Fort Harrison ON THE BANKS OF THE WABASH 1812-1912 Fort Harrison ON THE BANKS OF THE WABASH 1812-1912^/ Published at the Direction of the Fort Harrison Centennial Association Compiled and Edited by the Historical Committee DR. J. T. SCOVELL, Chairman; MRS. ALICE P. DRYER, MAX EHRMANN, JOHN D. BELL, JAMES B. HARRIS, EDWARD GILBERT, JOHN C. WARREN, WILLIAM H. WILEY, DR. E. T. SPOTSWOOD, PROF. HERBERT BRIGGS, C. T. JEWETT UyUii_ E:5i>z COPYRIGHT 1912 JOHN MORTON CHAPTER, SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION I THE MOORE-t MOEN PRINTING CO., TERRE HAUTE. INO. sy CCI.A31l)548 ^ N^ ^^nO the descendants of ^my the men and women who participated in the Bat- tle of Fort Harrison and of the pioneers who made pos- sible the peaceful settlement of the Wabash Valley this work is offered as a patriotic tribute. INTRODUCTION Four hundred years ago North America was a panorama of Nature. All the geological and geographical forms were represented in generous proportions. Mountains and plains, forests and prairies, great lakes and mighty rivers, all abounding with the varied forms of life. There were vast areas of rich agricultural lands and quantities of coal and iron, and of copper, lead and zinc, of silver and gold and of many useful minerals. It was an ideal home for the fisherman and hunter, and for the savage who accepted nature as he found it, being scarcely more than another feature of the j)anorama. There were perhaps 500,000 of these native people in North America. They were called Indians. Physically they were fully developed with acute senses and strong passions; but intel- lectually and morally they were more like children. For their support they did not utilize even a tithe of the natural products so abundant everywhere. Through a more complete utilization of these natural resources. North America has become the home of more than a hundred million of people. The history of North America for the last four hundred years will be the story of this transformation of a continent; an account of the gradual crowding out of the savage or child-like races by stronger races, those able to utilize more fully the gifts of nature. In reality the history of North America is a record of human development. The story of Fort Harrison discusses an important incident in the his- tory of the United States, and through it Terre Haute is brought into conspicuous connection with national affairs. J. T. S. Chapter I. THE BATTLE OF FORT HARRISON. By Edward Gilbert. "The Battle of Fort Harrison" is a high-sounding title to be applied to what was, from a material point of view, a very small affair. When is taken into consideration the fact that not more than fifty persons were present, and, according to the report of Captain Taylor, not more than ten or fifteen men were capable of duty, as well as all the particu- lars we can now know, why should we be celebrating memories of the event one hundred years after it happened? Like many small affairs in the world's history, it was not the battle itself, it was not that these few men — and women — behind that stockade, for one night withstood the efforts of the savages and were not massacred. It was the events preceding and the results following, as well as the heroic efforts of the few, which render their defense of Fort Harrison one of the important items in the history of the United States, That those few men and women and children had been killed and scalped by the Indians would not have been fatal to the cause nor in itself would have been even as bad as many other massacres that did take place previously and subsequently during the same troublous times. Not one word shall be written by this hand that would detract from the credit due them. All their doings were heroic; every one of them was a patriot. True, they were fighting for their lives, the first incen- tive of all such, but they were also doing patriotic, noble duty. These people represented a phase of the contest between civilization and barbarism. All was fighting and contest around them. These people were of the advance guard of the world-wide warfare between that ele- ment of humanity which has always sought to advance and improve, on the one side and, on the other, savagery and barbarism, which is devoid of pride of ancestrv^ or hope of posterity, caring for and seeking nothing but present comfort or gratification of present passions. These Englishmen had emigrated originally from their foraier homes, and had progressed far into the wilderness, for what? To improve their condition. That is a broad proposition that is not controvertible. They found here a race that had inhabited the country, God only knows how long. In that time they had killed game, caught fish, raised a scanty supply of the simplest grains by the simplest methods, the same from 8 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-191^. one generation to another. No student of the Indian race has ever dis- covered that any generation of them had ever done on its own incentive, any, even the simplest tiling by a better method than its ancestors. These Englishmen belonged to a race that believed the injunction laid upon them in the first chapters of Genesis, to replenish the earth, populate it, cultivate its soil and utilize its natural resources. They found here a people and a land barren of results. They found a people evidently diminishing in numbers by brutish wars and ravaging diseases, which they were too simple-minded to try to overcome. They believed a Divine Providence intended the land for those who would make the best use of it. And if any of them did not stop to think out the question, the simplest knew that he could utilize such a land and that the Indian did not. The Anglo-Saxon race was dynamic and the Indian race was static. Therefore they were in opposition, and the history of the world is that the war was on perpetually between them. That they were heroic, that they were brave and that they all showed the highest intelligence is proven by the simple story of what took place. This little garrison found themselves isolated, fifty miles, through the wilderness to the nearest succor. Fifty men, thirty-five to forty of them sick with that vile, 'bone-racking malaria that pervaded the country, which makes one wish he were dead, even if to be scalped afterward; nine women and children. The little stockade was impervious to the bullets of the then known rifles, but the walls were not proof against fire. The official report tells that the commandant had for some time very seriously doubted his ability to withstand an attack. At dusk four shots are heard. What does this mean? Out of the stillness of nature comes this warning alarm. There is no known reason for it except hostility. Two white men are known to be somewhere in the vicinity of the shots making hay. But they could not have fired the four shots in quick succession from the rifles of those days. Caution was the Avatchword of every experienced Indian fighter. Captain Taylor dared not investigate so near dark. He placed his little force op the best footing for defense. In the morning he sent out a detachment, warned to be wary of ambush, to investigate. These found the two hay-makers, citizens — one named John Guffy, the name of the other not laiown — had been shot, twice each, from a sneaking foe without opportunity to defend themselves. Their bodies had been mutilated in a shocking man- ner. Yet the detachment saw no signs of Indians. The next evening there appeared before the gates of the Fort, old Lenar, accompanied by some thirty chiefs and "old men" of several tribes, pretending to seek a friendly conference in want of food. This was a naive attempt on their part to gain admission to the Fort under false pretense, when, without doubt, a massacre would have The Battle of Fort Harrison. 9 taken place. These thirty, with their arms beneath their blankets, once inside, outnumbering the effective force, were there for no other purpose. Inexperienced and confiding people often have been taken in by such pretenses on the part of Indians. But Captain Zachary Taylor was not of that class. He knew his enemies. He had studied the Indian charac- ter, in an experience with them in the Illinois country, he had learned that the Indian's word was never to be taken at its face value. He refused the interview, which was postponed until the morrow, when the Indians were again to come for peaceable pow wow. What other fighting people would have, in the face of the atrocious outrage of the evening before, expected to be received as friends? This, with many other examples, goes to prove that the primitive mental condition of the Indian was not in advance of his material status. His norm of war was the deceit of his adversary. He could not see that the white man had learned by experience, and expected him to be imposed on, over and over again by the same ruse. What other race of people would have come in such manner, not under a flag of truce, as from avowed enemies seeking parley, but under the pretense of friendship? None. It was an act of men in primitive ignorance. Captain Taylor, on the contrary, proceeded at once to prepare, as far as his limited resources would permit, for defense. He says he had not been able for some time to mount a full guard, that his effective force was not to exceed ten or fifteen men. These he stationed to the best ad- vantage, made a close inspection, personally of all arms, distributed am- munition to the extent of sixteen rounds to the man, and ordered the strictest watch at all points. He required his subaltern to parade the rounds of the Fort all night and to give the alarm at the first indication of hostilities. Contrary to the usual habits of the Indians, who very often made their secret attacks an hour or two before daylight it came on about eleven o'clock. The first alarm was from the firing of one of the sentinels who discovered that an Indian, under cover of the darkness, had set fire to the blockhouse at the southwest angle of the Fort. Legend says this was done by placing coals of fire in a kettle and covering it with a blanket, not to attract attention while being carried to the stockade in the dark. Also, it is told that there were holes in the logs of the block house made by the cattle licking the logs for the salt that was stored in the blockhouse among the supplies of the army con- tractor, and through them the coals of fire were dropped. The only official account of the proceedings of the night is in the re- port of Captain Taylor to General Harrison at Vincennes. This plain, straightforward account of his performance of his duties is given in a separate chapter. He gives a graphic account of his feelings, when the 10 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912. apparent condition has its effect on the men and women. At first, with shrieks of terror, all was confusion and helplessness. The yells of the savages, the fire destroying what seemed their only protection, together with constant rifle firing and showers of arrows which poured into the Fort. All these were enough to quail the stoutest heart. It presaged, not only death, but death of the most horrid kind, torture and mutilation. No wonder that, as he tells, near the first, two of his little force, men on whom he had relied for strong support, should become panic-stricken, jump the palisades and seek safety by flight under cover of the darkness. Immediately after the first there was a recovery of nerve. There were a few cool heads who inspired the others and determination showed itself, not to supinely give up, but defend themselves as best they could or at least sell their lives at greatest cost to the enemy. In his report, Captain Taylor speaks of those who helped bring it about, and were most efficient both in work and in inspiring the others. It is regrettable that he mentions only one name that we can place in the hero class. Doctor William A. Clark was the surgeon of the post, and to him Cap- tain Taylor gives all honor for his personal efforts. He seemingly in- spired the erection of a breastwork that would prevent the entrance of the Indians after the blockhouse was destroyed, and led in the ex- tinguishing of the fire so that it was confined to the one place. As an example of the bravery shown by the men, it is told that William Cowen, one of the soldiers killed inside the Fort, stood on the bastion. He had fired and turning to his companions, laughingly shouted, "I killed an Indian that time." In doing so he neglected to stoop behind the ram- parts and the next second was struck by an Indian bullet and instantly killed. A brother, Josey Cowen, a mere boy, a soldier, was among those sick of the malaria and died the next day. This family furnished two heroes of Fort Harrison. It has been told before that Captain Taylor had distributed sixteen rounds of ammunition to each man. This, in the day of rapid-firing arms, seems a very small amount in the face of the prospective fight. But it must be taken into consideration that those old muskets or squirrel rifles were slowly loaded at the muzzle And they were not pumped out at random, as in modern war, when it is said to take more than a man's weight in lead to kill or wound one. Those Indian fighters each waited to find his mark and when found he drew a bead and shot as if after a wild turkey or deer for his dinner. Legend also brings another reason for this limited ammunition. It was probably all he had. For it is told how, long before the fight was over, several of the women in the Fort were busy moulding bullets. There was another dreadful condition that was met by heroic action on the part of one of the women. The only supply of water was from a The Battle of Fort Harrison. 11 well, and that was raised by the slow process of lowering and winding up a bucket. And soon it was discovered that, as the fire raged the fiercest the water in the well had been so nearly exhausted that the bucket came up only partly filled. Some were again panic-stricken. Julia Lambert — and her name should go down to posterity in the list of heroines — said: "Lower me into the well and I will fill the buckets with a gourd." This was done and not only did her energetic work send up a full supply, but to the surprise of all the water soon appeared to raise so that the buckets filled when let into it. This was hailed as a miracle, enacted for the sakes of these beleaguered mortals. It was explained, however, that in dipping the water she had dipped so much sand that the bottom of the well had been lowered beyond the water level. Soon after daylight came, the Indians retired beyond rifle range, and the battle practically ended. They hovered around for some time and disappeared. With no force sufficient to make a reconnoissance Captain Taylor and his little band were in a sad plight. Their stores destroyed by fire, their cattle killed, they were forced, as he says, to subsist on green corn. All this happened on the fourth of September, the battle, but it was not until the tenth of the same month, if it may be judged by the date of Captain Taylor's letter to General Harrison, that he thought it safe to attempt to send even one of his small force out to try to open com- munication. This was done first by sending two men down the river in a canoe. They started by night, hoping to escape detection. On arriv- ing at the narrows, a little below where Terre Haute now stands, they found Indian camp fires on both sides and, a guard out watching for them. They were forced to return. Captain Taylor then wrote a sup- plemental letter, which is dated September 13, 1812. Captain Taylor says in his letter that he will send this by the hands of the orderlj' ser- geant and one other, though there is a popular legend that one man by the name of Peter Mallory carried it. He, or they, were ordered to go through the w^oods, avoiding all roads, and taking the greatest care to not attract the attention of any Indians, whether presumabh^ friendly or not. It is unfortunate that the records of the War Department at Wash- ington are so meagre or so unsatisfactorily arranged, that they can not furnish a roster of the soldiers of the company under the command of Captain Taylor. The names of Captain Zachary Taylor, afterwards so notable as a general of the army in Mexico and elsewhere, and as President of the United States, with that of Dr. William A. Clark, spoken of before, are the only ones the department can give. It is, how- 12 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912. ever, known that these soldiers were of the Seventh United States regu- lar infantry. Of the citizens, settlers and others, together with the women and children, a pretty accurate account is given elsewhere in this history. Dr. Clark remained here some years after, and was a valued citizen and practicing phj'sician. There should, however, be recorded here, though it is so elsewhere, the remarkable fact that Fort Harrison was built and first commanded by AVilliam Henry Harrison, and later, at the time of the only hostilities ever occurring thei'e, by Zachary Taylor, both of whom gained fame, not only as soldiers but as statesmen. Each later became President of the United States. And each died in office as such. General Harrison was the first to be succeeded by a Vice-President, John Tyler, and Gen- eral Taylor the second by Millard Filmore. As to exactly who the attacking parties were at Fort Harrison, Cap- tain Taylor says he is unable to be positive. He mentions several chiefs and parts of tribes, but as there appeared in daylight, only some forty Avho sought the interview, he merely surmises as to the rest. It was thought at the time that the Indians were merely a marauding band of miscellaneous origin. Later develojjments of historical research have shown that the at- tempt to capture Fort Harrison was a part of the plan of campaign of the British Army in Canada. In August, 1812, an expedition w^as started out from Maiden, Canada, under command of Major Muhr. This was composed of a small company of British regulars, some Canadian volunteers and a host of Indians. These numbers were never definitely known. The object, so soon after the declaration of war, w^as to capture the two outposts of Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison. Both of these objects failed. We have seen how Captain Taylor successfully defended Fort Harrison. Fort Wayne was stubbornly defended for a short time until reinforcements arrived and the besiegers driven out of the country. The British regulars and the Canadians all went in the expedition against Fort Wayne. It was left to the Indians to proceed against the less strongly defended Fort on the Wabash. The attacks on the two posts were made on Fort Wayne September 3, 1812, and on Fort Harrison September 4, at night. General Hull had ignominiously surrendered Detroit to the British a short time before. This left the way open for the enemy almost to the Ohio River, except for these two posts. It w^as no doubt the idea of the British General Brock that if Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison were subdued, the seat of the war would be transferred from the Lakes to the Ohio River. But for the stubborn and gallant defense of these posts, the history of the War of 1812 in the Northwest might have been differently written. Chapter II. CAUSES LEADING UP TO FORT HARRISON By Edward Gilbert. The history of Fort Harrison covers part of two epochs. The causes that led up to the building of the Fort, followed by the Tippecanoe cam- paign, are a part of the history of the troubles that continued to exist between the United States and Great Britain after the treaty of peace at Paris in 1783. The Battle of Fort Harrison, the defense by Captain Taylor, was a part of the war between the same nations, openly declared June 18, 1812, known commonly as the War of 1812-15. That marvelous expedition of General George Rogers Clark, con- ceived by him almost alone, and executed almost without any help from the general government, encouraged by the peace loving French settlers of the Mississippi and Wabash valleys, and supported by the financial aid of "Colonel" Francis Vigo, the "Spanish Merchant" of Vincennes and Kaskaskia, had won an empire for our people. At the Paris convention in 1783, His British Majesty's envoys asserted that the western boundar}' should be the Allegheny mountains, or at most the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. They insisted that Clark's little band had merely taken possession of unimportant posts of French in- habitants the sovereignty over which had been ceded to Britain by France. Nevertheless there was the fact that this territory was held, at the close of the war, b}' right of conquest. British power had been represented there by the garrisons at Vincennes and Kaskaskia, had been overcome and extinguished. And no feasible effort had been made on His Majesty's part to recover it. Failing to make that claim good the British envoys sought to have the land of our later Northwest Territory declared neutral ground, a land for the Indians. This obnoxious proposal was promptl}' rejected by our commissioners, and insistence made that it was conquered terri- tory to be transferred or there could be no agreement. England was whipped, and had to concede the terms. While this agreement was made and the terms of peace settled, they were not carried out on the part of England in good faith. Under one excuse or another, or with no pretense of excuse, the land was practically held, and garrisons were maintained on American territory'. 