacon (the Pocdol of Coello), which on my previous 
journeys had been concealed by night or mist, now 
revealed itself to us in passing as a conical mountain; 
and beside it towered a very precipitous, deeply-cleft 
mountain-side, apparently the remnant of a circular 
range. After the pilot, an old Filipino and native of 
the country, who had made the journey frequently 
before, had conducted us, to begin with, to a wrong 
port, he ran the vessel fast on to the bar, although there 
was sufficient water to sail into the harbor conveniently. 

The district of Lauang (Lahuan), which is encumbered 
with more than four thousand five hundred inhabitants, 
is situated at an altitude of forty feet, on the south- 
west shore of the small island of the same name, which is 
separated from Samar by an arm of the Catubig. Accord- 
ing to a widely-spread tradition, the settlement was 
originally in Samar itself, in the middle of the rice-fields, 
which continue to the present day in that place, until 
the repeated inroads of sea-pirates drove the inhabitants, 
in spite of the inconvenience attending it, to protect 
themselves by settling on the south coast of the little 
island, which rises steeply out of the sea.* The latter 

* No mention is made of it in the Estado geografico of the Franciscans, 
published at Manila in 1855. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines tSt 

consists of almost horizontal banks of tufa, from eight 
to twelve inches in thickness. The strata being con- 
tinually eaten away by the waves at low watermark, the 
upper layers break off; and thus the uppermost parts 
of the strata, which are of a tolerably uniform thick- 
ness, are cleft by vertical fissures, and look like the walls 
of a fortress. Pressed for space, the church and the 
convent have taken up every level bit of the rock at 
various heights; and the effect of this accommodation 
of architecture to the requirements of the ground, though 
not designed by the architect, is most picturesque. 

The place is beautifully situated; but the houses are 
not so frequently as formerly surrounded by little gardens 
while there is a great want of water, and foul odors 
prevail. Two or three scanty springs afford a muddy, 
brackish water, almost at the level of the sea, with which 
the indolent people are content so that they have just 
enough. Wealthy people have their water brought 
from Samar, and the poorer classes are sometimes com- 
pelled, by the drying-up of the springs, to have recourse 
to the same place. The spring-water is not plentiful 
for bathing purposes; and, sea-bathing not being in 
favor, the people consequently are very dirty. Their 
clothing is the same as in Luzon; but the women wear 
no tapis, only a camisa (a short chemise, hardly covering 
the breast), and a say a, mostly of coarse, stiff guinara, 
which forms ugly folds, and when not colored black is 
very transparent. But dirt and a filthy existence form a 
better screen than opaque garments. The inhabitants 
of Lauang rightly, indeed, enjoy the reputation of being 
very idle. Their industry is limited to a little tillage, 
even fishing being so neglected that frequently there is a 
scarcity of fish. In the absence of roads by land, there 

i)i the town. 

The Palapat 

Pirate outrages. 



is hardly any communication by water; and trade is 
mostly carried on by mariners from Catbalogan, who 
exchange the surplus of the harvests for other produce. 

From the convent a view is had of part of the island 
of Samar, the mountain forms of which appear to be a 
continuation of the horizontal strata. In the centre 
of the district, at the distance of some miles, a table 
mountain, famous in the history of the country, towers 
aloft. The natives of the neighboring village of Palapat 
retreated to it after having killed their priest, a too 
covetous Jesuit father, and for years carried on a 
guerilla warfare with the Spaniards until they were 
finally overpowered by treachery. 

The interior of the country is difficult to traverse 
from the absence of roads, and the coasts are much 
infested by pirates. Quite recently several pontins 
and four schooners, laden with abaca, were captured, 
and the crews cruelly murdered, their bodies having 
been cut to pieces. This, however, was opposed to 
their general practice, for the captives are usually em- 
ployed at the oars during the continuance of the foray, 
and afterwards sold as slaves in the islands of the Sulu 
sea. It was well that we did not encounter the pirates, 
for, although we carried four small cannons on board, 
nobody understood how to use them.* 

The governor, who was expected to conduct the elec- 
tion of the district officials in person, but was prevented 
by illness, sent a deputy. As the annual elections are 
conducted in the same manner over the whole country, 
that at which I was present may be taken as typical 
of the rest. It took place in the common hall; the gov- 

* Small ships which have no cannon should be provided with pitchers filled 
with water and the fruit of the sacchariferous arenga, for the purpose of be- 
sprinkling the pirates, in the event of an attack, with the corrosive mixture, 
which causes a burning heat. Dumont d'Urville mentions that the inhabitants 
of Solo had, during his visit, poisoned the wells with the same fruit. The kernels 
preserved in sugar are an agreeable confection. 


Jayor's Travels in the Fhilippines i£S 

emor (or his deputy) sitting at the table, with the pastor 
on his right hand, and the clerk on his left — the latter 
also acting as interpreter; while Cabezas de Barangay, 
the gobernadorcillo, and those who had previously 
filled the office, took their places all together on benches. 
First of all, six cabezas and as many gobernadorcillos 
are chosen by lot as electors; the actual gobernadorcillo 
is the thirteenth, and the rest quit the hall. After the 
reading of the statutes by the president, who exhorts 
the electors to the conscientious performance of their 
duty, the latter advance singly to the table, and write 
three names on a piece of paper. Unless a valid protest 
be made either by the parish priest or by the electors, 
the one who has the most votes is forthwith named 
gobernadorcillo for the coming year, subject to the 
approval of the superior jurisdiction at Manila; which, 
however, always consents, for the influence of the priest 
would provide against a disagreeable election. The 
election of the other functionaries takes place in the same 
manner, after the new gobernadorcillo has been first 
summoned into the hall, in order that, if he have any 
important objections to the officers then about to be 
elected, he may be able to make them. The whole 
affair was conducted very quietly and with dignity.* 

On the following morning, accompanied by the oblig- i^' "satisfactory 

forced labor. 

ing priest, who was followed by nearly all the boys 
of the village, I crossed over in a large boat to Samar. 
Out of eleven strong baggage porters whom the governor's 
representative had selected for me, four took possession 
of some trifling articles and sped away with them, three 

* There were also elected a teniente mayor (deputy of the gobernadorcillo), 
a juez mayor (superior judge) for the fields, who is always an ex-captain; a 
second judge for the police; a third judge for disputes relating to cattle; a 
second and third teniente; and first and second policemen; and finally, in addi- 
tion, a teniente, a judge, and a policeman for each visita. All three of the judges 
can be ex-capitanes, but no ex-capitan can be teniente. The first teniente must 
be taken from the higher class, the others may belong either to that or to the 
common people. The policemen (alguacils) are always of the latter class. 


A pirate base. 

monopultj of 

others hid themselves in the bush, and four had previously 
decamped at Lauang. The baggage was divided and 
distributed amongst the four porters who were detained, 
and the little boys who had accompanied us for their 
own pleasure. We followed the sea-shore in a westerly 
direction, and at a very late hour reached the nearest 
visita (a suburban chapel and settlement) where the 
priest was successful, after much difficulty, in supplying 
the places of the missing porters. On the west side 
of the mouth of the Pambujan a neck of land projects 
into the sea, which is a favorite resort of the sea-pirates, 
who from their shelter in the wood command the shore 
which extends in a wide curve on both sides, and forms 
the only communication between Lauang and Catarman. 
Many travellers had already been robbed in this place; 
and the father, who was now accompanying me thus 
far, had, with the greatest difficulty, escaped the same 
danger only a few weeks before. 

The last part of our day's journey was performed very 
cautiously. A messenger who had been sent on had 
placed boats at all the mouths of rivers, and, as hardly 
any other Europeans besides ecclesiastics are known in 
this district, I was taken in the darkness for a Capuchin 
in travelling attire; the men lighting me with torches 
during the passage, and the women pressing forward 
to kiss my hand. I passed the night on the road, and 
on the following day reached Catarman (Caladman on 
Coello's map), a clean, spacious locality numbering 
6,358 souls, at the mouth of the river of the same name. 
Six pontins from Catbalogan awaited their cargoes of 
rice for Albay. The inhabitants of the north coast are 
too indifferent sailors to export their products them- 
selves, and leave it to the people of Catbalogan, who, 
having no rice-fields, are obliged to find employment 
for their activity in other places. 

Jagor's Trarels in the Philippines 235 

The river Catarman formerly emptied further to the -■^ changed 
east, and was much choked with mud. In the year ^Zlltown^ 
1851, after a continuous heavy rain, it worked for itself, 
in the loose soil which consists of quartz sand and frag- 
ments of mussels, a new and shorter passage to the sea — 
the present harbor, in which ships of two hundred tons 
can load close to the land; but in doing so it destroyed 
the greater part of the village, as well as the stone 
church and the priest's residence. In the new convent 
there are two salons, one 16.2 by 8.8, the other 9 by 
7.6 paces in dimensions, boarded with planks from a 
single branch of a dipterocarpus (guiso). The pace is 
equivalent to 30 inches; and, assuming the thickness of 
the boards, inclusive of waste, to be one inch, this would 
give a solid block of wood as high as a table (two and 
one-half feet), the same in breadth, eighteen feet in 
length, and of about one hundred and ten cubic feet.* The 
houses are enclosed in gardens; but some of them only 
by fencing, within which weeds luxuriate. At the re- 
building of the village, after the great flood of water, 
the laying out of gardens was commanded; but the indus- 
try which is required to preserve them is often wanting. 
Pasture grounds extend themselves, on the south side 
of the village, covered with fine short grass; but, with the 
exception of some oxen and sheep belonging to the 
priest, there are no cattle. 

Still without servants, I proceeded with my baggage I'p 'he river. 
in two small boats up the river, on both sides of which 
rice-fields and coco-groves extended; but the latter, 
being concealed by a thick border of Nipa palms and 
lofty cane, are only visible occasionally through the gaps. 
The sandy banks, at first flat, became gradually steeper. 

*G. Squier ("States of Central America," 192) mentions a block of mahogany, 
seventeen feet in length, which, at its lowest section, measured five feet six, 
inches square, and contained altogether five hundred fifty cubic feet. 

Salta Sangley 


and the rock soon showed itself close at hand, with firm 
banks of sandy clay containing occasional traces of 
indistinguishable petrifactions. A small mussel* has 
pierced the clay banks at the water-line, in such number 
that they look like honeycombs. About twelve we 
cooked our rice in an isolated hut, amongst friendly 
people. The women whom we surprised in dark ragged 
clothing of guinara drew back ashamed, and soon after 
appeared in clean chequered sayas, with earrings of 
brass and tortoise-shell combs. When I drew a little 
naked girl, the mother forced her to put on a garment. 
About two we again stepped into the boat, and after 
rowing the whole night reached a small visita, Cobocobo, 
about nine in the forenoon. The rowers had worked 
without interruption for twenty-four hours, exclusive 
of the two hours' rest at noon, and though somewhat 
tired were in good spirits. 

At half-past two we set out on the road over the Salta 
Sangley (Chinese leap) to Tragbucan, which, distant 
about a mile in a straight line, is situated at the place 
where the Calbayot, which empties on the west coast at 
Point Hibaton, becomes navigable for small boats. By 
means of these two rivers and the short but troublesome 
road, a communication exists between the important 
stations of Catarman on the north coast, and Calbayot 
on the west coast. The road, which at its best part is 
a small path in the thick wood uninvaded by the sun, 
and frequently is only a track, passes over slippery 
ridges of clay, disappearing in the mud puddles in the 
intervening hollows, and sometimes running into the 
bed of the brooks. The watershed between the Catar- 
man and Calbayot is formed by the Salta Sangley already 

* According to Dr. V. Martens, Modiola striatula, Hanley, who found the 
same bivalve at Singajxire, in brackish water, but considerably larger. Reeve 
also delineates the species collected by Gumming in the Philippines, without 
precise mention of the locality, as being larger (38 mm.), that from Catarman 
being 17 mm. 

JagoT's Travels in the Philippines SS7 

mentioned, a flat ridge composed of banks of clay and 
sandstone, which succeed one another ladder-wise down- 
wards on both its sides, and from which the water 
collected at the top descends in little cascades. In the 
most difficult places rough ladders of bamboo are fixed. 
I counted fifteen brooks on the north-east side which 
feed the Catarman, and about the same number of 
feeders of the Calbayot on the south-west side. About 
forty minutes past four we reached the highest point 
of the Salta Sangley, about ninety feet above the sea; 
and at half-past six we got to a stream, the highest part 
of the Calbayot, in the bed of which we wandered until 
its increasing depth forced us, in the dark, laboriously 
to beat out our path through the underwood to its bank ; 
and about eight o'clock we found ourselves opposite 
the visita Tragbucan. The river at this place was 
already six feet deep, and there was not a boat. After 
shouting entreaties and threats for a long time, the people, 
who were startled out of sleep by a revolver shot, agreed 
to construct a raft of bamboo, on which they put us 
and our baggage. The little place, which consists 
of only a few poor huts, is prettily situated, surrounded 
as it is by wooded hillocks on a plateau of sand fifty feet 
above the reed -bordered river. 

Thanks to the activity of the teniente of Catarman On the 

, . , 1 , J -iL i. Calbayot River. 

who accompanied me, a boat was procured without 
delay, so that we were able to continue our journey about 
seven o'clock. The banks were from twenty to forty 
feet high; and, with the exception of the cry of some 
rhinoceros birds which fluttered from bough to bough 
on the tops of the trees, we neither heard nor saw a 
trace of animal life. About half-past eleven we reached 
Taibago, a small visita, and about half-past one a similar 
one, Magubay; and after two hours' rest at noon, about 
five o'clock, we got into a current down which we skil- 



An ingenious 

fully floated, almost without admitting any water. 
The river, which up to this point is thirty feet broad, 
and on account of many projecting branches of trees 
difficult to navigate, here is twice as broad. About 
eleven at night we reached the sea, and in a complete 
calm rowed for the distance of a league along the coast to 
Calbayot, the convent at which place affords a command- 
ing view of the islands lying before it. 

A thunderstorm obliged us to postpone the journey 
to the chief town, Catbalogan (or Catbalonga), which 
was seven leagues distant, until the afternoon. In a 
long boat, formed out of the stem of one tree, and fur- 
nished with outriggers, we travelled along the shore, 
which is margined by a row of low-wooded hills with 
many small visitas ; and as night was setting in we rounded 
the point of Napalisan, a rock of trachytic conglomerate 
shaped by perpendicular fissures with rounded edges 
into a series of projections like towers, which rises up 
out of the sea to the height of sixty feet, like a knight's 
castle. At night we reached Catbalogan, the chief 
town of the island, with a population of six thousand, 
which is picturesquely situated in the middle of the 
western border, in a little bay surrounded by islands and 
necks of land, difficult to approach and, therefore, little 
guarded. Not a single vessel was anchored in the 

The houses, many of which are of boards, are neater 
than those in Camarines; and the people, though idle, 
are more modest, more honorable, more obliging, and 
of cleaner habits, than the inhabitants of South Luzon. 
Through the courtesy of the governor I quickly obtained 
a roomy dwelling, and a servant who understood Spanish. 
Here I also met a very intelligent Filipino who had 
acquired great skill in a large variety of crafts. With the 
simplest tools he improved in many points on my instru- 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


ments and apparatus, the purpose of which he quickly 
comprehended to my entire satisfaction, and gave many 
proofs of considerable intellectual ability. 

In Samar the flying monkey or lemur (the kaguang 
of the Bisayans — galeopithecus) is not rare. These 
animals, which are of the size of the domestic cat, belong 
to the quadrumana; but, like the flying squirrels, they 
are provided with a bird-like membrane, which, com- 
mencing at the neck, and passing over the fore and hinder 
limbs, reaches to the tail; by means of which they are 
able to glide from one tree to another at a very obtuse 
angle.* Body and membrane are clothed with a very 
short fur, which nearly equals the chinchilla in firmness 
and softness, and is on that account in great request. 
While I was there, six live kaguangs arrived as a present 
for the priest (three light grey, one dark brown, and two 
greyish brown; all with irregularly distributed spots); 
and from these I secured a little female with her young. 

It appeared to be a very harmless, awkward animal. 
When liberated from its fetters, it remained lying on the 
ground with all its four limbs stretched out, and its 
belly in contact with the earth, and then hopped in short 
awkward leaps, without thereby raising itself from the 
ground, to the nearest wall, which was of planed boards. 
Arrived there, it felt about it for a long time with the 
sharp claw, which is bent inwards, of its fore-hand, 
until at length it realized the impossiblity of climbing 
it at any part. It succeeded by means of a corner or 
an accidental crevice in climbing a foot upwards, and 
fell down again immediately, because it had abandoned 
the comparatively secure footing of its hinder limbs 
before its fore-claws had obtained a firm hold. It 

* In Sumatra Wallace saw, in the twilight, a lemur run up the trunk of a 
tree, and then glide obliquely through the air to another trunk, by which he 
nearly reached the ground. The distance between the two trees amounted to 
210 feet, and the difference of height was not above 35 or 40 feet; consequently, 
less than 1:5. — ("Malay Archipelago," i. 211). 

The flying 

A hasty and 




received no hurt, as the violence of the fall was broken 
by the flying membrane which was rapidly extended. 
These attempts, which were continued with steady 
perseverance, showed an astonishing deficiency of judg- 
ment, the animal endeavoring to do much more than 
was in its power to accomplish. All its endeavors, 
therefore, were unsuccessful, though made without doing 
itself any hurt — thanks to the parachute with which 
Nature had provided it. Had the kaguang not been in 
the habit of relying so entirely on this convenient con- 
trivance, it probably would have exercised its judgment 
to a greater extent, and formed a more correct estimate 
of its ability. The animal repeated its fruitless efforts 
so often that I no longer took any notice of it, and after 
some time it disappeared: but I found it again in a dark 
corner, under the roof, where it would probably have 
waited for the night in order to continue its flight. 
Evidently it had succeeded in reaching the upper edge 
of the boarded wall by squeezing its body between this 
and the elastic covering of bamboo hurdle-work which 
lay firmly imposed upon it; so that the poor creature, 
which I had rashly concluded was stupid and awkward, 
had, under the circumstances, manifested the greatest 
possible skill, prudence, and perseverance. 
A promise of A pricst who was present on a visit from Calbigan 

rare animals . . ,.,.,.. , , 

and wild people, promised mc SO many wonders m his district — abundance 
of the rarest animals, and Cimarrones uncivilized in the 
highest degree — that I accompanied him, on the follow- 
ing day, in his journey home. In an hour after our 
departure we reached the little island of Majava, 
which consists of perpendicular strata of a hard, fine- 
grained, volcanic tufa, with small, bright crystals of 
hornblende. The island of Buat (on Coello's map) is 
called by our mariners Tubigan. In three hours we 
reached Umauas, a dependency of Calbigan. It is 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines SSI 

situated, fifty feet above the sea, in a bay, before which 
(as is so often the case on this coast) a row of small pictur- 
esque islands succeed one another, and is exactly four 
leagues from Catbalogan. But Calbigan, which we 
reached towards evening, is situated two leagues N.N.E. 
from Umauas, surrounded by rice -fields, forty feet 
above the river of the same name, and almost a league 
and a half from its mouth. A tree with beautiful 
violet-blue panicles of blossoms is especially abundant 
on the banks of the Calbigan, and supplies a most 
valuable wood for building purposes in the Philippines. 
It is considered equal to teak, like which it belongs 
to the class verbenaceae; and its inland name is molave Moiave. 
(Vitex geniculata, Blanco). 

According to the statements of credible men, there are 
serpent-tamers in this country. They are said to pipe 
the serpents out of their holes, directing their move- 
ments, and stopping and handling them at will, without 
being injured by them. The most famous individual 
amongst them, however, had been carried off by the 
sea-pirates a short time before; another had run away 
to the Cimarronese in the mountains; and the third, 
whose reputation did not appear to be rightly established, 
accompanied me on my excursion, but did not justify 
the representations of his friends. He caught two poi- 
sonous serpents,* which we encountered on the road, 
by dexterously seizing them immediately behind the 
head, so that they were incapable of doing harm; and, 
when he commanded them to lie still, he took the precau- 
tion of placing his foot on their necks. In the chase I 
hurt my foot so severely against a sharp-pointed branch 
which was concealed by the mud that I was obliged to 
return to Catbalogan without effecting my object. 
The inhabitants of Calbigan are considered more active 

* According to W. Peters, Tropidolaenus Philippinensis, Gray. 


A coral garden. 

Ornamental but 
useless forts. 

and circumspect than those on the west coast, and they 
are praised for their honesty. I found them very skil- 
ful; and they seemed to take an evident pleasure in 
making collections and preparing plants and animals, 
so that I would gladly have taken with me a servant 
from the place; but they are so reluctant to leave their 
village that all the priest's efforts to induce one to 
ride with us were fruitless. 

At a short distance north-west from Catbalogan a most 
luxuriant garden of corals is to be observed in less than 
two fathoms, at the ebb. On a yellow carpet of calca- 
reous polyps and sponges, groups of leather-like stalks, 
finger-thick, lift themselves up like stems of vegetable 
growth; their upper ends thickly covered with polyps 
{Sarcophyton puhno Esp.), which display their roses of 
tentacula wide open, and resplendent with the most 
beautiful varying colors, looking, in fact, like flowers 
in full bloom. Very large serpulites extend from their 
calcareous tubes, elegant red, blue, and yellow crowns 
of feelers, and, while little fishes of marvellously gor- 
geous color dart about in this fairy garden, in their midst 
luxuriantly grow delicate, feathered plumulariae. 

Bad weather and the flight of my servant, who had 
gambled away some money with which he had been 
entrusted, at a cock-fight, having detained me some days 
in the chief town, I proceeded up the bay, which extends 
southwards from Catbalogan and from west to east as far 
as Paranas. Its northern shore consists of ridges of 
earth, regular and of equal height, extending from north 
to south, with gentle slopes towards the west, but steep 
declivities on the east, and terminating abruptly towards 
the sea. Nine little villages are situated on this coast 
between Catbalogan and Paranas. From the hollows, 
amidst coco and betel palms, they expand in isolated 
groups of houses up the gentle western slopes, and, on 

Jagor'a Travels in the Philippines S33 

reaching the summit, terminate in a little castle, which 
hardly affords protection against the pirates, but gen- 
erally forms a pretty feature in the landscape. In front 
of the southern edge of the bay, and to the south- 
west, many small islands and wooded rocks are visible, 
with the mountains of Leyte in the high-ground, consti- 
tuting an ever-shifting series of views. 

As the men, owing to the sultry heat, the complete Paranas. 
calm, and almost cloudless sky, slept quite as much as 
they rowed, we did not reach Paranas before the after- 
noon. It is a clean village, situated on a declivity be- 
tween twenty and a hundred and fifty feet above the 
sea. The sides, which stand perpendicularly in the 
sea, consist of grey banks of clay receding landwards, 
and overspread with a layer of fragments of mussels, 
the intervals between which are filled up with clay, 
and over the latter is a solid breccia, cemented with 
lime, composed of similar fragments. In the clay banks 
are well-preserved petrifactions, so similar in color, 
habitat, and aspect to many of those in the German 
tertiary formations that they might be taken for them. 
The breccia also is fossil, probably also tertiary; at all 
events, the identity of the few species which were re- 
cognisable in it — Cerithium, Pecten, and Venus — with 
living species could not be determined.* 

On the following morning I proceeded northwards by a yi canal through 
small canal, through a stinking bog of rhizophora (man- '^'' ^""■ 
groves), and then continued my journey on land to 
Loquilocun, a little village which is situated in the forest. 
Half-way we passed through a river, twenty feet broad, 
flowing east to west, with steep banks rendered accessible 
by ladders. 

* V. Martens identified amongst the tertiary mussels of the banks of clay the 
following species, which still live in the Indian Ocean: — Venus (Hemilapes) 
hiantina. Lam.; V. squamosa, L.; Area recillei, Phil.; A. inaequisahis, Brag.; 
A. chalranthum, Rv., and the genera Yoldia, Pleurotoma, Cuvieria, Dentalium, 
without being able to assert their identity with living species. 



Poor roads. 

Running the 


As I still continued lame (wounds in the feet are diffi- 
cult to heal in warm countries), I caused myself to be 
carried part of the way in the manner which is customary 
hereabouts. The traveller lies on a loose mat, which 
is fastened to a bamboo frame, borne on the shoulders 
of four robust polistas. About every ten minutes the 
bearers are relieved by others. As a protection against 
sun and rain, the frame is furnished with a light roof 
of pandanus. 

The roads were pretty nearly as bad as those at the 
Salta Sangley; and, with the exception of the sea-shore, 
which is sometimes available, there appear to be none 
better in Samar. After three hours we reached the 
Loquilocun, which, coming from the north, here touches 
its most southerly point, and then flows south-east to 
the great ocean. Through the kind care of the governor, 
I found two small boats ready, which were propelled 
with wonderful dexterity by two men squatted at the 
extreme ends, and glided between the branches of the 
trees and rocks into the bed of the rapid mountain 
torrent. Amidst loud cheers both the boats glided down 
a cascade of a foot and a half in height without shipping 
any water. 

The little village of Loquilocun consists of three groups 
of houses on three hillocks. The inhabitants were 
very friendly, modest, and obliging, and so successful 
in collecting that the spirits of wine which I had with 
me was quickly consumed. In Catbalogan my messen- 
gers were able with difficulty to procure a few small 
flasks. Through the awkward arrangements of a too 
obliging friend, my own stores, having been sent to a 
wrong address, did not reach me until some months 
afterwards; and the palm-wine, which was to be bought 
in Samar, was too weak. One or two boats went out 
daily to fish for me; but I obtained only a few specimens, 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


which belonged to almost as many species and genera. 
Probably the bad custom of poisoning the water in order 
to kill the fish (the pounded fruit of a Barringtonia 
here being employed for the purpose) is the cause of 
the river being so empty of fish. 

After a few days we left the little place about half- 
past nine in the forenoon, packed closely in two small 
boats; and, by seven minutes past one when we reached 
an inhabited hut in the forest, we had descended more 
than forty streams of a foot and a foot and a half and 
more in depth. The more important of them have names 
which are correctly given on Coello's map; and the 
following are their distances by the watch: — At ten 
o'clock we came to a narrow, rocky chasm, at the ex- 
tremity of which the water falls several feet below into 
a large basin; and here we unloaded the boats, which 
hitherto had, under skilful management, wound their 
way, like well-trained horses, between all the impedi- 
ments in the bed of the river and over all the cascades 
and waves, almost without taking any water; only two 
men remaining in each boat, who, loudly cheering, 
shot downwards; in doing which the boats were filled 
to the brim. 

Opposite this waterfall a bank of rubbish had been 
formed by the alluvium, in which, besides fragments of 
the subjacent rock, were found well-rounded pieces of 
jasper and porphyry, as well as some bits of coal con- 
taining several pyrites, which had probably been brought 
during the rain from higher up the river. Its origin 
was unknown to the sailors. From fifty-six minutes 
past eleven to twelve o'clock there was an uninterrupted 
succession of rapids, which were passed with the greatest 
dexterity, without taking in water. Somewhat lower 
down, at about three minutes past twelve, we took in 
so much water that we were compelled to land and bale 

Numerous small 

Jasper and coal. 


it out. At about fifteen minutes past twelve, we pro- 
ceeded onwards, the river now being on the average 
sixty feet broad. On the edge of the wood some slender 
palms, hardly ten feet high, were remarkable by their 
frequency, and many phalaenopses by their display of 
blossoms, which is of rare occurrence. Neither birds 
nor apes, nor serpents were observed; but large pythons, 
as thick as one's leg are said to be not unfrequent. 

Big pythons. About thirty-six minutes past twelve we reached one 

of the most difficult places — a succession of waves, with 
many rocks projecting out of the water, between which 
the boats, now in full career, and with rapid evolutions, 
glided successfully. The adventure was accomplished 
with equal skill by the two crews, who exerted their 
powers to the utmost. At seventeen minutes past one 

Dint poTtaye. ^g arrived at Dini, the most considerable waterfall in 
the whole distance; and here we had to take the boats 
out of the water; and, availing ourselves of the lianas 
which hung down from the lofty forest trees like ropes, 
we dragged them over the rocks. At twenty-one minutes 
past two we resumed our journey; and from twenty- 
two minutes past to half past eight we descended an 
irregular stair composed of several ledges, shipping 
much water. Up to this point the Loquilocun flowed 
in a rocky bed, with (for the most part) steep banks, 
and sometimes for a long distance under a thick canopy 
of boughs, from which powerful tendrils and ferns, more 
than a fathom in length, were suspended. Here the 
country was to some extent open; flat hillocks, with low 
underwood, came to view, and, on the north-west, loftier 
wooded mountains. The last two hours were notable for 
a heavy fall of rain, and, about half past five, we reached 
a solitary house occupied by friendly people, where 
we took up our quarters for the night. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines SS7 

On the following morning the journey was continued O""'" "*« '^''^• 
down the river. Within ten minutes we glided past the 
last waterfall, between white calcareous rocks of a kind of 
marble, covered with magnificent vegetation. Branches, 
completely covered with phakpnopses (P. Aphrodite, 
Reichb. fls.), projected over the river, their flowers 
waving like large gorgeous butterflies over its foaming 
current. Two hours later the stream became two hun- 
dred feet broad, and, after leaping down a ladder of 
fifty meters in height from Loquilocun, it steals away 
in gentle windings through a flat inundated country to 
the east coast; forming a broad estuary, on the right 
bank of which, half a league from the sea, the district 
of Jubasan or Paric (population 2,300) is situated. The 
latter give their names to the lower portion of the stream. 
Here the excellent fellows of Loquilocun left me in order 
to begin their very arduous return journey. 

Owing to bad weather, I could not embark for Tubig Along the coast. 
(population 2,858), south of Paric, before the following 
day; and, being continually hindered by difficulties of 
land transit, I proceeded in the rowboat along the coast 
to Borongan (population 7,685), with the equally in- 
telligent and obliging priest with whom I remained 
some days, and then continued my journey to Guiuan 
(also Guiuang, Guiguan), the most important district 
in Samar (population 10,781), situated on a small neck 
of land which projects from the south-east point of the 
island into the sea. 

Close to the shore at the latter place a copious spring a udeiand 


bursts out of five or six openings, smelling slightly of 
sulphuretted hydrogen. It is covered by the sea during 
the flow, but is open during the ebb, when its salt taste 
is hardly perceptible. In order to test the water, a well 
was formed by sinking a deep bottomless jar, and from 
this, after the water had flowed for the space of half 


an hour, a sample was taken, which, to my regret, was 
afterwards lost. The temperature of the water of the 
spring, at eight o'clock in the forenoon, was 27.7°; of 
the atmosphere, 28.7°; of the sea-water, 31.2°C. The 
spring is used by the women to dye their sarongs. The 
materials, after being steeped in the decoction of a bark 
abounding in tannin (materials made of the abaca are 
first soaked in a calcareous preparation), and dried in 
the sun, are placed in the spring during the ebb, taken 
out during the flow, re-dried, dipped in the decoction 
of bark, and again, while wet, placed in the spring; 
and this is repeated for the space of thr^e days; when 
the result is a durable, but ugly inky black (gallussaures, 
oxide of iron). 
East Indian ^|- LoQuilocun and Borongan I had an opportunity 

of purchasing two live macaques.* These extremely 
delicate and rare little animals, which belong to the 
class of semi-apes, are, as I was assured in Luzon and 
Leyte, to be found only in Samar, and live exclusively 
on charcoal. My first "mago" was, in the beginning, 
somewhat voracious, but he disdained vegetable food, 
and was particular in his choice of insects, devouring 
live grasshoppers with delight. f It was extremely 
ludicrous, when he was fed in the day time, to see the 
animal standing, perched up perpendicularly on his 
two thin legs with his bare tail, and turning his large 
head — round as a ball, and with very large, yellow, 
owl-like eyes — in every direction, looking like a dark 
lantern on a pedestal with a circular swivel. Only 
gradually did he succeed in fixing his eyes on the object 
presented to him; but, as soon as he did perceive it, 

* Tarsius spectrum. Tern.; in the language of the country — mago. 

t Father Camel mentions that the little animal is said to live only on coal, 
but that it was an error, for he ate the ficus Indica (by which we here understand 
him to mean the banana) and other fruits. (Camel de quadruped. Phil. Trans., 
1706 — 7. London.) Camel also gives (p. 194) an interesting account of the 
kaguang, which is accurate at the present day. — Ibid., ii. S. 2197. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


he immediately extended his little arms sideways, as 
though somewhat bashful, and then, like a delighted 
child, suddenly seizing it with hand and mouth at once, 
he deliberately tore the prey to pieces. During the day 
the mago was sleepy, short-sighted, and, when disturbed, 
morose; but with the decreasing daylight he expanded 
his pupils, and moved about in a lively and agile manner, 
with rapid noiseless leaps, generally sideways. He soon 
became tame, but to my regret died after a few weeks; 
and I succeeded only for a short time in keeping the 
second little animal alive. 


In Guiuan I was visited by some Micronesians, who 
for the last fourteen days had been engaged at Sulangan 
on the small neck of land south-east from Guiuan, in 
diving for pearl mussels (mother-of-pearl), having under- 
taken the dangerous journey for the express purpose.* 
They had sailed from Uleai (UHai, 7° 20' N., 143° 57' 
E. Gr.) in five boats, each of which had a crew of nine 
men and carried forty gourds full of water, with coconuts 
and batata. Every man received one coconut daily, 
and two batatas, which they baked in the ashes of the 
coco shells; and they caught some fish on the way, and 
collected a little rain-water. During the day they 
directed their course by the sun, and at night by the 

* The following communication appeared for the first time in the reports of 
a session of the Anthropological Society of Berlin; but my visitors were there 
denominated Palaos islanders. But, as Prof. Semper, who spent a long time on 
the true Palaos (Pelew) islands, correctly shows in the "Corresp.-Bl. f. Anthro- 
pol.," 1871, No. 2, that Uliai belongs to the group of the Carolinas, I have here 
retained the more common expression, Micronesian, although those men, 
respecting whose arrival from Uliai no doubt existed, did not call themselves 
Caroline islanders, but Palaos. As communicated to me by Dr. Graeffe, who 
lived many years in Micronesia, Palaos is a loose expression like Kanaka and 
many others, and does not, at all events, apply exclusively to the inhabitants 
of the Pelew group. 

Pearl divers 
from the 

Hardships and 
perils of their 


stars. A storm destroyed the boats. Two of them sank, 
together with their crews, before the eyes of their com- 
panions, and of these, only one — probably the sole 
individual rescued — two weeks afterwards reached the 
harbor of Tandag, on the east coast of Mindanao. The 
party remained at Tandag two weeks, working in the 
fields for hire, and then proceeded northwards along 
the coast to Cantilang, 8° 25' N.; Banouan (called erro- 
neously Bancuan by Coello), 9° 1' N.; Taganaan, 9° 25' 
N.; thence to Surigao, on the north point of Mindanao; 
and then, with an easterly wind, in two days, direct 
to Guiuan. In the German translation of Captain 
Salmon's "History of the Oriental Islands" (Altona, 
1733), it is stated that: 

Castaways from "Somc Other islands on the east of the Philippines have 
the Peiews. lately been discovered which have received the name of 

the New Philippines because they are situated in the 
neighborhood of the old, which have been already de- 
scribed. Father Clan (Clain), in a letter from Manila, 
which has been incorporated in the 'Philosophical 
Transactions,' makes the following statement respecting 
them: — It happened that when he was in the town of 
Guivam, on the island of Samar, he met twenty-nine 
Palaos (there had been thirty, but one died soon after 
in Guiuan), or natives of certain recently discovered 
islands, who had been driven thither by the east winds, 
which prevail from December to May. According to 
their own statement, they were driven about by the winds 
for seventy days, without getting sight of land, until they 
arrived opposite to Guivam. When they sailed from 
their own country, their two boats were quite full, 
carrying thirty-five souls, including their wives and child- 
ren; but several had died miserably on the way from the 
fatigue which they had undergone. When some one 
from Guivam wished to go on board to them, they were 
thrown into such a state of terror that all who were in 
one of the boats sprang overboard, along with their 
wives and children. However, they at last thought it 

Jagor's Trrweh in the Philippines 2^1 

best to come into the harbor; so they came ashore on 
December 28, 1696. They fed on coconuts and roots, 
which were charitably supplied to them, but refused 
even to taste cooked rice, which is the general food of 
the Asiatic nations. Two women who had previously Previous 
been cast away on the same islands acted as interpreters castaways. 
for them.* * * 

"The people of the country went half naked, and the Lived by sea- 
men painted their bodies with spots and all kinds of ^'JlZtuef 
devices. * * * As long as they were on the sea they 
lived on fish, which they caught in a certain kind of 
fish-basket, with a wide mouth but tapering to a point 
at the bottom, which was dragged along underneath 
the boats; and rain-water, when they could catch it 
(or, as is stated in the letter itself, preserved in the shells 
of the coconut), served them for drink. When they 
were about to be taken into the presence of the Father, 
whom, from the great respect which was shown to him, 
they took for the governor, they colored their bodies 
entirely yellow, an operation which they considered 
highly important, as enabling them to appear as persons 
of consideration. They are very skilful divers, and now 
and then find pearls in the mussels which they bring up, 
which, however, they throw away as useless things." 

But one of the most important parts of Father Clain's -^"^ «''« /''"»■' 
letter has been omitted byCapt. Salmon: — "The oldest of ^'""^ ^'""""'■ 
these strangers had once before been cast away on the coast 
of the province of Caragan, on one of our islands (Min- 
danao); but as he found only heathens (infidels), who 
lived in the mountains or on the desert shore, he 
returned to his own country." 

In a letter from Father Cantova to Father d'Aubenton, Yap camoies 
dated from Agdana (/. e. Agana, of the Marianne Islands), p7«T/'''^"' 
March 20,1722, describing the Caroline and Pelew Islands , 
it is said: — "The fourth district lies to the west. Yap 
(9° 25' N., 138° 1' E. Gr.),* which is the principal island, 

* Dumont d'Urville, Vutjii:/! to Ih, Smitli Pole. v. 206, remarks that the 
natives call their island Gouap or Ouap. but never Yap; and that the husbandry 
in that place was superior to anything he had seen in the South Sea. 


is more than forty leagues in circumference. Besides 
the different roots which are used by the natives of the 
island instead of bread, there is the batata, which they 
call camote, and which they have acquired from the 
Philippines, as I was informed by one of our Caroline 
Indians, who is a native of the island. He states that 
his father, named Coorr, * * * three of his brothers, and 
himself had been cast away in a storm on one of the prov- 
inces in the Philippines, which was called Bisayas; that 
a missionary of our society (Jesus) received them in a 
friendly manner * * * that on returning to their own 
island they took with them the seeds of different plants, 
other arrivals of amongst othcrs the batata, which multiplied so fast 
that they had sufficient to supply the other islands of 
the Archipelago with them." Murillo Velarde states 
that in 1708 some Palaos were wrecked in a storm on 
Palapag (north coast of Samar) ; and I personally had the 
opportunity, in Manila, of photographing a company of 
Palaos and Caroline islanders, who had been the year 
before cast on the coast of Samar by foul weather. Apart 
from the question of their transport, whether voluntary 
or not, these simply were six examples, such as still 
occur occasionally, of Micronesians cast up on the shore 
of the Philippines; and probably it would not be difficult 
to find several more; but how often, both before and after 
the arrival of the Spaniards, might not vessels from those 
islands have come within the influence of the north- 
east storms, and been driven violently on the east coast 
of the Philippines without any record of such facts 
being preserved?* Even as, on the west side of the 
Archipelago, the type of the race seems to have been 
modified by its long intercourse with China, Japan, 
Lower India, and later with Europe, so likewise may Poly- 

* The voyages of the Polynesians were also caused by the tyranny of the victo- 
rious parties, which compelled the vanquished to emigrate. 

Jauor's Travels in the Philippines S43 

nesian influences have operated in a similar manner on ^"^^^e 

• 1 11.-1- ti-ii influence on 

the east side ; and the further circumstance that the mhab- Filipinos. 
itants of the Ladrones* and the Bisayansf possess 
the art of coloring their teeth black, seems to point 
to early intercourse between the Bisayans and the 
Polynesians, t 

At Guiuan I embarked on board an inconveniently -^/"'I'esea 

, , , . , . , , . , . voyage in an 

cranky, open boat, which was provided with an awning open boat. 
only three feet square, for Tacloban, the chief town of 
Leyte. After first experiencing an uninterrupted calm, 
we incurred great danger in a sudden tempest, so that 
we had to retrace the whole distance by means of the 
oars. The passage was very laborious for the crew, 
who were not protected by an awning (temperature in the 
sun 35° R., of the water 25° R.§), and lasted thirty-one 
hours, with few intermissions; the party voluntarily 
abridging their intervals of rest in order to get back 
quickly to Tacloban, which keeps up an active intercourse 
with Manila, and has all the attractions of a luxurious 
city for the men living on the inhospitable eastern 
coast. It is questionable whether the sea anywhere 
washes over a spot of such peculiar beauty as the narrow Beauty of 

,.,,..._ - _ /-vi Samar-Leyte 

strait which divides Samar from Leyte. On the west g^raiu 
it is enclosed by steep banks of tuff, which tolerate no 
swamps of mangroves on their borders. There the lofty 
primeval forest approaches in all its sublimity close to 
the shore, interrupted only here and there by groves 
of cocos, in whose sharply defined shadows solitary 

* Pigafetta, p. 51. 

t Morga, f. 127. 

t "The Bisayans cover their teeth with a shining varnish, which is either 
black, or of the color of fire, and thus their teeth become either black, or red 
like cinnabar; and they make a small hole in the upper row, which they fill 
with gold, the latter shining all the more on the black or red ground." — (Thfive- 
not, Religieux, 54.) Of a king of Mindanao, visited by Magellan at Massana, 
it is written: — "In every tooth he had three mar.hie (spots?) of gold, so that they 
had the appearance of being tied together with gold;" which Ramusio inter- 
prets — "On each finger he had three rings of gold." — Pigafetta, p. 66; and com- 
pare also Carletti, Voya:jes, i. 153. 

§ 42 and 30 Cent, or 108 and 86 Fahr. — C. 


huts are to be found; and the steep hills facing the sea^ 
and numerous small rocky islands, are crowned with 
little castles of blocks of coral. At the eastern entrance 
of the strait the south coast of Samar consists of white 
limestone, like marble, but of quite modern date, which 
in many places forms precipitous cliffs.* At Nipa- 
Nipa, a small hamlet two leagues from Basey, they 
project into the sea in a succession of picturesque rocks, 
above one hundred feet in height, which, rounded above 
like a dome, thickly covered with vegetation, and cor- 
roded at the base by the waters of the sea, rise out of the 
waves like gigantic mushrooms. A peculiar atmosphere 
of enchantment pervades this locality, whose influence 
upon the native mariner must be all the more powerful 
when, fortunately escaping from the billows outside 
and the buffeting of the north-east wind, he suddenly 
enters this tranquil place of refuge. No wonder that 
superstitious imagination has peopled the place with 
Burial caves. In the cavcms of these rocks the ancient Pintados inter- 

red the corpses of their heroes and ancestors in well- 
locked coffins, surrounded by those objects which had 
been held in the highest regard by them during life. 
Slaves were also sacrificed by them at their obsequies, in 
order that they might not be without attendance in the 
world of shadows;! and the numerous coffins, imple- 

* In one of these cliffs, sixty feet above the sea, beds of mussels were found: 
ostrea, pinna, chama; according to Dr. V. M. — O. denticula, Bron. ; O. cornu- 
copiae, Chemn.; 0. rosacea, Desh.; Chama sulfurea. Reeve; Pinna Nigrina, 
Lam. (?). 

t In the Athenaeum of January 7, 1871, Captain Ullmann describes a funeral 
ceremony (tiiva) of the Dyaks, which corresponds in many points with that of the 
ancient Bisayans. The coffin is cut out of the branch of a tree by the nearest 
male kinsman, and it is so narrow that the body has to be pressed down into it, 
lest another member of the family should die immediately after to fill up the 
gap. As many as possible of his effects must be heaped on the dead person, 
in order to prove his wealth and to raise him in the estimation of the spirit world; 
and under the coffin are placed two vessels, one containin'^ rice and the other 

One of the principal ceremonies of the tiwa consisted formerly (and does still 
in some places) in human sacrifices. Where the Dutch Government extended 
these were not permitted; but sometimes carabaos or pigs were killed in a cruel 
manner, with the blood of which the high priest smeared the forehead, breast, 
and arms of the head of the family. Similar sacrifices of slaves or pigs were 
practised amongst the ancient Filipinos, with peculiar ceremonies by female 
priests (Catalonas). 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines H5 

•ments, arms, and trinkets, protected by superstitious 
terrors, continued to be undisturbed for centuries. No 
boat ventured to cross over without the obsevance of a 
religious ceremony, derived from heathen times, to 
propitiate the spirits of the caverns who were believed 
to punish the omission of it with storm and ship-wreck. 

About thirty years ago a zealous young ecclesiastic. Objects destroyed 

, . . but superstition 

to whom these heathen practices were an abommation, persists. 
determined to extirpate them by the roots. With several 
boats well equipped with crosses, banners, pictures of 
saints, and all the approved machinery for driving out the 
Devil, he undertook the expedition against the haunted 
rocks, which were climbed amidst the sounds of music, 
prayers, and the reports of fireworks. A whole pailful 
of holy water first having been thrown into the cave for 
the purpose of confounding the evil spirits, the intrepid 
priest rushed in with elevated cross, and was followed 
by his faithful companions, who were fired with his 
example. A brilliant victory was the reward of the well- 
contrived and carefully executed plot. The coffins 
were broken to fragments, the vessels dashed to pieces, 
and the skeletons thrown into the sea; and the remaining 
caverns were stormed with like results. The objects 
of superstition have indeed been annihilated, but the 
superstition itself survives to the present day. 

I subsequently learned from the priest at Basey that Skuiis from a 
there were still some remains on a rock, and a few days 
afterwards the worthy man surprised me with several 
skulls and a child's coffin, which he had had brought 
from the place. Notwithstanding the great respect 
in which he was held by his flock, he had to exert all 
his powers of persuasion to induce the boldest of them 
to engage in so daring an enterprise. A boat manned 
by sixteen rowers was fitted out for the purpose; with a 
: smaller crew they would not have ventured to under- 

rock near Basey. 



The cavtrn'. 

location of 
burial cave. 

take the journey. On their return home a thunder- 
storm broke over them, and the sailors, believing it to 
be a punishment for their outrage, were prevented only 
by the fear of making the matter worse from throwing 
coffin and skulls into the sea. Fortunately the land was 
near, and they rowed with all their might towards it; 
and, when they arrived, I was obliged to take the objects 
out of the boat myself, as no native would touch them. 

Notwithstanding, I was the next morning successful 
in finding some resolute individuals who accompanied 
me to the caverns. In the first two which we examined 
we found nothing; the third contained several broken 
coffins, some skulls, and potsherds of glazed and crudely 
painted earthenware, of which, however, it was impos- 
sible to find two pieces that belonged to each other. 
A narrow hole led from the large cavern into an obscure 
space, which was so small that one could remain in 
it only for a few seconds with the burning torch. This 
circumstance may explain the discovery, in a coffin 
which was eaten to pieces by worms, and quite mouldered 
away, of a well-preserved skeleton, or rather a mummy, 
for in many places there were carcasses clothed with dry 
fibers of muscle and skin. It lay upon a mat of pan- 
danus, which was yet recognizable, with a cushion under 
the head stuffed with plants, and covered with matting 
of pandanus. There were no other remains of woven 
material. The coffins were of three shapes and without 
any ornament. Those of the first form, which were 
of excellent molave-wood, showed no trace of worm- 
holes or decay, whereas the others had entirely fallen 
to dust; and those of the third kind, which were most 
numerous, were distinguishable from the first only by 
a less curved form and inferior material. 

No legend could have supplied an enchanted royal 
sepulchre with a more suitable approach than that of 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 2t^7 

the last of these caverns. The rock rises out of the sea 
with perpendicular sides of marble, and only in one 
spot is to be observed a natural opening made by the 
water, hardly two feet high, through which the boat 
passed at once into a spacious court, almost circular, 
and over-arched by the sky, the floor of which was cover- 
ed by the sea, and adorned with a garden of corals. The 
steep sides are thickly hung with lianas, ferns, and or- 
chids, by help of which one climbs upwards to the cav- 
ern, sixty feet above the surface of the water. To add 
to the singularity of the situation, we also found at the 
entrance to the grotto, on a large block of rock project- 
ing two feet above the ground, a sea-snake, which tran- .4 s«a snake. 
quilly gazed at us, but which had to be killed, because, 
like all genuine sea-snakes, it was poisonous. Twice 
before I had found the same species in crevices of rock 
on the dry land, where the ebb might have left it; but it 
was strange to meet with it in this place, at such a height 
above the sea. It now reposes, as Platurus fasciatus 
Daud., in the Zoological Museum of the Berlin University. 

In Guiuan I had an opportunity of purchasing four Chinese dishera 
richly painted Chinese dishes which came from a similar ■^™"* " ''"''*• 
cavern, and a gold signet ring; the latter consisting of 
a plate of gold, originally bent into a tube of the thickness 
of a quill with a gaping seam, and afterwards into a ring 
as large as a thaler, which did not quite meet. The 
dishes were stolen from me at Manila. 

There are similar caverns which have been used as burial- suriai caves. 
places in many other localities in this country; on the 
island of Andog, in Borongan (a short time ago it con- 
tained skulls); also atBatinguitan, three hours fromBoron- 
gan, on the banks of a little brook; and in Guiuan, on the 
little island of Monhon, which is difficult of approach 
by reason of the boisterous sea. In Catubig trinkets of 
gold have been found, but they have been converted 


into modern articles of adornment. One cavern at 
Lauang, however, is famous over the whole country on 
account of the gigantic, flat, compressed skulls, without 
sutures, which have been found in it.* It will not be 
uninteresting to compare the particulars here described 
with the statements of older authors ; and for this reason 
I submit the following extracts: — 

Embalming. Mas {Infoi'vie, \. 21), who docs not give the sources 

of his information, thus describes the customs of the 
ancient inhabitants of the archipelago at their inter- 
ments: — They sometimes embalmed their dead with 
aromatic substances * * * and placed those who were 
of note in chests carved out of a branch of a tree, and 
furnished with well-fitted lids * * * The coffin was 
placed, in accordance with the wish of the deceased, 
expressed before his death, either in the uppermost 
room of the house, where articles of value were secreted, 
or under the dwelling-house, in a kind of grave, which 
was not covered, but enclosed with a railing; or in a 
distant field, or on an elevated place or rock on the 
bank of a river, where he might be venerated by the 
pious. A watch was set over it for a certain time, lest 
boats should cross over, and the dead person should 
drag the living after him. 

Burial customs. According to Gaspar San Agustin (p. 169), the dead 
were rolled up in cloths, and placed in clumsy chests, 
carved out of a block of wood, and buried under their 
houses, together with their jewels, gold rings, and some 
plates of gold over the mouth and eyes, and furnished 
with provisions, cups, and dishes. They were also 
accustomed to bury slaves along with men of note, in 
order that they might be attended in the other world. 

* In the chapter De vionstris et quasi monstris * * * of Father Camel, 
London Philos. Trans., p. 2269, it is stated that in the mountains between 
Guiuan and Borongan, footsteps, three times as large as those of ordinary men, 
have been found. Probably the skulls of Lauang, which are pressed out in 
Ijreadth, and covered with a thick crust of calcareous sinter, the gigantic skulls 
(skulls of giants) have given rise to the fable of the giants' footsteps. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S49 

"Their chief idolatry consisted in the worship of those 
of their ancestors who had most distinguished themselves 
by courage and genius, whom they regarded as deities * * 
* * They called them humalagar, which is the same as 
manes in the Latin * * * Even the aged died under 
this conceit, choosing particular places, such as one on 
the island of Leyte, which allowed of their being interred 
at the edge of the sea, in order that the mariners who 
crossed over might acknowledge them as deities, and 
pay them respect." (Thevenot, Religieux, p. 2.) 

