ON THE BANKS OF THE WABASH ^^f
Published at the Direction of the
Fort Harrison Centennial Association
Compiled and Edited by the Historical Committee
DR. J. T. SCOVELL, Chairman; MRS. ALICE P. DRYER, MAX EHRMANN,
JOHN D. BELL, JAMES B. HARRIS, EDWARD GILBERT,
JOHN C. WARREN, WILLIAM H. WILEY, DR. E. T. SPOTSWOOD,
PROF. HERBERT BRIGGS, C. T. JEWETT
t, ^ ^ ^
JOHN MORTON CHAPTER, SONS OF THE
THE MOORE-LANGEN PRINTING CO., TERRE HAUTE, INO.
}^KO the descendants of
^^ the men and women
who participated in the Bat-
tle of Fort Harrison and of
the pioneers who made pos-
sible the peaceful settlement
of the Wabash Valley this
work is offered as a patriotic
Four hundred years ago North America was a panorama of Nature.
All the geological and geographical forms were represented in generous
proportions. Mountains and plains, forests and prairies, great lakes and
mighty rivers, all abounding with the varied forms of life. There were
vast areas of rich agricultural lands and quantities of coal and iron, and
of copper, lead and zinc, of silver and gold and of many useful minerals.
It was an ideal home for the fisherman and hunter, and for the savage
who accepted nature as he found it, being scarcely more than another
feature of the panorama. There were perhaps 500,000 of these native
people in North America. They were called Indians. Physically they
were fully developed with acute senses and strong passions; but intel-
lectually and morally they were more like children. For their support
they did not utilize even a tithe of the natural products so abundant
Through a more complete utilization of these natural resources, North
America has become the home of more than a hundred million of people.
The history of North America for the last four hundred years will be the
story of this transformation of a continent; an account of the gradual
crowding out of the savage or child-like races by stronger races, those
able to utilize more fully the gifts of nature. In reality the history of
North America is a record of human development.
The story of Fort Harrison discusses an important incident in the his-
tory of the United States, and through it Terre Haute is brought into
conspicuous connection with national affairs.
J. T. S.
THE BATTLE OF FORT HARRISON.
By Edward Gilbert.
"The Battle of Fort Harrison" is a high-sounding title to be applied
to what was, from a material point of view, a very small affair. When
is taken into consideration the fact that not more than fifty persons
were present, and, according to the report of Captain Taylor, not more
than ten or fifteen men were capable of duty, as well as all the particu-
lars we can now know, why should we be celebrating memories of the
event one hundred years after it happened ?
Like many small affairs in the world's historj^, it was not the battle
itself, it was not that these few men — and women — behind that stockade,
for one night withstood the efforts of the savages and were not massacred.
It was the events preceding and the results following, as well as the
heroic efforts of the few, which render their defense of Fort Harrison
one of the important items in the history of the United States.
That those few men and women and children had been killed and
scalped by the Indians would not have been fatal to the cause nor in itself
would have been even as bad as many other massacres that did take place
previously and subsequently during the same troublous times.
Not one word shall be written by this hand that would detract from
the credit due them. All their doings were heroic; every one of them
was a patriot. True, they were fighting for their lives, the first incen-
tive of all such, but they were also doing patriotic, noble duty.
These people represented a phase of the contest between civilization
and barbarism. All was fighting and contest around them. These people
were of the advance guard of the world-wide warfare between that ele-
ment of humanity which has always sought to advance and improve, on
the one side and, on the other, savagery and barbarism, which is devoid
of pride of ancestrv'^ or hope of posterity, caring for and seeking nothing
but present comfort or gratification of present passions.
These Englishmen had emigrated originally from their foraier homes,
and had progressed far into the wilderness, for what? To improve their
condition. That is a broad projDosition that is not controvertible. They
found here a race that had inhabited the country, God only knows how
long. In that time they had killed game, caught fish, raised a scanty
supply of the simplest grains by the simple.st methods, the same from
8 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
one generation to another. No student of the Indian race has ever dis-
covered that any generation of them had ever done on its own incentive,
any, even the simplest thing by a better method than its ancestors.
These Englishmen belonged to a race that believed the injunction
laid upon them in the first chapters of Genesis, to replenish the earth,
populate it, cultivate its soil and utilize its natural resources. They
found here a people and a land barren of results. They found a
people evidently diminishing in numbers by brutish wars and ravaging
diseases, which they were too simple-minded to try to overcome. They
believed a Divine Providence intended the land for those who would
make the best use of it. And if any of them did not stop to think out the
question, the simplest knew that he could utilize such a land and that
the Indian did not. The Anglo-Saxon race was dynamic and the Indian
race was static. Therefore they were in opposition, and the history of
the world is that the war was on perpetually between them.
That they were heroic, that they were brave and that they all showed
the highest intelligence is proven by the simple story of what took place.
This little garrison found themselves isolated, fifty miles, through the
wilderness to the nearest succor. Fifty men, thirty-five to forty of them
sick with that vile, bone-racking malaria that pervaded the country,
which makes one wish he were dead, even if to be scalped afterward;
nine women and children. The little stockade was impervious to the
bullets of the then known rifles, but the walls were not proof against fire.
The official report tells that the commandant had for some time very
seriously doubted his ability to withstand an attack.
At dusk four shots are heard. What does this mean? Out of the
stillness of nature comes this warning alarm. There is no known reason
for it except hostility. Two white men are known to be somewhere in
the vicinity of the shots making hay. But they could not have fired the
four shots in quick succession from the rifles of those days. Caution was
the watchword of every experienced Indian fighter. Captain Taylor
dared not investigate so near dark. He placed his little force on the best
footing for defense. In the morning he sent out a detachment, warned
to be wary of ambush, to investigate. These found the two hay-makers,
citizens — one named John GufFy, the name of the other not known —
had been shot, twice each, from a sneaking foe without opportunity to
defend themselves. Their bodies had been mutilated in a shocking man-
ner. Yet the detachment saw no signs of Indians.
The next evening there appeared before the gates of the Fort, old
Lenar, accompanied by some thirty chiefs and "old men" of several
tribes, pretending to seek a friendly conference in want of food.
This was a naive attempt on their part to gain admission to the
Fort under false pretense, when, without doubt, a massacre would have
The Battle of Fort Harrison. 9
taken place. These thirty, with their amis beneath their blankets, once
inside, outnumbering the effective force, were there for no other purpose.
Inexperienced and confiding people often have been taken in by such
pretenses on the part of Indians. But Captain Zachary Taylor was not
of that class. He knew his enemies. He had studied the Indian charac-
ter, in an experience with them in the Illinois country, he had learned
that the Indian's word was never to be taken at its face value.
He refused the interview, which was postponed until the morrow,
when the Indians were again to come for peaceable pow wow.
What other fighting people would have, in the face of the atrocious
outrage of the evening before, expected to be received as friends? This,
with man}' other examples, goes to prove that the primitive mental
condition of the Indian was not in advance of his material status. His
norm of war was the deceit of his adversary. He could not see that the
white man had learned by experience, and expected him to be imposed
on, over and over again by the same ruse. What other race of people
would have come in such manner, not under a flag of truce, as from
avowed enemies seeking parley, but under the pretense of friendship?
None. It was an act of men in primitive ignorance.
Captain Taylor, on the contrary, proceeded at once to prepare, as far
as his limited resources would permit, for defense. He says he had not
been able for some time to mount a full guard, that his effective force
was not to exceed ten or fifteen men. These he stationed to the best ad-
vantage, made a close inspection, personally of all arms, distributed am-
munition to the extent of sixteen rounds to the man, and ordered the
strictest watch at all points. He required his subaltern to parade the
rounds of the Fort all night and to give the alarm at the first indication
Contrary to the usual habits of the Indians, who very often made
their secret attacks an hour or two before daylight it came on about eleven
o'clock. The first alarm was from the firing of one of the sentinels who
discovered that an Indian, under cover of the darkness, had set fire to
the blockhouse at the southwest angle of the Fort.
Legend says this was done by placing coals of fire in a kettle and
covering it with a blanket, not to attract attention while being carried to
the stockade in the dark. Also, it is told that there were holes in the
logs of the block house made by the cattle licking the logs for the salt
that was stored in the blockhouse among the supplies of the army con-
tractor, and through them the coals of fire were dropped.
The only official account of the proceedings of the night is in the re-
port of Captain Taylor to General Harrison at Vincennes. This plain,
straightforward account of his performance of his duties is given in a
separate chapter. He gives a graphic account of his feelings, when the
10 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
apparent condition has its effect on the men and women. At first, with
shrieks of terror, all was confusion and helplessness. The yells of the
savages, the fire destroying what seemed their only protection, together
with constant rifle firing and showers of arrows which poured into the
Fort. All these were enough to quail the stoutest heart. It presaged,
not only death, but death of the most horrid kind, torture and mutilation.
No wonder that, as he tells, near the first, two of his little force, men
on whom he had relied for strong support, should become panic-stricken,
jump the palisades and seek safety by flight under cover of the darkness.
Immediately after the first there was a recovery of nerve. There
were a few cool heads who inspired the others and determination showed
itself, not to supinely give up, but defend themselves as best they could
or at least sell their lives at greatest cost to the enemy. In his report,
Captain Taylor speaks of those who helped bring it about, and were
most efficient both in work and in inspiring the others. It is regrettable
that he mentions only one name that we can place in the hero class.
Doctor William A. Clark was the surgeon of the post, and to him Cap-
tain Taylor gives all honor for his personal efforts. He seemingly in-
spired the erection of a breastwork that would prevent the entrance
of the Indians after the blockhouse was destroyed, and led in the ex-
tinguishing of the fire so that it was confined to the one place. As an
example of the bravery shown by the men, it is told that William Cowen,
one of the soldiers killed inside the Fort, stood on the bastion. He had
fired and turning to his companions, laughingly shouted, "I killed an
Indian that time." In doing so he neglected to stoop behind the ram-
parts and the next second was struck by an Indian bullet and instantly
killed. A brother, Josey Cowen, a mere boy, a soldier, was among those
sick of the malaria and died the next day. This family furnished two
heroes of Fort Harrison.
It has been told before that Captain Taylor had distributed sixteen
rounds of ammunition to each man. This, in the day of rapid-firing
arms, seems a very small amount in the face of the prospective fight.
But it must be taken into consideration that those old muskets or squirrel
rifles were slowly loaded at the muzzle And they were not pumped out
at random, as in modern war, when it is said to take more than a man's
weight in lead to kill or wound one. Those Indian fighters each waited
to find his mark and when found he drew a bead and shot as if after a
wild turkey or deer for his dinner.
Legend also brings another reason for this limited ammunition. It
was probably all he had. For it is told how, long before the fight was
over, several of the women in the Fort were busy moulding bullets.
There was another dreadful condition that was met by heroic action
on the part of one of the women. The only supply of water was from a
The Battle of Fort Tlcm-ison. 11
well, and that was raised by the slow process of lowering and winding
up a bucket. And soon it was discovered that, as the fire raged the
fiercest the water in the well had been so nearl\' exhausted that the
bucket came up only partly filled. Some were again panic-stricken.
Julia Lambert— and her name should go down to posterity in the list
of heroines — said: "Lower me into the well and I will fill the buckets
with a gourd." This was done and not only did her energetic work send
up a full supply, but to the surprise of all the water soon appeared to
raise so that the buckets filled when let into it. This was hailed as a
miracle, enacted for the sakes of these beleaguered mortals.
It was explained, however, that in dipping the water she had dipped
so much sand that the bottom of the well had been lowered beyond the
Soon after daylight came, the Indians retired beyond rifle range, and
the battle practically ended. They hovered around for some time and
disappeared. With no force sufficient to make a reconnoissance Captain
Taylor and his little band were in a sad plight. Their stores destroyed
by fire, their cattle killed, they were forced, as he says, to subsist on green
All this happened on the fourth of September, the battle, but it was
not until the tenth of the same month, if it may be judged by the date of
Captain Taylors letter to General Harrison, that he thought it safe to
attempt to send even one of his small force out to try to open com-
munication. This was done first by sending two men down the river in
a canoe. They started by night, hoping to escape detection. On arriv-
ing at the narrows, a little below where Terre Haute now^ stands, they
found Indian camp fires on both sides and, a guard out watching for
them. They were forced to return. Captain Taylor then wrote a sup-
plemental letter, which is dated September 13, 181:2. Captain Taylor
says in his letter that he will send this by the hands of the orderly ser-
geant and one other, though there is a popular legend that one man by
the name of Peter Mallory carried it. He, or they, were ordered to go
through the woods, avoiding all roads, and taking the greatest care to
not attract the attention of any Indians, wliether presumably friendly
It is unfortunate that the records of the War Department at Wash-
ington are so meagre or so unsatisfactorily arranged, that they can not
furnish a roster of the soldiers of the company under the command of
Captain Taylor. The names of Captain Zachary Taylor, afterwards so
notable as a general of the army in Mexico and elsewhere, and as
President of the United States, with that of Dr. William A. Clark,
spoken of before, are the only ones the department can give. It is, how-
12 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
ever, known that these soldiers were of the Seventh United States regu-
Of the citizens, settlers and others, together with the women and
children, a pretty accurate account is given elsewhere in this history.
Dr. Clark remained here some years after, and was a valued citizen
and practicing physician.
There should, however, be recorded here, though it is so elsewhere,
the remarkable fact that Fort Harrison was built and first commanded
by William Henry Harrison, and later, at the time of the only hostilities
ever occurring there, by Zachary Taylor, both of whom gained fame,
not only as soldiers but as statesmen. Each later became President of
the United States. And each died in office as such. General Harrison
was the first to be succeeded by a Vice-President, John Tyler, and Gen-
eral Taylor the second by Millard Filmore.
As to exactly who the attacking parties were at Fort Harrison, Cap-
tain Taylor says he is unable to be positive. He mentions several chiefs
and parts of tribes, but as there appeared in daylight, only some forty
who sought the interview, he merely surmises as to the rest. It was
thought at the time that the Indians were merely a marauding band of
Later developments of historical research have shown that the at-
tempt to capture Fort Harrison was a part of the plan of campaign of
the British Army in Canada. In August, 1812, an expedition was
started out from Maiden, Canada, under command of Major Muhr.
This was composed of a small company of British regulars, some
Canadian volunteers and a host of Indians. These numbers were never
The object, so soon after the declaration of war, was to capture the
two outposts of Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison. Both of these objects
failed. We have seen how Captain Taylor successfully defended Fort
Harrison. Fort Wayne was stubbornly defended for a short time until
reinforcements arrived and the besiegers driven out of the country. The
British regulars and the Canadians all went in the expedition against
Fort Wayne. It was left to the Indians to proceed against the less
strongly defended Fort on the Wabash.
The attacks on the two posts were made on Fort Wayne September
3, 1812, and on Fort Harrison September 4, at night.
General Hull had ignominiously surrendered Detroit to the British
a short time before. This left the way open for the enemy almost to
the Ohio River, except for these two posts. It was no doubt the idea of
the British General Brock that if Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison were
subdued, the seat of the war would be transferred from the Lakes to the
Ohio River. But for the stubborn and gallant defense of these posts, the
history of the War of 1812 in the Northwest might have been differently
CAUSES LEADING UP TO FORT HARRISON
By Edward Gilbert.
The history of Fort Harrison covers part of two epochs. The causes
that led up to the building of the Fort, followed by the Tippecanoe cam-
paign, are a part of the history of the troubles that continued to exist
between the United States and Great Britain after the treaty of peace at
Paris in 1783. The Battle of Fort Harrison, the defense by Captain
Taylor, was a part of the war between the same nations, openly declared
June 18, 1812, known commonly as the War of 1812-15.
That marvelous expedition of General George Rogers Clark, con-
ceived by him almost alone, and executed almost without any help from
the general government, encouraged by the peace loving French settlers
of the Mississippi and Wabash valleys, and supported by the financial aid
of "Colonel" Francis Vigo, the "Spanish Merchant" of Vincennes and
Kaskaskia, had won an empire for our people.
At the Paris convention in 1783, His British Majesty's envoys asserted
that the western boundary should be the Allegheny mountains, or at
most the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. They insisted that Clark's little
band had merely taken possession of unimportant posts of French in-
habitants the sovereignty over which had been ceded to Britain by
France. Nevertheless there was the fact that this territory was held, at
the close of the war, by right of conquest. British power had been
represented there by the garrisons at Vincennes and Kaskaskia, had been
overcome and extinguished. And no feasible effort had been made on
His Majesty's part to recover it.
Failing to make that claim good the British envoys sought to have
the land of our later Northwest Territory declared neutral ground, a
land for the Indians. This obnoxious proposal was promptly rejected
by our commissioners, and insistence made that it was conquered terri-
tory to be transferred or there could be no agreement. England was
whipped, and had to concede the terms.