13 14 Fort Harrison Centennial, 1812-1912 Manj^ historians hold that England, from the declaration of peace in 1783, foresaw another war which was to recover to her, if not the Colonies she had lost, at least a part of this territory. The United States was poor, heavily loaded with debt, her army exhausted and her re- sources unavailable. Her government for some years a mere fabric, and later, still an experiment. It required the constant encroachments of England to drive our people into this second war. These encroachments consisted largely of interference with our com- merce on the high seas. But the features that concern our story of Fort Harrison were the interference with our Indian relations, sub rosa, by the British powers through Canada. While His Majesty's ministers were claiming innocence of any offense against the terms of the treaty, there was ample proof that the Indians of the Northwest were being encouraged in every opposition to the set- tlement of the country. As a single instance of proof : General Harrison, then Governor of Indiana Territory, in 1809, wrote to the Secretary of War that the Indians of the Northwest Territory Avere receiving subsidies from the British, He found the Indians equipped with arms and cloth- ing beyond their means of procuring by purchase, and amply supplied with provisions. To corroborate his suspicions he sent trusted agents among them to offer to sell them clothing and even anus and ammuni- tion. To these offers the Indians replied no, we get all we want from English traders free of cost. He found that the Indians were being con- stantly incited to deeds of violence and outrage by English. About this time came into great prominence, Tecumseh and his brother, "The Prophet." "The Prophet" was an old fraud of a medicine man who had gained a temporary influence over part of the restless In- dians by his mystical arts, played on the ignorant minds. Tecumseh was perhaps as near being a statesman as an Indian ever was. He conceived the idea that he could unite all the Indians of America into a great con- federacy and drive the whites into the sea. He had been preaching his crusade among the northern people for some time, and had gone among those of Alabama and Georgia, and perhaps as far as Florida. Tecumseh's contention on the question of treaty cession of land by the Indians was that the land belonged to the whole Indian race, and that cession could not be justly made by the different tribes, but on the full consent and approval of all the tribes. What basis there was for such claim it is hard to understand, in the light of the fact that ever since Europeans knew them, the Indians had been fighting among them- selves over these same lands. War and pestilence therefrom was the rule. Whole tribes were at times exterminated. Tecumseh was far-seeing, being an Indian, and no doubt believed that the race war would ultimately result in the extinction of one race. He Causes Leading up to Fort Harrison. 15 could not dispute that the several Indian Treaties had been freely entered into, so, like the advocate desiring to save his case, he attacked the treaty- making power. It was during his absence that General Harrison, seeing the coming storm of, to say the least, great disturbance, having exerted all his influ- ence to dissuade the Indians against their foolhardy plan, decided that aggressive measures must be adopted and the poor creatures brought to a sense of their duty, or severely punished. It is believed that Tecumseh had enjoined on "The Prophet" that under no conditions was a battle to be risked until he had returned, having succeeded in uniting the whole of the various tribes. In stating in the first paragraph of this chapter that the causes that led up to the building of Fort Harrison were the troubles that continued to exist between our countr}^ and Great Britain, it is not claimed that there would have been none with the Indians except for British inter- ference. But for the support, before mentioned, and the encouragement, which later historical investigation has proven, principally to Tecumseh and "The Prophet," their dream of a confederation would never have been. The Indians had never prevailed in any of their wars with the Ameri- cans, but were persuaded they might, at least, as allies of Britain. Sundr}' missions and emissaries to "The Prophet's" town having brought no satisfactory response to General Harrison, he resolved on a demonstration into the enemy's country. He would have a renewed peaceable agreement, or must resort to punishment. The organization of his army at Vincennes, its personality, and its march and the Battle of Tippecanoe are told in another chapter. There has been for a hundred years in America a controversy between philanthropists and fanatics on the one side and the settlers and radical Indian haters on the other as to the justice and humanity of the treat- ment of the Indians. Especially has this applied to the question of how the lands have been transferred. The contention on the part of the for- mer has been that the Indians owned the lands and they should not have been taken from them except by their full and free consent, which means by purchase at prices that made them anxious to sell. The latter have contended that the Indians were an inferior, a worthless race, and that they had no rights. Now, history shows that as between the two views the general practice has leaned largely towards the philanthropic side. No set of land traders ever came together for a deal without at least a sem- blance of sharp practice being a feature of their transactions. There have been instances of trickery. The ignorance of the Indians has been taken advantage of more than once. But the basis of even' accession of 16 Fort Harrison Centennial. 1812-1912 land by the United States Government has been on terms of proper com- pensation. With exceptions enough to prove the rule, this is an historical fact that cannot be disputed. Others will say that, admitting the purchase of the lands, the prices given haven't been commensurate with the values. Here brings us back to the question of value as based on the uses to which they were put. Taking all that is known of the Indians in their primal state, they made a precarious living in squalor and hardship, using only the superficial products that came without labor. The fish in the lakes and rivers and the game in the forest were increasing, and the soil, none richer in the world, capable of bountiful production, was idle. With this condition the Indians lived in poverty and want. They did not utilize the land, and they were paid for it, more than the value, based on their occupation. Chapter III. CAPTAIN TAYLOR'S REPORT Letter from Captain Z. Taylor, commanding Fort Harrison, Indiana Territory, to General Harrison. Fort Harrison, September 10, 1812. Dear Sir: — On Thursday evening, the 3rd instant, after retreat beating, four guns were heard to fire in the direction where two young men (citizens who resided here) were making hay, about four hundred yards distant from the fort. I was immediately impressed with an idea that they were killed by the Indians, as the Miamis or Weas had that day informed me that the Prophet's party would soon be here for the purpose of commencing hostilities, and that they had been directed to leave this place which we were about to do. I did not think it prudent to send out at that late hour of the night to see what had become of them ; and their not coming in convinced me that I was right in my con- jecture. I waited until eight o'clock next morning, when I sent out a corporal with a small party to find them, if it could be done without running too much risk of being drawn into an ambuscade. He soon sent back to inform me, that he had found them both killed, and wished to know my further orders; I sent the cart and oxen, had them brought in and buried; they had been shot with two balls, scalped and cut in the most shocking manner. Late in the evening of the 4th inst. old Joseph Lenar and between 30 and 40 Indians arrived from the Prophet's town, with a white flag; among whom were about ten women, and the men were comjDOsed of the chiefs of the different tribes that compose the Prophet's party. A Shawanoe man, that spoke good English, informed me that old Lenar intended to speak to me next morning, and try to get something to eat. At retreat beating I examined the men's arms and found them all in good order, and completed their cartridges to 16 rounds per man. As I had not been able to mount a guard of more than six privates and two non-commissioned officers, for some time past, and sometimes part of them every other day from the unhealthiness of the company, I had not conceived my force adequate to the defense of this post should it be vigorously attacked, for some time past. As I had just recovered from a very severe attack of the fever, I was not able to be up much through the night. After tattoo, I cautioned the guard to be vigilant, and ordered one of the non-commissioned officers, as the sen- 17 18 Fort Harrison Centennial, 1812-1912. tinels could not see every part of the garrison, to walk around on the inside during the whole night to prevent the Indians taking advantage of us provided they had any intention of attacking us. About 11 o'clock I was awakened by the firing of one of the sentinels. I sprang up, run out and ordered the men to their posts. Avhen my orderly sergeant (who had charge of the upper block-house) called out that the Indians had fired the lower block-house, which contained the property of the contrac- tor which was deposited in the lower part, the upper having been as- signed to a corporal and ten privates as an alarm post. The guns had began to fire pretty smartly from both sides. I directed the buckets to be got ready and water brought from the well and the fire extinguished immediately, as it was perceivable at that time. But from debility or some other cause, the men were very slow in executing my orders. The word fire seemed to throw the whole of them into confusion, and by the time they had got the water and broken open the door the fire had un- fortunately communicated to a quantity of whiskey (the stock having licked several holes through the lower part of the building after the salt that was stored there through which they had introduced the fire with- out being discovered, as the night was very dark), and in spite of every exertion we could make use of, in less than a moment it ascended to the roof and baffled every effort we could make to extinguish it. As that block-house adjoined the barracks that made part of the fortifications most of the men immediately gave themselves up for lost, and I had the greatest difficulty in getting my orders executed ; and, sir, what from the raging of the fire — the yelling and howling of several hundred Indians — the cries of nine women and children (a part soldiers' and a part citi- zens' wives, who had taken shelter in the Fort) — ^and the desponding of so many of the men, which was worse than all — I can assure you that my feelings were very unpleasant — and indeed there were not more than ten or fifteen men able to do a great deal, the others being either sick or convalescent — and to add to our other misfortunes, two of the stoutest men in the fort, and that I had every confidence in, jumped the picket and left us. But my presence of mind did not for a moment forsake me. I saw that by throwing off part of the roof that joined the block- house that was on fire, and keeping the end perfectly wet, the whole row of buildings might be saved, and leave only an entrance of eighteen or twenty feet for the Indians to enter after the house was consumed; and that a temporary breastwork might be erected to prevent their even entering there. I convinced the men that this could be accomplished, and it appeared to inspire them with new life, and never did men act with more firmness or desperation. Those that were able (while the others kept up a constant fire from the other block-house and the two bastions) mounted the roofs of the houses, with Dr. Clark at their head Captain Taylor's Report. 19 (who acted with the greatest firmness and presence of mind the whole time the attack histed, which was seven hours) under a shower of bul- lets, and in less than a moment threw off as much of the roof as was necessary. This Avas done only with the loss of one man and two wounded, and I am in hopes neither of them dangerous. The man that was killed was a little deranged, and did not get off the house as soon as directed, or he would not have been hurt; and, although the barracks were several times in a blaze, and an immense quantity of fire against them, the men used such exertion that they kept it under and before day raised a temporary breastwork as high as a man's head, although the Indians continued to pour in a heavy fire of ball and innumerable quantity of arrows during the whole time the attack lasted, in every part of the parade. I had but one other man killed, nor any other wounded inside the fort, and he lost his life by being too anxious. He got into one of the galleys on the bastions and fired over the pickets, and called out to his comrades that he had killed an Indian, and neglecting to stoop down in an instant he was shot dead. One of the men that jumped the pickets returned an hour before day, and running up towards the gate begged for God's sake for it to be opened. I suspected it to be a stratagem of the Indians to get in, as I did not recollect his voice. I directed the men in the bastion, where I happened to be, to shoot him let him be who he would, but fortunately he ran up to the other bastion, where they knew his voice, and Dr. Clark directed him to lie close to the pickets behind an empty barrel that happened to be there, and at day- light I had him let in. His arm was broke in a most shocking manner, which he says was done by the Indians which I suppose was the cans© of his returning. I think it probable that he will not recover. The other they caught about 130 yards from the garrison and cut him all to pieces. After keeping up a constant fire until six o'clock the next morn- ing, which we began to return with some effect after daylight, they re- moved out of the reach of our guns. A party of them drove up the horses that belonged to the citizens here, and as they could not catch them very rapidly shot the whole of them in our sight, as well as a num- ber of their hogs. They drove off the whole of the cattle, which amounted to sixty-five head, as well as the public oxen. I had the vacancy filled up before night (which was made by the burning of the block-house) with a strong row of f)ickets, which I got by pulling down the guard house. We lost the whole of our provisions, but must make out to live upon green com until we can get a supply, which I am in hopes will not be long. I believe the w^hole of the Miamies or Weas were among the Prophet's party, as one chief gave his orders in that language which re- sembled Stone Easter's voice, and I believe Negro Legs was there like- wise. A Frenchman here understands their different languaffes, and 20 Fort Harnson Centennial^ 1812-1912. several of the Miamies or Weas that have been here frequently, were rec- ognized by the Frenchman and soldiers next morning. The Indians suffered smartly, but were so numerous as to take off all that were shot. They continued with us until the next morning, but made no further at- tempt on the Fort, nor have we seen anything more of them since. I have delayed informing you of my situation, as I did not like to weaken the garrison, and I looked for some person from Vincennes, and none of my men were acquainted with the woods, and therefore I would either have to take the river or the road, which I was fearful was guarded by small parties of Indians that would not dare attack a party of rangers that was on a scout ; but being disappointed, I have at length determined to send a couple of my men by water and am in hopes that they will ar- rive safe. I think it would be best to send the provisions under a pretty strong escort, as the Indians may attempt to prevent their coming. If you carry on an expedition against the Prophet this fall, you ought to be well provided with everything, as you may calculate on having every inch of ground disputed between this and there that they can defend with advantage. Wishing, &c. ^^ ^ ^ " (Signed) Z. Taylor. His Excellency Governor Harrison. Fort Harrison, Sept. 13, 1812. Dear Sir: — I wrote you on the 10th inst., giving you an account of the attack on this place, as well as my situation which account I at- tempted to send by water, but the two men whom I despatched in a canoe after night found the river so well guarded that they were obliged to return. The Indians had built a fire on the bank of the river a short distance below the garrison, which gave them an opportunity of seeing any craft that might attempt to pass, and were waiting with a canoe to intercept it. I expect the Fort as well as the road to Vincennes is as well or better watched than the river. But my situation compels me to make one other attempt by land, and my orderly sergeant, with one other man, sets out tonight with strict orders to avoid the road in day- time and depend entirely on the woods, although neither of them have ever been to Vincennes by land, nor do they know anything of the coun- try, but I am in hopes they will reach you in safety. I send them with great reluctance from their ignorance of the woods. I think it very probable there is a large party of Indians waylaying the road between this and Vincennes, likely about the Narrows, for the purpose of in- tercepting any party that may be coming to this place, as the cattle they got here will supply them plentifully with provisions for some time to come. Please, &c., &c. , ^- -.