Skip to main content

Full text of "The founder of the city of Cleveland, and other sketches"

See other formats











3 1833 02405 6316 

,Vl-., . X.' 

r- f. \^ f 




Jll nir/hts neserved 


C- J. I'tTEttS Si Son, liobi'oN 

. -4: 


The sketches contained in the following pages relate 
to subjects which have but little, if any, connection. In 
submitting them to the public, the writer trusts that they 
may be found to possess a sufficient degree of interest to 
ju-^iify their publication. 

Tlie volume closes with a brief review of the glacial 
tlu'ory — a theory which, though generally accepted by 
modern geologists, is still regarded by many of our intelli- 
gent mi-n as not oidy questionable, but inconsistent with the 
stability of all known physical laws. 

Cleveland, June 11, 1S91. 


Tub Foundeu of tue City . 
The Cuyahoga River and Valley 
Homes in the Wilderness 
First Snip on, Lake Erie 

Went West 

Footprints of Puritanism 
The Siiakf.r Tillage . . 
Westei:n Reserve Jurists 
Visit to Salt Lake City 
The Career of De Soto 
Major Lorenzo Cartep. . 
The Glacial Theory . . 
















the founder of the city of Clevelaiul — 
the Beautiful City — that not only inherits his 
name, but cherishes his memory ^^-ith a sincere 
feeling of pride and reverence. 

His ancestry is of historical interest, and has 
been traced to a remote period. The name 
"Cleaveland" is shown to be of Saxon origin, 
and was the name of a distinguished family in 
Yorkshire, England, before the Norman con- 
quest. This family originally occupied an 
extensive landed estate whose soil — hard clay 
— was singularly marked by open fissures, 
known to the Sa.x.ons as "clefts " or "eleves.' 
This peculiarity of the estate induced the rural 
population of the vicinity to speak of its occn- 
pants as tire "Clel'tUmds,'' a name wliirh the 
family accepted. This name, like many others, 
us time elapsed, came to be s[)elled in a vari- 


ety of ways — Clefnand, Clifland, Cleiyeland, 
Cleaveland, Cluveland. An autiquurian of 
repute states tliat William Cleaveland of York, 
England, avIio died at Hinekley, in Leicester- 
sliire, in 1G30, ^yas the remote ancestor of the 
American Cleayelands. It is also shown that 
a lineal descendant of his, whose name was 
Moses, and who Avas a housewright or Luildor 
by trade, emigrated from England and landed 
at Boston in the year 1G35, where he remained 
for several years. He then, in connection with 
Edward Winn and others, founded the town of 
Woburn, ^lass., where both he and Winn per- 
manently settled. 

This Moses Cleaveland was a man of intelli- 
gence and enterprise. He aspired to full citi- 
zenship, and became, in 1G43, v.hat was then 
called a "freeman." The qualifications of a 
freeman required that he should be of "godly 
walk and conversation, at least twenty-one 
years of age, take an oath of alk-giance to the 
government of jNIassachusetts Bay. colony, be 
worth £200, and consent to hold othce if 
elected, or pay a fine o^ h^rty >;hillings. and 
vote at all elections or pay the same thie." 
The restrictions and conditions were so onerous 
that many who were eligible prot\MTed ncit to 
Ixjcome freemen, being more free as they were. 
But this Moses, who had now become a free- 


m:m, feeling that he had ancestral blood in his 
veins of a superior quality, thought that it 
ou'^dit to be transmitted, and after a brief 
courtship niarriL-d. in 1G48, Anne Winn, the 
(luiqhter of his friend Edv/ard Winn of 
Wuburn. In taking this step '^ Moses" did 
not make a "mistake." The result was that 
he became the accredited progenitor of all the 
Clea\ elands born in the United States — a race 
not only numerous, but noted for great moral 
worth and many noble traits of character. 

General J^Ioses Cleaveland, the subject of 
this sketch, was born January 29, 1754, in the 
town of Canterbury, Windham County, and 
State of Connecticut. He was the second son 
of Colonel Aaron Cleaveland, who married 
Thankful Paine. Both his father and mother 
were persons of culture. They saw promising 
traits of character in their son :Mose3 when he 
was but a child, and resolved to give him a 
liberal education. At the proper age they sent 
him to Yalg College, where he graduated in 
1777. He then adopted the legal profession, 
and commenceil the practice of law in his 
native town Mith marked success. The abili- 
ties of the young lawyer soon attracted public 
attention, and induced Congress to recognize 
his merits l)y appi>inting him, in 1779. captain 
of a company of sappers and miners in the army 


of the United States. The following is the 
commission he received: 

The United States of Amorioa in Congress assembled. To 
Moses Cleaveland, Esquire, Greet'uij : 
We, reposing especial trust and confidence in your pat- 
riotism, valor, conduct, and fldelity, do by these presents 
constitute and appoint you to be a captain in the companies 
of sappers and miners in the Army of the United States, to 
take rank as such from the second day of August, ITT'J,. 
You are, therefore, carefully and diligently to discharge the 
duty of a captain, by doing and performing all manner of 
things tliereunto belonging. And we do strictly charge and 
require all officers and soldiers under your command to be 
obedient to your commands as captain. And you are to 
observe and follow such orders and directions from time 
to time as you shall receive from this or a future Congress 
of tl'.e United States, or for the time being of the Army of 
the United States, or any other superior otiicer, according 
to the rules and discipline of war, in pursuance of the trust 
reposed in you. This conunission to continue in force until 
revoked by this or a future Congress, the committee of 
Congress before mentioned, or a committee of the States. 
Entered ia the war office, and examined by the board. 

Witness: His Excellency Samuel Huntington, Esq., Presi- 
dent of the Congress of the United States of America, at 
Philadelphia, the fourteenth day of February, ITSU, and 
in the fourth year of our independence. 

Sam. HrxTiNGTOX, Preaident. 
Bf.x. Stoddeiit, Sccreturi/ uf t/w Board of War. 

Captain Cleaveland is hereby, at his own request, dis- 
charged from the .services of the United States. 
By His Excellency's command. 

Tnrcii TiLGiiiiAX, Aid-de-Camp. 
New Windsor, June 7, l^i. 


He accepted the commission, but in the 
course of a few months, as appears, resigned 
the oilice. No reason is given. He doubtless 
preferred thb practice of law, to which he 
returned. He was not an office-seeker in a 
political sense, yet he was a member of the 
iMasonic fraternity and held the position of 
grand marshal of the Grand Lodge of Connec- 
ticut. He was several times elected a member 
of the State legislature, and in this capacity 
acquired an enviable reputation as a statesman. 
In 1794 he married Esther Champion, a young 
lady of rare accomplishments, and the daughter 
of Henry Champion. Early in 179G, ' after 
having risen rapidly through the subordinate 
military grades, he was advanced to the gen- 
eralship of the Fifth Brigade of the State 

In regard to the subsequent career of Gen- 
eral Cleaveland, it should be remembered that 
Connecticut, when a colony, acquired by grant 
of King Charles 11. of England, in 1GG2, a 
vast tract of territory lying between the same 
parallels with the colony, and extending west 
from "sea to sea," or from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific Oceans. When Connecticut was ad- 
mitted into the Union as a State, she claimed 
this territory as her rightful domain. In ad- 
justing the claim. Congress allowed her to 


retain only that part of tlie teriitoiy now 
known as the ''"Western Reserve." This she 
accepted in full discharge of her claim. 

The Western Reserve embraces the north- 
eastern pait of Oliio, and contains three mil- 
lions and eight hundred thousand acres. In 
1792 the State of Connecticut donated five hun- 
dred thousand acres of this land, since known 
as the " Firelands," to citizens who had suffered 
by fire in the Revolution ; and in 1705 author- 
ized a sale of the remaining part of the Reserve, 
and appointed a committee to effect the sale. 
This remainder was sold within a few months 
for §1,200,000, which the State appropriated as 
a permanent fund for the support of her com- 
mon schools. The purchasers of the land were 
sundry wealthy citizens known as the "Con- 
necticut Land Company." The individuals 
comprising the company held different shares, 
and with a view to convenience in the transac- 
tion of business, conveyed their respective 
interests to three trustees, John Cadwell, John 
^lorgan, and Jonathan Brace. In accordance 
with' articles of agreement entered into by the 
land company, the general management of its 
affairs was confided to a boanl of seven direct- 
ors, — Oliver Phelps, Ifenrv Chamjnon. Moses 
Cleaveland, Samutil W. Johnsnu, Kplnaim 
Kirby, Samuel ]\Iather, Jr., and Roger New- 


buiy. On the twelfth day of May, ITOG, the 
fi.iUowing commission was issued by the board 
of directors to Moses Ch^aveland, who was a 
shareholder in the laud company: — 

To Moses Cleavelaml, Esq., of the Comity of "WiiKlhani and 

State of Connecticut, one of the directors of tlie Conuec- 

ticut Land Company. Greeting : 

We, the board of directors of said company, having 
appointed you to go on to said land as superintendent. over 
the agents and men sent to survey and make locations on 
said land, and to make and enter into friendly negotiations 
uith the natives who are on said land, or contiguous thereto, 
and may have any pretended claim to the same, and secure 
such friendly intercourse amongst them as will estahlish 
peace, quiet, and safety to the survey and settlement of said 
lands not ceded by the natives under the authority of the 
United States. 

You are hereby, for the foregoing purpose?, fully author- 
ized and empowered to act and transact all the above busi- 
ness in as full and ample a manner as we ourselves could 
do; to make contracts on the foregoing matters in our behalf 
ami stead, and make such drafts on our treasury as may be 
necessary to accomplish the foregoing object of your ap- 
pointment. And all agents and men by us ernployed and 
sent to survey and settle said lands, to be obedient to your 
orders and directions; and you are to be accountable for all 
moneys by you received, conforming your conduct to such 
orders and directions as we may from time to time give you, 
and to do and act in all matters according to youc best skill 
and judgment, which may tend to the best interest, pros- 
perity, and success of said Connecticut Land Company, 
having more particularly for your guide the articles of 
a'*sociation entered into and signed by the individuals 
of said company. 


Kou...: Np-.wiur.v, \Dirtciurs. 

S.VMUEI. ^I.VTUKi:, Ji:., J 


Thus cominissioiieJ, General Cleaveland led 
the first surveying- and exploring party into 
the Avilds of the Western lleserve, or "Xew 
Connecticut " as it "was then called. The 
entire party consisted of General Cleaveland, 
agent of the land company ; Augustus Porter, 
principal surveyor; Seth Pease, astronomer 
and surveyor; Closes Warren, Amos Spafford, 
John ^1. Holley, and Richard M. Stoddard, 
assistant surveyors ; Joshua Stow, commissary; 
Theodore Shepard, physician ; Joseph Tinker, 
boatman; and Seth Hart, chaplain, accom- 
panied by thirty-seven employes and a few 
emigrants. There were but two women in the 
party. They were married women who came 
with their husbands. The Avhole party num- 
bered just fifty. They brought with them 
thirteen horses and several head of cattle. 

The individuals com[)Osing the expedition 
concentrated at Schenectady, N.Y., earlv in 
June, 1790. A few took charge of the horses 
and cattle, and proceeded by land through the 
interior wilds of the State to Buffalo, while 
the others procured boats and ascended the 
iNIohawk Kiver, and when they reached Fort 
Stanwix. now Ivome, transferred their boats 
from the Mohawk over the portage to Wood 
Creek, passed down the creek to Oneida Lake, 
thence across the lake and its outlets, and 


(linvn the Oswego lliver to Lake Ontario. 
]''i-om this point they coasted along^ the south 
shore of Ontario to tlie mouth of the Niagara 
Jiiver, thence up that river to C^ueenstown, and, 
after crossino- the "seven-mile " portage, reached 
Chippewa, and from tlience pursued tlieir way 
ahing tlio Niagara Kiver and shore of Lake Erie 
to Buffalo, where they were met by the detach- 
ment having: charsfe of the horses and cattle." 
Here General Cleaveland found a delegation of 
Seneca and Mohawk Indians, headed by lirant 
and Red Jacket, who had been awaiting his 
arrival, with a determination to oj^pose the 
further progress of the expedition to the Wes- 
tern Reserve, claiming that it was territory 
which rightfully belonged to them. The 
Indians consented to hold a "talk" with the 
general, who succeeded in quieting the claim 
by making them a donation of goods, valued at 
twelve hundr'ed dollars. The expedition then 
continued westward along the south-eastern 
shore of Lake Erie in two divisions, one divis- 
ion in boats, and the other by land, and ar- 
rived on the 4th of July, 1T9(), at the mouth 
of Conneaut Creek, in the Western Reserve, 
and on arrival gave "three deafening cheers'' 
and christened the place "Port Independ- 

It was a pleasant day. The pcarty felt patri- 


otic, and resolved to celebrate not only the day 
but the event. They flung the ^Vmeriean flag 
to the breeze. Tables were extemporized, and 
made to groan under the weight of a super- 
abundance of baked pork and beans and other 
luxuries, all of which were partaken of with 
a keen relish. Salutes were fired bv platoons 
of musketry, speeches were made, and several 
pailfuls of grog were imbibed in response to" 
the following toasts or sentiments: 1. "The 
President of the United States." 2. "The 
State of New Connecticut." 3. "The Connec- 
ticut Land Company." 4. "^lay the Port of 
Independence and the fifty sons and daughter's 
who have entered it this day be successful and 
prosperous." 5. "May these sons and daugh- 
ters multiply in sixteen years sixteen times 
fifty." 6. "May every person have his bow- 
sprit trimmed and ready to enter every port 
that opens." 

The celebration was prolonged until the stai-s 
appeared. It was the first celebration of the 
kind that had occurred in the Western Reserve. 
At its close the hilarious "fifty" retired to 
their boats and tents in as good order as eouhl 
be expected. The next day was devoted to 
the erection of a log structure or two, designed 
for the immediate accommodation of the party 
and their sup[)lies. The Indians in the vicinity 


now became inquisitive, and demanded to know 
wliy it was the white men had encroached upon 
tlit'ir domains. A council was called, and the 
central seat assigned to General Cleaveland, as 
the trreat white chief. Proceedincrs were com- 
menced by gravely smoking the ''pipe of 
peace." Cato, the son of the old Indian chief 
Piqua, then addresse<l the great white chief, 
who, in his reply, conciliated the Indians by 
giving them a few glass beads and a keg of 
whiskey. The surveys were then allowed to 
proceed. The general assigned to each detach- 
ment of surveyors their special work, and told 
them where to commence it. 

In the course of two weeks afterward Gen- 
eral Cleaveland, who was familiarly called 
*']\Ioses"by his associates, left Conneaut in 
company with a select few of his staff, and 
coasted in an open boat along the south-western 
shore of Lake Erie until he came to the mouth 
of a river, which he took to be the Cuyahoga. 
He ascended the stream for some distance, 
amid manv embarrassments arising from sand- 
bars and fallen trees. A\hen he discovered his 
mistake, and found that it was a shallow river 
of minor importance and not noted on his map. 
Tills perplexity and delay so chagrined him 
and his staff that he named the river "Cha- 
grin," a designation by which it is still 


known, and continuing the voyage he entered 
the month of the veritable Cuyahoga on tlie 
22d of July, in the same ever memoral)le year 
of 170C), and in atteni[iting to hind on its east- 
ern hank, near the foot of Union Lane, ran 
his boat atrround. Here " Moses " found him- 
self cradled, like his ancient namesake, among 
the bulrushes. He and his party, however, 
soon succeeded in extricating themselves. He 
then ascended the steep bank where he beheld 
for the first time an clevatud plain of surpris- 
ing beauty that extended far away to the east, 
west, and south, and that was clad with a 
luxuriant growth of graceful forest trees. The 
scene charmed his eye, and the spot where he 
stood, skirted as it was by the Cuyahoga River 
on the west and by Lake Erie on the north, 
suggested to him that, witli these natural 
advantages, the locality was destined, at no 
distant day, to become the site of a great 
commercial city. 

In accordance with this impression, he 
directed the locality to be surveyed into city 
lots. It included an area of a mile stjuare. 
Two surveys were made of the land, under the 
superintendence of Augustus Porter — one bv 
Seth Pease, and the other by Amos S[>.ilTord. 
Each presented a separate map of liis ^\ork. 
The one is known as "Pease's map," and the 


other as "Spafford's nuij).'' Tliese original 
maps differ soniewhut in detail, yet b^th are 
accepted as authoritative. The surveys were 
coni[>leted early in October, ITOG. The sur- 
veyors gave to the new-born city the name of 
"Cleaveland," in honor of their chief. The 
general, with characteristic modesty, accepted 
the compliment. 

The city at birth contained three log cabins ' 
that had been erected by the surveyors for their 
own accommodation on the hillside next to the 
river, and near a spring that furnished an 
ample supply of pure water. The resident 
population that settled in Cleveland in 170G 
was but four; in 1707 the population increased 
to fifteen; in 1800 it was reduced to seven by 
removals elsewhere on account of the insalu- 
brit)^ of locality. In 181-1 Cleveland was incor- 
porated as a village. In 1820 the population 
increased to 150. In 1827 the Ohio canal, with 
its terminus at Cleveland, was put in success- 
ful operation. This improvement so enlarged 
the facilities of commerce as to inspire confi- 
dence and give assurance of the city's future 
jjrosperity. In 1830, at the taking of the 
United States census, it was found that the 
population had advanced to 1.075. It was in 
1^00 that a newspaper called tlie Cleveland 
AdvertUer wa4 establislied. In preparing to 


issue the first nuniLer the editor discovered that 
the "heading" was too long to fit the ''form," 
and so, in order to adjust it, he dropped out 
the letter "a," in tlie iirst syllable of the word 
Cleaveland, and made it read "Cleveland." 
The public at once accepted this change in 
orthoc^raphv- In 1830 the village of Cleveland 
became an incorporated city with a population 
of nearly 6,000. 

It is indeed someA\hat marvellous that the 
city of Cleveland, from a sickly infancy and 
within less than a century, has grown to such 
gigantic proportions as to possess a population 
of three hundred thousand, with an area so 
enlarged as to contain twenty-six square miles. 
Its present rate of growth in population renders 
it impossible for any one, however much of a 
prophet he may be, to predict what will be the 
arrgregate of its population a hundred years 
hence. It is said that when General Cleave- 
land founded the city he predicted the time 
would come when it would contain a po[)ula- 
tion as large as that of old Wiiulham, in Con- 
necticut, which at that time was-al)out 1,500. 
If the General could now see "what has come 
to pass," it would be interesting, if not amus- 
ing-, to witness his expression of sui.-[>riso. 

Whatever else may be said of General Cleave- 
land, it is evident that he led not only an 


lionoiable life, but achieved a great work. He 
was a man of few words and of prompt action. 
His morality was an outgrowth of Puritanism 
and as rigid as it was pure. He was manly 
and digniiied in his bearing, and so sedate in 
his looks that strangers often took him for a 
clergyman. In complexion he was someM'hat 
swarthy, so much so that the Indians claimed 
him as akin to their own race. In personal 
appearance he was of medium height, erect, 
thick set, and portly, had black hair, a quick, 
penetrating eye, muscular limits, and a mili- 
tary air in his step, indicating that he was 
born to command. In the social circle he was 
pleasant and agreeable both in his style of 
manners and conversation. He was one of the 
few who have many friends and no enemies. 
Though sedate in appearance, he loved anec- 
dotes, and indulged in humor. If not a poet, 
he could construct rhymes with a point not less 
timely than felicitous. 

This trait in his character was wittily illus- 
trated at the Conneaut dinner, on the 4th of 
July, while presiding at the table on that 
niemorable occasion. The guests had imbibed 
with a liberality that was somewhat alarming. 
Josliua Stow, the commissary and boatman, 
I'Miiarked in the presence of the guests, that ho 
li'ared the indispensable article of whiskey 


would be exhausted before a new supply could 
be obtained, and proceeded without further 
remark to replenish the with several 
gallons of water. All saw him, and knew why 
he did it. At this juncture General Clea\e- 
land was called on for a sentiment. He tilled 
his glass with the watered whiskey, arose with 
a twinkle in his eye, and, looking at "Joshua," 
responded as follows: — ' - 

*' Christ, the Divine, turned water into wine; 
Joshua, the boater, turned wine into water." 

and then resumed his seat. The effect was 
electric, and produced a storm of ajjplause. ' 

This incident sutiiciently attests his versa- 
tility of talent. Occur what might, he was 
never disconcerted, but always equal to the 
emergency. In all matters of grave import he 
was not only cautious, but judicious. In giv- 
ing an opinion, he was decisive and ready to 
assign a logical reason for it. He was also a 
man of true cotirage amid threatening dangers, 
and as shrewd in his tactics and management 
as he was courageous. In a word, his career 
was not only one of manly effort and high aspi- 
ration, but a mission that transformed a wilder- 
ness into a civilized land. 

In the niid.sL of his usefulness, and crowned 
with honors, he died at Canterbury, his native 


Tillage, November IG, ISOG, at the age of fifty- 
two years. He was the father of two sons and 
two daughters. His wife, who was an aniial)le 
and exemplary lady, passed into the better life 
before him. Three of his children survived 
him. All of them led lives worthy of their 
distinguished ancestry. 

In the old cemetery at Canterlmry may still 
be seen the grave of the founder of the beau- 
tiful city of Cleveland. Tlie gravestone that 
marks the spot, though so overgrown with moss 
as to be hardly legible, bears the following 
inscription: — 

fHo3c3 Clcabrlanti, Hsq., 

Died Xoveiuber IG, ISUO. 
Aged Fifty-tv\o. 

The lifework of General ^Nloses Cleaveland 
will ever commend itself. In founding the 
city that bears his name, he seems to have been 
inspired with the gift of prophecy. 

The city from her baptismal day has con- 
tinued to grow in strength, wealth, beauty, 
and population, until she has become not only 
the metropolis of the Western Reserve, but one 
of the most attractive cities in America. 

The citizens of Cleveland, under the auspices 
'•f the Early Settlers' .VssoCiation, erected a 
niMimment in hunor of tlie founder uf thj citv 

20 CITY OF clt:veland 

on the Public Square, and coniniemoratcd the 
event, on tlie anniversary of the city's birth- 
day, July 22, 1888. 

The ceremony of unveiling the statue and 
the presentation of tlie monument to the Mayor, 
and his acceptance of it in behalf of the city, 
attracted a large assemblage, who witnessed 
the exercises with manifest interest. The 
exercises closed with the followincr sonor, 
written for tlie occasion, and sung by a pro- 
fessional soloist in a style that was loudly 
applauded: — 


'Twas hero, ■when Xalure reigned supreme,. 

That Moses Cleaveland trod the wild, 
And saw an infant In his dream. 

And with his name haptized the child. 

An infant then, now grown a queen, 
Whose charms are mirrored in the wave 

Of Erie's lake — the battle scene. 
Where victory crowned her hero brave. 

On Erie's shore, from acre to age. 

Our city still shall lift her spires, 
And gem with stars her history's page, 

And kindle still her altar's fires. 

And long may lie, now gone from earth. 
Survive in bronze to view tin; huul; 

And still proclaim our city's birth, 
With staff and compass in his band. 


He was a man of heart and thought, 

AtkI ever faithful as sincere, 
Who with liigli aims life's battle fought, 

Ami crowned with honor his career. 

Oft shall our city here review 

Her earlier years while centuries roll; 

And still her onward course j'Ursue, 
Blessing her founder, heart and soul! 

The monument is located on tlie spot where', 
it is said, the founder of the city stood when 
he selected its site in the wilderness. The 
monument is not only artistic in design and 
finish, but a tribute as beautiful as it is appro- 
priate to the founder of a great commercial 

The structure consists of a circular pedestal 
of polished granite, seven feet in height, sur- 
mounted with a bronze statue, life-size, hold- 
ing a surveyor's staff in the. right hand, and a 
compass in the left hand. The pose of the 
statue is not only graceful and manh', but 
indicates a high degree of physical energy com- 
bined with intelligence. 

The founder of the city of Cleveland was 
not only a wise man, gifted witli remarkable 
cndowiuents, but a prophet whose predictions 
Avere verified. It was he who led the van of 
civilization into the wilds of the Western 
Reserve. He was soon followed by a phalanx 


of heroic pioneers, the best blood of New Eng- 

The city which lie founded is the grand 
landmark that characterized his career — a city 
not only distinguished for her beauty, but for 
her intelligence and noble aspirations. She 
is still young, and has before her a brilliant 
future; and though in her girlhood, sits en- 
throned like a queen on the emerald bank 
of Lake Erie, looking into the mirror of its 
crystal wave, and if not admiring her own 
charms, is admired by every stranger who 
comes within the " charmed circle " of her 



TT would seem that the Valley of the Cuyahoga 
■*■ in prehistoric tinu;s was regarded as the 
" Indians' Paradise." The tribes on the east 
and west side of the river \^ere hereditary ene- 
mies, if we may judge from the relics of mounds 
and military earthworks which still remain as 
tokens of a merciless warfare. The river marked 
the boundary line between them. The posses- 
sion of the valley was tlie prize for ^^ Inch the 
belligerents fought for along period, perhaps for 
centuries. The locality was rich in its natural 
productions. The river abounded not only in a 
variety of fish, but was the favorite resort of 
numerous water-fowls, while the adjoining 
forests were literally alive with deer and other 
wild game. The relics of mounds and earth- 
works that are still to be seen along the line of 
the river are but the '' hieroglyphics " in wliich 
the primitive record of the Cuyahoga has been 
written — a record of stubborn heroism and of 
crimson barbarities. It is a pity that these 
hieroglyphics cannot be preserved from oblitera- 
tion by the ploughshare of modern civilization. 
25 ;-) 


As late as the year ISOO there stood a gigantic 
mound near the mouth of the Cuyahoga, wliich 
Avas crowned with a growth of aged forest trees, 
the sentinels of a preliistoric age. In the course of 
several years afterwards the river luft its ancient 
channel, known as the '' old river-bed," and cut 
its way in a straight line along the eastern base 
of the mound, undermined it, and swept away 
its last vestige. Tliis remarkable mound may - 
have been the '• mausoleum " of some renowned 
barbaric cliieftain, or it may have been a 
"watch-tower," commanding, as it did, a broad 
view of the delightful Valley of the Cuyahoga, 
the lake, and the adjoining region of unbroken 

It is not known wlio was the first white man 
that discovered the Cuyahoga Paver. It is quite 
probable, however, that it was a Frenchman. 
The French government, in lo"24, sent out an 
exploring expedition to North America in com- 
mand of the distinguished navigator Verrazzano. 
He touched at various points along tiie coast 
from Georgia to Newfoundland, and probably 
entered more or less of our navigable rivers, 
witb a view to ascertain the character of the 
eoitntry in the interior. In doing this it is be- 
lieved that some of his crew were lost in the 
wilderness or wilfidly strayed up the ^'alley of 
the Hudson, the St. Lawrence, or some other 


North American river, and finally penetrated 
the region of our great north-western lakes. 

That such was the fact seems verified by the 
relics of a stone monument, which were found in 
1838 on the farm of Alfred Lamb, Brighton 
township, county of Lorain, about twenty miles 
west of Cleveland. On one of the stones was 
engraved the " outline " of a ship under sail. 
On another stone the following words were in- 
scribed : " Louis Yangard, La France, 1533." 
The inference is that he was the captain of a 
ship sailing on Lake Erie, and had landed to 
explore or hunt in the interior and been killed 
by accident or by the Indians. His comrades, 
with a view to commemorate the spot, as it 
would seem, erected the monument. This Louis 
Vangard Avas probably engaged in the fur-trade 
with the Indians. He and his crew must have 
built the old fur "storehouse" that was found 
on the western bluff at the mouth of the Cuya- 
hoga by Americans who commenced, about the 
year 1770, to transport goods and tlour on pack- 
horses from Pittsburgh to Detroit by way of the 
old Indian trail, known as the " Portage Path." 
They used the old fur storehouse as a deposi- 
tory. It was at this time an ancient structure. 
It was built of split logs, had fur iu its crevices, 
and had been deserted. 

It is questionable whether the w\ater-craft ia 


which Louis Vangard sailed was a full-rign-ed 
sliij) or an open sailboat. If a ship, he [jre- 
ceded La Salle, avIio launched the Griffin near 
Buffalo in lti7*J, and who has the credit, in his- 
tory, of launching the '• first ship " that sailed 
ou Lake Erie. It would seem, from the date 
which appears on the stone monument, that 
Louis Vangard was the first white man ^ho dis- 
covered the Cuyahoga, and that he probably 
erected the fur storehouse found there in ITK), 
remnants of which, it is said, were incorporated 
into the patchwork of a small dwelling-house, 
which is still standing on the corner of Hanover 
and Vermont Streets, West Side, in this city. If 
we accept the testimony of the stone monument, 
we shall find that one hundred and fortv-six 
years elapsed after the vis-it of Vangard before 
La Salle launched his ship Griffin. Both were 
adventurous Frenchmen, who evidently sought 
to explore the wilds of the West and to secure a 
profitable fur trade with the Indians. La Salle, 
as Indian tradition says, touched at the mouth 
of the Cuyahoga in his voyage up the lake, but 
failed in obtaining furs from the Indians, for the 
reason that the prow of his ship was decorated 
with the image of a " fiery dragon," whose 
threatening aspect so frightened tlie natives 
that they tied from its apjmiarh and hid them- 
selves in the recesses of the forest. 


On the 8th of June, 178G, there arrived at 
the entrance of the Cuyahoga a delegation of 
Moravian missionaries from Sandusky, accom- 
panied with thirty or more of their Indian 
disciples, men, women, and ciiildren. David 
Zeisberger was tlie " St. Paul " of the delega- 
tion. Tiiey passed up the river in boats until 
they reached Tinker's Creek, wliere they landed 
on open ground which had grown u[) to weeds, 
and which had been occupied and abandoned by 
the Ottawa Indians. It was a fortunate spot 
for the Christian pilgrims, weary as they were, 
and hence they called it " Pilgrims' Rest." 