While this agreement was made and the terms of peace settled, they
were not carried out on the part of England in good faith. Under one
excuse or another, or with no pretense of excuse, the land was practically
held, and garrisons were maintained on American territory.
14 Fort Hamson Centennial, 1812-1912.
Many historians hold that England, from the declaration of peace
in 1783, foresaw another war which was to recover to her, if not the
Colonies she had lost, at least a part of this territory. The United States
was poor, heavily loaded with debt, her army exhausted and her re-
sources unavailable. Her government for some years a mere fabric, and
later, still an experiment. It required the constant encroachments of
England to drive our jDcople into this second war.
These encroachments consisted largely of interference with our com-
merce on the high seas. But the features that concern our story of Fort
Harrison were the interference with our Indian relations, sub rosa, by
the British powers through Canada.
While His Majesty's ministers were claiming innocence of any offense
against the tenns of the treaty, there was ample proof that the Indians
of the Northwest were being encouraged in every opposition to the set-
tlement of the country. As a single instance of proof : General Harrison,
then Governor of Indiana Territory, in 1809, wrote to the Secretary of
War that the Indians of the Northwest Territory were receiving subsidies
from the British. He found the Indians equipped with arms and cloth-
ing beyond their means of procuring by purchase, and amply supplied
with provisions. To corroborate his suspicions he sent trusted agents
among them to offer to sell them clothing and even anns and ammuni-
tion. To these offers the Indians replied no, we get all we want from
English traders free of cost. He found that the Indians were being con-
stantly incited to deeds of violence and outrage by English.
About this time came into great prominence, Tecumseh and his
brother, "The Prophet." "The Prophet" was an old fraud of a medicine
man who had gained a temporary influence over part of the restless In-
dians by his mystical arts, played on the ignorant minds. Tecumseh was
perhaps as near being a statesman as an Indian ever was. He conceived
the idea that he could unite all the Indians of America into a great con-
federacy and drive the whites into the sea. He had been preaching his
crusade among the northern people for some time, and had gone among
those of Alabama and Georgia, and perhaps as far as Florida.
Tecumseh's contention on the question of treaty cession of land by
the Indians was that the land belonged to the whole Indian race, and
that cession could not be justly made by the different tribes, but on the
full consent and approval of all the tribes. What basis there was for
such claim it is hard to understand, in the light of the fact that ever
since Europeans knew them, the Indians had been fighting among them-
selves over these same lands. War and pestilence therefrom was the rule.
Whole tribes were at times exterminated.
Tecumseh was far-seeing, being an Indian, and no doubt believed that
the race war would ultimately result in the extinction of one race. He
Causes Leading up to Fort Harrison. 15
could not dispute that the several Indian Treaties had been freely entered
into, so, like the advocate desiring to save his case, he attacked the treaty
It was during his absence that General Harrison, seeing the coming
storm of, to say the least, great disturbance, having exerted all his influ-
ence to dissuade the Indians against their foolhardy plan, decided that
aggressive measures must be adopted and the poor creatures brought to
a sense of their duty, or severely punished. It is believed that Tecumseh
had enjoined on "The Prophet" that under no conditions was a battle
to be risked until he had returned, having succeeded in uniting the whole
of the various tribes.
In stating in the first paragraph of this chapter that the causes that
led up to the building of Fort Harrison were the troubles that continued
to exist between our country and Great Britain, it is not claimed that
there would have been none with the Indians except for British inter-
But for the support, before mentioned, and the encouragement, which
later historical investigation has proven, principally to Tecumseh and
"The Prophet," their dream of a confederation would never have been.
The Indians had never prevailed in any of their wars with the Ameri-
cans, but were persuaded they might, at least, as allies of Britain.
Sundry missions and emissaries to "The Prophet's" town having
brought no satisfactory response to General Harrison, he resolved on a
demonstration into the enemy's country. He would have a renewed
peaceable agreement, or must resort to punishment.
The organization of his army at Vincennes, its personality, and its
march and the Battle of Tippecanoe are told in another chapter.
There has been for a hundred years in America a controversy between
philanthropists and fanatics on the one side and the settlers and radical
Indian haters on the other as to the justice and himianity of the treat-
ment of the Indians. Especially has this applied to the question of how
the lands have been transferred. The contention on the part of the for-
mer has been that the Indians owned the lands and they should not have
been taken from them except by their full and free consent, which means
by purchase at prices that made them anxious to sell. The latter have
contended that the Indians were an inferior, a worthless race, and that
they had no rights. Xow, history shows that as between the two views the
general practice has leaned largely towards the philanthropic side. Xo
set of land traders ever came together for a deal without at least a sem-
blance of sharp practice being a feature of their transactions. There
have been instances of trickery. The ignorance of the Indians has been
taken advantage of more than once. But the basis of every accession of
16 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
land by the United States Government has been on terms of proper com-
pensation. With exceptions enough to prove the rule, this is an historical
fact that cannot be disjDuted.
Others will say that, admitting the purchase of the lands, the prices
given haven't been commensurate with the values. Here brings us back
to the question of value as based on the uses to which they were put.
Taking all that is known of the Indians in their primal state, they made
a precarious living in squalor and hardship, using only the superficial
products that came without labor. The fish in the lakes and rivers and
the game in the forest were increasing, and the soil, none richer in the
world, capable of bountiful production, was idle. With this condition
the Indians lived in poverty and want. They did not utilize the land,
and they were paid for it, more than the value, based on their occupation.
CAPTAIN TAYLOR'S REPORT
Letter from Captain Z. Taylor, commanding Fort Harrison, Indiana
Territory, to General Harrison.
Fort Harrison, September 10, 1812.
Dear Sir:— On Thursday evening, the 3rd instant, after retreat
beating, four guns were heard to fire in the direction where two young
men (citizens who resided here) were making hay, about four hundred
yards distant from the fort. I was immediately impressed with an idea
that they were killed by the Indians, as the Miamis or Weas had that
day infomied me that the Prophet's party w^ould soon be here for the
purpose of commencing hostilities, and that they had been directed to
leave this place which we were about to do. I did not think it prudent
to send out at that late hour of the night to see what had become of
them; and their not coming in convinced me that I was right in my con-
jecture. I waited until eight o'clock next morning, when I sent out a
corporal with a small party to find them, if it could be done without
running too much risk of being drawn into an ambuscade. He soon
sent back to inform me, that he had found them both killed, and wished
to know my further orders; I sent the cart and oxen, had them brought
in and buried; they had been shot with two balls, scalped and cut in the
most shocking manner. Late in the evening of the 4th inst. old Joseph
Lenar and between 30 and 40 Indians arrived from the Prophet's town,
with a white flag; among whom were about ten women, and the men
Avere composed of the chiefs of the different tribes that compose the
Prophet's party. A ShaAvanoe man. that spoke good English, informed
me that old Lenar intended to speak to me next morning, and try to get
something to eat. At retreat beating I examined the men's arms and
found them all in good order, and completed their cartridges to 16
rounds per man. xVs I had not been able to mount a guard of more
than six privates and two non-commissioned officers, for some time past,
and sometimes part of them every other day from the unhealthiness of
the company, I had not conceived my force adequate to the defense of
this post should it be vigorously attacked, for some time past. As I had
just recovered from a very severe attack of the fever, I was not able to
be up much through the night. After tattoo, I cautioned the guard to
be vigilant, and ordered one of the non-commissioned officers, as the sen-
18 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
tinels could not see every part of the garrison, to walk around on the
inside during the whole night to prevent the Indians taking advantage
of us provided they had any intention of attacking us. About 11 o'clock
I was awakened by the firing of one of the sentinels. I sprang up, run
out and ordered the men to their posts, when my orderly sergeant (who
had charge of the upper block-house) called out that the Indians had
fired the lower block-house, which contained the property of the contrac-
tor which was deposited in the lower part, the upper having been as-
signed to a corporal and ten privates as an alarm post. The guns had
began to fire pretty smartly from both sides. I directed the buckets to
be got ready and water brought from the well and the fire extinguished
immediately, as it was perceivable at that time. But from debility or
some other cause, the men were very slow in executing my orders. The
word fire seemed to throw the whole of them into confusion, and by the
time they had got the water and broken open the door the fire had un-
fortunately communicated to a quantity of whiskey (the stock having
licked several holes through the lower part of the building after the salt
that was stored there through which they had introduced the fire with-
out being discovered, as the night was very dark), and in spite of every
exertion we could make use of, in less than a moment it ascended to the
roof and baffled every effort we could make to extinguish it. As that
block-house adjoined the barracks that made part of the fortifications
most of the men immediately gave themselves up for lost, and I had the
greatest difficulty in getting my orders executed ; and, sir, what from the
raging of the fire — the yelling and howling of several hundred Indians
■ — the cries of nine women and children (a part soldiers' and a part citi-
zens' wives, who had taken shelter in the Fort) — ^and the desponding of
so many of the men, which was worse than all — I can assure you that
my feelings were very unpleasant — and indeed there were not more than
ten or fifteen men able to do a great deal, the others being either sick or
convalescent — and to add to our other misfortunes, two of the stoutest
men in the fort, and that I had every confidence in, jumped the picket
and left us. But my presence of mind did not for a moment forsake
me. I saw that by throwing off part of the roof that joined the block-
house that was on fire, and keeping the end perfectly wet, the whole
row of buildings might be saved, and leave only an entrance of eighteen
or twenty feet for the Indians to enter after the house was consumed;
and that a temporary breastwork might be erected to prevent their even
entering there. I convinced the men that this could be accomplished,
and it appeared to inspire them with new life, and never did men act
with more firmness or desperation. Those that were able (while the
others kept up a constant fire from the other block-house and the two
bastions) mounted the roofs of the houses, with Dr. Clark at their head
Captain Taylor's Report. 19
(who acted with the greatest firmness and presence of mind the whole
time the attack lasted, which was seven hours) under a shower of bul-
lets, and in less than a moment threw off as much of the roof as was
necessary. This was done only with the loss of one man and two
wounded, and I am in hopes neither of them dangerous. The man that
was killed was a little deranged, and did not get off the house as soon as
directed, or he would not have been hurt; and, although the barracks
were several times in a blaze, and an immense quantity of fire against
them, the men used such exertion that they kept it under and before
day raised a temporary breastwork as high as a man's head, although
the Indians continued to pour in a heavy fire of ball and innumerable
quantity of arrows during the whole time the attack lasted, in every part
of the parade. I had but one other man killed, nor any other wounded
inside the fort, and he lost his life by being too anxious. He got into
one of the galleys on the bastions and fired over the pickets, and called
out to his comrades that he had killed an Indian, and neglecting to
stoop down in an instant he was shot dead. One of the men that jumped
the pickets returned an hour before day, and running up towards the
gate begged for God's sake for it to be opened. I suspected it to be a
stratagem of the Indians to get in, as I did not recollect his voice. I
directed the men in the bastion, where I happened to be, to shoot him
let him be who he would, but fortunately he ran up to the other bastion,
where they knew his voice, and Dr. Clark directed him to lie close to the
pickets behind an empty barrel that happened to be there, and at day-
light I had him let in. His arm was broke in a most shocking manner,
which he says was done by the Indians w-hich I suppose was the cause
of his returning. I think it probable that he will not recover. The
other they caught about 130 yards from the garrison and cut him all to
pieces. After keeping up a constant fire until six o'clock the next morn-
ing, which we began to return with some effect after daylight, they re-
moved out of the reach of our guns. A party of them drove up the
horses that belonged to the citizens here, and as they could not catch
them very rapidly shot the whole of them in our sight, as well as a num-
ber of their hogs.' They drove off the whole of the cattle, which amounted
to sixty-five head, as well as the public oxen. I had the vacancy filled
up before night (which was made by the burning of the block-house)
with a strong row of pickets, which I got by pulling down the guard
house. We lost the whole of our provisions, but must make out to live
upon green com until we can get a supply, which I am in hopes will not
be long. I believe the whole of the Miamies or Weas were among the
Prophet's party, as one chief gave his orders in that language which re-
sembled Stone Easter's voice, and I believe Negro Legs was there like-
wise. A Frenchman here understands their different languages, and
20 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
several of the Miamies or Weas that have been here frequently, were rec-
ognized by the Frenchman and soldiers next morning. The Indians
suffered smartly, but were so numerous as to take off all that were shot.
They continued with us until the next morning, but made no further at-
tempt on the Fort, nor have we seen anything more of them since. I
have delayed informing you of my situation, as I did not like to weaken
the garrison, and I looked for some person from Vincennes, and none
of my men were acquainted with the woods, and therefore I would either
have to take the river or the road, which I was fearful was guarded by
small parties of Indians that would not dare attack a party of rangers
that was on a scout ; but being disappointed, I have at length determined
to send a couple of my men by water and am in hopes that they will ar-
rive safe. I think it would be best to send the provisions under a pretty
strong escort, as the Indians may attempt to prevent their coming. If
you carry on an expedition against the Prophet this fall, you ought to be
well provided with everything, as you may calculate on having every
inch of ground disputed between this and there that they can defend
with advantage. Wishing, &c.
„. ^ „ ^ (Signed) Z. Taylor.
His Excellency Governor Harrison.
Fort Harrison, Sept. 13, 1812.
Dear Sir: — I wrote you on the 10th inst., giving you an account of
the attack on this place, as well as my situation which account I at-
tempted to send by water, but the two men whom I despatched in a canoe
after night found the river so well guarded that they were obliged to
return. The Indians had built a fire on the bank of the river a short
distance below the garrison, which gave them an opportunity of seeing
any craft that might attempt to pass, and were waiting with a canoe to
intercept it. I expect the Fort as well as the road to Vincennes is as
well or better watched than the river. But my situation compels me to
make one other attempt by land, and my orderly sergeant, with one
other man, sets out tonight with strict orders to avoid the road in day-
time and depend entirely on the woods, although neither of them have
ever been to Vincennes by land, nor do they know anything of the coun-
try, but I am in hopes they will reach you in safety. I send them with
great reluctance from their ignorance of the woods. I think it very
probable there is a large party of Indians waylaying the road between
this and Vincennes, likely about the Narrows, for the purpose of in-
tercepting any party that may be coming to this place, as the cattle they
got here will supply them plentifully with provisions for some time to
come. Please, «&c., &c. /«• in v rp ^
TT- T^ n r. TT • (Signed) Z. Taylor.
His Jiixcellency Governor Harrison.
(Nile's Register, Vol. 3, p. 90.)
A Biographical Sketch by Herbert Briggs.
Zachary Taylor, the hero of Fort Harrison, was the twelfth President
of the United States. He was baptized into the world of fame within
the shadow of Terre Haute.
He was born in Orange County, Virginia, September 24, 1784, soon
after the Treaty of Paris, which closed the Revolutionary War. His
father. Colonel Richard Taylor, had borne a conspicuous part in the
struggle for independence, and was on intimate terms with General Wash-
His mother was Mary Strother, said to have been a handsome young
lady of nineteen whose marriage August 20, 1779, to Colonel Richard
Taylor, then almost a grizzled veteran of thirty-six, was one of the ro-
mances of the time. But the marriage seemed in every way to have been
a happy one, and Zachary was the third son of that union. One son
and three daughters were born after Zachary, but the father made ample
provision for all of his eight children.
Like Indiana, Kentucky was once a part of the Old Dominion, and
was known as one of the western counties of Virginia. To compensate
her soldiers who had fought in the Revolution, Virginia gave liberally
of her grants of land, and Colonel Taylor, accepting the bounties of his
native State, moved his family to a large tract near the present City of
Louisville, Ky., when Zachary was one year old.
Colonel Taylor was not a total stranger to these Kentucky wilds ; as a
young man less than twenty-one, he journeyed westward through Ken-
tuck}^ to the Mississippi river, thence southward as far as Xatchez, then
as one biographer remarks, "without guide or companion, through path-
less woods, over rivers and mountains, fearless alike of the seasons, of sav-
ages, or of any peril of his long and lonely way, he walked back to his
father's house in Virginia."
The spirit of adventure and the courage of the pioneer seemed to have
been an integral part of the Taylor family — it was the summons to the
new and untried that led early members of the Taylor family to leave
their English home and seek their fortunes in Virginia — the lure of the
wilderness that had induced Hancock Taylor, a brother of Colonel Tay-
22 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
lor, to lead the way to Kentucky, and thus it was that a welcome had been
provided for the family of our hero when they arrived at their wilder-
Zachary's father decided that the boy should be a farmer, but destiny
seemed to have ordered his life differently. But whatever parental plans
included, nothing received more careful attention than the education of
his children, and for that purpose Elisha Ayres, a young New England
school teacher, was installed in a school house nearby, so that the chil-
dren of Colonel Taylor as well as those of his neighbors for several miles
around might be properly instructed. Zachary was said to have been
"quick in learning and still patient in study."