^ v rr.,.^^„ ' ' (Signed) Z. Iaylor. His Excellency Governor Harrison. (Nile's Register, Vol. 3, p. 90.) ZACHARY TAYLOR Chapter IV. ZACHARY TAYLOR A Biographical Sketch by Herbert Briggs. Zachary Taylor, the hero of Fort Harrison, was the twelfth President of the United States. He was baptized into the world of fame within the shadow of Terre Haute, He was born in Orange County, Virginia, September 24, 1784, soon after the Treaty of Paris, which closed the Revolutionary War. His father. Colonel Richard Taylor, had borne a conspicuous part in the struggle for independence, and was on intimate terms with General Wash- ington. His mother was Mary Strother, said to have been a handsome young lady of nineteen whose marriage August 20, 1779, to Colonel Richard Taylor, then almost a grizzled veteran of thirty-six, Avas one of the ro- mances of the time. But the marriage seemed in every way to have been a happy one, and Zachary was the third son of that union. One son and three daughters were born after Zachary, but the father made ample provision for all of his eight children. Like Indiana, Kentucky was once a part of the Old Dominion, and was known as one of the w^estern counties of Virginia. To compensate her soldiers who had fought in the Revolution, Virginia gave liberally of her grants of land, and Colonel Taylor, accepting the bounties of his native State, moved his family to a large tract near the present City of Louisville, Ky., when Zachary was one year old. Colonel Taylor was not a total stranger to these Kentucky wilds ; as a young man less than twenty-one, he journeyed westward through Ken- tucky to the Mississippi river, thence southward as far as Natchez, then as one biographer remarks, "without guide or companion, through path- less w^oods, over rivers and mountains, fearless alike of the seasons, of sav- ages, or of any peril of his long and lonely way, he walked back to his father's house in Virginia." The spirit of adventure and the courage of the pioneer seemed to have been an integral part of the Taylor family — it was the summons to the new and untried that led early members of the Taylor family to leave their English home and seek their fortunes in Virginia — the lure of the wilderness that had induced Hancock Taylor, a brother of Colonel Tay- 21 22 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912. lor, to lead the way to Kentucky, and thus it was that a welcome had been provided for the family of our hero when they arrived at their wilder- ness home. Zachary's father decided that the boy should be a farmer, but destiny seemed to have ordered his life differently. But whatever parental plans included, nothing received more careful attention than the education of his children, and for that purpose Elisha Ayres, a young New^ England school teacher, was installed in a school house nearby, so that the chil- dren of Colonel Taylor as well as those of his neighbors for several miles around might be properly instructed. Zachary was said to have been "quick in learning and still patient in study." There were other means of education for the boy — his mother's force of character and strong influence, say his biographers, exerted a guidance all but controlling. Again, the neighbors must not be overlooked: in many instances they had been the father's companions in arms during the revolution. They gathered around the hospitable Taylor family hearthstone, entertained themselves and instructed the children with rehearsals of their hardships, adventures and triumphs ; the almost daily encounter of some settler witb the Indians; the killing of the uncle, Hancock Taylor, by an Indian in British uniform — all left their imprint on the minds of the youthful lis- teners. Ideals of life were thus formed — ideals not necessarily at vari- ance with the paternal plans, but more in harmony with the ambitions and environments of the one who was to become the real responsible per- son, not only for his, but the Nation's destinies. Then there came the position of Collector of the Port of Louisville — an appointment from President George Washington, bestowed upon Colo- nel Taylor in recognition of faithful performance of duties in past days of trial. The Aaron Burr episode in American history, that real or imaginary prospect of a hostile southwestern empire, served to take young Zachary away from his home for a few months where he joined a volunteer com- pany to receive training both in the instincts and art of warfare; this was his initial step in serving his country. If his ambitions had been dormant, they were now thoroughly aroused ; the axe, the plough and the scythe, those instruments of peace and production, no longer entertained him — the Kentucky farm no longer satisfied his aspiration — war seemed to have been his trade, surely his ambition. Opportunity was not long in opening her doors to him. In the early days of the two States, Ken- tucky and Indiana, held many things in common; many pioneers left their Kentucky homes and sought the fertile soil of the Wabash Valk\v. The two States had a common enemy, the Indian. William Strother Taylor, older brother of Zachary, and a second lieutenant of artillery, Zachary Taylor. 23 died removing whatever obstacle that might have been in the way so that President Jeiferson appointed Zachary first lieutenant in the Seventh Kegiment of Infantry, May 3, 1808. His first assignment took him to New Orleans, but an uncongenial climate compelled him to seek the re- cuperating attention of his home and his mother. He remained on fur- lough for about two years, during which time he completed one of his greatest conquests, the winning of Miss Margaret Smith, of Calvert County, Maryland, to be his wife throughout his long and eventful ca- reer. His biographers agree that the domestic life of Mr. and Mrs. Tay- lor, so far as exigencies of camp life would permit, was ideal — an ex- ample to be imitated. His affection for Mrs, Taylor was thoroughly reciprocated, and when General Taylor became President she declined the honors and duties of the first lady of the land, and surrendered to her daughter, Miss Betty, or Mrs. Bliss, and pronounced her husband's elevation to the presidency a part of a plan to deprive her of his society and to shorten his life by unnecessary care. With the election of James Madison to the presidency, Lieutenant Taylor's plans suffered no relapse, and on November 30, 1810, he was promoted to the rank of Captain. About one-half of the Seventh Regi- ment to which he had been assigned, was sent north to Vincennes there to join General Harrison, Governor of the Northwest Territory. This was a favorable time for a young man with Captain Taylor's ambitio'n. Great influences were at work to test the defensive power of the Na- tional Government. The British Government had as yet failed and re- fused to carry out the terms of the Treaty of 1783, and even in that treaty the independence of the United States was not recognized. England recognized "thirteen free, separate and independent sovereignties," and demanded of the American Commissioners making the Treaty of Paris that the old Northwest Territory be left as neutral ground to be occupied by the Indians. English Emissaries were busy everywhere with their allies, the Indians. Pioneers in frontier districts were in constant dan- ger of Indian fury. Aggravated by the English conspirators, this state of affairs was especially true in the Wabash Valley where the great natural resources were attracting vast numbers of settlers. Many Indian tribes under the leadership of Tecumseh, a Shawnee Chieftain of great sagacity and influence, had been organized to resist the encroachments of the Whites. That Tecumseh was a force with which the United States must deal was well illustrated by a Canadian historian, who said : "No one can fully calculate the inestimable value of those devoted red men, led on by the brave Tecumseh during the struggle of 1812. But for them it is probable that we should not now have a Canada, and if we had we would not en- joy the liberty and privileges we possess in so eminent a degree." 24 Fort Ilarrhon Centennial^ 1812-1912. Teeiimseh's brother. Ellskwjitawa, known as the "Prophet," a mixture of medicine man and sorcerer, also exercised great influence over many Indians. Many things combine to confirm the belief that the British Govern- ment had a working agreement with the Indians. Tecumseh had received a commission as Brigadier-General in the British Royal Army, 1812-1813, and led two thousand warriors at Fort Meigs; it was upon Tecumseh's advice that the final place was selected for the Battle of the Thames, where he put aside his English uniform and sword, and donned his na- tive costume, the better to inspire his savage warriors. He was killed in a hand to hand encounter with a United States soldier, said to have been Colonel Richard M. Johnson, but the controversy as to who killed the famous Chief has never been settled. The Prophet received a pension from the British Government until 182G. Other instances of Indian loyalty to English plans might be re- cited, but enough has been given to convey an understanding of the diffi- cult task undertaken by Governor Harrison when he attempted to acquire possession of a large tract of land from the Delaware, Pottawatomies and Miamis, extending along the Wabash river to a point a few miles north of where Terre Haute is now situated. General Harrison's headquarters were at the territorial capital, Vincennes. Indians under the leadership of the Prophet had assembled at Prophets Town near the present site of Lafayette. It was against this formidable foe that General Harrison marched from Vincennes, September 26, 1811. At a point about three miles due north of the court house, in Vigo County, he built the Fort named in his honor. About one year later, September 4, 1812, this Fort w'as commanded by Captain Zachary Taylor, who had about fifty men under his command, less than a score of whom were available for mili- tary duty, the others having been incapacitated by sickness. Some citi- zens and their families who had sought refuge in the Fort aided in the defense. The Indians fought with all their savage fury. All facts go to show the attacking Indians were an adjunct to the British plan to ex- terminate Fort Harrison. Captain Taylor's conduct on that trying night was characteristic of his entire life — he superintended every detail of the defense. His heroic conduct won for him the rank and title of Major by brevet, an unusual thing in Indian warfare. Peaceable settlement could now go forward. English hope of an internal empire in any part of what is now the United States seemed more and more remote, a very signifi- cant victory for a young man not yet twenty-eight years old. Today the Northwest Territory, much of which was made accessible by Captain Taylor's achievement, contains more than eighteen millions of people, about one-fifth of the population of the United States. Zachary Taylor. 25 At the close of the War of 1812, Congress ordered the National stand- ing arm 3^ reduced to ten thousand men, and as a consequence Captain Taylor was reduced in rank, but rather than submit to the humiliation in the face of the service he had rendered, he resigned without comment or complaint, returned to his Kentucky farm ''to make a crop of corn.'' Without any effort on his part he was restored to the army with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel of the First Regiment of Infantry. During the next twenty-four years Captain Taylor was engaged in defending frontier settlements against the encroachments of the Indians. Black Hawk, Chief of the Sacs and Foxes, was his chief adversary. It was during the northwestern campaign that an episode in the story of Captain Taylor changes the scene from English conspiracies and savage conquests to the more peaceful pursuit of that prince of archers, Master Cupid. This dauntless sprite had enlisted with a young officer, Cap- tain Davis, later known as Jefferson Davis, President of the Southern Confederacy. Captain Davis disappeared and with him had gone Miss Sarah Taylor, daughter of Colonel Taylor. Captain Davis resigned im- mediately from the army, and became a cotton planter in Mississippi, served with distinction in the Mexican War, and later wrote the bio- graphy of General Taylor in which he refers to his own elopement, say- ing "Sarah, the oldest daughter of General Taylor, became the wife of Jefferson Davis." Colonel Taylor continued in the northwest until 1836, when repeated depredations of the Indians in Florida and on the Gulf coast required a man of his caliber to restore order and safety to the settlers from the ferocity of the Seminoles. He was now fifty-two years old. He had had a quarter of a century of successful experience with the Indians. In a decisive battle at Okechobee he won the title of Brigadier-General by brevet, and was appointed to the chief command in Florida. The trouble betAveen the United States and Mexico on account of the annexation of Texas brought General Taylor again to a conspicuous place, but the story of his achievements in the war which followed con- stitutes a volume too great in proportion for this sketch. His success in the Mexican War was the culmination of a great military career — a hero's part in a foreign war that added an empire to our National do- minions and made of him a popular idol of national dimensions. He had been respected, honored and trusted by every President, beginning with Jefferson and ending with Polk, a period of nearly forty years. General Taylor's hope of retirement to the quiet and peaceful walks of a farmer's life was rudely shocked by his election to the presidency of the United States by the Whigs in 1848. He was President but sixteen months, though in that brief period he is said to have fully comprehended the nation's perils and by his sturdiness, sagacity and devotion to the Union, 26 Fort Earnson Centennial^ 1812-1912. postponed the Civil War for ten years. The brevity of his term as Presi- dent forbids a conchisive opinion of his ability as an executive officer ad- ministering civil affairs. He was candid and straightforward in his methods. His state papers show models of pure forcible English and un- doubted honesty of purpose. He urged the building of an isthmian canal ; he ordered the preliminary surveyal for the railroad to the Pacific Ocean; he urged the establishment of the Department of Agriculture to promote the productive resources of the country, and favored many other pro- gressive measures. General Taylor's successes were due to his simplicity of character, his moral courage, his exalted patriotism, moderation in the exercise of power, justice, magnanimity, benevolence, his wisdom. He died July 9, 1850, in the full consciousness of "having always done his duty." His death was probably due to the effect of excessive heat while attending the exercises of the laying of the corner-stone of the Washington monument. His remains are buried on the old Taylor farm, now within the City of Louisville, Ky. Chapter V. COMMANDANTS AT FORT HARRISON By J. T. ScovELL. Lieutenant Colonel James Miller was in command from October 31 to November 14 while the army was on the Tippecanoe campaign. Captain Josiah Snelling, of the Fourth Regiment of the United States Infantry, He was in command from November 14, 1811, to some time in June, 1812. He was promoted to Colonel of the Fifth Infantry, June 2, 1819. Fort Snelling, Minn., is named for him. Captain Zachary Taylor, of the Seventh Regiment of the United States Infantry. Captain Taylor was in command from some time in June, 1812, to September 16, but we find no date of appointment or transfer. He defended Fort Harrison September 4 and 5, 1812. He afterward became General Taylor, "Old Rough and Ready," of the Mexican War, and later President of the United States, It is known that Major Willoughby Morgan was in command of the Fort December, 1815. When he succeeded Captain Taylor or whether there was another officer between them is not known. In about May, 1816, he was ordered to other duty by General Jackson, then Comman- der-in-Chief of the Army, and left Major John T. Chunn in command of the Fort. It is said that he rebuilt the Fort, Major John T, Chunn having reported to Major-General Arthur McComb, Commandant of the Department at Detroit, the departure of Major Morgan, General McComb issued an order May 10, 1816, trans- ferring Major Chunn from Fort Knox, and placing him in command at Fort Harrison. This order instructed Major Chunn to remove govern- ment property from Fort Knox to Fort Harrison. This apparently was the end of Fort Knox as a government post. Major Chunn had helped to build the Fort at the time of the Harrison campaign to Tippecanoe. He was then a Lieutenant in one of the companies of that army. He was appointed Captain of the Nineteenth Regiment of the U. S. In- fantry, April 14, 1812. He was transferred to the Third Regiment on May 17, 1815. He resigned from the army June 12, 1821, after a long and honorable service. He returned to Terre Haute to spend the rest of his life, and leave a long list of descendants to honor his name. 27 28 Fort Hamnson Centennial^ 1812-1912. There was no trouble with hostile Indians during the time of Major Chunn's command of the Fort. But in 1810 there was a scare. Reports came to the Fort of depredations by the Indians in Michigan and North- ern Indiana, and the Fort was thronged with refugees. An autograph letter from Major Chunn to Mr. Gilbert, dated September 8, 1816, indi- cated possible danger, but no attack was made. During the succeeding years, 1817 and 1818, 1819 and 1820, even after the Fort had been aban- doned by the garrison, there were these scares about the Indians. Major Robert Sturgis. Appointed Ensign of the Second Infantry, September 28, 1812. Promoted to First Lieutenant March 9, 1814, and resigned February 10, 1818. He had served as a volunteer private in Captain Benj. Parks' troop of light dragoons, in the Tippecanoe cam- paign, and so was a builder of Fort Harrison. From many legends, he was so interesting a character, 'tis a pity more is not known of his his- tory. He never married. He died in Terre Haute about 1828. July 4, 1817, was the first one ever celebrated in Terre Haute. The celebration ball was in Henry Redford's new hewn log house, known as The Eagle and Lion