(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Fortnightly review (1912 - 1935)"

The 
Fortnightly Review 



Founded, Edited and Published 

By 

ARTHUR PREUSS 



Twenty-Eighth Year 

VOLUME XXIX 
1922 




ST. LOUIS, MO. 

3922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



January 1 



Suitable Plays for the Catholic Stage 
are difficult to obtain 

Here is a List of Approved Popular Plays 

They are from the pens of Catholic play-writers, and have been successfully produced 
from coast to coast, in Catholic schools, colleges and academies. They are strongly recom- 
mended by the clergy and teachers for their educational value and entertaining features. 



COMEDIES 



THAT $10,000.00 FARCE— In three acts, for 19 
(or more) male characters. Translated and 
adapted from the French. A hilarious entertain- 
ment, easily produced by upper grade and high 
school boys. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00. 

DOWN YOU GO— A comical absurdity in one act; 
10 male characters. Price 20c. Dozen $2.00. 

THE FAIR MAIDENS' PARADISE— A pure little 
comedy in one act; 6 female characters. Price 
20c. Dozen $2.00. 



A QUIET AFTERNOON IN 
in one act; 2 female and 4 
Price 20c. Dozen $2.00. 



A FLAT— Comedy 
juvenile characters. 



PYRAMUS AND THISBE — A farce in three 
scenes, extracted from Shakespeare's "A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream." For 7 male characters, 
Price 20c. Dozen $2.00. 

STRANGE HAPPENINGS AT SLOWVILLE 
STATION — Farce in one act; IS female charac 
ters. Price 20c. Dozen $2.00. 

PHILOSOPHY EXPLODED— Comedy in one act. 
Two male and one female characters. Can be 
performed by male characters only. Price 20c 
Dozen $2.00. 

THE LIVING STATUE— A comedy in four acts 
for 11 principal male characters. Price 40c 
Dozen $4.00. 



DRAMAS AND HISTORICAL SACRED PLAYS 

TARCISIUS or The Little Martyr of the Blessed 

Sacrament — Drama in one act and two scenes, 

for boys, (9 principal characters). Price 20c. 
Dozen $2.00. 



THE BENEDICTION— A dramatic little curtain- 
raiser; two female characters. Price 20c. Dozen 
$2.00. 

ST. PHILOMENA — A sacred drama in three acts, 
for 12 male and one female characters. Price 
40c. Dozen $4.00. 

ST. LAWRENCE— A sacred drama in four acts, 
for 14 principal male characters. Price 40c. 
Dozen $4.00. 

THE GRECIAN PRINCESS — A sacred drama, 
with an excellent vein of comedy, in four acts, 
for 22 male and 4 femile principal characters. 
Price 50c. Dozen $5.00. 

QUO VADIS — A dramatization of the celebrated 
Roman novel, adapted for the Catholic stage, in 
six acts; 22 male and 7 female principal charac- 
ters. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00. 

^:HE MONK'S PARDON — A dramatization of 
Raoul de Navary's novel, in four acts. 14 male 
and 6 female principal characters. Price 50c. 
Dozen $5.00. 



ROME UNDER VALERIAN— A sacred drama in 
four acts; for 24 male and 5 female characters. 
Price 50c. Dozen $5.00. 

FABIOLA — A dramatization of Cardinal Wiseman's 
novel, in five acts; for 20 male and 7 female 
principal characters. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00. 

AlOTHER MACHREE — A typical Irish play in 
three acts, 6 female characters. Price 50c. 
Dozen $5.00. 

THE CRUSADER'S LEGACY — Drama in four 
acts; for 11 male principal characters; timed 
with the Crusade to the Holy Land. Price 50c. 
Dozen $5.00. 

THE ROBBERS OF MT. KULM — Historical 
drama in five acts. 14 male and 2 female prin 
cipal characters. Female characters may be im 
personated by boys. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00. 

GENEVIEVE— Historical melodrama in six acts 
18 male and 6 female characters. Price 50c, 
Dozen $5.00. 

THE GYPSY'S REVENGE— Drama in two acts 
4 male and 3 female characters. Price 40c 
Dozen $4.00. 

THE WEALTHY USURER— A romantic drama 
in four acts; for 18 male and 6 female principal 
characters. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00. 



Plays are not sent "on approval." When an assortment totals at least twelve copies, 
remittance can be made on basis of the dozen rate of each plav. Mailed postpaid only if 
remittance accompanies the order. 

JOSEPH BERNING 

Publisher of Catholic Books and Literature 
214 East Eighth Street CrNCiNXATi, Ohio 









V. 



%."■ 



mm- 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 1 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



January 1, 1922 



Denouncing Capitalism 



The Sunday Watchman (Oct. 
23) says: "The late issues of the 
Fortnightly Eeview bristle with 
denunciations of the capitalistic 
regime. Now these same contrib- 
utors to Mr. Preuss' able organ 
are indulging in another form of 
wastage while condemning the in- 
efficiency of Capitalism. For every 
intelligent Catholic knows that co- 
operation is the system on the 
horizon and that the wage system 
is showing- even outward signs of 
dissolution. The above intellectual 
energy, therefore, should go into 
constructive channels, should be 
used in devising ways and means 
of introducing this or that form 
of co-operation." 

This is very interesting indeed. 
In the first place we wish to con- 
gratulate our contemporary for 
so boldly espousing co-operation. 
The vast majority of our Catholic 
editors and writers, to say noth- 
ing of "intelligent Catholics," are 
not yet within hailing distance of 
co-operation. 

Dr. Eyan, in the National Cath- 
olic Welfare Council Bulletin, un- 
der the title, "Criticisms of the 
Social Action Department," re- 
cently stated in answer to these 
criticisms: "The essence of the 
new order is some form of owner- 
ship and management of industry 
by the workers themselves. Let us 
assume that the responsible heads 
of the Social Action Department 
accepted this theory and were 
eager to promote its realization. 



How far could they go in this 
direction at the present moment f 
The first obstacle confronting the 
department is the fact that neither 
the bishops, the priests, nor the 
laity are convinced that our indus- 
trial system should be reorganized 
in this radical fashion." In an 
address before the National Coun- 
cil of Catholic Women, the same 
authority, while discussing "Some 
Obstacles to Catholic Social Re- 
form," made this significant state- 
ment : "After years of pronounce- 
ments on the social question by 
popes and bishops and the setting 
up of the administrative machin- 
ery of the National Catholic Wel- 
fare Council, our social principles 
are not recognized as such by 
large sections of our own people; 
and when attempt is made to ap- 
ply these principles to actual con- 
ditions, the expression of them 
'may be given the lie by the prac- 
tice of powerful laymen.' " 

We have quoted Dr. Ryan, for 
we believe that his word in these 
matters will and should reach 
farther than that of any other 
authority. The fact is, however, 
that a few observations round 
about us would suffice. Why is it 
that labor unions are so ineffect- 
ive, except that they are bound to 
the belief that the present order 
is sufficiently good to justify re- 
taining it with some alterations. 
Trade unionism as a movement is 
blind to co-operation. Scan the 
press, periodicals and books, and 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



January 1 



who will make bold to say that it 
is clear in the minds of even the 
intellectuals that the wage system 
is doomed and that some form of 
co-operation is near at hand? 
What is it that one hears on every 
side at the present time? — discus- 
sions of means to better the pres- 
ent sad conditions, discussions of 
the fundamental evils of our pres- 
ent system based on Capitalism 
and landlordism? It is a signifi- 
cant fact that there is little or no 
such talk. There is hopeless mut- 
tering and ceaseless grumbling 
against obvious injustices, but 
there is no realization of the 
causes or of the w^ay out. The 
great mass of people have come to 
an impasse. On the one hand they 
see the inevitable injustices, w^hile 
on the other they behold piled up 
nothing but dreary, dark hopeless- 
ness. 

Is it, therefore, a waste of time 
to point out the rottenness of the 
present system? Is it more im- 
portant to discuss w^hy certain 
sections of a city should be con- 
demned and razed to make room 
for a new civic center, or to dis- 
cuss the plans and the means to 
realize and actualize the plans? 
Certainly, if the majority are ig- 
norant of the reasons for the con- 
demnation, then let us make those 
reasons clear first. The plans and 
the means of realization will fol- 
low quickly enough. In the same 
manner, let us first make it clear 
to the majority that the present 
regime is essentially unsound. We 
predict that if this is done, there 
will be little difficulty in making 
the change. Once have an intelli- 
gent and instructed populace 
clearly see the evils of modern 
Capitalism and their causes, and 
the rest will take care of itself. 

We should like to add in this 



connection that in oui' opinion 
eiitirely too much stress is placed 
on the co-operative idea as a basis 
for the new order of society. If 
we merely changed to co-operation 
in consumption, production, and 
distribution, there would be little 
relief from the present intolerable 
evils. Unless landlordism and 
privilege are abolished first, and 
some form of co-operative society 
is built up, we shall be simply 
marking time. The savings effect- 
ed by the co-operative societies 
would eventually be swallowed up 
by the landlords, the privileged 
classes, the owmers of our natural 
resources, from which in the final 
analysis all the w^ealth flows. 

Hence it is that we shall con- 
tinue to point out the evils of 
Capitalism. We are certain that 
if in our ow^n limited circle it is 
perfectly clear wdiat the underly- 
ing rottenness really consists of, 
we shall have done a far greater 
service to our readers than by 
discussing, at this juncture, a 
programme of co-operation and 
the means to attain it. And, in 
closing, we wish to say that we 
intend to analyze the evils of the 
present regime, to show their 
genesis, character, and composi- 
tion. It is not enough to insist 
that Capitalism is unsound and 
must go. 



— Speaking of a movement for the 
international organization of Catholics 
(F. R., Dec. 1st), writes a correspond- 
ent, how much prejudice and malice is 
to be overcome in the way of bringing 
aljout a friendly understanding and 
SMicere co-operation in our own coun- 
try alone between American Catholics 
of, c. g.. the Celtic and the Teutonic 
races, in view of some of the hate- 
inspired utterances we have heard dur- 
ing tlie war and since? 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



An Acrostic 
The following poem, which was 
lately sent to one of the editors 
of the Freeman, is, on the face of 
it, first-class magazine verse; it 
has the manner, accent and sub- 
stance of the verse which you can 
find scattered, week by week, 
month by month, through this or 
that American periodical. 

Illusion 

Rose-petals fall slowly 

to the seats of alabaster 
On the edge of the garden; 

All the peacocks move languidly 
Where the long shadows 

Portend the coming dark. 

Peacocks seven follow each other 
Golden and blue and purple — 

The iris-hued procession 
That moves like some evangel 

Of a dream unborn, but soon 
To play a part. 

I am waiting, waiting — 

O surely out of the red sunset 

Dreams will tremble into being, 
Dreams quiver and quicken. 

Once star-dust, now the nimbus 
Of the young god of joy. 

Upon closer inspection the poem 
turns out to be an acrostic. The 
first letter of the first line in each 
stanza, the second of the second, 
and so on, form the words. Rotten 
poetry is easy! 

'*It struck me," comments the 
Freeman editor (No. 83), ''that 
this achievement carried with it 
about all the essential critical im- 
plications upon the bulk of our 
current verse. Such poetry is 
easy; so easy that a practised 
literary hand can churn out the 
undetectable counterfeit of it by 
the barrelful, if so disposed, and 
can even, with no great effort, 
playfully put the literary hand's 
trade-mark on the counterfeit. 



Such poetry is so easy to write 
that, as Sheridan said of easy 
writing, it is very hard to read. 
Thus it seemed to me that by say- 
ing 'most of it is unreadable' and 
by sending me his acrostic, my 
friend has supplied me with a 
fairly complete apparatus criticiis 
for application to our current 
lyric poetry." 

Chrysanthemum 

By Eugene M. Beck, S. J., St. Louis 
University 



Yon garden is a meeting-place 

Where stand with bannerets aloft 

The bright-hued congregation of the flowers. 

Contentment marks each happy face: 

There's gladness in the candy-tuft 

And music in the honey-suckle towers.... 

Dahlias and roses 

For lovers' posies. 

Tulips and peonies 

And poppied wizardries ; 

Bright worshippers in golden frock 

And surpliced hollyhock — 

Ah me, 

What deafening melody! 

'Tis not for mortal mind 

The tangled orchestration to unwind; 

Nor may I here 

Divine simplicity revere. 

Your bright confusion likes me not. 

Your tinted chorus not a jot, 

Fair mouths that shall be dumb! 

Inconstant as the futile world 

Whose moods you borrow. 

Where shall your banners be unfurled 

To-morrow? 

Soon — very soon — 

November's frosty shoon 

Shall press you to the earth 

And still your garish mirth. 

But one last worshipper shall brave 

The frost, to guard the garden-grave 

Where lies your heaven's sum. 

To-morrow shall the stiffened turf 

Be showered with the fragrant surf 

Of requiem chrysanthemum! 
Beneath a coverlet of white 
Shall flowers grand and gay 
Be softly tucked away, 
Until the snowy prophecy 
Has come to pass, and from the sky 
The dancing snow-flocks shall alight ! 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Jaunary 



The Mistake of Malthus 
The Malthusian heresy has been 
hotly debated for over a century. 
Its fundamental proposition is 
that social evils are not attribu- 
table to social institutions, but to 
the everlasting tendency of popu- 
lation .to increase up to the limits 
of subsistence. 

It must never be forgotten that 
Malthus' "Essay" was not a dis- 
passionate scientific inquiry into, 
the law governing the increase or 
decrease of population; it was an 
ad hoc argument against the Uto- 
pianism of William Godwin. It 
was deliberately .constructed to 
oppose the improvement of the 
conditions of the working classes ; 
it was one of the most important 
incidents in Avhat Thorold Rogers 
called "a conspiracy, concocted 
by the law and carried out by par- 
ties interested in its success, to 
cheat the English workman of his 
v/ages, to tie him to the soil, to 
deprive him of hope and to de- 
grade him into immediate pover- 
ty." 

Mr. C. F. Pell (''The Law of 
Births and Deaths : Being a Study 
of the Variation in the Degree of 
Animal Fertility under the In- 
fluence of the Environment." 
London: Fisher Unwin), sum- 
marises Malthus' argument in 
these words : ' ' The evils which 
you deplore are necessary for the 
purpose of keeping dow^n the num- 
bers of the population. If you im- 
prove the condition of the mass 
of the poiJulation, you will cause 
a fall in the death-rate. The fall 
in the death-rate will be propor- 
tionate to the degree of improve- 
ment which you effect in the con- 
dition of the people. Therefore, 
the closer you approximate to an 



ideal condition of society, the 
lower will be the death-rate, and 
consequently the more rapid will 
be the increase of population. The 
geometrical rate of increase will 
be realised in exact proportion to 
your success in improving condi- 
tions. As the resources of any 
country, and even of the world, 
are limited, it follows that the in- 
crease of population must rapidly 
exceed these resources unless you 
can keep down the birth-rate. Un- 
less yon do so, your efforts for so- 
cial progress will be self-defeat- 
ing." 

But the fact remains that, in- 
stead of the social miseries being 
checks to population, they are 
stimuli to it. 



— The Popular Protest, a "journal 
devoted to the best interests of Am- 
erican business," in its October num- 
ber discusses the question "Why many 
do not attend Church?" and gives one 
important reason as follows: "Nearly 
all fraternal lodges are governed by 
religious services, and you frequently 
hear the remark: 'If I live up to the 
leaching of my lodge, I'm as good a 
Christian as any church could make 
me." Unfortunately, many Protestant 
preachers encourage this idea by be- 
coming lodge members themselves and 
introducing all sorts of religious and 
semi-religious "stunts" into the lodge 
meetings. What is still worse is the 
fact, to which one of our clerical cor- 
respondents calls attention, that even 
Catholic societies stoop to this dubious 
m.eans of propaganda by calling them- 
selves lodges and promising to make 
better Catholics of their members. As 
our reverend correspondent points out, 
these societies are usurping the place 
of the Church and, if they do not in- 
duce their members to become more 
frequent church-goers and to lead bet- 
ter Christian lives, they will do more 
harm than good. No society can be a 
substitute for the Church. 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



Pre-Patrician Saints in Ireland 

It is now accepted by the fore- 
most scholars that the Christian 
religion was known and practiced 
in Ireland before the coming of 
St. Patrick. British soldiers who 
had served in Palestine probably 
carried the stoiy of the tragedy 
of Calvary and the Resurrection 
and Ascension of Christ to Brit- 
ain, from which it was not slow 
in reaching Ireland. In the third 
century scattered communities of 
believers were to be met with 
along the Eastern coasts of Ire- 
land. The little band of mission- 
aries who planted the faith in Ire- 
land are usually styled ''the pre- 
Patrician apostles," as they pre- 
ceded St. Patrick and in the later 
part of their careers labored con- 
jointly with him. They were : 
SS. Ibar, Kieran, Declan, and 
Ailbe. In the October number of 
the Irish Ecclesiastical Record 
(pp. 374—383), Mr. J. B. Cullen 
devotes a paper to St. Ibar. 

St. Ibar was born from a noble 
family in the latter half of the 
fourth century in the province of 
Ulster. He studied in one of the 
Druid colleges which were then 
the chief centres of culture in Ire- 
land. In early manhood he crossed 
over to Brittany. Later he visited 
Rome, where he became converted 
to the Christian faith. At Lerins 
he is said to have met St. Kieran 
and also St. Patrick. He returned 
as a priest to his native land and 
with some companions established 
the first community of religious on 
Begerin Island, where he had a 
convent of 150 monks. Begerin 
was one of the Arran group of 
islands and is now united with the 
mainland. St. Ibar's apostolic la- 
bors extended probably to what 



is now the County of Wexford. 
Numerous miracles, prophecies, 
and legends are associated with 
his memory. After his death the 
monastery of St. Ibar (Latin: 
Iberius) continued to flourish for 
almost 400 years. It was one of the 
first of the religious settlements 
along the East coast of Ireland 
that suffered from the invasions 
of the Danes. Its famous library 
was totally destroyed by the Van- 
dals, in 819. For ages, however, 
Begerin continued to be regarded 
as a sacred spot by the people of 
the surrounding districts, who 
were accustomed to make frequent 
pilgrimages to the grave of its 
holv founder. 



— Fr. Bede Jarrett, O.P., in his work 
on the English Dominicans, says that 
the Franciscan Order was organized 
by popes and cardinals against the wish 
of its founder. There is much in the 
life of St. Francis to lend probability 
to this statement. Yet, as a writer in 
the Tablet (No. 4251) points out, we 
must always remember that the ideals 
of St. Francis were not fixed from the 
start, but had in them to the end an 
element of indecision. Rather, then, 
does it seem true to say that his life 
was a progress, — the goal, long unseen 
by him, being the complete loosing 
of his own wishes, and a replacing of 
them with the will of God, as mani- 
fested to him by the Church and her 
rulers. This progress was accompanied 
by deep distress, and though the popu- 
lar view of St. Francis is to fix on his 
joy — which was indeed there, as it must 
always accompany a deep sincerity of 
purpose — below it we can easily detect 
a continuous undercurrent of sadness. 
Bartholomew of Pisa has drawn out 
an elaborate conformity between St. 
Francis and Christ : the real conformi- 
ty lies in this — that both were "men of 
sorrows," though of St. Francis it may 
be said, in the old monastic phrase, 
that his was a hiloris fristitia. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



January i 



Fr. Junipero Serra and the Military Heads of California 

By Francis Borgia Steck, 0. F. M. 



11 

Besides these, the Instruccion con- 
tained directions regarding the even- 
tual founding of towns and the enUst- 
ment of suitable recruits for the mili- 
tary department. The scandalous inci- 
dents, which had occurred between 
pagan Indians and Fages's lawless sol- 
diers, and which Fr. Serra justly ex- 
posed and condemned in his Represen- 
tacion, induced the viceroy to admonish 
Rivera that strict discipline had to be 
enforced among the soldiers and that 
incorrigibles had to he remanded to 
San Bias. At the same time, Bucareli 
ordered that married soldiers were to 
take their families with them to Cali- 
fornia, and that unmarried men were 
to present testimonials proving their 
single state. " The reader may judge 
for himself whether Rivera's "powers 
were cither too loosely defined, or else 
too specifically stated." " Quite natu- 
rally, the viceroyal government was 
turning to account what it had thus far 
learned in the school of experience. 

The instructions with which Gover- 
nor Felipe de Neve came to California 
dated back to the time when he was 
chosen to succeed Don Felipe de Barri 
in Lower California. They were issued 
by Bucareli on September 30, 1774. 
The viceroy told him very earnestly 
that "every good official must have as 
guide in his transactions the service of 
God and of the King. The Peninsula 
of the Californias," he continued, "has 
sufifered disturbances that must be 
banished ; and there is need of a pru- 
dent person, de/oted to the service, in 
order to establish, maintain, and sta- 
bilitate good order; a thing which can 
not be attained, however, as long as 
the necessary harmony and mutual co- 
operation is not observed between the 
royal ofificers and the missionary Fath- 
ers." For this reason, the viceorv found 



it expedient to remind Neve of the 
various instructions, decrees, and pro- 
visions drawn up already in 1769 by 
the inspector-general, Don Jose de 
Galvez, all of which should be observed 
wherever they did not conflict with the 
Rcglamento Provisional of 1773, which 
went into effect on January 1, 1774, 
and which also must be strictly en- 
forced. The governor should remem- 
ber that these regulations treat of the 
"mutual co-operation and harmony he 
is obliged to preserve with the mis- 
sionary Religious, in order to advance 
the commendable object of the king's 
intentions and the holy purpose of 
bringing the gentiles to the bosom of 
the Church." As the King has com- 
manded, both the governor and the 
comandante ^' "should direct their at- 
tention mainly to the deliverance of 
those inhabitants (of the missions and 
new establishments) from their un- 
happy state and to the propagation of 
the Faith in those unknown regions." 
The natives should receive good treat- 
ment ; the servants, troops, and settlers 
of the old establishments should set a 
good example ; and all should be pro- 
vided with the necessary sustenance. 
"In order to forestall and impede scan- 
dals and quarrels, there shall be vested 
in the governor the highest jurisdiction 
proper to his office and character, and 
the superiors of the missionaries should 
take no action that will hinder the 
missionaries or rhe soldiers from mak- 
ing the rounds of the localities assigned 
to them; although the Rev. Fr. Presi- 
dente is vested with the authority of an 
ecclesiastical judge, his faculties are 
those that are accorded him in Article 
5 of this Instruccion with reference to 
what was resolved in the Junta de 
Gucrra y Hacienda, held on May 6, 
1773." Then, after giving detailed di- 



^ Viceroy Bucareli, Instntccion, . August 
17. 1773. Bancroft Collection. 
J" C. H. R., ut supra, p. 146. 



'^ In 1774, when these instructions were 
drawn up, Upper California was still under a 
comandante. who was subject to the governor 
of Lower California. 



192'^ 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



rections as to foreign trading vessels, 
br£.nding cattle, transmitting reports, 
working mines, etc., the viceroy con- 
cludes : "I hope from his zeal for the 
service that ... he will make every 
effort to observe inviolably all that I 
prescribe as long as a serious obstacle 
does not present itself on some point, 
in which case he may suspend it and 
give me an account, precisely noting 
the grounds and motives he had for 
considering his procedure more expe- 
dient." ^- 

Under date of December 25, 1776, 
Viceroy Bucareli addressed a lengthy 
letter to Fr. Serra from which it is 
clear that Governor Neve received 
special instructions shortly after his 
appointment to Upper California. In 
this letter, the viceroy assures the Fr. 
Presidente "that the governor of these 
provinces, who is commanded by his 
Majesty to reside at the presidio of 
Monterey, will do all (as regards the 
founding of Mission San Juan Capi- 
strano) in a manner that will be satis- 
factory to your Reverence." Besides 
being strictly ordered to re-establish 
Mission San Diego and to found Mis- 
sions San Juan Capistrano, Santa Cla- 
ra, and those in the Santa Barbara 
Channel, the new governor, "whose 
sole business shall be the care of the 
presidio and of the troops," will "place 
at each of the new missions at least 
six (soldiers), which w-ill be done in 
accord with your Reverence." Further- 
more, "Governor Don Felipe Neve is 
charged to consult me and to propose 
to me what he may deem expedient 
and necessary to make those establish- 
ments happy." '•" Surely, if any one of 
the military heads in California knew 
what was expected of him and what 
policy he was to pursue toward the ad- 
vancement of the spiritual conquest, it 
was Don Felipe de Neve, California's 
first governor. 

When Don Pedro Fages, on Sep- 
tember 10, 1782, returned to Califor- 



^2 Viceroy Bucareli, Instruccioncs, Sep- 
tember 30, 1774. Banc. Coll. 

13 Viceroy Bucareli to Fr. Serra, Decem- 
ber 25, 1776. Santa Barbara Archives. 



nia in the capacity of governor, he ap- 
parently did not receive special instruc- 
tions from the viceroy. Nor was it 
necessary. In the first place, he had 
already passed through the school of 
experience; and if, as the event show- 
ed, he forgot or ignored what he had 
learned, it was his own and not the 
government's fault. Moreover, when he 
assumed the governorship, the duties 
of that office, thanks to Neve's policy, 
were already well defined and the rela- 
tions between the ecclesiastical and mili- 
tary authorities sufficiently regulated. 
To further the conquest spiritually as 
well as materially, Fages had only to 
obey the governmeni; orders and disre- 
gard instructions with which his pre- 
decessor had supplied him before re- 
sip^ning the office he had filled so in- 
gloriously. ^^ 

Such then was the fine of action 
which the Spanish government through 
its highest representative in Mexico 
mapped out for the military heads in 
California. It is self-evident that, 
through the College of San Fernando, 
the viceroy instructed also the mission- 
aries how to carry on the work en- 
trusted to them. Fr. Serra in particular 
was well informed as to the avowed 
object of the enterprise and the rights 
and obligations which he and his fellow 
missionaries should have for its re- 
alization. Only, it was not necessary 
for the government constantly to re- 
mind the Fathers what they could and 
ought to do, since they at all times fol- 
lowed orders strictly and faithfully. 

(To he continued) j 

— It is said that "Genius is simply 
the art of taking pains." Whether this 
be true or not, it is a fact beyond ques- 
tion that many of the cleverest and 
most famous men owed their success 
to persistent carefulness and patience. 
Natural aptitude is much, but there is 
something greater which lies behind 
real success, and that is taking pains 
and persevering. 



" See H. H. Bancroft, History of Cali- 
fornia, Vol. I, p. 384. 



10 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



Correspondence 

The Essence of the Holy Sacrifice of 
the Mass 

To the Editor: — 

In regard to the need of a physical 
transformation, let us say: a mutatio in 
melius, for the sacrificial act; why not 
say the substantial change of the bread 
into Christ's body is such a transfor- 
mation, and the transfer and acceptance 
of the accidents of bread by Christ 
after the consecration is a tmitatio in 
dcterius? The essence of the sacrifice 
demands a real transformation of the 
res oblata ; in this case the above im- 
mutation would seem to fit. 

Anselm Cappe, O.S.B. 
Belmont Abbey 

Dean Harris on the "Miracle" of 
St. Januarius 

[The venerable Dean W. R. Harris, 
D.D., LL.D., member of the Ontario 
Archaeological Commission (cf. F. R., 
XXVIII, 23, p. 433) and author of 
many learned books, writes to us in 
the course of a letter dated Toronto, 
Dec. 9th :] 

I am in thorough sympathy with 
what you say (F. R., Vol. XXVIII. No. 
23, p. 438) on the liquefaction of the 
blood of St. Januarius. The supposed 
blood ought to be subjected to a chem- 
ical analysis and the problem or al- 
leged miracle be studied from the his- 
toric side. Cardinal Newman — see 
Ward's Life, Vol. I, p. 189 — writes to 
H. Wilberforce from Naples, Sept. 17, 
1847: "Yet there is this remarkable 
fact that liquefactions of blood are 
common at Naples — and unless it be 
irreverent to the Great Author of 
Miracles to be obstinate in the inquiry, 
the question certainly rises whether 
there is something in the air." 

I am tempted to ask, with all due 
reverence, what purpose does the mira- 
cle, if it be a miracle, serve? Newman 
tells us that he believed Naples to be 
the worst city in Europe, notwithstand- 
ing that the liquefaction has occurred 
there three or four times every year 
for four hundred years. When, in 



September, 1870, I was present in the 
cathedral at the time of the liquefac- 
tion, I was more shocked than edified 
at the behavior of the people there. I 
do think, moreover, that the weird ex- 
travagances and painful exclamations 
of the "Aunts of St. Januarius" {sie di 
San Gennaro), a body of elected poor 
women assisting at every liquefaction, 
ought to be suppressed. Of course, 
there is nothing in Newman's air or 
atmosphere supposition. Until the lique- 
faction is shown — I do not say : proved 
— to be a miracle, I, like the Fort- 
nightly Review, hold my judgment in 
suspension. 

I cannot refrain, my dear Dr. Preuss, 
from renewing the expressioon of my 
admiration for your splendid Review. 
W. R. Harris 



The Trouble With Our Universities 

To the Editor: — 

The Rev. A. J. Tallmadge, S.J., in 
answer to my recent communication 
concerning the lack of cooperation be- 
tween Marquette University of Mil- 
waukee and the Charities Conference, 
states that I "have not all the data." 
In support of his contention the writer 
enumerates several very worthy and 
commendable phases of activity under- 
taken by the University faculty, stu- 
dents and graduates. 

The majority of these activities were 
known to the present writer, if not in- 
deed by the general public. It was 
scarcely possible to be ignorant of them. 
In spite of this, I wrote my previous 
communication, pointing out that there 
was a lack of cooperation between the 
University as an intellectual force and 
the Charities Conference, 

I wish to enumerate or re-enumerate 
the following points in support of this 
contention : 

1. The University is situated in one 
of the largest industrial districts in the 
U. S., and the Charities Conference, 
held at a very crucial time in the in- 
dustrial life of this nation, was, or un- 
doubtedly would have been, vitally 
interested in the particulars of that 
depressing situation, which almost 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



11 



reach to the very door of the Univer- 
sity for recognition and attention. What 
better time would there have been, 
what better opportunity, to make it 
clear to our Catholic people as well 
as to non-Catholics that the Church 
does not stand sphinx-like before a 
problem which is engulfing many thou- 
sands of people in this district alone? 

2. If the Charities Conference did 
not ask that this intellectual force in 
this district make itself heard along 
traditional Catholic lines, then either 
one of two conclusions must be drawn : 
either the Charities Conference did not 
recognize in this large Catholic uni- 
versity an intellectual force capable of 
dealing with the problem, or the Chari- 
ties Conference itself lacked the vision 
to see the possibilities of the situation. 
Instead a representative of the much- 
derided and despised Wisconsin State 
University appeared on the programme 
and soon made it clear that he was as 
far from a truly Catholic solution of 
our industrial ills as are the birth- 
controllers from that of our race prob- 
lem. 

3. It is quite apparent that all that 
is necessary to prove an educational 
institution a "live one'' is to show that 
it can produce entertainment, commit- 
tees, money, and advertising. As for 
intellectual accomplishments, they are 
beyond consideration. The quality of 
a football team and athletics in general 
determines the standard. So far have 
we fallen from the true standards of 
education ! 

4. It is worth while to recall that 
my previous communication was de- 
signed to call attention to a very gen- 
eral state of affairs in higher Catholic 
education. It is significant, in this con- 
nection, that wonderful enthusiasm was 
displayed at the recent visit of Marshal 
Foch to the United States, while the 
Dante celebrations have been con- 
spicuous by their absence. Moreover, 
it is a fact that the vast majority, if 
not all of our institutions, could not 
teach true Catholic social doctrine 
Avithout inviting financial death. 

5. It should be made clear at this 



point that these remarks are directed 
not against any one institution or body 
of men. Our Catholic universities are 
the \nctims of a system, which has 
practically paralysed them intellectual- 
ly. We are all, our universities in- 
cluded, the victims of the present 
regime of privilege. Our institutions 
are unfortunately inadequately financed 
and, as a result, are dependent upon 
the representatives of Privilege, who 
are only too often smirking, pietistic 
Catholics. The intellectual life of these 
institutions is therefore not free, but 
enslaved. They are either consciously 
or unconsciously the supj^orters of 
Privilege, and their whole intellectual 
life has been an effort to uphold the 
unethical, unchristian, and pagan doc- 
trines of Privilege. It is true, of 
course, that the vast majority of our 
university faculties see eye to eye with 
their Patrons of Privilege. But it is 
also true that, even if they were aware 
of the present deplorable sitviation, 
little could be done until they were 
liberated from the crushing financial 
burdens which have made them like 
unto Lazarus at the gate of the Rich 
]Man. Our institutions are not so much 
to be blamed as the present order of 
society and the chaotic condition of 
American Catholic life. But whither 
shall we turn for light and leaders? 

MiLWAUKEAN 



— The high church movement in 
Protestant Germany has grown strong 
enough to support a monthly organ of 
its own, called Die Hochkirche. In the 
issue for May, 1921, Heinrich Hansen, 
a Protestant preacher of Slesvig, pub- 
lished ninety-five theses, which he 
offered to defend against any and all 
opponents. Therein Protestantism is 
compared with the prodigal son who 
is anxious to return to his father's 
house, i. e., to the Catholic pale. The 
theses are thoroughly Catholic and 
show that Pastor Hansen and his 
brethren are in earnest in their seeking 
of the true Church. May they find it 
and in it the peace they crave! 



12 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Januar}- 1 



WB OWN AND OFFER WHEN AND AS ISSUED AND RECEIVED BY US 

$200,000.00 

Chaminade College, Society of Mary 

Province of St. Louis 

First Mortgage 6% Real Estate Gold Notes 



Dated November 1st, 1921 



Due November 1st, 1926 



SECURITY 

Intevest payable May 1st and November 1st. Principal and interest payable at the Lafayette- 
South Side Bank of St. Louis. Denominations $1,000 and $500. South Side Trust Company, 
St. Louis, Missouri, Trustee. 

These notes are the direct obligation of the Chaminade College, .Society of Mary, Province 
of S't. Louis, and are secured by a first deed of Trust on 91 J, j acres of ground, more or less, to- 
gether with buildings and improvements, located on the Denny Road near Clayton in St. Louis 
County. 

The entire property covered by this deed of Trust with Improvements and Equipment is con- 
servatively estimated to be worth more than $400,000.00 or twice the amount of this loan. 

In our opinion the moral responsibility attached to this issue is of the highest quality and we 
recommend these notes for investment. 

Price — 100 and Interest 



Bond Department 

LAFAYETTE-SOUTH SIDE BANK s. i.„i, 

N. W. Corner Broadway and Lafayette 
Resources over$20,000,000.G0 Member Federal Reserve System 



Notes and Gleanings 

— J\lr. John T. Comes, of Pittsburgh, 
the famous ecclesiastical architect, has 
taken into partnership two of his 
former associates, J\Ir. Will R. Perry 
and Mr. Leo A. McMullen, and the 
firm will be henceforth known by the 
name of Comes, Perry & McMullen. 

— The exclusion of King Charles 
from the Hungarian throne, to which 
he has a just claim, and his banishment 
to Madeira, was not, so far as we can 
see, the work o^ the Hungarian people, 
but of a band of self-seeking politicians 
acting under pressure from the Entente. 
This is certainly, as the Liverpool Cath- 
olic Times observes (No. 2830), "not 
in accord with the principles of democ- 
racy," for which, ostensibly, the late 
war was fought. 

- — In truly Catholic fashion, the 
Catholic Workers' College has made 
an humble start at Oxford, with two 
students and a principal. Organized as 
a memorial to the late Fr. Charles 
Plater, S.J., it will carry on his work 



and, we hope, grow into a centre of 
social and economic studies that will 
provide trained and highly educated 
leaders of their own class for the Cath- 
olic workingmen of England. Mean- 
while, where is oiir Catholic Workers' 
College ? 

— We note from Fr. Anton Punti- 
gam's magazine, Dcf atcliaristischc 
Volkerbund (Vienna, Vol. H, No. 1/2) 
that at a council of the Russian schis- 
matic church held in August, 1917, the 
ancient patriarchate of Moscow was 
re-established, with Tychon, the metro- 
politan of Jaroslaw and Rostow, as 
patriarch, and that the thirty milHon 
Ukrainians, who hitherto belonged to 
the schismatic Russian church, are 
about to detach themselves from the 
same and to unite with Rome. 

— In the Christian World (London) 
Mr. P. W. Wilson discusses the relig- 
ious movement in America. He says 
that Protestantism in this country is 
largely without Christ. He also asserts, 
— though he evidentlv dislikes the idea. 



>!i2 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



— that "the real duahty of the United 
States" is "between Protestant and 
Catholic." Noteworthy is his observa- 
tion that "Masonry is spreading apace" 
and that "it is silent, astute, thoroughly 
organized," though "it says nothing." 
How is it that so many of our corelig- 
ionists are blind to this menace, while 
this Protestant observer from across 
the sea perceives it clearly? 

— The League of Catholic Women, 
New York, request the F. R. to call 
attention to the fact that they keep a 
reliable room registry at their head- 
quarters, 371 Lexington Ave., for 
Catholic girls, students or business 
women, who come to the metropolis 
and do not know where to go. The 
registry staff not only directs newcom- 
ers to reliable addresses, but advises 
them on other important problems. 
This is a noble work that deserves 
praise and encouragement. 

— The Bulletin of the Catholic Lay- 
men's Association of Georgia quotes 
the Worcester Tclcgrutti as saying, in 
comment on Marshal Foch's Chicago 
remark that "peace has been promised 
. . . only to men of good will" : "It was 
not 'peace on earth, good will to men,' 
but 'peace to men of good will' that 
Christianity promised." If the refer- 
ence is to the Christmas message of 
the angels at Bethlehem, neither ver- 
sion is right, as we demonstrated in this 
Review a number of years ago, for 
that message promised peace "to'is 
anthropois cudokias," that is, to "the 
men in whom God is well pleased." 

— The Franciscan Fathers of this 
province are about to establish a quar- 
terly magazine, to be known as the 
Third Order Forum, under the editor- 
ship of Fr. James, O.F.M. The new 
periodical is calculated chiefly to meet 
the needs of directors of Third Order 
fraternities, but will make a special 
appeal to the clergy in general and to 
all others who are interested in "the 
Great Reform" urged by Leo XIII and 
his successors. There has been a con- 
stantly growing need of a magazine of 
this kind in English, and we feel sure 



the Third Order Forum will "fill the 
bill." The publication office will be at 
5045 S. Laflin St., Chicago, 111. 

— A series of papers printed in the 
Builder, "a Journal for the Masonic 
Student," published at Anamosa, la., 
under the title, "Roman Catholicism 
and Freemasonry," again raises the 
question if it would not be advisable 
to collect and publish in an Englisli 
edition all the encyclicals issued by dif- 
ferent popes about Freemasonry, to- 
gether with such other official docu- 
ments, decisions of the Roman Congre- 
gations, etc., as would serve to make 
the attitude of the Church towards 
^Masonry perfectly clear to Catholics 
and non-Catholics alike. So far as we 
are aware, no satisfactory collection of 
these important documents exists. There 
is certainly need of one in English. 

— Those interested in the liberation 
of India can keep themselves informed 
of the republican movement in that 
country by subscribing for The Repub- 
lican India, published at 799 Broadway, 
New York, by the Friends of Free- 
dom for India and edited by Mr. Ba- 
santa Koomar Roy. The current issue 
announces that the Prince of Wales 
will be boycotted by all liberty-loving 
Hindus upon his visit in India, and 
that the Hon. Srinivas Sastri, who pre- 
tends to represent the people of India 
at the Washington Conference, is a 
creature of Lloyd George and has no 
right whatever to speak for his fellow- 
countrymen. "He no more represents 
India than Benedict Arnold could rep- 
resent America." 

— Among the international organiza- 
tions designed to bring about the union 
of all Catholics of the world (see our 
article in Vol. XXVIII, No. 23) may 
also be reckoned the "Eucharistic 
League of Nations in the Holy Ghost," 
established at Vienna by Father Anton 
Puntigam, S.J. It has a monthly organ 
in Dcr citcharistische Volkerbund, edit- 
ed by the founder. The fundamental 
idea of this organization is to eflect 
that interior change or conversion with- 
out which the reconciliation of nations 



14 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



Just published : 

The Preacher's Vademecum 

Sermon Plans for Sundays. Feasts of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints, Advent and 

Lenten Courses, Forty Hours', Sacred Heart Devotions, Retreats, Conferences, May and October 

Devotions, Special Occasions, etc. 

By Two Missionaries Translated from the French 

Cloth, net, fS.OO 

This unique work will prove a boon for the preacher, particularly on account of the great variety of its 
material for many different occasions. 

The quality of the material may be juflged from the fact that in its French original the work is already 
in its Fifth Edition, and has been favored with many flattering commendations by the episcopate. 



Story-Sermonettes for the Children's Mass 

FOR ALL SUNDAYS OF THE YEAR 
By the Rev. Frederick Reuter 

Cloth, net, $1.50 



Previously published by the same author: 

Short Sermons for the Children's Mass 

On the Gospels of all the Sundays of the Year Amply illustrated by Example and Anecdote 

Cloth, net, ^1.50 

"They are the products of long years of work and .should prove welcome to many less experienced 
than the author.'* — Catholic Book Notes. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 
23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

^V. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 



Havana 
Filled 



Wagner's Londres Grande S 



100 — $7.80 



Wrapper 



(Smoked in 47 States) 



50 — $4.00 



|ry |hem- Iakes |he |aste |o |ell |he |ale 




Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Money Order or N. Y. Draft- 
After Smoking three Scgars. if not as represented or 
satisfactory, pack well and return bv Parcel Post 
Money and Postage refunded by return mail. 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Kstablished 1866 
58 North Pearl St. BUFFALO, N. Y. 



America Press 

Si JOB PRINTING a 
done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. St. Louis, Mo, 




STEINER^iSlfSiM 



BADGE5 

BUTTONS & PINS. 



SEALS,! % 

:srAMPS^ I 



STENCILS ^METALCHECI0 



-^ST.LgUlS 



m 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



15 



is impossible. A secondary object, in- 
timately connected with this primary 
one, is the support of the foreign mis- 
sions. We are indebted to Fr. Pun- 
tigam for the statutes of the League, 
copies of which can be had from head- 
quarters, Canisiushaus, Canisiusg. 11, 
Vienna IX/4, Austria. 

— The Builder, "a Journal for the 
Masonic Student" (Anamosa, la., Vol. 
VII, No. 12, p. 347) reproduces from 
the New Age, a Masonic magazine pub- 
lished at Washington, a list of Masons 
in the present Congress. The list is 
arranged according to States and con- 
tains the names of no less than 335 
senators and representatives, among 
them such leaders as Senators Penrose, 
Underwood, Glass, La FoUette, John- 
son, McCormick, McKinley, Williams, 
Freylinghusen, Calder, Knox (since 
deceased), SterHng, Culberson, Poin- 
dexter, and Sutherland, and such promi- 
nent members of the House as Julius 
Kahn (Cal.), W. A. Rodenberg (111.), 
Claude Kitchin (N. C), and others. 
Pennsylvania has the largest number of 
Masons among its representatives in 
Congress, namely, 24; then comes New 
York with 21, 'then Illinois with 19. 
Missouri is credited with but one. 

— In his peace appeal to the leaders 
of the belligerent nations, Aug. 1, 1917, 
Benedict XV wrote: "As to the dam- 
age to be made good and the cost of 
the war, we see no other way of solv- 
ing the question but to lay down, as a 
general principle, an entire and recip- 
rocal condonation, justified, moreover, 
by the immense benefits which will 
accrue from disarmament." The rulers 
of the nations paid no heed to these 
wise words at the time, but to-day, 
four years after the Holy Father spoke, 
we find a leading financial expert like 
Mr. R. McKenna telling his fellow 
business men that the policy adopted 
by the victorious Allies has resulted in 
world-wide impoverishment and loss. 
The policy of vengeance, the exaction 
of the "pound of flesh" at the bayonet's 
point, has not paid, even from the mere 
money point of view. The Pope was 
right, whereas the politicians were 



hopelessly wrong, and the bankers at 
one end of the scale and the workless 
millions on the other, are finding it out. 

— There is before the British Parlia- 
ment at present a bill, introduced by 
Mr. T. Davies, which aims at the de- 
struction of the Catholic schools. It 
was reported lately (see F. R., No. 23, 
p. 438 sq.) that the Anglican author- 
ties were co-operating with the Non- 
conformists in favor of this measure 
to abolish the so-called dual system. 
But we see from the Catholic Times 
that many leading members of the 
Church of England are opposed to the 
Davies bill, so that the Catholics in 
their opposition to it can count on some 
assistance at least from that quarter. 
The Catholic Times (No. 2830) calls 
the bill "a challenge to the Christians 
of the whole country" and expresses 
the hope that the Catholics of England 
will defeat this attempt to deprive 
them of the right of bringing up their 
children in the Catholic religion, just 
as they defeated a similar attempt (the 
Birrell bill) not long ago. 

— Bro. Dudley Wright intimates in 
the Masonic Builder (Anamosa, la., 
Vol. VII, No. 12, p. 346) that Catholic 
priests and prelates who oppose Free- 
masonry "certainly cannot know what 
they are talking about." Yet, as we 
pointed out but a short while ago (F. 
R., Vol. XXVIII, No. 22, p. 412), no 
less a Masonic authority than Mr. Os- 
sian Lang, in an ofificial report recently 
made to the Grand Lodge of New York 



Catholic stamp coUectore are urged to patronize the 

Mission Stamp Company 

1SS3 North Ave., Bridgeport, Conn., 

COMMANDER G. A. BISSET (C. C.) U. S. N.WY, MANAGER 

The Mission Stamp Company was started in 1919 
with the idea of aiding the Catholic missions through 
the sale of postage stamps. The idea is not to have 
the missions share in the profits of the enterprise 
but instead to have the missions receive the entire 
profits. 

The object of the company is to obtain stamps 
from the missionaries throughout the world, paying 
the missionaries that send in the stamps the whole- 
sale value of the stamps, thereby giving the mis- 
sionary an incentive to collect them, the profits 
from the stamps when sold at the retail prices to 
be made available for the missions in general. In 
addition to its regular work, the Mission Stamp 
Company is one of the agents for the sale of stamps 
for Reverend Henry Westropp, S.J., Poona, India. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 1 



Encourage Children to 
Read Good Books 




*'For readers 
aged 7 to 77'' 



IMAGINE! Alexandre Dumas' "ThreeMus- 
keteers" considered one of the best sellers of the 
week for children, according to a Chicago daily paper. What a 
dearth of children's books there must be when children will read 
the works of an author who is on the index. 

For the good of the children encourage proper reading. A 

"-py^f MOSTLY MART 

by Clementia should be given to every child you know. It's 
a Dollar Book. The older people will also enjoy this book because 
it will bring back memories of their childhood days. 

Clementia has so often been urged by the young people who 
have read her other stories ("Uncle Frank's Mary," "The Quest 
of Mary Selwyn" and "Bird-a-Lea") to tell us more about Berta 
and Beth, that she has decided to devote several books to Mary 
and those lovable, mischievous Selwyn Twins. Each book will 
be a story complete in itself. "Mostly Mary" is neatly bound 
in cloth with frontispiece and attractive cover. 160 pages. 
Postpaid $1.00. Send in your Dollar today and receive your 
copy by return mail. For sale by all Catholic Booksellers and 

MATRE & CO., Publishers 
Clark and Lake Streets Chicago, Illinois 



and reprinted in pamphlet form, dis- 
tinctly says : "I do not mean to have 
yoti infer that thoughtful non-Masons 
could not possibly hit upon a right 
reading of the 'history' " and adds that 
Fr. Herman Gruber, S.J., in his article 
on Freemasonry in the Catholic Ency- 
cloj>edia, "comes nearer interpreting 
the 'history' correctly, in my estimation, 
than any Masonic writer whose publi- 
cations have appeared in the English 
language. . . .'' Correctly to interpret 
the "history" of Masonry, in the sense 
in which Mr. Lang employs the term, 
piesupposes a right understanding of 
the true nature of the craft, and it is 
foolish to assert that the popes who 
condemned Freemasonry did not know 
what they were condemning, 

— Fr. Bustin, in his address at the 
Catholic Students' Mission Crusade, 
told of a practice which, if adopted by 
any large number of flourishing par- 
ishes, would solve a goodly part of the 
mission problem within a generation. 



"Last year," he said, "Father Dahlent, 
pastor of the colored church in Macon, 
Ga., was called to his reward. His loss 
appeared at the time irreparable, and 
we so stated it to one of his confreres. 
This priest replied that his place would 
soon be taken by another. He then 
stated that the village in which Father 
Dahlent was born and reared in Alsace, 
will hear of his death from the pastor's 
lips next Sunday. That afternoon, the 
men of the village will assemble to- 
gether and pick out a likely boy with 
a vocation, will educate him, will send 
him ofif equipped to represent them and 
their village parish church in mission 
fields far off. Then he said that for 
over a hundred and fifty years that lit- 
tle village has had at least one repre- 
sentative in mission work. Would to 
God," Fr. Bustin added sadly, "that 
statement could be made about any 
single parish in this United States." 

— From an official correspondence 
between Governor Hardwick, of Geor- 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



gia, and Solicitor Hartridge. of Ailanta. 
(reproduced in the Xov. Bulletin of 
tlie Catholic Laymen's Association of 
(Georgia) it appears that, contrary to 
the assertions of Tom Watson, the "con- 
vent inspection act is being carried out 
rigorously in Chatham " County, in 
wliich Atlanta is situated. In 1917, a 
test case was created to establish the 
constitutionality of the law. The State 
Supreme Court affirmed the decision of 
the superior court, and '"since that 
time," in the words of Solicitor Hart- 
ridge, "there has been no objection on 
the part of anyone to the inspection of 
any of the institutions covered by the 
act. If there is any just criticism which 
may be made," adds the Solicitor, "it 
is that the grand juries in this county 
have inspected a great many institu- 
tions which, perhaps, do not come with- 
in the strict letter of the law.'" Thus 
there is a chance that the \^eazy law 
may some day be repealed on account 
of the abuses connected with its en- 
forcement. That it has not stopped 
the lying stories of "Bishop Keiley's 
white girl slave pens" and others of 
like tenor, is remarkable and a disap- 
IX)intment to Catholics, not only in 
Georgia. 

— We see from St. Michael's Alma- 
nac that the school for the training of 
negro priests established by the Socie- 
ty of the Divine Word at Greenville. 
Miss., last year, is soon to be trans- 
ferred to Bay St. Louis. The institution, 
v/hich was founded with the approval 
and blessing of the Holy See, already 
has in training 29 students for the 
priesthood and three candidates for the 
lay brotherhood. It is under the con- 
trol of a society v.'hose members have 
assumed all responsibility for the new 
venture. Whether or not this society 
will in course of time be united with 
the S. V. D., or remain a separate re- 
ligious community, has not ,yet been 
decided. We just see from Our Color- 
ed Missions for December that "on the 
recommendation of Pope Benedict 
XV, the priests trained at Sacred 
Heart College will be members of the 
Societv of the Divine Word, with the 



same rules, rights and privileges as 
any member of the Society throughout 
the world." There is a difference of 
opinion among those working in the 
negro missions whether it is advisable 
to attempt to train a colored priest- 
hood ; but as is has been the practice 
of the Catholic Church to educate a 
"native" clergy wherever the work of 
converting a new people was sufficiently 
advanced, and as some of our best 
missionaries beheve that many negroes 
are called to the priesthood and can be 
trained to do good work among their 
fellows, we think the S. V. D. is acting 
wisely in making the attempt, despite 
the peculiar difficiilties arising, especial- 
ly in the South, from the social posi- 
tion of the negro. 

,^,^^^ 

Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By tlie Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

{4S''(i Installment) 

The new convent, a two-story brick build- 
ing with basement and a tower in the center, 
is 80x40 feet. Mr. A. M. Weibel and John 
Kerr were the builders. In Maj', 1898, the 
new convent was finished. In order to help 
pay the heavy expense, a fair was held in the 
roomy attic of the building. Everybody helped 
to make it a success. ]Mr. Carvielle. the elec- 
trician, provided the large room with a great 
number of electric lights. The ladies brought 
evergreens and flowers, and the many beauti- 
ful Ijooths with their decorations gave the 
place a fairylike aspect. Over $2000 was real- 
ized on that occasion. 

Rev. Father Hugo Fessler, O. F. M., from 
Memphis, blessed the new convent. 

During the year 1898 work was continued, 
especially on the school. With the sanction 
of the Rt. Rev. Bishop and the Rt. Rev. 
Abbot General, the convent was now made 
the motherhouse of the Sisters, on equal 
footing with Maria-Stein at Pocahontas. The 
former place was to remain the motherhouse 
and profession was to be made there both for 
Maria-Stein and Jonesboro ; the novices were 
to make part of their novitiate in Maria- 
Stein, and it was thought, on account of the 
malaria, this change would be of great hy- 
gienic advantage. Amongst the railroaders I 
had often heard the remark that the third 
section-house would invariably cure the 
chills. Pocahontas was then quite isolated 
and hard to reach, and even now it is rather 
inconvenient of access. However, the place 
is the mother of all Catholic life in North- 
eastern Arkansas, and the property of the 



18 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



January 1 



Sisters is so beautifully located that no bet- 
ter place could be found for a novitiate and 
a convent school. It was certainly not the 
intention either of the Bishop or of the su- 
periors to take any rights or prerogatives 
from the highly blessed spot, where one of 
the most successful missionaries of Arkansas 
had laid the foundations of our faith, and 
which place that zealous priest, the Rev. 
James O'Kean, as he often asserted, left only 



GERMAN PIPES 



Weichselrohr and Porcelain. Head 
decorated with hunting scenes, 
etc., cover nickel plated. Most 
solid and sanitary Pipe. 

Short $2.— 2 




Half-Long 
Long 



$3. 



$o. 



Ask for our Christmas catalogue 
of Cuckoo Clocks, Weatherhouses 
Swiss Hand Carvings, Trees, 



Dolls, etc. 

1474 Myrtle Ave., Oept. F. R. 



Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Colleges and Academies 

can have very satisfactory service 
from the old established house of 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eiglith Street 
Cincinnati, Ohio 

We print and bind, and can furnish engravings 
for pamphlets, folders, booklets 



For a GOOD, SUBSTANTIAL and 

TASTY MEAL 

Cooked German Style 

go to 



Restaurant 



408 Washing-ton Avenue 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 
U. S. A. 



ErKerls 



OXFORDS 

Becoming to many people and giving ex- 
cellent service if correctly adj usted . Com- 
plete with Lenses and moderate prices. 

SOS Two 511 N. 

OLIVE •^'"^^'^ GRA ND 

i itiii i iim i i ii iiiiiiii ii i i ii i ii i i i ii i immi i ii iii iiii ifT ff 



CASPER STEHLE BEDDING COMPANY 

1834 Morgau Street =. c. smith, Manager gx. Louis, Mo. 

Sixty Years in Business is a Guarantee of Satisfied Customers 

Hospitals and Institutions Receive Special Attention 

MATTRESSES of all kinds and sizes, and PILLOWS 

Write for quotations, or better still, try a Sample Felt Mattress in a A. C. A. Tick, built up 

extra well in the middle, @ $8.oo net, F. O. B., St. Louis. 




ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 



January I 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



19 



with keen regret, to take charge of the 
Cathedral at Little Rock. 

I visited Pocahontas at least every other 
week to hear the confessions of the Sisters. 
Jonesboro, which had but a few hundred 
inhabitants when I first visited the place, was 
steadily growing, and by this time had from 
5000 to 6000. The same was the case with 
Paragould. When I visited Paragould the 
first time, in 1882, it had perhaps half a dozen 
buildings. In 1899 there were in both places 
a number of factories, with hundreds of 
employees, and both had become important 
railroad centers. 

Often men who were total strangers would 
become sick, and we did not know what to 
do with them. The nearest hospital was St. 
Joseph's, in Memphis, Tenn., under the man- 
agement of the Franciscan Sisters. I went so 
often to that institution with charity patients 
that I began to feel ashained. although the 
Sisters, under their zealous Mother, Alexia, 
never showed the least reluctance to receive 
poor patients. But I saw the necessity of a 
hospital for Northeastern Arkansas and was 
resolved to do my best to bring about the 
establishment of one. The first and most 
difficult part was to convert the Sisters in 
Jonesboro to the plan. Some ascetic priests 
had put the idea into their beads that Bene- 
dictine Sisters were not called to conduct 
hospitals. I pointed out that the very name 
hospital recalled their origin from the Bene- 
dictine Order. According to St. Benedict, 
every monastery must possess a guest-house 
(hospitium), where strangers can enjoy the 
hospitality of the religious. As the people 
were so well treated as guests, and the re- 
ligious were acquainted with many remedies 
for the sick, those guest houses in course of 
time became hospitals. Of course, with the 
regulation made by the Council of Trent for 
the strict enclosure for Sisters, the numerous 
schools and hospitals, formerly kept by Sis- 
ters, met special difficulties, and many could 
not be continued. But a later time brought 
Sisters who could go out and devote them- 
selves to works of charity, as of old. If there 
is an order whose founder has set an ex- 
ample of this charity, it is the Order of the 
Benedictines of Mount Olive. Their founder, 
St. Bernard Ptolomei, in the year 1348 sent 
his Fathers all over the district of Arrezzo, 
to take care of the many poor people, victims 
of the pest, of which disease he himself died, 
as he had foretold, at the age of seventy-six 
years, on the Feast of the .\ssumption, 1348. 
(To be continued) 



Literary Briefs 



—If the Fortnightly Review fails in stim- 
ulating its readers to think for themselves — 
even to the point of occasional disagreement 
with its utterances — its purpose is not at- 
tained. 



First American Edition of the "Divina Com- 
media" 

We see from the Catholic Senti^tel that a 
new edition of Dante's "Divina Commedia" 
has recently been printed by the Visitor 
Printing Company of Providence, R. I. This, 
we are informed, is the first Italian edition 
printed in America and was edited by Msgr. 
.■\luigi Cossio, auditor of the Apostolic Del- 
egation, Washington. 

Meditations on the Sacred Heart of Jesus 

"Jesus Christ, the King of Our Hearts," 
is a volume of meditations (the translator 
oddly oalls them "elevations") on the Sacred 
Person of our Divine Redeemer, considered 
in connection with the regal dignity and 
sovereignty of the Heart of Jesus over the 
hearts of men. The book is adapted for 
private devotion and for reading aloud at 
devotions to the Sacred Heart or during 
the "Holy Hour" or services on "First Fri- 
da}'," and for these purposes it has an ap- 
pendix of suitable prayers. (Benziger Bros.). 
The Rosary, its History and Use 

Under the above title the Rev. E. J. Mc- 
Guinness has prepared a useful booklet in 
32mo, illustrating the mysteries of the Rosary 
and presenting appropriate Scriptural texts 
to be used for meditation on these mysteries. 
The Assumption and Coronation, for lack 
of Biblical proofs, are illustrated by excerpts 
from ancient writers, testifying to the prev- 
alence of the respective beliefs in their day. 
The historical introduction should have been 
revised in the light of recent research. That 
a historical error is mentioned in a papal 
encyclical does not render it less an error. 
(Chicago: Extension Press). 

Practical Talks on Family Life 

"You and Yours" by Fr. Martin J. Scott, 
S.J., is a volume of "Practical Talks on Fam- 
ily Life," permeated by common sense and 
sound piety. The style is not that of ser- 
mons, but of easy conversations. The author 
proceeds from the thesis — undisputed, we 
think, — that the home is the very heart of 
both Church and State, and discusses in 
detail the factors which make for a good 
home. He says that all his suggestions are 
founded on experience, and we believe him, 
even though here and there he makes a 
statement that seems to indicate lack of ex- 
perience, as, for instance, that "race suicide" 
is a sin hardly known among Catholics. 
On the whole, however, "You and Yours" is 
a sound, sensible, and helpful book, and we 
cordially recommend it. (P. J. Kenedy & 
Sons). 



20 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BEVIEW 



January 1 



Books Received 

Liither-Studien. Herausgegeben von Hart- 
mann Grisar S.J. Heft I: Luther zu 
Worms und die jungsten drei Jahrhun- 
dertfeste der Reformation. Von H. Grisar 
S.J. vii & 89 pp. 8vo. Heft II: Luthers 
Kampfbilder. Von H. Grisar S.J. i. Pas- 
sionale Christi und Antichristi. Eroflfnung 
des Bilderkampfes (1521). xiii & 68 pp. 
8vo. Mit 5 Abbildungen. B. Herder Book- 
Co. 90 cts. 

Abandonment to Dhnne Providence. By the 
Rev. J. P. de Caussade, S.J. Edited by the 
Rev. J. Ramiere, S.J. Introduction by Dom 
Arnold, O.S.B. From the loth Complete 
French Edition by E. J. Strickland, xiii & 
2,77 pp. 8vo. Exeter. England: The Cath- 
olic Records Press; St. Louis, Mo.: B. 
Herder Book Co. $3.50 net. 

St. Michael's Almanac for 1922. 106 pp. 
large 8vo. Illustrated. Techny, III.: Mis- 
sion Press of the S. V. D. 25 cts. (Wrap- 
per). 

St. Michael's Kalender fiir 1922. 107 pp. 
large 8vo. Illustrated. Techny, 111.: Mis- 
sion Press of the S. V. D. 25 cts. (Wrap- 
per). 

St. Jerome and Holy Scripture. The En- 
cyclical Letter of Pope Benedict XV. . . 
on the 15th Centenary of the Death of 
St. Jerome. Authorized Translation. 59 
pp. 8vo. P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 40 cts., 
postpaid. (Wrapper). 

The Story of St. John Baptist de la Salle, 
Founder of the Institute of the Brothers 
of the Christian Schools. By Bro. Leo. 
With an Introduction by the Archbishop 
of New York, vii & 135 pp. l2mo. P. J. 
Kenedy & Sons. $1.60, postpaid. 

A Handbook of Moral Theology. By the 
Rev. Antony Koch, D. D., Professor of 
Theology. Adapted and Edited by Arthur 
Preuss. Volume IV: Man's Duties to 
God. Second, Revised Edition, iv & 423 
pp. i2mo. B. Herder Book Co. $2.50 net. 

St. Agatha's Parish, St. Louis, Mo. Souve- 
nir of the Golden Jubilee, 1871— 1921. 
116 pp. 8vo. Richly illustrated. (Wrap- 
per). 

Work, Wealth and IVages. By Joseph Huss- 
lein, S.J., Ph.D. x & 159 pp. i2mo. Chi- 
cago: Matrc & Co. $1, postpaid. 

Lauda Sion, or Gregorian Melodies for Lit- 
urgical and Other functions. Compiled by 
the Rev. Thomas Rust, O.F.M. Edited by 
the V. Rev. Peter Griesbacher. 145 pp. 
i2mo. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press. 
$1, postpaid. 

Rubricae Generates Missalis Romani a Pio X 
Reformati ct SSmi D. N. Benedicti XV 
Auctoritate J'lilgati. Additis quibusdam 
specialiter observandis in Missa Privata 
coram SS. Sacramento, necnon coram 
Episcopo in sua Dioecesi, etc. xvi & 317 pp. 
32mo. Turin : Marietti. Frs. 7. 



The Western 
Catholic Union 



Forty-three Years old, based on 

Sound, Sensible and Scientific 

Principles 




A Branch of the Western Catholic Union 
is an asset to a parish, because 

1. This organization is thoroughly 
Catholic. 

2. It furnishes insurance for men, 
women and children, based on 
recognized insurance principles, 
therefore must not be confused 
with the cheap, inadequate rate 
societies. 

3. It furnishes a 20-pay life with all 
modern privileges, in addition to 
its whole life certificates. 

4. It is a plain but up-to-date Catho- 
lic fraternal, devoid of useless red 
tape. 

HAVE YOU A BRANCH 
IN YOUR PARISH ? 

If not, we respectfully ask you to com- 

mauicate with us, and we assure you 

that once a branch is organized, you 

will never regret it. 

Address all ccmmunicatioos to 

W.C.U. Headquarters 

Illinois State Bank Building 
Quincy, Illinois 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 2 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



January 15, 1922 



Some Forgotten Aspects of the Irish Question 

By the Rev. F. Joseph Kelly, Detroit Seminary 



It may be pleaded and generally 
is pleaded, that the British gov- 
ernment has been trying con- 
sistently to undo the wrongs of 
centuries, and is offering the peo- 
ple of Ireland privileges which 
will place them on an equal foot- 
ing with the people of Jilngland. 
Granting that this opinion is true, 
the mere undoing of a wrong does 
not always place the injured party 
on an equal footing with those who 
have not been wronged. The sov- 
ereign's "pardon" does not ne- 
cessarily place the innocent con- 
vict where he was before. His 
health may have been ruined 
meanwhile, or his business, or 
both. In equity, therefore, if not 
in strict law, he has exceptional 
claims on the consideration and 
sympathy of the government 
which did him the wrong. The 
conduct of England in the past 
goes far to explain the present 
condition of Ireland. If that con- 
duct has Ijeen exceptional in the 
highest degree, the Irish may be 
less unreasonable than is gener- 
ally supposed in demanding some 
exceptional remedies. 

It is popularly supposed that 
the special ill-treatment of Ire- 
land by England began at the 
time ot' the Reformation. Un- 
doubtedly the Reformation intro- 
duced a new element of discord by 
adding to the antipathy of race 
the more potent and more bitter 
antipathy of religion,— the religion 



•of a handful of English officials in 
Dublin imposed upon the Irish 
nation by the Musselmaii argu- 
ment of the sword. Before the Re- 
formation, the Irish nation was 
outlawed for the crime of being 
Irish. At the Reformation, it was 
outlawed anew for the additional 
ci'ime of being "Papist." 

But to say that the Irish were 
outlawed by England may appear 
to some an exaggerated statement. 
It is, however, the literal fact. 
England found the conquest of 
Ireland a much more difficult mat- 
ter than it had bargained for. If 
the Irish had been united political- 
ly under one head, one of two re- 
sults must have followed: — either 
the English invaders would have 
been driven out of the country, or 
the Irish would have submitted 
after a few decisive defeats. But 
the ancient Irish were broken up 
into a number of separate tribes, 
owing, collectively, no allegiance 
to any one single chief. This made 
it impossible, without a military 
occupation of the whole country, 
to subdue and rule them in the 
mass; and a military occupation 
of the whole country was impos- 
sible. Political organizations are 
in this respect like animal organi- 
zations. When they are highly 
developed, you can deal with them 
as individual entities whose power 
of resistance is destroyed when 
vou have cut off or overcome the 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Jacuary 15 



liecod. In undeveloped organiza- 
tions, on the other hand, to divide 
is simpiv to multiply the centers 
of life and of resistance. Ireland 
was politically in this undeveloped 
condition at the time of Strong-- 
how's invasion. No victorv, how- 
ever decisive on the spot, 'sufficed 
to crush the resistance of the 
pojjulation at large, because the\- 
acknowledged no single head. Dis- 
persed at one place, they sudden- 
ly attacked at another. Harassed 
and exasperated at this style of 
warfare, the English seem to have 
conceived the idea of exterminat- 
ing the majority of the native 
population. The atrocious laws 
decreed against them hardly ad- 
mit of any other interpretation. 
The Irish were, simply as Irish, 
placed outside the protection of 
the law, and were treated as ver- 
min. Submission to English rule 
did not bring with it the correla- 
tive privileges of an English sul)- 
ject. To kill an Irishman was no 
murder. To break a contract with 
him was no wrong. He could not 
sue in the English courts. The 
slaughter of the Irish and the 
seizure of their property Avere 
acts rewarded by the government. 
There was no restraint on the 
greed and cruelty of the oppres- 
sor, except the fear of retaliation. 
A common defense in the charges 
of murder was that the murdered 
man was of tlie "mere Irish." To 
escape from this cruel bondage, 
the Irish repeatedly petitioned for 
admission to the benefits of Eng- 
lish law, and were always refused. 
Such was the condition of the 
Irish beyond the Pale. Nor was 
the lot even of those w^ho lived 
within it an enviable one. The de- 
,gree of protection which submis- 
sion to English rule afforded 



them, may be tested by a statute 
of 1465, which decreed* that ''any 
person going to rob or steal, hav- 
ing no faithful man of good name 
or fame in his company in English 
apparel," might be killed by the 
first man who met him. This 
placed the life of every Irish man 
and Irish woman within the Pale 
at the disposal of any Englishman 
who might feel tempted to indulge 
his passions. But it is right to re- 
cord even small mercies, and 
therefore I hasten to add that the 
brutality of this law Avas some- 
vi-hat mitigated by a subsequent 
statute which directed the Irish 
within the Pale to wear English 
apparel. 

Such however was the fascina- 
tion of the Irish character, stimu- 
lated here and there perhaps by 
sympathy with undeserved 
Avrongs or by love of adventure, 
that Englishmen Avere allured 
across the Pale in considerable 
numbers. These became proverb- 
ially more Irish than the Irish. 
They learned the language, adopt- 
ed the costume, imbibed the man- 
ners, and got infected Avith the 
Avit of the subject race. If this 
Ijrocess of amalgamation had been 
alloAved to go on unchecked, Ire- 
land Avould probably haA^e had a 
different history. But it Avas ar- 
rested inside the Pale by the Re- 
formation; outside the Pale, by 
the statutes of Kilkenny. By these 
statutes an impassable gulf Avas 
dug betAveen the tAA'o races. To 
intermarry Avith the Irish, or in- 
deed to form any sort of connec- 
tion with them, AA^as a capital 
crime. It Avas also made highly 
V)onal to present an Irishman for 
an ecclesiastical benefice or to 
grant the rights of hospitality to 
an Irish bard or story-teller. Yet 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



23 



the result of it all was that w^hen 
Henry VIII quarreled with the 
Pope, and thus added the bitter- 
ness of religious persecution to 
the hatred already engendered by 
English tyranny, the area of Eng- 
lish rule w^as contracted \\ithin a 
compass of twenty miles. Till 
then, the extermination of the 
Irish, though aimed at in various 
acts, was never openly recom- 
mended by English officials. It 
was left to Protestant zeal to stain 
the English name with this in- 
famy. The poet Spenser calmly 
contemplates the extermination of 
the Irish as tlie^ surest method of 
making an ''Hibernia Pacata." 
After pathetically describing the 
desolation of Munster by the sol- 
diers of Elizabeth, he observes : 
''The end will (I assure me) be 
very short, and much sooner than 
it can be in so great a trouble, as 
it seemeth, hoped for; although 
there should be none of them fall 
by the sword nor be slain by the 
soldier, yet thus being kept from 
manurance and their cattle from 
running abroad, they would quick- 
ly consume themselves and devour 
one another." 

This horrible anticipation was 
in fact literally fulfilled in Eliza- 
beth's reign and on several sub- 
sequent occasions. The barbarous 
policy succeeded only too well. 
Pestilence and famine committed 
frightful havoc among those who 
had -escaped the sword and fire. 
Starving children were to be seen 
feeding in the silent streets on the 
corpses of their parents, and even 
the graves were rifled to appease 
the pangs of hunger. And these 
horrors went on, not during one 
or two years, but at intervals ex- 
tending over seven generations. 
Famine, as at the end of the Eliza- 



bethan wars, stepped in to com- 
plete the havoc of the sword. A 
plague followed. Whole counties 
were cleared of their inhabitants. 
Did these dreadful sufferings 
soften toward the Irish the hearts 
of their English oppressors? On 
the contrary, some furious spirits 
wished that the Irish would rebel 
again, so that they might be put 
to the sword. 

Another era of persecution 
dates from William of Orange, 
and it was not till the reign of 
George II that the penal code 
reached what Mr. McLennan calls 
''the fullness of its hideousness — 
the reproach of politicians and 
disgrace of Protestants and 
Churchmen." The most brutal 
laws were passed against the 
Papists, as they were called. Had 
they been mere slaves, they might 
have expected some degree of 
humane treatment; but since the 
policy which made them slaves 
held them at the same time as the 
natural and interested enemies of 
their masters, they were doomed 
to experience all the oppression of 
tyranny without any of the 
chances, which other slaves enjo^^ 
of the tyrants being merciful and 
feeling their tyranny secure. In 
short, the Irish Catholics who sur- 
vived the persecution were liter- 
ally dispossessed of their native 
country. The situation of the Irish 
nation in the revolution of 1688 
stands unparalleled in history. If 
the wars of England had been 
waged against a foreign enemy, 
the inhabitants would have re- 
tained their possessions under the 
established law of civilized na- 
tions; but the policy of England 
was perpetual war against the na- 
tives of Ireland, and it has render- 
ed her a blank amid the nations 



24 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



of Europe and retarded her pro- 
gress in the civilized world. 

Confiscation was the common 
title of Irish landlords; and from 
their hrst settlement thev were 
hemmed in by the old inhabitants 
brooding over their discontent in 
sullen indignation. It was not a 
niere class which the confiscations 
disinherited and uprooted from 
the soil, but the entire race of 
Irishmen; and these still cherish 
the tradition that thoy are the 
lawful owners of the land. And, 
as if it were not enough to have 
divorced a whole nation from the 
soil which gave it birth, and which 
by right belonged to it, the in- 
genuity of English statecraft 
found other means of completing 
the ruin of Ireland. Parliameiit 
l)assed stringent laws, which 
drove the Irish from the field of 
flourishing trade. But they are a 
pertinacious race and did not 
readily ''say die." They tried 
their hands at the smaller indus- 
tries, since all the larger ones were 
tabooed for them. To crush Ire- 
land beyond all hope of competi- 
tion with English merchants, all 
the Mediterranean ports were 
closed against her, and she was 
at length shut out from commerce 
with the Avhole world, Old and 
New, including even the English 
colonies. To -such a pitch did this 
cruel policy reach that even the 
spontaneous produce of the ocean 
which washed his shores could not 
lie enjoyed by the Irishman with- 
out the jealous interference of 
English interests. 

The sins of nations, as of in- 
dividuals, are sure to find them 
out, and England has no just 
cause of complaint if events now 
pending should prove that her 



sins against Ireland are not yet 
expiated in full. She robbed the 
Irish of their land, and they be- 
took themselves to other indus- 
tries for livelihood. Of these she 
robbed them also, and drove them 
back upon the land exclusively for 
the benefit of Englishmen. Can we 
wonder that many Irishmen mis- 
trust ail the assurances of good 
will and promises of home rule 
vouchsafed by England and insist 
upon absolute independence? 

The Love of Work 

The chief trouble in modern life, 
says a writer in the Freeman (No. 
83), is that human beings have lost 
so much of their old pride and 
pleasure in work. ''It is not cant 
to say," he observes, "that the 
happy life is the creative life, and 
that the sense of creation may be 
had in the domestic arts as in the 
fine arts, in the work of a cook as 
in the work of a statesman, ' in 
teaching, or cleaning mndows, or 
bringing up a family, or driving 
a motor-car, or doing almost any 
kind of work that is not absolute- 
ly mechanical. Without this cre- 
ative pleasure in work, we doubt 
if. there is any lasting happiness 
to be had by human beings. The. 
great problem of society is the 
problem, not only of providing 
work, but of getting people to en- 
joy it. We do not mean to suggest 
that the love of work is a more 
important thing than the love of 
the sexes. But the love of the sexes 
is beyond the control of the State. 
The love of work, w^hich is the 
greatest compensation in life for 
tlie average man, is something 
that may be encouraged and in- 
creased by a juster social system 
than ours." 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



The Official German Answer to the Bryce Report 



Perhaps no single instrument of 
Allied propaganda published dur- 
ing the war served so well the pur- 
pose of arousing enmity against 
Germany, as the Bryce report on 
Belgian atrocities. \\Tiile this re- 
port was given the widest circula- 
tion, the German White Book of 
1915, the official reply to the Bryce 
charges, was denied publication in 
England by the censor. The com- 
ment of an English officer who has 
made the translation of the Ger- 
man defence for the present Am- 
erican edition will seem .to the 
average fair-minded American 
sufficient justification for printing 
these vital documents at this 
time : 

"We have seen the evidence ad- 
duced to prove Germany's mis- 
deeds in Belgium. AVliy have we 
been prevented from seeing Ger- 
many's defence against these 
charges? lii any ci^'ilized society, 
even the vilest criminal is allowed 
to defend himself. What is the use 
of 'defying Germany' to prove a 
single case of franc-tireur action 
and at the same time depriving 
the pubhc of all access to the Ger- 
man White Book with its long list 
of specific outrages supported by 
sworn evidence?" 

The English edition of the Ger- 
man ^^lite Book is entitled: The 
German Armv in Belgium. The 
Wliite Book of May, 1915. Trans- 
lated by E. N. Bennett, Late Capt. 
4th Batt. Oxford and Bucks Light 
Infantry, formerly Fellow" of 
Hertfoi-d College, 'Oxford. (New 
York: B. W. Huebsch Inc.) 

How flimsy the evidence is on 
which the Bryce report was based, 
says a reviewer in La FoUette's 
Magazine (Vol. XIII, No. 11), is 



made clear by Captain Bennett in 
his Foreword to this book. The 
numerous statements in the Bryce 
report were ''mainly derived from 
Belgian refugees" who had reach- 
ed England, men who were "nat- 
urally in a state of nervous ex- 
citement and full of bitter indig- 
nation against the invaders of 
their soil." It is obvious also that 
some of these refugees were not 
eye-witnesses of the outrages they 
described, ' ' for they had fled from 
their homes and merely recorded 
their owu inferences as to the 
events which had oc<?urred during 
their absence." 

Another serious weakness in 
the Report, according to Capt. 
Bennett, "arises from the fact 
that the "^'arious barristers and 
others who were sent round to 
interview these refugees were 
with very few exceptions quite un- 
able to converse fluently in French 
and wholly ignorant of Flemish. 
Finally, none of the evidence was 
taken on oath." 

On this "ill-digested mass of 
unsworn statements," then, "some 
merely at second-hand, made by 
excited and angry Belgians," is 
based the report which in the 
minds of hundreds of thousands 
of citizens in neutral and allied 
countries, served as sufficient 
grounds for resting an indictment 
against a whole people. 

In contrast with the Bryce re- 
port, the evidence in the German 
AYhite Book is made up entirely 
of duly sworn statements. On one 
point-^and that a vital one— the 
evidence in both the Bryce and 
Belgian reports is sho^\Ti to be 
fabricated; namely, in regard to 
the question of civilian attacks 



26 



THE FOBTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



made by Belgians on German 
troops. ''No proof has ever been 
given," says the Bryce report, 
"that civilians fired on German 
troops ... or of shocking outrages 
perpetrated by Belgian men and 
women on German soldiers." 
Well, there is proof in plenty in 
this report of such attacks and 
such outrages and of an incontest- 
able quality: namely, testimony 
from Belgian newspapers, cover- 
ing the entire period of the inva- 
sion. '*In the face of such evi- 
dence," says Captain Bennett, 
"much of it furnished by corre- 
spondents who were eye-witnesses 
of what occurred, the main con- 
tention of the Belgian and Bryce 

reports falls to the ground 

That the German troops were con- 
fronted with a widespread and de- 
termined opposition on the part 
of armed civilians in flagrant \io- 
lation of the Laws of War must be 
accepted as a fact established by 
evidence varied, cumulative and 
irresistible." 

It is mainly as a result of the 
Bryce report that there permeated 
among Allies and neutrals a con- 
ception of a Teutonic psychology 
which rendered Germans capable 
of acts that other nations would 
have found it impossible to com- 
mit. We shall have, in the light of 
this report, if for no other rea- 
son, to disabuse our minds of this 
notion. The whole question of out- 
rages in war-time is still a sub- 
ject for impartial investigation, 
as Captain Bennett suggests. Of 
one thing we may be certain : that 
the liability for it is rarely con- 
fined to any one side in war-time. 
As a corrective to a tremendous 
and organized prejudice, set in 
motion by a report which had be- 
hind it the weight of a powerful 



name, as well as for its sheer his- 
torical importance,- the publication 
at this time of the German White 
Book of 1915 ought to be wel- 
comed by those who still believe 
that an indictment does not con- 
stitute a trial. 



The Pestilence of Nationalism 
' ' The spirit of nationality rages 
like a pestilence : it is the curse of 
Europe," Thus writes Lord Hugh 
Cecil in a letter to the London 
Times. He blames that spirit for 
the Great War, with its attendant 
horrors, because the impelling mo- 
tive was always an intoxicated 
patriotism. 

"If one can imagine," he goes 
on, "some beneficent magician, 
w^ho could weave a spell by which 
all the peoples of Europe should 
cease to hate alien nationalities, 
even if it cost them the love of 
their own, how enormous would be 
the benefit to human happiness!" 
The mistake of the nineteenth 
century, he declares, was that it 
exalted nationalism to a quasi- 
religion, whereas the twentieth 
century is slowly discovering that 
the patriotic motive is but a hu- 
man passion. Hatred is the temp- 
tation of the patriot, and when he 
falls to it, few crimes are too 
loathsome to be committed in his 
country's name. The narrow faith 
of "my country right or wrong" 
must give way to Christian char- 
ity. We are brothers, one of an- 
other, without distinction of race 
or color. The word nationalism is 
usually applied to subject nations, 
but the Great Powers have been 
partners in the thing. When na- 
tions are caught up in the ardor 
of Christian charity there will be 
no more war, no more destruction 
of human lives for selfish issues. 



Id22 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



27 



The Right to Life of the Unborn Child 

By Peter J. Latz, M. D., Chicago, 111. 



There is nothing so indicative 
of the lowering standard of mor- 
ality among the people as the 
growing popularity of the means 
designed to prevent or nullify 
conception. 

There is a decided and auda- 
cious effort being made in cer- 
tain professional circles to bring 
the knowledge of abortion and of 
the use of contraceptives to the 
mass' of the people. Just as the 
m<»rchant advertises his wares to 
arouse a desire in the prospective 
purchaser, so also the abortion in- 
dustry — for it is possible to desig- 
nate it thus — sends its women 
agents, fully equipped, on an 
"educational" mission for the 
purpose of placing its wares, 
l)reviously unknown, in the hands 
of women at an exorbitant price. 
Among the many means used to 
prevent the birth of children, one 
of the most important is the de- 
struction of the fetus after the 
first fev7 months. The reports of 
doctors allow of no doubt but that 
abortions among all classes have 
increased alarmingly and that the 
"iiumher of criminal abortions is 
more than double the number of 
normal births. In connection with 
this fact it must be remarked that 
the sense of responsibility to- 
wards the unborn child is fast 
waning among women, and errone- 
ous ideas have taken root, which 
iu their turn are leading to a still 
. more chaotic condition. Thus it is 
that the medical profession, in 
turn, has not stood adamant 
against the demands of its pa- 
tients. 

The God-given law of nature, 
that the life of an innocent human 



being must not be taken inten- 
tionally, includes the child in the 
uterus of the mother. From the 
moment when the natural conse- 
quence of intercourse has set in, 
the liberty of the parents ceases, 
and they are consequently not free 
to interfere with the life of the 
child: whether it be male or fe- 
male, healthy or sickly, normal or 
abnormal, gifted or not, all this 
is beyond the control of the par- 
ents. 

The child in the womb has the 
same inviolable right to life as 
the child in the cradle. The time of 
birth is immaterial. The destruc- 
tion and removal of a growing 
and li\'ing human being constitutes 
a grave offense. That this being 
is only several millimeters long, 
that it is as yet incapable of liv- 
ing apart from its mother, that 
it has not sensitive or intellectual 
life, has no bearing on the matter. 
It lives, and this life must not be 
destroyed. 

The constantly reiterated state- 
ment that the mother has power 
over her own body and therefore 
also over the undeveloped fruit 
of her body, is the result of ex- 
aggerated individualism. The 
right of determination is not only 
to be repudiated on ethical and 
religious grounds, but also on the 
ground of medical science. 

From the ethical and religious 
standpoint it must be emphasized 
that the highest moral end of 
matrimony is, and must remain, 
the maintenance of the family. 
But this end is frustrated when 
the mother takes it upon herself 
to destroy the fruit of her body. 
Such action not only sets aside 



28 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



January 16 



the liigliei- end of lawful inter- 
course between the sexes, but 
violates the ideas of morality and 
the religious teaching of Christ- 
ianity, and, finally, sets at naught 
the natural law of race propaga- 
tion and development. 

On purely scientific grounds, 
too, this view is untenable. The 
widespread idea that the unborn 
child is not an intimate part of the 
mother, but a lifeless compost of 
matter, is, as already observed, 
wholly false. This human being, 
though yet unboi'n, is rather an 
individual entity, unfolding itself 
into self-existence, an independent 
being, which draws its sustenance 
and protection, during the period 
of its unfolding, from the mater- 
nal body, though its origin goes 
l)ack to the union of male and fe- 
male principle (ovum and sper- 
matozoon). 

This being is heir, from the first 
moment of its existence, not only 
to the characteristics of mother 
and father, but to the manifold 
experiences and aspirations of its 
progenitors. Indeed, it contains, 
even in its cellular state, the ele- 
ments for the formation of its 
future life. 

The destruction of such a Avon- 
derful work of nature does vio- 
lence, not only, to all dictates of 
morality and human responsibil- 
ity, but to the principles of 
science. 

In cases where attempted justi- 
lication for the destruction of the 
unborn shild is based on emesis, 
pulmonary tuberculosis,pernicious 
anemia, troublesome dreams, etc., 
the conclusion has been reached 
that the supposed harmful in- 
iiuence of the fetus upon these 
disorders has been greatly ex- 
as-ge rated. Doctors, expecting to 



relieve these disorders through 
abortion, constantly accomplish 
what they wish to avoid. It must 
be borne in mind that such de- 
struction entails a radical disrup- 
tion of the entire organism and 
cannot be accomplished mthout a 
loss of blood disastrous to one 
seriously ill. Dr. F. Frank, a re- 
nowaied obstetrician, professor at 
the University of Cologne and 
director of the university clinic, 
makes the following significant 
statement: *'In my long obstetri- 
cal experience, I know of no case 
where abortion saved a life. The 
preservation of fetal life is also 
the best means of preserving the 
life of the mother." 

As a consequence flowing from 
pi'ofessioual abortion comes ster- 
ilization, which has of late reached 
extraordinary development. In 
addition to removal of the ovaries 
and constriction (ligation) of the 
fallopian tubes, the destruction of 
the ova and sperm-producing 
(spermatogenic) layers or tissue 
cells by means of Roentgen Rays 
(X-Ra3\s) has increased alai*m- 
ingly. Most married people are 
ignorant in physiological matters 
and do not reckon the conse- 
quences of their rashness. Once 
sterility has been accomplished, 
always sterile. The thought of 
perpetual impotency has a de- 
pressing influence upon the wife. 
The causes of many a case of 
qualms of conscience, fatigue, in- 
'somnia, vertigo, palpitation of the 
heart, and particularly of neu- 
rasthenia are knoA\ni only to the 
physician. 

The beginning of fructification 
or life takes place at the moment 
when the male semen and the fe- 
male ovum unite to form a new 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



complex, tlie child cell. It is im- 
possible, in the present state of 
our knowledge, to determine the 
exact moment when life begins. 
Dependence must be placed rather 
upon a secondary manifestation, 
the cessation of the menstrual 
flow. Hereon is based the opinion 
of moralists that in cases of rape 
or defloration the male sdmen 
may be at once removed and de- 
stroyed, provided, of course, it 
can be assumed with great prob- 
ability that no fetal life is as yet 
present. (Noldin, De Sexto Prae- 
cepto et de Usu Matrimonii, 16tli 
ed., n. 69, b; Arregui, Suniniarium 
Theol. Mor., 4th ed., n. 241, b). 



With the beginning of preg- 
nancy come radical changes in 
the maternal organism. Entirely 
Jiew functions appear and no or- 
gan of the mother remains unin- 
fluenced. Violent removal of a 
fetus, therefore, aifects the entire 
organism catastrophically, and 
those who declare otherwise, do so 
in the face of facts. 

The number of criminal abor- 
tions, according to clinical re- 
cords, increases daily in an alarm- 
ing degree and with them the 
number of female ailments con- 
stantly grows. In no phase of 
practical medicine is this more 
clearly established than here. 



Fr. Junipero Serra and the Military Heads of California 

By Francis Borgia Steck, 0. F. M. 



Ill 

During the first year of his term, 
Fages seems to have known and fol- 
lowed instructions quite well. It Svould 
be rash to declare that because of 
negligence on his part the lack of dis- 
cipline among the soldiers of the 
Monterey presidio was such as finally 
to induce Fr. Serra, in July, 1771, to 
make use of the permission he had re- 
quested and obtained from the viceroy 
and remove his Mission of San Carlos 
to the Carmelo River, five miles south 
of the presidio. The comandante was 
on the road most of the time that year, 
which may account for the lack of 
military discipline at Monterey. He is 
to blSme, however, to a great extent, 
for the trying conditions that prevailed 
at Mission San Gabriel during the first 
year of its existence.^-^ 

About a month after the founding of 
this mission, **one of the soldiers," as 
Fr. Palou relates, "grievously ofifended 
the good will (of the Indians) by 
wronging one of the first chiefs of the 
rancherias and, what is worse, bv sin- 



ning against God our Lord.'" In conse- 
quence, the natives grew restless, espe- 
cially after the shameless soldier killed 
the chief who with a formidable horde 
of pagans w^as on his way to the mis- 
sion to avenge the outrage committed 
on his wife.^*^ 

Thus far, indeed, neither the mis- 
sionaries nor the comandante were 
aware of the real cause of thre trouble. 
But the lawlessness of the soldiers 
continued, w^hile the comandante's con- 
stant disregard of the Fathers' just and 
repeated complaints naturally embold- 
ened the soldiers. Not only were they 
insolent toward the missionaries, quar- 
relsome among themselves, and regard- 
less of the corporal's authority; but 
worse than this, they continued to out- 
rage the poor Indians. "Flight did not 
avail them (the Indians) to get rid of 
the iniquities of the soldiers," Fr. Serra 
testified in his Reprcscntacion. "The 
soldiers, six or more, on horseback, left 
usually in the morning, either with the 
permission of the corporal or without 
it; they went to the rancherias, though 



The mission was founded September S, 



1771. 



i'5 Fr. Palou, Vida, cliap. 
Noticias, vol. ii, p. 299. 



XXIX. p. I.^i 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



Suitable Plays for St. Patrick's Day 
and Easter Production 

Here is a List of Approved Popular Plays 

They are from the pens of Catholic play-writers, and have been successfully produced 
from coast to coast, in Catholic schools, colleges and academies. They are strongly recom- 
mended by the clergy and teachers for their educational value and entertaining features. 

COMEDIES 

THAT $10,000.00 FARCE— In three acts, for 19 
(or more) male characters. Translated and 
adapted from the French. A hilarious entertain- 
ment, easily produced by upper grade and high 
school boys. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00. 

DOWN YOU GO— A comical absurdity in one act; 
10 male characters. Price 20c. Dozen $2.00. 



THE FAIR MAIDEKS' PARADISE— A pure little 
comedy in one act; 6 female characters. Price 
20c. Dozen $2.00. 

A QUIET AFTERNOON IN A FLAT— Comedy 
in one act; 2 female and 4 juvenile characters. 
Price 20c. Dozen $2.00. 



PYRAMUS AND TIIISBE — A farce in three 
scenes, extracted from Shakespeare's "A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream." For 7 male characters. 
Price 20c. Dozen $2.00. 

STRANGE HAPPENINGS AT SLOWVILLE 
STATION — Farce in one act; 15 female charac- 
ters. Price 20c. Dozen $2.00. 

PHILOSOPHY EXPLODED— Comedy in one act. 
Two male and one female characters. Can be 
performed by male characters only. Price 20c. 
Dozen $2.00. 

THE LIVING STATUE— A comedy in four acts 
for 11 principal male characters. Price 40c. 
Dozen $4.00. 



DRAMAS AND HISTORICAL SACRED PLAYS 



TARCISIUS or The Little Martyr of the Blessed 
Sacrament — Drama in one act and two scenes, 
for boys, (9 principal characters). Price 20c. 
Dozen $2.00. 

THE BENEDICTION— A dramatic little curtain- 
raiser; two female characters. Price 20c. Dozen 
$2.00. 

ST. PHILOMENA — A sacred drama in three acts, 
for 12 male and one female characters. Price 
40c. Dozen $4.00. 

ST. LAWRE'nCE— A sacred drama in four acts, 
for 14 principal male characters. Price 40c. 
Dozen $4.00. 

THE GRECI.^N PRINCESS — A sacred drama, 
with an excellent vein of comedy, in four acts, 
for 22 male and 4 fern lie principal characters, 
Price 50c. Dozen $5.00. 

QUO VADIS — A dramatization of the celebrated 
Roman novel, adapted for the Catholic stage, in 
six acts; 22 male and 7 female principal charac- 
ters. Price 50c. Dozen $5.00. 

THE MONK'S PARDON — A dramatization of 
Raoul de Navary's novel, in four acts. 14 male 
and 6 female principal characters. Price 50c. 
Dozen $5.00. 



ROME UNDER VALERIAN— A sacred drama in 
four acts; for 24 male and 5 female characters. 
Price SOc. Dozen $5.00. 

FABIOLA — A dramatization of Cardinal Wiseman's 
novel, in five acts; for 20 male and 7 female 
principal characters. Price SOc. Dozen $5.00. 

MOTHER MACHREE — A typical Irish play in 
three acts, 6 female characters. Price SOc. 
Dozen $5.00. 

THE CRUSADER'S LEGACY — Drama in four 
acts; for 11 male principal characters; timed 
with the Crusade to the Holy Land. Price SOc. 
Dozen $5.00. 

THE ROBBERS OF MT. KULM — Historical 
drama in five acts. 14 male and 2 female prin- 
cipal characters. Female characters may be im- 
personated by boys. Price SOc. Dozen $5.00. 

GENEVIEVE — Historical melodrama in six acts 
18 male and 6 female characters. Price 50c 
Dozen $5.00. 

THE GYPSY'S REVENGE— Drama in two acts; 
4 male and 3 female characters. Price 40e 
Dozen $4.00. 

THE WEALTHY USURER— A romantic drama 
in four acts; for 18 male and 6 female principal 
characters. Price SOc. Dozen $5.00. 

Plays are not sent "on approval." When an assortment totals at least twelve copies, 
remittance cin be made oti b^sis of the dozen rate of each play. Mailed postpaid only if 
remittance accompanies the order. 

JOSEPH BERNING 

Publisher of Catholic Books and Literature 
214 East Eighth Street Cincinnati. 



Ohio 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



31 



many leagues distant; and when, on 
seeing them, the men and women ran 
away, the soldiers (as the declarations 
of the Fathers repeatedly and the com- 
plaints of the pagans informed me) 
availed themselves of the dexterity they 
have in lassoing a cow or a mule, and 
in this manner they lassoed Indian 
women, in order to gratify their un- 
bridled lust; and occasionally, when 
the Indian men sought to defend the 
women, the soldiers killed several of 
them with musket balls." ^" 

These grave disorders went on for 
an entire year, although the comandante 
knew of them. One of the Fathers was 
so affected by what he on one occasion 
was forced to witness, that he took 
sick and had to retire to San Diego. 
Finally, in September, 1772, Fages had 
Jose Alaria Gongora, the corporal of 
Mission San Carlos, replace the one at 
San Gabriel. Gongora was a worthy 
and conscientious officer. Immediately, 
things changed for the better and the 
Fathers "began to breathe easier again 
after their great affliction." .The coman- 
dante alone seemed dissatisfied with the 
restored order and harmony and with 
the progress the Fathers were making 
at San Gabriel. Gongora had not been 
there two months, we learn from Fr. 
Serra, when Fages secretly ordered him 
to Monterey, stating that his place at 
San Gabriel would be taken by the 
corporal who had been there during 
the first year. Luckily, the Fr. Presi- 
dente heard of this contemplated 
change, much, of course, to the chagrin 
of Sefior Fages. Fr. Serra Avrites : "At 
first he wanted to conceal the truth 
from me. But when I told him how 
and with what certainty 1 knew of it, 
he acknowledged it, saying that he had 
wished to make the change because Gon- 
gora had already begun to be haughty, 
which is generally his refrain. If this 
corporal had done nothing in favor of 
the mission," Fr. Serra continues, "or 
if he had neglected everything that 
concerns the Fathers, such a defect (as 
haughtiness) would perhaps not have 



been noticed, considering that not one 
of the twenty men of the preceding 
year acted as gentlemen, neither the 
soldiers nor the corporal. Finally, after 
much pleading, he (Fages) promised 
not to take him away. Whether he did 
so after my departure, ^* I do not 
know." i» 

The need of more guards at San 
Gabriel had so far prevented the 
founding of the three other missions, 
especially that of San Bueneventura 
which, above all, the inspector-general, 
Don Jose de Galvez, was eager to see 
established. As time wore on, Fages 
lost sight of instructions altogether. 
Not so the Fr. Presidente. He was 
only waiting till order might be restored 
at San Gabriel. This having been to 
some extent accomplished, he, early in 
October, 1772, approached the coman- 
dante and reminded him of the missions 
that remained to be founded. The 
comandante curtly .told him that found- 
ing new missions was a matter that 
concerned him and not the missionaries. 
Here he was evidently wrong; and he 
must surely have realized it when, not 
long after, he received the afore-men- 
tioned instructions of March 18, 1772. 
But, instead of complying with them, 
he retaliated by forwarding to Fr, 
Serra, on October 12. 1772, a portion 
of a letter which, in reply to his of 
July 23, 1771, he had received from 
Viceroy Bucareli under date of Nov- 
ember 30. 1771. The portion of Buca- 
reli's letter, which Fages sent to Fr. 
Serra, read : 

"Your Honor (Fages) will see to it 
and will impress upon the Rev. Fr. 
Junipero Serra, Presidente of the Mis- 
sions, the commendable obligation un- 
der which, by example and persuasion, 
they are to stimulate all to obey and 
comply with the orders of your Honor." 
To this the comandante appended the 
following note : "I bring all this to the 
attention of vour Reverence and sup- 



17 Representacion : Fr. Serra to Viceroy 
Cucareli, May 2i, 1773. 5" fa. Barh. Arch. 



18 Namely, for Mexico, on October 20, 
1772. Why the Fr. Presidente made this 
long and wearisome journey, will be ex- 
plained presently. 

19 Representacion, tit supra. 



Si 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 15 



plicate you to make the otlier religious 
understand it for the due accomplish- 
ment of so imjwrtant an object." -*' 
^ Hence, even before the founding of 
San Gabriel Mission, the comandante 
had launched false accusations against 
the friars. Besides criminal negligence 
in military matters, he made himself 
guilty of deceit and calumny. It was 
evidently a matter that needed speedy 
and energetic action. In a quiet and 
dignified tone, the Fr. Presidente, on 
the same day. October 12, answered 
the charge. "I have always persuaded 
and urged the subalterns and subjects 
of your. Honor to obey your orders. 
For this I have the testimony of my 
conscience; and your Honor could, if 
you would, bear testimony to what 1 
have done in the case of the soldier 
Ignacio Estevanell." -^ 

On the following day, Fr. Serra held 
a consultation with his confreres at 
San Diego. Clearly, there was no 
alternative ; and. forgetting his own 
bodily infirmities, the heroic friar set 
out for Mexico. How deeply mortified 
Viceroy Bucareli was when he learned 
the true state of affairs and what steps 
he took to remedy the evil, need not be 
detailed here. Suffice it to say, Fr. 
Serra's efforts in behalf of the Cali- 
fornia missions, made in his famous 
Rcprcscntacion, were eminently suc- 
cessful. The removal of Fages from 
office and the instructions framed for 
his successor demonstrate how Viceroy 
Bucareli felt toward the one and wliat 
he expected of the other. 

( To be continued) 



Correspondence 

The International Eucharistic 
League 

To the Editor: 

I was glad to see among the "Notes 
and Gleanings" of the F. R. for Jan. 

-'0 Fages to Fr. Sena, October 12 1772. 
Arch. Gen. California, 66; Archbishop's 
Archives, no. 2. Sec The Missions and Mis- 
sionaries of California, vol. ii, pp. 106-107. 

-' Fr. Serra to Fages, October 12, 1772. 
Archb. Arch., No. 3. T!ie soldier Ignacio was 
probably one of the deserters whom the 
Fnthers succeeded in bringing back. 



1, on pages 13 and 15, an announce- 
ment of the "Eucharistic League of 
Nations in the Holy Ghost," which 
was estal)lished at Vienna by Father 
Anton Puntigam, S. J. You were kind 
enough to suggest that copies of the 
statutes of the I>eague could be ob- 
tained by sending to headquarters at 
Vienna. I should like to state for the 
information of your readers that 
Father Puntigam has named the un- 
dersigned as director of the League 
for the United States and that The 
Grail is its official organ in this coun- 
try. 

Their Eminences Cardinals O'Con- 
nell and Dougherty have both heartily 
approved of this new Eucharistic 
movement, which is an Apostolic work 
that without dou])t will accomplish 
much for the glory of God and the 
salvation of souls. 

If space will permit, I should like 
to state further that the "Eucharistic 
League of Nation-." or 'Tnternational 
Eucharistic League," as they call it at 
headquarters, has a threefold object: 
( 1 ) peace and harmony among the 
Catholics of the whole world, (2) the 
return to the faith of all non-Catho- 
lics, (3) the conversion of all non- 
Christians, who form between three- 
fifths and three-fourths of the human 
family. 

This threefold object is to be at- 
tained through the Holy Eucharist: 
(I) by a daily offering of all the 
Masses and Holy Communions of the 
whole world, (2) by oft'ering up a 
Mass heard and a Holy Communion 
received— once a week (first degree), 
or once a month (second degree), or 
three times a year (third degree). — 
There are no fees, dues, or collections. 
With the exception of a small alms at 
the time of admission, there are no 
moneys to be paid. 

The undersigned will cheerfully give 
any other information that may be re- 
quired. 

Benedict Brown. O.S.B. 

Editor of 77;,^ iira'-l 

St. Mi'iiinul. Iiid. 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



33 



Notes and Gleanings 

—The Month (No. 690) discusses 
the question whether or not CathoU- 
cisni is on the increase in England. It 
conchides that if the figures for Cath- 
olic baptisms maintained the same high 
proportion (eight per cent) in 1920, 
when the general birth rate suddenly 
leaped up by two-fifths, "we shall be 
inclined to agree that our Catholic 
population cannot now fall very far 
short of an aggregate of three mil- 
lions." But until reliable statistics arc 
available, this is mere guesswork. 

— Dean J. W. Leigh, in his lateh 
published volume, "Other Days" (Lon- 
don : Fisher Unwin), tells a good story 
of ]\Irs. Harriet Beecher Stowe and 
Fanny Kemble, with whom he got 
acquainted during his American days, 
1873-77. At one time, he says, Mrs. 
Stowe took up the planchette very 
keenly. She came to J\lrs. Kemble 
much agitated, and exclaimed : "My 
dear, what do you think Planchette has 

said? That we are all d d fools I" 

"The first thing that makes me believe 
in it," replied Mrs. Kemble. 

— Dean W. R. Inge, in the latest im- 
pression of his "Outspoken Essays" 
(Longmans), says he "now knows to 
be unjust" certain violent outbursts 
against the Germans contained in the 
earlier editions of the book. The Lon- 
don Times in its Literary Supplement 
(No. 1035, p. 754) notes this fact and 
adds, frankly: "The nations all went 
stark mad together, and our plain duty 
now is to restore the solidarity of 
European civilization, to help the cri]> 
pled nations to recover, and create 
safeguards against another outbreak." 

—In No. 690 of The Month, Fr. 
Herbert Thurston, S.J., concludes his 
notable series of papers on "The Prob- 
lem of Anne Catherine Emmerich." 
He examines the veridical element in 
her alleged visions and shows that they 
exhibit "an extraordinary confusion of 
accurate and inaccurate information 
and we can trust no statement of any 
sort made therein until it is corrobo- 
rated from reliable historical sources.'' 



For a GOOD, SUBSTANTIAL and 
TASTY MEAL 

Cooked.German Style 

go to 



Restaurant 



j:08 Washington Avenue 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 

u. s. A. 



CLERGYMEN, COLLEGES and ACADEMIES 
will find it to their advantage to consult 

=^ THE == 

Jos. Berning Printing Co- 

212-21-4 East Eighth Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
RELIABLE SERVICE AT REASONABLE PRICES 
Its facilities for quick delivery of line- 
or monotyped, printed in first-class 
manner books, booklets, pamphlet*, 
folders etc. are unexcelled . 



ErKerls 



styles in Spectacles 

Rimless, gold sheltex and tor- 
toise shell complete wltli lenses 
at moderate prices 

SOS Two 511 N. 
OLIVE •^'^'^ GRAND 



in nn i m il lllll l l l l lll l l HI I IIII III II I IIII I I II II I III I II >T ff 



34 



THE FOBTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



January 16 



Just published : 

The Preacher's Vademecum 

Sermon Plans for Sundays, Feasts of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints, Advent and 

Lenten Courses, Forty Hours', Sacred Heart Devotions, Retreats, Conferences, May and October 

Devotions, Special Occasions, etc. 

By Two Missionaries Translated from the French 

Cloth, net, $3.00 

This unique work will prove a boon for the preacher, particularly on account of the great variety of its 
material for many different occasions. 

The quality of the material may be judged from the fact that in its French original the work is already 
in its Fifth Edition, and has been favored with many flattering commendations by the episcopate. 



Story-Sermonettes for the Children's Mass 

FOR ALL SUNDAYS OF THE YEAR 
By the Rev. Frederick Reuter 

Cloth, net, $1.50 



Previously published by the same author: 

Short Sermons for the Children's Mass 

-On the Gospels of all the Sundays of the Year Amply illustrated by Example and Anecdote 

Cloth, net, $1.50 

"They are the products of long 3'ears of work and should prove welcome to many less experienced 
than the aiUhor.'' — Catholic Book Notes. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.)', Publishers 
23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

•SY. Lotus: B. Herder Book Co. 



Havana 
Filled 



Wagner's Londres Grande 



Imported 
Sumatra 
Wiapper 

too — $7.80 (Smoked in 47 States) 50 — $4. 00 



|ry |hem- Iakes |he |aste |o |ell |he |ale 




Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Money Order or N. Y. Draft— 
.■\fter Smoking three S-gars. if not as represented or 
satisfactory, pack well snd return bv Parcel Post. 
Money and Postage refunded by return mail. 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 1866 
58 North Pearl St. BUFFALO, N. Y 



America Press 

£t JOB PRINTING 9 
done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

Wk South Sixth St. St. Louis, Mo, 



BADGES,! 

BUTtONS&PINS^-^ 



SEALS 
^TAMPS^ 



STENCILS ^METAL CHECI^ , 

' -«>-g>T.Lgms.:fei 



January 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



35 



He adds : "These visions, so far as their 
veridical character is concerned, seem 
to me to stand exactly on the same 
footing as the communications received 
through spirituaHst mediums or by 
automatic writing." 

— The action of the Cathedral schools 
of Denver in making a no vena for 
securing vocations to the priesthood 
and the religious life is highly com- 
mendable. Moreover, the students, 
desirous of honoring their fellow stu- 
dents who have given their lives to the 
service of God, recently raised $300 to 
erect on the wall of the new Catholic 
high school entrance a bronze tablet 
bearing the names of all former stu- 
dents of the cathedral schools who are 
now priests or religious. This is an 
instance where a bronze memorial is in 
good taste and has some value. 

— According to reports, the electric 
light plant at O'Neill, Neb., has begun 
to burn corn. It has become advisable 
and profitable to do this owing to the 
present state of the grain market. And 
yet it should make one pause for a 
moment to consider the kind of social 
and economic organization in which so 
valuable a food as corn is burned for 
fuel because it cannot be marketed at 
a reasonable profit to the farmer, while 
people in our own country, to say noth- 
ing of Russia and China, where mil- 
lions are on the verge of starvation, 
lack the necessities of life! How can 
hide-bound conservatives dare to look 
an honest and intelligent man in the 
face while they attempt to pawn off 
their bogus arguments for the present 
regime ? 

— Samuel Eliot ]\Iorison, in his 
recently published "Maritime Histor}- 
of IMassachusetts, 1783-1860" (Hough- 
ton Mifflin), tells many interesting sto- 
ries of whaling and the trade in "sacred 
codfish," with which Puritan New Eng- 
land used to supply Catholic Europe 
and by which many large fortunes 
were made. There were many wrecks 
along the coast, and when, as often 
happened, a rich East-Indiaman ran 
ashore, plundering took place. "Moon- 
cursing," as it was termed, had many 



votaries. It is related of the Rev. Mr. 
Lewis, of Wellfleet, that one Sunday, 
whilst he was in the middle of his ser- 
mon, he saw through a window a vessel 
going ashore. Without more ado, he 
ran down the pulpit stairs and, with a 
shout of "Start fair," led his congrega- 
tion out of their meeting-house door to 
plunder the wreck. 

— That France is threatened by the 
same dangers from advocates of "Pa- 
ternalism" to which we, too, are ex- 
posed, is amply evident from an article 
in Le Pr ogres Civique (Paris, Decem- 
ber 3, 1921), under the caption "Com- 
pulsory Physical Education Which 
Now Menaces Us." The writer. Doctor 
Ruffier, argues against this plan, which, 
he says, is only a scheme to "provide 
a roost for ridiculous bureaucrats and 
greedy office-holders." Strong language 
this, but evidently the French critic 
knows whereof he speaks. He writes : 
"Would it not be proper, Messrs. Dep- 
uties and Senators, that we should 
define for you very precisely what 
'physical education' means, and that 
you should know its purpose and 
means, before we allow you to make it 
obligatory?" The whole argument of 
Dr. Ruffier is a justification of the 
opposition of the F. R. to similar "pa- 
ternalistic" schemes in our own country. 

— Mr. Herbert G. Pouting, a mem- 
ber of the Scott South Pole Expedition, 
publishes an account of his experiences 
under the title, "The Great White 
South" (Duckworth). A notable fea- 
ture of the book is the way in which 
the scientific work of the expedition is 
made intelligible to- the ordinary reader. 
Now for the first time we understand 
how, by means of soundings together 
with barometer readings, it was pos- 
sible to establish the fact that the Great 
Ice Barrier is afloat, contrary to the 
opinion of Amundsen, who spent a 
winter on it without detecting any 
movement. Mr. Ponting,- who is a 
photographer and an artist, failed to 
photograph the Aurora in the South, 
though pictures had been obtained of 
it in the North, and thinks that his 
failure was owing to the greater faint- 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Wofk 



January 16 



Josepli Hussleitit S J., Ph.D. 

<if A Book for Catholic, Protestant or Jew. qf Every Catholic Man and 
Woman should read and re-read this new book by the eminent Jesuit writer, 
and encourage friends and acquaintances to procure a copy. 

*I "Work, Wealth and Wages" is a book for Capitalists and Carpenters; for Financiers and 
Firemen; for Law\crs and Laborers; for Manufacturers and Machinists; for Masons and Musi- 
cians; for Politicians and Printers; for Salesmen and Stenographers; for Tailors and Traveling 
men ; in a word, for Men and Women in every walk of life ; for Employer and Employee ; for the 
RichandforthcPoor. /f /f ^ / /f /> 

«f "Work, Wealth and Wag«s" is an excellent treatise on the burning questions of the day. covering such im- 
portant matters as, "A Living Wage," "The Right To Strike," "Woman at the Wheet of Industry," "Present- 
day Capitalism, ' "Proletarian Dictatorship." "Copartnership and Profitsharing," "The Problem of Unem- 
ployment," "Ozanam on Poverty and Wealth," "Three Classes of Catholic Charity Workers," etc., etc., etc. 
•ff It will be read with profit by the classes ,and the masses: in fact, everyone who is interested 
in the three \Vs, as opposed to the I. W.W. 's. ought to have a copy of Father Husslein"s book. 
«!f 1 he purpose of the book is to offer, for the use of ail. a brief but suggestive exposition of the 
Christian principles underlying the great social problems of our day. 

If -\eatK bound in cloth — 160 page ^ — attractive jacket — $1.00 each, postpaid. Ask your 
bookseller, or send in a dollar !• .r your copy today to 

Clark and Lake Sts. MATRE & CO., Publishers CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 




ness of the light of the Aurora 
Australis as compared with the Aurora 
Borealis. 

— In the annual report of Rabbi L. 
:\1. Franklin to the Central Conference 
of American Rabbis, published in \'ol. 
XXXI of the official Year Book, there 
is question of a collection of "unpub- 
lished manuscripts in regard to the 
Rohling case," which was or is to be 
I)urchased from a Dr. Jos. S. Bloch for 
$1500. ^^'e wonder whether these un- 
I)ul)lished manuscripts refer to our old 
friend, Dr. August Rohling, fomierly 
of the Salesianum, and later of the 
Cierman Cniversity in Prague, who, as 
some of our readers may remember, 
thirty or more years ago was engaged 
in a violent controversy with certain 
Jewish writers on the t'rue inten^reta- 
tion of the Talmud. If so, what makes 
these unpublished manuscripts worth 
$1500 to the Central Conference of 
American Raljbis ? So far as we know, 
Dr. Rohling was never taken seriously 
by Catholic scholars. The late Dr. 



Edward Preuss, who had studied 
Talmudic lore under Rabbi Biesenthal 
in Berlin, used to say that one could 
prove anything by means of Rohling's 
methods. 

— Our readers will remember the 
discussion, some time ago in this Re- 
view, of the question whether unfer- 
mented grape juice can be validly and 
licitly used for the Holy Sacrifice of 
the Alass. We notice from the Year 
book of the Central Conference of 
American Rabbis that a similar ques- 
tion has been agitating liberal American 
Jewry. Rabbi Deutsch, who investi- 
gated the question as chainnan of a 
committee, reported that numerous 
authorities from the 14th to the 18th 
century declared the use of unferment- 
ed wine permissible in religious cere- 
monies, and in view of "the sacred 
principle of Judaism that obedience to 
the law of the country is a religious 
duty for every Jew," reconmiended that 
a resolution be passed requesting all 
the members of the Conference not to 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



37 



issue any certiticates for the use of 
wine for so-called sacramental pur- 
]x>ses." A corresponding- resolution 
was adopted by the Conference. The 
Orthodox Jews conscientiously believe 
that fermented wine is indispensable 
for the fulfilment of their religious 
obligations. 

— By means of a critical apparatus 
of an elaborate and peculiar kind Prof. 
J. F. A. Pyre, of the University of 
Wisconsin, in a book on "The Forma- 
tion of Tennyson's Style," shows that 
Tennyson was not only a scrupulous 
reviser, but also had. what artists often 
lack, the gift of felicity in revision. 
Exquisite from the first in their diction 
and melody, his poems improved each 
time they passed through his hands, 
and so afford the student the rare spec- 
tacle of a scale of approximation in the 
adaptation of form to substance. Each 
may be dissected, if we have enough 
l)atience and discrimination for the 
task, and we shall find in its finest 
articulations why it has assumed just 
this shape and quality. In the whole of 
"Dora,'' for example, there are only 
four qualitative ei)ithets. Prof. Pyre 
tells us why there are so many. The 
poem seems not to be one of those 
which were very much worked over; if 
it had been, we should almost certainly 
have found the number of these epi- 
thets gradually reduced, and perhaps 
v/hen perfection was reached there 
would have been none at all. 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
{44th Instalbmni) 

When the Sisters had been won over to the 
idea, I sent the following circular to my 
friends (July 2, 1899) : "A hospital for 
Jonesboro is needed. The Benedictine Sis- 
ters are willing to open one, but they need 
money. They are still in debt from the fire. 
Hospitals are expensive. As the Sisters will 
be compelled to do a certain amount of 
charity work, and are so poor, the Bishop 
will not allow them to open a hospital before 
they have at least the price for one free 
bed, i. c, $5000. Miss Gardner, President of 
the National Organization for Public Health 
Nursing, says : For centuries the monasteries 



and convents stood for all that was best in 
nursing, and we of a later generation, who 
have lived to see the rise of a great secular 
profession, should not forget that it would • 
have fared ill indeed with nursing had it 
not been for the monks and nuns of the 
Middle Ages. Without the protection of the 
strong arm of the Church, individual eflfort 
would probably have perished in those 
stormy days. We could cite innumberable 
facts to show how the Sisters from the be- 
ginning would look after the sick. St. Rade- 
guntlis of Thuringia. in her convent of St. 
Croix, built gardens, baths, porticoes, galler- 
ies, and a church. Her nursing among the 
poor was very thorough and her biographer 
a.<:serts that she shrank from no disease, not 
even leprosy. St. Odilia, Abbess of Hohen- 
burg, took care of many sick, but as the in- 
valids found it hard to ascend the high moun- 
tain, she built a second nunnery and hospital, 
called Niedermimster, at the foot of the 
mountain. Among the sick and pilgrims she 
showed especially an interest for those com- 
ing from England and Ireland." 

I had written Bishop Fit-^gerald quite a 
while before, and he answered that he knew 
there should be a hospital in Northeastern 
Arkansas, but pointed out how Memphis 
and Little Rock had endowments for their 
Iiospitals, whilst we had nothing. I did not 
lose courage, but kept on asking for help. 
I had received for New Year, 1897, a beau- 
tiful gold Waltham watch from the congre- 
gation in Wynne, for attending their place 
without any salarj'. I raffled it ofif for the 
benefit of the new hospital. It brought $100, 
which started the collection. We kept on 
collecting and preparing, trusting that some 
day we would succeed. There was a good deal 
of talk about it, and many expressed fears 
as to the success of the undertaking. 

June 26th, 1899, at the 13th annual com- 
mencement of the Holy Angels' school, 
Jonesboro, there were, not to speak of the 
splendid drama and comedy, so many beau- 
tiful articles on exhibition in free-hand draw- 
ing, maps, and all kinds of sewing and fancy 
work, that the exhibition would have re- 
flected great honor upon any college. Walter 
J. Tynin, then a pupil of Holy Angels' 
School, made a beautiful closing address. 
Other pupils of that year were : Pat McCabe, 
John Heany, Pat J^Iurray, James Rose, Rose 
Colley (later Sr. M. Magdalen, O.S.B.), May 
McCabe, Annie Higgins, Beulah Martin, 
Agnes Calvin, Mabel Schmuck, IMay Engel- 
hart, and others. 

The school at this time was once more 
at the height which it had reached in 1896, 
before the fire of that year. 

We had a splend'd dramatic club. Night 
after night we would hold rehearsals, and 
many of the young people said they learned 
more at those rehearsals than they had learn- 
ed at school. The school children also gave 
entertainments frequently, such as the oper- 



THE FOETNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



January 16 



ettas, "Maud Irving," "The Enchanted 
Woods," "Pocahontas," "The Cadets' Pic- 
nic," etc., and dramas like "The Martyrdom 
'of St. Tarcisius," "St. Elizabeth," etc., with 
nunjberless comedies. 

Besides the parish school we also had a 
negro school before the fire. The present 
prioress, Mother Walburgis, had charge of 
it. There had been, in the church destroyed 
by fire, a side chapel for the colored people, 
and an average of twenty-five used to attend 
services there. (To be continued) 
•-»^>^-« 

Literary Briefs 

A Life of Cardinal Bellarmine 

"Der ehrwurdige Kardinal Robert Bellar- 
min, S.J., cin Vorkampfer fiir Kirche und 
Papsttum, 1542— 1621," by E. Raitz von 
Frentz, S.J., is sympathetically written and 
based upon the latest researches, but it is 
composed too much with an eye to popular 
edification and is therefore unsatisfactory 
to the student. Thus we miss an adequate 



account of Bellarmine's work as a contro- 
versialist and of the role he played in con- 
nection with the publication of the Sixtine 
Vulgate. The very readable little volume is 
embellished with seven appropriate illustra- 
tions. (B. Herder Book Co.) 
A Latin Commentary on the Odes of Horace 
In these days of anti-classic prejudice it 
requires courage to publish a Latin com- 
mentary on the Odes of Horace, iis Fr. Her- 
man, O.S.B., of Atchison, Kas., has begun 
to do in his booklet, "Commentarius in Oden 
Primam Quinti Horatii Flacci ad Maece- 
natem, complectens Paraphrasim, quum 
Brevem tum Uberiorem, adornatus Adno- 
tationibus Grammaticis, Etymologicis, His- 
toricis, Geographicis, !Mythologicis." The 
commentary is scholarly and attractive, and 
we recommend it to all lovers of the works 
of the great lyric poet of the Augustan age. 
Copies can be ordered from the author at 
St. Benedict's Abbey, Atchison, Kas.— P. C. 
Augustine O.S.B. 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS TRY OUR BRANDS 

===== They Have Stood the Test Since 1860 




You will make no mistake by giving us a personal call and verify the quality, 
also the assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

Westerheide Tobacco & Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Mail Orders Promptly Filled Phones; Bell 1 yler 7S8 Kinloch Central 4039 L 



CASPER STEHLE BEDDING COMPANY 

1834 Morgan 8treet »• c. smith, Manager y^ Louis, Mo. 

Sixty Years In Business is a Guarantee of Satisfied Customers 

Hospitals and Institutions Receive Special Attention 

MATTRESSES of all kinds and sizes, and PILLOWS 

Write for quotations, or better still, try a Sample Felt Mattress in a A. C. A. Tick, built up 

extra well in the middle, @ $8.00 net, F. O. B., St. Louis. 



ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 




STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



A History of Modern Philosophy 

Those who deal in matters philosophical 
v,-ill warmly welcorhe the first volume of the 
Jesuit Father Gaston Sortais' latest work, 
"La Philosophic Moderne depuis Bacon 
jusqu' au Leibniz." The author's immense 
historical and philosophical erudition will at 
once strike the reader. He does not confine 
himself to the philosophers of first rank, such 
as Bacon, Gassendi, Hobbes, and Descartes, 
l)Ut discusses also many minor thinkers who 
helped shape the seventeenth century move- 
ment, with which the present work mainly 
deals. The introduction, some 93 pages, 
deals with the preceding century, during 
which the way was paved for the Empiricism 
of the seventeenth. There is a splendid 
bibliography at the end of the volume, be- 
sides an analytic and synthetic table of the 
various chapters. (Paris: Lethielleux). 
A New Book on Homiletics 

Msgr. A. Meyenberg, the world-renowned 
editor and author, has begun to publish a 
series of volumes to supplement his stand- 
ard work on liomiletics. The first instalment 
i.s a large quarto of over 800 pages just 
published by Riiber & Co., of Lucerne, and 
entitled "Weihnachtshomiletik." It exhibits 
Jesus Christ from the Incarnation to the be- 
ginnings of his public life in the light of the 
liturgy of the Church from Christmas to 
Septuagesima. The author offers a number 
of complete sermons and a wealth of rough- 
hewn honiiletic material characterized by 
profound erudition and sublime faith. The 
liturg>', which is treated in such niggardly 
fashion by the , average preacher, receives 
due consideration. We are glad to see from 
tlic preface that the learned author is about 
to publish a Life of Christ in two volumes. 
We know of no one so well qualified as he 
is to depict the life of our Divine Saviour 
for present-day readers. 
A New Book by Father Husslein 

P'ather Joseph Husslein, S.J., has published 
a new book, "Work, Wealth, and Wages," 
in which he re-states briefly, with references 
to his more exhaustive treatises, the Chris- 
tian principles underlying the leading social 
problems of our day: wages and unemploy- 
ment, labor unions, strikes and the class 
struggle, woman labor and its proper safe- 
guards, Socialism, Capitalism and industrial 
democracy, co-operation, the application of 
the guild idea to modern industrial condi- 
tions, the right of private property, poverty 
and wealth, and Christian charity as scien- 
tifically applied. Altogether it is a very 
good resume of the position assumed by the 
school of social reformers to which the 



author belongs and with which we agree in 
the main, — so far as it goes, though in our 
opinion it does not go far enough. The book 
is designed for widespread dissemination 
among the common people and is well adapt- 
ed for this purpose, for its perusal will set 
the "man in the street" to thinking, and once 
hoi polloi begin to think seriously on these 
vital problems, a radical change is sure to 
come in our industrial conditions. (Matre & 
Co.. Chicago). 

Sermons by St. Bernardine of Siena 

We are indebted to Fr. James J. Quinn, 
of Cleveland, O., for a copy of St. Bernard- 
ine of Siena's Sermons, Selected and Edited 
by Don Nazareno Orlandi and translated by 
Miss Helen J. Robins. St. Bernardine, born 
in 1380, for forty years preached almost un- 
ceasingly in cities and villages, more often 
in the piazzas than in the churches. By good 
fortune many of his most popular sermons 
have come down to our time. Those here 
selected are delightful for spontaneity and 
clearness of thought as well as for vigor and 
sincerity of style. They derive peculiar 
charm from the vivid little anecdotes and 
stories with which they are interlarded and 
which closely resemble in simplicity and in- 
genuous piety the "Fioretti" of St. Francis. 
The translator has done her work well and 
pruned judiciously where it was advisable. 
The volume is published by the Tipografia 
Sociale of Siena, and we hope that some 
American publisher will take the agency for 
it in this country. 

Arvisenet's "Memoriale Vitae Sacerdotalis" 
in English 

Hurter in his "Nomenclator Literarius 
Theologiae Catholicae" says of Canon Claude 
Arvisenet (175S-1831) that his "Memoriale 
Vitae Sacerdotalis" spread all over Europe 
and won praise from Pope Pius VII. This 
excellent meditation book for priests has 
lately been translated into English by the 
Rev. F. J. O'Sullivan and published by 
Benziger Brothers under the title, "An Epi- 
tome of the Priestly Life." Canon Arvise- 
net's "Memoriale" covers the whole range 
of dogmatic, moral, and disciplinary matter 
pertaining to the priesthood and is service- 
able alike for meditation, spiritual reading, 
and particular examen of conscience. Not 
being familiar with the original, we pre- 
sume the translator has adapted the book 
to present-day conditions, for the specimen 
pages we have perused read as if they had 
been written last year. The volume is printed 
in fine large type, bound in flexible leather, 
and fits snugly into the coat pocket. 



40 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



January 15 



German as Spoken in Switzerland 

There is considerable misunderstanding in 
this country as to the language spoken in 
Switzerland. So accustomed are we to re- 
gard a country as having one language that 
we feel that the Swiss must speak "Swiss," 
just as the French speak French, or the 
Portuguese, Portuguese. For political or 
historical reasons, however, there are at least 
five recognized languages in Switzerland: 
German, French, Italian, Swiss-German, and 
a dialect of the Romance languages. Dr. Karl 
Stucki has now published a book entitled 
"Schweizerdeutsch. Abriss einer Grammatik 
mit Laut- und Formlehre," in which he tries 
to show what the dialect of German that 
is spoken in the different cantons is like. 
The author had a difficult task. We find him 
constantly noting a word that is used in 
Zurich but not in Basle, another common in 
Berne but never heard in the villages. His 
book is of great value to students of lin- 
guistics. * 

Books Received 

The Counter Reformation, in Se()tland. With 
Special Reference to the Revival of 1585 
to 1595. By John Hungerford Pollen, viii 
& 79 pp. i2mo. B. Herder Book Co. $1 net. 

Wcihnachtshovtiletik. Von Weihnachten bis 
Septuagesima. (Homiletische Erganzungs- 
werke). Von A. Aleyenberg. vii & 820 pp. 
8vo. Lucerne, Switzerland : Raeber & Cie. 
$5 net. 

Summarium Thcologiae Moralis ad Codieein 
luris Canonici Accommodatum. Auct. Nic. 
Sebastiani. Editio 6ta minor, recognita. 
xi & 658 pp. i6mo. Turin : P. Marietti. 
Frs. 12. 

"De Tempore" Di^sertotio Philosophico — 
Scientifieo — hi rid tea in Tit. III. Lib. I Novi 
Codieis Juris Canonici. Auctore loa. Ijac- 
au, S.C.I. 51 pp. 8vo. Turin: P. Alarietti. 
Fr. 2.75. (Wrapper). 

The Children's King. By a Sister of Notre 
Dame, Author of "True Stories for First 
Communicants" and "First Communion 
Days." Illustrated by T. Boines, Jr. 22 PP- 
i6mo. B. Herder Book Co. 70cts. net. 

yiemorialc Rituum pro Aliquibus Pracstanti- 
nribus Sacris Fnnetionibus Pcrsolvendis in 
Minoribus Eeelesiis. Benedicti XIII iussu 
oditum, Benedicti XV, auctoritate recogni- 
tum. Editin I Taurinensis iuxta typicam. 
76 pp. i6mo. Turin : P. Marietti. Frs. 5. 

Philosophia Seholastiea ad Mentem S. Tho- 
mac. Auctore Seb. Uccello, S.S.S. In two 
volumes. Vol. I : Logica, Ontologia, Cos- 
mologia; xx & 411 pp.; Vol. II: Psycho- 
logia, Theodicea, Ethica, Philos. Epitome 
Historica ac Lexicon Scholasticorum Ver- 
borum losephi Zamae Mellinii. ii & 459 pp. 
i2mo. Turin : P. Marietti. Frs. 2v 



The Western 
Catholic Union 



A Legally Solvent Adequate Rate 
Catholic Fraternal Societv 




\\ Forty-four years old. 
H Based on Sound, Sensible and Scien- 
tific Principles. 

^ Devoid of Red Tape and Catholic to 
the core. 

^ Three popular forms of certificates 
issued — 20 pay Whole Life Certificate 
with all modern cash loan, paid up, 
and extended insurance features. 

H This certificate is fully paid up after 
twenty consecutive payments have 
been made. 

H Whole Life Special. This is a Whole 
Life Certificate with modern up-to- 
date cash loan, paid up and extended 
insurance features. 

U .Ordinary Whole Life. Just a plain 
up-to-date Whole Life Insurance Cer- 
tificate with Old Age Benefits at- 
tached. 

JUVENILE SECTION 

^ Two plans, Term Rate and Whole 
Life with all modern cash, paid up 
and extended features. 

H For full information and induce- 
ments in reference to organizing new 
branches address 

W.C. U. Headquarters 

Illinois State Bank Building 
Quincy, Illinois 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 3 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



February 1, 1922 



A Catholic Laboringman's Reconstruction Programme 



This is the season for inven- 
tory-taking, and it may not be 
amiss, therefore, to take stock of 
our social reconstruction pro- 
grammes and their results. I do 
not mean to say that in the three 
years that have elapsed since the 
period of reconstruction began, it 
should be possible to place one's 
finger on actual results. Neverthe- 
less, certain definite tendencies 
should be making themselves felt 
in consequence of these pro- 
nouncements. It must not be over- 
looked that at the time of promul- 
gation conditions favored the 
\\orkers. The programme of our 
bishops, based as it was, primar- 
ily, on wages, hours, and work- 
ing conditions, was launched 
in favorable weather. Since then 
storms have broken loose, heavy 
storms indeed; the ship's com- 
pass might well be consulted to de- 
termine our present bearings, 
though the storm has by no means 
abated as yet. 

Those of us who have been for- 
tunate enough to retain our jobs, 
with immense reduction in our 
purchasing powder — in conse- 
quence of reduction in hours as 
well as wages — have long since 
ceased to think of "the principle 
of organization," the exterior 
conditions of our work, and the 
minimum of wage. At least w^e are 
not thinking of them in the same 
way that the professors of eco- 
nomics and sociology think of 



them. But we have wondered and 
are discussing, in our own infonn- 
al and inadequate manner, the re- 
lationship of these things to real 
social and industrial reform. 

I do not mean to give the im- 
pression that we are discontented 
with, or inappreciative of, the ef- 
forts of our leaders. A group of 
Catholic laboring-men can surely 
discuss the bearings of the prin- 
ciples of our social reform move- 
ments, even though they come 
from our spiritual leaders, with- 
out endangering our reputation 
for loyalty to the Church we love. 
It is hardly more than natural 
that we should discuss the value 
of such principles in the face of 
events of the past year. 

Much has been made in Catholic 
circles of the i)ronouncement of 
the great Pope Leo regarding 
workingmen's associations, or 
unions, as they are called in this 
country; little, however, has been 
made of his statement that there 
must be a juster distribution of 
the goods of this world. The diffi- 
culty would seem to lie in an exag- 
gerated notion of the results to 
be obtained from the labor union 
movement. I can safely say, from 
my experience and relationship 
with many workers, that the work- 
ers themselves do not place much 
confidence in organizations as a 
means to a better order of things. 
They constitute a source of pro- 
tection against the tyranny of 



42 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Frbruarj- I 



those who hold the balance of 
power, though they have also been 
used unjustly by Labor during 
times unfavorable to the emplov- 
er. In fact they perpetuate and 
accentuate the division of classes, 
and are incapable, under the pres- 
ent constitution of industrial so- 
ciety, to help effectively to a bet- 
ter ordering of things."^ I believe 
I am correct, therefore, when I 
state that the laborer expects lit- 
tle from ''the principle of organ- 
ization," though organizations 
are perhaps necessary, for the 
time being, as a means of protec- 
tion. 
^ The present period of depres- 
sion has brought out clearly the 
futility of the whole labor union 
movement. A philosophy of action 
having as its objectives higher 
wages, better working conditions, 
and shorter hours, is obviously 
bootless at a time like the present. 
Unless we can get at the causes 
of the commercial stagnation, lit- 
tle will ])e accomplished. 

Likewise with the host of other 
proposals inserted in our reform 
platforms. What, for example, 
has the minimum wage to do with 
true reform, when all wages are 
the plaything of economic forces 
which Ave seemingly do not under- 
stand? What is the value of the 
various housing proposals, when 
the question of land monopoly is 
left untouched and unearned in- 
crement is shanned like a conta- 
gious disease? How much will 
come of the cooperative move- 
ment, so long as the ownership of 
our natural resources, the source 
of all wealth, is left unquestioned ? 
Suppose, in this connection, that 
a group of workers did come into 
the possession of the tools of pro- 



duction of a certain commodity. 
Would not the increased profits 
and benefits silently and quickh' 
lloAV into the coffers of Privilege? 
Some years ago, Mr. Ford inaug- 
urated a new era in our industrial 
world. He paid a minimum wage 
far in excess of even the maximum 
of many industries. What hap- 
pened? Did not rents, land prices, 
and commodity prices soar? The 
increased earnings were capital- 
ized by Privilege many years in 
advance. 

And again, what have the milk 
and water proposals regarding a 
more socialized rural life to do 
with true agrarian reform, while 
land monopoly grows ever strong- 
er in these United States? Only 
40% of our population now live 
on farms, and of these the vast 
majority are renters, and they 
are on the increase. What will 
stop it? Surely not social centers 
built around the district school- 
house or the country church! 

Thus it is that, while we run 
down the list of reform proposals 
and view them in the light of these 
dour days, we begin to have h feel- 
ing that after all these externals, 
— like wages, hours, conditions of 
work and life, — are to a great ex- 
tent beyond our control; that be- 
hind these there must be some- 
thing else, which, if properly 
adjusted or reconstructed, would 
automatically take care of these 
externals ; that, in short, we have 
started at the wrong end of the 
line. 

By this time some one will 
have sensed something "radical." 
A young man at the "plant," 
whose education took him into 
Latin roots, told us at one of our 
noon-hour gatherings that the 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



43 



word ' ^ radical ' ' came from a word 
meaning ''root." Perhaps a 
"radical" then, in one sense at 
least, is he who goes to the root of 
things. However that may be, I 
can assure you that in the accept- 
ed meaning of the term, the vast 
majority of workers, in my ex- 
perience, are decidedly non-radi- 
cal. We look for no overthrow of 
existing conditions nor for a sud- 
den revolution, which would turn 
all things to our unskilled direc- 
tion. Even though we should 
awake tomorrow to find Labor at 
the helm, several decades would 
elapse before the great body of 
workers would be sufficiently edu- 
cated for the new regime, 

I do not mean that the laborer 
spurns organizations, welfare 
work, regulation of hours, wages 
and conditions as a temporary 
means of amelioration. But he 
does, in my experience, look with 
disfavor upon these as permanent 
remedies. The fundamental diffi- 
culty seems to lie in the ignorance 
of what is at the bottom of our 
ills. A thorough diagnosis must be 
made first. After that the remedy 
will be easy — at least we can pro- 
ceed intelligently. 

With these thoughts in mind, I 
recently formulated a "Recon- 
struction Programme" at one of 
our informal noon-hour meetings. 
Its strange departure from tradi- 
tional programmes may not rob it 
of interest to your readers. I had 
in mind Catholic workers primar- 
ily, though the application, with 
a few changes, could be made uni- 
versal. 

1 . The establishment of a School 
of Sociology, where unadulterated 
principles of Catholic philosophy 
and theologv might be fearlesslv 



applied to modern data, from 
which would arise a truly Catholic 
sociology. It would seem that ab- 
solute freedom and fearlessness 
must be the first characteristics of 
such a school. The workers them- 
selves must provide the funds; 
freedom from obligation for finan- 
cial patronage must be absolute. 

2. The training in the proposed 
school of leaders, Avho would act 
as an educational force. 

3. The organization of Catholic 
laborers along parish lines. Well- 
trained leaders in a truly Catho- 
lic sociology would have an ade- 
quate message to bring to the 
hungry multitudes. 

This, then, is my "Reconstruc- 
tion Program.me." Surely there 
is nothing "radical" here. Is'nt 
it worth a fair trial, in view of 
the disheartening experience with 
]irevailiag proposals f Why talk of 
tlie cooperative movement, guilds, 
unionism, and legislative reform, 
when we are obviously in the dark 
concerning the diagnosis of our 
present ills. Is it not yet clear 
that the first characteristic of a 
reconstruction programme must 
be educational? For lack of this 
many Catholic laborers are losing 
the true filial spirit and allegiance 
to the Church. 

A Catholic Laborixgman 

Here are two new jokes about the 

ccjllection box in church, which will be 
appreciated by our clerical readers. 
( 1 ) Sleepy parishioner, when the col- 
lection plate is passed: "Never mind, 
waiter.- never mind, just keep the 
change." (2) The collector approached 
a parishioner and held out the box. "I 
never give to missions," whispered the 
parishioner. "Then take something out 
of the box, Sir," whispered the col- 
lector; "the money is for the 'eathen." 



44 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



Those Foreign Debts 

By the Rev. Dr. F. Joseph Kelly, Detroit Seminary 



Two events have started the 
American press to editorializing 
on our foreign debts : the passage 
by the House of Representatives 
of the administration's refunding 
bill, v.'ith modifications, and the 
pronouncement of Reginald Mc- 
Kenna, ex-chancellor of the ex- 
chequer of Great Britain, to the 
effect that it would be desirable 
as a reconstruction measure, if 
America and Great Britain would 
agree to cancel their debts, coup- 
led with the rumor that Great 
Britain proposes to cancel hers. 

The insertion by the House in 
the refunding bill of a provision 
that no foreign indebtedness 
should be cancelled is pronounced 
by some as proper, while others 
see in the refunding bill a dawn- 
ing understanding of the relation 
between these debts and the fail- 
ure of the world to recover its 
poise, which offers hope that it 
will encoarage a further and deep- 
er understanding, until the point 
is reached where the actual can- 
cellation of the debt, huge as it is, 
may appear as the shortest and 
least expensive cut to a revival of 
international trade, a healthier 
rate of exchange, and a possible 
redemption of promises regarding 
international peace. The alUed 
debts Avithout doul)t are absolutely 
n'ust, but whether this country will 
collect, remains to be seen. Am- 
erica probably would trade them 
all in behalf of complete disarma- 
ment and world peace. As time 
passes, financiers and economists 
are coming to the view that can- 
cellation would be advisable for 
all concerned, and with such 



economic experts as Isaac Mar- 
cosson recommending cancellatioii 
of all war debts, it is urgent that 
all facts should be taken into con- 
sideration. Many reject the theory 
on which Europe operates to 
justify the request for debt can- 
cellation, namely, that we came 
late into a common venture. They 
argue that we did not enter for the 
sake of Italy, France, or England, 
or to discharge an obligation to 
humanity, but for practical rea- 
sons of expediency. Yet there is a 
phase of .^this debt cancellation 
that has been consistently ignored. 
This is, that the government 
would not upon its own responsi- 
bility write these debts off. It 
could hardly put the question up 
to the people without seeming to 
advocate cancellation. Immediate- 
ly that was done, it would be 
transformed into a political issue. 
It is doubtful' if any administra- 
tion could survive which was put 
in the position of giving billions 
of dollars away. 

The possibility of an agreement 
between the United States and 
Great Britain for the cancellation 
of their respective debts, after 
contrasting Great Britain's share 
in the war with ours; is discussed 
by some papers. They say that in 
view of these facts it does not 
seem improper to suggest to Great 
Britain that, if she is unable to 
pay in cash what she owes us, she 
might turn over to us the islands 
of "^tho British West Indies. Why 
should England decline to assign 
them to us in part payment of her 
debt incurred in obtaining ten 
times their area of new lands in 



1922 



'FHE FOKTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



45 



other sections of the world! Great 
Britain could give up all the debts 
the allies . owe her and have a 
great deal to show for it in what 
she gained by the war, but the 
United States would suffer a dead 
loss. These countries should pay 
us the interest on the money they 
borrowed; they are all able to do 
so, and should be given indefinite 
time to pay the principal. If Great 
Britain abandons her obligations, 
she ought also to forego her 
spoils. Yet this country ought to 
stand ready to consider an adjust- 
ment which is equitable to all. 

The Sex Problem 
In a recently published volume 
on ''Taboo and Genetics : A Study 
of the Biological, Sociological, 
and Psvchological Foundation of 
the Family" by M. M. Knight, I. 
L. Peters, and P. Blanchard (Ke- 
gan Paul), it is contended that 
sex is almost as much a matter of 
degree as of kind. It is shown 
tliat there are feminine men and 
masculine women of many 
grades ; the implication being that 
strong reproductive instincts can- 
not be expected from such inter- 
mediate types. As for the social 
significance of the book, taken as 
a whole, it appears to support the 
conservative principle . that wom- 
an — at any rate the womanly 
Avoman who will make a good 
mother — being physically Aveaker 
than man and needing a sheltered 
life in order that she in turn may 
shelter her babes, is not suited to 
compete with man in most de- 
partments of the workaday life. 
Female policemen and man-mil- 
liners ought to be recruited from 
the inter-sexual types, if wanted 
at all. 



In "Sex and Common Sense" 
(Hurst & Blackett) Miss A. 
Maude Eoyden tentatively puts 
forward what seem to her the only 
possible and dignified cures for 
the sicknesses of which she treats, 
and we find that they amount to 
little more than those Avhich have 
been so long and unsuccessfully 
tried. The ''change of heart," in 
fact, appears to be Avliat Miss 
Royden, like so many reformers, 
is building upon. It is cruel to 
compel husband and wife to live 
together, after marriage has 
proved a failure; unhappy mar- 
riages must therefore be dis- 
solved ; but the dissolution of mar- 
riage is a disaster; therefore un- 
happy marriages must not be con- 
tracted. So with "birth control." 
It is wicked to bear umvanted 
children; but the use of contra- 
ceptives is undesirable. The reme- 
dy is continence — and not merely 
repression of passion, but willing 
continence. In Avilling continence, 
also, Ave must find the means of 
abolishing prostitution and the 
suffering incident to the present 
disproportion in the sexes. 

It Avill be understood that this is 
only to state in the roughest form 
the message of Miss Royden 's 
book; but that is undeniably the 
gist of it. Her hopes seem a little 
millennial ; but courage and truth 
can do much ; and it is for a brave 
and instructed facing of the true 
facts that she eloquently pleads. 
In this appeal she Avill haA^e the 
sympathy of all Avho are concern- 
ed Avith' the great and groAving 
problems of Avhich she Avrites. 

— If you would be different from 
other people, learn to live within your 
income. 



46 



THE FOETNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



February 1 



The Fight for the Parochial School in 
Michigan 

Signatures are being solicited 
in various parts of Michigan for 
a petition asking for a popular 
vote on a constitutional amend- 
ment compelling all children aged 
from seven to sixteen years to at- 
tend a public State school until 
they have graduated from the 
eighth grade. 

This amendment differs in three 
respects from the one defeated by 
the voters in 1920: (1) It grants 
the private and parochial schools 
a respite until 1924, whereas the 
previous amendment would have 
put them out of business at once ; 
(2) It demands the attendance at 
the State public schools of chil- 
dren from seven to sixteen, where- 
as the previous proposal includ- 
ed all from age five onward; (3) 
It merely postulates attendance at 
a public State school, whereas the 
previous amendment demanded 
attendance at the public school of 
the district in which the child re- 
sided. 

These alterations, however, far 
from rendering the new proposal 
innocuous, make it even more 
dangerous than its predecessor 
because it meets the objections of 
a number of those who opposed 
the previous amendment and still 
aims at the same object, i. e., the 
destruction of the parochial 
school. 

We see from the Lutherauer 
(Vol. 78, No. 1) that the Luth- 
erans of Michigan are already at 
work instructing the citizens of 
the State about the true nature of 
this new attack upon the parochial 
schools and preparing the fight at 
the polls, which will take place 
next November. No doubt the 
Catholics will again make com- 
mon cause with the Lutherans in 
this important matter. 



The Missing Link Still Missing 
The discovery of a fossil skull 
in a Rhodesian lead-mine has re- 
newed the surmises of scientists 
about the condition of primi- 
tive man. The London Times 
(Nov. 8), under the caption '^ Af- 
rican Ape Man," said that the 
skull ' ' seems to resemble the most 
primitive member of the human 
family at present known to us, the 
Ape-Man (Pithecanthropus erec- 
tus), discovered in Java by Pro- 
fessor Dubois in 1892." The ape- 
man of Java, comments The 
Month (No. 690), is Hterally a fic- 
tion, something fashioned from 
the indications afforded by a frag- 
ment of the top of a skull, a thigh- 
bone, and two back-teeth by in- 
genious anthropologists anxious 
to find the missing link. Yet our 
facile journalists take this myth 
as a type and use him as a stand- 
ard of reference! "We know noth- 
ing of the face of the Java skull," 
Professor Elliot Smith admitted 
to a Times representative. Yet he 
produced a model of it from which 
to argue. The discovery has open- 
ed up the whole interesting ques- 
tion of the antiquity of man, but 
the authorities seem to agree that 
this specimen is of comparatively 
recent date. Until the geologists 
can tell us definitely the age of 
the various strata which contain 
animal remains the matter must 
remain very obscure. At present 
geologists differ very widely, 
keanwhile, although Darwin's 
theory demands an immensely 
prolonged series of minutely dif- 
ferentiated specimens connecting 
man with the ape, or both with 
some common ancestor, not a 
scrap of real evidence has yet 
been afforded by fossil remains. 
We must still wait and see. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



47 



The Lentulus Letter— A Hoary 
Forgery 

It would be amusing, were it not 
so provoking, to see the spurious 
"Letter of Lentulus" again mak- 
ing its appearance in the Ameri- 
caA Catholic press. This time it 
started in the St. Louis Amerika, 
which under its present non- 
Catholic management can hardly 
be expected to know better. But 
that the obvious forgery should 
be copied into the Ohio Waisen- 
freund, published by the Papal 
College Josephinum, and thence 
translated into the official organ 
of the diocese of Little Rock [The 
Guardian, Jan. 7) is truly astound- 
ing. The editor of the last-men- 
tioned paper, a Benedictine prior 
and doctor of theology, introduces 
the sensational find as f oIIoavs : 
"A few months before the world 
war a document of supreme im- 
portance was accidentally disco^'- 
ered yi the library of the Lazar- 
ists m Rome. Because the war 
soon commenced to absorb all the 
attention of the world, that docu- 
ment failed at the time to arouse 
the interest which it deserves. To 
us it seems not a little strange 
that the keepei*s of the document 
did not divulge it sooner after the 
end of the war." 

In matter of fact, this same al- 
leged Letter of Lentulus has made 
the rounds of the American Cath- 
olic press at least four times in 
the course of the last thirty years, 
and we do not know how many 
times before that. When we first 
showed it up, about a quarter of 
a century ago, information con- 
cerning its true character was not 
so easy to obtain; but since 1907 
there has been accessible to Eng- 
lish-speaking Catholics the first 
volume of the Catholic Encyclope- 
dia, w^hich says (page 610) : "Let- 



ter of Lentulus. A brief letter 
professing to be from Lentulus, 
or Publius Lentulus, as in some 
MSS., 'President of the People of 
Jerusalem', addressed 'to the 
Roman Senate and People,' de- 
scribes our Lord's personal ap- 
pearance. It is evidently spurious, 
both the office and name of the 
president of Jerusalem being 
grossly unhistorical. No ancient 
writer alludes to this production, 
which is found only in Latin MSS. 
It has been conjectured that it 
may have been composed in order 
to authenticate a pretended por- 
trait of Jesus during the Middle 
Ages." According to Father Ni- 
sius, S. J., in the KircklicJies 
Handlexikon, the Lentulus Letter 
is ''a forgery of the thirteenth or 
fourteenth century" and has been 
reproduced innumerable times in 
letters and books, especially since 
the sixteenth century. 

As an English version of the 
letter was published in Cowper's 
"Apocryphal Gospels and Other 
Documents Relating to Christ" in 
New York away back in the late 
seventies or early eighties, the 
editor of the Guardian might have 
spared himself the trouble of 
making a new translation from 
the Ohio Waisenfreund. 

If our Catholic editors would 
consult the Catholic Encyclopedia, 
they would not fall into such lu- 
dicrous blunders. 



— The idealist knows exactly where 
he wants to go, but he has no means 
of getting there; the practical person 
gets there, and then finds that he is in 
the wrong place. 

— Only those really know the ease of 
living who never try to dodge the hard 
things in life. For the easiest time to 
do a hard thing is when it first makes 
its appearance. 



48 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



Februai 



The Morality of the Strike 
"The Morality of the Strike.," 
a doctoral thesis by the Rev. 
Donald A. McLean "(New York: 
P. J. Kenedy & Sons) is a notable 
contribution to Catholic socio- 
logical literature. Dr. Ryan says 
of the book that it ''evinces a 
greater knowledge -and gives a 
better presentation of the per- 
tinent economic conditions and re- 
lations than is to be found in any 
other English publication on the 
moral side of industrial dis- 
putes. ' ' 

AVe consider this a just ap- 
praisal. However, the true value 
of such writing does not lie in 
the argument itself, but rather in 
the results that flow from it. In 
the actual affairs of our industrial 
life there is precious little con- 
scious application of the moral 
principles so ably stated here. But 
the author has done a noble work 
in calling the attention of his 
brother clerics to the existence of 
problems which, unfortunately, do 
not exist for the vast majority. 
Secondly, he has placed the 
Church in the light of the intel- 
ligent mother solicitous for her 
children. And, finally, if the Rev. 
Doctor's book will but cause 
furtlier and deeper questioning, 
his work has been eminently 
worth while. 

No one can read this book in- 
telligently without coming to the 
conviction that there is some- 
thing decidedly rotten in the pres- 
ent industrial system. We venture 
to say that if Father McLean had 
l)een questioned concerning the 
morality of the projected nation- 
wide rail strike of last November, 
he would have decided against the 
employees. Nor do we see how it 



could be otherwise, if we take into 
consideration the principle that 
the results must be commensurate 
with the damage done. The griev- 
ances are real; tbe moral prin- 
ciples are clear; and yet the ver- 
dict must favor a continued, if 
lesser, injustice. Lito such a eul- 
de-sac has the present system 
brought us. There is another ex- 
ample ^in the case of a strike by 
policemen or firemen. The only 
conclusion under the existing re- 
gime is that such employees must 
sulTer injustice, without an ade- 
quate method of redress. The 
I)resent work deserves a wide wel- 
come, not so much because of the 
matter it presents, but because of 
the inevitable questionings it is 
sure to evoke. F. 



Worship of the State 
Mr. Anthony Beck writes of the 
"Worship of the State" m the 
New York America (Vol. XXVI, 
No. 9). He justly deplores the 
modern tendency to reform every- 
tliing and everybody through 
legislation. And yet, is it not a 
fact that every ounce of Catholic 
social reform, — which is done up 
in packages with such pretty 
labels these days, — contains at 
least 90 per cent of legislative 
extract? We have yet to find a 
remedy advocated by our Catho- 
lic sociologists which does not 
either rely upon "social legisla- 
tion" or at least take the present 
constitution of the political state 
for granted. 

There seems to be an idea prev- 
alent that if we can but get some 
form of cooperation injected into 
our social organism, health will 
return. Much is to be expected 
from the cooperative movement, 



192^ 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



8689 



49 



and we trust that its promoters 
will meet with success. But let us 
not forget that, so long as Privi- 
lege is allowed to remain in its 
various forms (landlordism, cap- 
italism, etc.), and the present po- 
litical state is founded upon it, 
cooperation can accomplish pre- 
cious little. In other words, so 
long as Catholic sociologists con- 



tinue to accept the modern State, 
built up as it is on Privilege, and 
continue their present line of ar- 
gument for reform by ''Christian 
social legislation," there is no 
hope of permanent relief, and we 
shall be forced to place them 
among those who are really, 
though unwittingly, furthering 
the "Worship of the State." 



Fr. Junipero Serra and the Military Heads of California 

By Francis Borgia Steck, 0. F. M. 



IV 
Fr. Serra. and Comandante Rivera 

Could the viceroy have looked into 
the future, he would not have ap- 
pointed Don Fernando de Rivera y 
Aloncada to succeed Don Pedro Fages. 
For good reasons, Fr. Serra had pro- 
posed Don Francisco de Ortega, who 
was in charge of the San Diego pre- 
sidio. But since this officer was a mere 
sergeant, Bucareli's choice fell on Ri- 
vera who already held the rank of 
captain. Somehow or other, Fr. Serra's 
predilection for Ortega came to the 
ears of the new comandante 

Of course, it wounded his pride and, 
as Fr. Pedro Font explains, -- was to 
a great extent the cause of his later 
disafifection for the Fr. Presidente. 
Rivera knew only too well how eagerly 
the friar looked forward to the exten- 
sion of the spiritual conquest by the 
founding of two missions at the Bay 
of San Francisco, which the viceroy 
had expressly commanded the coman- 
dante to undertake in accord with the 
Fr. Presidente. Here was his chance to 
annoy the man who had wounded his 
foolish pride ; and, wilHng to risk the 
viceroy's displeasure, he wantonly de- 
layed the execution of these orders. It 
was surely a bold attitude to assume. 
But he may have relied on friends at 
court to back him and eventually 
persuade the noble Bucareli ^^^\%p 
would be well for the royal sQ^iee to 



-- Fr. Pedro Font, Diario, Marcn 



), ilf6. 



supplant a friar whose presence in 
CaHfornia was, whether with or with- 
out his fault, a constant occasion for 
dissatisfaction on the part of the mili- 
tary. That, it seems, would explain 
also the letter which Fr. Francisco 
Pangua, the guardian of San Fernan- 
do College, wrote to Fr. Serra on 
November 8, 1774, telling him it was 
known to the friars in Mexico that in 
the viceroyal court there were such as 
"direct their projects not so much to 
the conquest of souls as to that of 
territory ;" and warning him to "en- 
deavor to preserve harmony with the 
captain (Rivera), for there is no doubt 
tliat he has secret orders." -^ Plainly, 
the guardian was hinting that, in the 
end, the viceroy might find himself 
compelled to yield to pressure from the 
royal court in Spain, where, owing to 
the influence of infidel politicians, a 
priest would naturally be at a decided 
disadvantage in a controversy with a 
military official ; so that, to shut, the 
mouths of evil-minded politicians, the 
guardian would finally have to recall 
the Fr. Presidente from the missions. 
Although he needed no warning al- 
ways to do right and to proceed in 
harmony with the military head, Fr. 
Serra was in this way put on his 
guard, in order that in the event of a 
quarrel he might be able to parry the 
f his adversary. This may 
'acc^fliVl//]^JSQ for the admirable pa- 

■.-^^ — - '^ 

-3 Fr. Fran(f5^cb Pangua to Fr. Serra, No- 
vember 8, 1774. pta. Barb. Arch. 



^CORDIS i^^ 



50 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



tience and forbearance with which he 
endured the singular conduct of Ri- 
vera and Neve. 

As to Rivera's constant excuse that 
sufficient soldiers were not on hand 
for the founding of the two missions 
in the north, it was but a cloak to hide 
what he dared not disclose. If lack of 
soldiers did not prevent him, late in 
the fall of 1774, from making the ex- 
pedition and from proposing to carry 
the project through as soon as the 
rainy season was qver, -* lack of sol- 
diers was certainly not the reason 
why he later obstinately refused to co-' 
operate with Colonel Anza, who came 
up with fresh troops and supplies ex- 
pressly for that enterprise. • But 
jealousy of the colonel only confirmed 
the comandante in his animosity toward 
Fr. Serra. The disgusted colonel soon 
left for Lower California, so that 
there remained only the Fr. Presidente 
and his confreres, on whom Rivera 
might continue to vent his spleen. In 
May. 1776, he ordered Lieutenant 
Moraga to establish the presidio at the 
Bay of San Francisco and to inform 
the Fr. Presidente that the mission 
would not be founded for the present. 
Even Bancroft is constrained to admit, 
in this instance, that Rivera "could 
not neglect the opportunity to annoy 
the priests by saying that the founding 
of the missions was for the present 
suspended, as Moraga was instructed 
to inform the president. Truly," he 
adds, "the latter had not gained much 
in the change from Fages to his 
rival." -^ The fact, finally, that Moraga 
had sufficient soldiers in the summer 
of that same year, 1776, to take the 
matter in his own hands and to begin 
the Mission of San Francisco, plainly 
gives the lie to Rivera's oft-repeated 
excuse for delaying: the work. 

What little regard the comandante 
had for the self-sacrificing mission- 
aries, he manifested when, on Decem- 
ber 13, 1775, a courier from San Diego 



reported that the Indians there had 
revolted, set fire to the mission, and 
murdered Fr. Luis Jayme. After im- 
parting the sad news to Fr. Serra, the 
spiteful official added, coldly : "Only 
one thing pleases me very much ; it is 
that no soldier was killed, thanks be 
to God !" -'' During the year interven- 
ing between the destruction of the 
mission and its restoration, his haughty 
and provoking attitude would have 
driven a man less patient and peace- 
■ loving than Fr. Serra to black despair. 
Though many of the minor details 
must needs be omitted here, the fol- 
lowing series of events will suffice to 
demonstrate what a capricious and re- 
fractory official the missionaries had 
to deal with in the person of Coman- 
dante Rivera. 

His flagrant infringement of the 
Church asylum, which obtained in 
Spain and its colonies at the time, with 
all that attended and followed it, con- 
stitutes one of the darkest episodes of 
California mission history. Boldly de- 
fying the I-'ather's warning and the 
danger of incurring excommunication, 
the comandante, sword in hand, enter- 
ed the place set aside for divine wor- 
ship and dragged out the guilty In- 
dian who had taken refuge there. 
Against this public violation of the 
law, Fr. Fuster justly protested; 
whereupon Rivera cried : "Very well, 
Father; your Reverence may protest. 
There goes the protest," and pointed 
to the culprit whom the soldiers were 
hurrying of? to the guardhouse. -^ To 
free himself of the excommunication 
he had thereby incurred, the coman- 
dante proceeded to Monterey and by 
gross misrepresentations endeavored to 
steal from the Fr. Presidente a de- 
cision in his favor. But letters from 
the missionaries of San Diego, which 
Rivera, by the way, delivered with the 
seals broken, told a very different 



-* Fr. Palou, Noticias, Vol. II, p. 294. 
"5 H. H. Bancroft, History of California, 
Vol. I, p. 286. 



-6 Fr. Pedro Font, Diario, January 13, 
1776. See also Engelhardt, San Diego Mis- 
sion (New Series, Local History), p. 71. 

-~ Fr. Palou. Noticias, Vol. IV, pp. 149— 
150; Fr. Pedro Font, Diario, April 15, 1776. 
See also San Diego Mission, p. 74. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



51 



Story. Accordingly, after due delibera- 
tion, Fr. Serra notified the official that 
nothing could be done until he had re- 
turned the Indian to the church ; in 
which case the Fathers at San Diego 
had full powers to lift the ban. 

Of course, that was not what Rivera 
wanted. Consequently, the decision, 
just and considerate though it was, 
served only to embitter him still more 
against the man who stood for law and 
order. In the following summer, when 
Fr. Serra visited San Diego to under- 
take the long delayed restoration of 
the mission, the comandante refused 
the necessary guards. In the face of 
established facts to the contrary, he 
insisted that the Indians were con- 
templating another attack. Only 
through the good will of the viceroy 
was "it finally possible to restore the 
mission. Having been informed of the 
disaster, Bucareli sent a guard of 
twenty-five soldiers to California with 
express orders to rebuild the mission 
and found the one of San Juan Capi- 
strano, which the revolt had delayed. 
{To be continued) 

Correspondence 

Pre-Patrician Saints in Ireland 

To the Editor: 

In the F. R. for January 1, the 
writer of the synopsis under the head- 
ing, "Pre-Patrician Saints in Ire- 
land" made a slight mistake, which is 
perfectly excusable in one who is not 
famihar with the geography of Ire- 
land. 

From this synopsis it would appear 
that "Begerin was one of the Arran 
group of islands and is now united with 
the miainland." Now, the fact is that 
Begerin (called also Ber-Erin, Beg- 
Eri and Begery; Beg meaning little), 
was an island situated in Wexford 
Harbor (formerly called* Lough Gar- 
man), which is near the southeastern 
coast of Ireland. (See Irish Ecclesias- 
tical Record, Oct. 1921, p. 378, hne 9). 
The Islands of Aran, three in num- 
ber, are situated in Galway Bay, off 



the ivestern coast of Ireland, and many 
miles from the mainland. 

You may find an interesting account 
of St. Ibar and of the Aran Isles in 
"Ireland's Ancient Schools and Schol- 
ars" by Archbishop Healy, pp. 155 sqq. 

Yours very sincerely, 
(Rt. Rev. Msgr.) -Richard Brady 
Loreffo, Colo. 



The Love of Work 

To the Editor: 

In your Jan. 15th issue you printed 
from The Freeman some remarks on 
"The Love of Work." The Freeman 
contends that the great problem of so- 
ciety is the problem not only to pro- 
vide work for the masses, but also to 
get people to enjoy their work. This 
is entirely in accord with Benedict 
XV, who said that one of the five 
plagues of modern society is disgust 
for work. What is the cause of this 
disgust? This mechanical age of ours 
has killed the ioy of work. 

Today everything must be done by 
machinery if possible. In the past a. 
shoemaker, for instance, Avas proud of 
the work of his hands, to-day a shoe 
is the product of machinery and of a 
host of men serving that machinery in 
a mechanical way. Man wants to see 
the finished product of his hands. This 
has becgme impossible and hence work 
is a joyless thing that most men en- 
deavor to shirk. 

(Rev.) Raymond Vernimoxt 

Denton. Tex. 



— ^Quoting the little note repeatedly 
printed in this journal, that the F. R. 
would not feel that its purpose were 
attained if it did not stimulate its read- 
ers to think for themselves, -even to the 
point of occasional disagreement with 
its utterance^,, the Milwaukee Catholic 
Citisen (Vol. 51, No. 10) says: "Its 
[the F. R.'s] purpose in this respect is 
achieved among its exchanges. And 
perhaps it is well for us all to cultivate 
a tolerance of opinion and freedom of 
discussion on what are clearly open 
questions for Catholics." The Citisen 
was not alwavs so tolerant. 



bZ 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



Notes and Gleanings 

— Our esteemed exchanges are re- 
spectfully requested to take notice of 
our recent change of address and to 
^end their papers henceforth to 5851 
Etzel Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

— We are glad 'to greet the new- 
Franciscan review, Third Order 
forum, which was announced in our 
edition of Jan. 1st. The first number 
is full of lair promise. Xo one inter- 
ested in the Tertiary movement can 
afford to ignore this new organ, which 
is ablv edited by Father James, O.F.M., 
at 5045 Latlin .Street, Chicago, 111. The 
Third Order Forum resembles the 
F. R. in its typographical make-up, 
but appears quarterly. We have no 
doubt it will soon develop into a month- 
ly. Floreat: 

— In his book, "Woodrow Wilson as 
I Knew Him," 'Mr. Joseph P. Tumulty 
relates how, during Mr. Wilson's 
presidency, "the ouija board had its 
place in 'the White-House." "It was 
the President's delight," he says, "to 
play with tl'ie thing, and he would tell 
laughingly of his 'conversations' with 
illustrious personages of the past. . . . 
'What do you think?' he said to me 
one day. T got Dean Swift on the 
ouija board and asked him about some 
of his flirtations. His answer was : 
'You're no gentleman !' " To which the 
Echo, whence we take the quotation, 
maliciously adds : "^Maybe the ouija 
board was the original dictator of the 
famous fourteen points !" 

— The Central Bureau of the Catho- 
lic Central Society, in one of its recent 
press bulletins Vol. IX, Xo. 19), calls 
attention to the excellent work ac- 
complished by the Catholic Evidence 
Guild in England, whose members, 
veritable modern lay catechists, carry 
the Catholic truth into the highways 
and byways, the slums and tenements. 
The Central Bureau says this w'ork is 
practically as old as the Church and 
sorely needed also in this country, 
where "thousands are hungry for spir- 
itual and religious nourishment, and 
know not where to find it." Here in- 



deed is a promising lield for lay cate- 
chists. We must reach not only those 
who have never heard Catholic doc- 
trine explained, but also those — and 
their number is legion — who have fal- 
len away from the faith. 

— In reviewing two recent books, a 
critic in the London Tablet says that 
Ruskin's name will go down to poster- 
ity, not as that of a great prophet, but 
mainly as that of a writer of pure 
Anglo-Saxon English. Ruskin was a 
prophet only in the sense that, being 
imbued with the spirit of the natural 
virtues, and a zeal to create the same 
spirit in others, he denounced insincerity 
and vice in all its forms; but he had 
no vision. "He could not see into the 
future ; being blinded by his own pre- 
conceived ideas as to how things ought 
to happen, he could not or would not 
clearly study the trend of events and 
the natural tendency of men's minds 
requisite for all such prognostications. 
We are tjiinking of the natural order, 
for we do not suppose that even the 
most enthusiastic of his disciples would 
claim for him a divine commission to 
teach and forewarn his countrymen." 

— The Friars of the Atonement of 
Peekskill, N." Y., have taken over the 
Antidote, but they will not be able to 
make it a power in the cause of Catho- 
lic apologetics unless they put it in 
charge of a competent editor. The 
gentleman now holding that position 
seems to regard fraternization between 
Catholics and Freemasons as a sign 
"pointing the ■^vay to better things"' 



WORK, 
WEALTH AND WAGES 

By 
Joseph Husslein, S. J., Ph. D. 

A book for everyone. 

Every Catholic'should read and reread this new- 
book by the etninent Jesuit writer, and encourage 
Catholic and iion-Calholic friends and acquaint- 
ances to procure a copy, 

■Work. Wealth and Wages" is an excellent treat- 
ise on ;he burning questions of the day. 

Neatly bound in cloth — 160 pages — attractive 
jacket, $1.00 each, postpaid. Ask your bookseller, 
or send a dollar, for your copy, to 



MATRE & COMPANY. 

Clark & Lake Sts. 



Publishers 

Chicago. III. 



1922 



S^THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



53 



(January issue, p. 2). That a K. of C. 
council should "decorate its club-house 
profusely with American flags, set oft" 
by the Masonic emblem," in honor of 
a visit of 2,000 Shriners (high-degree 
Masons), as was done lately in Pater- 
son, N. J., is something the Catholic 
press ought to censure, and not praise. 
No real and permanent good can come 
from fraternizing with members of an 
organization which the Church ' has 
again and again condemned in the 
strongest terms. 

— In the Atlantic Monthly Mr. A. 
Clutton-Brock, an Englishman, writes 
sanely on nationalism as a form of 
egotism. "The habit of believing all 
good of oar own nation and all evil 
of another," he says, "is a kind of 
national egotism, having all the symp- 
toms and absurdities and dangers of 
personal egotism, or self-esteem ; yet 
it does not seem to us to be egotism, 
because the object of our esteem ap- 
pears to be, not ourselves, but the na- 
tion. Most of us have no conviction 
of sin about it, such as we have about 
oiir own egotism ; nor does boasting 
of our country seem to us vulgar, like 
boasting of ourselves. Yet we do boast 
about it because it is our country, and 
we feel a warm conviction of its vir- 
tues which we do not feel about the 
virtues of any other coutnry." From 
the Catholic point of view, national 
egotism is not a whit better than indi- 
vidual egotism, but both are equally 
wrong and sinful. 

—The boast of the N. C. W. C.'s 
Press Service that it has helped to 
bring into being eleven new Catholic 
newspapers, does not, as the Echo 
points out, speak well for the judg- 
ment of the leaders of that organiza- 
tion. With' the exception of possibly 
three or four, these papers have no 
raison d'etre because they have entered 
a field already well occupied and have 
no special message or originality. New 
papers merely diminish the meager 
support that those already existing re- 
ceive. Real friends of the Catholic 
press, therefore, as the Milwaukee 
Catholic- Citizen justly observes (Vol. 



52, No. 8), cannot welcome the useless 
multiplication of Catholic papers be- 
cause it is "hurtful and not helpful to 
the Catholic cause." Those who aid or 
subscribe for these new papers are 
"unwitting enemies of the Catholic 
press." Not more papers, but better 
papers, should be the parole. If any 
new papers are started, they should be 
daily papers. 

— The Supreme Court of Indiana, 
according to the Social Hygiene Biillc- 
tin, has decided that the law under 
which the operation of vasectomy 
could be performed on confirmed 
idiots, rapists, and imbeciles confined 
in the State penitentiary was invalid 
because it denied to a class of citiz'ens 
the due process of law .guaranteed to 
all by the Federal Constitution. The 
court based its decision on the sure 
ground of tlie XlVth amendment. Ac- 
cording to Catholic teaching, steriliza- 
tion is an evil when sought as an end 
in itself, or as a means to an end, be- 
cause it is opposed to the principal in- 
trinsic end of matrimony, which is the 
generation of offspring. Sterilization 
is so repugnant to the natural law that 
no good end can justify it, where it 
is made an end in itself or a means to 
an end. For this reason the Church 
condemns all surgical operations per- 
formed for the purpose of sterilizing 
either men or women. (Cfr. the De- 
cree of the HolyOffice, May22, 1895). 

— There has been considerable criti- 
cism published lately of Long's text- 
book of English literature. Our read- 
ers ma}^ remember that this book was 
sharply censured in the F. R. at the 
time of its first appearance, ten or 
more years ago, by Msgr. Schrembs, at 
that time vicar-general of Grand Rap- 
ids, now Bishop of Cleveland. It seems 
that the work was nevertheless intro- 
duced into a number of Catholic 
schools, because of its "literary merits" 
and because the teachers were trying 
to get awav, as one of them says 
(America, Vol. XXVI, No. ll,p.253). 
from "the Jenkins-Sheran type" of 
text-book, which is admittedly unsatis- 
factory. It is strange that no Catholic 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 1 



writer has undertaken to fill this long- 
felt want, and to fill it adequately. 
Have we no writers who are able to 
combine literary charm with historical 
accuracy? No wonder Sister Anthony, 
S.N.D., complains (ibid.) that "we 
Catholic teachers feel that we have not 
had the co-operation we should have 
received from our Catholic leaders in 
pedagogy." 

— Those interested in the theory of 
"Pan-Psychism," of which Dr. Charles 
Augustus Strong, erstwhile professor 
of psychology in Columbia University, 
is the chief exponent, may find it 
illuminated in the fables just published 
by that writer under the title, "The 
\\'isdom of the Beast." Prof. Strong's 
humorous grasp of the doctrine of 
]\lonism shows itself particularly in the 
fable of "The Lamb and its Mother." 
The lamb showed a gift for abstract 
inquiry which greatly annoyed the old 
sheep, particularly when she found that 
the lamb early imbibed the principle 
"that after all, it was all One." Their 
dispute closes by the lamb standing up 
on its hind legs and telling its mother 
that she is "the naivest old lady that 
ever had a lamb for its offspring." She 
did not appear to know that the philos- 
ophers had threshed these problems 
out, and " 'it had been proved beyond 
question that things in themselves are 
unknowable and do not exist, and that 
the Universe is One.' 'One what?' 
asked the Sheep. 'I am not quite sure,' 
answered her daughter; 'but if I have 
correctly understood my illustrious 
teachers, it is one Lamb.' " 

— It cannot have escaped the atten- 
tion of even the lay public that medical 
practitioners have shown an increasing 
restiveness in the face of the claims 
made by the modern laboratory re- 
searchers. Our worst fears were real- 
ized when we read the conclusions 
reached by Sir Almroth Wright in his 
new book, "Technique of the Teat and 
the Capillary Glass Tube" (London: 
Constable). These conclusions are, 
first, that in those domains of medi- 
cine, where there are appropriate labo- 
ratory methods of investigation, the 



Colleges and Academies 

can have very satisfactory service 
from the old established house of 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eiglith Street 
Cincinnati, Ohio 

We print and bind, and can furnish engravings 
for pamphlets, folders, booklets 



For a GOOD, SUBSTANTIAL and 

TASTY MEAL 

CookedjGerman Style 

go to 



Restaurant 



408 Washington Avenue 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 
U. S. A. 



ErKe^^ 



The Finest Photo Finishing 

The best work takes 48 hours, 
although our one-day service 
is above the average. 

SOS T^vo 511 N. 

OLIVE '^*°^^-' GRAND f 

i i ti iiiii i iii i iiiiiiimm i niiiHiim i iin i i i iiii i iiiiii^ 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



55 



clinical observer "must be ousted from 
his present office of expert and adju- 
dicator in questions of therapeutics," 
and, second, that in the domains of 
medicine where there are as yet no 
laboratory methods, cHnicians may 
continue to adjudicate, if they feel dis- 
posed to waste their time, but the re- 
sults at which they arrive are of no 
value. Sir Almroth Wright cites as a 
crucial case the value of quinine in 
malaria. This drug has been univer- 
sally regarded as a specific for the mo- 
laria organism or toxin; and yet 
cumulative experiment, experience, and 
statistics have failed to prove its value. 
The case is similar with vaccinati'bn as 
a prevention of smallpox. 

— Apropos of the repetition by Mr. 
Michael Williams in his book, "Am- 
erican Catholics in the War," of cer- 
tain false charges against the German 
Catholics of this country. Father Mar- 
kert in the F amilienhlatt and a writer 
in the Buffalo Echo have suggested the 
publication of a complete and docu- 
mentary history of "Cahenslyism," so 
called, in order that this phantom of a 
diseased brain be banished from the 
world once for all. The Editor of the 
F. R. was requested to perform this 
labor by I^Ir. Cahensly himself, on the 
occasion of Uis last visit to the U. S., 
some ten or twelve years ago, but had 
to decline because of too much other 
work. Since then the matter has been 
in abeyance, but occasional repetitions 
of the old falsehoods show that it is 
still time, and very necessary, to write 
a truthful account of "Cahenslyism." 
Let us repeat what we have said sev- 
eral times before: there is absolutely 
nothing in the career of Mr. P. P. 
Cahensly, or the movement falsely 
branded as "Cahenslyism," that re- 
flects the slightest discredit on either 
Germany or the Church. Cahensly's 
name will live in history, but it should 
not be held in reprobation, but in 
honor, because its possessor was an 
exceptionally enlightened and zealous 
Catholic, wlio sacrificed much time and 
no small part of his modest fortune for 
the benefit cf his fellowmen. 



—The Rev. Thomas F. Coakley, 
who, we suspect, was responsible for 
the Catholic propaganda advertisements 
lately published in the daily press of 
Pittsburgh (F. R., Vol. XXVIII, No. 
24, p. 458 sq.) reluctantly admits 
{America, Vol. XXVI, No. 11) that 
the undertaking was a failure. The ad- 
vertisements stirred up the preachers 
and led to the publication of Protestant 
counter-advertisements in the daily 
papers. At last the commotion became 
so great that both parties decided to 
stop. Dr. Coakley, while trying to de- 
fend this curious new method of apol- 
ogetics, saying that it stiffened the 
backbone of many Catholics and led to 
several conversions, admits that "not 
all Pittsburgh Catholics were in favor 
of these advertisements," but "some 
sane and saintly among the faithful, 
the clergy included, bitterly opposed 
them and tried to stop them." We do 
not think the experiment will be re- 
peated, either in Pittsburgh or else- 
where, though it remains true, of 
course, what Dr. Coakley contends, that 
"we Catholics are at the mercy of our 
enemies when it comes to getting the 
ear of the public through the estab- 
lished news agencies." The logical con- 
clusion seems to be, however, that we 
ought to create our own "news agen- 
cies," that is, establish our own daily 
papers. Then we shall no longer be 
"twenty millions (?) without a voice." 

— Our Holy Father Pope Benedict 
XV departed this life rather unex- 
pectedly Sunday morning, January 
21st. There is no need for us to detail 
the circumstances of his death or 
Ijurial or to print an account of his 
life and work. The papers have been 
full of these matters for the past week 
and a half. Our readers know how 
highly the F. R. esteemed Benedict XV 
and how faithfully it tried to follow 
his example and instructions in all 
things, especially in his truly Christlike 
l)eace policy during and since the Great 
War. Even now, after his death, both 
sides claim him, — ^the best proof, we 
think, that his neutrality was genuine 



56 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



Februarj- 



Just published : 

The Preacher's Vademecum 

Sermon Plans for Sundays, Feasts of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints, Advent and 

Lsnten Courses, Forty Hours', Sacred Heart Devotions, Retreats, Conferences, May and October 

Devotions, Special Occasions, etc. 

By Two Missionaries Translated from the French 

Cloth, net. $3.00 

This unique work will prove a boon for the preacher, particularly [on account of the great variety of its 
material for many different occasions. 

The quality of the material may be judged from the fact that in its French original the work is already 
in its Fifth F;dition, and has been favored with many flattering commendations bv the episcopate. 



Story-Sermonettes for the Children's Mass 

FOR ALL SUNDAYS OF THE YEAR 

By the Rev. Frederick Renter 

Cloth, net, $1.50 



Previously published by the same author: 

Short Sermons for the Children's Mass 

Oa the Gospels of all the Sundays of the Year Amply illustrated by Example and Anecdote 

Cloth, net/ '%1.50 

"They are the products of long years of work and should prove welcome to manv less experienced 
than the author." _ Catholic Book Notes. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 
23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 



Havana 
Filled 



Wagner's Londres Grande \ 



100 — $7.80 



mported 
Sumatra 
Wrapper 



(Smoked in 47 States) 



50— $4.00 



|ry |hem- Iakes |he |aste |o |ell |he |ale 




Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Money Order or N. Y. Draft- 
After Smoking three Segars. if not as represented or 
satisfactory, pack well and return bv Parcel Post. 
Money and Postage refunded by return mail. 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 1866 
58 North Pearl St. BUFFALO, N. 



America Press 

^ JOB PRINTING ^ 

done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. ST. Louis, Mo, 




§TEINER^4^WdI1 




BADGES, 



BUTTONS&PINS 



SEALS* 
JSTAMPSl 



M STENCILS ^METALCHEC1«., 



l^2i 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



57 



and sincere, as behooved the Father of 
Christendom. Aside from his attitude 
(hiring the war, which merited for him 
the honorary title of "Pontiff of Uni- 
versal Peace." the pontificate of the 
fifteenth Benedict will probably live in 
history because of the final completion 
and promulgation of the new Code of 
Canon \a.\\ and the revision of the ]\Iis- 
sal. It is wonderfiil how Providence 
gives to each age and generation pre- 
cisely .the man needed in the chair of 
St. Pe;ter. By the time this number of 
the Review reaches its subscribers the 
new pope may already be elected. In 
acclaiming him with joy and respect, 
let us not forget to pray for the repose 
of the soul of Benedict XV, who, amid 
extraordinarily difficult circvimstances, 
served his ^^laster and the Church so 
faithfullv and well. R. I. P. 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
^n Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

( fjth Installment^ 

Chapter XXI 

ILLNESS OF BISHOP FITZGERALD— 

ST. BERNARD'S HOSPITAL— WORK 

FOR THE COLORED PEOPLE 
In the fall of 1898. a sickness called "the 
Cuban itch" prevailed among the colored 
people of the South. As it was confined al- 
most exclusively to the negroes, little at- 
tention was paid to it at first, and they were 
allowed to go about freely. By and by the 
sickness became more threatening, and 
some physicians declared it to be smallpox, 
which others denied. In any event, people 
began to be more careful. A neighbor of 
ours, Mrs. Higi, who had her washing done 
by a colored woman, one day remarked : 
"Susie, in case you should get the smallpox 
in your house, I do not want you to come 
here." "Law me," replied the woman, 
"don't be afraid about that, we all done 
had 'em last month." In this way the disease 
spread, and in the beginning of January, 
several white people died with it. 

_ On January 17th, Bishop Fitzgerald ar- 
rived on the Cotton Belt morning train. He 
was very tired and could not say Mass, as 
he was used tc do. He said for years two 
hours of sleep had been enough for him, 
and that at times he had been up all night 
to answer letters. Now when he needed 
more sleep, and his physician prescribed it, 
he could not sleep: on some days, too, he 



could not genutiect, while on others he felt 
as limber as in years gone by. 

He reminded me that I was getting older, 
too, and told me to look out for a suitable 
priest, whom I might train to follow me; 
"for," he remarked, "the direction of a 
numeroiTS sisterhood, such as you have 
founded, requires special knowledge and 
daily care." W^hile we were conversing, the 
pseudo-priest whom I mentioned in a form- 
er chapter entered. After I was througli 
with him, v.e continued to speak about dif- 
ferent business affairs, and the Bishop cor- 
rected a deed I had made, dictating to me 
its desired form. The weather being bad, 
he said he would not go to Pocahontas, as 
he had intended, but to Hot Springs, to 
take a few baths, since he felt the need of 
rest and recuperation. Between 12 and i 
o'clock, just as we were going to dinner, 
he said : "I am getting sick." I succeeded 
in helping him to the sopha and immediate- 
ly applied restoratives, rubbing his head 
and hands with alcohol, witch hazel, vine- 
gar, and cold water. I thought first it was a 
fainting spell, but the Bishop pointed to his 
arm and I understood it was paralyzed. 
Father ]\IcCormick, my assistant, immediate- 
ly went for medical help and brought in 
Drs. Ellis and Copeland. The Bishop was 
carried to bed, and his right side was found 
to be paralyzed. On account of the prevail- 
ing smallpox we could not get a regular 
nurse tliat day. Therefore two young men, 
Pat. J. Nolan and Louis Frei, and I waited 
on the patient the first night. We had no 
experience in nursing, but followed the 
doctor's orders as well as we could. It was 
a very long night for us all, and I re- 
solved to do my best to get a hospital for 
Jonesboro. I certainly wished and prayed 
for a good nurse, realizing our helplessness 
in such an emergency. Finally the morning 
came and we got the service of an ex- 
perienced m.ale nurse, a Mr. Chapman. The 
physicians prescribed absolute rest. No one 
was admitted to the patient without the . 
doctors' special permission. On Thursday, 
tlie Bishop asked to receive the Sacraments. 
On Friday, sensation returned to 4iis right 
foot. Saturday, Dr. J. A. Dibrell arrived 
from Little Rock. He found the .patient 
greatly improved and declared that all that 
could be done in the case had been done. 
In fact by that time the Bishop could again 
speak quite distinctly and was able to move 
hi? right leg and open and close the afflicted 
hand. The doctor declared the case was 
hopeful but forbade anything that might ex- 
cite or alarm the patient. I had strict orders 
not to admit anyone and not to mention 
any business affairs. I posted a notice at 
the door to that effect. Alsgr. Meerschaert 
had come from Oklahoma, and he cheered 
up the_ Bishop. Dr. Ellis said his visit was 
beneficial. A few days later came another 
Bishop, belonging to the Province of New 
Orleans. I po-nted to the notice on the 'door, 



58 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 



and as he liad several priests with him, to 
the danger of a number of visitors. But the 
prelate, evidently not realizing the danger, 
shoved me aside and entered, in company 
with the clergymen. They talked about the 
afTairs of the diocese and its administra- 
tion. Nervously, I waited at the door for 
the return of the visitors. I had done all 
I could to prevent them from entering. 
After they had left, the Bishop grew worse 
and raved the whole night. Dr. Ellis now 
feared the worst and declared the Bishop 
would never be able to use his right side 
again. I had to bear the whole blame. The 
doctor said I should have locked the door 
and informed him. I had not been prepared 
for such an event. The parties themselves 
had no idea of the danger and evidently did 
not believe tny warning. Bishop Meerschaert 
had had a great deal of experience with sick 
people, having nursed a number during the 
yellow fever epidemic in Mississippi, and 
therefore carefully avoided anything that 
was apt to worry the patient. 

Fortunately, Bishop Fitzgerald, after this, 



began to improve again, although the im- 
provement was very slow and he never re- 
gained the full use of his right side. By that 
time reports had been sent to the Bishop's 
lifelong friend Col. Richard Kerens, of St. 
Louis, Mo., that Bishop Fitzgerald was 
dangerously ill in a small Arkansas town, 
where he could not get the needed atten- 
tion and comfort. Upon this news Mr. 
Kerens, a nuiltimillionaire, sent his partner, 
Col. Schanerte, to Jonesboro, with his own 
palatial private car, to take the Bishop to 
Hot Springs. Col. Schauerte expressed his 
surprise at the beauty of the Bishop's 
quarters, the splendid accommodations, and 
the careful attendance the patient enjoyed. 
He declared the Bishop could hardly get 
better service in St. Louis. St. Roman's rec- 
tory was then quite new and provided with 
.all modern improvements. Col. Schauerte 
decided, therefore, to return with his car 
to St. Louis and not to come back until the 
patient had recovered sufficiently to stand 
the journey to Hot Springs without danger. 
{To he continued) 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS TRY OUR BRANDS 



They Have Stood the Test Since 1860 




You will make no mistake by giving us a personal call to verify the quality 
and view our assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

Westerheide Tobacco & Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Phones; Bell Tyler 7SS Kiiiloch Ceutral 4039 L 



Mail Orders Promptly Filled 



CASPER STEHLE BEDDING COMPANY 

1834 Morgan Street h. c. smith, Manager grp Louis, Mo. 

Sixty Years In Business Is a Guarantee of Satisfied Customers 

Hospitals and Institutions Receive Special Attention 

MATTRESSES of all kinds and sizes, and PILLOWS 

Write for quotations, or better still, try a Sample Felt Mattress in a A. C. A. Tick, built up 

extra well in the middle, @ $8.00 net, F. O. B., St. Louis. 




ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



59 



Literary Briefs 

John Ayscough's "First Impressions of Am- 
erica" 

The London Catholic Times is not well 
pleased with Msgr. Bickerstaffe-Drew's new 
book, "First Impressions of America." "All 
that is of value in this book," says our con- 
temporary (No. 2816), "could have been set 
down within the compass of a magazine 
article. John Ayscough has before now 
proved himself fascinating in a personal 
record. Who can forget or be ungrateful for 
'Fernando'? But this long record of teas and 
dinners and luncheons and suppers in con- 
vents, presbyteries, and private houses, and 
of the kindly, clever, and entertaining people 
who presided at the functions or participated 
therein, somewhat overtaxes a reader's pa- 
tience. What will chiefly disappoint the my- 
riad admirers of the author is the consider- 
ation that the labor devoted to this volume 
of 'Impressions' might have achieved another 
'San Celestino' or 'Hurdcott.' " 

Were the Gospels Written in Poetical Form? 
Fr. Wm. Schmidt, S.V.D., of Anthropos 
fame, to whom we devoted an article in 
No. 20 of the current volume of the F. R.. 
has just published "eine erste Mitteilung" 
concerning a sensational discovery of his, 
under the title, "Der strophische Aufbau 
des Gesamttextes der vier Evangelien" 
(Vienna: Verlag des Anthropos). The dis- 
covery is that the entire text of all four 
Gospels, — not only the addresses, parables, 
etc. — is composed in verses and strophes, 
built up not according to subjective notions, 
but according to objective external criteria, 
that the strophes are grouped together into 
pericopes, and that the pericopes form larger 
groups, which in turn go to constitute the 
whole of each Gospel. Fr. Schmidt in this 
preliminary announcement gives a few strik- 
ing illustrations, but we learn from Dr. 
Schumacher, professor of New Testament 
exegesis at the Catholic University of Am- 
erica, that the theory is not regarded with 
favor by exegetes. 

The Monastic Enclosure 

A splendid doctoral dissertation that ought 
to be made available to the general public, 
is "The Cloister," by the Rev. Valentine T. 
Schaaf, O.F.M. (St. Anthony Messenger, 
Cincinnati, O.). The author originally in- 
tended to write a history of monastic enclos- 
ure, but soon found that, within the short 
space of time at his disposal, he would have 
to confine himself to making a beginning. 
This he has done in a thorough and satis- 
factory manner, and his dissertation reflects 



credit upon the Catholic University of Am- 
erica. Fr. Valentine traces the cloister to its 
earliest origins in Eastern monasticism and 
then describes its development in the Bene- 
dicine Order, which more than any other 
established the general forms now common 
to all religious institutes. From the history of 
the cloister he passes to the ecclesiastical 
legislation and gives a commentary on canons 
597, 598, 599, 600—606, and 2342 of the New 
Code, which embody the current discipline. 
The commentary, too, is interspersed with 
helpful historical notes. 

Publishers' Advertising 

Mr. Richards, head of the English pub- 
lishing firm of Grant Richards Ltd., fills the 
advertising space he buys every week in the 
London Times' Literary Supplement with 
personal talks, an example which is worthy 
of imitation by American publishers, as such 
talks tend to bring the publisher into closer 
contact with book-buyers. The following ex- 
tract from one of Mr. Richards' latest chats 
is interesting also for another reason, which 
the reader will perceive as he peruses the 
paragraph: "The trade journal Book-Post 
has been interesting itself in the sale of re- 
view copies, and in the course of its in- 
quiry has elicited some sensible views from 
Mr. Denny of the Strand. One opinion of 
his, however, I should like to challenge. He 
says: Tf I were a publisher and an adver- 
tiser, and saw that my books were not re- 
ceiving proper notice, I should very quickly 
withdraAV my advertisement.' Of course, 
much depends on Mr. Denny's interpreta- 
tion of the word 'proper', but if there is 
in this matter of advertising one thing more 
certain than another it is that the publisher 
who only advertises in journals where his 
books get good reviews will be taking his 
money to the very worst market. Rather will 
the publisher who has sense take space in 
those papers whose reviews are speedy and 
capable and honest and interesting, without 
particular reference to the treatment meted 
out to his own particular books. Those 
punctual plaudits that, if I do not do him 
an injustice, ]\Ir. Denny would like to see, 
make dull reading; there is not much chance 
of the advertisements being read on a liter- 
ary page which is dull and incapable. Briefly 
a literary paper or a book page is appre- 
ciated for its salt and not for its butter, 
and the capable and honest critic hplnc nnb- 
lisher and bookseller far more than he who, 
whether on the instructions of his editor 
or from his own incapacity to distinguish, 
gives a few lines of placid approval to most 
of the books that come his way." 



60 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Tebiuarv 1 



Books Received 

Lamps of fire. By Marian Nesbitt. 130 pp. 
i2mo. Chicago: Matre & Co. $1, postpaid. 

The Light on the Lagoon. A Novel by Isabel 
C. Clarke. 416 pp. 8vo. Benziger Bros. $2 
net. 

Testimony to the Truth. By the Rev. Hugh 
P. Smyth. 240 pp. i2mo. Chicago: The 
Extension Press, $1.50. 

Official Manual of the State of Missouri 
for the Years 1921 and 1922. Compiled 
and . Published by Charles U. Becker, 
Secretary of State. 909 pp. 8vo. Jefferson 
City, ]\Io. : The Hugh Stevens Co. 

The Jesuits, 1534 — 1921. A History of the 
Society of Jesus from its Foundation to 
the Present Time. By Thomas J. Camp- 
bell S.J. XVI & 937 pp. 8vo. New York: 
The Encyclopedia Press. $6 net. 

The "Summa Thcologica" of St. Thomas 
Aquinas. Literally Translated by Fathers 
of the English Dominican Province. Third 
Part (Supplement), QQ. LXIX— 
LXXXVI. 262 pp. 8vo. Benziger Bros. 
$3 net. 

The Psalms. Exegesis II. An Explanation of 
Psalms I and 2 according to the Interpre- 
tation of the Fathers and Later Catholic 
Authorities. Compiled by Rev. Anselm 
Schaaf, O. S. B., St. Meinrad, Ind. : The 
Abbey Press. $1.25. 

The Parable Book. Our Divine Lord's Own 
Stories Retold for You by Little Children. 
Illustrated with Masterpieces from Dore, 
Bida, Hofmann, and Other Artists, and 
with Numerous Pen-Sketches by W. E. 
Waddell and Bess Bethel Crank. 230 pp. 
large Svo. Chicago: Extension Press, $2. 

Missalc Romanum ex Decreto Sacrosancti 
Concilii Trident in i Restitutum, S. Pii V 
Pont. Ma.w Editum, Aliorum Pontificum 
Cura Recognitum, a Pio X Rcformatum et 
SSmi D. X. Benedicti XV Auctoritate 
J'ulgatum. Bditio iu.vta Typicam Vatican- 
am. Ixviii & 652 & 208 pp. Svo. Turin: 
P. Marietti. Frs. 38. 

The Preacher's Vademccum. Sermon Plans 
for Sundays, Feasts of Our Lord, the 
Blessed Virgin and the Saints, Advent 
and Lenten Courses, Forty Hours', Sacred 
Heart Devotions, Retreats, Conferences, 
Alay and October Devotions. Special Oc- 
casions, etc. By two Missionaries. Trans- 
lated from the French, viii & 439 pp. 
Svo. Joseph F. Wagner, Inc. $3 net. 

Die hciligen Schriften des Alten Bundcs. 
Aus dem kritisch wiederhergestellten he- 
braischen IJrtexte iibersetzt und kurz er- 
lautert von Dr. Nivard Schlogl, O. Cist. 
Erster Band: Das Buch Mosche, Je- 
hoschua und Schophetim (Pentateuch, 
Joschua, Richter, i Scheni. i — 7). Mit 
2 lithographierten Karten. xxxii & 424 
pp. Svo. Vienna: Burgverlag; St. Louis, 
Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. $1.25. 



The Western 
Catholic Union 



A Legally Solvent Adequate Rate 
Catholic Fraternal Society 




II Forty-four years old. 

^ Based on Sound, Sensible and Scien- 
tific Principles. 

H Devoid of Red Tape and Catholic to 
the core. 

li Three popular forms of certificates 
issued — 20 pay Whole Life Certificate 
v/ith all modern cash loan, paid up, 
and extended insurance features. 

^ This certificate is fully paid up after 
twenty consecutive payments have 
been made. 

j[ Whole Life Special. This is a Whole 
Life Certificate with modern up-to- 
date cash loan, paid up and extended 
insurance features. 

II Ordinary Whole Life. Just a plain 
up-to-date Whole Life Insurance Cer- 
tificate with Old Age Benefits at- 
tached. 

JUVENILE SECTION 
H Two plans, Term Rate and Whole 
Life with all modern cash, paid up 
and extended features. 



H For full information and induce- 
ments in reference to organizing new 
branches address 

W.C.U. Headquarters 

Illinois State Bank Building 
Quincy, Illinois 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 4 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



February 15, 1922 



About Anatole France 

By the Rev. Edward P. Graham, Sandusky, 0. 



Anatole France according to 
himself and some admirers is a 
great man, a kind of superior be- 
ing of the Jovian type, who bears 
jjatiently with man and all his 
aberrations because of his own 
all-reaching knowledge. Accord- 
ing to others, he is a writer of 
considerable polish and force, 
both greatly overrated and of con- 
siderable licence in thought and 
word, playfully labelled, nowa- 
days, intellectual independence. 
He got the Nobel Prize? He did 
and in so doing lessened its value 
for all time. It is said that he had 
for competitors — and you can 
judge something of him from them 
— Thomas Hardy and Gabriele 
D'Annunzio. Of these men one 
critic says, all are pagans who 
pursue beauty instead of religion 
— a euphonious way of stating 
that they would fain re-erect the 
statue which once stood on a 
sacred hill outside Jerusalem. 

Anatole France takes a broad 
scope in his writings and plays 
many parts. Astutely he assumed 
a stage-name, knowing well the 
advertising value of a well-select- 
ed cognomen. Off the stage he is 
Jacques Thibault. It is like Sin- 
clair Montford, ne James Smith. 
As a theologian, he pens offhand 
brief pregnant sentences, whose 
only fault is their falseness, e. g., 
''The saints were a new mythol- 
ogy." At times he appears as a 
controversialist, as in his ''The 



Church and the Eepublic" and 
then he disposes himself after the 
manner of the sob-school, a well 
defined class with some .iustifica- 
tion for existence in Calvinistic 
circles but, among Catholics, ab- 
surd and baseless. In this school 
biographies are wet with the tears 
shed over the mental sufferings 
of children, soaring human chil- 
dren, w^iose young minds are op- 
pressed by dreadful pictures of 
hell, and so forth. You know how 
true it is of our children when 
you see them bounding along the 
streets gracefully and joyously, 
their lack-lustre eyes sparkling 
with fun. Ye gods and little fishes, 
does even the man in the street 
not know that all nations who are 
strong believers in hell and pur- 
gatory are sad as the old French, 
or the Irish, or the people of 
"Merrie England" long ago! As 
a religio-political writer Anatole 
France shines brilliantly because 
in the book just quoted his sharp 
eye reveals the Pope's ambition 
to I'eign as a temporal sovereign 
over France and that the Church 
at Montmartre is intended to be 
a second St. Peter's. This stuff 
sounds familiar to us, as it was 
the war-cry of the A. P. A., etc. 
The Cliurch also teaches that a 
republic is the most detestable 
form of government. To treat with 
the Church even in the spiritual 
line, according to our Jacques, is 
to alienate the sovereigntv of the 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



February 15 



State, so let his royal namesake 
look out for his theological 
laurels. 

A. F. once pla^^ed the part of a 
prophet and gravely informed his 
listening countrjTiien that if the 
concordat would be given up, the 
Church would appeal to violence. 
Sagely he admits unit}^ to be es- 
sential to the Church, but it is the 
civil power which assures it that 
unity in Catholic countries. What 
a^isures it elsewhere he does not 
inform us. Free France, he pleads, 
from the concordat, gives liberty, 
and a multitude of sects will ap- 
pear and unity of obedience will 
be broken. He summons a defunct 
prophet to his aid, the seductive 
Renan, who chanted the same 
strain, and thus these two, the 
Jovelike Thibault and the dilet- 
tante Eenan, proclaim the down- 
fall of the Church, fated at last 
to die. Rather unceremoniously 
France did give up the concordat, 
and France is now headed towards 
Canossa. 

A. F. foams like an evil spirit 
at the sight of the cross — at least, 
La Croix, when borne by the As- 
sumptionists, but his ravings 
provoke a smile, for all know that 
Assumptionists hit hard. No need 
to state how A. F. loves the 
Jesuits. AVhen Jacques Thibault 
ascends his pulpit to preach mor- 
ality he, with a gesture of con- 
tempt, waves aside Christ and 
His teachings in favor of ''the 
principles of a moral by so much 
the more solid, as it is independent 
of all dogmas and b^^ so much the 
more noble, as it is derived from 
eternal and necessary ideas of 
justice, duty and right." So runs 
a public document, endorsed by 
Jacques, on morals to be taught 
in the secular schools, and if fine 
words were sufficient, France 



would not be so infected with di- 
vorces, child-murders, bluebeards, 
and some other ''progressive" 
and destructive vices. 

The Christian teaching of the 
need of a Savior's elevating and 
sanctifying grace and of a good 
intention, is twisted bj^ him and 
then dubbed fanaticism. Merely 
from an intellectual point of view 
this French academician might 
have the modesty to hesitate be- 
fore shoving aside Paul, August- 
ine, Bernard, Aquinas, Bossuet, 
and Newman; but A. F. is too 
busy asserting that the temporal 
sovereignty is identified with the 
papal power concerning moral de- 
cisions and that the old Church 
anyhow has often varied in her 
dogmas and still more in her 
moral teachings. This Olympian 
is peevish at times and hard to 
please, and so he blames the bish- 
ops who would not accept Leo's 
advice to rally to the Republic, 
and those who did rally, are equal- 
ly condemned, for they did it to 
curry favor. 

A. F. is an ardent believer, so 
he himself assures us, in the 
"wine, woman, and song" theory, 
with the accent on the middle 
term, and his writings leave no 
room for doubt on this score. W. 
L. George, who wrote a little book 
about Anatole, is vulgar in the 
l)ook, but maybe he would plead 
pitch. Yet Mr. George wrote: 
"One of his books is rather long- 
winded, here and there dull, peda- 
gogic, but it represents him fair- 
ly well from an intellectual point 
of view, though it contains none 
of the indecency, blasphemy, and 
Falstaffian fun which pervade his 
writings." One of his most 
praised works is "At the Sign of 
the Reine Pedauque," which is not 
without merit, though not very 



192^ 



THE FOETNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



63 



original and rather ponderous in 
its humor. Every walk in life is 
smeared by the author. By the 
way, the Nobel prize is given for 
"idealistic literature," yet, to 
quote Professor Stuart P. Sher- 
man, "when I say this, I do not 
forget the vein of cold salacity 
which runs through his works." 

A recent w^riter in the Nation, 
evidently immature in judgment, 
refers to a discussion in the same 
book about the initial difficulty of 
Christianity as something bril- 
liant and forcible. That critic must 
have forgotten Trilby's friend 
and his dialogue with his dog, 
which was at least picturesque, 
whereas A. F.'s — but what is the 
use? All these immoral opponents 
of Christ are but weak reprodu- 
cers of what Celsus and others 
have written, and they should be 
shamed into silence and obscurity 
as plagiarists and dullards. There 
is no novelty in them. It is not 
learning, or devotion to truth, or 
keenness of mind which guide 
their' pens, but Asmodeus, and 
their dull sameness results from 
too strict attention to Astarte's 
worship. The wandering shade of 
Lucian would be mortified if he 
knew what company he is some- 
times forced to keep among the 
living. 

We are told A. F. is a pagan, 
The pagans, while sitting in the 
shadow of death, sought after the 
True, the Good, and the Beautiful, 
and they left us some essays that 
will be read until the end of time. 
These modern pagans, despite the 
light that shone in the darkness, 
seem to know only one beauty, 
whose materia prima is flesh and 
blood and whose forma is female. 
Yet we are admonished to receive 
all that Anatole offers because 
"the ])resenting hands are calm 



and immortal." When another 
critic states that his paganism has 
not the serenity of the ancients 
but is haunted by the spirit of 
Christianity^ there is some sense 
and insight in the statement. But 
when the same critic adds, he is 
' ' one who is pre-occupied with the 
divinity of a new dispensation," 
he is using words without mean- 
ing. 

Another overpowered and be- 
wildered admirer gives us this : 
"When a personage in one of his 
books, such as the dog Riquet, pos- 
sesses no tongue, A. F. gravely 
sets down the creature's 
thoughts." How ravishing the 
grave condescension of the Jovian 
personage to the canine person- 
age,, and how very original the 
idea to interpret a dog's thoughts. 
Tobit's dog expressed his wel- 
come semaphorically with his tail, 
but Anatole 's dog. had an inter- 
preter. More at home Avas A. F. 
dealing with the dog's thoughts 
than with St. Joan of Arc, whose 
life he presumed to write, because 
A. F.'s soul, as revealed by his 
own. pen, reminds one of the 
scholastic dictum that the souls of 
animals are completely immersed 
in matter. 

The N. Y. Tribune, the Boston 
Transcript, the Philadelphia Pub- 
lic Ledfjer, and the N. Y. Times, 
are quoted in the Literary Digest. 
and not one of these papers, all 
supposedly decent, sounds a word 
of warning or utters a protest 
against Anatole France's in- 
decency and blasphemy. Is there 
no judgment day, no reckoning 
for idle words and worse ? Jacques 
Thibault brings nothing to the 
literary table that compensates in 
the slightest for the filth of his 
offering. If he and all his works 
were buried a hundred fathoms 



64 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February lo 



deep, would the Avorld be any the 
poorer for the loss of the old satyr 
with his insupportable air of all- 
knowinoness and his unseemly 
l)ai'es exhaling corruption and de- 
cay? Is he less an evil spirit be- 
cause he may be, as a writer, quite 
as charmino; as Heine's devil? 

Luther manifested some faith 
when he advised a follower of his 
to sin boldly, for he recognized 
sin, though his advice was diabol- 
ical. Anatole France knows no sin. 
Poor de Lamennais' cheek was 
wet with a tear when he died. Ana- 
tole knows well his act of perfect 
contrition. May he one day recite 
it from his heart, if only on ac- 
count of his donation of the prize 
money to charity and his '* Crime 
of Svlvestre Bonnard." 



M5rthiG'al Elements in the Lives of the 
Saints 

On this subject Fr. W. H. Kent, 
in a recent installment of his al- 
ways readable and always val- 
uable "Literarv Notes" in the 
Tahlef (No. 4251), makes the fol- 
lowing sane remarks : 

*'We have no wish to deny that 
the lives and legends of the early 
Saints, and, as Father Martindale 
has shown us, a good many of 
more miodern religious biograph- 
ies contain a considerable admix- 
ture of mythical elements.. . .We 
may well regret, with the great 
Dominican critic, ]\[elchior Cano, 
that our ecclesiastical biograph- 
ers do not display the candor and 
impartiality of Suetonius and 
Diogenes Laertius. And we have 
more reason to regret this than 
many outside critics who are only 
concerned with historical truth 
for its own sake. For we feel that, 
apart from the evil attaching to 
all falsehood, the faults of ortho- 



dox historians do a grave injury 
to the faith with which they are 
associated. And, after all, perfect- 
ly faithful and strictly historical 
pictures of the Saints — if we 
could only get them — would surely 
be far more edifying, in the true 
sense of the word, than the fairest 
fictions of poets and artists. 

''On the other hand, it is well 
to remember that, here as else- 
where, artistic idealism has its 
legitimate function. Such relig- 
ious romances as AViseman's 
'Fabiola' or Newman's 'Callista' 
cannot be censured by the most 
fastidious historical critic. And 
some of the early writers of re- 
ligious legends may be placed in 
the same category as our modern 
Cardinals. Often enough, the con- 
fusion between fact and fiction 
may owe its origin to the blunders 
of later compilers, even as the 
myths of dramatists and ballad- 
makers are adopted by solemn 
historians. Some allowance must 
be made for writers who lived at 
a distance from the events with 
which they were dealing, and 
were, in a manner, at the mercy 
of the partial and imperfect ma- 
terials that had come down to 
their time. Yet, often enough, 
these old hagiographers would 
compare very favorably Avith 
modern critics who cannot put 
forward the same excuses for 
their blunders." 



— Tho.-ic interested in the literatnre 
of Freeman ?onrv will find a fairly 
complete "Alasonic Bibliography," by 
Rro. Silas H. Shepherd, of Wisconsin, 
in TJic Bnildcr, a Journal for the Ma- 
sonic Student, published bv the Nation- 
al ATasoni'- Research Society at Ana- 
inosa. la.. Vol. VIII, Nos. 1 and 2 
(Tan. and Feb.. 1922). 



1W2 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



65 



The Task of Modern Apologetics 

111 the first of a course of apol- 
ogetic lectures given at the Cen- 
tral Bureau, St. Louis, January 
26, Rev. Dr. F. Meffert, of M[- 
Gladbach, the noted German apol- 
ogist, spoke of the task of Catho- 
lic apologetics in our time. 

We are facing new conditions, 
he said, and a culture different 
from that of fifty or sixty years 
ago. We are living in a time of 
marvellous cultural expansion, 
when old standards and values 
are questioned, and new principles 
are promulgated in ethics, sociol- 
ogy, religion, and economics. To 
a large extent these new tenden- 
cies are hostile to Christianity. It 
is the duty of the Church to take 
a definite attitude towards these 
problems and to proclaim that 
their proper solution does not in- 
validate any of her teachings. 

If we wish to find a parallel for 
the huge task that confronts the 
Churcli to-day we must go back 
to the first centuries of the Christ- 
iai^ era. Then as now the Church 
faced the duty of gaining a world 
for Christ. From the slope of the 
Areopagus St. Paul delivered his 
discourse to the Athenians (Acts 
XVII) and spoke to them of the 
"unknown God." So, too, must 
the Church face the present crisis, 
and teach old truths in a new way, 
showing that the doctrines of 
Christ are even to-day for the 
salvation of nations. 

To draw back from this sacred 
charge would be unworthy of the 
Church, "the pillar and ground- 
work of truth." The command of 
Christ is clear and strong: "Go 
and teach all nations", — even 
those who boast of their "modern 
culture" and say they need no 
church and no revelation. 

In fact the Church to-dav has 



a special duty towards the learn- 
ed and the cultured classes. At 
the General xVssembly of German 
Catholics at the "Katholikentag" 
of Mayeuce, in 1911, Bishop (now 
Cardinal) Faulhaber spoke of the 
regaining of the "learned world" 
for Christ and the Church, as the 
"king problem" of modern pas- 
toral activity. 

Some of the tendencies that the 
Church must combat to-day are 
"evolutionary theories" in reli- 
gion, the assertion that all truth, 
even religious truth, is purely 
relative, and that her position on 
industrial life and progress is 
out-of-date and uiisuited for a day 
of economic expansion. These 
false teachings must be opposed 
and the people who are easily led 
astray, must be shown that the 
doctrines of the Church meet 
every exigency. 

A gigantic and an imperative 
duty is before the clergy to-day. 
Yet there is no reason to grow 
pessimistic. Our watchword must 
be that of the old mediaeval 
hymn: "Vexilla regis prodeunt — 
the banners of the king are for- 
ward borne." The Eoyal Banner 
under which our hosts advance 
against the forces of ignorance 
and doubt and error, is the ban- 
ner of the Cross, which infallibly 
triumphs over all opposition. 

— The Lutherans of Michigan have 
issued a concise statement of the case 
of their parochial schools ag-ainst the 
proposed constitutional amendment, to 
which we referred in the last F. R. 
It is a pamphlet of fifteen pages, en- 
titled "The Private School and Relig- 
ious IJbertv. A Candid Presentation 
of the Case of the Lutherans of Michi- 
gan vs. The Public School Defense 
League," and is published by the 
Lutheran Schools Committee. Detroit. 
Mich. 



66 



THE FOBTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



February 15 



False Theories of Morals 

lu their chapter on "The Evo- 
hition oi' Ethics" (I), (Outlines 
of Sociolo.^y"; Macmillan), Black- 
mar and Grillin offer three theories 
oi' "the oeiiesis of ethics." They 
say that "the earlier theories 
were based upon sympathy." 
Adam Smith is the "authority" 
cited for this school. A little more 
than a pag-e is devoted to the 
opinion, but not a single proof is 
otfered, neither from Smith, nor 
by the authors. 

"The second group of theories 
is based upon habit or custom. 
These theories, to state them 
briefly and in general terms, pro- 
ceed upon the assumption that the 
moral is the habitual for the 
group. ' ' 

According to this view, the 
"group morality" of a band of 
thieves, of a clique of unscrupul- 
ous speculators and manipulators 
of prices, of a gang of "pro- 
moters," or of a "ring" which 
robs the public of vast sums of 
money, or even of a secret organi- 
zation or club encouraging im- 
moral conduct, would be justifi- 
able. Any "fraternity," no matter 
how wicked its aim and how sub- 
versive of the good of society, 
could claim a charter, as its pur- 
poses find favor with a group, 
and its practices have become 
"habit or custom." The conduct 
of the mcmliers would be suffici- 
ently explained and "vindicated" 
f]'om the fact that it had become 
"habitual for the group." 

These conclusions, which flow 
directly from the "theory" as 
stated by the two authors, are 
enough to show its absurdity. The 
pity of it is that so many students 
to-day are treated to such doc- 
trines. 

It is true that the authors offer 



a mild objection to this "theory 
of morals." But in the end they 
have nothing more solid to offer 
than the following: "Generalizing 
upon these various theories from 
the standpoint of sociologj^, we 
can say that ethical conduct arises 
fr6m the interplay of the individ- 
uals developing personality and 
the surrounding social conditions, 
including social personalities." 
But whence do these "social per- 
sonalities" derive their moral 
code, and what happens in case of 
conflicting codes? 

Albert Muxtsch, S. J. 



Degrading Catholic Journalism 
A short while ago an official or- 
gan west of the Mississippi 
spewed the following pietistic 
cant : 

"In the struggle for honorable 
position in life the Catholic has 
equal opportunities with any 
other man. Names like those of 
the late Chief Justice AVliite, 
Charles M. Schwab, Thoq^as 
P^ortune Ryan, Admiral Benson, 
the Cudahys, clearly prove that 
profession of the Catholic faith 
does not block the way to mate- 
rial advancement. ' ' 

In these few words the writer 
has done more to ridicule religion 
than have its worst enemies. He 
has held up for public admiration 
members of a family who have 
given public scandal. He has ex- 
alted the most despicable product 
of a pagan system of industry, 
its captains and financiers. He has 
brought the Church to ridicule in 
the e.ves of great masses of com- 
mon people, who look to the 
Church to lead them out of 
the land of industrial bondage. 
He has given the lie to the sacri- 
fices necessarv to maintain one- 



IH22 



THE FOETNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



self a true Catholic in the midst 
of the modern pag'anism. Finally, 
he has deo-raded unutterably the 
noble calliuR- of a Catholic journ- 
alist. F. 
,^^^$^^^ 

Anecdotes With a Sting 
A mere passing anecdote will 
sometimes leave a sting in the 
reader's heart. Such, made with- 
out a hint of its pathos, is that 
record of Dante Gabriel Rosset- 
ti's saying in the trouble of his 
last hours, "I should like to see 
a priest; I want him to give me 
absolution for my sins." That 
did not need to be said again for 
the hearing of Heaven, but it was 
repeated to deaf ears on earth; 
and is printed, if one may so say, 
with^ smile. And in Whistler's 
Life we come on another bit of 
biographical driftwood which be- 
comes inextricably entangled in 
our thoughts of him. "The Mas- 
ter" was sketching in a church at 
Honfleur. "It was here," his Eng- 
lish companion reports, "that he 
said he was going over to Rome 
some day." Then, of course, the 
funny man comes in. "I said, 
'Don't forget to let me know, so 
that I may be on hand to see you 
wandering up the aisle in sack- 
cloth and ashes, with a candle in 
each hand, or scrubbing the 
floor.' " Wliistler fell in with the 
cheap mood, and turned it off by 
saying he thought they would 
make him "a, swell of an abbot 
or something like that." The inci- 
dent is quoted, of course, as a 
tribute to Whistler's wit; and as 
such it frivolously passes; but a 
solitary reader here and there re- 
members it as far otherwise. 



Correspondence 



— Keep your promises if you would 
be happy. 



The Ridiculed Farmer 

To the Editor: — 

One of the leading papers in Texas 
a few days ago was rebuked by a lady 
reader for placing on its front page a 
cartoon in which a farmer was made 
to look silly and vmintelligent. Ridicule 
is more than sensitive farmers can 
bear. Hence the Catholic Laboring- 
man who wrote that fine article in the 
F. R. of Feb. 1st, will know why only 
40 per cent of our population are now 
farmers, and the vast majority renters, 
who would move to the towns or cities 
if they had the means to do so. 

Agriculture is the noblest and most 
necessary of all occupations. Adam 
was a farmer. Does not the abused and 
ridiculed farmer co-operate with God 
in feeding the world? The silly world 
netfds a change of heart towards the 
farmer who keeps his fellowmen from 
starving. 

(Rev.) Raymond Vernimont 

Denton, Tex. 

With Freedom and Fearlessness 

To the Editor: — 

The first requisite for restoring at 
least a tolerable harmony between 
capital and labor, is the valuable sug- 
gestion from a "Catholic Laboringman" 
in your issue of Feb. 1, that we need 
a Catholic school of sociology in which 
the teachers are endowed with "abso- 
lute freedom and fearlessness." The 
Catholic Church has in her storehouses, 
— sometimes in dusty and cobwebbed 
old corners, — data, principles, teach- 
ings, and precedents with which to cope 
with any difficult situation; otherwise 
she would not be the Church ever 
guided by the Holy Ghost. Many of 
our modern difficulties are without 
precedent, and, therefore, our much- 
vaunted prudence and carefulness must 
occasionally be supplanted with the 
freedom and confidence of a great 
surgeon who performs a new kind of 
operation. 

Everybody knows that the Catholic 
faith has never changed; but Catholic 



«8 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Februar}- 15 



discipline has changed very much. Take 
the question of suspending a priest, for 
instance. In the first thousand years 
of Christianity it was an axiom in 
Catholic teaching that one bishop could 
make a priest, but it took not less than 
three bishops to undo a priest; and it 
took twelve bishops to undo a bishop. 
(This may have been the origin of the 
jury system.) We never heard of a 
l)ishop being undone ; but it is quite 
common to hear of a priest being un- 
done by one bishop ; and once undone, 
it is almost impossible for a priest to 
l)e fully reinstated in this earthly life. 

Father Edward AlcGlynn was "free 
and fearless" on the social question; 
liis Ordinary dismissed him. Seven 
years later, Leo XIII requested Msgr. 
Satolli to settle the McGlynn case; 
four professors of the Catholic 
University, at the request of the 
Delegate, reported that they had found 
nothing in McGlynn's writings or 
speeches that was opposed to Catholic 
faith or morality. Archbishop Cor- 
rigan. ordered to reinstate him, said 
that he had no vacant parish, and of- 
fered him an annual pension of $500. 
AlcGlynn refused this, saying that he 
would wait for a vacancy. Later he 
was sent as pastor to St. Mary's at 
Xewburgh. Not many months before 
his death he told me that he would ap- 
peal to the Holy Father for redress, 
l)ecause in St. Mary's he would never 
l)c able to pay his personal debts; that 
he was satisfied to remain -at St. Mary's 
it the Holy Father would provide some 
vv-ay for paying his debts. 

The McGlynn case has been a mighty 
deterrent on priests from speaking with 
"aljsolute freedom and fearlessness" on 
any subject. 

Catholic laymen need to have less 
fear. At any rate, something should be 
done quickly if the social question is 
to be settled peacefully. Until a Cath- 
olic school of sociology, endowed with 
"absolute freedom and fearlessness," is 
started, let two or three laymen, like 
vour "Catholic Laboringman" with his 
fine instinct for philosophical and the- 
ological acumen, fearlessly and freely 
diiTuse their orthodox and God-inspired 
x'icws. Not alone popes and bishops are 



inspired; millions of God-inspired in- 
tentions in laymen and women to un- 
dertake good works, for all eternity 
remain sterile because of fear. 

Church authorities are not likely to 
interfere with absolute freedom and 
fearlessness in social teaching. We are 
too much accustomed to fill our souls 
with fear. Freedomi of speech, con- 
sistent with the positive teaching re- 
quired of a Catholic teacher, ought to 
be sacredly guarded. This is well ex- 
pressed in a letter written Sept. 28, 
1894, by Archbishop John J. Keane, 
then Rector of the Catholic University : 

"The [Catholic] University claims 
and admits no responsibility whatso- 
ever for the utterances of her profes- 
sors beyond their teaching in our class- 
rooms. Outside of our precincts they 
stand on the same level as every other 
ecclesiastic and every other citizen, and 
we have no power to deprive them of 
freedom of speech. Their words and 
actions are then absolutely and indi- 
vidually their own, and the University 
has no responsibility for them whatso- 
ever. Whoever feels aggrieved by them 
must do with them just as with any one 
else." G. Z. 



A Catholic Laboringman on Father 
Husslein's Book 

To the Editor:— 

Father Husslein's latest book, "Work, 
Wealth and Wages," is being reviewed 
by the Catholic press in the convention- 
al way. For the most part, it is being 
covered with profuse praise, which is 
always a substitute for honest intel- 
lectual effort and clear discernment. 
The book is "popular," say the review- 
ers, it appeals to the "common people," 
it is written for the "average man." 
Now it is true, very true, that we, who 
belong to the much thought-of and 
talked-of "common" or "average peo- 
ple," need a popular exposition of a 
social doctrine which is digestible. But 
is it not also true that "popularisation" 
and "popularity" (in official, conserva- 
tive circles) are synonymous ; that this 
writing down to people is a writing up 
to the powers that be, whether ecclesi- 
astical or secular? 

I cannot see any difference between 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



the doctrine laid down in this book and 
those of any of the non-Catholic liberal 
economists who have been flooding the 
secular channels for many decades past 
with their palliatives, wnth their cheap 
nostrums, with their reform-by-legisla- 
tion programmes, with their unbounded 
though unwarranted faith in politics, 
the political method and politicians. It 
is true that the reverend author calls 
upon the names of great Catholic soci- 
ologists of the past, upon popes, upon 
the much abused — by Catholics as well 
as Protestants — IMiddle Ages and, final- 
ly, emphasizes the convenient but over- 
worked doctrine of the necessity of a 
spiritual regeneration. As a matter of 
fact it seems to me to be a severe con- 
demnation of our officially espoused but 
lame and limping school of social 
thought that a book of this kind should 
be heralded by Catholics, when, in mat- 
ter of fact, the same doctrines have 
been on the shelves of the Liberals for 
many decades past. 

This is not a review of Father Huss- 
lein's latest book. To me this work 
epitomizes, evaluates, and inventories 
,the American Catholic social movement 
— if, indeed, it may be dignified by this 
title. The author is accepted, in a 
general way, as the mouth-piece of the 
official movement in this country. His 
book, therefore, signifies more than the 
work of a private writer ; it presents to 
us the interpretation of Catholic social 
thought by ecclesiastical America and 
marks for us the highway along which 
this movement is passing. 

The F. R. has constantly maintained 
that this official programme is not only 
insufficient, but erroneous. It is a de- 
cided pleasure to see that the Echo, of 
Buffalo, has taken the same attitude ; 
it was a decided disappointment, on the 
other hand, to see that the otherwise 
discerning Social Justice magazine, the 
official organ of the Catholic Central 
Society, has accepted this work of 
Father Husslein with no little praise. 
This latter attitude is entirely out of 
keeping, if I am not mistaken, with the 
generally accepted programme of the 
valiant Central Society. 



There is no question, let me repeat 
again, of combating the work of one 
man or even of a few men. If that 
were all, it would not be worth the 
price. We need to see clearly that 
there are certain tendencies, certain 
definite movements, and even certain 
explicit programmes of offi<:ial Catholic 
social reform thought in this country. 
It is well past the time when we should 
realize that this so-called reform move- 
ment is not Catholic at all, but a bap- 
tized Liberalism. "Take a liberal econ- 
omist and to every page add an act of 
Catholic faith, and then you have his 
book on Christian economics," is the 
v/ay the late Count de Mun's organ, 
L' Association Catholiqiie, characterized 
Charles Perin, the Belgian Catholic 
economist, who was a Liberal. 

It is to be hoped that the activities 
of this erroneous school will drive 
those like yourself and the Buffalo 
Echo together to protect us, the "com- 
mon people," from these liberalistic 
futilities. We need an organ which 
will espouse a thorough-going CathoHc 
social reform movement by educational 
means ; which will point to the dangers 
as well as the futilities of this Cath- 
olicised Liberalism, and which will, 
finally, unite together all those who are 
willing, once and for all, to break away 
from this movement. 

Unfortunately, this is apparently im- 
possible at the present time, but I for 
one — and I know I am voicing the opin- 
ion of great numbers of Catholic work- 
men — hope and pray that your Review, 
along with a few other valiant members 
of the Catholic press, wnll keep this in- 
surrection alive. Unless this is done, 
the whole moral force of the Catholic 
Church towards the accomplishment of 
a more just and equitable economic or- 
der will be entirely lost; indeed, it will, 
inadvertently, be made to do service for 
social injustice in perpetuating the 
present regime of Privilege and Mon- 
opoly. 

I cannot, therefore, view with any- 
thing but alarm, the tendency of the 
accepted school, as represented by the 
author of "Work, W^ealth and Wages." 



70 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Feljinai}' In 



Ir represents a positive menace. Great 
spiritual looses are being sustained ^«y 
the Church in America, large numbers 
of her working children are being 
weaned fom her true spirit, as only 
those of us, who work among them 
(laily. too well know, because of the 
deadly injustices of the present regime. 
Our Catholic Liberals are helping to 
perpetuate this system. Their corner- 
stone of Social Justice, the Living 
Wage, is a mockery under Capitalism, 
as they must well know. Their rem- 
edies for unemployment are worse than 
futile because they cover up the funda- 
mental causes ; their lack of any land 
reform policy is tragic. Their silence 
concerning it is condemnatory of the 
impotency of their system. Their con- 
stant harping on the recognized and ac- 
cepted necessity of a spiritual regenera- 
tion of society is as opium to all intel- 
lectual activity ; their confusion of 
Capitalism with Capital, of Capitalism 
with Privilege and natural resource 



monopoly is fundamentally erroneous ; 
their insistence that our evils are indus- 
trial, rather than, at bottom, agrarian, 
is a confounding of the essential issue, 
and, finally, their whole pharmacopea 
of nostrums, half-measures, prophylac- 
tics, and palliatives is calculated, willy 
nilly, to perpetuate or prolong the dis- 
ease, just as an underdose of toxin will 
abet rather than combat a disease. 

It is time that the Catholic Radical 
come to the front, uncover himself, and 
stand four square to ail comers. The 
Liberal rather than the Radical will 
bring on the bloody revolution. But 
whatever the title, it is now evident that 
a break must come in the ranks of our 
Catholic social reformers, and the soon- 
er it comes, the better. I, for one, trust 
that you will continue to build up a 
body of social thought and action which 
v/ill adequately express traditional 
Catholicism. 

A Catholic Laboringman 



Fr. Junipero Serra and the Military Heads of California 

By Francis Borgia Steck, 0. F. M. 



V 

What the viceroy thought of it all 
when once acquainted with the whole 
case, and whom he deemed in need of 
sympathy and 'encouragement as the 
wronged party, wfe learn from a long 
letter he addressed to the Fr. Presi- 
dente under date of December 25. 
1776. He wrote in part: 

"I doubt not that the suspension of 
work for the restoration of the de- 
stroyed Mission of San Diego has 
given your Reverence much pain. As 
for me, the very hearing of it dis- 
pleases me, and much more so the 
frivolous motives that brought it 
about. A letter from Don Diego Cho- 
quet. commander of the Principe, or 
San Antonio, ~^ has acquainted me 
with them , . . The governor of these 
provinces, who is commanded to take 



"^ Rivera's mean interference after Clio- 
quet and his sailors had set out with the 
Fathers to help restore the mission, forms 
another disgusting episode. 



up his residence at Monterey, .... is 
charged to consult me and to propose 
to me what he may deem expedient 
and necessary to make those establish- 
ments happy ; and he is likewise 
charged to act in everything in accord 
with your Reverence. I hope that you 
will continue in that fervent zeal which 
fills the soul of your Reverence for 
the propagation of the faith, the con- 
version of souls, and the extension of 
the domain of the king in those remote 
territories, and that you will ordain 
whatever seems attainable. Meanwhile 
inform me as to what may be neces- 
sary to make my measures efifective." -^ 
The governor referred to in this 
letter was Don Felipe de Neve, who 
was holding that office in Lower Cali- 
fornia and who was now, by order of 
the king, to take up his residence at 
Monterey as first governor of Upper 



29 Viceroy Bucareli to Fr. Serra, Decem- 
ber 25, 1776. Sfa. Barb. Arch. 



IM'4'I 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REA^IEW 



California. He arrived on February 3, 
1777, and in the following March, Ri- 
vera left for Loreto, to reside there as 
Ireutenant-governor. "Had Rivera's 
peculiar ^" conduct been known in 
Spain," Bancroft concedes, "it is not 
likely that he would have been re- 
tained in office ; but the viceroy hoped 
that in a new field he might succeed 
better." ^^ 

Fr. Serra and Governor Xeve 
We now come to a chapter of Cali= 
fornia mission history in which waiters 
like the one just mentioned, must do 
violence to facts, so as not to appear 
before the world as advocates of the 
outraged friars. If ever during the 
Spanish regime the endurance of Fr. 
Serra and his confreres was put to a 
hard test, it was during the governor- 
ship of Don Felipe de Xeve. Unfortun- 
ately, space w^ill not allow a detailed 
account of his hostile attitude toward 
the missionaries. It would seem that 
he came to California with a determ- 
ination to wipe out the mission system 
and to humiliate the friars, especially 
the Fr. Presidente. Had his Regla- 
mento been approved by the king in 
the points that concerned the missions, 
the glorious system would have been 
killed and the neophytes driven back 
into the mountains, robbed of the bless- 
ings of Christianity and civilization. 
Hence it strikes one as rather strange 
that, two years after Fr. Engelhardt's 
incontrovertible exposure of Neve's 
• malicious scheming, a writer should 
still glorify Neve as "a worthy gover- 
nor, who at once declared himself the 
friend and protector of the mission^ 
aries" ; and to go into raptures over his 
Reglamento as "California's first code 
of legislation .... regarded by capable 
judges as a most remarkable and valu- 
able document." ^- 

From the mass of evidence on hand, 
we select only two incidents to show 
how Governor Neve proved himself 



"the friend and protector of the mis- 
sionaries" and how anxious he was to 
get on with Fr. Serra in particular. In 
order to support and further the mis- 
sion establishments materially. Viceroy 
Bucareli, on July 23, 1773, promulgat- 
ed Echeveste's Reglamento Provisional 
and ordained that it was to go into ef- 
fect on January 1, 1774. This Regla- 
mento provided for each of the two 
friars to be stationed at every mission 
an annual allowance or stipend of 
$400, to be paid from the Pious 
Fund. "^ Moreover, during the first five 
years of a mission, double rations, "* 
also to be taken from the Pious Fund, 
were alotted to each of the mission^ 
aries. The stipend of $400 ^^ was for- 
warded to them, not in cash, but in 
merchandise and church goods, previ- 
ously specified by the Fathers as neces- 
sary for their respective mission. The 
rations, likewise in the shape of sup- 
plies, were to be delivered to them 
from the presidio warehouse at the ex- 
pense of the Pious Fund. With this 
tw^ofold allowance, the Fathers were 
expected to erect the mission buildings, 
to maintain themselves and their serv- 
ants, and to attract and keep the pagan 
Indians. The reader can imjagine how 
often the missionaries were forced to 
skin a flint and how correctly the Fr. 
Guardian of San Fernando College de= 
scribed this arrangement as "solemn 
nonsense" (disparate soleinne')."^ But 



^° "spiteful and insubordinate" would have 
been more to the point. 

31 Hist, of California, Vol. I, p. 308. 

32 M. A. Field, Chimes of Mission Bells, 

V 37. 



33 For the enlightment of some who still 
cherish antiquated notions about the gen- 
erosity of the Spanish government in the 
way of pecuniary support it was supposed 
to, but did not, lavish from the royal treas- 
ury on the California missions, it is well to 
mention here that that question was disposed 
of years ago in The Missions and Mission- 
aries of California. Vol. II, Appendix B, pp. 
655-660. 

3* A single ration, in our money, was 18% 
cents ; a double ration, therefore, 371/2 cents. 
Thus, for one year, the double rations 
amounted to $136.89^-;, for one missionary; 
for both, $273.99. 

35 Actually, only about $260, the cost of 
the transportation of the goods being sub- 
tracted from the original $400. 

3« Fr. Guardian Verger to Don Casa- 
fonda, August 3, i/Ji- Mitseo Nacional. 
Trasuntos, f. 128. 



72 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Februarj' 15 



the friars were men who knew how to 
adapt themselves to circumstances and 
thus, by dint of economy and self-de- 
nial they contrived to make both ends 
meet. Hence, in this respect at least, 
all went fairly well, until of a sudden 
Governor Neve likewise began to 
practice economy. 

In October, 1778, he informed the 
missionaries of San Francisco, Santa 
Clara, and San Juan Capistrano that 
he found it necessary "to commjand the 
suspension of the rations," on account 
of "the scarcity of provisions at the 
presidio," and because "higher author- 
ity has not sanctioned the rations and 
other assistance which Captain Fer- 
nando de Rivera allowed for the 
founding of the last three missions." 
The first of these reasons was as little 
founded on fact as the second ; and 
Neve knew it. 

In a lengthy and touching letter. 
Fathers Palou and Marguia pleaded 
for their newly established ^Missions of 
San Francisco and Santa Clara. They 
respectfully called attention to Echev- 
este's Reglayncnto, adopted by the 
Spanish government, as also to the 
king's wishes. They pointed out how 
sorely the two missions, now only in 
their second year, needed the rations, 
since there was absolutely nothing with 
which to compensate the laborers and 
servants who were erecting the build- 
ings. Then, like suppliant beggars 
prostrate before a heartless tyrant, 
they continued : 

"Our Seraphic Rule and Apostolic 
Institute command us to subsist on the 
alms of benefactors ; on this account 
there has been assigned to us from the 
Pious Fund, which is destined for the 
propagation of the faith, what the 
Rcglamcnto indicates. Therefore, with 
due submission, we supplicate you. Sir, 
for the love of God, for the sake of 
most holy Church, and for the sake of 
our holy Father St. Francis, not to per= 
mit us to be deprived of these alnijS. 
We are soliciting them not for our- 
selves, but for the propagation of the 
faith, on behalf of which we have over- 
come all the natural repugnance that 
the begging of alms creates. . .For this 



reason, we respectfully supplicate you, 
Sir, in the name of all, and beg you to 
command the keeper of the warehouse 
to give us these rations, a favor for 
which we hope to see you. Sir, receive 
the reward in heaven through the in- 
tercession of our holy Father St. Fran- 
cis." "' 

( To be continued) 

Notes and Gleanings 

— The English Philological Society 
is about to issue a new periodical pub= 
lication called PJiilologica, Journal of 
Comparative Philology. It is to be edit- 
ed by Dr. Joseph Baudis, professor of 
comparative philology in the Univer- 
sity of Prague. 

— Prof. Courtnev Langdon has pub- 
lished a new English translation of 
Dante's "Divina Commedia." But it is 
worse than useless, because, as Prof. 
John ]\Iacy says in the N. Y. Literary 
Rez-ie-ix.', "Langdon simply has not the 
gift of English verse." 

— Some popular war books are being 
rewritten in the light of facts disclosed 
since the end of the World War. 
"Many others," observes the Ave Ma- 
ria, "will never be rewritten, and, as 
they stand, they are of far less value 
than the paper upon which they were 
printed." 

— The Vatican Library has lately 
been enriched by a collection of rare 
books and manuscripts, founded be- 
tween 1838 and 1854 by G. F. d' Rossi. 
After the founder's death this collec- 
tion passed into the possession of the 
Emperor of Austria, and later of the 
Jesuits, who have now handed it over 
to the Holy See. The collection con- 
sists of more than 1,000 manuscripts, 
2,500 incunabula, and about 6,000 
printed volumes. 

— The S. Congregation of the Coun= 
cil, in reply to a query from the Arch- 
bishop of Posen, decided that, except 
for grave and special reasons, a bishop 
cannot forbid hunting to the clergy un- 
der pain of ipso facto suspension a 



37 FF. Pallou and Murguia to Neve, Oc- 
tober 12, 1778. Sta. Barb. Arch. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



divinis, "unless it be clamorous." The 
Catholic Times, in reporting this de- 
cision, adds that in Italy, where wild 
pigeons fly over the country in droves 
in the month of September, "there is 
not, as a rule, a better shot than the 
parish priest." 

— In the American Historical Re- 
z'iezv (July, 1921) Prof. Carl Becker, 
the well-known historian, treats ]\Ir. 
Wells' "Outline of History" with 
good-humored sarcasm and tells us at 
the end of his article that the same 
criticism might be made of that delect= 
able piece of writing as was made by 
Diderot of Voltaire's "Essai sur les 
Moeurs." "Other historians relate 
facts to inform us of facts. You relate 
them in order to excite in our hearts 
a profound hatred of lying, ignorance, 
hypocrisy, superstition, fanaticism, ty- 
ranny ; and this anger remains even 
after the memory of the facts has dis- 
appeared." In short, Air. Wells has not 
written history at all. His "History" is 
the tale of "the adventures of a gen- 
erous soul among catastrophes." 

— The Early English Text Society 
has reprinted from an old manuscript 
a Life of Blessed John Fisher, w^ritten 
by a Catholic contemporary in the days 
of Queen Elizabeth. The Bishop was 
seventy-six when he was executed by 
order of Henry VIII. He died a mar- 
tyr to his faith, with a copy of the New 
Testament in his hand. Of the good 
work done by him for his people of 
the diocese of Rochester, of his stead= 
fast loyalty to the Catholic faith, of 
his kindliness and clear discernment, 
let all who will read in this early Eng- 
lish text, now made accessible to the 
student under the title, "The Life of 
Fisher, Transcribed from MS. Har- 
leian 6,382 by the Rev. Ronald Bayne" 
(an Anglican divine) and published by 
the Oxford University Press. 

—The Builder (Vol. VIII, No. 2) 
quotes an English Masonic journal 
as congratulating the Prince Hall 
Grand Lodge of colored Masons at 
New York upon its diamond jubilee, 
and comments as follows : "Here is a 
typical example of the anomalous con- 



dition thai exists throughout the Ma- 
sonic world. English Masons acknowl- 
edge the validity of negro Masonry and 
welcome the negroes into their fraternal 
circles ; American Masons refuse to 
extend the fraternal hand and declare 
with an almost unanimous voice that 
negro Masonry is clandestine; and yet 
English and American Masonry is in 
the closest affiliation, and almost all 
the Masonry in this country has 
descended from the Alother Grand 
Lodge across the sea." 

— Dr. Herman Strack, of the Uni- 
versity of Berlin, has published a book 
on "Jildische Geheimgesetze" (Berlin: 
C. A.Schwetschke & Sohnj, in which he 
contends that there are no secret writ= 
ings of the Jews, nor have they any 
oral traditions inaccessible to Christ- 
ians. "The Jews have nothing to hide 
from us Christians, and could not hide 
anything if they tried." A separate 
chapter deals with Dr. August Rohling 
and his anti-semitic writings. The 
author is severe in his condem^nation 
of Rohling's methods (cfr. F. R., Vol. 
XXI^X, No. 2, p. 36). He also attacks 
J3r.Ecker, the compiler of a well-known 
Bible History, and asserts that he was 
not the author of "Der Judenspiegel 
im Lichte der Wahrheit," a book pub- 
lished under his name at Paderborn in 
1884. 

— Cardinal Ratti, Archbishop of 
.Milan, was elected pope Feb. 6th and 
accepted the election, taking the name 
of Pius XL He comes from a respect- 
able middle-class family in the neigh- 
borhood of Milan and was raised to the 
cardinalate only last June by Benedict 
XV. He is in his 65th year and came 
into prominence in 1915 as papal visitor 
lo Poland, where he conducted import- 
ant negotiations and displayed much 
courage. Up to that time his work had 
been mostly in the Vatican Library, of 
whose treasures he is said to be the best 
living connoisseur. The new Pope is 
l)ictured by the newspapers as a man 
of strong character and conciliatory dis- 
position, who will probably do his best 
to bring about a just solution of "the 
Roman question." May he succeed in 



74 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



February 15 



this as well as in all his other under- 
takings ! Ad multos annos! 

— That spurious autograph letter of 
Cotton Mather, in which the Puritan 
divine is represented as advising that 
the ship in which William Penn and 
his followers were sailing to Pennsyl- 
vania be intercepted and the Quakers 
captured and sold as slaves in the West 
Indies, has been given a new lease of 
life by a Boston periodical. This forg- 
ery is as tough-lived as the Lentulus 
Letter. It first appeared in the Eastern 
Argus, of Pennsylvania, Aug. 28, 1870. 
Dr. Samuel A. Green, who investigated 
the matter, concluded that the letter 
liad been invented by James F. Shunk, 
the editor of the Argus. If Shunk was 
not the author, he probably knew who 
the author was. The Massachusetts 
Plistorical Society never had a libra- 
rian by the name of Judkins, among 
whose posthumbus papers the letter 
was alleged to have been found. 

— Although the American peoi)le are 
intensely interested in everything as- 
sociated with the memory of Abraham 
Lincoln, how m:any of them know that 
a son of Lincoln is still alive? Robert 
T. Lincoln, now seventy-eight years of 
age, strangely enough refuses to speak 
or write a single word about his il- 
lustrious father. What is still stranger, 
— according to B. C. Forbes, writing in 
a popular magazine, — Robert T. Lin- 
coln evinces instant and intense dis- 
pleasure when approached on this sub- 
ject. Unless he has secretly written 
something for posthumous publication, 
— which his friends do not consider at 
all likely, — the man who could give the 
most intimate picture of President Lin- 
coln will go to his grave without leav- 
ing behind him one word on this sub- 
ject, which, we should think, would be 
near and dear to his heart. What may 
be the reason for this strange silence? 

— An organization for priests' 
housekeepers has been founded bv 
Father Thuente, O. P. It is called 
"Marianum" and has two distinct 
aims. The first is to assist, direct, and 
encourage women who have the re- 
quired ability and character to become 



CLERGYMEN, COLLEGES and ACADEMIES 
will find it to their advantage to consult 

== THE 

Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eighth Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
RELIABLE SERVICE AT REASONABLE PRICES 
Its facilities for quick delivery of line- 
or monotyped, printed in first-class 
manner books, booklets, pamphlets, 
folders etc. are unexcellea. 



For a GOOD, SUBSTANTIAL and 

TASTY MEAL 

Cooked German Style 

go to 



Restaurant 



408 Washington Avenue 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 
U. S. A. 



ErKi^r^ 



The Finest Photo Finishing 

Jhe best work takes 48 hours, 
altliougli our one-day service 
Is above the average. 