There were other means of education for the boy — his mother's force
of character and strong influence, say his biographers, exerted a guidance
all but controlling.
Again, the neighbors must not be overlooked ; in many instances they
had been the father's companions in arms during the revolution. They
gathered around the hospitable Taylor family hearthstone, entertained
themselves and instructed the children Avith rehearsals of their hardships,
adventures and triumphs; the almost daily encounter of some settler with
the Indians; the killing of the uncle, Hancock Taylor, by an Indian in
British uniform — all left their imprint on the minds of the youthful lis-
teners. Ideals of life were thus formed — ideals not necessarily at vari-
ance with the paternal plans, but more in harmony with the ambitions
and environments of the one who was to become the real responsible per-
son, not only for his, but the Nation's destinies.
Then there came the position of Collector of the Port of Louisville —
an appointment from President George Washington, bestowed upon Colo-
nel Taylor in recognition of faithful performance of duties in past days
The Aaron Burr episode in American history, that real or imaginary
prospect of a hostile southwestern empire, served to take young Zachary
away from his home for a few months where he joined a volunteer com-
pany to receive training both in the instincts and art of warfare; this
was his initial step in serving his country. If his ambitions had been
dormant, they were now thoroughly aroused ; the axe, the plough and the
scythe, those instruments of peace and production, no longer entertained
him — the Kentucky farm no longer satisfied his aspiration — w^ar seemed
to have been his trade, surely his ambition. Opportunity was not long
in opening her doors to him. In the early days of the two States, Ken-
tucky and Indiana, held many things in common; many pioneers left
their Kentucky homes and sought the fertile soil of the Wabash Valley.
The two States had a common enemy, the Indian. William Strother
Taylor, older brother of Zachary, and a second lieutenant of artillery.
Zachary Taylor. 23
died removing whatever obstacle that might have been in the way so that
President Jeti'erson appointed Zachary first lieutenant in the Seventh
Regiment of Infantry, May 3, 1808. His first assignment took him to
New Orleans, but an uncongenial climate compelled him to seek the re-
cuperating attention of his home and his mother. He remained on fur-
lough for about two years, during which time he completed one of his
greatest conquests, the winning of Miss Margaret Smith, of Calvert
County, Maryland, to be his wife throughout his long and eventful ca-
reer. His biographers agree that the domestic life of Mr. and Mrs. Tay-
lor, so far as exigencies of camp life would permit, was ideal — an ex-
ample to be imitated. His affection for Mrs. Taylor was thoroughly
reciprocated, and when General Taylor became President she declined the
honors and duties of the first lady of the land, and surrendered to her
daughter, Miss Betty, or Mrs. Bliss, and pronounced her husband's
elevation to the presidency a part of a plan to deprive her of his society
and to shorten his life by unnecessary care.
With the election of James Madison to the presidency. Lieutenant
Taylor's plans suffered no relapse, and on November 30, 1810, he was
promoted to the rank of Captain. About one-half of the Seventh Eegi-
ment to which he had been assigned, was sent north to Vincennes there
to join General Harrison, Governor of the Northwest Territory. This
was a favorable time for a young man with Captain Taylor's ambition.
Great influences were at work to test the defensive power of the Na-
tional Government. The British Government had as yet failed and re-
fused to carry out the terms of the Treaty of 1783, and even in that treaty
the independence of the United States was not recognized. England
recognized ''thirteen free, separate and independent sovereignties," and
demanded of the American Commissioners making the Treaty of Paris
that the old Northwest Territory be left as neutral gi-ound to be occupied
by the Indians. English Emissaries were busy everywhere with their
allies, the Indians. Pioneers in frontier districts were in constant dan-
ger of Indian fury. Aggravated by the English conspirators, this state
of affairs was especially true in the Wabash Valley where the great
natural resources were attracting vast numbers of settlers. Many Indian
tribes under the leadership of Tecumseh, a Shawnee Chieftain of great
sagacity and influence, had been organized to resist the encroachments of
That Tecumseh was a force with which the United States must deal
was well illustrated by a Canadian historian, who said : "No one can fully
calculate the inestimable value of those devoted red men, led on by the
brave Tecumseh during the struggle of 1812. But for them it is probable
that we should not now have a Canada, and if we had we would not en-
joy the liberty and privileges we possess in so eminent a degree."
24 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
Tecumseh's brother, Ellskwatawa, known as the "Prophet," a mixture
of medicine man and sorcerer, also exercised great influence over many
Many things combine to confirm the belief that the British Govern-
ment had a working agreement with the Indians. Tecumseh had received
a commission as Brigadier-General in the British Royal Army, 1812-1813,
and led two thousand warriors at Fort Meigs; it was upon Tecumseh's
advice that the final place was selected for the Battle of the Thames,
where he put aside his English uniform and sword, and donned his na-
tive costume, the better to inspire his savage warriors. He was killed in
a hand to hand encounter with a United States soldier, said to have been
Colonel Richard M. Johnson, but the controversy as to who killed the
famous Chief has never been settled.
The Prophet received a pension from the British Government until
1826. Other instances of Indian loyalty to English plans might be re-
cited, but enough has been given to convey an understanding of the diffi-
cult task undertaken by Governor Harrison when he attempted to acquire
possession of a large tract of land from the Delaware, Pottawatomies and
Miamis, extending along the Wabash river to a point a few miles north
of where Terre Haute is now situated. General Harrison's headquarters
were at the territorial capital, Vincennes. Indians under the leadership
of the Prophet had assembled at Prophets Town near the present site of
Lafayette. It was against this formidable foe that General Harrison
marched from Vincennes, September 26, 1811, At a point about three
miles due north of the court house, in Vigo County, he built the Fort
named in his honor. About one year later, September 4, 1812, this Fort
was commanded by Captain Zachary Taylor, who had about fifty men
under his command, less than a score of whom were available for mili-
tary duty, the others having been incapacitated by sickness. Some citi-
zens and their families who had sought refuge in the Fort aided in the
defense. The Indians fought with all their savage fury. All facts go
to show the attacking Indians were an adjunct to the British plan to ex-
terminate Fort Harrison. Captain Taylor's conduct on that trying night
was characteristic of his entire life — he superintended every detail of the
defense. His heroic conduct won for him the rank and title of Major by
brevet, an unusual thing in Indian warfare. Peaceable settlement could
now go forward. English hope of an internal empire in any part of what
is now the United States seemed more and more remote, a very signifi-
cant victory for a young man not yet twenty-eight years old. Today
the Northwest Territory, much of which was made accessible by Captain
Taylor's achievement, contains more than eighteen millions of people,
about one-fifth of the population of the United States.
^ Zachary Taylor. 25
At the close of the War of 1812, Congress ordered the National stand-
ing army reduced to ten thousand men, and as a consequence Captain
Taylor ^vas reduced in rank, but rather than submit to the humiliation
in the face of the service he had rendered, he resigned without comment
or complaint, returned to his Kentucky farm *'to make a crop of corn/'
Without any effort on his part he was restored to the army with the rank
of Lieutenant-Colonel of the First Regunent of Infantry.
During the next twenty-four years Captain Taylor was engaged in
defending frontier settlements against the encroachments of the Indians.
Black Hawk, Chief of the Sacs and Foxes, was his chief adversary. It
was during the northwestern campaign that an episode in the story of
Captain Taylor changes the scene from English conspiracies and savage
conquests to the more peaceful pursuit of that prince of archers, Master
Cupid. This dauntless sprite had enlisted with a young officer, Cap-
tain Davis, later known as Jefferson Davis, President of the Southern
Confederacy. Captain Davis disappeared and with him had gone Miss
Sarah Taylor, daughter of Colonel Taylor. Captain Davis resigned im-
mediately from the army, and became a cotton planter in Mississippi,
served with distinction in the Mexican War, and later wrote the bio-
graphy of General Taylor in which he refers to his own elopement, say-
ing "Sarah, the oldest daughter of General Taylor, became the wife of
Colonel Taylor continued in the northwest until 1836, when repeated
depredations of the Indians in Florida and on the Gulf coast required a
man of his caliber to restore order and safety to the settlers from the
ferocity of the Seminoles. He was now fifty-two years old. He had had
a quarter of a century of successful experience with the Indians. In a
decisive battle at Okechobee he won the title of Brigadier-General by
brevet, and was appointed to the chief command in Florida.
The trouble between the United States and Mexico on account of the
annexation of Texas brought General Taylor again to a conspicuous
place, but the story of his achievements in the war which followed con-
stitutes a volume too great in proportion for this sketch. His success in
the Mexican War was the culmination of a great military career — a
hero's part in a foreign war that added an empire to our National do-
minions and made of him a popular idol of national dimensions. He had
been respected, honored and trusted by every President, beginning with
Jefferson and ending with Polk, a period of nearly forty years. General
Taylor's hope of retirement to the quiet and peaceful walks of a farmer's
life was rudely shocked by his election to the presidency of the United
States by the Whigs in 1848. He was President but sixteen months,
though in that brief period he is said to have fully comprehended the
nation's perils and by his sturdiness, sagacity and devotion to the Union,
26 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
postponed the Civil War for ten years. The brevity of his term as Presi-
dent forbids a conclusive opinion of his ability as an executive officer ad-
ministering civil affairs. He was candid and straightforward in his
methods. His state papers show models of pure forcible English and un-
doubted honesty of purpose. He urged the building of an isthmian canal ;
he ordered the preliminary surveyal for the railroad to the Pacific Ocean ;
he urged the establishment of the Department of Agriculture to promote
the productive resources of the country, and favored many other pro-
General Taylor's successes were due to his simplicity of character, his
moral courage, his exalted patriotism, moderation in the exercise of
power, justice, magnanimity, benevolence, his wisdom.
He died July 9, 1850, in the full consciousness of "having always done
his duty." His death was probably due to the effect of excessive heat
while attending the exercises of the laying of the corner-stone of the
Washington monument. His remains are buried on the old Taylor farm,
now within the City of Louisville, Ky.
COMMANDANTS AT FORT HARRISON
By J. T. Sco\t:ll.
Lieutenant Colonel James Miller was in command from October
31 to November 14 while the army was on the Tippecanoe campaign.
Captain Josiah Snelling, of the Fourth Regiment of the United
States Infantiy. He was in command from November U, 1811, to some
time in June, 1812. He was promoted to Colonel of the Fifth Infantry,
June 2, 1819. Fort Snelling, Minn., is named for him.
Captain Zachary Taylor, of the Seventh Regiment of the United
States Infantry. Captain Taylor was in command from some time in
June, 1812, to' September 16, but we find no date of appointment or
transfer. He defended Fort Harrison September 4 and 5, 1812. He
afterward became General Taylor, "Old Rough and Ready," of the
Mexican War, and later President of the United States.
It is known that Major Willoughby Morgan was in command of the
Fort December, 1815. When he succeeded Captain Taylor or whether
there was another officer between them is not known. In about May,
1816, he was ordered to other duty by General Jackson, then Comman-
der-in-Chief of the Army, and left Major John T. Chunn in command
of the Fort. It is said that he rebuilt the Fort.
Major John T. Chunn having reported to Major-General Arthur
McComb. Commandant of the Department at Detroit, the departure of
Major Morgan, General McComb issued an order May 10, 1816, trans-
ferring Major Chunn from Fort Knox, and placing him in command at
Fort Harrison. This order instructed Major Chunn to remove govern-
ment property from Fort Knox to Fort Harrison. This apparently was
the end of Fort Knox as a government post. Major Chunn had helped
to build the Fort at the time of the Harrison campaign to Tippecanoe.
He was then a Lieutenant in one of the companies of that army^ He
Avas appointed Captain of the Nineteenth Regiment of the U. S. In-
fantrv. April 14. 1812. He was transferred to the Third Regiment on
May IT. 1815. He resigned from the army June 12, 1821. after a long
and honorable service. He returned to Terre Haute to spend the rest of
his life, and leave a long list of descendants to honor his name.
28 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
There was no trouble with hostile Indians during the time of Major
Chunn's command of the Fort. But in 1816 there w^as a scare. Reports
came to the Fort of depredations by the Indians in Michigan and North-
ern Indiana, and the Fort was thronged with refugees. An autograph
letter from Major Chunn to Mr. Gilbert, dated September 8, 1816, indi-
cated possible danger, but no attack was made. During the succeeding
years, 1817 and 1818, 1819 and 1820, even after the Fort had been aban-
doned by the garrison, there were these scares about the Indians.
Major Robert Sturgis. Appointed Ensign of the Second Infantry,
September 28, 1812. Promoted to First Lieutenant March 9, 1814, and
resigned February 10, 1818. He had served as a volunteer private in
Captain Benj. Parks' troop of light dragoons, in the Tippecanoe cam-
paign, and so was a builder of Fort Harrison. From many legends, he
was so interesting a character, 'tis a pity more is not known of his his-
tory. He never married. He died in Terre Haute about 1828. July 4,
1817, was the first one ever celebrated in Terre Haute. The celebration
ball was in Henry Redford's new hewn log house, known as The Eagle
and Lion Tavern. The record says, "Major Chunn with his officers. Lieu-
tenants Sturgis and Floyd, Drs. Clark and McCullough, with several
other gentlemen with their ladies residing at the Fort, were of the happy
crowd of celebrants." According to these dates. Major Chunn was trans-
ferred and Major Sturgis was appointed Commandant after July 4, 1817.
As Major Sturgis resigned from the army February 10, 1818, he was
Commandant but a few months. He was Treasurer of Vigo County
1823-1824, and Sheriff 1825-1826. Probably Fort Harrison ceased to be
a military post about the time Major Sturgis resigned.
INMATES OF FORT HARRISON
By J. T. ScovELL.
At time of siege, September 4 and 5, 1812, there were in the fort some
sixty persons, soldiers and citizens. We only know the names of the fol-
Captain Zachary Taylor, Commandant.
Dr. William A. Clark, Army Surgeon. He was commended by Cap-
tain Taylor as acting with the greatest firmness and presence of mind in
defense of the Fort. Dr. Clark also practiced among the citizens outside
Drummer Davis, a deserter from the English army, w^ho joined the
Americans as a musician. After the war he lived across the river. Died
William Bandy, a Virginian and soldier. Lived in Fayette Town-
ship after the war.
William Cowen, who was killed in the fight.
Josey Cowen, his brother, who died the next day of disease.
Joseph Dickson and family, wife and children.
Jonathan Graham and wife. No further notice of Jonathan Graham.
Isaac Lambert and wife, Julia Lafferty Lambert.
Mrs. Briggs and her daughter, Mary.
Mrs. Isaac Anderson and her daughter, Matilda.
Mary Dickson and Joseph Dickson, young children of John Dickson,
in cure of their aunt, Julia Lambert.
Peter Mallory and family, wife and children.
John Clinton Bradford, a baby about a year old.
PIONEERS OF THE WABASH VALLEY
Joseph Liston, who helped to build the Fort, writes that Isaac Lam-
bert, John Dickson, Mr. Hudson, Mr. Chatry and ^Ir. Mallory cultivated
the lands under the protection of the Fort. Mr. Hudson and Mr. Chatry
may have been in the Fort, but we find no evidence of it. One report
says that John Dickson and family were in the Fort September 4, 1812,
but a reliable family history shows that Mr. Dickson and wife were in
Vincennes September 4, 1812. In his report. Captain Taylor speaks of
30 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
"nine women and children, a part citizens' and part soldiers' wives, who
had taken shelter in the Fort." The above list contains the names of
six women, one a soldier's wife, and there are the names of several
Joseph Dickson came to Indiana in 1811 and cultivated lands under
the jDrotection of the Fort. Joseph Dickson and family were in Fort Har-
rison September 4 and 5, 1812, and helped in the defense. Joseph Dickson,
a son, and another man, were killed by the Indians as they were return-
ing to the Fort. The daughters of Joseph Dickson were Margaret Dick-
son Handy, Elizabeth Dickson McFadden, Nancy Dickson Lee, Mary
Dickson Clarke, and Hannah Dickson Harris.
Margaret Dickson married Stephen D. Handy at the Fort in 1813.
Eliza Handy, daughter of Margaret, married Samuel Archer.
Orinthia Archer, daughter of Eliza, married Alexander McGregor.
Alexander Archer McGregor is the only child.
Isadora Archer, daughter of Eliza, married Jacob White in 1867.
The children are Cecil Duleny White, Eliza White Bartholomew, Charles
Archer White and Effie Aileen White Davison.
Sarah Handy, daughter of Margaret Dickson Handy, married James
Lawrence, father of Edward E. Lawrence, Terre Haute.