"They did not place them (the dead) in the earth, ■s'aves 
but in coffins of very hard, indestructible wood * * * 
Male and female slaves were sacrificed to them, that 
they should not be unattended in the other world. If 
a person of consideration died, silence was imposed 
upon the whole of the people, and its duration was 
regulated by the rank of the deceased ; and under certain 
circumstances it was not discontinued until his relations 
had killed many other persons to appease the spirit 
of the dead." {Ibid., p. 7.) 

"For this reason (to be worshipped as deities) the oldest 
of them chose some remarkable spot in the mountains, 
and particularly on headlands projecting into the sea, 
in order to be worshipped by the sailors." (Gemelli 
Careri, p. 449.) 

From Tacloban, which I chose for my headquarters Basey and iu 
on account of its convenient tribunal, and because it 
is well supplied with provisions, I returned on the follow- 
ing day to Samar, and then to Basey, which is opposite 
to Tacloban. The people of Basey are notorious over 
all Samar for their laziness and their stupidity, but are 
advantageously distinguished from the inhabitants of 
Tacloban by their purity of manners. Basey is situated 
on the delta of the river, which is named after it. We 
proceeded up a small arm of the principal stream, which 



winds, with a very slight fall, through the plain; the 
brackish water, and the fringe of nipa-palms which 
accompanies it, consequently extending several leagues 
into the country. Coco plantations stretch behind 
them; and there the floods of water (avenidas), which 
sometimes take place in consequence of the narrow rocky 
bed of the upper part of the river, cause great devasta- 
tion, as was evident from the mutilated palms which, torn 
away from their standing-place, rise up out of the 
middle of the river. After five hours' rowing we passed 
out of the flat country into a narrow valley, with steep 
sides of marble, which progressively closed in and 
became higher. In several places they are under- 
washed, cleft, and hurled over each other, and with their 
naked side-walls form a beautiful contrast to the blue 
sky, the clear, greenish river, and the luxuriant lianas, 
which, attaching themselves to every inequality to which 
they could cling, hung in long garlands over the rocks. 

A frontage. The Stream became so rapid and so shallow that the 

party disembarked and dragged the boat over the stony 
bed. In this manner we passed through a sharp curve, 
twelve feet in height, formed by two rocks thrown 
opposite to each other, into a tranquil oval-shaped basin 
of water enclosed in a circle of limestone walls, inclining 
inwards, of from sixty to seventy feet in height; on the 
upper edge of which a circle of trees permitted only a 
misty sunlight to glimmer through the thick foliage. 
A magnificent gateway of rock, fifty to sixty feet high, 
and adorned with numerous stalactites, raised itself up 
opposite the low entrance; and through it we could see, 
at some distance, the upper portion of the river bathed 

A beautiful in the sun. A cavern of a hundred feet in length, and 
easily climbed, opened itself in the left side of the oval 
court, some sixty feet above the surface of the water; 
and it ended in a small gateway, through which you 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S51 

stepped on to a projection like a balcony, studded with 
stalactites. From this point both the landscape and the 
rocky cauldron are visible, and the latter is seen to be 
the remainder of a stalactitic cavern, the roof of which 
has fallen in. The beauty and peculiar character of the 
place have been felt even by the natives, who have called 
it Sogoton (properly, a bay in the sea). In the very 
hard limestone, which is like marble, I observed traces 
of bivalves and multitudes of spines of the sea-urchin, 
but no well-defined remains could be knocked off. The 
river could still be followed a short distance further 
upwards; and in its bed there were disjointed fragments 
of talcose and chloritic rocks. 

A few small fishes were obtained with much difficulty; Fishing- 
and amongst them was a new and interesting species, 
viviparous.* An allied species (H. fluviatilis, Bleeker) 
which I had two years previously found in a limestone 
cavern on Nusa Kambangan, in Java, likewise contained 
living young ones. The net employed in fishing appears 
to be suited to the locality, which is a shallow river, 
full of transparent blocks. It is a fine-meshed, longish, 
four-cornered net, having its ample sides fastened to 
two poles of bamboo, which at the bottom were provided 
with a kind of wooden shoes, which curve upwards 
towards the stems when pushed forwards. The fisher- 
man, taking hold of the upper ends of the poles, pushes 
the net, which is held obliquely before him, and the 
wooden shoes cause it to slide over the stones, while 
another person drives the fish towards him. 

On the right bank, below the cavern, and twenty feet Fossu beds. 
above the surface of the water, there are beds of fossils, 
pectunculus, tapes, and placuna, some of which, from 
the fact of their barely adhering by the tip, must be of 
very recent date. I passed the night in a small hut, 

* Hemiramphus tiviparus, W. Peters {Berlin Monatsb., March 16, 1865). 


which was quickly erected for me, and on the following 
day attempted to pass up the river as far as the limits 
of the cyrstalline rock, but in vain. In the afternoon 
we set out on our return to Basey, which we reached at 
decent elevation Basey is situated on a bank of clay, about fifty feet 
.0/ coast. above the sea, which towards the west elevates itself into a 

hill several hundred feet in height, and with steep sides. 
At twenty-five to thirty feet above the sea I found the 
same recent beds of mussels as in the stalactitic cavern 
of Sogoton. From the statements of the parish priest 
and of other persons, a rapid elevation of the coasts 
seems to be taking place in this country. Thirty years 
ago ships could lie alongside the land in three fathoms 
ofwater at the flood, whereas the depth at the same place 
now is not much more than one fathom. Immediately 
opposite to Basey lie two small islands, Genamok and 
Tapontonan, which, at the present time, appear to be 
surrounded by a sandbank at the lowest ebb-tide. 
Twenty years ago nothing of the kind was to be seen. 
Supposing these particulars to be correct, we must next 
ascertain what proportion of these changes of level is 
due to the floods, and how much to volcanic elevation; 
which, if we may judge by the neighboring active sol- 
fatara at Leyte, must always be of considerable amount. 
•Crocodiles. As the pricst assured us, there are crocodiles in the 

river Basey over thirty feet in length, those in excess 
of twenty feet being numerous. The obliging father 
promised me one of at least twenty-four feet, whose 
skeleton I would gladly have secured; and he sent out 
some men who are so practised in the capture of these 
animals that they are dispatched to distant places for 
the purpose. Their contrivance for capturing them, 
which I, however, never personally witnessed, consists 
of a light raft of bamboo, with a stage, on which, several 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 333 

feet above the water, a dog or a cat is bound. Along- 
side the animal is placed a strong iron hook, which is 
fastened to the swimming bamboo by means of fibers 
of abaca. The crocodile, when it has swallowed the 
bait and the hook at the same time, endeavors in vain 
to get away, for the pliability of the raft prevents its 
being torn to pieces, and the peculiar elasticity of the 
bundle of fibers prevents its being bitten through. The 
raft serves likewise as a buoy for the captured animal. 
According to the statements of the hunters, the large 
crocodiles live far from human habitations, generally 
selecting the close vegetation in an oozy swamp, in which 
their bellies, dragging heavily along, leave trails behind 
them which betray them to the initiated. After a week 
the priest mentioned that his party had sent in three 
crocodiles, the largest of which, however, measured only 
eighteen feet, but that he had not kept one for me, as he 
hoped to obtain one of thirty feet. His expectation, 
however, was not fulfilled. 

In the environs of Basey the Ignatius bean grows in 
remarkable abundance, as it also does in the south of 
Samar and in some other of the Bisayan islands. It 
is not met with in Luzon, but it is very likely that I 
have introduced it there unwittingly. Its sphere of 
propagation is very limited; and my attempts to trans- 
plant it to the Botanical Garden of Buitenzorg were 
fruitless. Some large plants intended for that purpose, 
which during my absence arrived for me at Daraga, 
were incorporated by one of my patrons into his own 
garden; and some, which were collected by himself and 
brought to Manila, were afterwards lost. Every effort 
to get these seeds (kernels), which are used over the 
whole of Eastern Asia as medicine, to germinate mis- 

Ignaliits bean^ 



Cholera and 



carried, they having been boiled before transmission, 
ostensibly for their preservation, but most probably 
to secure the monopoly of them. 

According to Flueckinger,* the gourd-shaped berry 
of the climbing shrub {Ignatia amara, L. Strychnos 
Ignatii, Berg. Ignatiana Philippinica. Lour.) contains 
twenty-four irregular egg-shaped seeds of the size of an 
inch which, however, are not so poisonous as the Ig- 
natius beans, which taste like crack-nuts. In these 
seeds strychnine was found by Pelletier and Caventou 
in 1818, as it subsequently was in crack-nuts. The 
former contained twice as much of it as the latter, viz. 
one and a half per cent; but, as they are four times as 
dear, it is only produced from the latter. 

In many households in the Philippines the dangerous 
drug is to be found as a highly prized remedy, under the 
name of Pepita de Catbalonga. Gemelli Careri mentions 
it, and quotes thirteen different uses of it. Dr. Rosenthal 
("Synopsis Plantarum Diaphor." p. 363) says: — "In 
India it has been employed as a remedy against cholera 
under the name of Papeda." Papecta is probably a 
clerical error. In K. Lall Dey's "Indigenous Drugs 
of India," it is called Papeeta, which is pronounced 
Pepita in English; and Pepita is the Spanish word for 
the kernel of a fruit. It is also held in high estimation as an 
antidote for the bite of serpents. Father Blanco ("Flora 
of the Philippines," 61), states that he has more than 
once proved its efficacy in this respect in his own person; 
but he cautions against its employment internally, as 
it had been fatal in very many cases. It should not be 
taken into the mouth, for should the spittle be swallowed, 
and vomiting not ensue, death would be inevitable. 
The parish priest of Tabaco, however, almost always 

* Lehrbuch der Pharmakognosie dea Pflauzenreichs (Compendium of the 
"Pharmacopoeia of the Vegetable Kingdom,") p. 698. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S56 

carried a pepita in his mouth. From 1842 he began 
occasionally to take an Ignatius bean into his mouth 
as a protection against cholera, and so gradually accus- 
tomed himself to it. When I met him in 1860 he was 
quite well, and ascribed his health and vigor expressly 
to that habit. According to his communication, in 
cases of cholera the decoction was successfully adminis- 
tered in small doses introduced into tea; but it was most 
efficacious when, mixed with brandy, it was applied as 
a liniment. 

Hue also ("Thibet," I. 252) commends the expressed supersutioiu 
juice of the kouo-kouo {{Faha Ign. amar.), both for "Bisa^o""'* 
internal and external use, and remarks that it plays a bean. 
great part in Chinese medicine, no apothecary's shop 
being without it. Formerly the poisonous drug was 
considered a charm, as it is still by many. Father 
Camel* states that the Catbalogan or Bisayan-bean, 
which the Indians call Igasur or Mananaog (the vic- 
torious), was generally worn as an amulet round the 
neck, being a preservative against poison, contagion, 
magic, and philtres, so potent, indeed, that the Devil 
in propia persona could not harm the wearer. Especially 
efficacious is it against a poison communicated by 
breathing upon one, for not only does it protect the 
wearer, but it kills the individual who wishes to poison 
him. Camel further mentions a series of miracles which 
superstition ascribed to the Ignatius bean. 

On the southern half of the eastern border, on the Coconuts. 
shore from Borongan by Lauang as far as Guiuan, there 
are considerable plantations of cocos, which are most 
imperfectly applied to the production of oil. From 
Borongan and its visitas twelve thousand pitchers of 
coconut oil are yearly exported to Manila, and the nuts 
consumed by men and pigs would suffice for at least 

* Philos. Trans. 1699, No. 249, pages 44, 87. 


eight thousand pitchers. As a thousand nuts yield eight 
pitchers and a half, the vicinity of Borongan alone yields 
annually six million nuts ; for which, assuming the 
average produce at fifty nuts, one hundred-twenty 
thousand fullbearing palms are required. The state- 
ment that their number in the above-mentioned district 
amounts to several millions must be an exaggeration. 

Getiing coco oil. The oil is obtained in a very rude manner. The 
kernel is rasped out of the woody shell of the nut on 
rough boards, and left to rot; and a few boats in a state 
of decay, elevated on posts in the open air, serve as 
reservoirs, the oil dropping through their crevices into 
pitchers placed underneath; and finally the boards are 
subjected to pressure. This operation, which requires 
several months for its completion, yields such a bad, 
dark-brown, and viscid product that the pitcher fetches 
only two dollars and a quarter in Manila, while a 
superior oil costs six dollars.* 

Oil factory. Recently a young Spaniard has erected a factory in 

Borongan for the better preparation of oil. A winch, 
turned by two carabaos, sets a number of rasps in 
motion by means of toothed wheels and leather straps. 
They are somewhat like a gimlet in form, and consist 
of five iron plates, with dentated edges, which are placed 
radiating on the end of an iron rod, and close together, 
forming a blunt point towards the front. The other 
end of the rod passes through the center of a disk, which 
communicates the rotary motion to it, and projects 
beyond it. The workman, taking a divided coconut 
in his two hands, holds its interior arch, which contains 
the oil-bearing nut, with a firm pressure against the 
revolving rasp, at the same time urging with his breast. 

* At Borongan the tinaja of 12 gantas cost six reals (one quart about two 
pesetas), the pet two reals, the freight to Manila three reals, or, if the product 
is carried as cargo (matrose), two and one-half reals. The price at Manila 
refers to the tinaja of sixteen gantas. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines _ . $57 

which is protected by a padded board, against the pro- 
jecting end of the rod. The fine shreds of the nut 
remain for twelve hours in flat pans, in order that they 
may be partially decomposed. They are then lightly 
pressed in hand-presses; and the liquor, which consists 
of one-third oil and two-thirds water, is caught in tubs, 
from which, at the end of six hours, the oil, floating on 
the surface, is skimmed ofl". It is then heated in iron 
pans, containing 100 liters, until the whole of the water 
in it has evaporated, which takes from two to three 
hours. In order that the oil may cool rapidly, and not 
become dark in color, two pailfuls of cold oil, freed from 
water, are poured into it, and the fire quickly removed 
to a distance. The compressed shreds are once more 
exposed to the atmosphere, and then subjected to a 
powerful pressure. After these two operations have 
been twice repeated, the rasped substance is suspended 
in sacks between two strong vertical boards and crushed 
to the utmost by means of clamp screws, and repeatedly 
shaken up. The refuse serves as food for pigs. The 
oil which runs from the sacks is free from water, and is 
consequently very clear, and is employed in the cooling 
of that which is obtained in the first instance.* 

The factory produces fifteen hundred tinajas of oil. Limited output. 
It is in operation only nine months in the year ; from 
December to February the transport of nuts being pre- 
vented by the tempestuous seas, there being no land 
communication. The manufacturer was not successful 
in procuring nuts from the immediate vicinity in suffi- 
cient quantity to enable him to carry on his operations 

* Newly prepared coconut oil serves for cooking, but quickly becomes rancid. 
It is very generally used for lighting. In Europe, where it seldom appears in a 
fluid state, as it does not dissolve until 16° R., (20 C. or 68 Fahr.) it is used in the 
manufacture of tapers, but especially for soap, for which it is peculiarly adapted. 
Coconut soap is very hard, and brilliantly white, and is dissolved in salt water 
more easily than any other soap. The oily nut has lately been imported from 
Brazil into England under the name of "copperah," (copra) and pressed after 



Siigar venders. 

ate prices. 

without interruption, nor, during the favorable season 
of the year, could he lay up a store for the winter months, 
although he paid the comparatively high price of three 
dollars per thousand. 

While the natives manufactured oil in the manner 
just described, they obtained from a thousand nuts 
three and a half pots, which, at six reals each, fetched 
twenty-one reals; that is three reals less than was 
offered them for the raw nuts. These data, which are 
obtained from the manufacturers, are probably exagger- 
ated, but they are in the main well founded; and the 
traveller in the Philippines often has the opportunity 
of observing similar anomalies. For example, in Daet, 
North Camarines, I bought six coconuts for one cuarto, 
at the rate of nine hundred and sixty for one dollar, 
the common price there. On my asking why no oil- 
factory had been erected, I received for answer that the 
nuts were cheaper singly than in quantities. In the 
first place, the native sells only when he wants money; 
but he knows that the manufacturer cannot well afford 
to have his business suspended; so, careless of the result, 
he makes a temporary profit, and never thinks of ensuring 
for himself a permanent source of income. 

In the province of Laguna, where the natives prepare 
coarse brown sugar from sugar-cane, the women carry 
it for leagues to the market, or expose it for sale on the 
country roads, in small loaves (panoche), generally 
along with buyo. Every passenger chats with the seller, 
weighs the loaf in the hand, eats a bit, and probably 
passes on without buying any. In the evening the 
woman returns to her home with her wares, and the 
next day repeats the same process. 

I have lost my special notes, but I remember that 
in two cases at least the price of the sugar in these 
loaves was cheaper than by the picul. Moreover, the 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S39 

Government of the day anticipated the people in setting 
the example, by selling cigars cheaper singly than in 

In Europe a speculator generally can calculate before- 
hand, with the greatest certainty, the cost of production 
of any article; but in the Philippines it is not always so 
easy. Independently of the uncertainty of labor, the 
regularity of the supply of raw material is disturbed, 
not only by laziness and caprice, but also by jealousy 
and distrust. The natives, as a rule, do not willingly 
see Europeans settle amongst them and engage success- 
fully in local operations which they themselves do not 
understand how to execute; and in like manner the 
Creoles are reserved with foreigners, who generally are 
superior to them in capital, skill, and activity. Besides 
jealousy, suspicion also plays a great part, and this 
influences the native as well against the mestizo as against 
the Castilian. Enough takes place to the present day 
to justify this feeling; but formerly, when the most 
thrifty subjects could buy governorships, and shame- 
lessly fleece their provinces, such outrageous abuses are 
said to have been permitted until, in process of time, 
suspicion has become a kind of instinct amongst the 



The island of Leyte, between 9° 49' and 11° 34' N., Leyte 
and 124° 7' and 125° 9' E. Gr., is above twenty-five 
miles in length, and almost twelve miles broad, and 
contains one hundred seventy square miles. As I 
have already remarked, it is divided from Samar only by 
the small strait of San Juanico. The chief town, Ta- 
cloban or Taclobang, lies at the eastern entrance of this 


Spanish ofv- 


Strait, with a very good harbor and uninterrupted com- 
munication with Manila, and has consequently become 
the chief emporium of trade to Leyte, Biliran, and South 
and East Samar.* 

The local governor likewise showed me much obliging 
attention; indeed, almost without exception I have, 
since my return, retained the most agreeable remem- 
brances of the Spanish officials; and, therefore, if fitting 
opportunity occurred, I could treat of the improprieties 
of the Administration with greater impartiality. 

In the afternoon of the day after my arrival at Taclo- 
ban, on a sudden there came a sound like the rush of a 
furious torrent; the air became dark, and a large cloud 
of locusts swept over the place. f I will not again re- 
count that phenomenon, which has been so often de- 
scribed, and is essentially the same in all quarters of the 
globe, but will simply remark that the swarm, which was 
more than five hundred feet in width, and about fifty 
feet in depth, its extremity being lost in the forest, was 
not thought a very considerable one. It caused vigi- 
lance, but not consternation. Old and young eagerly 
endeavored to catch as many of the delicate creatures 
as they could, with cloths, nets, and flags, in order, as 
Dampier relates, "to roast them in an earthen pan over 
fire until their legs and wings drop off, and their heads 
and backs assume the color of boiled crabs;" after which 

* On Pigafetta's map Leyte is divided into two parts, the north being called 
Baibay, and the south Ceylon. When Magellan in Massana (Limasana) 
inquired after the most considerable places of business, Ceylon (i. e. Leyte), 
Calagan (Caraga), and Zubu (Cebu) were named to him. Pigaf., 70. 

t According to Dr. Gerstaceker: Oedipoda subfasciala, Haan, Acridium Mani- 
lense, Meyen. The designation of Meyen which the systemists must have 
overlooked, has the priority of Haan's; but it requires to be altered to Oedipoda 
Manilensis, as the species does not belong to the genus acridium in the modem 
sense. It occurs also in Luzon and in Timor, and is closely allied to our European 
migratory locusts Oedipoda migratoria. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 361 

process he says they had a pleasant taste. In Burma 
at the present day, they are considered as deHcacies 
at the royal court.* 

The locusts are one of the greatest plagues of the P^an for their 
Philippines, and sometimes destroy the harvest of entire 
provinces. The Legislacion Ultramarina (iv. 604) con- 
tains a special edict respecting the extirpation of these 
devastating pests. As soon as they appear, the popula- 
tion of the invaded localities are to be drawn out in the 
greatest possible numbers, under the conduct of the 
authorities, in order to effect their destruction. The 
most approved means for the attainment of this object 
are set forth in an official document referring to the adop- 
tion of extraordinary measures in cases of public emer- 
gency; and in this the locusts are placed midway be- 
tween sea-pirates and conflagrations. Of the various 
means that have been contrived against the destructive 
creatures, that, at times, appear in incredible numbers, 
but have been as frequently ineffectual as otherwise, only 
a few will be now mentioned. On April 27, 1824, the Socie- 
dadEconomica determined to import the bird, the martin 
(Gracula sp.), "which feeds by instinct on locusts." In 
the autumn of the following year the first consignment 
arrived from China; in 1829 a second; and in 1852 again 
occurs the item of $1,311 for martins. 

On the following day I proceeded with the priest of Tadoban to 
Dagami (there are roads in Leyte) from Tacloban south- Tanauan. 
wards to Palos and Tanauan, two flourishing places on 
the east coast. Hardly half a league from the latter place, 
and close to the sea, a cliff of crystal lime rock rises up 
out of the sandy plain, which was level up to this point. 
It is of a greyish-green quartzose chlorite schist, from 

* After the king had withdrawn * * * "sweetmeats and cakes in abun- 
dance were brought, and also roasted locusts, which were pressed upon the guests 
as great delicacies." — "Col. Fytche's Mission to Mandalay Parliament," Papers, 
June, 1869. 


which the enterprising Father had endeavored, with 
a perseverance worthy of better success, to procure hme 
by burning. After an ample breakfast in the convent, 
we proceeded in the afternoon to Dagami, and, on the 
next day, to Burauen.* 
A pleasing /pj^^ country was still flat. Coco-groves and rice- 


fields here and there interrupted the thick forest; but the 
country is thinly inhabited, and the people appear more 
cheerful, handsomer, and cleaner than those of Samar. 
South of Burauen rises the mountain ridge of Manacagan, 
on the further slope of which is a large solfatara, which 
yields sulphur for the powder manufactory in Manila, 
and for commerce. A Spanish sailor accompanied me. 
Where the road passed through swamp we rode on cara- 
baos. The pace of the animals is not unpleasant, but 
the stretching across the broad backs of the gigantic 
carabaos of the Philippines is very fatiguing. A quarter 
of an hour beyond Burauen we crossed the Daguitan, 
which flows south-west to north-east, and is a hundred 
feet broad, its bed being full of large volcanic blo2ks; 
and, soon after, a small river in a broad bed; and, some 
hundred paces farther, one of a hundred and fifty feet 
in breadth; the two latter being arms of the Burauen. 
They flow from west to east, and enter the sea at Dulag. 
The second arm was originated only the preceding year, 
during a flood. 
The height of We passcd the night in a hut on the northern slope of 

the Manacagan, which the owner, on seeing us approach, 
had voluntarily quitted, and with his wife and child 
sought other lodgings. The customs of the country 
require this when the accommodation does not suffice 
for both parties; and payment for the same is neither 
demanded nor, except very rarely, tendered. 

* The names of these two localities, on Coello's map, are confounded. Bura- 
uen lies south of Dagami. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S6S 

About six o'clock on the following morning we started; Up the 
and about half-past six climbed, by a pleasant path ^^"""""i""' 
through the forest, to the ridge of the Manacagan, which 
consists of trachytic hornblende; and about seven o'clock 
we crossed two small rivers flowing north-west, and then, 
by a curve, reached the coast at Dulag. From the 
ridge we caught sight, towards the south, of the great 
white heaps of debris of the mountain Danan glimmering 
through the trees. About nine o'clock we came through 
the thickly-wooded crater of the Kasiboi, and, further 
south, to some sheds in which the sulphur is smelted. 

The raw material obtained from the solfatara is Suipkur. 
bought in three classes: firstly, sulphur already melted 
to crusts; secondly, sublimated, which contains much 
condensed water in its interstices; and thirdly, in the 
clay, which is divided into the more or less rich, from 
which the greatest quantity is obtained. Coconut 
oil, which is thrown into flat iron pans holding six arrobas, 
is added to the sulphurous clay, in the proportion of six 
quarts to four arrobas, and it is melted and continually 
stirred. The clay which floats on the surface, now freed 
from the sulphur, being skimmed off, fresh sulphurous 
clay is thrown into the cauldron, and so on. In two or 
three hours six arrobas of sulphur, on an average, may 
be obtained in this manner from twenty-four arrobas 
of sulphurous clay, and, poured into wooden chests, it is 
moulded into blocks of about four arrobas. Half the 
oil employed is recovered by throwing the clay which 
has been saturated with it into a frame formed by 
two narrow bamboo hurdles, placed at a sharp angle. 
The oil drops into a sloping gutter of bamboo which is 
placed underneath, and from that flows into a pot. 
The price of the sulphur at Manila varies between prices. 
$1.25 and $4.50 per picul. I saw the frames, full of clay, 
from which the oil exuded ; but the operation itself I did 



Hot spring. 

A solfaiara. 

not, unfortunately, then witness, and I cannot explain 
in what manner the oil is added. From some experi- 
ments made on a small scale, therefore under essentially 
different conditions, and never with the same material, 
it appeared that the oil accelerates the separation of the 
sulphur, and retards the access of the air to the sulphur. 
In these experiments, the sulphur contained in the bot- 
tom of the crucible was always colored black by the sepa- 
ration of charcoal from the oil, and it was necessary 
to purify it by distillation beforehand. Of this, however, 
the smelters at Leyte made no mention, and they even 
had no apparatus for the purpose, while their sulphur 
was of a pure yellow color. 

Some hundreds of paces further south, a hot spring 
(50° R.),* twelve feet broad, flows from the east, deposit- 
ing silicious sinter at its edges. 

As we followed a ravine stretching from north to south, 
with sides one hundred to two hundred feet in height, 
the vegetation gradually ceased, the rock being of a 
dazzling white, or colored by sublimated sulphur. In 
numerous places thick clouds of vapor burst from the 
ground, with a strong smell of sulphurated water. At 
some thousand paces further, the ravine bends round 
to the left (east), and expands itself to the bay; and here 
numerous silicious springs break through the loose 
clay-earth, which is permeated with sulphur. This 
solfatara must formerly have been much more active 
than it is now. The ravine, which has been formed by 
its destruction of the rock, and is full of lofty heaps of 
debris, may be one thousand feet in breadth, and quite 
five times as long. At the east end there are a number 
of small, boiling quagmires, which, on forcing a stick 
into the matted ground, send forth water and steam. 

♦ 62.5 Cent, or 144.5 Fahr.— C. 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S65 

In some deep spots further west, grey, white, red, and 
yellow clays have been deposited in small beds over each 
other, giving them the appearance of variegated marls. 

To the south, right opposite to the ridge which leads to Petrifying 
Burauen, may be seen a basin twenty-five feet broad, ""''^'^ 
in a cavern' in the white decomposed rock, from which 
a petrifying water containing silicious acid flows abun- 
dantly. The roof of the cavern is hung with stalactites, 
which either are covered with solid sulphur, or consist 
entirely of that substance. 

On the upper slope of the Danan mountain, near to the Danan 
summit, so much sulphur is deposited by the vapors from ^'''•^"''"■°- 
the sulphurated water that it may be collected with 
coconut shells. In some crevices, which are protected 
against the cooling effects of the atmospheric air, it 
melts together in thick, brown crusts. The solfatara 
of Danan is situated exactly south of that below, at the 
end of the ravine of the Kasiboi. The clay earth, from 
which the silicic acid has been washed out by the rains, 
is carried into the valley, where it forms a plain, the 
greater part of which is occupied by a small lake, Ma- 
laksan (sour), slightly impregnated with sulphuric acid. 
Its surface, which, by reason of the very flat banks, is 
protected against the weather, I found to be about 
five hundred paces long and one hundred broad. From 
the elevation of the solfatara, a rather large fresh-water 
lake, surrounded by wooded mountains, is seen through 
a gap, exactly south, which is named Jaruanan. The 
night was passed in a ruined shed at the south-east 
of the lake Malaksan ; and on the following morning we 
climbed the south side of the mountain ridge and, skirt- 
ing the solfatara of the Danan, arrived in an hour and a 
half at lake Jaruanan. 

This lake, as well as the Malaksan, inspires the natives Jaruanan Lake. 
with superstitious fear on account of the suspicious 


neighborhood of the solfatara, and therefore has not 
been profaned by either mariner, fisher, or swimmer, and 
was very full of fish. For the purpose of measuring 
its depth, I had a raft of bamboos constructed; and when 
my companions saw me floating safely on the lake, they 
all, without exception, sprang into it, and tumbled about 
in the water with infinite delight and loud outcries, as if 
they wished to indemnify themselves for their long ab- 
stinence; so that the raft was not ready before three 
o'clock. The soundings at the centre of the basin, 
which was, at the southern edge, steeper than on the 
north, gave thirteen brazas, or over twenty-one meters 
of depth; the greatest length of the lake amounted to 
nearly eight hundred varas (six hundred and sixty- 
eight meters), and the breadth to about half as much. 
As we returned in the evening, by torchlight, over the 
crest of the mountain to our night-quarters at the lake, 
we passed by the very modest dwelling-place of a married 
pair. Three branches, projecting outwards from the 
principal trunk of a tree, and lopped at equal points, 
sustained a hut of bamboos and palm-leaves of eight 
feet square. A hole in the floor formed the entrance, 
and it was divided into a chamber and ante-chamber, 
and four bamboo poles supported, above and below, 
two layers of bamboos, one of which furnished a balcony, 
and the other a shop in which betel was sold. 
ToDuiag. The day after my return to Burauen an obliging 

Spanish merchant drove me through the fertile plain 
of volcanic sand, on which rice, maize, and sugar-cane 
were cultivated, to Dulag, which lies directly to the west, 
on the shore of the tranquil sea. The distance (accord- 
ing to Coello three leagues) hardly amounts to two 
leagues. From this place, Point Guiuan, the south point 
of Samar, appears like an island separated from the 
mainland, and further south (N. 102° 4' to 103° 65° S.) Jo- 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


monjol is seen, the first island of the Archipelago sighted 
by Magellan on April 16, 1521. At Dulag, my former 
companion joined us in order to accompany us on the 
journey to the Bito Lake. The arrangement of trans- 
portation and of provisions, and, still more, the due con- 
sideration of all the propositions of three individuals, 
each of whose claims were entitled to equal respect, 
occupied much time and required some address. We 
at length sailed in a large casco (barge) southwards 
along the coast to the mouth of the river Mayo, which, Up Mayo River 
according to the map and the information there given, 
is said to come from the Bito Lake. We proceeded 
upwards in a boat, but were informed at the first hut 
that the lake could be reached only by making a long 
circuit through swampy forest; when most of our party 
proposed to return. Various reasons besides the want 
of unanimity in the conduct of our adventure, which had 
proceeded thus far, delayed our arrival at Abuyoj until 
eleven o'clock at night. In the first placs, on our 
way, we had to cross a small branch of the Mayo, and 
after that the Bito River. The distance of the latter 
from Abuyog (extravagantly set down on Coello's 
map) amounts to fourteen hundred brazas, according 
to the measurement of the gobernadorcillo, which is prob- 
ably correct.* 

The following day, as it rained heavily, was employed 
in making inquiries respecting the road to the Bito Lake. 
We received very varied statements as to the distance, 
but all agreed in painting the road thither in a discour- 
aging light. A troublesome journey of at least ten hours 
appeared to us to be what most probably awaited us. 

On the morrow, through a pleasant forest road, we 
reached in an hour the Bito River, and proceeded in 
boats, which we met there, up the river between flat 

An unprnmisiny 

* A small river enters the sea 950 brazas south of the tower of Abuyog. 


sandy banks covered with tall cane and reeds. In about 
ten minutes, some trees fallen right across the stream 
compelled us to make a circuit on land, which in half 
an hour brought us again to the river, above the ob- 
stacles. Here we constructed rafts of bamboo, upon 
which, immersed to the depth of half a foot, the material 
being very loosely adjusted, we reached the lake in ten 
minutes. We found it covered with green confervae; 
a double border of pistia and broad-leaved reed grasses, 
six to seven feet high, enclosing it all round. On the 
south and west some low hillocks rose up, while from 
the middle it appeared to be almost circular, with a girdle 
of forest. Coello makes the lake much too large (four 
instead of one square mile), and its distance from Abuyog 
can be only a little over a league. With the assistance 
of a cord of lianas tied together, and rods placed in a 
line, we found its breadth five hundred and eighty-five 
brazas or nine hundred and seventy-seven meters, 
(in the broadest part it might be a little over one thou- 
sand meters); and the length, as computed from some 
imperfect observations, one thousand and seven brazas 
(sixteen hundred and eighty meters), consequently 
less than one square mile. Soundings showed a gently 
inclined basin, eight brazas, or over thirteen meters, 
deep in the middle. I would gladly have determined 
the proportions with more accuracy; but want of time, 
the inaccessibility of the edge of the bank, and the miser- 
able condition of our raft, allowed of only a few rough 
A forest home. Not a tracc of humau habitations was observable 

on the shore; but a quarter of an hour's distance from the 
northern edge we found a comfortable hut, surrounded 
by deep mud and prickly calamus, the tenants of which, 
however, were living in plenty, and with greater con- 
veniences than many dwellers in the villages. We were 

Jagor'a Travels in the Philippinet S69 

very well received and had fish in abundance, as well 
as tomatoes, and capsicum to season them with, and 
dishes of English earthenware out of which to eat them. 

The abundance of wild swine had led the settlers to snarint, smine, 
invent a peculiar contrivance, by which they are 
apprised of their approach even when asleep, and 
guided to their trail in the darkness. A rope made 
of strips of banana tied together, and upwards of a thou- 
sand feet in length, is extended along the ground, one 
end of which is attached to a coconut shell, full of water, 
which is suspended immediately over the sleeping- 
place of the hunter. When a pig comes in contact with 
the rope, the water is overturned by the jerk upon the 
sleeper, who, seizing the rope in his hand, is thereby 
conducted to his prey. The principal employment 
of our hosts appeared to be fishing, which is so productive 
that the roughest apparatus is sufficient. There was 
not a single boat, but only loosely -bound rafts of bamboo, 
on which the fishers, sinking, as we ourselves did on our 
raft, half a foot deep, moved about amongst the croco- 
diles, which I never beheld in such numbers and of so 
large a size as in this lake. Some swam about on the 
surface with their backs projecting out of the water. 
It was striking to see the complete indifference with 
which even two little girls waded in the water in the face 
of the great monsters. Fortunately the latter appeared 
to be satisfied with their ample rations of fish. Four 
kinds of fish are said to be found in the lake, amongst 
them an eel; but we got only one.* 

Early on the following morning our native attendants -^ secret suii. 
were already intoxicated. This led to the discovery 
of another occupation of the settlers, which I do not hesi- 
tate to disclose now that the Government monopoly 

* Gobius giuris Buch. Ham. 


has been abolished. They secretly distilled palm-brandy 
and carried on a considerable trade in it; and this also 
explained to me why the horrors of the road to the Mayo 
River and to Abuyog had been painted in such warm 
colors.* We returned on our rafts to the place where we 
had found them, a distance of about fifteen hundred 
feet; and onwards, through wild cane with large clusters 
of flowers (Saccharum sp.), sixteen feet high, east by 
north, we got to our boats, and then to the bar, whence, 
after a march of an hour and a half, we reached Abuyog. 
From Abuyog we returned by water to Dulag, and by 
land to Burauen, where we arrived at night, sooner 
than our hostlers had expected, for we caught them sleep- 
ing in our beds. 

Tobacco Not loug ago much tobacco was cultivated in this 

country, and was allowed to be sold to the peasantry 
under certain conditions; but recently it was forbidden 
to be sold, except by the Government, who themselves 
determined its value at so very low a rate that the culture 
of tobacco has almost entirely ceased. As the tobacco 
company, however, had already erected stores and ap- 
pointed collectors, the knowing ones rightly foresaw 
that these steps would be followed by compulsory 
labor, even as it occurred in other places. The east 
coast of Leyte is said to be rising while the west is 
being destroyed by the sea, and at Ormog the sea is 
said to have advanced about fifty ellsf in six years. 

* The lake at that time had but one outlet, but in the wet season it may be in 
connection with the Mayo, which, at its north-east side, is quite flat, 
t Or some thirty-eight yards if the old Dutch ell is meant. — C. 


Jagor's Tratels in the Philippines S7t 


The Bisayans — at least the inhabitants of the Islands of The Biaayan* 
Samar and Leyte (I have not become closely acquainted 
with any others) — belong to one race.* They are, 
physically and intellectually, in character, dress, man- 
ners and customs, so similar that my notes, which were 
originally made at different points of the two Islands, 
have, after removal of the numerous repetitions, fused 
into one, which affords a more complete picture, and 
affords, at the same time, opportunity for the small 
differences, where they do occur, to stand out more con- 

There are no Negritos either in Samar or Leyte, but Mountainctrs. 
Cimarronese, who pay no tribute, and who do not live 
in villages, but independently in the forests. Unfortu- 
nately I have had no personal intercourse with them, 
and what I have learned respecting them from the 
Christian inhabitants of Samar is too uncertain to be 
repeated. But it does seem certain that all these Ci- 
marronese or their ancestors have traded with the Span- 
iards, and that their religion has appropriated many 
Catholic forms. Thus, when planting rice, and, accord- 
ing to ancient practices, setting apart some of the seed 
to be offered in the four corners of the field as sacrifice, 
they are accustomed to repeat some mutilated Catholic 

* Pintados, or Bisayas, according to a native word denoting the same, must 
be the inhabitants of the islands between Luzon and Mindanao, and must have 
been so named bv the Spaniards from their practice of tattoing thsmsilves. 
Crawfurd ("Diet." 339) thinks these facts not firmly established, and they are 
certainly not mentioned by Pigafetta; who, however, writes, p. 80: — "He (the 
king of Zubut) was * * * painted in various ways with fire." Purchas 
("Pilgrirrage," fo. i. 603) — "The king of Zubut has his skinn; painted with a hot 
iron pensill;" and Mcrga, fo. 4 — "Traen todo il cuerpo labrado con faego." 
From this they appear to have tattoed themselves in the manner of the Papuas, 
by burning in spots and stripes into the skin. But Morga states in anot.ier 
place (f. 138) — "They are distinguished from the inhabitants of Luzon by ttieir 
hair which the men cut into a pigtail after the old Spanish manner, and paint 
their bodits in many patterns, without touching the face." The custom of 
tattooing, which appears to have ceased with the introduction of Christianity, 
for the chrgyman so often quoted (Thevenot, p. 4) describ-s it as unknown, 
cannot be regarded as a characteristic of the Bisayans; and tribes of the northern 
part of Luzon tattoo at the present day. 


prayers, which they appear to consider as efficacious 
as their old heathenish ones. Some have their children 
baptized as well, as it costs nothing ; but, save in these 
respects, they perform no other Christian or civil obliga- 
tions. They are very peaceable, neither making war 
with one another, nor having poisoned arrows. Instan- 
ces of Cimarronese, who go over to Christianity and vil- 
lage life, together with tribute and servitude, are very 
rare; and the number of the civilized, who return to 
the forests in order to become Cimarronese, is, on the 
other hand, very inconsiderable indeed — still smaller 
than in Luzon, as the natives, from the dull, almost 
vegetating life which they lead, are not easily brought 
into such straitened circumstances as to be compelled 
to leave their village, which, still more than in Luzon, 
is all the world to them. 
Rice-farming. -pj^^ culture of ricc follows the seasons of the year. In 

some places where there are large fields the plough 
(arado) and the sod-sod (here called surod) are employed ; 
but, almost universally, the rice-field is only trodden 
over by carabaos in the rainy season. Sowing is done 
on the west coast in May and June, planting in July 
and August, and reaping from November to January. 
One ganta of seed-corn gives two, sometimes from three 
to four, cabanes (i. e., fifty, seventy-five, and a hundred 
fold). In the chief town, Catbalogan, there are but 
very few irrigated fields (JLuhigan, from tuhig, water), 
the produce of which does not suffice for the require- 
ments, and the deficiency is made up from other places 
on the coasts of the Island. On the other hand, Catba- 
logan produces abaca, coco-nut oil, wax, balate (edible 
holothuria, sea cucumber), dried fish, and woven stuffs. 
On the north and east coasts sowing takes place from 
November to January, and reaping six months later. 
During the remaining six months the field serves as 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 

Land tenure. 

pasture for the cattle; but in many places rice culture 
goes on even during these months, but on other fields. 
A large portion of this rice is frequently lost on account 
of the bad weather. 

Purchases of land are seldom made, it being gen- 
erally acquired by cultivation, by inheritance, or for- 
feiture. In Catbalogan the best rice land was paid for 
at the rate of one dollar for a ganta of seed-corn, and, 
on the north coast of Lauang, a field producing yearly 
one hundred cabanes was purchased for thirty dollars. 
Reckoning, as in Naga, one ganta of seed-corn at four 
loanes, and seventy-five cabanes of produce at one 
quifion, the eastern rice land costs, in the first instance, 
three thalers and a third, in the second three thalers. 
The owner lets the bare property out on leases, and 
receives one-half the harvest as rent.* The cultivation 
of rice in Leyte is conducted as in Samar, but it has given 
way to the cultivation of abaca; the governors, while 
they were allowed to trade, compelled the natives to 
devote a part of their fields and of their labor to it. 
Should a peasant be in arrears, it is the prevalent cus- 
tom in the country for him to pay to the dealer double 
the balance remaining due at the next harvest. 

Mountain-rice culture, which in Catbalogan is almost Mountain rice. 
the only cultivation, requires no other implement of 
agriculture than the bolo to loosen the soil somewhat, 
and a sharp stick for making holes at distances of six 
inches for the reception of five or six grains of rice. 
Sowing is done from May to June, weeding twice, and 
five months later it is cut stalk by stalk; the reaper 
receiving half a real daily wages and food. The produce 
is between two and three cabanes per ganta, or fifty 

* Mezzeria (Italian); metayer (French). 



Other prodxicts. 



Balao oil. 

to seventy fold. The land costs nothing, and wages 
amount to nearly five reals per ganta of seed-corn. After 
a good harvest the caban fetches four reales; but just 
before the harvest the price rises to one dollar, and often 
much higher. The ground is used only once for dry 
rice; camote (batata), abaca, and caladium being planted 
on it after the harvest. Mountain rice is more remuner- 
ative than watered rice about in the proportion of nine 
to eight. 

Next to rice the principal articles of sustenance are 
camote (convolvulus batatas), ubi (dioscorea), gabi (cala- 
dium), palauan (a large arum, with taper leaves and spot- 
ted stalk). Camote can be planted all the year around, 
and ripens in four months; but it takes place generally 
when the rice culture is over, when little labor is avail- 
able. When the cultivation of camote is retained, the 
old plants are allowed to multiply their runners, and only 
the tubers are taken out of the ground. But larger 
produce is obtained by cleaning out the ground and 
planting anew. From eighteen to fifteen gantas may 
be had for half a real. 

Although there are large plantations of abaca, during 
my visit it was but little cultivated, the price not being 
sufficiently remunerative. 

Tobacco also is cultivated. Formerly it might be 
sold in the country, but now it has to be delivered to 
the government. 

A resinous oil (halao or malapajo) is found in Samar 
and Albay, probably also in other provinces. It is 
obtained from a dipterocarpus (apitoyi), one of the 
loftiest trees of the forest, by cutting in the trunk a 
wide hole, half a foot deep, hollowed out into the form 
of a basin, and from time to time lighting a fire in it, 
so as to free the channels, through which it flows, of 
obstructions. The oil thus is collected daily and comes 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S76 

into commerce without any further preparation. Its 
chief application is in the preservation of iron in ship- 
building. Nails dipped in the oil of the balao, before 
being driven in, will, as I have been assured by credible 
individuals, defy the action of rust for ten years; but 
it is principally used as a varnish for ships, which are 
painted with it both within and without, and it also 
protects wood against termites and other insects. The 
balao is sold in Albay at four reals for the tinaja of ten 
gantas (the liter at eight pence). A cement formed by 
the mixture of burnt lime, gum elemi, and coconut oil, 
in such proportions as to form a thick paste before 
application, is used for the protection of the bottoms 
of ships; and the coating is said to last a year.* Wax wax. 
is bartered by the Cimarronese. The whole of Samar 
annually yields from two hundred to three hundred 
piculs, whose value ranges between twenty-five and 
fifty dollars per picul, while in Manila the price is gen- 
erally five to ten dollars higher; but it fluctuates very 
much, as the same product is brought from many other 
localities and at very irregular intervals of time. 

There is hardly any breeding of cattle, notwith- scardiyof 
standing the luxuriant growth of grasses and the absence *''"^** 
of destructive animals. Horses and carabao are very 
Tare, and are said to have been introduced late, not 
before the present century. As in Samar there are 
hardly any other country roads than the seashore and 
the shallow beds of rivers (it is better in the north of 
Leyte), the carabao is used only once every year in 
treading over the earth of the rice-field. During the 
year he roams at large on the pastures, in the forest, 
or on a small island, where such exists, in the neighbor- 

• In China an oil is procured from the seeds of vernicia montann, which, by 
the addition of alum, litharge, and steatite, with a gsntl: heat, easily for.tis a 
valuable varnish which, when mixed with resin, is employed in r^nderin^ the 
bottoms of vessels watertight. P. Champion, Indust. Anc. el Mod. de L'Emp. 
Chinois." 114. 


hood. Some times in the year one may see several 
carabaos, attached to the large trunk of a tree, dragging 
it to the village. Their number, consequently, is ex- 
tremely small. Carabaos which tread the rice land well 
are worth as much as ten dollars. The mean price 
is three dollars for a carabao, and five to six dollars for 
a caraballa. Horned cattle are only occasionally used 
as victims at festivals. The property of several owners, 
they are very limited in number, and live half-wild 
in the mountains. There is hardly any trade in them, 
but the average price is three dollars for a heifer, and 
five or six dollars for a cow. Almost every family 

Smne. possesscs 3 pig; somc, three or four of them. A fat 

pig costs six or seven dollars, even more than a cow. 
Many Filipino tribes abstain strictly from beef; but 
pork is essential to their feasts. Grease, too, is so dear 
that from three to four dollars would, under favorable 
circumstances, be got on that account for a fat animal. 

Sheep and goats. Shccp and goats thrivc Well, and propagate easily, but 
also exist only in small numbers, and are hardly utilized 
either for their wool or their flesh. Creoles and mesti- 
zos are for the most part too idle even to keep sheep, 
preferring daily to eat chicken. The sheep of Shanghai, 
imported by the governor of Tacloban, also thrive and 

Poultry. propagate famously. A laying hen costs half a real, 

a rooster the same, and a game cock as much as three 
dollars, often considerably more. Six or eight hens, 
or thirty eggs, may be bought for one real. 

Cost of food. A family consisting of father, mother, and five children 

requires daily nearly twenty-four chupas of palay (rice 
in the husk), which, after winnowing, comes to about 
twelve chupas. This at the average price of four reals 
per cavan costs about half a real. The price, however, 
varies. Sometinies, after the harvest, it is three reals 
per cavan; before it, ten; and in Albay, even about 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S77 

thirty reals. Then about three cuartos are wanted for 
extras (as fish, crabs, vegetables, etc.), which, however, 
are generally collected by the children; and, lastly, for 
oil two cuartos, buyo one cuarto, tobacco three cuartos 
(three leaves for one cuarto), the latter being smoked, 
not chewed. A woman consumes half as much buyo 
and tobacco as a man. Buyo and tobacco are less used 
in Leyte than in Samar. 

For clothing a man requires yearly — four rough clothing coat. 
shirts of guinara, costing from one to two reals; three 
or four pairs of trousers, at one to two and a half reals; 
two kerchiefs for the head, at one and a half real (hats 
are not worn on the south and west coasts), and for 
the church festivals generally one pair of shoes, seven 
reals; one fine shirt, a dollar or more; and fine panta- 
loons, at four reals. A woman requires — four to six 
camisas of guinara, at one real; two to three sayas of 
guinara, at three to four reals, and one or two sayas of 
European printed cotton, at five reals ; two head-kerchiefs 
at one and a half to two reals; and one or two pairs 
of slippers (chinelas) to go to mass in, at two reals and 

The women genrally have, besides, a fine camisa cost- women's extra.'<. 
ing at least six reals; a mantilla for churchgoing, six 
reals (it lasts four years); and a comb, two cuartos. 
Many also have under skirts (nabuas), two pieces at 
four reals, and earrings of brass and a rosary, which 
last articles are purchased once for all. In the poorer 
localities, Lauang for instance, only the home-woven 
guinaras are worn; and there a man requires — three 
shirts and three pairs of trousers, which are cut out 
of three pieces o^ guinara, at two reals, and a salacot (hat), 
generally home made, worth half a real; while a woman 
uses yearly — four sayas, value six reals; and a camisa, 





with a finer one for the festivals, eight reals. Under- 
skirts are not worn; and the clothing of the children 
may be estimated at about half of the above rates. 

For household furniture a family has a cooking pot* 
of unglazed burnt clay, imported by ships from Manila, 
the cost of which is fixed by the value of its contents 
in rice; a supply of bamboo-canes; seven plates, costing 
between two and five cuartos; a carahai (iron pan), 
three to four reals; coconut shells serving for glasses; 
a few small pots, altogether half a real; a sundang, four 
to six reals, or a holo (large forest knife), one dollar; 
and a pair of scissors (for the women), two reals. The 
loom, which every household constructs for itself of 
bamboo of course costs nothing. 

The rate of daily wages, in the case of Filipino em- 
ployers, is half a real, without food; but Europeans 
always have to give one real and food, unless, by favor 
of the gobernadorcillo, they get polistas at the former 
rate, which then regularly goes into the public coffers. 
An ordinary carpenter earns from one to two reals; a 
skilful man, three reals daily. The hours of work are 
from six to noon, and from two to six in the evening. 

Almost every village has a rude smith, who under- 
stands the making of sundangs and bolos; but the iron 
and the coal required for the purpose mut be supplied 
with the order. No other work in metal is executed. 
With the exception of a little ship-building, hardly 
any other pursuit than weaving is carried on; the loom 
is rarely wanting in a household. Guinara, i. e., stuff 
made of the abaca, is manufactured, as well as also 
some pina, or figured silk stuffs, the silk being brought 
from Manila, and of Chinese origin. All these fabrics 
are made in private homes; there are no factories. 

* Petzholdt ("Caucasus," i. 203) mentions that in Bosslswi the price of a clay 
vessel is determined by its capacity of maize. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 270 

In places where rice is scarce the lower class of people Barter. 
catch fish, salt and dry them, and barter them for rice. 
In the chief towns purchases are made with the current 
money; but, in the interior, where there is hardly any 
money, fabrics and dried fish are the most usual means 
of exchange. Salt is obtained by evaporating the sea- 
water in small iron hand-pans (carahals), without pre- 
vious evaporation in the sun. The navigation between 
Catbalogan and Manila continues from December to 
July, and in the interval between those months the ships 
lie dismantled under sheds. There also is communica- Communi- 
tion by the coast eastwards to Guian, northwards to ''"'"'"• 
Catarman, and sometimes to Lauang. The crews con- 
sist partly of natives, and partly of foreigners, as 
the natives take to the sea with great reluctance; indeed, 
almost only when compelled to leave their villages. 
Samar has scarcely any other means of communication 
besides the navigation of the coast and rivers, the interior 
being roadless; and burdens have to be conveyed on the 
shoulders. An able-bodied porter, who receives a real 
and a half without food, will carry three arrobas (seventy- 
five pounds at most) six leagues in a day, but he cannot 
accomplish the same work on the following day, re- 
quiring at least one day's rest. A strong man will carry 
an arroba and a half daily for a distance of six leagues 
for a whole week. 

There are no markets in Samar and Leyte ; so that No markets. 
whoever wishes to buy seeks what he requires in the 
houses, and in like manner the seller offers his goods. 