SOS Txvo 511 N. 
OLIVE •^'"'^ GRA ND _ 
iitllilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllTri 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



housekeepers for priests. The second is 
to help these women to understand bet= 
ter the dignity and responsibiHty of 
their profession as seen in the light of 
faith. We trust the betterment of the 
economic position of the priest's house- 
keeper is not excluded from the pro- 
gramme of the new society, for that 
problem is an important and urgent 
one. The headquarters of the "Maria- 
num" (could no more appropriate 
name have been selected?) are in 
charge of ]\Iiss Mary Gockel, president 
of the Missionary Association of Cath- 
olic Women, 834 — 36th St., Milwau= 
kee, Wis. 

— In "Private Property and Rights 
in Enemy Countries"' (London: Sweet 
& ]\Iaxwell), Mr. Paul F. Simonson, 
an Englishman, examines those pro- 
visions of the peace treaties which re- 
late to property and arrives at the con- 
clusion that they are open to serious 
criticism because they are at variance 
with the practice of respecting the pri- 
vate property of enemy nationals 
which had been followed by all the 
European powers for many years be- 
fore the \\'orld War and had been gen- 
erally respected as part of the inter- 
national law. Now each Allied power 
claims the right to retain and liquidate 
all the property belonging to Germans 
within its territory. Unfortunately Mr. 
Simonson does not attempt to analyze 
either the ethical or the economic con- 
sequences of this radical and unjusti- 
fiable departure from the law of na= 
tions. 

— In reply to an ignorant contempo= 
rary who had declared that "religion 
as revealed in God and His Son, Jesus 
Christ, is the basis of the Masonic Or- 
der," the Builder, published by the Na- 
tional Masonic Research Society, savs 
(Vol. VIII, No. 2, p. 56) : "It raises 
the old, old question of the religion of 
Freemasonry, which is not a question 
at all to one who will take the trouble 
to read a little history. As plain as 
plain can be are the words 'concerning 
God and Religion' in the Constitutions 
fundamental to the Craft the world 
over, which tell us that a Mason is 



bound to the moral law and will never 
be a stupid atheist [ ?], but that for the 
rest he may choose what rehgion he 
will, or no religion. Freemasonry is not 
Christian...." For a correct interpre- 
tation of this statement we must refer 
the reader to "A Study in Amjerican 
Freemasonrv," 4th ed., St. Louis, Mo.. 
B. Herder Book Co., 1920, pp. 79 sqq. 

— One thing can be said in favor 
of the "Church of Christ of the Lat- 
terday Saints" : It condemns Freema- 
sonry as an "institution of the evil 
one" and regards every Alormon who 
disobe'3's the positive anti-Masonic 
declarations of the leaders and the no 
less explicit injunctions of "the four 
standard works of the church," as a 
"bad Mormon." This information is 
taken from a series of well documented 
articles by Bro. Sam H. Goodwin, of 
Ltah, in the Masonic monthly Builder, 
Anamosa, la., (see especially Vol. 
VIII, No. 2, Feb. 1922). We are not 
told that the Mormon sect expels such 
"bad" members, and suspect that there 
are a number of ]\Iormons who disre- 
gard the teaching and discipline of 
their church on the subject of Freema- 
sonry. The only religious bodies that 
rigorously excommunicate Alasons are. 
-o far as we know, the Catholic 
Church and the Lutheran Synod of 
Missouri. 

— What is termed "culture by con- 
tact" is now receiving increased atten- 
tion in our higher institutions of learn- 
ing. Thus the University of Ann Arbor 
is paying a celebrated poet a large 
salary merely for "radiating" an in- 
fluence that the students are supposed 
to absorb. In sharp contrast to this 
indirect method is the direct "contagion 
by contact" to which the masses are 
exposed through "jazz" and "popular 
song" trusts. "Children particularly," 
says the Nezv Music Rcz'iczv, "are in 
danger of infection, musically and 
morally. To quote Mr. Ford's Dear- 
horn Independent : Girls and boys a 
little while ago were inquiring who 
paid ]\Irs. Rip Van Winkle's rent while 
Rip was away. In decent drawings 
rooms the fluttering music sheets dis- 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Februarj- 15 



T/ff^ Ideal Magazine for tlie Busy Parish Priest 
Contents of Februar}' Issue, 1922 



PASTORALIA: Bv the Rev. Charles Bruehl, D.D. 
The Pastoral Visit — What it will accomplish — 
Aids and Suggestions. 

THE LABOR SPY SYSTEM: By the Rev. Joseph 
Husslein, S. T., Ph. D. 

BIBLICAL STUDIES: Some Mile-posts for the 
Interpreter of John. By the Rev. ^Valter 
Drum, S. J. 

THE CONCESSION OF INDULGENCES': Bv tht 
Rev. Stanislaus Woywod, O.F.M. 

PRACTICAL ASCETICAL NOTES FOR 

PRIESTS: An Alternative. By Dom S. 
Louismet, O.S'.B. 

CASUS MORALIS: Censure and Fear. By the 
Rev. Gerald Murray. C. SS. R. 

LITURGICAL NOTES FOR THE MONTH: The 
Confiteor. By the Benedictine Monks of Buck- 
fast Ahbev. 

ROMAN DOCUMENTS' FOR THE MONTH. 

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS: 

The "Confessio Monialium" — Mistakes in the 
Ordo for the Divine Office — Change in the 
Promises Demanded by the Code in Cases of 
Mixed Religion and Disparity of Cult — Relation 
of Dependent Chapels to the Main Church.. 



HOMILETIC PART 
SERMON MATTER FROM THE FATHERS. By 

the Very Rev. Hugh Pope, O. P., S. T. M. 
SERMONS ON THE GOSPELS AND EPISTLES: 
First Sunday in Lent. The Warfare of Life. 

By the Rev. H. Kelly, S. J., M. A. 
S'econd Sunday in Lent. The Vice of Idolatry. 

By the Rev. P. J. Lander, S. J. 
Third Sunday in Lent. Rashness in Judgment. 

By the Rev. Paul O'Grady, A. B. 
Fourth Sunday in Lent. The Old Law or the 
New. By the Right Rev. Msgr. C. F. 
Thomas. 
PARABLE SERMONETTES FOR THE CHIL- 
DREN'S MASS. For Every Sunday. By the 
Rev. Frederick Renter. 
THE SACRED MYSTERIES OF THE PRECIOUS 
BLOOD : A Lenten Course of six Sermons. By 
the Rev. Ferdinand Heckmann, O. F. M. 1. The 
Mystery of the Precious Blood Shed in the 
Garden of Gethsemani. II. The Mystery of the 
Precious Blood Slied in the Cruel Scourging. 
III. The Mystery of the Precious Blood Shed 
in the Crowning with Thorns. 
BOOK REVIEWS 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.) Publishers 

23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

Subscription iu U. S. $4.00 per annuiii; |4.25 in Canada; 20s. in other Foreign Countries 



Havana 
Pilled 



Wagner's Londres Grande 

{Sinnk^-d in 47 States) 5 



100 — $7.80 



Imported 
Sumatra 
Wrapper 

$4. 00 



|ry |hem— Iakes |he |aste |o |ell |he |ale 




Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Money Order or N. Y. Draft— 

-■^iter Smoking three Segars. if not as represented or 
satisfactory, pack well and return by Parcel Post. 
Money and Postage refunded by return mail. 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 1866 
58 North Pearl St. BUFFALO, N. Y 



America Press 

^ JOB PRINTING ii 
done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. St. Louis, Mo. 



^§TEINER"^a; BADGE 



BADGE5, 

BUTTONS 8: PiNS> 



ENGHAyiNfr|(J^ 

SEALS.! ^ 
:STAMPSi ^ 



STENCILS ^METALCHECI^. , 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



77 



closed expressions taken directly from 
the cesspools of modern capitals, to be 
made the daily slang:, the thoughtlessly 
hummed remarks of high-school boys 
and girls.'' What is still more incred- 
ible, and no less deplorable, — these 
same foul songs and dances have found 
their way into Catholic homes and 
parish halls. "I can name six parishes 
in the city of St. Louis where this is 
going on," Prof. Alois Rhode, organist 
of St. Antony's Churcli, recently 
wrote to the F. R. Is there no remedy 
for such abuses ? 

— The Indian Sentinel for January 
is devoted largely to the memory of 
Alsgr. W. H. Ketcham, Director of the 
Bureau of Catholic Indian ^^lissions, 
who departed this life suddenly on 
Nov. 14, at the Choctaw Mission, 
Tucker, Miss., in the 53rd year of his 
life and was buried Xov. 18th from 
the cathedral of Oklahoma City. ^Isgr. 
Ketcham was a convert, but it is not 
generally known, that, under God, he 
became the instrument of converting to 
the Catholic faith, first his sister Ella, 
then his mother, and. finally, his father, 
who was of Puritan ancestry and a 
veteran of the Civil War. The Sioux 
Indians affectionately called the ]\Ion- 
signor "Wambli Wakita" (Watching 
Eagle") and our brilliant friend ^Ir. 
Eug. AI. Beck, S. J., contributes to the 
Sentinel a touching sonnet with this 
title, as follows : 

Our eyes have seen thee. Watching Eagle, 

bright 
With youth's eternal radiance, leave tlie 

height 
Where thou didst boldly scan the mystic sun. 
And turn thine eager pinions to the dun. 
Inhospitable plains. Oh, thine the quest 
Untiring for the erring sheep, to wrest 
The Child of many sorrows from the foe 
Implacable that seeks his overthrow! 
• Him dost thou gather up with tender care 
And lift up to the Holy Mountain where 
The Light immortal set in bloody doom 
That we might journey safely through the 

gloom. 

— The Catholic Record, the official 
organ of the \\'estern Catholic Union, 
a mutual benefit society whose adver- 
tisement has been for some time ap= 
pearing in the F. R.. in its current num- 



ber publishes the details of the "new 
whole life special insurance certifi- 
cates" now issued by that organization. 
They represent what is perhaps the 
most attractive form of life insurance 
ofifered by any Catholic fraternal so- 
ciety. The cost is only a trifle higher 
than that of ordinary life insurance, 
and in return the insured member is 
entitled to cash loan and extended and 
paid-up insurance privileges similar to 
tliose given bv old-line insurance com= 
panics. Any memiber wishing to adopt 
this plan is free to do so. The reason- 
ableness of the premium rate may be 
gathered from the following excerpts 
"from a table published by the Record : 
age 16. monthlv rate, per $1,000, 
$1.04; age 20, "monthly rate, $1.13; 
age 30. monthly rate, $1.46; age 40, 
monthly rate, $2.03; age 50, monthly 
rate. S3. 11. Twenty cents a month 
must be added for expenses of man- 
agement. In introducing this new 
"whole life special," the Western Cath- 
olic Union, which has long ago placed 
itself upon a safe and solid financial 
basis, gives its m'embers the advantage 
of all the legitimate privileges enjoyed 
by policy-holders in the most progres= 
sive regular life insurance companies. 
It possesses the additional advantage 
of being a thoroughly Catholic organi- 
zation which has always proved itself 
loyal to the Church. There is now no 
longer even the shadow of an excuse 
for any Catholic, man or woman, wnth- 
in the territory covered by the W. C. 
U. joining a non-Catholic mutual bene- 
fit organization. 

— The N. Y. IVorld does not agree 
with ]\Ir. Dawes that the Congressional 
Record ought to be discontinued. "Why 
not add a comic supplement to it and 
make it pay?" queries our contempo- 
rary. But isn't the C. R. comical enough 
as it is? 

— You cannot make a permanent 
magnet of soft iron; for this purpose 
you must use toughened steel. It is 
just the same with the will. It must 
be toughened from the inside; no 
amount of outside applied force makes 
it strong. 



78 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Ft-bruarv \h 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John EugenE Weibel, V.F. 

{46th Installment) 

The patient kept on improving slowly and 
by the last of January, Dr. Ellis declared 
that he could be safely removed to Hot 
Springs. Col. Kerens again sent his car, and 
on the 3rd of February, 1900, the Bishop was 
taken on an extra train to St. Joseph's 
Infirmary, Hot Springs. Besides the pa- 
tient there were on the train : Col. Schauer- 
te, John Nolan, Father ]\IcQuaid, and I. 
For seven years, with the exception of 
shorter or longer visits to Little Rock, tlie 
Bishop was in St. Joseph's Infirmary, at 
Hot Springs. He never recovered the full 
use of his right side and it was only by 



a great effort that he was able to say Mass 
a few times. How'ever, his mind and mem- 
ory remained clear to the end. After a few- 
weeks in the Infirmary he was again well 
enough to govern his diocese, and appointed 
Father Fintan Kraemer, O. S. B., rector ot 
St. Edward's Church, Little Rock, as his 
vicar-general. 

Father Fintan was indefatigable in carry- 
ing out every order and w^ish of the Bishop. 
He worked as vicar-general for several 
years with great zeal and splendid success, 
while Rev. Patrick Enright, the pastor of 
the Cathedral, conscientiously attended to the 
temporalities of the diocese. For quite a 
while I was alone at Jonesboro, because 
Father P. ]\IcCormick was in Paragould, 
and on account of the epidemic of small- 
pox could not go from place to place. 

This year (1900) for the first time I pre- 



Roomers Wanted! 

Two Catholic persons desiring two rooms for light 
housekeeping, please address 

1521 Heljert Street. St. I.ouis. Mo. 



An experienced Organist and Choir Director, married, 
with excellent references, is looking for a good posi- 
tion in a larger city, where he will liave an opportun- 
ity to practice genuine Church music. 
Address: OKGANiST, care of The Fortnightly Review 
5S51 Etzel .\venue, St. I^ouis. Mo. 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS TRY OUR BRANDS 



They Have Stood the Test Since 1860 




You will m-ik no mi tike by giving us a personal call to verify the quality 
and view our assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

Westerheide Tobacco & Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Mail Orders Promvtly Filled Phones; Bell lyler 7S>! Kinloch Central 403y L 



CASPER STEHLE BEDDING COMPANY 

1834: Moigau Street h. c. smith, Manager ^T. L0UI8, :\ro. 

Sixty Years In Business is a Guarantee of Satisfied Customers 

Hospitals and Institutions Receive Special Attention 

MATTRESSES of all kinds and sizes, and PILLOWS 

Write for quotations, or better still, try a Sample Felt Mattress in a A. C. A. Tick, bitilt up 

extra well in the middle, @ $8.00 net, F. O. B., St. Louis. 



ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 




1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



79 



pared a year book for St. Roman's Church. 
It came about in this way. Two young- 
men, Unger and Johnson, had obtained 
permission from the priest in charge of St. 
Roman's to publish a year book for his 
church, promising to assume all the risks 
and expenses. As they had good recom- 
mendations and had published a small year 
book for Brinkley, I gave them the coveted 
permission. They visited the business men 
of Jonesboro and Paragould, and got a 
good number of valuable advertisements for 
their enterprise. They made a contract with 
Mr. Cone, editor of the Sun, for a number 
of the books, paid him with promissory 
notes, whilst they kept the cash for them- 
selves, and left for unknown parts. All 
efforts to reach them failed. I thereupon 
published the year book with all the "ads" 
collected by those enterprising gentlemen, 
as I announced in the foreword, "solely 
from a sense of honor and with the hope 
that at least the promissory notes may be 
p'aid to the publisher, Mr. Cone." 

The people were not the losers, for to 
judge from the meagre booklet Unger and 
Johnson had 'published for Brinkley, St. 
Roman's congregation could never have ex- 
pected to get such a readable and inter- 
esting directory as was the year book for 
1901. To ourselves it gave a confidence we 
otherwise never would have had, so that 
we later published several other similar 
books and always found them a great help 
to keep up interest and activity in parochial 
matters. 

After the smallpox epidemic the need of 
a hospital for Northeastern Arkansas be- 
came much n;ore evident, and we all, Sis- 
ters, priests, and people, worked for that 
end. I succeeded in buying for the Sisters 
the property of the photographer Robin- 
son, consisting of a two-story building and 
a large lot adjoining the Sisters' property. 
On the 5th of July, 1900, the house was 
opened as St. Bernard's Hospital. It was 
filled with patients from the start, mostly 
sick with malarial fever. The Sisters took 
up the work with great zeal, and everybody 
was full of praise for the new institution. 
Of course, there was not room for many 
patients. At the same time, the work was 
new for the Sisters, and they had to learn 
many things. Besides, the number of Sis- 
ters available for hospital service was 
limited, and they had about as much work 
as they were able to do. But they did it 
well. With a heroic spirit of sacrifice they 
waited on the sick day and night, and many 
a poor man owes his life to their care and 
charity. A year later. Dr. Lutterloh, in a 
speech to the hospital staff and its friends, 
giving an account of the work, said: "Of 
the first 430 cases, 300 cases were of 
malarial fever, with but six deaths, and two 
of these had perforations, which was acci- 
dental. You will observe the great number 
of cases of malaria and the very few deaths. 



only one uncomplicated. This was a for- 
eigner, and after 40 days' sickness, his tem- 
perature ran high, as high as 104% ; he 
died by the process of simply wearing out, 
or exhaustion. In regard to the hospital we 
all know its history. Father Weibel's far- 
reaching eye saw and realized the need of 
a hospital. He has the honor of having 
contributed tlie first five hundred dollars to 
its erection .... In going over the hospital 
every stranger is struck with one idea. It 
is our charity work. The best room in the 
house is set apart for the poor and needy. 
We all know faith, hope, and charity, and 
of these three charity is the greatest. The 
worthy poor find as good treatment at the 
Sisters' hands as do the rich. There is no 
difTerence in the food, no difference in the 
bed, and the care is the same." 

1 certainly felt thankful to the Lord and 
everybody can understand what a godsend 
this hospital is in such .a malarial country. 
(To be continued) 



Literary Briefs 

Authorized English Version of the Encyclical 
on St. Jerome 

Under the title, "St. Jerome and Holy 
Scripture," Messrs. P. J. Kenedy & Sons 
have published an authorized English trans- 
lation of the encyclical letter of Benedict 
XV on the fifteenth centenary of the death 
of St. Jerome. The document, as our read- 
ers are no doubt aware, is of great im- 
portance for every Biblical student, and 
Kenedy & Sons have therefore performed 
a meritorious service in making it available 
in a cheap and reliable English translation. 

New Light on the Homeric Problem 

New light is thrown on the vexed prob- 
lem of who was the author of the poems 
attributed to Homer by Dr. Herman Wirth, 
of Freiburg, Germany, in a book just pub- 
lished under the title, "Homer und Babylon: 
Ein Losungsversuch der homerischen Frage 
vom orientalischen Standpunkte aus." As 
the title indicates, the author seeks the key 
to the problem in the Orient. The name 
"Homer" itself, he contends, is a technical 
term of Semitic origin, derived from the 
domain of music The book is valuable 
mainly for the survey it gives in its intro- 
ductory chapter of the state of the "Homeric 
question" and the numerous attempts that 
have been made to solve it. Whether Dr. 
Wirth will have better success than his 
predecessors remains to be seen. He argues 
quite convincingly and with a wealth of 
erudition. (B. Herder Book Co). 



80 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Febiuarv 15 



The New Rubrics of the Mass 

A handy pamphkt, '"Novae Rubricae in 
Missali" Auctore Dr. Joseph Machens (B. 
Herder) explains the rubrics contained in 
the new "Missale," published July 25, 
1920, by the authority of the Supreme 
Pontiflf. Special attention is paid to the 
new rubrics concerning Votive and Requiem 
Masses. 
Two Catholic Stories 

Father John Talbot Smith's "The Boy 
Who Come Back" is a fine Catholic story 
with a very interesting boy's plot. But it is 
really a girl's book as well. The author 
brings out some of the many difficulties that 
confront the Catholic family, when the 
father leaves. The plot is centered about a 
lad who, with the help of a priest, is finally 
put on the right path, after suffering many 
serious trials. It is a well-told story. (Blase 
Benziger & Co., Inc.) 

"Denys the Dreamer" (Benziger Brothers) 
is one of the latest romantic novels of 
Katharine Tynan Hinkson. The author 
gives us a picture of Irish farm life and a 
sketch of a kind, prosperous Irishman. The 
haughtiness, harmless superstition, and 
cheerfulness that distinguish some of her 
characters, are well depicted. Sad and 
cheerful incidents are happily interwoven. 
The story is chiefly centered about Denys 
Dawn and her father Lord Leenane — ^life- 
like and well-developed figures. Denys has 
many dreams and most of them come true. 
Chapter VII, "The Auction," is a vivacious 
account of an incident with which most 
people in Ireland are familiar. 

Books Received 

A Great Mistake. A Novel by Mrs. G. J. 

Romanes. 384 pp. 8vo. Sands & Co. and 

B. Herder Book Co. $2 net. 
Once upon Eternity. By Enid Dennis. 271 

pp. i2mo. Sands & Co. and B. Herder 

Book Co. $1.75 "et. 
Scbdncre Ziikiinft. Kriegsaufsatze iiber Kul- 

tur- und Wirtschaftsleben. Von Dr. Joseph 

Eberle. 4tcs bis 6tes Tausend. 307 PP- 

i2mo. Ratisbon : Fr. Pustet. 
The Divine Master's Portrait. A Series ot 

Short Essays on the Spirit of Christ bj 

Rev. Joseph Degen. vi & 72 pp. i6mo. 

Sands & Co. and B. Herder Book Co. 

50 cts. net. 
Lnurdes. By the V. Rev. Msgr. Robert Hugh 

Benson. (New Impression.) With Eight 

full-page Illustrations, viii & 83 pp. i2mo. 

?^Ianresa Press and B. Herder Book Co. 

90 cts. net. 



The Western 
Catholic Union 



A Legally Solvent Adequate Rate 
Catholic Fraternal Society 




^ Forty-four years old. 

^ Based on Sound, Sensible and Scien- 
tific Principles. 

% Devoid of Red Tape and Catholic to 
the core. 

^ Three popular forms of certificates 
issued— 20 pay Whole Life Certificate 
with all modern cash loan, paid up, 
and extended insurance features. 

^ This certificate is fully paid up after 
twenty consecutive payments have 
been made. 

H Whole Life Special. This is a Whole 
Life Certificate with modern up-to- 
date cash loan, paid up and extended 
insurance features. 

^ Ordinary Whole Life. Just a plain 
up-to-date Whole Life Insurance Cer- 
tificate with Old Age Benefits at- 
tached. 

JUVENILE SECTION 
S\ Two plans, Term Rate and Whole 
Life with all modern cash, paid up 
and extended features. 



ti For full information and induce- 
ments in reference to organizing new 
branches address 

'W.C.U. Headquarters 

Illinois State Bank Building 
Quincy, Illinois 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 5 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



March 1, 1922 



The Reckoning of Time in Canon Law 

By the Rev. P. Charles Augustine, 0. S. B., Conception Abbey, Mo. 



Rev. Dr. J. Lacou, S.C.J., has 
published an interesting Latin 
monograph, "De Tempore," by 
wa}' of commentary on Title III 
of the First Book of the new Code 
of Canon Law (49 pages; P. Ma- 
rietti, Turin). He treats of 
"time" from tlie philosophical, 
the scientific or astronomical, and 
the juridical viewpoint. The first 
part is a brief but clear exposition 
of the Aristotelian-Scholastic con- 
cept of time, "mensura motus 
secundutn prius et posterius." 

Part II is devoted to the scien- 
tific-empirical explanation of the 
movement of the earth around the 
sun and around its own axis. The 
sun divides time into years, days, 
and hours; the moon distributes 
the months. Of Ihe single divisions 
the author treats astronomically, 
referring to the reformation of 
the calendar by Julius Caesar, 45 
B. C, and by Gregorv XIII, A.D. 
1582. Under Chapters II and III 
the tempus locale verum, the tem- 
pus locale medium, and the tempus 
locale regioncde are explained. 

Part Til is, canonically speak- 
ing, the most interesting one. The 
author lays down two principles : 
(1) Tnless stated otherwise, time 
must be reckoned physically, i. e., 
mathematically, not morally; (2) 
Unless stated otherwise, time 
must always be complete and full. 
On the basis of these two rules 
he rejects the ancient axioms : 
''Pa nun pro nihilo reputatur," 



and ''Dies incepta habetur pro 
completa." The consequence is 
important for the year of the 
novitiate. Canon 34, ^3, 3° is ex- 
plained as to the beginning of the 
day, initium diei, which, Lacou 
says, can only mean from mid- 
night on. AVliat we say in Vol. I 
of our Commentary on the New 
Code (Herder), p. 121, needs no 
correction. But what we say in 
Vol. Ill, p. 232, would have to be 
corrected according to this strict- 
ly mathematical way of comput- 
ing, so that one who began the 
novitiate on June 21, 1921, could 
make profession only on June 22, 
1922, unless he had started the 
novitiate precisely at 12 o'clock 
at night, June 21, 1921. However, 
it may be permitted to state that 
legal acts are not performed at 
midnight — in fact, according to 
English law, they can be legally 
performed onlj^ after daybreak. 
Besides, from 8 o'clock on June 
21, 1921, to 8 o'clock sharp on 
June 21, 1922, there are 365 days, 
and 365 days, according to can. 
32, §2, make a year — the period 
required for the validity of the 
novitiate. 

Yet we should rather be rigor- 
ous as to time, if nothing else is 
stated. Thus it is distinctly laid 
down in can. 34, §3, n. 5, that acts 
recurring at stated times, for in- 
stance, profession after a term of 
three years, temporary vows, etc., 
may be performed the whole re- 



82 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



curring da 3'. Hence if one has 
made the first temporary profes- 
sion (viz., after the novitiate) on 
June 21, 1921, he may pronounce 
his perpetual vows on June 21, 
1924, at any time of the day. Dr. 
Lacou (p. 46) gives the following- 
reason : because it is the same act, 
viz., religious profession, which is 
not only not interrupted, but rath- 
er extended indefinitely — in infiul- 
tum. We might take exception to 
this reasoning, because the very 
name, ''triennial vows," spells a 
definite period, otherwise the re- 
ligious could not freely leave the 
religious state after the lapse of 
this term (can. 637). It w^as true 
in former days when the vows 
were perpetual on the side of the 
vowing person. 

There is a hitch somewhere in 
spite of Dr. Lacou 's explanation. 
Of course, a decision may make 
law, but whether it be borne out 
by the text, is another question. 
This w^e state, not to belittle the 
really pleasing, and generally ac- 
ceptal)le tlioories so well and 
clearly developed by the young 
canonist, but simply to set forth 
our impartial view. Dr. Lacou 's 
pamphlet is heartily recommended 
to all interested in the reckoning 
of time. 

Should Old Letters Be Kept? 

A contributor to the Irish Ec- 
clesiastical Record (No. 646) 
answers this question as follows : 

Yes, they should be treasured. 
Long ago there was a pilgrim 
saint who left Ireland after a long 
and hard training. He w^as a 
sturdy resolute man and bis na- 
ture and courage were perfected 
— where everything is perfected 
— on the shores of Lough Erne. 
When in his monastery at Bobbio, 
his sturdiness and courage had 



grown, he wrote civil, loving, 
humble letters to Pope Gregory. 
But to Pope Boniface he wrote 
letters of admonition and advice 
in a disagreement that had sprung 
up at Rome. ''Vigila, itaque, quae- 
so. Papa, vigila, et iterum dico, 
vigila, quia forte Vigilius (537- 
555) quem caput scandali isti cla- 
mant qui nobis culpam injiciunt. 
Vigila primo pro fide . . . Ut mun- 
des cathedram Petri ab omni hor- 
rore, si qui est, ut aiunt intromis- 
sus, si non puritas agnoscatur ab 
omnibus. Dolendum enim ac de- 
flendum est, si in sede Apostolica 
fides Catholica non tenetur." {Ep. 
Columhani, V. ad Bonifac). The 
writer was a saint. He was far 
from Ireland, and hence no pru- 
dent, charitable man condemned 
his letters to the Pope. If he had 
been living in recent years, pru- 
dence, charity, counsel, want of 
foresight, and fear of scandal 
would have gathered round his as- 
sets as residuary legatees and 
made light — bonfires — of his pre- 
cious letters. 

And then, the greatest letters 
of all, the letters of St. Paul, teach 
us so much moral theology, dog- 
matic theology, history, mysti- 
cism, that they have escaped the 
flames. They show us the great 
saint and the great and glorious 
apostle. His real, glowing love, 
his courage, his gospel of work, 
his sorrows, his joys, his patriot- 
ism, his pride, his temper, his 
kind, kind heart. 

Yes, old letters should be kept, 
carefully kept, and carefully 
sorted. 

— Some people in forgetfulness 
speak of the poor as the lower classes. 
From the point of view of Our Lord 
they are the higher classes. If their 
poverty is voluntary they are God's 
aristocracy. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Sanity in Social Reform 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S, J. 



'^TliG modem social question 
cannot be fought through or blun- 
dered through ; it must be thought 
through," says Prof. F. G. Pea- 
body of Harvard in his latest 
book, "The Education of the 
American Citizen." Every clear- 
thinking person will recognize the 
wisdom of this assertion and ap- 
preciate its epigrammatic force. 

For years we have been wrest- 
ling with what has been vaguely 
called "the social question." 
Books have been written about it, 
and discussion concerning its nu- 
merous phases never ceases. We 
have been forcibly reminded of the 
truth of Dr. Peabody's remarks 
while reading the following words 
of the late James Bryce's work, 
' ^ Modern Democracies ' ' : 

"Democracy has brought no 
nearer friendly feeling and the 
sense of human brotherhood 
amongst the peoples of the world 
towards one another. Neither has 
it created good will and a sense of 
unity and civic fellowship within 
each of these peoples. . . . Liberty 
and equality have not been fol- 
lowed by fraternity. Not even far 
off do we see her coming shine. It 
has not enlisted in the service of 
the state nearly so much of the best 
political capacity as each country 
possesses and every country needs 
for dealing with the domestic and 
international questions of the 
present age. It has not purified 
or dignified politics, nor escaped 
the "pernicious influence which the 
money power can exert. . . . Last- 
ly, democracy has not induced that 
satisfaction and contentment with 
itself as the best form of govern- 
ment which was expected, and has 
not exorcised the spirit that seeks 



to attain its aims by revolution." 
Many American readers will be 
somewhat disconcerted by this ap- 
parent under-estimate of the 
value of "democracy" and its 
achievements. But no one knew 
democratic governments and insti- 
tutions more intimately than Vis- 
count Bryce. A man of wide ex- 
perience, and a ripe student of 
world politics, he was competent 
to pass judgment on matters of 
government. 

The reason for the failure of 
democracy to heal our political 
ills, and to bring us the much de- 
sired peace and happiness, is 
found in the words of Dr. Pea- 
body. Our legislators and public 
men and diplomats have not 
"thought through" the questions 
that confronted them. Frequently 
they went ahead blindly A\ithout 
so much as a definite "w^orking 
principle" of reform. Witness the 
many abortive attempts to recon- 
cile the conflicting demands of 
capital and labor, to vindicate the 
"rights of the smaller nations." 
Recall the utter failure of the 
"Treaty of Versailles," the sad 
fate that overtook "the fourteen 
points," the discussions that 
sprang up between the nations im- 
mediately after the "Peace 
Treaty. ' ' Remember too, the many 
attempts at what has been well 
called "fool legislation," the de- 
sire on the part of some fanatics 
to impose their will upon the mul- 
titude, the threatening invasion of 
personal and family rights by un- 
wise and sometimes uiijust meas- 
ures with regard to education, 
marriage, etc. 

In the presence of all this, Dr. 
Peabody's words come to mind. 



84 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



March I 



Those occupying- the seats of the 
mighty haye not ''thought 
through" their plans of social re- 
construction. They haye ''fought 
through" them, — worse still, they 
haye egregiously "blundered 
through" measures which they 
hastily and unwisely forced upon 
a willing, an unthinking, an un- 
suspecting people, or one too neg- 
ligent concerning its social and 
political rights. 

Our best political students agree 
with Lord Bryce in his indictment 
of some of the eyils of modern 
democracy. In his work, "Back to 
the Republic," Mr. Harry F. At- 
wood has exposed the fallacy of 
the notion that the cure for the ills 
of popular goyernment is more 
democracy, and warned against 
political experiments and innoya- 
tions. 



In a more recent book, "Safe- 
guarding American Ideals," he 
points out the dangerous tenden- 
cies of irreligion, shallow and 
faulty education, class conscious- 
ness and contempt for law. 

Has not the Church, and have 
not all the programmes of social 
reconstruction inspired by Chris- 
tian principles of justice and 
charity, fought the four great eyils 
mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph? The Church "thinks 
through," she does not "blunder 
through" the modern social ques- 
tion. The increasing demand for a 
return to sanity and to Christian 
principles in the matter of social 
reform and legislation, is an elo- 
quent proof of the strength and 
wisdom of her position. 

Albert Muntsch, S. J. 



The Offertory of the Mass for the Dead 



The offertory of the Mass "in 
commemoratione omnium defunc- 
torum" ("Domine Jesu Christe, 
Rex gloriae, libera animas omnium 
fidelium defunctorum. de poenis 
inferni et de profundo lacu: libera 
eas de ore leonis, ne absorbeat eas 
tartarus, ne cadant in obscurum: 
sed signifer sanctus Michael re- 
praesentet eas in lucem sanctam, 
etc.") must haye puzzled many a 
faithful Catholic. In the "Litur- 
gical Notes for the Month" con- 
tributed to the Noyember issue of 
the Homiletic and Pastoral Re- 
view (Jos. F. Wagner, Inc., 
Vol. XXII, No. 2) we read on 
this subject: 

"The offertory is of great anti- 
quity — in fact it is the only offer- 
tory which preserves its antique 
character, composed as it is of 
antiphon, refrain, and versicle. 



It is not easy to explain its mean- 
ing. . . The Church prays that God 
would 'save the souls of all the 
faithful departed from the pains 
of hell and from the deep pit . . . 
and suffer not endless darkness 
to enshroud them. Rather do Thou 
bid holy Michael, thy standard- 
bearer, to bring them forth into 

glorious light ' That there is 

no redemption in hell is a dogma 
of the Church. To explain the 
words of this Offertory, some 
commentators suggest that when 
Holy Church prays for deliver- 
ance from 'the pains of hell,' 'the 
deep pit,' 'the lion's mouth,' she 
only uses very emphatic language 
to describe the pains of Purga- 
tor}'. Now, though we know that 
these pains are very great, in fact, 
we have no terms in which to de- 
scribe or express them, as they 



192^ 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



85 



are utterly different from any- 
thing that may come within our 
experience, owing to the different 
state in which the separated soul 
finds itself — none the less, such 
terms seem altogether unsuitable 
as a description of a strictly tem- 
poral punishment. Holy Church 
is ahvays most careful and moder- 
ate in her expressions and her 
prayer is ever in harmony with 
strictest theology. Therefore it is 
surely nearer the truth to say that 
in this offertory, the Church 
prays, not so much for those who 
have already departed this life. 
Eather does she consider the 
struggle of the departing soul. In 
that supreme moment the dread 
lion, who is ever going round, 
seeking whom he may devour — 
roars his loudest, makes his 
fiercest attack upon the soul. Well 
may we pray that we may be saved 
in that moment * from the deep pit ' 
and 'the lake of fire' — for there 
is always danger as long as the 
breath of life is within us. So we 
should look upon the offertory as 
the Church's supplication, not so 
much for the dead, as for the dy- 
ing. The word defunct us is sus- 
ceptible of this interpretation. 
Certain it is that many prayers 
which are said at the burial of the 
dead, are really retrospective, 
that is, are prayers for the mo- 
ment of death, not for the dead." 



y^^ 



The Catholics of Georgia 

The Btdletin of the Catholic 
Laymen's Association of Georgia, 
repeatedly referred to of late in 
the F. R., now appears semi- 
monthly as a regular Catholic 
newspaper of tw^elve five-column 
pages. The first number (Jan. 25) 
announces that the Bulletin will 



devote particular attention to the 
activities of the Catholics of 
Georgia. This is a good program- 
me, for it is in the local field that 
the Btdletin' s special mission lies. 
And in serving the Catholics of 
Georgia it will fill a place which 
no other C itholic journal can or 
does fill. 

The Bullatin's patriotism rings 
true: It is a fallacy "that the 
Catholics in Georgia (and other 
Southern States) should not be 
loyal to our State. Yet we were 
born in Georgia, most of us. 
Georgia is rich to us in childhood 
memories. Our families and homes 
are here, and most of our friends. 
All that we have or hope to get in 
a temporal way Georgia has given 
to us. In her bosom, on some 
sun-kissed hillside, we hope to be 
laid when the Master calls. We 
are ashamed of some things in 
Georgia and of some outside sup- 
posedly representing Georgia ; but 
we are not ashamed of the great 
body of our fellow-citizens, and it 
is no more sensible, no more fair, 
no more indicative of Christian 
charity to condemn Georgia or the 
South for the actions of Stephen- 
son and our Junior Senator [Tom 
Watson] than to condemn Catho- 
lics or the Church for the shame 
of a few. Catholics resent that, 
and justly. The lesson is plain. 
What some persons need is the 
spirit of charity which is 'not 
puffed up.' " 

Conducted in that spirit the 
Bulletin of the Catholic Laymen's 
Association of Georgia will un- 
doubtedly accomplish much to- 
wards dispelling the anti-Catholic 
prejudice so prevalent in the 
South. We wish this excellent 
journal many years of successful 
apologetic activity. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



Schlogl's New Testament on the Index 
We see from the Salzburg Ka- 
tholische Kirchenzeitunq , of Jan. 
19tli, that the Rev. Dr. Nivard 
Schlogl's German translation of 
the New Testament has been 
placed on the Roman Index of 
Forbidden Books. 

Dr. Schlogi is a Cistercian and 
professor of Old Testament Ex- 
egesis and Oriental Languages at 
the University of Vienna. His 
translation of the New Testament, 
published a little over a year ago, 
gave rise to a heated discussion in 
Austria, Germany, and Switzer- 
land. Many critics objected to 
Dr. Schlogi's neglect of the Latin 
Vulgate, the official version of the 
Church, and the freedom with 
which he set aside as spurious or 
doubtful many texts which the 
Church has always regarded as 
genuine. 

We note from the Augsburger 
Postzeitung, of Jan. 24th, that Dr. 
Schlogi was called to Rome some 
time ago bv C'ardinal Merry del 
Val, Prefect of the Holy Office, of 
which the Index Congregation 
now forms a part, and promised 
to withdraw his translation of the 
New Testament from the market 
until the objections raised against 
it had been duly considered. Evi- 
dently, the official investigation 
has resulted unfavorably. 

Meanwhile Dr. Schlogi has pub- 
lished the first volume of a new 
translation of the Old Testament 
("Die heiligen Schriften des Alten 
Bundes, aus dem kritisch wieder- 
hergestellten hebraischen Urtexte 
libersetzt und kurz erlautert"; 
Vienna : Burgverlag, Richter & 
Zoller, 1922), which reached us 
only the other day and after a 
cursory perusal of which we are 
inclined to think that, despite its 



undoubted merits, it will also be 
placed on the Index, because the 
objections raised against the au- 
thor's translation of the New Tes- 
tament apply with equal, if not 
greater force to his translation of 
the Old. 

It is too bad that so much hon- 
est labor and profound erudition 
should go to waste; but the Cath- 
olic Church has her inexorable 
rules with regard to the text of 
Sacred Scripture and the Schlogi 
incident once again proves that 
now, as before, she watches with 
never ceasing care over its integ- 
rity and over the translations and 
versions through which it is made 
accessible to the faithful. 



The Rosary Tradition 

A new presentment of the tradi- 
tion connecting St. Dominic with 
the early developments of the 
Rosary, by Father L. A. Gentino, 
0. P., is noted in the Month for 
January. It appears that this 
Spanish Dominican is content to 
accept a very much milder inter- 
pretation of the tradition of his 
Order than that which has been 
commonly current, — an interpre- 
tation, indeed, not presented in 
any Dominican work before the 
jjontificate of Leo XIII. 

''Anyone," writes Father Gen- 
tino, ''who expects to find in the 
historical strata of the thirteenth 
century a type of Rosary such as 
we say to-day, is like a man hunt- 
ing for a magazine rifle or a mod- 
ern motor-boat in a museum of 
medieval antiquities." 

On this the Month writer (Fa- 
ther Herbert Thurston) remarks: 
' ' Exactly so ; that is what we have 
always maintained. The Rosary 
devotion is a conspicuous example 
of slow and gradual evolution. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



87 



The first stages of the develop- 
ment may be traced back to a time 
more than a century before St. 
Dominic was born, while it only 
reached its complete and perma- 
nent form two centuries and a half 
after his death in the days of Alan 
de Rupe. . . . Father Gentino, if 
v/e rightly interpret him, consid- 
ers that no more can be claimed 
for St. Dominic than that he pop- 
ularized the practice of reciting 
the Ave, by preference many times 
in succession, but without any 
special direction as to the number 



of repetitions or as to the system- 
atic insertion of Paters, or as to 
meditation on prescribed subjects 
or classes of subjects." 

Here, certainly, is a much lesser 
claim than that which attributes 
the revelation by Our Lady to St. 
Dominic of the devotion as we 
know it to-day, except that the 
three sets of mysteries were no 
more defined than as being con- 
cerned with the Incarnation, Pas- 
sion, and Glorification respect- 
ively. 



Fr. Junipero Serra and the Military Heads of California 

By Francis Borgia Steck, 0. F. M. 



VI {Conclusion) 
One should think that so humble and 
unselfish an appeal would have soften- 
ed the heart, and even opened the pri- 
vate purse, of a man who was enjoying 
an annual cash salary of $4,000. But 
far from it. A few weeks later, on No= 
vember 5, Neve informed the two mis- 
sionaries that he would abide by the 
Reglamento, which did not provide ra- 
tions for them, inasmuch as they were 
no longer supernumeraries, but were 
now in charge of a mission with the 
annual allowance of $400. "This," as 
Fr. Engelhardt rightly points out, "was 
mere quibbling. The rations were 
granted for five years from January 1, 
1774, to the supernumeraries, who 
were waiting for their missions to be 
founded. They could not lose the right 
to them when the missions at last were 
established. On the contrary, they 
needed them more than ever just then. 
At all events, the law must be inter- 
preted in the light of the viceroy's 
wishes ; these were clear. Moreover, if 
the friars of San Francisco were not 
entitled to the double rations on the 
ground that the mission was founded 
after January 1, 1774, on what 
grounds were the double, extra rations 
granted at the same time, continued to 
the soldiers and immigrants of the 
presidio, which was also established 



after that date and for the sake of the 
mission?" ^^ 

After his return from the southern 
establishments, Fr. Serra interviewed 
the governor, who had previously writ- 
ten to him on the matter. Needless to 
say, his appeal fell on deaf ears. On 
January 5, 1779, the Fr. Presidente ad- 
dressed a lengthy letter to Neve ; and 
when this, too, had no effect, he re= 
ferred the case to the Fr. Guardian of 
San Fernando College, who, in turn, 
laid it before Viceroy Mayorga. We 
need not follow the controversy 
further. What has been said amply 
suffices to show, on the one hand, Fr. 
Serra's just and conciliatory method 
of procedure in such cases, and, on the 
other hand, the provoking conduct of 
California's unworthy first governor. 
If in the end Neve gained his point, 
it was not because he was right, but 
because in Mexico he had an ally, as 
unchristian and unscrupulous as him- 
self, in the comandante-general of the 
lately organized Provincial Internas. 
With a man like Don Teodoro de 
Croix for his immediate superior and 
powerful abettor. Governor Neve 
dared to meddle even in an afifair that 
was absolutely outside his jurisdiction. 



38 The Missions and Missionaries of Cali- 
fornia, Vol. II, p. 285, note 18. 



88 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



By September 19, 1776, all the 
requisite formalities had been observed 
regarding the faculty of administering 
the Sacrament of Confirmation which 
the Holy See, under date of July 10, 
1774, granted to the comisario-prefecto 
of the Franciscans in New Spain and 
to his successors with powers to sub- 
delegate one Father of each of ttie 
four missionary colleges under his 
jurisdiction. The Father designated for 
San Fernando College was Fr. Serra, 
who received the documents with 
copies of the papal brief in June, 1778. 
The faculty had been granted for ten 
years from the date of concession. Ac= 
cordingly, only six years remained for 
Fr. Serra in which to exercise the 
faculty, and naturally he hastened to 
avail himself of it for the spiritual 
benefit of his beloved neophytes. How 
zealously he prepared them in the vari- 
ous missions of the south for the re- 
ception of the Sacrament, what un- 
speakable hardships he underwent in 
the discharge of this new phase of his 
many duties, is foreign to the scope 
of this paper. We can picture it all to 
ourselves if we rememiber that, within 
a little more than a year, he had visited 
all the southern missions and, includ- 
ing his own neophytes at San Carlos, 
had confirmed 2,997 persons, very few 
of whom were not Indians. 

Then, like a bolt out of the blue, 
came a letter from Governor Neve. 
With a zeal that lacked nothing but a 
worthy motive, the arrogant and 
meddlesome official questioned the 
friar's right to confirm, alleging that 
the faculty had received neither the 
royal nor the viceroyal pase or written 
sanction. In reply, Fr. Serra assured 
him that all was in order. Thereupon 
Neve curtly demanded that the mis= 
sionary show him the papal brief 
granting the faculty, the letters patent 
designating who was to exercise it in 
California, and finally the pase of the 
proper civil authorities. Fr. Serra, in 
turn, replied that the only papers he 
liad were the ones proving that the 
faculty had been granted and that he 
had been appointed to exercise it; that 



the pase had been duly given, he told 
the governor, was clear from the en- 
closed letter which Viceroy Bucareh 
had written congratulating him on his 
appointment and on the great number 
he had already confirmed. To this 
Neve objected that California was no 
longer under the immediate jurisdic- 
tion of the viceroy, and that conse- 
quently the pase of the vice-patrono 
was necessary. "Well, then," the Fr. 
Presidente asked, "who is the vice- 
patrono?" The comandante answered 
that for the Provincias Internas it was 
Comandante=General De Croix, and 
for California he, the governor. "In 
that case," Fr. Serra ofifered, "the mat- 
ter can be easily settled. Here your 
Honor has the appointment papers and 
the faculty giving me the right to con- 
firm. I beg you to affix the pase, in or- 
der that these poor people may not be 
deprived of so great a blessing; for, 
inasmuch as the power is granted for 
only ten years, it will expire with 
them." In reply, the governor haughti- 
ly demanded the original documents 
and insultingly admonished Fr. Serra 
not to administer the Sacrament until 
he had produced them together with 
instructions from the Comandante- 
General De Croix. ^^ 

Only too soon this foolish and un- 
warranted interference in a purely spir- 
itual matter threw the_ Fr. Presidente 
into a vexatious predicament. Early in 
the fall of 1779, the officers of an ex- 
ploring party sent word to Mission San 
Carlos that they wished to meet the 
Fr. Presidente, and for that reason re- 
quested him to come to San Francisco. 
At first, Fr. Serra declined the invita- 
tion, because, if he visited the two 
northern missions and refrained from 
confirming, Indians as well as whites 
would demand an explanation ; and to 
give this would surely cause scandal. 
He reflected, however, that they would 
at all events look for reasons why he 
was denying them the spiritual advan- 



39 Fr. Palou, Vida, pp. 234-240.— This 
action of Neve was too much even for 
Theodore Hittell. See his History of Cali- 
fornia, Vol. I, pp. 420-421. 



I9;i2 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



lages he had offered the others in the 
south. Finally, for once (and justly 
so), he disregarded the governor's 
warning, proceeded to the north, and 
confirmed at both missions/'^ This 
done, he immediately returned to San 
Carlos and thenceforth for about a year 
and a half desisted from administering 
the Sacrament publicly,*^ although he 
was sure that he had the faculty, since 
all the requisite formalities, civil as 
well as ecclesiastical, had been duly ob- 
serv'-ed, and that Neve's interference 
was actuated solely by a base determi- 
nation to humiliate him. Weighing 
these facts, one is at a loss what to 
admire more, Fr. Serra's meekness or 
Governor Neve's impudence. 

How the unworthy governor mean- 
w^iile created new difficulties regarding 
the original documents, how the matter 
was transacted in Mexico, how wan- 
tonly De Croix, Neve's ally, insulted 
the Fr. Presidente, how meekly yet 
firmly . the latter answered the mean 
insinuation, and how the viceroy finally 
put an end to the dispute by declaring 
that the government's pase had been 
duly affixed — all this forms a long and 
sad story, too long and too sad for 
repetition here.^- In conclusion, let us 
see to what extremes the towering pride 
and shameless knavery of a man like 



*" For this some are inclined to criticise 
Fr. Serra. As if the licit and valid admini- 
stration of a Sacrament depended on the 
approval of a petty civil governor. Both sub- 
jectively and objectively Fr. Serra was right. 
He was absolutely sure that he had the 
faculty to confirm, and as to Neve's inter- 
ference, it was entirely unwarranted. A 
man less humble and peace-loving than Fr. 
Serra, would have simply ignored Neve's 
assumption and told the meddlesome gov- 
ernor that, if he still had any doubts in the 
matter, he might consult the proper author- 
ities in Mexico. 

•*i Privately, however, he did confirm about 
eleven persons, at different times, in cases 
where he could not help himself without 
causing astonishment. But he exercised the 
faculty so secretly that even Fr. Palou, his 
intimate friend and biographer, knew noth- 
ing of it ; and therefore he makes no men- 
tion of it in his Vida, but says simply that 
Fr. Serra refrained from administering the 
Sacrament. 

■*- See The Missions and Missionaries of 
California, Vol. II, pp. 297-318. 



Neve can go. On March 26, 1781, he 
wrote to his equally unworthy abettor, 
De Croix: 

"Fr. Junipero Serra says he sent his 
patents, etc., to the Fr. Guardian. I 
do not proceed to take possession of 
and search the papers, because, it not 
being certain that he sent them away, 
he will with his unspeakable artifice 
and shrewdness have hid them, and the 
result would be- delay in the Channel 
foundations, since these Fathers will 
not furnish the supplies which they 
have to contribute. There is no vexa- 
tion which those reHgious when exas- 
perated will not attempt in their bound- 
less and incredible pride, since on more 
than four occasions my policy and 
moderation was not enough to turn 
them from the opposition with which 
they surreptitiously conspired against 
the government and its ordinances.*^ 
At a more opportune time, certain 
measures may be taken which for the 
present it has been judged necessary to 
postpone, in order to bring this Fr. 
Presidente to a proper acknowledgment 
of the authority which he eludes while 
he pretends to obey it." ** 

Fr. Serra especially must have drawn 
a long breath when, toward the end of 
August, 1782, he learned that the gov- 
ernor had been ordered to take over the 
office of inspector-general of the troops 
under De Croix. If this was a promo- 
tion, then we have here a case of pro- 
movetur tit amoveatur. It may be 
added briefly that, in the early part of 
the next year. Neve succeeded his 
stanch ally as comandante-general. This 
office placed him in immediate control 
of the California missions. But fortun- 
ately his term was not to last long. He 
departed this life in November, 1784, 
three months after the saintly death of 
the man he had wronged so deeply. 

Fr. Serra and Governor Faces 
We have now to consider Fr. Serra's 
relations with Don Pedro Fages, with 
whom as governor, "he managed best, 



■*3 Here Neve is unwittingly delineating an 
excellent picture of himself. 

" Cal. Arch., Prov. Rec., Vol. II, pp. 278- 
282. 



90 



THE FOBTNIGHTLY BEVIEW 



Mnrch 1 



perhaps," but who "had at an earlier 
time lost his post as a result of Serra's 
complaints to the viceroy." *^ Why 
Fr. Serra launched his complaints and 
with what justice, has already been 
shown. As to Fages's term of govern- 
orship, there is very little to say. If the 
Fr. Presidente "managed best, perhaps" 
with him, we should be able to account 
for it. Let us see. During the first 
nine months of his term. Governor 
Fages was very careful to follow the 
instructions so often rehearsed by the 
government for the benefit of its rep- 
resentatives in the missions ; and during 
the next nine months, from March, 
1783, to January, 1784, Fages happened 
to be in Lower Cahfornia, whither he 
liad gone to meet and bring up his wife 
\vho wished to share his company at 
Monterey. Meanwhile, the Fr. Presi- 
dente was busy making use of the last 
few days that, he felt, were left him 
here on earth, for the spiritual and 
temporal advancement of his beloved 
missions. In January, 1784, both Fr. 
Serra and Governor Fages returned to 
Monterey — the former sick unto death 
and the latter sufficiently humane to let 
the aged and ailing friar spend his last 
days in peace.**^ How Fages would have 
agreed with the man who "was almost 
incessantly at outs with every governor 
of the province," *~ we can conclude 
from his conduct toward Fr. Lasuen, 
who, there is no question, "worthily 
filled the post of the great Junipero,"** 
and whose presidency was as providen- 
tial as that of his glorious predecessor. 
Any one intimately acquainted with 
the mission history of California will 
agree that, if Fr. Lasuen's presidency 
(1785-1803) was more tranquil than 
Fr. Serra's, it was not because Fr. 
Lasuen was more eager to preserve 
harmony with the governors, but solely 
because these latter (barring Fages) 
observed their instructions and were 
more devoted to the cause for which 
the missionaries continued to sacrifice 



themselves. Nor is there any need at 
all of wondering "if Lasuen might not 
have done equally well, if the chance 
[of Fr. SerraJ had fallen to him." ^'^ 
Considering the perverse attitude of the 
petty officers whom the missionaries 
had to deal with during the first fifteen 
years of their activity in California, it 
is not at all disparaging to the memory- 
of Fr. Lasuen if the reader is remind- 
ed that on three different occasions, be- 
tween the years 1774 and 1779,^'' Fr. 
Lasuen, discouraged and disgusted, 
asked for permission to leave the mis- 
sions and retire to the college in 
Mexico ; whereas Fr. Serra, neither in 
his official nor in his unofficial corre- 
spondence, ever made the slightest 
mention of abandoning the spiritual 
conquest, but always endeavored and 
mostly contrived to infuse new courage 
into Fr. Lasuen and the other mission- 
aries. 

But comparisons are odious, especial- 
ly when made between two men like 
Fr. Serra, the great Apostle of Califor- 
nia, and Fr. Lasuen, his scholarly con- 
frere, zealous fellow-missionary and 
worthy successor. Only this we will 
say: One may just as well turn the 
above reflection around and wonder 
whether Fr. Lasuen would have been 
"far more successful in maintaining 
harmonious relations with the mili- 
tary," ^^ if he had had Comandantes 



*5 C. H. R., ut supra, p. 146. 
♦« He passed to his eternal reward that 
same year, on August 28. 
47 C. H. R.. ut supra, p. 146. 
^s Ibidem, p. 154. 



*9 I bid on, p. 154. 

50 Once, in 1774; see Fr. Lasuen to Fr. 
Francisco Pangua, April 23, I774. Musco 
Xaciotial; also listed in Dr. Bolton's Guide, 
p. 198. — Again, early in 1776: see Fr. Palou. 
Xoticias, Vol. IV. pp. 183, 184. — A third 
time, in 1779; see Fr. Serra to Fr. Lasuen, 
March 29, 1779. Sta. Barb. Arch. — Dr. Chap- 
man admits that "as a man Lasuen never de- 
sired to stay in the Californias." He fails to 
assign the reason, however, insisting only 
that "as a religious he accepted with resigna- 
tion the duty imposed upon him" (C. H. R., 
ut supra, p. 147, note 54") which latter applies 
admirably also to Fr. Serra. From the letter 
written probably in 1784 by Fr. Lasuen to 
the Fr. Guardian and adduced by Dr. Chap- 
man (ibidem) it is quite clear what Fr. La- 
si-en would have done if he had been presi- 
dente at the time when Fr. Serra held the 
office. In that letter, he threatens to ask to 
retire if Neve's plan goes into effect. 

51 C. H. R.. ut supra, p. i.=^4. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



91 



Fages and Rivera and Governor Neve 
to deal with. On the other hand, how 
much greater in the eyes of the world 
would Fr. Serra's glory be to-day if 
his term of office had been blessed with 
the whole-hearted cooperation of mili- 
tary heads like the conscientious Borica 
and the saintly Arrillaga. This much 
is certain: if historians of later years 
had been fair and upright enough to 
present facts as they found them in the 
sources, Fr. Junipero Serra, the Apos- 
tle of California, would by this time 
have found a place in our country's 
Hall of Fame. 



Correspondence 

More Than a Change of Heart Needed 
for Social Reform 

To the Editor: — 

The "Catholic Laboringman" who 
has repeatedly contributed timely re- 
marks on social reform to the F. R., 
does well to point out (No. 4, pp. 68 
sqq.) the weakness of ever harping on 
a "return to Christian principles" and 
on the "need of spiritual regeneration,'" 
— as if these alone would do away with 
all our social troubles. He rightly ad- 
mits that this "return" is necessary, but 
a.'^serts with equal correctness that the 
monotonous insistence on that slogan, 
without offering more practical reme- 
dies, only serves to make our position 
ridiculous. We shall rightly be accused 
of merely "beating the air" and of cau- 
tiously side-stepping the questions at 
issue. Those who point out this danger 
to our speakers and writers are deserv- 
ing of our gratitude and are good 
workers in the cause of social reform. 

In her book, "The Church and the 
Hour," Vida D. Scudder has an inter- 
esting remark about those who do noth- 
ing in the high cause of redressing 
social evils and industrial wrongs ex- 
cept to plead for a "change of heart" 
and return to "principles." "It may be 
tnaterialistic," she says, "to object to 
external poverty and sordidness ; but 
nc one has a right to say so unless he is 
prepared to welcome such conditions 
for his own relatives. It may be super- 
ficial to look to legislation as a cure for 



social evils; but the people who think 
so must be prepared with other cures. 
They must not be permitted to fall back 
on charity, whether 'scrimped or iced,' 
or warm and efficient; that solution is 
far outgrown. Neither may they dis- 
miss the subject with the sententious 
remark that the one thing necessary is 
a change of heart. Necessary? Cer- 
tainly! Change of heart is the begin- 
ning, it is not the end. Changed hearts 
all around, by hundreds and by thou- 
sands, are trying to express their con- 
version in social action. Has the 
Church no guidance to give to hearts 
when they have been changed?" 

A. M. 

The Alleged German Cruelties 
in Belgium 

To the Editor: — 

My neighbor, the Rev. G. Vermeulen, 
of Cedar Rapids, Neb., last year (1921) 
visited Belgium, his native country. 
After his return to Cedar Rapids, I 
asked him: What did you find out 
about the German atrocities in Bel- 



gmm . 



It is surprising, he said, but 



the people of Belgium know nothing 
about it. I drove much about the coun- 
try, and often saw children with crip- 
pled legs, arms, blind in one eye, etc., 
but when I stopped and asked them 
whether the Germans did it, the reply 
nearly always was : "No ; we were in- 
jured by an explosion of a bomb thrown 
from an airship of the Allies." 

The Allies, he continued, did more 
harm to Belgium than the Germans; 
especially at the time they were pursu- 
ing the' retreating Germans. Being 
friends, they allowed themselves every 
possible liberty and license towards the 
Belgians. There is more bad feeling 
against the Allies than against the Ger- 
mans in Belgium. And had they not 
been stuffed with lies by the Allies, the 
Belgians would have remained neutral. 
Wherever the Germans had been sta- 
tioned, and people got acquainted with 
them, they lived in peace. Belgian girls 
and German soldiers courting publicly, 
was a common sight. 

(Rev.) C. Breitkopf 

Primrose, Neb. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



Notes and Gleanings 

— "Liquorature" is the latest word 
coinage. We find it on the editorial 
page of the St. Louis Star, but are not 
sure as to its meaning. 

— "The Great Schoolmen of the Mid- 
dle Ages" by W. J. Townsend (New 
York: Stechert & Co.), according to 
the Catholic World (No. 683, p. 685 
sq.), is a popular compendium made by 
a Protestant writer whose assertions 
require to be very carefully sifted and 
severely controlled ; which is but a mild 
way of saying that the book is prac- 
tically worthless and had best be left 
alone. 

—On the occasion of the thirteenth 
anniversary of the death of Joel Chand- 
ler Harris ("Uncle Remus"), who was 
received into the Catholic Church a 
short time before his demise by Father 
Jackson, pastor of St. Anthonys 
Church, Atlanta, Ga., the Bulletin of 
the Catholic Laymen's Association of 
Georgia recalls the interesting fact 
that Air. Harris expressed to Father 
Jackson his deep regret that he had not 
taken the step before, prompted by his 
study of the Church and the example 
of his cultured wife. 

— According to a report of the N. C. 
W. C. News Service, which we find in 
the Milwaukee Catholic Citisen (Vol. 
52, No. 12), in reply to a questionnaire 
circulated among the students of Notre 
Dame University, Notre Dame, Ind., 
268 out of 486 stated that they had 
never read a Catholic book ; 17 had 
read a great many ; 34 had read sev- 
eral, and 34 had read a few. The 
Catholic periodical press was appreci- 
ated a little better, for of 482 students 
more than 400 reported that they read 
Catholic weeklies and more than 50 
that they read Catholic magazines. 

— The principal tasks of the Catholic 
laboringmen's organizations of to-day, 
according to a recent pastoral letter of 
the Bishops of Germany, are: (1) To 
combat Materialism; (2) to champion 
the principles of Christian ethics in 
economic life; (3) to stand up for lib- 
erty of conscience and the rights of the 



Church; (4) to apply the principles of 
Christianity in every branch of public 
fife, particularly education; (5) to 
exemplify in word and deed the Chris- 
tian family life. This is a compre- 
hensive and a timely platform, fit not 
only for laboringmen, but for Catholics 
generally. 

— The Catholics of Germany are not 
all republicans, but there is a monarch- 
ist group of considerable strength, 
especially in the South of the country. 
The far-famed Historisch-politische 
Blatter, of Munich, are its chief organ. 
It is significant, however, that that jour- 
nal declares in its latest number (Vol. 
169, No. 2) that "not one member of 
the Centre party has dared openly to 
profess himself a monarchist in parlia- 
ment." In wishing for and seeking a 
restoration of the monarchy, be it not- 
ed, the Bavarians have in view, not the 
kaisertum of the Hohenzollerns, but 
the kingdom of the Wittelsbachers, 
under which they have lived and pros- 
pered for centuries. 

— A writer in America {Vol. XXVI, 
No. 17) calls attention to the "History 
of English Literature" published by the 
Brothers of the Christian Schools, 
which was launched on the sea of lit- 
erature by the late George Parsons 
Lathrop and every page of which "be- 
speaks the masterful touch of Brother 
Azarias — a blessed by-word in the his- 
tory of American letters." We agree 
v/ith the writer that this book is the 
best Catholic handbook of English and 
American literature available at pres- 
ent, that it is far superior to Jenkins 
and Sheran, and that as long as it is 
available there is no excuse whatever 
for using books like Brooke's or Long's, 
which are a menace to our young stu- 
dents because of the errors they con- 
tain. 

— Dr. O. Jofilinger, of Berlin, in a 
book on "Bismarck imd die Juden" 
(Berlin: Dietrich Reimer), shows that 
Prince Bismarck was not the violent 
Anti-Semite as which he is often rep- 
resented. In his early days he attacked 
the Jews, but after Bleichroder ad- 



1»22 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



vanced him the millions necessary to 
defeat Austria, in 1866, and he saw- 
that he could exploit the influence and 
wealth of the Jews for his political 
purposes, he befriended them. He came 
to regard the "J^^^'^sh problem" not as 
a racial, but rather as a religious prob- 
lem, which he thought could be satis- 
factorily solved by evangelization and 
intermarriage. Dr. Johlinger's book is 
Ijased upon original source material 
and his conclusions seem incontro- 
vertible. 

— The Daily American Tribune re- 
ports that President Harding, ex-Gov- 
ernor Dineen of Illinois, and Attorney- 
General Brundage of the same State 
will receive the thirty-third degree in 
Freemasonry at Cleveland next Sep- 
tember. In response to the question 
why Freemasonry is so quick to put 
its tag upon men who become promi- 
nent and influential in public life, our 
contemporary answers, tersely and cor- 
rectly : "Because it seeks to control 
public policy." The average i\merican, 
who is so suspicious of propaganda and 
clandestine influence in government 
atlairs, puts up with these Masonic 
machinations as though they were a 
necessary part of our system of gov- 
ernment. This, in our opinion, makes 
Freemasonry even more dangerous in 
America than it is in Europe. 

— The late Prof. Remigius Stolzle, 
of the University of Wiirzburg, of 
whom the annual report of the Goerres 
Society for 1921 contains a sympathetic 
notice, shortly before his death (July 
23, 1921) delivered a lecture which has 
now been published as a volume of the 
"Philosophische Zeitfragen" ( F. ]\Iei- 
ner's Verlag). It deals with Charles 
Darwin's Attitude towards Theism, 
which has been much controverted. 
Thus Fr. W'asmann, S. J., cites the 
author of "The Origin of Species" as 
a witness for the theistic world-view, 
whereas Haeckel claimed him as an 
atheist and Fr. Kneller counted him 
among the agnostics. Who is right ? 
Dr. Stolzle shows that Darwin was a 
believer in God up to about 1859, but 
later began to have doubts, though he 



never formally professed atheism. He 
himself said towards the end of his 
life that he was content to call himself 
an agnostic. 

— The St. Louis Glebe-Democrat 
now publishes a "night edition." It is 
issued after nine o'clock P. M. and is 
not an extra edition, but a regular 
edition at the regular price, which is 
two cents a copy for all St. Louis 
dailies. The purpose of this night 
edition is to "give the news of interest 
happening between the publication of 
the evening papers and that of the reg- 
ular morning editions." This is of 
some value on Sunday evening, when 
the "night edition" bridges the long gap 
between Sunday morning and Monday 
morning. But because its publication 
on Sundays night involves just a little 
more ^-iolation of the Sabbath rest than 
is entailed by a regular Monday morn- 
ing paper, we cannot hail the innova- 
tion with pleasure. What we ought to 
aim at is a more general and more 
perfect observance of the Lord's Day 
and, as Cathohcs, to oppose any meas- 
ure, movement or innovation tending 
in the opposite direction. 

— If those of our coreligionists who 
paraded their patriotism before the 
country during the war thought this 
would forever silence the charge that 
Catholics are unpatriotic, they were 
mistaken. Already, according to the 
St. Paul Catholic Bulletin (Vol. XII, 
Xo. 5) anti-Catholic "whispering" 
campaigns are on foot in different parts 
of the country. John McCormack is 
one of the latest victims. Mr. D. J. 
Ryan, of the Department of Historical 
Records of the N. C. W. C, reports 
that "an effort was made to discredit 
3ilr. McCormack recently when he sang 
in a certain city, and yet Mr. McCor- 
mack, through his concerts, raised more 
than $700,000 for welfare work, not 
counting his personal donations." If 
the N. C. W. C. thought it could silence 
these accusations by publishing the facts 
of Catholic participation in the war, it 
was sadly in error. There will be more 
"whispering" campaigns, and they will 
continue as long as there are anti-Cath- 



94 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



oHc fanatics, which will be to the end 
of time. 

— Unlike a number of American pa- 
pers, Catholic and non-Catholic, the 
Manchester Guardian, England's great 
Liberal daily, does not apologize for 
the late Pope Benedict's attitude in the 
World War. "History w^ould have 
written him down a failure, had he 
attempted to take sides," says our 
esteemed contemporary ; "he was not 
merely, like President Wilson in the 
early stages of the war, outside the 
conflict, he was above it." And again : 
"Had the Pope taken sides, he would 
not merely have forfeited his privilege 
as the common spiritual Father ; he 
would have stultified his multiplied 
acts of charity; he would have broken 
the one link that bound the warring 
nations in a common humanity ; and, 
worst of all, he would have abandoned 
the only attitude becoming to him, — 
that of the wise judge who, before 
summoning up, throws into the scale 
every shred of evidence in favor of the 
suspect." (Weekly edition. Vol. VI, 
No. 4). 

— In a discussion of the epistemo- 
logical methods of the modern science 
of comparative religion, Dr. J. P. 
Steffes, in No. 4 of the Pastor Bonus, 
says that the teleological world-view is 
slowly gaining ground among scientists. 
and with it the conception of a preter- 
natural and an altogether unmechanical 
power governing the universe. At the 
same time, however, new difficulties 
have arisen, mainly from the fact that 
the science of comparative religion is 
making it more evident from year to 
year that other religions besides Chris- 
ianity allege miracles, prophecies, and 
divine revelations, and we are not yet 
in a position to evaluate these phe- 
nomena properly, either from the his- 
torical or from the psychological view- 
point. It is certain, of course, that the 
supernatural phenomena alleged by 
non-Christian religions differ not only 
essentially, but also teleologically, from 
the genuine miracles, prophecies, and 
revelations of Christianity ; yet there 
remain many unsolved problems which 



Colleges and Academies 

can have very satisfactory service 
from the old established house of 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eighth Street 
Cincinnati, Ohio 

We print and bind, and can furnish engravings 
for pamphlets, folders, booklets 



For a GOOD, SUBSTANTIAL and 

TASTY MEAL 

Cooked German Style 

go to 



Restaurant 



408 Washington Avenue 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 
U. S. A. 



ErKer's 



Reliable Photo Finishing 

Promises kept to tlie minute. 
To remember this may save you 
disappointments, 

SOS rwo 511 N. 
OLJVE -^*°^ GRAND 



an i iiimniiiiii i ii i iiniiiiiimii ii miiiiiii ii i i iiil^ 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



will engage the attention of Christian 
philologians, historians, philosophers, 
and theologians for a long time to 
come. 

— It is comforting to know that 
Dr. S. Squire Sprigge, the author of 
"Physic and Fiction" (London: Hod- 
der & Stoughton), does not share the 
view that the increase of medical 
knowledge has made crime easier. It 
has given the criminal greater facilities, 
it is true, but it has also greatly refined 
and extended the means of discovering 
crimes. One can poison more subtly, 
but one can be still more subtly found 
out. And as for the idea that bacterio- 
logical poisonings, the artificial induce- 
ment of a well-known and seemingly 
natural disease, will be adopted by the 
niodern murderer, the author considers 
that a romantic fancy. It requires too 
much skill altogether, he thinks, ever 
to be practised, except by a few 
university professors — and they are, 
he says, a very law-abiding class. 
We agree that we need not fear the 
professors, although, as the only 
potential non-detectable murderers in 
the world they will henceforth no doubt 
be accorded a certain fearful respect 
which they did not enjoy before. 

— Mr. B. R. Hubbard, in a letter to 
America (Vol. XXVI, No. 17), calls 
attention to the fact that charitably in- 
clined persons are being cheated whole- 
sale by American bankers and relief 
societies, when sending money to pov- 
erty-stricken Austria. He cites the ex- 
ample of a gentleman who recently sent 
fifty dollars to Vienna and received 
only 760 kronen for a dollar, whereas 
the market quotation for the day was 
6,000. Instead of 300.000 kronen, the 
full equivalent of fifty dollars, only 
$6.34 arrived at its destination. The 
correspondent says that scores of sim- 
ilar examples could be adduced. De- 
frauding widows and orphans is one of 
the sins that cry to Heaven for ven- 
feance, but since there are scoundrels 
in this country who will commit this 
crime, regardless of the punishment 
threatened by God Himself, it becomes 
the dutv of all charitable Americans to 



see to it that the money they donate to 
the sufferers in Central Europe actual- 
ly reaches them. This can be accom- 
plished either by sending the amount 
over in dollars or by making donations 
through some trustworthy agency such 
as the Central Bureau of the Catholic 
Central Society here in St. Louis. 

— A contributor to the N. Y. Am- 
erica has analyzed the set of books re- 
cently advertised by the publishers of 
a Socialist weekly at a ridiculously low 
price, and says that while there are 
some few good books in the collection, 
most of them are either revolutionary 
or immoral, "He who educates himself 
by reading such a set, is educating him- 
self in all that is narrow and bitter. 
And the worst of it is that these cheap 
books are being bought by people who 
have not been intellectually trained to 
know the difference between the right 
and the wrong and to prefer the right 
to know the difference between the re- 
fined and the vulgar and prefer the re- 
fined. With such reading material 
furnished the unread, we might expect 
to develop an undesirable philosophy 
throughout our insufficiently schooled 
populace." Probably that is what the 
Socialist publishers of the collection 
are aiming at. The writer just quoted 
suggests that this collection be counter- 
acted by a similar one of good books 
published under Catholic auspices. "If 
the Socialists can furnish this amount 
of reading at such cheap prices," he 
says, "we can also." Possibly we can; 
but the sale of a collection of books 
published imder Catholic auspices 
would naturally be far more limited 
and therefore the cost of production 
would run comparatively higher. 

— The Augsbiirgcr Postacitnng in its 
literary supplement (1922, No. 3) de- 
votes nearly a page to an appreciation 
of the life and writings of Msgr. Dr. 
J. P. Kirsch, best known to the English 
speaking public by his translated book 
on "The Communion of Saints." Dr. 
Kirsch is a native of Luxemburg, but 
has spent the last thirty years of his 
life in Switzerland, where he has been 
teaching Patrologv and Christian ar- 



96 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 1 



®lieiatmtettr 

The Ideal Magazine for the Btist/ Parish Priest 



Contents of February Issue, 1922 



PASTORALIA: 



the Rev. Charles Bruehl, D.D. 



By tht 

The Pastoral Visit— What it will accomplish— 

Aids and Suggestions. 
THE LABOR SPY SYSTEM: By the Rev. Joseph 

Husslein, S. T., Ph. D. 
BIBLICAL STUDIES: Some Mile-posts for the 

Interpreter of Tohn. By the Rev. Walter 

Drum, S. J. 
THE CONCESSION OF INDULGENCES' 

Rev. Stanislaus Woywod, O.F.M. 
PRACTICAL ASCETICAL NOTES 



the 



FOR 



Alternative. By Dom 



PRIESTS: An 
Louismet, O.S'.B. 

CASUS MORALIS: Censure and Fear. 
Rev. Gerald Murray. C. SS. R. 

LITURGICAL NOTES FOR THE MONTH: The 
Confiteor. By the Benedictine Monks of Buck- 
fast Abbey. 

ROMAN DOCUMENTS' FOR THE MONTH. 

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS: 

The "Confessio Monialium" — Mistakes 
Ordo for the Divine Office— Change 
Promises Demanded by the Code in Cases of 
Mixed Religion and Disparity of Cult — Relation 
of Dependent Chapels to the Main Church. 



the 



the 
the 



HOMILETIC PART 
SER^klON MATTER FROM THE FATHERS. By 

the Verv Rev. Hugh Pope, O. P., S. T. M. 
SERMONS ON THE GOSPELS AND EPISTLES: 
First Sundav in Lent. The Warfare of Life. 

By the Rev. H. Kelly, S. J.. M. A. 
S'econd Sundav in Lent. The Vice of Idolatry. 

By the Rev. P. J. Lander, S.J. 
Third Sunday in Lent. Rashness in Judgment. 

By the Rev. Paul O'Grady, A. B. 
Fourth Sunday in Lent. The Old Law or the 
New. By the Right Rev. Msgr. C. F. 
Thomas. 
PARABLE SERMONETTES FOR THE CHIL- 
DREN'S MASS. For Every Sunday. By the 
Rev. Frederick Reuter. 
THE SACRED MYSTERIES OF THE PRECIOUS 
BLOOD: A Lenten Course of six Sermons. By 
the Rev. Ferdinand Heckmann, O. F. M. 1. The 
Mystery of the Precious Blood Shed in the 
Garden of Gethsemani. II. The Mystery of the 
Precious Blood S'hed in the Cruel Scourging. 
III. The Mystery of the Precious Blood Shed 
in the Crowning with Thorns. 
BOOK REVIEWS 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.) Publishers 



23 Barclav Street 



NEW YORK 



Subscription in U. S. $4.00 per aiimini; $4.25 in Canada; 20s. in other Foreign Countries 



Filled 



Wagner's Londres Grande 



Imported 
Sumatra 
Wrapper 
100 — $7. 80 (Svwkcd in 47 States) 50 — $4. 00 



|ry |hem- Iakes |he |aste |o |ell |he |ale 




Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Money Order or W. Y. Draft— 

.'^fter Smoking three Sugars, if not as represented or 
satisfactory, pack well and return bv Parcel Post. 
Money and Postage refunded by return mail. 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 1866 
58 North Pearl St. BUFFALO, N. 



America Press 

i» yOB PRINTING ^ 

done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. ST. IvOUis, Mo. 



l§rEINER^!!Si*rDlEC^ 




'HH STENCILS CMEmXHECKS., 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



chaeolog-y at tlie Catholic University 
of Freiburg and written a number of 
important books. The first of these, 
■"Die christHchen Kultusgebaude im Al- 
tertum." appeared in 1893 ; the latest, 
"Die romischen Titelkirchen im Alter- 
tuni," in 1918. Besides, Prof. Kirsch 
has re-edited Hergenrother's Church 
History and collaborated with other 
scholars in ''Forschungen zur christli- 
chen Literatur- und Dogmengeschich- 
te," "Studien zur Geschichte und Kul- 
tur des Altertums," and other import- 
ant serial publications. It will be news 
to most of our readers that the learned 
Professor had been selected to succeed 
Msgr. Koppes as bishop of Luxem- 
burg, but his appointment was prevent- 
ed by the French government because 
of his alleged pro-German sympathies 
in the World War. As a neutral Lux- 
emburger, who speaks German, French, 
and Italian with equal facility, Msgr. 
Kirsch has tried to act as mediator be- 
tween the Latin and Germanic civiliza- 
tions and his influence has always been 
employed in favor of international con- 
ciliation and peace. 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By tlie Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

(4Tth Iiistallmciif) 

Thus that year was eventful, though no 
one could have foretold how St. Bernard's 
Hospital would grow as it has since that 
tiine. Again and again the Sisters were re- 
minded of the example given them by their 
holy founder, St. Bernard Ptolomei, who 
in the time of the "black death" had sent 
his sons all over Tuscany to help the af- 
flicted and bnry the dead. 

Dr. Lutterloh. the first president of the 
physicians' staff, from the very beginning 
worked with all his strength for the hospi- 
tal. He had a tender heart for all persons in 
distress, regardless of race, color, or con- 
dition. Once a number of negroes were 
partly crushed in a quarry. Several could 
he saved by operations, some had to have 
a leg amputated others an arm, etc. The doc- 
tor asked for permission to use the operating 
room of the hospital for these unfortunates. 
Tliere was no other operating room in the 
town in those days. Of course the Sisters 
granted the petition, but as they allowed 
the poorest of the poor to remain at the 
hospital, and took care of th.em, racial pre- 



judice manifested itself. Several doctors 
resigned as members of the hospital staff, 
because the Sisters took in colored people. 
The Sisters had, in consequence, to dis- 
pense with a physicians' staff altogether, 
and for a while Dr. Lutterloh was the only 
physician visiting the institution. But, rely- 
ing on God's help, the Sisters were de- 
termined to receive the colored sick just 
like white patients, and with the help of 
some generous friends, they succeeded in 
buying for this purpose a large piece of 
land with a small house on it, about 250 
feet from St. Bernard's Hospital. This 
house served as a colored ward for some 
time, but it was very inconvenient, and 
therefore the colored patients were moved 
into a new building, which was bought in 
May, 1901, from Mr. Howard for $2600. 
This house stood between the Robinson 
property (St. Bernard's Hospital) and the 
ground bought for the colored hospital. It 
was on a lot 100 feet wide and 225 feet 
deep and had two stories. The two build- 
ings, Robinson's and Howell's, were after- 
wards connected by a one-story building, 
70x24 feet, containing two wards and a 
corridor, 70x6 feet. The smaller house used 
for the colored hospital lent iself admir- 
ably to a colored school. The Sisters taught 
in it a number of colored children and had 
good success with them. There was and 
still is a most blessed field of work 
amongst the colored people of the South, 
and I fear we Catholics have not done our 
duty in that line. 

Capter XXII 
FATHER ROBERT JENNE— VOYAGE 
TO EUROPE, 1901— MY SILVER 
JUBILEE 
In the spring of 1901, Msgr. Dennis O'- 
Donahue, then auxiliary b'shop of Indian- 
apolis, ordained Father Robert Tenne for the 
d'ocese of Little Rock. The new priest was 
given to me as assistant and soon, by his 
zeal and affability, won the love and devo- 
tion of all the parishioners. Everyone seemed 
to be sorry when, after a year, he was as- 
signed as pastor to Brinkley. There, at great 
personal sacrifice, he built and started a 
Sisters' school. From Brinklev he was sent 
to St. Mary's Church, Argenta. where he 
also started a parochial school, surrendering 
his own house for that purpose and taking 
up his abode in the sacristy. Most of his 
meagre income went toward supporting the 
church and school. He is now pastor of 
Curdsville. Ky., where he works with the 
same zeal and spirit of sacrifice. His faith- 
ful work in Arkansas is thankfully remem- 
bered, especially in Jonesboro, Brinkley, and 
Hot Springs. After arriving in Tonesboro, 
Father Jenne pitched right into hard work. 
In a few weeks he knew every family and 
every child. He visited the schools as often 
as he could and preached and instructed in 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March I 



church as if he had done it for years. All 
the church societies had an active leader in 
him, and especially the mother's union ap- 
preciated his practical instructions and tried 
to help him all they could. 

When Father Jenne had been thoroughly 
initiated into and acquainted with the parish 
work, I was ready to leave for Switzerland. 
I was suffering from malaria, chills and fever, 
and hoped that a trip across the water would 
cure me more surely and quickly than calomel 
and quinine, to which my system had become 
inured. I also intended to escape the cele- 
bration of my silver jubilee. Usually for 
such an occasion the whole congregation has 
to work and beg for months. Every society 
must e-xert itself to provide funds for a 
purse for the jubilarian. Besides this there 
are the decorations, the plays, the banquets 
and, last but not least, the inevitable speeches 



and congratulations, adulations and promises, 
and the pastor has to listen to all these ex- 
aggerations and must act as if he believed 
it all. Then, after all is over, he feels he 
has lost a good deal of his independence. 
and is under so many obligations to his good 
people that he hardly is free to act as duty 
demands. If he ever has the courage to 
point out their faults, he may have to hear 
the remark : "Isn't he the limit : we have 
done so much for him; he is never satisfied." 
{To be continued) 



— If the Fortnightly Review fails in stim- 
ulating its readers to think for themselves — 
even to the point of occasional disagreement 
with its utterances — its purpose is not at- 
tained. 



Roomers Wanted! 

Two Catholic persons desiring two rooms for light 
housekeeping, please address 

1521 Hebert Street, St. Louis, Mo. 



An experienced Organist and Choir Director, married 
with excellent references, is looking for a good posi- 
tion in a larger city, where he will liave an opportun- 
ity to practice genuine Church music. 
Address: ORGANIST, care of The Fortnightly Review 
5851 Etzel Avenue, St. Ixmis, Mo. 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS TRY OUR BRANDS 

= They Have Stood the Test Since 1860 --^ 




You will make no mistake by giving us a personal call to verify the quality 
and view our assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

Westerheide Tobacco & Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway, ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Mail Orders Promptly Filled 



Phones; Bell Kyler 7S8 Kinloch Central 4039 1 



CASPER STEHLE BEDDING COMPANY 

1834 Morgan Street h. c. smith, Manager y^. Louis, Mo. 

Sixty Years In Business is a Guarantee of Satisfied Customers 

Hospitals acd Institutions Receive Special Attention 

MATTRESSES of all kinds and sizes, and PILLOWS 

Write for quotations, or better still, try a Sample Felt Mattress in a A. C. A. Tick, built up 

extra well in the middle, @ $8.oo net, F. O. B., St. Louis. 



LOUIS BELL FOUNDR.Y 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 




1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Literary Briefs 

A story for Girls 

It is good to realize that a number ot 
new Catholic "juvenile" writers are making 
their appearance. Among them is "Clem- 
entia." Her latest work is "Mostly Mary," 
in which we learn more about Mary Sel- 
wyn. It is a story which will be read with 
great interest, especially by girls. (Matre & 
Companj^ Chicago). 
Stories for Children 

We recommend to all parents and teachers 
of children "The Children's King" by a 
Sister of Notre Dame. This little booklet is 
made up of a series of very readable stories, 
the interpretation of which is given for the 
benefit of the teacher at the end of each 
chapter. These will be a great help in the 
preparation of the little ones for a worthy 
reception of Holy Communion and a be- 
ginning in the understanding of the love of 
the Eucharistic Lord for His children. (B. 
Herder Book Co.) 

A Book for Children on the Sacraments 

Since the decree on early Communion 
has been promulgated and put into practice, 
an ever increasing amount of literature de- 
signed to help in the teaching of the es- 
sentials of our holy faith to children has 
been flowing from the press. Our Sunday 
Visitor Press has published "The Saviour's 
Fountains, a Book for Children on the 
Seven Sacraments," by Michael Andrew 
Chapman, with . illustrations by Father 
Raphael. O.S.B. This is a very commendable 
piece of work, both as regards the explana- 
tions of the Sacraments and the accompany- 
ing illustrations. Colored pictures would 
have increased the value of the book for 
children very decidedly, at a small increase 
in cost. Parents as well as the teachers in 
our schools should avail themselves of these 
splendid pedagogical aids. 

"The Religion of the Scriptures" 

Under this title the Rev. C. Lattey, S. J.. 
has collected and published "Papers from 
the Catholic Bible Congress held at Cam- 
bridge, July 16-19, 1921." The central theme 
of these lectures is Biblical religion. A 
prelim- nary explanation of the Catholic 
standpoint is given by Drs. Arendzen and 
Downey. Then the religion of the Old 
Testament and that of the New is set 
forth, both on the institutional side and in 
its more personal appeal by Dr. Bird, Fr. 
Lattey Fr. Martindale, and Fr. Knox. Dr. 



Barry contributes a paper on St. Jerome, 
showing that he purposed to be, and was, 
an exponent of Biblical religion to Western 
civilization. Finallj^ the Bishop of Salford, 
in a note on the supposed origin of Tobias, 
ofTers a good illustration of the way in 
which even eminent scholars pass from exact 
philology to rather reckless processes of 
higher criticism. The book can be cordially 
recommended, but it should have been pro- 
vided with an index. (B. Herder Book Co.) 
History of San Luis Rey Mission 

"The Missions and Missionaries of Cali- 
fornia," by Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt, O.F.M., 
as we have already informed our readers, 
is being complemented by a series of local 
histories, the first of which was that of San 
Diego Mission. No. II, now ready, tells the 
story of "San Luis Rey Mission," which was 
founded between San Diego and San Juan 
Capistrano. in 1798. A portion of the rec- 
ords of this important mission are lost, but 
the author has succeeded in piecing together 
a fairly complete account of its origin and 
growth. The havoc which confiscation played 
with San Luis Rey mission was heartrend- 
ing. In an appendix the exact course of the 
famous Camino Real is determined more 
closely than has hitherto been deemed pos- 
sible, by means of the annual tabular reports 
of the early missionaries. These supplemen- 
tary volumes are worthy of being placed 
beside Fr. Zephyrin's principal work in everj^ 
library. They are printed on fine paper, 
bound in Franciscan brown cloth, and 
equipped with numerous original illustra- 
tions. (Orders can be sent either directly, or 
through any bookseller, to Rev. Zephyrin 
Engelhardt, O.F.M., Old Mission, Santa 
Barbara, Cal.) 
The Founding of a Northern University 

In "The Founding of a Northern Uni- 
versity" by Fr. A. Forbes (B. Herder 
Book Co.) we have the story of the be- 
ginnings of the University of Aberdeen, in 
its day a stronghold of Catholic life. In 
the "Records of the University of Aber- 
deen" we read that "Bishop William 
Elthinstone founded the university of 
Aberdeen with the varietie of professurs, 
maisters and members thereof." Only one 
chapter is devoted to the founding of the 
school, though the others refer often to the 
life and activities of its saintly founder. 
University life at the time when Aberdeen 
began its work (1495). did not offer many 
material attractions to the devotee of learn- 
ing. For "the poor scholar, ill-fed and out 
at elbows, who had often to spend his va- 



100 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



March 1 



cation laboring or begging for the means 
wherewith to live, while he continued his 
education, rubbed shoulders with the young 
noble or the son of the wealthy burgess in 
the University halls, and could rise, by dint 
of hard study and natural merit, above 
them both." 



Books Received 

My Road to Rome. By Anna Dill Gamble. 

56 pp. i2mo. B. Herder Book Co. 15 cts. 

net. (Wrapper). 
The Home JVorld. Friendiv Counsels for 

Home-Keeping Hearts. By Francis X. 

Doyle, S.J. 192 pp. i2mo. Benziger Bros. 

Paper, 25 cts.; cloth, $i.2.t net. 

Die christlicli-socialen Ideeii und die Gewerk- 
schaftsfrage. Von Dr. theol. et phil. Jo- 
hannes Raster. 69 pp. 8vo. M. Gladbach : 
Volksvereinsverlag. M. 8. (Wrapper). 

A Parochial Course of Doctrinal Instructions 
for all Sundays and Holydays of the Year. 
Based on the" Teachings of the Catechism 
of the Council of Trent and Harmonized 
with the Gospels and Epistles of the Sun- 
davs and Feastdays. Prepared and Ar- 
ranged by the Rev. Chas. T- Callan, O.P., 
and the Rev. J. A. ^IcHugh. O.P. Vol. IV: 
(Moral Series, Vol. H). vi & 536 Pp. 
8vo. Xew York: Joseph F. Wagner, Inc. 
$3-50 net. 

Katholischc IVirtschaftsmoral. Von Dr. 
theol. et oec. publ. Franz Xaver Eberle, 
Domkapitular in Augsburg, vi & 118 pp. 
8vo. B. Herder Co. 75 cts. net. (Wrap- 
per). 

Dcr grossc KuUnrkampf und die katholischc 
Wcltorganisation. Von Kaspar Mayr, Ge- 
neralsekretar der Internationalen kath. 
Liga. 22 pp. i6mo. Graz, Austria: Pau- 
lus-Verlag. (Wrapper). 

Report of the Third Annual Meeting of the 
Franciscan Educational Conference, West 
Park, Ohio, Aug. 16, 17, and 18, 1921. 
199 pp. 8vo. Published by the Conference. 
Office of the Secretary, 161 5 Vine Str., 
Cincinnati, O. 

A Program of Catholic Rural Action. By 
Rev. Edwin V. O'Hara. LL.D. Based on 
a Religious Survey of Lane County, Ore. 
24 pp. 8vo. (Copies of this pamphlet may 
be had on request from the Rural Life 
Bureau of the Social Action Dept. of the 
N. C. W. C, Eugene, Ore.) 

Lehrhuch der Dogmatik in sieben Biichem. 
Fiir akademische Vorlesungen und zum 
Selbstunterricht von Joseph Pohle, Doktor 
der Philosophic und Theologie, Hauspra- 
lat Sr. Heiligkeit. Zweiter Band. Siebte, 
verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage. x & 
529 pp. 8vo. Paderborn: Ferd. Schoe- 
ningh. 1921. 



The Western 
Catholic Union 



A Legally Solvent Adequate Pate 
Catholic Fraternal Society 




^ Forty-four years old. 

^ Based on Sound, Sensible and Scien- 
tific Principles. 

^ Devoid of Red Tape and Catholic to 
the core. 

^ Three popular forms of certificates 
issued— 20 pay Whole Life Certificate 
with all modern cash loan, paid up, 
and extended insurance features. 

^ This certificate is fully paid up after 
twenty consecutive payments have 
been made. 

H Whole Life Special. This is a Whole 
Life Certificate with modern up-to- 
date cash loan, paid up and extended 
insurance features. 

II Ordinary Whole Life. Just a plain 
up-to-date Whole Life Insurance Cer- 
tificate with Old Age Benefits at- 
tached. 

JUVENILE SECTION 
^ Two plans. Term Rate and Whole 
Life with all modern cash, paid up 
and extended features. 



^ For full information and induce- 
ments in reference to organizing new 
branches address 

W.C.U. Headquarters 

Illinois State Bank Building 
Quincy, Illinois 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



March 15, 1922 



The Classics in Education 



The Committee- appointed over 
two years ago to inquire into 
the position of the Classics in the 
Educational System of the United 
Kingdom has issued its report 
(''The Classics in Education"; 
H. M. Stationery Office, London). 
This Committee was appointed in 
November, 1919, "to inquire into 
the position to be assigned to the 
Classics {i. e., to the lang-uage, 
literature, and history of ancient 
Greece and Rome) in the educa- 
tional system of the United King- 
dom, and to advise as to the means 
by which the proper study of these 
subjects may be maintained and 
improved." There were nineteen 
members, with Lord Crewe as 
chairman. They were all, or near- 
ly all, men or women of distinc- 
tion in the world of learning or 
of education. Among them were 
four professors of classics, includ- 
ing Mr. Gilbert Murrav and Mr. 
Ehys Roberts ; Prof, w! P. Ker to 
represent English, and Professor 
Whitehead to represent Science 
and the Roj^al Society. Other 
members were the Vice-Chancellor 
of Sheffield, Sir Henry Hadow, 
and Dr. Alington, the Headmaster 
of Eton. On the whole the Com- 
mittee, though perhaps somewhat 
too exclusively educational in 
composition, is one which speaks 
with great authority on the prob- 
lem submitted to it. 

The report covers over three 
hundred pages and is crammed 
with facts and statistics. Even 



the recommendations with which 
it concludes are so numerous and 
minute that they cover thirteen 
pages. It will not be possible for 
us to mention more than a few of 
them. 

The Committee are at once 
alarmist and hopeful. They set 
out a very serious situation. Ow- 
ing to various causes there is a 
real danger of the disappearance 
of Greek from the English system 
of secondary and university edu- 
cation, and danger, too, of the re- 
duction of Latin to a position of 
much less importance than almost 
all educational authorities desire 
for it. The causes of this are 
manifold. The old and occasion- 
ally insolent predominance of the 
classics in the education of the 
''governing classes" produced a 
reaction which has not yet fully 
spent itself in the popular mind, 
though nearly all who have thought 
much about education know that 
it went too far. It combined with 
the general nineteenth century de- 
mand for what was believed to be 
practical to produce results which 
are still at work and are the cause 
of most of what is unsatisfactory 
in the situation set forth in this 
report. 

Yet the Committee by no means 
take a despairing view of the posi- 
tion. The truth is perhaps that, 
while most of the material factors 
in the problem are against the 
classics, the moral factors are 
more and more in their favor. 



120 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



March 15 



Bismarck tried in vain to undo 
liis own teaching and persuade 
German statesmen that "impon- 
derabilia" were often the things 
which proved decisive in the end. 
In this case the imponderabilia 
seem on the whole to be decisively 
on the side of the classics. AVhile 
ignorant people still repeat the 
parrot denunciations of fifty years 
ago, instructed opinion, and even 
the newest forces of uninstructed 
opinion, are realizing more and 
more what education would lose if 
it lost the classics ; what, as it is, 
is lost by the vast majority who 
cannot or do not touch them. No 
one, as the Committee expressly 
say, wishes to restore to them 
their ancient predominance to the 
neglect of other subjects. But al- 
most everyone who cares for edu- 
cation is beginning to feel, or has 
long felt, that the reaction against 
them has been carried too far. 
The admirable introduction of this 
report, with its reasoned justifica- 
tion of the claim of the classics to 
a considerable place in a national 
system of education was scarcely 
needed for those who are compe- 
tent to judge in these matters. It 
is to be hoped, however, that it 
will be read and assimilated by 
many who at present are not well 
informed on this head. 

An important problem in con- 
nection with the classics arises 
from the fact, insufficiently recog- 
nized by schoolmasters of the old 
type, that, so long as seventy or 
eighty per cent of their boys leave 
school without any intellectual 
interest's of any kind, their system 
must be pronounced a failure. 
How far is that failure attributa- 
ble to excessive time given to 
Greek and Latin? 

The Committee show that the 
number of periods allotted to the 



classics in the time-tables is not 
nearly so great as critics often 
suppose, and they recommend that 
it should not be further reduced. 
They are plainly right. Nothing 
can be a more complete waste of 
time than to attempt to teach 
Virgil or Sophocles by a single 
lesson once a week. If Greek or 
Latin are to be learnt at all, they 
must be learnt every day. 

But there is another possible 
saving of time which the Commit- 
tee too easily dismiss or ignore. 
Why not begin the classics much 
later? Why not confine them to 
boys and girls who have shown 
some turn for literary studies? 
The enemies of the classics and of 
the classical schoolmasters to-day 
are nearly all of their own mak- 
ing. The man who groans over 
the time he wasted at a classical 
college has commonly been a boy 
who, having no turn whatever for 
languages, w^as forced to spend 
six or seven years in failing to 
learn the elements of the two most 
difficult of all. He is the living- 
proof of the failure of the higher 
schools, just as the man who cares 
for nothing but football and the 
"movies" is proof of the failure 
of the elementary schools. It is 
not the classics, of course, that 
have injured the work of the ele- 
mentary schools; it is mainly the 
old utilitarian code and the evil 
influences which it left behind — 
now, it is to be hoped, in rapid 
process of removal. 

•-♦<$.-•-. 

— I ought not to pronounce judg- 
ment on a fellow-creature until I know 
all that enters into his life; until I can 
measure all the forces of temptation 
and resistance ; until I can give full 
weight to all the facts in the case. In 
other words, I am never in a position 
to judge another. — Mabie. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



103 



The Real Danger of "Freudism" 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J. 



The F. E. has been quoting, dur- 
ing the last five or six years, the 
opinions of leading medical men 
and psychologists on the misuse 
of ''psycho-analysis" by the igno- 
rant or unscrupulous practitioner. 
Abundant proof has been given 
that the methods advocated by 
Dr. Sigmund Freud for the heal- 
ing of mental diseases often result 
in incalculable harm to the poor 
victim who falls under the care of 
a ''psycho-analytic" quack. 

Perhaps the insidious and per- 
nicious effects of what has now 
become well known as "Freud- 
ism" have never been so trench- 
antly pointed out as in a brief edi- 
torial in the X. Y. Independent 
(January 28, 1922). 

"Suicide," we read there, "may 
or not be a frequent result of ab- 
sorption in the doctrines associat- 
ed with the name of Sigmund 
Freud. The harm that is done by 
their dissemination is infinitely 
more important as affecting the 
thousands who continue to live 
than the few here and there whom 
ii' may perhaps drive to self- 
destruction. Xor does the word 
'dismal' begin to express the actu- 
al effect of that pernicious teach- 
ing. Lowering, degrading, be- 
smirching, covering with slime 
what normally thinking persons 
hold in admiration and reverence 
— that is the real evil, in compar- 
ison with which all else is trifling. 
And, so far from all this being the 
tragic result of a recognition of 
scientific truth, it springs from 
the exploitation of a theory based 
on a grotesquely inadequate foun- 
dation, condemned by scientists of 
the highest standing as the out- 
come of bad logic and unscientific 



thinking, and, in so far as it does 
contain an element of truth, re- 
quiring the utmost care and cau- 
tion in its application even at the 
hands of persons of special train- 
ing. Its popularization by giib- 
tong-ued writers and half-baked 
thinkers has been nothing less 
than a calamity to a large part of 
the rising generation." 

How well these statements agree 
with the opinions of Catholic 
scholars on the subject, may be 
seen from a review of a book of 
Dr. J. B. Egger, O.S.B., in the 
Theologisch - praktische Quartal- 
schrift, of Linz, Austria (Vol. 75, 
1922, Heft 1). Dr. Egger 's book is 
entitled "Die Psychanalyse als 
Seelenproblem und Lebensrich- 
tang." Dr. Hochaschboeck, who 
v/rites the review, says : "In the 
present second part of his timely 
study the author examines psycho- 
analysis as a practical philosophy 
from a metaphysical, an ethical, 
and a pedagogical point of view, 
in the light of the phUosophia 
perennis. The verdict was bound 
to be condemnatory. 'J. J. Rous- 
seau, Kant, Spencer, Comte, John 
Stuart Mill, Helvetius, Holbach, 
Schopenhauer, Eduard von Hart- 
raann, Haeckel and others have 
formed a nameless organization, 
called Psycho-analysis, in order to 
market their stale theories under 
this label and find readier sale for 
them.' Psycho-analysis has, how- 
ever, powerfully influenced the 
study of the soul and may in con- 
nection with other means prove 
beneficial as a therapeutic meas- 
ure in the diagnosis and treat- 
ment of psychoses. As the author 
subjects opposing theories to a 
thorough criticism and takes a 



104 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



March 15 



definite stand on some of the most 
important questions of the day, 
his study has a permanent value." 
It is comforting in these days of 
wild theorizing to notice again and 
again that, after the clouds of 



angry controversy have been dis- 
pelled and after sanity has been 
restored, the light of Catholic 
truth and philosophy solves our 
most perplexing problems. 

i^LBEET MUNTSCH, S. J. 



A Revival of Chiliasm 



Who would have thought that 
Prof. Francis Spirago, the author 
of the famous "Catechism," so 
highly regarded and so widely 
used throughout the Catholic 
world, would publish a work 
which would be attacked by emi- 
nent Catholic theologians as con- 
trary to revealed truth f Yet such 
is the case. We find in the Tlieo- 
logiscli-praktisclie Quartalschrift, 
of Linz (1922, 1. Heft, pp. 48-63), 
the first installment of a detailed 
critique of ''Der Weltuntergang 
und die neue Erde von Prof. Franz 
Spirago in Prag" (Prague, 1919). 
Though the book has the imprim- 
atur of the Archbishop of Prague, 
the critic, Rev. J. Schmid-Anger- 
bach, of Ratisbon, declares that it 
is largely based upon "Der Zu- 
kunftsstaat" of Dr. Aug. Rohling, 
which is on the Index, and con- 
tains un-Catholic doctrines. 

The theses extracted from Spir- 
ago 's work by his critic are dis- 
tinctly millenarian or chiliastic. 
They are: (1) "The few just men 
living on earth will survive the 
great telluric conflagration, where- 
as the wicked will perish by fire"; 
(2) "The surviving just will at- 
tend the Last Judgment in their 
living bodies, whereupon they will 
be changed and survive upon the 
new earth, multiply, and finally go 
to Heaven without passing through 
the stage of death"; (3) "After 
the Last Judgment a new eternal 
kingdom of God will arise upon 
the renewed earth, and Christ, 



sitting upon the restored throne 
of David, mil rule over the whole 
world as visible King." 

We are promised a thorough 
refutation of these groundless as- 
sumptions from the writings of 
the Church Fathers in the second 
and concluding portion of Dr. 
Schmid-Angerbach 's article, which 
will appear in the April number 
ol the Quartalschrift. 

Dr. Spirago has plainly fallen 
a victim to Chiliasm, of which 
there are two forms, one heretical, 
the other simply erroneous. The 
moderate Chiliasm here in ques- 
tion had a number of adherents 
among Patristic writers, notably 
Papias, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, 
Tertullian, Commodian, and Lac- 
tantius. Its favorite text is Apoc. 
XX, 1 sqq. As Msgr. Pohle points 
out ("Eschatology," ed. Preuss, 
p. 157), this moderate form of 
Chiliasm is not easy to refute be- 
cause it seems to have a basis in 
Sacred Scripture and primitive 
tradition. Yet the New Testament 
as well as the early creeds speak 
of the resurrection of the flesh, 
the Last Judgment, and the end 
of the world in terms which make 
it evident that these three events 
are to follow one another in close 
succession, and therefore no time 
is left for a millennium. 

The traditional basis of Chili- 
asm is very weak. Papias was ad- 
mittedly uncritical. TertuUian was 
a heretic when he embraced Chili- 
asm. Lactantius, Commodian, and 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



105 



Victorinus may be set aside as 
worthless witnesses in the light of 
the "Decretum Gelasianum." St. 
Justin Martyr and St. Irenaeus, 
the only remaining witnesses who 
are trustworthy, did iiot propose 
Cliiliasm as an article of faith, 
but merely held it as a personal 
opinion. This opinion was com- 
batted by Clement of Alexandria, 
Origen, and Dionysius, Bishop of 
Alexandria, whom Eusebius hon- 
ored with the title of Great and 
St. Athanasius called a Doctor of 
the Church. 



The Work of the Catholic Extension 
Society 

MsgT. F. C. Kelley in the cur- 
rent installment of "The Story of 
Extension," in the March Exten- 
sion Magazine, publishes a map 
which illustrates the remarkable 
work the Catholic Extension So- 
ciety has been able to do in the six- 
teen years of its existence. There 
are 2,074 dots, scattered over all 
the continental U. S., Alaska, 
Porto Rico, and the Philippine 
Islands, and each dot represents 
a church building erected by Ex- 
tension's aid. It is well to recall 
that the Society follows the gen- 
eral rule of .making gifts only to 
localities wherein there is no 
Catholic church, and consequently 
the overwhelming majority of its 
gifts went for new posts, new cen- 
ters of Catholic activity. 

Altogether the Extension So- 
ciety has spent much more than 
f've million dollars for the home 
missions. To this must be added 
gifts to the foreign missions to 
the amount of $30,000; $26,000 
spent on the education of boys for 
the priesthood; $76,000 for the 
Mexican refugees and the support 
of the seminary in Castroville, 



Tex.; $75,000 for the distribution 
of Catholic literature ; $71,000 for 
saving the church property of the 
Archdiocese of Vancouver; $54,- 
000 for the poor priests and Sis- 
ters of Central Europe, etc., etc. 

To do all this work required an 
annual outlay of $33,000. 

The Extension Magazine itself 
has been largely instrumental in 
raising these large sums. It is 
well edited and deserves the wide 
circulation to which it has at- 
tained. May we not hope that, as 
the Society prospers beyond the 
hopes of its founders, the Exten- 
sion Magazine will dispense with 
such doubtful advertisements as, 
for example, that headed "Be a 
Master of Jazz and Ragtime," on 
page 16 of the March issue ? 



■^-.^>^ 



Regeneration 
By J. Corson Miller 

I dreamed that out of this land of ours, 
Brimmed high with milk and honey and 

flowers, 
A new race sprang from a flood of pain, 
To dazzle the eyes of the earth again. 

And out of the haughty hand of Power, 
And dropped from the bulging purse of 

Wealth, 
There came for the Poor a playtime-hour — 
The Lams walked straight, and the Sick 

had health. 

And Love was a banner that shone with 

splendor, 
As bright as the ancient hills of morn. 
As brother to brother, men's words were 

tender, 
For sacrifice out of pain was born. 

And lives once black grew white with glory. 
For Peace was king in our social plan; 
And then, for the end of the world's brave 

story, 
We had the Brotherhood of Man. 



-.^>* 



— You are interested in the advertisements 
of others that appear in the Review. Don't 
you think others would be interested in 
yours? 



106 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



March 15 



A Homesick Apostate 

The Augshurger Postzeitung, in 
its Literary Supplement (No. 4), 
calls attention to a remarkable 
book, *'Die religiosen Krafte des 
katholisclien Dogmas," by Dr. 
Leonard Fendt (Mmiicli: Kaiser, 
1921). 

Dr. Fendt is an apostate priest, 
who was formerly professor of 
dogmatic theology at Dillingen. 
He is now pastor of a Protestant 
congregation and has written the 
book just mentioned ''for evangel- 
ical theologians who love their 
church and are willing to remain 
faithful to her, no matter how she 
may fare in the near future, but 
who at the same time are realists 
enough to learn from all truly 
popular religions, especially from 
Catholicism, which was the mother 
of all existing Christian denomi- 
nations." 

The book is really an extensive 
Catholic dogmatic theology, based 
upon the teaching of Trent and the 
Vaticanum. The exposition is 
substantially correct, though there 
are a few minor errors and sev- 
eral important dogmas, such as 
that of the primacy of St. Peter, 
are passed over almost without 
mention. "The religious deci- 
sion" indicated in the title evi- 
dently leans in favor of Catho- 
licism, and Fendt 's Catholic critic 
in the Postzeitung does not hesi- 
tate to say: "We are so little used 
to fairness and justice on the part 
of those who for one reason or 
another have turned their backs 
upon the Catholic Church, that the 
v%^arm and noble tone in which 
Fendt deals with 'the religious 
decision' is an agreeable surprise. 
One frequently asks oneself : Why 
did this man leave the Church? 
and between the lines of his book 
here and there one cannot help 



reading the wish: Would that I 
were back home again!" 

An Exposure of Spiritism 
The puerile and immoral prac- 
tice of Spiritism has received 
a nasty knock from the editor 
of the London Saturday Review, 
who, by arrangement with Sir 
Arthur Conan Doyle, the high- 
priest of the cult in England, 
attended a seance in High- 
gate some weeks ago. Although 
sympathetically inclined and pre- 
pared to accept genuine evidence, 
Mr. Filson Young speedily dis- 
covered that the preparation for 
the seance and the conduct of it 
were expressly calculated to dull 
the edge of criticism, and, keeping 
himself calm amidst the emotion 
around him, was able to detect the 
fraud. In the Saturday Revieio 
of January 21 and 28th, he gives 
an acount of the whole thing 
which, the Mouth hopes, "will be 
republished and scattered broad- 
cast, for it may open the eyes of 
those who are tempted by the 
Xjromises of Spiritists to the com- 
bination of blasphemy "and deceit 
involved in their practices. We 
are not so convinced as Mr. 
Young," adds our esteemed con- 
temporary (No. 692), "that the 
whole thing is purety fraud, how- 
ever it may have been in the case 
he investigated. We can readily 
believe that evil spirits are some- 
times allowed to take advantage 
of the unhallowed curiosity of 
necromancers, and produce mani- 
festations which are beyond na- 
ture. But there can be no doubt 
that the conditions insisted on for 
the usual seances lend themselves 
readily to imposture, and that the 
impudence of the conductors of 
such operations can hardly exceed 
the credulity of their dupes." 



192^ 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



107 



The Fable of the SUver Mallet 
It will surprise many of our 
readers to learn, on the authority 
of Father Herbert Thurston, S. J., 
that the ceremonial which is al- 
leged to take place after the demise 
of a pope in formal attestation of 
the fact of his death, exists only 
in the imagination of certain 
writers, among whom are the 
Eoman reporters who supplied the 
American public with the news 
that, after Benedict XV had 
breathed his last, the Cardinal 
Penitentiary touched the dead 
Pope's head with a silver mallet, 
and called three times: "Giacomo 
delta Chiesa, are you there?" 
This ceremonial is described in so 
many otherwise reliable Catholic 
books (such as, for instance, 
Goyau's ''Le Vatican" and Mo- 
roni's "Dizionario") that one can 
hardly believe one's eyes when 
one reads in the Februarv number 
of The Month (No. 692, pp. 170 
sqq.) Father Thurston's positive 
assurance that no silver hammer 
is ever used to strike the pope's 
forehead and that the custom of 
calling aloud three times the 
words "Pater Sancte" was dis- 
continued nearly two and a half 
centuries ago, on the death of 
Clement X, in 1676. 

*'It really seems a pity," Fr. 
Thurston facetiously concludes, 
"that the attention of Sir James 
Fraser has never been directed to 

this interesting ceremonial 

He would, we feel sure, find in the 
alleged custom abundant material 
for another new volume of 'The 
Golden Bough.' Surely it is ob- 
vious that the mallet episode en- 
shrines a most illuminating reve- 
lation of the manner of providing 
a new pontiff or god among prim- 
itive peoples. When the old chief 
medicine-man grew weak, you 



knocked him on the head with the 
nearest available piece of timber 
.... and then you called him at 
intervals by his name, affection- 
ately and solicitously, until he 

ceased to answer After that 

you shut up all the most dispu- 
tacious members of the tribe to 
elect the new pontiff, and you left 
them without food and water until 
they came to an agreement. Sir 
James Fraser would work out the 
details with immense learning and 
with abundant illustrations from 
the practice of all primitive peo- 
ples from Lapland to Patagonia. 
And the result would be quite as 
valuable and quite as true to his- 
tory as Sir James's elucidations 
of the role of the famous priest of 
Diana in the grove of Aricia." 

An Eminent Swiss Catholic Writer 
Dr. Wm. Oehl, of the University 
of Freiburg (Switzerland), con- 
tributes to the Literary Supple- 
ment of the Augshurger Postsei- 
tung (No. 4) a paper on the life 
and writings of Msgr. A. Meyen- 
berg, the eminent Swiss priest and 
writer, who is well known also in 
English speaking countries 
through one of his classical books 
on homiletics, which has been 
translated into our language. 

Albert Meyenberg was born 
November 9, 1861, at Lucerne and 
studied theology (1881-1884) at 
Innsbruck and under Msgr. F. 
Hettinger at Wiirzburg. He was 
ordained to the priesthood in 1885. 
Upon his return to Switzerland he 
taught Christian doctrine for six 
years at Baar and Zug and, in 
1891, was appointed professor of 
moral theology in the seminary at 
Lucerne. A few years later he 
gave up moral theology and took 
the chair of homiletics and pastor- 



108 



THE FOETNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



March 15 



al theology. It is with subjects of 
these two important sciences that 
most of his pubUshed writings 
deal. His best known books are: 
''Homiletisch - Katechetische Stu- 
dien, ' ' 1892 ; ' ' Ob wir ihn finden ? ' ' 
1907; ''1st die Bibel inspiriert?" 
1905; ''Wartburgfahrten," 1909; 
"Weihnachtshomiletik," 1921. His 
*'Wartburgfahrten," in the opin- 
ion of Dr. Oehl, ranks with Bishop 
von Keppler's "More Joy" and 
Fr. Morawski's ''Abende am Gen- 
fersee" as one of the classics of 
modern German Catholic litera- 
ture. Msgr. Meyenberg is also an 
authority on botany, which has 
truly been called the ''scientia 
amabilis," and for a number of 
years has edited with great skill 
the weekly Scliiveisensche Kir- 
cheuzeitung, which is among our 
most valued exchanges. 

We join in the congratulations 
of his friends upon his sixtieth 
birthday and hope this distin- 
guished Swiss Catholic editor and 
author will for many years to 
come be enabled to continue his 
strenuous and fruitful labors on 
behalf of that venerable world- 
^'iew of which he is one of the 
most brilliant and effective expo- 
nents in Europe to-day. 



Dante and the Visio Alberici 

Dante in several passages of his 
writings alludes to a certain work 
commonly known as "Alberici 
Visio." Who was this Albericus 
and what about his "vision"? 
The Catholic Encyclopedia men- 
tions only two persons by that 
name : a Cardinal of Ostia, who 
died in France, A. D. 1147, and 
Alberic of Monte Cassino (died 
1088), also a cardinal, whose later 
writings are said to be found 
among those ascribed to Peter 
Damian. There is, however, an- 



other Alberic. He was born at 
Settefrati, a hilly municipality in 
the diocese of Sora, in 1101. "\Vhen 
ten years old, he had a strange vi- 
sion. A dove carried him to Heaven 
by the hair of his head and pre- 
sented him to St. Peter, who prom- 
ised to show him the eternal 
realms. Two angels conducted 
him first through Hell, then 
through Purgatory, and finally 
through the seven heavens. Later 
the youth entered the famous ab- 
bey of Monte Cassino under Abbot 
Gerard, where he was ordained to 
the priesthood, in 1124. 

This "vision" created quite a 
furore and soon was known to the 
populace far and Avide. Abbot 
Senioretto commanded the monk 
Guido to put it to paper, but 
neither diction nor composition 
pleased him, and he charged Peter 
the Deacon with the task. 

The "Vision of Albericus," as 
written doAm by Petrus Diaconus, 
is still preserved in MS. at Monte 
Cassino (Cod. memb. n. 239). It 
was first published by Francesco 
Cancellieri in 1814 and reproduced 
in an edition of the "Divina Com- 
media," Rome, 1815. The Monte 
Cassino edition of the "Divina 
Commedia" of 1894 also contains 
a careful recension of the "Visio 
Alberici. ' ' 

Though many commentators on 
Dante ignore the "Visio Alberi- 
ci," some (like Carey, and espe- 
cially Italian writers) acknowl- 
edge a striking similarity of con- 
tents between the two works. 

Additional information on this 
topic may be found in the Rivista 
Storica Beneditfina, Eome, 1911, 
Vol. VI, pp. 214-220, whence we 
have extracted the above quoted 
data for the benefit of the readers 
of the F. R. 

P. Chas. Augustixe, O.S.B. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



109 



Notes and Gleanings 

A contributor to Blackfriars (No. 
23) recalls a good joke by the late 
Cardinal Wiseman. Wiseman, he says, 
l:ad a ready wit, which he sometimes 
indulged even at the ceremonies in 
which his heart delighted. On one oc- 
casion the celebrant coram Cardinah 
was a very reverend but very small 
priest in a voluminous red chasuble 
and a stole so long as almost to trail 
along the ground. This was too 
much for the Cardinal, who could not 
refrain from saying to one of his at- 
tendants: "Quis est iste qui venit de 
Edom, tinctis vestibus de Bosra? Iste 
fcrmosus gradiens in stola sua?" 

Not a few of the popes were gifted 
vdth a keen sense of humor. Fr. Walter 
Gumbley, O.P., writing on "Dignity and 
Humor" in No. 23 of Blackfriars, names 
especially Gregorv the Great, Benedict 
XIV, Pius IX, 'and Leo XIII. Of 
Benedict XIV he says: He was not 
only a great wit himself, but thorough- 
ly appreciated wit in others. Once the 
poverty-stricken scholar Galiani sent 
him as a present a large chest full of 
rocks and lava collected around Vesu- 
vius and enclosed a note saying: "Holy 
Father, command that these stones be 
made bread." The Pontiff at once con- 
ferred on him a canonry with an income 
of a hundred ducats. Pius IX, when the 
majority of the Sacred College voted 
against political amnesty, put his white 
skullcap over a pile of black beans, 
declaring, "Now they are all white!" 
When a cardinal, referring to the great 
mortality amongst his brethren, said to 
the aged Pius that the beads were 
dropping off the Rosary, the Pope 
struck his breast and replied: "Yes! 
But the Pater Noster remains firm." 
-•--•--♦•-•• 

Sarcasm is often met amongst the 
higher clergy. Chadderdon, the Prot- 
estant Bishop of Norwich, compared 
■"the discovery of a good wife to the 
search of an eel in a barrel of snakes." 
Likely enough, comments Fr. Gumbley, 
domestic worries had driven him into 
open advocacy of a celibate life. 



Very clever was the pun by which 
George Mountain obtained the see of 
London from James the First. On 
hearing that the King had a difficulty 
in making up his mind concerning the 
vacant bishopric. Mountain said to 
him: "O King! if thou hadst faith, 
thou wouldst say to this Mountain : 
Go, cast thyself into the See, and lo ! 
it would be done." 

Once upon a time the better maga- 
zines were purchased and read by the 
middle class ; now their price makes 
them in a measure "exoteric." The 
"man in the street" is fed with cheap 
and worthless papers and magazines, 
half filled with advertisements, for 
publishing, under Capitalism, has be- 
become a mere business, which has to 
show profits, not only for the publish- 
ers, but for the dividend-hungry stock- 
holders who have provided the capital 
necessary to run a large printing con- 
cern. And the businesses which adver- 
tise in these papers and publications 
also have to show profits, not only for 
the firm, but also for the stockholders, 
and so on and so forth. The whole 
thing, as Mrs. H. M. Hyndman says in 
a letter to Blackfriars (No. 24), "is a 
vicious spiral, leading us lower and 
lower down ! . . . Mammon and Stupid- 
ity, twin gods of the possessing class, 
have stolen from the people those op- 
portunities of education which they 
themselves do not use." 

"Written with a purpose," "tenden- 
tious," "thesis novel or play," have be- 
come stock phrases among book re- 
viewers. Yet, as a writer in Black- 
friars points out (No. 24), a book 
written with no purpose at all would 
be an exceedingly strange performance. 
Of course, the implication commonly is 
that the purpose, tendency or thesis 
does not appeal to the reviewer. Most 
books nowadays, it is to be feared, are 
written for no other purpose than to 
make money — at the expense, all too 
often, of good taste and good morals. 
Yet we rarely hear book reviewers 
waxing wroth over this "purpose." 



110 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



March 15 



Prior Vincent McNabb, O.P., one of 
the Dominican friars engaged in Jing- 
lishing the "Summa Theologica" of St. 
Thomas, in a review of this monument- 
al work calls attention to the fact that 
St. Thomas, in dealing in the "Supple- 
mentnm" with the "Four Last Things," 
shows a certain youthful vigor rarely 
found in the mellowed pages of the 
"Summa." One amongst many exam- 
ples, he says, is found in Question 77, 
Article 2. "St. Thomas never came so 
near deserving the praise 'He did not 
suffer fools gladly,' as in this article, 
which deals with the unending race of 
fools given over to Apocalyptic ravings 
and computations. He brings to a close 
his calm discussion of these arithmet- 
ical lunatics with the grim phrase: 'The 
falseness of these calculators is evi- 
dent ; as will likewise be the falseness 
of those who even now cease not to 
calculate.' But our translation is little 
more than a pale cast of the strong 
original : 'Quorum f alsitas patet ; et 
patebit similiter eorum qui adhuc com- 
putare non cessant.' A perfect silhou- 
ette !" 

