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Full text of "Fourteen months in Canton"

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In 2 vols. Svo., icith 140 Illustrations. Price 32s. 

CHINA: 

A HISTORY OF THE LAWS, MANNERS, AND CUSTOMS 

OF THE PEOPLE. 

By JOHN HENEY GEAY, M.A., LL.D. 

ARCHDEACON OF HONG-KONG. 

EDITED BY WILLIAM GOW GREGOR. 



" Its pages contain the most truthful and vivid picture of 
Chinese life which has ever been published." — Athenceum, 

" In no previously published work has so much of the inner life 
of the people been set forth." — Pall Mali Gazette. 

" This work of Dr. Gray's is the only elaborate and valuable book 
we have had for many years, treating generally of the people 

of the Celestial Empire We have a very valuable 

collection of the illustrations of the life of the Chinese as sketched 
by themselves,^ and the idea of presenting them was a happy one.' 
— Academy. 

" If a long residence in the country, an acquaintance with the 
spoken language of the people, abundant leisure, and indefatigable 
industry, are qualifications such as should fit an author to write 
an account of China, Dr. Gray is the right man for the task." — 

Saturday Review. 

" He has embodied the results of his study in two volumes which, 
with their profusion of curious illustrations from drawings by 
native artists, may fairly take rank as the standard work upon 
a subject of which the interest is apparently inexhaustible." — 
John Bull. 

" Presents a vivid and trustworthy picture, not merely of the 
religion, government, and ethnology of the Chinese empire, but 
of the every-day life of the people, in their homes, shops, and 
streets; the administration of justice, the police of their cities; 
the moral progress, life, and character of all classes ; in a word, 
of how and why they are what they are." — Standard. 

MACMILLAN & CO., LONDON. 



FOUETEEN MONTHS 



m 



CANTON. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS 



CANTON. 



MRS. GRAY. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS, 



IKxjnlioit : 
MACMILLAN AND 0. 

1880. 

I'fhe Jiiglil of TranaUilion is reserved.} 



LONDON : 

PKINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, 

STAJIFOr.D STREET AND CHAKISG CUOSS. 



5*S 

o 



7>S 



TO 
MY HUSBAND, 

JOHN HENEY GEAY, M.A., LLJ3., 

ARCHDEACON {LATE OF IIOXG KONG), 
WHOSE LONG RESIDENCE IN THE CITY OF CANTON, 

AND INTIMATE ACQUAINTANCE WITH 

ITS INHABITANTS, 

ENABLED ME TO SEE AND LEARN SO MUCH OF THEIR 

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 






INTRODUCTION. 



The letters forming the subject of this small 
work were written during a fourteen months' 
residence in the city of Canton, where I enjoyed 
many opportunities of seeing the inner life of the 
Chinese, and of learning much of their daily life 
in their own homes. The letters were written for 
circulation amongst my family and a few friends 
who kindly expressed an interest in all I saw 
and did in the far-off country of China. These 
descriptive letters accompanied others I wrote at 
the same time to my family, and so they do not 
contain any reference to domestic matters neces- 
sary to suppress. They are therefore published 
in extenso. We left Liverpool in the S.S. 
Abyssinian on our outward journey, January 
13th, 1877, and arrived at New York in fourteen 
days. Our voyage was rough and uninteresting, 
especially so perhaps to me, as I was very ill the 
whole time. Fourteen days spent in a cabin is 
very trying, even to the most patient of minds. 

h 3 



viu INTEODUCTION. 

We stayed four or five days in New York, and 
then went on to Niagara. The Falls far sur- 
passed my most vivid imagination of them, and I 
felt that had they alone been the object of our 
journey, we should have been well repaid. The 
only mistake we made was in our selection of an 
hotel. We followed the advice of some fellow- 
travellers and remained on the American side 
of the Falls. The Canadian side is, I think, 
much more lovely, one is nearer to the Falls, 
and the view of the Horse-shoe Fall from the 
windows of the hotels which are situated close 
to it is most charming. After a three days' stay 
at Niagara we went on to Chicago, where we 
spent two days, and were much struck with the 
indefatigable industry of the people in having 
raised such a noble town so quickly after the 
destruction of the greater part of the old city. 
We went on from Chicago to the Salt Lake 
City and stayed there at the Mormon Hotel, so 
that we might hear as much as possible of the 
saints and their doings. Mr. Townsend, the pro- 
prietor of the hotel, was most willing to give all 
details of the Mormon belief and its practices, 
and made us several long visits in our sittiug- 
room, and talked until I felt so indignant that I 
could scarcely refrain from speaking out my mind. 
The position of the Salt Lake City is lovely. 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

and I never saw a scene that enchanted me so 
much, as on the evening when we drew near 
to it. The surrounding snow-capped mountains 
are grand, and when we first caught sight of 
them, they were of roseate hue. Brigham Young 
showed no small judgment when he selected this 
spot as the cradle of his infant kingdom. It 
contains in itself all that is necessary for the use 
of man. It abounds, especially, in mineral wealth. 
The valley in which the town lies embosomed is 
a Paradise. I was, however, much disappointed 
in the town itself, as I had read in some work 
that it was a paragon of neatness and cleanliness. 
It is at all events now most commercial in ap- 
pearance, with large advertisements at the corners 
of the streets, and " Very cheap," " Not to be 
rivalled," and so on, written up in the shops. 

After visiting all the places of interest in Salt 
Lake City, we left on the fourth day, and passing 
by the great Salt Lake itself, the waters of which 
were as smooth as glass, proceeded by train to 
San Francisco. And what can I say of that mar- 
vellous journey across the continent of America? 
— it disappointed me. The Eocky Mountains 
and the Sierra Nevadas are magnificent, the 
country we passed through in California is most 
charming, but I was not prepared for the hundreds 
of miles through the prairies, where we saw 



X INTRODUCTION. 

nothing to interest us, nor for the dirty towns at 
which we stopped en route. The travelling, too, 
is to my mind uncomfortable, and the carriages 
not so well arranged as they might be. The 
refreshment rooms at the stations are overheated, 
and I often only put my head into them to beat 
a hasty retreat. 

San Francisco reached, we discovered that our 
projected trip into the Yosemite Valley was an 
impossibility. The road was not open, being still 
choked up by snow, so with regret we had to 
give up our desire to see this most lovely spot. 
We remained at San Francisco five days, and 
then embarked on board the S.S. Belgio, and 
started on our long sea voyage to Hong Kong. 
We were equally unfortunate in the weather in 
this voyage as in that across the Atlantic. The 
only really fine day we had was that on which we 
started. Afterwards we experienced a succession 
of squalls and bad weather. The captain had 
predicted a smooth and rapid voyage, as our 
course, with the view of avoiding tempestuous 
weather, was 500 miles farther south than is 
usually the case. Day after day there was the 
same remark to make at dinner, " What a rough 
day we have had." The officers of the vessel 
said it was exceptionally squally and trying. One 
night not a person on board closed his eyes ; the 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

wind blew a gale, the cargo shifted, and we were 
so much on one side that it seemed as if we must 
roll over. Another day, during a storm, some 
high waves broke against the ship, and struck the 
port-holes of our cabin, which was on deck, with 
such terrific force, that we feared, for a moment, 
the sea must dash in. This happened twice 
during the same gale. 

We did not reach Japan until four weeks after 
we had left San Francisco, and the time seemed 
double in length, as the monotony of sea life was 
not broken by any ships in sight, save one small 
vessel, or by other objects of interest. I was 
enchanted with the approach to Japan, and the 
sight of land was doubly \velcome after one had 
been so long at sea. Yokohama I delighted in ; 
and Tokio, in which we spent ten hours rushing 
about in jinrickshaws, to each of which two men 
were harnessed, was most intensely interesting to 
me. How I laughed when I got into this most 
curious conveyance, and my two brown naked- 
legged Japanese ran off with me. We visited 
most of the buildings, temples, etc., in Tokio, 
our jinrickshaw men taking us from place to 
place with almost the speed of ponies. I longed 
to be able to spend some weeks in this most 
charming country of Japan, and returned with 
much regret to the Belgic at midnight. Had 



XU INTEODUCTION. 

we known that we could have taken our tickets 
to Yokohama, and have remained there for 
four or five days, and then have gone on by 
anotlier service to Hong Kong, we should most 
certainly have doue so; but the steamboat 
agent in London told us that by breaking our 
journey we should incur a fortnight's delay, 
and this we were not willing to risk. A week's 
voyage from Yokohama brought us to the 
port of Hong Kong. The entrance to the har- 
bour of Hong Kong is beautiful, and I was 
lost in wonder and interest as I watched the 
ocean and coasting junks and all the river 
craft in their fantastic and varied forms. The 
town of Hong Kong, as viewed from the sea, 
is very fine and important-looking, and stands 
well, being built along the margin of the harbour, 
and on the side of a high hill. The harbour is 
very broad and deep, and capable of holding a 
large mercantile fleet. 

I shall always retain a vivid recollection of the 
interest and pleasure which the quaint and vast 
city of Canton afforded me, where all was so 
different to anything I had seen before. I never 
went into it or its suburbs without seeing some- 
thing new, something which greatly interested 
me. The formation of the city, its narrow streets, 
its innumerable alleys and turnings, its shops, 



INTRODUCTION. xill 

with their curiously- fashioned contents, were a 
never-ending study to me. My residence in 
Canton was, with much regret, brought abruptly 
to a close on the 8th of June, 1878, by a serious 
illness. We were compelled to return to England 
by the shortest possible route, and to give up 
our intention of visiting India on the way home. 
The sea voyage partially restored me to health, 
and I was able to land at Saigon, Singapore, 
Ceylon, and Aden, and to see all that it was 
possible to see in the short time allowed to 
passengers at those places. Ceylon is a lovely 
island, and I consider Wahwallah, with its exten- 
sive view, one of the most beautiful spots I have 
ever visited. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

LETTER I. 

Canton, April 1st, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

We were delighted to receive your letters, 
as well as those from our friends ; please receive 
our warmest thanks for them. They only 
arrived at Hong Kong the same day as we did 
(last Monday), and as they were reserved for us 
at the Post Office, and not sent on to Canton, we 
received them as a welcome to China, and it was 
most delightful ! You should have seen us devour 
all our correspondence as we sat at tiffin at the 
Hong Kong Hotel. 

After we had lunched, we hired chairs and began 
to explore the city. I was much surprised at the 
size and extent of it, and at the palatial dimensions 
of the private houses. They reminded me of 
Italian palaces ; and they look so well, as the 
situation on which they are built, overlooking the 

B 



I FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

harbour, is very charming. The town is kept in 
good order, and strikes a stranger as a prosperous 
city. 

We wound some distance up the road which 
leads to the peak, then returned into the main 
road, and went round the Happy Valley. The 
weather now was cloudy and misty, so I did not 
see this part of the town to advantage, but I 
could judge how beautiful it must look on a 
bright, sunshiny day. On our return, we dis- 
missed our cliairs, and went into the hotel and 
ordered dinner. Afterwards we took a stroll 
through the Chinese quarter of the city, and I 
saw much that interested and surjorised me. 
The lighting-up of shops and houses with large 
paper lanterns struck me as so very strange. 

At nine o'clock p.m. we returned on board the 
Belgie, where we had been most courteously in- 
vited to spend the night. The following morning 
we started at eight o'clock in the river steamer 
for our foreign home, to which I had looked for- 
ward for so many weeks. I was astonished at 
the immense number of Chinese crowded on the 
lower deck of the steamer. These river steamers 
are very fine, and the journey of ninety-five miles 
is performed in six hours if the tide be favourable. 
One thing much surpiised me on the steamer, 
and that was to see a man with a naked sword 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 3 

stationed at the closed gangway. He never took 
his eyes off the gangway, and when he had been 
at his post an hour or so another man relieved 
him. On inquiry, I learnt that this preeantion 
is adopted in consequence of some Chinese 
pirates having gone on board the steamer Sparh 
some months ago as passengers. When they had 
reached the estuary of the Canton river, they rose, 
murdered tlie European officers and passengers, 
and took the treasure. 

When we had passed the Bogue Forts, and had 
so come under the protection of other vessels, the 
man with the sword relinquished his post. And 
now I made my first acquaintance with Chinese 
scenery, with pagodas, with pawn towers, and 
with all the curious craft upon the river. As we 
apj)roached Canton, the goal to which we had 
been hastening these ten weeks past, my heart 
was very full, and I was impatient to ai-rive at 
our destination. When the steamer dropped her 
anchor, the noise around us was deafening. 
Crowds of passenger boats were waiting for hire, 
and pushing against each other in their eagerness 
to get a good place near the gangways of the 
steamer. The boatmen were screaming out to 
attract the attention of people to their particular 
boats, and the boatwomen came on board en- 
deavouring to secure passengers. Their costume 

B 2 



4 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

struck me as being so peculiar. It is a dark- 
blue cotton blouse and wide trousers, which reach 
a little way below the knee. The feet and legs 
are bare. And then what is so curious to our 
European eyes, is the hair fully dressed teapot 
fashion, the jadestone clasps in it, the jadestone 
earrings, and the jadestone bangles worn by these 
poor women. The women's heads of hair strike 
me as being beautifully neat. The whole scene 
around me bewildered me. I saw an old China- 
man talking to Henry, and soon learnt that it 
was our head servant ]\Iak, who, hearing that 
there was a chance of our arriving on Tuesday, 
had come to the steamer to meet us. 

A large crowd of Chinese had assembled to 
see the steamer come in ; and their costumes, 
their shaven heads, their tails, attracted all 
my attention. And now Mak (our comprador) 
having selected a boat out of the many crowding 
round the steamer, we got into it, and proceeded 
by the river wall of Shameen* to the Chaplaincy, 
which is at the farther end of the small island. 
I thought Shameen looked very pretty as we 
passed along it, and I was surprised, when we 
pulled up before the Chaplaincy, to see what a 
charming, comfortable house it seemed to be. 
AVhen I entered it I was still better pleased, 
* Tlie European settleracut. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

as tLe liouse is so well arranged. I will give 
you a description of my new home. It is in the 
Italian style of architecture, built in two stories, 
with two deep verandahs at the back of the 
house, looking upon the river. You enter a 
good-sized hall, and on your left is the drawing- 
room — a large room with two windows opening to 
the ground at each end, and three windows run- 
ning down the side of it. From the verandah 
you step on to a narrow piece of grass which 
separates us from the bund or walk on the river 
wall. 

From the front door you face the wide grass 
walk, which goes down the entire length of the 
settlement. 

Our house is in the same compound as the 
church, which is also of Italian architecture, and 
which seems to me large, considering the small 
number amongst the community who are membeis 
of the Church of England. The church, our house, 
and the wall which surrounds them, are painted a 
stone colour in two shades. I like our part of 
Shameen much. It is at the extreme end of the 
small island, and is all to ourselves. We have a 
beautiful view of the broad river Pearl. 

The name Shameen, means "sand face," and 
was given to the settlement partly from the fact 
that, until the Europeans bought it, it was but a 



6 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

sand-bank ; and partly from tlie shape of the island 
resembling a human face. It is a small island, 
only a mile and a half in circumference. The 
bund encircling it is ornamented by a row of 
banyan-trees, which look so green at this time 
of year. 

Tlie houses in the settlement are very handsome 
and the whole of it is beautifully laid out. The 
walks are all bordered by the banyan-trees. I am 
much struck with the tropical plants I have seen in 
the gardens, especially with the palm-trees. Our 
heavy luggage not having arrived, we are occupy- 
ing ourselves by walking into the city, and have 
already seen several of the interesting places in it. 
We have visited many of the old chin aware shops, 
and have picked up, even in these two or three 
days, some good pieces of ancient blue china, so our 
drawing-room begins to look homelike. You must 
remember that the Chaplaincy is alreadyfurnished. 
We have purchased some small, square Chinese 
carpets, some of which are yellow in the ground 
colour, with devices in blue ; others white in the 
ground colour, with most curious patterns in ser- 
pents, ancient characters (such as Shan, meaning 
longevity), and various animals. In make they 
much resemble coarse tapestry. We could, had we 
wished, have bought European carpets, as we saw 
some hanging up in the street where we made 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 7 

our purchases, and I believe that the houses in 
Shameen generally are carpeted with them ; but we 
intend to embellish our house as much as possible in 
Chinese style. On our arrival (which was somewhat 
unexpected) at the Chaplaincy, the whole house 
was in disorder, and the dining-room floor was in 
the hands of a painter ; but a very short time 
sufiSced for the Chinese boys to arrange the 
furniture, and as the floors are painted in the 
sitting-rooms as well as the bedrooms, there is 
DO need to lay down carpets, as with us in England. 
Whilst we were still in disorder, a friend of 
Henry's arrived in her chair, and most kindly 
begged of us to stay with her for a few days, 
until our house could be made ready for our use ; 
but we declined her kind invitation, as, after our 
journey of ten weeks, we longed to be quiet in our 
own house. 

During the ten days we have been here, we 
must have walked five or six miles daily, and 
have stood about for hours sightseeing. Oh ! 
there is so much to see in Canton, and all is so 
different to what one meets with in European 
cities. The narrow, long, numerous streets, with 
their brilliant signboards in all colours, are very 
curious. These signboards hang in front of the 
shops, and bear the names of the owners, and 
the kind of articles soM in the shops. 



8 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

You cannot imagine how gay they are. Some 
are eight to ten feet long, and are painted scarlet 
with raised characters in black — or blue with 
raised letters in gold — or white with red charac- 
ters ; in fact there is every variety excepting green 
boards, which are rarely to be seen. The streets 
often contain shops of one kind only, so you see 
on a whole row of many-coloured signboards a 
shoe, a stocking, a musical instrument, or a hat, 
painted at the bottom, according to the article 
sold in that particular street. Over some shops 
hang signboards made in the sha]3e of the article 
sold in them, such as a hat suspended over a 
hatter's, a stocking over a hosier's. One particular 
shop I passed amused me much. It belonged to 
a dentist, and .beside the characteristic signboard 
denoting the business of the owner, there was a 
large-sized figure, well executed and coloured, of 
a man in the act of brushing a splendid row of 
white teeth. Sometimes a dentist indicates his 
calling by hanging at the doorpost of his shop 
strings of decayed teeth. The streets bear very 
curious names, which Henry translated for me in 
some instance?. I will give you a few of these 
names for examples. There are " Peace Street," 
"Bright Cloud Street," "Street of Everlasting 
Love," " Street of One Hundred Grandsons," 
" Street of a Thousand Beatitudes," " Street of 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 9 

the Ascending Dragon," " Street of the Keposing 
Dragon," etc. Again, some streets are dis- 
tinguished from others by the numbers which 
they bear. Many of the principal streets are 
named thus: "First Ward," "Second Ward," 
" Third Ward," etc. I have thoroughly enjoyed 
the shopping, and wish you could see us enter a 
shop, salute the master of it, receive his chin- 
chin in return, then take a seat in the inner shop 
(for, in many cases, the shops are divided into two 
compartments), and receive a tiny cup of the 
simple, in its full sense, as it is without milk or 
sugar. Tlien you mention what you require, and 
the article is brought in and displayed before you. 
The master of the shop names his price. Henry, 
after appearing to reflect for a few seconds, prob- 
ably offers half what is demanded, and the bar- 
gaining is then begun. It is all done in perfect 
good humour. Sometimes Henry's first offer is ac- 
cepted, and then one knows that it is more than 
a fair price ; sometimes he advances nearer to the 
merchant's demand, but he does this slowly, and, 
as a rule, as he advances the owner of the shop 
drops his price little by little. In a street, how- 
ever, where the foreigners generally deal, which 
is close to Shameen, the price is a fixed one. In 
this street are some beautiful shops containing 
ivory carvings, jewellery, silk goods, and black 



10 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

wood furniture. In the provision shops you see 
strange sights. In some I liave noticed dried rats, 
cooked dogs' flesh — which when cut up, as it is, 
into joints for sale, I have mistaken for sucking- 
pig — ducks' bills, edible birds' nests, and every 
variety of meat and fish. The latter is a disgust- 
ing sight, as to make it look fresh each piece 
when cut is smeared over with blood. In poul- 
terers' shops I have seen owls, white storks with 
their eyes sewn up to prevent them from taking 
fright at the passers-by, as they stand usually on 
one leg on perches in front of the shops, lizards, 
tortoises, etc., all for human food. Nothing is 
wasted by the thrifty Chinese : all and every part 
of an animal is reckoned by them as good to be 
eaten. I ha,ve also observed a great number of 
open-air stalls, which are placed either under mat 
coverings, or simply under large umbrellas made 
of dried palm-leaves. I have seen most pictur- 
esque groups standing round these stalls drinking 
soup, or eating boiled rice with chopsticks, or 
perhaps taking cakes or other light refreshment. 
The Chinese are most inveterate gamblers, and I 
Lave noticed small boys gambling at stalls where 
nuts, oranges, or other fruits are sold. In the 
streets and squares one often sees groups of four or 
five Chinese squatting, who are engaged in play- 
ing cards and dominoes, whilst others stand and 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



11 



look on at the game. 



I find the Chinese most 
polite in the streets, always making room for us 
to pass ; and although they follow us and stand at 




lU-'' 




CT*' 1 



^^(l^^dtE^-^' 










the entrance of the shops when we enter them, to 
gaze at us, they are most good-tempered. When 
Henry speaks Chinese they are much amused 



12 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

and say, so he tells me, " He speaks the clear 
language." When he writes down our address so 
that our purchases may be sent to us, our atten- 
tive followers cry out sometimes, " This barbarian 
has a written language." 

You must understand that tlie shop fronts are 
not glazed ; all are open to the air. The shops 
where they sell precious stones, especially jade- 
stone, form one long street, and in its numerous 
shops are contained thousands of pounds' worth of 
jadestone, so much prized by Chinese of all ranks. 
This jadestone street is quite a mile in length, 
with shops on each side of it for the sale of jade 
and other stones. I cannot convey to you an idea 
of the size of Canton with its hundreds and 
hundreds of narrow streets. How Henry can 
find his way about as he does puzzles me; he 
knows every short cut in this vast labyrinth of 
streets and lanes, every queer, tortuous turn seems 
familiar to him. He is a splendid guide in the 
city. All his Chinese friends seem delighted to 
see him, ask him where he has been, congratulate 
me, ask my age, if I come from Eugland, etc. 
As we pass along, I often hear the Chinese in 
the streets or in the shops say " Sing-Sang," the 
Chinese for teacher, and one of the names by 
which Henry is known to them. 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 13 



LETTER II. 

Taai-Tung-Koo-Tsze Monastery, April 4th, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

Picture us most comfortably seated in 
an upper room of a garden house of a Buddhist 
monastery, on the other side of the Pearl Eiver 
from Shameen. Henry has spent many, many 
days in this retreat before, and the monks have 
most kindly given him the garden house for his 
use. Our room is very quaint in its divisions, 
and in one corner, or perhaps, more correctly 
speaking, in a small room separated from the 
one we are in, is a wooden Chinese bed. Our 
sitting-room is divided into two compartments 
by wooden trellis carving. In the divisions 
there are fragments of pictures. When new 
it must have been very pretty, but it requires 
to be put in order, and Henry tells me that 
this is a thing a Chinese does not understand. 
He builds, by degrees the place becomes dilapi- 
dated, but no money is spent upon it ; and at last, 
when the building will no longer hold together, it 
is pulled down, and a new place raised upon the 
site. The air is lovely ; and as it is warm to-day, 
we are sitting w ith the windows (such windows ! 
divided into the smallest panes, pleasing to the 
eye of the medievalist) thrown open. The trees 



14 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

in the garden are tall and shady ; a fine pomelo- 
tree is opposite onr windows, the branches of 
which overhang a small square pond surrounded 
by brickwork. Beyond is a pavilion with one of 
the beautiful double wooden roofs. We have 
brought a table, chairs, and a lunch box from the 
Chaplaincy. On our arrival we saw one of the 
few monks belonging to this monastery, and he 
took us into the visitors' room. It is very charm- 
ing, furnished with carved black wood furniture, 
and the windows have small panes set in dark 
wood of a curious pattern. 

I have just seen a lovely large butterfly pass 
the windows, its wings black and as soft-looking 
as velvet. The birds are singing sweetly in the 
garden. Here we are as busy as bees — I with 
my correspondence, and Henry sitting at my side 
correcting his manuscripts. Before we left home, 
a Chinese merchant, an old friend of Henry's, 
called. He is a good-tempered-looking old man 
of seventy-six years of age. As he spoke pigeon 
English, I understood but little of what he said. 
He stared at me, asked my age, and said patronis- 
ingly, " You proper face." When speaking of the 
present Emperor's age (he is a child of five years), 
he said, " But his mother very cunning, take 
care of that pigeon," meaning State affairs. 
When Henry asked him if his new wife (No. 2) 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 15 

had any children, he answered, " No, no piecee : 
one piecee come but no stay," meaning the child 
was dead. The poor old gentleman could not 
understand me at all. 

On Sunday evening, after the three o'clock 
service, we started in a slipper boat for Whampoa, 
which is at a distance of eleven miles down the 
river, as Henry is anxious to resume evening 
services there on Sundays. The place is much 
altered since he first began to liold services 
at this port. The large ships are no longer 
to be seen in its roadstead. The docks, etc., 
have been sold to the Chinese, and the whole 
place looks deserted and wretched. The large 
ocean steamers go up straight to Canton now, and 
do not, as formerly, discharge their cargoes at 
Whampoa. As the tide was in our favour, we went 
down' to Whampoa in two hours ; but the return 
journey was very long, over four hours, and we did 
not reach home until midnight. On our way there 
we saw a long procession of state barges, about 
eighteen in number. The Chinese Governor was 
returning to Canton from an inspection of the 
forts down the river. I was filled with wonder 
as I saw the river swarming with its boating 
population. Henry tells me that there are, it is 
reckoned, 300,000 human beings who live entirely 
in their boats. They never stay on land and 



16 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

are a distinct community, one may say, to the 
population on shore. It has been conjectured that 
they are the descendants of rebels who were com- 
pelled by an emperor of the past to be thus cut 
off from communion with their fellow men. There 
are anchorages marked out for each set of boats, 
and there are streets and streets of boats thickly 
packed together. Men, women, boys and girls, but 
more particularly women, scull and row these boats. 
The costume of the latter is a tunic and wide, 
short trousers, coming to tlie middle of the leg, in 
dark-blue cotton. They wear neither shoes nor 
stockings. I am getting accustomed to the naked 
legs and feet of the lower orders. Even the city 
guard are without stockings. I have noticed that 
many superior-looking men take off their smart, 
embroidered shoes and carry them when it rains. 
In the streets I have been much struck with the 
quiet, gentle deportment of the Chinese. I have 
already seen some small-footed women. One we 
met on our way to this monastery was riding 
on the back of her female attendant.* She was 
the young wife, Henry thought, of a farmer, on 
her way to visit a friend in one of the neigh- 
bouring villages. 

* Cliiiiese ladies sometimes ride ou the bucks of their amahs 
when going from village to village to pay visits to their friends. 
This custom they also adopt in getting about their large gardens. 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 17 



LETTEE III. 

Canton, April 12th, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

We paid several calls' on Wednesday, and 
found most of our friends at home. I was glad 
to have an opportunity of seeing the interior of 
the houses in our settlement. I was much struck 
with their English appearance, carpeted as they are 
with English carpets, many well-known engravings 
hanging on the walls. The black wood furniture 
and the large verandahs alone make one realise 
that one is in the East, when seated in one 
of these large drawing-rooms. I think when 
Europeans return to their native lands, they must 
feel very much disappointed with the contracted, 
cramped houses they have to live in. When our 
calls were paid, we went into the city, and after 
a search in some of the curiosity shops for blue 
china, we entered the Flowery Forest Mona- 
stery. The monks were having a meal in the hall, 
and plentiful the feast appeared to be, with its 
many dishes containing various portions of food. 
They rose and welcomed us, and expressed great 
pleasure in seeing Henry again. We begged 
them (you can imagine mine was the pantomimic 

c 



18 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

actiou) to be seated. They offered us seats at 
another table, aud one of the young monks 
brought us tea in covered cups. Another of 
them, whose duty it is to receive visitors, sat 
down with us, and Henr}'^ and he chin-chinned each 
other by touching cups, and then we sipped our 
tea. Dried fruit of various kinds, lichees, wampees, 
dragon's eyes, dried ginger, etc., were placed on 
the centre of the table in a lacquered box made 
in many compartments. The monk handed the 
dried fruit to us on a little two-pronged fork, and 
opened the dried lichees before he passed them to 
us. Henry, then, in true Chinese style, took a 
j)iece of the dried fruit on the little fork, rose, and 
jDUt it into our host's mouth. In the meantime the 
repast was going on at the other table close to us. 
I should think there must have been some thirty 
little china bowls, with various kinds of food in 
them, in the centre of the table. Meat is for- 
bidden to these Buddhist monks, but it is by no 
means certain that sundry small pieces of pork 
and other flesh were not to be found in these 
little bowls. Each monk had his own basin in 
one hand, the chopsticks in the other, and he 
helped himself first to one of the dainties, then 
to another, from the centre of the table. This is 
the way all Chinese take their food. When the 
repast was over, the monks came to our table aud 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 19 

stood by us ; each then spoke to us, took some 
morsel from our centre dish, and handed it to us. 
The dragon's eyes and other kinds of dried fruit 
were so distasteful to me, that I had to take tliem 
slily from my mouth and hide them in my saucer. 
The monks are dirty-looking men, with un- 
intellectual faces, and the long nails that they 
wear on some of their fingers look as if they had 
not seen soap and water for many a long day. 
They are very courteous, and the ceremony of 
bowing at each of the little doorways in taking 
leave of the monk who conducts you to the 
street, is very wearisome. 

On leaving this reception hall we went to see 
the shrine of The Five Hundred Disciples of 
Buddha. It is a most extraordinary sight. The 
figures, which are almost life-size, are made in 
clay and gilded, and as they have just been 
restored they are extremely bright. As you 
enter the shrine you see long rows of these 
figures, sitting on a raised platform, in lines and 
cross lines. Each figure represents a disciple 
according to his idea of sanctity. Some hold 
their arms upright, which liave stiffened in this 
position ; one I saw with both arms so raised ; 
others are in contemplative postures. One 
carried a crozier in his hand, another had a mitre 
on his head, while others wore crowns. AU are 

c 2 



20 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

represented as having dark-blue hair, and in 
some instances the figures have blue beards. No 
two are alike. In a few cases represented, the 
disciples being especially holy, a little image 
of Buddha is formed in the chest, giving a most 
curious appearance to the idol. The vestments 
these figures Avear are, curiously enough, Catholic 
in form. We afterwards passed through the 
Beggars' Square ; here beggars are allowed to 
assemble, and to sleep, and in case of death are 
provided with a coffin by the guild of the Fokien 
merchants. The rules of the beggars' guild are 
strict, and elders are appointed to enforce them. 
The beggars are under the protection of special 
deities. 

From the Beggars' Scpare we returned home. 
You perhaps can imagine how strange I feel at 
present in this new life ; to be waited upon only 
by men, not to have a female servant in the 
establishment, for I have acted on Henry's 
advice, and have not engaged an amah. He 
thinks these women given to gossiping, and a 
great evil in a house. It seems to me as if I 
were staying at an hotel, as I do not know what 
will appear at table ; nor have I seen my cook, as 
he does not come into the house. The servants' 
offices are a low range of buildings joined to 
the house on the one side. The singular costume 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 21 

of the servants strikes me much ; their queer lingo 
I cannot understand — naturally they have the 
same difficulty in respect to my English. Our 
head boy being asked the other day if he knew 
what I said, replied, '* I no savez, missussi talkee 
ploper English." Our dining-room is now ready, 
and I must say our rooms are very comfortable. 
I hope the account of my illness, which Henry 
sent you last week, did not alarm you much. I 
was very ill at the time, and for two or three days 
the doctor could not make out what was the 
matter with me. He looked very serious, and 
alarmed Henry by saying that he had been called 
in only just in time. He was surprised at the 
agony I suffered not lessening with the remedies. 
At last he pronounced the illness to be caused by 
paint poisoning, and said that I must, ill as I was, 
be taken in a boat across the river, and sit for some 
hours in one of the gardens at Fa-tee, as change 
of air was really necessary for me. The mar- 
vellous effect that the remedy produced upon me 
proved that Dr. Brereton was right in his treat- 
ment. I was helped to the boat, and could 
scarcely sit upright, but after I had been in the 
garden house of our favourite retreat an hour or 
so I began to feel better, and the miserable feel- 
ing of nausea, which had not left me for six days, 
was sensibly lessened. On my return at night I 



22 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

Avas much better, and from that time improved 
rapidly. My exj)erience of painter's colic is that 
it is one of the most painful illne"sses possible. In 
my case the fever Avas so high that in the first 
night I was seized I became partly delirious. 
Henry says, in all his experience of visiting 
amongst the sick at Canton, he has not known 
any patient so scorched up with fever as I was. 

I must now tell you about a day's excursion we 
made into the country. Do you remember Henry 
saying, before we left England, that he M'ould 
take me as soon as possible the forty miles' trip 
through the valleys encircling the White Cloud 
Mountains ? No European but he knows this 
route, and he accidentally discovered- it some 
years ago. Two mountain chairs, which are 
much lighter than those used for the city and 
level places, were brought round to the Chap- 
laincy at a very early hour yesterday morning. 
These chairs are made of bamboo rods, and 
have a covering of dark-green cotton over the 
head and sides, which can be taken off the light 
bamboo poles, which support it, at pleasure. In 
our case it was taken off as soon as we had 
left the city, and not replaced. We started 
immediately after the morning service, a little 
after nine o'clock. Such a cavalcade we formed, 
with our fourteen chair coolies and an old coolie 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 23 

whom Henry has employed for years to accompany 
him in all his excursions. The chair coolies 
when not engaged in carrying us (we had the 
double number, Henry eight and I six, so as to 
have relays) had long bamboo poles resting on 
their shoulders, from one end of which hung 
their large circular hats, and from the other end 
the clothes of those carrying the chairs were sus- 
pended. The hats belonging to the chair coolies 
are either blue, or red and black ; they have 
pointed crowns, and are about the size of a lady's 
sunshade. The men, alter we had started, only 
wore short dark- blue or brown cotton drawers, 
reaching to the knee ; some had on straw sandals, 
others walked the whole distance with naked feet. 
Their brown shoulders glistened in the sun, and 
my heart bled at the deep-red marks made by 
the pressure of the chair-poles on them. Imagine 
any European carrying a burden and walking forty 
miles in the day, and for half that distance having 
to share the weight of a chair and its passenger ! 
Our route first took us through the city, then 
through its suburbs and outlying villages. The 
number of Chinese going in the same direction as 
ourselves was very great, as the worshipping of 
the tombs had just begun. Most of these people 
were on foot, but some went along in chairs. 
They carried with them long strings of paper 



24 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

ingots, to burn at the tombs. These ingots, or 
mock-money, are done up like little sugar-loaves, 
and are strung on cord. I saw men carrying 
five or six such long strings of ingots from the 
end of their bamboos. They also had offerings 
of cake in red painted boxes, fire-crackers, and 
bright-coloured and white paper, the latter of 
which they stick in strips on the graves. I also 
saw some men carrying roasted pigs cooked whole, 
for offerings. The Chinese are too thrifty to leave 
these at the tombs ; they merely offer them, then 
bring them home and feast on them with their 
relations. All male members of a family must 
worship their ancestors' tombs yearly, and we 
met fathers taking their sons of all ages with 
them to the graves. But before I say more on 
this subject, I must tell you what we saw before 
we reached the place of tombs. When we had 
passed through the suburbs of the city we came 
to the asylum, or rather, small village, set apart 
for lepers. Here one sees the disease of leprosy in 
all stages ; in some cases it is not apparent to the 
stranger, in otliers it has assumed a most repul- 
sive form, and is more sad to look upon than any- 
thing I had ever witnessed. One young girl had 
only the stum[)S of her hands left, and her feet 
were without toes. The lepers intermarry, and thus 
the disease is propagated and increased ; it is most 



28 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

sad to see the little children affected by this 
loathsome disease. The Grovernment support this 
leper village, but those who are capable of work- 
ing make ropes, which they sell, and so obtain 
additional comforts for themselves. These poor 
lepers have also their temple and their especial 
god. After walking through this sad place, 
where all are most anxious to display their 
deformities to get a kumshaw from the strangers, 
we got into our chairs. We next passed by a hill 
where malefactors who have been decapitated 
are buried. A stream of people, bearing offer- 
ings, was passing on, and others we met were 
returning empty-handed from the graves. The 
tombs were soon on all sides of us ; they are in the 
form of a horse- shoe, and are built on the sides of 
the mountain in stone or asphalte. These belong 
to the rich ; the graves of the poorer class are 
simply marked by an upright stone or a conical 
mound of earth. We now heard the report of 
numberless fire-crackers being let off on all 
sides to frighten away evil spirits, and this 
sound continued at intervals the whole day. 
It gives one the effect of military funerals, as 
if salutes were being fired over the graves. 
The hills were literally covered by worshippers. 
The tombs do not, as a rule, look imposing, as 
they are hollowed out of the hills, and with few 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 27 

exceptions are plain. Some have high granite 
pillars and red flag poles in front of them, denoting 
the rank of the deceased. A few have rows of 
animals and attendants carved in stone, which 
form an avenue, and lead to the tomb of a man 
of high rank. 

We very much enjoyed the country, which 
became pretty, and in parts really beautiful after 
we had left the city far behind us. On we went 
past fields prepared for rice, and by small patches 
of the rice growing thick together, which after 
a short time will be transplanted, and will be 
sufficient to cover several acres. We passed by 
lands prepared for every description of seed. It 
was most interesting to me to see agricultural 
labour going on according to Chinese custom. 
This is of a most primitive kind : they plough 
with buffaloes ; the harrow is most curious, some- 
thing like a gridiron, and with this they mix the 
mud and water together to prepare the land for 
the transplanting of the young rice. The fields 
are wonderfully small here, which is partly owing, 
so Henry says, to the need of facilitating irrigation. 
The seed is sown by hand. I was struck by 
noticing a man banking up the earth over some 
beds containing vegetable seeds. He used a 
large spade for this purpose, to which a double 
cord was attached, and a boy standing on the 



28 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

opposite side of the bed assisted the labourer by 
pulling the spade towards him by the cord. None 
of these peasants seemed pressed for time ; they 
rise very early and work late, and they look as if 
they do not know what it is to be in a hurry. We 
passed by groves and groves of peach-trees, the 
fruit of which is now set, but will not be ready 
for the market until June. 

At one o'clock we stopped at a farmhouse, 
where Henry has lunched several times before 
when he has made this long excursion. How can 
I describe this strange scene ? First, a woman 
came out, took care of me, and led me into what 
I thought was a kitchen. In trooped men and 
boys to stare at me ; the little boys only^ seven or 
eight years of age amused me, as in most instances 
they had babies strapped on to their backs. One 
of these odd-looking little babies was unwound 
from a boy's back and given me to nurse. The 
little thing, about six months old, had a silver 
chain, with charms hanging to it, round his 
neck, and silver bangles on his arms and legs. I 
then joined Henry, who was in the large hall of 
the house, and I found our coolie placing our 
luncheon on the table. We Avere objects of the 
greatest interest to the whole clan, which was 
collected in all its force to-day. The family had 
just returned from worshipping the tombs of their 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 29 

ancestors, and were about to spread their repast 
in this large hall ; but on our arrival they most 
kindly left it for our use, and themselves dined 
al fresco. We must have had sixty persons 
round us, and when we began to eat they pressed 
close to us, and were most anxious to see how we 
used our knives and forks. They would have 
become troublesome, had not the elders of the clan 
kept them in order. It was so curious to feel 
that our ways were looked upon as so barbarous 
and foreign. Possibly they concluded that when 
we became more enlightened, we sliould copy 
them in the use of chopsticks, etc. 

When we had finished our luncheon, we went 
outside, and found a large gathering sitting on 
the ground, with the remains of a feast before 
them. This was the ancestral feast, and is supposed 
by the people to come direct to them from their 
ancestors, as the expenses of it are defrayed from 
the endowment of the ancestral altar. Every 
member of the clan partakes of this feast, and 
one of the greatest punishments which can be in- 
flicted on an undutiful son is to prevent him 
from participating in it. The country became 
still more charming after we left the farmhouse, 
and the mountains and valleys j^were beautiful 
with the shades of the sun upon them. 

We should have missed the finest part of the 



30 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

scenery if Henry had not known the route, as the 
chair coolies wished to take us direct over a high 
hill after we left the farmhouse, which would 
have shortened the journey by some six or seven 
miles. They refused to take us where Henry 
intended to go, round the base of this hill. I got 
out of my chair and we walked ou, the men 
stoutly declining to give in, and they became 
threatening in their attitude. When we had 
walked on a mile (I must own with depressed 
feelings on my part, as we were at least twenty- 
six miles from home) the chair coolies, seeing 
that they could not intimidate us, brought up the 
chairs, and we continued our long journey. Our 
way now led us across the large Canton plain, 
which is highly cultivated, and produces tobacco, 
cotton, sugar, indigo, rice, and vegetables of 
various kinds. 

It was eight o'clock p.m., when we were some 
five miles from the city, and by this time it had 
become quite dark. I was in front, and not 
hearing the voices of Henry's coolies, I became 
uneasy, and called out to him. No answer came, 
and I called again. I had been warned by Henry 
not to show distrust of the Chinese, so, with as 
cheerful a voice as I could command, I continued 
to call, but in vain — no answer came. I felt anxious, 
as just after we started I had been told that I was 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 31 

foolish in going out for an excursion, such as we 
intended to take, with my gold earrings, locket, 
and rings all exposed to view. The men too had 
been so very insubordinate, and one had looked 
so evil in the discussion of the choice of routes, 
that I feared something might have happened to 
Henry. I could neither speak nor understand a 
word of Chinese, and, therefore, could not tell the 
coolies to stop, so on we went. After some ten 
minutes or more, we came to one of the resting- 
places erected by some man as a meritorious 
work, and here I was put down on the floor. I 
can assure you my feelinjis were not enviable at 
that moment. I had not even our old coolie with 
me, as he had succumbed to the fatigue of the 
long walk, and had remained in one of the villages 
we had passed through. Some people silting 
about this resting-place, wishing, I suppose, to 
see what I was like, thrust one of the large 
coloured paper lanterns into the chair, and then 
laughed at my appearance. I hoped to remain 
in this place until Henry's chair might arrive, 
but to my disappointment up I was taken after a 
delay of five minutes, and on we marched. You can 
imagine what my joy was when the steps of the 
other chair coolies became audible. When Henry 
came up, he told me that he had also felt very 
anxious about me. The coolies carrying his 



32 rOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

chair had become very much fatigued, and it 
was time for the other four to take their turn, 
but when inquired for, they were nowhere to be 
found. They had evidently given their friends the 
shp, and had slunk off in the dark. We arrived 
home about half-past nine, very tired, but having 
enjoyed the day's excursion most thoroughly. 



LETTER IV. 

Canton, April 15tli, 1877. 

My deae Mothee, 

After I had finished writing my letters 
the other afternoon, we had dinner in our garden 
house at the monastery, at seven o'clock, and then 
started for the Temple of Paak-taai, where a 
festival was taking place in honour of the god 
Paak-Taai, one of the most popular deities in 
China. But I must tell you first how easily the 
Chinese servants manage these impromptu picnic 
dinners. The cook and waiting-boys go over to 
the monastery by boat, taking with them the 
provisions, and the utensils for cooking, also a 
table-cloth and everything necessary for the table. 
All is packed up in a large box, which is slung 
by ropes on a bamboo pole and carried on the 
shoulders of a coolie and the boy belonging to 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 33 

the boat. We dine just as if we were at home, 
Having soups, entrees, etc. All is cooked in 
the queerest little kitchen imaginable at the 
monastery. A Chinese cook is never at fault, 
however long dinner is kept waiting. For in- 
stance, last night we were out very late, as the 
tide was against us, and we had a long distance 
to row back to Shameen. The dinner was 
ordered for half-past seven, but we did not sit 
down to it until nine o'clock. Yet the food was 
as well cooked and as hot as if we had not been 
unpunctual. Had we returned at half-past seven 
we should have found dinner ready to be served. 
When we arrived at the Temple of Paak-taai it was 
past eight o'clock, and we found that the singular 
ceremony that we wished to see was nearly over, 
so we left, making up our minds to return to the 
temple the following evening, which was the third 
and last night of the ceremony. xVt this festival 
of Paak-taai the Chinese take their larks (this is 
the favourite bird with the Chinese, and not only 
do very many possess them, but the gentry as 
well as poorer people pay large sums for them if 
they sing well), and suspend the cages from 
bamboo pole.-, placed across the temple, about six 
feet from the ground. They leave tlieir birds from 
six to half-past seven p.m., three evenings in suc- 
cession, in this temple, to do honour to Paak-taai; 



34 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON!, 

When tliey are brought in, the cages are 
covered with handkerchiefs. On these being 
withdrawn, the birds break out into a volume of 
song, mistaking, one would suppose, the glare of 
light from hundreds of lamp)s, suspended from the 
roof of the temple, for broad daylight. "Bird sings 
against bird, trying to silence each other, until 
the noise is dt-afeniug. The Chinese lark is a 
handsome bird, lai-ger than our English lark, and 
is capable of being taught to imitate various 
sounds ;* it flaps its wings when it sings, and it 
continues its song for long periods, but the note 
is not so sweet as that of our English lark. Not 
only is Paak-taai supposed to be honoured by this 
ovation from the larks, but the owners of the 
birds expect blessings from the god for their atten- 
tion to him. The temple was crowded by people 
of the poorer class, who seemed to thoroughly 
enjoy this concert of larks. There were some 
hundreds of these songsters suspended in their 
ornamental cages from the poles. I am so much 
amused by the extreme care the Chinese men 
bestow upon their feathered favourites. You 
will meet with a sober-lookino- man dressed in a 

o 

* I subsequently saw one on board a steamer at Whampoa 
which had been tanglit to imitate the barking of a dog, and 
the mewing of a cat, for which its owner, a Chinese, asked the 
sum of 60 dollars. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 35 

beautiful long silk coat, holding in his open hand 
a cage in which you may see a lark or other pet 
bird. I concluded when I first met these men 
that the birds were for sale, but Henry much 
amused me by saying that it is a custom in 
Canton for the Chinese to take their birds out for 
change of air. An English lady told me the 
other dav, that when her parrot was very ill, her 
compradore advised her to engage a bird coolie 
to take it to the White Cloud Mountains for 
change of air and scene. 

On Wednesday we heard that the procession 
in honour of Paak-taai would pass through the 
streets, so we went to a grass-cloth shop, before 
which the procession was advertised, by news- 
vendors, to pass. We arrived much too early at 
the shop, a fact one cannot help in China, for as a 
rule punctuality is unknown, and one must wait 
long for these ceremonies, or perhaps miss them 
altogether. We were invited into the inner shop 
and were refreshed by a cup of tea, the tea being 
handed first to Henry, according to true Chinese 
etiquette. On such occasions I sit quietly by, 
and can observe all so w^ell from the fact (humili- 
ating as it may be) that no one notices me, all 
the attention being paid to my husband. He has 
argued several times with Chinese gentlemen on 
the subject of equality between men and women, 

D 2 



36 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

and has pointed out to tbein tlie duty of giving 
to woman her proper position. One with whom 
he was conversing on the subject did not attempt 
to argue the point, but observed quietly in 
conclusion, " Man is as the sun, woman as the 
moon." The carving is most beautiful in this 
shop, some of it is gilded, some is left its natural 
colour. It is most ornamental and well executed. 
It forms a kind of half screen at the end of the 
shop, under which is the image of the god 
specially worshipped by the shopmen. A ledge 
is in front of the idol, on which paper flowers, 
lights, and joss-sticks are arranged. 

A lamp, formed of a floating wick placed in a 
glass receptacle suspended from the ceiling, hangs 
before this tutelary god, and is lighted morning 
and night. Joss-sticks are also burnt before it 
twice daily. When it was announced that the 
procession \Aas in sight we went into the outer 
shop, and sat upon chairs placed for us on a 
raised platform. The shop was barricaded with 
a ladder put across the opening, to prevent the 
crowd pushing into it. 

We were a source of the greatest interest to all 
the men in the street, and also to the women and 
children, who were sitting in the shops opposite. 
The latter had come in from the country to see 
the procession. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 37 

The men forming the procession itself con- 
stantly turned to stare at us, and laughed at 
and nodded to us. 