A Filipino seeking to borrow money has to give ample Debu. 
security and pay interest at the rate of one real for every 
dollar per month (twelve and one-half per cent, monthly) ; 
and it is not easy for him to borrow more than five dollars, 
for which sum only he is legally liable. Trade and credit 
are less developed in eastern and northern Samar than 


in the western part of the island, which keeps up a more 
active communication with the other inhabitants of the 
Archipelago. There current money is rarely lent, but 
only its value in goods is advanced at the rate of a real 
per dollar per mensem. If the debtor fails to pay within 
the time appointed, he frequently has to part with one 
of his children, who is obliged to serve the lender for 
his bare food, without wages, until the debt has been 
extinguished. I saw a young man who had so served 
for the term of five years, in liquidation of a debt of five 
dollars which his father, who had formerly been a gober- 
nadorcillo in Paranas, owed to a mestizo in Catbalogan; 
and on the east coast a pretty young girl, who, for a debt 
of three dollars due by her father, had then, for two 
years, served a native, who had the reputation of being 
a spendthrift. I was shown in Borongan a coconut 
plantation of three hundred trees, which was pledged 
for a debt of ten dollars about twenty years ago, since 
which period it had been used by the creditor as his own 
property; and it was only a few years since that, upon 
the death of the debtor, his children succeeded, with 
great difficulty, in paying the original debt and redeem- 
ing the property. It is no uncommon thing for a native 
to borrow two dollars and a half from another in order 
to purchase his exemption from the forty days of annual 
service, and then, failing to repay the loan punctually, 
to serve his creditor for a whole year.* 
People of samar The inhabitants of Samar and Leyte, who are at once 
and Leyte. idler and filthier than those of Luzon, seem to be as much 

behind the Bicols as the latter are behind the Tagalogs. 

* As usual these abuses spring from the non-enforcement of a statute passed 
in 1848 (Leij. itlL, i. 144), which prohibits usurious contracts with servants or 
assistsnts, and t^rtatens with heavy penalties all those who, under the pretext 
of having advanced money, cr of having paid debts or the poll-tax or exemption 
from service, keep either individual natives cr whole families in a continual state 
of dependence upcn them, and always secure the increase of their obligations 
to them by net allowing them wages sufficient to enable them to satisfy the 
claims against them. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S8t 

In Tacloban, where a more active intercourse with Manila 
exists, these qualities are less pronounced, and the 
women, who are agreeable, bathe frequently. For the 
rest, the inhabitants of the two islands are friendly, 
obliging, tractable, and peaceable. Abusive language 
or violence very rarely occurs, and, in case of injury, 
information is laid against the offender at the tribunal. 
Great purity of manners seems to prevail on the north 
and west coasts, but not on the east coast, nor in Leyte. 
External piety is universally conspicuous, through the 
training imparted by the priests; the families are very 
united, and great influence is wielded by the women, 
who are principally engaged in household employments, 
and are tolerably skilful in weaving, and to whom only 
the lighter labors of the field are assigned. The author- 
ity of the parents and of the eldest brother is supreme, the 
younger sisters never venturing to oppose it ; women and 
children are kindly treated. 

The natives of Leyte, clinging as strongly to their ^«^'«- 
native soil as those of Samar, like them, have no par- 
tiality for the sea, though their antipathy to it is not 
quite so manifest as that of the inhabitants of Samar.* 

There are no benevolent institutions in either of the puUic charity 
two islands. Each family maintains its own poor and ""' "<^<^fp'*^- 
crippled, and treats them tenderly. In Catbalogan, 
the chief town of the island, with five to six thousand 
inhabitants, there were only eight recipients of charity; 
but in Albay mendicants are not wanting. In Lauang, 
when a Spaniard, on a solemn festival, had caused it to 
be proclaimed that he would distribute rice to the poor, 
not a single applicant came forward. The honesty 

* Formerly it appears to have been different with them. "These Bisayans 
are a people little disposed to agriculture, but practised in navigation, and eajer 
for war and expeditions by sea, on account of the pillage and prizes, which they 
call 'mangubas,' which is the same as taking to the field in order to steal." — 
Morga, f. 138. 


of the inhabitants of Samar is much commended. 
Obligations are said to be contracted almost always 
without written documents, and never forsworn, even 
if they make default in payment. Robberies are of rare 
occurrence in Samar, and thefts almost unknown. 
There are schools also here in the pueblos, which accom- 
plish quite as much as they do in Camarines. 

Amusements. Of the public amusements cock-fighting is the chief, 

but it is not so eagerly pursued as in Luzon. At the 
church festivals they perform a drama translated from 
the Spanish, generally of a religious character; and the 
expense of the entertainment is defrayed by voluntary 
contributions of the wealthy. The chief vices of the 
population are play and drunkenness; in which latter 
even women and young girls occasionally indulge. 
The marriage feasts, combining song and dance, often 
continue for several days and nights together, where 
they have a sufficient supply of food and drink. The 

Suitor's service, suitor has to servc in the house of the bride's parents 
two, three, and even five years, before he takes his 
bride home; and money cannot purchase exemption 
from this onerous restriction. He boards in the house 
of the bride's parents who furnish the rice, but he has to . 
supply the vegetables himself.* At the expiration of 
his term of service he builds, with the assistance of his 
relations and friends, the house for the family which is 
about to be newly established. 

Morals. Though adultery is not unknown, jealousy is rare, 

and never leads to violence. The injured individual 
generally goes with the culprit to the minister, who, 

* Ill-usage prevails to a great extent, although prohibited by a stringent law; 
the non-enforcement of which by the alcaldes is charged with a penalty of 100 
dollars fcr every single case of neglsct. In many provinces the bridegroom pays 
to the bride's mother, besides the dower, an indemnity for the rearing ("mother's 
milk") which the bride has enjoyed {biyay susu). According to Colin ("Labor 
Evangelico," p. 129) the penhimuyat. the present which the mother received 
for night-watching and care during the bringing up of the bride, amounted to 
one-fifth of the dowry. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 283 

with a severe lecture to one, and words of consolation 
to the other, sets everything straight again. Married 
women are more easily accessible than girls, whose 
prospect of marriage, however, it seems is not greatly 
diminished by a false step during single life. While 
under parental authority girls, as a rule, are kept under 
rigid control, doubtless in order to prolong the time of 
servitude of the suitor. External appearance is more 
strictly regarded among the Bisayans than by the Bicols 
and Tagalogs. Here also the erroneous opinion prevails, 
that the number of the women exceeds that of the men. 
Instances occur of girls of twelve being mothers; but 
they are rare ; and though women bear twelve or thirteen 
children, many of these, however, do not live. So Great infant 
much so is this the case, that families of more than six """'''^'''J'- 
or eight children are very rarely met with. 

Superstition is rife. Besides the little church images Superstitions. 
of the Virgin, which every Filipina wears by a string 
round the neck, many also have heathen amulets, of 
which I had an opportunity of examining one that had 
been taken from a very daring criminal. It consisted of a 
small ounce flask, stuffed full of vegetable root fibres, 
which appeared to have been fried in oil. This flask, 
which is prepared by the heathen tribes, is accredited 
with the virtue of making its owner strong and coura- 
geous. The capture of this individual was very difficult ; 
but, as soon as the little flask was taken from him, 
he gave up all resistance, and allowed himself to be bound. 
In almost every large village there are one or more 
Asuayig families who are generally dreaded and avoided, Ghouls. 
and regarded as outlaws, and who can marry only 
amongst themselves. They have the reputation of being 
cannibals.* Perhaps they are descended from such 
tribes? At any rate, the belief is very general and firmly 

* The Aiuang is the ghoul of the Arabian Nights' tales. — C 




Festivals and 


rooted; and intelligent old natives when questioned by 
me on the subject, answered that they certainly did 
not believe that the Asuangs ate men at the present time, 
but that their forefathers had assuredly done so.* 

Of ancient legends, traditions, or ballads, it is stated 
that there are none. It is true they have songs at their 
dances, but these are spiritless improvisations, and mostly 
in a high key. They have not preserved any memorials 
of former civilization. "The ancient Pintados possessed 
no temples, every one performing his ayiitos in his own 
house, without any special solemnity" — (Morga, f. 145 
v). Pigafetta (p. 92) certainly mentions that the King 
of Cebu, after his conversion to Christianity, caused 
many temples built on the seashore to be destroyed; 
but these might only have been structures of a very 
perishable kind. On certain occasions the Bisayans 
celebrated a great festival, called Pandot, at which 
they worshipped their gods in huts, which were expressly 
built for the purpose, covered with foliage, and adorned 
with flowers and lamps. They called these huts simha 
or simhahan (the churches are so called to the present 
day), "and this is the only thing which they have similar 
to a church or a temple" — (Informe, I., i., 17). According 
to Gemelli Careri they prayed to some particular gods, 
derived from their forefathers, who are called by the 
Bisayans Davata (Divata), and by the Tagalogs Anito; 
one anito being for the sea and another for the house, 
to watch over the children. f In the number of these 
anitos they placed their grandfathers and great-grand- 
fathers, whom they invoked in all their necessities, and 

* Veritable cannibals are not mentioned by the older authors on the Phil- 
ippines. Pigafetta (p. 127) heard that a people lived on a river at Cap^ B;nuian 
(north of Mindanao) who ate only the hearts of their captured enemies, along 
with lemon-juice; and Dr. Semper ("Philippines,") in '62 found the same custom, 
with the exception of the lemon-juice, on the east coast of Mindanao. 

t The Anito occurs amongst the tribes of the Malayan Archipelago as Antu, 
but the Anito of the Philippines is essentially a protecting spirit, while the Mala- 
yan Antu is rather of a demoniacal kind. 

Old religion. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines SS5 

in whose honor they preserved little statues of stone, 
wood, gold, and ivory, which they called liche or laravan. 
Amongst their gods they also reckoned all who perished 
by the sword, or were killed by lightning, or devoured by 
crocodiles, believing that their souls ascended to heaven 
on a bow which they called balangas. Pigafetta thus 
describes the idols which were seen by him: — "They are 
of wood, and concave, or hollow, without any hind 
quarters, with their arms extended, and their legs and 
feet bent upwards. They have very large faces, with 
four powerful teeth like boars' tusks, and are painted 
all over."* 

In conclusion, let me take a brief account of the religion 
of the ancient Brsayans from Fr. Gaspar San Agustin 
(Conquest, 169): 

The diemon, or genius, to whom they sacrificed was 
called by them Divata, which appears to denote an 
antithesis to the Deity, and a rebel against him. Hell 
was called Solad, and Heaven (in the language of the 
educated people) Ologan * * * The souls of the departed 
go to a mountain in the province of Otonf, called Medias, 
where they are well entertained and served. The 
creation of the universe is thus explained. A vulture Creation myth. 
hovering between heaven and earth finds no place to 
settle himself upon, and the water rises towards heaven; 
whereupon Heaven, in its wrath, creates islands. The 
vulture splits a bamboo, out of which spring man and 
woman, who beget many children, and, when their 
number becomes too great, drive them out with blows. 

* These idol images have never come under my observation. Those figured 
in Bastian and Hartmann's Journal of Elhnnlo'jy (b. i. pi. viii. Idols from the 
Philippines,) whose originals are in the Ethnographical Museum of Berlin, 
were certainly acquired in the Philiopines, but, a.^coriinj to A. W. Franks, un- j£ 
doubtedly belong to the Solomo.T Islands. Sections ii. to viii., p. 45, in the cata- 
logue of the Museum at Prague are entitled: — "Four heads of idols, male of 
wood, from the Philippines, contributed by the Bohemian naturalist Thaddaeus 
Haenke, who was commissioned by the King of Spain, in the year 1817. to travel 
in the islands of the South Sea." The photographs, which were obligingly '' 
sent here at my request by the direction of the museum, do not entirely corre- 
spond to the above description, pointing rather to the west coast of America, the 
principal field of Haenke's researches. The R'liguiae Kotanicae, from his pos- 
thumous papers, likewise afford no information respecting the origin of these 

+ On the Island of Panay. 


Some conceal themselves in the chamber, and these 

become the Datos; others in the kitchen, and these 

become the slaves. The rest go down the stairs and 
become the people. 

Ports of entry. 

Old Zamboanga 



In 1830 seven new ports were opened as an experiment, 
but, owing to great frauds in the charges, were soon 
afterwards closed again. In 1831 a custom-house was 
established at Zamboanga, on the south-west point 
of Mindanao; and in 1855 Sual, in the Gulf of Lingayen, 
one of the safest harbors on the west coast of Luzon, 
and Iloilo in Panay, were thrown open; and in 1863 
Cebu, on the island of the same name, for the direct 
communication with foreign countries. 

Before 1635 the Spaniards had established a fort at 
Zamboanga, which, although it certainly could not 
wholly prevent the piratical excursions against the 
colonies, yet considerably diminished them.* Until 
1848 from eight hundred to fifteen hundred individuals 
are stated to have been carried off yearly by the Moros.f 
The establishment of this custom-house has, therefore, 
been based upon political rather than commercial 
motives, it being found desirable to open an easily 
accessible place to the piratical states of the Sulu Sea 
for the disposal of their products. Trade, up to the 
present date, is but of very inconsiderable amount, 
the exports consisting chiefly of a little coffee (in 1871 
nearly six thousand piculs), which, from bad manage- 
ment, is worth thirty per cent, less than Manila coffee, 
and of the collected products of the forest and of the 
water, such as wax, birds'-nests, tortoise-shell, pearls, 
mother-of-pearl, and edible holothuria. This trade, 

* As an example, in anticipation of an attack on Cogseng, all the available 
forces, including those of Zamboanga, were collected round Manila, and the 
Mcros attacked the island with sixty ships, whereas formerly their armaments 
used not to exceed six or eight ships. Torrubia, p. 363. 

t Hakluyt Morga, Append. 360. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 287 

as well as that with Sulu, is entirely in the hands of the 
Chinese, who alone possess the patience, adaptiveness, 
and adroitness which are required for the purpose. 

Sual is specially important for its exports of rice; s^a^.g /(„.«■ « 
and its foreign trade is therefore affected by the results trade. 
of the harvests in Saigon, Burma, and China. In 1868, 
when the harvests in those countries turned out good, 
Sual carried on only a coasting trade. 

Cebu (with a population of 34,000) is the chief town Cebu. 
of the island of the same name, the seat of Government 
and of the bishop of the Bisayas, and within forty- 
eight hours from Manila by steamer. It is as favorably 
situated with regard to the eatern portion of the Bisayan 
group as Iloilo is for the western, and is acquiring in- 
creased importance as the emporium for its products. 
Sugar and tobacco are obtained from Bohol; rice from 
Panay; abaca from Leyte and Mindanao; and coffee, 
wax, Spanish cane, and mother-of-pearl from Misamis 
(Mindanao). Its distance from Samar is twenty-six, 
from Leyte two and a half, from Bohol four, and from 
Negros eighteen miles. 

The island of Cebu extends over seventy-five square Cebu island. 
miles. A lofty mountain range traverses it from north 
to south, dividing the east from the west side, and its 
population is estimated at 340,000, — -4,533 to the square 
mile. The inhabitants are peaceable and docile; thefts 
occur very seldom, and robberies never. Their occupa- 
tions are agriculture, fishing, and weaving for home con- 
sumption. Cebu produces sugar, tobacco, maize, rice, 
etc., and in the mountains potatoes; but the rice produced 
does not suffice for their requirements, there being 
only a little level land, and the deficiency is imported 
from Panay. 

The island possesses considerable beds of coal, the Land tenure. 
full yield of which may now be looked for, as the duty 



on export was abandoned by a decree of the 5th of May, 
1869.* While in Luzon and Panay the land is for the 
most part the property of the peasantry, in Cebu it 
mostly belongs to the mestizos, and is let out by them, 
in very small allotments, upon lease. The owners of 
the soil know how to keep the peasants in a state of 
dependence by usurious loans; and one of the results 
of this abuse is that agriculture in this island stands 
lower than in almost any other part of the archipelago. f 
Customhojise The entire value of the exports in 1868 amounted to 
$1,181,050; of which sugar to the value of $481,127, 
and abaca to the value of $378,256; went to England, 
abaca amounting to $112,000 to America, and tobacco 
to $118,260 to Spain. The imports of foreign goods, 
mostly by the Chinese, come through Manila, where 
they purchase from the foreign import houses. The 
value of these imports amounted in 1868 to $182,522; 
of which $150,000 were for English cotton stuffs. The 
entire imports of the island were estimated at $1,243,582, 
and the exports at $226,898. Among the importations 
were twenty chests of images, a sign of the deeply- 
rooted worship of the Virgin. Formerly the products 
for exportation were bought up by the foreign merchants, 
mostly Chinese mestizos; but now they are bought 

* According to the Miyieral Review, Madrid, 1866, xvii. 244, the coal from the 
mountain of Alpaco, in the district of Naga, in Cebu, is dry, pure, almost free 
of sulphur pyrites, burns easily, and with a strong flame. In the experiments 
made at the laboratory of the School of Mines in Madrid it yielded four per cent, 
of ashes, and a heating power of 4,825 caloria; i. e., by the burning of one part 
by weight 4,825 parts by weight of water were heated to 1° C. Good pit-coal 
gives 6,000 cal. The first coal pits in Cebu were excavated in the Massanga 
valley; but the works were discontinued in 1859, after considerable outlay had 
been made on them. Four strata of considerable thickness were subsequently 
discovered in the valley of Alpaco and in the mountain of Oling, in Naga. * * 
"The coal of Cebu is acknowledged to be better than that of Australia and La- 
buan, but has not sufficient heating power to be used, unmixed with other coal, 
on long sea voyages." 

According to the Catalogue of the Products of the Philippines( Manila, 1866), 
the coal strata of Cebu have, at many places in the mountain range which run? 
from north to south across the whole of the island, an average thickne?? of two 
miles. The coal is of middling quality, and is burnt in the Government steam 
works after being mixed with Cardiff coal. The price in Gebu is on the average 
six dollars per ton. 

t English Consular Report, 217. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S89 

direct from the producers, who thus obtain better prices 
in consequence of the abolition of the high brokerages. 
To this and to the energy of the foreign merchants, 
under favorable circumstances, is the gradual improve- 
ment of agriculture principally to be ascribed. 

Iloilo is the most important of the newly opened ihHo. 
ports, being the central point of the Bisayan group, and 
situated in one of the most thickly populated and indus- 
trious provinces. Nicholas Loney* estimates the export 
of goods woven from the fiber of the piiia, from Iloilo, 
and the neighboring provinces, at about one million 
dollars annually. The harbor is excellent, being com- 
pletely protected by an island which lies immediately 
before it; and at high tide there is about twelve feet of 
water close in shore for vessels to lie in. On account 
of the bar, however, ships of a deeper draught than this 
are obliged to complete their loading outside. Previous 
to the opening of the new harbors, all the provinces were 
compelled as well to bring their products intended for 
exportation to Manila, as to receive from the same 
place their foreign imports; the cost of which therefore 
was greatly increased through the extra expenses incurred 
by the double voyage, reloading, brokerage, and whar- 
fage charges. According to a written account by N. 
Loney, it is shown how profitable, even after a few 
years, the opening of Iloilo has been to the provinces 
immediately adjoining — the islands of Panay and Negros. 

The higher prices which can be obtained for directly Suaar. 
exported sugar, combined with the facility and security 
of the trade as contrasted with the late monopoly enjoy- 
ed by Manila, have occasioned a great extension of the 
cultivation of that article. Not only in Iloilo, but also 
in Antique and Negros, many new plantations have 

* The man credited with the development of the sugar industry through 
machinery. A monument has been erected to his memory. — T. 


arisen, and the old ones have been enlarged as much as 
possible; and not less important has been the progress 
in the manufacture. In 1857 there was not one iron 
mill to be found on the island ; so that, in working with the 
wooden mill, about thirty per cent, of the sap remained 
in the cane, even after it had thrice passed through. 
The old wooden presses, which were worked by steam 
or carabaos, have now been supplanted by new ones; 
and these the native planters have no difficulty in ob- 
taining, as they can get them on credit from the ware- 
houses of the English importers. Instead of the old 
Chinese cast-iron pans which were in use, far superior 
articles have been imported from Europe; and many 
large factories worked by steam-power and with all 
modern improvements have been established. In agri- 
culture, likewise, creditable progress is noticeable. 
Improved ploughs, carts, and farming implements gen- 
erally, are to be had in plenty. These changes naturally 
show how important it was to establish at different 
points, extending over two hundred miles of the Archi- 
pelago, commercial centers, where it was desirable that 
foreigners should settle. Without these latter, and the 
facilities afforded to credit which thereby ensued, the 
sudden rise and prosperity of Iloilo would not have been 
possible, inasmuch as the mercantile houses in that capital 
would have been debarred from trading with unknown 
planters in distant provinces, otherwise than for ready 
money. A large number of half-castes, too, who before 
traded in manufactured goods purchased in Manila, 
were enabled after this to send their goods direct to the 
provinces, to the foreign firms settled there; and as, 
ultimately, neither these latter nor the Chinese retail 
dealers could successfully compete with them, the 
result has been that, as much to their own profit as to 
that of the country, they have betaken themselves to 

Jagor'a Travels in the Philippines t91 

the cultivation of sugar. In this manner important 
plantations have been established in Negros, which are 
managed by natives of Iloilo: but there is a scarcity 
of laborers on the island. 

Foreigners now can legally acquire property, and Lmid disputes. 
possess a marketable title; in which respect the law, 
until a very recent period, was of an extremely uncertain 
nature. Land is to be obtained by purchase, or, when 
not already taken up, by "denuncia" (i. e. priority of 
claim). In such case, the would-be possessor of the land 
must enter into an undertaking in the nearest of the 
native Courts to cultivate and keep the said land in a 
fit and serviceable condition. Should no other claim be 
put in, notice is thereupon given of the grant, and the 
magistrate or alcalde concludes the compact without 
other cost than the usual stamp duty. 

Many mestizos and natives, not having the necessary Lach o/ capit,u 
capital to carry on a large plantation successfully, ■^'"' '<"■"« 
sell the fields which they have already partially cultivated 
to European capitalists, who are thus relieved of all the 
preliminary tedious work. Evidently the Colonial 
Government is now sincerely disposed to favor the 
laying out of large plantations. 

The want of good roads is particularly felt: but, with Lach o/ roads. 
the increase of agriculture, this defect will naturally 
be remedied; and, moreover, most of the sugar factories 
are situated on rivers which are unnavigable even by 
flat freight boats. The value of land in many parts 
of the country has doubled within the last ten years.* 

Up to 1854 the picul of sugar was worth in Iloilo sugar prices. 
from $1.05 to $1.25 and seldom over $2.00 in Manila; 

* In Jaro the leases have increased threefold in six years: and cattle which 
were worth $10 in 1860, fetched $25 in 1866. Plots of land on the "Ria," in 
Iloilo, have risen from $100 to $500, and even as high as $800. (Diario, Feb- 
ruary 1867). These results are to ba ascribed to the sugar trade, which, through 
free exportation, has become extremely lucrative. 


in 1866, $3.25; and in 1868, $4.75 to $5.00 in Iloilo. 
The business in Iloilo therefore shows an increase of 
$1.75 per picul.* 

Negros. At the cnd of 1866 there were as many as twenty 

Europeans established on the island of Negros as sugar 
planters, besides a number of mestizos. Some of them 
were working with steam machinery and vacuum pans. 
The general rate of pay is from $2.05 to $3.00 per month. 
On some plantations the principle of acsa, i. e. part share, 
is in operation. The owner lets out a piece of ground, 
providing draught cattle and all necessary ploughing 
implements, to a native, who works it, and supplies the 
mill with the cut cane, receiving as payment a share, 
generally a third, of the product. In Negros the violet 
cane is cultivated, and in Manila the white (Otaheiti). 
The land does not require manuring. On new ground, 
or what we may term virgin soil, the cane often grows 
to a height of thirteen feet. A vast improvement is to 
be observed in the mode of dress of the people. Piiia 
and silk stuffs are beoming quite common. Advance 
in luxury is always a favorable sign; according to the 
increase of requirements, industry flourishes in propor- 

The future As I havc already mentioned, California, Japan, 

China, and Australia appear designed by nature to be 
the principal consumers of the products of the Philippine 
Islands. Certainly at present England is the best 
customer; but nearly half the account is for sugar, in 
consequence of their own custom duties. Sometimes 
it happens that not more than one-fourth of the sugar 
crop is sufficiently refined to compete in the Australian and 
Californian markets with the sorts from Bengal, Java, 

sugar market. 

* In 1855 Iloilo took altogether from Negros 3,000 piculs out of 11,700; in 
1860 as much as 90.000 piculs; in 1863, 176,000 picuU (in twenty-seven foreign 
ships); in 1866, 250,000 piculs; in 1871, 312,379 piculs from both islands. 

JnQot's Travels in the Philippines S93 

and the Mauritius; the remaining three-fourths, if 
particularly white, must perforce undertake the long 
voyage to England, despite the high freight and certain 
loss on the voyage of from ten to twelve per cent, through 
the leakage of the molasses. The inferior quality of 
the Philippine sugar is at once perceived by the English 
refiners, and is only taxed at 8s. per cwt., while purer 
sorts pay 10s. to 12s.* 

In this manner the English customs favor the inferior 
qualities of manufactured sugar. The colonial Govern- p'""'^'"'- 
ment did not allow those engaged in the manufacture 
of sugar to distil rum from the molasses until the year 
1862. They had, therefore, little inducement to extract, 
at a certain expense, a substance the value on which 
they were not permitted to realize; but under ordinary 
circumstances the distillation of the rum not only 
covered the cost of refining, but gave, in addition, a 
fair margin of profit. 

A valuable by- 


One of the most interesting productions of the island Manila h,:m,>. 
is Manila hemp. The French, who, however, hardly 
use it, call it "Silk-Plant," because of its silky appearance. 

The natives call the fiber handala, and in commerce 
(generally speaking) abaca, just as the plant from which 
it is obtained. 

The latter is a wild species of banana growing in the Abani. 
Philippine Islands, known also as Arbol de Canamo 
(hemp-tree), Musa textilis, Lin. It does not differ in 

* The sugar intended for the English market cost in Manila, in the years 1868 
and 1869, from £15 to £16 per ton, and fetched in London about £20 per ton. 
The best refined sugar prepared in Manila for Australia was, on account of the 
higher duty, worth only £3 per ton more in London; but, being £5 dearer than 
the inferior quality, it commanded a premium of £2. Manila exports the 
sugar chiefly from Pangasinan, Pampanga, and Laguna. — (From private infor- 


■plant relations. 

Abacd districts. 

appearance to any great extent from the edible banana 
(Musa paradisiaca) , one of the most important plants 
of the torrid zone, and familiar to us as being one of 
our most beautiful hot-house favorites. 

Whether this and the "musse" (M. troglodytarum, M. 
sylvestris, and others), frequently known, too, as M. 
textilis, are of the same species, has not yet been deter- 
mined. The species Musaceae are herbaceous plants 
only. The outer stem consists of- crescent-shaped 
petioles crossing one another alternately, and encircling 
the thin main stem. These petioles contain a quantity 
of bast fiber, which is used as string, but otherwise is 
of no commercial value. The serviceable hemp fiber 
has, up to the present time, been exclusively obtained 
from the southern portion of the Philippines. 

The southern Camarines and Albay are favorably 
adapted for the cultivation of this plant, as are also 
the islands of Samar and Leyte, and the adjacent islands; 
and Cebu likewise, although a portion of the so-called 
"Cebu hemp" comes from Mindanao. In Negros the 
bast-banana thrives only in the south, not in the north; 
and Iloilo, which produces most of the hemp cloth 
(guinara), is obliged to import the raw material from 
the eastern district, as it does not flourish in the island 
of Panay. In Capiz, it is true, some abaca may be 
noticed growing, but it is of trifling value. Hitherto all 
attempts, strenuous though the efforts were, to accli- 
matize the growth of hemp in the western and northern 
provinces have failed. The plants rarely grow as high 
as two feet, and the trouble and expense are simply 
unremunerative. This failure may be accounted for 
by the extreme dryness prevailing during many months 
of the year, whereas in the eastern provinces plentiful 
showers fall the whole year round. 

Jaffor's Travels in the Philippines S9S 

The great profit which the Manila hemp has yielded pl^f^^^^^'J''' 
in the few years since its production, however, has 
given encouragement to still further experiments; so 
that, indeed, it will shortly be shown whether the cultiva- 
tion of abaca is to be confined to its present limited area, 
while the edible species of banana has spread itself over 
the whole surface of the earth within the tropics. On 
the volcanic mountains of Western Java a species of 
the Musaceffi grows in great luxuriance. The Govern- 
ment has not, however, made any real effort to cultivate 
it, and what has been done in that respect has been 
effected, up to the present date, by private enterprise. 
Various writers have stated that abaca is to be obtained 
in the north of the Celebes. Bickmore, however, says 
positively that the inhabitants having made great 
efforts in attempting its successful cultivation, have 
abandoned it again in favor of the cultivation of coffee, 
which is found to be far more profitable.* According 
to previous statements, Guadaloupe appears to be able 
to produce abaca (fiber of the M. textilis?);\ and Pondi- 
cherry and Guadaloupe have produced fabrics woven 
from abaca, and French Guiana stuffs from the fiber 
of the edible banana; | all these, however, are only 

Royle affirms that the Manila hemp (abaca fiber) Superiority c 


excels the Russian in firmness, lightness, and strength 
in tension, as well as in cheapness, and has only the 
one disadvantage that ropes made from it become stiff in 
wet weather. The reason, however, is found in the 
manner in which it is spun, and may be avoided by 

* The Islands of the East Indian Archipelajo, 1858, p. 340. 

t Exhibition Catalogue; section, French Colonies, 1867, p. 80. 

t Report of the Commissioners, Exhibition 1867, iv. 102. The South Amer- 
ican Indians have for a long time past employed the banana fiber in the manu- 
facture of clothing material; — (The Technologist. September, 1865, p. 89, from 
unauthenticated sources,) and in Loo Choo the banana fiber is the only kind in 
use (Faits Commerciaux, No. 1514. p. 36). 




proper preparation.* Through the better preparation 
of the raw material in Manila by means of adequate 
machinery, these difficulties have been overcome; but 
abaca no longer has the advantage of superior cheapness, 
as the demand has increased much faster than the supply. 
During the year 1859 it was worth from £22 to £25 
per ton; in 1868, £45 per ton; while Russian hemp 
fetched £31 per ton. Thus in nine years it rose to 
double its value. 

In Albay there are about twelve varieties of the best 
banana cultivated, which are particularly favored by 
the qualities of the soil. The cultivation is extremely 
simple, and entirely independent of the seasons. The 
plants thrive best on the slopes of the volcanic mountains 
(in which Albay and Camarines abound), in open spaces 
of the woods protected by the trees, which cast their 
shadows to an extent of about sixty feet. In exposed 
level ground they do not thrive so well, and in marshy 
land not at all. 

In the laying out of a new plantation the young shoots 
are generally made use of, which sprout so abundantly 
from the roots that each individual one soon becomes 
a perfect plant. In favorable ground the custom is 
to allow a distance of about ten feet between each 
plant; in poor ground six feet. The only care necessary 
is the extermination of the weeds, and clearing away 
the undergrowth during the first season; later on, the 
plants grow so luxuriantly and strongly that they 
entirely prevent the growth of anything else in their 
vicinity. The protection afforded by the shade of the 
trees at this period is no longer required, the young 
buds finding sufficient protection against the sun's 
xays under cover of the fan-like leaves. Only in excep- 

* Abaca not readily taking tar is, consequently, only used for running, and not 
standing, rigging. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S97 

tional cases, contrary to the usual practice, are the 
plants raised from seed. The fruit, when ready, is 
cut off and dried, though care must be taken that it 
is not over ripe; otherwise the kernels will not germinate. 
These latter are about the size of peppercorns; and 
the extraction of them in the edible species almost 
always brings about decay. Two days before sowing, 
the kernels are taken out of the fruit, and steeped over- 
night in water; on the following day they are dried in 
a shady place; and on the third day they are sown in 
holes an inch deep in fresh, unbroken, and well-shaded 
forest ground, allowing six inches distance between 
each plant and row. After a year the seedlings, which 
are then about two feet high, are planted out, and tended 
in the same way as the suckers. While many of the 
edible bananas bear fruit after one year, and a few 
varieties even after six months, the abaca plant requires Differences with 
on an average three years to produce its fiber in a proper °''"'^''' 
condition; when raised from suckers four years; and 
raised from year-old seedlings, even under the most 
favorable conditions, two years. 

On the first crop, only one stalk is cut from each CutHno. 
bush; but later on the new branches grow so quickly 
that they can be cut every two months.* After a few 
years the plants become so strong and dense that it 
is scarcely possible to push through them. Bast is in 
its best condition at the time of blossoming; but, when 
the price of the fiber happens to stand high in the market, 
this particular time is not always waited for. 

Plants which have blossomed cease to be profitable Prejudice 
in any way, by reason of the fiber becoming too weak — T"lf "'""*" 

° after blossoming. 

a matter of too great nicety for the unpractical con- 
summers on the other side of the Atlantic to decide 

* Aplant in full growth produces annually 3 f :wt. bandala to the acre, whereas 
from an acre of flax not mere than from 2 to 4 cwt. of pure flax, and from 2 to 
8 cwt. seed can be obtained. 


upon, and one in which, despite inquiries and careful 
inspections, they might be deceived. There really 
is no perceptible reason why the fiber should become 
weaker through fructification, which simply consists 
in the fact of the contents of the vascular cells changing 
into soluble matter, and gradually oozing away, the 
consequence of which is that the cells of the fiber are 
not replenished. These, on the contrary, acquire 
additional strength with the age of the plant, because 
the emptied cells cling so firmly together, by means of 
a certain resinous deposit, that it is impossible to obtain 
them unbroken without a great deal of trouble. The 
idea may have erroneously arisen from the circumstance 
that, previously to drying, as with hemp, the old plants 
were picked out, and allowed to be thrown away, though 
not without considerably increasing the rate of pay, 
which already consumed the greater part of the general 

Exiractino the In order to obtain the bast, the stalk above ground is 

closely pruned and freed from leaves and other encum- 
brances; each leaf is then singly divided into strips — a 
cross incision being made through the membrane on 
the inner or concave side, and connected by means of 
the pulpy parts (the parenchym) clinging together. 
In this manner as much as possible of the clear outer 
skin only remains behind. Another method is to strip 
the bast from the undivided stem. To effect this the 
operator makes an oblique incision in the skin of the 
under part of the stalk, drawing the knife gradually 
to the tip, and stripping off the whole length as broad 
a piece as possible; and the operation is repeated as 
many times as practicable. This method of handling 


* As Dr. Wittmack communicated to me, only fiber or seed can be obtained 
from hemp, as when the hemp is ripe, i.e. run to ssed, the fiber becomes then both 
brittle and coarse. When cultivating flax very often both seeds and fiber are 
used, but then they both are of inferior quality. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S99 

is more productive than the one previously described; 
but, on the other hand, it takes considerably more 
time, and for that reason is not often practised. The 
strips of bast are then drawn under a knife, the blade 
of which is three inches broad by six long, fastened at 
one end to the extremity of a flexible stick so that it 
is suspended perpendicularly over a well-smoothed 
block, and at the other end to a handle connected by 
means of a cord to a treadle, which can be pressed 
firmly down, as occasion requires. The workman 
draws the bast, without any regard to quality, between 
the knife and block, commencing in the middle, and then 
from side to side. The knife must be free from 
notches, or all indentations, according to the direction 
of Father Blanco.* 

Three hired-men usually get twenty-five pounds per Laborers' work 
day. One worker cuts up the stalks, strips off the ""^'^"^^• 
leaves, and attends to the supply; the second, frequently 
a boy, spreads out the strips ; and the third draws them 
under the knife. A single plant has been known to 
yield as much as two pounds of fiber; but the most 
favorable average rarely affords more than one pound, 
and plants grown in indifferent soil scarcely a sixth of 
that quantity. The plantations are worked either by the 
owner or by day-laborers, who, when the market prices 
are very low, take half share of the crop harvested by 
them. In these cases an industrious workman may 
obtain as much as one picul in a week. During my 
stay exceptionally low prices ruled — sixteen and one- 
half reals per picul undelivered. The workman could, 
therefore, in six days earn half the amount, viz., eight 
and a quarter reals at a rate of one and three-eighths 

* Flora dt Filipinas. 


reals per day. The day's pay at that time was half a 
real, and board a quarter of a real, making together 
three-quarters of a real. 

By daily pay. Half share. 

Profit. The workman therefore earned daily 0. 75 r. or 1 . 375 r. 

Wages amounted to per picul 12. 6 r. or 8. 25 r. 

Profit of the planters after deduction of the wages . . 3. 9 r. or 8. 25 r. 

Lupis and The edges of the petioles, which contain much finer fiber 

handa a. than the middle parts, are separately divided into strips 

an inch wide, and with strong pressure are drawn several 
times under the knife. This substance, which is called 
lupis, is in high request, being employed in the native 
weaving; while handala is chiefly used for ships' 
rigging. ^^ 

Grades of lupis. Lupis, accordiug to the fineness of the fiber, is sorted 
into four classes — first, Binani; second, Totogna; third, 
Sogotan; and fourth, Cadaclan. A bundle of these is 
then taken up in the left hand, and, while with the right 
the first three sorts are inserted between the fingers, the 
fourth is held between the thumb and forefinger. This 
last description is no longer used in fine weaving, and is 
therefore sold with handala. After the fine sorts have 
been pounded in a rice-mortar, in order to render the 
fiber soft and pliable, they are severally knotted into one 
another, and converted into web. 

Lupis fabrics. Generally the first sort is worked as woof with the 

second as warp, and the third as warp with the second as 
woof. The fabrics so woven are nearly as fine as pina 
fabrics (Nipis de Pina), and almost equal the best 
quality of cambric; and, notwithstanding the many little 
nodules occasioned by the tangling of the fiber, which 
may be discerned on close inspection, are clearer and 

* In 1868, £100 per ton was paid for lupis, although only imported in small 
quantities — about five tons per annum — and principally used at one time in 
France in the manufacture of a particular kind of underclothing. The fashion 
soon, however, died out. Quitol, a less valuable sort of lupis, could be sold at 
£75 per ton. 

Jarjor's Travels in the Philippines 301 

Stouter, and possess a warmer yellowish tint.* As to 
these last three qualities — purity, flexibility, and color — 
they stand in relation to cambric somewhat as card- 
board to tissue-paper. 

Weaving such fabrics on very simple looms is exceed- n'eaving. 
ingly troublesome as the fibers, which are not spun but 
twisted, very frequently break. The finest stuffs re- 
quire so great an amount of dexterity, patience, and time 
in their preparation, and for that reason are so expensive, 
that they would find no purchasers in Europe where 
there is the competition of cheap, machine-made goods. 
Their fine, warm yellowish color also is objected to by 
the European women, who are accustomed to linen and 
calicoes strongly blued in the washing. In the country, 
however, high prices are paid for them by the rich 
mestizos, who understand the real goodness of their 

The fibers of the inner petioles, which are softer but 
not so strong as the outer, are called tupus, and sold 
with bandala, or mixed with tapis and used in the native 
weaving. Bandala also serves for weaving purposes; 
and, in that portion of the Archipelago where the native 
abaca plantations are, the entire dress of both sexes is 
made of coarse guinara. Still coarser and stronger fabrics 
are prepared for the European market, such as crinoline 
and stiff muslin used by dressmakers. 

Before the arrival of the Spaniards the natives wore .i Pre-Spanish 
stuffs from abaca; which became an important article ^'■'"'"'^'• 
of export only some few decades since. This is in great 
measure due to the enterprising spirit of two American 
firms, and would not have been attained without great 
perseverance and liberal pecuniary assistance. 


* Inflexibility is peculiar to all fibers of the Monocotyledons, because they con- 
sist of coarsely rounded cells. On the other hand, the true bast fibers — the 
Dicotyledons (flax, for instance) — are the reverse. 


Unbusinesslike -pjjg plants flouHsh without any care or attention, the 

early methods. 

only trouble being to collect the fiber; and, the bounteous- 
ness of Nature having provided them against want, 
the natives shirk even this trouble when the market 
price is not very enticing. In general low prices are 
scarcely to be reckoned on, because of the utter indiffer- 
ence of the laborers, over whom the traders do not possess 
enough influence to keep them at work. Advances to 
them are made both in goods and money, which the 
creditor must repay either by produce from his own 
plantation or by giving an equivalent in labor.* As long 
as the produce stands high in price, everything goes on 
pretty smoothly, although even then, through the dis- 
honesty of the workers and the laziness, extravagance, 
and mercantile incapacity of the middlemen, considerable 
loss frequently ensues. If, however, prices experience any 
considerable fall, then the laborers seek in any and every 
way to get out of their uncomfortable position, whilst the 
percentage of profit secured to the middleman is barely 
sufficient to cover the interest on his outlay. Never- 
theless, they must still continue the supplies, inasmuch 
as they possess no other means of securing payment 
of their debt in the future. The laborers, in their turn, 
bring bitter complaints against the agents, to the effect 
that they are forced to severe labor, unprofitable to 
themselves, through their acceptance of advances made 
to them at most exorbitant rates ; and the agents (gener- 
ally mestizos or Creoles) blame the crafty, greedy, 

* Through the agricultural system, also, the mestizos and natives secure the 
work of their countrymen by making these advances, and renewing them before 
the old ones are paid off. These thoughtless people consequently fall deeper and 
deeper into debt, and become virtually the peons of their creditors, it being im- 
possible for them to escape in any way from their position. The "part-share 
contract" is much the same in its operative effects, the landlord having to supply 
the farmer with agricultural implements and draught-cattle, and often in addition 
supplying the whole family with clothing and provisions; and, on division of the 
earnings, the farmer is unabls to cover his debt. It is true the Filipinos are 
responsible legally to the extent of five dollars only, a special enactment pro- 
hibiting these usurious bargains. As a matter of fact, however, they are gen- 
erally practised. 

JagoT's Travels in the Philippines SOS 

extortionate foreigners, who shamelessly tempt the lords 
of the soil with false promises, and bring about their 
utter ruin. As a general rule, the "crafty foreigner" chanyetoa 
experiences a considerable diminution of his capital. 
It was just so that one of the most important firms suf- 
fered the loss of a very large sum. At length, however, 
the Americans, who had capital invested in this trade, 
succeeded in putting an end to the custom of advances, 
which hitherto had prevailed, erected stores and presses 
on their own account, and bought through their agents 
direct from the growers. All earlier efforts tending 
in this direction had been effectually thwarted by the 
Spaniards and Creoles, who considered the profits derived 
from the country, and especially the inland retail trade, 
to be their own by prescriptive right. They are parti- 
cularly jealous of the foreign intruders, who enrich 
themselves at their expense; consequently they place 
every obstacle in their way. If it depended upon the 
will of these people, all foreigners would be ejected from 
the country — the Chinese alone, as workmen (coolies), 
being allowed to remain.* 

The same feeling was exhibited by the natives towards Anti-chinese 
the Chinese, whom they hated for being industrious and *'^" 
trustworthy workers. All attempts to carry out great 
undertakings by means of Chinese labor were frustrated 
by the native workmen intimidating them, and driving 
them away either by open violence or by secret persecu- 
tion; and the Colonial authorities were reproached for 
not affording suitable protection against these and similar 
outrages. That, as a rule, great undertakings did not 
succeed in the Philippines, or at least did not yield a profit 
commensurate with the outlay and trouble, is a fact 
beyond dispute, and is solely to be ascribed to many of the 

* This feeling of jealousy had very nearly the effect of closing the new harbors 
immediately after they were opened. 



Good work for 
good pay. 

Tardy justice to 

Abacd pro- 
duction and 

circumstances related above. There are those, however, 
who explain these mishaps in other ways, and insist 
upon the fact that the natives work well enough when 
they are punctually and sufficiently paid. The Govern- 
ment, at any rate, appears gradually to have come to 
the conclusion that the resources of the country cannot 
be properly opened up without the assistance of the capi- 
tal and enterprise of the foreigners; and, therefore, of 
late years it has not in any way interfered with their 
establishment. In 1869 their right of establishment 
was tardily conceded to them by law. 

At this period the prospects of the abaca cultivation 
seemed very promising ; and since the close of the Amer- 
ican war, which had the effect of causing a considerable 
fall in the value of this article in America, the prices 
have been steadily increasing. It is stated (on authority) 
that, in 1840, 136,034 piculs of abaca, to the value of 
$397,995 were exported, the value per picul being reck- 
oned at about $2.09. The rate gradually rose and stood 
between four and five dollars — and, during the civil 
war, reached the enormous sum of nine dollars per picul — 
the export of Russian hemp preventing, however, a 
further rise. This state of affairs occasioned the laying 
out of many new plantations, the produce of which, 
when it came on the market, after three years, was valued 
at $3.50 per picul, in consequence of the prices having 
returned to their normal condition; and even then it 
paid to take up an existing plantation, but not to lay 
out a new one. This rate continued until 1860, since 
which time it has gradually risen (only during the Amer- 
ican civil war was there any stoppage), and it now stands 
once more as high as during the civil war; and there is no 
apparent prospect of a fall so long as the Philippines 
have no competitors in the trade. In 1866 the picul in 
Manila never cost less than $7 which two years previously 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 

was the maximum value; and it rose gradually, until 
$9.50 was asked for ordinary qualities. The production 
in many provinces had reached the extreme limit; and 
a further increase, in the former at least, is impossible, 
as the work of cultivation occupies the whole of the 
male population — an evidence surely that a suitable 
recompense will overcome any natural laziness of the 

An examination of the following table will confirm 
the accuracy of these views: — 









Great Britain 

North America, . 

Atlantic Ports • 































2 294 


















Market Report, 
T. H. 8e Co. 

Export oj 


The consumption in the country is not contained in Large locai 
the above schedule, and is difficult to ascertain; but «<'"«"'"p'''"^ 
it must certainly be very considerable, as the natives 
throughout entire provinces are clothed in guinara, 
the weaving of which for the family requirements 
generally is done at home. 

Sisal, also sisal-hemp, or, as it is sometimes known, 
Mexican grass, has for some years past been used in the 
trade in increasing quantities as a substitute for abaca, 
which it somewhat resembles in appearance, though 
wanting that fine gloss which the latter possesses. It is 
somewhat weaker, and costs from £5 to £10 less per ton; 
it is only used for ships' rigging. The refuse from it 
has been -found an extremely useful adjunct to the ma- 

* Rapport Consulairt Beige, XIV., 68. 


terials ordinarily used in the manufacture of paper. 
The Technologist for July, 1865, calls attention to the 
origin of this substitute, in a detailed essay differing essen- 
tially from the representations contained in the "U. S. 
Agricultural Report" published at Washington in 1870; 
and the growing importance of the article, and the igno- 
rance prevailing abroad as to its extraction, may render 
a short account of it acceptable. The description shows 
the superior fineness of the abaca fiber, but not its greater 

Sisal-hemp, which is named after the export harbor of 
Sisal (in the north-western part of the peninsula), is 
by far the most important product of Yucatan ; and this 
rocky, sun-burnt country seems peculiarly adapted 
to the growth of the fiber. In Yucatan the fiber is 
known as jenequem, as indeed the plant is obtained 
Varieties of from it. Of the latter there are seven sorts or varieties 
for purposes of cultivation ; only two, the first and seventh, 
are also to be found in a wild state. First, Chelem, 
apparently identical with Agave angustifolia; this ranks 
first. Second, Yaxci (pronounced Yachki; from yax, 
green, and tri, agave), the second in order; this is used 
only for fine weaving. Third, Sacci (pronounced Sakki; 
sack, white), the most important and productive, supply- 
ing almost exclusively the fiber for exportation; each 
plant yields annually twenty-five leaves, weighing 
twenty-five pounds, from which is obtained one pound 
of clear fiber. Fourth, Chucurnci, similar to No. 3, 
but coarser. Fifth, Babci; the fiber very fair, but the 
leaves rather small, therefore not very productive. 
Sixth, Citamci (pronounced Kitamki; kitarn, hog); 

* In the Agricultural Report of 1869, p. 232, another fiber was highly men- 
tioned, belonging to a plant very closely related to sisal (Brometia Sylrcstris), per- 
haps even a variety of the same. The Mexican name, jille, is possibly derived 
from the fact of their curiously flattened, spike-edged leaves, resembling the 
dentated knives formed from volcanic stone (obsidian) possessed by the Aztecs 
and termed by them iztli. 

Jagor's Trareh in the Philippines 


neither good nor productive. Seventh, Cnjim or Cajum, 
probably Fourcroya ciibcnsis; leaves small, from four 
to five inches long. 

The cultivation of sisal has only in recent times been 
prosecuted vigorously; and the extraction of the fiber 
from the leaves, and the subsequent spinning for ships' 
rigging, are already done by steam-machinery. This 
occupation is especially practiced by the Maya Indians, 
a memorial of the Toltecs, who brought it with them 
upon their emigration from Mexico, where it was in 
vogue long before the arrival of the Spaniards. 

The sisal cultivation yields an annual profit of 95 
per cent. A mecate, equal to five hundred seventy-six 
square yards (raras), contains sixty-four plants, giving 
sixty-four pounds of clear fiber, of the value of $3.84; 
which, after deducting $1.71, the cost of obtaining it, leaves 
$2.13 remaining. The harvesting commences from four 
to five years after the first laying out of the plantation, 
and continues annually for about fifty or sixty years. 

In tropical countries there is scarcely a hut to be seen 
without banana trees surrounding it; and the idea pre- 
sented itself to many to utilize the fiber of these plants, 
at that time entirely neglected, which might be done by 
the mere labor of obtaining it; besides which, the little 
labor required for their proper cultivation is quickly 
and amply repaid by their abundant fruitfulness.* 

* The banana trees are well known to be among the most valuable of plants to 
mankind. In their unripe state they afford starch-flour; and when mature, they 
supply an agreeable and nutritious fruit, which, although partaken of freely, will 
produce neither unpleasantness nor any injurious after-effects. One of the b?st 
of the edible species bears fruit as early as five or six months after being planted, 
suckers in the meantime constantly sprouting from the roots, so that continual 
fruit-bearing is going on, the labor of the growers merely being confined to the 
occasional cutting down of the old plants and to gathering in the fruit. The 
broad leaves afford to other young plants the shade which is so requisite in tropi- 
cal countries, and are employed in many useful ways about the house. Many 
a hut, too, has to thank the banana trees surrounding it from the conflagration, 
which, generally speaking, lays the village in ashes. 1 should here like to make 
an observation upon a mistake which has spread rather widely. In Bishop 
Pallegoix's excellent work. Description du Hoynume Thai ou Siam, I. 144, he 
says: "L'arbre n rrrms qui est utic espece dc bananier, et que leu Siamois appellcnt 
'rate,' fournit cc beau vcniis qu'on admire dans les petilf; nieubles qu'on apporte de 
Chine." When I was in Bangkok, I called the attention of the amiable white- 
haired, and at that time nearly nonogenarian, bishop to this curious statement. 
Shaking his head, he said he could not have written it. I showed him the very 
passage. "Mafai, j'ai dit une betixe: j'eri ai dit bjen d'autrrs." whispered he in my 
ear, holding up his hand as if afraid somebody might overhear him. 








This idea, however, under the existing circumstances, 
would certainly not be advantageous in the Philippines, 
as it does not pay to obtain bast from the genuine abaca 
plant as soon as it has borne fruit. The fiber of the edible 
banana might very well be used as material for paper- 
making, though obtaining it would cost more than the 
genuine bandala. 
Fiber-extracting In the Rcport of the Couucil of the Society of Arts, 
London, May 11, 1860, attention was called to a machine 
invented by F. Burke, of Montserrat, for obtaining fiber 
from banana and other endogenous plants. While 
all the earlier machines worked the fiber parallelwise, 
this one operated obliquely on it; the consequence of 
which was that it was turned out particularly clear. 
With this machine, from seven to nine per cent, of fibrous 
substance may be obtained from the banana. The 
Tropical Fiber Company have sent these machines to 
Demerara, also to Java and other places, with the design 
of spinning the fiber of the edible banana, and also to 
utilize some portions of the plant as materials in the manu- 
facture of paper. Proofs have already been brought 
forward of fiber obtained in this manner in Java, the 
value of which to the spinner has been reckoned at from 
£20 to £25. It does not appear, however, that these 
promising experiments have led to any important 
results; at least, the consular reports which have come 
to hand contain no information on the subject. In the 
obtaining of bandala in the Philippines this machine 
has not yet been used; nor has it even been seen, though 
the English consul, in his latest report, complains that 
all the hitherto ingeniously constructed machines have 
proved virtually useless. 

