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Liorary in General 

370.6 N2777 1943 pt.2 cop 3 

Nat'l Soc. for the studv of H"~ 

370.6 N?77y 19*3 pt .2 cop 3 
Nat'l Soc. for the study of edu- 

Gift. 51-22788 

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Prepared "by the Society's Committee 



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No part of this Yearbook may be reproduced in any form without 
written permission from the Secretary of the Society 

The responsibilities of the Board of Directors of the Na- 
tional Society for the Study of Education in the case of year- 
books prepared by the Society 7 s committees are (1) to select the 
subjects to be investigated, (2) to appoint committees calculated 
in their personnel to ensure consideration of all significant 
points of view, (3) to provide appropriate subsidies for neces- 
sary expenses, (4) to publish and distribute the committees 3 
reports, and (5) to arrange for their discussion at the annual 

The responsibility of the Yearbook Editor is to prepare the 
submitted manuscripts for publication in accordance with the 
principles and regulations approved by the Board of Directors 
in the "Guide for Contributors." 

Neither the Board of Directors, nor the Yearbook Editor, 
nor the Society is responsible for the conclusions reached or the 
opinions expressed by the Society's yearbook committees. 

Published February, 1943 
First Printing, 3,500 Copies 

Printed by 

Chicago, Illinois 


Board of Directors 
(Term of office expires March 1 of the year indicated) 

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 

W. W. CHARTERS (1945) 
War Manpower Commission, Washington, D.C. 

University of California, Berkeley, California 

Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 

ERNEST HORN (1946)* 
State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

State Department of Education, Albany, New York 

RALPH W. TYLER, Chairman (1943) 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

NELSON B. HENRY (Ex-offido) 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

Secretary- Treasurer 
University ot Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

* Elected for three years beginning March 1, 1943. 


RALPH A. BEALS, Director University Libraries, University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois 

LEON CARNOVSKY, Associate Professor Library Science, University of 
Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

BESS GOODYKOONTZ, Assistant Commissioner of Education, United 
States Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 

WILLIAM S. GRAY, Professor of Education, University of Chicago, Chi- 
cago, Illinois 

B. LAMAR JOHNSON, Librarian and Dean of Instruction, Stephens Col- 
lege, Columbia, Missouri 

ANNA CLARK KENNEDY, Senior Supervisor of School Libraries, State 
Department of Education, Albany, New York 

Louis R. WILSON (Chairman), Dean Emeritus, Graduate Library School, 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

ELEANOR M. WITHER, Librarian, Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity, New York, New York 


JESSIE BOYD, Librarian, University High School, Oakland, California 

ALTHEA M. CURRIN, Associate Professor of Library Science, Carnegie 
Library School, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

PRUDENCE CUTRIGHT, Assistant 'Superintendent of Schools, Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota 

HAZEL DAVIS, Assistant Director of Research, National Education 
Association, Washington, D.C. 

RALPH M. DUNBAR, Chief, Division of Library Service, United States 
Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 



ANNE THAXTEK EATON, Librarian, Lincoln School, Teachers College, 
Columbia University, New York, New York 

RUTH M. ERSTED, Supervisor, School Libraries, Library Division, State 
Department of Education, St. Paul, Minnesota 

ETHEL M. FEAGLEY, Associate Librarian, Teachers College, Columbia 
University, New York, New York 

ROBERTA BISHOP FRETJND, Department of Library and Visual Aids, 
Board of Education, Newark, New Jersey 

HELEN A. GANSER, Librarian and Director of Library Training, State 
Teachers College, Millersville, Pennsylvania 

HELEN EAGLE GLANNON, Department of Library and Visual Aids, 
Board of Education, Newark, New Jersey 

HELEN HEFFERNAN, Chief, Division of Elementary Education, Cali- 
fornia State Department of Education, Sacramento, California 

FRANCES HENNE, Instructor, Graduate Library School, University of 
Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

MARGUERITE KIRK, Department of Library and Visual Aids, Board of 
Education, Newark, New Jersey 

EDITH A. LATHROP, Associate Specialist in School Libraries, United 
States Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 

WINIFRED B. LINDERMAN, Librarian, Garden City High School, Garden 
City, Long Island, New York 

ALICE LOHRER, Instructor of Library Science, University of Illinois, 

Urbana, Illinois 
EARL K. PECKHAM, Supervisor of Instruction, Minneapolis, Minnesota 

G. H. REAVIS, Assistant Superintendent, Cincinnati Public Schools, 

Cincinnati, Ohio 
EDWARD TWINING SCHOFIELD, Department of Library and Visual Aids, 

Board of Education, Newark, New Jersey 

Louis SHORES, Director, Library School, George Peabody College for 
Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee 

FRANCES L. SPAIN, Assistant Professor of Library Science, Winthrop 
College, Rock Hill, South Carolina 

ESTHER STALLMANN, Head, Department of Librarianship, State College 
for Teachers, Albany, New York 


Plans for this Yearbook, The Library in General Education, were 
initiated at a meeting of the Board of Directors in May, 1940. The sug- 
gestion that a yearbook be devoted to the subject of the library was 
offered by several members of the Society in response to an inquiry by 
Miss Goodykoontz, Chairman of the Board of Directors, in 1939. At the 
request of Miss Goodykoontz, Mr. Ralph M. Dunbar, Chief of the Li- 
brary Service Division of the United States Office of Education, ap- 
peared before the Board to discuss the values of the proposed yearbook. 
Mr. Dunbar presented an outline which had been developed by a com- 
mittee of librarians of which Louis R. Wilson, Dean of the Graduate Li- 
brary School of the University of Chicago, was the chairman. This out- 
line dealt with such topics as the functions of the library in formal edu- 
cation, the public library as an agency of informal education, the pro- 
fessional aspects of library service, and the housing and equipment requi- 
site to effective library use. 

The discussion of this outline by members of the Board led to the con- 
clusion that a desirable yearbook might be developed with emphasis 
upon the role of the library as an integral part of the educational sys- 
tem. Accordingly, Dean Wilson was invited to prepare the outline of 
such a yearbook for the further consideration of the Board. Dean Wil- 
son's suggestions received the favorable consideration of the Board at its 
meeting in November and an appropriation was authorized to meet the 
expenses of a conference to complete arrangements for the preparation 
of a yearbook on the library in relation to education to be published in 

Taking advantage of the meeting in Chicago of the American Library 
Association on December 30, Dean Wilson assembled a number of 
prominent librarians and educators for discussion of the plan and prob- 
lems of the yearbook. A second conference was held in Chicago on 
January 19, 1941, at which time the scope and organization of the year- 
book were considered by a preliminary committee composed of repre- 
sentatives of several library agencies and members of the faculties of 
three higher institutions. The criticisms and suggestions of this com- 
mittee were embodied in a revised outline entitled "The Library in Rela- 



tion to General Education," which was presented to the Board at Atlantic 
City in February. An appropriation of $1,200 was then authorized for 
the preparation of the yearbook and Dean Wilson was instructed to 
organize the yearbook committee in accordance with the suggestions 
offered by the preliminary committee and approved by the Board. 

Recognition of the need for the present yearbook may be ascribed to 
the concern of teachers and librarians alike for continuing improvement 
in the effectiveness with which library service contributes to the progress 
of education generally. Changes in the structure and methodology of 
formal education since 1900 have so markedly accentuated the values of 
library use that the traditional idea of the library as an adjunct of the 
school has been displaced by the concept of library service as a functional 
aspect of institutional training. Similarly, the purposes and procedures 
of non-school libraries have been subjected to review in terms of the 
broadening interests and needs of adults in this period of rapid social 
change. It is a significant fact for general education that the developing 
demands upon both school and community libraries have tended to 
magnify the importance of library use as a continuing influence in pro- 
moting the cultural, vocational, and recreational interests of all age 
groups. It is also significant that the expanding services of libraries 
within the schools have sometimes been met only in part by normal 
additions to school facilities and in part by co-operative arrangements 
with the separate libraries, public or private, serving the same communi- 
ties. In other situations the school plant has afforded the only ready 
means whereby the community libraries could meet the demand for 
wider distribution of their services on behalf of adults and out-of- 
school youth. Thus, experimentally, the library requirements of both the 
more and the less formal phases of general education in the community 
sense are being provided by both school and non-school agencies without 
restrictions upon the population groups to be served. In order that the 
role of library service may be more clearly defined and that the means of 
properly implementing this service may be better understood, the com- 
mittee presents this report of its thoroughgoing study of The Library in 
General Education. 





TION iv 





Loins R. WILSON 

I. Purpose of the Yearbook 3 

II. Scope and Organization of the Yearbook ... 4 

III. Significant Trends in Library Service in General Ed- 
ucation 6 

IV. Problems in Library Development 8 

V. Relation of the Library to the Objectives of General 

Education 11 





I. Implications of Recent Social Changes .... 16 

II. Significant Changes in Schools 20 

III. Changes in Prevailing Concepts of the Nature and 
Function of Reading 27 






I. Introduction 35 

II. Classroom Libraries Provide Materials for Elemen- 
tary-School Students 35 

III. Teachers Use the Library Extensively .... 38 

IV. Pupils Use the Library as a Materials Laboratory . 40 
V. The Librarian Guides the Reading of Students . . 43 

VL The School Library Is a Socializing Agency . . 46 

VII. The Librarian Works with Pupils as Individuals . 50 

VIII. Summary 52 



I. Many Questions Arise in the School Library . . 54 

II. Librarian and Teachers Plan for Library Use . . 57 

III. Widespread Activities Fill a Library Day ... 62 

IV. The Library Contributes to Pupil Growth ... 64 
V. The School's Philosophy Shapes the Library . . 70 

VI. Conclusion 75 



I. Virginia, Minnesota, Junior College Library . . 79 

II. New Mexico Military Institute Library .... 82 

III. The Library of Los Angeles City College ... 86 

IV. Menlo School and Junior College Library ... 89 
V. Stephens College Library 92 

VI. Glimpses at Several Libraries 95 

VII. Trends in Junior-College Libraries 97 

TION 99 


I. Public Library Services to School Children and 

Youth in Out-of-School Hours 100 



II. Public Library Services to Out-of-School Youth . 105 

III. Public Library Services to Adult Education . . 106 




I. Why and How Do Pupils Use the Library? ... 115 

II. What Are the Things Pupils Need To Know? . . 124 

III. What Part Do Pupils Play in Supplying Library 
Service? 128 

IV. How Can Library Service Be Evaluated in Terms of 
Pupil Behavior? 129, 



I. Planning Learning Experiences A Joint Enterprise 133 

II. The Teacher Keeps Informed 135 

III. Teaching the Use of the Library 135 

IV. Partners in the Guidance of Free Reading . . . 136 
V. Expression Must Follow Impression 137 

VI. Co-operative Action on Curriculum Committees . 138 

VII. Modern Techniques in Book Selection .... 138 

VIII. Laboratories for Practical Democracy .... 139 

IX. Conclusion 140 



I. Relationship to the School as a Whole .... 142 

II. Relationship to the Teachers 143 

III. Relationship to Pupils 145 

IV. The Librarian in Relation to Agencies Other than the 
School 148 

V. Relationship to the Administration 150 

VI. Conclusion 151 






I. Introduction 152 

II. The Superintendent and the School Library . . . 153 

III. The Principal and the School Library .... 158 

IV. Conclusion 162 



I. The Kinds of Books in a School Library . . , 166 

II. General Principles of Selection 171 

III. A Clearinghouse for Book Selection 173 



I. Introduction 176 

II. Audio-visual Aids 176 

III. Newspapers, Periodicals, and Pamphlets . . . 212 

IV. Conclusions 214 






I. Governmental Forces Controlling School-Library 

Service (Stallmann) 221 

II. Co-operative Relationships between Schools and 

Public Libraries (Davis) 226 

III. Organization of School-Library Service in Rural 
Areas (Ersted) 233 

IV. State Supervision, State Aid, and Certification (Dun- 
bar and Lathrop) 241 





I. Introduction 252 

II. Physical Aspects of the School Library .... 253 

III. Administrative Aspects of the School Library . . 261 

IV. Summary 267 



I. Introduction 269 

II. Brief History of School-Library Standards . . . 270 

III. Main Provisions of Existing School-Library Stand- 
ards 274 

IV. Trends in the Development of Standards .... 286 
V. Difficulties in Applying School-Library Standards . 287 

VI. Some Results of School-Library Standards . . . 289 





I. Pupils (Boyd) 295 

II. Teachers (Feagley) 301 

III. Teacher-Librarians (Ganser) 311 

IV. School Librarians (Shores) 315 

V. Principals and Superintendents (Lohrer) . . . 325 




I. Introduction 333 

II. The Program of Evaluation .334 

III. Basic Factors Affecting All Evaluations of School 

Libraries 335 



IV. The Application and the Interpretation of Standards 336 
V. The Library's Participation in the Achievement of 

the School's Objectives 338 

VI. Library Records in Relation to Evaluation . . . 342 

VII. Summary 347 



I. Introduction 350 

II. Government and Administrative Authority . . . 351 

III. Internal Management 352 

IV. Use of the Library 355 

V. Conclusion 359 



INDEX 379 










Louis R. WILSON 

Dean Emeritus of the Graduate Library School 

University of Chicago 

Chicago, Illinois 

Justification for the publication of a Yearbook on the library in rela- 
tion to general education rests upon two significant facts: changes have 
taken place in American life since 1900 which have profoundly modified 
the pattern of modern education; these changes have placed upon ele- 
mentary and secondary schools, junior and liberal-arts colleges, teachers 
colleges and other institutions engaged in the training of teachers, and 
school, college, university, and public libraries the responsibility of re- 
considering library service in general education and putting it to more 
effective use in the attainment of the educational objectives of a demo- 
cratic society. 


The purpose of the Yearbook grows logically out of this situation. 
The library, in its varied forms, has been established and supported as 
one of America's important educational agencies. As such, it should be 
responsive to the educational demands which society imposes upon it. 
Consequently, the Yearbook has been prepared to assist teachers and li- 
brarians in integrating library service more effectively in formal and in- 
formal education. Stated differently, it has been prepared to answer 
specifically such questions as the following: 

1. What implications of recent social changes, related educational de- 
velopments, and increasing understanding of pupil growth and develop- 
ment aid in defining the nature of library services in general education? 

2. In the light of the foregoing analysis, (a) what are the most f orward-* 
looking concepts of library service in general education that may be 
adopted as a basis for constructive effort in the immediate future? (6) 
what are the basic principles that may serve as guides in the provision, 
organization, and use of library service? 



3. What are the distinctive functions of library service at various lev- 
els of general education for (a) school youth, (6) out-of-school youth, and 
(c) adults? 

4. What are the factors and conditions that should be considered in 
efforts to solve such basic problems as (a) the role of the library in the 
field of communication with special reference to the radio, the motion pic- 
ture, and various media of learning other than books; (6) the relationship 
of the library to various activities of the school and to the reading pro- 
gram as a whole; (c) the techniques that may be developed for encourag- 
ing the intelligent use of various aids to learning provided through li- 
braries and the disposition to use them? 

5. What is being done and what should be done by the school board, 
the school administrator, the teacher, and the librarian (public and 
school) to apply these principles and to instrument these functions in the 
solution of perplexing issues in a co-ordinated library program? 

6. What are the facilities, material as well as human, requisite to effi- 
cient library service? 

7. What are the principal ways in which library services for general 
education may be organized through school libraries and through city, 
county, and state libraries? 

8. What standards and techniques have been established and what 
additional ones are needed for evaluating the efficiency of library services 
in the light of their objectives? 

9. What is being done and what should be done (through preprofes- 
sional and in-service training) to train the school board, the school admin- 
istrator, the teacher, and the librarian to assume their appropriate indi- 
vidual and group responsibilities for instrumenting these functions? 

10. What further research is necessary to increase the effectiveness of 
library service in the attainment of the objectives of general education? 


The scope of the Yearbook has been determined largely by the fore- 
going questions. It has, however, been affected by three major considera- 
tions. First of all, the Yearbook has centered attention upon the library 
in the field of general education as contrasted with other types of tech- 
nical, professional, and graduate education. No attempt has been made 
to deal extensively with libraries other than those connected with ele- 
mentary and secondary schools and junior colleges; with libraries of 
teachers colleges, liberal-arts colleges, and universities which train teach- 


ers and library personnel; and with, public libraries in their relation to 
schools, out-of-school youth, and adults engaged in certain aspects of 
adult education. 

In the second place, the Yearbook has been developed primarily for the 
clientele of the National Society for the Study of Education and of vari- 
ous library organizations. It has been prepared for school administrators 
at all levels of general education; faculties in teachers colleges and pro- 
fessors of education in colleges and universities; teachers in training; 
teachers in service; teachers and students in library schools; public li- 
brarians; school, college, and university librarians; and adult-education 

The library in its various forms has contributed to preparation for de- 
fense and in carrying on the war effort of the nation. It has supplied 
materials for use in vocational guidance, for training and retraining in 
specific occupations, for informing the public concerning all phases of 
civilian defense, and for maintaining public morale. Its performance in 
all of these areas has, in many instances, been significant. References to 
these aspects of library service have been made in many sections of the 
Yearbook, but no effort has been made to emphasize such service specifi- 

The materials in the Yearbook have been presented in several sections 
and have been prepared by teachers and librarians representing many 
phases of education and librarianship. Section I, The Library as a Vital 
Agency in Education, places library service in the pattern of modern life. 
Section II, The Library in Action, presents examples of present-day li- 
brary service in elementary and secondary schools, in junior colleges, and 
in public libraries. Section III, The School Personnel and Library Serv- 
ice, is concerned with the role of the pupil, librarian, teacher, and admin- 
istrator in the effective use of the library. Section IV, The Nature and 
Selection of Materials, deals with the selection, acquisition, organization, 
and methods of using materials. Section V, Machinery for Implementing 
Library Service, discusses governmental control, internal administration, 
and standards of performance applicable to library service. Section VI, 
Preparation of the Staff for Effective Service, describes the training of 
teachers, teacher-librarians, school librarians, and principals and super- 
intendents necessary to insure effective integration of library service and 
instruction. Section VII, Evaluation and Research, deals with the most 
recent methods of evaluating service in terms of educational objectives 
and points out problems for future research in the field. 



In the course of the preparation of the Yearbook certain trends in li- 
brary service in general education have been noted which, if continued 
and properly directed, give promise of greatly increasing the usefulness of 
libraries as educational agencies in the future. Four of these merit special 

1. The concept of the library in formal education, particularly at the 
levels of the elementary and secondary school, has undergone significant 
change. This change is evident in many ways and affects the entire edu- 
cational program. Books are considered as means of extending experi- 
ence and as aids to thinking rather than solely as sources of information. 
The library is thought of as a functional unit of the school or of society 
rather than as a place or as a collection of books. Library materials are 
conceived of as materials of instruction and not merely as books or peri- 
odicals, and they include many new aids to learning such as pamphlets, 
maps, globes, pictures, slides, films, and sound recordings. The function 
of the librarian has likewise been differently conceived. The librarian, 
who formerly was frequently thought of as a technician or administrator 
concerned primarily with library housekeeping, is more frequently con- 
sidered a member of the staff responsive to the interests of administrator, 
teacher, pupil, or other colleague or patron, and qualified to participate 
fully in the planning and accomplishment of the educational purposes of 
the school and of the community. Utilization of the library personnel and 
resources in the instruction of pupils in the use of library materials, in 
curriculum revision and planning, and in constant collaboration with 
teachers and administrators in defining and carrying out the objectives 
of the school has contributed greatly to the effectiveness of the educa- 
tional program. 

2. The importance of training designed to fit all members of the school 
staff for more meaningful use of library materials in educational situa- 
tions has gained recognition in a steadily increasing number of instances. 
Formerly only the librarian was supposed to receive training relating to 
library use, and this was primarily concerned with the technical and ad- 
ministrative aspects of librarianship. It was only slightly related to the 
objectives of the educational program. Today the training of the school 
librarian includes professional courses in educational psychology, educa- 
tional guidance, tests and measurements, curriculum construction, and 
other educational subjects, as well as courses in literature for children and 


adolescents, book selection, reference work, and the technical aspects of 
administration. The librarian, like the teacher, is expected to know the 
educational objectives of the school and how to work co-operatively with 
pupils and staff in their attainment. 

Fortunately, this new trend affects other members of the school staff. 
While teachers and administrators are not required to pursue professional 
courses in librarianship, they are made library-conscious by means of 
courses in children's literature, adolescent reading, materials for use in 
instruction, and school administration; through practice teaching in- 
volving the use of the practice- or laboratory-school library; through 
summer workshops; and through the growing body of literature dealing 
with the library and the school. 

In junior colleges, in teachers' colleges, and in the lower divisions of 
liberal-arts colleges and universities, effort is also frequently made to 
bring the combined abilities of library and instructional staffs to bear 
upon the effective integration of library service and instruction. The 
movement in this area of teaching has not been so extensively developed 
as is desirable on account of the preoccupation of graduate schools with 
methods and materials for research rather than with methods and mate- 
rials which prospective college teachers will employ in survey and other 
courses for Freshmen, Sophomores, and other Undergraduates. The 
movement, nevertheless, has made definite progress during the past dec- 
ade through seminars and workshops on the college library, through li- 
brary councils, through speech, reading, and writing laboratories, and 
through college surveys which have given special consideration to the 
improvement of instruction at the college level through library use. 

In the public library field similar attention is given to the training of 
the members of the staff who are concerned with work with children and 
youth, both in and out of school, and with educational advisory service 
to adults. The departmentation of public libraries on the basis of service 
to different groups or of subject specialization has grown out of the con- 
viction of librarians that service of educational significance can be fur- 
nished only through staff members who are aware of the educational im- 
plications of the demands which their patrons make of them and of the 
means by which library personnel and materials may best serve educa- 
tional ends. 

3. The 1920's and 1930 7 s witnessed the development and steady appli- 
cation of standards to school-library performance. In the two decades 
quantitative regulations gave place to qualitative, and qualitative are 


now being supplemented by criteria by which the service or use of the li- 
brary may be evaluated in terms of pupil behavior and the achievement 
of educational objectives. All three types of evaluation have emphasized 
the importance of (a) adequate collections of material to support the cur- 
riculum and to provide for free reading by pupils; (6) proper rooms and 
equipment to insure easy access to materials and library personnel; (c) 
provision in the school budget for the maintenance of materials and the 
operation of the library; (d) formal or integrated programs of instruction 
for students in the use of materials; and (e) library personnel competent 
to organize and direct service in accord with the concepts of the modern 

4. The great advance which has been made in American education in 
the past four decades may be attributed in large measure to the applica- 
tion of the results of scientific investigation to educational concepts and 
procedures. The role of the library in general education has only recently 
been subjected to this kind of treatment. Fortunately library schools 
have, within the past decade, begun to develop programs of research in 
this field, and departments of education, which formerly largely over- 
looked this area of education as a field for investigation, have begun to 
give it serious consideration. 1 


The preparation, of the Yearbook has not only revealed certain impor- 
tant trends of library development but has also revealed certain prob- 
lems, the solution of which should be vigorously sought. Five such prob- 
lems may be mentioned. 

1. The first is in the field of the elementary school. Library service in 
elementary schools has lagged far behind that in secondary schools. 
Brown, 2 in his study of methods of supplying library service to public ele- 
mentary schools in cities of over 10,000 population, found that, while 
many cities have provided excellent service through various means, 70 
per cent of the personnel employed in the administration of the service 
are "teachers without professional training, clerks, students, and par- 

1 One hundred and two studies are summarized under the title "The Library in 
Education," by Helen L. Butler in the Review of Educational Research, XII (June, 
1942), 323-35. 

2 H. W. Brown, A Study of Methods and Practices in Supplying Library Service to 
Public Elementary Schools in the United States. Philadelphia: University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1941. 


ents." In rural areas service is usually even less well developed or may be 
largely lacking. 

2. The second problem is closely related to the first. It is the provision 
of library service, both public and school, for rural areas. Although the 
State of New York enacted legislation concerning the financial support of 
libraries more than a century ago and provided funds for their mainte- 
nance, minimum attention has been given to the provision of library serv- 
ice for the rural areas of the nation. These are the areas in which the 
number of children per one thousand adults is usually greatest and where 
one- and two-room schoolhouses are most in evidence. Of the 35,447,515 
inhabitants of the United States who were not served by public libraries 
in 1941, 32,569,745 lived in rural areas. However, new methods of pro- 
viding public library service in such areas have been developed since 1935 
when 40,000,000 rural inhabitants were without such service. Provision 
of state aid, consolidations effected through county and regional libraries, 
and service made available through the W.P.A. have contributed to the 
reduction of this number and have brought into being new patterns of 
library organization and administration which, if more generally and in- 
tensively applied, would go far toward solving the problem. Greater use 
by teachers and rural communities of the library facilities which are avail- 
able to them through city, county, and regional libraries, through state 
departments of education and state library agencies, and through agri- 
cultural and university extension divisions would likewise contribute to 
the solution of the problem. 

3. From the chapters of the Yearbook which deal with the library in 
action in elementary and secondary schools, little intimation is given that 
library service to Negroes is very limited in those states in which separa- 
tion of races in schools and libraries is required by statute. Disparity in 
teachers' salaries and in the amount spent per capita for school purposes 
for whites and Negroes has long been recognized, but it has not been em- 
phasized that library service to Negroes is much more limited than are 
other educational opportunities. The provision of public schools is man- 
datory; that of public libraries, permissive only. Of the 774 public li- 
braries in the South which supplied service to whites in 1939, only 99 sup- 
plied service to Negroes. 3 Information concerning library service to Ne- 
groes in southern schools is largely lacking, but where it is available it 

3 Eliza Atkins Gleason, The Southern Negro and the Public "Library -, p. 90. Chicago : 
University of Chicago Press, 1941. 


shows conclusively that the benefits of school and public libraries have 
largely been unrealized by Negroes in the South. 

4. Exact data concerning the library resources of the nation are gener- 
ally too incompletely reported to serve as the basis for effective study of 
library problems. The United States Office of Education has collected and 
published data concerning libraries since 1870, but it has experienced great 
difficulty in securing complete information concerning comparable groups 
of libraries over a period of years. Of the approximately 250,000 schools 
in the nation in 1934-35, slightly less than 50 per cent submitted re- 
ports concerning their libraries. In the compilation of data concerning in- 
stitutions of higher education in 1937-38, only 1462 of the approximate- 
ly 1700 colleges and universities supplied data concerning their libraries. 
Furthermore, many reports of state departments of education and of city 
and county school systems are not sufficiently broken down to give exact 
information concerning library personnel, expenditures, book stock, use, 
and other aspects of library service. If library service is to be subjected 
to the careful analysis essential to significant generalization, more exact 
methods of library reporting and measurement will have to be devised 
and applied. 

5. Mention was made in the discussion of significant trends of the in- 
creasing emphasis being placed upon the training of all members of the 
staff of the modern school in order to insure maximum functional use of 
the library in the attainment of the school's educational objectives. While 
this development may very well be considered as a significant trend, it 
also constitutes a major problem in educational efficiency. It has been 
repeatedly made evident in the preparation of the Yearbook that the 
kind of understanding and co-operation of the staff which results in use of 
the library that is educationally significant is not nearly so general as it 
should be. > 

The reasons for this are obvious. The public school and the public li- 
brary have developed as separate institutions in the United States. Li- 
brarians and teachers are usually trained by different departments in 
colleges and universities. They read different bodies of professional liter- 
ature, and, too frequently, both groups have thought of the library in 
terms of its administration rather than of its use as an educational instru- 
ment. Standards for school libraries at first emphasized the administra- 
tive and technical aspects of library service. Later they stressed the ac- 
quisition of skills in the use of library tools and materials, and only re- 
cently have they been formulated in terms of resulting student behavior 


and the attainment of educational objectives. Courses offered in teacher- 
training institutions dealing with school administration and educational 
publications treating of the same subject have been singularly deficient 
in the presentation of this latter aspect of the library's function. And, 
even in this day of the laboratory-school and the practice-school library, 
of the educational workshop, of the constantly revised curriculum, and 
of the nation-wide studies in teacher education, the co-operation of teach- 
ers and librarians at the elementary- and secondary-school levels has not 
been emphasized in these enterprises, all of which should be of a co-opera- 
tive nature. While progress has been made in all of these respects, it has 
not gone as far as it should, because it is through understanding and co- 
operation in this area that a new major advance in elementary and sec- 
ondary education may be effected. 


The fundamental purpose of the library in education is to help attain 
the objectives of the educational program. The library is an integral part 
of the program; it cannot be set aside as a supplement to other educa- 
tional functions and activities. Accordingly, the objectives of the library 
are actually identical with those of the educational program. This state- 
ment is true whether the library serves a professional college, a technical 
school, an elementary school, a junior college, or out-of-school youth. 
Since, however, this volume is concerned primarily with general educa- 
tion, we may expect the contributions of the library here considered to be 
pointed toward the objectives of general education. 

During the past quarter of a century the statement of educational 
goals which has perhaps been most frequently quoted is the one prepared 
by the Commission on Reorganization of Secondary Education of the Na- 
tional Education Association the so-called "seven cardinal principles of 
education." These seven goals are: (1) health, (2) command of the fun- 
damental processes, (3) worthy home membership, (4) vocation, (5) citi- 
zenship, (6) worthy use of leisure, and (7) ethical character. 4 

A more recent classification of educational objectives is that adopted 
by the Educational Policies Commission as it considered the aims of 
education in American democracy. The commission identified four as- 

4 United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, Cardinal 
Principles of Secondary Education. Bulletin of the Bureau of Education No. 35, 
1918. Washington: Government Printing Office,, 1918. 


pects of educational purpose: objectives centering around the person 
himself; his relationship to others in home and community; the creation 
and use of material wealth; and socio-civic activities. The first area calls 
for a description of the educated person; the second, for a description of 
the educated member of the family and community group; the third, of the 
educated producer or consumer; the fourth, of the educated citizen. The 
four great groups of objectives thus defined are: 

1. The objectives of self-realization 

2. The objectives of human relationship 

3. The objectives of economic efficiency 

4. The objectives of civic responsibility 5 

One of the first tasks of the staff of the Eight- Year Study of the Pro- 
gressive Education Association was to discover the purposes of the thirty 
co-operating schools. It was found that the schools were concerned with 
ten major types of objectives: 

1. The development of effective methods of thinking 

2. The cultivation of useful work habits and study skills 

3. The inculcation of social attitudes 

4. The acquisition of a wide range of significant interests 

5. The development of increased appreciation of music, art, literature, and other 
aesthetic experience 

6. The development of social sensitivity 

7. The development of better personal-social adjustment 

8. The acquisition of important information 

9. The development of physical health 

10. The development of a consistent philosophy of life 6 

It is obvious that there are many common elements in the three fore- 
going statements; but regardless of the specific formulation most clearly 
applicable in any educational program, the library has a vital role to play 
in its realization. The provision of materials to implement the program 
is perhaps its most important contribution, but in addition it may be held 
responsible in a peculiar sense for at least two objectives : first, to develop 
in pupils those attitudes and habits of study which lead to the continuous 
use of such tools of learning as the library can provide; and, second, to de- 
velop in pupils the ability to use such tools effectively. The acceptance of 
these two objectives conflicts in no way with the identification of the 
goals of general education with those of the library. Actually these two 
purposes contribute directly to the goals of general education. 

6 Educational Policies Commission, The Purposes of Education in American Democ- 
racy, p. 47. Washington: National Education Association, 1938. 

6 Wilford M. Aikin, The Story of the Eight-Year Study, pp. 89-90. New York: 
Harper & Bros., 1942. 





Professor of Education 

University of Chicago 

Chicago, Illinois 

A basic assumption underlying this Yearbook is that the school library 
at any level of general education is a vital element in the educational 
process, deriving its objectives from the society, the community, and the 
institution that it serves. It is assumed also that modifications in school 
curriculums made in response to social changes and to the controlling 
philosophy of the school will be reflected in the character of the library 
materials provided and in their administration and use. 

The need at this time for a yearbook on the school library grows out of 
the fact that notable changes in American life have taken place during 
the last two decades. These changes have greatly affected the demands 
made on individuals, created vital social, economic, and political prob- 
lems, radically modified the nature and scope of the education needed by 
all citizens, and notably increased the responsibilities of all agencies con- 
cerned with the education of children and adults. Some of these effects 
are temporary in character; others are permanent and call for radical re- 
adjustments in the scope and character of the services rendered by dif- 
ferent social institutions. As a result, vigorous effort is now being made 
by schools and other agencies to determine how they can help individuals 
and groups to meet intelligently the numerous demands made upon them. 

In response to these developments school-library service has greatly 
expanded during the last decade. The rapid increase in the number of 
libraries and in the types of service rendered provides striking evidence of 
their growth. Of special significance is their increasing effectiveness in 
enriching the lives of children and in promoting their growth and de- 
velopment. The fact is widely recognized, however, that the concept of 
the school library in many communities and the character of its services 



lag far behind current needs. Furthermore, a surprisingly large propor- 
tion of schools are still without adequate library facilities. It is both 
timely and urgent, therefore, that a thorough and penetrating study be 
made of the role of the library in general education and of the methods 
by which its efficiency can be greatly increased. As a first step in such a 
project, this chapter points out important implications for school libraries 
of recent social and educational developments and of the broader concep- 
tion of reading that has developed during the last two decades. 


In their illuminating survey of Middletown in the late twenties the 
Lynds secured striking evidence that American life was in transition. 
The number and rapidity of the changes that have occurred since their 
study has been greatly accelerated by the depression of 1929, by numer- 
ous industrial and political developments during the thirties, and by the 
entrance of the United States into the World War in 1941. These changes 
have created serious personal and social problems, have required many 
readjustments in occupational pursuits and in standards of living, have 
often developed a feeling of insecurity with resulting anxieties, and have 
caused many individuals to reshape their patterns of living. 

1. Wide Information Required to Meet Personal Needs 

As a result of the various changes that have occurred, the demand for 
wide information and clear understanding has increased rapidly. To aid 
in solving their problems, young people and adults representing every 
class in society have made extensive use during recent years of different 
sources of information such as the radio, movies, public forums, libraries, 
and print of all types. Studies of the extent of this trend and of the value 
inherent in it have led to at least two significant conclusions: the first is 
that the wide use of various agencies of communication is essential in 
maintaining an informed, efficient and well-balanced citizenry; the sec- 
ond is that a surprisingly large proportion of our adult population is not 
prepared to use to advantage the various sources of information that are 
now available. Furthermore, Lazarsfeld's recent study of radio and 
print 1 shows clearly that adults all too frequently have neither the inter- 
est nor the disposition to use print, or even the radio, in the study of the 
more serious issues faced today. Such findings raise vital questions con- 

1 Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Radio and Print. New York: Duell, Sloan, & Pearce, 1940. 

GRAY 17 

cerning the basic functions which schools should render in a democracy. 
They also justify the conclusion that the boys and girls of this generation 
should acquire far broader interests and much greater efficiency in the 
use of the library and other sources of information than has been true 
generally in the past. 

2. Penetrating Insight Necessary Concerning Social Issues 

The importance of wide information and penetrating insight is further 
emphasized by the problems that grow out of vital changes in the struc- 
ture and processes of society. During recent years, for example, life has 
become increasingly mechanized, the trend toward urbanization has con- 
tinued, and corporate ownership has largely crowded out individual en- 
terprise. Furthermore, the functions of government, particularly the 
federal government, have expanded until they touch all areas of life and 
every class of society. Interdependence among individuals and the agen- 
cies that serve them has developed rapidly and problems once considered 
of solely personal or local import are now intimately related to national 
and international issues. Again, many of the earlier social controls have 
broken down without being replaced by new codes and patterns of be- 
havior. To understand what is taking place, to guide one's personal ac- 
tivities and behavior intelligently, and to contribute even in a small way 
to social progress, requires continuous study and the use of many sources 
of information. The current trend toward more complex forms of social 
organization indicates that these demands upon citizens will increase 
rather than decrease in the future. 

3. Clear Understanding Needed of the Problems of Democracy 

Closely associated with the foregoing facts is a growing concern for the 
preservation and improvement of democracy. History supplies striking 
evidence of the fact that this form of social and political organization de- 
pends for its very existence on an intelligent, informed citizenry. We are 
now passing through an unusually critical period in the life of the nation. 
During recent years conflicting social and political theories have been 
vigorously discussed over the radio, in the press, and through other agen- 
cies of communication. Some of the information presented has often been 
biased and designed to influence individuals unduly to a particular course 
of action or system of beliefs. As a result, young people and adults have 
faced the responsibility of studying current social issues deliberately, of 
distinguishing between fact and opinion, of identifying and discounting 


propaganda, and of coming to reasoned conclusions concerning issues re- 
lating to democratic organization and procedures. If the citizens of to- 
morrow are to be qualified to help preserve and improve our form of 
government, they must acquire while in school an appreciation of the 
democratic way of life, a keen desire to aid in the solution of its problems, 
a broad acquaintance with sources of information, and ability to use these 
sources intelligently and critically in the search for truth. 

Rapid progress in the directions indicated is complicated by the num- 
ber and variety of sources of help that are now available. In the field of 
print alone difficulties are encountered because one cannot read all the 
books published, all the magazines available, and all the newspapers 
printed. Furthermore, since the purposes and values of printed mate- 
rials vary widely, they must be selected in terms of the ends to be at- 
tained. Similar statements may be made concerning radio programs and 
motion pictures. For these and other reasons a much larger number and 
far more difficult choices must be made today than at any previous period 
in history. Ability to choose intelligently what one should read, look at, 
or listen to, comes to most individuals as a result of proper guidance 
throughout the period of general education, with systematic participa- 
tion in purposeful activities that require discrimination in the selection of 
books and other aids to learning. 

4. The Wise Use of Leisure Time Essential 

Still another characteristic of contemporary life merits emphasis. The 
increasing use of machines in carrying on basic industries is resulting in 
more free time than formerly for many young people and adults. The 
postponement of the time, for example, at which boys and girls can en- 
ter gainful occupations provides a longer period than was available for- 
merly for promoting their physical, social, mental, and spiritual develop- 
ment. The shortened hours of labor for millions of workers, excepting in 
periods of emergency, provide greater opportunity for home life, as well 
as for reading and other leisurely pursuits. The use made of free time 
thus created is of great significance in a democracy since it provides need- 
ed opportunity for enriching the life of the individual and for building 
a better civilization. 

An important implication of the foregoing statement is that schools 
should stimulate interests among pupils that will enrich their lives daily 
and result, as they mature, in leisure-time activities of great personal and 
social value. It is essential also to provide adequate facilities and to re- 

GRAY 19 

serve time during the school day for reading and other forms of recrea- 
tion. The importance of library facilities at public expense is emphasized 
by the fact that a large proportion of the homes in most communities 
cannot provide either children or adults with the books and magazines or 
the physical conditions essential for recreational reading and for the 
study of personal and social problems. Any community which does not 
provide adequate library facilities, either school or public, or both, or 
which fails to make them available to persons of all ages is failing to meet 
one of its major social obligations. 

5. The Implications of Social Changes 

The foregoing discussion shows that as a result of recent social changes 
the number and complexity of the problems which young people and 
adults face have increased with great rapidity. In order to live lives that 
are personally satisfying and socially productive they must be broadly 
informed, must be sensitive to and keenly interested in contemporary 
problems, and must make efficient and discriminating use of every form 
of communication available the radio, motion pictures, public forums, 
print. Furthermore, the right and obligation of each individual to par- 
ticipate in making decisions that affect his own and others' welfare and in 
helping to preserve and improve the democratic way of life were never 
greater than today. Similarly, the need of free access to libraries and to 
other agencies of information is far greater today than formerly. Such 
opportunities are as necessary to individual development and social 
progress as the free delivery of mail or improved means of transportation. 

The fact that a majority of American communities do not have satis- 
factory school or public libraries limits the possibility of personal develop- 
ment and retards social progress. If these deficiencies are to be eliminated 
and future citizens are to be prepared to meet their obligations intelli- 
gently, at least three steps are essential: First, adequate library facilities 
for both children and adults should be established as soon as possible in 
thousands of communities where they do not exist today. This proposal 
harmonizes with the fact that America is once more becoming community 
conscious, and this implies a keen awareness of the needs of community 
groups and willingness to provide for them. Second, pupils at every level 
of general education should have continuous opportunity to use library 
materials in solving personal and group problems and in securing stimu- 
lation and enjoyment. Third, they should receive the various types of 
guidance necessary to meet their needs at each level of school progress 


and to insure a high degree of independence and efficiency in library use 
by the end of the secondary-school period. 


Present concern about the school library is not limited solely to its 
function in preparing adults to solve problems intelligently. Of equal, if 
not greater, significance are its possibilities in contributing to the growth 
and development of pupils at practically all levels of general education. 
Accordingly, attention is directed next to important changes within 
schools that have specific implications for school libraries. Some of these 
developments have occurred in direct response to the social changes re- 
ferred to above. Others are the result of recent modifications in the basic 
philosophy underlying school activities. In both cases, however, they ex- 
ert tremendous influence on the role of the school library, on the nature 
and variety of the facilities needed, and on the type of pupil guidance 
called for. 

1. Increased School Population 

It is a significant fact that during recent years the period of popular 
education has been greatly extended and the number enrolled in high 
schools and junior colleges has increased rapidly. The percentage of 
youth of high-school age who are attending school increased during the 
last ten years from about 45 to 65. During the same period the number 
of students in junior colleges increased from 98,000 to 267,000. While 
these increases may be attributed in part to such factors as inability of 
young people to find employment and to changes in compulsory school laws, 
a growing recognition of the value of a broad general education in increas- 
ing personal and social efficiency is a factor of major importance. What- 
ever the causal factors may be in individual cases, schools now face the 
responsibility of serving the needs of a larger proportion of youth than 
at any previous period, excepting the peak years of the depression. Ex- 
perience shows that the greater the proportion of pupils in school at any 
given period, the more diverse are their backgrounds, interests, ambi- 
tions, and needs. It follows that the instructional materials provided 
both in classrooms and libraries should be correspondingly broad in scope 
and varied in type. 

2. Broader Concern for the Welfare of Individuals 
Paralleling the increase in the size and diversity of the pupil popula- 
tion have come radical changes in the basic philosophy of both elemen- 
tary and secondary education. Instead of defining their function prima- 
rily in terms of the mastery of subject matter, schools now recognize that 

GRAY 21 

their major purpose is to promote as far as possible the all around develop- 
ment physical, mental, social, and emotional of the youth of this coun- 
try. Equally important is the cultivation of the special abilities, interests, 
and ambitions of each child. Contrary to the views often expressed, this 
concept of the school does not decrease the importance of appropriate 
subject matter or the need for library facilities. It does, on the other 
hand, help to clarify the purpose and character of the school experiences 
provided and greatly increases the demand for many aids to learning. 
These changes are based on respect for personality and a broad under- 
standing of the role of the individual in a democratic society. They have 
been accelerated recently as a result of studies of the characteristics and 
needs of individuals, the course of their development, and the conditions 
under which learning takes place most effectively. 

The new philosophy, while seeking to promote the maximum develop- 
ment of the individual, aims definitely to prepare him to live effectively 
and creatively in a democratic society. In its broader aspects this implies 
healthful living, civic efficiency, vocational competence, efficient home 
membership, and the profitable use of leisure. Because of recent world 
developments the need of cultivating the insights, understandings, inter- 
ests, attitudes, and patterns of behavior that characterize a free people 
has assumed new significance and become increasingly urgent. Experi- 
ence teaches that the ends sought result from practice as well as precept, 
and can be acquired best by growing up in democratic institutions and by 
participation in the activities involved in democratic living. A second 
urgent need is to prepare the youth of this generation to participate in- 
telligently in building a more stable and finer civilization than has yet 
been attained. This involves not only a growing acquaintance with our 
social heritage, but also a broadening understanding of current social, 
political, and economic problems. To provide adequately today for the 
varied needs of pupils requires many new units of instruction, a notable 
increase in the amount and variety of reading material available, and 
continuous opportunity throughout the period of general education to 
use them efficiently in the study of personal and social problems, in sat- 
isfying interests, and in securing pleasure during leisure hours. 

3. The Reorganization and Enrichment of the Curriculum 

In order to attain both the individual and the social aims of the school, 
important changes have occurred in the types of courses offered and in 
the organization of curriculums. In elementary schools much experi- 
mentation has been carried on with various tvnes of curriculums, char- 


acterized by the wide use of problems, projects, activities, or units of ex- 
perience. Furthermore, individual assignments and supervised study 
have become increasingly prominent. Likewise the opportunity for free 
reading has been greatly extended. The guidance provided is based on a 
clear recognition of the importance of purpose and motive as a driving 
force in the lives of pupils, the need for vigorous participation in learning 
activities, and the importance of cultivating initiative and independence 
in all school activities. The statement should be added that growth is 
far more rapid and the results much more satisfactory when pupils par- 
ticipate regularly in formulating purposes and in planning the steps essen- 
tial to insure growth and self-realization. Providing for the varying back- 
grounds, interests, and needs of pupils requires both work-type and recre- 
ational reading materials that relate to numerous problems in a given 
field and to many aspects of each problem studied. The materials selected 
should represent various levels of difficulty, corresponding to the wide 
range in reading ability of the pupils in a group. Furthermore, the selec- 
tion of appropriate material should be the joint responsibility of teachers 
and librarians, based on an intimate acquaintance with the pupils to be 
served and the intellectual resources available. 

At the junior high school level additional innovations include explora- 
tory courses, efforts to integrate the work in different subjects or fields, 
and experiments in new types of curriculums. At the senior high school 
and junior-college levels, notable innovations include survey courses re- 
lating to modern social problems, foreign cultures, contemporary art and 
literature, and humanized general science. Some of these changes spring 
from a desire to provide learning activities that are of maximum signifi- 
cance to pupils; others arise from a recognition of the fact that curricular 
offerings have often been so highly specialized that pupils fail to recognize 
important relationships inherent in them. Of major importance is the 
fact that most of these developments call for the wide use of different aids 
to learning and a greater abundance of printed materials of various levels 
of reading difficulty. They center in the library, rightly called "the 
heart of the school/ 7 from which they are distributed to classrooms and 
laboratories. In many schools various types of rooms for conference, 
study, and browsing have been added to the library in order to facilitate 
the use of reading materials by individuals and groups. Never before in 
the history of education has the library held such a vital and prominent 
place in school activities as it does today. Never before has it co- 
operated in as many types of school activities as it does today. 

GRAY 23 

4. Use of Library Materials Varies with School Program 
A study of current practices reveals the additional fact that varia- 
tions in school programs are reflected in the demands made on pupils. 
At one extreme are schools which still limit the study activities of pupils 
to one or more specific textbooks in each subject. The function of the li- 
brary in such cases is to provide a limited amount of supplementary 
material to which the teacher may refer and to organize a recreational 
reading program which, as a rule, has little or no relation to the work car- 
ried on in classrooms. In other schools, a basic textbook is supplemented 
by the wide use of library materials to insure a broad understanding of 
the topics or problems studied. Clearly, one of the important objectives 
of the library in such cases is to make these supplementary materials 
readily available. This means very close co-operation of teacher and li- 
brarian in discovering materials that are relevant and adapted to the 
varying abilities of the pupils. To facilitate their use, they should be 
catalogued and arranged skilfully, and they should be provided in suffi- 
cient quantity so that pupils are not handicapped in gaining access to 

In some of the newer courses little or no use is made of basic texts. 
Breadth of understanding or the intensive study of particular problems, 
or both, may be emphasized. Obviously, the library has a particularly 
heavy responsibility in such cases. Books in great variety and of various 
levels of difficulty are essential to the attainment of educational goals. 
The very diversity of the materials that pupils should consult implies the 
need for a high degree of efficiency in locating and using them. It follows 
that broad and efficient training in library usage and in the techniques of 
practical bibliographical research is indispensable. Such training not 
only greatly increases the pupil's efficiency in study activities but also 
prepares him as he matures to attack an ever increasing range of personal 
and social problems. What has just been said is particularly applicable to 
units or courses based on contemporary life. The peculiar nature of the 
problems in this area is indicated in the following paragraph. 

Here the emphasis is definitely upon current affairs, and the magazine, pam- 
phlet, government document, and even the daily newspaper may become basic 
instructional materials. The world of today becomes the student's laboratory, 
and its reflection in today's print becomes his textbook. Materials on national 
and international developments, and local and state issues, take on primary im- 
portance, and the library must see that they are provided for faculty and student 
use. Clearly, the librarian who conceives his function merely as caretaker and 


disciplinarian cannot hope to keep pace with the needs of the classroom. His rela- 
tions with the faculty must be close enough to permit a thorough understanding 
of course objectives, so that appropriate measures may be taken to acquire such 
materials as will bring the teaching process to successful fruition. 2 

In order to render the most valuable service in enriching the learning 
experiences of pupils, the librarian must be thoroughly familiar with the 
objectives and scope of the curriculum of the school. Furthermore, he 
must work in close co-operation with other members of the staff in se- 
lecting essential library materials. Because school curriculums must be 
constantly revised in the light of new conceptions of teaching and chang- 
ing social needs, two additional obligations assume importance. The 
school library should provide an adequate supply of the best and most 
recent professional literature available. Equally important is the need 
for library materials which may be used experimentally in developing 
new units of instruction and in improving and enriching those already 
adopted. These functions of the library have received only limited recog- 
nition in the past. In order that the library may serve its broadest func- 
tion in enriching educational opportunities, the present generation of 
teachers and school officers, as well as students at the preservice level, 
must become thoroughly acquainted with library resources and tech- 
niques. This implies not only appropriate training on the part of prospec- 
tive teachers and administrators but also tactful and persistent guidance 
by librarians among those in service. Under existing conditions the li- 
brarian's responsibility for training the staff is as great as for directing the 
library activities of pupils. 

5. The Library's Responsibility for Nonreading Materials 

A further characteristic of the newer types of school programs is that 
they make wide use of nonreading as well as reading materials in promot- 
ing learning. The former include pictures, slides, charts, dioramas, muse- 
um exhibits, recordings, the radio, and motion pictures. The use of a 
wide variety of these materials is justified by the fact that an understand- 
ing of some things is gained more readily through certain means than 
through others, that pupils differ in the ease with which they learn 
through any given medium, and that understandings gained in one way 
re-enforce or modify those gained in other ways. It follows that pupils 

2 Edward A. Wight and Leon Carnovsky, "The Library," Reading in General Edu- 
cation, chap. ix. Washington: American Council on Education, 1940. 

GRAY 25 

should have ready access to all the aids to learning needed in the study 
of given units. In recognition of this fact the library service provided in 
many schools is being expanded to include a generous supply of nonread- 
ing materials. Furthermore, the reading rooms and stacks of school li- 
braries are supplemented by exhibit cases and by conference and work 
rooms where materials appropriate for the study of specific problems may 
be assembled and used by individuals or groups. This concept of school- 
library service implies radical changes, as contrasted with traditional 
practice, in the extent and organization of library space and in the ad- 
ministration of library facilities. 

6. Improved Guidance Programs for Pupils 

The various changes described thus far have been accompanied in both 
elementary and secondary schools by the development of guidance pro- 
grams that are far more comprehensive and more highly individualized 
than those provided previously. They seek to aid pupils in selecting pro- 
grams of study in harmony with their needs and interests, and with their 
ability to acquire recreational reading interests that contribute richly to 
individual development and to the making of needed personal adjust- 
ments. The aim of such guidance is the development of capable, efficient, 
happy individuals and well-rounded, stable personalities. 

Responsibility for this function of the school is not centered in any one 
teacher or officer. It is rather the obligation of every member of the ad- 
ministrative, teaching, and library staffs with whom a pupil comes in 
contact. This means that librarians should know pupils personally and 
should understand their interests, drives, abilities, and needs. They 
should also be thoroughly familiar with what the teaching staff and the 
guidance officers are trying to do for each pupil. In the light of such in- 
formation they should co-operate fully with other members of the faculty 
in promoting the personal development of pupils as well as their scholas- 
tic progress. This implies that all members of the school staff should be 
motivated by the same broad ends. Similarly, they should all participate 
in the formulation of policies and in the definition of guidance procedures. 
This view of the librarian's function presupposes far broader training 
than has often been provided and calls for radical readjustments in her 
daily schedule and greater freedom from routine clerical duties. 

7. Guidance Services for Adults 

Finally, schools have recently expanded the scope of their activities to 
provide stimulus and guidance to adult members of the community. 


The fact was pointed out earlier that adults are in urgent need of 
library material for use in the study of personal and social problems and 
for help in satisfying recreational interests. It is obvious that many 
types of reading materials are essential. If a community does not have 
a public library, the facilities of the school library should be expanded 
and used until a more adequate solution is found. Under these condi- 
tions the school library becomes in reality a community library and should 
remain open during evenings and week ends. This practice is particularly 
appropriate in rural areas. In communities where public libraries have 
been established, schools face the responsibility of bridging the gap that 
now exists between the school and public library. This may be achieved in 
part by making school libraries attractive to pupils, by insuring satisfying 
contacts with them, and by encouraging pupils to use public libraries in 
preparing some of their assignments and in the satisfaction of natural 
curiosities and interests. 

8. General Effects of School Changes 

The foregoing discussion indicates that the school library has recently 
assumed a far broader role at all levels of general education than has been 
true in the past. This is due to the increasing demands made on individ- 
uals in contemporary life, to the enriched curriculums now provided in 
schools, and to the effort to adjust instruction to the varying back- 
grounds, capacities, and needs of pupils. Of major importance is an abun- 
dance of reading materials and other aids to learning, selected in har- 
mony with modern conceptions of education, with the purposes of the 
specific institutions served, and with the abilities and needs of pupils at 
different grade levels. This involves at all times the closest co-operation 
of curriculum experts, teachers, librarians, and school officers in the study 
of boys and girls to be taught and of the means by which needed growth 
can best be attained. 

In order to facilitate the progress of pupils, reading materials must be 
readily accessible. This means that the concept of the school library 
should embrace classrooms, laboratories, conference rooms, study-rooms, 
recreational reading centers as well as the central reading-room. Obvi- 
ously, each school faces the responsibility of a thoroughgoing appraisal at 
this time of the functions, organization, administration, and use of li- 
brary space and facilities. In this connection the school administrator 
must assume active leadership. He must also acquaint the community 
with the educational and social services of the library and secure the fi- 

GRAY 27 

nancial support needed for adequate library space, materials, and staff. 
The task is a challenging one and the advantages to be attained are very 
great indeed. Through intelligent work with children and adults, the 
school library has the power to increase greatly the efficiency of individ- 
uals and ultimately to lift the thinking of a whole generation to higher 


The services rendered by school libraries are affected not only by re- 
cent social and curricular developments but also by prevailing concepts 
of the nature and function of reading. That such concepts change at fre- 
quent intervals and are accompanied by significant adjustments in li- 
braries is strikingly illustrated by certain developments during recent 

1. Changes in the Aims of Teaching Reading 

Prior to 1910, for example, one of the dominant aims of teaching read- 
ing was to introduce pupils to selections of recognized literary quality and 
to cultivate appreciations of them. In fact, the reading problems most 
widely discussed from 1890 to 1910 on the platform and in the press re- 
lated to methods of cultivating "the appreciation of good literature" and 
improving oral reading. It is not surprising, therefore, that during the 
early stages of its development the school library reflected to a large ex- 
tent the literary ideal in selecting books and in directing the reading ac- 
tivities of pupils. 

With the discovery about 1910 of the greater economy and efficiency of 
silent reading, major emphasis in reading classes shifted from the cultiva- 
tion of appreciation and the improvement of oral reading to the develop- 
ment of fluent habits of intelligent, silent reading. Closely related aims 
were to develop interest in independent reading and the habit of reading 
widely for information and recreation. Furthermore, speed of reading and 
the number of books read, rather than their quality and influence on the 
lives of pupils, were emphasized vigorously from 1915 to 1930. During 
this period libraries increased rapidly in number and greatly extended the 
range of the reading materials provided. The influence of accessibility 
was also recognized and libraries began to supply an increasing number 
of books to classrooms where they could be used in connection with class 
projects or could be read during free periods for enjoyment and the satis- 
faction of curiosity. 


Between 1925 and 1930, the poor reader was discovered. Within a 
relatively short time teachers of reading as well as specialists and research 
workers in the field of reading became deeply absorbed in the nature of 
his difficulties and in methods of increasing his reading efficiency. In 
fact, a surprisingly large proportion of the administrative provisions 
made for reading during the last decade in elementary and secondary 
schools has related to the needs of the poor reader. Furthermore, much 
of the professional literature in the field of reading has related to the diag- 
nosis and remedial treatment of poor readers. Paralleling these develop- 
ments, school librarians further modified their practices. They selected 
library materials of various levels of reading difficulty for use in the study 
of specific topics or units, examined more carefully than ever before the 
characteristics, abilities, and needs of pupils as a basis for selecting the 
right book for each child, observed the pupils while reading in the library 
in order to provide individual help when needed, and not infrequently as- 
sumed responsibility for remedial work with pupils. 

Within the past few years a new era has opened in respect to the func- 
tion of reading in school activities. As a result of significant changes in 
the basic philosophy of the school, increased emphasis is now directed to 
the ends to be attained through reading without neglecting essential 
reading attitudes, habits, and skills. According to this view, the types of 
growth desired and the changes to be produced in the reader assume ma- 
jor importance. These objectives aid in defining the purposes for reading 
and the kinds of reading material that will prove most valuable. If the 
library is to be of maximum service, the librarian must be thoroughly ac- 
quainted with what the school is attempting to achieve in terms of pupil 
growth and development, with the characteristics and needs of pupils at 
each stage of development, and with the kinds of guidance essential in 
attaining specific ends. Equally important is very close co-operation be- 
tween teachers and librarians in formulating objectives, in selecting ap- 
propriate books for use in study and in recreational activities, and in de- 
veloping procedures that will insure the greatest accessibility and the 
most efficient use of all library materials. 

2. Changes in Prevailing Concepts of Reading 

Closely related to recent changes in the dominant motives for reading 
are those pertaining to changing conceptions of the nature of reading and 
the basic processes involved. Whereas reading was formerly thought of 
primarily as the process of recognizing words and comprehending mean- 

GRAY 29 

ings, it is now conceived largely as a form of experience that may alter 
the outlook of the pupil, deepen his understandings, modify his behavior, 
and promote the development of personality. According to this concept, 
the reader not only recognizes words quickly and accurately and appre- 
hends clearly the essential facts or ideas presented, but also reflects on 
their significance, evaluates them critically, and integrates them with 
previous experience into definite thought and action patterns. According 
to this concept, growth in reading is not limited to the elementary-school 
period. Instead, ability to read intelligently and critically continues to 
develop rapidly throughout the period of general education and even 
later. It follows that pupils who come to the library may need guidance 
in reacting critically to the ideas apprehended, in clarifying thinking con- 
cerning the issues involved, and in reaching valid conclusions, as well as in 
selecting appropriate material to read and in securing a clear grasp of the 
author's meaning. Obviously, the guidance provided hi libraries should be 
much broader in scope than that given earlier if schools succeed in de- 
veloping a generation of readers capable of wise discrimination and in- 
telligent self-direction. Without doubt classroom teachers should direct 
the study activities of pupils in the library to a far greater extent than in 
the past. The nature of the librarian's responsibility in the critical and 
reflective aspects of library reading should be defined co-operatively by 
the teaching and library staffs of each school. 

3. The Relation of Reading to Other Aids to Learning 

The broad concept of reading that now prevails emphasizes also the 
importance of the wide use of other aids to learning. It recognizes that 
ability to interpret what is read depends on the presence of related experi- 
ences in the mind of the reader and that the attainments of pupils at any 
period in their development is the product of all they have acquired 
through contact with reality and through all the aids to learning used by 
the school. As indicated earlier, the library is now recognized as a natural 
center for the collection and use of nonreading as well as reading mate- 
rials. The adoption of this view of the function of school libraries greatly 
increases the demands made on librarians. Some of the questions which 
they, as well as other members of the school staff, face as this expansion 
occurs are: What aids to learning are most effective in promoting certain 
types of growth and in facilitating progress at different grade levels and 
among pupils of varying levels of capacity? What types of guidance do 
pupils need in using visual aids, motion pictures, the radio, and recordings 


so that learning occurs more rapidly and effectively? Should reading pre- 
pare for, accompany, or follow the use of other aids to learning in the 
study of a given unit? How can librarians select, organize, and distribute 
the various aids to learning so that they will be of maximum use both in 
classrooms and in the library? 

4. The Stimulation of Reading Interests and Tastes 
A final and perhaps the most important problem of this chapter 
relates to the need for renewed effort on the part of teachers and librari- 
ans to broaden the reading interests of children and to elevate their 
tastes. This view is supported, first, by the fact that wide independent 
reading is essential if pupils acquire even a reasonable part of the inform- 
ing and enriching experience that schools may provide. It is essential also 
if the guidance received in school is effective in starting youth success- 
fully on the road to self-education. In the third place, recent studies 
show that the reading interests and tastes of the present generation of 
young people and adults are far from satisfactory. The need is urgent for 
continuous, vigorous effort to extend the reading interests of boys and 
girls and to stimulate preference for the better types of literature. To 
achieve the ends sought, teachers, school officers, and librarians must co- 
operate in studying the present and potential interests of children, in 
establishing library facilities and attractive reading corners in class- 
rooms, in providing an adequate supply of attractive books of various 
levels of reading difficulty, and in utilizing the most effective methods 
possible in arousing interest and in elevating tastes. 


At least three significant conclusions are justified by the facts present- 
ed in this chapter. In the first place, the school library stands at the 
threshold of a new era in respect to the breadth and character of the serv- 
ices which it should render. The broader concept of its function that has 
been presented is a direct outgrowth of recent social and educational 
changes which make new and significant demands on children and adults. 

In the second place, the basic and all-inclusive purpose of the library 
in general education is to contribute to the attainment of the objectives 
of the institutional program of which it is a part. Three distinctive pur- 
poses to which a library should make direct and significant contributions 
stand out impressively. The first is to help develop interests, attitudes, 
and habits of study which lead to the frequent, if not continuous, use of 

GRAY 31 

the library in solving personal and group problems that arise in daily 
living. The second is to help develop the specific skills which insure the 
economical and efficient use of the library in attaining worth-while aims. 
The third is to contribute to the establishment of the habit of reading 
regularly for recreation, enjoyment, and stimulation and to the elevation 
of reading interests and tastes. 

In the third place, it is essential that penetrating studies be made of 
the various services to be rendered in different types of schools, the most 
efficient organization and administration of library facilities and space, 
and the training of school officers, teachers, and librarians for their re- 
spective parts in this co-operative enterprise. The remainder of this Year- 
book considers at length many of the problems that schools and com- 
munities face in reorganizing and improving library service in harmony 
with contemporary needs. 





Senior Supervisor of School Libraries 

New York State Education Department 

Albany, New York 


Organized school libraries are now recognized theoretically as an essen- 
tial part of the elementary school. Whether or not a library is provided in 
a given elementary school depends on the aims of the school, the pur- 
poses, plans, and experience of its superintendent, principal, and teach- 
ers, and on the general characteristics of the community. Where an ele- 
mentary-school library is provided, its operation depends largely upon its 
librarian, book collections, and general facilities. 

The ways in which libraries serve their schools can be seen most real- 
istically in narratives describing the work of actual and typical situations. 
The reports of elementary-school libraries in action which are presented 
in this chapter have been taken from accounts written by teachers or 
librarians who compiled them from their diaries, desk calendars, records, 
and notes. Although these accounts are incomplete in that they do not 
describe all of the work of any single library, they report activities which 
occur regularly where children, teachers, and librarians make use of books 
and libraries. 


Since elementary-school libraries are in a stage of transition, the form 
in which the library service is administered varies. The libraries are in 
many stages of development, sometimes even within the same city. In 
many schools, where no librarian is employed, each classroom teacher 
performs some of the functions of a librarian; in other schools, one class- 
room teacher is designated to serve as the librarian although she may 



have neither professional library training nor specified time for the work. 
In some situations, librarians trained both for teaching and for school 
librarianship divide their time between classroom teaching and library 
activities. In other instances, one librarian works in two or more ele- 
mentary schools; or the high-school librarian has become the librarian 
for the elementary as well as for the secondary school. In some cities, 
a professionally trained school librarian is employed for each elemen- 
tary school. In certain cities and counties a school-library supervisor or 
adviser is responsible for library development in all of the elementary 
schools of the system; such supervisors may be working with principals, 
teachers, and children to organize or to improve school-library service in 
schools not employing librarians, or they may be working where a li- 
brarian is employed for each elementary school. 

Some elementary schools have both a central library and classroom 
collections; most, however, rely upon classroom libraries alone. The 
classroom libraries provide materials used to stimulate the reading of 
pupils, to answer questions which occur during class discussions, and to 
acquaint pupils with books of many kinds. The values of classroom li- 
braries can be noted in the following description of the use of this type of 
collection in the first grade of the elementary department of the Water- 
ville Central School of Waterville, New York. 1 

Each classroom of the elementary department of the Waterville Cen- 
tral School has a library consisting of approximately 275 titles. The 
teachers select the books in consultation with the high-school librarian. 
The high-school library and the public library are both generous in their 
help to the elementary school. With the increased interest in reading, the 
teachers have renewed acquaintance with their room libraries, have read 
more to the pupils, and have encouraged home reading. They have also 
felt that the reading of imaginative and humorous literature provides a 
counterbalance to the social studies program, with its strong emphasis on 
civics. The library in a third-grade classroom contains an interesting col- 
lection of animal stories which has been developed in connection with a 
unit on "Wild Animals of the Continents/' A fourth-grade room is noted 
in the school for its Robin Hood stories and for its books of humor. A 
fifth-grade collection has grown with the unit on "The United States, 
Past and Present," while a sixth grade has stimulated lively interest in 

1 Contributed by Elizabeth Crumby, teacher of the first grade in the Central 
School, Waterville, N.Y. 


reading through the use of books for pleasure reading, of periodicals, and 
of informal book reports. 

The first-grade classroom library, with which this report is primarily 
concerned, contains almost two hundred books, all easily accessible to the 
pupils. These books are supplemented by the interchange of books be- 
tween the first-grade classes and other grades in the building. Magazines, 
reference books, and pictures are borrowed from the main "upstairs" li- 
brary as well as from the village library. Since three-fourths of the chil- 
dren in this grade are from outlying farms and come and go in buses, they 
have no opportunity to visit the public library after school. The teacher 
borrows books on her card and distributes them to these pupils. Those 
pupils who live in town take turns going to the public library with the 
teacher an$ selecting books which they think the rest of the pupils in 
their room will enjoy. All of the children, however, visit the village li- 
brary at least twice a year, and they go to the main school library when- 
ever there are displays of new books, hobby-shows, or story-telling 

Each afternoon the teacher reads aloud or tells stories for half an hour. 
Every day there is a period in which the pupils dramatize stories or listen 
to a story being told or a book being read. At this time they also select 
the books which they want to take home for reading aloud by parents or 
older brothers and sisters. New books are introduced by reading or tell- 
ing parts of the stories and then letting the pupils "sign up for them." 
The stories of "Hansel and Gretel," "Rumpelstiltskin," "Jack-the-Giant- 
Killer," "Bluebeard/ 1 "Hop-O-My-Thumb," and "Snow White" have 
been told by the teacher and then dramatized by the class. Large murals 
depicting different incidents in the tales have been made, with all pupils 

Since the members of the first grade are greatly influenced by what 
their older brothers and sisters read, books borrowed from the second- 
and third-grade classroom libraries are sometimes read aloud, When the 
class was interested in One Day with Tuktu and Walliej the Walrus (bor- 
rowed from the second grade) and in Kersti and St. Nicholas (borrowed 
from the third grade), children from these higher grades came to the class- 
room to tell the first-graders more about Eskimos and Dutch children 
and to describe and display their favorite books. An interest in Indians 
and cowboys resulted in borrowing books from the fourth-grade library 
and in visiting that classroom to see what the pupils were making and 


In these and in other ways the teacher widens the reading interests of 
the children so that the books play an important and provocative part in 
the lives of the pupils of the first grade. They become actively interested 
in learning to read and look forward to the time when they can read 
books themselves. 


In the elementary school the teachers depend upon the library for 
numerous types of services. They obtain facts and materials necessary 
for the preparation of their instructional units; they bring their classes to 
the library for free reading or to work on assignments; they request that 
certain books be sent to the classroom for short-period loans; they find 
pictures and other illustrative materials for bulletin-board displays in the 
classroom; and, through the librarian, they keep informed about new 
books and other materials. Assistance to teachers emerges as one of the 
primary objectives of the school library in the following account of the 
Roosevelt Elementary School at Wauwatosa, Wisconsin. 2 It is also in- 
teresting to note in this report the type of administrative arrangement by 
which library service is provided to the schools. Co-operation between 
schools and with the public library constitutes one of the many kinds of 
library administration now existing in elementary schools. 

Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, a residential suburb of Milwaukee, has a pop- 
ulation of 27,769. Its two elementary schools, the Roosevelt School and 
the McKinley School, have enrolments of 431 and 377 pupils, respective- 
ly. The librarian divides her time equally between the schools. The 
Wauwatosa Public Library orders and catalogs the books. The school 
submits its book orders to the public library, which is allowed an extra 
appropriation by the City Council for elementary-school libraries; the 
books it sends to the school are designated as "permanent loans." Any 
strictly textbook material is purchased by the Board of Education and 
cataloged by the public library. School librarians are employed by and 
work under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education. Library classes 
are under the direction of the librarian, with teacher attendance entirely 
voluntary. The library also has charge of the supplementary sets and fee- 

At Roosevelt School the library's week begins on Monday morning at 

2 Contributed by Ruth Tarbox, librarian of the Roosevelt and McKinley Schools, 

Wauwatosa, Wis. 


eight o'clock. When the eight-twenty bell rings the boys and girls enter 
the building, and the sixth-grade "library helpers'* report for duty during 
the before-school period. There are three library helpers one to check 
outgoing books, one to card returned books, and one to put books away 
and to take messages or deliver materials to teachers. The librarian looks 
over teachers' requisitions and fills as many of them as can be taken care 
of quickly. Typical requests include those for pictures of Eskimos, books 
on ants, a teacher's manual for Here We Go, and stories of Norway. Since 
time does not permit all of the requisitions to be filled during this period, 
the remaining ones are filed for later consideration. At a quarter to nine 
the library helpers return to their classrooms. 

At nine o'clock the first library class arrives thirty second-grade pu- 
pils who come for their weekly library period of half an hour. They re- 
turn the books they have had out, take their places, and hear a new 
picture-storybook, Wanda Gag's Nothing at AIL Books they can read 
are put on the tables and each pupil chooses one to take home for the fol- 
lowing week. They write their names and room number on the book 
cards, come to the desk to have their books checked, and then return 
together to their classroom. 

A third-grade group now comes for its library period. The procedure 
is similar to that of the second grade, except that this group goes to the 
shelves to choose books; and, instead of having a story told to them to- 
day, they spend the time in telling about their favorite books. 

Before the next class arrives the art supervisor comes in to find what 
pictures, professional magazines, or books are available to help a teacher 
who plans to use Swedish design in her next art project. The librarian 
advises her and also shows her several new books with particularly fine il- 
lustrations. The supervisor borrows the new books for an art-apprecia- 
tion lesson in the sixth grade that afternoon. The library editor, who is 
working on a library news article for the next issue of the school news- 
paper, comes in for help. 

As the editor leaves, a fourth-grade group enters. Because of the size of 
this grade it is divided into two sections which have a library period of 
forty minutes each. Kipling's "The Elephant's Child" from the Just So 
Stories is read to them. Then the pupils go to the shelves to browse and 
to select books for home reading. The teacher has asked two of them to 
choose some new books for the library table in their classroom and an- 
other two to find whatever books, pictures, or pamphlets the library has 
about Switzerland. The librarian helps the individual pupils select books, 


and she also makes suggestions to the "appointees" as they complete 
their special duties. The class returns to its room with good reading 
material for individuals and with its immediate reference needs satisfied. 

During the lunch hour several teachers come to the library: one to see 
what is available in an easy third-grade reading set for her group; a sec- 
ond to talk over the question of compiling a bibliography of stories about 
the western states to correlate with a unit in the social studies; and a 
third to choose new books for her classroom-library table. 

The afternoon is divided between two library classes, a fifth-grade and 
a sixth-grade group. The one-hour period of the fifth-grade class is di- 
vided into three parts: a brief introduction to and description of a book 
new to them, Malcolmson's Yankee Doodle's Cousins; a card-catalog game 
in which each boy and girl locates a book (given its author, title, or sub- 
ject) by using the "index to the library"; and time to browse among and 
select books for recreational reading or to do assigned reference work with 
the help of the librarian. 

After the sixth-grade class has been introduced to Carl Sandburg's 
Abe Lincoln Grows Up, it begins to learn how to make a bibliography, 
using Mott and Baisden's Children's Book on How To Use Books and Li- 
braries. The librarian, with the teacher's help, has planned for each pupil 
to make a sample bibliography during the coming week. 

The dismissal bell rings and the last library class departs. Library 
helpers come in to take over the checking, charging, and shelving of 
books. The librarian turns her attention to filling the teachers' requisi- 
tions, finding materials to meet the individual needs of boys and girls, 
conferring with teachers about book problems, preparing book lists, fix- 
ing bulletin-board displays, attending and participating in faculty or 
curriculum-planning committee meetings, or organizing material for the 
picture and pamphlet files, 


With the new instructional methods prevailing in the modern school, 
the development of new courses, the introduction of new types of course- 
content, and the increased emphasis on pupil activity in planning and 
performing classroom projects, the school library has become a laboratory 
in which pupils explore and discover. The following account of a morning 
in the library of Colfax School, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, describes typi- 


cal activities of that library and shows ways in which the pupils use it as 
a materials laboratory. 3 

In the Coif ax Elementary School, Grades IV, V, and VI are scheduled 
to be in the library three periods each week. Of the three periods, one is 
for book circulation, one for reference work and for teaching library les- 
sons, and one for pleasure reading. However, hard-and-fast rules do not 
prevail; a child may do reference work during any of the three periods, or 
he may turn to pleasure reading when a reference problem has been com- 
pleted. Grades II and III come to the library once a week for story- 
telling and for the reading of poetry. The remaining "open" periods on 
the library's schedule are filled by those classes which have reached a 
place in their units where an extra reference period becomes necessary. 
For example, the pupils of Grade V B are ready to make a model of early 
Pittsburgh. Although the pupils have general ideas on the subject, each 
committee needs to verify facts, such as where the ferry crossed the river, 
where the first post office was located, and how tall the early buildings 
were. Since such purposeful reference work cannot be deferred until next 
week's scheduled reference period, the teacher arranges to bring the class 
to the library during an open period. Sometimes only the committees 
come to work with the librarian. 

The integrated-activated curriculum is used in the fifth and sixth 
grades; that is, instead of having the pupils study entirely different sub- 
ject matter in English, reading, geography, history, and nature study, 
the work in every subject field is planned around the social studies as the 
"core." This method differs from an "integrated" program in that the 
"activated" part gives the child an opportunity to put into practice what 
he has learned. The child's initiative is developed so that he uses what 
he has learned in some way. This does not imply that every unit must 
terminate in building with wood, tools, or clay; the culmination may be a 
booklet of stories, an original play, or the application of the knowledge 
obtained to some other project. The new program requires much refer- 
ence work, which now becomes purposeful on the part of the pupil. Ref- 
erence work no longer constitutes an assignment to be met in order to get 
a grade; now the pupil has a definite contribution to make to the solution 
of a stimulating and interesting problem. The library plays a vital part 

3 Contributed by Thusnelda Schmidt, librarian of the Colfax School, Pittsburgh, 


in such a program. Committees and individuals have topics, questions, 
and problems which can be solved and completed only by using the re- 
sources of the library. The library thus becomes just as much a labora- 
tory as any science room dictionaries, encyclopedias, stereographs, pic- 
tures, maps, realia, pamphlets, and books (both fiction and nonfiction) 
constituting the tools for developing an idea. 

The following brief account represents the activities in the library dur- 
ing a typical morning: 

From the time the bell rings at eight-forty until nine o'clock any child 
may come to the library to exchange books, pay a fine, return books, look 
up the answer to a problem, browse among new books, examine exhibits, 
read a magazine, look through book lists for suggestions of good books to 
read, or share an experience with the librarian. Since the library does not 
have a "report class/' the librarian has twenty minutes in which to fill 
teachers 7 requests for visual material and reference books or to prepare a 
preview of materials available for forthcoming units. 

At nine-twenty the VI B girls come to the library for pleasure reading 
while the boys go to their swimming class. Most of the girls are already 
seated and reading their books when the librarian comes in from hall 
duty. For those who are still undecided as to what they want to read, the 
librarian makes suggestions. This informal reading guidance requires 
that the librarian know the child's interests and reading ability (and 
whether it has been overdeveloped or neglected) and also the content and 
difficulty level of the books in the collection. The. first outside call for 
help comes from the art room. A pupil there wishes to model a clay pyra- 
mid. He needs facts about the Egyptian pyramids, pictures, and a floor 
plan. The library provides the answers to his questions. 

At nine-f orty-five the pupils of Grade V B enter the library with their 
teacher. They are ready to start on the unit about early Pittsburgh. 
Their assignment for this library period is to read anything that they can 
find about early Pittsburgh and to get ideas which will help the class to 
plan the outline of work to be followed for the unit. 

At ten-forty-five the VI A's are eager to enter the library. This is their 
book-circulation period, and they want to see whether favorite titles have 
been returned. Before the period has ended, the pupils spend some time 
in describing to their classmates a book which they have particularly en- 

At five minutes past eleven the VI B's come with their teacher to do 
reference work on a unit dealing with coaL The class is divided into com- 


mittees and the name of each committee is placed on a library table. The 
children seat themselves according to their committees, and there they 
work to make their topic interesting and to find a unique way to present 
the material to the rest of the group. Both teacher and librarian are avail- 
able for guidance and for instruction in how to use reference tools effi- 
ciently. The VI B class is the last class before lunch. During the after- 
noon the work in the library continues on somewhat the same plan. 


The elementary-school library occupies a strategic place in the reading 
program of the school. Through informal conferences and conversation 
with pupils, through planned group projects, through effective displays 
and publicity, and through guided pupil activities, the librarian partici- 
pates in the reading program. She helps pupils find reading materials for 
their academic and nonacademic purposes; she encourages the extension 
of their reading interests; she helps them develop good reading habits 
and an appreciation of literature; she helps them to understand, to in- 
terpret, and to evaluate what they have read. She knows the reading 
abilities of each pupil and brings the right book and the right child to- 
gether. Since the pupils of the different grades represent different levels 
of mastery of reading, the school library has a wide range of materials of 
varying difficulty. The school librarian knows the books best suited to 
each child's interests and abilities. The functions of the school library as 
a reading center can be noted in the following description of the library in 
Stratford Avenue School, Garden City, New York. 4 

The faculty of the Stratford Avenue School believes that children learn 
best by doing, and they encourage the children to participate in the work 
of the school. Pupils are helped to meet and to solve their problems and 
to get along socially with other people so that they will be successful 
members of their community. The school advocates the belief that chil- 
dren need to express themselves through various media, such as art, 
craftwork, and creative writing; that the fullest possible development of 
each child must be encouraged and furthered. 

The curriculum requires the use of many books and of other materials 
for teachers and children. The library thus becomes a service agency to 

4 ( 

* Contributed by Georgiana Maar, librarian of the Stratford Avenue School, Gar- 
den City, N.Y. Garden City, a Long Island village, has two elementary schools, each 
with a full-time librarian. 


the school, helping the individual child in reading guidance and in refer- 
ence problems, stimulating him to read extensively along many lines of 
interest, and showing him how to use many books to gain his information 
rather than to depend upon one or two textbooks. The library is open as 
long as possible and the pupils are urged to use it freely. All classes from 
the second through the sixth grade are scheduled for a regular half-hour 
library period each week. The pupils use the library period for browsing, 
free reading, library lessons, looking up material, story hours, or class dis- 
cussions. The pupils in the first grade and kindergarten also visit the li- 
brary at frequent intervals. In addition to the set schedule, groups may 
be scheduled for extra time; small groups or individual students are free 
to come at any time. 

The following description of an average day indicates the variety of the 
library's program and of its usefulness to the pupils and to the teachers: 
The librarian arrives at eight-thirty, followed by a few early-comers 
who have books to return or questions to be answered. The pupil as- 
sistants start their work; two take charge of the desk where they stamp 
and slip books, another two write the daily overdue-book notices, while* 
two more become busy in the workroom, typing notices for teachers, past- 
ing pockets and book slips, or doing errands or other jobs. 

During the unscheduled half-hour from nine to nine-thirty many of the 
children come with requests or questions with which they require help. 
For example, a second-grade child brings a baby tree toad to show to the 
librarian. The science teacher has identified the toad, but now Alfred 
wants a book about tree toads to take to the teacher. Also, he wants to 
know what to feed it. A kindergarten teacher sends for a map of the 
United States. Her pupils want to see where Florida is because one of 
their classmates has just left for a month's vacation there. Two sixth- 
grade girls want to find pictures of different kinds of lamps Betty lamp, 
Russian teapot lamp, kerosene lamp, and early electric lamp. A third- 
grade boy, seeking a picture of the Northrup Flying Wing, wants to know 
if the Northrup is faster than the Lockheed XP-38. Three fifth-grade pu- 
pils come to find out how people reckoned time in the early days. The 
book says Sparta won a decisive victory in 404 B.C. What did the Greeks 
call that year since they didn't know it was "B.C."? A sixth-grade science 
enthusiast has just looked up the definition of a molecule and he asks for 
help in understanding it. 

The ungraded or remedial group arrives for a library period at nine- 
thirty. Since there are only ten children in this group, much help can be 


given to the individual pupils by the teacher and by the librarian. Harry 
assumes responsibility for the desk while the rest go to the shelves for 
books. Jimmy wants stories about dogs and horses. Because of his limit- 
ed reading ability the teacher helps him to make a list of books which he 
can read. John asks for another book like Seven Diving Ducks, a story 
with not too many neW words but enough of a plot to hold his interest. 
The librarian assists Jean in finding a fairly long but not too difficult 
book. Since Jean's eyes are weak, the book must have good print. The 
period ends with the teacher reading aloud part of a story which she will 
finish later in the classroom. 

At ten o'clock the fifth-grade group enters. Some of the pupils have 
reference work to do, while others have come for free reading. Teacher 
and librarian are both busy helping those who require aid. Raymond re- 
quests a "good book" to read. The librarian consults his book list in or- 
der to see what he has read, what he has enjoyed most, and what his read- 
ing ability is. His main desire is for a "funny book/' preferably like 
Freddy the Detective, which is already on his list. His attention is drawn 
to some humorous animal stories, and from these he chooses one to take 
out; he then lists the others for future reading. The librarian suggests 
several other books that are slightly different in type and which will per- 
haps lead him to a different interest; these titles, too, go on his Ust. Other 
requests continue throughout the period. 

A sixth-grade group scheduled for an extra reference period arrives at 
ten-thirty. These pupils are studying the Pacific area and want maps, in- 
formation about flags, products, exports and imports, comparative sizes 
of various places, population statistics, transportation methods, and oth- 
er facts about the countries in this area. Each pupil has his own question, 
and most of them need little guidance. They consult reference books, 
magazines, and vertical-file material, and use the card catalog to find 
books to take back to the classroom. 

At eleven o'clock a sixth-grade group comes for a library lesson in 
which the pupils are finishing a work sheet on the card catalog. Those 
students who have finished the work sheet read or help the librarian with 
library work. The teacher selects a book from the special shelf which 
contains reading materials for the "Faculty Reading Club." This club, 
administered by the librarian, contains current books selected and paid 
for by the teachers. The library also has a shelf of professional books for 
teachers and parents. 

A second-grade group arrives at eleven-thirty for its weekly library 


period. Two sixth-grade pupils take over the desk work, releasing the 
librarian to help at the shelves. The teacher also helps the pupils to select 
books. In a few cases books are selected for pupils to take home to be 
read aloud by their parents. Toward the end of the period a story is told; 
this is frequently an old favorite which has been previously requested or 
a book recently added to the library. Since it was a boy in this group who 
brought the tree toad to school, today's story is Friskey's Grandfather 
Frog, the Busy Loafer. 

Numerous pupils come to the library at one-thirty for various pur- 
poses. Eequests arrive from teachers for pictures of ancient Greece and 
Rome, stories about early days in New York City and in New York 
State for the reading table in a fourth-grade classroom, illustrations on 
tin, a story of Colonial America for a sixth-grade teacher to read aloud, 
and a slide of the world. 

At two o'clock a group of ten children come to work on a topic dealing 
with famous Americans. The librarian helps them locate material and 
then finds some books about American patriots for the teacher to use in 
the classroom, A few teachers come in to select books for their reading 
corners, to renew material, to arrange for a special library period for their 
class the next day, or to get material for their classes. 

There are no assigned groups at two-thirty, but pupils come from their 
classes to work on their individual problems. 

Although school is over at two-fifty, some children visit the library to 
get books or to finish working on class assignments. 

When the children have gone, the librarian works on the many and 
varied tasks which must be done to achieve a smoothly functioning li- 
brary. Then, too, there are plans to be made for the next day, display 
case and bulletin boards to fix, and records to keep. Occasionally parents 
come to select books to read aloud at home, to obtain material for parent 
discussion groups, or to get books which will help them to understand the 
school program or the problems of their children. 


In addition to providing materials, helping teachers, and guiding read- 
ing, the elementary-school library serves other educational functions. 
One of these is participation in the school's program to prepare pupils to 
assume social responsibilities in a democratic society. Desirable atti- 
tudes toward public property and toward the rights of the group are de- 
veloped in the library. Pupils help to perform many of the library duties 


themselves and learn how to take responsibility and to work with others. 
Effective library instruction trains the pupils to use a library and its re- 
sources so that they may know how to seek and to use them in their high- 
school and adult careers. Like the preceding descriptions, the following 
account of the functions of an elementary-school library in Long Beach, 
California, refers to library activities which contribute to this develop- 
ment of the individual pupil. 5 

The elementary-school libraries in Long Beach form an integral part 
of the whole instructional program. The school selected for description 
as being representative of the system has an enrolment of seven hundred 
pupils. It is located in a typical downtown section with a transient popu- 
lation. The school has seventeen teachers, a kindergarten director, an 
assistant, and a librarian who is in the school four days a week. The 
school program is modern in concept. Traditional grade levels are dis- 
regarded. The school aims "(1) to group together pupils who will be able 
to live, work, and progress together happily under conditions permitting 
the fullest possible development of the individual; (2) to subordinate 
traditional grade standards and emphasize the growth and development 
of each individual child; (3) to promote the mental health of all pupils; 
and (4) to encourage flexible methods of grouping and regrouping." The 
school library, located on the main corridor of the building, seats forty- 
six pupils and has a collection of three thousand books. In addition to 
having a regular class schedule, the library is open to all pupils before 
and after school. The librarian is a trained children's librarian with 
several years of teaching experience. 

A typical day for the librarian opens with a request from a teacher 
who greets the librarian as she enters the school building in the morning 
before the pupils arrive. 

"Miss Jay, we will be studying sugar today. Do you have some books 
you could send to the room this morning?" 

School starts at nine o'clock; the library opens twenty minutes before 
that time. 

"Miss Jay, I have just finished Gall It Courage. Will you help me find 
another good book like it?" 

6 Mrs. Edwina S. Hicks, Supervisor of School Libraries of Long Beach, California, 
contributes this account of one school library to show how the libraries function in the 
elementary schools of that city. 


"Please look at this book I had out. My baby brother tore it. How 
much will it cost to mend it?" 

A teacher enters, "I would like to use that book about rhythms and 
dances this morning. Is it in?" 

"No," replies the librarian, "but perhaps we can get it back in time for 

Second teacher: "I want to see what Indian pictures you have." 

Still another teacher: "I have a bibliography on Latin America issued 
by the United States Office of Education. Will you check it for the books 
we have in our library?" 

The teachers are assisted, the books on sugar are dispatched to the 
classroom, and the rhythm-book is located. Children return books and 
select others to take out. The librarian helps some children while others 
find their own materials. 

The first class, made up of twenty-one children at the second-year 
level, arrives for its weekly twenty-five minute libtary period. (The in- 
termediate grades have a forty-minute period.) The group comes to the 
library unaccompanied by the teacher, who remains in the classroom 
with a part of the class scheduled to come to the library during the next 
period. The librarian on this day reads a story to the class. (This part of 
the program varies from week to week and it also varies with the group. 
Sometimes stories are told or picture-books are used effectively. Instruc- 
tion begins with looking at picture-books purposefully as prereading 
preparation, and it progresses into the more complex skills as the child 
advances.) After hearing the story, the children browse among the books 
and choose the ones they wish to read. The librarian helps each pupil to 
select books which are within his range of interest and not beyond his 
reading level. She knows the characteristics and the capabilities of each 
child in so far as it is possible in a school of this size. A transient popula- 
tion increases the difficulty, but the librarian has developed techniques 
which reduce this problem. 

At the charging desk sit the pupil assistants, usually two. One stamps 
the books while the other prepares the incoming books for circulation 
again. These pupil assistants, or "library helpers," are selected by the 
librarian, teacher, and principal. (In certain situations every child has 
his turn to serve at the desk.) Usually two from each class serve for one 
month. The librarian gives them special training, to which they respond 
admirably and from which they gather experience in service, accuracy, 
and library procedures. This activity forms an instrument for guidance 


and for prevocational sampling; it has been used successfully with supe- 
rior children and with certain maladjusted cases, but, of course, it is not 
limited to these two types of pupils. 

During this period several pupils from other classes, particularly the 
upper grades, have come to the library for special reference work; some 
find their own information, while others need assistance. Those who en- 
tered during the story-telling waited until the librarian had finished be- 
fore asking for help. However, instances occur when interruptions be- 
come necessary. In this school an effort is made to teach the child how 
and when to interrupt, because this forms a real situation in which judg- 
ment can be developed. At the close of the period the children arrange 
their chairs and make the library ready for the next group. As they leave 
the room, the pupils show the librarian or her helpers that they have had 
their books properly charged. 

What are the aims underlying all of the library periods in this school? 
The teacher and the librarian together determine the objectives of the 
library period free reading, assigned reference work in connection with 
some particular classroom activity, or instruction in the use of books and 
libraries. The experience gained in the library and the books selected 
there are integrated with the work of the classroom. The teacher always 
shows interest in what the pupils have secured from the library. Occa- 
sionally, if books too difficult or too easy have been selected by the over- 
ambitious or the lazy reader, she suggests another selection. 

The books obtained from the library may be used for information, 
silent reading, dramatization, or oral reading. Formal book reports are 
discouraged and informal discussions encouraged. For oral reading a 
child may make a selection from his book and read it to the group. To 
add interest, he may endeavor to "sell" the book to his classmates; this 
technique proves popular with both teachers and pupils because it stimu- 
lates interest in selection and encourages the pupils to do their best in 
reading aloud. The teachers use library materials in many ways for refer- 
ence. Books are borrowed from the library to use with their units; 
groups of children are sent to the library to look up special topics; or the 
whole class may be sent on occasions other than the regular library peri- 
od. During class discussions, when questions arise which cannot be an- 
swered by the group or from materials in the classroom, a pupil is sent to 
the library to find the answer to the problem. 

When a class is ready to begin reference use of the library, arrange- 
ments are made to give instruction in the use of encyclopedias and simple 


reference tools. Copying from reference books is discouraged. Note-tak- 
ing, except for statistical data and perhaps difficult words, is used cau- 
tiously. Attention to comprehension and retention receives more stress. 
The teachers participate in training the students to acquire good library 
habits. Taking responsibility for the care of books and for their prompt 
return forms part of the training of the child. The principal also works 
with teachers, librarians, and pupils to get the utmost from library re- 
sources, and she arranges the library's schedule so that optimum results 
may be obtained. Each class is divided into groups the primary grades 
usually into three groups and the intermediate into two. The sections re- 
quiring the most guidance, such as the primary and the slow-learning 
pupils, are assigned to the library in smaller units in order to permit both 
teacher and librarian to work more intensively with fewer children; for 
example, the library class which has been described in this section con- 
sists of three groups. Groups 1 and 2 were in the library while the re- 
maining group, the slowest pupils, were in the classroom working with 
their teacher. During the following period the groups were reversed. The 
upper grades and the more self-reliant pupils are scheduled in larger 
groups. The library's schedule, however, remains flexible. When it be- 
comes desirable to shift groups or when a teacher wishes to send her 
whole class to the library, adjustments can be made readily. 