Tavern. The record says, "Major Chunn with his officers. Lieu- tenants Sturgis and Floyd, Drs. Clark and McCullough, with several other gentlemen with their ladies residing at the Fort, were of the happy crowd of celebrants." According to these dates. Major Chunn w^as trans- ferred and Major Sturgis was appointed Commandant after July 4, 1817. As Major Sturgis resigned from the army February 10, 1818, he was Commandant but a few months. He was Treasurer of Vigo County 1823-1824, and Sheriff 1825-1826. Probably Fort Harrison ceased to be a military post about the time Major Sturgis resigned. Chapter VI. INMATES OF FORT HARRISON By J. T. ScovELL. At time of siege, September 4 and 5, 1812, there were in the fort some sixty persons, soldiers and citizens. We only know the names of the fol- lowing : Captain Zachary Taylor, Commandant. Dr. William A. Clark, Army Surgeon. He was commended by Cap- tain Taylor as acting with the greatest firmness and presence of mind in defense of the Fort. Dr. Clark also practiced among the citizens outside the Fort. Drummer Davis, a deserter from the English army, who joined the Americans as a musician. After the war he lived across the river. Died in 1847. William Bandy, a Virginian and soldier. Lived in Faj^ette Town- ship after the war. William Cowen, who was killed in the fight. Josey Cowen, his brother, who died the next day of disease. Joseph Dickson and family, wife and children. Jonathan Graham and wife. No further notice of Jonathan Graham. Isaac Lambert and wife, Julia Lafferty Lambert. Mrs. Briggs and her daughter, Mary. Mrs. Isaac Anderson and her daughter, Matilda. Mary Dickson and Joseph Dickson, young children of John Dickson, in care of their aunt, Julia Lambert. Peter Mallory and family, wife and children. John Clinton Bradford, a baby about a year old. PIONEERS OF THE WABASH VALLEY Joseph Liston, who helped to build the Fort, writes that Isaac Lam- bert, John Dickson, Mr. Hudson, Mr. Chatry and Mr. Mallory cultivated the lands under the protection of the Fort. Mr. Hudson and Mr. Chatry may have been in the Fort, but we find no evidence of it. One report says that John Dickson and family were in the Fort September 4, 1812, but a reliable family history shows that Mr. Dickson and wife were in Vincennes September 4, 1812. In his report. Captain Taylor speaks of 29 30 Fort Harrison Centennial, 1812-1912. "nine women and children, a part citizens' and part soldiers' wives, who had taken shelter in the Fort." The above list contains the names of six women, one a soldier's Avife, and there are the names of several children. Joseph Dickson came to Indiana in 1811 and cultivated lands under the protection of the Fort. Joseph Dickson and famil}^ were in Fort Har- rison September 4 and 5, 1812, and helped in the defense. Joseph Dickson, a son, and another man, were killed by the Indians as they were return- ing to the Fort. The daughters of Joseph Dickson were Margaret Dick- son Handy, Elizabeth Dickson McFadden, Nancy Dickson Lee, Mary Dickson Clarke, and Hannah Dickson Harris. Margaret Dickson married Stephen D. Handy at the Fort in 1813. Eliza Handy, daughter of Margaret, married Samuel Archer, Orinthia Archer, daughter of Eliza, married Alexander McGregor. Alexander Archer McGregor is the only child. Isadora Archer, daughter of Eliza, married Jacob White in 1867. The children are Cecil Duleny White, Eliza White Bartholomew, Charles Archer White and Effie Aileen White Davison. Sarah Handy, daughter of Margaret Dickson Handy, married James Lawrence, father of Edward E. Lawrence, Terre Haute. John Dickson came to Vigo County some time in 1811, and may have helped to build the Fort. John Dickson had a contract to supply beef and other materials to the garrison in the Fort. Goods belonging to him were burned in the block-house September 4, 1812. John Dickson lived in the Fort, but September 4, when the Fort was attacked he and his wife, Elizabeth Lambert Dickson, were in Vincennes, but two of their children, Mary and Joseph, were in the Fort at the time of the siege under the care of their aunt, Julia Lambert. Rebecca Dickson was born March 23, 1813, at Vincennes, and John Wesley Dickson was born June, 1815, at Fort Harrison. Rebecca Dickson married William Durham, son of Daniel Durham. Their daughter, Harriet Durham, married Samuel Royse in 1875. Samuel Royse was Auditor of Vigo County from 1870 to 1878. There are four children: Samuel, William, Martha and Anna. Isaac Lambert came to the region in 1811 and cultivated lands under the protection of the Fort. Isaac Lambert and family were in the Fort September 4, 1812, and helped in the defense. Mrs. Julia Lambert was a sister of James LafFerty, and aunt of Aquilla Lafferty. Isaac Lambert and his brother-in-law. John Dickson, built Lambert & Dickson's mill on Honey Creek. Isaac Lambert was a member of the first Board of Com- missioners of Vigo County. Julia Lambert helped to settle the estate of Isaac Lambert in 1829 and 1830. Inmates of Fort Harrison. 31 Matilda Anderson, daughter of Isaac Anderson, was born at Fort Knox June 7, 1804. Isaac Anderson belonged to the army, and was mail carrier between Fort Knox and St. Louis. Isaac Anderson was an Or- derly Sergeant in General Harrison's army. When Matilda was eight years old, Mr. Anderson moved his family to Fort Harrison, so that Mrs. Anderson and Matilda Anderson were in the Fort at the time of the siege. After the siege, Matilda became acquainted with an Indian who claimed that he set fire to the block-house. He said he filled a camp kettle with bark and soaked it with bear's grease, put it in a hole under the block-house and set fire to it. In 1824, Matilda Anderson married William Taylor. Caroline Taylor, daughter of Matilda and William Taylor, was born in September, 1831, and in September, 1850, married Isaac Ball. Mr. Ball was an undertaker, a prominent and much re- spected citizen. Isaac Ball and Caroline Ball are survived by two chil- dren, Mrs. Matilda E. Ball Hess and Frank H. Ball, who reside in Terre Haute. Peter Mallory came to this region in 1811, and probably helped to build the Fort. He was in Vincennes when Governor Harrison and Te- cumseh had a conference during which the Indians sprang to their feet threatening attack. Mr. Mallory cultivated lands under the protection of the Fort, sometimes plowing with his loaded gun strapped to his back in anticipation of an attack from Indians. Mr. Mallory and wife were in the Fort at the time of the siege September 4 and 5, and helped in the work of putting out the fire and in defending the Fort. Peter Mallory was one of the messengers from Captain Taylor to General Har- rison at Vincennes after the siege. Dr. Thomas Bradford was an Army Surgeon under General Har- rison. His son, John Clinton Bradford, was in Fort Harrison Septem- ber 4, 1812. John Clinton Bradford and wife, Mary Bradford, owned land in the southeast part of Lost Creek Township. They had two daughters : Jane Bradford Coffman and Mary Bradford Brannon. Amelia Brannon, daughter of Mary, married Daniel B. Joice. They live in Terre Haute. Josephine Brannon, daughter of Mary, married George Stump. Mrs. Stump lives in Terre Haute. Mary Briggs and another girl molded bullets in Fort Harrison Sep- tember 4, 1812. Mary Briggs married George Wright. There was one son, William Wright, who had three sons. George Wright, Terre Haute; Lincoln AYright, Clinton, Ind., and Charles Wright, New Goshen, Ind. Joseph Liston came to what is now Vigo County in 1811. He was in company with Edmond Liston, his father, Reuben :Moore, his brother- 32 Fort Harrison Centennial., 1812-1912. in-law, "William E. Adams, Martin Adams and William Drake. They planted, cultivated and harvested seventy-five acres of corn and sold the corn to General Harrison for use of the army while they were building the Fort, Liston and perhaps others of his company w^ere militia sol- diers. The location of the corn field, the location chosen for the Fort and the time of the army movement look very much as if General Har- rison had planned the whole thing several months before. Joseph Lis- ton was a scout. He was famous for his skill in getting knowledge of the movements of the Indians, and thus preventing the destruction of the property and loss of life. It was the boast of the old man that he had never taken a human life. Joseph helped to build the Fort, but did not go to Tippecanoe and was not in the Fort September 4 and 5, 1812. Some descendants of Joseph Liston by his first wife: Thomas Liston, of Clay County. Gilbert Liston, son of Thomas, lives near Lewis, Ind. Mary Liston, a daughter of Thomas, married Moses Pierson. Mary and Moses Pierson had two sons, Moses and Isaac T. Pierson, and one daughter, Lida, who married Thomas Donham, of Terre Haute. Moses Pierson and wife have tw^o sons, Charles and Frank, and one daughter, Mary, who married Gustave Willius, Jr. Joseph Liston by his second wife, Louisiana Lloyd, a widow, had one son, Henry Clay Liston. A son of Henry Clay Liston, Samuel Liston, lives in the southern part of Vigo County. There are several Listons in Vigo County, but they seem to be descendants of the brothers of Joseph Liston. Abraham Markle and Joseph Richardson, of Genesee County, New York, visited Fort Harrison in 1815, making the trip on horseback. In 1816 they crossed the mountains to Olean on the Allegheny river. There a large boat was built for the accommodation of both families, and late in the spring the voyage began. At Pittsburg Mr. Richardson left the company for a trip to Washington, the family with Mr. Markle continu- ing the voyage and reaching Fort Harrison July 4, 1816. Mrs. Richardson occupied a house near the Fort, but was greatly an- noyed by the Indians. There was considerable alarm among the whites. There were rumors of war dances and other signs of mischief. One night Mrs. Richardson and others went into the Fort, as there were signs of an Indian attack, Mrs, Richardson remained in the Fort three days, then loaded her family and goods in a boat, and against the advice of the commandant and others started for Vincennes, arriving there in safety. Inmates of Fort Hanson. 33 George Berkely Richardson, a son, became a citizen of Terre Haute. H. S. Richardson, his son, is well known in Terre Haute. Sarah Elizabeth Richardson married Edward V. Ball, for many years a prominent physician in the city. They had four children : Matilda Ball Mancourt, Caroline Ball Cheever, Lawrence S. Ball, of Prairieton, whose children are Edward Halsey Ball, Agnes Ball Ogle and Bertram E. Ball, and Mary E. Ball Peddle. Her children are Caroline Peddle Ball, wife of Bertram E. Ball, Mary Peddle Peckham, Margaret Peddle Bodde, John B. Peddle. Curtis Gilbert, then a young man, not quite of age, arrived at Fort Harrison in December, 1815. He had visited the settled portions of Western Pennsylvania, Ohio and Kentucky, and had spent some months in New Orleans, prosj^ecting for a location. On his return up the river to Louisville, Ky., he was so impressed with the stories told him of the richness of the Wabash Valley that he immediately went to Vincennes and there formed a partnership with Mr. N. B. Bailey, and pushed on to Fort Harrison with a stock of goods for trade with the settlers as well as the Indians. He was so well pleased with the value of the country that he remained here for sixty-five years, until his death. As a government licensed trader, he spent some time on the Ver- million river. It Avas to him there in September, 1818, that Major Chunn, Commandant of Fort Harrison, wrote of the atrocities of the Indians at Machinac, and the unrestfulness of those in Northern Indiana, advising Mr. Gilbert to return to the Fort until the scare was over. Major Chunn might have ordered him to come down the river, but he did not consider there was any real danger, so gave him the information and left him to act on his own judgment. He returned some time later and remained at the Fort as trader and postmaster until the fall of 1818, when he removed to Terre Haute, where he was the first Clerk, Auditor and Recorder of the county, and held the office for twenty-one years. His old account books, kept at the Fort, have largely- helped the Historical Committee in settling locations and dates. He w^as the fifth in direct descent from Jonathan Gilbert, one of the founders of Hartford, Conn,, in 1635, and was the founder of the Gilbert family of Terre Haute. Abraham Markle came to Fort Harrison along with the Richardson family in 1816. As a soldier in the war of 1812, Mr. Markle had a war- rant for several quarter sections of land which were located in the vi- cinity of Fort Harrison. The family settled on Otter Creek, where Mr. Markle had a mill built. Abraham Markle and his family have been prominent citizens of Terre Haute and Vigo County, but did not have much to do w^ith the Fort. Two of the sons were with the father in the 34 Fort HaiTison Centennial^ 1812-1912. war of 1812. One was in the Blackhawk War, and several of the de- scendants were in the Civil War. Major Markle's children were: Sons William, Abraham, Henry, Nelson, George, Frederick, Joseph and Xa- poleon Bonaparte, and daughters Sarah and Aula. Xelson Markle had two sons, George and Theodore. Gertrude Mar- kle, daughter of George, married xVrthur Eichmond. Theodore Markle has two sons, Augustus R. and Paul, and two daughters, Grace Markle Starr and Florence Markle. Frederick Markle had two sons, Abraham and William. William lives in Otter Creek Township, and has two sons, Herbert and Daniel, and one daughter, Mabel, who married William Wier. James Matthew Stewart was one of the pioneers at Fort Harrison. He came with his bride in 1817, and remained a few months. He re- turned to the Falls of the Ohio where he had large contracts as a builder. But as soon as they were completed (1819) he came back to Terre Haute to live. Two sons. Colonel Robert R. Stewart and Lieutenant Colonel James Stewart, were noted cavalry officers in the Civil War. Another was William H. Stewart, a leading and highly honored citizen, Mayor of Terre Haute and Sheriff of Vigo County. The family were for years identified by the "Stewart House," a noted hostlery. Dr. Charles B. Modesitt came to the Fort in 1816. The doctor was a public-spirited man of affairs. He was a good doctor, a good business man and a good citizen. His sons were James A. Modesitt and Wilton M. Modesitt, and he had one daughter, Frances Anna, who married Chauncey Warren. At her death, in 1904, she left surviving her, and w^ho now reside in Terre Haute, three daughters, Eliza B. Warren, Clara W., wife of Egbert Curtis, Frances Deming Warren, and one son, John Crawford Warren. Susan Spencer was in the Fort about 1816 with her uncle, Andrew Brooks. She married Andrew Wilkins, who was at one time Sheriff of Vigo County, and at another time Clerk of the county. The children were: Emily Wilkins Early, Rachel E. Wilkins, Mary B. Wilkins, Lida Wilkins Merrill, John E., William and George D. Wilkins. Caleb Crawford and family came to Fort Harrison, May, 1817. One daughter, Ann Mary, married David W. Rankin. Their children were Sarah E. Rankin, Morton C. Rankin and Oscar Rankin. Another daughter, Emeline, married Henry Fairbanks. Their son, Crawford Fairbanks, built the Public Library, and named it for his mother, Caleb Crawford and his descendants were not closely related to the Fort, but were under its protecting wings as living on the farm at a short dis- tance during the Indian scares of 1817 and 1818, and have been promi- nent and valuable citizens of Viffo Countv. Chapter VII. THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY By J. T. ScovELL. The larger part of North America is a great plain extending from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. On the west are the Rocky mountains. On the east are the Alleghenys This great plain is drained by the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes into the North Atlantic; by the Saskatchewan into Hudson Bay; while the southern portion is drained to the Gulf by the Mississippi, Ohio and Missouri rivers. The region be- tween the Ohio and the Great Lakes and between the Alleghenys and the Mississippi river is called "The Northwest Territory. European Discovery and Di\asiON. When the Europeans about 1500 discovered North America, the whole country was occupied by tribes of savages whom they called Indians. Spain, France and England claimed the whole continent by right of dis- covery. These nations did not consider that the Indian had any proprie- tary rights in this broad domain, in these lands which he called home. The Claims or Spain. Spain made the earliest discoveries, the West Indies, the regions bor- dering on the Gulf and on the Carribbean Sea. Spain, at first, was dis- posed to claim the whole continent, but occupied regions along the Gulf and across to the Pacific with indefinite northern boundaries. Spain built St. Augustine and held the region for many years not for indus- trial purposes, but as a protection to her commerce wdth Mexico. Spain made no attempt to explore the Mississippi river nor to occupy its valley for agricultural purposes, but later treaties show that her claims were recognized as extending as far north as the sources of the Mississippi river. The Claims or France. France claimed the Valley of the St. Lawrence and the "wilderness world westward and southward to its uttermost bounds? The French early discovered the Great Lakes and the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers. They established a chain of trading posts and missionary stations from 35 36 Fort Harrison Centennial, 1812-1912. the mouth of the St, Lawrence along the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, Detroit, Fort Wayne, Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, one on Red river, one near Natchez, and another near the site of New Orleans. Among the French leaders were Champlain, Joliette, La Salle and Mar- quette. The French engaged in the fur trade doing but little agriculture. Thus the French were the first Europeans to occupy the Northwest Ter- ritory. The Claims of England. The English claimed the regions along the Atlantic coast, south of the St. Lawrence valley, and westward from "sea to sea." England made grants to Virginia, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut with such indefinite western boundaries that each claimed an interest in the North- west Territory. English, Dutch, French Huguenots, Germans and others settled along the coast regions and engaged in agriculture, built towns, established manufacturing industries, engaged in mining, fishing, fur trading and other lines of commerce. These people increased rapidly in numbers encroaching continually upon the hunting grounds of the Indians, and restricting the fur trade of the French. In some cases treaties were made with the Indians and they were paid for their in- terest in the lands, but there was no definite uniform custom in the mat- ter and there was continual strife. In the last half of 1600, Dutch and English traders began to compete with the French in the fur trade. In 1684 the Iroquois Indians placed themselves under the protectorate of King Charles which gave the English some claim to the Northwest Ter- ritory. During the first half of 1700, many English crossed the moun- tains. In 1754 General Braddock was defeated with great loss of life by the French and Indians. In 1758 Colonel Forbes drove the French out of the upper Ohio Valley, and in 1759 Quebec was captured by the English under General Wolfe, and the French dominion in America was at an end. B}^ the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the King of France ceded to his Britanic Majesty, in full right, Canada and all its dependencies, the western boundary to be a line drawn along the middle of the Missis- sippi river. Great Britain and the Indians. The Indians at first did not seem to object to the British supremacy in America. The English seemed inclined to treat the Indian about as the French treated him. But during the year 1762 Pontiac, an Ottawa Chief, formed a conspiracy involving several Indian tribes. They hoped to capture all of the military posts and to drive all the white people out of the country. In 1763 these Indians captured ISIackinaw, Sandusky, Ouiatenon, Fort Miamis, Venango and others, but failed in their at- tack upon Detroit, and they failed at Fort Pitt. A vigorous campaign under General Bradstreet and Colonel Boquet broke up the Indian power The Northwest Territory. 