The bast of the edible banana continues still to be 
used in the Philippines, notwithstanding that the plants, 
instead of being grown, as in many parts of America, 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S09 

in large well-tended gardens, are here scattered around 
the huts; but the forwarding of the raw material, the 
local transport, and the high freightage will always 
render this material too expensive for the European 
market (considering always its very ordinary quality) — 
£10 per ton at the very least; while "Sparto grass" 
{Lygaeum spartum, hccffi.), which was imported some 
few years since in considerable quantities for the purpose Paper-making 
of paper-making, costs in London only £5 per ton.* 
The jute {Corchurus casularis) coffee-sacks supply 
another cheap paper material. These serve in the 
fabrication of strong brown packing paper, as the fiber 
will not stand bleaching. According to P. Symmonds, 
the United States in recent years have largely used 
bamboo. The rind of the Adansonia digitata also 
yields an extremely good material; in particular, paper 
made entirely from New Zealand flax deserves considera- 
tion, being, by virtue of its superior toughness, eminently 
suited for "bill paper." 

It must not be overlooked that, in the manufacture Pre/erabiuiy of 

r , . 1 , , ^1 1 ^ discarded cloth. 

of paper, worn Imen and cotton rags are the very best 
materials that can be employed, and make the best 
paper. Moreover, they are generally to be had for 
the trouble of collecting them, after they have once 
covered the cost of their production in the form of 
clothing materials; when, through being frayed by 
repeated washings, they undergo a preparation which 
particularly adapts them to the purpose of paper-making. 

The more paper-making progresses, the more are increasing u»e 
ligneous fibers brought forward, particularly wood and "'^J^" 
straw, which produce really good pastes; all the raw 

* In 1862, English took from Spain 155 tons: 1863. 18.074 tons; 1856. 66,913 
tons; 1868, 95,000 tons: and the import of rags fell from 24.000 tons in 1866 to 
17,000 toni in 1668. In Algieri a large quantity of sparto (Alfa) grows but the 
cOot of transport is too expensive to admit cf sending it to France. 



materials being imported fromi a distance. That England 
takes so much sparto is easily explained by the fact that 
she has very little straw of her own, for most of the grain 
consumed by her is received from abroad in a granulated 


Tobacco reterme. Of all the productions of the country tobacco is the most 
important, so far (at least) as concerns the Government, 
which have the cultivation of this plant, its manipula- 
tion, and sale, the subjects of an extensive and strictly 
guarded monopoly, and derives a very considerable portion 
of the public revenue therefrom.* As to the objections 
raised against this revenue on the score of its being 
opposed to justice and morality, many other sources 
of revenue in the colonial budget might be condemned 
(such as the poll-tax, gaming and opium licenses, the 
brandy trade, and the sale of indulgences); yet none 
is so invidious and pernicious as the tobacco monopoly. 
Injustice of the Often in the course of this narrative of my travels 
monopoly. J havc had occasion to commend the clemency of the 

Spanish Government. In glaring contrast therewith, 
however, stands the management of the tobacco regula- 
tions. They appropriated the fields of the peasantry 
without the slightest indemnification — fields which had 
been brought under cultivation for their necessary 
means of sustenance; forced them, under penalty of 
bodily punishment, to raise, on the confiscated property, 
an article which required an immense amount of trouble 
and attention, and which yielded a very uncertain crop; 
and they then valued the harvested leaves arbitrarily 

* The British Consul estimates the receipts from this monopoly for the year 
1866-7 at $8,418,939, after an expenditure of $4,519,866; thus leaving a clear 
profit of $3,899,073. In the colonial budget for 1867 the profit on tobacco was 
estimated at $2,627,976, while the total expenditure of the colony, after deduc- 
tion of the expenses occasioned by the tobacco management, ,vas set down at 

According to the official tables of the chief of the Administration in Manila, 
1871, the total annual revenue derived from the tobacco management between 
the years 1865 and 1869 amounted, on an average, to $5,367,252. By reason 
of proper accounts being wanting an accurate estimate of the expenditure cannot 
be dehvered; but it would be at least $4,000,000, so that a profit of only $1,367,- 
262 remains. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 311 

and without any appeal, and, in the most favorable 
case, paid for them at a nominal price fixed by them- 
selves. To be paid at all, indeed, appears to have 
been a favor, for it has not been done in full now for 
several years in succession. Spain regularly remains 
indebted to the unlucky peasants in the amount of the 
miserable pittance allowed, from one year's end to 
another. The Government ordered the officials to 
exact a higher return from the impoverished popula- 
tion of the tobacco districts; and even rewarded in- 
formers who, after pointing out fields already owned, 
but which were considered suitable to the cultivation 
of tobacco, were installed into possession of the pro- 
claimed lands in the place of the original owners. 

For proofs of these accusations, one need only peruse 
a few paragraphs contained in the following stringent 
regulations, entitled "General Instructions,"* and, 
further, a few extracts from the official dispatches of 
Intendant-General Agius to the Colonial Minister: — f 

Cap. 25, § 329. The compulsory system of cultiva- Resume of 
tion in Cagayan, New Vizcaya, Gapan, Igorots, and regulations. 
Abra to remain in force. 

§ 331. The Director-General of the Government 
is authorized to extend compulsory labor to the other 
provinces, or to abolish it where already introduced. 
These instructions may be altered wholly or in part as 
occasion requires. 

§ 332. Prices may be either increased or lowered. 

§ 337. Claims or actions concerning the possession 
of tobacco lands pending before the usual tribunal 
shall not prevent such lands from being used for the 
purposes of tobacco cultivation, the present proprietor 
being under strict obligation to continue the cultivation 
either in person or by substitute. (If he omits to do 
so, the magistrate or judge takes upon himself to appoint 
such substitute.) 

* Instruccion general para la Direccion, Administracion, y Intervencion de las 
Rentas Estancadas, 1849. 

t Mcmoria aohre >l Dearxtanco del Tabaco en las Islas Filipinas. Don J. 
S. Agius, Binondo (Manila), 1871. 


§ 351. The collectors have received denuncic.s, i. e. 
information, that land adapted to tobacco growing is 
lying fallow, and that it is private property. In case 
such land is really suitable to the purposes of tobacco 
cultivation, the owners thereof are hereby summoned 
to cultivate the same with tobacco in preference to 
anything else. At the expiration of a certain space of 
time the land in question is to be handed over to the 
informer. Be it known, however, that, notwithstand- 
ing these enactments, the possessory title is not lost 
to the owner, but he is compelled to relinquish all rights 
and usufruct for three years. 

Cap. 27, § 357. An important duty of the collector 
is to insure the greatest possible extension of the tobacco 
cultivation upon all suitable lands, but in particular 
upon those which are specially convenient and fertile. 
Lands which, although suitable for tobacco growing, 
were previously planted with rice or corn, shall, as far 
as practicable, be replaced by forest clearings, in order, 
as far as possible, to prevent famine and to bring the 
interests of the natives into harmony with those of the 

§ 361. In order that the work which the tobacco 
cultivation requires may not be neglected by the natives, 
and that they may perform the field work necessary 
for their sustenance, it is ordered that every two persons 
working together shall, between them cultivate eight 
thousand square varas, that is, two and one-half acres 
of tobacco land. 

§ 362. Should this arrangement fail to be carried 
out either through age, sickness, or death, it shall be 
left to the priest of the district to determine what 
quantity of work can be accomplished by the little 
children, having regard to their strength and number. 

§ 369. Every collector who consigns from his dis- 
trict 1,000 fardos more than in former years, shall 
receive for the overplus a double gratuity, but this only 
where the proportion of first-class leaves has not 

§ 370. The same gratuity will be bestowed when 
there is no diminution in bulk, and one-third of the 
leaves is of first-class quality. 

Jagor'a Travels in the Philippines SIS 

The following sections regulate the action of the 
local authorities: — 

§ 379. Every governor must present annually a list, 
revised by the priest of the district, of all the inhabitants 
in his district of both sexes, and of those of their children 
who are old enough to help in the fields. 

§ 430. The officers shall forward the emigrants on 
to Cagayan and Nueva Vizcaya, and will be entrusted 
with $5 for that purpose, which must be repaid by each 
individual, as they cannot be allowed to remain indebted 
in their province. 

§ 436. Further it is ordered by the Buen Gobierno 
(good government) that no Filipino shall be liable for 
a sum exceeding $5, incurred either as a loan or a simple 
debt. Thus the claim of a higher sum can not impede 

§ 437. The Hacienda (Public Treasury) shall pay 
the passage money and the cost of maintenance from 
I locos. 

§ 438. They are to be provided with the means of 
procuring cattle, tools, etc., until the first harvest 
(although the Indian is only liable for $5). 

§ 439. Such advances are, it is true, personal and 
individual; but, in the case of death or flight of the 
debtor, the whole village is to be liable for the amount 

Tobacco {Nicotiana tahacum, L.) was introduced into Tobacco from 


the Philippines soon after the arrival of the Spaniards 
by the missionaries, who brought the seed with them 
from Mexico.* The soil and climate being favorable 
to its production, and the pleasure derived from it 

* The tobacco in China appears to have come from the Philippines. "The 
memoranda discovered in Wang-tao leave no possible doubt that it was first in- 
troduced into South China from the Philippine Islands in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth century, most probably by way of Japan." — (Xotes and Queries, China 
and Japan, May 31st, 1867.) 

From Schlegel, in Batavia, it was brought by the Portuguese into Japan 
somewhere between the years 1573 and 1591, and spread itself so rapidly in China 
that we find even as early as 1638, that the sale of it was forbidden under penalty 
of beheading. 

According to Xotes and Queries, China and Japan, July 31, 1867, the use 
of tobacco was quite common in the "Manchu" army. In a Chinese work, 
Natural History Miscellany, it is written: "Yen t'sao (literally smoke plant) 
was introduced into Fukien about the end of the Wan-li Government, between 
1573 and 1620, and was known as Tan-pa-ku (from Tombaku)." 



Hiyh grade of 



Manila tobacco 

being speedily discovered by the natives, naturally 
assisted in its rapid adoption. Next to the Cuban 
tobacco and a few sorts of Turkish* it is admitted to 
be the best ; and in the colony it is asserted by competent 
judges that it would soon surpass all others, if the exist- 
ing regulations were abolished and free trade established. 
There can be no doubt in the minds of impartial observers 
that the quality and quantity of the produce might 
be considerably increased by such a change; on the 
other hand, many of the prejudiced officials certainly 
maintain the direct contrary. The real question is, 
to what extent these expectations may be realized in 
the fulfilment of such a measure; of course, bearing 
in mind that the judgment is swayed by a strong desire 
for the abolition of a system which interferes at present 
with their prospects of gain. But the fact is that, 
even now, the native grown tobacco, notwithstanding 
all the defects inseparable from an illicit trade, is equal 
to that produced by the Government officials in their 
own factories, and is valued at the same rate with many 
of the Havana brands; and the Government cigars of 
the Philippines are preferred to all others throughout 
Eastern Asia. Indeed, rich merchants, to whom a 
difference of price is no object, as a rule take the Manila 
cigars before Havanas. 

According to Agius ("Memoria," 1871), in the 
European market the Manila tobacco was admitted 
to be without any rival, with the sole exception of the 
Vuelta aha jo of Cuba; and most certainly in the Asiatic 
and Oceanic ports its superior quality was undisputed, 

* West Cuba produces the best tobacco, the famous Vuelta abajo, 400,000 
cwt. at from $14.28 to $99,96 the cwt.; picked sorts being valued at from $571.20 
to $714 00 per cwt. Cuba produces 640,000 cwt. The cigars exhibited in the 
Paris Exhibition of 1867 were worth from $24.99 to $406.98 per thousand. The 
number of cigars annually exported is estimated at about 5,000,000. (Jury 
Report, v., 375.) In Jenidje-Karasu (Salonica) 17,500 cwt. are obtained an- 
nually, of which 2,500 cwt. are of the first quality; the cost is $1.75 the oka (about 
.75 per lb.). Picked sorts are worth 15s. per lb., and even more. — Saladin 
Bey, La Turquie a I' Exposition, p. 91. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines SIS 

as the Havana tobacco loses its flavor on the long 
voyage to these countries; but now, from year to year, 
it is surely losing its reputation. If, then, the Manila 
cigars have not hitherto succeeded in making themselves 
acceptable in Europe on account of their inferiority, 
the blame is attributable simply to the system of com- 
pulsory labor, and the chronic insolvency of the Insular 
Treasury, whilst the produce of other tobacco countries 
has steadily progressed in quality in consequence of 
free competition. The fame of the Manila cigars may 
also have suffered in some slight measure from the 
wide-spread, though perfectly erroneous, idea that they 
contained opium. 

How greatly the produce might be increased by means Hampered by 
of free trade is shown under other circumstances by 
the example of Cuba. At the time when the Govern- 
ment there monopolized the tobacco trade, the crops 
were only partly sufficient to cover the home consump- 
tion; whereas, at the present time, Cuba supplies all the 
markets of the world.* The decision of Captain- 
General De la Gandara upon this question is in the 
highest degree worthy of notice. In a MS. Report to 
the Colonial Minister, March, 1868, concerning a measure 
for rendering the regulations of the tobacco monopoly 
still more stringent, he says: "If the tobacco cultivation 
is placed without restriction into the hands of private 
traders, we shall most probably, in a few years, be in a 
position to command nearly all the markets in the world." 
Most of the islands produce tobacco. According to 


* In Cuba the tobacco industry is entirely free. The extraordinary increase 
of the trade and the improved quaUty of the tobacco are, in great measure, to 
be ascribed to the honest competition existing between the factories, who receive 
no other protection from the Government than a recognition of their operations. 

— (.Jury Report, 1867, v., 375.) 



Origin of 




the quality of the produce, the tobacco provinces rank 
in the following order: First, Cagayan and Isabela; 
Second, Igorots; Third, Island of Mindanao; Fourth, 
Bisayas; Fifth, Nueva Ecija. 

From the Government Order, dated November 20, 
1625, it is evident that even at that early period the sale 
of betel nut, palm spirit (toddy), tobacco, etc., was a 
Government monopoly : but it does not seem to have been 
very strictly carried out. The tobacco monopoly, as it 
stands at present, the whole trade of which from the 
sowing of the seedling plants to the sale of the manufac- 
tured article is exclusively in the hands of the Govern- 
ment, was first introduced by Captain-General Jose 
Basco y Vargas. And a Government Order, under 
date of January 9, 1780 (confirmed by Departmental 
Regulations, December 13, 1781), further enacted that 
the tobacco regulations should be extended to the 
Philippine Islands, in like manner as in all Spanish 
possessions in this and the other hemisphere (de uno y 
otro mundo). 

Before the administration of this very jealous Gov- 
ernor, for a period of two hundred years the colony re- 
ceived annual contributions from New Spain (Situado 
de Nueva Espana). In order to relieve the Spanish 
Exchequer, from this charge Basco introduced (at that 
time national economic ideas prevailed of making the 
natural resources of a State supply its immediate wants) 
a plan upon which, fifty years later, Java modelled its 
"Culture System." In the Philippines, however, the 
conditions for this system were less favorable. In addi- 
tion to the very slight submissiveness of the population, 
there were two great obstacles in the opposition of the 
priests and the want of trustworthy officials. Of all 
the provincial trades brought into existence by the energy 
of Basco, the indigo cultivation is the only one that 


Jagor'a Travels in Hie Philippines 317 

remains in the hands of private individuals, the tobacco 
trade still being a Government monopoly.* Basco 
first of all confined the monopoly to the provinces imme- 
diately contiguous to the capital, in all of which the culti- 
vation of tobacco was forbidden under penalty of severe 
punishment, except by persons duly authorized and in 
the service of the Government. f In the other provinces 
the cultivation was to a certain extent permitted; but 
the supply remaining after deduction of what was 
consumed in each province was to be sold to the Govern- 
ment only. 

In the Bisayas the magistrates purchased the tobacco Spectdation 
for the Government and paid for it at the rate previously J^^'fj^""'" 
fixed by the Government factories at Manila; and they 
were allowed to employ the surplus money of the Gov- 
ernment treasury chest for this purpose. A worse 
system .than this could scarcely be devised. Officials, 
thinking only of their own private advantage, suffered 
no competition in their provinces, employed their official 
power to oppress the producer to the utmost extent, 
and thereby naturally checked the production; and the 
Government treasury chest consequently suffered fre- 
quent losses through bankruptcies, inasmuch as the 
magistrates, who drew a salary of $600 and paid a license 
of from $100 to $300 for the right of trading, in order 
to make money quickly, engaged in the most hazardous 
speculations. In 1814 this stupid arrangement was first 
put an end to; and forthwith the tobacco supplies from 
the Bisayas increased, through the competition of the 

* Basco also introduced the cultivation of silk, and had 4,500,009 mulberry 
trees planted in the Camarines. This industry, immediately upon his retirement, 
was allowed to fall into decay. 

t According to La Perouse, this measure occasioned a revolt in all parts of the 
island, which had to be suppressed by force of arms. In the same manner the 
monopoly introduced into America at the same time brought about a dangerous 
insurrection, and was the means of reducing Venezuela to a state of extreme 
poverty, and, in fact, was the cause of the subsequent downfall of the colony. 



Changes bring 

Different usages 
in Bisayas and 

Crude system of 

private dealers, who then, for the first time, had the 
power of purchase; and from 1839 the planters were 
empowered to obtain higher prices than those afforded 
by the greedy monopolizing magistrates. At present, 
the following general regulations are in force, subject, 
however, to continual variation in details. 

By a Departmental Order, September 5, 1865, the 
cultivation of tobacco was permitted in all the provinces, 
though the produce was allowed to be sold only to the 
Government at the price regulated by them. The 
wholesale purchases are made in Luzon and the adjacent 
islands in fardos* by "colleccion," that is, direct through 
the finance officials, who have the management of the 
plants from the sowing; but in the Bisayas by acopio; 
that is, the Government officials buy up the tobacco 
tendered by the growers or speculators by the cwt. 

In the Bisayas and in Mindanao everybody is allowed 
to manufacture cigars for his own particular use, though 
trade therein is strictly prohibited; and advances to the 
tobacco growers are also made there; while in Luzon 
and the neighboring islands the Government provides 
seed and seedling plants. Here, however, no land which 
is adapted to the cultivation of tobacco is allowed to be 
used for any other purpose of agriculture. 

As the Financial Administration is unable to classify 
the tobacco at its true value, as might be done were 
free competition permitted, they have adopted the ex- 
pedient of determining the price by the size of the leaves; 
the care necessary to be bestowed upon che training 
of the plants in order to produce leaves of the required 

* A fardo (pack) contains 40 matios (bundles); 1 mano= 10 manojitos, 1 mano- 
jito= 10 leaves. Regulations, § 7. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


size being at least a guarantee of a certain amount of 
proper attention and handling, even if it be productive 
of no other direct good.* 

It is well known at Madrid how the tobacco monopoly, 
by oppressing the wretched population, interferes 
with the prosperity of the colony; yet, to the present day, 
the Government measures have been so arranged as to 
exact a still larger gain from this very impolitic source 
of revenue. 




* Regulations for the tobacco collection agencies in Luzon. — 1st. Four classes 
of Tobacco will be purchased. 2rirl. These classes are thus specified: the first 
to consist of leaves at least 18 inches long (Om 418;) the second of leaves between 
14 and 18 inches (Om 325); the third of leaves between 10 and 14 inches (Om 232); 
and the fourth of leaves at least 7 inches in length (Om 163). Smaller leaves will 
not be accepted. This last limitation, however, has recently been abandoned 
so that the quality of the tobacco is continually deprecinting in the hands of 
the Government, who have added two other classes. 

A fardo, 1st class, weighs 60 lbs., and in 1867 the Government rate of pay 
was as follows: — 

1 Fardo, 1st class, 60 lbs $9.50 

1 Fardo, 2nd class, 46 lbs 6. 00 

1 Fardo, 3rd class, 33 lbs 2.75 

1 Fardo, 4th class, 18 lbs 1 . 00 

— English Consular Report. 

The following table gives the different brands of cigars manufactured by the 
Government, and the prices at which they could be bought in 1867 in Estanco 
(i. e. a place privileged for the sale): — 

Menas (Classes.) 


Prima Veguero 

Segunda Veguero 

Prima superior Filipino 
2. a Superior Filipino. . . 
3. a Superior Filipino . . 
Prima Filipino 

Segunda Superior 

Prima Cortado 

Segunda Cortado 


Prima Batigo, larga. . . 
Segunda Batido, largo. 

Corresponding Ha- 
vana Brands. 

The sam.e. 






Superior Habano. 

Segunda superior i 

Habano / 

The Same 


Segunda Batido. 






































of cigars 

in an ar- 






t Arroba, 33 lbs. 


"Killing the 
goose that lays 
the golden egg.' 

Gift to Spain 
of unusable 

A Government Order of January, 1866, directed the 
tobacco cultivation in the PhiHppines to be extended 
as much as possible, in order to satisfy the requirements 
of the colony, the mother country, and also the export 
trade; and in the memorial already quoted, "reforms" 
are proposed by the Captain-General, in the spirit of 
the goose with golden eggs. By grafting new mono- 
polies upon those already existing, he believes that the 
tobacco produce can be increased from 182,102 cwt. 
(average of the years 1860 to 1867) to 600,000, and even 
800,000 cwt. Meantime, with a view to obtaining in- 
creased prices, the Government resolved to export the 
tobacco themselves to the usual markets for sale; and 
in the year 1868 this resolution was really carried out. 
It was sent to London, where it secured so favorable 
a market that it was at once decreed that no tobacco 
in Manila should thenceforth be sold at less than $25 
per cwt.* This decree, however, referred only to the 
first three qualities, the quantity of which decreased 
in a relative measure with the increased pressure upon 
the population. Even in the table annexed to the record 
of La Gandara this is very clearly shown. Whilst the 
total produce for 1867 stood at 176,018 cwt. (not much 
under the average of the years 1860 to 1867, viz., 182,102 
cwt.), the tobacco of the first class had decreased in 
quantity since 1862 from over 13,000 to less than 5,000 

The fourth, fifth, and sixth classes, the greater part 
of which would before have been burnt, but which now 
form no inconsiderable portion of the total crop, are in 
the open markets positively unsaleable, and can be 
utilized only in the form of a bonus to Spain, which 

* On an average 407,500,000 cigars and 1,041,000 lbs. raw tobacco are exported 
annually, the weight of which together is about 56,000 cwt. after deducting what 
is given away in the form of gratuities. 

Jagor'f Trarcls in the Philippines SSI 

annually receives, under the title of atenciones d la 
peninsula, upwards of 100,000 cwt. If the colony 
were not compelled to pay half the freight of these gifts, 
Spain would certainly ask to be relieved of these "marks 
of attention." Seeing that, according to the decision 
of the chief of the Government, the greater portion of 
this tobacco is of such inferior quality that it can find 
no purchaser at any price, it is impossible that its value 
should cover either the cost of carriage or the customs 
duty. Moreover, this tobacco tribute is a great burden 
on the colonial budget; which, in spite of all deficits, is 
charged with the expenses attending the collection of the 
tobacco, its packing, its cost of local transport, and half 
the expense of its carriage to Europe. 

Dated in March, 1871, — the beginning of a Golden Age, ^«-^" 
if De La Gandara's plans had been carried out and his pZpos^ " 
expectations realized, — there exists an excellent state- '■'■/'"■'»•'■ 
ment from the Intendant-General addressed to the 
Minister of Colonies pointing out plainly to the chief 
of the Government the disadvantages arising from this 
mode of administration, and urging the immediate 
repeal of the monopoly. In the next place proof was 
adduced, supported by official vouchers, that the profits 
derived from the tobacco monopoly were much smaller 
than usual. The total average receipts of the tobacco 
administration for the five years 1865 to 1869, according 
to official accounts, amounted to $5,367,262 ; for the years 
1866 to 1870, only $5,240,935. The expenses cannot 
be accurately estimated, inasmuch as there are no strict 
accounts obtainable; if, however, the respective expenses 
charged in the colonial budget are added together, 
they amount to $3,717,322 of which $1,812,250 is for 
purchase of raw tobacco. 

Besides these expenses pertaining exclusively to the •^''"-/'" 'uu profit 
tobacco administration there are still many other differ- ™'" """"^^ "■ 


Suffering and 
thru the 

ent items to be taken into account ; yet the cost incurred 
in this branch of the service would be saved, if not 
altogether, at least largely, if the State surrendered the 
tobacco monopoly. The total of the disbursements 
must certainly, at the very lowest, be estimated at 
$4,000,000; so, therefore, the State receives only a net 
profit of $1,367,000; but even this is not to be reckoned 
on in the future, for if the Government does not speedily 
cease carrying on this trade, they will be forced into a 
very considerable and unavoidable expense. To begin 
with, they must erect new factories and warehouses; 
better machinery must be bought; wages will have to be 
considerably increased; and, above all, means must be 
devised to pay off the enormous sum of $1,600,000 in 
which the Government is indebted to the peasants for 
the crops of 1869 and 1870, and to assure cash payments 
for future harvests. "This is the only possible mode of 
preventing the decay of the tobacco cultivation in the 
different provinces, as well as relieving the misery of 
the wretched inhabitants." 

Later Agius proved how trifling in reality the arrears 
were on account of which the Government was abandon- 
ing the future of the colony, and showed the misfortunes, 
of which I shall mention, these briefly, only a few, result- 
ing from the monopoly. He represented that the people 
of the tobacco district, who were the richest and most 
contented of all in the Archipelago, found themselves 
plunged into the deepest distress after the increase 
of the Government dues. They were, in fact, far more 
cruelly treated than the slaves in Cuba, who, from self- 
interested motives, are well-nourished and taken care of; 
whereas in this case, the produce of compulsory labor 
has to be delivered to the State at an arbitrarily deter- 
mined price; and even this price is paid only when the 
condition of the treasury, which is invariably in diffi- 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines SSS 

culties, permits. Frequently their very means of sub- 
sistence failed them, in consequence of their being for- 
bidden to carry on the cultivation; and the unfortunate 
people, having no other resources for the relief of their 
pressing necessities, were compelled to alienate the 
debtor's bond, which purchased the fruits of their en- 
forced toil but had been left unpaid. Thus, for an incon- 
siderable deficit of about $1,330,000, the whole population 
of one of the richest provinces is thrown into abject 
misery; a deep-rooted hatred naturally arises between 
the people and their rulers; and incessant war ensues 
between the authorities and their subjects. Besides 
which, an extremely dangerous class of smugglers have 
recently arisen, who even now do not confine themselves 
to mere smuggling, but who, on the very first opportunity 
presented by the prevailing discontent, will band them- 
selves together in one solid body. The official adminis- 
trators, too, are charged with gross bribery and corrup- 
tion; which, whether true or not, occasions great scandal, 
and engenders increasing disrespect and distrust of the 
colonial administration as well as of the Spanish people 

The preceding memorial has been not only written, but Growing 
also printed; and it seems to indicate that gradually 
in Spain, and also in wider circles, people are becoming 
convinced of the untenableness of the tobacco monopoly ; 
yet, in spite of this powerful review, it is considered 
doubtful by competent judges whether it will be given 
up so long as there are any apparent or appreciable 
returns derived therefrom. These acknowledged evils 
have long been known to the Colonial Government; 

* The poor peasant being brought into this situation finds it very hard to 
maintain his family. He is compelled to borrow money at an exorbitant rate of 
interest, and, consequently, sinks deeper and deeper into debt and misery. The 
dread of fines or bodily punishment, rather than the prospect of high prices, is 
the chief method by which the supplies can be kept up. — (Report of the English 

opposition to 
the monopoly. 


but, from the frequent changes of ministers, and the 
increasing want of money, the Government is compelled, 
so long as they are in office, to use all possible means 
of obtaining profits, and to abstain from carrying out 
these urgent reforms lest their own immediate down- 
fall should be involved therein. Let us, however, 
cherish the hope that increased demand will cause a 
rise in the prices; a few particularly good crops, and 
other propitious circumstances, would relieve at once 
the Insular Treasury from its difficulties; and then 
the tobacco monopoly might be cheerfully surrendered. 
One circumstance favorable to the economical manage- 
ment of the State that would be produced by the sur- 
render of the tobacco monopoly would be the abolition 
of the numerous army of officials which its administra- 
tion requires. This might, however, operate reversely 
in Spain. The number of place-hunters created must 
be very welcome to the ministers in power, who thus 
have the opportunity of providing their creatures with 
profitable places, or of shipping off inconvenient persons 
to the Antipodes from the mother-country, free of cost. 
The colony, be it known, has not only to pay the salaries, 
but also to bear the cost of their outward and home- 
ward voyages. Any way, the custom is so liberally 
patronized that occasionally new places have to be 
created in order to make room for the newly-arrived 

* From December 1853 to November 1854 the colony possessed four captains- 
general (two effective and two provisional). In 1850 a new nominee, Oidor 
(member of the Supreme Court of Judicature) who with his family voyaged to 
Manila by the Cape, found, upon his arrival, his successor already in office, the 
latter having travelled by way of Suez. Sach circumstances need not occasion 
surprise when it is remembered how such operations are repeated in Spain itself. 

According to an essay in the Revue Xalionale, April, 1867, Spain has had, 
from 1834 to 1862, i.e. since the accession of Isabella, 4 Constitutions, 28 Parlia- 
ments, 47 Chief Ministers, 529 Cabinet Ministers, and 58 Ministers of the In- 
terior; of which last class of officials each, on an average, was in power only six 
months. For ten years past the Minister of Finance has not remained in office 
longer than two months; and since that time, particularly since 1868, the changes 
have followed one another with still greater rapidity. 

Jagor'.s Travels in the Philippine'* ,SS6 

At the time of my visit, the royal factories could Whou^au rate 
not turn out a supply of cigars commensurate with the '"«'''^ """* 

'^'^ •' = retail from 

requirements of commerce; and this brought about a goremment. 
peculiar condition of things; the wholesale dealer, who 
purchased cigars in very considerable quantities at the 
government auctions, paying higher than the retail 
rates at which he could buy them singly in the estancia. 
In order, therefore, to prevent the merchants drawing 
their stocks from the estancias, it was determined that 
only a certain quantity should be purchased, which 
limit no merchant dared exceed. A very intricate 
system of control, assisted by espionage, had to be 
employed in seeing that no one, through different 
agents and different estancias, collected more than the 
authorised supply; and violation of this rule, when 
discovered, was punished by confiscation of the offender's 
stock. Everybody was free to purchase cigars in the 
estancia, but nobody was permitted to sell a chest of 
cigars to an acquaintance at cost price. Several Span- 
iards with whom I have spoken concerning these 
strange regulations maintained them to be perfectly 
just, as otherwise all the cigars would be carried off by 
foreigners, and they would not be able themselves in 
their own colony to smoke a decent cigar. 

There was, as I afterwards learnt, a still more urgent Money junuUnu 
reason for the existence of these decrees. The gov- 
ernment valued their own gold at sixteen dollars per 
ounce, while in commerce it fetched less, and the pre- 
mium on silver had, at one time, risen to thirty-three 
per cent. Moreover, on account of the insufficient 
quantity of copper money for minor currency, the small 
change frequently gained a premium on the silver 
dollar, so much so that by every purchaser not less than 
half a dollar was realized. In exchanging the dollar 
from five to fifteen per cent discount was charged; 


it was profitable, therefore, to purchase cigars in the 
estancias with the gold ounce, and then to retail them 
in smaller quantities nominally at the rate of the estan- 
cias. Both premiums together might in an extreme 
case amount to as much as forty-three per cent.* 
Directions for j,jot being ablc to give a description of the cultiva- 

tobacco. ^^o^ of tobacco from personal knowledge and experience, 

I refer the reader to the following short extract from 
the Cartilla Agricola: — 

Directions for preparing and laying out the seed beds. — 
A suitable piece of land is to be enclosed quadrilaterally 
by boundaries, ploughed two or three times, cleared 
of all weeds and roots, made somewhat sloping, and 
surrounded by a shallow ditch, the bed of which is to 
be divided by drains about two feet wide. The soil 
of the same must be very fine, must be ground almost 
as fine as powder, otherwise it will not mix freely and 
thoroughly with the extremely fine tobacco seed. The 
seed is to be washed, and then suspended in cloths 
during the day, in order to allow the water to run off; 
after which it is to be mixed with a similar quantity 
of ashes, and strewn carefully over the bed. The 
subsequent successful results depend entirely upon the 
careful performance of this work. From the time the 
seed first begins to sprout, the beds must be kept very 
clean, in dry weather sprinkled daily, and protected 
from birds and animals by brambles strewn over, and 
by means of light mats from storms and heavy rains. 
After two months the plants will be between five and 
six inches high, and generally have from four to six 
leaves; they must then be replanted. This occurs, 

* The reason of this premiun on silver was, that the Chinese bought up all the 
Spanish and Mexican dollars, in order to send them to China, where they are 
worth more than other dollars, being known from the voyage of the galleon thither 
in olden times, and being current in the inland provinces. (The highest price 
there can be obtained for a Carlos III.) 

A mint erected in Manila since that time, which at least supports itself, if 
the govenment has derived no other advantage from it, has removed this diffi- 
culty. The Chinese are accustomed to bring gold and silver as currency, mixed 
also with foreign coinage, to Manila for the purpose of buying the produce of the 
country; and all this the native merchants had recoined. At first only silver 
ounces were usually obtainable in Manila, gold ounces very rarely. This oc- 
casioned such a steady importation that the conditions were completely reversed. 
In the Insular Treasury the gold and silver dollar are always reckoned at the 
same value. 


Jagor'a Travels in the Philippines 327 

supposing the seed-beds to have been prepared in Sep- 
tember, about the beginning or the middle of November. 
A second sowing takes place on the 15th of October, 
as much as a precaution against possible failure, as for 
obtaining plants for the lowlands. 

Concerning the land most advantageous to the tobacco 
and its cidtivation. Replanting of the seedlings. — Land 
must be chosen of middling grain; somewhat difficult, 
calciferous soil is particularly recommended, when it 
is richly fertilized with the remains of decayed plants, 
and not less than two feet deep; and the deeper the 
roots are inserted the higher will the plant grow. Of 
all the land adapted to the tobacco cultivation, that 
in Cagayan is the best, as from the overflowing of the 
large streams, which occurs every year, it is laid under 
water, and annually receives a new stratum of mud, 
which renders the soil particularly productive. Planta- 
tions prepared upon such soil differ very materially from 
those less favored and situated on a higher level. In 
the former the plants shoot up quickly as soon as the 
roots strike; in the latter they grow slowly and only 
reach a middling height. Again in the fertile soil the 
plants produce quantities of large, strong, juicy leaves, 
giving promise of a splendid harvest. In the other 
case the plants remain considerably smaller and grow 
sparsely. Sometimes, however, even the lowlands are 
flooded in January and February, and also in March, 
when the tobacco has already been transplanted, and 
grown to some little height. In that event everything 
is irreparably lost, particularly if the flood should occur 
at a time when it is too late to lay out new plantations. 
High-lying land also must, therefore, be cultivated, 
in the hope that by very careful attention it may yield 
a similar return. In October these fields must be 
ploughed three or four times, and harrowed twice or 
thrice. On account of the floods, the lowlands cannot 
be ploughed until the end of December, or the middle 
of January; when the work is light and simple. The 
strongest plants in the seed-beds are chosen, and set 
in the prepared grounds at a distance of three feet from 
each other, care being taken that the earth clinging to 
the roots is not shaken off. 


Of the care necessary to be bestowed upon the plants. — In 
the east a little screen, formed by two clods, is to be 
erected, with a view to protecting the plant from the 
morning sun, and retaining the dew for a longer time. 
The weeds to be carefully exterminated, and the wild 
shoots removed. A grub which occasionally appears 
in great numbers is particularly dangerous. Rain is very 
injurious immediately before the ripening, when the 
plants are no longer in a condition to secrete the gummy 
substance so essential to the tobacco, which, being 
soluble in water, would be drawn off by the action of 
the rain. Tobacco which has been exposed to bad 
weather is always deficient in juice and flavor, and is 
full of white spots, a certain sign of its bad quality. 
The injury is all the greater the nearer the tobacco 
is to its ripening period; the leaves hanging down to 
the ground then decay, and must be removed. If 
the subsoil is not deep enough, a carefully tended 
plant will turn yellow, and nearly wither away. In 
wet seasons this does not occur so generally, as the 
roots in insufficient depth are enabled to find enough 

Cutting and manipulation of the leaves in the drying 
shed. — The topmost leaves ripen first; they are then 
of a dark yellow color, and inflexible. They must be 
cut off as they ripen, collected into bundles, and brought 
to the shed in covered carts. In wet or cloudy weather, 
when the nightly dews have not been thoroughly evapor- 
ated by the sun, they must not be cut. In the shed 
the leaves are to hang upon cords or split Spanish cane, 
with sufficient room between them for ventilation and 
drying. The dried leaves are then laid in piles, which 
must not be too big, and frequently turned over. 
Extreme care must be taken that they do not become 
overheated and ferment too strongly. This operation, 
which is of the utmost importance to the quality of the 
tobacco, demands great attention and skill, and must 
be continued until nothing but an aromatic smell of 
tobacco can be noticed coming from the leaves; but 
the necessary skill for this manipulation is only to be 
acquired by long practice, and not from any written 

Jagor't Travels in the Philippines ^Sl) 


An important portion of the population remains to be importance of 
discussed, viz. the Chinese, who are destined to play ' ""^•'*" .... 
a remarkable part, inasmuch as the development of 
the land-cultivation demanded by the increasing trade 
and commercial intercourse can be affected only by 
Chinese industry and perseverance. Manila has always 
been a favorite place for Chinese immigrants; and 
neither the hostility of the people, nor oppressing and 
prohibitory decrees for a long time by the Government, 
not even the repeated massacres, have been able to 
prevent their coming. The position of the Islands, 
south-east of two of the most important of the Chinese 
provinces, must necessarily have brought about a trade 
between the two countries very early, as ships can 
make the voyage in either direction with a moderate 
wind, as well in the south-west as the north-east mon- 
soon. In a few old writers may even be found the asser- 
tion that the Philippine Islands were at one time sub- 
ject to the dominion of China; and Father Gaubil Early Chinese 
(Lettres Edifiantes) mentions that Jaung-lo (of the 
Ming dynasty) maintained a fleet consisting of 30,000 
men, which at different times proceeded to Manila. 
The presence of their ships as early as the arrival of 
Magellan in the extreme east of the archipelago, as 
well as the China plates and earthenware vessels dis- 
covered in the excavations, plainly show that the trade 
with China had extended far earlier to the most distant 
islands of the archipelago. It formed the chief sup- 
port of the young Spanish colony, and, after the rise 
of the Encomiendas, was nearly the only source of its 
prosperity. It was feared that the junks would offer 
their cargoes to the Dutch if any obstacle was put in 
the way of their coming to Manila. The colony certain- 

.4 s.sociattons. 



Indiistrial and 



atlen^ts at 

ly could not maintain its position without the "Sang- 
leys,"* who came annually in great numbers in the 
junks from China, and spread all over the country and 
in the towns as shopkeepers, artisans, gardeners, and 
fishermen; besides which, they were the only skillful 
and industrious workers, as the Filipinos under the 
priestly domination had forgotten altogether many 
trades in which they had engaged in former times. I 
take these facts from Morga. 

In spite of all this, the Spaniards have, from the 
very commencement, endeavored rigorously to limit 
the number of the Chinese; who were then, as they are 
now, envied and hated by the natives for their industry, 
frugality, and cunning, by which means they soon 
became rich. They were an abomination, moreover, 
in the eyes of the priests as being irreclaimable heathens, 
whose example prevented the natives from making 
progress in the direction of Christianity; and the gov- 
ernment feared them on account of the strong bond 
of union existing between them, and as being subjects 
of so powerful a nation, whose close proximity threatened 
the small body of Spaniards with destruction.! For- 
tunately for the latter, the Ming dynasty, which at 
that time was hastening to its downfall, did not think 
of conquest; but wickedly disposed powers which 
sprang into existence upon their downfall brought the 
colony into extreme danger. 

* The Chinese were generally known in the Philippines as "Sangleys"; ac- 
cording to Professor Schott, "sang-lui (in the south szang-loi, also sanng-loi) 
mercatorum ordo." "Sang" is more specially applied to the travelling traders, 
in opposition to "ku," tabernarii. 

t "They are a wicked and vicious people, and, owing to their numbers, 

and to their being such large eaters, they consume the provisions and render them 

dear It is true the town cannot exist without the Chin:s;, as they are the 

workers in all the trades and business, and very industrious, and work for small 
wages; but for that very reason a lesser number of them would be sufficient." — 
Morga, p. 349. 

massacre o/ 

J agar' a TraveU in 'he Philippines SSI 

In the attack of the noted pirate, Limahong, in 1574, Limahong and 
they escaped destruction only by a miracle; and soon ^^.*.j' "" """* 
new dangers threatened them afresh. In 1603 a few 
mandarins came to Manila, under the pretence of ascer- 
taining whether the ground about Cavite was really 
of gold. They were supposed to be spies, and it was 
concluded, from their peculiar mission, that an attack 
upon the colony was intended by the Chinese. 

The archbishop and the priests incited the distrust Early 
which was felt against the numerous Chinese who were 
settled in Manila. Mutual hate and suspicion arose; 
both parties feared one another and prepared for hostil- 
ities. The Chinese commenced the attack; but the 
united forces of the Spaniards, being supported by the 
Japanese and the Filipinos, twenty- three thousand, 
according to other reports twenty-five thousand, of the 
Chinese were either killed or driven into the desert. 
When the news of this massacre reached China, a letter 
from the Royal Commissioners was sent to the Governor 
of Manila. That noteworthy document shows in so 
striking a manner how hollow the great government was 
at that time that I have given a literal translation of it 
at the end of this chapter. 

After the extermination of the Chinese, food and all 
other necessaries of life were difficult to obtain on account 
of the utter unreliability of the natives for work; but by 
1605 the number of Chinese* had again so increased 
that a decree was issued limiting them to six thousand, 
"these to be employed in the cultivation of the country;" 
while at the same time their rapid increase was taken 
advantage of by the captain-general for his own interest, 
as he exacted eight dollars from each Chinaman for 
permission to remain. In 1639 the Chinese population 
had risen to thirty thousand, according to other informa- 

* "Recopilacion," Lib. iv., Tit. xviii., ley. 1. 

Chinese laborers 


A nolher 

The pirate 


tion, to forty thousand, when they revolted and were redu- 
ced to seven thousand. "The natives, who generally 
were so listless and indifferent, showed the utmost 
eagerness in assisting in the massacre of the Chinese, 
but more from hatred of this industrious people than 
from any feeling of friendship towards the Spaniards."* 

The void occasioned by this massacre was soon filled 
up again by Chinese immigrants; and in 1662 the colony 
was once more menaced with a new and great danger, 
by the Chinese pirate Kog-seng, who had under his 
command between eighty and one hundred thousand 
men, and who already had dispossessed the Dutch of the 
Island of Formosa. He demanded the absolute sub- 
mission of the Philippines; his sudden death, however, 
saved the colony, and occasioned a fresh outbreak of 
fury against the Chinese settlers in Manila, a great 
number of whom were butchered in their own "quarter" 
(ghetto), t Some dispersed and hid themselves; a 
few in their terror plunged into the water or hanged 
themselves; and a great number fled in small boats to 
Formosa. + 

In 1709 the jealousy against the Chinese once more 
had reached such a height that they were accused of 
rebellion, and particularly of monopolizing the trades, 
and, with the exception of the most serviceable of the 
artisans and such of them as were employed by the 
Government, they were once again expelled. Spanish 
writers praise the salutariness of these measures ; alleging 
that "under the pretence of agriculture the Chinese 
carry on trade; they are cunning and careful, making 
money and sending it to China, so that they defraud 
the Philippines annually of an enormous amount." 

* "Informe," I., iii.. 73. 

t The Chinese were not permitted to live in the town, but in a district 
specially set apart for them. 
X Velarde, 274. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


Sonnerat, however, complains that art, trade, and com- 
merce had not recovered from these severe blows; 
though, he adds, fortunately the Chinese, in spite of 
prohibitory decrees, are returning through the corrupt 
connivance of the governor and officials. 

To the present day they are blamed as being mono- Thn/ty traders 
polists, particularly by the Creoles; and certainly, by 
means of their steady industry and natural commercial 
aptitude, they have appropriated nearly all the retail 
trade to themselves. The sale of European imported 
goods is entirely in their hands; and the wholesale pur- 
chase of the produce of the country for export is divided 
between the natives, Creoles, and the Chinese, the latter 
taking about one-half. Before this time only the natives 
and Creoles were permitted to own ships for the purpose 
of forwarding the produce to Manila. 

In 1757 the jealousy of the Spaniards broke out again 
in the form of a new order from Madrid, directing the 
expulsion of the Chinese; and in 1759 the decrees of 
banishment, which were repeatedly evaded, were carried 
into effect: but, as the private interests of the officials 
did not happen to coincide with those of the Creole 
traders, the consequence was that "the Chinese soon 
streamed back again in incredible numbers," and made 
common cause with the English upon their invasion in 
1762.* Thereupon, Sr. Anda commanded "that all the 
Chinese in the Philippine Islands should be hanged," 
which order was very generally carried out.f The last 
great Chinese massacre took place in 1819, when the 
aliens were suspected of having brought about the cholera 
by poisoning the wells. The greater part of the Euro- 
peans in Manila also fell victims to the fury of the popu- 
lace, but the Spaniards generally were spared. The 
prejudice of the Spaniards, especially of the Creoles, had 

Anda's an^l 
tSI!) massa(rKS. 

* See following chapter. 

t Zuniga, xvi. 



Expulsion of 
merchants from 


always been directed against the Chinese tradesmen, who 
interfered unpleasantly with the fleecing of the natives; 
and against this class in particular were the laws of 
limitation aimed. They would willingly have let them 
develop the country by farming but the hostility of the 
natives generally prevented this. 

A decree, issued in 1804, commanded all Chinese 
shopkeepers to leave Manila within eight days, only 
those who were married being allowed to keep shops; 
and their residence in the provinces was permitted only 
upon the condition that they confined themselves 
entirely to agriculture. Magistrates who allowed these 
to travel in their districts were fined $200; the deputy- 
governor $25; and the wretched Chinese were punished 
with from two to three years' confinement in irons. 

In 1839 the penalties against the Chinese were some- 
what mitigated, but those against the magistrates were 
still maintained on account of their venality. In 1843 
Chinese ships were placed upon terms of equality with 
those of other foreign countries (Leg. Ult., II., 476). 
In 1850 Captain-General Urbiztondo endeavored to 
introduce Chinese colonial farming, and with this object 
promised a reduction of the taxes to all agricultural 
immigrants. Many Chinese availed themselves of this 
opportunity in order to escape the heavy poll-tax; but 
in general they soon betook themselves to trading once 

Of late years the Chinese have not suffered from the 
terrible massacres which used formerly to overtake 
them ; neither have they suffered banishment ; the officials 
being content to suppress their activity by means of 
heavy and oppressive taxes. For instance, at the end 
of 1867 the Chinese shopkeepers were annually taxed 
$60 for permission to send their goods to the weekly 
market; this was in addition to a tax of from $12 to $100 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S36 

on their occupations; and at the same time they were 
commanded thenceforth to keep their books in Spanish 
(English Consular Report, 1869). 

The Chinese remain true to their customs and mode 
of Hving in the PhiHppines, as they do everywhere else. 
When they outwardly embrace Christianity, it is done 
merely to facilitate marriage, or from some motive con- 
ducive to their worldly advantage; and occasionally 
they renounce it, together with their wives in Manila, 
when about to return home to China. Very many of 
them, however, beget families, are excellent householders, Bxceiieru 
and their children in time form the most enterprising, popiUation. 
industrious, and wealthy portion of the resident popula- 

Invigorated by the severe struggle for existence which 
they have experienced in their over -populated country, 
the Chinese appear to preserve their capacity for labor 
perfectly unimpaired by any climate. No nation can 
equal them in contentedness, industry, perseverance* 
cunning, skill, and adroitness in trades and mercantile 
matters. When once they gain a footing, they generally 
appropriate the best part of the trade to themselves. 
In all parts of external India they have dislodged from 
every field of employment not only their native but, 
progressively, even their European competitors. Not 
less qualified and successful are they in the pursuance 
of agriculture than in trade. The emigration from the 
too thickly peopled empire of China has scarcely begun. 
As yet it is but a small stream, but it will by-and-by pour 
over all the tropical countries of the East in one mighty 
torrent, completely destroying all such minor obstacles 
as jealous interference and impotent precaution might 


Over every section of remote India, in the South of future 
Sea, in the Indian Archipelago, in the states of South '"/'"«'«=« 


vs. Caucasian 
in Amfirirn. 

Efficiency and 
reliability of 
Chinese latior. 

America, the Chinese seem destined, in time, either 
to supplant every other element, or to found a mixed 
race upon which to stamp their individuality. In the 
Western States of the Union their number is rapidly 
on the increase; and the factories in California are 
worked entirely by them, achieving results that cannot 
be accomplished by European labor. 

One of the most interesting of the many questions 
of large comprehensiveness which connect themselves 
with the penetration of the Mongolian race into America, 
which up till now it had been the fashion to regard as 
the inheritance of the Caucasians, is the relative capacity 
of labor possessed by both these two great races, who 
in the Western States of America have for the first 
time measured their mutual strength in friendly rivalry. 
Both are there represented in their most energetic 
individuality;* and every nerve will be strained in carry- 
ing on the struggle, inasmuch as no other country pays 
for labor at so high a rate. 

The conditions, however, are not quite equal, as the 
law places certain obstacles in the way of the Chinese. 
The courts do not protect them sufficiently from insult, 
which at times is aggravated into malicious manslaughter 
through the ill-usage of the mob, who hate them bitterly 

* No single people in Europe can in any way compare with the inhabitants of 
California, which, in the early years of its existence, was composed only of men in 
the prime of their strength and activity, without aged people, without women, 
and without children. Their activity, in a country where everything had to be 
provided (no civilised neighbors living within some hundred miles or so), and 
where all provisions were to be obtained only at a fabulous cost, was stimulated 
to the highest pitch. Without here going into the particulars of their history, 
it need only be remembered that they founded, in twenty-five years, a powerful 
State, the fame of which has spread all over the world, and around whose borders 
young territories have sprung into existence and flourished vigorously; two of 
them indeed having attained to the condition of independent States. After the 
Californian gold-diggers had changed the configuration of the ground of entire 
provinces by having, with Titanic might, deposited masses of earth into the sea 
until they expanded into hilly districts, so as to obtain therefrom, with the aid 
of ingenious machinery, the smallest particle of gold which was contained therein, 
they have astonished the world in their capacity of agriculturalists, whose pro- 
duce is sent even to the most distant markets, and everywhere takes the first 
rank without dispute. Such mighty results have been achieved by a people 
whose total number scarcely, indeed, exceeds 500,000; and therefore, perhaps, 
they may not find it an easy matter to withstand the competition of the Chinese. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S37 

as being reserved, uncompanionable workers. Never- 
theless, the Chinese immigrants take their stand firmly. ■ 
The western division of the Pacific Railway has been 
chiefly built by the Chinese, who, according to the 
testimony of the engineers, surpass workmen of all 
other nationalities in diligence, sobriety, and good 
conduct. What they lack in physical power they make 
up for in perseverance and working intelligently together. 
The unique and nearly incredible performance that 
took place on April 28, 1869, when ten miles of rail- 
way track were laid in eleven working hours along a 
division of land which had in no way been prepared 
beforehand, was accomplished by Chinese workmen; 
and indeed only by them could it have been practic- 

Of course, the superiority of the European in respect Chinese 
of the highest intellectual faculties is not for a moment 
to be doubted; but, in all branches of commercial life 
in which cleverness and perservering industry are neces- 
sary to success, the Chinese certainly appear entitled 
to the award. To us it appears that the influx of 
Chinese must certainly sooner or later kindle a struggle 
between capital and labor, in order to set a limit upon 
demands perceptibly growing beyond moderation. 