A Catholic reviewer of the latest 
English biography of Bossuet (Jacques 
Benigne Bossuet: a Study'') by E. K. 
Sanders, an Anglican lady, says it is 
an admirable work, as a whole, but by 
no means ideal, because "no outsider 
can ever write the ideal biography of 
a Catholic saint or churchman." The 
book's chief blemish is the author's 
lack of understanding of the simple 
truth that a very low and scanty prac- 
tice is compatible and often co-exists 
with very real faith. Thus Mrs. Sand- 
ers is baffled by Mme. de Montespan, 
who, while she was the king's mistress, 
rigidly observed the fast. The Madame 
herself has explained the reason : 
"Must I commit all sins because I com- 
mit one?" Mrs. Sanders also shows 
lier ignorance of the Catholic religion 
■ — and of the human heart — when she 
Vv'onders at the occasional desire of the 
royal mistress to approach the Sacra- 
ments ; at the immoral king himself 
upholding the obscure priest who had 
refused absolution to his principal 



CLERGYMEN, COLLEGES and ACADEMIES 
will find it to their advantage to consult 

= THE 

Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eighth Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
RELIABLE SERVICE AT REASONABLE PRICES 
Its facilities for quick delivery of line- 
or monotyped, printed in first-class 
manner books, booklets, pamphlets, 
folders etc. are unexcelled. 



For a GOOD, SUBSTANTIAL and 
TASTY MEAL 

Cooked German Style 

go to 

KOERNER'S 
Restanrant 



408 Washington Avenue 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 
U. S. A. 



ErKer's 



Superior Photo Enlargements 

Our enlargements are beautiful 
and of permanent artistic value 

SOS T^vo 511 N. 
OLIVE ■^*°''^'^ GRAND 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



111 



favorite at the height of her power; 
at the sorceress and poisoner who held 
that a no vena of prayer could work 
greater wonders than a potion or an 
incantation, etc. "^len who do not 
translate their theories into practice 
often hold those theories very firmly 
and with intelligent conviction.'' 

"A Religious j\Iedley" is the way 
Dr. Richard Downey in the New JVit- 
ness (No. 482) characterizes "An En- 
cyclopedia of Religions" by Alaurice 
A. Canney (London: Routledge). "It 
is a mine of information about things 
that don't matter," he says. "The 
things which the average student of 
religion wants to know are not there." 
For Catholic matters ^Ir. Canney 's 
chief, if not sole, authority is Addis 
and Arnold's Ii)ictionary, and his refer- 
ences are to^the seventh edition of 
1905, instead ' to the current (ninth) 
edition of \9ir. He has apparently 
never heard of the Catholic Encyclope- 
dia or of the classic works of Catholic 
scholarship. Needless to add, "An En- 
cyclopedia of Religions," though it may 
possibly prove of some value to the 
advanced student of comparative re- 
ligion and to occultists in search of 
hisarreries, cannot be recommended as 
an adequate work of reference for 
"the cultured general reader."' It is 
but fair to add, however, that Canney's 
Encyclopedia is praised by the usually 
careful London Unnrrsc (No. 3187). 

Information of great interest to the 
layman is scattered here and there 
through the pages of "The Wheat 
Plant," an agricultural monograph just 
published by Prof. John Percival, of 
Reading, England. Perhaps the most 
remarkable single fact recounted in the 
book is that there are at least 2,000 
varieties of wheat which grow under 
widely different conditions. So various 
is the range that somewhere or other 
in the world a wheat crop is being cut 
always, no matter what the time of the 
year. The author regards our bread 
wheat as a hybrid derived from the 
wild small spelt of the Balkans and the 



wild emnier of Syria and western 
Persia. The wheat grown by primitive 
man was probably the club dwarf vari- 
ety still cultivated in Turkestan. Prof. 
Percival scoffs at the stories that grains 
of wheat taken from Egyptian tombs 
have germinated. His own tests with 
grains of known age show that few 
kernels over fifteen years old will 
sprout, and he points in corroboration 
to the experiments of Prof. Flinders 
Petrie, who has tried in vain to grow 
the kernels of wheat found in his 
Egyptian explorations. 

Herder's Literarischer Handweiser, 
now edited by Dr. Gustav Keckeis, is 
the leading Catholic magazine devoted 
entirely to book reviewing in Germany. 
No. 1 for 1922 inaugurates a new 
series of this time-tested old periodical, 
now in its 58th year. The Literarischer 
Haiidzcciser is published monthly and 
counts among its contributors such 
eminent and universally known schol- 
ars as Fr. H. Grisar, S.J., Msgr. C. M. 
Kaufmann, Fr. H. Muckermann, S.J., 
Dr. L. von Pastor, Prof. E. M. Roloff, 
P'r. Eric Wasmann, S.J., etc. Subscrip- 
tions for 1922 are taken by the B. 
Herder Book Co., of St. Louis. The 
subscription price is two dollars per 
annum. 

Fr. Hildebrand Hopfl, O.S.B., an 
eminent Scripturist now teaching in the 
Collegio S. Anselmo in Rome, in No. 4 
of the Literary Supplement to the 
Augshiirgcr Postzeititng reviews Fr. 
W. Schmidt's S.V.D. "Der strophische 
Aufbau des Gesamttextes der vier 
Evangelien," to which we briefly re- 
ferred in our issue of February 1. Fr. 
Schmidt, as our readers may remem- 
ber, thinks he has made the sensational 
discovery that the entire text of the 
Gospels — not only the addresses and 
parables of Christ, etc. — is composed 
in verses and strophes, built up, not 
according to subjective notions, but ac- 
cording to objective historical criteria ; 
tliat the strophes are grouped into 
pericopes, and that the pericopes form 
larger groups, which in turn go to con- 



112 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



March 15 



The Holy Father Benedict XV. has favored this work with a special letter of recomtnendation 



A Parochial Course of Doctrinal Instructions 

For All Sundays and Holydays of the Year 

Based on the Catechism of the Council of Trent, and Harmonized with the 
Gospels and Epistles of the Sundays and Feasts 

Prepared and Arranged by the Rev. Charles J. Callan, O. P., and the Rev.J. A. McHugh, O. P. 
With an Introduction by the Most Rev. Patrick J. Hayes, D. D., Archbishop of New York. 

Complete in Four Volumes 
Price per rolnme, bound in cloth, net, $3.60 



HIGHLY PRAISED BY 

From the Ecclesiastical Review: 

"The publication inaugurates a new era of pa- 
rochial activity. ... If it were adopted under 
episcopal direction it would soon dispel the intel- 
lectual indifference of Catholics who go to church 
and frequent the sacraments, but who arc incapa- 
ble of either defending their religion against 
popular attacks or of illustrating its power of 
truth and beauty so as to make it respected 
among those outside the Church." 

From the Homiletic and Pastoral Review: 

"The work before us is intended to remedy the 
evil of desultory preaching. In the regeneration 



EMINENT REVIEWERS : 

of modern pulpit eloquence the present work will 
render yeoman service." 

From America: 

"Too commonly books of sermons are modeled 
on courses of theology for seminaries, altogether 
too didactic and too rigidly -ystematic for paro- 
chial or popular use. Not S' with this excellent 
course by two men who ar; ^ not only expert in 
preaching and teaching, but j nversant also with 
what is most practical an- recent in sermon 
literature. . . . With these ."olirses one could for 
a lifetime use this book and ever have something 
new, interesting and convinekig to say." 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.) Publishers 

23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

STOP! LOOK! LISTEN! 

If We Cannot Give You Greater Value 
We Are Not Entitled to Your Patronage 

^P^rrn t^C ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^' ^^^P® ^^' P^'i^e, from $6.00 to $30.00 per 100. From 
OC^dio the humblest Domestic to the most exquisite Clear Habana 

Seven Years Old as a Mail Order House — 
Fifty-six Years Young as a Segar House 

C.ta,og„ea„dpHces MATT. WAGNER & SON 

mailed on request Established 1866 

58 North Pearl Street BUFFALO, N. Y. 



America Press 

^ JOB PRINTING a 
done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. ST. Louis, Mo, 



<t «i \.m'^ 



•SrEINEREi^l/§15^?c 



BADGES,! 



[SEALS 
I STENCILS ^ME™^CHECKS.| 



/ BUTTONS a:Pms^i 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



113 



slitute the whole of each Gospel. Dr. 
Hopfl admits in certain parts of the 
Gospels a kind of rhythm, analogous 
to that found in the sapiential books of 
the Old Testament; but he regards the 
"objective criteria" of Fr. Schmidt as 
entirely too subjective to form the 
basis of such a strange theory, which 
leaves unanswered the question: Did 
Jesus Himself speak in verses or did 
the Apostles clothe His teaching in 
poetical garb? In the latter case it 
would be more difficult to uphold the 
historicity of the Gospels. 
-•--•--♦--•- 

The sensational appointment of Fa- 
ther Joseph M. Denning, of Marion, 
O., as American ambassador to the 
Vatican, with which we were regaled 
soon after the inauguration of Mr. 
Harding, has simmered down to the 
commonplace assignment of that rev- 
erend gentleman to the post of consul 
at Tangiers. We are assured that Fa- 
ther Denning's ordinary, the Archbish- 
op of Cincinnati, has given his consent 
to this appointment, and that, of 
course, settles the matter so far as 
ecclesiastical discipline is concerned. 
As to the larger question of priests 
entering politics and accepting political 
offices, not a few of Fr. Denning's 
own brethren of the cloth seem to feel 
that his case is setting a bad precedent. 
-•--♦•-•--♦- 

Bishop Chartrand, of Indianapolis, 
in a pastoral letter on the Catholic 
press, says that "the efforts of writers 
and publishers of Catholic literature 
are deserving of praise and encourage- 
ment, and we all of us have an obliga- 
tion of making their labors fruitful and 
far-reaching." The Bishop whole- 
heartedly adds : "We may not always 
agree with the opinions of individuals 
as expressed in its [the CathoHc pa- 
per's] columns, but unless faith and 
morals are attacked, entire freedom of 
expression ought to be granted to edi- 
tors. In largeness of mind we should 
be able to discriminate between essen- 
tials and mere personal opinion." 
W^ould that all bishops and priests 
supported the Catholic press in such a 
broad-minded and generous fashion ! 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

{48th Imtallment) 

As we had a good, rehable mixed choir, 
I was anxious to get a pipe organ. We had 
a reed organ, but I felt my choir deserved a 
fine pipe organ ; at the same time I feared 
to ask for it, as some might object to this 
and say other things were more necessary. 
Therefore, I resolved to take the people by 
surprise, and one Sunday announced that we 
were going to have a pipe organ for our 
splendid choir, which had been so faithful, 
and in which the main singers had been active 
from the first day that services were held 
in Jonesboro, before we had a church, in 
fact, when we still had Mass in a private 
room, in 1884. I asked those who were 
ready to help to bring me their contribution, 
but added that I expected the greatest sacri- 
fice from those, if there were any, who did 
not think we needed a pipe organ and were 
therefore determined not to contribute, 
namely to keep quiet and say nothing. I 
mentioned the wheel which does not work, 
but makes the greatest noise. Then I turned 
to the others who were glad to help and told 
them: "If anybody makes any remarks 
about purchasing the organ, ask at once. 
How much did you contribute? If they 
reply, nothing,, tell them either to open their 
pocket-books or to shut their mouths." 
Well, I never heard the least remark con- 
cerning the organ and never got anything 
more easily. In fact, many a time I suc- 
ceeded in a similar way when more earnest 
words would hardly have been heeded. 

In the early days of the Catholic colony 
of Pocahontas I had a number of uncultured 
people who vexed me by their lack of man- 
ners. I am sorry to say they were mostly 
country-people of mine from Switzerland. 
Some had the bad habit of turning their 
heads every time the church door would 
open, even during the sermon; they were 
determined to know who had come in. Al- 
luding to this, I told them, it was good that 
they showed themselves indignant about peo- 
ple who came too late, but on account of 
the great distance of many farmers from 
church, and their defective clocks, this was 
unavoidable at times. However, henceforth 
they would not need to look around, as I 
could see the persons from the pulpit, and 
in future would tell them who it was, when- 
ever the door opened. They all laughed. 
Soon after the door opened again. A lady 
entered whom I did not know. Therefore I 
remarked : "This time you will have to look 
for yourselves, for I do not know this lady." 
I had no more trouble with people looking 
around. 

Two Sisters, Mary Ann Brunner and 
Meinrada End, accompanied me to Europe. 



114 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



March 15 



We took passage on the beautiful Hamburg 
liner, "Graf Walclersee," and we had a splen- 
did voyage. The weather was hne, the serv- 
ice all that could be desired, concerts by 
brass bands in the open air and at night by 
a good orchestra in the large dining-room of 
the second class. On these occasions almost 
everyone would take part in the singing of 
popular songs played by the orchestra. Leaf- 
lets with the words of tlie song were handed 
around. A Bohemian priest. ^Isgr. E. A. 
Bouska, rector of St. Wenceslaus' Churcli. 
at Tabor, X. D., kept our company in good 
humor during the whole trip. Notwithstand- 
ing his anti-semitic remarks and his many 
jokes at the expense of the people from 
Jerusalem and Samaria, our Jewish fellow- 
travelers were always seeking his company. 
We found our people glad at our arrival 
in Switzerland, Imt for quite a while my 
health improved but little. Xevertheless, I 
traveled about a good deal, visiting various 
friends and places and acquiring numerous 
objects for the Arkansas missions. In Au- 
gust, I went to ^Munich to visit ^Isgr. George 
Bruckle. I intended to remain there only a 



few days, but the famous Miinchener beer 
worked like a tonic on me; my appetite re- 
turned, and the tired malarial feeling disap- 
peared. I was told that this was the ex- 
perience of many visitors and thereupon pro- 
longed my stay for two weeks. I returned 
to Switzerland in good health, full of cour- 
age and strength to resume my work. 

Arriving in my home town on the last day 
of August, to my surprise I found the town 
decorated as it had been for my first Mass. 
On the Feast of St. Symphorosa, September 
2nd, was the 25th anniversary of my first 
jNIass. On the eve of the feast the Abbess 
gave a banquet in the large guest-hall of the 
Abbey to the jubilarian and his many clerical 
friends. While we were at table the young 
men of the congregation came in procession 
with torchlights to the piazza of Our Lady's 
fountain, in front of the Abbey's guest- 
house. The band played and fireworks went 
up. (To be cotitinited) 
— .^g^-.^ 

— We are always ready to furnish such 
back numbers of the F. R. as we have in 
stock. 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS TRY OUR BRANDS 

= They Have Stood the Test Since 1860 ~ — 




u a pe s n 1 all f. th qu 1 ty 



and view our assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

Westerheide Tobacco & Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Mail Orders Promptly Filled Phones; Bell Tyler 7S8 Kiuloch Ceutral 4039 L 



CASPER STEHLE BEDDING COMPANY 

1834 Morgan Street «. c. smith, Manager g^. Louis, Mo. 

Sixty Years in Business is a Guarantee of Satisfied Customers 

Hospitals and Institutions Receive Special Attention 

MATTRESSES of all kinds and sizes, and PILLOWS 

Write for quotations, or better still, try a Sample Felt Mattress in a A. C. A. Tick, built up 

extra well in the middle, @ $8.00 net, F. O. B., St. Louis. 




ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 



I92i 



THE FOETNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



115 



Literarj' Briefs 

Pope Pius IX 

^Ir. J. Herbert Williams publishes in book 
form what is hardly more than an essay on 
'"Pope Pius IX," written with a view to 
further in English-speaking countries the 
cause of that saintly Pontiflf's beatification. 
The essay is worthy of perusal, but it was 
hardly important enough for a book. (Sands 
& Co. and B. Herder Book Co.). 

A New Story by Father Spalding 

Father Henry S. Spalding, S.J., has pub- 
lislied another of his fascinating stories of 
out-door life and adventure for boys. It is 
entitled, ""Signals from the Bay Tree" and 
deals with the adventures of three boys who 
made a camping trip into the almost unex- 
plored regions of the Ten Thousand Islands 
and tiie Everglades of Florida. (Benziger 
Bros.) 
A Novelette by Miss Nesbitt 

"Lamps of Fire" is a novelette — it is 
hardly long enough to be called a novel — in 
which the author, ]\Iarian Nesbitt, weaves a 
readable and entertaining story around 
the theme, "Jealousy is as hard as hell ; the 
lamps thereof are lamps of fire and flame." 
Tlie publishers (Alatre and Co., Chicago) 
are to be congratulated on the workmanship 
and appearance of the book. 

Indulgenced Prayers 

Tlie '"Treasury of Indulgences," compiled 
by M. P. Donelan (B. Herder Book Co.), 
contains a large collection of prayers and 
ejaculations indulgenced by the Church. It 
is excellently adapted for visits to the Blessed 
Sacrament as well as for the regular church 
services. Religious cannot afford to be with- 
out it. and for the Catholic who is intent 
upon more than Sunday Alass, it is a real 
blessing. 
The Divine Motherhood of Mary 

In a volume titled '"The Divine Mother- 
hood," the Rt. Rev. Ansgar Vonier, O.S.B., 
Abbot of Buckfast, sets forth in popular 
siyle and for devotional purposes the teach- 
ing of the Church on the divine maternity 
of the B. V. Mary. The treatise would be 
n;ore convincing had the author heeded the 
timely suggestions made for the reconstruc- 
tion of Mariology some years ago by Dr. 
Eartmann nf Paderborn. (B. Herder Book 
Co.) 
"Vademecum Theologiae Moralis" 

This is the title of a synopsis of moral 
theology by Fr. Dominic Priimmer, O.P., of 
the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, de- 
signed for the use of seminarists and con- 



fessors. It contains within 593 i6nio pages 
the entire doctrine, condensed, of the au- 
tlior's well-known three-volume ""Manuale." 
The book is beautifully printed on very thin 
paper and fits snugly into the coat pocket. 
Xo doubt it will please those who have used 
the '"^lanuale" and many others who stand 
in need of a digest of this kind. (B. Herder 
Book Co.) 

The Church and Eugenics 

The third, revised and enlarged, edition 
has appeared of Fr. Thomas J. Gerrard's 
C. S. G. pamphlet, "The Church and Eu- 
genics." The booklet is a classic and admir- 
ably adapted in scope and method for the 
use of social study clubs, of which we in 
America have, alas, too few! The new 
edition has been brought up to date and 
contains a short appendix in which the 
thorny problem of '"Instruction in -Matters 
of Sex" is treated with masterly delicacy. 
The author's guiding thought is that religion 
is the only force in the world capable of 
realizing the final aim of sound eugenics. 
(C. S. G. and B. Herder Book Co.) 

The "Summa Theologica" in English 

The latest volume of the literal transla- 
tion of the "Summa Theologica" of St. 
Thomas Aquinas by the English Dominicans 
comprises Questions LXIX to LXXXVI of 
the Third Part (Supplementum), which 
is presumably the work of Fr. Reginald of 
Piperno. It deals with the resurrection, the 
last judgment, suffrages for the dead, and 
the quality of the risen bodies. The im- 
portant work of translating the "Summa" 
is thus nearing its completion, and it is but 
just to say that the high standard set from 
the beginning is being maintained to the 
end. Let us hope for a revival of Thomistic 
theology among us as a fruit of this labor- 
ious undertaking. (Benziger Brothers). 

A Thesis on Cynewulf 

"The Dependence of Part I of Cynewulf's 
Christ upon the Antiphonary" is a Catholic 
University doctoral dissertation by the Rev. 
Eugene Burgert, O.S.B. The author has 
delved into some very interesting phases of 
the literature and history of the times of 
Cynewulf, and though the atmosphere is oc- 
casionally quite tenuous, the careful reader 
will agree with the conclusion that the rela- 
tion of Christ I to the Antiphonary is one 
of almost complete dependence. We note in 
passing that the author attacks the accepted 
opinion that Cynewulf was a savant rather 
than an humble poet. This opinion is based 
on the assumption that Cynewulf's acquaint- 



116 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



March 15 



ance with patristic, hymnic, and liturgical 
literature came from a daily reading of the 
Divine Office rather than from long hours 
of scholarly meditation over the Fathers and 
Biblical literature. 

The Formation of Character 

The B. Herder Book Co. have brought out 
an American edition of Fr. Ernest R. Hull's 
brochure, 'The Formation of Character." 
It is in one sense the sequel, in another 
sense the prelude of the same author's ad- 
mirable booklet, "Fortifying the Layman.' 
The author discusses the training of the 
young under a scheme of three questions : 
(i) What sort of result do we want our 
training to produce? (2) What sort of ma- 
terial is given us out of which to produce 
the result? (3) How are we to handle that 
material so as to bring the desired result 
about? The whole constitutes an admirable 
handbook for parents on the duties they owe 
to their adolescent children and the best 
way of performing these duties. Fr. Hull is 
always brilliant and always practical. We 
trust this brochure will have an even larger 
sale than "Fortifying the Layman." (B. Her- 
der Book Co.) 



Books Received 

The Church in England. By the Rev. Geo. 

Stebbins, C.SS.R. xi & 620 pp. 8vo. 

Sands & Co. and B. Herder Book Co. $5 

net. 
Relations IntellcctucUcs aire les Centranx? 

Par Maurice Lecat. viii & 128 pp. 8vo. 

Louyain: Chez I'Auteur, Avenue des 

Allies, 92. (Wrapper). 

Saint Gregory VII, Pope. (The "Xotre 
Dame" Series of Lives of the Saints), vi 
& 245 pp. i2mo. Illustrated. Sands & Co. 
and B. Herder Book Co. $1.80 net. 

Dcr licilige Franc von Borja, General der 
Gcsellschaft Jesu (1510-1572). Von Otto 
Karrer, S.J. Mit einem Titelbild, xvi & 
442 pp. 8vo. Freiburg i. Br. : Herder & 
Co.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. 
$2.50 net. 

The Ascent of Calvary. By Pere Louis Per- 
roy. Authorized Translation from the 
French by Marian Lindsay. With Introduc- 
tion by Archbishop Glennon. xi & 336 pp. 
i2mo. P. J. Kennedy & Sons. $1.60 post- 
paid. 

Herders Konversations-Lexikon. Dritte Auf- 
lage. Reich illustriert durch Textabbildun- 
gen, Tafeln und Karten. Zweiter Ergan- 
zungsband. Erste Halfte: A bis K. 
Zehnter Band des Gesamtwerkes. 928 cols. 
B. Herder Book Co. $4.75. (Price of the 
entire work, ten volumes, $56.50 net). 



The Western 
Catholic Union 



A Legally Solvent Adequate Rate 
Catholic Fraternal Society 




^ Forty-four years old. 
H Based on Sound, Sensible and Scien- 
tific Principles. 

11 Devoid of Red Tape and Catholic to 
the core. 

H Three popular forms of certificates 
issued— 20 pay Whole Life Certificate 
with all modern cash loan, paid up, 
and extended insurance features. 

II This certificate is fully paid up after 
twenty consecutive payments have 
been made. 

U Whole Life Special This is a Whole 
Life Certificate with modern up-to- 
date cash loan, paid up and extended 
insurance features. 

11 Ordinary Whole Life. Just a plain 
up-to-date Whole Life Insurance Cer- 
tificate with Old Age Benefits at- 
tached. 

JUVENILE SECTION 
H Two plans. Term Rate and Whole 
Life with all modern cash, paid up 
and extended features. 



H For full information and induce- 
ments in reference to organizing new 
branches address 

W.C. U. Headquarters 

Illinois State Bank Building 
Quincy, Illinois 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 7 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



April 1, 1922 



About H. G. Wells 

By the Rev. Edw. P. Graham, Sandusky, 0. 



It is painful to write about H. 
G. AVells, because no matter how 
mild and restrained the language 
used, he persists in displaying 
himself, to quote his own words 
(as Mr. Britling), "a weak, silly, 
ill-informed, and hasty minded 
writer." The difficulty is increased 
by his ignorance of religion, which 
is such that merely to quote liim 
borders on blasphemy. That he is 
popular as a novelist is not to be 
wondered at, as he depicts, vividly 
and briskly, and with many a 
happy phrase, contemporary life 
around him. But his ability as a 
story-teller would not account for 
his vogue. He is also, like other 
spoiled authors, a propagandist 
or tendency writer, being the ever 
open mouthpiece for many of the 
Younger Generation, who despise 
the stupidity of their fathers and 
the absurdity of their mothers. 
Yet even this additional reason 
can scarcely account for the noto- 
riety which is his and is so exces- 
sive that it suggests, not a natural, 
but a stimulated growth. He set 
out by the easiest way to win an 
audience, namely, by attacking 
everything of the past, particular- 
ly of the immediate past or Vic- 
torian period. ''Accordingly he 
put into circulation the popular 
epithets for the politics, religion, 
art and morals which prevailed in 
the dingy, furtive, canting, hum- 
bugging English world of his fa- 
thers with its muddled system, its 



emasculated orthodoxy, its shabby 
subservience, its unreasonable 
prohibitions, its rank surrender of 
mind and body to the dictation 
of pedants and old w^omen and 
fools. At the same time, he gave 
currency to the catchwords of the 
new era: 'scientific method,' 're- 
search,' 'efficiency,' 'constructive 
statesmanship,' 'eugenics,' etc. . . . 
And we are feeling persuaded," 
as Professor Stuart P. Sherman, 
just quoded, adds, "that we are 
moving, or that the world has 
rolled on and left us beliind.'^ 

Wells denounces with ease and 
demolishes with zest everything, 
— the past as unsatisfactory, the 
present as contemptible, and then 
offers ideas vague, crude, and im- 
practicable to reform nothing less 
than the whole world. Not know^- 
ing enough either of theology or 
of history to hesitate, and una- 
ware of the existence of any such 
virtues as humihty or modesty, he 
theorizes and dogmatizes until one 
is perplexed as to w^hether he 
knows he is a humbug, or inno- 
cently imagines he is a philosoph- 
er, rjpenly he avows that he cares 
not for facts, making liis beliefs 
as he needs them. The proved ex- 
perience of mankind has no weight 
for him and he has "no shyness 
about theology, of which he is 
fearless." He had a scientific edu- 
cation, but throws all its methods 
overboard w^hen romancing for 
reform, and faith in himself is the 



118 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 



only infinity lie knows, though 
some of his readers suspect it has 
a counterpart in his ignorance of 
himself and of his kind. 

Marriage, according to Glad- 
stone, is a touchstone of reform. 
Mr. Wells generously admits that 
man's ideas of marriage must be 
profoundly modified to suit his 
plans ; but that is a secondary con- 
sideration to him. *'I want to 
change the respective values of 
the family altogether. There must 
be experiments : Splendid and 
beautiful and courageous people 
must come together and have chil- 
dren, and motherhood must be en- 
dowed. To this proposition there 
is no alternative." What is the 
object of all this? The develop- 
ment of a ''great race mind. To 
this must our lives be given." So 
now you know why, at least, the 
English exist for ''Our Empire," 
and you see that, after twenty 
centuries, this earthbound prophet 
has climbed, no higher than the 
pagan Scipio's Dream! 

For a sound basis for his zo- 
ological morality, Mr. Wells de- 
clares we must reject and set aside 
as starting propositions all ab- 
stract, refined, and intellectual 
ideas — such as right, liberty, hap- 
piness, duty or beauty, — and hold 
fast to "the fundamental asser- 
tion of life as a tissue and suc- 
cession of births." It is useless to 
analyse or comment on this. It 
comes from the fertile pen that 
has produced many futile works 
which advocate reconstruction of 
the world and the alteration of 
human nature, that his heroes and 
heroines may philander together 
for a twelvemonth in tranquillity. 
("Man when he was in honor did 
not understand . . . and is become 
like to senseless beasts." Ps. 48.) 

No doubt assailed him for the 



success of his schemes, for, like 
most of our own. pseudo-reform- 
ers, Mr. Wells pins his faith on 
the State to accomplish all re- 
forms. Indeed, the State looms so 
large in his plans that even he, 
the imperturbable, was distressed 
to discover that German efficiency 
was the realization of his life-long 
dreams. That, of course, not being 
English, should be destroyed; but 
he was honest enough to modify 
his condemnatory attitude towards 
the Germans, and to confess also 
that the way he had urged so long- 
on his fellow-citizens was not the 
way of salvation. He had found 
something was necessary besides 
state-directed machinery to rail- 
road mankind into the scientific 
millennium. 

May be it was a god. Well, if 
so, Wells was not discouraged, 
but, forgetting Voltaire 's sarcasm, 
he started to discover or, rather, 
to formulate a god. The newly- 
evolved idol bore a suspicious like- 
ness to his discoverer, being noth- 
ing but a magnified image of 
Wells himself thrown on the low- 
hovering clouds, hazy, indefinite, 
very finite and not yet quite com- 
plete either in form or power. It 
hath not fully appeared what man- 
ner of god he shall be, but, as he 
knows no righteousness, he does 
not concern himself with man's 
individual acts as to food, health, 
and sex! Our physicians relieve 
this youthful god of these unim- 
portant and perhaps embarrassing 
details. All this and more is con- 
tained in Wells's "God The In- 
visible King," which, in the ver- 
nacular, is "some book." There is 
many a page in it that makes no 
more sense than Mrs. Eddy's 011a 
Podrida of Quimby's "Christian 
Science" and her own hash of 
philosophic odds and ends, put on 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



iiy 



the market under the label, "Sci- 
ence and Health." Mr. AVells's 
publishers, it is charitable to sup- 
pose, accepted the book on account 
of his name, and some critics were' 
perplexed at it and some were 
afraid to condemn it for what it 
is, namely, a piece of intolerable 
impudence and incredible igno- 
rance. There are, alas, many 
readers and writers in this coun- 
try who dare not call their souls 
their o^\^l and who, abandoning 
their common sense at the sound 
of the dailies, weeklies, monthlies, 
and quarterlies, bow down and 
adore a popular idol. 

Spontaneous generation has no 
place in biology ; neither has it in 
sociology. So, to classify Mr. 
AVells, suffice it to say that, as 
god-maker, he descends generical- 
h' from Comte : but it is not wortli 
the pains to differentiate him spe- 
cifically, as he offers nothing 
worth while. Podmore informs 
us that Andrew Jackson Davis's 
god was a "progressive nebula." 
Wells has progressed, as his god 
is a progressive idea, which is, of 
course, consolinglv more spiritual. 
"Whence," "Why," and "Wliith- 
er," before this inchoate deity 
was discovered? Do not bother 
Mr. Wells with trifies. 

It is amusing to see Mr. Wells, 
mistaking the interest aroused 
over the one repentant "natural- 
ist," leap to the conclusion "that 
he, single-handed, has made a 
great light break upon the world 
waiting in outer darkness for his 
private illumination. Far from 
admitting that he has returned to 
the fold, he naively lifts up his 
voice and invites the fold to turn 
to him." (Prof. Sherman). And 
how does he expect to establish 
the kingdom of god on earth, in 
which there shall be "no churches, 



no priests, no bibles, no creeds"? 
By complete and universal an- 
archy, with one exception — Mr. 
Wells is to lay down its absolute 
rules. 

But, you exclaim, all this is ab- 
surd and trifling. Of course it is, 
and so is Mr. Wells, who resem- 
bles a motley-clad clown leaping 
into a pulpit and juggling words 
whose meaning he knows not. How 
unlike Mr. Chesterton's honest 
confession and his ensuing hearty 
and logical fight for sanity. 

There is, however, a very seri- 
ous side to it. Many really con- 
sider Mr. Wells as a guide, a kind 
of prophet, and he, in his colossal 
egotism, presumes to teach and to 
lead. One cannot be too severe on 
him, neither can he complain, as 
he condemns Christianity with its 
1^'ounder and all its teachers and 
leaders. Its glorious and thrilling 
history is a closed book to him. 
"You brute, you bestial thing of 
pride and lies! You who have 
overshadowed the souls of other 
men. You senseless fool!" so 
cried the Angel from the Land of 
Beautiful Dreams, in one of his 
rather disappointing stories. Why 
not so address Mr. Wells himself, 
who rushes in ruthlesly on holy 
and sacred ground I If there was 
any certainty that, even in his 
best moments, he were not simply 
attitudinizing, simply playing the 
novelist, one might sympathize 
with him as with a man groping 
for the light ; but, when he Imows 
no supreme being and starts to 
fashion one mentally, bit by bit, 
like an image-maker of old fash- 
ioned an idol for his own worship, 
it is permissible to prefer a 
medicine-man of Borneo to Wells 
the god-maker. 

Many read Mr. Wells for his 
stories : those who read him for 



120 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



auglit else are a melancholy justi- 
fication for Schopenhauer's "pur- 
blind race of miserable men," — a 
race going to broken cisterns and 
a sad proof of a world becoming- 
mad because it has rejected 
{ 'hrist. It is impossible at present 



to picture H. G. Wells on his 
knees, saying, ex corde, the Our 
Father, but since with God all 
things are possible, so one day 
may this dreamer also write, ''ex 
somno solutus sum." 



Europe Without Peace 



The results of a great and de- 
structive war are now manifest in 
tile material depletion of Europe; 
and the ideals that were held up 
i:i the fervor of conflict seem but 
njocking shadows to the peoples 
who, after attaining the climax of 
an unparalleled united effort, have 
gone down again into a cheerless 
world of neglected firesides, worn- 
out workshops, and ruined mar- 
kets. The prevailing mood is one 
of disillusionment. The great 
concentrated passions of the war 
have shrunk into an indiscrimi- 
nate petulance. It seems incredi- 
ble now — so narrow and sordid 
has life once more become — that 
only a few years ago millions of 
men were struggling under the 
compulsion of meanings and pur- 
poses suddenly revealed in some 
broad historical perspective. 

Which is real — yesterday or to- 
day? What is to blame for our 
present unhappy condition — the 
war or the peace? The tendency 
now is to blame the peace and the 
authors of peace, and, in a curious 
revulsion of feeling, to repudiate 
the motives and associations of 
the war. It is remarkable to see 
how the arguments of pacifists 
which were regarded as heretical 
and treasonable Avhen the struggle 
was at its height, are not only 
tolerated now, but are being pro- 
claimed and frequently accepted 
as a new orthodoxy. 

Signor Nitti, who, as prime 



minister of Italy took a prominent 
I)art in the work of the Supreme 
Council and the discussions con- 
cerning the application of the 
Treaty of Versailles, in a book 
entitled, "L'Europa senza Pace" 
(Florence: Bemporad), attempts 
to give such an analysis. 

"I believe," he says, "that Eu- 
rope is in grave peril of collapse, 
more on account of the peace trea- 
ties than on account of the war." 

Signor Nitti 's thesis is that, the 
economic unity of Europe having 
been dislocated by the war, the 
task of the peace-makers should 
have been so to adjust the terms 
of peace as to re-establish that 
unity as soon as possible. This 
task, he considers, they failed to 
achieve, largely because of the im- 
possible claims put forward by 
France, as a result of which bur- 
dens impossible to bear were im- 
posed on Germany, and the victors 
themselves are suffering from the 
consequences of their disloyalty 
to their own professed principles. 

The victors, says Signor Nitti, 
in their manner of making peace, 
have displayed the mentality that 
led the Germans into war. The 
consequence is that the restora- 
tion of the economic unity of Eu- 
rope, which is of vital necessity to 
all nations, has been frustrated by 
the peace. The defeated nations 
are falling into bankruptcy and 
are dragging the victors -with 
them into the abyss. Europe is 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



121 



essentially a unity, and the par- 
alysis or collapse of any one of 
lier members means the decay of 
all. To crush Germany means to 
destroy Europe. 

It is worth while remarking on 
Sigiior Nitti's attitude toward the 
question of responsibility for the 
war. He admits that, during the 
V, ar, all the Allies very loudly and 
emphatically attributed the re- 
sponsibility to Germany. That, he 
lightly declares, was a war meas- 
ure dictated by the necessity of 
exciting and maintaining the light- 
ing spirit of the peoples. ( !!?) But 
though Germany, he says, was to 
a large extent responsible, owing 
to the strength and arrogance of 
her military caste, the fatuity of 
her emperor, and the mediocre 
capacity of her politicians, yet she 
was by no means wholly responsi- 
ble. Sigiior Nitti restates the fa- 
miliar view, to which Mr. Lloyd 
George once lent support in a 
speech, that the behavior of all 
Europe was such as continually to 
increase the risk of war, and then 
proceeds to suggest that if Russia 
had not been so provocative, Ger- 
many would never have plunged 
into the conflict. He refers to con- 
versations he had before the war 
Avith German statesmen who ex- 
pressed their anxiety at the grow- 
ing strength, and what they re- 
garded as the growing aggressive- 
ness, of Russia, and he affirms 
that the feeble Czar was sur- 
rounded by corrupt and reaction- 
ary statesmen, who were plotting 
a war in Europe to recover the 
prestige lost in Manchuria. 

Signor Nitti regards Germany 
as "the most cultivated nation in 
Europe" — the phrase recurs again 
and again — and sometimes grows 
warm in her praises, though occa- 
sionallv he makes cautious reser- 



vations. He considers that Ger- 
many, if she had won, would have 
made a wiser peace. "Dotata di 
maggior senso pratico, avrebbe 
chiesto forse condizioni meno im- 
possibili per avere un vantaggio 
sicuro senza la rovina del vinto." 
He expresses warm sympathy for 
Hungary, who, he says, has lost 
much of her territory to "peoples 
of inferior culture." The policy 
01 France he severely condemns, 
while expressing admiration for 
the democratic traditions from 
which, he declares, France has 
temporarily departed. He fre- 
quently claims Mr, Lloyd George 
as a supporter of his views, and 
towards the United States his at- 
titude is one of sedulous admira- 
tion, to the point of describing as 
"praiseworthy" the refusal of the 
Senate to ratify the Treaty of 
Versailles. 

The chapter on reconstruction 
contains practical suggestions for 
the reduction of the amount of 
reparations and the inclusion of 
Germany in the League of Na- 
tions. 

The chaplain of Folsom Prison, 
California, asks for Catholic books, 
magazines, and papers for the men in 
his charge. His address is : Rev. J. H. 
Ellis, Prison Chapel, Represa, Cal. 

We learn from a private source that 
Father P. De Roo,, of Portland, Ore., 
has completed his attempted rehabilita- 
tion of Alexander VI, on which he has 
been working a number of years. 
The work will consist of five volumes, 
or about three thousand pages in all. 
The author maintains that Alexander 
has been maligned even by Catholic 
historians like Prof. Pastor, and was 
in reality a great and good pope. As 
it will require about $12,000 to bring 
out this work, its appearance is some- 
what uncertain. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



The Definability of the Assumption 



The Rev. J. Ernst, D.D., lias re- 
published, in book form, his arti- 
cles on the Assumption of theB. V. 
Mary, which originally appeared 
ill the Tlieologisch - praktische 
Quartalsclirift of Linz (cfr. F. R., 
XXVIII, 19, p. 351). The volume 
is entitled, "Die leibliche Himniel- 
fahrt Mariens, historisch-dogma- 
tisch iiach ihrer Definierbarkeit 
beleuchtet," and is published by 
Manz of Ratisbon (64 pp. 8vo.). 

Dr. Ernst, as our readers know, 
denies that the doctrine of the As- 
sumption can .be established on 
purely historical, or even exclu- 
sively dogmatic, grounds. He 
shows, against Gutberlet and 
Renaudin, that there is no real 
senientia comminns, nor a con- 
sensus Pafrum et iheologornm. 
He attributes great weight to the 
attitude of the Breviary Commis- 
sion under Benedict XIV. 

Msgr. Meyenberg, in a review 
of Dr. Ernst's book in the Schwei- 
^erische Kirclienzeitunfj (1922, No. 
2), expresses the opinion that Dr. 
Ernst demands too much for the 
definability of the doctrine of the 
Assumption. He points out that 
Dr. Scheeben many years ago ad- 
mitted that if the Assumption of 
the Bl. Virgin Mary would ever 
be raised to the rank of a dogma, 
it would be, not on the strength 
or any historical tradition, but for 
reasons of congruity derived from 
speculative theology. 

"The Church," says Monsignor 
Meyenberg, "is guided by the 
Holy Ghost and therefore able to 
enucleate from its seed-hulls, as it 
were, a dogma that has been tem- 
porarily obscured. Dr. Ernst, 
moreover, seems to attribute too 
little importance to the voices con- 
stantlv raised in tradition and the- 



ology in favor of the doctrine of 
the assumption. His distinction 
between a [jia and a prohahilis 
opinio (see Benedict XIV, De 
Festis, P. II, c. 8, n. 18) and be- 
tween fides pia and fides dogma- 
tica, is well founded ; but we must 
not overlook the fact that Benedict 
XIV himself observed that it 
v\'ould be " inipiwn" to deviate 
from the opinio pia et prohahilis 
concerning the bodily Assumption 
of Our Lady into Heaven. Dr. 
Ernst is probably right in holding 
that impiiun here does not mean 
impious in the sense of godless, 
but merely, opposed to pietas, i.e., 
to that childlike reverence which 
men owe to sacred things. But he 
weakens the attitude of Benedict 
XIV, which cannot be fully guaged 
from the debate of the Breviary 
Commission on the advisability 
of changing the term * ' assumptio ' ' 
into "pausatio" or "transitus."' 
The question at issue is whether 
or not the doctrine of the Assump- 
tion, in spite of much opposition 
and obscuration, did in course of 
time enter into the ordinary teach- 
ii g of the Church. This essential 
question is not clearly and defi- 
nitelv raised and discussed by Dr. 
Ernst." 

And yet, as we too have pointed 
out on more than one occasion, 
everything depends on the answer 
to this question. Until it is fully 
settled, we welcome with Dr. Mey- 
enberg every contribution to the 
problem of the definability of the 
Assumption, especially by such 
competent theologians as Dr. J. 
Ernst. 

— A wishbone will do you no good 
unless you have a backbone to put 

with it. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



123 



Resurrection 

By Lawrence ^I. Loerke 



Await no angel Easter morn, 
Christ's royal Resurrection Day. 
Wouldst thou arise with Him, thyself 
Must roll the stone of sin away I 



Houses 

By Eugexe M. Beck, S.J., St. Louis L'n; 
versity 



OLD houses are like friends whose face 

Is moulded into riper grace 

By time's impartial hand. Each stone 

And cornice wears a softer tone 

Denied to garish youth. Warm greys 

Are eloquent of stormy days 

And trials stoutly borne. But, oh ! 

XEW houses have no soul. The glow 

Of mellow familiarity 

Is not for them. Still grieves the tree 

In each discordant board. Their rooms 

Are lonely as Egyptian tombs : 

A woodland rose, the smell of earth 

Were better than their solemn dearth. 

Oh, furbish them and prink them in 

The finery of gilded sin I 

Let flagrant colors riot on 

Your panels, sons of wealth ! Anon 

Ye shall lay down your foolish head 

Among the uncompanioned dead. 

Xo choiring birds shall reverence 

With fluted dirge your monuments. 

These may ye own I . . . When I shall die. 

I shall not unremembered lie. 

But one far hut upon a steep 

Of song shall my remembrance keep. 

And haply this poor note of mine 

Shall glad a heart on life's decline ! 



Dr. G. Stanley Hall on "Morale" 
Soldiers and sailors used to 
play a game of cards, called * ' able- 
v-'hackets," in which the loser 
received a whack or blow with a 
knotted handkerchief for every 
game he lost. 

Similar punishment should be 
meted out to every scribe . who 
Lmnches a new theory on "mor- 
als," based on silly postulates or 
on data gathered haphazard from 
a mde range of human activities 
cr from ''opinions" taken at ran- 



dom from men who are struggling 
under abnormal conditions. Those 
who have read the chapters on 
''Criterions of Morality" in any 
good treatise on ethics know how 
many theories have been advanced 
to worrv the hapless collegian. 

President G. Stanley Hall, 
whose aberrations in the field of 
Ijsychology have already been 
pointed out in former numbers of 
the F. R., now oifers a brand-new 
theory of moral conduct in a book 
called "Morale." From a review 
in the American Journal of Soci- 
ology (January, 1922, page 526) 
we learn that "the body of this 
book is based upon studies of the 
personal experiences and medical 
history of soldiers under the 
stress of war and of battle." 

Now what sane philosopher ever 
thought of basing a theory of con- 
duct on "medical histories" of 
persons laboring under stress of 
body and mind? The great war 
has indeed played havoc with 
many preconceived theories, but it 
has not overturned the founda- 
tions of right and wrong. 

Dr. Hall takes a slam at what 
he, no doubt, considers an "out- 
worn ' ' system. He says : " If God 
be conceived as immanent, as thus 
implied, and not as afc extra and 
transcendent, which is idolatry, 
we might define morale in terms 
of the Westminster divines as 
glorifying God; while the other 
half of this famous definition of 
man's chief end, 'and enjoy Him 
forever,' is simply transcendental 
selfishness. True morale is never 
motivated by the expectation of 
pav or pain in another world." 

We must leave to Dr. Hall the 
much-needed comment upon, and 
proof of these statements, merely 
remarking that the last phrase is 
a trite repetition of the idea under- 



124 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



April 1 



lying Kant's famous *' categorical 
imperative." 

But Dr. Hall lias not over- 
thrown the adamantine founda- 
tions of Christian ethics by his 
latest "discovery." He has lost 
the game. The punishment of 
"ablewhackets" is in order. 

A. M. 



■H—H^M 



A New Translation of Horace 

John Finlayson has published 
a new English translation of ' * The 
Odes of Horace" (London: Rout- 
ledge). He pursues his own meth- 
od, which we cannot call felicitous. 
Hampered by the demands of 
rhyme, he allows himself frequent 
inversions which are awkward, as 
v/ell as phrases which are doubt- 
ful English. We do not want, hav- 
ing passed the radiant age of self- 
confidence, to translate "Quis 
nmlta gracilis" at all; but we 
sJiould certainly not be satisfied 
with such a passage as : 

"Alas ! the day 
When perjured vows he'll oft bewail. 
That gods have changed, and him affra}' 
With angry seas and blust'ring gale." 

To choose for "The Death of 
Quintilius" a tripping measure 
like 

"Boy! I detest with homely fare 

All Persian pomps ; thy garlands spare — 

With linden weaving : 
Nor heed in what lone spot there blows, 
Perchance, the last delaying rose 

No eye perceiving." 

The * ' homely fare ' ' is not in the 
original, and the last rose is tedi- 
ously overdone. 

The Odes of Horace are so 
closely packed with effective words 
and suggestions as to defy trans- 
lators. They are like an exquisite 
sort of jiggsaw puzzle, and even 
the finest of scholars cannot al- 
ways be sure which word goes with 
which, or how much of banter or 
seriousness lies beneath a verb or 



an epithet. Even if all these points 
were certain, and the true sense 
would be reproduced in English, 
vrhere words have often acquired 
a different color, English is not, 
like Latin, a concise language, and 
it is not well provided with the 
rhymes which the translator 
needs. 

There is no way of really enjoy- 
ing Horace except by reading and 
trying to understand him in the 
exquisite and inimitable Latin of 
the original. 



Secret Society Notes 



Order of the Eastern Star 

There has been some dispute as to 
whether the Order of the Eastern Star 
is connected with the Masonic frater- 
nity or not. It is interesting to hear 
what a Masonic journal has to say on 
the subject. The Builder, "a Journal 
for the Masonic Student," pubUshed at 
Anamosa, la., says in its November 
issue (Vol. VII, No. 11) : "[The Order 
of the Eastern Star] is not a Masonic 
o.-ganization in any sense of that word^ 
except the loosest, which would cover 
the whole family of societies associated 
with or similar to Freemasonry, such 
as the Shrine, the Grotto, the Sciots, 
the Rosicrucians, the Acacia Frater- 
nity, etc. But in every stricter sense, 
in the legal and historical definitions, 
the O. E. S. is not a Masonic body." 

High Tzcek'e, a Nc7^' International 
Masonic Club 

"High Twelve International" was 
founded at Sioux City, la., and became 
a Masonic institution over a year ago. 
It intends to organize branches imme- 
diately in cities of 25,000 or more in- 
habitants throughout the country. The 
purpose of High Twelve, according to 
its secretary, W. M. Morheiser, is "'to 
unite all members in the happy bounds 
of a social hour and programme, that 
thereby they may inform themselves in 
the truths of Masonry. . . ." IMembers 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



125 



must have three or more degrees of 
Alasonry and be in good standing as 
Masons at the time they make appHca- 
tion for membership in the High 
Twelve. (For further information see 
The Builder, a Journal for the Masonic 
Student, Anamosa, la., Vol. VII, No. 
12, p. 348). 

Order of De Mold^' for Boys 

Additional information on this or- 
grmization, which admits to member- 
ship only sons of Masons between 16 
and 21, but denies that it is a Masonic 
organization, can be gathered from a 
statement furnished to the National 
Masonic Research Society by one of 
its officers and published in that So- 
ciety's organ. The Builder, Anamosa, 
la.. Vol. VII, No. 12, pp. 362 sq. In- 
quiries regarding the work of this or- 
ganization should be addressed to Ray 
V. Denslow, National Supervisor of 
De Molay, Kansas City, Mo. 

Order of the Builders for Boys 

This is a fraternal organization made 
•jp of boys between the ages of 14 and 
21, sons of members of the Masonic 
fraternity and their companions. The 
members are grouped in "Chapters," 
with a ritualistic form of ceremony. 
Its object is to "aid the boys under the 
guidance of their Masonic elder broth- 
ers, in the development and betterment 
of all that pertains to their moral, 
mental, social, physical, and spiritual 
welfare." Master Masons are "always 
v/elcome at the ceremonials of the 
Builders." In August, 1921, the Order 
had 45 Chaperts, representing approx- 
imately 4,500 boys, with many others 
in process of formation. The president 
of the Central Council is Arthur M. 
Millard, Room 1901, 159 N. State Str., 
Chicago, 111. 

Masonic College Fraternities 

There are two Masonic college fra- 
ternities, the "Acacia," and the "Square 
and Compass." The former is one of 
the Greek Letter fraternities with rules 
and regulations similar to the Phi 
Gamma Delta, etc. The latter is of 
very different nature. It is essentially 



a non-secret society. Any Master Ma- 
son in good standing is welcomed to its 
meetings, and it has no ritual. College 
Masons may petition for membership 
on their own initiative, and a member 
of any other college fraternity is ehgi- 
ble. Its aim is to "propagate in college 
Hfe and among college alumni the spirit 
and principles of Freemasonry." (See 
The Builder, a Journal for the Masonic 
Student, Anamosa, la., Vol. VII, No. 
12, p. 366). 

Royal Neighbors of America 

This lodge is the female auxiliary of 
the Modern Woodmen of America. It 
asserts that it has "nothing to do with 
religion," yet an analysis of its ritual 
shows: (1) that it has an altar; (2) 
that is has a religious test; (3) that it 
has a chaplain called Worthy Chancel- 
lor; (4) that its lodges ask a divine 
blessing and read passages from S. 
Scripture; (5) that one of the basic 
principles of the organization is 
"l-'aith." Surely a society with all these 
religious features cannot truthfully 
say : "We are not a religious organiza- 
tion." The "religious principles" of the 
Royal Neighbors are Universalist or 
Unitarian. According to the Burial 
Ritual, every Royal Neighbor goes to 
Heaven, whether she believes in Jesus 
Christ or not. Reprints of the Ritual 
of the R. N. of A. can be had from the 
National Christian Association, 850 W. 
Madison Str., Chicago, 111. (Christian 
Cynosure, Vol. LIV, 1922, No. 11, pp. 
323 sqq.). 



A very creditable parish history is that 
published in commemoration of the golden 
jubilee of St. Agatha's parish, of this city. 
In justice to the older and the younger mem- 
bers of the congregation the historical text 
is given in both English and German. The 
illustrations are well executed and appropri- 
ate. Like most other German American 
Catholic parishes, St. Agatha's has been a 
prolific mother of priests, no less than nine 
priests having come from her pale, among 
them our esteemed occasional contributors, 
the Rev. A. B. Lager, D.D., and Father 
Francis Borgia Steck, O.F.M., the eminent 
Franciscan historian. 



126 



THE FORTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



April 1 



Correspondence 

The Reckoning of Time in Canon Law 

and the Year of Novitiate 
To the Editor: — 

In reviewing Dr. Lacou's monograph, 
"De Tempore" (F. R., March 1, pp. 
31 f.), the Rev. Dr. P. Charles Augus- 
tine, O.S.B., makes some interesting 
comments on the interpretation of can. 
34, §§ 2, 3 and their bearing upon the 
year of novitiate. In view of the dec- 
laration made in can. 32, § 1, that the 
day consists of 24 hours to be com- 
puted from midnight, there seems to 
be a good reason for maintaining that 
the "initium diei" really coincides with 
midnight. Father Augustine leaves the 
reader in doubt whether or not he ac- 
cepts Lacou's interpretation of "initium 
diei" to mean midnight and ends the 
discussion with reference to the year 
of novitiate, by saying: "Besides, from 
8 o'clock on June 21, 1921, to 8 o'clock 
sharp on June 21, 1922, there are 365 
days, and 365 days, acording to can 32, 
§ 2, make a year — the period required 
for the validity of the novitiate." The 
question may be asked, Is this a safe 
rule to follow in practice? Manifestly 
the matter concerned is one of great 
practical importance and, to throw a 
little more light on this subject, it may 
be well to publish here a recent deci- 
sion handed down by the S. Congr. of 
Religious. 

A candidate had been admitted to 
the novitiate. Aug. 15, 1920. during the 
8 o'clock IMass and, precisely one year 
from that date, he made his triennial 
vows, likewise during the 8 o'clock 
Mass. The case came to my notice 
some time ago, and when I questioned 
the validity of the profession, I was 
asked to draft a petition to have the 
doubt solved authoritatively. Accord- 
ingly the following petition was 
framed : 

"N. N ad pedes Sanctitatis Vestrae 

provolutus, quae sequuntur humill'nie ex- 
ponit : 

"Prater clericus X. X.. babitu religioso 
iiitra Missam bora octava celebratam recepto, 
novitiatum canonice ingressus est d'e 15 Aug. 
1920 et. recurrente eodem die festo anni 



sequentis, item intra Missarum solemnia 
hora octava celel)rata vota triennalia emisit. 
Facta auteni attentione ad canonem 34, § 3, 
nn. 2, 3, dubiuni nunc subortum est, nam 
novitiatus fuerit revera completus ad nor- 
mam can. 555. § 1, n. 2, ac proinde num 
subsecuta professio fuerit valida. Quare ad 
onine dubium amovendum et insimul anxi- 
etates praedicti Fr. X. X. divellendas, quaerit 
huinillime Orator : 

"i) an fuerit novitiatus rite perfectus et 
professio valide eniissa? 
"Et quatenus negative, 
"2) petit enixe Orator unacum dicto Fr. 
X. X. dispensationem super defectu 
temporis ad complendum annum novi- 
tiatus requisiti et sanct'onem profes- 
sionis." 

This supplication was sent to an 
agent of the Roman Curia with instruc- 
tions to consult two Roman canonists 
who might modify or even reject it 
altogether as groundless, if in their 
opinion there was no reason for doubt- 
ing the validity of the vows. Both of 
these canonists were collaborators in 
the work of codification. As a result the 
petition was submitted to the Congre- 
gation in the form here given : 

"X. X' humillime exponit 

"Frater clericus X'. X., babitu relig'oso 
intra Missam hora octava celebratam recepto, 
novitiatum canonice ingressus est die 15 aug. 
1920 et recurrente eodem die festo anni 
sequent.'s, item intra missarum solemnia hora 
octava celebrata, vota triennalia emisit. 

"Quare orator humillime petit Fr. X. X'. 
dispensationem super defectu temporis ad 
complendum annum novitiatus requisiti et 
sanationem professionis." 

The rescript in answer to this reads : 

"Vigore facultatum a SSmo Dno Xostro 
concessarum. S. Congr. Xegotiis Relijioso- 
rum Sodalium praeposita. ard to voto Rmi. 
P. X. X., eidem benigne commisit ut pro 
suo arbitrio et conscientia petitam sanationis 
gratiam juxta preces concedat ; emissa tamen 
ab Alumno declaratione in scriptis sese prae- 
senti Indulto uti velle. quae dechiratio eius- 
que decretum exequutoriale caute servetur in 
Archivo Congregationis. 

"Contrariis non obstantibus quibuscunque. 

"Datum Romae. die 5 Decembris 1921. 

"Theodorus Card. Valfre di Bonzo, 

Praefectus. 
"Maurus :\I. Serafini, Ab. O.S.B.. 
Secretarius." 

Thereupon follows the decree of 
execution and a short formula, to be 
signed by the candidate, by which he 
declares that he accepts the sanation. 

Of course this decision concerns an 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



127 



individual case only. It does not there- 
fore constitute forensic usage, nor has 
it the force of a law or even of a gen- 
eral interpretative decree. Yet it may 
be stated unhesitatingly that : ( 1 ) the 
pre-code law rec^uiring the time of the 
novitiate to be one complete year com- 
puted not to the hour but to the day 
only (cf. ''Cum Propositae,'" S. C. de 
Relig., M.n- 3, 1914. — .4. A. S., VI. 
229) is no longer tenable; (2) to ab- 
stract from fractions of a day, con- 
trary to can. 34, § 3, nn. 2, 3, and to 
compute the year of novitiate merely 
from moment to moment accord-ng to 
can. 34, § 2 is at present, to say the 
least, not safe in practice. 

Ulric Beste, O.S.B. 
St. John's Abhcx, Collc^ciillc. Minn. 



The Case of Father Denning 

[The F. R. has received several commu- 
nications in regard to the brief note printed 
in No. 6 (p. 113) on the appointment of 
Fr. J. M. Denning, of Marion, O., to the 
post of consul-general at Algiers. ^lost of 
our correspondents believe that this appoint- 
ment of a priest to a political office is likely 
to prove a dangerous precedent. Two dis- 
rgree with the rest. Their letters are printed 
below.] 

1 
7o the Editor:— 

About two years ago. Father Denn- 
ing had a severe heart trouble. Doctors 
advised a change of climate and he got 
six months leave of absence and went 
to Rome. He was there a few weeks, 
when he was called back by a telegram 
of his mother who was very sick. He 
came back in time to see her, she died 
and he buried her. Then came the 
Harding campaign. Harding and Den- 
ning had for years been good friends, 
and after the election, Harding offered 
Denning the consulship at Rome. 
jMethodists and Freemasons remon- 
strated. Harding told Denning, after the 
trouble calmed down, he would give 
him another place in a mild and healthy 
climate of northern Africa, with a bet- 
ter salary. With the consent of Msgr. 
Bonzano and Archbishop Moller he 
accepted, as a help to cure his heart 
trouble. 

Rev. Denning needs a few years rest 



and respite from heavy responsibility; 
he has worked very hard in Marion 
and accomplished very much. 

Father Denning is a worthy, hard- 
working priest, charitable and generous. 
God bless him and restore his health 
and strength. 

Rev. Chas. Braschler 

Upper Sandusky, O. 



To the Editor: — 

Your note on the Denning case is 
most unkind and most unfair and ab- 
solutely imtrue. Father Denning was 
never spoken of as "Ambassador to the 
Vatican," except by some A. P. A. pa- 
pers, or some jealous jokers. He was 
offered the place of Consul-General to 
Rome. He was given the choice of 
three places. His health was in such 
a condition that to live in Rome would 
have been absolutely dangerous to him. 
Tangiers pays just three times the 
salarv^ and the climate is ideal. 

President Harding knew the condi- 
tion of Father Denning's health, hav- 
ing known him intimately for over 14 
years. He offered to send him some- 
where where he could have an easy 
time and take a good rest. 

Father Denning never sought this 
appointment, or any appointment, and 
he is beloved and honored by everyone 
in Marion. 

As to the last paragraph, he can do 
more good where he is going than you 
can do by unjustly representifig him as 
a "politician," which he is not. 

J. P. O. 

[We never said that Fr. Denning 
was a politician or that he sought 
political office. \\q expressly declared 
that the permission of his Ordinary 
"settled the matter so far as ecclesi- 
astical discipHne is concerned.'" As to 
"the larger question of priests entering 
politics and accepting political offices," 
we simply remarked that "not a few 
of Fr. Denning's own brethren of the 
cloth seem to feel that his case is set- 
ting a bad precedent." This is a fact 
for which we are not responsible and 
which we cannot change. Whether or 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY KEVIEAV 



April 1 



not the apprehensions of Fr. Denning's 
brother-clergymen are well founded, 
remains to be seen. 

Frankly, the idea of a jjriest, no 
matter how worthy and how deserving 
of charity he may be, giving up his 
pastoral charge to take a political office 
which involves at least as much work 
and responsibility as the administration 
of a small-town parish, in the hope of 
being able to take a rest and nurse his 
shattered health, does not api:>eal to our 
exalted conception of public office and 
the spirit in which it ought to be as- 
sumed and administered. — Ed. J 



Trifles from the "Congressional 
Record" 

To the Editor: — 

1 send here an item from the Con- 
gressional Record not noticed in the 
papers, as far as I can see. It is a 
trifle, but it shows how the wind blows. 
{Congressional Record, p. 3012-15. Feb. 17) 

A bill to amend sections 5549 and 5550 of 
the Revised Statutes of the U. S. These 
Statutes provide that juvenile offenders un- 
der 16 years convicted in a federal court 
should be sent to "'a house of refuge" in- 
stead to a penitentiary. By the present bill 
it is intended to make those statutes appli- 
cable to female offenders against chastitj', 
whether under or over 16 years (with some 
exceptions), if in the opinion of the court 
that course seems justified by the circum- 
stances of the case. 

Sen. Watson of Georgia had on one or 
more occasions objected to taking up the bill. 
From his speech now it appears that he dis- 
approves even of the present practice. He 
is against "farming out these oft'enders to 
private corporations, some of them churcii 
corporations." He considers it "violative of 
the spirit of the Constitution." Elsewhere 
he says : "The principle of separation of 
church and state is, in my judgment, violated 
bj' the proposed law." 

In the list of institutions having at pres- 
ent federal juvenile convicts he gives only 
one which is probably Catholic, St. Mary's 
Industrial School at Baltimore. Sen. Walsh 
of Montana stated that about 95 percent of 
those sent to the reformatory under the 
present law are sent to state reformatories. 

Before the vote Sen. Watson said: "I sug- 
gest the absence of a quorum. Those who 
vote for this bill must go on record." 

Xow I wonder whether during the roll call 
some discussion had taken place. For Wat- 
son's colleague from Georg'a. Sen. Harris, 
offered an amendment, "which I think will 



be acceptable to everyone" (said he), vie, 
to strike out "house of refuge" and insert 
"State reformatory." Without a record vote 
the amendment, and then the bill, was 
agreed to. 

Of course. Watson's speech was 
tame in comparison with his other ut- 
terances on this topic. 

* =:< * 

Another trifle. In the discussion of 
the Yap treaty. Sen. Lodge was asked 
why a special provision was inserted 
concerning American missionaries, and 
he answered : "Our missionaries thought 
it of importance." {Cong. Rec., Feb. 
28, p. 3842). I wonder what mission- 
aries communicated with the State 
Department ( for the State Dept. — not 
the delegates at the Arms Conference 
— negotiated that treaty). — From Her- 
der's Konv.-Lexikon, s. v. "Jap" and 
"Karolinen'' (also Erg.-Bd. and 11. 
Erg.-Bd. ) I feel almost convinced that 
on the island of Yap there were only 
Catholic missionaries heretofore. 

P. A. 



Notes and Gleanings 

We are pained to learn of the de- 
mise, on Feb. 21st, at Breslau, of our 
dear friend, the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Joseph 
Phole, Ph.D., D.D.. whose classic text- 
l)Ook of dogmatic theology it has been 
our privilege to make accessible to En- 
glish readers. He had retired from his 
professorship in the university about 
two years ago, and for the last twelve- 
month or so had been ill. To a letter of 
his cousin, who nursed him, under date 
of Jan. 11th, he added the \vords : 
"Lieber Freund ! Vor alien Dingen 
wiinsche ich Ihnen ein segensreiches 
Xeujahr. Solange ich keine hi. Messe 
lesen kann, ebenso lang halte ich mich 
fiir schwer krank. Die Besserung 
schreitet sehr langsam voran, ohne eine 
solche wurde ich an meiner Genesung 
verzweifeln. So aber hofife ich immer 
noch auf eine Wiederherstellung mei- 
ner (jesundheit." The hope proved 
vain. ^Isgr. Pohle was not only a great 
theologian, he was akso a profound 
philo.sopher and an astronomer of note. 
We shall publish a sketch of his life 
with a list of his writings later. R. i. />. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



129 



Alsgr. C. Walterbach, writing in the 
So::ialc Rcviic (Vol. XXII, No. 2) on 
the attitude CathoHcs should take to- 
v.ards the "movies," compares the 
moving picture theatre to the press and 
says that both are essentially good, 
l)ut may be and are sadly abused, and 
the only way in which Catholics can 
meet the situation created by the bad 
"movies," is to adopt the same tactics 
towards them which they have adopted 
towards the press, i. e., (1) to combat 
those that are evil, and above all (2) to 
create and support good ones. Passive 
resistance, he declares, has gone to the 
limit, nay, beyond the limit ; what is 
necessary now is to induce w^ealthy 
Catholics to invest their money in the 
production of good picture plays and 
then see to it, through the Catholic 
press and otherwise, that these plays 
are made profitable. Among other 
practical measures Msgr. Walterbach 
suggests the purchase of moving pic- 
ture theatres by Catholic parishes or 
organizations and the exercise of a 
reasonable control over their produc- 
tions. It would not be necessary, nay 
in many cases it would not even be 
advisable, to stamp these theatres as 
Catholic or to limit them to strictly 
Catholic films. 

-••-•--•--♦• 

The Westminster Gazette (London) 
prints the following quotation from a 
recent issue of the Revue Militaire, the 
official organ of the French Ministry 
of Marine: "It is high time we got 
rid of the misleading ideas which are 
prevalent regarding the use made by 
Germany of the submarine as a war 
weapon. The submarine war was 
completely justifiable. . . . It is time 
?.]so to explode the belief that the use 
of the submarine by Germany was in- 
consistent with the usages of the inter- 
national laws of warfare. This view, 
which was circulated erroneously dur- 
ing the war, might dangerously prej- 
udice our national defense in the fu- 
ture. ... It is quite unjustifiable to 
contend that an enemy merchant ship 
-hould be warned before being tor- 
pedoed.'' The Living Age (Boston), 



to which we are indebted for this quo- 
tation, comments thereon as follows 
(No. 4049, p. 311) : "What then of the 
Lusitania and the whole spurlos ver- 
senkt policy? Or were we merely mis- 
led into moral indignation at these 
acts ?" 

"A Short Historv of the Papacv" by 
Mary I. M. Bell '(New York: Dodd, 
Mead & Co.) is an utterly unreliable 
compilation, replete with mere gossip 
and ugly allegations laid to the already 
encumbered doors of many popes. 

Anyone who has carefully and with- 
out prejudice read the unanimous deci- 
sion of the Massachusetts Supreme 
Court in the Pelletier case, as printed 
in full by the Boston Herald of Feb. 
22, will agree with the True Voice, the 
Southwestern Catholic, and a few other 
papers, that since Mr. Pelletier was 
removed from office after a just trial, 
the Knights of Columbus should not 
offer him sanctuary, especially in a 
national office. The S. W. Catholic (I, 
23) refers to a statement by a former 
president of the Boston Chamber of 
Commerce, a Catholic, who emphatical- 
ly censures Supreme Knight Flaherty 
for his action in shielding Pelletier. 
We remember that Col. P. H. Callahan 
had a falling out with Pelletier in con- 
nection with his proposal, as chairman 
of the K. of C. war activities commis- 
sion, to make Bishop Muldoon custo- 
dian of the funds. The F. R. joins the 
S. W. Catholic in demanding a thor- 
ough investigation of Pelletier and his 
conduct by the Knights of Columbus, 
and a house-cleaning, too, if that turns 
out to be necessary. We see from the 
Echo (VIII, 7) that two members of 
the Massachusetts Supreme Court are 
Catholics. 

Fr. M. A. Mathis, C. S. C, in his 
doctoral thesis, "The Pauline Pistis- 
Hypostasis according to Heb. XI, 1," 
lately recommended in the F. R., inter- 
prets "substantia" as "reaHzation." 
Fr. L. Murillo, S.J., took issue with him 
on this head in a recent number of 



130 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



BibUca (II, 252-255). Fr. Mathis de- 
fends his view in the same magazine 
(HI, 78-89), and we are thankful for 
a copy of his article in pamphlet form. 
("Does 'Substantia' Mean 'Realization' 
or 'Foundation' in Hebr. XI, 1?" 14 
pp. 8vo. Rome: Pontifical Biblical In- 
stitute). There is a brief rejoinder by 
Fr. Murillo, but Fr. IMathis seems to 
have the better of the argument. 

We are indebted to the Volksvereins- 
verlag of M.-Gladbach, Germany, for 
a catalogue of recent publications of 
the Catholic Volksverein of that coun- 
try. Most of these publications — books 
and brochures — deal with practical so- 
cial questions, but there are others of 
a more philosophical and theological 
character. Dr. F. ]\Ieftert's apologetic- 
al treatises alone constitute a small 
tlieological defence library. There is 
also a list of excellent magazines, such 
as Sozialc Kultitr, Jung Land ( for 
young farmers), Dcr Krans (for Cath- 
olic girls), Volkskunst (for the cultiva- 
tion of genuine art among the people), 
etc. All in all one marvels at the activ- 
ity of the Volksverein and its capable 
leaders even in the dour period of 
intellectual and financial depression 
through which Germany is now pass- 
ing. Would our Catholic Central Bu- 
reau were enabled to extend and in- 
tensify its activities after the manner 
of the German Volksverein ! 

The CatHolic Bulletin, of Cleveland, 
in view of Mr. Gonner's experience, 
has decided not to resume its campaign 
for a Catholic daily. Our contempo- 
rary, however, still advocates a chain 
of Catholic dailies, but wants them "fi- 
nanced, organized and supervised by 
the Catholics of America under the N. 
C. W. C. or some other national body." 
This plan, in the opinion of the Echo 
(VTII, 7), is hardly feasible, and even 
if it could be carried out would give 
us merely a chain of daily ''official 
organs," instead of the weekly official 
organs which we now have in abund- 
ance. "If we are ever to have influ- 
ential daily Catholic newspapers," says 



our Buffalo contemporary, "they must 
be established through private enter- 
prise and remain free and untrammelled. 
In European countries where the Cath- 
olic press has attained its greatest de- 
velopment 'official organs' are unknown. 
The ecclesiastical authorities, indeed, 
support the Catholic press by means of 
pastoral letters, energetic subscription 
campaigns and frequent contributions, 
but the management and editorial con- 
trol are entrusted to competent journal- 
ists." 

The Irish Theological Quarterly 
has entered upon the year 1922 with 
an unusually brilliant number. We can 

Position Wanted 

by 

Organist and Clioirmaster 

An Organist and Choir master with A 1 references and 
plenty of experience is looking for a position in a 
city parish. Address: 

A. B. C. care of The Fortnightly Review 

5S51 Etzel Avenue, St. I/)uis, Mo. 

For Rent— Furnlslied Room 

for one or two Catholic persons. 

1527 Hebert Street. St. Louis. Mo. 

Colleges and Academies 

can have very satisfactory service 
from the old established house of 

= THE== 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eiglith Street 
Cincinnati, Ohio 

We print and bind, and can furnish engravings 
for pamphlets, folders, booklets 



ErKer's 



Optical Service 

Advice without charge Eyeglas- 
ses and spectacles at moderate 
prices 



SOS Two 511 N. 
OLIVE •^'"'^ GRAND 
a i tll lllimill l llim ill l l llll l ll l lll lll llllll ll lllllll l ll l 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



131 



mention but a few leading articles. 
Dr. David Barry writes on "Formal 
and Material Co-Operation" in sin; 
Fr. M. F. Egan, S.J., discusses "The 
Two Theories of Purgatory," taking 
the ground that Purgatory is a place of 
punishment as well as purification. 
Dr. Wm. Moran deals with "The 
Charismatic Ministry in the Primitive 
Church," tracing what he calls the 
ordinary constitutional charismata of 
teaching and government in order to 
reach a correct estimate of the influence 
of the extraordinary gifts on the life 
of the early Church. There are, in ad- 
dition, several historical papers, and the 
usual number of valuable "Notes" and 
"Book Reviews." We take this oppor- 
tunity to call attention to the fact that 
the B. Herder Book Co., of St. Louis, 
are the American agents for the Irish 
Theological Quarterly. 

-•--•--•■-•- 

The Builder (Vol. VIII, Xo. 3; re- 
produces a story from the Metropolitan 
Magazine by "Bro. Rudyard Kipling, 
England." We had not thought of Kip- 
ling as a Freemason before. 

It will surprise not a few readers to 
learn that, according to Bro. Arthur 
C. Parker, of New York, writing in the 
]\Iasonic Builder (Anamosa, la.. Vol. 
VIII, No. 3), there have been and still 
are numerous Freemasons among the 
American Indians. Masonry was 
brought to the aboriginal inhabitants 
of this country in the early days 
through government agents who were 
members of the Craft. Among the 
Five Civilized Tribes, especially the 
Cherokees, there were many Masons. 
In the old Indian Territory, in Kansas 
and the Dakotas, "many an Indian has 
served as Master of the Lodge." We 
suspect that Protestant preachers have 
also had something to do with propa- 
gating Masonry among the Red Men. 

The Builder, "a Journal for the ]Ma- 
sonic Student," in its Vol. VIII, No. 3. 
asserts that "in one of the largest cities 
of this land a Romanist bishop keeps 
an office in the city hall adjoining the 



mayor's own private office, and every 
appointment made by that mayor first 
receives the O. K. of the bishop." This 
is an astounding assertion, and if it 
were true, we should not be surprised 
that "a number of citizens in that city 
do not approve of such a procedure and 
are going to put a stop to it." But is it 
true? We refuse to believe the charge 
unless it is proved. Any number of 
loyal Catholics would unite with the 
Masons to stop undue interference by 
churchmen in purely secular affairs. 

A note in The Builder (Vol. VIII, 
Xo. 3) makes it clear why the Chris- 
tian Science Monitor devotes so much 
space to Freemasonry. Bro. Wm. A. 
Theobald, of Illinois, after calling at- 
tention to Section 15, Article VIII, of 
the Christian Science "Church Manual," 
which reads : "Members of this Church 
shall not become members of organiza- 
tions which exclude either sex — except 
they are Freemasons." says : "It was 
the privilege of the writer to be on a 
^[asonic committee appointed to in- 
vestigate whether or not there was 
anything in the r^Iasonic doctrines that 
would conflict with those of Christian 
Science, and vice versa. It was the 
unanimous decision of the committee 
tliat there was none." There is evi- 
dently a mutual attraction and sym- 
pathy between the two sects, and this 
fact aptly characterizes them both. 

A movement is under way among the 
affiliated branches of the Cathohc Cen- 
tral Society to endow the Central Bu- 
reau, which has been doing such vahant 
work in the cause of social reform and 
Catholic apologetics during the past ten 
or twelve years. We hope sufficient 
money will be raised to insure the reg- 
ular functioning of this important bu- 
reau for many years to come. The 
President of the Central Society, ^Tr. 
Charles Korz. in a communication to 
the Buffalo Aurora (Vol. 7L No. 30), 
suggests that the New York Staatsver- 
band, which has 15,000 members, con- 
tribute $30,000 for the endowment of 
the Central Bureau and designate the 



132 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



The Ideal Magazine for the Busy Parish Priest 



Contents of March Issue 1922 

PASTORALIA: By Charles Bruehl, D.D.: Pastoral 

Work in the Large City — Social Organization 

withm the Parish — IJringing the Parish Mem- 

t>ers together — Societies and Clubs — Study 
Circles. 
THE LAROR SPY TN THE LABOR UNION: By 

Joseph Husslein, S. T., Ph. D. 
BIBLICAL STUDIES: The Biblical Commission 

and the Fourth GosveL By Walter Drum. &'. T. 
THE GAINING OF INDULGENCES: By Stanis- 
laus Woywod, O.F.M. 
PRACTICAL ASCETICAL NOTES FOR 

PRIESTS: Preachir.g as a Means of Personal 

Sanctification to the Priest. By S. Louismet, 

O. S. p. 
CASUS MORALIS: A Strnnse View of the Pauline 

Priviloee. By J. A. McHugh. O.P. 
LITURGICAL NOTES ^OR THE MONTH: Notes 

on the Ordinary of the Mass. By the Bene- 
dictine Monks of Buckfast Abbey. 
ROMAN DOCUMENTS I OR THE MONTH. 
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS: 

Ta'rsing Pew Rent from non-Parishioners — ■ 

Fees for Dispensations — Double Impediment of 

Consanguinity — Impedi'.ient of Public Decency. 



HOMILETIC PART 

SERMON MATTER FROM THE FATHERS'. By 
Hugh Pope, O.P., S.T.M. 

SEPMONS ON THE GOSPELS AND EPISTLES: 
Passion Sunday. Suffering. 

Bu Eustace O'Gorman, O.P. 
Palm Sunday. The Sacrifice on the Cross. 

By P. C. Yorke, D.D. 
Easier Sunday. The First Easter Sermon. 

By Thos. M. S'chwertner, O.P. 
First Sunday after Easter. The Passion, Death 
and Resurrection of Christ. 
By T. Slater, S. J. 
Second Sunday after Easter. Signs of Election. 
By M. S. Smith. 
PARABLE SERMONETTES FOR THE CHIL- 
DREN'S MASS. For Every Sunday. By Frederick 
Renter. 
THE S.KCkED MYSTERIES' OF THE PRECIOUS 
BLOOD: A Lenten Course. By Ferdinand 
Heckmann, O.F.M. 
BOOK REVIEWS. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.) Publishers 

23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

Subscription in U. S. $4.00 per annum; $4.25 in Canada; 20s. in other Foreign Countries 

STOP! LOOK! LISTEN! 

If We Cannot Give You Greater Value 

We Are Not Entitled to Your Patronage 

^P^rrOf^O '" ^"^ ^'^®' ^^*P^ ^^ P"^®' ^^*^™ %^-^^ to $30.00 per 100. From 
OC^dlO the humblest Domestic to the most exquisite CLEAR HABANA 

Seven Years Old as a Mail Order House — 

Fifty-six Years Young as a Segar House 



Catalogue and prices 
mailed on request 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 1866 

58 North Pearl Street BUFFALO, N. Y. 



America Press 

^ JOB PRINTING a 
done with neaUiess and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. ST. Louis, Mo, 



ISfEINER^l^Sffl^? 



RiBADGE5 

MM BUTTONS 8c PINS 



rs E A LS! 



^AMPSj 
STENCILS ^MEtSl CHEO^ 



l!)22 



THE FORTXIGHTLY REVIEW 



donation a> "'Joseph Frey Memorial," 
in honor of the Society's late president, 
who sacrificed his Hfe for the good 
cause and looked upon the Central Bu- 
reau as a sign-post of a better future. 
3t[ay we amend the motion by suggest- 
ing that the New York members of the 
Central Society make their donation 
vS50,000 and thereby give to their breth- 
ren in other States an example that 
^vould undoubtedly exercise such a 
strong efifect that the existence of the 
Central Bureau would be assured. As 
the Central Bureau is situated in St. 
Louis, the Catholics of Missouri and 
the Middle West ought to take a spe- 
cial interest in securing its permanenc}'. 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

i49th histallmcnt) 

On the day of the anniversary I cele- 
brated high Mass with the same pastor 
and curate as deacons who had served me 
twenty-five years before. The music was 
very good, but the Cistercian Fathers who 
had played the instruments at my first ]\Iass 
bad all gone to their eternal rest. The Rev. 
Abbess Cecilia again acted as spiritual 
wother. A banquet was prepared for the 
jubilarian and his friends and relatives at 
the hotel "Rossli." I was greatly surprised 
to see a large painting about 4 .x 8 feet, 
banging on the rear wall of the banquet 
ball. It was decorated with wreaths and 
contained the pictures of the priests in North- 
eastern Arkansas, including my own, as well 
as the portrait of Mother Edward, at that 
time prioress of -Maria-Stein convent in 
Pocahontas, and pictures of the churches of 
Pocahontas, Jonesboro, Paragould, Peach 
Orchard, Wynne, Newport, of Maria-Stein 
and Holy Angels Convents at Jonesboro. and 
St. Bernard's Hospital. All these pictures 
were tastefully grouped and connected by 
beautiful decorations. Lithographic copies 
were taken from this tableau as souvenirs of 
the silver jubilee. The Leo House ^lessen- 
ger, of 1901, published a small copy of it in 
its winter issue. The hall was richly deco- 
rated with festoons and inscriptions. The 
Convent of the Benedictine Sisters of 
Jonesboro was represented by Sr. AL Mein- 
rada. O.S.B., sister of the prioress. Amongst 
the clergy at the banquet may be mentioned 
the rector of the parish. Rev. Father Suter: 
the curate. Rev. Father Estermann ; Rev. 
Isidore. O.M.Cap., and Rev. V. Halter, a 
pastor of Lucerne, and cousin of the jubi- 
larian: Rev. Jerome Studer, O.S.B., repre- 



senting the old Abbey of Maria-Stcin, and 
my brother Roman Weibel, O.S.B., of the 
Abbey of Einsiedeln. :\Iy other clerical 
friends had a banquet at the abbey and 
were entertained by my spiritual mother, the 
Rev. Abbess Cecilia, who had also engaged 
a famous speaker to preach the sermon at 
the solemn high Mass. 

Ch.\pter XXIII 

PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS — ST. BERX- 

ARD'S HOSPITAL — ALTAR 

BOYS — CHURCH ,AIUSIC 

On my visit to Switzerland, in l9oi, I 
spent a good deal of my time with Father 
Wolfgang Schlumpf, the founder of New 
Subiaco, who was at that time chaplain of 
the Benedictine Sisters at Glattburg, Switzer- 
land. He was always greatly interested in 
Arkansas, where be had done missionary 
work. 

Whilst in Rome I obtained from Cardinal 
Ferrata permission to say ^Nlass on the ocean. 
Late in fall, 1901, I returned to America, 
\vith a number of candidates for different 
monasteries. I also brought a great many 
useful articles for the missions, which had 
been given to me, such as monstrances, cibo- 
riums, chalices, vestments, books, etc. 

Amongst the candidates who came with me 
at that time, were the following Sisters of 
the Maria-Stein convent: Sr. M. Lucy, now- 
principal of the parochial school at Blythes- 
ville, Ark.; Sr. M. Ida; Sr. M. Mechtildis ; 
Sr. M. Anna, and Sr. M. Christina. The Rev. 
Father Adelrich Thum also came along to 
help in the missions. He was my assistant 
in Jonesboro, in 1902 and 1903. 

After my return my chief efforts were 
again devoted to the parochial schools. They 
are the bulwark of the Church. 

Early in 1902 work was begun on the new 
hospital, between the convent and the original 
hospital. 

The week following September 21st, the 
priests of X'ortheast .\rkansas and Southeast 
Missouri made a week's retreat in Jonesboro. 
About a dozen priests took part in the exer- 
cises. We also, from time to time, held con- 
ferences. 

A grand play, ■■.\lice in Wonderland," was 
given by the school that year at the Grand 
Opera House, on the 28th and 29th of Octo- 
ber. It was the biggest play ever under- 
taken, and over 125 persons took part in it. 
This play, by Hope Leonard, music by H. 
DeLissenbee, had been given with great suc- 
cess in many large cities. 

In the Lent of 1903 the Forty Hours' De- 
votion was held with special solemnity. Many 
priests from X'ortheast Arkansas and South- 
east Missouri took part in it. 

On Easter Monday, 1903, the habit was 
given to ten young ladies. These celebra- 
tions became more solemn from year to year. 
(.To be continued^ 



134 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



April r 



Literary Briefs 

Sermons by Father Scully 

Father David L. Scully, of the Diocese of 
Alton, has gathered a number of sermons 
which he had published in the Western Cath- 
olic, into a volume that will prove welcome 
to many brother priests, for these sermons 
are short and pithy. They average about six 
i2mo pages each and deal for the most part 
with the homely subjects of every-day life, 
c. g. : children, parents, youth, sin, sacrifice, 
temptation, indifferentism, forgiveness, hyp- 
ocrisy, slander, ill-gotten wealth, and so forth. 
We like particularly the simplicity of tone 
and the directness of appeal that character- 
ize these discourses. ( B. Herder Book Co.) 
Imitating the Divine Master 

It is the duty and the sacred privilege of 
every Christian to walk in the footsteps of 
the Saviour. The imitation of Christ, in our 
respective vocation and state of life, is the 
one paramount duty of all men. But the 
question is asked: "How can I imitate him?" 



The answer is, "Imitate His virtues, as far 
as you can, and as far as your duties, life- 
work, and conditions of life make it possi- 
ble." Helpful suggestions are offered in a 
beautiful booklet, "The Divine Master's 
Portrait," a series of short essays on the 
spirit of Christ, by Rev. Joseph Degen, which 
we recommend to our readers. (B. Herder 
Book Co.) 

The Preacher's Vademecum 

We are inclined to look askance upon a 
new "collection of sermons" for the "busy 
pastor," but it seems that "The Preacher's 
Vademecum" is just what the name implies, 
and that it will be of real use to the pastor 
v/ho must address his people upon any and 
every occasion. The English version of this 
French work. "Vademecum des Predicateurs, 
par deux Missionaires," is said to have been 
siiggested by the unusual success of the 
original and by the high favor it gained 
from the clergy in France. There is almost 
an eiiibarras de richesse. as every sermon 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS TRY OUR BRANDS 

^ They Have Stood the Test Since 1860 — 




You will make nn mist ike by giving us a personal call to verify the quality 
and view our assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

Westerheide Tobacco & Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway, ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Orders Promvtly Filled 



Phones; Bell Tyler 7S8 Kiuloch Central 4039 L 



CASPER STEHLE BEDDING COMPANY 

1834 Morgan Street h. c. smith, Manager y^. Louis, Mo. 

Sixty Years in Business is a Guarantee of Satisfied Customers 

Hospitals and Institutions Receive Special Attention 

MATTRESSES of all kinds and sizes, and PILLOWS 

Write for quotations, or better still, try a Sample Felt Mattress in a A. C. A. Tick, built up 

extra well in the middle, @ $8.00 net, F. O. B., St. Louis. 



. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 




1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



135 



for "the Sundays of the Year" is followed 
b}' an alternative plan. There are special 
sermons for the feasts of Our Lord, feasts 
of the Blessed Virgin and of the saints, be- 
sides special sermons for various occasions 
.-^nd practical outlines for retreats. (New 
York: Joseph F. Wagner, Inc.). 

"Abandonment to Divino Providence" 

The Rev. J. P. De Caussade, S.J. (d. 1751) 
was one of the ablest spiritual writers of the 
1 8th century. His "Abandon a la Providence 
Divine" went through many editions. A por- 
tion of it (the theoretical part) appeared in 
an English translation some years ago. Now 
we have a complete version, made from the 
loth French edition, by E. J. Strickland. It 
IS entitled, not very accurately, "Abandon- 
niCnt to Divine Providence." The second, 
practical, part consists of letters of spiritual 
direction for persons leading a spiritual life. 
These letters are mostly addressed to per- 
sons suffering from different kinds of dark- 
ness, desolation, and trials, and are full of 
unction. The translation pays more regard 
to the meaning than to literal exactness. The 
book has the imprimatur of the Bishop of 
Plymouth and an introduction by Dom 
Arnold, O.S.B., of Buckfast Abbey. (B. Her- 
der Book Co.) 

New Light on the Protestant Reformation 

Fr. Hartmann Grisar, S.J., the author of 
the Catholic standard work on "Luther," has 
begun the publication of a series of supple- 
mentary brochures under the title of "Luther- 
Studien." The first of these is devoted to 
Luther's appearance at Worms, regarded 
especially in the light of the fables propa- 
gated on this incident in Germany on the 
occasion of the recent Luther centenary. 
"Apostasy from the Christian religion, in- 
cluding the form championed by Luther," he 
says (p. 80 sq.), "is written large across the 
Luther festivals held at the close of the 
fourth centenary of the Reformation. The 
comparatively few educated Protestants who 
have remained faithful to revealed religion 
are not able to expunge this flaming legend." 
In No. II of the series Fathers Grisar and 
F. Heege, S.J., begin a treatise on caricature 
as employed in the service of the Protestant 
Reformation. The fight began in 1521 with 
the "Passional Christi und Antichristi," which 
went through many editions and forms an 
interesting chapter in the history of the 
psychology of hate. There are to be three 
more hefte on the development of this pop- 
ular method of polemics, in which Luther 
and his friends played an unenviable part. 
(B. Herder Book Co.) 



The Western 
Catholic Union 



A Legally Solvent Adequate Rate 
Catholic Fraternal Society 




^ Forty-four years old. 
H Based on Sound, Sensible and Scien- 
tific Principles. 

X\ Devoid of Red Tape and Catholic to 
the core. 

^ Three popular forms of certificates 
issued — 20 pay Whole Life Certificate 
with all modern cash loan, paid up, 
and extended insurance features. 

H This certificate is fully paid up after 
twenty consecutive payments have 
been made. 

^ Whole Life Special. This is a Whole 
Life Certificate with modern up-to- 
date cash loan, paid up and extended 
insurance features. 

If Ordinary Whole Life. Just a plain 
up-to-date Whole Life Insurance Cer- 
tificate with Old Age Benefits at- 
tached. 

JUVENILE SECTION 
^ Two plans, Term Rate and Whole 
Life with all modern cash, paid up 
and extended features. 



H For full information and induce- 
ments in reference to organizing new 
branches address 

W.C.U. Headquarters 

Illinois State Bank Building 
Quincy, Illinois 



136 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 1 



The Science of Education 

Under the title "The Science of Education 
in its Sociological and Historical Aspects," 
the Rev. Felix M. Kirsch, O.M.Cap., presents 
ti^e first volume of an authorized English 
translation of Dr. Otto Willraann's standard 
work, "Didaktik." The work is written on 
the principle that whatever has stood the test 
of the ages, will prove of value also in the 
future, and undertakes to ascertain, from 
the history of education, what is the basis of 
our culture and what must, consequently, 
ever remain the essence of our courses of 
study. Fr. Kirsch rightly thinks that the 
work has a. mission for our day and country, 
since it offers guiding principles of which 
American education stands in sore need. He 
has labored long and diligently to give an 
accurate and a readable translation of Dr. 
Willmann's very difficult text. The editor of 
the F. R. reviewed the introduction (pp. i to 
74) in manuscript and can vouch for its 
accuracy. As regards the remaining portion, 
the studious reader will judge for himself. 
The translator has added some valuable 
references and notes. A second and final 
volume is in preparation. (Beatty, Pa.: The 
Archabbey Press). 

The Church in English History 

In "The Norman and Earlier Medieval 
Period" Father Ernest R. Hull, S.J., editor 
of the Bombay Examiner, continues his "His- 
tory of England Series," designed to present 
English ecclesiastical history in its true 
aspect, as contrasted with the traditional 
Protestant version. The present volume 
covers the ground from the Norman con- 
quest to the death of Henry II, which fol- 
lowed soon after the murder of St. Thomas 
a Becket. The unifying feature of the period 
is the struggle of Church with State, chiefly 
over the question of free intercourse between 
the Church in England and the Holy See. 
That "the Church shall be free" was a 
promise repeated in various charters of the 
Norman kings. The struggles of Lanfranc, 
Anselm, Theodore, and a Becket were a 
series of efforts to force that clause into 
realization. When the same clause was 
repeated later on in the Magna Carta, it did 
not introduce anything new or promise some- 
thing to be performed, but rather mentioned 
something already acknowledged and taken 
for granted, and needing only to be recalled 
and confirmed. Father Hull treats his sub- 
ject with his usual lucidity and erudition, 
and it is becoming more evident with each 
installment that his "History of England 
Series" fills a real want. (B. Herder Book 
Co.)- 



A Study in St. Chrysostom 

"A Study in Greek Rhetoric, or the Styl- 
istic Influence of the Second Sophistic on 
the Panegyrical Sermons of St. John Chrys- 
ostom," is a dissertation submitted to the 
faculty of letters of the Catholic University 
of America in partial fulfillment of the re- 
quirements for the Ph.D. degree, by the Rev. 
Thomas E. Ameringer, O.F.M. It is a schol- 
arly piece of work. The author had some 
German savants to light his way, but his 
work is none the less independent and orig- 
inal. Even those whose reading of the Greek 
Fathers never went much beyond the stand- 
ard class-room exercises, will relish this 
piece of work, which would have been even 
njore valuable for general use had the author 
given a translation of the Greek passages 
quoted by him. It is plain that St. John 
Chrysostom, the golden-tongued, was a bap- 
tized Hellenist, steeped in the Greek litera-" 
ture of his day, using its figures of speech, 
its rhythmical periods, its exaggerated love 
of the rhetorical. And all this in spite of 
the fact that he condemns those preachers 
who strive to hold their audience by a 
show of eloquence. But Chrysostom was an 
instrument in the hands of God and he ac- 
cepted the conditions of the times in which 
he lived. These demanded that the truths 
of Christianity be presented to fastidious 
audiences in polished rhetorical language. 



Books Received 

Cobra Island. A Catholic Scout's Adventures. 
By Neil Boyton, S.J. 176 pp. i2mo. 
Benziger Bros. $1.15 net. 

The Man IV ho J^anished. A Novel by John 
Talbot Smith. 357 pp. i2mo. Blase Benz- 
iger & Co. $1.90 postpaid. 

TIte Man of Sorrozvs. Chapters on the Sa- 
cred Passion by Robert Eaton, Priest of 
the Birmingham Oratory, sjy pp. l2mo. 
Sands & Co. and B. Herder Book Co. 
$2.25 net. 



Clerical Tailor 




J. SELLMANN 

Cassocks and Clerical Suits 

made to measure 

Moderate Prices 

Cleaning and Pressing 

Phoue Grand 6735 



Farmers & Merchants Tiust Bldg. 
Grand and Gravois Av. St. Lonis 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 8 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



April 15, 1922 



The Mystery of Limpias 



The second edition of the late 
Prof. Dr. C. Isenkrahe's "Ex- 
perimental - Theologie ' ' (Bonn : 
Marcus & Weber), published after 
the author's death, contains a 
critical discussion of "the phe- 
nomena of Limpias," which the 
F. K. has repeatedly noticed. The 
writer, after carefully studying 
these phenomena, as reported in 
Prof. Dr. von Kleist's book, "Auf- 
fallende Ereigiiisse an dem Chris- 
tusbilde von Limpias" (3rd. ed., 
Verlag der Waisenanstalt Kir- 
nach-Villingen, Baden, 1921), 
gives it as his opinion that there 
is nothing in these "sensational 
occurrences" which would require 
the assumption of supernatural 
influences. 

Dr. Isenkrahe, whose work and 
reputation lie mainly in the field 
of higher mathematics and phys- 
ics, says that the reports from 
Limpias give rise to three ques- 
tions : (1) AMiat phenomena are 
sufficiently authenticated? (2) Is 
the testimony of the witnesses 
reliable? (3) Is it necessary to 
postulate a miracle or a series of 
miracles to explain the events! 

The phenomena, as reported, 
are briefly these : The body of the 
crucified Saviour is seen to sweat, 
tears flow from the eyes, blood 
from the mouth or the crown of 
thorns on the head; water from 
the right side; the eyes roll or 
twist, the statue seems to breathe, 
the lips move as in unutterable 
pain, and so forth. 

Are these apparitions sufficient- 



ly authenticated? 1500 witnesses 
have testified to them under oath, 
and there can be no reasonable 
doubt that they testified in good 
faith. Of special weight is the 
testimony of a number of infidels 
who were deeply affected by what 
they saw. 

But the witnesses can testify 
only to their impressions. The 
cause underlying these impres- 
sions must be subjected to scien- 
tific investigation. 

Are the phenomena objective 
or purely subjective? They can 
not be objective, for on many 
occasions they were seen only by 
some of the attendants and not 
by others. Hence they must be 
subjective. If subjective, were 
they mere illusions or impressed 
miraculously on the eyes of those 
who saw them? To assume that 
a hundred or more persons were 
the victims of the same illusion 
at the same time is inadmissible. 
Hence there remains the theory 
that the figure of the crucified 
Saviour remained and God caused 
the impressions miraculously for 
a supernatural purpose. This is 
assumed by Prof. Dr. von Kleist. 
Dr. Isenkrahe denies the assump- 
tion. The evidence shows, he says, 
that on March 30, 1919, the day 
the manifestations began, a mis- 
sionary ascended a ladder and 
found the figure of Christ covered 
with perspiration. He touched it 
and showed the attending popu- 
lace his moist hand. 

Another objection raised by Dr. 



138 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



April 15 



Iseiikralie is that such an "inter- 
nal" miracle would be opposed to 
the wisdom of God, since it would 
make it impossible for any one to 
form a reliable opinion concern- 
ing miracles. 

But even if we were to admit 
that these impressions were 
caused by supernatural causes, we 
could not speak of a miracle in 
the apologetical sense of the term, 
because in that sense a miracle is 
not merely an effect caused by 
God, but an eff'ect that can be 
produced by no other agent than 
God. Sense impressions can be 
produced by nature and are often 
so produced in certain diseases. 

A miracle in the apologetical 
sense further requires that the 
effect must be in some way per- 
ceptible by the senses, for it is 
only by this means that the human 
intellect, which is bound to ascend 
from the sensible to the supra- 
sensible, can be convinced of the 
genuineness of a miracle. The 
"miracle" of Limpias, conceived 
as a purely internal occurrence, 
could not be ascertained by means 
of the exterior senses, but, for 
witnesses, by interior perception 
alone, and, for non-witnesses, by 
the (conflicting) testimony of the 
witnesses. The hypothesis of an 
''internal miracle" is, therefore, 
untenable. 

Some think that God produced 
in the lifeless figure of Christ 
certain physical manifestations 
which closely resemble genuine 
signs of life and so impress the 
beholder. In that case we should 
have to assume a miracle, but the 
assumption is untenable because 
it fails to explain why only a por- 
tion of those present in the church 
of Limpias beheld these mani- 
festations, while the majority saw 
absolutely nothing extraordinary. 



It is suggested that God binds the 
eyes of the latter, but it is silly to 
assume that He works a second 
miracle to prevent the first from 
exercising its natural effect. 

Is it possible to explain the phe- 
nomena of Limpias by assuming 
that the figure on the cross was 
subjected to a physical change 
which made it appear different 
than it really was f Dr. Isenkrahe 
thinks this explanation not only 
possible, but probable. Moisture 
from the atmosphere or the 
breath of the assembled multitude 
may have settled on the statue 
and there formed minute drops, 
which produced the impressions 
of which we read in the reports. 
This purely physical and natural 
phenomenon may have occurred 
only in a certain direction from 
the cross and may have been 
dependent upon the illumination, 
Avhich explains why some saw it, 
Avhile others did not. 

Dr. Isenkrahe does not insist 
on the correctness of this explana- 
tion, but merely proffers it as a 
workable hypothesis, which, he 
says, should be experimentally 
tested. The conditions of moisture 
in the church should be carefully 
investigated and moving pictures 
taken of the crucifix during the so- 
called manifestations. 

It is objected against a natural 
explanation of the "miracle" 
that if natural causes alone were 
at work, thev must have wrought 
their effect before March 30, 1919, 
when the phenomena began. To 
this it may be replied that the 
phenomena may have existed long 
before that date, but may never 
have been noticed and, further, 
that the high degree of moisture 
which developed in the church 
during the mission of March, 
1919, mav in some manner have 



l92^ 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



139 



been preserved and increased, so 
that the optical effects either be- 
gan to appear or grew stronger 
from that time on. 

Xo doubt the ecclesiastical com- 
mission now at work on the prob- 
lem will consider the suggestions 
of Dr. Isenkrahe and apply all the 
means furnished by science to test 
the phenomena before pronounc- 
irig them miraculous. The Church 
moves cautiouslv in such matters. 



The Failure of Psycho-Analysis 

Evidence is rapidly accumulat- 
ing that the position so long main- 
tained by the F. R., that psycho- 
analysis is at present only a med- 
ley of science and nonsense, is 
gradually gaining the approval of 
the scientific world. Thus, in 
further support of Fr. Muntsch's 
testimony in Xo. 6 of the F. E. 
("Dangers of Freudism") we 
quote the following paragraph 
from a paper on "Tics" (local 
and habitual convulsive motions 
of certain, especially facial, mus- 
cles). The article is by Meyer 
Solomon, M.D., College of Medi- 
cine, University of Illinois, and is 
republished by the Bureau of Edu- 
cation (Washington, D. C.) in 
Bulletin X^o. 50, page 136. 

Dr. Meyer, discussing the "prog- 
nosis" or chances for recovery of 
a victim of such convulsive tAvitch- 
ings, says: 

"The writer will agree with the 
Freudians that there must be a 
cause for the appearance of these 
tics. This cause existed in the 
past. It has in the course of time 
been forgotten, but still exists 
somewhere in the subconscious- 
ness of memory. This forgetting 
has been brought about by a pro- 
cess of dissociation from the orig- 
inal exciting cause. But the writer 



will not agree that this dissocia- 
tion has been, of necessity, 
brought about by repression on 
the part of the individual, that by 
psychaualysis the condition can 
he traced hack to the sexual 
activities or tendencies of infantile 
or early childhood origin* or 
that the condition can be cured 
when the original cause is made 
known to the patient through 
psychanalysis, without the train- 
ing of the will so necessary in this 
condition." 

The writer admits, indeed, that 
"the analytic tendency of the 
Freudian school is to be highly 
recommended." But he wisely 
adds (and this is the point empha- 
sized by men of authority), that 
"this analysis should not be limit- 
ed to sexual analysis, but should 
include a consideration of all of 
man's instincts." 

The renowned church historian 
Knopfler and other recent authorities 
have expressed the opinion that it is not 
likely that the ancient controversy re- 
garding the authorship of the "Imita- 
tion of Christ," ascribed to Thomas a 
Kempis, will ever be completely solved. 
In the Zcitschrift fiir deiitsch'es Alter- 
tum und deutsche Liferatur (Vol. 59, 
Nos. 1 and 2, Berlin, 1921) Paul Ha- 
gen, who has edited two anonymous 
low-German tractates preserved in the 
city library of Liibeck, declares that 
Thomas Hemerken was the redactor 
rather than the author of the work that 
has made him famou^^. "Thus the Imi- 
tafjo Christi, one of Holland's chief 
contributions to world literature," he 
says, "originated in a manner resemb- 
ling the genesis of the poems ascribed 
to Homer and of the Nibelungenlied." A 
contributor to the Historisch-politische 
Blatter (Munich, 1922, \'ol. 169, No. 
4) accepts this conclu^ii-n as very prob- 
able. 



Italics ours. — Ed. F. R. 



140 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



The Knights of Columbus and the Pelletier Case 

By Bernard J. Rothwell, Boston, Mass. 



Ill response to various inquiries 
from many to whom the pamphlet 
"Authority or Anarchy?" was 
recently forwarded, the following 
additional information is fur- 
nished. 

I am personally responsible for 
that pamphlet. Its wide distribu- 
tion was suggested by a number 
of CVitholic men — many of whom 
are members of the Knights of 
(.'olumbus — for reasons which the 
pamphlet itself and this further 
statement should make clear. 

The Pelletier Case has become 
of national significance because of 
the official declaration of Supreme 
Knight Flaherty, and because of 
the circulation, under official aus- 
pices of the Knights of Columbus, 
of the closing arguments of Mr. 
Pelletier 's counsel, the}^ having 
failed to enter any defense, pro- 
duce any witnesses, or subject 
Mr. Pelletier himself to examina- 
tion and cross-examination. 

It is notable that of the scores 
of reputable Catholic lawyers in 
this city, not a single one uttered 
a word in question of the decision 
of the Supreme Court or in de- 
fense of Mr. Pelletier. 

I have no personal animus 
whatever toward Mr. Pelletier. 
Such few contacts as we have ever 
had have been entirely agreeable ; 
but the question at issue vitally 
affects the welfare of the Catholic 
Church in America, and hence far 
transcends any individual inter- 
est or personal predilection. 

Only one who has been in the 
midst of affairs here can form any 
idea of the debauchery of Justice 
vrliich has gone on for the past 
several vears. The more con- 



temptible and filth}' phase of this 
was made public in the recent trial 
before the Supreme Court, of the 
case of "The Attorney General v. 
Nathan A. Tufts, District Attor- 
ney of Middlesex County," where 
the deliberate use of disreputable 
women to lure men of means into 
compromising positions was ex- 
posed, (^iice in the toils, they 
were confronted by the same at- 
torneys, who were in league with 
the District Attorney; were ob- 
liged, under threat of indictment 
by the District Attorney, with the 
consequent publicity, to pay 
enormous sums to alleged injured 
relatives. Probably not one-tenth 
of the cases which were "put 
across" were even attempted to 
be brought to the attention of the 
court because of the insurmount- 
able difficulty of inducing the vic- 
tims to go into open court and 
testify in such cases. 

Suffice it to say that the atmos- 
phere hereabouts in connection 
with the administration of the 
offices of the District Attorneys 
of Middlesex and Suffolk Counties 
"smelled to heaven," and aroused 
the indignation of all right-think- 
ing persons. It became evident 
that the situation was intolerable 
and that Justice was becoming a 
by-word. Something had to be 
done. 

I pledge you my word that the 
attempt to clear up this situation 
had neither religious, racial, nor 
political bias. It was simply the 
revolt of honest men. 

Every conceivable attempt was 
made to hinder this effort. All 
sorts of propaganda was indus- 
triously circulated, the principal 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



141 



jiiid most contemptible being the 
vicious appeal to racial and re- 
ligious prejudice, which many 
have been endeavoring, for more 
than one generation, to wipe out, 
and \\'ith marked success until 
these recent occurrences. 

When, through- the conviction 
of Tufts, it became evident that 
Mr. Pelletier would be put on 
trial, every legal subterfuge was 
invoked to prevent a trial. Xot 
once did he face his accusers with 
a statement that he had nothing 
to conceal — that his official con- 
duct was an open book — that he 
welcomed the closest investiga- 
tion. But he commenced, in ad- 
vance, to assail the Supreme 
Court, largely by innuendo, in an 
apparent attempt to discredit it 
and to lay claim that, as a result, 
the court could not be impartial. 
He dug up some trifling matters 
connected with the private prac- 
tice of the Attorney General, and 
with the official action of one of 
the Justices of the Supreme Court 
(who did not sit on his case) and 
virtually instructed the Grand 
Jury to bring indictment against 
them. These matters were paltry, 
both the accused courting the full- 
est investigation of the alleged 
offence. The indictments, it is 
believed, were secured for the pur- 
pose of arousing distrust and of 
creating hostile public sentiment. 
The cases have not been tried as 
yet, but are being pushed for 
trial, and the new District Attor- 
ney — Thomas C. O'Brien, a high- 
type Catholic, appointed by the 
Governor to fill the vacancy — has 
assigned them to an Assistant 
District Attorney who was a spe- 
cial protege and adherent of Mr. 
Pelletier. 

Mr. Pelletier, after the case had 
been entered, had himself nomi- 



nated for mayor on nomination 
papers, and conducted a virulent 
campaign. In the midst of the 
campaign, notwithstanding his 
previous repeated violent denun- 
ciation of those who predicted 
that he would withdraw, he did 
pull out. He now announces that 
he is going to be vindicated at the 
polls the coming fall — his appar- 
ent intention being either to run 
again for District Attorney or for 
Governor. In either event this 
will involve the Catholic commu- 
nity in an attack upon the Su- 
preme Court and bitter racial and 
religious strife. So much for the 
local atmosphere. 

What action the Knights of 
Columbus should take, both as to 
repudiation of Mr. Flaherty's offi- 
cial attack upon the Supreme 
Court and his endorsement of 
Mr. Pelletier, and v\ith reference 
to maintaining in high position in 
the Order a discredited public 
official, is for the Knights them- 
selves to determine. 

It would seem to me, as it does 
to many of my Catholic fellow- 
citizens, that the Knights of Co- 
lumbus must purge themselves of 
this affair, or they will cease to 
be regarded as a representative 
body of Catholic laymen. 

The result of mistaken passiv- 
ity in permitting men of deiiion- 
strated unworthiness to push 
themselves forward in public po- 
sition, as representative Catholics, 
to claim immunity or preferential 
consideration, and to capitalize 
the most sacred inheritance, has, 
naturally, aroused serious concern 
among many — who though not of 
our faith are entirely broad- 
minded — as to the sincerity of 
Catholic morals and Catholic 
ethics. 

This doubt is unquestionably 



142 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



becoming a decided handicap to 
oncoming Catholic youth, and is 
closing to them many doors of 
opportunity. Xor can we wonder 
at this if we tacitly uphold con- 
victed wrongdoing. 

We of the faith know that the 
conscientious Catholic cannot be 
other than the most trustworthy 
of men in every relation of life, 
socially, politically, industrially, 
•and commercially; but those "out- 
side the pale, ' ' noting conspicuous 
lapses, misinterpret the silence of 
the great majority of right-think- 
ing, right-acting Catholic men and 
women. 

The Catholic faith has certain 
fundamental, immutable princi- 
ples, and we who profess that 
faith nuist square our actions 
with them, or else our profession 
is but a mockery. It is useless to 
proclaim principles if we do not 
l)ractice what they teach. If we 
fail in this, we cannot retain our 
own self-respect, much less that 
of our fellow-citizens outside the 
faith. 

6i)S Chamber of Coiniiicrcr, 
Boston, Mass. 



After-Glow 

By Lawrence M. Loerke 



One morning early, with the snn that rose, 
Just after April rains in showers fell 
And made sweet perfume on the lilac boughs, 
I sought the mead where springtime glories 

dwell. 
And all the sprightly grass rejoiced at me. 
Bathing my feet with tears of ecstasy ; 
The flowers in gayest dress encircled me 
And would not leave me forward go for 

glee. 
And one, the tend'rest in the row, 
An iris with a golden glow. 
Looked up at me exultingly. 
L wond'ring, asked the reason why. 
The answer came: "An angel on his way 
To Paradise this field passed yesterday. 
Stooped low and kissed me where I dreaming 

lay!" 



Roma Locuta est 

The N. Y. Herald of March 31st 
published a sensational article 
concerning the affairs of the Na- 
tional Catholic Welfare Council. 
Some of the information con- 
tained therein is correct, some is 
false. The facts, so far as we 
know them, are as follows : 

The Sacred Congregation of the 
Consistory, in a decree or letter 
addressed to all the bishops of the 
U. S. and received by them the 
latter part of last month, praises 
the American hierarchy for the 
manner in which, in and through 
the National Catholic War Coun- 
cil and the National Catholic Wel- 
fare Council, they met the emer- 
gencies of the war and its imme- 
diate aftermath; but at the same 
time it calls their attention to the 
fact that, now that these emer- 
gencies have ceased, there is no 
further justification for emergency 
measures and methods, such as 
the annual meetings of the bish- 
ops, in regard to which the S. Con- 
gregation recalls the provisions of 
the Canon Law regarding plenary 
and other councils. 

The document also seems to con- 
tain some reference to the national 
headquarters of the N. C. W. C. 
in Washington, which will proba- 
bly be demobilized in view of this 
indirect disapprobation and of the 
fact that it is practically without 
funds. Those who have perused 
our criticisms of this organiza- 
tion, especially of its social action 
and press departments, will agree 
that the disparition of this whole 
expensive and poorly managed 
post-war apparatus will be a real 
blessing. Once again Rome with 
its superior wisdom has nipped in 
the bud a movement which, though 
well-intentioned, was ill-advised 
and even dangerous. 



im 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



143 



t Msgr. Joseph Pohle t 



The late Et. Eev. Msgr. Joseph 
Pohle, Ph.D., D.D., was born at 
Niederspav near Koblenz in the 
Ehineland, March 19, 1852. He 
made his higher studies partly in 
his native land and partly in 
Eome, where he not only studied 
philosophy and theology, attain- 
ing to the doctorate in both dis- 
ciplines, but the natural sciences 
as well, especially astronomy, 
under the famous Fr. Angelo 
Secchi, S. J., whose biographer he 
later became. 

In 1878 he was ordained to the 
priesthood. From April 1 1883 to 
October 1 1886 he taught dogmatic 
theology in the seminary of Leeds, 
England. In the latter year he 
accepted a call to the seminary of 
Fulda, where he held the chair of 
philosophy till 1889. In 1889 he 
was appointed professor of apolo- 
getics or fundamental theology in 
the Catholic University of Amer- 
ica, which position he held with 
great credit and success till 1894, 
when he resigned, disgusted by 
the anti-German and American- 
istic spirit which was then devel- 
oping in that institution and 
which, a few years later, led to 
the sensational dismissal of Dr. 
Pohle 's equally gifted and more 
aggressive colleague, the Et. Eev. 
Msgr. Joseph Schroeder. 

Dr. Pohle returned to Germany 
in 1894 and accepted the chair of 
dogmatic theologv at the Univer- 
sity of Miinster i. W. In 1897 he 
followed a call to the University 
of Breslau, where he taught dog- 
matic theology until his retire- 
ment as professor emeritus, two 
years ago. A fruit of his lectures 
on dogmatic theology was his 
''Lehrbuch der Dogmatik," in 
three large volumes, which began 



to appear in 1902 and of which he 
lived to prepare the seventh edi- 
tion. This work was made accessi- 
ble to the English-speaking public 
by the Editor of the Foetxightly 
Eeview, in twelve volumes (St. 
Louis, Herder, 1911 ff.), of which 
five are now appearing in the 
fourth edition. This was Msgr. 
Pohle 's chef d'oeuvre, which 
secured him a world-wide fame. 
Besides this he wrote a life of 
"P. Angelo Secchi, S.J." (2nd 
ed., 1904), two Latin treatises, 
"De Providentia Divina" (1874) 
and "De Conceptu Creationis 
Divinae" (1879), a popular intro- 
duction to the study of modern 
astronomy under the title ''Die 
Sternenwelten und ihre Bewoh- 
ner" (Cologne, 1884; 6th ed., ibid., 
1919), "Natur und Uebernatur, 
eine Theorie the Oft'enbarung" 
(191.3), and a number of other 
books, pamphlets, and numerous 
contributions to the "Kirchen- 
lexikon," the "Catholic Encyclo- 
pedia," the "Kirchliches Hand- 
lexikon," and other reference 
works, and to a number of maga- 
zines, notably to the Philosophi- 
sches JaJirbiich of the Goerres 
Society, which he edited for a 
number of years. The Foet- 
NiGHTLY Eeview was frequently 
favored with articles and notes 
from his pen, especially during 
the great battle against American- 
ism waged in the nineties of the 
past century. 

In 1913 Dr. Pohle was made a 
domestic prelate of His Holiness 
and from 1915 to 1916 he served 
as rector magnificus of the Uni- 
versity of Breslau. 

Dr. Pohle was not only a pro- 
found scholar, but a kindly, a 
zealous, and an amiable priest, un- 



144 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



selfish to a degree and so tlior- 
ouglily imbued with the apostolic 
spirit that during his last illness 
his friends had to aid in providing 
for him the things which his 
l)hysicians prescribed. 

He died Feb. 21 after a long- 
protracted illness, borne with 
model patience, well prepared 
with the .last Sacraments. The 
blessing of the corpse took place 
at his former residence in Bres- 
lau in the presence of Cardinal 
Bertram, the Rector of the Uni- 
versity, and almost the entire 
Catholic theological faculty, 
whose dean. Provost Prof. Dr. 
Nikel, delivered the funeral eu- 
logy. The requiem in the **Sand- 
kirche" on Feb. 24 M'as sung by 
the auxiliary bishop of the dio- 
cese, Msgr. Wojciech, with a ser- 
mon by the pastor, the Rev, Dr. 
Kaleve. B. i. p. 



A Timely Booklet on the Question 
of Woman's Dress 

Under the somewhat awkward 
title "Gracefulness or Folly — 
Which Shall It Be!" Mr. Joseph 
Schaef er, Xew York, has published 
a timely brochure on the subject 
of woman's dress. As Prof. Chas. 
Bruehl, D.D., of Overbrook Semi- 
nary, says in his brief preface, the 
constantly growing immodesty of 
dress is an evil apt to inspire with 
serious alarm and grave misgiv- 
ings all those who are concerned, 
as every Christian must be, about 
the public weal and, particularly, 
about the moral welfare of the ris- 
ing generation. Priests, educators, 
and parents will welcome this 
forceful little pamphlet, written to 
assist them in what is truly a 
holy crusade against the excesses 
of fashion, and to bring back men 
and women alike to a sense of 



decency and Christian self- 
restraint. 

Would that by means of this 
booklet our women and girls could 
be made to realize that, as man is 
by his very nature subject to sen- 
sual appeal, any action likely to 
arouse his evil passions is more or 
less sinful according to the meas- 
ure of deliberateness involved, 
and that if woman's dress is of a 
character to constitute a sensual 
appeal, the wearer incurs respon- 
sibility for the temptation to which 
she exposes others in proportion 
to the extent to which she is aware 
of the consequences of her action. 
"The wearer may not notice that 
she is being- watched, she may 
even wish that she might not lead 
others into temptation; but she is 
truly a seducer if she causes men 
to sin by her suggestive dress and 
encourages other girls to follow 
her bad example." 

Whoever draws the attention of 
a woman, whose sense of shame 
is being impaired, to the need of 
being- more careful in regard to 
dress, renders an inestimable ser- 
vice to her soul, as well as to the 
souls of those whom she might 
otherwise have led to spiritual 
ruin. 

The address of the publisher 
and the price of this useful broch- 
ure will be found elsewhere in this 
issue of the F. R, We hope at 
least a million copies will be sold. 



A goodly collection of jokes could be 
compiled from the pages of the Con- 
gressional Record. Recently Congress- 
man Lanham, of Texas, rose in the 
House to observe that the Reeord was 
wrong in attributing to him the remark 
that "no helium had been lost out of the 
sea-serpent in any of its flights." "I said 
C — 17, which is some difference,'' ex- 
plained ;Mr. Lanham. 



192-i 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



145 



Mr. J. G. Frazer and the Hunt for "Analogies' 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis University 



The article on "The Fable of 
the Silver Mallet" (F. K, No. 6) 
shows conclusively how careful 
Catholics must be in accepting 
reports about matters that con- 
cern the Church, when these re- 
ports issue from the sensational 
press, whose slogan is novelty, 
not truth. 

But incidentally that article is 
valuable from another point of 
view. Those who know to what 
extent the mass of "analogies," 
heaped up in the ponderous tomes 
of Frazer 's "Golden Bough," 
has muddled minds in quest of 
religious truth, will realize that 
value. Fr. Thurston, with that 
clarity and incisiveness that char- 
acterize his writings ^\ilenever he 
riddles "truths" based on folk- 
lore and legends, says : 

"It really seems a pity that the 
attention of Sir James Frazer has 
never been directed to this inter- 
esting ceremonial (the striking of 
the deceased Pontilf's forehead 

with a silver hammer) He 

would, we feel sure, find in the 
alleged custom abundant material 
for another new volume of 'The 
Golden Bough.' Surely it is ob- 
vious that the mallet episode en- 
shrines a most illuminating reve- 
lation of the manner of providing 
a new pontiff or god among prim- 
itive peoples." 

Judging from his tireless quest 
for "analogies" in the culture, 
folklore, and religious and social 
practices of primitive people. Sir 
J. G. Frazer would indeed find 
the "silver mallet" episode a 
very inviting "motif" to pursue 
in all its variations through the 
ages. Our knowledge of what he 



has achieved in this line makes us 
bold to say that the English sa- 
\'ant would have dug out numer- 
ous "parallel" instances. 

Could it have escaped Father 
Thurston's notice that Frazer, in 
one of the volumes of "The Gold- 
en Bough" (Balder the Beautiful 
— the Fire-festivals of Europe 
and the Doctrine of the Eternal 
Soul) has "run down" successful- 
ly a theme showing some similar- 
ity to the "silver mallet" story? 
At least from Frazer 's point of 
view the "running down" was 
very successful, for there resulted 
a heap of "parallelisms," but 
with no particular significance, 
and leading to no remarkable con- 
clusions. 

Referring to Frazer 's probable 
handling of the story of the "sil- 
ver mallet" and the striking 
therewith of the deceased Pon- 
tiff's forehead, Fr. Thurston says : 
"When the old chief medicine- 
man grew weak, you knocked him 
on the head with the nearest 
available piece of timber, , . . and 
then you called him at intervals 
by his name, affectionately and 
solicitously, until he ceased to an- 
swer." The last detail would have 
been a most delightful "analogue" 
to "the custom of calling aloud 
three times the words 'Pater 
Sancte,'" after the Pontiff's 
death. 