Throughout the descriptions of elementary-school libraries in this 
chapter, one of the dominant emphases has centered in the function of 
working with pupils individually so that their needs, interests, and abil- 
ities can be determined, satisfied, or developed. Because of variations in 
school populations, this aspect of school Hbrarianship takes different forms 
in different schools. The following account of the work in the library of 
Mitchell School, Denver, Colorado, shows how one library works with a 
school population that is particularly challenging. 6 

Mitchell School has an enrolment of approximately one-thousand pupils, 
of whom approximately one-third are Spanish- American; many of the pu- 
pils come from families who have entered the state to work in the sugar- 
beet fields. Negroes constitute almost one-tenth of the school population. 
The majority of the pupils might be classed as underprivileged children 
from families in the lower economic levels. About 35 per cent of the 
children come from families who receive State Aid to Dependent Children 

e Contributed by Mrs. Antje Long, librarian of Mitchell School, Denver, Colorado. 


or other relief aid; 50 per cent are supported by the parent's employment 
on a W.P.A. project; and 10 per cent come from families earning less than 
$1,300 per year. Obviously, the supply of good books in these homes is 
meager, and the opportunity to become interested in and acquainted 
with good literature must be provided by the public and school libraries. 
The limited experience of many of the children and the language handi- 
cap of some necessitate the frequent use and display of pictures as a basis 
for understanding. These conditions also create a need for easy reading 
material in every field served by the library. 

Beginning with Grade I A and extending through Grade VI A, the 
school is organized into sixteen platoons, with the result that approxi- 
mately eight hundred pupils are scheduled to the library in the same way 
that they are scheduled to classes in social science, gymnasium, music, 
and other subjects. With periods of thirty-seven minutes in length, eight 
classes come to the library daily; each child thus reports to the library 
with his class on alternate days. Entirely supported and controlled by 
the school district, the school library, with a book collection of fifteen 
hundred individual titles in addition to encyclopedias, pamphlets, and 
mounted pictures, has no connection with the public library other than 
mutual help, co-operation, and understanding. The school-library books 
are kept for use within the classrooms and the school library. They do 
not circulate among the homes as do those of the public library. The 
nearest branch of the public library, five blocks from the school, en- 
courages the visits of the children and the borrowing of books. Stimula- 
tion of this activity is carried on in many ways by the teachers of other 
subjects and by the librarian. To familiarize the students with the public 
library, the school librarian takes classes to the public library branch 
annually, and on occasion she meets children there after school hours and 
helps with book selection and orientation. 

To aid the librarian in her reading guidance, the classroom teacher's 
estimate of a child's reading grade is kept with his name on the library 
seating-chart; a notation is also made of his reading-test grades and in- 
telligence-test scores. From Grade III A on, the children themselves keep 
a written record of each title they have read, and these records are cumu- 
lated through the year and also from year to year. The records are used 
to evaluate the amount,, the quality, the range of interests, a,nd the con- 
tinuity of the reading done. They are also used to help the child remem- 
ber his book and to continue with it until he completes it, to check on the 
time spent in the reading of the book, to provide a means for discussion 


with the child about the reading he is doing, and to furnish data for con- 
ferences with other teachers about the progress of the child. 

The planning of activities for the library classes has as its chief purpose 
the cultivation of the pupil's growth and pleasure in reading and the con- 
stant and careful guidance and stimulation of his reading interest; for 
this reason, stories and poems are presented in appreciation periods and 
the children are encouraged to talk about what they are reading. Library 
skills are not taught until some information is needed in the library or in 
the classroom. Hence, about three-fourths of the time in the fourth, 
fifth, and sixth grades is spent in individual reading and reference work; 
in the third grade the proportion is three-fifths of the time for individual 
reading, while in the first and second grades still less time is spent in read- 
ing and a greater amount in story-telling, reciting poetry, and learning 
the ways of the library. The librarian keeps informed about the units of 
work the children are doing in the classrooms. As a result, the work in the 
library with individual pupils becomes meaningful and effective. 


In many elementary schools, children are reading with genuine inter- 
est. In classrooms and libraries, boys and girls are learning facts and 
opinions from print and from pictures. They are finding out how to use 
reference books and library tools with skill; they are mastering certain 
study techniques and becoming familiar with some of the recognized 
sources of information. 

The library in action in the elementary school is effective in stimulat- 
ing reading, in providing appropriate materials, and in helping children 
to learn how to use books and libraries. With changes in school objec- 
tives, in courses of study, and in teaching methods has come the realiza- 
tion that the library forms an active teaching agency and an aid to learn- 
ing and to teaching and that the library is as essential at the elementary 
level as at the secondary and college levels. The elementary-school li- 
, brary is in a strategic position to prepare children for library use through- 
out their entire lives. 

While the need for elementary-school libraries is quite generally under- 
stood, provision for developing central libraries in elementary schools has 
progressed slowly. A variety of factors has contributed to the slow ex- 
pansion of elementary-school library service: limited space in school 
buildings, insufficient funds, lack of librarians, or lack of understanding 
of the potential values of library service in elementary education. 


From the preceding accounts of school libraries and from other reports 
pertaining to the organization and management of libraries in elementary 
schools, several significant tendencies can be noted. Increasingly, chil- 
dren are playing an important part in the planning and operation of ele- 
mentary-school libraries. This activity has been encouraged and devel- 
oped by schools because of the values derived from having children re- 
sponsible for essential work and from the learning that results from doing. 

Librarians are recognizing that many potential library values can be- 
come active and meaningful for children only through the understanding, 
the knowledge, and the efforts of classroom teachers, teachers of special 
subjects, supervisors, principals, and school superintendents. The 
achievement of excellence in library service depends in part upon the 
teacher's enthusiasm for reading, her knowledge of children's books, a^nd 
her use of reference and library tools; upon conferences between teachers 
and librarians; upon classroom planning for children's library visits and 
for classroom reports or discussions following library visits; and upon 
friendly, generous co-operation between the librarian and the other 
teachers in the school. 

School and public library co-operation seems to be increasingly effec- 
tive and intelligent. This may be attributed to a growing understanding 
of school needs and a widening recognition of the value of the library- 
teaching program at the elementary level. Several examples presented in 
this chapter support the following assertion of the joint committee of the 
National Education Association and the American Library Association: 
"When the schools and the public library are working together most effec- 
tively, the teachers, the public librarians, and the school librarians are 
keenly aware of the work the others are doing and of the possible services 
that they can render to one another. 777 

The clearer understanding of individual differences, the utilization of 
test results, the increased knowledge of children and of child develop- 
ment, and the changes in teaching objectives, teaching methods, books, 
and other materials are bringing improvements in the resources, the or- 
ganization, the administration, and the teaching program of elementary- 
school libraries. 

7 National Education Association and the American Library Association, Joint 
Committee. Schools and Public Libraries Working Together in School Library Service, 
p. 03. Washington: National Education Association, 1941. 



Librarian and Professor of Education 

Teachers College, Columbia University 

New York, New York 

The nature of library service in secondary schools is most readily un- 
derstood when translated into pupil, teacher, and librarian activities. 
This chapter, therefore, presents several first-hand descriptions of school 
libraries in action in communities where the objectives, basic philosophy, 
and financial support of the schools cause variations in methods and serv- 
ices. Each school and library described is engaged in the process of edu- 
cational change. No one of them has attained all its goals or entirely ful- 
filled its accepted role in the community. These descriptions must, there- 
fore, be taken as merely indicating directions of growth and efforts to 
progress toward recognized ideals. 

Library service is fortunately not a question about which American ed- 
ucators are merely talking. In various parts of the country groups of ad- 
ministrators, librarians, and teachers are demonstrating in action how 
well-organized library services help to provide pupils with a program 
which is an active apprenticeship for life. The movement toward ade- 
quate provision of such service has been widespread and many-sided. 
Five schools, working in diverse regions, have been selected as examples 
because their libraries reveal their implications vividly. These libraries 
are typical of hundreds of others which are emerging wherever educa- 
tional progress is evident. 


We may begin with Peekskill High School, a school of 275 pupils in a 
New York industrial town with a large foreign element among its 17,000 
inhabitants. The school staff has made a continuous effort to adapt the 
schools to the changing times and the local situation. The school library 
is looked upon as one of the agencies which can help pupils realize a richer 
life and eventually raise the standards of community living. 



The following narrative 1 reveals the librarian of this school working 
closely with individual pupils on their daily problems. This is part of the 
guidance program of the school. Successful outcomes depend upon the 
librarian's knowledge and understanding of the pupils' interests, drives, 
abilities, and needs, and of the ways in which the resources of the school 
and community library can be used to satisfy and develop them. Her 
skill in handling the steady flow of unforeseen requests is a part of the 
answer to the school's responsibility for the satisfactory development of 
the pupils. 

With the drop of a pencil many things can happen in a school library. 
It was exactly ten o'clock when Miss Hastings dropped her pencil in the 
Peekskill school library. She noticed the time because she had just ini- 
tialed a pass for Tommy, and experience had taught her that it was a 
wise precaution to note the exact minute that Tommy was turned loose 
in the corridors. As she resumed her work on the list of novels about fam- 
ily relations for the class in homemaking, the pencil slipped from her 
grasp and rolled under the desk. 

A girl's voice interrupted her groping search for it. "Miss Hastings, 
I'm giving a party tonight and I need a bunch of games to play new 
games, you know, really keen ones. I tried the catalog but I can't seem to 
find just the thing." 

After a search of the shelves from which Muriel turned away with 
"just the thing," Miss Hastings found George waiting to ask her for a 
nonfiction story. This contradiction in terms was no puzzle to the li- 
brarian. It meant that George had been required to report in English 
class on some nonfiction title, and he wanted the easiest possible reading. 

"What books have you read that you really liked?" inquired Miss 
Hastings, starting toward the biography section. 

"Oh, I like funny stuff. I liked The Cat's Paw and the Jeeves stories." 

Miss Hastings halted at the essay shelves and took down volumes of 
Benchley, Leacock, and Day. As George moved away with them, her 
eye, sweeping the adjacent shelves, fell upon Guiterman's Lyric Laughter. 
This had not been circulating as it should. A little advertising, she 
thought, would start a demand for it. She made a mental note to include 
it in a book talk soon. 

This time she got nearly back to her desk when Harry accosted her. 

1 This description of a few hours' activities in the Peekskill (JSTew York) High 
School Library has been prepared by the librarian, Emma L. Patterson. 


With desperation in his voice, he exclaimed: "Miss Hastings, may I 
bother you about my senior essay topic again? It's brain surgery, you 
know. I've looked in the encyclopedia and the catalog and the Readers 7 
Guide, but I can't find much about it. And Miss Warren says if I can't 
find any more material, I'll have to change my topic. And I just can't 
do that. It's the only thing in the world that I care about. So what shall 
I do?" 

Miss Hastings stood in thought. "Perhaps you'll have to expand your 
topic, Harry/' she suggested, "Look up the whole subject of surgery and 
if that includes too much, narrow it down afterward. You might even 
find some phase of surgery that would appeal to you more than brain 

Harry scorned to entertain such a radical idea as that he should ever 
swerve from his selected goal, but he agreed to the suggestion of expand- 
ing his topic and went off to act upon it. 

Just as Miss Hastings reached her desk, the bell rang to end the period. 
The children swarmed out. Another crowd assembled. Passes must be 
signed. Miss Hastings looked vaguely about for her pencil, borrowed one, 
returned it, and then took up the business of installing a new assistant at 
the charging desk. Gradually the appearance of confusion in the library 
lessened. Pupils settled down with the books or magazines they had se- 
lected. Miss Hastings at length returned to her desk. 

Then Anne rushed up with glowing eyes. "Oh, Miss Hastings, that 
was positively the best book I ever read," she exclaimed, laying down a 
copy of Pepys' Diary, 

The librarian smiled to herself, thinking how every book that Anne 
read was at the time the "best yet." "I thought you'd like it," she re- 
plied. "It's one of my favorites too." 

"I just love books that make you feel you are really living in other 
times and places," said Anne, and then half apologetically, "Sometimes 
I get almost frightened thinking I'll never have time to read all the books 
that I want to read." 

Miss Hastings chuckled. "You never will, Anne," she remarked, "be- 
cause, to have read all you wanted to, you must have lost your curiosity 
about life;*and that will never happen to you." 

"Well, what shall I read next?" Anne inquired, rather impatient of the 

"I think you are ready for Cellini's Autobiography" Miss Hastings de- 


Best of all her day she liked these conversations with Anne, but now, as 
usual, they were interrupted by the first of a succession of questions. 

"Miss Hastings, may we use your office to play off these Shakespeare 

"Miss Hastings, what does it mean in Who's Who when it says f ed pub 

"Miss Hastings, here are the book plates that the art class has been 
making for the library." 

"Miss Hastings, Mr. Lyons wants a picture of that statue, Christ of 
the Andes." 

"Miss Hastings, which of these books on my history list would I like 
the best?" 

"Miss Hastings, what should I look for in the catalog to find some more 
books like Beat to Quarters!" 

"Miss Hastings . . . ." 

"Miss Hastings . . . ." 

The flood of questions finally ceased. Miss Hastings returned to her 
desk and sank into her chair. What had she been doing? Oh yes, the list 
for homemaking. Her pencil, where was it? At once her memory fur- 
nished her with an exact reconstruction of the instant when the pencil had 
rolled to the floor. She glanced at the clock. Twelve. Two hours gone, 
she mused. 

Miss Hastings picked up her pencil and resumed the work she had be- 
gun two hours earlier. 

Manheim Township Junior-Senior High School lies in the Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch farm district. It is a rural high school which has modern, 
sophisticated children from the suburban homes of business and profes- 
sional parents mingling with children from very simple rural homes. The 
main objectives of this school and that of the high school at Peekskill are 
identical the education of boys and girls for intelligent participation in 
a world of unpredictable situations. Each provides opportunities through 
its library for studying, searching, challenging, questioning, doing, watch- 
ing, and listening. 

The following report 2 from the Manheim Township Junior-Senior High 

2 Jane Gray, the librarian of the Manheim Township (Pennsylvania) Junior-Senior 
High School, has prepared this description, of the activities which take place in her 
school library. The school has an enrolment of about 650 pupils. 


School presents a broader view of the school Kbrary in action. Teachers 
and librarian in this rural district-school are apparently working together 
effectively in promoting the personal development as well as the scholas- 
tic progress of pupils. There is evidence that pupils are being given con- 
tinuous opportunity to use both nonreading and reading material in the 
study of personal and social problems, in satisfying interests, and in se- 
curing pleasure during leisure hours. The adult needs of the community 
are also being considered in planning this library's program. In all of her 
activities the librarian is aware of her responsibilities as a special kind of 
teacher. She joins the other members of the faculty in their discussions 
and assumes with them responsibility for constant improvement of the 
whole educational" program. 

Students entering the junior high school of Manheim Township in 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, are already acquainted with the li- 
brary as a part of the school, for each of the three elementary schools in 
the district has its own attractively planned library room. Their lower 
grade experiences have developed many of the basic skills necessary for 
effective work-study as well as personal-interest use of the library. These 
students enrol in their new school fully expecting a library to be available 
and they are not disappointed. 

The new library is a cheerful room, twenty-two feet by forty-four feet, 
located in the center front of the second floor, entirely separate from the 
study hall. Built-in shelving lines three sides of the room and the floor is 
covered with inlaid linoleum. The furniture includes tables and chairs of 
various heights, a magazine rack, book-display rack, charging desk, book 
truck, dictionary stand, librarian's desk, and glass-topped display case. 
Adjoining the library at one end are a workroom and a conference room. 
The former contains a worktable, sink, closets, shelving, and a filing cabi- 
net for the librarian's use. The latter contains shelving and a table seat- 
ing twelve. Here student and faculty committees meet, socialized recita- 
tions are planned, play try-outs are held, and school parties and athletic 
events are organized. During busy periods the conference room also 
takes care of the overflow from the main library room. 

But the books which fill the shelves are the most interesting part of the 
room to the students. There are nearly four thousand of them and more 
coming to the shelves all the time. As the library is yet young, the dollar- 
a-year appropriation for each student is not enough to purchase all the 
books, magazines, and nonreading material teachers and students would 
use. But it goes a long way toward keeping abreast of urgent needs. A 


magazine rack contains forty-two of the magazines the boys and girls will 
need to supplement the book stock. 

The magazine rack is always a center of activity. Here is a student 
preparing a report on band music from the Etude for Ms music class. An- 
other has been excused from "gym" participation to read an article about 
tuberculosis control in Hygeia. The girl with the puzzled expression is 
testing her shorthand knowledge with an exercise from the Gregg Writer, 
and the boy sketching from the Popular Mechanics Magazine at the op- 
posite table is copying a diagram of a sled that he wants to build. Stu- 
dents may come to the library during any study period as well as before 
and after school, during the noon hour, and in activity periods, so it is a 
very common sight to find them spending part of their free time just 
reading the magazines for pleasure. The Crafts Group, in which much 
remedial reading work is done, uses The American Girl, The American Boy, 
and Child Life magazines almost exclusively for its reading material. 

Frequent demands come to this library from the classroom for a pic- 
ture, needed immediately to illustrate a topic, to settle a question, or 
just to complete the class discussion. For instance, here comes one for a 
picture of the Merrimac to see whether it had smokestacks, another for a 
giraffe to determine whether the black or yellow color predominates, an- 
other for an interior scene of a colonial home, still another for a face of a 
Greek god or goddess to model in art class. These requisitions are filled 
from a collection of 3,100 pictures. 

A group of recordings of music, verse, and oratory completes the 
audio- visual aids gathered in the library. It is hoped that soon a machine 
will be purchased for the conference room which will enable small groups 
of interested students to spend their free time there listening to the best 
of recorded word and music. 

Helping the pupil get the right book is one of the biggest jobs of the 
librarian. She soon becomes acquainted with each new student, learning 
from school records, teachers, and the pupil himself something of his abil- 
ity, interests, and achievements. With such data well in hand it is pos- 
sible to provide more intelligently for the varied needs of the pupils. It 
means that the mechanical and routine work of the library must be well 
organized and handled in part by pupil assistants in order that she may 
mingle with and advise the students. In reference problems she helps the 
student learn how to locate and use materials which enable him to get the 
most complete and the best answer to his question. For supplementary 
reading she sees that he selects a book within his comprehension as well 


as one that has real interest for him. For leisure reading she guides him 
skilfully so that his reading becomes an informing and enriching experi- 
ence. In this school the English teachers and the librarian believe that 
although outside reading should be required and encouraged, individuals 
differ too greatly to plan a blanket reading course for all. Their primary 
concern is to get the pupil to like to read and to make it a pleasure for 
him rather than a duty. 

All of a student's reading is recorded on a card by his English teacher 
and filed permanently in the school office. The librarian examines these 
cards from time to time. If the pupil is reading fiction to the exclusion of 
other types of literature, she may suggest a play or a challenging biogra- 
phy the next time he asks her to recommend a good book. If a senior is 
reading books of ninth-grade difficulty, she introduces him to something 
a little more mature. The important thing is that she helps him select a 
book which he will enjoy. 

The librarian feels that all her efforts to promote and increase the use 
of the library would be of little avail without the good-will and co-opera- 
tion of the members of the faculty. In the beginning of the school year 
she sends a note to all teachers listing the services she will be willing to 
undertake during the year, such as making bibliographies, talking to 
classes about library materials, notifying them of magazine articles per- 
taining to their subject, sending classroom loans to them, informing them 
of new books, etc. Among other things she asks for suggestions for new 
and additional books and pamphlets in their subject fields. These re- 
quests come to her throughout the year, and whenever possible they are 


In a small school with a faculty of thirty-five, it is not difficult for the 
librarian to know and to make contact with each faculty member, and to 
become familiar with personal as well as professional interests. Often by 
some little personal service, she strengthens the contributions of individ- 
ual teachers to the community as well as to the school. An antique col- 
lector welcomes news of a new book on old glass. The bowling devotee is 
glad to hear of a book showing new techniques in that field. She always 
makes it a point to meet new teachers at the beginning of the term and to 
show them what the library has to offer them for their personal and pro- 
fessional needs. Moreover, each year she organizes a book club among 
the faculty for recreational reading. Each member contributes a book for 
circulation among the group at two-week intervals. 


Recently one of the commercial-education teachers entered the library 
with a group of girls. The librarian soon learned that this was a class in 
office practice seeking answers to questions about reference books found 
at the end of a chapter in their textbook. The teacher realized that he, 
too, did not know much about some of the books, so the librarian agreed 
to meet with the group in the next class period. On two consecutive days 
pupils, teacher, and librarian worked together over the reference books 
most used in the business world and the indexes to magazines constantly 
needed in offices. Because the pupils felt a need for the information at the 
time, they were alert, interested, and eager to know about them. This 
kind of library instruction is typical of that which is given frequently. 
Lessons on the arrangement of the library, the classification system, the 
use of the card catalog, the dictionaries, and the encyclopedias are given 
the pupils when they enter school. They build upon the knowledge and 
skills acquired in the lower grades. Further instruction in the use of spe- 
cial reference books, magazine indexes, and the compilation of bibliog- 
raphies is woven into class work as the student feels a need for it. 

Several years ago the librarian began to plan for a collection of adult 
books. This undertaking was the result of such requests from the stu- 
dents as, "May I keep this book another week, my father is reading it?" 
or "Do you have a book you think my big sister would like?" It was ap- 
parent that, although well served while in school, the student had no 
source from which to borrow books after graduating unless he went to 
the neighboring city library. A plea for help was made and, through in- 
dividual contributions of money and books and a small appropriation by 
the school board, the collection was started in the conference room of the 
library. One afternoon and one evening a week adults are given an oppor- 
tunity to come to the high-school library for books, but most of the bor- 
rowing is done by students selecting them for their parents with the aid 
of the librarian. Since its beginning, the project has been supported by 
funds from the alumni association of the school and by traveling book 
collections from the city and state libraries. 

The library attempts to enrich the curriculum of the school, to pro- 
mote reading for pleasure, and to develop among students a habit of using 
books and library tools. Whenever it can guide an individual in his own 
interest or provide an insight into new and finer levels of thought and 
appreciation, it endeavors to do so. 



Our third library is situated in a twelve-grade district school. The 350 
pupils who attend this school are drawn largely from the rural area sur- 
rounding a factory village of 750 inhabitants. The school has a conserva- 
tive program which makes limited but nonetheless vital use of library re- 
sources. The librarian's hour-by-hour description of a typical day in the 
school library is a good index to the school's whole program. Pupils are 
seen following up personal interests, consulting a wide variety of mate- 
rials to answer problems raised in classrooms, learning democratic pro- 
cedures, seeking and getting guidance in choosing what to read, look at, 
or listen to, enriching their lives with new interests and in many ways 
learning how to become informed, effective, and well-balanced citizens. 
This record 3 shows that much can be accomplished in spite of the handi- 
caps of limited space, material, and personnel. 

Activities in the Berlin (New York) Central School library, which is 
also a homeroom, begin at eight-thirty when thirty-seven active tenth- 
grade pupils give the librarian an opportunity to partake in and to in- 
vestigate various activities useful in training for democracy. These pu- 
pils are responsible for order in their homeroom and take an active part 
in teaching their fellow-scholars to take good care of the books, magazines, 
and furniture. The library is also used as a study hall. Each period stu- 
dents enter who are scheduled there and, with both library and study-hall 
problems, things are soon humming! Students charge their own books. 
Reference questions arise continually and, although library instruction 
has been given in all English classes and students are fairly independent, 
considerable guidance by the librarian is needed. One boy wants to know 
what courses he should take in order to enter Syracuse College of Forestry 
and is referred to the shelf of college catalogs; an older boy has used the 
card catalog and the vocational pamphlet file but still does not have 
enough information on how to become a carpenter's mate in the Navy, so 
the librarian writes to the nearest recruiting station for material. An- 
other boy, who has spent all his Christmas money for a ram and two ewes, 
wants information on sheep-raising and is helped to find a book and is 
advised how to write to the College of Agriculture, Cornell University, for 

3 Katharine Maxon, librarian of the Berlin (New York) Central School Library has 
prepared this report. This twelve-grade school draws its 350 pupils from the rural 
area surrounding a factory village of 750 inhabitants. Its program is a conservative 


free pamphlets. A boy who is about to build a model of a Roman siege 
tower wishes pictures and descriptions; a girl desires pictures of Roman 
soldiers and armor for an oral topic in Latin. 

A request comes from an elementary-school teacher asking for about 
thirty books on the African Congo and supplementary pictures and pam- 
phlets. The librarian asks for student volunteers and two or three go to 
work on the card catalog and Rue's Subject Index to Books for the Intermedi- 
ate Grades while the librarian collects pictures and pamphlets. Then she 
checks the books gathered by the students for suitability and they charge 
and carry the material to the classroom. 

The ninth-grade English class reaches the library with an assignment 
to look up various topics concerning the movies. They need and receive 
instruction in the use of the Readers 1 Guide to Periodical Literature and 
are soon working busily in the conference room where periodicals are 
stored. The teacher in charge of assembly programs asks for suggestions 
and is shown how to use the Educational Film Catalog. 

Interspersed among these stimulating activities, many routine mat- 
ters have been carried on. Pencils, rulers, ink^ compasses, etc., have been 
lent and returned. (Students are not allowed to go to lockers during 
the period.) Help has been given in arithmetic, algebra, and other text- 
book subjects. A few pupils have been reminded that they are in the li- 
brary for reading or study. Students have come from classrooms to bor- 
row dictionaries or atlases or to look up short reference questions. At- 
tendance has been checked each period and the names of missing pupils 
have been sent to the office. 

During the fourth period it is possible to use the auditorium. As the 
librarian has charge of a book program for the Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tion and also an assembly program, she has arranged with the teacher of a 
second study hall to combine the two in the library while the librarian 
takes a group to the stage for rehearsal. Students are eager to participate, 
so there is no difficulty in forming a cast. The Camp Fire Girls are fur- 
nishing the costumes as part of one of their projects. 

Noon hour comes all too soon. 

In the fifth period the seventh and eighth grades come to the library. 
The librarian has some new sample books of supposedly older reading in- 
terest with easier vocabulary content which she is eager to try out on the 
poorer readers. She asks some selected boys to "try these new books sent 
on approval 7 ' and tell her if they are interesting enough to keep. Others 
soon volunteer to read, also, and it is very interesting to note that some of 


the poorest readers, and therefore usually the most restless children, set- 
tle down and really read. About this time a teacher presents a request for 
more books than are available in the library for a class which is preparing 
for an oratorical contest on the United States Constitution. A request is 
sent to the state library for a loan. A reporter from the school newspa- 
per asks for library news and is given the new Junior Literary Guild books 
with some suggestions for reviewing them. A teacher desires a list of sea 
stories suitable for supplementary reading with Treasure Island. His 
class is large so the librarian makes a note to bring additional books from 
the public town library, which will lend collections of books to the school. 
The school librarian knows this collection well for she assists with the se- 
lection, ordering, and classifying of books for the public town library. 

Scattered among teacher requests are those from students asking for a 
good book, a mystery story, an aviation story, a nursing story. Some- 
times these requests can be answered by student use of the card catalog 
or by another pupil who likes that particular kind of book. Reference 
questions continue along with such questions as "What is a really good 
book on- this history reading list?" 

More offers of assistance come from students during the afternoon. 
One girl starts copying cards for the catalog from those which the li- 
brarian has made. Another works on a scrap book of local history which 
is being compiled. The librarian tears out pages of useful pictures from 
an old Comptoris Pictured Encyclopedia) which has been "traded in" for a 
new set, while students cut out and mount the pictures for the file. 

Three o'clock comes, and with it a half-hour activity period in which a 
different intermediate grade comes each day for books and library in- 
struction. Volunteer high-school pupils help in charging books and ar- 
ranging activities such as "treasure hunts" in the card catalog or refer- 
ence books. 

After school, an N.Y.A. student shelves books and magazines and 
mends books. Books have sometimes been rebound by the students, but 
this year there is only time for mending. The librarian works another 
hour cleaning up various odds and ends, compiling circulation records, and 
taking care of correspondence; and then the day is ended. 


That education is merely the process of acquiring knowledge is the be- 
lief of many laymen and some educators. This belief probably reflects the 
aim of education as experienced by their own generation. Growth in 


youth of the ability to acquire and apply facts and principles represents a 
considerable departure from the earlier aim, but it is now generally ac- 
cepted in modern education. It is one of the areas in which South High 
School works, in order that its students on reaching maturity may be able 
to carry out their responsibilities as citizens and live happily and fully as 
individuals. That the library is an important agency for helping the 
schools achieve this aim is clearly shown in the next contribution. 4 

In a school devoted to increasing the maturity of its students so that 
they will be better able to meet their own needs, the library at South 
High School in Denver, Colorado, plays a part. The librarians are keenly 
aware that the part it now plays is a mere sample of what it should do, 
but they are cheered to know that they are not the only persons in the 
school aware of this fact. 

The librarian's work at South High School is not so simple as it was in 
the days when records of past years would reveal that the butterfly books 
would start circulating the first week in October. The records which are 
important to the librarians now are the evaluation records which show 
whether the materials provided were sufficient and effective in attaining 
the goals set up. The flexibility of the units, the goals, and the materials 
keeps the librarian's work from being dull. 

The librarians are often asked to help in planning new courses in the 
school and in revising old ones. Ideally, they should always be asked to 
sit in on such planning. The materials available for certain subjects have 
a definite bearing on the feasibility of choice of the subject. Next semes- 
ter an intensive course in contemporary American history will be given. 
After discussion and arrangements with the teacher of the course, with 
various students, and with the social science department, which furnished 
the money, orders were given for magazines and recent books that will 
enrich the course. One of the best ways to guarantee that books are read 
after they have been bought is to have many people help in their selec- 

The work of librarians at South High School seems to be one of seeking 
information. Perpetually, they must keep their ears open to what is 
going on in the school what teachers are thinking, what courses are 

4 Louisa Ward Arps, librarian of South High School in Denver (Colorado), has pre- 
pared this description of the role of the library in the educational program of this pro- 
gressive city school. The school serves 2,500 pupils and is located in a district of com- 
fortable upper-class homes. 


brewing, what the department of general education has decided to do, 
what various classes are planning. Some of this information comes to 
them automatically, some formally from notices by teachers or class com- 
mittees. They know about some because they have helped with the plan- 
ning. Much information comes to them informally. They pick up valu- 
able information at the luncheon table. Their presence at faculty meet- 
ings, which is expected and required, gives them further information. 

The librarians must also seek information about their materials at in- 
numerable sources. This is so intrinsically a part of their work that it is 
seldom mentioned. They must know not only the resources of the South 
High School Library, and be ingenious in applying them in various ways, 
but they must know what may be borrowed from the Denver Public Li- 
brary. They must keep up with the new books in order to know what to 
suggest to committees for ordering. The reports on new books by all the 
Denver high school librarians on file at the Professional Library are a 
valuable aid. Knowledge of books is part of the librarian's work, as much 
as their ordering, preparation, cataloging, and circulation. All these rou- 
tine processes take up an enormous amount of time, but the emphasis 
must be placed on making contacts between books and students. 

The librarians at South High School find it more and more important 
to obtain information about the adequacy of the books they circulate. 
Sometimes this appears in the evaluations secured by teachers from their 
classes; sometimes the librarians must secure it informally by talking to 
teachers and students. But they must know whether the materials have 
been effective in obtaining the results desired so that unsatisfactory pro- 
cedures may be corrected. 

Brief mention should be made of the relations of the teachers to the 
library. The goal of the teacher is to be competent, not only as a teacher 
but also as a person. The librarians, having faith in the power of books, 
feel they should spend much time on books for teachers, both for the serv- 
ice to the teachers and for the good example a well-read teacher gives her 
students. Numerous devices to stimulate teachers 7 reading are used 
book clubs, rental collections, convenient delivery service. A fee of fifty 
cents a semester is collected from each teacher and the money spent for 
purely professional books, to supplement the large collection at the cen- 
tral Administration Building of the Denver Public Schools. 

The library at South High School attempts to meet the book needs of 
the students and to encourage them to use the various other book sources 
of Denver, so that they will know how to meet their book needs after they 


are away from a high-school library. The first contact the library has 
with new students occurs during their first week at school. The new stu- 
dents are brought into the library by classes. They are introduced to the 
library rooms, the catalogs, the vertical files, the magazines, the phono- 
graph records, and the books, to say nothing of the view of the Rocky 
Mountains from the big western windows. As an introductory gesture, 
the Sophomores are allowed to charge out books before the rest of the 
school may come into the library. 

This introductory lesson is the only one given to all the entering stu- 
dents. Many of the teachers, both in English and in general education, 
follow this lesson with intensive reviews in library use. The boys and 
girls of the Denver schools have been taught how to use the library for 
years, and the one introductory session, with some review work, is usually 
sufficient to adjust them to the new surroundings. A diagnostic library 
test is given to the students in the last year of junior high school. The 
results are sent to the senior high school teachers, and it is on these re- 
sults that the review lessons are based. 

A check-up on library use is given to the young people in their Senior 
year in the form of another diagnostic test. Opportunity is then given to 
the librarians by the teachers to work with the students who are not thor- 
oughly grounded in methods of using the library. The librarians at South 
High School feel that they should spend much time on this so that stu- 
dents may leave high school with the equipment necessary to use any li- 
brary, public or college, with which they may come in contact. 

After the review of library use the students have opportunities to use 
the library both in class and out. Many of them serve on book commit- 
tees from their classes. For instance, the Sophomore English classes send 
in committees every six weeks to select classroom libraries. These are 
chosen from a large collection set aside for Sophomore classroom li- 
braries and are supplemented by books from the school library or from 
the Denver Public Library. 

Books are sent to classrooms in every conceivable way. Truck loads 
are sent in on certain subjects, chosen by committees of students, teach- 
ers, or librarians. For instance, books on the art, music, literature, geog- 
raphy, scenery, and history of Spain may be sent to a Spanish class, or a 
truck load of animal stories may go to a group of low reading ability. 
The contemporary literature classes often ask to have their classroom li- 
braries supplemented by whatever is on the library shelves by living au- 
thors. Books are sent to classes in smaller numbers through messengers 


or in the arms of teachers or librarians. The main idea is to get the books 
to the classes as often and in as large numbers as may be needed. The 
books sent to classes may be returned at the end of the period, or kept all 
day. Preferably they are charged out to students in the classrooms, just 
as though they were being charged from the loan desk in the library. 
When they are taken this way, the students understand that they are to 
be returned to the library in the regular way. 

Perhaps one of the most interesting ways in which books go to classes 
is through the teachers who contribute to the general education courses. 
About six teachers in the building are given time to circulate among the 
general education classes for two- or three-week periods, giving them the 
benefit of their special knowledge. These include the art and music teach- 
ers (two of each), the teacher of home economics, the teacher of psychol- 
ogy, and the person who can discuss law with some authority. When 
these teachers are preparing their plans, they include books which are 
sent into the classes when needed or which are assigned to the students by 


The general education course is required of each student at South High 
School for his entire school career; he is under one teacher for three years. 
The members of the class plan with the teacher what they would like to 
study, limiting themselves to units not generally touched upon in other 
courses. Such units include labor, unemployment, housing, conservation, 
defense, social legislation, transportation, health, safety, citizenship, per- 
sonality, home and family relations, budgets, public opinion, science in 
daily life, cultural appreciation. All these are universal or personal needs. 

The general education department collects fees from the students for 
the purchase of materials, including books. Some of the books are put 
directly into the library, especially those that are bought in small quan- 
tities. The library has money from this fund each semester to spend as it 
sees fit. The librarians are on the book committee of the general educa- 
tion department. Large sets of books and pamphlets bought from the 
general education fees are housed in a room separate from the library, and 
circulated to classes from there. This separation is caused solely by over- 
crowded conditions in the library the school was built to house sixteen 
hundred but is taking care of twenty-five hundred. The librarians have 
been watching the work of the general education library with interest, 
hoping and believing that it will increase the use of the central library in- 
stead of reducing it. 

Books go to classes, as stated above, but classes also come to the 


books. The South High School Library was built on two floors and has a 
seating capacity that is capable of caring for a whole class at a time, ex- 
cept during the most crowded periods. The teachers or student commit- 
tees arrange in advance for classes to come to the library. Usually the li- 
brary can accommodate them within a day or two of the time they want 
to come. A duplicate catalog for the upper library helps to handle the 
crowds around the catalog. Classes usually are accompanied by their 
teachers, although sometimes the teacher remains in his room to hold 
conferences with some pupils while the others use the library. The teach- 
ers, of course, are free to send in a few members of the class at any time, 
without previous notice. 

So much for the work of students in the library during class time. In- 
dividual students may come to the library at any time instead of report- 
ing to their study halls, and they may come before and after school. The 
South High School Library has no book or other material that may not be 
charged out for overnight circulation, so that students may continue their 
study and reading at home. The students come to the library for assigned 
work, of course, but they also come to the library for reading about their 
hobbies, for reading to amuse themselves, or to lighten their burdens. 
The librarians delight in helping them find books and also do what they 
can to help their teachers reach them with books that will meet their 
problems. The idiosyncrasies of boys and girls may be touched through 
individual attention to the books they read. The much-neglected bright 
pupil may find books at his high level, and the slow learner may find 
books within his vocabulary power and in his line of interest. The library 
serves both teacher and pupil in paying attention to individual needs. 

Because the school hopes to influence the boys and girls after they have 
left high school, many connections with the community and real life situ- 
ations are emphasized. The library provides a definite link with after- 
school life. The librarians seek to create demands that will last long, 
knowing that books may be obtained through public libraries to meet the 
demand. School librarians must emphasize over and over that the read- 
ing habit need not stop when a young person leaves school. The school 
librarians at South High School make all the contacts possible with the 
Denver Public Library. The young people's librarian of the Denver 
Public Library comes to the building to work in the classrooms, intro- 
ducing the public library to the school boys and girls. The Denver Public 
Schools have recently published a handbook for the use of high-school 
boys and girls, emphasizing throughout, by means of charts and maps 


and statements, the nearness and availability of the Denver Public Li- 
brary and all its branches. 

Perhaps the most important role of the school library in the education- 
al scheme at South High School is that the library demonstrates to the 
boys and girls that a democratic philosophy is workable. 


As the school's philosophy changes so must the library itself change. 
The following account 5 furnishes some of the details of what happens in 
and through the library when a school brings a liberal philosophy of edu- 
cation to bear upon its whole program. It also points out some of the 
gains made in pupil growth by a library which has gone out to teachers 
and pupils rather than waiting for them to come to it. 

The philosophy and teaching methods of a school are likely to be well 
indicated by the purposes for which its library is used. When the Tusca- 
loosa (Alabama) Senior High School students and teachers began to use 
many different kinds of material, when putting books on reserve for 
classes to read no longer served even a small percentage of its reference 
purposes, when the school began to try more adequately to meet present 
interests as well as possible future needs and interests of pupils, it became 
evident that one large, well-equipped library reading-room, a fairly good 
collection of books, and one professionally trained librarian were inade- 
quate to meet the new demands. The changes which have occurred in the 
library set-up are indicative of changes which have come about in the 
school philosophy and its teaching methods. 

Library space has grown from the one large reading-room to an even 
larger main reading-room seating 135, a small reading-room seating 
thirty-five, two small conference rooms one for students and one for 
teachers and a workroom. As the use of textbooks gave way to the use of 
many materials, the traditional study hall became almost useless. It 
seemed logical to do away with it and turn the space into added reading- 
room space which was needed. But before this was done the librarian 
interviewed about fifty students, taking a cross-section of the school. 
Nearly every student consulted was enthusiastically in favor of the 
change, explaining that most of them found the study hall no longer ade- 

5 Prepared by Fannie Schmitt, librarian of the Tuscaloosa (Alabama) Senior High 
School. This high school has about 650 students. It is an outstanding school of the 
progressive type. 


quate for study purposes. So the blackboard and screwed-down desks 
came out and library equipment took their places. 

The collection, too, has grown in number of volumes and in variety of 
subjects, but most particularly in type of materials included. The verti- 
cal file of clippings, pictures, and pamphlets has become even more im- 
portant in reference work than formerly, and many pamphlets are now 
bound and circulated. Library stock now quite naturally and normally 
includes such items as dioramas from the classics and history, figures of 
Chaucer's Canterbury pilgrims and of Dickens' characters, a model of 
the Globe Theatre built exactly according to all available details of the 
original, and many recordings, including the Orson Welles versions of 
Julius Caesar and the Merchant of Venice, the Maurice Evans Richard II, 
Abe Lincoln in Illinois } poetry read by the poets themselves, several al- 
bums of the series Americans All Immigrants AU, MacLeish's Air Raid, 
and others. In addition to the librarian, this school now has two pro- 
fessionally trained assistants, library science students doing practice 
work, and a corps of student assistants. The staff has been enlarged as it 
became necessary to provide extended library service needed by students 
and teachers. 

The space and collection are the raw materials with which the library 
works to help attain the objectives of this Alabama school. Any school 
library is essentially a service institution; it has no body of information 
to impart, no skills to perfect, except as such information and such skills 
are means to the attainment of other ends. To be sure, the library is a 
dynamic service institution, initiating new ways of making itself useful. 
Otherwise, it might not be alert and ready for immediate adaptation to 
any new need which it should serve. Here are a few typical instances of 
the ways in which students and teachers use the library. 

Two conference rooms are in constant use. A small group from a class 
concerned about reading poetry or plays schedules one of these small 
rooms for one period or for several periods. At another hour the room is 
used by a group of boys preparing an assembly program on our Bill of 
Rights. They and a librarian have collected materials books, pam- 
phlets, clippings, and periodical articles. And now, with these materials 
before them and a room in which they and their teacher and a librarian 
can work together, they read, not to accept passively what others have 
written about the Bill of Eights, but that they may acquire background 
and understanding upon which to base their own interpretation of this 
document in our life today. In an assembly period later in the week they 


will present their interpretation to the student body. The conference 
room is also requested by a group of Freshmen boys who with their 
teacher have asked a librarian to talk with them about books, suggesting 
some which they might enjoy. Such informal "book chats" offer one of 
the most effective means of reading guidance. Besides, they're excellent 
fun, enjoyed by all concerned. Again, the room is used by a group of 
boys investigating correct form for writing a petition. They are prepar- 
ing one for an R.O.T.C. unit for the school. 

The library also works with the school's debaters. They want mate- 
rials on all sorts of current questions: shall the government own and 
operate the railroads, shall we have socialized medicine, should the poll 
tax be abolished, to what extent can we preserve freedom of the press? 
They learn to use library tools as tools through which they may find the 
sources of desired information; they compile bibliographies; they read 
and evaluate critically, weighing authorities; and, finally, they think on 
their feet and express their thoughts in clear, concise English. To be sure, 
they do not learn all these things immediately. But are they not all well 
worth the time and effort required from students, teachers, librarians? 
Will not these boys and girls, at any rate, be less likely to become easy 
prey for propaganda, more likely to be the effective, intelligent citizens of 
a democracy which the schools say they are trying to help them to be- 

The small reading-room is in such constant demand by class groups 
that the library must keep an engagement calendar to see that classes 
which can and do foresee their need of it will not be disappointed. Mate- 
rials are often assembled in this room so that a class can use them con- 
veniently. Here they may talk about what they are discovering in print- 
ed materials, may work with teacher and librarian and each other, with- 
out disturbing readers in other parts of the library. Often classes come 
here for lessons in the use of library tools as a necessary preliminary to 
some investigation they are about to undertake, as did a class studying 
immigration in the United States. To accomplish this purpose these stu- 
dents needed to be able to use the card catalog, various special reference 
books, the Readers' Guide, the vertical file and many other sources of ref- 
erence help available in the library. This particular group found the re- 
cording "A New England Town" (of the series Americans All Immi- 
grants All) especially useful in interpreting the contradictory feelings 
among the colonists toward newcomers from the Continent. Parts of 
Abe Lincoln in Illinois recorded by Raymond Massey, and Lincoln's 


"Gettysburg Address" by Charles Laughton helped their discussion of 
immigration. The reading done by this group included books of history, 
economics, and, what was even more effective, biographies of some of our 
great foreign-born citizens Pupin, Carnegie, Adamic, Riis. Thus, these 
students of an English class gained better understanding of the prob- 
lem of immigration and greater tolerance toward immigrants. 

The main reading room of the library serves groups who come to use 
reference materials in their class periods as well as the usual out-of-class 
library patrons. There is seldom a period without such groups coming 
from classes sometimes a whole class, more often smaller groups, all 
working as individuals, sometimes with and sometimes without the 
teacher or student-teacher. Perhaps there are half a dozen boys collect- 
ing information on nutrition and diet to help interpret their findings in 
the health survey they are conducting. A group studying juvenile de- 
linquency in the community may be finding out what sociologists have 
discovered about its causes and remedies or may be compiling statistics 
on conditions in other parts of the country. 

There was a time, some years ago, when the school librarian had so few 
demands for book service during mid-term and final-examination periods 
that she could depend upon this time to devote attention to mending, 
cataloging, and the like. Today the reading and conference rooms and 
reference services are likely to be in constant use as part of the whole ex- 
amination program. For instance, a speech class divides itself into 
groups, each group planning, with the teacher's advice and co-operation, 
its own type of examination. Another group decides upon a test of its 
skill in make-up and uses library materials in one of the conference 
rooms for this purpose, turning out some startlingly realistic Chinamen, 
gangsters, and aged cronies. A third group comes into the library to re- 
view the poetry and drama books, for they are to read poems and plays 
selected by a process of teacher-pupil planning for their tests. Once a 
class studying economic geography used the main reading-room for their 
test period, each student making a bibliography of materials available on 
a topic to be discussed in class during the next term and taking what- 
ever notes he thought would be useful in introducing the subject to the 

Many of these examples of library use indicate that instruction in the 
use of library tools has been given. Indeed, the ability to use the card 
catalog, the Readers'* Guide to Periodical Literature, the vertical file, cer- 
tain general and special reference books, and, of course, the printed parts 


of any book, has been accepted as the fourth "R" necessary to study to- 
day. Tuscaloosa High School has recognized the need for developing 
such skills ever since it began organized library service. Improved meth- 
ods of imparting such instruction have evolved gradually. In the begin- 
ning the instruction consisted of a series of formal lessons given in each 
of the three years of the school work and required of all students alike 
for graduation. This was a unit course. The first step toward making it 
more functional was to make it a part of the regular English course. Now 
there is no formal course, no certain number of lessons taught in each 
grade. Nevertheless, more students know their library tools and all can 
use them more easily and intelligently than formerly. This has been ac- 
complished by making library instruction an integral part of each depart- 
ment's program where it is given when it is needed. Usually, a class pre- 
paring to use library materials asks a librarian to come to the classroom 
for a preliminary discussion of reference techniques. This is likely to be 
followed by class visits to the library for specific instruction in certain 
usages. There is still some reteaching, but not nearly so much as under 
the old scheme, and "library lessons" are no longer something added to 
the program but are an integral part of it. 

The library and classroom program for free reading has also changed 
as the statement of the school's philosophy has been worked out. "Read- 
ing lists" were always quite liberal, allowing for much individual choice, 
but they were still "reading lists" and took little recognition of the in- 
dividual pupil. The librarian still makes lists, but less often for a whole 
class than for small groups or individuals. She prepares them in order to 
guide student reading for certain purposes, whether the titles be good 
dog stories or technical discussions of television. The titles chosen from 
these lists by the individual student are most likely to be arrived at by 
teacher-librarian-pupil planning. "When a teacher gives his class a long 
list of titles, all concerned know that the list is purely suggestive and is to 
serve simply as a springboard for teacher-pupil planning. If a whole class 
decides to read the same selection together, the choice is likely to be de- 
termined by teachers and pupils planning together. 

The philosophy of this school is stated in the handbook. It reads: 

The objectives of the Tuscaloosa Senior High School are to aid each, student 
in acquiring such information, in developing such habits, skills, attitudes, inter- 
ests, and appreciations, as will promote his living in a democratic society: 

1. Happily and fully as an individual. 

2. Usefully as a 'citizen. 


The library has many opportunities and responsibilities to work with 
students and teachers toward the accomplishment of these ends ends 
which can be measured fully only in the future if at all, but ends which 
are worthy of the best efforts always and particularly in time of national 


From these descriptions it will be seen that school libraries in second- 
ary schools are active teaching and learning centers, effective agencies for 
helping young people participate in democratic living, vigorous forces 
working in co-operation with the entire school program for developing 
the understanding, the spirit, the skills, and the activities necessary for 
participating in community life and becoming intelligent citizens. 

These libraries are aiding directly in the attainment of school objec- 
tives in many ways. They are meeting reading interests and needs of 
young people. They are stimulating them to read and to study so as to 
understand themselves and other people, to find entertainment and re- 
freshment in books, to enlarge their horizons, to keep their ideals. Li- 
brarians are guiding them as they explore new fields, teaching them how 
to choose what to read, supplying them with books, periodicals, and the 
newer audio-visual aids so desirable for today's educational program. 
Excellent social experiences are being offered to the pupils in these schools 
through their school libraries. Young people are seen learning to manage 
themselves and to be considerate, sharing materials and contributing sug- 
gestions and personal services to the library. 

These descriptions also reveal how some school libraries are joining 
with classrooms in plans to give young people such stimulating and sat- 
isfying experiences in using all the community library facilities that they 
may be expected to use them intelligently throughout their lives. How 
the school library can carry forward its part of a school's adult-education 
program is only glimpsed in these descriptions. This is a new role for 
many public schools and the plans have only recently been formulated. 
Their libraries may be expected to play an increasingly important part as 
the program develops, co-operating in organizing discussion groups, 
striving to provide the materials for gaining literacy, understanding de- 
mocracy, appreciating civil liberties, articulating public opinion, and 
training citizens how to reach intelligent decisions in a democratic way. 

The secondary-school library's role in education is thus seen to be a 
dynamic one, growing with the educational program and fed by the urge 
of pupils and teachers to attack problems imaginatively and for signifi- 


cant reasons. Behind it lies a corps of school librarians trained in profes- 
sional, teaching, and guidance skills to select and disseminate effectively 
the books and other materials which are essential for every phase of an 
enlightened educational program. 

Finally, it should be noted that these libraries are in different stages of 
development for many reasons. Often they are what they are because of 
the presence or lack of financial support, because of the imagination and 
initiative of the librarians, the teachers, the school administrators, be- 
cause of the school's philosophy and the will to create what men have 
conceived of as best for the youth of the land. Some library services can 
be effectively understood and used only after the school has built up a 
readiness for them over a period of years. Growth and change character- 
ize the library, as well as the school and the society which it serves. 


Librarian and Dean of Instruction 

Stephens College 
Columbia, Missouri 

During the past four decades there has developed an important new 
unit in our educational system the junior college. Located in forty-four 
states, the District of Columbia, and the Canal Zone, there are today 627 
junior colleges with a total enrolment of 267,40s. 1 The 279 public junior 
colleges and the 348 private junior colleges enrol, respectively, 197,375 
and 70,031 students. 

Junior colleges include a wide variety of educational institutions. 
Typically, the junior college has a curriculum which extends two years 
beyond the high school; an increasing number of junior colleges now, 
however, have a four-year curriculum (Grades XI to XIV, inclusive). 
Some junior colleges have fewer than twenty students; others enrol up to 
several thousand. Some junior colleges are church-related institutions; 
others are public. Some junior colleges are boarding schools where stu- 
dents participate in a curriculum which extends throughout the twenty- 
four hours of the day; others are night schools others, day schools. Some 
junior colleges charge high tuition rates and attract an economically se- 
lect student body; others charge no tuition and enrol an economically 
underprivileged student group. Some junior colleges limit courses to a 
restricted college-preparatory curriculum ; others include in their curricu- 
lum hundreds of courses designed to meet the needs of a student body 
with a wide variety of vocational plans. 

The place of the library in such a complex educational unit as the 
junior college cannot be stated simply, for the library must adapt itself to 
the needs of its particular patrons and to the philosophy of the educa- 
tional program of which it is a part. 

1 W. C. Eells, "Junior College Directory, 1942," Junior College Journal, XII (Janu- 
ary, 1942), 279. 



The importance of the library to the junior college was signally recog- 
nized by the Carnegie Corporation of New York when in 1934 it estab- 
lished its Advisory Group on Junior College Libraries. Over a period of 
some two and a half years, this group surveyed junior-college libraries 
and, finally, in 1937 announced grants totaling $300,000 for the purchase 
of books for ninety-two junior-college libraries, selected on the basis of 
the effectiveness of their library service. 

In preparing the present chapter the findings of the Carnegie Corpora- 
tion Advisory Group and the judgment of other students of junior-college 
library service were used to compile a list of thirty-three junior colleges to 
which the author wrote asking for materials describing their library serv- 
ice. This chapter is largely based upon the eighteen usable replies to this 
request, several of which have been followed up by further correspond- 

Because of the widely different types of junior colleges, it is desirable 
to include in this chapter descriptions of library service in a variety of 
junior colleges. This the writer has been able to do only in part, for he 
has been limited to the descriptions of library service in junior colleges 
concerning which he has been able to get materials. Five junior colleges, 
located in four states, were finally selected as representative of junior 
colleges having effective library service. 

1. A medium-sized public coeducational junior college Virginia (Minnesota) 
Junior College 

2. A medium-sized public military junior college for men New Mexico Military 

3. A large coeducational public junior college Los Angeles City College 

4. A small private junior college for men Menlq Junior College 

5. A large private junior college for women Stephens College 

Following the description of library services at the above five colleges, 
brief notes are given regarding selected phases of library service in several 
other schools. 

The reader must recognize that colleges whose practices are described 
are not presented as examples of perfection, nor is it possible within the 
space limits of a single chapter to give complete descriptions of the library 
programs selected. Rather, the purpose has been to describe selected 
aspects of library service which may prove suggestive to other junior col- 



Virginia, a small city with a population of 12,500, is located in the cen- 
ter of the Mesabi Iron Ore Range of northern Minnesota. The four hun- 
dred students enrolled in the junior college have a varied nationality 
background with a preponderance of Finnish, Jugoslavian, and Italian. 
In general, students' parents are foreign-born or second-generation Amer- 
ican miners. Two languages are spoken in most homes. Although cul- 
tural opportunities in the homes of students are limited, the school and 
library facilities to which they have had access throughout their school 
experience are superior. Just one block from the junior college is located 
the public library, which has a book collection of 48,000. 

Visitors to Virginia Junior College and readers of its library reports 
usually comment on the following characteristics of its library service: 

1. The book collection is well selected and includes little "deadwood." 

2. The library staff has succeeded in gaining the co-operation of the faculty in the 
effective use of the library in teaching. 

3. The library staff is awake to the opportunities of making factual studies of 
problems confronting the library. 

The library, which is also used as a study hall by students with free 
periods, is housed in two rooms with a total seating capacity of 140. The 
library staff, consisting of two trained librarians and one full-time sub- 
professional assistant, administers the collection of 15,000 books in addi- 
tion to a subscription list of 145 magazines and newspapers. From time 
to time unused books have been weeded out so that the collection may be 
a live one. 

Several facts mentioned above obviously influence the library and its 
service. Among these the following three seem particularly noteworthy: 

1. The fact that students come from high schools which have effective library 
service reduces considerably the problem of teaching students how to use the 
library for as a rule they know how to use libraries before entering college. 

2. The location of a public library one block from the junior college offers oppor- 
tunities for co-operation. Advantage is .obviously being taken of these oppor- 
tunities. In the field of book selection, for example, the junior-college library 
purchases few fiction and travel titles; the public library cares for the major 
part of student reading in these fields. On the other hand, the junior-college 
reference collection is unusually strong; accordingly, public library patrons fre- 
quently use the junior-college library for reference work. 

3. Since the library is used as a study hall for students during their free periods, 


every student has frequent opportunity for coming to the library and using its 
facilities. The library staff recognizes the opportunities which this arrange- 
ment offers for placing valuable and interesting materials before students by 
means of exhibits, book lists, and personal contact. The staff is likewise aware 
of the problems (particularly those of discipline) created by the library-study 
hall combination. In meeting these problems the librarians have found stu- 
dent co-operation particularly effective. 

a. General Library Administration and Practices. The library is housed 
in two adjacent rooms, the general reading-room with open shelves and 
the reserve reading-room with closed shelves. Little use is made of class- 
room libraries, though in some of the science laboratories small collections 
are maintained, and these are used heavily. 

In some small- and medium-sized libraries simple cataloging is used. 
At Virginia Junior College, however, cataloging is more complete than in 
many large libraries. Underlying this practice is a conviction of the li- 
brary staff that more complete cataloging of a library (for example, con- 
sistent use of more subject headings than are used by the Library of Con- 
gress, and the frequent use of from ten to twenty analytics on a single 
book) aids in opening up its resources to the patrons. 

b. The Book Collection and Its Selection. The book collection of the li- 
brary appears to be excellent, at least as compared with other junior- 
college libraries. Its holdings of titles included in the Mohrhardt list 2 
placed this library at the ninety-seventh percentile as compared with the 
holdings of junior colleges of the nation. This fact, plus the comment of 
visitors and of faculty members on the quality of the book selection, 
makes it worth while to look into the book selection procedures used. 

Apparently the keynotes to book selection are "faculty co-operation/ 7 
"extensive use of book selection aids," and to a small extent "student co- 
operation. " The librarian makes clear to teachers that major responsibil- 
ity for selecting books in their respective fields belongs to them. The 
library staff wishes to (and does) help, but the major part of the work 
must be done by the faculty. In instrumenting this philosophy the li- 
brarian regularly sends various book selection aids (Booklist , Publisher's 
Weekly, Subscription Books Bulletin , etc.) to all faculty members with the 
request that they initial (it is important to observe that this does not in- 
volve extended clerical work by the teacher!) titles which they wish to 

2 F. E. Mohrhardt, A List of Books for Junior College Libraries. Chicago: Ameri- 
can Library Association, 1937. 


recommend. If, for any reason, funds will not at the moment permit the 
purchase of books which are recommended, or if the librarian believes a 
suggested title ought not to be purchased, he discusses the matter with 
the instructor. This discussion is extremely important, for it serves as a 
means of letting the teacher know that every suggestion of his is care- 
fully considered it serves as a device for improving teacher-library co- 

The plan for encouraging students to suggest books has not been as 
well developed as that for the faculty. Announcements inviting student 
suggestions are made from time to time, however, and such recommenda- 
tions as are made are given careful attention. 

c. Faculty Co-operation. Not only do faculty members co-operate in 
book selection but also in keeping the library staff informed of assign- 
ments, in keeping acquainted with library materials, and at times in the 
actual administration of the library. All teachers are asked to give the li- 
brarian copies of assignments which involve the use of library materials. 

From time to time teachers spend free periods in the library where they 
can read in their own fields, get better acquainted with library facilities, 
and work with their students who are studying in the library. 

For at least two hours every day one or more faculty members are 
scheduled for desk duty in one of the library reading-rooms. Although 
this scheduling was originally planned simply as an aid to the library 
staff, it actually results in improved understanding of the library by the 
faculty and of increased use of the library in teaching. 

d. Factual Studies of Library Problems. The annual reports of the Vir- 
ginia Junior College Library at times describe studies made by the li- 
brary staff. The 1936-37 report, for example, includes an account of a 
study of the use of magazines in the library. This study, made by N. Y. A. 
students who tallied the magazines read for a period of several hours a 
day during six months, indicated the magazines which were most fre- 
quently used during the 1936-37 school year and the results were used in 
preparing the magazine order for the following year. 

That same year an inquiry-form study was made of the reading prefer- 
ences of students as compared with their actual reading habits. On the 
inquiry blank, students checked the types of books they most enjoy read- 
ing and then reported titles they had actually read during the preceding 
year. The results of the study were used as aids to book selection and in 
individual student reading guidance. 

Another study is reported for the 1940-41 school year when an investi- 


gation was made of the relationship of grades students received in se- 
lected courses to the number of books borrowed from the library for use 
in those courses. The results of the study, which indicate that there is a 
significant relationship between grades and number of books borrowed, 
have been used extensively in library publicity. 

These studies are mentioned not so much because of the significance 
of their results as because they represent an experimental attack on li- 
brary problems. 


Representative of a public residential junior college which has a beauti- 
fully furnished and well-equipped library is New Mexico Military In- 
stitute. Here is a junior college which recognizes the need of a well-fi- 
nanced library program; here is a library which makes its influence felt 
throughout the college; here is a library which stresses recreation as well 
as academic opportunities. 3 

a. Aims. What is culture when it is alive? It is expression between 
one man and his fellows. Reading books, seeing pictures, hearing music, 
learning work, doing business, talking politics, these are the civil arts; 
they contain the raw material of culture, and they stand for the use to 
which the creative arts are put. 

A library is a place where daily culture is reflected and where it meets 
the living culture of the past. How richly these two mingle determines 
the character of a library user boy, man, his neighbors, and finally his 
country. In the large, this is the value of all learning, its joy and duty; 
and it is what makes a library's idea greater than its method. 

Like anything worth having "for keeps," culture comes slowly; it even 
takes generations, in terms of a nation's character; and so elusive is it that 
if you try to isolate it from the terms of daily life, common or garden life, 
and so rob it of a sort of functional honesty, it is lost straightway. 

This library tries to let the civil arts be daily voluntary enjoyments of 
its young public. 

New Mexico Military Institute is a state school with a junior-college 
enrolment of 350 and a high-school enrolment of 269. Particulars of the 
Institute Library performance follow. But no single one of them should 
be regarded as oversignificant. It is the whole job which matters. It can- 

3 The remainder of this section is contributed by Paul Horgan, Librarian at New 
Mexico Military Institute. 


not be broken down into anything like an accurate picture. Some particu- 
lars will seem more significant than they are and some less. Possibly 
most attention should be paid to the ideas and aims of the library; for, in 
any library of normally adequate technical routine, these can be readily 
understood if clearly stated. Beyond this, it is as important to leave a 
boy and a book alone as it is to see that they originally get together. 

With that mild warning in mind, we will now particularize. 

&. Resources and Fields of Interest. The two main purposes of the In- 
stitute Library are academic and recreational, and the second is as vital 
as the first. Both are served by resources that include not only the gen- 
eral collection of books and periodicals and a staff of three officers and six 
cadet assistants but also by exhibitions of popular and fine arts, by 
phonograph and moving-picture programs, and by the publication of a 
monthly review of books with criticisms written by cadets themselves. 

The physical plant of the library (barely a year old) expresses its plan 
of action. Comprising the west wing of the Headquarters-Library build- 
ing, it consists of fourteen rooms on three floors. The basement level is 
given over to the preparation, cataloging, and housing of the book collec- 
tion, which contains about 20,000 volumes, and to the filing of unbound, 
unindexed periodicals. 

The second floor is devoted to special use of the library and includes 
the forum, for meetings and programs of all sorts; the tower browsing- 
room, for pleasure reading solely; the reserved-book reading-room, where 
a whole section of cadets may be brought by an instructor to find mate- 
rials gathered for research use in a common assignment; seminars for the 
English and social-science departments; a temporary office for school 
periodicals; and the librarian's office. The upstairs hall is used as an ex- 
hibition gallery. The public rooms of the library are all acoustically 

How is a cadet invited to notice books and begin to discover for him- 
self the lifelong riches available within them? Wherever a cadet finds a 
book that interests him, he will also find a place to sit down and spend 
some time with the book in comfort. He has free access at all times to the 
general bookstacks. He may draw out as many books at a time as he 
likes. He is encouraged to propose titles for purchase, and often does so. 
If he begins to feel that he is in a club or a big friendly house instead of a 
library, then the school's aim in this department has begun to succeed. 

The cadet sees the new books of all kinds grouped together just inside 
the lobby doors, where he may choose, grab, and run, if he is in a hurry. 


By handling books in the stacks he learns to know them as he never 
could if restricted to the card catalog. He finds all fiction gathered into a 
browsing corner of the main stack room where he can lose himself in an 
easy chair with a book. In the tower browsing-room he finds the library's 
latest purchases scattered around on tables, with their jackets still on, 
before they have taken on the necessarily "classified" look of a library 
book; and, as if he were dipping into the new books in a good bookstore 
or at home, he may rove with his eye until he happens upon something to 
interest him; and then he may scribble his name on a card inside the book 
to reserve it when it is ready to circulate. 

Here in the tower room he will find, too, a constantly refreshed collec- 
tion of books in all fields, winnowed from the main stacks, which he might 
otherwise never discover; and picture-books, too, ranging from the fine 
arts through technology to cartoons. The tower room is a place where he 
reads purely for enjoyment. 

It is a cardinal aim of the library to inculcate a desire to read for en- 
joyment. When that struggle is won early, then the problem of study it- 
self is on the way to solution. 

But it is a taste achieved by indirection, by contagion, by juxtaposi- 
tion of book and boy. As long as it all seems casual, indeed, inevitable, 
the boy responds in bis own way and knows the reward of the discoverer. 
Though the library often just exceeds a boy's grasp, so that he grows by 
reaching, it also rewards his interest with things he already enjoys, like 
magazines and other outlets for his hobbies. The magazine collection 
covers all conceivable cadet interests and offers his elders on the faculty 
a comprehensive ration of professional and recreational journalism. 

There are other expressions of culture made available to cadets. These 
include exhibitions of works of art. Changing exhibits every three weeks, 
the library offers exhibitions that range from original paintings to repro- 
ductions of masterpieces in color; from lithographs and drawings to the 
best advertising illustrations; from displays co-ordinated with topics be- 
ing taught in academic courses to works of art and photography and craft 
by the cadets themselves. These displays have been used successfully as 
fuel for exercises in theme-writing by officers of the English department. 
Again, they are meant to interest the cadet in a purely incidental way, 
and their point is not lost when he sees art as something interesting, full 
of things to find out for himself. 

Every week in the forum, a small auditorium on the second floor, the 
library presents two series of programs at an hour in the late afternoon 


when the cadet is free to drop in. The first of these is a series of phono- 
graph programs of literature: speech, drama, poetry, history, stories. 
Examples of the kind of thing presented: Carl Sandburg's own recorded 
excerpts from his book, The People, Yes; Lynn Fontaine in Alice Duer 
Miller's The White Cliffs; Ronald Colman as Scrooge in Dickens' A 
Christmas Carol; Archibald MacLeish's radio drama Air Raid; recorded 
productions by Orson Welles of Shakespeare's plays; recitals of poetry by 
poets and distinguished readers; programs of historical documents, such 
as speeches by all United States presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to 
Franklin D. Roosevelt, by foreign statesmen and rulers such as King 
George V, King Edward VIII, Prime Minister Chamberlain, etc. 

The second series of the Forum Five O'Clocks presents nonfiction 
movies, covering everything from building a dam to flying the Andes. 
Sample programs: Pare Lorentz's "The River"; United States Govern- 
ment's "T. V.A." ; F.BJL instructional films; South American life in vari- 
ous aspects; films on sports technique, etc. An affiliated cadet organiza- 
tion gathers to hear programs of classical music on the phonograph. 

Cadet participation in all these things is voluntary. That it exists and 
grows is proof of how youth will respond when culture is relieved of 
snobbery or rarity. To encourage that response, the Institute Library is 
open daily from after breakfast until taps, excepting the two hours of 
supervised night study. 

The library can never take the place of the classroom; the reference 
collection cannot achieve the focus and proportion of the textbook; and 
casual relations with the librarian can never achieve what intimate associ- 
ation with the teacher achieves for the student. But the library widens 
the horizon of the classroom. The student discovers that the library is 
like a general sea of knowledge on which the textbook floats and pursues 
its course. When a student goes to sea, in this sense, his instructor pilots 
him and shows him how there is more to going to sea than the inside of a 

At the Institute, instructors help to create the book collection by rec- 
ommending books to purchase. Again, like faculty members everywhere, 
they choose special reference shelves of reserve material; they conduct 
group research exercises in the upstairs reading-room established for the 
purpose; they bring classes to hear phonograph recitations of history or 
literature, or to see films, or to study picture exhibitions; they meet a 
couple of cadets in one of the seminars and, with a handful of books, 


work out a problem in conversation that is here free and easy but which, 
if conducted in the main reading-room downstairs, would disturb others. 

The principles of how to use the library are relayed to cadets by the li- 
brarians in visits to the various classes. Sometimes a cadet who is fa- 
miliar with the system is requested by his instructor to educate his class- 
mates in library routine. In spite of all its chances of earnest confusion, 
this has worked fairly well, because the cadet thus gets the point from 
somebody, like himself, who isn't expected to know everything about li- 
brary technique, and who somehow makes what he does know about it 
seem simpler than it all looked at first. 

Description has so far been concerned with the aims and fields of in- 
terest of the Institute Library for the cadet's sake and has touched upon 
its two-fold mission academic and recreational, for the betterment of 
boys. These same aims and fields have a more mature expression which is 
equally important : unless the faculty receives nourishment and stimulus 
from the action of the library, then the job is not being well done. 

Books in all categories which will appeal primarily, or entirely, to the 
teaching staff are often added to the library. Many periodicals have 
chiefly faculty patronage. Good teachers all know that education never 
ends, least of all for themselves. To keep fuel of growth constantly re- 
plenished for those who want to help youngsters to grow is one of the 
vital purposes of the library. As no school is any better than its teachers, 
so must a school supply its teachers with the intellectual resources they 
need and enjoy. 

This is the library's privilege; and it is distinct from, though allied 
with, the other purpose of making library materials bear directly upon 
actual academic application. 


Los Angeles City College, which has an enrolment of 5820 (1308 of 
whom go to evening classes only) and a faculty of 200, is the nation's 
largest junior college. 

Despite the size of its student body and of its teaching staff, City Col- 
lege has a library which concerns itself not with mass education, not with 
a rigid nonpersonalized library service, but rather with library service di- 
rected to the needs of each section of the curriculum, of each teacher, of 
each student. 

The students in this public junior college come from a wide variety of 


economic, social, and cultural backgrounds; they have an even wider 
variety of plans, hopes, and aspirations. Since their junior-college work is 
terminal for most students at City College (only 25 per cent of the stu- 
dent body take courses which parallel the university), terminal curricu- 
lums are emphasized and particular stress is placed upon semiprof essional 
and vocational training in such fields as recreational leadership, work of 
dentists ' assistants, radio broadcasting, home administration, work of 
nursing and engineering aides, legal secretaryship, and police work. The 
library, which has a collection of more than fifty thousand volumes, is 
housed in a separate two-story building, the readingrrooms of which have 
a total seating capacity of 580. On the main floor are located the central 
charging desk, stack rooms, the periodical room and the reference and 
general reading-room. The ground floor includes reserve reading-rooms, 
an exhibit hall, and a law reading-room. 

The size and the heterogeneity of the student body, the breadth of the 
curriculum, and the variety of instructional procedures used in different 
fields have a direct effect upon the library and its administration. Par- 
ticularly is this true when the library staff, as is the case at City College, 
is eager to adapt the library to the needs of teachers and students in all 
fields of the curriculum. 

a. Departmental Libraries and Other Special Collections. Although the 
library at City College is, for the most part, housed in a central building, 
departmental and classroom libraries are established when teachers wish 
them. Books in a departmental library are cataloged in the central cata- 
log and charged out to the departmental field, where they are under the 
direct supervision of the faculty. Hours at which these books are avail- 
able to students vary from department to department as do methods of 
administration. In general, however, department collections are avail- 
able from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. daily. During these hours, while in- 
structors are teaching and working with students, appropriate books are 
conveniently at hand. "Among the fields in which departmental libraries 
are used are chemistry, police curriculum (courses training men for public 
service on the police force), public affairs, vocational guidance, and den- 
tal assistant's curriculum. 

In addition to departmental collections borrowed from the central li- 
brary, several fields of study have established departmental libraries of 
books not owned by the college but purchased for the department by as- 
sessments paid by students. For example, students in certain English and 
drama courses contribute to a fund which is employed to purchase books. 


In this way a collection of over two thousand books has been built up in 
each of these departments to supplement or replace the textbook. 

Departmental libraries are not, however, the only means which City 
College Library uses to group books together for convenient use by stu- 
dents in given courses. In one economics course, for example, a tempo- 
rary classroom library is set up at the opening of each important unit. 
The books on the unit (foreign trade, for example) are selected by the 
teacher and sent to his classroom. The teacher uses a major part of the 
opening period on the unit in discussing the books which are best for use 
in considering various aspects of the subject. Students are given an op- 
portunity to examine the books and, at the close of the period, may bor- 
row books for study outside of class. Teachers report that this plan re- 
sults in the selection by students of books adapted to their individual 
needs and interests for the instructor is available to guide their choice. 
This plan also permits students to begin reading on new units at the very 
opening of the period of study. 

A modification of the departmental library is used by the teachers of 
English who have established, on open shelves in the reference room of 
the library, a special collection of several hundred titles which are used 
for outside reading in their courses. Since a major purpose of reading in 
this course is to develop and extend the reading interests of students, 
titles in the collection are varied (Paul de Kruif s Microbe Hunters, Max 
Eastman's The Enjoyment of Poetry, Vincent Sheean's Personal History, 
Rene Balbenoit's Dry Guillotine, Norman Bel Geddes' Horizons, etc.). 
The location of these titles in a special open-shelf collection facilitates the 
selection of books by students and makes particularly valuable the 
browsing assignments which are used from time to time preceding the 
selection of books for reading, 

6. Selecting Books for Semi-professional Curriculums. Because Los An- 
geles City College has pioneered in offering a large number of new semi- 
professional curriculums, classroom teachers and librarians have needed 
to work with unusual care on the selection of library books for use in 
studying these previously undeveloped fields. One example of the proce- 
dures used at City College is the selection of books for the dental assist- 
ant's curriculum. The teachers in the field study publishers' lists, books 
recommended by dental associations, and bibliographies in dental educa- 
tion; they likewise interview dentists and publishers' representatives and 
actually examine as many books in the field as are available. On the basis 
of this study the teachers choose for consideration titles which are appar- 


ently accurate, suitable, and helpful for the training of dental assistants. 
The tentative list thus prepared" is submitted to a dental advisory com- 
mittee composed of five members of the California State Dental Associa- 
tion. This plan of studying book lists, of examining books themselves, and 
of utilizing the judgment of successful leaders in the field is typical of the 
book selection procedure used in the newly developed semiprofessional 

In a school the size of City College, particularly in a school having a 
separate library building, it would be easy for the library to become a 
machine which operates according to a restricted set of rules, without par- 
ticular reference to the needs and interests of individual teachers and stu- 
dent groups. It is encouraging to observe the extent to which the City 
College Library staff has avoided this danger and has adapted its service 
to the needs of various curriculum groups through such agencies as the 
establishment of special collections (permanent or temporary, in the li- 
brary or in a classroom, as the case may require) and the development of 
co-operative plans for book selection. 


Menlo School and Junior College, California, is a private residential 
high school and junior college for boys, with a junior-college enrolment 
of 150, a high-school enrolment of 100, and a faculty of 40. 

Menlo is particularly noteworthy because of its success in making the 
library a unified part of the instructional program. The Menlo library in- 
cludes more than 11,000 books (40 per cent of which have been purchased 
during the last six years), subscriptions to 138 current magazines and 
newspapers, 150 phonograph records, over 800 transcriptions of signifi- 
cant radio programs, several hundred art pictures, and facilities for secur- 
ing motion pictures on loan for instructional uses. It is financed by ap- 
propriations in the regular college budget and by fees paid by students in 
each course in which they are not required to buy textbooks. A grant of 
$3,000 from the Carnegie Corporation has been an important factor in 
library expansion at Menlo. 

The library is centrally administered and includes, in addition to the 
general reading-room, a social-studies laboratory, a reading laboratory, 
shelves in the science laboratory, a small branch in the school barber 
shop, and numerous temporary classroom libraries which are supplied 
from the general- collection whenever teachers ask for them. The staff 


consists of a librarian, one full-time assistant, one part-time assistant, 
several student librarians, and clerical help as needed. 

The most significant facts concerning library service at Menlo, how- 
ever, lie entirely outside those specifics which have been mentioned 
book stock and other facilities, staff, and decentralization of books. The 
most important factors which condition library service at Menlo are 
these: first, the library is regarded as a unified part of the instructional 
program ; and, second, Menlo has a research and experimental attitude to- 
ward educational problems, particularly toward those relating to the li- 

a. The Library Is a Unified Part of the Instructional Program. The 
staff takes the view that librarians and teachers are actually united in 
one single instructional staff. The library is administered by a committee 
consisting of the librarian and the chairmen of subject-matter depart- 
ments. Library problems are studied by the library committee under the 
leadership of the librarian and with the aid of teachers. Teachers keep the 
library staff informed of assignments through the use of assignment 
sheets which are regularly turned in to the appropriate library and by 
the fact that teachers and students are frequently in the library doing re- 
search type of study; the library staff and the teachers work together on 
the problem of securing needed instructional facilities (not only books, 
but also pictures, pamphlets, motion pictures, and recordings) and of 
placing these materials where they can best be used for instructional pur- 
poses, whether that be in the central library, in a departmental labora- 
tory, or in a temporary classroom library. 

6. A Research Attitude toward Educational Problems. Located near the 
campus of Stanford University, Menlo has taken advantage of the re- 
search facilities and advice of the Stanford University School of Educa- 
tion in developing its curriculum, its guidance program, and its library 
service. Particularly notable is the emphasis given to the library in the 
general education studies being carried on at Menlo. The first major pub- 
lished evidence of this emphasis was the appearance of Adams 7 volume 
on the junior-college library. 4 Although the volume reports a national 
study of the junior-college library, the discussion of library investigations 
and developments at Menlo comprise an important part of the book. An 

4 H. M. Adams, The Junior College Library Program. Chicago: American Library 
Association, 1940. 


even more complete and up-to-date study of the Menlo Library by Cross 5 
is now in progress. 

Adams 7 study is particularly interesting because in its opening stages 
it involved a survey on the basis of which the faculty planned future li- 
brary developments. This survey included a study of student ability to 
use books and libraries, of students' reading interests and habits, of the 
actual use made of the library, and of suggestions for improving library 
service. As a result of these studies a faculty reading council was estab- 
lished further to study plans for improving library service and increasing 
reading and study efficiency. In the spring of 1937 this committee recom- 
mended that a student-faculty committee make specific recommenda- 
tions on "(1) the nature and number of desirable branch units; (2) the 
administration of these units; and (3) a program for training students in 
the use of books and the library." 6 

The recommendations of this committee and the continual study of li- 
brary problems has resulted in the decentralization previously referred to. 
These recommendations have likewise led to the inclusion of library in- 
struction in the orientation course which all freshmen students take. 
Briefly, this instruction involves study of a pamphlet on how to use the 
library, a tour of the library, and the preparation of a bibliographical 
assignment which requires the use of a variety of library tools. Text- 
books have been eliminated in all social-studies classes and in nearly all 
English classes as a result of the acceptance of the thesis that "students 
are individuals and need a variety of materials in any one class." 

The investigation by Cross 7 which is now in progress gives further con- 
sideration to the contributions of library service to the students. Spe- 
cifically, Cross aims "to find out what good reading is for the students of 
Menlo School and Junior College, how well the library is making provi- 
sion for such reading, and what steps should be taken in the future to pro- 
vide better facilities for such reading." 

It is notable that both Adams and Cross have made studies the results 
of which can be immediately applied to the improvement of library facil- 
ities at Menlo. 

5 Neal M. Cross, "Study of the Library of Menlo School and Junior College/ 7 
Thesis in preparation, Graduate School, Stanford University. 

6 Adams, op. dt. p. 77. 7 Cross, op. tit. 



Stephens College is a private junior college for women with an enrol- 
ment of seventeen hundred students from forty-eight states, the District 
of Columbia, and twelve foreign countries. The college takes an experi- 
mental attitude toward educational problems. Specifically, it is studying 
the activities, needs, and problems of women and is building a curriculum 
designed to meet those needs as well as the needs of society to which 
women can best contribute* The philosophy of the college demands that 
the attention of the entire staff be centered upon determining the abilities 
and needs of each student and guiding her in the projection of a program 
which will capitalize upon her individual needs and abilities and upon her 
potential contributions to society. 

For more than a decade the faculty (including library staff, classroom 
teachers, counselors, administrators) at Stephens College has been work- 
ing on a program of library development specifically designed to make 
the library contribute as effectively as possible to the education of every 
student. Since this program including the development of classroom, 
division, dormitory, and personal libraries; the establishment of the dual 
position of librarian and dean of instruction; the expansion of library 
materials, including books, pictures, phonograph records, music, and 
motion pictures; changes in methods of classroom teaching; and increased 
use of library materials has been described in some detail elsewhere, 8 
it will not be repeated here. In the present interpretation of the Stephens 
College Library, the story of the library experience of a new student will 
be related. 

It was a Tuesday afternoon in September when seventeen-year-old 
Susie Stephens ended her train trip from Dallas, Texas, to Columbia, 
Missouri. A taxi took her and four other new students to their residence 
hall where Susie found her roommate, Mary Smith, already busy un- 
packing. The new roommates were visiting excitedly when Kay Jones, 
Susie's "senior sister/' stopped by to offer her help in getting acquainted 
with the campus. One of the first places Kay showed Susie and Mary 
was the general library, where the girls picked out a mounted and framed 
picture (Degas' "Dancing Lesson") for their room. Selecting a picture 
early, Kay explained, was important because the subject and colors of 

8 B. Lamar Johnsoi*, Vitalizing a College Library. Chicago : American Library As- 
sociation, 1939. 


the picture must be considered in planning the arrangement of a dormi- 
tory room, including the selection of drapes and bed coverings. 

As Susie was about to leave the library she spied a sign which read, 
"Make personal library appointments here." Susie had read about per- 
sonal libraries in the college catalog how each girl who wishes may bor- 
row a group of books which she may keep all year for her own personal 
use. Since Susie liked the idea of having a group of well-selected books 
available in her room, she made an appointment for the following Satur- 
day with the librarian in charge of personal libraries. 

On Friday, at Susie's first class, English composition (ordinarily spok- 
en of on the campus as communications), her teacher gave each student 
a copy of the Knowledge Locator, a library handbook 9 which is written in 
the form of a chatty letter from Aunt Susie to her niece, Melissa, a new 
student at Stephens. Each student was asked during the following week, 
first, to study the Knowledge Locator; second, to take (with the aid of the 
Knowledge Locator} a self-conducted tour of the general library; and, 
third, at the time of taking this tour to write answers to a group of ques- 
tions, each of which involved the use of a library tool. 

Following the completion of these assignments, Susie's class was given 
an objective test on how to use the library. Since in high school Susie had 
learned how to use a library, she passed her library usage test and was not 
required to take further instruction. Almost half her classmates, how- 
ever, needed further help. This instruction was given by the English 
teacher, who used a group of self-administering exercises 10 which require 
the use of the card catalog, periodical indexes, encyclopedias, and dic- 
tionaries. 11 

By the close of the first month of school, Susie was working on an in- 
vestigative paper ("Facts and Fallacies in Racial Characteristics") in 
English. During the material-gathering stages of preparing their papers, 
Susie, her classmates, and her English teacher worked together in the 
college libraries, actually putting into practice what they had learned 
about library tools and learning about new library resources. 

9 Jean Bailey, The Knowledge Locator. Columbia, Missouri: Stephens College, 

10 Wesley Wiksell and Mary Eleanor FilMn, The Wiksell-Filkin Treasure Hunt. 
Columbia, Missouri: Stephens College, 1941. 

11 It is notable that both the Knowledge Locator and the Treasure Hunt were writ- 
ten by English teachers not by librarians. 


Susie's second class In college was social problems. As she entered the 
classroom she observed that the room was furnished with tables and 
chairs, arranged to encourage informal discussion or for laboratory work. 
She likewise saw that the classroom opened directly into the social-studies 
library with its collection of several thousand books and scores of periodi- 
cals. At its second meeting, this class decided that one of the best means 
of beginning the co-operative study of society was to pool the resources, 
experiences, and backgrounds of various members of the class. As an 
initial step in this, each member of the class (they came from twenty-four 
different communities in all sections of the country) agreed to prepare a 
survey of her home community. The preparation of these surveys re- 
quired, first, a study of representative community surveys (Lynd's Mid- 
dletown; Blumenthal's Small Town Stuff, etc.) and, second, the gathering 
of materials about and from the home communities. Since both of these 
necessitated the use of library materials, the instructor and his class went 
to the social-studies library, where they observed its arrangement and its 
contents and spent a part of the period in examining its value as a source 
of materials for community surveys. 

This use of the social-studies library was but an introduction to a 
source of materials which Susie was to discover that she and her classmates 
would rely on increasingly during the year books were always conven- 
iently at hand for use during the classroom discussions or during labora- 
tory-work periods; the social-studies books were grouped together in one 
central location; library materials were immediately at hand during the 
instructor's conferences with students. 

At Susie's third college class, humanities, she learned that the library 
was to be the major source of study materials for this course phono- 
graph records and music scores for studying music; pictures and slides for 
studying art; books and magazines for studying literature. It was also 
during this period that Susie first learned of the phonograph-record pro- 
gram broadcast over the local radio station under the supervision of a 
member of the library staff. This program, conveniently scheduled dur- 
ing the siesta hour (from one to two, Monday through Friday), 
classes meet, later became a favorite with Susie. 

Susie's fourth class, literature, met in a conference room which opens 
directly off the literature stacks in the general library. The course has no 
textbook f or the library is both the text and the meeting place for the 
class. Each student, in consultation with her teacher, develops a personal- 


reading program. 12 Class hours are used as reading periods, as hours 
when reading experience will be exchanged, or as periods for individual 
conference with the instructor. 

In her fifth class, biology, another "no text" course, she discovered 
that her teacher gives an unusual interpretation to "laboratory work" 
and to "laboratory materials." He announced that the biology course 
was essentially a laboratory course in which students would be working 
on problems of individual or of group concern; he went on to explain, 
however, that laboratory work includes the gathering of all types of sig- 
nificant data (from interviews, from books, from field trips, from motion 
pictures, from microscopic studies, from dissection) on the problem being 
studied. He particularly emphasized the science library (two doors re- 
moved from the classroom) as a source of aid and illustrated the impor- 
tance of books to course work by calling attention to the collection of 
pamphlets and books that are always available in the classroom. 

Susie's first week at college had been a busy one. She had made the 
acquaintance of new friends, of new resources and among these the li- 
brary held an important place. 


a. The Library and the Advising Program. Several junior colleges re- 
port that their libraries are assuming positions of increasing importance 
in guidance. At Scranton-Keystone Junior College, La Plume, Pennsyl- 
vania, for example, a careful record is kept of all books borrowed by stu- 
dents during their junior-college course. This record, which indicates au- 
thor, title, and date of each book borrowed, is at all times available to the 
individual student and to members of the faculty and guidance staff. The 
library staff reports that the personnel office uses the records continually 
and effectively. 

A somewhat similar plan is followed in the library at Wright Junior 
College, Chicago. Here, however, an additional item is noted; namely, 
the purpose (class assignment, recreational reading, etc.) for which each 
book was used. This information is gathered simply by asking the stu- 
dents to indicate, when they borrow the book, the purpose for which they 
expect to use it. 

12 Zay Rusk Sullens, "Individualized Procedure in the Sophomore Survey/' Eng- 
lish Journalj XXIV (November, 1935), 746-56; "A Letter on Literature in the Gen- 
eral College," Cottege English, I (December, 1939), 237-44. 


At Wright Junior College the librarian acts as a special counselor for 
two types of students : first, those students who need direction in how to 
study; and, second, those superior students for whom a normal program 
is insufficient to occupy their energies. In working with both types of 
students the librarian develops, co-operatively with the student con- 
cerned, an individual program of help. 

In a number of junior colleges special vocational guidance collections 
are established. 

At the Compton, California, Junior College a vocational guidance al- 
cove in the library came into being as the result of an increased demand 
from students and faculty for some location in the library where guidance 
materials could be assembled and made readily available. One corner of 
the main reading-room was taken for this purpose. Low counter shelves 
were so placed as to inclose the corner and form an alcove. Two sections 
of standard shelves, a vertical file, and adequate seating were provided. 
The result is a much-used corner in an already busy library. In this spot 
are shelved books about vocations and all available pamphlet and clip- 
ping data. These latter are first mounted on uniform pages, filed in manil- 
la folders, and arranged alphabetically according to vocation in the verti- 
cal file. Here also are shelved an up-to-date collection of college catalogs, 
representative of educational institutions throughout the United States. 
This makes it possible for a student to determine the entrance require- 
ments of colleges and universities for any chosen field. 

The resources of this alcove are used extensively by (1) individual stu- 
dents who are in search of information concerning the choice of a voca- 
tion, (2) faculty counselors who are in search of data to aid them in ad- 
vising students, and (3) classroom instructors who frequently make the 
choice of a vocation a specific assignment in connection with regular class 

b. Phonograph Records. The library staff at Colby Junior College, New 
London, New Hampshire, is not content with supplying more than one 
thousand phonograph records for use in classrooms and in a listening 
room. The library has also purchased several portable phonographs 
which together with records are loaned to students for use in their dormi- 
tory rooms. The library staff and students are enthusiastic over this 
means of encouraging listening. There is heavy student use of phono- 
graph records, some wearing out of records, but relatively no breakage. 

c. Reading for Infirmary Patients. The Frances Shimer Junior College, 
Mount Carroll, Illinois, supplies reading for students who are in the in- 


firmary. This is done by providing a small rotating book collection which 
is changed every two weeks. 

d. Doors Are Always Open. The library of Centenary Junior College, 
Hackettstown, New Jersey, operates on a twenty-four-hour basis, seven 
days a week; the doors are never locked and the shelves are open. If a li- 
brarian is not on duty when a girl wants to take a book out, she charges it 
herself. If she cannot find what she wants, she leaves a "want slip" for 
the librarian, who has the material waiting for the girl the next time she 
comes to the library. This idea of having the library always open may 
be one which would be difficult to administer in larger schools (Cen- 
tenary is a junior college for women with an enrolment of 171). It repre- 
sents, however, an ideal toward which to strive. 


No attempt will be made to summarize the various junior-college li- 
brary programs which have been considered in this chapter. Rather, the 
purpose of this section will be to describe trends and to note innovating 
practices which may later develop into significant trends. 

1. Encouraging indeed is the trend observed in junior-college libraries to 
adapt the library and its administration to the needs of individual 
teachers and students. In doing this, some junior colleges, such as 
Menlo and Stephens, accept a policy of decentralization. In other 
colleges in which centralization is accepted as a policy (as at Los 
Angeles and Virginia), classroom or department collections are usually 
established at the request of the teachers. Other types of adaptation 
of library practices to the needs of teachers are arrangements of special 
shelves for books used in selected courses (as in English composition 
at Los Angeles), and the use of the library as a place where teachers 
and students can spend class periods and free periods working togeth- 
er. The devices of adaptation to need are important but not nearly 
as important as the spirit which motivates these adaptations, a spirit 
which recognizes the essential unity of library service with instruc- 

2. A number of junior-college libraries are recognizing the importance of 
factual studies as a basis for attacking library problems. Particularly 
notable in this connection are the studies conducted at Menlo Junior 
College, where two faculty members have used studies of the college 
library as the basis for their doctoral dissertations. Less extensive and 


more informal studies are, however, effectively made in other junior 
colleges, such as Virginia. 

3. Junior-college libraries are adopting an increasingly broad interpreta- 
tion of library materials to include not only books, but also pictures, 
slides, movies, phonograph records, music, and recordings of radio 
programs. One library (Colby Junior College) has even gone so far as 
to loan portable phonographs to students. This expanded concept of 
the library goes far in the direction of making the library the resource 
center of the college. 

4. Making library materials accessible to students and teachers at times 
and places where they are most needed has been referred to above as 
one means of adapting the library to individual student-faculty needs 
(see "1" above). This trend is so important, however, that it deserves 
special emphasis, for classroom libraries, open shelves, department li- 
braries, library reading periods, and teachers spending office hours in the 
library are all a part of a trend toward breaking down barriers between 
students, teachers, and books. One notable contribution to this trend 
is made by the library of Centenary Junior College which keeps its 
doors open twenty-four hours a day regardless of whether or not a 
librarian is on duty. 

5. The library is playing a role of increasing importance in the junior- 
college guidance program. Three activities seem to illustrate this con- 
tribution: some junior colleges are providing special collections of 
guidance materials (as for example the vocational guidance alcove at 
Compton Junior College) ; some colleges use individual student read- 
ing records as an important aspect of guidance data in the personnel 
office (Wright and Scranton-Keystone junior colleges), and some li- 
brary staffs participate in reading programs for individual students. 



Director of Libraries 
University of Chicago 

Chicago, Illinois 

The organic acts under which our public libraries have been founded 
seldom formally identify them as a part of the public educational system 
of a state. The history of the American public library is nevertheless in- 
separably linked with the history of the American public school, and in 
recent years the two institutions have tended to become more, rather 
than less, alike. Beginning as agencies for the common supply of books 
that literate adults of a community could not or would not buy for them- 
selves, public libraries opened their doors first to youth and then to chil- 
dren; and they have broadened their services to include a wide range of 
interpretive activities, including instruction. The public schools and col- 
leges, beginning as agencies for the instruction of youth, have sought to 
attract larger and larger numbers of the adult community; and they have 
extended their facilities to include, as integral units, collections of the 
books and other materials on which their broadened program of instruc- 
tion is founded. Thus there is a considerable range of activity common 
both to public schools and to public libraries. 