The increasing Chinese immigration already intrudes Chinese problem 
upon the attention of American statesmen questions 
of the utmost social and political importance. What 
influence will this entirely new and strange element 

and industry. 

in America. 

* The rails, if laid in one continuous line, would measure about 103,000 feet, 
the weight of them being 20,000 cwt. Eight Chinamen were engaged in the 
work, relieving one another by fours. These men were chosen to perform this 
feat on account of their particular activity, out of 10,000. 

(The translator of the 1875 London edition notes: "This statement is 
incorrect, so far as the fact of the feat being accomplished by Chinese is 
concerned. Eight Europeans were engaged in this extraordinary piece of 
work. During the rejoicings which took place in Sacramento upon the 
opening of the line, these men were paraded in a van, with the account of 
their splendid achievement painted in large letters on the outside. Certainly 
not one of them was a Chinaman." — C. 


exercise over the conformation of American relations? 
Will the Chinese found a State in the States, or go into 
the Union on terms of political equality with the other 
citizens, and form a new race by alliance with the 
Caucasian element? These problems, which can only 
be touched upon here in a transitory form, have been 
dealt with in a masterly manner by Pumpelly, in 
his work Across America and Asia, published in London 
in 1870. 

Letter of the Commissary-General of Chinchew 

To Don Pedro De AcuNa, Governor 

OF the Philippines 

To the 'powerful Captain-General of Luzon: 

"Having been given to understand that the Chinese 
who proceeded to the kingdom of Luzon in order to buy 
and sell had been murdered by the Spaniards, I have 
investigated the motives for these massacres, and begged 
the Emperor to exercise justice upon those who had 
engaged in these abominable offences, with a view to 
security in the future. 

"In former years, before my arrival here as royal 
commissioner, a Chinese merchant named Tioneg, 
together with three mandarins, went with the permission 
of the Emperor of China from Luzon to Cavite, for the 
purpose of prospecting for gold and silver ; which appears 
to have been an excuse, for he found neither gold nor 
silver; I thereupon prayed the Emperor to punish this 
imposter Tioneg, thereby making patent the strict 
justice which is exercised in China. 

"It was during the administration of the ex- Viceroy 
and Eunuchs that Tioneg and his companion, named 
Yanglion, uttered the untruth already stated; and 
subsequently I begged the Emperor to transmit all the 
papers bearing upon the matter, together with the minutes 
of Tioneg's accusation; when I myself examined the 
before-mentioned papers, and knew that everything that 
the accused Tioneg had said was utterly untrue. 

Jagor's Travels m the Philippines SS9 

"I wrote to the Emperor and stated that, on account 
of the untruth which Tioneg had been guilty of, the 
Castilians entertained the suspicion that he wished to 
make war upon them, and that they, under this idea, 
had murdered more than thirty thousand Chinese in 
Luzon. The Emperor, complying with my request, 
punished the accused Yanglion, though he omitted to 
put him to death; neither was Tioneg beheaded or 
confined in a cage. The Chinese people who had 
settled in Luzon were in no way to blame. I and others 
discussed this with the Emperor in order to ascertain 
what his pleasure was in this matter, as well as in another, 
namely, the arrival of two English ships on the coast 
of Chinchew (Fukien or Amoy district) — a very 
dangerous circumstance for China; and to obtain His 
Imperial Majesty's decision as to both these most serious 

"We also wrote to the Emperor that he should direct 
the punishment of both these Chinese; and, in acknowl- 
edging our communication, he replied to us, in respect 
to the English ships which had arrived in China, that 
in case they had come for the purpose of plundering, 
they should be immediately commanded to depart 
thence for Luzon; and, with regard to the Luzon dif- 
ficulty, that the Castilians should be advised to give 
no credence to rogues and liars from China; and both 
the Chinese who had discovered the harbor to the English 
should be executed forthwith; and that in all other 
matters upon which we had written to him, our will 
should be his. Upon receipt of this message by us — 
the Viceroy, the Eunuch, and myself — we hereby send 
this our message to the Governor of Luzon, that his 
Excellency may know the greatness of the Emperor 
of China and of his Empire, for he is so powerful that 
he commands all upon which the sun and moon shine, 
and also that the Governor of Luzon may learn with 
what great wisdom this mighty empire is governed, 
and which power no one for many years has attempted 
to insult, although the Japanese have sought to disturb 
the tranquillity of Korea, which belongs to the Govern- 
ment of China. They did not succeed, but on the 


contrary were driven out, and Korea has remained in 
perfect security and peace, which those in Luzon well 
know by report. 

"Years ago, after we learnt that so many Chinese 
perished in Luzon on account of Tioneg's lies, many 
of us mandarins met together, and resolved to leave 
it to the consideration of the Emperor to take vengeance 
for so great a massacre; and we said as follows: — The 
country of Luzon is a wretched one, and of very little 
importance. It was at one time only the abode of 
devils and serpents; and only because (within the last 
few years) so large a number of Chinese went thither 
for the purpose of trading with the Castilians has it 
improved to such an extent; in which improvement 
the accused Sangleyes materially assisted by hard 
labor, the walls being raised by them, houses built, 
and gardens laid out, and other matters accomplished 
of the greatest use to the Castilians ; and now the question 
is, why has no consideration been paid for these services, 
and these good offices acknowledged with thanks, with- 
out cruelly murdering so many people? And although 
we wrote to the King twice or thrice concerning the 
circumstances, he answered us that he was indignant 
about the before-mentioned occurrences, and said for 
three reasons it is not advisable to execute vengeance, 
nor to war against Luzon. The first is that for a long 
time till now the Castilians have been friends of the 
Chinese; the second, that no one can predict whether 
the Castilians or the Chinese would be victorious; and 
the third and last reason is, because those whom the 
Castilians have killed were wicked people, ungrateful 
to China, their native country, their elders, and their 
parents, as they have not returned to China now for 
very many years. These people, said the Emperor, 
he valued but little for the foregoing reasons; and he 
commanded the Viceroy, the Eunuch, and myself, to 
send this letter through those messengers, so that all 
in Luzon may know that the Emperor of China has 
a generous heart, great forbearance, and much mercy, 
in not declaring war against Luzon; and his justice is 
indeed manifest, as he has already punished the liar 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S41 

Tioneg. Now, as the Spaniards are wise and intelligent, 
how does it happen that they are not sorry for having 
massacred so many people, feeling no repentance thereat, 
and also are not kinder to those of the Chinese who are 
still left? Then when the Castilians show a feeling of 
good-will, and the Chinese and Sangleyes who left 
after the dispute return, and the indebted money is 
repaid, and the property which was taken from the 
Sangleyes restored, then friendship will again exist 
between this empire and that, and every year trading- 
ships shall come and go; but if not, then the Emperor 
will allow no trading, but on the contrary will at once 
command a thousand ships of war to be built, manned 
with soldiers and relations of the slain, and will, with 
the assistance of other peoples and kingdoms who pay 
tribute to China, wage relentless war, without quarter 
to any one; and upon its conclusion will present the 
kingdom of Luzon to those who do homage to China. 

"This letter is written by the Visitor-General on the 
12th of the second month." 

A contemporary letter of the Ruler of Japan forms 
a somewhat notable contrast: — 

Letter of Daifusama, Ruler of Japan 

"To the Governor Don Pedro de Acufia, in the year 1605: 

"I have received two letters from your Excellency, 
as also all the donations and presents described in the 
inventory. Amongst them was the wine made from 
grapes, which I enjoyed very much. In former years 
your Excellency requested that six ships might come 
here, and recently four, which request I have always 
complied with. 

"But my great displeasure has been excited by the 
fact that of the four ships upon whose behalf your Ex- 
cellency interposed, one from Antonio made the journey 
without my permission. This was a circumstance of 
great audacity, and a mark of disrespect to me. Does 
your Excellency wish to send that ship to Japan without 
my permission? 



"Independently of this, your Excellency and others 
have many times discussed with me concerning the 
antecedents and interests of Japan, and many other 
matters, your requests respecting which I cannot comply 
with. This territory is called Xincoco, which means 
'consecrated to Idols,' which have been honored with 
the highest reverence from the days of our ancestor 
until now, and whose actions I alone can neither undo 
nor destroy. Wherefore, it is in no way fitting that 
your laws should be promulgated and spread over Japan ; 
and if, in consequence of these misunderstandings, 
your Excellency's friendship with the empire of Japan 
should cease, and with me likewise, it must be so, for 
I must do that which I think is right, and nothing which 
is contrary to my own pleasure. 

"Finally, I have heard it frequently said, as a reproach, 
that many Japanese — wicked, corrupt men — go to your 
kingdom, remaining there many years, and then return 
to Japan. This complaint excites my anger, and there- 
fore I must request your Excellency henceforth not 
to allow such persons to return in the ships which trade 
here. Concerning the remaining matters, I trust your 
Excellency will hereafter employ your judgment and 
circumspection in such a manner as to avoid incurring 
my displeasure for the future." 



and occupation. 


The Philippines were discovered by Magellan on the 
16th of March, 1521 — St. Lazarus' day.* But it was 
not until 1564,t after many previous efforts had mis- 
carried, that Legaspi, who left New Spain with five ships, 
took possession of the Archipelago in the name of 
Philip II. The discoverer had christened the islands 
after the sanctified Lazarus. This name, however, 

* Magellan fell on April 27, struck by a poisoned arrow, on the small island 
of Mactan, lying opposite the harbor of Cebu. His lieutenant, Sebastian de 
Elcano, doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and on September 6, 1522, brought 
back one of the five ships with which Magellan set sail from St. Lucar in 1519, 
and eighteen men, with Pigafetta, to the same harbor, and thus accomplished 
the first voyage round the world in three years and fourteen days. 

t 1565 is the date for what is now the Philippines.— C. 



Jagor's Travels in the Philippines 


never grew into general use; the Spaniards persistently 
calling them the Western Islands — Islas del Poniente; yumeroxu 

. . names. 

and the Portuguese, Islas del Oriente. Legaspi gave 
them their present name* in honor of Philip II, who, 
in his turn, conferred upon them the again extinct name 
of New Castile. t Legaspi first of all annexed Cebu, 
and then Panay ; and six years later, in 1571, he first sub- 
dued Manila, which was at that time a village surrounded 
by palisades, and commenced forthwith the construc- 
tion of a fortified town. The subjection of the remaining 
territory was effected so quickly that, upon the death 
of Legaspi (in August, 1572), all the western parts were 
in possession of the Spaniards. Numerous wild tribes 
in the interior, however, the Mahomedan states of Min- 
danao and the Sulu group, for example, have to this 
day preserved their independence. The character of the 
people, as well as their political disposition, favored 
the occupancy. There was no mighty power, no old 
dynasty, no influential priestly domination to overcome, 
no traditions of national pride to suppress. The natives 
were either heathens, or recently proselytized superfi- 
cially to Islamism, and lived under numerous petty chiefs, 
who ruled them despotically, made war upon one another, 
and were easily subdued. Such a community was 
called Barangay; and it forms to this day, though in a 
considerably modified form, the foundation of the consti- 
tutional laws. The Spaniards limited the power of the 
petty chiefs, upheld slavery, and abolished hereditary Spanish 


nobility and dignity, substituting in its place an aristo- 
cracy created by themselves for services rendered to the 
State; but they carried out all these changes very grad- 

and Sulu 

* Villalobos gave this name to one of the Southern islands and Legaspi extend- 
ed it to the entire archipelago. — C. 

t "According to recent authors they were also named after Villalobos in 1543. 
MORGA, p. 5. 



policy of greed. 

High character 
of early 

ually and cautiously.* The old usages and laws, so 
long as they did not interfere with the natural course 
of government, remained untouched and were operative 
by legal sanction; and even in criminal matters their 
validity was equal to those emanating from the Spanish 
courts. To this day the chiefs of Barangay, with the 
exception of those bearing the title of "Don," have no 
privileges save exemption from the poll-tax and socage 
service. They are virtually tax-collectors, excepting 
that they are not paid for such service, and their private 
means are made responsible for any deficit. The pru- 
dence of such a measure might well be doubted, without 
regard to the fact that it tempts the chiefs to embezzle- 
ment and extortion ; and it must alienate a class of natives 
who would otherwise be a support to the Government. 
Since the measures adopted in alleviation of the con- 
quest and occupancy succeeded in so remarkable a man- 

♦ According to Morga (p. 140) there was neither king nor governor, but in 
each island and province were numerous persons of rank, whose dependants and 
subjects were divided into quarters (harrios) and families. These petty rulers 
had to render homage by means of tributes from the crops (buiz), also by socage 
or personal service: but their relations were exempted from such services as were 
rendered by the plebeians (timauas). The dignities of the chieftains were here- 
ditary, their honors descended also to their wives. If a chief particularly dis- 
tinguished himself, then the rest followed him; but the Government retained 
to themselves the administration of the Barangays through their own particular 
officials. Concerning the system of slavery under the native rule, Morga says 
(p. 41, abbreviated), — "The natives of these islands are divided into three classes 
■ — nobles, timauas or plebeians, and the slaves of the former. There are differ- 
ent scrts of slaves: some in complete slavery {Sa:/uiguilircs), who wcrk in the 
house, as also their children. Others live with their families in their own houses 
and render service to their lords at sowing and harvest-time, also as boatmen, 
cr in the construction of houses, etc. They must attend as often as they are 
required, and give their services without pay or recompense of any kind. They 
are called Namamahayes; and their duties and obligations descend to their child- 
ren and successors. Of these Sajuigtiitires and Namamahaycs a few are full 
slaves, some half slaves, and others quartsr slaves. 

When, for instance, the mother or father was free, the only son would be 
half free, half slave. Supposing there were several sons, the first one inherits the 
father's position, the second that of the mother. When the number is unequal 
the last one is half free and half slave; and the descendants bom of such half 
slaves and those who are free are quarter slaves. The half slaves, whether sa- 
guiguilires cr namamahayes, serve their lords equally every month in turns. 
Half and quarter slaves can, by reason of their being partially free, compel their 
lord to give them their freedom at a previously determined and unfluctuating 
price: but full slaves do not possess this right. A namamahaye is worth half 
as much as a saguigitilire. All slaves are natives." 

Again, at p. 143, he writes: — "A slave who has children by her lord is thereby 
freed together with her children. The latter, however, are not considered well 
bcrn, and cannot inherit property; nor do the rights of nobility, supposing in 
such a case the father to possess any, descend to them." 

071 commission. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S4S 

ner, the governors and their subordinates of those days, 
at a time when Spain was powerful and chivalrous, 
naturally appear to have been distinguished for wisdom 
and high spirit. Legaspi possessed both qualities in a 
marked degree. Hardy adventurers were tempted there, 
as in America, by privileges and inducements which 
power afforded them; as well as by the hope, which, 
fortunately for the country, was never realized, of its 
being rich in auriferous deposits. In Luzon, for instance, 
Hernando Riquel stated that there were many gold- 
mines in several places which were seen by the Spaniards ; 
"the ore is so rich that I will not write any more about it, 
as I might possibly come under a suspicion of exaggerat- 
ing; but I swear by Christ that there is more gold on 
this island than there is iron in all Biscay." They conquerors 
received no pay from the kingdom; but a formal right 
was given them to profit by any territory which was 
brought into subjection by them. Some of these expe- 
ditions in search of conquest were enterprises under- 
taken for private gain, others for the benefit of the gov- 
ernor ; and such service was rewarded by him with grants 
of lands, carrying an annuity, offices, and other benefits 
{encomiendas, oficios y aprovechamientos). The grants 
were at first made for three generations (in New Spain 
for four), but were very soon limited to two; when De 
los Rios pointed this out as being a measure very pre- 
judicial to the Crown, "since they were little prepared 
to serve his Majesty, as their grand-children had fallen 
into the most extreme poverty." After the death of the 
feoffee the grant reverted to the State; and the governor 
thereupon disposed of it anew. 

The whole country at the outset was completely The feudal 
divided into these livings, the defraying of which formed 
by far the largest portion of the expenses of the kingdom. 
Investitures of a similar nature existed, more or less, 




HixlurUoms of 

ScUcedo "muat 
iUlistTious of 
the conquerors." 

in a territory of considerable extent, the inhabitants 
of which had to pay tribute to the feoffee; and this 
tribute had to be raised out of agricultural produce, the 
value of which was fixed by the feudal lord at a very low 
rate, but sold by him to the Chinese at a considerable 
profit. The feudal lords, moreover, were not satisfied 
with these receipts, but held the natives in a state of 
slavery, until forbidden by a Bull of Pope Gregory XIV, 
dated April 18, 1591. Kafir and negro slaves, whom the 
Portuguese imported by way of India, were, however, 
still permitted. 

The original holders of feudal tenures amassed con- 
siderable booty therefrom. Zuniga relates that as 
early as the time of Lavezares, who was provisional 
governor between 1572 and 1575, he visited the Bisayas 
and checked the covetousness of the encomenderos, 
so that at least during his rule they relaxed their system 
of extortion. Towards the end of Sande's government 
(1575-80) a furious quarrel broke out between the priests 
and the encomenderos; the first preached against the 
oppression of the latter, and memorialized Philip II 
thereon. The king commanded that the natives should 
be protected, as the extortionate greed of the feudal 
chiefs had exceeded all bounds; and the natives were 
then at liberty to pay their tribute either in money 
or in kind. The result of this well-intentioned regulation 
appears to have produced a greater assiduity both in 
agriculture and trade, "as the natives preferred to work 
without coercion, not on account of extreme want." 
And here I may briefly refer to the achievements of 
Juan de Salcedo, the most illustrious of all the conquer- 
ors. Supported by his grandfather, Legaspi, with 
forty-five Spanish soldiers, he fitted out an expedition 
at his own expense, embarked at Manila, in May, 1572, 
examined all parts of the west coast of the island, landed 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippines Si7 

in all the bays which were accessible to his light-draught 
ships, and was well received by the natives at most of 
the places. He generally found great opposition in pene- 
trating into the interior; yet he succeeded in subduing 
many of the inland tribes; and when he reached Cape 
Bojeador, the north-west point of Luzon, the extensive 
territory which at present forms the provinces of Zam- 
bales, Pangasinan, and Ilocos Norte and Sur, acknowl- 
edged the Spanish rule. The exhaustion of his soldiers 
obliged Salcedo to return. In Vigan, the present capital 
of Ilocos Sur, he constructed a fort, and left therein 
for its protection his lieutenant and twenty-five men, 
while he himself returned, accompanied only by seven- 
teen soldiers, in three small vessels. In this manner 
he reached the Cagayan River, and proceeded up it until 
forced by the great number of hostile natives to retreat 
to the sea. Pursuing the voyage to the east coast, he 
came down in course of time to Paracale, where he em- 
barked in a boat for Manila, was capsized, and rescued 
from drowning by some passing natives. 

In the meantime Legaspi had died, and Lavezares "TheCortes 
was provisionally carrying on the government. Salcedo "//.^* . , 


heard of this with vexation at being passed over; but, 
when he recovered from his jealousy, he was entrusted 
with the subjugation of Camarines, which he accom- 
plished in a short time. In 1574 he returned to Ilocos, 
in order to distribute annuities among his soldiers, and 
to receive his own share. While still employed upon the 
building of Vigan, he discovered the fleet of the notorious 
Chinese pirate, Limahong, who, bent upon taking pos- 
session of the colony, was then passing that part of the 
coast with sixty-two ships and a large number of soldiers. 
He hastened at once, with all the help which he could 
summon together in the neighborhood, to Manila, where 
he was nominated to the command of the troops, in the 

importance of 
early Manila. 

Spain and 



Manila as 
capital of a 
vast empire. 


place of the already deposed master of the forces; and 
he drove the Chinese from the town, which they had 
destroyed. They then withdrew to Pangasinan, and 
Salcedo burnt their fleet ; which exploit was achieved with 
very great difficulty. In 1576 this Cortes of the Phil- 
ippines died.* 

Apart from the priests, the first-comers consisted only 
of officials, soldiers, and sailors; and to them, naturally, 
fell all the high profits of the China trade. Manila was 
their chief market, and it also attracted a great portion 
of the external Indian trade, which the Portuguese had 
frightened away from Malacca by their excessive cruelty. 
The Portuguese, it is true, still remained in Macao and the 
Moluccas : but they wanted those remittances which were 
almost exclusively sought after by the Chinese, viz., 
the silver which Manila received from New Spain. 

In 1580 Portugal, together with all its colonies, was 
handed over to the Spanish Crown ; and the period extend- 
ing from this event to the decay of Portugal (1580-1640) 
witnessed the Philippines at the height of their power 
and prosperity. 

The Governor of Manila ruled over a part of Mindanao, 
Sulu, the Moluccas, Formosa, and the original Portu- 
guese possessions in Malacca and India. "All that lies 
between Cape Singapore and Japan is subject to Luzon; 
their ships cross the ocean to China and New Spain, 
and drive so magnificent a trade that, if it were only free, 
it would be the most extraordinary that the world could 
show. It is incredible what glory these islands confer 
upon Spain. The Governor of the Philippines treats with 
the Kings of Cambodia, Japan, China. The first is his 
ally, the last his friend; and the same with Japan. 
He declares war or peace, without waiting for the com- 

* He made the Filipinos of his encomienda of Vigan his heirs, and has 
ever been held in grateful memory. — C. 

Jagor's Travels in the Philippines S49 

mand from distant Spain."* But the Dutch had now Dutch 
begun the struggle, which they managed to carry on "pp""'""* 
against Philip II in every comer of the world; and even 
in 1610 De Los Rios complained that he found the country 
very much altered through the progress and advance 
made by the Dutch; also that the Moros of Mindanao 
and Sulu, feeling that they were supported by Holland, 
were continually in a state of discontent. 

The downfall of Portugal occasioned the loss of her Decline of 
colonies once more. Spanish policy, the government of "'''''"''■ 
the priests, and the jealousy of the Spanish merchants 
and traders especially, did everything that remained 
to be done to prevent the development of agriculture 
and commerce — perhaps, on the whole, fortunately, 
for the natives. 

The subsequent history of the Philippines is, in all its pf^^ppi^^ 
particulars, quite as unsatisfactory and uninteresting history 
as that of all the other Spanish -American possessions. ^|^'"P'"'''"^ 
Ineffectual expeditions against pirates, and continual unsatisfactory. 
disputes between the clerical and secular authorities, 
form the principal incidents, f 

After the first excitement of religious belief and military undesirable 
renown had subsided, the minds of those who went J^^p^'^^ 
later to these outlying possessions, consisting generally 
as they did of the very dregs of the nation, were seized 
with an intense feeling of selfishness ; and frauds and pecu- 
lations were the natural sequence. The Spanish writers 
are full of descriptions of the wretched state of society 
then existing, which it is unnecessary to repeat here. 

The colony had scarcely been molested by external English 
enemies, with the exception of pirates. In the earliest """P'''''"*- 

* Grav. 30. 

t Chamisso ("Observations and Views," p. 72), thanks to the translator of 
Zuniga, knew that he was in duty bound to dwell at some length over this 
excellent history; though Zuniga's narrative is always, comparatively sp:aking, 
short and to the point. The judiciously abbreviated English translation, 
however, contains many miscomprehensions. 


time the Dutch had engaged occasionally in attacks 
on the Bisayas. But in 1762 (during the war of the 
Bourbon succession) an English fleet suddenly appeared 
before Manila, and took the surprised town without any 
difficulty. The Chinese allied themselves with the 
English. A great insurrection broke out among the 
Filipinos, and the colony, under the provisional govern- 
ment of a feeble archbishop, was for a time in great 
danger. It was reserved for other dignitaries of the 
Church and Anda, an energetic patriot, to inflame the 
natives against the foreigners ; and the opposition incited 
by the zealousness of the priests grew to such an extent 
that the English, who were confined in the town, were 
actually glad to be able to retreat. In the following 
year the news arrived from Europe of the conclusion of 
peace; but in the interval this insurrection, brought about 
by the invasion, had rapidly and considerably extended; 
and it was not suppressed until 1765, when the work 
was accomplished by creating enmity among the different 
tribes.* But this was not done without a loss to the 
province of Ilocos of two hundred sixty-nine thousand 
two hundred and seventy persons — half of the popula- 
tion, as represented by Zuniga. 
Many minor Scvcrity and Want of tact on the part of the Govem- 

upnsin^s from mcut and their instruments, as well as bigoted dissensions, 

loral grievances. 

have caused many revolts of the natives; yet none, it is 
true, of any great danger to the Spanish rule. The dis- 
content has always been confined to a single district, as 
the natives do not form a united nation; neither the 
bond of a common speech nor a general interest binding 
the different tribes together. The state communica- 
tions and laws among them scarcely reach beyond the 
borders of the villages and their dependencies. 

* Principally by hiring the assassination of the gifted native leader, 
Silang. — C. 


Jagor's Travels in the Philippinea ^61 

A consideration of far more importance to the distant /''«"</o- from 
metropolis than the condition of the constantly excited Hl,,,^, 
natives, who are politically divided among themselves, 
and really have no steady object in view, is the attitude 
of the mestizos and Creoles, whose discontent increases 
in proportion to their numbers and prosperity. The 
military revolt which broke out in 1823, the leaders 
of which were two Creoles, might easily have terminated 
fatally for Spain. The latest of all the risings of the 
mestizos seems to have been the most dangerous, not 
only to the Spanish power, but to all the European 
population. * 

On the 20th of January, 1872, between eight and nine Caviu isre 
in the evening, the artillery, marines, and the garrison ""*'*"«'• 
of the arsenal revolted in Cavite, the naval base of the 
Philippines, and murdered their officers; and a lieuten- 
ant who endeavored to carry the intelligence to Manila 
fell into the hands of a crowd of natives. The news 
therefore did not reach the capital until the next morn- 
ing, when all the available troops were at once dis- 
patched, and, after a heavy preliminary struggle, they 
succeeded the following day in storming the citadel. 
A dreadful slaughter of the rebels ensued. Not a soul 
escaped. Among them was not a single European; but 
there were many mestizos, of whom several were priests 
and lawyers. Though perhaps the first accounts, written 
under the influence of terror, may have exaggerated 
many particulars, yet both official and private letters 
agree in describing the conspiracy as being long con- 
templated, widely spread, and well planned. The 
whole fleet and a large number of troops were absent 
at the time, engaged in the expedition against Sulu. 

* Danger to Europeans, "Massacre of all white people," was a frequent 
Spanish allegation in political disturbances, but the only proof ever given 
(the 9tli degree Masonic apron stupidly atti-ibuted to the Katipunan in 
1896) was absurd and irrelevant. — C. 


Summing up. 

Credit due 

Friars an 

Their defects 
have worked 
out for good. 

A portion of the garrison of Manila were to rise at the 
same time as the revolt in Cavite, and thousands of 
natives were to precipitate themselves on the caras 
hlancas (pale faces), and murder them. The failure of 
the conspiracy was, it appears, only attributable to a 
fortunate accident — to the circumstance, namely, that 
a body of the rebels mistook some rocket fired upon 
the occasion of a Church festival for the agreed signal, 
and commenced the attack too soon.* 

Let me be permitted, in conclusion, to bring together 
a few observations which have been scattered through 
the text, touching the relations of the Philippines with 
foreign countries, and briefly speculate thereon. 

Credit is certainly due to Spain for having bettered 
the condition of a people who, though comparatively 
speaking highly civilized, yet being continually dis- 
tracted by petty wars, had sunk into a disordered and 
uncultivated state. The inhabitants of these beautiful 
islands, upon the whole, may well be considered to have 
lived as comfortably during the last hundred years, 
protected from all external enemies and governed by 
mild laws, as those of any other tropical country under 
native or European sway, — owing, in some measure, 
to the frequently discussed peculiar circumstances 
which protect the interests of the natives. 

The friars, also, have certainly had an essential part 
in the production of the results. 

Sprung from the lowest orders, inured to hardship 
and want, and on terms of the closest intimacy with the 
natives, they were peculiarly fitted to introduce them 
to a practical conformity with the new religion and code 
of morality. Later on, also, when they possessed rich 

* Professor Jagor here follows the report sent out by the authorities. There 
seems better ground for believing the affair to have been merely a military 
mutiny over restricting rights which was made a pretext for getting rid of those 
whose liberal views were objectionable to the government. — C. 

Jagor'a Travels in the Philippines S6S 

livings, and their devout and zealous interest in the 
welfare of the masses relaxed in proportion as their 
incomes increased, they materially assisted in bringing 
about the circumstances already described, with their 
favorable and unfavorable aspects. Further, possessing 
neither family nor good education, they were disposed 
to associate themselves intimately with the natives 
and their requirements; and their arrogant opposition 
to the temporal power generally arose through their 
connection with the natives. With the altered con- 
dition of things, however, all this has disappeared. The 
colony can no longer be kept secluded from the world. 
Every facility afforded for commercial intercourse is 
a blow to the old system, and a great step made in the 
direction of broad and liberal reforms. The more 
foreign capital and foreign ideas and customs are intro- 
duced, increasing the prosperity, enlightenment, and 
self-respect of the population, the more impatiently will 
the existing evils be endured. 

England can and does open her possessions uncon- Contrast 
cemedly to the world. The British colonies are united "'f ^'^'*** 

•' colonies. 

to the mother country by the bond of mutual advantage, 
viz. the production of raw material by means of English 
capital, and the exchange of the same for English manu- 
factures. The wealth of England is so great, the organ- 
ization of her commerce with the world so complete, 
that nearly all the foreigners even in the British posses- 
sions are for the most part agents for English business 
houses, which would scarcely be affected, at least to 
any marked extent, by a political dismemberment. It 
is entirely different with Spain, which possesses the 
colony as an inherited property, and without the power 
of turning it to any useful account. 

Government monopolies rigorously maintained. Menaces to 
insolent disregard and neglect of the mestizos and power- "'""' 








China and 

ful Creoles, and the example of the United States, were 
the chief reasons of the downfall of the American posses- 
sions. The same causes threaten ruin to the Philippines: 
but of the monopolies I have said enough. 

Mestizos and Creoles, it is true, are not, as they 
formerly were in America, excluded from all official 
appointments; but they feel deeply hurt and injured 
through the crowds of place-hunters which the frequent 
changes of ministries send to Manila. The influence, 
also, of the American element is at least visible on the 
horizon, and will be more noticeable when the relations 
increase between the two countries. At present they 
are very slender. The trade in the meantime follows 
in its old channels to England and to the Atlantic ports 
of the United States. Nevertheless, whoever desires to 
form an opinion upon the future history of the Philip- 
pines, must not consider simply their relations to Spain, 
but must have regard to the prodigious changes which 
a few decades produce on either side of our planet. 

For the first time in the history of the world the 
mighty powers on both sides of the ocean have com- 
menced to enter upon a direct intercourse with one 
another — Russia, which alone is larger than any two 
other parts of the earth; China, which contains within 
its own boundaries a third of the population of the 
world; and America, with ground under cultivation 
nearly sufficient to feed treble the total population of 
the earth. Russia's future role in the Pacific Ocean 
is not to be estimated at present. 

The trade between the two other great powers will 
therefore be presumably all the heavier, as the rectifica* 
tion of the pressing need of human labor on the one sidej 
and of the corresponding overplus on the other, will 
fall to them. 

Jagor't Travels in the Philippinet SBS 

The world of the ancients was confined to the shores ^«""''h^ 


of the Mediterranean; and the Atlantic and Indian of the Pacific 

Oceans sufficed at one time for our traffic. When first 

the shores of the Pacific re-echoed with the sounds of 

active commerce, the trade of the world and the history 

of the world may be really said to have begun. A start 

in that direction has been made; whereas not so very 

long ago the immense ocean was one wide waste of 

waters, traversed from both points only once a year. 

From 1603 to 1769 scarcely a ship had ever visited 

California, that wonderful country which, twenty-five 

years ago, with the exception of a few places on the 

coast, was an unknown wilderness, but which is now 

covered with flourishing and prosperous towns and 

cities, served by a sea-to-sea railway, and its capital 

already ranking the third of the seaports of the Union ; 

even at this early stage of its existence a central point 

of the world's commerce, and apparently destined, by 

the proposed junction of the great oceans, to play a 

most important part in the future. 

In proportion as the navigation of the west coast The misiion 
of America extends the influence of the American element '"^co. 
over the South Sea, the captivating, ma^ic power which 
the great republic exercises over the Spanish colonies* 
will not fail to make itself felt also in the Philippines. 
The Americans are evidently destined to bring to a full 
development the germs originated by the Spaniards. 
As conquerors of modem times, representing the age 
of free citizens in contrast to the age of knighthood, 

* I take the liberty, here, of citing an instance of this. In 1861, when I 
found myself on the West Coast of Mexico, a dozen backwoods families deter- 
mined upon settling in Sonora (forming an oasis in the desert); a plan which was 
frustrated by the invasion at that time of the European powers. Many native 
farmers awaited the arrival of these immigrants in order to settle under their 
protection. The value of land in consequence of the announcement of the project 
rose very considerably. 


orcr Spanish 

Need o/ 

they follow with the plow and the axe of the pioneer, 
where the former advanced under the sign of the cross 
with their swords. 

A considerable portion of Spanish-America already 
belongs to the United States, and has since attained an 
importance which could not possibly have been anti- 
cipated either under the Spanish Government or during 
the anarchy which followed. With regard to perman- 
ence, the Spanish system cannot for a moment be 
compared with that of America. While each of the 
colonies, in order to favor a privileged class by imme- 
diate gains, exhausted still more the already enfeebled 
population of the metropolis by the withdrawal of the 
best of its ability, America, on the contrary, has attracted 
to itself from all countries the most energetic element, 
which, once on its soil and, freed from all fetters, rest- 
lessly progressing, has extended its power and influence 
still further and further. The Philippines will escape 
the action of the two great neighboring powers all the 
less for the fact that neither they nor their metropolis 
find their condition of a stable and well-balanced nature. 

It seems to be desirable for the Filipinos that the 
above-mentioned views should not speedily become 
accomplished facts, because their education and training 
hitherto have not been of a nature to prepare them 
successfully to compete with either of the other two 
energetic, creative, and progressive nations. They have, 
in truth, dreamed away their best days. 

By Tomas de Comyn 

The enumeration of the natives for the assessment of tributes, Population. 
in the manner ordained by the standing regulations of the Intend- 
ants of New Spain, is not observed in the Philippine Islands; nor 
indeed would this be an easy task. The wide extent of the twenty- 
seven provinces of which they are composed, scattered, as they are, 
through the great space comprehended between the southern part 
of Mindanao, and the almost desert islands known by the name of 
Batanes and Babuyanes, to the north of that of Luzon, presents 
almost insurmountable obstacles, and in some measure affords an 
excuse for the omission. Amcng these obstacles may be mentioned 
the necessity of waiting for the favorable monsoon to set in, in 
order to perform the several voyages from one island to the other; 
the encumbered state of the grounds in many parts, the irregular 
and scattered situations of the settlements and dwellings, the variety 
among the natives and their dialects, the imperfect knowledge hith- 
erto obtained of the respective limits and extent of many districts, 
the general want of guides and auxiliaries, on whom reliance can be 
placed, and, above all, the extreme repugnance the natives evince 
to the payment of tributes, a circumstance which induces them to 
resort to all kinds of stratagems, in order to elude the vigilance of the 
collectors, and conceal their real numbers. 

The quinquennial census, as regularly enjoined, being thus EsUmates. 
found impracticable, no other means are left than to deduce from 
the annual lists, transmitted by the district magistrates to the super- 
intendent's office, and those formed by the parish curates, a prudent 
estimate of the total number of inhabitants subject to our laws and 
religion; yet these data, although the only ones, and also the most 
accurate it is possible to obtain, for this reason, inspire so little con- 
fidence, that it is necessary to use them with great caution. It is 
evident that all the district magistrates and curates do not possess 
the same degree of care and minuteness in a research so important, 
and the omission or connivance of their respective delegates, more 
or less general, renders it probable that the number of tributes, not 
included in the annual returns, is very considerable. If to this we 
add the legal exemptions from tribute, justly granted to various 



Ratio to 

and wild tribes. 

individuals for a certain number of years, or during the performance 
of special service, we shall easily be convinced of the imperfection 
of results, derived from such insecure principles. * * • j have 
carefully formed my estimates corresponding to the year 1810, 
and by confronting them with such data as I possess relating to the 
population of 1791, I have deduced the consoling assurance that, 
under a parity of circumstances, the population of these Islands, far 
from having diminished, has, in the interval, greatly increased. 

From the collective returns recently made out by the district 
magistrates, it would appear that the total number of tributes 
amounts to 386,654, which multiplied by six and one-half produces the 
sum of 2,515,406, at which I estimate the total population, including 
old men, women and children. I ought here to observe, that I have 
chosen this medium of six and one-half between the five persons' 
estimated in Spain and eight in the Indies, as constituting each 
family, or entire tribute; for although the prodigious fecundity of 
the women in the latter hemisphere, and the facility of maintaining 
their numerous offspring, both the effects of the benignity of the 
climate and their sober way of living, sufficiently warrant the con- 
clusion, thai a great ei number of persons enter into the composition 
of each family, I have, in this case, been induced to pay deference to 
the observations of religious persons, intrusted with the care of 
souls, who have assured me that, whether it be owing to the great 
mortality prevailing among children, or the influence of other local 
causes, in many districts each family, or entire tribute, does not 
exceed four and one-half persons. 

To the above amount it is necessary to add 7,000 Sangleys 
(Chinese), who have been enumerated and subjected to tribute, 
for, although in the returns preserved in the public offices, they are 
not rated at more than 4,700, there are ample reasons for concluding, 
that many who are wandering about, or hidden in the provinces, 
have eluded the general census. The European Spaniards, and 
Spanish Creoles and mestizos, do not exceed 4,000 persons, of both 
sexes and all ages, and the distinct castes or modifications known in 
America under the name of mulattos, quadroons, etc., although 
found in the Philippine Islands, are generally confounded in the 
three classes of pure natives, Chinese mestizos, and Chinese. Besides 
the above distinctions, various infidel and independent nations or 
tribes exist, more or less savage and ferocious, who have their dwel- 
lings in the woods and glens, and are distinguished by the respective 
names of Aetas, Ingolots, Negrillos, Igorots, Tinguianes, etc., nor 
is there scarcely a province in Luzon, that does not give shelter_to 

State of the Philippines in 1810 



som6 of those isolated tribes, who inhabit and possess many of the 
mountainous ranges, which ramificate and divide the wide and ex- 
tended plains of that beautiful island. 

The original race by which the Philippines are peopled, is beyond Origin of race. 
doubt Malayan, and the same that is observed in Sumatra, Java, 
Borneo, and the other islands of this immense archipelago. The 
Philippine Islanders, very different from the Malabars, whose features 
possess great regularity, sweetness, and even beauty, only resemble 
the latter in color, although they excel them in stature, and the good 
proportion of their limbs. The local population of the capital, in 
consequence of its continual communication with the Chinese and 
other Asiatics, with the mariners of various nations, with the soldiery 
and Mexican convicts, who are generally mulattos, and in consider- 
able numbers sent to the Islands yearly in the way of transportation, 
has become a mixture of all kinds of nations and features, or rather 
a degeneration from the primitive races. 

Manila, the capital of the Philippine Islands, at present con- 
tains a population of from one hundred forty to one hundred fifty 
thousand inhabitants, of all classes; but it ought, however, to be un- 
derstood, that in this computation are included the populous suburbs 
of Santa Cruz, San Fernando, Binondo, Tondo, Quiapo, San Sebas- 
tian, San Anton, and Sampaloc; for although each is considered as a 
distinct town, having a separate curate, and civil magistrate of its 
own, the subsequent union that has taken place rather makes them 
appear as a prolongation of the city, divided into so many wards and 
parishes, in the center of which their respective churches are built. 
Among the chief provincial towns, several are found to contain a 
population of from twenty to thirty thousand souls, and many not 
less than ten to twelve tftousaid. Finally, it is a generally received 
opinion that, besides the Moros and independent tribes, the total 
population of the Philippine Islands, subject to the authority of the 
king, is equal to three millions. 

Among the varied productions of the Philippines, for many 
reasons, none is so deserving of attention as cotton. Its whiteness 
and fine staple give to it such a superiority over that of the rest of 
Asia, and possibly of the world, that the Chinese anxiously seek it, 
in order preferably to employ it in their most perfect textures, and 
purchase it thirty per cent dearer than the best from British India. 
Notwithstanding this extraordinary allurement, the vicinity of a 
good market, and the positive certainty that, however great the 
exportation, the growth can never equal the consumption and im- 




mense demand for this article, it has, nevertheless, hitherto been 
found impossible to extend and improve its cultivation, in such a 
way as to render it a staple commodity of the country. Owing to 
this lamentable neglect, is it, that the annual exportation does not 
exceed five thousand "arrobas" (125,000 lbs.) whereas the British 
import into China at the annual rate of 100,000 bales, or 1,200,000 
"arrobas," produced in their establishments at Bombay and Cal- 
cutta, and which, sold at the medium price of fifteen "taels," for 
one hundred thirty pounds, yield the net amount of $4,800,000. 

fta advantages. This want of attention to so important a branch of agriculture 

is the more to be regretted, as the Islands abound in situations pecu- 
liarly adapted for the cultivation of cotton, and the accidental failure 
of the crops in some provinces, might easily be made up by their 
success in others. The culture of this plant is besides extremely 
easy, as it requires no other labor than clearing the grounds from 
brush-wood, and lightly turning up the earth with a plough, before 
the seeds are scattered, which being done, the planter leaves the 
crop to its own chance, and in five months gathers abundant fruit, 
if, at the time the bud opens, it is not burnt by the north winds, 
or rotted with unseasonable showers. 

Restricted The provinces of Ilocos and Batangas are the only ones in which 

cultivation. ^\^q cultivation of cotton is pursued with any degree of zeal and care, 

and it greatly tends to enrich the inhabitants. This successful 
example has not, however, hitherto excited emulation in those of 
the other provinces; and thus the only production of the Philippine 
Islands, of which the excellence and superior demand in trade are 
as well known as its culture is easy, owing to strange fatality and 
causes which will be hereafter noticed, is left almost in a neglected 
state, or, at most, confined to the narrow limits of local consumption. 

Indigo. Pangasinan, Pampanga, Bataan, La Laguna, Tayabas and 

Camarines produce indigo of various classes, and, although its prepa- 
ration or the extraction of the dye, is in most of the above provinces 
still performed in an equally imperfect manner, several small improve- 
ments have recently been made, which have bettered the quality, 
more particularly in La Laguna, the only district in which attempts 
have been made to imitate the process used in Guatemala, as well 
with regard to the construction and number of vats necessary, as 
the precipitation of the coloring particles — detached from the plant 
by the agitation of the water. In the other places, the whole of the 
operations are performed in a single vat, and the indigo obtained 
is not unfrequently impregnated with lime and other extraneous 


stale of the Philippines in 1810 

Whatever may have been the causes of this evident backward- Increasing 
ness, from the period of the estabUshment of the Philippine Company <-»"»'"«• 
in these Islands, and in consequence of the exertions of some of the 
directors to promote the cultivation of indigo, at that time very 
little known, the natives have slowly, though gradually, been recon- 
ciled to it; and discovering it to be one of the most advantageous 
branches of industry, although accompanied with some labor and 
exposed to the influence of droughts and excessive heats, as well as 
to the risks attendant on the extraordinary anticipation of the rainy 
seasons, have of late years paid more attention to it. The quintal 
of indigo of the f rst class costs the planter from $35 to $40 at most; 
and in the market of Manila it has been sold from $60 to $130, 
according to the quality and the greater or lesser demand for the 
article at the season. As, however, everything in this colony moves 
within a small circle, it is not possible to obtain large quantities for 
exportation; not only because of the risk in advancing the Indian 
sums of money on account of his crop, but also owing to the annual 
surplus seldom exceeding from two to two thousand five hundred 
distributed in many hands, and collected by numerous agents, 
equally interested in making up their return-cargoes. 

The cultivation of the sugar-cane is more or less extended to all Sugar. 
the provinces of these Islands, owing to its consumption among the 
natives being both great and general; but those of La Pampanga 
and Pangasinan are more particularly devoted to it. These two 
provinces alone annually produce about 550,000 arrobas (13,750,000 
lbs.) of which one-third is usually exported in Chinese and other 
foreign vessels. In extraordinary seasons, the amount exported 
greatly exceeds the quantity above stated, as, for example, happened 
in the monsoon of 1796, when the planters came down to the port of 
Manila, and by contract exported upwards of nine millions weight, 
of the first and second qualities. The price of this article has expe- 
rienced many variations of late years; but the medium may be esti- 
mated at $6 for one hundred twenty-five pounds of the first quality, 
and $5 for the second. 

The superior quaUty of the sugar of the Philippines is acknowl- Afethod of 
edged, when compared to that produced in the Island of Java, Manufaciun,. 
China, or Bengal; notwithstanding in the latter countries it may 
naturally be concluded that greater pains and care are bestowed 
on its manufacture. The pressure of the cane in the Philippine 
Islands is performed by means of two coarse stone cylinders, placed 
on the ground, and moved in opposite directions by the slow and 


> unequal pace of a "carabao," a species of ox or buffalo, peculiar 

to this and other Asiatic countries. The juice is conveyed to 
an iron caldron, and in this the other operations of boiling, skimming 
and cleansing take place, till the crystallization or adhering of the 
sugar is completed. All these distinct parts of the process, in other 
colonies, are performed in four separate vessels, confided to different 
hands, and consequently experience a much greater degree of care 
and dexterity. After being properly clayed, the sugars acquire 
such a state of consistency that, when shipped in canvas bags, 
they become almost petrified in the course of the voyage, without 
moistening or purging, as I understand is the case with those of 

^»'*- Among the useful objects to which the Patriotic Society of 

Manila {Amigos del Pais) directed their attention, from the very 
moment of their formation, the planting of mulberry trees seems 
to have met with peculiar encouragement. The society rightly 
judged that the naturalization of so valuable a commodity as silk 
in these Islands would materially increase the resources of the colony, 
and there was reason to hope that, besides local consumption, the 
growth might in time be so much extended as to supply the wants 
of New Spain, which are not less than 80,000 lbs., amounting to 
from $350,000 to $400,000, conveyed there in the galleon annually 
sent to the port of Acapulco, by the Manila merchants, which article 
they are now compelled to contract for in China. 

Mulberry trees. The Society gave the first impulse to this laudable project, and 

then the governor of the Islands, Don Jose Basco, anxious to realize 
it, with this view sent Colonel Charles Conely on a special commis- 
sion to the province of Camarines. This zealous officer and district 
magistrate, in the years 1786-1788 caused 4,485,782 mulberry trees 
to be planted in the thirty districts under his jurisdiction; and incal- 
culable are the happy results which would have attended a plan 
so extensive, and commenced with so much vigor, if it could have 
been continued with the same zeal by his successor, and not at once 
destroyed, through a mistaken notion of humanity, with which, 
soon after the departure of Governor Basco, they proceeded to exone- 
rate the Filipinos from all agricultural labor that was not free and 
spontaneous, in conformity, as was then alleged, to the [general spirit 
of our Indian legislation. As it was natural to expect, the total 
abandonment of this valuable branch followed a measure so fatal, 
and notwithstanding the efforts subsequently made by the Royal 
Company, in order to obtain its restoration, as well in Camarines 


Stale o} the Philippines in 1810 


as the Province of Tondo, all their exertions were in vain, though it 
must be allowed that at the time several untoward circumstances 
contributed to thwart their anxious wishes. Notwithstanding this 
failure, the project, far from being deemed impracticable, would 
beyond all doubt succeed, and, under powerful patronage, completely 
answer the well-founded hopes of its original conceivers and pro- 
moters. The natives themselves would soon be convinced of the 
advantages to be derived from the possession of an article, in so many 
ways applicable to their own fine textures, and besides the variety 
of districts in the Islands, proved to be suitable to the cultivation 
of this interesting tree, it is a known fact that many of the old 
mulberry groves are still in existence. 

The Bisayas, Cagayan, and many other provinces, produce Beeswax. 
wax in considerable abundance, which the Indians collect from the 
natural hives formed in the cavities of the trees, and it is also brought 
down by the infidel natives from the mountains to the neighboring 
towns. The quality certainly is not the best, and notwithstanding 
attempts have been made to cleanse it from the extraneous particles 
with which it is mixed, it always leaves a considerable sediment on 
the lower part of the cakes, and never acquires an entire whiteness. 
Its consumption is great, especially in the capital, and after supply- 
ing the wants of the country, an annual surplus of from six hundred 
to eight hundred quintals is appropriated for exportation. 

This certainly might be converted into an article of extreme Neglected 
importance, especially for the kingdom of Peru, which in peaceable '"arA:<;<. 
times receives its supplies from Spain, and even from the Island 
of Cuba; but for this purpose it would be necessary to adopt the 
plan recommended by the enlightened zeal of the Patriotic Society 
and previously encourage the establish ent of arti icial hives 
and the plantation of aromatic and flowering shrubs, which so easily 
attract and secure the permanency of the roving swarms, always 
ready to undertake fresh labors. This, as well as many other points, 
has hitherto been entirely overlooked. 

The production is cultivated in the Provinces of Tayabas, Black pepper. 
Batangas, and La Laguna, but in such small quantities, that, not- 
withstanding the powerful allurements of all kinds constantly held 
out by the Royal Company during the long period of twenty years, 
their agents have never been able to collect in more than about 
64,000 lbs. annually. After every encouragement, the most that 
has been attained with the natives, is conSned to their planting 
in some districts fifty to one hundred pepper-vines round their huts, 


which they cultivate in the same way as they would plots of flowers, 
but without any other labor than supporting the plant with a pro- 
portioned stake, clearing the ground from weeds, and attending to 
daily irrigation. 

A possibility. This article therefore scarcely deserves a place amongst the 

flourishing branches of agriculture, at least till it has been raised 
from its present depressed state, and the grounds laid out in regular 
and productive pepper-groves. Till this is done, to a corresponding 
extent, it must also be excluded froni the number of productions 
furnished by these Islands to commerce and exportation; more parti- 
cularly if we consider that, notwithstanding the great fragrance of 
the grain, as well as its general superiority over the rest of Asia, 
so great a difference exists in the actual price, that this can never 
be ccmpensated by its greater request in the markets of Europe, 
and much less enable it to compete with that of the British and 
Dutch, till its abundance has considerably lowered its primitive value. 

Not popular. Finally, although an infinity of grounds are to be found adapted 

to the rapid propagation of pepper-vines, as may easily be inferred 
from the analogy and proximity of the Philippine Islands to the 
others of this same archipelago, so well known for their growth of 
spices, it must be confessed that it is a species of culture by no means 
popular among the Philippine natives, and it would be almost 
requiring too much from their inconstancy of character, to wish them 
to dedicate their lands and time to the raising of a production which, 
besides demanding considerable care, is greatly exposed to injury, 
and even liable to be destroyed by the severity of the storms, which 
frequently mark the seasons. With difficulty would they be induced 
to wait five years before they were able to gather the uncertain 
fruits of their labor anf' patience. If, therefore, it should ever be 
deemed a measure of policy to encourage the growth of black pepper, 
it will be necessary for the government to order the commons be- 
longing to each town, and adapted to this species of plantation, 
to be appropriated to this use, by imposing on the inhabitants the 
ctligalicn of taking care of Ihcm, and drawing frcm the respective 
coffers of each ccmmunity the necessary funds for the payment of the 
labcrers, and the other expenses of cultivation. // this cannot 
be done, it will he necessary to wail till the general condition of the country 
is improved, when through the spirit of emulation, and the enterprises 
of the planters being duly patronized and supported, present difficulties 
may be overcome, and the progressive results of future attempts ivill be 
then found to combine the interests of individuals with the general welfare 
of the colony. 

state of the Philippines in 1810 

So choice is the quality of the coffee produced in the Island of Coffee. 
Luzon, especially in the districts of Indang and Silang, in the prov- 
ince of Cavite, that if it is not equal to that of Mocha, I at least con- 
sider it on parallel with the coffee of Bourbon; but, as the consump- 
tion and cultivation are extremely limited, it cannot with any 
propriety be yet numbered among the articles contributing to the 

Cocoa is something more attended to, in consequence of the Cocoa. 
use of chocolate being greatly extended among the natives of easy 
circumstances. That of the Island of Cebu, is esteemed superior 
to the cocoa of Guayaquil, and possibly it is not excelled by that 
of Soconusco. As, however, the quantity raised does not suffice 
for the local consumption, Guayaquil cocoa meets a ready sale, 
and is generally brought in return-cargo by the ships coming from 
Acapulco, and those belonging to the Philippine company dispatched 
from Callao, the shipping port of Lima. 