Now in the above-mentioned 
volume of "The Golden Bough" 
Frazer gives a minutely detailed 
account of the "Bear festivals" 
among the Ainos of Northern 
Japan and some Siberian tribes. 
The festival usually ends in 
bruin's destruction, either by ar- 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



rows or by being clubbed to death. 
But before the death wound is in- 
flicted upon the animal, the Ainos 
beg pardon of the deed they are 
about to commit. They remind the 
bear of the many favors he had 
received from the tribe in his life. 
They call him pet names, and the 
women sorely bewail the fate that 
befalls him. 

"What have we here," we hear 
Frazer say, "but an analogue of 
the silver mallet wherewith the 
forehead of the Pope is struck 
after death? The calling of the 
dead Pontiff by name is exactly 
parallel to the wail for the sacri- 
ficed bear." Certainly Frazer has 
drawn much cruder analogies. 

But after having pursued such 
"parallelisms" from Kamchatka 
to Patagonia, what remains? 
Nothing worth while, nothing that 
can be called a solid contribution 
to the history of culture. 

We may just as well argue that 
because the Norman peasant 
wears sabots, the Dutch farmer 



brogans, the Indian mocassins, 
and the Arabian and Turkish 
muleteer sandals, and that because 
in their respective folklores and 
mythologies they speak of rever- 
ence for the "earth-goddess," 
therefore, foot-gear is worn out of 
a dread to trample upon this 
"benign deity," rather than from 
the prosaic motive of protecting 
the feet. 

Perhaps some day a zealous 
disciple of Frazer will try to show 
that the practice of doffing one's 
hat to a lady goes back to prim- 
itive fear of the gentle sex under 
"matriarchal rule." This, how- 
ever, will be quite impossible, as 
leading anthropologists to-day 
agree that a strictly matriarchal 
regime, that is, a government by 
women only, never existed. But 
yet we imagine that Frazer will 
almost persuade us of the con- 
trary by means of laborious 
"parallelisms" from the ends of 
the earth. 



The Last Word on the Legend of Loreto 



It would be hard to exaggerate 
the service which Canon Chevalier 
rendered to the cause of honest 
historical criticism within the 
Catholic Church when he coura- 
geously published, in 3906, his 
epoch-making volume, ' ' Notre- 
Dame de Lorette." The thesis 
defended by him won the assent 
of almost every periodical in 
France, Germany and Belgium 
which can claim to be regarded as 
scholarly and scientific. Still no 
careful reader regarded Cheva- 
lier's treatment of the subject as 
exhaustive. Moreover, as must 
almost inevitably happen when 
pioneer work is being done, there 
Avere slips here and there. Canon 



Chevalier's great merit is that he 
did not quail before the disfavor 
which such criticism was bound 
to encounter in many influential 
quarters, and that he laid down 
clearly and convincingly the broad 
lines upon which such an inquiry 
must always be conducted. Rela- 
tively, the work of those who 
come after him is easier, but 
vrhere this work is able and con- 
scientiously performed, links in 
the chain of argument are better 
tested, more carefully welded to- 
gether and more skilfully dis- 
posed, with the consequence that 
the whole train of reasoning is 
more overwhelmingly conclusive. 
Professor Georg Hiiffer, in the 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



147 



painstaking study which after 
many years of preparation he has 
now brought to completion ('*Lo- 
roto, Eine geschichts - kritische 
I'ntersuchung der Frage des heili- 
gen Hauses." 2 Vols., 288 + 206 pp. 
Miinster i. W. : Aschendorff, 1913 
and 1921) presents us with a calm, 
dispassionate statement of the 
facts, and by the aid of judicious 
summaries and recapitulations 
makes the bearing of each section 
upon the whole argument admir- 
ably clear. 

His first volume, published in 
1913, was devoted to an examina- 
tion of the Western evidence. The 
second, v/hich could not be printed 
until after the war, and is dated 
1921, is concerned mainly with the 
traditional site of the Holy House 
at Nazareth. The Moiith savs of 
it (No. 693) : 

Dr. Hiilfer has turned the post- 
ponement of the issue of his book 
to advantage, by incorporating in 
it an appendix of 30 pages in 
reply to the critics of the first in- 
stalment. In this answer he seems 
to vindicate quite successfully 
against Father Rinieri and Pro- 
fessor Kresser the important in- 
ferences he had previously drawn 
from the Urkunden of 1194 and 
1285. It seems to us to be estab- 
lished with all reasonable certain- 
ty that a shrine of Our Lady had 
already existed at Loreto for a 
century or more before the date 
of the supposed aerial translation. 
At the same time, it cannot for a 
moment be pretended that the at- 
tack upon the trustworthiness of 
the received legend must stand or 
fall by the verdict ultimately pro- 
nounced upon these corruptly 
transmitted early documents. In 
view of the extreme intrinsic im- 
probability of the miracle in itself, 
and the complete absence of any 



direct testimony to such a marvel 
for nearly two hundred years after 
its supposed occurrence, it would 
seem to us that almost any one of 
the other contentions of the ad- 
verse party if the attack is suc- 
cessfully pressed home — and Dr. 
Hiiffer has in every case, we think, 
substantially proved his point — 
would be sufficient by itself to in- 
cline the balance irresistibly to the 
negative side. Nowhere has the 
author been more convincing than 
in his utter demolition of the pre- 
posterous document of Teramano. 
It is out of this that the whole 
legend has sprung and he has 
done wisely to put it in the fore- 
front of his exposition of the case. 
In the second volume of his 
work Professor Hiiffer is able to 
make use of a good deal of mate- 
rial which was not available when 
Chevalier wrote more than fifteen 
years ago. A thorough examina- 
tion of the remains of the basilica 
of the Annunciation at Nazareth 
has been undertaken by the Fran- 
ciscan Guardian, Father Prosper 
Viand, the complete results of 
which were published in 1910. By 
the aid of these researches as well 
as a more complete study of the 
narratives of pilgrims. Dr. Hiiffer 
has been able to demonstrate how 
impossible it is that such a build- 
ing as the little rectangular chapel 
now standing at Loreto should 
have been detached from the cave 
at Nazareth which was the tradi- 
tional residence of the Holy Fam- 
ily, and was there visited by 
pilgrims throughout the Middle 
Ages. The work is further 
equipped with some excellent plans 
and photographs and with some 
valuable information regarding 
the stone of which the Holy House 
is constructed. We can only hope 
that this admirable and exhaustive 



148 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



work will become widely known, arguments which are here so ad- 

Xo competent and unprejudiced mirably marshalled and on the 

schohu- who makes acquaintance Avhole so temperately urged, 
with it can resist the force of the 



International Catholic Organization 

By the Rev. Herman Gruber, S. J. 



In the Stinimeii der Zeit for 
Oct. 1921 I published an article on 
the need and the beginnings of 
international Catholic organiza- 
tion in various countries, and com- 
mented on the earnest desire of 
Pope Benedict XV for closer in- 
ternational co-operation of all 
Catholics, made necessary by the 
hostile attitude of the Freemasons, 
Socialists, Communists, and other 
elements. 

In a communication issued by a 
committee preparing this collabo- 
ration, signed by Msgr. Schrembs, 
the Marquis de Comillas, AV. P. 
]\Iara, Alph. Steger, and Jules 
Zirnheid, it is stated that the late 
Holy Father, in order to accelerate 
the movement of international 
Catholic federation and co-opera- 
tion, donated 25,000 lire for the 
establishment of a central bureau 
at Rome, and that a number of 
cardinals and bishops, following 
the example of the Poj3e, had de- 
clared themselves in favor of the 
project. 

To prevent misunderstanding I 
v/ill state that several organiza- 
tions founded for the purpose of 
bringing about international Cath- 
olic co-operation Avere encouraged 
by the highest ecclesiastical au- 
thority, but that no particular 
project has been authoritatively 
approved. The Amsterdam Tijd 
(Jan. 7, '22) relates that Benedict 
XV himself, when asked to give 
his formal approbation to the pro- 
ject of the committee mentioned 
above, answered: '*De Bisschop 



dient niet het Doopsel, maar het 
Vormsel toe," that is, the Bishop, 
and especially the Bishop of 
Bishops, as representative of the 
highest ecclesiastical authority, 
cannot administer Baptism to 
such enterprises, /. e., call them 
into being, but he can give them 
Confirmation, i. e., official ecclesi- 
astical approbation, after they 
have assumed a relatively definite 
shape and stood the test of ex- 
perience. 

All the enterprises of this sort 
so far undertaken are still in 
fieri. A really successful solution 
of the problem is possible only on 
the basis of voluntary co-opera- 
tion by the Catholics of at least 
the principal countries of the 
world. This voluntary co-operation 
must be secured by a systematic 
campaign of enlightenment and 
instruction. First national organ- 
izations must be called into being. 
America is giving a good example 
iii this respect. France, too, has 
made a start, though in France 
and Belgium a great barrier of 
anti-German prejudice has still to 
be overcome. The Catholics of all 
other countries should co-operate 
to dissipate these prejudices by 
their moral influence, for without 
the German-speaking Catholics no 
organization can be truly interna- 
tional. Shall it be said that Free- 
masons, Socialists, and Freethink- 
ers are less subject to national 
hatred and the injustice springing 
therefrom than Catholics? 



1922 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



Notes and Gleanings 



A clergyman writing in the St. Paul 
iVanderer (No. 3031) raises the ques- 
tion whether and to what extent a 
Catholic newspaper is justified in putt- 
ing before its readers the unreliable 
news spread by non-Catholic agencies. 
Even though the editor merely reprints 
such items, without endorsing or 
approving them, says this clergyman, 
he makes himself in many cases an in- 
strument of deception, for the ordinary 
Catholic reader is not able to distin- 
guish the true from the false, but puts 
nnplicit trust in his Catholic paper, 
from which he expects the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth. 
How often are the religious news items 
sent out from Rome or other points by 
the Associated Press, the United Press, 
or the International News Service, un- 
true, or at least substantially inaccu- 
rate! Is it not an injustice on the part 
of the Catholic editor to pass them on 
to those who trust his judgment? Has 
ho not rather the sacred duty of refut- 
ing the lies and correcting the inaccura- 
cies spread by the secular press? We 
submit these considerations to our 
esteemed colleagues of the Catholic 
press as apt niatter for meditation. 



The same priest writing in the 
Wanderer deplores the lack of sane 
criticism manifested in those Catholic 
papers that never miss an opportunity 
to print sensational accounts of alleged 
supernatural or preternatural events 
before they have been duly verified. 
Only too often, he says, the alleged 
miracles turn out to be imaginary, or 
even fraudulent, and by treating them 
thus uncritically, the Catholic press not 
only often offends its intelligent read- 
ers, but gives scandal to the ignorant 
and exposes the Church to the contempt 
of outsiders. "The Catholic journalist 
in such matters must not be afraid, in 
the words of Father Grisar, S.J., to 
'let the torch of criticism penetrate the 
semi-darkness of the sacristy.' Our 
holy Church, in her exalted dogmatic 



and moral system, in her ceremonies 
and works of art, and in her history, 
incliiding the present-day history of the 
foreign missions, possesses so much 
that is sublime, beautiful, and edify- 
ing, that we can well afford to ignore 
the alleged miracles of the sensational 
press." We cordially endorse this time- 
ly criticism. Unfortunately the N. C. 
W. C. News Service has enrouraged 
rather than combated the credulity 
complained of by the Wanderer's 
reverend correspondent. 

In the Innsbruck Zeitschrift filr ka~ 
tlwlische Theologie (1922, 1. Quartal- 
heft, p. 99 ff'.) Fr. Alois Kross, S.J., 
gives a splendid survey of recent publi- 
cations on the history of the Society of 
Jesus. He reviews a number of source 
books and general and special works 
printed in various languages, prominent 
among them the first critical edition of 
the "Exercitia Spiritualia" of St. Igna- 
tius in the "Monumenta Ignatiana'' 
(Madrid, 1919.) This work is divided 
into three parts. The first gives the text 
of the Spiritual Exercises with a de- 
tailed account of .its history. The text 
has come down to us in three recen- 
sions, one Spanish, the other two Latin. 
The literal Latin translation is ascribed 
to St. Ignatius himself. The Spanish 
original is preserved in a copy written 
by another hand, but corrected by St. 
Ignatius. To the three recensions just 
mentioned the editors have added the 
modern translation by Fr. Roothan. 
The text of the Exercises has been care- 
fully collated with the authors whom 
St. Ignatius knew and used, and the edi- 
tors are able to show that, while there 
are many borrowings, analogies and 
verbal concordances, in disposition and 
object the Exercises are entirely the 
work of St. Ignatius. He is truly their 
author. Fr. Kross adds : "That a knight 
with as little ascetic and scientific train- 
ing as Ignatius at Manresa, should com- 
pose a work of such great intellectual 
importance, cannot be explained by 
purely natural causes, and we must 
therefore assume an exceptional divine 
illumination and guidance." 



150 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



Prof. Nivard Schlogl's new German 
translation of the Talmud, of which the 
hrst installment lately appeared in Vien- 
na, is unfavorably criticized by Fr. 
Urban Holzmeister. S.J., in the' Zcit- 
schrift fiir kaflk Thcologie (1922. No. 
1, pp. 130 sq.) The translation is too 
free and the traditional divisions have 
been departed from, so that it is diffi- 
cult to find any particular passage. 
Strack's edition is still the best. 

P. Odo Casel, O.S.B., has recently 
published (Giessen: A. Topelmann) 
an interesting and important study "De 
Philosophorum Graecorum Silentio 
^lystico," which is not only an im- 
portant contribution to the history of 
ancient Greek philosophy, but a pre- 
liminary to the critical investigation of 
the primitive Christian disciplma arcani. 
Proceeding from the mysteries of the 
Eleusinian cult. Fr. Odo pursues the 
development of the practice of mystical 
silence in the schools of Grecian philo- 
sophy before the time of the emperors, 
during their ascendancy, and later 
among the Xeo-Platonists. There were 
three kinds of mystical silence, — that 
called mystical in the strict sense, dic- 
tated by reverent fear of the deity ; the 
pb.ilosophical. and the diplomatic. The 
conclusion is: '"Greek philosophy 
ceased, but it did not disappear. There- 
fore the question may be raised whether 
the early Christians adopted the Greek 
teaching concerning the mystical silence 
and applied it, not only in philosophy 
and theology, but also in liturgy and 
ethics, (especially of the monastic life). 
This question shall be discussed later."' 
If the author can answer it with the 
same erudition and thoroughness with 
which he cleared up the problem of the 
mystical silence in Greek philosophy, 
he will perform a valuable service to 
sacred science. 

Dr. Edouard Naville, the eminent 
archaeologist, for over thirty years pro- 
fessor of Egyptology in the University 
of Geneva, has on various occasions con- 
demned the modern critical theory of 
the Pentateuch. One of his principal 
books on this subject has just been 



translated into English under the title, 
"The Law of Moses" (London: 
Thynne), with a preface by Dean 
Wace of Canterbury. Contrary to the 
assumption, now quite generally adopt- 
ed by non-Catholic scholars, that the five 
books are a compilation made after the 
Captivit}- from writings composed long 
after the time of Aloses, Dr. Naville 
in a compact series of arguments 
demonstrates that Moses wrote the law 
on tablets in the course of the journey 
of the Israelites through the desert and 
completed the work by the discourses 
which constitute Deuteronomv. 



Cardinal Gasquet has contributed a 
foreword to a "Life of Cornelia Con- 
nelly : Foundress of the Society of the 
Holy Child Jesus," which Messrs. 
Longmans have in press. The reader 
will find a brief account of this society, 
with a mention of the foundress' name, 
in Vol. VII of the Catholic Encyclope- 
dia, page 400. ^lother Connelly's career 
was quite remarkable. She was born in 
Philadelphia, in 1809, and became a 
convert to the Catholic faith in 1835 

Position Wanted 

by 

Organist and Ctioirmaster 

All Organist and Choirmaster with A 1 references and 
plenty of experience is looking for a position in a 
city parish. Address: 

A. B. C, care of The Fortnightly Review 

5S51 Etzel Avenue, St l,ouis. Mo. 

For Rent— Furnislicd Room 

for one or two Catholic persons. 

1521 Hebert Street, St. Louis. Mo. 

CLERGYMEN, COLLEGES and ACADEMIES 
will find it to their advantage to consult 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co, 

212-214 East Eighth Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
RELIABLE SERVICE AT REASONABLE PRICES 
Its facilities for quick delivery of line- 
or monotyped, printed in flrst-class 
manner books, booklets, pamphlets, 
folders etc. are unexcelled. 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY BEVIEW 



151 



After her marriage her husband, crav- 
ing for the higher Hfe of the priesthood, 
prevailed upon her to agree to a separa- 
tion. She entered a convent in England 
and, in 1846, founded the first house 
of the Society of the Holy Child Jesus, 
which now has many houses in England 
and America. After irrevocable steps 
had been taken on both sides. Pierce 
Connelly proved faithless to the voca- 
tion he had embraced and endeavored 
to regain possession of his wife through 
the English courts. This memoir, writ- 
ten by a member of the Society, in- 
cludes an account of the legal contest 
and of the extraordinary series of 
events by which Mrs. Connelly suc- 
ceeded in establishing her order. 

According to the N. Y. World (Feb. 
22), the Masonic Club, of Ridgefield 
Park, N. J., composed entirely of Free- 
masons, attended a fair given by Phil 
Sheridan Council of the Knights of Co- 
lumbus in a body. The ^Masonic emblem 
was placed alongside of that of the K. 
of C. on this occasion. The World adds 
that last simmier the K. of C. of Ridge- 
field Park protested against the dedica- 
tion of the new public school under 
]\[asonic auspices, but the cornerstone 
was laid amid a great ^Masonic demon- 
stration, and since that time better feel- 
ing has followed between the two or- 
ders. Why? And how soon are the K. 
of C. going to petition the Holy See to 
take the ban off Freemasonry? 

The Rev. Dr. Wm. Koppers, S.V.D., 
of Vienna, associate editor of the 
Aiitliropos, writes to us from Tierra 
del Fuego, under date of Feb. 27th : 
"We have already spent three weeks 
among the most southerly inhabitants 
of the world. So far everything has 
gone favorably. We hope to achieve the 
objects of our expedition in every es- 
sential point. The confidence which we 
enjoy among the natives is a great help 
in our work. Already a number of new 
discoveries have been made." As our 
readers know, Dr. Koppers, who visited 
St. Louis last winter, is one of the 
leaders of a scientific expedition en- 



gaged in investigating the conditions, 
customs, and beliefs of the Indians in- 
habiting the famous archipelago of the 
extreme South of South America, 
which is separated from the mainland 
by the Straits of Magellan. The post- 
mark on Fr. Koppers' card indicates 
that he is sojourning in the Argentinian 
or eastern portion of the archipelago. 
This has an area of 8,300 sq. miles and 
a population of about 1,000 whites and 
several thousand Indians. It is among 
the latter that valuable ethnological and 
linguistic discoveries are expected. 



The Archbishop of New Orleans this 
year issued a powerful Lenten pastoral 
against the ever growing crime of abor- 
tion. The F. R. had a strong paper on 
this subject as lately as Jan. 15, from 
the pen of Dr. Peter J. Latz, of Chi- 
cago, which was copied by several of 
our Catholic contemporaries. Arch- 
bishop Shaw writes with much feeling. 
fecit indignatio versa ui. He calls at- 
tention to the atrocity of the crime and 
to the fact that it entails excommuni- 
cation. He warns his people against 
conscienceless physicians and midwives 
who lend a hand in the commission of 
this vile crime and against "the abso- 
lutely immoral and even physically 
dangerous attempt to thwart the de- 
signs of the Creator by the so-called 
expedient of birth control. Those who 
would deseciate the divine institution 
of marriage by the use of such an im- 
moral means," he says, "must under- 
^tand that they commit the grievous sin 
of murder in desire." This pastoral 
letter is most timely, and we are pleased 
to know that the Central Bureau of the 
Catholic Central Society has manifold- 
ed and is spreading it broadcast among 
the Catholics of the whole country as a 
free leaflet. 

The following chronogram, put to- 
gether bv a correspondent of the Lon- 
don Tablet, sums up the character of the 
new Pope and includes the so-called 
prophecy of St. Malachy. If the letters 
corres]wnding to the Roman numerals 



152 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April 15 



Just published 



The Preacher's Vademecum 



^Xt;^->^>s^, 



Sermon Plans for Sundays, Feasts of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints, Advent and 

Linten Courses, Forty Hoars', Sacred Heart Devotions, Retreats, Conferences, May and October 

Devotions, Special Occasions, etc. 

By Two Missionaries Translated from the French 

Cloth, net, ^3.00 

n,aJH'/i wT^'^^°i'H/:^''"P''°^'^ ^. ^°°°^ ^°^ ^^^ preacher, particularly on account of the great variety of its 
material lor many different occasions. c j. e, 

,n i-tl'pif^^^iilw"^ the material may be judged from the fact that in its French original the work is already 
in us hiith Edition, and has been favored with many flattering commendations by the episcopate. 



Story-Sermonettes for the Children's Mass 

FOR ALL SUNDAYS OF THE YEAR 

By the Rev. Frederick Renter 

Clotfi, net, $1.50 



Previously pablislied by the same author: 

Short Sermons for the Children's Mass 

On the Gospels of all the Sundays of the Year Amply Illustrated by Example and Anecdote 

Cloth, net, $1.50 

.u T,!'^^ '^^^ ^^'^ products of long years of work and should prove welcome to many less experienced 
than the author." _ catholic Book Notes. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 
23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

SL Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 



STOP! LOOK! LISTEN! 



Seg 



If Wc Cannot Give You Greater Value 

We Are Not Entitled to Your Patronage 

Q 1^0 *" *"y s'ze, shape or price, from $6.00 to $30.00 per 100. From 
cll o the humblest Domestic to the most exquisite CLEAR HABANA 

Seven Yean Old as a Mail Order House — 

Fifty-six Years Young as a Segar House 



Catalogue and prices 
mailed on request 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 1866 

58 North Pearl Street BUFFALO, N. Y. 



America Press 

^ JOB PRINTING ii 

done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. ST. Louis. Mo 



fSTEINEREil^ffll!C9. 



BADGE5,| 

BUn6NS8.PINS».i 



seals! 



STENCILS ^MET^LCHEO^' 



1922 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



153 



are added together, thev will be found 
to give the total, 1922:' 

SCIEXTIA PROI-VXDA, PIETAS SIXCERA. PERITIA 

COPIOSA, FIDES IXTREPIDA — EX HABES 

AVSPICIA EOXA ! 



In the ]March Month Father Leslie 
\\ alker, S. J., in a review of "The Ana- 
lysis of Mind" by Dr. Bertrand Russell, 
shows the Aristotelian trend of that 
famous author's mind. 'Mr. Russell does 
not analyse mind from the point of view 
of consciousness, but rather from that 
of function — a truly Scholastic prin- 
ciple. His main error, according to 
Father Walker, is that of '"treating the 
mind as if it were a potato patch, out § 
of which can be dug separate and ad- 
ditive units, instead of treating it as 
an organic living whole." 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. Johx Eugexe Weibel, V.F. 

{SOih Installment) 

One day in December, 1903, I had an acci- 
dent whereby I broke my nose. After Dr. 
Copeland had treated me for a while, he ad- 
vised me to go to a specialist in Memphis, 
as part of the nose bone had to be sawed 
out. I was obliged to remain in ^lemphis 
about two weeks for treatment after the 
operation. I improved the time by drawing 
plans and pictures for the much needed 
addition to St. Bernard's Hospital and sent 
these to Bishop Fitzgerald in Hot Springs. 
With his usual promptness he wrote that he 
fully recognized the need of the building and 
gladly gave me permission to start it, as I 
had the will and the courage to undertake it 
without any funds or resources. While he 
could not see whence I took the courage to 
tackle such a big job, he said I had his 
frilest consent and approbation, and to prove 
his good will, he enclosed a check for $1,500 
as his personal contribution. This helped to 
encourage others and get them interested. 
The work on the hospital and chapel began 
in January, 1904, and went on slowly but 
without intermission until the building was 
completed. One of the most expensive items 
was the lumber and bricks. I succeeded in 
gettmg both at wholesale prices : fine hard 
bricks at $4.50 a thousand, delivered on the 
spot : all the sized lumber, planed on one 
side, at S4 per thousand: flooring at $11: 
and the balance, windows, doors, etc., just as 
reasonably. 

The Baptist Watchman quotes from a man 
who has been in Alaska, with his eyes open. 



the following remarks: "One thing which 
impressed me was the futility of a mere 
secular _ education to safeguard life from 
moral failure and ruin. I know many college- 
bred men, some of them educated in Oxford 
and Cambridge, or Yale, Harvard, and 
Princeton, who are saloon keepers, bar 
keepers, superintendents of faro tables, or 
mere hangers-on and stokers for saloons 
and gambling hells. The worst savages I 
have ever known, the most filthy, hopeless, 
irreclaimable savages, were educated, college- 
bred men." Upon which the IVafcliiiian log- 
ically comments; "The idea that education 
in itself is a morally uplifting power has 
taken deep root in the American mind. To 
read the panegyrics on the public schools, 
one would imagine that all that is necessary 
to make people good is to educate them. Xo 
more conclusive disproof of this has been 
iven than the above observation." 

Indeed mere reading, writing and arith- 
metic, without religion, is apt only to make 
criminals, thiefs, and crooks more skilful. 
No wonder the penitentiaries are crowded 
with such, although the majority become sly 
and cunning enough to evade the law. 

Fully persuaded that a .good Christian edu- 
cation is the most reliable foundation for 
an honorable life and the most solid bulwark 
for an honest, reliable citizenship, I exerted 
myself everywhere and continuously for the 
increase and improvement of our parochial 
schools. When the settlement in Engelberg 
was started, I asked for Sisters from Poca- 
hontas to teach in that wild and almost in- 
accessible forest. Sister M. Hildegarde was 
chosen out of quite a number who offered 
their services. For weeks she could not assist 
at Mass, Pocahontas being 8 miles distant 
and the "Fauche" a wild impassable stream. 
She had to live in a little farm-house and 
suffered numberless privations. Eight years 
she taught in that solitude, and if Engelberg 
to-day has a resident priest and school and 
about fifty well-to-do Catholic families, it is 
to a great extent owing to the heroism and 
perseverance of this noble Sister. 

I also started Catholic schools at Hoxie, 
Wynne, Nettleton, and Forest City, and if 
the schools could have been continued in 
those places, there would now be good Cath- 
olic congregations in every one of them. I 
agitated and worked and wrote in the news- 
papers in favor of the parochial schools. I 
pointed out that the millions contributed an- 
nually to build grand churches, universities, 
and academies, if they were handed over to 
the bishops to help priests and teachers in 
new settlements with a yearly allowance of 
from $300 to $500 for a limited number of 
years, would accomplish wonders : that in 
most cases those places would become self- 
supporting in a few years, and we would in 
this wa\- preserve the faith in the diaspora. 
I am convinced that if that plan had been 
followed, we should have several millions 
more of Catholics in the West. 



154 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



April \b 



The great success of Bishop Lawler, of 
Lead, South Dakota, during the past few 
years, proves what could have been done in 
that way. For that reason the Catholic 
school was my "cctcnim ccnsco" in season 
and out of season. I am very glad of it and 
wculd do it again, for in our children lies 
tlie future of Catholicity. (To be continued^ 



Literary Briefs 

"The Religion of the Scriptures" 

This collection of papers from the Catho- 
lic Bible Congress held at Cambridge, July 
i6 — 19, 1921. was favorably reviewed by us 
in Vol. XXIX, No. 5 of the F. R. It has 



A TIMELY NEW BOOK 


of Special Interest to Women : 


GRACEFULNESS OR FOLLY 


WHICH SHALL IT BE? 


Pub ished with the "Imprimatur" of 

t Patrick J. Hayes, D. D., Archbshop of New York 


15,000 COPIES SOLD IN TWO WEEKS 


Price incl. postage 12 cents — $1.00 per doz. 
&S^ Send prepaid order to the publislier 


J. SCHAEFER, 23 Barclay Street, New York, N. Y. 


When ordei-ing refer to the Fortnightly Review 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS TRY OUR BRANDS 

= They Have Stood the Test Since 1860 =^ — 




You will make no mistake by giving us a personal call to verify the quality 
anl view oar assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

Westerheide Tobacco & Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Mail Order.s ProiiH'tly Filled Phones; Bell Tyler 788 Kinloch Central ^039 L 



CASPER STEHLE BEDDING COMPANY 

1834 Morgiin Street h. c. smith. Manager <st. Louit^, Mo. 

Sixty Years In Business is a Guarantee of Satisfied Customers 

Hospitals ard Institutions Receive Special Attention 

MATTRESSES of all kinds and sizes, and PILLOWS 

Write for quotations, or better still, try a Sample Felt Mattress in a A. C. A. Tick, built up 

extra well in the middle, @ $8.oo net, F. O. B., St. Louis. 

ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 




1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



155 



since been issued in a second, revised and en- 
larged edition and can now be purchased in 
a cheaper, paper-covered form for 75 cts. 
net. (B. Herder Book Co.) 
A Commentary on Psalms I and II 

Under the title, "The Psalms, Exegesis II," 
the Rev. P. Anselm Schaaf, O.S.B., presents 
a commentary on Ps. I and II, "according 
to the interpretations of the Fathers and later 
Catholic authorities," which, though in- 
tended to be of assistance chiefly to the mem- 
bers of the exegesis class of St. Meinrad 
Seminary, will appeal to many outside of 
that institution and be found useful by the 
clergy for exegetical and homiletic purposes. 
Every verse is quoted in Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew, and translated with scrupulous ex- 
actness. The author attempts no new and 
perilous interpretations, but carefully classi- 
fies the accepted ones and groups them to- 
gether under proper headings. Fr. Anselm 
promises to continue the work gradually, and 
if he is spared to complete it, we do not 
hesitate to predict that it will constitute the 
best available Catholic commentary on the 
Psalms in the English language. (St. ]\Iein- 
rad, Ind. : The Abbey Press). 

"The Man of Sorrows" 

In meditating on the Passion of Our Lord, 
some pious souls desire to follow the story 
of the Gospels step by step, with all the 
incidents set forth in detail and due sequence, 
accompanied by appropriate and suggestive 
comments. It is for such that Father Robert 
Eaton, of the Eirmingham Oratory, has writ- 
ten "The Man of Sorrows." There are about 
seventy pages of preparatory matter and 300 
pages are devoted to the story of one day — 
the day of the sacred Passion. This fulness 
of exposition and suggestion gives scope for 
the sacred history to impress itself with 
power on the mind and to reach the heart 
with cumulative effect. The book is especial- 
ly fitted for Lenten reading. Its only fault is 
that, in quoting Holy Scripture, the writer 
seldom gives chapter and verse, and this is 
all the more to be regretted as he sometimes 
includes within quotation marks what are 
really paraphrases of the sacred text, or adds 
words of his own thereto. (B. Herder Book 
Company.) 
"The Ascent of Calvary" 

This is an authorized translation, by Miss 
Marian Lindsay, from the French of Pere 
Louis Perroy, of a series of considerations on 
the Passion, of which Archbishop Glennon 
in his Introduction says : "There is beauty, 
feeling, and eloquence in the telling. Scene 



The Western 
Catholic Union 



A Legally Solvent Adequate Rate 
Catholic Fraternal Society 




^ Forty-four years old. 

H Based on Sound, Sensible and Scien- 
tific Principles. 

X^ Devoid of Red Tape and Catholic to 
the core. 

H Three popular forms of certificates 
issued — 20 pay Whole Life Certificate 
with all modern cash loan, paid up, 
and extended insurance features. 

H This certificate is fully paid up after 
twenty consecutive payments have 
been made. 

^ Whole Life Special. This is a Whole 
Life Certificate with modern up-to- 
date cash loan, paid up and extended 
insuraaice features. 

^ Ordinary Whole Life. Just a plain 
up-to-date Whole Life Insurance Cer- 
tificate with Old Age Benefits at- 
tached. 

JUVENILE SECTION 
U Two plans. Term Rate and Whole 
Life with all modern cash, paid up 
and extended features. 



H For full information and induce- 
ments in reference to organizing new 
branches address 

W.C.U. Headquarters 

Illinois State Bank Building 
Quincy, Illinois 



156 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



April 15 



after scene is etched by a master-hand, with 
its background from the Old Testament, and 
in the fore-ground surrounding the precious 
Victim are found all the incidents of the 
Gospel narrative as they developed on the 
way— the kiss of betrayal— the cries of 
blasphemy— the reed and the scourge— the 
thorn croivn and the soldier's lance. Then 
the Mother, who loves and stands to see her 
Son die— the faithful few and faithless 
many; and then at last, the lonely, blood- 
stained tigure hanging between heaven and 
earth, yielding His spirit up to God. You will 
have, gentle reader, an opportunity in the un- 
folding of each page to study, to meditate, 
and to pray. The blessed, bleeding Christ 
is looking out at you from every chapter." 
Typographically, too, the volume is pleasing. 
CP. J. Kenedy & Sons). 
"St. Gregory VII" 

The latest volume in the '"Notre Dame 
Series of Lives of the Saints" (Sands & 
Co.) is devoted to St. Gregory VII,— the 
valiant monk Hildebrand, who fought Henry 
of Germany and finally, after many vicissi- 
tudes, died in exile, exclaiming: 'T have 
loved justice and hated iniquity, and so I 
die in exile." The anonymous author follows 
Mann and other approved authorities and 
tells his story in an interesting way. This 
series is, on the whole, so well done and so 
beautifully printed that we cannot help re- 
gretting that it eschews those bibliographical 
and other references which would give 
weight to its assertions and make the vol- 
umes something more than mere popular 
"stories." There is a way of combining 
scientific method and accuracy with popular 
presentation, but it unfortunately has not 
yet found many adepts in English-speaking 
countries. Fr. Otto Karrer's Life of St. 
Francis Borgia is a splendid example of the 
approved modern method of writing the lives 
of .saints. (B. Herder Book Co.) 



Books Received 

The Life of Patrick Augustine Feelian, 
Bishop of Nashzillc, First Archbishop of 
Chicago, 1829 — 1902. By the Rev. Corne- 
lius J. Kirkfleet, Ord. Praem. With an 
Introduction by Bishop Muldoon and 16 
Illustrations, xi & 381 pp. 8vo. Chicago : 
]\Iatre & Co. $3.65 postpaid. 

The Religion of the Scriptures. Papers from 
the Catholic Bible Congress Held at Com- 
bridge, July 16 — 19, 1921. Edited by the 
Rev. C. Lattey, S.J. Second Edition, Re- 
vised and Enlarged, xi & 112 pp. i2mo. 
B. Herder Book Co. 75 cts. net. (Wrap- 
per). 



Bunny's House. A Novel by E. M. Walker. 
270 pp. 8vc. Benziger Bros. $2 net. 

Does "Substantia" Mean "Realization' or 
"Foundation" in Hebr. XI, i?" By the 
Rev. M. A. Mathis, C.S.C. (Extract from 
"Biblica," 3, 1922, 78-89). Rome: Pon- 
tifical Biblical Institute. 12 pp. 8vo. 
(Wrapper). 

History of the Diocese of Galveston and St. 
Mary's Cathedral. Diamond Jubilee, 1847 
— 1922. VI & 132 pp. 8vo. Illustrated. Com- 
piled by Priests of the Seminary. Galves- 
ton, Tex.: Knapp Bros., Printers. 

Statutes of the Diocese of Crookslon, Pro- 
mulgated at the Diocesan Synod held Sept. 

20, 192 1 by the Rt. Rev. Timothy Cor- 

bctt, Bishop of Crookston. IV & 170 pp. 
-Svo. Crockston, ]\Iinn. : Chancery Othce. 



STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGE- 
MENT, ETC. 



required by the Act of Congress of August 24, 1912, 
of the Fortnightly Review, published semi-monthly 
at St. Louis, :Mo., for April 1st, 1922. 
City of St. Louis, ( jg^ 
State of Missouri, S 

Before me, a notary public in and for the S'tate 
and City aforesaid, personally appeared Arthur 
Preuss, \\ ho, having been duly sworn according to 
law, deposes and says that he is the publisher and 
editor of the Fortnightly Review and that the 
following is, to the best of his knowledge and belief, 
a true statement of the ownership, management, etc., 
of the aforesaid publication for the date shown in 
the above caption, required by the Act of August 
24, 1912, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and 
Regulations, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, 
editor, managing editor, and business managers are: 
Publisher, Arthur Preuss, 

5851 Etzel Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
Editor, same. 
Business Manager, Eleanor Preuss, 5851 Etzel Ave. 

2. Names and addresses of owners or stockholders 
holding 1 per cent or more of the total amount of 
stock: 

Arthur Preuss, sole owner, 5851 Etzel Ave., St. 
Louis, Mo. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and 
other security holders owing or holding 1 per cent 
or more of total amount of bonds, mortages, or 
other securities are: 

None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving 
the names of the owners, stockholders, and security 
holders, if any, contain not only the list of stock- 
holders and security holders as they appear upon 
the books of the company but also, in cases where 
the stockholders or security holders appear upon 
the books of the company as trustee or in any 
other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or 
corporation for whom such trustee is acting, is 
given; also that the said two paragraphs contain 
statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and 
belief as to the circumstances and conditions under 
which stockholders and security holders who do not 
appear upon the books of the company trustees, hold 
stock and securities in a capacity other than that of 
a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to 
believe that any other person, association, or cor- 
poration has any interest direct or indirect in the 
said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so 
stated by him. 

ARTHUR PREUSS, Pub. & Ed. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 27th day 
of March 1922. 
(Seal) P. KRAEMER, 

Notary Public 
Qly Con.mission expires March 14, 1926.) 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 9 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



May 1, 1922 



The End of the N. C. W. C. 



Ill announcing officially the de- 
cree of the S. Consistorial Congre- 
gation, adverted to in our No. 8, 
p. 142, Msgr. Brossart, Bishop of 
Covington, Ky., says in a letter 
dated April 8th and published in 
the Cincinnati Catholic Telegraph 
of April 13th: "Since the Sacred 
Consistorial Congregation at 
Rome has issued a decree, ap- 
proved by the Holy Father, dated 
February 25, 1922, yielding to the 
request of many bishops of this 
country, in which it declares that 
the annual meeting of the hier- 
archy in Washington is no longer 
necessary and that we return to 
the status which existed before the 
war, as prescribed by the Sacred 
Code, and that, in consequence, 
the 'National Catholic Welfare 
Council' be discontinued, there- 
fore, I deem it necessary to inform 
the reverend pastors and people 
of the Diocese, that the National 
Catholic Men's and Women's 
Councils are consequently dis- 
solved. Each diocese will take 
such steps as it deems necessary, 
according to its circumstances, for 
social service or other activities." 

Regarding the last-mentioned 
point, the Bishop of St. Cloud 
says in a circular letter addressed 
to his clergy, March 29th : 

''The organization of our 
parish councils and parish com- 
mittees will continue, since now 
even more than before, such 
organizations are necssary to 
carry out the individual in- 
structions obtained bv me from 



the S. Consistorial Congregation 
under date of Dec. 3rd, 1921, 
which read: 'As regards social 
works, Your Lordship will urge 
by proper exhortations and pater- 
nal councils the priests to offer 
their aid to promote the same 
with willing minds, the more since 
doubtless these works greatly as- 
sist in withstanding the efforts of 
the Socialists and possibly render- 
ing them ineffective.' 

Bishop Busch 's interpretation 
of the first and most important 
part of the decree of Feb. 25th, is 
"that Rome desires instead of the 
informal meetings of the hier- 
archy, the more formal form of 
councils and synods, whose de- 
crees, though more difficult to ar- 
rive at, are also more deliberate, 
and when approved by Rome, take 
on the force of law, whereas the 
informal meetings are only con- 
ferences, whose conclusions are 
but suggestions, requiring the vol- 
untary assent of each bishop to 
become etfective. The bishops will 
be glad," he adds, "to conform to 
the wishes of Rome and seek more 
formal ways of guarding the inter- 
ests served by the National Cath- 
olic Welfare Council." 

From several communications 
M hich we have received of late we 
deduce that quite a number of 
bishops were opposed to the high- 
handed proceedings of the N. C. 
W. C. No doubt the protests of 
these bishops were one of the chief 
reasons why the decree of Feb, 
25th was issued. We hope it will 
put an end to gurther "American- 



158 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



istic" tendencies in the Catholic 
Church of the U. S. 

* * * 

The Rev. J. E. Rothensteiner, 
writing in the Amerika (Vol. 50, 
No. 27), discusses the decree of 
the S. Consistorial Congregation 
by which the N. C. W. C. is dis- 
solved. He says among other 
things : 

A National Council centralizing 
all Catholic patriotic effort seemed 
likely to hinder, in a large meas- 
ure, the legitimate patriotic work 
of individual dioceses and to con- 
centrate all praise and glory due 
the many around the exalted heads 
of a few accidental leaders. This 
mode of administration savored of 
bureaucracy, not of democracy. . . . 
Its social action, so loudly herald- 
ed as the salvation of the country, 
seemed to us a hodge-podge of 
glittering generalities, and a few 
modern aberrations ; its occasional 
stand on some of the most import- 
ant religio-political questions of 
the day, as, for instance, the school 
question, was a thorn in the side 
of many sincere and self-sacrific- 
ing men ; and the obvious trend to 
absorb all other Catholic organi- 
zations in its self-sufficient and all- 
embracing Association of Ameri- 
can Catholics seemed destructive 
of the good so far accomplished 
in social organization, and even 
dangerous to the Church itself 
through possible complications 
with other political organiza- 
tions. . . . 

Education of the Catholic peo- 
ple in the true principles of polit- 
ical and social sciences, as well as 
in the tenets of their religion, is 
the essential thing to-day. It may 
be answered that the Bulletin of 
the National Catholic Welfare 
Council had this very thing in 
view. Possibly, but it failed most 



egregiously. Its style was gen- 
erally unfit to carry a meaning, 
and its outward appearance "as 
pompous as an undertaker," as 
Thackeray would say, — dry, 
dreary, dull, and only endurable 
because it was sent gratis. That 
was no way of reaching the peo- 
ple. The Central Society's Cen- 
tral-Blaft and Social Justice, 
though far less assuming, did far 
more good in the line of instruc- 
tion and social uplift: and yet it 
was hardly recognized by the well- 
paid literati of the Bulletin. The 
direction given by Rome, that the 
legitimate activities assumed by 
the National War and Welfare 
Council be henceforth pursued by 
Catholic organizations in the vari- 
ous dioceses, is very timely. A 
thorough organization of Catho- 
lics is a prime necessity: yet it 
must be differentiated according 
to the needs of each diocese. The 
Church in New^ York State, for 
instance, has not the same difficul- 
ties and prospects as the Church 
in Georgia or Texas. The German 
CatholiC'Central Society long since 
initiated the proper way of pro- 
ceeding. Let each parish have its 
society of Catholic men, and of 
women, too, let these be banded 
together in diocesan and State 
organizations, and let their dele- 
gates form a great National 
association of Catholics. Thus the 
power would come from the roots 
of Catholic life, and express the 
ideals and demands of the Church 
far better than it would under the 
immediate rule of a few, be they 
bishops, priests, or laymen. The 
supreme guidance would still be 
with the Church, as represented 
bv the bishops of the country, and, 
finally, by the Holy Father. The 
Church itself claims only infalli- 
hility, that is freedom from error, 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



159 



in its official decisions on matters 
of faitli and morals : it does not 
claim inspiration. But the implied 
claim of the National Catholic 
AVelfare Comicil, in a lower order, 
meant inspiration, not mere infal- 
libility. It gave a priori decisions 
and paid but little heed to "quod 
semper, quod ubique, quod ah 
omnibus accept urn est." Hence it 



fell by overreaching itself. It was 
too intent upon being thoroughly 
"American," and forgot, if it ever 
knew, that Brownson said long 
since (Vol. 14, p. 569) : "What we 
call our Americanism does very 
well in the political order, but it 
cannot be transferred to the 
Church, without heresy and 
schism. ' ' 



The Anthroposophy of Rudolph Steiner 



Recent press dispatches have 
contained more or less sympa- 
thetic references to a new system 
of thought and religion, called 
' ' Anthroposophy, ' ' mainly prop- 
agated by a German savant. Dr. 
Kudolph Steiner, residing in 
Switzerland. 

Dr. H. Straubinger, of the Uni- 
versity of Freiburg i. Br,, devotes 
an interesting paper to this heresy 
in the current issue (Heft 5) of 
the Munich Historisch-politische 
Blatter. 

He traces Anthroposophy to 
Theosophy. A dissatisfied group, 
under the leadership of Steiner, 
seceded from the Annie Besant 
wing of Theosophy in 1913 and 
founded the "Anthroposophic So- 
ciety," with headquarters in the 
"Goetheanum" near Dornach, not 
far from the city of Basle, Switz- 
erland. Steiner calls his system 
"Anthroposophy" because it has 
man (anthropos) for its object, or 
"Spiritual Science," because it 
deals mainly with the spiritual 
side of man, or "Secret Science" 
because it strives to penetrate to 
that which lies behind appear- 
ances. It pretends to attain 
knowledge, not, like Theosophy, by 
visioning God, but by visioning 
the human soul. 

This statement of doctrine must 
be interpreted in the fight of the 



fact that Steiner was a member 
of the Theosophic Society for 
eleven years and that his teaching 
closely resembles that of Madame 
Besant. 

Man, he teaches, consists of 
three bodies, three souls, and 
three spirits. He is surrounded 
by a mysterious aura, which is 
differently colored according to 
temperament, character, and edu- 
cation. Life does not begin at 
birth, nor does it end with death. 
Steiner believes in the transmi- 
gration of souls and in re-incarna- 
tion, which is repeated again and 
again until man has become per- 
fect. Behind the world lies the 
Absolute or Infinite, consisting of 
innumerable universes with un- 
countable solar systems. Each 
solar system is the emanation of 
a sun-god. The god of our solar 
system is Christ. 

Steiner derives his knowledge 
of the past history of the human 
race, not from books or other his- 
torical documents, but from what 
he calls the "Acasha Chronicle," 
a subtle fluid spread throughout 
the world, upon which, as upon a 
photographic plate, every thought, 
movement of will, and external 
occurrence is indelibly impressed, 
thus enabling the Anthroposophic 
clairvoyant to behold, as in a pan- 
orama, everything that has ever 



160 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



May 1 



happened and everything that is 
now happening- throughout the 
universe. 

Spiritual knowledge requires 
special organs. Steiner calls these 
lotos flowers or wheels. They are 
supra-sensible and attached to the 
astral body. 

But enough of this nonsense! 
Dr. Straubinger says that after 
one has read for a while in 
Steiner 's books one begins to feel 
queer and involuntarily asks him- 
self : ''Are you crazy, is Steiner 
crazy, or is he trving to make a 
fool of you?" 

Yet at bottom there is really 
nothing new in Anthroposophy. 
It is merely a revamped Gnosti- 
cism, which combines the most dis- 
parate elements into a fantastic 
whole. Its sources are : Buddhistic 
speculation, the ancient Oriental 
mystery religions, Greek mythol- 



ogy, and the Bible. The Biblical 
elements in it are so distorted 
that they can hardly be recog- 
nized. With Christianity the 
Anthroposophic system has abso- 
lutely nothing in common. 

Dr. Straubinger concludes his 
criticism as follows: "Anthropos- 
ophy is utterly valueless both 
from the religious and from the 
scientific point of view and injuri- 
ous to the spiritual life. We agree 
with Steiner that there is a spir- 
itual world and that there is a way 
leading to the same. But this way 
is not the one pointed out by 
Steiner. Man cannot immediately 
perceive the spiritual, not even his 
own soul. The only path to the 
spiritual world is that of calm, 
sober, common-sense reasoning, 
which proceeds from experience 
and allows itself to be guided by 
the laws of log-ic." 



A Study in New Mexican Folk Lore 

By Benjamin M. Read, Santa Fe, N. M. 



The management of the Santa 
Fe Fiesta having at divers times 
given, among other numbers of the 
programme, two Indian dances of 
ancient days, namely: the dance 
of "Los Matachines" and' the 
dance of "La Cachina," which 
were rendered in true Indian or 
semi-savage style, a great many 
persons, principally strangers, 
have been, since then, eager to 
learn the meaning, origin, and his- 
tory of those words. Several of 
them, and also some of my fellow- 
townsmen having accosted me for 
an explanation of their import and 
significance, I decided that it 
would be advisable to give the 
public the best and, as far as study 
and research can aid us, most 
reliable information obtainable 



from traditional and historical 
sources. 

The words "Cachina" and 
"Matachin" have little, if any, 
historical meaning; they imply 
nothing among our Indians but a 
traditional superstition (like all 
other Indian dances do), but the 
word "Malinche" has a highly 
important historical significance. 
The word itself is so intimately 
connected with the conquest of 
Mexico that its omission from the 
history of that country would be 
as fatal as the omission of the 
name of Hernan Cortes, or a fail- 
ure to mention the names of the 
last two Aztec emperors : Mocte- 
zuma and Cuauhtemoc. Therefore, 
the discussion of the words Ca- 
china and Matachin will be very 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



161 



brief, in order to give the word 
"Malinche" the place it rightly 
has in the historv of the New 
World. 

Two of these words, "Cachina" 
and "Matachin, " are of Latin or- 
igin. Ancient Mexican, English 
and Spanish writers and lexico- 
graphers are agreed on the defini- 
tion of the word ''Matachin," 
which, they say, is ''a dance per- 
formed by grotesque figures," 
first brought to New Mexico by 
the Spaniards and their Aztec 
allies and servants at the time of 
the conquest. It is in this per- 
formance that the word "Mal- 
inche" figures in representations, 
I take it, of the Indian heroine 
who played one of the most im- 
portant parts in the overthrow of 
the empire of the Moctezumas (her 
own ancestors) by Cortes and his 
Indian allies, the Tlascaltecas, 
Tabascanos, etc., etc., as Avill be 
seen further on. 

The '^Cachina" dance among 
our Indians is understood to be, 
traditionally, a diabolical per- 
formance; it has a dual meaning, 
being of a rather picturesque, but 
somewhat immoral nature. Its 
origin is, according to the tradi- 
tion of some of our New Mexico 
Indians, an ancient and original 
production of their primitive an- 
cestors, having no direct connec- 
tion with any of the dances of the 
Mexican Indians. In other words, 
this dance, like all other Indian 
dances, forms an essential part of 
the mythology and ancient prehis- 
toric religious rites of the Pueblo 
Indians. This tradition agrees, in 
its object and tendencies, with the 
traditions of the primitive races. 
The imagination of the Indian is 
now, as it has always been, kept 
in constant motion by the recita- 
tion of incredible tales, kept alive 



by mere fables which, like all 
fables, are partly historical but 
mostly without foundation. The 
elements of good and evil are rep- 
resented in the Cachina dance as 
being engaged in mortal combat, 
the good spirits conquering in the 
end. The Cachina dance was 
strictly forbidden in New Mexico 
by the Franciscan Friars. The in- 
hibition of its performance was, in 
my judgment, one of the pretexts 
used by the Indian chief, Pope, 
and his cohorts in the great revolt 
of 1680. The above description 
and definition of the Cachina 
dance is, as far as I have ascer- 
tained, the more prevalent tradi- 
tion among the Pueblo Indians. 
Webster, though, defining the 
Vv'-ord ' ' Cachination, " which, he 
says, is of Latin origin, states that 
''Cachination is a loud or immod- 
erate laughter; often a symptom 
of hysterical or maniacal affec- 
tions. . . . Hideous grimaces," con- 
tinues Webster, ''attended this 
unusual cachination. ' ' 

"Matachin," according to the 
same author, in olden times meant 
"a buffoon and dance performed 
by grotesque figures." It is also, 
the same author tells us, "an old 
dance with swords and bucklers." 

Our encyclopedias, as far as I 
have seen, say nothing on either 
of these ancient words. Of "Mal- 
inclie" I shall treat in another 
paper. 

Opposition to the appointment of Fr. 
J. M. Denning of Marion, O., as U. S. 
consul general at Tangiers must have 
been carried all the way to Rome, for 
we note from the Catholic Telegraph 
(Vol. 91, No. 13) that in a cable dis- 
patch received by Archbishop Moeller 
the Holy Father "approved Fr. Denn- 
ing's taking up the work of U. S. consul 
general and business agent at Tangiers, 
Morocco." 



162 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



The Organ and Organ-Playing 



May 1 



Of the organ recital recently 
given by M. Joseph Bonnet in 
Westminster Abbey, London, Mr. 
Filson Young writes in the Satur- 
day Review (No. 3432) : 

"M. Bonnet is a type of musi- 
cian very seldom associated with 
the organ. He is a virtuoso, a kind 
of Liszt of his instrument. He 
plays without notes, and thus es- 
capes one at least of the many 
distractions which commonly in- 
terfere betwen the organist and a 
perfectly personal and emotional 
expression of the music he is per- 
forming. It has always seemed to 
me well nigh impossible for a man, 
sitting as it were at a desk, study- 
ing a written score, manipulating 
keyboards and pedals, and at the 
same time mentally and physically 
arranging combinations of sixty 
or seventy stops, to be in the 
mental state favorable to true 
musical expression. The proof is 
to be found in the high perform- 
ances attained by masters of im- 
provisation on the organ, who in 
many cases are but uninspired 
performers of written music. M. 
Bonnet plays as though he were 
inventing; but with a crispness, a 
certainty, and a rhythm that are 
as rare as they are delightful." 

M. Bonnet's recital received but 
scant attention from the English 
press. There is clearly a prejudice 
against the organ in the minds of 
many, even of sensitive and ad- 
vanced nmsicians. The reason for 
it is twofold. One was stated by 
Berlioz in his ' ' Treatise on Instru- 
mentation, ' ' when he said : ' * There 
seems to exist between these two 
musical powers, the organ and the 
orchestra, a secret antipathy. The 
organ and the orchestra are both 
kings; or rather one is Emperor 



and the other Pope. Their mission , 
is not the same ; their interests are 
too vast, and too diverse, to be 
confounded together. Therefore 
on almost all occasions when this 
sing-ular connection is attempted, 
either the organ much predomi- 
nates over the orchestra, or the 
orchestra, having been raised to 
an immoderate degree of influence, 
almost eclipses its adversary. In 
general, the organ is formed for 
absolute domination; it is a jeal- 
ous and intolerant instrument." 

If this is true of the organ at its 
best and when perfectly handled, 
what can be said of it in the hands 
of the ordinary fumblerf Organ- 
playing is too often like preach- 
ing; the circumstances make it 
difficult or impossible for the hear- 
er to go away; he is obliged to sit 
and listen to strains which may 
be grandiloquent without being 
grand, and pompous without being 
dig-nified. The true organ tone is 
essentially monotonous, and the 
purer it is, the more apt is this 
monotony to weary and depress 
the ear. The whole genius of the 
instrument is grave and philo- 
sophic; it is incapable of any but 
momentary excursions into a 
lighter vein; and the slightest 
error of taste verges on the in- 
decent, and is shocking to all sense 
of seemliness; it is as though an 
old lady should beckon you to 
some impropriety. It is not mere- 
ly the ear that is affronted by bad 
taste in organ playing; a sense of 
shame afflicts you, a kind of em- 
barrassment such as is associated 
with all outrages upon proportion. 

For even a poor organ is the 
work of many master craftsmen 
and represents in a high degree 
the perfection attainable in things 



1922 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



163 



wrought by the hand of man. 
Serious thought and consideration 
have gone to tiie proportions of 
metal to be used in the pipes ; the 
finest woods, sunned and seasoned 
in many climes, have been fash- 
ioned and joined by the most skil- 
ful woodworkers; and from the 
jjipe thirty feet high, whose soft 
muttering shakes the building, to 
the minute little metal tube an inch 
long that is the topmost branch of 
the great tree of sound, all have 
been subject on the voicer's bench 
to the minute manipulations that 
determine their character and 
bring thousands of them together 
vdthin the scope of one tonal con- 
ception. To place all this at the 
mercy of some clumsy hobblede- 
hoy or ignorant spinster, and to 
have its noble possibilities ex- 
plored and exploited by untrained 
and insensible fingers, is to sin in 
a high degree against artistic pro- 
portion. 

Unfortunately, with us the 
church is almost the only endow- 
ment for the organ, and churches, 
as a rule, cannot afford to pay the 
organist a salary which will com-* 
mand the services of a man or 
woman of superior taste and tal- 
ent. There is little or no personal 
glory in the business, and the fees 
and bouquets awarded to the plat- 
form performer are not for the 
organist, who is either invisible, 
or presents only a pair of labor- 
ing shoulders to his audience. 
These conditions, it is true, elimi- 
nate many of the unworthy, and 
leave to the real musician a field 
of true if lonely devotion. And 
the organist who is really a musi- 
cian is usually a very fine one. 

There is now published The 
Organ, "a quarterly review for its 
makers, its players, and its lov- 
ers" ("Musical Opinion," 13, 



Chichester Rents, Chancery Lane, 
London, W. C. 2), the current is- 
sue of which (No. 3) among other 
intersting things, contains an ap- 
preciation, by Dr. A. E. Hull, of 
Joseph Bonnet as an artist. 



College Students and Co-Operation 
We can have nothing but praise 
for the spirit behind the move- 
ment to interest the students of 
our colleges in co-operation, its 
aims and purposes. A chapter of 
the International Co-operative 
Society has been formed at Mar- 
quette I^niversity, Milwaukee, 
whose purpose it is ''to promote 
among students of college grade a 
knowledge of the philosophy, his- 
tory, and achievements of the co- 
operative movement and to devise 
practical methods whereby they 
may 'actively promote co-opera- 
tion in its various forms." Under 
competent leadership such an in- 
formal economic study group 
should be productive of much 
good — indeed, must be productive 
of great good, provided only they 
get away from the line of conven- 
tional economics. We have before 
this expressed our opinion of co- 
operation and the hope that the 
movement would continue to grow, 
even though we had not the high 
expectations which some of its 
leaders have entertained. On the 
other hand, there is no reason why 
the ideas of co-operation cannot 
be applied in a modified form to 
the fundamental problems center- 
ing around landlordismi, natural- 
resource and credit monopoly. 

If Ave have doubts concerning 
the present movement, it is be- 
cause thus far co-operation has 
not attacked this fundamental dif- 
ficulty. England furnishes a splen- 
did example of a highly developed 



164 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



co-operative society, which contin- 
ues to pay blood money to its land- 
lords. Her economic difficulties 
become intensified, in spite of the 
tremendous increase in co-opera- 
tive methods. 

Though it would not be logical 
to conclude that co-operation is a 
failure, — for there are many other 
factors ai^'ecting the situation, — 
yet it is fair to ask: "Why all this 
effort to save money, which in the 
end must be paid to the landlord 
in the form of increased economic 
rent?" 

Nevertheless we heartily en- 
dorse the movement called the In- 
tercollegiate Co-operative Society, 
because sooner or later this funda- 
mental problem of the private con- 
trol and monopolization of our 
natural resources and of our 
credit machinery will be forced 
upon the attention of such study 
groups. H. G. F. 

.-.^H.^1 

The Youthful Factory Worker 

The Chicago Association of 
Commerce has printed, for private 
distribution to the members, a 
booklet entitled "A Plea for More 
Play, More Pay and More Educa- 
tion for our Factory Boys and 
Girls." It is compiled from the 
^\•riting■s of Miss Jane Addams. 

The writer refers to the new 
industrial conditions that have led 
to the development of the modern 
city. An army of bo^^s and girls 
are engaged in factory work, and 
the question arises : "What are we 
doing to provide for them in the 
line of legitimate amusement and 
recreation, in their leisure hours ? ' ' 

"Never before in civilization 
have such numbers of young girls 
been suddenly released from the 
protection of the home and per- 
mitted to walk unattended upon 
citv streets and to work under 



alien roofs. Never before have such 
numbers of young boys earned 
money independently of the fam- 
ily life, and felt themselves free 
to spend it as they choose in the 
midst of vice deliberately dis- 
guised as pleasure." We know 
that this is, unfortuately, a sad 
fact. 

The individual cannot do much 
to help these youths to gratify 
that legitimate quest for "fun" 
which leads thousands of them 
into paths that may ultimately 
spell ruin. But our Catholic so- 
cieties, at least those which are 
not professedly and exclusively 
devoted to spiritual aims, may 
perhaps lend a helping hand to 
those boys and girls who "revolt 
against factory monotony." 

This duty is all the greater since 
"the diastrous effects of over- 
fatigue upon character ' ' have been 
shown. A person of lowered 
vitality is less fit to wdn in the 
struggle against temptation. Hence 
to provide our youth with oppor- 
tunities for needed recreation be- 
comes an important "spiritual 
work of mercy." 

Modern amusements have be- 
come "commercialized" and are 
often conducted by unscrupulous 
men, whose only purpose is to get 
the hard-earned money of those 
who flock to the places of pleas- 
ure. 

What an immense field of useful 
social activity is opened to the 
Church and lier various agencies 
to-day, to safeguard youth, the 
hope of the country! 

(Rev.) Albert Muntsch, S.J. 

The wiser a man grows, the less 
Hkely is he to be contemptuous of 
other men. Contempt is a measure of 
tlie mind. The more of it you find in 
a mind, the narrower is the mind. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



165 



Priests' Housekeepers 
A careful reader writes : 
Your notice of the Marianum, 
conducted by the Reverend C. M. 
Thuente, O.P. (F. R., XXIX, No. 
4, p. 74 f.), aroused my interest. 
1 think a society for priests' 
housekeepers is very timely. Fa- 
ther Thuente published 'A Pas- 
tor's Homily to his Housekeeper' 
in the April number of the Ecclesi- 
astical Review, pp. 413 ff. It is a 
homiletic gem on Titus II, 5. A 
secular priest may well be sur- 
prised to find a regular Avrite with 
such insight, both domestic and 
psychologic, on the life and duties 
of the priest's housekeeper. This 
homily well deserves to be printed 
in leaflet-form and presented to 
every subscriber of the Ecclesias- 
tical Review. One passage, how- 
ever, ought previously to be cor- 
rected. Alluding to Romans XVI, 
the zealous Dominican writes : 
''St. Paul encouraged women to 
work for the spread of the gospel. 
He salutes Pliebe and Prisca and 
Aquila and Mary as his helpers in 
Jesus Christ," etc. By a strange 
oversight {ad jut ores meos) Aquila 
is here considered feminine. 
Aquila and Prisca, also called by 
the diminutive Priscilla, are the 
husband and wife mentioned in 
Acts XVIII, 2. Well, perhaps, 
some Martha, as Father Thuente 
aptly styles priests ' housekeepers, 
especially if she is priscilla rather 
than prisca, would not be averse 
to having her name joined to that 
of some saintly Aquila. It is a 
delight to the weary missionary 
to find an Aquila and a Priscilla, 
who are always ready to harbor a 
priest (Acts XVIII, 3 ; 1 Cor. XVI, 
19), who supply instructions (Acts 
XVIII, 26), and who, data occasi- 
one, have a church in their house 
(Rom. XVI, 5; 1 Cor. XVI, 19). 



God bless them and most of the 
Marthas also ! L, 



Notes and Gleanings 

\Mien Cardinal Gasquet recently asked 
the Holy Father for a blessing for the 
London Universe, — not an "ofiftcial 
organ," but a most excellent Catholic 
journal, — the Poniif wrote these en- 
couraging lines : "Quando un giornale 
si consecra all' apostolato della verita 
e del bene pel il vantaggio alle anime, 
alia maggior gloria di Dio e della Sua 
Chiesa, non e benedizione che esso non 
meriti." Anglice: "When a journal 
consecrates itself to the apostolate of 
truth and virtue for the good of souls 
and for the greater glory of God and 
of His Church, there is no blessing 
which it does not merit." 

The death of Mr. John T. Comes, 
of Pittsburgh, robs the Catholic com- 
munity in the U. S. of perhaps the 
most gifted of its ecclesiastical archi- 
tects. Our readers may recall the 
touching letter he wrote to us last 
August, after his return from the 
hospital, where he had been operated 
upon for cancer of the liver. "The out- 
come is entirely in the hands of God," 
he said, "and beyond those of the doc- 
tors" (F. R., Vol. XXVIII, No. 18, 
p. 338). He died, after months of 
patient suffering, on Holy Thursday, 
April 13th. Mr. Comes designed a 
number of splendid ecclesiastical edi- 
fices, among them the Kenrick Semi- 
nary, near St. Louis, and did real 
pioneer work in the field of Catholic 
architecture. His lectures to seminar- 
ists on this subject were published in 
pamphlet form, under the title, "Cath- 
olic Art and Architecture," and found 
a wide circulation. The text lays down 
sohd principles on ecclesiastical art 
and architecture, while the plates, most- 
ly reproductions of photographs of some 
of the author's work, exemplify these 
principles as applied to modern paro- 
chial buildings. The F. R. was in- 
debted to Mr. Comes for occasional 
contributions on his favorite subjects 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



and also for the tasteful two-color 
cover it used in more prosperous days, 
with the lamp in the center and the 
motto "Christianus mihi nomen, Cath- 
olicus cognomen" writ across the page. 
May he rest in peace ! 

-♦--•--•--•- 

The Cincinna.ti Telegraph' (April 
20) reports that Judge E. R. Eastman, 
of Ottawa, O., in granting a divorce 
to Attorney B. E. from Cecilia Tarpy- 
Seihert, placed the two-year old daugh- 
ter of the couple in the custoty of the 
father, though the latter had signed an 
ante-nuptial pledge that all children 
born of the marriage should be edu- 
cated in the Catholic faith. The Judge 
said, infer alia: "The law of this State 
places the parties to a marriage on an 
equality in the matter of the custody 
of their children. They also provide 
the methods of and causes for divorce 
when the parties can no longer keep 
their marriage vows. These laws are 
superior to any church, so that no 
pledge made by man or woman can call 
for an enforcement of rules not in 
harmony with them." If this decision 
is sustained, the ante-nuptial pledge 
commonly required of the non-Catholic 
party in mixed marriages will be legal- 
ly void in the State of Ohio, so far at 
least as the rearing of children is con- 
cerned. The late Father Phelan of 
Western Watchman fame always con- 
tended that this pledge would be found 
to have no standing in American law 
courts. 

The Italian Senator Benedetto Cir- 
nieni, in a paper on "The New Pope," 
contributed to the Neiie Freie Prcsse, 
of Vienna, and reproduced in the Liv- 
ing Age (No. 4056). divulges the inter- 
esting fact that Pius XI, as Msgr. Ratti, 
took an active part in drafting the 
famous peace proposals which Bene- 
dict XV published on the first of 
Aug., 1917. Contrary to other reports, 
Cirmeni says that, although Pius XI 
spent a large part of his life in libra- 
ries and belonged to many learned so- 
cieties, he has not written any import- 
ant books. His only printed works are 
"a few historical monographs printed 



in the Lombard Historical Archives. 
He devoted much labor to the publica- 
tion of the 'Liber Diurnus,' an author- 
itative code of proceedings for papal 
ceremonies." Thus Signor Cirmeni. 
We hope soon to have some more 
authoritative information regarding the 
Holy Father's literary productions. 
Meanwhile we gather from the Cath- 
olic Encvclopedia (Vol. IX, p. 216) 
that Dr.'Achille Ratti, in 1891, edited 
the text of the Bobbio MS. of the 
"Liber Diurnus Romano rum Pontifi- 
cum," found in the Ambrosian Library 
at Milan, — a text somewhat more com- 
plete than that contained in the Vatican 
MS. of this interesting collection of 
ancient ecclesiastical formularies used 
in the papal chancery before the 11th 
century. 

-•--•--♦■-•- 

The name of Achille Ratti is men- 
tioned in only one other place in the 
Catholic Encyclopedia, namely in Vol. 
XV, p. 292, where it is stated, within 
parentheses, that Father Ehrle, S.J., 
"resigned his place [as prefect of the 
Vatican Library] voluntarilv to Father 
Ratti of ^lilan'in 1912." 

An authoritative record of the con- 
flict of the British government with the 
conscientious objectors during the 
World W^ar is promised by Alessrs. 
Allen & Unwin in a forthcoming work 
entitled, "Conscription and Conscience: 
A History, 1916—1919," by Principal 
J.' W. Graham, who was at the heart 
of the movement in the North of Eng- 
land and has written in close consulta- 
tion with its leaders in London. An 
appendix sketches the history of the 
corresponding movement in other coun- 
tries. Who is going to write the his- 
tory of Conscription and Conscience in 
the U. S., where the conscientious ob- 
jectors, for the most part, fared worse 
than in any other country? 

An American archbishop was recent- 
ly quoted as saying that the present 
Pope \s the "most American of the 
Popes." We have been wondering just 
what this means. Does Pius XI under- 
stand America better than his predeces- 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



167 



sors ? Wise guidance demands un,prej- 
uciiced and clear-sighted advisors. Is 
Pius XI to have this necessary assist- 
ance in regard to America? We sin- 
cerely hope so. 

A report has it that St. Louis Uni- 
versity has recently purchased 75 acres 
situated along the Mississippi River, six 
miles below Jefferson Barracks, for use 
as a social study center, in connection 
Avith the Laymen's Retreat League. 
This is not the first attempt to start a 
social study center in this country. We 
have always contended that one of the 
first requisite^ of an efficient Catholic 
social movement was intelligent study 
of the social question. A study group 
must not only have a place to study 
but, obviously, something to study and 
some one to direct the students. So 
long as the conventional economics is 
adhered to in the conventional way, 
there is little hope that these attempts 
will prove successful. We wish the 
project unqualified success. 
-♦■-•--•--•• 
The [Missionary Association of Cath- 
olic \\'omen, whose head is the Most 
Rev. Sebastian G. Messmer, Archbish- 
op of Milwaukee, distributed more than 
$100,000 last year for the cause of the 
Catholic missions. We trust that the 
femininist movement among the Cath- 
olic women of America will imitate this 
most praiseworthy activity of the Cath- 
olic women of Wisconsin. 

A workingman, Mr. R. M. Ranells, 
recently addressed the JMarquette Uni- 
versity Chapter of the Intercollegiate 
Co-operative Society at Milwaukee. 
Mr. Ranells is a member of the Co- 
operative Cigar Company. This is 
gratifying news. Closer contact with 
this class of economists and less with 
the conventional and accepted kind will 
have a great influence for good. 
-•--♦•-♦--•• 

A thought-provoking pamphlet has 
recently been issued by the Central- 
Verein, entitled, "How I Have Studied 
the Social Question," by the late Rev. 
Dr. Walter IVIcDonald, Prefect of the 
Dunboyne Establishment, St. Patrick's, 



Maynooth. The author discusses some 
of the more troublesome social topics of 
the day, such as "Occupation," "Prop- 
erty," "Unearned Increment," the 
"Boycott," etc. However, he does not 
attempt a definite solution of them. He 
merely endeavors to stimulate discus- 
.sion, but that is nearly as important as 
to provide a solution of the difficulties 
proposed. The paragraph on "Study- 
ing in the University of Life" should 
be read by every one who is interested 
in the social question. The author 
prudently believes in keeping one eye 
on books and one on the world of 
events. Moreover, he makes it perfect- 
ly clear that the present way of apply- 
ing Catholic philosophy and theology to 
economics and sociology is entirely in- 
adequate. 

In 'its issue for March 4, the Cimlta 
Caftolica, published in Rome by Jesuit 
Fathers, says : "Libels on the Jesuits 
continue to rain on us ; they come free, 
being sent in thousands of copies to 
members of the Order, whether they 
are willing to receive them or no. It 
is our lot — and we accept it joyfully — 
to be 'a sign of contradiction,' of vilifi- 
cation and calumny without cessation. 
We are so accustomed to attacks that 
we no longer count them. We do not 
take the trouble to repel them. It 
seems to us better to take no notice 
of them and to continue our work, of 
which our adversaries themselves— 
who are enemies of the Church or their 
victims — prove to us the utility." 
-•- -^ -•- -^ 

Many readers of Vilhjamur Stefans- 
son's new book, "The Friendly Arctic" 
(Macmillan) will be surprised to learn 
that it is possible to get fresh water 
from sea ice, "which becomes fresh 
during the period intervening between 
its formation and the end of the first 
summer thereafter." According to the 
Literary Supplement of the London 
rhnes (No. 1052), this "is not a new 
fact at all. but was well known to a few 
modern arctic explorers, who, however, 
preferred to keep it a secret of the 
craft." But Stefansgon's account of his 
astonishment at finding that the fact 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY KEVIEW May 1 



The work of one who has given his entire life to the study of man, animal, plant 
and food. In his defense of truth, of purity, he has been plaintiff or defendant in 206 
libel suits — most of them brought by the richest profiteers — and won every one of them. 
Some of his opponents he sent to jail. He has never lost a case — oral, written or legal. 

He is the best equipped man in the world to handle Darwinism, Wellsism, barn- 
yard materialism — Evolution. 

Colleges, Acadamies and Schools the country over — many of them religious — are 
teaching Evolution, teacliing your children that they and you are come from a gorilla. 

Even ministers and ' ' teacher-theologians ' ' of our new Croesus-owned Christianity 
are chattering with the monkeys and hurling milkless nuts at a personal God and at 
normal God-made men and women. 

When your children insistently and trustingly ask you "Who made us?" — your 
answer must not be evasive, it must be truthful and you must choose for their maker 
either God — or a gorilla. 

God- or Gorilla 

By 

Alfred Watterson McCann 

The author of "GOD— OE GOKILLA" does not argue with the popular idea of 
evolution, unless ripping the heart out of a thing can be called argument. He pretends 
to no gentleness as he shows the "intellectual" victims of scientific superstition that 
the very thing they profess to hate has possession of their souls. 

Mr. McCann gathers facts, proofs, contradictions, and flings them into sorry heaps 
witli a breathlessness characteristic of the public prosecutor. He does not criticize the 
prevailing conception of evolution as expressed in the monkey-man theory; he tears it 
to pieces. Not content with scourging the self -esteemed educators who keep the simian 
fancy boiling in a caldron of anemic erudition, he demonstrates how no part of the 
dogma preached by these eminent anti-dogmatists fits into any other part. 

His methods are not suave, but terrifically penetrating. He is no smiling 
iicademician ; no ilancing master attempting to turn controversialist. He seizes you by 
the heels and drags you into places you thought you had explored, only to show you 
that the stuff you were taught to recognize as orthodox evolutionary science is flimsy 
phautasia, unsupported assertions, clumsy inconsistencies, physics without law, mathe- 
matics without numbers, deductions born in fraud and forgery. 

"But I never heard of that before! " you ejaculate, as you read his bristling dis- 
closures. "Of course you didn't," he retorts. "That's why you have been content to 
characterize the critics of evolution as ignorant fools who still believe the world to be 
flat, and the sky a solid dome hung with chandeliers. ' ' 

As that great body of mankind which professes to believe in evolution can- 
not institute for itself a comparison of the hundred follies upon which its belief is 
based, he has done the work for it, so that henceforth it may have no reason to offer 
for its stubborn adherence to a system of error about which the learned ignorami talk 
as glibly as if they knew what tliey were talking about. 

29 Illustrations of Your Ancestors 
Price $3.00 Net; $3.15 Fostpald At BooJistores or from Fiiblishers 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR CO., Publishers 

437 Fifth Avenue New York 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



169 



was not only unknown to Sir John 
]^Iurray, "the greatest living oceanog- 
rapher," but was received by him with 
simple increduhty, and his later account 
of the difficulty he had in convincing 
the sailors who accompanied him on his 
last expedition, are well worth the 
study not only of psychologists, but of 
other scientific men who may find them- 
selves liable to be influenced too readily 
by preconceived ideas. 

The real difficulty in the Arctic 
would seem to be, not to obtain fresh 
water, but to get salt to eat. J\Ir. 
Stefansson himself does without salt, 
and from his experience declares 
roundly that w^e should all have better 
palates (and, he might have added, 
better digestions) without salt, could 
we only go through the discomfort of 
giving up its use. 

Mr. Robert Leighton opens his 
■'Complete Book of the Dog" (London: 
Cassell) with a kindly word or two on 
mongrels. Mongrels of smaller par- 
ents, he says, may be very useful dogs. 
l)ut the mongrels from large heavy dogs 
( c. g., Newfoundland) are useless ex- 
cept perhaps as draught animals. A 
mongrel can easily be obtained as a gift, 
but will cost as much as a well-bred 
(log to keep. A dog-lover in a large 
town should be content with either a 
toy dog or a terrier. In the country 
one can keep any sized dog. The 
larger and long-haired breeds are rather 
out of place in towns, as are also the 
sporting dogs, which need much exer- 
cise. Most dogs are safer with chil- 
dren than with adults. The gentle bull- 
dog is perhaps the most docile, and the 
Alsatian wolf-dog the least safe with 
strangers. The rest of the book may 
be said to deal entirely with the pure- 
bred dog and its needs. 

Tycho Brahe, as is well known, in 
1576 received as a present from the 
Danish king Frederick II, the island 
of Hveen and there built a famous 
house, called Uraniborg, after the Muse 
of Astronomy. To this he added an 
observatory called Stjerneborg. A finely 



illustrated book has lately been pub- 
lished in Denmark, in which an atteinpt 
is made, with the help of many excellent 
reproductions and diagrams, to recon- 
struct these mysterious edifices, of 
which only scanty remains are left. 
("Tycho Brahe's Uraniborg and Ster- 
neborg on the Island of Hveen" by 
Francis Beckett, with drawings by 
Charles Christensen (Copenhagen: 
Aage Marcus). 

Prof. Albert Ehrhard, D.D., former- 
ly of the University of Strasbourg, 
iiow of the University of Bonn, lately 
celebrated his sixtieth birthday. In a 
eulogistic paper pubhshed on this occa- 
sion the Augsburg Postzeitung (No. 
61) says that the reason this eminent 
cliurch historian has published no con- 
siderable book since 1902 is that he 
has been engaged in the preparation of 
a comprehensive monograph on "Die 
griechischen Martyrien und Heiligen- 
leben, ihre tjberlieferung und ihr Be- 
stand." This work is to be published 
in the near future in several large vol- 
umes. It will be based largely on in- 
edited materials, collected by tne author 
in Rome, Paris, Athens, on Mount 
Athos, and elsewhere. Following an 
approved German custom some of Dr. 
Ehrhard's pupils and colleagues on his 
sixtieth birthday presented to him a 
collection of contributions to his, special 
subject, ancient Church history, which 
have been printed in a massive volume 
under the title "Beitrage zur Geschichte 
des christlichen Altertums," edited by 
Dr. Koniger. 

-^ -•--•- -^ 

We are pleased to see our good 
friend. Dr. Henry Schumacher, succeed 
the late Fr. Drum, S.J., as Scripture 
editor of the Homiletic and Pastoral 
Revieiv. His first contribution, pub- 
lished in the April number of that ex- 
cellent magazine, deals with the numer- 
ical symbolism in the genealogy of 
Christ as given in the Gospel of St. 
]\Iatthew, and shows how much light 
can be shed on New Testament ques- 
tions by an intelligent study of con- 
temporary Jewish thought. We are 
sure the Homiletic and Pastoral Reviczv 



170 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



will gain by Dr. Schumacher's collab- 
oration ; may that collaboration proive 
long and fruitful ! 

The Rev. Jerome Ricard, S.J., of 
Santa Clara University, known on the 
Pacific Coast as "Padre of the Rains," 
lectured on his views and methods be- 
fore the Sacramento Chamber of Com- 
merce the other day. His theory is that 
our weather depends on the sun-spots 
and that all that is necessary to make 
correct weather predictions is to ascer- 
tain the time of appearance and the 
position of these spots. On this prob- 
lem astronomers are working through- 
out the world. Like the late Professor 
Hicks of "Hicks' Almanac" fame. Fr. 
Ricard resents the attempt of the U. S. 
Weather Bureau to monopolize weather 
predictions and to discredit the efforts 
of "long-range forecasters" who seek 
to predict weather conditions for long 
periods in advance. 

We would request our subscribers to 
make a special effort to pay their sub- 
scriptions at the present time. If you 
do not receive a bill, a glance at the 
address label on your paper will show 
when your subscription expires. The 
address label should show 1923 or 
later. 

Signor P. Marieitti, of Turin, requests 
us to inform our readers that he is 
now able to furnish his "Missale 
Romanum," which is noticed on page 
174 of this issue, with the "Missae 
Propriae" of the dioceses of the U. S. 

The Annuls of the Prop'ogation of 
the Faith issued a centenary number 
for Alarch and April, 1922. to com- 
niemorate the 100th anniversary of the 
foundation of the Society for the Prop- 
agation of the Faith. There are : an inter- 
esting historical sketch of the Society, 
a complete description of its organiza- 
tion and administration, an official 
report on what it has done for the mis- 
sions since its establishment, in 1822, 
with a survey of the missionary world 
and the personnel of the missions. A 
particularly interesting table is that on 



pages 66 — 68, showing what the U. S. 
has received from, and what it has con- 
tributed to the Society from 1822 to 
1922. "There is not a single portion 
of the Church in the U. S.," says the 
compiler. Msgr. Freri, 'Svhich at one 
time or another has not been helped by 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS 
TRY OU R BRANDS 

THEY HAVE STOOD THE TEST 
SINCE 1860 




You will make uo mistake by giving us a per- 
sonal call to verify the quality and view our 
assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

WESTERHEIDE 
Tobacco and Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Phones: Bell Tyler 7SS Kinloch Central 4039 I. 
Mail oiders promptly filled 



St. Louis Pipe Organ Co. 



Electro, Tubular Pneumatic, 

and Tracker Organs 
for Church and Concert Hall 

Prompt attentien given to Repairs and Rebuilding 

of every description 

Blowers attached 

Office, 2209-11 Lynch Street 

Phone Sidney 361 ST. LOUIS, MO. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



171 



the Society."' We may add that some 
dioceses have not yet repaid this debt, 
though they are well able to do so. 

Fr. Laurence Cardwell, S.J., in No. 
651 of the Irish Ecclesiastical Record, 
examines some of the main objections 
raised against St. Luke's account of the 
nativity of Our Lord and shows that 
with the growth of knowledge they are 
fast losing their apparent value. He 
concludes as follows : "As we study the 
evidence, whether in Asia, as affecting 
Ouirinius himself, or in Egypt and else- 
where, as determining the Augustan 
census-system, or the statements of 
various writers, the evidence all points 
to the same period for the census by 
vv'hich St. Luke fixes for us the date of 
Our Lord's birth. This period is limited 
by the years 8—7 B. C." 

The Official Catholic Directorv for 
1922 (New York : P. J. Kenedy & Sons) 
reached us on April 10th. But better 
late than never. The delay has enabled 
the editor to note a number of late 
changes and to insert a portrait of the 
new Pope. The Directory makes the 
impression of being set in new type 
throughout and is printed on better pa- 
per than last year. It is in ever\' way 
— at least so far as the publishers' part 
goes — a creditable production, and since 
the pecuniary profit in getting out such 
a year book cannot be large, the Cath- 
olic clergy and the public generally owe 
a particular debt of gratitude to Messrs. 
Kenedy & Sons, not only for keeping 
the Director}' alive, but for improving 
it to the best of their abihty from year 

to year. 

-♦--•--•--•- 

A pastor writes : In an article, 
'Leisure in Clerical Life,' the Reverend 
Dr. W. J. Kerby (Ecclesiasfcal Re- 
view, April, 1922, p. 331 ff.) writes: 
"Free time, poise of mind, and calm- 
ness of spirit are of value to the priest 
in a lesser way in themselves. But their 
primary value is in this that they fur- 
nish opportunity for him to find his 
own soul and to know it ; to find his 
God and love Him ; to gain new insight 
into the mysteries of the spiritual 



vrorld and to find ineffable joy there 
and there alone." I fear that the horri- 
ble supposition which these words im- 
ply is not in every priest's case an ab- 
normal exaggeration, even though his . 
'Ordo' ought daily to remind him of 
the sixth lection of the feast of St. 
Silvester: "Sabbati et Dominici diet 
nomine retento, reliquos hebdomadae 
dies feriarum nomine distinctos, lit 
jam- ante in Ecclesia vocari coeperant, 
appellari voluit, quo significaretur, 
cpiotidic clericos, abjecta ceteranim 
rcrum euro, iini Deo prorsus vacare 
dcbere.'' It is distressing to see some 
clerics with a sublime vocation and 
with superior intellect and education 
spend their time and energy in pursuits 
in which they are easily surpassed by 
the village banker and the county-fair 
concessionaire. 

Father W. H. Kent in the Tablet 
(No. 4271) calls attention to one of 
the pieces printed in the "Oxyrhynchus 
Papyri. Part XV." which has recently 
been published by the Egyptian Ex- 
ploration Society. The piece in ques- 
tion is nothing less than a Christian 
hymn of the third century, with musical 
notation. The text of this relic of 
ancient hymnody is accompanied by a 
transcription in modern notation by 
Professor Stuart Jones. 

Resignation is the footprint of faith 
in the pathway of sorrow. 

For Rent— Furnished Room 

for one or two Catholic persons. 

1521 Hebert Street/ St. Louis, Mo. 

Colleges and Academies 

can have very satisfactory service 
from the old established house of 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eighth Street 
Cincinnati, Ohio 

We print and bind, and can furnish engravings 
for Damphlets, folders, booklets 



172 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 



Tke Holy Father Benedict XV. has favored this work with a special letter of recommevdation 



A Parochial Course of Doctrinal Instructions 

For All Sundays and Holydays of the Year 

Basel on the Catechism of the Council of Trent, and Harmonized with the 
Gospels and Epistles of the Sundays and Feasts 

Prepared and Arranged by the Rev. Charles J. Callan, O. P., and the Rev. J. A. McHugh, O. P. 
With an Introduction by the Most Rev. Patrick J. Hayes, D. D., Archbishop of New York. 

Complete in Four Volumes 
Price per volnme, bound in cloth, net, S3. 50 



HIGHLY PRAISED BY 

From the Ecclesiastical Review: 

"The publication inaugurates a new era of pa- 
. rochial activity. ... If it were adopted under 
episcopal direction it would soon dispel the intel- 
lectual indifference of Catholics who go to church 
and frequent the sacraments, but who are incapa- 
ble of either defending their religion against 
popular attacks or of illustrating its power of 
truth and beauty so as to make it respected 
among those outside the Church." 

From the Homiletic and Pastoral Review: 

"The work before us is intended to remedy the 
evil of desultory preaching. In the regeneration 



EMINENT REVIEWERS : 

of modern pulpit eloquence the present work will 
render yeoman service." 

From America: 

"Too commonly books of sermons are modeled 
on courses of theology for seminaries, altogether 
too didactic and too rigidly systematic for paro- 
chial or popular use. Not so with this excellent 
course by two men who are not only expert in 
preaching and teaching, but conversant also with 
what is most practical and recent in sermon 
literature. . . . With these courses one could for 
a lifetime use this book and ever have something 
new, interesting and convincing to say." 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.) Publishers 

23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 



STOP! LOOK! LISTEN! 



See 



If We Cannot Give You Greater Value 

We Are Not Entitled to Your Patronage 

^ In any size, shape or price, from $6.00 to $30.00 per 100. From 
dl O the humblest Domestic to the most exquisite CLEAR HABANA 

Seven Years Old as a Mail Order House — 

Fifty-six Years Young as a Segar House 



Catalogue and prices 
mailed on request 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 1866 

58 North Pearl Street BUFFALO, N. Y. 



America Press 

^ JOB PRINTING a 
done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

18'/2 South Sixth St. ST. Louis. Mo, 




STEINER^J^i^rDSlG? 






BUTTONS 8c PINS.. 



STENCILS SMETALCHECKSi 

-^ST.LgUIS,^ 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



173 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

{3isf lustallmcnt) 

My next great care was the glory of the 
house of God, and therefore I always tried 
to have attractive services in church. For 
altar, vestments, chalices, decorations, noth- 
ing was too good for me. The greatest help 
in beautifying the service of God, next to 
the music and ceremonies, are well-trained 
acolytes. I tried my best to give every boy 
a chance to become an acolyte. I was very 
careful in teaching them the altar prayers; 
if anything ever vexed me, it was to hear 
the Mass and altar prayers mumbled 
carelessly. I never could tolerate, "Confiteor 
Deo, umm, ummm, . . . Culpa, culpa, maxima 
culpa, ideo precor beatum num, num, num, 
nostrum." Good boys are glad and proud 
when they know how to answer correctly 
and distinctly. I allowed every boy who 
wished to do so, to come and serve, and 
sometimes it looked like a battalion of aco- 
lytes in the sanctuary, and the sacristan didn't 
like to see such a crowd, as it made so much 
more work washing surplices, etc. 

When I was a boy, the altar boys were my 
ideals. It was the height of my ambition 
and happiness to be an acolyte. I learned 
tlie altar prayers by heart and would have 
learned a whole book by heart to be allowed 
to serve. If the priests had selected the 
acolytes, 1 would have stood a better chance, 
but the sexton had the appointment, and 
somehow he always skipped me. The sexton 
himself was not careful at all about pro- 
nouncing the words, and I felt sure I could 
do at least as well as he. He was very 
quick, made the smallest genuflection possi- 
ble, and got through all the ceremonies with 
the speed of an express train. I was one of 
the first in the sacristy every day, ready 
to help ring the bells. There were seven 
bells to be rung before high Mass and usual- 
ly there were twice as many boys ready to 
help, and two and three pulled on one rope. 
I often wondered why the sexton would not 
take me. As a rule the most handsome boys 
were chosen, and as I had never been a 
beauty, I thought that probably was the rea- 
son. There was a daily polyphonic high 
Mass, sometimes accompanied by instru- 
ments. This Mass was generally followed by 
a Requiem in Gregorian chant, sung by the 
priests and choristers. I had a strong soprano 
voice and I think now the sexton did not 
want to miss my singing, and that that was 
the real reason for his never calling on me 
to serve at the altar. I liked to sing, too, 
but whenever I saw the altar boys in their 
cassocks and surplices, like little priests, and 
especially when I beheld them in their mag- 
nificent gold-trimmed cassocks on feast days, 



my heart used to ache and I wondered why 
I could not find grace before the mighty 
sexton and also become an acolyte. This 
opportunity came later and suddenly with 
a kind of revenge. One day at col- 
lege. Father Wilhelm Sidler asked me 
whether I knew the Mass prayers, and when 
I replied, "Yes, Father," he told me to come 
along W;th him and serve his Mass. I was 
all excitement. I had no time to prepare for 
the ceremonies. My answers were correct, 
but my ser\-ing must have been awful. I 
think I went the wrong way as often as pos- 
sible, and after Mass the good Father said, 
"A sillier boy I never had for serving ; you 
delayed me half an hour." Of course I felt 
very sorry, but I thought I would do better 
the next time, and in fact, after that I got 
over my stage fright and was soon made a 
regular server at the daily high Mass. Then 
I was in my glory ! Later I was even ad- 
mitted to serve at the solemn and pontifical 
high ]Mass. The first week of rny serving 
was with an Italian companion, Giacomo 
Bianchi. At the end of the week good Fa- 
ther Peter gave each of us a holy picture. 
Giacomo said. "He might have kept that for 
himself." The next priest we sen-ed together 
was Father Robert, and at the end of the 
week, he gave each one of us a box of bon- 
bons. Giacomo then remarked: "That is a 
good Father." Boys are the same every- 
where ; you can find the way to their hearts 
through the stomach. 

For all these reasons I was always anxious 
to allow every boy to serve and wanted them 
treated well for it. I did not want them to 
be overlooked as I had been in my home 
parish. They appreciated it, too. I had a 
splendid society of altar boys in Pocahontas 
and Jonesboro, in fact in every mission I 
ever was. When I first came to Hot 
Springs, I was told I could never get any 
Mass servers there. I had not been there long 
when I had as many as ten boys every morn- 
ing waiting for a chance to serve. 

In spite of all this, I have now to say 
Mass without a server, since I am chaplain 
of Sisters. Whilst I would not have gone 
to the altar without servers in my missions, 
it seems the Sisters cannot get any servers, 
and the chaplain has nothing to say in the 
matter. I said Mass very often in different 
convents in Europe and always had servers. 
In Grimmenstein, where I was for over a 
month, Mass was always at five o'clock in 
the morning. Sometimes there would be 
visiting priests present, and INIasses would 
be said continually, two or three in succes- 
sion. But there were always servers, though 
the convent is in a Protestant country, with 
but seven Catholic families in the neighbor- 
hood. In the city of Delle. France, I was 
for a whole year chaplain of the Dominican 
nuns and said the early IMass daily at the 
convent, and they always had altar boys. 
(To be continued) 



174 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 

Literary Briefs 



May I 



The Turin Missal 

To the editions of the new Missale Ro- 
manum already in the market is now added 
a new one by P. Marietti, of Turin. We 
have before us the octavo edition, which is 
printed in large black type on excellent India 
paper and is complete in every detail. It can 
be had with the Missac Propria c for the U. S. 
An Excellent Story Book for Children 

We recommend to Catholic parents "Red 
Cloud, A Tale of the Great Prairie" (B. 
Herder Book Co.) as an excellent gift-book 
for children. Its stories of heroism and 
constancy, based as they are on facts, are 
sure to captive the young mind. The author 
is Sir William Butler, and General Robert 
Baden-Powell has written a foreword. 
"Memoriale Rituum" 

Marietti's new "Memoriale Rituum pro 
Aliquibus Praestantioribus Sacris Functioni- 
bus Persolvendis in Alinoribus Ecclesiis"' 
comprises the rubrics and prayers for the 
blessing of candles, ashes, palms and for 



the ceremonies of Holy Week as they are 
performed in smaller, especially country, 
churches where a sufficient number of clerics 
is not available to carry out these ceremonies 
fully. (Turin: P. Marietti). 
Miss Gamble's "Road to Rome" 

"My Road to Rome'' is a very readable 
account of "the struggle of a strong, self- 
reliant and cultured mind facing boldly the 
great problems of life and courageously ac- 
cepting the logical consequences flowing from 
certain undeniable truths." Miss Anna Dill 
Gamble writes of her experiences with no 
little literary finish and in a manner which 
will edify and instruct both Catholics and 
non-Catholics. (B. Herder Book Co.) 

"Testimony to the Truth" 

The Extension Press. Chicago, 111., has 
recently placed before the public the Rev. 
Hugh P. Smyth's latest apologetical book, 
"Testimony to the Truth," which comple- 
ments his "Reformation." In twenty-two 
chapters the author discusses some of the 
more important questions mooted in our own 
times concerning our holy religon. The treat- 



A TIMELY NEW BOOK 

of Special Interest to Women : 

GRACEFULNESS OR FOLLY 

WHICH SHALL IT BE? 

Edited by the REV. DR. C. BRUEHL 

Published with the "Imprimatur" of the Archbishop of New York 

An excellent booklet to a8si(>tin conibattingthesbamele^s fashion in ^vonien's dress 

15,000 COPIES SOLD I^ TWO WEEKS 

Price 10 cents — $1.00 per doz. — $7.00 per 100 

J. SCHAEFER, Publisher, 23 Barclay St., New York, N. Y. 

When ordering refer to the Fortnightly Review 



CASPER STEHLE BEDDING COMPANY 

1834 Morgan Street «• c. smith, Manager yrj, Louis, Mo. 

Sixty Years In Business is a Guarantee of Satisfied Customers 

Hospitals and Institutions Receive Special Attention 

MATTRESSES of all kinds and sizes, and PILLOWS 

Write for quotations, or better still, try a Sample Felt Mattress in a A. C. A. Tick, built up 

extra well in the middle, @ $8.00 net, F. O. B., St. Louis. 

. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 




1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



176 



merit is clear and interesting, tliough at 
times rather too conventional. The book 
would be considerably more acceptable if 
provided with a complete index. 

A New Book by Father Garesche 

Father Edw. F. Garesche, S.J., has added 
to his already long list of works a l6mo 
of 192 pages, entitled "Life's Lessons." 
Father Garesche writes primarily for Cath- 
olics in the world. This new book is a col- 
lection of quasi-theological and ascetical 
writings which must be read piecemeal and 
meditatively. May we venture to add that 
Father Garesche's prolific writings would be 
considerably bettered by greater care in the 
arrangement of materials, as well as by an 
analytical index? (Benziger Bros.) 

Three Novels 

Blase Benziger & Co. reprint Fr. John 
Talbot Smith's novel, "The Art of Disap- 
pearing," under the more appropriate title, 
"The Man Who Disappeared." The book was 
first published in 1902. It tells the story of 
a man whose personality so changed under 
a series of misfortunes that he disappeared 
not only from the ken of his acquaintances, 
but from himself. The leading characters 
were all suggested by prominent public men 
of the period from 1870 to 1900. Dr. Smith 
is an accomplished story-teller. 

"Cobra Island," by Neil Boyton, S. J. 
(Benziger Bros.), is a new and exciting book 
for young boys and girls. Its hero is a scout 
who makes a trip with his father to India. 
His adventures pass before the reader like 
a colorful circus parade. 

Miss Isabel C. Clarke's new novel, "The 
Light on the Lagoon" (Benziger Bros.) de- 
scribes the efforts made by an English girl 
to develop her gift for painting through the 
exacting paths of sacrifice and self-discipline. 
It is the story of a shy and groping soul, 
keenly alive to the call of the spirit. Dis- 
criminating readers will find it a story of 
unusual charm, though the characters are 
rather elusively drawn. The haunting power 
of Dante's "in la sua voluntade e nostra 
pace" is described with great skill. 
A Parochial Course of Doctrinal Instructions 
The "Parochial Course of Doctrinal In- 
structions for all Sundays and Holydays of 
the Year," based on the Catechism of the 
Council of Trent, of which the first two 
volumes (Dogmatic Series) were duly noticed 
in this Review, is now complete. The second 
or moral portion, like the first, consists, of 
two volumes. Volume III (vi & 536 pp. 8vo) 
contains sermons on the sixth commandment, 



the virtues of faith, hope, charity, fortitude, 
etc., the vices of sloth, gluttony, avarice, etc.; 
the duties of parents, and children; fasting 
and abstinence ; prayer, its nature, fruits, con- 
ditions and circumstances ; etc., etc., by such 
able preachers ais Fr. J. A. McHugh, O.P., 
Fr. J. H. Healy, O.P., Fr. Arthur Devlne, C.P., 
Dr. C. Bruehl, Fr. G. Lee, C.S.Sp., Dr. K. 
Krogh-Tonning, Fr. Reynold Kuehnel, Fr. 
F. C. Doyle, O.S.B., Canon Sheehan, Dom 
Bede Camm, O.S.B., Fr. Thomas J. Gerrard, 
Dom Savinien Louismet, O.S.B., and many 
others. Vol. II deals with Baptism, Confir- 
mation, Penance, Prayer, etc. By means 
of this course not only is the neglected 
Roman Catechism restored to honor, but the 
clergy are offered a lucid and interesting 
exposition of the practical truths of'the faith. 
In the words of the Archbishop of New 
York, "no more timely and valuable contri- 
bution to the Catholic pulpit could possibly 
be made." (Jos. F. Wagner, Inc.) 

A New Life of St. Francis Borgia 

The life of the "Santo Duque," Francis 
Borja (Italian form: Borgia) has been 
described hy many pens, but Fr. Otto Karrer, 
S.J., gives us the -first really critical bio- 
graphy of the third general of the Society 
of Jesus ("Der hi. Franz von Borja, Gene- 
ral der Gesellschaft Jesu, 1510 — 1572"; xvi 
& 442 pp. 8vo.) The author deals with Fran- 
cis Borja, who was a great-grandson of 
Alexander VJ, in three parts: (i) as the 
Spanish grande, (2) as a Jesuit, and (3) as 
General of the Society of Jesus. Francis 
was viceroy of Catalonia when his wife 
died, leaving him with seven children. At the 
age of thirty-six he was received into the 
Society of Jesus, first secretly, then, after 
he had disposed of his worldy goods and 
provided for his offspring, publicly. He be- 
came an important factor In the Catholic 
counter-reformation. In Part II the author 
gives an interesting account of the develop- 
ment of the Saint's inner life. He had ab- 
sorbed monastic views in his intercourse with 
a Franciscan Brother and was Inclined to be 
more ascetical than St. Ignatius thought 
prudent for members of a society devoted 
to "the apostolic life." That such a pious 
and thoroughly orthodox man as St. Francis 
Borgia was persecuted by the Spanish Inqui- 
sition throws a queer light upon the character 
and methods of that much-discussed institu- 
tion. We highly recommend this book by 
Fr. Karrer; it Is one of the best that have 
come to our table this year. (B. Herder 
Book Co.) 



176 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 1 



Books Received 



A I ban Stols. Von Dr. Julius Mayer, Mit 
zehn Bildern und einer Schriftprobe. x & 
619 pp. 8vo. B. Herder Book Co. $3.75 
net. 

Koinpass fiir die Frau hn Handwerk. Ein 
praktischer Wegweiser fiir Lehrmadchen, 
Gehilfin und Meisterin. 118 pp. i6mo. M.- 
Gladbach : Volksvereinsverlag. M. 18. 

Gracefnhiess or Folly— Which Shall It Be? 
With a Preface by the Rev. Dr. C. Bruehl. 
27 pp. i6mo. New York: Joseph Schaefer. 
Postpaid, 10 cts. ; $1 per dozen. (Wrap- 
per). 

Credo. The Creed in Pictures for Children. 
Pictures by Joseph Quinn. Illustrated in 
colors. Dublin and London: Mellifont 
Press; American agent: B. Herder Book 
Co. 75 'Cts. net. 

The Catechist in Mission Countries. By the 
Rt. Rev. F. Demange, P. F. M. With a 
Foreword by Msgr. Freri. 16 pp. Svo. New 
York : Press of the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Faith. (Wrapper). 

The Anti-Catholic Motive. An Analysis of 
the Causes of Organized Hatred of the 
Catholic Church. By Dominic Francis. 
46 pp. i6mo. Huntington, Ind. : Our Sun- 
day Visitor Press. 5 cts. postpaid; $5 per 
100. (Pamphlet). 

Little Office of the Passion. By the Seraphic 
Doctor St. Bonaventure. Arranged for the 
"Tre Ore" and for Private Use. 48 pp. 
32mo. Chicago, 111.: Franciscan Herald 
Press. 12 els.; in quantities, 10 cts. each. 
(Wrapper). 

Uncle Pat's Playtime Book. A Collection of 
Tales, Puzzles, and Jokes. Pictures by 
Geo. Monks. Written by Aodh de Blacam. 
Illustrated in colors. Dublin and London : 
Mellifont Press; American agent: B. Her- 
der Book Co. 75 cts. net. 

A-B-C of the History of Architecture. By 
Francis S. Betten, S. J. With 21 Illustra- 
tions. 24 pp. Svo. Published under the 
Auspices of the Catholic Federation of 
Arts. Cleveland, O. : R. A. Koch & Co. 
15 cts. a copy; 10 copies for $1.20, post- 
paid. (Wrapper). 

Conuiientariuni in Codicem luris Canonici 
ad usum scholaruin. Auctore Sac. Guido 
Cocchi, CM. Liber II : De Personis. Pars 
I : De Clericis. Sect, i : De Clericis in 
Genere; 243 pp. i2mo; Sect. 2: De Clericis 
in Specie; 451 pp. i2mo. Turin: Pietro 
Marietti. Frcs. 6 and 11 resp. (Wrapper). 

Caerenioniale Missae Privatac. A Felice 
Zualdi, P. C. M., iam editum, iuxta No- 
vissimas Rubricas ac S. R. C. Decreta 
emendatum et auctum cura Salvatoris 
Capoferri, Pont. Acad. Liturg. Rom. Cen- 
soris. Novissima Editio. viii & 259 pp. 
i2mo. Turin: P. Marietti. Frcs. 4.50. 
(Wrapper). 



The Western 
Catholic Union 



A Legally Solvent Adequate Rate 
Catholic Fraternal Society 




If Forty-four years old. 
U Based on Sound, Sensible and Scien- 
tific Principles. 

H Devoid of Red Tape and Catholic to 
the core. 

11 Three popular forms of certificates 
issued — 20 pay Whole Life Certificate 
with all modern cash loan, paid up, 
and extended insurance features. 

\ This certificate is fully paid up after 
twenty consecutive payments have 
been made. 

H Whole Life Special. This is a Whole 
Life Certificate with modern up-to- 
date cash loan, paid up and extended 
insurance features. 

H Ordinary Whole Life, Just a plain 
up-to-date Whole Life Insurance Cer- 
tificate with Old Age Benefits at- 
tached. 

JUVENILE SECTION 
U Two plans, Term Rate and Whole 
Life with all modern cash, paid up 
and extended features. 



H For full information and induce- 
ments in reference to organizing new 
branches address 

W.C. U. Headquarters 

Illinois State Bank Building 
Quincy, Illinois 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 10 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



May 15, 1922 



Was Germany Responsible for the World War? 



In "The Myth of A Guilty Na- 
tion," (B. W. Huebsch, New York) 
Mr. Albert Jay Nock adduces, 
from official documents of the Al- 
lied governments incontrovertible 
proof for these propositions : 

(1) The British and French 
general staffs had been in active 
collaboration for war with Ger- 
man}^ ever since January 1906. (2) 
The British and French Admiral- 
tv had been in similar collabora- 
tion. (3) The late Lord Fisher 
(First Sea Lord of the British Ad- 
miralty), twice in the course of 
these preparations, proposed an 
attack upon the German fleet and a 
landing upon the coast of Pomera- 
iiia, without a declaration of war. 
(4) Russia had been preparing for 
war ever since 1909, and the Rus- 
sians and French general staffs 
had come to a formal understand- 
ing that Russian mobilization 
should be held equivalent to a dec- 
laration of war. (5) Russian mo- 
bilization was begun in the spring 
of 1914, under the guise of 'tests,' 
and these tests were carried on 
continuously to the outbreak of 
the war. (6) In April, 1914, four 
months before the war, the Rus- 
sian and French naval authorities 
iuitiated joint plans for maritime 
operations against German}^ (7) 
Up to the outbreak of the war, 
Germany was selling grain in con- 
siderable quantities to both 
France and Russia. (8) It can not 
be shown that the German govern- 
ment ever in a sing-le instance, 



throughout all its dealings with 
foreign governments, demanded 
or intimated for Germany any- 
thing more than a position of eco- 
nomic equality with other nations. 

One by one the popular notions 
of pre-war history are shown to be 
mere superstitions. The idea, 
which is still generally held in this 
country, that the Allied nations 
wei^e not prepared for and not ex- 
pecting war, is effectively dis- 
posed of by figures showing the 
extent to which Europe was pre- 
pared for trouble : 

'*In 1913, Russia carried a mili- 
tary establishment (pn a peace 
footing) of 1,284,000 men; France, 
by an addition of 183,000 men, pro- 
posed to raise her peace-establish- 
ment to a total of 741,572. Ger- 
many, by an addition of 174,373 
men proposed to raise her total 
to 821,964; and Austria, by addi- 
tions of 58,505 already made, 
brought her total up to 473,643. 
These are the figures of the Brit- 
ish War Office, as furnished to the 
House of Commons in 1913." 

Thus it may be seen that, assum- 
ing that the proposed additions 
were made, the combined Austro- 
German armies numbered 1,295,- 
607 men as against 2,025,572 men 
in the Allied armies, exclusive of 
the English army. In answer to the 
popular supposition that England 
had no army it is shown that her 
army expenditure for 1914 (pre- 
war figures) was :£28 million, or 4 
million more than Austria's. Even 



178 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Mav 15 



more interesting than these fig- 
ures is a table of the naval expen- 
ditures on new construction only 
of the major European powers 
during the years 1905-1914. This 
table shows that in no year was the 
German outlay for its navy equal 
to that of England, while in 191-4 
the combined British-Franco-Eus- 
sian expenditure was £43,547,555 
as against a German outlav of 
il0,316,264. 

The widely accepted belief that 
the British government was espe- 
cially surprised by the German on- 
slaught on Belgium is effectively 
disposed of. The Austrian Arch- 
duke was assassinated 28 June, 
1914, by three Serbs, members of 
a Pan-Slav organization. Sir Ed- 
ward Grey, in the House of Com- 
mons, 27 July, made a statement 
conveying the impression that he 
had known about the course of the 
quarrel between Austria and Ser- 
bia no earlier than 24 July, three 
days before. 

Yet "the British Ambassador 
at Vienna, Sir 'M. de Bunsen, had 
notwithstanding, telegraphed him 
that the Austrian Premier had 
given him no hint of the 'impend- 
ing storm' and that it was from 
private sources 'that I received, 
15 July, the forecast of what was 
about to happen, concerning which 
7 telegraphed to you the foUoiving 
day.' Sir Maurice de Bunsen 's 
telegram on this important subject 
thus evidently was suppressed, 
and the only obvious reason for 
the suppression is that it carried 
evidence that Sir E. Grey was 
thoroughly well posted by 16 July 
on what was taking place in Vien- 
na. Sir M. de Bunsen 's allusion to 
this telegram confirms this as- 
sumption; in fact, it can be inter- 
preted in no other way." 

Austria declared war on Serbia 



on 28 July ; on 30 July Sir Edward 
Grey informed the House that 
Russia had ordered a partial mo- 
bilization ; but he did not tell them, 
what he knew very well, that by 
the terms of the Eussian-French 
military arrangement Eussian mo- 
bilization was held to be equiva- 
lent to a declaration of war; nor 
did he tell them that if France 
w^ent to war England was bound 
by the secret agreement which he 
himself had authorized, to go to 
war in support of her ally. "He 
had promised Sazonov in 1912 that 
in the event of Germany's coming 
to Austria's aid Eussia could rely 
on Great Biitain to 'stake every- 
thing in order to inflict the most 
serious blow to German power." 
Thus it is clear that the British 
government was neither innocent 
nor unsuspecting in the matter of 
a European war. 

{To he concluded) 

The Month (No. 694) recommends 
"Birth Control : a Statement of Chris- 
tian Doctrine against the Neo-]\lalthus- 
ians" by Dr. H. G. Sutherland (London : 
Harding & ]\Iore) as a handy volume 
on a timely subject by a sincere and 
well-informed Catholic. Dr. Sutherland 
demonstrates that, like every other im- 
moral practice, artificial birth restric- 
tion has no sound basis in reason or 
experience. He refutes the main con- 
tentions of its champions and proves 
that the figures adduced in support of 
it are contradictory. The most valuable 
part of the book is that devoted to 
showing that birth control, even were 
it blameless, is unnecessary. The bogey 
of over-population is a mere chimera, 
for there is a natural check upon re- 
productivity with every advance in 
civilization. The best safeguard against 
over-population is the humanizing of 
the conditions of life. This highly com- 
mendable book is sold in the U. S. by 
Messrs. P. J. Kenedy & Sons, 44 Bar- 
clav St., New York. 



iy2^ 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



179 



The Revival of Scotism in America 



The Keport of the third annual 
meeting of the Franciscan Educa- 
tional Conference, which took 
place last August at AVest Park, 
0., interests us mainly for the 
evidences it affords of a revival of 
Scotism among the Friars of the 
U. S. ; for Duns Scotus, despite 
his many brilliant contributions 
to Catholic philosophy and theol- 
ogy, has been wofully neglected, 
especially in the last century, even 
by the members of his own Order. 

Perhaps the most important 
contribution to this symposium is 
the Latin paper on "loannes Duns 
Scotus," by that champion of 
Scotism in Europe, Fr. Parthenius 
Minges, O.F.M. But the other pa- 
pers are of almost equal interest : 
on ''The Origin and Development 
of the Franciscan School," hj Fr. 
Berard Vogt, O.F.M. ; on ''The 
Philosophv of Duns Scotus," bv 
the Eev. Gerald Schmaltz, O.F.M."; 
on "Scotistic Theologv," bv Fr. 
David Baier, O.F.]\r., and on '"The 
Bearing of Scotistic Doctrines on 
Practical Theologv," bv Fr. Edwin 
Auweiler, O.F.M. 

One of the principal subjects of 
debate at this conference was the 
need of a trustworthy critical edi- 
tion of the writings of the Subtle 
Doctor. As Fr. Edwin said in one 
of the meetings: "No real pro- 
gress in Scotistic research can be 
expected, little of enduring value 
can be accomplished — even in such 
a fundamental undertaking as the 
clearing of Scotus 's good name 
and the leading of Truth to victory 
over century-old slanders and mis- 
representations — until we are able 
to say confidently and without fear 
of contradiction: This is and this 
is not the word and work of the 



'Doctor Subtilis et Marianus.' " 
With this need in mind the con- 
ference submitted to the provin- 
cials a twofold proposal, namely, 
(1) that the American provinces 
of the Franciscan Order assist the 
European Franciscan scholars 
financially in realizing the pro- 
ject of a new critical edition of the 
works of Duns Scotus and (2) 
that they encourage Franciscan 
scholarship in this country by hav- 
ing talented friars trained for 
active participation in the scien- 
tific labors entailed by this under- 
taking, vis. : in the disciplines of 
paleography and textual criticism. 

It gives us pleasure to note 
that there is no anti-Thomistic 
bias in this American revival of 
Scotism. It merely aims to supply 
a lack in the neo-Scholastic move- 
ment, which has given scant con- 
sideration to Scotus and Scotism 
in its manuals and monographs. 
The Franciscans would simly ' ' re- 
store the true historical portrait" 
of their great master, "wherever 
ignorance or perversion, prin- 
cipally in the decadent days of 
Scholasticism with its unenlight- 
ened friends and foes, have dis- 
torted the real features. For the 
rest, their temper is not a polem- 
ical one against the Thomists. 
Their endeavor is rather by posi- 
tive critical work to bring out the 
permanent values which lie im- 
bedded in the tomes of Scotus, to 
restate them and apply them to the 
needs of our time, and thus, while 
effectively clearing their leader, to 
contribute at the same time to the 
still nobler cause of truth and 
Catholic philosophy" (p. 84). 

A particularly valuable feature 
of this Report (which can be had 



180 



THE FORTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



from the Secretary of the Confer- 
ence, 1615 Vine Street, Cincinnati 
0.,) is the ''Scotus Bibliogra- 
phy" pp. 187— 199)— a list of 
trustworthy pilots through the 
mare magnum of Scotistic liter- 
ature, compiled bv the scholarlv 
Dr. Edwin Auweiler, O.F.I\I. It 



comprises Latin, English, French, 
Gorman, and Spanish books and is 
well worth preserving for refer- 
ence. 

The F. R. entertains fond hopes 
for the revival of Scotism in Am- 
erica and bids its pioneers god- 
speed in their important work. 



International Society on a Christian Basis 

By the Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., St. Louis University 



The logical sequel of the family 
and of all individual vStates re- 
constituted upon a Christian basis, 
Avould be an international order 
erected upon the same stable foun- 
dation. We are, of course, very far 
from the realization of what at 
present is only a dream of social 
reformers. Tennyson was not the 
first seer to look forward to the 
day 

'"When the war-drum throbs no longer, and 

the battle-flag is furled : 
In the Parliament of nations, the federation 

of the world." 

Far back in the gray morn of 
antiquity the inspired prophet of 
the Old I^aw dreamed of the day 
''when men would beat their 
swords into plowshares and red 
war would no longer bring death 
to the nations. 

Through the centuries we be- 
hold the establishment of Utopian 
and ideal commonwealths, as well 
as of communistic societies, none 
of which have survived to this day. 
It seems that the golden period 
when the warring people shall 
turn "their spears into sickles," 
and when ''nation shall not lift 
up sword against nation, neither 
shall they be exercised any more to 
war," will not be witnessed by the 
present generation, nor by many 
generations to follow. 

The learned Father Cathrein, it 



is true, believes that the nations 
of the world will never form a vast 
"social union" and that they will 
never coalesce into "a civil so- 
ciety in the strict sense." He holds 
that "the division of the human 
race into various social bodies is 
a necessity in the present condi- 
tion of affairs." {Pkilosophia 
Moralis, "De Sociali Unione Gen- 
tium"). He asks, how can men so 
diverse, and separated by such 
vast distances, be persuaded to 
work together to the same end? 

And yet sound thinkers, guided 
by the principles of Christian so- 
cial reform, will not give up specu- 
lating on the happy time foretold 
by Isaias. 

Among them are a number of 
Catholic writers, whose Avorks are 
summarized in the final chapter of 
M. Duval's splendid book, "Les 
Livres qui s'Imposent." This 
chapter is headed "I/Ordre Inter- 
national." 

M. Duval begins by saying that 
"on the other side of our frontiers 
there are men who eat the same 
bread, live by the same faith, are 
held to the same tasks, suffer the 
same pains, men who weep over 
the same dead and are soothed by 
the same hopes. If Providence has 
decreed that in this vast world they 
should form societies different 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



181 



from ours in order to succeed bet- 
tor in the fatherland which 
springs from the soil, from the 
race, from faith, from work and 
from history, should we forget 
that they are our brothers in 
Christ and that the whole world 
ought to be united in universal 
charity? No, for 'life is more than 
environment, and man more than 
his surroundings.' " 

These sentiments are based on 
the true Christian idea of the 
"brotherhood" of man. M. Duval 
even shows that "we Catholics 
have more reasons than all others 
to be interested in the 'internation- 
al order,' " because it was Christ 
Himself who first said: "Blessed 
are the peace-makers." "Is it not 
He who substituted for the narrow 
and cruel religion of the city one 
more humane and compassionate? 
Is it not He who asked His dis- 
ciples to practice pity, forgive- 
ness, f orgetfulness of wrongs ? Is 
it not under the influence of 
Christianity that international 
law was able to take root and give 
more room to justice and kind- 
ness ? Is it not St. Augustine who 
dared to write that it was 'more 
glorious to kill war by speech than 
to slay men by the sword'? Have 
not the Popes on several occasions 
acted as arbiters between nations ? 
Is it necessary to recall the efforts 
of the Church through the ages to 
restrict wars and to give universal 
peace to the world ? ' ' 

The successful efforts of the 
Church during the warlike elev- 
enth and twelfth centuries in Eng- 
land, France, Italy, and elsewhere, 
to repress hostilities by means of 
the "Truce of God" show how 
minds and hearts filled with hatred 
and animosity will yield to her 
spiritual power and influence. 



M. Faguet says, apropos of this 
beneficent medieval practice : 
"The Church established a sort 
of 'spiritual imperialism,' which 
in reality became the greatest 
thought and the vastest desigii 
ever known in the world. If an 
earthly imperialism may be justi- 
fied by its exalted purpose, a spir- 
itual preeminence is justified by 
the sanctity of its aim. If it is 
proper that a powerful material 
force should offer peace to the 
whole world, it is still more befit- 
ting that such a blessing be achiev- 
ed by a great moral agency, which 
is the object of universal respect." 

President Butler of Columbia 
has given us the happy phrase, 
"the international mind." Until 
the characteristics of such a 
"mind" become the possession of 
thousands of leaders in the vari- 
ous nations of the world, there is 
little hope of an "international 
society." But may we not trust 
that the Church, which proposes 
the same exalted destiny to all her 
children, and teaches all men to 
pray: "Our Father who art in 
Heaven, ' ' will be the safest guide 
to that blessed day foretold by 
Isaias: "And in the last days 
the house of the Lord shall 
be prepared on the top of 
the mountains and it shall be 
exalted above the hills, and all na- 
tions shall flow unto it. And many 
people shall go and say : Come and 
let us go up to the mountains of 
the Lord, and to the house of the 
God of Jacob, and he will teach 
us his ways, and we will walk in 
his paths :" for the law shall come 
forth from Sion, and the word 
of the Lord from Jerusalem. And 
he shall judge the Gentiles, and 
rebuke many people: and they 
shall turn their swords into plow- 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 16 



shares and their spears into 
sickles: nation shall not lift up 
sword against nation, neither shall 
they be exercised any more to 
war. ' ' 



Discredited Heresy-Hunters 

The Augshurger Postzeitung, 
the leading Catholic daily of 
Southern Germany, in its No. 52 
refers to some recent revelations 
made by La Nation Beige and De 
Tijd, of Amsterdam, which we 
have not hitherto seen mentioned 
elsewhere. 

It seems that during the war a 
batch of confidential documents 
w^ere found in the house of a lawyer 
named Jonck, in Ghent. These 
documents were returned to Bel- 
gium after the war and are now in 
the hands of Prof. Geurts. They 
are of no political value, but throw 
a lurid light upon the methods of 
the so-called integral Catholics 
who before the war distinguished 
themselves by their anti-Modern- 
ist heresy-hunting. 

Jonck himself was the editor of 
Le Catlioliquc, a journal which 
did not hesitate to accuse and de- 
nounce as Modernists such emi- 
nent Catholics as Card. Mercier, 
Dr. Woeste, M. Carton de Wiart, 
and a number of leading Catholic 
editors. It appears from the pa- 
pers referred to that there existed 
a secret society, with headquarters 
in Ghent, which made it its busi- 
ness to inquire into the orthodoxy 
of leading Catholics in all coun- 
tries of Europe and to persecute 
and denounce those that did not 
see eye to eye with these heresy- 
hunters in all things. This society 
had been founded by the Abbate G. 
Vercesi, who became a Methodist 
minister in 1911. Another leader 
of the movement was Kaplan 
Schopen, author of ''Koln, eine 



innere Gefahr," who also aposta- 
tized and is now attacking the 
Catholic Church in a series of 
offensive pamphlets. 