In 1939 some 6,880 public libraries provided free library service to the 
communities in which they were situated. Of these, the 5,798 reporting 
to the United States Office of Education owned 104,728,775 volumes that 
were withdrawn for home use 415,924,335 times by 26,000,000 registered 
borrowers. 1 The reading of books is not a conspicuous trait of Americans 
at large, the majority of our population preferring newspapers and peri- 
odicals; but of the books read in any one year, the public library is the 

1 Library Service. Preprint of Vol. I, chap, i, of The Biennial Survey of Education 
in the United States, 1938-40. 



most important source for all classes of readers, furnishing as many books 
as all other agencies combined. 2 

The population the country over does not hold an even stake in the 
services of its public libraries. In Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and 
the District of Columbia, public libraries are accessible to the entire 
population; in West Virginia, to only 12 per cent of the population. The 
Northeast, Far West, and Middle West are comparatively better provid- 
ed than the Southeast and Southwest. Of the 35,500,000 persons without 
access to public libraries in 1941, 32,600,000 lived in the country. Thus, 
57 per cent of the entire rural population did not enjoy the advantages of 
the public library. 

Further differences are evident in respect to population served, qual- 
ity, and kinds of service. Of the 6,000 public libraries studied by Joeckel, 
about 1,800 were found in hamlets of 1,000 persons or fewer; more than 
4,000 libraries were situated in towns of 4,000 or fewer; only 440 (7 per 
cent) served a total population of 25,000 or more. Variations were equal- 
ly great in respect to financial support: 3,000 libraries had an income of 
$1,000 or less; 4,800 had no more than $4,000; only 258 (4 per cent) had 
an annual income of $25,000 or more. Although annual income and the 
number of persons served are not absolute measures, it is nevertheless 
true, by and large, that libraries with the strongest financial support af- 
ford the amplest and the most diverse reading materials. 

The provision, at public expense, of books, periodicals, prints, photo- 
graphs, maps, recordings, films, and the other basic records of our culture 
essential to general education of all the people is intrinsically a single 
problem, however it may be organized. The aspect assigned to this chap- 
ter is the public library as a resource in the general education of (1) school 
children and youth during out-of-school hours; (2) out-of-school youth; 
and (3) adults. 



Services organized by public libraries especially for the public schools 
classroom collections, unit libraries, centralized purchase and prepara- 

2 C. B. Joeckel, Library Service. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1938. 
See also L. H. Wilson, The Geography of Reading. Chicago : American Library Associ- 
ation and University of Chicago Press, 1938; John C. Settlemeyer, "Public Library 
Service in the United States, 1941," American Library Association Bulletin, XXXI 
(June, 1942), 399-402. 

BEALS 101 

tlon of books for the schools, inter-library loans, and the like are dealt 
with in chapter xii. It should be noted, however, that the public libraries 
that do not limit their work with schools to the public schools are likely to 
include on equal terms parochial and other private schools, special 
schools for the deaf and other handicapped children, institutions for 
cripples and chronic invalids, playgrounds and summer camps, churches, 
and other organized institutions such as scouting. "Community con- 
tacts/ 7 which are stressed in the professional training of children's li- 
brarians, are often sounder and more far-reaching in the children's than 
in the adult department. 

Many of the activities described in chapters ii to iv as characteristic of 
the better school libraries may be observed in the better public libraries, 
the extent and intensity depending on such factors as the relative ade- 
quacy of the school and the public libraries, the habits of the children, 
and the degree to which co-operative relationships have been fostered be- 
tween school and public librarians. Much of what goes on in the chil- 
dren's room of any public library during out-of-school hours grows out of 
or is related to school assignments: collateral or outside reading, "free" 
reading, the collection of facts basic to a particular topic, individual or 
group projects, the collection of pictures, slides, books, periodicals, or 
pamphlets for classroom use, etc. If the school libraries are lacking or 
meager, most of the children have no other resource on which to draw. 
Some children prefer public to school libraries for reasons as diverse as 
stimulation from a change of scene, attraction to a personality, or the 
willingness of a librarian to provide answers to questions instead of the 
materials from which answers must be quarried. Teachers and school li- 
brarians often deliberately encourage their pupils to use the public li- 
brary, partly to obtain supplementary materials that may not be avail- 
able in the school library, partly on the assumption that the children's 
librarians have greater leisure in which to deal with individual cases, but 
more often, and more generally, to encourage familiarity with the public 
library and to establish habits of use that they hope may continue after 
the children leave school. 

Also appropriately a part of general education is the very considerable 
use of public libraries by children and youth pursuing a wide diversity of 
out-of-school, personal interests. There is a constant demand for the 
"official" rules of football, baseball, tennis, and other sports; for books 
about well-known figures in the world of sports; and for books that will 
increase one's skill as a participant. Other leisure-time pursuits are re- 


fleeted in a steady flow of requests for material about the making or col- 
lection of objects things to make with scissors and paste, needle and 
thread, hammer, plane, and saw; how to make models of windjammers or 
bombers; manuals of stamps or coins or china or minerals or the thou- 
sand and one other objects that delight the hearts of collectors of all ages. 
Events prompt topical reading of children, as of adults: the advent of 
the circus provokes a run on books about animals; a popular motion pic- 
ture sends children to the library for "the story" or for information about 
the time, the place, or the persons; an expedition to the South Pole stim- 
ulates an interest in exploration and adventure; a trip abroad in a child's 
family will lead him to appropriate books of travel, etc. Scouting height- 
ens curiosity about Indians and pioneer life. As they enter the "awk- 
ward age/' girls especially begin to look about shyly for books about per- 
sonal appearance and manners; the boys, for books about occupations. 
In short, there are few or no aspects of the complicated process of growing 
up that do not prompt many a youngster to independent reading. 

Indeed, encouragement of the free reading of good books for pleasure 
and the development of discriminating taste would probably be cited by 
most children's librarians as their greatest contributions to the general 
education of children and youth. Training for children's librarianship is 
founded on wide and intimate acquaintance with the extensive literature 
for young people, and the experienced children's librarian may be expect- 
ed to know at first hand most of the books in her collection, which may 
reach three or four thousand titles. Stress is laid on the characteristics of 
desirable reading for children, suitable editions of children's classics, illus- 
tration, format, and other topics growing out of books and literature. 
Less attention is paid to the process of reading or to the psychology of 
childhood and adolescence, but the better children's librarians acquire 
through experience a sufficient practical knowledge of these subjects to 
make them skilful matchers of books with individual needs and interests 
of particular readers and friendly counselors in the formation of taste. 

To encourage young people to read more books, and better books, 
children's librarians employ all the devices familiar to adult readers: 
posters, displays of books or of objects related to books, book lists, and 
the like. Considerable use is made of pictures; limited use, of recorded 
music, motion pictures, and other audio-visual aids. The oral telling of 
stories, old and new, though less popular with this generation than with 
the last,, continues in most libraries of any size. But the bulk of the work 
consists of individual attention to the requests of children or their par- 

BSALS 103 

ents and of the intimate introduction of the youngsters to books chosen 
for their appeal to children, as well as for literary merit, in collections ar- 
ranged according to levels of reading difficulty and the principal subject 
interests of different age groups. 

A typical children's room will contain collections for little children, for 
intermediates, and for older boys and girls. A sunny corner or ingle is 
likely to be reserved for the little children, who are provided with minia- 
ture furniture and a generous assortment of books with pictures by 
Brooke, Crane, Berkow, Carrick, Wiese, Wanda Gag, and other illus- 
trators of excellence; books about pixies and brownies; Little Black Sambo 
and Winnie~the-Pooh and Peter Rabbit and The Cock, the Mouse, and the 
Little Red Hen; Mother Goose, A Child's Garden of Verses, and Edward 
Lear's Nonsense Books; and a few primers carefully chosen for graded 
vocabulary and illustrations. 

Conveniently near the children's corner, sometimes with a small spe- 
cial collection to tempt laggards onward, are intermediate books for the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, built partly on the subject content of the 
school curriculums and partly on the free reading interests of children. 
Here may be found The Arabian Nights' Entertainments, Aesop's Fables, 
Anderson, Perrault, and Gdg's Tales from Grimm, Rhys' Fairy Gold, Pa- 
draic Colum's Adventures of Odysseus, Pyle's Merry Adventures of Robin 
Hood and The Story of King Arthur, Boutet de MonveFs Joan of Arc, and 
other traditional and historical narratives retold in versions that modern 
children like. Here may be found Robinson Crusoe and Swiss Family 
Robinson, Rip Van Winkle, Uncle Remus, Alice in Wonderland, The 
Jungle Books and Just So Stories, Peter and Wendy, Little Women, and 
many another tale that will be remembered with affection by parents. 
Here, too, may be found the cream of newer books for children: Rachel 
Field's Hitty, Will James's Smoky and Young Cowboy, the delightful non- 
sense of Dr. Doolittle, and the whimsical Mr. Popper and Mary Poppins. 

The rest of the room will be filled with books for children of junior high 
school age : lusty tales like The Three Musketeers and Treasure Island and 
Kidnapped and The Virginian; perennial favorites like David Copperfielcl, 
Lorna Doone, Quentin Durward, Kenilworth, Tom Sawyer, and Huckle- 
berry Finn; good novels by contemporary writers Gather's Shadows on 
the Rock and Buchan's Greenmantle; Pecos Hill, 0V Paul, and other "tall 
tales"; Carl Sandburg's Abe Lincoln Grows Up, Ben^t's Book of Ameri- 
cans, and many another biography of proved value; North to the Orient, 
Mutiny on the Bounty, and kindred works of travel and adventure; and a 


generous selection of poetry, from Chaucer in modern dress to This Sing- 
ing World. 

Public library service for children, as traditionally organized, termi- 
nates at this point. There are no objective data to demonstrate the value 
of what has been done, no cumulative records of reading nor tests of ac- 
complishment; but there is nonetheless substance in the claims that im- 
portant elements of general education are available to the children who 
use public libraries habitually, or even occasionally. 

When they enter high school, students who continue to use public li- 
braries often are plunged abruptly into the adult departments. The tran- 
sition is probably easier in the smaller than in the larger Iibraries 3 where 
the necessary readjustments may be very difficult indeed. In place of 
small collections judiciously chosen in their own interests collections of 
the kind to which they have become accustomed in the children's rooms 
and school libraries high-school youths all too often are tumbled head- 
long into the larger collections assembled to meet the diverse demands of 
the adult community. In nonfiction the books nicely suited to their needs 
are likely to be thinly sown between works either too inconsequential for 
their own good or beyond their grasp in technicality. In fiction they are 
likely to encounter far too many authors whose novels would be excluded 
from any children's room or school library as falling short of acceptable 
standards of maturity, significant content, and literary competence. Sup- 
port of the latter view may be found in a study of reading by high-school 
students in two New York communities. 3 The publications read were 
ranked according to a measure of maturity, the more "immature" publi- 
cations including sentimental and trivial literature. In one town, 42 per 
cent of such "immature" publications came from the public library, 12 
per cent from the school library; in the other town, 53 per cent from the 
public library, 20 per cent from the school library. 

Palliatives have not been lacking. Even a small public library or 
branch library will have shelves of books reserved for use in the building 
by students preparing lessons. Books are bought with the requirements 
of the curriculum specifically in view. Shelves or cases are filled with 
books carefully selected for recreational reading of high-school students. 
Some libraries add advisers, usually without special training, but with at 
least a special interest in the problems and needs of youth. A very few 
libraries bring books, advisers, and young people together in separate de- 

3 Douglas Waples and Leon Carnovsky, Libraries and Readers in the State of New 
York. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1939. 

SEALS 105 

partments intermediate between the children's room and the adult de- 
partments and draw on the best features of each. The books and periodi- 
cals, drawn chiefly from the adult departments, are chosen to meet two 
criteria: proved interest to young people and excellence of content and 
workmanship. As in the children's room, the collection is relatively small, 
choice, and conveniently arranged. Stress is likely to be placed on fic- 
tion, adventurous travel, biography, drama, history, psychology, popular 
science, vocations, and the contemporary social scene. An informal, 
friendly atmosphere is striven for in design and appointments, with space 
for exuberant spirits to run high without distressing older readers. The 
first requisites of the young people's librarians are firsthand knowledge 
of the appropriate literature; ability to communicate enthusiasm to 
youth including receptiveness to the enthusiasm of youth; and readi- 
ness to welcome the crude and boisterous along with the sensitive and 
shy, the maladjusted as well as the stable and secure, occasional or in- 
different readers with readers of mature and well-formed tastes. To en- 
courage a sense of belonging, the young people may be drawn into pro- 
jects of many kinds, from making posters to helping in the selection of 
books for purchase. Outside contacts, beginning invariably with the high 
school, will often include community centers, churches, the Y.M.C.A. 
and the Y.W.C.A., 4-H Clubs, art, business, and other commercial 
schools, the state employment service, the juvenile court in short, any 
center about which young people tend to congregate. 

Whether or not the public library formally contributes to library serv- 
ice within the public schools after the manner described in chapter xii, 
cordial relations with the school should be, and usually are, a foundation 
stone in its program. If school libraries are lacking or meager, the public 
library needs to supply a second best without blocking the way to ade- 
quate library service in the schools. If school libraries are good, there is 
still ample room for co-operative enterprise in supplementing the school 
libraries, in introducing young people to the resources of the public li- 
brary and making them at home with them, in encouraging intelligent 
habits of library use, and, with teachers and school librarians, in helping 
to bridge the gap between school and employment. 


The need for public library service to out-of-school youth can be out- 
lined briefly in terms of the data secured in 1936-37 from interviews con- 
ducted by the staff of the American Youth Commission with 13,528 


Maryland youth between the ages of sixteen and twenty-four. 4 Beading 
was ranked second as the most time-consuming, leisure-time activity by 
the boys, first by the girls; and the popularity of reading as the chief 
recreational activity progressively increased with school grades attained. 
No evidence is presented concerning the character of the publications 
read, but the studies of Waples and others suggest that much of it may 
have been of an indifferent, or even of a very low, order. 

Three-fourths of the respondents reported that a public library was 
available to them. Less than half the youth to whom a library was avail- 
able had used it at any time during the year preceding the interview, and 
only one-tenth then had a library book in their possession. Where li- 
braries were available, they were used a little more by female than by 
male youth, a little more by white than by Negro youth, quite a little 
more by urban (51 per cent) than by rural youth (31.5 per cent), much 
more by youth of school age (63 per cent of the sixteen-year-olds) than 
by the older groups (41 per cent of the twenty-four-year-olds). A pro- 
gressive use of libraries was found with each grade level attained. For 
example, less than 3 per cent of the youth who had completed the eighth 
grade or less had a library book in their possession when they were inter- 
viewed, while 25 per cent of the college graduates had books charged 
against their library cards at the time of the interview. 

These facts support two generalizations derived from observation : (1) 
children and youth tend to stop using libraries when they drop out of 
school, the largest numbers withdrawing from school at the end of the 
sixth, eighth or ninth, twelfth, and fourteenth years of schooling; and (2) 
the longer they stay in school, the more likely young people are to con- 
tinue to use libraries after their formal education is completed. 

Efforts have been made to draw young people into the public library 
programs of adult education during the critical transition from school to 
employment. Concerning these efforts nothing more can as yet be said 
than that they have been scattered, tentative in method, and uncertain 
in results. This is an important field for experimentation and study on 
the part of both schools and libraries. 

From its very inception the public library has served as an important 
instrument for the self-education, or continuing education, of an untold 

4 H. M. Bell, Youth Tell Their Story. Washington: American Council on Educa- 
tion, 1938. 

SEALS 107 

number of adult Americans; but adult education as a conscious move- 
ment perhaps, at times, even a too self-conscious movement did not 
begin to take root in public libraries until the middle twenties. As im- 
portant a single influence as any was the publication of a thoughtful 
study by William S. Learned, 5 which, though overlaid by a luxuriant 
special literature, 6 has never been surpassed in clarity, breadth of vision, 
and incisiveness. 

The social value of a public library as an agency of general adult edu- 
cation may be defined as the sum of the effects that flow from the use of 
the library by its clientele. In this delicate process, as yet little under- 
stood, two factors appear to be of greatest importance: the range, char- 
acter, and intensity of the "needs' 7 experienced by borrowers; and the ap- 
propriateness, for the satisfaction of these needs, of a library's collection 
of books, periodicals, pamphlets, recordings, films, and other artifacts em- 
bodying some aspect of our common cultural heritage. 

It may be admitted at once that data for analysis in these terms are 
almost wholly lacking. There has been no investigation, with pretensions 
to exactness, of the full range of a public library's holdings, but several 
investigators have attempted judgments of value about the books that 
public librarians have assembled for the choice of readers. The usual pro- 
cedure is to compile a checklist of books assumed to be of a kind that 
readers might reasonably expect to find in a well-stocked library. The 
books held by the libraries studied are then checked on the list and a score 
computed by one of several means. 7 The range in scores, from very high 
to very low, shows that library patrons have access to collections differing 
greatly in recency of publication, cost, cruciality, relative importance, or 
whatever quality is chosen for investigation. The findings to date, which 
have usefully emphasized the unevenness of library-book collections, will 
not support a more exact generalization concerning the effectiveness of 
public library holdings for general education. 

5 The American Public Library and the Diffusion of Knowledge. New York: Har- 
court, Brace & Co., 1924. 

6 See especially John Chancellor (ed), Helping Adults To Learn. Chicago: Ameri- 
can Library Association, 1939; Alvin Johnson, The Public Library: A People's Uni- 
versity. New York: American Association for Adult Education, 1938; L. R. Wilson 
(ed.), The Role of the Library in Adult Education. Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 1937. 

7 For a representative example see Leon Carnovsky, "Measurements in Library 
Service," in C. B. Joeckel (ed.), Current Issues in Library Administration. Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1939. 


Who, precisely, the 26,000,000 persons are that have registered as bor- 
rowers of public libraries nobody knows for certain, but scattered studies 
suggest that they are not a true cross-section of the population of the 
areas served. There are proportionately more professional workers and 
clerks than in the population as a whole; many more students; and 
fewer shopkeepers and salesmen, skilled tradesmen and tradeswomen, 
and unskilled laborers. Library borrowers differ further from the public 
at large in that the proportion of younger to older readers is greater; and, 
as one might expect, the educational background of library readers is 
higher than that of the population as a whole. There is no hint that the 
interests of this self-selected body of readers fall short of the full gamut 
of human aspirations. There is a scattering and meager evidence to sug- 
gest that readers are drawn to libraries, first, by a yearning for respite; sec- 
ond, by a desire for knowledge ranging from the immediate, concrete, and 
specific, to cosmic eternity. 

Recent research draws a very unflattering picture of the public library 
as an agency influential in motivating good reading. Greatly simplified, 
it shows, in descending numbers, housewives, stenographers, clerks, and 
semiskilled workers chiefly devoted to "light loves," westerns, adventure, 
and mysteries; students fulfilling school assignments; miscellaneous fol- 
lowers of ' best-seller' ballyhoo; and independent readers, chiefly from the 
professions but with a scattering from all ranks and stations, concerned 
with substantial works both of fiction and nonfiction. These studies have 
served as wholesome correctives to indiscriminate and exaggerated repre- 
sentations of all public library service as ipso facto educational. They 
have been drawn too largely from small libraries and the branches of 
large systems to present a valid sample of the full range of library use, 
and they tell us nothing about the 'best practice' upon which the empha- 
sis of this yearbook is intended to fall. 

A typical metropolitan library will consist of a central library, near the 
heart of the city, supplemented by branches situated conveniently to the 
residential districts at intervals of a mile or two. The branch libraries 
purposely emphasize books in greatest demand, but a good-sized branch 
offers a book collection covering many fields in charge of a staff chosen 
for general education, breadth of reading, skill in the use of books, and 
sympathetic interest in the problems about which readers wish help. 

The central library is a reservoir for the entire system. Central libraries 
of even moderate size may have one or more special collections on busi- 
ness or technology or fine arts overseen by a specialist in that field, and 

BEALS 109 

several libraries have been largely or wholly organized around subject 
reading-rooms in charge of advisers, thoroughly conversant with the lit- 
erature of their field and trained to respond to the particular requests of in- 
dividual readers for facts or general information, for a "good" book about a 
subject, or for a course of extended reading. A music division, for example, 
will contain a substantial collection of works for ready reference, current 
and bound files of musical journals, books on the history and the theory 
of music, biographies and works of criticism, sheet music, scores of choral 
and chamber music, scores for orchestra and band, a piano in a room 
euphemistically styled "soundproof," recordings in variety with other 
soundproof rooms where they may be heard and followed with score a 
bulletin board announcing concerts and other events of musical interest, 
and a vertical file for pamphlets, clippings, and other oddments that may 
provide the only available clue to the answer of some subsequent ques- 

In the last century, when books were dear and hard to get at any price, 
librarians took understandable pride in the facts of acquisition and pos- 
session. With the turn of the century, and especially after World War I, 
more and more emphasis was placed on interpretation of the collections. 
That a dictionary catalog on cards is the "key" that unlocks a library to 
every user is an ancient dogma in need of revision. Public librarians are 
paying more attention but still not enough to printed directions, 
proper labeling of rooms and cases, and other guides to what may be to 
many readers a thoroughly baffling maze. A great deal of reliance 
probably too much is placed on book lists, especially on miscellaneous 
and unannotated lists. Interpretation, as well as motivation, is further 
attempted through posters, exhibits, small special displays, and the like. 
The best of these are pointed at well-defined interests of recognizable 
groups of readers, and they are executed with both taste and discrimina- 
tion; but display, a useful adjunct to librarianship, if not an essential art, 
is all too often attempted at a level of amateurishness that would not be 
tolerated for a moment in the catalog. 

Such means of impersonal interpretation are supplemented, but not 
generously enough, with personal contacts between librarian and reader. 
A service early provided and now all but universal is the reference li- 
brarian, who helps readers with problems that may extend from simple 
fact-finding to fairly elaborate documentary research. A somewhat later 
and less competent general advisory service grew up about the entire 
stock of circulating books. A great advance was achieved when the ap* 


propiiate "reference" and circulating books were combined in the sub- 
ject departents already noticed in passing, Departmentation by sub- 
ject is shifting the basis of public librarianship from a knowledge of gen- 
eral bibliography and the technical routines based upon it (comparable 
to the older concept of "methods" in teaching) to a comprehensive knowl- 
edge of some field of human activity. To a sophisticated clientele who 
know their way about libraries, subject departments offer the inestimable 
advantages of books competently chosen, brought together in one place, 
well arranged for convenient use, and skilfully serviced by librarians who 
are masters of a field in their own right. 

The subject departments, however, lie on, or over, the border of higher 
education. Less satisfactory is the organization of libraries for general 
adult education the selection, arrangement, and interpretation of mate- 
rials of general interest under the supervision of persons demonstrably 
competent to service them. Many libraries maintain a browsing-room, an 
open-shelf room, or a popular library intended to meet this need, but in 
the opinion of the writer they have not attained a level of technical ex- 
cellence comparable to that of the better high schools. The field of ele- 
mentary adult education has scarcely been brought within the scope of 
public libraries at all, at least not on a systematic basis. There are, how- 
ever, occasional exceptions, such as the use of public libraries by educated 
foreigners learning to read English and personal contacts established with 
"slow readers" by especially gifted advisers. 

Acting on the principle that many adults require the stimulus of group 
activity to spur them on to intellectual growth, public librarians have 
taken it on as a form of public relations, or as an occasional and uncon- 
sidered sideline, or as an integral part of the library's educational pro- 
gram. Lecture-rooms have been a standard feature of public library 
buildings for fifty years, and dreary barns a great many of them are. In 
several recent buildings the lecture-room has given way to a community 
theater with complete stage and motion-picture equipment. Also now 
fairly common are smaller, informally furnished rooms for meetings or 
group discussion. These may be maintained chiefly as community facil- 
ities for use by outside groups. Even so, they are likely to be used at least 
sporadically for events originating within the library, for few librarians 
seem able to resist the temptation to dabble in lectures, concerts, forums, 
book reviews, discussions, and the like forms of educational activity for 
which a great many of them, it must be admitted, have no training and 
little talent. 

SEALS 111 

This is not to say that there are not to be found in public libraries dis- 
tinguished examples of educational service over and above the traditional 
forms of supplying and interpreting books and other materials. Libraries 
without *ormal galleries have nonetheless arranged excellent art exhib- 
its, through the national booking agencies, perhaps, or by giving the best 
local artists opportunities, not otherwise available, to show their work. 
More and more, libraries are giving concerts of recorded music, with or 
without interpretative comments. Tentative ventures with motion pic- 
tures have been stimulated of late by a movement for "film forums." Lec- 
ture or lyceum series well above the usual women's club level have been 
sustained over a period of years. Book reviews, of inexhaustible popular- 
ity with some audiences, are frequently given with professional finish, 
and they have recently been aired over local stations to the mutual sat- 
isfaction of librarian and station manager. The more difficult art of dis- 
cussing books or ideas has fewer masters, but it has flourished vigorously 
under skilful leaders of groups from the least to the most sophisticated. 
Study circles in the European sense, though seldom found, are prized 
where they have struck root. These and other things like them have been 
done, and done well, in more than one library. 

The concept of community organization, imported from social work, 
has been much discussed and somewhat applied. In a few libraries, field 
agents have called on officials of business and manufacturing firms, 
schools, churches, and other social institutions, unions, parent-teacher 
associations, men's and women's clubs, and other voluntary associations 
in great variety. The relations thus established may cease with the 
proffer and acceptance of vague offers of co-operation or service; they 
may extend to publicity for the library; they may lead to help with plan- 
ning a project or program, the loan of special materials, or the establish- 
ment of frequently changed deposits; they may in time deepen into per- 
manent channels for ascertaining and meeting daily needs, particularly 
of municipal and school officials. 

By way of the general movement of adult education, the concept of 
community organization has led to the formation of urban, county, state, 
and regional councils or associations for adult education. Public librari- 
ans have played a relatively conspicuous part in the formation and mem- 
bership of these councils, which usually take as one of their aims the in- 
tegration and rounding out of all adult education in the community. 
The need for collaboration toward this end has not as yet been markedly 


By way of the public schools, the concept of community organization 
has led the Lincoln Library of Springfield, Illinois, to establish a com- 
munity school for adults on the assumption that mutual advantages may 
accrue to both school and library. Study groups and classes, which carry 
no credit, are conducted on ten consecutive Monday evenings in the 
autumn and again in the spring. Students, ranging in age from sixteen to 
eighty-eight, have been attracted from more than a hundred vocations. 
Leaders are drawn from the local high school, from nearby colleges, and 
from business and the professions. The library is utilized by the school 
staff in the preparation of appropriate book lists and in the "advertise- 
ment" and supply of assigned or suggested reading. The school activities, 
on the other hand, direct students to the library, where some increase in 
new borrowers and in general circulation has been apparent. 

Even from so brief an account it should be evident that during the 
last two decades public librarians have expended much ingenuity on de- 
vices, programs, and organization, and that careful students have begun 
to provide stable foundations on which to build. More of both are needed 
if Dr. Learned's vision of the public library as the central intelligence 
service of every town and city, as familiar to every inhabitant as the 
local post office and as inevitably patronized, is to be realized. 




Assistant Superintendent of Schools 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Supervisor of Instruction 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 

The pupil of today enjoys an enriched and vitalized curriculum large- 
ly because of the library. Its services have assumed their true and right- 
ful position as an integral part of the modern school. Guidance in locat- 
ing and organizing ideas, stimulation in building interests and habits 
which lead to independent self-education and voluntary study, and activ- 
ities which provide enjoyable experiences with books are major responsi- 
bilities of the teacher. The librarian being included in the term "teach- 
er/' this modern school-worker cannot discharge her responsibilities with- 
out varied and organized reading and visual materials. Not only is the 
library an instrument for the education of youth; but if rightful attitudes 
and adequate skills are developed through a program of general educa- 
tion, the library continues as a tool of learning for the typical adult 
throughout his life. 

This chapter is focused on the pupil and the use which he makes of the 
library: Why and how do pupils use the library? What are the things 
pupils need to know? What part do pupils play in supplying library 
service? How can library service be evaluated in terms of pupil behavior? 
The assumption is made here that our schools are endeavoring to give all 
learners these common library experiences. 


The pupil goes to the library with a purpose in mind. He uses its re- 
sources (1) to locate information and ideas which will enable him to meet 
the demands of the classroom, (2) to explore and discover new interests, 
and (3) to solve certain personality problems and difficulties. 



1. To Meet the Demands of the Classroom 

There are few subjects in the modern curriculum wherein the pupils' 
attention is focused exclusively on a single textbook. Class study is 
usually organized around some major problem, issue, topic, principle, or 
generalization. This is true whether the curriculum is divided into dis- 
tinct subject-matter fields, as in the typical senior high school, or is more 
generalized, having less distinct boundary lines between subjects, as in 
the elementary school. The knowledge, skills, and understandings neces- 
sary for successful work under such a lesson organization cannot ordi- 
narily be found in any one textbook. This does not mean that the well- 
organized text is to be discarded. Textbooks, properly used, offer valu- 
able aids in giving continuity and organization to materials of instruc- 

The use of library materials must fit in naturally with the plan of the 
class. Wrightstone 1 identifies six steps which are usually operating in any 
classroom situation where the teacher attempts to adapt his teaching 
procedure to pupils' needs and concerns. At times these steps may over- 
lap, and some of them may be relatively obscure, but usually they are 
present in the activities of the modern classroom. Because they reveal 
the origin of the need for library materials, they are included here. They 
are: "(1) stimulation or identification of interest; (2) planning in terms 
of the pupils' questions, problems, and methods of work; (3) investiga- 
tion and research to obtain facts, regardless of their source or subject- 
matter allocations; (4) integration of the content into meaningful reports, 
exhibits, etc.; (5) culmination and sharing of a solution to the problems 
or projects; and (6) evaluation or appraisal of the outcomes of the proj- 
ect." It is in step three that the library usually plays an important role. 
However, success in the use of the library depends to a large measure on 
a planning period indicated by Wrightstone as step two. It is during the 
second phase that the needs of the class for study material are clarified. 

A brief tour of the classrooms of any modern school system will dis- 
close many illustrations of how pupils use the library to meet the de- 
mands of classroom activities. 

When a fifth grade of a large city school reassembled after the summer 
vacation, the pupils found several newcomers in the group. Almost with- 

1 J. Wayne Wrightstone, Appraisal of Newer Elementary School Practices. New 
York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1938. 


out exception, the young strangers came from small towns and rural 
areas. During a morning discussion period one of the new pupils let it be 
known that he did not care for city life. This opinion had the approval of 
the majority of the newcomers. The drinking water was thought not to 
be good, some believing it was not as pure as country water. It was 
thought there were no interesting places to play and that it was difficult 
to get fresh vegetables. These were a few of the dissatisfactions voiced 
which city children could not answer to the newcomers' satisfaction. 

Under the teacher's guidance, the children listed the questions about 
city life on the blackboard. The group discussed sources of help and in- 
formation. The librarian was asked to come to the room to confer with 
the group. She told them about library materials which might be help- 
ful and gave them some instruction on how books are arranged on library 
shelves, how to locate reference books, and how books are borrowed and 
circulated. The next day the school library was visited, and after school 
hours certain class representatives went to the public library and to the 
university library. On the third day pamphlets, books, magazines, films, 
and slides related to city life appeared in the classroom. Pupils consulted 
indexes and skimmed references. Whenever a helpful article was found, 
it was listed on the blackboard as a part of a bibliography. References 
were organized under such topics as water supply, sewage disposal, parks 
and playgrounds, and transportation. The teacher showed the pupils 
the correct form for listing their references. Finally, individual children 
and small groups of children chose or were assigned topics for study and 
investigation, and for the next few days the children worked on their 
topics, reading and organizing information. Under the teacher's guid- 
ance, they received help in using a table of contents, in using an index, 
in making notes, and in constructing diagrams and maps. Then reports 
were given and the results integrated. The whole project was appraised 
by the pupils as to the extent to which important questions had been 
answered and additional information acquired. 

A small group of third-grade children were gathered about a table in 
the school library, busily reading and conferring on information they 
were getting from some books. On questioning the pupils, it was found 
that the goldfish, turtle, and snails in their classroom aquarium were not 
in the best of health and that these children had been selected to find out 
what could be done to improve the aquarium and to give the pets a more 
healthful diet. With the help of the teacher, they had used Rue's Subject 
Index to Readers to locate several books which contained information on 


aquariums. Later, they were planning to take their ideas and informa- 
tion to the supervisor of science to get her advice and help. 

Another group of pupils were at work in a corner of the library on 
plans for a mural painting for their classroom. They had discussed the 
idea in their art class and had selected a theme for the mural Now they 
were using the resources of the library to plan the different scenes and to 
secure information on design and costuming. 

Still another group came to the library in connection with a class plan 
to give an auditorium program on "The Three Americas." They used the 
library to locate information on life in Central and South America and to 
secure illustrations of music and literature typical of some of the Latin- 
American countries. 

A group of ninth-grade mathematics pupils discussed the importance 
of money in their everyday life. Questions arose concerning the monies 
used in different parts of the world, the history of money, and especially 
the development of our own monetary system. The librarian was called 
in to explain certain reference materials and indicated that there was 
much more material in the library that would be useful for the study of 
money. After a two-day study of these references, the class members 
were ready to report their findings through the use of diagrams and other 
written material, and to present some mathematical problems. 

The class then decided that it would discuss the matter of budgeting 
the family income. This included a study of planning a budget for vari- 
ous-sized families, the advantages and disadvantages of instalment-buy- 
ing, and other related subjects. The pupils by this time were acquainted 
with the library so that much independent research was carried on there 
and various problems were brought before the class for their solution. 
Similar problems in statistics and arithmetic related to budgeting were 
brought out in this class, leading to good functional learning. 

An eighth-grade English class wished to discuss their dogs and stories 
that they had read about dogs. Kodak pictures of dogs were brought to 
the class and anecdotes were told by the class members. The librarian 
was called in to indicate to the pupils the resources of the library for the 
study of dog life. The librarian explained the use of the card catalog and 
how books are arranged on the shelves. For example, Lassie, Come Home, 
by Knight, is listed under "Dog Stories/ 7 "Knight/ ' and Lassie, Come 
Home. They learned that they could find any book if they knew the 
title, the subject, or the author. The librarian indicated that the Readers 9 
Guide may be used to find suitable dog stories in periodicals. Pupils talked 


about the books they liked. Since the pupils could keep a book for one 
week only, most of this seventh grade did read a dog story from the li- 
brary. The class was encouraged to go to the branch library, also, for dog 

Juniors and Seniors in the high schools at times carry on formal or in- 
formal debates for which they need to use bibliographies and other works 
of reference. The library is the center for this research. 

In order to stimulate library activity on the part of his biology class, 
a tenth-grade biology teacher took the class to the library where an ex- 
hibit of different books had been arranged on a large table. On the follow- 
ing day a selected group from the class was allowed to browse among 
these books. They reported back to the class the contents of books espe- 
cially suited to classroom discussion. More than a hundred books were 
included in this report, and other members of the class were able to note 
the books of greatest interest to them. Over a period of two weeks all 
members of the class had access to the books in which they were inter- 
ested. Since these books represented several levels of reading, from sim- 
ple to very difficult, this illustrates how the library helps teachers to meet 
the problem of individual differences as well as to enrich instruction for 
the class as a whole. 

In a speech class it was arranged to have the library used two periods 
a week for six weeks, during which pupils looked up material and pre- 
pared dramatic readings and abstracts from good fiction. Pupils con- 
sulted the catalog and the Readers* Guide. They did their own cutting and 
preparing of material. Some of the finished readings were given before 
invited audiences of teachers and students, and a few were presented in 
the auditorium of the school. 

A Spanish class chose a committee of pupils to see what good extra 
reading was available for their class. Spanish literature which might be 
beyond the actual translation ability of the class was listed by the group 
and presented to the class. In connection with this reading, a map of 
flags of the various South-American countries was constructed and made 
a permanent part of the library display. 

A junior-college class in a course designed to co-ordinate various arts 
was working on a project which had as its purpose the appreciation and 
understanding of the historical and artistic qualities of the local archi- 
tecture. The files of the public and college libraries afforded numerous 
writings and pictures which were most helpful. Many sketches were 
made by the students themselves. The description, use, and history of 


many buildings were annotated and placed beside the drawings in a re- 
port that was valuable not only for the use of this class but also as a per- 
manent addition to the library. Without a library operating to collect 
local materials over a period of years, such valuable study would not be 

All of the groups described in the preceding paragraphs were using the 
library for a purpose which was real to them. Not only were they getting 
information and ideas that would help them to solve their problems, but 
they were also developing an appreciation of the library as an aid to 
learning. It is obvious, too, that the teacher's and librarian's guidance 
helped pupils to develop needed library skills. 

When the classroom library services of large schools become numerous, 
as indeed they should, it is wise to see that plans and schedules are worked 
out to the mutual benefit of all classes and other library functions. Early in 
any semester teachers and pupils, after determining the major problems 
that will be studied for a period of six weeks or longer, should present to 
the librarian a report on the class needs. This co-operation makes it pos- 
sible for the library to schedule the use of materials. Such an arrange- 
ment is made each semester in the diversified reading program of tenth- 
grade English in Minneapolis. A schedule for the use of library materials 
is made for the semester by pupils, teachers, and librarians working to- 
gether. It is only to be expected that the nature of the problem and the 
time for its study will be somewhat determined by the best possible 
schedule that can be provided. 

In one large city junior high school the various projects in social studies 
to be carried on by each class are outlined during the early weeks of the 
semester and submitted to the librarian, who allots her time and mate- 
rials to the projects in a manner to avoid confusion and duplication. 
Teachers meet with librarians to plan the most efficient way to use the 
materials they will need. Pupils are often brought into this planning. 

Units on current social problems are taught today in many Senior 
classes. Materials that support these units need to be current and avail- 
able in quantity. Where many class sections are engaged in such study, 
library service needs to be staggered so that all classes will have the maxi- 
mum use of good materials. Such arrangements have been made in Min- 
neapolis senior high schools in meeting the needs of the pupils in their 
study of vocational and educational planning. 

An unsatisfactory program is the hit-and-miss arrangement where all 
teachers collect materials on their own, or where the librarian tries des- 


perately to meet the many demands of teachers without such previous 
planning. Elementary or secondary classroom teaching is no longer a 
one-teacher, one-room affair. This efficient type of whole-building or 
whole-district use of materials insures a library service in harmony with 
the best classroom practices. 2 

2. To Explore and Discover New Interests 

The foregoing illustrative material has emphasized the type of class- 
room situation which requires the pupil to use the library in order to find 
the answer to a question, to solve a problem, to illustrate a principle, or to 
get directions on constructing or making something. While such prob- 
lem-solving situations are both stimulating and desirable, the pupil 
should develop a deep and abiding interest in reading for the personal 
satisfaction and help it gives him on his own. There are many class and 
out-of-class experiences which stimulate pupils to use the library for 
more individualized reasons than those mentioned so far. Even at the 
early elementary-school level many children have individual interests 
and curiosities which, if properly guided, take them to the library. 

A high-school pupil recently remarked: "The library has assisted me 
in my musical life and has added to my knowledge about musical leaders, 
operas, and many other things concerning music." This statement of a 
Senior in high school concerning her "musical life" indicates that she has 
felt a need for knowing more than any music class can give or, perhaps, 
should give and that in a personal way she has sought to develop this in- 
terest. This aspect of education holds a more significant place in educa- 
tional planning today than it did in the past. In many cities, particu- 
larly in the elementary and junior high schools, opportunity to develop 
these personal interests has been arranged by giving specially scheduled 
periods for this work as part of the daily program. Some city schools 
have free-activity hours each week. Such personal interests as free read- 
ing, dramatics, and creative writing are made possible only by a fully 
equipped, well-organized, and effectively administered library. The more 
of these personal interests teachers and librarians can nourish, the closer 
they are to fulfilling the democratic purposes of education. 

2 Nora E. Beust, "The Use of the School Library/' Newer Instructional Practices of 
Promise, chap. xi. Twelfth Yearbook of the Department of Supervisors and Directors 
of Instruction. Washington: Department of Supervisors and Directors of Instruc- 
tion, National Education Association, 1939. 


A free opportunity to browse among books is planned In Little Rock 
junior high schools. One room is equipped and organized in each building 
to promote "free reading. 77 All pupils are scheduled for a period in this 
room. They read whatever they wish. There are no required readings, no 
book reports. Games, contests ; talks, playlets, dramatizations, and read- 
ing aloud allow for oral activities. Rooms for free reading are large, accom- 
modating groups of 90 to 140 pupils. Mimeographed instructions and 
lists are prepared by the librarian and used by all pupils. All children 
keep book cards, and they may reserve the book for each free period until 
it is finished. They are proud of their reading-room, and books are used 
to a maximum. They often mend their own books. Guidance is used 
only when the reading card shows the need of it or when the child asks 
for direction. Guidance is always designed to give the child an oppor- 
tunity to choose. Reading cards help to locate children who do not finish 
books. It has been found in this arrangement that almost 100 per cent of 
the children in the junior high school like to read. Of the 760 children 
using a "free-reading" room, 750 said they enjoyed it. The effectiveness of 
the Little Rock program is indicated In the following comment. 

"It is the opinion of those in charge of the experiment who have 
watched it closely and carefully, that while free reading has not solved 
all the problems in creating a wholesome, sane appetite for worth-while 
reading it does seem to be a significant move In the right direction. 7 ' 3 

Teachers of English in the Hutchins Intermediate School in Detroit 
have reported 4 favorable results of free-reading privileges for their pupils. 
The children were asked to keep records of title, author, dates the book 
was begun and finished, and whether they considered the book poor, good, 
or excellent. Lists were not checked, but recognition was given through a 
publicity campaign conducted by the school library. At the end of the 
semester, 1,115 lists, containing an average of 13 books per pupil, were 
handed in. Although 98 per cent of the titles consisted of fiction, some 
good books of nonfiction were read. Indications are that teachers are not 
successful in stimulating reading of biography and that few books in 
biography are written that appeal to adolescents. Many classics were 
listed as the most popular. Very few cheap or shoddy books were read. 

3 Lois Merrill Griffin, "Free Reading in the Junior High School/' Wilson Library 
Bulletin, X (November, 1935), 191. 

4 Florence Cleary, "Recreational Reading in Junior High School/' The Nation's 
Schools, XVI (July, 1935), 31-33. 


Problem children read very little, some not handing in lists. Few books 
were characterized as poor. Many books which appear on teachers' and 
librarians' lists did not appear on the lists of children. Similarly planned 
experiences are offered to pupils in all Minneapolis schools. 

Opportunity to explore among reading materials has made it possible 
for some children to find their special interests at their own reading level 
as nothing else can do. Even here, however, there is need for the subtle 
guidance of a teacher or librarian who knows children and is acquainted 
with many materials. These exploring periods need to be followed with 
conferences or interviews so that the interest that has been stimulated 
will be nourished and guided. The additional education which comes 
from a guidance program after exploration makes it hard to justify the 
expenditure of much time and use of the library in long periods of "free 
reading" or browsing without an effective follow-up service. 

There is danger of interpreting individual interests in a stereotyped 
manner, classifying them as art, music, or sports, and proceeding 'to col- 
lect materials in these general fields. No matter how necessary this classi- 
fication is in the organization of classes and subjects, it is to be avoided in 
selecting material to nourish individual curiosities and interests. 

Lists such as those published by the National Council of English 
Teachers and the American Library Association are most helpful in antic- 
ipating the probable reading needs of pupils. Such lists should always be 
used as guides, keeping in mind the reading problems of the community 
and of individual pupils. 

3. To Solve Certain Personality Problems 

Aside from the obvious expressed needs of normal children, there are 
many hidden drives and conflicts that challenge the attention of sympa- 
thetic and intelligent school people. True educators cannot be satisfied 
with judging library services in terms of quantity of pages read or quality 
of publications. Emphasis should be placed on the relation of the pupil's 
development to what he reads. The social significance of the reading will 
be taken care of if the child's personal problems are interpreted in their 
social setting. In this connection we can assume that there are normal 
children in the school who will need to be guided to certain reading mate- 
rials or guided away from other types of reading. A boy whose interest in 
aviation results in a too narrow concentration of reading can be given 
guidance, not away from his interest, but into many other areas. This 
is particularly true in the junior high school, where narrow interests can 


result in too limited reading. A girl in the ninth grade was observed to 
be reading books of a sentimental nature, comparable to the usual episode 
radio program which she also liked. Her conversation was narrow and 
her friends thought she was somewhat queer. The teacher talked about 
this pupil with the librarian, and she was given books of somewhat the 
same nature but more mature and of better quality. Her reading interest 
gradually broadened, as reflected by her voluntary withdrawals from the 
library. Overstimulating and morbid stories can well nourish or lead to 
serious personality problems that need the attention of those well ac- 
quainted with reading material. 

In rare cases of children who need more social life or healthful exercise 
and whose avid reading habits tend to exclude friends and out-of-door 
play, it is justifiable to guide such children away from reading and into 
social situations. In most cases, however, it is a matter of guidance to- 
ward other types of reading. 


There are numerous bulletins and handbooks listing the minimum re- 
quirements of basic skills and knowledges needed at various school levels. 
These helpful publications serve as guides and check lists for teachers and 
librarians. However excellent they may be, they are inadequate unless 
they are used in a plan of instruction based on good principles of teach- 
ing. Any teaching of library skills and knowledge must be functional, 
continuous, and individualized. 

Library instruction is functional when it is part of situations which are 
real, interesting, and natural to the pupil and which call for activities 
within the range of his ability. These situations, in addition to being real 
to the pupil, give the alert teacher an opportunity to observe and to note 
the library skills for which groups and individuals need more training. 
Classroom situations serving this purpose are described in preceding 

The fifth-grade project reported above furnished an excellent illustra- 
tion of the way in which the teacher guided activities calling for the use 
of the library in such a way as to result in definite learning of library 
skills. While the pupils were at work locating and organizing information 
or ideas related to city services, not only did the teacher give help and 
guidance to individuals, but he also noted the skills and abilities in which 
individuals and groups were deficient. Later, he provided definite lessons 
designed to overcome these deficiencies. 


A functional program is by no means a casual one. Real library situa- 
tions are used as opportunities to guide and help pupils in carrying on 
their work. However, there are certain Imitations to the amount of in- 
struction that can be given in this manner. Frequently pupils 7 needs are 
only noted, and specific instruction is given in a later class period planned 
for this purpose. 

Library instruction should be continuous, because the skills which are 
required at different school levels and in different subjects vary consid- 
erably. Also, proficiency in the use of the library cannot be fully devel- 
oped in any one grade or level or in any one subject. The teaching of li- 
brary skills to be most effective must be considered a matter of slow, con- 
tinuous growth. Therefore, pupils are introduced to the library and de- 
velop certain very elementary skills in its use even in the kindergarten 
grade, and repeated instruction and guidance must continue through the 
senior high school, expanding and deepening in relation to the growing 
needs of pupils. 

Assuming that many library skills are learned as part of the work of the 
classroom, by following individual interest, and by exploring and seeking 
aid for personal problems, there is a core of basic skills which all pupils 
should learn and which may need special attention. A plan for teaching this 
minimum must be part of a good school program. These lessons, obvious- 
ly, start in the first six grades with such topics as : how to turn pages, how 
to hold a book for reading so that the light falls on the page without mak- 
ing shadows and so that the book is the correct distance from the reader's 
eyes. As one writer states, "early experiences can be very natural and 
simple even on a skill basis"/ 7 

In a Minneapolis bulletin 5 designed to guide the reading of the first 
four years of the elementary school, the first visit to the library is de- 
scribed as a period in which pupils become acquainted with the location 
of books, have some practice in using the table of contents, and partici- 
pate in various alphabetical games. 

This same guide suggests that children keep class records of books 
read and of their reactions to them. This recording technique once 
learned is an aid in learning any classifying system. It is further sug- 
gested that children learn the need for the sensible care of books by keep- 
ing books in order, having clean hands before using books, using care in 

5 Minneapolis Public Schools, A Guide for the Teaching in the First Four Years of the 
Elementary School. Minneapolis: Board of Education, 1940. 


opening books, taking care in turning pages, returning books to the right 
places, and seeing that books are arranged neatly on the tables or shelves. 

The New York State bulletin 6 suggests that, before the end of the sixth 
grade, children learn the parts of books, as the title-page, copyright date, 
table of contents, and index. The making of bibliographies, together with 
some practice in using the Dewey system, is recommended. The refer- 
ence tools, such as Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia, World Almanac, at- 
lases, and gazeteers, should be used with skill at this level. 

In Minneapolis the upper elementary grades provide practice in the 
location and organization of materials found in the library through the 
use of booklets prepared for the improvement of reading. 7 

On the junior high school level definite provision should be made for 
giving each pupil certain basic experiences in the use of the library. In 
order that no pupil may miss these experiences, a definite period should 
be assigned to the work, fitting in well with the lesson plans of the class- 
room teacher. A typical plan is described as follows: 8 

A Minimum Experience for Library Instruction in 
Junior High Schools of Minneapolis 


1. Introduction to the school library. Every pupil should be introduced to the 
school library at a class period as near the beginning of the semester of his 
entrance to the school as it is possible to arrange 

2. A lesson on the arrangement of books in a library and the use of the card 

3. A lesson on the use of encyclopedias and reference books 


1. A continuation of the seventh-grade lesson on classification and the card cata- 

2. A continuation of the lesson on reference books 


1. A lesson on the use of the Readers 3 Guide 

2. A continuation of the lesson on reference books and the card catalog 

6 University of the State of New York, English: A Handbook for Teachers in the Ele- 
mentary Schools. Albany, New York: State Education Department, 1933. 

Minneapolis Public Schools, Helps To Improve Your Reading Organization. 
(Books X, Y, Z). Minneapolis: Board of Education, January, 1942. 

8 Minneapolis Public Schools, Classroom Instruction } Pupil Use of Books, and the 
Junior High School Library. Minneapolis: Board of Education, 1942. 


Formal Instruction 

Every junior high school pupil should have instruction in the use of the school 
library. A plan should be developed within the individual school as to the sub- 
ject areas where these lessons will be presented. Since such lessons present a 
repetition of skills rather than of content material, they might well be presented 
in all subject areas without disadvantage to the pupil. However, in order to be 
sure that every pupil receives this minimum number of hours of formal instruc- 
tion, each school should plan the schedule either for the English classes or the 
social studies classes, or for the science classes. The lessons should be planned co- 
operatively by the librarian and the teachers in the chosen subject area and 
should be closely correlated with some classroom activity. 

Informal Instruction 

In addition to this rather formal instruction indicated above, there will be, of 
course, constant informal and incidental activities which lead individual pupils 
and groups of pupils to the use of library materials under the guidance of the 
teacher. It is to be expected that in the classroom itself and under the direction 
of the teacher the pupil wiU learn such skills as the use of the index, note-taking, 
evaluation of materials, organization of materials, and the use of the dictionary 
and will receive the necessary stimulation which leads to the enjoyment of read- 

In a school system where pupils change to a senior high school build- 
ing, it is necessary to acquaint them with a new library at the tenth- 
grade level. The library activities in the senior high schools vary as do the 
teaching methods, the classroom programs, and the community back- 
grounds. No outline or course should cover the exact procedures for all 
schools, although it is very helpful to have outlined the anticipated needs 
at this level. Tenth-grade lessons in library use may appear in social 
studies classes in one school, in English classes in another school, while 
similar training may be provided in a varied program reaching into a 
number of subject areas in still another school. There may be differences, 
too, in the amount of time given and in the library skills included. In 
every case, however, the librarian should feel responsible for planning so 
that all tenth-grade pupils will have practice in the use of library skills to 
meet the demands of the classroom. Beyond this grade level individual 
instruction may be the most effective. 

A twelfth-grade activity which the librarian has learned to watch for 
and use both to the advantage of the library and of the pupil is the rather 
long written report, which may be an individual assignment in a science 
or English class, or it may be a group activity in a social-studies class. 


This report often involves the preparation of a bibliography. The li- 
brarian works with the class while plans are in the making. Group in- 
struction is given if needed, individual direction is given as the pupils 
work with the library tools. In many cases the librarian evaluates the 
bibliography for the teacher or for the group. 

In all of the senior high schools in Minneapolis the librarian attempts 
to include some activity which will give the twelfth-grade pupils worth- 
while associations with the public library branch in the community. It 
has developed in some districts into planned visits by classes. In one 
school it has taken the form of an assignment by the English teachers 
which required the use of library materials beyond the resources of the 
school library. In another school an invitation was given to all the senior 
high school classes to come to the library clubroom to hear lectures by lo- 
cal scientists on topics of interest. The classes went as a group at the time 
of the class period, since the public library was close to the school. Oppor- 
tunities are continually being made to give the pupils normal experiences 
with the local public library facilities which may be the future source of 
help and enjoyment to them in their reading. Other communities have 
developed similar plans that aid in giving older pupils an appreciation of 
what the community offers in the way of further education and good lei- 
sure-time reading. 


It is the best part of education to locate practical activities which con- 
tribute to pupils' own education and which add to the efficiency of the 
school Organizing such services should always be controlled by educa- 
tional principles, and the time and efforts of pupils should never be ex- 

In the elementary school, teachers have been very successful in guiding 
committees of pupils in collecting and filing clippings, pictures, etc. 
Classroom libraries are often handled successfully by properly selected 

In the Jefferson Junior High School of Minneapolis, selected pupils are 
encouraged to choose library work in place of their personal interest or 
hobby activities. Homeroom teachers recommend the best pupils from 
the many volunteers. The library is supplied with two or three such 
workers each period. They help with charging, shelving, and mending 
books, putting away magazines, filing, stamping books, pasting pockets, 


collecting passes at the door, checking with study halls concerning library 
passes. These pupils meet once a week as a "Library Service Club" and 
help in building interest in the services and growth of the library. 

A common practice among senior high schools is to schedule periods in 
selected pupils' programs for library service. In one city, half a credit is 
given toward graduation for such activities. The actual library help is 
not offered so much to develop vocational skills as to give opportunities 
for education and exploration in library materials and organization. A 
description of these activities is given in detail in a Minneapolis bulle- 
tin. 9 

Units in this course include : the plan of the library, library housekeep- 
ing, the book, arrangement, card catalog, periodicals, filing, reference 
books, publicity, reading and owning books, and oppportunities in li- 
brary work. In all, about one hundred different activities are promoted. 
A well-balanced and thorough program is assured by the giving of an ex- 
amination covering many of the activities. 


In evaluating the effectiveness of library service, a consideration of in- 
dividual differences and activities is a most important responsibility. It 
is to be expected that great differences in the attitude of pupils tow r ard the 
library, as well as in ability and inclination to use it, will be found. In 
welcoming and recognizing these differences and the complex factors that 
go to make them up, teachers and librarians are giving the same consid- 
eration to individual differences in relation to library use as they would in 
the teaching of any skill, ability, or appreciation. 

In addition to the usual differences of intelligence, habits, and temper- 
ament, there is the wide range in home backgrounds which exerts even a 
greater influence on pupils' attitudes toward books than toward some 
other instruments of instruction. It is up to educators to recognize the 
deep-lying influence of a home where books of quality are ever present, as 
contrasted to the home where there is little or no reading material. It is 
equally wise to recognize the boy or girl who, because of no available 
home reading, becomes mentally starved for such opportunities. Biogra- 
phy and fiction are filled with such examples. 

9 Minneapolis Public Schools. Pupil Assistants in the School Library A Tentative 
Course of Study. Minneapolis: Board of Education, 1935. 


Instruction should always be evaluated In terms of real change in pu- 
pil behavior. The importance of guiding toward genuine and permanent 
tastes in good reading habits and sincere appreciation of books cannot be 
overemphasized. Young children and adolescents many times feign such 
interest by drawing out books beyond their ability, because of the seem- 
ing prestige of such reading. Burch 10 found that for leisure-time reading 
junior and senior high school pupils, when given free access to books, 
chose books the content of which was three years below the pupils' read- 
ing ability. In Minneapolis recently, two thousand twelfth-grade pupils 
were asked to list three books of fiction they had read during the year and 
also three books of fiction they would like to own. When judged for qual- 
ity on the scale used in library research, it was found that the pupils 
desired to own books of much lower quality than those read under the 
guidance of teachers and librarians. 11 This does not mean that we should 
encourage the reading of low-quality books. It does, however, mean that 
we should be deeply appreciative and realistic in evaluating the attitudes 
of our pupils toward reading. 

The teacher should evaluate his own library service in terms of pupil 
behavior. Keeping an eye on the pupil, the teacher may ask himself the 
following questions to determine whether or not he is guiding pupil activ- 
ities so as to stimulate and educate in the effective, permanent use of the 

1. Am I planning worth-while situations which seem purposeful to the pupils and 
which require them to use books and other materials in the library? 

2. When a child needs to find the answer to a question, am I making full use of 
opportunities by showing him how to make books and the school library serve 
Mm best, by giving guidance in the use of the table of contents and the index, 
in locating books in the library, in. using reference books, and in using periodi- 
cal literature? 

3. Am I reaching indifferent and prejudiced readers by: (a) Guiding such pupils 
to reading in connection with some personal activity, interest, or hobby? (6) 
Seeking their help in selecting books, planning library displays, etc.? (c) Ac- 

10 Mary Crowell Burch, "Determination of a Content of the Course in Literature 
of a Suitable Difficulty for Junior and Senior High School Students/ 7 Genetic Psy- 
chology Monographs, IV (August-September, 1928), 163-332. Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts: Clark University Press, 1928. 

11 Minneapolis Public Schools, "A Survey of Fiction and Periodical Reading of 12A 
Students in Minneapolis." Division of Instruction, Curriculum Bulletin No. 607. 
Minneapolis : Board of Education, October, 1938. 


quainting them with books that are as thrilling as any movie? (d) Acquaint- 
ing them with books which will show them how to do better the things they 
most want to do, as train a dog, make a toy airplane, etc.? (e) Helping those 
who are poor readers to find books they can really read with ease? (/) Respect- 
ing every child's choice of reading matter and attempting to build good taste 
in reading by beginning where he is? 

4. Am I arousing an interest in books by occasionally giving pupils a brief synop- 
sis of a story, telling some interesting incident from a good book or story, or by 
reading a short passage aloud? 

5. Am I permitting pupils the opportunity to discuss intimately and informally 
books they are reading? 

6. Do I constantly keep attractive, good books before the children? 

7. Do I provide some free reading time for every child every day? 

8. Do I indicate through my work with pupils that I myself like to read and am 
glad to share rny reading with them? 

In conclusion, attention should be called again to the type of activity 
of pupils which is quiet independent of guidance but which is intimate 
and personal in nature. It is excellent for every school to have one place 
where children can go to be away from the tensions and bustle of the 
school activities a quiet place, not only to read but to sit and, perhaps, 
talk quietly concerning books and pictures. The library should plan to 
give such opportunity to all children and should never be so busy in filling 
the assignments of classrooms and the demands of individuals that it is 
impossible to maintain this very helpful atmosphere for a time of "quiet 




Chief, Division of Elementary Education 

California State Department of Education 

Sacramento, California 

Within the past decade or two many changes have been brought about 
in schools by the more widespread application of a democratic philoso- 
phy, by the findings of modern psychology, and by the tested practices of 
experimental schools. Teachers are challenged to provide learning situa- 
tions in which democratic procedures are implicit. Research has demon- 
strated that the effect on persons of living and working in a democratic 
situation is distinctly superior to the personal and social development 
which occurs in an authoritarian or a laissez-faire situation. The teacher 
recognizes her task to be one of helping to develop human personalities 
with the interests, skills, understanding, and ability to think their way 
clearly and critically through problems. She understands the part the li- 
brary plays in developing a democratic citizenship. 

The teacher's synthesis of the theories of modern psychology has led 
her to an understanding of the learning process. She views the child as a 
developing organism in which physical, mental, social, and emotional 
growth go on simultaneously. She sees the place the library holds in an 
educational program designed to produce personal and social integration. 
The concepts which an individual develops depend on his background of 
experience, both firsthand and vicarious. In the library the child has 
found interpretation for his firsthand experiences, and he has ventured 
into broader fields which he could explore only through books. The li- 
brary has adapted materials to the child's level of maturity, thus provid- 
ing for his continuous development. 

Books have been influential in building attitudes which are the emo- 
tionalized outcomes of experience. Librarians as well as teachers have 
been conscious of the modifiability of specific attitudes. The librarian has 
consciously guided children to books in which they have experienced, 



through admirable characters, the qualities of patience, endurance, self- 
sacrifice, generosity, Mndness, sympathy, and tolerance. Each book to 
which the child has been guided has been influential in the establishment 
of specific attitudes. Each has made its contribution to determining his 
ultimate sense of values. Teachers are coming to recognize more fully 
that their purposes and those of the librarian are identical in the building 
of attitudes and that their techniques supplement and reinforce each 

Psychological research has indicated the relationship between effective 
methods of work and personal integration. Here, again, the library rein- 
forces the work of the teacher in helping children develop techniques of 
study. Because of her knowledge of materials, the librarian can provide 
for the gradual development of specific study skills. She will put the large 
picture-book of trains in the hands of the primary child, recognizing that 
his abilities will be sufficiently challenged in trying to solve his problem 
concerning the number of wheels on a locomotive. In the concern of the 
tenth-grade student with the problem of the historic development of rail 
transportation, she will see an opportunity to increase his ability to use 
the tools of scholarship which the library provides. 

The library stands in vital relationship to every aspect of the learning 
process. It is by no means a mere adjunct to the classroom, but, like the 
classroom, it provides problems in the solution of which experience is re- 
organized and the organism is remade. The librarian should know the 
program of the school, but the teacher must recognize the full profession- 
al partnership which should exist if the library and classroom are to make 
their potential contribution to child development. 


In most schools where teachers are confronted with the problem of 
teaching thirty-five or forty children, it is necessary to do considerable 
careful planning in advance. Based on her knowledge of the previous ex- 
periences of the group, the teacher usually has in mind some broad area 
of experience which will probably prove interesting and challenging to 
them. She might list elements in the local environment to stimulate in- 
terest; to challenge curiosity; to make children wish to manipulate, to 
construct, and to express their ideas in words or other creative form. 
She may list the questions she thinks the children will ask. She may out- 
line a possible sequence of experiences which may occur as the children 
traverse the area. 


At every point In her planning she recognizes the need for the co- 
operation of the librarian. The librarian suggests titles which will help 
the teacher to build her own background of information. Fifteen or 
twenty well-illustrated books are selected and ready for use on the class- 
room reading-table as part of the arranged environment. Other books are 
listed and reserved to meet specific situations when new needs emerge and 
to provide attractive new materials from time to time. Sometimes a re- 
serve shelf is assigned in the library where pertinent material is easily ac- 
cessible or a list of books to be found in the library is supplied to the chil- 
dren, and they learn to use library facilities as they search for the answers 
to their questions. 

The picture file yields a dozen simple, interesting pictures to be mount- 
ed on low bulletin boards for careful study by the children. A hasty ex- 
amination of these resources yields promise of many appropriate pictures 
to use as the unit develops. Together the librarian and teacher examine 
a recent catalog of educational films and find two which will help build 
understanding quickly during the initial period of study. A well-classified 
file of fugitive materials yields pertinent clippings, a pamphlet, a simple 
story, and perhaps the rotogravure section of a metropolitan newspaper 
devoted to the specific subject. 

From the collection of audio-visual aids the librarian and teacher se- 
lect a pair of costumed dolls, several small pieces of pottery representa- 
tive of the culture, a few commercial exhibits of products, a folio of de- 
signs, and a pictorial map. The teacher will add certain materials for con- 
struction, some clay ready for manipulation, large sheets of paper, and 
mixed cold-water paints. 

The teacher encourages the librarian to visit the classroom where she 
may observe the pupils using books, note their preferences, watch the 
development of activities, and recognize the instructional materials need- 
ed to help solve problems, to correct misconceptions, or to broaden ex- 

The teacher keeps the librarian informed concerning new interests as 
they develop, new subject matter which has been introduced in response 
to needs and interests. The teacher shares with the librarian her plans for 
meeting the individual differences in her group and enlists her co-opera- 
tion in securing the material to meet the wide variation in interests and 
abilities represented. Together, teacher and librarian seek to meet the 
need of the poor reader, the child with little interest in books, the gifted 
child with mature interests. 


The library becomes an extension of the classroom. Materials are dis- 
covered In various books, and clippings and graphic materials appear on 
the bulletin board; a table exhibit with accompanying books attracts in- 
stant attention. Thus, the library functions as a vital service center, a 
busy workshop, a place of opportunity where help is available when need- 
ed and where an atmosphere of order and quiet conducive to thoughtful 
reading prevails. 


Although the librarian may work diligently to keep teachers informed 
concerning books, periodicals, and audio-visual aids which are available 
In the library, the teacher has a reciprocal responsibility. A dynamic 
teacher is ever on the alert for new materials to stimulate the interest of 
pupils. Such a teacher makes it a practice to acquaint herself with the 
new materials the library has acquired and to examine the library exhib- 

The teacher may suggest that a poster or a mural made by the children 
of her classroom would serve as an appropriate backdrop for an exhibit 
on hobbles or pioneer days. She is not content with passive acceptance 
of the efforts of the librarian but discusses future exhibits which might 
stimulate Interest in boats, in radio, in the life of the people of Mexico, or 
in any other area she may contemplate exploring with her children. 

The study may culminate in a pageant or festival. The librarian co- 
operates in finding pictures which may be helpful in planning stage set- 
tings and costumes. Authentic folk songs and stories and descriptions of 
dances and ceremonials are found. Biographies are searched to determine 
the manner of speech of national characters. All these contributions can 
be made by the librarian when the teacher works with her and regards 
her as a co-operating member in a joint enterprise. 


Schools are becoming increasingly aware of the need of a systematic 
program, from elementary school through college, for teaching the use of 
books and libraries. Although both teacher and librarian play an impor- 
tant part in such a program, the specific service of each should be clearly 
defined and not left to chance. No one way has been demonstrated as 
best. Eesearch designed to enlighten librarians and teachers on most 
effective methods would be welcome and would tend to focus attention on 
an important and too frequently neglected problem. 


In their text, The Children 7 s Book on How To Use Books and Libraries, 1 
Mott and Baisden have presented the results of five years of experimental 
work in teaching children. The acceptance of such a book gives evidence 
of recognition that such learning cannot be left to chance even on the 
elementary-school level. In most schools the librarian cannot give all the 
direct instruction needed, but she may serve as a technical consultant in 
setting up a sequence of specific skills which children will need for effec- 
tive use of the card catalog, the parts of a book, charts and graphs, en- 
cyclopedias and dictionary, and special reference books. Closely related 
are the skills of taking notes and making bibliographies. 

Under existing conditions most of the responsibility for such teaching 
must rest with the teacher. The librarian will furnish guidance as need 
arises, but good teaching will anticipate such needs to a considerable ex- 
tent and reduce the number of demands made on the librarian. She may 
thus have her time free to give specific help where needed. 

Frequent trips to the library by groups to learn how to use the card 
catalog, the periodical files, and the file of fugitive materials will result in 
more effective use of library facilities. Skill in use of encyclopedias, dic- 
tionaries, and books of special reference can be developed in the class- 
room with materials loaned by the library for classroom use or materials 
regularly housed in the classroom. 

The aim of teacher and librarian is identical: to help children become 
independent in getting the most service from library facilities. No oppor- 
tunity to develop this power should be overlooked by either librarian or 
teacher. On the whole, however, it seems hazardous to depend on inci- 
dental occasions for the acquisition of knowledge to meet pupils' needs. 
A carefully worked-out program with certain emphases at various levels 
of maturity will prove helpful. 


Modern schools emphasize the voluntary reading of children. Fre- 
quently the daily schedule provides for time in which children are free to 
enjoy the school library or to read library books in their own classroom. 
There are distinct advantages if children can have this experience in a 
well-arranged library under the direction of a professionally trained li- 
brarian. Not only are such conditions conducive to reading, but they 

1 Carolyn Mott and Leo B. Baisden, The Children's Book on How To Use Books 
and Libraries. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937. 


subtly build attitudes of appreciation for the value of libraries in schools 
and communities. 

A lifetime of study could be devoted to children's literature. No teach- 
er could possibly know all the books which would contribute to the de- 
velopment of the boys and girls in her classroom. Her day-by-day associ- 
ation with these children, however, reveals to her many differences in 
their abilities, needs, and interests. Through uniting her knowledge of 
children with the librarian's knowledge of books comes the wisest guid- 
ance of children's reading. "Bob is interested in aviation, but his reading 
ability is a year below his grade level." "Tony's background has been un- 
fortunate. Can you suggest a he-man biography to him which will help 
him build some genuine values?" "Gail has little tolerance for the chil- 
dren in our class who are of lower economic status. Could you direct her 
reading to help her see that people who are less privileged may also lead 
worthy and interesting lives?" Observations such as these have far- 
reaching values. When teacher and librarian are both working toward 
common objectives in personality development, much can be accom- 
plished to increase enjoyment, extend experience, develop tolerance, 
build standards, and promote wholesome attitudes through reading. The 
right book for the right child at the right time is the ideal toward which 
all children's librarians are constantly striving. 


The teacher plays an important part in connecting the recreational 
reading in the library with the program in the classroom. It is fun to read. 
It is almost as much fun to share the distilled essence of one's reading 
with a friend or group of friends. The teacher can do much to heighten 
the children's enjoyment in reading by providing time for them to share 
their pleasure with their friends. Such sharing may take the more formal 
aspect of a book club, or it may be a joyous "gab fest" where favorite au- 
thors, illustrators, and books all come in for free and frank evaluation. 

In speaking of art, Robert Louis Stevenson once said, "If you miss the 
joy, you miss all." Banish the memory of those dark days when the com- 
pletion of a book meant the painful writing of a book review of prescribed 
length. It took a "super" book, to use the descriptive language of the 
modern child, to compensate for such a penalty. 

Sharing may take the form of a brief oral presentation which stops 
short of divulging the denouement. It may consist in the reading of an 
exciting or beautiful incident. Some children enjoy keeping brief written 


accounts of the books they have read. They may have the satisfaction of 

having such reports suggested for inclusion in the school paper. 

The teacher should have her place as a participating member of the 
group. She may tell a story or read a poem to the group. Well done, such 
an event will be an aesthetic experience for children. The more capable 
the teacher, the greater will be the motivation of the children to conquer 
reading difficulties so they may have independent access to the treasures 
for which they must now rely upon the teacher. Nothing is so contagious 
as the teacher's own enthusiasm for literature. 

The school librarian now serves with teachers on curriculum commit- 
tees; she is ready to give professional assistance in determining the mate- 
rials available for any proposed change in the educational program. 
Events of current interest may suggest the desirability of more emphasis 
on studies designed to build greater understanding and appreciation of 
the other American republics. Many problems arise in which the service 
of teachers and librarian is needed. At what grade level should such 
materials be introduced? Is sufficient material of an appropriate degree 
of difficulty available? Is the quality of the material such that the result- 
ing experiences will contribute to the building of attitudes of sympathetic 
appreciation? Concerning what specific content can adequate material 
be obtained? Is such material now available in the school library? Can 
funds be allocated for purchase of additional books? These and a score 
of other questions must be answered in determining the feasibility of in- 
troducing new content. The availability of attractive, authentic material 
within the range of the reading ability of the children for whom it is in- 
tended is a most significant factor in the selection and grade placement of 
areas of experience. Such information discovered early in the process of 
curriculum planning saves much misdirected effort, 


It is the exception now to find a school system which employs a pro- 
fessional librarian where some system for co-operative evaluation and se- 
lection of books by committees of teachers and librarians has not been 
evolved. A recent book on library service expresses the need of co-opera- 
tive action in these terms: 

Selecting books .... is a task which no one person can accomplish alone, since 
it affects the entire personnel of the school. Selecting books wisely should in- 


variably involve the co-operation of principal, teachers, supervisors, public li- 
brarian, school librarian, and children. The librarian must utilize the knowledge 
of various members of the faculty in their special fields. 2 

Definite criteria which are acceptable from the point of view of both 
the librarian and teacher are used for the evaluation of books in every 
curricular field for which books are purchased, including recreational 
reading. Reading of new books by a number of carefully selected persons, 
independent evaluations, and final decision on the basis of objective evi- 
dence will assure a superior book collection. 

A similar procedure applied by the Committee on the Revision of the 
Graded Book List, a committee which represents the National Education 
Association and the American Library Association, promises a more satis- 
factory evaluation of older recreational reading titles than could have 
been attained had teachers or librarians worked independently. In many 
school systems, because of insufficient trained personnel, it may be ad- 
visable to depend upon such an aid to book selection* which represents the 
considered judgment of the two groups most vitally concerned and best 
qualified to express a choice. 

The teacher and librarian can engage in another joint enterprise of 
tremendous importance. The library and the classroom should each con- 
stitute a miniature democracy in which children learn through experienc- 
ing the practices upon which democracy depends. Both teacher and li- 
brarian are engaged in helping children to learn consideration for the 
rights of others and responsibility for the care of public property. Guid- 
ing children to recognize that individual rights are safeguarded and that 
living is made more satisfactory for all when everyone accepts the person- 
al responsibilities which must always accompany freedom is a problem 
shared by teacher and librarian. When both face the responsibility in a 
realistic manner and decide upon democratic procedures which both will 
utilize, the outcome of concerted action will be more favorable than when 
each proceeds on an independent course of action. Both teacher and li- 
brarian can help children to build understanding of democracy in the 
process of living. E|emocracy serves its people as individuals and as social 
groups to the end that the highest welfare of each individual is served 
commensurately with the welfare of the group. 

2 Jewel Gardiner and Leo B. Baisden, Administering Library Service in the Elemen- 
tary School, p. 65. Chicago: American Library Association, 1941. 



The teacher will relate her work most effectively to the library to the 
extent that she 

1. Recognizes the part the library plays in building democratic citizen- 

2. Understands the contribution of the library in developing personal 
and social integration. 

3. Values the service of the library in helping to build socially desirable 
specific attitudes and in contributing to the creation of a permanent 
sense of values. 

4. Recognizes the place of library experience in building study skills. 

5. Plans learning experience as a co-operative enterprise to which teach- 
er and librarian can make mutually valuable professional contribu- 

6. Provides opportunity for the librarian to observe materials in use by 
pupils as a basis for evaluating the usefulness of the materials co- 
operatively selected. 

7. Keeps informed concerning the availability of new materials. 

8. Co-operates with the librarian by suggesting interests which might 
be stimulated through library exhibits. 

9. Accepts her full responsibility in providing learning experiences in 
how to use books and libraries. 

10. Helps the librarian to know the interests, needs, and abilities of each 
child in order that the librarian may utilize the teacher's information 
in the guidance of voluntary reading. 

11. Provides opportunity for children to give expression to interests 
growing out of their experience with books. 

12. Gives evidence of her enthusiasm for books as sources of information 
and as sources of enjoyment and inspiration. 

13. Utilizes the technical competence of the librarian as a co-worker on 
curriculum committees, 

14. Shares with the librarian responsibility for the evaluation and selec- 
tion of books. 

15. Recognizes classroom and library as laboratories for learning the 
principles, ideals, and practices of democracy. 



Librarian, Garden City High School 

Garden City, Long Island, New York 

The social and educational changes of modern life with their resultant 
influence on school objectives and teaching methods have brought about 
a new conception of the importance of the school library in the educa- 
tional scheme and an increased demand for its services. These in turn 
have focused attention on the person who implements the functioning of 
this important agency the school librarian. 

Although a discussion of the training of the school librarian will not be 
undertaken in this chapter, it seems desirable to consider briefly the 
qualities and characteristics which make for success in the position. Since 
most school libraries are limited in staff to one person, it is desirable to 
find in that person the combined qualities of administrator, scholar, and 
educator. Adequate library training is needed to insure that materials 
and resources will be readily accessible and smoothly administered. Since 
library service extends to all departments of knowledge, a varied back- 
ground of liberal education together with scholarly interests and under- 
standing is fundamental. As an educator the librarian must be conver- 
sant with the scientific principles and the trends of modern education. 
Service both to children and adults requires a knowledge of the under- 
lying principles of child, adolescent, and adult psychology. In addition, 
common sense, imagination, tact and understanding, initiative and en- 
thusiasm, vitality, and a genuine interest in people are attributes which 
should be present in no small degree. 

Given a librarian possessed of these qualities, the administration 
should see to it that the position is given the recognition by faculty and 
pupils which it deserves, that authority and money are available to pro- 
cure and administer the facilities which are needed, and that the library 
does not exist as an isolated department but as a vital organization work- 
ing in close relationship with the entire school to further the educational 




If the library is to fulfil its role in furthering the educational policies 
of the school, it must establish its objectives in line with those of the 
school; and as the educational pattern of the school changes it must adapt 
its policies and objectives to fit the changing needs. In order to make 
this adaptation the librarian should be placed in a position to know what 
is being done; in fact, she should be a member of any committee or group 
which is considering and formulating school policy. Her key position in 
the school and her ability to think in terms of the entire school make her 
over-all point of view important in questions of philosophy and policy, 
while her duty of inspiring loyalty to and co-operation with all school ac- 
tivities makes it imperative that she have the complete understanding of 
policies necessary for intelligent interpretation and support. 

The curriculum in the modern school is constantly undergoing changes 
to keep the educational objectives in line with the demands of modern 
life. Such a program of curriculum development requires the co-opera- 
tion of the entire staff, and to such co-operative effort the librarian can 
make a definite contribution. Advance notice of work to be undertaken 
enables her to supply the necessary tools for the use of the curriculum 
committee; she knows the library materials available for enriching 
courses of study and has access to aids listing other sources. Her ac- 
quaintance with both pupils and materials enables her to evaluate sug- 
gested items. Her presence on the committee insures that the demands 
made by the course of study for supplementary materials will be met. 
Furthermore, it acquaints her with the points of view underlying the 
adoption of all the units of work and will help her to interpret correctly 
the demands of the curriculum to the students. The co-operative effort 
gives the librarian one more opportunity to familiarize faculty members 
with the possibilities of the library in connection with the course. Thus 
the librarian's participation in curriculum development guarantees a 
mutual understanding by faculty and librarian of what is expected from 
the pupils, from the classroom work, and from the library. 

The librarian's understanding is increased by subsequent visits to the 
classrooms to observe the activities of the various classes and to discuss 
with teachers and pupils methods for approaching new units of work, the 
possibilities existing in each project, and the respective merits of different 
books and material to be used. Class visits give opportunity to evaluate 
the adequacy of materials which have been used and to understand class- 


room problems and teacMng method. They are so valuable that provi- 
sion should be made for them regardless of other pressing duties. 

The position of librarian in a school carries with it an important liaison 
function which should be recognized. The librarian is able to exert a 
good deal of influence in interpreting the needs of teachers and pupils to 
the administration and of pupils to the faculty; she can suggest ways of 
unifying the work of the different departments by notifying teachers 
of her observations on units that fit together; she may suggest the inte- 
gration of activities of different classes and even of extra-curricular groups 
through supplementary materials and by pointing out similar interests 
and objectives. 


The efficient functioning of the school library depends upon a co-ordi- 
nation of effort between the teachers and the librarian so that the entire 
school staff operates as a single unit. To arrive at complete efficiency 
there must be "complete understanding and co-operation between the 
reading aspects of instruction and the classroom aspects." 

One of the chief library services to the faculty is the provision of mate- 
rials for their teaching making the library an "agency for curriculum 
enrichment." It has already been pointed out that familiarity with the 
course of study and frequent class visits provide means of knowing and 
understanding the requirements for material. Fulfilling such require- 
ments is a threefold task: acquainting the faculty members with avail- 
able library materials which wiU serve their needs ; watching for, notifying 
teachers about, and acquiring new materials as needed; and borrowing 
from other sources materials which are not owned and cannot be pur- 
chased. Different instructors will want to use the materials provided in 
different ways. Some prefer a bibliography which can be duplicated and 
given to their pupils; others request that they be allowed to borrow aU the 
material for use in the classroom; still others wish to have reserve shelves 
in the library for the use of their pupils. Frequently an invitation to the 
class to work in the library is most satisfactory because such an arrange- 
ment gives access to all the resources of the library and puts them into 
use under the combined guidance of teacher and librarian. 

A second service to the teacher can be given through reporting student 
needs. The requests that come to the librarian reflect classroom teaching, 
and the librarian soon learns about assignments for which library mate 1 
rials are inadequate. Reporting such inadequacies to the subject special- 


ists usually results in changing the assignments or in supplying necessary- 
library materials before the unit of work is repeated. 

Since acquisition of materials presupposes need for them and a desire 
to have them used, notification to faculty members about such acquisi- 
tions (and about new publications) is a third important service. Atten- 
tion can be called to new publications by formal notices, by supplying 
book reviews or announcements, or by borrowing the books for inspection 
by teachers. 

The invitation to hold a faculty or departmental meeting in the library 
provides an opportunity to display late acquisitions. The device of ar- 
ranging the display by departments for a faculty meeting directs atten- 
tion where it is most valuable. The librarian should welcome oppor- 
tunities to talk on such occasions, especially at departmental meetings 
where the group is smaller and interests more uniform and where atten- 
tion may be devoted to reference tools and reading matter which directly 
concern the department. 

Among other effective devices are book lists, bulletins about new books 
and important magazine articles, personal notices to individuals, and the 
sending of books direct to the classroom for examination by the teacher. 
Invitations to meet classes in the library also permit introduction to new 
materials. Any service to faculty members which calls attention to the 
value of the library collection and its teaching possibilities or to the abil- 
ity of the librarian to co-operate is of the utmost importance. Only a 
few such services can be discussed. 

In teacher-training institutions today increasing attention is being giv- 
en to acquainting students with the use of libraries and library materials. 
The librarian must be aware of this trend and must continue the work by 
encouraging new teachers to use the library and by inspiring teachers in 
service to adopt newer methods. An alert librarian can give inestimable 
help to new staff members by inviting them to the library to see the re- 
sources for enriching their class teaching and by suggesting possible meth- 
ods for using the materials. Regulations for use of the library and possi- 
bilities for co-operation should be explained. 

A desk for teachers in the main library room or in a library conference 
room is appreciated by faculty members who like to help pupils during a 
free period or who want to find a place in the crowded room where they 
feel free to work with library materials. Professional books and maga- 
zines should be provided, as well as a place in which they may be used 
either a corner of the library or a bookshelf in the teachers' recreation 


room. Placing these books in a staff room and allowing teachers to check 
them out from there frequently promotes circulation and reading. It re- 
moves, however, one means of inducing teachers to visit the library. 

The knowledge gained by the librarian through her visits to the class- 
room and through her close work with the teachers is valuable in helping 
her to tie up many library exhibits with the classroom or departmental 
work. She makes discoveries as she goes about the building, suggests ref- 
erences to assist in completing projects under way, and asks permission to 
use certain items in connection with a library display. Such exhibits ac- 
quaint library users with the type of work done in different departments 
or classes, and they often assist pupils in the selection of courses. They 
suggest methods and projects to other teachers and publicize to pupils, 
fellow faculty members, the administration, and civic groups, the work 
inspired by teachers. 

Practically every well-planned school event, whether sponsored by ad- 
ministration, faculty, or pupils, owes directly or indirectly some measure 
of success to the active school librarian. An English field day, a career or 
college night, a program for parents given by the science department or 
the modern language department all have used in some way the services 
of the library staff. It may have been an advance exhibit for publicity, a 
poster display of colleges, a bibliography for use of pupils in preparation 
for the event, a conference with faculty and student committees on speak- 
ers, forms of programs, introductions all are services rendered almost 
involuntarily to help in furthering the work of the faculty. 


Important as are the services of the librarian to teachers, the services 
to pupils are even more challenging. Some of the major contributions are 
as follows: providing a democratic situation in which to work; assisting 
in individual and group guidance; providing opportunities for student 
participation in library activities; directing student projects not con- 
nected directly with the library; and aiding in teaching pupils to use the 
library and its collection. 

The school library offers the finest opportunity for training in democ- 
racy and socialized organization. Here pupils of all ages, classes, and in- 
terests meet in an atmosphere of friendliness and freedom where assist- 
ance on any problem may be sought or where an inviting book or maga- 
zine provides an hour or more of relaxation. Admittance should be sim- 
ple and easy, restricted only by an observance of the rights of others and 


a willingness to assume individual responsibility for order and co-opera- 
tion. Here the pupil is offered direction, guidance, and friendliness, and 
in return is asked only to share the services and the materials with others 
who have an equal right to use them. 

The contribution of the librarian to the guidance of pupils is manifold 
in its possibilities. It consists of guidance along educational and voca- 
tional lines, reading guidance, study direction, and that great field of per- 
sonal, individual counseling thought of as comradeship and friendship 
rather than as formal guidance. All of them are important in the relation- 
ship of the librarian to the pupils. 

After providing a natural, democratic environment for pupils, the li- 
brarian must make sure that there is free access to the library. Nothing 
can be more deadly to the successful functioning of a school library than 
a system of red tape which discourages pupils from library use. The li- 
brary habit cannot be stimulated under such conditions and therefore 
the librarian's first service to pupils is to remove restrictions which limit 
the legitimate use of the library facilities. 

Service to pupils in connection with their curricular work consists of 
reference help on class assignments or personal problems, advice on topics 
for themes or term projects or special research, or instruction in the use of 
necessary books or library tools. 

By providing books, pamphlets, and college catalogs and by arranging 
displays on vocations, careers, and colleges the librarian offers pupils in- 
formation and advice relative to their future course, 

As a specialist on books and reading, the librarian shares with the 
teachers the work of reading guidance. The librarian has the advantage, 
perhaps, for she meets the pupils always in the presence of books. By a 
study of office records giving results of reading and achievement tests, in- 
telligence ratings, reading records, and other information concerning each 
pupil and by cultivating personal acquaintance with each child to dis- 
cover interests and abilities, the librarian builds up a background of in- 
formation which enables her to give real stimulation to the child in his 
reading. Her interest should extend to those pupils who are not making 
use of library services, and care should be taken to locate such pupils for 
the purpose of discovering reasons for their failure to take advantage of 
the library facilities. To give successful reading guidance, the librarian 
should always present an attitude of readiness to listen to a comment, to 
share an enthusiasm, or to respond to a request for a suggestion about a 
good book. 


The librarian's aid in teaching the use of the library goes on continu- 
ously. While basic lessons in library use may be taught to groups by the 
librarian in the library, the accepted plan is to integrate all but the basic 
lessons with other studies. It is usually impossible for the librarian to 
give this instruction, but she should be prepared to initiate it, if neces- 
sary, and to assist the teachers in planning and preparing the lessons. 

Instruction to individuals is given constantly by the librarian through- 
out the school life of each pupil. Personal direction on a reference prob- 
lem, interpretation of an item in a library tool, help in locating a book, 
solving a difficulty in the use of the catalog, checking an error in entry on 
a bibliography, pointing out an inefficient method of note-taking these 
are so much a part of the reference work of a librarian that they some- 
times receive less credit than they deserve. 

The socialized organization provides opportunity for pupil participa- 
tion in many library activities. A system of student government in a li- 
brary provides an experience in democratic living. The assistance of the 
council in drafting and enforcing library regulations and in solving the 
problems of lost books and mutilations as well as in student discipline 
gives support to the librarian and creates in pupils an active interest in 
the affairs of their library. The codes of etiquette for school libraries 
drawn up by student committees in several schools are evidence of the 
sound thinking of which students are capable. 

Library representatives in homerooms to take care of library notices, 
homeroom requests, and other contacts between the library and the 
homeroom are mutually advantageous. Library representatives in 
classes are able to serve the teachers and pupils of the classes by reporting 
the beginning of new units of work and the requests of the class for mate- 
rial, thereby keeping the librarian in close touch with the progress of the 
course and assuring the teacher and pupils that material will be assem- 
bled as needed. 

Classes, clubs, student organizations, and individuals should be en- 
couraged to recommend books or other materials for purchase. Such re- 
quests should receive careful consideration and a reply, either by a notice 
that the material has been received or by a conference to explain the 
reason for not making the purchase. 

The librarian should, either personally or through her student assist- 
ants or homeroom representatives, give active assistance to the orienta- 
tion program. The introduction of a new group to the library and the ef- 


fort to reach every new pupil are services very helpful to the pupils and, 
indirectly, to the library. 

Finally, the use of student assistants in the library provides a special 
opportunity for service. Whether the help is given through membership 
in a library-service club or through enrolment in a library-science course 
for credit, the student assistant realizes certain benefits: training in ac- 
curacy and in clerical duties, the development of poise and responsibility 
in working with people, an awareness and appreciation of books, an ex- 
ploratory experience for determining aptitude for library work as a pro- 
fession, and the satisfaction of service to the school. 

There remains the consideration of the service which may be rendered 
to projects not connected directly with library work, services given with- 
out or within the library, all involving personal relationships with pupils. 
The fairly long hours and full schedule preclude much outside work for 
the average librarian. Nevertheless, mention must be made of the pos- 
sibilities. A field trip with a group of students to an important book fair 
or to a publishing house might in addition to its educational importance 
stimulate interest in the library and in reading. The direction of library 
assemblies, the arrangement of book-week programs, the sponsorship of 
clubs, and similar activities are extremely important. The school is in- 
deed fortunate which has an administration which realizes the value of 
this work and provides the library staff to make it possible. 


Just as the librarian supplies a unifying link between units of organiza- 
tion in the school, just so she acts as the chief liaison officer between the 
school library and the public, state, and regional libraries which serve the 
community. The relationship to state and regional libraries involves a 
knowledge of their resources and the possibilities of making these re- 
sources available to the school should the need arise. 

The co-operation with the public library or other local library agencies 
can be reciprocal. Under some forms of school-library control much of 
the technical work and some of the services of the school and public li- 
braries are co-ordinated. Under separate organization there can still be 
much mutual assistance in planning and buying. Where funds are limited 
it is very important that there be the closest co-operation in the selection 
of books and periodicals and other audio- visual materials. Such co-opera- 
tive buying and avoidance of duplication of expensive items imply a 


thorough knowledge of the respective collections in order that the fullest 
possible service to patrons may be insured. 

It will be of advantage to each to advertise the special collections, the 
new acquisitions, and the events sponsored by the other. 

The school librarian should always keep the public library informed 
about possible demands which will be made by pupils and should help 
plan ways of meeting such demands. She may assist in creating reserve 
shelves in the public library for books needed by many pupils; she should 
supply copies of assignments and lists of references, or, if the public li- 
brary prefers, she may borrow the books for use in the school library. At 
all times she should endeavor to carry as much as possible of the school 
load in order that the facilities of the public library shall not be over- 

The introduction of pupils to the public library helps to create future 
patrons for public and college libraries. This may be done by taking 
classes to visit the public library or by writing personal notes or cards 
recommending an individual for membership. Public and school librari- 
ans should share the responsibility of following up the library contacts of 
high-school graduates and of pupils who leave school before graduation. 

Efficient and progressive library administration is stimulated by par- 
ticipation in professional activities with other members of the profession. 
The librarian who maintains active membership in community, state, and 
national library associations is cognizant of new developments and prac- 
tices which may be adaptable to her work. Assistance on professional 
committees, teaching of summer or extension library courses, study in 
formal courses or with forum groups, visits to libraries of various sizes and 
types these are some of the helpful devices for keeping informed and en- 

It is the duty of the librarian to follow the progress of important re- 
search in library and educational fields and to examine the reports of in- 
vestigations for implications for her work. 

In the light of such new developments the librarian should frequently 
evaluate the collections and services of her own library. Evaluative cri- 
teria such as those devised by the Co-operative Study of Secondary 
School Standards may be used, or the evaluation may be simply a con- 
tinuous critical self-survey consisting of an honest and searching analysis. 

Community activities which have some claim on the interests and 
time of the school librarian are worth while in the information they give 
about the homes from which the pupils come and in the support which 


they engender for the library. The librarian should be conversant with 
community needs, and wherever possible should offer the resources of the 
library to help meet such needs. This may mean reference service to 
townspeople; it may mean arranging summer library hours for children 
and young people; or it may simply mean posting public notices or giving 
publicity to civic movements. Co-operation or leadership in book drives, 
charity work, scholarship benefits, and similar community efforts is ap- 
preciated by community leaders. As a student of books, the librarian 
should be willing to assist study clubs in planning programs, in assem- 
bling materials, and in giving book talks or reviews. 

As a person interested in children and young people and as a reading 
adviser, she should be prepared at all times to present the problems of 
youth to interested organizations and to work with these groups on young 
people's reading. Conferences with parents on the reading of their chil- 
dren and the preparation of lists of books recommended for purchase for 
personal libraries are valuable in raising the quality of reading. When 
such lists are presented to local booksellers and their co-operation is en- 
listed there is still a better hope for successful results. 

The school is a vital, functioning agency of the educational system 
which owes its existence to community support. Any contact that the 
librarian can make in the way of service which does not interfere with the 
services to the school is of value not only because of the work itself but 
because of the realization and understanding it gives of the contributions 
a good school library can make. 


The administrative officers of a school have the dual responsibility of 
securing the greatest possible educational returns from the school library 
and of securing support to make those returns possible. To assist them in 
interpreting and supporting the library program, the librarian should 
keep them fully informed concerning all the activities of the staff and the 
use of the resources of the library. 