John Dickson came to Vigo County some time in 1811, and may have
helped to build the Fort. John Dickson had a contract to supply beef
and other materials to the garrison in the Fort. Goods belonging to
him were burned in the block-house September 4, 1812. John Dickson
lived in the Fort, but September 4, when the Fort was attacked he and
his wife, Elizabeth Lambert Dickson, were in Vincennes, but two of their
children, Mary and Joseph, were in the Fort at the time of the siege
under the care of their aunt, Julia Lambert. Rebecca Dickson was born
March 23, 1813, at Vincennes, and John Wesley Dickson was born June,
1815, at Fort Harrison. Eebecca Dickson married William Durham, son
of Daniel Durham. Their daughter, Harriet Durham, married Samuel
Royse in 1875. Samuel Royse was Auditor of Vigo County from 1870
to 1878. There are four children: Samuel, William, Martha and Anna.
Isaac Lambert came to the region in 1811 and cultivated lands under
the protection of the Fort. Isaac Lambert and family were in the Fort
September 4, 1812, and helped in the defense. Mrs. Julia Lambert was a
sister of James Lafferty, and aunt of Aquilla Lafferty. Isaac Lambert
and his brother-in-law, John Dickson, built Lambert & Dickson's mill on
Honey Creek. Isaac Lambert was a member of the first Board of Com-
missioners of Vigo County. Julia Lambert helped to settle the estate of
Isaac Lambert in 1829 and 1830.
Inmates of Fort Harrison. 31
Matilda Anderson, daughter of Isaac Anderson, was born at Fort
Knox June 7, 1804. Isaac Anderson belonged to the army, and was mail
carrier between Fort Knox and St. Louis. Isaac Anderson was an Or-
derly Sergeant in General Harrison's army. When Matilda was eight
years old, Mr. Anderson moved his family to Fort Harrison, so that
IVIrs. Anderson and Matilda Anderson were in the Fort at the time of
the siege. After the siege, Matilda became acquainted with an Indian
who claimed that he set fire to the block-house. He said lie filled a camp
kettle with bark and soaked it with bear's grease, put it in a hole under
the block-house and set fire to it. In 1824, Matilda Anderson married
William Taylor. Caroline Taylor, daughter of Matilda and William
Taylor, was born in September, 1831, and in September, 1850, married
Isaac Ball. Mr. Ball was an undertaker, a prominent and much re-
spected citizen. Isaac Ball and Caroline Ball are survived by two chil-
dren, Mrs. Matilda E. Ball Hess and Frank H. Ball, who reside in Terre
Peter Mallory came to this region in 1811, and probably helped to
build the Fort. He was in Vincennes when Governor Harrison and Te-
cumseh had a conference during which the Indians sprang to their feet
threatening attack. Mr. Mallory cultivated lands under the protection
of the Fort, sometimes plowing with his loaded gun strapped to his
back in anticipation of an attack from Indians. Mr. Mallory and wife
were in the Fort at the time of the siege September 4 and 5, and helped
in the work of putting out the fire and in defending the Fort. Peter
Mallory was one of the messengers from Captain Taylor to General Har-
rison at Vincennes after the siege.
Dr. Thomas Bradford was an Army Surgeon under General Har-
rison. His son, John Clinton Bradford, wms in Fort Harrison Septem-
ber 4, 1812. John Clinton Bradford and wife. Mary Bradford, owned
land in the southeast part of Lost Creek Township. They had two
Jane Bradford Coif man and Mary Bradford Brannon.
Amelia Brannon, daughter of Mary, married Daniel B. Joice. They
live in Terre Haute.
Josephine Brannon, daughter of Mary, married George Stump. Mrs.
Stump lives in Terre Haute.
Mary Briggs and another girl molded bullets in Fort Harrison Sep-
tember 4, 1812. Mary Briggs married George Wright. There was one
son, William Wright, who had three sons. George Wright, Terre Haute:
Lincoln Wright, Clinton, Ind., and Charles Wright, Xew Goshen, Ind.
Joseph Liston came to what is now Vigo County in 1811. He was
in company with Edmond Liston, his father, Reuben Moore, his brother-
32 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
in-law, William E. Adams, Martin Adams and William Drake. They
planted, cultivated and harvested seventy-five acres of corn and sold the
com to General Harrison for use of the army while they were building
the Fort. Liston and perhaps others of his company were militia sol-
diers. The location of the corn field, the location chosen for the Fort
and the time of the army movement look very much as if General Har-
rison had planned the whole thing several months before. Joseph Lis-
ton was a scout. He was famous for his skill in getting knowledge of
the movements of the Indians, and thus preventing the destruction of
the property and loss of life. It was the boast of the old man that he
had never taken a human life. Joseph helped to build the Fort, but
did not go to Tippecanoe and was not in the Fort September 4 and 5,
Some descendants of Joseph Liston by his first wife:
Thomas Liston, of Clay County. Gilbert Liston, son of Thomas,
lives near Lewis, Ind. Mary Liston, a daughter of Thomas, married
Moses Pierson. Mary and Moses Pierson had two sons, Moses and Isaac
T. Pierson, and one daughter, Lida, who married Thomas Donham, of
Terre Haute. Moses Pierson and wife have two sons, Charles and Frank,
and one daughter, Mary, who married Gustave Willius, Jr.
Joseph Liston by his second wife, Louisiana Lloyd, a widow, had one
son, Henry Clay Liston.
A son of Henry Clay Liston, Samuel Liston, lives in the southern part
of Vigo County.
There are several Listons in Vigo County, but they seem to be
descendants of the brothers of Joseph Liston.
Abraham Markle and Joseph Richardson, of Genesee County, New
York, visited Fort Harrison in 1815, making the trip on horseback. In
1816 they crossed the mountains to Olean on the Allegheny river. There
a large boat was built for the accommodation of both families, and late
in the spring the voyage began. At Pittsburg Mr. Richardson left the
company for a trip to Washington, the family with Mr. Markle continu-
ing the voyage and reaching Fort Harrison July 4, 1816.
Mrs. Richardson occupied a house near the Fort, but was greatly an-
noyed by the Indians. There was considerable alarm among the whites.
There were rumors of war dances and other signs of mischief. One night
Mrs. Richardson and others went into the Fort, as there were signs
of an Indian attack. Mrs. Richardson remained in the Fort three days,
then loaded her family and goods in a boat, and against the advice of
the commandant and others started for Vincennes, arriving there in
Inmates of Fort Ilarnson. 33
George Berkely Richardson, a son, became a citizen of Terre Haute.
H. S. Kichardson, his son, is well known in Terre Haute.
Sarah Elizabeth Richardson married Edward V. Ball, for man}^ years
a prominent physician in the city. They had four children : Matilda Ball
Mancourt, Caroline Ball Cheever, Lawrence S. Ball, of Prairieton, whose
children are Edward Halsey Ball, Agnes Ball Ogle and Bertram E. Ball,
and Mary E. Ball Peddle. Her children are Caroline Peddle Ball, wife
of Bertram E, Ball, Mary Peddle Peckham, Margaret Peddle Bodde,
John B. Peddle.
Curtis Gilbert, then a young man, not quite of age, arrived at Fort
Harrison in December, 1815. He had visited the settled portions of
Western Pennsylvania, Ohio and Kentucky, and had spent some months
in New Orleans, prospecting for a location. On his return up the river
to Louisville, Ky., he was so impressed with the stories told him of the
richness of the Wabash Valley that he immediately went to Vincennes
and there formed a partnership with Mr. X. B. Bailey, and pushed on
to Fort Harrison with a stock of goods for trade with the settlers as well
as the Indians. He was so well pleased with the value of the country
that he remained here for sixty-five years, until his death.
As a government licensed trader, he spent some time on the Ver-
million river. It was to him there in September, 1818. that Major
Chunn, Commandant of Fort Harrison, wrote of the atrocities of the
Indians at Machinac, and the unrestfulness of those in Northern Indiana,
advising Mr. Gilbert to return to the Fort until the scare was over.
Major Chunn might have ordered him to come down the river, but he
did not consider there was any real danger, so gave him the information
and left him to act on his own judgment.
He returned some time later and remained at the Fort as trader
and postmaster until the fall of 1818, when he removed to Terre Haute,
where he was the first Clerk, Auditor and Recorder of the county, and
held the office for twenty-one years.
His old account books, kept at the Fort, have largely helped the
Historical Committee in settling locations and dates.
He was the fifth in direct descent from Jonathan Gilbert, one of the
founders of Hartford, Conn., in 1635, and was the founder of the Gilbert
family of Terre Haute.
Abraham Markle came to Fort Harrison along with the Richardson
family in 181G. As a soldier in the war of 1812. ^Ir. Markle had a war-
rant for several quarter sections of land which were located in the vi-
cinity of Fort Harrison. The family settled on Otter Creek, where Mr.
Markle had a mill built. Abraham ^larkle and his family have been
prominent citizens of Terre Haute and Vigo County, but did not have
much to do with the Fort. Two of the sons were with the father in the
34 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
war of 1812. One was in the Blackhawk War, and several of the de-
scendants were in the Civil War. Major Markle's children were: Sons
William, Abraham, Henry, Nelson, George, Frederick, Joseph and Na-
poleon Bonaparte, and daughters Sarah and Aula.
Nelson Markle had two sons, George and Theodore. Gertrude Mar-
kle, daughter of George, married Arthur Richmond. Theodore Markle
has two sons, Augustus E. and Paul, and two daughters, Grace Markle
Starr and Florence Markle.
Frederick Markle had two sons, Abraham and William. William
lives in Otter Creek Township, and has two sons, Herbert and Daniel,
and one daughter, Mabel, who married William Wier.
James Matthew Stewart was one of the pioneers at Fort Harrison.
He came with his bride in 1817, and remained a few months. He re-
turned to the Falls of the Ohio where he had large contracts as a builder.
But as soon as they were completed (1819) he came back to Terre Haute
to live. Two sons. Colonel Robert R. Stewart and Lieutenant Colonel
James Stewart, were noted cavalry officers in the Civil War. Another
was William H. Stewart, a leading and highly honored citizen. Mayor of
Terre Haute and Sheriff of Vigo County. The family were for years
identified by the "'Stewart House," a noted hostlery.
Dr. Charles B. Modesitt came to the Fort in 1816. The doctor was a
public-spirited man of affairs. He was a good doctor, a good business
man and a good citizen. His sons were James A. Modesitt and Wilton
M. Modesitt, and he had one daughter, Frances Anna, who married
Chauncey Warren. At her death, in 1904, she left surviving her, and
who now reside in Terre Haute, three daughters, Eliza B. Warren, Clara
W., wife of Egbert Curtis, Frances Deming Warren, and one son, John
Susan Spencer was in the Fort about 1816 with her uncle, Andrew
Brooks. She married Andrew Wilkins, who was at one time Sheriff of
Vigo County, and at another time Clerk of the county. The children
were: Emily Wilkins Early, Rachel E. Wilkins, Mary B. Wilkins, Lida
Wilkins Merrill, John E., William and George D. Wilkins.
Caleb Crawford and family came to Fort Harrison, May, 1817.
One daughter, Ann Mary, married David W. Rankin. Their children
were Sarah E. Rankin, Morton C. Rankin and Oscar Rankin. Another
daughter, Emeline, married Henry Fairbanks. Their son, Crawford
Fairbanks, built the Public Library, and named it for his mother. Caleb
Crawford and his descendants were not closely related to the Fort, but
were under its protecting wings as living on the farm at a short dis-
tance during the Indian scares of 1817 and 1818, and have been promi-
nent and valuable citizens of Vigo County.
THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY
By J. T. ScovELL.
The larger part of North America is a great plain extending from
the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. On the west are the Eocky
mountains. On the east are the Alleghenys This great plain is drained
by the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes into the North Atlantic; by the
Saskatchewan into Hudson Bay; while the southern portion is drained
to the Gulf by the Mississippi, Ohio and Missouri rivers. The region be-
tween the Ohio and the Great Lakes and between the Alleghenys and the
Mississippi river is called "The Northwest Territory.
European Discovery and Division.
AYhen the Europeans about 1500 discovered North America, the w^hole
country was occupied by tribes of savages whom they called Indians.
Spain, France and England claimed the whole continent by right of dis-
covery. These natio^ns did not consider that the Indian had any proprie-
tary rights in this broad domain, in these lands which he called home.
The Claims of Spain.
Spain made the earliest discoveries, the West Indies, the regions bor-
dering on the Gulf and on the Carribbean Sea. Spain, at first, was dis-
posed to claim the whole continent, but occupied regions along the Gulf
and across to the Pacific with indefinite northern boundaries. Spain
built St. Augustine and held the region for many years not for indus-
trial purposes, but as a protection to her commerce with Mexico. Spain
made no attempt to explore the Mississippi river nor to occupy its valley
for agricultural purposes, but later treaties show that her claims were
recognized as extending as far north as the sources of the Mississippi
The Claims or France.
France claimed the Valley of the St. Lawrence and the "wilderness
world westward and southward to its uttermost bounds? The French
early discovered the Great Lakes and the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers.
They established a chain of trading posts and missionary stations from
36 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912,
the mouth of the St. Lawrence along the Mississippi to the Gulf of
Mexico, Detroit, Fort Wayne, Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, one on
Red river, one near Natchez, and another near the site of New Orleans.
Among the French leaders were Champlain, Joliette, La Salle and Mar-
quette. The French engaged in the fur trade doing but little agriculture.
Thus the French were the first Europeans to occupy the Northwest Ter-
The Claims or England.
The English claimed the regions along the Atlantic coast, south of
the St. Lawrence valley, and westward from "sea to sea." England made
grants to Virginia, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut with such
indefinite western boundaries that each claimed an interest in the North-
west Territory. English, Dutch, French Huguenots, Germans and others
settled along the coast regions and engaged in agriculture, built towns,
established manufacturing industries, engaged in mining, fishing, fur
trading and other lines of commerce. These people increased rapidly
in numbers encroaching continually upon the hunting grounds of the
Indians, and restricting the fur trade of the French. In some cases
treaties were made with the Indians and they were paid for their in-
terest in the lands, but there was no definite uniform custom in the mat-
ter and there was continual strife. In the last half of 1600, Dutch and
English traders began to compete with the French in the fur trade. In
1684 the Iroquois Indians placed themselves under the protectorate of
King Charles which gave the English some claim to the Northwest Ter-
ritory. During the first half of 1700, many English crossed the moun-
tains. In 1754 General Braddock was defeated with great loss of life
by the French and Indians. In 1758 Colonel Forbes drove the French
out of the upper Ohio Valley, and in 1759 Quebec was captured by the
English under General Wolfe, and the French dominion in America was
at an end. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the King of France ceded
to his Britanic Majesty, in full right, Canada and all its dependencies,
the western boundary to be a line drawn along the middle of the Missis-
Great Britain and the Indians.
The Indians at first did not seem to object to the British supremacy
in America. The English seemed inclined to treat the Indian about as
the French treated him. But during the year 1762 Pontiac, an Ottawa
Chief, formed a conspiracy involving several Indian tribes. They hoped
to capture all of the military posts and to drive all the white people out
of the country. In 1763 these Indians captured Mackinaw, Sandusky,
Ouiatenon, Fort Miamis, Venango and others, but failed in their at-
tack upon Detroit, and they failed at Fort Pitt. A vigorous campaign
under General Bradstreet and Colonel Boquet broke up the Indian power
The Northwest Territory. 37
so completely that they sued for peace and all the tribes interested con-
cluded treaties with the English. For several years the Indians were
peaceable, "although in the meantime many English colonists, disregard-
ing the proclamation of the King, the provisions of treaties and the re-
monstrances of the Indians, continued to harass the Indians by making
settlements upon their lands." "The fur trader seldom had trouble with
the Indian ; he probably paid a small price for furs and cheated the In-
dian in other ways, but he did not destroy his hunting grounds. The
farmer was continually in difficulty. He cut down the forests and pol-
luted the streams, destroying both hunting grounds and fishing ponds.
The British as fur traders were friends; the colonists, the settlers, chang-
ing forests into corn fields, were not friends.
During the War of the Revolution, in the summer of 1778, George
Rogers Clark, a Virginian, with an army of Virginians, captured and
occupied the British posts of Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes.
The success of the expedition was largely due to the active co-opera-
tion of the French priest. Father Gibault. The jDeople living about
these posts were chiefly of French descent. Father Gibault explained the
situation to these people and they transferred their allegiance to Vir-
ginia with scarcely a murmur. Later, Francis Vigo, a "'Spanish Mer-
chant" of St. Louis, saved the expedition from probable failure by ad-
vancing money to pay the expenses of the army. At the close of the
war with Great Britain by the treaty of peace concluded at Paris in 1783,
"His Britanic Majesty acknowledges the United States to be free and
independent states and relinquishes all claims to the government, pro-
priety and territorial rights of the same and every part thereof." The
territory mentioned being south of the St. Lawrence and the Great
Lakes and east of the middle of the Mississippi river, excepting Florida.