37 so completely that they sued for peace and all the tribes interested con- cluded treaties with the English, For several years the Indians were peaceable, ''although in the meantime many p]nglish colonists, disregard- ing the proclamation of the King, the provisions of treaties and the re- monstrances of the Indians, continued to harass the Indians by making settlements upon their lands." '"The fur trader seldom had trouble with the Indian; he probably paid a small price for furs and cheated the In- dian in other ways, but he did not destroy his hunting grounds. The farmer was continually in difficulty. He cut down the forests and pol- luted the streams, destroying both hunting grounds and fishing ponds. The British as fur traders were friends; the colonists, the settlers, chang- ing forests into corn fields, were not friends. Clark's Campaign. During the War of the Revolution, in the summer of 1778, George Rogers Clark, a Virginian, with an army of Virginians, captured and occupied the British posts of Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes. The success of the expedition was largely due to the active co-opera- tion of the French priest, Father Gibault. The people living about these posts were chiefly of French descent. Father Gibault explained the situation to these people and they transferred their allegiance to Vir- ginia with scarcely a murmur. Later, Francis Vigo, a "Spanish Mer- chant" of St. Louis, saved the expedition from probable failure by ad- vancing money to pay the expenses of the army. At the close of the war with Great Britain by the treaty of peace concluded at Paris in 1783, "His Britanic Majesty acknowledges the United States to be free and independent states and relinquishes all claims to the govermnent, pro- priety and territorial rights of the same and every part thereof." The territory mentioned being south of the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes and east of the middle of the Mississippi river, excepting Florida. Spain preferred claims to portions of this territory, and objected to the Mississippi boundary, and France also objected to that boundary, but both finally waived their objections and signed the treaty. Thus all the title and all the claims of European countries to the Northwest Ter- ritory were vested in the United States. Colonial Claims. The close of the war found the United States deeply in debt with no prospective resource except as might be derived from the sale of public lands. The title to the lands in the Northwest Territory was not quite clear. The cession of lands by Great Britain had been to the United States as a nation. Virginia, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut 38 Fort Harrison Centennial, 1812-1912. had valid claims to the lands in the Xorthwest Territory. By an Act of Congress passed September 6, 1780, the States preferring claims to lands in the Northwest Territory were recommended to cede their claims to the General Government for the good of the Union. In accordance with this suggestion, New York in 1781, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785, and Connecticut in 1786, ceded their claims to lands in the Northwest Territory to the General Government, Virginia and Connecti- cut making some minor reservations. Acquiring the Indian Title. Immediately after the conclusion of the treaty with Great Britain, Congress undertook measures for acquiring the Indian title to the lands in the Northwest Territory. At Fort Stanwix October 22, 1784, the Iroquois, or the Six Nations, yielded to the United States all claims to the territory west of a line running from Johnson's Landing, about four miles east of Niagara river, southerly to the Ohio river in the extreme western part of Pennsylvania. On January 21, 1785, the United States concluded a treaty with the Delaware, Wyandot, Chippewa and Ottawa Indian tribes by which lands in Ohio east of the Cuyahoga and Musk- ingum rivers were ceded to the United States. The territory northwest of the Ohio river was organized in 1787, and General Arthur St. Clair Avas appointed Governor and Minister of Indian Ajffairs. The Ordinance of 1787. The Ordinance of 1787 for the government of the Northwest Terri- tory, guarantees religious liberty, the benefit of the writ of habeas corpus and of the trial by jury. Article 3 is as follows: "Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of man- kind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed toward the Indian; their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their con- sent, and in their property rights and liberty they never shall be invaded or disturbed unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress; but laws formulated in justice and humanity shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being done to them and for preserving peace and friendship with them." For several years there had been desultory warfare between the Indians and the settlers for the most part carried on between small parties conducted by irresponsible persons. Such warfare was often accompanied by treachery and shocking cruelty on both sides. After the appointment of Governor St. Clair, the war assumed a different character as far as the Whites were concerned. There was more humanity in the treatment of jDrisoners and non-combatants, and all operations were under the direction of the government. INDIANA IN 1811 Dearboti Of* GENERAL HARRISON'S LINE OF MARCH FROM VINCENNES TO PROPHET'S TOWN IN 1811 Chart prepared by Prof. W. D. Pence of Purdue University 39 I The Northwest 2'erritory. 4] General Wayne and the Greenville Treaty. All efforts of Governor St. Clair to make peace with the Indians failed. The military expeditions sent out against the Indians were fail- ures or disasters, so that in 1794 Indian affairs were in a very critical condition. On August 20, 1794, General Wayne near the Falls of the Maumee defeated the Indians. He says: ''The enemy were routed from their position and driven more than two miles through the woods. The savage hordes with their British and Canadian allies abandoned them- selves to flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving our vic- torious army in full and quiet possession of the field of battle." General Wayne returned to Greenville for the winter. During the winter, parties of Indians from several different tribes visited General Wayne and signed preliminary articles of peace. At Greenville, August 3, 1795, General Wayne concluded a treaty of peace with the Wyandots, Ottawas, Chippewas, Sacs, Eel Rivers, Kas- kaskias, Kickapoos, Pottawattomies, Weas, Miamis and Shawnees by which old boundary lines, including all of what is now Ohio, were con- firmed, and for "the same considerations, and as an evidence of returning friendship, and to provide for that convenient intercourse which will be beneficial to both parties, the said Indian tribes do also cede to the United States certain pieces of land, to-wit, one piece six miles square at the old Wea towns on the Wabash, and fourteen other pieces of land in the Northwest Territory. The Indians also release the lands granted to Gen- eral Clark, and the lands in other places in possession of the French peo- ple, or others, of which the Indian title has been extinguished. Consid- erations. And for the same considerations and with the views above mentioned, the United States now deliver to the said Indian tribes a quantity of goods to the value of $20,000, the receipt whereof they do hereby acknowledge and thenceforward every year forever, the United States will deliver at some convenient place, northward of the Ohio, like useful goods to the value of $9,500, reckoning that value as the first cost of the goods. Mutual concessions. And the said Indian tribes will al- low the people of the United States free passage by land or water through their country. And the said Indian tribes shall be at liberty to hunt within the territory which they have now ceded to the United States. This treaty was signed by several Indians from each tribe, by Gen- eral Wayne and General Harrison, and several other army officers and by several sworn interpreters. From this time, 1795 to 1810, the United States maintained pacific relations with the Indian tribes that were parties to the Greenville treaty. 42 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912. Indiana Territory Organized. Indiana Territory was organized in 1800 and May 13, 1800, William Henr\^ Harrison was appointed Governor. The United States "author- ized Governor Harrison to promote peace and harmony among the differ- ent tribes of the Northwestern Indians and to induce them, if possible, to abandon their modes of living, and to engage in the practice of agri- culture and other pursuits of civilized life." The Governor was also authorized to negotiate treaties for the purpose of extinguishing the Indian title to lands within the boundaries of the territory. The principal subjects which attracted the attention of the people of Indiana were the purchase of Indian lands, the adjustment of land titles, and the hostile proceedings of Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet. Indian Treaties. Treaties for land in Indiana along the Ohio river as far west as the Wabash and up the Wabash to a point above Vincennes were made with the Delaware, Pottawattomies, Miamis, Eel River, Wea and other tribes who at the time were recognized as having title. These treaties seem to have been made in good faith and were signed by the Indians after full consideration and discussion. But the consideration paid, including the initial payment and the annuities, seem small and inadequate, at least for agricultural lands. Considered as hunting grounds, the price seems inadequate. The lands certainly were worth more to the world, but were they worth more to the Indian than the United States paid him for them Did the colonists and the speculators who obtained grants from England pay more than the United States paid the Indians? The prices though small, must have been about what public sentiment considered fair. Opposition to Indian Treaties. August 21, 1805, a treaty was made which conveyed to the United States certain lands along the Oliio river. Some Indians, as Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, and others, began to realize something of the value of the land for agriculture, and tried to hinder the making of treaties, claiming that the Indians were being robbed. This idea was encouraged by certain speculators who opposed the government policy of making treaties for the Indian title, as it prevented them from buying direct from the Indian. Then it is well known that British emissaries were trying to make trouble between the Indians and the United States. This opposition was strong, and for several years no treaties were made. The Northwest Temtory. 43 Treaty of Fort Wayne, 1809. But September 30, 1809, at Fort Wayne, General Harrison, in spite of the opposition, was able to conclude a treaty with the chiefs and head men of the Delaware, Miami, Eel Eiver, Wea and Kickapoo tribes, by which about 2,900,000 acres of land, southeast of the Wabash below the mouth of Raccoon Creek, were sold and ceded to the United States, And December 9, 1809, the Kickapoos ceded to the United States about 113.000 acres of land lying west of the Wabash river and below the Ver- million river, being about twelve miles wide along the Wabash. The northeastern boundary of this Fort Wayne cession of 1809 runs from northwest to southeast, and is called the ten o'clock line, as it runs toward the sun at ten o'clock. Why was the line run in that direction? General Harrison's Letter. General Harrison writes: "I was extremely anxious that the cession should extend to this river (the Vermillion) by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, but there was objection because it would include a Kickapoo vil- lage. This small tract of land, about twenty miles square, is one of the most beautiful that can be conceived, and is moreover believed to con- tain a rich copper mine. I have myself frequently seen specimens of the copper, one of which I sent Mr. Jefferson in 1802." The letter was dated at Vincennes, December 10, 1809. This letter seems to explain the ten o'clock line. It included more of the beautiful country that contained a rich copper mine than an east-west line would include. Tecumseh and the Prophet. Tecumseh and his brother continued their opposition to the making of treaties for the disposal of Indian lands. In fact they were more active after the treaty made in 1809. August, 1810, in a conference with General Harrison, Tecumseh intimated that he would resist any attempt to survey the lands ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Fort Wayne. Tecumseh claimed that the lands belonged to the Indians as a nation, not as individual tribes. In fact each tribe had special rights in some territory which Tecumseh and his brother had to recognize. Tecumseh and his brother were Shawnees. They were crowded out of Delaware towns on the White river to Greenville in Ohio. The people in that region desired them to move on, and by permission of the Pot- towattomies and Kickapoos, they settled on the Wabash near the mouth of the River Tippecanoe. The new settlement was called Prophets Town. • 44 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912. General Harrison and Tecumseh. There were many, both Indians and Whites, who denounced Te- cumseh and the Prophet and their followers as enemies of the United States. The General at length came to regard Tecumseh and his brother as dangerous persons who, having received some encouragement from the British, were endeavoring to form a confederacy of Indian tribes which in the event of war between the United States and Great Britain, would become allies of Great Britain. Tecumseh and the Prophet did not have supreme power over the Indians. At a conference of Indian tribes in May, 1810, Winamac, a Pottawattomie Chief, and some Delawares op- posed the Prophet, and prevented the Ottawas, Pottawattomies and Cliippewas from placing themselves under the control of the Prophet. At this time Winamac and others estimated the warriors following the Prophet at about 650, made up mainly of restless bands from several different Indian tribes, but not the leading men of any of the tribes. On one occasion the Prophet declared, "That it was not his intention to make war on the Whites, that some of the Delawares and others had been bribed to make false charges against him. Tecumseh was haughty, claimed that the land was sold by only a few of the membere of the tribes and that the Fort Wayne Treaty was made through the threat of Winamac. Tecumseh threatened the Chiefs who sold the lands, and said to General Harrison, "If you do not restore the lands you will have a hand in killing them." About the 1st of August, 1811, Tecumseh with a few followers went south for conference with southern tribes. Treatment or Indians by the Whites. In a message in 1806 Governor Harrison said, "The Indians will never have recourse to arms unless driven to it by injustice and oppression. Of this they already begin to complain, and I am sorry to say that their complaints are far from being groundless. The laws of the territory provide the same punishment for offenses committed against the Indians as against White men. Experience shows that there is a wide difference in the execution of those laws. The Indian always suffers and the White man never. This partiality has not escaped their notice. Every regula- tion which would promise more impartiality in the execution of the laws in favor of those unhappy people will be highly acceptable to the United States and honorable to yourselves. I pray you lose no oppor- tunity of inculcating among your constituents an abhorrence of that de- testable doctrine which would make a distinction of guilt between the murder of a AVhite man and an Indian. The principal matters of which the Indian complained were: The encroachments of the White people upon the lands which belonged to the Indians; the invasion of their hunting grounds and the unjustifiable killing of some of their people. \\ ILLIAM HENRY HARRISON The Northwest Territory. 45 These complaints were not groundless, but neither the laws of the United States nor those of Indiana Territory were sufficiently strong to prevent the evil conduct of a few bad White men." Subsequent events and later dealings with the Indians apparently convinced General Harrison that he was in error regarding the traits of the savages. The Tippecanoe Campaign. Preparations for War. July 31, 1811, at a meeting of the citizens of Vincennes and vicinity, a petition was made to the President for protection from the depreda- tions of the Indians. The President fully informed as to Indian affairs in Indiana Territory, had, earlier in the season, authorized the Governor to call out the militia and at his discretion to call into service the Fourth Regiment of the United States Infantry under the command of Colonel John P. Boyd. The General was instructed to preserve pacific relations with the Xorthwestern Indians by the use of all means consistent with the protection of the citizens of the territory and the maintenance of the rights of the General Government. Governor Harrison having de- termined to erect a new fort on the Wabash river, and to break up the assemblage of hostile Indians at Prophets Town, ordered Colonel Boyd's regiment of infantry to move from the Falls of the Ohio to Vincennes, at which place the regulars were to be reinforced b}^ militia. Calling Out the Militia. About the 1st of September, according to Mr. William Naylor, "Gen- eral Harrison sent a requisition to Colonel Joseph Bartholemew to raise three companies of militia and one troop of horse and equip them accord- ing to law and to march to Vincennes. Colonel Bartholomew mustered the companies into service September 10, 1811, equipped with ten days' rations in their knapsacks, weighing about thirty-five pounds exclusive of arms and accoutrements. This command consisted of Captain Biggers' volunteer company of riflemen from Clark County, Captain Spencer's company of mounted riflemen from Harrison County, Captain John Xorris' company of infantry, and Captain Beggs' troop of horse. This detachment reached Vincennes September 20, 1811. John T. Chunn Avas Lieutenant in Captain Big- gers' company, and Mr. William Na^'lor was a private. The militia from the vicinity of Vincennes Avere under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Luke Decker. The command consisted of Captain Warrick's company, infantry. Captain Hargrove's company, infantry. Captain Scott's company, infantry. Captain Wilson's company, infantry, Captain Wilkins' company, infantry, and a troop of horse commanded by Cap- tain Parke. 