Reports should be presented monthly and should be supplemented by 
an annual report to summarize the work of the year and to present plans 
for the following year. Personal conferences to clarify and interpret 
written statements should be requested as often as they seem advisable. 
Written reports which take the form of running comment with specific 
illustrations are effective, but they should be accompanied by statistics. 
Records of circulation, attendance, size of collection, .reference questions 


answered, and similar details are most useful in showing volume of work 
and need for continued support. These records demonstrate the impor- 
tance of the library in the educational scheme and should indicate as far 
as possible not only the amount of service rendered but its quality. In- 
stances of effective co-operation between the librarian and the teachers, 
projects in which the library has taken part, work with other libraries or 
community agencies, service on school or professional committees, library 
lessons taught, book talks given, class visits, exhibits these are all im- 
portant in reporting the value of the library to the administration and 
through them to the supporting groups. 

The reports should include information about possibilities of service 
as yet unrealized, with an explanation of what is necessary to make such 
services available. Attention should be directed to standards which have 
been met or to those which the library has failed to meet. It is valuable to 
furnish comparisons to other school libraries as often as information on 
comparable situations can be found. Every activity of any value and 
every library service which has been given may be reported. It is neces- 
sary for the administrative officers to foster enlightened opinion in the 
community concerning the entire educational program. The information 
concerning the library should be planned and reported regularly and 
should be such that it will secure public interest and support. 


The principles which have been set forth in the preceding pages are not 
new but they bear repetition and emphasis. The trained librarian has 
long recognized the importance of the library in making the educational 
program effective. It has been part of her philosophy of librarianship. 
Her relations to the school as a whole, to the faculty, to the pupils, and 
to other agencies permeate and bind together the entire range of func- 
tions which the library performs. For the "modern library .... is not in- 
terpreted in terms of books alone, nor of systems alone, but through the 
personality and sensitivity of its librarian." 




Assistant Superintendent 

Cincinnati Public Schools 

Cincinnati, Ohio 


Chapters vi, vii, and viii have presented a suggestive pattern of school- 
library service in terms of pupils, teachers, and librarians. But the inter- 
relationship of these three "factors," in so far as effective use of the school 
library is concerned, depends largely upon the school administrator. His 
attitude will condition the attitudes of pupils, teachers, and librarians; 
furthermore, unless he has a clear understanding of the role of the library, 
its services cannot be effectively developed or utilized. 

Within the last thirty or forty years, with the growth and development 
of school libraries throughout the country and with the use of trained li- 
brarians, there has been a tendency for some principals and superintend- 
ents to spend very little time on the real work of the library because of 
their preoccupation with other matters. Most administrators have aided 
the development of libraries, especially on the secondary level, by foster- 
ing teacher-librarian co-operation, but in many schools the responsibility 
for the library has hardly had its share of the time of the superintendent 
and the principal. Today there is evidence of a renewed effort on the part 
of the superintendent and the principal to resume their proper role in the 
development of the school library. 

School libraries are organized in several different ways: under the con- 
trol of local school authorities, in which case the responsibility of adminis- 
tration is directly in the hands of the superintendent and the principal ; un- 
der the supervision of a city employee who acts as library supervisor un- 
der the direction of the board of education; or under the joint auspices of 
the board of education and the public library, in which case the principal 
and the superintendent usually have official representation on the co-oper- 


RE AVIS 153 

ative board of control. The present trend is decidedly toward board-of-ed- 
ucation control with the principal and the superintendent of schools in 
direct line of responsibility. 1 

Within the school system the division of responsibility for the school 
library between the principal and the superintendent depends to a large 
extent on the size and organization of the system. In the large city school 
system it is the responsibility of the superintendent to establish the place 
and service of the library and its relation to the public library, but he is, 
in practice, far removed from its actual administration. Correspondingly, 
in these large systems where the school becomes a comparatively autono- 
mous unit, the principal's relationship to the library becomes more impor- 
tant, and he assumes responsibility for many of those functions of the li- 
brary which are the superintendent's responsibility in the smaller com- 
munity. In the village school, on the other hand, where the principal is 
really the principal-teacher, and the superintendent is the active profes- 
sional head of the organization, it is the superintendent who is in direct 
control of library policy. Moreover, in a small system where there is no 
trained librarian, the superintendent has the further responsibility of 
assuming the professional leadership ordinarily supplied by the librarian 
in developing library facilities and services. Throughout this chapter, 
therefore, it must be kept in mind that there is no typical school library 
and that the relationship of the superintendent to the library, and of the 
principal to the library, cannot be marked off, one from the other, by a 
definite and distinct line. The working relations here suggested must be 
interpreted in terms of the size of the community, the administrative or- 
ganization of the school system, and various other local conditions. 
Throughout this chapter, whenever the words "principal" and "superin- 
tendent" are used, they should be thought of as jointly representing the 
administrator responsible for the professional sponsorship of the school 


There are certain responsibilities in connection with the school library 
which^ regardless of the size or type of organization of the school system, 
belong clearly to the superintendent. He must, first of all, see that the 
library service of his school system adheres to approved standards with 
respect to such factors as space, books, equipment, personnel, and budget. 

1 H. L. Cecil and W. A. Heaps, School Library Service in the United States. New 
York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1940. 


In their efforts to appraise high schools, accrediting agencies have made 
many statistical studies of libraries in the schools and recently have set 
up evaluative criteria for the detailed study of libraries. The trend in the 
studies carried on by various organizations, including the Department of 
Secondary Education, the North Central Association of Secondary 
Schools and Colleges, the American Library Association, and the United 
States Office of Education, has been toward qualitative as well as quanti- 
tative standards. The effort has been to measure library service in terms 
of educational philosophy, school library objectives, type of curriculum, 
background of students, and needs of the school community. 2 The super- 
intendent needs to be familiar with such studies in order to check the li- 
brary service of his school system against their carefully worked-out 

It is also the superintendent's place to present to the board of educa- 
tion the pertinent facts with reference to library service and needs. This 
information may be readily obtained by him from reports sent in by prin- 
cipals at regular intervals and should serve as the basis for administrative 
action. Not only should the superintendent require of his principals pe- 
riodic reports about the extent to which their school libraries are being 
used and the types of services they are rendering, but he should, in meet- 
ings with them, provide opportunities for discussion of problems and pol- 
icies involved in the improvement of school-library services. 

The superintendent is in a position, too, to exert great influence in the 
encouragement of widespread community interest in, and support of, the 
work of the school library. There are many ways, especially in small cities 
and towns, in which the school library can be of service to the commu- 
nity. The library may be made available in the late afternoon and evening 
for meetings of civic groups, and its research and reference facilities may 
be offered to city and town officials. The librarian herself may assist in 
various civic projects. In larger school systems where there is a planned 
public-relations program the superintendent should see that the library 
is given adequate treatment and interpretation. 

Closely associated with the matter of community relations is the ques- 
tion of the relationship of the school library to the public library. In most 

2 See L. F. Fargo, The Library in the School Chicago: American Library Associa- 
tion, 1939; and Certain Aspects of School Library Administration, Research Division of 
the National Education Association, Circular No. 6, 1939. Washington: National 
Education Association, 1939. 

RE AVI 8 155 

cities it is preferable to have the two systems of libraries operate inde- 
pendently. It is difficult for the school to achieve fully integrated service 
with the public library; furthermore, there are many disadvantages from 
the administrative point of view. Use of the public library usually in- 
volves taking the children outside of school premises, and, even when the 
books are housed within the school, use by the children conflicts with the 
library ? s service to the adults of the community. In small towns, how- 
ever, closer collaboration may be desirable. It is better to have one well- 
balanced collection of books, for school and community together, than 
for each to maintain an incomplete library of its own. Small communities 
should also enlist the co-operation of state library agencies. 

Even in cities where the schools have large and well-equipped libraries 
of their own, a certain degree of co-operation with the public library is 
essential, and here again it is the responsibility of the superintendent to 
determine policy. He should make every possible use of the public library 
as a means of extending the educative influence of the school beyond the 
limits of the school day and the school year. The school should direct 
pupils to the public library after school and in the summer, and the li- 
brary should, in turn, guide them to those books which stimulate and 
supplement the w r ork they are doing at school. In general, the school 
should look to the public library to furnish most books of a recreatory 
nature. For a balanced discussion of the relation between the school and 
public library and a list of services which the public library can render to 
the schools see Cecil and Heaps, School Library Service in the United 

One of the superintendent's most important responsibilities, of course, 
is the formulation of policies with reference to the school library. In this 
connection he should recognize that a school library can operate effec- 
tively only when it is recognized as an integral part of the service of the 
school, not as a mere appendage. Moreover, he needs to have clearly in 
mind the objectives of the school library. He should see that the libraries 
in his system are making their maximum contribution to general educa- 
tion; that their work is directed toward the goal of making pupils com- 
petent readers. The superintendent might well familiarize himself with 
some of the criteria of library service which have been drawn up by ex- 
perts in the field. For example, Lucile F. Fargo in The Library in the 
School lists the objectives of the school library as follows: 

3 Op. cit., pp. 221-29. 


1. To acquire suitable library materials and organize them for the use of pupils 
and teachers 

2. To make the library an agency for curriculum enrichment, pupil exploration, 
and the dissemination of good literature 

3. To teach the skilful use of books and libraries in the interest of research and of 

4. To create an atmosphere favorable to the growth of the reading habit 

5. To stimulate literary appreciation 

6. To demonstrate the desirability of books and libraries as the companions of 

7. To provide fruitful social experience 4 

Closely associated with the question of library policies is the respon- 
sibility for defining the relations of the school library to the curriculum 
and the instructional program. The school library mirrors the philosophy 
of the instructional program. The library is not just a room for housing 
books; it is an instructional agency for highly specialized educational 
service. The librarian should suggest books for the students to read, en- 
courage investigations on their part, foster book clubs, and plan exhibits 
for classroom and general school use. When the library is an integral part 
of the instructional organization, the librarian serves as the go-between 
for the right book and the right child and does much to stimulate and 
maintain children's interest in reading. Moreover, there are many situa- 
tions in which the librarian functions as a teacher. Through the organiza- 
tion of the library as a social institution she can do much to make boys 
and girls conscious of the rights citizenship bestows and of the obligations 
it demands in return. The library provides an opportunity for children to 
assume some responsibility and initiative in maintaining good working 
conditions and to share their experiences with each other in a friendly 
spirit of mutual helpfulness. The proper care of library furniture and 
equipment, prompt return of library materials borrowed, etc., constitute 
fine training for citizenship. Then, too, the current emphasis on thrift de- 
mands economy not only in tangible things but also in study; that is, 
knowledge of how to use the tools of learning so as to get the greatest re- 
turn for the least expenditure of time and energy. By taking advantage 
of such opportunities for instruction the librarian becomes a teacher in 
the highest sense of the word. 

It is usually the principal who works directly with the librarian, but 

* Op. tit, p. 23. 

RE AVIS 157 

since it is the superintendent's responsibility to select the library per- 
sonnel, it is important that he, too, be aware of the librarian's function as 
a teacher. The good librarian is much more than a keeper of books, and 
the superintendent needs to recognize that checking out books and keep- 
ing order in the library does not constitute "library service." In choosing 
a librarian the superintendent might well ask himself the questions sug- 
gested by the Research Division of the National Education Association 
in their bulletin on library administration: Has she had adequate train- 
ing? Is she certificated? Does she rank as a teacher in position and sal- 
ary? 5 It is highly important that the librarian be alert to an ever chang- 
ing and growing curriculum and to her own responsibility in its develop- 
ment. In village and rural schools it may not always be possible to secure 
the services of a trained librarian, but everywhere the person placed in 
charge of the school library should be equipped with administrative abil- 
ity, good judgment, patience, enthusiasm, and good humor. She must 
not only know books and library routine; she must know boys and girls, 
their likes and dislikes. For this reason it is wise for the superintendent, 
in selecting a librarian, to interview the candidates personally in addition 
to considering their records. Moreover, once he has secured a capable li- 
brarian, it is the superintendent's responsibility to provide her with 
enough assistance to free her from routine and provide opportunity for 
her important professional services. 

The superintendent cannot afford to overlook the needs of the school 
library in the allotment of funds. Sometimes when it is necessary to cur- 
tail expenditures it may seem a simple expedient to take the first slice off 
the library allotment, but the wise superintendent will keep in mind reli- 
able, up-to-date statistics on library costs (the North Central Association 
of Secondary Schools and Colleges recommends seventy-five cents per 
pupil as the minimum annual budget for high-school libraries and fifty 
cents per pupil on the elementary-school level), and he will consult the li- 
brarian to ascertain specific local needs. As a guide in determining the 
allotment of funds to the school library he may consider the following fac- 
tors listed in School Library Service in the United States: pupil population; 
average daily attendance; type of curriculum and organization; character 
of student body; character of teaching staff, as reflected in extent of li- 
brary use; and relationship with the public library. 6 

6 Op. dL, p. 12. 6 Op. Git, p. 207. 


The superintendent should also consult the librarian in working out 
the architectural plans for the library of a new or remodeled building. 7 

The development and maintenance of an effective program of library 
service in any school system is largely dependent upon a recognition by 
the superintendent of its importance as an instrument of education and 
his interpretation of its value to the school board, to the end that ade- 
quate provision is made for its administrative control, supervision, and 


Just as the broad program of the school library is limited or extended 
by the superintendent's conception and support of its services, so its spe- 
cific functions within the school are largely determined by the principal's 
plan for its use. It is his attitude toward the library and his interpreta- 
tion of it to the pupils, teachers, and librarians which establishes its place 
and function in the school The superintendent lays down general prin- 
ciples for its development and plans the over-all budget, but, especially 
in large city schools, it is the principal whose contact with, and control of, 
the library is more direct. 

The principal needs first of all to see and use the library as a service 
organization. If he plans a safety campaign, an auditorium session on 
Latin-American backgrounds, a school radio broadcast on thrift in war- 
time, or a hobby-week display, he should use the library as the logical 
source of helpful, organized material. 

But it is even more important that the principal see the role the li- 
brary can play in the development of the instructional program of the 
school. Modern educational methods presuppose the school library as a 
superlaboratory, and the principal is responsible for directing the trends 
in library function so that they are in line with the development of the 
instructional program. Naturally, as curriculum-planning has progressed 
during the last two decades, corresponding changes have followed in the 
function and organization of the school. The Gary plan, involving alter- 
nation between classroom work and playground, shop, and library, gave 
the principal the responsibility of meeting the demands for new and 
varied services from the library. The platoon system called for a flexible 
library setup which could accommodate a single or double platoon. The 
Dalton and Winnetka plans, emphasizing individualized instruction, 

7 For an extensive treatment of building problems see Fargo, op. ciL, pp. 265-85. 

RE AVIS 159 

forced the principal and superintendent to recognize the need for more 
books for individual reading. The unit method of instruction demands 
related sets of materials in the library and requires a broader background 
on the part- of the librarian. 

The shift in many school systems from the forty-five-minute recitation 
period to the hour period, however, brings some difficulties in the admin- 
istration of the library and requires some change in library functions and 
policy. One librarian has said that the hour period "wrecks the library/ 7 
It is true that in schools operating on the basis of the forty-five-minute 
recitation period there are more opportunities for pupils to read and 
study in the library during the school day. Many schools with this or- 
ganization have scheduled free periods when the librarian can guide the 
study of pupils who bring their assignments from the classroom to the li- 
brary. In addition, this plan allows time for students to spend free peri- 
ods in the library on individual study projects. 

Under the hour-period plan, on the other hand, the pupils remain in 
classrooms almost all day and have few free periods in which to work in 
the library. Instead, there is need in the classroom itself for background 
material, study aids, illustrative literature of all kinds, and opportunity 
for realistic application of the principles learned to the everyday affairs 
of the pupils. It therefore becomes necessary under the longer-period 
plan of organization for the central library to service the classroom groups 
more fully. The librarian should provide materials and information need- 
ed in the classrooms. In this connection the librarian must serve as a co- 
ordinator, so that where only one set of materials is available, no two 
teachers will plan to work on the same unit simultaneously. She can even 
go to the classroom occasionally herself to work with the students and 
teachers in the development of units during the work-study periods. The 
maximum use should be made of the library in this way, the teacher and 
students working with the librarian as part of the regular class procedure. 
Where facilities permit, classes in all subjects, not merely in the field of 
language arts, should be scheduled for an average of at least one period a 
week in the library. The size of the library should be such as to accommo- 
date one complete class group working together, in addition to other pu- 
pils working individually. 

Naturally, the principal plays an important role in establishing such 
a working relationship between the classroom teachers and the librarian, 
It is his responsibility to see that the administrative setup is provided in 
which librarian and teachers can make wise and efficient use of the library 


facilities in the light of the specific type of organization the school em- 
ploys; and his continuous co-operation is essential. 

It is, therefore, of fundamental importance that the principal under- 
stand the role of the librarian in the development of the instructional 
program. He should recognize her officially as having senior-teacher 
status or as head of a department where such a plan is used, and he should 
see that she is named to serve on instructional and curriculum commit- 
tees. He should require the librarian to attend all general faculty meet- 
ings and have her submit reports regularly, including statistical material 
and suggestions for extension of service. There should be frequent confer- 
ences between librarian and principal. It is especially important that he 
include her in school-planning so that she will guide the library's func- 
tions not by external professional standards only but in terms of what 
her particular school is doing and planning at a given time. There no 
longer should be a line of demarcation between librarian and teacher 
whereby one gives out books and the other uses them. The librarian 
should work hand-in-hand with the teachers in their planning. For ex- 
ample, if a new course on the Western Hemisphere is being introduced, 
the librarian and teachers together should plan its content, the librarian 
bringing to the aid of the teachers all the resources of the library. Espe- 
cially in times of national crisis can the library contribute to the instruc- 
tional program. Class reactions register rapidly in the library, and as 
new needs make themselves known they must be met promptly. With 
the impact of the war emergency, librarians are faced with increasing 
demands for materials on foreign affairs, vocational training, and various 
aspects of morale. These materials together with maps and atlases, when 
sent from library to classroom, provide teacher and students with helps 
for intelligent interpretation of the world today and particularly of the 
place of the United States in world affairs. 

Moreover, through the librarian the principal can do much to analyze 
and supervise the instructional program in his school. From her objec- 
tive vantage point the librarian observes the reading habits of students 
studying in the library or in the classroom and learns much about the 
way they are taught. She notes assignments and the range and quality of 
references given to the pupils by the teachers. She notices enthusiasms 
for, or lack of interest in, assignments and can determine whether these 
reactions are to the course of study or to the teacher's approach. For ex- 
ample, if a teacher sends a student to the library with a bibliography list- 
ing only the most obvious references for a unit in world history, with no 

RE AVIS 161 

emphasis upon current happenings, or listing books with an apparent 
bias or obsolete periodical footnotes, she brands herself as a backward- 
looking instructor. The librarian can do much to help the principal ap- 
praise the instruction by making much essential information available to 
him, which he, in turn, can pass on to the superintendent for his use in 
improving the city-wide level of instruction. The librarian cannot do this, 
of course, without the active support and co-operation of the principal. 
It is for him to take the initiative in working out any such system of ap- 

The principal may profitably spend some time in the library himself, 
noticing the reactions of students and their ability or inability to handle 
library materials. He can in this way discover needs that must be met in 
the instructional program and may find much evidence to help him bet- 
ter understand the specific instructional problems of individual teachers. 
Using the library thus as an appraisal center, the principal, and through 
him, the superintendent, can watch the growth of the students, of the 
teachers, of the courses of study, and of the administration of the instruc- 
tional program. 

Working so closely with the school library and librarian, the principal 
can effectively determine sound library policies. It is one of his primary 
responsibilities to see that the school library serves all classes on all grade 
levels and that it provides ample and appropriate material for children of 
limited and exceptional, as well as of normal, ability. He needs to make 
clear the distinction between the type of reading done in the classroom 
and in the library, emphasizing the values of those library methods by 
which pupils are introduced to materials that appeal to their individual 
tastes, accompanied by none of the analytical treatment that works of 
literature so frequently receive in high-school English classes. The li- 
brarian individualizes the instructional materials and secures a maximum 
adaptation to individual needs. 

From the vantage point of his over-all view of the program the prin- 
cipal can well go on from here to fit reading guidance into the larger guid- 
ance program of the school. Not only can the library provide books and 
magazines in various occupational fields to supplement the practical 
work in classrooms and shops, but it can "guide" in a broader sense of the 
word. High-school pupils need books that inform and instruct and books 
that awaken and inspire. Through carefully selected books and other 
reading materials and by individual guidance, the school library can help 
pupils get the facts; can help them develop tolerance and understanding; 


and can strengthen and preserve their faith in the American way of life. 

In addition to its services to the pupils the library may be utilized by 
the principal to encourage and stimulate the professional growth of his 
teachers. He may, for example, have the librarian report briefly on new 
professional literature at faculty meetings or on the bulletin board, and 
he may have her reserve a shelf in the library for its display. 

In school systems furnishing free textbooks, the textbooks are often 
housed and distributed separately and their circulation made wholly a 
routine procedure. In such schools a satisfactory division has usually 
been made between the functions of the library and the "bookroom." 
The library is a place for reading for information and recreation; the 
"bookroom/' for storing, distributing, and repairing textbooks. It is the 
principal's responsibility to see that there is no confusion between the two 
types of service and that the time of the librarian is not absorbed by the 
administrative routine of the "bookroom." 


Although the library may seem rather far removed from the daily rou- 
tine of the busy school superintendent and the principal, it is a vital and in- 
tegral part of the school system and must not be overlooked in the rush 
and pressure of administrative duties. The attitudes of students, teach- 
ers, and librarians are affected by that of the administrator, and there are 
many functions in connection with the library's effective operation which 
only the principal and the superintendent can perform. The superinten- 
dent and the principal are responsible not only for determining the broad 
policies of the library but also for seeing that its service is fully inte- 
grated "with the curriculum and instructional program; that it is ade- 
quately staffed and supported by funds; and that its work is properly in- 
terpreted to the board of education and to the community. Without rec- 
ognition on the part of the superintendent and the principal of the service 
the school library renders, and without their full co-operation and sup- 
port, the library cannot reach the maximum of its possibilities for service 
to the school system. 





Librarian, The Lincoln School 

Teachers College, Columbia University 

New York, New York 

It is a far cry from the heterogeneous collection of books brought to- 
gether more or less by chance, housed casually in some room or alcove 
left over after all the classrooms in the building had been assigned, and 
then called a library, to the present-day school library, organized, 
equipped, administered, and recognized as an essential part of the school. 
Fundamental changes in educational philosophy and methods the swing 
away from departmentalized subject matter, the child-centered school, 
the emphasis laid on experience in dealing with the problems of today as 
a preparation for life have all contributed to the development of the 
school library. 

By its very nature the library was an agency ready to respond to the 
new education. The introduction of the use of many books needed by a 
group instead of one textbook, coupled with the possibility, even proba- 
bility, that each member of a class would need a different book for his as- 
signment, brought about a situation that the school library at its best was 
equipped to provide for. 

The school library furnishes the "real life-situation" which progressive 
education has sought. It does this not only when it provides an oppor- 
tunity for the pupil to consult many sources of information, checking one 
authority against another, but also when it permits the individual to 
find, with guidance and advice when he needs them, books for recreation- 
al reading, choosing freely from a book collection selected for merit and 

The function of a school library is therefore twofold, and both aspects 
are equally important. The library aims (1) to provide a well-balanced 
collection of books for the use of pupils and teachers in classroom and 
laboratory work, and (2) to build up a collection of books for general 



reading that will appeal to boys and girls of different ages and tastes and 
help them to develop the reading habit and an appreciation of good liter- 

In order to serve its purposes, the school library must contain an am- 
ple supply of books. According to standards set for modern school-li- 
brary practice, the library should spend on books at least $1.00 per pu- 
pil; $1.25 is better; $2.00, an ideal which, though rarely reached, obvious- 
ly permits a more adequate colection. A small school will necessarily 
spend more per pupil than a large one. The collection should contain a 
wide variety of books to appeal to different tastes and ages and to suit 
wide differences in reading ability, to supply accurate information in 
connection with pupils 7 courses, and to develop in boys and girls a genu- 
ine love of books and reading. Reading interests range all the way from 
that of the mechanically minded boy who reads with comprehension and 
enjoyment a book on the Diesel engine to that of the pupil who is fas- 
cinated by Gilbert Murray's translations of Euripides. There is always 
more than a slight chance that, once the reading habit is formed, the 
young reader's tastes will broaden until his choice of books covers many 
other interests besides the primary one. 

The books which make up a school library fall roughly into three 
groups: (1) books for ready reference; (2) books in the different fields of 
knowledge science, Mstory, the arts, languages, biography, travel, and 
literature; and (3) books which are read without reference to school as- 
signments. Here will be found plenty of good fiction, plays and poetry, 
and travel; indeed, books in all of the fields mentioned above will at some 
time or other fall into this category. 

1. Reference Books 

A collection of basic reference books is indispensable to a school library 
of whatever size. Included in this category are dictionaries, encyclo- 
pedias, and handbooks of various kinds. 

The selection of encyclopedias and other reference books should be 
made with the following criteria in mind. First, are the editors competent 
authorities? Second, is the book recent or must it be supplemented by 
other material to bring it up to date? Third, in an encyclopedia, are the 
articles signed and are there bibliographies? Fourth, is there a satisfac- 
tory system of cross-references? 

EATON 167 

For a library serving the elementary and junior high schools excellent 
juvenile encyclopedias are available. These are inclusive in content, sim- 
ple in style, and rich in graphic material; they are planned, too, to cor- 
relate closely with the school curriculum. Generally speaking, encyclo- 
pedias in special fields are both highly technical and expensive and 
should be purchased by a school library only after careful consideration. 

Annuals supplying current information are published by most of the 
standard encyclopedias. The almanac (a good example is the World Al- 
manac) is cheap, is easily procurable, and provides a large amount of 
valuable statistical information. There are more expensive statistical 
reference books, published annually or biennially, which are very useful 
to the library which can afford them; certain government publications in 
this class, such as the Statistical Abstract of the United States and the Ab- 
stract of the United States Census, may be obtained at small cost from 
the Superintendent of Documents, or without charge through a Con- 

Another government publication which should by all means be added 
to the school-library reference shelves is the yearbook published by the 
Department of Agriculture. The last few volumes Soils and Men 
(1938), Food and Life (1939), Farmers in a Changing World (1940), Cli- 
mate and Man (1941) have special interest and usefulness in a high- 
school library. Other government documents useful in school libraries 
and obtainable free or at small cost axe listed in the Standard Catalog for 
High-School Libraries. The Superintendent of Documents will send price 
lists on request. 

A library needs a book of quotations and anthologies of English and 
American poetry. Biographical reference books on authors of the present 
and past are useful. Chronological outlines and epitomes and historic 
notebooks and date-books are needed only by the large school library. 
For the most part, the information supplied by this type of reference 
book is available in textbook form or in the work of authoritative his- 

One good inclusive atlas will be helpful, but purchases in this field 
should be made with caution for the reasons that geographical boundaries 
frequently change, classrooms are usually well supplied with wall maps, 
and many of the maps which help students most are to be found in history 
texts. Historical reference books and sets which emphasize graphic fea- 
tures and include a rich supply of illustrations and maps from authentic 
sources have great value. 


Other reference books may be found by referring to A Basic Book Col- 
lection for High Schools (American Library Association) and to the Stand- 
ard Catalog for High-School Libraries and the Children's Catalog (H. W. 
Wilson Co.). The Subscription Books Bulletin, published quarterly by 

the American Library Association, gives expert, unbiased evaluations for 
all encyclopedias and other subscription sets and should be consulted by 

librarians before buying such source materials. 

2. Books Used in Connection with Classwork 

The selection of books in the second group books in the various sub- 
ject-matter fields, to which the classroom teacher refers the pupils and 
which take the place of the one or two textbooks formerly considered ade- 
quate is most successful when it becomes a co-operative enterprise. 
Here the teachers may apply knowledge of their own special fields, and 
the librarian may contribute her general knowledge of books and her ex- 
perience in selecting them, her broad outlook over books in all fields, her 
acquaintance with what the library contains and what each department 
is using, her familiarity with what boys and girls actually read and use, 
and her awareness of current publications, gained from the reading of 
book reviews, the checking of book lists, and visits to bookstores and pub- 

With faculty and librarian working together, it is possible to provide 
books not only for the advanced student but also for the less able reader 
who needs to find the same information in simpler terms. One of the 
noteworthy features of the modern school library is the wide range pre- 
sented by the books placed on a reserve shelf by a teacher for the use of a 
grade or class; side by side on such a shelf we find material for pupils who 
use books with ease and simple restatements of the same facts for less 
competent readers. For this reason there is an advantage in a situation 
where a central library is used by senior high, junior high, and elementary 
schools. To a surprising extent the books are used interchangeably, the 
elementary school finding, for example, that a book on Indians purchased 
for high-school use will supply needed information about South America, 
while an art class in senior high school may reread fairy tales in order to 
acquire background and inspiration for designing stage settings. 

The books in all the subject-matter fields, when used by a skilful teach- 
er, contribute to the enrichment of the curriculum. Pupils in a social 
studies class in search of information which will show the life and cus- 
toms of America during a certain period will range through books on ar- 

EATON 169 

chitecture, costumes, science and medicine, literature, slavery and aboli- 
tion, transportation, communication, and other topics. They will use 
biographies of great men and the accounts of industries important in the 
development of the nation. A biology teacher will find in the lives of 
travelers and explorers, as well as in the biographies of scientists, much 
material bearing on his classwork. Books on aviation, automobiles, en- 
gines, and inventions provide practical problems for the physics classes; 
and science and music teachers will combine in discovering books which 
treat jointly the topics of acoustics and music and musical instruments. 
English classes will read widely and intensively hi the fields of poetry, the 
drama, and good fiction. There are also an increasing number of good 
books for young people on the family and the home, on budgeting, on 
clothing, and on personal hygiene and public health, all of which may be 
used in connection with courses on homemaking and home economics and 
on biology. Here, too, books on the fine arts, interior decoration, house 
planning, and house furnishing contribute to a pupil's preparation for 

a. Science and Technology. Science and technology currently offer 
particularly rich fields for high-school reading, for there have never been 
so many and such excellent books written on popular science. Criteria 
for appraising these books are, of course, accuracy, authority on the part 
of the writer, and, especially important in selecting books for boys and 
girls, readability. The Standard Catalog for High-School Libraries, com- 
piled by Dorothy Cook with the aid of teachers, librarians, and special- 
ists, the Children's Catalog (Grades I~IX), and A Basic Book Collection 
for High Schools are invaluable aids in selecting books in this field. The 
Booklist, published monthly by the American Library Association, evalu- 
ates current publications. 

6. Poetry and Drama. The librarian, in co-operation with the teachers 
of English, can see to it that the great poets of the past and the poets of 
the present who appeal to young people are represented. Many of the fine 
contemporary plays make stirring reading for young people. For the 
field of literature, too, a basic selection can be found in the lists men- 
tioned above, but each school library will naturally build up its collection 
of modern literature along individual lines. Starting with a strong teach- 
er's interest in a certain writer or group of writers, enthusiasm for their 
books spreads through a school. Reading interests and tastes are also in- 
fluenced by geographical location and by the type of community, and the 


school library In building up its collection must take Into account the 
characteristics and dominant Interests of the school and Its pupils. 

c. Biography. Biography is more popular with young readers than it 
used to be. This may be In part because boys and girls are more alert to 
what men have done and are doing in the world, and in part because the 
last few years have brought forth a number of genuinely readable biog- 
raphies for young people. Many biographies written for adults are popu- 
lar with boys and girls from the age of twelve. The selection of biography 
should be based on the following criteria: Has the author had access to 
adequate sources of Information? Has he used this material to make a 
careful portrait without violating the rules of good taste? Has he the 
power to make the man he portrays real and interesting to the reader, and 
does he show Mm in true proportion to the times in which he lived? 

d. Travel Travel books, too, when they are vivid and dramatic, telling 
of strange and possibly dangerous lands and experiences, are popular. In 
selecting books in this field we should ask : Has the author himself visited 
the country he describes? Does he observe keenly and with understand- 
ing? Does he keep Ms picture of a country and a people in perspective? 
Is he able to convey to Ms readers the impression made upon him? Books 
which describe the author's own experiences in following a dangerous 
career or profession In other lands have a strong personal appeal for 
young readers. 

e. Other Fields. Similar criteria may be used in the selection of books 
dealing with the arts, languages, home economics, and the other fields in 
which classroom Instruction may be supplemented and enriched through 
wide reading. Again, the basic book lists already cited may be used to 
advantage, but the interests and needs of the individual school will be the 
determining factor in a final choice. 

3. Books Read without Reference to School Assignment 
As has been indicated already, no hard-and-fast distinction can be 
drawn between books which are read for class assignments and those 
wMch are read for other purposes. Reading for help in class work and for 
recreation are frequently indistinguishable; a pupil may select a book on 
popular science from the shelf for fun and not because it is connected with 
Ms work. Most of the books in the various subject-matter fields will, there- 
fore, fall into this tMrd category at one time or another. In addition, 
there are certain types of books wMch, although they may occasionally 

EATON 171 

be consulted in connection with class work, are more frequently read for 
pleasure or for other extra-curricular purposes. 

a. Fiction. The majority of boys and girls, like the majority of their 
elders, find their keenest pleasure in stories. Stories which help a boy or 
girl to make personal adjustments, stories which set standards and offer 
ideals, stories which strengthen the imagination and enable young people 
to comprehend conditions of life other than their own, stories which give 
the reader a better understanding of the lives of his fellow-beings all are 
a vitally important part of a school library. 

The range in fiction will be wide. Some of the older writers, such as 
Scott, Dickens, Dumas, and Bronte, have a sure appeal and should be 
represented. Among the moderns there are fine novels which provide a 
rare experience for the young reader. Pupils with a taste for history will 
find many stories with an excellent historical background, while for those 
who prefer to read about the present there are plenty of novels describing 
the contemporary scene with sanity and proportion. 

6. Vocational Guidance. Numerous books on vocations are now avail- 
able. Professions and trades have been described by capable writers in 
such a way as to give genuine help to young people deciding upon a ca- 
reer. The books available vary greatly in quality, and the librarian must 
be alert to choose those which are well written and reliable. Some of the 
best and most inspiring vocational reading is to be found in the lives of 
such individuals as Madame Curie, Pasteur, Edison, Audubon, and 
others. Suggested titles of books and pamphlets in this field will be f ound 
in lists given at the end of the chapter. 


Some specific criteria of selection have been suggested for the various 
kinds of books included in the school library. In addition, certain general 
principles should be borne in mind in building up and maintaining a well- 
rounded collection. 

1. Provision for All Types of Readers 

All types of boys and girls and all grades of reading ability must be 
provided for, and it will therefore be necessary at times to include titles 
not found in the standard lists. With the co-operation of the teachers 
concerned with remedial reading, the librarian can handle this matter in 
a way to satisfy the need of the retarded reader without lowering the 
standards of the library. 


The rapid development of children's literature during the last twenty- 
five years and the increasing emphasis laid on fine illustrations have re- 
sulted in a rich and varied supply of books for boys and girls of elemen- 
tary-school age. The difficulty lies in choosing from such an abundance. 
Lists such as Nora Beust's Five Hundred Books for Children; the H. W. 
Wilson Company's Children's Catalog; the Graded List of Books for Chil- 
dren, compiled by a Joint Committee of the National Education Asso- 
ciation and the American Library Association; and others listed at the 
end of the chapter, as well as the reviews in the New York Times Book Re- 
view and the Herald Tribune's "Books," will be helpful. In general, the 
same criteria of selection should prevail as for the high-school library, 
proper attention being given to the reading ability of the children for 
whom the books are provided. 

2. Distribution of Books in Different Fields 

No hard-and-fast rule as to the percentage of books to be bought in 
the different fields will hold good for all libraries. 1 One generalization 
that may be made is that 20 per cent of the book fund is probably not too 
much to spend on fiction. In order to be sure that the library is growing 
in well-balanced fashion, the librarian will find it advisable to check it 
from time to time against a standard list, such as A Basic Book Collection 
far High-School Libraries and the Standard Catalog for High Schools and 
its supplements. 

3. Special Items of Purchase 

a. Fine Editions. It is important in planning the book collection that 
some well-illustrated books in beautiful editions be included. These 
books, not circulated as the other books are, but kept in a special case or a 
corner of the library where they are available to students who wish to 
browse, will help to promote appreciation of books and will train boys 
and girls in the knowledge of how beautiful a thing a book can be. When 
the older novels are bought (Scott, Dickens, Thackeray, Jane Austen), 
care should be taken to secure them in illustrated editions, with large 
type and an attractive page. 

6. Textbooks. Although textbooks are far more attractive in appear- 

1 For suggested distribution of books see Mary Peacock Douglas, Teacher-Librari- 
an's Handbook. Chicago: American Library Association, 1941; and Standard Catalog 
for High-School Libraries. 

EATON 173 

ance and style than they used to be, and though occasionally one serves 
to good purpose In the library, too many of them will make the shelves 
dull. Another point to be watched in this connection is the tendency of 
teachers to ask for more copies of a supplementary reading book than 
they actually need. Each library will have to work out for itself accord- 
ing to its own particular situation this matter of duplication and the buy- 
ing of supplementary reading texts. However, speaking generally, not 
more than four copies of a text to be used for supplementary reading 
should be bought with library funds. If more copies are needed, they 
should be paid for with department funds, added to the library records, 
and housed either in library or classroom, depending on space and indi- 
vidual conditions. 

c. Subscription Sets. With rare exceptions (such as standard encyclo- 
pedias) subscription sets should never be bought. In cases where it is 
necessary to evaluate such sets, the Siibscription Books Bulletin should 
be consulted. 

d. Pamphlets. Much valuable material today is found in pamphlets. 
Such series as "The Headline Books," published by the Foreign Policy 
Association, and the pamphlets on "World Affairs," published by Farrar 
and BInehart, are indispensable in the up-to-date high-school library. A 
Basic Book Collection, the Standard Catalog for High-School Libraries, and 
the Booklist all list sources for recommended pamphlet material. The 
H. W. Wilson "Vertical File Service" provides a convenient order routine 
that saves much time. 


In selecting books for the school library the librarian holds a key posi- 
tion, for she is aware of the needs of the whole school and of the growth of 
the library in all the different subject-matter fields. The librarian, or 
better yet, a library committee consisting of the librarian and members 
chosen from the faculty, serves as a kind of clearinghouse to bring about 
a well-rounded development of the library. Since the librarian is in daily 
contact with the pupils and teachers, she sees what use is made of the li- 
brary collection; she knows book prices and the most economical methods 
of ordering and buying; 2 and her knowledge will help the committee to 
apportion the book funds to meet the needs of the greatest number. 

2 A routine for book ordering will be found in Douglas, op. cit., pp. 69-72. 


Particularly in building up the fiction collection, the wise librarian will 
take counsel with the pupils and will encourage them to suggest books for 
the library, since the interest and co-operation of the boys and girls who 
use the books will help to keep the selection practical rather than theo- 
retical. A small senior high school group may be invited by the librarian 
to survey their school library, noting library weaknesses and making sug- 
gestions for broadening and improving the collection. This is good for 
both the students and the library, for unless the library stands in the cen- 
ter of the school, reaching out to all other parts of the school through a 
spirit of co-operation and especially through a balanced selection of books 
a selection that is the result of thought and care and imagination and 
that combines the interest and efforts of teachers and pupils with that of 
the librarian it can never be a school library in the truest sense. 


BOOK EVALUATION COMMITTEE. Inexpensive Books for Boys and Girls. Chicago: 
American Library Association, 1938. 
About 900 titles in editions costing SI. 00 or less. 

BEUST, NORA (eomp.) Five Hundred Books for Children. Washington: United States 
Office of Education, 1939. 

Children's Catalog (sixth edition). New York: EL W. Wilson Co., 1941. 

EATON, ANNE THAXTER. Reading with Children. New York: Viking Press, 1940. 
Contains book lists for elementary-school age. 

Collection for High-School Libraries. Chicago: American Library Association, 1942. 

. Graded List of Books for Children. Chicago: American Library Association, 

1936. (New edition in preparation.) 

MAHONY, BERTHA, and WHITNEY, ELINOR. Realms of Gold. New York: Doubleday, 

. Five Years of Children's Books. New York: Doubleday, 1936. 

ING. Leisure Reading for Grades Seven, Eight, and Nine. Chicago : The Council, 

. Reading for Fun. Chicago: The Council, 1937. (Grades I to VI.) 

. Books for Home Reading in High Schools. Chicago: The Council, 1937. 

Standard Catalog for High-School Libraries and Supplements (fourth edition). New 
York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1942. 

WILSON, Louis R. (ed.). Practice of Book Selection: Papers Presented Before the Li- 
brary Institute at the University of Chicago, July Si-August 13, 1939. University of 
Chicago Studies in Library Science. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1940. 

EATON 175 


BENNETT, WILMA. Occupations and Vocational Guidattce. Xew York: H. W. Wilson 

Co., 1938. 
EDGE, SIGBID. Books for Self-Education. Chicago: American Library Association, 

LINGENFELTER, M. R. Vocations i n Fiction. Chicago: American Library Association, 

PARKER, WILLARD E. Bibliography of Occupational Literature. Chicago: American 

Library Association, 1936. 


Booklist (semimonthly except August) . American Library Association, 520 N. Michi- 
gan Ave., Chicago. $3.00. 

Descriptive and critical notes on new books suitable for small libraries. Special 
section of children's books. 
Books (Weekly). New York Tribune, Inc., 230 W. 41st St., New York City. $1.00. 

Supplement to the Sunday edition of the New York Herald Tribune. Contains book 
re-views of new books, with a section of books for young people. 
Horn Book (Bi-monthly). Horn Book, Inc., 264 Boyiston St., Boston. $2.50. 

Articles on books and writers and critical reviews of books for children and young 
New York Times Book Renew (Weekly). Times Publishing Co., Times Square, New 

York City. 12.00. 

Regular supplement to the Sunday edition of the New York Times. Contains re- 
views of new books with a section devoted to books for children and young people. 
Subscription Books Bulletin (Quarterly) . American Library Association. $2.00. 

Evaluations of new reference titles and subscription sets. 



Department of Library and Visual Aids 
Board of Education 
Newark, New Jersey 


In the past few years those concerned with the education of youth 
have realized the value of student activity and exploration. The old pre- 
scribed curriculums have been revised to suit the demands of an increased 
and more varied student personnel. Emphasis has been placed on the func- 
tional and core curriculums curriculums which emphasize activity on the 
part of the student and preparation for a definite place in society, curricu- 
lums based upon the actual needs of young people, curriculums built around 
one broad central purpose or theme. This change in methods of teaching 
and curriculum organization has added to the importance of the library 
in education to such an extent that it has not only supplemented the 
textbook but has in many cases supplanted it. 

As the use of the textbook diminishes, the librarian will need to be bet- 
ter informed than ever before as to content of textbooks if she is to build 
where these leave off. It seems reasonable that, as textbooks become 
fewer and other aids more abundant, the library should be the center of 
textbook organization and that the librarian assume more responsibility 
in their selection and distribution. 

This would seem to be the golden age for the school librarian, who 
has too long played only a minor part in curriculum development. Her 
ability to assume leadership at this time will depend on the ease with 
which she is able to use all learning aids, 


The extensive use of audio-visual aids in education requires a clear 
understanding of the true meaning of the term. Educators speak of 



visual education, visual instruction, visual-sensory aids, or audio-visual 
aids. Despite the various modes of expression a rather definite idea of 
the term is now commonly accepted. This meaning is not restricted to 
the narrowly construed function of visual instruction which implied the 
mere use of the eye as an instructive agent. Teachers and librarians who 
accepted this interpretation had not considered the possibilities of other 
than printed aids to learning provided, for example, in the use of the 
phonograph, the radio, the sound motion picture, or the school journey. 
The instructional materials provided by the whole field of audio-visual 
aids take into account the utilization of all the senses. Audio-visual aids 
are visual-sensory materials "used in the classroom, or in other teaching 
situations, to facilitate the understanding of the written or spoken 
word." 1 The sense of hearing is a vital factor in audio-visual instruction, 
but all the senses a,re implied in an educational program which attempts 
instruction with audio-visual materials. 

Unfortunately, many workers in the field of education believe that the 
showing of pictures, particularly motion pictures, constitutes an ade- 
quate audio-visual instruction program. Very frequently a map, a still 
picture, a specimen, a graph, or a chart might be the better agent to pro- 
vide an accurate conception, interpretation, or appreciation. Each audio- 
visual aid should be examined in the light of its effectiveness as a teaching 
device and discarded when a more valuable tool becomes available. A 
school system may have a very elaborate program of audio-visual in- 
struction and possess the most up-to-date equipment and yet fail to per- 
form a really good task of teaching with such aids to learning. If this is 
the case, it should be remembered that results desired through an educa- 
tional experience are secured through application of the correct tools of 
learning and through the adjustment of the type of aid to the kind of 
teaching practiced. 

The variety of audio- visual aids in education is extensive. Some ap- 
preciation for the materials included in this field may be gained by ex- 
amining the following list of aids as outlined in a state syllabus on visual 
aids in education. 2 

1 E. G. Dent, Audio-visual Handbook, p. 1. Chicago: Society for Visual Education, 
Inc. (100 East Ohio Street), 1939 (third edition). 

2 G. W. Leman, Visual Aids in Education, pp. 1-2. Patterson, New Jersey: State 
Teachers College, 1941. 


A. Visual 

1. Printed page, especially illustrations 

2. Blackboard 

3. Maps and globes 

4. Charts and graphs 

5. Pictorial materials flat pictures (photographs and prints) 

6. Microscopic slides 

7. Models and specimens 

8. Exhibits 

9. Stereographs 

10. Projected photographs, drawings, printed materials 

a. Flat prints and photographs (opaque projection) 

b. Still films 

c. Filmslides (single and double frame) 

d. Microfilm reader 

e. Projected stereograph 

f . Lantern slides 

(1) Photographic: standard 3 J" X4" 

miniature 2"X 2" 

(2) Handmade 

g. Motion pictures, silent 

B. Visual-sensory 

1. Field trip or school journey 

2. Collections 

3. Dramatization and pageantry 

4. Marionettes and puppets 

5. Table-tops and the sand table 

6. Demonstrations and experiments 

C. Direct visual-auditory 

1. Sound-on-film motion pictures 

2. Radio 

3. Television 

4. Sound film slide 

The following direct auditory aids may be added to this list: phono- 
graph records and transcriptions. 

The development of progressive education, the introduction of the 
social sciences, and the enrichment of the curriculum which stimulated 
the use of a variety of nonbook materials pamphlets, newspapers, mag- 
azines also resulted in the acceptance of visual-aids as legitimate and 
necessary tools of instruction. The librarian was suddenly flooded with 
requests for pictures, maps, charts, and other nonbook aids to learning. 


It seemed logical to the librarian to start a picture file, and with her ex- 
perience with vertical-file material, it was a comparatively simple adjust- 
ment to incorporate a picture, a map, and a chart collection into the li- 
brary. School administrators and teachers felt this to be a logical and 
worth-while step, and although an individual teacher might have a pri- 
vate collection of post cards, art prints, or charts, the majority relied 
upon the library to furnish them. 

The introduction of some of the more complicated visual aids, such as 
slides, filmslides, and motion pictures, seemed to present a different prob- 
lem not only to school administrators and teachers but also to the librari- 
an herself , who was sometimes the last to realize the importance of this 
new medium and its relation to book materials. In some instances the 
librarian has not accepted the responsibility or has recognized too late the 
possibilities of these new teaching resources. This was probably because 
these new visual aids required machines for projection, which were in the 
beginning difficult to operate and, in the case of the 35 mm. motion pic- 
ture projection, even hazardous. For this reason it came to be a rather 
general rule that the mechanical types of visual aids should be handled 
by a faculty member who had had some training with such equipment, 
and a science or manual training teacher often became the visual-aids 
administrator. Much credit is due these teachers who contributed time 
and effort in furthering the use of visual aid$, but it was only natural that 
they should be especially interested in the materials in their particular 
field. In many schools teachers thought of the motion picture or slide 
projector as belonging to the science or some other department. This de- 
partment often felt the same way and occasionally refused to allow its use 
by other teachers, justifying the department's action by the statement 
that the mechanical equipment was never handled properly by other in- 
structors. Since much of the early material in visual education was pre- 
pared for science teachers, this situation continued for some time without 
protest. In fact, other teachers seemed relieved not to have to bother 
with the mechanical aspects of projection. However, as visual aids be- 
came available in other fields, especially in the social studies, as adminis- 
trators realized the value of these new aids, and as teacher-training insti- 
tutions started to offer courses in their use, it was inevitable that the 
audio-visual program must expand and that a person be placed in charge 
and given time for its proper administration. Many of the science teach- 
ers were given this new position, and some have since become directors of 
visual education in large school systems. 


The school librarian has been slow in realizing that audio- visual aids 
fall into the same category as other curriculum-enrichment materials. 
Moreover, the curriculum of library schools has not been expanded to 
provide for training librarians in the administration of these aids. Teach- 
ers also have been unaware of their possibilities, and the librarian who 
has become interested has often had to be a missionary. Because of the 
poor quality of the first visual aids, to say nothing of teacher inertia, 
many instructors in high schools and colleges still refuse to recognize their 

The American Library Association has formally recognized the li- 
brary's place in the field of visual aids since March, 1934, when the Visual 
Methods Committee was appointed. To investigate the role and respon- 
sibility of the library in the distribution of educational films, a grant from 
the Rockefeller Foundation in 1940 made possible a study by a librarian 
under the direction of the Joint Committee on Educational Films and 
Libraries. The following groups in addition to the American Library 
Association were represented: Motion Picture Project of the American 
Council on Education; the American Film Center; and the Association of 
School Film Libraries. In the report of this study 3 McDonald discusses 
the problems of supplying and using films in the school library, the col- 
lege and university library, adult-education programs, and the public li- 
brary. Patterns of service developed by these types of libraries are de- 
scribed completely, and a training program for film librarians is out- 

The librarian who undertakes the responsibility for audio-visual aids 
in a school is confronted with various problems, depending upon the size 
and location of the community. If she is in a large city school system, a 
great part of the job is that of distributing materials already available 
from a central collection. Films, slides, filmslides, still films, and, often, 
pictures, charts, maps, records, and museum objects are furnished by the 
board of education or by agencies such as the public library or museum. 
The problem here is relatively simple that of keeping abreast of teach- 
ers' needs in the same way as she keeps informed of needed book mate- 
rials, supplying them at the proper time, arranging for projection, and 
publicizing available materials. The storage problem will be only that of 
keeping them in a safe place while they are in the building. 

3 G. D. McDonald, Educational Motion Pictures and Libraries. Chicago : American 
Library Association, 1942. 


Most librarians do not find themselves in such a fortunate position. 
They serve a school located in a small community where there is no cen- 
tral source of material. Here the librarian's problem is that of ascertain- 
ing the resources available in her particular location, determining what 
the school can wisely spend for purchase and rental and securing these 
and free materials when available. There are usually several state or 
county agencies that serve as distributing centers for audio-visual aids, 
including the state department of education, the state museum, and col- 
lege extension departments. Much material can be secured for transpor- 
tation charges only, although occasionally a rental fee is charged. Co- 
operative film libraries have been started in many communities. Some 
schools make a small appropriation for purchase of material, and it then 
becomes the problem of the librarian to determine what material to pur- 
chase, how to acquire and store it, and how to make it available for use. 

The mechanical aspects of the program are often the most discourag- 
ing. Equipment is expensive, and many schools simply cannot afford its 
purchase from the regular appropriation. Principals often do not feel 
that the advantages are sufficient to justify the outlay of hundreds of 
dollars in expensive equipment. Besides the machines themselves, it is 
necessary to have dark shades and screens. Often the difficulties seem 
overwhelming, but when it is realized that schools sometimes spend $2.00 
per pupil for books, that visual aids can reach hundreds of pupils at one 
showing, and that the life of a film, slide, or other visual aid is much great- 
er than that of a book, the first step in breaking down resistance has been 
accomplished. Parent-teacher groups are often willing to help in pur- 
chasing equipment, and after a projector has been secured it is possible to 
raise funds through programs where a small admission fee is charged. 

It is important in the proper organization of an audio-visual program 
that machines and films or other aids be carefully scheduled so that teach- 
ers can depend upon receiving the material when needed for a particular 
unit of work. The machines should be properly inspected and checked to 
insure perfect condition. There is nothing more likely to impede the ad- 
vancement of an audio-visual program than mechanical troubles which 
are easily avoidable if a few precautions are taken. The librarian herself 
cannot be expected to be responsible for machine care, and it is important 
that a competent teacher be put in charge of all equipment. Pupils with 
mechanical ability may be utilized to advantage, and in many schools 
they assume full responsibility for the care and scheduling of machines. 
Proper operation of equipment is essential. It is advisable that teachers 


be familiar with machines, but in schools where it has been tried, a 
student-operating crew has proved to be more satisfactory. Pupils learn 
easily and are naturally interested in anything mechanical. A reliable 
group of boys and girls who can be scheduled in free periods should be 
built up in a school. Not only will it solve the problem of operation, but 
it becomes a valuable extra-curricular activity. 

Statistics for visual aids are difficult to keep in such a way that they 
will have any meaning. A film or slide may be charged to a teacher who 
will show it to six classes, or about 150 pupils. Or it may be shown to an 
audience of 3,000, or to only one teacher who wishes to preview for con- 
tent. What record of this can be kept which will have meaning? The gen- 
eral opinion seems to be that the important item is the number of pupils 
who see the film. To get a record, it is necessary to enclose a form with 
each visual aid, requesting information on the number of showings and 
the number instructed. These statistics can be valid only if borrowers 
will co-operate by supplying the information to the library. For com- 
parative purposes it also seems advisable to keep records of the number 
of visual aids circulated per month. This gives no indication of the use 
made of them, but if in January, 1941, 1,000 reels of film were circulated, 
and in January 1942, 1,800, the increased use is obvious. 

The librarian should make every attempt to integrate visual aids with 
other materials of instruction. They are never complete in themselves 
and cannot replace the teacher. There are certain situations where they 
are of paramount aid in teaching, but only if properly used. They are 
worthless and even harmful if used merely to avoid teaching or as a treat 
for the students. In a study made by Jayne 4 of the integrated versus the 
nonintegrated use of motion pictures, the results revealed that children 
profited considerably more when the film was presented and studied as a 
definite part of a unit of work than when it was merely introduced at 
random and without relation to immediate classroom problems. 

It is evident that the effective utilization of audio-visual aids in the 
school program requires, besides the presence of a co-ordinator of these 
aids, such as the librarian who is envisioned in this discussion, a faculty 
which is both understanding and sympathetic toward the program. The 
preparation of teachers for satisfactory use of audio-visual aids is of ex- 
treme importance. The teacher should accept as a necessary part of his 

4 C. D. Jayne, "The Integrated versus the Nonintegrated Use of Moving Pictures 
in the Classroom," Journal of Experimental Educati on, V (September, 1936), 7-16. 


lesson preparation a knowledge of the purpose of the film, side, or record- 
ing that he proposes to use. He must set the stage for the film or record- 
Ing; it cannot be presented "cold" to an audience. The skill of the teacher 
in proceeding from the known to the unknown in pupil experience is vital, 
especially in paving the way for the follow-up which should inevitably be 
the result of such a learning situation. 

Teaching with audio-visual aids to education involves careful selec- 
tion of materials by teachers and librarians. In the recent survey of the 
public schools of Newark, New Jersey, emphasis is laid on the selection 
of all types of instructional materials as an integral part of the curriculum 
development. Such aids need to be related to the curriculum offerings of 
the school; integration is achieved by having both groups analyze care- 
fully the course of study and determining from the audio-visual materials 
at hand, or reasonably available, which items can be used for each unit of 
work. It is here that the librarian with her wider knowledge of all types of 
supplementary material can make a contribution. Her principles of book 
selection can be adapted to the evaluation of audio-visual aids. 

The selection of audio-visual aids for the curriculum offerings of the 
school necessitates the application of standards to each aid under con- 
sideration. The suitability of each item should be judged on the basis of 
such considerations as the following: 

1. Specifically, for what educational purpose is it designed? 

2. To what extent will it probably accomplish these purposes? 

3. Is it interesting? Comprehensible? Concrete? Clear? Concise? Natural? 

4. Does it suggest new questions, problems, materials, implications? 

5. Is the material that it presents reliable and authentic? 

6. Is the educational element overshadowed by the dramatic or the spectacular? 

7. Can it be used effectively by or for the pupils for whom it is designed? 

8. Is it free from undesirable advertising or propaganda? 

9. Is it easily and conveniently operated, manipulated, handled, or used? 

10. Is the price reasonable? How does it compare with the price of similar prod- 

11. Is it well made mechanically? Durable? 

12. To what extent is it guaranteed, if this is essential? 

13. Can repairs and replacements be obtained easily? 

14. Is there any possibility of danger in the using of it? 

15. Will it represent an attractive and respected piece of equipment? 

16. Is the company that produces it reliable? 5 

5 H. C. McKown and A. B. Roberts, Audio-visual Aids to Instruction, p. 41. New 
York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1940. 


Integration is a key word which teacher and librarian should constant- 
ly keep in the foreground when relating audio-visual aids to the many 
phases of a school curriculum. Correlation of the various teaching aids so 
that one is not overworked or another neglected is essential. Some teach- 
ers may be inclned to stress a particular type of aid, and the librarian can 
correct this by securing the best device for each teaching problem. Those 
concerned with audio-visual programs should constantly examine educa- 
tional activities in order to ascertain to what extent a well-balanced pro- 
gram of selection has been evolved. 

1. Motion Pictures 

The motion picture, one of the most vital forces in the education of 
both children and adults, combines the advantages of sound, motion, and 
color into an exceptional teaching device. Because of its outstanding 
value in the field of audio-visual education, it will be considered in greater 
detail than some of the other aids presented. Suggestions for integrating 
the motion picture with the school curriculum or criteria for the evalua- 
tion of films might, with slight alteration, be applied to the other audio- 
visual aids presented. 

Motion pictures come in three sizes; 8 mm., 16 mm., and 35 mm. 
widths. The first motion pictures to be used in schools were on 35 mm. 
stock, but because of the greater fire hazard caused by these films, the ex- 
pense involved, and the greater difficulty of operation, their use in schools 
has been almost discontinued. The majority of school films are now pro- 
duced exclusively in 16 mm. width. Because the 8 mm. film is inexpen- 
sive, it has been used extensively for amateur and home movies, but is 
used rarely for schools. Until recently, the majority of educational films 
were silent, while today the sound film is becoming increasingly popular. 
The color film is rapidly becoming more important as the technique of 
color reproduction is being perfected. 


Since the majority of new films are being produced in sound, and since 
it is possible to project a silent film on a sound machine, schools purchas- 
ing equipment should secure a sound machine even if it is much more ex- 
pensive. The number of projectors needed for each school will depend 
upon the number of teachers using equipment and the extent of use. One 
projector for every 15 to 20 teachers should be a minimum requirement. 
For schools with small auditoriums, the smaller models which can be used 


with greater ease In the classroom are perfectly adequate. Some com- 
panies are making machines with two speakers, one for classroom and the 
other for auditorium purposes. Before purchasing, a study of the stand- 
ard projectors 6 should be made, and local dealers will allow a demonstra- 
tion period. An Important Item to consider In purchasing Is repairs. It Is 
advisable to secure a guarantee of repair and inspection service from your 
local dealer. 


a. Purchase. While there are many producers of 16 mm. films, the two 
outstanding educational producers are the Teaching Films Division of 
Eastman Kodak Company, which until recently has produced only silent 
films, and the Erpi Classroom Films, which produces sound pictures only. 
New companies, such as the Vocational Guidance Films and Bald Eagle 
Films, have entered the field within recent years. Some companies, such 
as Castle Films, which produce shorts for theaters, also sell to the educa- 
tional field. The Educational Film Catalog evaluates all films for educa- 
tional purposes. Before purchasing any film this catalog should be con- 
sulted. The prices of silent films range from $15.00 to $25.00; of sound, 
from $17.50 to $50.00 per reel. 

b. Rental or Lease. There is an unlimited number of distributors of 
films on a rental basis. The charge varies from 50 cents to $3.00 a reel, 
plus transportation charges. A list of these distributors can be found in 
the Educational Film Catalog or in the government publication, Sources 
of Visual Aids and Equipment. 7 

Within the past three years the Motion Picture Producers and Dis- 
tributors of America have made available for lease to schools theatrical 
shorts which have been released for more than a year. Some of the best 
film material is available from this source. All of them have been evalu- 
ated in terms of the school curriculum, and a complete Catalog of Class- 
room Films 8 is available. The rates are unusually low as this is a non- 
profit group and the charges are for the expense of prints only. 

The Commission on Human Relations of the Progressive Education 

6 Committee on Scientific Aids to Learning, Recommended Procedure and Equip- 
ment Specifications for Educational 16 mm. Projection. New York: National Research 
Council (31 E. Forty-second Street), 1941. 

7 C. M. Koon, Sources of Visual Aids and Equipment for Instructional Use in 
Schools. United States Office of Education Pamphlet No. 80, 1941. 

8 Teaching Film Custodians, 25 W. Forty-second Street, New York City. 


Association has edited a group of short subjects from theatrical features, 
such as Captains Courageous, for use in teaching human relations. These 
are available for lease at a very reasonable rate from the New York Uni- 
versity Film Library. This film library has available educational and 
documentary motion pictures on broad economic problems affecting 
American life and on physical education, safety, science, and vocational 

c. Co-operative Film Libraries. In various localities, school systems or 
extension divisions of state colleges and universities have set up co-opera- 
tive film libraries. By depositing a print of a film in this library a school is 
privileged to use films deposited by other schools. A certain number of 
films may be used per year for each print deposited. 

d. Free Films. There are several sources from which films may be ob- 
tained without charge. There are also certain agencies and publications 
which provide valuable aid in the selection of films which are usually 
available free of charge. 

Various extension divisions of colleges and state museums have built 
up collections of films which they furnish to schools throughout the state 
for transportation charges only. These must be booked well in advance 
as the demand for these films is large. 

Many commercial concerns produce films for advertising purposes 
which have distinct educational value, especially in recent years when the 
advertising has been practically eliminated. These are available often 
with the service of an operator and machine. Others may be secured for 
transportation charges only. The Y.M.C. A Motion Picture Bureau 9 is one 
of the best sources for these free films. The pamphlet, Free Films for 
Schools, published by DeVry, is very helpful in selecting these free films. 
Business Screen magazine lists many of them and some are included in 
Educational Screen. 

The government has produced many films which are available for trans- 
portation charges. The Directory of United States Government Films , which 
is reissued frequently by the United States Office of Education Film Serv- 
ice, lists these films, many of which are extremely valuable for school or 
community use. 

The Association of School Film libraries, with headquarters in New 
York City, has been financed by the General Education Board to assist 
schools, colleges, and other educational institutions in implementing the 

9 Y.M.C.A Motion Picture Bureau, 347 Madison Avenue, New York City. 


film program. Schools, libraries, and visual education departments may 
become members of the association. The association makes available 
desirable educational films usually shown only in commercial theaters. 
It keeps educators up to date on film events through a subscription in- 
formation service. Furthermore, it is active in the establishment of re- 
gional film libraries. 

The American Film Center, also located in New York City, provides a 
valuable film service for schools. It selects films on any desired subject, 
arranges the program, and provides study guides, equipment, and oper- 
ator. By contract with local projectionists the service may be had in 
various centers throughout the country. The American Film Center's 
publication, Film News 3 presents timely and significant news of docu- 
mentary and educational motion pictures from many sources. 


The library should provide a safe storage place for purchased films. 
This should be comparatively cool and capable of being locked, as motion 
pictures are too expensive to be placed on an open shelf. They should be 
kept in humidor cans. Some system of cataloging and classifying films 
should be used. The Dewey decimal system which is used for books has 
been found very satisfactory in a number of school systems. A card cata- 
log of the films should be kept up to date at all times. Since it is not al- 
ways possible for a teacher to look at a film before selecting, this catalog 
should contain as much information about the film as possible. The fol- 
lowing catalog card has been used successfully in the Newark Schools. 

If a school has a large film collection it is advisable to publish a mimeo- 
graphed catalog arranged by subject for use of teachers. 

A record of the accession-shelf list is also useful. This should include 
the title and number on the film, the purchase price, date of purchase, 
names of producer and company from which purchased. 

Teachers' guides, many of which contain excellent teaching sugges- 
tions and bibliographies, accompany many films. These should be kept 
in a vertical file, arranged alphabetically by title, and circulated with the 
film. Where feasible, the guide should be sent to the teacher in advance of 
the film. 


Films should be selected carefully to fit the needs of various subject 
fields. As with book selection, the budget should be distributed fairly and 
careful standards of quality should be drawn up for the selection of 


films. A rating sheet, recommended by the American Council on Educa- 
tion, will be found helpful 10 As previously pointed out, the Educational 
Film Catalog is of value in selecting films for school use. Evaluations of 
motion pictures regularly appear in educational periodicals such as School 
Management and the School Executive, and in specialized magazines like 


684 Airplane trip. PEJ 

11 min. sd. Erpi, 1938 

In a, modern airliner a mother and her young 
daughter journey with other passengers from Los 
Angeles to Salt Lake City. Scenes depict servic- 
ing operations, loading with mail and express, 
safety belts, plane's instruments, serving a meal, 
making up the sleeping berths, receiving radio 
reports, taking off, landing, and the panorama 
of cities, farms, rivers, and mountains. 

P Primary 

E Elementary 

J Junior High School 

S Senior High School 

Education Screen. Frequently these evaluations are written by groups of 
teachers and visual-education specialists, who prepare them co-opera- 
tively. An example of this activity is that of the Classroom Films Com- 
mittee of the Department of Secondary School Teachers of the National 
Education Association. The evaluations of this committee are prepared 
by teachers who see new films, discuss them, and write their comments 
based on the group discussion. These evaluations appear chiefly in Sec- 
ondary Education, the bulletin of the Department of Secondary School 

10 Edgar Dale and L. L. Ramseyer, Teaching with Motion Pictures. Washington: 
American Council on Education, 1937. 



The motion picture is capable of showing various techniques and com- 
municating experiences which cannot be demonstrated by less expensive 
mediums. The following functions of film described by Hoban have been 
found especially useful in teaching. 

1. Depiction of continuity of processes and events such as the steps in the manu- 
facture of an article of clothing or the sequences leading to the Revolutionary 

2. Depiction of observable action which makes available to pupils a real experi- 
ence such as the various processes in the making of bread. 

3. Depiction of unobservable action 

4. Development of attitudes. Films which arouse interest and develop initiative 
and activity. 11 

Motion pictures are utilized in two ways in schools for auditorium 
programs and for classroom teaching. Occasionally a film will be more 
useful for an auditorium group, but most teachers have found from ex- 
perience that an educational film may be used most successfully in the 
classroom with a student group that is studying the subject which the 
film supplements. That a picture is an educational device with limita- 
tions as well as advantages must be considered carefully by teachers and 
librarians in selecting and using films in the educational programs. 

The use of the motion picture in forums and discussion groups pre- 
sents a new field of endeavor that should be rewarding to the librarian 
because of the extended opportunity for correlating visual materials with 
many additional forms of printed materials chiefly books, pamphlets, 
and periodicals. In 1941 a series of film forums was inaugurated under 
the auspices of a joint committee representing the American Film Center, 
the American Association for Adult Education, the American Association 
for Applied Psychology, and the American Library Association. These 
forums were based on the theme "What We Are Defending," and was 
presented in several public libraries throughout the country. The tech- 
nique of the film forum includes the showing of the motion picture which 
serves as the topic for later group discussion. A natural outgrowth of the 
forum is the study and reading which result from the discussion. Motion- 
picture forum groups of this type contribute to increasing public under- 

11 C. F. Hoban and S. B. Zisman, Visualizing the Curriculum, pp. 98-105. New 
York: Cordon Co., Inc., 1937. 


standing of the problems emerging from the present crisis and the post- 
war adjustment. That schools and libraries have a direct share of the re- 
sponsibility for forums of this type is evidenced by the stress placed on 
this activity in the plans for relating educational programs to the national 
defense effort. 12 

2. Lantern Slides 

The lantern slide at the present time is the most widely used visual 
aid. This is because of the great number of slides available and the ease 
of projection and because most teachers are familiar with them. The 
standard size for lantern slides is 3i X4 inches. Recently the miniature 
side, which is 2X2 inches, has been introduced and popularized by ama- 
teur photographers with candid cameras. 


Slides are shown by means of a lantern-slide projector, available from 
various equipment companies. A special projector for the projection of 
miniature slides may be purchased, although an inexpensive kodaslide 
adapter for use on a standard lantern-slide machine may be secured. 


a. Purchase. Some of the outstanding producers of slides include: 
Eastman Educational Slides, Iowa City, Iowa; Eyegate House, 330 W. 
Forty-second Street, New York City; Keystone View Company, Mead- 
ville, Pennsylvania; Foundation Press, 501 Bulkley Building, Cleveland, 
Ohio ; Sims Visual Music, Quincy, Illinois ; Yale University Press (Pageant 
of America series), 386 Fourth Avenue., New York City. 

&. Rental or Free. State and city museums, public libraries, and college 
extension divisions often have available slides for rental or for transporta- 
tion charges only. 

c. School-made Slides. Excellent local material may be secured from 
original negatives which have been prepared by teachers and students. 
Handmade slides developed by teachers and pupils may also be used. 
Keystone View Company has available complete outfits and directions 
for making them. 

12 School and College Civilian Morale Service: How To Participate. Washington: 
United States Office of Education, 1941; What the Schools Can Do. (Education and 
National Defense Series, Pamphlet No. 4.) Washington: United States Office of Edu- 
cation, 1941. 



Slides should be housed in filing cabinets which are available for this 
purpose. It is important that some system of arrangement by subject be 
used and that the slides be properly classified ana cataloged. The Dew- 
ey decimal classification has been found successful where used. In New- 
ark the following procedure is used for organization. When a new set of 
lantern slides is received, it is given a Dewey decimal number according 
to its subject. Each slide in a particular classification is also numbered 
consecutively. If there are one hundred sides in the group 915.1, China, 
the slides are labeled 915.1-1, 915.1-2, 915.1-3, and so on up to one hun- 
dred. A new group of slides on China would begin its numbers at 101 and 
continue from there. The Dewey number and the consecutive number 
are printed on a small sticker which is attached to the margin of each 
slide. When there are duplicates of an individual title, the number be- 
comes 1A, IB, 1C. The complete series of slides in one classification is 
then listed on a catalog card. Each card in the lantern-slide catalog is 
marked with an "L" in the upper right-hand corner to distinguish it from 
other cards. Each title with its consecutive number is listed under the 
general subject. The charging of slides and maintenance of statistics of 
use follow accepted library procedures. Manuscripts or teaching guides 
which often accompany sets of slides should be kept in a suitable vertical 
file and circulated with the slides. Often, however, this manuscript in- 
formation can be typed on a card which is filed with the slide. 


It is important that slides selected should be of a high quality. Hoban 
lists the following standards, which have been developed by directors of 
visual education. 

1. Truth: Does the picture tell the truth; are tlie facts recorded accurately free 
from distortion or illusion? 

2. Photographic quality: Is the photography good; are the lines sharp especially 
in the shadow; do the main facts stand out clearly in the midst of other details ; 
is the material modern, not antiquated? 

3. Relevancy: Does the picture pertain to and does it contribute meaningful 
content to the topic under discussion or study? 

4. Relative size of items: Does the picture include items or elements of known 
size so that the observer may secure a correct idea of the unknown elements? 

5. Is the slide free from blemishes, smears, stains, scratches, blurs; is it sub- 
stantially bound; does it contain a thumb mark? 13 

18 Hoban and Zisman, op. c&. y p. 160. 



Slides contribute greatly to the clarification of almost every subject in 
the curriculum. They may be used as a preview of a lesson, as the intro- 
duction to the lesson, for review purposes, and for examination or a check 

on progress. 

3. Filmslides and Still Films 

A filmslide is a narrow strip of film 35 mm. in width, on which is print- 
ed a series of pictures and text to illustrate a definite topic. The number 
of frames on a strip may vary from twenty-five to seventy-five. A frame 
is a section of film one inch in width and three-fourths of an inch in 
length. This space may be taken up by either a picture or text or both. 
Filmslides which have no text on the film are usually accompanied by a 
manual which includes the text to go with each frame. There are two 
sizes of filmslide the single frame and the double frame. The essential 
difference is that on the single-frame filmslides the top of the picture runs 
across the film, and the film is run through the projector vertically. The 
top of the picture on the double-frame filmslide runs along the length of 
the film and is run through the projector horizontally. 

The still film is similar to the double-frame filmslide except that it is 
larger. It is three inches in width and is composed of a series of pictures 

and text. 


Well-known producers for filmslides are : Society for Visual Education, 
100 E. Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois; for still films: Still Films Inc., 8443 
Melrose Avenue, Hollywood, California. 


Filmslide projectors come in two forms, an attachment for the lantern- 
slide projector and a separate projector made especially for filmslides. 
Still-film equipment consists of a special attachment for the lantern-slide 


Filmslides and still films should be housed in proper cabinets and 
classified and cataloged. Newark has used the following procedure: 
Each filmslide is classified in the same manner in which lantern slides are 
classified. The same system of consecutive number and copy designation 
is used. The classification and consecutive numbers are marked on the 
container. If the filmslide has a manuscript or subtitles, this is also noted 
on the container. All titles in a given classification are listed on a catalog 


card. An "F" IE the upper right-hand comer of the card Is used to dis- 
tinguish this card from the lantern-slide card. 

Still films are prepared in the same manner as filmslides. Each contain- 
er is marked with the classification and consecutive numbers and each 
catalog card is marked with an "S" in the upper right-hand corner to dis- 
tinguish it from lantern-slide and filmslide cards. 

Filmslides and still films are charged in the same manner as other li- 
brary material. A different color card should be used for each type of 
material. The same standards for selection as those suggested for lantern 
slides should be followed. 


Essentially, still films and filmslides serve the same purpose as the lan- 
tern slide. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. The following 
are the principal advantages of the filmslide: 

1. Compared with an equal amount of pictorial material on slides, the 
filmslide cost is very low. 

2. The filmslide is smaller and more easily stored. 

3. The pictures are arranged in a carefully edited sequence. 

4. Since filmslides can be made with a candid camera, it is possible at 
a very small cost to record for future use events that take place in the 

5. There is available material in filmslide form that is not available in 
any other type of visual aid. 

The filmslide has the following disadvantages: 

1. Projection is neither so sharp nor so bright as that of the lantern 

2. Filmslides must be kept in a fixed sequence. 

3. It is sometimes felt that there are too many pictures on a filmslide for 
use during one class period. 

The still film has the same advantages and disadvantages as the film- 
slide except that, because of its greater size, the projection is as clear as 
the slide. 

4. Sound-Slide Film 

This is a combination of the ordinary filmslide and a phonograph rec- 
ord which explains the filmslide as it is projected. At the present time 
these are used mainly for commercial advertising, but there is no reason 
why they should not be valuable for school use. Many have been pre- 
pared as part of defense training by the government. 


5. Stereographs 

The stereograph Is a double picture taken by means of two cameras or 
a two-lens camera which, when viewed through a stereoscope or tele- 
binocular, is enlarged and merged into one image to create the illusion of 
the third dimension, or depth, in the picture. This illusion of depth which 
creates a sense of reality is peculiar to the stereoscopic view and is the 
chief reason for its prominent place among the many types of visual aids. 

The stereograph is valuable in that it presents to the pupil a clearer 
concept of the material pictured than can be obtained through the use of 
any other type of picture. It is inexpensive, and there is an unlimited 
supply of excellent stereographs available. The main disadvantage is 
that only one person at a time can view a stereograph. 

There are two types of stereoscopes in general use the small stereo- 
scope which pupils can hold in the hand and the telebinocular which is a 
much larger instrument and is generally placed on a table for use. The 
principal producer of stereographs is the Keystone View Company, 
Meadville, Pennsylvania. 

Stereographs may be filed in cabinets provided for this purpose by 
firms such as the Keystone View Company. Materials should be ar- 
ranged according to the Dewey decimal classification and cataloging rec- 
ords should conform to those described in the section pertaining to lan- 
tern slides and filmslides. 

6. Picture Collections 

The use of a picture collection as a visual aid is a common practice in 
schools and libraries, chiefly because of the ease with which these teach- 
ing materials can be assembled and used. The picture collection may con- 
sist of photographs, prints, postal cards, illustrations, charts, diagrams, 
graphs, posters, and cartoons. Accessibility and economy have been 
factors which have made it possible for nearly every school to acquire a 
picture collection of some size. Its effectiveness as a teaching aid has, 
however, been somewhat overshadowed by the development of the newer 
and more realistic presentations of visual material. The use of still pic- 
tures in education has been included in experimental studies of motion 
pictures but "were found to be generaEy less effective visual aids than 
motion pictures/ 714 There are many instances where the introduction of 

"Edgar Dale and C. F. Hoban, Jr., "Visual Education/" in W. S. Monroe (ed.), 
Encyclopedia of Educational Research, p. 1331. New York: Macmillan, 1941. 


materials from a standard picture collection may be used to assist the 
learning activities. Leman 15 points out that considerable time is saved in 
the use of this type of picture, for it requires no equipment for projection 
and material may be presented at the moment it is desired. Prints may 
be passed around from student to student for individual inspection and 
then kept on display for reference. The usefulness of a picture collection 
depends on the skill of the teacher in presenting the materials to the class. 
The librarian should assume some of the responsibility for initiating suc- 
cessful use of this visual aid, as merely presenting the picture to the class 
is not sufficient. The teacher's role is that of guide and interpreter: the 
class must be prepared for the items of information which it is supposed 
to discover from the use of the picture; relationships must be pointed out. 
The length of time which the teacher plans for the use of the picture is as 
important as any of the other factors in the situation. Hurried use of pic- 
tures is likely to leave little but blurred impressions in the minds of chil- 
dren. The librarian can aid the teacher to select the few really necessary 
pictures which may be used for a lesson, and she should endeavor to sup- 
ply these in duplicate wherever possible. 


It is not necessary to have any particular equipment for the use of 
materials borrowed from a picture collection. However, if the pictures 
have been mounted on cards which have been prepared with punched 
holes, the mounts may be either strung or thumbtacked to walls and bul- 
letin boards without detriment to the picture. In using pictures in class 
recitations, it is quite likely that the pictures will be handed from pupil 
to pupil or exhibited by the teacher or a group leader. 

On the other hand, classwork with materials from a picture collection 
may be enhanced by the use of the opaque projector, since it makes possi- 
ble the showing of the material to the whole class at one time with full de- 
tail. It is similar in construction to the lantern-slide machine, but the 
opaque projector is equipped with a refleeting-Eght system which can 
ittuminate and project pictures from an opaque page. Materials varying 
in size from a postage stamp to a page from a reference book may be used. 
The room must be completely darkened for this kind of projection. Since 
opaque projection reproduces color, it permits the projection of visual 

is G. W. Lemon, Visual Aids in Education, p. 34. Paterson, New Jersey: State 
Teachers College, 1941. 


materials from well-illustrated books as well as from mounted and un- 
mounted picture collections. 

The cardoscope can also be used as a method of displaying pictures. 
It has a mechanical rotary device by means of which it can be used to ex- 
hibit a group of pictures, diagrams, or charts. Twenty-four cards, 14X22 
inches, can be mounted in the machine in metal frames, and as the ma- 
chine is rotated by hand, or electrically, the various cards can be shown 
to the class. Two cards are visible at one time. 


Photographs may be collected from various sources. If the services of 
a photographer are available, a variety of material may be acquired for 
the mounted picture collection as well as for the standard lantern slide, 
the filmslide, the miniature slide, and the motion-picture collections. The 
Newark, New Jersey, Department of Library and Visual Education has 
on its staff a professional photographer who has been able to expand 
these collections with exceptionally fine curriculum enrichment materials 
that may not be secured elsewhere. A photographer contributes im- 
measurably to the usefulness of a picture collection by reproducing illus- 
trations from reference and textbooks, by photographing school activ- 
ities, and by taking pictures of the local community. From an educa- 
tional standpoint visual materials of this type are particularly important 
since they may be prepared to fill the definite needs of a local school sys- 
tem and may be immediately related to the curriculum of the individual 
school. This advantage cannot be overemphasized, for it makes possible 
the addition of desired visual materials to existing collections without 
delay. Schools are frequently handicapped by being limited to certain 
dates for the order of supplies. By constantly preparing materials, the 
photographer makes a real contribution to the collection of visual mate- 
rials by bringing them up to date. 

Many teachers and students are amateur photographers and frequent- 
ly have collections of valuable negatives which may be used to advantage 
in the classroom. Members of the community and their friends are often 
willing to lend negatives of pictures they have taken. All of these sources 
should be used to help build up a picture collection, and pictures may also 
be collected from newspapers, magazines, discarded books, and travel 
folders. There is an abundance of worth-while material to be found in 
these sources. In addition, there are a number of companies dealing in re- 
productions and prints of famous paintings, which may be purchased in 


various sizes and at various prices. These are too numerous to list, but it 
may be noted that the Standard Catalog for High-School Libraries 1 in- 
cludes a helpful listing of such sources. The need for pictorial material 
organized around particular curriculum units has been recognized by a 
number of publishers who have developed sets of pictures and accompa- 
nying workbooks. A useful file of these subjects may be selected from 
the sets of pictures available from such agencies as Informative Picture 
Association, 48 North Division Avenue, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Crea- 
tive Educational Society, Mankato, Minnesota; and Photographic His- 
tory Service, 5537 Hollywood Boulevard, Hollywood, California. There 
are many other sources of such pictures; textbook and encyclopedia pub- 
lishers frequently prepare this kind of material. The care with which il- 
lustrations are selected, as well as the accompanying text, make these 
visualized series particularly helpful to the teacher and librarian. Since 
they are often printed on durable stock, they are ready for immediate 
filing in the library picture collection. 

Hoban cites the following characteristics in terms of which pictures 
should be evaluated : truth, clarity, grade level, relevancy, size, and num- 
ber. 17 


a. Suggestions for Mounting. Pictures should be cut in a paper cutter 
to insure even edges. The size of the mount will depend on the size of the 
cabinet or box used for filing the pictures. Whatever size and color of 
mount are finally adopted should be adhered to strictly so that the col- 
lection will offer a uniform appearance. 

A guide should be used to secure uniform mounting. All pictures, re- 
gardless of size, should be mounted an equal distance from the top of the 
mount, with equal margins on each side of the picture. Oak tag consti- 
tutes a satisfactory mounting. Pictures are pasted at the four corners 
only; this makes it possible to remove a picture and use the mount a 
number of times. 

6. Suggestions for Classifying. The most satisfactory means of classify- 
ing this material seems to be by subjects, arranged alphabetically. This 
arrangement, when mounts are filed vertically like cards in a catalog, 

16 Isabel Monro (ed,), assisted by Ruth Jervis, Standard Catalog for High-School 
Libraries. New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1942. 

17 Hoban and Zisman, op. tit., pp. 191-92, 


eEminates the need for a separate catalog and is at the same time self- 
indexing. Subject headings may be adapted to suit the needs of a par- 
ticular situation. Two excellent references on the picture collection are: 

John C. Dana, Picture Collection. H. W. Wilson Co., 1929 (fourth edition revised 

by Marcelle Frebault) . 
Norms Ireland, Picture File in School, College, and Public Libraries. Boston : F. W. 

Faxon Co., 1935. 

Both of these books contain lists of subject headings, and suggestions 
for collecting, mounting, filing, and using a picture collection. 

7. Bulletin Boards 

When timeliness is the chief factor in determining the value of informa- 
tion to be used in supplementing book aids to learning, the bulletin board 
is of exceptional value to the librarian. 18 The bulletin board is a teaching 
device that can be used in any school situation without regard to cost. 
The traditional bulletin board, changed infrequently, unattractively ar- 
ranged, filled with ill-chosen and unrelated items, is far removed from the 
type of teaching aid described by Stolper, who used it to great advan- 
tage. 19 

Sources of material are many and varied. The library's picture collec- 
tion and information files are unfailing reservoirs of timely, interesting 
material that may easily escape notice unless publicly displayed. Cur- 
rent newspapers yield much that may be used for bulletin boards only, 
never being of sufficient value to reach vertical-file folders. Pictures from 
the illustrated supplements of periodicals and newspapers, picture post- 
cards, and posters are useful. 

Effective utilization of pupil assistance should make the bulletin board 
easier to care for as well as engage students in a worth-while contribution 
to the whole school. Student committees might be used to prepare head- 
ings for exhibits, to arrange space divisions, to change displays according 
to a definite -routine. Bulletin boards should be changed every week or on 
stated dates, and no material should remain on display for too extended a 

18 Martha Woodbury, Bulletin Boards in the Elementary School. Aids for Elemen- 
tary-School Teachers, I. University of Iowa Extension Bulletin, Vol. CCLVIII 
(December 15, 1930). 

19 B. J. R. Stolper, The Bulletin Board as a Teaching Device, p. 4. New York: 
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1940. 


The most effective bulletin board is one most closely connected with 
school activities. The librarian should make use of her contacts with 
teachers for bulletin-board improvement. Notes sent to teachers concern- 
ing bulletin-board displays or announcements on the principal's daily 
bulletin will enlist the teachers interest 

The bulletin board is an excellent means for enriching the school pro- 
gram. The following questions suggested by Brumbaugh serve as criteria 
for judging a bulletin board : 

1. Does it suggest things for children to do? To read? 

2. Does it supplement experience? 

3. Does it clarify meaning? 

4. Does it provide comparisons with other information? 

5. Does it develop initiative? 

6. Does it develop critical thinking? 

7. Does it promote mental or physical health? Creative expression? Desirable 
social relationships? 20 

8. Maps 

The chief advantage of visual materials in the school program is that 
they enable teachers to make real and concrete, through illustrations, the 
abstract and the unreal. The interpretation of current events today, 
more than ever, is dependent upon the teacher's success in using maps 
and globes to fix place relationships in pupils 7 minds. Television news 
broadcasts use the teacher's technique with pointer and map. It is im- 
possible to listen to a radio news broadcast, to read a newspaper or a 
periodical, or to discuss world happenings without constant recourse 
to maps. Maps are diagrams, Enes, and names, in themselves meaning- 
less, but they evoke, where properly understood, concepts of extreme im- 
portance. The librarian should encourage teachers, therefore, to use a 
wide variety of maps, beginning in the lower grades with pictorial and 
decorative maps or those constructed on sand tables. 

The librarian charged with the responsibility of audio-visual education 
has a duty in assisting in the proper use of maps by teachers just as she as- 
sumes a share of this work in the direction of the use of other audio-visual 
materials. A map requires preparation by the teacher for class use; 
teachers must, first of all, especially with lower-grade children, empha- 
size the need for maps and emphasize the Hud of information children 

20 Florence Brumbaugh, "Do You Really Use Your Bulletin Board?" Instructor 
XLVm (January, 1939), 4. 


may expect from their use. The map that gives information about rain- 
fall, population, temperature, political conditions, and history will be ex- 
plained and fitted to the type of question the student needs to have an- 
swered. Teachers in their use of maps and globes should be cautioned to 
allow plenty of time for the pupil's examination of each new map; the 
learning situation should be repeated several times. If the teacher does 
not give information on map-reading, the librarian should include this in 
her library instruction. Underlying all instruction with maps is the grad- 
ual introduction of the language of map symbols, and this becomes a fund 
of information gradually acquired through the years. The symbols of the 
map become useful for the introduction of other audio-visual aids. They 
lead naturally to the use of motion pictures, still films, slides, pictures, and 
the many other adjuncts to learning which a modern system of education 

Map collections consist of three main divisions, according to form: the 
globe, the relief map, and the flat map. The globe should be included in 
every collection since it is so vital to teaching important concepts which 
may not be secured from other representations where distortions must in- 
evitably occur. The relief map, which shows inequalities in the earth's 
surface, is an important teaching tool. The fiat map may be prepared for 
a variety of uses of which the following are typical: 

Polar projection map 

Political map 

Political-physical map 

Population map 

Economic map 

Rainfall or precipitation map 

Temperature map 

Soil and vegetation maps 

Road map 

Specialized maps : history military invasions, campaigns, and conquests, ex- 
ploring expeditions, territorial accessions and expansions; literature and 
music; health showing the prevalence of disease, frequency of accidents; 
language; religions. 21 

Further, on the basis of presentation and use, maps may be classified 
as follows: outline maps, completed wall maps, "projected" or enlarged 

21 H. C. McKown and A. B. Roberts, Audiovisual Aids to Igi&truction, p. 76. New 
York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1940. 


maps (opaque or lantern-slide projection may be used for this purpose), 
sand-table maps, electrically illuminated maps used to emphasize desired 
elements, pictorial statistics maps, and decorative maps. Rapidly chang- 
ing geographical boundaries have made such maps as the News Map of 
the Week 22 with its accompanying manual and the Erasamark map of spe- 
cial value in libraries and schools. The Erasamark map is desirable for 
classroom use in connection with the study of current events, which are 
moving so swiftly in the world today. The news spots of each day can be 
visualized on these markable surface maps. 

The organization of a useful file of maps will involve the selection of 
materials on the basis of valid criteria, which will include the following 

1. Accuracy 

2. Projections 

3. Size 

4. Detail 

5. Color 

6. Execution (simple, direct, accurate) 

7. Content 

8. Adaptability (to age and grade level) 23 

All maps should be clearly labeled with titles or an accurate descrip- 
tion, as well as their classification numbers. Special care will be necessary 
in the filing and storage of maps and globes. Sufficient space must be set 
aside for this purpose in special quarters, where stands, cabinets, cases, 
and equipment for hanging maps are available. 

9. Radio 

The introduction of the radio as a medium of instruction in the educa- 
tional field is, of course, comparatively recent. The radio is now recog- 
nized as a significant influence in the development of youth. 

In the last decade the amount of time devoted exclusively to educa- 
tional radio programs has increased widely. This may be traced to the 
fact that teachers have come to realize the place of such an authentic and 
first-hand instrument for learning. 

Just as the motion picture, once distrusted by some members of the 
teaching body, was later utilized to great advantage, so the use of the 

22 News Map of the Week, Inc., 1512 N. Orleans Street, CMcago, Illinois. 

23 Hoban and Zisman, op. tit., pp. 228-30. 


radio was at first limited to a few bold experimenters. One of the earliest 
reactions of educators to the use of the radio was evidenced in the estab- 
lishment of radio stations by schools and colleges. Present trends in this 
field of broadcasting indicate four major developments as outlined by 
Atkinson in Ms study. Education by Radio: 

L Co-operative broadcasting is to become an increasingly important factor in 
education by radio within the next few years. 

2. City school systems are assuming the leadership in building broadcasting or- 
ganizations to provide programs intended to supplement classroom work. 

3. Mechanical perfecting and price lowering of the electrical transcription process 
are making possible enlarged opportunities for educational broadcasting. 

4. Present policies of the Federal Communications Commission are making it ex- 
pedient for the commercial broadcasting companies to favor the growth of 
educational broadcasting. 24 

Most librarians and teachers are concerned with plans for encouraging 
full utilization of the radio as an instructive agent, the development of ap- 
preciation and discrimination among the student body, and the selection 
and use of radio equipment. The librarian will be concerned with making 
a vital contribution to each of the objectives listed above in her library 
program. To the extent that the offerings of radio are correlated and in- 
tegrated with the whole school situation, a fair measure of the success of 
using radio may be secured. As teaching devices that offer varied and en- 
riched methods, radio programs have much in common with other audio- 
visual aids. No teacher should assume that a radio program is a substi- 
tute for a recitation; it is indeed an introduction, a force to mold pupil 
opinion, or an effective summarizing tool. It must be not isolated from 
the usual classroom techniques. The librarian can assist by providing ac- 
curate and up-to-date information on the use of radio in education, by 
preparing announcements of radio programs of educational significance, 
and in other ways. 

A useful source of radio information is the bulletin of the Association 
for Education by Radio. 25 The formation of the association in 1941 rep- 
resented an important step forward in establishing co-operation between 
radio agencies and schools. Developing a means of establishing adequate 
communication among persons in .education by radio is one of its chief 

24 Carroll Atkinson, Education by Radio in American Schools, p. 126. Nashville, 
Tennessee: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1938. 

25 Published by the Association, 228 N. LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois. 


Heaps 26 lists a number of functions which librarians are now perform- 
ing or may eventually perform in the school radio program: preparing 
publicity ? organizing information centers, maintaining transcription rec- 
ord collections, gathering radio scripts, and serving as a broadcasting or 
listening center. 

Each of these functions will be closely related to activities of individ- 
ual teachers in the school organization. Adequate preparation of student 
listening groups requires definite instruction which may be offered by 
subject-matter teachers in the regular English or history classes or in a 
class devoted to radio appreciation only. Outlines containing suggestions 
for classes in radio study may often be prepared directly in the schools 
concerned. Typical of this new instructional material is the manual, A 
Course of Study in Radio Appreciation, prepared by Sterner. 27 Librarians 
have the responsibility for relating such courses to book material. The 
opportunity which this offers for vitalizing the use of library resources 
should not be neglected. 