The dark, handsome beard of an English 
friend who accompanied us, attracted much at- 
tention. Only the aged are allowed to w^ear 
beards in Cliina, and one sees none but short- 
pointed white beards on these old men's faces. 
You must picture us in a street as narrow as 
an alley in London, a crowd thickly packed, 
perhaps three deep on each side of the street, 
and a narrow passage in the middle only just 
sufficiently large enough to let the procession 
squeeze through. We literally sat in the street : 
as there are no steps leading into a shop, you 
enter it direct from the street. 

There is the most marvellous economy of space 
practised in this city, and from the roof of one of 
its high pawn towers you cannot perceive a break, 
no streets : the roofs of the houses seem to touch 
each other. Even in the narrow streets there 
are stalls in all available nooks and corners, and 
it is difficult for our chairs to get along. It 
requires a good deal of management, and a great 
deal of noise on the part of the chair coolies, 
when two chairs meet and have to pass each other. 
To return from this digression : the procession was 
immensely long, and occupied one hour in passing 



38 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

by the shop in which we were seated. First there 
came men bearing large lanterns, Paak-taai's 
name and titles painted on them ; then followed 
banner-men, with banners aloft, embroidered 
handsomely and edged with deep, many-coloured 
fringes, some events in Paak-taai's life forming 
the subject of the embroidery. 

We saw also long, low, double banners, connected 
by bars of woo'l, supported by men who, walking 
between them, were hidden from view. These 
were ornamented with little figures dressed in 
various costumes, representing scenes in Paak- 
taai's history. These double banners were in 
some cases glazed. They were wonderfully "orna- 
mented with kingfisher's feathers laid on gilt, 
and which, to an unpractised eye, resembled 
enamel work. Then came men bearing red 
boards with many titles on them, also insignia of 
celestial rank, which have been conferred on 
Paak-taai by the present and past emperors. 
The procession was, as you may say, divided into 
groups by these various banners, ornamental 
poles and long banners given by different 
districts to Paak-taai. Attendants accompanied 
them dressed in white, or in bright-coloured 
silk robes. These men, some of whom are men 
of position, volunteer for the honour of walking 
in the god's procession. In each division of the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 31) 

procession there were children, some very young, 
perhaps four or five years of age only, who rode 
on the queer little Chinese ponies. These boys 
and girls (the latter sit astride like hoys) were 
dressed fantastically to represent heroes and 
heroines in Paak-taai's time. Poor little things, 
they had started at six o'clock a.m., and it was 
past noon when we saw them. One very small 
hero had succumbed and was in the arms of an 
attendant fast asleep, his pony riderless. Some, 
in fact many of the children, belong to the 
gentry, and have attendants supporting them on 
each side of the pony, who feed them constantly 
with biscuits and sweets. One little boy much 
amused us, and also the crowd about us. He 
carried a large representation of a fabulous 
monster in his arms. On his face he wore a 
large bea^rd, and had a helmet on his head with 
long feathers. As he passed us, he puffed out 
his little cheeks, and put his arms akimbo, 
preserving the utmost gravity of face. He was 
received with shouts of laughter by the people. I 
should think fifty of these boys and girls passed 
us. One little one was suspended in the air, to 
represent an angel. Two passed, carried along on 
a little platform, and were acting a part ; in a 
third erection, borne on the shoulders of some 
men, a boy was lying on his back and a little girl 



40 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

was supported on his upraised foot, I have 
forgotten to say that at an interval of every ten 
minutes a band of so-called music broke the 
stillness of the scene. Such music it was ! 
In some cases the instruments were played by 
little boys dressed in beautifully embroidered long 
coats ; in some, men played wind instruments ; in 
others, a deafening, most unmusical sound was 
made by men striking gongs, which were carried 
along on a species of truck slung on poles. 
- These were followed by men with most noisy 
instruments, which they played by striking them 
together; others played on screeching pipes, 
and horns. Certainly the Chinese are lovers of 
noisy music. Every now and again the proces- 
sion was broken by little portable tables, bearing- 
sweetmeats, tea, and other refreshments, which, 
upon the cavalcade halting for a minute or so, 
were served out to the members of the procession. 
I saw many delicacies popped into the mouths 
of the little heroes ami heroines as they passed by. 
Pavilions decorated with figures inlaid with king- 
fisher's feathers, contained precious stones, beauti- 
ful vases in jadestone, or old bronzes in charming 
forms, which w ere lent by the gentry to do honour 
to Paak-taai's procession. You would have been 
amused had you seen the fat men who graced the 
occasion, clad in brilliant yellow silk. The upper 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 41 

partof the garment is worn over one shoulder only, 
the other shoulder is unadorned. At last came 
three large carved black wood pavihons, the first 
and second containing small idols of Paak-taai's 
father and mother. The third pavilion was pre- 
ceded by musicians, and by citizens of respecta- 
bility, wearing long coats of silk with squares 
of embroidery on the chest and shoulders. This 
pavilion contained the idol of Paak-taai, and, as 
it advanced, the people chin-chinned it, that 
is to say, they put their hands together in tlie 
attitude of prayer and bowed again and again 
towards the image. No greater act of idolatry 
than this could be witnessed. The shopkeepers 
show their devotion to the idol by raising their 
ofierings from the small altars erected for the 
occasion in the doorways of their shops, and 
presenting them to the idol. Sometimes they 
pour out libations as the image passes by. In all 
Chinese temples there is a second idol of the 
presiding god made in a small portable size, to 
be used on these festive occasions. Immediately 
the procession had passed, a great number of fire- 
crackers were let off to frighten away all evil 
spirits from the neighbourhood. The crowd, who 
had been most good-natured all the while, and 
had only occasionally broken in upon the pro- 
cession, now began to disperse. The police had 



42 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

switches made of rattan in their hands ; they were 
stockingless and very shabby. Their hats, which 
are in tliis shape, have red silk fringes hangii)g 
from the pointed crowns. We waited until the 




HAT WORN BY CHINESE POLICEMEN. 

streets were clear of the crowd, and then went 
into several shops to see the industries. The 
flour mills were most interesting to me. The 
old double millstones placed one above the other 
are used, and they are kept in motion by oxen. 
These oxen are blindfolded to prevent them suffer- 
ing from giddiness. We then Avent on by boat to 
Honam to see the fine Ocean Banner Monastery. It 
is the best preserved and most interesting Buddhist 
monastery in the city. Henry was most warmly 
welcomed by the monks, and we were invited to 
have a cup of tea with them. Henry knows every 
corner of the monastery, and at one time studied 
in one of the rooms, which was given up to him 
for his use by the monks. I must attempt a 
feeble description of this fine monastery. It, like 
all others, has a large shrine with idols of the three 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 43 

Buddhas, colossal in size, in a sitting position. 
They are carved in wood and gilded ; down the 
side of the shrine are sixteen idols, representing 
the most distinguished disciples of Buddha, each 
having an incense jar before it. Chains hang 
from the roof supporting lights, which are always 
burning before the three Buddhas. Three large 
altars stand before them, which are richly carved 
and gilded, and on them are placed immense 
jars made in zinc, some holding artificial flowers, 
others incense. Another shrine, under a separate 
roof, contains a relic of Buddha, over which is 
placed a magnificent dagoba of scultpured marble. 
A third shrine contains a large idol of Koon- 
Yam, the goddess of mercy. We were present at 
the evening prayers. The monks, both here and in 
the other monasteries in Canton, show their great 
respect for Henry by allowing him to stand 
inside the shrines at the hour of service. The 
same privilege was extended to me, and so I had 
an opportunity, which I otherwise should not have 
had, of narrowly observing the ritual and cere- 
monials of the Buddhists' evensong. No Chinese 
are admitted ; they stand outside and watch the 
service through the open gates of the shrine. 
There were about thirty priests present, wearing 
grey cotton cowls ; and long yellow squares of 
silk made in many pieces to represent the robe of 



44 FOUETEEN MONTHS IX CAXTOX. 

poverty, were wora over their shoulders. By the 
light of the lamps this robe looks very sacerdotal ; 
and the shaven heads of the priests, together \\ith 
their devotional mien and attitude of prayer, make 
them resemble monks of Catholic countries. Tv/o 
of the monks only stood at the altar before the 
future Buddha (the present Buddha is considered 
too sacred to offer hiiu worship excepting through 
a mediator) ; one of these priests beat a tom-tom 
to regulate the chanting, the otlier struck a con- 
cave gong. Many of the priests knelt at each 
side of the shrine arranged before the idols of 
the disciples of Buddha, who are worshipped as 
intercessors. The monks at given times per- 
formed the kau-tau, that is, they bent their 
foreheads to the ground, and joined their hands, 
turning the palms upwards as their heads rose 
from the floor. This kau-tau was performed by 
all the monks simultaneously, with perfect 
gravity and solemnity. The chanting, which was 
conducted in different keys, lasted about half 
an hour. Then the officiating monk walked 
slowly to the front of the altar, but making a 
slight detour, as no one is considered holy enough 
to approach direct even to the future Buddha. 
He now took a small bronze cup in his hand 
with rice in it, elevated it three times, then 
walked backwards to his kneeling-mat in the 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 45 

centre, at some distance from the altar, prostrated 
himself, passed his hand over the vessel as if in 
the act of consecrating the rice, and on rising 
placed it on a small table outside the shrine for 
the birds of the air. We vveie standing imme- 
diately behind him, and could see most clearly 
all he did. We then returned to a bench where 
we had sat during the chanting, and witnessed 
the procession of monks pass three times round 
the shrine. They walked with hands joined in 
the attitude of prayer, eyes cast down, and in 
single file, repeating in plain-chant " 0-mi-to-fat," 
the name of the future Buddha, or mediator. 
Immediately before the procession started, the 
officiating monk had performed the kau-tau to 
the other priests, and all turning to the north, 
had prostrated themselves, and worshipped 
heaven. This service takes place daily, in the 
morning and evening. The greatest decorum 
and reverence had been observed by the monks. 
Each priest had his place assigned to him ; he knelt 
on the floor, his body upright, and his hands placed 
together^ The language used in the service is 
the Pali, and many of the monks only learn the 
service by rote, not understanding a word of it. 
We went afterwards to see a large private house 
belonging to one of the richest and first families 
in Canton, of the name of 'Ne:. We met the 



46 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

head of the family in the garden ; he sprang 
forward, when he saw Henry, exclaiming, " lyah, 
you come back from England, my heart too 
muchee likee see you." He took us into his 
private rooms, and to the room of mourning, 
where there was a picture of his wife, who had 
died three or four months before. An altar 
was arranged in front of it. The walls of the 
room were hung with banners of cloth, red and 
purple in colour, on which were large characters 
expressing sympathy to the bereaved. This 
Chinese gentleman had evidently loved his wife, 
and often said to Henry, who had known her, 
"Oh, my v.ife have die, my wife have die, my 
heart too muchee sorry." He had had only one 
wife, and says he does not mean to marry again. 
He showed us with much pride his private 
sitting-room, furnished in the European style. 
Yesterday we had a wonderful day's sightseeing. 
Henry's old college friend still being with us, 
there is even an extra inducement to go about 
the city. Amongst the temples we visited was 
one in which was a shrine for disconsolate 
women. Those who have bad husbands take 
pieces of paper cut out in the form of men 
and stick them on to the altar, praying that 
the goddess may give them back the love of 
their husbands ; sometimes you see the small 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 47 

effigies with the feet uppermost, meaning that 
the heart is in the wrong place and requires 
turning. Women who have children prone to 
take diseases, or wlio are troublesome, take paper 
effigies of them with the names of the children 
written on them. These papers are not more 
than five or six inches in length, and they are 
placed with the heads of the effigies hanging down, 
the mothers thus asking the goddess, who is 
supposed to have the power, to move the hearts of 
the children into the right position, so that they 
may become fortunate or good. The same is the 
case with female slaves who have unkind mis- 
tresses. We saw the Temple of the Goddess of 
Women and Children, and paid a second visit to 
the large Five Hundred Disciples' Temple, where 
we were regaled with tea and sweetmeats by the 
monks. The abbot died a few days ago, so the 
monk who received us, being in deep mourning, 
did not sit down with us, but deputed a friend to 
do the honours. Two of the young priests, who 
were pupils of the lately departed abbot, wore as 
a sign of mourning white dresses with white bands 
round their waists. We saw the coffin of the 
abbot with a light bnrning under it, to induce 
one of the three souls (which every man is 
supposed to possess) to remain with the body. 
We returned home very tired with our day's 



48 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

sightseeing, but with memories full of all the 
interesting sights we had seen, and I was eager to 
go into the city again to continue my exploration 
of it. 



LETTER V. 

Canton, April 22nd, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

The day after I sent my letter to you, we 
made up our minds to devote the whole afternoon 
to visiting the charitable institutions of the city, 
viz., the Retreat for Poor Old \Yomen, a similar 
Retreat for Old Men, the Blhid Asykim, and the 
Foundling Hospital. In the Retreats^ for Aged 
Men and Women, each person is given a small 
house to live in, and these houses are built in long 
rows. The pittance these poor people receive 
from Government is very small, and as soon as 
they see a stranger they hold out their baskets, 
calling out "kumshaw, kumshaw," No one 
is supposed to reside in these alms-houses who 
is under sixty years of age ; but, as relations 
and friends of the old people find it convenient 
to pay them long visits, we saw numbers of 
young women and children living in these chari- 
table institutions. Several of the old people were 
over eighty years of age. I was much struck 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 49 

with one room we visited ; its occujjant was very 
aged, and in a corner, exposed to view, there 
was a coffin ready for the old man. It had evi- 
dently been a birthday gilt * to him froru some 
relation, and it made his mind easy to know 
that he would not be wanting this much-prized 
covering when he died. The Chinese consider 
that one of the three souls animating a human 
body accompanies it to the grave, and is made 
happy when the body which it inhabited is en- 
closed in a coflin. 

In the Asylum for Old Women we met with 
many small-footed women, and Henry was deter- 
mined I should see one of these poor deformed 
feet unbandaged. An old woman, who heard 
\\hat we required, said she would, if we gave her 
a kumshaw, take us to a house where a young- 
woman, who had unusually small feet, was on a 
visit to its aged inmate. When we arrived at 
the door, we were surrounded by a crowd of old 
women. They knocked at the door and desired 
the young woman to speak to us. When she was 
told our errand, she looked very shy, and said 
that she could not unbandage her foot. We 
showed her a five-cent piece, and she then con- 
sented to let " Nai-nai " go with her into her room, 

* It is not unusupl for Chinese to present their aged parents 
and aged rela'ions with cofHiis as birthday gifts. 

E 



50 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

and to let me see her foot. But our friend, who 
much wished also to see it, attempted to accom- 
pany me, upon which the young woman refused 
to remove the bandages. So we were obliged to 
leave the house. In the meantime the old women 
had placed a form for us outside the door, and 
they were most energetic in tlieir endeavours to 
persuade the young woman to comply with our 
request. In order to overcome her scruples, 
Henry told her that he and our friend were both 
old men, he with his white hair, and his friend 
wearing a long beard. They meant no harm, he 
added. The old women used these arguments 
secondhand with great vehemence. At last a 
string of one hundred cash, in value about five 
pence, was added to the first offer, and it was all 
put into the hand of the young woman. This 
temptation proved too strong for her to resist 
any longer, and she sat down upon the bench, re- 
moved her tiny embroidered shoe, and unrolled the 
bandage. This bandage takes the place of a 
stocking witli all Chinese women who have con- 
tracted feet, and in the case of ladies it is made 
in bright-coloured wide ribbon. The maimed 
foot was a sad sight, utterly delbrmed. The toes 
were crushed under tlie sole of the foot, reaching 
to the under part of the big toe. They were sore 
and slightly bleeding, and the sole of the foot 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 51 

upon which they were crushed was also raw. The 
toes (excepting the large toe) were not visible on 
the front of the foot. The heel was so much 
squeezed that it was square in shape, and ended 
in a hard ridge of flesh. I saw a deep division 
between it and the sole. The crushed feet sel- 
dom heal, and from the young woman's manner 
I am sure it hurt her much when she touched 
her foot. Yet the bandage must be removed 
daily in order to wash the foot, else it would 
become most offensive. Nothing I have read or 
heard of the compression of the feet of Chinese 
females, made me fully realise how sad the 
custom is, until I saw this young woman's foot. 

The bandaging does not commence until the 
little girl is four or five years of age. The feet 
are then bound with a strip of calico. This 
is tightened by degrees until, after some years' 
suffering, the poor feet are crushed into the desired 
shape. It is very distressiug, they say, to hear 
the screams of a little child when the bandages 
are being removed, or when they are being drawn 
tighter. The ankle becomes a straight bone, 
and the leg loses all shape, and resembles a 
stilt. A Chinese lady looks elegant until she 
moves, when she loses all grace to our eyes (not, 
though, to the Chinese, who consider the gait of a 
small-footed woman most elegant), as she hobble^* 

E 2 



52 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

about, supporting herself on the arm of her 
attendant. 

From this Eefuge for Old Women we went on 
to the Foundling Hospital, where a most sad spec- 
tacle presented itself to our eyes. This building 
is very dark and dreary, and the little ones told a 
sad tale of neglect with their starved, pinched faces. 
Many of them looked like little shrivelled-up 
monkeys. These poor unfortunate infants are all 
girls, sent to the asylum by fathers disappointed 
of their hope of having sons, and not caring for 
the expense and trouble of bringing up these 
poor, uncared-for female children. The little 
things are parted from their mothers often when 
only a few hours old, and in this hospital as many 
as three are often given to one woman to be 
nourished by her. The greater number soon die, 
and one must look upon them as the more for- 
tunate children, as those who live are sold for 
slaves, or are brought up to a life worse than 
slavery. I saw one little baby, perhaps a month 
old, which had a fearful cough, like an old man's 
asthmatic cough. The woman to wliose care it 
was entrusted said it was an unfortunate little 
thing, and from her manner you could see she 
considered that it was not worth notice, being under 
the displeasure of the gods, and so doomed to die 
early. Babies are considered unlucky when they 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 53 

die young, and are buried without form or cere- 
mony ; in fact, sometimes they are wrapped up in 
matting and thrown into the river. From all 
accounts it seems to be too true that the cus- 
tom of killing female children is still practised, 
particularly in those districts occupied by the 
Hakkas. 

The other day, when we had our luncheon at 
the farmhouse in a valley beyond the White 
Cloud Mountains, we noticed that all the children, 
and there were many round us, were boys, and 
we asked each other the question, Where are the 
female children ? This village I speak of is in- 
habited by Hakkas. Every now and then a kind 
of mission, under the ausj)ices of the Chinese 
literati, is preached against infanticide. In the 
heart of the city there is a square called Pi-ai-ting, 
and in this square sermons are preached daily on 
this and other subjects. When we were in it a 
few days since, we saw a large illustrated paper 
posted against the wall. , There were about eight 
pictures representing a wicked woman guilty of 
infanticide. In one illustration the attendant 
was preparing a wine bath in which to drown the 
female child, the mother being present. In the 
second the mother was dropping her child into 
this bath. In others the mother appeared before 
the god of Hades to be punished, and the last 



54 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

reiiresentaiion showed you a serpent, with a 
baby's head, rising to devour the guilty woman. 

We found the Asylum for the Blind a sadly 
neglected place, and the charity much abused. 
We were struck by observing that a large number 
of the inmates had the full use of their eyesight, 
and on inquiry we found these were friends and 
relations of the blind, who live with them and 
share the profits gained by begging. The blind 
are not well cared for, as they are supposed to be 
under the displeasure of the gods, or suffering 
from sins committed in another stage of existence. 
And now, having seen all we had planned to see, 
we returned home. 

On Friday last we made rather a perilous ex- 
cursion down the river as far as tlie Lin-Fa-Shan 
Pagoda, which is about twenty-four miles from 
Canton. Knowing that we had a long day's work 
before us, we started from home at half-past six a.m. 
A slipperboat was in readiness to take us. As 1 have 
not told you what these boats are like, I will try to 
do so now. They are in the exact form of a slip- 
per, and the passengers sit as it were on the instep 
under the mat covering by which this part of the 
boat is enclosed. Three men stand in the heel, 
as it were, of the slipper, a fourth sits down and 
assists in propelling one of the oars. They can 
send these boats very quickly through the water. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 55 

Henry, our friend, myself and our old coolie, sat 
upon the floor of the boat, and I found in this, 
my second experience of a slipper boat, the 
position very cramped, the movement of the 
boat rolling, producing in me a feeling of sea- 
sickness, and I felt altogether uneasy in it. We 
passed Whampoa, which was about halfway to the 
place of our destination, and as I went along 
I was much interested in all the river craft 
and in the sights along the banks of the river. 
When we were within an hour of our journey's end, 
the river became very rough, and I felt thoroughly 
sea-sick, nervous, and miserable. We landed 
about one o'clock and found ourselves at some 
considerable distance from the pagoda, with a 
good hill to climb between it and ourselves. We 
first had to walk in single file along a narrow, 
muddy path between some large ponds, then to 
climb by a small waterfall over some very rough 
ground. After this, we had to find our way 
between some patches of cultivated land, and a 
hillside covered with small mounds, which I 
discovered were tombs. A burial-place in the 
south of China is never surrounded by Wtills, 
and graves are placed in all directions upon 
the sides of hills. There were a few granite 
tombs, but the far larger number were merely 
little hillocks of earth. We arrived at the nine 



56 rOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

storied pagoda at last, and immediately began 
its ascent. This pagoda is very aDcient, and 
the stoue staircase very much broken ; but, with 
perseverance, we mounted eight of its storeys. 
We found that the ninth storey was blocked 
up in consequence of its dihxpidated state. 
The view became more and more extensive and 
more beautiful as we mounted higher and higher. 
The wind was very high, too much so for my 
comfort. I wanted both hands to help me to 
scramble up the broken staircase, the stones 
giving way, and rattling down as we tried to 
stand upon them ; but the wind was so strong, 
especially when we came to the openings in the 
wall, that I was obliged to hold on my hat, which 
occasionally lifted itself from my head in a very 
suspicious manner. The pagoda is made of brick 
and is about five hundred years old. The descent 
was very tiresome, and I sometimes required the 
assistance of my two companions. 

On leaving the pagoda we went into the City 
of Eefage, which is close by. It is merely a large 
space shut in by a thick wall, having a path along 
the top of it. This place is intended for, and has 
beeu used as, a place of refuge for women and 
children of the neighbouring villages, when at- 
tacked by pirates or other enemies. The cattle 
are then driven up here, and the place is defended 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 57 

by the men belonging to the villages attacked. We 
afterwards went to see some very extensive caverns 
about a mile from this walled enclosure. They 
are said to be natural caverns, but Henry looks 
upon them as artificially made, probably by the 
Buddhist monks as places for solitude and ab- 
straction. He has seen similar, but incomparably 
finer, caverns in India. The ferns growing around 
and over the caverns we were visiting were 
lovely, and some of the fionds were of gigantic 
size. After we had enjoyed a three hours' 
ramble on shore we returned to our slipper boat 
and commenced our homeward journey. The 
wind was now in our favour, so the boatmen 
hoisted a sail, and rested a little time from their 
labours. We made slow })rogress, however, and 
it was long before we came to another object 
of interest, the Temple of Hung-Sing-Woug, the 
god of the Southern Ocean. 

It is a very fine large temple, and is the only 
State temple of this god. Many emperors of China, 
on ascending the throne, have sent ambassadors 
from Pekin to this temple to offer worship in their 
names to this idol, and this at a considerable 
cost. The prayers oii'ered on these occasions have 
been engraved on black marble slabs, which have 
been placed in the corridor enclosing the large 
quadrangle. 



58 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

There is a black idol in this temple, much 
thought of and much worshipped. No one can 
say what personage it is intended to represent; 
some think it is in memory of a Buddhist mission- 
ary from India ; others, in memory of a black sailor 
who was cast on shore at this spot. The Buddhist 
missionary is said to have died suddenly in an up- 
right position while standing at the gate of the 
temple, and the Chinese therefore consider that he 
was translated without dying to Elysium. The 
country is very pretty in the neighbourhood of 
this temple, and from a small hill close to it, called 
Polo-shan, we saw a most lovely sunset. 

On taking our seats again in our small boat, we 
hoisted sail, and made our way slowly through 
the darkness, which now set in, to Whampoa, 
We did not reach this place until a quarter to 
nine p.m. After waiting half an hour there for 
Henry, who had some arrangements to make about 
the Sunday evening services, we started for home. 
We were feeling very tired by this time, and 
our friend kindly volunteered to sing to us. 
After listening to several songs I became drowsy, 
and was obliged to confess, on cross-examination, 
that I had not heard some half dozen of them. 
It was now lightning and thundering, but there 
were bright spots in the sky between tlie heavy 
clouds. 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 59 

Suddenly the whole heavens became overcast 
with a blackness that one could feel. As our 
friend was in the middle of a song, I did not 
like to interrupt him by drawing attention to 
the sudden alarming change in the sky. But in 
a few seconds, before the song had come to an 
end, the squall was upon us. The first burst of 
it was tremendous, and the boatmen were alarmed 
and began to talk in a loud and high key. For- 
tunately our sail was down, though the little mast 
was still up. One of the boatmen climbed like a 
monkey over the top of the boat to take it down ; tlie 
others took a long bamboo pole out of the boat, 
and most fortunately were able to drive it into 
the ground, and so tie our boat to it. 1'he rush 
of wind was fearful, and it seemed to me that our 
boat must be capsized by it. It shook it as a cat 
shakes a rat she has between her teeth. Then 
down came a tremendous rain such as you can 
only have in the tropics ; this was accompanied 
by most vivid lightning and heavy thunder. 
The boatmen drew a covering over their heads, 
and made things as water-tight as possible, but a 
great deal of wet leaked in upon us. I was terrified 
when the storm of wind burst, for I had never expe- 
rienced such a sudden squall before. We remained 
at anchor for nearly an hour, and as the storm 
was then over, we pursued our weary way, making 



60 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

slow progress, as our boatmen were now worn out 
with their long day's work. We were about half- 
way from Whampoa to Canton when the storm 
surprised us, so we had six miles or more to pull 
before we could reach our destination. I tliought 
the men must give in and fall asleep, they were so 
wearied. At a foot's pace we crawled on through 
never-ending mud-banks, and at length, at four 
o'clock A.M., arrived at our landing-stage. I 
wonder if the tortoise felt as tired when he reached 
the goal as we did when we landed at Shameen. 

Seven long hours had elapsed since we left 
Whampoa. All our servants came out on the 
bund to meet us, and inquired " Alio men 
well?" I asked our compradore what they 
meant, and he said, " We alio fear, very big wind> 
too muchee fear that largee wind have broke that 
boat, and alio men have die." 

The boat-people about Shameen had been 
much terrified by the squall, Mak said, and had 
called upon their gods to save them. This is a 
treacherous river with very strong currents, and 
at this time of year, especially, the tides are 
very high. The following day Henry called upon 
the captain of a steamer anchored opposite our 
house, and also went on board a gunboat. The 
officers of both vessels said that it had been a 
very heavy gale, and Mere surprised to hear 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 61 

we had been out in it. Providentially we 
happened to be at the side of the river, and in 
shallow water, when the squall burst upon us ; 
had we been in the centre of the river our 
boat must have been capsized. 



LETTEE VI. 

Cantov, April 2Sth, 1877. 

My dear Mothee, 

I HAVE been very fortunate since I last 
wrote to you, in being able to see a funereal cere- 
mony in one of the houses belonging to a Chinese 
gentleman. He is a friend of Henry's, and as we 
saw the usual emblems of mourning at the door of 
the house, Henry took me in, glad of the oppor- 
tunity of showing me the ceremony, which he 
knew would then be going on. We entered 
a large hall, at the end of which stood the 
coffin of the deceased, who proved to be an aunt 
of the master of the house. In front of it an 
altar had been placed, on which offerings of 
various kinds, candles, and incense burners were 
arranged. A large coloured portrait of the 
deceased lady hung on the wall behind. By 
the side of the altar life-size figures made in 
paper, representing attendants, were placed ; 



62 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

various paper representations, such as sedan 
chairs of ordinary size, fans, dresses, and boxes, 
were placed about the hall, ready to be burnt 
as offerings. These superstitious people believe 
that by the action of fire the spirit of the 
thing represented passes into Elysium, and is 
then at the service of the soul of the deceased. 
Many coloured banners presented by friends of 
the family, containing words complimentary to 
the deceased, covered the walls. A pretty 
young lady now came forward from the interior 
of the house, dressed in plain cotton mourning 
garments. The Chinese etiquette is most strict 
on this point, no silk garments and no rouge 
(which ordinarily is worn to the greatest degree 
by the ladies) is allowed during the prescribed 
period of mourning. The young lady was a 
daufjhter-iu-law of the deceased. It is difficult 
to convey to your mind the number of people 
contained in a Chinese gentleman's house ; a whole 
clan lives together, each male member of the 
clan bringing his bride home to his ancestral 
house. The young lady and her sister, who had 
joined her — both small-footed women — now put 
on white sackcloth cloaks and hoods, the latter 
completely covering their faces, and began, after 
prostrating themselves, to wail the dead. It was 
a curious sight to see these two, who had up to 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 63 

the moment of covering themselves with the 
mourning cloaks, laughed and chatted with one 
another, suddenly throw themselves on the ground 
and howl and moan, their heads swaying about to 
the cadence of" their wailing. One felt the whole 
scene was unreal, merely a necessary piece of 
ceremonial. The husband of the young lady who 
first came in, a fine young man also dressed in 
white, with a pipe in his mouth, walked up and 
down, and acted as master of tlie ceremonies. 
After the two ladies had wailed piteously to all 
appearance for five minutes, the young man gave 
the signal for them to cease. They rose imme- 
diately and at once took off their mourning outer 
garb. We went into a very pretty, quaint garden 
at the back of the house, in which was the in- 
variable pond with a bridge over it. We now 
left the house and went on to the temple, 
called by the Chinese, " Ten Thousand Years 
Palace," but known to Europeans by the name of 
the Emperor's Temple. 

We passed through a massive gi-anite arch, and 
saw the lofty roof of the temple covered with 
yellow tiles, which denotes that it is a State 
endowment. We then went through two court- 
yards into a quadrangle enclosed by cloisters. Im- 
mediately opposite the large entrance gates stands 
the great shrine, containing the tablet of the 



6-1 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

emperor. In the centre of the paved pathway, 
and also on the steps leading immediately to 
the shrine, I saw two or three figures of dragons, 
and a representation of the sun engraved on the 
stone pavement. No person, it is supposed, will 
be sacrilegious enough to tread, on these sacred 
emblems, and therefore no one will dare to walk 
straight towards the throne of majesty, on which 
the imperial tablet rests. The shrine is enclosed 
by red-stained walls, and the roof is covered 
by yellow tiles. On entering the shrine we saw a 
facsimile of the dragon throne at Pekin. It is 
most elaborately carved and gilded, and is ap- 
proached by nine steps. The imperial tablet is in 
red, on which in letters of gold is the following in- 
scription, " May the Emperor reign ten thousand 
years, ten thousand times ten thousand years." An 
altar stands in front of the throne, on each side of 
which are arranged the insignia of royalty. At 
the end of the second quadrangle of this temple 
stands a shrine similar to the one we had just 
left, which is erected in honour of the empress. 
In it is a tablet bearing this inscription, *' May 
the Empress live one thousand years, one thou- 
sand times one thousand years." All the man- 
darins, both civil and military, worship in this 
temple on the first day of the year, and on the 
birthdays of the emperor and empress. Here 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 65 

tliey prostrate themselves and weep when an 
emperor or empress dies. All officials who may- 
have occasion to pass this temple must alight 
from their horses, or sedan chairs, and walk past 
its gates as a mark of reverence to their imperial 
majesties. 

I was much amused at seeing innumerable 
cakes of white wax which were lying on the floor 
of the second shrine ; some hundreds of tliese 
cakes looking like white cheeses were there. It is 
a costly gift annually presented by the wax mer- 
chants of Canton to the emperor. One hundred 
and ten piculs constitute the quantity, and each 
piculwas, Henry says, in 1873, worth eighty dollars. 
This insect wax comes from the province of 
Szechuen, but when it arrives at Canton it is not 
quite white. Therefore the cakes are broken up 
into little pieces, placed in sieves, standing on 
white metal vessels. They are placed in caldrons 
of boiling water, and the pieces of wax as they 
melt fall tlirough the sieves into these vessels. 
When congealed, the wax is made into cakes and 
exposed to the sun. It certainly was dazzlingly 
white when we saw it ready for packing. 

On our way to this temple we visited a large 
hall belonging to the Tea Guild.* In its garden, 
which I found most interesting, is the original 
* The Guild of the Green Tea Merchants. 

F 



66 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

quaint bridge and scenery, from which the willow 
pattern (or rather that part of it which is not 
mythologieal) was taken. The truth was, that a 
young lady eloped with a neighbour from this 
garden. The angry father and gardener are 
represented in the willow pattern on this bridge 
pursuing the runaway couple. No Cliinese story, 
however, would be considered interesting without 
a dash of the marvellous, and therefore they prO" 
ceed to say that, as the angry father was in the 
act of catching the runaway couple, the goddess 
of marriage interposed, and metamorphosed them 
into a pair of turtle doves. This episode, Henry 
says, is a favourite subject on the Chinese stage. I 
very much admired the curious small gateways 
and windows I saw in this garden ; some were in 
the form of leaves and others in the form of fruits 
and flowers. After leaving this guild we went over 
a lacquer-ware factory, and watched the different 
processes of painting, colouring, etc. 

I have forgotten to tell you of one incident of 
our day's excursion. Before we reached the im- 
perial temple, we arrived at a small turning, as 
it appeared to be, and Henry came to my chair 
and asked me to alight. I walked with him on 
to a narrow, long strij) of ground, on which various 
pieces of pottery were lyiug about. Its name, 
from the supposed similarity of shape, is Horse's 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 67 

Head. When asked to guess where I was, I 
failed to give an answer. I was then told I was 
standing on the execution ground. Before I 
knew this, however, a nice-looking young man 
came forward from one of the small neighbouring 
houses, where his wife, child, and mother were 
standing on the doorstep. Imagine my amaze- 
ment when Henry told me this was one of the 
four executioners employed by the authorities. 
When asked how many heads had fallen to his 
sword already, he replied one hundred and seventy, 
and said that on the day following there was to 
be an execution on a large scale, in which he 
hoped to have a share. We heard that forty 
pirates were to be decapitated. Our friend, who 
was with us, arranged at once to be present. I 
saw the crosses on which the men are tied who 
are condemned to be strangled, or to be cut into 
pieces, also some large earthenware vessels con- 
taining the heads of several malefactors who had 
been decapitated a few days previous to our visit. 
I trust that I may never meet a procession on 
its way to this place teeming with horrors. 

The unfortunate criminals are pinioned tightly, 
are then placed in baskets, and superscriptions, 
fastened to strips of bamboo, are placed behind 
their necks, stating their names, their crimes, 
and their punishments ; in this way they are 

F 2 



68 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

carried to the execution ground. After all I 
had heard of the wholesale executions in China, 
the smallness of the ground, and its unprepared 
state when we visited it, struck me very much. 
On quitting this field of blood, we passed through 
the street called Wing-Ts'ing-Kai, celebrated 
as the place where the French put to death 
ninety-six persons, men, women, and children, 
when the city was occupied by the armies of 
Great Britain and France. This was to avenge 
the death of a cook from a French man-of-war, 
who had been assassinated by some Chinese in 
a j)ro vision shop in this street. 

We proceeded from the lacquer-ware factory 
(where I broke off from my narrative) to the 
Examination Hall, a place used once in three 
years for the examination of those Mho have 
already taken their B.A. degree, but who are 
anxious to obtain the higher degree of Kue-Yan, 
or M.A. The number is very great of those who 
assemble in this hall for this purpose, frequently 
exceeding 12,000 or 13,000. Out of this large num- 
ber of candidates possibly not more than 120 can 
obtain the degree, as the number is limited by law 
in each province. It seems to correspond to the 
patient nature of a Chinese, that a man should 
try again and again for his degree under such 
difficult circumstances. The hall consists of a large 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 69 

quadrangle ; branching from each side of it are 
several long rows or streets of cells, each cell 
being five feet six inches in length, and not more 
than three feet eight inches wide. They are open 
in front ; each cell is provided, during the ex- 
amination, with a bed, which simply consists of 
seven or eight narrow deal boards. Some of these 
boards removed from their place by day serve the 
candidate for a table, and those remaining in 
their grooves are used by him as a seat. These 
streets of cells are named by characters from the 
" One Thousand Character Classic " and each 
cell is numbered, so the examiners have no 
difficulty in summoning any particular candidate 
from his cell. 

In the centre of the quadrangle stands a 
pavilion, made in the form of a triple gateway, 
to which the name of Watch Tower is applied. 
The two examiners for each province are de- 
spatched from Pekin and are received in the 
provincial capitals with great honours. The 
candidates enter the hall according to their 
counties (at least those who can get in, for the 
crush is so great that some do not succeed in 
pushing in until a late hour), at the early hour of 
four A.M., and have to answer to their names at 
the second and also the third gates of the hall. 
Before they enter the latter gate they are provided 



70 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

with sheets of paper on which to write essays and 
poems. The candidates have previously paid 
for their paper at the temple of Kwan-tai, the 
god of war. At the third gate of the Examination 
Hall they are searched, to ascertain whether they 
have provided themselves with " cribs " in the 
form of small pocket editions of the classics. 

A cook and a waiter are allotted to each ten 
candidates, and they are pledged to hold no com- 
munication with them. During the early part of 
the exami nation, the candidates, who vary in age 
from eighteen to eighty, remain three days in 
their cells, and are engaged in writing essays and 
poems. The successful candidates in this first 
examination go in again for another terfli of three 
days, when they have to write five essays from 
themes selected from the five classics. Those suc- 
cessful in this second examination have yet to go in 
for another and final examination, which consists 
of five papers on any subjects chosen by the 
examiners. Out of those who have thus passed 
through three times three days of hard examina- 
tion only 120, as I have already stated, may be 
chosen. I have forgotten to mention that the 
emperor provides for each candidate, during liis 
stay in the Examination Hall, the food follow- 
ing : — four taels of pork, four taels of ham, six 
taels of salt fish, congee water, four moon cakes 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 71 

a quantity of rice, a preserved e^g, and a modi- 
cum of pickled vegetables. Those Mdio obtain 
their M.A. degree wear a dress peculiar to the 
degree, and a gilded ornament on the top of their 
hats, and are invited to dine with the governor 
of the province, when the examination is over. 

They are presented to the chief officials at the 
banquet, and then are required to perform the kau- 
tau before the imperial tablet. They are afterwards 
escorted through the streets by their friends. 
Their names are published throughout the pro- 
vince of which they are natives. The last act of 
the scene is a douceur given by the newly made 
Masters of Arts to the examiners. I am afraid I 
shall weary you with our long day's proceedings. 
As our friend was with us we were most anxious 
for hiui to see all that was possible for him to 
see during his visit. So, weary as we began 
to feel, we went on to the " City of the Dead," 
one of the strangest and most unique places I 
have ever visited. The two gentlemen were on 
foot all day. I was in a chair, as I could not 
do such a day's sightseeing with the additional 
fatigue of walking long distances. The " City of 
the Dead " (so foreigners style these places con- 
taining the dead) was at some distance from the 
Examination Hall and very far from Shameen. It 
is very difficult to convey to you any idea of this 



72 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

strange, silent city laid out in streets, and on each 
side of ^^hich are rows of small one-storied houses 
built in stone. I think the only simile I can draw 
is that of rows of small almshouses. Imagine the 
death-like stillness that prevails in this place, 
Mhere each house is occupied only by the dead. 
In most cases the room containing the large 
wooden coffin is divided into two. The first 
division contains an altar, which has in many 
cases a light burning over it, and effigies in 
paper, life size, or nearly so, of male and 
female attendants, standing by it. There are 
paper flowers often on the altar ; the decora- 
tions vary much, according to the rank of the 
deceased. I saw, in some cases, outside the 
doors red boards and insignia of rank. In the 
middle of tlie inner division of the room is the 
large uncovered coffin with the foot of it towards 
the door. On entering one of these houses of the 
dead, our friend inadvertently touched one of 
the paper effigies, which represented a female 
attendant; she fell into our friend's arms and her 
neck became dislocated. We could not forbear 
a smile even in these grim surroundings. As all 
cannot afford to pay a sufficient sum for their 
relations to have a room to themselves in this 
tempor.iry resting-place, you see four or more 
coffins in some of the rooms. In one large room I 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 73 

noticed as many as twelve coffins. The doors of 
the houses are folding doors and can be pushed 
open easily. We entered many of them, as we 
passed down street after street. This large city 
of the dead has 194 houses in it. The dead only 
remain here for a time. The relations consult 
the geomancers as to a lucky spot for interment, 
and sometimes these soothsayers take a long time 
before they give an answer. Whilst therefore the 
relations wait to be assured of a lucky spot for bur)'- 
ing their lost ones (a point much thought of by the 
Chinese, who are most superstitiously anxious to 
avoid all cause of offence towards the dead), they 
place them in these receptacles, and pay so 
much a month for the resting-place. Sometimes a 
delay in interment must take place in the case 
of those who die at a distance from their homes. 
It is imperatively necessary for a man to be 
gathered to his own after death, for the purpose of 
ancestral worship ; should he be buried away from 
home, liis spirit, unhappy and dissatisfied at being 
deprived of the homage of his descendants, might 
rove about seeking to injure the living to the utmost 
of its power. At the entrance of this City of the 
Dead is a very large piece of water surrounded 
by trees, inhabited by hundreds and liunflreds of 
storks. These birds are considered sacred in China. 
The sombre water with its deep shades, and these 



74 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

birds utterinfr their dismal note, form a fittinir 
entrance to a place devoted to such a purpose as 
this City of the Dead. The only living beings 
here are a few Buddhist monks, wliose duty it is to 
receive the dead who are brought here, and to pray 
for the repose of their souls. One is startled, to 
see a white cock run out of one or other of these 
houses of the dead ; but I learned from Henry 
that this proceeds also from a gross superstition. 
The white cock is supposed, to attract the soul 
of the dead by its crowing, and thus to prevent 
the spirit wandering away from the body.* 

My chair coolies seemed to be much relieved 
when it was suggested that we should return home 
by boat. As my two companions had walked and 
stood about for many hours, they did not feel 
equal to the five miles' walk home, so we made 
our way to the banks of the river, hired a sampan, 
and after very slow progress, in consequence of 
the strong tide being against us, arrived home 
after eight o'clock p.m., tired and more than ready 
for our dinner. 

* As I liave previously observed, the Chinese believe that each 
human body is animated by three souls ; the first of which is 
supposed to remain with a tablet bearing the name of the 
deceased, i:)laced in the ancestral temple ; the second to remain 
with the corpse ; and the third to go to Elysium. 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 75 



LETTEE VII. 

Canton, May 4tl), 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

I THINK you will be somewhat surprised 
to hear that we have had a small seance in the 
Chaplaincy, given by a Chinese spiritualist. He 
called upon us, and asked to be allowed to give 
a performance at our house. We inquired his 
terms, and found that he expected five dollars for 
an evening's entertainment. This we thought 
too much to give, as we did not know the man's 
capabilities ; but, on talking it over with this line 
gentlemanly Chinese, he proposed to give one 
of his wonders for a dollar. On our assenting, 
he requested that a large round table should 
be brought from the servants' room, and this 
was then placed feet upwards on a small basin 
of water. Four of our servants were now^ 
called in, and each was told to place one of 
his hands on a foot of the table. The per- 
former then began to walk round and round 
the table, first with slow and measured step, 
lighted joss-sticks in his hands, and his lips 
employed in using words of incantation. After 
about four minutes' delay, the table began to 



76 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

turn slowly, but on the performer quickening 
his step, it increased its speed, until both table and 
performer were running round and round. The 
incantation was continued the whole time in an 
undertone. It was a strange sight, and one not 
to be accounted for. There was no connection 
of hands on the part of the four servants, and 
one of the latter turned literally green from 
fright as the table whirled round and round. 
When the performer, out of breath, stood still, 
the table also rested from its labours. We asked 
him how he had accomplished this feat, and in a 
subdued voice he answered, "It is Joss (God) 
that does it, I pray to him." He wished much 
to show us how he could call up the spirits of 
the departed and make them answer him. This 
table-turning, clairvoyancy, spirit communion, etc., 
have been practised in China for many centuries 
past. When the performer had left we asked 
our coolie, who had looked so scared, what he 
thought of the table-turning, and he said, " belong 
Joss pigeon, my no savez what Joss." 

We were not able to start for our sight- 
seeing yesterday until late, as the rain was 
coming down in torrents. It is now the rainy 
season, and everything is damp. Our marble- 
paved hall looks as if buckets of water had been 
thrown over it, and we are obliged to keep a 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 77 

fire niglit and day iu the library for the sake of 
Henry's books. 

You will be amused to hear that we have a 
coolie whose duty is simply to rub the books 
to prevent the damp from spoiling them, and to 
see that white ants are not attacking them. 
He is supposed to take down a certain number 
of books daily, and to rub each iu turn. He 
is such a curious-looking old fellow, and works 
deliberately with long pauses, and an occasional 
wl'.iff of a pipe to lighten, I suppose, his arduous 
duties. Of course he is related to our chief ser- 
vant. You will find in all houses that the com- 
pradore surrounds himself with his relations. 
Tlie old man of whom I speak is Mak's uncle, 
our second waiting-boy is Mak's son, and one of 
our coolies is Mak's cousin. The whole arrange- 
ment of domestic concerns in Ciiina is curious. 
Y^ou pay so much, say seven or eight dollars, to 
your boys, so many dollars monthly to your 
coolies. But this in its entirety is not enjoyed 
by them. Each must pay a kumshaw, probably 
of a dollar a month, to the compradore ; and again, 
if a boy or coolie recommends his friend to you 
and you engage him, tlie latter has to give to 
the former a kumshaw of at least half-a-dollar, 
possibly a dollar a month, all the time he 
remains in your service. This custom is very 



78 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

much, against the European householders. The 
same system of kumshaw is practised from the 
highest to the lowest in the empire. Should you 
go to a shop recommended you by your servant, 
he receives a douceur proportionate, I imagine, to 
what you buy. The chair coolies wlien hired from 
the streets by your compradore are squeezed by 
him. Again, the money used in China is a source 
of never-ending trouble to us foreigners. Henry 
writes a cheque for our monthly account with the 
outside compradore (provision dealer) and for other 
expenses. On this being presented to the com- 
pradore of the merchant on wiiom the cheque is 
drawn, this man gives the sura in light dollars. 
Our compradore receiving these, keeps them 
and pays the provision merchant, shopmen, 
etc., in still lighter dollars. So that there is 
constant contention on this subject. When we 
make a purchase, before the bargain is quite con- 
cluded, the man with whom we are treating will 
stipulate for " number one good dollars," " ploper 
dollars," as he calls them. The whole system is 
iniquitous, but you must submit, there is no plan 
by which you can escape this robbery ; tiie only 
thing you can do is to limit it as much as possi- 
ble. I could scarcely forbear laughing when the 
provision dealer showed us the other day two or 
three dollars Mak had given him on our account. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 79 

Such things they were, very thin, with hirge pieces 
cut out of them. When Chinese bargain with each 
other, the men on both sides Aveigh the money, and 
you see most earnest faces bent on this employ- 
ment, and a quarrel or wrangle ensues if the money 
is a fraction under weight. To make up for the 
clipped dollar, some dollars are chipped into pieces, 
and these fragments are put into the scale to 
make up the weight. No man trusts the other, and 
I have been most amused, when passing througli 
the streets where food is sold, to see the purchaser 
take his own scales out and weigh the small 
portion of fish, fowl, or vegetable that he is 
buying, to be sure that he is not being cheated 
of a tithe of his rights. 