Here they built log cabins for shelter, and 
planted corn. Their breadstuffs, while await- 
ing the harvest, became exliausted. They soon 
found they could not live on and wild meat 
without bread. In the midst of despair they 
prayed for relief, and relief came from a quarter 
entirely unexpected. A train of one hundred 
pack-horses, laden with flour and conducted by 
white men, arrived by way of the '* Portage 
Path " from Pittsburgh, bound for Detroit. Tlie 
train encamped for the night at Pilgrims' Ilest, 
and cheerfully supplied the suffering mission 
with all the flour that was needed. 

One of the trainmen, while searching for a 
strav liorse the next morning, L^st himsidf in the 
adjoining wilderness. He wandered for three 


of the Indian disciples were sent to Pittsburgli 
to purcliase milch cows, and returned with three 

The Indian disciples, so far as practicable, 
were kept employed: the men hunted and 
the women performed most of the drudgery. 
The latter were about as prolitlc as they were 
profitable. They cooked, baked, and washed, 
planted corn, and gatliered the harvest, pounded 
the corn, milked the cows, and fed the little 
dusky disciples with mush and milk — a food 
which was to them the "sincere milk of the 
word*' as they understood it. 

The winter passed quietly and happily, 
though it happened to be a very cold one. 
"When the spring came it came not only with 
sunshine and the music of birds, but with 
"rumors of war" and with threats of massacre. 
The Indian chiefs in the vicinity did not 
approve the " teachings "' of the missionaries, 
and had resolved to exterminate them and their 
disciples. This induced the missionaries to 
abandon Pilgrims' Rest and to seek rest some- 
where else. They removed with all their dis- 
ciples, about the 10th of ]\Iay, to the mouth of 
Black River, where they expected to tind rest, 
but found none. No sooner had they encamped 
here than tlio Indian chief of this ivglwu ordered 
them to depart. They then proceeded up the 


lake to Huron liiver, Avhere they encamped 
upon its banks and were kindly received by tlie 
chief of that region. They had now exhausted 
the provisions which they brought with them, 
and were compelled to feed on turtles' eggs, 
which they ft)und in great abundance buried in 
the sand along the margin of the river. Here 
they planted corn, built cabins, and remained 
for several years engaged in their philanthropic- 

It would be interesting to trace their career 
to its termination, were it pertinent to this 
occasion. Suthce to say that tlie ^loravian 
missionaries who penetrated our western wikls 
were as sincere as they were persistent in their 
attempt to Christianize the natives. They re- 
garded all mankind, whether civilized or savage, 
as a common brotherhood. But in attempting 
to convert our American Indians they seemed to 
have failed, if we may judge from what the 
Apostolic Zeisberger says in one of his despair- 
ing moments. The following are the signifi- 
cant words in which he expresses himself in 
his published diary : — 

" We must let ourselves be content to be in the midst of 
Satan's nest where he is visible lord atul kin;:, and where 
we are surroundod with dovib, fur in each of the wild 
Indians there lurks — who kiiov.s how many? — and this 
is not a mere figure of speech, but is really so." 


The Indians are evidently the cliildren of 
nature. Whether tliey can be permanently 
civilized or Cliristianized, remains a problem 
that has not l)een solved. They believe in the 
" Great Spirit ■' — a creed that seems as ortlnv 
dox as it is simple. It is a pity that all civil- 
ized men are not as "sound" in their theology 
as the untutored children of the forest. 

At the close of the Black Hawk war, in 1833, 
the chieftain, Black Hawk, and several of his 
band, were taken, in the custody of a govern- 
ment otlicer, to Washington as captives, to be 
dealt with as the authorities might decide. The 
captives, instead of being shot, as they had 
expected, were kindly received, and lionized by 
being taken about town, shown its wonders, and 
then sent through several eastern cities, with a 
view to convince thtnn of the invincible power 
of the white people. They were then returned, 
under escort, to their homes in the "far West." 
While on their return, the party stop[)ed over a 
day at Cleveland, as requested by Black Hawk, 
in order to give him an opportunity to visit the 
.grave of his mother, who. as he sai<l, was burit-il 
on the banks of the Cuyahoga. He took a 
canoe and proceeded alone up the river to the 
bluff that projects into the valley from the 
SDudi-east corner of the ■• Riverside Cemeterv." 
Here he remained for an hour or more, in silent 


meditation, and then rejoined his comrades with 
a tear in his eye, thoiig-h it is said tliat an 
Indian never we^ps. 

From the fact of this visit to the grave of his 
motlier, Bhick Hawk, it may be presumed, was 
born oil the banks of the Cuyalioga. It is evi- 
dent that he possessed qualities of heart that are 
akin to a refined humanity. In personal appear- 
ance he was of medium height, straight and 
strong, and moved with the agile step of an 
antelope. In a word, he was born a hero, and 
proved himself a hero. He was one of nature's 
noblemen, one of t1ie few of his race who has 
made his mark in American history. 

The Cuyahoga has a progressive record. It 
is not now what it was in primitive da^'s. 
Civilization has nearly obliterated its relics of 
barbarism. An advancing civilization is still 
doing its work. It lias already begemmed the 
banks of the river with a beautiful city, spanned 
its waters with magniticent viaducts, and sprin- 
kled its valley with facti^ries and workshops, 
the bee-hives of honest labor, in wliich resound 
by day and by night the musical .revelries of 
artistic industry and the quick footsteps of com- 
mercial activitv. 

The ages are dramatic. Civilization cannot 
standstill if it would; it must either advance 
or retrocrrade. Less than a centurv ago savages 


trod the Valley of the Cuyahoga. Thus it i.s 
that one race of niaulchul succeeds another. The 
superior exterminates the inferior. It is not 
improbable that we, of the Saxon race, will, in 
the course of time, be succeeded by a superior 
race, though in estimating ourselves, we may 
think there is not much room left for improve- 
ment. However this may be, it is pretty cer- 
tain that every life, whether animal or vegetable,- 
has its destiny, and must enact its part in the 
grand but mystic struggle of nature to reach 

IT ■* 
f * 




npiIE Western Reserve lay cradled in the 
-*- silence of her o\yn native solitude until 
the year 1796, Avhen heroic men, with their 
families, came in successive groups from the 
barren hills of New England, and found homes 
in the wilderness. 

They purchased wild farms, or tracts of land,, 
erected for themselves log cabins, and com- 
menced life anew with a determination to 
achieve success. A few of them, however, 
concentrated at different points and laid the 
foundations of prospective towns. 

In the wake of these primitive adventurers 
came a scanty supply of merchants and 
mechanics, who located in the prosp'ective 
towns. Immigration continued to increase. A 
tavern, a dry goods shop, and a blacksmith 
shop, with as many log dwellings, constituted 
a village or town, and, of course, became the 
central point of association and trade. These 
centrnl [)(>iiits were soon graced with accessions 
of more aristocratic pretensions. Saturdays 
and Sundays were the social days of the week, 
39 /I . 


iu which the sparse popuhition of the vicinity 
visited the towns for business purposes, or for 
the sake of hearing the news, and having a 
•social interview with each other. Not many 
years ehipsed before these infant towns were 
supplied with a liberal endowment of lawyers 
and doctors, interspersed with a few clergy- 
men. They came with the hope of achieving 
professional success. The learned professions 
may be a public necessity. At any rate, they 
seem to be inevitable appendages to an advan- 
cing civilization. 

]Most of the early pioneers were compara- 
tively poor, and came into the wilderness with 
slender outfits. In one sense, however, they 
were rich — they had Inuve hearts and strong 
hands. They brought with them tl eir families 
and a few household goods, 2)acked in canvas- 
covered wagons, drawn by oxen or horses. 
Their journey from tlie East occupied from six 
to eight weeks. Some came by ^vay of the 
lakes, in open boats, Avhile others came by 
laud. They encountered formidable embar- 
rassments on the A\ay, especially those who 
came by land. The roads were but old Indian 
trails, the mud deep, and the rivers unbridged. 
On arriving at the home s[)0t of their selection 
in the wilderness, they at once, after erecting 
a log cabin, cleared away a patch of the forest 


about it, and let in a patcli of sunlight to cheer 
the ^vikl outlook of their isolation. The rivers 
abounded with tish, and the \yoodlands with 
game. From these sources they were supplied 
with meat. From year to year they cluaied a 
few additional acres of land, until a spacious 
and productive farm smiled about them, stocked 
w^ith cattle, horses, liogs, and sheep; and thus, 
by dint of patient industry and the practice of' 
a rigid economy, they soon acquired a health- 
ful homestead, to^-cther with all the substantial 
comforts of life. In a few years the log cabin 
and log barn gave place to a spacious frame 
house and barn, and in less than a half cen- 
tury every part'of the Western Reserve became 
dotted with the happy homes of civilized life. 

In accomplishing all this, the original pio- 
neers endured hardships and suffered priva- 
tions which may be imagined, perhaps, but 
cannot be expressed in words. Some idea, 
however, of their career and perplexing embar- 
rassments may be derived from their experi- 
ences. The following citations from the his- 
tory of their times will illustrate, to some 
extent, their tiiuls, liaps and mishaps, while 
engaged in subduing the asperities of an inhos- 
pitai)le ^\■il<lerness, and converting it into a 
paradise of fruits and llovvers and social enjoy- 


David McConoLigliey was of Scotch descent. 
lie removed in 1810 from Blandford, ^lass., 
to the Western Reserve, and brought with 
him his family, consisting of his wife and six 
chikiren. He left Blandford in the month 
of November. The journey at that season of 
the year was extremely tedious and dreary. 
They travelled nearly six hundred miles 
through mud and snow, with one yoke of oxen 
and one horse attached to a wagon laden with 
the family and a few goods and supplies, and 
were fifty-three days on the way. No account 
has been given of what occurred while on their 
journey. But after reaching the Reserve they 
encamped for the night in the woods, not far 
from Bainbridge, where they were serenaded 
through the weary hours by a pack of hungrj'- 
wolves. The heroic members of the family 
assailed the wolves with guns and clubs, and 
exterminated six of them. The survivors of 
the pack were stricken with terror, and took to 
their heels. On the 1st of January, 1811, 
the family arrived at the cabin of Samuel 
iNIcConoughey, a yminger brother of David, 
who had settled in the nortli-western part of 
Aurora in 180G. Here the family remained 
till the fuUuwing No\eml)er. 

In the early [>ait oL' the year ISll. Da\id 
purchased one hundred acies of land of Benja- 


mill Goiliiim, in the south-east corner of Bain- 
liriil:j:e, Geauga County. Upon this hmd the 
father and sons commenced clearing away a 
]>i>rtion of the forest and buikling a log cabin, 
which was soon ready for occupancy, and 
into which the family moved on Thanksgiving 
Day, 1811. It was a rudely constructed cabin, 
eighteen by twenty feet, with cheerless aspect, 
a puncheon floor made of split logs, and a fire- 
place built of stone, with a chimney laid up 
witli flat sticks and plastered inside with clay- 
mortar to prevent its taking fii'e, a chamber 
without floor, a roof of stave-like shingles held 
in place by long heavy poles, an outside door on 
wooden hinges, with the latch-string ""hang- 
ing out," and open apertures for windows, 
which, for want of glass, were curtained with 
thin white cloth, admitting but a faint light. 
The crevices between the logs in the walls of 
the cabin were wedged with split sticks and 
plastered over witli clay-mortar to exclude the 
wind and drifting snows of winter. All the 
furniture they had was a few articles which 
tht'y brought with them from New England. 
Tliese were by no means adequate to their 
necessities. They supplied the deficiency by 
manufacturing for themselves rude stools for 
ch.iirs, a high bench ft)r a table, and poles 
iiilt'rhiced with ro[»es of twisted bark for IkmI- 


steads. The cabin fireplace was broad and 
deep, so as to receive liuge back-logs, Avhich 
were drawn into the cabin through the door- 
way in Avinter on a handsled, and often by 
horse-power. The small wood was tlion piled 
in front, and in this way a comfortable lire 
was kept up by day, and preserved in the burn- 
ing back-log during the night. For a time 
this McConoughey family were the only inhab- 
itants in the township of lUiinbridge. Their 
nearest neighbor was a brother located in 
Aurora township, six miles distant. The 
dense forest intervening was infested with 
beare and wolves, and intersected with deep 
muddv creeks and black-ash swamps. This 
made an interchange of visits hazardous. 
IVIcConoughey's wife was a remarkable woman, 
possessed of great energy and practical gnod 
sense. She contrived to make her cabin home 
as cosey and pleasant as possilile for hersGlf and 
family, and succeeded in proving that life in 
the wilderness may l)e a happy one. 

At this time wild turkeys, deer, bears, 
wolves, wildcats, riieecions, opossums, porcu- 
pines, elk, and rattlesnakes still al)Ounded in 
almost every |>art (tf the Western Reserve. 
There were also several f ragmen taiy tri1)es of 
Indians. The sons of tlu? vhite immigrants 
soon became ex[»erls in the art of hunting and 


trapping wild game. A son of ^IcConougliey 
named Porter and his cousin, Jarvis White, 
discovered, while on a hunting excursion, a 
large hollow tree lying on the ground with 
a hole in its side. The boys, thinking tliere 
might he wild game in the log, tired several 
shots into the hole, when the dog rushed into 
it and attacked a bear that had been wounded. 
Tlie howls and growls that followed were 
agonizing, and the hunters feared that the 
bear would kill the dog. The father of one of 
the boys arrived just at that moment, threw off 
his coat, crawled into the hollow log, seized 
the dog by the hind legs, and slowly drew the 
dog. whose teeth held the bear, out with him 
— dog, bear, and all. It was "a long pull, a 
strong pull, and a pull altogether " that did it. 
Tlie bear was then killed with a bear-lance. 
It was a large, fat she-bear, weighing over four 
hundred pounds. The hollow in the prostrate 
tree, on examination, Avas found to contain two 
more bears, or cubs, half the size qi the mother, 
which were also seized and killed. The tlesli 
'and skins of the bears were utilized, and fur- 
nished both food and bedding for the family. 
Fat bear-meat, when salted, was regarded ])y 
the pioneers as a good substitute .for salt poi'k. 
In tlu'.se early times veritable salt pork cost 
from sixteen to twenty-live dollars a barrel, 


while salt by the barrel was equally ex- 

From necessity the primitive settlers sought 
out "many inventions." In want of steel traps 
they constructed log traps in which they caught 
wolves and bears. These traps were four- 
sided, made of logs, and pinned at the ends. 
On one side was a sliding door, which could be 
raised by a spring pole with a bait attached, so 
that when the animal entered the inside of the 
trap and disturbed the bait, the door would 
instantl}' descend and catch him. In this way 
hundreds of wolves and bears were caught and 

In one instance a bear was caught in Geauga 
County in a very different manner. Two men 
were engaged in a sugar-camp, making maple 
sugar. They had left syrup in the kettle at 
night for three successive nights, and in the 
morning found the syrup had as regularly dis- 
appeared. They suspected the thief. They 
were well armed with a jug of whiskey, and on 
the next night poured a li1)eral quantity of it 
into the syrup, tasted it, and found the mixture 
pretty strong, but sweet and palatable. They 
drank freely of it themselves, and then, wrap- 
ping their blankets about them, camped for the 
night and enjoyed an unusually sound sh-ep. 
One of the men awoke before the other in the 


morning, and saw, to liis surprise, a hiici^e bear 
lying alongside his companion and both dead 
asleep. The toddy had proved too much for • 

the bear as well as for the men. The wakeful | 

man seized an axe and despatched the thii'f j 

who had stolen the syrup, and then awoke his 
slumbering com[)anion. Both men congratu- 
lated themselves on the result of their strata- | 
gem, and doubtless renewed their faith in the ? 
virtues of whiskey. * 
Thomas Umbertield and wife emigrated from \ 
Connecticut to the Western Reserve in ITOS, 
with a family of several children, and were the 
first family that settled at Burton. The pro- 
prietors of the township gave ^Irs. Umbertield 
sixty acres of land as an inducement to settle 
there: and thouo-h it was an unbroken wilder- 
ness at that time. Burton was declared to be in 
point of soil and natural beauty of location a 
second garden of Eden. The family came from 
Buffalo by boat to Fairport, sailing thence 
three miles up the river where they landed, 
and whence they proceeded to Burton on a 
rude sled drawn by oxen. They arrived at 
Burton in June, where they pitched their tent. 
^[rs. Umberfield was a beautiful woman with a 
young family of promising sons and daughters. 
In a tVw days, witli the aid of friendly settlers 
from distant points who had heard of their 


arrival, a log cabin ^vas speedily constructed 
for the family. Not long afteiwaid the 
friendl}- Indians of that vicinity camped near 
the house. The chief saw i\Irs. Umberfield's 
oldest daughter, Liney, and was smitten Mith 
her beauty. She was then but iiftecn years 
old. The chief proposed to buy her and offered 
one thousand dollars and his own son for her. 
The offer being declined, he intimated that he 
would steal her. For a long time her mother 
would not permit her to go out of the house 
alone. Yet the younger children often played 
with the Indian children, and were fond of 
swinging in the loop of a wild grape-vine that 
hung from the treetops near the cabin. The 
Indian bovs would give the swinor a violent 
push, send it high, and then set their dogs 
after it, and laugh to see the dogs puzzled and 
foiled in attempting to catch it. This sort of 
sport equally pleased the white children who 
sat in the swing. The children of tlie two 
races seemed to enjoy the society of each other 
with a relish. This pleased the Indian mothers 
and fathers, who were not only friendly to the 
white settlers, but showed a disposition to 
exchange visits with them in a social way. 
lUxt the Indian chief, who was smitten with 
the pretty white girl, lia\ing faik'd in his 
attempts to obtain her, wisely disappeared. 


Early in the spring of 181 "2 a party of 
Indians encamped in Hampden, GeauLja 
County, and remained till fall. The chief 
was a man of distinction among his people. 
His s(piaw was as gracious as she was beauti- 
ful, and received her white visitors with 
becoming dignity, arrayed in the richest style 
of decorative art known to her race. The 
article of dress which she most relied upon -to 
give additional lustre to her native charms was 
a deer-skin cape, close fitting at the throat, and 
flowing down gracefully about the waist. The 
cape was ingeniously wrought in singular 
devices with glass beads and porcupine quills. 
Hundreds of little silver brooches, with 
tongues like buckles, were interspersed artis- 
tically among the other devices on this cape or 
overgarment. In addition to this, her dainty 
pedal extremities were shod with a pair of deer- 
skin moccasons, ornamented in a style quite as 
elaborate as her outer robe. The white ladies 
were particularly fond of exchanging visits 
with this lady squaw, who soon became tpiite 
an adept in the practice of social civilities as 
known to civilized life. 

The truth is, the Indian possesses many 
noble traits of character, and, when treated 
with the consideration that is due him, he 
always proves true and faithful to his fiiends, 


•whether they be of his own race or of the 
white race. The Indians aniliate in tribes. A 
tribe is regarded by its menibei-s as one common 
family or brotherhood. The rights of each 
tribe, and of each member of it, are sacred, 
and the entire trilie is bound to defend and 
protect these mutual rights. AVhen one tribe 
infringes upon the rights of another, the usual 
result is " an eye for an eye and a tooth for a' 
tooth," in accordance with the divine law of 
the old Hebrews. But among members of the 
same tribe these children of the forest have a 
much higher regard for the rights of property 
and the practice of the moral virtues than 
exists in any civilized land of modern times. 
AVhen an Indian hunter within the territory of 
his tribe kills a deer, for instance, and hangs 
it by the heels to the limb of a tree, with his 
mark upon it, until he can come for it, perhaps 
Bot until the lapse of several days, he is sure to 
find it untouched where he left it, and though 
another Indian of his tribe in a state of star- 
vation may have found it, yet the" starving 
Indian, seeing the mark of his tribe on tlio 
tempting carcass, would rather die than violate 
the rights of property vested in his tribal 
brother who caught the game, and who might 
• need it as nuuh as he. Pjut how 'is it in a 
civilized Christian conmiunity? We all know 


that if a neiglibor should kill and dress a fat 
jiig, haiig him up by the heels, and leave hiiu 
lianiriufr over ni^'ht out of doors, ten to one the 
jiig would be stolen before morning. 

Enos D. Kingsley, an emigrant from ]Mas<a- 
chusetts, came to the Ileserve in April, IbltJ, 
with a wife and two or three young children, 
and located at Bainbridge, where he built a 
log cabin, in which he and his young wife 
began life in the wilderness, with high hopes 
of success. In the following November, his 
wife died. There was no graveyard in tlie 
township. Her remains were carried by hand 
on a bier through the woods to Aurora for 
interment, a distance of more than five miles. 
A pathway through the forest was cleared by 
axemen as the procession advanced. The pall- 
bearers, who were able-bodied men, became 
greatly fatigued, and frequently called the pro- 
cession to a halt in order to give tljem time 
to recover the shoes they had lost in the mud 
and mire. Mr. Kingsley was so overcome by 
his sudden bereavement that his friends udvis'.'d 
him to return with his children to New Eng- 
land, This he did, but remained away but a 
short time, when he returned to his rude cabin 
in Ohio. 

It so ha[>pened that Mr. Kingsley. in Jan- 
uary, ISIO, was called from Eainbridge to 


Mentor, and, passing tlirough Kiitland, he 
came to the Chagrin Kiver, wliich was over- 
flowing its banks. It was an nnhridgcd river. 
He was on horseback and attempted to ford it. 
"When about half way across the stream, he 
discovered a hrdy attempting to cross on the 
trunks of two trees which had fallen from 
either bank, and so interlapped as to form a 
kind of artificial bridge, though a very narrow 
and hazardous one. The lady had, with evi- 
dent tinddity, reached the midway point of the 
merciless stream, ^^'hen the young widower 
hastened to shore, hitched his horse, ran to her 
relief, and assisted her to reach the shore in 
safet}'. Her name was ]Miss ^lary Mann, a 
school-teacher in tlie vicinity, who was return- 
ing home. She expressed to him her gratitude, 
and he expressed to her his admiration of her 
fortitude. This novel introduction prolonged 
tlip interview somewhat on the bank of the tur- 
bulent, though unlistening, river. The parties 
related to each other tlicir histories, and became 
deeply interested. The young widower pro- 
posed on the s[)ot, and was graciously accepted. 
Within a few weeks afterward the ha[>py pair 
were made still hai)[»ier l)va union in marriage. 
They at once assumed j>»)ssession o( the lug 
cabin which Kiiigslcy had built in liainbridge. 
She proved a kind and affectionate mother to 


his young children by the first wife, and bore 
him several additional responsibilities that 
received the tenderest care and affection. 

In the course of tliree years after the mar- 
riage Mr. Kingsley became so crippled with 
rlieumatism that he could not attend to the 
business of cultivating and improving his new 
farm. He found in his schoolmarm wife, how- 
ever, a helpmeet equal to any emergency. - 
During his disability she not only spun, wove, 
and did her housework, but worked on the 
farm, chopped brush, cleared land, ploughed 
and sowed, and conducted the farmwork gen- 
erally with wonderful success. In this instance 
she assumed man's rights from necessity, and 
that, too, without abandoning woman's rights, 
or indulging in political aspirations. She was 
a true woman in every sense of the word. Her 
husband, after some years, recovered his health, 
and they both lived to acquire wealth and rear 
a happy family of children. Both died at a 
ripe old age, and side by side fdl honored 

Deacon Pomeroy, in 1800, awoke one morn- 
ing and found that his cattle were all missing 
and started in pursuit of them. They had evi- 
dently straved from his premises, been stolen, 
or fiighteuerl away. He spent the day in 
searchiuij for them through the forests of 


Hampden, Thompson, and ^Montville townships, 
but did not fmd them. Niglit overtook him, 
and he started on a direct line for home. A 
pack of hungry wolves scented his track, and 
followed him with bloodthirsty intent. They 
approached him so closely that he was com- 
pelled to climb a tree to save himself from 
being devoured. He sprang into the branches 
of a wild plum-tree. The wolves reached the 
tree at about the same moment. They snuffed 
their victim in the branches, howled, and began 
gnawing the trunk of the tree at the roots, as 
if expecting to cut the tree down. The deacon 
did not like his hungry, impatient associates, 
and began hallooing with all his strength of 
lungs for hulp, hoping some settler or belated 
hunter might hear his voice and come to his 
rescue. No one came. The nearest settler 
was John Quiggle, a mile distant or more. 
The deacon continued to halloo, and the wolves 
to howl and gnaw at the root of the tree. At 
last the deacon was heard by j\Irs. Quiggle and 
her children. Her husband was absent from 
home. She knew some one was lost in the 
forest and was in distress, but durst not ven- 
ture out amid the darkness of night. She did 
what she thought the next best thing: she 
blew the dinner-horn — a conch sliell — loud 
and long at her cabin door in reply to the 


deacon's oft-repeated halloo. The deacon 
awaited relief in vain. He watched the wolves 
all night, and the wolves watched kini. He 
did not like this kind of close communion 
service. It was too close. lie was not relieved 
till broad daylight in the morning, when the 
wolves dispersed, and he descended from the 
tree, struck a trail, and found his way home 
in safety. He said the dinner-horn that "re- 
plied to his vociferations at intervals during 
the night, though it gave no relief, was the 
"sweetest music " to his ear he had ever heard. 
On another occasion, in the same wild region 
of country and at about the same time, Mrs. 
Margaret King was returning home on horse- 
back through the dense woodlands from a visit 
to a distant neighbor, when she discovered on 
the way a pretty looking little black animal 
which seemed playful and harmless. She ftdl 
in love with it, dismounted, and caught it and 
began petting it kindly and clasping "it to her 
breast, when it gave a signiiicant outcry, and 
its mother, a huge bear, came rushing from the 
thickets to its rescue. Mrs. King instantly 
dropped her pet, and sprang into the saddle 
just in time to avoid serious results. The 
maternal bear took her cub by the nape of the 
neck and h;isiily retired into the depths of the 
forest, without manifesting any disposition to 


rebuke the affectionate regard that had been 
bestowed on her offspring by a hidy. 

All this is but an epitome of what was 
generally true of pioneer life in the AVt-stern 
Reserve. The primitive settlers brought a\ ith 
them little else than their Puritanic faith — a 
faith in themselves, in schools, in churches, 
and in the i)ractice of the moral virtues. A few 
of them came into the wilderness with money 
sufficient to purchase large tracts of land. 
Among the few was John Ford. lie purchased 
two thousand acres of land in the township of 
Burton, in 180J:. Other parties had purchased 
more or less land in the township at an earlier 
date, and several families had already settled 
at Burton. All felt a desire to establish not 
only a good conmion school, but a school of a 
higher order, an academy or college. As early 
as 18Ul Rev. Joseph Badger, the itinerant 
missionar}-, suggested the idea of obtaining a 
charter from the legislature, authorizing the 
establishment of a college at Burton. In this 
project he took a prominent part, and was 
earnestly seconded by others. The charter 
was granted in iSOo. In the act the corpora- 
tion was called "The Erie Literary Society." 
The first corporator named was Joseph Hudson 
a'lid the last Rev. Jose['h r>adger. The' Josephs 
of those days seem to have abounded in good 


works. Whether dressed in as many colors as 
their ancient progenitor, does not appear, but 
it is evident tliat they were men of earnest pur- 
pose, who sought to elevate mankind by the 
only true method — education. 

In 1806 William Law donated to this infant 
college eleven hundred and thirty acres of 
land with the reservation that if the college 
Bhould be removed from Burton, the land 
should revert to his heirs. A building 25 by 
50 feet, intended for school purposes, was com- 
menced in 1804 and finished in 1806. It was 
two stories high. The lower story was used 
for the common school, and the upper story for 
the double purpose of an academic school and 
for religious worship on Sundays. John Ford, 
the rich land-owner, cut and hewed most of the 
timber for the building. It was regarded as 
the most elegant and imposing edifice in the 
Western Reserve. i\Ir. Ford was the ffither of 
Seabury Ford, who was but a young lad at 
the time the school was established. Seabury 
received his elementary education at this 
school, and was fitted for college in its aca- 
demic department. He was sent to Yale Col- 
lege, where he graduated in 18'25, and after 
distinguisliing himself as a lawyer and states- 
man, was elected governor of Oliio in 1848. 
He died at Burton in 1855. The first teacher 


in the Burton Academy, as it was generally- 
called, was Peter Hitchcock. He was a young 
lawyer, who afterwards acquired renown in his 
professional career, and was elevated to the 
supreme' bench of the State. David Tod, the 
eminent war governor of Ohio, was also edu- 
cated at Burton Academy. There were many 
resolute young men and young ladies who, in 
the palmy days of the institution, walked five 
or six miles through the wilds of the forest to 
attend its classic course of instruction. The 
orig-inal Luildinsr was burned in 1810. The 
trustees were seriously embarrassed in obtain- 
ing the requisite funds to rebuild. They com- 
menced, however, the work in 1817, and after 
many hindrances succeeded in finishing it in 
1819. The institution continued to maintain 
its collegiate character until 1834, when, by 
the influence of the Presbyterian and Congre- 
gational churches of the Western Pieserve, a 
theological department was addi.-d to the school, 
though strenuously opposed by the leading 
men of Burton. This introduction of secta- 
rianism proved an embarrassment .instead of a 
benefit, and soon so reduced the patronage of 
the institution as to render its prospects of 
success discouraging, if not hopeless. This 
induced its removal as a college to Hudson. 
It was for this reason that the land endowment 


it bad received from William Law reverted to 
his heirs. The institution was now called 
''Western Reserve College." It remained at 
Hudson for nearly half a century, where it did 
good work and achieved a wide reputation. 
But, in 1882, a "change came over its dream," 
when it struck its tent and migrated to the 
city of Cleveland, where it assumed the pon- 
derous title — Adelbert College of Western- 
Reserve University — and where it now con- 
siders itself comfortably and permanently 
settled for life. It is an aspiring institution, 
and has the ability to accomplish high aims. 
Yet the primitive little town of Burton has the 
enviable honor of being its birthplace. It 
was at Burton that the irrepressible spirit of 
western popular education was begotten — a 
spirit whose influence now pervades not only 
the Western Reserve but the entire State. 