Information about forthcoming broadcasts is available to the librarian 
in many forms. The daily as well as the weekly issues of the newspaper 
should be scanned for radio programs, and information may also be gath- 
ered from the broadcasting companies themselves. This will enable her 
to provide teachers with attractive listings of present and future pro- 
grams, to offer study and enrichment suggestions, and to inform the school 
personnel of significant trends in radio activities. 

A sampling of the extent and variety of programs will reveal several 
well-established broadcasts such as "Americans at Work," a part of the 
"School of the Air of the Americas," which provides material for educa- 
tional guidance lessons, or "Between the Book Ends," a program de- 
signed to extend a student's interest in literature. The well-known pro- 
gram, "Great Plays," provides an acquaintance with much that is stimu- 
lating in drama, past and present. "America's Town Meeting of the Air" 
or "The People's Platform" will serve to enhance almost any discussion 
in social studies at various levels of the educational program. There are 
so many opportunities presented for listening to good music that it is 
scarcely necessary to mention a particular program, and so it is with the 

2S W. A. Heaps, "Ears and the Library," Witem Library BvUetin, XV (September, 
1940), 19-23. 

27 A. P. Sterner, A Course ofSttidy in Radio Appreciation. New York: Educational 
and Kecreational Guides, Inc., 1941. 


entire school curriculum. If we examine the calendars of radio programs, 
we discover many sources of vital and significant educational experiences. 
By the very nature of the task of collecting information about radio 
broadcasts, the librarian is immediately compelled to consider principles 
for selecting worth-while programs. The National Committee on Educa- 
tion by Radio has suggested the following questions as being especially 
pertinent to the selector of radio programs for educational institutions : 

1. Does the program have unity, that is, do the parts contribute to a central idea, 
which, in turn, is a logical sector of a program series? 

2. Is the subject matter selected educationally important? 

3. Will the program effectively induce a considerable proportion of listeners to 
explore the subject more completely through reading, discussion, or other self- 
educative activity? 

4. Is there a summary at the close to fix in the listener's mind the major points 
brought out by the script? 

5. Is the selection and presentation of the material such that the voluntary in- 
terest of the students will be aroused? 28 

At the request of the Federal Radio Education Committee, the re- 
search staff of the Evaluation of School Broadcasts at Ohio State Uni- 
versity has published a tentative set of criteria for children's radio pro- 
grams. 29 These criteria are based upon what children's programs should 
be from the point of view of ethics, personality development, and show- 

Having collected the available data on educational broadcasts, and 
having made a selection based on generally accepted principles governing 
the selection of good teaching materials, the librarian must disseminate 
this information among faculty members* Depending upon the size of the 
school and other factors, the librarian charts her course with the main ob- 
jective that of reaching each instructor on the staff. Featuring the infor- 
mation on a specially prepared bulletin provides one of the best ways of 
achieving this goal. This bulletin should appear regularly, should be ar- 
ranged attractively, and should contain only the necessary information. 
The actual appearance of the bulletin will best be decided by each worker 
in the field, but if some such source of information is established, the use 
of the radio in the classroom and for out-of-school listening will be in- 

28 National Committee on Education by Radio, Education ly Radio, VII (April, 
1937), 13-16. 

29 Howard Rowland et oZ., Criteria for Children's Radio Programs. Washington: 
Federal Radio Education Committee, 1942. 


creased. The preparation of this channel of information should not, of 
course, end the librarian's stimulation of this teaching aid; there will be 
the need very frequently for a more direct approach to some teachers. 
Occasional notes about especially helpful programs or a word-of-mouth 
message may be needed to encourage the use of the radio by some teach- 

The library should serve as a source of information about other phases 
of the school's program in the use of the radio. Much material is avail- 
able from the Script Exchange of the Office of Education, Washington, 
D.C. The librarian who provides interested school groups with worth- 
while scripts will be encouraging the increasingly popular device of 
school-prepared broadcasts. Schools are using radio workshops to de- 
velop habits of discrimination and judgment concerning the sort of pro- 
grams broadcast over the air and to develop poise and confidence of stu- 
dents before the microphone. The effectiveness of the school broadcast 
as a means of developing intelligent radio-program listeners has reached 
such a proportion today that hundreds of these broadcasts are presented 
over commercial networks as well as those of local school systems or uni- 
versities. A discussion of what constitutes a good school broadcast has 
been prepared by Seeley Reid. 30 One of the chief contributions of the li- 
brarian to this phase of the program wiU be the excellence of the printed 
materials which have been collected and which can be presented to groups 
of teachers and students who are experimenting with this procedure. 

While it is outside the scope of this discussion to consider fully the 
problem of selection of radio equipment for school use in its technical as- 
pects, there is a need for pointing out that accurate and reliable sources 
of information concerning this problem are available; mention of some of 
the significant studies in this field are made in the bibliography of sources 
at the end of this chapter. 

Rather than purchase a radio for the individual classroom, some 
schools have provided central receiving sets which in turn broadcast 
radio programs to every classroom in the building. This has the disad- 
vantage of limiting rather severely the fullest use of the radio by each 
teacher in the building, since obviously only one program may be received 
at a time. The most desirable solution to the problem seems to be the 
provision of a receiving set for each classroom in the school building. 

30 Ohio State University, Bureau of Educational Research, News Letter, Vol. VII, 
No. 4, January, 1942. 


The expense Involved will usually prevent this goal from being reached; 
therefore some compromise will be necessary. When the library serves 
as the center of audio-visual materials, school-owned radios may be dis- 
tributed to teachers on the same administrative basis as that which gov- 
erns the distribution of other audio-visual equipment. Student assistance 
corps, such as projection staffs or service clubs, may aid the librarian in 
sending radios to the places where they are needed and in seeing that 
they are returned to their storage place. 

The librarian who is attempting to stimulate the use of the radio in 
the school audio-visual program will need to be an alert listener to radio 
offerings so that her assistance to students and teachers will be more reli- 
able. Round-table discussions, musical programs, plays, lectures, news 
broadcasts, and the infinite variety of radio's offerings to general educa- 
tion will help her select suitable programs for the instructional staff. 

10. Television 

As television sets have become increasingly available to the public, 
broadcasting companies have sponsored programs that may be utilized 
as teaching aids. This means of disseminating "live" information by a 
combination of audio-visual techniques to a widespread and disparate 
audience is unique. At the present time (March 1942), these programs 
are few, as each station broadcasts only about fifteen hours per week, the 
amount of time required to maintain its federal license. The programs 
are now limited, but greater variety of subject matter and diversity of 
techniques of transmission will follow as the industry expands. While the 
technical features of television broadcasting have made enormous strides, 
methods of programing are just being evolved. New techniques of broad- 
casting other than those ufeed by radio and motion pictures will have to be 
developed to be consistent with the instrument. The introduction of col- 
or television, which has been demonstrated experimentally, will again in- 
volve new methods of transmission. A number of industrial organiza- 
tions have maintained extensive laboratories and experimental broad- 
casting stations to enable them to make this new industry available to 
the public-at-large with an ever increasing degree of perfection. 

The educational possibilities of television broadcasting are far more 
significant than those already realized by radio. That the combination of 
visual and audio transmission enhances the retentive capacities of the 
human mind is well known. Classroom teachers, just as they have utilized 


radio as a teaching device, will certainly wish to include the advantages 
of television broadcasts. 

Although the current programs are still in an experimental stage, they 
are being used to transmit up-to-date and vital information. The news 
broadcasts, graphically illustrated by maps and diagrams, and the weekly 
broadcast of the "Town Hall Meeting" to those in the New York area, 
would make invaluable contributions to classes in history and current 
events. Geography classes would find the rebroadcasts of film trav- 
elogues profitable. Special programs have been offered for children of the 
elementary grades. Among programs already transmitted have been 
dramatic and musical performances by well-known artists. The implica- 
tions of such broadcasts for English and music classes are broad. 

As a means of broadcasting information about our current war pro- 
gram and national defense, television has already shown that it has a 
role to play. The programs of the American Red Cross and the Office of 
Civilian Defense are excellent examples of the possibilities of television 
in mass instruction. The American Eed Cioss has conducted a course in 
first aid by means of television. Such graphic demonstrations of first-aid 
techniques can be readily used by teachers and classes in health educa- 
tion. The Office of Civilian Defense is conducting a course for air-raid 
wardens. These programs are being used widely in New York City to as- 
sist in training their personnel. For the general public, both organizations 
have been broadcasting information about their volunteer services con- 
cerned with air-raid defense, airplane spotting, social welfare, first-aid 
activities, nutrition and canteen work, and blood plasma storage. 

Unquestionably, as more and more television sets are produced, this 
method of audio-visual transmission will be a welcome teaching aid in the 
classroom. It would be well for librarians to watch the advances made in 
television broadcasting so that they may be in a position to give adequate 
and suitable information. 

11. The Phonograph 

The educational possibilities of this auditory aid first became apparent 
to instructors of music. The music department was therefore the first to 
utilize this valuable adjunct to teaching, and in some schools the only 
phonograph or records available even today are those selected and used 
by the music teacher. A centralized department of audio-visual service 
in any individual school or system, however, will be in a position to dispel 
this restricted conception of the use of the phonograph. The librarian 


who organizes such a department can serve in selecting and making avail- 
able a great variety in records. Recordings of poems and other selections 
from literature as illustrated by the "Mercury Shakespeare/ 7 records 
which are used for drill in foreign-language study, records which dram- 
atize current events, such as the Elmer Davis recordings, "The Sound of 
History," important speeches, dramatic presentations of history both 
modern and ancient, and many others will enable the librarian to provide 
nearly every school curricular offering with appropriate material. 

Recordings of radio programs widen the usefulness of the whole field of 
radio education because, with such recordings represented in the central 
collection of auditory aids, the teacher is able to secure an effective radio 
dramatization or other type of broadcast for use at any stage of the school 
program; reliance no longer must be placed solely on the hour of the orig- 
inal broadcast. Through the use of recordings of radio programs the 
teacher is enabled also to reproduce the material presented as many times 
as he sees fit. This type of recording, generally spoken of as the transcrip- 
tion recording, takes the form of a 16-inch disk, recorded at 33| revolu- 
tions per minute; this record will play for about 15 minutes on each side, 
whereas the standard phonograph record playing at 78 r.p.m. requires 
about 10 minutes of playing time for a 12-inch record. Therefore, the 
transcription recording requires fewer disks and less handling of records 
in the presentation of a program. Sources of transcription records should 
be noted and reported to faculty members by the librarian. 

In addition to the purchase of records and transcriptions from the 
usual sources, a library of materials will be acquired through school-made 
records where the type of equipment for such production has been pur- 
chased. These records may be made of broadcasts received over the radio 
or they may be records of school activities and projects. Other uses of 
school-recording machines for purposes of speech improvement, dramat- 
ics, and music classes will be of interest to the librarian. 

The library story-hour may be greatly enriched by the use of recorded 
stories and appropriate musical selections. A story once told and record- 
ed is available for many groups of children at various times. All librarians 
are not story-tellers, and the school system or public library system which 
has at least one trained story-teller will find it to be a great advantage to 
record her stories and use them throughout the city. The New York 
Public Library, under the direction of Mary Gould Davis, has done some 
experimental work along these lines. This also puts the librarian on the 
producing end of radio in education, and, with the introduction of drama 


as well as narration in a story-hour program, she has a chance actually to 
use all of the resources of the workshop as well as to create the script. 

Studies have been made to determine standards which should be used 
as a guide in the selection of phonographs for school and classroom use. 
One of the most helpful is that of the Committee on Scientific Aids to 
Learning/ 1 which reports a detailed and careful analysis of the determin- 
ing factors. Because sound-engineering techniques are being developed 
so rapidly, the librarian should be acquainted with these studies and 
should seek the advice of reliable dealers in her community before pur- 
chasing this equipment for her school. Each school situation will deter- 
mine the extent and variety of phonographs and recording equipment 
which may be purchased, but certainly, in order to make available the 
variety of materials which may be used, each school should be provided 
with a two-speed record-player phonograph so that both the standard 
records and the 33| r.p.m. records may be utilized. 

To insure full use of a library of records, the same means of stimulating 
their use by teachers must be applied as has already been suggested in the 
section on the use of the radio and the motion picture. Listing these rec- 
ords in bibliographies of supplementary material, advertising them by 
mention in bulletins or notes, and including them in selected materials 
for classroom use will help to achieve these goals. 

Phonograph records should be cataloged in conformity with accepted 
library procedure. It is pertinent, however, to point out that records and 
related objects should be cataloged from the very beginning. Too fre- 
quently a librarian may consider that this collection is to remain a small 
one; consequently, no effort is made to incorporate these materials in the 
library catalog or shelf list. Records should be classified, cataloged, and 
carefully stored in easily accessible parts of the library so that they are as 
fully available as other library material. 

Circulating records and phonographs will conform to the library's ac- 
cepted techniques. The phonograph should be scheduled some time in ad- 
vance of actual use, and the librarian will be able to prepare reservation 
blanks for this purpose. Records will be equipped with charging cards 
and date slips so that they may be borrowed through the regular chan- 

31 National Research Council, Committee on Scientific Aids to Learning, Broad- 
cast Receivers and Phonographs for Classroom Use. New York: The Committee (41 
W. Forty-Second Street), 1939. 


12. The School Museum and the School Journey 
Modem educational programs have emphasized direct or perceptual 
experience as the basis of all knowledge. Without the foundation of vis- 
ual-sensory experiences a student has no meanings with which to associ- 
ate events and objects. The variety of perceptual experiences is reflected 
in the student's reactions to all related learning situations, including his 
ability to learn from the textbook and other supplementary instructional 
materials. The vicarious experiences which constitute the majority of 
those acquired in the average school curriculum become more meaningful 
when the student brings to them a background of ideas gained directly 
from associations with objects of all types. The school museum can make 
the necessary provision for supplying the materials for many of the direct 
learning experiences which should be incorporated in the curriculum. An 
object or a specimen from a museum collection often supplies the teacher 
with the only means of direct contacts for learning in the classroom. 

The teacher and the librarian have a real responsibility for providing 
experiences where learning from direct contact with objects and specimens 
is desired. Such activities will of necessity be closely related to the pro- 
gram of the school, and the librarian will be guided in her selection of 
museum materials chiefly by this criterion. That school museums need 
careful supervision in the light of the aims of the individual school is evi- 
dent from the wealth and infinite variety of materials which a museum 
might collect. 

It is clearly evident that in the selection of materials for a school mu- 
seum only the most valuable items in relation to the needs of the teaching 
program should be included. Evaluation of potential museum objects 
should include a consideration of the completeness with which the item 
represents the subject. This is one of the hazards of seeking free mate- 
rials from commercial organizations chiefly interested in the "education- 
al" tools they are promoting. Specimens, charts, and models may be 
quite inadequate. The librarian should seek advice from competent 
workers in nearby museums before selecting materials for the school mu- 
seums. How accurate is the model, specimen, or object? This criterion 
is closely related to completeness. The opinion of the teaching staff the 
science or geography instructor or a staff member in a public or private 
museum should frequently be sought. In building a working collection 
that can be used by the school wisely, the librarian should proceed slowly; 
she should avoid collecting curios that have no relation to curriculum of- 
ferings; she should plan for steady growth and should discard liberally. 


One of the chief advantages of having the museum's development in 
the hands of the librarian lies in her ability to correlate the materials of 
the museum with the other enrichment material of the school. Bringing 
to the museum a training that has dealt extensively with criteria for se- 
lection of materials of instruction; the school librarian is constantly on 
the alert to secure valuable supplementary tools. The librarian is a co- 
ordinator of supplementary materials by the very nature of her position, 
as well as by the fact that she owes special allegiance to no special depart- 
ment or field of instruction in the school. Impartiality in selection is 
guaranteed by having the librarian assemble and distribute these mate- 

One of the chief duties of the librarian as co-ordinator of curriculum 
enrichment materials is concerned with the decisions she must make in 
selecting appropriate audio-visual aids in response to requests from sub- 
ject-matter teachers. The unending variety of audio-visual aids motion 
pictures, radio programs, museum objects, and all the other devices which 
may be listed must be balanced. For instance, a request from a teacher 
for museum specimens for a class studying textiles may result in the li- 
brarian calling to the teacher's attention the more effective teaching aid 
in the form of a motion picture, a set of sides, or a school journey to a 
local textile factory or to a local museum. 

The field trip is a method of providing first-hand observation that is 
quite closely related to the type of educational experience involved in 
using museum materials, and the school librarian has a definite responsi- 
bility for encouraging this activity. Apart from the practical angle which 
enables a librarian to enrich the audio-visual program without actually 
purchasing, cataloging, and housing many museum objects, it provides 
pupils with many satisfying educational opportunities. 

A field trip which may take the student into a nearby manufacturing 
plant, store, or airport will often provide experiences of a great variety, 
surpassing those which may result from the classroom use of museum ob- 
jects. The school excursion as a visual-sensory aid in teaching should be 
stressed. The library may have an important part in the preparation of 
teacher and class for this type of field trip or school journey. In the re- 
port of the Survey of the Public Schools of Newark, New Jersey, by 
Teachers College, Columbia University, the suggestion is offered that a 
community-resources file be maintained in the library. 

The school museum should be enriched whenever possible by borrow- 
ing from local or state museums. The librarian will naturally be well in- 


formed about the resources of these by personal visits whenever possible 
as well as by careful study of catalogs and bulletins published by the in- 
stitutions themselves. The borrowing privilege of these museums per- 
mits the school collection to reflect chiefly the constant needs of the cur- 
riculum with special or seasonal demands satisfied by adequate loans 
from state, local, or private museums. Private collections in the com- 
munity offer similar possibilities. 

Donations from individuals in the community also provide a fruitful 
source of acquisition for the museum. Other sources of materials include 
industrial and commercial establishments, but their exhibits should be 
scrutinized carefully before being added to the collection. The librarian 
and teacher should co-operate in enlisting the aid of children for gather- 
ing specimens and objects wood, coal, fruits, plants, and vegetables, 
many of which may be gathered locally. 

The librarian's organization of a school museum must be simple, and 
she will certainly not endeavor to simulate the detailed procedures of 
accessioning, processing, and cataloging that professional museum work- 
era employ in their specialized institutions. Classifying and cataloging 
materials will need to follow the routines prescribed by the school li- 
brarian for other materials. Mounting and labeling specimens, models, 
and objects will be done most successfully after the librarian has visited a 
large museum and consulted with trained workers who will help her to 
adapt such methods to the schooPs needs. 

School museums are greatly enhanced in educational significance when 
sufficient and attractive display space has been provided. Rooms to be 
used as exhibit centers require adequate supervision. The materials 
themselves should be readily movable so that they can be taken to vari- 
ous parts of the school. Provision for space should take into account the 
need for class visits, and therefore a central location is desirable. 


In school libraries, newspapers, magazines, and pamphlets have a defi- 
nite place, serving both as curricular and as recreational material. It is 
almost a necessity to have in a library one newspaper of recognized stand- 
ards in news coverage, authenticity, and journalistic style. It is some- 
times advisable to have a local paper available for community news as 
well. Units based on newspaper-reading are being introduced into the 
English and social-science courses of study in order to adjust the curricu- 
lum to contemporary needs. Several such units are presented in a report 


of a committee of the National Council of Teachers of English. 32 The 
news items of the local paper are an important source of material for com- 
munity study, vocational guidance, and records of school activities. It is 
profitable for the librarian to examine the newspapers, as they are invalu- 
able sources of information on housing, consumer education, city-plan- 
ning, public utilities, crime, fine arts, nutrition, homemaking, and de- 
velopments in science. The book reviews and biographical accounts of 
famous personalities, as well as the coverage of straight news, provide ad- 
ditional information of value. 

After the current papers have been used in the library, they may be 
filed intact for a few days. However, there is a great deal of material in a 
newspaper which is of no value to the library; therefore, newspapers may 
well be clipped, and each item of permanent interest mounted, assigned a 
subject heading, and placed in the vertical file with other nonbook mate- 
rials on the same subject. 

As is true of newspapers, magazines and pamphlets contain timely in- 
formation which often cannot be found in book form for several months 
after the demand for it has been created. However, this material is fre- 
quently more authentic and is usually better written and more detailed 
than newspaper accounts. 

The librarian should be discriminating in her selection of periodicals, 
completely revising the subscription list each year after a re-examination 
of the files for significant changes which may have taken place during the 
year. A change of editor or publisher may alter the entire tone and view- 
point of a publication, especially of a periodical dealing with current af- 
fairs and controversial subjects. In making up a periodical subscription 
list the librarian should consider the curriculum, the type and location of 
her school, the people who use the library, and the budget of the library; 
and, for particular periodicals, the publisher, the editor, the contributors, 
the reading level, the political viewpoint, the physical makeup, and 
whether it is indexed in any of the periodical indexes which the library re- 

Magazine articles have been made comparatively easy to find by the 
publication of such indexes as Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (the 
Abridged Readers' Guide indexes twenty-five of the most-read periodicals 

32 National Council of Teachers of English (Angela Broening et a/.), Conducting Ex- 
periences in English, pp. 77-79. English Monographs No. 8. New York: D. Apple- 
ton-Century Co., 1939. 


and Is therefore most valuable for small school libraries) ; the Art Index , 
indexing fine arts periodicals and museum publications; the Education 
Index, indexing teachers' professional literature; the Industrial Arts In- 
dex, a guide to books, pamphlets^ and periodicals on engineering, trade, 
and business; and the Book Renew Digest, providing evaluating excerpts 
and sources of book reviews. It is advisable for the librarian to look 
through all periodicals before they leave her hands, as she may note ma- 
terial of value to individual teachers. 

The demands for and use of current magazines will determine whether 
they are better suited for circulation or for reference. Magazines should 
be kept on file in the library, or in a special room near it, for from one to 
three years. The length of time is conditioned by use and space, as well 
as by their availability in the local public library. 

Pamphlets, too, should be carefully selected. They are available in 
great quantity and variety, and the librarian is usually faced with the 
problem of what to order rather than where and how to secure them. 
Such agencies as banking associations, insurance companies, religious as- 
sociations, industrial organizations, educational and health foundations, 
travel bureaus, chambers of commerce, and radio networks are fruitful 
sources for free and inexpensive pamphlets; in addition, the Vertical File 
Service should be regularly checked. A helpful list of pamphlet sources 
has been compiled by Norma 0. Ireland. 33 

Pamphlets may be classified and filed by subject. The files should be 
labeled and may be placed on regular bookshelves in a special section of 
the library or with the books on the same subject. If shelf space is lim- 
ited, pamphlets may be filed in a vertical file, together with clippings, 
bibliographies, and other ephemeral materials. New pamphlets should 
be classified and put into circulation at once, without holding them for 
elaborate cataloging, since one of the greatest values of pamphlet mate- 
rial is timeliness. 


The role of the librarian as the co-ordinator of curriculum-enrichment 
materials has been emphasized throughout this chapter. Relating in- 

33 N. 0. Ireland, "Pamphlet Sources for the School Librarian," Wilson Library Bui- 
letin, XV (December, 1940), 330-32; XV (January, 1941), 430-31. For an excellent 
description of government documents and their sources, see Louis Shores, Basic Refer- 
ence Books, pp. 187-204. Chicago: American Library Association, 1939. 


structional materials to all school activities requires the direction of a li- 
brarian who is capable of administering services necessary to the effective 
distribution and use of motion pictures, radios, phonographs, slides, 
maps, charts, periodicals, pamphlets, and other nonbook aids to learning. 
Although the training, imagination, and resourcefulness of the librarian 
are of prime importance, the total program requires proper and adequate 
housing and equipment, and these can be provided for only by the for- 
ward-looking administrator. Handicapped by lack of space, by insuffi- 
cient funds, and poor physical equipment, no librarian can carry the full 
responsibility for modem school-library service. Conference rooms are 
indicated in the expanding program so that individual and group projects 
may be carried on without detriment to regular book use in library refer- 
ence- and reading-rooms. School programs using mechanically projected 
visual aids involve special shelving for film storage, dark rooms for pro- 
jection, and special cabinets and cases for storage of machines and pro- 
jectors. The phonograph records should be filed in special racks, and 
space is needed for storing record players. "Listening" rooms for radios 
and phonographs are also desirable. A school museum must be properly 
housed in ample quarters with attractive facilities for exhibits. In fact, 
each phase of the library's activity should receive proper recognition in 
the architect's plans for new or remodeled school buildings. 

In describing the librarian of the future, Rush warns that "there are 
grave implications in trying to follow instructions on driving an ox-cart 
while attempting to fly a plane/' 34 While it is true that stress should 
properly be placed on plans for redesigning the physical equipment of li- 
braries to serve as dynamic agencies in the modern school, it is equally 
vital that the librarian's thinking and acting be remolded. Library serv- 
ice which is broad enough to include all aids to learning requires workers 
whose active role in the school rises above mere custodianship of books to 
the rank of other heads of departments. The educational patterns of to- 
day exact from teachers a degree of skill never required in the days of the 
single textbook and formalized classroom procedures. The general expan- 
sion and development of twentieth-century schools likewise require li- 
brary programs initiated by librarians whose basic philosophy is no less 

34 C. E. Rush, "librarian of the Future/' in E. M. Danton's Library of Tomorrow, 
p. 97. Chicago: American Library Association, 1939. 




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GREER, MARGARET R. "Visual Aids and the School Library," Wilson Library Bul- 
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KOON, CLINE M. School Use of Visual Aids. United States Office of Education Bulle- 
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Materials of Instruction. Eighth Yearbook of the Department of Supervisors and 
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WHEELING, KATHERINE E., and HILSON, J. A. Audio-Visual Materials for Junior and 
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DALE, EDGAR, et al. Motion Pictures in Education: A Summary of the Literature. New 
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LEWIN, WILLIAM. Photoplay Appreciation in American High Schools. New York: D. 
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Head, Department of Librariansfiip 

State College for Teachers 

Albany, New York 

Our public schools, as agencies of the state, are usually administered 
by local boards of education, but are controlled to some degree by the 
state. 1 The school library, a unit within the school, is subject to the same 
control that of the local board of education and, to some degree, of the 
state department of education. The board of education sometimes dele- 
gates part of its authority over the school library to another tax-sup- 
ported educational institution in the community the public library. 

The one generalization usually made about the external control of 
school libraries is this: a given school library is controlled in one of three 
ways: (1) by the board of education, (2) by the public library, or (3) by 
both the board of education and the public library co-operatively. 2 This 

1 Nelson B. Henry and Jerome G. Kerwin, Schools and City Government. Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1938. 

2 Recent publications which have contained discussions of school-library control 
are: (1) Douglas Waples and Leon Carnovsky, Libraries and Readers in the State of 
New York. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939; (2) H. L. Cecil and W. A. 
Heaps, School Library Service in the United States. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1940; 



generalization is easy to make but difficult to apply. Inasmuch as ulti- 
mate control resides In the board of education, it is not easy to say of the 
libraries of a given city, or even of one school, that they are controlled by 

the public library rather than by both the schools and the public library 

working together. 


The first method of control, that by the board of education alone, is 
the one clear-cut method. However, the details of the working out of this 
control are obscured, often indefinite, and difficult to discover. A senior 
high school library controlled by the board of education alone may be 
supervised by the school principal alone, by the supervisor of English, by 
a libraiian-co-ordinator, by a school-library supervisor, by the adminis- 
trator in charge of high schools, or by some other central-office adminis- 
trator. Supervision often includes some aspects of line authority, al- 
though more often line authority is exercised by the principal alone. 
Even where the libraries of the junior high and elementary schools in the 
same city are also controlled by the board of education, different channels 
for both supervision and control may be established at both the elemen- 
tary and the junior high school levels, 


When the board of education delegates complete or partial control 
over its school libraries to the public library, the control is placed in the 
hands of the public library board. The library board selects the chief li- 
brarian who, in turn, selects her staff. Control over school libraries is ex- 
ercised directly by various members of the library's staff in some cities 
by the chief librarian herself, in other cities by the chief of the children's 
department, or, most often in larger cities, by the chief of the schools de- 

The public library which controls school libraries contributes to their 
financial support also. The public library's contribution varies from al- 
most complete support in one large city (excluding only room and jani- 

artd (3) Joint Committee of the National Education Association and the American 
Library Association, Schools and Public Libraries Working Together in School Library 
Service. Washington: National Education Association, 1941; (4) Howard W. Brown, 
"A Study of Methods and Practices in Supplying Library Service to Elementary 
Schools in the United States/' Doctor's dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 
1941 (private printing). 


tonal service) to much less proportionate support In other cities. The 
person who exercises direct control over the school libraries may receive 
her salary from the public library, or part from the public library and 
part from the schools. Individual school librarians may be paid by the 
schools, or by the public library, or by both schools and library. The in- 
stitution, however, which pays the salaries is likely both to select and to 
appoint the librarians, but this is not always so. 3 The books in the school 
libraries are owned by the institution which pays for them, not necessar- 
ily by the one which processes them or supervises their use. 

The "control" may vary from complete line authority to staff super- 
vision. Also, evidence of the relationship between the schools and the 
public library may be an official contract between the board of education 
and the library board signed by both contracting parties, or it may be the 
loosest sort of understanding, the only substantiation being the working 
relationship between the two institutions. 


Uniformity in method of school-library control is not always found 
within a community. Within a city different arrangements for direct ad- 
ministrative control of the school libraries may be made at each of the 
three school levels elementary, junior high, and senior high. For ex- 
ample, the board of education may retain control over elementary-school 
libraries and may delegate to the public library a large part of the con- 
trol of the senior high school libraries, as in Chicago. Or the board of edu- 
cation may retain control over the senior high school libraries but may 
delegate to the public library a share in the control of the libraries of the 
elementary and the junior high schools, as in Seattle. Or the schools may 
even retain direct control over some of the senior high school libraries, 
and, at the same time, enter into various arrangements with the public 
library for the control of other of the senior high school libraries, as in In- 


The extent to which the three methods of control of the school library 
prevail in the United States is shown in two recent publications. The 
Biennial Survey of Education indicates that 96.5 per cent of all school li- 
braries reporting were controlled by the school board; 1 per cent by the 

3 E.g., in Cliicago. 


pubic library board; 2.3 per cent by a co-operative arrangement between 
the two boards; and the final 0.2 per cent by "other boards.' 74 Both pub- 
lic library administration and co-operative administration are more likely 
to occur in city school systems. The National Education Association sur- 
vey presents slightly different results because it used different classifica- 
tions for its data. 5 This survey, too, shows public library administration 
and co-operative administration more likely to exist in larger cities. 
However, data presented in the latter survey show responsibility for giv- 
ing service rather than for exercising administrative control. 


In view of the proportion of school libraries controlled by boards of 
education (96.5 per cent), present-day restatements of arguments for 
public library or co-operative control may be surprising. 6 The question 
of control is, apparently, an open one. Perhaps the final and decisive 
argument will be the financial one which institution can pay the bills 
for the school library. Control in the long run is likely to accompany 
financial support. Present-day school libraries are too expensive to be 
supported by most public libraries, if, at the same time, the general adult 
public is to be served adequately. 7 

The question of who should administer school libraries, whether the 
schools, the public library, or both, leads ultimately to a consideration of 
the governmental structure of the two institutions involved the schools 

4 E. M. Foster and Edith A. Lathrop, "Statistics of Public-School Libraries, 1934r- 
1935," Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1984-86, pp. 20-21. United 
States Office of Education Bulletin No. 2, 1937. Washington: Government Printing 
Office, 1938. 

5 Certain Aspects of School Library Administration, Educational Research Service, 
Circular No. 6. Washington: American Association of School Administrators and 
Research Division of the National Education Association, 1939. 

6 Discussion and tabulation of arguments for co-operative control may be found in 
Cecil and Heaps, op. tit, pp. 188-95. Similar discussion and arguments for and 
against board-of -education control also are given, ibid., pp. 195-202. A brief discus- 
sion of arguments for each type of control is presented by C. B. Joeckel and Leon 
Carnovsky in A Metropolitan Library in Action, pp. 330-32. Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1940. 

7 For example, in one of our large cities the school libraries' book fund is larger than 
that of the public library. 


and the public library. 8 The question leads further to a weighing of what 
should be the connection between the governing bodies of the two insti- 
tutions. Often it is urged that school libraries be taken over by the public 
library and made to serve as general branch libraries open to the adult 
public as well as to the school population. It is even advocated that a 
single board should govern both institutions library and schools; or 
that at least some fundamental governmental relationship between the 
two institutions should be established. 9 However, the report of the Edu- 
cational Policies Commission points out that there are some obstacles to 
board-of-education control of public libraries. For instance: 

Perhaps the strongest argument raised against placing public libraries under 
boards of education is that these boards, as at present constituted, have an edu- 
cational viewpoint which fails to encompass the full implications of the library 
as an educational institution. Many boards do not yet recognize the contribu- 
tion of libraries to both formal and informal education and to the wise use of 
leisure time. Under this handicap the libraries suffer, it is said, from a lack of 
that consideration which is consistent with their importance. Likewise, it is 
feared that people may associate the formal atmosphere of the traditional class- 
room with libraries controlled by school authorities and consequently hesitate to 
take advantage of the service. It is further asserted that under this form of con- 
trol the libraries lack representation before the public such as they enjoy under a 
separate board. The argument that service to the public would become sub- 
ordinate to the school service can sometimes be substantiated although by no 
means is that situation universal. The whole configuration of attitudes toward 
the matter could be changed by a broader viewpoint on the part of boards of edu- 
cation. 10 

In a few cities school libraries are open to the general public, and in a 
few other cities a joint authority does administer both the public library 
and the public schools. It has also been suggested that school libraries 
undertake all library work with children and leave the public library free 
to work with adults. This suggestion was not made in an effort to solve 
the problem of school-library administration but for the purpose of pre- 

8 C. B. Joeckelj The Government of the American PuUic Library. Chicago: Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press, 1938. 

9 The Advisory Committee on Education, Report oj the Committee, p. 139. Wash- 
ington; Government Printing Office, 1938; Educational Policies Commission, Social 
Services and the Schools, pp. 30 ff. Washington: Educational Policies Commission of 
the National Education Association and the American Association of School Admin- 
istrators, 1939. 

10 Educational Policies Commission, op. cit. } pp. 33-34. 


senting a clear-cut division of service between the schools and the li- 
brary. 11 

On the basis of theory, it looks as if the schools should administer their 
own libraries. On the basis of experience, it must be admitted that the 
public library which understands and endorses the best objectives of 
school-library service can build up an effective school-library system. 
Comparable financial statistics from different types of school-library sys- 
tems are almost nonexistent. The best guess seems to be that the most 
economical system is the one in the hands of the best administrators, and 
that, given equally good administrators, the same quality of service is 
likely to cost as much under one system of control as under another. 12 

Finally, it should be pointed out that control as here discussed is dis- 
tinct from service. The public library may offer much service to school 
libraries while the acknowledged and working control of the school li- 
braries may still reside in the schools. The trend seems to be for control, 
even in our larger cities, to be exercised immediately by the schools. This 
does not mean that the trend is for public libraries to cease giving service 
to the public schools. 




Assistant Director of Research 

National Education Association 

Washingon, D.C. 

Whatever the legal and formal arrangements may be for the provision 
and control of school libraries, the need and the opportunity exist for the 
schools and the public library to co-operate in improving school-library 

11 Nell linger, "Shall We Surrender?" Proceedings of the Institute on Library Work 
with Children, pp. 132-39. Berkeley, California: School of Librarianship, University 
of California, 1939. See also C. B. Roden, "Standards for the Public Library Book 
Collection," The Library of Tomorrow: A Symposium (E. M. Danton, ed.)> p. 93. 
Chicago: American Library Association, 1939. Cf. M. L. Batchelder, "School Li- 
brary Service: 1970," ibid., p. 139. 

12 See Cecil and Heaps, op. dt., pp. 197-202. 

DAVIS 227 

service. The word "co-operation" as used by writers In this field often 
has been restricted to contractual or at least official arrangements where- 
by the public library has accepted a definite delegation of responsibility 
by the board of education for providing all or part of the school-library 
service, including sometimes the handling of school funds for library pur- 
poses. Less formal working relationships, however, called "voluntary co- 
operation" by Fargo, 13 are practiced more widely and are likewise impor- 
tant. The relationships discussed in this section include both the official 
and the voluntary forms of co-operation, with rather more emphasis on 
the second type. 

Four topics are included: (1) why schools and public libraries should 
work together, (2) operational areas of co-operation, (3) functional areas 
of co-operation, and (4) improvement of working relationships. Since the 
third section of this chapter deals with the organization of school-library 
service in rural areas, the present section emphasizes co-operation In 
towns and cities. 


Libraries and schools are both educational institutions and they both 
emphasize the use of books as a means to education. There was little 
overlapping of function in these institutions, however, so long as schools 
used only a few books, and those chiefly textbooks to be memorized or 
mastered in detail. During the past half-century, however, the old clear- 
cut lines of demarcation have blurred. The public library is serving chil- 
dren all the way down to the toddlers who can enjoy only picture books, 
and the schools are recognizing the need for all kinds of books and re- 
lated materials as an integral part of children's learning experiences. The 
library and the schools are not doing the same things, but they are serv- 
ing the same public In ways that are similar. For that reason each agency 
has an obligation to be aware of the program of the other. 

Unless the school library and the public library work together enough 
to know what each is doing, two unfortunate results may be expected. 
One is that the two agencies will be duplicating service, each trying to do 
the same thing. The other danger, which is more serious, is that some im- 
portant service that should be rendered will be overlooked. A more posi- 

l *Lucile F. Fargo, The Library in the Schoolj pp. 503-5. Chicago: American Li- 
brary Association, 1939. 


tive reason for co-operation is the Invaluable aid that each agency can 
give to the other, enabling each to do a better job than if the services of 

the other were disregarded. 


Attention is given here to the kinds of administrative relationships 
that usually are considered when contractual plans of joint school and 
library management of school libraries are adopted. These areas also 
provide opportunity for informal co-operation as well. 

1. Finance 

If the principle is accepted that the board of education should pay for 
school-library service, whatever the plan of administration through 
which this service is provided, then it would follow that the board of edu- 
cation should transfer funds to the public library whenever the latter 
carries a definite part of the school-library program. In some cities the 
school board makes an annual appropriation to the public library to pay 
in whole or in part for school-library service. What more often happens, 
however, is that all the assistance given by the public library is paid for 
from public library funds. In some communities the service in the schools 
represents as much as half of the public library budget. 

One plan is for the board of education to finance the high-school li- 
braries and for the public library to pay for elementary-school service. 
The familiar practice of providing classroom loans from the public li- 
brary is usually provided for in the public library budget with no reim- 
bursement from the board of education, although the cost of maintaining 
this service may be considerable. 

2. Personnel 

Where the public library takes an active part in operating the school 
libraries, the librarians in the schools may be selected, appointed, and 
supervised by the public library. There is more likelihood, however, of 
some joint responsibility in the selection of librarians. Again, the board 
of education may select and appoint the personnel and the public library 
may supervise the service. The tie-up of the school librarian with the 
public library has a value in integrating the services of the two agencies 
but it may have the disadvantage of making the school librarian an out- 
sider rather than a part of the regular school faculty. Differences in work- 
ing hours and in salaries are likely to emphasize this separateness. 

DAVIS 229 

It Is important to note, however, that the real basis of school and li- 
brary co-operation lies in the area of personnel relationships rather than 
the area of personnel administration. The Joint Committee of the Na- 
tional Education Association and the American Library Association, re- 
porting on selected examples of good school and library co-operation, 
noted that in communities where such co-operation prevails the school 
staff and the public library staff were better acquainted with each other 
than in other communities. 14 It was found that the public librarians 
made frequent visits to schools; that frequent notices of library resources 
were sent to teachers; that teachers were invited to hold committee 
meetings at the library building; that public librarians were invited to at- 
tend staff meetings of board-of-education librarians, and vice versa; and 
that in general there were many friendly contacts among public librari- 
ans, school librarians, and teachers. 

3. Quarters and Equipment 

In rare cases, made possible by neighboring buildings, a public library 
is used during school hours as the school library, even to the extent of ex- 
cluding the adult public at certain hours. With few exceptions, however, 
boards of education provide the library quarters in school buildings, as 
well as the furniture and equipment. When the public library is helping 
to administer school libraries, it often furnishes the technical supplies and 
sometimes the equipment for cataloging, display, and charging. 

Where the library maintains a branch in a school building that serves 
both students and the adult public, the effort usually is made to have the 
school board pay for the maintenance of the library quarters only to the 
extent that they are used by pupils. 

4. Books and Other Library Material 

Schools and public libraries may be mutually helpful in many ways in 
the selection, purchase, preparation for use, and actual handing of books 
and other materials. Public librarians have responded willingly to re- 
quests for help in the selection of books for new school libraries as well as 
in current book-purchasing. Although some duplication of titles is de- 
sirable, consultation while orders are being prepared should prevent un- 
wise duplication. In some places the two agencies agree on a division of 

14 Joint Committee of the National Education Association and the American Li- 
brary Association, Schools and Public Libraries Working Together in School Library 
Service, pp. 46-47. Washington: National Education Association, 1941. 


responsibility, one buying certain types of books, the other covering dif- 
ferent fields. 

One of the advantages claimed for the public library's operation of 
school libraries is that the ordering and cataloging of the school book- 
stock can be handled more economically and skilfully by the public li- 
brary staff. When the library buys books with funds provided by the 
board of education, the frequent practice is to mark the books in such a 
way that the school-owned books can be separated and returned if neces- 
sary. When school-library books are handled by the public library they 
may be left in the schools in the summer; but more often they are brought 
back to the public library and are on hand for community use during va- 
cation. An interesting variation of this idea is found in places where the 
board of education administers the libraries and loans a substantial stock 
of school-library books to the public library for circulation during the 


School-library funds, personnel, quarters, and materials are justified 
only as they result in educational service to youth. To describe some of 
the ways that public libraries help school libraries in their direct services 
to children and young people, three functional areas will be mentioned: 
teaching the use of libraries, developing reading interests and skills, and 
stimulating the use of enrichment materials. 

1. Teaching the Use of Libraries 

Both the schools and the public library are responsible for teaching li- 
brary habits and skills, and it is in this area that schools and libraries are 
doing some of their most effective work together. The public library 
often has led the way by asking the privilege of sending children's li- 
brarians to the schools to talk to them about books and the use of the li- 
brary, Another familiar device for introducing children to the public li- 
brary is the plan of taking class groups to the library during school hours. 
In a number of cities a regular schedule of visitation has been worked out 
whereby the classes go to the library or its branches every week to receive 
instruction in library use and to select books for home reading. In other 
places a yearly visit is planned at some special period, such as "Book 
Week," when the pupils are welcomed in groups at the library. 

When the school provides its own well-organized library, pupils learn 

DAVIS 231 

the basic skills at school but they still profit by the opportunity to learn 
to feel at home in the public library itself. In the communities where co- 
operation is most effective, both teachers and school librarians help the 
pupils to see the value of the public library as a social institution. They 
encourage pupils to hold public library cards and commend them in their 
use of public facilities. They give publcity to Saturday-morning story 
hours, book clubs, and other activities of the library that are of special 
value to pupils. 

2. Developing Reading Interests and Skills 

Mention has been made earlier of visits to schools by children's li- 
brarians. Often such visits make a feature of story-telling and book-re- 
views that help guide pupils toward books of high literary quality. Read- 
ing lists for distribution to students or for the guidance of teachers are 
sometimes prepared by public libraries. The schools may help the public 
library's own program in this area; for example, by rendering volunteer 
service at the library on Saturdays during the story hour. The vacation 
reading clubs and awards sponsored jointly by the schools and the library 
have been useful in improving both the quantity and the quality of read- 
ing done by school pupils during the summer. In one city the library and 
the schools sponsor a yearly institute and courses on young people's 
reading which are attended by social workers, parents, and other workers 
with youth. 

3. Stimulating the Use of Enrichment Materials 

In some schools the opening wedge of library service that led to the 
later establishment of school libraries was the plan of classroom loans 
from public libraries. These classroom deposits have been of many dif- 
ferent kinds books mainly for the teachers' own use; factual books re- 
lated to topics bang studied by the class; classics to supplement the 
study of literature; miscellaneous fiction for the children to take home 
for leisure-time reading. The organization of school libraries has led to a 
reduced use of public library loans in some communities but in others it 
has merely extended the practice. It is not unusual for a public library to 
deposit several hundred books with a school library for an entire school 
term, the books to be used by the school library in whatever way is most 


Beyond the limits of the school day, the reference resources of the pub- 
lic library are available. In some cities pupils find a special school refer- 
ence room in the public library, with reserve shelves ready, containing 
the books most in demand. In one city a reference librarian visits the 
high school each afternoon to get information on assignments and cur- 
rent projects likely to result in special demands on the reference collec- 
tion. Public libraries often are handicapped in the reference service they 
give to pupils by the failure of teachers to notify them of the subjects on 
which calls may be expected. On the other hand, a great deal is done in 
many places in providing class reading lists and in keeping the public 
library informed about current school projects. 


The responsibility for improvement of working relationships between 
the schools and the public library is a widely divided responsibility. It 
might be suggested that the persons who really ought to study the possi- 
bilities are the superintendent of schools and the public librarian. Cer- 
tainly there is every reason for these two officials to confer frequently 
about methods of mutual assistance. Any city-wide plan of action would 
require their attention. Other persons, however, can also show leadership 
in this area. Every teacher should be thoroughly familiar with the re- 
sources of the public library and should be prepared to help her pupils 
use these resources to the limit. Librarians should not wait for invita- 
tions to visit schools but should make their own welcomes, if necessary, 
in order to learn what the school program is and to find ways in which the 
public library can help. School principals and supervisors are in position 
to try out experimental programs in co-operation with the public library. 
Such an experiment in one school or district might serve as a demonstra- 
tion for the entire school system. 

Whatever the plan, the key to its success will be the personal enthusi- 
asm, intelligence, and good will of the teachers and librarians both 
school librarians and public librarians who work together in rendering 
service to the children and young people of the community. 






Supervisor, School Libraries 

Library Division, State Department of Education 

St. Paid, Minnesota 

The value of the library to the modern teaching program is today un- 
questioned in theory. Well-planned library programs have been accepted 
in varying degrees by the urban schools, improvements have been made 
in state certification standards, state aids, and the employment of school- 
library supervisors, but the great majority of our rural schools are still 
without library facilities to meet the educational challenge of our time. 

There have been periods in many states when intensive campaigns 
were conducted for the establishment of libraries in all rural schools, but 
the results were usually temporary because the units of organization 
were too small. It is interesting to note that as far back as 1870 one state 
provided for the employment of a school librarian by the board of a com- 
mon school, though there is no evidence that any rural school was fortu- 
nate enough to take advantage of this ruling. 

According to recent figures from the United States Office of Education, 
one-half of our school population lives in rural areas, i.e., in towns with a 
population of less than twenty-five hundred. Approximately fifty thou- 
sand schools have less than seven teachers, 65 per cent of these having 
one teacher and 82 per cent having one or two teachers. Surveys have 
shown that these schools do not have adequate library facilities. The 
book collections are small and the titles unsuited to the needs of boys and 
girls. Book funds are limited. Some materials may be borrowed from the 
state library agency, though few agencies have the means to supply all 
requests received. About one-tenth of the counties in the United States 
have county-wide service, but this does not mean that the schools in all 
of those areas are being adequately served. It is obvious that a desire for 
books and libraries is not enough; there must also be a workable plan 
based on service to larger areas, financed in part by state or federal 
funds. The lack of greater progress in this direction is no less, perhaps, 
than in other fields, but in any case an understanding of the deterring 
factors is imperative before they can be eliminated. 



It is questionable whether any rural school, unless it is a consolidated 
unit, is able to afford an adequate library. The books needed by a single 
grade for one unit of study would exhaust the library budget of most rural 
schools, and could these books be purchased it would be poor economy to 
have so many titles remaining idle several months of the year. To supply 
the recreational needs of the pupils would also tax the budget, though the 
need for ample material of this kind is recognized by progressive teachers, 
reading experts, and adult-education groups. 

The importance of sufficient funds cannot be overestimated, though 
several other factors have also contributed to the slow development of 
rural school libraries. The inadequacy of library standards in some state 
education programs, the insufficiency of state-aid funds, and the lack of 
state library leadership might well be contributing factors. Many state 
laws do provide encouragement aids, but these have been largely ineffec- 
tive when the aids have gone only to small unrelated units. 

A review of the legal provisions for the establishment and maintenance 
of school libraries reveals four states without such laws. Twenty-one 
states provide expressly for the establishment of school libraries, and 
thirty-three make definite provisions for their financial support. In 
thirty-seven states there is specific legislation regarding the relationships 
between schools and public libraries. 15 

The extent to which legal provisions have influenced the growth of 
school libraries cannot be determined without an examination of the state 
school and library standards for the administration of4he laws. Although 
relevant figures are not available, it is known that the practice of provid- 
ing for fixed budgets for school-library purposes is not as common as the 
practice of allowing for school libraries only those balances left over from 
various school funds. A study of state standards also shows that many 
states having mandatory provision for the financial support of school li- 
braries require expenditures so meager that the maintenance of library 
service in the real meaning of the term is impossible. 

The average rural teacher has not been given a sufficient amount of 
training in the use of libraries or books. In studying the relationship of 
the teacher-training institutions to the development of libraries, there is 
some evidence to indicate that more stress has been placed on semipro- 

15 Edith A. Lathi-op and Ward W. Keeseeker, Laws Affecting School Libraries. 
United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 7, 1940. Washington: Government 
Printing Office, 1940. 


f esslonal Ebrary training than on instruction designed to help the teacher 
utilize the resources of a library in carrying out a teaching program. In 
this connection the editorial committee of the Twelfth Yearbook of the 
Department of Elementary School Principals has raised three important 
questions: "Is it because many teachers were trained in older technics 
which have no place for library books? Does our traditional school or- 
ganization discourage the use of supplementary materials? Are principals 
or, for that matter, teachers and superintendents opposed to or unin- 
formed about the use of books and reference materials?" 16 

The lack of pubic library facilities is another factor not to be over- 
looked. Today there are adequate public libraries for only one-third of 
our population, while another third has some books but inadequate serv- 
ice, and the last third has neither books nor public libraries within reach. 
The desirabiEty of schools co-operating with the public libraries is un- 
questioned. However, in many of our rural communities where it is most 
needed, the public library is either nonexistent or incapable of meeting 
the demands made upon it. The co-ordination of the school-library pro- 
gram with that of the county library is difficult when fewer than three 
hundred out of 3,072 counties have county libraries and when some of 
these are without adequate funds or trained personnel. 

The most obvious difficulty in giving good school-library service to all 
rural children may be said to be centered in the unit of service. If the 
attendance and administrative unit is too small, then the finances are in- 
adequate; if state standards and laws are concerned only with small units, 
and teacher-training agencies are unaware of the need for training stu- 
dents who will demand good library facilities obtainable only through 
larger units, then all our efforts will produce nothing more than static col- 
lections of inappropriate books. 


Educators and librarians have generally agreed that if we are to extend 
equal library opportunities to all school children^ a well-supported and 
administered county or regional library system 17 is the best method for 
bringing good library service to the rural schools in most sections of the 

16 Etemmtary School Libraries, p. 150. Twelfth Yearbook of the Department of 
Elementary School Principals of the National Education Association. Washington: 
National Education Association, 1933. 

17 The terms regional, county, and public library are used interchangeably in this 
discussion of the large unit of service, since it is difficult to use any one term to de- 
scribe the type of organization, best suited to all states. 


United States. Indeed, the years of futile effort already spent by the in- 
dividual small school in trying to build its own library collection should 
be sufficient proof that some other approach must be tried. The county 
library system has given evidence of its ability to serve the small school, 
though many counties are too small, too poor, or in other ways inade- 
quate to serve as co-operative library units. This is one of the reasons 
why the idea of a regional library, disregarding existing poltical units, 
has come into favor. 

Though the present and possible types of organization of county and 
regional libraries vary greatly, a study of the relative merits of the vari- 
ous forms is not necessary here, since our concern is primarily with the 
possibilities offered by these organizations for service to rural schools. 
What are some of these services and how can they be given to the small 
school by a large library unit? 

The greatest advantage which the rural school receives through co- 
operation with a large library unit is an increased number of books. The 
books of all the co-operating schools attain their maximum usefulness 
through circulation to every school in the system instead of remaining on 
the shelves of each school after a brief period of service. In California, 
the State Department of Education has stated that the county library 
system enables each school to enjoy the use of at least five times as many 
books in one year as the school would be able to purchase with its in- 
dividual library fund. 

It is also probable that not only the quantity but the quality of the 
books will be improved. Today, few one- and two-room schools have 
many appropriate titles even when state-approved library lists are avail- 
able to choose from. A trained librarian with a wide knowledge of books, 
an understanding of the reading interests and habits of boys and girls, 
and the co-operation of the teacher can build a collection that is both 
useful and attractive. Co-operation provides not only a larger, more suit- 
able book collection but also a greater variety of miscellaneous mate- 
rials pamphlets, pictures, magazines, and clippings. 

Any well-chosen library collection is useful in proportion to its organi- 
zation and administration, and few teachers have either the training or 
the time necessary to classify and catalog books. No school can expect 
to have good library service unless someone trained to perform the tech- 
nical and mechanical processes is employed for this purpose. 

The other services which a professional librarian is prepared to offer 
occupy a prominent place among the advantages accruing to the small 


school which joins forces with a large library system. If the library serv- 
ice available to rural children is to approximate that given to children in 
urban areas, it must encourage and assist young people in using books 
not only as tools of work but as means of recreation; it must furnish read- 
ing guidance; and it must provide children with a knowledge of how to use 
libraries. The librarian is prepared to offer reading guidance and to assist 
in teaching the use of books and libraries. In some localities it may be 
possible for her to visit the school and participate in the instruction. A 
number of counties now make it possible for the librarian to call at the 
school at regular intervals, to bring books to the school, to talk to the 
teacher about her needs for the next teaching unit, to tell stories to the 
children, or to assist in one of the many ways of providing children with 
library experience. 

In any co-operative undertaking the obligations of the parties con- 
cerned need to be clearly defined. Under most conditions it is desirable to 
have a contract which explains the services to be given and the conditions 
to be met by the school and the library. The amount to be contributed 
by the school will vary for different localities, but many states and ac- 
crediting associations recommend an expenditure for books of one dollar 
per pupil. 

The school also has the responsibility for providing appropriate library 
quarters. The desirability of a central library within a school is not ques- 
tioned, yet recognizing the difficulty of this for one- and two-room units, 
no school need be without one section of shelving, reserved for library 
books only. In many schools it will be possible to arrange a cheerful, 
inviting library corner, including a bulletin board, a low table, and a few 
chairs; this combination can be made into a satisfactory substitute for a 
school library. 

The kinds of book material to be furnished by the library will depend 
in part on the school's objectives, but an agreement on this point should 
be reached when the contract is made. Encyclopedias and unabridged 
dictionaries are permanent equipment needed constantly by all schools 
and should be bought by the schools. Texts and supplementary readers 
are not library materials and, except under special circumstances, should 
not be purchased by the library. Conversely, the kinds of books to be 
provided by the public library should consist of general reference mate- 
rials, recreational books, and some professional titles. 

The role which the teacher is to pky should also be indicated in the 
contract, since, without her co-operation and understanding, the plan 


cannot achieve success. The arrangement and housing of the books, the 
organization of student groups to take over simple charging processes and 
records, the care of the bulletin board, and the stimulation of reading 
habits are among the obligations of the teacher. She must also endeavor 
to keep the library informed of the units of work to be studied, of the 
presence of handicapped or brilliant pupils in need of special materials, 
and of the books desired to demonstrate the value of reading for pleasure. 


Under ideal conditions no library should serve as a central agency un- 
less it has an adequate income, although how much is adequate is still a 
debatable question. It has been estimated that adequate service for a 
regional unit requires a yearly budget of not less than $25,000. There is 
a large discrepancy, at the present time, between the amount suggested 
and the amount available to many public and county libraries, but one 
of the most promising possibilities for reducing the gap lies in regional 
planning. The schools that are interested in obtaining co-operative serv- 
ice will do well to study the proposal, since efficient school service is de- 
pendent to a large extent on co-operation with an agency large enough to 
employ a librarian trained for work with the schools. 

The careful selection of books and their mechanical and technical 
preparation are among the important functions of the public library. 
Reference service, the loan of books and supplemental materials from the 
general collection, and the repair of books in the circulating collection 
should also be provided for by the public library. 

The transportation of books to and from the school library is frequent- 
ly left to the school, which usually means that the teacher must be re- 
sponsible for securing them. A combination of book truck-service and 
mail-service is a more satisfactory answer to this problem and one which 
the public library is better equipped to provide than the school. 

The regional library organizing co-operative school-library service 
should offer expert leadership, trained personnel, service and materials 
planned to meet specific needs, and distribution services. 


A survey of the co-operative plans in operation today reveals a variety, 
some achieving admirable results, others offering service too inadequate 
in quantity and quality to be of much value. 

One plan of voluntary co-operation is known as the county circulating- 


library. Each cooperating school contributes a stated sum, the books are 
bought by the county superintendent, and a central collection is set up 
in his office. A co-operative book-buying plan is one step ahead of the 
procedure whereby each school attempts to buy all of its own materials, 
and it may in time lead to the establishment of an adequate service unit; 
but, as the plan is usually operated, it results in a circulating book collec- 
tion and not a library. Available information about these collections is 
scarce, but the few known facts indicate the absence of trained librarians 
and the lack of adequate funds. One notable exception is found in Vir- 
ginia, where fourteen counties have established county school circulating- 
libraries controlled and financed by the county boards of education and 
operated by trained librarians. 

Many existing county libraries contract to give book service to rural 
schools. When the library is in charge of a professional person and the 
schools pay an adequate fee, this plan frequently results in highly satis- 
factory service to schools. 

California is one of the few states that can provide a description of a 
firmly established, well-administered county library system. In 1911 the 
legislature enacted a law permitting the rural schools to contract with the 
county library for service: under this plan each school district contrib- 
utes its library fund of not less than $25 per teacher. Since its be- 
ginning the service has grown steadily until today 83 per cent of the 
elementary-school districts are enrolled. In 1934 a survey was made to 
determine the extent to which the demands of the schools were being 
met. It was found that the service provided texts and reference books as 
well as books for general reading, periodicals, phonograph records, stereo- 
graphs, pictures, globes, maps, charts, films, and a variety of miscellane- 
ous materials, such as sheet music, moving-picture machines, films, and 
exhibits. The number of books loaned averaged twelve per pupil, in 
addition to the books placed in the schools as permanent collections and 
the use of the other materials listed above. 

An earlier survey made in 1928 compared the rural school library serv- 
ice in two adjacent counties, one of which was affiliated with the county 
library while the other maintained an independent library. Both school 
systems spent approximately the same amount of money, but the results 
were quite different. In the county with the independent library the 
available books were soon read by the pupils and then left on the shelves. 
In the second county, where the schools were affiliated with a county li- 
brary and the funds from many schools had been pooled, the county li- 


brary served as a medium of exchange. A trained librarian supervised the 
purchase and circulation of various kinds of materials, with the result 
that a maximum amount of service was received for the money spent. 

Regional library development began around 1930 and has spread to 
about a dozen states. The multi-county service initiated by the Tennes- 
see Valley Authority in Tennessee well illustrates the possibilities when 
national, state, and local groups combine to establish a "unified program 
of library service adequate to both community and school needs. " 

In 1939 the first of four contracts was executed by the T.V.A., the 
Tennessee Department of Education, and the Board of Library Trustees 
of the City of KnoxviUe. The Watts Bar Region, as it is known, is made 
up of four counties; the regional library for this area serves the employees 
of the T.V.A. and the adults and children in the rural sections of these 
counties. At the end of 1941 there were four county library boards, fif- 
teen community libraries, 32,000 books in the circulating collections, and 
10,000 borrowers. 

According to the state school library supervisor, Miss Martha Parks, 
there are three central circulating county-collections of books for the ele- 
mentary schools and five high-school libraries included in the program. 
In every case the high schools maintain their library independence, being 
serviced by book loans and by occasional supervisory visits of the regional 
or county librarian. The elementary schools follow two plans: one in 
which they depend on the county or regional system for the required 
number of books to maintain their library standards, and the other in 
which they borrow only occasionally from the county library to supple- 
ment their permanent collections. This plan, together with the state-aid 
library program which controls the selection of books bought with state 
funds, has done much to improve the quality of reading material in the 
schools, as well as to increase its quantity. 18 

These are but a few of the encouraging developments for co-operative 
service between rural schools and public libraries. Recent legislation for 
regional libraries has been passed in many states. Tennessee has three 
regional libraries, in addition to the one above described, serving fourteen 
counties and offering service which supplements and co-ordinates that 
being given by existing libraries. According to the secretary of the Ver- 
mont Free Public Library Commission, the rural schools of that state are 
given regular book-wagon service throughout the school year. Each 

18 This statement was furnished by Miss Parks in response to a questionnaire. 


school is visited every two months, so that at least four visits a year are 
possible. The aim is to lend at least one book per pupil and a minimum 
of three for each teacher. Teachers may exchange their books between 
book-wagon visits, either by calling at the regional office or by mail. 
Alabama has one regional library which serves three counties. With 
W.P.A. help, Georgia began a demonstration in the fall of 1940 which 
now serves three counties through appropriations made by counties, 
cities, and school boards. There are three regional bookmobiles in the 
county library system. North Carolina has two regional libraries and 
many county systems. 

Throughout the United States, according to the American Library As- 
sociation statistics for February, 1942, there are 556 counties being served 
by county or regional library systems; not all of these organizations are 
equipped to provide the rural schools with library service, but the num- 
ber is growing. The goal of equal library opportunities for all school chil- 
dren is obviously not to be reached in the near future, but the leaders 
agree that it will come if all join forces in the estabEshment of library 
service through intelligent co-operation. 



Chief, Division of Library Service 

United States Office of Education 

Washington, D.C. 


Associate Specialist in School Libraries 

United States Office of Education 

Washington, D.C. 

Since adequate school-library service is essential to the educational 
program, it should be state-wide. It should exist not only in the progres- 
sive and wealthy sections bi^t also in the less favored parts of a state. 
Among the means employed to achieve this end are state supervision, 
state aid, and certification. In the following pages it is proposed to dis- 
cuss these forms of control, which are exercised by the state with the ob- 
ject of assisting schools to provide adequate library service. 



a. Development. Supervision of school libraries has been a matter of 
gradual growth. From the very beginnings of school libraries, some at- 
tention has been given by state education and library officials to the col- 
lection of statistics regarding library service, to the formulation of regula- 
tions on the care and use of school libraries, and to the administration of 
grants to promote the development of these libraries. 

The increasing realization of the importance of school libraries has led 
a number of states to place the responsibility for the supervision of school 
libraries in the hands of a specially trained person or group of persons. The 
New York State Education Department did so in 1906, Minnesota took 
similar steps in 1911, and other states followed. A few examples may 
serve to show the variety of ways in which this specialized service has de- 

In 1891, the Wisconsin State Legislature carried out the constitutional 
provisions regarding the permanent school-library fund by creating the 
position of a clerk, "who shall under the direction of the state superin- 
tendent, aid in promoting the establishment, maintenance and control of 
school libraries as provided by law. 77 Out of this position grew that of 
the "supervisor of school libraries," established in 1921; and with the in- 
crease in work, the creation of an additional position, "assistant super- 

In five southern states, Alabama, Kentucky, Louisiana, North Caro- 
lina, and Tennessee, a series of demonstrations financed by the General 
Education Board has stimulated state supervision of school libraries 
through the state departments of education. In Virginia the Board fi- 
nanced the work of an assistant supervisor in the division of school li- 
braries and textbooks, established in 1923 as a unit in the state depart- 
ment of education. Having seen the benefits obtained from this super- 
vision, all states except one assumed responsibility for the activity at the 
conclusion of the demonstration. For example, Louisiana accepted aid 
for a demonstration in 1929 and took over the work officially in 1934; 
North Carolina utilized the grant for the first time in 1930 and made a 
state appropriation for the supervision of libraries in 1935; Alabama had 
the demonstration start in 1931 and assumed official responsibility in 
1937 ; Tennessee had the benefit of the grant from 1932 to 1937, after which 
time the work became an official state activity; in Virginia a state appro- 
priation was made for the assistant supervisor after a two-year demon- 
stration, which began July 1, 1932. 


State supervision of school libraries in Georgia came about in a some- 
what different manner. According to the report of the state department 
of education for 1936-38, the library division was established in response 
to the request of teachers and school officials for adequate library facil- 
ities and central direction of library activities. In the summer of 1937, 
the state board of education authorized the state superintendent of edu- 
cation to appoint a supervisor of school libraries, and in the spring of 1938 
it set aside funds from balances in the textbook fund for the purchase of 
school-library books. 

Illinois has placed the function of school-library supervision in the 
state library. Legislation in 1939 authorized that agency to be the clear- 
inghouse for problems relating to the administration and functioning of 
school libraries. In 1940, a state appropriation made it possible for the 
state library to add to its staff a field library visitor whose duties are to 
aid school libraries and to work in co-operation with the state education 

6. Present Status. At present, the position of state school library super- 
visor exists in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Minne- 
sota, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, and 
Wisconsin. Of these thirteen states, New York, Virginia, and Wisconsin 
have assistant supervisors in addition to the supervisors, while Missouri 
and Utah have supervisors who give only part time to school-library 
problems. In all cases except Illinois, the school-library supervisory unit 
is in the state department of education. 

The place of the unit in the administrative organization of the twelve 
state departments of education varies considerably. In two instances, 
Virginia and Utah, the supervisor responsible for school libraries has the 
chief state school officer as his immediate superior; in Tennessee the direc- 
tor of the school-libraries division reports directly to the assistant com- 
missioner of education and is co-ordinate with the heads of other major 
divisions. In six cases, Alabama, Louisiana, Missouri, New York, North 
Carolina, and Wisconsin, the supervisor is immediately responsible to the 
official in charge of the instructional or supervisory program. With re- 
gard to New York, it should be noted that, although the two supervisors 
in the new scheme of organization report to the associate commissioner of 
education in the field of instructional supervision, they are under the con- 
tinued supervision of the director of the division of adult education and 
library service. The Georgia supervisor has the director of textbooks and 
library service as her immediate superior officer; and the Minnesota 


supervisor is responsible to the head of the division of public libraries, 
a unit in the state department of education. In Indiana, the school-li- 
brary supervisor reports to the head of the extension division of the state 
library, a unit of the state department of education. Illinois, which has 
placed the responsibility for aiding school libraries in the state library 
and not in the state department of education, has the supervisor under 
the administrative direction of the head of the library extension division, 
In general, it may be said that, with only a few exceptions, the school-li- 
brary supervisory function is located in a subordinate unit of one of the 
major divisions of the departmental organization. 

It may be of interest to note the terms used in the official title of the 
position. In five states, the word "supervisor" appears as a part of the 
title; in four instances, the title is "director"; in two states the term is 
"adviser"; in one, "consultant"; and in one (Illinois), "field visitor." In 
other words, about three-fourths of the states have indicated in the title 
a supervisory and directing characteristic; the others have stressed the 
advisory aspect. 

In addition to the states just mentioned, something should be said 
about others which have had school-library supervisory programs at one 
time. Two states, Florida and Oregon, for example, have recently sus- 
pended the activity, not because it had proved unsatisfactory but be- 
cause funds were lacking. The work in Florida was financed jointly on a 
part-time basis during 1937 to 1939 by the state department of education 
and the state university, the service being operated from Gainesville, the 
seat of the university. In Oregon, a school-library adviser was employed 
by the state library during the school year 1939-40 to undertake an ex- 
tensive program of supervisory work. The Oregon State Library has been 
required by legislation enacted in 1901 to perform certain administrative 
duties in connection with the selection and care of books purchased with 
county school library funds. Three other states formerly had state super- 
visors of school libraries: Kentucky, 1933-37; Michigan, 1926-33; and 
Pennsylvania, 1921-27. 

c. Supervisory Activities. Supervisory activities are directed toward 
the improvement and extension of adequate school-library service 
throughout the state. Some of them are mainly administrative in char- 
acter, such as carrying out prescribed procedures in connection with the 
allocation of state aid to school libraries, or in preparing lists of books 
suitable for purchase by school libraries. The collection of library sta- 


tlstics is another administrative duty that comes within the supervisory 

At times, supervisory activities assume a very direct form, as is the 
case when supervisors visit libraries in order to evaluate them for grants, 
accreditation, or classification, or to enforce standards set up as necessary 
for adequate library service. Other service rendered includes advice to 
the local school librarian and school officials regarding the book collec- 
tion, arrangement of library quarters, and improvement of equipment. 
In some cases, the supervisory officials organize school libraries. 

Some details about several of these duties may bring out their signifi- 
cance in the supervisory program. In the ease of the much-stressed ap- 
proval and recommendation of books for school libraries, these accounts 
from a few states may indicate what is involved. The Alabama State 
Department of Education, for instance, reports that its school-library 
consultant prepares book lists for both elementary and secondary 
schools, but the local officials are not legally required to use them in mak- 
ing their purchases. In the New York State Education Department, the 
supervisors of school libraries recommend purchase lists for high schools, 
which under a department regulation must have approved library collec- 
tions, and they prepare and publish short lists on special subjects. During 
1938 in Louisiana, the school-library supervisor approved a total of 204,- 
000 books which were purchased with state funds and distributed free to 
school libraries. The Minnesota state library supervisor is responsible 
for the preparation of lists from which books purchased with state funds 
must be selected. This supervisory activity in connection with books 
going into school libraries affords not only an effective means of control 
over the book-selection policies of local schools but also a positive way to 
improve the quality of book selection throughout the state. 

The significance which the collection of statistics has for the super- 
visory program might also be mentioned. This duty is more than a mere 
gathering of figures on various phases of school-library routines and proc- 
esses. When properly interpreted and used, the data yield a basis for cor- 
recting deficiencies in service, measuring development, and planning for 
improvement. In addition, the actual keeping of these statistics by the 
local library brings about certain adjustments in library practices. 

Among the methods used to accomplish their objectives, state library 
supervisors use visits to schools, in-service institutes, and publications. 
The nature and purpose of these visits may be explained best by a few 
descriptions. For example, the Indiana school-library supervisor reports 


that her visits to libraries are devoted primarily to analyzing the library 
equipment and books, a report of which is made to the local administra- 
tive and supervisory officials. Attention is also paid to library personnel. 

In 1940 the Louisiana supervisor stated that her purpose in visiting 
school libraries was to observe the work of librarians, to stimulate inter- 
est in library service, to make suggestions for the improvement of the 
book collection, and to evaluate the libraries for accrediting purposes. 
Furthermore, she advised with librarians and school officials regarding 
the wise use of the book collection, improvements in room and equip- 
ment, and mending and binding of books. 

The director of the division of school libraries in Tennessee visits the 
offices of county superintendents of schools and elementary supervisors 
and public libraries in order to assist in the formulation of plans for the 
expenditure of state aid for libraries including the selection, purchase, 
and distribution of books on a county-wide basis and to encourage co- 
operation of schools and existing public library agencies. 

The extent of this aspect of supervision may be indicated by the num- 
ber of visits made: from Georgia, the supervisor reports a total of 125 
visits during the biennium 1938-40; Illinois, a total of 176 visits for the 
sch6ol visitor during 7 months of 1940; Indiana, 90 during the school 
year, 1937-38; Oregon, 146 during 10 months of the 1939-40 school year; 
and New York, with two supervisors, 183 visits in 1938-39. The Ala- 
bama supervisor reported that about one-third of her time has been spent 
in the field during 1938. Nearly all the supervisory officials point out that 
insufficient personnel and lack of funds for travel prevent their visiting all 
school libraries at frequent enough intervals. 

Closely allied to these individual visits are conferences with school li- 
brarians and other school officials. As reported by the supervisors, these 
consist of small group conferences held either in their offices or in connec- 
tion with field visits, as well as larger ones planned for the discussion of 
specific library problems with certain groups. Speaking of the first kind, 
the Minnesota supervisor notes that the subject of conference usually 
was the relationship of the library to the educational program of the 
school and the formulation of procedures designed to further the useful- 
ness of the library. From the Virginia supervisor comes the report of the 
successful use of regional conferences within the state to achieve the ob- 
jectives of the school-library program. Similarly, the New York State 
Education Department report for 1937-38 records eight regional confer- 


ences for school libraries^ with special emphasis being placed on the im- 
provement of relationships between schools and pubic libraries. 

Another method used in the supervisory program is that of issuing 
publications. The effective use of book lists in improving book collections 
has already been discussed. The issuance of printed or mimeographed 
manuals, usually prepared by the supervisor, serves to acquaint the 
school librarians with forward-looking practice and with the standards 
required by the state. The use of monthly newsletters and monthly col- 
umns in official journals furnishes another medium for disseminating in- 
formation in the interest of improved library practices and services. For 
instance, the Minnesota Library Notes and News, published by the Li- 
brary Division of the State Department of Education, is used by the 
school-library supervisor for this purpose. The North Carolina school- 
library adviser issues a mimeographed monthly newsletter for the bene- 
fit of school libraries. The Virginia supervisor makes much use of the 
Virginia Journal of Education in order to further the cause of school li- 
braries in the state. Reports from supervisors appear to place publica- 
tions high among the means of attaining the objectives of the school-li- 
brary supervisory program. 

d. Difficulties in Attainment of Objectives. In a recent survey made by 
the United States Office of Education/ 9 these factors emerged as con- 
stituting the chief hindrances to the attainment of objectives: lack of 
funds; insufficient clerical assistance; and kck of understanding on the 
part of school and library authorities as to what constitutes adequate li- 
brary service. Other difficulties mentioned occaaonally were insufficient 
office space, inadequately trained persons in charge of libraries, and the 
serious lack of elementary-school library facilities. In general, the school- 
library supervisors endeavor to attain their objectives by establishing 
sympathetic relationships with local librarians and school officials rather 
than by acting as inspectors from a central agency. 


Adequate library service cannot be provided below a irrirriTmiTn level 
of support, no matter what the economic wealth of a given community 

i Organization and Functions of State Agencies for Library Service. United States 
Office of Education Bulletin No. 6, 1940. Monograph 16. Washington: Government 
Printing Office (in progress). 


may be. With the different sections of the state varying so greatly in re- 
sources, the provision of essential school-library service on a state-wide 
basis depends in great measure upon the availability of funds for equaliz- 
ing the library facilities and services in all areas. The majority of the 
states have assumed responsibility for aiding local districts in the finan- 
cial support of schools through their permanent common-school funds. 

a. Present Status. At present thirteen states have express legislation 
which provides that state funds may be expended for school libraries. In 
addition, a few (Alabama, Georgia, and Indiana) make such expenditures 
on the basis of administrative or judicial decisions regarding the use of 
state funds appropriated for various school purposes such as equalization, 
textbooks, and school relief. 20 

The various ways by which state aid is made available may be grouped 
into three categories: first, through funds available for general school 
purposes, as in California (state elementary-school fund), Iowa, Mary- 
land, North Carolina, and Wisconsin; second, through state appropria- 
tions expressly for libraries, as in Connecticut, Minnesota, New Jersey, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia; and third, through state appro- 
priations for textbooks, as in Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, and 
South Carolina. 

The formulas specified for calculating the yearly grants show great 
variation. Among the different bases used are: number of pupils, num- 
ber of teachers, a percentage of the unused portion of the textbook fund, 
and a flat rate per school. The amounts vary as much as the bases, as for 
instance, "not less than forty cents nor more than one dollar per pupil in 
average daily attendance in the elementary schools/' and "from state ap- 
portionment, fifteen cents for each person of school age residing in each 
school corporation." Such variations are to be expected because condi- 
tions are different and each state has its own plan for financing its educa- 
tional program. 

Legislation is not the only way by which school libraries have obtained 
state financial support. A few states without such laws have found it 
possible to grant aid as a result of administrative rulings which permit 

20 Edith A. Lathrop and Ward W. Keesecker, Laws Affecting School Libraries. 
United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 7, 1940. Washington: Government 
Printing Office, 1941; Edith A. Lathrop, "State Financial Support for School Li- 
braries/' School Life, XXVII (December, 1941), 89-92. 


portions of certain state funds to be used for school-library purposes. In 
Alabama, for instance, local boards have been authorized by the state 
board of education to use portions of the minimum program fund (an 
equalization fund) for school libraries. Furthermore, an interpretation of 
the Alabama law regarding the free-textbook fund for public elementary 
schools allows any surplus, after the first three grades are supplied with 
textbooks, to be spent for library books. 

Administrative rulings in Georgia permit portions of the free-textbook 
funds to be used for the purchase of school-library books. The Indiana 
law gives the "board of the department of education" (formerly called 
the state board of education) authority to establish regulations, stand- 
ards, and policies controlling the distribution of the school-relief fund. 
Acting on this the board has provided that local school units may receive 
for any one year assistance for building up school libraries at not to ex- 
ceed fifty cents per pupil enrolled. 

b. Amount of State Aid. Tennessee has had state appropriations for 
school libraries since 1923, and has required the amounts to be matched 
by funds raised locally. The annual expenditures have varied from a 
minimum of $2,892 in 1935 to a maximum of $71,947 in 1937. In 1941, 
the amount of state aid available was $45,000. 

During the period from January 1, 1938, to December 31, 1941, the 
Virginia state appropriation has been increased from $33,000 to $100,000 
per year, with the result that the state now matches the local school au- 
thorities dollar for dollar instead of providing only twenty-five cents for 
each local dollar, as formerly. The gross expenditure for books from state 
and local funds, during the four years, has amounted to $912,621 ; and the 
average annual expenditure per school library has increased from $147 
to $235. The Georgia State Board of Education set aside $150,000 from 
the state textbook fund for the purchase of school-library books for ele- 
mentary and secondary schools. 

If the nation is considered as a whole, the state aid available per school 
library has not been great. Furthermore, state aid for school libraries 
exists in comparatively few states, and in some of those the amounts have 
been too small for the effective stimulation of school libraries. In the 
states which have appropriated sizable amounts, such as $50,000 or 
$100,000 a year, the grants have been a decided factor in stimulating 
school-library service. 



Certification of school librarians is an effective means of influencing 
the quality of service rendered. Its purpose is to insure that the manage- 
ment of school libraries is entrusted only to those who are qualified by 
education, training, and experience. 

a. Present Status. At the present time, at least thirty states and the 
District of Columbia have adopted regulations for the issuance of certifi- 
cates specifically for school librarians, 21 Eight states have legislation ex- 
pressly providing for the certification of librarians; in other states regula- 
tions have been established under the general powers of certification 
vested by law in certain state school officials. The states with regulations 
in effect are; 












South Carolina 


New Hampshire 

South Dakota 


New Jersey 



New York 



North Carolina 



North Dakota 

West Virginia 




In sixteen other states the power of detemuning what qualifications the 
school librarian shall possess rests with the local boards of education. 

b. Certification Regulations. As an illustration of what may be included, 
the regulations on certification issued by state certifying authority for 
accredited high schools in North Carolina might be noted. For a full- 
time librarian's certificate, the holder must have a degree from a stand- 
ard four-year college and must possess professional qualifications not less 
than those required for a Class A teacher's certificate. In addition, twen- 
ty-four semester hours of library science in an accredited library school 
are required, this training to include courses in administration, catalog- 
ing and classification, reference, and children's and adolescent literature. 
To obtain a teacher-librarian certificate, which will enable the applicant 

21 Edith A. Lathrop, "Certification of School Librarians," School Life, XXV (May, 
1940), 239, 256. 


to work part time in the school library, the same requirements must be 
met, except that only twelve semester hours in library science are neces- 
sary ? and the course in cataloging and classification is not included. 

Certification regulations will necessarily vary in the different states 
because of special conditions prevailing. It is important, however, that 
all regulations specify the minimum amount of training necessary in the 
academic and professional fields, with sufficient flexibility allowed to cov- 
er broad differences in conditions. The general plan for certificating 
teachers is followed in nearly all states in the certificating of public school 
librarians. It is important that school librarianship be recognized as a 
special field for which special preparation is required. The regulations 
also should contain provisions for the enforcement of the certification re- 
quirements. Behind the certification requirements should be the purpose 
of improving school-library service by having only properly qualified per- 
sonnel in charge. 



Associate Professor of Library Science 

Carnegie Library School 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 


Because she must be capable of initiating plans, directing activities, 
and actually doing all parts of the school-library work as the occasion 
may arise, the school librarian has come to respect good organization. 
She is particularly aware of the relationship between a well-functioning 
library and the quality of the service she contributes to the educational 
enterprise. 1 Only a beginning has been made when the external control 
has been determined. 

The problem then involves a grasp of community conditions in deter- 
mining whether the school library will stand alone in contributing to the 
book needs of the school population or whether it will be subsidiary to 
strong regional or local library resources. If the school library must bear 
the full burden of book distribution, it will need more varied facilities 
than the one able to turn to a larger agency for supplementary materials 
and assistance. This is particularly true where added resources are near 
at hand, as in a local public library or one of its neighborhood branches. 
In this event, any policies to be adopted by the school librarian would 
naturally have been made in consultation and co-operation with the 
neighboring librarians to insure a maximum of service with a minimum 
of duplication. 

Then again, within the walls of the school itself there is another com- 
munity. It is subject to variations created by the local educational phi- 
losophy, by the inclusive grades to receive library service, and by the 
physical facilities with which the library unit will eventually harmonize. 

1 N. E. Beust (comp.), School Library Administration: An Annotated Bibliography , 
pp. 22-25. United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 7, 1941. Washington: 
Government Printing Office, 1941. 



The school philosophy, for instance^ will determine whether the individ- 
ual pupil will prepare his subjects largely outside of the classroom or 
whether most of his study will be some part of a supervised learning ex- 
perience. In either case, the choice will have a direct bearing upon the 
size and type of centralized library facilities to be provided. 

Consideration given to the range of school grades to be served will pre- 
vent any one age-group from monopolizing either space or service. This 
would imply, in a twelve-grade school, attention to furnishings, educa- 
tional materials, and library organization to fit the three or four ge- 
groups included. In the small school having a highly homogenous student 
body, it might rather be a question of the expediency of introducing a 
separate library unit or of using a combined library-study hall pro- 
cedure. All these policies are greatly influenced by the question of fi- 
nances and the establishment of efficient routines making possible the 
maximum library service consistent with available resources. The school 
librarian knows that this is possible only by developing adequate super- 
vision to keep the newly created activity in satisfactory working order. 

Finally, the conditions created by the present war serve to nullify the 
value of any discussion of building construction or of renovation, but 
some basic factors are included to round out the picture of present school- 
library organization. 


1. Location 

The actual location of the school library is determined by local condi- 
tions. The architectural mass of the building itself may influence the 
choice of position. In the older rectangular structures the library usually 
occupies the second floor center front. The newer ones with a wider vari- 
ety in shape and proportion offer greater possibilities of placement. In 
the butterfly-shaped building, the library may still be in the central unit, 
but in a building with a different contour, the library suite may better be 
placed in the wing itself. An examination of plans for school buildings 
shown each month in the American School Board Journal will illustrate 
this point. At the same time it will disclose that the best-planned library- 
units are still centralized in respect to main traffic arteries of the school 
and are usually adjacent to the heart of the area devoted to quiet study 
and traditional classrooms. Where this has been done, it has been found 
to be an aid in administering student control of those passing at irregular 
hours from class to library. 


In large secondary schools the library forms one of several study units, 
but there is a growing tendency to group these rooms in close proximity 
to permit free access to library resources with the minimum administra- 
tive supervision. The senior high school at Appleton, Wisconsin, for ex- 
ample, has its large library flanked on either side by even larger study 
halls. Junior high schools having their own buildings are likely to follow 
the practices of the senior high, unless they are using a supervised-study 
plan. In that case the library functions are modified accordingly. 

In the elementary school the actual location of the room in the build- 
ing is of less importance than the outlook from the windows or the ex- 
posure which will insure an attractive library atmosphere. If it is re- 
moved from the geographical center of the building, however, its position 
should be chosen in relation to activities of the upper classes rather than 
of the lower, as the older children are more likely to use it independently. 
The little children will usually be escorted on their visits by their class 

Another factor influences room location in consolidated rural schools 
or in communities where the public library and the school share library 
quarters. In both cases the adult public is given first consideration. A 
position in the heart of the school is sacrificed for a location near an out- 
side entrance, especially one used for other semipublic areas of the build- 
ing, as the auditorium. This usually simplifies heating and lighting at 
hours when the building is otherwise closed. The library is still centrally 
located, but in this case with respect to the full community program 
rather than the program of the school alone. This problem is fully recog- 
nized by the Engelhardts in their discussion of the well-planned com- 
munity school. 2 

The shape of the library is largely controlled by the fact that it is gen- 
erally a multiple unit of the average classroom dimensions. This implies 
a rectangular room which is rather too narrow for interesting arrange- 
ments of furniture. Any variety gained must come from the grouping of 
equipment rather than from possible deviations in the structure itself. 

2. The Library Suite 

a. Standards. Planning of the actual library unit has developed over 
a series of years, and, with certain exceptions, the original standards are 

2 N. L. Engelhardt and N. L. Engelhardt, Jr., Planning the Community School. 
New York: American Book Co., 1940. 


still In use. This would not have been possible had not the specifications 
first used been flexible. The statements appeared in two committee re- 
ports of which C. C. Certain was the chairman. 3 These standards have 
become even more flexible as they have been incorporated and modified 
in the Co-operative Study of Secondary School Standards. 4 They pro- 
vide for adequate space to house library materials and equipment and to 
seat patrons comfortably, leaving enough space in the library to permit 
free movement. In addition, these specifications provide for a working 
area in which to carry on library routines, with such conveniences as will 
make the work efficient. The earlier codes fall short today mainly in mak- 
ing too little allowance for changes in educational policy, which now 
stresses free-reading programs, audio-visual supplements to the printed 
page, and a greater socialization in class preparation. All these influences 
demand greater space and make questionable the earlier estimate of ca- 
pacity, computed on the figures of at least 5 to 10 per cent of the school's 
enrolment. Experience shows that in schools using the library freely 
even 20 to 25 per cent may be too little. The question of present school 
philosophy is again the determining factor. 

b. Layouts, Some city or state supervisory agencies supply layouts 
which can be adapted to local needs. Los Angeles has such a plan which 
can be superimposed upon the blueprints for its new senior high schools. 5 
Twenty-four states have standards for library rooms and twenty-one 
of these distribute room layouts. 6 As long as these "standards" are used 
as suggestions only and are adapted to local conditions, they will be help- 
ful, but the danger of their becoming static should not be overlooked. 

2 Committee on Library Organization and Equipment of the Department of Sec- 
ondary Education of the National Education Association, Standard Library Organiza- 
tion .... /or Secondary Schools of Different Sizes. Chicago : American Library Associ- 
ation, 1920; Joint Committee on Elementary-School Library Standards, Elementary- 
School Library Standards. Chicago : American Library Association, 1925. (Reprinted 
from the Fourth. Yearbook of the Department of Elementary School Principals of the 
National Education Association.) 

4 Co-operative Study of Secondary-School Standards Committee, Evaluatwe Cri- 
teria, 1940 Edition. Washington: The Committee (744 Jackson Place), 1940. 

5 American School Board Journal, XCVIII (January, 1939), 26-30, 58. 

6 Alice Barrows, Assistance on School Plant Problems as a Function of State Depart- 
ments of Education. United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 6, 1940. Mono- 
graph No- 4, Stitdies in State Departments of Education. Washington: Government 
Printing Office, 1941. 


c. Main Room. Some schools find it advantageous to break the library 
area into a series of rooms which can be used as separate units. In sec- 
ondary schools, these rooms may be devoted to specific subject activities 
with each one containing the main collection devoted to this curriculum. 
In elementary or twelve-year schools, such a division may be used to ac- 
commodate smaller homogenous groups and to improve conditions of 
room control. Many schools still retain one large, main room, feeling 
that in this plan the problem of general supervision is simpler. The pu- 
pils themselves have expressed a preference for a series of rooms because 
these are likely to offer better opportunities for concentrated study. This 
question can best be answered by understanding the implications of the 
local school philosophy, especially in matters of discipline, supervisory- 
personnel, and general class activities. 

d. Conference Rooms. For a number of years school libraries included 
in their plans a series of glass-walled cubicles to be used as conference 
rooms by student and faculty committees wishing to work together over 
library materials. Many have questioned their practical value. These 
small rooms were not properly ventilated and, when the doors were 
closed, the air soon became close. Demand for their use for this purpose 
was not constant enough to keep them regularly occupied, with the result 
that other library activities gradually usurped the space. Newer build- 
ings frequently modify this idea and use the total space as one or tw r o 
large rooms, with glass partitions separating them from the main library. 
This is proving to be a more feasible plan. Some libraries reserve space 
at each end of the room, and in elementary schools this space is used by 
the very little children coming with their teachers, or for activities likely 
to be noisy, or for the older children's reference alcove. In secondary 
schools such space may be used for a faculty library, a reference room, or 
a browsing corner. 

e. Library Classroom. Libraries often have classroom facilities which 
were originally used for formal courses in library instruction. With the 
development of integrated instruction these classrooms have been largely 
converted to other uses. Where they have been equipped for audio-visual 
demonstrations, they have met a recent need. In small schools where 
space is at a premium, room schedules are often arranged so that the li- 
brary can use an adjoining classroom usually assigned to some other ac- 

/. Workroom. The workroom is often omitted entirely or, if included, 
is sometimes a closet without natural light or sufficient ventilation. It 


seems hardly to be expected that satisfactory library routines can be car- 
ried on with such inadequate workrooms. Even where a suitable room is 
included it often happens that no running water has been provided be- 
cause the library needs are not always as well understood as those for 
any other laboratory in the school. Particular attention should be given 
by the librarian to the designing and furnishing of this room, about which 
other authorities are technically unprepared to pass judgment. The 
workroom is of vital importance to a library's efficient service. 

g. Exits. Another structural handicap results from the unconsidered 
placement of library doors. To insure adequate control of the library's 
property, as the crowds surge in and out of the rooms, it is best to have a 
few well-placed, large doors rather than many widely scattered single 
ones. One large, center door is preferred in all but very large libraries, 
where two may be necessary for clearing the rooms quickly. 

h. Other Construction Details. Questions of decoration, lighting, floor 
covering, sound proofing, and treating the room acoustically will prob- 
ably be a part of the general construction, but the librarian will want to 
make certain of it. In a recent magazine article, Tinker has summed up 
the major considerations in school-library lighting by stressing the need 
for light-colored wall surfaces; furniture with light, dull finish; illumina- 
tion without glare; and an adequate volume of it to make reading pleas- 
urable. 7 This interest in supplying light without glare has resulted in 
schools often substituting metal Venetian blinds for standard window 
shades. As far as the library is concerned, such window treatment adds a 
decorative feature, as well. The horizontal lines of the shutters reinforce 
the horizontal rows of shelving and so draw all four walls into closer har- 
mony and proportion. With reference to floor coverings, the choice of 
suitable surfaces as well as their care is considered in Miss Plaister's use- 
ful volume. 8 It should not be forgotten, in testing the acoustics of a new 
room, that books themselves, when they are put into place, will prove to 
be good sound absorbents. They can be counted upon to produce effects 
similar to wall boards. Beyond these generalizations it seems hardly prac- 
tical to discuss the problems of building construction in view of present 
war conditions. 

i. Shelving. Wall shelving continues to follow the traditional specifica- 

7 M. A. Tinker, "Lighting/' Nation's Schools, XXVII (May, 1941), 47. 

8 C. D. Plaister, Floors and Floor Coverings. Chicago; American Library Associa- 
tion, 1939. 


tions In height, width of sections, and construction materials. Some li- 
braries are experimenting with bottom shelves that have been tipped at 
an angle to Increase visibility of the last row of books. This has definite 
advantages to the reading pubic especially during crowded periods, as 
titles can be found more quickly. However, a few inches of space, some- 
times even the width of one shelf, Is lost In making the adjustment, and 
this should be considered before Installation where space is at a premium. 
The primary innovation is in finish rather than in structure. A num- 
ber of libraries are experimenting with colored enamels, making the 
shelves one color on the outside and a brighter one on the Inside as a back- 
ground for the books. The appearance when new is interesting, but, since 
the enamel on the shelves does not wear as well as the natural wood 
finishes, its use Is open to question where the budget is particularly lim- 
ited. Otherwise much can be said in favor of its gay appearance, espe- 
cially In libraries for little children. 

j. Furniture and Equipment. The furnishings of the library in the past 
have been sturdy but rather dull. The three-by-five-foot table recom- 
mended as a practical size for general use gave the room a regimented 
severity which tended to destroy its informality. To overcome this, mod- 
ern libraries are using tables of various sizes or shapes which may be more 
attractively grouped. Elementary schools are using tables with tilted 
tops for the picture-book corner and other delightful innovations to cre- 
ate atmosphere. This furniture, too, is proportionately smaller to make 
It comfortable for little children. The introduction of settles, a few easy 
chairs, davenports, or other informal club-furniture has further varied 
the school-library setting. Some libraries are experimenting with tubular 
metal equipment, modern furniture design, or gaily painted pieces. The 
supply houses are still offering the more traditional types, especially 
American colonial or early American designs developed in maple. In this 
connection it might be well to notice that the Windsor armchair Is less 
adaptable at library tables than the straight-backed chair, both because 
It will not fit under the edge of the table and because Its proportions hin- 
der good working posture. 