This is a long digression from the subject of 
the sightseeing that we accomplished yesterday. 
On first starting, we were furtunate enough to 
see a marriage feast at the house of a Chinese 
gentleman. The bride had only just arrived at 
her future home. We \a ere all allowed to go into 
an inner room to see her, as she and her iemale 
friends take no public part in the marriage feast. 
When we had entered the room, her two female 
attendants, who stood on each side of her, and 
assisted her to rise from her seat (this is strict 
Chinese etiquette, a bride not being expected 
to move by herself), lifted up the pearl and silk 



80 FOUETEEN MONTHS IX CANTON. 

fringe which hung over her face from the gay 
crown she wore on her head. This marriage 
crown has a most theatrical appearance, being 
made in gold tinsel and immensely ornamented 
with kingfisher's feathers and sham pearls. These 
crowns are not purchased for the bride, but are, 
with the marriage chair, which is a very gay affair, 
covered with gold and ornamented with innu- 
merable little figures overlaid with kingfisher's 
feathers, hired for the occasion. The bride looked 
very shy, but this she is also by the rules of eti- 
quette expected to assume, and she made us many 
low bows, her arms lifted up by her attendants to 
the level of her shoulders, her hands joined as she 
chin-chinned us. She was quite young, but not 
good-looldng. She wore no rouge, this being 
forbidden to a bride on her marriage day. On a 
table standing close by her the wedding presents 
were displayed, lighted candles showing them to 
advantage. Some ladies, friends of the bride, 
M'ho were standing near her, wore beautifully 
embroidered bright-coloured silk dresses. As we 
left the bride's apartment, and went into the large 
hall, we saw a number of men who were seated at 
the marriage feast. They all rose and received 
us most politely, offering us chairs. The bride- 
groom, who is a friend of Henry's, handed us tea 
and waited upon us. Another singular feature in 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 81 

marriage ceremonies amongst the Chinese is this : 
the bride and bridegroom take the lowest position, 
and are servants to all on their wedding day. 
The young host asked Henry if he thought the 
bride was *'good look see," and seemed much 
pleased with Henry's congratulations, given in 
true Chinese style. The bridegroom had unfortu- 
nately taken off the bright-coloured silk bands he 
had worn earlier in the day over his chest and 
shoulders. He most politely accompanied us to 
the outer door when we took leave. 

Have I told you how very frightful the shaven 
heads of the Chinese men appear to me ? You 
remember that Henry's Chinese servant who ac- 
companied him to England wore a little black 
silk cap on his head. They do the same in 
cold weather in China, but now the warmer 
weather has begun they go without any covering to 
the head. There is often a piece of short, loose 
hair between the shaven part of the head and the 
tail, which when long enough will be plaited into 
the tail, but in its short state it rises from the 
head when the wind blows, and presents a most 
untidy, ludicrous appearance. 

As I go along the streets my eyes are occupied 
incessantly with all the strange sights, and I like 
to tell you my first impressions of people and 
things in this far-off land. The babies amuse 

G 



82 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

me immensely. Baby boys have their heads 
wholly shaven, excepting on one spot at the back 
of the head, perhaps two inches wide ; this is the 
nucleus for the future tail. When some months 
old the little boy may have a wee tail two inches 
long, which is as soon as possible plaited on to a 
little bit of red silk, and it stands stiff and upright 
from the head. The ordinary woman's dress strikes 
me as very inelegant ; it is composed of a wide 
blue or prune-coloured cotton blouse edged with 
black, and very wide blue or prune-coloured cotton 
trousers. Sometimes the dress, etc., are made in 
dark-brown cotton. All this caught my eye as 
I was on the way in my chair from the bride- 
groom's house to the Examination Hall, where 
candidates are examined for their B.A. degree. 
It is very large, partly roofed over, an impl avium 
intersecting the large hall. Eows and rows 
of stone tables, with a bench in stone on one 
side of them, stand on each side of this open-air 
hall. On the end of each of these stone benches 
a Chinese character is carved, signifying some 
good attribute, such as goodness, brightness, 
etc. This hall is used for two years in succes- 
sion for the examination of candidates for the 
B.A. degree. The third year it is closed, as the 
examination for the M.A. degree takes place 
then at the other Examination Hall, which 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. S3 

I have already described. The hall we were now 
visitino; can hold 3400 candidates. It stands at 
tlie entrance of the yamun (or official residence) 
of the Literary Chancellor. When we left this 
hall we returned towards home and went into 
a Chinese restaurant, not far from Shameen, 
where a dinner in true Chinese style had been 
ordered by Henry. Our fiiend, whose visit was 
now drawing to a close, had expressed a great 
wish to have a dinner in one of the Chinese res- 
taurants served in native style. The restaurant 
which we patronised is large and has many garden 
rooms, in one of which we could have dined most 
agreeably had it been earlier in the day, but it was 
now too late to think of this, so we went into one 
of the upper rooms of the house. Here IMak 
was waiting to receive us, and the table, which 
was round in sliape, was already arranged for our 
dinner. The coup d'oeil reminded me of my early 
days, when a child's feast was shared by young 
friends. In the centre of the table were placed 
many very small porcelain basins, containing a 
variety of fruits, preserved eggs, sliced pears, etc., 
all in miniature. 

Immediately in front of each of us were four 
very small plates containing pepper, salt, soy, 
and sugar. Chopsticks, a porcelain spoon with a 
large bowl and a very short handle, a tiny poree- 

G 2 



84 rOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

lain wine cup, and a little two-pronged fork were 
placed before each guest. Henry asked JMak to 
sit down with us, as he could explain the dishes, 
customs, etc., to us. He behaved so well, only 
as a Chinaman of inferior rank can behave 
when in company of his superiors. He was 
neither shy nor forward. 

As I intend to enclose a bill of fare in my 
letter, I will only tell you a few things about the 
dinner that most attracted my attention. 

We began our repast by helping ourselves at 
our pleasure to the fruit, etc., from the centre of 
the table, eating according to Chinese form. You 
do not necessarily put what you take from the 
dishes or basins into your own little basin, but 
more generally eat what you have secured either 
by chopsticks or the fork at once. You can 
imagine how much I appreciated the little fork, as 
I could not use the chopsticks at all. I struggled 
and struggled, but what I took up with them 
fell on to the table before I could convey it to 
my mouth. And now courses of dishes were 
placed on the table by degrees, and as none 
were removed until the dinner was finished, we 
had an increasing circle of porcelain basins in 
the centre, and by the time that the feast came 
to an end there must have been between thirty 
and forty of these bowls on the table. Everything 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 85 

was cooked to rags, aud all of it was flavoured or 
accompanied by niiislirooms, garlic, water-chest- 
nuts, slices of bamboo shoots, etc. The dishes 
were put on the table in singular order to our 
ideas : sometimes a dish of a sweet flavour was 
followed by one containing boned duck, then came 
pork, boiled conch, etc. In the middle of the re- 
past tea and little cakes were given us, and from 
this moment tea was supplied ad libitum until the 
end of the dinner. The tea was made in covered 
cups, out of which we drank ; and when we wanted 
more of it, fresh tea-leaves, with boiling water 
poured on them, were put into fresh cups and 
handed to us. The china lid of the cup you have 
to partly withdraw when you drink, and it is 
useful for preventing tlie tea-leaves from going 
into your mouth. 

The wine, which was put on the table at the be- 
ginning of the repast, was contained in little white 
metal tankards about six inches in height. Two 
kinds of wine, each most disagreeable to my taste, 
were given us : white wine made from rice, which 
tasted a little like weak whisky, and a red wine 
made from lichees. The wine was poured into 
tiny porcelain cups. At the end of the dinner 
three pretty-looking china bowls, bright green 
inside, were placed on the table, and I immediately 
became suspicious of what they contained. 



80 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

Do you remember that Henry said he was deter- 
mined that I shonUl eat dog, cat, and rat very soon 
after ray arrival in China? I had seen black cat's 
flesh when cooked at a cat and dog restaurant 
(about which I must tell you in another letter), 
and I thought I recognised it in one of tliese little 
basins before me. I proved to be right, and I 
could only be prevailed upon to put a little piece 
of the dog's flesh into my mouth ; I could not 
touch the other two dishes. The dried rat was 
served up with peas. Cat is not a dish, as gene- 
rally supposed in Europe, which can be frequently 
indulged in by the poor man ; it can only be 
enjoyed by him as a very rare treat. A dinner 
of cat's flesh cannot be procured for less than a 
quarter of a dollar. Another delicacy had been 
ordered by Henry to grace the meal. Do you 
recollect that when he spoke of tipsy shrimps 
at a dinner party in England, one of our relations 
who was present told a friend afterwards it was 
but a traveller's tale ? Henry was determined that 
I should verify his anecdote. So tipsy shrimps were 
placed on the table. They were brought on in a 
little covered china bowl, into which wine had been 
poured some short time before. When the cover 
was removed, the shrimps began to jump about 
and to spring out of the little basin on to the table. 
Had an experienced Chinaman been present he 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 87 

would have caught them on his chopsticks as they 
were in the act of springing, but my companions 
were not able to do this. I could not put one of 
these live things into my mouth, but Henry took 
one, and as to our friend, I think, I may safely 
say he ate two or three. I never saw any one so 
determined to eat all and everything as our friend ; 
he had helped himself previously to this, most 
liberally to cat, dog, and rat, and said he did not 
find them disagreeable. And now our dinner 
closed, as is the case at all Chinese repasts, 
with soups of various kinds. When we left the 
table I was much amused by seeing Mak and our 
other servants empty each of the numerous china 
basins standing on the table into a cloth, to con- 
vey the various contents home for their own use. 

I have forgotten to mention that little squares 
of the ordinary whitey-brown Chinese paper, 
about six inches square, were given to us to use 
as table-napkins. 

When we rose from table, hot water in brass 
bowls was placed before us, and small towels were 
provided for us on which to dry our hands. I did 
not think very much of the birds'-nest soup, 
which of course was one of the delicacies of which 
we had partaken ; it is gelatinous, and has no 
flavour in particular that I could discover. It 
was served with pigeons' eggs and ham. It must, 



88 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

I fancy, ba very nutritions. The Malay name 
for it is " Foam of the Sea." I am to visit one of 
the shops where the nests are prepared for use 
and sold, and to see the great amount of care that 
has to be bestowed upon them before they are fit 
to be converted into food. The Malays believe 
that the birds swallow the foam, and eject it after 
it has undergone some change in their stomachs. 
I will now give you the bill of fare, which I wrote 
down as each dish was put on table. 

In the centre of the table, in tiny dishes, were : 

1. Oranges cut into small slices. 

2. Pears cut into thin slices. 

3. Bitter almonds. 

4. Preserved walnuts. 

5. Ducks' gizzards cut into small pieces. 

6. Preserved eggs, green in colour, cut into small pieces. 

7. Tiny square pieces of pork, very dark in colour, looking 
more like a sweetmeat than meat. 

1. Minute plato with pepper in it. 

2. „ „ „ salt in it. 

3. „ „ „ sugar in it, 

4. „ „ „ soy in it. 

Four of these small plates were placed before 
each person. 



The first dish placed on table after all were 
seated was : 

1. Beche de mor, (Sea slugs). 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 89 

2. Stewed boned duek, served with forcemeat, so much cojked 
as to be easily divided by chopsticks, 

3. Hashed jjigeon with ham, 

4. Birds'-nest soup, 

5. Stewed mutton and bamboo shoots, 

G. Boiled conch (a large shell-lish) cut into slices. 

7. Stewed crab, 

8. Black fish, fried. 



A pause, in which tea and cakes of two kinds 
were handed. 

(1.) Cakes named " A Thousand Storeys." 

(2.) Sponge cakes about an inch and a half square. 

During this interlude we helped ourselves 
from the various dishes already placed upon the 
table. 

Now was served : 

9. Fowl and ham, cooked until they could be divided by 
chopsticks. 

lU. Turtle soup with pieces of fat turtle floating in it, taken 
by porcelain sjjoous. 

11. Hashed dog. 

12. Stewed black cat. 

13. Fried rat. 

14. Maccaroni soup. 

15. Salt fish, 

16. Salted eggs. 

17. Pork minced so small as to represent bread crumbs, 

18. Ham cut into small pieces and placed upon a green 
vegetable. 

19. Basins of rice. 



90 FOUETEEN MONTHS IX CANTON. 

20. CoDgee (rice water). 

21. Melon seeds. 

22. Betel-nuts wrapped up in green leaves bearing the 
name of Tching-Lau, the whole to be eaten. 

23. Betel-nuts pounded. 

24. Tipsy shrimps. 

25. Soups of various kinds. 



LETTER Till. 

Cantox, May llth, 1S77. 
My DEAE 3rOTHER, 

I HAVE now visited the shop where 
edible birds' nests are prepared, and can there- 
fore tell you from experience how much pains are 
taken over this much valued article of food. We 
went into one of the shops where these birds' 
nests alone are sold. In the first stage I saw the 
nest in its natural state as it is brought from 
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Sooloo. A dirty- 
looking little dry nest it is, with a lining of 
feathers. It is first scraped, the soft lining is 
removed, and then it is washed. It is now 
pulled to pieces, and the small feathers which still 
cling to the gelatinous matter require to be 
carefully removed. I saw many men employed 
in this last delicate operation. When prepared, 
the birds' nests are beautifullv white. The birds, 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 91 

whicli make these nests in most inaccessible 
places, are a species of swallow, or rather house 
marten. You will conclude from the time the 
nests take to prepare, and the danger and difficulty 
in procuring them from the rocks and caverns, 
that it is an expensive article of food, beyond 
the reach of all the poorer classes. 

The day after we had had our grand Chinese 
dinner we went into the city, and the first object 
we visited was the Clepsydra (or water clock), 
which is placed in a chamber erected on the tower 
called Kung-Pak-Lau. (See illustration, p. 92.) 

We saw four tubs containing water, which are 
placed on an inclined plane, and connected by 
open spouts. The tubs vary in size, the largest 
one being at the top. The water trickles from 
the one tub into the other. A copper dial resem- 
bling a carpenter's rule, with Chinese characters 
engraved on it marking its divisions, rests on a 
wooden float in the lowest tub. As this dial rises 
it shows the length of time expired.* A man 
remains in the building night and day, for the 

* " The index in the lowest jar is set every morning and after- 
noon at five o'clock, by placing the naark on it for these hours, 
even with tlie cover, through which it rises and indicates the 
time. The water is dipped out and poured back into the top 
jar when the index shows the completion of the half-day, and 
tlie water is renewed every quarter." 

Vide Archdeacon Gray's ' Walks in the City of Canton.' 



92 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



purpose of giving tlie hour to the citizens of 
Canton. This he does during the day, by plac- 
ing boards outside the clock tower, which are 



f5v^'?-. 




^^.i«:-^-.;J I 



r 




AVATEK CLOCK. 



painted white, and bear large black Chinese 
characters marking the hour. A gong and drum 
are kept in the tower, by which the watchman 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 93 

makes known the various watches, or hours of 
the night. A small shrine is placed immediately 
above the steps leading to the water clock, in 
honour of Pwan-Ku, who is described in Chinese 
mythology as having been the first man. As 
clothes were supposed to be unknown when he 
flourislied, he is represented as wearing an apron 
or girdle of green leaves. He appears to be 
regarded as the tutelary god of the water clock. 
I may here remark that this singular method 
of measuring time was practised by the ancient 
Egyptians. 

Before we left the tower, the man in charge 
drew our attention to small bundles of " time- 
sticks," used, as the name would imply, for mea- 
suring time. These sticks are thirty-two inches 
long, and burn for twelve hours. They are 
used especially by the Tartar population as time- 
pieces. There are different kinds, some to be used 
in fine weather, others when the wind is high, 
when of course the candles burn more quickly. 
They have been in use for centuries past. On 
one of the bundles Henry observed a label, on 
whicli was a printed notice that the candles were 
made according to the directious of ofiicial as- 
tronomers and astrologers ; that those intended 
for day must be lighted at the dawn of day, 
when the lines on the palin of the hand are 



94 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

just visible, and those for use at night must be 
lighted at dusk, when the lines on the palm of the 
liand are not discernible. After further informa- 
tion, the circular set forth that purchasers must 
be careful to note the trade-mark, that there is 
only one establishment in which time-measuring 
sticks are manufactured, and that the price of each 
stick is six kandareens. 

At the top of the same tower is a small temple, 
in which we saw a shrine dedicated to Sin-Fuung, 
who is supposed to be able to command the 
return of runaway slaves. An eflSgy of a mounted 
courier stands near the idol, ready to execute his 
celestial master's commands. Those who have lost 
slaves proceed to this altar, and, having worshipped 
the idol, tie cords round the neck of the horse on 
which the courier is seated, possibly for him to use 
in binding the runaways when caught. At another 
altar in this temple we noticed offerings of staves, 
much resembling the poles placed outside barbers' 
shops in England. On leaving this temple, we 
turned our faces homewards, and called en route 
at the private residence of a Chinese gentle- 
man. We were shown a number of small rooms 
furnished with black wood furniture, and a 
library filled with Chinese classics. All these 
rooms were much ornamented by wood-carvings ; 
they were a suite used by the family in summer. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 95 

I was much struck on seeing one of the rooms 
arranged as an oratory. Henry tells me that this 
is the case in almost all the houses of the gentry. 
An altar, with its incense burner in zinc, candle- 
sticks in zinc, and usual decorations, stood at the 
end of the room. A Buddhist nun was kneeling 
before it, saying prayers to Koon-Yam, the goddess 
of mercy, for the souls of the departed members 
of the family. We walked through the gardens, 
which are very extensive, and arranged like all 
those I have seen here, a garden Avithin a garden, 
having ponds encircled by walls on which are 
placed pots of flowers. Bridges of various shapes 
cross the ponds ; one of them, as is always the 
case, is made in tortuous windings to represent 
a dragon, the much-prized emblem. Garden 
houses, furnished with black wood furniture with 
marble let in, and some of it ornamented with 
mother-of-pearl, stand in the grounds. They 
call these garden houses places of rest; they 
afford a beautiful shade from the glaring sun of 
the East, and are much used by all the members 
of the family during' the summer. The double, 
carved wooden roofs of these garden houses are most 
picturesque, and so is that of a little summer- 
house erected on the centre arch of one of the 
miniature bridges. This immense house and 
large grounds belong to one of Henry's oldest 



96 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

Chinese friends of the name of Howqua. The 
former head of this family, who died some years 
ago, was a great friend and admirer of Europeans. 
When we returned into the house, a lady with a 
very pleasant face, dressed in plain cotton tunic 
and trousers, the mourning dress for ladies, as 
then silk robes are forbidden, came forward and, 
smiling sweetly, took me by the hand and led 
me to the seat of honour. She then took some 
sweetmeats from a box handed to her by a female 
attendant, and put them into my mouth by means 
of a little silver two-pronged fork. She did not 
desist from this hospitality for some time, and I 
never ate so many sweetmeats at one time before. 
I could only bow my thanks. She then ordered 
some tea, and when it arrived, in a small covered 
china cup, she poured a little into the saucer 
and handed it to me. There was an indescribable 
grace and courtesy in all she did. I ^^as then 
led by my friend into the inner hall, up to an 
altar, behind which there was a portrait of a 
young lady, evidently newly painted. 

Henry explained to me that it was the lady's 
daughter-in-law, who had very recently (some 
three weeks or more) died. The coffin Avas 
placed on the left of the altar. As the Chinese 
do not use leaden coffins, it is singular that they 
should be able to keep their dead so long as 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 97 

seven weeks in the house, before placing them in 
one of the cities of the dead, or in a family tomb.* 
When we stood before the coffin, which was 
nnoovered and in polished wood, made of four 
pieces, the lady turned to me and smote her 
breast. A young man, who was also dressed in 
cotton mourning clothes, now came forward, and 
said to me, " My wife, my wife." This was the 
son of my friend, who had lost his only wife. He 
looked about tliirty, and as he could speak a few 
words of English, he made me understand his 
position. 

There were no mourning emblems outside the 
house, as I had seen in other cases, and this I was 
told was accounted for by tlie fact that this lady 
had died young, and that in consequence she was 
regarded as under the displeasure of the gods, and 
so not worthy of much attention. She has left one 
little boy, whom I saw. He was dressed in mourn- 
ing cotton clothes, his little tail was plaited with 
white cord and he was wearing white shoes. Two 
little girls are also left to the grandmother's care, 
but the fourth and youngest child, a little girl, had 
been given away, as the family considered it would 
be too great a trouble to bring up three daughters. 
Continuing our homeward walk, I was much struclc 

* I have since learned that Chinese coffins are hermeticn'ly 
sealed with chuuam, a species of putty. 

H 



98 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

with the amount of religious worship going on in 
the streets, especially in front of the open-air 
shrines. The Chinese certainly are a people given 
to superstition, but yet one cannot but admire 
the way they carry out what they profess. For 
instance, every night and morning lamps are 
lighted before the ancestral altars, joss-sticks are 
placed on the altars, and before each shop in a 
queer little place made for the purpose on the 
ground, cut out of the stone projections in front of 
the shops, you will see three lighted joss-sticks at 
the dawn and at the setting of the sun.* 

Religious worship is also much observed in the 
boats. The sampan we always employ (a small 
boat with a broad beam, enclosed by_a mat roof 
over the centre, propelled by two oars, worked in 
the bow of the boat, and by a very powerful scull 
astern, generally kept in motion by women) has a 
small altar erected in the stern of the boat, which 
is covered by a sliding door by day. Morning 
and night the little door is withdrawn, and you 
see the miniature altar, crowded with effigies of 
the household gods, tiny tablets for ancestral 
worship made in wood, painted red, bearing gilt 
characters signifying the names of the deceased 

* Canton is, in this manner, fumigated twice daily, and it is 
to tliis circumstance that some attribute the rareness of epidemics 
in the city. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



1)9 



ancestors, offerings of fruits and flowers in tiny- 
cups and vases, and several little zinc ornaments 




surrounding the idols in the centre. Incense-sticks 
are burnt niglit and morning on this altar, at the 

H 2 



100 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

bow of the boat, and also at the entrance of the 
covered part where passengers sit. The other 
night I noticed a large paper lantern suspended 
from this part of the boat, which burnt for half an 
hour, and when I asked the sampan boy the mean- 
ing of it, his answer was interpreted to me as, " It 
is Joss' lantern." It bore the name of the tutelary 
god of tlie boat in red characters. Now when one 
considers the extreme poverty of these boat-people, 
and the daily expense of these religious offerings, 
trifling a sum as it may be, but a serious con- 
sideration to those who often have not the where- 
withal to buy rice, one cannot but be struck by 
the contrast of the heathen's devotion to his gods, 
and our own careless observances in JEngland, 
Mhere for the most part our countrymen put 
religion entirely on one side during the week, 
airing it only on Sunday. The earnestness of 
these worshippers may well put us to shame. 
AVe returned home to luncheon, as we intended to 
make an excursion by water in the afternoon, to 
show our friend, before he left us, one of the 
villages where ducks are hatched and reared. In 
short, we were going to a duck village. We looked 
forward very much to our rural afternoon. 

We entered one of the establishments for 
hatching ducks in the village of Pak-A-Ts'uen, 
and a more curious sii>:ht than this I have seldom 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 101 

seen. The whole process of hatching was shown 
and explained to us. Tlie first is this : a number 
of eggs are placed iu a basket filled witli heated 
huslvs or chaff of rice ; they are then removed into 
a dark room and are put upon shelves of lattice- 
work. Under the lowest of these shelves there 
are grates filled with burning charcoal. Tlie 
eggs remain in this heated room for twenty-four 
hours ; they are then removed into an adjoining 
room and are placed in cloths, about fifty in eacn 
cloth. The first cloth with its contents is lowered 
gently to the bottom of a cylindrical-shaped 
basket made of rattan. Then a second cloth 
contaiuing eggs is placed above the first, and so 
on until the basket is full. These baskets are 
about three feet high, and are lined with sheets 
of coarse brown paper. The eggs remain in 
these baskets for three weeks, but in order tliat 
all of them may be equally heated, men are 
employed to alter their position once during the 
day and once during the night, so, when pro- 
perly looked after, the eggs which were at the 
bottom in the morning sliould be at the top at 
nigiit. How they are not broken when the men 
lift out the various cloths I cannot tell, but the 
Chinese are wonderful manipulators, they seldom 
injure anything they touch. At the end of the 
three weeks the eggs which have been placed in 



102 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the baskets are removed to another room, and are 
arranged on very wide shelves of hard wood. 
They are then covered by sheets of thick, coarse 
brown paper, and here they remain for some hours, 
possibly for two or three days, when they burst 
into life. I v/as fortunate enough to see an 
immense numl)er in the act of being hatched ; 
hundreds of little ones peeped from their shells, 
and others were taking their first walk over the 
shells of their companions. Imagine a hatch of 
a thousand ! What would a farmer's wife say 
to it in England, who shows you with pride a 
duck which has brought off fourteen little ones 
in triumph? No tender care is taken of the 
newly-born, pretty little golden balls.- A man 
walks round and roughly catches hold of as many 
as are free from their egg-shells, and throws them 
into a basket. They are then removed to the 
outer part of the establishment and, when a 
purchaser arrives, are counted out by a man, who 
seizes four little necks at a time, and cries out 
the number in a high key. I saw a great many 
counted out in this manner in this duck-breeding 
establishment. The man, who bought hundreds of 
the newly-hatched ducks, took them off at once 
to one of the duck farms to rear them. It is 
wonderful how tlie young duck manages to crawl 
out of his temporary home when the moment 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 103 

comes for him to be launched into the world, 
as sometimes he is partly under his neighbours' 
shelly coverings (the eggs are arranged two deep) ; 
but by delicate manoeuvring he succeeds. It was 
fascinating to me to watch their efforts, and I 
could have i-emained a much longer time than 
we could allow in this part of the establishment. 

On leaving this hatching establishment we 
went on to a duck farm, if one may so call 
it, in the same village. We saw here 3000 
orphan ducks, which were about five or six weeks 
old, also many hundreds much younger in a 
place apart, all the latter being of the same 
tend'er age. There are itinerant duck and geese 
vendors who come to this village in large boats ; 
they buy from 150 to 1000 ducks or geese at a 
time, and drive them into broad, enclosed wooden 
platforms attached to the sides of their boats. 
This gives these boats a very singular and 
clumsy appearance, and also renders them unsafe 
in tempestuous weather. Several of these duck 
boats were capsized close to the Bogue Forts, 
in the fearful typhoon which took place in 1862, 
and for upwards of a mile the Pearl river was 
literally covered by the feathered inhabitants 
of these wrecked duck boats. The sellers of 
ducks and geese then take their boats up the 
creeks and sell their birds, either wholesale or 



104 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

retail, to the country people, or to the provision 
dealers in the villages and towns. There is 
still no gentle care bestowed upon these un- 
fortunates. They are not regarded individually, 
but en masse, and a certain percentage is always 
reckoned upon for casualties. We walked down 
a long street in the village, on each side of which 
were duck and geese dealers, with their birds in 
wicker baskets beside them. I saw some of the 
young ones placed in open wicker baskets sus- 
pended from bamboo poles over the shoulders 
of some men. They were taken to the river's 
bank and dipped, baskets and all, into the river 
for health's sake, then brought dripping back 
to the particular spot of the street where their 
owners were wont to exhibit them. I had almost 
forgotten to say that the ducks and geese which 
are taken off in the duck boats do not cost their 
masters a cent for food. Twice during the day 
the duck boat is brought up to the side of the 
creek or river, the wooden compartment at the 
side of the platform on which the ducks are kept 
is removed, and they are allowed to wander about 
the banks at will, finding most ample repasts in 
the worms, slugs, snails and frogs which abound 
in the mud on the edge of the rivers and creeks 
at low tide. I have seen from 1500 to 2000 
ducks gaining their own livelihood in this manner. 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 105 

as we have passed along the banks of the river. 
The most curious feature of this proceeding is 
that the ducks are trained to obey the human 
voice, and when, after a delay of two or three 
hours, the man in charge of them considers he 
has given them ample opportunity of feeding 
themselves off the various delicacies he does 
not provide for them, he makes a call, and the 
birds obey his voice at once, and return to the 
boat. They certainly cannot have learned 
obedience from their parents, never, from earliest 
infancy, having known a parent's care. On our 
return from this curious duck village we went 
to see a floating street, which is only at a short 
distance from Shameen, where rice is sold in 
great quantities. It is difficult to approach it, 
as so many boats crowd round the entrance to 
this floating street, the boat-people bringing their 
baskets to purchase rice. Originally these dealers 
in rice lived in junks which were anchored, boards 
being placed between them for the sake of com- 
munication. They could therefore, at the first 
notice given them of danger, put up sail and go 
off to a place of safety. This happened, to the 
surprise of the English and French, during the 
war with China, 1859. But since then a large 
fire occurred, and many have now placed their 
junks on piles driven into the bed of the river. 



106 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

However several of the jnnks forming this street 
still float. The people belonging to the rice, 
stores live entirely in their queer habitations. 
Few foreigners visit them, and we had a string 
of men and children following us as we walked 
up and down the street. I was very much sur- 
prised to see pictures from the Illustrated London 
Neivs in the boat used as a school (for there 
is a school even here), but the people could not 
understand them, one would imagine, as two of 
them were upside down. 

Before I close my letter, I must tell you that I 
have been a victim of a wicked conspiracy on the 
part of my husband and the servants. You will 
learn from my last letter that I could not be 
prevailed upon to taste the three delicacies of 
cat, dog, and rat provided at the Chinese dinner, 
and served up in the dainty bowls. Well, when 
Henry returned home that night, he said to j\Iak, 
"Now understand, your missisee must eat cat, 
dog, and rat ; you go catchee them, and every 
morning-time you give one piecee to eat tliat 
breakfast time." Two days passed, and Henry, 
thinking the servant had forgotten all about his 
order, sat down to breakfast, and I am glad to 
say that the biter was bitten, for he, as well as 
our friend, partook of a dish of mince, which 
was served up with a wall of potatoes. T'his was 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 107 

according to Henry's wish, as he thought the 
potatoes, served English fashion, would be a good 
disguise. Having tasted it, and not liking the 
flavour, Henry said, sotto voce, to the waiting-boy, 
" What fashion chow-chow this thing ? " and the 
answer was, " Belong one piecee dog." I ate my 
portion without comment, thinking it calf's head 
minced, but the idea did pass through my head 
that it was rather high, and I looked towards our 
friend, but he seemed to be enjoying it. The 
following morning another mince was served up, 
of which Henry did not partake, but I did not 
notice this. He declares that I helped myself 
twice to it. This mince was also disguised by a 
wall of potatoes. On the third morning another 
of these choice dishes, ornamented again with 
potatoes, was handed round, and our friend, who 
had been let into the secret, helped himself liber- 
ally, and declared the dish good. I remained in 
ignorance of what I had eaten until the middle of 
the third day, when the gentlemen burst into a 
fit of laughter, and told me of the hoax that had 
been practised upon me, and that I had eaten dog 
the first morning, cat the second, and rat the 
third morning. Does it not show how much 
there is in imagination ? for, had I been told be- 
forehand what the dishes would contain, I could 
not have swallowed a morsel of their contents. 



108 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



LETTER IX. 

Cantox, May 23vd, 1S77. 

J\Iy dear Mother, 

The weather is warm and settled now, and 
the rainy season being at length over, we no 
longer have the trouble with our clothes that we 
had in April. Imagine what it was to have every- 
tliiug brought down from the wardrobes and 
drawers of the bedrooms and put into the library, 
where a fire was kept burning night and day 
for three weeks. You know how things look 
when heaped together. I tell Henry tjiat the 
library, full of his cloth-clothes, boots, my dresses, 
etc., has looked like an old clothes shop. The 
heat of the room has been something unendurable. 
I do not know if we have had an unusually rainy 
season, but the effect of the damp was very dis- 
agreeable. If you put a pair of boots you had 
taken off in the corner of the bedroom, when you 
looked at them again in two or three days' 
time, you found a thick coating of mildew over 
them. The books in our bedroom also became 
very damp, and I was obliged to have them taken 
downstairs and put into the hot room. 

The heat of the atmosphere has been nothing 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 109 

to complain of until now, but we must expect 
soon to have the summer heat upon us in its full 
force. We think it so much better to work very 
hard at sightseeing before we are prevented from 
doing so by the arrival of the heat, and you 
will judge from my letters, when they reach 
you, that we have not been idle during the 
seven weeks we have been in Canton. {Since I 
wrote to you we have been very busy, and have 
seen much that is interesting. One morning we 
went in our sampan to the Wong-Sha suburb 
to the temple of Loi-Sun-Yaong, as it is 
there that devotees resort to receive from Loi- 
Sun-Yaong communications through the medium 
of spiritualistic writing. The gentlemen had 
been over to the temple before breakfast, but 
the Tauist priests were not there at the moment, 
as they had been up all night at a gentleman's 
house in the city saying prayers for the repose 
of a departed soul. A votary was waiting at the 
temple for the return of the priests ; and Henry 
and his friend were told that if they came back 
at nine o'clock they would have an opportunity 
of witnessing the ceremony. On learning from 
them that it was impossible to return at that 
hour, the keeper of the temple promised to delay 
the service till ten o'clock. Accordingly, we 
went to the temple at the hour appointed, and 



110 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

were asked to walk into the reception-room. 
We were supplied with tea, but before we had 
time to drink it a monk came in to say that 
the devotee was impatient to ask the gods for 
some information he much required. We there- 
fore went at once into the shrine, and saw the 
monk and the petitioner kneeling before the 
altar. The monk was kneeling in front of the 
devotee. Wax tapers were already lighted, and 
burning joss-sticks were in the incense-burners. 
These were gifts from the votary. Both priest 
and petitioner seemed very earnest in their sup- 
plications. Three minutes, perhaps, were occupied 
by these prayers, then both men rose from their 
knees. 

Our attention now became absorbed in another 
monk, who had before him on a table a Uirge 
wooden board covered with' sand. He was stand- 
ing by the altar. A second monk was by his 
side, with pen and paper, to write down the 
message supposed to be delivered by the god 
whose image stood on the altar. A third monk 
joined the other two, whose duty, we learned, was 
to explain the message when written. As a 
spiritualistic language is the medium employed, 
it requires to be translated. This language 
is supposed not to be understood by the other 
two assistants at this strange ceremony. The 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. Ill 

chief performer now took bis instrnment, which 
was a piece of stick about a foot in length, 
into bis band, or rather he balanced it on bis 
two forefingers. It resembles a long pen-handle, 
and is made of white wood. From the centre 
below projects a small piece of wood, which writes 
on the sanded board. It altogether reminded me 
of the planchettes so much in fashion a few years 
ago in England. lu a few minutes the wooden 
instrument began to move, as was supposed, 
without the help of the monk who held it. It 
moved up and down on the board, tracing large 
characters on it ; and when the board was marked 
all over, that part of the message was transcribed 
on paper by the monk, the sand was shaken, and 
the board placed again on the table ready for 
the continuation of the writing. This happened 
three times, the petitioner looking on all the 
while with rapt attention. The fourth time the 
lightly-balanced wooden instrument refused to 
move, and the monk said the god had retired. 
When the writing was translated by the third 
monk, it was found to be a message for the 
foreigners, and not a word was addressed to the 
poor devotee. The paper was handed to us, and 
was translated as follows : " The god is very much 
pleased that the foreigners are present ; he holds 
communication with their god, and he knows that 



112 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

they have come to China on a good errand." 
The petitioner then made a second attempt to 
obtain an answer from the god. He came to 
the front of the altar, chin-chinned the idol, 
and said a few words very earnestly. For some 
time the wooden instrument, which was again 
balanced on the fingers of the monk, remained 
inactive ; then it moved, but only to write a few 
characters. When this short message was trans- 
lated to the petitioner, it ran thus : " Tlie god 
cannot speak to you to-day ; he wishes you to 
come another day." The man, to our surprise, 
seemed quite satisfied, folded the paper, and put 
it into his pocket. He did not seem to grudge 
his wasted tapers and incense-sticks. The man- 
darins are afraid of this supposed power of holding 
converse with the gods, and say that through 
it the people are enabled to look into futurity. 

Is it not difficult to come to a conclusion about 
it ? The monk wlio acted the chief part did not 
certainly appear to move a muscle of his hand 
or arm. If it be a fraud wilfully committed, it 
seems incredible that men should give up the 
world and practise such deceit. Mak was with 
us, and when questioned about his belief in this 
spiritualistic writing, said quietly, "All belong 
lie pigeon." Is it not wonderful to find that 
the practice of spiritualism, mesmerism, calling 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 113 

up the spirits of the departed, etc., which at 
present is exciting so much attention in Europe 
and America, should have been practised in 
China for many centuries past. 

The annual iestival of Kum-Fa has been held 
this week, and on Tuesday we went to the temple 
called Kum-Fa-Miu to witness it. This temple 
is situated in the Honam suburb, on the opposite 
side of the river to the city of Canton. Both men 
and women worship this goddess, but she is more 
especially the tutelary deity of women and children. 
She was, wlien in the flesh, a native of Canton, and 
lived about 1470. From early youth she devoted 
herself to the service of the gods, refused to 
marry, and was supposed to hold communion 
with the gods. Becoming weary of the world, she 
committed suicide by drowning herself in a pond, 
which is still shown you, close to the temple. 
Suicide, under certain conditions, is supposed by 
the Chinese to be a meritorious act. Search was 
long made for her body, but without success, but 
it afterwards rose to the surface of the water. 
After the body was recovered from the water, the 
air was redolent with sweet perfume, and an imag(i 
of her is said to have risen to the surface of the 
pond in which she drowned herself. When Ave 
entered the temple, we saw a large gilded idol of 
Kum-Fa behind the clnef altar, and at each of the 

I 



114 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

side altars ten gilded images of her attendants. 
These women are supposed to preside over the 
wants of little children. Each has her vocation : 
thus one is supposed to superintend the feeding of 
new-born babies ; a second to grant male children 
to the suppliant praying before her; a third 
teaches children to smile; a fourth teaches children 
to walk ; a fifth presides over the ablutions of 
children, and so forth. At this festival men 
and women come to return thanks to the goddess 
for the gift of children, which she is supposed to 
have granted them during the past year. 

Women too come to beseech her to give them 
children, and so to prevent their husbands 
taking other wives. I saw many little ones in the 
temple, and learnt that they had been brought 
by their mothers to be presented to the goddess 
to receive her blessing. We were not fortunate 
enough to see many ladies, they had most 
probably visited the teniple very early in the 
morning, to escape the crowd that would later in 
the day besiege it. The women I saw were of 
the lower orders, but amongst them, during our 
visit to the temple, were two ladies, beautifully 
dressed (they always come to this festival in their 
richest robes to do honour to the goddess), who 
looked shy and nervous, and who shrank into a 
corner with their attendants, to wait until the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 115 

altar was not so crowded. They seized a favour- 
able moment, presented their offerings of fruit, 
flowers, and cakes, worshipped the goddess, and 
then retired. In this temple, in an upper room, 
we saw a strange sight. This room is set apart 
as the bedchamber of the goddess, and contains a 
bedstead, coverlet, tables, chairs, toilet services, a 
dressing case and many dresses, all the offerings 
of female devotees to the goddess Kum-Fa. There 
is also a small idol of tlie goddess in this room 
which is used in processions. She occupies the 
same position amongst the Chinese deities as 
Venus Genitrix held amon2:st the Roman o-od- 
desses. The interior of the temple was a strange 
sight to my eyes. Women were chatting with 
each other as they walked about, showing no 
reverence for the building. The keepers of the 
temple were dirty-looking men, and it was strange 
to see them sitting at a little table in the centre of 
the temple, taking their meals. The women were 
much pleased to chin-chin me, came close to me, 
examined my dress, asking (as Henry interpreted 
to me) if my watch-chain was gold, and other 
similar questions, amongst them one suitable to 
the occasion, " Have you a son ? " Women only 
go up to the chief altar. The men collect at the 
lower end of the temple and offer their presents 
and their worship at an altar near the door. I was 

I 2 



316 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

amazed at tlie size of some of the offerings. ]\ren 
came in carrying, by means of bamboo poles resting 
on their shoulders, large red boxes containing pigs 
roasted whole, dumplings coloured red, cocks boiled 
whole with their combs left on their heads, fresh 
lichees, etc. A table was placed before the second 
altar, on which these offerings stood whilst the 
elders of the clan worshipped at the altar. There 
were six or seven elders in their long silk robes, 
with squares of gold embroidery on their chests and 
shoulders, who worshipped in this way. After these 
men had left, and their offerings had been carried 
out of the temple, eight mats were placed before 
the altar, and eight men belonging to another clan 
came forward and knelt upon them. The principal 
man knelt alone some paces in front of the others 
immediately before the altar, and he poured out 
a libation of wine three successive times from a 
tiny porcelain cup, which he re-filled for the pur- 
pose. The men were dressed in long coats of silk 
in various light bright shades., and silk trousers, 
and they wore handsomely embroidered shoes. 
Each man did the kau-tau thrice and then rose 
from his knees. The offerings, which had been 
])reviously placed upon the altar, were then 
removed, carried home, and would serve for a 
feast for the elders of the clan. We conjectured 
that a son had been born to the chief of tliis clan 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 117 

(luring the past year, and that the principal 
members of it had come to the temple to return 
thanks to Kum-Fa for the blessing. A very old, 
benevolent-looking attendant of the clan advanced 
to the mat which had been used by the principal 
worshipper, did the kau-tau, and then he also 
poured out three libations of wine. The old man 
looked full of joy, and afterwards went round to the 
elders congratulating them, and each member of 
the clan in turn chin-chinned the faithful servant. 
It was a touching sight. There is a great bond 
of affection between the heads of Chinese families 
and their retainers. All the worshippers I saw 
in the temple presented paper money ; in the 
case of the poor it was siuiply pieces of plain 
whitish brown paper, but the paper money pre- 
sented by the rich was ornamented with gold and 
silver, and done up in shapes to represent ingots. 
This paper money, and paper effigies representing 
children especially committed to the care of Kum- 
Fa, were set alight and thrown into a large bronze 
incense-burner in the centre of the temple. Each 
time this was done a drum was beaten, for the pur- 
pose of scaring away all hungry ghosts who might 
be anxious to seize the offerings and so deprive the 
goddess of her due, and the worshipper of her 
favour. I also saw large painted ornamental 
caudles and bundles of incense sticks offered at 



118 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the altar. Sitting at the side of the temple were 
musicians dressed in most gaudy red cloaks, which 
were worn over other garments as dirty as they 
could be. They made a most deafening noise. 
In front of them stood a long table on which 
were red dumplings, lichees, etc., for sale, so that 
the worshippers who had not brought any offerings 
with them could buy them here. A very old 
man wearing an official hat acted as master of the 
ceremonies. Some men stood behind a long deal 
counter which was placed on the right hand of 
the temple, and on which were paper charms, 
paper money, and answers to prayers, for sale. 
A worshipper anxious to obtain some request 
from a god or goddess takes two pieces oLwood in 
his hand, made in form like a ram's horn, split 
from top to bottom. He kneels down in front 
of the altar, and throws the two pieces of wood 
into the air. Should they both fall on the convex, 
or concave side, it is implied that the god refuses 
to hear the prayer of the votary. He, however, 
being importunate, throws the pieces of wood into 
the air, until he succeeds in placing the one on the 
convex, and the other on its concave side. It is 
now understood that the god has yielded to his 
importunity, and is prepared to hear his petition. 
He then addresses the god in a voice inaudible 
to all who may be standing around him, and tells 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 119 

him liis requirements. He then rises, and in 
order to obtain the response of the god, takes 
a long circuhir wooden box from the altar, which 
is filled with small slips of wood, much resembling 
spelioans, and, again kneeling, jerks the box 
rapidly until one of these narrow slips of wood 
drops out. Eacli is numbered, and the worshipper 
on taking it to the long counter obtains a printed 
response corresponding to the number on his parti- 
cular slip of wood. For this oracular response he has 
to pay a few cash. As it is written in most ambig- 
uous terms it requires to be interpreted, and for this 
purpose the votary takes it to a fortime-teller, who 
generally sits at the door of the temple, and from 
him receives the interpretation on the payment 
of a small sum of money. And thus these fortune- 
tellers ply a busy trade, working on the credulity 
of the people, xis we stood by and witnessed 
these ceremonies, we were forcibly reminded of 
the Oracle of Delphi and its dark sayings. 

Whilst we were still in the temple, six or seven 
Tauist priests (their heads are not wholly shaven 
like the Buddhist priests, they wear their long 
tails of hair done up in curious fashion on 
the top of the head, fastened in a knot by 
a wooden comb of a singular pattern) came in 
and arranged themselves in a half circle before 
the second altar, and offered up prayers, to the 



120 FOUETEEN MONTHS IX CANTON. 

accompaniment of a bell and some iustrnments 
played by three of their number. They are 
occupied in such services at intervals during this 
day, praying to Kum-Fa that children may be 
granted in great numbers to the Chinese nation, 
and that her blessing may rest upon the children. 
These priests wore long red robes richly embroi- 
dered. The abbot, who was with them, walked 
last, carrying a short crozier. The priests con- 
cluded their service by going outside the temple 
and oifering prayers to the river deities, to an 
accompaniment of hundreds of fire-crackers. 

The square in front of the temple was much 
decorated; a great shed with a mat covering 
had been raised, and the place was Jbrilliant 
with many chandeliers. The latter held innu- 
merable lights, which burned day and night. 
There were many frames containing representa- 
tions of Kum-Fa, and of scenes in her life, and 
the puppets in them had wax faces, and moved 
their heads, arms, etc., to the delight of the 
lookers on. Screens, ornamented with beautiful 
embroidery, paper flowers, and various ornaments, 
had been lent by the gentry for the occasion. 
Kum-Fa is a most popular goddess. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 121 



LETTEE X. 