Spain preferred claims to portions of this territory, and objected to
the Mississippi boundary, and France also objected to that boundary,
but both finally waived their objections and signed the treaty. Thus all
the title and all the claims of European countries to the Northwest Ter-
ritory were vested in the United States.
The close of the war found the United States deeply in debt with no
prospective resource except as might be derived from the sale of public
lands. The title to the lands in the Xorthwest Territory was not quite
clear. The cession of lands by Great Britain had been to the United
States as a nation. Virginia, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut
38 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
had valid claims to the lands in the Northwest Territory. By an Act
of Congress passed September 6, 1780, the States preferring claims to
lands in the Northwest Territory were recommended to cede their claims
to the General Government for the good of the Union. In accordance
with this suggestion, New York in 1781, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts
in 1785, and Connecticut in 1786, ceded their claims to lands in the
Northwest Territory to the General Government, Virginia and Connecti-
cut making some minor reservations.
Acquiring the Indian Title.
Immediately after the conclusion of the treaty with Great Britain,
Congress undertook measures for acquiring the Indian title to the lands
in the Northwest Territory. At Fort Stanwix October 22, 1784, the
Iroquois, or the Six Nations, yielded to the United States all claims to
the territory west of a line running from Johnson's Landing, about four
miles east of Niagara river, southerly to the Ohio river in the extreme
western part of Pennsylvania. On January 21, 1785, the United States
concluded a treaty with the Delaware, Wyandot, Chippewa and Ottawa
Indian tribes by which lands in Ohio east of the Cuyahoga and Musk-
ingum rivers were ceded to the United States. The territory northwest
of the Ohio river was organized in 1787, and General Arthur St. Clair
was appointed Governor and Minister of Indian Affairs.
The Ordinance or 1787.
The Ordinance of 1787 for the government of the Northwest Terri-
tory, guarantees religious liberty, the benefit of the writ of habeas corpus
and of the trial by jury. Article 3 is as follows: "Eeligion, morality and
knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of man-
kind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.
The utmost good faith shall always be observed toward the Indian ; their
lands and property shall never be taken from them without their con-
sent, and in their property rights and liberty they never shall be invaded
or disturbed unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress; but
laws formulated in justice and humanity shall from time to time be
made for preventing wrongs being done to them and for preserving
peace and friendship with them." For several years there had been
desultory warfare between the Indians and the settlers for the most part
carried on between small parties conducted by irresponsible persons.
Such warfare was often accompanied by treachery and shocking cruelty
on both sides. After the appointment of Governor St. Clair, the war
assumed a different character as far as the Whites were concerned. There
was more humanity in the treatment of prisoners and non-combatants,
and all operations were under the direction of the government.
INDIANA IN 1811
GENERAL HARRISON'S LINE OF MARCH FROM VINCENNES
TO PROPHET'S TOWN IN 1811
Chart prepared by Prof. W. D. Pence of Purdue University
The Northwest Territory. 41
General Wayne and the Greenville Treaty.
All efforts of Governor St. Clair to make peace with the Indians
failed. The military expeditions sent out ajrainst the Indians were fail-
ures or disasters, so that in 1794 Indian ali'airs were in a very critical
condition. On August 20, 1794, General Wayne near the Falls of the
Maumee defeated the Indians. He says: "The enemy were routed from
their position and driven more than two miles through the woods. The
savage hordes with their British and Canadian allies abandoned them-
selves to flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving our vic-
torious army in full and quiet possession of the field of battle." General
Wayne returned to Greenville for the winter. During the winter, parties
of Indians from several different tribes visited General Wayne and
signed preliminary articles of peace.
At Greenville, August 3, 1795, General Wayne concluded a treaty of
peace with the Wyandots, Ottawas, Chippewas, Sacs, Eel Rivers, Kas-
kaskias, Kickapoos, Pottawattomies, Weas, Miamis and Shawnees by
which old boundary lines, including all of what is now Ohio, were con-
firmed, and for "the same considerations, and as an evidence of returning
friendship, and to provide for that convenient intercourse which will be
beneficial to both parties, the said Indian tribes do also cede to the United
States certain pieces of land, to-wit, one piece six miles square at the old
Wea towns on the Wabash, and fourteen other pieces of land in the
Northwest Territory. The Indians also release the lands granted to Gen-
eral Clark, and the lands in other places in possession of the French peo-
ple, or others, of which the Indian title has been extinguished. Consid-
erations. And for the same considerations and with the views above
mentioned, the United States now deliver to the said Indian tribes a
quantity of goods to the value of $20,000, the receipt whereof they do
hereby acknowledge and thenceforward every year forever, the United
States will deliver at some convenient place, northward of the Ohio, like
useful goods to the value of $9,500, reckoning that value as the first cost
of the goods. Mutual concessions. And the said Indian tril)es will al-
low the people of the United States free passage by land or water
through their country. And the said Indian tribes shall be at liberty to
hunt within the territory which they have now ceded to the United
This treaty was signed by several Indians from each tribe, by Gen-
eral Wayne and General Harrison, and several other army officers and by
several sworn interpreters.
From this time, 1795 to 1810, the United States maintained pacific
relations with the Indian tribes that were parties to the Greenville treaty.
42 Fort Harrison Centennial, 1812-1912.
Indiana Territory Organized.
Indiana Territory was organized in 1800 and May 13, 1800, William
Henry Harrison was appointed Governor. The United States "author-
ized Governor Harrison to promote peace and harmony among the differ-
ent tribes of the Northwestern Indians and to induce them, if possible,
to abandon their modes of living, and to engage in the practice of agri-
culture and other pursuits of civilized life." The Governor was also
authorized to negotiate treaties for the purpose of extinguishing the
Indian title to lands within the boundaries of the territory.
The principal subjects which attracted the attention of the people
of Indiana were the purchase of Indian lands, the adjustment of land
titles, and the hostile proceedings of Tecumseh and his brother, the
Treaties for land in Indiana along the Ohio river as far west as the
Wabash and up the Wabash to a point above Vincennes were made with
the Delaware, Pottawattomies, Miamis, Eel River, Wea and other tribes
who at the time were recognized as having title. These treaties seem to
have been made in good faith and were signed by the Indians after full
consideration and discussion. But the consideration paid, including the
initial payment and the annuities, seem small and inadequate, at least
for agricultural lands. Considered as hunting grounds, the price seems
inadequate. The lands certainly were worth more to the world, but
were they worth more to the Indian than the United States paid him for
them Did the colonists and the speculators who obtained grants from
England pay more than the United States paid the Indians? The prices
though small, must have been about what public sentiment considered
Opposition to Indian Treaties.
August 21, 1805, a treaty was made which conveyed to the United
States certain lands along the Ohio river. Some Indians, as Tecumseh
and his brother, the Prophet, and others, began to realize something of
the value of the land for agriculture, and tried to hinder the making of
treaties, claiming that the Indians were being robbed. This idea was
encouraged by certain speculators who opposed the government policy
of making treaties for the Indian title, as it prevented them from buying
direct from the Indian. Then it is well known that British emissaries
were trying to make trouble between the Indians and the United States.
This opposition was strong, and for several years no treaties were made.
The Noi^thwest Tenitonj. 43
Treaty of Fort Wayne, 1809.
But September 30, 1809, at Fort Wayne, General Harrison, in spite
of the opposition, was able to conclude a treaty with the chiefs and head
men of the Delaware, Miami, Eel River, Wea and Kickapoo tribes, by
which about 2,900,000 acres of land, southeast of the Wabash below the
mouth of Raccoon Creek, were sold and ceded to the United States.
And December 9, 1809, the Kickapoos ceded to the United States about
113,000 acres of land lying west of the Wabash river and below the Ver-
million river, beino- about twelve miles wide along the Wabash. The
northeastern boundary of this Fort Wayne cession of 1809 runs from
northwest to southeast, and is called the ten o'clock line, as it runs
toward the sun at ten o'clock. Why was the line run in that direction?
General Harrison's Letter.
General Harrison writes: "I was extremely anxious that the cession
should extend to this river (the Vermillion) by the Treaty of Fort
Wayne, but there was objection because it would include a Kickapoo vil-
lage. This small tract of land, about twenty miles square, is one of the
most beautiful that can be conceived, and is moreover believed to con-
tain a rich copper mine. I have myself frequently seen specimens of the
copper, one of which I sent Mr. Jetferson in 1802." The letter was dated
at Vincennes, December 10, 1809. This letter seems to explain the ten
o'clock line. It included more of the beautiful country that contained
a rich copper mine than an east-w^est line would include.
Tecumseh and the Prophet.
Tecumseh and his brother continued their opposition to the making
of treaties for the disposal of Indian lands. In fact they were more
active after the treaty made in 1809. August. 1810, in a conference with
General Harrison, Tecumseh intimated that he would resist any attempt
to survey the lands ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Fort
Wayne. Tecumseh claimed that the lands belonged to the Indians as a
nation, not as individual tribes. In fact each tribe had special rights
in some territory which Tecumseh and his brother had to recognize.
Tecumseh and his brother were Shawnees. They were crowded out of
Delaware towns on the White river to Greenville in Ohio. The people
in that region desired them to move on, and by permission of the Pot-
towattomies and Kickapoos, they settled on the Wabash near the mouth
of the River Tippecanoe.
The new settlement was called Prophets Town.
44 Fort Harrison Centennial, 1812-191'2.
General Harrison and Tecumseh.
There were many, both Indians and Whites, who denounced Te-
cumseh and the Prophet and their followers as enemies of the United
States. The General at length came to regard Tecumseh and his brother
as dangerous persons who, having received some encouragement from the
British, were endeavoring to form a confederacy of Indian tribes which
in the event of war between the United States and Great Britain, would
become allies of Great Britain, Tecumseh and the Prophet did not have
supreme power over the Indians. At a conference of Indian tribes in
May, 1810, Winamac, a Pottawattomie Chief, and some Delawares op-
posed the Proj^het, and prevented the Ottawas, Pottawattomies and
Chippewas from placing themselves under the control of the Prophet.
At this time Winamac and others estimated the warriors following the
Prophet at about 650, made up mainly of restless bands from several
different Indian tribes, but not the leading men of any of the tribes. On
one occasion the Prophet declared, "That it was not his intention to
make war on the Whites, that some of the Delawares and others had
been bribed to make false charges against him. Tecumseh was haughty,
claimed that the land was sold by only a few of the members of the
tribes and that the Fort Wayne Treaty was made through the threat
of Winamac. Tecumseh threatened the Chiefs who sold the lands, and
said to General Harrison, "If you do not restore the lands you will have
a hand in killing them." About the 1st of August, 1811, Tecumseh
with a few followers went south for conference with southern tribes.
Treatment of Indians by the Whites.
In a message in 1806 Governor Harrison said, "The Indians will never
have recourse to arms unless driven to it by injustice and oppression.
Of this they already begin to complain, and I am sorry to say that their
complaints are far from being groundless. The laws of the territory
provide the same punishment for offenses committed against the Indians
as against White men. Experience shows that there is a wide difference
in the execution of those laws. The Indian always suffers and the White
man never. This partiality has not escaped their notice. Every regula-
tion which would promise more impartiality in the execution of the
laws in favor of those unhappy people will be highly acceptable to the
United States and honorable to yourselves. I pray you lose no oppor-
tunity of inculcating among your constituents an abhorrence of that de-
testable doctrine which would make a distinction of guilt between the
murder of a White man and an Indian. The principal matters of which
the Indian comj^lained were: The encroachments of the White people
upon the lands which belonged to the Indians; the invasion of their
hunting grounds and the unjustifiable killing of some of their people.
WILLIAM HKNR\' HARRISON
T?ie Northwest Territory. 45
These complaints were not groundless, but neither the hnvs of the United
States nor those of Indiana Territory were sufficiently strong to prevent
the evil conduct of a few bad White men."
Subsequent events and later dealings with the Indians apparently
convinced General Harrison that he was in error regarding the traits of
The Tippecanoe Campaign.
Pre'parations for War.
July 31, 1811, at a meeting of the citizens of Vincennes and vicinity,
a petition was made to the President for protection from the depreda-
tions of the Indians. The President fully informed as to Indian affairs
in Indiana Territory, had, earlier in the season, authorized the Governor
to call out the militia and at his discretion to call into service the Fourth
Regiment of the United States Infantry under the command of Colonel
John P. Boyd. The General was instructed to preserve pacific relations
with the Xorthwestern Indians by the use of all means consistent with
the protection of the citizens of the territory and the maintenance of
the rights of the General Government. Governor Harrison having de-
termined to erect a new fort on the Wabash river, and to break up the
assemblage of hostile Indians at Prophets Town, ordered Colonel Boyd's
regiment of infantry to move from the Falls of the Ohio to Vincennes, at
which place the regulars were to be reinforced by militia.
Galling Out the Militia.
About the 1st of September, according to Mr. William Naylor, "Gen-
eral Harrison sent a requisition to Colonel Joseph Bartholemew to raise
three companies of militia and one troop of horse and equip them accord-
ing to law and to march to Vincennes.
Colonel Bartholomew mustered the companies into service September
10, 1811, equipped with ten days' rations in their knapsacks, Aveighing
about thirty-five pounds exclusive of arms and accoutrements. This
command consisted of Captain Biggers' volunteer company of riflemen
from Clark County, Captain Spencer's company of mounted riflemen
from Harrison County, Captain John Xorris' comi)any of infantry, and
Captain Beggs' troop of horse. This detachment reached Vincennes
September 20, 1811. John T. Chunn was Lieutenant in Captain Big-
gers' company, and ^Ir. William Xaylor was a private. The militia
from the vicinity of Vincennes were under the connnand of Lieutenant
Colonel Luke Decker. The command consisted of Captain Warrick's
company, infantry, Captain Hargrove's company, infantry. Captain
Scott's company, infantry. Captain Wilson's company, infantry, Captani
Wilkins' company, infantry, and a troop of horse commanded by Cap-
46 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
The Fourth Regiment, United States Infantry, consisted of Captain
Josiah Snelling's company, Captain George Prescott's company, Captain
William C. Bean's company, Captain Joel Cook's company. Captain
R. B. Brown's company, Captain Robert C. Barton's company, a com-
pany commanded by Lieutenant Charles Fuller and a company com-
manded by Lieutenant O. G. Burton.
The Organization of the Army.
The army was organized as follows: "The infantry, both the regu-
lars and the State militia, are to form one brigade under the com-
mand of Colonel John P. Boyd as Brigadier General. Lieutenant
Colonel Miller will command the first line composed of all the reg-
ular infantry, and Lieutenant Qolonel Bartholomew wdll command
the second line composed of the militia infantry. These two offi-
cers will report to and receive orders from Colonel John P. Boyd,
Josejjh Hamilton Davies, from Kentucky, is appointed and commis-
sioned Major of Dragoons in the militia and to command the whole of
the cavalry. Major Daviess will receive orders from the Commander-
in-Chief. Captain Spier Spencer's company of mounted volunteers will
act as a detached corps. Captain Spencer is to receive orders from the
Commander-in-Chief." Captain Robert Buntin was appointed Quarter-
master for the militia. The time from September 21st to September
26th was spent in drilling the men and in making other preparations for
the campaign. September 26, 1811, the army moved northward, encamp-
ing October 3rd on the east bank of the Wabash river, about two and
one-half miles north of the site of Terre Haute.
The Fort was to be a storehouse of supplies for the army and a pro-
tection in case of a defeat or disaster in the campaign. Tlie site selected
was the point nearest the Indian boundary that was suitable for a fort.
It was on a sharp eastward bend of the river so that there was a good
view both up and down stream. The land rises twenty-five to thirty feet
above low water and was covered with light forest of oak, honey locust
and others, which furnished the timber used in building the fort. The
fort was about 150 feet square. The west side consisted of a two-story
block-house about twenty feet square at each comer with barracks between.
These were stoutly built log houses with shed roofs, the upper stories
of the block-houses projecting beyond the lower so that the outside of
the three walls of the fort could be seen from the block-houses. The
guard house on the north was a log house. The balance of the structure
The Northwest Territory. 47
including the bastions on the east, were of palisades in a trench about four
feet deep. The gate was on the east. The fort was finished October 23,
1811. Soon afterward the army was called out and Major Joseph Ham-
ilton Daviess, after a little speech, broke a bottle of spirits on the gate
and named the structure Fort Harrison.
Lack of Supplies and Threatened Mutiny.