Life in the wilderness was a life of toil, of 
suffering, and of deprivation, inspired by hope. 
It was an educated civilization that came to 
subdue a wilderness. It achieved its work 
within a comparatively brief period. Where 
roamed the wild beast and the savage, we now 
see a land of beauty and of plenty — a land 
charr.cterized by a retined and intelligent pop- 
ulation. All this has been achieved as if by 
magic. It is the golden fruit of pioneer labor 


and enterprise — a rich inheritance left to all 
subsequent generations. 

The pioneers possessed a degree of Puritanic 
blood that made them invincible. They looked 
ahead and went ahead. They were, in fact, a 
peculiar people, self-reliant and ever hopeful 
amid discouragements, and ever triumphant 
amid adversities. Armed with the shield of 
faith and the panoply of the moral virtues, 
they fought the battle of life and won the 
victory. In a word, they were an earnest race, 
evangelical in character, who migrated from 
New England, the centre of a refined civiliza- 
tion. Tliey carried the gospel with them and 
practised what they preached. Their women 
were 'not ideal, but real. They handled the 
distaff, spun, wove, baked and brewed, knit, 
patched and made garments, and modestly and 
lovinglv devoted themselves to the duties of 
the domestic circle, the care of their children, 
and the interests of their contiding husbands. 
It was the cheering "light of their counte- 
nance " that illuminated the interior of the 
log cabin and gave to it the charms of a palace. 
The women of that day were sutliciently well- 
bred to grace a palace, but were content to 
move in tlicir ap[)ropri;ite sphere. They were 
not allliijtcd witli ennui, nor wiih a dusire for 
notoriety. They had no masculine aspirations, 


nor did they sigh for silks, satins, and laces. 
Tiiey were intelligent as well as industrious, 
and social in their habits. On extra occasions 
they dressed in Enqlish calico with nice check 
ajirons, but ordinarily in short gowns and petti- 
coats of domestic manufacture. Yet, with all 
this simplicity of apparel, they were generally 
supplied with a rich assortment of jewels — 
their sons and daughters — whose lustre, in a 
moral sense, not only attracts admiration still, 
but crowns the memory of an honored ancestry 
with a circlet of lifjlit as radiant as the stars. 



/^F western explorers but fe^y have aeliieved 
^-^ more successful or useful results than La 
Salle. The salient puints in his career have ' 
enriched the chronicles of western adventure, 
and crowned his memory with honor. It was 
he who built and launched the first ship that 
ever sailed the crystal waters of Lake Erie. 

Robert Cavelier de La Salle was born at 
Rouen, France, in 1G43. He was of Norman 
ancestr}', and received his education in a school 
of the Roman church and became a Jesuit 
priest. At twenty-three he moditied his reli- 
gious faith, withdrew from the ranks of the 
priesthood, and emiorated to IMontreal, Can- 
ada, where his brother resided, who was a 
priest in the seminary of St. Sulpice. The 
superior of the institution was so favorably 
impressed with the personal appearance, talents, 
and high character of the young nobleman that 
he gave him a tract of eligible land with sei- 
gniorial rights, lyinu' near the rapids of tlit St. 
Lawrence. La Salle accc[)ted the donation 
with expressions of gratitude, laid out the land 


in town lots, erected buildings, and named 
the village La Chine. He then commenced the 
study of the Indian language, and in the 
course of t\yo years was able to converse in 
seven or eight of these strange tongues. In 
this way he prepared himself to enter upon the 
fur trade with the Indians and to explore the 
far West with a view to extend the commerce 
and enlarge the domain of France. He shared 
in the common belief that there existed some- 
where in the western wilds a pathway, either 
by land or water, that led to the "South Sea," 
or to China. Inspired with this belief, and 
with a desire to explore the region of the great 
chain of northern lakes and the vast wilderness 
south of them, and at the same time to secure 
the fur trade with the natives and enlarge by 
new discoveries the domains of New France, he 
applied to the governor, Frontenac, for author- 
ity to extend his explorations, which vras 
cheerfully granted with the condition that he 
should defray the exjiense. In order to do 
this, he was compelled to sell his seigniory. 
From imperfect maps and the indeiinite infor- 
mation he had obtained from the Indians, he 
imagined the lakes at their western termina- 
tion were eonnecletl with the Pacilic, and that 
the Ohio River, ot whicli he had heard vague 
rumors, tiowed to the south and discharged its 


waters into the Gulf of California. He now 
resolved, with such means as he possessed, to 
commence extensive explorations and satisfy 

In July, 1600, he, with four canoes and 
fourteen men, ascended the St. Lawrence, and 
after a wearv voyage of thirty days reacliL-d 
Lake Ontario; and, coasting along its south- 
ern shore at a still more sluggish rate, arrived " 
at its western termination in safety, where he 
met an Lidian guide who proposed to conduct 
him to the Ohio River in six weeks. Though 
La Salle had commenced an exploration up the 
lakes, he now concluded to change his dii-tc- 
tion and trace the course of the Ohio. After 
experiencing many embarrassments, he, with 
his party, reached the head waters of the xVlle- 
ghany, and thence passed in canoes down that 
stream to the Ohio River, and thence down the 
Ohio as far as the rapids, the present site of 
Louisville. Here he learned from the natives 
that the river ran a long distance and tinally 
lost itself in dismal swamps which were im- 
passable. His caiioemen, fearing to proceed, 
deserted him and k-ft him alone and destitute 
of provisions. This unfortunate occurrence 
induced him to retrace his steps as he best 
could to Canada — a distance of several hun- 
dred leairues throu2:h an untrnddeu wilderness. 


While returning, the wild game and fish "udiich 
he caught, and the maize which he obtained 
from the Indians, furnished him with a scanty 
supply of food. He was taken sick on the 
■way, but found shelter in the wigwam of a 
friendly Indian, and linally so far recovered as 
to reach Canada late in the sunnner of 1070. 
He was much reduced in health and in his 
financial means, but did not despair of success 
in ex[)loring other localities in the mystic 
wilds of the West. 

La Salle, after making such preparations as 
he was able, embarked, in ItJTl, at a point in 
the vicinity of La Chine with a few chosen 
men in canoes for the pur[)0se of renewing his 
attempt to explore the chain, of northern lakes. 
The Jesuits had preceded him, estal)lished mis- 
sions at eligible points, and, while professing 
to Christianize the Indians, were engaged in 
manipulating a brisk fur trade with them and 
in filling tlieir coffers with golden profits. This 
method of Christianizing the Indians was re- 
buked by La Salle, and ns he proceeded from 
one lake to another, sharp controversies ensued, 
which, in several instances, eventuated in o[)en 
hostilities. La Salle was a man of nerve, and 
the Jesuits soon discovered that they could 
neither intimidate him nor defeat liim in the 
exectition of his projects. He continued friendly 


relations with the Imlians as he proceeded, and 
obtained a share of the fur trade. He [)ursucd 
his voyage until he readied the southern ex- 
tremity of Lake Michigan, the present site of 
Chicago. He crossed by land to the Illinois 
Kiver and descended that stream, as some 
writers assert, to its junction with the Missis- 
sippi. But this is questionable, lie dcvuted 
several weeks to the fur trade at different 
points along the banks of the Illinois, and then 
returning to ^Montreal reported his discoveries 
to his friend. Governor Frontenac. 

La Salle now engaged for several years in 
the fur trade, with a view to improve his tuian- 
cial condition and secure to the commerce of 
France a monopoly of the trade as against other 
intruding nationalities. The scheme he pro- 
jected was a wise one. It consisted in estab- 
lishing forts, or trading-posts, at all desirable 
points along the great chain of lakes and navi- 
gable rivers in the West and South as a base 
of operations and defence. The Jesuits united 
in opposing this scheme, alleging it to be a 
measure in conflict with the true interests 
of their missions. La Salle, however, took 
decided steps in reference to his scheme, with 
the sanction of Frontenac. He had also ex- 
pressed to Frontenac a desire to exjdore the 
Mississippi, but needed pecuniary aid to 


accomplish it. Frontenac approved the project, 
and sent La Salle, in 1G74, to France, com- 
mending- him and his project to the king, Louis 
XIV. Thus commended, he visited the king, 
iwho received him with kind consideration. In 
recognition of his valuable services, the king 
bestowed on him the governorship of the new 
Fort Frontenac in Canada, and granted him 
seigniorial rights in an extensive tract of terri-' 
tory that surrounde'd it. Llis wealthy relatives 
at Rouen were proud of him, and gave him the 
ready means of maintaining the fort in accord- 
ance with the conditions of the royal grant. 
In the conrse of the next year he returned and 
took possession of his seigniory, improved its 
defences, and surrounded it with a numerous 
guard of brave Iroquois, on whom he could 
rely for protection. In the mean time the 
Jesuits had aroused a formidable opposition to 
his exercise of power, the effect of which was 
to divide the country into two distinct parties, 
with La Salle as leader of the one, and the 
Jt'stiits as leader of the oilier. The controversy 
involved the interests of both church and state. 
La Salle, with the aid of his faithful band of 
Iroquois, succeeded in controlling tlie fur trade 
and in circumventing the sordid macbinations 
of the Jesuit j>riesLhi_)od to a degree that won 


In 1G78 he again visited France and received 
the grant of extended privileges from tlie king, 
and also obtained increased pecuniary aid from 
his many liberal friends and relatives. In the 
summer of the same year he returned to his 
garrison in Canada, prepared to enter upon a 
grand expedition by way of the lakes to the 
Mississippi. He selected his crew, and, accom- , 
panied by Father Hennepin, embarked on Lake- 
Ontario, bound on a voyage to the sea. It was 
late in the season. After a struggle of eight 
days with adverse winds, he anchored his ship 
in the placid waters of Toronto bay. Early in 
December he passed the mouth of the Niagara 
River, and was soon afterward shipwrecked in 
its vicinity. He was fortunate in losing but 
few lives. He saved most of his supplies and 
some parts of the ship. These were carried by 
thirty men up the rugged hillside of tlie 
Niagara, and then drawn by sledges twelve 
miles through drifting snows in the direction 
of Lake Erie and deposited at the mouth of 
Ca3-uga Creek. The good Father Hennepin 
carried the sacred altar and his priestly robes 
strapped to his shoulders the entire distance, 
and though a. heavy burden, bore it manfully 
and with Christian resignation. On arrival at 
the creek, Father Henne[)in held religious 
services in which the entire party joined in 


expressions of gratitude to God for the preser- 
vation of tlieir lives. 

This disaster, though a serious one, did not 
dishearten La Salle. He ordered a patcli of 
land to be cleared and directed his carpenters 
to build a ship. The keel \A'as soon laid and 
the work went bravely on, utilizing the rem- 
nants of the shi[)wrecked vessel so far as prac- 
ticable. Two Indian hunters were employed 
"to hunt wild game and build cabins for the 
party. xVn Italian called Tonty was one of La 
Salle's most faithful and useful adherents. He 
had a large experience in western life, and was 
familiar with several Indian languages and the 
peculiarities of Indian character. He was also 
a shrewd tactician. This induced La Salle to 
regard him as a safe adviser and manager of 
affairs when needt-d. The Indians were nu- 
merous in the vicinity of Cayuga Creek, where 
La Salle was building his sliip, and mo^t of 
them were unfriendly to the French, especially 
the Senecas. It was fortunate, however, that 
the greater part of them had gone to their 
southern hunting grounds. A few lingered 
about the shipyard and at the cret-k from day 
to day, apparently with sinister motives, and 
beheld \>'ith wonder the libs of the novel struc- 
ture. A s(jua\v infoinicd 'J'onty that the 
Indians intemlcd to burn the huge monster, 
lest it micrht do tliem harm. 


La Salle was at this time absent, and had 
confided the nianac^ement of affairs to his lieu- 
tenant, Tonty, who kept watch of the work 
night and day, as it progressed. Father 
Henne})in attempted to avert the threatened 
calamity by preaching the gospel to the natives 
and performing imposing religious services 
before the altar, wliich he had borne on his 
shoulders over a rugged pathway in order 
to save souls. In midwinter the provisions 
became exhausted, when the party meditated 
revolt. Tonty exercised a wholesome influ- 
ence, and with the aid of the two Indian hunt- 
ers soon secured sutlicient food to allay the fear 
of starvation. The carpenters and blacksmiths 
renewed their efforts to com[)lete the ship. La 
Salle had secured additional materials from the 
wreck of the old ship, which he had sent back 
by sledge to the creek. He now, with two 
attendants and a dog to draw his baggage, 
returned on foot upon the ice of Lake Ontario 
to Fort Frontenac, a distance of two hundred 
miles or more, to look after his interests at the 
fort and procure necessary supplies to equip 
the new shi[) on the stocks. The only foml the 
excursionists took with them was a small sack 
of parched corn and a few pounds of dried 
meat. This thev exhausted on the way, ami 
after travelliu'j' two davs without food arrived 


at their point of destination in a pitiable con- 
dition. Tliev received a liberal ^velconle at 
the fort where they were soon replenished in 
the "inner man," not fori^-ettin^' the dog. 

La Salle was detained at Fort Frontenac for 
a much lonc^er period than he had expected, in 
disentangling the embarrassments of his per- 
sonal interests. In the mean time Tonty had 
very nearly completed the ship. She was of 
forty-five tons burden. He launched her early 
in the spring amid shouts and cheers, and the 
firing of cannon, crowned with the blessing of 
Father Hennepin. The entire French party 
and a few friendly Indians were allowed liberal 
potations of brandy, and. while under its influ- 
ence, repeated their vociferations of joy again 
and again. The wonderful ship glided like a 
duck into the waters of the Niagara, safe from 
the threats of Indian incendiaries. An un- 
couth figure, half eagle and half lion, carved 
in wood, sat on lier prow — a grillin — the 
armorial emblem of po\ver adopted at the sei- 
gniory of Fort Frontenac. There were also tive 
cannon thrusting their black nozzles out from 
the portholes with a vindictive scowl that over- 
awed the courage of lier Indian enemies. The 
ship in respf^nse to the image that sat on her 
[>row was named the Grlflin, takuu U[) the river 
and moored at lilaek Rock, near Buffalo. Here 


she received her finishing touches and a\yaited 
the return of La Salle. After an absence of 
seven months he reached the scene of the ship- 
wreck on Lake Oniario, accompanied by tliree 
friars and a few other persons. These friars 
were of the same faith professed by liimself 
and Father Hennepin, and felt as strong a desire 
to defeat tlie machinations of the Jesuits and 
diffuse among the Lidians a purer gospel. - 
While at the scene of the wreck they succeeded 
in obtaining the anchor and some other articles 
of value, which they transferred to Black Rock 
to be used in completing the equipments of the 
Griffin. La Salle had been so harassed by 
difficulties with his creditors that he did not 
rejoin his party at Black Rock with his new 
associates until after the 1st of August, when 
he was received with cheers followed by a gen- 
eral jollification. The Griffin was then towed 
up the river to a convenient landing on the 
bank of Lake Erie, near the site now occupied 
by the city of Buft'alo. 

On the 7th of August, 1G79, religious ser- 
vices were performed on the deck of the Grffin 
at an early hour, followed by the filing of 
cannon, when the ship, in command of La 
Salle, unfurled her wings to the favoring 
breeze and glided with the grace of a swan 
upon the rippling waves of Lake Erie, "west- 


ward bound." Hers was the first keel that 
ever ploughed the broad expanse of this inland 
sea. She had entered upon a sublime enter- 
prise — an attempt to penetrate the mysteries 
of a treacherous fresh-water sea hitherto untrav- 
ersed by the shipcraft of a daring civilization. 
The natives along shore beheld the white- 
winged vision with amazement as it moved 
upon the waters like a ''thing of life." It was 
the aim of La Salle to monopolize the fur trade 
and discover a pathway to the Pacific. The 
Griffin touched at points along the southern 
coast of the lake, with a view to purchase furs 
from the natives, but failed. The natives fled 
into the interior, dismayed at the apparition. 
Wild fruits and wild game abounded on shore, 
and furnished the crew of the Griffin with the 
"delicacies of the season." 

On the fourth day of her voyage the Griffin 
reached the strait of Detroit, and thence amid 
a wild and beautiful scenery on either side 
pursued her way through Lake St. Clair to Lake 
Huron. Here she encountered a violent storm. 
Tlie crew despaired. Father Hennepin knelt 
and prayed the Holy Virgin, with unwonted 
fervor, to spare their lives. The storm straiglit- 
way subsided. The skies became bright and 
peaceful. Isature smiled. This was regarded 
by all on board, and especially by Father 


Hennepin and his priestly associates, as an 
instance in Avhich the efficacy of prayer was 
fully proved. The Griffin sped on her way 
under the intluence of a cloudless sky, and in 
the coui-se of a few days arrived in safety at 
iNIaidvinaw. the grand centre of the western fur 
trade. Her approach had been watched with 
interest. Her cannon announced her arrival. 
The Ottawas were overawed, and thought her 
a messenger sent to them by the Great Spirit. 
The Jesuits had established a mission at this 
point and acquired a dominant intluence over 
the Indians. In this way they had monopo- 
lized the fur trade ; and though they hated La 
Salle, yet they feared him, well knowing that 
he was sustained in his enterprise by Governor 
Frontenac. They had built a block-house for 
their own acconnnodation, and a chapel adjoin- 
ing the village of the Ottawas. They received 
their distinguished visitor with respect at the 
chapel. La Salle, clad in the glitter of his 
official costume, knelt reverently before the 
altar in the midst of a motley assemblage 
whose devotion was greatly exceeded by an 
insatiable curiosity. When La Salle left the 
chapel and while returning to the Griffin, tlie 
Ottawas anil llurons puid him honors ])v tiring 
' a salute of musketry. The Griffin Tiiigored at 
anchorage in the harbor for some days, sur- 


rounded by Iiulian canoes, attracted by idle 
curiosity or other motives. Thoiigli the Jes- 
uits Lad acquired by their teachings the dom- 
inant intluence over tlie minds of the Indians, 
they coukl not entirely control the fur trade. 
La Salle, ho^vever, was disappointed in his 
expectations of obtaining furs at ]\Iackina\v. 
He had sent agents some nine months prior to 
his arrival to purchase furs for him, but they 
had squandered the means with which they 
were intrusted and disappeared, with the 
exception of one or two of them, who had 
proved faithful to his interests. He proceeded 
westward into Lake Michigan and anchored at 
a small island in the vicinity of Green Bay. 
Here his agents sent to this point had accu- 
mulated a large stock of furs, which were 
promptly transferred to the GriJJin. The ship 
was heavily freighted with a rich cargo. La 
Salle placed her in command of a faithful and 
skilful subordinate with orders to return to 
Niagara, sell the furs, pay the avails to his 
creditors, and then rejoin the expedition on 
Lake Michigan. La Salle was a man of honor, 
and though his creditors had persecuted him, 
he desired to pay the "utmost farthing" he 
owed them. 

It was on the eighteentli day of September, 
1679, when the Griijln fired her parting gun 


and sailed on her return voyage from Green 
Bay. It was near nightfall. There were a few 
dark clouds, thunder-heads, rising ahove- the 
horizon in the south-west. The weather was 
sultry. A slight breeze daneed upon the rip- 
pling waves. The Grltjln sped on her Avay and 
disappeared in the darkness of a starless night. 
The gentle breeze soon swelled to a hurricane. 
The scowling thunder-clouds that were seen. 
peering above the horizon now grew to gigantic 
dimensions. With tongues of hre they uttered 
terrific peals that appalled the courage of 
the stoutest hearts. The reverberations shook 
earth and sky. In an instant the Grijfin was 
caught up and wrapped in the folds of the { 

whirlwind by an invisible spirit — a spirit i 

" That gave her to the God of Storms, f 

The ligUtiung and the gale ! " j 

Such was the sad fate of the Griffin^ as tradi- . 
tion has it. Nothing more was ever heard uf 
her. Not a relic was ever found. Not a soul 
on board survived to tell the mystic tale of her 

Witliin an hour after the Grlfin had sailed 
from Green Bay, La Salle took command of 
fuur canoes with fourteen men, and proceeded 
southward. Several months elapsed before he 
heard of the loss of the Grijjin. The disaster 


did not discourage him. He made in the 
course of a few years repeated expeditions to 
the southward, but failed to accomplish satis- 
factory results. He then visited France and 
appealed to the king for aid, who gave liini 
an outfit of four ships, put him in command 
with directions to proceed by sea to the mouth 
of the Mississippi and plant a colony in its 

He sailed from France July 24, 1084. The 
voyage was one of disasters, accompanied with 
insubordination on the part of inferior othcers. 
He finally reached the Gulf of Mexico, skirted 
its shores, and passed the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi without discovering it. In his search for 
it he entered ^Matagorda Bay, many leagues 
west of it. Here he landed with a part of the 
colony. Three of the ships, in command of 
dissatisfied subordinates, returned at once to 
France, leaving La Salle and his adherents to 
their fate. The ship that remained was soon 
afterward wrecked on the coast with a loss of 
valuable supplies. La Salle erected a fort on 
the bank of the Lavaca, a small river that dis- 
charges its waters into the Bay of Matagorda. 
Here he located the colonists. They erected 
cabins of a frail and temporary character. 
They could do nothing better for want of mate- 
rials. It was a desolate region with a barren 


soil. Years passed in gloom and anxiety. 
Though the colonists struggled to improve 
their condition, they still remained destitute of 
the comforts of life. La Salle saw the neces- 
sity of taking decided steps for their relief. 
He did not like the locality. He made 
repeated explorations, hoping to discover the 
mouth of the Mississippi River, but in vain. 
He attempted to return to Canada through the 
wilds of a dense forest to procure aid, but was 
taken sick in the swamps of Louisiana and 
compelled to abandon the enterprise, with the 
loss of eight men. One year after another 
passed in gloom and destitution. The brave 
little colony of two hundied was now reduced 
to forty-hve souls. 

On the 7th of January, 1687, he took his 
final departure on foot from the fort on the 
Lavaca, accompanied by ,the remnant of the 
colonists, with the determination to push his 
way through the wilderness to Canada. He 
and his followers suffered untold deprivations 
as they proceeded. A few of them became 
•mutinous, and rejoiced when one of their 
number waylaid and shot La Salle amid the 
everglades in the valley of the great river lie 
had explored, in connection with its primdiKil 
tributaries. Thus fi.dl, at the ago of forty-four 
years, one of the most heroic and magnanimous 


explorers that ever attempted to penetrate 
the primeval mysteries of the far West. He 
achieved marvels. Their import could not, in 
his day, be comprehended. It was a day of 
strife and struggle among European monarchs 
to enlarge their empires and fill their coflers 
with the virgin gold of the new world. 

Spain, France, and England were the game- 
sters. They moved adroitly upon the chess- 
board. Each claimed vast domains by right 
of discovery. Their claims were as conliicting 
as they were enormous in extent. Disputes 
arose, followed by. hostilities. The contest 
was prolonged for centuries. One century 
locked horns with another. The mastery. 
seemed dubious. At last the contest became a 
question of popular rights. The star of empire 
— divine in its birth — appeared in the west. 
The eagle fixed his eye upon it and soared sky- 
ward in its blaze. Hinging the shadow of his 
wings over the land, now a land of freedom, a 
sisterhood of States, free of foreign dominion, 
free to act, ever progressive, ever aspiring, ever 
prophetic, never satisfied — a grand republic, 
whose watchword is, '"In God we trust," and 
whose banner, begemmed with tlie stars of 
heaven, is ever destined to float in triumph — 

" O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave." 



ITN attempting to sketch a few incidents in my 
-*- owTi career, I cannot but feel that I "o'erstep 
tlie modesty of Nature;" yet justify myself in 
thinking that what I have to say may have 
a tendency to encourage young men never to 
despair of success, who are left as I was, to 
take care of themselves in the world. 

My birth occurred June 11, 1800, at Conway, 
Mass., an incident for which I am not respon- 
sible. It brought with it. however, the respon- 
sibilities of my life work. ^My father was a 
New England farmer of I'uritanic ancestry. 
Pie was not only an industrious but an honest 
man. My mother was the "angel of the house- 
hold." She departed this life when I was but 
four years old. Soon after her death my father 
discontinued housekeeping, and. placed me in 
the care of strangers, who cared more for tlie 
compensation they received than for my wel- 
fare. As a matter of fact, instead of l)eing 
brought up with parental care, I brought my- 
self up, and educated mj'self at ^Villiams 


College, where I graduated in 1824, and then 
"went West." 

From Williamsto^^■n to Buffalo I travelled by 
the most expeditious conveyances then known 
— the stage-coach and canal-boat. My trip 
from Buffalo to Cleveland was made by way 
of Lake Erie in a schooner, which, after 
a rough voyage of three days, cast anchor 
ofT the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, late at 
night, on the 24th of September, 1824. A 
sand-bar prevented the schooner from entering 
the river. The jolly boat was let down, and 
two jolly fellows, myself and a young man 
from Baltimore, were transferred to the boat 
with our baggage, and rowed by a brawny 
sailor over the sand-bar into the placid waters 
of the river, and landed on the end of a row of 
planks that stood on stilts and bridged the 
marshy briidi of the river to- the foot of Union 
Lane. Here we were left standing with our 
trunks on the wharf-end of a plank at mid- 
night, strangers in a strange land. .We hardly 
knew what to do, but soon concluded that we 
must make our way in the world, however dark 
the prospect. There was no time to be lost, so 
we commenced our career in Ohio as "porters," 
by shouldering our trunks and gropi;ig our way 
up Union Lane to Superior Street, where we 
espied a light at some distance up the street, 
to which we directed our footsteps. 


On reacliiiig the light we found that wc had 
arrived at a tavern kept by Michael Spangler, 
a noble-hearted German. The modern word 
"hotel" for tavern had not then come into 
vogue. Five large Pennsylvania wagons, 
covered with white canvas, stood in front of 
the tavern with as many teams of gigantic 
hoi-ses feeding from cribs attached to front and 
rear of the wagons. It was a novel sight. 
These hucre wa^-ons were known in common 
parlance as "prairie schooners," and were 
employed in transporting produce and mer- 
chandise between Cleveland and Pittsburgh. 
On entering the bar-room, which was lighted 
by a solitary candle, we stumbled over several 
teamsters, who lay fast asleep on the floor, 
laboriously engaged in complimenting the land- 
lord with a nasal serenade. This was the tii-st 
"musical concert" that I attended in Cleve- 

In the morning, after partaking of an elabo- 
rate breakfast, gaini.shed with sauer-kraut, the 
first I had ever tasted, I took a stroll to see 
the town, and in less than half an hour saw all 
there was of it. Tlie town, even at that time, 
Avas proud of itself, and called itself the "gem 
of th(j West." In fact, the Pul)lie Square, so 
called, was begemmed a\ ith stuni[is, while near 
its centre glo\\'ed its crowning jewel, a log 


court-house, with tlie jail and the jailer's resi- 
dence on the lower floor, and the court-room in 
tlie upper story. The eastern border of the 
Square was skirted by the native forest, wliic-h 
abounded in lalibits and squirrels, and afforded 
the villagers ''a hap[)y hunting-ground." 

The entire population did not, at that time, 
exceed four hundred souls. The dwellings 
were generally small, but were intei'sperseJ 
here and there with a few pretentious mansions. 
The chief magnates of the town were the 
valiant sons of a Puritanic ancestry, and of 
course inherited a spirit of enterprise. They 
had erected an acatlemy on St. Clair Street', 
in the upper story of which they held religious 
services on Sunday. They also encouraged 
trade, commerce, and manufactures, and had 
established a shipyard, tannery, soap factory, 
and distillery, near the foot of Superior Street. 
All this gave assurance to the town of a bril- 
liant future. 

I did not emigrate from the East with the 
expectation of luxuriating in this paradise of 
the West, but for the sterner purpose of lighting 
the battle of life. I came armed with no other 
weapons than a letter of introduction to a lead- 
ing citizen of the town, and a college di[)loma 
printed in Latin, whieh ailixed to my name 
the vaintjlorious title of '"A.IJ."' With these 


instrumentalities I succeeded, on the second 
day after my arrival, in securing the position 
of classical teacher and principal of the '"Cleve- 
land Academy." 

This proud old structure still stands on St. 
Clair Street, and is now occu})ied as head- 
quarters by the tire department of the city. 
IVIy earthly possessions at this time consisted 
of a scanty supply of wearing apparel, a few 
classical text-books, and a three-dollar bank- 
note. I remained a week at Spangder's tavern 
before commencing my academical labors. On 
leaving I stepped up to tlie bar and asked the 
amount of my bill. "Two fifty," replied the 
landlord. 1 handed him my three-dollar Ijank- 
note. He returned me a half-dollar. I then 
engaged lodging at a private boarding-liouse, 
opened my school, and commenced business 
based on a solid capital of fifty cents. This I 
expended on the following day for necessary 
stationery. The only fear 1 had was that my 
boarding-house might ask me for money before 
the close of the first quarter. But 'it so hap- 
pened that nothing was said about it. When 
the quarter closed, I collected tuitions, paid 
up all I owed, and nobody had questioned my 
scdveney. In the nieau time I entered my name 
as a student in the law-otliee of Reuben Wood, 
Esq., and empk)yed my leisure hours in study- 
ing law. 


In the spring of 182G I resigned my position 
in the academy and went to Cincinnati,- where 
I continued my legal studies with Bellamy 
Storer, Esq., and expected to sustain myself 
by teaching a select classical school. But in 
this ex[)ectatiou I was disappointed, and soon 
became penniless. In order to cancel the small 
balance I owed for board and get away from 
Cincinnati, I sent the few classical text-books 
I had to be sold at public auction, and realized 
less than half their value; but enough to acquit 
myself of debt and pay for a deck passage up 
the Ohio River to Gallipolis, on the evening 
steamboat bound for Pittsburgh. The ne:tt 
morning I was landed with my trunk, at an 
early hour, on the sand-beach of the river, 
opposite the town of Gallipolis, "alone in my 
glory.'' All the money I had left was twenty- 
live cents. In a few minutes a porter with a 
wheelbarrow appeared, and offered to take my 
trunk to the tavern — the best in town. " What 
is your charge? " said I. "Twenty-five cents," 
said he. "All right," said I, "go ahead." I 
followed, and Avhen we readied the tavern, I 
paid his charge and was again left penniless. 
I entered the tavern with a cheerful air, regis- 
tered my name, and ordered a breakfast. I 
was evidently taken to be a man of some conse- 
quence. The best lodging eluuuber in the 


house was assigned me. After breakfast I 
retired to my chamber to consider what I coukl 
do to bridge over the dilemma in which I was 
phiced, and save myself from disgrace. 