46 Fort Ha'TTison Centennial^ 1812-1912. The Regulars. The Fourth Regiment, United States Infantry, consisted of Captain Josiah Snelling's company. Captain George Prescott's company, Captain William C. Bean's company. Captain Joel Cook's company. Captain R. B. Brown's company, Captain Robert C. Barton's company, a com- pany commanded by Lieutenant Charles Fuller and a company com- manded by Lieutenant O. G. Burton. The Organization of the Army. The arm}^ was organized as follows: "The infantry, both the regu- lars and the State militia, are to form one brigade under the com- mand of Colonel John P. Boyd as Brigadier General. Lieutenant Colonel Miller will command the first line composed of all the reg- ular infantry, and Lieutenant C|olonel Bartholomew^ will command the second line composed of the militia infantry. These tw^o offi- cers will report to and receive orders from Colonel John P. Boyd, Joseph Hamilton Davies, from Kentucky, is appointed and commis- sioned Major of Dragoons in the militia and to command the whole of the cavalry. Major Daviess will receive orders from the Commander- in-Chief. Captain Spier Spencer's company of mounted volunteers will act as a detached corps. Captain Spencer is to receive orders from the Commander-in-Chief.''' Captain Robert Buntin was appointed Quarter- master for the militia. The time from September 21st to September 26th was spent in drilling the men and in making other preparations for the campaign. September 26, 1811, the army moved northward, encamp- ing October 3rd on the east bank of the Wabash river, about two and one-half miles north of the site of Terre Haute. Fort Harrnson. The Fort was to be a storehouse of supplies for the army and a pro- tection in case of a defeat or disaster in the campaign. Tlie site selected was the point nearest the Indian boundary that was suitable for a fort. It was on a sharp eastward bend of the river so that there was a good view both up and down stream. The land rises twenty-five to thirty feet above low water and w'as covered with light forest of oak, honey locust and others, which furnished the timber used in building the fort. The fort was about 150 feet square. The west side consisted of a two-story block-house about twenty feet square at each comer with barracks between. These were stoutly built log houses with shed roofs, the upper stories of the block-houses projecting beyond the lower so that the outside of the three walls of the fort could be seen from the block-houses. The guard house on the north was a log house. The balance of the structure The Northwest Territory. 47 including the bastions on the east, were of palisades in a trench about four feet deep. The gate was on the east. The fort was finished October 23, 1811. Soon afterward the army was called out and Major Joseph Ham- ilton Daviess, after a little speech, broke a bottle of spirits on the gate and named the structure Fort Harrison. Lack of Supplies and Threatened Mutiny. The first crop of corn raised in Vigo County was used to feed the arm}^ while building the fort. Joseph Liston, who helped cultivate the crop, was a soldier, and it is supposed that Liston and his companies were sent out by General Harrison to raise corn for the army. Other supplies were shipped by the river. "The water was low ; the boats were delayed: the men were on short rations, and many of them were ready to turn back toward Vincennes. General Harrison called them together, made a little speech, exj^laining the situation, and said that no more flour and beef should be used in his tent than was assigned to a com- mon soldier. He then made an appeal to the army and said if any com- pany or individual wanted to go home they could have the privilege. He then said all that were willing to bear the privations of the arm}' and want of provisions and go to the Prophet's town would manifest it by raising their firearms or swords. There was not one down in the whole army, and there was not a murmur heard in the camp afterwards." Appeal to Kentucky. General Harrison appealed to Kentucky for volunteers as they were interested in breaking up the power of the hostile Indians. "While build- ing the fort Captain Fred Guiger's company of mounted riflenien of the Kentucky militia and Peter Funk's company of mounted Kentucky militia joined the army. The new fort was garrisoned by a small com- pany of men under Lieutenant Colonel James Miller. A number of these men were invalids. October 29, 1811, the army took up its march toward Prophets Town, the boats having arrived with the belated supplies. March to Fort Boyd. October 31st, the army crossed the Wabash at a point about three miles below the mouth of the Big Vermillion river. Prophets Town was west of the river; the route east of the river was shorter, but mostly through forests; the route west of the river was longer, but mostly through prairie, less danger of ambuscade. It was considered safer to cross near the mouth of the Vermillion with the aid of boats than near Prophets Town in the face of the enemy. Near the mouth of the Vermil- lion they built a block-house twenty-five feet square, and called it Fort 48 Fort Harrison, Centennial^ 1812-1912. Boyd. Here a Sergeant and eight men were left as guard of boats and supplies. ''From Fort Boyd General Harrison detailed twelve men, in- cluding William Bruce of Captain Dubois' company, to return to Vin- cennes for the purpose of keeping the militia alert, and to keep up a daily patrol between Vincennes and White river, to prevent the Indians from making incursions against the settlers in the rear of the army." This account was written by William Bruce. On November 3rd the army resumed its march up the river. They waded the Vermillion and other streams. It was cold, sometimes below freezing. The roads were bad, in some places dangerous, but no Indians were seen until November 6th, when they reached the vicinity of Prophets Town. General Harrison was urged to attack at once, but he finally turned aside and camped in order of battle for the night. Toward morning the Indians attacked the camp with great vigor, but they were defeated and driven away. The loss of life was heavy on both sides and many were wounded. The In- dian town was burned, the dead were buried, and November 9th the re- turn march was begun. Fort Harrison was reached November 13th with- out special incident. Leaving Captain Snelling with his company of regulars at Fort Harrison the army continued its march southward. General Harnson's Farewell Speech. At Shakers Town the General made a speech eulogizing the dead and praising the bravery and soldierly conduct of the living. The General said: "The larger part of the troops had never been in action, and yet they behaved in a manner that can never be too much applauded." Gen- eral Harrison speaks highly of the officers and men of the Fourth Regi- ment and of Posey's company of the Seventh Regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Jacob W. Albright of the First Infantry. In short they sup- ported the fame of American regulars. The General also says, "that several of the militia companies were in no wise inferior to the regulars. He mentions specially Spencer's, Warrick's, Guiger's and Robb's companies, and calls attention to their heavy losses. And that Wilson's and Scott's companies charged with the regular troops and proved themselves worthy of doing so. Norris' company behaved well. Hargrove's and Wilkins' companies had no opportunity of distinguishing themselves or I am sat- isfied they Avould have done so." Some ResvUs of the Campaign. Dillon says that among the immediate results of the Tippecanoe ex- pedition were the breaking up of the Indian settlements at Prophets Town, the destruction of the Prophet's influence among the northwestern Indian tribes, the defeat of the plans of Tecumseh, and a temporary relief to the frontier settlements from Indian depredations. The Northwest Territory. 49 The battle at Tippecanoe was considered a great victory. The adven- tures incident to this campaign furnished fireside talks for many years in both Indiana and Kentucky. It became an unwritten law of those days that new counties should be named after some hero of Tippecanoe as: Spencer, Tipton, Daviess, White, Parke, Warrick, Dubois, Barthol- omew, Floyd and Randolph. Many of the men who perished in the cam- paign were volunteers, not on duty as soldiers, but as men, as citizens, who recognized a crisis in the affairs of Indiana, a crisis in the affairs of Kentucky, and that duty to humanity called them to arms and perhaps to death. Fort Harrison as a Eefuge for Settlers. Fort Harrison was built as a refuge in case of defeat at Tippecanoe. It served the army as a storage for supplies. When the anny disbanded Captain Snelling and company Avere left as a protection for the settlers on the frontier. The victory at Tippecanoe so crippled the power of the Indians that there was no danger of a large body of hostile warriors. But the successes of the British and the Indians at the opening of the War of 1812 did encourage a number of small war parties to invade the Indiana settlements, killing stock, burning houses and murdering settlers. Block-houses were built on the frontiers, one on the farm of William Bruce, east of Vincennes, large enough to protect several fami- lies. Sometime during the summer of 1812 Captain Zachary Taylor was made Commandant at Fort Harrison with a garrison of fifty men. It was a sickly season, and seldom more than one-third of the force were fit for duty. Many families moved into the Fort and block-houses, the men going out to do a little farming or hunting. The Siege of Fort Harrison and Subsequent Events. September 3rd, occurred the Pigeon Roost Massacre in which twenty- four persons were killed and the same day two men were killed near Fort Harrison. In the afternoon of September 4th a body of Indians ap- proached the Fort under a flag of truce, asking for a conference regarding provisions. Captain Taylor, suspecting treachery, would not treat with them, but made careful preparations to resist an attack by the Indians. Beside the garrison there were several citizens in the Fort, as Joseph Dickson, Peter Mallory and others, and there were several women and children in the Fort for protection. About midnight the attack was made and immediately came the cry of "Fire." The southwest block-house con- taining the stores of the contractor was on fire. The citizens and their wives under Dr. Wm. Clark battled with the fire, and the soldiers battled with the Indians. Captain Taylor ordered out buckets and soon there were buckets of water passing from the well to the fire. By the time the door 50 Fort Harrison Centennial, 1812-1912. was broken out the fire bad reached a quantity of whiskey and there was no hope of saving the block-house. The roof next the barracks was thrown off and the barracks kept so wet that the fire did not spread to them. The burning of the bh)ck-house would make an opening in the walls of the Fort about twenty feet wide. When the fire was under con- trol a number of men were put to work building a barricade across this opening, and before the fire had cooled down so that persons could pass through, a barricade had been completed and the walls of the Fort were again suitable for defense. During the fire the women drew the water from the well and the men passed it up to the roof. In a short time the water got so low in the well that they could not dip the bucket full. Then Julia Lambert said, '"Let me down into the well and I will fill the buckets." In doing this Julia dipped up so much sand that after a while the well was made deeper so that the buckets dipped full again. This was talked of as a miracle. It is said that Julia never recovered from the fatigue and exposure in the well. After the fire was under control, the women loaded the guns for the men and the girls moulded bullets. Soon after the attack, two frightened men jumped over the palisade, thinking it safer outside than inside a burning Fort. One was killed in a few minutes. After a while the other, severely wounded, crawled back to the shelter of the walls of the Fort. The contest was kept up until morning. As it began to get light so that the fire from the Fort became more effective, the Indians retired, giving up the fight. They drove away the cattle, shot the horses they could not catch, and killed a number of hogs. The losses were two killed and two wounded in the Fort, one killed and one wounded outside the Fort. Two killed in the field September 3rd and two were killed on the 4th as they were coming into the shelter of the Fort. Total loss seven killed and three wounded. Nothing is known of the number of Indians engaged in the attack and nothing is known about their losses, but they were thought to have been small. When news of the attack on Fort Harrison reached Vincennes, about 1,200 men under Colonel William Russell, marched to the relief of the Fort. The force consisted of Colonel Wilcox's Eegiment of Kentucky Volunteers, three companies of rangers under Colonel Jor- dan, and two regiments of Indiana militia under Colonel Evans. When these troops without opposition reached the Fort September 16th, the Indians had retired. The Kentucky Volunteers remained at the Fort for some time. The others returned to Vincennes. Early in October, 1812, General Hopkins with an army of about 2,000 mounted riflemen moved northward from Vincennes for the pur- pose of destroying villages of hostile Indians on the Wabash and Illinois rivers. They crossed the river near Fort Harrison and the Fort was to serve as a refuge in case of accident. The expedition was a failure. The The Northwest Territory. 51 men turned back in spite of efforts of General Hopkins, Major Lee, Cap- tain Taylor and others. Another expedition under General Hopkins reached Fort Harrison November 5, 1812, on the way to Prophets Town and vicinity. Captain Zachary Taylor commanded a small company of regulars on this expe- dition. The expedition was successful and several villages were de- stroyed. General Hopkins speaks highly of the behavior of officers and men, especially of Captain Z. Taylor. Again Fort Harrison was the base of operations. Chapter VIII. DISTINGUISHED MEN AT FORT HARRISON AND TIPPECANOE By J. T. ScovELL. William Henry Harrison was a great man. He was successful as a Greneral, as Governor, as Superintendent of Indian Affairs and as a poli- tician, having been elected ninth President of the United States in 1840. He came from a distinguished family, his father, Benjamin Harrison, signed the Declaration of Independence; was a delegate to the first Colonial Congress; was elected Governor of Virginia in 1782, and was twice re-elected. William Henry Harrison was born February 9, 1773. He abandoned the study of medicine for the military. He was commis- sioned Ensign in 1791. He served with General Wayne in the campaign against the Indians in 1794. Was Governor of Indiana Territory 1801- 1813. At the same time he was Superintendent of Indian Affairs he built Fort Harrison, and gained a victory over the Indians at Tippecanoe in the fall of 1811. In 1812 Governor Harrison was commissioned Com- mander-in-Chief of the Kentucky forces, later he was made Brigadier General in the United States Army, and assigned to the command of the Northwestern army. In general he was successful in his military opera- tions against the British and Indians, defeating the joint forces at the battle on the Thames, thus regaining all that General Hull lost. William Henry Harrison was especially successful in dealing with the Indians, concluding many treaties with them. Tecumseh and others were hostile; Winemac, Captain Logan, and others were generally friendly. After the battle on the Thames General Harrison resigned his commission. William Henry Harrison was a member of Congress from Ohio 1816- 1819, and United States Senator 1825-1828. In 1836 he was defeated as Whig candidate for the Presidency, but was elected ninth President of the Uunited States in 1840. He died April 4, 1841, one month after his inauguration. President Harrison was a strong and convincing speaker, and in general was popular with the people. General Harrison, a grand- son of William Henry Harrison, was elected twenty-third President of the United States in 1888. He was born on August 20, 1833. He was a distinguished lawyer in Indianapolis. He was breveted Brigadier General in the Civil War; was United States Senator 1881-1887. He was elected to the Presidency in 1888. Benjamin Harrison was an exception- ally strong man, and made a good President, but he lacked some elements of popularity so characteristic of his great ancestor, and failed of re- 62 Dist-higuished Men at Fort Hannson and Tippecanoe. 