The cultivation of these two articles in the Philippines is on the 
same footing as that of pepper, which, as above stated, is rather 
an object of luxury and recreation than one of speculation among the 
Filipinos. The observations and rules pointed out in the preceding 
article, are, in a general sense, applicable to both these branches of 

Cinnamon groves, or trees of wild cinnamon, are to be found Cinnamon. 
in every province. In Mindanao, a Dutchman, some years ago, 
was employed by orders of the government, in examining the forests 
and making experiments, with a view to discover the same tree of 
this species that has given so much renown to Ceylon; but, whether 
it was owing to a failure in the discovery, or, when the plant was 
found, as at the time was said to be the case, the same results were 
not produced, from the want of skill in preparing, or stripping off 
the bark; certain it is, that the laudable attempt totally failed, or 
rather the only advantage gained, has been the extracting from the 
b^k and more tender parts of the branches of the tree, an oil or 
essence of cinnamon, vigorous and aromatic in the extreme. 

About the same time, a land-owner of the name Salgado, Experiment in 
undertook to form an extensive plantation of the same species in Laguna. 
the province of La Laguna, and succeeded in seeing upwards of a 
million cinnamon trees thrive and grow to a considerable size; but 
at last, he was reluctantly compelled to desist from his enterprise, 
by the same reasons which led to the failure of Mindanao. 


Need of 





Hiyh yield. 

These facts are of sufficient authority for our placing the cinna- 
mon tree among the indigenous productions of the PhiUppine Islands 
and considering their general excellence above those of the same 
nature in the rest of Asia, it may reasonably be concluded that, 
without the tree being identically the same, the cinnamon with 
which it is clothed will be found finer than that yielded by the 
native plant of the Island of Ceylon, and this circumstance, conse- 
quently, holds out a hope that, in the course of time, it may become 
an article of traffic, as estimable as it would be new. In order, 
however, that this flattering prospect may be realized, it will be 
requisite for the government to procure some families, or persons 
from the above island, acquainted with the process of stripping off 
the bark and preparing the cinnamon, by dexterously offering 
allurements, corresponding to the importance of the service, which, 
although in itself it may probably be an extremely simple operation, 
as long as it is unknown, will be an insuperable obstacle to the 
propagation of so important an agricultural pursuit. 

Two species of nutmeg are known here, the one in shape 
resembling a pigeon's egg, and the other of a perfectly spherical 
form; but both are wild and little aromatic, and consequently held 
in no great esteem. 

Rice is the bread and principal aliment of these natives, for 
which reason, although its cultivation is among the most disagree- 
able departments of husbandry, they devote themselves to it with 
astonishing constancy and alacrity, so as to form a complete coritrast 
with their characteristic indifference in most other respects. This 
must, however, be taken as a certain indication of the possibility 
of training them up to useful labor; whenever they can be led on in 
a proper manner. 

The earth corresponds with surprising fertility to the labors of 
the Filipino, rewarding him, in the good seasons, with ninety, and 
even as high as one hundred per cent ; a fact I have fully ascertained 
and of which I besides possess undoubted proofs, obtained from the 
parish-curates of La Pampanga. As, however, the provinces are 
frequently visited with dreadful hurricanes (called in the country, 
baguios), desolated by locusts, and exposed to the effects of the great 
irregularities of nature, which, in these climes, often acts in extreme, 
the crops of this grain are precarious, or at least, no reliance can be 
placed on a certain surplus allowing an annual exportation to China. 
On this account, rice cannot be placed in the list of those articles 
which give support to the external trade. 

State of the Philippines in 1810 


Dye and 
cabinet wooda. 

The "sibucao," or logwood, and ebony, in both which these 
islands abound, are the only woods in any tolerable request. The 
first is sold with advantage in Bengal, and the other meets a ready 
sale in the ports of China, in the absence of that brought from the 
Island of Bourbon, which is a quality infinitely superior. Both are, 
however, articles of no great consumption, for, being bulky and 
possessing little intrinsic value, they will not bear the high charges 
of freight and other expenses, attendant on the navigation of the 
Asiatic seas, and can only suit the shipper, as cargo, who is anxious 
not to return to the above countries in ballast. Hence, as an object 
of export trade, these articles cannot be estimated at more than 
$30,000 per annum. 

I deem it superfluous to dwell on a multitude of other good and Timber 
even precious woods in timber, with which the Philippine Islands 
are gifted, because this is a subject already suficiently well under- 
stood, and a complete collection of specimens, as well as some large 
blocks, were besides transmitted some years ago to the king's dock- 
yard. It may, however, be proper to remark, that the establishment 
near the capital for shipbuilding and masts, are much more expens- 
ive than is generally supposed, as well on account of the difficulties 
experienced in dragging the trees from the interior of the mountains 
to the water's edge, as the want of regularity and foresight with 
which these operations have been usually conducted. Besides these 
reasons, as it is necessary that the other materials requisite for the 
construction and complete armament of vessels of a certain force, 
should come from Europe, it is neither easy, nor indeed, would it 
be economical, as was erroneously asserted, to carry into eff"ect the 
government project of annually building, in the colony, a ship of the 
line and a frigate. It ought further to be observed, that no stock 
of timber, cut at a proper season and well cured, has been lain in, 
and although the wages of the native carpenters and caulkers are 
moderate, no comparison whatever can be made between the daily 
work they perform, and that which is done in the same space of time 
in our dock-yards of Spain. 

Notwithstanding, however, the impediments above stated, as it 
is undeniable that abundance of suitable timber is to be obtained, 
and as the conveyance of the remainder of the necessary naval 
stores to the Philippine Islands is shorter and more economical 
than to the coast of California, it possibly might answer, at least, 
many mariners are of this opinion, in case it is deemed expedient 
to continue building at San Bias the brigs and corvettes necessary 

Ship building 



for the protection of the miUtary posts and missions, situated along 
the above coasts, to order them preferably to be built in Cavite 
giving timely advice, and previously taking care to make the neces- 
sary arrangements. 

Gold. Gold abounds in Luzon and in many of the other islands; but 

as the mountains which conceal it are in possession of the pagan 
tribes, the mines are not worked; indeed it may be said they are 
scarcely known. These mountaineers collect it in the brooks and 
streamlets, and in the form of dust, offer it to the Christians who 
inhabit the neighboring plains, in exchange for coarse goods and 
fire-arms; and it has sometimes happened that they have brought 
it down in grains of one and two ounces weight. The natives of the 
province of Camarines partly devote themselves to the working 
of the mines of Mambulao and Paracale, which have the reputation 
of being very rich; but, far from availing themselves in the smallest 
degree of the advantages of art, they content themselves with ex- 
tracting the ore by means of an extremley imperfect fusion, which is 
done by placing the mineral in shells and then heating them on 
embers. A considerable waste consequently takes place, and 
although the metal obtained is good and high colored, it generally, 
passes into the hands of the district-magistrate, who collects it at 
a price infinitely lower than it is worth in trade. It is a generally 
received opinion that gold mines are equally to be met with in the 
Province of Caraga, situated on the coasts of the great Island of Min- 
danao, where, as well as in other points, this metal is met with equal 
to twenty-two karats. The quantity, however, hitherto brought 
down from the mountains by the pagan tribes, and that obtained 
by the tributary Filipinos, has not been an object of very great 

Copper. Well-founded reasons exist for presuming that, in the Province 

of Ilocos, mines of virgin copper exist, a singular production of 
nature, or at least, not very common, if the generality of combina- 
tions under which this metal presents itself in the rest of the globe, 
are duly considered. This is partly inferred from the circumstance 
of its having been noticed that the Igorots, who occasionally come 
down from the mountains to barter with the Christians, use certain 
coarse jars or vessels of copper, evidently made by themselves with 
the use of a hammer, without any art or regularity ; and as the igno- 
rance of these demi-savages is too great for them to possess the 
notions necessary for the separation of the component parts which 
enter into the combination of minerals, and much less for the con- 

State of the Philippines in JSW S69^ 

struction of furnaces suitable to the smelting and formation of the 
moulds, it is concluded they must have found some vein of copper 
entirely pure, which, without the necessity of any other preparation, 
they have been able to flatten with the hammer and rendered male- 
able, so as to convert it into the rough vessels above spoken of. 

The district-magistrate of Caraga, Don Augustin de loldi, Cinnabar. 
received a special commission from the government to explore and 
pbtain information respecting a mine of cinnabar, which was said to 
be situated under his jurisdiction; and I have been informed of 
another of the same species in the Island of Samar, the working 
of which has ceased for a considerable time, not because the prospect 
was unfavorable, but for the want of an intelligent person to super- 
intend and carry on the operations. The utility of such a discovery 
is too obvious not to deserve, on the part of government, the most 
serious attention and every encouragement to render it available; 
and it is to be hoped that, as the first steps have already been taken 
in this important disclosure, the enterprise will not be abandoned, 
but, on the contrary, that exertions will be made to obtain aid and 
advice from the Miners' College of Mexico, as the best means of 
removing doubt, and acting with judgment in the affair. 

Iron in mineral form is to be found at various points on Luzon, ircm. 
and those engaged in working it, without the necessity of digging; 
collect the iron-bearing stones that constitute the upper stratum, 
these, when placed in fusion, generally yield about forty per cent 
clear metal. This is the case in the mountains of Angat, situated 
in the Province of Bulacan, and also in the vicinity of the Baliwag 
River. In Morong, however, belonging to the Province of La Laguna, 
where the cannon-ball factory is established, the ore yields under 
twenty-two per cent. Its quality is in general better than the Bis- 
cayan iron, according to formal experiments and a report, made in 
1798 to Governor Don Rafael Maria de Aguilar, by two Biscayan 
master-smiths from the squadron of Admiral Alava. Witnesses to this 
test were the Count de Aviles and Don Felix de la Rosa, proprietors 
of the mines of Morong and Angat, and the factor of the Philippine 
Company, Don Juan Francisco Urroroz. Notwithstanding its 
advantages, this interesting branch of industry h.'Hs not yet passed 
beyond the most rude principles and imperfect practice, owing to 
the want of correct information as to the best process, and scarcity 
of funds on the part of the proprietors to carry on their works. 
Without the aid of rolling or slitting mills, indeed unprovided with 
the most essential instruments, they have hitherto coniiined them- 







selves to converting their iron into plow shares, bolos, hoes, and 
such other agricultural implements; leaving the Chinese of Amoy 
in quiet possession of the advantages of being allowed to market 
annual supplies of all kinds of nails, the boilers used on the sugar 
plantations, pots and pans, as well as other articles in this line, 
which might easily be manufactured in the Islands. 

In the Island of Leyte, abundance of sulphur is met with, and 
from thence the gunpowder works of Manila are supplied at very 
reasonable prices. Jaspers, cornelians and agates, are also found 
in profusion in many of these provinces; everything, indeed, pro- 
mises varied mineral wealth worthy of exciting the curiosity and 
useful researches of mineralogists, who, unfortunately, have not 
hitherto extended their labors to these remote parts of the globe. 

Pearl fisheries are, from time to time, undertaken off the coast 
of the Island of Mindanao, and also near smaller islands not far 
from Cebu, but with little success and less constancy, not because 
there is a scarcity of fine pearls of a bright color and considerable 
size, but on account of the divers' want of skill and their just dread 
of the sharks, which, in great numbers infest these seas. Amber is 
frequently gathered in considerable lumps in the vicinity of Samar 
and the other Visayan Islands as well as mother-of-pearl, tortoise- 
shell, and red and black coral, of the latter kind of which, I have 
seen shafts as thick as my finger and six or eight feet long. 

The proprietors of estates in the Philippines are of four classes. 
The most considerable is that of the religious orders, Augustinians 
and Dominicans, who cultivate their respective lands on joint 
account, or let them out at a moderate ground-rent, which the plan- 
ters pay in kind; but far from living in opulence, and accumulating 
the immense revenues some of the religious communities enjoy in 
America, they stand in need of all they earn and possess for their 
maintenance, and in order to be enabled to discharge the various 
duties and obligations annexed to the missions with which they are 

The second class comprehends the Spanish proprietors, whose 
number possibly does not exceed a dozen of persons, and even they 
labor under such disadvantages, and have to contend with so many 
obstacles, under the existing order of things, that, compelled to 
divide their lands into rice plantations, in consequence of this being 
the species of culture to which the natives are most inclined, and 
to devote a considerable portion of them to the grazing of horned 

State of the Philippines in 1810 

cattle, no one of them is in a situation to give to agriculture the 
variety and extent desired, or to attain any progress in a pursuit 
which in other colonies rapidly leads to riches. 

The third consists of the principal mestizos and natives, and is 
in fact that which constitutes the real body of farming proprietors. 
In the fourth and last may be included all the other natives, who 
generally possess a small strip of land situated round their dwellings, 
or at the extremities of the various towns and settlements formed by 
the conquerors; besides what they may have obtained from their 
ancestors in the way of legal inheritance, which rights have been 
confirmed to them by the present sovereign of the colony. 

It will beyond doubt, in some measure dissipate the distrust 
by which the Filipino is actuated, when the new and paternal exer- 
tions of the superior government, to ameliorate his present situation, 
are fully known, and when that valuable portion of our distant 
population is assured that their rights will henceforth be respected, 
and those exactions and compulsory levies which formerly so much 
disheartened them, are totally abolished. On the other hand, a 
new stimulus will be given by the living example and fresh impulse 
communicated to the provinces by other families emigrating and 
settling there, nurtured in the spirit and principles of those reforms 
in the ideas and maxims of government by which the present era 
is distinguished. A practical participation in these advantages will, 
most assuredly, awaken a spirit of enterprise and emulation that 
may be extremely beneficial to agriculture, and as the wants of the 
natives increase in proportion as they are enabled to know and com- 
pare the comforts arising out of the presence and extension of con- 
veniences and luxuries in their own towns, they will naturally be 
led to possess and adopt them. 

So salutary a change, however, can only be the work of time, 
and as long as the government confines itself to a system merely 
protecting, the effects must consequently be slow. As it is therefore 
necessary to put in action more powerful springs than the ordinary 
ones, it will be found expedient partly to relax from some of those 
general principles which apply to societies, differently constituted, 
or rather formed of other perfectly distinct elements. As relating 
to the subject under discussion, I fortunately discover two means, 
pointed out in the laws themselves, essentially just, and at the same 
time capable of producing in this populous colony, more than in any 
other, the desired results. The legislator, founding himself on the 
conunon obligation of the subject to contribute something in return 


Aids to 

riana for 



unused land^. 


for the protection he receives, and to co-operate in the increase of 
the power and opulence of the State, proscribes idleness as a crime, 
and points out labor as a duty; and although the regulations touch- 
ing the natives breathe the spirit of humanity, and exhibit the 
wisdom with which they were originally formed, they nevertheless 
concur and are directed to this primary object. In them the dis- 
tribution of vacant lands, as well as of the natives at fair daily 
wages to clear them, is universally allowed, and these it seems to 
me, are the means from an equitable and intelligent application of 
which the most beneficial consequences may be expected. 

The f rst cannot be attended with any great difficulty, because 
all the provinces abound in waste and vacant lands, artd scarcely 
is there a district in which some are not to be found of private 
property completely uncultivated and neglected, and consequently 
susceptible, as above stated, of being legally transferred, for this 
reason alone, to the possession of an active owner. Let their nature 
however, be what it may, in their adjudication, it is of the greatest 
importance to proceed with uniformity, by consecrating, in a most 
irrevocable manner, the solemnity of all similar grants. Public 
interest and reason, in the Philippine Islands, require that in all such 
cases deference only should be paid to demands justly interposed^ 
and formally established within a due and fixed period; but after 
full and public notice has been given by the respective judicial author- 
ities, of the titles about to be granted, the counter claims the natives 
may seek to put in after the lapse of the period preSxed, should be 
peremptorily disregarded. Although at frst sight this appears a 
direct infringement on the imprescriptible rights of property, it 
must be considered that in some cases individual interests ought 
to be sacriPced to the general good, and that the balance used, when 
treating of the affairs of State, is never of that rigid kind as if applied 
to those of minor consideration. The fact is, that by this means 
many would be induced to form estates, who have hitherto been 
withheld by the dread of involving themselves, and spending their 
money in la v suits; at the same time the natives, gradually accustom- 
ing themselves to this new order of things, would lay aside that dis- 
position to strife and contention, which forms so peculiar a trait 
in their character, and that antipathy and odium would also dis- 
appear with which they have usually viewed the agricultural under- 
takings of Spaniards. 

Proceeding to the consideration of the second means of acceler- 
ating the improvement of agriculture, viz., the distribution of the 

Slate of the Philippines in IS 10 ■• : ■■.• ^73 

natives, it will suffice to say that it would be equally easy to shovy 

that it is absolutely necessary rigorously to carry into effect, in the 

Philippine Islands, whatever the laws on this subject prescribed, 

otherwise we must give up all those substantial hopes entertained of 

the felicity of the colony. We are no longer in a situation to be 

restricted to the removal of ordinary obstacles, and the season iS 

gone by in which, as heretofore, it entered into our policy to employ 

no other than indirect stimulants — in order to incline the Filipino 

to labor. It is evident that admonitions and offers of reward no 

longer suffice; nor indeed have the advantageous terms proposed 

to them by some planters, with a view to withdraw the lower orders 

of the natives, such as the timaiias and caglianes, or plebeians, from 

the idle indifference in which they are sunk, been of any avail. 

Their wants and wishes being easily supplied, the whole of their 

happiness seems to depend on quiet and repose, and their highest ,,^,-,,\ i,-, 

enjoyment on the pleasure of sleep. Energy, however, and a certain 

degree of severity must be employed, if permanent resources are 

to be called forth, and if the progressive settlement of European 

families and the formation of estates proportioned to the fertility 

of the soil and capabilities of the country are to enter into the views 

of government. In vain would grants and transfers of vacant and 

useless lands be made to new and enterprising proprietors, unless 

at the same time they can be provided with laborers, and experience 

every other possible facility, in order to clear, enclose, and cultivate 

them. Hence follows the indispensable necessity of appealing to the 

system of distributions, as above pointed out; for what class of 

laborers can be obtained in a country where the whites are so few, 

unless it be the natives? Should they object to personal service, 

should they refuse to labor for an equitable and daily allowance, 

by which means they would also cease to be burdens to the State and 

to society, are they not to be compelled to contribute by this means 

to the prosperity of which they are members; in a word, to the public 

good, and thus make some provision for old age? If the soldier, 

conveyed away from his native land, submits to dangers, and is 

unceasingly exposed to death in defence of the State, why should 

not the Filipino moderately use his strength and activity in tilling 

the f.elds which are to sustain him and enrich the commonwealth ? 

Besides, things in the Philippine Islands wear a very different The 
aspect to what they do on the American continent, where, as author- 
ized by the said laws, a certain number of na.ives may be impressed 
for a season, and sent off inland to a considerable distance from their ...a; 




Na legal 
obMaele to 
forced labor. 




dwellings, either for the purpose of agriculture, or working the mines, 
provided only they are taken care of during their journeys, main- 
tained, and the price of their daily labor, as fixed by the civil author- 
ities, regularly paid to them. The immense valleys and mountains 
susceptible of cultivation, especially in the Island of Luzon, being 
once settled, and the facilities of obtaining hands increased, such 
legal acts of compulsion, far from being any longer necessary, will 
have introduced a spirit of industry that will render the labors of 
the field supportable and even desirable; and in this occupation all 
the tributary natives of the surrounding settlements can be alter- 
nately employed, by the day or week, and thus do their work almost 
at the door of their own huts, and as it were in sight of their wive* 
and children. 

If, after what has been above stated, the apparent opposition 
which at first sight strikes the eye, in Law 40, Title 12, Book 6, 
speaking on this subject, and expressly referring to the Philippine 
Islands, should be alleged, no more will be necessary than to study 
its genuine sense, or read it with attention, in order to be convinced 
of its perfect concordance with the essential parts of the other laws 
of the Indies, already quoted in explanation and support of the system 
of distributing the laborers. The above-mentioned law does indeed 
contain a strict recommendation to employ the Chinese and Japa- 
nese, not domiciliated, in preference to the natives, in the establish- 
ments for cutting timber and other royal works, and further enjoins 
that use is only to be made in emergencies, and when the preserva- 
tion of the state should require it. It has, however, happened that, 
since the remote period at which the above was promulgated, not 
only all contracts and commerce have ceased, but also every commu- 
nication with Japan has been interrupted, and for a number of years 
not a single individual of that ferocious race has existed in the Phil- 
ippine Islands. With regard to the Chinese, who are supposed to 
be numerous in the capital, of late years they have diminished so 
much, that according to a census made by orders of the government 
in the year 1807, no more than four thousand seven hundred are 
found on the registers; and, if in consequence of their secreting them- 
selves, or withdrawing into the interior, a third more might be added 
to the above amount, their total nvimbers would still remain very 
inconsiderable, and infinitely inferior to what is required, not only 
for the tillage of the estates, but even for the royal works. 

As, therefore, the Japanese have totally disappeared, and the 
number of Chinese is evidently inadequate to the wants of agricul- 
ture, it almost necessarily follows that the practice of distributing 

state of the Philippines in 1810 

the Filipino laborers, as allowed by the aforesaid laws of the Indies, 
under all circumstances, is the only alternate left. Even if, against 
the adoption of this measure, it should be attempted to urge the 
ambiguous sense of the concluding part of the second clause, it 
would be easy to comprehend its true intent and meaning, by refer- 
ring to Law 1, Title 13, Book 5, which says: 

"That, considering the inconveniences which would arise from 
doing away with certain distributions of grounds, gardens, estates, 
and other plantations, in which the Indians are interested, as a 
matter on which the preservation of those distant dominions and 
provinces depends, it is ordained that compulsory labor, and such 
distributions as are advantageous to the public good, shall continue." 

After so pointed an explanation, and a manifestation so clear 
of the spirit of our legislation in this respect, all further comments 
would be useless, and no doubt whatever can be any longer enter- 
tained of the expediency, and even of the justice of putting the plan 
of well-regulated distributions in practice, as a powerful means to 
promote the agriculture, and secure to Spain the possession of these 
valuable dominions of the Indian Seas 

It would be impossible to gainsay Don Juan Francisco Manufactures. 

Urror, of the Philippine Company, in his detailed and accurate 
report to the managing committee in 1802, when he observes: 

"That the Philippine Islands, from time immemorial, were 
acquainted with, and still retain, that species of industry peculiar 
to the country, adapted to the customs and wants of the natives, 
and which constitutes the chief branch of their clothing. This, 
although confined to coarse articles, may in its class be called perfect, 
as far as it answers the end for which it is intended; and if an attempt 
were made to enumerate the quantity of mats, handkerchiefs, 
sheeting, and a variety of other cloths manufactured for this purpose 
only in the Provinces of Tondo, Laguna, Batangas, Ilocos, Cagayan, 
Camarines, Albay, Visaya, etc., immense supplies of each kind would 
appear, which give occupation to an incalculable number of looms, 
indistinctly worked by Indians, Chinese, and Sangleyan mestizos, 
indeed all the classes, in their own humble dwellings, built of canes 
and thatched with palm leaves, without any apparatus of regular 

With equal truth am I enabled to add, that the natural abilities Native cloth 
of these natives in the manufacture of all kinds of cloths, fine as well wearing. 
as coarse, are really admirable. They succeed in reducing the harsh 
filaments of the palm-tree, known by the name of abaca, to such a 
degree of fineness, that they afterwards convert them into textures 
equal to the best muslins of Bengal. The beauty and evenness of 
their embroideries and open work excite surprise; in short, the 


fvr. but no 
development of, 

methods and 

damask table-eloths, ornamental weaving, textures of cotton arid 
palm-f.bres, intermixed with silk, and manufactured in the abbve- 
mentioned provinces, clearly prove how much the inhabitants of the 
Philippine Islands, in natural abilities and dexterity, resemble the 
other people of the Asiatic regions. It must nevertheless be allpwed, 
that a want is noticed of that finish and polish which the perfection 
of art gives to each commodity; but this circumstance ought not to 
appear strange, if we consider that, entirely devoid of all methodical 
instruction, and ignorant also of the importance of the subdivision oJF 
labor, which contributes so greatly to simplify, shorten, and improve 
the respective excellence of all kinds of works, the same natives 
gin and clean the cotton, and then spin and weave it, without any 
other instruments than their hands and feet, aided only by the course 
and unsightly looms they themselves construct in a corner of their 
huts, with scarcely anything else than a few canes and sticks. 

From the preceding observations it may easily be deduced 
that, although the natives succeed in preparing, with admirable 
dexterity, the productions of their soil, and therewith satisfy the 
greatest part of their domestic wants, facts which certainly manifest 
their talents and aptitude to be employed in works of more taste 
and delicacy, manufacturing industry is nevertheless far from being 
generalized, nor can it be said to be placed with any degree of solid- 
ity on its true and proper basis. Hence arise those great supplies 
of goods annually imported into the country, for the purpose of 
making up the deficiencies of the local manufactures. 

The regular distribution or classification of the assemblage 
of operations which follow each other in graduation, from the rough 
preparation of the first materials, till the same have arrived at 
their perfect state of manufacture, instead of being practiced, 
is entirely unknown. The want of good machinery to free the cotton 
from the multitude of seeds with which it is encumbered, so as to 
perform the operation with ease and quickness, is the f.rst and 
greatest obstacle that occurs; and its tediousness to the natives 
is so repugnant, that many sell their crops to others, without separat- 
ing the seeds, or decline growing the article altogether, not to be 
plagued with the trouble of cleaning it. As the want of method 
is also equal to the superabundance or waste of time employed, 
the expenses of the goods manufactured increased in *he same pro- 
portion, under such evident and great disadvantages; for which 
reason, far from being able to compete with those brought from China 
and British India, they only acquire estimation in the interior, when 
wanted to supply the place of the latter, or in cases of accidental 

Sliile of the Philippines in 1810 

In a word, the only manufactured articles annually exported Sranlu 
from the Philippine Islands are eight to twelve thousand pieces "p<"''*- 
of light sail cloth, two hundred thousand pounds of abaca cordage 
assorted, and six hundred carabao hides and deer skins, which can 
scarcely be considered in a tanned state; for, although the Royal 
Company, from the time of their establishment, long continued to 
export considerable quantities of dimities, calicos, stripes, checks, 
and coverlids, as well as other cotton and silk goods, it was more 
with a view to stimulate the districts of Ilocos to continue in the 
habit of manufacturing, and thus introduce among the inhabitants 
of that province a taste for industry, thaa the expectation of gain 
by the sale of this kind of merchandise, either in Spain or any of the 
sections of America. At length, wearied with the losses experienced 
by carrying on this species of mercantile operations, without answer- 
ing the principal object in view, they resol/ed, for the time being, 
to suspend ventures attended with such discouraging circumstances. 

Notwithstanding so many impediments, it would not, however, ^'''ed o/ 
be prudent in the government entirely to abandon the enterprise, «"'<^ourajement. 
and lose sight of the advantages the country offers, or indeed, 
to neglect turning the habitual facilities of the natives to some 
account. Far from there existing any positive grounds for despair- 
ing of the progress of manufacturing industry, it may justly be pre- 
sumed that, whenever the sovereign, by adopting a different line of 
policy, shall allow the unlimited and indistinct settlement of all kinds 
of foreign colonists, and grant them the same facilities and protec- 
tion enjoyed by national ones, they will be induced to flock to the 
Philippine Islands in considerable numbers, lured by the hope of 
accumulating fortunes in a country that presents a thousand attrac* 
tions of every kind. Many, no doubt, will preferably devote them- 
selves to commerce, others to agricultural undertakings and also 
to the pursuits of mining, but necessarily some will turn their atten- 
tion and employ their funds in the formation of extensive manufac- 
tures, aided by intelligent instructors and suitable machinery. 
The newly-introduced information and arts being thus diffused, it 
is natural to expect they will be progressively adopted by a people 
already possessing a taste and genius for this species of labor, by 
which means manufacturing industry will soon be raised from the 
State of neglect and unproatableness in which it is now left. 

The circulation of the country productions and effects of all Tnlernat 
kinds among the inhabitants of the provinces, which, properly cionmerre 
speaking, constitutes their internal commerce, is tolerably active '^audicupped. 




Local marketx. 

and considerable. Owing to the great facilities of conveyance 
afforded by the number of rivers and lakes, on the margins of which 
the Filipinos are fond of fixing their dwellings, this commerce might 
be infinitely greater, if it was not obstructed by the monopoly 
of the magistrates in their respective districts and the unjust pre- 
rogative, exercised by the city, of imposing rates and arbitrary 
prices on the very persons who come to bring the supplies. Never- 
theless, as the iniquituous operations of the district magistrates, 
however, active they may be, besides being restricted by their 
financial ability, regularly consist of arrangements to buy up only 
the chief articles, and those which promise most advantage, with 
least trouble; as that restless inquietude which impels man on, 
under the hope of bettering his condition, acts even amidst rigor 
of oppression, a certain degree of stimulus and scope is still left in 
favor of internal trade. 

Hence it follows, that there is scarcely an island or province, 
that does not carry on some traffic or other, by keeping up relations 
with its neighbors, which sometimes extend as far as the capital; 
where, in proportion as the produce and raw materials find a ready 
market, returns suitable and adequate to the consumption of each 
place, respectively, are obtained. If, however, it would be difficult 
to form an idea, even in the way of approximation, of the exchanges 
which take place between the various provinces, a task that would 
render it necessary to enumerate them, one by one, it is equally 
so to make an estimate of the total amount of this class of operation 
carried on in Manila, their common center. Situated in the bottom 
of an inmense bay, bathed by a large river, and the country round 
divided by an infinite number of streams and lakes descending 
from the provinces by which the capital is surrounded, the produce 
and effects are daily brought in and go out of suburbs so extended in 
a diversity of small vessels and canoes, without its being possible 
to obtain any exact account of the multiplicity of transactions carried 
on at one and the same time, in a city built on so large a scale. 

Besides the traffic founded on ordinary consumption, the neces- 
sity of obtaining assortments of home-manufactured as well as 
imported goods, in order to supply the markets, known by the name 
of tianguis, and which are held weekly in almost ever> town, there is 
another species of speculation, peculiar to the rich natives and 
Sangley mestizos, an industrious race, and also possessed of the 
largest portion of the specie. This consists in the anticipated 
purchase of the crops of indigo, sugar, rice, etc., with a view to 


state of the Philippinee in 1810 


fix their own prices on the produce thus contracted for, when resold 
to the second hand. A propensity to barter and traffic, in all kinds 
of ways, is indeed universal among the natives, and as the principal 
springs which urge on internal circulation are already in motion, 
nothing more is wanting than at once to destroy the obstacles pre- 
viously pointed out, and encourage the extension of luxury and 
comforts, in order that, by the number of the people's wants being 
increased, as well as the means of supplying them, the force and 
velocity of action may in the same proportion be augmented. 

Under "External Commerce" generally are comprised the rela- ExtemaX 
tions the Philippine Islands keep up with other nations, with the commerce. 
Spanish possessions in America, and with the mother country; or, 
in other words, the sum total of their imports and exports. 

Many are the causes which, within the last ten or twelve years, 
have influenced the mercantile relations of these Islands, and pre- 
vented their organization on permanent and known principles. 
The chief one, no doubt, has been the frequent and unforeseen 
changes, from peace to war, which have marked that unhappy period, 
and as under similar circumstances merchants, more than any other 
class of persons, are in the habit of acting on extremes, there have 
been occasions in which, misled by the exaggerated idea of the galleon 
of Acapulco, and anxious to avail themselves of the first prices, 
generally also the highest, foreign speculators have inundated Manila 
with goods, by a competition from all quarters; and others, owing 
to the channels being obstructed, when this market has experienced 
an absolute scarcity of commodities, as well as of funds necessary 
to' continue the usual and almost only branch of commerce left. 
The frequent failure of the sugar and indigo crops, has also in many 
instances restrained the North Americans and other neutrals from 
coming to these Islands with cargoes, and induced them to prefer 
Java, where they are at all times sure of finding returns. Besides 
the influence of these extraordinary causes on the uncertainty and 
irregularity of external commerce, no small share must also be attri- 
buted to the strangeness of the peculiar constitution of the country, 
or the principles on which its trade is established. 

Scarcely will it be believed, in the greater part of civilized 
Europe, that a Spanish colony exists between Asia and America, discouragemenu. 
whose merchants are forbidden to avail themselves of their advanta- 
geous situation, and that, as a special favor only are they allowed to 
send their effects to Mexico, once a year, but under the following 
restrictions. It is a necessary condition, that every shipper shall 



be a member of the Board of Trade (Cotisulado), and therein entitkd 
to a vote, which supposes a residence of some years in the country, 
besides the possession of property of his own to the amount of $8,,00.(k 
He is compelled to join with the other members, in order to be enabled 
to ship his goods in bales of a determined form and dimensions, in 
one single vessel, arranged, fitted out, and commanded by officer^ 
of the royal navy, under the character of a war ship. He has als6 
to contribute his proportion of $20,000, which, in the shape of a 
present, are given to the commander, at the end of every round 
voyage. He cannot in any way interfere in the choice or qualities 
of the vessel, notwithstanding his property is to be risked in her; 
and what completes the extravagance of the system, is, that before 
anything is done he must pay down twenty-five or forty per cent 
for freight, according to circumstances, which money is distributed 
among certain canons of the church, aldermen, subalterns of the 
army, and widows of Spaniards, to whom a given number of tickets 
or certified permits to ship are granted, either as a compensation 
for the smallness of their pay, or in the way of a privilege; but 
on express conditions that, although they themselves are not mem- 
bers of the Board of Trade, they shall not be allowed to negotiate 
and transfer them to persons not having that quality. In the custom 
house nothing being admitted unless the number of bales shipped 
are accompanied by corresponding permits, and as it besides fre- 
quently happens that there is a degree of competition between the 
parties seeking to try their fortune in this way, the original holders 
of the permits very often hang back, in such a manner that I have seen 
$500 offered for the transfer of a right to ship three bales, which 
scarcely contained goods to the amount of $1,000. Such, never- 
theless, is the truth, and such the exact description of the famous 
Acapulco ship, which has excited so much jealousy among the mer- 
chants of Seville and Cadiz, and given rise to such an infinite number 
of disputes and lawsuits. 
Business So complete a deviation from the rules and maxims usually 

xrregularilies. received in trade, could tiot fail to produce in the Philippine Islands, 
as in fact it has, effects equally extraordinary wi^h regard to those 
who follow this pursuit. The merchant of Manila is, in fact, 
entirely different from the one in Cadiz or Amsterdam. Without 
any correspondents in the manufacturing countries and consequently 
possessed of no suitable advices of the favorable variations in the 
respective markets, without brokers and even without regular booka 
he seems to carry on his profession on no one fixed principle, aiid to 

'.vrv\ '■ State of the' Philipvine'a in 1810 381 

have acquired his routine of business from mere habit and vague -i.yn 

custom. His contracts are made out on stamped paper, and his ■ •■ 

bills or promissory notes no other than long and diffuse writings or 
bonds, of which the dates and amounts are kept more in the shape 
of bundles than by any due entry on his books; and what at once 
gives the most clear idea of this irregularity is the singular fact 
that, for the space of twenty-five and possibly fifty years, only 
one bankrupt has presented the state of his affairs to the Board of 
Trade, in conformity to the regulations prescribed by the general 
Statutes of Bankruptcy, whereas, numbers of cases have occurred 
in which these merchants have wasted or secreted the property of 
others with impunity. Hence have arisen those irregularities, sub- 
terfuges and disputes, in a word, the absence of all mercantile 
business carried on in a scrupulously punctual and correct manner. 
Hence, also, have followed that distrust and embarras:ment with 
which commercial operations are attended, as well as the difficulty 
of calculating their fluctuations. On the other hand, as in order 
to send off an expedition by the annual ship to Acapulco, the previous 
consent of the majority of the incorporated merchants is necessary, 
before this point is decided, months are passed in intrigues and dis- 
putes, the peremptory period arrives, and if the articles wanted are 
in the market, they are purchased up with precipitation and paid 
for with the monies the shippers have been able to obtain at an interest 
from the administrators of pious and charitable funds. In this 
manner, compelled to act almost always without plan or concert, 
yet accustomed to gain in the market of Acapulco, notwithstanding 
so many impediments and the exorbitant premiums paid for the 
money lent, these merchants follow the strange maxim of risking 
little or no property of their own; and unaware, or rather, disregard- 
ing the importance of economy in the expenses and regularity of 
their general method of living, it is not possible they can ever accu- 
mulate large fortunes, or form solid and well-accredited houses. 

Thus oppressed by a system, as unjust as it is absurd, and Merchants 
conducting their affairs in the way above described, it is not strange discouraged. 
that these gentlemen, at the same time yielding to the indolence 
consequent on the climate, should neglect or behold with indifference 
all the other secondary resources which the supplying the wants of 
the country and the extensive scope and variety of its produce offer 
to the man of active mind. Hence it follows, as already observed, 
that the whole of the interior trade is at present absorbed by the 
principal natives, the Sangley mestizos of both sexes, and a few 
Chinese peddlers. 



The outlook 

in eommercK. 

Notwithstanding, however, the defective manner in which the 
generality of the merchants act, some already are beginning to dis- 
tinguish themselves by the prudence of their conduct, by forward- 
ing, in time, their orders to the manufacturers of India and China, 
and, in other respects guiding themselves by the principles which 
characterize the intelligent merchant. Finally, it is to be presumed 
that, as soon as the government shall have thrown down this singular 
and preposterous system that has been the cause of so many dis- 
orders, and proclaimed the unlimited freedom of Philippine commerce, 
the greater part of these people will rise up from the state of inaction 
in which they now live, and the relations of the colony will then 
assume the course and extent corresponding to its advantages of 
position. At least, if our national merchants should not act up to 
the impulse given to all kinds of mercantile enterprises by the bene- 
ficial hand of the sovereign, foreigners will not be wanting, who, 
relying on due toleration, will be induced to convey their fortunes 
and families to the Philippine Islands, and, vigorously encouraging 
the exportation of their valuable productions, amply secure the 
fruits of their laudable activity and well-combined speculations. 

Were a person, judging from the numbers constituting the body 
of registered merchants, and supposing all of them to possess the 
essential requisites prescribed by our commercial regulations, to 
form a prudent estimate of the amount of capital employed by them, 
his calculations would turn out extremely erroneous, for besides the 
ease with which regulations of this kind are eluded, many are merely 
nominal traders, and there are others whose mercantile existence 
is purely artificial for they are sustained in a temporary manner, 
by means of a forced species of circulation peculiar to this country. 
This consists in obtaining the acquiescence of the administrators 
of pious and charitable funds, let out at interest, to renew the bonds 
they hold during other successive risks, waiting, as it were, till some 
fatal tempest has swallowed up the vessel in which these merchants 
suppose their property to be embarked, and at once cancel all their 
obligations. On the other hand, neither excessive expenses nor the 
shipment of large quantities of goods to Acapulco can in any way 
be taken as a just criterion whereby to judge of the fortunes of indi- 
viduals; because, in the first, there is great uniformity, every one, 
more or less, enjoying, exteriorly, the same easy circumstances, 
notwithstanding the disparity of real property; and in the second, 
considerable fiction prevails, many persons shipping under the same 
mark, and even when the shipper stands alone, he might have been 
provided with the necessary funds from the pious and charitable 


state of the Philippines in 1810 S8S 

establishments, possibly without risking a dollar of his own in the 
whole operation. Under circumstances so dubious, far from pre- 
suming to give a decided opinion on the subject, I am compelled to 
judge from mere conjectures, and guided only by the knowledge 
and experience I have been able to acquire during my long residence 
there. In conformity thereto, I am inclined to believe, that the 
total amount of capital belonging to and employed in the trade of 
the Philippine Islands, does not at present exceed two and a half 
million dollars, with evident signs of rapid decline, if the merchants 
do not in time abandon the ruinous systems of chiefly carrying on 
their speculations with money obtained at interest. 

The two and a half million dollars thus attributed to the mer- ^'""(/« «*"" 
chants, form, however, the smaller part of the funds distributed 
among the other classes, and the total amount of the circulating 
medium of the colony might be considered an object sufficiently 
worthy of being ascertained, owing to the great light it would throw 
on the present state of the inhabitants; but it is in vain to attempt 
any calculation of the kind, at least without the aid of data possessing 
a certain degree of accuracy. The only thing that can be affirmed 
is, that during the period of more' than two hundred and fifty years 
which have elapsed since the conquest, the ingress of specie 
into the Philippine Islands has been constant. Their annual ships 
have seldom come from New Spain without bringing considerable 
sums in return, and if some of them have been lost, many others, 
without being confined to the one million of dollars constituting 
the ordinary amount of the permit, have not unfrequently come 
back with triple that sum; for which reason there are ample grounds 
of judging the estimates correct, which fix the total importation of 
dollars, during the whole of that long period of years, to be equal to 
four hundred millions. It may further be observed that, as in the 
Sangley mestizos economy and avarice compete with intelligence 
and activity in accumulating wealth and as they are scattered, 
among the principal islands, and in possession of the best lands and 
the most lucrative business of the interior, there are ample motives 
for presuming that these industrious and sagacious people have 
gradually, although incessantly, amassed immense sums in specie; 
but it would be impossible to point out their amount, distribution, 
or the secret places in which they are hoarded. 

The assemblage of pious legacies, temporalities, and other funds Pious ana 

and proF>erty placed under the care of several administrative com- '^ ""'''f 

fund* eapitaL 
mittees, for purposes as well religious as charitable, constitute the 



Coveted by 



Easy t^pital 
but lessened 

chief capital employed in external trade; and notwithstanding the 
failures, which from time to time occur, the subsequent accumula- 
tion of the enormous premiums obtained for funds laid out in mari- 
time speculations, both in time of peace and war, not only suffices 
to make up all losses of the above kind, but also to secure the punc- 
tual payment of such charitable pensions and other charges as are 
to be deducted from the respective profits of this species of stock, 
its total amount, according to an official report made by order of 
the head committee of the sinking fund, including temporalities, 
and Queen Maria of Austria's endowment for the College of Las 
Marianas, together with other funds of the same kind, not compre- 
hended in the decree of abolition, at the commencement of the year 
1809, amounted to $2,470,390, and as the sea-risks of that and the 
following year were successful, and the outstanding amounts punc- 
tually recovered, the aggregate sum, arising out of the above 
description of property, may now be estimated at more than three 
millions. Of these funds three distributions are generally made, 
viz., one part is appropriated to the China risks, at from twelve to 
eighteen per cent, premium, according to circumstances, and also 
those to Madras, Calcutta and Batavia, at from sixteen to twenty- 
two per cent. The second, which generally is in the largest propor- 
tion, is employed in risks to Acapulco, at various premiums, from 
27 to 45 per cent. ; and the third is left in hand, as a kind of guarantee 
of the stability of the original endowments. 

In the great exigencies of the Royal Treasury, experienced 
during the last years of the administration of Sr. Soler, the royal 
decree of ConsoUdacion was extended to the Philippine Islands, 
under the pretext of guarding the funds belonging to public charities 
and religious endowments ..... sea-risks, the income of which, 
when secured on good mortgages, does not generally exceed five per 
cent, many in Spain not yielding above four; but the remarkable 
difference between this plan and the one above described, together 
with various and other weighty reasons alleged by the administra- 
tors, caused the dreaded effect of this new regulation to be suspended, 
and whilst the head committee of Manila were consulting their 
doubts and requesting fresh instructions from the court at home, 
orders came out not to make any alteration in measures relating 
to this description of property. 

Accustomed, in their limited calculations, to identify the 
resources, offered by the funds belonging to this class of establish- 
ments, with the very existence of the colony, the needy merchants 


State of the Philippines in ISIO 3S5 

easily confound their personal with the general interest; and few 
stop to consider that the identical means of carrying on trade, with- 
out any capital of their own, although they have accidentally 
enriched a small number of persons, eventually have absorbed the 
principal profits, and possibly been the chief cause of the unflourish- 
ing state of the colony at large. Without fearing the charge of rash- 
ness, it may, in fact, be asserted, that if these charities and pious 
endowments had never existed, public prosperity in the Philippine 
Islands would, as in other parts, have been the immediate effect 
of the united efforts of the individual members of the community 
and of the experience acquired in the constant prosecution of the 
same object. As, however, a progress of this kind, although cer- 
tain, must necessarily have been at first extremely slow, and as, 
on the other hand, the preference given to mercantile operations 
undertaken with the funds belonging to public charities, has its 
origin in the assentblage of vices so remarkable in the very organ- 
ization of the body of Philippine merchants, any new measure on this 
subject might be deemed inconsistent, that at once deprived them 
of the use of resources on which they had been accustomed to rely, 
without removing those other defects which excuse, if not encourage, 
the continuation of the present system. Without, therefore, appeal- 
ing to violent remedies, it is to be hoped that, in order to render 
plans of reform effectual, it will be sufficient, under more propitious 
circumstances, to see property brought from other countries to these 
Islands, as well as persons coming to settle in them, capable of man- 
aging it with that intelligence and economy required by trade. 
The competition of those who speculate at random would then cease, 
or what is the same, as money obtained at a premium could not 
then be laid out with the same advantages by the merchants as if it 
was their own, it will be necessary to renounce the fallacious profits 
held out by the public charities, till at least they are placed on a 
level with existing circumstances, and brought in to be of real service 
to the honorable planter and laborious merchant, in their accidental 
exigencies, ceasing to be, as hitherto, the indirect cause of idleness, 
dissipation, and the ruin of an infinite number of families. 

The vessels which the district magistrates of the provinces Mercaniile 
employ in carrying on their trade with the capital and those belonging shipping. 
to some of the richer merchants, together with such as are owned 
by the natives and mestizos, on an approximate calculation, amount 
to twelve thousand tons, including ships, brigs, schooners, galleys, 
barges, etc. For the want of better data, this estimate is founded 
only on reasonable conjecture, aided by the advice of experienced 


.Veed of 
nautical school. 




persons, for although the greatest part of these vessels are built 
by the natives in the neighborhood of their own towns, no register 
is kept of their number and dimensions, nor do they carry with them 
the usual certificates. Those belonging to the merchants, that is, 
ships and brigs of a certain size, have already begun to frequent 
the ports of China, Java, the coast of Coromandel, Bengal, and the 
Isle of France, availing themselves of the lucrative freights which 
formerly enriched and encouraged foreign shipping. The other 
class of vessels, although perfectly adequate to the coasting trade, 
cannot in general be applied to larger enterprises, on account of 
their not being sufficiently strong and capacious. The seamen are 
not apprenticed, or as it is usually called, matriculated, but their 
frequent crossing from island to island, their familiarity with regional 
tempests, voyages to various parts of America, and the occupation 
of fishing followed by the inhabitants of the coast, serve to train 
up a large body of dexterous and able mariners who at all times can 
be had, without any compulsion, to complete the crews. 

The want of a public school for the teaching of navigation, 
is, however, sensibly felt, as well as great inconvenience from the 
scarcity of persons capable of being trusted with the command of 
vessels, and the ignorance that prevails of the waters of this 
dangerous Archipelago. Repeated royal orders have been sent over 
for the board of trade to proceed to the institution of so useful 
an establishment, and in the meantime, a medium has been resorted 
to in order to supply the deficiency, by allowing the free admission 
of foreign mates, provided they exhibit proofs of their acquaintance 
with navigation, and profess the Catholic worship. Shipowners 
nevertheless experience great difficulties, particularly at times when 
the Acapulco ship is fitting out, for although she is considered as a 
vessel of war, and commanded by officers of the royal navy, the plan 
of her equipment is so singular, that in addition, she requires the 
extra aid of one chief mate, and three under ones. 

The various modifications this corporate body has successively 
experienced, have, in great measure, changed the essence of its 
original constitution, and the remonstrances of its directors, founded 
on the experience of a long series of years, at length induced the 
government at home to sanction alterations dictated by existing 
circumstances. The project of raising these Islands from the neglected 
state in which they were, and in some measure to place them in 
contact with the mother country, accompanied by a wish to give 
a new and great impulse to the various branches of industry which 
constitute the importance of a colony, could not have been more 

State of the Philippines in tStO 

audable; but, as was afterwards seen, the instrument employed was 
not adequate to the object in view. At the same time that the com- 
pany were charged to promote, and, by means of their funds, to 
vivify the agriculture and industry of these provinces, the necessary 
powers and facilities to enable them to reap the fruits of their sacri- 
fices were withheld. The protection granted to this establishment, 
did not go beyond a general recommendation in favor of its enter- 
prises, and, in short, far from enjoying the exclusive preponderance 
obtained at their commencement by all the other Asiatic companies, 
that of the Philippine Islands labored under particular disadvantages. 
Notwithstanding an organization so imperfect, scarcely had 
the agents of the new Company arrived at Manila, when they dis- 
tributed through the country their numerous dependents, com- 
missioned to encourage the natives by advances of money. They 
established subaltern factories in the Provinces of Ilocos, Bataan, 
Cavite, and Camarines; purchased lands; delivered out agricultural 
implements; founded manufacturies of cotton cloths; contracted for 
the crops of produce at very high prices; offered rewards and, in short, 
they put in motion every partial resources they were able to avail 
themselves of and their limited means allowed. It would be ex- 
tremely easy for me, in this place, to enter a particular enumeration 
of the important services of this kind rendered by the company, and 
to exhibit, in the most evident point of view, the advantages thence 
derived to these Islands, if, besides being slightly touched upon in 
the preceding articles, this task had not been already ably performed 
by the Factor Don Juan Francisco Urroz, in his accurate report on this 
subject, addressed to the governing committee of the company, in 
1803. In justice I will nevertheless observe, that this establishment, 
anxiously resolved to attain the end proposed, in spite of so many 
obstacles, constantly followed up its expensive system without being 
disheartened ; nor did the contrarieties with which the Royal Audien- 
cia, or High Court of Justice, frequently paralyzed its plans, the 
indifference of the governors, or the general opposition and jealousy 
of the other classes, in any way tend to relax its efforts, till at length, 
convinced of the impossibility of successfully contending, alone and 
without any other arms than its own reduced capital; and, on the 
other hand, well aware that a political body of this kind in vain seeks 
to unite within itself the triple and opposite characters of agricul- 
turalist, manufaturer, and merchant, a determination was taken 
to alter the plan, and withdraw the factories established in the prov- 
inces, and by adopting a rigid economy and confining the operations 
in future to the purchase of such produce and manufactured articles 

Local progresx 
under adverse 


as suited their trade, and were voluntarily brought by the natives 
to their stores, the expenses of the Company were curtailed, and a 
plan of reform introduced into all their speculations. By this 
means also they always secured an advantageous vent for the produc- 
tions of the country, after having been the chief spring by which 
agriculture was promoted and encouraged in a direct manner. 
Handicapped The most beneficial reform, however, introduced by this estab- 

in outside trade Hshment into its system, has, in reality, been derived from the varia- 
tion or rather correction of its plans and enterprises, purely maritime. 
The government being desirous to increase the relations of this colony 
by every possible means, and to convert it into a common center of 
all the operations of the new company, at first required of the agents 
that the purchases and collection of goods from the coast of Coro- 
mandel, Bengal, and China, destined for Spain, should take place at 
Manila, either by purchasing the articles in that market, or through 
the medium of previous contracts to deliver them there. From this 
it is easy to infer, that the company was infallibly exposed to the 
harsh terms the respective contractors sought to impose upon them, 
as well with regard to prices as qualities, unless, in many cases, they 
preferred being left without the necessary assortments. Hence 
may it, without the smallest exaggeration, be affirmed, that, sum- 
ming up all the surcharges under which the shipments left the port 
of Manila, and comparing them with those which might have been 
sent direct from the above-mentioned points, and without so extra- 
ordinary a detour as the one prescribed by law, the difference that 
followed in the prime cost of the cargos was not less than 80 per cent. 
The urgent manner, however, in which the directors of the company 
did not cease to deplore and complain of so evident a hardship, 
at length had the desired effect, and after existing ten or twelve 
years, so preposterous a system was successfully overthrown, and 
permission obtained from the king for the establishment of Spanish 
factories in the neighborhood of the China and India manufactures, 
as well as the power of addressing shipments direct to those foreign 
dominions. The enlightened policy of their respective governments 
did not allow them to hesitate in giving a favorable reception to 
our factors and vessels, and the purchases and shipments of Asiatic 
goods being thus realized without the old obstructions, the Company 
was reasonably led to hope being able soon to increase its operations, 
and progressively present more satisfactory results to the share- 
holders, when those political convulsions succeeding soon after, 
which have unhinged or destroyed all the ordinary relations of trade, 
compelled them to abandon their hopes, till the wished-for calm 
should be again restored. 