The truth was I had come into town unher- 
alded; nobody knew me, and I knew nobody. 
Half lost in bewilderment, I looked about me, 
and saw a book with pen, ink, and paper laying 
on the table. I caught up the book for relief. 
It proved to be "Murray's English Grammar." 
In an instant the lucky thought struck me that 
I could give a course of lectures on grammar; 
and before I had fairly digested my breakfast, 
I digested a scheme of procedure; sallied out 
into the town ; secured the use of the court- 
house for a free lecture in the evening; had a 
notice printed on trust; posted it myself in 
public places about town, announcing that I 
was the author of a new and pliilosophical 
method of teaching English grammar in ac- 
cordance with the origin and progress of lan- 
guage, and without the aid of text-books. All 
this was done before my dinner hour. I had 
no time to write a lecture, but thought it. 

The notice I had posted up created a sensa- 
tion, and gave me a full house. On entering 
the court-room I was invited to occupy the 
'•judgment-seat," an elevation tliat subjected 
me to the scrutinizing ga/.e of every tye. I 


felt the effect. It was my first attempt to 
address a public aiulience. When I arose to 
speak, I turned "quaker," not in creed, but 
literally; yet soon composed myself, and said 
that everybody who asj»ires to respectability in 
writing and in conversation, or who desires to 
move in the circles of refined society, should 
have an accurate kno\vledq-e of granniiar. I 
then gave the audience an inkling of my new 
and pliilosophical method of teaching the 
science, and by way of illustration said that 
the first word a child utters is an interjection — 
as oh! ah! — at the sight of a new object; the 
second, a noun, the name of the object seen — 
as apple; the third an adjective, expressing the 
quality of the object — as sweet, or sour apple. 
The other parts of speech, I said, can be as 
readily traced to their origin in the progress of 
language as those I had specified. I then con- 
cluded by saying, give me a class of pupils 
from twelve to twenty years of age, who have 
never studied grammar, and I will agree to 
teach them the science in six weeks by a dailv 
lecture of two hours, at the moderate charqe of 
three dollars a[>iece : and in case mv pupils or 
their friends are not satisfied with the result, 
I will iiiake no cliai^e.. 

This was so fair a pro[Mtsitiini that I readilv 
obtained a class of thirty pupils at the close of 


my lecture. A vacant schoolroom was assigned 
mo, and in the afternoon of the next day I mot 
my class and commenced instruction. Tlie 
only book allowed was the English reader. I 
began by explaining the interjection in a 
familiar way, and then required the class to 
open the reader and point out the interjections 
on a certain nund)er of pages. This they 
readily did. I then proceeded to explain the" 
noun, which was recognized by the class almost 
as readijy as the interjection. In this way I 
proceeded with the other parts of speech until 
they were understood. 

I then commenced analyzing sentences and 
applying the rules of syntax, and at the end of 
six weeks found, to my surprise, that the class 
had acquired not only a very good but a some- 
what critical knowledge of English grammar. 
I invited a public examination of the class. 
The fathers and mothers of the pupils and the 
clergymen, lawyers, and doctors of tlie town 
attended. The examination was decidedly 
exhaustive, yet very few mistakes were made. 
The result was pronounced satisfactory, and my 
charge for tuition was cheerfully paid. This 
success relieved me of pecuniary pressure. I 
hav'^ ventured to speak of this incident some- 
what in ditail. because I believe it to be the 
true method of teachiuLr Eui-lish ''-rammar. 


From Gallipolis I returned to Cleveland and 
was admitted to the bar. I commenced the 
pi-actiee of law in partnership with my friend 
Reuben Wood, Esq., who afterwards became 
chief- justice, and then governor of the State. 
In the course of a few months I married, and 
paid the poor clergyman who officiated live 
dollai-s, all the money I had. This left me 
penniless again ; but I thought a wife at that 
price cheap enough. She proved to be a jewel 
above price. Soon after my marriage I was 
employed by a gentleman, who had tired of the 
"silken tie " that bound him, to obtain for him 
a divorce. If I succeeded, he agreed to pay* 
me a hundred dollai*s. I did succeed, and in 
the evening of the same day the divorce was 
granted he married another woman. The fee I 
received enabled me to commence housekeeping. 

In 1830 I drifted into politics, and was 
elected a representative to the legislature. 
Near the close of the session I was appointed 
agent by that honorable body to sell the 
Western Reserve school lands, some fifty 
thousand acres, located in Holmes and Tusca- 
rawas Counties.. I opened a land office at 
iNIillersburgh in Holmes County. The law 
allowed me three i)er cent on cash receipts for 
my services. In the first five days I received 
from sales at public auction fifty thousand 


clollai-s. and my percentage anioimteil to fifteen 
hundred dollars. This sudden windfall made 
me, as I then thought, almost a millionnain'. 
It was my first pecuniary success in life, and 
the first time after a lapse of eight years that 
I became able to pay my college tuition, for 
which T had given my promissory note. 

In 1833 I returned to Cleveland, and was 
appointed clerk of the county courts, a position 
which I held for seven years. In the mean 
time I was twice nominated for Congress, and 
in the race made a narrow escape from falling 
into the moral clangers that beset the footsteps 
of congressmen. 

In 1851 I w-as elected to the State senate, 
and was made chairman of the committee on 
schools. Among other things pertaining to 
legislation I prepared and introduced the hill 
reorganizing the common school system of the 
State, which became a law and gave to our pub- 
lic schools a high character for efficiency. It 
still remains substantially in force. I also in- 
troduced the Reform Farm Bill, providing for 
the care, education, and moral training of young 
criminals. This bill was, for want of time, 
postponed to a subsequent session. In the mean 
time my term as senator exj.ired. _^fy political 
friends induced me to become a candidate for 
re-election. i\Iy opponent was personally one 


of my best friends. The issue in the campaign 
%vas the " temperance question." 

My opponent was known as a rigid temper- 
ance man, and though I had voted for the most 
stringent temperance hiw ever enacted in tlie 
State, it got noised abroad that my opponent 
was the better temperance man because he 
would not aUow his wife to jiut brandy in her 
mince-pies, while I, it was said, not only 
allowed my wife to put brandy in her mince- 
pies, but in her pickles, too. 1'his turned the 
scale against me, and my opponent was elected. 
He made a good senator, and took up my 
Reform Farm Bill where I had left it, and was 
largely instrumental in securing its passage 
and locating the Reform Farm School at Lan- 
caster, where it has proved to be one of the 
most successful reformatory schools in the 
United States. 

Notwithstanding this crucial test in my 
political experience, and the seeming reason 
that caused it, I was subsec[uently honored 
with several important official positions which 
I accepted, but did not seek. In .the various 
public positions in wliich 1 have been placed 
it has ever been my aim to discharge my duties 
.with fidelity and without regard to seltish inter- 
ests. If I have done anything that benefits mv 
fellow-men, I shall feel that I have not lived 


in vain. In the field of literature four volumes 
of books on ditTerent subjeets have bcLii pub- 
lished over my signature, "whether wisely or 
unwisely is not for me to say. 

Some people have reason to be proud of tlu-ir 
ancestry, while others have not, perhaps for 
the best of reasons. In regard to myself, I 
have only to say that my earliest American 
ancestor was Edmund Rice, \vho emigrateil- 
from Barnhamstead, Hertfordshire, England, 
to America in 1638, and settled at Sudbury, 
Mass. His family accompanied him, consisting 
of a wife and seven children. 

Barnhamstead is one of the oldest towns in 
England. It is located about twenty miles 
from London, and was founded by the Romans 
and occupied for centuries by a mixed popula- 
tion of Romans, Ikitons, and Saxons. Hence a 
transfusion of blood may be inferred, and per- 
haps a drop or two of Roman blood coursed in 
the veins of my worthy ancestor. If so, his 
descendants may inherit a tincture of it — my- 
self among the rest — who knows ? 

Be this as it may, I am what I am, and claim 
to be nothing more. I have lived to an 
advanced age, have been twice married, and 
am now left where I began — alone in the 
world save descendants. 

Williams College, in 1871, conferred on me 


the honorary degree of Doctor of La\ys — a 
compliment which I appreciate, though not 
vain of titles. I have no use for them. I look 
at the bright side of things, and am content 
with my lot. I have acquired enough of this 
world's goods to supply my physical wants, 
and leave to my surviving children a pittance 
sufficient to equip them for the battle of life. 

I have endeavored to live uprightly, guided 
by reason and "temperance in all things.'' 
The church to which I belong is the church 
of all mankind. My creed is short: " Lead a 
pure life, and do as you would be done by." 
If this is not sufficient, then I am willing to be 
called an agnostic. In truth, life is a mystery, 
and longevity but a brevity. The gate stands 
ajar through which all must pass into the 
unexplored hereafter. Yet we have the assur- 
ance that the passage is neither dark nor peril- 
ous when cheered by the "star" which the 
wise men of old saw in the East. This assur- 
ance is an inspiration, and maybe accepted as 
the utterance of a divine philosophy. Whoever 
attempts to fathom the "unknowable," has yet 
to learn that the tinite cannot comprehend the 
inffiiite. Nevertlieless, we are all born of the 
inlinite, and must ever remain a part of it. 
Yet we all have a life that is not only im- 
mortal, but forever progressive. 



nPHE civilization of the \Vestern Reserve, 
though comparativelv of modern origin, is 
characterized by peculiarities that have been 
inherited from a renowned ancestry. It is a 
civilization scarcely less peculiar in its ele- 
ments than progressive in its instincts. It 
aims high, and has already achieved high aims. 
It began its career a little less than a century 
ago by conquering the rude forces of nature 
and securing for itself a land of beauty, of 
wealth, and of social refinement. 

The spirit of enterprise that transformed an 
unbroken wilderness into a land of refined civ- 
ilization must have been not only invincible, 
but a spirit that has rarely, if ever, been 
excelled in the annals of human advancement. 
This can only be accounted for on the basis of 
inherited traits of character. The civilized life 
of the Western Reserve has Puritanic blood in 
its veins, or, in other words, has a New Eng- 
land parentage. One age not only modifies 
another, but differs from another in its thought 


and in its aspirations, as one star differs from 
another in its brilliancy and in its magnitude. 

Puritanism is of English origin. It was 
born of fanaticism — a fanaticism that believed 
in the right of free thought and of free action. 
The Puritan soon came to be a stubborn con- 
troversialist, and would neither submit to 
oppression nor brook persecution. The very 
name of "Puritanism " is signiticant. It was 
bestowed in derision by intolerant persecutors. 
Hence Puritanism in the land of its nativity 
found its environment unendurable, and, as a 
last resort, expatriated itself. Its subsequent 
footprints denote its civil and religious aims, 
its moral influence, and the wide diffusion of 
its principles. 

The tirst colony of Puritans who expatriated 
themselves and came to the New World was 
the Plymouth colony, the veritable "Pilgrim 
Fathers " of New England. They sailed from 
England in the ship Mayfloivcr, one hundred 
and one souls, seventy of whom were- women, 
children, and servants. They v/ere cradled on 
the deep amid storms and tempests for eight 
long, weary weeks; yet, led by the "star of 
empire," they safely reached the "land of 
promise " in the bleak month of December, 
1020, and cast anchor in the harbor of Cape 
Cod. This entire coast was, at that date, 


included in ■uhat was then known as Northern 
Virginia. Before disembarking all the voy- 
agers who were qualified to exercise jjolitical 
rights held a consultation, agreed upon and 
subscribed their names to the following com- 
pact : — 

In the name of God, amen. We, whose name? are 
underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Lord, King 
James, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and 
Ireland, defender of the faith, ifcc, having undertaken, for 
the glory of God and the advancement of the Christian 
faith and honor of our king and country, a voyage to plant 
the first colony in the northern part of Virginia, do, by 
these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the presence of 
God and one another, covenant and combine ourselves 
together in a civil body politic, for our better ordering and 
preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by 
virtue hereof, do enact, constitute and frame such just and 
equal laws and ordinances, acts, constitutions, and oflices 
from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and con- 
venient for the general good of the colony, unto which we 
promise all due subjection and obedience. In witness 
■whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names, at Cape 
Cod. the 11th day of Xovember (old style\ in the year of 
our Sovereign Lord, King James, of England, Frince and 
Ireland the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, 
Anno Domini, 1620. 

This compact embraces in its elementary prin- 
ciples the true ideal of a pure democracy. It 
was this ocean-born utterance that subsequently 
inspired the declaration of American indepen- 
dence. After signing the compact the small 


boat was lowered, when as many of the voy- 
agers as could be received sprang into it, eager 
to reach the land. The question now arose as 
to which of them should have the honor of 
being the first to step on shore. The sterner 
sex — stern as they were — manifested their 
instinctive reverence for woman by according 
to Mary Chilton that honor. She was a bright, 
fascinating young lady, and the moment the 
boat reached the shore was the first to step on 
Plymouth Rock — 

" The rock that's firmly planted by the sea, 

Prescribing boimils wiiere proudest waves are stayed; 
The landmark wlilch was set to liberty 
When earth's foundations broad and deep were laid." 

If the maiden did not leave her footprint 
upon the roek, she has certainly left it in his- 

The Pilgrim Fathers were, in fact, the sons 
of destiny, who did not comprehend the moral 
grandeur of their destiny. On the basis of 
their compact they constructed a civil govern- 
ment for themselves, and recognized the right 
of the majority to rule by electing one of their 
deacons. John Carver, for governor, and ^Nliles 
Standish to serve as captain of their fighting 
force. They selected a high ground facing the" 
bay for a town site, and divided the entire 


colony into nineteen families, composed of 
about five persons each. And though a vast 
continent lay before them, they were so eco- 
nomical of land as to allow each family a town 
lot, containing for each person in the family 
but half a pole in breadth and three poles 
in length, which was deemed sufficient for a 
house and garden. They first erected what 
they called a common house, and then private 
dwellings. On the hillside overlooking the 
infant town, in the direction of the bay, they 
planted a cannon for self-defence against the 
Indians. During the first winter fifty-five of 
the one hundred and one died for want of suffi- 
cient supplies, or from the effects of climate. 
But the remaining few, plucky in extremities, 
did not despair. They believed in God, in the 
efficacy of prayer, and especially in themselves. 
Their numbers were soon strengthened by im- 
migration from their native land. They fought 
Indians and Indians fought them. Captain 
Miles Standish proved himself a valiant com- 
mander, and Plymouth colony proved a success. 
This led to the introduction of other Puritan 
colonies into the wilderness of New England, 
whose territory in the course of the next three 
or four decades was sprinkled with nourishing 
towns and settlements. All the colonies were 
founded upon a similar basis. In support of 


free principles they inaugurated free churches, 
free schools, and free government. Yet they 
had some crochets in their heads, peculiarities 
of creed and of opinion, which were the out- 
growth of an elementary education obtained in 
England; hence they could not divest them- 
selves of what was a part of themselves. And 
though they saw the light as "from above," 
yet at times they saw it as " through a glass, 

There was not a village in all England, two 
or three centuries ago, that did not have a 
ghost in it. The churchyards were all haunted, 
and almost everybody believed in ghosts, fairies, 
and witchcraft. Hundreds were convicted of 
witchcraft and executed. With such a prelim- 
inary education, it is not surprising that the 
Turitans of New England believed in witch- 
craft as well as in the purification of church 
and state. But instead of adhering to a form 
of civil government purely democratic, as pro- 
jected in their original compact, they unwit- 
tingly accepted a theocracy. The civil law was 
interpreted with reference to the divine law, 
and the clergy, of course, became its recognized 
expounders. It was for this reason that the 
colonies were controlled by ecclesiastical intlu- 
tncos in matters of state as well as in matters 
of faith. In effect, church and state were 


united; the only difference ^yas that the church 
controlled the state. No man was a freeman 
or citizen who had not united with the church, 
nor could he vote or hold office until he had 
proved his sincerity as a Christian by what was 
called in those days, "a godly walk and con- 
versation." This over-righteous morality of 
the Puritans was characterized by a frosty 
rigidity that would be regarded as quite too 
chilling to be endured in these modern days of 
relaxed discipline and liberality of thought. 

But still it must be conceded that the Puri- 
tans were sincere in their aspirations and phil- 
anthropic in many of their endeavors. They 
sought to Christianize the Indians, and to 
inaugurate among them a system of civil gov- 
ernment. There were twenty small tribes 
located within the limits of the Plymouth 
colony. These tribes all spoke the same lan- 
guage. Rev. John Eliot took the lead in 
attempting their reclamation by establishing 
schools and churches in their midst, and trans- 
lating the Bible into their toncrue. 

The following is the title which he prefixed 
to his Indian Bible: " Mamusse Wunneetupa- 
natamwe Up Biblum God Naneeswe Nukkone 
Testament Kali Wonk Wusku Testament." 
He was master of the lancruasfe, and said he 
wrote the translation with one pen. He after- 


wards "wrote an Indian grammar and other 
Indian school books, and translated '' Baxter's 
Last Call " into the same language. This 
Indian Bible Avas a ponderous folio, and the 
first Bible ever printed in America. It was 
printed at Boston in 1G85, at a cost for the edi- 
tion of £900 sterling. A copy of it is still pre- 
served at Plymouth. It is regarded as a great 
curiosity. There is not now a living Indian or 
white man who can read it. The language in 
which it was written is literally dead. Rev. 
John Eliot was the first Protestant clergyman 
in America who devoted his life to missionary 
labor. He is deservedly known in history as 
the "Indian Apostle." He insisted that the 
Indians were descendants of the Jews. He 
was born in England in 1G03, was liberally 
educated, arrived at Boston in IGCl. officiated 
at Roxbury for a brief period as minister of the 
gospel, and then devoted the remaining part of 
his life to Indian missionary work. He died 
in 1690. 

These Christianized Indians at baptism re- 
ceived English names, many of which were 
names of distinguished Englishmen. This 
pleased the Indians and elevated them, in their 
own estimation, to the grade of white men. In 
fact, they were regarded by the Puritans not 
only as brethren of the same faith, but as citi- 


zens entitled to share the same equal ric^hts and 
privileges. In tlie administration of civil gov- 
ernment these Indians exeelk-d the white men 
in brevity and prompt execution, if not in 
originality, as will be readily seen in the lan- 
guage of the following "warrant," issued and 
directed by an Indian magistrate to an Indian 
constable : — 

I, Hihoudi, yon. Peter Wat eriiian, Jeremy Wicket, quick 
you take hiiu, straight you biiug hiiu before me. 


The Puritans were the friends of the Indians 
in times of peace, but in times of war were 
evidently actuated by a vindictive spirit. Such 
of the Indians as they could not Christianize 
they did not hesitate to exterminate, especially 
when they assumed a hostile attitude toward 
the colonies. In the course of the hrst century 
after the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, thou- 
sands upon thousands of the original proprie- 
tors of the soil of New England fell in battle 
array against their relentless Christian invaders. 
Whether one race is justified in. exterminating 
another for no better reason than that of acquir- 
ing a broader domain, is a great moral question, 
which must be submitted to the a^hitrament of 
theology for solution. 

In tracing the footprints of the Pui'itans, we 


cannot escape the conviction that they were as 
conscientious as they were absurd in many of 
their theories. Tliey believed in witchcraft, 
and resolved to exterminate it, nor would they 
tolerate a religious faith that was not in accord 
with their own. They seem to have been as 
sincere as they were fanatical. The darkest 
spot in their history is the persecution of 
Quakers and the execution of innocent persons 
for witchcraft. Cotton Mather, a doctor of 
divinity, was one of the principal instigators. 
But when the fanatical spirit of the times 
became so intrusive as to accuse and execute 
Rev. George Burroughs, who was a worthv and 
devoted member of the clerical profession, 
Mather and other dignitaries of the church 
began to fear and tremble lest they might be 
accused and share the same fate. Anxious to 
avoid personal danger, they now discouraged 
further executions, when the tragic drama ^soon 

The Puritans seemed to think that they were 
divinely commissioned to exterminate not only 
heresies, but all kinds of frivolities and immor- 
alities, and to establish in the New World a 
saintly government based on the principles of 
a pure theocracy- This ideal of theirs is suih- 
ciently illustrated in a few examples taken 
from the early records of the colonial courts : — 



1639. Ortlered that no garments sliall be made with 
sliort sleeves, and such as have garments with short sleeves 
sliall not wear the same, unless they cover the arms to the 
wrist; and hereafter no person whatever shall make any 
garment for women with sleeves more than an ell wide. 


163S. It is ordered that if any man make a motion of 
marriage to any man's daughter or maid w ithout first obtain- 
ing leave of her parents or master, he shall be punished, 
according to the nature of the offence, by a tine not exceed- 
ing five pounds, or corporal punishment, or both, at the 
discretion of the bench. 

Ordered tliat profane swearing shall be punished by sit- 
ting in the stocks three hours, or by imprisonment; and that 
telling lies shall be punished by a fine of ten shillings, op the 
stocks for two hours for each offence. 

Ordered that any person denying the Scriptures to be a 
rule of life shall suffer corporal punishment at the discre- 
tion of the magistrates, so it shall not extend to life or 

1640. Ordered that John Barnes pay a fine of thirty shil- 
lings for Saljbalh breaking and sit one hour in the stocks; 
that Thomas Clarke pay a fine of thirty shillings for selling 
a pair of boots and spurs for fifteen shillings, which only 
cost him but ten shillings; and that William Abbey be 
severely whipped at the post for working on Sunday. 


16;39. It is ordered thatt every one thatt bearcs arras shall 
becompleatly furnished with amies, (viz) a muskett, a sword, 
vandaleers. a rest, a poimd of powiler, 20 bullets fitted to 
tlieir uuiskett, or 4 pound of pistoll shott, or swan shott. at 
least, and be ready to show thorn in the market place on 
Monday the Cth of this moneth, before Captaino Turner and 


Lieutenant Seeley, under 20s. fine for every default or ab- 

1643. Andrew Low. jun. for breaking into Mr. Lang's 
house, where he brake open a cupboard and took from 
thence some strong water, and Od. in money, and ransackt 
the house from rooine to roome, and left open doors, for 
which fact being committed to prison brake forth and 
escaped, and still remains horrible obstinate and rebellious 
against his parents, and incorrigible under ail the means 
that liave been used to reclaim him. Whereupon it was 
ordered that he shall be as severely whipt as the rule will 
bare, and work with his father as a prisoner with a lock 
upon his log so that he may not escape. 

John Lawrence and Valentine, servants to Mr. Malbon, 
for Imbezilling their master's Goods, and keeping disorderly 
night greetings with Will Ilanlins. a Lewd and disorderly 
person, plotting with liim to carry their masters' daughters 
to the farnies in the night, concealing divers unseemly dalli- 
ances, all of which they confessed and was whipt. 

16G0. Jacob M. Murline and Sarah Tuttle appeared, con- 
cerning whom the Governor declared, that the business for 
which they were warned to this court he had heard in pri- 
vate at his house, which he related to stand thus: — 

On the day that John Potter was married Sarah Tuttle 
went to Mistress Murliiie's house for some ihredil. Mistress 
^lurline bid her go to her daughters in the other roome, 
where they felle into speeche of John Potter and his wife, 
that they were both lame, upon which Sarah Tuttle said she wondered what they would do .'it niuht. Wiiere- 
upon J.acob came in, and tooke up or tooke away her gloves. 
Sarah desired him to give her the gloves, to wluch he an- 
swered he would do so if she would give him a kysse, upon 
which they sat down to'jether. ins arme being about her 
waiste. and her arme upon his sIkiuMih- or about his necke, 
and he kyssed her and she kyssed liim, or tiny kyssed one 
another, contiiuiing in this posture about half an hour, .as 
Marian and Susan teslitied, which Marian, now in court. 


affirined to be so. Mistress Murliiie, now in court, said that 
she liranl Sarah say she wondered what they would do at 
night, and she replied they must sleep; but it was matter of 
sorrow and shame unto her. 

Jacob was asked what he had to say to these things, to 
Avhich he answered tliat he. was in the other roome, and 
wlien he heard Sarah speak those words, he went in, and 
when she having let fall her gloves he tooke thoni up and 
she asked him for them, he told her he would if she would 
kysse him. Further said he tooke her by the hand, and 
they both sat down upon a chest, but whetlier his arme were 
about her waiste, and her arme upon his shoulder or about 
his necke, lie knows not. for he never thought of it since, 
till Mr. Raymond told him of it at Manatos for which he was 
blamed and told he layde it to heart as he ought. But Sarah 
TuUle replied that she did not kysse him. Mr. Tuttle 
replied that ifarian denied it, and he doth not looke upon 
her as a competent witness. Thomas Tuttle said that he 
asked Marian if his sister kyssed Jacob, and she said not. 
Moses Mansfield testified that he told Jacolj Murline that he 
heard Sarah kyssed him, but he denied it. Rut Jacob 
graunted not what Moses testified. 

Mr Tuttle pleaded that Jacob had endeavoured to steal 
away his daughter's atfections. Rut Sarah being asked if 
Jacob had inveagled her, ghe said no. Thomas Tuttle said 
that he came to their house two or three times before he 
went to Holland, and they two were together, and to what 
end he came he knows not. unless it were to inveagle her. 
And their mother warned Sarali not to keep company with 
hira. And to the same purpose spake Jonathan Tuttle. 
Rut Jacob denied that he came to their house with any such 
intendment, nor did it appeare so to the court. 

The Governor told Sarah that her miscarriage is the 
greatest, that a virgin should be so bold in the presence of 
others to carry it as she had done, and to speak such coriupt 
words, mo'jt of the tilings charged ag:un-t her bea''knu,\l- 
edged by herself, tiiough that about kyssiiig is denied, yet 


the t/tlnr/ is prooveJ. Sarah professed that she was sorry 
that she carried it so sinfully and foolislily, which she saw 
to be hateful. Slie hoped God would help her to carry it 
better for time to come. 

The Governor also told Jacob that his carriage hath been 
very evil and sinful so to carry it towards her, and to make 
sucli a light matter of it as not to thinlc of it, (as he exprest,) 
doth greatly aggravate, and for Marian, who was a married 
woman, to sufler hor brotlicr and a man's daugiiter, to sit 
almost half an hour in such a way as they have related was 
a very great evil. She was told that she should have showed 
her indignation against it, and have told her mother, that 
Sarah might have been shut out of doors. Mrs. Murline 
was told that she, hearing such words, should not liave suf- 
fered it. Mrs. Tuttle and Mrs. Jlurline being asked if they 
Lad any more to say, they said no. 

Whereupon the court declared that we have heard in the 
Publique Ministry, that it is a thing to be lamented, that 
young people sliould have their meetings to the corrupting 
of themselves and one anotlier. As for Sarah Tuttle her 
miscarriages are very great, that she should utter so corrupt 
a speeche as she did concerning tlie persons to be married, 
and that slie should carry it in such a wanton, uncivil, im- 
modest and lascivious manner as has been proved. And for 
Jacob liis carriage hath been very corrupt and sinful, such 
as brings reproach upon the family and place- 

The sentence therefore concerning them is that they shall 
pay either of them as a fine 20s. to the Treasurer. 

1G62. Edmund Dorman, plaintiff, entered an action of 
slander, or defamation, against Jeremiah Johnson, defend- 
ant. The plaintiff informed against him that he had heard 
that J. Johnson had reported at John Olvardc's house that 
he heard Dorman at prayer in a swamp for a wife. And 
there was other circnmstanoos of scothng &c. 

The defendant was asked wht'ther he graunted the thing 
or denied. Tlie d»t\in!ant div>ireil proof and that the wit- 
nesses might spet-ke apart. John Olvarde was first called, 


who tested that Johnson being at his house, he heard him 
say that he heard Edmund Dorman at prayer in a swamp, 
(by John Downes's,) for a wife; and sayde, " Lord thou 
knowest my necessitie and canst supplie it. Lord bend and 
bow her wille and make her sensible of my condition or 
necessitie." John Olvarde being aslied when it was, he said 
it was since harvest. 

Stephen Bradley being called also testified the same 
thing. The defendant being asked what lie had to say for 
himself, said he thouglit Dnnlley did it out of revenge. But 
he was told- he must prove him a false person upon the 
record, or perjured, or that lie doth it out of revenge this 
time. The defendant further said lie did expect some other 
persons that was present at Jolm Olvarde's would have 
been here, therefore did refuse to make his defense further 
this time; and desired that the witnesses might not be 

Then Jeremiah was told that it is a fearful thing to come 
to that height of sin, as to sit in the seat of the scornor. 
Therefore the court told him they would defer this business, 
and warned him to attend the next particular court to give 
answer hereunto. 

Most of the early colonial courts consisted of 
the governor and one or more assistants elected 
by the people. The general court consisted 
of representatives from the local courts. The 
governor or some of the subordinate dignitaries 
conducted the examination of witnesses. If 
there were lawyers in those days, they were 
but very few. Puljlic sentiment was not in- 
clined to tolerate them, owing to tlic scriptural 
denunciation, "Woe unto tlie lawyers." The 
clergy were the great men of the times. They 


increased their influence by assuming an air 
of gravity and dignity tliat seemed to overawe 
every one, especially children, who felt when 
in their presence that they were in the divine 
presence. The people generally believed in 
them and revered them. They even believed 
that clerical prayers could control or modify 
the action of divine Providence. Hence the 
clergy vere often asked in dry weather to pray 
for rain, and in wet weather to pray for sun- 
shine. Many of them, it is said, were suffi- 
ciently weatherwise not to do either unless the 
"sicfus in the heavens " indicated a favorable 
response to their prayers. 