53 election. It is seldom that three such conspicuously strong men occur in one family. The celebration of the Centennial of Fort Harrison em- phasizes our relations with these distinguished men. There are a great number of descendants of General Harrison. Among whom are John Scott Harrison, a brother of President Benjamin Harri- son, lives in Kansas City, Mo. Mrs. Anna H. Morris, a sister of President Benjamin Harrison, lives in Minneapolis. Colonel Kussell B. Harrison, son of President Benjamin Harrison, lives in Indianapolis. William Henry Harrison, son of Russell Harri- son, born in Terre Haute, lives in Omaha, and daughter, Mrs. Martina Harrison Williams, lives in Norfolk, Va. Mrs. J. E. McKee, daughter of President Benjamin Harrison, and her children, Benjamin Harrison McKee and Mary Lodge McKee, live in New York. Colonel John P. Boyd, of the Fourth Regiment of the United States Infantry. He helped to build Fort Harrison. In the battle General Harrison says, "He manifested equal zeal and bravery in carrying into execution my orders." Colonel Boyd was shortly after Major General Boyd, and in command of the Department of New Hampshire, Massa- chusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Marston G. Clark came to Vincennes as a volunteer private in one of the militia companies. His standing as a citizen and capacity as a man prompted General Harrison to make him Brigade Inspector on his personal staff. He served with credit through the campaign. After- wards he took prominent position in civil affairs. Among other things, he was one of the commissioners appointed by the Governor to establish Vigo County. Captain Robert Buntin, Quartermaster of the Brigade, had seen ac- tive service before in the Indian wars. He served with and later wrote an interesting account of the defeat of General St. Clair in 1791. TouissAiNT Dubois, Captain of Guides and Spies. He was an influen- tial man with the Indians and early pioneers. United States Senator Fred T. Dubois of Idaho is a grandson of Captain Dubois. Dubois County, Indiana, was named for Captain Dubois. John Tipton, promoted on the field to Captain in command of Captain Spencer's company after the death of Captain Spencer and of First Lieutenant Richard McMahon. He afterward became Major, then Colonel, and then General Tipton. After the war, General Tipton was a member of the State Legislature, and in 1831 became United States Senator. General Tipton in 1829 bought the ground on which the Battle 54 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912. of Tippecanoe was fought, and in 1836 conveyed sixteen and one-half acres of it to the State of Indiana. Tipton County was named for Gren- eral Tipton. William Bruce, a vohinteer in Captain Toussaint Dubois' company of guides and spies, lived in the neighborhood of Vincennes. He was Captain and later Major Bruce of the Indiana militia He is an ancestor of Professor Bruce of the Indiana State Normal School Captain Andrew Wilkins, of the Indiana militia. The Captain's nephew, Andrew Wilkins, was for several years Sheriff of Vigo County, and later Clerk of the county. Captain James Bigger of a company of riflemen of the Indiana militia. The company was from Clark County. Isaac Xaylor, Sergeant in Captain Bigger's company. Afterward Judge at Crawfordsville, Ind. William Xaylor, private in Captain Bigger's company. Business man in Terre Haute, also Assessor and Justice of the Peace, and author of interesting reminiscences of the Tippecanoe campaign. Davis Floyd, Sergeant in Captain Beggs' company. Floyd County, was named for Sergeant Floyd. Major George Croghan, Aide-de-Camp of Colonel John P. Boyd. About twenty years old. Afterward distinguished himself at the defense of Forts Meigs and Stephenson in 1813. James Hite, private in Peter Funk's company of Kentucky mounted militia. About eighteen years of age. He is said to have acted bravely in battle. For many j-ears a citizen of Terre Haute. Chapter IX. TERRE HAUTE UNDER FOUR FLAGS "Terre Haute Under Four Flags" is one of the historical sketches prepared bj^ Edward Gilbert, and read in the city schools. The work of Mr. Gilbert was undertaken under the direction of John Morton Chap- ter, Sons of the American Revolution. How many of the school children know that this land has been under four flags? At different times four separate nations have held dominion over our country. It is not meant that each has held some part of the United States, but over this very land on which Terre Haute now stands. And these four flags do not include the Indians or aboriginal inhabi- tants. The Indians did not have flags. There is nothing in Indian archeology that shows ami:hing that stood to them as the flags of civ- ilized nations stand to their people. Some of the first known tribes of parts of America had what they called "Totem poles." These generally had carved on them emblems of the tribe or family, such as a beaver, bear or a fox. These were fixtures and stood where for the time the tribe might be located ; they were not carried about and there was supposed to be but one for each tribe. The first claim to this land b}^ an European was more than three hun- dred years ago, when the Spanish adventurer, DeSoto, landed on the shores of Tampa Bay, Florida, and traversed a great part of the western countr}'^. Though he did not come so far north as Indiana, he took for- mal possession of the whole country which was watered by the Mississippi river and its tributaries, in the name of the King of Spain. Besides, the Pope, who claimed jurisdiction over the whole world, had given North America to the King of Spain. This part of the world was first explored by Frenchmen. About the year 1680 men of that nation were the first to tread this land. These were called "voyaguers" or "couriers de bois." Their trading or explor- ing expeditions were voyages made up or down the rivers or lakes, as it might be. from the points where the first settlements were located. The "voyaguers" were the forerunners of such explorers as LaSalle, Marquette and Joliette, who made great exploring expeditions and took possession in the name of the King of France. This was often done with elaborate ceremonies, especially if, as usual, they were accompanied by priests or missionaries. Sometimes it was done by hewing a cross on the flattened side of a great tree, or carving on a rock the arms of the King of France.' 55 56 Fort Ilarnson Centennial, 1812-1912. For many years there was undisturbed French possession, undisputed b\^ any other European nation. At times there was much trouble with the Spanish, who invaded the land from the west side of the Mississippi river, who established mission posts, nominally for the conversion of the heathen, but more for the sake of the trade with the Indians. This trade was very profitable for, to the Indians, everything the foreigners had was new, and consequently, so they thought, very valuable. The Indians would give great stacks of the most costly furs for the cheapest trinkets. These furs were sent to Europe and sold at enormous profits. There was for years, in places, much controversy between the French and Spanish for control, which ultimately resulted in the Spanish being confined to the west side of the Mississippi river and the French to the east side. The French and the French flag held sway for about ninety years, until, in consequence of the capture of Quebec by the English General, Wolfe, in 1759, all French possessions in this part of North America passed to the hands and under the flag of England. So our land was English territory until 1778 during the Revolution- ary War, when, by the capture of Kaskaskia, on the east bank of the Mississippi river and Vincennes on the east bank of the Wabash by Gen- eral George Rogers Clark, all this western country came under the con- trol of the American Confederation, and the Star Spangled Banner. As a consequence of this campaign and capture by General Clark, when the treaty of peace was made between the United States and Eng- land, at the close of the Revolutionary War, the western boundary of our country was made the Mississippi river, whereas, but for that expedition, it would have been the Allegheny mountains or the Ohio river, leaving all to the north and west as part of Canada. There was more or less trouble with the Indians all the time after the peace with England. The Indian nature is so different from that of the Whites that they have never been able to live together in peace, except when the Indians were under a strong control backed by force. All ex- periences with them shows that force was the only characteristic they respected. As an example : After the treaty there were a number of forts throughout the West that had to be transferred. The English soldiers remained in some instances for months. It is told that at one of these there was a large English garrison and that but few Americans were in the party to succeed them. The Indians that were about and witnessed the transfer were utterly disgusted at their English friends for giving up the fort. They said it was cowardly for so large a force to surrender to a smaller, and without even a fight. They could not understand that the war was over and the two nations were now friends. Terre Haute Under Four Flags. 57 The Indian character had little respect for obligations or treaties. It is true many treaties have been neglected or violated on the part of the Whites, but always at least with the pretense of an excuse. The Indian characteristic was, when there was a chance in case of a fight, then fight. For nearly thirty years, until the Battle of Fort Harrison in 1812, there was always trouble with them and danger to all who lived away from the larger settlements. The defeat of the Indians at that battle so completely ended all depredations that there has been peace all over this part of the country ever since, for a hundred years. And until there is no one living who personally knew of or had personal experience of dan- ger from Indians. It is this century of peace that we propose to cele- brate this September, as the beginning of a new school year and century for the school children of Terre Haute. Chapter X. THE BLUE GRASS OF FORT HARRISON PRAIRIE By C. T. Jewett. Fort Harrison's lasting reward to the valiant Kentucky Mounted liifle- men for the important part they played in building and defending the historic post on the bank of the Wabash was the seed for the now famous blue grass. Sod of the Fort Harrison prairie, transplanted in the beauti- ful hills of Kentucky, gave to that Commonwealth a State name that is historic. The incident of the campaign of 1812 w^as almost forgotten in the stirring events of the half century following, but from oft repeated tra- dition and musty letters of the soldiers, authentic evidence is supplied to bear out the claim that Indiana really is the original blue grass state. Not with the intention of taking the least bit of honor from the coun- try south of the Ohio is this item set down. What the Wabash Valley and the highlands of Terre Haute gave to the followers of William Henry Harrison and Zachary Taylor, Kentucky has given to the world. In the campaign against Tippecanoe, when Fort Harrison was built, were volunteers from Kentucky. These men provided their own mounts and not the least concern to them was suitable provision for their horses. Next to the beautiful women of his Commonwealth the thoroughbred holds the affections of the true Kentuckian. When the soldiers went into camp during the erection of Fort Har- rison the army of the Northwest Territory was short of provisions for men, and there was little forage for the horses. The Kentuckians were willing to go hungry if need be, but they insisted that their horses suffer nothing from neglect or lack of feed. This point they were not slow in impressing on Captain Buntin, Quartermaster of the Fort. Their complaint called attention to the fact that there was "no feed for the horses except that coarse grass out on the prairie." One of the letters from a soldier to his home told of the incident. Quoting from that message we have the following: "Captain Buntin, who had been here before, replied, 'Turn your horses out on that coarse grass and listen to w^hat he says about it.' Morgan took to it like a duck to water and in a few days I had never seen him with so sleek a coat and generally in such fine fettle." 58 The Blue Grass of Fort Harrison Prairie. 59 The Kentuckians were not slow to appreciate the oflFering of the prairie. When the time came to return home each saddle bag contained a parcel of seed of blue grass. The soil of Kentucky was rich and soon the blue grass took root. The hardy vegetation of the Fort Harrison prairie became the luxurious blue grass of the hills of Kentucky. Not less patriotic Kentuckian than Henry Clay attested to the truth of this incident. In the prime of his eventful life, when the country rang with his eloquent voice the repeatedly recalled what he confessed was Kentucky's debt to Indiana and the Wabash valley— the blue grass. Terre Hauteans of the present day offer as their authority for this the frequent statement of the late Judge John G. Crane, an intimate of Henry Clay. Judge Crane often repeated the words of the great Kentuckian who honored Indiana in his graceful acknowledgment that Kentucky was proud to be known as the Blue Grass State, and re- vered the soil of Fort Harrison prairie— the first home of the blue grass. COPPER AND COAL MINES ON THE WABASH By Edward Gilbert. In one of General Harrison's reports he speaks of the difficulty of securing the inclusion in a treaty of certain lands which he much desired, but was objected to by the Indians, partly on account of the location thereon of a valuable copper mine. He speaks of having seen samples of the copper, one of which he had sent to Mr. Jefferson, in 1802. The immediate location of this mine was held a profound secret by the In- dians, but General Harrison supposed it to be somewhere on the west side of the Wabash between about where Lafayette now stands and Vin- cennes. General Harrison no doubt hoped that this would in time prove a valuable item in the possession of Indiana. Later research proved that the supply of copper was limited to light washings of several small creeks. And the hopes of development have never been realized. At the same time it is of record that when the scouts of the Tippe- canoe army advanced up the river ahead of the army, they found several settlers freely working drifts for the coal that cropped out. Ensign Tipton, in his journal of his investigations, makes many references to these coal mines. In those days copper was an object of great worth, for it was scarce and of great value. While the forests w^ere being cut down to clear the land, coal as a fuel was not so interesting. In these modern times, con- ditions are reversed. The copper mine has vanished from memory, but those drifts of coal have opened the way to the discovery, fifty years later, of the enormous deposits under this whole region, which have proven the basis of all our prosperity. 60 Fort Harrison Centennial, 1812-1912. THE FIRST CROP OF CORN ON FORT HARRISON PRAIRIE By Edward Gilbert. Early in the spring of 1811 there appeared five men, in the vicinity of what is now the southeast part of the City of Terre Haute. These men proceeded to break up the land and plant a crop of seventy-five acres of corn. Why they selected this remote place was a mystery at the time. By their own statement there were no inhabitants of the coun- try roundabout, nearer than Carlisle, the town long the capital of Sulli- van County, some thirty miles away. Where were they to get a mar- ket for their crop ? While there is no historical authority for the state- ment, it is believed that it was an example of the long headedness of General Harrison, who foresaw the coming expedition, and sent these men here to prepare the crop for the use of his army that was to march through the country in the Fall. It is told how four of the five were wary of reports of Indian threats, and being willing to abandon their enterprise, the fifth bought out their interests and secured the crop. It was, as expected, later sold either to the army direct or to the contrac- tors who supplied the expedition. It is true that one of the men was a soldier enlisted in the army, and that he disappears from the rolls for a time. Whatever may have been the inducement that led to the enterprise, it is admitted by all historians that then was the first plowing of Fort Harrison prairie for cultivation by civilized people. PICTURE OF FORT HARRISON By Edward Gilbert. The picture of Fort Harrison presented to our readers is a photo- graphic copy of a print made and copyrighted in 1848 by Luther G. Hager and James A. Modesitt. It can well be called the only existing, authentic picture portrayal of what Fort Harrison looked like. Luther G. Hager was a young and enthusiastic amateur artist who came here in 1836. James A. Modesitt was a son of Dr. Charles B. Modesitt, one of the early pioneers of the county, who was at and in Fort Harrison for some time during its maintenance as a post. He was the father of Mrs. Chauncey Warren, perhaps the last person to live who had known Fort Harrison as such. On the occasion of a "Grand Barbecue" held at Fort Harrison Grove, half a mile east of the Fort, in October, 1848, during the campaign Avhich resulted in the election of General Zachary Taylor to the Presi- dency of the United States, these two young men of Terre Haute filled with the same patriotic sentiments that have inspired this centennial Picture of Fort Harrison. 61 observance, undertook to preserve the Fort by the aid of the "printer's art." Luther G. Hager had never seen the Fort in its original state, but James A. Modesitt, as a boy, had. They consuhed with several then living citizens who "knew it like a book," among them Curtis Gilbert, who had spent near three years under the shadow of its stockade. They made the picture to represent it as it had been. Originally the block-houses were covered b}^ shed roofs, slanting in- ward. In rebuilding, after the destruction of one by fire during the battle, and, later, in repairing the other the hip roofs, as shown in the picture, were put on. These young men who made the picture sold scores of them at the "barbecue." They also utilized some of the old walnut logs of the stockade, which were yet solid, turning them into walking canes which they sold to visitors. It is the regret of the Historical Committee that they are not able to find one of these canes to show at this time. Fort Harrison Grove, some time the home of Judge Elisha M. Hunt- ington, of the Indiana Supreme Court, was a beautiful hillside, studded with massive maple and oak trees. It was a favorite picnic ground. Many a venerable man and woman of Terre Haute remembers how they looked forward to the annual Sunday school picnic, a great feature of which was the ride up and back on a canal boat. Chapter XL THE CENTENNIAL OF THE BATTLE OF FORT HARRISON By James B. Harris. A few miles north of the City of Terre Haute lies the beautiful site of Old Fort Harrison, conspicuous in the history of the territory of the Northwest for its great influence in the national life. It is located on hio-h irround at a bend in the Wabash river and affords a beautiful and commanding view of the country beyond for many miles. The United States Government has from time to time been solicited to assist in the acquisition and preservation of such historic spots, and the National officials, recognizing that the patriotic spirit of the people is largely promoted by favorable action, has adopted a liberal policy, friendly to such appeals. Among the many purely patriotic societies with unselfish ends and exclusively devoted to patriotism is, "The Sons of the American Revolu- tion." That organization has been regularly incorporated by the Con- gress of the United States. There is a National Society, State Societies in nearly every State of the Union, and local chapters. Also, there are chapters under the con- trol of the National Society located in Hawaii and the Phillipines, of Americans living there, and in Paris, France, where descendants of the Frenchmen who helped in the Revolutionary War are also members. The organization is under the system of our National and State and local form of political organization. "The Sons of the American Revolution" is composed of lineal de- scendants of those American colonists and of their French allies who took part in the American struggle for independence, either in military, naval or civil action. The purpose and object of such corporations are declared to be patriotic, historical and educational, and shall include those designed to perpetuate the memory of the men who, by their services or sacrifices during the war of the American Revolution, achieved the independence of the American people; to unite and promote fellowship among their descendants; to inspire them and the community at large with a more profound reverence for the principles of the government founded by our forefathers; to encourage historical research in relation to the American Revolution: to acquire and preserve the records of the individual serv- 62 z .