The increasing variety of library materials makes further demands for 
specialized equipment which will provide storage space for pictures, 
slides, films, records, and ephemera. There is little advantage in discuss- 
ing these resources at length as it becomes increasingly more difficult to 
secure all this type of equipment. More floor space and storage rootfi than 
in the older libraries will be needed for display cases, shelves, and dust- 


proof containers for materials used only periodically. In this respect the 
present library needs cannot be met by the older space and equipment 

In addition to facilities for storage in the library itself, modem schools 
find it advantageous to supply similar equipment for classrooms, shops, 
and laboratories, unless the school is too small to warrant even a tempo- 
rary scattering of educational materials. Where this plan is in operation, 
the school librarian has noticed that cupboards and bookshelves fur- 
nished with locked doors for protecting their contents not under direct 
supervision have proved most satisfactory. One problem arises in this 
connection. Where the laboratory or classroom is used for several activ- 
ities in the course of a day, space which can be divided into a number of 
small individual storage units is to be preferred. The books are readily 
available to meet class needs but, at other times, are properly protected 
against possibly careless misuse. 

3. The Library-Study Hall 

There is a tendency in small schools, particularly, to amalgamate the 
study hall with the library. The library hybrid which has developed from 
this union of school activities is somewhat analogous to the teacher-li- 
brarian. At best, the idea has proved workable, but in some cases it has 
served as a palliative measure, making authorities satisfied with inade- 
quate library quarters when more satisfactory ones were easily possible. 

The consolidation has evoked a storm of discussion, but much of it has 
only added to the confusion of ideas. The problem is a variable one, de- 
pending for its solution largely upon local conditions and resources. Much 
of the disagreement grows out of the fact that school administrators and 
librarians often fail to catch the point of the other's argument. For in- 
stance, the principal in a small school knows that he has a limited number 
on his faculty and much is expected of each one. It is administratively 
impossible to plan a teaching schedule which will provide a person to di- 
rect the library activities and another to supervise the study hall. Nat- 
urally, he is interested in any means of consolidating library and study 
hall, which seem to him to have much in common. In adopting this plan 
he may fail to see, as the librarian working with the pupils does, that it 
has its limitations. Pupils engaged in intensive study of a single text and 
pupils using many books in the preparation of assignments may be jointly 
supervised if the whole group is small, but the problem of guidance in the 


use of library materials becomes a serious one for a large group, if to guid- 
ance must be added the function of supervising the study hall. 

A second point at issue is closely related to this. The average study 
hall is still conducted on the old monitorial system used in the early gram- 
mar schools, while the library is a modern socialized activity. To permit 
either type of activity to predominate would result in submerging the 
other. Yet in schools where the library-study hall is most successful this 
conflict has been avoided by creating a new social influence. It is analo- 
gous to the transfer of the classroom from the period of question and 
answer to one of socialized activity. Where the school has already done 
this, it should be able equally well to set up a new order in the study areas, 
placing emphasis upon group learning rather than upon mass discipline. 
Discipline is needed; but under the new order it can be the product of 
public opinion. When students are interested in what they are doing, 
they can be encouraged to work in a quiet, orderly manner. 

Another difficulty concerns the physical room itself. Where an old, 
crowded study hall is used, it cannot have superimposed upon its already 
cramped condition a department requiring floor and wall space for quan- 
tities of equipment. The library shelves, the catalog cases, the vertical 
files, and the more informal types of furniture will crowd out a part of the 
student body which the room could formerly accommodate. (This ac- 
tually makes the library cost more than the average study hall per cubic 
foot of space available for pupil use.) Crowding can be overcome in some 
cases by rescheduling groups and by furnishing the room with two types 
of equipment, in proportions needed for those doing library investigation 
and for those occupied with more regimented types of study. 

An important problem connected with the physical equipment is that 
of safeguarding the book collection when the large study hall is unoccu- 
pied. If it is also used as the school auditorium it is difficult to prevent 
losses in the book collection. Until a school finds a feasible plan for pre- 
venting losses, it may prefer not to initiate a program of consolidation. 

A final point concerns the librarian's load. Formulas have been de- 
veloped for measuring teaching loads not only in hours but in the size of 
classes (pupil-periods) ; there is none as yet for estimating that of the 
school librarian. Many administrators underestimate the demands made 
upon the librarian, and, because of this, they do not see that library work 
has more in common with teaching than with the monitorial supervision 
usually associated with the direction of a study hall. There is always the 
danger with the heavier pupil-period load that there will be a relatively 


decreasing opportunity for library service that the school library might 
become a mere shell of equipment, lacking entirely the educational vital- 
ity which marks all effective organization. 

All these obstacles need to be faced realistically by administrator and 
school librarian alike, and some satisfactory interpretation discovered 
before initiating a library-study hall plan. Probably the small schools 
will find the answer most easily. Their aggregate, though, is large; the 
1937-38 national average enrolment in public high schools for continental 
United States (including junior, senior, and four-year combinations) was 
301.8 pupils with 12.3 teachers and staff per school, or 24.6 pupils to a 
teacher. 9 Similar low enrolment figures are also shown for a selected 
group which include some form of library service. The 1939-40 annual 
reports of secondary schools accredited by the North Central Association 
show an enrolment per school ranging from an average of 234 pupils for 
those in North Dakota to 803 in Illinois. 10 Both groups of statistics are 
indicative of the need for a more complete understanding of the library- 
study hall problem, and the factors involved in its satisfactory solution. 
In working out specifications for the small school it may be possible to 
show at what enrolment figures the plan fails to be most effective and 
where special study units might best be substituted to insure the maxi- 
mum results from library service. 

Whether the school library is conceived as a separate entity function- 
ing in close co-operation with the other units of the study area, or wheth- 
er it is thought of as a consolidation of all study activities, depends large- 
ly upon local requirements and resources. In either case, the test of its 
appropriate form will be measured in terms of the successful service the 
school library is able to render. 


In the course of planning the physical setup of the school library it 
becomes immediately evident that certain library policies will have di- 
rect bearing upon these needs and should have early consideration. The 
two most closely related to these requirements concern the pupils' access 
to the library and the possible installation of subsidiary book collections 
in the classrooms. 

3 Biennial Survey of Education in United States, chap. v. United States Office of 
Education Bulletin No. 2, 1940. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1940. 
10 North Central Association Quarterly, XV (April, 1941), 415-34. 


In addition, questions of internal policy need determination, and 
standard library routines require adaptation to local needs. Finally,, pro- 
vision for a suitable school-library budget makes valid all the other 

1. Scheduling Devices 

Various schemes of admission to the library are in use, some of which 
have a direct bearing upon its size or complexity. In elementary schools 
it is customary for teachers to bring whole classes at one time, according 
to a prearranged schedule. Should the school be large, it may be neces- 
sary for two groups to come simultaneously. If so, their accommodation 
is simpler if the library is constructed in a series of rooms, each one of 
which is large enough to serve a full class at one time. (Some added space 
is usually considered essential for seating self-reliant individuals who may 
be sent to work independently.) The schedule for library periods may be 
worked out from week to week, or may be made for a whole term. In 
either instance, both teacher and librarian plan it. 

The junior high, the elementary school organized on the platoon basis, 
or any other organization using a library-study hall may develop a defi- 
nite pattern for the entire school program. The librarian will then have 
little to do beyond reporting possible conflicts. Here again the methods 
of scheduling and assigning groups to the library are related to the capac- 
ity adequate for library service. 

In schools where pupils are not scheduled, but are free to visit the li- 
brary as they wish, there is no one standard method for admission. The 
tendency is to make the admission routine as simple as possible. This 
again is a reason for having the library adjoining or close to the study 
halls, for in such a position little supervision is needed. In the ultimate 
analysis, the school administrator determines the system when he de- 
cides the policy of pupil control to be used throughout the school. When 
he requires a strict accounting of all present during each period, a "per- 
mit" system is useful. Library passes or permits which can be checked 
against permanent seating plans In study halls will be needed for all tran- 
sients, and hall passes will be required where corridor guards intercept 
wanderers. The librarian is then faced with definite clerical routines in 
harmony with those in use elsewhere to prevent the library from becom- 
ing a catch-all for the irresponsibles. A number of forms are in use but the 
individual identification slip for each visitor is the simplest. It can be 
checked and then kept on file long enough to settle any question that may 
arise concerning the pupil's whereabouts. 


Where the attendance Is taken only for recitation periods, the pupils 
be as free to come and go as in a college library. Between these two 
extremes are varying degrees of control. The librarian may have need of 
limiting attendance where It tends to exceed the normal seating capacity, 
In that contingency, she may resort to the practice of reserving seats by 
distributing numbered permits for each period of the day. All these ele- 
ments are local and can best be Interpreted "by Individual schools. 

An effort should be made where it Is necessary to use permits to keep 
their form as simple as possible. Little is gained by having subject teach- 
ers countersign them. The easier it is to obtain permits the fewer will be 
the cases of discipline connected with their misuse. For those who waste 
their library time some limitation on attendance may be needed, but on 
the whole the pupil himself should learn to apportion Ms working time 
in an efficient manner. Where he refuses to take this responsibility, a 
rule can be developed to fit the individual case. When the library is at- 
tractive and the materials In it are challenging to the interest, there will 
be little trouble in getting a fair cross-section of the school population In 
attendance every day. Any unusual crowding can be overcome by en- 
couraging the pupils, where It is possible, to use less congested periods for 
their free reading. 

Of the two methods, scheduling and free access, the latter seems more 
in harmony with the needs of the older groups, and the former, of the 
younger children. 

2. The Classroom Library 

The old classroom library consisted of a motley collection of books. It 
was seldom closely related to any specific curriculum. This type of class 
library, especially in the lower grades, has been supplemented for years 
by loans from local or county public libraries. Even with this enrichment 
the collection still stopped short of giving wholly adequate service for 
want of intramural administration. 

With the introduction of the school library either the classroom col- 
lections were abandoned or a system of branches was established as part 
of the central organisation. The latter is probably the more progressive 
plan, and the one having a direct influence upon the physical specifica- 
tions of the central library. This plan is more likely to be found in ele- 
mentary schools, in systems having socialized class activities, or in 
schools using double periods. Where the pupil satisfies part of his book 
needs in the class he goes less frequently to the central library during the 


school day, and less space Is likely to be needed for the accommodation of 
the student body. 

The system has further Implications in terms of the book resources. 
Even when teachers and librarians carefully schedule units to avoid con- 
flicts, more book duplication is necessary under this plan than when the 
pupils do all their studying in the library itself. This Is particularly true 
of general titles used for several activities. One copy will be accessible to 
all groups if kept In the library, but duplicates will be needed for circula- 
tion through classroom collections. Increasing the number of copies will 
at the same time require more shelf space to accommodate the shifting 
flow of books coining from or going to the classes. The shelving will need 
to be estimated with this in mind. 

The use of classroom collections implies the organization of satisfac- 
tory lending routines. The way in which the books are to be used within 
the group determines the methods adopted. Should the books be bor- 
rowed only for class use, they can be charged the same as any other cir- 
culating books. Should the teacher loan the books for home use, a double 
card system is needed. One card is used for the usual library record, and 
the other, usually of a different color, is placed in the book for the teacher 
to use in a similar manner. 

A small school may find a classroom system too expensive because of 
the necessary duplication it implies. If so, such a school may find it prac- 
tical to Initiate a system of period loans, in which the teacher borrows the 
books only for the period of his class and returns them for use in the li- 
brary the rest of the day. (If he should have two or more sections, the 
library use of the books can be staggered to conform with use in the class- 
room through mutual agreement.) The routines for this plan can be de- 
veloped with a minimum of record-keeping. 

It is well to determine in advance some policy regarding possible book 
losses in classroom collections. To Ignore such losses entirely often leads 
to further carelessness, but to hold the teacher financially responsible for 
their safety works undue hardship and discourages their use. 

The classroom library provides a means for supplying groups of pupils 
with appropriate subject matter. It is more fluid than the previous iso- 
lated collections because it permits frequent regrouping of the total book 
resources to meet the varied needs of the classroom. Where it may lessen 
the individual's demand upon the central collection, it succeeds in bring- 
ing books directly to the attention of pupils not likely to use the central 


library. When it harmonizes with the teaching philosophy of the school 
and its financial budget, the plan is both possible and desirable. 

3. Routines 

It is easy to throw routine practices out of their true perspective either 
by ignoring or overstressing their value. They are vitally important to 
library outcomes, but many librarians could probably simplify their or- 
ganization to advantage. Sometimes an impersonal appraisal of methods 
or processes will reveal time-consuming procedures. Each activity should 
be functional to the extent of being vital to good service. Miss Crookston 
has recently completed a study of unit costs of various processes used in 
high-school libraries. 11 This research may also be helpful in determining 
the material value of various processes and of the demands made upon 
the librarian's time, as well as in illustrating many points of technical 
interest only to librarians. 

No space will be given to specific technical processes since they have 
been described in several textbooks prepared for school librarians. 12 

Actual records which are kept should be based upon school needs. 
They should include all items essential for school reports to the local or 
county superintendent; to the regional accrediting agency, in the case of 
high schools; or to the state and federal offices. The American Library 
Association and the United States Office of Education have been mak- 
ing plans for unif orm school-library records, of which more will probably 
be heard later. The records, at present, need not be elaborate, but they 
should represent adequate, objective evidence of school-library activities. 

4. The Budget 

The question of school-library finances is both challenging and dis- 
heartening to anyone trying to discover what is really adequate support 
for libraries of various types. Many complex factors are involved which 

11 M. E. Crookston, Unit Costs in a Selected Group of High-School Libraries. United 
States Office of Education Bulletin No. 11, 1941. Washington: Government Print- 
ing Office, 1942. 

12 M. T. P. Douglas, Teacher-Litea-nan's Handbook. Chicago: American Library 
Association, 1941; L. F. Fargo, The Library in the School. Chicago: American Library 
Association, 1939 (third edition) ; Jewel Gardiner and L. B. Baisden, Administering 
School Library Service in the Elementary School. Chicago: American Library Associa- 
tion, 1941; Martha Wilson, School Library Management. New York: H. W. Wilson 
Co., 1939 (sixth edition). 


Influence the ultimate measure of the dollar's efficiency, such as the 
school's ability to borrow supplementary resources, the book facilities in 
the homes of the children using the library, the distance from book mar- 
kets which governs delivery costs in many instances, the liberality of the 
school in furnishing standard supplies, additional school furniture, etc. 

Although the budgetary needs of the school library have been specifi- 
cally recognized in the evaluative criteria of the Co-operative Study of 
Secondary School Standards, no specific financial statistics collected from 
the two hundred schools examined were sufficiently complete to provide 
for a study of aH items on the school-library budget. 13 

Various regional accrediting agencies publish figures from time to time 
on the basis of the annual reports of member schools. When available, 
the library expenditures tend to be given only in general totals for schools 
grouped by their enrolment, as those in a recent North Central Associa- 
tion report. 14 This organization has recently gathered opinions of its 
members concerning adequate, minimum expenditures for books and 
periodicals. The amounts recommended varied with the size of the enrol- 
ment from 92 cents per pupil in schools under two hundred to 39 cents 
for those over one thousand in attendance. 15 The official files would prob- 
ably supply much more data but these figures are not readily available 
to the average librarian. 

The Office of Education in its Biennial Survey of Education breaks 
down the figures to some extent, but never fully enough to separate the 
schools by types, nor even to isolate an individual school within a given 
city. State school library supervisors issue reports which include certain 
figures, but the librarian seeking a complete statement of the problem 
must wait for some financial survey to be issued or for some possible re- 
search on the subject to be made available. Meanwhile there are certain 
apparent tendencies and various problems requiring consideration. 

The most important of these comes from a general misunderstanding 
of library needs. If, for instance, a general item under instructional mate- 
rials includes textbooks, library books, and periodicals, it requires further 
subdivision to show what per cent of the amount is planned for each item, 
or textbooks might easily absorb the whole amount before the other items 

13 Co-operative Study of {Secondary School Standards, op. cit. 

14 Op. cit, pp. 415-34. 

15 W, E. McVey, "Report of Referendum on High School Libraries," North Central 
Association Quarterly, XVI (October, 1941), 208-10. 


are given consideration. Another difficulty where the school requi- 

sition blanks make no provision for specialized supples. Where this hap- 
pens, a special item may need to be included in the budget to provide for 
the purchase of cataloging supples or government documents. Some- 
times the misunderstanding may result from a difference in custom. The 
school spends its funds in anticipation of a need where the library often 
finds it more economical to buy when the need arises. Because of this the 
librarian finds it better policy to buy the year's supply of books at inter- 
vals during the year, rather than in one or two large orders. Again, the 
funds may be limited to the purchase of books only and no money may be 
available for ephemeral or visual materials. The rebinding of books at 
intervals rather than only once a year varies in accordance with actual 
needs. (Unless books can be bound and quickly put into use as needed, 
wider duplication of titles will be required.) The question of the school- 
library budget is not alone one of adequate funds properly apportioned 
to various activities but of having the funds available at moments of 
greatest library need. 

The school librarian constructs a budget to meet item by item the vari- 
ous school-library needs, but these figures will eventually be amalgamat- 
ed with those of all other school departments. Care should be taken that 
each item is carefully defined and its financial classification made clear to 
those not familiar with library needs. In cases where misunderstandings 
might easily arise, a brief note of explanation may be added. At the pres- 
ent time, effective financial management is one of the most vital problems 
in the school-library field. 


From the creation of the first blue print for a projected school library 
to the spending of the last budgeted dollar, the internal organization re- 
quires thoughtful administration. It is not enough to accept any plan for 
a library, any system of control, or any routines commonly employed, 
without first testing each one for its fitness to the local need. 

General practice shows that school-library units are of two types. One 
provides a separate library activity functioning in harmony with other 
study centers. The other provides a joint scheme by which the study 
hall and the library become an educational entity capable of creating a 
new atmosphere of socialized rather than of monitorial study. 

The actual size and equipment of either organization can be estimated 
on the basis of the number of pupils free at any hour to profit from such 


facilities. Further, there are recommended specifications for average 
needs which can be brought into harmony with individual requirements, 
as well as a volume of literature on the experiences of others in similar 

The initial organization is further conditioned by the philosophy of the 
school, its administrative policies for control, and other activities in- 
fluencing attendance. An example of these conditioning factors is the 
routine governing the possible use of books in the classrooms, both when 
the collection is generously expansive and when it is limited. Another 
concerns the various devices for the transfer of pupils from one area to an- 
other without interrupting any possible systems of student control which 
are already in operation. 

In the foregoing discussion, routines, as specific mechanical processes, 
have been omitted, but the principles on which they function have been 
examined for their simplicity, appropriateness, and power to attain the 
desired ends. 

Finally the budget itself has been considered, not so much as a series 
of percentages to be placed under suitable headings, but as a group of ad- 
ministrative factors needing clarification as to their purpose, their tradi- 
tional use, and their functional efficiency. At present, librarians need to 
depend upon their good sense to supplement the incomplete data avail- 
able on what is being done in general with the school-library budget. 
Where this type of school-library investigation has been thoughtfully 
considered, the school administrator and the librarian will find them- 
selves better able to discuss the educational implications of the internal 
organization and administration of the school library. 


Assistant Professor of Library Science 

Winthrop College 
Rock Hill, South Carolina 


School-library standards are only a section of the larger field, educa- 
tional standards, and are part and parcel of the whole question of stand- 
ardization. Any discussion of standards for school libraries should begin 
with a brief consideration of the two kinds of standards, quantitative 
and qualitative, and the recently devised substitute for standards, the 
evaluative criteria. Historically and practically, quantitative standards 
prepare the way for qualitative ones, and both precede the application of 
the criteria. 

Quantitative standards attempt to set up numerical measurements 
and detailed requirements for all aspects of the school library. They are 
inflexible and have a tendency to restrict and limit library growth be- 
cause they are often interpreted as maximum rather than minimum re- 
quirements. However, quantitative standards have their place in the de- 
velopment of school libraries. They act as a guide and set out a concrete 
program or pattern for the development of satisfactory school-library 
service. Standards expressed in numerical quantities and specific regula- 
tions supply the necessary framework around which the library may be 
organized. Such standards help improve the physical conditions of the 
school library, and the chances for adequate library service are greater 
if the physical aspects of the library are satisfactory. Because they are 
stated in numerical terms, quantitative standards are easier to comply 
with and easier to enforce. 

Qualitative standards attempt to express, in functional terms, the 
same ideal requirements as quantitative standards. They encourage li- 
brary service that is adequate for each school expressed in terms of its 
own needs. Because qualitative standards are not stated in exact quanti- 
ties or amounts of service, they are less satisfactory as guides for the or- 



ganization of school libraries. This lack of exactness makes them as diffi- 
cult to enforce as to follow. On the other hand, they are flexible and may 
be applied to all types of school libraries with equal effectiveness. Quali- 
tative standards permit appraisal of the library by persons familiar with 
its aims and objectives. 

Evaluative criteria consist of a series of statements about the school 
library stressing the relationship of library service to the needs of the 
school They express satisfactory or ideal service and constitute a goal 
toward which school libraries may strive. They are sufficiently broad in 
scope to cover all contingencies and to apply to all libraries regardless of 
type or size. Only those criteria that apply to a particular school library 
are checked as the school evaluates itself. 

School-library standards have as their basic function the improvement 
of library facilities in the school. Their purpose is to suggest a program 
for immediate betterment of the library and to present a picture of ideal 
library service as a goal for further development. 


The deplorable condition of school libraries was brought to light by a 
nation-wide survey of the teaching of high-school English undertaken by 
a committee of the National Council of Teachers of English in 1915. The 
library was studied as an adjunct to the English work of the school, but 
the conditions disclosed were so unsatisfactory that the committee recom- 
mended a thorough investigation of the library as a distinct and separate 
unit of the educational system. The National Education Association de- 
cided to study the school library and appointed a committee for this pur- 
pose at its meeting in 1915. The committee was composed of outstanding 
librarians and schoolmen and was instructed to bring in a report that 
might be expressed in the form of standards for the organization and 
maintenance of school libraries. Mr. C. C. Certain was chairman and 
took a leading part in the survey. 

The committee worked for three years, collecting data relating to ac- 
tual conditions in school libraries and formulating standards to improve 
conditions. The report in its final form, "Standard Library Organization 
and Equipment for Secondary Schools of Different Sizes/ 71 known in- 

1 The full report was printed in the Proceedings of the National Education Associa- 
tion, 1918, pp. 695-714; in Education Administration and Supervision, III (June, 1917), 
317-38; and by the American Library Association in 1918. 

SPAIN 271 

formally as the Certain Report or the Certain Standards, was presented 
to the National Education Association at its annual meeting in 1918. It 
was adopted then as the Association's official standard for high-school li- 
brary development and was approved by the education committee of 
the American Library Association. 

Mr. Certain said that the report "represented actualy a consensus of 
what, in the minds of high-school principals and librarians, the library 
should mean to the school" 2 Miss Mabel Williams wrote, "It is unneces- 
sary to say that aU reports of this nature must be revised constantly, but 
such a careful survey is an excellent foundation for future development." 3 
For more than twenty years the Certain Standards, "with modifications, 
were the basis of all school-library standards. 

The North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 
adopted the Certain Report as its official school-library standards in 1918 
and continued to use it for a dozen years. Some dissatisfaction arose as 
to its general efficacy and a qualitative supplement to it was accepted by 
the Association in 1932. Dissatisfaction with quantitative standards con- 
tinued, however, and in March, 1939, the North Central Association re- 
placed the Certain Standards and supplement with qualitative standards. 
These are much less specific and more adjustable to the highly developed 
needs of the schools in that area. 

The accrediting association of the Middle Atlantic region, the Middle 
States Association, established a Commission on Secondary Schools in 
1920. This commission drew up standards which included the library in 
the statement, ". . . . library facilities shall be adequate to the needs of 
instruction." 4 In 1938 the Association approved the gradual substitution 
of the evaluative criteria of the Co-operative Study for the existing stand- 
ards. This transition period will terminate January 1, 1945, but until 
that time the present standards will continue to operate. 

School-library development came later in the South than in the areas 
under the jurisdiction of the North Central and Middle States associa- 
tions. In 1926 the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary 

2 C. C. Certain, "High-School library Standards," Department of Secondary School 
Principal BuUetin, XLV (March, 1933), 78, 

s Mabel Williams, "Mr. Certain's Report Seen from Two Points of View," Library 
Journal, XLIII (September, 1918), 682. 

4 Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, Commission on 
Secondary Schools, BiMdin of Information, 1941. 


Schools, in response to a proposal made by a committee of the South- 
eastern Library Association to inaugurate a program of library develop- 
ment in the South, appointed a committee to draw up tentative standards 
for high-school libraries and to present them at the meeting of the South- 
ern Association in 1927. There the standards were offered, discussed, and 
adopted. They were similar to the Certain Standards in principle but 
were more succinct, more specific in many of the requirements, and not 
quite so difficult to attain. Schools were allowed a reasonable number of 
years in which to comply with them. Since 1936 the Association has been 
enforcing the library standards and encouraging states in the southern re- 
gion to establish similar standards for their own schools. Dr. Louis R. 
Wilson was chairman of the Committee of the Southeastern Library As- 
sociation, and Dr. J. Henry Highsmith has been chairman of the Library 
Committee of the Southern Association since 1926 and has been highly 
instrumental in influencing school-library development in the South. 

In the far Northwest the establishment of school-library standards 
came still later. The Northwest Association at its 1928 meeting appoint- 
ed a committee, with Miss Mary R. Bacon as chairman, to draw up 
standards and present them for the approval of the Association. After 
several years of study and conferences, the committee reported a set of 
standards that was adopted in April, 1935, as the official standards of the 
Northwest Association. These were based on the school-library stand- 
ards of the Southern Association and the revised standards of the North 
Central Association. 

Because of the emphasis placed on the school library through the adop- 
tion of standards by regional associations, the departments of public in- 
struction of many states established standards for evaluating the libraries 
of their state-accredited high schools. These followed the general plan 
and principles of the Certain Report and its successors, with variations 
dictated by local conditions. 

As school libraries increased in number and strength they began to 
chafe under the limitations of quantitative standards. A growing dis- 
satisfaction with existing standards permeated the whole educational 
fabric, and in 1929 the accrediting associations realized that the system of 
standardization needed investigation. At that time the United States 
Office of Education was conducting a survey of secondary education 5 and 

5 Leonard V. Koos, National Survey of Secondary Education. United States Office 
of Education Bulletin No. 17, 1932. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932. 

SPAIN 273 

the associations decided to await the result of this study before attacking 
the problem of standardization. Finally in August, 1933, the Co-opera- 
tive Study of Secondary School Standards was organized, with each re- 
gional association taking part in the arrangements and contributing to 
the expenses. They were assisted in financing the study by a generous 
grant from the General Education Board. The purpose of the study was 
expressed in the following statement: 

Quantity is even today of great importance but quality is of still greater im- 
portance. It may be that a good quality of production is possible without the 
necessity of meeting all of the carefully developed, specially prescribed, quantita- 
tive measures. To find the measure of quality is the first and most important 
reason for launching the study. 6 

The library in the school was not treated as a separate unit in the study 
but was included as an item in the several areas that were differentiated. 
One section of the report was on "Library Service," but it did not cover 
the whole structure or function of the school library. This was con- 
sonant with the basic philosophy adopted by the Co-operative Study: 

[The school] must be studied and evaluated in its setting .... and it must be 
judged as a whole, not merely as the sum of its separate parts .... and that li- 
brary development and service, if fully functioning, should be so closely related 
to all divisions of the schools 7 organization and activities that they cannot be 
satisfactorily studied by themselves. 7 

However, interest in all aspects of the library was so great and the de- 
mand from librarians for a single volume on the school library was so in- 
sistent that all material relating to the library in the school was assem- 
bled and printed in one pamphlet. The American Library Association 
was instrumental in the publication of this pamphlet and sponsored it 
jointly with the Co-operative Study. 8 

The areas covered by the Co-operative Study are, in general, those of 
the old standards, but they have been freed from minute detail and exact 
specifications. The standards were replaced by the evaluative criteria, 

6 George Carrothers, fr What Constitutes a Good Secondary School and by What 
Standards Should It Be Evaluated?" Proceedings of the National Education Associa- 
tion, 1934, p. 506. Washington: National Education Association, 1934. 

7 Co-operative Study of Secondary School Standards Committee, Evaluation of 
Secondary Schools, pp. 91-92. Washington: The Committee (744 Jackson Place), 

8 Ibid. 


which are made up of a series of statements of worth-while achievement 
and descriptions of acceptable library service. The school is evaluated in 
terms of these statements. 

As the criteria are drawn up, each section may be scored numerically 
and then translated into graphic form in a series of thermometers that 
show the "educational temperature" of the library. This has been done 
for two hundred experimental schools and the "educational temperature" 
of the median school has been published. By the use of these thermom- 
eters any school may determine the status of its library in relation to that 
of other school libraries of the same type, size, or region. An annual check 
of the evaluative criteria will determine the "educational temperature" 
of the library and will provide a means by which its progress may be re- 
corded. The use of such a procedure, with its system of visual presenta- 
tion, permits a school library to check itself against the previous scores 
and thus to gauge the degree of its growth from year to year. 


In order to understand fully the present accrediting situation in regard 
to school libraries, it is necessary to analyze the standards in operation 
today by regional and state agencies on the three levels of general educa- 
tion: elementary, secondary, and junior college. 

1. Secondary-School Library Standards of Regional 
Accrediting Agencies 

The function of the six regional educational associations in the United 
States is to improve the status of education within each area and to main- 
tain standards for accrediting the member schools. Two of these, the 
New England Association and the Western Association, are not accredit- 
ing agencies, and, therefore, do not have school-library standards. The 
other four have established standards for secondary schools which in- 
clude provision for accrediting the library. The Southern Association and 
the Northwest Association standards are quantitative, the Middle States 
Association is in the process of changing to the evaluative criteria of the 
Co-operative Study, and the North Central Association has qualitative 
standards. Although their standards apply only to member schools, they 
affect the general educational program of the several states represented 
in the associations. 

Regardless of the type of standard enforced by the accrediting agen- 
cies, all have certain features in common. All four have provisions relat- 

SPAIX 275 

ing to the librarian and the book collection and three of them include 
as items of primary importance provisions concerning the appropriation, 
the library room, and the organization. Other sections cover the equip- 
ment, the instruction in library use, and the functioning of the library. 
The Southern Association standards require a course of twelve lessons 
on library use and allow equivalents for library books and services pro- 
vided by public library units. 

The influence of the regional associations on the states represented in 
their membership has been pronounced. Where a strong school-library 
policy has been maintained by an accrediting agency, the states tend to 
recognize the value of school libraries and establish standards to develop 
them; where there is no accrediting policy the states have not formulated 
standards. The Southern Association has emphasized the development 
of school libraries in the South and, as a result of its activities, every state 
in the Southern Association area has state school library standards today. 
It is the only region where this has been achieved. Table I summarizes 
the standards of the four associations. 

2. Secondary-School Library Standards of the 

Practically all of the states recognize the importance of the library in 
the school and have established some means by which its efficiency may 
be measured. Eleven states have no school-library standards, eight have 
report blanks, certificate credentials, or other statements which act as a 
guide for school-library development, and thirty-one have formulated 
definite standards. These requirements are summarized in Table II. 

Most of the standards set up by the states to accredit their own schools 
are quantitative. There is usually a lag between educational movements 
and laws and regulations that implement them, and this is exemplified in 
state school library standards. Only a few states have substituted the 
evaluative criteria or qualitative standards for the old quantitative ones. 
Maryland is changing to the evaluative criteria, South Dakota quotes 
them as a foreword to its quantitative standards, New York is urging its 
schools to evaluate themselves by the criteria, and Alabama, Arkansas, 
Illinois, Maine, and Montana have a very general qualitative statement 
of standards. The standards of the other states are more or less detailed 
and set forth exact requirements in elaborate specifications. They follow 

9 Source of information: Communications from the departments of public instruc- 
tion of the states in January, 1942. 

11 I 






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Books and Periodicals 

Minimum, 500; 5 books 
per pupil; periodicals; 
newspapers; selected 
from standard lists 

Less than 200 pupils: 500- 
1000 titles; to 500 pu- 
pils: 3000 titles; 1000 
pupils: 5000 titles, 5 
books per pupil 

Minimum, 300 ; average 3 
books per pupil in 
schools over 100 pupils,' 
selected from lists; 5-20 
periodicals; good daily 

10 vols, per pupil less than 
100 pupils; 100-1000 
pupils: 1000-3000 vols.; 
newspapers; 4 good 

Selected from lists ; teach- 
ers' professional books 

Approved encyclopedia 
and dictionary; 24 books 
for English class; 8 for 
history, agriculture; 3 
for languages i 

500 books and 5-10 peri- i 
odicals to 5000 books j 
and 25-30 periodicals; i 
75 per cent from state 

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less than 300 pupil 
half-time, 1 yr. cer 
300-700; full-time, 
cert, over 700 

'eacher-librarian, 6 '. 
library science in sc 
of 6-8 teachers; 12 
Kbrary science, 9-3 
teachers ; full-time 
12 teachers 

'eacher-librarian, 4 ] 
library science, sol 
100 or less; 6 hrs. 
200 pupils ; 8 hrs. ' 
500 pupils; full-tin 
16-20 hrs., 500-10 
full-time, fully tra 
over 1000 pupils 

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SPAIN 281 

the rather typical pattern set by the Certain Report and continued in the 
standards of the regional associations. 

Thirty-three states designate minimum requirements for books; thirty 
have specifications for the librarian's training and experience; twenty- 
eight include some form of organization, usually that the library be 
classified and cataloged; twenty-seven determine the size of the library, 
or its location, or its equipment; and twenty-five make definite state- 
ments concerning the appropriation that should be made for the support 
of the school library. Among the miscellaneous items, fifteen states re- 
quire instruction in library use, eight expect the library to be open all 
day under supervision, five allow for equivalent services from municipal 
or county libraries, and four have provisions for evaluating the library 
according to its functioning. 

A review of the various sections of the state standards describes their 
general trend and indicates the differences that distinguish them. 

a. Books and Periodicals. The requirements for books, periodicals, and 
newspapers range from the very simple statement of "number and kind 
adequate" to an intricate classification of schools by size, with book pro- 
portion, distribution, and selection based on enrolment groups. Eleven 
states require a minimum of 500 books, seven mention an average of five 
books per pupil. Oklahoma and South Dakota phrase their requirements 
in terms of subject matter taught, Tennessee in terms of average daily 
attendance, and all other states in terms of enrolment. The standards of 
fifteen states specify book lists from which library books must be selected. 
Even the most quantitative, detailed standards show the qualitative in- 
fluence by prefacing their book requirements with such statements as 
"well selected," "adequate," "meeting the needs of the curriculum," 
"approved," or "fitting the age and interests of the pupils." 

Seventeen of the standards provide for the periodical equipment of the 
school library. Daily papers and Sunday editions of metropolitan papers 
are required by ten of the states. 

The book and periodical section of the standards varies considerably, 
but all attempt to provide a collection of books and magazines that will 
enrich the curriculum of the school and supply the recreational reading 
of the pupils. 

&. Librarian. The requirements for the librarian are more uniform 
than those for books. Most of them allow a teacher-librarian, or part- 
time librarian, in the small school and require a full-time, fully trained 
librarian in the large school. The amount of training in library science 


varies from six to eighteen semester hours for the part-time librarian to 
twenty-four to thirty semester hours for the full-time school librarian. 
The size which determines a small or large school is not constant; an en- 
rolment between 300 and 600 is mentioned most frequently as the divid- 
ing Hne. All standards provide for clerical help and an additional profes- 
sional assistant as the school enrolment exceeds 1,000 pupils. The require- 
ments for the librarian, as for books, depend, in most standards, upon the 
size of the school measured in terms of enrolment. Florida, Minnesota, 
and North Carolina classify their schools according to the number of 
teachers, and Tennessee, according to average daily attendance. 

c. Organization. Almost without exception the standards call for shelf 
list, card catalog, card loan system, accession record, books classified by 
the Dewey decimal classification system, and other standard library rec- 
ords. Occasionally such additional statements as "the library must be 
properly cared for," "must establish and maintain service adequate to 
meet its needs/ 7 and "materials fully cataloged and well organized' 7 are 
found in the standards. 

d. Rooms and Equipment. Several features appear in nearly all of the 
housing sections of the standards : the library room should be adequate 
in size, 'it should be in or near the study hall, and it should contain stand- 
ard library equipment. Eleven standards require that the library room 
be large enough to seat 10 per cent of the student body at one time. 
Variations are found in Mississippi with the requirement of a seating 
capacity of 30 per cent, in Indiana with 15 to 35 per cent, in Virginia with 
15 per cent, in Pennsylvania with 10 to 15 per cent, and in Missouri with 
5 to 10 per cent. Workrooms and conference rooms for teachers and stu- 
dents are recommended as the enrolment of the school increases. 

The second feature brings up the problem of the library-study hall 
combination. The standards of eleven states recommend the combina- 
tion for small schools but require separate rooms in the large schools. 
North Dakota is the only state whose standards forbid the use of the li- 
brary as a study hall. The Indiana standards permit the location of the 
library in the study hall but require an additional teacher to take charge 
of the study-hall duties so that the librarian is freed for library work. All 
standards require that the library be accessible, and those of Illinois and 
Ohio add that the library should be attractive. 

The third item covered by this section deals with the furnishings of 

SPAIN 283 

the library. The standards call for all essential pieces of equipment: 
tables, chairs, librarian's desk, shelving, catalog case, etc. Missouri re- 
quires enough shelving to take care of five years' growth. Many of the 
standards go into considerable detail, even including some specifications 
for equipment. 

e. Appropriation. This section of the standards provides for the main- 
tenance and support of the school library. The money appropriated un- 
der the standards must be spent only for books and periodicals, not for 
the librarian's salary. Twenty-four states require a per pupil appropria- 
tion that ranges from 50 cents to $1.50, according to the size of the 
school. Three standards specify a minimum fund of $100, three others re- 
quire $200, $75, and $50, respectively. Nebraska allows $5 per teacher 
for books, and Idaho appropriates 3 per cent of the school budget for the 
library. New Jersey recommends an initial outlay of $3,000 for the organ- 
ization of a new school library. 

/. Miscellaneous Items. Hours when the library should be open are 
given in eight standards. This applies to small schools served by part- 
time librarians and provides that the library shall be kept open all day 
by student assistants under the supervision of the librarian. Large 
schools have full-time librarians who devote their entire working time 
to the library. 

Lessons in the use of the library are required by fourteen state stand- 
ards. These call for from six to twelve lessons taught by the librarian or 
integrated with the subject matter and taught by the teacher with help 
from the librarian. 

Equivalents for service from municipal or county libraries are permit- 
ted by five states Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Ten- 
nessee. Books provided by public libraries and services of a trained li- 
brarian furnished by nonschool library units may be substituted for the 
requirements in certain sections of the standards. Kentucky, Pennsyl- 
vania, and South Dakota advise co-operating with aU other library 

The functioning, or use, of the school library is stressed in the stand- 
ards of four states Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, and South Carolina. This 
functional requirement in quantitative standards indicates the extent to 
which the qualitative concept of school-library standards has been ac- 
cepted by the states. 


3. Elementary-School Library Standards 10 

Most standardization is at the secondary and higher levels of educa- 
tion. Accrediting agencies and colleges have been interested only in the 
products turned out by the high schools of the country because they af- 
fect very definitely the type of work done in higher institutions. State 
boards of public instruction, in turn, are interested in the elementary 
school as the training agency for the pupils who will be graduated into 
the high schools and contribute to the strength or weakness of the sec- 
ondary-school systems. Therefore, since elementary-school standards 
are not related to general accreditation, they are established only by the 

Ten states have formulated definite standards for the elementary- 
school library that are similar to those for the high schools. These states 
are Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oregon, Penn- 
sylvania, Tennessee, Washington, and West Virginia. Sixteen other 
states have book requirements, certification credentials for librarians, or 
sections of score cards that substitute for standards. Nearly all states 
have annual report blanks that have a section devoted to library books. 
Most of the requirements for the elementary-school library are lower and 
much simpler than those for the secondary school. However, Indiana 
uses practically the same standards for both levels, and Kentucky re- 
quires that there be as many books available for elementary pupils as for 
high-school students and concludes its statement by saying, "The ele- 
mentary school shall not be neglected in attempting to maintain high- 
school standards." A review of some of the items in the standards shows 
their main features. 

a. Books and Reading. Supplementary readers are stressed for the first 
three grades with dictionaries, encyclopedias, general reading books, and 
magazines required for the upper grades. The book requirements are ex- 
pressed as two, three, or six books per pupil; fifty books per teacher; at 
least seventy-five or one hundred books per school; and at least five dol- 
lars' worth of approved elementary books per teacher. Two standards 
suggest that children read at least ten books on their level per year. 

6. Housing and Equipment. For classroom libraries, bookcases, cup- 
boards, reading tables, and chairs are required; if a library room is possi- 

10 Source of information : Communications from the departments of public instruc- 
tion of the states in January, 1942. 

SPAIN 285 

ble, it should be equipped with regular library furniture in small sizes for 
the children. 

c. Appropriation, Two of the standards recommended an annual ap- 
propriation but did not specify the amount; one states five dollars per 
teacher for books; and another requires 3 per cent of the school appropri- 
ation to go for books. 

d. Miscellaneous. Lessons in the use of the library are required in 
three of the state standards, and co-operation with other library units is 
recommended by two. 

Though standards for elementary-school libraries have not been estab- 
lished to the extent that they have for secondary schools, there is an ever 
increasing interest in library facilities for the grades, In consolidated 
schools the high-school librarian becomes the librarian for both the ele- 
mentary and high school In towns where the two levels are housed in 
separate buildings the secondary-school librarian often orders and pre- 
pares the books for the grade schools and supervises their library service. 
This interest in the elementary-school library is especially praiseworthy 
in view of the fact that it indicates a recognition of the value of the library 
at all levels of education and an attempt to establish it without pressure 
from accrediting agencies. 

4. Junior-College Library Standards 11 

The junior college is a relatively new unit in the educational setup and 
has been stabilized, to a large extent, through accrediting procedures. It 
is accredited by regional educational associations, state departments of 
education, and state universities. The four accrediting associations and 
the New England Association have sections on the library in their junior- 
college standards. All standards except those of the Southern Association 
are very general. 

In twenty-eight states there are formal junior-college standards estab- 
lished either by the department of education of the state or the state uni- 
versity, or both; in sixteen states there are no definite standards but some 
device is used to accredit the work of the junior college; and only four 
states Delaware, Nevada, Rhode Island, and Wyoming have no stand- 
ards at all. There is a section dealing with the library in the standards of 
twenty-five of the twenty-eight states that have adopted standards. Five 

11 Reference used: Walter Crosby Eells (ed.), American Junior College. Washing- 
ton: American Council on Education, 1940. 


other states Arkansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Oregon, and South Caro- 
lina use the standards of the regional accrediting agency operating in 
their areas. Eighteen states have either no standards or the standards 
fail to mention the library. 

A quick review of the library section of the twenty-five standards 
shows that six are phrased in general terms and that the other nineteen 
stress number of volumes and annual appropriation. The employment of 
a trained librarian is required by twelve standards, the seating capacity 
of the library and instruction in its use are mentioned in two, and pro- 
vision for annual growth In number of books is recommended in one. 

a. Books. The size of the book collection varies from 1,000 to 8,000 
volumes, exclusive of government documents and periodicals. The two 
sizes most frequently mentioned were 2,500 and 3,000 volumes, each of 
which was given in five standards. North Carolina requires an addition 
of 250 volumes annually; the other standards imply an increase in the size 
of the book collection through the annual appropriation. Nebraska and 
Tennessee allow only 15 per cent for duplication. 

6. Appropriation. An annual appropriation is specified in twenty-one 
of the standards, but the amount is expressed in various ways: from 50 
cents to $5 per pupil; $250 to $800 minimum sum; and 3 per cent of the 
college educational budget. 

c. Librarian, A professionally trained librarian may be implied in the 
term "effectively administered" library. No standard attempts to set up 
the exact training and experience for the librarian. 

d. Miscellaneous. Size of the library: The library should accommodate 
from 15 to 20 per cent of the student body at one time, according to the 
standards of two states Mississippi and Tennessee. Library lessons are 
also required in the standards of these two states. 


This analysis of standards for school libraries reveals certain definite 
trends. The practice of establishing library standards has been exten- 
sive. Regional and state educational agencies in all parts of the United 
States have formulated standards for the organization and maintenance 
of school libraries. The states of the South and Middle West have been 
particularly active in adopting measures for the guidance and accredita- 
tion of their school libraries. 

The establishment and modification of standards is a continuing 
process. The North Central and Middle States associations have changed 

SPAIN 287 

their standards as the status of school Ebraries has improved. The states 
have modified their standards also and have attempted to harmonize 
them with the needs of the schools. The number of states that have for- 
mal standards for their school libraries is growing. New Mexico and 
Texas are the thirtieth and thirty-first states to adopt definite school- 
library standards. 

There is a noticeable tendency to include qualitative expressions in the 
standards, despite the fact that most of them are quantitative. In prefa- 
tory remarks and introductory sections there are qualitative terms and 
general statements concerning library excellence. This qualitative trend 
reaches its apex in the evaluative criteria of the Co-operative Study of 
Secondary School Standards. 

The standards show a striking resemblance in items included and re- 
quirements designated. Provision for books, annual appropriation, and 
the service of a trained librarian are found in practically all of them. 
Though each item has variations determined by local or state conditions, 
the requirements in general are very much alike. This similarity may be 
traceable to the fact that many of the standards are based on the Certain 
Report or on the regional association library standards which were, in 
turn, modeled after the Certain Standards. 

The basis for the requirements in quantitative standards is the size of 
the school. This is expressed variously as enrolment, average daily at- 
tendance, or number of teachers, but in each case there is a numerical 
basis to determine the class of school. In qualitative standards, size is 
disregarded, and the function of the library becomes the basis for require- 


Though standards for school libraries have been adopted by regional 
accrediting agencies and state departments of education, many difficul- 
ties surround their application and enforcement. Some of these diffi- 
culties may be attributed to lack of knowledge of school libraries, others 
to lack of financial ability to comply with standards, and still others to 
the difficulties inherent in the standards themselves. 

The greatest obstacle to the application of school-library standards is 
the lack of understanding of the value of school libraries on the part of 
school officials. The library in the school is a relatively new feature of the 
educational system. Only a few large city high schools had libraries at 
the beginning of the twentieth century, and in many schools even today 


libraries are nonexistent or are in a primitive state of development. Some 
school officials and teachers have not been accustomed to the use of a li- 
brary in their teaching and they do not know the contribution it can 
make to their work. 

Another practical difficulty in applying school-library standards is the 
lack of financial and physical resources in many school systems. The es- 
tablishment and maintenance of a school library according to standards 
require adequate housing space and financial support which local school 
units are not always able to provide. In many schools room space is at a 
premium, particularly in defense and army camp areas where schools are 
seriously overcrowded. School officials who are eager to develop library 
service are often balked in their attempt to comply with school-library 
standards because appropriations for the library cannot be made from 
available educational funds. Rural areas, small towns, sparsely settled 
communities, and regions that fall below the national economic average 
find it difficult to meet standards. 

It has been impossible for all schools to meet the standards for trained 
librarians or teacher-librarians, because of the paucity of persons pre- 
pared to do school-library work. Not many teachers were equipped, 
through study or experience, to take over the organization of the library, 
and, among professionally trained librarians, relatively few have selected 
school-library work as their field of specialization. This difficulty be- 
comes less important with the increasing number of trained librarians 
available for work in school libraries. 

The nature of quantitative standards renders them difficult to apply 
uniformly to all school systems. Because schools differ in purpose, size, 
and organization, it is practically impossible to apply a universal measur- 
ing stick or single set of standards to them all. Some need a type of li- 
brary service that exceeds that designated in the standards and others 
need only a minimum of library activity, The dogmatic application of 
standards may therefore result in an unfair evaluation and may lead to 
one of the following eventualities: the schools refuse to meet the stand- 
ards and therefore are not accredited; the accrediting agencies overlook 
the fact that certain sections of the standards are being disregarded; the 
schools comply with the requirements, conscious that parts of them do 
not apply but realizing that they must do so in order to be accredited; or, 
the schools meet the minimum requirements of the standards and do 
nothing further to develop their libraries. The intelligent construction 

SPAIN 289 

and application of quantitative standards will adjust these difficulties 
without destroying the value of the standards. 

One of the greatest objections to quantitative standards is the lack of 
assurance that the mere meeting of numerical requirements will lead to 
satisfactory school-library service. Books, seating capacity, money, and 
a librarian do not necessarily mean that the library will function ade- 
quately. Because of this fact some school officials have been unwilling to 
enforce the various requirements set out in the standards. 

On the other hand, there are difficulties connected with the applica- 
tion of qualitative school-library standards. They are so indefinite in 
statement that school people unfamiliar with good school-library service 
are not able to follow their directions. A sense of uncertainty accompa- 
nies a school's attempt to meet qualitative standards and often results in 
a half-hearted compliance with them, or a complete disregard of them, or 
the necessity for the accrediting agencies to interpret them quantitative- 
ly. Representatives of accrediting associations charged with the enforce- 
ment of standards are not always school-library specialists and, there- 
fore, are unable to estimate the extent to which a library meets qualita- 
tive standards. They must rely on reports of local school officials for this 
information and the validity of the reports will depend, to a great extent, 
on the attitude of the officials toward school libraries and the standards 
set up for their promotion. 

Another difficulty in the application of standards is the necessity for 
their interpretation. Qualitative and quantitative standards alike have 
to be applied by human beings, and the personal element affects the re- 
sult. Qualitative standards must be interpreted for almost every school 
in which they are applied and the evaluation will depend in part on the 
attitude of the person making the interpretation. Even the application of 
quantitative school-library standards does not guarantee a uniform li- 
brary development. Some administrator's construe them as statements 
of maximum growth, others consider that they contain only minimum 
essentials. The library service resulting in response to these different 
concepts of quantitative standards will vary correspondingly. 


Despite the difficulties faced by the schools in complying with library 
standards and by regional and state organizations in enforcing them, 
they have been in operation for a number of years and have contributed 
to the improvement of school libraries. The results are extremely hard to 


measure objectively. There have been so many factors at work In the ed- 
ucational field that one dares not single out any one of them as complete- 
ly responsible for the improved conditions in libraries. However, certain 
results may be cited as being directly or indirectly influenced by the ap- 
plication of standards. 

The adoption of the first school-library standards initiated a spirited 
discussion of school libraries that has continued and increased up to the 
present. Professional educational and library literature has carried many 
articles discussing the library's value and reporting methods of its organi- 
zation and administration. The programs of professional meetings are 
often devoted to a consideration of the contribution of the library to 
modern teaching. This interest in school libraries covers both elementary 
and secondary education. 

Educators, unfamiliar with the school library before the establishment 
of library standards called it to their attention, began to study it and be- 
came convinced of its educational value. They have requested librarians 
of secondary-school libraries to organize and supervise library service in 
elementary schools in the same systems, even though there were no 
standards requiring service to the grades. Librarians of consolidated 
schools provide library experience for the children of the elementary part 
of the school. This awakening to the realization of the library's contribu- 
tion has resulted in the extension of library service to areas where no ob- 
jective standards are applied. 

Even in states without formal library standards and for levels of edu- 
cation not controlled by them, their influence has been felt. Practically 
all state departments of education devote sections of their annual report 
blanks to the library. These usually include the items found in standards 
and indicate a widespread recognition of their basic significance. 

When school-library standards were adopted by the various states, it 
became necessary to have someone who could assist the schools to de- 
velop libraries in accordance with the regulations. This meant the em- 
ployment of school-library specialists in the state departments of educa- 
tion who could explain the standards to school people, visit the schools 
and direct the organization of the library, and inspect school libraries 
with intelligence to see whether they were complying with the stated and 
implied requirements of the standards. Some states were not able to add 
a school-library supervisor to their administrative staff; in such cases 
teachers in library schools and library science departments of colleges and 
county and town librarians were called upon for advice in the develop- 



ment of local school libraries. W.P.A. resources have also been drawn 
upon frequently in certain areas to add to the school-library collections 
and to assist with organization problems. 

The improved conditions of school libraries, resulting from the applica- 
tion of standards, provided teachers with materials and resources to en- 
rich their teaching. Because of the book equipment available to them in 
the school library, they have been able to adopt modern methods of 
teaching and to create improved learning situations. 




1930 a 

1940 b 





Number of schools 




1 197 

Meeting all library requirements 




Meeting book requirement 

Meeting appropriation requirement 

Meeting librarian requirement 

Providing adequate time in tne library 

Providing satisfactory space and equipment. . 
Providing library lessons 

a Source: Doak S. Campbell, Libraries in the Accredited High Schools of the Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools of the Southern States, Table XXII, p. 31. Nashville, Tennessee: George Peabody Col- 
lege for Teachers, 1930. 

t> Source: J. Henry Highsmith, "Keport of Library Committee," Southern Association Quarterly, V 
February 1941), 135. 

As libraries were introduced into schools it became necessary to in- 
struct teachers in service and prospective teachers in the use of the li- 
brary as a teaching instrument. Units on the library have been added to 
college education courses and summer schools have organized school- 
library instruction facilities for teachers. Many educators now recom- 
mend some library education for all teachers in training. 

Most school-library standards require the services of a trained librari- 
an. When the standards were first adopted there were very few teachers 
who had been trained in library science and almost no facilities for train- 
ing them. The adoption of standards necessitated the organization of li- 
brary science departments in colleges and the expansion of school-library 


courses in accredited library schools to train school and teacher-librari- 

By far the most spectacular result of the application of standards has 
been the phenomenal increase in the number of school libraries and the 
improvement in their equipment. This growth has been nationwide. 
Comparable data on the status of school libraries before the adoption of 
the standards and at the present time are available for schools accredited 
by the Southern Association. Table III gives these figures and reveals 
the number of libraries that have been developed under the stimulus of 
the Southern Association library standards. It appears that more school 
libraries met all requirements of the Southern Association library stand- 
ards in 1940 than met any one of the requirements in 1930. The require- 
ments for instruction in the use of the library, space and equipment, and 
books have been met by over 90 per cent of the schools; those for the ap- 
propriation and a trained librarian have been met by 80 per cent of the 
member schools. 

Standards have played an important part in the development of 
school libraries. They have not always been satisfactory, but through re- 
vision and modification they have been attuned to changing conditions 
and on the whole have served as a stimulus to library growth. At present 
the majority of the states and accrediting associations have established 
school-library standards for the schools under their jurisdiction. Though 
the expansion of school libraries has been impressive, it is but a scant 
measure of the stature they may attain if all states and regional associa- 
tions develop guiding principles and evaluative devices for school-library 







Librarian, University High School 

Oakland, California 

Lecturer and Supervisor of School Library Practice 

School of Librarianship and the School of Education 

University of California 

Berkeley, California 

A boy of ten ran ahead of his mother up the stairs of a public library 
in a Pacific coast city the other day, and together they consulted the card 
catalog. In a few moments they were searching through the appropriate 
drawer. The boy was heard eagerly explaining some of the markings on 
the card, and thereafter the two went off to the biography shelves in 
search of the desired book. A few minutes later, two Negro boys in sol- 
dier's uniform appeared and without hesitation stopped at the reference 
desk to get their bearings. With an air of confidence, they made their 
way around this public library in a strange city. Their manner, like that 
of the small boy, indicated that somewhere in their experience they had 
learned how to use a library and knew what it meant to have the satis- 
faction of finding information for themselves. 

The experience of learning to tap the resources of a library the card 
catalog, well-known reference books, the encyclopedias, the indexes, and 
other library facilities is an experience that should come to every child 
as a natural part of his school life. While the use of the library is always a 
means to an end, nevertheless it is essential that students realize the 
value of library tools as short cuts and timesavers in the acquisition of 



knowledge. To promote this functional use of the library, it should be 
maintained as an integral part of the curriculum and the life of the school. 
Much of the success of library instruction depends on the vision of the ad- 
ministrator. It is essential that he provide for the free use of the library 
as a laboratory rather than as a study hall, that he set up an adequate 
budget for the purchase of necessary books and materials, and that he em- 
ploy a competent and adequate staff. 

It is equally important that teachers understand the possibilities for 
using the library and that they have a deep conviction of the importance 
of library skills and habits. In addition, they must understand their part 
in the program of library instruction. 

The librarian furthermore should recognize that she is first of all a 
teacher and has the responsibility not only of providing a properly or- 
ganized and cataloged collection of books and pamphlets but of co-oper- 
ating with teachers and co-ordinating library instruction. The librarian 
should have a thorough understanding of the curriculum, as well as of 
books and of the development of children. She should be able both to 
work with the faculty and to arouse enthusiasm for library use. It is her 
business to make the library so attractive and so serviceable that it in- 
vites use. 

A knowledge of library usage is essential both for those who go into 
the university and for those who go directly into the activities of home 
and business. It gives the Freshman an opportunity to succeed during 
that difficult first year of adjustment in college, and it gives those who 
cannot avail themselves of additional formal schooling a resource for 
education and continuous development. For both groups it is impor- 
tant that they know how to select materials and that they acquire cri- 
teria for evaluating them. It is essential that they acquaint themselves 
with the means for exploration in the world of books and ideas and that 
they have standards of value for their own guidance. The more books 
and other printed materials available, the more essential it is that they 
have standards of value. 

Library instruction should emphasize the essentials. In the past too 
many technical details have been emphasized. Often students were load- 
ed down with library facts at the beginning of a semester, facts that were 
so divorced from the student's own interests and studies that they were 
promptly forgotten, except for a feeling of distaste for any further library 
experience. Complete co-operation and understanding on the part of the 
teacher, the librarian, and the curriculum-maker is the ideal way to in- 

BO YD 297 

sure that the pupil learns to use the library effectively. Together they 
should set up the essentials for each grade and should provide the instruc- 
tion for each particular level, keeping hi mind always that the emphasis 
should be on library use and its role as an aid in learning the content of 
the various subjects. 

Ideally, the child of the primary grades should be introduced to the 
library as an attractive place in which to read and examine picture-books. 
In this connection he may well learn also consideration for others, how to 
open a book, how to take care of books, how to use a book, how to find a 
book, and how to conduct himself so that all may enjoy reading. He will 
come to think of the library as a place where he hears interesting stories, 
listens to tales of authors and illustrators, and sees and sometimes par- 
ticipates in the dramatization of books. In the intermediate grades the 
pupil will learn the parts of a book: title-page author, publisher, date of 
publication the table of contents, the preface, and the index. He should 
know the importance and significance of the copyright date and where to 
find it. The purpose of the foreword, preface, or introduction can be sim- 
ply presented, and a study of dedications will prove interesting. Special 
features of the book, such as the glossary, maps, or plates, can be noted 
and studied. The pupil will also become aware of the simplified diction- 
ary as a resource for pronunciations and definitions and will be introduced 
to children's encyclopedias and the card catalog. In the somewhat more 
advanced grades he will become proficient in the use of the table of con- 
tents, the index, the glossary, and other special features. Here he should 
learn also that the books in the library are arranged according to a pat- 
tern characteristic of all school libraries and most public libraries. The 
Dewey decimal classification system can be introduced simply and inter- 

At this level pupils should also know the essentials of the card catalog 
and its significance as a key or index to the contents of the library. They 
should know that the librarian makes at least three cards for almost 
every book added to the library, heading one with the author's name, one 
with the title, and one with the subject, and giving on each card addition- 
al information, including where, when, and by whom the book was pub- 
lished. The relationship of the call number in the corner of the card to 
the location of the book with the same number lettered on its back is the 
remaining important item for grade children to comprehend. Games, in- 
teresting drills, and individual problems on slips of paper can make an 
exciting adventure of mastering the skill of going from the card catalog 


to the book on the shelves. Guide cards can be introduced at the same 
time, with an explanation that all the cards in the catalog are arranged 
alphabetically by the .first main word on the top line. 

The World Almanac, the Junior Book of Authors, and Goode's School 
Atlas are some of the reference books that can be interesting to boys and 
girls in the upper intermediate grades. The contents and alphabetical ar- 
rangement of the picture and pamphlet files also should be common 
knowledge at this time, and librarians should be willing to have children 
find their own materials. 

In the junior high school there will be an increased use of encyclope- 
dias, and differences in location and arrangement will be noted in the in- 
dexes of Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and the World Book Encyclo- 
pedia. Possibilities for the use of the dictionary, other than pronuncia- 
tion and definition, will be explored; these will include the derivation of 
words, diacritical marking, syllabification, abbreviations, and special fea- 
tures of the appendix, such as the pronouncing gazetteer and the bio- 
graphical dictionary. The unabridged dictionary will also receive atten- 
tion. If the type of school, pupils, and curriculum warrant it, an adult 
encyclopedia and the Abridged Readers 7 Guide to Periodical Literature may 
be introduced. Children often ask what determines the reason for the in- 
dexing of a magazine and are interested to know that these magazines are 
carefully selected and are generally the ones most commonly found in 
schools and libraries. 

The card catalog will again receive attention as a key to the contents 
of the library in relation to some particular unit of the curriculum. The 
library is intended to serve every department, and it is well for teachers of 
all subjects to have their pupils utilize the card catalog for discovering 
the books relating to their particular fields. Additional reference books 
may be introduced at this time. Simple note-taking and bibliography- 
making also receive attention, and opportunities for practice are pro- 

In the senior high school there will be new approaches to materials al- 
ready studied, and there will be a definite application to the problems, 
units, or activities to be studied in individual classes or in the library 
when it is used as a laboratory. The librarians in both junior and senior 
high schools will arrange for an informal introduction to the library some- 
time during the first few weeks of school, so that every pupil may become 
familiar with the regulations and will feel free to use the library. Some 

BO YD 299 

librarians prefer to give each student a brief printed or mimeographed 
leaflet containing information about the library, together with a floor 

Reference books relevant to certain subjects may profitably be studied 
during the senior high school years. The World Almanac and Book of 
Facts, the Statesman's Yearbook, the American Yearbook, the Congres- 
sional Directory, the United States Government Manual, the Statistical Ab- 
stract of the 1940 Census, the Yearbook of Agriculture, Who's Who, Who's 
Who in America, the Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, the New Lamed 
History for Ready Reference, Shepherd's Historical Atlas t Current Biog- 
raphy, and many others are important to students in social-studies 
classes. The biographical dictionaries, the indexes to poetry, fiction, 
plays, essays, and short stories, and handbooks in literature, quotations, 
literary characters, anniversaries, and holidays all are useful to stu- 
dents in English classes. Similarly, students of other subjects may be in- 
troduced to appropriate reference works. 

To carry on a library instructional program, there must be constant 
contact between the teacher and the librarian. Both must lay careful 
plans, the teacher especially motivating classwork so that the necessity 
for library tools will be felt. Students will realize that these tools are 
time-saving devices and not momentary conveniences. There is a tech- 
nique for using the library as a laboratory which the successful teacher 
will employ. She will investigate the potentialities of the library in rela- 
tion to the particular unit under consideration to see if there are sufficient 
materials on hand, in order to avoid the sense of failure and discourage- 
ment which attends the inability of a pupil to find the desired book or 
periodical. She will confer ahead of time with the librarian and together 
they can review her plans, the librarian often suggesting overlooked ma- 
terials or reference books of special value. She will also make advance 
reservations for table space in the library for the class or class commit- 
tees. When the class comes to the library, both the librarian and the 
teacher offer help when it is needed, giving advice, noting the progress of 
the individual student, and participating in the pupils' enjoyment. 

Various tests have been constructed for the purpose of measuring li- 
brary skills and habits at different grade levels. These tests are particu- 
larly valuable for revealing the knowledge and ability of individual stu- 
dents and for determining the amount and kind of necessary basic in- 


A highly successful device for the teacher and librarian working togeth- 
er is the work sheet, which can serve as an effective means of instruction 
or review for the student. The work sheet must never become static but 
should be formulated or revised frequently to meet the problem or unit 
under consideration. When one knows, for example, that the use of the 
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature has been emphasized as a goal in 
both the tenth and eleventh grades, the work sheet becomes a convenient 
tool for checking the results of the lesson and also an effective means of 
insuring the integration of library instruction with the curriculum. In 
general, it is weU to develop several work sheets relating to the same unit 
or problem, so that the material and questions can be adapted to the 
ability levels. There should be more widely diversified questions for the 
advanced student, and only the barest essentials for the slow student. 
The questions for the latter should be simple, based upon repetition, and 
built around the aspects of the problem that already interest him. 

There is a distinct advantage in being able to present a library tool, 
such as the Readers 3 Guide to Periodical Literature, with enough copies on 
hand for each pupil. Lacking actual copies, many teachers and librarians 
may avail themselves of the opportunity to obtain from the H. W. Wilson 
Company fifty free copies of How to Use the Readers' Guide a small pam- 
phlet containing sample pages. Large facsimiles of catalog cards, includ- 
ing complete author, title, subject, and "see" and "see also" cards, are 
effective in presenting the card catalog, and they can be used to demon- 
strate the alphabetical arrangement and filing of cards in the catalog. 
These cards can be kept in a large portfolio ready for circulation from the 
library loan desk. Motion pictures, slides, still films, games, and other de- 
vices can be used to advantage. Free leaflets and pamphlets on how to 
use the library, dictionaries, or encyclopedias are available from several 
of the publishers. 

The time is passing when library lessons are offered solely by the librar- 
ian at the beginning of the semester, without reference to the necessity 
for such knowledge or the opportunity to follow up the student's immedi- 
ate achievement. Preparing the pupil for effective use of the library can 
be a stimulating and challenging affair; and when a teacher and a li- 
brarian, with the administrator's support and understanding, start en- 
thusiastically on a planned program, the teaching permeates the whole 
school and the fun of finding books, materials, and bits of information 
becomes contagious among pupils and teachers alike. 



Associate Librarian 

Teachers College, Columbia University 
New York, New York 


There is tangible evidence that the school library is accepted as a vital 
part of the educational program of the country in that large sums of the 
public's money are spent on salaries, equipment, books, and other teach- 
ing materials. The expenditures for school libraries in the school year 
1934-35 for those school systems included in the report of the Biennial 
Survey of Education 1 totaled $6,868,251, The additions to the book stock 
of school libraries for the same period amounted to nearly two million vol- 
umes. A single state, Tennessee, for example, expended from state and 
local funds close to $140,000 for library books during 1939-40 and paid 
out of public and local funds another $300,000 in salaries for librarians in 
public schools. 2 In an earlier chapter of this Yearbook (chap, xii), it is 
noted that many states make provision for the financial support of school 
libraries. Public funds are also being expended for the support of munici- 
pal and state library services intended to serve teachers and pupils as 
members of the community. However, buildings, money, books, and laws 
are but the material background for the true function of library service. 
If the possibilities of libraries as educational forces are to be realized, at- 
tention should be directed to preparing a sufficient and well-equipped 
personnel which can use them intelligently. In addition to well-trained 
librarians this means that teachers must be trained to use libraries for 
their own information and continuing education and as educational in- 
struments in the teaching process. 

1 Emery M. Foster and Edith A. Lathrop, "Statistics of Public-School Libraries/' 
Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1934-36, Vol. II, chap. v. United 
States Office of Education Bulletin No. 2, 1937. Washington: Government Printing 
Office, 1938. 

2 Eleanor M. Witmer, Library Personnel and Training Agencies in Tennessee, p. 78. 
Chicago: American Library Association, 1941. 



What are colleges now doing to prepare teachers to utilize the library 
services generally introduced in our public schools and already fairly 
common in our communities? Since a large proportion of teachers in the 
secondary schools are graduates of the liberal-arts colleges, in order to 
answer this question it is necessary to examine the offerings of these col- 
leges, as well as those of teachers' colleges and departments or schools of 
education in universities. 

A recent study 5 of the use of the library by student teachers in thirty- 
one colleges in the area of the North Central Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools reports that some instruction in the use of the library 
is offered in all but two of the thirty colleges reporting. It is provided in 
various ways: twenty conduct an orientation-week lecture or tour, 
eighteen have a course of instruction, seven provide the service of a li- 
brary consultant, and six issue a printed bulletin or manual. 

Still another study 4 investigated the practices of 153 teacher-training 
agencies in instructing prospective teachers about materials useful in 
their teaching, the use of libraries, and related subjects. Among other 
things it was found that 104 formal courses dealing with library use are 
presented by this group of colleges. 

In addition to these studies, a survey of the catalogs of 225 teachers' 
colleges, together with personal observations and reports of concrete ex- 
periences in specific colleges, show that in general the colleges are at- 
tempting to prepare prospective teachers to utilize library service in 
various ways. The major emphasis at present is placed on learning to use 
the college library for purposes of study. There is discouragingly little 
evidence that attention is being given to introducing teachers to library 
materials and services which will be available in their fields and which 
wiU constitute a necessary part of their teaching equipment. There is also 
a lack of attention to libraries as adult-education agencies and to the 
teacher's responsibility for seeing that they are adequately supported. 

3 John H. Lancaster, The Use of the Library by Student Teachers. New York : Teach- 
ers College, Columbia University, 1941. 

4 Frances Henne and Mildred Hawksworth Lowell, "The Preparation of Secondary 
School Teachers in the Use of Library Materials," Library Quarterly, XII (July, 1942), 


1. Preparing College Students To Use the College Library 
During the last quarter-century considerable progress has been made 
in helping the college student to use the library more effectively. Nearly 
every college makes some attempt to guide the prospective teacher, along 
with other students, in bibliographic methods and resources. Testing de- 
vices have been developed to determine what instruction is needed, and 
various methods are used to assist the student to acquire minimum skills. 
The increasing use of the school library at the elementary- and secondary- 
school levels is sending an ever growing number of students to college 
with some knowledge of how to use library resources. This is enabling 
the college to plan its courses and other devices for instructing students 
in library use with a degree of success hitherto impossible. 

a. Courses. It is now generally recognized that all college students 
should acquire effective methods of study and become acquainted with 
bibliographical procedures and sources if they are to pursue their college 
work effectively and continue study throughout life. Many colleges at- 
tempt to give such instruction by means of formal courses, but the nature 
of these courses varies markedly. The librarian or a college instructor 
may teach an orientation or how-to-study course which may be a re- 
quired course in some institutions and an elective in others, or it may be 
offered only to those students who cannot pass a diagnostic test based on 
library instruction offered in high schools. A few colleges offer additional 
instruction in library use either as a separate course or as units in a gen- 
eral research course required of all students. Topics considered in these 
courses include the arrangement of the college library, use of the card 
catalog, introduction to special reference books and indexes, and biblio- 
graphic procedures. From the teachers 7 standpoint this is excellent train- 
ing. But for them an even more thoroughgoing course during the upper 
college years giving emphasis to special resources in the field of education 
would seem to be desirable. 

b. Other Methods of Instruction. No mere roster of classes, important 
as they are, will completely answer the needs of college students for train- 
ing in the use of the library. The library itself must demonstrate instruc- 
tional practices by its well-stocked collection, functional arrangement, 
and individual direction. Library assistance should go further than mere- 
ly producing facts by pointing out how and where information is to be 
found so that students may be made independent. Either the reference 
librarian or a special member of the staff, free to spend most of her ef- 


forts on such informal instruction, should plan an instructional program. 
In some libraries there are assistants who serve as advisers to students. 
These are variously called readers' advisers, library consultants, reading 
counselors, or library specialists. The assistance which students need 
centers first in difficulties at the card catalog. These range from such 
simple things as variant spellings of authors 7 names, like Meyer; incorrect 
author headings for association names; lack of knowledge of filing rules 
and therefore difficulties in locating names such as McCall and Newlon; 
ignorance of other means of finding a card for a book when the author or 
title entry fails; and, most of all, troubles with subject headings. Stu- 
dents usually realize that the card catalog is an index to the books in a 
library, arranged by authors and subjects, but few of them appreciate the 
service a card catalog renders as a research tool. It is at this point that 
aid and instruction are so badly needed. There is room for drill in the 
manner of following cross-references, finding a clue to the right subject by 
using the tracing on author cards, and using the information on the cards 
for bibliographic assistance. These questions which come daily to any li- 
brary assistant stationed near a card catalog should form the basis of the 
instruction given on the use of that tool. But the best time to give that 
instruction is when the individual meets a specific problem. 

All phases of individual assistance are utilized in helping students who 
wish help in beginning work on term papers. So many questions of this 
nature come to the library consultants at Teachers College that special 
lectures are scheduled each semester to suggest basic methods and aids. 
Recently the students appearing at several of these lectures were checked 
for their knowledge of periodical indexes. Out of 189 students answering, 
only twenty-nine had ever heard of the Education Index, only twelve had 
ever used the International Index, and although the majority of them had 
used the Readers' 1 Guide, they were not clear as to its scope. Yet these 
were primarily graduate students who had come from liberal-arts as well 
as teachers' colleges, and many of them were experienced teachers. The 
library consultants also confer with the students who are working on dis- 
sertations and projects. One member of the library staff, a professor of 
education, gives expert advice to the doctoral candidates. In the depart- 
ment of education of another university the library consultant joins with 
the professor of education in a course on thesis problems. By class in- 
struction, mimeographed bulletins, and individual guidance she endeav- 
ors to help the students acquire a knowledge of the resources of the li- 
brary, the reference materials available, and the best methods by which 


any investigation is earned on. Several other colleges report that library 
methods are included in the graduate research courses. 

The matter of form for bibliographies and footnotes is another topic 
which merits attention either in a library class or by informal instruction. 
Whenever possible, the form should be planned by co-operative action on 
the part of all members of the faculty. If they disagree on details, then a 
committee might study the matter and make recommendations for a 
form to be adopted by the entire school. This form should be simple, con- 
sistent, and suitable for typed papers. If all classes require the same form, 
students will learn it with a minimum of effort and will be free to center 
their attention on reading and thinking. 

Another type of student request is for assistance in selecting the "best 
book" for a particular purpose. It may be a history of literature needed 
in reviewing for an examination, a survey of the various schools of psy- 
chology, the best recent book in a special field, or material for leisure-time 
reading. The catalog's nonselective character makes it difficult for the 
reader to choose unless he already has some background knowledge of the 
subject. This information may of course be given by the library assistant, 
either at a special point or at any library desk. "Silent advisers" are pos- 
sible, too, by means of special card files and book lists. The machinery 
for this kind of advising is constantly growing and many of the tools de- 
vised for use in one school are easily modified for use in other institutions. 
A few are suggested here. Some large libraries have a separate catalog of 
new books which they file under broad subject headings so that readers 
may easily find the books recently added to the library. One such file 
covers a period of three years, with books for the current year in a sepa- 
rate tray. Students can easily see what has been recently added to the 
library in their special fields. Because of the many questions about the 
"best books" in education, this library has also clipped the annotated 
entries of the list of "Sixty Best Books in Education" from 1925 to date 
and pasted them on cards which are filed under broad subject headings. In 
this way a reader may find what books in elementary education have 
been selected as outstanding in this recent period. Another file contains a 
group of about five hundred annotated cards listing readable books on all 
subjects but education. These, too, are placed in a special catalog case 
near the main catalog and guide students who wish to read in subjects 
other than their majors and who need readable material. These are all 
aids and techniques which the specially trained librarian is best equipped 
to prepare and interpret. 


Services such as these will not only aid and assist students with their 
regularly assigned college work but will provide opportunity and condi- 
tions conducive to reading which will promote intellectual breadth, dis- 
cover special abilities, enhance personal tastes, develop qualities of citi- 
zenship, and result in a richer contribution to the pupils who will be un- 
der the direction of these teachers in the school. 

2. Preparing Teachers to Direct Pupil Use of Library Resources 

The instructional practices described so far are designed for all college 
students, whether they plan to teach or not. These procedures are also 
needed by teachers for their own college work and as examples of methods 
to use with pupils. But they are inadequate for that group of students 
who are prospective teachers or teachers in training unless followed by 
additional courses. This group of students should understand what con- 
stitutes a functioning school library and how to guide pupils in an in- 
creasingly independent use of reading and nonreading materials. This in- 
struction is now being presented by means of courses in children's litera- 
ture, library courses integrated with special subjects, such as English and 
the social sciences, or with educational courses like student teaching. 
Additional advantages are afforded the student by directed practice in a 
demonstration school and by separate courses dealing with the organiza- 
tion and administration of the school library. 

a. Courses in Literature for Children and Young People. Courses in 
literature for children and young people are found in practically all col- 
leges engaged in training teachers. They vary as to content, some stress- 
ing literature for children in the elementary grades, others concerned with 
adolescent literature, the teaching of reading, or story-telling. The quan- 
tity of materials available for young people has grown to such proportions 
that a single course can no longer encompass the literature for preschool 
through twelfth grade. There seems to be a tendency also to interpret 
literature for children and young people as any reading matter which is 
used for pleasure or profit during the school-age years. Some -of the col- 
leges recognize that literature may be presented to children through 
media other than print, and so their courses include films, radio, and pup- 
petry, as well as books and magazines. The marked changes in educa- 
tional practice detailed in chapter i emphasize the teacher's need to be 
familiar with a wide variety of reading materials. It is, therefore, impor- 
tant that careful study of the best materials available be introduced in 
the teacher-training curriculum and that attention be given not only to 

FEAOL&Y 307 

books which develop literary appreciation but also to those which can be 
used to alter the outlook of pupils, deepen their understanding, modify 
behavior, and promote personality. There should be opportunity to read 
and examine new books as well as the classics, for teachers need to know 
not only what children should read but also what they are actually read- 
ing. The purpose of these courses is to enable teachers to become ac- 
quainted with children's books, to understand children's interests, and to 
learn how to bring the two together. This means a knowledge and ap- 
preciation of the value of children's literature, some standards and skill 
in choosing the "right book for the right child," and methods of bringing 
books and children together both in the classroom and in the library. 5 

6. Integrating Library Instruction mth Subject-Matter Courses. Perhaps 
the most practical and effective method of presenting library instruction, 
and the one least likely to be shown in an examination of college catalogs, 
is by means of units or courses integrated with specific classes. These are 
presented in many ways. Sometimes the librarian is a joint instructor of 
the entire course; or the librarian may appear for one or two lectures. 
The training-school librarian or other qualified members of the staff may 
speak to classes in administration. In one large teachers' college special 
members of the library staff are often invited to visit regular classes to 
lecture, test, or give students direction and practice in using book and 
other printed materials for teaching specific subjects. This is a vital and 
strategic method of introducing library techniques, and it calls for close 
co-operation between the library and teaching staff. Why should the li- 
brary staff dispense the books and the teaching staff refer to their con- 
tents without any co-operation between the two? Successful teaching al- 
ways assumes responsibility for directing the study of the subject. Learn- 
ing is not a task which can be accomplished incidentally and without 
help. The techniques of getting and using the information are often as 
important as the information itself. Teachers, therefore, would profit if 
all their courses presented the printed materials needed for the study of 
the subject, as well as detailed methods for using those materials with 

The suggestion has been made that if many college instructors add to 
their courses some instruction on the use of reference books and study 

6 An analysis of courses offered in the field of children's literature may be found in 
a study now being completed at Teachers College, Columbia University: Jennie L. 
Milton, Courses in Children's Literature in Colleges and Universities in the United States. 


skills, the students will be bored by the constant repetition. This point 
of view fails to recognize that habituation is the essence of learning. For 
any idea to be mastered for permanent use, it not only must be presented 
but also must be made to recur time and time again in all kinds of connec- 
tions. The student must grasp the idea and then have opportunities to 
hang various details on the main conception in order that he may under- 
stand to the point of retention. Anyone who has had the experience of 
teaching the same class of students for two or more successive terms, ex- 
pecting to build upon what was taught the first semester, knows full well 
the faUacy of the assumption that teaching is necessarily followed by 
learning. Teaching about how to do a thing is not always followed by 
learning, as all can testify who have tried to swim, to bandage a shoulder, 
or to make any article from written or oral directions without much prac- 
tice. So the knowledge of any one of these techniques or tools should be 
built up steadily by viewing it and using it in many different class situa- 
tions. 6 

c. Demonstration Libraries. Any college attempting to prepare teach- 
ers should provide a demonstration school for practice teaching which is 
equipped with library service fully meeting the requirements of that 
state. Every prospective teacher should have the opportunity to observe 
and practice in a school which demonstrates progressive library methods 
and where she may use with boys and girls the books presented in the 
literature and subject field courses. Teachers are not expected to teach 
without some practice in using tools and materials which will be available 
in the field and they should not be expected to know how to utilize a 
school library unless they see a good one in action and use it frequently 
under the supervision and direction of the critic teachers and librarian. 
From this experience they will gain an appreciation of the use of a library 
as a teaching tool, a knowledge of how to use many books with pupils, 
and skill in working with a school librarian. Well-planned and directed 
practice of this kind will tie together the theories learned in classes and 

6 Descriptions of actual procedures in integrating courses at specific colleges may 
be found in the following references: Earl Rugg, "A Library Centered Program of 
Teacher Education/ 7 College and Research Libraries, II (December, 1940), 42-47; 
Charles W. Sanf ord, "Teaching the Extensive Use of the Library to Prospective Social 
Studies and English Teachers/' School and Society, XLIV (December 5, 1936), 736- 
37; Louis Shores, "Library-trained Teachers/' Phi Delta Kappan, II (February, 
1940), 303-6. 


will prove the culminating step in bringing teachers to utilize a school li- 
brary as part of their teaching equipment. 7 

Pupils are frequently called upon to use community library resources 
as well as those in the school. It is therefore desirable for their teachers to 
be acquainted with the wider resources of such libraries and the practices 
commonly used by them in serving both in- and out-of-school youth. 
Teachers in training should be encouraged to use local public library re- 
sources for boys and girls during their period of practice teaching. 

d. Courses on the School Library. It is in the area of courses on the 
school library that one finds the greatest variation and perhaps the weak- 
est offerings for teachers. The titles of these courses listed in college cata- 
logs range from Library Methods, The School Library, Reference and Bibli- 
ography, and Organization and Administration of a Small School Library 
to The Library as an Information Laboratory. From their descriptions 
some of these courses can scarcely be distinguished from the orientation 
courses offered to all college students, and many others seem designed for 
teacher-librarians and school librarians, therefore stressing details of or- 
ganization not needed by teachers at large. Many of them are restricted 
to methods and materials for the elementary school. It is quite impor- 
tant, however, that somewhere in the curriculum teachers should be giv- 
en instruction on library standards, simple organization of a classroom 
library, and methods of teaching library lessons to pupils. They should 
also gain a knowledge of the possibilities of community, state, and na- 
tional library service so that they can use these facilities effectively in the 
education of the youth coming under their guidance. Whether all this in- 
formation and instruction can be integrated with the class instruction and 
with directed practice in demonstration libraries as suggested earlier in 
in this paper will depend upon the administration and organization of the 
particular school. 


As stated before, the role of the library in training teachers is three- 
fold: maximum use of the college library; recognition of the place of li- 
brary services in the teaching and learning process; appreciation of the 
role of municipal and state library service in adult education. These 
aims are not mutually exclusive, however, and are not always separated 
in a program of instruction. Courses should be planned, of course, with 

7 An analysis of the use of demonstration school libraries may be found in Henne 
and Lowell, op. dt. 


one of these aims in view, but often another will intrude at some points. 
An elementary course may be offered to students on the undergraduate 
and graduate levels in the basic tools of research. This course is based on 
the first aim, to instruct and guide students to learn to use a library for 
their own research. But many of the methods used there are identical 
with those used in high-school instruction, and throughout the course 
attention should be called to the items and methods useful in teaching on 
those levels. 

One may compare instruction in the use of a library to the study of 
semantics. It is an exploration rather than a science, a "workout" in- 
stead of a subject. As a recent writer on the subject of semantics has 
pointed out, this kind of study rewards its students with a skill rather 
than a logical body of subject matter. Opportunity for practice, then, is 
a prime requisite in college classes and in teaching, and the more closely 
this practice is connected with actual needs, the better. Instead of build- 
ing up a knowledge of the history of libraries or the logical arrangement 
of classification numbers or even a memorization of the periodical indexes 
available in a local library, it is much more important for students to have 
drill in analyzing their own difficulties and those of their pupils and de- 
ciding how to attack them. Along with this routine of analysis should go 
practice in simple methods of listing references, note-taking, outlining, 
and assimilating material before embarking on writing. Other valuable 
techniques include questioning whether a topic to be pursued is "fact 
finding" or "research," drawing inferences or conclusions from data pre- 
sented and combining data from several sources into effective speaking 
or written experiences. Whether these methods are initiated in a "How 
To Study" course or a course in library methods, it is apparent that, like 
spelling and grammatical construction, they must be directed and cor- 
rected in all classes if they are to become permanently fixed in the habits 
of students. 

No longer is there a question regarding the desirability of library in- 
struction. The task ahead is to decide what to include and how to pre- 
sent it in the college and the schools. Because of the great variability in 
present practice there is as yet no artificial, stereotyped pattern. It is 
possible to examine courses of study and to profit by the experiences of 
those librarians who have been teaching courses of this kind. Library in- 
struction in schools and colleges should not be copied from courses given 
in library schools for prospective librarians, nor should the instruction be 
couched in professional terms. College students do not require profes- 


slonal library courses. Instead, they should have assistance and Instruc- 
tion adapted to their specific needs. Fortunately texts have now ap- 
peared which are excellent guides for this new kind of instruction. And 
of course, those prepared in the past which offer logical surveys of library 
tools are still helpful references. 

This whole program demands organization by a college president, who 
has a library point of view, and skilful direction by a librarian who can 
vision the library instruction not so much as a systematic presentation of 
a logically developed subject as the therapeutic treatment of the needs of 
students in a particular school. At least one member of the library staff 
should be a librarian who is also an experienced teacher, willing and in- 
terested in assuming these instructional duties. Not every librarian is 
necessarily a good teacher nor needs to be. Such a program co-operative- 
ly evolved will produce a new crop of teachers who will view the library 
not as an entity in itself but as a vital part of the entire educational proc- 
ess, the college library as an aid to study and research in all subjects, the 
public library as a means of continuing self-education, and the school li- 
brary as a teaching technique for teachers in the elementary and second- 
ary schools. And because librarians contribute to the personal and pro- 
fessional growth of all members of a community, teachers will have stand- 
ards for judging such services and may actually support the growth of 
local library facilities. 


Librarian and Director of Library Training 

State Teachers College 
Millersville, Pennsylvania 

The term teacher-librarian is used to designate a person who is en- 
gaged in two types of educational activity classroom teaching and school- 
library Service. In some schools she is considered a teacher who carries 
the responsibility for the care and management of the library; in others 
she is a school librarian to whom a certain amount of teaching is of neces- 
sity assigned. The attitude will most likely be determined by the manner 


in which her time is proportionately divided. It may also depend some- 
what upon her main interest. The basic influences, however, will be the 
size of the school in which she is employed and its philosophy of educa- 

Spears says, "It can be assumed that the small high school will remain 
as a distinct type. It is an integral part of its community and a potential 
factor for influence." 8 A knowledge of its characteristics and role is im- 
portant in any plan for training teacher-librarians. The following sta- 
tistics are of interest in this connection. 

"Almost 40 per cent of our high schools have enrolments of fewer than 
one hundred pupils. Those with enrolments less than three hundred total 
more than 76 per cent of the high schools. And more than 85 per cent 
have pupil enrolments below five hundred. Perhaps, the most significant 
fact to be noted is the location of the small high school in rural areas, 
communities with fewer than twenty-five hundred inhabitants. It typi- 
cally operates with fewer than 130 pupils and six teachers/ 79 

It is obvious that the small school must assume greater responsibility 
for social and cultural leadership than is the case with the large school. 
All community activities tend to center around the school, and relations 
of teachers with parents, as well as with students, become more intimate. 
Church influence is strong. And, in spite of the radio and the automobile, 
boys and girls acquire the sophisticated attitudes and habits of modern 
life much more slowly than youth in cities. Their interests mature more 
slowly. Pupils in such schools are deprived of cultural opportunities which 
city youth enjoy through easy access to museums, lectures, and the stim- 
ulating associations more frequently found in the larger population cen- 
ters. An additional handicap to rural youth is the general inadequacy of 
public library service. 

The small school is a closely knit organization. Each teacher has a 
more comprehensive part in the program, both curricular and extra- 
curricular, than is the case in schools with larger enrolments. Integration 
is more easily accomplished. Guidance has a firm foundation in a well- 
rounded knowledge of pupils. Furthermore, the connection with the ele- 
mentary grades is usually close. Elementary classes are often taught in 

8 Harold Spears, The Emerging High-School Curriculum and Its Direction, p. 115. 
New York: American Book Co., 1940. 

9 Statistics of Public High Schools, 1987-88, chap, v, pp. 4-5. United States Office 
of Education Bulletin No. 2, 1940. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1940. 


the same building as the high school, but even if located elsewhere the co- 
operative planning possibilities are favorable. 

Among the drawbacks must be noted the common lack of adequate 
funds for materials, especially books, and also the deficiency of appropri- 
ate space provisions in old buildings for modern educational procedures. 
The extra-curricular load is likely to press too heavily on the faculty, be- 
cause athletics, dramatics, musical activities, newspaper work, com- 
mencement programs, and class trips must all be supervised by a small 
group of individuals. Finally, changes in personnel occur quite frequent- 
ly in the small staff. 

Too often the care of the library has been considered on the basis of an 
extra-curricular activity. More and more, however, there is an increasing 
grasp by school people of the importance of library skills and understand- 
ing in all study programs, and therefore provision is made for supervising 
the library. Even in the smallest schools (those with enrolments below 
100), the teacher-librarian should be excused from a certain number of 
hours of teaching and thus allotted definite time for library work, with 
regular hours in the library. 10 The exact amount of time necessary for 
library duties where the enrolment is below 100 will depend upon local 

When the enrolment is above 100, approximately half the time of the 
teacher-librarian should be devoted to the library, and the time should be 
increased in accordance with the increase in number of pupils and as de- 
mands made upon the library multiply. Under ideal conditions an enrol- 
ment of 200 pupils provides ample justification for full-time library serv- 
ice, and certainly a high school with an enrolment of 500 should have 
it. 11 

The position of teacher-librarian holds possibilities of far-reaching in- 
fluence in both the school and its district. 


The desirability of having in every community, no matter how small, 
one person on the school staff who has had thorough library training is 
obvious. But this is generally impossible in the smallest schools. Some 

10 Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, School Library Stand- 
ards. Durham, North Carolina: The Association, 1936. 

11 Lucille F. Fargo, Preparation for School Library Work, p. 55. New York: Colum- 
bia University Press, 1936. 


training, however, is essential and great improvement would result from 
a requirement of at least six semester hours of special preparation. 

In schools large enough to require at least half-time library service, a 
fairly thorough program of training is desirable, for the organization of 
the library and the demands made upon it approximate the status of the 
library in the larger institution* A practical program of preparation will 
provide for half a year of library training (the minimum requirement of 
the American Library Association Board of Education for Librarian- 
ship) 12 with provision for subsequent study to complete the course. 

We may now specify certain of the areas where the teacher-librarian 
should have special competence and which her course of preparation 
should therefore emphasize. 

a. Book Knowledge. The importance of the teacher-librarian in educa- 
tional organization rests chiefly upon her ability to make efficient use of 
books, to advise and give service to other faculty members in the selec- 
tion of their teaching materials, and to aid young people in the formation 
of reading and study habits. Therefore, the book courses will be seen to 
be fundamental in the curriculum, and in planning them it must be re- 
membered that in a rural area the teacher-librarian in the high school fre- 
quently serves elementary-school children and also the adults of the com- 
munity and must necessarily be familiar with suitable library materials 
for these groups as well. 

6. Reading Guidance. The prospective librarian must be prepared to 
use various devices to introduce suitable materials to the readers for 
whom they are supplied. This will necessitate training in book review- 
ing and in the study of other publicity methods. It will also require skill 
in reading guidance and preparation to co-operate with remedial reading 

c Teaching the Use of Books. The teacher-librarian must be the school 
specialist in teaching the use of books and libraries, though the co-opera- 
tion of other faculty members is needed. The teacher-librarian must be 
prepared to offer such instruction and to take the leadership in a general 
program in which the entire school participates. 

d. Organization. Good organization is essential to the functioning of 
any library, so the teacher-librarian must be well-grounded in the tech- 
nical processes adapted to school-library requirements. The half-time 
librarian must be as competent in this field as the full-time librarian, for 

12 American Library Association Board of Education for.Librarianship. The Prepa- 
ration of Teacher-Librarians, Chicago: American Library Association, 1937. 


she will deal with the same types of materials; furthermore, the pupils 
should have the opportunity to become acquainted with standard library 

e. Practical Work. The ability of the teacher-librarian to cope with the 
problems which arise will be greatly strengthened by a thorough training 
schedule of practical work. The need for a background of experience in 
dealing with children and adults in library activities must not be under- 
estimated. Systematic habits in routine duties should be developed. Skill 
in book repair is required in small schools where funds for new books are 
frequently insufficient. Opportunity to participate in group organization 
of school libraries proves to be of great benefit. Field work in school li- 
braries under the supervision of capable librarians is particularly desir- 
able for the purpose of integrating the various phases of training. 