Among those viciously perse- 
cuted by this society were Cardi- 
nal Piffl, of Vienna, Cardinal Van 
Rossum, a number of bishops and 
laymen, the Catholic universities 
of Louvain and Fribourg (Switz- 
erland), the Bollandists, the Paris 
Etudes, the Roman Civiltd Catto- 
lica, and many others. 

The movement died a sudden 
death when Benedict XV, at the 
beginning of his pontificate, con- 
demned heresy-hunting and de- 
clared that every member of the 
Church should be satisfied with 
calling himself a Catholic, pure 
and simple, and that mutual char- 
ity and trust should be the slogan 
under the new pontificate. 



The "Journal of the Travels and 
Labors of Father Samuel Fritz in the 
River of the Amazons, between 1686 
and 1723," has just been pubHshed by 
the British Hakluyt Society. Fritz was 
a Bohemian Jesuit, who was sent from 
Spain to Quito, in 1684, as a missionary 
to the Indians of the Upper Maraiion. 
There, thanks to his linguistic ability 
and his apostolic zeal, he met with 
great success, converting the whole 
tribe of the Omaguas and collecting as 
many as forty or fifty other tribes into 
civilized settlements. For nearly forty 
years Father Fritz labored on the 
Amazon and finally died among his 
converts, in 1724, shortly before his 
70th birthday. The interest of the Hak- 
luyt Society in this "Journal" lies in 
the cartographical delineations it gives 
of the mission territory. Fr. Fritz was 
the first explorer to follow the course 
of the Tunguragua and to prove that 
it is the real source of the Amazon. 
His "Journal" was long believed to be 
lost, until Dr. Edmunson, who has now 
edited it, found it in the Public Library 
of Evora, Portugal, in 1902. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



183 



Fortifying the Layman 

Father Ernest K. Hull, S. J., in 

tlie Bombay Examiner, returns to 

the subject of Marie Corelli's 

novels. He says that, despite Fa- 
ther Boswin's scarifying criticism 

of Marie Corelli, he would not en- 
dorse any general embargo on her 

writings for all and sundry; for 

while they are morbid, unsatisfy- 
ing, and not calculated to lift up 

the mind or the taste, they are 

morally pure ; ' ' there is no malice 

in them and the author's ethical 

and theological vagaries are 

merelv flights of fancv obviouslv 

such.'"' 

In connection with this subject 

Fr. Hull lays down some sound 

and healthy principles in advising 

the Catholic layman on the sub- 
ject of reading, as follows : 

Don't w^eaken him by unneces- 

sar^' restrictions or frighten him 

by meticulous alarms. Don't give 

him the impression that his faith 

and morals are such weak things 

that the least breath of adverse 

wind will blow them away like so 

much thistle-down. Instill into him 
a conviction rather that his faith 
and morals are strong things. It 
is not the constant impinging of 
outside attacks that endangers 
them. What causes the danger and 
weakness is an interior debility of 
mind and will, which creates the 
best disposition for catching an 
infectious disease. Let there be 
no rashness, of course, no head- 
strong and headlong running 
amok, no throwing away of re- 
straints, no taking one's fliing. Let 
every Catholic recognize the limi- 
tations of human nature in gen- 
eral and especially his own. They 
are probably greater than he im- 
agines them to be. Let there be an 
honest purpose to do the right 
thing, to hold oneself in mastery. 



to watch cause and effect, to rec- 
ognize danger signals. But on the 
whole, let the attitude of the Cath- 
olic be not that of a man walking 
across a bog, but that of a man 
walking along a metalled high 
road; confident of the ground on 
which he treads ; confident of his 
map, and of the signposts along 
the way; confident that he can 
pursue his journey steadily, and 
will reach the end of it, provided 
he does not deliberately turn off 
the track after a butterfly or a 
bird, and lose himself in the mo- 
rass or the fog. 

As soon as a reasonable doubt 
arises, let him pause, and consult 
his guide-book, and simply get his 
bearings clear. With a few obvious 
precautions, when the need of 
them occurs, the background of an 
honest purpose, a loyal adhesion 
to the right, and a consciousness 
of one's limitations, ought to be 
enough to carry any CathoKc 
through, provided he has a sound 
grip on his faith and religion from 
the start, and provided he keeps 
up and strengthens that grip as 
he grows older, and sees the need 
of a deeper and more extended 
knowledge when his environment 
becomes more complex and more 
adversative. 

That is just the point about 
modern times. WTiat we want is 
not boxing up our Catholics, hedg- 
ing them round with walls and 
fences and barred windows; but 
fortifying the layman — equipping 
him with the muniments of attack 
and defence, so that he is ever 
prepared to mount the walls to 
repel an attack, or to issue out of 
the gate to meet his enemy in the 
field as soon as he scents his ap- 
proach from afar. 



184 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



May 15 



Correspondence 

The Mystery of Limpias 

Tu the Editor: — 

Jn the notice of Prof. Isenkrahe's 
"Experimental-Theologie," which ap- 
pears in The Fortnightly Review of 
April 15, I read : 

"Are the phenomena objective or 
purely subjective? They cannot be ob- 
jective, for on many occasions they 
were seen only by some of the attend- 
ants and not by others. Hence they 
must be subjective.'' 

"What proves too much proves noth- 
ing." I say this reasoning proves too 
much. It proves that the apparition of 
Our Lord to Saul, better known as 
St. Paul, on the way to Damascus, was 
subjective (cf. Acts IV, 7) ; also, that 
the repeated apparitions of Our Lady 
at the Grotto of Lourdes were subjec- 
tive. Only Bernadette saw the Blessed 
Virgin. I might cite other instances, 
but enough. The law laid down by the 
learned professor holds in the natural 
order. In the supernatural order, it gives 
way to a higher law. St. Augustine thus 
states it: "In rebus mirabiliter factis, 
tota ratio facti est potentia facientis.'" 

Let me suggest, in passing, that it 
is this latter law which governed the 
translation of the Holy House from 
Nazareth to Tersatto and thence to 
Loreto. Let me also suggest a slight 
emendation in the headline of an article 
at page 146 of the same number of the 
Review, entitled "The Last Word on 
the Legend of Loreto." For "last" put 
"latest." I give you my word of honor 
that Prof. Hiiffer has not written the 
"last word" on that subject. 

"i" Alex. IMacDonald, 
BisU'op of Victoria. B. C. 



Concerning "Cachina" 

To the Editor: — 

While reading Mr. Read's interesting 
"Study in New Mexican Folk Lore" 
(F. R.. ]\Iay 1), it occurred to me that 
"Cachina" may have another explana- 
tion, one that may be culled "nearer 
home." He savs the word is "of Latin 



origin" and apparently tries to relate it 
witli "Cachination," a "loud or im- 
moderate laughter.'" It seems better, 
however, to hold that "Cachina" is a 
variant of "Kachina" (sometimes also 
spelled Katchina) a word of Hopi 
origin. For according to the "Hand- 
book of American Indians North of 
^dexico" (Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy, Washington, 1907, Volume I}, 
Kachina is "a term applied by the 
Hopi to 'supernatural beings imperson- 
ated by men wearing masks or by 
statuettes in imitation of the same" ; 
also to the dances in which these masks 
figure." This definition applies quite 
well to the ceremony as explained by 
:\Ir. Read. 

Aloreover, under the article "Masks" 
in the publication referred to, we read: 
"Alasks were sometimes spoken of as 
kachinas, as many of them represented 
these ancestral and mystical beings, and 
the youth who put on such a mask was 
temporarily transformed into the 
kachina represented." This, too, 
squares with Mr. Read's account of 
"Cachina"' dances. To connect the word 
with a Latin origin is hardly possible. 
The "la" prefixed to "Cachina" may 
be accounted for by "false analogy." 
The Spanish-speaking people may have 
been unconsciously influenced by the 
very common feminine termination of 
Spanish nouns, and may then have 
erroneously prefixed a Spanish article 
to a foreign word. Students of lin- 
guistics know that this process has 
often occurred. 

It may be worth adding that the 
Field Columbian Museum of Chicago 
contains one of the finest collections 
of Hopi Kachinas or statuettes in the 
country. The Ethnologic Collection in 
the Art Museum of St. Louis also con- 
tains a few. To the "Twenty-First 
Annual Report of the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology.'" Mr. J. W. Fewkes, 
one of our leading authorities on the 
aboriginal culture and folklore of the 
Southwest, has contributed an exhaus- 
tive monog;raph on "Hopi kachinas 
drawn by native artists."' 

In his interesting booklet, "Indians 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



185 



of the South-West" Dr. G. A. Dorsey 
explains the ceremonial dances of the 
Indians. He says: "The word Katcina 
is applied by the Hopi to supernatural 
being-s, to masked men who imperson- 
ate these deities, to any ceremonial 
dance in which these masked figures 
appear, to the masks themselves, or to 
small wooden statuettes carved in imi- 
tation of masked dancers and known 
as tihus or dolls.'' 

In his "New-AIexican Spanish Folk- 
Lore," Professor M. Espinosa nowhere 
mentions "Cachinas," which would, no 
doubt, have been explained if it owed 
its origin to a Latin source. 

Albert Muntsch, S.J. 



The 'Staats-Lexikon" of the Goerres 
Society 

To the Editor: — 

The Archbishop of ^lilwaukee has 
issued a circular letter on behalf of the 
"Staats-Lexikon" of the Goerres So- 
ciety, "one of the comparatively few 
international standard vv^orks which has 
made Catholic thought and principles 
in the wide and important domains of 
politics and economics respected 
throughout the civilized world." 

The work, he says ( we condense his 
letter), which is a comprehensive en- 
cyclopedia of government and political 
economy, has gone through four edi- 
tions, each of which has carried the 
fundamental Catholic principles on law 
and justice, liberty and authority, the 
family. State and Church, private prop- 
erty, individualism and Socialism, into 
all countries in which the German lan- 
guage is read and genuine scholarship 
appreciated. 3klany of the foremost 
leaders of thought and action through- 
out the civilized world have drawn 
knowledge and inspiration from this 
erudite work. Unfortunately the fourth 
edition, which appeared in five statelv 
volumes at Freiburg i. Br.. 1908-1912, 
has long since been exhausted. Need- 
less to say, the new edition will not be 
a mere reprint of the old one, but the 
work will be fully brought up to date. 
What a mighty effort this implies, he 
alone can understand who has taken 



note of the stupendous changes of 
ideas, theories, activities, laws and 
policies affecting the public and inter- 
national life of nations, as well as the 
social relations and conduct of the in- 
dividual citizens and their organiza- 
tions, changes brought about in the 
short span of ten years, years which 
with their social evolutions and revolu- 
tions will stand out prominently in the 
history of mankind for all times. Com- 
bined Catholic scholarship alone, en- 
lightened by the eternal truth of Cath- 
olic principles, will be able to point out, 
not only the true character of those 
tremendous changes, but also the true 
meaning of their no less tremendous 
lessons for the social welfare and 
stability of the human race. All these 
will be included in the new "Staats- 
Lexikon." 

In spite of the most urgent demands 
from all parts of German-speaking 
Europe the Goerres Society is not able, 
under present conditions, to raise the 
money required for such a new edition. 
And yet the inspiration and guidance 
of a work of this kind is more than 
ever needed at the present time, when 
so much depends on the ways and 
methods in which such pernicious post- 
war tendencies as Bolshevism and Com- 
munism are to be effectively combated, 
and when the work of a thorough social 
reconstruction upon Christian lines is 
to be seriously taken in hand. 

At the present depreciated stage of 
the German mark the printing of a new 
edition of the "Staats-Lexikon" would 
require several million marks, and as 
the work would have to be sold at a 
comparatively low price, no adequate 
financial returns can be expected. On 
the other hand, the Catholic intelligent- 
sia of Germany and Austria — among 
them priests, teachers, students, etc., 
who stand most in need of the work — 
have been entirely impoverished by the 
world war. Yet the Goerres Society is 
willing to undertake the task if at least 
five hundred thousand marks will be 
contributed towards covering the ex- 
penses of the production. It has there- 
fore sent out an urgent appeal for fi- 



186 



THE FOBTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



nancial assistance to the Catholics of 
foreign countries, especially the U. S., 
who have already nobly and generously 
supplied so many needs of war-stricken 
Europe. As the appeal says, this will 
truly be a work of mercy, as Catholic 
Germany and Austria are begging for 
spiritual bread. Nor will it be only 
mercy to German and Austrian schol- 
ars. It will be a great charity to Amer- 
ican scholars also, for the enlighten- 
ment and guidance of an authoritative 
work like the "Staats-Lexikon" is as 
necessary for all Americans who are 
truly solicitous for the welfare and 
stability of their nation. 

For these and other reasons, too 
numerous to mention, Dr. Messmer 
earnestly endorses the appeal sent out 
by the Goerres Society, and trusts that 
American Catholics will contribute 
generously to this worthy cause. In 
view of the fact that an American dol- 
lar is worth from 250 to 300 marks, 
the sum of $2000 would enable the 
Goerres Society to undertake the new 
publication. Contributions will be 
thankfullv received by the Very Rev. 
A. C. Breig, D.D.. Rector of St. Fran- 
cis Seminary, St. Francis, Wis. G. 



-.^^ 



We have received a number of com- 
munications from members of the K. 
of C. and others in regard to the Pel- 
letier case (see F. R., Vol. XXIX, No. 
7, p. 129; No. 8, pp. 140 sqq.). Several 
of the writers ask what we would ad- 
vise the K. of C. to do to neutralize the 
bad effects of the scandal. W^e answer 
in the words of one of the leading 
members of the Order, who says : "The 
coming supreme convention should (1) 
elect four directors not in sympathy 
with the established order; (2) make 
it impossible again for a man holding 
any office in the Order to likewise hold 
a political ofiRce; (3) remove Pelletier 
until such time as the courts acquit 
him, if he does not in the meantime 
Tesign. Supreme Knight Flaherty 
should be publicly censured for his 
attack on the courts. This would be 
enough for a starter." 



Notes and Gleanings 

We have receiv^ed from St. Benedict's 
Abbey, Atchison, Kans., a copy of a 
circular letter which was recently sent 
out to Catholic colleges, asking for 
their support in the publication of a 
school edition of Juvencus' "Historia 
Evangelica." Gains Juvencus was a 
Spanish priest of the fourth century, 
who wrote in fluent hexameters a kind 
of Gospel harmony, which was highly 
esteemed during the Middle Ages, but 
has fallen into almost complete desue- 
tude. The idea of the editor. Fr. Her- 
man Mengwasser, O.S.B., is to get this 
Christian classic introduced into Cath- 
olic colleges alongside of the pagan 
authors now exclusively used there. 
A specimen page clearly shows the 
method followed. First is given the 
text of the Gospel, then the correspond- 
ing hexameters of Juvencus, followed 
by a paraphrase of the same in classical 
Latin, together with appropriate gram- 
matical, scriptural, and historical anno- 
tations. The initial installment of the 
new edition, nearly ready, will comprise 
the first 500 verses of the "Historia 
Evangelica." We trust this effort to 
acquaint our Catholic youth with one 
of the great Catholic writers of antiqui- 
ty, instead of feeding them exclusively 
on pagan fables, will meet with the 
support it deserves. 

During the recent ''conclave" of the 
Knights Templar at New Orleans, the 
home of Knights of Columbus Council 
714. though not along the line of march, 
was profusely decorated, much to the 
disgust of a number of Catholics who 
know that the Knights Templar are 
high-degree Freemasons with whom no 
Catholic organization should frater- 
nize. The Post Ofifice was not decorat- 
ed, which led to some recriminations, 
as Postmaster Janvier is a K. of C. He 
declared in a public statement that the 
law prohibited the decoration of fed- 
eral buildings, and pointed with pride 
to the K. of C. building as a proof of 
Catholic friendship for the Knights 
Templar. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



187 



We are informed that the bishops in 
charge of the National Catholic Wel- 
fare Council have petitioned the Holy 
See to consider a modification of the 
decree of the S. Consistorial Congrega- 
tion referred to in our last issue (No. 
9, pp. 157 sqq.) and that the matter 
has been taken under advisement. 
Pending a final decision, the text of the 
decree, which was sent to all the bish- 
ops of the U. S. and received by them 
late in March, is not to be promulgated 
through the Acta Apostolicae Sedis for 
the present. That the decree of Feb. 
25th will be revoked, or even essential- 
ly altered, we do not believe, especially 
in view of the fact, which we learn 
through the Nonvcllcs Rcligicuses, that 
a movement resembling that of which 
the N. C. W. C. was a part, has been 
arrested by a similar decree in Spain. 

The Boston Herald of April 25th 
contains an account of the proceedings 
in the Supreme Court of Massachusetts 
when Mr. Jos. C. Pelletier, Supreme 
Advocate of the Knights of Columbus, 
appeared in the disbarment proceedings 
instituted against him by the Boston 
Bar Association. The hearing was be- 
fore Judge J. B. Carroll, a Catholic. 
As in the case of the Attorney General 
vs. Pelletier, before the full bench of 
the Supreme Court, the defendant re- 
fused to put in a defense, although, in 
the words of his senior counsel, Sena- 
tor Reed of Missouri, "no defendant 
ever refrains from testifying in his 
own behalf unless his counsel realizes 
that he would break down under cross- 
examination." On its editorial page 
the Herald quotes the N. Y. Nation as 
saying: "If the result of the Pelletier 
prosecution has been a hlozv to Catho- 
lics in America, it has been so, or rather 
it will prove so, only because of the 
refusal of those High in K, of C. cir- 
cles, those who in the public eye and 
mind are identified zvith American 
Catholicism, to purge their ranks and 
dissociate themselves from those found 
guilty. Instead of this clearly indicated 
— though even now belated — dissocia- 
tion, we find a militant championship 
of Pelletier which makes his protagon- 



ists and the many for whom they pre- 
sume to speak, moral accessories after 
the fact to his crime." The F. R., as 
our readers know, is not willing to 
champion Pelletier's cause, but emphat- 
ically condemns the action of those who 
are trying to shield him, thereby bring- 
ing discredit on the Catholic Church. 
As we go to press, a dispatch from 
Boston announces that the disbarment 
of Pelletier was ordered by the Supreme 
Court, May 8tli. 

According to Prof. Dr. Schroers, of 
the University of Bonn, who has known 
Pius XI for nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury, he is the first historian raised to 
the papal throne since, possibly, Bene- 
dict XIV. His principal opus is the 
"Acta Ecclesiae Mediolanensis," in 
two quarto volumes, dealing with the 
life and work of St. Charles Borromeo. 
Next in importance is the historic com- 
mentary composed by Msgr. Ratti, in 
collaboration with Canon Magistretti, 
on the "Missale Duplex Ambrosianum." 
Professor Schroers also notes a fact 
which so far we have seen mentioned 
only in an interview with Cardinal 
Lualdi, reproduced in the Montreal 
Devoir, namely, that the new Pontiflf 
is a member of the Society of Oblates 
of St. Charles, which, so far as we 
know, is not as yet represented in this 
country. Its best known member in 
English speaking countries is the learn- 
ed Father W. H. Kent, who for a 
number of years has contributed valu- 
able "Literary Notes" to the London 
Tablet. 

"Most of the hate prevalent in Eu- 
rope has been made to order by politi- 
cians." — (Philadelphia Public Ledger, 
quoted in the Literary Digest, No. 
1669). 

Totit comwe ches nous! 



Objectionable echoes in a church or 
an auditorium may be softened or done 
away with by the application of the 
right kind of paint to the walls. So 
we are assured by Henry Gardner and 
William Downie in a paper on "Paint 
as an Aid to Proper Acoustic Condi- 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY REVIEW May 15 



No woman has ever wielded greater influence over those In her 
care — influence for a superb womanhood — than the author of 
SPIRITUAL PASTELS. A New York father was so impressed 
with the worth of SPIRITUAL PASTELS, and with the graces and 
endowments of Its author, that he sent his daughter to the College 
where J. S. E. guides. With such a guide, such an exemplar, he 
is happy in the assurance that the one he loves will surely be some- 
thing more than an educated snob in this socially shallow age. 



Spiritual Pastels 

By J. S. E. (A Nun) 

Foreword Appreciation by Joseph M. Woods, S. J. 



Literally the heart and soul comniunings of an intelligent, 
educated, cultured woman — a ^un — with an all-wise Christ, 
the Christ of the Masses — of the poor, the Christ of Lent, 
not the golden-crossed Christ patronized by the I'ichest men 
in the world and capitalized by them as a means to an end. 

Just the book for daily reading. Kead it — you will 
continue to read it and you will surely urge penitents and 
others to make Spiuitual Pastels a daily companion. 



FIFTH EDITION HEADY 

Beaatlfally illustrated. '$1.50 net. '$1.60 postpaid. 



Edition after Edition of this really inspiring work 
has been sold. 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR CO., Publishers 

437 Fifth Avenue New York 



1922 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



189 



tions," from which extracts are prhited 
in the Literary Digest of April 15th. 
The amount of sound absorbed depends 
on the thickness of the paint, the 
roughness of the surface, porosity, and 
other similar conditions. 
-•--♦•-♦••♦• 
Experiments recently made at Stan- 
ford University by J. P. Bomberg and 
E. G. Martin show, according to Health 
(Battle Creek, ^lich.), that tobacco has 
an unfavorable influence upon the 
efficiency of persons engaged in strenu- 
ous mental work. The relative ef- 
ficiency of heavy smokers was 38, of 
light smokers, 40,1, of non-smokers 
(women), 46,6. In this connection the 
Literary Digest (No. 1669) calls atten- 
tion to a new process for rendering 
tobacco innocuous without destroying 
its flavor and pleasant effect. The 
process, as described in La Bibliotkequc 
Uniz'erselle (Paris), is simplicity itself, 
consisting merely in adding to the 
tobacco the stamens of the little plant 
known as colt's-foot. The inventor, 
Dr. Amial, declares that he can smoke 
thirty cigarettes a day of this mixture 
without inconvenience. The only change 
noticeable in the tobacco, which retains 
its aroma perfectly, is that it seems to 
acquire some resemblance to Oriental 
tobacco. 

"The Fortnightly Review is the 
Nezi' Republic of the Catholic periodical 
press." — Col. P. H. Callahan. 

Pax Romania is the title of a new; 
quarterly just established at Fribourg, 
Switzerland, as central organ of the 
International Secretariate of Catholic 
Students' Associations. The first num- 
ber is printed partly in Latin and part- 
ly in French. Bishop Besson empha- 
sizes the need of international co- 
operation on the part of all Catholic 
students. The principal article, in 
classical Latin, is by Fr. Hilarin Fel- 
der, O.M.Cap., and deals with the 
sympathetic attitude taken by the late 
Pope Benedict XV towards the move- 
ment which Pax Roniana represents. 
Other languages besides Latin and 
French are to be admitted to later 



issues of this promising quarterly. 
Why not print it entirely in Latin? 
There is a constant demand for a 
Catholic review written in Latin, and 
no other language is so universally 
understood. The style need not always 
be of classic purity. Scholastic Latin 
is good enough for current reports and 
ordinary articles. 

"An Amused Reader," who is afraid 
to give his name, has discovered an 
apparent contradiction between two 
statements in No. 8 of the F. R., the 
one in an editorial note, the other in 
a paper contributed by a Jesuit Father. 
Our critic would like to know "which 
statement is true and which is false." 
They are both true, and perfectly com- 
patible, as a Httle reflection will show. 
For the rest, we frequently allow our 
contributors to express opinions which 
we do not share. The F. R. is not a 
Procrustean bed, but a free forum. 
We may add that we have little respect 
for anonymoLis critics. 

"Knife and Fork ^Masons" love to 
repeat that Freemasonry has no con- 
nection with religion. "Those who 
make such a statement are all wrong," 
says the Trestle Board, an illustrated 
Masonic magazine, printed, "for private 
circulation only," at San Francisco, 
Cal. (see Vol. XXXV, No. 6, p. 36), 
and adds: "It [Masonry] is the very 
foundation of religion, yet it is one 
body of good men that have no creed 
while in the lodge room, or while dis- 
cussing Masonry." The key to this 
latter, somewhat enigmatic sentence 
v/ill be found in "A Study in American 
Freemasonry." bv Arthur Preuss, 4th 
ed., St. Louis, Mo., 1920, B. Herder 
Book Co., to which we refer the curious 
reader. 

A note in No. 7 (p. 124) of the F. R. 
discussed the question whether or not 
the "Order of the Eastern Star" is 
connected with the Masonic fraternity. 
We quoted the Masonic Builder as say- 
ing that the Eastern Star "is not a 
Masonic organization in any sense of 
tliat word, except the loosest." We see 



190 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May 15 



from Vol. XXXV, No. 6 of the Trestle 
Board that the question regarding the 
status of the Eastern Star was precipi- 
tated by an edict of the Grand Master 
of Pennsylvania, commanding Master 
Masons of that jurisdiction to sever 
their connection with the Eastern Star 
or be dropped from Masonry. The 
Grand Chapter of the Eastern Star 
protested against this action on the 
ground that no grand lodge has the 
right to prescribe what societies shall 
be open to Masons. It seems that 
Masonic secrets have leaked out 
through members of the Eastern Star 
who had joined organizations, such as 
the White Shrine of Jerusalem, which 
make affiliation with the Eastern Star 
a condition for membership. We see 
from the same magazine {ib., p. 32 f.) 
that the controversy has been carried 
beyond the sea and that the Grand 
Lodge of England, which is "the 
Mother Masonic Grand Lodge of the 
world," has declined to endorse the 
Eastern Star. 

Chief Justice Angellotti, of the 
Supreme Court of California, lately 
resigned his position to become head 
counsel of the Western Pacific Rail- 
way. Mr. Angellotti is a prominent 
Freemason, and the Masonic Trestle 
Board, of San Francisco (Vol. XXXV, 
No. 6, p. 22), justifies his step by say- 
ing that the W. P. Ry. pays him $18,- 
000 a year more than he received as 
chief justice. The editor consoles him- 
self with the thought that Angellotti 's 
successor on the supreme bench. Chief 
Justice Shaw, is also a loyal Mason and 
that another Mason has been appointed 
to the Supreme Court in the person of 
Justice W. H. Waste. It is interesting 
to note, in this connection {Trestle 
Board, XXXV, 6, pp. 11 ff.) that both 
U. S. senators from California, Hiram 
Johnson and S. M. Shortridge, are Ma- 
sons and that California's most promi- 
nent Congressman, Julius Kahn, is a 
Mason of the 32nd degree, a member 
of St. Cecile Lodge No. 568 of New 
York City, of the San Francisco Bodies 
No. 1, Scottish Rite, and of Islam 



Temple, Mystic Shrine, of the same 
city. 

The '"Ancient Egyptian Order of 
Sciots," according to an article contrib- 
uted to the Trestle Board (Vol. XXXV, 
No. 6. pp. 21 and 55 IT.) by 'Tast 
Grand Pharao" Waldo F. Postel, is 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS 
TRY OU R BRANDS 

THEY HAVE STOOD THE TEST 
SINCE 1860 




Vou will make no mistake by giving vis a per- 
sonal call to verify the quality and view our 
assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

WESTERHEIDE 
Tobacco and Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway 
ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Phones: Bell Tyler 788 Kinloch Central 4039 L 
Mail orders promptly filled 



St. Louis Pipe Organ Co. 

Builders of 

Electro, Tubular Pneumatic, 

and Tracker Organs 
for Church and Concert Hall 

Prompt attention given to Repairs and Rebuilding 

of every description 

Blowers attached 

Office, 2209-11 Lynch Street 

Phone Sidney 361 ST. LOUIS, MO. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



191 



a rapidly growing organization of 
Master Masons, with branches, called 
pyramids, in the States of California, 
Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and 
Texas. Before the San Francisco 
earthquake the society was known as 
"the Boosters," but it has since been 
reorganized under the name of "Ancient 
Egyptian Order of Sciots," whatever 
that may mean. The "boosting" tend- 
ency, according to Bro. Postel, remains. 
"To boost one another," he says, 
"means, if one cannot say anything 
good about a brother ]\Iason, one 
should say nothing at all. . . . Sciots 
do not limit their boosting to their own 
members. They boost everything that 
is good, clean. Masonic, and American." 
The Sciots are a sort of Masonic vigi- 
lance guard, to judge from Bro. Pos- 
tel's reference to them as "a strong 
body of intelligent and conserv^ative 
Masons, keenly interested in Masonic 
development and fully alive to all pos- 
sible hidden dangers in any new move- 
ment" {ibid., p. 60). 

Our readers know the low opinion 
we have ahvays had of >Mark Twain 
and his writings. A critic in No. 109 
of the Freeman attributes the vogue of 
this greatly overestimated author to 
extravagant puffery. "]\Iark Twain is al- 
most as much of a national institution 
as Lincoln," he says ; "yet measured by 
any sober judgment, he is not, save for 
two or three flights of genius, a writer 
of the first or even of the second rank. 
In all this matter the public is un- 
doubtedly the .victim of a prodigious 
fantastication. What is at the bottom 
of it? Advertising, largely. Every 
year a fortune is spent in maintaining 
what might be described as a perma- 
nent Mark Twain boom ; and this has 
been going on for so long that Mark 
Twain's fame has at last become one 
of the very elements of the American 
atmosphere. ... It would be interest- 
ing to see the result if this extravagant 
supply of advertising oxygen were 
suddenly cut off and Mark Twain's 
writings were left to fend for them- 
selves : in ten years they would have 
returned to something like the position 



which they occupied in the people's 
eyes, let us say in 1890, when the best 
of them had long since appeared. We 
have here one of the most singular of 
these freaks of literary fame, explica- 
ble indeed, but none the less astonish- 
ing." The influence of Mark Twain's 
w-riting on the whole has been bad, as 
this Review has repeatedly shown. 

We see from the Westfalischer 
Merkiir, by way of the Paradieses- 
friichte (St. Meinrad, Ind., May '22) 
that one of the principal difficulties in 
the beatification process of the Ven. 
Anne Catherine Emmerich, now under 
way in Rome, are the writings ascribed 
to her. Fr. Esteban, O.S.A., one of 
the Augustinian Fathers especially in- 
terested in the case, is quoted as saying 
that the champions of the saintly nun 
o-f Diilmen expect to be able to prove 
that these writings were -not really hers. 
Another Father interested in the case 
declared that the elimination of Bren- 
tano's writings wall put the cause entire- 
ly on its own merits, i. e., the heroicity 
of the virtues of Anne Catharine, which 
can be easily demonstrated to the satis- 
faction of the S. Congregation of Rites. 
We shall shortly publish a defence of 
Sister Emmerich and her visions by Fr. 
Hubert Hartmann, S. J. 
-•--•--•■-•• 

The Month (No. 694), in a notice of 
Fr. Wm. Schmidt's pamphlet on the 
metrical structure of the Gospels, re- 

For Rent— Furnished Room 

for one or two Catholic persons. 

1521 Hebert Street.'.St. Louis. Mo. 

CLERGYMEN, COLLEGES and ACADEMIES 
will find it to their advantage to consult 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eighth Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
RELIABLE SERVICE AT REASONABLE PRICES 
Its facilities for quick delivery of line- 
or monotyped, printed in first-class 
manner books, booklets, pamphlets, 
folders etc. are unexcellea . 



192 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



May 15 



Just published 



The Preacher's Vademecui 



Sermon Plans for Sundays, Feasts of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints, Advent and 

Lsnten Courses, Forty Hours', Sacred Heart Devotions, Retreats, Conferences, May and October 

Devotions, Special Occasions, etc. 

By Two Missionaries Translated from the French 

Cloth, net, $3.00 

This unique work will prove a boon for the preacher, particularly on account of the great variety of its 
material for many different occasions. 

The quality of the material may be judged from the fact that in its French original the work is already 
in its Fifth Edition, and has been favored with many flattering commendations by the episcopate. 



Story-Sermonettes for the Children's Mass 

FOR ALL SUNDAYS OF THE YEAR 
By the Rev. Frederick Renter 

Cloth, net, $1.50 



Previously published by the same author: 

Short Sermons for the Children's Mass 

On the Gospels of all the Sundays of the Year Amply Illustrated by Example and Anecdote 

Cloth, net, §1.50 

"They are the products of long j^ears of work and should prove welcome to many less experienced 
than the author.-' — Catholic Book Notes. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 
23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 



STOP! LOOK! LISTEN! 



Seg 



If We Cannot Give You Greater Value 

We Are Not Entitled to Your Patronage 

c\ t*e '" ^"-^ ^'^^' ^^^P^ *^ price, from $6.00 to $30.00 per 100. From 
dlo the humblest Domestic to the most exquisite CLEAR HABANA 

Seven Years, Old as a Mail Order House — 

Fifty-six Years Young as a Segar House 



Catalogue and prices 
mailed on request 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 1866 

58 North Pearl Street BUFFALO, N. Y. 



America Press 

^ yOB PRINTING ia 

done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. St. Louis. Mo, 




STEINER^^ifSXgUCft 




SEALS, 

AMPS^ 
STENCILS ^METAL CHEO^ 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



193 



cently reviewed in the F. R. (XXIX, 3, 
59), says that the theory "thrives on a 
considerable disregard of historical and 
literary facts." Our contemporary 
keenly regrets that "'Father Schmidt, of 
all people, should have succumbed to 
this 'last infirmity of noble minds,' " 
and adds : "We would give very much 
to be able to persuade him to renounce 
this field of barren enterprise and to 
return to anthropology and the allied 
sciences, in which he has done work of 
such great value." 

Apropos of "Anthroposophy" (F. R., 
XXIX. 9, 159 sq.). we note in the 
literary supplement of the Aiigshiirger 
Postzcitung (No. 15, of April 11) that 
Ernst Michel has lately published a 
criticism of Rudolph Steiner's fantastic 
doctrines from the Catholic standpoint 
under the title. "Erkenntnis oder Often- 
barung hoherer Welten?" (Mayence: 
jMatthias Griinewald-Verlag) . It is the 
first Catholic criticism of Anthropos- 
ophy in book form. The author says 
that he contents himself with showing 
up the contradictions between Christi- 
anity and Anthroposophy and that "'the 
definitive refutation of this error must 
be left to professional theologians who 
.combine a thorough knowledge of 
Catholic theology with a keen insight 
into the religious tendencies of our 
time." A valuable non-Catholic refu- 
tation of Anthroposophy is contained 
in Kurt Leese's "tjber moderne Theo- 
sophie" ( Verlag Furche). and we hope 
with Dr. Geiger, to whom we are in- 
debted for the information embodied 
in this note, that some competent Cath- 
olic theologian will soon produce an 
equally solid work from the Catholic 
point of view, as Anthroposophy — like 
Theosophy, of which it is an offshoot — 
threatens to become a real danger to 
the faith of weak-kneed Catholics all 
over the world. 



Earth's Champion 

By Charles J. Quirk, S.J. 
Though Winter steals Earth's gems away, 

And Earth moans lone, bereft, 
IS'e'erless young Spring shall catch the thief. 

And snatch from him his theft! 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
{5.2nd Instailment) 

I might just as well add a few words here 
on church music. There is nothing more im- 
pressive than the simple Gregorian Requiem. 
The solemn Te Deum, sung by a good choir 
in plain chant, cannot be excelled in solem- 
nity and grandeur by any polyphonic music. 
But with all the beauty of the plain chant 
we hailed daily with delight the change from 
the Gregorian high ^Nlass in the early morn- 
ing to the polyphonic Mass at eight o'clock. 
I had the school boys everywhere trained to 
sing the common requiem in a very credita- 
ble manner. Also the vespers, compline, and 
one Mass in Gregorian chant I found with- 
in the reach of almost every mission. But 
here in America, too, people like a change 
and an easy polyphonic Mass for feast days 
is always welcome. For other services, and 
during low Mass. congregational singing can 
be introduced without difficulty and to the 
great satisfaction of the people. For the 
benediction of the Holy Sacrnment I never 
allowed any other music for the "O Saluta- 
ris" and the "Tantum Ergo," than the plain 
chant, and I never found it difficult to make 
the whole congregation participate in the 
singing. This is done easily enough in a 
parish. It is different in convents where 
the Sisters use different tunes for those 
hymns. Xot only here, but also in France 
and ]\Iexico, I heard these sacred hymns 
sung to different secular tunes by the Sis- 
ters. St. Francis de Sales once said: "Of 
all persons trying to escape or evade the 
laws and regulations of the Church, none 
are so persevering and adroit as the religious 
who succeed in making exceptions by means 
of their rules, privileges, and traditions, 
whilst the word obedience is constantly upon 
their lips." 

Chapter XXIV 

FATHER CATTAXI — THE NEW 
CHURCH AT POCAHOXTAS 

Father Herman Cattani, who had said his 
first Mass in Jonesboro. October nth, 1903, 
attended the missions of Hoxie and Wynne 
from Jonesboro. He was a very zealous 
worker and liked by everybody, especially 
the children. He was a son of Dr. Eugene 
Cattani. of Engelberg, Switzerland. He came 
from an old and renowned family. A brother 
of his is a doctor, another, professor in Frei- 
burg, and he himself had studied medicine 
at the University of Basle. However, his 
heart drew him to the priesthood and the 
Western missions. He was as careful to hide 
his noble family connections as the majority 
are to exhibit them. An uncle of his is pas- 
tor and dean in Switzerland. Another 
is a member of the Swiss national assembly. 
One of his grand uncles was vice-roy of 



194 



THE FOBTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



May J 5 



Dutch Borneo. Two aunts were nuns and 
also two cousins, who died as missionary 
sisters in Asia. Their lives were published 
in French. Seeing the two books in his 
room I lent them to the sisters of the Good 
Shepherd. When he found it out, Father 
Cattani reproached me, saying he did not 
want anybody to know anything about his 
relations. He died a martyr to duty, being 
drowned on Christmas night while trying to 
cross a dangerous creek, on his return after 
midnight Mass from Center Ridge to his 
parish at St. Vincent. 

At this time Father Matthew Saettele, 
O.S.B., was working hard and collecting 
funds to build a new church in Pocahontas. 
It is a solid stone building, 145 feet long and 
SO feet wide, with a large transept and a 
basement. It has a beautiful marble altar, 
which cost $5000, fine stained glass windows, 
etc. It stands as a monument to the inde- 
fatigable zeal of Father Matthew. On Octo- 
ber i8th, 1904, was held the last service in 
the old church of St. Paul, at Pocahontas, 
on which occasion I preached. I said: "It is 
a sad duty to perform the funeral rites for 
a dear friend, a kind mother, a great bene- 
factor. I hold this last service in the dear, 
venerable old church of St. Paul, the mother- 



church of all the Catholics of Northeastern 
Arkansas. We feel a kind of sadness and 
regret when we remember the numberless 
graces we and hundreds of our friends 
received in this church. Here we found con- 
solation in sadness, strength for life's bat- 
tles, the kindly light pointing out for us the 
way of truth. Here Catholics found a good 
friend, a kind mother, and the greatest bene- 
factor. But as the sadness of a Christian 
funeral is sweetened by the hope of a beauti- 
ful resurrection, thus our regret in giving 
up this venerable building as a church fades 
into joyful anticipation by the knowledge 
that dear old St. Paul's is going to celebrate 
to-morrow its glorious resurrection in the 
grand new temple built at its side." Then I 
gave the history of the old church, recount- 
ing its sad and its happy days, and the names 
of its founders and benefactors. That ad- 
dress, which was printed, contains a complete 
history of the church at Pocahontas and of 
Catholicity in Northern Arkansas during 
thirty-five years. 

The new church was blessed on the fol- 
lowing day by Bishop Heslin, of Natchez, 
with the assistance of the majority of priests 
in Northeast Arkansas and a great concourse 
of people. (To be continued) 



A TIMELY NEW BOOK 

of special Interest to Women : 

GRACEFULNESS OR FOLLY 

WHICH SHALL IT BE? 

Edited by the REV. DR. C. BRUEHL 

Published with the "Imprimatur" of the Archbishop of New York 

An excellent booklet to assist in combatting the shameless fashion in -women's dress 

15,000 COPIES SOLD I^ T AV O WEEKS 

•Price 10 cents — fl.OO per doz. — |7.00 per 100 

J. SCHAEFER, Publisher, 23 Barclay St., New York, N. Y. 

When ordering refer to the Fortnightly Review 



CASPER STEHLE BEDDING COMPANY 

1834 Morgau Street ». c. smith, Manager gr^ Louis, Mo. 

Sixty Years in Business is a Guarantee of Satisfied Customers 

Hospitals and Institutions Receive Special Attention 

MATTRESSES of all kinds and sizes, and PILLOWS 

Write for quotations, or better still, try a Sample Felt Mattress in a A. C. A. Tick, built up 

extra well in the middle, @ $8.00 net, F. O. B., St. Louis. 



, LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCK5TEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 




1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



195 



Literary Briefs 



"Rubricae Generales Missalis Romani" 

Under this title P. Marietti, of Turin, pub- 
lishes in the handy form of a 32mo volume 
of 318 pages a complete survey of the 
changes in the general rubrics of the Missal, 
as reformed under Pius X and published by 
Benedict XV, together with special rules to 
be observed at solemn high masses as well 
as at private masses before the Blessed Sac- 
rament and before the bishop when assist- 
ing at mass in his own diocese. To this are 
added the usual prayers for the priest before 
and after mass and certain rcgulae pro missis 
votivis. 
"Summarium Theologiae Moralis" 

Dr. Sebastiani's "Summarium Theologiae 
i\Ioralis ad Codicem luris Canonici Accom- 
modatum," which was recommended by us 
some time ago, has reached its sixth edition, 
— which means, in this case, that over 16,000 
copies have been printed and sold. This is a 
great success from the bookseller's point of 
view, and we are glad the author is makmg 
the book constantly better by carefully revis- 
ing and improving each successive edition. 
The volume comprises 658 pp. i6mo, weighs 
only seven ounces and fits snugly into the 
coat-pocket. (Turin: P. Marietti). 

The Need of Lay Brothers 

"They Also Serve" is a pamphlet designed 
to awaken interest in the religious vocation 
of temporal coadjutors — a state of life which, 
though it does not find its highest expres- 
sion in the priesthood, is yet dedicated to 
God by the three vows of chastity, poverty, 
and obedience. Father Cody has written 
well of this phase of religious life, and we 
trust that his pamphlet will be distributed 
far and wide and help to increase the 
number of these religious vocations, which 
has fallen off so alarmingly during the past 
twenty-five years. (Our Sunday Visitor 
Press, Huntington, Ind.) 

"The Counter-Reformation in Scotland" 

In a valuable essay under this title, Fr. J. 
H. Pollen, S.J., attempts to supply, at least 
in outline, the history of a movement with- 
out due regard to which, as he justly says, 
it is impossible to appreciate the true char- 
acter of the Reformation in Scotland. The 
counter-Reformation in that country was 
part of that remarkable movement which be- 
gan simultaneously with Luther in Italy and 
Spain and continued and carried forward in- 
to Catholic channels the vigorous driving 
forces germinated by the Renaissance. Fr. 
Pollen deals mainly with the Catholic revival 



in Scotland between 1585 and 1589, when the 
reaction reached its greatest height and also, 
alas! received a fateful blow. (B. Herder 
Book Co.) 
A Manual of Christian Perfection 

"The Manual of Christian Perfection," by 
Msgr. P. J. Stockman, is adapted from the 
celebrated method of spiritual direction by 
the Rev. J. B. Scaramelli, S.J. Though de- 
signed for the use of novices preparing for 
the religious life, it can be effectively made 
use of by lay persons in the world. The 
vvork is a doubtful improvement for religious 
communities over the standard work of 
Rodriguez, which has been in use for so 
many centuries. It is true that the latter 
needs revision, but the material and the form 
leave nothing to be desired. Msgr. Stock- 
man's work is deficient in at least one essen- 
tial. Mortification is not given a place com- 
mensurate with its importance. While it is 
true that it is included under other heads, 
we doubt whether a primer for the religious 
life is adequate without making mortifica- 
tion prominent. (Benziger Bros.) 



Books Received 

None Other Gods. By Robert Hugh Benson. 
New Edition. B. Herder Book Co. $1.50 
net. 

The Better Part. [A Novel]. By Richard 
Ball. 382 pp. 8vo. B. Herder Book Co. 
$2.25 net. 

Indulgences as a Social Factor in the Middle 
Ages. By Dr. Nikolaus Paulus. Translated 
by J. Elliot Ross. 121 pp. i2mo. New York : 
The Devin-Adair Co. $1.35 post-paid. 

Die V erg e geniadrtigiing Gottes. Von P. Franz 
Arias, S.J. Eingeleitet und iibertragen von 
P. Hubert Hartmann. S.J. 72 pp. i6mo. 
Leipsic : Vier Quellen Verlag. 

Familienahende. Programme, Vortragsge- 
dichte, Musikaliennachweise und praktische 
Winke. 216 pp. i2mo. M.-Gladbach : 
Volksvereinsverlag. M. 36. (Wrapper). 

Prayer: The Great Means of Salvation. By 
St. Alphonsus de' Liguori. Doctor of the 
Church. Edited by Rev. J. B. Coyle, C.SS.R. 
xxvii & 192 pp. i6mo. B. Herder Book Co. 
85 cts. net. 

The Life of Saint Walburga. By Francesca 
M. Steele ("Darley Dare"). With an In- 
troduction by the Rt. Rev. Columba Mar- 
mion, O.S.B., Abbot of Maredsous. 189 pp. 
i2mo. B. Herder Book Co. $i.7S net. 

God— or Gorilla. How the Monkey Theory 
of Evolution Exposes its Own Methods, 
Refutes its Own Principles, Denies its Own 
Inferences, Disproves its Own Case. By 
Alfred Watterson McCann.. xvi & 340 pp. 
8vo. Illustrated. The Devin-Adair Co. 
$3.15 postpaid. 



196 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Mav lo 



The Divine Trinity. A Dogmatic Treatise 
by the Rt. Rev. Alsgr. Joseph Pohle, Ph.D., 
D.D. Adapted and Edited by Arthur 
Preuss. Fourth, Revised Editon. iv & 
299 pp. i2mo. B. Herder Book Co. $1.50 
net. 

Christ the Life of the Soul. Spiritual Con- 
ferences by the Rt. Rev. D. Columba Mar- 
mion, O.S.B., Abbot of Alaredsous. With 
Prefaces by Cardinals Mercier and Bourne 
and a Letter of Approbation by His Holi- 
ness Benedict XV. xx & 427 pp. 8vo. B. 
Herder Book Co. $4 net. 

Tales of the Gaels. Some Stories of Finn 
and the Fenians Retold. Pictures by Austin 
Alolloy. Written by Aodh de Blacam. Il- 
lustrated in colors. Dublin and London : 
Mellifont Press; American agent: B. Her- 
der Book Co. 75 cts. net. 

Des hi. Ignatius von Loyola, Stifters der 
Gesellschaft .lesu, Geistliehe Briefe und 
Lntcrweisnngen. Gesammelt und ins Deut- 
sche ubertragen von Otto Karrer, S.J. 
Mit einem Titelbild. viii & 296 pp. i2mo. 
B. Herder Book Co. $1.50 net. 

The "Suinina Theologica' of St. Thomas 
Aquinas. Literally Translated by Fathers 
of the English Dominican Province. Part 
H (Second Part), QQ. LXXX— C. vi & 
270 pp. 8vo. Benziger i5ros. $3 net. 

The Divine Story. A Short Life of Our 
Blessed Lord, Written Specially for Young 
People by the Rev. C. J. Holland, S.T.L. 
X & 22;^ pp. i2mo. Illustrated. Blase 
Benziger & Co., Inc. $1 net. 

The Seminarists' Symposium. Edited and 
Issued by the St. Thomas Literary and 
Homiletic Society of St. Vincent Semina- 
ry, Beatty, Penna. 286 pp. Svo. illustrated. 

Luther-Studieii. Herausgegeben von H. Gri- 
sar, S. J. 3. Heft : Luthers Kampfbilder. 
II. Der Bilderkampf in der dcutschcn 

, Bibel (1522 ff.). Von H. Grisar, S. J., und 
F. Heege, S. J., xii & 45 PP- 8vo. Mit 9 
Abbildungen. $1.50 net. — 4. Heft: Luthers 
Trutzlicd " Eine feste Burg'' in Vergangen- 
heit und Gegenvaart. Von H. Grisar, S. J. 
viii & 57 pp. Svo. Si. 50 net. B. Herder Book 
Co. 

Gotteshaus und Goltesdietist. Praktische 
Winke von Ludwig Soengen, S. J. Alit 29 
Abbildungen. viii & 225 pp. i2mo. B. 
Herder Book Co. $1.50 net. 

A Handbook of Scripture Study. By the 
Rev. H. Schumacher, D. D.. Professor of 
New Testament Exegesis in the Catholic 
University of America. Vol. Ill : The 
New Testament, v & 317 PP- i^mo. With 
two maps. B. Herder Book Co. $2 net. 

Birth Control. A Statement of Christian 
Doctrine against the Neo-Malthusians by 
Haliday G. Sutherland, M. D. (Edin.). 
x & 160 pp. i2mo. P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 
$1.85 postpaid. 



The Western 
Catholic Union 



A Legally Solvent Adequate Rate 
Catholic Fraternal Society 




^ Forty-four years old. 
U Based cm Sound, Sensible and Scien- 
tific Principles. 

^ Devoid of Red Tape and Catholic to 
the core. 

U Three popular forms of certificates 
issued — 20 pay Whole Life Certificate 
with all modern cash loan, paid up, 
and extended insurance features. 

If This certificate is fully paid up after 
twenty consecutive payments have 
been made. 

II Whole Life Special. This is a Whole 
Life Certificate with modern up-to- 
date cash loan, paid up and extended 
insurance features. 

II Ordinary Whole Life. Just a plain 
up-to-date Whole Life Insurance Cer- 
tificate with Old Age Benefits at- 
tached. 

JUVENILE SECTION 
U Two plans, Term Rate and Whole 
Life with all modern cash, paid up 
and extended features. 



If For full information and induce- 
ments in reference to organizing new 
branches address 

W.C. U. Headquarters 

Illinois State Bank Building 
Quincy, Illinois 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 11 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



June 1, 1922 



The Cynicism of Anatole France 

By Dr. Alexander N. DeMenil, St. Louis, Mo. 



Anatole "France" — is it not a 
queer piece of assumption for a 
writer to assume the name of liis 
country for a nom-de-plumef — 
has two powerful w^eapons at his 
command: irony and cynicism. 
And he certainly wields them re- 
morselessly. But to what purpose ? 
To what end? Cervantes in Spain, 
Briizac in France, Fielding and 
Thackeray in England, were 
masters of both irony and cynicism 
and dealt trenchant blows with 
them. They had a purpose, an aim, 
a result to reach, a lesson to in- 
culcate, a moral to emphasize. 
They ridiculed, they derided, they 
satirized, they laughed down egot- 
ism, false conceptions of life, gen- 
eral wrongs, social tyrannies, bar- 
barous customs, contemptible as- 
sumptions, immoral tendencies, 
hypocrisy, crying evils, and a 
hundred other existing facts and 
factors in dsilj life that were evils 
and should have no existence. And 
in this they benefited humanity, 
they bettered the world, they 
brought mankind more closely to- 
gether in a bond of mutual good 
will. 

Cervantes' wit, humor, and 
irony did far more toward batter- 
ing down the doors of false chiv- 
alry and tyrannical feudalism than 
all the serious, meditative, argu- 
mentative books ever written 
against them combined together. 
When Fielding dared to depict a 



man just as he is, he laid bare to 
the world the vanity, the false 
pride, the egotism, the moral 
cowardice, the penury, the selfish 
aims, the lying deceit, the hypo- 
critical posings and the general 
falsity of the average man; and 
the picture has stood out boldly 
and beneficially ever since as a 
warning and a rebuke and a salu- 
tary lesson to mankind. Balzac 
has rendered even better service 
to his countrymen than Fielding 
did to his. Indeed, Balzac has done 
better for the entire world, espe- 
cially for the world of women, than 
all other novelists, for he knew 
and understood woman as no other 
novelist has ever known or under- 
stood her. 

But, you will say in the cant of 
today that I am writing about the 
novel with a purpose — that abom- 
ination of the modern critics, so 
decried, so condemned by them. 
Bah! let us not mince words; if 
a beneficial lesson is taught, and 
humanity profits by it, what care 
I for your modern critics ? Put me 
down flatly and unreservedly as 
quite sufficiently antiquated to be- 
lieve that "Don (Quixote" and 
"Eugenie Grandet" and "Pere 
Goriot" and "Tom Jones" and 
"Vanity Fair" and "The New- 
comes'.' have done more for poor, 
weak, frail humanity than all the 
carping critics in the world, and 
that thev will still continue to do 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



more to benefit humanity when 
even the very names of the modern 
critics will be forgotten. 

But this is my point : what help- 
ful lesson does all the irony and 
cynicism of Anatole France teach 
us? What practical purpose does 
it serve? If any, I confess that I 
am crassly ignorant of it. I have 
sought for it with the desire to 
fijid it; but I have failed. Years 
ago, I adopted the very unsatisfac- 
tory conclusion that he is cynical 
and ironical and sarcastic simply 
because he derives a personal 
pleasure or satisfaction from the 
recognition that he has the ability 
to be so. And this is certainly not 
art; it is simply and purely the 
selfish display of great powers ex- 
hibited for the sake of eliciting 
public applause. I am astonished 
that Georg Brandes, the Q,reatest 
of the living critics, does not call 
attention to this artistic weakness 
in his papers on Anatole France. 

But, in justice, let us recognize 
and admit that Thibaut stands 
boldly in relief in two respects : 
No French author of to-day, of the 
past quarter of a century, is his 
equal in classic finish of style and 
happy aptness for expressive 
phrases. Professor Fontaine, who 
is certainly not inclined to over- 
praise him, briefly expresses this 
final verdict: **I1 est remarquable 
par la perfection du style et I'ex- 
actitude de 1 'expression" ("Les 
Poetes Franeais du XIX Siecle," 
p. 323). But that he is not a novice 
in some phases of the literaiy art, 
is not to be wondered at. He has 
been a lover of books all his life, 
and his literary culture is of the 
highest type. His father was a 
bookseller — or a bookseller's as- 
sistant — on the quays of the Seine, 
and all his life has been spent 



among books. He is a Parisian of 
the quays by choice as well as 
by fate. He says himself: '*I 
was brought up on this quay, 
among books, by humble, simple 
people, whom I alone remember. 
When I am no more, it will be as if 
they had never existed. ' ' 

Our author's ironical skepticism 
and cynical humor are seldom 
kindly and genial — despite many 
critics to the contrary; if they 
were, his tone of pity and sym- 
pathy for human wretchedness 
would amply apologize for the 
disagreeable feeling that so often 
stays with us after reading his 
books. *'Le Ijivre de Mon Ami" 
and ''Le Crime de Sylvestre Bon- 
nard" are probably his two best 
books, and they leave a sense of 
something disagreeable, unsatis- 
factory, and unpleasant behind 
them. We are not quite sure that 
we are even pleased that we have 
read them. Nevertheless, he is an 
artist; in many respects, a great 
artist; but littleness fatally mars 
much of his work. He is so — may 
I say, uneven? As a whole, we dare 
not take him at his best; nor yet, 
at his Avorst. Either view would 
leave a sense of something incom- 
plete, something wanting finality. 
Except in his ''Histoire Contem- 
poraine," there is so little of any- 
thing like a practical, definite pur- 
pose, a moral or attempted moral 
teaching, or an inevitable conclu- 
sion behind his satirical vein! 
And this same "Histoire" has 
such a nauseous, socialistic odor 
about it! 

Among France's sayings I will 
quote three — which are closely 
translated : 

''She was the widow of four 
husbands ; a dreadful woman, sus- 
pected of every thing except of 



192^ 



THE FOETNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



199 



liaving loved — she was conse- 
quently honored and respected." 
''The law in its Tiiajestic equal- 
ity forbids the rich, as well as the 
poor, to sleep under bridges, to 
beg in the streets and to steal 
bread." 

' ' It is a great infirmity to think. 
God preserve you from it, my son, 
as He has preserved his greatest 
saints and the souls whom He 
loves with special tenderness and 
destines to eternal felicity." 

It is such sentences as these 
that his panegyrists characterize 
as "deep philosophy." Possibly, 
I am wanting in the sense of ap- 
preciation. 

Our author has confidence in the 
novel ; it is not worn-out, exhaust- 
ed, it has not said all, as yet; he 
even believes in contemporary 
French fiction. The following- 
liberal translation of one of his 
paragraphs on the subject, ex- 
plains his position fully (I believe 
the translation is by Brandes) : 

''The novel, like life itself, is in 
perpetual evolution. Between our 
modern novel and -'The Iliad' the 
only difference lies in the versifi- 
cation. The novel is the poem 
which is read, just as the poem in 
verse is the poem which is sung. . 
Our modern novel comes from 
Balzac and Flaubert. The latter in 
some of his books studied society 
quite as profoundly as Balzac. In 
all of Balzac's works we notice 
that he never seems to have ex- 
hausted his fund of observed ma- 
terial. AVe find the same in Flau- 
bert. But I am struck by the case 
of Zola. I have a profound admira- 
tion for Zola. After having often 
changed my mind about him, I 
have come to recognize the power 
of his work. But in liis later books 
he is no longer the author of 



'L'Assommoir.' One sees clearly 
the moment when his fund of ob- 
served material being exhausted, 
he uses information acquired by 
reading, not personal observa- 
tion." 

It is very apparent that Anatole 
France leans toward the realistic 
school. This conclusion I arrived 
at several years ago in listening 
to a lecture by him delivered in 
St. Louis — at which he had a very 
small attendance. But, as to Zola — 
he uttered golden words about the 
author of "Nana" only a few 
years back. He said: "I do not 
envy him his disgusting celebrity. 
Never has a man so exerted him- 
self to abase humanity and to deny 
everything that is good and right. 
Never has anyone so entirely mis- 
understood the human ideal." But 
that was before he, Anatole 
France, became a rabid socialist 
and advocated openly the confisca- 
tion of the churches and the ex- 
patriating of Frenchmen and 
Frenchwomen whose religious 
opinions did not agree with his ! 

"We should not love Nature, 
for she is not lovable ; but neither 
should we hate her, for she is not 
deserving of hatred," is another 
one of his sayings. And this is 
truly his belief: he does not love 
nature; his books demonstrate 
that he does not. Nature has no 
part in his art ; she yields him no 
inspiration. This should not be — 
no writer can be truly great to 
whose soul nature speaks not. Mr. 
Brandes fails to call our attention 
to this artistic limitation of 
France's genius. Genius? — no, 
talent. 

Georg Brandes, in his booklet, 
ten or twelve years ago, made 
Anatole "France's" literary 
reputation. Since then, the French 



2C0 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



critics have been considering the 
question, '*Is Anatole France a 
great writer!" It seems somewhat 
strange that such far-seeing critics 
as Taine, Renan, and Brunetiere 
failed to discover any true great- 
ness in him. Nevertheless, let us 
say in all justice that the Dane, 
Brandes, is a French scholar, he is 
a great critic, and his opinion of 
an author is worthy of the deepest 
consideration. He is never a hob- 
byist; he is always broad-minded. 
But he has curious limitations as 
a critic; when we consider his 



great scholarship and culture, 
these limitations are astounding. 
That he does not always point out 
the most glaring defects in his 
favorites, I believe, is because he 
is satisfied to deal in the large with 
what is best. Again comes the 
question: -Should an author be 
judged by the best that he has 
done? — or by the worst? — or by 
his work as a whole? 

At any rate, if Brandes does not 
ax)ply the lash to Anatole 
''France's" literary crimes, he 
does not fail to castigate his venial 



Was Germany Responsible for the World War? 



{Coucluded) 
It is clear that the Russian 
troops were the first to be fully 
mobilized— on 25 July, that Ger- 
many, knowing the agreement be- 
tween Russia and France, de- 
manded that the French govern- 
ment declare its position, and got 
the reply that France would do 
what she thought best in her own 
interest, and that ''almost at the 
moment, on 1 August, when Ger- 
many ordered a general mobiliza- 
tion, Russian troops were over her 
border, the British fleet had been 
mobilized in the North Sea, and 
the British merchant ships were 
lying at Kronstadt, empty to con- 
vey Russian troops from that port 
to the Pomeranian coast, in pur- 
suance of a plan indicated by Lord 
Fisher in his autobiography, re- 
cently published." In the face of 
these facts, which are official and 
easily available, the theory of Al- 
lied unpreparedness goes con- 
siderably lame. It is little wonder 
that Allied politicians had con- 
stantly, during the war, to find 



new excuses for having become 
involved in it. 

Next, concerning the violation 
of Belgian neutralitj' as England's 
reason for going to war: it is 
shown that at the time when the 
Belgian treaties were drafted it 
was the official view of the British 
government that in case of an- 
other Franco-G-erman war. Great 
Britain was not obliged, under 
those treaties, to participate ; it is 
further shown that the British 
governinent did not hit upon the 
expedient of presenting the viola- 
tion of Belgium's neutrality "as 
a means of making the war go 
down with the British people" 
until 2 August, 1914: it is also 
shown that Belgium, contrary to 
jjopular belief, was prepared for 
war, and that she was, on the 
authority of no less a person than 
Marshall Joffre, a party to the 
^cret military arrangements ef-' 
fected among England, France 
and Russia. Furthermore, on 24 
July — the day upon which the 
Austrian note was presented to 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



201 



Serbia — the Belgian minister in- 
formed all the Belgian embassies 
that ''all necessary steps to en- 
sure respect of Belgian neutrality 
have, nevertheless, been taken by 

the government The forts of 

Antwerp and those on the Meuse 
have been put in a state of de- 
fense." That is, the Belgian forces 
were concentrated on the eastern 
frontier, not on the west, where 
Belgium might have been invaded 
by France. In other words, the 
Belgian government was not in 
fact neutral, and had no thought of 
being so. 

So much for the actual begin- 
nings of the conflict. The author 
then points out that Germany, had 
she really been pining for trouble, 
was in a much better position to 
attack Europe in 1908, and again 
in 1912, than she was in 1914; for 
Russia had been greatly weakened 
by the Russo-Japanese war and 
had not yet had time to recover 
her military strength, and the in- 
ternal situation in both France 
and England would have made 
war a hazardous undertaking for 
those countries. Moreover Germany 
had excellent chances in both these 
years to strike at Europe, but on 
each occasion she threw her weight 
on the side of peace. Thus she 
gave the Allies time to augment 
their military strength and coor- 
dinate their plans of campaign 
against her ; and they used it with 
feverish diligence both diplomatic- 
ally and in a military wa}^ The 
Moroccan crisis is shown to have 
been precipitated by a deliberate 
plot between France and Britain, 
with the purpose of freezing Ger- 
many out of the Moroccan market. 
Germany might have taken the 
French occupation of Fez, which 
was in direct violation of the Al- 



geciras act, as a casus belli; in- 
stead she simply dispatched to 
Morocco one small gunboat, which 
anchored off the coast of Agadir 
and remained there "as a silent 
reminder of the Algeciras act and 
the principle of the open door." 
This action on the part of Ger- 
many had the desired effect of 
showing the exact relative posi- 
tions of the European Powers : 

"The British government 
promptly, through the mouth of 
Mr. Lloyd George, laid down a 
challenge and a threat. [It had 
'seen no reason to object' to the 
French occupation of Fez.] There- 
upon Germany and France under- 
stood their respective positions; 
they understood, even without Sir 
E. Grey's explicit reaffirmation on 
27 November of the policy of the 
Triple Entente, that England 
would stand by her arrangements 
with France." 

Whatever may be the popular 
view at present concerning the 
relative parts played by the pow- 
ers in the long series of events 
which culminated in the world 
w^ar, trained observers during 
those years were under no illu- 
sions concerning them. A series of 
well chosen quotations from Bel- 
gian State documents translated 
and published in England by Mr. 
E. D. Morel, "gives the show 
away" as far as the Allied powers 
are concerned. The documents 
consist of reports made by the Bel- 
gian diplomatic representatives at 
Paris, London, and Berlin, to the 
Belgian Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs, during the years 1905-1914. 
They ' ' relate in an extremely mat- 
ter-of-fact way a continuous series 
of extraordinary provocations put 
upon the German government and, 
moreover, they represent the be- 



202 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



havior of the German government, 
mider these provocations, in a 
very favorable light." They con- 
tinually speak of England's jeal- 
ousy of Germany's economic com- 
petition, and of her '^ campaign to 
isolate Germany." For instance, 
on 2 May, 1907, the minister at 
London reported that it is plain 
that official England is pursuing 
a policy that is covertly hostile, 
and tending to result in the isola- 
tion of German}^, and that King 
Edward has not been above put- 
ting his personal influence at the 
service of this cause. 

The result of this policy and of 
the continuous French and Rus- 
sian intrigues against the Central 
Powers was that a train of gun- 
powder had been laid from Bel- 



grade through Paris and London 
to St. Petersburg; and at the be- 
ginning of the train was the highly 
inflammable and inflammatory 
pan-Slavism, organized by M. 
Hartwig with the connivance of 
M. Isvolsky. A spark struck in the 
Balkans would cause the train to 
flash into flame throughout its en- 
tire length. The murder of the 
Archduke by Serbian officers 
furnished the spark which ignited 
the fuse; and the world war re- 
sulted. 

Mr. Nock voices the hope that 
his book may serve as an introduc- 
tion to the works of Mr. Francis 
Neilson and Mr. E. D. Morel, to 
whom he acknowledges his indebt- 
edness for the materials upon 
M'hich he has drawm. 



The Control of Credit 



We take the following para- 
graph from a letter addressed to 
us by the Eev. P. A. Forde, who 
writes sympathetically and 
thought-provokingly concerning 
the economic point of view of the 
F. R., which, as our readers know, 
stresses the evils of landlordism, 
/. e., the monopoly of all kinds of 
natural resources. Our corre- 
spondent believes that the "usu- 
rers, financiers, shylocks, money- 
lenders are at least equally de- 
structive parasites on the social 
system." He continues: ''If you 
find oil or gold or iron or coal on 
or under your land, you cannot do 
a thing until some bank finances 
you. During the war the United 
States could not do a thing for 
Democracy, Civilization, the Free- 
dom of the Seas, and the rest of 
it, until the banks in New York 
'financed' the loans of American 
goods to European philanthro- 
pists and crusaders against the 



bold bad Kaiser. That is to say, 
Morgan et. al. had to put the dollar 
mark upon every article that went 
to Europe and of course charged 
a whole lot for doing so. The 
United States, by virtue of its 
cdtiim dominium, or by purchase, 
Avas the owner of the articles 
vdiich it handed over to the saintly 
French, English, etc. But the 
United States could not hand over 
all that stuff without the dollar 
mark of Morgan plastered all over 
it. You may answer that Morgan 
et. al. were the parties from whom 
the U. S. bought what Europe bor- 
rowed in the matter of goods, 
shells, clothing, food, etc., and that 
Uncle Sam had to buy from 
Morgan, Rockefeller, Gary & Co. 
Li other words. Uncle Sam's altum 
dominium extends to the carcasses 
and belongings of Tom, Dick, and 
Harry, but not to the sacred prop- 
erty of the usurers and monopol- 
ists. Mv answer is : (1) Uncle Sam 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



203 



had to get the usurer to 'finance* 
his loans or donations of stuff to 
Europe, i..e., put the dollar mark 
on the loans ; (2) How did Morgan, 
etc., contrive to monopolise nat- 
ural resources in America? By 
getting control of credit, i. e., of 
financial power, without which 
natural resources cannot be ex- 
ploited," 

There is much to be said for 
these views, considering the pres- 
ent status of the monopolization 
of our natural resources and of 
credit. A recent striking example 
confirms Fr. Forde's viewpoint. 
About six months ago Mr. Henry 
Ford needed ready money to fi- 
nance his gigantic automobile busi- 
ness. He went to Wall Street to 
negotiate a loan. Wall Street was 
Yv'-illing to make the loan, but under 
conditions which would have given 
it control of the Ford industry. 
Fortunately for Mr. Ford, he was 
able to do without the help of Wall 
Street. This is a striking example 
of our correspondent's contention 
that the control of credit implies 
control of the materials and the 
means of production. The rail- 
roads came under the evil spell of 
Wall Street in the same manner — 
and that, by the way, is the funda- 
mental difficulty with our public 
carriers at the present time. 

Now what does this mean? Sim- 
ply this, that having built up a 
monopoly control of credit on the 
basis of the monopoly control of 
many of our natural resources, 
these modern usurers are able to 
extend the evil pall of their system 
of credit to our economic life in 
general. 

But what was the original basis 
of their system of credit? Natural 
resources. If these are removed 
from their deadly grasp, could 
they continue their credit manip- 



ulations? Apparently not. The 
Morgan, Rockefeller, Gary ring 
would collapse if the foundation 
upon which it is built were re- 
moved. To be sure, it would not 
be proper to draw the conclusion 
that the control of credit could be 
disregarded, though our vast 
natural resources were properly 
made available for the use of so- 
ciety at large. The control of 
credit, too, must be democratized. 
It will be necessary to make it 
available for all who wish to use 
it legitimately. 

The modern Shylocks are as 
dangerous as the natural-resource 
monopolists. The two groups are 
the destructive Siamese twins of 
our economic life. But we cannot 
separate them without killing 
both. There is a vital intercon- 
nection between the two. And so 
while we shall continue, to the best 
of our ability, to call attention to 
the stranglehold of the one, we 
are not forgetting the lethal poi- 
son distributed by the other. Our 
reverend correspondent has done 
well to direct attention to this 
phase of our corrupt and unjust 
economic system. 

Bon Voyage 

By Charles J. Quirk, S J., Louvain, Belgium 



Into the unknown; out to the wild; 
High-flung our laughter; 
Gay as a child. 

Visions of Springtime; red roses twine 

Our Grecian foreheads, 

Dizzy with wine. 
Glimpses of evening: calmed and still, 

Day's rubied bubble 

Sinks 'neath the hill. 

Memories of Night and cascade of stars; 
Hearts leaping upwards, 
Freed from Day's wars. 

Into the unknown; out to the wild; 
What waits the dreamer? 
Christ waits the child. 



204 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



June 1 



Notes and Gleanings 

The Rev. G. Vermeulen, of Cedar 
Rapids, Neb., in a letter to the editor, 
fortified by an affidavit, declares that 
he never made the statements attributed 
to him by a fellow-priest in the Fokt- 
xiGHTLY Review of March 1st, p. 91, 
concerning the cruelties of the Ger- 
mans in Belgium during the world war. 

Detroit Council No. 305 of the 
Knights of Columbus, in a resolution 
adopted March 21st, protested against 
the attitude of the official Columbia 
and the public utterances of Supreme 
Knight Flaherty on the Pelletier case 
(F. R., XXIX, 7, 129; 8, 140 sqq. ; 
10, 186, 187) as ''inimical to the ideals 
of the Order and to the American prin- 
ciples of respect of law and constituted 
authority,"' and unanimously "con- 
demned the action of the official organ 
and of the Siipreme Knight in this 
matter as unrepresentative of the 
knighthood of the Order and of the 
ideals of this Republic." The organ of 
the council, the Crusader, in its edition 
cf April 27th, justifies this protest and 
refutes the contention that Pelletier 
was removed because of political 
jealousy or religious bias. The Crusa- 
der says that "a crisis has arisen in the 
history of the K. of C." and that "the 
time has come when the membership 
must have the courage and the forti- 
tude to say whether they . . . are will- 
ing to sacrifice all the splendid heritage 
of the past . . . and by blind adherence 
to false prophets and unworthy pur- 
poses, go down to a future that will be 
tarnished with disgrace and hypocrisy." 

The feeling that the Order of the K. 
of C. is facing a crisis is widespread. 
Letters from different parts of the 
country show that the sentiments ex- 
pressed by the Detroit council are 
shared by many members throughout 
the country. \\'hile the regular organs 
of Catholic public opinion are for the 
most part silent, the parish calendars 
are beginning to Speak. "Out of this 
sad case one fact looms large," savs 



e. g., the Nativity Mentor, of Brooklyn 
(Vol. XXVn, No. 5). 'Tt is that a 
Catholic official carries into his office 
not merely his character, but his relig- 
ion, ^lalfeasance ruins his reputation 
and brings disgrace upon the Church 
of which he is a member. Of course, 
the Church is not responsible for his 
crime, any more than is the good 
mother responsible for the crime of her 
wayward boy. But rightly or wrong- 
ly, the world grasps the chance to 
blame the Church for the sins of her 
children. If Pelletier is guilty, the K. 
of C. should expel him ; if he is inno- 
cent, they should do all in their power 
to establish that innocence. To sup- 
port him, guilty or not guilty, [as Su- 
preme Knight Flaherty and the official 
Columbia are doing], is unthinkable." 

We regret to learn that St. Edward's 
College, at Austin, Tex., conducted by 
Fathers of the Holy Cross, was devas- 
tated by a cyclone, i^lay 4th. Holy Cross 
Hall was practically destroyed ; the 
gymnasium and natatorium were razed 
to the ground ; the power house and 
.store were completely demolished. The 
property damage is estimated at $300,- 
000, with but little insurance. Fortun- 
ately, only one life was lost. Bishop 
Drossaerts, of San Antonio, who visited 
the place soon after the storm, was so 
affected by the scene of destruction 
that met his view, that immediately 
after his return home he issued a letter 
to the people of his diocese to come to 
the rescue of St. Edward's. The 
Southern Messenger of San Antonio 
has opened a list of subscriptions. St. 
Edward's, to emiploy a phrase of the 
Bishop, "has been doing God's work 
nobly and well," not only for Texas, 
but for the entire Southwest, and there- 
fore the entire Southwest will no doubt 
help to rebuild it. 

To the existing translations (there 
are at least two) of the "Missale Rom- 
anum'' Abbot Cabrol has added another 
(Tours: Mame), which is reviewed at 
some length in No. 4272 of the London 
Tablet. The critic obiects to the addi- 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



205 



tion of certain prayers and hymns not 
found in the '*]\Iissale.'' "If one is to 
add prayers for general use," he says, 
"it is difficult to see where one should 
stop."' The better plan would no doubt 
be to translate the ]\Iissal just as it 
stands. In connection with this the 
Tablet writer discusses the question of 
style. The ordinary translations of 
liturgical books from the Latin, he de- 
clares, look very odd to a non-Catholic. 
The nature of the two languages is so 
different that it is impossible to trans- 
late literally from Latin into English 
without producing absurd effects. "The 
ideal in translation would seem to be 
something of this kind : to read the 
Latin carefully, to make sure that you 
understand exactly what the author 
says, then to say exactly the same 
thing, only in the way an Englishman 
would say it ; in short, to reproduce not 
the words, but the ideas." It seems a 
pity that some one with a good sense 
of English does not tackle the problem 
of giving us an English translation of 
Latin prayers, most of all of the Ordi- 
nary of the Mass, which need fear no 
comparison with the splendid language 
of the Anglican Book of Common 
Prayer. 

A communication from Washington 
calls the attention of the Catholic press 
to the fact that the Single Tax as a 
cure for nearly all economic evils is 
growing more popular from year to 
year. It is advocated, among others, 
by the N. Y. Freeman and, in a modi- 
fied form, by the Committee of Forty- 
Eight, a political group which intends 
to form a new party. The essential 
objection to the Single Tax, as advo- 
cated by Henry George, is explained in 
"The Fundamental Fallacy of Social- 
ism," by Arthur Preuss, 'St. Louis, 
Herder, 1908. It is the express or at 
least implied denial of the right of 
private ownership in land, which is also 
tb.e principal error of Socialism. The 
economic objection to depriving indi- 
viduals of an income from land values 
arises from the probable exhaustion of 
the land by those using it and their 
removal thereafter to other pieces of 



land to exploit the new land to ex- 
haustion. The Single Tax would involve 
theft or robbery, because all land values 
would be taken from the present own- 
ers without compensation. In opposi- 
tion to the Single Taxers and the So- 
cialists, the Catholic Church declares 
that it is not private ownership that is 
wrong, but the way it is now held and 
administered. Ryan and McGowan's 
"Catechism of the Social Question" 
recommends land taxes, but not taxes 
that would take all the land rent. A 
gradual shifting, it says, of the taxes 
on improvements would be just and 
beneficial, and "a super-tax on large 
holdings of land is desirable in some 
parts of the country." 

The Toronto Catholic Register is not 
at all enthusiastic over the introduction 
of the preacher as a performer in radio 
entertainments. While not denying 
that, under certain conditions, the wire- 
less telephone can be made a help for 
those who, for 'physical or other rea- 
sons, can go to church but rarely, our 
contemporary objects to the conversion 
of the possibilities for good of the 
radiograph into agencies for diminish- 
ing the already dwindling number of 
non-church-goers. '.' The Gospel mes- 
sage flashed to tens of thousands," it 
says, "can never have the power which 
the church setting gives it ; and this is 
far more true when it forms an item 
in a medly of negro melodies, dance 
nmsic, and comic recitations. Neither 
speaker nor audience can, under such 
circumstances, be attuned to the giving 
and receiving of a really religious mes- 
sage." The Register is undoubtedly 
right, and its objections apply in a 
large degree also to the participation of 
the Catholic clergy in the dissemination 
of radio sermons. 

The attitude taken by the episcopal 
curias of Denver and of several other 
American dioceses some years ago in 
refusing dispensations for mixed mar- 
riages to Catholic men who wished to 
marry non-Catholic women, is justified 
by Fr. Charles MacNeiry, C.SS.R., in 
his recently published booklet, "When, 



2C6 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



Whom, and How to Marry" (London: 
Burns, Gates & Washburne). The 
preface, written by the Bishop of Sal- 
ford, contains this warning: "Whatever 
excuse a young woman may have to 
marry a non-Cathohc, a Catholic young 
man has no excuse, normally, to marry 
a non-Catholic wife." Commenting on 
this attitude, Fr. Martin O'Branagan 
says in the London Universe : "It has 
been my contention for many years 
that whilst a 'mixed marriage" where 
the woman is Catholic, may be readily 
justified, the marriage of a Catholic 
man to a non-Catholic wife is, in 
ninety-five per cent of cases, a spiritual 
massacre of his offspring! In numer- 
ous instances the non-Catholic wife has 
not even summoned a priest to give her 
CathoHc husband the last Sacraments." 
If it is true, as the same reverend cor- 
respondent affirms, that in ninety-five 
per cent of the "mixed marriages" 
resulting in the loss of the offspring 
to the Catholic faith, the non-Catholic 
partner is the wife, whereas, when the 
wife is Catholic, the offspring nearly 
always is reared in the Catholic relig- 
ion, it would seem to fo.low that the 
marriage of Catholic men to non- 
Catholic women is, normally, against 
the law of nature, which forbids a free 
agent putting himself, zvithout neces- 
sity , into a proximate, absolute, and 
present occasion of sin, which no dis- 
pensation can justify. 

The ]\Iilwaukee Catholic Citisen, 
edited by a veteran of the Catholic 
press, who "has always been doubtful 
whether the N. C. W.' C.'s News Serv- 
ice was, upon the whole, a benefit or a 
detriment to the Catholic press," says 
(Vol. 52, No. 22) that "However well 
intended, [this service] did not measure 
up to the expectations of those actually 
engaged in the work of the Catholic 
press. . . . The men in charge did not 
study the wishes of their customers. 
This was ignoring one of the first prin- 
ciples of salesmanship. The Catholic 
press had an arrangement imposed 
upon it with little consultation or con- 
trol." Like the News Service of the 
N. C. W. C, its lay organization, too. 



was "an arrangement imposed [upon 
the faithful] with little consultation or 
control," — not a natural, organic devel- 
opment. It did not require the intellect 
of an angel, as the Michigan Catholic 
thinks, to foresee the inevitable end of 
both these ill-advised movements. All 
that was required was the scnsiis 
catholiciis coupled with the ordinary 
foresight resulting from long experience 
and careful observation. 

The Rev. Dr. Peter C. Yorke, of 
San Francisco, is not at all satisfied 
with the recent trend of political devel- 
opment in the U. S. He says the peo- 
ple seem to be utterly helpless. After 
they had rejected Wilson, "Harding 
took up his policies and carried them 
through with more determination and 
more success than even Cox wovild 
have dared to. Why? Because the 
stars in their courses fought for" it. 
America is committed to imperialism, 
and the only difference of opinion 
among Americans is the best way to 
reach the imperialistic goal. That glory 
abroad may mean slavery at home 
makes no dift'erence. We are schooled 
and drilled in slavery. . . . This is the 
present temper of America — a land that 
has sacrificed ordinary elementary per- 
sona! liberty and is now rapidly jetti- 
soning political liberty." 

A recent number of the Kmistchronik 
contains an article on Pius XI as a 
student of art. Father Ratti began his 
researches in art first as an assistant 
at the Ambrosian Library in iNIilan. In 
1907, an anonymous guide to the art 
treasures of the Ambrosiana appeared, 
presumably from, his pen. While still 
at Milan, he published a series of arti- 
cles in the Rassegna d'Arte, dealing 
with the treasures entrusted to his care. 
In 1902, he wrote a treatise on the gold 
altar in S. Ambrogio. In 1907, he 
brought to light a tablet containing a 
picture of Petrarch. In 1910, he proved 
that the "^ladonna with the Garland." 
painted bv Breughel and Rubens for 
Cardinal Borromeo, was identical with 
a painting in the Prado. In 1912, he 
discussed the connection of the "Holy 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



207 



Family"' by Luini, with Leonardo's 
London cartoon, and in the same year 
gave a number of irrefutable arguments 
to disprove the authenticity of the 
works ascribed to Fra Antonio da 
Monza. In 1904, he became one of the 
original founders of the Raccolta Vin- 
ciana, which has enjoyed his support 
ever since. It is said that his literary 
style is "vigorous and graceful" and 
tl:at, however surrovmded by books and 
treatises, he has never written a scien- 
tific paper for which he has not gone 
to the sources, using the "references," 
it at all, only when his own work was 
done, and then merely for comparison's 
sake. In other words, Pius XI is a real 
scholar, the first to occupy the papal 
throne since Leo XIII. 

-•■-♦--•-♦- 
Berlin has cordially welcomed the 
first American ambassador to the Ger- 
man Republic, Alanson B. Houghton, 
who just before leaving America said 
in a public speech : "I do not believe in 
the moral or spiritual or even the eco- 
nomic value of hate." If this sentence 
were made the motto of every interna- 
tional conference, of every council of 
ambassadors, of every session of Con- 
gress, and of every foreign treaty, the 
world would move towards a brighter 
future. 

Some untruths have been circulated 
of late in connection with the Pe'.letier 
case. ^Ir. Pelletier is said to have ad- 
vocated the control of the K. of C. 
war funds and work by the hierarchy 
against the opposition of Col. P. H. 
Callahan. The exact opposite is true. 
At the first meeting, in January 1918, 
between the bishops and the K. of C. 
Committee on War Activities, (of 
which Pelletier was not a member) 
Col. Callahan proposed to hand over 
all the war funds to IMsgr. Muldoon 
and to consult the bishops in all mat- 
ters pertaining to the same. The Su- 
preme Board of Directors, advised by 
Pelletier, opposed this measure and 
took advantage of every possible tech- 
nicality to avoid carrying it out. The 
conflict finally terminated in orders 
being issued by the hierarchy that all 



future drives for funds should be con- 
ducted by the N. C. W. C. and that 
the proceeds should be turned over to 
Bishop :\Iuldoon. On April 15, Col. 
Callahan resigned, upon Supreme 
Knight Flaherty's turning over $250,- 
000 of the K. of C. war funds to a 
man who was going abroad, and in 
whom Col. Callahan had no confidence, 
as he had made no returns for the 
monies already entrusted to him and 
did not give a bond in accordance with 
a ruling that everybody handling war 
funds should be bonded. 

It is doubtful wdiether a mere deacon 
will ever again be raised to the supreme 
pontificate, as so often happened dur- 
ing the Middle Ages. The last cardinal 
who never received priest's orders, was, 
if we are not mistaken. Cardinal An- 
tone.li, who died a few months before 
Pius IX. One of the most remarkable 
instances of a deacon's being elected 
pope is recalled by Fr. Benedict Zim- 
mermann in No. 4270 of the London 
Tablet. After the death of Celestine III, 
in 1198, the college of cardinals elected 
Lothair, Count Segni, cardinal deacon 
of the title of SS. Sergius and Bacchus, 
aged Z7, who took the name of Inno- 
cent III. He was a mere deacon, and 
as he considered himself unable to dis- 
pense in his own favor from the canon- 
ical rule as to ordination days, he had 
to wait till next Ember Sunday, Feb. 
21st, before being ordained to the 
priesthood. On the following day he 
was consecrated bishop and enthroned. 
He became one of the greatest of 
popes. The reason why in the early 
days deacons were so frequently raised 
to the episcopal dignity, and deacons of 
the Holy Roman Church to the papal 
throne, was that the temfporal and ex- 
ternal administration of the Church lay 
in the hands of deacons, while priests 
concerned themselves for the most part 
with purely spiritual functions. 

Seven comets are expected this year ; 
but whether any or all of them will 
appear according to schedule, is more 
than even astronomers can say. One 
of the expected visitors, De Vico's 



208 THE FOKTNIGHTLY REVIEW June 1 



The work of one who has given his entire life to the study of man, animal, plant 
and food. In his defense of truth, of purity, he has been plaintiff or defendant in 206 
libel suits— most of them brought by the richest profiteers^nd won every one of them. 
Some of his opponents he sent to jail. He has never lost a case — oral, written or legal. 

Hj is the best equipped man in the world to handle Darwinism, Wellsism, barn- 
yard materialism — Evolution. 

Colleges, Acadamies and Schools the country over — many of them religious — are 
teaching Evolution, teaching your children that they and you are come from a gorilla. 

Even ministers and "teacher-theologians" of our new Croesus-owned Christianity 
are chattering with tlie monkeys and hurling milkless nuts at a personal God and at 
normal God-made men and women. 

When your children insistently and trustingly ask you ' ' Who made us I ' ' — your 
answer must not be evasive, it must be truthful and you must choose for their maker 
either God — or a gorilla. 

God- or Gorilla 

By 

Alfred Watterson McCann 

The author of ' ' GOD — OR GORILLA ' ' does not argue with the popular idea of 
evolution, unless ripping the heart out of a thing can be called argument. He pretends 
to no gentleness as he shows the "intellectual" victims of scientific superstition that 
the very thing they profess to hate has possession of their souls. 

Mr. McCann gathers facts, proofs, contradictions, and flings them into sorry heaps 
with a breathlessness characteristic of the public prosecutor. He does not criticize the 
prevailing conception of evolution as expressed in the monkey-man theory; he tears it 
to pieces. Not content with scourging tlie self -esteemed educators who keep the simian 
fancy boiling in a caldron of anemic erudition, he demonstrates how no part of the 
dogma preached by these eminent anti-dogmatists fits into any other part. 

His methods are not suave, but terrifically penetrating. He is no smiling 
academician ; no dancing master attempting to turn controversialist. He seizes you by 
the heels and drags you into places you thought j-ou had explored, only to show you 
that the stuff you were taught to recognize as orthodox evolutionary science is flimsy 
phantasia, unsupported assertions, clumsy inconsistencies, physics without law, mathe- 
matics without numbers, deductions born in fraud and forgery. 

"But I never heard of that before! " you ejaculate, as you read his bristling dis- 
closures. "Of course you didn't," he retorts. "That's why you have been content to 
characterize the critics of evolution as ignorant fools who still believe the world. to be 
flat, and the sky a solid dome hung with chandeliers. ' ' 

As that great body of mankind which professes to believe in evolution can- 
not institute for itself a comparison of the hundred follies upon which its belief is 
based, he has done the work for it, so that henceforth it may have no reason to offer 
for its stubborn adherence to a system of error about which the learned ignorami talk 
as glibly as if they knew what they were talking about. 

29 Illustrations of Your Ancestors 
Price $8.00 Net; $3.15 Postpaid At Bookstores or from Publishers 

THE DEVIN-ADAIR CO., Publishers 

437 Fifth Avenue New York 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



209 



comet, which returns every 75 years, 
was "due'' in 1921, and its arrival is 
still being awaited. Another, Brorsen's, 
has consistently defied the astronomical 
time-tables on seven occasions and may, 
it is thought, have come to grief be- 
tween visits. 

Fr. Francis Borgia Steck, O.F.jSL, is 
tc. our knowledge the first competent 
scholar to criticize from the Catholic 
point of view **The Chronicles of 
America,"' a widely advertised series 
of fifty monographs on American his- 
torv, edited by Dr. Allen Johnson and 
published by the Yale University Press. 
Father Steck, in the Franciscan Herald 
for May, approves as "strictly impar- 
tial, scrupulously accurate, and elevat- 
ing in style and sentiment"' only twelve 
volumes out of the whole series, name- 
ly, "Crusaders of the New France," 
"The Fathers of New England," "The 
Fathers of the Constitution," "'Jefferson 
and His Colleagues," "John Marshall 
and the Constitution," "The Old North- 
west,"' "The Reign of Andrew Jack- 
son," "The Paths of Inland Commerce," 
"The Spanish Borderlands"' (which, 
however, should have been made Vol. 
Ill of the series, instead of Volume 
XXIIl), "Captains of the Civil War," 
"The Sec|uel of Appomatox,'" and "The 
Hispanic Nations of the New World." 
The other volumes are all more or less 
unsatisfactory. Besides, there is mani- 
fest throughout the series a lack of 
unified presentation and harmonious 
interpretation of the facts, which defect 
Fr. Steck justly considers serious, 
since it must cause confusion and there- 
by defeat the express purpose of "The 
Chronicles,'" namely, to help those "not 
in the habit of reading history" to a 
better knowledge of and a greater love 
for their country. We would advise 
intending purchasers to read Fr. Steck's 
criticjue before they order these books. 

A ]\Iarian library, i. e., a collection 
of books dealing with the Blessed Vir- 
gin Mary, has been founded in connec- 
tion with the new "National Shrine of 
the Immaculate Conception" at Wash- 
ington, D. C. Dr. Shahan describes it 



enthusiastically in an article contributed 
by him to the Catholic press. The 
"Mariana," as it is called, already num- 
bers about 2,000 volumes, among them 
such rare gems as Cardinal Torquema- 
da's treatise on the Immaculate Con- 
ception, which the late Dr. Edward 
Preuss, when, as a Protestant profes- 
sor, he prepared his famous work 
against that dogma, vainly sought in a 
dozen libraries, until he unexpectedly 
came across a copy in the monastery 
of St. Peter at Salzburg, Austria. The 
"Mariana"' owes its existence to Mr. 
George Logan Duval, a wealthy New 
Yorker. Dr. Shahan hopes that "this 
fine Marian library will rapidly grow 
richer, not alone in English works, but 
in the choicest materials from every 
great Christian language." 

The Church Progress (Vol. 46, No. 
6) is authority for the statement that 
the Evangelical Protestant Alliance, a 
clerical and lay federation of New 
York churches, proposes another 
amendment to the federal Constitution, 
which, by its provisions, "would ipro- 
scribe the teaching and profession of the 
Roman Catholic faith within the United 
States and all territories subject to the 
jurisdiction thereof.'" This proposal, 
as our contemporary justly observes, 
is not only destructive of one of the 
most sacred provisions of the Consti- 
tution — freedom of religious worship — 
but marks the high tide of religious 
fanaticism. It would be undeserving 
of notice were it not for the accredited 
standing and reputed intelligence of 
those who father it. The Church 
Progress is sure that the proposal will 
meet with condemnation by the great 
mass of fair-minded Americans. No 
doubt it will. But the question arises : 
Do the fair-minded who are "uncon- 
vertible to such a monstrous move- 
ment,"' .constitute the majority of the 
American voters? We are not so sure 
cf that, for the number of anti-Catho- 
lic fanatics has vastly increased of late 
years, and no one can tell how soon they 
may be able to control an election. 
When that moment comes, no anti- 
Catholic measure will be too preposter- 



210 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 



Otis or too monstrous to be adopted 
and, if possible, incorporated into the 
Constittttion. The ftittire of rehgiotis 
hberty in America does not look 
promising, say we. 

The Rev. Dr. Charles Bruehl, of 
Overbrook Seminary, in the Homiletic 
and Pastoral Rcviezv for May, insists 
on the importance of good catechetical 
instruction. Few lay Catholics receive 
any systematic religious instruction 
beyond what they get at school. Hence 
the wide-spread ignorance of religion 
which Pius X deplored ("Acerbo 
nimis," 15 Apr. 1905) as "the main 
cause of the present indifference and 
torpor, as we'd as of the very serious 
evils that flow from it." Dr. Bruehl 
is not favorably inclined towards the 
new methods introdttced by Shields, 
jNlcEachen, and others. On the con- 
trary, he thinks that too close an asso- 
ciation with modern pedagogics may 
prove harmful, because modern peda- 
gogics is for the most part based on 
uhcatholic principles and inspired by a 
false philosophy. But he insists all the 
more strongly that the instruction 
in Christian doctrine be imparted by 
priests, who alone can give it the full- 
ness that makes it both interesting and 
vital and that can come only from a 
thorough theological training. Mean- 
while. Fr. Hull is pleading in the 
Examiner for a simplification of the 
catechism and shows how this demand 
could be met without detriment to the 
traditional method of instruction, 
which has so fully demonstrated its 
efficacy, whereas the various new sys- 
tems have not yet stood the acid test 
of experience. 

In 1895, Dr. Carl Schmidt discovered 
in the Institut de la Mission Arch<§o- 
logique at Cairo, a Coptic papyrus 
manuscript, which, it is believed, be- 
longed originally to the monastery of 
Shenute. The manuscript dates back 
to 400 A. D., though the document it- 
self was probably written about the 
year 150. It is an anti-Gnostic circular 
letter, ascribed to the Apostles. Dr. 
Schmidt published it in 1919, under the 



title ''Gesprache Jesu mit seinen Jiin- 
gern nach der Auferstehung. Ein ka- 
tholisch-apostolisches Sendschreiben des 
zweiten Jahrhunderts" (Leipsic). It is 
better known as "Epistola Apostolo- 
rum." Dr. H. Schumacher gives a brief 
survey of its history and contents in 
the Homiletic and Pastoral Reviezv for 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS 
TRY OUR BRANDS 

THEY HAVE STOOD THE TEST 
SINCE 1860 




You will make no mistake by giving us a per- 
sonal call to verify the quality and view our 
assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

WESTERHEIDE 
Tobacco and Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Phones: Bell Tyler 788 Kinloch Central 4039 L 
Mail otders promptly filled 



St. Louis Pipe Organ Co. 



Electro, Tubular Pneumatic, 

and Tracker Organs 
for Church and Concert Hall 

Prompt attention given to Repairs and Rebuilding 

of every description 

Blowers attached 

Office, 2209-11 Lynch Street 

Phone Sidney 361 ST. LOUIS, MO. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



211 



May (pp. 856-865). He considers this 
apocryphal book, hitherto unknown, as 
"a memorable source of knowledge 
and a gold mine that will, under further 
research, yield valuable treasures, espe- 
cially to the student of New Testament 
theology and ecclesiastical history." 

In his ascetical notes in the May 
Homilctic and Pastoral Review, Dom 
S. Louismet, O.S.B., quotes a prescrip- 
tion for good health, happiness, and a 
long life given by an old whimsical 
M, D. It runs thus : "Commit no sin 
and keep the bozuels open." 
-••■♦--•--•- 

The Ave Maria (Vol. XV, N. S., 
No. 18) deplores that "tens of thou- 
sands of Catholic young men are stu- 
dents of secular colleges and univer- 
sities. Confronted with this fact, our 
contemporary says, "the ecclesiastical 
authorities have established Newman 
Halls, Catholic social centres, and sim- 
ilar breakwaters against the tide of 
false philosophy, materialism, and 
agnosticism constantly flowing through 
the class-rooms and lecture-halls of 
these institutions." While these meas- 
ures are, under the circumstances, most 
commendable, "it would be a disastrous 
mistake to declare, or believe, that they 
furnish a sufficient reason why Catholic 
young men, whose parents can afford to 
send them to Catholic colleges, may 
prudently attend these non-Catholic in- 
stitutions. Such attendance is purely; 
and simply an evil, tolerated when the 
poverty of the youth precludes his 
going to a Catholic college, . . . but 
inexcusable, as voluntary exposure to 
the danger of losing one's faith, where 
the plea of poverty can not be urged. 
No Newman Hall or Catholic social 
centre, however well organized, can 
serve as an effective equivalent for the 
atmosphere of our own institutions, or 
an effective antidote to the poison im- 
bibed in the great majority of secular 
institutions." That has been exactly 
our own position on this important 
question, and we cannot but view with 
regret occasional articles in the Cath- 
olic press which create the impression 
that at certain non-Catholic universities 



Catholic students are religiously so 
well provided for that there is no 
longer any danger to their faith. We 
cordially endorse the slogans proposed 
by the Ai'e Maria: "Every Catholic 
child in a Catholic school!" and "No 
Catholic youth in a non-Catholic col- 
lege !" 

G. Schalk points out in Herder's 
Literarischcr Handweiser (Vol. 58, 
No. 4) that Socialism is no longer as 
antagonistic to religion as it used to be 
in the days of Marx and Engels. It is, 
on the contrary, trying to approach re- 
ligion from the ethical side. Of course, 
the ethical system of even the most 
moderate Sociahsts is not that of the 
Catholic Church. Schalk calls it "Kul- 
turoptimismus" and describes it as "an 
ardent belief that spirit will conquer 
matter and that man will eventually 
gain the mastery over things and con- 
ditions. But as this belief is detached 
from the sole foundation of all true 
religiosity, namely, the idea of a per- 
sonal God who imposes duties and ob- 
ligations, it cannot get beyond the limits 
of a religious humanism." The writer 
rejects the name "Christian Socialism" 
and says it has no sense except in the 
mouths of those who wish to carry the 
spirit of Christian charity into econ- 
omics. Socialism is plainly in a period 
of transition, and those who realize 
how much truth it contains and how 
much good its adherents possess, will, 
in view of recent developments, cease 
to denounce it as anti-religious, but 
sympathetically await the outcome of 

Colleges and Academies 

can have very satisfactory service 
from the old established house of 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Eighth Street 
Cincinnati, Ohio 

We print and bind, and can furnish engravings 
for pamphlets, folders, booklets 



212 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 1 



The Holy Father Benedict XV. has favored this work with a special letter of recommendation 



A Parochial Course of Doctrinal Instructions 

For All Sundays and Holydays off the Year 

Based oa the Catechism of the Council of Trent, and Harmonized with the 
Gospels and Epistles of the Sundays and Feasts 

Prepared and Arranged by the Rev. Charles J. Callan, O. P., and the Rev. J. A. McHugh, O. P. 
With an Introduction by the Most Rev. Patrick J. Hayes, D. D., Archbishop of New York. 

Complete in Four Volumes 
Price per rolnnie, bonnd in clotli, net, $3.60 



HIGHLY PRAISED BY 
From the Ecclesiastical Review: 

"The publication inaugurates a new era of pa- 
rochial activity. ... If it were adopted under 
episcopal direction it would soon dispel the intel- 
lectual indifference of Catholics who go to church 
and frequent the sacraments, but who are incapa- 
ble of either defending their religion against 
popular attacks or of illustrating its power of 
truth and beauty so as to make it respected 
among those outside the Church." 

From the Homiletic and Pastoral Review: 

"The work before us is intended to remedy the 
evil of desultory preaching. In the regeneration 



EMINENT REVIEWERS : 

of modern pulpit eloquence the present work will 
render yeoman service." 

From America: 

"Too commonly books of sermons are modeled 
on courses of theology for seminaries, altogether 
too didactic and too rigidly systematic for paro- 
chial or popular use. Not so with this excellent 
course by two men who are not only expert in 
preaching and teaching, but conversant also with 
what is most practical and recent in sermon 
literature. . . . With these courses one could for 
a lifetime use this book and ever have something 
new, interesting and convincing to say." 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER 

23 Barclay Street 



(Inc.) Publishers 

NEW YORK 



STOP! LOOK! LISTEN! 



Seg 



If Wc Cannot Give You Greater Value 

We Are Not Entitled to Your Patronage 

rt f»Q '" ^^y ^^2®' shape or price, from $6.00 to $30.00 per 100. From 
clI o the humblest Domestic to the most exquisite CLEAR HABANA 

Seven Years Old as a Mail Order House — 

Fifty-six Years Young as a Segar Honse 



Catalogue and prices 
mailed on request 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 1866 

58 North Pearl Street BUFFALO, N. Y. 



America Press 

a JOB PRINTING iJ 

done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. ST. Louis. Mo 



BADGE5,| 

BUTTONS&PINS:/? 



SEALS,! 

AMPS' 
I STENCILS ^M ETSL CHECKsJ 



92 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



213 



the changes that are going on within 
the SociaHst movement. 

The Christian Cynosure, of Chicago 
(Vol. LIV, No. 12) prints the text of 
tlie burial and memorial services of the 
Loyal Order of ^loose. Both have 
a distinctly religious cast. Dr. J. A. 
Rondthaler. "Dean of ]\loosehart." in 
a statement on "The Moose Religion" 
is quoted {ibid.) as follows: "God is 
in the Loyal Order of Moose. . . . The 
ritual teems with God's thoughts from 
the Bible. The Bible holds the high 
place of honor on the altar in the cen- 
ter of the lodge. Worship of God 
swathes the ceremonies of the initiation 
01 every Moose. Under the most im- 
pressive conditions he takes his obliga- 
tion upon the great religious book of 
Jew and Gentile, of Protestant and 
Catholic." We suspect that the role of 
the Bible in the "Moose religion" is 
the same as in Freemasonry, which is 
authentically described in "A Study in 
American Freemasonry," by Arthur 
Preuss, Chapter XI, where it is shown 
that the praises given to the Bible 
mean nothing on the lips of Masons, 
since to Masonry the Bible is only one 
of several "books of divine revelation," 
on a level, therefore, with the Koran, 
the Vedas, the Zendavesta, etc. A Cath- 
olic, it seems to us, can no more em- 
brace the "Moose religion" without 
ceasing to be a Catholic than he can 
become a Freemason. 

The Irish Ecclesiastical Record in its 
Xo. 651 severely criticizes "Institu- 
tiones Theologiae Naturalis" by Fr. 
G. J. Brosnan, S.J. (Chicago: Loyola 
Press), which has been extravagantly 
praised by some American reviewers. 
The critic objects to the author's choice 
of fundamental arguments for the ex- 
istence of God. The argument from 
the universal consent of mankind, for 
instance, is rejected by Billot, Mercier, 
and other leading Catholic writers. Fr. 
Brosnan's principal fault is that he 
"does not take full advantage of the 
resources of contemporary Scholasti- 
cism." In other words, he is not up to 
date. Unfortunatelv, this weakness 



vitiates much of our philosophical and 
theological writing. It is encouraging, 
therefore, to see such an influential 
magazine as the Irish Ecclesiastical 
Record censure the common practice 
of rehashing arguments that appealed 
to past generations, but have no co- 
gency to-day. x\pologetic writing in 
particular cannot prove effective unless 
it meets the fresh points of view in- 
troduced by modern science. 
-•- -^ -•- -•- 

The Statutes of the Diocese of 
Crookston, promulgated by the Right 
Rev. Timothy Corbett, D.D., are so 
very excellent that they may serve as 
a "manuale parochorum" even out- 
side that diocese. The divisions follow 
the divisions of Books II and III of 
the Code. Every page betrays the 
skilful pen of a canonist and breathes 
the spiritiis sentiendi cum Ecclesia. 
The tracts on "Matrimony," "Church 
Music," and "The Teaching Office of 
the Church" deserve special praise. 
Xumerous formulae, both Latin and 
English, enhance the value of this, the 
most practical "diocesan synod" that we 
have ever seen. As the book has been 
sent to us for criticism, we make bold 
to add the following observation : 
Canon 130 of the Code 'prescribes that 
the examinations for the junior clergy 
be extended through three years at 
least (saltein), but the Baltimorense 
HI (p. 95, No. 187) commands that 
they extend through five years at least 
(saltein). Xow, Canon 6, 1, prescribes 
that the old laws still have binding 
force unless they are opposed to the 
Code, but the enactment of the Balti- 
morense does not run counter to Canon 
130, any more than Canon 1367, 2, 
which directs bishops to see to it that 
seminarists receive Holy Communion 
"frequently." is opposed to Canon 858. 
which demands that all the faithful 
receive the Holy Eucharist "seinel in 
anno." Church history and liturgy must 
be included in the matter of these ex- 
aminations, since the Baltimorense so 
decrees (p. 95, Xo. 187) and the local 
ordinaries cannot dispense from the 
decrees of a plenary council except in 
particular cases (canon 291, § 2). 



214 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



June 1 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
(53''d InstalUnent) 

Encouraged by the success of my first year 
book, I published another for St. Roman's 
Church in 1905. It contained information 
about the services held in St. Roman's Church, 
explanations and directions about marriage, 
baptism, confessions, Sunday school, and 
funerals, a report on the choir and the 
schools, followed by advice concerning the 
horne life of Catholics. The census contained 
in it gives the names of 700 members, w^ith 
their addresses; is shows that 231 were bap- 
tized from the beginning of the parish in 
1885 up 1^0 1905 ; that 63 marriages were 
celebrated, and 69 persons died during the 
time. It concludes with some notes about 
the hospital and the convent. 

Of course the building of the large hospital 
and chapel necessitated a good many trips 
and a good deal of thinking and planning. 
Nevertheless, one of my principal occupations 
and my supreme joy in those days was the 
colored school in a corner of the Sisters' 
property. From that humble work I promised 
myself and the community the most abun- 
dant blesisngs as an act of obedience to the 
wishes of Our Holy Father. Commandant 
Benedict Silvain, plenipotentiary of the Re- 
public of Haiti at the court of the Abessynian 
Emperor Menelik, a fiery champion of the 
colored race, in those days addressed a 
memorial to the Pope on the subject of the 
Catholic Church and the black race. In reply 
the Cardinal Secretary of State wrote by 



order of the Pope : "It gives special satis- 
faction to the Holy Father that you in your 
honorable quality as general delegate of the 
Pan-African Union, have opened a new field 
for your zeal and that of others, by found- 
ing here in Rome the work of social eleva- 
tion for the colored people. Its aim and 
end is to remove the old and unreasonable 
prejudice against the blacks, to secure for 
the European colonists their well-founded 
rights, and to open to the black race an op- 
portunity to raise itself up to the heights of 
Christian culture and to show to the whole 
world that it runs counter to charity and 
justice to keep this race forever in its low- 
condition. Therefore, His Holiness, uniting 
his voice with that of his predecessors, sends 
his heartiest congratulations and best wishes 
for the noble undertaking to which j'ou have 
devoted yourself with your whole heart. 
The Holy Father hopes that all who feel 
within themselves the living principle of 
brotherly love prescribed by the God-Man, 
will assist you with all possible help." 

These sentiments, and a desire to help the 
poorest of the poor, made the colored school 
an object of my most tender care. Knowing 
that we receive Christ in receiving the poor, 
I trust that this interest in the negro will 
not remain unrewarded. In the same spirit 
Father Matthew worked for the colored 
school at Pocahontas. 

During the fall the walls of the new 
hospital and the church rose steadily, and it 
was thought that the work could be finished 
by New Year's. In October, the hospital 
buildings were so far completed that a two 
day's festival could be held in them, on the 



A TIMELY NEW BOOK 

of Special Interest to Women : 

GRACEFULNESS OR FOLLY 

WHICH SHALL IT BE? 

Edited by the REV. DR. C. BRUEHL 

Published with the "Imprimatur" of the Archbishop of New York 

An excellent booklet to assist in combatting the shameless fashion in lYomen's dress 

15,000 COPIES SOLD I:^^ two weeks 

Price 10 cents — $1.00 per doz. — |7.00 per 100 

J. SCHAEFER, Publisher, 23 Barclay St., New York, N. Y. 

When ordering refer to the Fortnightly Review 




ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



215 



24th and 25th of October, 1904. With it was 
connected a successful bazaar for the benefit 
of the new hospital. 

By this time our Protestant friends were 
eager to have a hospital of their own. They 
bought a large house and several organiza- 
tions furnished rooms ; but the hospital did 
not last long. 

Chapter XXV 
WEI NER— MEETING OF THE COX- 
SULTORS TO PROPOSE A COAD- 
JUTOR—COMPLETION OF ST. 
BERNARD'S HOSPITAL 

Father Cattani, in 1905, erected a church 
in Weiner, where a number of German Cath- 
olics had settled. In that place the prospects 
for a good congregation were far better 
than they had been in Pocahontas and other 
places at the start. The families settled there 
were of the right kind, without any mixed 
marriages : the people bought land there in 
the confident hope soon to have, besides the 
church, a Catholic school and a resident 
priest. However, the place could not be 
regularly attended to for w^ant of priests, 
and in consequence 'a number of the best 
families left. The same thing happened, for 
the same reason, in Hardy, where at one 
time fourteen families owned homes. At 
present Weiner is a prosperous town. The 
farmers of the neighborhood, besides the 
usual products, successfully raise rice. It is to 
be hoped that the congregation at that place 
will after all, develop into a good Catholic 
parish. 

In 1905, the consultors of the diocese were 
called together to propose a coadjutor for 
Bishop Fitzgerald, who was gradually getting 
feebler. The consultors proposed the name 
of three diocesan priests. 

In Jonesboro the work on the large ad- 
dition to St. Bernard's Hospital and the 
beautiful convent chapel, and the power 
house was nearing its completion. In the 
spring of 1906 the Catholic graveyard was 
cleaned, surveyed, laid out into lots, and 
fenced in. All this naturally involved much 
work, but I felt strong enough to do it all. 
However, one morning, on a visit to Poca- 
hontas, I arose with rheumatism in my left 
arm ; after a couple of days I could not 
raise my arm and consequently could not 
say Mass. After returning to Jonesboro, I 
went to St. Bernard's Hospital. Dr. Pelton, 
my physician, ordered me to stay in bed. 
Like many others, I thought I was indis- 
pensable and did not realize my condition. 
The doctor finding me on a ladder in the 
chapel, said to me, "You might be dead at 
any minute." "So might you," I replied. 
However, as he told me that my heart was 
in bad condition, I retired to my room. I 
was now commanded to take absolute rest, 
and had to take digitalis, strychnine, and 
arsenic, which I did with great reluctance. 
{To be continued) 



Literary Briefs 



An Antidote against Wells 

We recommend to those Catholics who 
have unfortunately and inadvertently read 
H. G. Wells' "Outlines of History", the 57 
page brochure by Richard Downey entitled 
"Some Errors of H. G. Wells." These pages 
are well worth perusal, even by those who 
have not read the much advertised Eng- 
lish novelist's unhistorical history. Dr. Dow- 
ney's arguments are effective and convinc- 
ing. (Benziger Bros.) 

"The Life of Patrick Augustine Feehan" 

It is still too early to write a biography of 
the late x^rchbishop Feehan of Chicago, but 
Fr. C. J. Kirkfleet, Ord. Praem., has done 
the next best thing in preparing, with the 
assistance of Bishop Muldoon, a collection 
of documents, newspaper clippings, and anec- 
dotes apt to serve the future biographer in 
his work. The book has a preface by Bishop 
Muldoon and is beautifully printed and em- 
bellished with sixteen portraits. (Chicago: 
Matre & Co.) 

Two Mission Pamphlets 

"Maryknoll at Ten" is another interesting 
piece of apostolic writing in the interests of 
the foreign missions. This pamphlet is pro- 
fusely illustrated and gives a most readable 
account of the American Seminary for For- 
eign Missions. (Issued by the Catholic Foreign 
Mission Society of America, Maryknoll, Os- 
sining P. O., N. Y.) 

It is a pleasure to call attention to the 
increasing stream of books dealing with the 
Catholic missions. Father Dreves gives us 
"A Joyful Herald of the King of Kings," 
to which Cardinal Bourne has added a letter 
of commendation, which the little book amply 
deserves. (B. Herder Book Co.) 
The English Translation of the "Summa" 

The latest (15th) volume that has reached 
us of the literal translation of the "Summa 
Theologica" of St. Thomas Aquinas by the 
Fathers of the English Dominican Province, 
comprises questions LXXX to C of the 
Secunda Secundae, dealing with the virtue of 
religion and the vices opposed to it, super- 
stition and irreligion (perjury, sacrilege, 
simony). Perjury in particular, is to-day a 
timely topic, and one can gain clear notions 
on this subject by reading St. Thomas. We 
are glad this translation of the "Summa" is 
nearing completion. It is a monumental work 
that deserves a place in every library. (Ben- 
ziger Brothers). 



216 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Juue 1 



Father Plater's Testament 

One of the late Father Charles Plater's 
last works, if not his last, is the "A Week 
End Retreat." Father Plater was one of 
the instigators and moving spirits of the 
modern laymen's retreat movement, and this 
little book, coming as it does after his death, 
may be regarded as his last will and testa- 
ment to Catholics. It gives a splendid resume 
of the famous Ignatian retreat, which has 
been so effectively made use of for lay-folk 
in these latter days. The book cannot be 
read : it must be meditated upon, preferably 
a page a day. May it help to increase the 
popularity of laymen's retreats. (B. Herder 
Book Co.) 
Picture Books for Catholic Children 

Under the title, "Uncle Pat's Picture 
Books,"' the Mellifont Press, Dublin, has pub- 
lished three colored picture books for Cath- 
olic children, "all designed, printed and 
bound in Ireland." The first is entitled 
"Credo" and explains the Apostles' Creed; 
the second, "Uncle Pat's Playtime Book," 
contains illustrated tales, poems, puzzles, and 
jokes: the third, "Tales of the Gaels", retells 
in simple style "some stories of Finn and the 
Fenians," — not the modern secret society of 
that name, but the valiant army that guarded 
Ireland long before St. Patrick. These books 
are creditable productions in their line, and 
we recommend them. (B. Herder Book Co.) 

Indulgences as a Social Factor 

Fr. Elliot Ross, C. S. P., has rendered a 
service of genuine value in translating Msgr. 
Paulus's essay on "Indulgences as a Social 
Factor in the Middle Ages," which was 
warmly recommended in the F. R. at the 
time of its publication in the original Ger- 
man. Supplementing the author's statements 
en the social effect of indulgences, the trans- 
lator gives a brief theological explanation 
of indulgences as a remission of the whole 
or a part of the temporal punishment due 
to forgiven sins. Thus complemented, the 
book will prove of apologetic value. The 
numerous typographical errors in the foot- 
notes will no doubt be corrected in a second 
edition. (The Devin-Adair Co., New York). 

"The Jesuits, 1534—1921" 

Under the above title Fr. Thos. J. Camp- 
bell. S. J., has published what pretends to 
be "A History of the Society of Jesus from 
its Foundation to the Present Time." In 
reality the book (a bulky volume of over 
poo pages) is an apologia rather than a his- 
tory, and vitiated by the author's well-known 
defects of style and method. In the words 



of the London Tabid (Xo. 4270), it is a 
long drawn out pamphlet rather than a sober 
contribution to history. The author "drifts 
from point to point, using any. material at 
his hand, and putting down the next idea 
that occurs to him without considering the 
whole work." There arc many signs of haste 
and imperfection throughout the book (cfr. 
Studies, March, p. 145 ff. ; The Month, No. 
693, and America, 1922, pp. 353 f.) We would 
add to these criticisms that the book fairly 
reeks with typographical errors. In spite of 
all these faults, however, Fr. Campbell's 
work will appeal to many readers by the 
popularity of its style and the variety of its 
contents. For our part, we should have pre- 
ferred a reprint of Fr. Pollen's scholarly 
article on the Society of Jesus from the 
Catholic Encyclopedia. (New York: The 
Encyclopedia Press). 

Books Received 

Year Book of the Diocese of Indianapolis, 
1922. 60 pp. i2nio. Issued from the Chan- 
cery by Order of the Rt. Rev. Joseph 
Chartrand, D. D., Bishop of Indianapolis. 

Moral Problems in Hospital Practice. A 
Practical Handbook by the Rev. Patrick 
A. Finney, C. M., University of Dallas, 
xiv i*t 208 pp. i2mo. B. Herder Book Co. 
$1.25 net. 

The Truth about the Treatv and the Irish 
Free State. By J. J. O'Kelly, T. D., Irish 
Delegate to the U. S. 14 pp. i6mo. Wrap- 
per. Bronx. N. Y. : M. A. O'Connell, 917 
Eagle Ave. (Wrapper). 

Christology. A Dogmatic Treatise on the 
Incarnation. By the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Jos. 
Pohle, Ph. D., D. D. Adapted and Edited 
by Arthur Prenss. Fourth Revised Edi- 
tion, iv & 311 pp. i2mo. B. Herder Book 
Co. $1.50 net. 

The Life and Ilinrs of John Carroll, Arch- 
bishop of Baltimore {1733 — 1813). By Pe- 
ter Guilday, Professor of Church History 
in the Catholic University of America, 
xvi & 864 pp. Svo. Illustrated. New York: 
The Encyclopedia Press. $5 net. 

America's Thanksgiz'ing. Our Blessings and 
Responsibilities. A Sermon Delivered by 
the Rev. Wm. F. :McGinnis, D. D., LL. D., 
at the Thirteenth Annual Pan-American 
Mass, St. Patrick's Church, Washington, 
D. C. Thanksgiving Day, 1921. 16 pp. 
i6mo. Brooklyn, N. Y. : The International 
Catholic Truth Society. 7 cts. postpaid. 
(Wrapper). 

Teaching the Drama and the Essay. By 
Brother Leo, of the Brothers of the 
Christian Schools, viii & 81 pp. i6mo. 
New York : Schwartz, Kirwin & Fauss. 
75 cts. 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 12 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



June 15, 1922 



The Case of Sister Anne Catherine Emmerich 

By the Rev. Hubert Hartmann, S. J., Emmerich, Germany 



The geimiiieiiess of the visions 
and other ecstatic manifestations 
vouchsafed to Yen. Anne Cathe- 
rine Emmerich, including her stig- 
mata, has never been seriously 
disputed. It was established dur- 
ing her lifetime by means of care- 
ful medical examinations, of eccle- 
siastical inquiries, and especially 
of a rigorous investigation made 
by the civil authorities. The reader 
can find detailed information on 
this head in Dr. F. Niessen 's book, 
"A. K. Emmerichs Charismen uiid 
Gesichte," Treves, 1918. To these 
investigations must be added the 
testimonies of many eminent 
Catholics, who visited Sister Em- 
merich and entered into personal 
relations with her. Several of 
them were moved to return to the 
practice of the faith through her 
influence. Prominent among these 
was her phvsiciaii. Dr. Wesener 
(1782—1832), who came to the 
bedside of the ecstatica as a doubt- 
ing unbeliever, with the avowed 
purpose of ''exposing the fraud," 
but instead became a believer and 
a devout Catholic. One of the 
most important documents regard- 
ing Anne Catherine is Dr. Wese- 
ner 's diary (March 22, 1813 to 
Nov. 3, 1819), from which Dr. 
Niessen has printed liberal ex- 
tracts. We must also mention 
Clemens August, later archbishop 
of Cologne; the saintly Father 
Overberg, who, with P. Limberg, 



served as her spiritual director; 
the famous poet-convert Louise 
Heiisel, who became an intimate 
friend of Anne Catherine; the 
bishops Michael Sailer and Melch- 
ior von Diepenbrock, and, last but 
not least, Clemens Brentano, of 
whom Louise Hensel says in her 
memoirs, which she wrote in 1859 
at the request of Fr. C. E. Schmo- 
ger, C.SS.R. : "I must bear wit- 
ness that my dearty beloved de- 
parted friend [Anne Catherine] 
once told me that she had been 
commanded by God to tell Clemens 
of her visions and have him put 
them down on paper." (Niessen, 
p. 151). We may note here that 
Brentano owed his conversion, 
under God, to Sister Emmerich, 
with whom he spent five years, 
from 1819 to 1824, and that he 
remained a devout Catholic all the 
rest of his life. The work he did 
for Ven. Anne Catherine he re- 
garded as "a task assigned to him 
by Qod." After that time he never 
wrote a line which might be quoted 
to his discredit. He deprived him- 
self of necessaries, and wore fad- 
ed and patched clothes in order to 
be able to practice charity towards 
others. The most remarkable 
thing in his career, says Dr. Volk, 
was '.'the patience and persever- 
ance with which this vivacious 
chap, who up to then had been 
accustomed to speak in big cities 
and in high society, undertook to 
observe and record the graces 



218 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 15 



which God conferred on the poor 
Augustinian nun, in the conviction 
that this was the object for which 
he had been led to Diihnen. Com- 
pared with the privations and 
persecutions' which he assumed 
for the honor of God, life in a 
Trappist monastery of the strict- 
est persuasion, in my opinion, 
would be a mere bagatelle." 
Brentano lived the life of a hermit 
in the world and thereby 'learned 
in the best possible school how to 
live and work with the Church, to 
share her joys and sorrows, and 
to promote her interests in every 
direction." (Niessen, pp. 169 sq. 
Cfr. also Brentano 's Life by Diel- 
Kreiten and the beautiful portrait 
of him painted by Dr. -Heinrich in 
the ''Vereinsschrift" of the Gor- 
res Society for 1878). 