Canton, May 30tli, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

I AM glad to say that I have had my great 
wish granted, and have been admitted into the 
inner family life of a Chinese home. I think you 
will be interested if I give you a detailed account 
of the afternoon we spent at Howqua's house last 
Friday. About eleven o'clock that day seven 
Chinese gentlemen belonging to, or friends of, the 
Howqua family, called upon us, and amongst them 
was the son of our particular friend, the widower, 
about whom I wrote to you the other day. He 
said that his mother would much like to see 
" Nai-nai," and asked us if we would call upon her 
that afternoon. I have not, I think, yet told you 
that a little girl, whose father is European and 
whose mother is Chinese, comes to me every 
morning, and I teach her, as there is no school 
in Canton to which she can go for instruc- 
tion ; she was, I am glad to say, included in 
the invitation, and proved to be of the greatest 
assistance to me, in acting as interpreter. We 
went to the Howquas' house about three o'clock, 
and were received by young Mr. Howqua. He 



122 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

took us into the gardens and showed us the 
garden houses, which are used by the Chinese as 
places of resort in summer. I was astonished 
to see two deer confined in a yard, and some 
geese in cages on the opposite side of the path. 
Henry told me that deer, peacocks, and geese* 
are kept because they are supposed to bring luck, 
and that you will find them in most gentlemen's 
grounds. When we returned into the house, I 
was taken througli various halls, through suites of 
rooms, and at last into a room w'here a Chinese 
lady received me. She was not the lady I had 
seen previously at this house. After a ten 
minutes' conversation, carried on by the help of 
my little interpreter, the mother of oiir friend 
Mr. Howqua came into the room accompanied by 
two young ladies, who were very much rouged, 
and had the smallest feet one could imagine. They 
were thirteen and fourteen years of age. They 
wore their long, smooth hair in a single plait ; it 
was tied with blue cord on account of mourning 
for their sister-in-law. Is it not curious that the 
Chinese look upon blue as a very triste colour ? 
The colonr they admire is red of all shades, which 
they use on festive occasions. ^Yhen we had 
sat some time with the ladies (my little friend 

* The deer is, in China, emblematical of happincsSj the pea- 
cock of rank, and the goose of constancy. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 123 

and I ; the gentlemen vveve in a separate room), I 
thought it time to take leave, but, on rising, I 
was told, to my great surprise, that a European 
dinner had been prepared for us at four o'clock, 
and that it would soon be ready. We were tiien 
conducted by Mrs. Howqua, she leading me by 
the hand, into the room where my husband and 
the gentlemen of the family were assembled. 
Here we found a long table arranged in true 
English style. It was decorated with flowers, 
dessert was on the table, and English knives, 
forks, and glasses, were placed round it. No chop- 
sticks were there. Dinner was soon ready, and Mr. 
Howqua j^laced me on his right hand, Henry on 
his left. We found out that he had received full 
instructions about English manners irom Henry's 
Chinese teacher, who lives with our compradore. 
This man was also invited, and was appealed to by 
Mr. Howqua on all matters of etiquette. Meat of 
all kinds, including pork, ham, duck, etc., was 
well cooked, but it was all served up cold. Sherry 
was provided for us, and I noticed that all the 
Chinese gentlemen present helped themselves to 
it in large quantities. I was much amused at see- 
ing that English table-napkins were placed for 
us, but they were unhemmed. Henry's Chinese 
teacher must have given minute instructions, for 
a plate came in piled up with large slices of 



124 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

bread. Mr. Howqiia helped this hiuiself, giving 
each of us two large slices. He was most hospi- 
table, and gave me such large portions of food on 
my plate that I did not know what to do. Minnie 
said that he constantly complained that I did 
not like what was provided, for I ate so little. 
Ten Chinese gentlemen sat down with ns, but only 
two belonged to the Howqua family. Our host 
sat at the top of the long table, his half-brother 
at the bottom. The tutor of our host's little 
son was one of the guests. When dinner was 
over, Mrs. Howqua stepped into the room and 
spoke to me, saying she hoped 1 had had a good 
dinner. She ordered a young slave to fan me, 
and from that moment this poor little girl, eight 
years old, fanned me vigorously with a large palm 
fan which she held in both hands. If she desisted 
for a minute, Mr. Howqua turned and frowned at 
her. It was a luxury much to be appreciated, for 
the room had become stifiingly hot. There was 
not the slightest ventilation, excepting by the 
open side of the room far away from the table. 
I never saw fruit helped in such a bountiful 
manner, and when we rose from table Mr. 
Howqua filled Minnie's handkerchief with peaches, 
lichees, and oranges. A bottle of cherry brandy 
was put on table at the end of the repast, and 
was taken by the Chinese in wineglassfuls, and 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 125 

after that the native rose wine was handed, which 
is a strong spirit ; that which we tasted was two 
years old. Tlie hidies claimed me when dinner was 
over, and Minnie and I returned to their apart- 
ments. I was then taken by Mrs, Howqua (her 
position is somewhat difficult to explain to you, 
as she is the third of the widows still living of 
the late Mr. Howqua) to pay my respects to tlie 
small-footed widow of old Mr. Howqua. She 
rank:;j as the first lady ia the house, and is 
treated with marked deference by the other 
widows and wives living in this large jiatri- 
archal establishment. My friend is a large- 
footed woman, but she ranks high among the 
widows, being the mother of a son. She did not, 
however, sit down in the presence of the small- 
footed lady, for before doing so it is etiquette for_ 
her and the other ladies of the household to wait 
for an invitation. The old lady gave me tea and 
sweetmeats, and questioned me in the same manner 
as the other ladies had done previously, as to my 
age, how long I had been in the country, etc. 
Every ornament I had on was taken off and 
handled by the old lady, who asked me how 
much each had cost, whether my watch-chain 
was true gold, the price of my dress, my hat, and 
a string of similar questions. After my visit was 
ended I was taken to another suite of rooms to 



126 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

see an old aunt of Mr. Howqua's, who was very 
ill. She was on the bed, and looked a very old 
woman. Here I again underwent the same ex- 
amination as to age, etc., value of the ornaments 
I wore, and so forth. I had to sip another cup of 
tea, and fruit was handed to me. You cannot 
imagine the size of Chinese dwelliugs belong- 
ing to rich families. They are in fact a num- 
ber of houses under one roof, having separate 
kitchens, suites of rooms, and gardens. Having 
paid these visits of ceremony, my friend took me 
into a bedroom, where she and her daughters 
sleep. Chinese ladies spend much oftheir time 
in their bedrooms, and take their meals in the 
atrium upon which the bedrooms open. This 
bedroom, in which we took seats, had no win- 
dows and no door, one side of it being open to 
the impluvium. Tliere were two carved wooden 
bedsteads in it, two or three native chests of 
drawers, and black wood furniture. Mrs. Howqua 
showed me with evident pride a large portrait 
in oils of herself, taken in full costume as a 
high mandarin's wife, and therefore entitled to 
wear a court dress, hat, and red button, and a 
jadestone necklace. She spoke of her son's 
widowhood, and told me he would marry again 
in two or three moons. I chatted with the 
ladies for about an Lour, my little friend having 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 127 

mucli difficulty in translating quickly enough 
what the different ladies said to me, and my 
answers to them. I was very much interested 
in watching their manners, and much amused with 
the two young girls, who were evidently very 
vain of their small feet — golden lilies, as the 
Chinese call them. When they sat down they 
put the tiny deformed feet a little forward out 
of their trousers, so that I could see the beautifully 
embroidered shoes not more than three inches in 
length, looking less than this, as the toe of the shoe 
is brought to a sharp point. The girls often changed 
their position into one not so elegant. They 
crossed their legs and took one of their tiny feet 
into their hands and sat like this some ten minutes 
or more at a time. Their trousers, which are 
extremely wide, when seen like this are most 
inelegant. You would have been amused to see 
me as I walked from room to room, my hand held 
by my hostess, a slave girl holding up my dress 
behind me. My long dress was evidently looked 
upon by them as a train, for Chinese ladies 
wear a tunic, short skirt beneath, and long 
trousers showing perhaps a quarter of a yard below 
the skirt, and so no part of their dress touches 
the ground. I began at length to feel very tired, 
the atmosphere of the bedroom was so close, and 
the exertion of perpetually smiling and looking 



128 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

pleasant, without being able to express a word of 
what I felt without an interpreter, was very 
exhausting. I rose to put on my hat, but before I 
could do so, one of the ladies took it and put it on, 
and also tried on my cloak. You cannot imagine 
how strange this Chinese lady looked in the Euro- 
pean hat and cloak. The ladies in the south of China 
never wear any covering on their heads, their hair 
being fully dressed and ornamented with flowers 
(artificial or natural), and pearl ornaments, jade- 
stone, silver and gold hair-pins, when they leave 
their homes to pay visits. Young girls for full-dress 
gild their hair. I did not know before I arrived 
at Canton that the ladies in the south of China 
never appear in tlie streets excepting in covered 
chairs, which completely screen them from view. 
The only exception to this is in the case of the 
wives of high officials, who sit in their chairs 
with the curtains withdrawn from the glass 
windows, and so are visible to all as they pass 
through the streets to pay their visits of state. 
But to return to my friend, whom I left admiring 
herself before the glass in her disguise of European 
hat and cloak. She was much pleased with her- 
self, and asked me if I would let her try on 
my dress, and offered to dress me in her 
garments. I was too tired to comply with this 
request, so shook my head, and said I must take 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 129 

my leave. My hostess again took charge of me, 
and conducted me to the gentlemen's room to re- 
join my husband. She then accompanied me to 
the outer hall, where our cliairs were waiting for 
us, and she and our host took a most cordial 
farewell of us, asking us to repeat our visit as 
soon as possible. 



LETTER XI. 

Canton, June 10th, 1877. 

My DEAii Mother, 

I SPENT a very interesting morning yester- 
day, and I hasten to describe what I saw, as 
I think you will be amused to hear about it. 
Henry's Chinese teacher is instructed by him to 
let us know whenever any festival or anything of 
interest is about to take place. He came in to 
the library early yesterday morning to tell Henry 
that the festival of the god of medicine, Yeuk- 
Wong, was to be celebrated that day. Unfortu- 
nately, Henry was engaged, as he had promised 
to take a tourist from Europe into the city. He 
was so anxious I should not lose the sight, that 
he suggested I should be escorted to the temple 
by Chong-Shing, the teacher. So we started as 
soon as possible in two chairs, and made our way 
to the Yeuk-Wong-Miu. The birthday of the god 

K 



130 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

is celebrated at this festival, and the superstitious 
people are taught to believe that he goes out very 
early iu the morning of this day to the mountains 
to gather herbs, which he uses in the medicines 
that he prepares for his sick devotees. As the dis- 
tance to the mountains is great, and the weather 
hot at this season, Yeuk-Wong is supposed to be- 
come tired and over-heated from his long excur- 
sion. Therefore his temple is crowded all day by 
worshippers (chiefly women), who go to it from 
dawn to late at night to fan the idol. The 
temple was erected a.d. 1655, and contains a 
large figure of Yeuk-Wong, which is placed 
behind the principal altar on a raised dais. 
Steps lead up to the idol ; on each side of it 
stand five effigies of men who, when alive, 
were celebrated for their knowledge of medicine 
and for skill in its practice. We arrived too late 
at the temple to see the lady devotees, who go 
there very early in the morning. The temple, 
when we were there, was crowded with women of 
the lower class ; some were ascending the steps 
on one side of the dais on which the immense 
idol rests ; others were standing in front and at 
the sides of the idol itself, fanning it with the 
greatest solemnity of manner. Others, having 
performed their acts of devotion, were de- 
scending the stairs leading from the dais. The 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 131 

women buy fans at the door of the temple, and 
when fanning the god stand in a reverent posture, 
saying words of prayer to him, asking him to keep 
them and their families from sickness. They 
were doing wliat my heathen friend in his pigeon- 
English called "chin-chinning Joss." I saw one 
woman who bent with great devotion each time 
she raised her fan ; she had a child strapped on 
her back, for whom she was most likely inter- 
ceding, perhaps asking Yeuk-Wong to preserve 
it from infantile diseases during the ensuing year. 
Little children I also saw fanning the idol. The 
Chinaman who was with me seemed to believe 
in the power of the god, and told me seriously, 
*' He too muchee tired for alio thing he do for 
that sick man." Some of the women presented 
the fans to the god after using them, and laid 
them on his lap, which was in fact covered with 
fans and artificial jfiowers, evidently the gifts of 
grateful patients. I saw others carrying their 
fans home, which they considered blessed by the 
god. When any member of their families is sick, 
they use these particular fans, to fan the invalid, 
believing that a healing virtue is in tliem. The 
temple is small and very dirty. On one side of 
it there is a long counter, behind which medicines 
are arranged in jars, and together with various 
plaisters are sold to the frequenters of the temple, 

K 2 



132 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

and are received by them as coming from Yeuk- 
WoDg himself. The women remained about an 
hour more or less, farming the idol all the time ; 
they then did obeisance to him and retired. 
They presented paper money and incense-sticks 
to the god before they left the temple. 

We had now seen the whole ceremony, so we 
got into our chairs. Scarcely had we gone a 
few yards before my chair was suddenly placed 
on the ground. I presumed that my guide had 
met with a friend, as his chair was not following 
mine. I could not ask, so I patiently sat still, 
and I became the object of the greatest curiosity 
to a crowd of men and boys. The latter pushed 
their faces into my chair in their anxiety to see 
me ; whereupon one of the chair coolies came 
forward to put up the blind in front of me. As 
it was, I felt suffocated from the heat of the 
summer day, my chair being enclosed on three 
sides by green curtains, so I would not allow my 
only air-hole to be taken from me. The chair 
coolie then said, evidently sur]:)rised at my bold- 
ness, " More better my shuttee, then no man see 
you." An elderly man came forward irom the 
crowd, who had until now indulged himself in 
staring at me to his heart's content, and ordered 
the crowd to move away. They all obeyed him 
at once, and I felt the benefit of the great rever- 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 133 

ence and obedience paid in Cliina to the elders 
by all the juniors. If the children are too noisy 
in the street, or in a temple, they become qniet 
immediately when remonstrated with by an elder. 
Apropos of Henry's Chinese teacher, I mnst tell 
you that he is a m<m full of conceit, especially 
vain of his knowledge of English. He (!omes 
into the library every morning after breakfast to 
give Henry his lesson in Chinese ; and if I am in 
the room, he advances towards me, his lull round 
face beaming with self-complacency, and shakes 
hands witli me in European fashion, saying " How 
you do, Sar? " On our way home from the 
temple we passed by one of the cat and dog cafes. 
I have not yet told you that Henry took me into 
one of them the other day, and I thought the 
owner of it was disappointed as we did not order 
a dish of either of the delicacies he had for sale. 
This restaurant is known to the Chinese by the 
name of W hoon-Hang-Kau-Maau-Yuuk-Poo. This 
signifies, VVhoon-Hang, the sign of the shop ; Kau, 
dog ; Maan, cat ; Yuuk, flesh ; Poo, eating-house. 
I saw many joints of dog in the front of the shop 
to tempt passers-by, which looked to my eyes 
exactly like the joints of a sucking-pig. There 
was a kitchen-range with pots and pans in this 
small shop, waiting for a savoury stew or hash 
to be ordered by a customer. A small placard 



134 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

was fixed up, saying (as Henry translated it to 
me) tliat good black cat's flesh was always 
ready here. The black cat is much more 
prized for food than any otlier of the feline 
race. We went up the stairs leading to the 
saloon, where several small dining tables were 
placed. At one of these tables we saw a man 
with a little basin full of a steaming stew. Henry 
went uj) to him and said, " Maau ? " (cat), and he 
answered " Yau " (yes). It had a very dark 
appearance (warranted black cat, I should think), 
and had a most savoury smell. On the wall a 
bill of fare was placed, stating the cost of a repast 
of dog and cat. Henry had this bill of fare 
translated for him, by one of his Chinese tutors, 
twelve years ago. This is the correct rendering 
of it :* " One tael of black dog's flesh, eight cash ; 
.... one tael weight of black dog's fat, three 
kandareens of silver ; one large basin of black 
cat's flesh, one hundred cash ; one small basin 
of black cat's flesh, fifty cash ; one large bottle of 
common wine, thirty -two cash ; one small bottle of 
common wine, sixteen cash ; one large bottle of 
dark rice wine, sixty-eight cash ; one small bottle 
of dark rice wine, thirty-four cash ; one large bottle 
of plum wine, sixty-eight cash ; one small bottle of 
plum wine, thirty-four cash ; one large bottle of 
* Vide ' Walks in the City of Canton.' — Archdeacon Grat. 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 135 

pear wine, sixty-eight cash ; one small bottle of 
pear wine, thirty-four cash ; one large bottle 
of Tien-tsin wine, ninety-six cash ; one small 
bottle of Tien-tsin wine, forty-eight cash ; one 
basin of congee, three cash ; one small plate of 
pickles, three cash ; one small saucer of ketchup, 
or vinegar, three cash ; and one pair of black cat's 
eyes, three kandareens of silver." These restau- 
rants are crowded at the celebration of the Ha- 
chi, or festival of the summer solstice, by men of 
all ranks. To eat dog's flesh, especially black 
dog's flesh, on that day, is to secure the eater 
against sickness for the rest of the summer. A 
strange sight I saw this morning on passing by 
the Namhoi prison, and one of a very painful 
nature. Many human beings were confined in a 
small enclosed space, which was barred. These 
poor wretches were closely packed, and the look 
of the place reminded me of what I had read of 
the Black Hole in Calcutta. These unfortunates 
are condemned to wear cangues, or large wooden 
collars, which differ in weight and size. In hot 
weather these must prove a torture to these 
prisoners, whose offence is one of petty larceny 
only. They can scarcely lie down, and jostle 
against each other as they force their way to the 
bars of their cell to get nearer to the stranger 
visiting the place. They hold out their emaciated, 



136 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

dirty hands betAveen the bars, and cry out in- 
cessantly, " Kumshaw, Kumshaw." It is a sad 
sight — these human beings shut up in a cage. 
Many die from this painful punishment during 
the summer. In the square in front of the Nam- 
hoi prison, I saw numbers of prisoners exposed to 
scorn, who wore long chains round their necks, 
to which heavy weights were attached, to prevent 
the possibility of escape. There are varieties in 
this kind of punishment, but the object of the 
whole is that these men should be held up to 
the scorn and derision of all who pass this way. 
They are allowed to pursue their trades in the 
street. I saw some who were working as shoe- 
makers. When they caught sight of us they 
stood up, took their chains in their hands, 
dragging their weights of iron or stone behind 
them as they shuffled along towards us, and begged 
us in piteous voices for kumshaws. I have just 
received a visit from the American consul's wife, 
who lives on the other side of the creek, in the 
western suburb of Canton. From her windows a 
very busy crowd is always to be seen ; and one 
day last week, as she was looking out of one of 
the windows, she saw a man in the street who 
had a shawl tied round him. From this shawl 
peeped out three little heads. A crowd of women 
gathered round this man, the shawl was un- 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 137 

done, and the poor little baby girls were passed 
round from one woman to another to be ex- 
amined. Tlien the bargaining began ; the high- 
est bidder offered five cents lor one of the little 
creatures, but the man demanded six cents, and 
refused to sell either of the infants under this 
price. 

He eventually walked off from the spot with- 
out meeting with a purchaser for his tender 
human freight. The Chinese are not altered in 
this respect, a father looks upon the birth of a 
female infant as a misfortune, a bitter disappoint- 
ment. When some of the mandarins have called 
upon us who can speak a little pigeon English, 
and Henry has asked either of them hovi' many 
children he has, he has answered as the case may 
be, " Three," or " four piecee." Then Henry will 
say, " How many piecee girls," and probably the 
answer will be, "Two" or "three piecee girls." 
They have not been even counted in the number 
of the family. A wife who only has daughters 
is never a favourite, and if she be a first and 
small-footed wife this is a great source of sorrow 
to her, as she knows that her husband will take a 
second wife. In the latter case a man can make 
the choice himself, and generally selects a slave 
or a woman from the humbler walks of life, who 
has not contracted feet. If he choose a slave he 



138 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

pays a certain sum of money to the owner to 
redeem her. The second, third, or other wife has 
therefore a greater chance of being loved than the 
one who, as first wife, is always selected for the 
young man by his parents, and whom he has not 
been permitted to see until the marriage day, in 
fact until she has been brought to his home. An 
inferior wife takes a subordinate position in the 
house, and scarcely attains to the true rank and 
dignity of a wife until she becomes a mother. 
If the husband choose, he can raise one of these 
extra wives to the first position on the death of 
the small-footed head wife ; but this is rarely done. 
The heat of summer is now upon us, and I 
can speak from experience of the peculiar, un- 
pleasant, damp heat that is one's constant com- 
panion night and day. Still I do not suffer as 
some appear to do from the climate. I rise at half- 
past six and am occupied with my little friend 
from eight o'clock until prayers in the church at 
nine. After breakfast we have some more lessons, 
and then Henry sometimes takes us out sightseeing. 
We call our sampan, and as Henry knows every 
creek he can direct our boat's crew to any spot 
where he wishes to land. Often he sends the 
sampan round to some other creek to await us. 
It seems to me so curious, these boat people are 
content to wait any length of time for us and 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 139 

charge nothing for their time, only expecting tlie 
fare to and from the place of destination. Henry, 
from his many years' residence iu China, was so 
accustomed to this arrangement that, soon after 
his arrival in England, he took a cab from the West 
End to the City, and kept it waiting some two 
hours or more. He was much surprised when a 
large fare was demanded, one item being, of 
course, for the length of time the cab had waited 
for him. The family who belong to the sampan 
we hire have seldom, if ever, been beyond that 
part of the river which is immediately facing 
Canton ; they have never ascended the creeks, 
and sometimes look very angry when they are 
made to go farther than they wish. We make 
various excursions up these creeks, landing at 
pretty spots, and having our tea prepared in 
the boat and brought on shore to us. How you 
would laugh, and how English servants would 
grumble, at our arrangements. A tray containing 
a teapot, milk jug, and cups and saucers, is placed 
at the end of the sampan ; a tin of butter, bread 
and knives are put into a basket, also a bundle of 
firewood. But I have forgotten the chief ingre- 
dient, which, besides the tea, is necessary for onr 
comfort, and that is a bottle of fresh water. The 
river water is simply unfit to be taken in any 
way, and one day that our boy had forgotten to 



140 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

take the fresh water, and we were obliged to try the 
river water, the tea, as far as I was concerned, was 
thrown away. I should like you to picture our 
little party starting for our excursions either 
early in the morning or in the afternoon — Henry, 
myself, and Minnie, our old coolie, and one of 
the waiting-boys, who looks after our tea. Even 
the boys know nothing of the country close to 
Canton. The people at the places where we land 
are much interested in us, and on the whole 
are very polite. Sometimes children will raise 
the old obnoxious cry of " Fanqui " (foreign 
devil) when they run alter us, but Henry rebukes 
them and quiets them by telling them he will 
take them before the mandarin if they persist 
in applyiug that word to us. 

I cannot say much for the walks about Canton. 
We have taken several, but we cannot walk two 
abreast, and so we go along in Indian file. The 
chief walks we have tried have been amongst the 
paddy fields. The economy of the Chinese pre- 
vents their wasting land on roads, so you have 
only narrow footpaths on raised banks, broad 
enough generally for one person. These paths are 
in some cases paved with granite, whi(.'h is roughly 
cut in all shapes and sizes, so if you are not careful 
you are apt to stumble. When a chair comes 
along these paths and has to pass you, it is a 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 141 

difficult matter, and I had to climb up a bank, a 
few days ago, to get out of the way of one of them. 
We have a most faithful little follower in a new 
purchase we have made. When we were at the 
Fa-ti gardens some days ago, a number of dogs 
sprang towards us barking furiously, which is the 
habit of these Chinese dogs. Their bark is worse 
than their bite, for all their enmity ends in noise. 
The Chinese cuff tliem and kick them with their 
high soled shoes to keep them quiet. Amongst 
this party of dogs a sweet-looking little puppy 
came forward and looked at us in a most friendly 
manner. I was smitten with him at once, and we 
asked the owner of the garden what he would 
take for him. He said, " Three hundred cash,'' 
which we promised to send him by our coolie (we 
never carry money about with us), so the pur- 
chase was concluded, and I carried my pet off in 
my arms. This little dog is a full yellow in 
colour ; he has a longish curly coat, a black tongue, 
and a black roof to his mouth. When he is older 
he will have a long bushy tail curling over his 
back. He evidently prefers foreigners to his own 
countrymen. This is not the case with another 
puppy lately given to us by a friend. He is only 
happy with the servants, seems to hate our society, 
rushes into our room when we are at dinner, takes 
what we offer him, and bolts out of the room 



142 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

again. If his manners do not improve, we shall 
make him a present to one of his beloved coun- 
trymen. 

LETTER XII. 

Canton, June 19th, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

A VERY curious festival was ob.^erved here 
on the 15th inst. ; it was held on the river, and so 
Shameen was much resorted to on that day. The 
Chinese, who ordinarily are not admitted into our 
settlement, unless they have some business to 
transact with foreigners, are allowed to come 
into Shameen for this festival, and a great num- 
ber availed themselves of this permission last 
Friday. A detachment of the Chinese city guard 
was sent by the mandarins to keep order. This 
singular festival is in honour of Wat- Yuen, who 
lived more than 2000 years ago. He was prime 
minister to a sovereign who ruled over one of 
the three kingdoms into which China was divided 
at that time. This king was a most profligate 
prince, and Wat-Yuen remonstrated with him 
again and again on his conduct, but without 
success. 

At last Wat-Yuen, despairing to effect any 
reform, resolved to commit suicide ; this being 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 143 

considered an honourable act under the circum- 
stances. 

He therefore threw himself over a bridge and 
was drowned. Some fishermen who were in a boat 
close to the spot saw liim fall into the water, and 
tried to recover the body. But they could not 
find it, nor were the people more successful on the 
following day, who went in great numbers to seek 
for the corpse, 'i hey threw rice into the river, so 
that the fish might eat it, and not touch the body, 
an idea prevailing amongst the Chinese that the 
soul of a man is niucli grieved if the body which it 
inhabited be at all mutilated. Since then, yearly, 
on the anniversary of the day on which Wat- Yuen 
committed suicide, a festival has been observed, 
during which dragon boats go up and down the 
rivers, lull of men who are supposed to be searching 
for his body. 

But I must describe these curious dragon boats 
to you. They are of great length, and are ex- 
tremely narrow ; they are painted in very bright 
colours, red and gold predominating, and are orna- 
mented at the bow with the head of a dragon 
painted in gaudy colours, and at the stern they 
carry the tail of the dragon. Some of these boats 
are constructed to carry sixty, some eighty, some 
a hundred men. Those who propel the boats use 
^lort paddles, most energetically throwing the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 145 

water high, into tlie air on raising them. They of 
course sit down in the boat. Between the rowers 
a number of men, dressed in most ornamental, 
embroidered clothes, stand, making wild gestures, 
and shouting as they go along. Some of them 
beat gongs, others drums, to give time to the 
rowers, and by this continuous sound you know 
when a dragon boat is anywhere in your neigh- 
bourhood. 

One man in the bows of the boat waves a flag 
wiklly, others imitate the action of throwing rice 
into the river as an offering to the manes of Wat- 
Yuen. The noise accompanying the dragon boat is 
supposed to frighten and to drive away all evil 
spirits and to prevent the fish from preying upon 
Wat- Yuen's body. Along the centre of the boat 
are bright-coloured umbrellas, flags, banners, etc. 
The crews are frantic with excitement, and present 
a very wild effect. These dragon boats belong to 
different villages and clans, and the expense of 
each is defrayed by the particular village or clan 
to which it belongs. 

After the festival is over the boats are sunk 
in the muddy beds of creeks, and are not taken 
up until the following dragon festival. Accom- 
panying each large boat are six or seven smaller 
ones, which have similar flags at their prows, 
and contain members of the clan to whom the 

L 



146 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

large boat belonfrs. In the leading boat of the 
six or seven small boats, a man blows continually 
upon a conch shell. The dragon boats from their 
peculiar construction run great risks, and often 
some accident takes place during these festivals. 
The observance of this feast is universal through- 
out the empire. It Avas not well observed this 
year owing to the floods, which rendered the river 
very dangerous. 

We took our sampan and remained on the river 
nearly the whole day, witnessing the festival from 
various points. 

When we were in the Wong-Sha creek, which 
is in fact a water street with liouses on each side 
built on stakes, we met one of these dragon boats. 
AVliether the men purposely tlirew up their 
paddles with greater force than usual as they 
passed us, I do not know, but we had a complete 
shouer-bath and were wet through. Yesterday 
another heathen festival w'as observed, at a place 
called Hwang-Chu-Kee, about four miles up the 
river, at which we Avere present. As a rule, the 
Chinese at this festival resort to a temple about 
five days' journey from Canton, to worship Luung- 
Moo, the dragon's mother ; but this year, in conse- 
quence of the floods caused by part of the river's 
bank giving way on the western branch of the 
Cciuton liiver, and the immensely strong currents 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 147 

caused by the recent heavy rains, the worshippers 
of Luung-Moo resorted to one of her temples 
situated at Hwang-Chu-Kee. 

This temple is very small, and could not ac- 
commodate a large crowd of worshippers, so a large 
mat tent had been erected, and a small idol of tlie 
goddess had been carried into it to receive tlie 
homage of her votaries. Numbers of large house 
boats passed us on their way up tlie river to Hwang- 
Chu-Kee. These boats are very handsome, being 
gaily painted and carved. They are most com- 
modious, and are^ used by Chinese families when 
going into the interior of the country. They were 
gaily decorated with flags and lanterns, the latter 
bearing the names and titles of the families who 
had hired them. Some of these boats contained 
men only, others women. I was much interested 
in watching the latter as we passed close under 
the stern of their house boats. Some of the ladies 
were beautifully dressed, and their heads were 
decorated in full with flowers, real or artificial. 
There were crowds of female attendants with the 
ladies. The separation of sexes in public is 
rigidly observed in the south of China. A father 
would not like to be seen with bis daughter in 
the streets, nor a husband with his wife. The 
European custom of men and women walking 
together is not understood, and when European 

L 2 



148 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

or American ladies are seen holding the arms of 
their male (.'ompanions, it is an abomination to the 
Chinese. Henry and I are most particular, and 
Avlien we enter a Chinese house, we do not speak 
together, nor sit near each other, fearing to 
transgress the strict rule of Chinese etiquette on 
this point. 

We had much difSculty in arriving at the 
temple of Luung-Moo, as the current was so 
strong; and tlie boatwomen of the sampan we 
had hired could scarcely make way against it, 
in fact at one time it was only by clinging on 
to the trunks of the trees that were near us that 
the women succeeded in pushing the boat along. 
We were really going over the fields, which owing 
to the inundation are in many places covered with 
water. We took three hours at least to do the 
distance of four miles. Crowds of women were 
assembled in the mat house I have mentioned. 
Some wore dark or light blue silk tunics, which 
were much embroidered ; many others were quietly 
dressed in blue or prune coloured cotton clothes. 
Chinese ladies often go to these ceremonies very 
simply dressed, as they can thus pass unnoticed 
in the crowd. I could not in very many cases 
distinguish the mistresses from their attendants. 

It was a sight to see the gaily decorated heads 
of many of the ladies; they are particularly partial 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 149 

to tlie sweet-smelling Arabian jessamine, which 
they place down the sides of the teapot-shaped 
C(>ifriu-e. What strikes one so much when one 
sees such a gathering as the present is the want 
of variety in the colour of the hair, eyes, and 
complexion of the Chinese. The goddess Luung- 
Moo lived in the fifteenth century, and the only 
thing for which she appears to have been cele- 
brated is the vain supposition that she gave birth 
to a dragon instead of a child. The heat was 
intense in the temporary temple, and was much 
increased by the large fire in the incense burner, 
which was incessantly fed by paper offerings. 
The ladies were most polite to me, smiled, nodded, 
and seemed as if they would like to have had 
a chat with me. From the temple we went into 
the village of Hwang-Chu-Kee, and Henry took 
me into the large ancestral hall, in front of 
which, in December 1847, six of our countrymen, 
young merchants, were murdered. They went up 
the river and landed at this village, and, after a 
walk of some five or six miles, they returned to 
the village in order to rejoin their boat. They 
were seized, confined in the ancestral hall, and, 
after an examination had taken place before the 
elders, were put to death. As the bodies, when 
recovered by tlie community at Canton, pre- 
sented a most mutilated appearance, tliere was 



150 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

every reason to suppose that they liad been 
cruelly tortured before receiving tlie coup de 
grace. Five Chinese were afterwards beheaded 
for this crime, on the village green of Hwang-Chu- 
Kee, in the presence of a company of H.M. 95th 
Regiment, which was sent from Hong-Kong to be 
present at the execution. As the condemned 
men were gagged, it was thouglit that they were 
not the perpetrators of the murder, but rather 
some malefactors under sentence of death for 
other crimes. At that time a very bad feeling 
existed on the part of the Chinese towards all 
foreigners. Henry's Chinese teacher accompanied 
us on this excursion, and remained with us whilst 
we were in the temple, but when we proceeded 
towards the village he was non est. \Ye met 
him again on our return to the boat. Henry, 
knowing full well tliat the man was a coward, and 
feared to be seen with the foreigners in the 
village, asked him why he had not accompanied 
us. His ready answer, given with tlie invariable 
smile of self-satisfaction, was, " That villagee too 
muchee dirty, my no likee walkee." I have for- 
gotten to mention that mothers w'ho have eligible 
daughters worship the goddess Luung-Moo, ju-ay- 
ing her to grant them good sons-in-law. On 
our way home, as we approached the confines of 
the city, we noticed that one of the boats used 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 151 

for worsliip looked unusually gay, and we drew up 
by the side of it, and went on board. We were 
told that one of the young men belonging to the 
river population was celebrating his wedding festi- 
vities on this boat, and we saw a long table at the 
end of it which was covered with various offerings, 
consisting of a pig roasted whole, coloured dump- 
lings, dyed eggs, etc. These edibles were to 
form the feast in the evening, and we were 
invited to remain and partake of the good things. 
Musicians were placed on a raised platform at 
the prow of the boat ; they immediately com- 
menced playing in our honour, and made such a 
din as was truly deafening with their gong, drum, 
shrill pipe, and another wind instrument. The 
bridegroom sat at this end of the boat, apart from 
his bride, who stood amongst the women by the 
table. I was disposed to pity the poor man, think- 
ing he must have had the drum of his ear nearly 
broken by the noisy instruments ; but he looked 
serene and placid, and perhaps enjoyed the noisy 
music. The women handed me a cup of tea, and 
gave to Minnie some eggs made in sugar and 
coloured, very similar to our Easter eggs. They 
had been offered to the goddess Knm-Fa, in hopes 
that she would grant a male child to the newly- 
wedded pair. Having drank our cups of tea, 
we rose to take leave. I chin-chinned the 



152 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

women, and they returned tlie salute to me, 
continuing to do po from the bows of their 
boat (which was at anchor) as we rowed off 
towards home. I do not think I have de- 
scribed the floating temples, as these boats used 
for religious worsliip may be justly called. It is 
in them that all religious ceremonies for the poj)U- 
lation on the water take place. They are con- 
stantly passing up and down the river, and as 
they pass you see the altar, a long table for offer- 
ings, and the attendant priests who are chanting 
some especial service. On a marriage occasion 
they are very bright, \\ith lanterns and gay 
flags. At other times, when prayers are being 
said for the dead by priests engaged, for that 
purpose, the flags and banners are white and blue. 
I think the river is most fascinating, and I per- 
petually see something fresh and attractive on it. 
The passenger boats, with their large dark brown 
sails in the shape of a butterfly's wings, are my 
especial delight. They loolv so gi-and as they 
sail slowly down the centre of the river. If the 
tide is strong and against them, they creep as 
close as possible to the river wall. From our 
windows these large sails look so strange, as they 
rear their heads above the banyan-trees qnite close 
to our house. Boats containing everything for 
the use of the water-population ply about the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON 153 

river. Thus you see a floating greengrocer with 
vegetables and fruit, looking very picturesque as 
they are exposed to view. Then comes a floating 
fishmonger, a floating florist, a floating vendor of 
firewood, or a floating potter. Then a small boat 
passes you with a barber inside it, who plies his 
trade amongst the river-population only. A 
small boat, whose approach is made known by 
the tinkling of a bell, contains a doctor for the 
boat-people. The large floating kitchens are 
very peculiar, being, as their name denotes, for 
the use of those whose requirements exceed the 
limited space in their own boats. One also sees 
poor dingy boats which are kept for the use of 
conveying the dead to their burial. And, yet 
again, there is a peculiar class of boats belonging 
to lepers, who can never mix with other men ; 
and a piteous sight it is to see this afflicted 
race cut off from communion with theii' fellow- 
creatures. These lepers belong to the river- 
population. Flower boats are not so numerous 
on this river as they used to be, and I am 
disappointed with tliem. The entrance to the 
saloon, which is high and has a very deep 
covered roof, is much carved, and sometimes 
painted in bright green and gold. As we 
have often passed down the river after sunset, 
which is now at seven o'clock, I have again 



154 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

and again seen these boats illuminated. There 
are several in a row, and they look very gay 
and bright at night. I have been amazed 
with the number of floating hotels, wliich are 
anchored together in a vast concourse, in fact 
these boats form streets on the water. They are 
extremely useful to the people ; for suppose a 
passenger boat from the country should arrive 
late, those travelling in it cannot enter into the 
city of Canton, for, as you are aware, the city is 
shut up by many gates and barricades at nine 
o'clock, and no Chinese can pass through them 
after that hour. Barricading the streets at night 
is one of the strangest and most Oriental customs 
practised here. Foreigners are permitted to pass 
through most of the barricades at night, but it is 
a great labour to do so ; you have, even if it be 
tolerably early, say ten o'clock p.m., to arouse the 
watchman, who sleeps on a bencli by the gate. 
You must then call out that you are foreigners, 
and wait some minutes for the man to bestir him- 
self. The unfastening and removing the great 
wooden bars, to let you pass through, is a work 
of time. When we have been out some distance 
sightseeing, and feel tired, these gates and barriers 
are a trial to our patience. To-day is the Chinese 
jMidsummer Day, called Ha-chi, and a very curious 
custom, as I have previously told you, is observed 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 155 

on it. Every one who can obtain it eats black 
dog's flesh, as it is supposed that it renders all 
who take it on this particular day strong and well 
durincr the ensuinof twelvemonths. Our servants 
are enjoying a feast of it to-day. If black dog's 
flesh, which is more appreciated than the flesh 
of dogs of any other colour, cannot be obtained, 
people content themselves with the flesh of 
other coloured dogs. I have had to keep a 
sharp look-out for our four favourites, as dogs 
are often stolen at this particular time of year. 
Many Chinese went yesterday to see the dogs 
killed, but I declined an invitation to be present. 
Dogs are slaughtered in all parts of the city, and 
much cruelty is shown towards them, as they are 
often severely beaten before they are killed. This 
cruel custom is in connection with some super- 
stitious belief. 

LETTER XIII. 

Taai-Tung-Koo-Tsze Monastery, June 25th, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

I HOPE I do not tire you with my long 
descriptions of all I see in this wonderful city. 
I am seldom without a subject for my descriptive 
letters, and I am sure you will agree with me that 
we have worked hard at sight-seeing. I really feel 
the heat less when employed. I think the most 



156 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

trying hours are from twelve to three o'clock p.m., 
and if I am at liome, and not obliged to occupy 
myself, I confess to finding the heat very oppres- 
sive. We had expressed a wish some days ago, 
in Mr. Howqua's hearing, to see a lotus-garden, 
many of which are now in bloom. Mr. Howqua 
kindly remembered what we had said, and called 
last Friday to arrange to take us to a friend's lotus- 
garden up the river. He came yesterday, bringing 
with him a large mandarin-boat, which was most 
comfortable and roomy, and was capable of 
holding twenty persons. It was divided into two 
compartments ; in the inner one an English lady, 
my little friend Minnie, I, young Howqua and his 
two amahs sat. We started about nooji, a party 
of eleven, including seven gentlemen, Henry being 
the only European gentleman. We were less than 
an hour on our way to the garden, as we had 
the tide in our favour. This is a most serious 
matter for consideration in arranging water parties 
on the Pearl River. In the garden we entered 
a charming garden house, two storeys in height, 
beautifully furnished with black wood furniture 
inlaid witli mother-of-pearl or with marble. 
There was much fine wood-carving in it. The 
small rooms were divided by screens of carved 
wood, and many Chinese paintings in scrolls 
hung on the walls. Chinese gentlemen use these 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 157 

gardens, which may be at long distances from 
their private houses, for entertainments, but some- 
times they spend a few days in them during the 
summer. There are sleeping-rooms, beside many 
sitting-rooms in them. We saw two fine peacocks 
in a large cage in this garden, a deer, and also 
some white geese, which were in such a cramped 
cage that they could scarcely turn. All these 
creatures, as I have observed in a former letter, 
are kept by the gentry to ensure good luck to 
their families. We were disappointed in not find- 
ing any of the lotus plants here in bloom. We 
therefore went on in the mandarin-boat to another 
garden, belonging also to a friend of Mr. Howqua ; 
but here we were equally unsuccessful, as a large 
pond, which should at this time of year be full 
of lotus plants in bloom, only showed green 
leaves, and no flowers. We only saw a few pots 
of the lotus in bloom; one of which, a white lotus, 
was most beautiful. I admire the green leaves of 
this plant, they are so charming in shape and are 
bright green in colour. Mr. Howqua placed a drop 
of water on one of these leaves he had plucked, 
and it shone like a brilliant as it ran about on 
the shining surface of the leaf. I think this plant 
more lovely than any other I have ever seen. 
There was also a large garden house here, and, 
as one usually finds, it was abundantly furnished 



158 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

with black wood couches, chairs of different sizes, 
and tables. But this garden house is falling 
rapidly into decay, the upright supports are out 
of the straight, and we saw many cracks in the 
walls. It will, as is too often the case in China, 
be allowed to fall a victim to white ants, damp, 
etc. ; not a care will be bestowed upon it. When it 
is unsafe for use, it will be pulled down, and a new 
house built in its place. Our host had ordered a 
Chinese luncheon to be brought on here. Little 
plates containing meat dumplings, or cakes and 
sweets, were on the centre of the table, and cliop- 
sticks were placed for each person. Every one 
when seated began to help himself with his chop- 
sticks to what he fancied, and our host and his 
friends placed on our plates, first a cake, then a 
little meat dumpling, again a cake, and so on. 
It is not very pleasant to see your neighbour's 
chopsticks at one moment with their tips in his 
mouth, the next moment taking up a little cake 
and placing it on your plate. After luncheon we 
stiolled about the garden and then returned to our 
boat. I forgot to say that tea and fruit, consisting 
of lichees and whampees,had been given us on the 
boat whilst we went up the river. Fruit Avas 
again handed to us in the first garden house we 
visited. Mr. Howqua made a large jiurchase of 
lichees just before we entered our boat on our 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 159 

return home, and the Chinese gentlemen ate 
fruit at intervals until we reached Shameen. A 
Chinese gentleman does not seem to know what 
rest means, he is either eating, smoking, taking 
snuff, or fidgeting about at all times. Mr. 
Howqua allows us no quiet when we are with 
him : he is perpetually on the move, and when 
you hope that you will be allowed to sit down 
for a few minutes in a garden house or else- 
where, he says, "Now, we go on." Just before 
we drew up at our landing steps tea was again 
handed round, as a final chin-chin. We arrived 
home at four o' clock, the Chinese gentlemen 
accompanying us into the Chaplaincy and sitting 
down for five minutes. When they had left, 
Chong-Shing, the teacher, handed a covered tea- 
cup to Henry, which the latter had admired en 
route, and in his pigeon English said, " Hovvqua 
present you this." 

Mr. Howqua told us that he is adding a new 
room to his house, and intends to furnish it in 
European style for his bride elect. He is to be 
married in a month or so, when a lucky day can 
be discovered for the marriage. His widowhood 
will not liave lasted more than four or five months. 
I am writing this letter in what I call our little 
garden house, in our favourite monastic retreat. 
As we were having our luncheon (for we have been 



160 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



here all day) iu the grand visitors' room of the 
monastery, we were told it would be required when 
we had finished our meal by a party of Chinese 
who were wishino; to dine there. One of these 




AL FRESCO SHAVING. 



gentlemen came into our room just now, and, 
having recognised Henry, saluted him. He has 
held high official rank in one of the provinces. He 
and his two companions are more than middle- 
aged men ; each has three or four wives at home, 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



161 



and yet they were accompanied by three young 
girls of very bold manner and certainly not 
suited to be their companions. The monks allow 
this kind of society to frequent their monastery, 
because it brincjs dollars to them. There are great 




=->-^.^ 



AL FBESCO TAII.-PLAITING. 



rejoicings going on in the city to-day amongst 
the carpenters, shipwrights, and stonemasons, 
many of whom have their workshops in this 
neighbourhood. There is a general holiday 
amongst these classes, as it is the festival of their 
tutelary god. Loo-pan. So great is the din from 



162 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

gongs and firecrackers, as to disturb the seclusion 
of this monastic retreat, and to render letter- 
writing difficult. The Chinese festivals last three 
days, namely, tlie eve, the day itself, which 
is most observed, and the following day. Tem- 
porary theatres have been erected on this side 
of the river in honour of the fete. The mandarins 
have closed the theatres in the city for the 
present, as there have been disturbances in them, 
and one or two free fights have taken place at 
some of the late performances. As we came to 
the monastery this morning, I was very much 
amused at seeing, close by the gates of the 
monastery, barbers plying their trade al fresco. 
Two men were being operated upon 5^ one was 
being shaved, the other having his tail plaited. 
It is a common sight in the streets of the city 
to see barbers shaving their customers in the 
open air. 



LETTER XIV. 

Canton, July 8th, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

I AM sure you will be much amused with 
a description I am about to give you, of a visit 
we have lately received from several Chinese 
ladies and gentlemen. Punctually at the hour 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 163 

we had invited them, three o'clock p.m., they 
arrived. The party consisted of my friend Mrs. 
Howqua, her two daughters, a friend of theirs 
(the wife of a high mandarin, who brought her 
two little boys), three grandchildren of Mrs. 
Howqua, a little boy aged eight, and two girls 
of four and six years. They were accompanied 
by a great number of amahs, and also by male 
attendants. Eiglit gentlemen arrived, indepen- 
dently of the ladies, and about a quarter of an 
hour after them. Two of them were the brothers 
Howqua, the others their friends, and young 
Howqua's tutor. Some youths, whose relationship 
to the gentlemen I never found out, were also 
with them. Many male attendants accompanied 
the gentlemen, and you can imagine what a large 
party they looked when they were all assembled. 
Just before the ladies came, a present arrived for 
me from Mrs. Howqua in true Eastern style. It 
consisted of four cages with their feathery 
occupants. These were two canaries, a parrot, a 
pair of love-birds, and three very small Chinese 
birds. Accompanying them were two live 
Chinese pheasants tied up in a basket. Some 
coolies brought these cages, etc., into tbe 
verandah. They scarcely had set them dotvn, 
and I had not had time to look at them, when 
there was a ring at the bell and the ladies were 

M 2 



164 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

carried iuto the hall in their covered chairs. 
Out they stepped in their blue embroidered cos- 
tumes, their hair immensely decorated with 
flowers, rouge on their cheeks and by the side of 
their eyebrows, their lips painted vermilion, and 
in some cases the palms of their hands also 
rouged. I felt overwhelmed, and could only 
smile a welcome. The ladies took seats in the 
drawing-room ; the gentlemen moved about the 
rooms, examined our blue porcelain, of which we 
now have a large collection, and pronounced it 
goo'l. They then took a turn in the veiandah, 
and in the compound, and asked to see the 
church. 

We had had dinner prepared for all the party, 
intending the ladies to sit at one table in the 
diuing-room, the gentlemen at another. But this 
did not satisfy the rigid rules of Chinese etiquette. 
The ladies on hearing of the arrangement shook 
their heads and begged Minnie to tell me that they 
required nothing to eat ; they had come only to 
see me. The actual fact was that they had 
expressed a wish to be present at a dinner served 
up in European fashion. On our pressing the 
matter, the gentlemen spoke for the ladies, and 
said they could only eat if they miglit have their 
dinner first, before the gentlemen entered the 
dinino;-room. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 165 

It still wanted three quarters of an Lour to the 
time at which we had ordered the repast for the 
whole party ; but on the waiting-boys being con- 
sulted they said that the cook could give the ladies 
dinner by themselves in ten minutes. With the 
marvellous facility that Chinese show in pre- 
paring a dinner at the shortest notice possible, 
the meal was prepared in that time, the half 
of what had been ordered for the whole party 
being served up. The ladies, to while away the 
ten minutes, went upstairs, examining everything 
with childlike curiosity. Minnie told me that 
one and all were struck with the cleanliness of 
the European house. 

The young ladies were delighted with the con- 
tents of my workbox, and begged for some needles 
and some pearl buttons. The amahs received a 
needle each from me, which they stuck into their 
coiffures. We now sat down to dinner, the amahs 
taking up their places behind their respective 
mistresses, upon whom they waited as if they were 
little children. They become very confidential 
companions of the ladies, and are treated well as 
a rule by them ; in fact these ladies seemed to 
cling to their amahs as English children cling to 
their nurses, asking them their advice and their 
opinion, in all matters. We had by request no 
chopsticks on the table, using only knives and 



166 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

forks. My poor friends looked sorely puzzled as 
to the manner in which they should be held, 
and tried to copy me. The European food ap- 
peared to be most distasteful to them, and I saw 
one of the young ladies retch and. put out of her 
mouth into her amah's hand, when she thought I 
did not see her, some meat slie had tasted. They 
persisted all the time in saying tliat it was all 
very good, very good. They struggled valiantly 
on, and just tasted each dish, repeatedly saying 
that they liked it. The poor things were a little 
relieved, I fancy, when the sweets made their 
appearance. 