The first crop of corn raised in Vigo County was used to feed the
army while building the fort. Joseph Liston. who helped cultivate the
crop, was a soldier, and it is supposed that Liston and his companies
were sent out by General Harrison to raise corn for the army. Other
supplies were. shipped by the river. "The water was low; the boats were
delayed; the men were on short rations, and many of them were ready
to turn back toward Vincennes. General Harrison called them together,
made a little speech, explaining the situation, and said that no more
flour and beef should be used in his tent than was assigned to a com-
mon soldier. He then made an appeal to the army and said if any com-
pany- or individual wanted to go home they could have the privilege.
He then said all that were willing to bear the privations of the army
and want of provisions and go to the Prophet's town would manifest it
by raising their firearms or swords. There was not one down in the
whole army, and there was not a murmur heard in the camp afterwards."
Appeal to Kentucky.
General Harrison appealed to Kentucky for volunteers as they were
interested in breaking up the power of the hostile Indians. AYhile build-
ing the fort Captain Fred Guiger's company of mounted riflemen of the
Kentucky militia and Peter Funk's company of mounted Kentucky
militia joined the army. The new fort was garrisoned by a small com-
pany of men under Lieutenant Colonel James Miller. A number of these
men were invalids. October 29, 1811, the army took up its march toward
Prophets Town, the boats having arrived with the belated sup^Dlies.
March to Fort Boyd.
October 31st, the army crossed the AVabash at a point about three
miles below the mouth of the Big Vermillion river. Prophets Town was
west of the river; the route east of the river was shorter, but mostly
through forests; the route west of the river was longer, but mostly
through prairie, less danger of ambuscade. It was considered safer to
cross near the mouth of the Vermillion with the aid of boats than near
Prophets Town in the face of the enemy. Near the mouth of the Vermil-
lion they built a block-house twenty-five feet square, and called it Fort
48 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
Boyd. Here a Sergeant and eight men were left as guard of boats and
supplies. "From Fort Boyd General Harrison detailed twelve men, in-
cluding William Bruce of Captain Dubois' company, to return to Vin-
cennes for the purpose of keeping the militia alert, and to keep up a daily
patrol between Vincennes and White river, to prevent the Indians from
making incursions against the settlers in the rear of the army." This
account was written by William Bruce. On November 3rd the army
resumed its march up the river. They waded the Vermillion and other
streams. It was cold, sometimes below freezing. The roads were bad,
in some places dangerous, but no Indians were seen until November 6th,
when they reached the vicinity of Prophets Town. General Harrison
was urged to attack at once, but he finally turned aside and camped in
order of battle for the night. Toward morning the Indians attacked the
camp with great vigor, but they were defeated and driven away. The
loss of life was heavy on both sides and many were wounded. The In-
dian town was burned, the dead were buried, and November 9th the re-
turn march was begun. Fort Harrison was reached November 13th with-
out special incident. Leaving Captain Snelling with his company of
regulars at Fort Harrison the army continued its march southward.
General Harrison''s Farewell Speech.
At Shakers Town the General made a speech eulogizing the dead and
praising the bravery and soldierly conduct of the living. The General
said: "The larger part of the troops had never been in action, and yet
they behaved in a manner that can never be too much applauded." Gen-
eral Harrison speaks highly of the officers and men of the Fourth Regi-
ment and of Posey's company of the Seventh Regiment, commanded by
Lieutenant Jacob W. Albright of the First Infantry. In short they sup-
ported the fame of American regulars. The General also says, "that several
of the militia companies were in no wise inferior to the regulars. He
mentions specially Spencer's, Warrick's, Guiger's and Robb's companies,
and calls attention to their heavy losses. And that Wilson's and Scott's
companies charged with the regular troops and proved themselves worthy
of doing so. Norris' company behaved well. Hargrove's and Wilkins'
companies had no opportunity of distinguishing themselves or I am sat-
isfied they would have done so."
Some Resnlts of the Campaign.
Dillon says that among the immediate results of the Tippecanoe ex-
pedition were the breaking up of the Indian settlements at Prophets
Town, the destruction of the Prophet's influence among the northwestern
Indian tribes, the defeat of the plans of Tecumseh, and a temporary relief
to the frontier settlements from Indian depredations.
The Northwest Territory. 49
The battle at Tippecanoe was considered a great victory. The adven-
tures incident to this campaign furnished fireside talks for many years
in both Indiana and Kentucky. It became an unwritten law of those
days that new counties should be named after some hero of Tippecanoe
as: Spencer, Tipton, Daviess, White, Parke. Warrick, Dubois. Barthol-
omew, Floyd and Randolph. Many of the men who perished in the cam-
paign were volunteers, not on duty as soldiers, but as men, as citizens,
who recognized a crisis in the affairs of Indiana, a crisis in the affairs
of Kentucky, and that duty to humanity called them to arms and perhaps
Fort Harrison as a Refuge for Settlers.
Fort Harrison was built as a refuge in case of defeat at Tippecanoe.
It served the army as a storage for supplies. When the army disbanded
Captain Snelling and company were left as a protection for the settlers
on the frontier. The victory at Tippecanoe so crippled the power of the
Indians that there was no danger of a large body of hostile warriors.
But the successes of the British and the Indians at the opening of the
War of 1812 did encourage a number of small war parties to invade
the Indiana settlements, killing stock, burning houses and murdering
settlers. Block-houses were built on the frontiers, one on the farm of
William Bruce, east of Vincennes, large enough to protect several fami-
lies. Sometime during the summer of 1812 Captain Zachary Taylor was
made Commandant at Fort Harrison with a garrison of fifty men. It
was a sickly season, and seldom more than one-third of the force were
fit for duty. Many families moved into the Fort and block-houses, the
men going out to do a little farming or hunting.
The Siege of Fort Harrison and Subsequent Events.
September 3rd, occurred the Pigeon Roost Massacre in which twenty-
four persons were killed and the same day two men were killed near Fort
Harrison. In the afternoon of September 4th a body of Indians ap-
proached the Fort under a flag of truce, asking for a conference regarding
provisions. CajDtain Taylor, suspecting treachery, would not treat with
them, but made careful preparations to resist an attack by the Indians.
Beside the garrison there were several citizens in the Fort, as Joseph
Dickson. Peter :Mallory and others, and there were several women and
children in the Fort for protection. About midnight the attack was made
and immediately came the cry of "Fire.*' The southwest block-house con-
taining the stores of the contractor was on fire. The citizens and their
wives under Dr. Wm. Clark battled with the fire, and the soldiers battled
with the Indians. Captain Taylor ordered out buckets and soon there were
buckets of water passing from the Avell to the fire. By the time the door
50 Fort Harrison Ceritennial, 1812-1912.
was broken out the fire had reached a quantity of whiskey and there was
no hope of saving the block-house. The roof next the barracks was
thrown off and the barracks kept so wet that the fire did not spread to
them. The burning of the block-house would make an opening in the
walls of the Fort about twenty feet wide. When the fire was under con-
trol a number of men were put to work building a barricade across this
opening, and before the fire had cooled down so that persons could pass
through, a baiTicade had been completed and the walls of the Fort were
again suitable for defense. During the fire the women drew the water
from the well and the men passed it up to the roof. In a short time the
water got so low in the well that they could not dijD the bucket full. Then
Julia Lambert said, "Let me down into the well and I will fill the
buckets." In doing this Julia dijoped up so much sand that after a
while the well was made deeper so that the buckets dipped full again.
This was talked of as a miracle. It is said that Julia never recovered
from the fatigue and exposure in the well. xA^fter the fire was under
control, the women loaded the guns for the men and the girls moulded
bullets. Soon after the attack, two frightened men jumped over the
palisade, thinking it safer outside than inside a burning Fort. One was
killed in a few minutes. After a while the other, severely wounded,
crawled back to the shelter of the walls of the Fort. The contest was
kept up until morning. As it began to get light so that the fire from the
Fort became more effective, the Indians retired, giving up the fight.
They drove away the cattle, shot the horses they could not catch, and
killed a number of hogs. The losses were two killed and two wounded
in the Fort, one killed and one wounded outside the Fort. Two killed
in the field September 3rd and two were killed on the 4th as they were
coming into the shelter of the Fort. Total loss seven killed and three
wounded. Nothing is known of the number of Indians engaged in the
attack and nothing is known about their losses, but they were thought to
have been small. When news of the attack on Fort Harrison reached
Vincennes, about 1,200 men under Colonel William Russell, marched to
the relief of the Fort. The force consisted of Colonel Wilcox's Regiment
of Kentucky Volunteers, three companies of rangers under Colonel Jor-
dan, and two regiments of Indiana militia under Colonel Evans. When
these troops without opposition reached the Fort September 16th, the
Indians had retired. The Kentucky Volunteers remained at the Fort
for some time. The others returned to Vincennes.
Early in October, 1812, General Hopkins with an army of about
2,000 mounted riflemen moved northward from Vincennes for the pur-
pose of destroying villages of hostile Indians on the Wabash and Illinois
rivers. They crossed the river near Fort Harrison and the Fort was to
serve as a refuge in case of accident. The expedition was a failure. The
The Northwest Temntory. 51
men turned back in spite of efforts of General Hopkins, Major Lee, Cap-
tain Taylor and others.
Another expedition under General Hopkins reached Fort Harrison
November 5, 1812, on the way to Prophets Town and vicinity. Captain
Zachary Taylor connnanded a small company of rej^ulars on this expe«
dition. The expedition was successful and several villages were de-
stroyed. General Hopkins speaks highly of the behavior of officers and
men, especially of Captain Z. Taylor. Again Fort Harrison was the base
DISTINGUISHED MEN AT FORT HARRISON
By J. T. ScovELL.
William Henry Hareison was a great man. He was successful as a
Greneral, as Governor, as Superintendent of Indian Affairs and as a poli-
tician, having been elected ninth President of the United States in 1840.
He came from a distinguished family, his father, Benjamin Harrison,
signed the Declaration of Independence; was a delegate to the first
Colonial Congress; was elected Governor of Virginia in 1782, and was
twice re-elected. William Henry Harrison was born February 9, 1773.
He abandoned the study of medicine for the military. He was commis-
sioned Ensign in 1791. He served with General Wayne in the campaign
against the Indians in 1794. Was Governor of Indiana Territory 1801-
1813. At the same time he was Superintendent of Indian Affairs he
built Fort Harrison, and gained a victory over the Indians at Tippecanoe
in the fall of 1811. In 1812 Governor Harrison was commissioned Com-
mander-in-Chief of the Kentucky forces, later he was made Brigadier
General in the United States Army, and assigned to the command of the
Northwestern army. In general he was successful in his military opera-
tions against the British and Indians, defeating the joint forces at the
battle on the Thames, thus regaining all that General Hull lost. William
Henry Harrison was especially successful in dealing with the Indians,
concluding many treaties with them. Tecumseh and others were hostile;
Winemac, Captain Logan, and others were generally friendly. After
the battle on the Thames General Harrison resigned his commission.
William Henry Harrison was a member of Congress from Ohio 1816-
1819, and United States Senator 1825-1828. In 1836 he was defeated as
Whig candidate for the Presidency, but was elected ninth President of
the Uunited States in 1840. He died April 4, 1841, one month after his
inauguration. President Harrison was a strong and convincing speaker,
and in general was popular with the people. General Harrison, a grand-
son of William Henry Harrison, was elected twenty-third President of
the United States in 1888. He was born on August 20, 1833. He was
a distinguished lawyer in IndianajDolis. He was breveted Brigadier
General in the Civil War; was United States Senator 1881-1887. He was
elected to the Presidency in 1888. Benjamin Harrison was an excejDtion-
ally strong man, and made a good President, but he lacked some elements
of popularity so characteristic of his great ancestor, and failed of re-
Distinguished Men at Fort Hanison and Tippecanoe. 53
election. It is seldom that three such conspicuously strong men occur
in one family. The celebration of the Centennial of Fort Harrison em-
phasizes our relations with these distinguished men.
There are a great number of descendants of General Harrison. Among
whom are John Scott Harrison, a brother of President Benjamin Harri-
son, lives in Kansas City, Mo.
Mrs. Anna H. Morris, a sister of President Benjamin Harrison, lives
Colonel Russell B. Harrison, son of President Benjamin Harrison,
lives in Indianapolis. William Henry Harrison, son of Russell Harri-
son, born in Terre Haute, lives in Omaha, and daughter, Mrs. Martina
Harrison Williams, lives in Norfolk, Va.
Mrs. J. R. McKee, daughter of President Benjamin Harrison, and
her children, Benjamin Harrison McKee and Mary Lodge McKee, live in
Colonel John P. Boyd, of the Fourth Regiment of the United States
Infantry. He helped to build Fort Harrison. In the battle General
Harrison says, "He manifested equal zeal and bravery in carrying into
execution my orders." Colonel Boyd was shortly after Major General
Boyd, and in command of the Department of New Hampshire, Massa-
chusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
Marston G. Clark came to Vincennes as a volunteer private in on©
of the militia companies. His"" standing as a citizen and capacity as a
man prompted General Harrison to make him Brigade Inspector on his
personal staff. He served with credit through the campaign. After-
wards he took prominent position in civil affairs. Among other things,
he was one of the commissioners appointed by the Governor to establish
Captain Robert Buntin, Quartermaster of the Brigade, had seen ac-
tive service before in the Indian wars. He served with and later wrote
an interesting account of the defeat of General St. Clair in 1791.
TomssAiNT Dubois, Captain of Guides and Spies. He was an influen-
tial man with the Indians and early pioneers. United States Senator
Fred T. Dubois of Idaho is a grandson of Captain Dubois. Dubois
County, Indiana, was named for Captain Dubois.
John Tipton, promoted on the field to Captain in command of
Captain Spencer's company after the death of Captain Spencer
and of First Lieutenant Richard McMahon. He afterward became Major,
then Colonel, and then General Tipton. After the war, General Tipton
was a member of the State Legislature, and in 1831 became United States
Senator. General Tipton in 1829 bought the ground on which the Battle
54 Fort Harrison Gentennml^ 1812-1912.
of Tippecanoe was fought, and in 1836 conveyed sixteen and one-half
acres of it to the State of Indiana. Tipton County was named for Gren-
William Bruce, a volunteer in Captain Toussaint Dubois' company
of guides and spies, lived in the neighborhood of Vincennes. He was
Captain and later Major Bruce of the Indiana militia He is an ancestor
of Professor Bruce of the Indiana State Normal School
Captain Andrew Wilkins, of the Indiana militia. The Captain's
nephew, Andrew Wilkins, was for several years Sheriff of Vigo County,
and later Clerk of the county.
Captain James Bigger of a company of riflemen of the Indiana
militia. The company was from Clark County.
Isaac Naylor, Sergeant in Captain Bigger's company. Afterward
Judge at Crawfordsville, Ind.
William Naylor, private in Captain Bigger's company. Business
man in Terre Haute, also Assessor and Justice of the Peace, and author
of interesting reminiscences of the Tippecanoe campaign.
Davis Floyd, Sergeant in Captain Beggs' company. Floyd County,
was named for Sergeant Floyd.
Major George Croghan, Aide-de-Camp of Colonel John P. Boyd.
About twenty years old. Afterward distinguished himself at the defense
of Forts Meigs and Stephenson in 1813.
James Hite, private in Peter Funk's company of Kentucky mounted
militia. About eighteen years of age. He is said to have acted bravely
in battle. For many years a citizen of Terre Haute.
TERRE HAUTE UNDER FOUR FLAGS
"Terre Haute Under Four Flags" is one of the historical sketches
prepared by EdAvard Gilbert, and read in the city schools. The Avork of
Mr. Gilbert was undertaken under the direction of John Morton Chap-
ter, Sons of the American Revolution.
How many of the school children know that this land has been under
four flags? At difl'erent times four separate nations have held dominion
over our country. It is not meant that each has held some part of the
United States, but over this very land on which Terre Haute now stands.
And these four flags do not include the Indians or aboriginal inhabi-
tants. The Indians did not have flags. There is nothing in Indian
archeology that shows anything that stood to them as the flags of civ-
ilized nations stand to their people. Some of the first known tribes of
parts of America had what they called "Totem poles." These generally
had carved on them emblems of the tribe or family, such as a beaver, bear
or a fox. These were fixtures and stood where for the time the tribe
might be located ; they were not carried about and there was supposed to
be but one for each tribe.
The first claim to this land by an European was more than three hun-
dred years ago, when the Spanish adventurer, DeSoto, landed on the
shores of Tampa Bay, Florida, and traversed a great part of the western
country. Though he did not come so far north as Indiana, he took for-
mal possession of the whole country which was watered by the Mississippi
river and its tributaries, in the name of the King of Spain. Besides, the
Pope, who claimed jurisdiction over the whole world, had given North
America to the King of Spain.