The persons whose names we 
have mentioned were ocular wit- 
nesses of the stigmata and the 
extraordinary graces possessed by 
Ven. Anne Catherine Emmerich. 
Other great contemporary Catho- 
lics, e. g., Joseph von Gorres, Dr. 
Mohler, Abbot Haneberg, von 
Steinle, Windischmann, Moufang, 
von Reisch, Johannes Janssen, 
Alban Stolz, Scheeben, P. Mesch- 
ler, S. J., etc., etc., were just as 
firmly convinced of the genuine- 
ness of Anne Catherine's visions 
and charismata, and it may be 
broadly said that no doubts were 
expressed in this regard until 
1908, when Dr. Stahl published his 
dissertation on ''P. Martin Cocli- 
ems Passio Christi und ihre Quel- 
len," which was further elaborat- 
ed by Dr. H. Cardauns under the 
title, ** Clemens Brentano, Bei- 
trage namentlich zur Emmerich- 
frage" (''Vereinsschrift" of the 
Gorres Society for 1915). This 
book marks a break with the tradi- 
tional view of the visions of Anne 



Catherine. Cardauns does not ex- 
pressly deny these visions, but he 
speaks of them invariably within 
quotation marks and asserts that 
the}^ were inspired mainly by her 
knowledge of old traditions, and, 
consequently, by natural and very 
simple factors. But he does not 
prove his assertion. Dr. Niessen 
shows in a number of instances 
how Cardauns exaggerates. Thus 
he claims to have found ''whole 
mountains of material coincidences 
between Anne Catherine's visions 
and certain ancient Christological 
legends," yet gives only five (5) 
examples where some statement 
seems to agree with an ancient 
tradition of the Church. 

Cardauns 's book and the articles 
published by him and his friends 
in the Cologne Yolksseitung, of 
which he was the editor, fell like 
a mildew upon the educated Cath- 
olics of Germany. An exaggerated 
rationalism and an almost patho- 
logical dread of supernatural phe- 
nomena aided in destroying inter- 
est in the beatification process of 
Ven. Anne Catherine. Since the 
v/ar, however, public opinion has 
undergone a decided change. The 
enthusiasm wdiich has taken hold 
especially of the young generation 
is having its effect, and people 
are again beginning to study the 
life, visions, and charismata of 
Sister Emmerich, who was always 
a popular figure. Since the publi- 
cation of Dr. Niessen 's book 
(w^hich, unfortunately, has been 
out of print for some time) the 
doubters have become silent. 
{To he continued) 



Thousands that are capable of great 
sacrifices are not yet capable of the 
little ones which are all that are 
required of them. 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



219 



Catholics and the Late War 



One Catholic principle at least 
seems to have been ruled out dur- 
ing the war. Not in theory, of 
course, but so much the more 
practically. Moral theology tells 
us that no soldier can, without sin, 
fight the battles of his country if 
the latter is engaged in an unjust 
war. That a soldier may and must 
refuse to fight, it is necessary that 
the injustice on the part of his 
country be evident, that is, that he 
is convinced beyond a doubt of 
such injustice. 

No prominent Catholic, to be 
sure, denied this principle or 
called it in question. But in sea- 
son and out of season we were 
given to understand, by Catholics 
of high standing and of no stand- 
ing, that a private individual had 
no right to question the justice of 
the w^ar on our part, that he vras 
not in a position or capable of in- 
vestigating and judging for him- 
self, etc., etc. Furthermore, from 
all Catholic quarters it was trump- 
eted all over the country and 
proudly pointed out as a proof of 
the 100 per cent patriotism of the 
Catholic population that the Cath- 
olics furnished their full quota, 
both in volunteers and conscripted 
men, and that not one ''conscien- 
tious objector" was found among 
them. 

Of course, it is not yet time 
to discuss, much less to decide, 
whether the entrance of our coun- 
try into the late war was in con- 
formity with, or contrary to, jus- 
tice. We are still too much under 
the influence of the war hysteria. 
Perhaps the next generation will 
be able to form a reasonable judg- 
ment on this question. 

If it is impossible to decide this 
question now, almost four years 



after the war, it was still more so 
during the war, when all passions 
were at a white heat. But this 
would not preclude the possibility, 
or even the probability, that a 
number of individuals have arrived 
at the firm conviction that they 
were commanded to fight for an 
unjust cause. And what authority 
in Church or State would have the 
right to say that they were not 
entitled to form such a judgment 
or, if they formed it bojia fide, that 
they were not in conscience bound 
to draw the natural conclusion 
therefrom ? 

It is hardly surprising that 
none, except such as are on prin- 
ciple opposed to all warfare, arose 
as "conscientious objectors." The 
motto of the great bulk of Amer- 
icans is: "My country, right or 
wrong," and men who feel thus, 
of course, are not likely to ask 
any questions. Most others, if not 
all of those who might have be- 
come "conscientious objectors" if 
their conviction had obliged them 
to take such a stand, were probably 
incapable of forming a judgment 
for themselves. For, without a 
doubt, it would require a vast 
amount of knowledge regarding 
European affairs, not to speak of 
many other conditions, to arrive 
at a firm conclusion. But the 
ignorance of the American people 
on such matters, including even 
most of its leaders, is simply 
colossal. 

Whatever may be the reason 
why we had no "conscientious ob- 
jectors" in our Catholic ranks, we 
ought to quit boasting of it. It is 
a very doubtful claim to glory. It 
might be better, too, if we ceased 
boasting of our patriotism. If we 
were patriotic in the truly Chris- 



220 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 15 



tiaii sense of the word, we have 
simply done our Christian duty 
and practiced a Christian virtue. 
Christ tells us: ''Let your light 
shine before men, that they may 
see your good works, and glorify 
your Father who is in heaven." 
The saints of God, who certainly 
understood the true meaning of 
these Avords, practiced heroic vir- 
tues and rejoiced if their example 
led others to God. But Ave read 
nowhere that thev went abroad 



advertizing their good works to 
gain the praise and admiration of 
the multitude for themselves. It 
will hardly command the respect 
of outsiders for the holy Catholic 
Church if we imitate the hen that 
cackles for half an hour every 
time she has laid an egg. 

Let us do all we can to promote 
the honor and glory of God and to 
work for the salvation of souls, 
our own in the first place ; but let 
us quit cackling! J. S. 



A Catholic Priest-Scientist Among the Natives of Tierra del Fuego 

By the Rev. W. Koppers, S.V.D., D.D., Punta Remolino, Tierra del Fuego, South America 

language; (b) determined, partly 
by means of phonographic rec- 
ords, certain hitherto doubtful 
sounds of this language; (c) laid 
the foundations for a vocabular^^ 
of the Alakaluf tongue; (d) re- 
vised a vocabulary which Father 
Gusinde had collected some years 
ago among the Onas; (e) investi- 
gated, with the help of the phono- 
graph, the languages of the Onas 
and the Alakaluf s. 

3. Ethnology. — In this field we 
have: (a) cleared up some doubt- 
ful points regarding the material 
culture and sociology of the Ya- 
manas, in which we were greatly 
aided by Cooper's bibliography of 
the Firelanders; (b) made phono- 
graphic records of about fifteen 
songs, mostly dirges, of the Ya- 
manas; (c) explored the religious 
and spiritual culture of the 
natives. 

In the last-mentioned sphere of 
research we were favored by ex- 
ceptionally good luck. We were 
able to establish the fact that the 
Yamanas believe in the existence 
of an essentially good supreme 
Being, whom they call ''Hita- 
puen," my Father, or ''Watauin- 



It is now a month and a half 
since I began my work among the 
natives of this far-away part of 
the world, assisted by Fr. Martin 
Gusinde, professor in the Liceo 
Aleman, Santiago, Chile, and vice- 
director of the Chilean Museum 
of Anthropology. We have been 
quite successful so far. For four 
weeks we labored among the 
Yamanas or Jagans, and for two 
weeks among the Selkenams or 
Onas. Thanks to the co-operation 
of the Laurence family, which has 
resided in this country for many 
years, and in consequence of two 
previous visits by Fr. Gusinde, we 
enjoy the full confidence of the 
aborigenes, whose language, cus- 
toms, beliefs, and traditions we 
came to study. The results of our 
researches so far may be summed 
up as follows : 

1. Anthropology. — The meas- 
urements previously made by Fr. 
Gusinde have been continued and 
extended to the Alakalufs, of 
which race several representatives 
are at present sojourning here. 

2. Linguistics. — In this field we 
have: (a) studied more carefully 
the four dialects of the Yamana 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



221 



euwa," which term is nearly equiv- 
alent to the scriptural "Ancient 
of the days." They pray to this 
Being and petition him for good 
weather, food, and other necessi- 
ties, they thank him for favors 
received, and they complain to 
him, asking: "Wh}' did you take 
father, or mother, or brother, or 
sister away from us I" The for- 
mulae they employ are very an- 
cient, though they have never yet 
been revealed to any scientist. For 
certain reasons these natives are 
very reticent in regard to their 
religious beliefs. It was only in 
consequence of a combination of 
exceptionally favorable circum- 
stances that we were able to ascer- 
tain these arcana of the most 
primitive of the primitive tribes 
of South America. Our success 
was so astounding that an old 
English Protestant missionary, 
Mr. J. Laurence, who has lived 
here for fifty-three years, said to 
me : ' ' If I were to remain here an- 
other fifty or even a hundred 
years, the natives would never tell 
me these things." He shares our 
conviction of the very great antiq- 
uity of the formulae mentioned 
above. The comparatively high 
moral standing of the Yamanas 
had led me to suppose that they 
must have preserved belief in a 
supreme being. This expectation 
was fully realized, and the result 
accords with the results attained 
by up-to-date ethnologists among 
other primitive peoples during the 
past two or three decades. 

Among the Onas, too, Ave came 
upon the vestiges of a supreme 
being, which they call Kenos. 

The Yamanas practice a double 
consecration of their young men. 
The first is called "Cexaus." Fr. 
Gusinde w^as permitted to partici- 
pate in this ceremony two years 



ago. The second is called ' ' Kima. ' ' 
It is to be held in the near future 
and we are to witness it. We hope 
it will enable us to lift the veil that 
has hitherto hidden the religious 
life of these people. The Onas are 
preparing a so-called "Klokaten," 
and we expect to be admitted also 
to this secret ceremony. The un- 
derlying idea of these consecra- 
tions is, chiefly, to make a full- 
fledged man out of the candidate. 

Charles Danvin describes the 
aborigenes of these parts as can- 
nibals, and the fable has found its 
way into innumerable books. How 
false it is may be judged from the 
fact that they have such an aver- 
sion to anthropophagy that they 
refuse to eat certain animals, such 
as rats and foxes, for the sole rea- 
son that these animals sometimes 
devour human flesh. I have re- 
peatedly slept with members of 
this tribe in a ranch and felt just 
as safe there as I would in any 
house in St. Louis. 

To these ethnographical results 
may be added: (d) a series of new 
photographic views of the natives, 
especially typical figures among 
them, and (e) character studies of 
such members of the tribe as we 
were able to observe more closely. 

In June 1 hope to be back in 
Santiago, Chile, and my address 
there will be 1661 Koneda. We are 
quite lonesome here, but in good 
health and spirits and hope that 
this communication will be read 
with interest bv our friends in the 

U.S. 

.^.^^-^ 

True cheerfulness is a happy, har- 
monious combination of different parts ; 
a sound, unspoilt character, clear judg- 
ment and a natural calmness in feeling 
and disposition, a sincere love for our 
neighbor, and a child-like confidence in 
God. It is an interior harmony, un- 
disturbed by any discord. 



222 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



June 15 



A Handbook of Scripture Study 



"A Handbook of Scripture Study." By the 
Rev. H. Schumacher, D.D., Professor of 
New Testament Exegesis in the Catholic 
University of America. Vol. Ill : The New 
Testament, (v & 317 pp. i2mo. With two 
maps. B. Herder Book Co. $2.00 net). 

Seminary professors of Sacred 
Scripture will peruse with inter- 
est this initial publication of a 
new text-book of Scriptural Intro- 
duction in the English language. 
The name of the learned author 
already commands attention, as 
his previous works ("Selbstoffen- 
barung Jesu," 1912; '*Christus 
in seiner Prae-existenz und Ken- 
ose," 2 vols. 1914-1921) have won 
for him a place among the fore- 
most exegetical scholars. To 
American readers he has of late 
become more familiar by his ad- 
mirable contributions to the Hom- 
iletic and Pastoral Review. The 
present volume is a further proof 
of the author's thorough scholar- 
ship. 

From the central watch-tower 
of the Catholic University, Dr. 
Schumacher has, during the past 
eight years, studied the Scriptural 
needs of our country. From his 
students, coming as they do from 
all parts, he must have learned 
that Bible studies in our semi- 
naries have suffered in particular 
from that common, albeit lament- 
able, prejudice against Latin text- 
books. The complaint may revert 
largely to the students themselves, 
vrhose diffident shyness for the 
Latin idiom must leave the best 
equipped professor at a serious 
disadvantage in default of a satis- 
factory text-book in the vernacu- 
lar. The variety, moreover, of 
English Biblical aids, substituted 
in many of our seminaries, speaks 
for the need of a text that may 
win general approval and recogni- 



tion in all theological schools, 
where the courses in Sacred 
Scripture have to be conducted in 
English. Doctor Schumacher has 
undertaken to answer this need in 
giving us this ''Handbook of 
Scripture Study." 

Vol. Ill, a Special Introduction 
to the New Testament, is the first 
of the four-volume work to ap- 
pear. Vol. I will comprise a Gen- 
eral Introduction to the Old and 
the New Testament; Vol. II, a 
Special Introduction to the Old 
Testament; Vol. IV, as announced 
in the brief preface to the present 
volume, will be a ''Dictionary of 
New Testament Difficulties." 

Scripture professors will at once 
be attracted by the author's sys- 
tematic arrangement and graph- 
ical presentation of the entire con- 
tents; by the clear and precise 
treatment of a wealth of judicious- 
ly selected material; by the copi- 
ous and up-to-date bibliography 
at the head of each chapter or 
division to which it pertains; by 
a decisive exposition of modern 
Biblical problems, wherever the 
latest ecclesiastical decrees or the 
authority of sound scholarship 
have reached a decision, or by 
furnishing directive arguments 
and helpful references for such 
special problems as are still sub 
iitdice. For the summary of "Spe- 
cial Problems" at the end of each 
treatise, together with the respect- 
ive literature, professors and stu- 
dents will be particularly grateful 
to the author. 

Even to the past students of 
Biblical Introduction classes, to 
those engaged in parochial or 
other sacerdotal duties, the pres- 
ent work will prove of vital 
interest and practical advantage. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



223 



Where the best-intentioned priest 
may be loathe to battle again 
with the Latin explanations of his 
former text, or when he desires a 
quick reference to modern biblical 
questions — and what priest would 
not be constantly interested ? — 
this '* Handbook of Scripture 
Study" will be found a convenient 
manual as also a likely induce- 
ment to revive curiosity in ques- 
tions of lasting importance to the 
authoritative dispenser of the 
AVord of God. 

We hope, therefore, that the 
other volumes will follow in rapid 
succession, that this work may 
find its deserving place among the 
seminary text-books to lighten the 
burden of professor and student 
alike, and by its sound C^atholic 
scholarship and general helpful- 
iiess stimulate a wider interest in 
Catholic Bible study in our coun- 
tiy. 

Basil Stegmanx, O.S.B. 

St. John's Abbey 
CoUegcville, Miii ii . 

A Valient Social Reformer 
The Rev. John Ude, D.D., pro- 
fessor in the University of Graz, 
Austria, is at the head of an or- 
ganization called ''Oesterreichs 
YolkerAvacht, " which aims at in- 
structing the people of that unfor- 
tunate country in those remedies 
which the Catholic religion offers 
for the cure of the social evils 
from which they are suffering. In 
pursuance of his duties he has de- 
livered a number of popular lec- 
tures, which have been published 
in pamphlet form under the gen- 
eral title: -'Fiir Volkssittlichkeit 
und Volksaufklarung. " One of 
them, the largest of the series, 
contains a stenographic report of 
a trial to which Dr. Ude had to 
submit in July, 1920, because he 



had attacked one of his agnostic 
colleagues of the Graz University 
for using his influence to protect 
houses of prostitution. It speaks 
well for public opinion in Graz 
that Dr. Ude was discharged by a 
jury of his fellow-citizens and that 
he was permitted to sell the 
brochure which had given such 
offence to his liberal colleague. 
**Die Kulturschande Europas vor 
dem Schwurgericht " tells the 
whole story in an interesting way. 
Of the other pamphlets of the 
series we would call attention par- 
ticularly to the following : 

"Sind wir noch katholisch?"; 
"Die Grundlagen des Wiederauf- 
baues der Staaten"; "Christ oder 
Antichrist?"; "Die Judenfrage"; 
"Die Erotik"; "Ehereform"; 
"Prostitution"; "Natiirliche Le- 
bensweise oder Hungerelend"; 
"Alkohol und Unsittliclikeit " ; 
"Freie Liebe oder Einehe"; "Mo- 
dernes Grossstadtelend " ; " Nieder 
mit dem Kapitalismus"; "Die 
Mode: deren Wirkung auf Mann 
und Frau. " 

These pamphlets apply the prin- 
ciples of Christian ethics and 
sound sociology to conditions ex- 
isting inAustria, and as conditions 
in Austria do not differ essentially 
from those existing in other coun- 
tries. Doctor Ude's popular 
addresses make profitable reading 
everywhere. He is a consistent 
and fearless Catholic social re- 
former of a type not yet repre- 
sented in the U. S. Would that we 
had a dozen or two university pro- 
fessors of Ude's ability and cour- 
age in this country ! 

Those who wish to become ac- 
quainted with his writings can ob- 
tain a list of them from the pub- 
lisher, Heinrich Stiasny, Volks- 
gart^nstr. Nr. 12, Graz, Austria. 



224 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 15 



Correspondence 

Striking at an Abuse 

To the Editor: 

Cardinal O'Connell recently struck at 
a custom that sorely needed reform, if 
not complete excision. He spoke to the 
priests in conference of the unseem- 
liness of having, at "Communion 
Breakfasts" of Catholic organizations, 
addresses which are altogether out of 
keeping with the occasion. 

The custom has prevailed in the Bos- 
ton Archdiocese, to invite as the speak- 
er, at the breakfast following the yearly 
communion of this or that lay society, 
some politician who, as likely as not, 
would take advantage of the occasion 
to praise his own policies and attack 
those of the public men opposed to him. 
The more violent the address the more 
popular it seemed to be with the organ- 
ization. It is not to be wondered at 
that the Cardinal was moved to suggest 
that addresses on such occasions be 
more in keeping with the religious act 
just performed by the men of the 
organization. 

Nor is it the addresses only that need 
leforming. It seems decidedly out of 
keeping for a body of Catholic men, 
immediately after receiving holy Com- 
munion, to begin roaring out the kind 
of songs that are today so popular — 
jazzy choruses and "blues" which are 
unmentionably suggestive, for the most 
part. There are plenty of good songs 
if the occasion demands singing. But it 
is the other kind that one usually hears 
at gatherings of this character. I speak 
from experience. M. 

Adverti.yements in the Catholic Press. 

To the Editor: 

In the French paper Ea Croix Pierre 
L'Eremite publishes a comment upon a 
congress held at Paris last summer for 
the purpose of extending the Catholic 
press. He fancifully describes a meet- 
ing between himself and the Devil at a 
street corner. Old Nick conveys to 
him views upon the immense influence 
of the press on all phases of human 
life, glorifying at the same time the 



activities of his own numerous publi- 
cations, ridiculing the small number of 
church papers, and criticizing CathoHcs 
, for being blind to the dangers of anti- 
Catholic literature. "Many wear my 
bandage over their eyes'' — is the Devil's 
verdict. 

At a newsstand Satan then calls the 
journalist's attention to a lot of papers 
which, he says, are his property, because 
of their editorials, or their stories, or 
their pictures, or, finally, because of 
their advertisements. 

Advertisements, we know, fill the 
publishers' coffers, and as the Catholic 
press is not rolling in wealth, an offer 
to publish a questionable ad, which is 
well paid for, must be a great tempta- 
tion to the management. 

But questionable ads (and their name 
is legion!) in a Catholic paper will do 
tremendous harm to the sacred cause 
to which the publication is devoted. 

Our church papers are heralds of 
God's Truth ; ads, however, frequently 
are deliberately untrue, dangerous to 
the welfare of humanity, and are 
directed towards robbing the people of 
their hard-earned money. 

What connection is there between 
God and Belial? 

Catholic readers look for the truth 
in the columns of their papers, and 
justly so! They can not, they will not, 
and, what is more, they should not be 
compelled to discriminate between the 
reading matter and the advertisements 
in a Catholic paper. God's own publi- 
cations should ring true from A to Z. 

Non-Catholics who, for some reason 
or other, feel drawn towards the 
Church of God, eagerly take up our 
Catholic papers for light and instruc- 
tion. The grace of God is working in 
tlieir hearts. They wish and expect to 
find the Church as the spotless bride 
of Christ, the keeper and protector of 
Truth, the great IMother of the living. 
They expect to find the Catho'ic press 
the mouthpiece of God, free from lying 
reports and questionable advertise- 
ments. ■ 

Catholic publishers who allow ques- 
tionable ads to creep into their papers. 



1992 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



225 



carry the devil's bandage over their 
eyes. 

Pious words, articles and stories can- 
not remove the bad impression created 
by doubtful advertisements. 

O. H. M. 

St. Paul, Minn. 

An American Jesuit on the "Miracle 
of St. Jannarius" 

To the Editor : 

When I arrived in this house [Boni- 
fatiushaus, Emmerich in the Rhine- 
Province J, 1 was delighted to find the 
Fortnightly Review, whose constant 
reader I had been in the U. S. A. 
Editors like you become willy nilly 
friends of their readers. And as "clara 
pacta caros faciunt ainicos," I take the 
liberty to write a few frank words, the 
more as you encourage the readers to 
this frankness by foreseeing occasional 
disagreement with the utterances of the 
Review. 

In No. 1, 1922, pg. 10, there is a note 
by W. R. Harris on the "Miracle"' of 
St. Januarius. 

I have been sceptic myself and I am 
glad I saw the miracle, May 7th, 1921 
— the liquefaction with the change of 
the volumen. I think that the volum- 
etric increase and decrease are a fact 
for themselves, aside from the liquefac- 
tion, and still more marvelous, and 
their irregularity adds to their strange- 
ness. Laws of nature are always the 
same and act in the same way under 
the same circumstances. By a known 
law of nature I cannot explain this 
volumetric increase and decrease, and 
1 would be glad to find one scientist 
who could give me a plausible explana= 
tion. Whatever the molecular laws 
be — the laws concerning the volumen 
are known. 

Volumefric experiments have been 
made, and the readers of the F. . R. 
ought to know it — ut aiidiatur et altera 
pars, — after they read sceptical objec- 
tions. An automatic scale has been 
used, where all human deception or 
autosuggestion was excluded. (Cf. 
Rivista di Scicnsc e Lettere, Paolo 
Silva, S.J.) If I am not mistaken, the 



difference of the vo.umen was in one 
case as much as 25 gramni. 

In No. 23, 1921, pg. 438, you men- 
tion Dr. Isenkrahe. I read his book. 
Nobody will say that he is credulous, 
he is rather very critical, some call him 
hypercritical. Anyhow, Prof. Isenkrahe 
claims there is explanation of the fact 
by the known laws of nature. And if 
there would be an unknown agency, it 
ought to work always as a law of 
nature, regularly in the same way under 
the same circumstances. If you deny 
this, you must reject all miracles, and 
consequently in apologetics^ — ^where the 
inspiration of the Bible is not supposed 
to avoid a vicious circle — you cannot 
accept miracles in the Bible which have 
not been subjected to such experiments. 
He says that it is a standing wonder 
to many Catholics as well as to Protest- 
ants that a chemical analysis is not 
permitted. I wondered myself and 
asked our Fathers in Naples. I was 
told that the people would be shocked 
if they found out that the phials had 
been opened. Besides the civil authori= 
ties, whose representatives are present 
at every liquefaction, are against open- 
ing the phials. 

But there has been an analysis made. 
The spectroscope has been used several 
times, and I wonder why the people 
were not shocked when this leaked out. 
In my humble opinion a chemical 
analysis is not necessary to show the 
miracle, as long as the spectroscope 
does not shozv a nezv unknoivn in- 
gredient. But the spectroscope always 
proclaimed the presence of arterial 
blood and nothing but arterial b'ood. 
The remark : "The question rises 
whether there is something in the air," 
really sounds strange. I saw the licjuid 
blood of St. Catherine in Bologna. I 
know that a liquefaction of blood 
occurs also in Madrid and in Chiesa 
Nuova in St. Philip Neri's church. 

Of course the proximity of Mount 
Vesuvius has nothing to do with the 
liquefaction. And between the prayer 
of a Redemptorist father and the lique- 
faction of the blood of St. A'phonsus 
of Liguori is no physical connection, 
either. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 15 



Why Naples became famous throug-h 
these miracles we do not know, as we 
do not know why Providence has 
chosen Lourdes as a place for un- 
deniable miracles. 

As to the morality of Naples, I have 
asked priests of different nationalities 
who had worked there and elsewhere. 
Naples is decidedly a better city than 
many American or German cities. I 
did not see extravagances and did not 
hear "painful exclamations" by the ::ic 
di San Gennaro, as Neapolitan "slang" 
cal'-s them. I was not shocked at the 
behavior of the people. Their behavior 
is everywhere different from that of 
our American or German people. As 
some writer a few months ago said in 
America, the Italians are very confi- 
dential with our Lord and behave like 
children towards their father, while we 
Northerners are rather like soldiers 
before a superior. Also the Poles act 
dift'erently. They often prostrate them- 
selves before the altar like Orientals. 
ChaciDi a son gout. 

I cannot understand what profit a 
Catholic reader shall have by reading 
only sceptical objections in such a short 
article. Of course we know that our 
faith in God and the Church is not 
based upon facts like the miracle of 
St. Januarius or the miracles in 
Lourdes, but w^ith such scepticism we 
could cancel many of the miracles of 
Lgurdes which have been investigated, 
hke the Gargan case or the miracle in 
Ostaker, Belgium (Peter Rudder's 
broken leg — cured instantly). 

Peter Punzo, professor of chemistry 
at the University of Naples, invited by 
the freethinker de Luca, made a.thor= 
ough investigation of the miracle of 
St. Januarius. He had the intention 
to show some trick or to find at least 
a natural explanation, but he became 
the Balaam for the fact of the lique- 
faction and of the change of the weight 
of the blood. John L. Asman, S.J. 

Emmerich, Genuanx 



A man telling the truth is generally 
one among many ; but he is a mountain 
among clouds. 



Notes and Gleanings 

The Holy Father has made Col. P. 
H. Callahan, of Louisville, Ky.,' a 
knight of the Order of St. Gregory the 
Great. The honor is well deserved, 
for Mr. Callahan has not only given 
generously to charities, but, in the 
words of the pontifical brief, shown 
"singular zeal in promoting various 
Catholic activities," not the least among 
them being the Catholic press. The 
Fortnightly Review counts him 
among its most generous friends. His 
work as chairman of the K. of C. Com- 
mission on Re'igious Prejudice is well 
remembered ; also his labors as director 
of the commission on w^ar activities. In 
the social reform field he has shown 
what a just and enlightened employer 
can do for the solution of the labor 
question. As the Record justly says 
(Vol. 44, No. 22), "he is a pioneer 
advocate of profit-sharing copartner- 
ship, and his slogan that 'Business was 
made for man, not man for busi- 
ness,' epitomizes Catholic teaching on 
this point." Ad miiltos faiistissiinosquc 
annos! 

A good deal has been written in the 
Catholic press of late about Cardinal 
Gasquet's alleged demonstration that 
the famous bull "Laudabiliter" of Pope 
Adrian IV is a forgery. In a letter 
printed shortly before the World War 
in the Irish Catholic (March 28, 1914) 
Abbot Gasquet withdrew his former 
confident statement on this subject. 
Does the Cardinal renew his confidence 
in his position in the re-issue of his 
essays? The case is not by any means 
settled. As Fr. Nicholas Lawless says 
in a letter to the Liverpool Catholic 
Times (No. 2857), the Bull "Lauda- 
biliter" "has been so long the subject 
of controversy that the opinion of no 
one writer can depress the scales suffi- 
ciently. Neither is it of any avail to 
neglect the many reasons that can be 
given for its genuineness, or to trip 
o\-er them lightly. Besides, what is the 
use of rejecting the 'Bull' of Adrian in 
face of the letters of Alexander III in 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



c27 



the same generation?'' The grant of 
Ireland to Henry II of England by the 
Pope is indisputable, quite apart from 
the genuineness of the Bull "Lauda- 
biliter."' (See Arthur Clerigh in the 
Cath. Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, p. 158 j. 
-•--•--♦--•- 
There is an urgent demand for a 
cosmology from the Scholastic point of 
view, based upon the latest scientific 
researches. Fr. i\I. C. D'Arcy, in the 
Month (No. 694, p. 299;, quotes Prof. 
Taylor, of St.- Andrew's, as saying: 
"Xeo-Thomism [he means Neo- 
Scholasticism] . . . has a very great 
contribution to make to the philosophy 
of the future and is much more deserv- 
ing of the serious attention of students 
in our own country than the much- 
advertised 'impressionism' of Pragma- 
tists and Bergsonians. Indeed, I hardly 
know how^ much we may not hope from 
the movement if it should please Prov- 
idence to send into the world a Neo- 
Thomist who is also a really qualified 
mathematician." A work of this kind 
has recently been written in Germany 
by Joseph Schwertschlager. It is en- 
titled, ''Philosophie der Natur" and 
comprises volumes III and IV^ of the 
"Philosophische Handbibliothek.'' pub- 
lished by Jos. K5sel and Fr. Pustet of 
Ratisbon and ^lunich. This work com- 
plies with the specifications of Fr. 
D'Arcy, as the author moves with 
sovereign mastery through the mass of 
physical and chemical conceptions piled 
up by modern science and gives his 
findings securely, imembarrassed by the 
wealth of data which he has at his 
command. Why cannot we have such 
a work in English? 

The Ho'y Father, in an audience 
lately granted to the Rev. John F. Mc- 
Nulty, of St. Edmund's House, Cam- 
bridge University, said that he desired 
to have it made known as his wish that 
v.s many priests as possible should be 
given an opportunity to receive the 
ijenefits of a university education. 

Of the great "Thesaurus Linguae 
Latinae," in course of publication in 
Germany, but interrupted by the war, 



the following parts have so far ap- 
peared: Volumes I — IV (complete); 
Volume V, up to fasc. 5 (disputatio) ; 
Volume VI, up to fasc. 5 (forum) ; 
Onomasticon, Vol. II (C), complete; 
Vol. Ill, up to fasc. 1 (Didius). It will 
probably take at least twenty=five years 
more to complete this gigantic work. 

The first volume of the '"Jahrbuch 
(ler Sammlung Kippenberg" (Leipsic: 
Insel-V'erlag) contains a paper on the 
disease which caused the death of 
Goethe. The writer, Dr. Erich Ebstein, 
after much erudite argument, comes to 
the conclusion that the particular 
malady which carried ofif (Germany's 
greatest modern poet, was "'la grippe" 
or influenza. 

The International League of Catho- 
lic Defense and Progress ('Tka''j is 
going to hold its second international 
congress at Luxemburg, July 31st— 
August 3rd. Its chief theme of discus- 
sion will be the problem of efficient 
international co-operation for the 
c'efense of the Church against her 
enemies. In connection with this con- 
gress will be held an international con- 
ference of Catholic young men for the 
purpose of debating the measures to be 
taken against Communism and for the 
promotion of peace amongst the na- 
tions. 

The ex-Abbe Albert Houtin is pub- 
lishing a full-length life of Pere Hya- 
cinthe Loyson, the fam.ous Carmelite 
preacher of Xotre Dame de Paris, who 
fell away from his religion in 1869 and, 
in 1872, married Emily Butterfield, 
an American divorcee. Volume II de- 
scribes "le Pere Hyacinthe comme 
reformateur catholique." As was to be 
expected from one who is himself an 
apostate priest, Houtin's picture of 
Pere Hyacinthe is overdrawn. A far 
more accurate idea of the ex-Carmelite 
can be obtained from the latter's own 
diaries, which are now being published 
serially in the Tribune de Geneve. It 
shows Father Hyacinthe was not the 
determined and sure-footed reformer 
that Houtin depicts, but a poor, dis- 



228 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 15 



No woman has ever wielded greater influence over those in her 
care — influence for a superb womanhood — than the author of 
SPIRITUAL PASTELS. A New York father was so impressed 
with the worth of SPIRITUAL PASTELS, and with the graces and 
endowments of its author, that he sent his daughter to the College 
where J. S. E. guides. With such a guide, such an exemplar, he 
is happy in the assurance that the one he loves will surely be some- 
thing more than an educated snob in this socially shallow age. 



Spiritual Pastels 

By J. S. E. (A Nun) 

Foreword Appreciation by Joseph M. Woods, S. J. 



Literally the heart and soul communings of an intelligent, 
educated, cultured woman — a Xun — with an all-wise Christ, 
the Christ of the Masses — of the poor, the Christ of Lent, 
not the golden-crossed Christ patronized by the I'ichest men 
in the world and capitalized by them as a means to an end. 

Just the book for daily reading. Read it — you will 
continue to read it and you will surely urge penitents and 
others to make SpniiTUAL Pastels a daily companion. 



FIFTH FDITION HEADY 

Beaatlfully illustrated. $1.50 net. -$1 .60 postpaid. 



Edition after Edition of this really inspiring work 
has been sold. 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR CO., Publishers 

437 Fifth Avenue New York 



i:)22 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



2.i9 



satisfied, hesitating, groping coward, 
who soon learned to despise and dis- 
trust the nifidels that flocked around 
his banner. Towards the end of his Hfe 
he sought to get in touch with Cath- 
olics, and Abbe Garnier for a while 
believed that he would make his peace 
with the Church. But when he lay 
dying, his son would allow no priest to 
visit him. Let us hope that he has 
found a merciful judge ! 
-••■♦•-•■-•• 
Father W. Hackner, in the Pastoral- 
Blatt, recalls Msgr. Hettinger's famous 
motto over the door of his library : *'Ite 
potius ad vendentes et emite vobis." It 
was intended for those who came to 
borrow books, and it accomplished its 
object. 

A discussion has arisen in the Cath- 
olic press of Germany as to whether or 
not the new Code of Canon Law per- 
mits priests to wear beards. Father H. 
Bremer, S.J., takes the ground that no 
special permission is henceforth required 
for a priest to let his beard grow. Other 
canonists take the opposite view. Dr. 
A. Knecht, of the University of Munich, 
writes to the Augsburg Postseitung 
(No. 102) that, in view of this contro- 
versy no change should be made in the 
existing discipline until an authentic 
interpretation has come from Rome. 
In this country we have noticed no 
desire on the part of the reverend clergy 
to revert to the custom of wearing 
l)eards. 

Mr. Denis A. McCarthy, the well- 
known poet, journalist, and lecturer, 
and an occasional contributor to the 
F. R., has been honored by Boston Col- 
lege (Jesuit) with the degree of LL.D., 
and invited to make the Commencement 
Address to the graduates this year. 

The official organ of the Archbishop 
of San Francisco, the Monitor, criti- 
cizes the readiness of certain Catholics 
to regard as miraculous any extra- 
ordinary manifestation which may 
simply be an example of mass psychos- 
is. Our contemporary calls attention 
to a recent pamphlet issued by a com- 



nmnity of Sisters in this country who 
have started a devotion to the so-called 
"miraculous crucifix of Limpias," and 
observes ; "The mere fact that an eccle- 
siastical commission is examining into 
the alleged prodigies at Limpias, that 
the pastor of the church and most of 
the people present never saw the 'won- 
der,' should be sufficient reasons to 
make any devout and prudent person 
pause before attempting to set forth as 
facts events of doubtful occurrence. It 
is a species of unconscious mental and 
moral dishonesty to deceive simple, 
sincere, and honest people by asserting 
that these alleged manifestations at 
Limpias, now under investigation by 
the ecclesiastical authorities, are certain 
;ind authentic miracles." 
-•--•--♦--•- 
Under the title, "Mysterium Fidei ; 
De Augustissimo Corporis et Sanguinis 
Christi Sacrificio et Sacramento Eluci- 
dationes" (Paris: B. Beauchesne), Fa- 
ther Maurice de la Tail'.e, S.J., has 
published a work which recalls the days 
of de Lugo and Suarez. The book is 
as large as the largest new missal and 
has 663 double-column pages. There is 
an innovation on the old-time theolog- 
ical tome : Fr. de la Taille's treatise is 
illustrated by reproductions of several 
noble pictures of great airtists referring 
to the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. We 
gather from a review by Dr. Garrett 
Pierse, in the May Irish Ecclesiastical 
Record, that Fr. de la Taille discusses 
the subject of the Holy Eucharist, both 
as a sacrifice and as a sacrament, "with 
a wealth of erudition that 'reminds one 
of the golden age of the schools." 
"There is a fresh and compreliensive 
synthesis of the traditional data. There 
is displayed, also, a vigor of view that 
is much needed in an age which is the 
heir of the agnostic philosophy of the 
19th century, and which is still troubled 
with a mania of doubt." 

An eminent literary man said recent- 
ly that the chief qualification of a suc- 
cessful journalist was an unlicensed 
imagination. Commenting on this ut- 
terance in the Irish Ecclesiastical Rec- 



230 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 15 



ord (No. 653, p. 519), Fr. David Barry 
says : "The principal duty of a con- 
scientious journalist is to keep his 
imagination within the bounds of truth 
and justice, and in close and constant 
touch with facts. It is only by a strong 
and persevering effort against the dead 
weight of bias and partisanship, tliat a 
])ubhcist can preserve intellectual free- 
dom and nimbleness enough to give 
fair play to all persons and parties. 
Journalists are. or should be, in a 
greater degree than, perhaps, any other 
class of the laity, the guardians of na- 
tional honor and character, and they 
ought to be scrupulously mindful of 
this trust when they come forward to 
mark out its path for the nation."' 

In the Month for May (pp. 389-399) 
tlie Rev. B. G. Swindells, S.J., dis- 
cr.sses the Thomistic theory of matter 
and form in the light of modern science 
and arrives at the conclusion that, in 
view of the many unsuccessful attempts 
tliat have been made to find a physical 
basis for the theory, similar to that 
which was used by the Scholastics, "the 
time has surely come to consider care- 
fully whether it is worth while to try 
to base this fundamenta' doctrine of 
Scholasticism on the physical theory 
of the hour, or whether it is not better 
to estimate the doctrine at its true 
value as something underlying all sound 
'pliysical' thought, and to content our- 
selves with pointing out if necessary 
that no discovered fact ever contradicts 
or can contradict the doctrine,'' which 
ie. of the metaphysical order, of uni= 
versal application and universal truth, 
so that the changes of scientific theories, 
the discovery of new physical data, will 
not affect it. The Thomist theory can 
embrace all that the physicists assert, 
and at the same time makes up for the 
philosophical deficiencies of their theo- 
ries. The article is worthy of careful 
study. The editor of the Month, in a 
note, reminds the reader that "some 
aspects of the theory of matter and 
form are still keenly controverted 
amongst Catholics" and that "conse- 
quently the views so ably advanced by 



Fr. Swindells cannot be taken as a sure 
anticipation of the line to be followed 
by future Catholic writers on cosmol- 
ogy-" 

Under the title, "The Apostle of the 
Amazons," Fr. Herbert Thurston, S.J., 
devotes a paper in the current Month 
(No. 695, pp. 423—434) to the "Jour= 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS 
TRY OU R BRANDS 

THBY HAVE STOOD THE TE3T 
SINCE 1860 




You will make do mistake by giving us a per- 
sonal call to verify the quality and view our 

assortment of Pipes and Smokers" Articles 

WESTERHEIDE 
Tobacco and Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Phones: Bell Tyler 788 Kinloch Central 4039 I, 
Mail oiders promptly filled 



St. Louis Pipe Organ Co. 

Builders of 

Electro, Tubular Pneumatic, 

and Tracker Organs 
for Church and Concert Hall 

Prompt attention given to Repairs and Rebuilding 

of every description 

Blowers attached 

Office, 2209-11 Lynch Street 

Phone Sidney 361 ST. LOUIS, MO 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



231 



nal of the Travels and Labors of Fa- 
ther Samuel Fritz in the River of the 
Amazonas, between 1686 and 1723," 
recently published by the Hakluyt So- 
ciety and briefly noticed in No. 10 of 
the F. R., page 182. Fr. Fritz was a 
man of heroic sanctity, and there is 
much to console and edify in the pages 
which Dr. Edmunson has so patiently 
transcribed and translated. But, as Fr. 
Thurston points out, "there is also 
much which no Christian who has at 
heart the spread of the true faith 
among the heathen can read without 
pain. The behavior, not only of the 
Portuguese adventurers, but also of 
many of the so-called missionaries who 
were associated with them, conveys a 
terrible warning against the corrupting 
influence of greed and political parti- 
sanship. . . . There were undoubtedly 
abuses very generall}' prevalent on both 
sides, and involving many different re- 
ligious orders." 

The Washington Post thinks the 
radio religious service will never be 
popular "because the women can't see 
one another's hats." 

\\'hat one man can do if he is in- 
spired by love for his neighbor and 
willing to sacrifice himself to a cause, 
can be seen from the silver jubilee 
number of the Colored Man's Friend, 
of Lafayette, La. This little quarterly 
magazine was started without capital 
])y Father Ph. L. Keller, in Galveston, 
Tex., in 1897, and now its editor is 
able to report (Vol. XXVI, No. 1) 
that it has been instrumental in build- 
ing, first a negro school in Galveston, 
and, lately, the Holy Rosary Institute, 
an industrial school for colored chil- 
dren in Lafayette, La. The reason fo>r 
locating this latter school in Louisiana 
v.-as the better prospect of success 
among the colored people of this State, 
^o many of whom are Catholics, with 
but slim chances of even a limited 
schooling. Bishop Jeanmard praises 
the work done by Father Keller and 
cordially recommends his magazine to 
the generosity of the faithful, ^^^hile 
ti'ie Institute was located in Texas, 



three of its pupils became 'religious. 
These three are now engaged in school 
work. In Lafayette, in less than six 
years, six of the pupils have "gone to 
the convent." Three of them are al- 
ready engaged in school or community 
work, whilst three others are still in 
the novitiate. If the Institute had no 
other success to record, than these nine 
religious vocations, the sacrifices made 
for it by Father Keller and his gen- 
erous patrons would be well worth 
w^hile, as there is a great scarcity of 
Sisters for work among the colored 
people of the South. But there are, in 
addition, other successes, of which tlie 
reader can inform himself if he will 
subscribe for the Colored Man's- 
friend. 

In the second number for 1922 of 
the Colored Man's Friend Father Kel- 
ler discusses the question of a colored 
clergy for the negroes of the U. S. He 
says that in view of the good work 
done by negro priests in Africa, an 
earnest attempt should be made to pro= 
vide American negroes with priests of 
their own race. "We have not only 
skilled mechanics and other workmen 
among them [the negroes of the U. S.], 
but also talented and successful teach- 
ers and professors in high schools and 
universities, physicians, lawyers, au- 
thors, musicians, etc. And even if the 
Catholic negroes constitute only a small 
percentage of the race in this country, 
they are not less talented than their 
non-Catholic brethren. Should there 
not .be such among the hundreds or 
thousands of Catholic bo}s and young 

CLERGYMEN, COLLEGES and ACADEMIES 
will find it to their advantage to consult 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co, 

212-214 East Eighth Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
RELIABLE SERVICE AT REASONABLE PRICES 
Its facilities for quick delivery of line- 
or monotyped, printed in first-class 
manner books, -booklets, pamphlets, 
folders etc. are unexcellea. 



232 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



June 15 



Just published : 

The Preacher's Vademecum 

Sermon Plans for Sundays, Feasts of Oar Lord, of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints, Advent and 

Lsnten Caurses, Forty Hours', Sacred Heart Devotions, Retreats, Conferences, May and October 

Devotions, Special Occasions, etc. 

By Two Missionaries Translated from the French 

Cloth, net, $3.00 

This unique work will prove a boon for the preacher, particularly jou account of the great variety of its 
material for many different occasions. 

. ^^^. quality of the material may be judged from the fact that in its French original the work is already 
in its Fifth Edition, and has been favored with many flattering commendations by the episcopate. 



Story-Sermonettes for the Children's Mass 

FOR ALL SUNDAYS OF THE YEAR 
By the Rev. Frederick Renter 

Cloth, net, $1.50 



Previously published by the same author : 

Short Sermons for the Children's Mass 

On the Gospels of all the Sundays of the Year Amply Illustrated by Example and Anecdote 

Cloth, net, ^1.50 

"They are the products of long j-ears of work aud should prove welcome to manj- less experienced 
than the author." _ Catholic Book Notes. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 
23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 



STOP! LOOK! LISTEN! 



Seg 



If We Cannot Give You Greater Value 

We Are Not Entitled to Your Patronage 

^ In any size, shape or price, from $6.00 to $30.00 per 100. From 
cll o the humblest Domestic to the most exquisite CLEAR HABANA 

Seven Years Old as a Mail Order House — 

Fifty-six Years Young as a Segar House 



Catalogue and prices 
mailed on request 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Established 1866 

58 North Pearl Street BUFFALO, N. Y. 



America Press 

a JOB PRINTING ^ 

done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. St. Louis. Mo, 



SrEINER^il»lfS15lEC9. 



i^BADGESa 

I MIH B UTTONS S: PINSu.•^^ 



SEALS, 

:srAMPs^, 



STENCILS ^METAL CHECKS 

-^aT.LOUIS..^ 



ii)22 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



23S 



men who have the required talents and 
other qualifications for the priest- 
hood?" Among the other qualifications 
. are those which spring from, and are 
nourished by, a good Christian home 
life, and it is this factor which is maia= 
ly wanting, as we understand the situa- 
tion. The difficulties arising from the 
negro's pohtical and social status 
could probably be overcome. Father 
Keller approves the plan of the Society 
of the Divine Word, which, as our 
readers know, is engaged in forming a 
community of colored priests under its 
direction, thereby obviating one of the 
difficulties which would naturally arise 
if colored priests were to become part 
of the diocesan clergy. 

Father Keller does not think that the 
aversion of the colored people to 
priests of their own race, and their 
preference for white priests, forms an 
insuperable obstacle to a colored clerg\-. 
He admits that this aversion and this 
preference exist at present, but says it 
ought not to be taken into serious con- 
sideration in planning for the future, 
since time changes many things, and if 
colored priests can be trained to become 
proficient leaders of their race, the 
sentiments of the people towards them 
Avill change. He points to the popular- 
ity of Father Dorsey. one of the few 
colored priests of the country, among 
the colored people everywhere as an 
argument in favor of his view, and 
adds that while the white priests now 
engaged in mission work among the 
negroes of the South meet with very 
satisfactory results, the colored masses 
cannot be reached until the Catholic 
religion is no longer looked upon as a 
white man's religion. "It is to be ex- 
pected,'' he says, '"that colored priests 
will have the confidence of their people 
more than the white priests, and that 
through colored priests conversions 
will be effected in larger numbers. The 
very fact of having priests of their 
own race would create a higher regard 
for the Church and furnish a striking 
proof that she does not discriminate 
ajjainst the race.'' 



The late Dr. J. N. McCormick, of 
Louisville, Ky., who posed as a Quaker, 
w^as born of a Catholic family and 
reared in the Catholic faith, according 
to Dr. James J. Walsh. Our readers 
may remember that we have pointed 
out a large number of similar cases in 
t'ne course of the last thirty years. 
They prove that the "leakage" from the 
Catholic Church has been and still is 
enormous. Col. P. H. Callahan, in a 
letter referring to the ]\IcCormick case, 
says that "some day the K. of C. will 
have to institute a Commission on 
Reclamation" ( similar to that on Re- 
ligious Prejudices, of which he was 
chairman). It is high time for the laity 
to devote some thought and study to 
this question of "leakage." 

The German society for the study 
and promotion of the sacred liturgy of 
the Church, which was established at 
AIaria=Laach last year, has undertaken 
the publication of a year book, of which 
the first volume has just appeared at 
Aliinster i. W. (Aschendorff) under 
the title, "Jahrbuch fiir Liturgiewissen- 
schaft." It is edited bv Fr. Odo Casel, 
O.S.B. (F. R., XXIX, 8, 150) with 
the assistance of Dr. A. Baumstark 
and Dr. R. Guardini, — all three of 
them eminent liturgiologists. Among 
the contributions we mention a paper 
on the prayer "Communicantes" in the 
canon of the Mass and the list of saints 
contained therein, a study in the deriva- 
tion and meaning of the word "devo- 
tio," an essay on the systematic, as op- 
posed to the purely historical method 
in liturgiolog>% and a treatise on the 
objective element in prayer, directed 
against Dom Festugiere's recent attack 
on the "individualism" of the Ignatian 
method. The year book concludes with 
a verv^ complete bibliographical survey 
of liturgical publications from 1914 to 
Aug. 1, 1921. The regular publication 
of this "Jahrbuch" will no doubt great- 
ly further the liturgical movement in 
Germany, which has become so strong 
since the war, and, we hope, will pres- 
ently be transplanted to English-speak- 
ing countries. 



234 



THE FOKTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



June 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

(54th Installiiiciit) 
Hoping that the healthful waters of Hot 
Springs would give me rehef, I went to that 
resort and took up my quarters at St Jo- 
seph's Infirmary. What was my surprise when 
my physician declared I could not take the 
baths on account of the condition of my 
heart and when, just as in Jonesboro. I was 
told to take digitalis, strychnine, and arsenic 
1 remained there over a month, but as my 
heart trouble seemed not to improve, and I 
was not allowed to take the baths, I thought 
It more expedient, and far more economic 
to prepare for a trip across the ocean. In 
March I returned to Jonesboro and looked 
after my different undertakings as well a^ 



my condition would permit. My arm had im- 
proved so far that I could say Mass again. 

Beginning with the Feast of St. Scho- 
lastica, February loth, 1906, Mass was said^ 
in the beautiful new chapel of the Sisters, 
although it was not yet finished. On Mon- 
day and Tuesday, March 19th and 20th, the 
last altar and the pews were transferred 
from tlie temporary church into the chapel. 
This chapel or church is romanesque, 100 
feet long and 45 feet wide, with a large gal- 
lery. Its height is 45 feet. It has three altars 
and two sacristies. 

On Tuesday, March 21st, the feast of St. 
Benedict, I celebrated solemn High Mass 
with deacons, and gave the habit to eleven 
candidates. Almost all the priests of North- 
east Arkansas and Southeast Missouri were 
present. Among them I mention: Father F. 
X. Reker, who often delighted the Joneboro 
people with his eloquent sermons; Father C. 



THE SCHOOL FOR YOUR BOY 

Quincy College 

QUINCY, ILLINOIS 

CONDUCTED BY FRANCISCAN FATHERS 



All ideal boarding school, 
located in one of the mo.st 
beautiful and healthful cities 
of the country. 



Recognized b}^ the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction 
of the State and Accredited to 
the Univer.sitv of Illinois. 



COURSES 
Commercial Academic Collegiate 

TERMS: EXTREMELY REASONABLE 
WEITE FOR CATALOGUE AND PROSPECTUS 




ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCK5TEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



235 



Brocknieier, of Sikeston, now pastor \n 
Neier, Mo., and Father Furlong, of New- 
Madrid. It was a beautiful feast. When the 
work of the hospital and church was finished, 
I had the hall, which had served as a church 
since the fire of 1896, transformed into an as- 
sembly room for Lhe congregation. I had 
a large stage put into it with beautiful scen- 
ery, foot lights, etc.. and bought 200 opera 
chairs. I presented this to St. Roman's con- 
gregation as a souvenir, fearing a fatal out- 
come of my sickness. Having given me per- 
mission to go abroad the Bishop sent Father 
Bertke to take my place and to help Father 
Cattani in the admMiistration of the parish. 
In Wednesday, April i8th, Father Fintan 
Kraemer, O. S. B., celebrated solemn high 
]\Iass, and eleven sisters made their pro- 
fession. 

Chapter XXV^I 
GOING ABROAD FOR MY HEALTH— 
THE INTERNATIONAL EXPOSI- 
TION IN MILAN— THE AZORES 

Sunday, ]May 30th, 1906, I left Jonesboro 
on the evening train. It was a sad leave- 
taking, for at that time I thought I might 
never come back. With me left Sisters M. 
Aloysia and M. Rose; also my cousin. Mr. 
A. M. Weibel, of Jonesboro, and my brother- 
in-law, Henry Schmuecker, of Paragould. 
We took passage on the Dutch steamer 
"Xordam." On this steamer were also two 
Dutch Franciscans, who had been for many 
years missionaries in China. They spoke with 
great praise of the piety of the Chinese 
Catholics and expressed their confidence in 
the future of the Church in that country. 

The sea voj^age at first was quite pleasant, 
but the last few days it became extremely 
cold. One day we saw a regular chain of 
icebergs and that explained the chilly atmos- 
phere. We went very slowly on account of 
the danger from icebergs. My rheumatism 
troubled me a great deal while on the water. 
I could not bend and had to have assistance 
in dressing and putting on my shoes. When 
sitting in a chair, I had the greatest difficulty 
to get up. but in spite of all. I had quit tak- 
ing medicine when I left Jonesboro. 

We arrived in Rotterdam June 2nd, and 
the next day, Pentecost, assisted at Mass in 
a beautiful church, which was crowded to 
overflowing. We were highly edified by the 
evident devotion of the faithful. In the 
afternoon we went to the beautiful botanical 
gardens. We saw whole fields of the finest 
tulips. 

Leaving the charming Netherlands, we 
went by rail to Switzerland. In Lucerne I 
went to see the head doctor of the city 
hospital, who. after having examined me 
thoroughly, declared, I did not have a formal 
defect of the heart. He said I was simply 
overworked, as it was customary with Amer- 
icans, and all I needed was absolute rest. He 
advised me to go to the hot springs, in 



Baden, Switzerland, to take a hot bath every 
morning, to lie on my back a great deal of 
the time, to take only moderate exercise, 
and to drink a glass of wine with every meal. 
In Hot Springs, Ark., wine, beer and all 
alcoholic drinks had been strictly forbidden 
to me by my physician. 

Arriving in Baden, I was examined by an- 
other doctor. He gave me the same advice, 
prescribing no medicine at all. The hot water 
in Swiss "Baden" flows from springs coming 
out on both sides under the river Limat. 
Those hot baths were already used by the 
Romans of old. The main street built by 
the Romans is called "The Roman Street." 
In a park are a great many monuments dat- 
ing from the time of the Roman emperors. 
After about six days I received an invitation 
to a beautiful health resort, where I was in- 
vited to act as chaplain and where I would 
be taken care of gratis. I asked the doctor 
about it. He replied that I could not stand 
the altitude. After I had taken the cus- 
tomary twenty-one baths, the physician ex- 
amined me again and declared I could now 
safely go to that place. 7000 feet high. But 
he advised me to travel for a while. I there- 
fore bought a monthly excursion ticket, 
traveling about at my ease, leaving generally 
in the morning at seven o'clock and stopping 
early in the evening at the most convenient 
place. The ticket cost $16, and gave me tlie 
privilege to travel day and night on trains 
and steamboats throughout Switzerland for 
a whole month. It is perfectly proper to 
advise people to "see America first," but if 
you have not a fat pocket-book, you cannot 
go very far. You may buy a ticket for $16 
and travel several hundred miles without see- 
ing anything. 

During that time I visited many friends, 
and later took an after-cure at another Swiss 
health resort, Ragatz. where I again used the 
hot baths. ( To be continued) 



Pilgrimages 

By Eugene M. Beck. S.J., St. Louis 
University 



No pauper so unblest but owns a shrine 
To which he may impregnable withdraw; 
Whether it be an humble roof of straw 

Or woodland sacristy of murmurous pine: 

Each hath his own. ... No head but must 
incline 
To chosen god of power or of clay. 
And at his inmost altar tribute pay 

Of spirit-worship, man-made or divine. 

So in the rugged mountain-side I know 
A bower sacred from the tempest-tryst. ^ 
There, in the living bed-rock which is 
Christ, 

I hold my peace, secure from overthrow: 
And. in His pierced side emparadised. 

Behold my scarlet sin grow white as snow! 



236 



THE FOETNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



June 15 



Literary Briefs 



' ' Herder ' s Konversationslexikon ' ' 

The lucky possessors of the above-named 
Catholic encyclopediai will be pleased to learn 
that the first part of the second supplemen- 
tary volume (Erganzungsband) has lately 
appeared. It embraces the war and other 
new subjects that have attracted public atten- 
tion since iQio, when the main work was is- 
sued. One need not always share the Teutonic 
point of view from which this reference 
work is written to be enabled to use, and to 
acknowledge with gratitude, the .vast amount 
of reliable information it contains. This 
supplementary volume is also issued sepa- 
rately under the title "Herder's Zeitlexikon." 
No Catholic library can be regarded as com- 
plete without this work. We of the F. R. 
tind it indispensable for reference and use 
it every day. Its completeness and accuracy 
are a constant source of admiration. The 
second and concluding part of this supple- 
mentary volume II is promised for 1922. 
When it appears, the whole work will con- 
sist of eleven massive tomes. (B. Herder 
Book Co.) 
"God — or Gorilla" 

In this somewhat sensationally titled vol- 
ume, Mr. Alfred W. McCann, a nephew of 
the late Bishop Watterson of Columbus, O., 
shows, in double-barreled journalese, "how 
the monkey theory of evolution exposes its 
own methods, refutes its own principles, 
denies its own inferences, disproves its own 
case." The volume contains many interest- 
ing quotations and is illustrated by a num- 
ber of fine plates. The author's controversial 
style may not impress everybody, but there is 
undoubtedly at the present day a large class 
of readers who cannot be reached or con- 
vinced in any other way. Apologists must 
adapt the means they use to the end to be 
reached. Mr. McCann does this with con- 
siderable skill, but we think his argument 
would be even more effective if it were con- 
densed and systemaiized. (Tlie Devin-Adair 
Co.) 
The Story of St. John Baptist de la Salle 

Brother Leo, of Oakland, Cal, has writ- 
ten an inspiring story in his life of St. John 
Baptist De la Salle ("The Story of St. John 
De la Salle"), the founder of the Christian 
Brothers, whose schools have done so much 
for Catholic education throughout the world. 
The book is written primarily for youngsters, 
though it is safe to say that adult readers 
will also appreciate it. Hagiography has been 



greatly affected by the new historical criti- 
cism — and to a good end. Lives of saints 
have become true biographies and are no 
longer a congeries of pious imaginings. It 
is to be hoped that the pendulum will not 
swing too far in the opposite direction. There 
is a tendency to "naturalize," where a simple 
statement of fact in its proper setting is 
all that is called for by good hagiographical 
writing. For a little boy like John Baptist 
de la Salle to "play priest" and have the 
"Lives of the Saints" read to him during a 
jollitication in the house, is unusual, extra- 
ordinary, and, in a sense, "unnatural." We 
cannot explain it away ; we cannot under- 
estimate it, nor can we conclude that John 
Baptist was like other boys. Is it a fact? 
Then give it the proper setting and im- 
portance. Brother Leo has written enter- 
tainingly of his holy Founder and the great 
work instituted by him. Archbishop Hayes 
contributes an appreciative introduction. 
(P. J. Kenedy & Sons.) 



Books Received 

The Gospel of a Country Pastor. Sketches 
and Sermons by the Rev. J. M. Lelen. xvi 
& 179 pp. i2mo. B. Herder Book Co. $1 
net. 

Soeiological Essays. By Dr. A. E. Breen. 
Two volumes, xii & 528 and 430 & xi pp. 
8vo. Rochester, Minn.: J. P. Smith Print- 
ing Co. 

Der zvirkliche JVoodrozv JVilson. Von Hein- 
rich Charles. 63 pp. 8vo. New York: 
Charles Publication Co., 11 Broadway. 
(Paper). 

The Capuchin Brother. By Father Theodo- 
sius, O.M.Cap. 42 pp. 8vo. Illustrated. 
New York : Peerless Printing Co., 244 W. 
23rd Str. (Wrapper). 

What Are the Prospects of the Uiik'crsity 
Professor.^ By David P. Barrows. A State- 
ment Prepared for the Board of Alumni 
Visitors. 16 pp. 8vo. University of Cali- 
fornia Press. (Paper). 

Notes of a Catholic Biologist. By Rev. Geo. 
A. Kreidel. Professor of Biological Science 
in St. Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, N. 
Y. X & 276 pp. ]2mo. B. Herder Book 
Co., $1.50 net. 

Through the Rev. Joseph Molitor, D.D., of 
the Pontifical College Josephinum, Colum- 
bus. O., we have received "Die Kultur- 
schaiidc Eitropas vor deiii Schiuiirgericht" 
and twenty-five other pamphlets "Fiir 
Volkssittlichkeit und Volksaufklarung" by 
the Rev. Dr. Joh. Ude, professor in the 
University of Graz. all published by the 
Society known as "Oesterreichs Volker- 
wacht" and printed by H. Stiasny, Volks- 
sartenstr. Nr. 12, Graz. Austria. 



1922 



THE FOBTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



237 



THE SCHOOL FOR YOUR BOY 

Quincy College 

QUINCY, ILLINOIS 

CONDUCTED BY FRANCISCAN FATHERS 



An ideal boarding scliool, 
located in one of the most 
beautiful and healthful cities 
of the countrv. 



Recognized b\- the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction 
of the State and Accredited to 
the Universitv of Illinois. 



COURSES 
Commercial Academic Collegiate 

TERMS: EXTREMELY REASONABLE 
WRITE FOR CATALOGUE AND PROSPECTUS 



Conception College and Seminary 

An Ideal ('o liege Home. Lueatiou Weantifiil 
aud healtbt'ul. Large campus aud shady walks. 
Complete College aud High School courses. Mod- 
em languages free. : Church Music a specialty. 



Board, Tuition. Lodging 



$310.00 a year 



For Catalogue address 

THE REV. RECTOR 

Conception, Mo. 



ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 




238 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July I 



The Holy Father Benedict Xl'. has favored this work ivith a s(>ecial letter of recommendation 



A Parochial Course of Doctrinal Instructions 

For All Sundays and Holydays of the Year 

Based on the Catechism of the Council of Trent, and Harmonized with the 
Gospels and Epistles of the Sundays and Feasts 

Prepared and Arranged hy the Rev. Charles J. Callan, O. P., and the Rev. J. A. McHuj^h, O. P. 
With an Introduction by the Most Rev. Patrick J. Hayes, I). I)., Archbishop of New York. 

Complete in Four Volumes 
Price per volume, boand in tiofh, net, $3.50 



HIGHLY PRAISED BY 

From the Ecclesiastical Review: 

"The publication inaugurates a new era of pa- 
rochial activity. ... If it were adopted under 
episcopal direction it would soon dispel the intel- 
lectual indifference of Catholics who go to church 
and frequent the sacraments, but who are incapa- 
ble of either defending their religion against 
popular attacks or of illustrating its power of 
truth and beauty so as to make it respected 
among those outside the Church." 

From the IIomiletic and Pastoral Review: 

"The work before us is intended to remedy the 
evil of desultory preaching. In the regeneration 



EMINKNT REVIEWERS: 

of modern pulpit eloquence the present work will 
render yeoman service." 

From America: 

"Too commonly books of sermons are modeled 
on courses of theology for seminaries, altogether 
too didactic and too rigidly systematic for paro- 
chial or popular use. Not so with this excellent 
course by two men who are not only expert in 
preaching and teaching, but conversant also with 
what is most practical and recent in sermon 
literature. . . . With these courses one could for 
a lifetime use this book and ever have something 
new, interesting and convincing to say." 



JOSEPH F, WAGNER (Inc.) Publishers 

2;! Biii-oliiv Street NEW YORK 



Havana 
Filled 



Wagner's Londres Grande \ 

100 — $7. so {Smoked in 47 States) 50 — $4, 00 

|ry |hem— Iakes |he |aste |o |ell |he |ale 



mported 
Sumatra 
Wrapper 

r>o — $4, 00 




Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Money Order or N. Y. Draft- 
After Smoking three Segars. if not as represented or 
satisfactory, pack well and return bv Parcel Post. 
Money and Postage refunded by return mail. 

(Ca/ali'gu,- anil P'ici's of Other Ht 



MATT. WAGNER & SON 

Kstablished 1806 
08 North Pearl St. BUFFALO, N. Y. 

i/.v mailed oh requeue 



America Press 

i» JOB PRINTING ii 

done with neatness and dispatch 

'The Fortnightly Review" is printed by \is 

18''2 South Sixth St. ST. Louis. Mo. 



fSrElNER^l^S*rDlEC^ 



BADGES,! 

BUTTONS 8:PINS:J^: 



SEALS. 
AMPS' 



STENCILS ^METALcfnEa^. 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 13 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



July 1, 1922 



The Shelley Centennial 

By the Rev. Lewis Drummond, S. J., Loyola College, Montreal 



Percy Bysshe Shelley was 
drowned on July 8, 1822. The 
eighth of July, 1922, will therefore 
be the hundredth anniversary of 
his death and will, of course, be 
fittingly celebrated because no 
other poet was ever gifted with so 
musical an ear for metrical mel- 
ody. That will ever be his match- 
less glory, that and nothing else. 
His tragic death occurred before 
his reputation as a poet had ob- 
tained any general acceptance, but 
that reputation has since attained 
colossal proportions, thanks to the 
responsive chord which his lawless 
atheistic spirit strikes in the 
hearts of those multitudes who 
chafe under any restraint. They 
are charmed by what they read 
of his sweetness, indulgence, and 
generosity even towards men who 
Avorried him meanly, and these 
readers forget what a rebel he was 
against God and against every- 
thing truly divine. They especial- 
ly fail to note that he was the 
originator of that subtly diabolic 
art of clothing unbelief in the 
phraseology of the true faith, — an 
art which has been the bane of too 
much fine writing since Shelley in- 
vented it, the art of sugar-coating 
blasphemy with words of adoration 
and draping pantheism in the gar- 
ments of theism. Even Words- 
worth occasionally drops into it, 
but unintentionally. Shelley revels 
in it. 

Take, for instance, Queen Mab, 



his first important poem, privately 
printed because the decency of the 
time would not stand its immoral- 
ity and irreligion. Shelley begins 
by addressing the Spirit of Nature 
as if he really meant the Chris- 
tian's God: — 

The pure diffusion of Thy essence throbs 

Alike in every' human heart. 
Thou aye erectest there 

Thy throne of power unappealable. 
Thou art the judge beneath whose nod 
Plan's brief and frail authority 
Is powerless as the wind 
That passeth idly by. 
Thine the tribunal which surpasseth 
The show of human justice. 
As God surpasseth man. 

These words have a familiar 
sound as if the poet meant our 
God; but turn over three pages 
of double-columned verse — for his 
own favorite poems are intermina- 
ble, this one containing more than 
1700 lines — and you will find first, 
a bit of fine tinitli put there as a 
decoy for the coming blasphemous 
falsehood. Here is the burst of 
truth— 

These too the tyrant serve who, skilled to 

snare 
The feet of justice in the toils of kw, 
Stand ready to oppress the weaker still ; 
And right or wrong will vindicate for gold, 
Sneering at public virtue, which beneath 
Their pitiless tread lies torn and trampled, 

where 
Honor sits smiling at the sale of truth. 

Now comes the blasphemous lie :— 

Then grave and hoary-headed hypocrites. 
Without a hope, a passion, or a love. 
Who, through a life of luxury and lies, 
Have crept by flattery to the seats of power. 



240 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



Support the system whence their honors 

flow— 
They have three words; well tyrants know 

their use, 
Well pay them for the loan, with usury 
Torn from a bleeding world! God, Hell, 

and Heaven. 
A vengeful, pitiless, and almighty fiend. 
Whose mercy is a nick-name for the rage 
Of tameless tigers hungering for blood. 
Hell, a red gulf of everlasting fire, 
Where poisonous and undying worms pro- 
long 
Eternal misery to those helpless slaves 
Whose life has been a penance for its crimes. 
And Heaven, a meed for those who dare belie 
Their human nature, quake, believe, and 

cringe 
Before the mockeries of earthly power. 

From such hideous manifestoes 
of what Southey called ''the Sa- 
tanic School" we turn with relief 
to ''The Cloud." This elaborate 
musical combination of multiple 
ryhmes and happy metaphors has 
never been equalled by any other 
poet, simply because it is the in- 
carnation of Shelley's unique char- 
acter, as unsubstantial, as unrea- 
sonable, as chang-eable, as elusively 
beautiful as those cumulus-clouds 
that set off the splendor of the sun. 

Shelley's poem "To a Skylark" 
with its charming, though again 
rather labored similes, may be 
compared to Wordsworth's twelve 
lines on the same subject. There 
is more real, deep, abiding thought 
in those two short verses than in 
Shelley's twenty-one stanzas of 
five lines each. When Wordsworth 
wrote 

Leave to the nightingale her shady woods ; 
A privacy of glorious light is thine — 

he gave utterance to a prophetic 
insight which the present-day air- 
man, soaring far above the sky- 
lark, recognizes as a startling- 
reality, "the privacy of glorious 
light" in the upper regions of the 
untenanted air. No such happy 
combination of simplicity and 
depth, the two peerless attributes 
of real genius, can be found in 



anything that Shelley ever wrote. 
His "Defence of Poetry" is 
praised by his admirers as an 
essay which revealed in him a 
master of prose. Now the best 
paragraph in that essay is the 
following: "A poem is the very 
image of life expressed in its 
eternal truth." This short but sen- 
tentious pronouncement lacks the 
first requisite of a good definition : 
it is less clear than the thing 
defined. After reading it we know 
less than we did before. Shelley 
continues: "There is this differ- 
ence between a story and a poem 
that a story is a catalogue of de- 
tached facts, which have no other 
connection than time, place, cir- 
cumstance, cause and effect" — the 
number and variety of these con- 
necting links does not seem to 
strike Shelley — "the other is the 
creation of actions according to 
the unchangeable (?) forms of 
human nature, as existing in tlif 
mind of the Creator, which is it- 
self the image of all other minds. ' ' 
There are the words of a would- 
be i^hilosopher; but what do the>' 
mean when written by an aggres- 
sive atheist? Shelley goes on: 
"The one is partial, and applies 
only to a definite period of time 
and to a certain combination of 
events which can never again 
recur." Is that really so? Do 
not the same events recur so often 
that the popular story-writer is 
at his wit's end to discover a new 
situation, a hitherto unused plot? ^ 
"The other is universal, and '' 
contains within itself the germ of 
a relation to whatever motives or 
Mctions have place in the possible 
\'arieties of human nature." 
Please bear in mind that in the 
second sentence of this para- 
uiaph Shelley wrote about "the 
nucliangebale forms of human na- 



li)22 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



24J 



ture," according to which a poem 
created actions. Strange forms 
which, though unchangeable, ad- 
mit of possible varieties. ''Time," 
he urges, ''which destroys the 
beauty and the use of a story of 
particular facts, stripped of the 
poetry w^hich should invest them, 
augments that of poetry, and for- 
ever develops new and wonderful 
applications of the eternal truth 
which it contains." Is it true that 
the beauty of a plain prose tale, 
stripped of all poetic forms, is 
destroyed by time? The simple 
story of Joseph and his brethren, 
related in the Book of Genesis 
about events that occurred several 
thousand years ago, is still, when 



well read, capable of drawing 
tears even from a poet. 

William Michael Rossetti says: 
"The defects of Shelley's longer 
poems are vagueness, unreality, 
a pomp of glittering indistinct- 
ness, in which excess of sentiment 
welters amid excess of words." 
Yet that same W. M. Rossetti 
does not hesitate to prophesy 
that Shelley will be the poet of the 
future, what we might hail as a 
second Shakespeare. No. Shake- 
speare has plenty of faults: 
Walter Pater used to cry out 
against the scoriae of Shake- 
speare; but these were faults of 
taste, not errors of judgment. 



The Case of Sister Anne Catherine Emmerich 

By the Rev. Hubert Hartmann, S. J., Emmerich, Germany 



II 

What as to the "veridical char- 
acter" (to employ an expression 
of Father Thurston's) of the vi- 
sions? If they are genuine and 
have been accurately recorded, it 
follows per se that they must be 
true. Now it cannot be denied 
cither that they are genuine or 
that they have been conscientious- 
ly recorded. The estimate to be 
formed of them, of course, depends 
largely -upon what truths God 
wished to communicate to the 
world through Ven. Anne Cathe- 
rine. I need hardly explain, I su- 
pose, that private revelations are 
not intended to increase the depos- 
it of faith, which has long since 
been complete, nor to add greater 
certainty to the things already 
known from divine revelation. As 
Benedict XV observes, private 
revelations, even when approved 
by the Holy See, need not be 
believed with divine faith, but can 



claim to be accepted only with 
liuman faith in accordance with 
iLe rules of ordinary prudence. 
Any Catholic may refuse his rec- 
ognition to them, provided he does 
so with due discretion, for good 
reasons, and without contempt. 
("De Beatif." 1. Ill, c. 53, n. 15). 
Still less are they designed to 
communicate historical, archeolog- 
ical, geographical or other knowl- 
edge. They are given first and 
above all for the edification of the 
faithful, but may be employed as 
a guide in studying problems 
^\ilich touch common revelation. 
You cannot harvest potatoes from 
a flower garden, no matter how 
much more useful the former may 
be than the latter. Just as little 
should we seek historical, archeo- 
logical, geographical, or chrono- 
logical knowledge in private reve- 
lations. Brentano says very aptly 
in the introduction to Anne Cathe- 
rine's Historv of the Dolorous 



242 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



Passion: **If these meditations 
should surpass in any way the 
many similar fruits of the con- 
templative love of Christ, they 
solemnly protest against any claim 
to historical truth. Their sole ob- 
ject is to take a place side by side 
with the innumerable narratives 
of the dolorous Passion by artists 
and pious writers and at most to 
be regarded as the imperfectly 
conceived and poorly fashioned 
Lenten meditations of a pious nun, 
who has never attributed to them 
any higher than a humanly brittle 
value and consented to communi- 
cate them to others only in 
response to an incessant internal 
admonition and the repeated com- 
mands of venerable spiritual di- 
rectors, and by dint of a genuine 
self-sacrifice." What noble words 
ill comparison with the haughty 
and irreverent criticisms of these 
visions ! Father Stockmann, S. J., 
comments upon Brentano's above- 
quoted protestation in the Stim- 
men der Zeit (1917, Heft 9, p. 318) : 
''Brentano, though firmly con- 
vinced of the visionary character 
of Catherine's meditations, was 
well aware, on the other hand, that 
the final judgment in such ques- 
tions belongs, not to the individual 
Catholic, but to the Church. Hence 
the definite and clear protestation 
in the introduction, which per- 
mitted him in the course of the 
narrative to follow the urging of 
his heart and speak of visions, 
since now no one could justly 
accuse him of having taken it upon 
1 imself to pronounce judgment on 
Ihe character of Catherine. There- 
fore we need not assume that the 
poet was guilty of contradiction." 
The History of the Passion has 
been aptly described by competent 
critics as '*a true work of art," 



'^a beautifull}^ carved master- 
piece," '*a harmoniously com- 
posed painting," ^'a classic w^ork 
01 edification," etc. (I am speak- 
ing of the German original only, 
as I am not familiar with the 
English translation). Prof. Oehl 
says in his edition of Brentano's 
works (Vol. XIV, Introduction, 
circa fiuew) : '* Brentano's Passion 
is to-day a cultural factor of in- 
estimable esthetic and ethical 
worth"; it is ''one of the most 
remarkable and, at the same time, 
one of the most beautiful and most 
widely read books of German, nay, 
of European literature." 
{To he concluded) 



A Scientific Age 



By Ai.KxANDER N. De Menil 

Oh, what a restless age is this 

Of scientific art; 
An age that scorns all sentiment 

And tenderness of heart. 

An age of foul suspicions, doubts. 

Our old traditions, too, 
We're told in cold, prosaic way. 

Are found to be untrue. 

Sir Walter Raleigh didn't spread 
His cloak before the queen, 

In order that her majesty 

Should keep her slippers clean. 

Nor did Will Shakespeare write a play- 
Again we have been sold; 

And Mary never had a lamb — 
'Twas Lucy, we are told. 

And last, not least, some learned men 

Do boldly certify 
That Washington without a doubt, • 

Had often told a lie' 

The cutting of the cherry tree 

Was nothing but a myth ; 
And Pocahontas didn't save 

The life of Captain Smith. 
Now what on earth can we believe 

That's either right or wrong? 
Mas! we '11 b'lieve, as I do now, 

That we have lived too long! 



19Si2 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



243 



Malinche — An Incident of the Conquest of Mexico 

By Benjamin M. Read, Santa Fe, N. M. 



Some few years before the ar- 
rival of Hernan Cortes on the 
coast of ^Mexico, according to an- 
cient Spanish and Mexican histor- 
ians, there lived in the Indian town 
of Paiiiala, now in the State of 
Vera Cruz, an Indian family re- 
lated by blood to the 7iobility of the 
House of Moctezuma. The family 
consisted of the man, who was 
very wealthy and of great 
prestige, his wife, and an infant 
daughter. The husband died sud- 
derJy, leaving the widow and the 
young daughter as his only heirs. 
The widow soon married another 
Indian, of noble lineage also. A 
boy was born to them, and with the 
coming of that child, the criminal 
thought of killing the little girl, in 
order that her share of the prop- 
erty her dead father had left to 
her might go to the newly-born 
baby boy, occurred to them. At the 
moment they were about to exe- 
cute the little girl, word reached 
them that the infant daughter of 
an Indian slave of theirs had just 
died, and they at once contrived to 
pass the word that their little girl 
had died. Funeral exercises were 
held over the corpse of the little 
slave girl, the entire community 
believing that the mourning was 
for the daughter of their noble 
lord. In the meantime the step- 
father and the mother of the per- 
secuted girl had sold the child to 
some Indian merchants, then pedd- 
ling their wares at the place, from 
Xicalanco, near Tabasco. These 
peddlers resold the child to the 
Tabasco Indians, among whom she 
grew to womanhood. 

At Tabasco the unfortunate 
Xicalanco girl became the slave of 



one of the princes of that kingdom. 
Her beauty and mental ability 
soon endeared her to her master, 
who was the owner of a great num- 
ber of female slaves. Her amiabili- 
ty, intelligence, and tactful man- 
ners gained for her the esteem 
and confidence of her lord. She 
learned the Tabascan language to 
j)erfection and managed to main- 
tain fresh in her mind her own 
Mexican language and the sweet 
recollections of her childhood, and 
never ceased to cherish an ardent 
desire to live long enough to be- 
come free and to Visit her unnatu- 
ral mother. Divine Providence 
granted her wish; for, while ac- 
companying Cortes in his almost 
superhuman expedition to Hondu- 
ras, she unexpectedly met her 
mother, and not only forgave her 
but obtained many favors for her 
from Cortes. 

The arrival of the Spaniards 
under Hernan Cortes at Tabasco, 
March 12, 1519, decided the fate 
of the Xicalanco slave. The Ta- 
bascans resisted the invading 
forces, but Avere decisively de- 
feated and compelled to become 
subjects of the Spanish Crown. As 
a proof of his loyalty, the defeated 
Tabascan King presented to Cor- 
tes and his captains twenty young 
women, many of whom were mem- 
bers of Tabascan royal house- 
holds, the Xicalanco girl being- 
am ong the twenty. Cortes retained 
lier, had her baptized and placed 
under an instructor to learn the 
Spanish language. The girl was 
named Marina, which name was 
corrupted by the Aztecs, who pro- 
nounced it Malintzin, — a pronun- 
ciation finally changed to Malinche 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July I 



and by the Aztecs extended to the 
eonqueror hhnself, whom they, 
from Moctezuma down to the com- 
mon people, ahvays addressed as 
Malinche. 

Malinche from the day of her 
rescue until the conquest of Mex- 
ico by the Spaniards, became a 
heroic figure in history. During 
the entire war she not only acted 
as interpreter to Cortes, but took 
a very active part in all the w^ar 
plans and military deliberations ; 
was present, fighting side by side 
with Cortes, Maria Estrada, Bea- 
triz Bernmdez, and the other 
Spanish women heroines, in all his 
battles, including the celebrated 
battle of the Nocho Triste (sor- 
rowful night), and during the sev- 
enty-five days of tiio siege of the 
City of Mexico. Listening to her 
admonitions, Bernal Diaz tells us, 
Cortes was considerate and hu- 
mane to the vanquishedMoctezuma, 
when he made the Aztec emperor 
his prisoner, and to Moctezuma 's 
subjects. Malinche 's tact and fore- 
sight on more than one occasion 
saved the Spaniards from utter 
annihilation bv the treacherous 



Aztecs. Especially was this true 
of the massacre the Spaniards 
wa)uld have suffered at Cholula, 
had not the ever alert Malinche, 
through her friendship with the 
Cholulan princes, discovered the 
conspiracy, secretly obtaining 
from her Cholulan noble friends a 
very thorough description of the 
programme the Cholulans had 
agreed upon for the destruction of 
Cortes and his armies. Malinche 
communicated to Cortes the secret 
information she had thus gained 
some twelve hours before the time 
set for the treacherous assault. 

Marina (Malinche) was made a 
member of the Spanish nobility by 
Charles V and spent her last days 
in Spain. The Spaniards drama- 
tized her heroic feats and remark- 
able life, and that is how^, in my 
judgment, the traditional play, 
though greatly distorted, reached 
New Mexico in the early days of 
our history. After the conquest 
the names Malinche and Malintzin 
were also applied to lakes, moun- 
tains, etc., in Mexico, notably to 
two elevated peaks in the States 
of Tlascala and Hidalgo. 



National Boys' and Girls' Club Organizations 



The Monthly Information Serv- 
ice of the State Office Y. M. S. C. U. 
of 111. devotes No. 9 of its useful 
I'ulletin to *' Parish Boys' and 
Girls' (Uubs." Besides a lot of 
other valuable information it con- 
tains the following notes on na- 
tional club organizations: 

1. Government Boys' and Girls* 
Cud) Work, Department of Agri- 
culture, States Relation Service, 
Washington, D. C, co-operating 
with individual States through the 
various State universities. 

While the activities of the Gov- 



ernment Boys' and Girls' Clubs 
are not as showy as are those of 
some of the other organizations, 
nevertheless they have a strong 
appeal because the activities are 
all planned to bring the boys and 
girls back to the home and home 
making, as the following partial 
list of projects will show: corn, 
sweet corn, sugar beet, potato, 
garden, pig, sow^ and litter, dairy 
calf, dairy heifer, cow and calf, 
baby l)eef , sheep, poultry, canning, 
bread, meal preparation, hot 
school lunch, clothing, handicraft 



1922 



THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



245 



in making- home equipment and 
conveniences, rabbit, sorghum, 
strawberry, sweet potato, bean, 
pea, cow testing, wheat, own your 
own home club, etc., etc. 

In 1921 there were 214,127 boys 
;ind girls enrolled in these Gov- 
ernment Clubs. Of these 143,041 
completed their project. The value 
of the production reported was 
14,245,152. 

2. JiDiior Achievement Bureau 
of the Eastern States League, 
Springfield, Mass., under the di- 
rection of O. H. Benson, former 
Director of Government Boys' 
and Girls' Clubs, has worked out 
club work methods for boys and 
girls in industrial and trade cen- 
ters. Mr. Benson is doing for the 
Junior Bureau members what he 
has done for the Governmerit 
Boys' and Girls' Club members. 

3. Catholic Boys' Brigade of 
the United States, 128 W. 37th St., 
New York City, has for its pur- 
pose "to reach all Catholic boys, 
offering them a healthy outlet for 
energies that easily carry boys in- 
to dangerous by-paths." 

4. Bog Scouts of America, 200 
.")th Ave., New York City, has for 
its purpose "to supplement the 
various existing educational agen- 
cies and to promote the ability of 
'noys to do things for themselves 
and others. The Scout handbooks 
are very useful in parish club 
^\^ork. The Scouts have a special 
department for Catholic Scout 
Troops. 

5. Girl Scouts of America, 189 
Lexington Ave., New York City, 
aims to do for girls what the Boy 
Scouts are doing for boys. 

6. Woodcraft League of Auier- 
ica, 13 W. 29th Str., New York 
City, has a programme similar to 
the Scouts. Their handbook con- 
tains helpful material. 



7. The Mission Crusade, 129 
E. 9th Str., Cincinnati, 0., admits 
as junior members the pupils of 
parochial grade schools. 

8. Hie Blessed Virgin Sodality 
requires no introduction. Address, 
Queen's Work, St. Louis, Mo. 

9. The Boys' Club Federation, 
1 Madison Ave., New York City, 
serves as an exchange of ideas, 
methods, and plans for local boys ' 
clubs. 

10. The National League of 
Girls' Clubs, 130 E. 59th Str., New 
York City, does for girls' clubs 
vrhat the Boys' Club Federation 
does for boys. 



♦♦Beastly" Arithmetic. 
The Rev. Ernest R. Hull, S. J., 
writes in the Bombay Examiner 
(Vol. 73, No. 13) : 

A tract before us quotes Rev. 
XII, 18 : " Let him that hath un- 
derstanding count the number of 
the beast; for it is the number of 
a man; and his number is 666.'' ' 
From this the writer draws what 
he calls "an incontrovertible 
argument" that the Beast is the 
papacy. One of the Pope's titles, 
he says, is Vicarius Filii Dei; and 
if you take the letters in this title 
which stand for Roman numerals, 
vou get the following result: — 

V= 5 F D=500 

1= I 1= 1 E 

C=100 L= 50 1= 1 

A 1= 1 

R 1= 1 Total 666 

1= 1 

U= 5 
S 
On this we remark as follows : 
People have been playing at the 
game of discovering "the number 
of the beast" for at least 1800 
years. Some early authors dis- 
covered it in Nero, others in Do- 
mitian; later on they discovered 
it in Mahomet. In more recent 



246 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



times tliey found it in Napoleon, 
and during my boyhood they found 
it in Gladstone. Finally during 
the war it cropped up once more 
ii' the German Kaiser. 

While answering a question on 
the point some years ago, the idea 
struck me to apply the Latin- 
numeral method to my own name : 
"Ernest'us Reginaldiis Hull." I 
did so, and out came the number 
of the beast as usual. This is the 
chart : — 

R 

E 

G 
1= 

N 

A 
= 5 L= 50 

D=500 

U= 5 

S 
Here we have "an incontrover- 
tible argument" that the Editor 
of the Examiner is the Beast of 
Revelations! Bisum teneatis? 



H 




U= 


= 5 


L= 


= 50 


L= 


= 50 


Total 


666 



Non-Cathohc Tributes to Thomas A. 
Kempis and the "Imitation." 

A Wesleyan Methodist minister, 
Ivlr. E. J. Ives, has published a 
book on "The Message of Thomas 
a Kempis" (Student Christian 
Movement, London), for which 
every lover of the "Imitation" 
will be thankful because it sends 
its readers back with quickened 
interest to a Kempis himself. 

Mr. Ives gives several interest- 
ing illustrations of what a Kempis 
has been to men and women who 
had little else in common beyond 
their devotion to him; and others 
might be added. One of Wesley's 
first publications was an edition 
of the "Imitatio." Voltaire, it is 
said, once in a chance moment 
read the book, "and the presence 
passed into his soul, and found a 
lodging in one tiny corner whence 



no sneering scepticism could ban- 
ish it." Matthew Arnold called it 
"the most exquisite document, 
after those of the New Testa- 
ment, of all that the Christian 
spirit has inspired." And Lord 
Wolseley once let it be known that 
when he set out on some long mili- 
tary expedition, between his Book 
of Common Prayer and his Sol- 
diers' Pocketbook went his "Imi- 
tatio Christi." 

But of all these tributes George 
Eliot's, in "The Mill on the 
Floss," is still the most striking: 
' ' This voice out of the far-off 
Middle Ages was the direct com- 
munication of a human soul's be- 
lief and experience, and came to 
Maggie as an unquestioned mes- 
sage. I suppose that is the rea- 
son w^hy the small old-fashioned 
book, for which you need only pay 
sixpence at a book-stall, works 
miracles to this day, turning bit- 
ter waters into sweetness; while 
expensive sermons and treatises, 
newly issued, leave all things as 
they were before. It was written 
do\\ai by a hand that waited for 
the heart's prompting; it is the 
chronicle of a solitary, hidden 
anguish, struggle, trust, and tri- 
umph — not written on velvet cush- 
ions to teach endurance to those 
who are treading with bleeding 
feet on the stones. And so it re- 
mains to all time a lasting record 
of human needs and human con- 
solations : the voice of a brother 
who, ages ago, felt and suffered 
and renounced — in the cloister, 
perhaps, with serge gown and 
tonsured head, with much chant- 
ing and long fasts, and with a 
fashion of speech different from 
ours — but under the same silent, 
far-off heavens, and with the same 
passionate desires, the same striv- 
ings, the same failures, the same 
weariness." 



192^ 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



247 



Notes and Gleanings 

Apropos of the report that Edgar 
Lee Masters, author of "The Spoon 
River Anthology," may be made Amer- 
ican poet laureate, the Ave Maria (Vol. 
XV, No. 19), calls attention to the 
fact that he is a fanatical anti-Catholic. 
One of his most ardent friends and 
supporters, Brian Hooker, says of him : 
"Mr. Masters hates religion, 
and the priest is the one man on earth 
of whom he cannot speak without a 
sneer. He is pre-occupied continually 
with his moral purpose, the propa- 
ganda of unchristian science. . . ." 

A sarcastic dialogue in a French 
weekly begins as follows : "Polichin- 
elle : 'In 1871 we had to pay Germany.' 
Guignol : 'Ah, but Germany didn't have 
any allies !' " It is in this spirit that 
Col. Charles Gautier has written his 
exposition of Anglo-French relations, 
"L'Angleterre et Nous" (Paris: B. 
Grasset). The professed object of this 
volume is to dispose of the idea that 
France is bound to Great Britain by 
ties either of friendship or of gratitude 
for the latter's co-operation in the 
World War. As the first chapter 
beading states, "The war of 1914-1918 
was above all an Anglo-German war." 
The author believes, furthermore, that 
just as British interests demanded the 
war much more urgently than did 
those of France, so Britain has been 
far better treated in the peace dealings. 
From recent utterances in the press it 
seems that not a few Frenchmen share 
this view. 

Commenting on the decree of the S. 
Congregation of the Consistorty by 
which the N.C.W.C. was officially dis- 
solved (though in reality it still 
exists and functions) the Ave Maria 
(Vol. XV, No. 19) says: ". . . we 
feel that the Council was perhaps a 
little over-zealous and incautious, and 
that Catholic organization in the U. S. 
must first pass through a necessary 
stage of evolution. Let us build solid- 
ly our diocesan societies, foster and 
strengthen our educational and literary 



institutions, and try to create a frame 
of mind that will grow into harmon- 
ious solidarity." The latter phrase is 
somewhat cryptic, but we believe the 
lesson drawn from the decree by our 
contemporary is the right one. 

The Revnc Internationale des Socic- 
tes Secretes (Paris: 96 Blvd. Malesher- 
bes), which again appear regularly, 
though only as a quarterly, is at pres- 
ent printing a valuable series of papers 
by Dom J. Baucher, O.S.B., of Farn- 
borough, on "The Popes and Free- 
masonry." In the current (April) 
issue the author explains the measures 
taken against the Masonic sect by 
Clement XIII, Clement XIV, and Pius 
XI. He gives synopses of their pro- 
nouncements and reprints the more im- 
portant pontifical condemnations in the 
original Latin. What we need is a 
complete collection of all the anti- 
Masonic documents ever issued by the 
Holy See, in full and in the original 
Latin, with a French or, preferably, an 
English translation. Who will give us 
this much-needed collection? It is a 
conditio si}ie qua non for the effective 
combatting of Freemasonry, which has 
nowhere tried so hard and so success- 
fully to hide its real, anti-Catholic and 
anti-Christian nature as in these U. S. 
Even Catholics are to a considerable 
extent misled as to the ulterior motives 
and aims of this dangerous sect and as 
to the reasons why the Church forbids 
affiliation with it under pain of excom- 
munication. 

-•-.•--•--♦- 

La Veritc, of Quebec, reminds us that 
it was seventeen years, April 24th, 
since its founder and editor, Jules P. 
Tardivel, was called to his reward. 
La Veritc has had a hard time of it 
since, and of late has appeared only 
bi-weekly, instead of weekly. We are 
glad to learn that a reorganization is 
under way, by which the future of this 
once influential journal, now in its 41st 
year, will be assured. Meanwhile the 
publishers are soliciting subscriptions 
for a new edition of J. P. Tardivel's 
novel, "Pour la Patrie," which we re- 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



July 



viewed at the time of its first appear- 
ance some twenty years ago. 

The death of Msgr. Louis M. O. 
Duchesne leaves a void among Catho- 
lic scholars. He was a savant whom 
even Harnack acknowledged to be of 
the very first rank. His researches 
concerning the Liber Pontificalis and 
the church history of ancient Gaul en- 
sure him a place of honor among mod- 
ern historians. We learn via the Que- 
bec Action Catholique (daily edition, 
No. 4362) that Msgr. Duchesne was re- 
vising his "Histoire Angienne de 
I'Eglise" when death overtook him- 
This work, in many respects the best 
of its kind in any language, had been 
put on the Index under Pius X on ac- 
count of certain defects, especially a 
lack of reverence in the treatment of 
certain venerable legends. We hope 
the revision will be completed by some 
other competent scholar because this 
work (which has been translated into 
English) is too valuable to be per- 
manently withdrawn from circulation 
on account of a few minor faults. 



A measure designed to destroy the 
parochial and private schools of Ore- 
gon has been filed with the Secretary 
of State and will be submitted to the 
voters of the State under the referen- 
dum and initiative act next fall. The 
Catholic Sentinel (Vol. 53, No. 14) 
prints a synopsis of this measure, from 
which it appears that any parent, guar- 
dian, or other person having control or 
custody of a child over eight or under 
sixteen years of age, who refuses or 
neglects to send such child to a public 
school, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and each day's failure shall constitute a 
separate offense. There is a nominal 
provision for excusing children who 
are being taught by parents or private 
teachers, but only by express permis- 
sion from the county school superin- 
tendent, to be renewed each year upon 
condition that the child take an exam- 
ination before him or his representa- 
tive at least once every three months. 
Any parent, guardian, or other person 



who fails to comply with the proposed 
law shall, upon conviction, be subject 
to a fine of not less than $5 or more 
than $100, or to imprisonment in the 
county jail for from two to thirty days, 
or to both fine and imprisonment. The 
two Catholic papers in Oregon are try- 
ing to rouse their readers to a realiza- 
tion of the fact that the enactment of 
this bill would mean the destruction of 
every private and parochial school in 
the State. 

The Mount Angel Magasine (Vol. 
XXni, No. 27) calls attention to the 
fact that in Switzerland retreats are 
given, not only for ordinary working- 
men, but also for educated Catholics 
("Herren der gebildeten Stande"). 
"In America." says our contemporary, 
"cultured Catholics quite frequently 
are not impressed by the manner in 
which the ordinary mission or retreat 
is conducted ; but if a special appeal 
were made to them by the holding of 
retreats designed especially for lay per- 
sons with a college or university educa- 
tion, we have no doubt that also in this 
country many would respond. This 
class of people has very particular spir- 
itual needs and should be provided for 
in a special way because it must fur- 
nish our lay leaders." 

Commenting on the way in which 
members of Congress are constantly 
deluged with propaganda letters and 
the remark of one Senator that chain 
letters no longer make any impression 
on our national legislators, the Mount 
Angel Magazine (Vol. XXIII, No. 27) 
warns Catholics against adopting this 
hackneyed and ineffective method of 
influencing legislators. "We trust," 
our contemporary says, "that when 
Catholics find it necessary, as they oc- 
casionally do, to write to their repre- 
sentatives in Congress concerning some 
matter in which they are interested as 
Catholics, they will not adopt the 
chain-letter method. There is danger 
of this whenever many write at the 
instigation of an organization or at the 
suggestion of newspapers. It is use- 
less to send form-letters. To be effec- 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



249 



tive, a missive must be written in- 
dependently and in such a way that 
the senator or congressman addressed 
can see that the writer understands 
what he is writing about and is really 
interested in the subject." 

The time-honored division of lan- 
guages into "isolating," "agglutina- 
tive," and "inflective," with the accent 
on "inflective" as the highest type, has 
long been recognized as faulty. Mr. 
Edward Sapir ("Language: an Intro- 
duction to the Study of Speech ;" Har- 
court, Brace & Co.j attempts to substi- 
tute for this obsolete product of the 
evolutionary school a new classifica- 
tion, "based on concept type with con- 
sideration of the prevailing technique 
and the degree of synthesis-" His plan 
is more philosophical than the purely 
racial and geographical distribution 
adopted by Prof. F. N. Finck in his 
"Sprachstamme des Erdkreises," but 
whether it will prove acceptable to ex- 
perts, time alone can tell. 

It is interesting to learn from ^Ir. 
Sapir's above-quoted book that gram- 
matical processes perfectly familiar to 
every student of Indo-European lan- 
guages, such as affixing, internal 
vowel-change (ablaut), reduplication, 
have startlingly close parallels in sav- 
age or barbarous idioms, while "infix- 
ing," a mere fossil survival in Indo- 
European, is still very much alive in 
other such idioms. "An analysis of 
grammatical concepts on the basis of 
such a broad survey." says Prof. Ar- 
thur F. M. Remy, of Columbia Univer- 
sity, in a notice of Sapir's work in the 
Literary Review (Vol. II, No. 35), "is 
highly illuminating. It does away with 
the complacent attitude so often exhib- 
ited by speakers of 'cultural' languages 
toward 'uncultural' idioms, as if the 
processes and methods of the former 
languages were logical and normal, and 
those of the latter 'outlandish' or 'un- 
couth-' . . . It is refreshing to be 
reminded that 'the lowliest South 
African bushman speaks in the fornis 
of a rich symbolic system that is in 



essence perfectly comparable to the 
speech of the cultured Frenchman' 
And in view of some dogmatic asser- 
tions frequently found in the older 
books on language it is well to know 
that the universality and diversity of 
languages are such as to point to a 
common origin in the remotest begin- 
nings of the human race." 

That race and language are not iden- 
tical, almost every one knows — or 
should know. But that cultural and 
linguistic boundaries often do not coin- 
cide, is not sufficiently realized by 
many. Yet the examples of the Atha- 
baskan languages furnish conclusive 
evidence. Here are neighboring tiibes 
possessing a common culture, a com- 
mon worship, and yet speaking totally 
unrelated languages ! ''The well-worn 
phrase of our common Anglo-Saxon 
heritage," says Prof. Remy in discuss- 
ing this point, "loses all significance 
in view of these facts, though it may 
be useful for sentimental purposes. It 
will, no doubt, also give a jolt to our 
conceit to admit that language and cul- 
ture are not casually related — that a 
finer culture does not necessarily pre- 
suppose a finer language in the sense 
that the language has finer and nobler 
methods of thought-expression at its 
command. Of course, there is a differ- 
ence, but not in technical possibilities, 
rather in thought-content." 

In Henry Ford's automobile factory 
at Detroit, there is an endless platform 
which moves like a belt. Along this 
platform are stationed many men, each 
of whom has a special job. One puts 
on hub caps, another bolts down the 
cylinder block, and so on. Finally a 
complete automobile, with gas in the 
tank and oil in the engine, runs off 
the belt under its own pov/er- W. H.' 
Eaton in the Literary Review, suggests 
that novels be assembled in a similar 
way. Let Oppenheim furnish the plot, 
he says ; Irwin Cobb, the humor ; 
Dreiser, the realism ; somebody else 
(he is not prepared to say who) a bit 
of English stvle, etc. "After the 



2fi0 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



requisite naughtiness of Fitzgerald 
would be dropped in the oil of Harold 
Bell Wrighteousness. Finally Zane 
Grey could fill the tank with good red 
blood." Thus we should have a new, 
efficiently produced and properly 
standardized novel, with the authors' 
output more than doubled, and the cost 
cut in half. But would the public buy 
assembled novels as it now buys stand- 
ardized Ford cars? Mr. Eaton thinks 
it would buy in hitherto undreamed-of 
numbers. 

-•--»- -^ -•- 

Rev. Fr. Gregory M. Jussel, C.PP.S-, 
of Schellenberg, in the principality of 
Liechtenstein, writes to us : "The note 
on page 95 of the F. R. for March 1st 
was very timely. The poor Austrians 
are in very truth being robbed by 
American money sharks, bankers and 
others- I could give you many sad ex- 
amples of how individuals and families 
were cheated out of more than half of 
the money sent to them by generous 
relatives and friends in the U. S. Per- 
mit me to inform the American public 
through the F. R. that it is a mistake 
ro buy kronen and send them to Aus- 
tria. If you wish those to whom you 
send money in that poverty-stricken 
land, to get the full benefit of your 
remittances, make your drafts payable 
in dollars or in Swiss francs (at some 
bank in Switzerland). This is the only 
way, under present conditions, to get a 
fair return for American money in Aus- 
trian exchange." Father Jussel adds 
that he is willing to distribute mass 
stipends to needy priests in Austria. 
His address is: Hospiz der Missionare 
vom kostbaren Blut, Schellenberg, 
Fiirstentum Liechtenstein (via Switz- 
erland), Europe. 

-•-■♦•-••-•• 

Not long ago Father Ludwig Bonvin, 
S.J., of Buflfalo, N. Y., made available 
to present-day choirs a Gregorian 
Mass composed by Saint Hildegarde, 
and today he makes accessible to 
choirs who sing ^ capella a Mass by 
another canonized saint, Francis Bor- 
gia. The composition is in the same 
style and of about the same degree 
of difficulty as most four-part Masses 



by Palestrina and the saint's great 
countryman, Vittoria. Besides some 
minor changes in the composition, Fr. 
Bonvin provides interesting notes on 
the Saint-composer and his work. 
Choirmasters with the required Iper- 
sonnel at their disposal will wish to 
perform this Mass, not only on account 
of its artistic value, but also for the 
satisfaction of praying and singing in 
the identical words and tones of this 
saint-musician, now in heaven. ("Missa 
Octavi Toni," etc.; Rati^bon: A. Kap- 
penrath ) . 

■♦••♦•-•-.♦• 
Our knowledge of Manichaeism is 
derived entirely from the writings of 
the Fathers of the Church, especially 
from those of St. Augustine, who 
devoted several books to the refutation 
of this heresy. Recently discovered 
Oriental sources show that the Fathers 
did not distort the teaching of Mani, 
but that it really was even stranger and 
more bizarre than it appears in the 
Patristic writings. Prosper Alfaric has 
recently undertaken to give us an ex- 
haustive account of the literature of 
Manichaeism in a two-volume work, 
entitled "Les Ventures Manicheennes" 
(Paris, 1918). He has gathered all 
references to Manichaeism, not only 
from the writings of the Fathers, but 
from all other existing sources, includ- 
ing the remnants of Manichaean writ= 
ings brought to light by the latest ex- 
cavations in Central Asia. The first 
volume deals with the origin, expan- 
sion, and decay of Manichaeism, and 
its survival in literature ; the second 
treats of the Manichaean writings that 
have come down to us. The collection 
is the first of its kind ever attempted 
and will prove invaluable to the stu- 
dent. 

Johann Adam Mohler's "Symbolik," 
first published in 1832, which with 
great clearness exhibits the contradic- 
tion between Catholic and Protestant 
principles, has just gone into its tenth 
edition. That this famous work has 
lost nothing of its freshness in the 
nine decades that have elapsed since its 
first appearance, is owing to the fact 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



2r.l 



that Mohler, paying no attention to the 
constant variations of Protestantism, 
simply took it in its original form, as 
laid down in the symbolic books of the 
16th century, and showed how contra- 
dictory and unchristian its teachings 
are. Prof. F. X. Kiefl in a preface to 
the new edition calls the "Symbolik" 
the most effective apologia for the 
Catholic religion that has appeared in 
tour hundred years and says that 
Protestants have nothing to compare 
with it. The "Symbolik" was trans- 
lated into English by J. B. Robertson, 
in 1843, and a reprint of this very 
faithful but rather crude translation 
appeared in London and New York, in 
1894. The work has also been done 
into French and Italian. God only 
knows how many conversions it has 
been instrumental in effecting. There 
is a good article on Mohler and his life 
and writings in Vol. X of the Catholic 
Encyclopedia, pp. 430-432. 

Love thrives only so long as no rec- 
ords of giving and receiving are kept; 
when mathematics come in at the door 
love goes out of the window. 

*-.^$>*~. 

Correspondence 

An Ancient Recipe 

To the Editor: — 

Apropos of the prescription given by 
an old whimsical M. D. (F. R., No. 11, 
p. 211), allow me to tell you, that just 
the day before your esteemed Review 
arrived, I had read the following in Dr. 
Kellogg's "Plain Facts For Old and 
Young" : 

"Boerhoave, a famous old " Dutch 
physician, left to his heirs an elegantly 
boimd volume in which, he claimed, 
were written all the secrets of the 
science of physic. After his death the 
wonderful book was opened, when it 
was found to contain only the following 
sentence : 'Keep the head cool, the feet 
warm, and the bowels open.' An old 
Scotch physician once gave the follow- 
ing advice to Sir Astley Cooper for the 
preservation of health : 'Keep in the 
fear of the Lord and your bowels 
open.' " W. 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibeu, V.F. 

{55th Installment) 

June nth, the Right Rev. Monsignor John 
B. Morris was consecrated coadjutor Bishop 
of Little Rock, in the city of Nashville, 
where he had for years been vicar-general. 
Not being able to present my congratulations 
in person, I sent a telegram to his Lordship. 

During the months of July and August I 
visited a great many friends and benefactors 
of our missions, and traveled over the biggest 
part of Switzerland. 

On September 5th, my companions, with 
some new candidates for the convent, left 
by way of Hamburg. I preferred a southern 
cruise, which they did not like, because on 
that southern line the passengers were nearly 
all Italians. I hoped to get entirely rid of 
my rheumatism by a southern cruise via 
Naples and Gibraltar. 

I had a very interesting trip and the hot 
weather was as beneficial to me as the hot 
baths had been, and evidently drove out the 
last remnants of the disease, for I never 
have suffered from either rheumatism or 
heart trouble since. With me traveled a young 
man, John Wigger, from Lucerne. We left 
that city, September 12th, and went as far 
as Como, where we remained one day. Its 
marble cathedral, with numerous paintings 
by Luini, is remarkable, and its site on the 
lake is incomparable. Como is the home of 
the famous electrician Volta, after whom a 
large number of electric inventions are 
named. Volta was a practical, zealous Cath- 
olic like Ampere. He died in 1827. His life, 
like that of many others, is a proof that 
science and faith, are entirely compatible. 

From Como we went to Milan to see_ its 
International Exposition. We first visited 
the famous cathedral and other buildings. 
After that we spent our time at the exposi- 
tion. I had seen the World's Fair in Paris, 
1878, and those of Chicago and St. Louis; 
but my expectations were nowhere so much 
surpassed as at Milan. It certainly raised 
my respect for the Italians a great deal. 

By the way I might add that the Italians 
do not suffer so much by comparison with 
some of their neighbors. They are very 
kind-hearted and humble. They cannot be 
accused of race suicide. A great deal is said 
about their greed and avarice, but there are 
many special reasons, if not excuses, for 
that. A few men comparatively own almost 
the whole of Italy, and the multitude have 
to scrap for a mere living without the hope 
of ever owning a home. The land hunger 
has brought troubles in Russia, in Mexico, 
in England, and nowhere would a revolution 
on this account be more natural than in 
Italy. For the rest the old Romans also 
liked gold so well that proverbially a golden 
ass could climb over the Alps. 



25-4 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July ) 



I cannot refrain from pointing out some 
features of special interest to Catholics in 
this Exposition. In a large room were the 
exhibits of Dom Bosco's Institute. There 
were works of all kinds, paintings, drawings, 
books, architectural models from all over the 
world, especially from the South American 
colleges and schools of that congregation, 
pliOtographs of their houses, descriptions of 
their work, and statistical information. The 
impression was overwhelming. Another room 
contained the exhibits of the Italian Jesuits 
and their colleges in and outside of Italy. 
Tiien followed a number of rooms with in- 
teresting exhibits of different other Italian 
missionary societies, as those of Bl. J. B. 
Cottolengo. etc.. with explanatory books, 
illustrations, and photos. I remember a 
photograph representing the Italian mission- 
aries killed in China in the Boxer war. After 
tliese there followed a number of rooms 
liringing before the eyes of the visitor the 
Catholic benevolent institutions of Italy — 
hospitals, poor-liouses, schools for the blind, 
etc. To judge from that exhibit one is al- 
most forced to say that Italy cannot be sur- 
passed in its works of charity, and no philan- 
thropic society, no matter how rich, will ever 
be comparable to that of the Catholic Sisters 
and Brothers. With regard to articles of 
sculpture, painting and drawing, we know 
l!iat tlie Italians are our masters. But I had 
never seen such exquisite fancy work, em- 
liroidery. sewing, etc.. as was exhibited in 
Milan by different sisterhoods, especially the 
Society of the Sacred Heart. Very interest- 
ing also was the technical division, though, 
of course, it contained too much to be seen 
at one time. I could not help wondering at 
a model giving a clear view of the Simplon 
tunnel, showing the many difficulties that had 
to be overcome in its construction. 

Another section illustrated Italian emigra- 
tion. It showed the number of Italian eini- 
grants and on different tables exhibited the 
various branches of work or industry rep- 
resented by Italians in foreign countries. 
There were samples of minerals and of coal 
belonging to Italian societies in other coun- 
tries, all kinds of agricultural products, etc. 
With great satisfaction and high esteem for 
the Italians and their government we took 
leave of Milan, and went to Genoa, the point 
of our embarkation. 

Genoa is a grand city and has been so 
often described that every reader ought to 
be acquainted with it. We visited the beauti- 
ful Campo Santo, itself an exposition of the 
finest sculpHires. Without using the cable- 
mad we climbed the lofty heights, from 
which we could overlook the city and its 
magnificent harbor with its numerous steam- 
ers and shins. My heart did not interfere 
with my climbing, while in America for a 
time I needed help even to get around on 
level ground because of dizziness. 

Saturday evening at 6 o'clock we left 



Genoa on the large steamer "Canopic" of the 
White Star Line, headed for Boston. We 
arrived at Naples Sunday afternoon. The 
sight of the city with the mountains in the 
background is charming. We did not leave 
the steamer until the next morning, but it 
did not take us long to find out that the 
view from the steamer was far more beauti- 
ful than the reality, especially at that season 
of the year. Everything was covered with 
dust and lava. You could not distinguish 
the grapes in the vineyards; also the numer- 
ous 'Vagabonds and beggars do not add to 
the attraction. But there are many grand 
buildings and especially fine churches. A 
surprising sight for us were the many cows 
and goats driven into the city towards even- 
ing. They are milked in front of the 
houses, to prevent any doctoring of the 
milk, I suppose. On Tuesday we went to 
Pompeji, the interesting city of Sallust and 
Glaucus, which was buried in lava by the 
eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, in the year 79. 
Pompeji has been described often. What I 
liked was to find that it had so many public 
fountains. Even in our days only a city 
with nutnerous public fountains, furnishing 
fresh, cool water, may be called a beauti- 
ful, desirable place to live in, especially if it 
is also provided with attractive parks. For 
the rest the Pompejians did not confine 
themselves to drinking water ; almost every 
corner house was a "caupona" or saloon. 
The narrow streets paved with cobblestones 
were often after a heavy rain flooded for a 
few hours and therefore, had stepping stones 
at the crossings such as we have in America 
in primitive, muddy streets. I remarked that 
they reminded me of America. A Chicago 
lady protested that such primitive makeshifts 
were unknown in America. Upon this our 
guide interrupted her, saying: "You must be 
mistaken, Madam ; almost every American 
visitor notices these crossings as similar to 
those at home." 

On the 19th of September we assisted at 
solemn services in the grand church of St. 
Januarius. The church was crowded; it was 
the day of the yearly recurrence of the 
liquefaction of the martyr's blood. We heard 
that it was liquefied, but did not see it ; the 
crowd was too big to get close. In the after- 
noon we returned to our steamer, ready to 
continue the voyage. Most of the passengers 
entered the steamer at Naples. About 3000 
passengers were on board, and the steatner 
was rather crowded. There were no Ger- 
man speaking passengers with us, and I had 
to interpret for John Wigger whatever the 
stewards spoke to him. The passengers of 
the third class seemed to be treated like 
cattle ; women and children alike were pushed 
and knocked about, and at meal time one 
was reminded of the feeding of the animals 
in a menagerie. I found the third class 
treated worse than on any other line I ever 
had traveled on. The second and first classes 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



253 



were all-right and the fare was good. Besides 
the diffei"ent meats, maccaroni is the every- 
day menu, but being cooked differently each 
time, it is always good. We had some Italian 
priests on board. I told them that Sunday 
would be a grand opportunity for Mass and 
a sermon. They could prepare the emigrants 
for their new surroundings and many a man 
that had not been in church for years would 
attend, if for no other reason, out of curios- 
ity, and his heart might be touched. I pointed 
out how all the Protestant denominations 
made good use of these opportunities. They 
simply replied that they had no permission. 
I suppose they would not have omitted their 
office without great scruples, but they did not 
see that they had any duty towards these 
people. ( To be continued) 



-^ 



Literary Briefs 

A Life of Christ for Children 

"The Divine Story," by the Rev. Cornelius 
J. Holland, S. T. L., is a life of Christ writ- 
ten for children. The book is printed on good 
paper with clear type. The illustrations, 
which are reproductions of well-known 
masterpieces, deserve especial praise. Father 
Holland has a fluent and graphic style. Chil- 
dren will not easily tire of reading this little 
volume. We are sorry the author did not 
add a chapter on "Talitha cumi" and another 
on "Suffer little children to come to me." 
His youthful readers would have enjoyed 
them. There are a few errors in diction, 
facts, and doctrine which will no doubt be 
corrected for the second edition. (Blase 
Benziger & Co.) 
Letters of St. Ignatius 

"Des Heiligen Ignatius von Loyola geist- 
liche Briefe und Unterweisungen," selected 
and translated by Otto Karrer, S.J., lend an 
added interest to the "Lettres Spirituelles" 
of St. Francis de Sales, to the "Lettres de 
Piete" of Bossuet, and to the similar epistles 
of Fenelon. because we find adumbrated in 
them the historj' and philosophy of the 
Jesuits up to the present day. These letters 
remind us of a former study of the letters 
and state-papers of a great contemporary of 
St. Ignatius, William Cecil, Lord Burleigh. 
Both were great statesmen. Both spent their 
lives to achieve one purpose. The ultimate 
end of all the endeavors of St. Ignatius was 
the greater glory of God through the King- 
dom of God on earth ; the ambition of Cecil 
was the aggrandizement of England through 
the spread of Protestantism. We regret 
that Father Karrer has translated only ten 
per cent of the extant letters of St. Ignatius. 
(B. Herder Book Co.) 



A Life of Alban Stolz 

In a handsomely illustrated volume of 
more that six hundred pages the Rev. Dr. 
Julius Mayer, professor in the University 
of Freiburg i. B., gives us the long-expected 
full-length biography of "Alban Stolz," who 
was undoubtedly the most effective popular 
apologist of the Catholic Church in Ger- 
many in the igth century. Rugged old Alban 
is here described with all his virtues and 
foibles, his work is reviewed in detail and 
its influence and importance explained. It is 
a fascinating book that affords many hours 
of delightful reading and solid benefits to 
mind and heart. Alban Stolz was a modern 
saint, and it is encouraging to be informed 
that the popularity of his clear-cut, vigorous 
writings has not yet waned. Germany need 
not despair as long as the spirit of Alban 
Stolz is alive among her Catholic popula- 
tion. (B. Herder Book Co.) 
A History of the Diocese of Galveston 
- The "History of the Diocese of Galveston 
and of St. Mary's Cathedral," a souvenir of 
the diamond jubilee of this Texan see, has 
for its motto: "Gather up the fragments that 
remain, lest they be lost," and "The Priests 
of the Seminary" who compiled this inter- 
esting brochure, have lived up to their motto. 



A National 

CATHOLIC MAGA21NB 




51st St. 
Chicago, ill. 



IN THE MAY ISSUE: 

The Chronicles of America 

(An Appreciation) 
by Francis Borgia Steck, 0. F. M. 

Eliza Allen Starr 

(A Character Study) 
by A. S. DriscoU 



IN THE JUNE ISSUE: 

P. Griesbacher of Ratisbon: 

His Opus 217 and some Ameri- 
can and European Critics. 
(Editorial) : 

Count Albert De Mun 

(A Character Study) 
by A. S. Driscoll 



Sbigh Copy — 20 Ccuts 



254 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



The great value of contemporaneous notes 
and diaries strikes one forcibly in perusing 
this well documented history. The interest- 
ing letters of Father Timon, Bishop Odin, 
and others, assiduously gathered from vari- 
ous archives, were compiled by our learned 
friend, the Rev., Dr. C. L. Souvay, CM., of 
the St. Louis Historical Society. The paths 
of the former bishops of Galveston were 
certainly not strewn with roses. May the 
present Bishop, our quondam fellow St. 
Louisan, Dr. C. E. Byrne, find his lot cast 
along more pleasant lines ! (Galveston, Tex. : 
Knapp Bros.) 
An Anglo-Saxon Saint 

In the "Life of Saint Walburga" (B. Her- 
der Book Co.) Francesca M. Steele narrates 
the life story of an Anglo-Saxon saint 
who is little venerated, because not well 
known, by English-speaking peoples. As a 
youthful princess, Walburga entered the 
monastery of Wimborne, where she spent 
a quarter of a century in prayer and con- 
templation. Together with her aunt, St. 
Lioba, and her cousin, St. Thecla, she 
hearkens to the call of her uncle, St. Boni- 
face, to help him educate the women and 
children of the half-civilized Germans, 
among whom she dies in the odor of sanctity, 
as abbess of Heidenheim. The "Hodoepor- 
icon" (pp. 157 ff.) will interest the exegete, 
who will compare it with the "Peregrinatio 
S}dviae" and other early Christian accounts 
of travels in the Holy Land. St. Boniface 
was never an archbishop of Mayence (p. 78), 
as is generally held in consequence of an 
early forgery (cfr. Tangl, "Studien zur Neu- 
ausgabe der Bonifatius-Briefe"). "Brixia'' 
(p. 182) is Brescia, not Brixen (Brixina). 

"Gotteshaus und Gottesdienst " 

This book, by L. Soengen, S.J., is a valu- 
able aid for the parish priest. It treats of the 
cimrch and its equipment, of the celebration 
of divine service, in general and in particu- 
lar, and of the administration of the Sacra- 
ments. The chapters on the feasts of the 
year may be profitably consulted in prepar- 
ing ten-minute sermons on liturgical subjects. 
The appendix on flowers for the altar will 
interest the members of our altar societies. 
The suggestion how to prevent the oil in the 
sanctuary lamp from freezing will be wel- 
comed by the priest whose duty it is to keep 
tlie delicate flame burning before the Blessed 
Sacrament. The chapter on church bells, 
their construction, their preservation, their 
pitch, their ringing, if carried out, would 
constitute them a source of joy to the entire 
community. The hanging of canvass against 
church walls, in order to preserve them from 



moisture, may be something new to many a 
worried pastor. Incidentally we wish to add 
that the hanging of canvass on large sur- 
faces of impingement, more than thirty-five 
feet distant from the speaker, is perhaps the 
most satisfactory means of elminating that 
disconcerting impartial coincidence of direct 
and reflected sound waves which is often 
called bad acoustics. (B. Herder Book Co.) 



Books Received 

The "Summa Theologica" of St. Thomas 
Aquinas. Literally Translated by Fathers 
of the English Dominican Province. Sec- 
ond Part of the Second Part. QQ. 
CLXXL— CLXXXIX. vi & 321 pp. 8vo. 
Benziger Bros. $3 net. 

Pio XI (Achille Ratti). Ricordi— Episodi— 
Biografia. 51 pp. i6mo. Rome: Desclee & 
Co. (Wrapper.) 