I was quietly watching all the movements 
around me, and I saw an amah take a little sponge 
cup pudding into her hand, break it into pieces 
and feed her mistress with it, Tlie same thing 
also happened with the fruit. A Chinese lady is 
most dependent upon her amah, she does nothing 
for herself; and they say that her garments are 
taken off by the amah at night, and that she is 
lifted up and put into bed like an infant. Chinese 
ladies cannot understand us European ladies ; they 
say, " You all the same as men." They certainly 
do not admire us, neither our manners, nor our 
dress, nor our independence. They ask me why I 
do not dress like them, why I do not rouge, etc. 
The ladies were very abstemious, only tasting the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 167 

champagne and sherry. TJie tea was evidently 
a great comfort to them as it was served in their 
own fashion. When our dinner was over, the 
ladies proposed that I should take them to the 
Shameen gardens, whic^h are at ten minutes' dis- 
tance from the Chaplaincy. You would have been 
diverted if you could have seen our party start 
from the house. The ladies wore beautifully 
embroidered robes ; the under skirt was in dark 
blue silk, with raised embroidery of shaded light 
blue flowers. The skirt sits extremely close, and 
is in fact very narrow ; the front piece of it is laid 
on, and is stiff with embroidery. At the sides and 
back it is folded into tiny plaits, and the em- 
broidery is worked on the outside of each plait. 
There was a border of pale blue*shaded flowers 
round the edge of the ladies' skirts. The trousers 
were made in plain dark blue silk, and the tunic, 
in the same colour and material, made with wide 
flowing sleeves. The throat and sleeves were 
edged with the shaded pale blue embroidery. 
The ladies on arriving apologised that they had 
not on their best red costumes, saying that they 
could not wear them on account of their mourning. 
The two Miss Howquas' dresses were plainer in 
style than the dresses of the elder ladies. Their 
shining long hair was worn in one long plait, tied 
at the end with blue ribbon. All my visitors (I 



168 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

mean tbe ladies) were small-footed excepting Mrs. 
Howqna. On leaving our house I gave my hand 
to the latter in true Chinese style, and we started 
on our Avalk. I felt a little shy of stepping on 
to the public promenade with my Chinese friends. 
The young ladies hobbled on a few steps, but they 
soon became tired and mounted the backs of their 
amahs. The young married lady was carried in 
this manner all the way. I must say that it 
is a most inelegant style of being carried. The 
lady passes her arms round the amah's neck, and 
places her knees in the hands of the servant, 
which are held out behind her. Our progress 
was very slow, and I believe the distance seemed 
immense to the ladies, who are wholly unac- 
customed to walk outside their gardens. Mrs. 
Howqua rested on each bench by the way, and 
we took half an hour or more to walk the short 
distance. We returned nome in the same style ; 
and when we reached the Chaplaincy the amahs 
Jianded the ladies long pipes, from which they 
took a whiff or two. The attendant stands behind 
on one side and prepares the pipe. When it is 
ready, she puts the end of the long tube to the 
lady's lips, who takes one or two whiffs only. 
The ladies now enjoyed a quiet gossip with each 
other. I have not yet told you that the three 
young children belonging to the widower were 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 169 

dressed in strict mourning. The little girls wore 
plain cotton tnnics and trousers, and had no 
flowers in their hair. Their shoes were plain 
white bound with blue. The little boy wore 
pale blue silk trousers tied round the ankle 
with blue ribbon ; he wore also white shoes, and 
his tail was tied with blue. 

The gentlemen expressed much satisfaction 
with the dinner and also with the wines, to which 
1 heard they had done ample justice. Mr. 
Howqua came up to me and said, " Tiiank you, 
No. 1 good dinner." All were now in the 
verandah, and tea was again handed. The ladies 
sat apart from the gentlemen, not addressing 
them, only speaking to each other. They at last 
rose to take leave, and we ordered their chairs 
to be brought into the hall. With many bend- 
ings, nods and chin-chins, they now entered 
their chairs, taking the children with them, and 
were carried off. The gentlemen left soon after, 
about seven o'clock. 

They sent their visiting cards (which are made 
of broad strips of red paper, having the names 
written on the right-hand side) to us imme- 
diately on reaching their house. This is an 
Eastern custom, signifying that the guests have 
arrived home in safety. This entertainment 
took place on Tuesday, and on Wednesday an 



170 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

.invitation arrived for us to diue at the Howquas' 
house, and to take some friends with us. But I 
must reserve the account of this dinuer for another 
letter. 



LETTEE XY. 

Canton, July 14th, 1S77. 

My dear Mother, 

My last letter contained the account of the 
entertainment we gave to our kind Chinese friends. 
Now I must tell you all about the afternoon we 
spent with them. Our original invitation had been 
for five o'clock, but on Wednesday a message came 
from Mr. Howqua asking us to go at half-past one, 
as he wished us to see some Chinese conjuring. 
He also said he hoped we would take others besides 
the two friends who had already promised to go 
with us. So I sent a note to the American Con- 
sulate, to ask the consul and his family to join our 
party. The consul was engaged and could not go, 
but his wife, her daughter of twelve years of age, 
and a friend accepted the invitation. When our 
large party arrived at the Howquas' house, we 
were received by the gentlemen, and conducted by 
them into one of the sitting-rooms. Mrs. Howqua 
and her daughters met us there. They were all 
dressed in plain blue cotton dresses edged with 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 171 

black, as they were at home and it was still the 
season of niourniug with them. We had sat for 
a few minutes only when we were asked if we 
would like to go into the garden and visit the 
elder brother's house, which, although under the 
same roof, is distinct in all its arrangements. The 
sun was scorching, and I wondered to see Mrs. 
Howqua with her head uncovered walk through 
the sunny spots in the garden. We returned 
to the house about half-past two, I and another 
of our party having our minds somewhat eagerly 
fixed upon the thought of luncheon, as we had 
eaten nothing since breakfast. On entering the 
house we were shown into a room in which a 
Chinese dinner was laid out in style on a long, 
narrow table, but alas, there were no signs of 
luncheon. We were asked to take seats in the 
atrium, or hall ; the musicians were then taking 
their places in the outer court. Such a half-clothed, 
dirty-looking set they were, and their instruments 
were of the most primitive kind. When they 
were seated, one of the players beat loudly upon 
a tom-tom, another played a drum, another a life, 
another cymbals, and the rest played upon wind 
instruments. The chief performer novv stepped 
into the centre of the half circle made by the 
musicians, and beat a pair of large cymbals to- 
gether to the accompaniment of the other instru- 



172 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

ments. The noise was deafening, and we all longed 
to be farther off from the musicians. The performer 
in the centre then played a variety of tricks with 
his cymbals, causing one to roll on the edge of the 
other, throwing one into the air and catching it on 
the other as it was still spinning round. He then 
fixed a stick into the centre of one of the 
cymbals, and caused it to rotate violently, placing 
the end of the stick alternately on his chest, on 
his face, and neck. His last trick was the best. 
He took into his hands what looked like a long 
folded pajDer umbrella, and having caused it to 
rotate with great speed, a sudden explosion was 
heard : the umbrella disappeared, and a lamp with 
a liglit in it took its place. Our hopes of Juucheon 
faded into the distance, as Mrs. Howqua handed us 
fresh lichees, taking oft' the husks herself, and the 
attendants brought round plates containing two 
peaches and two kinds of tiny cakes. I have not 
yet, I remember, told you of a little performance 
given to us in the garden. Before we re-entered 
the house, two men came into the garden with a 
monkey, a Pekinese pug, and a poor thin sheep. 
The monkey jumped through hoops on to the 
back of the sheep, walked on a tight-rope, rode 
on the back of the pug dog, and then the animals 
l^erformed other tricks. This performance was 
very poor, but it seemed to be appreciated by the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 173 

numerous amalis and slaves, who sat behind their 
mistresses. In this house of the Hovvqua family 
there are at least a hundred retainers. But to 
return to our party, whom I left listening to the 
musical performance : after a time it ceased, and 
the Chinese gentlemen, in that curious unsettled 
state that seems to be their nature, took us round 
the gardens and garden houses a second time. 
When we had had our stroll, we returned to the 
house, and the ladies of our party were conducted 
to the different suites of rooms to visit the ladies 
of the family, whom we had not yet seen. We all 
underwent the usual examination of our dresses, 
jewellery, etc. One of our party, a tall and 
handsome woman, had dressed herself in a bright 
dinner dress, which she thought would please the 
Chinese ladies. They very much admired her, 
but thought it a pity she did not rouge, as it 
would improve her so much. One ' of the 
Chinese ladies, whose acquaintance I had pre- 
viously made, said she was sorry I could not speak 
Chinese, for, if I could do so, she would ask me to 
spend two or three days with her. I think during 
that time I should expire from want of air, as the 
bedrooms into which we were shown, where the 
ladies were sitting, had a most oppressive atmo- 
sphere. At last our host came into one of the 
rooms in which we were chattinir through our two 



174 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

interpreters, Minnie and the young daugliter of 
the x\merican Consul, and asked us to return to 
the room in whicli dinner was waiting for us. 
When we had all assembled, Mr. Howqua — in- 
structed again as to matters of English etiquette 
by Chong-Shing, who ^^■as also an invited guest — 
advanced to me and said, "Number one lady, 
come," and took me by the hand to the post of 
honour on the right side of the table. He then re- 
turned to the group of ladies at the end of the 
room, and said to the American Consul's wife, 
" Number two lady, come," and he took her to the 
table, placing her on his left ; and so he acted 
until all the ladies were seated at the upper end 
of the table. Poor man, he looked sorely puzzled 
as to what to do on such an altogether novel 
occasion ; but when he was quite at a loss, he 
appealed to Chong-Shing for instructions. And 
now — the gentlemen placing themselves as they 
liked, the elder brother of our host sitting at the 
bottom of the long table — dinner began. It was 
all served up in small porcelain basins, each holding 
about as much as an European breakfast cup. 
Nearly all the varieties of food were taken in the 
form of soup. We had birds' nest soup, sharks' 
fin soup, seaweed soup, duck soup with small 
pieces of ham and bamboo slips cut up in it, and 
soup after soup followed too numerous to mention. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 175 

After about twenty of these meat soups, a sweet 
soup was served round by the attendants (they 
bring a little basin of each kind and place it in 
front of the guests) ; it was, we were told, made of 
eggs, and flavoured with the lotus seed. Sweet 
cakes accompanied this dish. We thought, and 
I might slay hoped, that the dinner was drawing to 
a close, but meat and soup were handed on and 
on in endless variety. The meats served to us 
were boiled mutton and duck ; beef is never 
eaten in Chinese houses, as they consider it a sin 
to eat the flesh of the ox and buffalo, which are 
so useful to man for agricultural purposes. We 
learned afterwards that our host stopped several 
varieties of viands coming to the table which 
were prepared for us, as Chong-Shing had heard 
us say to each other that we could not attempt 
to eat any more, and so he gave the hint to Mr. 
Howqua. It was really a kind action towards us, 
as you are considered to be wanting in polite- 
ness if you do not taste all that is provided 
for you at a Chinese banquet. Now, besides 
the stream of dishes that had flowed in upon 
us, we had been helped by our host to various 
dishes from the centre of the table. The wines 
provided were sherry, champagne (the two former 
most indifferent in quality), and sam-shu, a 
strong white spirit. The Chinese are woefully 



176 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

cheated by the corapradores in wine ; for instance, 
they give them a high price for champagne, and 
are supplied with a wine which savours of goose- 
berry rather than champagne, and is really unfit 
to be taken. 

I was much surprised to see the Chinese gentle- 
men drinking wine with each other at this dinner, 
but I learnt from Henry, on returning home, that 
this practice has been in vogue in China for many 
centuries past. I was constantly called upon to 
take wine with one or other of our Chinese friends, 
and found that I must, much as I disliked it, sip 
one of the three wines placed in porcelain wine- 
cups before me. 

The gentlemen have a curious way of" drinking 
to each other : they raise cups full of wine to their 
lips, toss them off, and turn the mouths of the 
empty cups towards the table. The dining-room 
became more and more oppressive : it was devoid 
of fresh air, and the atmosphere was suffocating. 
Our host seemed to suffer from the heat as much 
as we did. He and the other gentlemen turned 
their wide sleeves back over their elbows, and 
sat with arms exposed for a few minutes at a 
time. They all groaned and puffed at intervals, 
and seemed to feel the heat very much. I dare 
say they did not know that the discomfort arose 
from want of ventilation. No punkahs are used 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 177 

by the Chinese, but their phice is supplied by- 
female slaves, ^Yho stand behind the guests 
using large fans without ceasing. During the 
whole time we were at dinner the musicians 
played, and so loudly, that one felt as if tlie 
drums of one's ears must break. The tom- 
toms and the drums were rarely at rest. It was 
curious music, not divided into pieces, but was 
continuous. It did not vary as regards forte 
and piano. The only difference I could find in it 
was this, that at times there was a kind of fife 
solo with drum accompaniment. Sometimes the 
cymbals had it more to themselves. 

At intervals, two or three of the musicians 
sang, in the peculiar falsetto always used in 
Chinese vocal music. I believe that the whole 
we heard referred to some historical event of the 
past. The grimaces made by the singers are 
most comical. To produce some of their high, 
curious sounds, they extend their mouths to 
their ears, and then suddenly close them. They 
invariably keep their eyes fixed on the ground 
when they sing. The falsetto is not only used 
in song, it is also the voice in which all Chinese 
actors speak, and it produces a strange effect upon 
an ear unaccustomed to the sound. Actors are 
never allowed to use the natural voice. The 
female characters are always taken by men, and 

N 



178 rOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

this falsetto is supposed to imitate a woman's 
voice. 

When we had at length finished dinner, which 
must have occupied between two and three hours, 
seats were again arranged for us at the lower end 
of tlie room, and the concert began with renewed 
vigour. Our host becoming excited, he stepped 
into the circle of the musicians, and banged away 
with some cymbals until we were nearly driven 
wild with the noise. Two of our party were ill 
the next day with nervous headache, caused, I 
believe, by the noise and heat. I forgot to say 
that at dessert some of the gentlemen played, at 
our request, a game which curiously enough is 
much in vogue in Italy. With a shout at the 
top of their voices each of the two j^layers puts 
forth so many fingers of the right hand with a 
sudden jerk, throwing the hand forward towards 
the other player. Each cries out the number of 
fingers which he supposes are held out on his 
and the adversary's hand. The game is j^layed 
most rapidly. The one who makes a wrong guess 
has to drink a glass of wine as a forfeit. We 
rose to take leave about nine o'clock, and were 
accompanied to the outer hall by Mr. Howqua, 
his friends, and Mrs. How^qua mere. They took 
leave of us in European fashion, sliaking our 
hands. As we were leaving, the elder Mr. Howqua, 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 179 

a man of about forty years of age, invited us to 
take dinner with him in two or three days' time. 
He sent the usual red letters of invitation on the 
morning of the day we were expected. His house 
is, as I have said, under the same roof as the one 
in which we had dined with his brother, but it is 
differently arranged, and has its own kitchens, suite 
of rooms, visitors' hall, and is, in fact, a separate 
house. We dined in a very pretty room, beauti- 
fully furnished with carved black wood furniture. 
There was some charming carving about the room, 
forming a half screen from the ceiling. The 
dinner was most varied, and the number of soups 
which were served exceeded that of the former 
dinner. The same peculiarity I noticed here : one 
soup might be birds'-nest ; the second had pieces of 
pork in it ; the third was sweet, made of the seeds 
of the lotus ; the fourth had pieces of duck in it ; 
and so on, in endless variety. We had at the 
very least thirty different kinds of soup, and it 
became at last a very difficult matter to me 
even to taste the new dish placed before me. 

I was filled with astonishment at the capacity 
for taking food exhibited by Master Howqua. 
He ate everything in turn ; I watched him, and 
did not see him refuse one dish. He also drank 
champagne and wine freely, and incessantly 
pledged all around him. No one checked him. 

N 2 



180 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

We Europeans missed our bread to eat with the 

various meat soups. No rice was handed with 

them, which would have taken its place. Rice 

was served ouly as a separate dish ; a basin of it 

placed before us, flavoured to Chinese taste, was 

unlike anything I have tasted before. Young 

Howqua ate all his portion of rice, holding up 

the little bowl to his lips, and stuffing the rice 

into his mouth rapidly with his chopsticks. One 

would have imagined, to see him take this rice 

at the end of the repast, that he had not tasted 

the thirty odd soups which I had seen disappear 

from before him. The room in which Ave were 

entertained most fortunately looked on to a pretty 

garden, and was open to the air. The 4otus was 

out in flower, and was a great ornament to the 

garden. I could not succeed in conquering 

the difficulty of eating with chopsticks. Before 

I went out to China I fancied that one of 

them was taken in one hand, and the second 

in the other hand, but I find that both are held 

between the thumb and forefinger of the right 

hand. After many vain attempts, I gave in, 

and my host, seeing my difficulty, spoke to one 

of the waiting-boys, who brought me a knife and 

fork. 

When we go to the houses of Chinese gentle- 
men to dine, the host sometimes sends to our 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 181 

house and borrows glass, knives and forks, etc., 
for our use. 

The weather is now intensely hot. There is 
no refreshing breeze, and the heat of the sun is 
very great. The mosquitoes are great torments 
just now ; but I do not suffer from their bites 
as others do. They are especially fond of new- 
comers, and Henry finds that they again dis- 
cover an European flavour in him. They bite 
him much more now than they did before he 
left China for England. 

We saw a rock snake yesterday in the path 
immediately by our compound. We called our 
coolies, and alter what seemed a long "talkee 
talkee " they captured and killed it. 



LETTER XVI. 

Canton, August 1st, 1877. 

My dear Motuer, 

I HAVE witnessed a most curious ceremony 
since writing my last descriptive letter, and it was 
a scene I can never forget. It is customary for 
Chinese women to go to the cities of the dead, 
but especially to oue to which the name of Ti- 
Tsong-Om is given, on the fourteenth day of the 
seventh month, to wail and lament for their 



182 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

dead relations, principally for those tbey liave lost 
during the preceding year. Widows particularly 
resort to these places to bewail the death of their 
lords and masters. When we were yet some 
distance from the Ti-Tsoug-Om, we could hear the 
women's voices raised in groans and lamentations. 
As we entered the temple attached to this city 
of the dead, a most curious sight presented itself 
to our view. In the great hall of the temple we 
saw a set of temporary altars erected round the 
entire hall, each altar being devoted to the use of 
one mourner, or to a group of mourners. These 
bereaved ones had placed on these altars various 
offerings for the departed. I saw as many, if not 
more, than thirty suiall china bowls _ full of 
various meats and fruits, arranged before one set 
of mourners. Behind each small altar two strips 
of red paper were pasted on the wall, bearing on 
them in black characters the names of the lost 
relatives. In some cases, effigies made in com- 
position to represent attendants, male and female, 
nearly the size of life, stood by the altars. All is 
regulated according to the position and wealth 
of the mourners, the offerings varying much in 
number and quality. On some of the altars I saw 
sealed red paper packets, which I learned on 
inquiry contained letters addressed to the dead ; 
these letters and paper money, paper clothes, and 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CxiNTON. 183 

paper sedan chairs, etc., are burnt in the quadrangle 
of tlie temple, and are thus by the action of fire 
supposed to be conveyed to the souls of the de- 
parted. In front of the long row of altars sat the 
mourners in various positions. Some had covered 
their faces with coloured handkerchiefs, and were 
sobbing bitterly, rocking themselves backwards 
and forwards as if in the agony of grief ; others were 
kneeling on the ground, making a low wailing 
sound ; and again others were resting from their 
demonstrations of sorrow, and were employed in 
offering paper money, or were lighting joss- 
sticks. The noise, the heat, the crowd, you can- 
not exaggerate to your mind's eye. These women 
had been occupied in this manner for hours and 
hours. Tliey began at dawn of da}^, and it was 
five r.M. when we visited this marvellous scene. 

We went into four or five of these halls, or 
shrines, and found each of them full of women 
lamenting their dead. There was not the slightest 
ventilation in either of these places ; and the heat 
was increased not only by the crowds of mourners, 
but also by the burning paper money offerings, 
which flared up to a great height from the 
incense burners by the centre altar, and by the 
lighted incense sticks, which were innumerable. 
Hundreds and hundreds of women were collected 
together in this temple. I could not distinguish 



184 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

between the ladies and their attendants, as all 
wore cotton clothes, the ladies laying aside silk 
dresses on such an occasion. Their heads too 
were not ornamented with flowers, but plainly 
dressed, a la teapot ; nor were their faces rouged. 
As we threaded our way down the very narrow 
opening left for passers-by, we caused much 
distraction to those who were engaged in howling. 
They would stop suddenly, look at us for a few 
seconds with great curiosity, and then resume 
their lamentations. I saw few tears, and I felt 
that a good deal of the noisy demonstration of 
grief was not real, but rather an acted part. In 
some cases, though, we saw women with tears 
streaming from their eyes, who looked as if the 
outwardly expressed sorrow were real. On leaving 
these crowded shrines, we were sliown into the 
reception hall, and were otHered cups of tea, which 
proved most refreshing to us, overcome as we 
were from the intense lieat of the day, and from 
the stifling atmosphere in which we had spent 
the last few hours. 

After we had rested a short time, we walked 
down some of the streets of this great city of the 
dead. On leaving it, we went to the landing 
stairs wlicre we had left our boat, got into it, and 
had a weary, long pull home against the tide. It 
was quite dark when we started homewards, and 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 185 

the river looked so pretty with its briglitly 
lighted streets of floating hotels, flower bouts, 
and floating temples. 

We have now the full heat of summer upon us, 
and it seems to me wonderful that people are 
equal to giving and to going out to dinner parties 
at this season. I was struck on my first arrival 
at Canton to see the English ladies with so mueh 
colour in their complexions, and the yellow tint 
one notices on the faces of those who have spent 
some years iu India, not vi8il>le here to any 
degree. But now, as the hot weather continues 
day after day, I notice the colour fading from 
the ladies' cheeks, and a pallor taking its place. 
I am told that by the end of the hot weather 
all of us will bear a very washed-out appearance. 

We have been into the city many times 
since I last wrote, and I begin to know some 
of the streets very well, and Henry contrives 
tliat I shall go down some new ones in each of 
our walks. The more I see of the city, the more 
I am struck with its vast size. The other day we 
went into a temple dedicated to two deities, one 
being considered the inventor of letters and the 
other the inventor of the art of printing. The 
former idol bears the name of Tchong-Kit, tlie 
latter the name of Tchoy-Chung. 

Tchong-Kit lived 2852 years before the Christian 



186 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

era, and is said to Lave been asked by tlie emperor 
of China then reigning to invent some characters 
for recording events, as at that time the emperor's 
only resource for remembering what had happened 
was by tying knots in a piece of string. The 
people are also taught to believe that miraculous 
displays accompanied this invention of letters, 
tliat reptiles, dragons, snakes, and demons, had 
previously much tormented the people, but that 
they feared, upon the written characters being 
used, their evil deeds would be reported to the 
celestial rulers, and so they Avould incur their 
displeasure. They, therefore, resolved no longer 
to terrify the people. The earth, too, testified^ her 
gladness at the invention of letters, and_produced 
spontaneously abundant crops of rice. Tchong- 
Kit is supposed to have invented ten thousand 
of the fifty thousand characters now forming the 
Chinese language. Students come to this temple 
and ask these gods for assistance in their literary 
labours. It bears the name of Chong-Tchoy-Tchu- 
Miu. In it stands a small board bearing in gold 
letters the sixteen sacred precepts. At certain 
seasons of the year sermons are preached in this 
temple by the literati, who generally select one 
of these sixteen precepts as a text. When I was 
visiting it the other day, one of these sermons 
was being delivered to a very attentive audience, 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 187 

composed of men of all ages and of all ranks. 
Two small pagoda-shaped, furnaces stand in the 
courtyard of this tem})le, into which the man in 
charge throws scraps of paper, which bear printed 
or written characters. These are collected from 
all parts of the city by men employed by the 
literati, A\ho carry two baskets made of rattan, 
hanging at the ends of a bamboo pole, on which 
are inscribed in Chinese characters, " Spare the 
waste paper." The man bearing the basket cries 
out, as he slowly passes down the streets, " Spare 
the waste paper ! Spare the waste paper ! " All 
who hear the cry hasten to give up the waste 
paper in their possession bearing printed or 
written characters. The ashes of the burnt 
paper are taken from the furnaces, put into 
earthenware jars, which are then taken to the 
river, placed in it, and are carried onwards by 
the tide to the ocean. I have olten seen these 
jars containing the ashes of the waste paper 
floating down the centre of the Canton Kiver. 
The reverence that the Chinese pay to a written 
language which can convey the wisdom of past 
ages to all succeeding generations, makes them 
consider it a sacrilege to trample under foot any 
paper which bears written or printed characters. 
They hold learning in the greatest honour, and 
their aristocracy is necessarily a highly-educated 



188 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

one. They appreciate literary distinction in 
Europeans, and the mandarins often ask Henry 
what degree he has taken. When he tells them 
he is a doctor of law, they rise and chin-chin him. 



LETTER XVII. 

Canton, August 9th, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

I AM half afraid you will think us over- 
enthusiastic sightseers when you read the descrip- 
tion I am ahout to give you of our excursion into 
the city at dead of night. A day or two ago, 
Chong-Shing told Henry that a grand_ gathering 
of worshippers was to take place in the temple 
of Sheng-Wong, the city king, the week following. 
We felt very disappointed about it at first, as we 
were engaged to go to a dinner party that particular 
night. As, however, Henry learnt that it would 
not be necessary to go into the city until a very 
late hour of the night, we determined not to miss 
the wonderful sight of these worshippers, who 
come from all parts to the Sheng-Wong-Miu, 
on the 27th day of the seventh month of the 
Chinese year. We went to our dinner party, and 
remained with our friends until eleven o'clock, 
not mentioning our intended excursion to them, 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 189 

as few or none of the foreign community take any 
interest in the events happening in the Chinese 
city. We returned home from our dinner party 
in our chairs, changed our evening costumes, and 
at half-past eleven we made our start for the city. 

The temple which was the object of our journey, 
and which we reached at half-past twelve, was 
that called " Sheng-Wong-Miu," dedicated as the 
name implies to Sheng-Wong, the city king, or as 
he is sometimes called, " The Protector of Walled 
Cities." The distance to the temple was about 
four miles, and there was much delay in getting 
the city gates and the barricades open for our 
chairs. The coolies cried out, " Open for a 
venerable foreigner who wishes to pass through." 
The cry had to be repeated many times before 
the sleeping guardians of the gates or barricades 
were aroused, and after they had answered, they 
were (what appeared to us) long before they 
turned out of their queer sleeping quarters by the 
sides of the gates. 

We were obliged at one place to get out of 
our chairs, go up some steep stone steps on to 
a portion of the city wall, walk a short distance 
on the wall, and then go down some very steep 
steps on to a parade ground. Here also we 
had to wait until some double gates, the Kwei- 
kok-lau-mun, were opened for us. It is certainly 



190 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

a wonderful privilege granted to the Europeans, 
and denied to the Chinese, to go through 
this military gate of the city at night. For- 
tunately the English Consul lives in the heart 
of the city, and a communication must at all 
times be kept up bet\Aem him and the residents 
at Shameen. And so the promise was given when 
peace was concluded between England and China, 
that foreigners should be suffered to pass through 
this gate at night. The sick resort to the Sheng- 
Wong-Miu on this festival to receive the blessing 
of the god, and those who cannot walk are carried 
there by their friends, and laid on the ground in 
the large shrine or smaller shrines of the temple. 
They, and all the worshippers who can do so, wait 
here for the arrival of the prefect, one of the 
leading magistrates of the city, who worships 
the god in the name of the people. As very 
many of these poor devotees had come in from all 
parts of the country, and would not be allowed 
to pass through the city gates after eight o'clock, 
they came to the temple early in the after- 
noon. When we arrived the concourse of human 
beings was immense, the gilded idols glittered 
in the brightness of innumerable lamps and 
chandeliers, and the words came to my lips, 
" And the temple of Baal was full from the one 
end to the other." 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 191 

The sick were lying all around us, and it was 
difficult to thread our way without treading on 
the feet or hands of the prostrate forms. We 
saw disease in every shape and kind, and it was sad 
to notice the sick children there in very great 
numbers, who looked worn out with the long 
waiting. Poor little things, many were asleep 
curled up under our very feet, others were asleep 
in tlieir mothers' arms. Each nook and corner 
were occupied by human beings, and the temple 
contained thousands of worshippers, men, women, 
and children. I think that two-thirds of the 
worshippers, however, belonged to tlie gentler 
sex. The outside approaches to the temple were 
covered over, and thus the narrow streets looked 
like long arcades. 

Stalls had been erected in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the temple for the sale of 
bright-coloured pictures representing the god in 
all his actions when on earth, or disciples of his, 
or great men of his time. Between these picture- 
stalls, tables covered with creature comforts were 
placed, containing, amongst other things, drinks 
of various kinds in tiny' glasses, and fruit. 

The approach by which we entered the temple 
reminded me most forcibly of that leading to a 
Eoman church on a hill close to Rouen, which I 
once visited on a fete day, where the bright 



192 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

pictures of the Blessed Virgin and saints, and 
the stalls where various blessed rosaries, etc., were 
sold, were arranged in a similar manner. The vast 
gathering of people was most orderly. Only a 
military mandarin with a handful of soldiers was 
present. Many of the worshippers, not finding 
places inside the temple, seated themselves on 
the outside and waited patiently there until 
the state worship should begin. I saw a vast 
number of men and women who, after wor- 
shipping before the high altar, lighted long 
prayer sticks which they had purchased in the 
temple, and carried them away. These incense 
sticks are afterwards placed upon their family 
altars. Others had brought clothes belonging 
to their sick relatives to be blessed by the 
god, and to receive the impression of his great 
seal. 

Again in other cases, it was those who had 
recovered from some severe sickness during the 
past year, who had come to offer their grateful 
worship and to thank Sheng-Wong for his mer» 
cif'ul care of them. 

It was a most wonderful, the saddest sight 
possible, to see these thousands and thousands of 
human beings collected together, having in many 
cases borne much fatigue and pain in long journeys 
to this vast temple, and then to look from them 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 193 

to the object of their reverent worship — a poor 
wooden idol. Henry tells me that when he last 
witnessed this same festival, 24,000 people were 
present at the ceremonies. 

We passed on to a corner of the building 
where the worshippers were closely packed to- 
gether, and were pressing eagerly forward, intense 
excitement visible in their faces. They were 
occupied, at least those who succeeded in press- 
ing near enough, in pushing pictures they had 
purchased at the stalls outside the temple, 
through some wooden bars, behind which several 
men were standing, employed in receiving the 
pictures from the hands of the worshippers. With- 
in this partition, railed off, and most jealously 
guarded, these men having received the pictures 
passed them on to others who were busily and 
incessantly engaged in stamping them with the 
god's great seal. This is a State temple, and 
belonerino; to it are two seals which bear the 
god's name. They are too valuable to be left in 
the temple, but on this day of the year they 
are brought from the prefect's official residence, 
where they are kept, and are allowed to remain 
in the temple from eleven o'clock p.m. of this 
day, until three o'clock the morning following. 
During this time men use them for putting 
the seal on to the pictures and clothes of the 





194 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

devotees, who in this way consider tliey gain a 
blessing from the god. 

One of the hirge seals is made of silver, the 
other is made of jadestone. Should those offer- 
ing their pictures or clothes to be blessed be able 
to afford a few cash only, the latter seal is used ; 
but should they offer a larger gift, the silver 
seal is brought into play. On receiving their 
scrolls or pictures, with the seal impressed ujion 
them, they take them home and hang them up 
as talismen, as they are considered to be efiSca- 
cious in warding off epidemics and other evils. 
The money received for the use of the seals is 
given afterwards to the person who farms this 
source of revenue to the temple. On the in- 
stallation of a new prefect of Canton the privi- 
lege, which has been purchased, of selling all 
kinds of offerings, such as incense sticks, prayer 
papers, the annual use of the seals, etc., is again 
put up for sale. As the bargain lasts good only 
so long as the same prefect is in ofiSce, it is 
attended with some risk. 

The vast multitude of people were very polite, 
made way for us, and we had no fear of their 
molesting us ; but the military mandarin on 
seeing us pass his chair, and recognising Henry, 
was courteous enough (I think partly I'rom fear 
of any mishap befalling the foreigners) to order 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 195 

some of his soldiers to guard us, and to conduct 
us about the temple. You must not picture these 
soldiers to yourself as in uniform. Two of those 
who took care of us wore ordinary long white 
grasscloth coats, the others had on a kind of 
livery. The latter were dressed in blue cotton, 
with a pattern worked in white on their backs. 
They all wore pointed mandarin hats, trimmed 
with red friuge. How amused you would have been 
could you have seen Henry and me picking our 
way through the densely packed crowd, and on 
either side of us our guard, who carried Chinese 
paper lanterns suspended from bamboo rods. 

The people really were much amused to see us 
amongst them, and many of them said " Chin- 
chin " as we passed them. We were too tired to wait 
for the arrival of the prefect at three o'clock A.M. 
Henry has been present at the whole ceremony, 
and he tells me that when the prefect comes into 
the temple the vast multitude give a shout in 
honour of Sheng-Wong. The prefect then, having 
performed the kau-tau before the high altar, pre- 
sents his offering to the god and withdraws from the 
temple. The people then proceed to worship the 
god, but they are so closely packed it is impossible 
for them to perform the kau-tau. They stand, 
therefore, and raise burning incense sticks above 
their heads. This festival lasts three days, 

2 



196 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the 27th, 28th, and 29th days of the seventh 
month of the Chinese year. 



LETTER XVIII. 

Canton, August 13th, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

A DAY or two after I had written my last 
descriptive letter to you, an invitation came from 
the Howquas for us. We started from home on 
Saturday, after having taken luncheon, as we con- 
cluded we were only invited to pay a long afternoon 
call upon our Chinese friends. When we arrived 
at the Howquas' house the ladies of the family 
took possession of Minnie and of me, and we 
scarcely saw Henry all the afternoon, nor any- 
thing of the gentlemen of the Howqua family 
excepting our particular friend, who often came 
into the ladies' room to see what we were doing, 
and to have a chat with his mother. To our 
surprise we had not sat with the ladies more than 
half an hour before we were told that luncheon 
was ready. It was laid out in true Chinese style 
on a small round table in the atrium outside 
Mrs. Howqua's bedroom. There was no cloth on 
the table, nor is it customary for the Cliinese 
repasts to be placed on a covered table ; they are 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 197 

laid on the bare board. The usual cakes in 
great varieties were in the centre of the table, 
and chop.sticks were placed for each of us. The 
Chinese ladies stood round the table some short 
time before they took their seats, as there was a 
great question as to which of them should take her 
seat first. This goes on at every meal amongst the 
ladies ; each says the other must take the prece- 
dence. My hostess bowed towards her friend, and 
waved her hand towards the chair, evidently 
begging her to seat herself; the friend returned 
the compliment, and so the ladies bowed and 
bowed for some minutes until the friend took 
her seat. The absurdity of the whole matter is, 
that etiquette is so strict and defined in China 
that there was no doubt as to which of the 
ladies would eventually seat herself first, but 
it is customary to show this affected humility 
before accepting the honour. As I could not 
speak Chinese I thought I had better accept at 
once, and on Mrs. Howqua requesting me to be 
seated, I with a smile obeyed, thus of course ap- 
pearing very discourteous to the Chinese ladies. 
One of Mr. Howqua's daughters was with us, 
and was about to take her seat at the table 
after the elder ladies had at last placed them- 
selves, when her mother reminded her that it was 
a fast day in memory of her father's death, so she 



198 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

and her younger sister, who had also joined us, 
sat and looked on as we took our luncheon. It is 
not customary for the Chinese to entertain on these 
days of fasting, which last three days in succes- 
sion, and I was surprised, when I heard the occa- 
sion of the fast, that Mrs. Howqua should sit 
down with us, but it was evidently in compliment 
to me as a foreigner that she did so. 

The courtesy of Chinese to strangers is very 
great. You feel on entering one of their houses 
that their great desire is to please yon, and that 
their whole attention is given to you as a guest. 
Henry says when he has called at a house of 
mourning, in which, according to Chinese custom, 
the seats of the chairs are covered with blue, a 
servant has been called to bring a red covering 
to place on the chair intended for him, as a 
Chinese gentleman considers it is not kind to 
make his friends mourn for his particular loss. 
I noticed Mrs. Howqua partook only of a gela- 
tinous kind of soup and some small cakes, 
which are the orthodox food for fasting days. 
Our small party at table consisted of Mrs. 
Howqua, her particular friend, a pretty woman, 
but highly rouged and coquettish, young Howqua, 
Minnie, and myself. I have never felt more 
embarrassed than [ did at this unex]^)ected meal, 
for, besides having partaken of luncheon only a 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 199 

couple of hours before, I was feeling ill. How to 
eat the various dishes placed before me 1 did not 
know. I wished my little interpreter to say to 
my hostess that I was feeling unwell, but she 
said that this was impossible, as the ladies would 
be afraid at once that I might be sickening with 
some contagious illness, or, as they would put it, 
that I might have brought some evil spirit into 
the house which would also harm them. So I was 
forced to hide my feelings and put into my 
mouth pieces of food which at the best of times 
would have made me feel very uncomfortable. 
The ladies often said to Minnie that I was not 
eating, that I did not like what was provided lor 
me, and Minnie turned to me begging me to 
make greater efforts. It is so very amusing, she 
and I speak in the most unconcerned manner 
upon what is passing before us ; she explains to 
me the various customs I have not seen before, 
for in the office of interpreter she can speak to 
me at any moment, and for this reason she is 
generally placed next to me at table. " Pray help 
yourself," was Mrs. Howqua's frequent remark, 
"or we shall not think you friendly." All con- 
straint was thrown aside, and I saw the Chinese 
ladies in their accustomed home life. They 
and young Howqua helped my little friend and 
me to many delicacies with their own chopsticks. 



200 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

At the end of tlie entertainment, when I con- 
sidered my efforts to take the food which was so 
distasteful to me had been crowned with success, 
and after I had tasted several sweet cakes, etc., 
Mrs. Howqua rose fi-om her chair, dipped a piece 
of duck, at least two inches square, which she held 
in her chopsticks, into the little basins containing 
soy and mustard, and put tlie whole as a homie 
louche into my mouth. I rose when I saw the 
fate coming upon me, smiled I should say a 
ghastly smile, and was obliged to swallow this 
large piece of meat. Champagne was supplied; 
Mr. Howqua came himself and opened the 
bottle, and you should have seen his struggles 
to accomplish this. He knelt down, held the 
bottle at arm's length, the attendants standing 
at some distance. At last he had in despair to 
break off the neck of the bottle. He appeared 
at one time with a bottle of white wine, which by 
the label I found to be whisky made in Germany. 
When luncheon w-as over we adjourned into Mrs. 
Howqua's bedroom, and the lady who dined with 
us told me I was a Number one lady, and that 
she intended to embroider me a pair of shoes.* 

* A Chinese lady spends her time ia embroidering shoes and 
other work, in card and domino plaj'iug, in lounging in garden 
liouses, in gossiping with her female friends and amahs, and 
in smoking occasionally. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 201 

A drawer full of newly embroidered shoes was 
brought forward for me to see. They were made 
for uncompressed feet. The natural size of the 
Chinese foot is very small, and both feet and 
hands of a Chinese lady are most symmetrical. 
The colours and patterns shown me were varied, 
and I was asked to choose which I liked best ; I 
think this choice took half an hour at the least, 
Mr. Howqua's taste being at last appealed to. 
Eventually a white silk ground, a pale pink shade 
let in and embroidered with a darker shade of 
the same colour, with very narrow black and gold 
braid worked in, was pronounced by all to be 
in perfect taste. 

Having quite decided, the lady sent for her 
silks, and then quietly informed me that she only 
had a pale mauve silk that must form the ground- 
work of the shoes. It all had to be begun again, 
and we finally decided that a pale yellow silk 
should be embroidered with a darker silk on this 
mauve ground. The Chinese ladies are just like 
grown-up children. I believe this lady knew all 
the time that she had no variety of silks to offer 
me. I asked her if she would embroider the 
piece of work and let me have it to make up 
in European fashion, and at her request I took 
my shoe off for her to see the style. She and the 
other ladies were so amused with my shoe ; those 



202 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

who had not compressed feet tried it on, and you 
should have seen their conscious vanity, when they 
put their feet into it, and found it much too large for 
them. They could not understand the heel being 
raised, as in their shoes the middle of the sole is 
the deepest, which causes them to walk on that 
part and the toes and heels of the shoes to turn up. 
My friend's mind was much relieved when I con- 
sented to have her present made up in Chinese 
fashion. I had seen the look of helpless bewilder- 
ment in her face when I suggested how the pattern 
should be worked for European shoes. I now 
begged to say adieu to my hostesses, but they would 
not hear of my leaving, and begged me to stay 
and dine with them. At first I refused^ but upon 
being very much pressed, I consented to stay, 
reluctantly as regarded a second trial of Chinese 
food, but gladly as regarded a further insight 
into Chinese domestic life. I felt very tired and 
oppressed with the want of ventilation in the 
rooms in which I had passed the last two or three 
liours ; but there was to be no rest for me yet. 
Mrs. Houqua took me by the hand and led me to 
pay a second visit to the elderly small-footed lady, 
who is evidently of the first rank in the house. She 
looked most curious as she had small round pieces 
of black [)laister on both temples. This is a cure 
much resorted to by the Chinese for headache. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 203 

We sat down and were given tea, and also the 
seeds of the lotus plant. I could not think what 
I was eating until my little friend enlightened 
me. On my expressing approval of these seeds, 
the old lady gave me two or three steins of the 
lotus, bearing, what I will call in absence of a 
better term, pods. I do not much like to visit 
this old lady, she has such a habit of putting me 
through a series of cross-questions. She took out 
her jade earrings to show me. They were very 
handsome, made in the same fashion as those all 
the ladies wear in the south of China. Each 
consisted of a large gold ring, from which 
a circle of jadestone was suspended. The old 
lady evidently liad great pride in these earrings, 
and I am sure that they were very valuable ; but 
no inexperienced eye can discern the finest and 
most expensive jade from the medium qualities. 
These Chinese ladies wear very costly ornaments. 
The clusters and sprays of stones they place on 
the top and sides of their coiffures for full dress 
contain beautiful pearls which we Europeans fail 
to appreciate, as they are made up with the king- 
fisher's feathers enamelled on silver. This makes 
them appear false, and the large pearls lose much 
of their beauty by the mounting. , 

A very good-looking young Chinese married 
woman, with the smallest feet imaginable, joined 



204 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

US in this old lady's room. I discovered that she 
was the wife of the elder brother of our host ; she 
said she could not receive us when we dined with 
her husband as she was ill at the time. She was 
as pleased as a child to show me her ornaments, 
and most anxious to examine mine. In conse- 
quence of being in mourning, I wore my jet brace- 
lets only ; but the young lady much admired them, 
and wanted to exchange one of her rattan brace- 
lets mounted in gold for one of my jet bracelets. 
I felt I could not accept the exchange, it would 
have been so much in my favour. This young 
lady sent her attendant for her photographs, in 
which she had been taken in full dress as a high 
mandarin's wife, and was much pleased at my 
saying the likeness was very good. The photo- 
graphs were as highly coloured as the lady was 
when I saw her. 

The Chinese ladies certainly do not agree with 
the idea " Beauty unadorned, adorned the most," 
for they assist nature in every possible way. This 
young lady's face vvas immensely rouged in the usual 
Chinese fashion. There were circular patches 
of the rouge by the eyebrows going up to the 
brow, and circular patches of it on the cheeks 
at some little distance from the nose. The colour 
is most brilliant, and no attempt is made to 
disguise the rouge. Her eyebrows were shaved 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON, 205 

into a perfect arch, and pencilled ; a line was 
painted under her eyes, and her lips were stained 
with vermilion. She really was a pretty woman, 
with delicate straight features, and a very pretty 
well-formed nose. She insisted upon taking out 
her earrings and upon my trying them ; they were 
made in the double ring, the higher one in gold 
with grey enamel on it, the lower one in jade- 
stone. All the ladies in one family wear jewel- 
lery of the same pattern and value. 

The one thing no man can accuse the Chinese 
of is love of change. The style of hair, costume, 
jewellery, shoes, etc., is all stereotyped. A certain 
set of things is worn for the summer by the ladies, 
and certain sets for the winter, autumn and spring. 
No modiste is required to set the fashions in 
China ; a new style of garment would be looked 
upon with suspicion and dislike by a Chinese lady. 
Sumptuary law reigns supreme here. Mr. Howqua 
now came into the room, and told us that dinner 
was ready, and we went back to the atrium leading 
to Mrs. Howqua's bedroom. There the table was 
laid exactly in the same manner as it had been 
for luncheon, only the dishes were more numerous. 
The same delay in sitting down was observed, 
and I tried to look modest, bowed, and by my 
manner asked my hostess to seat herself. But I 
soon gave up the contest and took my seat. We 



206 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

were surrounded by amahs and slaves, and we were 
fanned the whole time by some young slave girls. 
Certainly this is very ranch needed in the intense 
heat of a Chinese summer. I was much surprised 
to feel something moist suddenly applied to my 
forehead, and on turning round I found one of the 
amahs had a little brush in her hand wet with 
some kind of cosmetique. The vigorous fan- 
iiing,^behind me raised my hair, and caused it 
to look very untidy in the eyes of a Chinese 
woman. When the hair is arranged in the teapot 
style, a matter which takes some hours to com- 
plete, a brush wet with a thick cosmetique is drawn 
over the whole, giving it a most sticky appear- 
ance. This is renewed at intervals during the day. 
A Chinese lady spends daily between one and 
two hours before her glass whilst her amah is 
arranging her hair. The amah attended to my 
hair several times during dinner, going to the 
corner of the hall to fetch her little brush when 
my hair, recovering from the cosmetique, began 
to assert itself. I received the same amount of 
attention from my hostess as she had shown me 
at luncheon : my little basin was always full of 
various delicacies, and I had to rise several times 
to receive dainty morsels from the points of my 
friend's chopsticks. Henry had told me before 
that Chinese etiquette required that I should 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 207 

return the attention in the same manner. But 
this was impossible, as I was not mistress of my 
chopsticks. My ineffectual efforts to convey 
the food to my mouth witli them caused mucli 
merriment to the ladies, and young Howqua often 
showed me how to use them. He ate in the same 
voracious manner as before, and was not checked 
by his grandmother. One of the amahs interfered 
with him as he was sitting cross-legged with his 
feet on his chair like a young Turk. The young 
'gentleman became furious, turned round and 
abused the attendant, and begged his mother 
to beat her for the offence. 

One dish which was placed before me puzzled 
me much : it looked like fine grass, and when I 
asked the name of it, I learned that it was sea- 
weed. It was so entangled that I could not 
extract a mouthful of it from the basin with my 
chopsticks. Without speaking to me, my par- 
ticular attendant took the green tangled contents 
into her hands from the little bowl, divided it 
with her fingers, and replaced it in my basin. 
These amahs are accustomed to help their mis- 
tresses in this way. The last dish was rice, and 
my little bowl was piled up with it, and the ladies 
tried to teach me to eat it in true Chinese fashion. 
They place the basin close to the under lip, and 
then with closed chopsticks push the rice into 



208 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

their montlis with marvellous rapidity. Mrs. 
Howqua told me not to be shy about it, that it 
was the custom for all to eat rice in this way. It 
was not shyness that prevented me from proving 
an apt pupil, but the desire not to put much of 
the rice into my mouth, as it was flavoured 
with something which gave it a pink colour and 
a most unpleasant taste. I had already done 
sufficient violence to my feelings in the various 
dishes of which I had partaken. With the rice 
a little dish was brought in containing silk-worm 
chrysalises boiled and served up with chilies. The 
pretty young lady partook of this dish in great 
quantities, although it was so hot in flavour that 
I could scarcely swallow one of the chilies. I 
could not bring myself to taste one of the fat, soft- 
looking chrysalises. This dish, so this lady in- 
formed me, is a cure for indigestion. Between the 
various mouthfuls of it she took a puff from a 
pipe held to the side of her mouth by her amah, 
who was placed behind her. When dinner was 
over we again adjourned to Mrs. Howqua's bed- 
room. Have I told you that there are two hand- 
somely carved wooden bedsteads in this room, 
one black and one red? At this time of year 
there is neither mattress nor coverings on the beds, 
only a piece of matting laid on the bedstead, and 
wooden pillows. Mosquito curtains hang round 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 209 

the bed. A large black wood wardrobe goes down 
the length of the room, and there is a table 
mude iu black wood on which is placed a high 
toilet glass. The seats are, in fact, high stools. 
After we had sat together in Mrs. Howqua's 
bedroom half an hour or more, I became so in- 
tensely tired that I could remain no longer, and, 
notwithstanding the entreaties of the ladies not 
to leave, I stood up resolutely and said I must 
put on my hat. 



LETTEE XIX. 

Canton, August 23rd, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

I HAD neither time nor space to write all 
I had to say in my last budget, and could not 
therefore describe to you an amusing interview 
we had had with some Chinese ladies in our 
favourite retreat, the Taai-Tung-Koo-tsze monas- 
tery. On paying a certain sum of money, ladies 
are allowed to occupy the chief rooms for a 
time, and the monks, few in number as they are, 
retire to smaller rooms below. The object these 
ladies had, we found, in coming to this monastery, 
and remaining in it two or three days, was to 
worship Koon-yam, the goddess of mercy, and to 
pray to her for the souls of those who, having 

p 



210 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

died, have left no one behind them on earth to 

pray for them, and are therefore supposed to be 

flitting abont, unappeased and angry, capable of 

annoying the living in every possible way. This 

particular worship, with its accompaniments of 

oiferings of paper money, and paper clothes, and 

the letting off of a great quantity of fire-crackers, 

is going on in all parts of the city. These Chinese 

ladies, seeing us in the garden from their windows, 

invited us upstairs to pay them a visit. We were 

spending the day, as we so often do, in our garden 

lionse, which was perhaps two minutes' walk from 

the apartments where the ladies were staying. 