State of the Philippines in 1810 


In consequence of the new character and route given to the 
commercial enterprises of the Company, as authorized by a royal 
decree of July 12, 1803, the functions of the Manila factors were 
reduced to the annual shipment of a cargo of Asiatic goods to Peru, 
valued at $500,000, but only as long as the war lasted, and till the 
expiration of the extraordinary permits granted through the good- 
ness of the king, and also to the transmitting to China and Bengal 
of the specie brought from America, and the collecting of certain 
quantities of indigo, sugar, or other produce of the Islands, with a 
view to gain by reselling it in the same market. Consequently, 
the moment things return to their pacific and ordinary course, will 
be the period when the necessity of the future existence of this 
establishment will cease, or at least, when the propriety will be 
evident of its reform or assimilation to the other commission houses, 
carrying on trade in Vera Cruz, Mexico, etc., which, not being hired 
establishments, do not create expenses when they cease to transact 

Against a measure of this kind it would be useless to allege, 
that, "by the exclusive privilege to introduce spirits and European 
effects into the colony, the Company has contracted the obligation 
of always keeping it properly supplied; that their very institution 
had for the basis the general improvement of the Islands, and 
in order duly to comply with these duties, it becomes indispensably 
necessary to keep up the present expensive establishment;" for, 
in the first place, in order, to render it incumbent on the company 
to introduce an indefinite quantity of European articles, it previously 
would be necessary to provide a vent for them, and this can never 
be the case, unless the exclusion of all competitors in the market 
is rigorously carried into effect. As things now are, the North 
Americans, English, French, and every other nation that wishes, 
openly usurped this privilege, by constantly inundating the Islands 
with spirits and all kinds of effects, and it is very evident that this 
same abuse which authorizes the infraction of the above privilege, 
if in that light it could in any way be considered, totally exonerates 
the company from all obligations by them contracted under a 
different understanding. Besides, the circumstances which have 
taken place since the publication of the royal decree, creating the 
above establishment into a corporate body, in the year 1785, have 
entirely changed the order established in this respect. In the first 
place, the port of Manila has been opened to foreign nations, in 
consequence of the distinterested representations of the company 
itself, and for the direct advantage of general trade; nor was it neces- 

of 1803. 

Conpetition of 




sary to prevent our new guests from abusing the facilities thus 
granted to them, and much less to confine them to the mere intro- 
duction of Asiatic goods, the original plea made use of. In the 
second, as soon as the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands became 
familiar with the more useful and elegant objects of convenience 
and luxury, which they were enabled to purchase from foreigners, 
at reasonable prices, it was natural for them to pay little regard 
to the superfluous aid of the company, more particularly when the 
latter were no longer able to sustain the competition, either in the 
sale or supply of a multitude of articles, which, thanks to our own 
national simplicity, are scarcely known in Spain, whence their 
outward-bound cargoes are divided. Hence it follows that, far 
from the iinportation and supplies of the company being missed, 
' it may with great reason be presumed, that this formal renunciation 

of this ideal privilege of theirs, must rather have contributed to 
secure, in a permanent manner, adequate supplies for all the wants 
and whims of the inhabitants of the colony ; and that the publicity 
of such a determination would act as a fresh allurement successively 
to bring to the port of Manila a host of foreign speculators, anxious 
to avail themselves of a fresh opening for commercial pursuits. 
Company not The Other objection, founded on the mistaken notion of its 

a ph%lanthropy. j^gj^g inherent in, and belonging to, the very essence of the company, 
to promote the general improvement of the Philippine Islands, 
if well considered, will appear equally unjust. It is, in fact, a ridi- 
culous, although too generally received, a prejudice to suppose, 
that the founders of this establishment proposed to themselves the 
plan of sinking the money of the shareholders in clearing the lands, 
and perfecting the rude manufactures of these distant Islands. 
To imagine this to have been one of the principal objects of the 
institution, or to suppose that, on this hard condition, their various 
privileges and exemptions were granted to them, is so far from the 
reality of the fact, that it would only be necessary to read with atten- 
tion the 26th article of the quoted royal decree of creation, in order 
more correctly to comprehend the origin and constitutive system of 
this political body. 

"The latter," says the Duke de Almodovar, "is reduced to two 
principal points: the first of which is the carrying of the trade of 
Asia with that of America and Europe; and the second, the encourage- 
ment and improvement of the productions and manufacturing 
industry of the Islands. The one is the essential attribute of the 
company, constituting its real character of a mercantile society; 
and, in the other respect, it becomes an auxiliary of the govern- 

Slate of the Philippines in 1810 M)t 

ment, to whom the duties alluded to more immediately belong." 
If to the above we add the preamble of the 43rd article of the 
new decree of 1803, the recommendation, made to the company, 
to contribute to the prosperity of the agriculture and manufactur- 
ing industry of the Islands, will appear as a limited and secondary 
consideration; for even if the question were carried to extremes, 
it could never extend to any more than the application of four 
per cent of the annual profits of the company indistinctly to 
both branches. If, however, any doubts still remained, the 
explanation or solution recently given to this question would 
certainly remove them; because, by the simple fact of its being ex- 
pressed in the latter part of the aforesaid 43rd article, "That the 
above-mentioned four per cent was to be laid out, with the king's profit percent. 
approbation, in behalf of the agriculture and manufacturing to go to Spain. 
industry of Spain and the Philippine Islands," it is clear that 
the king reserves and appropriates to himself the investment of the 
amount to be deducted from the general dividends, in order to apply 
it where and how may be deemed most advisable. Consequently, 
far from considering the company in that respect under an obliga- 
tion to contribute to the improvement of the Philippines exclusively, 
the only thing that can be required of them, when their charter is 
withdrawn, is, the repayment to the royal treasury of the four per 
cent on their profits, for a purpose so vaguely defined. In following 
up this same train of argument, it would seem that, in order to render 
the amount to be deducted from the eventual profits of the company, 
in the course of time, a productive capital in the hands of the sover- 
eign, the funds of the society not only ought not to be diverted to the 
continuation of projects which consume them, but, on the contrary, 
it is necessary to place at their disposal the direct means by which 
these funds can be increased, in order to make up to the company 
in some measure the enormous losses experienced of late years, and at 
once free their commerce from the shackles with which it has 
hitherto been obstructed. 

Finally, after twenty-four years of impotent and gratuitous .\eed of 
efforts in the Philippines, and of the most obstinate opposition on wedal 
the part of their rivals, it is now time for the company, by giving '"""""!?«•"'- 
up the ungrateful struggle, to reform in every respect their expensive 
establishment in Manila, and to direct their principal endeavors 
to carry into effect the project so imperfectly traced out in the new 
decree of 1803. The opinion of the most vehement enemies of the 
privileged bodies tacitly approves this exception in their favor. 
Adam Smith, avowedly hostile to all monopolies, feels himself com- 


commerce in 
its infancy. 

a burden to 

Profit from 

monopoly and 
foreign trade. 

pelled to confess that, "without the incentives which exclusive com- 
panies offer to the individuals of a nation carrying on little trade, 
possibly their confined capitals would cease to be destined to the 
remote and uncertain enterprises which constitute a commerce with 
the East Indies." 

Our commerce, compared with that of other nations, notwith- 
standing what may be said on this subject, is most assuredly yet 
in a state of infancy. That with Asia, more especially, with the 
exception of the Royal Company, is .'?lmost unknown to all other 
classes. If it is, therefore, wished to exclude our many rivals from 
so lucrative a branch of trade as that which constitutes supplies 
for the consumption of the Peninsula and its dependencies, the means 
are obvious. The most material fact is in fact already done. The 
navigation to the various ports of Asia is familiar to the company's 
navy; their factors and clerks have acquired a practical knowledge 
of that species of trade, essential to the undertaking, as well as such 
information as was at first unknown; but, after the great misfortune 
this body has experienced, it will be indispensably necessary to aid 
and invigorate them with large supplies of money, following the 
example of other governments in similar cases; in order that the 
successful issue of their future operations may compensate their 
past losses, and worthily correspond with the magnitude of the object. 

This Asiatic colony, although considered as conferring great 
lustre on the crown and name of our monarch, by exhibiting the vast 
extent of the limits of his dominions, has in reality been, during a 
long series of years, a true burden to the government, or at least, 
a possession whose chief advantages have redounded in favor of 
other powers, rivals of our maritime importance. Notwithstanding 
all that has been said on the score of real utility, certain it is, that the 
Philippine establishment has cost the treasury large sums of money; 
although, within the last twenty-five or thirty years, it must be 
confessed that the public revenues has experienced a considerable 
increase, and, of itself, has become an object of some consequence 
to the state. 

Among the various causes which have contributed to produce 
so favorable an alteration, the chief one have been the establish- 
ment of the tobacco monopoly, on behalf of the crown, and the 
opening of the port of Manila to the flag of other nations, at peace 
with Spain. The first has considerably increased the entries into 
the public treasury, and the second has tended to multiply the general 
mass of mercantile operations, independent of the other beneficial 

stale of the Philippines in 1810 

effects this last measure must have produced in a country, whose 
resources, trade and consumption had, from the time of the conquest, 
experienced the fatal shackles imposed by jealousy and ignorance. 

The improved aspect the colony soon assumed, by the introduc- Improvement 
tion of this new system, as was natural, awakened the attention of "» public 
ministers, and induced them more easily to consent to the measures ■^'"*"'^"- 
subsequently proposed to them, principally intended to place those 
distant dominions on a footing of permanent security, so as to 
enable them to repel any fresh attempts on the part of an enemy. 
As, however, the productions of the country increased, the public 
expenses also became greater, although always in a much smaller 
proportion, with the exception of the interval between the years 
1797 and 1802, when the government, fearful of a second invasion, 
was compelled, at its own expense, to provide against the danger 
with which these Islands were then threatened. If, therefore, as 
appears from the official reports of the treasurer-general, Larzabal, 
in my possession, the receipts at the treasury, in 1780, amounted 
only to $700,000 including the situado, or annual allowance for the 
expenses of government sent from New Spain, and after the ordinary 
charges of administration had been paid, a surplus of $170,000 
remained in the hands of the treasurer; at present we have the satis- 
faction to find that the revenue is equal to $2,625,176.50 and the 
expenses do not exceed $2,179,731.87 by which means an annual 
surplus of $445,444.62 is left, applicable to the payment of the 
debt contracted during the extraordinary period above mentioned, 
now reduced to about $900,000 and afterwards transferable to the 
general funds belonging to the crovs^n. 

With regard to the administrative system, it is in every respect Economy over 
similar to the one observed in our governments of America, with this Spanish- 
difference only, that, in the Philippine Islands, greater economy 
prevails in salaries, as well as in the number of persons employed. 
In former times, the establishment of intendencies, or boards of 
administration, was deemed expedient in Manila, Ilocos, Camarines, 
Iloilo, and Cebu; but they were soon afterwards reformed, or rather 
laid aside, on account of their being deemed superfluous. I would 
venture to state the grounds on which this opinion was then formed; 
but, as the sphere in which the king's revenue acts in these Islands 
increases and extends, which naturally will be the case if the plans 
and improvements dictated by the present favorable circumstances 
are carried into effect, I do not hesitate to say that it will be neces- 
sary again to appeal to the establishment of a greater number of 
boards for the management and collection of the various branches 





of the revenue, whether they are called intendencies, or by any other 
name; as it will be extremely difficult for the administration to do 
its duty, on the confined and inadequate plan under which it is at 
present organized. 

F^gcal suf:Um. Under its existing form, it is constituted in the following manner: 

The governor of the Islands, in his quality of superintendent or 
administrator general, and as uniting in himself the powers of 
intendent of the army, presides at the board of administration 
of the king's revenue, which is placed in the immediate charge of a 
treasurer and two clerks. The principal branches have their respec- 
tive general directors, on whom the provincial administrators 
depend, and the civil magistrates, in the quality of sub-delegates, 
collect within their respective districts, the tributes paid by the 
natives in money and produce, and manage everything else relating 
to the king's revenue. In ordinary cases, the general laws of the 
Indies govern, and especially are the ordinances or regulations of the 
Intendents of New Spain (Mexico) ordered to be observed in the 
Philippines. It ought further to be observed, that, in these Islands, 
the same as in all the vice-royalties and governments of America, 
there is a distinct body of royal decrees in force, which, in themselves, 
constitute a code of considerable size. 


Opposition to The process of converting the consumption of tobacco into a 

tobacco monopoly met with a most obstinate resistance on the part of the 

inhabitants, and the greatest circumspection and constancy were 
necessary for the governor, Don Jose Basco, to carry this arduous 
enterprise into effect. Accustomed to the cultivation of this plant 
without any restriction whatever, and habituated to its use from 
their infancy, it appeared to the people the extreme of rashness to 
seek simultaneously to extirpate it from the face of the greatest 
part of the Island of Luzon, in order to confine its culture within 
the narrow limits of a particular district. They were equally revolted 
at the idea of giving to a common article a high and arbitrary 
value, when, besides, it had become one of the first necessity. Every 
circumstance, however, being dispassionately considered, and the 
principle once admitted that it was expedient for the colony to main- 
tain itself by means the least burdensome to the inhabitants, it 
certainly must be acknowledged that, although odious on account 
of its novelty and defective in the mode of its execution, a resource 
more productive and at the same time less injurious, could not have 
been devised. Hence was it that the partisans of the opposite 
system were strangely misled, by founding their calculation on false 

Stiite of the Philippines in 1810 

Doublinij of 
insular menue 
thru tnharro. 

data, when they alleged that a substitute, equivalent to the in- 
creased revenue supposed to arise out of the monopoly of tobacco, 
might have been resorted to by ordering a proportionate rise in 
the branch of tributes. In fact, no one who had the least experience 
in matters of this kind, can be ignorant of the open repugnance the 
natives have always evinced to the payment of the ordinary head- 
tax (cedula), and the broils to which its collection has given rise. 
Besides, if well examined, no theory is more defective and more 
oppressive on account of the disparity with which it operates, than 
this same wrongly-boasted impost ; for, however desirous it may be to 
simplify the method of collecting the general revenue of a state, 
if the best plan is to be adopted, that is, if public burdens are to be 
rendered the least obnoxious, it is necessary preferably to embrace 
the system of indirect contribution, in which class, to a certain 
degree, the monopoly of all those articles may be considered as 
included which are not rigorously of the first necessity, and only 
compel the individual to contribute when his own will induce him 
to become a consumer. 

Let this be as it may, certain it is, that to Governor Basco 
we are indebted for having doubled the annual amount of the revenue 
of these Islands, by merely rendering the consumption of tobacco 
subservient to the wants of the crown. It was he who placed these 
Islands in the comfortable situation of being able to subsist with- 
out being dependent on external supplies of money to meet the exi- 
gencies of government. It ought, however, to be remarked that, 
although they have been in the habit of receiving the annual allow- 
ance of $250,000 for which a standing credit was opened by the 
government at home on the general treasury of New Spain, con- 
siderable sujns have, nevertheless, on various occasions, been remitted 
from the Philippines to Spain, through the channel of the Captain- 
General. * * * If these remittances have been suspended for 
some years past, it has evidently been owing to the imperious neces- 
sity of applying the ordinary proceeds of the revenue, as well as other 
extraordinary means, to unforeseen contingencies arising out of 
peculiar circumstances. 

The planting and cultivation of tobacco are now confined to Tobacco belt 
the district of Gapan, in Pampanga Province, to that of Cagayan, 
and to the small Island of Marinduque. The amount of the crops 
raised in the above three points and sold to the king, may, on an 
average, be estimated at fifty thousand bales, grown in the following 
proportion: Gapan, forty-seven thousand bales; Cagayan, two 
thousand, and Marinduque, one thousand. This stock, resold at 


sales system. 

Loss from 

the monopoly prices, yields a sum equal to about one million of 
dollars, and deducting therefrom the prime cost and all other ex- 
penses, legally chargeable on this branch, the net proceeds in favor 
of the revenue amount to $550,000 or upwards of one hundred twenty- 
two per cent. This profit is so much more secure, as it rests on the 
positive fact that, however great the quantity of the article sold 
furtively and by evading the vigilance of the guards, as the demand 
and consumption are excessive and always exceed the stock on hand, 
a ready sale cannot fail to be had for all the stock placed in the hands 
of the agents of the monopoly. From this it may also be inferred 
how much the net proceeds of this branch would be increased, if 
without venturing too far in extending the plantations and conse- 
quent purchases, care was taken to render the supplies more pro- 
portionate to the consumption; for, by a clear profit of one hundred 
twenty-two per cent, falling on a larger capital, it follows that a 
corresponding result would be obtained. In a word, the sales, far 
from declining or being in any way deemed precarious, are suscep- 
tible of a great increase, consequently this branch of revenue merits 
the serious attention of government beyond all others. 

It is, however, to be lamented that, instead of every facility 
being given to the sale of tobacco and the consumption thus en- 
couraged, the public meet with great difficulties and experience 
such frequent obstacles and deficiencies in the supplies, that with 
truth it may also be said, the sales are affected in spite of the admi- 
nistrators themselves. In the capital alone it is a generally received 
opinion that a third part more would there be consumed, if, instead 
of compelling the purchaser to receive the tobacco already manu- 
factured or folded, he was allowed to take it from the stores in its 
primitive state; and if the minor establishments in the provinces 
were constantly supplied with good qualities, an infinitely larger 
quantity might be sold, and by this means a great deal of smuggling 
also prevented. Such, however, is the neglect and irregularity in 
this department, that it frequently happens in towns somewhat 
distant from Manila, no other tobacco is to be met with than what 
the smugglers sell, and if, perchance, any is to be found in the mon- 
opoly stores, it is usually of the worst quality that can be imagined. 

I .pass over, in silence, the other defects gradually introduced, 
as evils, in a greater or lesser degree, inseparable from this part of 
public administration in every country in which it has been deemed 
necessary to establish monopolies; but I cannot refrain from again 
insisting on the urgency with which those in power ought to devote 
themselves, firmly and diligently, to the destruction of abuses which 


State of the Philippine.-- in ISW 


have hitherto paralyzed the progress of the branch in question, 
because I am well persuaded, that, whenever corresponding means 
are adopted, it will be possible in a short time to double the proceeds. 
What these means are, it is not easy, nor indeed essential, to parti- 
cularize in a rapid sketch, like this, of the leading features and 
present state of the Philippine Islands. I shall, therefore, merely 
remark, that it will be in vain to wish the persons engaged in the 
management of this department to exert their real zeal and sincerely 
co-operate in the views of government, as long as they are not placed 
beyond the necessity of following other pursuits and gaining a liveli- 
hood in another way; in a word, unless they have a salary assigned 
them, corresponding to the confidence and value of the important 
object entrusted to their charge, no plan of reform can be rendered 

At the same time steps are taken to augment the revenue 
arising out of tobacco, it would be desirable, as much as possible, to 
improve the methods used with regard to those who gather in the crops, 
by endeavoring to relieve them from the heavy conditions imposed 
upon them; conditions which, besides exposing them to the odious 
effects of revenue-laws, by their very nature bring upon them many 
unpleasant consequences, and often total ruin. In order that a cor- 
rect opinion may be formed of these defects, it will suffice to observe 
that, under pretext of preventing smuggling, the guards and their 
agents watch, visit, and, if I may use the expression, live among the 
plantations from the moment the tobacco-seedlings appear above 
ground, till the crops are gathered in. After compelling the Fili. 
pino planter to cut off the head of the stem, in order that the plant 
may not become too luxurious, the surveyors then proceed to set 
down, not only the number of plants cultivated on each estate, but 
even the very leaves of each, distinguishing their six qualities, in 
order to call the farmers to account, respectively, when they make 
a defective delivery into the general stores. In the latter case, they 
are compelled to prove the death of the plants and even to account 
for the leaves missing when counted over again, under the penalty 
of being exposed to the rigor of the revenue laws. 

It cannot indeed be denied that by this means two important 
objects are attained, at one and the same time; the one, the gradual 
improvement of the tobacco, and the other, the greater difficulty 
of secreting the article; but, on the other hand, how great are the 
inconveniences incurred? Independent of the singularity and con- 
sequent oppression of a regulation of this kind, as well as its too 
great minuteness and complication, it is attended with very consider- 

Abuses by 
revenue officers. 




able expenses, and renders it necessai y to keep on foot a whole army 
of guards and clerks, who tyrannize over and harass the people 
without any real motive for such great scrupulosity and profusion. 
I make this observation because I cannot help thinking that the 
same results might nearly be obtained, by adopting a more simple 
and better regulated system. I am not exactly aware of the one 
followed in the Island of Cuba, but as far as I understand the matter, 
it is simply reduced to this: the growers there merely present their 
bales to the inspectors, and if pronounced to be sound and good, 
the stipulated amount is paid over to them; but if the quality is bad, 
the whole is invariably burnt. Thus all sales detrimental to the 
public revenue are prevented, and I do not see why the same steps 
could not be taken in the Philippine Islands. It must not, however, 
be understood, that I presume to speak in a decisive tone on a sub- 
ject so extremely delicate, and that requires great practical informa- 
tion, which, I readily acknowledge, I do not possess. I merely 
wish by means of these slight hints, to contribute to the commence- 
ment of a reform in abuses, and to promote the adoption of a plan 
that may have for basis the relief of the growers, and at the same 
time advance the prosperity of this part of the royal revenue. 
Coco and nipa The monopoly of coco and nipa, or palm-wine, is a branch of 

wine monopoly, public revenue of sufficient magnitude to merit the second place 
among the resources rendered available to the expenditure of these 
Islands, converted into a monopoly some years ago. In like manner as 
the consumption of tobacco, it has experienced several changes in its 
plan of administration, this being at one time carried on, for account 
of the king, at others, by the privilege being let out at auction; till 
at length the Board of Control, convinced of the great profit gained 
by the contractors, resolved at once to take the direction of this 
departure under their own charge, and make arrangement for its 
better administration. Having with this view established general 
deposits and licensed houses for the sale of native wine, with proper 
superintending clerks they soon began to reap the fruits of so 
judicious a determination. In 1780, the privilege of selling the 
cocoandnipa wine was farmed out, to the highest bidder, for no more 
than $45,200 and subsequently the increase has been so great, 
owing to the improvements adopted, that at present net proceeds 
equal to $200,000 on an average may be relied upon. In proof of 
this, the proceeds of this branch, in the year 1809, may be quoted, 
when the total balances received at the Treasury, after all expenses 
had been paid, amounted to $221,426, in the following manner: 

Administration of Manila and district $201,250 

Administration of La Pampanga and district 12,294 

Administration of Pangasinan and district 7,882 


state of the Philippines in tSt .99,9 

The prime cost and other expenses that year amounted to no 
more than $168,557 by which means, on the whole operation, 
a net profit of thirteen and one-half per cent, resulted in favor of 
the treasury. 

The monopoly of native wine comprehends the whole of the W'-ne monopoly 
Island of Luzon, excepting the Provinces of Cagayan, Zambales, *'"'"^^- • -• ' 
Nueva Ecija, Camarines and Albay, and is under the direction of 
three administrators, who act independently of each other in their 
respective districts, and have at their disposal a competent number 
of guards. These administrators receive in the licensed establishments 
the coco and nipa wines, at prices stipulated by the growers. That 
of the coco is paid for at the rate of two dollars per jar, containing 
twenty ganias, equal to twelve arrohas, seven azurnbres and half a 
cuartiUo, Castillan measure, and at fourteen reals in the places 
nearest the depots. The nipa wine is laid at six and one-half reals ' 
the jar, indistinctly; prices which, although extremely low, are still 
considered advantageous by the Filipinos themselves, more parti- 
cularly when it is besides understood, that, from the circumstance 
of their being growers of this article, they are exempted from mili- 
tary service, as well as several other taxes and public charges. 

The coco-wine is a weak spirit, obtained in the following manner: Coco-wine. 
The tree that produces this fruit is crowned by an assemblage 
of large flowers or corollas, from the center or calix of which issues 
a fleshy stem, filled with juice. The Indian cuts the extremity of 
this stem, and inclining the remainder in a lateral manner, introduces 
it into a large hollow tube which remains suspended, and is found full 
of sweet and sticky liquor, which the tree in this manner yields 
twice in every twenty-four hours. This liquid, called tuba, in the "Tuha" 
language of the country, is allowed to ferment for eight days in a 
large vessel, and afterwards distilled by the Indians in their uncouth 
stills, which are no other than large boilers, with a head made of 
lead or tin, rendered tight by means of clay, and with a pipe frequently 
made out of a simple cane, which conveys the spirit to the receiving 
vessels, without passing, like the serpentine tube used in ordinary 
stills, through the cooling vats, which so greatly tends to correct the 
vices of a too quick evaporation. The tuba, obtained in level and 
hot situations, is much more spirituous than that produced in cold 
and shady places. In the first, six jars of juice are sufficient to yield 
one of spirit, and in the latter, as many as eight are requisite; a much 
greater number, however, would be wanted to rectify this spirit 
so as to render it equal to what is usually known by Hollands proof. 
I am not positively certain what degree of strength the coco-brandy. 


Niva brandy. 


Extension of 



or as it is usually called coco-wine, possesses, but it is evidently inferior 
to the weakest made in Spain from the juice of the grape. The only 
circumstance required for it to be appr )ved of, and received into 
the monopoly-stores, is its being easily ignited by the application 
of a lighted candle. 

The nipa is a small tree of the class of palms, which grows in a 
very bushy form, and multiplies and prospers greatly on the margins 
of rivers and watery tracts of land. The tuba, or juice, is extracted 
from the tree whilst in its flowering state, in the same way as that 
of the coco, and afterwards distilled by a similar process; butitismore 
spirituous, from six to six and a half jars being sufficient to yield 
one of wine. The great difference remarked in the prices of these 
two species of liquor, arises out of the great number of uses to which 
the fruit of the cocal or coco tree is applicable, and the increase of 
expense and labor requisite to obtain the juice, owing to the great 
height of the plant, and the frequent dangers to which the cari- 
lones, or gatherers, are exposed in passing from one tree to another, 
which they do by sliding along a simpl; cane (bamboo). 

The impost on, or rather monopoly of, native wine, is in itself 
little burdensome to the community, as it only falls on the lower 
and most dissipated orders in society, and for this reason it is not 
susceptible of the same increase as that of tobacco, of which the use 
is more general, and now become an object of the first necessity. 
The native of the Philippine Islands is, by nature, so sober, that the 
spectacle of a drunken man is seldom noticed in the streets; in 
the capital, where the most corrupt classes of them reside, it is admi- 
rable to see the general abstinence from a vice that degrades the 
human species. The consumption of the coco and nipa wine is, 
nevertheless, considerable, for it is used in all their festivities, cock- 
fights, games, marriages, etc. Accordingly if it is desired to aug- 
ment the annual sale of these liquors, no way could be more efficient 
than to increase the number of their festive meetings, and seek pre- 
texts to encourage public diversions, so long as these do not go con- 
trary to the well-regulated order of society, and conflict with the 
duties of those who are intrusted with its superintendence. 

I am still of opinion, however, that, without resting the pros- 
perity of this branch of the public revenue on principles possessed 
of so immoral a tendency, it might be rendered more productive 
to the treasury, if the monopoly could be introduced into the other 
districts adapted to its establishment. By this I mean to say that, 
as hitherto the monopoly has been partial, and enforced more in the 
way of a trial than in a general and permanent manner, much 

state of the Philippines in IHIO 


remains to be done, and consequently great scope is left for improve- 
ment in this department of the public revenue. This most assuredly 
may be attained, if all the local circumstances and impediments, 
more or less superable, which the matter itself presents, are only 
taken into due account, and proper exertions made to study and 
discover the various indirect means of increasing the total mass of 
contributions, by applying a system more productive and analogous 
to the nature of the Philippine Islands. With regard to the revenue 
of the two particular articles above treated on, I merely wish to 
make it understood that, far from introducing by means of the mono- 
poly, a new vice into the provinces in which I recommend its estab- 
lishment, it would rather act, in a certain degree at least, as a correc- 
tive to pre-existing evils, and the government would derive advan- 
tages from an article of luxury, by subjecting its consumption to the 
same shackles under which it stands in the northern provinces, 
where its administration is established and carried on for account 
of the royal treasury. 

In former times, when only vessels belonging to the Asiatic 
nations visited the port of Manila, with effects from the coast of 
Coromandel, or the China junks, and now and then a Spanish vessel 
coming from or going to the Island of Java, with spices for account 
of Philippine merchants, the receipt of duties was left in charge of a 
single royal officer, and the valuations of merchandise made by him, 
in concert with two merchants named by the government; but with 
the knowledge and assistance of the king's attorney-general. The 
modifications and changes which have subsequently taken place in 
this department have, however, been frequent, as is evidently 
shown by the historical extract from the proceedings instituted 
before the Council of the Indies, by the merchants of Seville and 
Cadiz, in opposition to those of the Philippine Islands, printed in 
Madrid, 1736, in folio, by order of the said council; but as it does not 
enter into my views to speak of times so remote, I shall confine my 
remarks to this branch considered under its present form. 

In conformity to royal orders of March 15 and May 5, 1786, 
the Royal Custom House of Manila was definitively organized on its 
new plan; and from 1788, was placed under the immediate charge 
of an administrator-general, a controller, a treasurer, aided by a 
competent number of guards, inspectors, etc., and in every respect 
regulated on the plan established in the other custom houses. The 
freedom of the port being granted to foreign nations, a privilege 
before enjoyed only by those purely Asiatic, and a new line of 



(\ixtiiiii htius*. 


trade commenced by the company, the competition in merchandise 
soon began to increase, as well as the revenue arising therefrom, in 
such manner that, although the exportation of goods was limited 
to the cargo of the Acapulco ship, of which the duties are not pay- 
able till her arrival there; notwithstanding also the property imported 
by the company from China and India, and destined for their own 
shipments, was exempt from duties, and above all, the continual 
interruptions experienced by the maritime commerce of the Islands 
within the last fifteen or twenty years, the net proceeds of the cus- 
tom house, from the period above mentioned of its establishment, 
till the close of 1809, have not been less than from $138,000 to 
$140,000, on an average, independent of the amount of the king's fifth 
on the gold of the country, which is collected by the same adminis- 
trator, in consequence of its being trivial; as well as the two per 
cent, belonging to the Board of Trade, and by them collected under 
that title, and afterwards separately applied to the average-fund 
and which usually may be estimated from $20,000 to $25,000. 

The general duties now levied in the custom house, are the 
following : 
Port charijes Six per cent. «/Hto;'am/aj70 is on all kinds of merchandise imported 

and duties. jj^ foreign bottoms, under a valuation made by the surveyors, in 

conformity to the respective prices of the market at the time on 
importation; it usually is regulated by an increase of 50% on the 
prime cost of India goods, and of 33 ^3 % on those from China. This 
duty may be considered as, in fact, equal to nine per cent on the 
former, and eight on the latter. 

Six per cent, or the same duty, on all foreign goods, although 
imported in national bottoms. 

Three per cent on Spanish goods, imported under the national 
flag, equal, according to the above estimate to 4 and 4H%. 

Two per cent Board of Trade duty, indistinctly on all foreign 
property, equivalent to 2)2 or 3%. 

Twenty-five per cent anchorage dues, levied on the total 
amount of the almojarisfago duty. 

An additional of two and one-half per cent, a new and temporary 
duty, called suhvencion, appropiated to the payment of the loan made 
to the king by the Cadiz Board of Trade, and leviable on all kinds 
of imported goods, and, of course, equal, according to the usual mode 
of valuation, to about three per cent. 

Three per cent on the exportation of coined silver and gold of 
the country, in dust and, ingots. 

State of the Philippines in 18 to 


An additional or duty of subvencion, or temporary duty on the 
above, equal to one-half per cent. 

One and a half per cent under the same rate, on all kinds of 
goods, and equal to two or two and one half per cent. 

One and one-half per cent on the amount of the cargo of the 
Acapulco ship, on leaving the port of Manila, equal to % % on the 
real prime cost. 

The company are considered in the same light as the rest of 
the merchants, in the graduation and payment of duties, on such 
goods as they sell out of their own stores for local consumption, 
with the exemption only of the Board of Trade rate of 2% and 3%, 
on the exportation of silver, according to a special privilege, and in 
conformity to the 61st Article of the new royal decree of 1803. 

Besides the duties above enumerated, there is another trifling 
one established for local purposes of -peso merchante, being a rate 
for the use of the king's scales, levied according to an extremely 
equitable tariff, on certain articles only of solid weight, such as iron, 
copper, etc. The raw materials as well as all kinds of manufactured 
articles, belonging to the Islands, are exempt from duties on their 
entry in the port and river of Manila ; but seme of the first are subject 
to the most unjust of all exactions, that is, to an arbitrary tax and 
to the obligation of being retailed out on board the vessels in which 
they have been brought down, and deliverable only to persons 
bearing a written order, signed by the sitting members of the muni- 
cipal corporation. Among this class of articles may be mentioned 
the coco of Cebu and the wax and oil of the Bisayas, which are rated 
as objects of the first necessity. 

With regard to the respective duties on the cargo annually 
dispatched by the merchants of Manila to New Spain, the practice 
is tolerably well regulated. An extreme latitude is given to the 
moderate rates at which it is ordered to value the goods contained in 
the manifest, by which means these are frequently put down at only 
one-half of their original prime cost; the commission to frame the 
scale of valuations which is to be in force for five years, after which 
time it is renewed, being left to three merchants, and made subject 
to the revision of the king's attorney-general (fiscal) and the appro- 
bation of the governor; consequently, such being the nature of the 
tariff on which these operations are founded, the 33 Vg % to which 
the royal duties amount on the $500,000 stipulated in the permit, 
does not, in fact, affect the shipper beyond the rate of 15 per cent, 
in consequence of the great difference between the prime cost and 



In the Company 

C ndervalualion 
of fjalleon 



valuation of the articles corresponding to the permit; or, what is 
the same thing, between the $500,000 nominal value, and $1,100,000 
or $1,200,000, the real amount of the cargo in question. The most 
remarkable circumstance, however, is, that the officers of the revenue 
in Acapulco collect the above-mentioned 33^3 % in absolute conform- 
ity to the Manila valuation, and not according to the value of the 
goods in America, and without any other formality than a compari- 
son of the cargo with the ship's papers. In honor of truth, it ought 
to be further observed that, although the Manila merchant by this 
means seeks to exempt himself from the part of the enormous duties 
with which it has been attempted to paralyze the only commercial 
intercourse he carries on with New Spain, in every other respect 
connected with this operation, he acts in a sufficiently legal manner, 
and if at their return those vessels have been in the habit of bringing 
back near a million of dollars in a smuggled way, it must be acknowl- 
edged that it is the harshness of the law which compels the merchant 
to become a smuggler; for according to the strange regulation by 
which he is thwarted in the returns representing the proceeds of 
his outward operation, he must, either bring the money to the Phil- 
ippine Islands without having it declared on the ship's papers, or be 
obliged to leave the greatest part of it in the hands of others, subject 
to such contingencies as happen in trade. As long, therefore, as the 
present limitations subsist, which only authorize returns equal to 
double the value of the outward-bound cargo, this species of con- 
traband will inevitably continue. The governors also, actuated by 
the principles of reason and natural justice, will, as they have hither- 
to done, wink at the infraction of the fiscal laws; a forbearance, in 
fact, indirectly beneficial to them, inasmuch as it eventually con- 
tributes to the general improvement of the colony. Indeed, with- 
out this species of judicious condescension, trade would soon stand 
still for the want of the necessary funds to carry it on. 
Unbusinesslike .... It will readily be acknowledged that, in like manner as the 

cuntoms wntjs. good organization of custom houses is favorable to the progress of 
general commerce, so nothing is more injurious to its growth and the 
enterprise of merchants, than any uncertainty or arbitrary conduct 
in the levying of duties to be paid by them. This arises out of the 
circumstance of every merchant, entering on a new speculation, being 
anxious to have, as the principal ground work of his combinations, 
a perfect knowledge of the exact amount of his disbursements, in 
order to be enabled to calculate the final result with some degree 
of certainty. Considered in this point of view, the system adopted 
in the Islands is certainly deplorable, since it must be acknowledged 

•State 0/ the Philippines in 1810 U06 

that the principles and common rules of all other commercial coun- 
tries, are there unknown. For example; this year a cargo arrives 
from China or Bengal, and the captain turns in his manifest. The 
custom-house surveyors then commence the valuation of the goods 
of which his cargo is composed: I say they commence, because it is 
a common thing for them not to have finished the estimate of the 
scale and amount of corresponding duties, till the expiration of two, 
four, and not unfrequently six months. The rule they affect to 
follow, in this valuation, is that of the prices current in the market, 
and in order to ascertain what these are, they are seen going round 
inquiring in the shops of the Sangleys (Chinese), till at length, 
finding it useless to go in search of correct and concurrent data, 
in a place where there are neither brokers nor public auctions, they 
are forced to determine in an arbitrary manner, and as the adage 
goes, always take good care to see their employers on the right 
side of the hedge. The grand work being ended, with all this form 
and prolixity, the sentence of the surveyors is irrevocable. The 
bondsman of the captain, who, in the meanwhile, has usually sold 
his cargo and departed with a fresh one for another destination, 
pays in the amount of the duties, thus regulated by law. 

The practical defects and injurious consequences of such a Vanatiuna 
system as this, it would be unnecessary to particularize. It would, *" i^aluatwns. 
however, be less intolerable, if, once put in force, it could serve the 
merchant as a guide in the valuations of his property for a determined 
number of successive years. What, however, renders this assess- 
ment more prejudicial, is its instability and uncertainty, and the 
repetition of the same operation I have just described every year, 
and with every cargo that arrives; but under distinct valuations, 
according to the reports or humor of the day. Besides these great 
defects and irregularity, the Philippine custom house observes the 
singular practice of not allowing the temporary landing of goods 
entered in transitu and for re-exportation, as is done on the bonding 
system in all countries where exertions are made by those in author- 
ity for the extension and improvement of commerce in every possible 
way. Of course, much less will they consent to the drawback or 
return of any part of the duties on goods entered outwards, even 
though they are still on board the very vessels in which they origin- 
ally came shipped. Beyond all doubt, the wrongly understood 
severity of such a system, has, and will, continue to prevent many 
vessels from frequenting the port of Manila, and trying the market, 
unable to rely on the same liberal treatment they can meet with in 
other places. 



The areca-nul 

Buyo monopoly 

llurdships on 



The bonga, or areca-nut, is the fruit of a very high palm-tree, 
not unlike the one that bears the date, and the nuts, similar to the 
latter, hang in great clusters from below the protuberance of the 
leaves or branches. Its figure and size resemble a common nut, 
but solid, like the nutmeg. Divided into small pieces, it is placed 
in the center of a small ball made of the tender leaves of the buyo 
or belel pepper, lightly covered with slacked lime, and this composi- 
tion constitutes the celebrated betel of Asia, or, as it is here called, 
the buyo, the latter differing from that used in India, inasmuch 
only as it contains cardamomoni . 

The government, anxious to derive advantage in aid and sup- 
port of the colony, from the great use the inhabitants make of the 
buyo, many years ago determined to establish the sale of the bonga, 
its principal ingredient, into a monopoly, either by hiring the privil- 
ege out, or placing it under a plan of administration, in the form in 
which it now stands. Both schemes have been tried, but neither 
way has this branch been made to yield more than $30,000; indeed 
the annual proceeds usually have not exceeded $25,000. In 1809, 
the total amount of sales was $48,610, and deducting from this sum 
the prime cost and expenses of administration, the net profit in 
favor of the treasury was equal to no more than $27,078 or upwards 
of 1253^2%- In 1780, the privilege of selling the bonga was let out 
at public auction for the sum of $15,765 and this, compared with the 
present proceeds, clearly shows that, although the increase has not 
advanced equally with the other branches of the revenue, it is far 
from having declined. It must nevertheless be confessed, that 
on the present footing on which it stands, the smallness of the pro- 
ceeds is not worth the trouble required in the collection, and even 
if the amount were still greater, it could never serve as an excuse 
for the oppression and violence to which this monopoly frequently 
gives rise. 

As the trees producing the bonga are not confined to any par- 
ticular grounds, and indiscriminately grow in all, the plan has been 
adopted of compelling the Filipinos to gather and bring in the fruit, 
raised on their lands, to the depot nearest the district in which they 
reside. There they are paid from two, two and one-half, three 
and three and one-half reals per thousand, according to the distance 
from which they come: and, in order to prevent frauds, the sur- 
veyors belonging to the revenue go out, at certain times of the year, 
to examine the bonga plantations, and the trees being counted, they 
estimate the fruit, that is, oblige the proprietor to undertake to 
deliver in two hundred nuts for each bearing tree, whether or not, 

State of the Philippines in 1810 407 

hurricanes deteriorate or destroy the produce, or thieves plunder the 
plantations, as very frequently happens. In case deficiencies are 
proved against him, he is compelled to pay for them in money, 
at the rate of twenty-five reals per thousand, the price at which 
the king sells them in the monopoly-stores. Besides, the precise 
condition of delivering in two hundred bonga nuts, according to the 
stipulations imposed upon him, presupposes the previous exclusion 
of all the injured or green ones; and although the ordinary trees 
usually yield as many as three hundred nuts each, great numbers 
are nevertheless spoiled. If, to the adverse accidents arising out 
of the storms and robberies, we add the effects of the whims or 
ill-humor of the receivers, it is not easy to imagine to what a 
length the injuries extend which befall the man who has the 
folly or misfortune to become a planter of this article. 

On the other hand, as in the conveyances from the minor to Folly of 
the larger depots, frauds are frequently committed, and the heaping ^^^onopoly plan. 
together of many millions of nuts inevitably produces the fermenta- 
tion and rapid putrefaction of a great number of them, it consequently 
follows that the waste must be immense; or if it is determined to sell 
all the stock laid in, without any distinction in quality and price, 
the public must be very badly served and displeased, as in fact too 
often happens. Since, therefore, the habit of using the huyo is still 
more prevailing than that of tobacco, when suitable supplies cannot 
be had in the monopoly stores, the consumer naturally resorts to 
the contraband channels, although he encounters some risk, and 
expends more money. It is also very natural that the desire of 
gain should thus lead on and daily expose a number of needy per- 
sons, anxious by this means to support and relieve the wants of 
their families. Returning, however, to what more immediately 
concerns the grower, I do not know that the oppressive genius of 
fiscal laws has, in any country of the globe, invented one more 
refinedly tyrannic, than to condemn a man, to a certain degree at 
least, as has hitherto been the case, to the punishment of Tantalus; 
for the law forbids the Filipino to touch the fruit of the tree planted 
with his own hands, and which hangs in tempting and luxuriant 
abundance round his humble dwelling. 

It would be easy for me to enumerate many other inconveniences Its modification 
attending this branch of public revenue, on the footing on which it 'desirable. 
now stands, if what has already been said did not suffice to point 
out the necessity of changing the system, as those in authority are 
anxious that the treasury should gain more, and the king's subjects 
suffer less. The strong prejudice entertained against this source 


of revenue, the inconsiderable sum it produces, and the complicated 
form of its organization, have in reality been sufficient motives to 
induce many to become strenous advocates for the total abolition 
of the monopoly. I do not, however, on this account see any reasons 
for altogether depriving the government of a productive resource, as 
this might soon be rendered, if it was placed under regulations less 
odious and more simple in themselves. I nevertheless agree, that 
the perfect monopoly of the areca fruit, or bonga, is impracticable, 
till the trees, indiscriminately planted, are cut down, and, in the same 
way as the tobacco plantations, fresh and definite grounds are laid 
out for its cultivation, on account of the revenue. I am further 
aware that this measure is less practicable than the first; for, inde- 
pendent of all the other obstacles, it would be necessary to wait 
till the new plantation yielded fruit, and also that the public should 
consent to refrain from masticating buyo in the meanwhile, a preten- 
sion as mad as it would be to require that the eating of salt should 
be dispensed with for a given number of years. But what difficulty 
would there be, for example, in the proprietors paying so much a year 
Tree-tux for each bonga tree to the district magistrate, the governor of the 

preferable. nearest town, or the cabeza de Barangay, or chiefs of the clans into 

which the natives are divided, in the same manner as the Filipino 
pays his tribute? The only one I anticipate is that of fixing the 
amount in such way that, at the same time this resource is made to 
produce an increased income of some moment, it may act as a 
moderate tax on an indefinite property, the amount of which, 
augmented in the same price, may be reimbursed to the proprietor 
by the great body of consumers. It is not in fact easy to foresee 
or estimate, by any means of approximation, the alteration in the 
current price of the bonga, that would result from the indefinite 
freedom of its cultivation and sale, especially during the first years. 
Although, for this reason, it would be impossible to ascertain what 
proportion the impost on the tree would then bear with regard to 
the value of the fruit, the error that might accrue would be of little 
moment, as long as precautions were taken to adopt a very low rate 
of comparison, and a proportionably equitable one as the basis of 
taxation. Supposing then that the price of the bonga should decline 
from twenty-five reals, at which it is now sold in the monopoly 
stores, to fifteen reals per thousand, in the general market, and a 
tax of one-fourth real should be laid on each tree valued at two 
hundred bonga nuts, it is clear that this would be equal to no more 
than 83^%; or, what is the same, the tax would be in the propor- 
tion one to twelve with the proceeds of each tree, and the more the 

■State of the Philippines in 1810 


value of the fruit was raised, the more would the rate of contribu- 
tion diminish. It ought at the same time to be observed that, under 
the above estimate, that is, supposing the price of the article to 
remain at fifteen reals, the ^]4,% at which rate the tax is regulated, 
would not perhaps exceed five or six per cent on a more minute cal- 
culation; in the first place, because at the time of making out the 
returns of the trees, those only ought to be set down which are in 
their full vigor, excluding such as through the want or excess of age 
only yield a small proportion of fruit; and in the second, because in 
the numbers registered, the trees would only be rated at two hundred 
although it is well known they usually yield three hundred, in order 
by this means the better to avoid all motives of complaint. In this 
point of view, and by adopting similar rules of probability, it seems 
to me that the government would not risk much by an attempt 
to change the present system into a tax levied on the tree itself, 
on a plane similar to the one above proposed; more particularly 
by doing it in a temporary manner, and rendering it completely 
subservient to the corrections subsequent experience might suggest 
in this particular. 

The difficulty being, in this manner, overcome, with regard 
to the prudent determination of the rate at which the proprietor 
of the bonga plantations ought to contribute, let us now proceed 
to estimate, by approximation, the annual sum that would thus be 
obtained. As, however, this operation is unfortunately compli- 
cated, and in great measure depends on the previous knowledge of the 
total number of trees liable to the tax proposed, details with which 
we are at not present prepared, it is impossible to come at any very 
accurate results. All that can be done is to endeavor to demon- 
strate, in general terms, the great increase the revenue would 
experience by the adoption of the new plan, and the real advantage 
resulting from it to the contributors themselves, all which may be 
easily deduced from the following calculation. 

Let us, in the first instance, suppose that the consumers of 
buyo, in the whole of the Islands, do not exceed one million of persons, 
and that each one makes use of three bongas per day, this consump- 
tion, at the end of the year, would then amount to 1,095,000,000 
nuts. We will next divide this sum by two hundred, at which the 
product of each tree, one with another, is rated, and the result 
will be 5,475,000 trees. This number being taxed at the rate of one- 
fourth real, would leave the sum of $171,093.75 and deducting 
therefrom the $25,000 yielded by this branch under its present 
establishment, together with $5,132 equal to three per cent paid 

of immature 
an<t aged trees. 

Difficulty of 

however, than 
at present. 



Tax only u 
ultimately paid 
bu consumer 


A dvuntayeK. 

to the district magistrates for the charges of collection, we should 
still have an annual increase in favor of the , treasury equal to 

It might perhaps be objected that, in this case, the proprietor, 
instead of receiving, as before tv/o and one-half reals for every 
thousand bongas, would have to disburse one and one-fourth reals 
in the mere act of paying one fourth real for each tree; a circum- 
stance which, at first sight, seems to produce a difference not of one 
and one-fourth, but of three and one-fourth reals per thousand 
against him; though in reality far from this being the case, if we 
take into consideration the deficiencies the sworn receiver usually 
lays to his charge, the fruit he rejects, owing to its being green or 
rotten, and the many and expensive grievances he is exposed to in 
his capacity of grower; it will be seen that his disbursements under 
these heads frequently exceed the amount he in fact has to receive. 
If, in addition to this, we bear in mind that, on condition of seeing 
himself free from guards and a variety of insupportable restrictions, 
constituting the very essence of a monopoly, he would in all proba- 
bility gladly pay much more than the tax in question, all the doubts 
arising on this point will entirely disappear. Finally, considered 
in its true light, we shall not find in the measure above described 
anything more than a very trifling discount required of the prop- 
rietor from the price at which he sells his honga, and which, as 
already noticed, ultimately falls on the consumer alone. 

The moderate estimate I have just formed ought to inspire 
the more confidence from its being well known that the use of the 
biiyo is general among the inhabitants of these Islands. The calcu- 
lation, as it now stands, rests only on one million consumers, for 
each of whom I have only put down three bongas per day, whereas 
it is customary to use much more; nor have I taken into account 
the infinite number of nuts wasted after being converted into the 
buyo, a fact equally well known. Indeed, as the object proposed 
was no other than to prove the main part of my assertions, and I 
trust this is satisfactorily done, I have not deemed it necessary 
to include in the above calculation a greater number of minute 
circumstances, nor attempt to deduce more favorable results, which, 
with the scope before me, I was most assuredly ^warranted in 

In a word, from the concurrence of the facts and reasons above 
adduced, the following propositions may, without any difficulty, 
be laid down. First, that the increase of revenue produced by the 
reform in question, would in all probability exceed $150,000 per 
annum; secondly, that the Filipinos would soon comprehend, and 
gladly consent to a change of this kind in the mode of contributing 
of which the advantages would be apparent; thirdly, that the per- 
sons employed in the old establishment, might, with greater public 


State of the Philippines in IS 10 


utility, be applied to other purposes; and lastly, that the civil magis- 
trates would not be harassed with so many strifes and lawsuits, 
and so many melancholy victims of the monopoly, and its officers 
would cease to drag a wretched existence in the prisons and places 
of hard labor in these Islands. 

The cock-pit branch of the revenue is hired out by the govern- 
ment, and the license is separately set up at auction for the respec- 
tive provinces. Its nature and regulations are so well known that 
they do not require a particular description, the general obligations 
of the contractors being the same as those in New Spain. Perhaps 
the only difference observed in this public exhibition in the Philip- 
pine Islands consists in its greater simplicity, owing to its being 
frequented only by the natives, the whites who are present at this 
kind of diversion being very few, or indeed none. 

The cock-pits are open two days in the week, and the lessees 
of them receive half a real from every person who enters, besides 
the extra price they charge those who occupy the best seats, the 
owners of the fighting cocks, for the spurs, stalls for the sale of buyo, 
refreshments, etc. Notwithstanding all this, and although cock- 
fighting is so general and favorite an amusement among these people 
(the rooster may justly be considered as the distinctive emblem 
of the Filipino) the annual proceeds of this branch are inconsiderable; 
although it must be acknowledged that it has greatly increased 
since the year 1780, when it appears the license was let at auction 
for only about $14,000 owing, no doubt, to the exclusive privilege of 
the contractors not having been extended to the provinces, as was 
afterwards gradually done. 