The first union of the colonies took place in 
1643, with a view to self-protection and de- 
fence. It was this inceptive idea of wliat con- 
stituted a central government that led to the 
confederacy of the colonies, and the subsequent 
union of all the American States. As tlie,l'uri- 
tans grew in numbers they grew in wisdom. 
Their towers of strength were the church and 
schoolhouse. Thus fi.rtified, tliey fought the 
battle of life witli triuui['hant results. One of 
the colonies hid its charter of civil rights in 
the heart of an (\ik to pi'oserve it, and did pre- 
serve it. Another cast rit-h freights of tea into 
the ocean rather tlian pay to rtn-alty unreason- 
able exactions. The Stamp Act was treated 


with universal contempt by all the colonies. 
All were agreed in the patriotic sentiment, 
"jMillions for liberty, nothing for tribute." It 
was this state of public feeling that awoke the 
spirit of "seventy-six," — a patriotic flame that 
purified, as by fire, the land of golden promise 
from the dross of regal domination. 

Thousfh Puritanism has now outfjrown most 
of its primitive peculiarities, yet many of its 
traits, like golden threads, are still apparent, 
not only in the texture of New England char- 
acter, but in the finish of Western Reserve 
character. It is this fniishing touch that has 
given to Western Reserve life a moral power 
that wields a positive influence in the affairs of 
both church and state. It is a power, however, 
that "vaunteth not itself." The birth of the 
Western Reserve as a civilized land occurred 
July 4, 179G, the day on which General Moses 
Cleaveland, with his company of surve^-oi-s, 
landed at Conneaut. Her territory is compar- 
atively but a fraction of the great State of 
Ohio, and is located in the north-eastern part 
of the State. It embraces but twelve countit-s, 
yet it has a population, at this time, of nearly 
seven hundred thousand. 

The truth is, the Western Reserve in more 
senses than one has achieved a brilliant career, 
and still aspires to a brilliant future. Slie 


loves progress, and has literally begemmed her 
entire domain with schoolhouses, churches, and 
colleges. She believes in the rights of man 
and in herself, and takes nothing for granted. 
She is as cautious as she is inquisitive, and 
never accepts novel theories, either in science 
or in morals, without first subjecting them to 
an uncompromising scrutiny, however attrac- 
tive may be the drapery in which they are pre- 
sented; nor does she hesitate to assail sanctified 
errors simply because they are sanctified. And 
though she reveres her ancestry, she never 
allows the Puritanic element she has inherited 
to misguide her judgment in matters of faith 
or in freedom of action. In a word, she has 
acquired a character of her own that is as 
remarkable for its noble traits as it is for its 
originality — a character that is founded upon 
the broad principles of a dispassionate Christian 



A FEW disciples of Ann Lee, at an early day 
-^--*- in the history of the Western Reserve, 
associated and erected a cluster of log cabins -in 
the vicinity of the city of Cleveland, and gave 
their village the name of North Union. These 
disciples soon received accessions, and became 
known to the outside world as Shakers, but 
called themselves "Believers," because .they 
not only believed in the truth of Holy Writ, 
but in the divinity of Ann Lee, who was in 
fact a remarkable character, a smart little 
woman, that could not be controlled, but would, 
like some of the smart women of our times, 
speak in public. 

Ann Lee was born February 29th, 173G, at 
Manchester, England. She was the daughter 
of a blacksmith, a poor man, who gave her no 
education, but placed her at an early age in a 
cotton-mill for the sake of the little pittance 
she could earn. She possessed a peculiar tem- 
perament, wliich was at times violent, and at 
otlier times hysterical. 

She married in early life a young blacksmith, 

121 Ln> 


and became the mother of four children, all of 
whom died in infancy. This severe bereave- 
ment inspired her with strange delusions, and 
with a belief that she ought not to have mar- 
ried, but should have lived a life of virgin celi- 
bacy. She dreamed mysterious dreams which 
she regarded as spiritual revelations. She soon 
became a religious enthusiast, and began to 
exhort and preach her new doctrines in the 
streets of Manchester, and declared that the 
end of the world was at hand. Tliis attracted 
public attention, and soon acquired for her 
more or less followers, who professed to believe 
not only in her utterances, but that all the 
powers of heaven and earth had been given 
into her hands. The disturbance she created 
in the streets induced the public authorities to 
arrest her and place her in prison. 

When released from imprisonment she de- 
clared that while in prison a great light shone 
round about her at midnight, and that Jesus 
Christ appeared and stood before her, and 
became one with her in form and spirit. Hence 
she insisted that Christ came to earth to reign 
in her person, and that she was the " Bride of 
the Lamb." 

This absurdity shocked the moral sense of 
the public, and soon aroused a threatening 
outcry of indignation against her. When she 


saw that her life was in danger at jNIanchester, 
she prom[)tly received, as slie said, a revelation 
from heaven to emigrate to America. She took 
a sudden departure from ^Manchester, and landed 
in the city of New York, AugiLst 1(3, 1774, 
accompanied by her husband and a few dis- 
ciples, five males and two females. Her hus- 
band, however, soon became disgusted and left 
her, because she taught the doctrine of celi- 
bacy, and insisted that men and women should 
live on earth as the angels do in heaven, and 
neither marry nor be given in marriage. 

From New York she proceeded to Albany, 
where she remained for two years, obtained a 
few proselytes, and then retired into the wil- 
derness about eight miles from Albany, where 
she located with her converts on the spot now 
known as the village of Watervliet. Here the 
colony still flourishes, it is said. 

In her teachings Ann Lee advocated peace, 
denounced war, and refused to take the colo- 
nial oath of allegiance as prescribed by the 
American authorities. This refusal led to her 
arrest and imprisonment in 1780, on the charge 
of being a British spy. On examination, how- 
ever, Ann was so(H1 released. Her im[)vi>ou- 
ment was regarded by her friends as dictated 
by a spirit of persecution. lUir, as a matter of 
fact, it proved to be a lucky occurrence in pro- 


nioting her success, as it gave her notoriety 
and had the effect of increasing the number of 
her converts. She travelled and preached her 
new gospel, and the people from far and near 
flocked to see and hear the "Female Christ/' 
as they called her. 

Her disciples believed that she was immortal, 
and would never die. But death overtook her 
in 1784. Iler disciples, however, insisted that 
she still remained with them in spirit, though 
not bodily visible. At any rate, her new gospel 
took root, and, like the grain of mustard seed, 
grew and so extended its branches as to gather 
converts here and there throughout a half- 
dozen or more States of our National Union. 
Several of these branches threw their grateful 
shadows upon the soil of Ohio, in which con- 
verts, like the birds of the air, have lodged and 
found shelter. 

The late branch of North Union at Wari:ens- 
ville was founded by Ralph Russell, in 1S22, 
under the auspices of the elders of Union Vil- 
lage, a branch community located in Warren 
County, in the southern part of the State. 
Ralph was born August 3, 1789, at East "Wind- 
sor, Conn., received a common school educa- 
tion, and emigrated to the Western Reserve 
with a young wife in 1^12, and settled in the 
wilds of Warrensvilie township, upon a tract 


of land which he had purcliased. Here ho 
erected, with the aid of a few kind neighbors, 
a log house, cleared off a little patch of his 
land, and let in the sunlight. Halph Russell 
was a man of thought, and much inclined to 
discuss the doctrines of the religious creeds of 
his day. In 1821 he visited the Shakers of 
Union Village in Warren County, and after a 
free discussion with them accepted the new- 
gospel of the second advent of Christ in the 
person of Ann Lee. On his return home he 
announced his faith in the new revelation, the 
central idea of which is "virgin celibacy." 
Whether his affectionate young wife accepted 
this new revelation or not does not appear in 
the history of the times.. 

In many respects Ralph was a remarkable 
man. In person he was tall, graceful, and dig- 
nified. In temperament mild and amiable. 
In speech dtdiberate and logical. He soon 
obtained by his persuasive powers a goodly 
number of converts in his vicinity to the new 
faith, and resolved to establish a church, or 
branch community, for the concentration of his 
new recruits. For this purpose he selected a 
spot in the uncleared part of his land, and 
erected a cluster of log cabins, which resembled 
a village of Indian wigwams. This may be 
accepted as the birthday of North Union. This 


new branch community, under the auspices of 
its founder, aided by the eklers from Union 
Village, grew rapidly in the acquisition of 
proselytes and in material wealth. lialph was 
the leading elder and central figure — a posi- 
tion which he enjoyed with a high degree of 
heartfelt pride. 

But in 1826, in an evil hour for Ralph, there 
came a superior in the Shaker eldership, a pop- 
ular and eloquent man, from Union Village, 
who eclipsed Ralph in tact and ability, and 
who took the leadership at North Union into 
his own hands. His name was Ashbel Hitchel. 
This assumption of authority by Ashbel so dis- 
gusted Ralph that he repudiated the doctrine 
of celibacy, purchased a farm in Solon town- 
ship, to which he retired with his family, 
where he spent his remaining days in domestic 
'felicity, believing in the divinity of his affec- 
tionate wife, as every married man should, 
whether he believes in anything else or not. 
After a long and somewhat eccentric life of sev- 
enty-eight years, Ral[)h Russell died at Solon, 
highly esteemed and sincerely lamented by his 
many friends. 

Ashbel Hitchel, though brilliant as a passing 
comet, continued only for a brief period in the 
leadership at North Union ; and then, comet- 
like, disappeared. He was succeeded by Rich- 


ard W. Pelham, who was said to be a man of 
erudition, learned in the Greek and Hebiew 
languages, and who had given to the world a 
new translation of the Bible. He continued 
in the leadership at North Union for a good 
number of yeai-s, and brought many new con- 
verts into the fold of "single blessedness." 
The position of the leadership, or chief elder- 
ship, has always been regarded by the Shakers- 
as an office of eminent dignity. The entire 
number who have enjoyed this dignity during 
the career of the community at North Union 
is some twenty or more, among whom were six 
by the name of liussell, and all of whom were 
directly or remotely akin to each other. The 
subordinate elders and sisters who shared in 
the government and administration of aifairs 
were numerous. They were held responsible 
for the proper discharge of their othcial duties 
in the several departments assigned them. 

The community at North Union, in its 
palmiest days, consisted of about three hundred 
souls. The whole number it received into its 
care and guardianship during its career of 
sixty -eight years could hardly have been less 
than from two to three thousand. In effect. 
North Union was a charitable retreat, where 
the destitute and the unfortunate, especially 
in the pioneer days of the country on accepting 


the new faith, were kindly received and sup- 
plied with all the physical comforts of life. 
But few were able-bodied men. Most of them 
came with broken constitutions. They con- 
sisted mainly of disappointed old bachelors, 
widowei"s and widows, orphan boys and girls, 
with a sprinkling of ancient maidens, who were 
ready to do everything except tell their ages. 

All propert}', whether coming from individ- 
uals or from earnings, was held in common by 
the community for the benefit of all its mem- 
bers. On becoming a member, every individ- 
ual, if he had any property, was required to 
surrender it to the common fund. The com- 
munity acquired fourteen hundred acres of 
excellent land, nearly all of which was donated 
by the Russells. The community was divided 
into three families, the Central Family, the Mill 
Family, and the East Farm P'amily. About 
the first thing they did was to build a school- 
house and house of worship). They then erected 
a saw-mill, a flouring-milL a woollen factory, 
and other manufacturing establishments, which 
they carried along in connection with agricul- 
ture, horticulture, and stock-raising. In this 
way they soon acquired a large wealth, and 
became an important element in the commercial 
prosperity of this region of the countr\'. 

The Shakers are a peculiar people, both in 


creed and character. They believe in a dual 
God — a divine fatherhood and motherhood, 
and in a dual Christ, who has made his second 
advent in the person of Ann Lee. Hence the 
Shakers have deified her. Yet tlie deification 
of woman is nothing new. The ancient Greeks 
deified more or less of their shrewd women, 
■while we Americans not only revere them as 
an angelhood, but, in fact, have come pretty 
near deifying all of them. 

The Shakers' creed not only recognizes a 
paternal and maternal Godhead, but a barren | 

celibacy, together with spiritualism and dan- 
cing. If all mankind believed in celibacy and 
practised it, the human race would soon become 

extinct. Shakers and all. Their belief in dan- 

... J 

cing, as a method of divine worship, is founded i 

on the fact that David danced before the ark | 

of the covenant. jMost of our young people, 

as well as the Shakers, believe in dancing, 

though not in the same sense. 

Some thirty years ago it was my privilege 

to attend Shaker worship on the Sabbath at 

North Union. It was an occasion of novel 

interest to me. The worshippers consisted of 

men and women, boys and girls, in about equal 

numbei-s. The females took their seats on one 

side of the hall and the males on the other. 

All sat in silence for the space of half an hour, 


as if engaged in silent prayer. Some of tlie 
old folks sat with bowed heads, and some with 
eyes lifted skyward. The boys and girls looked 
at each other, exchanging now and then a sly 

At last the spirit moved an elderly sister, 
who rose and broke the silence with an elo- 
quent exhortation. When she closed, silence 
again prevailed. Then the spirit moved an 
elderly brother, who, with a solemn expression 
of face, proclaimed the glad tidings of the new 
gospel as revealed by Mother Lee. Silence 
followed. Then came the signal for the dance. 
The men and boys took off their coats, and 
hung them on jiegs projecting from the wall, 
and took their places in long jackets and shirt- 
sleeves. The women hung up their bonnets 
and shawls in like manner. Then, all standing 
in a row, facing each other, the song and dance 
commenced. The tune was lively and excit- 
ing. All kept step to the music with a double 
shuffle and shaking of the body. It was this 
"shake " that gave them the name of Shakers. 
They all seemed to enjoy the dance, especially 
the boys and girls. This devout exercise soon 
threw them all into a free perspiration. The 
effect in a sanitar}- if not in a spiritual point of 
view, must have been beneficial. At the close 
of the dance the services closed. 


It is said that more than one thousand differ- 
ent religions are prevalent in the world. All 
creeds have their merits. Every human being, 
whether civilized or savage, believes in an 
invisible power superior to himself, because he 
cannot help it. Hence, there never was and 
never will be, strictly speaking, an infidel or 
an atheist, call them what you will. 

In the composition of American character the 
Shakers constitute an honest element — an ele- 
ment that is much needed in this selfish age 
of prevalent frauds and food adulterations. 
" Honest as a Shaker " has become a proverb, or, 
rather, a compliment, when spoken of a modern 
tradesman. An honest man, it has been truly 
said, is the " noblest work of God. " The world, 
however, is in no immediate danger of being 
overstocked with honest men. 

Say what we will of the Shakers, they are 
not only an honest but a conscientious^ peace- 
loving, and industrious people. Their mission 
consists in living a pure life — a life that is 
not only blameless, but philanthropic. They 
have gathered into their fold and kind guardian- 
ship from the outsiile world many thousands of 
the poor and needy, the widow and the orphan, 
and rescued them from a life of destitution, if 
not from a life of moral degradation. They 
still have many flourishing communities. 


There is no good reason, as it seems to me, 
why these communities should not be encour- 

In a word, there are but few people, if any, 
who lead purer lives, or share more of heaven 
on earth, than the Shakers. It should, there- 
fore, be a matter of regret that the community 
of North Union has ceased to exist. Its career 
terminated in May, 1890. Nevertheless, North 
Union has left to history a rich bequest — an 
exemplification of character that is not less 
memorable than it is morally beautiful. 



^T^HERE are stars in history as well as in the 
-^ depths of the sky. In the early history of 
the Western Reserve there glittere a stellar 
group of legal talent that commands our rever- 
ent admiration. Yet of the many Western 
Reserve jurists who have adorned the bench 
and bar of the great State of Ohio, but few, if 
any, are entitled to take higher rank than Cal- 
vin Pease, Peter Hitchcock, and George Tod, 
of the early times; and Reuben Wood, Sher- 
lock J. Andrews, and Rufus P. Ranney, of the 
later times. These are all representative men. 
They well knew that education lies at the foun- 
dation of character. They therefore began life 
by securing for themselves the elements of suc- 
cess. They were all possessed of a high degree 
of native tact and talent which, coupled with 
enterprise and noble aims, enabled them to 
reach a professional eminence that is rarely 
excelled. They were, in fact, the architects of 
their own fortunes. In working out the prob- 
lem of life, each wrought, as it were, at the 
135 ,/? 


anvil with hammer in hand, and on his own 

" Thus at the flaniincr forge of life 
Our fortunes must be wrought; 
Thus on its sounding anvil shaped 
Each burning deed and thought." 

It is hardly necessary to say, perhaps, that 
biographical sketches of these eminent jurists 
of the Western Reserve have already been writ- 
ten and published, and have, in fact, become 
a part of the history of their times and of the 
State. In this article, therefore, nothing more 
will be attempted than simply to present these 
jurists in a group, with a brief outline of their 
career and the salient points of character that 
distinguished them. 


Calvin Pease was born at Sufficld, Conn., 
September 9, 1770. He received an academic 
education and exct-llod as a scliolar, espeeiallv 
in classical literature. He studied law witli 
Gideon Granger, Avas admitted to the bar in 
1798, and commenced practice at New Hart- 
ford in his native State. In ^larch, 1800. he 
emigrated and settled in Youngstown, O., then 
Imt a small hamk't of log cabins hidden away 
in the wilds of the ''far West," where the law 
of might gave right. But this was not the 


kind of law he desired to practise, tliouf,di well 
qualified physically to excel in it. He liad 
nothing upon which to depend for gaining a 
livelihood but his hands and his wits. He did 
not seek office, but offices fell upon him like a 
shower of snowflakes. Soon after his arrival 
at Youngstown a post-office was establislied 
there, and lie received the appointment of post- 
master. The emoluments of the office consisted 
mainly in the lionor it conferred. In August, 
1800, he was appointed clerk of the territorial 
court of common pleas and general quarter ses- 
sions for the newly oiganized county of Trum- 
bull. The county seat was at Warren, where 
the court held its first session between two corn- 
cribs for the want of better accommodations. 
The court in its novel surroundings assumed 
an air of dignity that partook largely of the 
comical. Pease was born a \vit and a humorist, 
and highly appreciated the situation. Hq was 
regarded as a modest young lawyer of unusual 
promise. He disliked a mere clerkshi{>, and 
in the following Octoljcr was admitted to the 
western bar In' the general court of the terri- 
tory north-west of the Ohio Uiver. Not low^ 
after this he removed from Youngstown to 
Warren. In 180:] the State of Oliio was ad- 
mitted into the Union. The k-gislature, in 
organizing the State government, divided the 


State into three judicial circuits and elected 
Pease, though but twenty-six years of age, to 
the othce of president-judge for the third cir- 
cuit, in which the county of Trumbull was 
included. He held the olVice for nearly seven 
years and acquitted himself to the entire satis- 
faction of the public, except in one instance, 
when a constitutional question arose under the 
act of 1805, relative to the jurisdiction of jus- 
tices of the peace. Judge Pease held that cer- 
tain provisions of the act were unconstitutional, 
and therefore null and void. The decision 
created an excitement which took a political 
turn, especially among members of the legis- 
lature who had passed the act, and who pro- 
fessed to think that the judge had not only 
exceeded his judicial power, but had unjustly 
cast a damaging reflection on the wisdom of 
the legislature. The case was taken to the 
supreme court, where the decision of Judge 
Pease was atlirmed. This unexpected result 
so vexed the agitators that they proceeded at 
once to procure the impeachment of both Judge 
Pease and the judges of the supreme court, but 
on hearing before tliu senate signally failed of 
success. The consetpionce was tliat tlic decis- 
lon made by .ludgi; Pease became standard 
authority, while his popularity as a judge was 
lartrelv increased. I'>ut he was so disLiusted 


with this attempt at impeachment tliat he re- 
signed the judgeship and resumed the practice 
of law at Warren, where he resided. 

lie was a favorite witli the people of his 
county, who, in 1812, elected him to the State 
senate. As a statesman he took a prominent 
stand and acquitted himself with eminent abil- 
ity. In 1815 the legislature elected him a judge 
of the supreme court for the term of seven years, 
and at the expiration of his terra re-elected hira 
to the same office. He discharged the duties of 
supreme judge for fourteen years, and for the 
last seven years of his service was the chief- 
justice of the State. At the expiration of' his 
second term he retired to private life. In ]8;U 
he was again elected to tlie legislature. This 
was the last public office he consented to accept. 

Judge Pease wa!s a remarkable man in many 
respects, and happily adapted to the times in 
which he lived. He began life with a deter- 
mination to achieve success. Nature had en- 
dowed him with enviable srifts. He excelled 
as a wit and a humorist, and for this reason 
was regarded as the sparkling centre of the 
social circle. Pie was a man of imposing pres- 
ence and graceful mannei's, and always seemed 
to move in an atmosphere of sunshine. His 
purity of character and integrity as a judge 
were never assailed or questioned. He was 


quick in his perceptions, and could readily 
grasp the most perplexing questions, and as 
readily apply the great principles of law and 
equity in the solution of them. He would 
never allow a just cause to be sacrificed on the 
altar of legal technicalities. His mind, like 
that of Lord IMansfield, was too comprehensive 
and too deeply imbued with a sense of right 
and love of justice to administer the law upon 
obsolete rules of special pleadings, especially 
when their rigid application would make the 
court an instrument of wrong and injustice. 
He was an admirer of the English classics, and 
read them with a keen relish, especially Swift 
and Stearne, and could repeat many of the old 
English ballads. He often sang snatches of 
them to beguile the long and tedious journeys 
which he and his associates on tlie bench were 
compelled to make through native forests and 
muddy roads in order to meet appointments in 
holding court in the several counties of the 
State. They all rode on horseback, and often 
forded swollen rivers at the hazard of thfir 
lives, and when belated, as they sometimes 
were,- in reaching their point of destination, 
were obliged to encamp) for the night in the 
dense woodlands. Tlie\- wore green baize leg- 
gins wrap[ied around their legs from their heels 
to their knees to protect their boots and panta- 


loons from an unseemly accumulation of nuul, 
and carried in saddk-bags cluino-es of linen and 
other supplies, and also carried in their heads 
the only law library to which they had access. 
New questions of law incident to a new country 
were constantly arisinc:;-, for the decision of 
which no precedent existed. The judges were 
therefore compelled to base theii' decisions more 
or less on their own intuitive sense of justice- 
and equity. It was in this way that they con- 
structed a system of western common lawAvhich 
is regarded as standard authority. Most of the 
decisions rendered by Chief Justice Pease, so 
far as now known, are contained in the.lirst 
four volumes of "Hammond's Reports." These 
were the earliest law reports published by the 
State. The judicial career of Judge Pease ter- 
minated in ISoO. He devoted the remaining 
part of his life to professional business and the 
management of his private affairs. He died 
September 17, 1830, at his residence in Warren. 
Whether viewed in the light of a judge and 
statesman, or in reference to his career as a law- 
yer and citizen, it must be conceded that he a man of mark, and in all respects worthy 
of the enviable honors with which his life was 



Peter Hitchcock was born October 19, 1781, 
at Cheshire, Conn. After receiving a common 
school education he taught a district school 
in winter and labored on a farm in summer, 
and in this way obtained suiVicient means to 
give himself a liberal education. He grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1801, adopted the 
legal profession, and opened an office in his 
native town. In 1806 he married and removed 
to the Western Reserve, and settled on a new 
farm at Burton. He adapted himself to cir- 
cumstances, and devoted his time to the im- 
provement of his farm in connection with the 
practice of law, and for the want of a more pro- 
ductive emplo}'mcnt engaged in teaching school 
in the winter months. In the course of a few 
years the population of the county so advanced 
as to afford him a much broader field as a law- 
yer. He soon acquired an extensive practice, 
and became known as an able and an honest 
lawyer. His style of oratory was not as rhetor- 
ical iis it was colloquial and logical. Every- 
body could understand him, and everybody 
believed in him. In arguing a cause, whether 
to a jury, a justice of the peace, or before the 
judges of the higlier courts, he was always lis- 
tened to with profound attention. He never 


engaged in the management of a cansc without 
having made a thorough and exhaustive prepa- 
ration. In 1810 he represented Geauga County 
in the lower branch of tlie legishiture. In 1S12 
he was elected to the State senate, and in 
1814 re-elected to the same position and chosen 
speaker. In 181G he was elected to Congress 
and took his seat in December, 1817. In 1S11> 
the legislature of the State elected him a judge 
of the supreme court for the constitutional term 
of seven years, and in 1826 re-elected him to 
the same office. At the close of his second 
term a change in politics relegated him to pri- 
vate life. Yet, like Banquo's ghost, he could 
neither be put down nor kept down. The 
people in 1833 returned him to the State sen- 
ate, when he was again elected speaker. In 
183.5 he was restored to the supreme bench. 
For many years he occupied the position of 
chief justice At the close of his tenij adverse 
political inlluences relieved him from judicial 
service But in 1845 he Avas again restored to 
the supreme bench, and in 1850, near the close 
of his judicial term, he consented to obey the 
popular voice, and accepted a scat in the con- 
vention called to revise the constitution of the 
State. Ill this capacit)' lie i-endered vahiable 
service, and still continued to discharge his 
duties ou the bench. Wlicn his term as judge 


expired in 1852 he had reached the ripe age of 
threescore years and ten, and from choice, like 
Cincinnatus, returned to the plough, after a 
public service of over fort}' years. He died 
March 4, 1854. 

Judge Hitchcock was beloved as a citizen, 
and was a truly great man as a statesman and 
a judge, without being conscious of it. He 
never indulged in vain aspirations. In his 
physical make-up he was a man of symmetrical 
proportions, erect and broad-chested, with a 
large head filled with solid sense. He had a 
sedate and Puritanic expression of face that 
gave him the air of a clergyman. In legal lore 
he was profound, plodding in research, and 
acute in discrimination. He sifted the wheat 
from the chaff in a law case with intuitive 
facility, and rarely erred in judgment. He 
was a man of few words, but when he did speak 
he always spoke to the point. He was revered 
by the bar, and was generally regarded as one 
of the ablest jurists of his times. His judicial 
decisions are not only esteemed as authority, 
but as models of sound logic. They will ever 
remain a proud monument to his name and 



George Tod was born at Suffield, Conn., 
December 11, 1773. lie graduated at Yale 
College in 1705. He then studied law anvl 
was admitted to the bar and practised law for 
a few years at New Haven, in his native State. 
He married in 1797, took the prevalent western 
fever of that day, and in ISOO removed -to 
Youngstown, O., a central point at that time 
in the Western Reserve. Soon after his arrival, 
Governor St. Clair of the north-western territory 
happened to make his acquaintance, and was 
so much pleased with him as a young gentle- 
man of polished manners and line literary ac- 
quirements, that he at once appointed him his 
private secretary. This brought young Tod 
into public notice, and gave him a higli [)osi- 
tion in the social circle. He remained at 
Y'oungstowu until 1816, when he purchased a 
farm in the vicinity known as Briar Hill, wlicro 
he permanently settled for life. At the lirst 
term of the court of conmion pleas and geucnil 
quarter sessions of Trumbull County, held 
August 25, 1800. at Warren, young Tod was 
a[)pointed prosecuting attorney for the (^)unty. 
His first otlieial business at this term wa-; to 
prepare indietmonts against Joseph Mi-.Malion 
and Richard Storer for the nmrdef of t\su Indi- 


ans at Salt Springs, near Warren. Mc^Iahon 
was arrested, put upon his trial, and acquitted 
on the ground of acting in self-defence. Storer 
managed to escape. Tod, in discharging his 
duties as prosecuting attorney in the trial of 
INIcMuhon, displayed a degree of legal ability 
and a brilliancy of oratory that surprised court 
and jury, and at once gave him prominence as 
a lawyer. In 1804 the county of Trumbull 
elected him a senator to the State legislature. 
In 1806 he was appointed a judge of the su- 
preme court. At a session of the legislature 
in 1808-09 an attempt was made to impeach 
him for affirming the decision made by Judge 
Pease relative to the constitutionality of cer- 
tain provisions of the Act of 1805, detining the 
jurisdiction of justices of the peace, but on trial 
before the senate Judge Tod was honorably 
acquitted. Yet the political excitement con- 
nected with this attt}nq)t at impeachment in- 
duced the legislature at its next session, in 
1810, to legislate the judge, with several other 
judicial dignitaries, out of office. But the 
people of Trumbull County would not permit 
the judge to remain in private life, and in the 
fall of 1810 honored him with an election to 
tlie State senate. Wlim tl'.e war of Islii was 
declared, President .M.idisou tendered 'him a 
commission as major in the regular army, which 


he accepted. He proved himself a brave and 
gallant oflicer, and did not leave the service 
until the war closed. In the mean time he was 
promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel of 
the Seventeenth regiment of United States 
Infantry. When peace was declared he re- 
signed his commission and returned to the 
practice of law. In the winter of 1815-16 the 
legislature appointed him president-judge of 
the third circuit for seven years. At the expi- 
ration of his term he was reappointed for a 
second term. After a service of fourteen years 
as the presiding judge of the circuit he again 
resumed his law practice. In 1830 he was 
elected prosecuting attorney of Trumbull 
County, an otTice in which he consented to serve 
for a second time. This was the first and last 
oftice which he held in the circle of his ollicial 
career. He died at Briar Hill, April 11, 1841. 
He was the father of David Tod, late Governor 
of Ohio. 

Judge Tod was a gentleman whom nature 
had endowed with rich and rare gifts. She 
gave him a graceful figure, an eloquent tongue, 
and the spirit of a true manhood. In his style 
of manners he was one of the most accom- 
plisiied men of his times. He was always 
cheerful, cordial, anil overllowing with pleas- 
antries. He ranked hi-jh at the bar as a bril- 


liant lawyer, in the legislature as a wise 
statesman, and on the bench as an able, 
upright, and discriminating judge. Among 
the people and in the society of his friends he 
was always a favorite. 

"None knew him but to love liim; 
Nor named him but to praise." 