JVenii dcr Gartner kommt. Von Margarete 
Windthorst. 114 pp. 8vo. M.-Gladbach: 
Volksvereinsverlag. M. 42. 

Heimkchr. Stille Gedanken von Adolf Don- 
ders. 6th ed. xvi & 451 pp. i6mo. M. Glad- 
bach : Volksvereinsverlag. M. 37.50. 

Festliche Stundeii. Programme, Vortragsge- 
dichte und Ratschlage fiir Vereins- und 
Gemeindefeste. 148 pp. i2mo. M.-Glad- 
bach: Volksvereinsverlag. M. 36. (Wrap- 
per). 

Missalc Romanuin ... a Pio X Reformatum 
et Benedicti XV^ Auctoritate Evulgatum. 
i2mo edition with American Missae Pro- 
priae. Turin: P. Marietti. 25 fr. (Wrap- 
per). 

Judas. A Study of Possibilities by Michael 
Andrew Chapman. 30 pp. l2mo. Hunting- 
ton, Ind. : Our Sunday Visitor Press. 15 
cts., postpaid ; $3.50 per 100, plus postage. 
(Paper). 

Dcfamers of the Church. Their Character. 
15th Revised Editon. 64 pp. i2mo. Hunt- 
ington, Ind. : Our Sunday Visitor Press. 
15 cts.. postpaid; $5 per 100, plus postage. 
(Paper). 

The Anti-Catholic Motive. An Analysis of 
tlie Causes of Organized Hatred of the 
Catholic Church by Dominic Francis. 46 pp. 
i2mo. Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Vis- 
itor Press. 15 cts., postpaid; $5 per 100, 
plus postage. (Paper). 

Erste Vercinsschrift der Gorres-GesellscJiaft 
zur Pflege der Wissenschaft im katholi- 
schen Deut.<;chland fiir 1922, containing: 
"Graf Joseph de Maistre und Joseph Gor- 
res vor hundert Jahren," by Herman v. 
Grauert, and "Der Tdeengehalt von Gorres' 
Schriften 'Teutschland und die Revolu- 
tion' und 'Europa und die Revolution,' by 
Eduard Schubert. 8g pp. 8vo. Cologne: J. 
P. Bachem. (Wrapper.) 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



25 r 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS TRY OUR BRANDS 

===^ Tlicy Have Stood the Test Since 1860 =:^ 




You will make no mistake by giving us a personal call to verify the quality 



and view our assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

Westerheide Tobacco & Cigar Co, 

3612 North Broadway, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Mail Orders Proiii[.t!y Filled Phones; Bell 1 yler :>>< Kiiiiocli Central 4n;;9 I, 



CTDACQDCDCED CONSERVATORY of 
dinfiooDcnacn music and expression 

Three Schools 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Established 1886 

DlF>L,OiVlA.S and 

GOLD AlEDAUS 

AWARDED 

CI rAMDrTTNT TTAnirDC Faculty of International Reputation TERMS REASONABLE 
51 tUflWtlWIl ItAlHtKi Students may Enroll at any Time CATALOGUE FREE 

Partial Scholarships and other free advantages ADDRESS: GRAND AND 

SPECIAL LOW TERMS TO BEGINNERS SHENANDOAH AVES 




Colleges and Academies 

can have very satisfactory service 
from the old established house of 



THE 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

212-214 East Ei^-litli Street 
CiNt'LXNATr. Ohio 

We print and bind, and can furnish engravings 
for nimphlets, folders, booklets 

Help the Foreign Missions 
by Buying Postage Stamps 

Catholic stamp purchasers are urged to patronize 
the Mission Stamp Company, now located at 3684 Park 
Boulevard, San Diego, California. All of the profit.>» of 
this company are devoted to the Catholic missions. 



St. Louis Pipe Organ Co. 



Electro, Tubular Pneumatic, 

and Tracker Organs 
for Church and Concert Hall 

Prompt attention given to Repairs and Rebuilding 

of every description 

Blowers attached 

Office, 2'J09-1 1 Lynch Street 

Phone Sidney ;:H1 ST. LOUIS. MO. 

— Have you renewed your subscription for 
1922? The- address label will show. Please 
attend lo the matter if you have not yet 
•lone so. 

— You are interested in tlie advertisementi 
of otliers that appear in the Review. Doii't 
you tliinic others would be interested in 
yours? 



266 THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW July 1 



The work of one who has given his entire life to the study of man, animal, plant 
and food. In his defense of truth, of purity, he has been plaintiff or defendant in 206 
libel suits — most of them brought by the richest profiteers — and won every one of them. 
Some of his opponents he sent to jail. He has never lost a case — oral, written or legal. 

He is the best equipped man in the world to handle Darwinism, Wellsism, barn- 
yard materialism — Evolution. 

Colleges, Acadamies and Schools the country over — many of them religious — are 
teaching Evolution, teaching your children that they and you are come from a gorilla. 

Even ministers and "teacher-theologians" of our new Croesus-owned Christianity 
are chattering with the monkeys and hurling milkless nuts at a personal God and at 
normal God-made men and women. 

When your children insistently and trustingly ask you "Who made us?'' — your 
answer must not be evasive, it must be truthful and you must choose for their maker 
either God — or a gorilla. 

God- or Gorilla 

By 

Alfred Watterson McCann 

The author of "GOD — OR GORILLA" does not argue with the popular idea of 
evolution, unless ripping the heart out of a thing can be called argument. He pretends 
to no gentleness as he shows the "intellectual" victims of scientific superstition that 
the very thing they profess to hate has possession of their soids. 

Mr. McCann gathers facts, proofs, contradictions, and flings tliem into sorry heaps 
with a breathlessness characteristic of the public prosecutor. He does not criticize the 
prevailing conception of evolution as expressed in the monkey -man theory; he tears it 
to pieces. Not content with scourging the self -esteemed educators who keep tlie simian 
fancy boiling in a caldron of anemic erudition, he demonstrates how no part of the 
dogma preached by these eminent anti-dogmatists fits into any other part. 

His methods are not suave, but terrifically penetrating. He is no smiling 
academician; no dancing master attenjpting to turn controversialist. He seizes you by 
the heels and drags you into places you thought you had explored, only to show you 
that the stuff you were taught to recognize as orthodox evolutionary science is flimsy 
phantasia, unsupported assertions, clumsy inconsistencies, physics without law, mathe- 
matics without numbers, deductions born in fraud and forgeiy. 

"But I never heard of that before! " you ejaculate, as you read his bristling dis- 
closures. "Of course you dhln't," he retorts. "That's why you have been content to 
characterize the critics of evolution as ignorant fools who still believe the world to be 
flat, and the sky a solid dome hung with chandeliers. ' ' 

As that great body of mankind which professes to believe in evohitiou can- 
not institute for itself a comparison of the hundred follies upon which its belief is 
based, he has done the work for it, so that henceforth it may have no reason to offer 
for its stubborn adherence to a system of error about wliich the learned ignorami talk 
as glibly as if they knew what they were talking about. 

29 IlkiKtratioiKs of Your Ancestors 
rrice $H.oo Net; $.V.i.'> Postpaid At Bookstores or from Publishers 



THE DEVIN-ADAIR CO., Publishers 

437 Fifth Avenue New York 



1^22 THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 257 



THE SCHOOL FOR YOUR BOY 

Quincy College 

QUINCY, ILLINOIS 

CONDUCTED BY FRANCISCAN FATHERS 



An ideal boarding school, 
located in one of the most 
beautifnl and healthful cities 
of the country. 



Recognized by the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction 
of the State and Accredited to 
the University of Illinois. 



COURSES 

Commercial Academic Collegiate 

TERMS: EXTREMELY REASONABLE 
WRITE FOR CATALOGUE AND PROSPECTUS 



Conception College and Seminary 

AiJ Ideal College Home. Location beautiful 
and healthful. Large campus and shady walks. 
Complete College and High School courses. Mod- 
ern languages free. : Church Music a specialty. 

Board, Tuition, Lodging - - $310.00 a year 



For Catalogue address 

THE REV, RECTOR 

Conception, Mo. 



ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 




THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 15 



Just published : 

The Preacher's Vademecum 

Sermon Plans for Sundays, Feasts of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints, Advent and 

Lenten Courses, Forty Hours', Sacred Heart Devotions, Retreats, Conferences, May and October 

Devotions, Special Occasions, etc. 

By Two Missionaries Translated from the French 

Cloth, net, ^3.00 

This unique work will prove a boou for the preacher, particularly [on account of the great variety of its 
material for many different occasions. 

The quality of the material may be judged from the fact that in its French original the work is already 
in its Fifth Edition, and has been favored with many flattering commendations by the episcopate. 



Story-Sermonettes for the Children's Mass 

FOR ALL SUNDAYS OF THE YEAR 
By the Rev. Frederick Renter 

CloUi, net, $1.50 



Previously publi.shed by the same author: 

Short Sermons for the Children's Mass 

On the Gospels of all the Sundays of the Year Amply Illustrated by Example and Anecdote 

Cloth, net, $1.50 

"They are the products of long years of work and should prove welcome to many less experienced 
than the author.'' — Catholic Book Notes. 



JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 
23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

.St. Louts: B. Herder Book Co. 



Havana 
Filled 



Wagner's Londres Grande 

(Smoked in 47 States) 



Imported 
Sumatra 
Wrapper 



100 — $7.80 



50 — $4.00 



|ry |hem— Iakes |he |aste |o |ell |he |ale 




MATT. WAGNER & SON 



Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Money Order or N. Y. Draft- 
After Smokiug three Segars. if not as -represented or 
satisfactory, pack well and return by Parcel Post. hstablished 1866 

Money and Postage refunded by return mail. Ji8 North Pearl St. BUFFALO, N. Y. 

{Catalogue and Prices of Other Brands mailed on request) 



America Press 

i» JOB PRINTING ii 

done with neatness and dispatch 

"The Fortnightly Review" is printed by us 

I8V2 South Sixth St. ST. Louis, Mo. 



JSrEINER=^«?«3 

nii^l-lll9/.l<n.-l-JPLi^5iTAM P.SS ^ 



^ BUTTONS aPINS;^-^^ 



PAMPS 



STENCILS lOvfEraLCfreott. I 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 14 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



July 15, 1922 



Masonic Inconsistency 

By the Rev. Herman Gruber, S. J. 



In the first number of La Revista 
Massonica, the official organ of the 
Grand Orient of Italy, there ap- 
peared a profession of religious 
faith, in which that body declared : 
^•Masonry is no religion because 
it recognizes no dogmas. . . . The 
formula of the Great Architect of 
the Universe, which is cast up to 
Masonry as equivocal and absurd, 
is in reality the most broad-mind- 
ed and honest affirmation of the 
great principle of being {essere) 
and may personify either the god 
of Giuseppe Mazzini or the Satan 
of Giosue Carducci, conceived as 
the principle of love, not of hatred, 
or Satan, conceived as the genius 
of good and not of evil." {Riv. 
Mass., 1909, p. 44). 

In the U. S., where it was not 
known that the Italian Freema- 
sons, since 1889, had adopted Car- 
ducci 's famous ''Hymn to Satan" 
as their lodge song, this declara- 
tion of the official organ of the 
Grand Orient of Italy gave rise to 
sinister rumors and suspicions. 
Br. Jacob Shryock, 33 .'. (b. 1851, 
d. 1918), then Grand Master of the 
U. S., went to Rome to make a per- 
sonal investigation, and at the 
solemn dedication of the new Ma- 
sonic Temple at Baltimore, Nov. 
16, 1910, declared as the result of 
his inquiry that the Grand Orient 
of Italy venerated neither the 
Great Architect of the Universe 
nor the Bible, and that "there is 
more Masonry in the infernal 
regions than in Rome." 



In spite of this fact, never seri- 
ously disputed, the Grand Lodge 
of the State of New York, in Octo- 
ber, 1921, broke w^ith the universal 
tradition of Anglo-Saxon Masonry 
by sending three delegates to the 
International Masonic Congress 
of Geneva, Oct. 19-20, 1921, which 
had been convoked by the Grand 
Lodges of Switzerland and the 
Netherlands, but brought about 
principally through the efforts of 
the Grand Orient of Italy, and 
which was completely dominated 
by the spirit of the openly athe- 
istic grand bodies of Italy, France, 
Belgium, and Portugal. The offi- 
cial presence at this congress of 
the Grand Lodge of New York, 
the most important body of its 
kind in the U. S., was celebrated 
by the said atheistic grand bodies 
as an event of extraordinary im- 
portance. It was the first time in 
the history of Freemasonry that 
an Anglo-Saxon grand lodge con- 
sented to sit together with frankly 
atheistic grand bodies in an inter- 
national congress. At this con- 
gress, on Oct. 19, Bro. Ed. Quar- 
tier-la-Tente, president of the In- 
ternational Masonic Bureau of 
Neuchatel (Switzerland), who 
since 1900, as agent of the Grand 
Orient of France, conducted an 
enormously active propaganda in 
favor of the revolutionary pro- 
gramme of the Grand Orient of 
France, was elected Grand Chan- 
cellor of the newly founded Inter- 
national Masonic Federation (As- 



260 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 1 



sociation Internationale Macon - 
nique), in which are united the fol- 
lowing grand bodies : the Grand 
Orient of France, the Grand Ori- 
ent of Italy, the Grand Orient of 
Belgium, the Grand Orient of the 
Netherlands, the Grand Orient of 
Portugal, the Grand Orient of 
Turkey, the Grand Lodges of New 
York (224,849 members) and Lou- 
isiana (23,008 members), the Ger- 
man Monistic Grand Lodge ''Zur 
aufgehenden Sonne," and a num- 
ber of others. This closer union 
of international Freemasonry re- 
gards itself as a ferment which is 
to regenerate the whole of Mason- 
ry in the sense of the Latin Ma- 
sonic bodies under the leadership 
of Italy and France. 

The presence in this Federation 
of the Grand Lodge of New York 
is all the more surprising as this 
Lodge, through its Grand Master, 
Bro. Farmer, on the occasion of 
the Masonic peace celebration in 
London, in 1919 (see The Freema- 
son, London, July 5, 1919, p. 5), 
assured the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land of the perpetual alliance of 
the Anglo-Saxon Masons scattered 
throughout the whole universe, 
and as the same Grand Master, in 
November, 1919, in an official 
"edict" forbade all lodge-inter- 
course with Masons and Masonic 
bodies that do not satisfy the Ma- 
sonic requirements concerning be- 
lief in God, the Great Architect of 
the Universe, and concerning the 
Bible, the Book of the Sacred Law. 
(Ihid., Nov. 29, 1919, p. 257). 

Hence we are justified in put- 
ting to the Grand Lodge of New 
York, and also to the Grand Lodge 
of Louisiana, the question: Quo 
tandeyn vadisf 



K^^ 



— We are always ready to furnish such 
back numbers of the F. R. as we have in 
slock. 



The State and the Diffusion of Poison 

Under this title we read in the 
Month (No. 696) : The secularized 
State is finding itself more and 
more powerless to correct social 
abuses to which the decline of the 
religious ideal and the denial of 
religious sanctions have combined 
to give fuller play. Although tem- 
perance is a natural virtue and 
reason itself sets proper limits to 
the indulgence of natural appe- 
tites, reason alone, unsupported 
by conscience, is frequently unable 
to enforce observance of these 
limits. Therefore, the more "sec- 
ularized" citizens there are in the 
secularized State, the more strin- 
gent must its laws become to pre- 
vent excess. It would seem from 
recent revelations that the use of 
drugs like cocaine w^as on the in- 
crease amongst those who have 
thrown off the restraints of con- 
science, the abandoned women and 
the still more abandoned men who 
live the "fast life" of our great 
cities; but drugs are so easily 
handled that the ordinary police 
and excise barriers are powerless 
to prevent their importation. 

The remedy clearly lies, so far 
as legislation can effect anything, 
in restricting the manufacture, 
and this remedy can only be ap- 
plied by international agreement. 

Meanwhile, the secularized State 
would do well to reconsider the 
influence of religion, and instead 
01 putting obstacles in the way of 
the young receiving the only sound 
form of moral training, that based 
on the law of God, Creator and 
Judge, foster in every way the re- 
ligious work of denominational 
schools, and prevent, in its own 
secular interests, not only the sale 
of material poisons like cocaine, 
but the far worse open and vicious 
propaganda of such filthiness as 
Neo-Malthusianism. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BEVIEW 



261 



The Case of Sister Anne Catherine Emmerich 

By the Rev. Hubert Hartmann, S. J., Emmerich, Germany 



III (Conclusion) 

Dr. J. Messen, in his book, "A. 
K. Emmerichs Charismen mid Ge- 
sichte" (Treves, 1918), gives the 
following information with regard 
to the beatification process : The 
canonical inquiry into her life be- 
gan in 1892, and the case has so 
far taken its canonical course 
without encountering any serious 
obstacle. The assertion of Card- 
auns, following Oehl, that the 
process was already begun under 
Pius IX, but had to be withdrawn 
because of the unrealibility of the 
record kept by Brentano, is erro- 
neous. 

The first step in the beatification 
process was to ascertain whether 
Sister Emmerich enjoyed a private 
cult. This fact was established by 
more than a hundred witnesses, 
who testified under oath that devo- 
tion to the venerable nun had be- 
gun soon after her death, that it 
had steadily increased and spread 
throughout Germany and even to 
foreign countries. 

The second step was the exami- 
nation of her visions, to decide 
whether they contained anything 
against faith or morals, or whether 
they can be safely left in the hands 
of the people as a means of devo- 
tion. This examination took sev- 
eral years and concerned mainly 
the voluminous manuscripts of 
Clemens Brentano, who took down 
her visions. The theological cen- 
sor found a number of difficulties 
in Brentano 's manuscripts, but it 
is not true that the final report 
was unfavorable. Brentano tried 
to be scrupulously accurate in 
recording the things he had heard 
from the mouth of Sister Emme- 



rich, but he labored under many 
difficulties. The Sister at times 
was physically exhausted and 
could hardly speak; then, again, 
she could not remember every- 
thing she had seen; in addition, 
her low-German dialect offered 
difficulties. The censor therefore 
suggested that the responsibility 
for the recorded visions be left to 
their author, Brentano, and that 
the MS. be withdrawn from the 
process, as all that was necessary 
to prove was that Anne Catherine 
really enjoyed the charism of su- 
pernatural vision. This was done 
and in 1914 the causa of the ven- 
erable nun was referred to as 
" praeclarissima" by a competent 
authority in Rome. 

The cult of Ven. Anne Catherine 
is constantly increasing. About 
ten years ago the Augustinians 
purchased the house in Diilmen in 
wh'ich she spent her last years and 
in which she died. It is called 
''Emmerich-Haus," and up to 
May, 1918, had been visited by 
60,000 persons from all parts of 
the earth. The vox populi in West- 
falia unmistakbly pronounces her 
a Saint, raised by Divine Provi- 
dence for the purpose of recalling 
humanity to the contemplation of 
the life of Christ and especially 
His passion and death, and to con- 
found modern Rationalism. Lately 
regular meetings are periodically 
held, especially in Diilmen itself 
and in Cologne, to promote the 
cause of her canonization. The 
latest meeting of this kind is re- 
ported in the Kolnische VolkszeA- 
tung, No. 118. It was numerously 
attended by priests and laymen. 
Tn the course of the debate Prof. 



262 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 15 



Dr. Dieninglioff announced that 
Cardinal Schulte had submitted to 
the new Pope a petition asking 
him to hasten the process of bea- 
tification. 

May I, in conclusion, express 
the hope that the Catholics of 
America, especially those of Ger- 
man descent, many of whom have 
derived consolation and spiritual 
benefit from a perusal of the 
Dolorous Passion as told by Sister 



Emmerich, will interest them- 
selves in her cause ? We Catholics 
of Germany desire to see her 
raised to the altars on the 100th 
anniversary of her death, in 1924, 
and our American brethren can 
help us in this by adding their 
jjetitions to those of the Germans 
and by contributing to the ex- 
penses of the process by sending 
donations to the Emmerich-Haus 
at Diilmen i. W. 



Our Industrial Dilemma 

By Horace A. Frommelt 



In the May issue of the Central- 
Blatt and Social Justice, the Rev. 
Dr. J. B. Culemans, who is an 
ardent champion of social justice, 
particularly through the medium 
of the written word, has a note- 
worthy article, entitled "Pleading 
with Labor and its Friends." Fa- 
ther Culemans states the case for 
the capitalist, and does it with no 
little show of reason and cogency. 
He has apparently run afoul of 
considerable difficulty in his obser- 
vations of present-day social and 
economic conditions. For, while 
he believes that the worker is a 
hopelessly enslaved individual in 
our industrial society, yet he can- 
not bring himself to believe the 
capitalist is entirely at fault. 

There is nothing new" in this 
dilemma. Almost everyone who 
has studied the social question at 
all sincerely and competently — not 
necessarily through books — has at 
some time or other come to the 
conclusion that the so-called prob- 
lem of Capital and Labor is not 
really fundamental to our present 
difficulties. It might be well to 
make it clear that I am taking 
''capital" to mean just what it 
means to the laborer, that is, to 



the employing class. It is against 
the capitalist group that the labor- 
ers are continually pitting them- 
selves, in the belief that its mem- 
bers are the authors of the social 
injustice of which they find them- 
selves the victims. 

This is a grievous error and one 
into which the whole Catholic 
social reform movement, trailing 
after the liberalistic — politically 
speaking — band, is floundering. I 
do not refer to the injustices in- 
flicted here and there upon w^ork- 
ers by individual employers. Both 
employer and employee have been 
guilty in this respect, and if human 
nature continues to be what it is, 
it is safe to say that there will 
continue occasional injustices on 
both sides, no matter what the 
economic system of the future 
will be. 

It were a bootless task to dis- 
cuss these sporadic manifestations 
of injustice. There must be some- 
thing more deep-seated than this 
before it can be considered neces- 
sary to scuttle "Capital" and 
launch another ship in her place. 

One of the striking things in the 
depression of the past two years 
was the helplessness of the aver- 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY KEVIEW 



263 



age employer, as regards his rela- 
tion to the problems of unemploy- 
ment, lowering wages, etc. I have 
known employers in the metal 
trades industries who seriously 
and conscientiously attempted to 
do all in their power to stave off 
a reduction of wages and person- 
nel. It was not all charity, to be 
sure; for they felt that the loss 
of men meant tremendous costs in 
rebuilding their organizations 
later, when business returned. 
During the past two years the 
majority of orders were taken at 
a loss in order to keep intact, as 
much as possible, the organization 
of men who had been trained and 
made reasonably efficient in the 
work in which they were engaged. 
In many instances, too, there was 
considerable "heart" in these 
methods ; for, as one employer put 
it, "I cannot see men who have 
been faithful to my company for a 
long period of years, turned ruth- 
lessly from a means of livelihood. ' ' 
The reduction in wages was staved 
off as long as possible, until, in 
fact, the loss was a matter of 
thousands of dollars a day. More- 
over, "if we reduce now," as one 
remarked, "that will further de- 
crease the purchasing power of the 
public, which, in turn, cannot but 
depress us further." 

It may be that the wages paid 
during the ' ' good times ' ' were not 
in proportion to the profits made, 
but the discrepancy cannot account 
for the tremendous losses of the 
past two years. Again, if these 
large profits had not been turned 
to large surpluses, business 
squalls could not be weathered. 

Here is the dilemma of the em- 
ployer: either he must maintain 
wages and employment in the face 
of an absolute lack of business, 
and in the end succumb financial- 



ly, or he must reduce wages and 
employment, — which measures, as 
he realizes or should realize, di- 
minish the buying power of the 
public and, indirectly, the amount 
of his business. 

Admitting the various abuses 
practiced both in "good" and 
"bad" times by the employers, it 
it difficult to see that this is an 
answer, or even the semblance of 
a cause, for the contradictory eco- 
nomics in which we are immersed. 
The purchasing power of the peo- 
ple never keeps pace with the 
increase in the productive power 
of industry. The employer is a 
part of a system which is not only 
constantly producing, but period- 
ically over-producing, glutting the 
markets, depressing prices, pre- 
cipitating panics, "hard times," 
and depressions. He is accused of 
frenzied production, but if he fails 
to fall in line with his competitors, 
he must inevitably fall out of it, 
and with him those for whom he 
provides the means of a livelihood 
or a near-livelihood. 

"Organize, co-operate, and in- 
telligently restrict production," is 
the answer from the galleries. Yet, 
if this were done, — and it is not 
impossible, — prices would be main- 
tained on a relatively higher level, 
which, in turn, would necessarily 
restrict consumption or demand. 
Hence, no matter on which road 
we strike out, we finally come to 
the same morass. 

Let any right-minded man think 
seriously of these problems, and 
he will begin to realize the utter 
futility of much that passes for 
social reform. He cannot but ar- 
rive at the thought that there is 
something before which even the 
hated employer must bow ; that he 
is the victim of a system, not so 
much in his personal fortune, as 



264 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 15 



ill his capacity as a director of 
industry, quite as much as is the 
laborer; that he is not the first 
and efficient cause of unemploy- 
ment, labor surplus, depression, 
wage reductions, etc.; that we 
have all been caught in the meshes 
of a strange, monstrous, apparent- 
ly contradictory economic s^^stem, 
which is strangling us en masse. 

I have included all in the catas- 
trophe that must overtake us un- 
less this thing be righted, for 
while the monopolistic owners of 
our natural resources and our 
credit-power are the real weavers 
of the net in which w^e are en- 
meshed, they too will be caught in 
the ravelling threads of their own 
evil power. The ordinary em- 
ployer, as distinct f^-om the finan- 
cier and landlord (in an economic 
sense), is as much a victim as the 
laborer, though he does not, for 
the most part, realize it. He is 
kept busy in his senseless battle 
with labor and in the feverish 
excitement of doing the contradic- 
tory biddings of the economic 
Sphinx. 

Let me repeat that I do not be- 
lieve that the employer suffers, 
personally, in proportion to his 
laborers. I am not pleading for 
the employer as an individual, or 
even as the director of a business. 
But I do believe that a little 
thought will show that if we 
rightly evaluate the present eco- 
nomic and financial system, qua 
system, we cannot escape the con- 
clusion that much of the warfare 
carried on between employers and 
employees is useless, senseless, 
futile, and asinine; that our pres- 
ent accepted methods of political 
reform are worse than useless; 
that the dilemma in which many 
thoughtful people constantly find 
themselves as regards the problem 
of Capital and Labor is a perfectly 



reasonable and natural one. And, 
finally, there will come the realiza- 
tion that there has been very little 
real thought given to our economic 
system, which is characterized by 
machine production, restricted 
credit-power, and monopolization 
of our national wealth, which was 
obviously intended by the Creator 
for the use of all. 



Caution in Combatting a Real Peril 
The London Month, edited by the 
Jesuit Fathers, says in a review 
of Msgr. Landrieux's ''L'Histoire 
et les Histoires dans le Bible": 
'"The author gives in short com- 
pass a masterly sketch of the 
gradual evolution of God's pur- 
pose, prefacing it with salutary 
warnings regarding the manner of 
dealing with Holy Writ in the 
light of modern knowledge, warn- 
ings which the school teachers 
would do well to bear in mind lest 
the influence of an old but ill- 
instructed tradition should mar 
their w^ork. To this part of his 
book, which dates from 1907 and 
is in its second edition, the Bishop 
has added another, called *Les 
Phariseens d 'autrefois et ceux 
d'aujourd'hui,' to which we can- 
not give the same unreserved rec- 
ommendation, for it seems to us to 
try to substantiate what is com- 
monly known as the 'Jewish Peril' 
by insufficient and unsound evi- 
dence. To quote as authentic that 
fabrication of the Russian police, 
known as 'The Protocols of the 
Learned Elders of Zion,' which 
itself was plagiarized from an at- 
tack on Napoleon III in 1865, is to 
weaken the whole of your case. 
There is a real peril from the 
secret societies, which are both 
anti-clerical and anti-Christian, 
but it is not to be combated with- 
out much discrimination." 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



265 



The Affair of the N. C. W. C. 

The National Catholic Welfare 
Council has at last seen fit to pub- 
lish a statement regarding the 
decree of the S. Consistorial Con- 
gregation of Feb. 23rd. (F. K., 
Vol. XXIX, pp. 142, 157 sqq., 187, 
208). This statement, attributed 
to Archbishop Hanna, chairman 
of the administrative committee, 
gives no hint as to the text of the 
decree, but confirms the informa- 
tion published in the F. R. (No. 
10, p. 187) that the administrative 
council of the N. C. W. C, at a 
meeting held in Cleveland, early 
in April, "cabled the Holy Father 
asking that the order be not offi- 
cially published and that oppor- 
tunity be granted for a full expla- 
nation of the work of the Council 
and necessary time to fulfil its ob- 
ligations." 

The statement further says that 
"the administrative committee 
sought and obtained the support 
of its fellow-members of the hier- 
archy for the petition," and that, 
"as a result. Archbishop Moeller 
of Cincinnati and Bishop Schrembs 
of Cleveland left later for Rome, 
where .... the question of the 
administration and work of the 
council will be settled with that 
justice and fairness that ever 
characterize the action of the Holy 
See." 

The X. Y. World learns that, 
out of one hundred or more bish- 
ops who expressed themselves on 
the matter, seventy-nine requested 
the Holy Father to reconsider the 
order of dissolution. Among those 
who refused to sign, however, 
were both American cardinals, 
O'Connell and Dougherty. 

The Hanna statement complains 
that assertions made in some 
papers created "disturbing and 
harmful misapprehensions by rea- 



son of their inaccuracy and un- 
justifiable speculation." But, as 
the Pittsburg Observer justly re- 
marks (June 22), "this could have 
been avoided if the administrative 
council had kept the Catholic press 
informed about the order and the 
steps that were subsequently taken 
about it." We may add that the 
misleading statements were not 
published in the Catholic press, 
which, for the most part, kept 
silent, but in the secular dailies. 
The F. R. was one of the few Cath- 
olic journals that expressed them- 
selves quite frankly in regard to 
the decree of Feb. 23rd, and we 
published nothing that we have to 
retract or correct. 

What ^\ill the Holy See do in 
regard to the matter? A World 
cablegram dated June 21st says 
that the Holy Father is taking a 
personal interest in the contro- 
versy and has entrusted its defini- 
tive settlement to two congrega- 
tions, — to that of the Consistory^ 
for deliberation concerning the N. 
C. W. C. 's financial affairs, and to 
that of the Council for a decision 
regarding the disciplinary aspect 
of the matter. Naturally, the en- 
tire work will have to be done at 
Rome and will take considerable 
time. 

Our information is that the 
Holv See will insist on the dissolu- 
tion of the N. C. W. C, but will 
permit the administrative commit- 
tee to carry out the order of Feb. 
23rd in its own way and time. 

A handful of pine-seed will cover 
mountains with the majesty of green 
forest, and so I too will set my face to 
the wind and throw my handful of seed 
on high. — Fiona Macleod. 

When men will not be reasoned out 
of vanity, they must be ridiculed out 
of it. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 16 



A New Anti-Catholic Organization 

Bigotry and persecution are the 
object of a new national organiza- 
tion, called the Great American 
Fraternity, behind which, accord- 
ing to Charles P. Sweeney (see 
The Nation, July 5th) are the pro- 
moters of the Ku Klux Klan which 
Mr. Sweeney studied last summer 
for the N. Y. World. The failure 
of the congressional inquiry, he 
says, encouraged the Klan to 
greater activity and open cam- 
paigiis. Its original anti-negro 
motive has been almost swallowed 
up in the hatred of Catholics, 
which has grown to such huge 
proportions as to surprise its pro- 
moters. The new organization, in 
defiance of official denials by the 
Masons and other organizations, 
is in full operation, the author 
says, on the following programme : 

(1) To organize a nation-wide 
society composed of members 
of thirteen secret orders, all 
popularlv believed to be hostile to 
the Catholic Church; (2) To in- 
struct these in effective political 
anti-Catholicism; (3) To find po- 
litical issues, based on opposition 
to the Catholic Church and to 
Catholics, upon which all of the 
thirteen secret societies may unite. 

' ' It is not likely, ' ' Mr. Sweeney 
concludes, ''that the Great Ameri- 
can Fraternity will actually enlist 
as paid members more than one- 
fifth or one-sixth of the member- 
ship of the Ku Klux and the other 
orders named in the schedule. But 
with such a nucleus it might well 
be expected to become a driving 
force in American politics, for be- 
hind it the promoters could rea- 
sonably expect to find the sym- 
pathy and support of the non-pay- 
ing, but none the less ardent, 
haters throughout the land. . . . 
AVe may expect to read from now 



on of the increasing importance of 
religion in politics; of school 
teachers dismissed for their relig- 
ious beliefs; of workers losing 
their jobs for the same reason; of 
boycotts of merchants for the 
same reason; and of repetitions 
North, East, and West of the 
crimes of ignorance and prejudice 
which for the past twenty years 
have been largelv confined to the 
South." 

-^^H.^.^ 

Union Labor and the Supreme Court 

The Supreme Court of the U. S. 
has dealt to the labor unions the 
most serious blow they have yet 
received, by handing do^^^l a rul- 
ing that unions can be sued, and 
that they may be liable under cer- 
tain conditions for damages under 
the Anti-Trust Act. Making these 
decisions M^as not necessary in the 
case at hand, which hinged solely 
upon whether the United Mine 
Workers had called a certain Ar- 
kansas strike eight years ago. 
The implications of the decisions 
are not clear, but it is certain that 
they place all of the unions in a 
most precarious position. 

MaMy unsuccessful attempts 
have been made in the past to 
change the law so that unions 
could be sued. The Supreme Court 
through its ruling has done what 
the legislatures refused to do. 

The gravity of the situation 
arises from the fact that under the 
decision money collected by labor 
unions to support and carry on 
strikes can be tied up by lawsuits 
and may even be appropriated by 
employers. Strikes are not for- 
bidden, but a way is given employ- 
ers to keep unions from financing 
strikes. 

One probable result of the deci- 
sion will be a concerted attack 
upon the Supreme Court. In the 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



267 



last year labor has been dealt sev- 
eral serious defeats at the hands 
of the Supreme Court, though the 
present decision is undoubtedly 
the worst defeat of all. The con- 
vention of the A. F. of L. lately 
held in Cincinnati has proposed a 
policy and programme of action. 

Notes and Gleanings 

Matthew Arnold in his famous first 
series of essays said : "Who ever sets 
himself to see things as they are, will 
find himself one of a very small cir- 
cle; but it is only by this very small 
circle resolutely doing its own work- 
that adequate ideas will ever get cur- 
rent at all." 

Father David Barry contributes to 
the IrisJi Ecclesiastical Record (No. 
653, pp. 514-526) a paper on "The 
Ethics of Journalism." He excuses the 
shortcomings of his essay by explaining 
that he had "no fundamental or system- 
atic treatment of the subject" for his 
guidance. It is too bad that the late 
Bishop Linsenmann's excellent treatise 
on the subject has been allowed to fall 
into desuetude. 

"Une Mystique de Nos Jours," by 
Canon Stan. Legueu, which has lately 
been condemned by the S. C. of the 
Holy Office, exists also in an English 
translation, edited by Dom Bede Camm. 
A correspondent of the America says 
that the book was highly praised by the 
late Father Wm. Doyle, S.J., and has 
attained considerable popularity in 
English-speaking countries as a result 
of his enthusiastic praises, contained in 
his letters as published in his biography 
by Alfred O'Rahilly. The English edi- 
tion is entitled, "Sister Gertrude Mary : 
A Mystic of Our Own Days." The 
prohibition of the French original ex- 
tends a^so to the English translation, 
for canon 1396 of the Code of Canon 
Law says : "Books forbidden by the 
Apostolic See must be considered for- 
bidden everywhere and in every lan- 



guage into which they may be trans- 
lated." The difference of language, as 
Fr. Augustine, O.S.B., explains in his 
Commentary (Vol. VI, p. 459), "is 
merely accidental. The poison is the 
same, although the channel may differ." 

The Catholic Standard and Times, 
of Philadelphia (Vol. 27, No. 29), 
quotes from The Gideon a number of 
passages which show that while the 
well-known organization of commercial 
traveling men known as "Gideons," 
which puts bibles into hotel bedrooms 
and Pullman cars, does not appear to be 
aggressively anti-Catholic, many of its 
members, probably through ignorance 
or prejudice, hand on the hoary fable 
that Catholics are not allowed to read 
the Bible. It is to be noted, also, that 
the bibles distributed by the Gideons 
contain many mistranslations and omit 
several books of the canonical Old 
Testament. "The Gideon Bible, there- 
fore," says our contemporary, is not in 
any sense the written word of God for 
Catholics ; why then should it be foisted 
on them, and upon the general reading 
public ?" 

In the Grail (Vol. IV, No. 2) Dom 
Homer H. Mott, O.S.B., calls attention 
to the "Societe Mabillon," a new 
learned society just established in 
Belgium for the maintenance and dif- 
fusion of historical knowledge, espe- 
cially as it bears upon monasticism. 
One of the immediate objects of this 
society is the continuation of the Revue 
Mabillon, which was founded in 1905, 
but interrupted by the war. In connec- 
tion with this review there are pub- 
lished each year two volumes, under 
the general tif e, "Archives de la France 
Monastique." The editorial programme 
for the latter includes a continuation, 
in six volumes, of the history of the 
ancient abbies and priories of France, 
a complete history, in five volumes, of 
the Maurist Congregation, and, finally, 
a collection of "Chapitres Generaux et 
Visites de I'Ordre de Cluny du Xllle 
au XVIIIe Siecle," in ten volumes. 
Specialists have been engaged in the 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



July 15 



various departments of research. Amer- 
ican scholars can aid this good work 
by enrolling as members of the Societe 
Mabillon. Communications should be 
addressed to Dom Gaston Charvin, 
O.S.B., Abbaye de Liguge, Chevetogne 
(Prov. de Namur), Belgium. 
-♦-•--•■■♦ 
Chief Justice Taft in a recent speech 
declared that our young men "get 
through college in one of three ways : 
Magna cum laude, cum laude, and 
mirabile dictu." The St. John's Record, 
published by St. John's University at 
Collegeville, Minn., quotes this bon mot 
and adds : "We venture to ask in how 
many instances the latter might be 
interpreted as magna cum fraude?" 

Sir James Denham, in his new 
"Memoirs,"' publishes Cardinal How- 
ard's portrait on the simple provocation 
of having met him in Rome, of going 
with him to the room in which Keats 
died, and having heard a story from his 
lips: "His Holiness [Leo XHIJ was 
being carried to the Sistine Chapel, 
when he passed some angular Protest- 
ant spinsters, who considered it due to 
their religion to stand irreligiously 
rigid amongst that kneeling crowd. 'We 
have added to our statues,' was the 
Pope's quiet remark to an attendant 
prelate." 

-•-■•■•«••«- 

In History: the Quarterly Journal of 
the [British] Historical Association 
(April 1922), Professor Newton offers 
a "historical revision" of the career of 
Christopher Columbus. He accepts the 
contention of Vignaud, that "the real 
genesis and purpose of Columbus's 
great enterprise was quite different 
from what he afterwards asserted. The 
story of a search for the Indies was 
invented after the new lands were dis- 
covered. . . . The expedition of 1492 
had for its sole object the discovery of 
new islands in the Atlantic beyond the 
Cape Verde Islands. . . . Columbus 
himself never mentioned Asia or the 
Indies before his return, but always 
stated that he wished to search for 
islands which he knezv existed beyond 



the Atlantic." Dr. Newton does not 
regard Vignaud's case as completely 
proved, but he says, "it does appear 
probable that in 1492 Columbus set out 
simply to discover the islands of the 
Antilles." 

"More than others," says a Francis- 
can Father in reviewing Orlandi's 
selection of the Sermons of St. Bern- 
ardine of Siena in St. Anthony's Mes- 
senger (Vol. XXX, No. 1), "the saints 
of the Franciscan Order have suffered 
from being stupidly etherea'ized by 
their well-meaning but unintelligent 
Boswells. The Saints of God are the 
revealers of true spirituality, they are 
the magnetic personalities of religion. 
What a pity they are so often intro- 
duced to us as beings from another 
world, shapeless and unreal abstractions 
without life, without enthusiasm, with- 
out human souls and human nobilities ! 
This literature of the sacristy is abso- 
lutely incapable of attracting the feeble 
human will, of showing us the amazing 
vitality, vigor, beauty and, above all, 
the 'social value' of holiness. It is 
works like the present which are the 
most powerful argument for the tran- 
scendent importance of making the 
sources of hagiography accessible to 
the intelligent Catholic. 'Back to the 
Sources' ought to be the battle-cry of 
everyone attempting that most arduous 
of tasks: the writing, of a true life of 
a true saint." — With all of which the 
F. R. heartily agrees. 

A coffin was recently found packed 
with bottles of whiskey, but no one 
claims it is the first coffin whiskev has 
filled. 

"Action" in fiction is what appeals 
to readers in the milky stage. Character 
begins to seem interesting at about the 
age that one takes hesitantly to cigars. 
When the doctor cuts down on our 
meats and starches, and a digestive pill 
follows after-dinner coffee, then we 
begin to relish ideas in our fiction. And 
when the decline towards oM age is 
well under way, we welcome fiction in 
our ideas and think that we are still 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



reading narrative. Such is the progres- 
sion from Nick Carter to H. G. Wells. 

Arthur Colton says in a review of 
the "O. Henry Memorial Award Prize 
Stories of 1921" (Doubleday, Page & 
Co.) in the N. Y. Literary Review. "It 
is perhaps doubtful whether, in any 
other country, a selection could be made 
from a year's output of short stories 
so varied and original in conception as 
can be done in this country ; but the 
difference would go further, and would 
probably be found — whether by lack of 
staying power, or a tradition of the 
tastes and shifts of the pioneer not yet 
overtaken by the tradition of a slowly 
mellowing culture — whatever the rea- 
son, it would be found that the work- 
ing out, the weaving and detail, was 
less adequate than elsewhere and com- 
paratively mediocre." 

■•--•--•--♦• 

Commenting on the so-called Palest- 
ine Sacrifice Bonds, w^hich the Zionists 
are selling for the purpose of rehabili- 
tating the Holy Land, and which are 
described as "bearing no interest in this 
world and only to be collected in the 
life hereafter," the Mt. Angel Magazine 
(Vol. XXni, No. 29) says: "Let us 
hope that the promises of the salesmen 
are more reliable than those of the 
hyper-patriotic lads who palmed off the 
famous Liberty Bonds on a susceptible 
pubHc, with the assurance that they 
would 'never fall below par.' Hundreds 
of thousands of citizens, who were 
compelled to sell their bonds during the 
past three years, have lost heavily. 
They may derive consolation from the 
news that the bonds 'are now above 
par' and that 'the ultimate holders' — 
the capitalists — 'will not lose a cent on 
them.' True patriotism is a virtue that 
vvill undoubtedly be rewarded in Heav- 
en, but it would considerably increase 
the love of the multitude for their 
country if the earthly rewards of that 
same virtue would not aU go to the 
rich, but be somewhat more evenly 
distributed among poor and rich alike." 

A noteworthy feature of Franciscan 
tertiary activity in this country is 



"Resort Different" at St. Francis 
Springs, about seventy miles south of 
San Francisco, Cal., where Catholic 
vacationists in need of rest and recrea- 
tion are offered every advantage of a 
first-class resort where they can recu- 
perate spiritually as well as bodily. 
Resort Different is under the direction 
of the Franciscan Fathers in matters 
spiritual, while the material end is 
managed by members of the Third Or- 
der. We need a thousand places of 
recreation like this one at St. Francis 
Springs, where city folk of limited 
means can go for a week or two and 
find good companionship, clean recrea- 
tion, and wholesome quiet. The F. R. 
cordially endorses the suggestion made 
hy the Franciscan Herald, that Tertia- 
ries the country over get together and 
supply this crying need. 

English Catholic papers are warning 
the public against "Harmsworth's Uni- 
versal Encyclopedia," and as this refer- 
ence work is pretty sure to be adver- 
tised in this country before long, we 
deem it our duty to echo the warning. 
"Harmsworth's Universal Encyclope- 
dia" is honeycombed with infidelity. 
The article on "Jesus Christ, His Life 
and Work," for example, is full of 
offensive and blasphemous statements. 
Under the head of "Jesuits" is rehashed 
the old, old calumny that the disciples 
of Loyola teach that the end justifies 
the means. We hope Catholics will not 
be misled into buying such an offensive 
and inaccurate work, which may do 
great harm to the uninstructed. 

Apropos of the remarks of Father 
P. H. Forde, quoted in No. 11 of the 
F. R., page 202, the Rev. Raymond 
Vernimont writes us from Denton, 
Tex. : "Father Forde is right in saying 
that usurers, financiers, shylocks, and 
money-lenders are destructive parasites 
on the social system. Would there were 
more such outspoken critics among us ! 
Is there no way to remove these para- 
sites? Why have the people the ballot? 
The reign of Mammon must end, else 
our country with many others will drift 



270 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



July 15 



into slavery and barbarism. Do we 
prefer slavery and barbarism to Chris- 
tian civilization?" 

-•--•--•--»■ 

The mission to the Zuni Indians 
(which was abandoned towards the end 
of the 17th century) has been entrusted 
by Archbishop Daeger to the Francis- 
can Fathers of the Cincinnati Province, 
who have now about forty priests 
working in New Mexico and Arizona. 
Father Anthony Kroeger, O.F.M., who 
has been assigned to the Zuni mission, 
writes to St. Anthony's Messenger 
(Vol. XXX, No. 2) that he is living 
temporarily at Gallup, thirty-eight miles 
away, but visits the Zunis every week. 
There are about 1,800 of them, mostly 
baptized Catholics, and they ardent'y 
desire to have a resident priest. The 
old mission church, however, is in 
ruins. The Christian Reformed Church 
has a mission chapel and a day school 
at Zuiii and the Y. ^l. C. A. is actively 
proselytizing among the Indians. 

Pearson's for June publishes a sen- 
sational article from the pen of Mr. 
tJpton Sinclair, the novelist, wherein 
he tells of the alleged discoveries of a 
San Francisco physician, Dr. Albert 
Abrams. Dr. Abrams's principal dis- 
covery is that we are practically all 
syphilitic in various degrees of dilution, 
in consequence of being vaccinated with 
impure lymph, and that this poison in 
the blood causes most of the diseases 
with which we are afflicted. One 
should suppose from this that Dr. 
Abrams opposes vaccination, as the 
F. R. has always done. But by a queer 
inconsistency he does not. Dr. Abrams 
claims to have discovered a method of 
desyphilizing vaccination virus and of 
curing all. or nearly all diseases by 
radioactivity, but the way Air. Sinclair 
and Pearson's magazine are exploiting 
him does not inspire confidence. 

Father Lucian Johnston (Truth, Vol. 
XXVI, No. 6) says that the armchair 
philosophers, both clerical and lay, who 
think that the Catholic press is merely 
a medium for the vaporing of "intel- 
lectuals" or the simple piety of good 



old ladies, are living in a fool's para- 
dise. "I venture to say," he adds, "that 
ideas are more lasting than churches 
of stone and brick, and that a fine 
Catholic press is sometimes of more 
value than the paying off of a debt. 
People can hear Mass in the fields or 
catacombs, but a fine Gothic church can 
eventually house an anti-Catholic con- 
gregation, like Westminster, when false 
ideas have corrupted faith — nor are 
centuries always required to cause the 
change." It is a pity that so few Cath- 
olics perceive these truths. Some fine 
day there is going to be a rude awaken- 
ing. 

T. A. T. writes in Truth (Vol. 
XXVI, No. 6) that in many K. of C. 
clubrooms which he visited no reading 
matter was available except some be- 
draggled copies of the Saturday Eve- 
ning Post, Life, or other magazines 
noted for their anti-CathoHc proclivi- 
ties, or at least purely secular in tone 
and tendency. In others, Catholic 
reading matter was available, but ap- 
parently neglected by the members, 
who showed themselves inexcusably 
ignorant of Catholic questions and af- 
fairs. The writer, who is himself a 
K. of C, says : "Too few of our mem- 
bers are able to enter into an intelligent 
discussion on the Church in its attitude 
towards Protestantism, Socialism, or 
other mass movements. There is too 
much leaning towards the secular and 
towards indifference." There can be no 
doubt that the Knights of Columbus, as 
a body, and a very large number of 
individual members, grievously neglect 
their duty towards the Catholic press. 
We should not emphasize this neglect, 
which is charged also against other 
Catholic societies, or societies of Cath- 
olics, were it not for the fact that the 
K. of C. pose as "the premier lay or- 
ganization of Catholics .in the country" 
and as "the creme de la creme of 
American Catholicity." 

Mr. Evon Z. Vogt, in El Palacio 
(Vol. XII, No. 12) gives a good 
account of the "El Morro National 
Monument," of which he is the custo- 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



271 



dian. This government reservation, 
comprising 240 acres in Western New 
Mexico, is considered by some "the 
most historical spot in America." On 
the smooth sandstone surfaces of what 
is known as "Inscription Rock" are the 
"escrituras" of five of the early Spanish 
governors of New Mexico, as well as 
many inscriptions of intrepid padres 
and soldiers who were among the first 
Europeans to visit this part of the 
world. Mr. Vogt has carefully copied 
all these inscriptions on the great bluff 
and they are printed in his article. The 
National Park Service, which has 
charge of this reserve, is now trying 
to devise a means for permanently 
protecting these valuable historical in- 
scriptions. Besides the Spanish inscrip- 
tions there are hundreds of Indian 
glyphs, which were carved on the rock 
many years before the Spaniards came. 
Some scholars think that these picto- 
graphs may be deciphered, while others 
believe that the bear, turkey tracks, 
male and female figures, etc., are mere- 
ly the symbols of various clans of 
Pueblo Indians. The El Morro National 
Monument is fifty miles from Gallup, 
N. Mex., and can be reached from 
there by automobile. It is well worth 

a visit. 

-•--•--•-•♦- 

A papal motu proprio transfers the 
seat of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Faith from France to Rome and 
entrusts the supreme direction of the 
work of the Society to the Secretary of 
the S. Congregation of the Propaganda. 
The superior council will in future be 
composed of the presidents of the dif- 
ferent national councils. France will 
have the right to two seats in the 
superior council, and one of the French 
members will be ex officio vice-presi- 
dent. This measure will strengthen the 
confidence of the faithful in the Society 
and, we have no doubt, inaugurate a 
new era in its history. The Society for 
the- Propagation of the Faith is now in 
every sense of the word a truly Cath- 
olic organization. 

A correspondent of the London 
Times writes of Pope Pius XI : *Tn 



his study there is a large writing table 
with a crucifix. No books or reviews 
are to be seen. Generally His Holiness 
writes in the library on the second 
floor, and when he takes reviews or 
books from there into the private apart- 
ment, after he has finished with them 
he brings them back himself to their 
places wath the methodical care of an 
old librarian. He does not like to see 
anything on his writing table, and on 
every hand there is evidence of his love 
for tidiness and order." The principle 
of the clear table might well be adopted 
by all of us, with great advantage both 
to ourselves and to our work. Litter 
means muddle, and muddle means in- 
efficiency. 

We see from the Postseitimg, of 
Augsburg (No. 135), that the Bavarian 
Congregation of the Order of St. Ben- 
edict has obtained permission from the 
Holy See to receive into its pale, in 
addition to Fathers and lay Brothers, 
so-called Choir Brothers (Chorfratres), 
who are trained together with the cler- 
ical novices and take simple vows after 
one and perpetual vows after the lapse 
of three years. They do not receive 
holy orders or chapter rights, but 
participate in the common prayers of 
the monks and form a sort of middle 
class between the Fathers and the lay 
Brothers. The object of this innova- 
tion is to give cultured Catholic laymen 
who have no vocation either for the 



Church Bazaars, Festivals, etc. 

Church Institvitioiis have been buying our goods 
with perfect satisfaction for over thirty years. 
This is beeause we carry a large selection of 
merchandise especially suitable for such pur- 
poses at unusually low prices. 

Our Goods Assure Profits Be- 
cause They Are Useful, Attrac- 
tive and Appealing. 

Novelties. Silverware, Alumi- 
num Goods, Watches, Paddle 
Wheels, Games, etc. 
This large catalogue free to 
Clergymen and buying com- 
mittees. 

Ask for No. 97- 
See our adverti^^ement in the 
Official Catholic Directory, 
page 8 1 . 

N. SHURE CO., Chicago 

Wholesale Merchandise 




272 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 15 



priesthood or for the lay brotherhood 
a chance to devote themselves to the 
religious life. Besides these Choir 
Brothers the Bavarian Congregation 
will receive laymen or priests as "Ob- 
lates," as heretofore. These Oblates 
take no vows and may leave the mon- 
astery at any time if they wish. Their 
temporal affairs are regulated by mutu- 
al agreement between themselves and 
the community. 

-»-•--•■-•■ 

A million dollar "drive'' is being 
conducted in Illinois for a Catholic 
college to be erected in connection with 
the State University. The Western 
JVatclmian, while admitting that some- 
thing should be done to provide for the 
Catholic students who are drawn to the 
State universities either through the 
carelessness of their parents or because 
certain technical courses cannot be ob- 
tained in Catholic institutions of learn- 
ing, objects to the proposed plan, 
w^hich, it thinks, cannot be carried out 
without harming Catholic education. 
"Catholic education," says our contem- 
porary (Sunday ed., Vol. 57, No. 12), 
"is going to be harmed by staging a 
public drive for funds and by publish- 
ing statistics likely to give ill-instructed 
Catholics the impression that a State 
university is the only place for any 
kind of education. Let a few societies 
raise the necessary funds in a quiet 
way, — a million dollars seems excessive, 
— and let the impression be sent forth 
that a Catholic student has no business 
going to any but a Catholic college or 
university for a liberal arts course or 
the ordinary professional courses." 
-•-.•-■•--•- 

The Watchman is entirely right. Un- 
less we entrust our boys and girls to 
schools and colleges which recognize 
God's prior claims upon his children, 
they wall be lost to the faith and, con- 
sequently, miss their final destiny. We 
have many such institutions at present ; 
but how long shall we be able to main- 
tain them? "From the parish school to 
the tmiversity," writes Father P. L. 
Blakely, S.J.. in the America (Vol. 27, 
No. 9), our educational institutions 
"are in danger," first, "from "the civil 



power, with its lust for encroachment 
in the field of education," and, second- 
ly and worst of all, from "the indiffer- 
ence of Catholics to the importance of 
education and to the needs of those 
brave men and women who labor year 
in and year out to keep alight the lamp 
of learning and the fame that brightens 
the path of the young generation to 
God." That Illinois drive is one of the 
greatest dangers that have yet arisen to 
Catholic education in America, and we 
sincerely hope it will fail. 
,~^^,^ 

Correspondence 

More ''Beastly" Arithmetic 

To the Editor: — 

Reading "Beastly" Arithmetic in 
No. 13 of the F. R. reminds me of 
another "Beast of Revelations" — Mar- 
tin Luther, who in a book I read years 
ago is called from the country of his 
birth, in Greek, "Saxoneios." If we 
give these letters their numerical values 
we get 666. Hence another "incontro- 
vertible argument" ! 

(Rev.) James Walcher 
St. Cloud, Minn. 

For a Negro Priesthood 

To the Editor : — 

Father Ph. L. Keller, the Negro 
Apostle, is highly honored in No. 12 
of the F. R. This apostolic missionary 
is at last receiving his due. Few were 
wath him, when he began to walk to 
the top of Calvary twenty-five years 
ago. More should be with him to-day 
and help him in the unpopular but noble 
cause he has espoused. He is now mak- 
ing an appeal for more negro priests. 
Will that appeal be heard? Does God 
bar the negro brother from the altar. 

The F. R. and some other Catholic 
papers and magazines are valiantly agi- 
tating the cause of a colored priesthood 
for the negro missions. Father Keller 
and the Fathers of the Divine Word 
are pioneers in this movement. God 
bless all those who are working for 
more negro priests ! 

(Rev.) Raymond Vernimont 

Denton, Tex. 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



273 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
(36th Installment) 

The weather continued beautiful, but ex- 
tremely hot. Saturday, September 22nd, we 
landed at Almeria. a Spanish city with a 
good port. It is the seat of a bishop. Its 
first bishop is said to have been a disciple 
of the Apostles. Here they loaded grapes 
o-i our steamer. We went to the cathedral. 
It is a beautiful building with a cupola, two 
towers and many altars. The canons are 
dressed in red, like cardinals, with the 
exception of a small green tassel sticking out 
from the red birretta like a bunch of radish 
leaves. The surplices worn by the priests 
and acolytes have no sleeves, but wings in- 
stead, as I have seen them also in France, 
Switzerland, and Belgium. The choir for 
the canons was in the center of the church, 
somewhat elevated and walled in, just like 
a church inside a church. On both ends of 
the cathedral were altars, so that an ignorant 
Swiss could not tell which was meant to be 
the front and which the rear. Another fine 
church which we visited was that of the 
Dominicans. I do not think that many 
strangers visit this city; a whole crowd of 
boys and men followed us through the town 
as if we were a circus. The boys laughed at 
my gold-filled teeth. One remarked, he 
thought a man who kept so much gold in 
liis mouth had probably very little else of 
value in his head. Most people in Almeria 
have sore, red eyes, and many are blind. It 
is sad to see healthy looking, handsome young 
men and women blear-eyed. 

I never saw such an abundance of beauti- 
ful grapes as here. For two cents you could 
get a basketful of grapes, pomegranates, 
peaches, etc. I tried to get a German book 
for Mr. Wigger, who had nothing to read. 
I went into a number of stores, but nowhere 
did they have any German books or papers. 
How thankful we Swiss should be that we 
learn not only to read and write our 
mother-tongue, but are given every oppor- 
tunity to acquire also the principal foreign 
languages ! 

On Sunday we passed Gibraltar. One 
morning I found at the door of some cabins 
written in Italian: "Death to the priests!" 
Repeatedly I found groups of Italians sitting 
together, talking about the Church, cursing 
the priests, and expressing a wish that they 
liad a government like that of France. They 
published on the steamer a paper called 
Pnpa^olln, of the Asiyio type. 

I think if the Italians were not taxed so 
■heavily, and if property w^s more equally 
divided, so that every industrious family 
could acquire a little home, they would be 
the happiest and most contented people in 
lhe world. Every evening after work, twenty 



or thirty sailors sat together singing songs, 
and they seemed very happy and friendly. 

On the 26th of September we came in sight 
of the Azores. We landed at Ponta Delgada 
on the island Sao Miguel. The climate here 
is delightful and the volcanic soil very rich 
and fertile. The wonderful climate produces 
all kinds of crops. The houses are generally 
red or white and contrast very pleasantly 
with the fresh green of the gardens. The 
fields and mountains look green and the 
parks and gardens, with their tropical plants, 
are beautiful beyond description. I saw 
magnolia trees as big as our tallest oaks. 
The city of Ponta Delgada is so clean that 
you could imagine you were in Holland. A 
fellow-traveler from South Africa told me 
that the Portuguese towns in South Africa 
are just as clean. The ladies are, it seems, 
all dressed in black and heavily veiled like 
nuns. Everywhere you behold four-armed 
windmills as in Holland. It seems rather 
strange that the Portuguese should be so 
very clean, which cannot be said of the 
Spaniards and Italians. 

About 200 young men from the Azores 
took passage with us in Ponta Delgada. They 
were all neatly dressed and clean. We found 
also the churches were clean and a total 
absence of beggars. 

(To be continued) 



Three classics on the 
Third Order 



The Great 
Reform 

An English translation 
of the encyclicals of 
Leo XIII and Benedict 
XV with marginal 
notes. The encyclical 
of Leo XIII embodies 
the full text of the Third 
Order Rule and the 
privileges of the Order. 



36 pages — Price 15 cents 




1433 

West SIst St. 

Chicago. III. 



274 



THE FOBTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



July 15 



Literary Briefs 



A Story About School-Boys 

"The Knight's Promise", by A. E. Whit- 
tington (P. J. Kenedy & Sons), is a story 
about school-boys, with all that one could 
desire in the way cf sports and adventures. 
Incidentally the English organization known 
as the Knights of the Blessed Sacrament is 
described and its purpose explained. The 
book would interest boys up to the age of 
twelve or thirteen. 

The Missale Romanum in 12mo. 

Marietti's "Missale Romanum" can now 
be had in what the publisher calls a 24mo, 
but what according to American notions is 
a small i2mo edition, printed, like the larger 
ones, in legible black type, on thin India 
paper, in every way complete and supplied 
with an appendix containing the Missae 
Propriae for the United States. Any priest 
needing a small, cheap edition of the "Mis- 
sale" will do well to examine the merits of 
this one. (Turin: Pietro Marietti). 

The Capuchin Lay-Brother 

In a little pamphlet bearing this title, Fr. 
Theodosius, O. M. Cap., escorts the reader 
in spirit through a Capuchin monastery, 
shows him how a lay-brother of the Order 
works and rests, lives and dies. The object 
is to stir up in the hearts of some young 
readers the holy ambition of embracing this 
life, "hidden with Christ in God." The book- 
let is neatly printed and illustrated. Copies 
may be had from the V. Rev. Provincial, 
O. M. Cap., 1740 Mt. Elliott Ave., Detroit, 
Mich. 
A Book for Girls 

Under the title, "Gildersleeves" (B. Her- 
der Book Co.), E. M. Wilmot-Buxton has 
written an interesting novel of school-life. 
"Gildersleeves" is a typical girl's book by 
an able Catholic vvriter. The heroine. Miss 
Alison, is the daughter of a Protestant 
minister, and a graduate of the Secondary 
Teachers" Training College. She receives a 
position at the Gildersleeves School and 
there meets the "Boy," also a teacher, whom 
she tries to avoid. After a while they become 
fast friends. The story is told in an easy 
style and will be appreciated by Catholic 
girls. 
"Moral Problems in Hospital Practice" 

Father P. A. Finney, C. M., of the Uni- 
versity of Dallas, has prepared a manual 
of 208 pages under the above title. It is in- 
tended chiefly for hospital Sisters. The 



book consists of two parts. The first em- 
bodies an effort to cover a wide field of 
operations and kindred medical cases in the 
simple form of questions and answers, while 
the second states the principles upon which 
the answers are based. The manual will 
prove useful not only to Sisters engaged in 
hospital work, but likewise to Catholic 
physicians and lay nurses. The author is a 
little too radical on the question of "twi- 
light sleep" parturition. There is a useful 
medical vocabulary at the end, and a good 
alphabetical index. (B. Herder Book Co.) 
Teaching Literature 

"Teaching the Drama and the Essay," by 
Brother Leo, of the Brothers of the 
Christian Schools, is a little book made up 
of talks to tea::hers and of papers that 
originally appeared in the Catholic School 
Journal. The author advocates the vital, as 
opposed to the purely formal or merely 
esthetic, appreciation of literature, and in 
the concluding chapter lays down "some 
prirciples in the teaching of literature" l!;at 
are often lost sight of, for instance : "Great 
books should be read indefinitely," "True 
cnticism is mainly appreciative," "The .su- 
preme excellency [of style] is simplicity," 
etc. Brother Leo is a worthy successor to 
the talented Brother Azarias, and this little 
work proves that the noble Azarian tradi- 
tion has not yet died out amongst the 
Brother:? of the Christian Schools. 
(Schwartz, Kirvvin & Fauss). 

"The Church in England" 

Under this title, Fr. Geo. Stebbing, C. 
SS. R., author of the "Story of the Catholic 
Church," has written, along similar lines, 
a lirief account of the fortunes of that 
Church in Ertgland, from the earliest times 
to the present day. He has gathered together 
information not easily accessible to the gen- 
neral reader, and has presented this in- 
formation as one continuous whole, in a 
readable style, with appropriate side titles 
and a number of helpful tables, indices, and 
bibliographical data. The book has been 
criticized as unfair to Ireland, but the 
charge strikes us as unfounded. The author 
evidently tries to be fair and just to every- 
body and has condensed a vast amount of 
information into 620 compact pages. (B. 
Herder Book Co.). 
Life of St. John Berchmans 

Several interesting attempts have been 
made of late years to present the "human" 
side of the Saints, and, in almost every case 
has the picture gained in distinctness and 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



275 



found greater favor among readers. To this 
desire of bringing the Saints "closer to us" 
we owe the latest two lives of St. John 
Berchmans. The recent tercentenary of the 
Saint's death lends special significance to the 
biographies. In Fr. Hippolyte Delehaye's, 
SJ., sketch ("St. John Berchmans," tr. by 
H. C. Semple, S.J. ; Benziger Bros.), we 
have the work of a master biographer who 
can write on a theme in his favorite field 
even without the aid of the vast equipment 
generally gathered by one who wants to set 
forth an * authentic account of a famous 
character. For Fr. Delehaye wrote the first 
sketch of his biography "in the prison of 

St. Giles (Brussels) during the war 

almost without any aid of books, amid the 
grave cares which such a situation en- 
tailed." Yet in seven short chapters he gives 
a remarkably lucid, though compressed, ac- 
count of the life of the Saint of Brabant, 
and of the secret of his sanctity. The in- 
troduction contains reflections which no 
biographer of the sainted youth can afford 
to overlook. To those who want a sane, 
readable story of the Saint we say: "Tolle, 
lege!" In Fr. James Daly's "St. John Berch- 
mans, The Story of the Saint of Innocence" 
(P. J. Kenedy & Sons), there is more in- 
sistence on details which at first flash seem 
to be forbidding traits in the life of the 
Saint. But they turn out to be the legitimate: 
results of John's high ideals of true saint- 
hood, and, on deeper study, make him more 
worthy of our esteem. Instead of entering 
into minute and uninteresting details, Fr. 
Daly interprets Jolm's simple story with a 
skill and insight that are charming. No 
young man can read it without being cap- 
tivated and feeling himself more of a man. 
The book will be appreciated by those with- 
out as well as within the cloister. 



Books Received 

Prayers at Mass for School Children. Ar- 
ranged by Rev. E. P. Graham, hU D. 5th 
Edition, :}2 pp. in prayerbook form. Canton, 
O. : St. Joseph's Church. 

The Rockefeller Foundation. A Review for 
1921. By George E. Vincent, President of 
the Foundation. 50 pp. 8 vo. New York: 
The Rockefeller Foundation. 

Good English. A Practical Manual of Cor- 
rect Speaking and Writing by John L. 
Haney, Ph.D. Revised Edition, xi & 244 
p. i2mo. Philadelphia: Peter Reilly. 

Christian Science and the Catholic Faith. 
Including a Brief Account of New Thought 
and Other Modern Mental Healing Move- 
ments. By A. M. Bellwald, S.M., S.T.L., 
Marist College, Washington, D. C. xvi & 
269 pp. 8vo. The Macmillan Co. $2.50 net. 

Toiirscher's Christian Classics. Four fasci- 
cles comprising the following treatises by 
St. Augustine: {i) De Beata Vita, 39 PP-; 

(2) Soliloqiiiorum Libri Duo, 72 pp. ; 

(3) De Immortalitate Animae, 43 pp.; 

(4) De Magistro, 56 pp. AH adapted for 
school use and issued in substantial paste- 
board wrappers. Philadelphia: Peter 
Reilly. 

The Catholic University of America Studies 
in American Church History. Vol. I: 
Etat de I'Eglise Catholique ou Diocese des 
Etats-Unis de I'Amerique Septentrionale 
par Jean Dilhct. Translated and Anno- 
tated by Rev. Patrick W. Browne, xxii & 
261 pp. — Vol. II: Thomas Cormvaleys, 
Commissioner and Counsellor of Mary- 
land. By George B. Stratemeier, O.P. x & 
140 pp. — Vol. Ill : The Society for the 
Propagation of the Faith, its Foundation, 
Organization, and Success (188-199). By 
Edw. J. Hickey, S.T.B., M.B.A. x & 196 
pp. _ Vol. I V : The Catholic Hierarchy of 
the United States {1790-1922). By John 
Hugh O'Donnell, C.S.C. xiv & 223 pp. 
All in paper covers, published by the 
Catholic University of America, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



OTDACCDCDCCD CONSERVATORY OF 

1 nAooDCnQCn music and expression 

Three Schools 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Established 1886 

DIPLOMAS and 

GOLD iVIEDALS 

AWARDED 

Ci rAMDCTrUT TCATUCDC Faculty of International Reputation TERMS REASONABtl 
Dl tUinrtlLni iLAttlCKO Students may Enroll at any Time aiALOGUE FREE 

Partial Scholarships and other free advantages ADDRESS: GRAND AND 

SPECIAL LOW TERMS TO BEGINNERS SHENANDOAH AVES 




276 



THE FORTNIGHTLY BEVIEW 



July IB 



Chaminade College ciayton, mo. 

Catholic Boarding and Day School 
for Boys and Young Men 

In Charge of the Society of Mary 

Accredited by the Missouri University 

Preparatory Department — Third Grade Up — Complete High School Courses 

Spacious Grounds, Carefully Supervised Studies 

Special attention to the moral training of the students 



For particulars address: THE PRESIDENT 

Bell: Clayton 128 Kinloch: Clayton 168 L Chaminade College, Clayton, Mo. 



FOR QUALITY CIGARS TRY OUR BRANDS 

They Have Stood the Test Since 1860 




Tou will make no mistake by giving us a personal call to verify the quality 
and view our assortment of Pipes and Smokers' Articles 

Westerheide Tobacco & Cigar Co. 

3612 North Broadway, ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Mail Orders Promptly Filled 



Phones; Bell fyler 788 Kinloch Central 4039 L 



St. Louis Pipe Organ Co. 



Electro, Tubular Pneumatic, 

and Tracker Organs 
for Church and Concert Hall 

Prompt attention given to Repairs and Rebuilding 

of every description 

Blowers attached 

Office, 2209-11 Lynch Street 

Phone Sidney 361 ST. LOUIS. MO. 



Help the Foreign Missions 
by Buying Postage Stamps 

Catholic stamp purchasers are urged to patronize 
the Mission Stamp Company, now located at 3684Park 
Boulevard. San Diego, California, All of the profits of 
this company are devoted to the Catholic missions. 



CLERGYMEN, COLLEGES and ACADEMIES 

will find it to their advantage to consult 

= THE 

Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

2r2-214 East Eighth Street 

CINCINNATI, OHIO 
RELIABLE SERVICE AT REASONABLE PRICES 
Its facilities for quick delivery of line- 
or monotyped, printed in first-class 
manner books, booklets, pamphlets, 
folders etc. are unexcelled. 



Position Wanted 

by 

Organist and Ciioirmaster 

An Organist and Choirmaster with A 1 references 
and plenty of experience is looking for a position. 
Address: O. A. M.,care of the Fortnightly Review, 
5851 Elzel Av., St. Ivouis, Mo. 



The Fortnightly Review 



VOL. XXIX, NO. 15 



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 



August 1, 1922 



International 

Mr. Leon M. Abbott, Sovereign 
Grand Commander of the Supreme 
Council of the 33rd Degree, An- 
cient and Accepted Scottish Rite, 
Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of 
the U. S., left Boston on May 3rd 
at the head of a delegation from 
the Supreme Council to the Inter- 
national Conference of Supreme 
Councils of the World, at Laus- 
anne, Switzerland, May 29 ff. In 
a letter written by him to the 
Christian Science Monitor, of Bos- 
ton, and published in that paper's 
issue of July 10th, Mr. Abbott 
gives a short account of the jour- 
ney and the Conference. 

The delegation first went to 
Edinburgh, where they had "an 
informal conference" with the 
Supreme Council of Scotland, at 
which "various matters of Ma- 
sonic _ interest were discussed. ' ' 
Mr. Abbott does not say what 
these matters were. 

From Scotland the delegation 
went directly to London, where a 
conference was held with the Su- 
preme Councils of England, Ire- 
land, and Scotland, at which con- 
ference the Southern Jurisdiction 
of the A. & A. S. E. of the U. S. 
was also represented. "At this 
conference," Mr. Abbott tells us, 
"matters of Masonic and world 
interest were discussed and the 
most cordial and friendly relations 
were manifest. . . . While the Su- 
preme Councils of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland will not be rep- 
resented at the conference to be 
held at Lausanne," he adds (this 



Freemasonry 

part of the letter was evidently 
written before that conference), 
"they are in hearty s^nnpathy 
with us and the ideas and ideals 
for which we stand. ' ' 

The "International Conference 
of Supreme Councils of the 
World" was called to order at 
Lausanne on May 29, by 111. Bro. 
Albert Junod, 33rd degree, Sover- 
eign Grand Commander of Switz- 
erland. The official languages of 
the conference were French and 
English. There were about 75 de- 
legates present, representing 22 
countries or jurisdictions. "Vari- 
ous committees were appointed 
and many matters of Masonic in- 
terest were discussed and passed 
upon." Again we are not told 
what these matters were. An inter- 
esting part of the proceedings was 
the reading, by Mr. Abbott him- 
self, of a letter addressed to him, 
under date of May 2, by President 
Harding. It is as follows : 

"I am writing to express to you and 
your fellow delegates who will repre- 
sent the Supreme Council of the 
Northern Jurisdiction at the Inter- 
national Conference of Supreme Coun- 
cils of the World, at Lausanne, a few 
weeks hence, my deep interest in the 
mission on which you are going 
abroad. I understand that you will 
meet representatives of most of the 
Supreme Councils of the world, and I 
feel that the acquaintance and asso- 
ciation is certain to be productive of 
increased cordiality and understand- 
ing in the relations among nations. 
Your noble organization has tradition- 
ally stood for the best of human ideals 



278 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



and aspirations, and it is not too 
much, I think, to hope that its in- 
fluence may be potent in behalf of 
peace and the wider acceptances of the 
splendid principles to which Masonry 
has always been devoted." 

The following cablegram in 
reply, signed by M. Junod, was 
sent to President Harding : 

"Conference of Supreme Councils of 
Scottish Rite Masons of world sends 
fraternal greetings and hearty appre- 
ciation for your inspiring message." 

One of the really commendable 



things the Lausanne Conference 
did, and which Mr. Abbott reports 
in detail, is to adopt a resolution 
pledging the delegates *'to use 
every lawful and legitimate effort 
and influence within their power 
to establish universal and perma- 
nent peace among nations," 
though how this pledge is to be 
reconciled with the notorious 
activity of Freemasons in bring- 
ing on the AVorld War, is hard to 
understand. 



Limpias and the Science of Apologetics 



Msgr. Arnold Rademacher, D.D., 
professor in the University of 
Bonn, in No. 314 of the Theologi- 
sche Revile (col. QQ f.) reviews the 
second edition of the late Prof. C. 
Isenkrahe 's ' ' Experimental-Theo- 
logie," with special reference to 
the author's treatment of the 
Limpias problem (see F. R., 
XXIX, 8, 137 ff.) 

*'It is with repugnance," he 
says, ''that the apologist tackles 
such topics as the Limpias prod- 
igy. What saddens him is not so 
much the rampant credulity in 
regard to extraordinary phenom- 
ena, but still more the observation 
that religious interest to-day, as in 
the past, is deflected to that which 
is non-essential and external, sen- 
sational and emotional in religion. 
Isenkrahe attributes greater im- 
portance to miracles in their rela- 
tion to the faith than the theolo- 
gian can concede. He quotes, ap- 
parently with approval, the words 
of a correspondent: 'What a 
powerful argument would we have 
in the Christ statue at Limpias to 
prove the reality of the supernat- 
ural, if the reported phenomena 
were demonstrated so as to ex- 
clude all reasonable doubt!' I 
reply that the science of apologet- 



ics would be deserving of pity if 
it had to depend on such argu- 
ments. Miracles have not the im- 
portance here attributed to them 

Isenkrahe 's gentle reproach to 
the apologists that "they should 
have long since attacked the prob- 
lem and ascertained the facts, so 
far as this was possible by the 
superabundant means furnished 
by modern science, ' ' his complaint 
about the obvious "failure of a 
mere book-apologetic" in our un- 
believing age, and his demand of 
an "Apologetik der Tat," i. e., one 
which goes to the bottom of all 
alleged miracles and supernatural 
manifestations, — show that he is 
favorably inclined towards mira- 
cles and would like to see them 
well established, contrary to the 
belief of some who have accused 
him of a want of faith and of a 
desire to recall apologetics from 
the wrong and put it back on the 
right track. But it must be ad- 
mitted that his criticism shoots 
beyond the mark. The science of 
apologetics has quite other things 
to worry about ; it does not depend 
for the attainment of its end on 
accidental historical events, or the 
knowledge of them, but is charged 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



279 



with demonstrating the internal 
justification and worth of Chris- 
tianity. So long, of course, as 
miracles play the exaggerated 
role they do in popular piety (and 
apologetics), scientists are per- 
fectly justified in demanding 
stringent arguments for them. ' ' 

Isenkrahe "justly deems it 
strange that Baron von Kleist, in 
his widely read book on Limpias, 
throws out mysterious hints re- 
garding still other things which 
some witnesses claim to have seen, 
or words of Christ which cannot 
yet be made public. These hints 
serve to vitiate still more the un- 
healthy atmosphere with which 
the reader is surrounded. Where 
a miracle is to be sought cannot 
remain doubtful to the psycholo- 
gist when he learns that the phe- 
nomena at Limpias, while seen by 
some, remain invisible to the 
majority of those present. . . . 
Isenkrahe at once raises the ques- 
tion whether the supernatural 
power believed to be at work there 
makes a selection also among 
photographic plates, or influences 
them all alike, and demands that 
the subjective element be elimi- 
nated by substituting the photo- 
graphic plate for the eye. We on 
our part prefer the attitude of 
King St.Louis, who, when told that 
the Infant Jesus could be seen 
bodily in a neighboring church, is 
said to have declared: 'I shall not 
go; let those whose faith is weak 
run to see the miracle.' There is a 
sort of childishness in the mental 
process of those who, as Cicero 
says, are persuaded that 'no vitas 
magis quam magnitudo rerum de- 
beat ad exquirendam causa s exci- 
tare.' (De Nat. Deor., II. 37)." 

— -^H.-.^ 

— Piety may be called the art of right 
growing. 



K. of C. Fraternizing with Freemasons 
The Boonville, N. Y., Council of 
the Knights of Columbus sent a 
beautiful floral offering for the 
dedication of the new Masonic 
temple of Boonville Lodge Xo. 165 
the other day. Most Worshipful 
Arthur S. Tompkins, Grand Mas- 
ter of Masons in the State of New 
York, in acknowledging the gift, 
said in an address made at the 
dedication exercises, as reported 
in the Utica Daily Press, June 27 : 
"There is nothing antagonistic in 
Masonry to the Knights of Colum- 
bus, and nothing in the Knights 
of Columbus antagonistic to Ma- 
sonry. We are all working toward 
the same ends." 

If the latter portion of this 
statement were true, savs the Buf- 
falo Echo (A^ol. VIII, No. 24), the 
K. of C. of Boonville would be 
apostates from the Church, which 
emphatically condemns Freema- 
sonry as a sect. Of course, the 
statement is as untrue in its sec- 
ond part as it is in its first. The 
Knights of Columbus, as an organ- 
ization of supposedly loyal Cath- 
olics, must be and is opposed to 
Freemasonry, just as Freemason- 
ry, being a religious sect, must be 
and is opposed to the Catholic 
Church. If floral and other gifts 
tend to obscure this antagonism 
in the eyes of Catholics, the prac- 
tice of making them should be dis- 
continued. No loyal Catholic can 
'work towards the same ends' 
with Freemasonry. 

,^,^s>^^ 

By what he omits the master of style 
is known. — Schiller. 

No man can make a habit in a mo- 
ment or break it in a moment. It is a 
matter of development, of growth. But 
at any moment one may begin to make 
or begin to break any habit. — IVilliavn 
G. Jordan. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



Father Husslein's Mistake 
Dr. Edwin Auweiler, 0. F. M., 
who reviews Father Husslein's 
"Work, Wealth, and Wages" in 
St. Antliony's Messenger (Vol. 
XXX, No. 2), agrees with our 
"Catholic Laboringman" and 
other critics that the book is wo- 
fuUy inadequate. The author, he 
says, addresses "a full-grown 
giant as if he were a naughty and 
ignorant schoolboy." 

"We wonder," says Fr. Edwin, 
"whether our Catholic authors are 
really aware and take into con- 
sideration the exceedingly thor- 
ough, though often insidious train- 
ing in economics purveyed to the 
workingman through his own or- 
gans, particularly to the foreign 
element, in its respective language 
press. It is exactly this assump- 
tion of ignorance among our labor 
population, this air of bland, 
magisterial superiority which fills 
so many of our Catholic workers 
and farmers with distrust and dis- 
gust towards their own priests, as 
soon as they assume the office of 
experts on the economic problems 
of the day. Little good can and 
will be done by indiscriminate 
invectives against Socialism and 
Bolshevism. 

"One fundamental mistake lies 
in the attitude assumed towards 
Capitalism. It is on the shoulders 
of a brutal, paganized, entirely de- 
Christianized Capitalism that the 
blame for the present-day social 
evils is to be laid sternly and un- 
compromisingly. The excesses of 
labor are merely the natural reac- 
tion. It will not do to distribute 
this guilt timidly and cowardl}" 
over the whole social structure, 
shifting whatever preponderance 
of crime there may exist on to the 
masses instead of the classes. But 



this is exactly the impression one 
gains from reading [Fr. Huss- 
lein's] book. The rights of Capital, 
of wealth; the sacrosanctity of 
private property seems to us un- 
duly stressed ; inadequate condem- 
nation is meted out to the outrages 
against the modern wage slave 
that crv to Heaven." 



A Simple Statement of the "Sex 
Problem" 

In a notice of Mr. Kenneth In- 
gram's "Outline of Sexual Moral- 
ity," which tries to uphold the 
"Catholic" view by arguments 
taken from the psycho-analysts, 
vho, "with all their acuteness of 
observation and accumulation of 
instances, have not really prog- 
ressed beyond the old diagnosis 
announced by St. Paul," the 
Month says (No. 696) : 

"The sex-problem is fundamen- 
tally simple. The propagation of 
the race is secured by the working 
of a God-given instinct, which can 
be lawfully employed only for the 
lourpose for which it is given, and 
in the God-ordained condition of 
matrimony. Hence, outside such 
purpose and occasion, it should be 
held in restraint or, if you like, 
sublimated. This is the real Cath- 
olic view, elaborated in many a 
moral treatise, and excellently 
presented in such books as the late 
I'ather T. Gerrard's 'Marriage 
and Parenthood' and 'The Church 
and Eugenics.' However, within 
his limits, conscious and uncon- 
scious, [Mr. Ingram! is on the side 
of the angels, and though he ex- 
cludes the deepest and strongest 
motive from sex-education, that 
draAvn from religion, his book is 
a welcome contrast to the many 
immoral treatises nowadays put 
forth in the name of Eusrenics." 



liiii 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



281 



A World War Scandal 

President Harding's demand 
that the Alien Property Custodian 
shall take steps to secure the re- 
turn of German patents purchased 
by the American Chemical Foun- 
dation from the Alien Property 
Custodian is a belated step in pur- 
suit of the war profiteers. Among 
the major scandals of the war the 
conduct of the office of Alien Prop- 
erty Custodian by A. Mitchell 
Palmer and Francis P. Garvan 
must be accounted the worst. A 
review of their behavior by a com- 
petent legal authority was pub- 
lished in The Netv Repuhlic for 
September 21, 1921. Not only did 
their proceedings involve the seiz- 
ure of private property in defiance 
of the law of nations, of specific 
treaties, and of the tradition of 
the United States, but the illicit 
enrichment of individuals. Such 
concerns as the Bosch Magneto 
and the Bayer Company w^ere 
turned over to private profiteers 
at a fraction of their real value. 
But the most monstrous of such 
transactions was the sale of 4700 
German patents, one of them ad- 
mittedly worth $10,000,000, by Mr. 
Garvan for $250,000 to a group of 
five men headed by himself. 

Referring to the President's 
recent letter to Mr. Garvan 's suc- 
cessor, the same journal says (No. 
397) : "Irony is not a sufficient 
punishment for those Avho were 
guilty of the meanest of all crimes 
and the basest of all treacheries 
known in war. Mr. Garvan defends 
his proceeding on the ground that 
the control of German patents is 
necessary to the development of 
the American dye industry and 
the manufacture of munitions. 
James Russell Lowell once point- 
ed out that our desire for light 
does not constitute a right to 



steal our neighbor's candles. Mr. 
Garvan protests that he never re- 
ceived a cent of salary or profit 
from the Chemical Foundation, 
but he admits that the Duponts 
have invested $15,000,000 in plants 
and research for the development 
of certain of the patents. Does 
Job fear God for nought? He 
characterizes the President's ac- 
tion as 'utterly rediculous' and 
attributes it to German propagan- 
da, in which hypothesis he is sus- 
tained by that eminent authority 
on the subject, A. Mitchell Palmer. 
According to the latter 'the Presi- 
dent's action was the greatest vic- 
tory Germany has won since 
Pershing [sic] turned back her 
legions at Chateau-Thierry.' All 
of which reminds us that a na- 
tion's worst foes may be those of 
its own household, and of Dr. 
Johnson's remark, that patriotism 
is the last refuge of a scoundrel." 



The Ludwig-Missionsverein 
In No. 1 of Vol. II of the new 
series of the CatJioUc Historical 
Review, the Rev. Joseph A. Scha- 
bert gives some welcome informa- 
tion with regard to the Ludwig- 
Missionsverein, a Bavarian Cath- 
olic society which for many years 
generously aided the Catholic 
missions in America, but of which 
no history exists. 

The Ludwig-Missionsverein was 
established at Munich, in 1838, 
and from that 3^ear up to 1914, but 
especially during the first quarter- 
century of its existence, contrib- 
uted liberally to the American 
missions. Help was sent to mis- 
sions in two archdioceses, eight 
dioceses, and one vicariate Apos- 
tolic in the U. S. and to one arch- 
diocese, two dioceses, and one vic- 
ariate Apostolic in Canada. What 
this help amounted to has not yet 



282 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



been worked out, but Dr. Schabert 
estimates the total sum at many 
million marks. Already in 1863, 
3,339,343 marks had been expend- 
ed, and this represents but the 
first twenty-five years of the so- 
ciety's activity. It is agreeable to 
learn that a Bavarian priest is at 
the present time analysing the an- 
nual 'reports of the Ludwig-Mis- 
sionsverein in order to ascertain 
all that this excellent societ}' did 
for the Church in America. The 
Verein is still in existence, but of 
late years has turned its helping 
hand to the German diaspora and 
to pagan lands. Its Aunalen have, 
since 1918, been succeeded by a 
monthly publication, called Die 
Weltmission der katholischen 
Kirche. Let us hope that Dr. 
Schabert will be able to complete 
his researches later and devote to 
the work of this excellent society 
a worthy monograph in book form. 
* * * 

This little article was already in 
type when we received No. 12 of 
the Historisch-politische Blatter, 
of Munich, with a paper, by W. 
Winkler, on ''King Louis I of 
Bavaria and the German Catholics, 
in North America." This King 
was the founder of the Ludwig- 
Missions verein, which was named 
after him, and besides supporting- 
its aims with royal munificence, 
took a personal interest in Arch- 
abbot Wimmer and the American 
missions. We are pleased to learn 
that those of his letters which bear 
on the Church history of this coun- 
iry are being edited for publica- 
tion by the Rev. Fr. Schuhmann 
of Weilbach (Unterfranken). 

— Few can utter words of wisdom, 
but opportunity to speak kind words 
is offered to everyone, and they are 
always helpful. 



Does the Volstead Law Bind in Con- 
science? 

The question as to the possibil- 
ity and existence of purely penal 
laws is discussed in the Irish Ec- 
clesiastical Record, No. 654, pages 
642 to 647, with special reference 
to our American prohibition en- 
forcement law, commonly known 
as the Volstead act. 

Is the Volstead law purely pe- 
nal, or does it bind in conscience? 
asks Dr. J. Kinane, and he an- 
swers as follows : 

*'0f course, we cannot speak 
with all the authority of one who 
is a resident in the United States, 
and who is intimately acquainted 
with all the circumstances which 
influence a decision on this mat- 
ter; for example, we can apply 
only in a very imperfect way the 
criterion of public estimation. In 
so far, however, as our knowledge 
goes, we are of opinion that this 
law is not a purely penal one, that 
it binds directly in conscience. The 
purpose of the legislators was to 
abolish the evils connected with 
the drink traffic, as exemplified 
especially in the saloon system, in 
other words, *to promote the good 
morals of the Republic and to 
repress crime'; it is, therefore, 
eminently a law demanding an ob- 
ligation in conscience. Moreover, 
those who w^ere instrumental in 
having this laAv enacted — many of 
them the legislators themselves — 
were influenced very considerably 
in their action by religious ideas; 
if we understand the matter 
aright, the Volstead law is largely 
the work of the Methodist body, 
with whom Prohibition is practi- 
cally a religious question. This 
constitutes another argument for 
presuming- in the legislators the 
intention of imposing an absolute 
moral obligation; and, in the ab- 



1924 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



283 



seiice of any convincing argument 
to the contrary, I think we must 
presume that such an obligation 
exists." 

Not ail Catholic moralists 
agree with this view. The ques- 
tion is of sufficient importance to 
he discussed thoroughly in, for 
instance, the Ecclesiastical Review 
or the Homiletic and Pastoral 
Review. There can be no doubt 
that the obligation or non-obliga- 
tion of obeying this odious law is 
troubling the consciences of thou- 
sands of Catholics. 



F. W. Foerster and His Attitude 
towards the Catholic Church 

The merits and demerits of the 
writings of Prof. F. W. Foerster 
(see F. R., Vol. XXVII, pp. 259, 
305, 344) have long been a subject 
of controversy in Catholic Ger- 
many. Dr. Martin Fassbender 
sums up the controversy very 
judiciously in No. 6 of the Litera- 
rischer Handiveiser, that famous 
old literary review founded by 
Msgr. Hiilskamp and now pub- 
lished by B. Herder, of Freiburg, 
under the editorial direction of 
Dr. Gustav Keckeis. 

Msgr. Kiefl, says Dr. Fassben- 
der, clearly pointed out the bound- 
ary lines that divide Foerster 's 
views from the teaching of the 
Catholic Church. This has had the 
good eifect of leading Foerster to 
express himself more clearly and 
definitely than he had done before 
on his attitude towards Christ, 
Christianity, and the Catholic 
Church. If there was any danger 
(as there undoubtedly was) that 
Catholic educationists might be 
led by Foerster 's arguments to 
lose sight of the theocentric char- 
acter of Catholic pedagogics and 
the important role played in edu- 



cation by the supernatural motive 
and the influence of grace, Kiefl 's 
strictures revealed this danger 
to everybody. Catholics should 
accustom themselves to regard 
Foerster not as a Catholic, but as 
that which he wishes to be and 
declares himself to be in his writ- 
ings. Though he discourses ever 
so beautifully on the pedagogic 
wisdom of the Catholic Church 
and on the Person of Jesus, he 
has no conception of the Church 
as the mystical body of Christ. 
Nevertheless he deserves great 
credit for doing more than any 
other recent non-Catholic writer 
to combat and to remove anti- 
Catholic prejudice. It is owing to 
his writings that many non-Cath- 
olics, in Germany and elsewhere, 
are devoting serious attention to 
the Catholic world-view, which 
they had been accustomed to dis- 
regard as obsolete. If we constant- 
ly keep in mind the differences 
that divide this eminent philos- 
opher and pedagogue from the 
Catholic Church, we can learn a 
great deal from him as to the 
most effective method of treating 
philosophical and pedagogical 
problems, and especially how to 
put the ancient truths of our 
religion into language which will 
appeal to the modern non-Catholic 
thinker. 

To see the good in others is not per- 
haps so much a matter of charity, as 
of justice. Our judgments of others fail 
oftenest through lack of perspicacity. 
We fail to see all the facts ; we see one 
or two very clearly, and at once form 
an opinion. To survey the whole range 
of a human character involves an in- 
tellectual and spiritual quality which 
few of us possess. There is so little 
justice among us because most of us 
possess too little intelligence. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



August 1 



A Meeting in Heaven 

By Charles J. Ql-irk, S.J. 

Weary and worn he had left the strife 

Of that long journey which men call life, 
And won at last the Hills of Prayer, 

Tranquil with beauty and truth every- 
where. 
And a.s he rested, unto his side, 

A lady approached froni the glorified, 
Smiling with love like only one other ; 

And he rushed to her arms with the cry 
of, "Alother I" 



The Folly of Keeping up the War 
Mentality 

The London Times lias not been 
able to rid itself of the war men- 
tality. It is still steeped in fear 
and hatred of Germany. With its 
satellite press it does all it can to 
keep alive suspicion and resent- 
ment. Every legitimate effort Ger- 
many makes to improve her condi- 
tion is interpreted in a sinister 
light. Every rumor that in one 
way or another she is evading the 
stipulations of Versailles is seized 
upon and stressed and scattered 
broadcast. The militarist declara- 
tions of the defeated army officers, 
sentiments which could easily be 
paralleled amongst the fighting 
men of every nation, are taken as 
a sign of her fixed determination 
to renew the fight in times to 
come. 

''All this," says the Jesuit 
Month (No. 696) editorially, '4s 
very short-sighted, not to say fool- 
ish and misguided. The Times and 
the belligerent press should real- 
ize that the war is over, and that 
peace cannot be enforced but must 
be freely accepted. The pretence 
that Germany alone was respon- 
sible for the war, that Germany 
alone committed atrocities, that 
every German is instinct with 
'Prussianism,' that the whole na- 
tion, including the women and the 
babies, was consciously guilty of 



unjust aggression, that the prin- 
ciples and conduct of the Allies 
were always and everywhere be- 
yond suspicion — all these assump- 
tions, that in greater or less de- 
gree inspire the anti-German jour- 
nalists, should be discarded once 
for all. 

"The war was the result of the 
rottenness of international moral- 
ity, the blind struggle for com- 
mercial advantages — even Genoa, 
one observer reports, 'stank with 
oil' — the unchecked competition in 
armaments, the denial of a com- 
mon world-interest in peace and 
harmony, the worship of force 
rather than of right and justice. 
We may grant that this evil phi- 
losophy was most highly devel- 
oped in Germany [fj, but all the 
great nations were more or less 
infected with it, and the only way 
to a cure is to get rid of it alto- 
gether. Unfortunately it dominat- 
ed Versailles, with the result that 
all attempts to restore peace in 
Europe have hitherto failed. ' ' 



Dr. Le Bee's Book on Lourdes 

How the Catholic literature on 
Lourdes impresses fair-minded 
Protestants may be seen from a 
notice which the renowned Lon- 
don S at II r day Revieiv (No. 3477) 
devotes to the English translation 
of Dr. E. Le Bee's book. This 
translation is by Dom H. E. Izard 
and bears the title, "Medical 
Proof of the Miraculous." 

Dr. Le Bee, says the critic, "as 
president of the Bureau des Con- 
statations attached to the shrine, 
in an atmosphere peculiarly un- 
favorable to dispassionate judg- 
ment, is pleading from the bar 
rather than summing up from the 
bench. Concerned to prove that 
such physical alleviations as few 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



285 



can deny have occurred at Lour- 
des, and are neither due, in mod- 
ern pliraseology, to auto- or mass- 
suggestion nor confined to what 
are familiarly knowai as functional 
or hysterical affections, he has 
divided his book into tw^o chief 
parts. In the first he briefly de- 
scribes the pathology of certain 
definitely organic disabilities, of 
which in the second he quotes 
examples as having been miracu- 
lously cured. Frequently couched 
in a curiously archaic terminology, 
much of his pathology seems 
frankly at variance with the ac- 
cepted views of most contempo- 
rary authorities. And none of his 
twelve examples is sufficiently 
documented to compel credence in 
the invited explanation. 

''While he makes a claim, too, 
for Lourdes of some 900,000 an- 
nual visitors, he has apparently 
been obliged to go back to the 
years 1875 and 1878 for tw^o of his 
selected instances — one the sud- 
den uniting of an obstinate frac- 
ture, the other the healing of an 
extensive ulcer. And of the twelve 
cases he has apparently had per- 
sonal knowledge of only three. Of 
these three, in only one does he 
record personal observations made 
immediately before and after the 
alleged cure at Lourdes. This w^as 
in a severe case of varicose veins 
observed in the year 1908, and it 
is certainly so remarkable, as it 
stands, as to compel surprise that 
of his 195 pages he should have 
devoted less than seven to it, and 
that he should have omitted the 
far fuller details obviously requi- 
site to the acceptance of a theory 
of miraculous intervention. 

"Not so easily, as his great and 
religious countryman, Louis Pas- 
tour, would have reminded him, is 
truth to bo apprehended, or being 



apprehended made impossible of 
denial by reasonable persons. But 
the cold light in which that devout 
mind tested the ardor of its imagi- 
native faith, and ultimately forged 
benefits for suffering human flesh 
surely not less than those confer- 
red at Lourdes, is a demand too 
great, perhaps, for present fulfil- 
ment at the Bureau of Constata- 
tions on the Gave. Dr. Le Bee may 
indeed have a case. Few^ w^ould be 
dogmatic enough to assert the con- 
trary. But it is not to be proved 
after the fashion he has attempt- 
ed, nor upon such testimony as 
that of his chosen witnesses." 

There are not a few Catholics 
who feel the full w^eight of these 
objections and who consequently 
wdsh that something more con- 
vincing were advanced by the 
champions of Lourdes than what 
has hitherto been published. 



A pocket encyclopedia 
of Franciscan lore 



Glories of the 
Franciscan Order 

By FR. FRANCIS BORGIA STECK 

Author of "Franciscans and the 
Protestant Revolution." 

This book of 80 pages re- 
counts the contributions of 
the Franciscans to litera- 
ture, art, science, and* dis- 
covery. The chief merit 
of the work is the great 
amount of information con- 
densed into such compact 
form. 

80 pages — Price 15 cents 




1433 
West 51st St. 
Chicago, III. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



Correspondence 

Concerning Liberty Bonds 

To the Editor: — 

The note on Liberty bonds in No. 14 
(page 269) of the F. R. is timely. 
When these bonds were sold, many 
citizens (especially of German descent 
or known to have sympathized with the 
German cause prior to America's entry 
into the World War) were fairly com- 
pelled to buy, regardless of their ability. 
I know several German priests who had 
to borrow the money to buy bonds in 
order to avoid violence to themselves. 
These bonds were sold by some at a 
loss of twenty-five per cent. Who 
profited by these transactions? Where 
is the money thus taken from the poor 
man's pocket? Will the robbers be fer- 
retted out and punished? It seems to 
me that the government should give this 
matter a thorough examination. The 
country is apparently on the verge of 
an abyss, and a tragedy is sure to hap- 
pen unless the masses regain confidence 
in our government. 

(Rev.) Raymond Vernimont 

Den toil. Texas 



Catholic Population Statistics 

To the Editor: — 

From time to time a discussion arises 
as to the number of Catholics in the 
United States, and the question is asked 
whether the increase of Catholics is in 
proportion to that of the general popu- 
lation. The question is a serious and 
a vital one. But what value can such 
a discussion have if based on the sta- 
tistics published in the Catholic Direc- 
tory when we find the Archdiocese of 
Boston, for example, giving to-dav the 
same figure of 900,000 for its Catholic 
population that it gave twelve years 
ago? To add to the absurdity, we find 
the Pilot, the "Official Organ" of the 
archdiocese, printing weekly at the 
head of its first page: "Archdiocese 
-of Boston. Catholic Population over 
1,000;000"! 

If the Boston parishes do as is done 
elsewhere and make a report each year 
of the number of their parishioners, it 



is hard to see why a fairly accurate 
total of the archdiocese could not be 
published every year. In any case if 
the "Official Organ" has inside infor- 
mation that the Catholic population of 
the Boston Archdiocese is over 1,000,- 
000, it seems curious that the Chancery 
Office would not have the same infor- 
mation and let the Church of America 
have the credit for the full population. 

V. 



Responsibility for the World War 

To the Editor: — 

Having been interested in your recent 
comments anent recent works on "the 
causes of the World War," I am en- 
closing a clipping from the Paris daily, 
La Croix. The section marked oflf in 
red ink will be interesting to your 
readers. 

Despite contributing my bit to "make 
the world safe for the Democrats," I 
have always contended that one side 
was about as guilty as the other. Both 
prepared for war and received what 
they were expecting. In the final 
analysis one will be pronounced almost, 
if not equallv guilty as the other. 

F. J. M. 

The clipping from La Croix quotes 
Gen. de Castelnau as saying in an inter- 
view with the Echo de Paris on the 
occasion of the assassination of Field 
Marshal Wilson: 

"L'assassinat du marechal Wilson m'affecte 
douloureusement ; ce n'est pas seulement la 
perte d'un camarade que je deplore, mais 
celle d'un tres fidele ami de la France; il 
le fut avant et pendant la guerre, aux bons 
comme aux mauvais jours. De ces senti- 
ments, une collaboration qui fut tres etroite 
m'en a donne I'absolue garantie. Des 1912, 
le marechal, alors general Wilson, etant 
chef du bureau des operations militaires a 
I'etat-major britannique, et moi-meme, pre- 
mier sous-chef a nctre etat-major general, 
nous eumes, en dehors de toute preoccupa- 
tion d'alliance, a etudier et a preparer les 
mesures de cooperation eventuelle des ar- 
mees franco-britanniques en cas de con- 
flit europeen." 

The man who is not content where 
he is would never have been content 
anywhere, though he might have liked 
it better. 



I92;i 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Notes and Gleanings 

It is with sincere pleasure that we 
chronicle the elevation to the episcopate 
of the Rev. Francis Giltillan, rector of 
the New Cathedral Parish, St. Louis, 
Mo. Fr. GilfiUan has been appointed 
coadjutor to the Bishop of St. Joseph, 
Mo., with the right of succession. 
Though he has rarely figured in the 
public prints, Fr. GilfiUan is one of the 
most scholarly and hardest working 
priests of this diocese. He is fifty years 
old, a native of Ireland, and an alumnus 
of the Catholic University of America. 
The Fortnightly Review has num- 
bered him among its subscribers and 
friends for a long time and hopes that 
the days of his episcopate will be many 
and signally blessed. 

We are glad to see from the Michi- 
gan Catholic (Vol. XXXVIII, No. 28) 
that the school amendment petition, 
which threatened the existence of the 
parochial schools in that State, has 
failed to receive a sufficient number of 
signatures and will therefore not be 
proposed to the voters at the com.ing 
fall election. This is a victory for the 
champions of educational liberty, com- 
ing only two years after 353,000 citizens 
of Michigan voted for a similar pro- 
posal. Nevertheless, the menace to the 
private and parochial schools of Mich- 
igan continues, since the advocates of 
the amendment are still at work and 
hope to bring up their proposal at the 
spring election. "Vigilance is the price 
of liberty," justly says our esteemed 
contemporary, "and while the bigots 
continue their attack, we must be ready 

for the defense." 

-•--•--•-■•■ 

France's co-responsibility for the 
World War seems clearly established by 
Gen. de Castelnau's utterance, quoted 
in the Correspondence department of 
this issue of the F. R. In addition, the 
Indiana Catholic of July 7 qviotes from 
a recent speech of Rene Viviani in the 
French Chamber of Deputies this pas- 
sage: "If anyone is responsible for the 
Avar, it is I. I was head of the govern- 
ment ; I took whatever action was 



taken, and I acted in perfect accord 
with M. Poincare [then president]. I 
was in touch with him and in agree- 
ment with him when he was in St. 
Petersburg." Our Indiana contemporary 
comments on this utterance as follows : 
"M. Viviani, the agent of the Franco- 
British money-changers, the foe of 
Christianity, now admits it was he who 
sent Poincare to see the Czar months 
before the war started. Then followed 
the war loan to the Czar, then the kill- 
ing of the Austrian prince by hired 
assassins, then the mobiHzation by the 
Czar, and then the war. No wonder 
the purchased press is trying to shut off 
the discussion. But it will go on." 
-••-•■-♦■-•- 
The standard Hebrew grammar, that 
of Gesenius, is from time to time re- 
edited and brought up to date by the 
best German Hebraists. The introduc- 
tion to the twenty-sixth edition (1896) 
still maintained that no kinship could 
be traced between the Indo-Germanic 
and the Semitic groups of languages. 
The twenty-ninth edition, of which 
Part I has just appeared, says that it 
has lately been shown that the two 
groups are probably akin in their ori- 
gins (un'erzvandt). Recent publications 
favorab^.e to this view are enumerated. 

When an alleged grammatical error 
in the terms of the four-power treaty 
was exhibited with considerable bom- 
bast in the U. S. Senate, the word 



Church Bazaars, Festivals, etc. 

Church Institutions have been buying our goods 
with perfect satisfaction for over thirty years. 
This is because we carry a large selection of 
merchandise especially suitable for such pur- 
poses at unusually low prices. 

Our Goods Assure Profits Be- 
cause They Are Useful, Attrac- 
tive and Appealing. 

Novelties. Silverware. Alumi- 
num Goods, Watches, Paddle 
Wheels, Games, etc. 
This large catalogue free to 
Clergymen and buying com- 
mittees. 

Ask for No. 97. 
See our advertisement in the 
OfRcial Catholic Directory, 
page Si. 

N. SHURE CO., Chicago 

Wholesale Merchandise 




THE FOETNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August ) 



■'between" having been employed, 
where, it was said, the word "among" 
should have been used, it might have 
been well if someone had taken the 
trouble to look up the disputed point 
in Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. 
Had this been done it would have been 
found that the word "between" in the 
particular instance quoted was at least 
as correct as would have been the word 
''among," for: "When used of more 
than two objects, it [the word "be- 
tween"] brings them severally and in- 
dividually into the relation expressed; 
as, a treaty between three powers." 

In the (Catholic World for July (p. 
536) a reviewer of the tirst volume of 
Fr, Felix M. Kirsch's English transla- 
tion of Willmann"s "Didaktik" (cfr. 
F. R., Vol. XXIX, No. 7, p. 136) shows 
how useful this work is as an antidote 
to the exaggerated Herbartism cham- 
pioned by many American educators. 
"Herbart," says the reviewer, "has ex- 
ercised a great influence on American 
education, and is chiefly responsible for 
its present sociological trend. This pro- 
cess of educational socialization, under 
the leadership of men like Professor 
Dewey, has reached such a pass that 
public education has now become a 
mere machine for turning out citizens. 
Willmann points out the defects in this 
theory. He accepts the necessity of a 
more highly developed social efficiency 
as one of the end results of the modern 
school, but very vigorously protests 
against making this the only result. 
Man is something more than a creature 
of the State. He has a soul ; he has 
religious, moral, and esthetic impulses 
which must be educated and satisfied. 
To ignore their existence is to bring 
disaster to the individual, and to the 
State as well." 

A note on recent bibliographical dis- 
coveries and events and a temperate 
comment on the passage of valuable 
Shakcspeariana to the United States 
ends the preface of the recently pub- 
lished, third and revised edition of Sir 
Sidnev Lee's standard "Life of W'illiam 



Shakespeare" (Murray). "It is narrow- 
minded," says Sir Sidney, "to grudge 
the transfer to the other side of the 
Atlantic of books that may well be 
regarded as heirlooms of all English- 
speaking peoples" ; but he would like 
to see it made compulsory that photo- 
graphs of unique books and manu- 
scripts should be deposited in English 
libraries before the originals left the 
country. 

Professor Stephen Leacock, the well- 
known Canadian author and humorist, 
gives his impressions of the English in 
his latest book, "My Discovery of Eng- 
land." We are particularly interested 
in what he says about Oxford. He in- 
quires about the lectures, and is assured 
by some that they are rotten, by others 
that nobody takes them, by a few that 
"they do you no harm." It is the col- 
lege-tutor, he is told, who really does 
the teaching; all the undergraduates 
agree on this, and one of them explains 
how it is done : "We go over to his 
room, and he just lights a pipe and 
talks to us." So the ingenuous Cana- 
dian, always with that ironic gleam in 
his eye which warns us that he is not 
as ingenuous as he seems, begins to 
discern the secret of Oxford : "Smoked 
at by his tutor, fed in Henry VIITs 
kitchen, and sleeping in a tangle of ivy, 
the student evidently gets something 
not easily obtained in America. And 
the more I reflect on the matter, the 
more I am convinced that it is the 
sleeping in the ivy that does it." 
-•■-•--•--•- 

On IMarch 1 we announced that Dr. 
"Nivard Schlogl's German translation 
of the New Testament had been placed 
on the Index of Forbidden Books. In 
doing so we predicted that Dr. Schlogl's 
translation of the Old Testament, too, 
of which we had received the first vol- 
ume for review, would be proscribed 
(F. R., Vol. XXIX, No. 5, p. 86). This 
has been done by a decree of the Holy 
Office, dated May 19, and printed in 
No. 10 of the official Acta Apostolicac 
Sedis. The reasons are not given in 
'either case, but one is safe in saying 
that the principal ones are Dr. Schlogl's 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



neglect of the Latin Vulgate, the official 
version of the Church, and the freedom 
with which he sets aside as spurious or 
doubtful many texts which the Church 
has always regarded as genuine. \\ e 
may repeat here what we said on a 
prevous occasion {loco citato) : "It is 
too bad that so much honest labor and 
profound erudition should go to waste ; 
but the Catholic Church has her inex- 
orable rules with regard to the text of 
S. Scripture, and the Schlogl incident 
once again proves that now, as before, 
she watches with never ceasing care 
over its integrity and over the transla- 
tions and versions through which it is 
made accessible to the faithful.'' 

The foolish charge about the '"immur- 
ing of nuns" has been given a new lease 
of life in England by the publication of 
a pamphlet on nunneries by an anti- 
Catholic society. Few people are wor- 
ried by these absurd allegations, which 
are rejected by every person who knows 
anything about convents, past and pres- 
ent. Happily there are not a sufficient 
number of gullible ninnies to justify 
another impression of the reprint from 
the Archaeological Journal of March, 
1894, of the learned article by Mr. Ed- 
ward Peacock, in which the question is 
examined from the unbiased standpoint 
of the archaeologist. Needless to say, 
the anti-Catholic charge is thoroughly 
demolished by Mr. Peacock. Father 
Thurston's C. T. S. Pamphlet, "The 
^^•.h'th of the Walled-up Nun," gives all 



the information which the ordinary 
Catholic apologist needs. 

In the Revue Ncoscolastique de Philo- 

sopliie, of Lou vain, edited by Prof. M. 

de W'ulf (1921, pp. 41 sqq.j, P. Mar- 

mignie defends the system of Proba- 

bilism in moral theology against the 

strictures of a recent probabiliorist, P. 

Janssens. P. Marmigme emphasizes the 

thought that it is not right to declare 

a more probable opinion to be nearer 

to the truth than a merely probable one, 

as long as the latter is solidly probable. 

St. Thomas, he says, was practically a 

tutiorist, like all of his contemporaries ; 

but his teaching is not opposed to 

Probabilism. 

-•--•--•-•♦- 

In the same review (1921, pp. 140 
sqq.) Prof. D. Nys discusses "the 
homogeneity of space.'" He says that 
the various systems of geometry are all 
of the same logical value. Experience 
tells us that space, as we know it, is 
Euclidic, and Euclidic space is homo- 
geneous in so far as in it the form of 
geometrical figures is independent of 
their magnitude. Space of four and 
more dimensions is a purely mathe- 
matical concept without real import- 
ance. 

"Daughters of the Nile" is the name 
of a new secret society consisting ex- 
clusively of wives, daughters, mothers, 
sisters, "^and widows of Shriners (/. e., 
members of the "Ancient Arabic Order 



eTDACCDCDfiCD CONSERVATORY OF 
I n AOODCIfa Clf MUSIC and EXPRESSION 

Three Schools 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Established 1886 

DIPLOMAS and 

GOLD iVIEDALS 

AWARDED 

CI rAUDETCMT TTAmrDC Faculty of International Reputation TERMS REASONABU: 
Ol tUnirtltWl iLAtnbKd students may Enroll at any Time CATALOGUE FREE 

Partial Scholarships and other free advantages ADDRESS: GRAND AND 

SPECIAL LOW TERMS TO BEGINNERS SHENANDOAH AVES 




290 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



August 1 



of the Aiystic Shrine"), who, in turn, 
are all Freemasons. The branches are 
called "temples." There are ten of 
them at the present time, mostly in the 
Northwest. Among the members of the 
"Daughters of the Nile" is Mrs. Warren 
G. Harding, the wife of President 
Harding. The "Supreme Queen" of 
the Order is Mrs. Edith E. Gattis, 317 
W. Blain Str., Seattle, Wash. A letter 
from her giving information about the 
"Daughters of the Nile" is printed in 
the July issue of the Masonic Builder, 
jmblished at Anamosa, Iowa. 

The Builder, bv the way, in the same 
issue (Vol. Vni, No. 7, p. 214) edi- 
torially admits that "universal Masonic 
support" is being given to the Sterling- 
Towner Bill. It does not tell us why 
the Masons are all in favor of this bill, 
but announces a "public school num- 
ber" for August, with contributions by 
a majority of the Grand Masters of the 
U. S. and articles by Brother Horace 
Towner, father of the Sterling-Towner 
Bill, Brother Samuel Gompers, and 
others. 

In Vol. XXXV, No. 2 of the Philo- 
sophisches Jahrbuch of the Gorres So- 
ciety, Msgr. C. Gutberlet devotes a 
brief necrologue to the late Msgr. Jo- 
seph Pohle, Ph.D., D.D., who was one 
of the founders and for many years 
co-editor of that scholarly periodical. 
Dr. Gutberlet brings out the interesting 
fact that Dr. Pohle accepted the profes- 
sorship in the Catholic University of 
America against the advice of his 
friend, Msgr. Hettinger, who said : 
"Wenn es sich um Geld handelt, sind 
die Amerikaner bei der Hand ; aber fiir 
eine Universitat bedarf es mehr." Dr. 
Pohle, he says, was a most lovable and 
conciliatory character, yet he could not 
get along at Washington and spoke bit- 
terly of conditions there upon his return 

to Europe. 

-••-••-••■•■ 

The average American reader will be 
surprised to learn from Msgr. Gutber- 
let's obituary that Dr. Pohle was not 
only a great theologian and a famous 
astronomer, but likewise an eminent 



philosopher. Indeed philosophy was his 
"first love," and one of the last things 
he promised to write was. a paper for 
the Philosophisches Jahrbuch on ",the 
infinitely small," a subject he had treat- 
ed years before in the same review. 

The Philosophisches Jahrbuch, which 
is one of the two or three leading 
Catholic philosophical magazines of the 
world, will be continued by the venera- 
ble Msgr. Gutberlet, with the assistance 
of Dr. A. DyrolT and Prof. E. Hart- 
mann. It is published quarterly at 
Fulda, under the auspices and with the 
aid of the Gorres Society for the Culti- 
vation of Scholarship in Catholic Ger- 
many, which also has members — unfor- 
tunately but too few — in the United 
States. 

No. 1 of the current volume of the 
Catholic Historical Review contains a 
pathetic reference, by the Rev. Dr. 
Peter Guilday, to "the untoward acci- 
dent in the old Borgo in Rome, which 
[last winter] resulted in the death of 
the gran maestro, Alfred Canon Cau- 
chie." Canon Cauchie was Louvain's 
great teacher of the historical sciences, 
and his place can hardly be taken by 
another. Fortunately, he "has left be- 
hind him as a legacy to the advancing 
interests of Catholic historical scholar- 
ship trained students in every part of 
the world." "The Church can well re- 
joice," concludes Dr. Guilday, "that in 
the work being done by Dr. Lamott, at 
the Seminary of Cincinnati, by Dr. 
Zwierlein, at Rochester, and by Father 
Busch, at St. Paul"— and, it is but , 
just to add, by Dr. Guilday him- 4 
self at the Catholic University of l 
America — "the Louvain ideal [of his- 
torical scholarship] is being given con- 
stant life and vigor." 

•»-•■-•--•- 

At the "Semaine des ficrivains 
Catholiques," held in Paris from June 
12 to 18, according to a report of the 
London Universe, of June 23, a discus- 
sion arose as to whether a Catholic 
newspaper can, with a clear conscience, 
publish a financial page. The general 
opinion was that it can not. It seems 



1922 



THE FORTNIGHTLY EEVIEW 



291 



THE SCHOOL FOR YOUR BOY 

Quincy College 

QUINCY, ILLINOIS 

CONDUCTED BY FRANCISCAN FATHERS 



All ideal boarding school, 
located in one of the most 
beautiful and healthful cities 
of the country. 



Recognized by the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction 
of the State and Accredited to 
the University of Illinois. 



C O U|R S^E S 

Commercial Academic Collegiate 

TERMS: EXTREMELY REASONABLE 
WRITE FOR CATALOGUE AND PROSPECTUS 



Conception College and Seminary 

An Ideal College Home. Location Ijeantiful 
and healthful. Large campus and shady walks. 
Complete College and High School courses. Mod- 
ern languages free. : Church Music a specialty. 



Board, Tuition, Lodging 



$310.00 a year 



For Catalogue address 

THE REV. RECTOR 

Conception, Mo. 




ST. LOUIS BELL FOUNDRY 

STUCKSTEDE BROS. 

2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 



Aujiust 1 



that La Croix, the well-known Paris 
daily, has forfeited large profits by 
refusing to print such a page. In this 
country the question has not yet be- 
come acute, as we have only one Cath- 
olic daily, and that is printed in a small 
city and circulates mostly among farm- 
ers. Were we to get a metropolitan 
Catholic daily press, the question of 
how to handle financial news and affairs 
would be one of its most difficult 
problems. 

At the same Congress of Catholic 
Writers, J\I. Martin Chauffier read a 
paper on the secularized novel. In the 
debate that followed, j\I. Henri Massis 
declared that the Catholic novel, as it 
should be written, does not yet exist : 
that Paul Bourget, for instance, in his 
■'Demon du Midi," does not present the 
psychology of a Catholic, but makes 
him yield to temptation in a manner as 
stereotyped and vulgar as the hero of 
any secular romance. This statement, 
according to the Universe's report, 
gave rise to a storm, and "the meeting 
broke up in a fine battle of words." 
There is undoubtedly a grain of truth 
in M. Massis's charge, and it applies to 
many English Catholic novels no less 
than to those of Bourget and other 
French writers. 



Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John EuGEne Weibel. V.F 
{57th Installment) 

It took us three days to pass the Azores, 
which are on a line 650 kilometres long, and 
we were so much in sight of these beautiful 
green mountainous isles that the time was 
considerably shortened. This trip back to 
Boston was as pleasant a vacation as I ever 
had. Whilst I had noticed almost nothing 
going to Europe, I now felt well and alert, 
and enjoyed myself immensely. 

On the 3rd of October the "Canopic" 
landed in Boston. There I was the guest of 
tlie Jesuit Fathers of Holy Trinity Church. 
From Boston I made a visit to Gloucester, 
to see my friend. Rev. F. Healy. In New 
York and Philadelphia I visited clerical 
friends, and then I was anxious to return to 
my beloved Jonesboro. 

On the 21 St Sunday after Pentecost I was 
back in Jonesboro and preached on the need 



of union and peace for the welfare and 
prosperity of every congregation. I had been 
informed that nationality quarrels had 
broken out and divided the parish into Irish 
and German camps, as they were called. The 
first Sunday service always being for the 
German parishioners in German, I told them 
that I felt ashamed of them after all I had 
told them, that they should, in so short a 
time, allow dissensions to arise. I declared 
that I would not and could not tolerate 
such things. After the service, they com- 
plained and remarked that, while I had been 
away, I had evidently gotten under the in- 
fluence of the Irish. At the second service, 
I made similar remarks to the English- 
speaking portion, and told them that I was 
the pastor of all my people and that lan- 
guage and nationality should make no dif- 
ference to us as Catholics. I pointed out in 
both sermons how the old republic of 
Switzerland was quietly ruling her varie- 
gated people — -Germans. French, Italians, 
and Latins. — and that all were united as 
patriotic citizens and brethren in Christ, as 
much as, if not more than, any other nation. 
The two factions, hearing one another re- 
primanded, patched up their quarrels, and 
I did not hear of any more trouble on that 
score. 

After my return, one of my first visits was 
to Hot Springs, to see Bishop Fitzgerald. 
He was very friendly and affable; but felt 
the misery of his position. He told me that 
we should not pray for him to live longer, 
for, he added, it is no life to be sitting all 
day near a window, unable to walk and to 
work. He inquired about the Higgins and 
McCabe families, the Masons and others in 
Jonesboro, in fact about every Catholic 
settlement in Northeast Arkansas. And as 
he could not recall some of the names, he 
complained about his failing memory. He 
told me that he thought at one time he knew 
every Catholic family in the diocese by 
name, and that he was acquainted personally 
with most of them. In fact, even in the 
"Irish Wilderness", over in Missouri, he 
knew almost every Catholic family. He had 
visited that settlement with Father O'Kean. 
*I could not but admire the wonderful mem- 
ory of the v