The total sum paid to the government by the renters of this 
branch, according to the auction returns in 1810, amounted to $40,141 
in the following order for the provinces: 

Tondo $18,501 

Cavite 2,225 

La Laguna 2,005 

Pampanga 3,000 

Bulacan 6,900 

Batangas 2,000 

Pangasinan 1,200 

Bataan 1,050 

Iloilo 1,600 

Ilocos. 600 

Tayabas . 400 

Cebu 360 

Albay 300 

Total $40,141 

Cockpit licenses. 


cockpit revenue 



of increase. 

Indian tributes. 

The causes, to which the increase that has taken place within 
the last twenty-five or thirty years is chiefly to be attributed, 
have already been pointed out, and for this reason it would appear 
that, by adopting the same plan with regard to the fourteen remain- 
ing provinces, of which this captaincy-general is composed, hitherto 
free from the imposition of this tax, an augmentation might be ex- 
pected, proportionate to the population, their circumstances, and 
the greater or lesser taste for cock-fights prevailing among their 
respective inhabitants. At the commencement, no doubt, the 
rentals would be low, and, of course, the prices at which the licenses 
were let out, would be equally so; but the experience and profits 
derivable from this kind of enterprises would not fail soon to excite 
the competition of contractors, and in this way add to the revenue 
of the government. This is so obvious that I cannot help suspecting 
attempts have, at some period or other, been made to introduce the 
establishment of this privilege, in some of the provinces alluded to; 
at the same time I am persuaded that, owing to the affair not having 
been viewed in its proper light, seeking on the contrary to obtain 
an immediate and disproportionate result, the authorities have been 
too soon disheartened and given up the project without a fair trial. 
All towns and districts murmur, and, at first object, to taxes, however 
light they may be; but, at length, if they be not excessive, the people 
become reconciled to them. The one here proposed is neither of 
this character, nor can it be deemed odious on account of its novelty. 
The natives are well aware that their brethren in the other provinces 
are subject to it, and that in this nothing more is done than rendering 
the system uniform. I, therefore, see no reason why the establish- 
ment of this branch of revenue should not be extended to all the 
pointsof the Islands. At the commencement, let it produce what it 
may, since constancy and time will bring things to the same general 

The too great condescension and mistaken humanity of the 
government on the one hand, and the fraud and selfishness of the 
provincial sub-delegates or collectors, on the other, have concurred 
to change a contribution, the most simple, into one of the most 
complicated branches of public administration. The first cause 
has been owing to a too general acquiescence to receive the amount 
of tributes in the produce peculiar to each province, instead of money; 
and the second, because as the above officers are the persons intrusted 
with the collection, whenever the sale has held out to them any 
advantage, they have been in the habit of appropriating the severa* 

State of the Philippines in 1810 ilS 

articles to themselves, without allowing any benefit to the treasury. 
If the prospective sales of the produce appear unfavorable, it is then 
forwarded on to the king's store in Manila, surcharged with freights, 
exposed to many risks, and the value greatly diminished by waste 
and many other causes. No order or regularity being thus observed 
in this respect, and the sale of the produce transmitted to the king's 
stores being regulated by the greater or lesser abundance in the 
general market, and a considerable stock besides left remaining, 
from one year to another, and eventually spoiled, it is impossible 
to form any exact estimate of this branch. If to these complicated 
matters we add the radical vices arising out of the infidelity of the 
heads of clans (cabezas de harangay), the difficulty of ascertaining 
the defects of the returns made out by them, the variations annually 
occurring in the number of those exempted either through age or 
other legal motives, and above all, the frequently inevitable tardi- 
ness with which the district magistrates send in their respective ac- 
counts, it will be readily acknowledged, that no department requires 
more zeal in its administration, and no one is more susceptible of 
all kinds of frauds, or attended with more difficulties. 

In this state of uncertainty, with regard to this particular branch, A consermtive 
I have guided myself by the last general return of tributes, made out ''"timnte. 
in the accountant-general's office, on the best and most recent data, 
and calculating indistinctly the whole value in money, I have deemed 
it proper afterwards to make a moderate deduction, on account of 
the differences above stated, and arising out of the collection of the 
tributes in kind, the expenses of conveyance, shipwrecks, averages, 
and other causes already enumerated. 

In conformity to this calculation, the total proceeds of this Fixi<l rhan/ea. 
branch of revenue amount to $506,215 from which sum are deducted, 
in the primitive stages of the accounts, the amount of ecclesiastical 
stipends, the pay of the troops under the immediate orders of the 
chief district magistrates in their quality of war-captains, together 
with all other extraordinary expenses incurred in the provinces by 
orders of the government, the remainder being afterwards forwarded 
to the king's treasury. It ought, however, to be observed, that the 
above aggregated sum is more or less liable to deficiencies, according 
to the greater or lesser degree of punctuality on the part of the sub- 
collectors in making up accounts, and the solidity of their respective 
sureties; the failure of this kind experienced by the revenue being 
so frequent, that, according to the returns of the accountant-general, 
those which occurred between the years 1762 and 1809, were no less 
than $215,765 notwithstanding the great precautions at all times 



of trihule 
in money. 

taken to prevent such considerable injuries, by every means com- 
patible with the precarious tenure of property possessed by both 
principals and sureties in this country. All the above circumstances 
being therefore taken into due consideration, and the ordinary and 
extraordinary discounts made from the total amount of tributes, 
the real sum remaining, or the net annual proceeds of the above 
branch, have usually not been rated at more than $190,000 and 
$200,000; a sum respectively extremely small, and which possibly 
might be doubled, without the necessity of recurring to any other 
measure than a standing order for the collecting of the tributes in 
money, as by this means the variety of expenses and complications 
above enumerated, would be avoided, and the king's revenue no 
longer exposed to any other deficiencies than those arising out of 
the insolvency of the sub-collectors and their sureties, or casual risks, 
and the trifling charges paid for the conveyance of the money. 
If in opposition to this it should be alleged that it would be advisable 
to except some of the provinces from this general rule, owing to the 
advantages the government might derive from certain tributes being 
paid in kind, I do not hesitate to answer that I see no reason whatever 
why this should be done, because, if, for example, any quality of 
rigging or sail cloth is annually required, it would be easy to obtain 
it either by early contracts, or by laying in the articles at the current 
market price. Indeed, all supplies which do not rest on this foot- 
ing, would be to defraud the natives of the fruits of his industry, 
and in the final result this would be the same as requiring of him 
double or triple tribute, contrary to the spirit of the law, which 
unfortunately is too frequently the case under the existing system. 
Considering this affair in another point of view, it would be 
easy for me to demonstrate, if it were necessary, the mistaken idea 
that the native is benefited by receiving in kind the amount of the 
tribute he has to pay, at the low prices marked in the tariff used 
as a standard, by showing the extortions and brokerage, if I may 
so term it, to which the practice gives rise on the part of the district 
collectors. It will, however, suffice to call the attention of my 
readers to the smallness of the sum constituting the ordinary trib- 
ute, when reduced to money, in order for them to be convinced that 
it would be superfluous, as well as hazardous, to attempt to point 
out how this branch might be rendered more productive to the state 
and at the same time less burdensome to the contributors, more 
particularly when the rate assessed does not exceed ten reals per 
year, a sum so small, that generally speaking, no family can be found 
unable to hoard it up, if they have any inclination so to do. 

Staie of the Philippines in tSIO ilS 

The prevailing error, however, in this respect, I am confident 
arises out of a principle very different from the one to which it is 
usually attributed. The tributary native is, in fact, disposed to 
pay the quota assigned to him into the hands of the chief of his clan, 
in money, in preference to kind; because, independent of the small 
value at which the articles in kind are rated in the tariff, he is then 
exposed to no expenses, as he now is for the conveyance of his prod- 
uce and effects; nor is he liable to so many accidents. But as the 
chief of each clan has to deliver in his forty or fifty tributes to the 
head magistrate, who is answerable for those of the whole province, 
it is natural for him to endeavor to make his corresponding payments 
in some equivalent affording him a profit; at the same time the pro- 
vincial magistrate, speculating on a larger scale, on the produce 
arising out of his jurisdiction, seeks to obtain from the government a 
profitable commutation in kind for that which the original contribu- 
tor would have preferred paying in money. In order the better to 
attain his purpose, he asserts, as a pretext, the impossibility of col- 
lecting in the tribute under another form, alleging, moreover, the 
relief the native derives from this mode, whereas, if only duly exam- 
ined, such a pretence is founded on the avarice, rather than the 
humanity of the magistrate. 

Leaving to one side the defects attributable to the present 
mode of collection, and considering the tribute as it is in itself, 
the attentive observer must confess, that in no part of our Indies 
is this more moderate; and, indeed, it is evident that the laws gen- 
erally relating to the natives of these Islands seem to distinguish 
them with a decided predilection above those of the various sections 
of America. 

The tribute in its origin was only eight reals per family; Hems in 
but the necessity of providing for the increased expenses of the gov- tribute. 
eminent gave rise to this rate being afterwards raised to ten. The 
Sangley mestizos pay double tribute, and the Sangleys contri- 
bute at the rate of $6 per head. Besides this, all pay a yearly 
sum, applicable to the funds belonging to the community, and the 
above two casts pay three reals more, as a church rate, and under 
the name of the Sanctuary, the whole being in the following form: 

r, ,■ .r .■ ,T, ■, . Tribute of 

Entire Native Tribute Mestizos Sangleys 

8 Reals, original tribute 16 Reals. $6 each. 

1'^ Reals for expenses of troops 3 

\^ Real to tithes 1 

10 Reals, amount of tribute 20 Reals. $6.75 

1 Real, community funds 1 

3 Reals, sanctuary rate 3 

14 Reals, total annual disbursement 24 Reals. $6.75 



Chinese tax. 


The males commence paying tribute at twenty years of age and 
the females at twenty-five, if before they have not entered the 
matrimonial state, and in both the obligation ceases at the age 
of sixty. The chiefs of clans, or cabezas de barangay and their eldest 
sons, or in default of children, the person adopted in their stead, 
that is, an entire tribute and a half, are exempt from this tax, as a 
remuneration for the trouble and responsibility they may have in 
collecting in the forty or fifty tributes, of which their respective 
clans are composed. Besides these there are various other classes 
of exempted persons, such as the soldiers who have served a certain 
number of years, those who have distinguished themselves in any 
particular manner in the improvement of industry or agriculture, 
and others who have received special certificates, on just and equit- 
able grounds. In summing up the total number of exempted 
persons, on an average in the whole of the provinces, they will be 
found in the proportion of fifty to every thousand entire tributes. 

The head-tax of the Sangleys has usually been attended with 
so many difficulties in its collection, owing to the facilities with 
which they absent or secrete themselves, and the many stratagems 
this cunning and artful race employ to elude the vigilance of the com- 
missioners, that the government has at length found itself compelled 
to let out this branch, as was done in 1809, when it was disposed of 
in the name of one of them for the moderate sum of $30,000; notwith- 
standing it is a generally received opinion, that the number of this 
description of Chinese, constantly residing in the Islands, is above 
7,000, which, at the rate of $6 per head, would raise this proportion 
of the tax as high as $42,000. 

The Community funds belonging to each town, have, in conform- 
ity to the regulations under which they are administered, a special, 
or I might say, local application; but collected together into one 
stock, as is now the case, and directly administered by the govern- 
ment, they produce a more general utility. The head town of the 
province A, for example, requires to rebuild the public prison or 
town-hall, and its own private funds are not sufficient to defray the 
expenses of the work in question. In this case, therefore, the gov- 
ernment gives orders for the other dependent towns to make up 
the deficiency by taking their proportions from their respective 
coffers, as all have an equal interest in the proposed object being 
carried into effect. The king's officers, in consequence thereof, 
draw the corresponding sums from these funds, the whole of which 
is under their immediate superintendence. And in order that the 
surplus of this stock may not stand still, but obtain every possible 


State of the Philippines in 1810 417 

increase in a country where the premium for money is excessive, 
when let out at a maritime risk, it is ordered that some part shall be 
appropriated in this way, and on the same terms as" those observed 
by the administrators of the charity funds belonging to the Miseri- 
cordia (Charity) establishment, and the third order of St. Francis, 
which is another of the great advantages of assembling this class 
of property. 

In consequence of this judicious regulation, and the success with 
which this measure has hitherto been attended, the Community 
fund has gone on increasing in such a way that, notwithstanding 
the sums drawn from it for the purpose of constructing causeways, 
bridges, and other municipal objects, at the commencement of 1810, 
the stock in hand amounted to no less than $200,000; and it is natural 
to suppose when the outstanding premiums due shall have been paid 
in, a considerable augmentation will take place. This branch, 
although not exactly comprehended in those which constitute the 
revenue of the government, has so obvious an analogy with that of 
tributes, that I have not deemed it any essential deviation from the 
order and method I have hitherto observed in this work, to introduce 
it in this place, as in itself it did not deserve to be classed under a 
distinct head. 

Notwithstanding the truth of what has been said with regard to Tribute 
the moderate rate of the tribute imposed on the native of the Phil- 
ippine Islands, it would be extremely desirable if he could be al- 
together exonerated from a charge which he bears with great repug- 
nance, by some other substitute being adopted, indirectly producing 
an equivalent compensation. In the first place, because the just 
motives of complaint would cease, caused not only by the tribute, 
but also the manner of its collection; and an end would then be put 
to those intrigues and extortions the district magistrates commit, 
under the title of zealous collectors of the king's revenue, and the 
power of a multitude of subaltern tyrants, comprehended under the 
denomination of chiefs of native clans {ccibezas de barnngny) would 
then also fall to the ground; a power which, if now employed for 
the purpose of oppressing and trampling on the liberties of inferiors, 
might some day or other be converted into an instrument dangerous 
and subversive of our preponderance in the country. In the second 
place, if, among all the civilized nations a head-tax (poll-tax) is in 
itself odious, it must incontestably be much more so among those 
whose unlettered state, far from allowing them to know that the 
social order requires a certain class of sacrifices for its better preserva- 
tion, makes them attribute exactions of this kind to an abuse of 

41 S 



superiority. Hence are they led to consider these restraints as the 
symbols of their own slavery and degradation, as in fact the natives 
in these Islands have ample reasons for doing, when the legal 
exemption of the whites is considered, without any other apparent 
reason than the difference in color. Independent of this, the sub- 
stitute above alluded to would be extremely expedient, inasmuch as 
it would greatly simplify the plan of administration, the accountant's 
department would be freed from the most painful part of its labors, 
and the district magistrates and sub-collectors would not so frequently 
be entangled in their accounts, and exposed to expensive and inter- 
minable lawsuits, as now so often happens. 

The difficulty, however, of finding out this compensation or sub- 
stitute is a matter of some consideration. On the one hand, if it 
was attempted to distribute the proceeds arising out of the tributes 
on other branches, such as tobacco, native wine, bongn, and custom 
house, it would, at first sight, appear possible, through the medium 
of an almost invisible augmentation in the respective sale prices 
and in the king's duties, that this important object might easily 
be attained; but, on the other, it might be apprehended that the 
additional value put on the articles above-mentioned, would pro- 
duce in their consumption a diminution equal to the difference in 
prices, in which cases no advantage would be gained. The prac- 
ticability of the operation, in my opinion, depends on the proportion 
in which the means of obtaining the articles in question respectively 
stand with the probability of their being consumed. I will explain 
myself. If, for example, the annual stock of tobacco laid in should 
be insufficient to meet the wants of the consumers, as constantly 
occurs, it is clear that this article, when monopolized, will bear a small 
augmentation of price, not only without any inconvenience or risk, 
but with the moral certainty of obtaining a positive increase of 
revenue, the necessary effect of the total consumption of the tobacco 
laid in and sold. But as this does not happen with the branch of 
native wines, of which the stock usually exceeds the demand, and 
as the bouga also is not susceptible of this improvement, owing to the 
small place it occupies among the other resources of the revenue, no 
other means are left than to add to the duties of export on silver, 
and of import on foreign merchandise, a percentage equivalent to 
the deficiency not laid on tobacco, unless it should be deemed more 
advisable to levy a sumptuary contribution on coaches, horses and 
servants, and especially on all kinds of edifices and houses built 
of stone and mortar, situated both within and without the capital. 

State of the Philippines in ISIO A19 

However this may be, whatever the king loses in revenue by Objection to 
the abolition of the native tributes, no doubt, could be made up tribute-paying. 
by an appeal to other ways and means. It is well-known that many 
of the Indian tribes refuse to become subjects of the crown and object 
to enter into general society on account of the odious idea they have 
formed of paying tribute; or, as they understand it, the obligation 
of giving something for nothing, notwithstanding those who volun- 
tarily submit themselves to our laws, are exempt from tribute, and 
this charge falls only on their descendants. But of this they must 
either be ignorant, or they regret depriving their posterity of that 
independence in which they themselves have been brought up, and 
thus transmit to them slavery as an inheritance. As soon, therefore, 
as a general exemption of this kind, without distinction of casts, 
should be made public, the natives would quit their fastnesses and 
secluded places, and satisfied with the security offered to them, 
would be seen coming down to the plains in search of conveniences 
of civilized Hfe, and all gradually would be reduced to Christianity. 
Hence the increase of productions and their consumption, as well 
as the extension of agriculture, industry and internal commerce. 
The diminution of smuggling tobacco would soon follow, progress 
would be made in the knowledge of the mines and natural riches 
of the country, and financially, greater facilities would present them- 
selves in gradually carrying into effect its entire conquest and civil- 

Advantages of such great and extraordinary importance deserve 
to be seriously weighed, and to this valuable department of public 
administration the early attention of those in authority ought to 
be called. Let due inquiries be made, and soon shall we discover 
the substantial benefits which would be derived to the treasury 
from the adoption of this measure, as popular as it is just, and also 
conformable to the liberal spirit of the times. In support of the 
preceding arguments, it ought further to be observed, that when all 
the branches constituting the king's revenue are well organized, 
brought to their most productive state, and the public debt con- 
tracted under unforeseen exigencies paid off, as long as present cir- 
ciunstances do not vary, an annual surplus of revenue, equal to 
more than $500,000, will be left; and as the proceeds of the parti- 
cular branch of tributes do not amount to this sum, it is evident 
their abolition may take place, not only without any derangement or 
onerous consequences to the administration, but even without any 
deficiency being experienced, or any necessity to recur to the treasury 
of New Spain for extraordinary aid. These reasons acquire still 



greater force when it is remembered that, as things now are, all the 
branches of public revenue are in a progressively improving condi- 
tion, and as the whole are still susceptible of a much more productive 
organization, the annual surplus of receipts will rapidly become 
greater, and consequently also the necessity will diminish of con- 
tinuing to burden this portion of His Majesty's dominions with 
contributions in order to meet the expenses of their defence and 

Finally, well convinced of the advantageous results which, in 
every sense, would emanate from the revision and reforms proposed, 
I abstain from offering, in support of my arguments, a variety of 
other reflections which occur to me, not to be too diffuse on this 
subject; trusting that the hints I have already thrown out will be 
more than sufficient to excite an interest and promote a thorough 
and impartial investigation of concerns, highly important to the 
future welfare and security of this colony. 

Besides the six preceding branches which constitute the chief 
mass of the public revenue in these islands, there are several smaller 
ones of less consideration and amount; some having a direct appli- 
cation to the general expenses of the local government, and the 
others, intended as remittances to Spain; a distinction of little import 
and scarcely deserving of notice, since the object of the present 
sketch is to convey information on a large scale respecting the King's 
revenue in these Islands. As some of them, however, yield proceeds 
more regular than the others, I have classed together the receipts 
of the Pope's Bulls, or "Bulas de Cruzada," playing-cards, tithes, 
stamps and gunpowder, under the head of Subaltern Branches, 
with regard to the rest, to the general statement already quoted. 

In conformity to the returns with which I have been favored 
from the public offices, these five branches produced, in the year 
1809, $45,090.75 in the following proportions: 

Sales. Expenses. Net Proceeds. 

Pope's bulls $15,360.75 $4,422.25 $10,938.50 

Playing cards 11,539.125 932.625 10,606.50 

Tithes 12,493.00 12,493.00 

Stamps 4,467.50 321.50 4,146.00 

Gunpowder 7.307.625 401.125 6,906.375 

$51,168,125 $6,077.75 $45,090,375 

state of the Philippines in ISIO 4$1 

The scanty proceeds of the tithes will naturally appear remark- Tithes. 
able; but it ought to be remembered that, besides the ordinary 
tribute, the natives pay half a real under this denomination, without 
any distinction of person, or any reference whatever to their respec- 
tive means, the total amount of which is already added to the tri- 
butes, and for this reason not repeated in this place. In addition 
also no tithes are levied, except on lands belonging to Spaniards, 
churches, regular clergy, ecclesiastical corporations, etc., and even 
then the articles of rice, wheat, pulse indigo and sugar, are alone 
liable. The above branches are all in charge of administrators, 
and from this plan it certainly would be advisable to separate the 
tithes and farm them out at public auction, as was proposed by 
the king's officers of the treasury, in their report on this, as well as 
other points, concerning the revenue, and dated October 24, 1792. 
From the net proceeds of the gunpowder the expenses of its manu- 
facture, confided to the commandant of artillery, ought seemingly 
to be deducted; but, as they cannot be ascertained with any degree 
of certainty, and as besides they are comprehended in the general 
expenses of that department, a separate deduction may be dispensed 

In order to form a correct idea of the annual amount of the expen- Disbursementa 
diture incurred by the administration and defence of the Philip- ''"'^ general 
pine Islands, it is not necessary in this place to distinguish each 
item, separately; or to enumerate them with their respective sums 
or particular denominations. Some general observations on this 
subject ought, nevertheless, to be made, with a view to point out 
the reforms of which this important department of the public revenue 
is susceptible. 

In the part relating to the interior administration or government, 
ample room is certainly left for that kind of economy arising out of 
the adoption of a general system, little complicated; but it is besides 
indispensably necessary that, at the same time the work is simplified 
and useless hands dismissed, the salaries of those who remain should 
be proportionally increased, in order to stimulate them in the due 
performance of their duties. It might also be found advisable to 
create a small number of officers of a superior order, who v/ould 
be enabled to co-operate in the collection of the king's revenue, 
and the encouragement of agriculture, commerce and navigation, 
in their respective departments. The additional charges in this 
respect cannot be of any great consequence; although, in reality, 



by the receipts increasing through the impulse of an administrative 
order more perfect, and the expenses being always the same, the 
main object, so anxiously sought for in another way, would be thus 
Defenct The reverse, however, happens with regard to the expenses of 

expenses defence, as I have called them, the better to distinguish them from 

those purely relating to the interior police or administration. Every 
sacrifice, most assuredly, ought to appear small, when the object 
is to preserve a country from falling into the hands of an enemy, and 
it ought not to excite surprise, if, during the course of the last fifteen 
years, several millions of dollars have been expended in the Phil- 
ippines, in order to shield them from so dreadful a misfortune. But 
the late memorable revolution in the Peninsula has given rise to so 
great a change in our political relations, and it is extremely improb- 
able that these Islands will be again exposed to the same danger 
and alarm, that the government may now, without any apparent 
risk, dispense with a considerable part of the preparations of de- 
fence, at one time deemed indispensably necessary. A colony that 
has no other strong place to garrison than its capital, and on the 
loyalty of whose inhabitants there are sufficient motives to rely, 
ought, in my opinion, to be considered as adequately provided against 
all ordinary occurrences in time of peace, with the 4,000 regulars, 
more or less, of all arms, the usual military establishment. In case 
any suspicions should arise of an early rupture with the only power 
whose forces can inspire the governors of these Islands with any kind 
of apprehensions, means will not be wanting to an active and provi- 
dent minister, of giving proper advice, so as to allow sufficient time 
for the assembling of the battalions of provincial militia and all the 
other necessary preparations of defence, before the enemy is in an 
attitude to effect an invasion of a country so far distant from his own 
possessions on the coasts of Malabar and Coromandel. Consequently , 
by disbanding the corps of provincial infantry, cavalry and artillery, 
which continue uselessly to be kept on foot, an annual saving of 
from $220,000 to $250,000 would take place, an amount too great 
to be expended unless imperiously called for by the evident dread 
of a premeditated attack from an hostile quarter. 
Shipping The navy is another of the departments in which reforms may 

reform. be introduced, of no small moment to the treasury. Of course by 

the government merely dispensing with the policy of keeping in 
readiness two large ships to convey to Acapulco the cargos, for which 
the Manila merchants enjoy an annual licence, and leaving to the 
latter the full liberty of following up their speculations on their own 

State of the Philippines in ISIO 433 

account and risk, in vessels of their own, individually or with joint 
stock, a saving would result in favor of the crown equal to $140,000 
to $150,000 per annum, and without preventing the receipt in Aca- 
pulco of the customary duties of $160,000 or $166,000 corresponding 
to the said licenses. This will evidently be the case, because as long 
as the large disposal of funds of the charitable institutions are em- 
ployed in maritime risks, and the private property of others is besides 
added to them, the amount of the operations undertaken by the 
merchants of the Philippines to New Spain, when divested of all 
restraint, will always exceed $500,000 per annum. Nor is there now 
any further occasion for the government to continue granting this 
species of gratuitous tutelage to a body of men possessed of ample 
means to manage their own affairs, and who demand the same degree 
of freedom, and only seek a protection similar to that enjoyed by 
their fellow-countrymen in other parts of the king's dominions. 

In case the above reform should be adopted, it might be deemed Galleon r/rafi. 
requisite for the government to undertake the payment of some of 
the charges under the existing order of things, defrayed out of the 
freights to which the merchandise shipped in the Acapulco traders 
is liable; because, calculating the freight at the usual rate of $200 
for each three bales, or the amount of one ticket, out of the one thou- 
sand constituting the entire cargo, and of which one-half, or $100,000 
more or less, is appropriated to the ecclesiastical chapter, munici- 
pality, officers of the regular army (excluding captains and the other 
higher ranks) and the widows of Spaniards, who in this case would be 
losers, independent of the remaining $100,000 or 500 tickets distrib- 
uted among the 200 persons having a right to ship to Acapulco, 
it would, at first sight, appear reasonable for the treasury to indem- 
nify the above description of persons by a compensation equivalent 
to the privation they experience through the new arrangement of 
the government. But as the practice of abuses constitutes no law, 
and what is given through favor is different to that which is required 
by justice, there are no reasons whatever why the treasury should 
be bound to support the widows of private persons, from the mere 
circumstance of their deceased husbands having been Spaniards; 
more particularly if it is considered that, far from having acquired 
any special merit during their lifetime, most of them voluntarily 
left their native country for the purpose of increasing their fortunes, 
and others were banished from it, owing to their bad conduct. 
Neither can it be said that the municipality have a legal right, in the 
case before stated, to receive any equivalent for the value of their 
respective ainnual tickets, which, when disposed of, usually amount 



the aldermen. 

The navy. 

to about $20,000 in the first place, because it is well-known that the 
eleven aldermen's seats, of which that body is composed, seats which 
can either be sold or resigned, originally did not cost as much as 
$50,000 and clearly the principal invested is out of all kind of pro- 
portion with the enormous premium or income claimed. In the 
second place, although the above municipal situations were originally 
purchased with a view to obtain some advantages, these formerly 
were very different to what they are at present, when the great 
increase of shippers to Acapulco, or in more plain terms, of purchase 
of tickets competing to obtain them, has given to these permits 
a value more than triple to that they possessed thirty years ago. 

In order, therefore, to do away with all motives of doubt 
and dispute, as well ns for many other reasons of public utility, 
the best plan, in my opinion, would he, to return to each alderman 
his money, and the present municipal constitution being dissolved, 
the number of members might be reduced to four, with their 
corresponding registrar, and like the two ordinary "alcaldes," 
elected every year without any other reward than the honor of 
presiding over and representing their fellow-citizens. Under this 
supposition, the only classes entitled to compensation, strictly 
speaking, would be the ecclesiastical chapter and the subaltern 
officers, whose respective pay and appointment are not in fact suffi- 
cient for the decency and expenses of their rank in society. Of course 
it would then be necessary to grant them more adequate allowances, 
but, according to reasonable calculations, the sum total annually 
required would not exceed $30,000; consequently, the reform pro- 
jected with regard to the Acapulco ships would still eventually 
produce to the treasury a saving of from $60,000 to $70,000 in the 
first year of its adoption, and of $110,000 to $120,000 in every 
succeeding one. 

It is, on the other hand, undeniable that, if the royal navy and 
cruising vessels, or those belonging to the Islands and under the 
immediate orders of the captain-general, were united into one 
department, and placed under one head, considerable economy would 
ensue, and all motives of discord and emulation be moreover removed. 
Such would be the case if the change was attended with no other 
cirumstances than the consequent diminution of commanders, 
subaltern officers, and clerks; but it would be also proper to unite 
the arsenals, and adopt a more general uniformity in the operations 
and dependences of this part of the public services. It is equally 
certain that, during peaceful times, the two schooners and sixty 
gunboats, constituting the number of the above-mentioned cruising 

State of the Philippines in IS 10 4S5 

vessels, would be in great measure useless; whilst in case of a rup- 
ture, they are not sufficient to protect the trade of these Islands from 
the attacks of an enemy, notwithstanding they now cost the govern- 
ment considerable sums in repairs, etc., in order to keep them fit 
for service. The government ought therefore to guard against this 
waste of public money, without, however, negl2Cting the defence 
of the Islands, objects which, in my opinion, might easily be recon- 
ciled. Intelligent persons have judged that by reducing the naval 
forces to two frigates, two schooners, and about a dozen gunboats, 
the essential wants of the colony would be duly answered, in ordinary 
times; and some of the vessels might then be destined to pursue 
hydrographical labors in the Archipelago, which, unfortunately, 
are in a most backward state, whilst others could be sent on their 
periodical cruises against the Moros. By this means, at least, 
the navy department would be greatly simplified, and cease to be 
eternally burdensome to the government. With regard to the super- 
fluous gunboats, it would be expedient to distribute them gratui- 
tously among the marine provinces and Bisayan Islands, on the only 
condition of their being always kept fit for service; as, in one sense, 
the great expenses of maintaining them would be thus saved by the 
treasury, and, another, the inhabitants of those portions of the coast 
would be in possession of means sufficiently powerful to repel the 
aggressions of the Moros, who commit great ravages on their settle- 
ments. Finally, if besides the reforms of which the army and navy 
are susceptible, it is considered that the public works, such as prisons, 
schools, bridges, and causeways, so expensive in other countries, 
in the Philippines are constructed by the natives on the most reason- 
able terms, out of the community funds; that there is no necessity 
to build fortincations, and maintain numerous garrisons; that the 
clergy, to whose zeal and powerful influence the preservation of 
these Islands is chiefly due, do not cost the treasury annually above 
$200,000 and that the geographical situation of the colony in great 
measure shields it from the attacks of external enemies, it will 
readily be confessed, that a wise and firm government might under- 
take, without the dread of having to encounter any great obstacles, 
an administrative system, in a general point of view, infinitely more 
economical than the one hitherto followed; might be able to extirpate 
numerous abuses, and by calling forth the resources of the country 
gradually raise it to a flourishing condition, and cause it hereafter 
to contribute largely to the other wants of the crown. Hence was 
it that the distinguished voyager, La Perouse (Chap. 15), contem- 
plating these Islands with a political eye, did not hesitate to affirm 

office-holder X. 


"that a powerful nation, possessed of no other colonies than the 
Philippines, that should succeed in establishing there a form of gov- 
ernment best adapted to their advantageous circumstances, would 
justly disregard all the other European establishments in Africa 
and America." 
Objeciionalil, jj^ q^j- colonies, appointments and command, far from being 

sought as a means to obtain a good reputation, or as affording op- 
portunities of contributing to public prosperity, are, it is too well 
known, only solicited with a view to amass wealth, and then retire 
for the purpose of enjoying it. Commercial pursuits being besides 
attended with so many advantages that those only decline following 
them who are divested of money and friends; whilst the situation in 
the revenue are so few in number, compared with the many candidates 
who solicit them, that they are consequently well appointed, it follows 
that the excess left without occupation, besides being considerable, 
is generally composed of needy persons, and not the most suitable to 
exercise the delicate functions of collectors and magistrates in the 
provinces. From this class nevertheless the host of officers are 
usually taken who, under the name of collectors, surveyors and 
assessors of tributes, intervene in, or influence the public adminis- 
tration. Owing to the variety and great number of persons emi- 
grating to America, ample field, no doubt, is there left for selection, 
by which means the viceroys may frequently meet with persons 
suitable and adequate to the above trusts, if prudent steps are only 
taken; but in this respect the case is very different in the Philippines, 
where chance alone occasionally brings over a European Spaniard, 
unemployed or friendless. In these remote Islands, also, more 
than in any other quarter, people seek lo live in idleness, and, as 
much as possible, without working, or much trouble. As long as 
hopes are entertained of doing something in the Acapulco specula- 
tions, every other pursuit is viewed with indifference, and the office 
of district or provincial magistrate is only solicited when all other 
resources have failed, or as a remedy against want. As the appli- 
cants for these situations are therefore not among the most select 
classes, it very frequently happens that they fall into extremely 
improper and unworthy hands. 

It is in fact common enough to see a hairdresser or a lackey 
converted into a governor; a sailor or a deserter trrnsformed into 
a district magistrate, collector, or military commander of a popu- 
lous province, without any other counsellor than his own crude 
understanding, or any other guide than his passion. Such a meta- 
morphosis would excite laughter in a comedy or farce; but, realized 


State nf the Philippines in ISIO 4S7 

in the theatre of human life, it must give rise to sensations of a very 
different nature. Who is there that does not feel horror-struck, 
and tremble for the innocent, when he sees a being of this kind trans- 
ferred from the yard-arm to the seat of justice, deciding, in the first 
instance, on the honor, lives, and property of a hundred thousand 
persons, and haughtily exacting the homage and incense of the spirit- 
ual ministers of the towns under his jurisdiction, as well as of the 
parish curates, respectable for their acquirements and benevolence, 
and who, in their own native places, would possibly have rejected 
as a servant the very man whom in the Philippines they are com- 
pelled to court and obey as a sovereign. 

In vain do the laws ordain that such offices shall not be given 
away to attendants on governors and members of the high court of 
justice, for under pretext of the scarcity of Europeans experienced 
in the colony, means are found to elude the statute, by converting 
this plea into an exception in favor of this description of persons. 
By such important offices being filled in this manner, it is easy to 
conceive the various hardships to which many of the provinces and 
districts are exposed ; nor can any amelioration be expected as long 
as this plan is persisted in and the excesses of the parties go without 

Independent, however, of the serious injuries and great errors Eciis from 
persons of the class above described cannot fail to commit in the officials in 
exercise of their functions, purely judicial, the consequences of their 
inordinate avarice are still more lamentable, and the tacit permission 
to satisfy it, granted to them by the government under the specious 
title of a licence to trade. Hence may it be affirmed, that the first 
of the evils, and the one the native inmmediately feels, is occasioned 
by the very person the law has destined for his relief and protection. 
In a word, he experiences injuries from the civil magistrates presid- 
ing over the provinces, who, at the same time, are the natural ene- 
mies of the inhabitants, and the real oppressors of their industry. 

It is a known and melancholy fact that, far from promoting the 
felicity of the provinces intrusted to their care, the magistrates attend 
to nothing else but their own fortunes and personal interests; nor 
do they hesitate as to the means by which their object is to be attain- 
ed. Scarcely are they seated in the place of authority, when they 
become the chief consumers, purchasers, and exporters of every 
thing produced and manufactured within the districts under their 
command, thus converting their licence to trade into a positive 
monopoly. In all lucrative speculations the magistrate seeks 
to have the largest share; in all his enterprises he calls in the forced 



aid of his subjects, and if he deigns to remunerate their labor, at 
most it is only on the same terms as if they had been wo.'^ing on 
account of the king. These unhappy people bring in their produce 
and crude manufactures to the very person who, directly or indirectly, 
is to fix upon them an arbitrary value. To offer such and such a 
price for the articles is the same as to say, another bidding shall not 
be made. To insinuate is to command — the native is not allowed 
to hesitate, he must either please the magistrate, or submit to his 
persecutions. Being besides free from all competition in the prose- 
cution of his traffic, since he is frequently the only Spaniard resi- 
dent in the province, the magistrate therein acts with unbounded 
sway, without dread, and almost without risk of his tyranny ever 
being denounced to the superior tribunals. 
Speculating in In order, however, that a more correct idea may be formed of 

tributes. the iniquitous conduct of many of these public functionaries, it 

is necessary to lay open some part of their irregular dealings in the 
collection of the Indian tributes. It is well known that the govern- 
ment, anxious to conciliate the interests of the tributary classes with 
those of the revenue, frequently commutes the pecuniary capitation 
tax into an obligation to pay the amount in produce or manufac- 
tures. A season comes when, owing to the failure of the crops, 
the productions have risen to an excessive price, and consequently 
infinitely above the ordinary rates affixed by law, which are 
generally the lowest, and the natives, unable to keep their bargains 
without considerable injury or endangering the subsistence of their 
numerous families, implore the favor of the magistrate, petitioning 
him to lay their calamitous situation before the superior government, 
in order to have the payment of their tribute in kind remitted, and 
offering to pay it in money. This is the precise moment when, as 
his own profits depend on the misery of the province under his 
command, he endeavors to misuse the accidental power with which 
he is invested. Hence it happens that, instead of acting as a bene- 
ficent mediator, and supporting the just solicitations of the natives, 
he at first disregards their petition, and then all at once transforming 
himself into a zealous collector, issues his notifications, sends his 
satellites into the very fields to seize on the produce, and in a most 
inexorable manner insists on collecting till necessity compels him 
to suspend the measure. The principal object being attained, that 
is, having now become master of the gleanings and scanty crops of 
his bereft subjects, on a sudden his disposition changes, he is moved 
to pity, and in the most pathetic language describes to the govern- 
ment the ravages done to the plantations by the hurricanes, and the 

state of the Philippines in ISIO J,^9 

Utter impossibility of collecting in the tributes that year in kind. 
On such a remonstrance he easily obtains permission to change the 
standing order, and proceeding on to collect in some of the remaining 
tributes in money, merely to save appearance, with perfect impunity 
he puts the finishing stroke to the wicked act he had commenced, by 
applying to himself all the produce his collectors had gathered in, 
and places to the credit of the treasury the total amount of the 
tributes, corresponding to his jurisdiction, in money. 

Supposing, for example, that this has happened in the province 
of Antique, where the payment of the capitation-tax generally takes 
place in the unhusked rice, rated at two reals per cavan, and, through 
the effects of a bad season, this article should rise as high as ten or 
twelve reals. It is clear that the magistrate, by accounting for the 
tributes with the revenue office in money, and collecting them in 
kind at the rate fixed by law, would by the sales gain a profit of 
400 or 500 per cent; at the same time the native, by the mere cir- 
cumstance of then paying in kind, would have paid the tribute cor- 
responding to five or six years in a single one, without, on that 
account, having freed himself from the same charge in the following 

When the extortionate acts as these are practised, to what lengths No check 
may it not be expected the other excesses and abuses of authority 
are carried? To the above it ought moreover to be added, that the 
provincial magistrates have no lieutenants, and are unprovided with 
any other auxiliaries in the administration of justice, except an 
accompanying witness and a native director; that the scrutinies of 
their accounts, to which they formerly were subject, are now abol- 
ished, and, in short, that they have no check upon them, or indeed 
any other persons to bear testimony to their irregularities, except 
the friendless and miserable victims of their despotism and avarice. 

Notwithstanding, however, what is above stated, it sometimes 
happens that a magistrate is to be met with, distinguished from the 
rest by his prudence and good conduct; but this is a miracle, for 
by the very circumstance of his being allowed to trade, he is placed 
in a situation to abuse the wide powers confided to him, and prefer- 
ably to attend to his personal interests; in fact, if the principle is in 
itself defective, it must naturally be expected the consequences will 
be equally baneful. The lamentable abuses here noticed are but 
too true, as well as many others passed over in silence; and the worst 
of all is, that there is no hope of remedying them thoroughly, unless 
the present system of interior administration is altogether changed. 
In vain would it be to allege the possibility of removing the evil 

on extortion. 


by the timely and energetic interposition of the protector of the 
natives; for although this office is in itself highly respectable, it 
cannot in any way reach the multitude of excesses committed, and 
much less prevent them; not only because the minister who exercises 
it resides in the city, where complaints are seldom brought in, 
unless they come through the channel of the parish curates; but also 
on account of the difficulty of fully establishing the charges against 
the magistrates, in the way the natives are at present depressed 
by fear and threats, as well as restrained by the sub-governors and 
other inferior officers of justice, who, being dependent upon, and 
holding their situations from the magistrates, are interested in their 
monopolies and extortionate acts being kept from public view. 
Less If, therefore, it is not possible entirely to eradicate the vices 

complaisant under which the interior administration of these Islands labors, owing 

laws needed. ^^ ^j^^ difficulty of finding persons possessed of the necessary virtues 
and talents to govern, in an upright and judicious manner, let us at 
least prevent the evils out of the too great condescension of our 
own laws. In the infancy of colonies, it has been the maxim of all 
governments to encourage the emigration and settlement of inhab- 
itants from the mother-country, without paying much attention 
to the means by which this was to be done. It was not to be won- 
dered at that, for reasons of state, defects were overlooked, — at such 
periods were even deemed necessary. Hence the relaxation in the 
laws in favor of those who, quitting their native land, carried over 
with them to strange countries their property and acquirements. 
Hence, no doubt, also are derived the full powers granted to those 
who took in charge the subjection and administration of the new 
provinces, in order that they might govern, and at the same time 
carry on their traffic with the natives, notwithstanding the manifest 
incompatibility of the two occupations; or rather, the certainty that 
ought to have been foreseen that public duties would generally be 
postponed, when placed in competition with private interests and 
the anxious desire of acquiring wealth. 

Subsequently that happened which was, in fact, to be dreaded, 
viz., what at first was tolerated as a necessary evil, sanctioned by the 
lapse of time has at length become a legitimate right, or rather a 
compensation for the supposed trouble attached to the fulfillment 
of the duties of civil magistrates; whilst they, as already observed, 
think of nothing but themselves, and undergo no other trouble or 
inconvenience than usually fall on the lot of any other private mer- 
chant. In the Philippines, at least, many years having elapsed since 
the natives peaceably submitted to the dominion of the king, every 

State of the Philippines in tStO .',il 

motive has ceased that could formerly, and in a certain degree, justify 
the indulgence so much abused, at the same time that no plausible 
pretext whatever exists for its further continuation. 

Although hitherto the number of whites, compared to that of 
the people of color, has not been great, as the whole of the provin- 
cial magistracies, coUectorships, and subaltern governments, do not 
exceed twenty-seven, the scarcity of Spaniards ought not to be alleged 
as a sufficient reason; nor can it be doubted these situations might 
at any time be properly filled, if the person on whom the choice 
should fall were only certain of living with decency and in a suitable 
manner, without being carried away with the flattering hopes of 
withdrawing from office, with ten, twenty, and even as high as 
fifty thousand dollars of property, as has heretofore been the case, 
but satisfied with a due and equivalent salary they might receive 
as a reward for the public services they perform. 

I do not therefore see why the government should hesitate in 
resolving to put a stop to evils which the people of the Philippines 
have not ceased to deplore from the time of the conquest, by pro- 
scribing, under the most severe penalties, the power of trading, as 
now exercised by the provincial magistrates. The time is come 
when this struggle between duty and sordid interest ought to end, 
and reason, as well as enlightened policy, demand that in this 
respect our legislation should be reformed, in order that the mace of 
justice, instead of being prostituted in search of lucre, may hence- 
forwards be wholly employed in the support of equity and the pro- 
tection of society. 

The only objection which, at first sight, might be started against Uryence nf 
the suggestions here thrown out is the increased expense which would '"*•''"■"*• 
fall on the treasury, owing to the necessity of appropriating compe- 
tent salaries for the interior magistrates under the new order of 
things. Independent, however, of the fact that the rapid improve- 
ments the provinces must assume, in every point of view, would 
superabundantly make up this trifling difference; yet supposing 
the sacrifice were gratuitous, and even of some moment, it ought not, 
on that account, to be omitted, since there is no public object more 
important to the sovereign himself, than to make the necessary 
provision for the decorum of the magistracy, the due administra- 
tion of justice, and the maintenance of good order among his sub- 

The position being established, that a number of whites more 
than sufficient might be obtained, eligible and fit to perform the 
duties of civil magistrates, which they would be induced to under- 


take, if adequate terms were only proposed, it would seem that no 
ill consequences might be expected from at once assimilating the 
regulations of these provincial judicatures to those of the corregi- 
niienlos, or mayoralties of towns in Spain, or in making out an express 
statute, on a triple scale, for three classes of magistrates, granting 
to them emoluments equivalent to the greater or lesser extent of the 
respective jurisdictions. As far as regards the pay, it ought to be so 
arranged as to act as a sufficient stimulus to induce European colo- 
nists to embrace this career, in a fixed and permanent way, which 
hitherto they have only resorted to as a five years' speculation. Con- 
formably to this suggestion, and owing to the lesser value attached 
to money in India, compared with Europe, on account of the greater 
abundance of the necessaries of life, I am of opinion that it would 
be expedient to affix an annual allowance of $2,000 to each of the 
appointments of the six principal and most populous provinces, 
$1,500 for the next in importance, and for the twelve or thirteen 
remaining, at the rate of $1,000 each; leaving to the candidates the 
option of rising according to their length of services and good conduct, 
from the lowest to the highest, as is the case in Spain. 

Objects to be The first part of the plan above pointed out embraces two objects. 

gained. The one is to prevent the provincial magistrates from carrying on 

traffic, thus depriving them of every pretext to defraud the natives 
of what is their own; and the other, to form, in the course of a few 
years a class of men hitherto unknown in the Philippine Islands, 
who, taught by practice, may be enabled to govern the provinces 
in a more correct and regular manner, and acquire more extended 
knowledge, especially in the judicial proceedings of the first instance, 
which, owing to this defect, frequently compel the litigants to 
incur useless expenses, and greatly embarrass the ordinary course 
of justice. Although the second part at first seems to involve an 
increased expense of $36,000 or $37,000 annually, when well consi- 
dered, this sum will be found not to exceed $20,000, because it will 
be necessary to deduct from the above estimate the amount of three 
per cent, under the existing regulations allowed to the magistrates 
for the collection of the native tributes, in their character of sub- 
delegates, generally amounting to $16,000 or $17,000; besides only 
taking into account such real and effective disbursements or extra- 
ordinary expenses as in fact they may legally have incurred in the 
performance of their duties. 

Should it, however, be deemed expedient, from causes just in 
their nature, hereafter to exonerate the natives from the obligations 
of paying tributes, by which means the amount deducted for the three 


Stale of the PhilippineK in tSlO ^SS 

per cent, commission could not then be brought into account, let 

me be allowed to ask what enlightened government would hesitate 

submitting to an additional expense of so trifling an import, in 

exchange for beholding more than two millions of men forever freed 

from the extortionate acts of their old magistrates; and, through 

the effects of the new regulations, the latter converted into real 

fathers of the people over whom they are placed? How different 

would then be the aspect these fine provinces would present to the 

eyes of the philosophical observer who would, in that case, be able 

to calculate to what an extent the progress of agriculture and 

industry in these islands might be carried. 

Nevertheless, I do not wish to insinuate that by the better or- Demoralization 
... , . ... of over-seas 

ganization of the provmcial governments, the present irregularities 

and abuses of authority would entirely cease ; because I am aware, 
more especially in the Indies, that the persons who hold public 
situations usually have too exaggerated ideas of their own personal 
importance, and easily mistake the gratification of their own whims 
for firmness of character, in the necessity of causing themselves to be 
respected. Still it is an incontestable fact that, by removing the 
chief temptation, and rescinding altogether the license to trade, 
the just complaints preferred by the native against the Spaniard 
would cease; the motives of those continual disputes which arise 
between the magistrates and the ministers of the gospel exercising 
their functions in the same provinces, and the zealous defenders of 
the rights of their parishioners, would be removed, and the inhabit- 
ants of Manila, extending their mercantile operations to the interior, 
without the dread of seeing them obstructed through the powerful 
competition of the magistrates in authority there, would be induced 
to settle in or connect themselves with the provinces, and thus diffuse 
their knowledge, activity and money among the inhabitants, the 
true means of encouraging the whole. 

What has already been said will suffice to convince the lover 
of truth and the friend of general prosperity, how urgent it is to 
introduce as early as possible, the reform proposed into the interior 
administration of this important, although neglected colony; and it 
is to be hoped that the government, guided by these same senti- 
ments, will not be led away by those narrow-minded people, who 
predict danger from every thing that is new; but, after due and ma- 
ture deliberation, resolve to adopt a measure dictated by reason, 
and at the same time conformable to the best interests of the state. 


« theocracy. 

of parish 

Of little avail would have been the valor and constancy with 
which Legaspi and his worthy companions overcame the natives 
of these islands, if the apostolic zeal of the missionaries had not sec- 
onded their exertions, and aided to consolidate the enterprise. The 
latter were the real conquerors; they who, without any other arms 
than their virtues, won over the good will of the islanders, caused 
the Spanish name to be beloved, and gave to the king, as it were 
by a miracle, two millions more of submissive and Christian sub- 
jects. These were the legislators of the barbarous hordes who in- 
habited the islands of this immense Archipelago, realizing, by their 
mild persuasion, the allegorical prodigies of Amphion and Orpheus. 

As the means the missionaries called in to their aid, in order 
to reduce and civilize the Indians, were preaching and other spiri- 
tual labors, and, although scattered about and acting separately, 
they were still subject to the authority of their prelates, who, like 
so many chiefs, directed the grand work of conversion, the govern- 
ment primitively established in these colonies must necessarily have 
partaken greatly of the theocratical order, and beyond doubt it 
continued to be so, till, by the lapse of time, the number of colonists 
increased, as well as the effective strength of the royal authority, 
so as to render the governing system uniform with that established 
in the other ultramarine dominions of Spain. 

This is also deduced from the fragments still remaining of the 
first constitution, or mode of government introduced in the Bata- 
nes Islands and missions of Cagayan, administered by the Dominican 
friars in a spiritual and temporal manner; as well as from what may 
frequently be observed in the other provinces, by any one who bestows 
the smallest attention. Although the civil magistracies have since 
been regulated, and their respective attributes determined with due 
precision, it has not hitherto been possible, notwithstanding the 
pains taken to make the contrary appear, to do without the perso- 
nal authority and influence the parish curates possess over their 
flocks. The government has, in fact, constantly been obliged to 
avail themselves of this aid, as the most powerful instrument to 
insure respect and a due subordination, in such manner that, al- 
though the parish curates are not at present equally authorized to 
interfere in the civil administration, in point of fact, they are them- 
selves the real administrators. 

It happens that, as the parish curate is the consoler of the af- 
flicted, the peacemaker of families, the promoter of useful ideas, 
the preacher and example of every thing good; as in him liberality 
is seen to shine, and the Indians behold him alone in the midst of 

State of the Philippines in tSlO 436 

them, without relatives, without traffic, and always busied in their 
care and improvement, they become accustomed to live satisSed 
and contented under his paternal direction, and deliver up to him 
the whole of their confidence. In this way rendered the master of 
their wishes, nothing is done without the advice, or rather consent, 
of the curate. The subaltern governor, on receiving an order from 
the superior magistrate, before he takes any step, goes to the min- 
ister to obtain his sanction, and it is he in fact who tacitly gives the 
mandate for execution, or prevents its being carried into effect. As 
the father of his flock, he arranges, or directs, the lawsuits of his 
parishioners; it is he who draws out their writings; goes to the capi- 
tal to plead for the Indians; opposes his prayers, and sometimes 
his threats, to the violent acts of the provincial magistrates, and 
arranges every thing in the most fit and quiet manner. In a word, 
it is not possible for any human institution to be more simple, and 
at the same time more firmly established, or from which so many 
advantages might be derived in favor of the state, as the one so justly 
admired in the spiritual ministry of these islands. It may there- 
fore be considered a strange fatality, when the secret and true art 
of governing a colony, so different from any other as is that of the 
Philippines, consists in the wise use of so powerful an instrument 
as the one just described, that the superior government, within the 
last few years, should have been so much deluded as to seek the de- 
struction of a work which, on the contrary, it is, above all others, 
advisable to sustain. 

In this, as well as many other cases, we see how difficult, or 
rather how absurd it is, to expect to organize a system of government, 
indistinctly adapted to the genius and disposition of all nations, 
however great the discordance prevailing in their physical and