A teacher-librarian in charge of a library in a small school is confronted 
first with the need of order, no matter how Emited her time for library 
duties. A knowledge of simple methods of accessioning, classifying, shelf- 
listing, and cataloging books, and also of book repair, is essential. But 
a curriculum planned for her training should emphasize the use of books 
as tools and the place of books in the enrichment of living. It is of the ut- 
most importance that she have an opportunity to develop familiarity 
with books and other teaching aids and to learn how she and the other 
teachers may stimulate and guide reading interests. Knowledge of pub- 
lic library extension agencies and their services will enable her to be of 
assistance in both school and community. The educational function of 
the library should be understood in even the smallest school. 



Director, Library School 

George Peabody College for Teachers 

Nashville, Tennessee 


The training of school librarians today is carried on in several types of 
training agencies. For convenience in discussion, these will be grouped 
into (a) those having a curriculum of one year or more and accredited by 


the American Library Association, and (6) those not accredited by the 
American Library Association. In the latter the curriculum may cover 
only a few credit hours or it may extend beyond a year, with variations 
between. This section is concerned primarily with the preparation of 
full-time school librarians, educated in the library schools accredited by 
the Board of Education for Librarianship of the American Library As- 

For convenience of treatment the subject of training school librarians 
is considered under three heads: (I) selection of students, (2) curriculum 
and placement, and (3) personnel and facilities for training. 


The term "selection" is here used to include both the process of evaluat- 
ing applicants' qualifications for pursuing a course of training for school 
librarianship and efforts to recruit desirable candidates for the work. 

Most students entering library school are in the middle twenties in age 
and, in addition to approximately sixteen years of earlier schooling, have 
typically had some post-college work experience. It seems so obvious as 
to require only a bare statement, without elaboration, that a professional 
curriculum of only one year in library school can do little more than 
equip the prospective school librarian with the most important library 
techniques and some fundamental points of view. The broad general edu- 
cation, knowledge of contemporary affairs, the appreciation of books, and 
the knowledge of factors which condition the physical, emotional, and 
social development of young people, so essential for successful school 
librarianship, are not embraced in the typical library-school curriculum. 
If these qualities are to be found in professionally trained school librari- 
ans, the policies of selection and admission of students to library school 
must seek to identify the qualities and make these elements the basis of 

Requirements for admission are almost standardized in the library 
schools accredited by the American Library Association. In schools of 
Types I and II, 13 college graduation with a creditable scholarship record, 
frequently described as a "B" average, is almost universal. Other re- 
quirements usually specify a major in one broad division of the under- 

13 In Types I and II schools instruction is offered on the graduate level and the 
bachelor's degree normally is prerequisite. Type III schools admit undergraduates of 
junior standing or above. 


graduate curriculum, such as language and literature, social sciences, 
natural sciences, or fine arts; age limitations of from 20 to 35 years; abil- 
ity to operate a typewriter; reading knowledge of one or more modem 
foreign languages; and references as to character and promise in library 
work. Evidence regarding character and professional promise is usually 
sought from some librarian who knows the applicant, and statements of 
reading and other interests are typically requested on the application 

Many of the library schools are now questioning the validity of the 
bachelor's degree as the chief qualification for admission and there is 
some question about the reliability of undergraduate grades as an index 
of future success in a library school. In a recent study of some seven hun- 
dred graduates of one of the older library schools, Dr. Eugene Wilson 
concluded that at best "prediction of library-school marks based on un- 
dergraduate marks would be only 37 per cent better than chance predic- 
tions." 14 

The tendency in the past to associate library work most closely with 
English and history, which formerly used library materials proportionate- 
ly more than other subjects, has resulted in a preponderance of librarians 
with equipment in these two fields. Indeed, Dr. Wilson reports that 47.6 
per cent of the library-school graduates included in his study presented 
English as the major field and fully two-thirds presented either English 
or history. 15 

For the preparation of school librarians there has been a tendency to 
modify the requirements. Most frequently added has been an additional 
requirement in education and psychology sufficient to insure teacher as 
well as library certification in the home state of the prospective school li- 
brarian. Greatest objection has been voiced to the foreign-language re- 
quirement, which both school administrators and librarians have consid- 
ered less important in school-library service than in other types of prepa- 

By far the majority of applicants for admission to library-school 
courses preparing for other than school-library work come from liberal- 
arts colleges or from public or college libraries; but the greater number of 
those preparing for school-library work come either from teaching or 

14 Eugene Wilson, 'Tre-professional Background of Students in a Library School," 
Library Quarterly, VIII (April, 1938), 157-88. 



from teacher-training institutions. Miss Fargo's analysis/ 6 for example, 
of some 541 elementary- and high-school librarians, showed a distribu- 
tion of sources from which school librarians are recruited, as shown in 
Table I. 

The recruits from teachers-in-service or in-training presumably bring 
with them knowledge of the school curriculum and of optimum conditions 
under which learning takes place, and this is extremely valuable to the fu- 
ture librarian. To the extent that these conditions obtain, this source of 











Liberal-arts colleges 


Teacher-training institutions. . . 

supply is a valuable one. The chief factors questioned involve the extent 
to which teacher-education is gained at the expense of broad, general 
"cultural" education 17 and the possibility that some teachers, less suc- 
cessful in the classroom or troubled by problems of discipline, may turn 
to the library as a field of less stress in which success may be more easily 

Dr. Altstetter's report on 108 of the 200 high schools in the Co-opera- 
tive Study of Secondary School Standards 18 attempted an evaluation of 
the librarians' training in these schools on the same basis (but with recog- 

16 Fargo, op. tit., p. 105. 

17 W. S. Learned and B. D. Wood, The Student and His Knowledge. New York: 
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1938. (This report to the 
Carnegie Foundation on the results of high-school and college examinations in Penn- 
sylvania would appear, however, to throw some doubt on the value of the broad, gen- 
eral courses in the liberal-arts college as well as on teacher-education. See especially 
pp. 31, 300, 335.) 

18 M. L. Altstetter, "Evaluating the Education of Secondary-School Librarians/' 
School Renew, XLVI (June, 1938), 453-62. 


nitlon for library science) as classroom teachers and administrators, tak- 
ing the following five measures into account: (1) professional adequacy 
(number of hours in library science) ; (2) general adequacy (college work 
other than library science) ; (3) academic comprehensiveness (secondary 
and college fields); (4) educational comprehensiveness (education and 
psychology); and (5) recency (date of last study in library science). 
Altstetter concluded : a As a class, librarians are less adequately and com- 
prehensively prepared in both academic and educational fields than are 
classroom teachers; even when library science is included in the total, 
their preparation does not equal that of teachers." In particular, he 
found librarians better prepared in English and the social sciences and 
less well-prepared in mathematics, foreign languages, science, arts, and 
education than classroom teachers who have not majored in these fields. 
It might be questioned, however, whether these 108 school librarians 
fairly represent librarians with accredited training, since Dr. Altstetter 
included everyone who devoted half or more time to the library. 

Efforts at an objective evaluation of the book interests of applicants 
and the possession of personality traits considered desirable have met 
with relatively little success. Personal interviews are often requested and 
sometimes required prior to admission, in an effort to evaluate these 
traits. Variations in the skill of interviewers and the subjective nature of 
the judgments may limit the value of this procedure; and there may be 
need for the use of more objective techniques as a supplement to the other 
methods of acquiring information. 

In passing, one other aspect of the admission problem should be men- 
tioned. More than 200 colleges offer undergraduate instruction for 
school librarians. 19 In most of the schools the offerings do not constitute 
a full-year curriculum, being offered either as free electives or toward a 
library-science minor. The graduate who has pursued such a course is 
usually certified as a teacher, and in many states he also meets require- 
ments for part-time school-library work. If the graduate who has pur- 
sued this library "short course" later wishes to attend an American Li- 
brary Association Type I or Type II graduate school, two difficulties may 
be encountered. First, the undergraduate record, because of the inclusion 
of required courses psychology and education, and also electives in li- 
brary science may show weakness in general cultural fields; and second, 

19 Frances Lander Spain, "School Library Standards." Unpublished Master's the- 
sis, Graduate Library School, University of Chicago, 1940. 


the professional library-school curriculum is planned for beginning stu- 
dents rather than for integration with this undergraduate work. 20 

The present basis of selection needs further study and evaluation by 
professional workers, using the most valid research and field techniques 
available. Particular consideration should be given to study of the values 
inherent in the present admission requirements and to efforts to identify 
the personality traits which are important in promoting effective learning 
in the school library. 


The library is an integral part of the school, and its functions are de- 
rived from educational objectives rather than from a consideration of the 
library as an isolated phenomenon. The basic purpose of the one-year 
library-school curriculum is to enable the prospective librarian to attain 
the knowledge, techniques, and skills essential in implementing the li- 
brary's contribution to the growth and development of students. 

There are numerous variations among the accredited library schools in 
the first-year curriculum but the basic content may be grouped into four 
courses, at least a part of which is always required. These are organiza- 
tion and administration, book selection, cataloging and classification, and 
reference. The first includes professional education and library philoso- 
phy, technical processes, records and reports, and special problems of ad- 
ministration. Book selection deals with the selection and purchase of 
books and other materials, including a study of format, editions, prices, 
publishers, dealers, and other phases of the book trade. Cataloging and 
classification is primarily concerned with the arrangement of materials so 
that they may be easily and quickly found according to subject, title, or 
author. Reference courses equip the librarian for assisting readers in lo- 
cating desired information. 

The basic library-school curriculum antedates the present emphasis on 
school libraries. Consequently, library schools which prepare school li- 
brarians have been forced to modify the traditional curriculum either by 
broadening the content of courses to include application of general theory 
to the school library, or to follow general courses by special ones devoted 
to the problems of organization and administration, book selection, cata- 
loging and classification, and reference in school libraries. Either ap- 

20 For a further discussion of this problem, see the Proceedings of the Southern Con- 
ference on Library Education. Nashville, Tennessee: George Peabody College for 
Teachers, 1942. 


proach to the problem is regarded as satisfactory so long as sufficient em- 
phasis has been placed upon school problems. 

A fundamental consideration is that the library-school student should 
make a specific vocational choice between school-library service and some 
other specialized library field. To this end the co-operation of employing 
officers in the public schools and library-school students and adminis- 
trators is essential. The former should insist upon general and specialized 
training, while library-school faculty and administrative officers should 
provide and require special school preparation as a prerequisite to 
recommendation. Since the emphasis upon special preparation and cer- 
tification is relatively recent, some consideration of modern problems and 
trends is pertinent. 

First among these educational trends is the great curriculum-revision 
movement which has transformed elementary schools and has already 
begun to change the character of secondary and higher education. Of 
significance to the school librarian should be the growing recognition that 
"learning through reading" is as important to studies predominantly 
mental in their activities as "learning by doing" is to those studies which 
emphasize manual activities. Consequently, the curriculum experts have 
found themselves increasingly concerned with a multiplicity and variety 
of graded materials for each of the study units. 

At this point the properly trained school librarian should be of major 
assistance. But in a good many cases this has not been true, either be- 
cause the educator has failed to enlist the services of or to consult with 
the librarian or because the librarian was not adequately informed con- 
cerning curriculum procedures and problems. As a result, such duplica- 
tions as vertical files in libraries and materials bureaus in administrators' 
offices have developed independently, one weakened by lack of relation 
to the educational program and the other by inexpert selection technique. 

Thorough training in curriculum construction, with adequate oppor- 
tunity to participate in the revision programs of her own school, of her 
city, and of state programs, may well be considered a fundamental part 
of every school librarian's equipment. It is encouraging to note that 
many curriculum committees now include one or more trained librarians 
and that there is close co-operation on some campuses between curricu- 
lum experts and library schools. 

A second significant trend in the educational world is the new and re- 
vitalized interest in diagnostic and remedial reading. In the past few 
years a whole new science of analyzing children's reading difficulties and 


prescribing correctives has developed, and as more children are studied 
the librarian's contribution looms ever larger. For example, although 
physical defects and faulty eye movement are back of much retarded 
reading, it is interesting to note that increasingly the prescriptions for 
correction involve careful selection of reading materials. Here, in many 
instances, the librarian is better prepared than the average reading tech- 
nician on the materials, but she is less well-prepared in her knowledge of 
the child. 

This suggests that school-library preparation should include far more 
attention to the learning of reading by children. There is, of course, some 
difference of opinion. Many librarians believe that the library should 
provide the reading materials but leave reading instruction entirely to 
the teacher in the classroom. But a growing number of educators and 
librarians are convinced that the only way the library can become an in- 
tegral part of the school, in fact as well as in theory, is by taking over 
completely the teaching of reading. To some extent this is already being 
done in some elementary schools where the librarian is the reading teach- 
er in a partially departmentalized program and where the five or more 
library periods a week are devoted to a planned, sequential program of 
informational, recreational, oral, and remedial activities. 

Regardless of these few divergent views, an elementary knowledge of 
diagnostic and remedial reading techniques by all school librarians is in- 
dispensable. This should include skill in the use of such instruments as 
the ophthalmograph, metronoscope, and telebinoculars, as well as actual 
work with children and acquaintance with the literature of the subject. 
Most of the 76 per cent of American high schools with enrolments under 
200, to say nothing of the more than 200,000 elementary schools, will be 
unable to afford both a librarian and a reading specialist. The combina- 
tion is not only economical, but logical and practical as well. 

A third significant educational trend with strong library implications 
is that involving the use of audio-visual aids. Even conventional li- 
braries have long housed and serviced certain nonprinted materials, such 
as museum objects, pictures, maps, charts, diagrams, slides, and stereo- 
graphs. Other libraries have included phonograph records, films, slides, 
film strips, and even sound equipment. It seems, therefore, educationally 
wise to help the administrator in search of a suitable administrative and 
distributive center for his recently acquired audio-visual materials and 
equipment by calling his attention to the library. The modern school li- 
brary should be prepared to acquire, organize, and disseminate along 


with printed material all of the newer nonprinted aids and equipment. 
To do this well, the school librarian must have basic instruction not only 
in the selection and preparation of audio- visual materials but also in the 
use and care of such equipment as film, film strip and opaque projectors, 
record players, radio recorders, and other sound equipment. 

Finally, there is the matter of an underlying educational philosophy for 
the school library. Most librarians continue to contrast the voluntary 
aspects of the library situation with the regimental aspects of the class- 
room, largely because they have failed to keep up with the changes in 
educational philosophy and in instructional methods. Although there 
are still a great many traditional classrooms in American schools, their 
number is ever decreasing in the face of a new generation of teachers 
whose methods are worthy of study in relation to the library. Perhaps 
the most striking phenomenon in these newer learning situations is the 
growing similarity to library conditions, especially in the social studies, 
language arts, and other school fields that emphasize mental more than 
manual activity. At the same time it is worth noting that a number of 
school libraries are experimenting with a type of guidance that is re- 
markably similar to the procedure of the better classrooms. It is no won- 
der that Dean Russell of Teachers College, Columbia University, was led 
to observe some time ago that both library and classroom are in a transi- 
tion stage and that the school of the future is likely to be composed of 
neither classroom nor library but of learning situations that have the 
best features of both. 

The implication for school-library training is obvious. Educational 
philosophy as a professional study has too small a place in the present 
curriculum. It is essential that every school librarian be acquainted with 
the conflicting educational theories of progressives and essentialists, of ac- 
tivity and sequential programs, of learning by doing and learning through 
vicarious experiences, to the end that she may arrive at some working 
philosophy for her library and herself, some concept of the library's re- 
sponsibility in assisting the school to attain its educational objectives. 


A considerable body of literature is available regarding the staff per- 
sonnel and physical facilities needed for the professional education of. 
school librarians. 21 Accredited library schools are almost universally con- 

21 See American Library Association standards for accredited library schools and 
the Southern Association standards. 


nected with recognized Institutions of higher education, so that factors 
associated with general institutional excellence are also applicable to the 
facilities of the library school "in accordance with the spirit of the quali- 
tative standard movement The character of the curriculum, effi- 
ciency of instruction, professional spirit and atmosphere of the library 
school, the professional achievement of its graduates, and the standards 
and general reputation of the institution of which it is a part shall be 
factors in determining the eligibility of a library school for accreditation, 
in addition to the more quantitative factors enumerated as require- 
ments." 22 

Assuming such specialized faculty training as two or more years of pro- 
fessional training beyond the undergraduate bachelor's degree, special 
emphasis should be given to the importance of training in the fields of 
psychology, applied to the development and learning of children, in the 
school curriculum, and to applications of general library theory to the 
school. Recency of training in these fields is important because of the 
comparatively new development of the school library. 23 Consequently, 
college and university librarians, and less often members of library- 
school faculties, may be found to be deficient in specialized training per- 
tinent to the curriculum for school librarians. 

A second factor that deserves special attention is the importance of 
special book collections in library science, in general children's literature, 
and in a wide variety of text and supplementary materials appropriate 
to the school curriculum. Teachers colleges and schools of education 
have recognized the importance of demonstration or laboratory schools, 
but have sometimes failed to provide them with school libraries which 
in physical facilities, scope and quality of the book collection, and pro- 
fessionally trained librarians are comparable with standards prevailing in 
other phases of the program of the institution. It is particularly impor- 
tant that the training agency have available for the observation of those 
in training teachers, principals, superintendents, supervisors, as well 
as school librarians facilities that demonstrate the best theories of 
learning through the use of school-library materials. 

22 "Proceedings of the Fifty-fifth Annual Conference of the American Library As- 
sociation," Bulletin of 'the American Library Association, XXVII (December 15, 1933), 

23 Textbooks on administration of elementary and secondary schools have included 
sections or chapters on the school library only in recent years roughly, in the past 


A final factor is the need for special facilities of a laboratory nature 
workrooms outfitted with typewriters and equipment for practical dem- 
onstration and for practice in preparation of such materials as maps, 
charts, pictures, audio and visual aids, and similar materials which are 
actively becoming an integral part of the modem school library. 




Instructor of Library Science 

"University of Illinois 

Urbana, Illinois 

Earlier chapters have been concerned with analyzing the important 
functions and principles underlying successful library operations and the 
methods of transforming principles into practice. But it will not be pos- 
sible to transform principles into practice adequately until desirable 
training programs are established for acquainting administrative officers 
with their responsibilities in regard to school-library service. 

There is a definite need for such a program. Although a few of the 
current texts on school administration devote some attention to the re- 
sponsibilities of the superintendent and principal for satisfactory library 
service, this recognition has come late, and it may be questioned whether 
it has as yet achieved a place in the training of school administrators. 

Many of the preceding chapters in particular chapters ix, xii, and 
xiii include discussions of the areas of school-library operation with 
which the administrator should be familiar, and presumably these areas 
should properly form the basis for training the administrator for his fu- 
ture responsibilities with respect to the school library. No course of 
training is here outlined; instead, we shall consider certain specific ques- 
tions with which the administrator is likely to be most intimately con- 
cerned and which, therefore, deserve attention in the training program. 

1. What should the school administrator know about the librarian? 

A school administrator should take great care in selecting a librarian. 
The librarian is more than a custodian or dispenser of books; she is in 
addition an organizer, administrator, personnel worker, and teacher. 
Her training and background are important. The school administrator 


will recognize that a school librarian with adequate background should 
be able to aid in planning curriculum revision and construction. To give 
effective library service for classroom teachers and to integrate the library 
with classroom procedures, the librarian should have time to visit the 
classes and to aid teachers in curriculum enrichment. The librarian needs 
to be relieved of many of the clerical and routine duties that can be ade- 
quately handled by pupils or clerical assistants. Arrangements for the 
program of duties of the school librarian must be made by the school ad- 

2. What is the school administrator's role in school-library finance? 
The school administrator should be thoroughly conversant with the 

program of the school library so that provision may be made for its ade- 
quate financing. It is well to have a long-term budget plan worked out 
by administrator and librarian co-operatively; the librarian's knowledge 
of book costs and services can be checked against the administrator's 
conception of desirable educational goals and an understanding of the 
amount of money available for all purposes. Teaching methods which 
emphasize many books and heavy dependence upon the library will be 
reflected in greater financial demands, and the budget should be devel- 
oped accordingly. A well-planned budget will prevent overemphasis 
upon books of a certain type or for a certain department to the exclusion 
of proper attention to the needs of other aspects of the educational pro- 

3. What background should the school administrator expect his 
teaching staff to have concerning the school library and available library 
resources outside the school? 

School administrators should expect the teaching staff to know not 
only what can be found in the library and where to find it, but also what 
services the library may legitimately be expected to offer. A joint re- 
sponsibility devolves upon the librarian and the teacher. It is the li- 
brarian's responsibility to keep the teacher informed about the acquisi- 
tion of new materials; to help with bibliographic references; to assist in 
curriculum enrichment; and to secure for the faculty, services available 
from other libraries and state agencies. The teacher has the responsibil- 
ity of becoming acquainted with the resources of the library; of making 
class assignments that require library materials; of sending pupils to the 
library; and of selecting new books for the collection. 

4. What provision should the school administrator make for a profes- 
sional library for teachers, librarians, and school administrators? 


School administrators will recognize the value of establishing a col- 
lection of books for the use of teachers in the school system. Such a pro- 
fessional library would keep the staff informed of new educational move- 
ments and trends, new developments in the various fields covered by the 
curriculum, experiments in teaching methods, discoveries in educational 
psychology, and world movements of which the teaching staff should be 
cognizant. Such a library may be developed in collaboration with a mu- 
nicipal, county, or regional library, or with a library in the county super- 
intendent's office. 

5. What should be the function of the school administrator in strength- 
ening the relations between public and school libraries, or in city, county, 
and regional library co-operation? 

The school administrator should be aware of the problem of educa- 
tional and library interdependence and joint community responsibilities. 
This involves more than an understanding of various forms of contracts 
between school boards and public library boards for co-operative library 
administration. It involves a recognition of the need for library service 
to rural schools, of plans for co-operative library services between school 
and public libraries, and the possibilities of county or regional library 

The educational facilities provided for and available to the elementary 
and rural school are very important to the secondary school. Children 
who come to the high schools with meager library backgrounds are seri- 
ously handicapped, and the whole teaching program of the high school 
may be affected by these inadequately trained pupils. School adminis- 
trators and school boards have as great a responsibility for making books 
and library resources available to the outlying schools, homes, and com- 
munities as has the public library. In many counties where there are no 
public libraries, the school offers the only library resources available. 

Careful study should be made of the possibilities of co-operative book- 
buying, cataloging, and bibliographic and reference services that may be 
developed by school and public libraries. Co-operative buying and plan- 
ning offer opportunities for financial savings and for greater service 
through reading guidance and personnel work. It might also be possible 
to have a county or regional school-library supervisor to direct library 
activities in schools unable to afford a full-time, trained librarian. 

6. What is the function of the school administrator in utilizing the 
resources of the school library in relation to community activities? 

The school administrator should recognize the part his school library 


can play in such community activities as defense-training classes, adult 
education, vocational education, and guidance of youth outside the 
school A study of what is being done by public libraries and schools will 
reveal interesting possibilities. The school library has the resources and 
the trained personnel that should be utilized in such extension of its 


7. What should the school administrator know about the function of 
the school library in relation to the audio-visual movement in education 
and the use of nonbook materials? 

Limitations of space, equipment, and funds, as well as insufficient un- 
derstanding by many school administrators, by teachers, and by librar- 
ians concerning the value of audio-visual materials for instructional pur- 
poses have slowed the development of audio-visual education. Construc- 
tive use of the radio and the film in teaching requires modifications of the 
educational program by school administrators. The importance of the 
library as a co-ordinating agency in securing and making available audio- 
visual materials should be capitalized by the school administrator. The 
library in the audio-visual program should be conceived of as a materials 
bureau, as a publicity agent, as a transcription, script, and film library, 
and as a broadcasting, listening, and projection center. The school ad- 
ministrator should also understand some of the administrative problems 
inherent in securing, housing, and distributing the nonbook materials 
such as pamphlets, slides, pictures, films, records, and radio transcrip- 
tions needed for classroom instruction. In addition to studying the bene- 
fits of handling this material through the school library, school adminis- 
trators should consider possibilities of devising co-operative plans with 
other schools and libraries in the area to secure and share much of this 
expensive and somewhat ephemeral material. Film resources available 
from national and state educational agencies, and from state university 
extension services, should be considered as supplementing the school li- 
brary collection. 

8. What should the school administrator know about planning for 
library provisions in new and reconstructed buildings? 

Before planning a school library or remodeling an old building, the 
functions of the school library, in respect to both the school and the com- 
munity needs, should be clearly understood. Available library resources 
in the community and county should be analyzed. Emphasis should be 
placed upon the excellent resources for help and information that are 
available from state and national library agencies. The American Library 


Association and state libraries are prepared to give advice and help con- 
cerning matters of floor plans, equipment, and contractors and firms who 
deal in library equipment and supplies. Library experts have prepared 
floor plans that are available for study. The progressive school adminis- 
trator will want to plan a library in terms of its functional use in the 
educational program of the school. 

9. What should the school administrator know about the library re- 
sources of state and national agencies? 

School administrators should know of the possibilities available to all 
school libraries for supplementing their own collections of books and 
other materials. Books and films may be borrowed or rented from state 
and national agencies; e.g., the state library, library commission, state 
university extension service, agricultural extension agencies, the United 
States Office of Education, and the American Library Association. Know- 
ing where to get expert help, advice, additional resources to supplement 
the local school library, and well-selected book lists will assist the school 
administrator, working with the librarian, to make the school library a 
dynamic force in education. 




Instructor, Graduate Library School 

University of Chicago 

Chicago, Illinois 


Even after a library has been measured in terms of existing standards 
or of other criteria, the school administrators and the librarian will prob- 
ably want to interpret these ratings in terms of the effectiveness of the li- 
brary in the school of which it forms a part. This total evaluation of the 
school library encompasses so many aspects of school librarianship and 
of education that generalizations pertaining to its theory and procedure 
cannot be made arbitrarily or with finality. 

Based upon educational objectives which relate to changes in behavior 
of students, evaluation measures the degree of effectiveness with which an 
educational institution or a component part of an educational institution 
achieves the objectives. Any evaluation of any institution thus involves 
an agreement about values desired and about methods to appraise these 
values. The techniques of measurement, particularly those noting 
growth in student behavior, are still being developed through experimen- 

One of the implications of the preceding paragraph is that the evalua- 
tion of school libraries represents today a procedure quite different from 
that of other periods. Formerly, interest centered in the material aspects 
of the library, and the library's holdings, budget, and similar elements 
were compared with existing norms, or the emphasis was placed on the 

1 Throughout this chapter it has not seemed necessary to distinguish by specific 
reference among elementary-school libraries, secondary-school libraries, and junior- 
college libraries. Although most of the material here contained slants toward the 
secondary-school library, the basic principles remain applicable to elementary-school 
and to junior-college libraries. 



achievement of students as reflected in their scores on tests dealing with 
Ebrary skills; today, although these two areas remain significant, the con- 
centration of interest has changed to the measurement of the educational 
functionalism of the library in which the participation of the library in 
the personal development of the individual pupil assumes primary im- 

This chapter suggests areas in which librarians may establish their own 
evaluating procedures 2 so that they may measure the effectiveness of 
their libraries, and it notes those qualifying factors which must be de- 
termined in order to assure a valid interpretation. To this end, the chap- 
ter establishes a program of evaluation consisting of four parts : (1) basic 
factors affecting all evaluations of school libraries; (2) application and in- 
terpretation of standards; (3) evaluation in terms of the school's objec- 
tives; and (4) records in relation to evaluation. 


The basic assumption underlying the program of evaluation centers 
in the theory that (a) a school library can be evaluated validly only in 
relation to the objectives of its school and (6) the library cannot be eval- 
uated in isolation from the total school scene. The following program is 
proposed for the total evaluation of any school library, but it would also 
lend itself to the evaluation of most parts of the library's material pos- 
sessions or of most phases of library service: 

1. Obtaining information concerning basic factors which describe the 
school and which affect the evaluation of the school library. 

2. Measuring the library in terms of existing standards relative to bud- 
get, staff, materials collection, equipment, and library use. 

3. Appraising the library's participation in the achievement of the 
school's objectives. 

4. Keeping the essential records necessary for a valid evaluation. 

The program of evaluation recognizes the following four procedures as 
forming the general process of evaluating: (1) identification of the 
factors in an institution or in a process which are to be judged; (2) deter- 
mining and collecting the data necessary for a sound judgment; (3) analy- 

2 Two major lines of approach, should be distinguished: (1) evaluating the school 
library in an all-school evaluation, and (2) evaluating the library only. The first of 
these approaches is preferable, but since totalnschool evaluations may occur infre- 
quently, the librarian may wish to launch her own evaluating program. 

HENNE 335 

sis and synthesis of the data; and (4) application of the synthesis to the 
institution or process being judged. In some instances it may be desirable 
to bring in individuals who are not connected with the school to evaluate 
the library so as to benefit from the opinions of those experienced in 
evaluating and to obtain new viewpoints. 


Since the library cannot be evaluated apart from the educational pro- 
gram of the school, evidence which describes the nature of the school 
must be collected for the following ten areas: 

1. The objectives of the school. 

2. The objectives of the school library. (Although the primary objec- 
tives of the school library are the same as those of its school, the li- 
brarian may also formulate additional objectives which pertain 
specifically to the work of the library.) 

3. The nature of the school's curriculum, including extra-curricular ac- 

4. The school's organization, i.e., number of grades included, size of 
geographical area served, administrative organization (private 
school, central school, public school in a city system, or other form). 

5. General characteristics of the student body (number of pupils en- 
rolled, sex, socio-economic backgrounds, and similar factors). 

6. The number of faculty members and faculty load. 

7. The nature of the instructional methods which prevail in the school 
and the extent to which cumcular motivations in using library mate- 
rials exist; the use and provision of materials in the classrooms and 
the degree to which teachers use and are acquainted with the library. 

8. The characteristics of the community in which the school is located 
as they affect the school situation. 

9. The pupils' and the faculty's accessibility to materials other than 
those provided within the school public libraries, home libraries, 
bookstores, and other sources. 

10. Methods of sending, or scheduling, students to the library. 

Information concerning these factors may explain why limitations, 
previously determined in an application of standards, exist in any given 
school library; it may also explain why superior conditions exist in a li- 
brary. Finally, these factors may reveal in a school library certain limita- 


tions which an application of standards failed to detect. A school library 
with a high rating as checked against norms may not be meeting the re- 
quirements of the curriculum, or it may not be conforming with the edu- 
cational policy of the school 

Chapter xiv, which enumerates school-library standards existing to- 
day, has a close relationship to this chapter. When the evaluation of a 
school library does not involve the measurement of the situation in terms 
of accepted standards, it is probably because standards applicable to 
whatever is being evaluated do not exist. Standards provide one means 
of measuring libraries on the basis of established norms. But certain 
limiting characteristics of standards must be recognized by those who 
use them in evaluating school libraries; this recognition should not re- 
sult in the negation of the value of standards nor in a derogatory atti- 
tude toward them, but it should encourage the practice of going beyond 
the data obtained from the application of standards and of discovering 
additional evidence necessary for a thorough interpretation of the status 
of the library in question. Considerations which restrict the value of 
arbitrary standards include the following: 

1. Quantitative standards tend to represent minimal and not optimum 

2. Some standards used alone measure the library in isolation from the 
total school program. 

3. Standards tend to emphasize the administrative aspects and not the 
educational functions of the school library. 

4. Standards are devised in forms applicable to many school libraries and 
not to single situations; consequently they are often invalid for spe- 
cial or for atypical situations the extremely large school library, the 
private school library, the central school library, the library in a school 
holding night classes for adults, or the school library extending its 
service to adults in the community. This element of universality in 
standards makes it impossible to include all of the factors essential 
for the interpretation of any single school situation. 

5. Some standards relating to budget, space, staff, and the size of the 
book collection are based on assumptions which have not been proved 
objectively. For example, some standards represent hypotheses not 
founded on evidence, while others which may be based on evidence 
obtained from conditions existing in the better libraries may repre- 

HENNE 337 

sent factors which accompany rather than cause the superior condi- 

6. Some standards have not recognized sufficiently the provision and use 
of nonbook materials. 

7. Purely qualitative standards make precise measurement difficult. 

8. Measuring the library by means of standards shows only what the li- 
brary has achieved and not what might have been achieved had ade- 
quate facilities prevailed. Libraries with high ratings as compared 
with other schools may still be falling far short of meeting the de- 
mands in their schools. 

A few examples must suffice to indicate reasons why measurements in 
terms of standards should not be relied upon exclusively. The allocation 
of staff numbers in terms of the size of the total pupil enrolment of the 
school in which the library is situated satisfies only minimal requirements 
in many schools; the underlying assumption, i.e., that there is a connec- 
tion between staff size and enrolment, has not been proved as valid. De- 
cisions need to be reached concerning the optimum pupil load per school 
period that a school librarian can handle in an educationally functional 
situation. Experimentation in one school library has shown that one li- 
brarian can work constructively with forty pupils (the maximum num- 
ber) in one period. 

Differences in educational requirements of librarians on the basis of 
size of pupil enrolment remain open to question. Limitations exist in the 
prevailing methods of rating school librarians on the basis of the number 
of college credits they have accumulated and the number of years of ex- 
perience that they have had. Too often overlooked are such matters as 
the diversity and the quality of the librarian's achievement during his 
educational and professional careers. Intelligent observation of the way 
in which the librarian meets and works with students and with teachers 
provides a more realistic index of measurement. The librarian's knowl- 
edge of materials should be tested and not assumed. Librarians should 
know about educational trends and methods, about adolescent psychol- 
ogy, and about the area of reading, but it is more important to observe 
what the librarian does with this information than to note merely that he 
has course credits in these subjects. 

Adequate library space in the school must also be determined by ob- 
jective investigation which takes into consideration the proportion of 
students who have daily access to materials within the school. One solu- 
tion may lead to decentralizing the school library, either by classroom li- 


braries or by seminars; another may come about through the establish- 
ment of three or four libraries in large schools instead of the one library 
which usually prevails now. However, no correlation exists intrinsically 
between superior equipment, including space coverage, and superior li- 
brary service, although the former may directly affect the latter. 

As a final example, standards setting up a per capita student basis for 
determining the amount of the library's budget for books do not always 
prove satisfactory ; in smaller schools such standards may fail to meet the 
needs of the teachers and of the pupils. 

From the preceding illustrations it can be concluded that certain dis- 
advantages exist in adhering rigidly to specifications which have not been 
based on the results of direct experiment. The extension of school-library 
activities into educational areas has been retarded in the main by limita- 
tions, within the library, of space, staff size, and time all problems 
which could be solved by the administration of the school; minimal 
standards concerned with administrative and not educational aspects of 
the library not only fail to solve these problems but may also perpetuate 
them. The application of standards, then, forms but a preliminary evalu- 
ation in the library. 


The most important aspects of evaluating the school library, and the 
one that is the most difficult to describe and to measure, concerns the li- 
brary's participation in the achievement of the school's objectives. Each 
school, of course, may have its own set of objectives. For the purpose of 
discussion this section employs the following types of objectives used by 
the Evaluation Staff of the Eight- Year Study of the Progressive Educa- 
tion Association: (1) the development of effective methods of thinking; 
(2) the cultivation of useful work habits and study skills; (3) the inculca- 
tion of social attitudes; (4) the establishment of a wide range of signifi- 
cant interests; (5) the development of increased appreciation of music, 
art, literature, and other aesthetic experiences; (6) the development of so- 
cial sensitivity; (7) the achievement of better personal-social adjustment; 
(8) the acquisition of important information; (9) the building of physical 
health; and (10) the construction of a consistent philosophy of life. 3 

3 North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, General Education 
in the American High School, p. 299. Chicago ; Scott, Foresman & Co., 1942, 

HENNB 330 

It is assumed that the library can participate effectively in the school's 
program to achieve objectives the same as or similar to those stated above 
only when it has a materials collection which meets the needs, interests, 
and abilities of the students; when equalization of library service to all 
students prevails within the school i.e., each student has equal and ade- 
quate opportunity to use the library and its resources; when the library 
service to the teachers is geared to meet the requirements of their work; 
when adequate space, funds, and staff are provided for the library; and 
when the teachers use the school library and are familiar with the li- 
brary's resources, policies, and regulations. Obviously, before evaluating 
the school library in relation to the objectives of the school, it is first 
necessary to determine how much opportunity is provided the library to 
achieve the objectives. 

What can the library do to promote the sehooPs objectives? What 
kinds of activities should be evaluated? Only a few examples can be 
presented here, but the following types of activities, grouped under the 
appropriate objectives, may suggest areas of participation: 

(1) The development of effective methods of thinking. 

The school librarian helps students to read more critically; he determines 
ways in which students evaluate what they read. 

The school library sponsors student projects which require planning and 
the solution of problems. 

The school library delegates to its student assistants work requiring judg- 

The school library conducts book-selection projects in which the students 
exercise critical judgment. 

(2) The cultivation of useful work habits and study skills. 

The librarian and the teachers together systematically plan the instruc- 
tion for teaching students how to use books and libraries. The results of this 
instruction are tested periodically so that the development of the students' 
ability to use books and libraries can be measured and so that further in- 
struction may be provided on the basis of the needs of individual students. 

The librarian and the teachers prepare students to be intelligent users of 
the public library so that the students will become equipped to carry on a 
self-education program hi adult life* 

The school library provides for the observation of study methods of stu- 
dents in the library and, when necessary, instructs students about effective 
study skills and work habits. 

The school librarian reports to teachers those pupils who need help in de- 
veloping work habits and study skills necessary in specialized subject fields. 


(3) The inculcation of social attitudes. (6) The development of social sensitiv- 
ity. (7) The achievement of better personal-social adjustment. 4 

The librarian plans with the students the code of ethics to be observed in 
the library. 

The librarian develops in students the proper attitude toward property 
(care of books and of equipment), a sense of responsibility (returning books 
on time, directing library activities, etc.), and social sensitivity in observing 
the rights of others (behavior in the library). 

The library provides opportunities for group projects in which students 
learn to work co-operatively. 

The library delegates to students responsibility for planning and carrying 
on some of the work of the library student librarians, library committees, 
and group projects. 

By means of displays and student projects, the library acquaints students 
with the work, interests, and activities of individual students or of the school 
as a whole. 

The librarian co-operates actively in the guidance program of the school. 

The librarian guides students to read materials which provide them with 
an understanding of contemporary society and the participation of the in- 
dividual in societal groups. 

(4) The establishment of a wide range of significant interests. 

The library contains materials covering a wide range of subjects designed 
to meet and to arouse the interests of the students. 

The library encourages the acquiring of new interests on the part of the 
students by means of effective publicity, exhibits, student projects, and other 

The librarian becomes acquainted with the personality and the back- 
ground of as many students as possible so that she may, through reading guid- 
ance, develop or extend their interests. 

(5) The development of increased appreciation of music, art, literature, and other 
aesthetic experiences. 

The library provides audio-visual materials which the librarian encourages 
students to use. 

The librarian develops an appreciation of literature through arousing the 
students' interest in literature, through encouraging students to read, and by 
helping students to formulate standards of literary criticism. 

The library serves as an information center about music to be heard in 
the community and on the radio, about art exhibits in the community, and 

4 The stated objectives are numbered in conformity with the list given on p. 338, 
but here grouped in relation to suggested activities. 

EENNE 341 

about places and opportunities where students may carry on their own 
artistic or musical activities. 

The library provides opportunities for students to display their own crea- 
tive work and to record their feelings about art, music, and literature. The 
students arrange in the library exhibits pertaining to these areas. 

The librarian encourages students to read informatively about music and 
art; to use materials in these fields in relation to their hobbies. 

(8) The acquisition of important information. 

The librarian and the teachers acquaint students with the sources of in- 

The librarian guides students in the selection of materials and in the evalu- 
ation of these materials. 

The librarian knows students individually so that she may provide materi- 
als to meet their variant needs, interests, and abilities. 

The librarian provides materials for the classroom so that students may 
have access to materials when the need for them occurs during class activ- 

(9) The building of physical health. 

Proper conditions (lighting, ventilation, etc.) for work are maintained in 
the library. 

The library provides materials necessary for the furtherance of the health 
program in the school. 

The library sponsors exhibits relating to the building of physical health. 

The suggestions listed above under each objective are neither definitive 
nor prescriptive. Different libraries will require different activities in ac- 
cordance with the objectives of their schools. By attendance at faculty 
and committee meetings and by participating in the planning of the cur- 
riculum, the librarian can best realize the ways in which the library can 
function in the school program. Evaluation then becomes a matter of 
keeping records and of reporting quantitatively as well as interpretative- 
ly (a) what the library now does (citing specifically the relevant evi- 
dence) ; (6) what the library could do with its present facilities that it is 
not now doing; and (c) what the library potentially might do but cannot 
because of limitations in its facilities. With regard to many of the objec- 
tives (particularly 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7) listed in this section, standards of 
achievement expected at the different grade levels can be formulated and 
the progressive development of the students noted. Reading and circula- 
tion records can provide significant facts about the library's activities as 
well as about students' achievements with reference to objectives 4, 5, 
and 8, However, the evaluation should be made primarily in terms of 


student behavior. Whenever possible, the librarian should note the im- 
mediate effect of the library on individual students, as well as any per- 
ceptible development in individual students resulting from contacts with 
the library. 


In general, the evidence necessary for evaluation comes from three 
sources: the evidence obtained from the application of standards to a 
given library, the results of tests administered to students, and the data 
obtained by keeping records over a period of time. The first source has 
already been discussed; the second concerns an area about which com- 
paratively little information exists. Current standardized tests are de- 
signed to measure the student's ability to use the library and his knowl- 
edge of certain basic reference tools. Although printed tests are available 
for the elementary-school, secondary-school, and college levels, many li- 
brarians compile the tests to be used in their schools. Most of the tests 
can be classified as achievement or diagnostic tests, depending upon the 
purpose for which they are used. Until more facts are known about the 
ways in which the results of the tests are used and interpreted, generali- 
zations cannot be made about their f unctionalism ; evidence is also needed 
to show whether the results of the tests measure development in the stu- 
dents from year to year, and whether they indicate the library's partici- 
pation in effecting growth. The construction of tests to measure the ef- 
fectiveness of the library in developing proper social attitudes of stu- 
dents, abilities to evaluate materials, and similar educational functions 
has received scant attention. 

Library records constitute the third source of evidence. It is not the 
intent here to suggest that the librarian maintain a battery of records 
which involves the expenditure of considerable time and effort, yet it is 
probably true that more records should be kept in school libraries than 
has been customary. Records provide the evidence that prevents evalua- 
tion from becoming merely subjective opinion or casual observation. 
Suggestions for proposed changes or recommendations for long-range 
planning can be made more effectively when predicated upon the factual 
records of what has been done in the past. 

To keep a variety of records with no purposive plan for their ultimate 
use holds little value. The following factors should be decided upon be- 
fore determining what records to keep : 

HENNE 343 

1. An understanding of the ways in which the records will be used. 

2. Determining the methods by which data are to be collected for special 
records. These methods may take one or more of several forms : ques- 
tion blanks, interviews, surveys, anecdotal records, unit measure- 
ments, case histories, check-lists, observation, or record sheets which 
have been devised to meet the particular needs of the investigation. 

3. Fixing a reliable span of time in which the records will be kept. 
Usually the academic year forms the time unit, but the librarian must 
know in what areas it is necessary to have evidence over a period of 
years before a valid judgment can be made about certain aspects of 
the work in his library. For a less comprehensive report a typical 
month, or even a week, in the school year may be selected for keeping 
records. The selection of an "average" month or week in an academic 
year, however, forms no easy task since it is not always possible to 
control or to predict what will take place in the school as a whole or in 
the classroom. 

Among the records which school libraries may keep in order to obtain 
a more comprehensive understanding of their activities are the following: 

Circulation records: circulation of books, periodicals, and other materials 
per capita teacher; circulation of books, periodicals, and other materials per 
capita student per grade level; interlibrary loans; number of reserve books used 
in the library each period; ratio between number of reserve books and number of 
nonreserve books circulated for home use per grade level. 

Accession and inventory records: number of books and other materials on 
hand, number of books lost or discarded, number of books and other materials 

Records showing the number of unfulfilled requests for materials and the rea- 
sons why the requests could not be met, i.e., material not owned by the Hbrary, 
material out on loan, not enough duplicate copies of reserve books, etc. 

Records showing the number of reference questions answered for (a) students 
and (&) teachers; records showing the number of reference questions not an- 
swered and the reasons why they were not answered lack of time, failure to find 
information, lack of necessary materials, etc. 

Case histories of reading guidance which involved planning or which required 
a sequence of conferences with the student; records showing the number of known 
reading guidance cases which could not be undertaken and the reasons why. 

Records showing the number of book lists, bibliographies, or similar lists made 
for (a) teachers, (b) individual pupils, (c) general library use, or (d) other pur- 
poses ; the record to include for each item the number of entries and the time spent 
in its preparation. Records showing.the number of book lists or similar lists that 


could not be made although they were specifically requested by teachers or by 
students, and the reasons why they could not be made. 

Attendance records: records showing the number of classes brought or sent to 
the library by teachers; records showing pupil and faculty attendance hi the li- 
brary each period of the day: records showing the number of school hours spent 
in the library per school year per student; records showing the number of visitors 
from outside the school. 

Records briefly describing the student projects sponsored by the library. 

Records showing the number of faculty meetings (general, departmental, or 
committee) attended by the librarians. 

Any pertinent anecdotal records of student behavior and growth. 

Records showing the number of reports about individual pupils which have 
been sent to teachers, parents, advisers, or others; number of consultations with 
teachers and parents about pupils. 

Reading records of individual students showing materials read, source from 
which obtained, purpose, and motivation of reading. 

Financial records. 

Statements from faculty members and from students containing their opinions 
about the library and its service. 

Records showing the amount of material sent to classrooms, and, if possible, 
records showing the use of this material; records showing the number of teachers 
requesting these loans and names of the subjects in which classroom collections 
were used. 

Records for a small but reliable sample of time (possibly an average week) 
showing the work activities of the librarians; the records to indicate in time-units 
the amount of time spent hi working directly with students, in working directly 
with teachers, in cataloging or processing books, in reference activities, in dis- 
ciplining, in performing clerical work, in overtime work, in committee work for 
the school, etc. 

Records for a small but reliable sample of time showing the activities of stu- 
dents and the types of materials used by students in the library during school 
periods; i.e., time profiles of the activities of individual students and frequency 
tabulations of the types of materials used in the following categories textbook 
(owned by student), fiction book (owned by library), fiction book (not owned by 
library), magazine (owned by library), magazine (not owned by library), non- 
fiction book (owned by library), nonfiction book (not owned by library), etc. 

Annual reports to the administrative officers of the school. 

As already stated, the preceding list of records has not been presented 
as necessary for every school library to maintain continuously. (Al- 
though student assistants can keep many of the records, the work en- 
tailed for the librarian still is so great as to make it impossible for most 
libraries to keep all of the records all of the time.) 

HENNM 345 

For the program of evaluation the kinds of records selected should be 
based upon what is to be evaluated and the purpose of the evaluation. 
Circulation, accession and inventory, attendance, and financial records 
provide facts about material aspects of the library. Records noting those 
services which a library was asked to perform but which it could not un- 
dertake because of limitations of staff, space, or time are significant in 
evaluation because they form one measure of performance in relation to 
demand. It seems important to determine not only the nature of existing 
library service but also whether that service meets the requirements of 
the school; with facts relating to both actual and potential service the 
librarian and the principal can then plan more effectively for the future. 
Records which present evidence necessary for evaluating the library's 
participation in the achievement of the schooFs objectives include the 
case histories of reading guidance, the records about student projects, the 
anecdotal records of student behavior and growth, the reports about in- 
dividual pupils, and reading records. The time analysis of the librarian's 
work gives insight concerning the extent of the educational activities of 
the librarian as contrasted with the amount of time spent in technical or 
clerical work. Time profiles of what students do in the library not only 
have meaning for noting the educational functions of the library but they 
may also, like many of the other records kept in the library, furnish evi- 
dence about individual students which are of value to teachers and guid- 
ance workers. 

The kinds of records kept in the library may be determined by some 
agency outside the school the office of the supervisor of school libraries, 
state educational departments, accrediting associations, or library associ- 
ations. These records may be sufficient for most purposes, but in a com- 
prehensive evaluation of the school library they will probably have to be 
supplemented and expanded. Circulation records are a case in point. 

The value of circulation figures has been questioned by many, and the 
objections can be sustained if the statistics are kept with no clear purpose 
of the ways in which the librarian can use them constructively. The dis- 
tinction between circulation figures and reading records must be under- 
stood. Circulation figures can prove meaningful if they are kept in more 
detail than has been the case ordinarily. The daily circulation figures 
should be distributed first among the following broad categories books 
(other than reserve books), periodicals, pamphlets, pictures, reserve 
books. If the library lends records, films, or other materials, then a col- 
umn should be provided for them. (It is assumed here that circulation 


figures concern only materials loaned from the library for overnight use 
or for longer periods.) In each main class of the Dewey system the daily 
circulation of books (other than reserve books) should be distributed by 
the grade level of the student withdrawing the book; a column for loans 
to teachers should also be provided. The record blank thus has for each 
class category spacing comparable to the following example in which the 
class number (here the "40QV or "Philology") is above the line and the 
columns for students (in Grades IX, X, XI, and XII) and for teachers are 

below: rr . Circulation figures for nonbook material may also 

y J.U J.JL j.ju JL 

be kept in the same detail. If the school wishes to gain insight concerning 
the extent to which the different grade levels use library materials, this 
record will provide evidence helpful in evaluation. If the records are kept 
over a period of years, interesting observations can be made about in- 
creases or decreases in the use of library materials by the same class. In 
those libraries having a policy of renewing books, the records should dis- 
tinguish between renewals and other loans, otherwise figures representing 
quantitative per capita loans become distorted. Records of reserve books 
withdrawn for home use should be kept separately; these records may be 
kept in the same detail if the librarian wishes to note (within limitations) 
ratios between prescribed and collateral or nonprescribed reading in the 
different grade levels. Students soon become accustomed to adding their 
grade numeral after their signature on the book cards; the rest of the 
work involved in keeping detailed circulation records can be delegated to 
student assistants. Further information can be obtained if the Dewey 
classification scheme used in circulation records is broken down into 
smaller divisions in some of the main classes. Technical high schools may 
wish to keep circulation records for sub-classes in the applied and fine 
arts divisions. The grouping of all of the "500's" together has never 
shown satisfactorily the circulation of books in the physical sciences, the 
biological sciences, and mathematics. 

The kinds of reading records to be kept in the school library depend 
upon the comprehensiveness of records relating to reading maintained in 
other departments of the school, upon the uses to which records will be 
put, and upon the space available for filing the records. Adequate read- 
ing records, kept by the students over a period of time, should include 
the following information for each item read: author, title, time spent in 
reading, number of pages read, source from which obtained, purpose (as- 
signment, hobby information, nonacademic or "recreational" reading, 


etc.) for which it was read, motivation for reading and any other infor- 
mation which the school wishes to obtain. Whether the librarian directly 
supervises the keeping of these records or not, she should be familiar with 
any reading records of the students available in the school. Scores made 
on reading tests as well as the records of what has been read provide basic 
information for the librarian in reading guidance. 

Although the evaluation of student reading falls outside the scope of 
this chapter, some comment should be made about the interpretation of 
students' reading records. The accumulation of facts which show only in 
quantitative terms what students have read is not sufficient in itself; 
more important are such factors as the following: the meanings and the 
values which the students derived from their reading, the students 7 abil- 
ity to evaluate and to utilize what they read, the extent to which their 
reading changed, strengthened, or formulated their attitudes and ideas, 
and the degree to which predispositions affect the character of the stu- 
dents 7 reading. Librarians provide a significant contribution to the read- 
ing program of the school when they record any revealing facts about 
student reactions to and interpretations of reading which they have ob- 
tained through conversations with students. Reading guidance proceeds 
more realistically when based on a knowledge of what reading has done to 
a student or how he has done the reading. Growth in reading thus can be 
measured in the notation of the maturity and quality level of the stu- 
dent's reading and also in his ability to obtain the meaning of what he has 
read, to evaluate material, and to use it effectively. 

In similar ways evidence obtained from other records can be used in 
the evaluation of the school library. 


The evaluation of a school library measures the degree to which the 
library achieves the objectives of the school and of the library. A valid 
evaluation of the school library cannot be made if the objectives, the edu- 
cational policies, the nature of the curriculums, and other characteristic 
determinants of the school are ignored. It is also necessary to determine 
how much opportunity is given the library to participate in the program 
of achieving the school's objectives. For best results the evaluation of the 
library should form part of the evaluation of the total school. The pur- 
pose of the library and the facilities available for measuring its effective- 
ness determine the methods to be employed in the evaluation. 

Evaluation comprises two main parts: (1) a preliminary appraisal 


which measures the library against existing standards, and (2) the ulti- 
mate evaluation which measures the extent and effectiveness of the li- 
brary's participation in the achievement of the school's objectives. Sub- 
sidiary but essential to these investigations are two other fact-finding 
activities: (1) obtaining information appropriate to the particular school 
which affects the interpretation of the evaluation and (2) keeping records 
which provide the evidence necessary for evaluation. 

In general this chapter has considered the problems and the variables 
relating to evaluation. Since a blueprint for evaluation, applicable in any 
situation, cannot be made validly, the material presented here is prima- 
rily suggestive. The major premise has rested upon the need to extend the 
perspective concerning the evaluation of school libraries in view of the 
changed emphasis in education, which places more importance on the de- 
velopment of the student as an individual than on formal academic 
training. Evaluating the school library thus becomes something more 
than the counting of books or the notation of expenditure per student. 
The library, the same as all departments within the school, must help the 
student to meet present and probable future needs. The effect of the li- 
brary on individual students and its contribution to their growth must 
be noted precisely and not left to conjecture. This yearbook has shown 
that the school library can participate dynamically in the program of the 
modern school; evaluation appraises the extent to which these educational 
functions of the library are achieved. 


ADAMS, A. ELWOOD. The Use of Libraries in Junior and Senior High Schools. Los 
Angeles: University of Southern California Press, 1936. Pp. 105. 

ADAMS, HARLEN MARTIN. The Junior College Library Program. Chicago: American 
Library Association, and Stanford University, California: Stanford University, 
Press, 1940. Pp. 92. 

Secondary Schools: General Report. Washington: Co-operative Study of Second- 
ary School Standards Committee, 1939. Pp. 526. 

teria and Educational Temperatures. Washington : Co-operative Study of Second- 
ary School Standards Committee, 1939 (1940 edition). Pp. 238. 

ate a Secondary School. Washington: Co-operative Study of Secondary School 
Standards Committee, 1939 (1940 edition). Pp. 139. 

CROOKSTON, MARY EVALYN. Unit Costs in a Selected Group of High-School Libraries. 
United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 11, 1941. Washington: Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1942. Pp. 36. 

HENNE 349 

GOOD, CARTER V. ; BARR, A. S. ; and SCATES, DOUGLAS E. The Methodology of Educa- 
tional Research. New York: D. Appieton-Century Co., Inc., 1936. Pp. 882. 

JOHNSON, B. LAMAR. The Secondary-School Library. United States Office of Educa- 
tion Bulletin No. 17, 1932. National Survey of Secondary Education, Monograph 
No. 17. WasMngton: Government Printing Office, 1933. Pp. 110. 

LTJNDBERG, GEORGE A. Social Research: A Study in Methods of Gathering Data. New 
York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1942. Pp. 426. 

MILES, ARNOLD, and MARTIN, LOWELL. Public Administration and the Library. Chi- 
cago: University of Chicago Press, 1941. Pp. 312. 

Function and Activity. New Brunswick, New Jersey: New Jersey Secondary 
School Teachers' Association, 1940. Pp. 87. 

REED, LULU RUTH. "A Test of Students' Competence To Use the Library," Library 
Quarterly, VIII (April, 1938), 23&-S3. 

TYLER, RALPH W. "Evaluation Must Be Continual and Flexible; It Must Evaluate/' 
in North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, General Education 
in the American High School, pp. 290-308. Chicago: Scott, Foresman & Co., 1942. 

WAPLES, DOUGLAS. Investigating Library Problems. Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 1939. Pp. 116. 

WAPLES, DOUGLAS, AND CARNOVSKY, LEON. Libraries and Readers in the State of New 
York. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939. Pp. 160. 



Associate Professor, Graduate Library School 

University of Chicago 

Chicago, Illinois 


The preceding chapters have emphasized the place of the library in 
modem education. To a great extent the significance of the library is 
seen to be derivative; its major importance stems from its role as a con- 
tributing source, primarily through the curriculum. Nevertheless, the 
activities promoted through the library, as well as such internal matters 
as its organization and administration, are in large part based on as- 
sumptions, and until these assumptions are clearly stated and tested for 
their validity, procedures will be based on imitation and unverified hy- 
pothesis. This does not mean, of course, that present practice is faulty or 
inefficient; it does mean that a practice applicable in one teaching situa- 
tion will not necessarily be universally applicable, but rather must be 
understood in the light of the particular area in which it operates. Sub- 
jective testimony may be highly suggestive and useful as affording mod- 
els for imitation elsewhere, but the too-easy imitation of the program of 
one school by a school recognizing a different philosophy of education, or 
by a school in an entirely different social and geographic environment, 
may result in the library's being an ineffective educational instrument. 
In short, as educational ends differ, as the physical environment in which 
the school functions varies, so must the means be shaped to accord with 
the variation. 

This chapter proposes to identify certain major areas where research 
in the school-library field is needed. Strictly speaking, many of the prob- 
lems are not "school-library problems" at all, but since they impinge 
rather directly on the operations and methods of the school library, it is 
proper that they be pointed out in this Yearbook. Areas in which the 
problems fall may be classified as follows: government and administra- 
tive authority; internal management; use of the library. 




The values of providing library service to schools are no longer open to 
question. The easy availability of such service is implicit in the success- 
ful operation of the modern school, and the problem is not whether it 
should be provided, but rather how it may most effectively be provided. 
The methods commonly prevailing have been described in this Year- 
book, and a thorough analysis of such methods may be found in the re- 
ports of two investigations: "A Study of Methods and Practices in Sup- 
plying Library Service to Public Elementary Schools in the United 
States" by Howard W. Brown 1 and "Public Library Service to Public 
School Children: Its Administration in Large American Cities" by Esther 
Stallmann. 2 There still remains the fundamental question of the relative 
effectiveness of the various ways in which the service should be extended. 
In the last analysis the real test of the superiority of one method over an- 
other is the effectiveness with which library objectives, as reflected in 
reading, are realized. Other considerations such as status of the li- 
brarian under each type, administrative convenience, and even service 
costs while not lacking in importance, are definitely secondary. We 
need to know how effectively basic objectives are achieved under differ- 
ent types of organization; it is only in such terms that studies of relative 
costs take on meaning. Differences of opinion as to the most efficient 
type of school-library organization can be resolved only in terms of evi- 
dence concerning the results achieved. 

The question of school-library supervision and its effectiveness may 
also be raised. Briefly, what has happened in specific schools as a result of 
state or local supervision? What criteria are applied as a basis for recom- 
mending changes or improvements; how valid are such criteria; and how 
practicable have they been as borne out in school-library operation? Re- 
lated to this is the effectiveness of standards as developed by the accredit- 
ing agencies. Chapter xiv throws some light on this point, and continuing 
studies should be undertaken both to measure the effect of the standards 
on school-library performance and to test the validity of the standards 

One of the serious problems of education is how to provide adequate 
facilities in sparsely populated or economically underprivileged areas. 

1 Doctor's dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1941. 

2 Doctor's dissertation, Graduate library School, University of Chicago, 1942. 


This problem is most acute in rural sections, and various efforts have 
been made to obviate the difficulty. Some of these efforts, with particular 
reference to library facilities, are described in chapter xii. Here is a field 
in which considerably more exploration, experimentation, description, 
and evaluation are needed. It is helpful, though frequently insufficient, 
to make some form of library service available; we need to know precisely 
what happens as a result of providing the facilities. In short, how satis- 
factorily do the various methods work, in providing many and diversi- 
fied books, in providing books specifically related to the needs of the edu- 
cational program, and in stimulating the use of the books available? To 
extend the privilege of book use (e.g., from a state library) is education- 
ally meaningless unless the opportunity is accepted. What is proposed 
is a series of investigations throwing light on the efficacy of various meth- 
ods of extending library service, as reflected in the actual reading which 
results. The descriptions given in chapter xii serve as an excellent point 
of departure for such studies. 


The physical administration of the school library itself presents nu- 
merous problems which call for solution. Some of them become particu- 
larly evident in the construction of a new building or in the remodeling 
of an old one, when provision is to be made for school-library facilities. 
Many considerations are of a common-sense variety, or they are prima- 
rily the concern of the architect and the engineer; e.g., there must be suffi- 
cient light, the library room should be easily accessible to the students, 
there should be suitable tables and chairs. But there are other problems 
of a hardly less critical nature that deserve careful attention on the part of 
the librarian and the school administrator. An example of such a problem 
is: For how large a proportion of the student body shall seats be pro- 
vided? Ideally, the answer should be given in the light of the entire 
school organization, so that some idea may be had of the numbers likely 
to be concentrated in the library at any one time. Related questions con- 
cern the amount of space to be allotted each seat and the proximity of 
the seats to the books and pamphlets. Existing standards with respect to 
these matters should be subject to continual scrutiny to determine their 
applicability to particular institutions. It would be strange, indeed, if 
identical conclusions were everywhere applicable. Schools which main- 
tain both a library and a study hall require different seating standards 
from schools where the functions of the two are concentrated in a single 


room. Studies aimed at answering the questions of appropriate space and 
its disposition would be welcome. 

Another aspect of internal administration is the size of staff. Public 
libraries have developed standards based on circulation, but in the 
school library, where circulation is subordinate to personal assistance to 
pupils, another criterion is necessary. Probably the best single basis is 
the size of student body and faculty. The criterion is obviously imper- 
fect, but it might well serve as the practicable basis for determining how 
large a library staff is necessary. Variations in staff size to conform to 
variations in teaching methods, regardless of enrolment, and the use of 
teachers as part-time librarians where the curriculum and teaching 
method require more individual assistance, should be studied in the light 
of both cost and pupil benefit. 

Along with problems of staff size are those of staff quality. What kinds 
of persons make the most satisfactory school librarians? Related to this 
is the question: What training is necessary to prepare one for satisfactory 
school-library service? The latter question is considered in some detail 
in an earlier chapter, but a definite answer cannot as yet be given. This 
is so for two major reasons. In the first place, as conditions and educa- 
tional philosophies vary, the qualifications necessary to implement the 
educational program must also vary; therefore, a single course of prepara- 
tion may not be universally satisfactory. In the second place, the specific 
nature of school-library service, and especially the qualities, character- 
istics, and background necessary to perform it, are not sufficiently well 
known. Some light is thrown on this problem throughout the Yearbook, 
where the activities in which the school librarian is engaged are implied 
and frequently indicated in detail, but the central problem of means- 
and-ends means in terms of personal characteristics and methods of 
preparation seen in relation to the achievement of the educational ends 
is not clearly understood even by the librarians themselves. What, for 
example, is the place of formal library training in the preparation of the 
school librarian? What are the relative values of subject-matter courses 
and technical-education courses to the school librarian? 

The obvious approach in answering these questions is by way of the 
well-known activity analysis, but this will supply only a partial answer. 
The essence of school librarianship is not revealed in the surface details of 
library performance, but it lies rather in the intellectual operations which 
give meaning to the day-by-day routines and procedures. Section II of 
this Yearbook includes a catalog of the numerous activities which de- 


nominate school librarianship, but behind each of them lies the question: 
What must the librarian know to be able to handle this situation effec- 
tively? Activity analysis constitutes a first step, but it must be carried 
far enough to reveal both the processes and the abilities which underlie 
successful school-library performance. 

No less important than personnel is the study of school-library finance. 
How much does the service cost? In so far as standards throw light on 
this question, it is usually in terms of so much per pupil or per faculty 
member or a definite proportion of the total educational expenditure. 
These approaches have the virtue of practicability, but they are subject 
to two criticisms. In the first place, the figures cited, when they are not 
guesses, are based on existing practice or on an average of available sta- 
tistics. There is no sound basis for saying that because a certain amount 
is allocated to a certain service, that amount is "right." It may, in fact, 
be much too low for another type of library service or too liberal if the 
library service needed in another school situation is of a more elementary 
type. In the second place, they assume that a regular correspondence or 
relationship exists between enrolment and the cost of library service. To 
some extent this is true, for obviously the greater the number of persons 
to be served, the greater the cost. Nevertheless, it must be evident that 
the nature of school-library service, and hence its cost, derives from the 
content of the curriculum and the method of presenting it. As the course 
content emphasizes the use of many books and as the teaching method in- 
volves considerable pupil self-reliance, so that he is expected to explore 
widely among printed sources, so the cost of the service to be provided 
must expand. What is needed, therefore, is a series of studies, based on 
the curriculum under different conceptions of education, rather than on 
existing library practice, to arrive at proper bases for determining costs 
of library service. Attention should be called to work already done to ar- 
rive at costs of school-library service, the most comprehensive to date in 
the school-library field being Miss Mary E. Crookston's Unit Costs in a 
Selected Group of High-School Libraries** As the title indicates, the study 
is centered in the school library itself and does not attempt to define 
proper school-library service in relation to the curriculum; and, as the 
author points out, the study is limited to labor costs only. Even within 
its defined scope, the study does not exhaust the possibilities for investi- 

3 United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 11, 1941. Washington: Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1942. 


gation, and the author herseH suggests the following as desirable investi- 
gations in unit costs: 

1. A study by a controlled demonstration, to determine unit cost of adequate 
reference service. 

2. A study, by a controlled demonstration, to determine unit cost of readers' 
advisory service adequate to meet the needs of the curriculum. 

3. A study to investigate technical processes of routine school-library procedure, 
such as circulation, care of collection. 

4. A more detailed study of cataloging costs over a longer period of time. 

5. A study to investigate the techniques of school routines performed by the li- 
brary staff, such as checking attendance, issuing permit sips, etc. 


It has been made clear in the preceding chapters of this Yearbook that 
the library has become a dynamic element in the educational process. It 
is obvious, however, that no library, regardless of its physical equipment 
and book stock, is educationally "alive" unless it is used. Studies cen- 
tered on library use should throw considerable light not only on matters 
of peculiar concern to library administration but 7 even more significant, 
on the nature of the educational process itself. It is of relatively little 
importance that so many books have been circulated in the course of a 
year; far more important it is to know what the pupils read what kinds 
of books they read and from what sources they secure their material. If 
this information is studied against a background of everything else that is 
known about the pupils, a great deal will be learned of the place of read- 
ing in individual development. Wide reading is not a virtue in itself; it 
should be seen in relation to the kind of reading matter it consists of and 
to the kind of individual engaging in it. The obverse of this situation is 
no less significant: What about the individuals who fail to do much or 
any reading? What substitutes, if any, are employed, and what difference 
does it make in the development of the child? Also, what handicaps to 
reading are present and how may they be removed? It is at least possible 
that a large library with a large and diversified collection serves more to 
confuse than to enlighten some pupils; and unquestionably it is true that 
much of the technical paraphernalia designed to illuminate and act as 
guides to library resources remains incoherent and puzzling to the unini- 
tiated. Precisely because individuals differ so profoundly in their psycho- 
logical approach to books and libraries, it is impossible to set down any 
one "best" way of introducing them to the world of literature and 


ideas ; we need to know how individuals differ and therefore how this differ- 
ence may be reflected in library organization and pedagogical techniques. 
Several types of study are thus indicated, and they may be suggested 
without much elaboration. 

1. A series of case studies of reading should be made as a basis for de- 
termining why pupils read what they do, the sources they prefer, the in- 
fluences which directly lead to reading as well as the frustrations which 
prevent it. Most studies of this type stop with descriptions of what pupils 
read, and even these are commonly given in rather gross terms which ob- 
literate significant distinctions between the reading of different types of 
individuals. Where comparisons are made they are usually between boys 
and girls, or among age or class groups. There should be many more in- 
vestigations of this type as well as studies which compare the reading 
of groups defined in other ways: urban versus rural, pupils with a book- 
ish background versus those limited to one or two sources, etc. In addi- 
tion, however, there should be careful nonstatistical studies of the reading 
patterns of individuals, and the reading should be studied in relation to 
the kinds of individuals they are (as contrasted with their membership 
in one or more broad groups) . Similarly, consideration should be given to 
individuals whose reading is limited or virtually nonexistent. 

2. Studies are needed to determine how competently children and 
adolescents use a library. Investigations aimed at determining ability 
to use the library have usually taken the direction of constructing a test 
of acquaintance with library tools reference books, the catalog, bibliog- 
raphies. Too often these tests are more suited to library administrators 
than to library users. We need very much to know how pupils approach 
the search for materials and the handicaps and difficulties they experi- 
ence in the search. This information is best secured in the library itself, 
by carefully observing the child in action. Perhaps the most appropriate 
test would consist of an assignment necessitating the use of various in- 
struments and tools, and the child's ability judged by the result. With 
such knowledge at hand, we may then proceed realistically to a valida- 
tion of paper-and-pencil tests of ability to use the library. 

3. Studies should be made of the distribution of school-library re- 
sources, as well as of related sources and methods of providing library 
materials. There have been numerous studies of a descriptive character 
in this general area, one of the most comprehensive being B. Lamar John- 


son's survey entitled The Secondary-School Library. 1 Valuable as these 
surveys are in presenting a generalized pattern of library service, they 
should be supplemented by local studies aimed not merely at description 
of facilities but, further, at determining what difference the presence of 
many sources makes in the reading of pupils. What differences appear in 
the reading of pupils exposed to a classroom collection, to a central school 
library, to a neighborhood public library branch, or to two or more of 
these in combination? Do many sources necessarily result in more read- 
ing, considered purely quantitatively; and do pupils depend on certain 
sources for specific types of books? The latter question implies considera- 
tion also of the kinds of literature actually made available in the various 
sources. For example, as between a school library and a public library in 
the same neighborhood or same community, what is the nature of their 
book collections? Do they supplement each other, do they duplicate 
widely, or do they function altogether independently of each other in the 
provision of materials? Such studies should not stop with a simple de- 
scription in terms of physical facilities and book stock, but should be ad- 
dressed to the question of effect as seen in the reading stimulated by each. 
(The study entitled Libraries and Readers in the State of New York, by 
Waples and Carnovsky, 5 explores this field, with particular relevance to 
school library and public library.) 

Although the values of reading in connection with the school curricu- 
lum have been stressed, it should be recognized that these are not its only 
values. "Education as a lifetime process" should be more than a com- 
mendable slogan, and its realization must rest, in the last analysis, on 
wide and continuous reading. It is not putting it too strongly to say that 
when reading terminates with formal education, the education itself may 
be considered a failure. 

The question may then be raised: What is the relation between read- 
ing patterns in childhood and adolescence and in adulthood? Is there ap- 
parent any carry-over; what is the nature of the carry-over; and does it 
differ appreciably among persons whose formative period reflects differ- 
ent types of reading behavior? Further, do persons who have not been 

4 National Survey of Secondary Education, Monograph No. 17. United States 
Office of Education Bulletin No. 17, 1932. Washington: Government Printing Office, 

5 Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939. Pp. 160. 


exposed to wide reading in childhood differ perceptibly in their adult 
reading from persons who have been so exposed? In a word, does the op- 
portunity for and the practice of wide reading during the school years 
make any difference in adult reading habits? We already have numerous 
studies of children's reading and of adult reading; we need to know the 
nature of the relationship between reading at the two chronological 

An even more important area of investigation, though vastly more dif- 
ficult, is that of discovering the relationship between a child's intellectual 
development and his reading. Librarians and teachers have generally 
felt that reading constitutes a "good/ 7 that it contributes positively to 
mental growth. Until we know more about the effects of specific kinds 
of reading upon specific individuals or psychological types, our confidence 
in the contribution of reading will be based more on faith than on evi- 
dence. The general problem was thus expressed by the writer in a discus- 
sion of book selection for children: 

Behind the standards of book selection imposed one day and revoked the next 
looms the question: What difference does it make? Is a child necessarily better 
off for having read one type of literature or for having refrained from reading an- 
other type? .... And may not one raise the further question whether the reading 
which is "good" for one person may be valueless if not positively harmful for an- 
other? In short, the assumption that standards of selection somewhat arbitrarily 
established are proper guides in book selection may be questioned with reference 
to the ends achieved. 6 

A serious problem in any library, but especially so in a school library, 
is one of growth. No school library can permit its book collection to be- 
come "frozen" or static; changes and developments in the curriculum in- 
evitably demand new books, and up-to-date publications frequently in- 
vigorate and shed new light on the teaching program. New books some- 
times supplement the books on the shelves; sometimes they take the place 
of the older volumes. Also, because of new discoveries, new develop- 
ments, the book on the shelf may become obsolete and educationally 

No one can say what this process amounts to, quantitatively. To over- 
simplify the statement of the problem: What is the rate at which books 

6 Leon Carnovsky, "Why Graduate Study in LibrariansMp?" Library Quarterly, 
VII (April, 1937), 252. 

CAW07SKY 359 

in the school Ebrary become obsolete or obsolescent? How many and 
specifically which books in wide use ten or even five years ago are used 
today? And how many books in great demand today will be useful ten 
years hence? A series of studies based on use as well as on book content 
would go far toward answering these questions, and the implications for 
the school library would be far-reaching. 

An important area where intensive study seems desirable is the books 
themselves. Every librarian is familiar with the preference given the 
new publication, frequently on no sounder basis than its novelty. In- 
deed, it is altogether likely that the new book is generally inferior to the 
one its displaces. Would it not be possible to analyze a book in the light 
of such criteria as readability to the audience for which it is intended and 
applicability to the basic concepts which make up the particular segment 
of the curriculum for which it is designed? When a new book on, say, 
American history is published, in what respects is it superior (if it is) to 
books already in use? And are its superiorities extensive enough to war- 
rant the expense of adding it to the library and relegating to a secondary 
position the book already held? The problem, stated more generally, 
calls for the development of criteria which will distinguish the better from 
the poorer book and the application of these criteria to extant literature. 

The wide use of nonbook materials in school libraries today opens up a 
wide field for educational experimentation. How satisfactory is the radio 
as a teaching instrument, and how does its effectiveness compare with 
that of the book? This is simply a specific statement of the broad psy- 
chological problem of the relative effectiveness of the human senses in 
the learning process. Similarly, the great emphasis being devoted to the 
film should be justified by evidence as to its instructional power. Schools 
everywhere are embarking on programs of expansion, adding new de- 
vices and new techniques, and we need to know more about their educa- 
tional effectiveness. This is particularly important from the practical 
standpoint, because the equipment involved is frequently quite expen- 
sive; and certainly a school is entitled to know something of its educa- 
tional worth before making the investment. 


This final chapter has attempted to bring together a few observations 
pertaining to the possibilities for future study in the school library and 
related fields. The entire volume abounds in description and prescrip- 


tion; it portrays a functioning institution and offers suggestions for its im- 
provement. Implicit is the conviction that the school library and in- 
creased reading constitute an integral part of the educational enterprise 
and that the quality of the educational outcome will be conditioned by 
the nature of the library facilities and services provided. That a real and 
significant relationship does exist is not likely to be seriously questioned, 
but it still remains worth asking what kinds of facilities for what kinds of 
school organization are likely to be educationally most satisfactory, and 
what significant results may be anticipated. It would be too much to ex- 
pect the studies which have been suggested in this chapter to answer all 
questions, but they will surely go far toward clarifying the role of the li- 
brary in general education. 



In the following annotated bibliography an effort has been made to select the 
more significant and the more representative works in broad areas dealing with 
or relating to the library in general education. Periodical articles and, with 
some exceptions, parts of books have been excluded. Since the bibliography does 
not include all of the references cited in footnotes and in bibliographies through- 
out the Yearbook, the reader is advised to refer back to the chapters for further 
suggestions for reading. 

ADAMS, HARLAN MARTIN. The Junior-College Library Program: A Study of Li- 
brary Services in Relation to Instructional Procedures. Chicago and Stanford 
University, California: American Library Association and Stanford Univer- 
sity Press, 1940. Pp. 92. 

One hundred and thirty-seven junior colleges reported on their library program in 
response to questionnaires. On the basis of data received, the author sets up principles 
and practices for integrating library service with the curricular program and instruc- 
tional methods of the junior college. One chapter is given to a description of the li- 
brary program at Menlo Junior College. 

Circular No. 6, 1939. Certain Aspects of School Library Administration. Wash- 
ington: American Association of School Administrators, 1939. Pp. 51, 
The report presents statistics and interpretation of elementary- and secondary- 
school library administration in school systems in 184 cities above 30,000 population, 
and in 56 school systems in cities of less than 30,000 population. Five topics are con- 
sidered; administrative control of school libraries, nature of library service provided, 
expenditures for school libraries, status of school librarians, and status of school-library 
supervision. Tables reporting practices in individual cities as well as summary tables 
and discussion of findings are presented. 

ASSOCIATION. Joint Committee. How Shatt We Educate Teachers and Li- 
brarians for Library Service in the School f New York: Columbia University 
Press, 1936. Pp. 74. 

The first part of the report describes the content of existing curriculums preparing 
for library use and for library service in the school and it formulates guiding principles 
for the reorganization of such curriculums; the second part incorporates an outline 
and syllabi for a proposed library-science curriculum for teachers and teacher-librar- 



BEALS, RALPH, and BRODY, LEON. The Literature of Adult Education. New York: 
American Association for Adult Education, 194L Pp. 493. 
The areas of adult education are considered first in a descriptive summary account 

winch is followed by references to standard works, bibliographies, and monographs on 

special aspects of the field. 

BEUST, NORA. School Library Administration: An Annotated Bibliography. Unit- 
ed States Office of Education Bulletin No. 7, 1941. Washington: Government 
Printing Office, 1941. Pp. 82. 

Selected references in books, periodicals, and pamphlets on the organization and 
administration of school libraries. The 716 entries are grouped into six main divisions : 
objectives; external administrative control, including relationships with other institu- 
tions; internal organization and management; supervision; evaluation, standards, 
measurements, surveys; finances, budgets, reports. 

BRANSCOMB, HARVIE. Teaching with Books: A Study of College Libraries. Chi- 
cago: Association of American Colleges and American Library Association, 
1940. Pp. 239. 

Branscomb devoted a year to studying the extent to which the work of the college 
library is integrated with the work of the college as a whole. Teaching with Books pre- 
sents the results of his inquiries, of his visits to 60 college libraries, of investigations 
undertaken for the study, and of the analysis of the literature of the field. Educational 
functions and activities of the college library are stressed rather than administrative 
machinery. The use of the library by students, the relationships between library use 
and academic achievement, and the problems involved in making books accessible 
(including "centralization versus decentralization") receive emphasis. 

BROWN, HOWARD WASHINGTON. A Study of Methods and Practices in Supplying 
Library Service to Public Elementary Schools in the United States. Philadelphia: 
University of Pennsylvania, 1941. Pp. 148. 

The author states the purpose of his study as "to determine (1) the methods which 
are used as the principal means of supplying library service to public elementary 
schools in cities in the United States with a total population of 10,000 and over, (2) the 
extent to which these methods are used in geographic sections and throughout the 
country as a whole, (3) the extent to which these methods are used in cities grouped 
according to total population, (4) the methods which are used as supplementary or 
additional means of supplying library service, and (5) the nature of and the extent to 
which certain public elementary-school library practices are used" (p. 2). 

CECIL, HENRY L., and HEAPS, WILLARD A. School Library Service in the United 
States: An Interpretative Survey. New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1940. Pp. 

The function and administration of school-library service in the educational pro- 
gram are described and interpreted under eight major headings: (1) importance of 
school-library service in the modern educational program; (2) rise and development of 
school-library service in its relation to significant movements in education; (3) state 
participation in school-library service; (4) large area participation in school-library 


service: rural schools; (5) local administration of school-library service; (6) analysis of 
school-library service programs in certain cities under co-operative and school-board 
administration; (7) federal participation in school-library service; and (8) a basic plat- 
form for the development of school-library service. 

CHANCELLOR, JOHN MILLER, et al Helping the Reader toward Self -Education. 

Chicago: American Library Association, 1938. Pp. 111. 

"The experiences and research of readers 7 advisers have furnished some practical 
working principles on reader guidance work which may be applied to any well-staffed 
library, large or small. .The object of the book is to aid and encourage libraries, espe- 
cially medium-sized and small ones, in developing some form of advisory service for 
readers." Booklist. 

COTJLBOTJRN, JOHN. Administering the School Library. Guide to Action Series No. 

3. Minneapolis: Educational Publishers, Inc., 1942. Pp. 125. 

A school administrator writes about the school library for other school administra- 
tors. The place of the library in modern education, the principal's or other school ad- 
ministrator's responsibilities, and the ways in which the library can participate in 
total school programs (teaching, reading, instructional supervision, guidance, and 
curricular development) receive emphasis. Techniques for evaluating school libraries 
are presented. 

EDUCATIONAL POLICIES COMMISSION. Social Services and the Schools. Washing- 
ton: National Education Association and the American Association of School 
Administrators, 1939. Pp. 147. 

"A systematic analysis of co-operative relationships between public schools and 
public health, welfare, and recreation agencies and public libraries" Foreword. 
Chapter iv, "Administration of Community Library Services," proposes a single au- 
thority to direct and to co-ordinate the libraries, the schools, and the recreational 
program of the community. 

Evaluation of Secondary Schools: General Report on the Methods, Activities and 
Results of the Co-operative Study of Secondary School Standards. Washing- 
ton: Co-operative Study of Secondary School Standards, 1939. Pp. 526. 
This account of the history of the Study, of its work and procedures, forms a sig- 
nificant contribution to the development of the qualitative evaluation of secondary 
schools. Measuring the effectiveness of the library has been considerably affected by 
the work of the Study. Other volumes in the series to be read in relation to the gen- 
eral report include: How To Evaluate a Secondary School (1940 edition), Evaluative 
Criteria (1940 edition), Educational Temperatures (1940 edition), and Evaluation of 
Secondary Schools: Supplementary Reprints. 

FARGO, LUCILE F. The Library in the School Chicago: American Library Asso- 
ciation, 1939 (third edition). Pp. 552. 

The standard textbook in the school-library area considers organization and tech- 
niques of school-library service in terms of the educational functions of the library. 
One of the most comprehensive volumes in the field, it constitutes a compendium of 
currently accepted practice and administrative organization. 


FARGO, LUCILE F. Preparation far School Library Work. New York: Columbia 

University Press, 1936. Pp. 190. 

After presenting in detail elements which affect the preparation of school librarians 
(positions available, school-library work, school-library standards and certification, 
professional migration, consolidation of school-library service, trends in library edu- 
cation, and other factors), the author considers preparation for school librarianship 
in relation to education for librarianship in general and in relation to teacher-educa- 

FENNEB, PHYLLIS. Our Library. New York: John Day, 1942. Pp. 174. 

Informal essays about activities, experiences, books and reading, pupils, and librar- 
ian in a progressive elementary-school library. 

GARDiifEE, JEWEL, and BAISDEN, LEO B. Administering Library Service in the 
Elementary School. Chicago: American Library Association, 1941. Pp.161. 
This basic book in the field of elementary-school library administration is addressed 
to school librarians, superintendents, principals, teacher-librarians, classroom teach- 
ers, librarians in public libraries, and instructors in library schools. Although pro- 
cedures and practices of library service are described, the work stresses the educational 
functions of the elementary-school library and includes several chapters on reading. 

GEAT, WILLIAMS, (ed.). Reading in General Education: Report of the Committee 
on Reading in General Education. Washington: American Council on Edu- 
cation, 1940. Pp. 464. 

A consideration by eleven specialists of the more significant problems, basic issues, 
recent trends, current practices, and techniques of appraisal in the area of reading, 
with particular reference to junior colleges and high schools. Chapter xi, "The Li- 
brary," by Wight and Carnovsky, discusses the library's participation in the reading 
program, functions of the library, instruction in the use of the library, stimulating 
the use of the library, and related administrative aspects of library service. 

HATGOOD, WILLIAM CONVEESE. Who Uses the Public Library. Chicago: Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press, 1938. Pp. 137. 

A survey of the patrons of the circulation and reference departments of the New 
York public library their use of the library, what they read, and their opinions of the 

HELLER, FEIEDA M., and LABRANT, Lou L. Experimenting Together: The Librar- 
ian and the Teacher of English. Chicago: American Library Association, 1938. 
Actual experiences of a school librarian and a teacher of English who planned and 

worked co-operatively in developing the students' reading activities in one school. 

JOHNSON, ALVHST. The Public Library a People's University. New York: Ameri- 
can Association for Adult Education, 1938. Pp. 85. 

Material gathered in visits to public libraries in which the author sought "indica- 
tions of how libraries function in the general adult educational movement, what atti- 


tudes librarians exhibit on the development of work of this kind, what the future posi- 
tion of the library may be. 7 ' Preface. 

JOHNSON, B. LAMAR. The Secondary-School Library. United States Office of Edu- 
cation Bulletin No. 17, 1932. (National Survey of Secondary Education 
Monograph No. 17.) Washington: Government Printing Office, 1933. Pp. 110. 

The Johnson study today has value primarily for its historical significance. Under- 
taken as a part of the National Survey of Secondary Education, the investigation re- 
ports activities in a selected group of outstanding secondary-school libraries; presents 
data regarding the libraries of 390 schools, interprets library problems in terms of the 
use made of libraries, and suggests problems for research in the field. One of the pio- 
neer studies in the evaluation of school libraries, the monograph combines theoretical 
considerations with the data obtained in the survey of library objectives, library fa- 
cilities, and library use in the 390 schools. 

LANCASTER, JOHN HERROLD. The Use of the Library by Student Teachers. New 
York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1941. Pp. 138. 
A study of how institutions training secondary-school teachers can bring about 
more effective use of the library by student teachers. In order to determine the pres- 
ent situation regarding the use made of the library by student teachers, their knowl- 
edge about the library and its resources, and the extent of library instruction they 
have received, Lancaster collected data through tests and record-forms from student 
teachers in 31 colleges in the area of the North Central Association. Findings are 
presented and suggestions made for needed improvement. 

LATHROP, EDITH A. and KEESECKER, WARD W. Laws Affecting School Libraries. 
United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 7 3 1940. Washington: Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, 1941. Pp. 136. 

Part I. "Summary of School-Library Legislation for All States" (arranged into 
seven divisions: procedures for establishment, financial support, administration and 
supervision, books, librarians, relationships with state library agencies, and rela- 
tionships with public libraries). 

Part II. "Digests of School Library-Legislation for Each State." 

LEARNED, WILLIAM S. The American Public Library and the Diffusion of Knowl- 
edge. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1924. Pp. 89. 
A "classic" in the literature of librarianship which describes the types of knowledge 

and discusses the public library as an agency for the systematic diffusion of knowledge . 

LENROW, ELBERT. Reader's Guide to Prose Fiction: An Introductory Essay, with 
Bibliographies of 1,500 Novels Selected, Topically Classified, and Annotated 
for Use in Meeting the Needs of Individuals in General Education. New York: 
D. Appleton-Century Co., Inc., 1940. Pp. 37L 

The subject list of fiction groups novels into three functional divisions: "The In- 
dividual's Need for Entertainment and 'Escape'," "The Individual and His Personal 
Environment," and "The Individual and His Social Environment." These three ma- 


jor parts are extensively subdivided into further topics. Introductory chapters include 
material on prose fiction in general education and the reading of fiction. Novels are 
classified on the basis of adolescent reading interests and of personal and social factors 
identified with adolescents. The bibliography constitutes an indispensable tool in 
reading guidance; the usefulness of the bibliography, moreover, is not restricted to 
work with adolescents. 

The Library as a School Function and Activity. Newark, New Jersey: New Jersey 

Secondary School Teachers' Association, 1940. Pp. 87. 

Librarians in the secondary schools of New Jersey report the more challenging and 
emerging library practices through which the school library participates more exten- 
sively in the educational program of the school. Based on returns from 165 schools, 
the report describes library activities which relate to guidance, meeting classroom 
needs, participating in school projects, community activities, assisting teachers, pupil 
development, and other services. Throughout, the emphasis centers in the broader 
educational and social functions of the library in the school program. 

Fields in General Education. New York: D. Appleton-Century Co., Inc., 
1941. Pp. 239. 

Chapter xii, "The School Library," by Elizabeth Scripture, interprets the school 
library in terms of the philosophy of general education, notes the contribution of the 
library in promoting growth in pupils in their use and evaluation of materials, and 
indicates the library's participation in an educational scheme which stresses maximum 
growth of each pupil in a ' life-centered curriculum." 

Joint Committee. Schools and Public Libraries Working Together in School 
Library Service: Report of the Joint Committee. Washington: National Edu- 
cation Association, 1941. Pp. 64. 

The most authoritative presentation and interpretation of the relationships exist- 
ing between schools and public libraries with regard to the problem of library service 
to school pupils. Part I lists and discusses the principles of school-library service; 
Part II includes case studies of procedures in school and public library relationships 
in ten selected communities; Part III summarizes basic principles and makes proposals 
for strengthening school and public library relationships. 

RANDALL, WILLIAM M., and GOODRICH, FRANCIS, L. D. Principles of College 
Library Administration. Chicago: American Library Association and Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press, 1941 (second edition). Pp. 249. 

A practical and systematic treatment of the functions, organization, finances, staff, 
physical plant, book selection, costs, and records of the liberal-arts college library. 
The library in relation to students and to faculty and topics dealing with the acquisi- 
tion and accessibility of books receive emphasis. The authors have based their ma- 
terials upon experience and upon data obtained during surveys of numerous college 


RAUSHENBTTSH, ESTHER. Literature for Individual Education. New York: Co- 
lumbia University Press, 1942. Pp. 262. 

Description of the exploratory courses in literature for Freshmen at Sarah Law- 
rence College in which new and realistic instructional methods use literary materials 
to find and to meet student interests and needs. Particular attention is given to ex- 
periences and reactions of students to this approach to books. An appendix, "The 
Books the Freshmen Read," containing annotations which describe what students are 
apt to get out of books, can be used in reading guidance. 

ROSENBLATT, LOUISE M. Literature as Exploration. New York: D. Appleton- 

Century Co., Inc., 1938. Pp. 340. 

Rosenblatt's theory that the teaching of literature can be made dynamic and sig- 
nificant by relating it to the social, personal, and cultural interests and needs of stu- 
dents has exercised considerable influence on the teaching of literature in the schools 
today. Although addressed mainly to teachers of literature in colleges and high 
schools, the book has particular value and meaning for librarians. 

Rural School Libraries. Washington: Department of Rural Education of the Na- 
tional Education Association, 1936. Pp. 111. 

The status of rural school libraries is analyzed and described by authorities in the 
field. Chapter headings include: "Reading Problem in Rural Schools," "Administra- 
tive Control of School Libraries," "Financial Support of School Libraries," "Book 
Selection for the School Library," "Organization, Administration, Care and Use of 
the School Book Collections," "Library and the Curriculum," "State School Library 
Supervision," and "Responsibilities of Teacher-Training Agencies." Also includes an 
extensive bibliography on rural school libraries. 

RUSSELL, JOHN DALE (ed.). New Frontiers in Collegiate Instruction. Proceedings 
of the Institute for Administrative Officers of Higher Institutions, 1941, Vol. 
XIII. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1941. Pp. 248. 
Includes "The Use of the Library in Instruction" by Louis R. Wilson, which de- 
scribes influences that increased the use of the library in college instruction. Methods 
of effectively integrating library use and class instruction are proposed. 

SIEBENS, CAROLINE R., and BAETLETT, WARREN L. The Librarian and the 
Teacher of Science. Chicago: American Library Association, 1942. Pp. 7L 
The second pamphlet in the "Experimenting Together" series describes the reading 
project which the librarian and the biology teacher conducted in Brookline High 
School. Other co-operative ventures between the two departments are noted, and an 
appendix contains a book list entitled "Biology and the World of Books." 

The Teaching of Reading: A Second Report. Thirty-sixth Yearbook, Part I, 
National Society for the Study of Education, Bloomington, Illinois: Public 
School Publishing Co., 1937. Pp. 442. 

The purpose of the Yearbook as stated in the Introduction is "(a) to trace briefly 
the developments in the field of reading during the last decade and to identify the 
major problems that schools face today; (6) to provide in specific and nontechnical 


terms the information needed by teachers and school officers in reorganizing and im- 
proving instruction, especially by making specific constructive recommendations dur- 
ing the last decade; and(c) to provide, as a guide in the case of debatable issues, tenta- 
tive suggestions to be formulated after careful and deliberate study by a group of 
qualified experts." 

ance/or Teachers. New York: John WHey & Sons, 1941. Pp. 308. 
A guide designed to acquaint secondary-school teachers with general library pro- 
cedures, reference and source materials, teacher-library co-operation, and the use of 
the library. 

WAPLES, DOUGLAS, and CARNOVSKY, LEON. Libraries and Readers in the State 
of New York: The State's Administration of Public and School Libraries with 
Reference to the Educational Values of Library Services. Chicago : University of 
Chicago Press, 1939. Pp. 160. 