Henry was also allowed to go upstairs, and my little 

friend accompanied us. They seemed so pleased 

to see us, made us sit down, and waited upon us, 

bringing us tea, melon-seeds — which the Chinese 

ladies most adroitly break open with their front 

teeth — j^reserved pineaj^ple, and cakes. These 

ladies did not belong to the higher rank of society 

like the Howqua family, but they were gentle 

and refined in Tuanner. Two out of the seven had 

small feet. One of them decorated my hair with 

natural flowers, which were standing in a saucer 

to be used for ornamenting their coiffures. They 

were much amused with the fairness of my arras, 

comparing them with their own brown arms. One 

of the ladies cracked the melon-seeds for me with 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 211 

her teeth (one must put away one's natural pre- 
judices when one moves amongst a strange peo- 
ple), and all were most attentive to me. There is 
something very winning and unselfish in the way 
a Chinese lady behaves towards her guest; she 
does not seem to wonder what we foreigners think 
of her — her whole manner is as artless and un- 
studied as that of a child. They always regret 
that I cannot speak to them, but say, I suppose 
to console me, that will come " maan-maau " 

A strict last from meat is observed whilst this 
worship lor the souls of the uncared-for departed 
takes place. Certain boats, only used for religious 
purposes, are hired at this time by those who are 
anxious to join in the worship, and priests are 
hired to chant services for tlie spirits of the men 
who have died unwept and unhonoured. These 
boats are most brilliantly illuminated, when dark- 
ness has set in, from stem to stern by multitudes 
of lauterns, and as they glide down the river 
they have a fairy-like appearance. The mono- 
tonous chant of the priests sounds most Catholic, 
and one could fancy it was a Gregorian strain 
rather than a chant from the lips of heathen 
monks. The small lanterns are suspended in 
endless number from the masts and ropes, and the 
boat is outlined and covered with these bright- 

p 2 



212 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

coloured lanterns. The effect of one of these boats 
as it floats by our house is as of a thing of magic, 
and the reflection in the river is brilliant. The 
priests throw burning paper clothes and paper 
money into the river as they recite the prayers 
for the dead. These paper clothes and mock money 
are supposed to become spiritualised by the action 
of fire, and so to be adapted to the use of the poor, 
naked, craving ghosts flitting on the surface of the 
water. A small boat, with a fire burning in it, is 
rowed in front of the larger one iu which the re- 
ligious worship is going on, to the accompaniment 
of musical instruments. A gong is beaten at inter- 
vals to attract the spirits to the sj)ot. Several 
smaller boats, also having fires burning in them, 
capable of holding one man only, are rowed by 
the side of tlie floating temple. The object of 
these is to show tlie spirits the spot where the 
paper clothes and paper money are being thrown 
into the river for their use. Oil lamps are also 
placed iu small earthenware vessels, and float in 
the track of the large boat to serve as guides for 
the spirits. Truly, one exclaims, this is a super- 
stitious people, wedded to their own idolatrous 
belief and customs ! 

The weather has become cooler since I last 
wrote to you, and we have had much rain and 
high winds. On the 21st, about noon, we sud- 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 213 

denly heard a curious sound like that of a 
large steamer coming up the river. The boat 
population at once screamed out in fear, and 
talked loudly, rowing at the same time as hard 
as they could to the shelter of the river wall. 
Henry was writing at the table in the dining- 
room, the windows of which were as usual open 
to the ground. In a moment all his papers were 
blown off the table on to the floor. On looking 
out from the verandah we saw that the river was 
agitated into waves, and the wind was rushing 
madly towards us, making a wide path in the 
centre of the river. All was confusion. Our 
servants called out " Typhoon ! typhoon ! " 
(which means "large wind! large wind!"), and 
immediately closed all the windows and the 
typhoon shutters. The rain came down in tor- 
rents, and was driven before the hurricane. The 
noise of voices raised to a high pitch of alarm 
continued to increase as tlie boats were hurried 
past our windows to the creeks wher^i the chance 
of safety was greater. The people vociferated 
as Chinese only can vociferate when any calamity 
takes place. We soon heard that an accident 
had occurred just to the left of our house : a 
boat had been capsized, and two children, of six 
and eight years of age, had been washed out of 
it and drowned. They were picked up by the 



214 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

crew of a gig belonging to one of the steamers, 
and were placed on the bund close to our hoiipe. 
A Chinese doctor happened to be on the spot, 
but he could render no aid, as life was extinct in 
both children. Family affection is great in China,* 
and the mother of these children was screaming in 
her grief, wringing her hands, and imploring the 
doctor to give her back her children. This hur- 
ricane, and the same applies to all storms of wind, 
was supposed by the Chinese to be caused by the 
dragon, which inhabits the Pearl River, turning 
himself, and twisting his tail out of the water. One 
of our coolies, an intelligent man, gravely told us 
that yesterday, at the commencement of the storm 
of wind, he saw the dragon's tail lifted^ out of the 
water, and that a little boat was raised on it. 
Our old book coolie, however, would not subscribe 
to this, and when Henry questioned him he said 
that Chan-ashu (the coolie) might have seen the 
dragon, but tliat he believed the big wind came 
from heaven. So you see, even here amongst the 
believers in the combined teaching of Confucius 
and Buddha, there is a difference in points of 
faith. The river dragon is supposed to possess the 
power of keeping in durance vile a limited num- 

* This assertion may soem strange after ray remarks, in a 
preceding chapter, on infanticide. It is, nevertheless, true, 
and may he regarded as one of the many iucunsistencics which 
mark the Cliincse chai'acter. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 215 

ber of souls, and of calling those he desires to 
him. When a certain number of men are newly 
drovvned, so many souls in proportion become free 
from the dragon's power, and can aseend from the 
water. This is one great cause why the Chinese 
will not help drowning people. They fear, by 
doing so, they might make the soul angry whose 
turn it is to escape from the dragon's power, and 
that, when it has an opportunity, it would do 
some harm to them. 

The river dragon is much feared, and therefore 
much worshipped, by the population living in boats. 
We have since heard of other accidents caused by 
this mighty rush of wind. Two passenger boats, 
carrying a great number of people, were upset 
and the passengers drowned. Some houses were 
blown down, and the inhabitants who were in them 
were badly injured. It was a mercy we were not 
on the river at the moment. We had intended 
to cross over to Fa-tee to sit in our garden house, 
and it was arranged that Henry should go first, 
and Minnie and I were to follow after luncheon. 
Henry would certainly have been on the river at 
the moment of the hurricane, if a heavy shower 
had not preceded it, and prevented him from 
starting. This is a dangerous and treacherous 
river, and I am very nervous at times when 
making excursions on it. This year especially it 



216 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

has been most unsafe, from the strong currents 
and overflowing tides. A boat was canght the 
other day in an eddy close to the city, and went 
down head foremost. I am very anxious about 
Henry's weekly journeys to Wharapoa, and it 
is very late before he gets home to put my 
fears to rest. It has been two o'clock, and even 
past that hour, before he has reached Shameen, 
when the wind and tide have been against him. 
He starts from Whampoa about half-past nine p.m. 
He cannot take a nap, as if he were to do so his 
four boatmen would give in and not attempt to pull 
with all their remaining strength against the tide. 
After the storm came the calm, and we were able 
to cross the river (I with no feeling of security) 
and spend the afternoon at Fa-tee. On our return 
home about seven o'clock, we saw the curious 
ceremony of burning paper clotlies and paper 
money in a street on tlie banks of the river. We 
rowed towards the spot, and weut asliore to see 
what was taking place. Large piles of paper 
money had been burnt, and all along the river's 
bank in this neighbourhood I saw a row of red 
candles alight. I suppose there must have been 
two or three hundred of them. This particular 
worship for the souls of those who have died in 
the streets was given by the proprietors of a largo 
warehouse. Before the warehouse a lone: table 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 217 

was placed, and on it was spread a great variety of 
offerings in fruit and vegetables. These are ex- 
posed for a given time, during which the spiritual 
part is supposed to be accepted by the hungry 
ghosts. The material part is then taken home 
and provides a feast for the worshippers. We 
saw on our way home many of these grand illu- 
minations and burning of paper money and 
clothes, taking place at intervals along the banks 
of the river. All this is done in honour of the 
spirits of the poor, and of those who have none 
on earth to pray for tliem. These ceremonies 
last from the Ist to the 15th day of this the 
seventh month of the Chinese year. 

We sit out on the bund immediately opposite 
our house, or on our verandah, after dinner, as it 
is too hot to remain indoors. I am lost in 
admiration of the pretty fire-flies which flit about 
in all directions, and look like small lanterns in 
the distance. I enjoy our walks into the city and 
its suburbs as much as ever. We buy blue china 
in all parts of the city, and tlie other day found 
two good plates in a most curious little shop in 
the purlieus of the city. I am also anxious to 
collect some of the beautiful Chinese embroidery 
in silk. It is most charming in taste and design. 
We liave a queer little man, a dealer in embroidery, 
who visits us at times when he has anything he 



218 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

thinks will tempt us. " That work man liave come," 
our boy says to me, and away I go at once to in- 
spect the treasures he has brought, I generally find 
the queer little man, with a pipe in his mouth, 
sitting in the library with my husband. He displays 
what he has with him, and if it should be a grand 
embroidered coat, the ugly little one-eyed man puts 
it on, stretching out his arms wide so that we may 
see the whole pattern on it. He names his price, 
generally a high one, and Henry says quietly, 
"No can, too muchee money." The little man 
then takes his seat again and pufis at his pipe. 
After ten minutes' interval at least, he names a 
rather lower price, but most probably still too 
high. Sometimes we come to terms ; sometimes 
he departs with all he has brought. Once or 
twice he has gone to the servants' quarters, and 
there waited, and after some time has sent one of 
the boys in to make an offer at a lower price. A 
great deal of the beautiful old work comes from 
the theatres, for they do not adopt the European 
custom of painting or working for effect at a dis- 
tance. All is genuine and good, and the costumes 
and decorations in China must cost each trading 
guild which gets up a theatrical representation 
a considerable sum of money. Some of the em- 
broidery now in our possession has been used in 
theatres. It looks quite fresh, and is very hand- 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 219 

some. Some of it is embroidered in gold on scarlet 
cloth, and part of it is gold embroidery in beautiful 
scrolls and patterns on a black ground. I was much 
amused with our little Chinese friend the other day. 
He had brought some embroidery for us to see, 
and displayed it in our drawing-room over the sofa, 
chairs, etc. We had then just purchased some 
large black carved wood cliairs, two for our- 
selves, which were placed in our drawing-room; 
and four others, bought for friends, stood in 
the dining-room. The little man's quick eye 
saw the new furniture, and within two or three 
days he brought us six beautiful i"ed chair-back 
covers and seats, which were embroidered in gold. 
These covers and seats are used by the Chinese 
on fete days, and look so bright and handsome on 
the black wood furniture. After some discussion 
we purchased two of these tempting pieces of 
embroidery. One curious fact in Chinese furni- 
ture is the little variety one meets with in it in 
size and pattern. I begin to know all the devices. 
The chairs are either small, and so of a size for 
use at table, etc., or of a large size, with arms, to 
be used in reception halls. There was therefore 
no doubt about these chair-covei-s, which were 
intended to go tight over the backs and arms of 
the chairs, being the right size. 



220 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



LETTER XX. 

Canton, August 25tb, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

On tlie 2Utli inst., the state worship on 
occasion of the emperor's birthday took place. 
Henry was most anxious for me to go, as he 
feared that if I did not embrace the present 
opportunity, another miglit not offer. Next year 
the ceremony may take phice on a Sunday ; or 
we might be up the country ; or something 
else might prevent me from seeing this worship 
paid to the emperor's tablet. As is always the case 
with special religious services in China, it was held 
very early in the morning, in fact at break of day, 
four o'clock A.M. The spirits are supjiosed to be 
more active, more inclined to hear petitions, and 
to be more especially present in the tablets, idols, 
etc., early in the day. We agreed to be called at 
two o'clock A.M. on Monday morning, to go down 
the river in a slipper boat as far as one of the 
city gates. A chair was to be in readiness for 
me there, in which I was to go to the Maan- 
Shau-Kunng, or Ten Thousand Years Palace. 
It would have been very inconvenient to go 
all the way in chairs on account of the closed 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 221 

city gates and barricaded streets through which 
we should have had to pass, but by perform- 
ing most of the journey by water, we only had 
one gate to pass through. We sent a coolie 
the uight before (Snnday) to promise this gate- 
keeper a kumshaw if he would get up at two 
o'clock the following morning, and open the 
gate for us. Our plans were upset when the 
morning arrived, as Henry had had a very tedious 
row home from Whampoa against a strong tide, 
and did not reach the Chaplaincy until after half- 
past twelve. It was impossible for him to attempt 
another journey, he was so thoroughly prostrated 
by the fatigue and heat, and his heavy day's work. 
He would not hear of my giving up our proposed 
excursion, so, to prevent his attempting what I 
feared would make liim really ill, I suggested that 
he shonLl trust me with our compradore and 
Chong-Shing, the teacher. 

When the rap came at the bedroom door at 
two o'clock, I must say that I heartily wished the 
mandarins were not so early in their habits. We 
started about half-past two, the two men I have 
mentioned, our old coolie, and I. The four boat- 
men in the slipper boat were equal to the duty, 
although they had had such a heavy pull up from 
Whampoa. All went smootlily. I found my 
chair waiting at the city gate, and I got into it. 



222 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

I was much amused by a feature of extreme 
economy in my guides. They had started from 
home in their short jackets, and both carried a 
little parcel done up in a handkerchief. At 
this gate the parcel was undone and the two men 
put on their long coats. Although we arrived 
at the temple soon after three o'clock a.m., many 
of the inferior mandarins had already assembled 
and were seated in an outer court, and one or 
two higher class mandarius occupied their seats 
in the inner court. All these ceremonials are 
attended by the greatest amount of etiquette it is 
possible to conceive. 

Thus the smallest man starts from his yamun 
at an hour long before the appointed time of the 
ceremony, and on leaving his residence he sends 
a messenger to the yamun of the mandarin next 
higher in rank to himself, to say that he is alread}' 
on his journey. Number two then starts, know- 
ins: that the inferior will have arrived before him 
at the rendezvous, and be there to rise and receive 
him in due ioim. Number two on starting des- 
patches a messenger to number three, and so on, 
until the greatest man is reached at last. Each 
fresh arrival of a higher mandarin was greeted by 
the mandarins already assembled, who advanced 
towards the entrance of the robing-room in two 
rows mute and motionless, whilst the bigger man 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 223 

passed tlirongh them with slow and majestic gait, 
looking neither to the right nor left of hiiu, but 
proceeding to his appointed seat, all the others 
following in dignified silence. A mandarin of 
important rank is simply inflated by pride and 
pomposity. His movements are all regulated 
by rules of etiquette. Therefore each man of 
equal rank is a copy of the one model. So 
exactly to time is the foot encased in its huge 
black silk boot brought forward, turned to a 
rigbt angle, and then raised before being placed 
forward to take a majestic step, that it gives these 
mandarins the effect of being moved by wires. 
No smile is to be seen on tlieir faces, no expression 
but one of stereotyped stolidity. When a man- 
darin seats himself on these public occasions 
all is again by rule. He raises his long silk coat, 
gradually drops into the chair, puts his feet in 
the first position with his knees wide apart, and 
generally places a hand on each knee. When finally 
adjusted in his chair, he raises his eyes and takes 
a dignified look about him, not altering a muscle 
of his face, nor appearing to be struck by anything 
he sees. The three most important men present 
on this occasion were the Viceroy, the Governor 
and the Tartar General, all mandarins of the first 
order, and each wearing the much coveted pale 
red button. The Viceroy takes precedence of 



224 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the Governor and Tartar General, and is the first 
man in the province. To show his importance, 
it was fully a quarter of an hour after the 
Governor had arrived before we heard sounds of 
his approaching procession. The temple itself pre- 
sented a most ftiirylike appearance, dimly lighted as 
it now was with an immense number of oil chan- 
deliers and coloured lanterns painted in various 
devices. The quadrangle immediately before the 
shrine which, as I told you in a previous letter, 
contains a fac-simile of the emperor's throne at 
Pekin with the emperor's tablet resting on it, 
was lighted with hundreds of small lights. These 
lights, which much resembled our nightlights, 
were placed four in number, in receptacles, on iron 
rods which hung from the roof of the cloister sur- 
rounding the quadrangle. As no mandarin is con- 
sidered high enough in rank to enter the shrine 
itself to worship the tablet, it is in the centre of 
the quadrangle that the ceremony is performed. 

I had been immensely interested in all that was 
going on around me during the hour of delay before 
the worship began, in watching the mandarins 
receiving each other — at walking over to the 
other side of the quadrangle to see the military 
mandarins. Two of these were of the first rank 
and sat on a dais at the end of their robing-room, 
looking as pompous as man can look. There was 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 225 

a great hurrying to and fro of attendants, who 
swarmed in the quadrangle. The lowest man- 
darins have twenty, and mandarins of the first 
rank, one hundred attendants. Servants brought 
into the quadrangle large wooden chests, sus- 
pended from their shoulders on bamboo poles, 
containing suits of mourning apparel for the man- 
darins. This curious custom is observed on the 
supposition that the Emperor might possibly die 
whilst the ceremony is taking place, and so pro- 
vides that in this case the mandarins sliould go 
home in mourning garments. Other boxes carried 
in by servants contained court liats worn by the 
mandarins only at the time the ceremony is being 
performed. In other boxes I saw teapots, cups and 
saucers, pipes, etc. The mandarins wear their 
handsome full court dress on this occasion. The 
skirt is dark blue silk beautifully embroidered in 
silk and gold thread ; a tippet is also worn, which 
is much ornamented with gold embroidery. The 
hat, which is the ordinary pointed official hat, is 
trimmed fully with a deep fringe of red floss 
silk, and surmounting the apex is that distin- 
guishing mark of rank, the coloured pear-shaped 
button. 

Every official present rose as the clash of musical 
instruments announced the near approach of the 
Viceroy. In two or three minutes he arrived, 

Q 



226 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

alighted from his State chair, and passed up the 
centre of the long row of mandarins standing by 
the entrance of the robiug-room, in the centre of 
which the Governor was waiting to receive him. 
The two great men chin-chinned each other, and 
passed up together to the raised dais at the 
end of the room, and seated themselves simul- 
taneously. The twelve mandarins varying from 
the first to the fourth rank took their seats on 
benches arranged down the sides of the room, 
where they had alread}"^ passed the last hour or 
more smoking and chatting together, when not 
required to go to tlie entrance to welcome a 
higher brother-official. These robing-rooms were 
open to the quadrangle, so that from where I 
stood I could see all that passed in them. The 
court hats, tippets, and skirts were now put on by 
the mandarins with the assistance of their atten- 
dants. The three great men then walked slowly 
into the quadrangle, followed by all the mandarins 
accordiug to their rank. The Viceroy, Governor, 
and Tartar General placed themselves side by side 
before the first three kneeling-mats in the centre of 
the quadrangle, and the other mandarins arranged 
themselves in order of precedence behind them. A 
band of musical instruments accompanying them, 
ceased playing when all had taken their places ; 
and the master of the ceremonies, standing on 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 227 

the liig-liest step to the l*ight of the shrine, gave 
the word for the ceremony to commenoe. It 
was this : " Advance, kneel, knock the head." An 
inferior mandarin first advanced, and after three 
repeated kau-tans withdrew. He was supposed 
to make the offerings to the emperor, which 
were ah-eady phiced on the altar before the 
tablet. The voice of the master of the ceremonies 
was heard a second time, and now the Viceroy, 
Governor, Tartar C4eneral and every mandarin 
present, solemnly advanced their left feet forward 
at the same moment, took them back, then ad- 
vanced their right feet, knelt on both knees, and 
bending their heads knocked them three times on 
the ground. All the company of mandarins then 
rose, rested, a minute until the shrill voice of 
command was again heard, when they all went 
through the same genuflections. They again 
rose and for the third time bent the knee and 
performed the kau-tau. ^Yhen the three times 
three had been performed, the whole assembly 
left the quadrangle in regular order, and each 
mandarin returned to his appointed place. The 
centre shrine was a blaze of light : large chan- 
deliers lighted it inside, and little lanterns were 
hung under the broad roof along the fapade of 
the building. The doors were wide open, and the 
imperial tablet, the object of worship, was thus 

Q 2 



228 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

visible to all. As I have already described 
it and its inscription, I will not say more about 
it now. I was standing the whole time of the 
ceremony on the granite steps which occiij)y the 
centre of the quadrangle, having the Viceroy 
and Governor immediately on my left, the Tartar 
General and some mandarins on my right hand. 

1 returned now with my guides, and took up my 
position in front of the robing-room. I saw the 
high officials disrobe, remove their court hats, and 
put on their ordinary mandarin hats ; they then sat 
down, tea was handed, and they chatted together. 
In a short time I heard some steps behind me, 
and on turning round I saw the procession of the 
Tartar General and military mandarins, who had 
left their robing-room, and were advancing to 
salute the Viceroy, Governor, etc. The two 
latter rose to receive their guests, chin-chinned 
them, and placed the Tartar General on the dais. 
You cannot, without seeing it for yourself, fully 
understand the manner of these officials. It is 
self-contained, dignified, pompous, intensely quiet, 
and brimful of etiquette. 

You will wonder how the crowd had behaved 
to me all this time, and how I had been able, the 
only woman present, to stand amongst them. 
Well, the truth is that they took no noiice of me 
at all. All had come to see the ceremonv, or to 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 229 

wait on their masters, and I escaped with little 
observation. Our compradore now said to me, 
" More better you go that side, 'spose you wantchee 
see alio that largee mandarin go." So I got into 
my chair, and was carried to a quiet spot to wait 
and see the processions of the different officials 
as they left the temple. But first, I have forgotten 
to say I had a look at an open-air theatre, which 
was temporarily placed in the outer coui't of the 
temple, where a play was being performed whilst 
the religious ceremony was being held in the 
temple itself. This play represented an emperor 
bestowing honours and rewards upon his faithful 
ministers of state. 

There were nine actors on the stage. A throne 
was erected, and an actor, grandly dressed, 
representing the emperor, was seated on it, 
and in a high falsetto key was speechifying. 
No doubt he was giving some excellent advice. 
The other actors were arranged on each side 
of this personage, and were moving about in 
true dignified, pompous, mandarin style. After 
waiting in my chair for half an hour, gongs an- 
nounced the approach of some of the ofScials 
from the temple. Several mandarins passed 
me in succession, each accompanied by many 
attendants, varying in number according to the 
rank of their masters. Then came the chief 



230 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON, 

procession. Words fail me to describe the extra- 
ordinary appearance of these cavalcades. At the 
head of each came men bearing; huge lanterns 
with the titles painted on them of the great man 
to whom they belonged ; then there were ragged 
boys carrying the insignia of rank, silk flags, and 
painted boards with titles upon tliem in raised 
characters. Then equerries, wlio were handsomely 
dressed in silk robes and mounted on ponies, passed 
by. The ponies were but poor creatures, very 
thin, with their bones nearly coming through the 
skin, the fat riders in their flowing robes looking 
very caricatures on their sorry brutes. Then 
came the military; do not picture to yourself 
European troops when I mention these. Their 
legs and feet were bare, and they wore red or red 
and blue tunics and trousers, very shabby in 
appearance ; their hats I cannot describe, except 
by saying that some of them were in shape 
like a tall European hat, only these were made 
in transparent lattice-work of bamboo. Others 
wore headdresses still more difficult to describe. 
They were made of gold tinsel in the shape of 
crowns ; from the sides of the highest part rose 
two long argus pheasant feathers, more than 
four feet in length, made longer than nature 
intended by being mounted on to wire ends. 
Picture to yourself this costume, this tlieatrical 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 231 

headgear, the owner in shabby tnnic and red 
trousers just past the knee, bare-legged, and 
having no shoes. 

The whole struck me as like a pantomime, and 
appeared still more grotesque as daylight now 
began to appear. You know we have no dawn here ; 
as the sun rises, so day begins. The lanterns were 
extinguished, and I saw the members of the pro- 
cession in their true unvarnished light. And now 
came the Viceroy in his chair of state borne by 
twelve men. He sat with arms raised on the 
shelves beside him, and his head thrown forward. 
His stolid expression was preserved. The proces- 
sion was closed by more mandarins on horseback, 
attendants bearing flags, insignia, etc. I have not 
yet mentioned my early ramble in the city to any 
of the European community. I fear they may 
think me strong-minded ; and what is the use 
of speaking of these things to those Avho take 
no interest in the manners and customs of the 
singular people among whom they dwell ? 



LETTER XXI. 

Canton, August SOtli, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

I ALWAYS have so much to describe when I 
sit down to write you an account of what I have 



232 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

seen in the city, that I must necessarily omit much. 
As we are going along the streets I feel engrossed 
in all I see around me, and I am often calling 
upon Henry for an explanation. This is rather 
difficult, as, if we are in chairs, it takes some time 
for me to make the coolies ahead stop, and 
we often have passed the particular spot or shop 
before I can make Henry hear. If we are walk- 
ing we are rarely side by side. The streets are 
so very much crowded and there is seldom room 
for us to be together ; if we walk abreast for a 
few minutes, we are sure to be interrupted by an 
itinerant pork-seller, fishmonger, or some man 
carrying a burden, who cries out, " Clear the 
way." Very often it is a chair for which jou 
have to stand on one side, the coolies sometimes 
calling out " Make way, a great physician is in 
our chair, who is on his road to see a dying 
patient." This cry Henry knows to be not 
strictly true at all times, as the coolies have 
resorted to it when carrying him in haste to some 
particular spot. The streets are also a snare to 
me: I have to look where I am going, for the 
granite slabs by which they are paved are most 
uneven ; in fact there is no pretence at using any 
particular sized blocks of stone ; so if one is not 
careful one may catch one's heel in a piece of stone 
standing high above its neighbour. The bridges 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 233 

are numerous in the city, and are generally ap- 
proached by steep stone steps. They please me 
very much by their quaintness, and the Chinese 
in their large pointed crowned hats, their tails, 
and flowing robes, look most picturesque as they 
cross them. They are most varied in design, 
some being very much raised in the centre, 
others flat. In one of our walks, a few days 
ago, we saw a great many of the sights which 
came in our way, and we spent the day in the 
city and its suburbs. The first halt was made 
at a Chinese dispensary, where three or four 
native physicians give advice gratis from eight 
A.M. to two P.M. daily. A ticket is handed 
to each patient, which is given up by him on 
receiving advice. Small sums of money and 
rice are also given here, to aged and poor 
widows. Four free schools also receive pecu- 
niary assistance from this dispensary, and cofiins 
too are provided for paupers. On coming out of 
the dispensary we saw a group of men playing at 
cards in the street. The players were squatting 
on the ground with a board in front of them, and 
men interested in the game were looking on. 
The cards used by Chinese, and with which they 
play a great variety of games, are about the 
same length as European cards, but they are 
very narrow, being scarcely an inch in width. 



234 



FOUETEEX MONTHS IN CANTON. 



I have often seen groups of men playing at cards 
iu the streets, and so absorbed were thev in their 




games as to be utterly regardless of the busy 
crowds around them. We went into one of 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 235 

the opium divans which is close to the dis- 
pensary, and saw men in all stages of stupor 
from smoking the drug. It was a most re- 
volting sight, and I turned with disgust from 
the man who was supplying the opium to these 
poor creatures. Wooden couches are placed 
round the room, upon which these infatuated 
men lie and inhale the poisonous drug. Many of 
them had a most attenuated appearance. When 
once opium smoking has become a confirmed 
habit, the victim is utterly wretched if he, by any 
circumstance, should be unable to indulge in his 
opium pipe at the customary hours. When walk- 
ing along the streets the other day, we met a man 
who had evidently been deprived of his opium 
pipe beyond the usual time ; his distress was most 
evident, and as he went along towards the opium 
divan his moaning was most painful to hear. 
We walked on afterwards to see the beautiful 
French cathedral, which was begun in 1863 and 
is not yet completed. It is built of granite, and 
is a noble specimen of Perpendicular Gothic. 
One is surprised to find this fine cathedral within 
the walls of the heathen city. There are schools 
and an orphanage in connection with it. The 
present bishop has resided in Canton upwards 
of thirty years, and is much beloved by his 
co-religionists. The French cathedral, schools. 



236 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

etc., occupy the site on which the palace of the 
Viceroy Yeh formerly stood. In marked contrast 
to the cathedral was the building which we next 
visited, a whitewashed dissenting chapel with bare 
walls, most uninviting to the passers-by. It must 
be difficult for the Chinese convert, accustomed as 
he has been to a high ritual, to much decoration in 
the temple, and to the giving of his substance for 
the worship of his gods, to understand the motive 
which influences these Christians to worship Grod 
in a meagre house of prayer which costs them as 
little as possible, and is as plain as hands can 
make it. On leaving this chapel we entered the 
old city, and passed through the street called by 
Europeans the Bird-cage Walk, in which, as the 
name suggests, are several shops where birds of 
various kinds and ornamental bird-cages are 
sold. I have bought here lately some canaries, 
Java sparrows, two small birds called nuns, with 
brown bodies and black heads, two kingfishers, and 
a blue jay. These feathery creatures, excepting 
the last two, which are in cages by themselves, 
are now in my large aviary. We now entered 
a street called the Street of Four Monu- 
mental Arches, in which we saw five rather than 
four of these arches, all of them raised to the 
memory of men celebrated in their day either for 
learning, virtue, valour, filial piety, or longevity. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 237 

Monumental arches in China take the place of 
public statues in European cities, and are 
generally made of granite, but sometimes of 
red sandstone or brick. They are built in the 
form of a triple arch, having in the centre a 
large gate, and a smaller one on each side. An 
inscription is placed on a slab in the centre of 
the large arch, informing passers-by to whose 
honour the arch is erected. On a small slab, 
in a prominent position on the arch, are two 
characters which set forth that it is built by 
imperial decree. Having examined these monu- 
mental arches, which are now hemmed in at 
the sides by shops, we passed on and entered the 
Temple of the Five Genii.* These worthies 
are supposed to have entered the city of Canton 
riding on rams, and dressed in different coloured 
robes. On passing through one of the markets 
they are reported to have said, " May famine 
never visit the markets of this city," and then 
they winged their flight through the air. Five 
stones found near the spot were supposed, from 
their resemblance to the rams, to be the petrified 
remains of those animals, and eventually they 
were removed to this temple. They are arranged 
at the feet of five well-executed idols, represent- 

* Tliese genii are supposed to represent the five elements, 
viz., fire, earth, water, metal, and wood. 



238 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

ing the five genii. These idols sit in a row in a 
large shrine, and are coloured so as to resemble 
life. Votaries worship here, especially in the 
fourth month of the Chinese year, when they come 
to return thanks to these gods for restored health. 
These votaries then wear a red dress similar to a 
Chinese prisoner's dress ; round their necks are 
chains, fetters are on their ankles, and handcuffs of 
iron round their wrists. These strange observances 
are supposed to indicate humility on the part of 
the worshippers. In front of this shrine stands 
the Great Bell Tower. The Chinese and Tar- 
tars are most superstitious in regard to the bell 
which hangs in this tower, and believe that it 
has not been struck, since it was cast in 1368, with- 
out bringing disaster to the city. An epidemic 
which caused the death of a thousand children was 
attributed to this bell having been inadvertently 
struck. In 1845 the tower having fallen into 
ruin had to be rebuilt, and the workmen were 
enjoined not to let the bell be struck as they 
lowered it to the ground. -But with all their 
caution it sounded out its doleful voice, and 
the consequence of this was a great mortality 
amongst the Tartais, and also a fire in a theatre, 
by which three thousand men died. Again 
in 1865 it was struck by a falling shot Irora 
H.M.S. Encounter, and the Chinese attributed 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 239 

the subsequent capture of the city by the allies 
to this sound of ill-omen. 

In one of the courtyards of this temple I saw 
an imj)ression, on a basaltic rock partly covered 
with water,, resembling the print of a human foot, 
which is supposed by the Chinese to be the 
impression of Buddha's foot. You will be amused 
to hear that there is a small shrine here in 
honour of a monkey god. He is said to have 
been formed from a rock, and to have been 
hatched during the day by the heat of the sun, 
and during the night by the warmth of the moon. 
He became in time the king of all monkeys, and, 
learning the art of speaking, he was associated 
with man, and eventually taken into the service 
of Buddha. We went from this temple into 
the yamun in which the great Viceroy Yeh was 
captured in 1858 by British sailors. Close to 
this yamun is the Confucian Temple, approached 
by a triple gateway built of red stone. In the 
courtyard I saw an artificial pond, in the form 
of a crescent, which is spanned by a bridge of 
three arches. I learnt from Henry that water is 
always placed in the precincts of a Confucian 
temple. It denotes purity, and therefore is sup- 
posed to be an emblem of the virtue of the sage 
and of the purity of the doctrines he taught. 
In the shrine which stands at the end of the 



240 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

quadrangle an idol of Confucius lias been placed 
contrary to the express teaching of the sage, 
who was much opposed to graven images. It is 
more usual to find a red tablet only in a Confucian 
temple, with the name of Confucius recorded on 
it in letters of gold. A long cloister runs down 
the length of the quadrangle, and contains small 
shrines, in honour of the seventy-two disciples of 
Confucius who shone with pre-eminence out of the 
number of his three thousand followers. In the 
inner quadrangle of the temple a shrine is dedicated 
to the parents and grandparents of Confucius. The 
Chinese not only honour a great man himself, 
but they extend their worship to his progenitors, 
as they consider it is owing to their care and skill 
that the illustrious man is indebted for his great- 
ness. • We went into a small shrine dedicated 
to the memory of virtuous women, which is op- 
posite to the Confucian temple. Here we saw 
many wooden tablets arranged on shelves, which 
bore the names of women who had spent their lives 
in single blessedness. A granite arch is raised to 
their honour and stands in the courtyard of the 
shrine. Other tablets in this shrine record the 
names of those whose affianced husbands died 
before the marriage day had arrived, and who passed 
the rest of their lives in a state of virginity. Other 
tablets are in honour of widows who refused to 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 241 

marry a second time, or who on the death of 
their husbands committed suicide, not choosing to 
survive them. The latter form of suicide is still 
regarded as meritorious by the Chinese. 

We next visited the Mohammedan mosque 
which greatly resembles Chinese temples in its 
architecture. It was built by an Arabian in 620, 
who is said, in Chinese annals, to have been a 
younger brother of the mother of the prophet 
Mahomet. As the walls of the mosque are painted 
red, it must have been erected by the sanction of 
the Chinese emperor then reigning. It is a plain 
building, bearing above the sanctum sanctorum the 
first line of the Koran in large Arabic characters, 
"There is but one God, and Mahomet is his 
prophet." The pulpit is of wood, and a staff is 
placed near it upon which the preacher leans as 
he delivers his sermons. The emperor's tablet 
stands on an altar in the mosque, and Mo- 
hammedans* are compelled by Chinese law to 
burn incense before this tablet, and to worship it. 
The law commands that this worship to the tablet 
of the emperor shall be paid in every Buddhist, 
Tauist and Mohammedan temp)le in the country. 
I saw the minaret in the courtyard which was for- 
merly used by the muezzins, who ascended it and 

* It is computed that not less than 30,000,000 of Chiucs* 
have embraced the Mohammedan fuith. 



242 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

proclaimed from its summit the hour of prayer. 
It has now fallen into decay. The limit of our 
excursion this day was the five-storied pngoda, 
which is built on the heights above Canton. On 
our way there we turned aside into the street 
called Chi-Hong-Kai, and entered a small temple 
to see the prophetic stone which, is supposed to 
reflect, when gazed upon by those who consult it, 
what the future has in store for them. Women 
chiefly visit this temple, and all classes are to be 
seen here, many of whom consult the stone to 
know if there is any probability of their earnest 
longing to become mothers of male children being 
gratified. 

We afterwards passed the Flowery Pagoda. I 
must describe this most beautiful pagoda to you, as 
it is one I so much admire and have often seen. 
It is nine storeys in height ; it was built a.d. 505, 
and was intended as a shrine to hold some relic 
of Buddha. The original idea in building pagodas 
was to represent the many mansions into which 
the Buddhistical paradise is divided. The most 
virtuous when they die are supposed, as Buddhas, 
to inhabit the highest place for millions or 
billions of years — those who are less renowned for 
their good deeds are supposed to occupy tlie lower 
storeys. Now, however, pagodas are erected by the 
Chinese for the purpose of exerting a good geo- 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 243 

mantic influence over the country. Thus, the fields 
in the neighbourhood of a pagoda are supposed to 
produce good and abundant crops of grain ; the 
rivers which flow past it to abound with fish ; 
young men who live in its neighbourhood to be 
successful at the literary examinations ; and peace 
to prevail throughout the surrounding districts. 
We went on to the foot of a hill, getting out of 
our cliairs to walk up the long flight of steps 
leading to the temple dedicated to Koon-Yam. 
The idol of this goddess is clothed, and in 
this respect differs from most of the idols in the 
city. Her dress is handsomely embroidered. One 
curious custom is observed in this temple. 
Tradesmen, principally of the humbler kind, as 
hawkers, barbers, etc., come to it on the 26th day 
of the first month of the Chinese year, to borrow 
money from the goddess, as they consider it for- 
tunate to trade with her capital. If the monks 
of this temple advance five hundred cash to one 
of these votaries, he must deposit security for six 
hundred cash, and on the same day in the follow- 
ing year must repay the sum borrowed with a few 
cash in addition. Men beginning business after 
the new year consider that money borrowed from 
this goddess brings luck to them. We then 
walked on to the Ng-Tsang-Lau, or Pagoda of 
Five Storeys, which stands on the north wall of the 

R 2 



244 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

city. It is more properly speaking a square tower, 
and is quite different in shape to the other pagodas 
in and about the city. It is built of red sandstone 
or brick, and is a wide building, having five very 
spacious chambers. I mounted the different 
storeys, and enjoyed a fine view of the city from 
the summit. It was here from a temporary 
scaffold, which was erected on the roof of the 
tower, that the illustrious Yeh watched the 
proceedings of his army, with the rebel forces. 
During the war which took place between China 
and tlie allied armies of England and France, com- 
panies of French and English troops on taking 
Canton were quartered in this tower. We were 
obliged now to get into our chairs and hurry 
home through the city, darkness having fallen up- 
on us. You cannot picture to yourself what the 
streets are like at this hour of night. The shops 
are closed, and in some cases are barricaded by 
long beams. In the principal streets only, small 
oil lamps hang at intervals from a beam placed 
across the street ; and before the chief shops are 
large oiled paper lanterns, bearing the name of 
the hong on one side, and the name of a tutelary 
deity on the other. These lanterns are most 
picturesque, varying in size, and shape, and in the 
characters painted on them ; some are very large, 
others very small. They impart to the streets a 



FOURTEEN MONTllS IX CANTON. 245 

most oriental appearance, and it is always a source 
of interest to me to pass through them when they 
are lighted up. It is a most curious sight, when 
entering a long street, to look up it, and see the 
various coloured lanterns hanging in all directions. 

At intervals one comes upon the city watch- 
men, who group themselves round paper lanterns 
placed on tripods, with their old-fashioned large 
weapons piled near them. 

The smaller streets are left to darkness, except- 
ing where paper hinterns hang before the doors 
of shops, or still larger ones hang before private 
houses, but these are extinguished by half-past 
nine p.m. 

As we go through these silent, dimly-lighted 
deserted streets, the footsteps of our chair coolies, 
and the curious sound they make, a kind of 
humph ! humph ! humph ! (really a grunting 
noise), awake the silent echoes. A man every 
now and then passes us, or perhaps a blind 
singing girl led by an old woman who conducts 
and takes care of her. The singer is beautifully 
dressed, and her hair is bedecked with flowers. 
Her guide beats castanets to let the inmates 
of the closed houses know that she and her 
companion are at hand to be engaged if re- 
quired. Sometimes the master of a shop calls the 
girl in to sing to his apprentices, as they work 



246 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

up to a late hour, for, although the shutters 
are closed, the busy Chinese tradesmen are not 
idle. 

Our way home, this night, led us through a 
street called Ooi-Sin-Kai, the greater part of 
which is occnpied by blacksmiths. They were 
working late, and owing to the glare of their 
furnaces the whole street appeared to be in a 
blaze. I observed in passing these smithies tiiat 
instead of two smiths only working together at an 
anvil, as in England, there were three here, two 
of whom were using large hammers, and the 
third a small hammer. Sometimes blacksmiths 
work in the open air under a wide spreading 
mat umbrella as represented in the illustration 
annexed. 

The Chinese require little sleep, and can work 
late and rise early. I noticed the other day, 
during one of our early rambles in the city, that 
the pork butchers were astir before three o'clock 

A.M. 



LETTEE XXII. 

Canton, September 5th, 1877. 

My deae Mother, 

Heaking that the military examinations 
were taking place on the Eastern Parade Ground, 



248 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

we made up our rainds to go and see part of the 
proceedings. We took our boat up the river 
within sight of the large parade ground on which 
the examination was being held. When we ar- 
rived, there were many spectators gathered to- 
gether, and a large marquee had been erected 
at the end of the field for the examiners and their 
attendants. 

The whole scene reminded me of a country race 
in England. When we went on to the ground, 
it was about eleven o'clock a.m., and a pause in the 
programme was taking place to allow the officials, 
who were conducting the examination, an oppor- 
tunity of taking their luncheon. We looked round 
for a shelter from the hot sun, which was really 
scorching, and also to free ourselves from a crowd 
of Chinese who were most anxious to inspect us. 
We saw a mat shed a little ahead of us, and 
near it, the beautiful Imperial yellow grounded 
flag, with the dark blue dragon, waved in the air. 
This made it evident that some official was the 
occupant of the tent. When we were opposite 
the entrance of it, we saw a mandarin sitting 
inside, but he made no sign for us to enter the 
tent. As the desire for shelter was pressing much 
upon us, we walked in, and having overcome all 
shyness in this attempt, we proceeded to seat our- 
selves on stools which stood behind the inhospit- 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 249 

able official. The mandarin preserved his usual 
stolid expression, and took no notice of iis for some 
time. The crowd, however, began to press in 
at the door, in order to gratify their curiosity, upon 
which the mandarin made a movement with his 
hand towards his two attendants to drive the tire- 
some men and boys away. But they were deter- 
mined to stare at us, so they went round to the 
back of tlie tent and proceeded to pull off a portion 
of the dried palm-leaves of which it was made, 
and when I turned round I saw dozens of dark eyes 
peeping through the holes. A number of them 
also had climbed up a bamboo division in the tent, 
which separated the part where we were sitting 
from that iu which the mandarin's chair had been 
placed. This was too much for the imperturbable 
official. He rose without saying a word, walked 
out of the tent, and left the nest to the cuckoos 
who had taken such forcible possession of it. At 
last we heard the sounds of a trumpet, which, judg- 
ing from its grufi" sound, must have been a very 
old instrument. The man who blew it was one 
of the city guard, and was dressed in the most 
singular, and most ragged style you can imagine. 
He looked as if he had dressed himself to take 
a part in some pantomime. When this trumpet 
gave forth its uncertain muffled sound the doors 
at the back of the marquee, which had been 



250 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

closed on our arrival, were thrown open, and the 
prefect and deputy prefect advanced and took 
their places behind two tables covered with red 
cloth. These tables were placed in front of the 
marquee. The whole scene reminded me of pic- 
tures I had seen before leaving home of Chinese 
ceremonials. A numerous staff -of attendants, 
wearing a most solemn expression on their faces, 
stood behind their respective masters, and formed 
a row two deep. The crowd of spectators stood 
in two thick lines in front, leaving a long passage 
clear for the prefect and his deputy to see what 
was taking place. When these mandarins came 
in and seated themselves, we were standing very 
near them, and Henry with much parade took 
off his hat and bowed first to the official at 
the one table, and then to the second at the 
other table. They returned the salute by bowing 
in a most stately manner. The examination now 
re-commenced by men shooting arrows as they 
rode at full speed down a short course or rather 
trench made for that purpose. Three large 
white targets were placed at intervals down this 
path. 

At the sound of a gong a little pony was led 
forth, bright with high embroidered saddle, and 
trappings. 

A young man then appeared (one of the 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 251 

candidates), dressed in a long silk coat, a broad 
black sasli round his waist, and wearing liigli 
black satin boots. Two attendants sprang forward, 
hoisted him on to the high saddle, on the mean- 
looking pony's back, helping him up in a most 
undignified manner, to our eyes at least. They 
caught hold of the band of his wide sash and 
by this means settled him on the saddle. The 
stirrups were so extremely short that tlie young 
man's feet w'ere nearly even with the saddle, and 
his position on horseback looked most cramped. 
Directly he was seated, he bent forward, so low 
that his face nearly touched the pony's mane. 
He put himself into a studied attitude, his elbows 
high, a bow stretched to the full extent in his hands 
and an arrow adjusted on it (the figure of the young 
man, at this time, was that of a spread eagle), 
and then he started on his gallop, the attendants 
urging the pony forward. The young man dis- 
charged an arrow at each target as he passed, 
and a gong was sounded behind the particular 
target when an arrow pierced it. 

When the candidate had ridden to the end 
of the trench, he returned preserving the same 
cramped position, and as he came near to the 
marquee he shouted out his name. An official 
stationed at the entrance of the tent turned 
towards the two tables, and in a loud voice re- 



252 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON 

peated the name of the candidate, and j^ave the 
number of successful hits. Each of the exciminers 
then pkced the numbers against the particular 
name which was on a list before him. The candi- 
date was now helped off the pony by lu's attend- 
ants, who, taking hold of the silk sash, lifted 
him down from his most uncomfortable-looking: 
saddle. He then walked up to the official tables, 
carrying his bow and horse-whip in lu's hand, and 
stopping in front of them, bowed with bended 
knees, first to the official on the left, then to the 
one on the right. The examiners returned the 
salutation by inclining their heads sliglitly with 
majestic gravity. Some of the candidates were 
quite young men, and some middle-aged. They 
ranged from about sixteen to forty -five years of 
ago. 

If unsuccessful at the one examination, they 
can try again and again. The social rank of the 
candidates varied nmch. Military degrees are 
open to all, and when obtained they give a man 
a locus standi, in his town or village. Some 
of the candidates were most gaily arrayed in 
pale lavender, pale yellow or other coloured 
long coats, and silk leggings, in endless variety of 
colour, which generally harmonised well with the 
costume. Others were very plainly dressed and 
were evidently of inferior social position, as they 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 253 

wore tlie ordinary black shoes, and not the long 
satin boots. Each competitor has to ride over 
the course three times during the day, and so dis- 
charges nine arrows. There were hundreds and 
hundreds of candidates present, but only a limited 
number of those who have the highest number 
of marks can obtain a degree. 

Tliese examinations are held every three years. 
We afterwards went to another part of the ground 
and saw men lifting heavy weights, and turning 
heavy weapons in every direction over their heads, 
behind their backs, etc. Two examiners were 
sitting in a building close to the spot, and marking 
down failure or success. 

We did not stay long, as we felt tired, from 
the excessive heat of the day, so we returned 
home intending to revisit the parade ground at 
another stage of the military examinations. Two 
days after we carried out our intention, and were 
present when the candidates shot, on foot, at targets 
placed at a great distance. After they had dis- 
charged nine arrows, they went before the ex- 
aminers, who sat behind tables, surrounded by 
mandarins of lesser rank and an endless number 
of attendants. The candidates were then given 
strong bows, which they were required to pull 
out to the fullest extent ; and if they succeeded 
in this feat, a still stronger bow was handed to 



254 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

them upon whicli to try their strength. We 
stayed some time watching this part of the ex- 
amination, and then went on and saw those who 
had successfully passed in shooting with arrows, 
engaged in lifting massive iron javelins, turning 
them round and round their bodies. They also 
lifted immense blocks of stone. In some cases, 
very powerful men knelt on one knee and raised 
these ponderous stones first on to the one thigh, 
then on to the other, and eventually on to their 
chests. But I noticed that many failed in these 
feats of strength. 