Of the later times, or second series of emi- 
nent jurists, lleul)cn Wood was prominent. He 
was born in 1792, at Middletown, Vt. He 
received an elementary education at home. 
His father died when he was quite young, and 
left him to the care of his mother. When he 
reached fifteen years of age he felt a strong 
desire to obtain a classical education, and went 
to Canada to reside Avith an uncle, and while 
there studied the classics with a Catholic 
priest, and at the same time read law w^ith 
Honorable Barnabas Bidwell. When war was 
declared in 1812, an attempt was made by 
the Canadian authorities to subject young 
"Wood to military service against his own 
country. To this he would not sul^mit, and, 
though placed under guard, succeeded at the 
hazard of his life in crossing Lake Ontario 
*in a small boat and in landing at Sacket's 
Harbor, within the borders of the State of New 


York in safety. He then engaged in faim- 
work for the summer at the okl homcstfad, 
with a desire to aid, as far as he couki, liis 
widowed mother in supporting lieiNelf and the 
younger chiklren left to her care. In the fall 
he was received into the office of an emhicnt 
lawyer at Middletown, where he completed his 
legal studies. He married, and in 181S emi- 
grated to Ohio and settled at Cleveland, where 
he engaged in the practice of law with encour- 
aging success. In 1825 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the State senate, and re-elected in 1827 
and in 1829 to the same position. In 1830 he 
was elected preskleut-judge of the third judicial 
circuit, and in l8oo \vas elected a judge of the 
supreme court by a unanimous vote of the gen- 
eral assembly. In 1841 he Avas re-elected to the 
supreme bench by a like vote. For the last 
three years while on the bench he was chief 
justice of the State. In 1850 he was elected 
governor of the State by a majority df eleven 
thousand. In 1851 he was re-elected governor 
under the new constitution by a majority of 
twenty-six thousand. In the political licld he 
was known as the "Cuyahoga Chief." In 1S52 
Marietta College conferred on him the honorary 
degree of doctor of laws. In 1853 he resigned 
the olVice of governor and accepted from the 
general government the appointment of consul 


to Valparaiso, South America, and for some 
time during his residence in that country dis- 
charged the duties, not only of consul, but of 
minister to Chili, to fill a temporary vacancy 
in the ministership, and was recognized as such 
minister by both governments. In 1854 he 
resigned his consulship, returned home, and 
devoted himself mainly to the cultivation and 
improvement of his beautiful farm in Rock- 
port, known as "Evergreen Place." He died 
October 1, 1804. 

Governor Wood was one of nature's noble- 
men, large-hearted and generous to a fault. 
Nature gave him a slim, tall figure, over six 
feet in height, and a head replete with brains 
and mother wit. He was quick in his percep- 
tions, and could seldom, if ever, be entrapped 
or duped. He was an excellent classical scholar, 
and could read Latin and Greek wdth about as 
much ease as English. He was a man of the 
people and honored by the people. As a law- 
yer he was not only prominent, but famous for 
his tact and shrewdness in defending criminals. 
In .statesmanship he exhibited an unusual 
decree of wisdom and forecast. Oh the bench 
he manifested a profound legal knowledge that 
commanded public contulence and secured the 
"universal respect of the bar, and esp'ecially of 
its younger members, to whom he would listen 


with deep interest when they were conducting 
a cause before him, and whenever he saw they 
felt embarrassed would aid them by timely 
suo-cpcstions. This encouraqinn- coiulescension 
on his part was highly appreciated. His decis- 
ions while on the bench display a profound 
knowledge of law and crown his lifework as 
one of the ablest jurists of the State. 


Sherlock J. Andrews was born at Walling- 
ford, Conn., November 17, 1801. He was 
liberally educated, and graduated with honor 
at Union College in 1821. He was an aspir- 
insr, brio-ht vounsr man, who had set his mark 
high with a determination to reach it. He 
chose the legal profession, and perfected his 
studies at the law-school in New Haven. He 
employed a part of his time while there in the 
service of the renowned Benjamin Silliman, as 
assistant professor of chemistry. At tlie close 
of his course he was admitted to the bar, and 
removed in 1825 to Cleveland, where he com- 
menced the practice of law in connection Avith 
Samuel Cowles. Soon after this Mr. Cowles 
retired from professional life, and young An- 
drews formed a co-partnership with John A. 
Foot and James M. Hoyt, under the name of 
Andrews, Foot, & Hoyt, a law-firm whieh soon 


became celebrated and Avhich maintained its 
celebrity for many years. Andrews was the 
gem of the firm, though the other members 
were regarded as able men. In 1840 Andrews 
was elected a representative to Congress, but 
ill-health compelled him to decline a renomina- 
tiou. In 1848 he was elected judge of the 
Superior Court of Cleveland — a court of ex- 
clusive commercial and civil jurisdiction. In 
1849 he was chosen a member of tlie convention 
to revise the constitution of the State. In 1852 
the Western Ileserve College conferred on him 
the honorary degree of doctor of laws. In 1873 
he was chosen a mend^er of the second conven- 
tion called to revise the constitution, and was 
solicited to accept the presidency of the con- 
vention, but declined to be a candidate. In 
aiding to frame the two constitutions, though 
the last was not adopted, he rendered invalu- 
able service. He continued in the practice of 
law until his death, which occurred at his 
home in Cleveland, February 11, 1880. 

Judge Andrews was a man of pure principles 
and noble aspirations. He was endowed by na- 
ture with her choicest gifts — wit, humor, and 
vivacity of spirit. He delighted in the comic, 
even amiil the serious, and could readily illus- 
trate any argument or sentiment of his own or 
of others, with an effective anecdote or witti- 


cisra. He was a fine literary and scientific 
scholar, and carried in his head a complete 
digest of legal knowledge. He had a quick 
perception, and could read human character at 
a glance. Plis style of eloquence was persua- 
sive and somewluit impassioned. He could 
"point a moral,"' or make a "point" tipped 
with a flash of electric wit that would con- 
vulse both court and jury. In this way he 
often secured for his client a verdict when 
hardly expected. This was emphatically a 
magic power peculiar to himself. He was not 
only kind and courteous, but a gentleman in 
every sense of the word. At the bar he was a 
brilliant advocate, and on the bench a model 


Rufus P. Ranney was born at Blandford, 
Hampden County, ^Nlass., October 30, 1S13. 
He is of Scotch and French descent. His 
father removed with his family, in 18'24, from 
Blandford to Freedom, Portage County, O., 
then a town in the wilderness with only here 
and there a log cabin. Rufus was but a 
young lad at that time. He worked with his 
father six years in clearing tlie new farm. The 
elementary ed.ucation he had received was ob- 
tained in a common school. He now resolved 


to acquire for liiniself a liberal education. His 
parents approved Lis doternuuation. but Averc 
unable to furnish hhn with the requisite pecu- 
niary means. But this did not discourap^e him. 
He felt that he could help himstdf. He began 
by chopping cordwood for a merchant at twenty- 
five cents a cord. With the avails he pur- 
chased the necessary text-books, and commenced 
the study of the Latin and Greek languages 
with Dr. Bassett of Nelson. After completing 
his preparatory course of studies, he entered 
Western Reserve College, and supported him- 
self by manual labor and teaching school. In 
1834 he left college, studied law two years and 
a half with Giddings & Wade of Ashtabula 
Countv, was admitted to the bar, and com- 
menced practice at Warren, Trumbull County. 
In the winter of 188G Mr. Giddings, having 
been elected to congress, withdrew from the 
firm of Giddings & Wade, whose otiiice Avas 
established at Jefferson. IMr. Wade then in- 
vited Ranney to take the place of Giddings in 
the firm, under the name of Wade & Ranney. 
This new llrm soon acquired a wide reputation 
and enjoyed a lucrative practice. Ranney con- 
tinued with Wade for ten years. In the mean 
time he married a daughter of Jvulge Warner. 
&he was an accomplished young lady. In 1845 
he left Jefferson and returned to Warren, wdiere 


he engaged in the practice of his profession. 
lie soon became generally popular, both as a 
man and a lawyer. In piditical faith ho was 
a Democrat of the Jeffersonian school. His 
pereonal popularity and liis acknowledged abil- 
ities made him a strong man in the estimation 
of his Democratic friends, who insisted on his 
accepting a nonunation for Congress, in 1842, 
in what was then known as the Ashtabula dis- 
trict. After a change in the extent of dis- 
tricts he was put in nomination for the same 
otlice in ISIG, and, in 1848, in the Trumbull 
District. He accepted these nominations as a 
matter of duty, and not with any expectation 
of success or desire of oflice, well knowing that 
the opposing party was largely in the ascen- 
dency. In discussing the political questions 
of the day in the several campaigns, however, 
he exhibited a degree of eloquence and tact of 
logic that was as forcible as it was unanswer- 
able b}- his competitors. His efforts proved the 
fact that if you convince a man against his will, 
especially in politics, he will remain of the 
"same oi)inion still." Yet, in 1850, Ranney 
was triumphantly elected from his district a 
mend)er of the State convention for revising 
tht.' con.^titution. The convention made him 
cjhairnian of tlic judiciary committee. He was, 
in fact, one of the leading spirits, if n<.it the 


Hercules of the convention. In 1851 lie was 
appointed by the legislature a judge of the 
supreme court to fill a vacancy. The new con- 
stitution was adopted the same year, when he 
was elected by the people to the supreme bench 
by a majority of over forty th(nisand ^•()tes. In 
the winter of 1850 he resigned and settled in 
Cleveland, where he resumed the })ractiee of 
law under the name of Ranney, Backus, & 
Noble. At about the same time the President 
of the United States appointed him district 
attorney for the northern district of Ohio — an 
office which he held for a few months and then 
resigned, for the reason that he found its duties 
reciuired more attention than he could give in 
connection with his other more protitable law 
practice. In 1859 the State Democratic con- 
vention put him in nomination for governor. 
The canvass was a spirited one, but the opposi- 
tion won the victory by a small majority. He 
did all he could to avert the outbreak of the 
Civil War, and, when the outbreak came, he 
devoted much of his time and talents in sup[)ort 
of. the Union. In 1802 his law [lartner, Mr. 
Backus, was nominated for judge of the supreme 
court by tlie KfjiubHcan [)aity. The Demo- 
cratic party [>ut iJanney in nomination for the 
same otlice. He derliiiod. but t\\v [.aity con- 
tinued his name on the Stale ticket, and he 


was elected. He accepted the position, but 
after a service of two years resigned. He pre- 
ferred the practice of hxw, because he found it 
quite as agreeable and much more remunera- 
tive. Iii 1871 the A\'esteru Heserve College 
bestowed on him tlie honorary degree of doctor 
of laws. In 18TG he was chosen president of 
tlie board of managers who represented the 
interests of the State at the Philadelphia Cen- 
tennial Exposition. At the presidential elec- 
tion of 1880, he was nominated a senatorial 
elector by the Democratic State convention, 
and failed of an election because the party 
ticket was defeated. In the same year he was 
chosen by a State convention of lawyers to the 
presidency of the Ohio State liar Ass(3ciation. 
His address to the bar at the close of his term 
of office was regarded as a masterpiece of true 
eloquence and sound logic. He was for several 
years president of the board of trustees of the 
Case School of A[)plied Science, which has an 
endowment of a million and a half of dollars 
bequeathed to it by the late Leonard Case of 
Cleveland. The trust was one of honor as well 
as of great responsibility. 

Judge Ifanney is still devoted to the [>raetice 
of law at Cleveland. He is eminent in his pro- 
fession and enjovs the confidence of the public. 
He seems to ha\c been born a louieiaa. What- 


ever may be the complexity of a legal question 
submitted to him, he at once subjects it to the 
test of logic and solves it upon logical prin- 
ciples. When he has done this it is like a nail 
driven in a sure place and clinched. His men- 
tal powers are gigantic and cannot be measured 
with rule or plummet. In a great case, com- 
plex as it may be, he always proves himself, 
equal to its clear exposition and logical solu- 
tion. Yet he is modest even to timidity, and 
does not seem to be conscious of his powers. 
He has all the qualities of a great statesman as 
well as jurist. As a politician he is severely 
honest, and for the sake of oftice would not 
accept the presidency of the United States. 
He is one of the very few who never sought an 
office, yet has held many important offices. 
The offices he has held came to him without 
solicitation. In all of them he has acquitted 
himself with signal ability. As an advocate at 
the bar he is eloquent and forcible, and often 
rises to the sweeping majesty of a tidal wave. 
His law practice is chietly confined to great 
cases, and is both lucrative and extensive. He 
is not only an adept in legal science, but is 
acquainted with tlie sciences generally as well 
as wiih classical and modern literature. He is 
familiar with the prinei[»les of the Justinian 
code and code Napoleon, and also with the 


leading decisions of the English and American 
courts. He can readily cite from memory the 
important legal authorities known to the pro- 
fession, and is himself a legal authority. While 
on the bench of the supreme court he elevated 
the bench more than the bench elevated him. 
He has a dignitied presence, and a moral char- 
acter that is above reproach. In a word, he is 
a man who has ripened into a noble manhood. 




"FN the fall of that memorable year in which 
-*- the last spike was driven that completi'd 
the first transcontinental railway from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, myself and wife passed 
over the ronte, and oti our way stoj)ped off for 
a few days at Salt Lake City. There was no 
railway connection at that time with the city. 
The only method of public travel was by stai^e- 
coach, a distance of about thirty miles. The 
road ran alonsf the base of the mountains which 
encircle this great valley, as if to guard it from 
the profane intrusion of the outside world. 
The dark blue waters of Salt Lake slumbered 
calmly on our right, and occupy a central posi- 
tion in the valley. It is about seventy-five 
miles long by ten wide, hi its centre there 
looms up a mountain island, which gleams like 
a-n emerald set in ebony. Its outline is oval. 
The extensive meadow-like plains that border 
on the lake are rich and beautiful, and divi<lcd 
into ranches occu[)ied for the most [)art by .Mor- 
mons. The margin of the lake is encrusted 
with crystallized salt of excellent (quality, which 


the people here g-cnerally nse for domestic pur- 
poses, and which any one may shovel up and 
carry away by the wagon load, if he cares to 
do so. In "Other words, here are Nature's salt 

In passing around the spur of a mountain as 
we approached the city, we drove through the 
rapid current of a hot spring flowing from the 
mountain's base, and steaming with offensive 
gases, and so heated that you could not hold 
your hand in it. Its volume is quite large, 
almost a rivulet, and its waters are said to be 
highly esteemed for their medicinal properties. 
Springs of a like character abound still nearer 
the city, and even within its limits, where 
several bathing-houses have been erected to 
which Brigham and his disciples often resort 
and undergo ablutions which, I doubt not, they 
much need; and yet I question whether the 
waters, though heated to a scalding tempera- 
ture, could cleanse them from their moral lep- 

Very soon after passing the hot springs we 
entered the city proper, and took lodgings at 
a Mormon hotel. Here we found excellent 
accommodations, and during our stay were 
treated with all the attiMition and politeness 
we could desire. AVe observed nothing, while 
at the hotel, which induced us to believe that 


it differed in any respect from other first-cla-ss 
hotels; and yet, as a matter of ' fact, our hind- 
lord rejoiced in the possession of five wives, if 
joy there can be in having five times too much 
of a g(wd thing. The tirst wife was, appar- 
ently, past middle age, wore a faded calico dress 
and a downcast look, and seemed unhappy. 
The second appeared much younger and pret- 
tier, was clad in silks and. jewels, and had the' 
general superintendence of the servants and of 
the household. The other three, it was said, 
kept house by themselves in different parts of 
the town, and took charge of their own chihben 
and family affairs; yet were, in fact, supported 
by the landlord, their common husband. How 
many children he has by his five wives we did 
not learn, but they are said to be numerous. 
He is regarded as a man of wealth, and in his 
style of manners has the appearance of an 
accomplished gentleman. He is a native of 
JNIaine, ap[)arently abnut sixty years old, and 
has resided in Salt Lake City twenty years. 

On Sunday morning we attended church, and 
lieard Brighani Young })reach. He had a full 
house, and ap[)eared to be a man of nmeh more 
polish and eultuie than I expected to see. hnm 
all r had ln'aid said of him. Ilis laiiguaLre was 
select, and his style of oratory earnest, talka- 
tive, and sincere, lie indulged in no expies- 


sions which could be regarded as inconsistent 
Avith good taste ; yet when contradicted or irri- 
tated, it is said, he sometimes employs coarse 
and unqualified language. He evidently feels 
and knows that he is the acknowledged dic- 
tator and Supreme Head of the Church in ]\Ior- 
niondom. It must be admitted that he is a 
shrewd tactician, decidedly foxy, and ever ready 
in adopting expedients. If this were not so, he 
could never have achieved what he has. If not 
a great genius, he is certainly no ordinary man. 
This was my impression of him at fii'st sight. 
His discourse was not written, nor did he take 
a text, but proceeded at once to give utterance' 
to his train of thought. If I had not known 
who he was, I should not have questioned the 
orthodoxy of his discourse, until he alluded to 
the subject of polygamy. In this allusion he 
pronounced it a divine institution, and then 
remarked that the outside world called it his 
"peculiar institution." He said there was 
really nothing peculiar about it, and declared 
that polygamy was sanctioned by both the Old 
and New Testament, as well as by the present 
customs of mankind in various parts of the civ- 
ilized world. He also declared the Book of 
IMtnniiMi a Divine Ilevelation, lieeause he knew 
it to be such, asserting that the " Latter Day 
Saints "are the only true chosen people of God. 


He said all other systems of religion had failed 
in their object, and tluit the new revelation 
became a necessity, and is therefore the trnc 
"light of the world." He called Christ his 
elder brother, and claimed the power of work- 
ing miracles. In conclusion, he appealed to 
the women to be submissive to their condition, 
and uro-ed this as a religious dutv. He told 
them that God destined them to become the 
mothers of mankind, and that they were made 
wives and mothers in the providence of God, 
for the purpose of building up Zion for *' Zion's 

In personal appearance, Brigham is a ' fine- 
looking gentleman, tall and portly, easy and 
self-possessed in manner, dresses elegantly, is 
about seventy years of age, yet appears much 
younger, and weighs at least two hundred. He 
has more wives than pounds of flesh. If dis- 
tributed among them, he wouldn't go round at 
a pound apiece. He has wives celestial and 
wives terrestrial. Of the celestial there are 
several hundred; of the terrestrial some thirty, 
or more. The former are pious, confiding old 
ladies, who have lost their charms, and only 
claim the privilege of pinning their faith to 
his sleeve. The latter are still possessed of 
•considerable youth and beauty, and have the 
privilege of "building up Zion." How many 


children Brigham really has, is not known, and 
it is doubtful if he knows; but they say he has 
somewhere from fifty to one hundred and fifty. 
In providing for their education, he erected 
especially for them a large two-story school- 
house, which has now become too small to 
accommodate them lie has nineteen or twenty 
favorite wives, who occupy distinct dwellings 
in different parts of the city. He visits them 
occasionally, and so far as they are unable to 
take care of themselves, he provides for them. 
The salvation of every woman who marries 
Brigham, or any of his church dignitaries, is 
considered absolutely certain. Hence, their 
system of celestial marriages embraces old 
women as well as young, and often women 
who have been in their graves for years. The 
nuptial ceremonies are performed in church. 
In manying a deceased woman, the bridegroom 
appears before the priest, locked arm in arm 
with a living wife, who consents to the nup- 
tials, as the representative of the invisible 
bride ; in this way the departed woman is 
sealed to an earthly husband in celestial mar- 
riage. The faithful, especially the widows, 
believe in celestial marriages ; and of course 
are all anxious to secure their salvation by 
l)ecoming scaled as celestial wives to Biigliam, 
or to some one of his divine officials in the 


church. The Mormons claim that all within 
the pale of their church are brothers and sisters 
in a natural as well as spiritual sense, and 
therefore hold that intermarriages without re- 
gard to the degree of consanguinity are in per- 
fect accordance with the dictates of God and 
Nature. "While we were in the city a brother 
married his sister, as we were credibly in- 

The priesthood go so far as to say that father 
and daughter, mother and son, may, without 
violating either natural or divine law, inter- 
marry, if they choose. Such is polygamy in its 
tendency and in its most revolting form., Is 
there no remedy? The time is rapidly ap- 
proaching, I trust, wdien this corroding stain, 
this foul plague-spot on our national escutch- 
eon, will be forever obliterated, and that, too, 
without the hope of a resurrection. And yet 
what can be done, or what will be done, remains 
to be seen. 

In the afternoon, on Sunday, religious ser- 
vices were held in the great ]Mormon Tab- 
ernacle by the subordinate members of the 
priesthood, l^riglunn docs not often preach, 
and when he does, he prefers to preach in the 
chapel, which is nnich smaller than the taber- 
nacle, and in Avhich it is nuu-h easier for him 
to speak since he has worn his lungs " thread- 


bare," as he ex[)rcsses it, by the public speaking 
he has done in the List twonty-tlve j-ears. 

Both the chapel and tabernacle are enclosed 
in the same lot or square, of ten acres, by a 
close substantial fence or wall, fifteen feet 
high, and entered througli massive prison-like 
gates. The tabernacle is an immense structure, 
two hundred and fifty feet long by one hundred 
and fifty broad, and ninety-five feet high. It 
is oval in its outline, roof and sides, and looks 
like a huge land-turtle standing motionless in 
its tracks. The roof rests on the side walls, 
and has no inside pillars to support it. Its 
acoustic properties are far-famed. It is also 
said to be the largest building ever erected in 
this country, without having interior columns, 
and will seat ten thousand people. At one end 
there is an elevated platform broad enough to 
accommodate the entire priesthood, which con- 
sists of Brig-ham as Divine ^Master, his three 
divine counselloi-s, twelve apostles, and seventy 

On this platform there stands a magnificent 
organ, brilliantly gilded in front, which is 
seventy-five feet high and thirty-five wide. It 
was built by a ^lormon. Its tones are as heavy 
as the muttering thunders, and yet as sweet as 
the music of the spheres. We were politely 
seated by the usher in a front seat, below, with 


the audience. Tliere are no galleries. The 
house was well filled, probably not less than 
six or eight thousand peo^de were in attend- 
ance. The priesthood occupied the plat to rm, 
and, judging from their numbers, I should sup- 
pose they were all there except Brigham, who 
seldom attends service in the afternoon. Tlie 
women occupied the central seats in the main 
body of the tabernacle, and the men encircled 
them round about like a hoop. I never before . 

saw such a sea of upturned, credulous faces, as , 

I beheld in this assemblage. There were twice 
as many women as men, and "such beauties 
did they grow," that you would have fancied 
yourself anywhere else than in a iield of lilies. ; 

The audience was composed of almost every \ 

nationality known on the face of the globe. | 

They all seemed absorbed in the services, j 

which consisted in singing, reports from re- 
turned missionaries, and a rambling, hit-and- 
miss discourse from one of Hrigham's divine 
counsellors. jNIost of the priests appeared to be 
elderly men, with broken constitutions, who , 

presided with a degree of rustic dignity that ] 

appeared somewhat ludicrous. 

Brigham owes his success mainly to his mis- 
sionaries. He sends them by hundreds to almost 
every part of the civilized world. The result 
is, that he obtains proselytes by the thousands, 


every year. Five parties of immigrants were 
reported at the tabernacle last Sabbath, as being 
on their Avay, or as having arrived this year, 
each party numbering from three hundred to 
seven hundred [lersons. In one of these parties 
seven different languages were spoken, indicat- 
ing the various countries from which they 
came. All this was reported as the fruit of a 
single year's missionary labor. 

The iSIormon church is rich, and transports 
its proselytes from Europe to Utah at its own 
expense, and is afterwards reimbursed from 
their earnings in this country. After they have 
jniid this expense in work which is allotted 
them, they are then, like all other Mormons, 
required to pay tithes to the church in cash or 
in kind, annually, during their natural lives. 
These tithes in kind are either sold or applied, 
as needed, to support poor immigrants, until 
they become able to provide for themselves. 
Nearly all the proselytes to the ]Mormon faith 
for the last fifteen years are made up, of the 
ignorant and poverty-stricken classes of the Old 
World, who, having nothing to lose, but every- 
thing to gain, were induced to believe that in 
Salt Lake Valley they would find, not only an 
earthly paradise, but be enriuhed with all the 
bhvssings and wealth that this world can l)estow. 
It is seldom that an American joins the Mor- 


mons. When Brigliam dies, if not before, the 
organization will explode. Already there are 
factions in the church which threaten its exist- 
ence. In fact, Brigliam seems aware that he 
has an elephant on his hands, and in order to 
prevent a crisis, will soon be obliged to an- 
nounce a new Revelation. 

Salt Lake City contains about twenty thou- 
sand inhabitants. It is laid out in one hundied 
and eighty square blocks of ten acres each, with 
intervening avenues of one hundred and thirty 
feet in width. The blocks are then subdivided 
into lots, larger or smaller, to suit the wants of 
the citizens, and are generally built up 'with 
wood or adobe dwellings, in which two or three 
families, sometimes more, belonging to one man, 
are often domiciled. With some exceptions, 
each family occupies a distinct apartment, 
which is entered through a separate outside 
door. You can generally tell, therefore, how 
many families occupy the same house by the 
number of its front doors. The gardens are 
usually large and filled with fruits, vegetables, 
and flowers. Peaches, pears, and apples, of the 
largest size and finest (juality I ever saw, abound 
here. Living streams of pure water which de- 
scend from the neighboring suow-ca|tped moun- 
tains, course along on either side of every 
avenue in the city, and are conducted in small 


rills through side-cuts into gardens and lawns 
to such extent as may be needed for the pur- 
pose of irrigation. The town is located on a 
plain, which extends from the base of the cir- 
cular mountains on one side to the banks of the 
river Jordan on the other, a distance of two 
miles or more. This sacred river, as the Mor- 
mons esteem it, is ten or twelve rods wide and 
fifteen miles loner, connectincr Lake Utah with 
Salt Lake. In the holy waters of this modern 
Jordan the Mormon converts are baptized, and, 
as they say, washed of their sins. We visited 
the river, and picked up on its shore a black 
jasper, which we retain for exhibition to our 
friends, and as a memento of IMormonism, the 
grandest humbug of the nineteenth century. 

It is a singular fact that Salt Lake has no 
outlet, and though it receives into its basin 
several streams of fresh water, it grows none 
the less saline. It is in many respects like the 
Dead Sea. Neither fish nor other living thing 
can inhabit its waters. It is a fountain if not 
a pillar of salt which, though not consecrated 
to Lot's wife, will forever remind mankind of 
Brigham's wives. 

Beside Salt Lake Valley there are many 
other beautiful valleys in Utah: though much 
smaller in extent, they are as rich and fertile as 
the great valley. Nearly all of them, within a 


circuit of a hundred and fifty miles, are now 
occupied by jNIormons and reg-ularly visited by 
their Home Missionaries, who, in many in- 
stances, have wives and families of children in 
each valley with whom they stop when on tlie 
circuit. These families are expected to take 
care of themselves ; but if unable to do so, they 
receive aid from the church revenues or tithes. 
The entire Mormon population, at this time, is 
said to be nearly two hundred thousand, and is 
rapidly increasing. The ^Mormons intend to 
control Utah as they ever have done, when it 
becomes a State. The penniless dupes they 
import are told that Utah is "a land flowing 
with milk and honey," and encircled with 
mountains of gold and silver, and that its 
climate is a summer of perpetual fruits and 
flowers, with bread enough and to spare; nor 
are they informed, especially the women, until 
the V arrive, that polygamy is embraced, in the 
articles of their new faith. It is then too late, 
destitute as they are, to retrace their steps. 
The priests select the handsomest girls for 
their wives, and do not seem to regard the act 
as amounting even to "a pious fraud." 

And yet, in all this there may be a wise 
Providence that looks to higher, nobler, and 
holier results. Had it not been for the early, 
not to say unjust, persecution of the Mormons 


ill the Eastern States, and their forced emigra- 
tion to Utah in search of protection and a 
peaceful home, the grand Trans-continental 
Railway, in all probability, would not have 
been built for at least tifty years to come. The 
^Mormons w"ere thus made the pioneers who took 
the lead and opened the gateways into a new 
world, where they may finally be compelled to 
abandon their "peculiar institution," and lose 
forever their identity in the flowing tide of 
western emigration. 

Be this as it may, Salt Lake City will have 
a name, fame, and record, which time cannot 
obliterate. It is a beautiful city, and the nat- 
ural scenery which surrounds it is not only 
beautiful, but grand and sublime. The climate 
of the valley is mild and summer-like through- 
out the year, and the soil as rich and produc- 
tive as the pfarden of Eden. Nature has made 
the spot an earthly paradise. Brigham Young 
founded the city. It is and ever will be a 
monument, which will commemorate his name. 
Yet not satisfied with this, he has already laid 
the foundation of a mighty temple v.hich, when 
com[)leted, will exceed in cost and grandeur 
the temple of Solomon. It is to be constructed 
of granite, with many spires and turrets, in 
accordance with divine instructions communi- 
cated, as he says, by an angel from heaven, 


who appeared to him in a vision. We saw the 
foundation. It is built of immense blocks of 
hewn granite, procured from the mountains, 
eigliteen miles distant, and cost a million of 
dollars, as we were informed by the architect. 
The whole cost of the temple, when finished, is 
estimated at three millions. 

Brigham is full of gigantic projects. He 
evidently means to survive death. He has 
done some good things. He educates the youth 
of his city, and prohibits the sale, within its 
limits, of all intoxicating liquors; yet tolerates 
a theatre, for the sake of its revenues, and often 
attends it himself. He maintains an efficient 
police force for the protection of the city and 
its citizens, and it is understood that he has 
secret agents, who execute the unrevealed de- 
crees of the priesthood. xVs Head of the Church, 
he owns nearly all the real estate of the city, 
and has several millions of gold deposited in 
the Bank of England, with which to meet 

From appearances, I am satisfied that the 
women of Salt Lake are generally unhap[iy, 
and if they but had the opportunity, or had 
wings, would leave like a tiock of pigeons. 
But this is impossible, so long as Brigham is 
the great law-giver, and accepted as the second 
Christ by his misguided followers. As much 


as he may love women, he loves gold still more, 
and no man understands better than he the \ 

power of a blind religious faith, or the arts by \ 

which it may be madu available in promoting j 

selfish and unhallowed purposes. And yet f 

time may sanctify the character of Brigham, t 

and perhaps deify him. At any rate, he has j 

established a religion which will not die with- , | 

him; though it may undergo material modifi- 
cations. ^Nlormonism is, in fact, but a revised 
edition of Mohammedanism. 