This part of the world was first explored by Frenchmen. About the
year 1680 men of that nation were the first to tread this land. These
were called "voyaguers" or "couriers de bois." Their trading or explor-
ing expeditions were voyages made up or down the rivers or lakes, as it
might be. from the points where the first settlements were located.
The "voyaguers" were the forerunners of such explorers as LaSalle,
Marquette and Joliette, who made great exploring expeditions and took
possession in the name of the King of France. This was often done with
elaborate ceremonies, especially if. as usual, they were accompanied by
priests or missionaries. Sometimes it was done by hewing a cross on the
flattened side of a great tree, or carving on a rock the arms of the King
56 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
For many years there was undisturbed French possession, undisputed
by any other European nation. At times there was much trouble with
the Spanish, who invaded the land from the west side of the Mississippi
river, who established mission posts, nominally for the conversion of the
heathen, but more for the sake of the trade with the Indians. This trade
was very profitable for, to the Indians, everything the foreigners had
was new, and consequently, so they thought, very valuable. The Indians
would give great stacks of the most costly furs for the cheapest trinkets.
These furs were sent to Europe and sold at enormous profits.
There was for years, in places, much controversy between the French
and Spanish for control, which ultimately resulted in the Spanish being
confined to the west side of the Mississippi river and the French to the
The French and the French flag held sway for about ninety years,
until, in consequence of the capture of Quebec by the English General,
Wolfe, in 1759, all French possessions in this part of North America
passed to the hands and under the flag of England.
So our land was English territory until 1778 during the Revolution-
ary War, when, by the capture of Kaskaskia, on the east bank of the
Mississippi river and Vincennes on the east bank of the Wabash by Gen-
eral George Rogers Clark, all this western country came under the con-
trol of the American Confederation, and the Star Spangled Banner.
As a consequence of this campaign and capture by General Clark,
when the treaty of peace was made between the United States and Eng-
land, at the close of the Revolutionary War, the western boundary of our
country was made the Mississippi river, whereas, but for that expedition,
it would have been the Allegheny mountains or the Ohio river, leaving
all to the north and west as part of Canada.
There was more or less trouble with the Indians all the time after
the peace with England. The Indian nature is so different from that of
the Whites that they have never been able to live together in peace, except
when the Indians were under a strong control backed by force. All ex-
periences with them shows that force was the only characteristic they
respected. As an example: After the treaty there were a number of forts
throughout the West that had to be transferred. The English soldiers
remained in some instances for months. It is told that at one of these
there was a large English garrison and that but few Americans were in
the party to succeed them. The Indians that were about and witnessed
the transfer were utterly disgusted at their English friends for giving
up the fort. They said it was cowardly for so large a force to surrender
to a smaller, and without even a fight. They could not understand that
the war was over and the two nations were now friends.
Terre Haute Under Four Flags. 57
The Indian character had little respect for obligations or treaties.
It is true many treaties have been neglected or violated on the part of the
Whites, but always at least with the pretense of an excuse. The Indian
characteristic was, when there w^as a chance in case of a fight, then fight.
For nearly thirty years, until the Battle of Fort Harrison in 1812,
there was always trouble with them and danger to all who lived away
from the larger settlements. The defeat of the Indians at that battle so
completely ended all depredations that there has been peace all over this
part of the country ever since, for a hundred years. And until there is
no one living who personally knew of or had personal experience of dan-
ger from Indians. It is this century of peace that we propose to cele-
brate this September, as the beginning of a new school year and century
for the school children of Terre Haute.
THE BLUE GRASS OF FORT HARRISON PRAIRIE
By C. T. Jewett.
Fort Harrison's lasting reward to the valiant Kentucky Mounted Rifle-
men for the important j)art they played in building and defending the
historic post on the bank of the Wabash was the seed for the now famous
blue grass. Sod of the Fort Harrison prairie, transplanted in the beauti-
ful hills of Kentucky, gave to that Commonwealth a State name that is
The incident of the campaign of 1812 was almost forgotten in the
stirring events of the half century following, but from oft repeated tra-
dition and musty letters of the soldiers, authentic evidence is supplied
to bear out the claim that Indiana really is the original blue grass state.
Not wath the intention of taking the least bit of honor from the coun-
try south of the Ohio is this item set down. What the Wabash Valley
and the highlands of Terre Haute gave to the followers of William
Henry Harrison and Zachary Taylor, Kentucky has given to the world.
In the campaign against Tippecanoe, when Fort Harrison was built,
were volunteers from Kentucky. These men provided their own mounts
and not the least concern to them was suitable provision for their horses.
Next to the beautiful women of his Commonwealth the thoroughbred
holds the affections of the true Kentuckian.
When the soldiers went into camp during the erection of Fort Har-
rison the army of the Northwest Territory was short of provisions for
men, and there was little forage for the horses. The Kentuckians were
willing to go hungry if need be, but they insisted that their horses suffer
nothing from neglect or lack of feed. This point they were not slow in
impressing on Captain Buntin, Quartermaster of the Fort.
Their complaint called attention to the fact that there was "no feed
for the horses except that coarse grass out on the prairie." One of the
letters from a soldier to his home told of the incident. Quoting from that
message we have the following:
"Captain Buntin, who had been here before, replied. 'Turn your horses
out on that coarse grass and listen to what he says about it.' Morgan
took to it like a duck to water and in a few days I had never seen him
with so sleek a coat and generally in such fine fettle."
The Blue Grass of Fort Harrison Prairie. 59
The Kentiickians were not slow to appreciate the ofFerinjr of the
prairie. When the time came to return home each saddle bag contained
a parcel of seed of blue grass. The soil of Kentucky was rich and soon
the blue grass took root. The hardy vegetation of the Fort Harrison
prairie became the luxurious blue grass of the hills of Kentucky.
Not less patriotic Kentuckian than Henry Clay attested to the truth
of this incident. In the prime of his eventful life, when the country
rang with his eloquent voice the repeatedly recalled what he confessed
was Kentucky's debt to Indiana and the AVabash valley — the blue grass.
Terre Hauteans of the present day offer as their authority for this
the frequent statement of the late Judge John G. Crane, an intimate
of Henry Clay. Judge Crane often repeated the words of the great
Kentuckian Avho honored Indiana in his graceful acknowledgment that
Kentucky was proud to be known as the Blue Grass State, and re-
vered the soil of Fort Harrison prairie — -the first home of the blue grass.
COPPER AND COAL MINES ON THE WABASH
By Edward Gilbert.
In one of General Harrison's reports he speaks of the difficulty of
securing the inclusion in a treaty of certain lands which he much desired,
but was objected to by the Indians, partly on account of the location
thereon of a valuable copper mine. He speaks of having seen samples
of the copper, one of which he had sent to ^Ir. Jefferson, in 1802, The
immediate location of this mine was held a profound secret by the In-
dians, but General Harrison supposed it to be somewhere on the west
side of the AVabash between about where Lafayette now stands and Vin-
cennes. General Harrison no doubt hoped that this would in time prove
a valuable item in the possession of Indiana. Later research proved
that the supply of copper was limited to light washings of several small
creeks. And the hopes of development have never been realized.
At the same time it is of record that when the scouts of the Tippe-
canoe army advanced up the river ahead of the army, they found several
settlers freely working drifts for the coal that cropped out. Ensign
Tipton, in his journal of his investigations, niakt's many references to
these coal mines.
In those days copper Avas an object of great worth, for it was scarce
and of great value. AA^hile the forests were being cut down to clear the
land, coal as a fuel was not so interesting. In these modern time.s. con-
ditions are reversed. The cojiper mine has vanished from memory, but
those drifts of coal have opened the way to the discovery, fifty years
later, of the enormous deposits under this whole region, which have
proven the basis of all our prosperity.
60 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
THE FIRST CROP OF CORN ON FORT HARRISON PRAIRIE
By Edward Gilbert.
Early in the spring of 1811 there appeared five men, in the vicinity
of what is now the southeast part of the City of Terre Haute. These
men proceeded to break up the land and plant a crop of seventy-five
acres of corn. Why they selected this remote place was a mystery at
the time. By their own statement there were no inhabitants of the coun-
try roundabout, nearer than Carlisle, the town long the capital of Sulli-
van County, some thirty miles away. Where were they to get a mar-
ket for their crop ? While there is no historical authority for the state-
ment, it is believed that it was an example of the long headedness of
General Harrison, who foresaw the coming expedition, and sent these
men here to prepare the crop for the use of his army that was to march
through the country in the Fall. It is told how four of the five were
wary of reports of Indian threats, and being willing to abandon their
enterprise, the fifth bought out their interests and secured the crop. It
was, as expected, later sold either to the army direct or to the contrac-
tors who supplied the expedition.
It is true that one of the men was a soldier enlisted in the army, and
that he disappears from the rolls for a time.
Whatever may have been the inducement that led to the enterprise,
it is admitted by all historians that then was the first plowing of Fort
Harrison prairie for cultivation by civilized people.
PICTURE OF FORT HARRISON
By Edward Gilbert.
The picture of Fort Harrison presented to our readers is a photo-
graphic copy of a print made and copyrighted in 1848 by Luther G.
Hager and James A. Modesitt.
It can well be called the only existing, authentic picture portrayal of
what Fort Harrison looked like.
Luther G. Hager was a young and enthusiastic amateur artist who
came here in 1836. James A. Modesitt was a son of Dr. Charles B.
Modesitt, one of the early pioneers of the county, who was at and in
Fort Harrison for some time during its maintenance as a post. He was
the father of Mrs. Chauncey Warren, perhaps the last person to live
who had known Fort Harrison as such.
On the occasion of a "Grand Barbecue" held at Fort Harrison Grove,
half a mile east of the Fort, in October, 1848, during the campaign
which resulted in the election of General Zachary Taylor to the Presi-
dency of the United States, these two young men of Terre Haute filled
with the same patriotic sentiments that have inspired this centennial
Picture of Fort Harrison. 61
observance, undertook to preserve the Fort by the aid of the "printer's
Luther G. Hager had never seen the Fort in its original state, but
James A. Modesitt, as a boy, had. They consulted with several then
living citizens who "knew it like a book," among them Curtis Gilbert,
who had spent near three j^ears under the shadow of its stockade. They
made the picture to represent it as it had been.
Originally the block-houses were covered b}^ shed roofs, slanting in-
ward. In rebuilding, after the destruction of one by fire during the
battle, and, later, in repairing the other the hip roofs, as shown in the
picture, were put on.
These young men who made the picture sold scores of them at the
"barbecue." They also utilized some of the old walnut logs of the
stockade, which were yet solid, turning them into walking canes which
they sold to visitors. It is the regret of the Historical Committee that
they are not able to find one of these canes to show at this time.
Fort Harrison Grove, some time the home of Judge Elisha M. Hunt-
ington, of the Indiana Supreme Court, was a beautiful hillside, studded
with massive maple and oak trees. It was a favorite picnic ground.
Many a venerable man and woman of Terre Haute remembers how
they looked forward to the annual Sunday school picnic, a great feature
of which was the ride up and back on a canal boat.
THE CENTENNIAL OF THE BATTLE OF
By James B. Harris.
A few miles north of the City of Terre Haute lies the beautiful site
of Old Fort Harrison, conspicuous in the history of the territory of the
Northwest for its great influence in the national life. It is located on
high ground at a bend in the Wabash river and affords a beautiful and
commanding view of the country beyond for many miles.
The United States Government has from time to time been solicited
to assist in the acquisition and i^reservation of such historic spots, and
the National officials, recognizing that the patriotic spirit of the people
is largely promoted by favorable action, has adopted a liberal policy,
friendly to such appeals.
Among the many purely patriotic societies with unselfish ends and
exclusively devoted to patriotism is, "The Sons of the American Revolu-
tion." That organization has been regularly incorporated by the Con-
gress of the United States.
There is a National Society, State Societies in nearly every State of
the Union, and local chapters. Also, there are chapters under the con-
trol of the National Society located in Hawaii and the Phillipines, of
Americans living there, and in Paris, France, where descendants of the
Frenchmen who heli>ed in the Revolutionary War are also members.
The organization is under the system of our National and State and
local form of political organization.
"The Sons of the American Revolution" is composed of lineal de-
scendants of those American colonists and of their French allies who
took part in the American struggle for independence, either in military,
naval or civil action.
The purpose and object of such corporations are declared to be
patriotic, historical and educational, and shall include those designed
to perpetuate the memory of the men who, by their services or sacrifices
during the war of the American Revolution, achieved the independence
of the American people; to unite and promote fellowship among their
descendants; to inspire them and the community at large with a more
profound reverence for the principles of the government founded by our
forefathers; to encourage historical research in relation to the American
Revolution; to acquire and preserve the records of the individual serv-
The Centennial of the Battle of Fort TlarA^on. 63
ices of the ])atri()ts of the war as well as documents, relics and land-
marks; to celebrate the anniversaries of the prominent events of that
period: to foster true patriotism and extend institutions of freedom.
The story told elsewhere ati'ords justification for the appeal for the
acquisition, improvement and dedication of Fort Harrison site as a Na-
tional Park by the government of the United States.
The conception of a Fort Flarrison Centennial celebration has long
been entertained in the John Morton Chapter of the Indiana Societj-
of the Sons of the American lievolution, located at Terre Haute. The
project was brought before the annual meeting of the Indiana State
Society of the Sons of the American Revolution at Indianapolis in 1907
by the delegates from John Morton Chapter, and was received with
grand acclamation, but no action could be taken at that time. The next
year, February, 1908, the State meeting was held at Terre Haute. There
was a large attendance and the compatriots were conveyed in carriages
to the old site and the meeting was held there in a modern building, in
the construction of which a few of the old logs of the Fort stockade had
been retained and which were carefully and reverently inspected by the
Resolutions looking to the preservation of the site of Fort Harrison
and its dedication as a National Park were presented by Compatriot
James B. Harris, of John Morton Chapter, Terre Haute. Mr. Harris
"At a meeting of John Morton Chapter. Sons of the American Revo-
lution, the desirability of securing Fort Harrison for a National His-
torical Park was discussed and a resolution passed looking toward its
acquisition for this purpose. It is desired to enlist the interest, ap-
proval and assistance of the Local, State and National Societies, S. A. R.,
and also the general public and the State and National Governments.
"It is appropriate that the Sons of the American Revolution should
inaugurate this movement as it is the mission of the organization to in-
spire sentiments of loyalty, patriotism and veneration.
"We must preserve the sites of these actions that our children's chil-
dren may read them and visit them and become enthused with patriotism.
Nothing could show so baneful a lack of patriotism as allowing this
evidence of the deeds of our ancestors to go unmarked, to fade in memory
and become mythical by loss of records and markers from neglect or de-
struction for conunercial ends.
"The Fort was built and named in honor of a lineage noted for
patriotism and statesmanship and prominently devoted in patriotism to
the National service for several generations.
"The following resolutions are therefore ottered for adoption:
64 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
'■'•Resolved^! That the Indiana Society of the Sons of the American Eev-
olution approve and recommend that the site of Fort Harrison be secured
and dedicated as a National Historic Park.
''■Resolved, That this action shall also be placed before the National
Society of the Sons of the American Revolution and the approval and
influence of that organization be requested to aid in said purpose.
'"''Resolved, That the President of the Society appoint a committee to
formulate a memorial to the Congress of the United States that the Na-
tional Government take appropriate action to acquire and dedicate the
site of old Fort Harrison as a National Historic Park."
The resolutions were unanimously adopted by the Indiana Society
of the Sons of the American Revolution,
At a regular meeting of John Morton Chapter held April 1, 1912,
it was resolved to call a meeting of all citizens of Terre Haute for the
purpose of fonning a Fort Harrison Centennial Association.
Such a meeting was held at the rooms of the Terre Haute Commer-
cial Club on April 5, 1912. There was a large and enthusiastic attend-
ance and the organization was completed. The aim and object was de-
cided to be "to provide for the suitable patriotic observance of the one
hundredth anniversary of the Battle of Fort Harrison, fought between
the United States soldiers, under Captain Za chary Taylor, and the hos-
tile Indians, under Chief Lenar, at Fort Harrison, on the banks of the
Wabash, September 4, 1812.
"To initiate a movement for the proper and permanent marking of
the battle field.
"To collect and preserve historical records and records of the battle.
"To provide a suitable memorial to the men and women who partici-
pated in the campaign that made possible the peaceful settlement of the
The following officers and committees were selected :
Thatcher A. Parker, President.
Miss Mary Alice Warren, Vice-President.
Mrs. Mary Murphy, Vice-President.
Lawrence Burget, Vice-President.
David J. Williams, Vice-President.