On the way to our boat from the parade 
ground, I was much amused, as I always am, by 
watching several very young girls and boys with 
babies strapped on to their backs. When these 
young people are engaged in play, they seem 
utterly to forget their living burdens, and one 
fears for the safety of the poor little babies. At 
times, when we pass through villages, the boys 
and girls, in their fright at the sudden appearance 
of Europeans, take to their heels and scamper 
away, and then the babies on their backs appear 
to be in imminent danger. 

Another source of amusement to me, this after- 
noon, was seeing two little children in our sampan 
with small wooden buoys bound to their backs. 
This singular method is adopted by Chinese boat 





GIKL3 CARRYING CHILDREN ON TUEIR BACKS. 



256 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

women to save tlieir children from drowning, should 
they fall into the water. The family group in the 
boat was completed by a baby which was strapped 
on to its mother's back, as she sculled, and by 
a child of two years old, who was tied by a long 
piece of cord to one of the baniboo supports of 
the roof of the boat. This chikl reminded me of 
a doo: in its kennel. 



LETTER XXIir. 

Canton, August 9tli, 1877. 

My dear jMother, 

(Since I wrote my descrijitive letter about 
the military examinations, Henry and I have again 
made a very early excursion into the city, to see 
the imposing ceremony of the autumnal State 
worship paid to Confucius. We left the Chap- 
laincy at the very early and trying hour of 
2.45 A.M., and went by boat to the Ma-tau 
landing-place, and proceeded thence to the chief 
Confucian temple, where the ceremony was to be 
held. Henry had written the day before to ask 
M. Sales, the French Vice-Consul, to be so kind 
as to request the mandarin to have the great 
east gate of the city, which is near to his con- 
sulate, opened for us. We obtained the permission, 
but had no idea at the time that we were really 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 257 

askini^ a favour difficult to be grauted. We liad 
chairs in readiness for us at this gate, and arrived 
at the temple at four o'clock. The precincts of 
the temple were already crowded by Chinese 
gentlemen and their attendants, who, like our- 
selves, had come to see the State worship. A 
long time before we reached the temple we saw 
numerous lanterns arranged on tripods, and 
groups of the city guard sitting on the ground 
around them. I need not describe the arrival of 
the mandarins according to order of rank, their 
ceremonious reception of each other, the greatest 
man of all, the Viceroy, again keeping all waiting 
for him, as I have described a similar scene in 
a former letter. The large shrine, which was 
brilliantly illuminated, contained the offerings 
presented on this day to Confucius. We went 
into the shrine to see them, and a strange sight 
presented itself to our view. In front of the 
altar, behind which is the niche, holding the 
tablet bearing the name of Confucius, the whole 
carcass of an ox, from which the hair had been 
scraped, was placed in a sitting posture on a raised 
platform. It looked as though it were alive. The 
hair had been left on its long tail. A ring was 
passed through the nose of the animal to which a 
cord was attached. It was an ugly sight. Other 
offerings were also of a curious kind, especially so 



258 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the carcasses of sheep and pigs. These were not 
placed upon the side altars, until the moment 
before the arrival of the Viceroy, a precaution 
token, we considered, to prevent their being stolen. 
Very ancient musical stringed instruments were 
arranged down tlie right side of the shrine, which 
were in use in the time of Confucius. No one 
now knows how to play them, but on this par- 
ticular night, bacbelors of music, wearing long 
blue academic robes edged with black, stood 
before them, and made a pretence of bringing out 
sounds from their long unused keys. In a corner 
close by, the same farce was enacted with some 
wind instruments belonging to the same ancient 
period. Again in front of these old instruments 
ancient bells were suspended from a wooden 
platform, and were struck by some bachelors 
of music to the accompaniment of two huge 
drums on either side of the shrine. These 
players lead and regulate the religious worship. 
The Viceroy and the Tartar General were, in 
the meantime, robing, and chin-chinning each 
other. Some mandarin in authority had seen us 
pass up to the shrine, and had given orders for 
one of his official attendants to accompany us. 
This officer was most attentive to us, and gave us 
the best position possible for seeing the ceremony. 
And now the mandarins walked towards the front 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 259 

of the shrine in procession, the Viceroy and the 
Tartar General first, the others following in order, 
to the accompaniment of a band of music. Tlie 
civil mandarins arranged themselves on one side 
of the great quadrangle, the military mandarins 
on the other. As before, a master of ceremonies 
gave tlie word of command throughout the j)ro- 
ceedings. The kau-tau was first performed simul- 
taneously by all the civil and military mandarins 
present, then tlie Viceroy and the Tartar General 
left the quadrangle, and the Viceroy went up the 
steps on the left, the Tartar General up the steps 
on the right leading to the shrine. No man, save 
the Emperor, may go up the centre stairs leading 
direct to the shrine of the great Confucius. The 
two high officials moved with much deliberation 
and dignity, each taking a step at the same 
moment as the other, for fear one might be a little 
in advance of the other. Each was accompanied 
by a bachelor of arts, and by a conductor of 
ceremonies. At this moment the scene was most 
impressive. Two flambeaux placed on the tops 
of poles, wrapped in scarlet cloth, blazed high, 
and thiew a brilliant light upon the outer court 
of the shrine, in the centre of which stood about 
forty young boys dressed as bachelors of arts. 
They were thus dressed in right of being the 
sons of those who had attained that degree. In 

s 2 



260 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IX CANTOX. 

their hands they held thick plumes made of 
the very long tail feathers of the argiis pheasant. 
The Viceroy on arriving at the shrine advanced 
to the chief altar, while the Tartar General took 
his position at a side altar. The immense drums 
were beaten, instruments of various kinds, which 
were placed at the end of the shrine, sent out 
most curious and noisy sounds, and whilst this 
din of music was heard, the great men knelt and 
did the kau-tau to the directions of the master of 
ceremonies, delivered in a shrill chanting key. 
But before the Viceroy and the Tartar General 
knelt in worship, one of the bachelors of arts 
presented, amidst solemn silence, an offering to 
the tablet, which was contained in a sandal- 
wood box, and which had been carried into the 
shrine raised high above the heads of the 
bearers. This form of holding anything above 
the head denotes the greatest mark of resjiect 
to the thing thus carried. The box was then 
l^assed on to a second bachelor of arts, who placed 
it upon the altar. Then the kau-tau took place. 
The Viceroy and the Tartar General, having per- 
formed this act of worship, returned to their 
positions in* the quadrangle ; one at the head 
of the civil, the other at the head of the 
military mandarins. The forty young boys 
bearing the plumes of feathers then prostrated 



FOURTEEN MOXTHS IN CANTON. 261 

themselves. Nine times the two great men 
walked up with solemn step to the shrine, the 
Viceroy sometimes making his kau-tau and 
offerings at the chief altar, sometimes at a 
lesser altar. The last three times he made his 
offerings at tlie three small altars at the left 
of the shrine, while the Tartar General finished 
his three final acts of worship at the three small 
altars to the right of the shrine. Here I was 
standing, and I had to move on one side to 
enable him to kneel before the last altar. The 
offerings consisted of wine presented in old 
classic-shaped brass vessels, and of cakes. Tiie 
Viceroy came up the steps leading to the shrine 
alone on one occasion, and presented a folded 
letter, written on yellow paper, to Confucius. 
A mandarin, kneeling by the Viceroy's side, 
opened the letter and read it aloud, solemn 
silence being observed by the crowd. After it had 
been read, and the kau-tau performed by the Vice- 
roy, the mandarin, holding the letter, advanced 
to the chief altar, and, presenting it to Confucius, 
laid it on the altar. There it remained until the 
ceremony was over. It was then removed by the 
same mandarin, who carried it in both hands high 
above his head, and was thrown by him into the 
sacred fire in the outer quadrangle. After the 
Viceroy had completed his ninth visit to the shrine, 



262 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

he, the Tartar General, and all the mandarins left 
the quadrangle and returned to the robing rooms. 
We had been most fortunate in our position 
within the shrine. This was of course owing to 
Henry, who is well known to all the high officials, 
as he has been so constantly present at their 
grand ceremonials. Had I been placed at a 
distance, 1 should have lost a great part of the 
observances in the shrine itself; as it was, I was 
simply amongst the chief actors. This is the 
grandest ceremonial I have yet seen, and although 
it occupied a long time, it seemed too short 
for the interest that was crowded into the space 
of an hour or more whilst the State worship took 
place. 



LETTER XXIV. 

Cantox, Sei^tember 16th, 1877- 

My dear Mother, 

We were awoke most unexpectedly this 
morning at six o'clock by Chong-shing rapping at 
our bedroom door, and upon Henry inquiring the 
cause, he was told that the B.A. degree was to 
be conferred that day upon the successful candi- 
dates in the late military examination. As Chong- 
shing proceeded to inform us that the ceremony 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 263 

was to begin at seven o'clock, we Imrried up, took 
a hasty cup of tea, and were in a slipper boat en 
routeioY the Literary Chancellor's yamun at seven 
o'clock. The tide was in our favour, and in a 
short time we arrived at the landing stage near 
the south, gate of the city. A mile's walk brought 
us in sight of the yamun. Standing near it were 
many chairs ornamented with strips of needlework. 
The names of the successful candidates, to whom 
these chairs belonged, were printed on strips 
of red paper which were pasted in a conspicuous 
position on them. 

As we entered the gates of the yamun, wdiich 
were thrown open for us, a very gay scene pre- 
sented itself to our view. 

Numbers and numbers of the successful candi- 
dates were assembled there, dressed in long bright 
blue tunics, which were made in silk or cotton, 
to suit the circumstances of the wearer. The 
tunics were edged at the bottom of the skirt, the 
neck and the sleeves with a border of black. 
Brilliant Avide bands, made in a bright shade of 
red silk, were worn across the chest and back of 
the Bachelors of Arts, and hung down in long 
ends in front. These were ornamented with 
immense rosettes made in red silk. Tippets 
made in the same blue as the tunics, richly em- 
broidered and edged wdth gold, were also worn. 



264 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

All bad on long black satin boots. But their 
festive appearance culminated in their hats, 
which were made in the ordinary mandarin 
pointed shape, trimmed with fringes of red floss 
silk. The grand decoration peculiar to the day 
consisted of two long sprays of silver and gold 
leaves with little balls of red floss silk, to repre- 
sent flowers, placed between the leaves which 
were worn on the points of tlie hats. These hats 
will be worn by the graduates on all public 
occasions, on all high festivals, and on their 
marriage days. As it was evident that the 
ceremony was not likely to commence for some 
little time, we went to the same room Ave had 
occupied on one of the former occasions, and were 
invited to take seats there by some small man- 
darins. We remained here for at least an hour. 
Pun(;tuality is a virtue unknown amongst Chinese 
officials. 

All was in readiness and every one waiting, 
before the sound of a drum, and a movement 
amongst the crowd, announced the fact that the 
Literary Chancellor * was on his way to take 
his seat behind the table placed immediately in 
front of the private entrance gates of his yumun. 

* It is tlio duty of the Literary Clianoellor lo confer the B.A. 
degree on all Avbo pass the military cxauiiuutioiis as well as on 
those who pass the literary exuuiiiiatious. 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 2G5 

These gates had amused me much. They bore 
huge coloured representations of the Ki-lun, a 
fabulous quadruped. During the long delay, 
whilst we sat in the room at the side of the 
yamun, used by the aides-de-camp of the chan- 
cellor, Henry spoke to some of the mandarins, 
in the court dialect, and was pleased at being 
able to understand so much that was said. The 
officers appeared much interested in the stranger, 
asked Henry if he had taken any degree, and 
a variety of questions. Amongst others, one of 
the mandarins said, so Henry translated to me, 
" Is it true that your Sovereign is a woman? how 
can you let a woman govern you ? " Henry im- 
mediately turned the tables upon the mandarin by 
saying, " You have not only one woman, but two 
to govern you." The)& all burst out laughing, and 
much enjoyed the joke, as, of course, the Empress 
mother and the Dowager Empress rule China in 
the name of the little boy emperor, who is only 
five years of age. The empresses sit behind a 
curtain when the cabinet councils are held, and 
their opinions decide all questions. As the move- 
ment amongst the crowd became more evident, 
we rose and went into the quadrangle. The 
bachelors of arts placed themselves in the centre 
of the quadrangle opposite the inner gates of 
the yamun, which were now thrown open, and 



266 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the chancellor appeared. He was helped up and 
down the steps leading to the place where the 
table stood, by an attendant on each side of hiro, 
not on account of his age, as he is only forty- 
seven, but to give diguity to his appearance. 
At this moment some men carried a large box 
to the table, and, amidst the shouts of all as- 
sembled, scrolls bearing the names of the suc- 
cessful candidates were placed in it. The box 
was then carried off to the temple of Confucius. 
To oar astonishment and disappointment, the 
chancellor now rose, and retired into his yamuu, 
and the doors were closed behind him. We 
became so much crowded by the bachelors of 
arts, who wished to take as near a look as 
possible of us, and whose curiosity caused the 
atmospliere around us to become intolerably op- 
pressive, that we again retired to our room for 
shelter. We waited some little time here. Until 
the beating of drums announced that the chan- 
cellor was again on his way, and he soon appeared 
at the inner gates. This time he was dressed 
in full court costume, wearing a beautifully 
embroidered robe and full-dress hat. The robe 
was made of silk, the foundation colour of which 
was a deep claret, and rich embroidery was 
worked on it in gold thread and coloured silks. 
A small altar with an embroidered coverinsr 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 267 

lianging down in front was now brought near to 
the chancellor's table, and on it were placed the 
Emperor's tablet, and lighted joss-sticks. The 
chancellor advanced, knelt before the altar, and 
did the kau-tau thrice before the tablet. A 
master of ceremonies, as usual, directed the kneel- 
ing, kau-tau, etc. All the bachelors of arts, now 
arranged themselves in a half-circle near the altar, 
and, where it was possible, they did the kau-tau, 
but many of them were too pressed for room to 
knee], and they only raised their hands in sign of 
worship when the kau-tau was performed by the 
others. The chancellor now disappeared once 
more behind the great doors, and remained 
invisible for another half hour or so. We went 
back to our shelter, and the open doorway was 
soon filled with a curious crowd bent upon 
staring at us. 

You will agree with me that Chinese officials 
do not hurry over their work. When we heard 
the drums, we again went out conducted by our 
kind friendly mandarin, who took us each time 
to a first-rate position, quite close to the chan- 
cellor's table. When the chancellor appeared 
for a third time, we saw that he had taken off 
his grand court dress and hat, and was dressed 
in his usual plainer costume, which is a dark silk 
coat with a square of gold embroidery on tlie 



268. FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

shoulder and one on the chest. The latter is 
divided in half to allow of the coat being buttoned 
up in front. He had not, however, taken off his 
handsome chain of coral beads and jadestone. 
When he seated himself at the table, one of the 
attendants placed before him a large paper book, 
in which were recorded the names of the success- 
ful candidates according to the various divisions of 
the prefecture from which they had come. A man 
standing on a raised platform read aloud the names 
in succession. The candidates, who were grouped in 
front of the chancellor's table and down the centre 
of the quadrangle, called out " yau " (yes), in 
answer to their names. The chancellor is evidently 
an irritable man, for every now and then, with a 
scowl on his face, he interruj)ted the official who 
was calling out the names, and complained in a 
querulous voice that he could not hear him. Ho 
was waited upon in a most assiduous manner 
by an attendant, who turned over the pages 
of the book for him and showed him the place 
where the particular name called out was written 
down. 

He sipped his tea and took snuff as he followed 
the names in the book. When the calling out of 
the names was over, small cups of wine were 
carried into the quadrangle on trays, and the 
chancellor and the candidates drank wine together. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 269 

After this tlie whole of tlie baclielors of arts joros- 
trated themselves and did the kau-tau to the 
chancellor. Such a bright mass of colour they 
looked as they all knelt together. 

The chancellor stood up as this was going on, 
and on its conclusion, he left and re-entered his 
yamun. The newly created bachelors of arts 
now distributed themselves about the quadrangle, 
looking most proud of tliemselves, and their 
relatives clustered round them in admiration. 
JMany of them sat down at small tables on 
which were refreshments of a light kind, and they 
chattered together with beaming countenances. 
All eventually got into their gaily-decorated 
chairs and were carried through certain streets 
in procession ; through the great south gate 
(or imperial gate) and then on through the 
street called Ohong-ueu-fong, or street of literary 
honours, although many of them had to retrace 
their steps to go to their homes. As you see, 
from the long description I have given you, the 
Chinese pay the greatest honour to those who 
obtain degrees, whether the candidates be from 
the higher or lower grades of society. 



270 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



LETTEE XXV. 

Canton, September 27th, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

We were invited last Wednesday to a 
dinner given by Mr. Howqua in honour of his 
second marriage, which had taken place three 
days before. We were requested to take some 
friends with us, and we therefore asked an 
American lady and her daughter, and two 
other friends who had accompanied us on a 
previous occasion, to join our party. When 
we arrived at our friend's house, we ladies 
were at once conducted to the new suite of 
rooms which had been prepared for the bride, 
and were received by her. She is a pretty 
girl, sixteen years of age, with small regular 
features. She was dressed in a beautifully * 
embroidered silk costume, and carried in her 
hand a deep yellow silk handkerchief, which 
she told us she had embroidered herself. The 
pattern of flowers and butterflies on it was most 
charmingly shaded, in fact shaded as only these 
Easterns know how to shade colours. We were 
asked to seat ourselves ; then the bride brought 
round wine to us, she holding the glasses, when 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 271 

presenting tliem to lis, in both hands. We asked 
Minnie to beg her to be seated, but we could 
not prevail upon her to take a chair, and we 
learnt that the reason was that the fifth 
wife of tlie late Howqua was in the room, and 
a younger wife cannot seat herself in the 
presence of one who is older, unless specially 
invited by her to do so. It is also the custom 
for a bride to stand in the presence of the bride- 
groom, unless he ask her to take a seat. This 
little bride has such a bright expression, I am 
tempted to say quite an European expression, 
and seemed so pleased with our admiration. She 
did not belong to the same rank of society as 
her husband. In fact she has been a slave, and 
was redeemed by her husband for the sum of 
three hundred dollars. As this is the case, and 
as she is not a small-footed woman, she cannot 
take the position of first wife, although she is 
really the only wife Mr. Howqua has at present. 
She had never seen an European before, but 
although she evidently felt shy in her new 
position, she behaved charmingly, with all the 
native grace of a Chinese lady. She and the 
young American lady, who were of the same age, 
became very friendly, and laughed and chatted 
together. We were now told that dinner was 
ready, and were taken into the dining hall. 



272 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

We did not see the bride again until we 
returned to her room after dinner. Had slie 
been a first wife she would have handed rice 
round to the guests at the close of the repast. 
Before we left her to go into the dining hall, 
she had taken off her beautifully embroidered 
dress and appeared in a plain dark one. The 
Chinese are pre-eminently an economical people. 
When we spoke of the beauty of the dress, it 
was brought in for us to see ; it was folded up 
and had evidently been put away carefully. The 
dinner was essentially Chinese in all respects, 
with as many courses as on former occasions. 
The only thing worthy of note was, that a 
blind singing woman sang all dinner time to 
the accompaniment of two stringed instruments. 
I cannot get accustomed to Chinese vocal music, 
it must require a long education on the part of 
an European before he can appreciate it. But 
may not this be also the case with our music 
to a Chinese ear ? Probably they can distinguish 
no melody in it. This blind songstress sang on and 
on, not pausing more than two or three times 
during the time we were at dinner, I certainly 
could not distinguish that she varied the note more 
than to three or four different keys, and the whole 
singing was in a high falsetto. It was, as usual, 
a history of some celebrated hero or heroine of 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 273 

bygone ages wliieli formed the subject of her 
song. When dinner was over, we all, Henry and 
the bridegroom included, went to the bride's 
apartments. They consist of two rooms, a sitting- 
room with some pretty cabinets in it, some Euro- 
pean chairs, carpet, looking-glass, ornaments, and 
curtains of chintz and muslin which a friend of 
ours chose for Mr. Howqua at Hong Kong. I was 
amused at seeing several English crotchet chair- 
backs placed on the chairs. The room remains, 
nevertheless, essentially Chinese in its appear- 
ance, with its curious pieces of wood carving on 
the partition between the two rooms, and pic- 
tures of coloured glass let in as transparencies. 
European curtains took the place of a door be- 
tween the two rooms. You go from the sitting- 
room into the bedroom. Here the European 
style does not prevail. The blind female singer 
now came into the bride's sitting-room with her 
guitar, and a blind man accompanied her, holding 
a stringed instrument. 

With all their formalities, deference to rank, 
etc., the Chinese are a most republican people, as 
was illustrated by the blind man asking for a 
match, lighting his pipe, and indulging in a 
smoke before the performance began. We ladies 
retired into the inner room and had a chat 
with the bride by the aid of our two young 

T 



274 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

friends. One of our party had consented to 
be rouged by a Chinese lady, and I was 
most amused at watching the process, and 
seeing the amount of rouge she put on. The 
admiration was universal when our friend was 
released from the hands of her decorator, and 
each lady asked us if we did not think her 
beautiful, much more beautiful thaa before 
she was rouged. They wanted to use the 
same art on all our faces, but we politely 
declined, much to the regret of our hostesses. 
The bride, who was now again dressed in 
her beautiful costume, handed tea to us all, 
Henry included. After we had spent some 
time in these rooms, fruit being offered to us 
at intervals, we took leave of our kind friends. 
We were charmed with the gentle girlish bride, 
and she seemed to be equally attracted by her 
strange visitors. Before we left she promised to 
come at some future time and take an English 
dinner with us. 

Our particular friend amongst the Mistresses 
Howqua (I find it difficult to represent her in her 
true title, as we have no equivalent in England to 
wives No. two, three, and four) took me by the hand, 
one of the elder ladies conducting our friends. 
We walked through the several rooms, halls, and 
quadrangles, which led from the sanctum sane- 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 275 

torum, where we bad l>eeu entertained, to the 
outer reception hall, where our chairs were in 
readiness for us. It is difficult to convey to you 
the size of these family residences : it took us at 
least five minutes to pass from the bride's apart- 
ments to the entrance-hall. These houses must, 
with their gardens, occupy many acres of ground, 
and it strikes one at first as so strange to pass 
into them from the narrow crowded streets. The 
large halls of the houses are most charming for 
summer, as they are very cool, the sun's rays not 
being able to penetrate into them, but the want 
of ventilation in the smaller rooms makes them 
oppressive. 



LETTER XXVI. 

Canton, October 2nd, 1877. 

My deak Mother, 

On Friday last, a friend very kindly in- 
vited us to make a long excursion up the country 
with him in a steam-launch, and we most gladly 
accepted his offer. The day was beautiful, but 
very hot, and we suffered a good deal from tlie 
sun. We started at seven a.m., and steamed 
at full speed during the twelve hours we were 
out, from seven a.m. to seven p.m., making a 

T 2 



276 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

distance of 120 miles. The steam-launch we 
were in belongs to the Chinese government, and 
is manned by Chinese sailors, who look well in 
their naval uniform. They wear jackets and 
^^^de trousers made in blue cotton, a wide crim- 
son sash round their waists, and broad-brimmed 
straw hats at the back of their heads. The 
Chinese make very good sailors when commanded 
by Europeans. We passed Tchun-Tchun, cele- 
brated for its salt fish, which is eaten in large 
quantities with rice by tlie Chinese. There are 
also vast rice stores here. We then steamed past 
Poon-Poo, a paper-making district. Some parts 
of the river are exceedingly pretty, and as this 
branch of it makes constant abrupt, turns, you 
seem to be land-locked at times, and so have 
the beautiful effects of lake scenery. We were in 
sight of a fine range of hills all day. We passed 
close to extensive paddy fields, which looked fresh 
and brilliantly green, more so than our brightest 
meadows at home ; then we went by large mul- 
berry plantations which stretched to the banks of 
the river. In some of them, men and women were 
stripping the leaves off the trees. These country- 
men looked i^icturesque with their naked brown 
legs and their immense straw hats, which cul- 
minate in a peak in the centre. We passed by 
Taai-Laong, tlie capital of the county Shun-Tuk, 



FOUETEEN MONTPIS IN CANTON. 277 

and then reached Kum-Chuk, where are some 
rapids which we had to shoot. Two children who 
were with us were dreadfully alarmed, and the 
youngest said to his mother, our hostess, " Will 
the steamer be drowned?" He was constantly 
inquiring afterwards if we should come to any 
more rocks. We were now in the very heart of 
the silk district. We then went by Luk-Lau, 
and within a mile of the large town of Kow- 
Kong. The distance we had to travel in the day 
prevented us from landing at any point of interest, 
which was a great disappointment to me, as I 
much wished to go over some of the large nurseries 
for silk-worms. The people were very anxious for 
rain in this neighbourhood, as it was much needed 
for the mulberry plantations. Our circuitous route 
brought us back into that branch of the Pearl River 
whicli flows by Shameen by a different channel to 
the one we had taken in starting for our trip. We 
saw during the day very many picturesque-looking 
country boats of various kinds, but I admired none 
so much as those with sails shaped like butterfly 
wings. We had had a beautiful excursion, and seen 
a large tract of country ; the sun's heat had been the 
single drawback. The awning, though double, did 
not shelter us as much as it would have done had 
we not made so many sharp turns. The sun was 
always pouring his ardent oblique rays upon us at 



2/8 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

imexpeeted moments, and the heat quite upset me 
and made me unable to ap}>reciate the scenery for 
some miles. I could not do more than take a look 
at some parts of the country through partially 
closed eyes, and I felt so ill that I longed to lie 
down. Canton looked very pretty as we came in 
sight of it. It was lighted up with thousands of 
lanterns, in honour of the goddess of the moon. 
We took a hasty dinner on our arrival at home, 
and then walked into one of the suburbs of 
the city, where we ascended a pawn-tower to 
enable us to have a good view of tlie illumination. 
But first I must give you a description of these 
towers, the names of wliich sound so curious to our 
ears. The one we visited is in the street called 
Shap-Ts'at-Poo, and its name is Uen-Chiug. It is 
a very large building, consisting of a very high 
bri< k tower, made fire-proof. These pawn-shops 
are divided into three classes, and are kept by 
imperial sanction. 

A licence is issued to those seekin2:to commence 
business as pawnbrokers for the term of sixty 
years ; at the end of that period it must be renewed, 
but by another person, not the one who originally 
took out the licence. A certain tax is paid by the 
men first commencing the business, and also by 
those w'ho wish to continue it after the term of 
sixty years has expired. The pawnbrokers are 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 279 

obliged to accept a loan from the provincial 
treasurer, for which they have to pay at tlie rate 
of twelve per cent, per annum. Should a firm of 
pawnbrokers fail, the other establishments of the 
same nature must refund to the government the 
loss it has sustained by the failure. There are one 
hundred first-class })awn-shops in Canton. People 
who deposit goods at these pawn-towers, must pay 
at the rate of thirty-six per cent, per annum ; but 
this percentage can be lowered at the will of the 
pawnbroker on a large transaction. The govern- 
ment requires that they should lower their rate of 
percentage to all those who redeem their goods 
in the tenth month of the year, as by this means 
those who have pawned their winter's clothing, 
blankets, etc., can more easily redeem them when 
they are most needed. 

It was most polite of the owners of the pawn- 
tower to allow us to enter it at nine o'clock 
at night, as they are most particular whom 
they admit, and naturally would fear any light 
being carried about the various storeys of which 
it consists. These towers are most strongly 
built, and strictly guarded. As we mounted the 
different stages, I saw shelves upon shelves 
divided into pigeon-holes, and each full of pa^vned 
articles, some of which were of a most costly 
nature. They are very different to our pawn- 



280 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

shops, and Chinese gentlemen often deposit their 
furs and valuables to be taken care of in these 
towers. Do not be shocked when I tell you that my 
furs are at the present moment in this very pawn- 
tower. When at last we arrived on the flat roof, 
I saw large stones placed there, to throw on the 
heads of assailants, for sometimes these towers 
are attacked by bands of robbers. There were 
also earthenware vessels on the roof containing 
water to be used in case of incipient fire. The 
illumination of the city looked pretty from this 
elevated position, but you can imagine that it 
requires many thousands of lanterns to make any 
grand display of light in such an immense city as 
Canton. In some cases high poles were erected, 
on the tops of which were placed clusters of 
lanterns. On each of these lanterns was inscribed, 
"King-po-chung-tsui," which means "Joyfully 
congratulate the mid autumn." In other cases 
lanterns suspended from the tops of poles illu- 
minated the roofs of the houses. This feast is held 
on the 15th day of the 8th moon of the Chinese 
year, and is called Chung-tsui. We had intended, 
when we started from home, to return by the 
steamboat wharves on the banks of the river; 
but as this route was longer, and as we were 
extremely tired, we gave up our plan and went 
home by the way we had taken in going to the 



rOUKTEEN MONTHS IX CANTON. 281 

pawu-tower. And fortunate it was we did so, as 
at that very time a large body of Cliinese attacked 
one of the river steamers wliicli was lying along- 
side the wharf, probably thinking that she had 
treasure on board. The captain had to send for 
aid from a gun-boat before the mob could be 
driven back and dispersed. Had we returned 
home by the river, we should have been in the 
midst of the tumult, and probably should have 
been attacked and injured by the excited mob. 
There are many strangers in the city who have 
come from Hong Kong and other places to 
see the illuminations, and they are a lawless, 
.riotous set of men. We heard, on our return 
home, that, in a quarrel on board one of 
the flower boats that evening, a man had been 
killed. 

A curious festival has also been held this week 
in honour of the Seven Sisters (goddesses), who 
are supposed by the Chinese to occupy a group of 
seven stars. It is said that one of these sisters 
made a clandestine marriage with a cow-herd oc- 
cupying a planet on the other side of the Milky 
Way; and once a year the wife is permitted 
by her sisters, who were greatly incensed at her 
marriage, to cross the Milky Way to meet her 
husband. Women especially worsliip these seven 
sisters, and all influential families, who are not in 



282 FOUETEEX IMOXTHS IN CANTON. 

mourning (at the time of mourning it is strictly 
forbidden for a family to take part in tliis or any 
other festival), make grand preparations for the 
observance of this ceremony. We were fortunately 
invited by a Chinese gentleman named Wong, 
one of the Shun-Kum, or leading gentry of 
the city, to inspect the offerings presented to 
these goddesses at his residence. We were carried 
in our chairs into the reception-hall of Mr. Wong's 
house at seven p.m., on Monday night, and, when 
the inner doors were opened, a blaze of light 
burst upon our view. In the centre of the large 
inner hall a very long wide table stood, which 
was covered with offerings of various kinds. 
Fruits in great variety were arranged on in- 
numerable small plates, which were placed at 
intervals down the centre and sides of the table. 
Between them we saw a large display of em- 
broidered clothes for the goddesses, all made in 
miniature. These had been worked by the ladies 
of the family for the occasion. I was much 
amused as I walked up and down the sides of the 
table, and inspected the work. It consisted of 
beautifully embroidered shoes, very tiny, evidently 
implying that the goddesses have compressed 
feet ; numbers of very small embroidered bags to 
hold scent ; embroidered head-dresses beautifully 
worked, tiny silk umbrellas, silk tunics and trousers 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 283 

fully embroidered, standards, insignia of rank, 
etc., etc., all in miniature. In the centre of the 
table stood models of Chinese houses, European 
houses containing minute inhabitants, a model 
of a ship, a model of the bridge over which the 
married goddess is supposed to cross the Milky 
Way on this night of the festival, baskets of 
artificial flowers made of the thinnest paper of 
various colours, or of grains of unboiled rice and 
seeds. Arrangements of real flowers were also 
on the table; these, as is always the case with 
flowers put together by the Chinese, were 
picked off close to the stalks, and pressed to- 
gether in plates, no green leaves being mixed with 
them. Overhead hung many chandeliers festooned 
with real or artificial flowers. At this festival, poor 
as well as ricli friends of the family are allowed 
to come in and gaze upon the grand sight, and 
a crowd of people was moving round the heavily 
laden table when we entered, but at our host's 
request they immediately made way for us to 
pass. After we had made our tour of inspection, 
Minnie and I were conducted by Mr. Wong to 
the ladies' apartments, to be introduced to his 
mother, a lady eighty-six years of age. She 
was most gracious, and asked me many questions. 
Before taking leave of her, she requested me to 
be her god-child. As I had previously learned 



284 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

that nothing more was meant by this proposal 
than a kind of kinship, I expressed my readiness, 
through Minnie, to accept the honour, and then the 
okl lady and I bowed and chin-chinned each other. 

Some week^ ago, when I was on a visit to 
another Chinese family, I was startled by one 
of the young ladies asking me to be her god- 
mother, and not understanding then what was 
meant by the term, I said that could not be 
unless she became a Christian. " Yes, I will 
become a Christian," was the ready answer, the 
young lady not knowing in the least what was 
meant by the term Christian. 

After visiting the old lady, I went into an- 
other of the suites of rooms, and was introduced 
to my host's wife and some other ladies. The 
small-footed wife was eating her dinner when 
I entered the room, and she did not allow my 
visit to interfere with her occupation, for as she 
talked to me she helped hei-self to the contents 
of the various little basins in the centre of the 
table. Fruit was handed to me by the slaves 
belonging to the lady. On leaving this fine 
Chinese residence, we went into a neighbouring 
house, and here we saw similar arrangements of 
offerings placed upon a long table in the prin- 
cipal hall, but it was all on a smaller scale. Had 
I not been too tired to wait until midnight, 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 285 

I should have been able to see the single ladies 
of this family draw water from a well, whicli 
they do yearly, on this the seventh night of the 
eighth month of the Chinese year. This custom 
is observed in all Chinese families. The water 
when drawn is placed in earthenware vessels, and 
hermetically sealed. In case of fever attacking 
the family, this water, which is looked upon as a 
febrifuge, is given to the invalid, and is supposed 
to be able to work his cure. The observance of 
this festival includes burning paper offerings of 
various kinds, amongst them a paper representa- 
tion of the canopy of heaven. These seven sisters, 
in whose honour the festival is held, are supposed 
to grant skill in needlework, and to shield their wor- 
shippers from diseases. We were invited to return 
to Mr. Wong's house the following day, to take 
luncheon with him and to go over his large house 
and numerous gardens. When we arrived and 
entered the inner hall, we again saw the long table 
with its display of fruits, embroidery, etc., and a 
crowd of visitors was engaged in inspecting the 
treasures. Walking up this long hall, we chin- 
chinned a group of ladies belonging to the family, 
who were standing at the door of one of the apart- 
ments. We were conducted to the atrium, which is 
fitted up in the invariable style of Chinese sitting- 
rooms. A row of black wood chairs with marble 



286 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

seats and backs was placed down each side of it, 
and between the chairs teapoys (small tables) were 
arranged. We found a j^arty of fifteen Chinese 
gentlemen assembled in this room, many of whom 
had previously called upon us. They all chin- 
chinned us. This silent salutation is performed, 
as I daresay you know, by bending the body 
forward, placing the clenched fists together, and 
raising them up and down two or three times. 
A child, in chin-chinning his parents or aged 
persons, bends nearly and sometimes quite to the 
ground. Tea was now brought in, and the waiting- 
boys placed cups of it for us on the little tables 
which stood between our chairs. The host then 
said, " Yam-Cha " (" Drink tea "), and a general 
bowing to each other and raising of tea cups took 
place. 

Scarcely, however, had we time to sip our tea 
before the gentlemen rose and asked us to go into 
the garden. A want of rest is a peculiarly marked 
feature in the Chinese character, especially so 
amongst men. Mr. Wong and his friends did not 
sit still for more than five minutes on the same 
chairs during our visit. They constantly changed 
their positions. Mr. Wong walked in and out of the 
room, took a whiff of a pipe in an anteroom, sat 
down for a minute or two, then rose and walked 
to the other end of the atrium. The move- 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 287 

raents of these gentlemen reminded me of bees 
going in and out of their hives, only in the case 
of the former, no particular object was gained 
by the constant buzzing about. Do you realise 
from what I have said that there are no doors 
to open and shut on entering or leaving Chinese 
rooms ? You walk into them through open carved 
entrances from square gardens or impluviums, which 
divide one large reception-room from another. 
The arrangements of the rooms remind one of 
those of a Pompeian house. Indeed a very good 
idea of the interior of a Chinese gentleman's 
residence may be obtained from the Pompeian 
Court in the Crystal Palace. We found the 
gardens well worth seeing. A very large piece 
of ornamental water stands in the centre of the 
largest garden, with a stone bridge crossing it. 
A handsome carved stone palisade surrounds it, 
upon which innumerable green glazed pots, con- 
taining chrysanthema, were placed. They are 
now only in an early stage of growth, but in two 
months' time they will be in full flower, and pre- 
sent a grand show. Mr. Wong has kindly asked 
us to go and see them when in bloom. One of the 
four garden houses is built on a high artificial 
mound and the path leading to it is paved with 
pebbles arranged in various devices. The small 
gairdens pleased me much : you come upon them 



288 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

UDexpectedly between the suites of rooms. These 
gardens were full of flower-pots containing the 
beautiful lotus, cockscombs in the most brilliant 
shades of red, and ferns in endless variety. The 
same feature I noticed in these gardens as in others 
I have visited. If a piece of ornamental wood or 
stone- work had been injured or broken down, it 
liad not been repaired ; there was the gap, giving 
a dilapidated look to the whole. Eubbish too, 
broken crockery and other untidinesses, I saw 
put away in corners. 

The Cliinese do not understand the art of 
keeping their houses or gardens neat, and the 
first exclamation they make on going over the 
Chaplaincy is, that it is so clean and neat in every 
corner. We returned to the atrium through a 
long covered way made of stone, and were asked 
to seat ourselves. Immediately upon our doing so, 
tea was brought to us. Luncheon was then placed 
on a small round table standing in the centre 
of the room ; and numerous small basins were 
arranged in a cluster in the middle of it. As 
usual, no tablecloth was used. When we were 
seated round the table, we were invited to 
help ourselves to the tiny pork puddings, little 
flat dumplings containing minced meat, dough 
dumplings stained red, sweet cakes, pine-apple 
preserve, and other fruits v/hich graced the table. 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 289 

The gentlemen constantly placed various kinds of 
food on my tiny plate, and I was obliged to do my 
best with chopsticks, being without fork or spoon. 
The luncheon was eaten most rapidly, and this is 
the case with all Chinese meals. Before it was over, 
two blind singing women, beautifully dressed in 
blue embroidered silk tunics edged with black, 
were led in by their amahs, or more properly 
speaking their foster-mothers. They seated them- 
selves at a distant corner of the room, and were 
given refreshments. When they were ready to 
begin their performance, I left the luncheon-table, 
and took a seat immediately opposite them. 
Young women desirous to become singers often 
deprive themselves of sight, or, as our compradore 
said in speaking of them, " He makee he own eye 
blin," in order to be eligible for the vocation. One 
method of taking away the sight, to which they 
or their parents resort, is to put vaccine matter 
into the eyes. The two singers first took long 
pointed shields, made of quills, out of the pockets 
of their tunics, and drew them on over the long 
nails of the thumbs and forefingers of their left 
hands, so as to enable them to produce a sharp 
twanging sound from their instruments. They 
tiien tuned their guitars, which were singular and 
antiquated-looking instruments differing in shape, 
but both covered by snakes' skins. They now began 

u 



290 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

to play a most curious accompaniraent, and one of 
them broke out into a high falsetto. After a time, 
a long interlude Avas played by both guitars, the 
amahs or foster-mothers fanning the performers 
the whole time, and keeping up a conversation with 
them between the songs. When the first singer 
had sung in a shrill falsetto for an hour, with 
scarcely any change of note perceptible to my 
uninitiated ear, the two young women exchanged 
instruments, and the second singer began her 
high-pitched song, and continued it until we rose 
to take our leave. 



LETTER XXYII. 

Canton, October IGtb, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

Two or three nights after we had taken 
the excursion up the river, about which I wrote 
to you on the 2nd inst., we went into the western 
suburb of the city, and passed through the street 
called Shap-Ts'at-Poo to see some wonderful 
illuminations given in honour of Wa-Kwong, the 
srod of fire. It is most difficult for me to de- 
scribe these illuminations to any one who has 
seen nothing of the kind, but I will endeavour 
to give you some idea of them. Various streets 
are illuminated the same night, the shop-keepers 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 291 

wlio live in them agreeing to hire all the chan- 
deliers, hangings, etc., for that purpose. On each 
of the nights of the month's festival some part 
of the city is decorated and illuminated. As I 
have already mentioned, the streets are narrow, 
and the houses seem nearly to touch one another 
at the top. On the nights of this festival heavy 
chandeliers hang down from the centre of beams 
placed across the streets; they contain many 
lights, and are placed at frequent intervals. 
These chandeliers struck me much at first, as 
they are so European in appearance, much 
like our old-fashioned heavy-cut drawing-room 
chandeliers to hold candles. They are made 
in all sizes and patterns, and some of tliem are 
most pretentious in appearance. Between these 
chandeliers, bright frames containing innumer- 
able figures, dressed like life, representing scenes 
in past Chinese history, are suspended from 
beams across the streets just above one's head. 
The puppets are beautifully dressed in silk-em- 
broidered robes, and no pains are spared on them 
or on any of the decorations. Some of the little 
figures in the frames move their heads, hands, 
arms, or legs. These frames are very often 
double, and so are filled with little puppets at 
the front and back. They are endless in num- 
ber and are placed at lengths, perhaps two or 

u 2 



292 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

three yards, from each other. Deep silk fringe, 
made in bright variegated colours, hangs round 
these picture frames, and above them and at the 
side of them are long silken ornaments like 
tassels. I think we must have seen more than two 
hundred of these large frames slung across the 
long street we walked down. Some of the people 
in the mob were very rough, more so than I had 
previously experienced, and we heard that a great 
number of pickpockets were about us. They tried 
to molest us; and I became very anxious to leave 
the crowd and go down a quiet side street, but 
Henry said we must show no fear, and so we went 
on some way farther. A villainous-looking man 
constantly came near me, his unshaven head and 
general appearance showing that he had recently 
come out of prison. He walked close to me on my 
left side, with his arms interlaced, and his hand 
ready to grasp at my earrings. I called to Henry 
who was in front to look after this man, and he 
turned round and faced him. He saw at once 
that he was a dangerous character. The mob 
continued to press very closely upon us, and 
it struck me that some of tliem tried to trip 
me up, and I can assure you that it was not a 
pleasant experience. We turned now, fearing 
to go on any farther as there was great danger of a 
rush and a fray, but we found it difficult to make 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 293 

our way in this lawless crowd. My evil-looking 
compauion turned with us and kept close to my 
elbow, and even Henry now began to think there 
was cause for aiarm. I wore a wide piece of 
black lace on luy shoulders, and Henry considered 
the thief supposed that I had some jewellery 
under it; but most fortunately I had left all my 
personal ornaments, excepting my earrings, at 
home. Henry continued to turn round and face 
my tormentor and one or two bad-looking fellows 
who were with him, until we came to a cross 
street. Here some of tlie city guard were stand- 
ing, and Henry went up to one of them, and 
said in a loud voice, " You see, that bad man is 
following and annoying us." This had the desired 
effect — our villainous friend and his associates 
immediately turned upon their heels and ran off. 
I was most thankful when we were once more in a 
quiet street. I had been so nervous about our little 
friend Minnie who was with us, as I was afraid she 
might be hurt in the fearful pressure of the crowd. 
We now walked home without further adventure. 
Hearing a day or two after this that the illu- 
mination was to be held on a still grander scale 
in the street called Shwaug-Mun-Li, we resolved 
to go and see it, notwithstanding the diflSculties we 
had met with the other night. But this time we 
agreed not to take Minnie with us, as she attracted 



291 rOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

SO much attention. The streets by which we ap- 
proached that portion of the city especially illu- 
minated were very bright and pretty ; strips of gay 
coloured stuifs, festooned and gathered into the 
centre by a rosette, hung at intervals between the 
shops. These stuffs were of the j'rettiest shades 
possible, in yellow, pale blue, and red. A few 
chandeliers hung here at long intervals. But 
when we reached the fully-illuminated street, 
a very gay scene presented itself to our view. 
It was most profusely decorated with the framed 
efSgies, bright tassels, and other silken orna- 
ments. The chandeliers were innumerable, most 
various in shape and size, some containing as 
many as eighteen large glass globes. In the 
widest part of the street, a bamboo-house had 
been erected ; it was very high, and the inside of 
the roof was ornamented with brightly-painted 
boards. On a stage built at some little height 
from the ground, large incense burners and high 
candlesticks were arranged, also plants and shrubs 
trained into shapes of animals, boats, and fans. 
Some framed pictures also hung here, worked in 
kingfisher's feathers. Musicians sat on this stage. 
The crowd was very great, but it was composed 
of a much better class than on the previous 
occasion, and there were many mandarins present. 
Yesterday we again went into the city, as we 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 295 

heard that the fine street in which the bankers 
live (called by foreigners', in consequence, Lom- 
bard street), named Ta-T'uuiig-Kai, was to be 
grandly illuminated in Wa-Kwong's honour. No 
expense had been spared, and the whole effect 
of this illumination was finer than either of those 
we had seen before. Rafters had been placed 
over the street, and white drill was stretched upon 
them so as to afford a protection in case of rain. 
From these rafters very large chandeliers were 
hung in the centre of the street. Many of 
them were very handsome, and some were highly 
decorated with silk ornaments and long tassels. 
Along each side of the street hung oil lamps 
made of a single globe only. These chandeliers 
and glass globes were within a few feet of each 
other ; and in one part of the very long street 
they, and bright parti-coloured stuff hangings, 
formed the only decorations. The effect of the 
gay, wide hangings as they were carried across the 
street, looped high in the centre with thick-clus- 
tered rosettes, and hanging down on each side, was 
very charming. The colours were so beautifully 
blended together and formed pretty contrasts. 
A delicate grey mixed with a pale pink, a deep 
yellow with blue, a very dark red with a pale 
pink, and so on in endless variety. At an- 
other part of the street there were some curious 



296 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

representations which were made in paper or 
silk ; some imitated a couple of citrons in two 
colours, others storks, others were floral decora- 
tions. There were also many ornaments made 
in real flowers, which were pressed as close to- 
gether as possible, and formed a mass of colour. 
Some of the latter ornamented the ends of the 
chandeliers. Other lamps bore figures decorated 
with kingfisher's feathers. Then, as we walked 
on, we came to a great number of the framed 
pictures, with the curious effigies in them — each 
representing some scene. In one there was a boat 
which rocked up and down, some figures were 
sitting in it, and others were standing in various 
attitudes. Some of these frames contajned about 
fifty of these figures, which were at least twelve 
inches high. I was amused at a scene represented 
very well in one of them. A princess was consult- 
ing a fortune-teller ; she was sitting surrounded 
by her attendants, and the group altogether 
was well arranged. Many of these pictorial 
representations had a reference to the history of 
Wa-Kwong or his times. The crowd was very 
great, and again of tlie rougher sort, and we con- 
gratulated ourselves that we had gone into the city 
so early. It was half-past five o'clock, p.m., when 
we arrived at the illuminated streets, and the men 
had just begun to light the lamps, as the sun was 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 297 

setting. We left shortly after seven o'clock, and 
so escaped the danger of again being surrounded 
by pickpockets and men of bad character. 



LETTER XXVIII. 

Canton, October 21st, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

On Thursday last, Henry and I made a 
most lovely excursion to the White Cloud Moun- 
tains. I had looked forward much to this trip, 
and the morning of Thursday was so beautiful 
that we felt we could not stay at home. We 
ordered mountain chairs, and at eleven o'clock 
we started. These chairs are very light, and 
as we had four coolies each, we went at a very 
good pace. We passed quickly through the city, 
and on reaching the I-ling-Miu, which is in the 
northern suburb, our chair-coolies stopped at a 
street restaurant to regale themselves before going 
into the open country. Henry and I got out of 
our chairs and sat under a wide-spreading banyan 
tree. We were much amused by watching many 
wayfarers, who were passing from or into the city, 
refreshing themselves at the street restaurant, 
either with tea and cakes, or boiled rice and fried 
fish, or with soups, fruits, etc. 








.^ 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 299 

After a rest of a quarter of an hour, our coolies 
having invigorated themselves, we went on our 
way. The next halt we made was at a large 
Mohammedan mosque, called Ts'ing-Chan-Tsze, 
in which is a bell-shaped mausoleum, held to be 
very sacred, as it is supposed to contain the remains 
of the maternal uncle of Mahomet. Again resum- 
ing our journey, we passed along narrow pathways 
skirting rice fields and cucumber gardens. At 
length we reached the base of the mountain, and 
after a short pause began the ascent. 