FERNANDO DE SOTO was born in Spain 
in the year 1490. He inherited a chivalric 
spirit, and received a superior literary and sci- 
entific education. He excelled when young not 
only in his studies, but in athletic exercises. 
He exhibited traits of character that secured 
him the patronage of Pedrasias Davila, a dis- 
tinguished citizen of Spain, who had accepted 
the governorship of the Isthmus of Darien. In 
1519 De Soto accompanied his patron to Darien. 
Here he soon discovered that the citizens of the 
isthmus regarded the government of Davila as 
tyrannical and oppressive. This induced De 
Soto to espouse the popular cause and take open 
action against the administration. In conse- 
quence of this action, De Soto incurred the dis- 
pleasure of his patron and was discharged from 
his service. 

De Soto was ambitious and desired to accom- 
plish some grand achievement on his own 
account. He undertook, in 1528, to explore 
the extensive territories of Guatemala and 
Yucatan with the expectation of finding a 
181 v^ 


water channel, that could be navigated, con- 
necting the Atlantic Ocean vith the Pacific; 
but in this he was destined to disappointment. 
In 1532 he joined Pizarro in his expedition for 
the conquest of Peru, and distinguished him- 
self in many a conflict as a brave commander. 
He possessed a spirit as humane as it was 
heroic, and manifested it by exerting his ut- 
most influence with Pizarro to spare the life 
of the unhappy monarch Atahualpa, who had 
been promised his freedom on the surrender of 
his vast accumulation of gold. De Soto, though 
more merciful, was not less avaricious than 
Pizarro. They shared the gold between them 
in such a way as to provoke an outspoken dis- 
satisfaction among the subordinate ofllcers and 
valiant soldiers whom they had led to victory. 
De Soto, fearing an outbreak that might deprive 
him of the liberal share of gold he had received, 
returned to Spain to enjoy his wealth and the 
honors he had won in Peru as a victorious mili- 
tary commander. 

In the mean time extravagant rumors in re- 
gard to the riches of the New World pervaded 
Spain. Everybody became excited, and' the 
return of De Soto to Spain laden with gold 
increased the intensity of the excitement. lie 
"became the central figure, not less of envy than 
of admiration, and was received, wherever he 


went, -with demonstrations of popular favor. 
In fact, he was deemed the most fortunate man 
in Spain. He paid his addresses to the daughter 
of the nobleman Davila, his early patron, and 
married her. And, though he had incurred the 
displeasure of her father by criticisms on his 
administration of the government in Darien, yet 
this happy alliance with his daughter allayed 
at once all former animosities. Tlie King of 
Spain was among the first to manifest his ad- 
miration of De Soto. He paid him imperial 
honoi"s, and expressed a readiness to grant him 
any request he might choose to make. 

De Soto appreciated his opportunities, and, 
being possessed of immense wealth, resolved to 
accomplish some grand achievement that would 
eclipse the name and fame of Pizarro and 
Cortez. He shared the current belief that there 
existed somewhere in the northern region of the 
New World, still undiscovered, as many rich 
cities, palaces, and treasuries overflowing with 
gold, as had been found in the broad domain of 
the southern region. Influenced by this belief, 
he solicited the king to grant him permission 
to conquer and colonize Florida at his own cost. 
The king not onh' gave him the permission 
desired, l)ut autluu'ized him to exercise abso- 
lute jurisdiction over the land of flowers. In 
addition to this, he appointed him governor of 


Cuba. No sooner was the contemplated expe- 
dition for the conquest of Florida announced, 
than hundreds of wealthy and aspiring adven- 
turers applied to De Soto for permission to 
join him in the expedition. Among the adven- 
turers were included a few women, and also a 
few priests and mechanics. The fleet consisted 
of nine ships, freighted with seven hundred 
armed men, three hundred horses, a large herd 
of swine, and a dozen or more bloodhounds. 
Nearly a year was occupied in equipping the 
expedition with the requisite outfit, a part of 
which was furnished in Cuba, whence the fleet 
sailed with all the "pomp and circumstance of 
war," May 18, 1530, and reached Tampa Bay, 
on the westerly coast of Florida, on the thir- 
tieth of the same month. Flere he landed his 
troops and marched into the interior. The first 
human being he met was a Spaniard who had 
been, eleven years previous to this time, cap- 
tured by the Indians in a warfare with Narvaez, 
whose expedition to Florida and th.e region 
north-west of it proved a sad failure. 

Tlie name of the captured Spaniard was Juan 
Ortiz. Wlien taken prisoner by the Indians 
lit' was c(Mulemned to sutler death at the stake. 
Fagnts were ].)repared, and the fin-brand ap- 
plied, when the sympathetic daughter of the 
chief appealed to her father to spare the vie- 


tim's life, urging tliat it would be an honor to 
her father and to the tribe to hold the captive 
in their service as a white slave. This sugges- 
tion pleased the stern old chief, who promptly 
ordered the victim's release. There might 
have been another and a tenderer motive that 
induced the maiden to make this appeal. 

De Soto was not less surprised than fortunate. 
in meeting one of his own countrymen in the 
wilds of Florida at so unexpected a moment, 
who from his long captivity had become fa- 
miliar with the Indian language, and was 
therefore able to give him much valuable in- 
formation. Ortiz, however, had no knowledge 
of a definite character relative to the existence 
of rich cities or mines of gold, in the wilds of 
Florida, nor had he received any information of 
that kind from the natives. This did not dis- 
courage De Soto. He resolved to penetrate the 
wilderness, believing that he would at no very 
great distance reach a region of rich cities and 
still richer mines of gold. He had aji insatiable 
thirst for gold that could not be quenched. It 
was with him a monomania. He pursued the 
phantom, accompanied by his followers, in a 
north-westerly direction, and fought Ins way 
as ho advanced throngh the domain.s of hostile 
trihes of Indians uniil his supplies were ex- 
hausted and his men reduced to extremities. 


They expressed their dissatisfaction, and im- 
plored him to allow them to return to their 
cwn country. He refused to listen to their 
complaints, and ctit off all hopes of a speedy 
return by ordering his ships to leave the coast 
and sail for Cuba. 

He then inspired his followers with new 
courage by assuring tliera that they should share - 
with him liberally the gold which they v/ere 
certain to find, and declared that he would see 
■with his own eyes the rich deposits of gold that 
lay hidden in the wild domain of which he was 
now the imperial governor. Thus stimulated 
they advanced, fighting the Indians on the way, 
and feeding on the maize which they took from 
them. The Indians were disgusted with the 
greed of the intruders, and for the purpose of 
ridding themselves of them assured them that 
gold abounded in certain remote regions beyond 
the line of their tribal domains. This encour- 
aged De Soto and his men to continue their 
search. They wandered amid suffering, sick- 
ness, and death, and were frequently attacked 
by the natives during their first summer in 
Florida. They wintered in the vicinity of 
Appalachee Bay, where De Soto communicated 
with Cuba, ordered a fresh supply of pr(ni- 
sions, and sent his wife, Dmia Isabella, twenty 
Indian maidens to serve as her slaves, with 


other tokens of regard, indicating the success 
and golden prospects of his enterprise — an im- 
pression he ^vished to create. 

In the spring of 1540 he proceeded northward 
in the direction of a region occupied by still 
more numerous Indian tribes. He compelled 
every tribe through whose domain he passed to 
contribute in turn not onl}' sufficient maize to 
furnish his entire force with bread, but sub- 
jected them to serve as beasts of burden, and in 
order to secure their adherence to his service 
chained them neck to neck in couples. He also 
appropriated their most comely women. Twelve 
Jesuit priests accompanied him, who performed 
religious services daily, and who were clad in 
the glittering regalia of their order. They 
professed a love for the Indians and a desire to 
enlighten them in the principles of Christian- 
ity, but were by no means averse to the accu- 
mulation of gold and the free enjoyment of the 
luxuries of life. Rumor reported from tribe to 
tribe the advance of De Soto and his men. And 
though a succfssful resistance was hopeless, the 
Indians often attacked the intruders with a 
bravery that was rarely excelled. They were 
slain by hundreds, and the pathway of De Soto 
was strewn with skeletons. 

He discovered as he advanced that the natives 
possessed large quantities of beautiful pearls. 


This intensified liis desire for wealth — goLl 
and pearls. He was now approached by an 
Indian queen, who took from her neck a mas- 
sive string of beautiful pearls and threw it 
around his neck as a token of her reverential 
regard for so distinguished a visitor. She also 
presented him several mantles wrought of beau- 
tiful feathers and with thread as line as silk, 
which was manufactured from the bark of a 
tree. These he gracefully accepted and asked 
where the pearls were found. She replied that 
the graves of their village were full of them. 
He directed his men to open the graves. In 
doing this they soon gathered three hundred 
and fifty pounds of pearls — a rich harvest for 
the despoilers. But their joy was changed to 
grief when on critical examination they discov- 
ered that the pearls had been perforated and 
worn as ornaments, and their beauty so marred 
and discolored by time as to render them value- 
less. Though the queen had received De Soto 
with liberal presents and with profound respect, 
he did not hesitate to retain her as a captive, 
and to subject her attendants to his service as 
slaves. The queen, however, managed to elude 
her guards aiul made her escape, taking with 
her a box of select pearls of great value. She 
was the queen of a powerful tribe of Floridians, 
who had achieved a ;rood decfree of civilisation. 


This "U'as evident from the advance they had 
made in the arts, the style of clothinq- in Avhich 
they were chid, and the structure of their dwell- 
ings. The queen's village was located in the 
interior of the tlowery land, about two days' 
journey from the Atlantic coast. Her subjects 
cultivated the soil to a considerable extent, and 
seemed disposed to maintain peaceful relations 
with the strangers, until their queen was re- 
strained of her liberty and placed under guard. 
This aroused their indignation, and induced De 
Soto to take his departure from their domains. 

The adventurers, under the guidance of a 
friendly Indian, now pursued their way into the 
wilds of the north-west — the present region 
of Georgia. They noticed that the Indians 
they met had copper hatchets, and that the 
copper contained grains of gold, and, moreover, 
that the Indians understood- the art of smelt- 
ing ores. This indication of gold inspired the 
adventurers with renewed hope. Their Indian 
guide assured them that in the mountains at 
the North they would fmd rich mines of gold. 
But they doubted his sincerity, as they had so 
often been misled by the natives, who desired 
to rid themselves of their unscrupuh)us visitors. 
The sagacious Indian guide, liowever, was 
truthful, and doubtless referred to the gold 
mines in the mountains of Georgia or North 


Carolina. Had they followed his direction 
they would have found gold, as iu all proba- 
bility the mines had been wrought by the 
Indians at a previous period, perhaps for cen- 
turies. Yet they declined to proceed. They 
had become disgusted with the barrenness of 
the wild region in which they were wandering. 
They sutYere d intensely from sickness and desti- 
tution, and for this reason changed their direc- 
tion to the south-west. The Indian guide also 
became disgusted with his slavish duties and 
ffigned insanity. The priest said "a gospel 
over him " and he recovered. He was undoubt- 
edly convinced that he must recover or be shot. 
In the course of their wanderings in the south- 
west they passed through the northern parts 
of Georgia and Alabama until they struck the 
headwaters of the Alabama River. They then 
followed the river in its southern direction 
towards the sea. In this region they were 
delighted to find an a])undance of wild grapes, 
rich and ripe and ready at hand, and also maize 
in the field, to wliic-h they did not hesitate to 
help tliemselves. It was now the golden month 
of October. They had journeyed in the Avilder- 
ness for many a Aveary month, and suffered 
grievous losses of men and property without 
realizing their expectations or achieving any 
desirable results. 


Still De Soto, thougli sadly disappointed, 
did not despair of finding gold somewhere in 
the wilds of the West. He knew that he was 
governor of Florida, and believed he was still 
moving within -the limits of his own jurisdic- 
tion. In his progress towards the ocean he 
now met an Indian who informed him that 
ships had arrived at the seacoast with supplies. 
This information he dared not disclose lest 
his men should revolt, and the news of his 
failure to find gold reach Cuba. In a few 
days afterward he encountered an Indian tribe 
who had achieved a partial civilization, and 
who resided in a village called Manilla, or 
Mobile, the name that has been applied to the 
bay and city of ^Mobile. This village was 
located on the river at a point nearly one hun- 
di-ed miles distant from the sea. It w^as built 
in circular form and surrounded by palisades 
for protection. The cabins were neat and com- 
fortable, and constructed with a remarkable 
degree of artistic skill. 

De Soto and his followers w:ere weary and 
worn, and desired rest in a comfortable camp. 
They concluded to occupy the village for this 
purpose. De Soto, with a few mounted men 
gayly equipped, entered the viUage with a view 
to inspect its accommodations and to negotiate 
with the chief. In passing the gate of the en- 


closure an Indian insulted one of the mounted 
cavaliers, who struck him with a cutlass and 
killed him on the spot. This produced a sudden 
outbreak of hostilities. The chief betook him- 
self to his citadel. De Soto luckily escaped 
with his attendants to the open fields, and then 
with his entire force returned to the village 
with a determination to capture it and occupy 
it as a cam[)ing-ground for the coming winter. 
He and his force were met by a hailstorm of 
arrows. The Indians, finding they could not 
successfully resist the invaders, applied the 
firebrand to their village and laid it in ashes. 
The Spaniards, thougli not defeated, were sub- 
jected to a serious loss. Eighteen of their 
mounted men with twelve horses were killed, 
and seventy more of the Spaniards wounded. 
The number of Indians who were slain in this 
terrible conflict was twenty-five hundred. The 
victory, though won by De Soto, proved a 
serious disaster. His baggage and supplies of 
food were all lost in the conflagration. Prior 
to this the number of his men had been reduced 
from seven hundred to less tlian five hundred 
by severe suffering and repeated conflicts with 
the natives. Surrounded as he now was bv a 
scene of desolation, ;iiid destitute as his troops 
were of sup{)lie;-;, he berame sonunvhat disheart- 
ened, but did uot despair. Instead of pursuing 


his way to the seacoast, he reversed his direc- 
tion, and, plundering the natives as lie went of 
their maize and other provisions, reached the 
northern part of the present State of Mississippi 
Lite in the fall of the year 1540, where he en- 
camped for the winter at a small village of the 
Cliickasaws, on the western bank of the river 
Yazoo. The Indians were compelled to evac- 
uate their village, in which De wSoto and Ills' 
troops quartered themselves in a very comfort- 
able way. The winter was cold and stormy, 
but an abundance of maize was left standing 
in the open fields by the Indians, which the 
Spaniards appropriated without scruple. The 
Indians who had been driven from their village 
suffered intensely while the SpaniartLs luxuri- 
ated on the spoils taken from them. 

When the spring came in 1541 De Soto and 
his troops had so far replenished themselves 
with comfortable fare as to recover their usual 
spirits, and to feel encouraged with the pros- 
pect of achieving ultimate success in the dis- 
covery of a region not far distant that would 
furnish them inexhaustible treasures of gold. 
Inspired by this sonlid spirit, De Soto now 
resolved to continue his researches, and with 
this view ordered the chief of the Cliickasaws 
to furnish him two lumdrod men to carry the 
baggage of his troops. The chief did not relish 


this proposition, nor could he forget the injus- 
tice wliieh ho and his tribe had received at the 
hands of thu Spaniards. Tliough bent on re- 
venge, he assumed to comply with the order by 
sending a few of his tribe to the village, who 
were careful to arrive at midnight and who, on 
confronting the sentinels, professed friendship 
and were allowed to enter the enclosure where 
the Spaniards were lost in profound slumbers. 
These Indian delegates, acting in concert, at 
once set fire to every wigwam and structure in 
the encampment. The Spaniards awoke, panic- 
stricken, amid the raging conflagration. The 
entire village with all its appurtenances was 
soon reduced to a mass of cinders. Seven of 
the Spaniards were burned to death and many 
others disabled. ]\Iany of the horses were 
consumed in the flames, while the remainder 
stampeded. Nearly every article of clothing 
belonging to the Spaniards, together with their 
supplies and equipments, was destroyed, and 
the entire village with its enclosure obliter- 
ated. The victory of the Indians was com- 
plete. Had they followed up their advantage 
they might have exterminated the entire Span- 
ish force. 

De Soto and his men, though dismayed, did 
not succumb. In the coui-se of a week they 
contrived to clothe themselves with frarments 


made of skins and blankets woven of ivy. 
They then repaired their military equipments 
and replenished their lost store of provisions bv 
appropriating the remaining corn of the Indians. 
They also regained possession of their remain- 
ing horses, cattle, and swine, and took up their 
line of march in a north-westerly direction, pen- 
etrating dark forests and dismal marshes, ami 
after seven days of perseverance and sutTering 
reached the Indian villages in the vicinity of 
the Mississippi liiver. Here they were kindly 
received and furnished with Indian guides, who 
conducted them to tlie river near the Chickasaw 
Bluffs, where De Soto enjoyed the inminrtal 
honor of being the first white man to behold 
face to face the Father of Watere. Here 
the Spaniards remained for a month or more, 
and engaged in constructing boats of sufficient 
capacity to cross tlie river or ascend it. This 
arrival of white men astonished thp native 
tribes who resided in the vicinity of the ^Missis- 
sij)pi. They came in great numbers in canoes 
to look at the strangers, and gratifv a curiosity 
that seemed as insatiable as it was taciturn. 
Tliey were decorated in their gavest attire, 
plumes and fantastic garments of vivid colors, 
as if desirous of n)akiug an impression. ]Maiiv 
of tliem were armed with bows and arrows, as 
if meditating a hostile attack; but the evident 



superiority of the Spaniards overawed them, 
and they at, once assumed a conciliatory atti- 
tude, and presented their strange visitors with 
a liberal supply of tish and with bread mads 
of wild fruits. There were many hundreds of 
these natives, most of whom came down the 
river from villages located at different points 
along its bluffy banks. When they saw the 
Spaniards launch huge boats and embark with 
all their supplies, including horses, bullocks, 
and swine, and cross safely over to the west 
side of the great river, they were astonished, 
and dispersing returned to their villages to 
report the marvels they had witnessed, and to 
express their fears as to the intentions of the 
white invaders — an unknown race, evidently 
superior to their own, and who, as they be- 
lieved, had descended from tlie sun. 

De Soto was delighted with his discoverv of 
this majestic river, and admired the sentinel 
forest trees that guarded its banks and grace- 
fully flung their banners of gray moss to the 
fluttering breeze. He believed he had now 
reached the direct pathway to the long-sought 
region abounding in gold. In his attempt to 
ascend the western l)ankof tlie Mississippi with 
his troops, he encouutoved extensive marshes, 
dense thickets, ami nriny other embarrassments, 
but fmally reached the high and dry rolling 


prairie lands in tlie vicinity of Ne^y Madrid. 
About the 20th of June, 1541, he reached the 
northei'uinost point of his exploration up the 
jVIississippi — a point not known, but which is 
supposed to be but a few leagues up the river 
from New ^Madrid. At any rate, it was a region 
that supplied an abundance of fish, wild game, 
and wild fruits. 

Here De Soto, with his famished followers, 
indulged in feasting for forty days, and then 
took a new direction and penetrated the wilder- 
ness westward two hundred miles or more, until 
he reached the mountain lands that skirt the 
White River. Here he expected to find gold, 
but found none. He now" changed his course 
and took a southerly direction, passed through 
numerous Indian villages, and encamped for 
the winter near the hot springs on the banks of 
the river Washita, in Arkansas. 

In March, 1542, the ex[)lorer, still hopeful, 
descended the Washita to its union with the 
Red liiver, and thence down the crimson waters 
of that river to its junction with the Missis- 
sippi, where he arrived in ]May. Both he and 
his troops were sadly demoralized during their 
western wanderings, and had suffered untohl 
miseries from hunger and sickness, and from 
losses by Indian attacks and other disasters. 
Here De Soto encamped in the vicinity of Nat- 


cliez, among Indian tribes whom he plunflered 
and reduced to starvation. The condition of 
both Indians and Spaniards became desperate. 
De Soto now resolved to find his way to the 
sea. He inquired the distance, but none of 
the Indian chiefs could tell him. He sent out 
six horsemen to descend the banks of the river 
and report. They rode eight days through 
swamps and cane-brakes, and had advanced but 
thirty miles when they found it impossible to 
proceed farther. They returned and reported 
that the descent to the sea along the banks of 
the river was impossible, the distance unknown, 
and the region uninhabited. This report sadly 
discouraged De Soto. His men and horses were 
dying around him from hunger and disease. 
The Indians had discovered his weakness and 
manifested a hostile disposition. How to extri- 
cate himself he did not know. He now realized 
for the first time his inability to help himself 
or to defend himself amid his savage enemies. 
Still he regarded the far West, which' he had 
visited, as a part of Florida, and himself as its 
rightful governor. He now endeavored, as a 
last resort, to inspire the Indians with the 
belief that he was a child of the sun, and 
therefore possessed divine power and c'mild do 
whatever he pleased at a word. His object was 
to overawe the Indians and thus induce them 


to furnish him and his men with the necessaries 
of life. But the sagacious chief, of whom trib- 
ute was demanded, doubted the divinity of De 
Soto. "You prochiim," said the chief, "that 
you are a chihl of the sun; if so, dry up the 
river, and I will believe you." l)e Soto found 
himself entrapped and declined to perform mir- 
acles. He at once sank into a gloomy state of 
mind, which was followed by a severe attack of 
fever. Anticipating a fatal result, he sum- 
moned his devoted followers to his bedside, 
and, with their consent, appointed Louis Mos- 
coso de Alvaralo as his successor in command. 
On the following day, May 21, 1542, he died. 
A priest pronounced his eulogy, and over his 
corpse the last requiem was chanted amid tears 
and lamentations. The remains were then 
secretly buried in the gateway of the camp, 
with a view to conceal his death from the In- 
dians. But the suspicious appearance of a new- 
made grave was noticed by them, and seeing no 
more of De Soto they began to think he was 
dead. Fearing the Indians might disinter his 
remains, and thus prove that he was mortal in- 
stead of immortal, the Spaniards removed liis 
body at midnight and enclosed it in a sack with 
a hea\y addition of sand, and sank it in the 
depths of the great river of which he was th(3 
first discoverer. The Indians asked, " What 


has become of our lord, the white governor?" 
The Spaniards replied that "he had ascended 
into the shies for a little while, but would soon 
return.'' No trace or relic of his remains has 
ever been found. The Great River is his mon- 
ument — a monument that is as enduring as it 
is impressive in its grandeur. 

Louis ^NIoscoso, successor in command, now 
realized the forlorn condition of his men and 
their surroundings. They were destitute of 
physical comforts and anxious to return to New 
Spain. They had but few horses and swine 
left. They saw no prospect of relief, yet they 
had too much pride of feeling to return, pov- 
erty-stricken, to their friends. They had just 
heard from the Indians fresh rumors of gold 
and rich cities still to be found in the far West, 
and at once resolved to attempt a realization of 
their golden dreams. ]\Iisled by Indian guides, 
they wandered in the ^^ ihlerness, west, north, 
and south, suffering untold miseries, and after 
a zigzag ramble of a hundred and tifty leagues 
or more, returned to the banks of the Missis- 
sippi, where they arrived in winter, disgusted 
and exhausted, as well as disappointed, in their 
renewed attempt to discover gold. The In- 
dians, hoping to lid themselves of the S[ian- 
iards, had deceived tliein. Though destitute 
of almost ever}^ facility, the Spaniards novv 


contrived to build a sufficient number of boats 
to convey them with tlieir scanty supplies down 
the ]\Iississip[)i to the sea. They had killed 
and consumed the last of their horees and swine 
for food. Only three hundred and seventy-two 
persons of their original numl)er had survived 
the perils of their explorations. This remnant 
of the expedition of De Soto embarked on their 
voyage down the Mississippi, July 2, 1543, and 
after seventeen clays of exposure and frequent 
attacks from the Indians, reached the Gulf of 
IMexico in safety, and thence coasting along the 
borders of Louisiana and Texas for fifty days, 
arrived at Panuco, a Spanish colony, where 
they were received by sympathizing friends and 
supplied with the comforts of civilized life. 
Though reduced to poverty and dependence on 
the charity of their friends, they still cherished 
with pride the meinory of De Soto, the imperial 
governor of Cuba and Florida, and lived to 
enjoy for many years the wide notoriety which 
they had acquired in the perilous gervice of 
their distinguished commander. 

f'ernando De Soto was a man .of destiny. 
He won honor as well as fame in running a 
career of disap[)ointed ambition. lie possessed 
a sanguine temperament, ami yiehlcd to the 
influences of an insatiate love of [)0wer, and of 
gold as the basis of power. This selfish and 


sordid trait of liis cliaracter was matured, if not 
engendered, by tlio impressions he received 
■while engaged with Pizarro in the conquest of 
Peru. Pie desired to outrival Pizarro in the 
acquisition of wealth and fame. lie believed 
in more worlds to conquer. He accepted the 
governorship of Cuba as a stepping-stone to 
the governorship of Florida, whose extent of 
territory was at that time unknown. In fact, 
Florida was to him the tbeamland of golden 
treasures. His search for gold cost him his 
life. His character was a mosaic of vice and 
virtue, and yet he was a n^an of broad views 
and lofty aspirations, and as stern in command 
as he was decisive in action. He never dreamed 
of defeat, but was sadly defeated in solving 
the great problem of his life. 



TTISTORY is indebted to biogra[)liy for tlie 
-^ — greater part of its interest and value. It 
is not so mueh what a man thinks or believes 
as wliat he docs, that gives him character. It 
was physical strength and a fearless spirit that 
distinoruished the brave and the l)old in the 
heroic age of the Greeks. It was these traits 
of character that gave Lorenzo Carter his renown 
as a valiant pioneer in the early settlement of 
the Western Reserve. 

Lorenzo Carter, familiarly known as iNIajor 
Carter, was born at Rutland, Vt., in ITGT. lie 
received but a limited education, but was en- 
dowed by nature with sound sense and a ready 
mother wit. At the age of twenty-two he' mar- 
ried Miss Rebecca Fuller, a worthy young lady 
of his native town. The marriage took place 
on the '28th of January, 1789. Within a few 
years after the marriage the happy pair con- 
ceived the idea of making themselves still 
happie" by removing to the "far West" — the 
mystic land of golden promise. In accordance 
with this resolution, young Carter and family, 
205 u 


accompanied by Ezekiel Hawley, bade adieu to 
Rutland, in the fall of the year 1796, with a 
view to a permanent settlement at some eli^ 
gible point in the unbroken wilderness of the 
Western Reserve. When they reached Lake 
Erie they crossed over ^^•ith tlieir families and 
s[»ent the winter in Canada. Hawley was the 
brother-in-law of Carter, and both were desir- 
ous of selecting permanent homes near each 

In the spring of 1797 both Carter and 
Hawley, with their families, recrossed the 
lake, and arrived in Cleveland on the second 
day of May. They were highly pleased with 
the appearance of the country, and especially 
with the beautiful valley of the Cuyahoga 
River. Hawley and fanuly settled on the ele- 
vated land bordering this river, and about a 
mile from the lake. Carter preferred the east- 
ern hillside, near the mouth of the river, where 
he erected a log cabin, which was located a 
little north of the present viaduct or bridge at 
the terminus of Superior Street. Here he and 
his. family commenced their career in the wilds 
of the Western Resciwe, amid wild beasts and 
still wilder men. The Indians at this time 
WL're numerous in the region of the Cuj-ahoga. 
"Its valley was, in fact, the "Indians' puratlise." 
The river that winds so gracefully along the 


vale abounded with fLsli, ducks, and geese, while 
the adjoining forests at^'orded countless numbers 
of deer, bears, wild turkeys, and other game, 
all of which were regarded by the Indians as 
their natural inheritance, and hence they viewed 
the encroachment of white men with suspicion. 
The Cuyahoga originally ran through what 
is now called tlie old river bed, and discharged 
its waters into the kike at a point west of the 
new breakwater. At that early day there stood 
a huge Indian mound near the mouth of the 
river where it now runs, which, it is said, must 
have had originally a diameter at the base of 
one hundred feet and an elevation of fifty feet. 
When the river left its old bed, it ploughed a 
new channel in a direct line to the lake, and 
ran so near the east side of the mound that it 
soon undermined it and swept it away. The 
existence of the mound was well known to the 
early settlers. Several large trees, of a hun- 
dred years' growth or more, were standing on 
the top of the mound in 17UG, but the natives 
of the forest who were found here at tliat date 
knew nothing of tiie origin of the mound, or of 
the race who built it. Jn all probability it was 
built by the ancient Eries, who occupied the 
southern shore of the lake east of the Cuyahoga, 
in an age that has no wriittii record. The time 
has been, doubtless, when the lake shore at 

20S CITY OF clevel.\:n"d 

Cleveland extended several miles into the lake 
north of its present boundary. It is well known 
that the lake has encroach.ed on the land, at 
Cleveland, nearly half a mile within the last 
eighty years. The mound was doubtless the 
sepulchre of some acknowledged chief who, in 
the lost acres, was the sovereie:n of the beauti- 
ful Valley of the Cuyalioga. 

In the fall of 179G the original site of the 
city of Cleveland was surveyed into town lots 
by Moses Cleaveland and statT. The surveyors 
erected at that time two or three log cabins for 
their own accommodation. These cabins con- 
stitutecl the nucleus of what has now become a 
great and beautiful city. The cabin built by 
Carter in the following year was much more 
pretentious in its size and style of architecture 
than the humble cabins erected by the surveyors. 
It had two apartments on the ground floor, and 
a spacious garret for lodgers. Near the cabin 
flowed a spring of pure water, cool and clear as 
a cr3'staL 

Thus provided with a rustic but happy home 
for himself and family. Carter felt that he must 
engage in some employment that would atford 
him a livelihood. Tlic lirst thing he did was 
to build a boat and c-iaMish a ferry :v.'ross the 
river at the foot of Superior Street for the ac- 
commodation uf public travel. In connection 


with this he kept in his house a small stock of 
goods adapted to the Indian trade, including 
whiskey. When a boy he became an expert 
hunter, and knew that he could rely on his rifle 
in an emergency, and hence he devoted more or 
less of his time to hunting for the purpose of 
obtaining valuable furs and peltries, and secur- 
ing a supply of wild meat for his family. He 
soon distinguished himself as a successful hunter 
in all the region round about him. The Indians 
found in him an overmatch as a marksman, and 
a superior in physical strength. He had the 
muscular power of a giant, and not only knew 
his strength but knew when and how to use it. 
He stood six feet in his boots, and was evi- 
dently born to command. His complexion was 
somewhat swarthy, and his hair long and black. 
He wore it cut square on the forehead, and 
allowed it to flow behind nearly to the shoul- 
ders. He had a Roman nose, and the courage 
of a Roman. Yet he was as amiable in spirit 
and temper as he was brave. He dressed to 
suit himself and as occasion required. In times 
of danger he always found in his ritl.e a reliable 
friend. He not only enjoyed life in the wilder- 
ness, but soon liecame master of the situation. 
He Itived adventures, and encountered danuers 
witlunit fear. 