« o u ■Tj o ^ »: <A tn < "X J5 (-1 O ai -yj O o U-, r- ^ o -) rt u:i o Ui H— 4 cr- ■J) ai h /, -t:^ w C C/) c o Gh tn The Centennial of the Battle of Fort Harrison. 63 ices of the patriots of the war as well as documents, relics and land- marks; to celebrate the anniversaries of the prominent events of that period; to foster true patriotism and extend institutions of freedom. The story told elsewhere affords justification for the appeal for the acquisition, improvement and dedication of Fort Harrison site as a Na- tional Park by the government of the United States, The conception of a Fort Harrison Centennial celebration has long been entertained in the John Morton Chapter of the Indiana Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, located at Terre Haute. The project was brought before the annual meeting of the Indiana State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution at Indianapolis in 1907 by the delegates from John Morton Chapter, and was received with grand acclamation, but no action could be taken at that time. The next year, February, 1908, the State meeting was held at Terre Haute. There was a large attendance and the compatriots were conveyed in carriages to the old site and the meeting was held there in a modern building, in the construction of which a few of the old logs of the Fort stockade had been retained and which were carefully and reverently inspected by the visitors. Resolutions looking to the preservation of the site of Fort Harrison and its dedication as a National Park were presented by Compatriot James B. Harris, of John Morton Chapter, Terre Haute. Mr. Harris said: "At a meeting of John Morton Chapter, Sons of the American Revo- lution, the desirability of securing Fort Harrison for a National His- torical Park was discussed and a resolution passed looking toward its acquisition for this purpose. It is desired to enlist the interest, ap- proval and assistance of the Local, State and National Societies, S. A. R., and also the general public and the State and National Governments. "It is appropriate that the Sons of the American Revolution should inaugurate this movement as it is the mission of the organization to in- spire sentiments of loyalty, patriotism and veneration. "We must preserve the sites of these actions that our children's chil- dren may read them and visit them and become enthused with patriotism. Nothing could show^ so baneful a lack of patriotism as allowing this evidence of the deeds of our ancestors to go unmarked, to fade in memory and become mythical by loss of records and markers from neglect or de- struction for commercial ends. "The Fort was built and named in honor of a lineage noted for patriotism and statesmanship and prominently devoted in patriotism to the National service for several generations. "The following resolutions are therefore offered for adoption: 64 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-1912. '■'■Resolved^ That the Indiana Society of the Sons of the American Rev- ohition approve and recommend that the site of Fort Harrison be secured and dedicated as a National Historic Park. '■''Resolved^ That this action shall also be placed before the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution and the approval and influence of that organization be requested to aid in said purpose. ''^Resolved., That the President of the Society appoint a committee to formulate a memorial to the Congress of the United States that the Na- tional Government take appropriate action to acquire and dedicate the site of old Fort Harrison as a National Historic Park." The resolutions were unanimously adopted by the Indiana Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. At a regular meeting of John Morton Chapter held April 1, 1912, it was resolved to call a meeting of all citizens of Terre Haute for the purpose of fonuing a Fort Harrison Centennial Association. Such a meeting was held at the rooms of the Terre Haute Commer- cial Club on April 5, 1912. There was a large and enthusiastic attend- ance and the organization was completed. The aim and object was de- cided to be "to provide for the suitable patriotic observance of the one hundredth anniversary of the Battle of Fort Harrison, fought between the United States soldiers, under Captain Za chary Taylor, and the hos- tile Indians, under Chief Lenar, at Fort Harrison, on the banks of the Wabash, September 4, 1812. "To initiate a movement for the proper and permanent marking of the battle field. "To collect and preserve historical records and records of the battle. "To provide a suitable memorial to the men and women who partici- pated in the campaign that made possible the peaceful settlement of the Wabash valley." The following officers and committees w^ere selected : EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Thatcher A. Parker, President. Miss Mary Alice Warren, Vice-President. Mrs. Mary Murphy, Vice-President. Lawrence Burget, Vice-President. David J. Williams, Vice-President. Harry T. Sciiloss, Vice-President. Will W. Adamson, Vice-President. Clarence F. Williams, Vice-President. Capt. a. W. Dudley, Vice-President. Edward Gilbert, Secretary. George W. Krietenstein, Treasurer. Tfoe Centennial of the Battle of Fort Harnson. 65 COMMITTEES On Finance — W. W. Adamson, Chairman. On Municipal and State — Adolph Herz, Chairman. On Publicity — W. L. Staiil, Chairman. On Buildings and Grounds — Max Ehrmann, Chairman. On Transportation — ^William Penn, Chairman. On Parades — C. T. Jewett, Chairman. On Invitations — President "W. W. Parsons, Chairman. On Speakers — D. J. Williams, Chairman. On Decorations — Marx Myers, Chairman. On Schools and School Children — Herrert Briggs, Chairman. On History — Dr. J. T. Scovell, Chairman. ADVISORY COMMITTEE George O. Dix, Chairman. Judge C. M. Fortune. W. R. McKeen. President C. Leo JSIees. President W. "W. Parsons. John L. Crawford. Crawford Fairbanks. Adolph Herz. DA^^:D W. Henry. Judge John E. Cox. Rabbi E. Leipziger. Chapman J. Root. The present result of these efforts is this observance of the Centennial of the Battle of Fort Harrison, September 4, 1912. Chapter XII. ROLL OF MEMBERS OF JOHN MORTON CHAPTER, INDIANA SOCIETY OF THE SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Floyd Allen. William Ward Adamson. Frank Baird. David Bacon. Herbert Briggs. Ralph Albin Coltharp. Orville E. Conner. Charles Edward Conner. George Oscar Dix. Charles R. Dryer. Jacob Drennon Early. Charles E. Erwin. Linus A. Evans. Isaac Flenner. Edward Gilbert. Chalmers Martin Hamill. William A. Hamilton. Lloyd B. Hamilton. Paul Bitner Hamilton. James B. Harris. Benjamin G. Hudnut. Charles Timothy Jewett. John Patton Kimmel. Earle Portmess Lee. John M. Manson. William Payne Martin. Austin A. Miller. Thatcher Anspenk Parker. Lemuel Ford Perdue (deceased), Eli Hilton Eedman. James Ellis Somes. John D. Steele. Robert J. Scovell. Henry Keys Stormont. Richard Siblej^ George Albert Schaal. Dalton B. Shourds. Wilbur Topping. Horace E. Tune. David Russ Wood. H. E. Wildy. I 66 Chapter XIII. ROLL OF DESCENDANTS. One of the objects of the Fort Harrison Centennial Association was to collect and preserve records of the descendants of the pioneers of F'ort Harrison. The committee gave every effort to obtain names, but in many instances all trace of families has been lost. The following names are from the register of the Association, and are of the known living descend- ants of those who assisted in building and maintaining the fort or par- ticipated in its defense : Descendants of William Henry Hai^rison. Russell B. Harrison, John Scott Harrison, Mrs. Sallie H. Devin, Mrs. Anna H. Morris, Miss Anna H. Devin, S. H. Devin, Mrs. Elizabeth Reed, Mr. Sam S. Morris, Jr., Allen Morris, Mrs. Charles Stevenson, Mrs. Madge Curtiss, Scott Harrison, Mrs. William T. Buckner, Scott Harrison Morris, Scott Harrison Eaton, Mrs. John C. Lewis, Seymour Hunt, John Scott Harrison, W. H. Harrison, Miss J. W. Farrar, James Findley Harrison, Arch I. Harrison, Captain J. T. Taylor, Mrs. Bessie Ogden, Mrs. D. W. McClung, A. T. Harrison, Lytle Har- rison, J. S. Harrison, Jr., Mrs. M. S. Robinson, Benjamin Harrison, William H. Harrison, Mrs. J. R. McKee, Mrs. Benjamin Harrison Descendants of Rohert Buntin. Mrs. Emma Buntin Wagner, Miss Frances Buntin, Davis C. Buntin, Mr. Henry Shannon Buntin's children, Touissiant C. Buntin, Grcorge C. Buntin, Mr. Rollin H. Buntin. Descendants of Susari Sfencer Wilkins. Noyes E. Anderson, Ora Davis, Mrs. Addie Davis, Charles M. Trout, Susan Early Trout, George D. Wilkins, John E. Wilkins, Edwin Wilkins, David Wilkins, Mrs. George Wilkins, Mrs. Beulah Wilkins. Descendants of Major John T. Chunn. Charles Chunn, Miss Caroline Chunn, J. T. Chunn, Miss Maoma Hale, Mrs. Bruce ^^Hiitesell, S. C. Wright, David Wright, W. G. Wright, Margaret Wright, Mrs. Levi Taylor, Mrs. E. Dj^er, Miss Maria Van Dyne. Descendants of Stephen D. Handy. William A. Handy, Sol. Handy, Mrs. Charles Prevo, W. W. Handy. 67 68 Fort Harrison Centennial, 1812-1912. Descendants of Peter Mallory. Mrs. John Tobery, Isaac Brady, Scott Green. Descendants of Wm. Naylor. W. N. Garrtrell, Charles Naylor, Louis Naylor, Mrs. Anna Naylor, Miss Marie Naylor, Samuel S. Shumard, John W. Swindler, Glenn Swindler, Mrs. Lena Swindler, Lena Swindler-Spencer, Esther Swindler, Harrison Swindler, Mayme Swindler. Descendant of Major John D. White. James M. Chandler. Descendants of General John A. Thomas. Charles Thomas, Ralph L. Thomas, Frank H. Thomas, John D. Thomas, William H. Thomas, George M. Thomas, Charles L. Thomas, William Tichenor, W. E. Robinson, Overton Thomas, Clem Thomas, George Thomas, George W. Shanks, Ed. F. Moster, W. H. McLaugh- lin, Raymond Neice, Victor Vancheiser, Ernest Lackard, Willard P. Hedrick, Robert W. Thomas. Descendants of Joseph Liston. Mrs. Thomas Donliam, Gilbert Liston, Moses Pierson and family, Isaac Pierson. Descendants of John Hamilton. Andrew C. Nelson and Sister C. Nelson. Descendants of Isaac and Jidia Lambert. Mrs. Irene Casto, Mrs. Virginia Eppert, Mrs. J. S. Hamaker, Mrs. Alice H. Harris, Mrs. Jane Kelley, James Laverty, Geo. W. Laverty, C. H. Lambert, Mrs. Louise Moore, Mrs. Sarah C. Meredith, Paul J. Meredith, John McCune, R. W. McCune, Mrs. Josephine Pickard, Mrs. Almeda Thompson, Mrs. Ermine Ten Brook. Descendant of Rev. Soldier Woodruff. Rula Woodruff. Descendants of John Dickson. Mrs. Charles Bartholomew, William C. Durham, John C. Durham, Joseph II. Durham, Mrs. Jos. G. Cannon, Jr., John Dickson, Isaac Dickson, Mrs. E. G. Davison, Mrs. O. A. McGregor, Alex. Mc- Gregor, Mrs. W. H. Shephard, Mrs. W. B. Schofield, Mrs. Samuel Royse, Samuel Royse, Martha Royse, Anna Royse, William Royse, Mrs. I. A. White, Charles White, Cecil D. White.' Roll of Descendants. 69 Descendants of Major John Bond. Mrs. Cedelia Van Houtin, J, B. Johnson, John W. Jones, William Jones, John Murray. Descendants of Curtis Gilbert. Joseph Gilbert, Mrs. Sadie Gilbert Cooter, Mrs, Helen L. Gilbert Gillum, Curtis Gilbert, Mrs. Madge Gilbert Champion, Edward Gil- bert, Helen Steel Gilbert, Mrs, Emma Gilbert Curtis, Henry Curtis Gilbert, Kichard Law Gilbert, Mary Gilbert, Henry Curtis Gilbert, Jr., Mrs. Susan B. Ball, Miss Mary G. Beach, Mrs. Mary G. Gilbert Blake, Mrs. Helen G. B, Ross, Mrs. Helen C. Gilbert Warner, Mr. Gilbert Warner, Mrs. Ethel Warner Greeson, Mrs. Alice Warner, Miss Susan B. Warner. Descendants of Abraham Markle. Mrs. Oscar Anderson, Augustus R. Markle, Miss Laura Markle, Ray- mond Denman, Abraham Markle, John M. Markle, William D. Mar- kle, Herbert M. Markle, Mrs. Mable Weir, Miss Sarah Markle, Harry Markle, Ed. Markle, William Green, Charles Green, Mrs. Bertha Hornberger, Mrs. Myrtle Tanner, Harry Green, George Markle, Her- bert Markle, Miss Anna Markle, Guert Markle, Harvey Markle, Robert Markle, Miss Florence Markle, Paul S. Markle, Harry Markle, Clay C, Markle, Ermina Markle, Maurice Markle, Mrs. Morton Gris- mer. Miss Matilda Markle, Miss Eva Markle, Xapoleon B. Markle, W. Lincoln Browning, John Brockway, James Baldwin, Warren Brock- way, Chauncey Baldwin, Mrs. Ernest Drake, George DufReld, Fred- erick Elkin, Walter Green, Mrs. Ivan B. Harris, Mrs. Arthur Rich- mond, Mrs. Mary Ross, Mrs. George Starr. Descendants of Henry Bedford. Mrs. Raymond Cummings, Mrs. Kate Markle, Mrs. Dr. Scott, Mrs. M. S. Tyler. Descendants of Joseph Richardson. Dr. Lawrence S. Ball, E. H. Ball and family, Mrs. S, R. Freeman, Jr., Miss Maude Freeman, Mrs. H. B. Hibben, William R. Richard- son, Mrs. J. A. Root, Mrs, Josephine Lake, Mrs, Charles Minshall and family, Mrs. R, H, Pritchard, JVIiss Clint Richardson, Wm, P, Rich- ardson, John M. Richardson, Mrs, Mary E, Peddle, John Peddle, Mrs. Matilda Ball Mancourt. Descendant of John Clinton Bradford. Mrs. Amelia Brannon Joice. 70 Fort Harrison Centennial^ 1812-19W. Descendants of Dr. Charles B. Modesitt. Mrs. Catherine Curtis, Mrs. Cora E. Carter, Chauncey Warren Cur- tis, Mrs. George B. Mathews, Welton Modesitt, John C. Warren, Miss Frances Warren, Miss Mary Alice Warren, Miss Eliza Warren, Mrs. Herbert Westfall, jSIiss Helen Frances Warren, Robert E. Warren and family, Frederick Warren and family, Miss Mary Elizabeth Warren. Descendants of Mary Briggs. George Wright, Lincoln Wright, Charles Wright. Descendants of Caleb Crawford. Walter Crawford, Fred Crawford, H. F. Crawford, W. G. Crawford, Miss Florence Crawford, Wm. David Crawford, Crawford Fairbanks, Mrs. Bruce F. Failey, Grant Fairbanks, Mrs. William Fairbanks, Mrs. Nellie Jordan, E. P. Fairbanks, Miss Helen Fairbanks, Mrs. Hallie Freeland, Henry S. Montagnier, Mrs. Daisy E. Noe, Morton L. Ran- kin, Oscar Rankin, Mrs. James Townley, Miss Minnie Martin, Miss Janie Martin, Sarah E. Rankin. Descendants of John E. Wihnoth — Kentucky Volunteer. George T. Smith and family. Descendants of Matilda A. Taylor Ball. Mrs. M. E. Ball Hess, Frank Ball. Descendant of Captain Touissiant Dubois. Hon. Fred Dubois. Descendants of James Burgan. W. C. Burgan, James J. Burgan, Samuel W. Burgan, Mrs. E. A. Perkins, Miss Elizabeth J. Burgan, Lyman M. Burgan, Mrs, Josephine Bowsher, James A. Burgan, Samuel Burgan. CHRONOLOGY OF FORT HARRISON DeSoto landed on Tampa Bay, Florida, and, later "took possession" of all the land drained by the waters of the Mississippi river, in the name of the King of Spain 1540 LaSalle traversed a part of Indiana on his voyage of discovery of Ohio river 1676 LaSalle again crossed a part of Indiana, from the St. Joseph river, near where South Bend now is, to the Illinois river 1678 The Five Nations claimed to have driven out, or massacred the aborigines, whoever they were, and taken possession of Indiana 1621 The Five Nations ceded all lands west and south of Albany, N. Y., to King William III 1701 The claims of Spain to the region were transferred to France .... 1702 Francis Vigo born at Mondovia, Sardinia 1740 Francis Vigo died at Vincennes, Mar. 22, 1836. Mons. de Aubry marched his 400 French recruits and 100 tons of flour up the "Wabash from Vigo County to assist the French at Quebec. This con- nects our land with the French-English wars \ . 1759 Conspiracy of Pontiac 1761 After the treaty between England and France, St. Ange, commandant of Fort Chartres (Vincennes) surrendered the post to Captain Sterling of the British army Oct. 10, 1765 General George Rogers Clark started on his expedition of conquest of the land from about where Louisville, Ky., now is on June 24, 177S General Clark captured Kaskaskia on the Mississippi river . . . July 4, 1778 Father Gibault secured the transfer of the allegiance of the French in- habitants of Vincennes from England to the American colonies . Fall of 1778 Captain Helm and his cook took possession of Vincennes in the name of the United States Dec. 1778 The British General, Hamilton, with thirty British regulars, fifty French Canadian volunteers and four hundred Indians, marched across Vigo County, enroute to recapture Vincennes, the only connection of Vigo County soil with the Revolutionary War Dec. 1778 Captain Helm and his cook, the only garrison of Vincennes, surrendered to General Hamilton on honorable terms Dec. 1778 First meeting of General George Rogers Clark and Francis Vigo at Kas- kaskia Jan. 29, 1779 British General Hamilton surrendered Vincennes to General George Rogers Clark Feb. 24, 1779 Peace of Paris between Great Britain and the United States, Great Britain surrendered all claims on land east of the Mississippi river . . . 1783 Virginia surrendered all claims to the Northwest Territory to the United States 1784 The Northwest Territory organized by Congress, under General Arthur St. Clair as Territorial Governor 1787 Indiana Territory organized by Congress, and General William Henry Harrison made Territorial Governor 1800 Plan of survey by range, township and sections adopted by Congress May 7, 17S4 Survey of lands in Indiana Territory authorized by Congress 1804 General William Henry Harrison marched up the Wabash to locate and and build Fort Harrison. Left Vincennes Sept. 26, 1811 Arrived at location and commenced building the Fort .... Oct. 30, 1811 Completed the Fort Oct. 30, 1811 General Harrison, with his army, started on his march to the Prophets Town 1811 General Harrison defeated the Indians under Elskamatawa, the Prophet Nov 7, 1811 Battle of Fort Harrison, defense by Captain Zachary Taylor, against the Indians under the old chief, Lenar Sept. 4, 1812 First public sale of lands of Vigo County at the Vincennes land office Sept. 13-14, 1816 Terre Haute platted by the Terre Haute Company, and first sale of lots in Terre Haute Oct. 31, 1816 Vigo County organized 1818 Indiana became a State in the Union Dec, 1816 71 SEP 4 1912 FREEDOM'S LAND The New National Anthem By dr. E. T. SPOTSWOOD Sung to the Tune Dixie Land The land we love, the land of glory Famed in song and grand in story To thee ! To thee ! To thee we sing. United free and strong and gi*and We'll keep and hold our Fatherland. For Aye ! For Aye ! ! For Aye ! ! ! in Freedom's land. Chorus — Our glorious Union ever, Hurra ! Hurra ! ! In freedom's land we all will stand And live and die for freedom's land. Hurra ! Hurra ! ! Hurray for the Union ever. No North. No South. No East. No West, But one grand Union heaven blessed; For Aye ! For Aye ! ! For Aye ! in Freedom's land. To keep it pure and keep it right We'll always for its honor fight For Aye ! For Aye ! ! For Aye ! ! ! in Freedom's land. And this shall be our battle song, To hold the true and right the wrong, Alway ! Alway ! ! Alway ! ! ! in Freedom's land. For we love our own our Freedom land. To guard her rights we'll ever stand. Alway ! Alway ! ! Alway ! ! ! in Freedom's land. O, may our God within whose hand Is held the future of our land, Alway. Alway. Ahvay in Fi-eedom's land. From strife and danger keep us free. And lead us on to victory. We pray ! We pray ! ! We pray for Freedom's land. 72 S9 X*; o' "\;^^V^ \J^^*y 'Xj'^^V^ ""C'^i '^ -'-^ vv^-' /\ \^K-° ^^'-^-^ '^WJ /\ l^K*° •^•^'^*j -^ -... .. <. "'^.'I* .0*" 'sb ♦TXT* A A^ -P •^.. ^-1* .'y ■'• V "•:^^^,,'°■\■'- 0^' -^ <r > ' • ^^'- '^< ,v \a.