The volume reports an investigation of the reading of high-school students, teach- 
ers, and parents in two New York State communities ("Extown" and "Wytown") 
having above-average schooling facilities and an above-average supply of good reading 
matter. The quantity and quality of reading material obtained from different sources 
by different groups of readers, the influences of the distributing agencies upon read- 
ing, resultant administrative problems for schools and public libraries, and proposed 
recommendations form the central topics of this objective and important study. 
Made for the Secondary Education Division of the Regents 7 Inquiry into the Char- 
acter and Cost of Public Education in the State of New York. 

WILSON, Louis R. The Geography of Reading: A Study of the Distribution and 
Status of Libraries in the United States. Chicago : American Library Associa- 
tion and University of Chicago Press, 1938. Pp. 481. 

The volume "presents the findings of an extensive survey of the distribution of 
libraries and library resources in the various states and regions of the nation. It also 
shows the relation of this distribution to that of bookstores and rental libraries, of 
magazines and newspapers, and to the status of other social institutions and media of 
communication of ideas such as the school, the moving picture theater, and the radio.' 7 



Louis R. WILSON 

Dean Emeritus, Graduate Library School 

University of Chicago 

Chicago, Illinois 

Few data concerning the nature and diversity of the total library resources of 
the nation have been included in the Yearbook. These resources are more exten- 
sive than is generally known and many of them are available to teachers, stu- 
dents, and the public generally. State libraries, state library extension agencies, 
university and agricultural extension divisions, and many other types of libraries 
regularly lend materials with a minimum of restriction or cost. Their use by 
teachers for professional purposes and by schools in rural areas could be greatly 
extended through carefully planned co-operation by school and library author- 
ities at state, county, and municipal levels. A number of studies have appeared 
in the past five years which have dealt comprehensively with the distribution of 
these resources. In 1938 Wilson 1 presented an extended array of tables relating 
to all types of libraries in the United States. Joeckel, 2 in a monograph prepared 
for the Advisory Committee on Education, described the service of various types 
of libraries, including federal libraries, and estimated the amount of money which 
would be required to inaugurate and maintain a program of federal aid to libraries 
in the forty-eight states on the basis of relative need. 

Two additional summaries of library service have been published in tabular 
form by Chapman 3 and Settelmayer. 4 The summary by Chapman relates to li- 
brary service provided through W.P.A. Such service has been much more exten- 
sive in rural areas than has been generally known and, in certain states, notably 
those of the Southeast, has represented a greater total annual expenditure for 

1 Louis R. Wilson, The Geography of Reading. Chicago: American Library Associa- 
tion and University of Chicago Press, 1938. 

2 Carleton B. Joeckel, Library Service. Advisory Committee on Education 
Staff Study Number 11. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1938. 

3 E. A. Chapman, "W.P.A. Library Demonstrations Serve Millions of Readers," 
American Library Association Bulletin, XXXIV (April, 1940), 225-31. 

4 J. C. Settelmayer, "Public Library Service in the United States, 1941," American 
Library Association Bulletin, XXXVI (June, 1942), 399-402. 



public library service than that regularly provided by the cities and counties of 
the states concerned, Settelmayer has brought the data concerning public li- 
braries, including W.P.A. libraries, down through 1941 and has devoted special 
consideration to the areas which lack public library service, 

A recent study by Brown 5 deals with the methods and practices of supplying 
library service to public elementary schools in the United States. While the study 
is limited to schools in cities with 10,000 population and over, it is very useful in 
indicating means which might be adapted to the provision of service to county 
schools in rural areas. 

Since 1870 the United States Office of Education has issued statistics of various 
types of libraries and is the principal agency to which the nation has looked for 
information on this subject. During this period it has issued a dozen or more re- 
ports, bulletins, or chapters in the biennial reports of the United States Commis- 
sioner of Education. The Library and the recently established Library Service 
Division of the Office of Education supply data whenever possible concerning li- 
brary facilities. 

5 Howard W. Brown, A Study of Methods and Practices in Supplying Library Service 
to Public Elementary Schools in the United States. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 
1941 (private printing). 



The following table summarizes by type the latest compilations of library re- 
sources of the nation. 




Type of Library and Year 
for Which Data Were 

of Li- 

Number of 



Public, including W.P.A., 


115 000 000 

$55 376 311 

96 221 760 a 

State 1937 


12 000 000 

2 398 054 

Libraries served 

School, central libraries, 

27 836 

28 346,250 

6 868,251 

various clien- 
teles 13 

7 209 674 pu- 

School, classroom librar- 
ies, 1934-35 


No data 

(capital out- 
lays ex- 

No data 

pils 6 <* 
No data 

College and university, 





Federal, 1941 



No data 

No data 6 

Special 1935 



No data 

No data f 

J. C. Settelmayer, "Public Library Service in the United States, 1941," American Library Associa- 
tion Bulletin, XXXVI (June, 1942), 399-402. 

b These data were prepared by Paul A. T. Noon, Director of the Ohio State Library, June 1, 1937. 
They covered the holdings and expenditures of state libraries, state library extension agencies, legisla- 
tive reference libraries, state law or supreme court libraries, state archives, and state historical commis- 
sions. They did not include the holdings or record the expenditures of university extension divisions. 

* "Statistics of Public-School Libraries, 1934-35," Biennial Survey of Education, Vol. II, chap. v f 
pp. 7, 9, 26. United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 2, 1937. There are approximately 250,000 
individual schools in the United States embraced -within 2,901 city and 3,426 county school systems 
(total 6,327). Reports on the libraries of more than one-half of the individual schools were not received 
by the United States Office of Education. Failure to report accurately and consistently upon the li- 
braries makes evaluation of school libraries very difficult. 

d "Statistics of Higher Education, 193738," Biennial Survey of Education, Vol. II, chap, iv, pp. 231, 
238, 252, 279. United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 2, 1940. 

"Libraries of the United States Government." United States Office of Government Keports, De- 
cember 15, 1941 (mimeographed). 

* In 1938 Joeckel, in Library Service (p. 37), reported that 1,600 special libraries in 1935 contained 
approximately 22,000,000 volumes, of which 7,000,000 were duplicated in other libraries. The net hold- 
ings, consequently, were 15,000,000 volumes. 



Accrediting agencies for school libraries* 

Administration of school libraries, 252 
68, 351-52 

Admission requirements of library schools 

Adult education: program of } 75; serv- 
ices of public library to, 106-12 

Aids to learning, 6, 22, 176-218; relation 
of reading to, 29-30 

Aids in the selection of books, 169, 172, 

Arps, Louisa Ward, 65 

Art exhibits in the library, 84, 111 

Audio-visual aids, 24, 59, 102, 134, 176- 

' 212, 222-23, 340; distributing centers 
for, 181; records of use of, 182; respon- 
sibility of the library for, 180-84, 328 

Basic texts, use of, 23, 176 

Berlin, New York, 62 

Board-of-education control of school li- 
braries, 152-53, 221-22 

Book' clubs, 60, 66, 156 

Book lists, 74, 80, 89, 109, 123, 144, 169, 
172, 173, 174, 244W5 

Book-week programs, 148 

Books, 23, 161; appropriation for, 157, 
166, 239; centralized purchase of, 100; 
clearinghouse for selection of, 173-74; 
co-operative buying, 148; general prin- 
ciples in the selection of, 171-73; kinds 
of, in a school library, 166-71; modern 
techniques in selection of, 138-39; 
selection of, 165-75, 229-30; state 
standards for provision of, 281, 283, 
284, 285; teaching the use of, 314 

Branch libraries, 108 

Browsing-room, 83, 84, 110 

Budget of school library, 157-58, 166, 
234, 238, 265-67 

Bulletin boards, 134, 135, 198-99 

Bulletins, 144 

Centenary Junior College, 97 
Certification of school librarians, 250-51 
Circulating library, 238-41 

Classroom libraries, 35-38, 67-68. 80, 89. 
92, 100, 120, 143, 159, 231-32, 263-65, 

Colby Junior College, 96 

College courses for librarians, 316-20 

College library, preparation of students 
to use, 303-6 

Commission on Reorganization of Sec- 
ondary Education, 11 

Communication, agencies of, 16 

Community use of school library, 26. 46. 
58, 61, 79, 154r-55, 327-28 

Compton Junior College, 96 

Conference room, 25, 26, 71, 72, 73, 94, 
144, 256 

Control of school libraries, 152-53, 221- 

Co-operation between school and public 
library, 51, 53, 69-70, 79, 128, 14&-50, 
154-55, 221, 222-23, 226-32, 238-41, 

Co-operation between school staff and 
librarian, 10, 57-61, 80, 81, 85, 90, 92, 
120, 133-35, 138, 142-45, 152-62, 168, 
181-84, 299-300 

Co-operative buying, 148, 229-30, 238- 

County libraries, 9, 233, 239-41; relation 
of school library to, 327 

Crumby, Elizabeth, 36 

Curriculum: development of, 158; en- 
richment of, 21-22, 182, 184; librarian 
assistance in planning, 65, 138, 160; of 
library schools, 320-23; relation of li- 
brary to, 156, 176; reorganization of, 
21-22; selection or audio-visual aids 
for enrichment of, 182, 184 

Democracy, problems of, 17-18 
Demonstration libraries, 308-9, 324 
Denver, Colorado, 50, 65 
Departmental libraries, 87-88, 89, 92, 94 
Detroit, Michigan, 122 
Dioramas, 24, 71 

Educational agency, the library as an, 3, 




Educational objectives, 12; see also Prin- 
ciples of education 

Educational Policies Commission, 11 

Educational and social changes, 15-31, 54 

Eight-year Study, 12, 338 

Elementary-school libraries, 8-9, 35-53; 
standards for, 284-85 

Enrolment, increased school, 20 

Equipment for the library, 58-59, 358- 
59; standards for, 282-83; 284-85 

Evaluation: of library materials, 66; of 
library use or service, 8, 129-31, 334r- 
35; and research, 5, 331-60 

Exhibits, 135, 145, 156 

Field trips, 210-12 

Films; see Audio-visual aids; Motion pic- 

Film slides, 192-93 

Financial support of school library, 26- 
27, 76, 154, 157-58, 166, 222, 228, 234, 
238, 239, 247-49, 265-67, 301, 326; in- 
vestigations in, 354; standards for, 
283, 284 

Formal education, the library in, 6 

Frances Shimer Junior College, 96 

Free reading, 22, 74, 102, 122, 123; see also 
Recreational reading 

Free textbooks, 162 

Furniture, for the library, 58-59, 258- 
59, 28^-85 

Garden City, New York, 43 

General education: the library in, 8, 68, 
155; objectives of, 12; public library 
in, 100; relation of library to objec- 
tives of, 11-12 

Governmental forces controlling school- 
library service, 221-26; 351-52 

Gray, Jane, 57-61 

Guidance, 19-20, 29, 48-49, 59, 75, 96, 
130, 132-33, 136, 145, 146, 156, 160, 
165, 195, 237, 314, 340; programs, 25; 
of reading, 43-46, 51-52, 72, 122, 
136-37; services for adults, 25-26 

Health, building of, 47, 341 
Hicks, Edwina S., 47 
Horgan, Paul, 82 

Implications of social changes, 16-20 
Individual differences, 50-52, 53, 69, 119, 
129, 341 

Individual reading, 52, 158-59; see also 
Free reading; Recreational reading 

Instruction in use of library, 47, 62, 67, 
73-74, 124-28, 135-36, 144, 147, 230- 
31, 234-35, 237, 295-329; standards 
for, 283; see also Skill in use of library 

Instruction in use of library tools, 49-50, 
67, 124-28 

Integration: of library instruction with 
subject-matter courses, 307-8; of li- 
brary services, 7, 155 

Inter-library loans, 101, 149, 231-32 

Interpretation, 109 

for, 285-J 

je libraries, 77-98; standards 

Lantern slides, 190-92 

Learning experiences, planning for, 133- 

Legal provisions for school libraries, 234, 
241-51, 247-49 

Leisure time, wise use of, 18-19, 21, 58, 
60, 69, 101-2 

Librarian: as a counselor, 96, 146; as a 
member of the school staff, 6, 160, 296, 
321; see also Co-operation between 
school staff and librarian 

Libraries: in the elementary school, 35- 
53 ; in the junior college, 77-98; in rural 
areas, 233-41; in the secondary school. 

Library: in action, 5, 35-112; as an aid 
to teaching, 52, 115-31; as a materials 
laboratory, 40-43, 95, 139, 140, 158; as 
a socializing agency, 46-50; used as 
study hall, 62, 79, 259-61; as a vital 
agency in education, 5, 13-31; in the 
war effort, 5 

Library classes, activities in, 35-53, 62- 
64, 296-97 

Library development, problems in, 8-11, 
91, 92, 350-60 

Library facilities, at public expense, 19; 
see also Financial support of school li- 

Library materials, nature and selection 
of, 218, 229-30, 328 

Library objectives, 11, 12, 83, 155-56 

Library personnel, 228, 323-25, 353; see 
also School librarian 

Library resources of the nation, 10 

Library schools: admission requirements 
of, 316-20; curriculums of, 320-23 



Library service: criteria of, 155-56; in 
the elementary school, 35-53; in the 
junior college, 77-98; machinery for 
implementing, 291-92; to Negroes, 9; 
in the secondary school, 54-76; sup- 
plied by pupils, 128-29, 145, 147 

"Library Service Club/' 129 

Library supervisor, 15; 242-47 

Library use: instruction in, 230-31, 
234-35, 237, 295-300; investigation of, 
355-59; by pupils, 16, 35-53, 54-75, 
77-98, 99-112, 115-31; records of, 
342-47; research in, 8, 350-60; by 
teachers, 38-40, 44, 133-40; training 
for, 10, 301-25 

Little Rock, Arkansas, 122 

Long, Antje, 50 

Long Beach, California, 47 

Los Angeles City College, 78, 86-89 

Maar, Georgiana, 43-46 

Machinery for implementing library serv- 
ice, 5, 219-92 

Magazines; see Periodicals 

Manheim, Pennsylvania, 57 

Maps, 100, 177, 180, 199-201 

Materials: nature and selection of, 5; 
nonreading, 24-25, 328; use of, 23-24 

Maxon, Katharine, 62-64 

Menlo School and Junior College, 78, 

Minneapolis, Minnesota, 125, 126, 128 

Motion pictures, 18, 19, 24, 85, 89, 100, 
102, 110, 134, 177, 184-90; equipment 
for, 184-85; organization within li- 
brary for program of, 187; selection of, 
187-88; sources of, 185-87, 216-17 

Motivation, 109 

Museum exhibits, 24, 210-12 

N.Y.A. student help, 64 

Negroes, library service to, 9 

New Mexico Military Institute, 78, 82- 

Newspapers, 212-14 

Nonreading materials, 24-25, 178-79; re- 
sponsibility of library for, 328 

Objectives: difficulties in attainment of, 
247; of general education, 12; library, 
11, 12, 83, 155-56; library participa- 
tion in achievement of school, 338-42 

Organization of school libraries, 152-53, 
242-47, 252-68, 314-15; problems in, 
352-55; standards for, 282 

Out-of-school youth, services of public 
library to, 105-6 

Pamphlets, 212-14 
Patterson, M. L., 55 
Peekskffi, New York, 54r~55 
Periodicals, 59, 84, 89, 94, 100, 212-15; 

state standards for provision of, 281 
Personal libraries, 92, 93 
Personality problems, 123-24 
Philosophy of education, changes in, 20- 

21, 28, 70-75, 165 
Phonographs, 96, 207-9 
Physical aspects of the library, 58-59, 

229, 253-61; problems concerning, 

352-55; standards for, 282-83, 284-85 
Pictures, 24, 59, 71, 85, 92, 94, 100, 102, 

134, 135, 177, 180, 194-98 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 40 
Preparation of staff for effective service, 

5; see also Training of school staff 
Principal's relation to the library. 152-62. 


Principles of education, 11, 21, 338-42 
Problems in library development, 8-11, 

91, 92, 350-60 
Professional activities of the librarian, 

Professional libraries, 45, 66, 144-45, 

Progressive Education Association, 12, 

Projects, 22, 117, 339 

Public forums, 16, 19, 84-85, 110 

Public library: as an agency for general 
education, 99-112; as an agency for 
motivating good reading, 108; for chil- 
dren of intermediate grades, 103; for 
children of junior high school age, 103; 
classes of borrowers, 108; educational 
program of, 110; for high-school stu- 
dents, 104; for little children, 103; 
loans to school libraries, 149, 231-32; 
program of public relations, 110; serv- 
ice in the United States, 9, 99-100 ; serv- 
ices to adult education, 106-12; serv- 
ices to out-of-school youth, 105-6; 
services to school children, 100-5, 155 

Public relations program: of public li- 
brary, 110; of school library, 154 



Publicizing the library, 26, 203 

Pupil assistants, 48-49, 71, 86, 90, 147-48 

Pupil growth, 64-70 

Pupil service: in audio-visual program, 

181-82; to the library, 128-29, 145, 

Pupil use of library, 35-53, 54-76, 77-98, 

99-112, 115-31, 295-300 
Purposes and scope of the Yearbook, 


Radio, 16, 18, 19, 24, 158, 201-6; see also 
Audio-visual aids 

Reading: changes in concepts of, 28-29; 
changes in teaching aims of, 27-28; 
as leisure-time activity, 18, 19, 58, 60, 
61, 69; nature and function of, 27-30; 
stimulation of interest in, 30, 166, 231; 
teaching of, by librarian, 322 

Reading lists, 74, 123 

Reading records, 95, 122, 342-47 

Reading room, 25, 26, 73, 83, 256 

Recordings, 24, 92, 72-73, 85, 89, 92, 94, 
100, 102, 111, 178, 207-9 

Records of library use, 265, 342-47 

Recreational reading, 26, 60, 104, 121, 
165, 170-71 

Reference books, 166-68, 299 

Reference help, 146 

Reference librarian, 109-10 

Reference materials, 160 

Reference work, 52 

Regional libraries, 9, 240-41; relations of 
school library to, 327 

Relation of: principal to library, 152-62; 
schools and public library, 232; super- 
intendent to library, 152-62; teacher to 
library, 132-40 

Remedial work, 44r45, 171, 322 

Reports on library service, 154, 245, 265 

Research in library use, 8, 90, 149, 331- 

Rural school libraries, 9, 233-41; prob- 
lems of, 234-35 

Scheduling devices, 72, 262-63 

Schmidt, Thusnelda, 41 

Schmitt, Fannie, 70 

School librarian, 141-51, 315-25; certifi- 
cation of, 250-51; participation in 
community activities, 149-50; pro- 

fessional activities of, 149; qualities 
and characteristics of, 141, 157; in re- 
lation to administration, 150-51; in 
relation to community agencies, 148- 
50; in relation to pupils, 145-48; in 
relation to school, 142-43; in relation 
to teachers, 143-45; selection of, 156- 
57, 316-20, 325-26; standards for, 

School library: administration, 252-68; 
board-of-education control of, 152- 
53, 221-22; as a community library, 
26, 58, 61, 79, 154; co-operative con- 
trol of, 221, 223; courses on, 309; 
equipment for, 58-59, 229, 258-59, 
284-85; evaluation of, 333-48; finan- 
cial support of, 157-58, 166, 222, 228, 
234, 238, 239, 265-67, 326; function of, 
165-66; kinds of books in, 166-71; 
objectives of, 155-56; organization of, 
152-53, 231, 252-68; physical aspect 
of, 229, 253-61; public library control 
of, 221, 222-23; research in the field of 
the, 333-60; service in rural areas, 9, 
233-41; standards for, 7, 10, 153, 166, 
234, 254^55, 269-92; state aid to, 247- 
49; state supervision of, 241-47 

School personnel and library service, 5, 
113-62, 295-329 

School planning, 160 

School staff, preparation of, for effective 
library use, 293-329 

Schools: changes in, 20-27; effects of 
changes in, 26-27 

Scope and organization of the Yearbook, 

Seranton-Keystone Junior College, 95 

Secondary-school libraries, 5^-76; stand- 
ards for, 274r-83 

Selection of books, 165-75, 244-45; aids 
in the, 169, 172, 173; clearinghouse for 
the, 173-74; general principles of, 171- 
73; modern techniques in, 138-39; 
by students, 81, 83; by teachers, 80, 
81, 85, 88 

Skill in use of library, 124-28, 230-31, 
234-35, 295-329; see also Instruction 
in use of library 

Slides, 24, 178, 179 

Social changes, implications of, 19-20 

Social and educational changes, 15-31, 


Social issues, 17 
Sound-slide film, 178, 193 



Special collections, 87-88, 108-9. 110. 
149, 172-73, 324 

Specialists, 108-9 

Stacks, 25, 84 

Standards for the school Hbrarv, 7, 10, 
153, 166, 234, 254-55, 269-92 'applica- 
tion and Interpretation of, 336-38 

State aid, 247-49 

State department of education, 9, 242-47 

State library agencies, 9 3 329 

State supervision of school libraries, 241- 

Stephens College, 78, 92-95 

Stereographs, 178, 194 

Still films, 178, 180, 192-93 

Story-telling, 52, 208 

Students, selection of, for training in li- 
brarianship, 316-20 

Studies concerning library problems, 81- 
82, 350-60 

Study circle, 111, 112 

Study skills, development of, 133 

Subject departments, 110 

Superintendent's relation to the library, 
152-62, 325-29 

Supervised study, 22 

Survey courses, 22 

Tarbox, Ruth, 38 
Teacher-librarians, 311-15 
Teacher's relationship to the library, 
122-40, 301-11 

Television, 206-7 

Test results, 51, 53 

Test in use of library, 67, 93 

Textbook, diminishing use of, 176 

Training: investigations in the field of, 
353; of the public librarian, 7, 102, 
316-20; of the school librarian, 6-7, 
316-20; of school staff for use of li- 
brary materials, 6, 234-35, 293-329; 
standards for, 281-82 ; see also Instruc- 
tion in use of library 

Trends : in the development of standards, 
286-87; in junior-college libraries, 97- 
98; in library service, 6-8 

Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 70 

University extension divisions, 9, 186 
Utilization of library personnel and re- 
sources in instruction, 6; see also Co- 
operation between school staff and li- 

Virginia, Minnesota, 78, 79-82 
Visual-sensory aids, 178; see also Audio- 
visual aids 

Vocational guidance^ 96, 160, 171; see al- 
so Guidance 

W.P.A. service to libraries, 9 
Watervffle, New York, 36 
Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, 38 
Workroom, 25, 162, 256-57 
Wright Junior College, 95 

IN U-S-A- J 


(As Revised at the 1924 Meeting and Amended in 1926 
1928, 1929, 1932, and 1933) 


Name. The name of this Society shall be "The National Society for the Study 
of Education." 


Object Its purposes are to cany on the investigation of educational problems, 
to publish the results, and to promote their discussion. 


Membership. Section. 1. There shall be two classes of members active and 

Section 2. Any person who is desirous of promoting the purposes of this 
Society is eligible to active membership and shall become such on payment of 
dues as prescribed. 

Section 3. Active members shall be entitled to vote, to participate in discus- 
sion, and, under certain conditions, to hold office. 

Section 4. Honorary members shall be entitled to all the privileges of active 
members, with the exception of voting and holding office, and shall be exempt 
from the payment of dues. 

A person may be elected to honorary membership by vote of the Society on 
nomination by the Board of Directors. 

Section 5. The names of the active and honorary members shall be printed in 
the Yearbook. 

Section 6. The annual dues for active members shall be $2.50. The election 
fee for active members shall be $1.00. 


Officers. Section 1. The Officers of the Society shall be a Board of Directors, 
a Council, and a Secretary-Treasurer. 

Section 2. The Board of Directors shall consist of six members of the So- 
ciety and the Secretary-Treasurer. Only active members who have contributed 
to the Yearbooks shall be eligible to serve as directors, and no member who, under 
the provisions of Section 3, has been elected for two full terms in immediate suc- 
cession shall be eligible to re-election to succeed himself for a third term. 


Section 3. The Board of Directors shall be elected by the Society to serve for 
three years, beginning on March first after their election. Two members of the 
Board shall be elected annually (and such additional members as may be neces- 
sary to fill vacancies that may have arisen). 

This election shall be conducted by annual mail ballot of aU active members 
of the Society. A primary ballot shall be secured in October, in which the active 
members shall nominate from a list of members eligible to said Board. The names 
of the six persons receiving the highest number of votes on this primary ballot 
shall be submitted in November for a second ballot for the election of the two 
members of the Board. The two persons (or more in the case of special vacancies) 
then receiving the highest number of votes shall be declared elected. 

Section 4. The Board of Directors shall have general charge of the work of 
the Society, shall appoint its own Chairman, shall appoint the Secretary-Treas- 
urer, and the members of the Council. It shall have power to fill vacancies within 
its membership, until a successor shall be elected as prescribed in Section 3. 

Section 5. The Council shall consist of the Board of Directors, the chairmen 
of the Society's yearbook and research committees, and such other active mem- 
bers of the Society as the Board of Directors may appoint from time to time. 

Section 6. The function of the Council shall be to further the objects of the 
Society by assisting the Board of Directors in planning and carrying forward the 
educational undertakings of the Society. 


Publications. The Society shall publish the yearbook of the National Society 
for the Study of Education and such supplements as the Board of Directors may 
provide for. 


Meetings, The Society shall hold its annual meetings at the time and place of 
the American Association of School Administrators of the National Education 
Association. Other meetings may be held when authorized by the Society or by 
the Board of Directors. 


Amendments. Proposals to amend this Constitution may be made by the 
Board of Directors or by petition of twenty-five or more active members of the 
Society. Such proposals shall be submitted to all active members for a mail 
vote and shall be declared adopted if approved by two-thirds of the members 
voting thereon. 


February 21 and 23, 1942 

The Society held two sessions at the San Francisco meeting, the first, Satur- 
day evening, February 21, in the auditorium of the Veterans 7 Building, the sec- 
ond, Monday afternoon, February 23, in Humboldt Hall at the Empire Hotel. 


This session was devoted to a discussion of the Forty-first Yearbook, Part I, 
Philosophies of EdtLcation, which had been prepared by a committee under the 
chairmanship of Professor John S. Brubacher of Yale University. The meeting 
was called to order by the presiding officer. Dr. William C. Bagley, Chairman of 
the Board of Directors. 

The program for this meeting was organized in the form of a panel discussion, 
the panel including, besides Chairman Brubacher, one representative of each 
of the five systems of philosophy covered by the yearbook. William H. Eolpatrick 
and Frederick S. Breed, members of the committee and contributors to the year- 
book, participated in the discussion as representatives of experimentalism and 
realism, respectively. Elmer H. StafMback, Professor of Education, San Jos6 
State College, was the panel representative for idealism, which is treated in the 
chapter of the yearbook written by Professor H. H. Home, New York University. 
Dean James L. Hagerty, Saint Mary's College, California, defended the point of 
view presented in the chapter written by Mortimer J. Adler of the University of 
Chicago, whose basic concepts are closely allied to AristoteBanism. Father Wil- 
fred Mallon was the able substitute for his colleague at St. Louis University, 
Father William J. McGucken, who contributed the chapter explaining the Catho- 
lic view of the aims of education. 

The program of this session, a departure from the traditional form of the 
Society's meetings, was well received. For nearly two hours the audience fol- 
lowed with intense interest the friendly argument of scholarly representatives 
of different schools of thought as each defended his own belief or challenged 
the position of another member of the panel on questions pertaining to the 
nature and destiny of man, knowledge and how it is to be acquired, moral 
education, the relation of the individual to society, and the role of freedom and 
of authority in a democratic theory of education. At the close of the panel dis- 
cussion, the interest of the audience was evidenced by a number of questions 
from the floor, more than could be considered by the panel because of the lateness 
of the hour. 



This session, a joint meeting with the American Educational Research Associa- 
tion, was devoted to a review of Part II of the Forty-first Yearbook, The Psy- 
chology of Learning. Professor T. R. McConnell, chairman of the Society's 
committee for the yearbook under discussion and president of the American 
Educational Research Association, presided during the meeting. The following 
program was presented. 

I. "The Scope and Purpose of the Yearbook" 

T. R. MCCONNELL, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

II. "Critiques of the Yearbook" 

HAEOLD A. CAETER, Assistant Professor of Education, University of 

California, Berkeley, Calif. 
STEPHEN M. COREY, Professor of Educational Psychology, University of 

Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
III. "The Importance of Research on Learning in the School Situation" 

CHARLES H. JTJDD, 4418 Circle View Boulevard, Los Angeles, Calif. 

The general discussion which followed this program was punctuated by ques- 
tions from the audience to participants in the program. It was enlivened by 
Chairman MeConnelTs citations to Dr. Judd's own writings in rejoinder to the 
latter's criticisms of the yearbook. 

Following the program at the Saturday evening session, a short business meet- 
ing was convened at the call of Chairman Bagley, who read the following resolu- 
tions (subsequently published in School and Society) which were unanimously 
adopted by vote of the members present. 


The National Society for the Study of Education regrets the death on August 1, 
1941, of Guy Montrose Whipple, for twenty-five years Secretary and Editor. It was 
largely through Dr. WMpple's devoted and efficient activities in its behalf that the 
Society has attained its present status and influence as an outstanding organization 
for the promotion, of educational research, the publication of the findings of research, 
and the evaluation of those findings through open and impartial discussion. Al- 
though an account of Dr. Whipple's life and distinguished services to the Society 
and to the cause of education has been prepared for and published in the Forty- 
first Yearbook, the Society takes the occasion of this open meeting to express the keen 
sense of great loss that it has sustained and to convey to Dr. Whipple's family its 
sincere sympathy. 


Through the death of Paul Henry Haims, December 14, 1941, the National 
Society for the Study of Education lost one of its earliest active members, one of the 


early presidents (1909-10) , and one of the five persons who up to the present time have 
been elected to honorary membership. 

Professor Hanus has been a prominent leader in American education for more 
than fifty years. A native of Germany, brought to the United States by his parents 
at the age of four, he became in 1890 a professor of pedagogy in what is now Colorado 
State College of Education. In the following year he went to Harvard University as 
assistant professor of the history and art of teaching, the first professorial appoint- 
ment at Harvard in the field of education, as such, and one of the first university ap- 
pointments in this field in the United States. He became a professor in 1901 and 
served in that capacity until 1921, when at the age of sixty-six he retired as professor 

Professor Hanus rendered pioneer service in placing the university study of edu- 
cation on a permanent and respected basis. His leadership also extended to many 
other fields. For the ten years 1909 to 1919 he was a member of the Massachusetts 
State Board of Education; in 1911-12 he directed the first survey of the New York 
City public schools, which was the first educational survey to appraise the work of the 
schools by the use of objective, standardized tests; in 1914 he visited New Zealand to 
study the educational problems of that dominion at the request of its government; 
he was a recognized authority on vocational education, serving as chairman of the 
Massachusetts State Commission on Industrial Education, 1906-09, and as chair- 
man of the executive board of the Boston Vocational Bureau, 1909-17; he was the 
founder of the Harvard Teachers Club, which in the spring of 1941 celebrated its 
fiftieth anniversary in his honor; he was an author of distinction, and his last book, 
Adventures in Edwation, was published in 1937 when he was eighty-two years of age. 

The Society expresses its deep regret at the loss of one of its most distinguished 
members, a sense of loss tempered only by the knowledge that during Ms long life 
he made such notable and enduring contributions to the cause of education. The 
Society extends its sincere sympathy to Mrs. Hanus and to those so closely associa- 
ted with his work in Harvard University. 


San Francisco, California: Hotel Empire, February 21 and 22 

Present: Directors Bagley (Chairman), Freeman, Goodykoontz, Kef stiver, 
Stoddard, Tyler, and Henry (Secretary); and by invitation, Messrs. 
Douglass, Carnovsky, and Jones 

1. The Secretary reported that in the election in December, 1941, Professors 
William A. Brownell and W. W. Charters were elected to the Board for a term 
of three years, beginning March 1, 1942. 

2. Mr. Tyler was elected Chairman of the Board for the year beginning 
March 1, 1942. 

3. The report of the audit of the accounts of the Treasurer of the Society for 
the period ending August 31, 1941, signed by John J. Leonard, Certified Public 
Accountant, Lynn, Mass., was received and approved by the Board. 

4. A committee consisting of Messrs. Stoddard (chairman), Tyler, and 
Henry was appointed to confer with the publishers for the purpose of arranging 
for an inventory of the stock of yearbooks on hand and for the settlement of the 
balance of royalties due the Society. 

5. Resolutions prepared by Chairman Bagley in consideration of the deaths 
during the past year of Guy Montrose Whipple and Paul H. Hanus were ap- 
proved for presentation at the annual meeting of the Society. 

6. Mr. Tyler reported the actions of the Council of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science during the year. He was requested to represent 
the Society on the Council for another year. 

7. Miss Goodykoontz reported the plans of the National Committee on Co- 
ordination in Secondary Education and was requested to serve as the representa- 
tive of the Society on this Committee for the ensuing year. 

8. The Board agreed that it would be proper and desirable to maintain a 
consultative relationship with the Committee on Education and National De- 
fense and asked Miss Goodykoontz to represent the Society in this relationship. 

9. Messrs. Tyler and Stoddard reported on the activities and plans of the 
American Council on Education. Mr. Stoddard was appointed as the Society's 
representative for this year, 

10. Mr. Henry was reappointed Secretary-Treasurer and Editor for a term 
of three years beginning March 1, 1942. 



11. Mr. Kefauver reported that satisfactory progress had been made in the 
preparation of the yearbook, Vocational Education. 

12. In compliance with the request of Dean Wilson, chairman of the com- 
mittee for the yearbook, Tike Library in General Education, Mr. Leon Carnovsky 
was appointed to membership on this committee. Mr. Carnovsky was present 
for a while during the meeting of the Board and presented a revision of the out- 
line for this yearbook, which was approved. 

13. The Board authorized an additional appropriation of approximately $500 
for the use of the committee for the yearbook on language arts. In accordance 
with the request of Dean Trabue, chairman of the yearbook committee, Miss 
Mildred Dawson was appointed a member of this committee. 

14. Mr. Kefauver presented a proposal for a yearbook on the subject of ad- 
ministration. An outline of tentatively defined chapters was submitted and 
discussed by members of the Board. It was decided that the yearbook should be 
entitled "Educational Administration" and that such problems as the relation 
of schools to other public services, the participation of federal, state, and local 
government in the support and control of school systems, the administration of 
higher institutions, and, possibly, public administration in general should be 
dealt with in the yearbook. The proposal was thereupon approved and $1,500 
appropriated for expenses of the committee. The suggested personnel of the 
committee was approved and Mr. Kefauver was authorized to confer with the 
several persons designated with the view of organizing the committee. 

15. Professor Harold E. Jones appeared before the Board for consultation 
concerning the proposed yearbook on adolescence. The outline presented by 
Dr. Jones was approved with certain modifications and an appropriation of 
$750 was approved for committee expenses. The following committee was 
named for this yearbook: Harold E. Jones (chairman), Frank N. Freeman, Dr. 
W. W. Greulich, Mark A. May, and Daniel A. Prescott. (Subsequently Reginald 
Bell and Gordon Mackenzie were added to the committee.) 

16. Professor Harl R. Douglass appeared before the Board with a proposal 
for a yearbook on the topic "The New High-School Curriculum." The general 
plan of the proposed yearbook was considered somewhat favorably by the 
Board and specific suggestions were offered for consideration in revising the out- 
line. (Professor Douglass later decided to withdraw the proposal.) 

17. Chairman Bagley suggested that the Board select a committee of its 
members for preliminary consideration of the desirability of providing for a year- 
book dealing with problems of educational reconstruction in the postwar period. 
The Board agreed that the question should be explored. (Subsequently Mr. 
Charters (chairman), Miss Goodykoontz, and Mr. Freeman were appointed as 
the committee.) 


Chicago, Illinois: Hotel Stevens, May 24 

Present: Directors Tyler (Chairman), Brownell, Charters, Freeman, Goody- 
koontz, Stoddard, and Henry (Secretary) 

1. The Secretary presented a report of comparative sales of the last six year- 
books. It was agreed that a study should be made of means of promoting the sale 
of yearbooks. 

2. The Secretary was instructed to advise the chairman of yearbook com- 
mittees of the necessity for economical use of funds provided for committee ex- 
penses as well as for limiting the size of the yearbooks to the actual requirements 
of effective treatment of the topic. 

3. A report of the membership of the Society was received from the Secre- 
tary and suggestions offered for the promotion of membership during the year. 

4. The Treasurer presented a report of receipts and expenditures from July, 
1941, to May, 1942. It was noted that expenditures during this period exceeded 
the receipts by approximately $2,000. This was explained as due to the ar- 
rearages in the payment of royalties due the Society for the sale of yearbooks. 

5. The question of the desirability of incorporating the Society has been dis- 
cussed by the Board at different times in recent years. The Chairman, the Secre- 
tary, and Mr. Charters were named as a committee to make further study of this 
matter and report at a later meeting. 

6. Mr. Stoddard, chairman of the special committee appointed to confer with 
the publishers regarding the inventory of the stock of yearbooks on hand and the 
arrearage in the payment of amounts due the Society from yearbook sales in 
recent years, reported the results of a conference held in Chicago on April 29. In 
consideration of the Society's interest in the handling of the yearbooks and with 
the view of facilitating the settlement of the publishers' financial obligations to 
the Society, it was decided to propose the establishment of a plan of creditor 
representation in the management of the company holding the agency for the 
sale of the yearbooks. A committee consisting of Messrs. Charters (chairman), 
Tyler, and Henry was appointed to formulate such a proposal in co-operation 
with other creditors of the company and to carry on such negotiations as might 
be necessary in connection therewith. 

7. The suggestion, first made at the February meeting, that a yearbook be 
prepared on educational problems of the postwar period was discussed at length. 
A committee consisting of Mr. Charters (chairman), Miss Goodykoontz, and Mr. 
Freeman was appointed to develop plans for this yearbook. 

8. In compliance with the request of the chairman of the committee for the 
yearbook, Vocational Education, Professor F. G. Nichols was appointed to mem- 
bership on this committee. 


9. The Board approved the recommendation of the chairman of the commit- 
tee for the yearbook on language arts for the appointment of Professor Donald 
Dun-ell and Miss Helen Heffernan as members of the committee. 

10. A letter was received from Dean Kefauver, chairman of the committee 
for the yearbook on educational administration, reporting that the following 
persons had accepted the invitation to serve as members of the committee: 
William G. Carr, Willard Ellsbree, Herold C. Hunt, Gordon Mackenzie, and 
J. B. Sears. The Board voted that this yearbook should be limited to one of the 
two volumes to constitute the yearbook for 1945. 

11. Professor Harold E. Jones reported by letter that the following persons 
had accepted the invitation to serve as members of the committee for the year- 
book on adolescence: Reginald Bell, Frank N. Freeman, Dr. W. W. Greulich, 
Gordon Mackenzie, Mark A. May, and Daniel A. Prescott. 

Chicago, lUinois: Palmer House, November 15 

Present: Directors Tyler (Chairman), Brownell, Charters, Goodykoontz, Stod- 
dard, and Henry (Secretary) 

Absent: Director Freeman 

1. A report on the membership of the Society for 1942 was presented by the 
Secretary. The present membership of 1,136 represents an increase of 68 over the 
membership of last year. 

2. The Secretary reported that the yearbook, The Library in General Educa- 
tion, was in the press. Due to the excessive length of the manuscript for the 
yearbook, Vocational Education, the Secretary was instructed to prepare this 
manuscript for printing within the limitation of a volume of five hundred pages 

or less. 

3. The Board voted to provide an index for yearbooks published after 1943 
and the Editor was authorized to call upon the committees to furnish manuscripts 
early enough to allow time to prepare the index. It was agreed that an index 
might be provided for each volume of the yearbook for 1943, if time permits. 

4. Suggestions were made relative to the programs being planned for the 
annual meeting of the Society in February, 1943. The Secretary was instructed 
to complete arrangements for the programs, conferring with the chairmen of the 
yearbook committees. 

5. A report was presented by Mr. Charters, chairman of a special committee 
on negotiations with the publishers of the yearbooks. It was noted that the pro- 
posal for creditor participation in the management of the company selling the 
yearbooks was not accepted by the publishers. The various propositions con- 
sidered in the negotiations carried on since last June were described. The Board 


instructed the special committee to resubmit its original proposal, with the added 
stipulation that the existing agency agreement with the company will be termi- 
nated if the proposed change in management of the company should be rejected. 

6. With the view of co-ordinating the services involved in the sale of year- 
books with the services performed by the executive office of the Society, the 
Board voted to transfer the agency for the yearbooks to the Department of Edu- 
cation of the University of Chicago in the event the proposal ordered to be sub- 
mitted to the present agents is not acceptable to them. The Secretary was in- 
structed to complete arrangements for this transfer of the agency and to remove 
the present stock of yearbooks to the new location if it should become necessary 
to terminate the existing agency agreement. 

7. The special committee was further instructed to continue negotiations with 
the publishers with the view of securing a satisfactory agreement with reference 
to the settlement of the unpaid balance of royalties due from previous sales of 

8. Mr. Charters reported the results of a preliminary study of the plan for a 
yearbook on postwar education, as developed by the committee appointed at the 
last meeting. The Board requested Mr. Charters and Miss Goodykoontz to con- 
tinue the study of the problem with the view of providing a proposal for the con- 
sideration of the Board at the meeting next February. 



Year Ended 
June 30, 1942 

Membership dues $ 2,894.85 

Fees for quotations, etc 25 . 00 

Interest and dividends on securities 330 . 26 

Interest on savings accounts 129 .56 

Sales of yearbooks 7,786 . 73 

Sale of securities 2,060.00 

Sale of old metal 760.50 

Total receipts $13,986.90 


Yearbooks : 

Manufacture and distribution $ 5,388.60 

Reprinting 209.26 

Preparation 3,057.47 

Meetings of the Society and Board of Directors 604 . 54 

Secretary's office: 

Editorial, secretarial, and clerical 2,476 . 71 

Rent 100.00 

Supplies, printing, etc 209 . 51 

Auditing 100.00 

Transfer of office 210.36 

Miscellaneous 65.92 

Total expenditures $12,422.37 


Excess of receipts over expenditures 8 1 , 564 . 53 

Cash in banks at beginning of period 6, 172. 09 

Cash in banks at end of period $ 7,736.62 

Securities at cost value 8, 136 .89 

Royalties due on sales of yearbooks 16 , 558 . 24 

Total assets $32,431.75 

NELSON B. HENRY, Treasurer 


(This list includes all persons enrolled December 31, 1942, whether for 

1942 or 1943) 


Dewey, Emeritus Professor John, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
Holmes, Manfred J,, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, III. 


Abelson, Dr. Harold H., College of the City of New York, New York, N.Y. 

Abernethy, Professor Ethel M., Queens College, Charlotte, N.C. 

Acton, Miss Lillian, Instructor, State Teachers College, Newark, N.J. 

Adams, Professor Nelle A., University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 

Adams, Miss Ruby M., Director of Elementary Education, Schenectady, N.Y. 

Aiken, E. S., Supervisor, Rapides Parish Schools, Alexandria, La. 

Alexander, Professor Carter, Teachers College, Columbia Univ. , New York, N.Y. 

Allen, Miss Clara B., 145 East Maple Avenue, Ottumwa, Iowa 

Anderson, C. T., Asst. Secretary, Board of Education, Detroit, Mich. 

Anderson, Evans, Waldorf College, Forest City, Iowa 

Anderson, Harold A., Department of Education, University of Chicago, Chicago, El. 

Anderson, Homer W., Superintendent of Schools, St. Louis, Mo. 

Anderson, Professor Howard R., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Anderson, John E., Dir., Inst. Child Welfare, Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Anderson, Miss Marion, Ginn and Company, Park Square, Boston, Mass. 

Andrus, Dr. Ruth, State Department of Education, Albany, N.Y. 

Anspaugh, G. E., Principal, Bryant School, 1355 S. Kedvale Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Antell, Henry, 1304 New York Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y, 

Archer, Professor C. P., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Armstrong, Miss Sara M., State Normal School, Framingham Centre, Mass. 

Arsenian, Professor Seth, Springfield College, Springfield, Mass. 

Artley, A. Sterl, Stephens College, Columbia, Mo. 

Asgis, Dr. Alfred J., 33 West 42nd Street, New York. N.Y. 

Ashbaugh, Dr. Ernest J., Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 

Atkins, MJSS Helen L., Dean of Girls, Manual Training High School, Denver, Colo. 

Atkinson, William N., Dean, Jackson Junior College, Jackson, Mich. 

Aughinbaugh, George F., Jr., Salinas Junior College, Salinas, Calif. 

Augustin, Miss Eloise D., Critic, State Normal School, Oneonta, N.Y. 

Avery, George T., United States Navy Yard, Oakland Calif. 

Aydelott, Clarence E,., Dir. , Instruction and Curriculum, St. Louis, Mo. 

Ayer, Miss Jean, 8 Scholes Lane, Essex, Conn. 

Babcock, E. H., Superintendent of Schools, Grand Haven, Mich. 

Babcock, George T., 182 Second Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Backus, Miss Joyce, Librarian, State College, San Jose, Calif. 

Bagley, Professor William C., 525 West 120th Street, New York, N.Y. 

Bailey, D. L., Western Illinois State Teachers College, Macomb,' HI. 

Bailey, Dr. Francis L. ? Gorham Normal School, Gorham, Me. 

Baker, Miss Edith M., Acting Librarian, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 



Baker, Miss Edna Dean, Pres., National College of Education, Evanston, 111. 

Baker, H. Leigh, Bean, College of Education, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 

Baker, Harold V., Principal, Daniel Webster School, New York, N.Y. 

Baker, Dr. Harry J,, Dir., Psychological Clinic, Public Schools, Detroit, Mich. 

Baker, Ira Y., County Superintendent, Court House, Gettysburg, Pa. 

Ballou, Frank W., Superintendent of Schools, "Washington, D.C. 

Balyeat, Professor F. A,, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Barber, Professor Fred H., Box 247, Emory, Va. 

Bardy, Joseph, Bellerich Apts,, 15th and Spruce Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bare, J. M., Principal, Birchwood High School, Birchwood, Tenn, 

Barrett, Rt. Rev. Msgr. John I., Franklin and Cathedral Sts., Baltimore, Md. 

Barrie, Miss Margaret J., Principal, Lincoln School, Hawthorne, N.J. 

Barth, Rev. Pius J., Dean, Quincy College, Quincy, 111. 

Bartlett, Roland 0., North Hatley, Quebec, Canada 

Batchelder, Miss Mildred L., American Library Association, Chicago, 111. 

Beall, Dr. Ross H., University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Okla. 

Bear, Professor Robert M., Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. 

Beauchamp, George A., 191 E. Lincoln Street, Birmingham, Mich. 

Beck, Professor Hubert Park, Rhode Island State College, Kingston, R.I. 

Bedell, Professor Ralph, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr. 

Behrens, Prof. Minnie, Sam Houston State Teachers College, Huntsville, Tex. 

Bell, Miss Dorothy M., President, Bradford Junior College, Bradford, Mass. 

Bell, Dr. J. Carleton, 1032A Sterling Place, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Bell, Dr. Millard D., Superintendent of Schools, WiUmette, 111. 

Bell, Professor Reginald, Stanford University, Calif. 

Bender, John F., School of Education, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Benner, Thomas E., Dean, College of Education, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Bennett, Miss Margaret E., Dir. of Guidance, Public Schools, Pasadena, Calif. 

Benson, Dr. C. E., New York University, Washington Square, New York, N.Y. 

Benson, J. R., 6131 Magnolia Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 

Benz, H. E., College of Education, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Berg, Loeksley D., Principal, Monroe School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Berg, Selmer H., Superintendent of Schools, Rockford, 111. 

Bergman, W. G., Director. Instr. Research, Board of Education, Detroit, Mich. 

Berkson, I. B., 174 Rich Avenue, Mount Vernon, N.Y. 

Bernard, Professor Harold W., School of Education, Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, Ore. 

Berry, Professor Charles Scott, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Berry, Merrill M., Superintendent of Schools, Chillicothe, Ohio 

Bert, Reese E., Asst. City Superintendent of Schools, Modesto, Calif. 

Betts, Professor Emmett A., Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. 

Bigelow, Karl W., American Council on Education, Washington, D.C. 

Billett, Professor Roy 0., Boston University, Boston, Mass. 

Billig, Dr. Florence Grace, Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. 

Binnie, Miss Clara G., 9 Tennis Crescent, Toronto, Canada 

Bishop, Fred G., Superintendent of Schools, Two Rivers, Wis. 

Bixler, H. H., Dir., Research and Guidance, Board of Education, Atlanta, Ga. 

Bixler, Professor Lorin, Muskingum College, New Concord, Ohio 

Black, H. B., Superintendent of Schools, Mattoon, 111. 

Blackburn, J. Albert, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. 

Blair, Professor Glenn M., College of Educ. University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Bloomers, Paul, 107 N. Clinton Street, Iowa City, Iowa 

Boardman, Professor Charles W., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Boggan, T. K., Superintendent of Schools, Picayune, Miss. 

Bolton, Professor Frederick E., University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

Bond, G. W., Dean, Southeastern Louisiana College, Hammond, La. 

Bond, Professor Guy L., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Bontrager, O. R., State Teachers College, California, Pa. 

Booker, Ivan A., Asst. Dir., Research Division, N.E.A., Washington, D.C. 


Bookwalter, Professor Karl W. f Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Booth, C. L., Superintendent of Schools, Paseo, Wash. 

Boraas, Julius, St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minn. 

Boros, Arnold L., Public School 36, Bronx, New York, N.Y. 

Bossing, Professor Nelson L., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Bowman, Clyde A., Dir., Dept. of Industrial Arts, Stout Inst., Menomonie Wis. 

Bowyer, Vemon, W.P.A. Education, 228 N. LaSalle Street, Chicago, 111. 

Boyce, Arthur C., American Mission, Teheran, Iran 

Boyd, Fred, 416 North Limestone, Lexington, Ky. 

Boyles, R. E., Principal, Washington High School, Washington, Pa. 

Bracken, John L., 7500 Maryland Avenue, Clayton, Mo. 

Bradner, J. W., Superintendent of Schools, Middlesboro, Ky. 

Bragdon, Miss Helen D., 348 Mentor Avenue, Painesvffle, Ohio 

Branom, Frederick K., Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, 111. 

Brechbill, Professor Henry, University of Maryland, College Park, Md. 

Breed, Professor Frederick S., Dune Acres, Chesterton, Ind. 

Bresnehen, Dr. Ella L., Dir., Dept. Educ. Investigation and Meas., Boston, Mass. 

Brewer, Professor John M., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Bridgett, Miss Alice E., Colony Street School, Wallingford, Conn. 

Bridgman, Ralph P., 131 Westminster Road, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Bright, Ira J., Superintendent of Schools, Leaven worth, Kas. 

Bright, 0. T., Jr., Superintendent of Schools, Flossmoor, HI. 

Brill, Eleanor T., 119 South Linn Street, Iowa City, Iowa 

Brinkley, Sterling G., Emory University, Ga. 

Brinkmann, Miss Helen S., 4108 W. North Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Bristol, L. M., University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 

Bristow, William H., Bureau of Reference, Research and Statistics, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Broening, Miss Angela M., 2 Millbrook Road, Baltimore, Md. 

Brown, Miss Clara M. ? University of Minnesota, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn. 

Brown, George Earl, Superintendent of Schools, Ocean City, N. J. 

Brown, Professor Harold N., University of Nevada, Reno, Nev. 

Brown, J. C., Superintendent of Schools, Pelham, N.Y. 

Brown, Mrs. Lanea H., 1618 W. Keefe Avenue, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Brown, Mrs. Marjorie Dowling, 245 North Wilton Place, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Brown, Mrs. Nina H., Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa 

Brown, Miss Stella E., State Teachers CoEege, Towson, Md. 

Brownell, S. M., Graduate School, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Brownel, Professor W. A., Duke University, Durham, N.C. 

Bruce, Homer A., State Teachers College, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Bruck, John P., Principal, Opportunity School, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Brueckner, Professor Leo J., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Brumbaugh, Professor A. J., University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Bryant, Miss Alice G., River Road, Hampton, Va. 

Buchanan, William D., 5511 Vernon Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 

Buckingham, Dr. B. R., Ginn and Company, Boston, Mass. 

Buckner, Professor Chester A., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Buckner, W. N., Teacher of Art, Armstrong High School, Washington, D.C. 

Burk, Miss Cassie, State Normal School, Fredonia, N.Y. 

Burke, Arvid J., New York State Teachers Association, Albany, N.Y. 

Burkhardt, Allen P. 7 Superintendent of Schools, Norfolk, Nebr. 

Burnham, Archer L., Exec. Sec'y., Nebraska State Teachers Assn., Lincoln, Nebr. 

Burns, Robert L,, Principal, Cliffside Park High School, CHffside Park, N.J. 

Bush, Miss Mabelle G., State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, Wis. 

Bush, Robert N., School of Education, Stanford University, Calif. 

Bushnell, Almon W., Superintendent of Schools, Meredith, N.H. 

Buswell, Professor G. T., University of Chicago, Chicago, m. 

Butterfield, George E., 2600 Center Avenue, Bay City, Mich. 

Butterworth, Professor Julian E. 3 Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 


Calden, Miss Mary Frances, Prin., Hannigan and Taylor Schools, New Bedford, 

Cameron, Walter C., Principal, Lincoln Junior High School, Pramingham, Mass. 

Camp, Dr. H. L., 319 South Sixth Street, Indiana, Pa. 

Campos, Professor Maria dos Reis, Univ. Federal District, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

Carlton, Theodore, Child Guidance Clinic, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Carmichael, Professor A. M., Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Ind. 

Carter, Miss Florence M., Briar Cliff College, Sioux City, Iowa 

Cassel, Lloyd S., Superintendent of Schools, Freehold, N.J. 

Cassidy, Professor Rosalind, Mills College, Oakland, Calif. 

CasweU, Professor Hollis L., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Caton, Miss Anne J., Principal, Hale School, Everett, Mass. 

Cattell, Dr. J. McKeen, The Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. 

Cavan, Professor Jordan, Rockford College, Rockford, El. 

Chadderdon, Professor Hester, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 

Chambers, 1st Lt. M. M., Army Air Forces, Technical Training Command, Jefferson 
Barracks, Mo. 

Chambers, W. Max, Superintendent of Schools, Okmulgee, Okla. 

ChampHn, Professor Carroll D., Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. 

Chancellor, John, American Library Association, Chicago, 111. 

Chandler, Turner C., 7814 Cornell Avenue, Chicago, HI. 

Charters, Dr. W. W., War Manpower Commission, Washington, D.C. 

Chase, Lawrence S., Superintendent of Schools, Newark, N.J. 

Chase, Professor W. Linwpod, Boston University, Boston, Mass. 

Chauncey, Professor Marlin R., Oklahoma A. & M. College, Stillwater, Okla. 

Chidester, Professor Albert J., Berea College, Berea, Ky. 

Chisholm, Professor Leslie, State College of Washington, Pullman, Wash. 

Choate, Ernest A., Principal, Fitler School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Christiansen, Miss Grace, 916 W. Meinicke Avenue, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Clem, Professor OrHe M., New York University, New York, N.Y. 

CHne, E. D., Superintendent of Schools, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Cloues, Paul, Sub-master, Harvard School, Charlestown, Mass. 

Coats, A. J., New Mexico Dry Cleaning Board, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Cobb, B. B., 410 East Weatherford, Fort Worth, Tex. 

Cobb, T. H., Superintendent of Schools, Urbana, 111. 

Cochran, Professor T. E., Centre College, Danville, Ky. 

Cochran, Warren B., 112 Schermerhora Street, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Coe, Professor George Allen, State College of Washington, Pullman, Wash. 

Coetzee, Dr. J. Charles, 20 Reitz Street, Potchefstroom, South Africa 

Coffey, Wilford L., Route 2, Lake City, Mich. 

Cohler, Milton J., 405 Wooolawn Avenue, Glencoe, 111. 

Cole, 0. E., Supv. Prin., Muhlenberg Township Public Schools, Berks Co., Pa. 

Cole, Professor Mary L, Western Kentucky Teachers College, Bowling Green, Ky. 

Collie, J. M., Pittsburg Senior High School, Pittsburg, Kan. 

Conner, William L., Superintendent of Schools, Allentown, Pa. 

Cook, F. W., Superintendent of Schools, Plainfield, N.J. 

Cook, Professor Walter W., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Coon, Beulah L, United States Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 

Corey, Professor Stephen M., University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Comehlsen, John H., Jr., School of Education, Stanford University, Calif. 

Coultrap, H. M., Geneva^ 111. 

Courtis, Dr. S. A., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Coxe, Dr. W. W., Educ. Research Division, State Educ. Dept., Albany, N.Y. 

Cragin S., Albert, 58 South Main Street, Reading, Mass. 

Crago, Professor Alfred, P. K. Yonge Laboratory School, Gainesville, Fla. 

Craig, Professor G. S., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Cram. Fred D., 2222 Clay Street, Cedar Falls. Iowa 

Crawford, Professor C. Cf., University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 


Crawford, J. R., School of Education, University of Maine, Orono, Me. 
Crawford, Robert T., Dean, Glenville State Teachers College, Glenville, W.Va. 

Crofoot, Miss Bess L., Assistant Supervisor of Schools, Canaan, Conn. 
Cronbaeh, Professor Lee J. 5 State College of Washington, Pullman, Wash. 
Cross, C. Willard, Superintendent of Schools, Faribault, Minn. 
Crowley, James A., Robert Gould Shaw School, West Roxbury, Mass. 
Cunliffe, Professor R. B., Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. 
Cunningham, J., Librarian, Cossitt library, Memphis. Tenn. 
Cusack, Miss Alice M., Board of Education, Kansas City, Mo. 

Daly, Miss Margaret M., 4053 W. 8th Street, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Darley, Professor John G., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Davis, Courtland V., 1003 Madison Avenue, Plainfield, N.J. 

Davis, Mrs. Lillian Menitt, 106 Maple Street, Rome, N.Y. 

Davis, Mrs. Nina Preot, Louise S. McGehee School, New Orleans, La. 

Davis, Sheldon E., President, State Normal College, Dillon, Mont. 

Davis, Warren C., Rochester Athenaeum & Mechanics Inst., Rochester, N.Y. 

Dawaid, V. F., Superintendent of Schools, Beloit, Wis. 

Dawe, Dr. Helen C., Dept. of Home Economies, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Dawson, Mildred, University of Tennessee, Nashville, Tenn. 

Dearborn, Walter F. .Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

De Bernardis, Amo, Portland Public Schools, Portland, Ore. 

De Bolt, Edgar C., 457 North Maple Avenue, East Orange, N.J. 

Decker, Fred J., 106 Salisbury Road, Elsmere, N.Y. 

Del Manzo, M. C., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

DeLuce, Olive S., Missouri State Teachers College, MaryviHe, Mo. 

DeMoranville, Aaron F., Superintendent of Schools, Johnston, R.I. 

DeVoss, James C., Dean, Upper Division, San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif. 

Diefendorf, Dr. J. W., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Diffendafer, A. P.. Nanticoke, Pa. 

Dimmett, W. S., Superintendent of Schools, Forest Park, 111. 

Doll, Dr. Edgar A., Director of Research, Training School, Vineland, N.J. 

Donaldson, C. D., State Teachers College, Eau Claire, Wis. 

Dormer, Dr. Arvin N., Asst. Supt. of Schools and Assoc. Prof, of Ed., University of 

Houston, Houston, Tex. 

Donohue, John J., Principal, Public School 16, Bronx, New York, N.Y. 
Dorr, Miss Grace, Research Assistant, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Dosch, Ralph H., Superintendent of Schools, New Holstein, Wis. 
Doty, Professor Roy A., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 
Doughton, Isaac, Dean of Instruction, State Normal School, Mansfield, Pa. 
Douglass, Harl R., Director, College of Educ., Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 
Dow, H. E., Superintendent of Schools, Humeston, Iowa 
Downs, Dr. Martha, 120 Baker Avenue, Wharton, N.J. 
Doyle, Miss Florence A., Director of Teacher Education, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dransfield, J. Edgar, 1340 Sussex Road, West Englewood. N.J. 
Draper, Professor Edgar M., University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 
Duboc, Professor Jessie L., Box 205, Dillon, Mont. 
Duce, Rev. Hugh M., S.J., University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, Calif . 
Dunigan, Rev. David R,, S.J., Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 
Dunkle, John L., State Teachers College, Frostburg, Md. 

Dunn, Professor Fannie W., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
Durrell, Professor Donald D., Boston University, Boston, Mass. 
Dynes, Dr. John J., Western State College, Gunnison, Colo. 
Dysart, Professor Bonnie K, Texas Technological College, Lubbock, Tex. 

Eastburn, L. A., Director of Research and Guidance, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Eastman, Wesley C., 625 Byron Street, Mankato, Minn. 

Eavey, C. B., Chm,, Dept. of Education, Wheaton College, Wheaton, HI. 


Eckles, H. R,, Principal, Robert E. Lee School, Richmond, Va. 

Edgerton, Professor A. H., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Edmonson, Dean J. B. } School of Education, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Edwards, Arthur XL, Eastern Illinois State Teachers College, Charleston, 111. 

Edwards, Dr. H. E., Emanuel Missionary College, Berrien Springs, Mich. 

Eells Walter C., Co-ordinator, Co-op. Study Sec. School Stands., Washington, D.C. 

Ehrenfeld, A., 50 West 96th Street, New York, N.Y. 

Einolf, Professor W. L., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ellenoff, Louis, 17 West 182nd Street, Bronx, New York, N.Y. 

ElUngson, Mark, President, Mechanics Institute, Rochester, N.Y. 

Ellis, C. C., President, Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pa. 

Ellis, Fred E., 1863 S.W. Montgomery Drive, Portland, Ore. 

Emerson, Miss Myrtle, State Teachers College, Florence, Ala. 

Engelhardt, Fred, President, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 

Engelhardt, N. L., Assoc. Supt. of Schools, New York, N.Y. 

English, Mrs. Ethel T., Box 32, Roxbury Station, Boston, Mass. 

English, Professor H. B., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

English, Miss Mary C., Principal, Lincoln School, Schenectady, N.Y. 

English, Miss Mildred, Georgia State College for Women, Milledgeville, Ga. 

Epstein, Bertram, College of the City of New York, New York, N.Y. 

Erb, Frank Otis, Colgate-Rochester Divinity School, Rochester, N.Y. 

Eskridge, Dr. T. J., Jr., Lander College, Greenwood, S.C. 

Eurich, Alvin C., Office of Price Administration, Washington, D.C. 

Evans, Evan E., Superintendent of Schools, Winfield, Kan. 

Evans, Howard R., Dean, College of Education, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 

Evenden, Professor E. S., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Everts, Miss Ora Lee, New Jersey State Teachers College, Glassboro, N. J. 

Eyman, R. L., Dean, Sch. of Educ., Fla. State Coll. for Women, Tallahassee, Fla. 

Fairchild, W. W., Superintendent of Schools, Rutland, Vt. 

Farnum, Royal B., Vice-Pres. R.I. School of Design, Providence, R.I. 

Fast, L. W., Superintendent of Schools, Mt. Clemens, Mich. 

Featherstone, Professor W. B., Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 

Fellows, Ernest W., Superintendent of Schools, Gloucester, Mass. 

Ferriss, Professor Emery N., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Fessenden, Hart, The Fessenden School, West Newton, Mass. 

Finch, Professor F. H., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Fink, Stuart D., Northern Illinois State Teachers College, DeKalb, 111. 

Fisher, Charles A., 7350 North 21st Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fisk, Robert S,, Board of Education, New York, N.Y. 

Fitch, Harry N., Head, Dept. of English, Ball State Teachers CoUge, Muncie, Ind. 

Fitzgerald, James A., Fordham University, New York, N.Y. 

Fitzgerald, Professor N. E., University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Fitzpatrick, Miss Julia M., 47 Tower Street, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Flanagan, Major John C., 5616 Oak Place, Bethesda, Md. 

Flanders, J. K., Director of Training, State Normal School, Oswego, N.Y. 

Fleischmann, Miss Charlotte C., 939 Coates Street, Sharon Hill, Pa. 

Fleming, C. I., 6605 Neosho Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Fleming, Dr. Charlotte M., University College, University Park, Nottingham, Eng. 

Flinner, Ira A., Lake Placid Club, New York, N.Y. 

Flint, Miss Lois H., Dean of Women, Glendale Junior College, Glendale, Calif. 

Flores, Mrs. Zella K., Elementary Sypervisor, Lewistown, Mont. 

Flowers, Miss Ida, 4224 Loch Raven Blvd., Baltimore, Md. 

Force, Miss Thelma, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111. 

Ford, Willard S., Superintendent of Schools, Glendale, Calif. 

Forney, E. B., 1932 Princeton Avenue, St. Paul, Minn. 

Franklin, E. Earle, President, Baltimore Home Study School, Baltimore, Md. 

Franzen, Professor Carl G. F., University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind. 


Freeman, Frank N., Dean, School of Education, Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Calif. 

Freeman, Professor Frank S., Goldwin Smith Hall, Cornell University. Ithaca, N.Y. 

Freeman, Miss Nellie, 2549 N. 10th Street, Milwaukee. Wis. 

French, Harold P., LoudonviUe, N.Y. 

Fretz, Floyd C., Superintendent of Schools, Bradford, Pa. 

Friedman, Robert S., 2840 Estes Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Friswold, Ingolf O., Dir. Div. of School Buildings, Dept. of Educ., St. Paul, Minn. 

Frizzeli, Bonner, Superintendent of Schools, Palestine, Tex. 

Frost, Professor Norman, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 

Fuqua, Miss Blanche, Director of Instruction, Public Schools, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Fullmer, Rev. David C., Catholic University of America, Washington, B.C. 

Futrall, Miss Alma, Superintendent of Schools, Lee County, Marianna, Ark. 

Gabel, Dr. 0. J., Northern Illinois State Teachers College, DeKalb, 111. 

Gage, Miss Catharine J., 5928 North Eleventh Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gainsburg, Joseph C., 919 Park Place, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Gardiner, Ana L., 18 East Caramillo Street, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Garfield, Dr. Sol L., 27 West Ohio Street, Chicago, HI. 

Garinger, Dr. Elmer H., Principal, Central High School, Charlotte, N.C. 

Garlin, Professor R. E., Texas Technological College, Lubbock, Tex. 

Garrett, Professor Homer L., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La. 

Garver, Professor F. M., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gates, Professor Arthur I., Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 

Gates, Dr. C. Ray, Superintendent of Schools, Grand Island, Nebr. 

Geeks, Miss Mathilde C., 3934 Cleveland Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 

Geiger, Albert J., Principal, St. Petersburg High School, St. Petersburg, Fla. 

Gerberich, Dr. J. R., Director, Bur. of Educ. Research, Univ. of Conn., Storrs, Conn. 

Gerry, Henry L., Teachers College of the City of Boston, Boston, Mass. 

Getsinger, J. W., Principal, Carmel Adult School, Carmel, Calif. 

Geyer, Denton L., Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, HI. 

Gibson, Joseph E., State Department of Education, Baton Rouge, La. 

Gilbert, Luther C., School of Education, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Gilland, Edwin C., Superintendent of Schools, Red Bank, N.J. 

Gilland, Thomas M., Dir. of Training, State Teachers College, California, Pa. 

Gillett, Arthur D., Superintendent of Schools, Eveleth, Minn. 

Gilson, William George, 1705 North Lotus Avenue, Chicago, HI. 

Glassbrook, Mrs. Tfflie Hartung, 338 Tennyson Road, Hayward, Calif. 

Good, Professor Carter V., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Goodenough, Professor Florence L., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Goodier, Floyd T., Dir., Elem. Educ., Illinois State Normal Univ., Normal, 111. 

Goodykoontz, Miss Bess, Asst. Commissioner, Office of Educ., Washington, D.C. 

Gorman, Miss Mary, Principal, Douglas School, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gould, Arthur L., Superintendent of Schools, Boston, Mass. 

Gould, Professor George, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Grace, Alonzo G., Commissioner of Education, Dept. of Educ., Hartford, Conn. 

Grady, Rev. Joseph E., St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, N.Y. 

Graves, Professor E. Boyd, Mary Washington College, Fredericksburg, Va. 

Gray, Professor William S., University of Chicago, Chicago, HI. 

Grebey, Harry F., Principal, Green Vine Junior High School, Hazelton, Pa. 

Greene, Dr. Charles E., Superintendent of Schools, Denver, Colo. 

Greene, Miss Ellen F., Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn. 

Greene, Harry A., Extension Division, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Greenwell, Sister Berenice, Nazareth College, Louisville, Ky. 

Gregg, Professor Russell T., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y, 

Gregory, S. M., Dean, Mt. Angel Normal School, Mt. Angel, Ore. 

Griffin, Lee H., Ginn and Company, Chicago, HI. 

Griffin, Miss Margery M., 5557 Pershing Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 

Griffith, Professor Coleman R., University of Hlinois, Urbana, HI. 


Grizzard, Miss Mabel Youree, Prin., Marvin Elementary School, Waxahaehie, Tex. 

Grizzell, Professor E. D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gross, Alfred W., State Teachers College, Duluth, Minn. 

Gruen, Rev. Ferdinand, Franciscan Fathers, Washington, D.C. 

Gnienberg, Benjamin C., 418 Central Park West, New York, N.Y. 

Guanella, Miss Frances M., 52 Livingston Street, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Haagen, C. Hess, East Hall, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Haas, Rev. Joseph, St. Mary's Rectory, Lakota, N.D. 

Haggerty, Miss Helen, Hunter College, New York, N.Y. 

Haggerty, William J., Dir. Student Personnel, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. 

Haines, Andrew S., 1129 Wakeling Street, Frankford, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Haisley, Otto W., Superintendent of Schools, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Halberg, Professor Anna D., Wilson Teachers College, Washington, D.C. 

Haley, Miss NeHe, 620 South Jefferson, Saginaw, Mich. 

Hall, Professor John W., University of Nevada, Reno, Nev. 

Hall, Professor William F., School of Agriculture, State College, Pa. 

Hamilton, Miss Katherine, Dept. of Educ., 615 City Hall, St. Paul, Minn. 

Hamilton, W. J., Superintendent of Schools, Oak Park. 111. 

Hand, Professor Harold C., University of Maryland, College Park, Md. 

Handy, Miss Martha Pauline, Prin., Geo. Washington Jr. High School, Pasadena, 


Hanna, Professor Lavone A., Stanford University, Calif. 
Hansen, Carl W., 1200 Maine Street, Quincy, 111. 
Hansen, Einar A., College of Education, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 
Hansen, Herbert C., 1045 North Loekwood Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
Hanson, E. H., Superintendent of Schools, Rock Island, 111. 
Harap, Professor Henry, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Term. 
Harbo, L. S., Superintendent of Schools, Litchfield, Minn. 
Hare, H. Frank, Department of Public Instruction, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Harney, Miss Julia C., 302 Pavonia Avenue, Jersey City, N.J. 
Harney, Rev. Paul J., S.J., University of San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif . 
Harney, Thomas E., Superintendent of Schools, Dunkirk, N.Y. 
Harper, J. R., Superintendent of Schools, Wilmette, HI. 
Harrington, Dr. F. B., Nebraska State Normal College, Chadron, Nebr, 
Harris, Dale B., Inst. of Child Welfare, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Harris, William, Cor. Franklin and North Streets, Decatur, 111. 
Harrison, Miss Mary R., Department of Education, Park College, Parkville, Mo. 
Hartman, A. L., Prin., lodgement and Watchung Schools, Upper Montclair, N.J. 
Hartman, R. M., 170 West Franklin Avenue, Midland Park, N.J. 
Hass, C. Glen, 1125 Colorado Blvd., Denver, Colo. 
Hauser, Dr. L. J., Superintendent of Schools, Riverside, HI. 
Haverkamp, Harold J., 22 N. Gilbert Street, Iowa City, Iowa 
"Havighurst, Robert J., University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Hawkes, F. P., Superintendent of Schools, West Springfield, Mass. 
Hawkins, George L., Board of Education, St. Louis, Mo. 
Haycock, Robert L., Asst. Supt., 1606 Longfellow Street, Washington, D.C. 
Hayes, Professor M. C., Northern HI. State Teachers College, DeKalb, 111. 
Hecht, Dr. Irvin Sulo, 593 Crown Street, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Heckert, J. W., Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 
Helms, W. T., Superintendent of Schools, Richmond, Calif. 
Hennessy, Sister M. Kathleen, College of St. Elizabeth, Convent Station, N.J. 
Henry, Professor Nelson B., University of Chicago, Chicago, HI. 
Henry, Dr. T. S., Western Michigan College, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Herr, Ross, Principal, Trumbull School, 1600 Foster Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
Herr, William A., Principal, D. A. Harmon. Junior High School, Hazelton, Pa. 
Herrick, John H., Dir,, Bureau of School Research, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Herriott, M. E., Principal, Central Junior High School, Los Angeles, Calif. 


Hertzberg, Oscar E., State Teachers College, Buffalo, New York 

Hertzler, Dr. Silas, Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 

Hess, Walter E., 4010 Leiand Street, Chevy Chase, Md. 

Hewson, John C., Superintendent of Schools, Castor, Alberta, Canada 

Hickman, Miss Oara, Prin., Rose Lees Hardy School, Washington, B.C. 

Hickox, Edward J., 500 Alden Street, Springfield, Mass. 

Hicks, Samuel, Superintendent of Schools, Pearl River, N.Y. 

Higley, Miss Elizabeth A., Public School No. 1, Queens, New York, N.Y. 

Hill, Paul L., Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana, HI. 

Hillbrand, E. K, University of Wichita, Wichita, Kan. 

Hilliard, George H., Western State Teachers College, Kaiaxnazoo, Mich. 

Hjnk, Mrs. Eloise Wheeler, Southwestern Institute of Technology, Weatherford, Okla. 

Hinkle, Thomas L., Superintendent of Schools, Hazelton, Pa. 

Hinshaw, Virgil G., Jr., Dept. of Philosophy, State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Hissong, Clyde, Dean, Coll. of Educ., Bowling Green State Univ., Bowling Green, 


Hockett, Professor John A., University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Hodgkins, George W., 1821 Kalorama Road, Washington, D.C. 
Hoech, Arthur A., Supt., Ritenour Consolidated School District, Overland, Mo. 
Hoekje, John C., Registrar, Western State Teachers College, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Hoffman, Miss Florence D., Asst. Principal Public School 242, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Hoffman, Mrs. Howardine, Los Angeles Ct. Schools, 333 Anita Drive, Pasadena, Calif, 
Hofstetter, George, 827 South Fifth, West, Missoula, Mont, 
Hogan, Miss Frances M., 1016 Wood Street, Houston, Tex. 
Holloway, H. V., Dover, Del. 

Holmes, F. L., Superintendent of Schools, McCook, Nebr. 
Holmes, Jay William, 1401 Lexington Avenue, Dayton, Ohio 
Holstein, Louise V., 7130 S. Union Avenue, Chicago, IQ. 
Holtz, Jennie F., Principal, Irving School, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Hood, E. A., Principal, Mason School, St. Louis, Mo. 
Hook, T. E., Superintendent of Schools, Troy, Ohio 

Hopkins, Professor L. Thomas, Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 
Hopper, A, M., Louisiana State Normal College, Natchitoches, La. 
Horn, Professor Ernest, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 
Horn, Thomas P., Editor-in-Chief, Charles E. Merrill Company, New York, N.Y. 
Horwich, Mrs. Frances R., Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, 111. 
Hostetter, Marie M., University of Illinois Library School, Urbana, HI. 
Hotz, Professor H. G., University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 
Hougham, Miss Sarah, Librarian, State Teachers College, Moorhead, Minn. 
House, Ralph W., Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. 
Howard, George, Tarboro, N.C. 

Howe, Miss Georgia B., Principal, Jane Addams High School, Portland, Ore. 
Howe, Kenneth E., 2219 Ridge Avenue, Evanston, 111. 
Howell, Miss Margaret Rustin, 815 The Alameda, Berkeley, Calif. 
Howland, Miss Helen C., Dept. of Public Instruction, Schenectady, N.Y. 
Hoyman, W. H., Superintendent of Schools, Indianola, Iowa 
Hudelson, Earl, Dean, Col. of Educ. ? West Virginia University, Morgantown, W.Va. 
Huff, Z. T., Dean Howard Payne College, Brownwood, Tex. 
Hughes, R. O. 7 Asst. Dir. Curriculum Study and Research, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Hughson, Arthur, 1412 Caton Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Humiicutt, Professor C. W., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 
Hunt, Harry A., Superintendent of Schools, Portsmouth, Va. 
Hunt, Miss M. Louise, Librarian, Racine Public Library, Racine, Wis. 
Huntington, Albert H., Principal, Beattmont High School, St. Louis, Mo. 
Kurd, A. W., Dean, HamHne University, St. Paul, Minn. 
Hutson, Professor P. W., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Hyde, Miss Eva Louise, Principal, Collegio Bennett, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 
Hydle, Lars L., Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Ind. 


Isanogle, Professor A. M., Western Maryland College, Westminster, Md. 

Isle, Walter W., Director of Research, San Mateo Junior College, Palo Alto, Calif. 

Jackson, Halliday R., 310 W. Lafayette Street, West Chester, Pa. 

Jacobs, John E., 737 South Lorraine Street, Wichita, Kan. 

Jacobs, Professor Ralph L., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Jacobson, Paul B., Principal, Univ. High School, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

James, Preston E., Dept. of Geography, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Jansen, William, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Jeffers, Fred A., Superintendent of Schools, Painsdale, Mich. 

Jemison, Miss Margaret, Librarian, Emory University, Emory University, Ga. 

Jensen, Frank A., Supt., LaSalle-Peru High School and Junior College, LaSalle, 111. 

Jensen, Louis B., United States Navy Pre-Flight School, Chapel Hill, N.C. 

Jessen, Carl A., U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 

Jessup, W. A., Carnegie Foundation for Advancement of Teaching, New York, N.Y. 

Jewell, J. R., Dean, School of Education, University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore. 

Johnson, A. W., Principal, Junior High School, Minot, N.D. 

Johnson, Professor B. Lamar, Stephens College, Columbia, Mo. 

Johnson, H. 0., Superintendent, Bessemer Township Schools, Ramsay, Mich. 

Johnson, J. T., 306 South East Avenue, Oak Park, HI. 

Johnson, Lawrence C., Principal, Orchard Park Cons. Schools, Orchard Park, N.Y. 

Johnson, Palmer 0., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Johnston, Professor Edgar G., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Jones, Professor Arthur J., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jones, Frank 0., Manager, Cary Teachers Agency, Hartford, Conn. 

Jones, George Ellis, 73 Harwood Street, Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Jones, Harold E., Director, Institute of Child Welfare, Berkeley, Calif. 

Jones, Professor Lloyd M., Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. 

Jones, Miss Mary Alice, Metropolitan High School, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Jones, Professor Vernon, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Joyce, Charles W. , Seneca School, Rochester, N.Y. 

Junker, Fred J., Dept. of Education, St. Mary's University, San Antonio, Tex. 

Justman, Joseph, College of the City of New 'York, New York, N.Y. 

Kallen, Miss Miriam, Teachers College of the City of Boston, Boston, Mass. 

Kanter, Miss Marion R., 3 Carmen Street, Dorchester, Mass. 

Kardatzke, Carl, Anderson College and Theological Seminary, Anderson, Ind. 

Kasting, Miss Caroline M., 2910 Vine Street, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Kauth, William M., Henry Ford School. Dearborn, Mich. 

Kawin, Miss Ethel, Hotel Sherry, 1725 East 53rd Street, Chicago, 111. 

Kafetz, Dr. Isidore, Prin., Public School No. 1, Queens, Long Island City, N.Y. 

Keator, Alfred Decker, Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Keefauver, L. C., Superintendent of Schools, Gettysburg, Pa. 

Keene, J. Hershey, Nether Providence Schools, Wallingford, Pa. 

Keener, E. E., 250 Forest Avenue, Oak Park, 111. 

Kefauver, Grayson N., Dean, School of Education, Stanford University, Calif. 

Keislar, Evan R. ? 2228 McKinley Avenue, Berkeley, Calif. 

Kelleher, Miss Josephine, 3853 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 

Keller, Franklin J., Prin. Metropolitan Vocational High School, New York, N.Y. 

Kelley, Miss Dorothy J., 7245 Constance Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Kelly, Gilbert W., 623 South Wabash A.venue, Chicago, 111. 

Kemp, W. W., Dean Emeritus, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Kenefick, Miss Jane G., Principal, Walnut Park School, St. Louis, Mo. 

Kent, Professor Raymond A., University of Louisville, Louisville, Ky. 

Kerr, Professor W. EL, Claremont Colleges, Claremont, Calif. 

Kerstetter, Newton, California, Pa. 

Keys, Noel, Haviland Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Kibbe, Miss Delia E., Department of Public Instruction, Madison, Wis. 


Kiely, Miss Margaret, Dean, Queens College, New York, N.Y. 

Killgalion, P. A., Assoc. Professor of Edue., University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore. 

Kiipatrick, Prof. Emeritus W. H., Teachers Coll., Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y, 

Kincaid, W. A., Superintendent of Schools, Montpelier, Vt. 

Kinney, Professor L. B., Stanford University, Calif. 

Kirkland, Miss Mineola, 1106 B Street, N.E., Washington, B.C. 

Knapp, M. L. 5 Superintendent of Schools, Michigan City, Ind. 

Knight, Professor F. B., Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

Knight, Professor James, University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Knight, Miss Laura Troy, 716 Mount Hope Road, Price Hill, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Knoelk, William C., Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Knowlton, P. A., Editor, The MacmiHan Co., 60 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 

Knox, Professor William F., Central Missouri State Teachers Coll., Warrensburg, Mo. 

Koch, Professor H. C., Universitv of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Koch, Miss Helen L., 1374 East 57th Street, Chicago, 111. 

Kohl, Rev. Walter J., 321 Lake Avenue, Rochester, N.Y. 

Kohs, Dr. Samuel C., 3200 California Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Koos, Frank H., R.F.D. No. 1, State College, Pa. 

Koos, Professor Leonard V., University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Kopel, Professor David, Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, 111. 

Koppenhaver, J. H., Director of Personnel, Hesston College, Hesston, Kan. 

Korntheuer, G. A., Bethlehem Lutheran School, Chicago, 111. 

Kottnauer, Miss Annette, Principal, Vieau School, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Krane, Daniel G., 420 Riverside Drive, New York, N.Y. 

Kretzmann, Professor P. E., Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Mo. 

Krishnayya, Dr. S. G., Inspector of European Schools, Arsenal Road, Poona, India 

Kuhlen, Professor Raymond G., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Kyte, Professor George C., University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Lackey, Guy A., Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater, Okla. 

Lafferty, Professor H. M., East Texas State Teachers College, Commerce, Tex. 

Laidlaw, John, 2001 Calumet Avenue, Chicago, HI. 

Lamkin, Uel W., President, Northwest Missouri State Teachers Coll., Maryville, Mo. 

Lane, Robert H., Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Lang, Alvin L., 21 Claremont Avenue, New York, N.Y. 

Lange, Paulus, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 

Langworthy, Harry W., Superintendent of Schools, Gloversville, N.Y. 

Lapham, P. C., Superintendent of Schools, Charles City, Iowa 

LaPoe, James L., Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. 

Larson, J. A., Prin., Little Rock Senior High School, Little Rock, Ark. 

Lauderbach, J. Calvin, Dist. Supt., Union School District, Cliula Vista, Calif. 

Laughlin, Butler, Principal, Harper High School, Chicago, 111. 

Lawrence, Clayton G. , Dean, Normal Department, Marion College, Marion, Ind. 

Layton, Warren K., Dir., Guid. and Placement Dept., Board of Educ., Detroit, Mich. 

Lazar, Dr. May, Research Assistant, Board of Education, New York, N.Y. 

Lazenby, John C., Dir. of Secondary Educ., State Teachers Coll., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Leal, Miss Mary A., So. Philadelphia High School for Girls, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Learner, Emery W., Director of Training, State Teachers College, LaCrosse, Wis. 

Leavell, Professor Ullin W., George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 

Lee, Carl S. E., 25 N. Van Buren Street, Iowa City, Iowa 

Lee, J. Murray, Dean, School of Education, State College of Wash., Pullman, Wash. 

Lee, Professor John J., Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. 

Lefever, Professor D. W., University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Lehman, Harvey C., Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Lemon, Miss Letty, 4313 N. Kedvale Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Leo, Brother J., Saint Mary's College, Winona, Minn. 

Lessenberry, Professor D. D., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Levy, Miss Carrie B., Dir., Special Classes, School Board Office, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Lewis, Miss Carolyn A., 768 Chestnut Street, San Carlos, Calif . 

Lewis, Fred D., Ramsey Junior High School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Lichtenberger, J. F., Principal, Windom School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Liggins, Miss J., Librarian, Teachers' College, Univ, Grounds, Sydney, Australia 

Ligon, Professor M. E., 658 South Lime, Lexington, Ky. 

Lincoln, Dr. Edward A., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Lindsay, Dr. J. Armour, State College, Miss. 

Lippitt, W. O. 5 Westwood, NJ. 

Little, Miss Evelyn Steel, Mills College, Mills College, Calif. 

Livengood, W. W., Managing Editor, American Book Company, New York, N.Y. 

Liveright, Miss Ada F. , Librarian, Pedagogical Library, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Liveright, Miss Alice K, Print., Logan Demonstration School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Livingood, F. G., Washington College, Chestertown, Md. 

Livingston, Ralph, 268 Clinton Street, Columbus, Ohio 

Loewenstein, Miss Fannie H., Southern Junior High School, Louisville, Ky. 

Logue, Miss Sarah M., 16 Common Street, Charlestown, Mass. 

Longstreet. R. J., Peninsula Station, Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Loomis, Arthur K., Superintendent of Schools, Shaker Heights, Cleveland, Ohio 

Loomis, Harold V., Superintendent of Schools, Ossining, N.Y. 

Loop, Dr. Alfred B., 2709 Valencia Street, Bellingham, Wash. 

Lorge, Dr. Irving, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Lowry, Charles D., 628 Foster Street, Evanston, 111. 

Luckey, Dr. Bertha M., Board of Education, Cleveland, Ohio 

Lutes, 0. S., University of Maine, Orono, Me. 

Lynch, Miss Mary Elizabeth, 23 Winborough Street, Marrapan, Mass. 

Lyons, John H., Enfield High School, Thompson ville, Conn. 

Lyons, Ward L, Jefferson Intermediate School, Detroit, Mich. 

MacKay, James L. 3 573 South Clay Avenue, Kirkwood, Mo. 

Mackenzie, Professor Gordon, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Mackintosh, Miss Helen K., Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 

MacLean, Malcolm S., President, Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va. 

Maddox, Clifford R., 15816 Marshfield Avenue, Harvey, 111. 

Magill, Professor Walter H., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mahoney, Professor John J., Boston University, Boston, Mass. 

Main, J. W., Shaker Heights School District, Cleveland, Ohio 

Mallory, Miss Bernice, U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 

Mann, Paul B., 712 Burns Street, Forest Hills, N.Y. 

Manry, Dr. James C,, Forman Christian College, Lahore, India 

Manske, Armin A., 6341 Kimbark Avenue, Chicago, HI. 

Manuel, Professor Herschel T., University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Markowitz, Miss Martha B., Principal, Bolton School, Cleveland, Ohio 

Marks, Arlyn, Bureau of Educational Research, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Marks, Miss Hannah, Principal, Townsend School, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Marshall, Miss Helen, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Marshall, Thomas 0., 312 West Oak Street, Fort Collins, Colo. 

Martin, A. E., Principal, McCoy School, Kansas City, Mo. 

Martin, W. Edgar, 224 Sunset Road, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Martin, William E., 220 Burton Hall, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Martinson, Miss Esther C., State Teachers College, Valley" City, N.D. 

Mary Adelgunde, Sister, Principal, Lourdes High School, Chicago, 111. 

Mary Anacleta, Sister, College of St. Francis, Joliet, 111. 

Mary Bartholomew, Sister, St. Clare College, St. Francis, Wis. 

Mary Cephas, Sister, O.S.F., Dean, Marian College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mary Coralita, Sister, O.P., St. Mary of the Springs, Columbus, Ohio 

Mary David, Sister, St. Mary's College, Holy Cross, Ind. 

Mary Dorothy, Sister, O.P., Head, Dept. of Education, Barry College, Miami, Fla. 

Mary Florita, Sister, Nazareth Normal School, Brighton Station, Rochester, N.Y. 


Mary Frederick, Sister, Dean, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Ind. 

Mary Irenaeus Dougherty, Sister, President, Mount Mercy College, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mary Irmina, Sister, Villa Madonna College, Covington, Ky. 

Mary Josephine, Sister, Rosary College, River Forest, 111. 

Mary Justinia, Sister, Notre Dame Convent, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mary Michael, Sister, Immaculate Heart College, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mary Mildred, Mother, Provincial's Residence, 1608 E. Court St., Pendieton, Ore. 

Mary Patricia, Sister, Principal, Lourdes High School, Chicago, III. 

Mary Rose, Sister, St. Rose Convent, LaCrosse, Wis. 

Mary Teresa Francis McDade, Sister, 1033 Newton Street , N.E., Washington, D.C. 

Mary Urban, Sister, Mount Cannel, Dubuque, Iowa 

Mary Vera, Sister, Marian College, Fond du Lac, Wis. 

Masson, J. S., Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Lorain, Ohio 

Masters, Dr. Harry V., President, Albright College, Reading, Pa. 

Matheson, Miss A. M., John Muir School, Seattle, Wash. 

Mathews, Professor C. 0., Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio 

Matthews, R. D., Dept. of Edue., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Maucker, Professor J. William, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Maurer, Mrs. Katharine M., Inst. of Child Welfare, Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, 


Maxfield, Dr. Francis M., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 
Mayman, J. E., Supervisor of Guidance, 985 Park Place, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Maynard, Professor M. M., Monmouth College, Monmouth, 111. 
McBroom, Miss Maude, Prof, of Education, State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 
McCallister, J. M., 8100 Blaekstone Avenue, Chicago, fll. 
McCarthy, Miss Julia, Brighton School, Seattle, Wash. 
McCleery, W. E., Principal, Community High School, Marengo, HI. 
McCltntock, Professor James A., Drew University, Madison, N.J. 
McCluer, V. C., Superintendent of Schools, Ferguson, Mo. 
McConnell, Ralph Caskey, Texas Avenue School, Atlantic City, N.J. 
McConnell, Professor T. R., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
McDaniel, H. B., 4647 Norma Drive, San Diego, Calif. 
McDermott, Dr. John C., St. John's University, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
McDevitt, Miss Margaret, Art Supervisor, Public Schoo s, Pendleton, Ore. 
McDonald, Mrs. V. R., 2607 Oakland Avenue, Nashville, Tenn. 
McEwen, Noble R., Salem College, Winston-Salem, N.C. 
McGucken, Reverend William J., S.J., St. Louis University, St. Louis, Mo. 
McHale, Dr. Kathryn, Director, Amer. Assoc. of Univ. Women, Washington, D.C, 
Mclntosh, D. C., Dean, Graduate School y A. &. M. College, Stillwater, Okla. 
Mclsaac .Professor John S., Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pa. 
McKee, Dr. W. X, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 
McKinney, James, American School, Drexel Ave. and 58th Street, Chicago, 111. 
McKinzie, Miss Clara E., Principal, Coe School, Seattle, Wash. 
McLaughlin, Dr. Katherine L., University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 
McMulSn, Professor T. E., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
McNellis, Miss Esther L., 177 Harvard Street, Dorchester Center, Mass. 

Meckel, Henry C., University High School, Oakland, Calif. 
Meier, Professor Norman C., State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 
MelcMor, Professor William T., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 
Merriman, Miss Pearl, State Normal School, ReUingham, Wash. 
Merry, Mrs. R. V., Morris Harvey College, Charleston, W.Va. 
Michie, James K., Superintendent of Schools, Little Falls, Minn. 
Miles, Dudley H., 299 Riverside Drive, New York, N.Y. 
Miller, Professor Charles S., Allegheny College, MeadviUe, Pa. 
Miller, George J., State Teachers College, Mankato, Minn. 
Miller, Lawrence W., University of Denver, Denver, Colo. 


Miller, P. H., Superintendent of Schools, Piano, HI. 

Miller, Paul A., Superintendent of Schools, New Rpckford, N.D. 

Miller, W. S., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Milligan, Professor John P., State Teachers College, Newark, N.J. 

Mills, Professor Henry C., University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. 

Mills, William W,, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Misner, Paul J., Superintendent of Schools, Glencoe, 111. 

Mitchell, Claude, Superintendent of Schools, West Newton, Pa, 

Mitchell, Miss Eva C., Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va. 

Moehlman, Professor A. B., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Moll, Rev. Boniface E., St. Benedicts ^College, Atchiscn, Kan.