On one occasion, as tradition says, he re- 


turned from a hunting excursion and found that 
the Indians had broken into his warehouse, 
knocked in the head of a barrel of whiskey, and 
imbibed so freely as to become drunk and dan- 
gerously belligerent. He marched in among 
them, cbove them out, kicked and cuffed them 
about in every direction, and rolled several of 
them, who were too drunk to keep their legs, 
into the marshy brink of the river. The Indians 
did not relish this kind of treatment, and, med- 
itating revenge, held a council the next day 
and decided to exterminate Carter. They 
selected two of their best marksmen and di- 
rected them to follow his footprints the next 
time he entered the woodlands to hunt, and 
shoot him at the first favorable opportunity. 
This the delegated assassins attempted to do, 
and, thinking to make sure work of it, both 
fired at him at the same time, but failed to hit 
him. In an instant Carter turned on liis heel 
and shot one of them, who fell dead in his 
tracks; the other uttered a terrific war-whoop 
and fled out of sight. This dire result over- 
awed the Indians. From that time no further 
attempts were made to take Carter's life. His 
rifle was the law of the land. The Indians 
l)ceanie siibservicnt to his will, and were con- 
firmed in the belief that he was the favorite of 
the Great Spirit and could not be killed. It 


^vfls in this way that Carter obtained an un- 
bounded influence over the Indians. He always 
treated them, when they behaved as they should, 
with kindness and generosity, and when they 
quarrelled among themselves, as they often did, 
he intervened and settled their difficulties. 

Not long after Carter had located at the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga, David Uryant estab- 
lished a distillery near his cabin at the foot of 
the hill. This distillery soon became the favor- 
ite resort of both white men and Indians. In 
a drunken frolic which occurred on the hillside 
one sunny afternoon among the Indians, the 
chief, Big Son, charged ^Slenompsy, the medi- 
cine man, with having killed his sc^uaw by 
administering witchcraft medicine, and threat- 
ened to kill him. Menompsy, knowing that 
he, as medicine man, priest, and prophet, was 
regarded as invulnerable, replied, "Me no 
'fraid," and when he, at nightfall, was passing 
down Union Lane on his return to the west 
side of the river, where his tribe was encamped, 
he was met by Big Son, who, with professions 
of friendship, saluted him, and then drew a 
knife and killed him on the spot. The friends 
of Menompsy, on hearing of the murder, came 
over from the west side with the intention of 
killing Big Son, who secreted himself and could 
not be found. The " war-whoop " was sounded, 


and a deniand niiule for the surrender of the 
murderer. The Indians oecu|iying the east and 
west sides of the river were hereditary enemies, 
and the danger beeame imminent that, unless 
Big Son was surrendered, a bloody fight would 
ensue between them. At this juncture Carter 
appeared and negotiated a compromise by which 
the friends of Big Son agreed to give the friends 
of Menorapsy a, gallon of whiskey. But, as it 
happened, no whiskey could be obtained, and 
the "war-whoop'' was renewed. Carter then 
effected a second negotiation by agreeing upon 
two gallons of whiskey to be forthcoming on 
the next day. Bryant put his distillery into 
operation at once, and the two gallons of whis- 
key were furnished as agreed. The friends of 
Meuompsy then returned to their camp on the 
west side of the river and indulgt-;d in a drunken 
jollification that entirely allayed their thirst for 

At the August term of the territorial court, 
held at Warren, in 1801, Carter was granted a 
license to keep a tavern at Cleveland on paying 
into the count}- treasury the sum of four dollars. 
The entire Reserve was then included ^^ithin 
the limits of Trumbull County, and the county- 
svdt est;.blislied at Wairen. Tlie State consti- 
tution was adopted in 1S02. At the first State 
court, held at Warren, after the adoption of the 


constitutioD, Lorenzo Carter of Cleveland, as 
it appears of record, was indicted for assault 
and battery. He M'as greatly astouislied when 
the officer arrested him and said he must take 
him to Warren for trial. The friends of Carter 
were still more astonished than he was, and 
resolved that he should not be taken to Warren, 
and proposed to resist the sheriff, asserting- that 
Carter was and always had been an upright and 
peaceable citizen. The sheriff was obliged to 
summon aid, and finally succeeded in producing 
him bodily in court. It was known at 'Warren 
that Carter enjoyed the reputation of being a 
brave, bold, and daring frontiersman, and. it 
was supposed by the citizens of Warren that 
he must therefore be a dangerous fellow. But 
when arraigned before the court his ciuiet and 
manly appearance created a favorable im[)res- 
sion. The charge made against him proved to 
be as frivolous as it was revengeful in spirit. 
It grew out of a dispute between him and one 
of his Cleveland neighbors who owned a favor- 
ite dog. Carter had discovered that the dog 
was in the habit of stealing into his milk- 
house, at the spring, and lapping u[) the ereanj 
from the pans. He finally caught the dog in 
the act, and chastised the brute. The owner 
declared his dog innocent. Carter declared die 
dog guilty. The owner then pronounced Carter 


a liar. Carter instantly returned the compli- 
ment by slapping- liis accuser in the face. Carter 
frankly pleaded "guilty" to the indictment. 
The court readily comprehended the character 
of the quarrel, and ordered him to pay a fine of 
six cents and costs. This he did forthwith. 
He was received on his return home by his 
many friends with such open demonstration of 
joy and triuni[)h as to convince his accuser that 
the sooner he removed from Cleveland the 
better it would be for his personal safety. 

The name of Lorenzo Carter had now become 
well known throughout the Reserve. He was 
highly respected as a worthy citizen, and was, 
in fact, the famous pioneer of the Cuyahoga 
Vallev. He not only had the confidence of 
white men, but acquired an unbounded influ- 
ence over the Indians. When Carter first came 
to Cleveland, in 1707, there were but seven 
persons residing- in the town. Its population 
increased but slowly during the next ten or 
twelve years. It was Carter's enterprise that 
built the fii;;^t frame house in Cleveland. He 
also built the -first warchou-^e. During the 
early part of his career at Cleveland, his spa- 
cious log cabin on the hillside was regarded as 
headquarters. It servcfl as a hotel for strang- 
ers, and as a variety shop of hunuug supplies. 
It was also a [>lace of [)0[)ular resort, where the 


denizens of the town and surrounding country 
held their social festivities. 

The tii'st social dance or ball that occurred 
at Cleveland took place at Carter's renowm-d 
log cabin, July 4, 1801. The party consisted 
of fifteen or sixteen couples. They came from 
town and country, some on foot and some on 
horseback, and were dressed in all sorts of 
styles. They occupied the front room, or parlor 
of the cabin. It had a puncheon floor, and its 
walls were decorated with deer-horns, powder- 
horns, rifles, and shotguns. The dance began 
at an early hour. ]\Ir. Jones was the violinist, 
who, after attuning his instrument, struck up 
" Hi, Betty ^^lartin," the favorite air of that 
day. The mazy dance was executed with 
marvellous agility, and with a still more mar- 
vellous variety of steps. The refreshments 
w^ere substantial in their character, consisting 
mainly of baked pork and beans, plum cake, 
and whiskey, and were partaken of with' a keen 
relish and in liberal cj^uantities. The dance 
was continued until daylight the next morn- 
ing, when the party dispersed, and returned in 
merry mood to their rustic homes. It was 
doubtless the fruitful result of this public ball 
which brought with it, on the next Fourth of 
July, the tu'st wedding that occurred in Cleve- 
land. The nu[)lials were celebrated at Carter's 


cabin, in the same decorated parlor in 
^vhiell the tirst dance had transpired. The 
happy twain whose "hearts beat as one," and 
who wished to become one, were William 
Clement of Canada and Cloe Inches, the hired 
girl in Carter's family, whom he had brought 
with him from Canada to Cleveland. 

The preparations were by no means elaborate 
or expensive. The bride w^as dressed in colored 
cotton, and the bridegroom in domestic sheep's 
gray. No cards were issued, nor were any 
costly gifts presented. When the guests had 
assembled, and the hour arrived, the affianced 
couple simply arose and "took the pledge '' in 
the exacting language of the Puritanic formula 
of New England. Rev. Seth Hart officiated. 
He was from Connecticut, and was in the em- 
ploy of the land company, and the only clergy- 
man who could be found to officiate on that 
occasion. Whether he was the first one who, 
in accordance with modern practice, saluted the 
bride with a "holy kiss " at the close of the 
ceremony, does not appear in the traditionary 
lore of the times. 

At a special election held in August, 1804, 
at the house of James Kingsbury, Carter was 
elected to the office of major in the State mili- 
tia, and from that date was always spoken of 
as "Major Carter." This advancement to one 


of the enviable honors of his time not only- 
increased his popularity', hut enlarq-ed his busi- 
ness prospects. In 1808 he built the first vessel 
constructed at Cleveland, named the Zepln/r, 
thirty tons burden, and designed for the lake 

The county of Cuyahoga was organized in 
1809, and Cleveland made the county-seat. 
The population of the town at that time was 
but forty-seven. Nearly three years elapsed 
before the county erected a court-house and 
jail. In the mean time a small room in a pri- 
vate dwelling, located on the north side of 
Superior Street, was used as a court-room, and 
the garret of ^lajor Carter's log cabin as a jail. 
The Indian, John O'Mick, who murdered two 
white men in the year 1812, was incarcerated 
in this garret, where he remained chained to a 
rafter for several months previous to his trial. 
The major assumed the responsibilities of jailer 
and deputy-sheriff. The Indian was tried for 
his crime at tlie April term of the court, found 
"guilty," and sentenced to be hung on the 20th 
of June following. 

When the day arrived on which the execution 
was to take place, a one-horse lumber wagon, 
containing a coffin made of rough boards, ap- 
peared at the door of the major's cabin, ready 
to receive the convict and transport him to the 


gallows on the Public Square, where he was to 
be executed. O'Mick had frequently, after his 
conviction, said to the major that he would 
show the white men how bravely an Indian 
could die, and that the executioner need not 
tie his hands, but simply adjust the rope, and 
he would leap from the scaffold and hang him- 
self. He decorated himself with paint and war 
plumes, and when led from the garret, sprang 
nimbly into the wagon and sat down on his 
coffin with an air of stolid indifference. He 
was then taken under a military escort that 
marched to the music of fife and muflied drum 
to the Public Square, where a large crowal of 
citizens had gathered to witness the execution. 
Soon as the convict arrived he was taken by 
Sheriff Baldwin, who, with the aid of Carter, 
forced him to ascend the ladder to the scaffold, 
where the rope was adjusted about his neck 
and an appropriate prayer off'ered by Rev. Mr. 
Darrow. At the close of the prayer and at the 
moment the sheriff proceeded to let fall the 
fatal trap, O'^Iick sprang and seized a side 
post of the gallows with an iron grasp the sher- 
iff could not disengage. Carter, who spoke the 
Indian language with ease, reminded O'^NIick 
of his professed bravery and tried to persuade 
him to let go the post, and finally succeeded in 
compromising the matter with him by giving 


him a pint of whiskey. O'Mick drank the 
whiskey, and said he was ready to swing. The 
sheriff attempted to proceed when O'^NIick 
phi3'ed the same trick a second time, and again 
compromised for anotlier pint of whiskey, which 
was given him, and while he was swallowing it 
the trap was let go, and down went the "poor 
Indian " with a jerk that broke his neck and 
the rope, and left him on the ground writhing 
in the apparent agonies of death. At this fear- 
ful moment a terrific thunder-storm, attended 
with violent wind and rain, burst overhead and 
compelled the crowd to disperse in haste. In 
the mean time the remains of O'^Mick, whether 
dead or alive, were hastily buried beneath the 
gallows by direction of the sheriff. On exam- 
ination the next morning the body could not be 
found. Some thought that O'Mick had resur- 
rected himself and tied.. Others thought the 
medical profession had secured the prize. At 
any rate, his skeleton was some thirty years 
afterwards known to be in the possession of the 
late Dr. Town of Hudson. What has since 
become of it is not known. 

Major Lorenzo Carter was the right man in 
the right place for the times in which he lived. 
No man perhaps <:ould have accomplished more 
or executed his life's work better than he did 
under the same circumstances. lie accumu- 


lated a handsome property, and in the latter 
part of his life purchased a large farm which 
he improved, and wliich lay on the west side of 
the Cuyalioga Kiver, nearly opposite the termi- 
nation of Superior Street. This farm, after his 
death, became the property of his son, Alonzo 
Carter, who occupied it for many years, when 
it was sold to the Buffalo Land Company and 
cut up into city lots. It has now become an 
important business part of the city of Cleve- 
land. The major died February 7, 1814, at 
forty-seven years of age. He was the father of 
nine children, — three sons, Alonzo, Henry, and 
Lorenzo, and six daughters, Laura, Rebecca, 
Polly, Rebecca (2d), Mercy, and Betsey. Lo- 
renzo and both Rebeccas died in infancy. 
Henry was drowned when but ten years old in 
the Cuyahoga River. The other children at- 
tained maturity and led exemplary lives. His 
wife died October 19, 1S2T. The descendants 
of the major are numerous, and are not only 
worthy but highly respected citizens. His 
grandsons, Henry, Lorenzo, Charles, and Ed- 
ward Carter reside in the city of Cleveland, 
and others of his descendants reside in the 
vicinity, or at no great distance, and are con- 
nected by marriage with prominent families — 
the Rathburns and Northrops of Olmstead Falls, 
the Akins of Brooklyn, the Abies of Rockport, 


the Cathans of Chagrin Falls, the Rathburns of 
Newburgh, the Peets of Ridgeville, Mrs. Crow 
of Newbtirgh, and others. ]Major Carter and 
his wife Rebecca were consigned to their final 
resting-place in the Erie-street cemeter}-, near 
its western entrance. Two marble headstones 
mark the spot, and also bear upon their face a 
brief record that is worthy of a reverent remem- 



THE theory of <a glacial period, or ice age, 
has been accepted by many of our modern 
geologists. But it does not follow that the 
theory has been verified or that geologists are 
infallible in their conclusions. 

The glacial theory is a child of the nine- 
teenth century. It was born about the year 
1840, at the foot of the Alps. Its godfathers 
■were men of renown in matters of science, who 
assumed to interpret the language of Nature, 
as spoken in her ice domains, and to reveal the 
methods of her work. In a word, they were 
emulous of making new discoveries in science. 

The idea of a glacial period was suggested 
by the discovery that the glaciers of the Alps 
are constantly sliding by slow degrees from their 
sublime heights down into the adjacent valleys, 
where they melt and deposit what are called 
"moraines," which are but the debris left by 
melted glaciers. In many instances glaciers 
carry with them huge rocks or bowlders, which 
they disrupt from the mountains as they descend 
into the valleys. In connegtion with rock they 

225 ^p 


often detach and precipitate extensive masses 
of earth to a lower level, thus changing the 
natural aspects of the land in the vicinity. 

From this state of facts and the stretch of a 
vivid imagination the advocates of the glacial 
theory infer that there was, at some time in the 
remote past, a " glacial period " of many thou- 
sand years' duration, when the greater part of 
both the northern and southern hemispheres of • 
the globe was covered with snow and ice from 
one to eight miles or more in depth, as esti- 
mated by glacial rules, and that these immense 
fields of snow and ice slid inch by inch from 
the polar regions towards the equator, a dis- 
tance of about two thousand miles, ploughing 
their way over the highest mountains and deep- 
est valleys, in spite of the law of gravity and a 
globular upgrade, and that they, in their course, 
excavated the basins of most of our great as 
well as small lakes, rivers, and valleys, striated 
the rocks, transported bowlders, distributed the 
drift or soil which has given to the earth its 
fertility, and finally expired in the temperate 
zones, where they melted and marked the spot 
of their decease with a line of gravestones or 
"terminal moraines." 

This hj'pothesis seems as incredible as it is 
inconsistent with the imperative law of gravity 
which would hold the glaciers as solidly in 


place as it holds the Rocky ^Mountains in place. 
The o'laciers would not only have to slide in 
opposition to the law of gravity, but in opposi- 
tion to a globular upgrade caused by the earth's 
equatorial axis being twenty -seven miles longer 
than its polar axis. 

How all this could happen, or by what nat- 
ural law these vast ice tields, covering both the 
northern and southern hemispheres during the 
glacial period, were generated, recruited, and 
preserved in their movement for thousands of 
years, none of tlie eminent advocates of the 
glacial theory have condescended to tell us, or 
to give us any reasons for such an occuiTence 
which are consistent with natural law or logical 
inference. We all know that rain and snow 
are generated by the evaporation of water under 
the influence of heat. The vapors ascend into 
a higher and colder region of atmosphere, where 
they condense and full in the form of ^rain or 
snow. The two hemispheric ice-fields of the 
glacial period could not by their own pressure 
have generated a sufficient degree of heat to 
produce vapors and at the same time slide in a 
congealing atmos[)here, and thus prolong their 
existence by the fall of additional rain or snow. 

If i,he glacial period ever existed, as claimed, 
it existed in violation of all known physical 
laws. All the waters of the globe are insutU- 


cient to have furnished the depths of snow tliat 
are said to have in\vrap[)ed both the northeiii 
and southern hemispheres for tliousands of years. 
It has been carefully estimated that if the globe 
were reduced to an even round surface and all 
its waters equally diffused over it, the uniform 
depth of water would lie less than one mile. 
In the lig'ht of this fact the entire waters of the 
globe, if frozen when thus diffused, would not 
equal the depth of snow and ice that existed in 
the glacial period, which was, as our glacialists 
say, from one to eight miles thick, or more. 

Glacialists cannot assume with any consist- 
ency that the sun ever failed to shed his rays 
on the earth as he now does, nor that the earth 
ever wandered from her orbit, or reversed her 
axis; nor can they assume or prove, by astro- 
nomical calculation, that the precession of the 
equinoxes, in the course of twenty-one thousand 
years, resulted in the production of the glacial 
era. If there ever were any such irregularities, 
the earth and sun must have changed their 
relations to each other, and all the rivers, lakes, 
and seas, north and south of the equator, must 
have been frozen to solidity, and, of course, all 
animal and vegetable life must have perished. 
Nature has never been known to stultifv her- 
self, nor does she work miracles in violation of 
her own fixed laws. 


It seems evident, therefore, that the so-called 
"glacial period " of the past was nothing more 
than the glacial period of the present. All the 
mountains that lift their heads above the snow- 
line, wherever located, are capped with snow 
and ice, and consequently generate more or less 
massive glaciers, which slide sluggishly into 
the adjoining valleys, where they melt and 
leave their debris, or slide, if located near the 
ocean, into its waters, where they float in the 
character of icebergs. 

Many of these icebergs are immense in their 
dimensions as well as formidable in their antag- 
onism. They are, in fact, Nature's ships at 
sea eno-aged in the commerce of the polar re- 
gions with the temperate zones. Their keels 
are spiked with bowlders that striate the rocks 
in the ocean-bed, and pulverize mineral sub- 
stances into sediments which, when hardened 
by heat and pressure, constitute the sheets of 
clay and stratilied rocks which are found in 
ocean-beds, the counterparts of which are also 
found beneath the drift or soil of the dry land, 
and in which are embedded more or less primi- 
tive shells and relics of the flora and fauna of 
different climes. 

The general aspects of the earth's crust, 
whether under water or above water, are much 
the same. The ocean-beds have their moun- 


tains, hills, plains, and valleys. In the course 
of unmeasured time ocean-beds are lifted into 
the sunlight of continents, and continents sunk 
into the darkness of oeean-bcds. In Nature's 
calendar there is no recognition of time. She 
works in the "eternal now," slowly for the 
most part, but sometimes violently. By an 
interchange of continents with ocean-beds she 
recruits impoverished soils, and prepares new 
conditions for the production of a still higher 
order of plant and animal life, and probably a 
higher order of man. 

The crust of the earth has been estimated to 
be from ten to fifty miles thick. It is doubtless 
much thinner at some points than at othere. Its 
interior is believed to be composed of molten 
minerals, which, when cooled, constitute the 
earth's crust. This vast interior mass includes 
in all probability more than nine-tenths of the 
entire material of the globe. 

It ma}- be inferred, therefore, that the earth's 
interior is a billowy sea of molten matter, roll- 
ing in majestic fluctuations, or tidal waves, 
ever beating and breaking against the inside of 
the earth's crust with a violence that disrupts 
it, or results at long periods in upheavals and 
subsidences of continents, throwing both the 
strati tied and conglnmerate rocks into strange 
relations to each other. It is this sublime and 


irresistible work of nature ^vhich has so dis- 
tinctly marked in the primitive rocks the suc- 
cession of the geological ages. There is no 
reasonable doubt that the igneous and aqueous 
forces, acting slowly or violently, are the dom- 
inant agencies which nature employs in the 
execution of her evolutionary work. She could 
not, if she would, call to her aid a glacial 

Strange as it may seem, the earth has three 
oceans, — an atmospheric ocean, a surface ocean, 
and an interior ocean. These three oceans are 
constantly ensracied in workinn- out the same 
ultimate prolilem and are governed by the same 
general law of circulation. They all have their 
currents and counter-currents. The activities 
of the atmospheric ocean are generated by heat 
and cold, at different points. The results are 
counter-currents of hot and cold winds, rain and 
snow, thunder and lightning, cloudbursts and 
cyclones. The surface ocean has similar activi- 
ties for similar reasons, resulting in thermal 
currents, cold currents, tidal waves, and water- 
spouts. The interior ocean gives birth to earth- 
(juakes, volcanoes, u^iheavals, and subsidences. 
It is the sublinn; and violent work of these 
several oceans that has given to the eartli its 
present aspects. The one ocean sometimes aids 
the other in a subordinate capacity. Yet all 


act in harmony and witli a view, seemingly, to 
achieve the same evolutionary results. 

It was unquestionably rapid currents of water, 
or floods in connection with icebergs at sea, 
that transported both the bowlders and the relics 
of the flora and fauna of different climes from 
their original localities and deposited them in 
foreign localities, where they are now found on 
the surface, or embedded in clay or drift, the 
world over. It was rapid currents of water 
that polished many of the transported bowlders, 
while some were transported in the rough state 
in which they fell from their birthplace in the 
mountains upon the surface of floating icebergs 
at sea, or were hurled broadcast by volcanic 
explosion. All this may have occurred in some 
sections of the earth at one time, and in other 
sections at another time, and probably did. 
The changes in the aspects of the earth, thus 
wrought, are in harmony with nature's geologi- 
cal record of events. 

The fallacy of the glacial theory cannot be 
better illustrated, perhaps, than by alluding to 
the views expressed by some of our enthusiastic 
glacialists in reference to the origin of our 
Great Xorth-western Lakes. They say there 
was a preglaeial [leiiod in which these lakes 
did not exist, except as a great river; and that 
in the subsequent glacial period, or ice age, 


huge glaciers followed the line of this river, 
excavated its channel into a series of lake 
basins, and tilled up the interspaces with 
deposits of drift. 

But when we take into consideration the 
extent and depth of these lakes, it seems not 
only improlxible, but ini[)0ssible, that the exca- 
vation of their rocky basins was the work of 
glacial action. If we may accept the report of 
the United States Survey, the maxinuim depth 
of Lake Superior is 1,0U8 feet, Huron ToO feet, 
Michigan 870 feet, Erie 270 feet, and Ontario 
500 feet. It is also showu by the same report 
that they all have a mean height above the 
level of the sea of 517 feet, and a mean depth 
below the level of the sea of 271 feet, and that 
the total area of their surface exceeds the total 
area of England, Scotland, and Wales, while 
the distance, on a central line, from the head 
of Lake Superior to the foot of Lake Ontario, 
exceeds twelve hundred miles. If we can be- 
lieve our Great Lakes were excavated by glacial 
action, we can with equal reason believe that 
glaciers excavated the Red Sea, or Gulf of 

The entire region of our Great Lakes has 
evidently l>een, at some remote period, sub- 
jected to violent disuubinces. This fact in- 
duces the supposition that they were originally 


a range of mountains, and that they suddenly 
colhip.sed during an upheaval and subsidence of 
the entire lake region. This suggestion seems 
verified by the testimony of the rocks v^'hich 
encircle the lakes. Some of these rocks have a 
volcanic appearance, while others crop out that 
belong to the primitive geological series. 

It can hardly be doubted that the St. Law- 
rence River Valley and the lake region were 
included in the same general volcanic disturb- 
ance. The rocky channels of both the St. 
Lawrence and Niagara strengthen the supposi- 
tion, and what should remove all reasonable 
doubt is the fact that iron and other metals, 
the products of volcanic action, are found at 
various points along the line of these rivers 
and lakes in connection with relics of the flora 
and fauna of widely different climes. 

On the southern border of Lake Erie, near 
Cleveland, a Cleveland company, in boring for 
gas, in 1889, struck a bed of solid salt, fifty 
feet thick or more, at the depth of one thou- 
sand feet. This fact, in connection with many 
othei"s that might be cited, proves that the lake 
region was at one time submerged beneath the 
waters of the ocean, and that, at an upheaval, 
it retained in a valley or basin of the earth's 
crust a l)road sheet of salt ^^ater, wliich, by 
subse^uent heat and pressure, crystallized and 
became salt. 


In fact, it would seem that the entire valley 
of the Mississippi from the AUeghanies to the 
Rocky Mountains must have been submerged 
and upheaved, probably at the same time with 
the lake region, if we may judge from the vol- 
canic rocks and mineral deposits which abound 
in different parts of the valley's broad domains. 

In Louisiana an oil company, in 188G, struck-, 
at the depth of six hundred and fifteen feet, 
an extensive bed of pure sulphur, twenty feet 
thick, which was unquestionably deposited by 
volcanic action in some remote geological age. 

We have further proof of volcanic disturb- 
ances in the fact that there are three distinct 
ridges of land bordering the southerly shore of 
Lake Erie, which are composed of the same 
material as the present shore, and which cor- 
respond with its angles. These ridges lie horn 
one to three miles apart, and vary in height 
above the present level of the lake from eighty 
to three hundred feet. They were evidently, 
at some former period, the boundaries of the 
lake. The lake must have been at one time at 
least six hundred feet deep, instead of an aver- 
age depth of seventy feet, as at present. These 
ancient boundaries indicate that the Jake was 
suddenly drained of a sliare of its waters at 
three widely different periods. This must have 
been done by three equally sudden subsidences 


of the lake and the region south-easterly of it in 
the direction of the St. Lawrence River. It is 
simply a question of time how soon Niagara 
Falls will reach Black Rock, and drain Lake 

It is not possible that polar glaciers could 
have excavated the basins of the lakes and left 
the islands, undisturbed, where they now are. 
It cannot be true, therefore, that polar glaciers 
striated the rocks at Kelley's Island and San- 
dusky Bay, or at other points on the lake coast. 
The striations or grooves which are seen in the 
rocks were probably made by volcanic eruptions. 
in the bed of the lake which lifted the islands 
into their present positions. These eruptions 
would, of course, cause a sudden overflow of 
the lake, and, if occurring in the winter, would 
lift vast sheets of ice with the water and carry 
in rushing currents, ice, sand, gravel, and bowl- 
ders, and thus striate the surface rocks on the 
islands and along the lake coast. 

These striations, or grooves, ought not to be 
accepted as proof of a glacial period, for the 
reason that similar markings or grooves are to 
be seen on the highest mountains as well as in 
the valleys to a greater or less extent in every 
.part of the world, and. in all probability, were 
produced by igneous and aqueous forces, the 
onlv instrumentalities which Nature seems to 


have employed or needed in giving to the earth 
its present aspects. 

We all know that earthquakes are of frequent 
occurrence in the world. The whole number, 
as statistics show, exceeds live hundred per 
annum. Fifty or more have occurred in the 
lake region and Mississippi Valley within the 
last half century. 

At New Madrid, in 1811, an eartlK^uake sunk 
several islands in the Mississippi River, lifted 
and broke the earth's crust into yawning chasms, 
created new lakes, and set back the current of 
the river eighteen miles. The shocks continued 
for several days and changed materially the 
aspects of that region of the country. 

The earthquake at Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, in 18SG, was still more disastrous in its 
effects. It not only fractured the earth's crust, 
but destroyed a considerable part of the city 
and killed a number of citizens. The shocks 
were repeated for several days and felt through- 
out nearly all the Southern States. In fact, 
overwhelming earthquakes may occur at any 
time when least expected. 

Geology, though comparatively a modern 
science, is based on visible facts, which are 
veritied by the constant ailivities" of nature; 
while orlaciolocrv, though called a science, is 
based on an assumption of facts which never 

238 cixr OF Cleveland 

existed. The glacial theory is, therefore, noth- 
ing more than a phantom Hitting in the twilight 
of science. 

The grand problem of the creation, however, 
cannot be solved; nor can the antiquity of man, 
or the conditions of his origin, be traced to any 
definite geological era. Yet we live in an age 
of philosophers, who seem to think the impos- 
sible possible. But when we consider that the 
universe has neither centre nor circumference, 
we are lost in the limitless held that lies open 
to scientitic investigation, and shrink with a 
feeling of instinctive awe and reverence from 
the attempt to explore it. In a field of thought 
so vast and unlimited, we are lost for the want 
of a thought broad enough and strong enough 
to grasp the inthiite. The revelations of sci- 
ence, however, assure us that a divine intelli- 
gence pervades the universe — the intelligence 
of a paternal Sovereignty that is crowned with 
the stars.