Harry T. Schloss, Vice-President.
Will W. Adamson, Vice-President.
Clarence F. Williams, Vice-President.
Capt. a. W. Dudley, Vice-President.
Edward Gilbert, Secretary.
George W. Krietenstein, Treasurer.
The Centennial of the Battle of Fort llarnson. ■ 65
On Finance— W\ W. Adamsox, Chairman.
On /Municipal and State — Adolph Herz, Chainnan.
On Publicity— W. L. Staiil, Chairman.
On Buildings and Grounds— Mxx Ehrmann, Chairman.
On Transportation— ^^iiAAA^i Penn, Chairman.
On Parades— C. T. .Tewett, Chairman.
On Invitations— 'Presidb:st W. W. Parsons, Chairman.
On Speakers— D. J. Williams, Chairman.
On Decorations — Marx Myers, Chairman.
On Schools and School Children— Ht^miFAiT Briggs, Chairman.
On History— Db.. J. T. Scovell, Chairman.
George O. Dix, Chairman. Judge C. M. Fortune.
W. R. McKeen. President C. Leo Mees.
President W. W. Parsons. John L. Crawford.
Crawford Fairbanks. Adolph Herz.
David W. Henry. Judge John E. Cox.
Rabbi E. Leipziger. Chapman J. Root.
The present result of these efforts is this observance of the Centennial
of the Battle of Fort Harrison, September 4, 1912.
ROLL OF MEMBERS OF JOHN MORTON CHAPTER,
INDIANA SOCIETY OF THE SONS OF THE
William Ward Adamson.
Ealph Albin Coltharp.
Orville E. Conner.
Charles Edward Conner.
George Oscar Dix.
Charles R. Dryer.
Jacob Drennon Early.
Charles E. Erwin.
Linus A. Evans.
Chalmers Martin Hamill.
William A. Hamilton.
Lloyd B. Hamilton.
Paul Bitner Hamilton.
James B. Harris.
Benjamin G. Hudnut.
Charles Timothy Jewett.
John Patton Kimmel.
Earle Portmess Lee.
John M. Manson.
William Payne Martin.
Austin A. Miller.
Thatcher Anspenk Parker.
Lemuel Ford Perdue (deceased),
Eli Hilton Redman.
James Ellis Somes.
John D. Steele.
Robert J. Scovell.
Henry Keys Stormont.
George Albert Schaal.
Dalton B. Shourds.
Horace E. Tune.
David Russ Wood.
H. E. Wildy.
ROLL OF DESCENDANTS.
One of the objects of the Fort Harrison Centennial Association was
to collect and preserve records of the descendants of the pioneers of Fort
Harrison. The connnittee gave every ejffort to obtain names, but in many
instances all trace of families has been lost. The following names are
from the register of the Association, and are of the known living descend-
ants of those who assisted in building and maintaining the fort or par-
ticipated in its defense:
Descendants of William Heiwy Harrison.
Russell B. Harrison, John Scott Harrison, Mrs. Sallie H. Devin, Mrs.
Anna H. Morris, Miss Anna H. Devin, S. H. Devin, Mrs. Elizabeth
Reed, Mr. Sam S. Morris, Jr., Allen Morris, Mrs. Charles Stevenson,
Mrs. Madge Curtiss, Scott Harrison, Mrs. William T. Buckner, Scott
Harrison Morris, Scott Harrison Eaton, Mrs. John C. Lewis, Seymour
Hunt, John Scott Harrison, W. H. Harrison, Miss J. W. Farrar,
James Findley Harrison, Arch I. Harrison, Captain J. T. Taylor,
Mrs. Bessie Ogden, Mrs. D. W. McClung, A. T. Harrison, Lytle Har-
rison, J. S. Harrison, Jr., Mrs. M. S. Robinson, Benjamin Harrison,
William H. Harrison, Mrs. J. R. McKee, Mrs. Benjamin Harrison
Descendants of Robert Buntin.
Mrs. Emma Buntin Wagner, Miss Frances Buntin, Davis C. Buntin,
Mr. Henry Shannon Buntin's children, Touissiant C. Buntin, George
C. Buntin, Mr. RoUin H. Buntin.
Descendants of Susan Spencer Wilkins.
Noyes E. Anderson, Ora Davis, Mrs. Addie Davis, Charles M. Trout,
Susan Early Trout, George D. Wilkins, John E. Wilkins, Edwin
Wilkins, David Wilkins, Mrs. George Wilkins, Mrs. Beulah Wilkins.
Descendants of Major John T. Chunn.
Charles Chunn, Miss Caroline Chunn, J. T. Chunn, Miss Maoma
Hale, Mrs. Bruce Whitesell, S. C. Wright, David Wright, W. G.
Wright, Margaret Wright, Mrs. Levi Taylor, Mrs. E. D3-er, Miss
Maria Van Dyne.
Descendants of Stephen D. Handy.
William A. Handy, Sol. Handy, Mrs. Charles Prevo, W. W. Handy.
68 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
Descendants of Peter Malloi^.
Mrs. John Tobery, Isaac Brady, Scott Green.
Descendants of y\'in. Naylor.
W. N. Garrtrell, Charles Xaylor, Louis Naylor, Mrs. Anna Naylor,
Miss Marie Naylor, Samuel S. Shumard, John W. Swindler, Glenn
Swindler, Mrs. Lena Swindler, Lena Swindler-Spencer, Esther
Swindler, Harrison Swindler, Mayme Swindler.
Descendant of Major John D. White.
James M. Chandler.
Descendants of General John A. Thornas.
Charles Thomas, Ralph L. Thomas, Frank H. Thomas, John D.
Thomas, William H. Thomas, George M. Thomas, Charles L. Thomas,
William Tichenor, W. E. Robinson, Overton Thomas, Clem Thomas,
George Thomas, George W. Shanks, Ed. F. Moster, W. H. McLaugh-
lin, Raymond Neice, Victor Vancheiser, Ernest Lackard, Willard P.
Hedrick, Robert W. Thomas.
Descendants of Joseph Liston.
Mrs. Thomas Donham, Gilbert Liston, Moses Pierson and family,
Descendants of John Harrh'ilton.
Andrew C. Nelson and Sister C. Nelson.
Descendants of Isaac and Julia Lambert.
Mrs. Irene Casto, Mrs. Virginia Eppert, Mrs. J. S. Hamaker, Mrs.
Alice H. Harris, Mrs. Jane Kelley, James Laverty, Geo. W. Laverty,
C. H. Lambert, Mrs. Louise Moore, Mrs. Sarah C. Meredith, Paul J.
Meredith, John McCune, R. W. McCune, Mrs. Josephine Pickard,
Mrs. Almeda Thompson, Mrs. Ermine Ten Brook.
Descendant of Rev. Soldier Woodruff.
Descendants of John Dickson.
Mrs. Charles Bartholomew, William C. Durham, John C. Durham,
Joseph H. Durham, Mrs. Jos. G. Cannon, Jr., John Dickson, Isaac
Dickson, Mrs. E. G. Davison, Mrs. O. A. McGregor, Alex. Mc-
Gregor, Mrs. W. H. Shephard, Mrs. W. B. Schofield, Mrs. Samuel
Royse, Samuel Royse, Martha Royse, Anna Royse, William Royse,
Mrs. I. A. White, Charles White, Cecil D. White.*^
Roll of Descendants. 69
Descendants of Major John Bond.
Mrs. Cedelia Van Hoiitiii, J. B. Johnson, John W. Jones, William
Jones, John Murray.
Descendants of Curtis Gilbert.
Joseph Gilbert, Mrs. Sadie Gilbert Cooter, Mrs. Helen L. Gilbert
Gillum, Curtis Gilbert, Mrs. Madge Gilbert Champion, Edward Gil-
bert, Helen Steel Gilbert, Mrs. Emma Gilbert Curtis, Henry Curtis
Gilbert, Kichard Law Gilbert, Mary Gilbert, Henry Curtis Gilbert,
Jr., Mrs. Susan B. Ball, Miss Mary G. Beach, Mrs. Mary G. Gilbert
Blake, Mrs. Helen G. B. Boss, Mrs. Helen C. Gilbert Warner. Mr.
Gilbert Warner, Mrs. Ethel W^arner Greeson, Mrs. Alice AVarner, Miss
Susan B. Warner.
Descendants of Ahraham Markle.
Mrs. Oscar Anderson, Augustus R. Markle, Miss Laura Markle, Ray-
mond Denman, Abraham Markle, John M. Markle, William D. Mar-
kle, Herbert M. Markle, Mrs. Mable Weir, Miss Sarah Markle, Harry
Markle, Ed. Markle, William Green, Charles Green, Mrs. Bertha
Hornberger, Mrs. Myrtle Tanner, Harry Green, George Markle, Her-
bert Markle, Miss Anna Markle, Guert Markle, Harvey Markle,
Robert Markle, Miss Florence Markle, Paul S. Markle, Harry Markle,
Clay C. Markle, Ermina Markle, Maurice Markle, Mrs. Morton Gris-
mer, Miss Matilda Markle, Miss Eva Markle, Napoleon B. Markle, W.
Lincoln Browning, John Brockway, James Baldwin, Warren Brock-
way, Chauncey Baldwin, Mrs. Ernest Drake, George Duffield, Fred-
erick Elkin, Walter Green, Mrs. Ivan B. Harris, Mrs. Arthur Rich-
mond, Mrs. Mary Ross, Mrs. George Starr.
Descendants of Henry Bedford.
Mrs. Raymond Cummings, Mrs. Kate Markle, Mrs. Dr. Scott, Mrs.
M. S. Tyler.
Descendants of Joseph Richardson.
Dr. Lawrence S. Ball, E. H. Ball and family, Mrs. S. R. Freeman,
Jr., Miss Maude Freeman. Mrs. H. B. Hibbon, William R. Richard-
son, Mrs. J. A. Root, Mrs. Josephine Lake, Mrs. Charles Minshall and
family, Mrs. R. H. Pritchard, Miss Clint Richardson, Wm. P. Rich-
ardson, John M. Richardson, Mrs. Mary E. Peddle, John Peddle,
Mrs. Matilda Ball Mancourt.
Descendant of John Clinton Bradford.
Mrs. Amelia Brannon Joice.
70 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912.
Descendants of Dr. Charles B. Modesitt.
Mrs. Catherine Curtis, Mrs. Cora E. Carter, Chaimcey Warren Cur-
tis, Mrs. George B. Mathews, Welton Modesitt, John C. Warren, Miss
Frances Warren, Miss Mary Alice Warren, Miss Eliza Warren, Mrs.
Herbert Westfall, Miss Helen Frances Warren, Eobert E. Warren
and family, Frederick Warren and family, Miss Mary Elizabeth
Descendants of Mary Briggs.
George Wright, Lincoln Wright, Charles Wright.
Descendants of Caleh Crawford.
Walter Crawford, Fred Crawford, H. F. Crawford, W. G. Crawford,
Miss Florence Crawford, Wm. David Crawford, Crawford Fairbanks,
Mrs. Bruce F. Failey, Grant Fairbanks, Mrs. William Fairbanks, Mrs.
Nellie Jordan, E. P. Fairbanks, Miss Helen Fairbanks, Mrs. Hallie
Freeland, Henry S. Montagnier, Mrs. Daisy E. Noe, Morton L. Ran-
kin, Oscar Rankin, Mrs. James Townley, Miss Minnie Martin, Miss
Janie Martin, Sarah E. Rankin.
Descendants of John E. Wilmoth — Kentucky Volunteer.
G«orge T. Smith and family.
Descendants of Matilda A. Taylor Ball.
Mrs. M. E. Ball Hess, Frank Ball.
Descendant of Captain Touissiant Duhols.
Hon. Fred Dubois.
Descendants of James Burgan.
W. C. Burgan, James J. Burgan, Samuel W. Burgan, Mrs. E. A.
Perkins, Miss Elizabeth J. Burgan, Lyman M. Burgan, Mrs. Josephine
Bowsher, James A. Burgan, Samuel Burgan.
CHRONOLOGY OF FORT HARRISON
DeSoto landed on Tampa Bay, Florida, and, later "took possession" of all
the land drained by the waters of the Mississippi river, in the name of
the King of Spain 1540
LaSalle traversed a part of Indiana on his voyage of discovery of Ohio river 1676
LaSalle again crossed a part of Indiana, from the St. Joseph river, near
where South Bend now is, to the Illinois river 1678
The Five Nations claimed to have driven out, or massacred the aborigines,
whoever they were, and taken possession of Indiana 1621
The Five Nations ceded all lands west and south of Albany, N. Y., to King
William III I'^^l
The claims of Spain to the region were transferred to France .... 1702
Francis Vigo born at Mondovia, Sardinia 1740
Francis Vigo died at Vincennes, I\Iar. 22, 1836.
Mons. de Aubry marched his 400 French recruits and 100 tons of flour up
the Wabash from Vigo County to assist the French at Quebec. This con-
nects our land with the French-English wars 1759
Conspiracy of Pontiac 1"^!
After the treaty between England and France, St. Ange, commandant of Fort
Chartres (Vincennes) surrendered the post to Captain Sterling of the
British army Oct. 10, 1765
General George Rogers Clark started on his expedition of conquest of the
land from about where Ix)uisville, Ky., now is on June 24, 177S
General Clark captured Kaskaskia on the Mississippi river . . . July 4, 1778
Father Gibault secured the transfer of the allegiance of the French in-
habitants of Vincennes from England to the American colonies . Fall of 1778
Captain Helm and his cook took possession of Vincennes in the name of
the United States Dec. 1778
The British General, Hamilton, with thirty British regulars, fifty French
Canadian volunteers and four hundred Indians, marched across Vigo
County, enroute to recapture Vincennes, the only connection of Vigo
County soil with the Revolutionary War Dec. 1778
Captain Helm and his cook, the only garrison of Vincennes, surrendered to
General Hamilton on honorable terms Dec. 1778
First meeting of General George Rogers Clark and Francis Vigo at Kas-
kaskia Jan. 29, 1779
British General Hamilton surrendered Vincennes to General George Rogers
Clark Feb. 24, 1779
Peace of Paris between Great Britain and the United States, Great Britain
surrendered all claims on land east of the Mississippi river . . . 1783
Virginia surrendered all claims to the Northwest Territory to the United
The Northwest Territory organized by Congress, under General Arthur
St. Clair as Territorial Governor 1"^"^
Indiana Territory organized by Congress, and General William Henry
Harrison made Territorial Governor -^ 1800
Plan of survey by range, township and sections adopted by Congress May 7, llbi
Survev of lands in Indiana Territory authorized by Congress 1804
General William Henry Harrison marched up the Wabash to locate and
and build Fort Harrison.
Left Vincennes Sept. 26, 1811
Arrived at location and commenced building the Fort .... Oct. 30. 1811
Completed the Fort O^t. 30, 1811
General Harrison, with his army, started on his march to the Prophets Town^ ISll
General Harrison defeated the Indians under Elskamatawa, the Prophet Nov 7, 1811
Battle of Fort Harrison, defense by Captain Zachary Taylor, against the
Indians under the old chief, Lenar Sept. 4, 1812
First public sale of lands of Vigo County at the Vincennes land office Sept. 13-14, 1816
Terre Haute platted by the Terre Haute Company, and first sale of lots in
Terre Haute Oct. 31, 1816
Vigo County organized • • z?}^
Indiana became a State in the Union Dec, isib
The New National Anthem
By dr. E. T. SPOTSWOOD
Sung to the Tune Dixie Land
The land we love, the land of glory
Famed in song and grand in story
To thee ! To thee ! To thee we sing.
United free and strong and grand
We'll keep and hold our Fatherland.
For Aye ! For Aye ! ! For Aye ! ! ! in Freedom's land.
Our glorious Union ever,
Hurra ! Hurra ! !
In freedom's land we all will stand
And live and die for freedom's land.
Hurra ! Hurra ! ! Hurray for the Union ever.
No North. No South. No East. No West,
But one grand Union heaven blessed;
For Aye ! For Aye ! ! For Aye ! in Freedom's land.
To keep it pure and keep it right
We'll always for its honor fight
For Aye ! For Aye ! ! For Aye ! ! ! in Freedom's land.
And this shall be our battle song,
To hold the true and right the wrong,
Alway ! Alway ! ! Alway ! ! ! in Freedom's land.
For we love our own our Freedom land.
To guard her rights we'll ever stand.
Alway ! Alway ! ! Alway ! ! ! in Freedom's land.
O, may our God within whose hand
Is held the future of our land,
Alway. Alway. Alway in Freedom's land.
From strife and danger keep us free.
And lead us on to victory.
We pray ! We pray ! ! We pray for Freedom's land.
ON THE BANKS OF THE WABASH
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
011 895 184