The journey from Shameen to the highest mona- 
stery took us just three hours. It was a lovely 
day, with a fresh invigorating wind, just such a day 
as we often have at Brighton in October, and 
it was especially enjoyed by us who had lately 
passed through such a trying hot season. One 
seemed to breathe again. As we wound our way 
up the mountain, we much enjoyed the fine 
extensive view of the city and its environs, which 
lay spread out like a map at our feet. The plain 
of Canton is very large, and is most abundantly 
watered by the many tributaries of its great river. 
The whole scene is striking. 

The pagodas standing up in sharp relief give 
such a truly Chinese character to the scenery, 
which effect much increases as you ascend the 
mountain and perceive that it and the surrounding 



300 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

hills are one vast place of burial. The tombs are 
built on the sides of the hills, and those we saw 
varied very much in size, colour, and material. The 
size is determined by the rank of the man buried 
in the tomb. Should he have been a great man, 
the tomb is immense, and very high poles, bearing 
the insignia of his rank, stand on each side of the 
approach to the grave. In one case I noticed 
a very grand arrangement leading to a vast tomb. 
There were many carved stone figures of atten- 
dants and of animals life-size. I think there were 
about six of these figures on each side of the 
approach to the tomb, and stone pillars surmounted 
by little stone lions were placed immediately close 
to it. I saw pale red, dark slate colour,^ and white 
sepulchres. Some of the hills are literally covered 
with them, from the summit to the base, while 
others are comparatively free from them, or have 
two or three only dotted about them. Geomancers 
have most likely pronounced the latter to be un- 
lucky sites for burial. As a tomb is never disturbed 
after it is once made (unless one of the sons or grand- 
sons of the deceased be convicted of high treason, 
in which case the bones of the latter are exhumed 
and scattered to the winds), and as one man only 
is often buried in these large receptacles for the 
dead, you can imagine how many thousands of 
tombs have accumulated in this vast burial ground. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 301 

Whatever be their size, or the material of which 
they are made, they are always in the Omega or 
horse-shoe form.* No one has been able to explain 
satisfactorily the reason why Chinese tombs are 
constructed in this shape. It lias been conjectured 
that the Omega, the concluding letter of the 
Greek alphabet and which signifies the end, may 
have been known to the Chinese. The Omega 
was added, as is well known (with five other 
letters) to the Greek alphabet, by Cadmus. 
Whence lie got the letter is a matter of uncer- 
tainty ; but this much is known, that he brought 
it from the East, and Egypt has been named as 
tlie country in which he found it. Some persons 
contend that there was an intercourse between 
ancient Egypt and China ; if so, it is probable 
that the Egyptians may have borrowed the Omega 
from the Chinese. In further support of the 
argument that the ancient Egyptians and the 
Chinese Avere at one period of their history in 
communication with each other, is the fact that 
both nations marked the hours of the day by 
clepsydras, or water clocks. 

The monasteries (and there are thirteen of 

them on these White Cloud Mountains) are most 

beautifully situated. I feel how delightful it would 

be to spend a week in one of them during the heat 

* Vide illustration of Chinese tomb in Letter III. 



302 FOURTEEX MONTHS IN CANTON. 

of summer. The pathway leading to the sum- 
mit is very narrow, and only one chair can go 
along at a time. At the steep parts of the 
ascent, stone steps have been made. A Chinese 
lady gave the money for this work, as an act of 
reparation ;* her husband, a banker, having em- 
bezzled large sums of money intrusted, to his care. 
These steps are extremely steep, and it is hard work 
for coolies to carry their living burdens up them. 
We rested for a couple of hours when we arrived 
at the highest monastery, and the keen bright air 
had made us hungry and so gave a relish to the 
simple luncheon we had taken with us. There 
are rooms in this monastery set apart for the 
use of strangers, and one of the monks attends 
to the comforts of those who, like ourselves, 
spend a few hours, and picnic here. The 
monastery is charmingly situated, and its quaint 
double Chinese roof looks so picturesque through 
the trees, as you approach. Having finished 
our luncheon, we walked down the hill a short 
distance to another monastery, which is, I think, 
even more beautifully situated than the one 
in which we rested. This monastery is called 

* Building bridges, making roads, paving pathways with 
granite, placing steps on steep ascents, erecting resting-places 
on the high roads for wayforers, providing the poor with cold 
tea in summer, and with ginger-soup in winter, are regarded by 
the Chinese as meritorious acts, and well-pleasing to tiie gods. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 303 

Chaang-Ohn-Ki, and is namefl after the hero in 
whose honour it was built. When he was on 
earth, he was a high minister of state and lived 
about 246 B.C. He was sent to the White Cloud 
Mountains by the Emperor then reigning, in 
search of the herb or grass which was supposed to 
impart immortality to man. Chaang-Ohn-Ki, it 
is said, found this elixir of life growing in abun- 
dance on the mountain side, and at once partook 
of it. On his doing so, the precious plant dis- 
appeared from the mountain side — none of it 
remained for his royal master. His despair was 
great, and with the view of hiding himself from his 
master's wrath, he assumed the garb of a hermit, 
and resolved to spend the remainder of his life 
amidst the solitudes of this mountain. Becoming 
weary of life, he attempted suicide by throwing 
himself from the top of the rock on which the 
temple now stands into the plains beneath. A 
stork, however, is said to have caught him in the 
air and conveyed him to Elysium. Thousands of 
people resort to this monastery on the twenty- 
seventh day of the seventh moon, to ask this god 
to give them the blessings of health and long life. 
Henry, having on a previous occasion slept at 
this monastery, is well known to the three or four 
Buddhist monks who reside there. They all wel- 
comed him most cordially, and entered into an 



304 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



animated conversation with him. Whilst they 
were talking together, I was amusing myself by 
watching another monk who was in the act of 
having his head shaved by an itinerant barber. 




AN ITINERANT BAIIBER. 



These itinerant barbers are quite an institution in 
China, going, as they do, from village to village 
and from monastery to monastery, in pursuit of 
their calling. They look so picturesque, as one 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



505 



meets them about the country, wearing, as they 
do, broad-brimmed straw hats, loose jackets, and 
long flowing trousers. These men carry a minia- 
ture chest of drawers, in which they keep their 
razors, brushes, combs, and earnings, suspended 




AN itinera:nt barber avaiting for a customer. 

from one end of a thin bamboo pole which rests 
on their shoulders. From the other end a wooden 
washstand and basin are susjDended. I have not 
mentioned soap, as none is used in Chinese 
shaving. The tiny chest of drawers serves as a 
seat for the customers. 



306 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

I was delighted with the lovely ferns I found 
on the way up the mountain, and in my stroll on 
the summit. What a fine collection of ferns might 
be made on this mountain. We returned home by 
a different route, and found to our disappointment 
that, in consequence of the late hour (it was past 
seven o'clock, p.m.), the east gate, by which we had 
hoped to enter the city, and so make a short cut, 
was not only closed, but that the key had been con- 
veyed to the Tartar General. Nothing remained 
for us but to make a detour, dark as it had now 
become, so as to go through the northern and 
western suburbs. We were talcen by the path 
under the east wall; our coolies eventually lost 
their way, and we found ourselves amongst some 
knolls, which proved to be graves. I was nearly 
upset in my chair, and had to get out, tired as I 
was, and to climb up a hill. Most fortuuately 
the moon shone clearly from the clouds at this 
moment and so enabled us to find our way, and, 
after a scramble and a walk along a very narrow 
jjath at the top of a hill, we reached the approach 
to the suburb. I again had the pleasure of going- 
through the streets when lighted up with the 
picturesque lanterns, and noticed many things I 
had not seen before. On reaching the Chaplaincy 
we made a hasty supper, and were glad to go to bed 
immediately after we had risen from the table. 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 307 



LETTER XXIX. 

Canton, October 22ucl, 1877. 

My deae Mother, 

We went last Tuesday to the Chinese 
parade ground, as we heard that a military re- 
view was to take place. There are two parade 
grounds, one on which Chinese troops are drilled, 
and the Tartar ground, on which Tartar troops 
go through their exercises. It was the second 
day of the review when we went to the ground, 
and the infantry were under inspection. A 
military mandarin was seated as usual behind 
a table covered with a scarlet cloth, placed 
in a raised building at the end of the field. 
A red-coloured ensign was held by the side 
of the table. To the left, on a platform made 
of brick, the Imperial yellow standard was raised, 
and men directed the military movements from 
this elevated position by beating drums. It is 
most difficult for me to convey to you any cor- 
rect idea of the curious performances we saw. 
Thej resembled so exactly what one sees on the 
stage of a theatre at home, that it was only by a 
strong effort I could in the least realise that 
it was real life I was witnessing, and not scenes 

X 2 



308 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

of a play passing before me. When we arrived 
on the ground at seven a.m., we saw three or four 
curious-looking erections, and we could not at first 
sight imagine what they were, but on going close 
to them we discovered that they were shields 
piled up high into a pointed form to represent 
fortifications. When we went to the back of 
them, we saw that men were holding them in 
their positions. The men holding the first row 
of shields knelt, those holding the second row 
were partly bent, and the men upholding the 
third row stood erect. A man in addition held a 
shield in his upraised arms, which formed the 
pinnacle of the design. Behind these sets of 
shields stood soldiers, who were not at the 
moment taking an active part in the proceed- 
ings. At a given signal, they advanced from 
behind the piled shields, generally in twos and 
twos, arriving in front of the supposed fortification. 
But they did not walk forward ; the simple truth 
is, they arrived with a hop, skip, and a jump, 
just as an European acrobat comes on to the stage 
at a performance given in a hippodrome. At 
one moment these combatants were armed with 
short swords or spears, at another moment with 
bludgeons, or with double swords. Often the 
two who engaged each other used different wea- 
pons ; the one holding a long sword, the other a 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 309 

curious-looking bamboo weapon having sharp iron 
points. At other times the two warriors carried 
shields, which always have some hideous face 
drawn on them in colour, like those you have 
seen in our collection at the Crystal Palace. 
Then one would drop his shield, and have to de- 
fend himself against his opponent who retained his 
shield. The one bearing the shield would then 
fall, roll over on the ground, and regain his proper 
position before his opponent could strike. It was 
most ludicrous to see these curious-looking men 
roll over and over, and we could not help laugh- 
ing heartily at the sight. The combatants fought 
as much with their feet as with their hands ; they 
kicked each other, put their feet into the first 
position, and performed all manner of antics with 
them, reminding us again and again of English 
acrobats. Their costume too, or uniform as I 
should perhaps call it, was most startling to our 
eyes. The men who were engaged when we 
were on the ground were Tartars, for both Chinese 
and Tartars were reviewed that day. The Tartar 
troops serve under eight different banners, and 
are allowed certain immunities. Each company 
of these soldiers wore uniforms made in the 
colour of the especial banner under which it 
was enrolled. The short loose sleeveless jacket 
in one company was red, in another yellow, faced 



810 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

with brown ; in a third dark bhie, in a fourth 
white, and so on in accordance with each parti- 
cular banner. The tunics were white, the stock- 
ings coloured, according to the colour of the 
loose jacket. The boots were high, made of 
black cloth. A large banner was carried before 
each division. As w-e were looking.^ on, we were 
startled by seeing one of the soldiers appear on 
the top of the sham fortification, jump down, and 
run forward to engage an enemy. When this kind 
of two-handed, or four-handed, fighting was over, 
the men advanced and took their shields from the 
pyramidal heap, and then we discovered that a 
ladder had been placed at the back of them upon 
which our acrobatic performer had stood when he 
appeared to be resting on the piled shields. A 
general kind of engagement finished this part 
of the review, and the troops then marched off to 
the farther end of the field. They did not march 
in step, nor in any kind of order. The larger 
banners were carried in the hand, but the smaller 
flags were placed in flag-holders, which were 
strapped on to the soldiers' backs. The effect is 
curious when you see the soldiers coming towards 
you with the flags rising from their shoulders 
over their heads. When we followed to the end 
of the field, we saw the men pile their shields ; 
this they did by walking round a centre, each man 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 311 

depositing his shield as he passed a certain spot. 
Some more sham fighting went on : then the 
archers stood in a semicircle, and the swordsmen, 
placed in two long lines, went through their sword- 
exercises. They swung their swords to the right, 
then brought them to the left, making a curious 
loud shouting noise as they did so. Then they 
pointed their swords in all directions. While 
they were doing this they rested on one knee, 
and kept their shields on the left arm. 

As we learnt that there was to be a pause of 
two hours before the artillery practice began, we 
left the parade ground, and returned home in our 
chairs. We had found them useful on the ground, 
and rested in them when nothing important 
was going on. Two tall Tartars, witli long- 
thonged whips in their hands, had kept the crowd 
from pressing upon us during the review, but be- 
fore we left the ground the people began to be 
very troublesome to us, and we were glad to escape 
from their too-pronounced curiosity. We went 
again to the same parade ground last Thursday 
at six A.M., as we were told that a review was to 
be held on a still grander scale on that day. On 
arriving at the ground we found that the report 
was true. In the elevated building at the end of 
the field, twenty mandarins were seated ; nineteen 
of them wore blue buttons, but the chief man's 



312 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

hat was decorated with the much coveted red 
button. The crowd was considerably greater, and 
the ground altogether had a much more military 
aspect than on the previous occasion. As we 
came upon the ground, the infantry, over 1000 
strong, were drawn up at the further end of the 
field, and the cavalry in front of them, waiting un- 
til the time came for them to be reviewed. In the 
centre of the field a sunken bridle-path stretched 
across, and it was here that the exercises were 
taking place. On each side of the path, at inter- 
vals, red poles with circular tops were placed for 
gun practice, and low targets, about two feet high, 
stood on the ground for bow and arrow practice. 
Three men stood a little way in front of the build- 
ing in which the mandarins were sitting, holding 
different coloured ensigns in their hands, and 
behind them the royal standard was displayed. 
The big drum now sounded from the high brick 
building to the left of us, and as one of the three 
standard-bearers dipped a dark blue flag, a rider 
galloped from one side of the field to the other 
along the sunken bridle-path. Many horsemen 
now passed in quick succession. Sometimes it was 
a mounted archer, who discharged his arrows at 
the small targets at full speed ; sometimes it was 
a mounted dragoon, armed with a Chinese carbine, 
with which he took aim at the higher targets as 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 313 

he rushed by. But the most strange and in- 
teresting sight was a man, dressed in the parti- 
coloured uniform of one of the banners, who per- 
formed feats on horseback precisely as European 
actors amuse an audience at a hippodrome. The 
drum sounded, the flag was dipped, and then ap- 
peared one of the curious lean Chinese ponies at 
full gallop, with what looked most unlike a living 
burden on its back. Sometimes a leg raised in the 
air was all you could make out of the rider's outline, 
he being on his head, one leg hanging down on 
one side, the other raised as high as possible in the 
air. At another time a pony rushed by with a 
rider lying along the side of its body, not sup- 
ported by a saddle, as there was none ; the man's 
head by the pony's neck, his legs stretched out 
behind him. Then another pony dashed past, 
apparently without a rider, as the soldier riding 
him was lying along the animal on the farther 
side. When the pony arrived in the centre of 
the course, the man jumped up and stood upon 
the animal's back. We also saw a rider stand 
on tiie pony he was riding, then kneel, clap 
his hands, twist himself suddenly and ride 
on the animal's neck with his face turned to 
its tail. Tliis military exercise is, Henry tells 
me, an exact imitation of the Cossack training, 
and therefore shows great affinity between the 



314 rOUETEEN MOXTHS IN CANTON. 

two nations. After these evolutions, the targets 
were cleared away, a movement took place 
among the troops at the end of the field, and 
then the shooting commenced. Some men now 
advanced bearing long poles, which they placed 
in the ground, and then stretched printed drill 
over them. We discovered that tliis erection 
was a representation of a city wall, and that 
there were gates in it whicli opened and closed. 
The walls were imitated by a dark grey, with 
white lines painted on it so as to represent stones; 
The gates were a brilliant scarlet, studded with 
brass nails. Men, having conch shells in their 
hands, now took up their position immediately 
in front of where we were standing, which was 
close to the raised platfoi-m on which the man- 
darins were seated. These men with the conch 
shells, about twenty in number, were dressed in 
the oldest and the dirtiest of costumes. They 
blew their shells, making a most dismal sound, 
the musical instruments and drums were beaten 
from the elevation, the scarlet gates were thrown 
open, and through them issued the infantry 
bearing banners and gingals. These large guns 
require two men to carry them, one supporting 
the muzzle end on his shoulder, the other the 
butt end on his shoulder. The troops advanced, 
formed a circle, and then fell into lines, each line 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 315 

being lieaded by a different coloured banner. The 
men were arranged according to their especial 
standards, and the effect was very good when the 
bright jackets were grouped into colours. The 
subaltern officers stood a little way in front of each 
line, holding small flags in their bands, which they 
dipped as a signal to commence firing, and then 
kneeling, they continued to wave them to and fro 
on the ground according to the direction in which 
the firing was to continue. A large drum placed 
a short way in front of the mock city gates gave, 
the signal to cease firing. The men when they 
prepared to fire the gingals placed themselves 
in a most curious position. They advanced the 
right leg considerably in front of the left, then 
the one at the muzzle, the other at the butt end, 
bent their bodies with the view of taking aim. 
When the firing had ceased, the troops marched 
in line through the scarlet gates to the sound of 
the dismal groans (which were most uncertain in 
their sound) of the conch shells. The drums on 
the elevation were again beaten most vigorously, 
and the review was over. The Tartar troops are 
a fine broad-shouldered body of men, with open 
countenances, very intelligent-looking, and alto- 
gether more prepossessing in appearance than the 
Chinese inhabitants of the city. 



>16 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



LETTEE XXX. 

Canton, October 29tli, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

We made up our minds last week to go to 
the early fair which is held in the city every day 
from six to eight A.M. in the street called In-T'sze- 
Li. The fiir is well worth seeing, and generally 
contains an endless variety of goods, such as china, 
glass, dresses of all kinds, second-hand shoes, a 
very large amount of valuable jadestone orna- 
ments, diamonds, and other jewellery. The jewel- 
lery and jadestone ornaments are displayed in 
open halls, each dealer having a little counter 
before him. The goods, such as china vases, 
glass, old iron, ornaments of every variety, etc., 
are arranged on the ground in front of the shops 
forming the street. I was amused by seeing men 
walking about displaying beautifully embroidered 
second-hand robes on their backs or spread over 
their arms, tbey having no stalls on which to 
arrange their goods. All has to be cleared away 
before eight A.M. Many of the valuables come from 
the pawn-shops, and are sold as unredeemed 
pledges, but Henry says a great deal that is 
exhibited is stolen property. The thieves carry 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 317 

their possessions very early on the following 
morning after stealing them, to the i'air, and so 
dispose of them before any one is on their track. 
We did not dare to make any offer for the jade- 
stone ornaments which we admired, for it requires 
a practised eye to discriminate the value of the 
jadestone. There is a great variety of worth in 
it, thus one bangle may be worth eight dollars, 
another two thousand dollars, and to our un- 
initiated eyes tliey look much the same, in fact 
we might buy the inferior quality in ignorance. 
Having made some small purchases, an em- 
broidered Pekinese lady's jacket amougst them, 
we re-seated ourselves in our chairs and went on 
for some distance beyond the north gate of the 
city to witness cricket-fighting, a favourite pastime 
of the Chinese. As we approached the field 
where it took place, we saw crowds of men stand- 
ing about some sheds erected on tiie spot. Most 
of the company were of the lowest order, but there 
were some respectable men, including Tartar 
officers and mandarins. Much money is lost in 
this form of gambling. On entering tlie largest 
shed, we saw a raised platform on which some men 
sat behind a counter, who were employed in 
weighing the crickets, in weighing the dollars, in 
recording the bets, in receiving the money laid by 
both sides on each match, and in paying the 



318 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

winner of each particular fight, after deducting 
a percentage for the expenses of the building. 
In this shed numbers of men were collected, each 
holding in his hand a little round earthenware 
basin covered with a cloth. These basins con- 
tained the fighting-crickets. The matches are 
played for large as well as small sums of money, 
and many hundred dollars changed hands during 
the short time we were present. We entered one 
of the smaller mat sheds, consisting of two or three 
rooms, and stood by a round table, and although 
the people assembled there belonged to the 
lowest orders, they were most polite to us. Two 
men had come in from the large tent, each having 
a little earthenware bowl in his hand, and after 
they had uncovered them, and examined the two 
occupants to certify they were their identical 
crickets, the chirping combatants were put into an 
earthenware bowl on the table, and the fight began. 
The two men held small feather pencils in their 
hands by wliich they stirred up and enraged the 
belligerents, which fight generally with great 
spirit, and often lose legs and wings in the contest. 
The two crickets walk round and round the bowl 
at first, then rush at each other with such vio- 
lence that they are often thrown on their backs. 
Should the one cricket run away from his opponent 
three times in succession, he is pronounced by the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



319 



umpire present, to be defeated. Those standing 
round the table make bets upon the one or other 
of the fighting-crickets. The successful crickets 
are taken home, and when tliey die (they live but 
a hundred days, or with care a hundred and thirty 




CRICKET-FIGHTING. 



days) are placed in tiny silver coffins, and are 
buried secretly by their owners on the hills. In 
the beginning of the next summer the latter go 
at night when the crickets are to be found on the 
hills, and wend their way to the particular spots 



320 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

where they have buried their successful crickets, 
and collect a number of new combatants, be- 
lieving that the spirits of the departed insects 
go into the bodies of the crickets found in the 
same neighbourhood. When the war was going 
on between England and China in 1857, a captain 
of one of Her Majesty's ships, which was stationed 
at Whampoa, for the purpose of keeping up the 
blockade of the river, seeing as he thought a host 
of Chinese braves advancing over the neighbouring 
hills, landed his marines and blue-jackets, marched 
up the hills, and attacked the supposed enemy. 
The men on the hills, who carried lanterns, were 
armed, as it is unsafe for Chinese to be about 
without weapons at night. They returned the 
shots of the English sailors, and some men were 
wounded on each side. On approaching close to 
the enemy the English captain, who was in the 
meantime seriously wounded, discovered that 
his opponents were in truth villagers who were 
searching on the hills for crickets. 

Before dismissing the subject of cricket-fighting, 
I must tell you one circumstance that came 
under my special notice, and which will, I think, 
rather astonish you. Many of the Buddhist 
monks indulge in this sport, and the other day 
at our monastic retreat at Taai-tung-Koo-tsze, 
we met with a Buddhist priest, who had come to 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 321 

Canton from a monastery in the remote part of 
the county of Tuung-Koon, to attend the cricket- 
pits, and had brought with him six fighting- 
crickets. Out of these only one had proved 
victorious, but as it had won several battles, and 
gained six hundred dollars, which was a large 
sura of money for the priest, he was returning 
home the day we saw him, in high spirits. 

I do not think I have told you how I have 
got on during the great and continuous heat of 
the past two or three month<!. It has at times 
been very trying, especially at night. We could 
scarcely breathe with the mosquito-curtains drawn, 
so, during August and September, we slept without 
them. We were not troubled, however, at all by 
the mosquitos during those two months. Perhaps, 
owing to the excessive heat, these tormentors 
had left the house and had gone into the open 
air. After dinner we find it too oppressive to 
stay in the house, as we do not get a breath of 
fresh air. We think this is in consequence of 
the short thick banyan trees which line the bund 
opposite to our verandah. We, therefore, go out 
and sit on the bund. You would be amused to 
see us. An ordinary glass lantern is hung upon 
a branch of one of the banyan trees to give us 
light. Our four dogs, two of the short-haired 
Chinese breed, and two of the long-haired kind, 

Y 



322 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

lie stretched on the ground about us. Poor things, 
they seem to suffer a great deal in this hot 
weather. At nine o'clock one of our boys brings 
a tea-poy (small table) out of the house, the 
other carries a tray with the tea equipage on 
it, and we take our tea al fresco. Sometimes 
Me do get a little breeze from the rivei*. At 
all events the atmosphere is not so stifling as 
it is in the house, and on moonlight nights the 
scene on the river is very pretty. 



LETTER XXXI. 

Canton, November 6tli, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

Last week we paid another visit to the 
parade ground to be present at a grand triennial 
review that was to take place in the presence 
of the Viceroy, the Tartar General, and all the 
leading officials of the province. We engaged a 
slipper boat to be ready for us very early in the 
morning, and entered it at half-past six a.m. We 
had the advantage of having the tide in our favour, 
and arrived at the parade ground before half-past 
seven. The boatmen followed us from the boat, 
carrying our large bamboo chairs, as we knew from 
experience that it was wiser to have our own chairs 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 323 

with us. The ground presented a very gay scene 
as we entered it ; there was a large body of 
cavalry assembled at the end of the field, and the 
flags of the various regiments looked very briglit. 
We had been told that the review would commence 
about six o'clock, but it was fully an hour after we 
arrived before the Viceroy made his appearance. 
There was again a long pause after the last of 
the mandarins had assembled, before this biggest 
of all the big officials in Canton arrived on the 
parade ground. The centre building was occu- 
pied by the Viceroy, Tartar General, and many 
high mandarins. Close to it three tempoiary 
buildings had been erected ; one on the left for 
the sons of the officials, one by the side of the 
latter occupied by the Howqua family, and 
the third, on the right of the main building, 
placed at the disposal of foreigners. The whole 
effect was much like an English race-course, 
with its orand-stand and other buildings near it. 
This review was on a much larger scale than 
those we had previously seen, but most of the 
movements were similar to those on the former 
occasions. The varieties were : some wrestling 
matches, which took place immediately in front 
of the Viceroy's position, and some practice in 
shooting by young Tartar boys, who were from 
eight to twelve years of age. These boys were 

Y 2 



324 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

good-looking, fine grown lads. They advanced in 
fives, each of the sets of five weariujr the colours of 
one of the eight banners. They had on military 
hats with two foxes' tails hanging from the backs 
of them. Their military master advanced in the 
centre of them, and he bore a flag placed in a 
little stand on his back between his shoulders. As 
the boys reached the spot immediately in front of 
the Viceroy, they stopped, put themselves into 
most studied positions, formed a circle, advanced 
one by one in front of their master and fired their 
small carbines in turn. AYhen all the movements 
had been performed by one set of five, they 
passed on with measured step, and the next five, 
clustering round their teacher, advanced and went 
through the same exercise. About twelve sets 
of these boys and their teachers passed before the 
Viceroy. They then advanced e7i masse, and 
stood before the Viceroy, who received them with 
a most gracious smile. Silver medals were pre- 
sented to each of them. These little fellows 
looked every inch what they were — soldiers' sons, 
and Henry tells me that they are all brought 
up to serve in the army, and in this way the 
Tartar garrison in this city has been reiuibrced 
for three centuries past. The troops reviewed this 
day were Tartar soldiers only. Another new feature 
in this review was, that the officers themselves, of 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 325 

all grades, most g-rave, dignified men, some of 
whom were nearly seventy years of age, were 
examined in archery practice. It was a strange 
sight to see these officers advance, step on to 
a deli's placed a little way in front of the 
Viceroy's table, and solemnly discharge their 
arrows in turn. A target was placed at what 
appeared to me a short distance from the dais. 
A small red cloth was spread, on which the 
officer stood whose turn it was to shoot, another 
placed himself in readiness immediately behind, 
and the rest of the military mandarins arranged 
in two and two according to their buttons de- 
noting their rank, remained in rows behind and 
advanced gradually to the dais. For a wonder, 
the Chinese use their bows much as Europeans 
use theirs. The arrows were tipped with sharp 
points of iron. Each man carried a quiver bearing 
five handsome arrows, the feathers of which were 
those of the argus pheasant. The bows, which 
were large, were made of ash, and were orna- 
mented by snakes' skins. The target was large, 
in shape like the panel of a door, with three red 
bull's eyes placed at intervals on it. It was covered 
with white paper. It did not seem to matter 
in what part the arrows struck the target, as the 
gong was sounded each time one pierced it. You 
must not imagine that these military mandarins 



326 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

looked like soldiers to our eyes. They were dressed 
in long blue figured silk robes, and in white or 
pale blue underskirts beautifully embroidered. 
Gay silk bags containing scent, which is used as 
a charm against evil, hung at their sides. High 
black satin boots with curious thick (three or 
four inches thick) white soles, and official hats 
trimmed with red fringe, completed their toilettes. 
The first officers who advanced to shoot wore 
the pale blue button on their hats, from which 
hung ravens' feathers. Tlien came the dark 
blue, crystal, white, and gold buttons in suc- 
cession. Each man who struck the target with 
four out of the five arrows, received from the 
Viceroy two rolls of mandarin silk folded up in 
white paper. They bent the knee when the rolls 
were handed to them by one of the officials, who 
took them from a long table that was placed by 
the side of the official table. When these officers 
received the rolls of silk into their hands, they 
bowed to the ground, then raised the rolls high 
above their heads, thus honouring the Emperor, 
whose gift they were. Those who missed with 
two of the five arrows received only one roll of 
silk, and in one case, an officer missing the target 
with three arrows, had to retire without any 
present. It is difficult to convey to you the 
faintest idea of the studied dignity and solemnity 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 327 

of expression in the countenances of tliese officers. 
All military mandarins have to undergo this 
triennial examination until they reach the rank 
of general in the army. The review finished 
as before, with artillery practice, marching in 
line, in circles, etc., the erection of city walls, and 
marchino; through the ffates to the sound of the 
drum, conch, and other musical instruments. 



LETTER XXXII. 

Canton, November 10th, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

Since I sent my last descriptive letter to 
you, I have been with Minnie to see a bride 
leave her husband's house the third day after her 
marriage, on a visit of ceremony to her parents. 
We were told that she would start from her new 
home in a bridal-chair at nine o'clock a.m., so 
we hurried our breakfast and contrived to be at the 
bridegroom's (a doctor's) house by half-past nine. 
With true Chinese disregard of time, nothing was 
then ready for the bride's start, and we sat for 
more than an hour in a house on the opposite 
■side of the street, which belongs also to the father 
of the bridegroom, before we were invited into 
the brideo-room's house. When we entered the 



328 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

bridal-house, the customary presents were all pre- 
pared and men were just starting with them to the 
bride's parents' house. There were about ten pigs 
roasted \\hole lying in open red boxes. In other 
open cases there were fruits of various kinds, cakes, 
and large bundles of fire-crackers. The bearers, 
wearing red tunics, were in tlie act of slinging 
these boxes on bamboo poles to carry them to the 
parents of the bride. Some short time after these 
presents had been sent off, the bride appeared in 
the visitors' hall where we were sitting. She was 
dressed in her red Avedding-dress ornamented 
with gold, and wore the gold marriage crown from 
which a thick beaded fringe hung over and nearly 
concealed her face. She came into the room 
with her hands joined and raised before her 
face in the orthodox bashful style of a Chinese 
bride. An amah walked on each side of her 
and held her by the elbows ; they then assisted 
her to kneel before the ancestral altar, and 
raised her arms up and down as she performed 
her act of worship. They helped her to rise, 
and she advanced towards us, and chin-chinned 
us first, and then her numerous young sisters-in- 
law who were present. The bride was only six- 
teen and her husband seventeen years of age — 
the sisters-in-law of the bridegroom were all under 
twentv. The bride is small footed, and so of 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 329 

course is a first wife. Poor girl, I pitied her, 
for she stood for nearly two hours on those 
poor little cramped painful feet, every now 
and then only leaning against the amahs, who 
sat down and thus supported her. The parents 
of the bridegroom now came in, and the bride 
knelt before them, and performed the kau- 
tau. After tliis a great deal of fun and merri- 
ment went on, all the young people went up to 
the bride and teased her, and, as my little friend 
explained to me, asked her for cakes, saying 
that she was very mean not to give them more. 
They crowded round her and told her jokingly 
that her life would be very miserable, that her 
husband would beat her, etc. etc. 

Quite an uproar of merriment took place every 
now and then. No one heeded me, so I could 
sit and look on and see femily rejoicings ac- 
cording to the manners and customs of this 
country. 

I think the bridegroom was disappointed that 
I did not join in the jokes ; but how could I ? 
my tongue was tied by ignorance of the Chinese 
language. 

All this time the wedding-chair was hidden away 
by some of the family party, a joke always prac- 
tised on this particular day of the bride's return 
to her home. The company declared, as they 



330 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

surrounded the young bride, that she should not 
go home to see her parents. She did not speak 
more than a few words the whole time, but I 
think she much enjoyed her position and feeling 
of importance. I was asked by the bridegroom 
what I thought of his bride, if she had a pretty 
face (of course I told my little friend to answer 
in as flattering terms as possible, with truth), but 
tiie bride was not nearly so pretty, I saw, when 
the veil of fringe was lifted from her face, as two 
young married women who were in the room 
with us. There are six sons in this family, and 
the father is not over forty-five. He and five of 
the sons practise as doctors. The youngest is 
sixteen, and is the only one unmarried ; and 
he, too, is being educated for the medical pro- 
fession. At last there was a decided movement 
at the outer door, and I thought the wedding- 
chair had arrived, but it proved to be the coolies 
bringing back the boxes from the house of the 
bride's parents. As is the established custom, 
the head and feet of the pigs were returned in the 
boxes and also a portion of the cakes and fruit. I 
was offered some of the latter, and then, for the 
fourth or fifth time, tea was handed round. 

Just before twelve o'clock, when I was overcome 
with fatigue, and thought of leaving, the grand 
gold wedding-chair, richly ornamented with little 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 331 

fi,2:ures decorated with blue enamel made of king- 
fisher's feathers, came to the door. 

It had at last been found, said tb.e merry party 
round the bride. I mounted on a stool, as I was 
invited to do, to see the bride enter her bridal- 
rhair. Her attendants then closed the door, and 
she became invisible to tlie vulgar gaze. The 
chair was very lieavy, a mass of gilding and 
ornament ; but it was not the private property of 
this family, but was, as is always the case, hired 
for the terra of the wedding festivities, which last 
about eight days. The bride was to return to her 
husband's house at seven o'clock f.m. the same 
day. 



LETTEE XXXIII. 

Canton, November 26tb, 1877 

My dear Mother, 

I HAVE had a terrible shock since I last 
wrote to you, and I am sure you will be thankful 
to hear that Henry escaped a great danger in which 
he was placed last Sunday evening. He started 
for Whampoa as usual about five, to take his eight 
o'clock evening service, and had not proceeded 
above halfway, when he noticed a long snake-boat 
lying immediately in the path of his slipper boat. 
Henry sits upon a bamboo chair which is placed on 



332 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the toe of the slipper boat, and as he has no cover- 
ing in front of him, he can see clearly anything 
that takes place aroimd him. He had a presenti- 
ment of evil on perceiving the position of the snake- 
boat, but had scarcely time to examine it closely, 
before a shot was fired point blank at him from it. 
His boatmen called out in terror that they had 
an Englishman on board, but before they had got 
their words out, a second shot came from the 
pirates which struck the slipper boat. The boat- 
men ducked their heads, and swayed their bodies 
to the side of the boat, by which movement 
they upset Henry's chair, and he fell back- 
wards. There was great danger of the slipper 
boat being capsized at that moment. On re- 
covering his I'eet, Henry called out in Chinese 
and asked the men what they meant by firing at 
him, and the coolie and the boatmen screamed 
out that their passenger was a foreigner from 
the Chung-Lau (Bell-tower). The pirates, upon 
hearing this, turned their boat's head and rowed 
off as fast as possible across the river and entered 
a creek. Tliere is no doubt that they were on 
the wiitcli for Chinese, who often carry treasure 
about with them. In these winter months the 
pirates abound on the river, and render it very 
unsafe for passciigrr boats. The Chinese fear 
them greatly, and when a junk is going up the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 333 

river it is not only armed, but, as a rule, several 
junks start together and keep close to each other 
as long as possible. Passenger boats are also 
armed. The Chinese government is making a 
great effort to put down piracy, and, as I told you 
in a former letter, employ Eurojiean officers on 
board their gun-boats for this purpose, but it 
must be long before the pirates are cleared off 
the river. A trading junk, apparently per- 
fectly harmless, will turn pirate when an op- 
portunity presents itself, and so there is a great 
want of confidence felt by the Chinese towards 
vessels of any sort. Robberies take place al- 
most nightly on the river. When the sun sets, 
the boating population, to [irotect themselves 
from pirates, close and barricade the mouths of 
the creeks. I am enjoying the change in the 
weather very much. It is now quite cold in the 
early morning and evening, and we liave already 
had a fire in our dining-room, and soon we shall 
require fires daily. 

1 have jnst sent for my furs from the pawn- 
shop. Does not this sound odd to English ears? 
The furs have been at this pawn-shop all the 
summer, and will thus have been saved from 
being devoured by the moth. It is most difficult 
to keep them free from this insect in one's own 
house — nearly impossible, but at the pawn-shops 



334 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

they are quite safe. We shall only pay a couj)Ie 
of dollars to the owner of the pawn-shop when we 
receive our furs. 

1 shall be very glad of them now, for a 
marvellous change took place in the weather on 
the 20th inst. On that day Henry started for 
Whampoa, wearing his alpaca clothes. He 
could not have put on his cloth things as it was 
intensely hot in the morning, but at half-past 
seven p.m. down came the north wind, and in two or 
three hours it became very cohl. Tlie loUowing 
morning we were thankful to put on our winter 
clotlies. So you see that the cokl, when it first 
comes in, is as difficult to bear as the heat; not that 
I grumble at it, as I am delighted with the change 
of weather, and am glad beyond measure that the 
heat of summer has at last passed away. We 
have both been really ill, since I last wa-ote, from 
eating some oysters which were sent us by a 
friend from Macao. On inquiry we discovered 
that these oysters had been opened before they 
arrived, a fact our servants did not let us know, 
and it was only when we were so ill, that one of 
them said " that oyster no plopa when he come this 
side, he no have got shell." We were poisoned by 
these bad oysters, and one of the coolies who ate 
some of them also became very ill. It is not un- 
common for persons to be affected by the Macao 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. do5 

oysters, as the rocks upon which they grow are of 
a cupreous nature. We were obliged to call in 
our Chinese doctor ; but even with his care, we 
were very much indisposed for three days. 

I must tell you of an amusing circumstance 
that has taken place in our house. A few 
weeks ago, one of my canaries, which had been 
placed in a small cage in the dining-room, was 
missing when the coolie entered the room early 
in the morning, and the only trace left of it was a 
few feathers on the bars of the cage. I was very 
much vexed, and inquired of the servants what 
animal could have entered the room through the 
\enetians, and seized my pretty little favourite? 
They all answered that it was " one piecee cat." 
Henry doubted the truth of this statement, as he 
did not think a cat could have entered by the 
partially closed Venetians ; but the waiting boy 
and coolies persisted in saying that the enemy was 
a cat and not a rat, and that it was a particular cat 
from a neighbouring house. We asked them 
why, having seen it, they did not try to catch it ? 
upon which they told us it was a fierce cat, and 
that they were obliged to allow it to escape. I 
ordered the Venetians to be more closely fastened, 
and again and again complained that my orders 
were not obeyed. When I remonstrated, the boy 
answered, " That piecee cat no come this side 



336 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

again, my can secure he no come again." It 
is only just now that I have learnt the true 
state of the case from Minnie. The coolie had 
not only caught the cat the morning it stole my 
bird from the cage in the dining-room, but he 
had also cooked and eaten it, and simply would 
not acknowledge to having cauglit it, for fear we 
should laugh at him for having made a meal of 
the enemy. Possibly too, he may have considered 
that our neighbour would complain of the sum- 
mary justice executed upon the offender. Our 
waiting boy, who is twenty years of age, has just 
gone into the country to be married. We have 
given him in consequence a week's holiday. He 
will leave his bride at his father's house in the 
country, when he returns to us, and see her most 
likely only at very rare intervals. He, like all 
young men in China, has been betrothed from his 
youth. It is a most unusual thing to meet with a 
bachelor in China over twenty years of age, and 
when this is the case a man is looked upon as a 
bad citizen. Single life is of course observed by 
all Buddhist monks and by some of the priests of 
the sect of Tau. 

Yesterday we received a very full budget by 
the English mail, fourteen letters, including those 
from home which did not arrive last week. We 
look out for the river steamer most anxiously when 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 337 

the mail is expected. When our coolie comes in 
and says '* This house no got chit," our dis- 
appointment is very great. We have much 
better food now the weather is cool, and there is a 
great improvement in the meat, which is much 
more tender. I think you will be" interested to 
hear what we can now procure in the way of food, 
vegetables and fruit. Good game comes down 
from Shanghai, and. we have received a present 
of pheasants, teal, and a hare from that port. The 
game was in very good preservation after its 
journey of over nine hundred miles. We have 
very good vegetables just now, and amongst them 
are peas, potatoes, sweet potatoes, turnips, small 
carrots, and cabbages. Our fruit at this season con- 
sists of sweet oranges, native walnuts, native chest- 
nuts, persimmons, bananas, etc. I do not remember 
telling you about one thing that has again and 
again amused me in our household. Occasionally 
when we pass tlirough our servants' quarters to 
the boat, we see one or other of them in the hands 
of a barber, having his head shaved, or his tail 
trimmed and plaited. The tails of many of the 
Chinese are very long and thick. This remark 
applies to young and middle-aged men only, 
for a man in years has generally a very small 
and short portion of hair in his tail, the rest of it 
being composed of silk. The barber also trims 

z 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 339 

the eyebrows of bis customer and reduces them to 
a slender line, and removes all superfluous bair 
from bis face and ears. Sbaving and liairdressing 
are generally done in public in China, and I bave 
often been amused at watching the process going 
on al fresco. 



LETTER XXXIV. 

Canton, December 6th, 1877. 

My dear Mother, 

I WONDER if you picture us as we really are 
now. Before I left Engbmd I did not realise the 
fact of the winter being as cold as it is bere, and 
I fancy few people wbo bave not experienced it 
know what kind of winter one bas in the south of 
China. We have a fire in our bedroom at night, 
and the room is still so cold that I have bought 
a high screen to place by the side of the bed to 
shelter us from the draught. These houses are 
built with a view to make tbem as cool as possible 
in summer, and so it is very difficult to shut out 
tbe cold wind in winter. Our dogs can no longer 
go out into the verandah at night, and two of 
them sleep in our room, and two on the land- 
ing at the top of tbe staircase. They cause us 
some trouble at night. Our youngest one (we 
have given away the youngest of all, as he would 

z 2 



310 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

not stay with us, but lived entirely in the ser- 
vants' offices) is most jealous of one of the 
older dogs, and it is most difficult to keep him 
qniet. In fact, the young one does not rest 
until the old dog is driven into a cornei*. The 
growl of these dogs which precedes a fight is 
enough to disturb a household. They much re- 
semble in form and colour the Esquimaux dog. 
VkS owe our safety to one of our favourites ; for 
some time ago, when we had just fallen asleep, 
one of the older dogs in the verandah barked 
furiously. We both started from slee|), and felt 
conscious that some one was in the bedroom, and 
Henry called out in Chinese, " Who is there ?" 
The intruder in his flight must have touched the 
towel-horse, as it was shaken and nearly knocked 
over, and there is no doubt that he escaped by 
the oj)en window close to it. Our watches and 
jewellery were on that side of the room along 
which he was approaching, and we think that 
he must have been aware of it. I much dread 
any fracas with a Chinese thief, for, although 
Henry is very powerful, he would have no chance 
with a man of this kind. For the thieves are 
generally armed with knives, and their tails, which 
are false, are filled with fish-hooks. If a guard 
seize a jjrisoner, he catches hiin by the tail 
and twists it round his arm. I have seen this 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 341 

done myself, so I suppose that is the reason 
why thieves adopt the expedient of wearing false 
tails. Should a burglar be caught with arms 
upon him, he is decapitated according to Chinese 
law. This makes burglars very reckless, and 
if resisted, they would not hesitate to commit 
murder, if by doing so they could make good 
their escape. 

During one of our excursions lately, we visited 
the Buddhist nunnery, which beai-s the name of 
T'aan-To-Om. We saw in tlie principal shrine 
an idol of Buddha, before which fifty nuns say 
their prayers morning and evening. Unless I 
had been informed to the contrary, I should 
have concluded that the persons who gathered 
around us on our entering the quadrangle of the 
nunnery were Buddhist monks, as the dress is 
similar. The nuns' heads are entirely shaved ; 
they wear tunics, white stockings, and black 
shoes, like the priests. It is supposed that this 
dress was adopted to enable the nuns to go 
about the streets without being observed. A 
few days ago, we saw what we both considered 
to be a nun entering the English chemist's shop 
where we were going. We asked if it were a nun 
we had seen, but were told by the chemist that it 
was a young nobleman, who had taken a vow to live 
as a monk for a certain period. He had therefore 



342 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

shaved his head and adopted the monk's habit. 
The nnns are consecrated at the same time as 
the monks. 

I have not yet mentioned one curious feature 
of a Buddhist priest's appearance : you will notice 
at once that his head, which is entirely shaven, 
has several little white scars on it. These are 
vows Avhich are burnt into his head by the 
end of a lighted incense stick. A monk not 
only takes the three vows of poverty, chastity, 
and obedience at his ordination ; he takes other 
vows according to his desire, such as abstaining 
from wine, from meat, from brawling, from 
gambling, etc. The latter is, however, a vice 
much indulged in by the priests, many of whom 
disregaril their vows in a very open manner. We 
went into the temple of Sheng-Wong the same day, 
and there saw many most curious representations 
of the Buddhist hades. These figures are placed 
in various compartments on each side of the great 
quadrangle of the temple. In each of tlu-se 
compartments a king sitting in judgment, sur- 
rounded by his ministers of justice, is represented. 
In one compartment there are clay figures of men 
and women, who are undergoing various torments 
inflicted on them by order of the king, for un- 
repented sin. In a second, Buddhist monks and 
nuns, who have received money for saying prayers 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 3-13 

for the repose of souls, and have neglected to do so, 
are confined in a dark tower, and by the light of 
a very small lamp are coudemned to read liturgical 
services, printed in the smallest type possible. In 
another representation, wicked men are made to 
gaze in a mirror upon the forms of beasts, reptiles, 
insects, etc., one or other form of which their 
souls will animate on their return to earth. 
In another, homicides are surrounded by water, 
which they cannot obtain, and are tantalised 
by the sight of it, while they suffer the 
agonies of thirst. Twice a month they have to 
undergo all the pains of body and soul which 
their victims have gone through at their hands. 
Various horrors, such as being ground in a mill, 
returning to life again, to be re-ground — burning 
in flames of fire — thrown on to spikes — being de- 
capitated, then made whole in body, to be again 
decapitated — roasted alive under a red-hot bell — 
sawn asunder — thrown into caldrons of boiling oil, 
are all depicted, with other varieties of torture. In 
fact, the whole representations recalled to my mind 
a book I had much feared in my early youth, but 
which was highly valued by my nurse — Fox's 
' Book of Martyrs.' 



344 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

LETTER XXXV. 

Canton, January 1st, 1878. 

My dear Mother, 

We Lave had two or three warm days this 
last week, and much rain. Our house has be- 
come very damp again, and the marble pavement 
of the hall looks as if pails of water had been 
thrown upon it. Old residents say it is unusually 
warm and damp for the time of year. The mos- 
quitos are unendurable ; they are buzzing in my 
ears, and settling on my hands as I write. All 
our servants came in to chin-chin us this morning 
early, and presented us with their large red paper 
visiting cards, and several Chinese have called to 
wish Henry a happy new year. The day is much 
observed in our settlement. Gentlemen of all 
nations make congratulatory calls upon the ladies. 
I had a very great number of visitors to receive 
alone, as Henry of course was also engaged in 
paying new year's visits. 

We have been into the city two or three times 
since I last wrote to you, spending our time 
chiefly in the street called Sai-Loi-Ch'oh Ti, 
where we have bought several articles of black 
wood furniture. The streets, at this time of the 
year, are very much crowded with open-air stalls 
of all kinds, owing to the near approach of the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



H5 



Chinese new year. Some of these stalls contain 
wearing apparel; others, shoes and caps; and 
others, articles of virtu. The latter are bought 
to give away as new-year's presents. Fruit- 




BOY GA3IBL1NG FOR FEUIT. 



stalls are especially numerous, and are gener- 
ally surrounded by little boys who gamble with 
the stall-keeper for the fiuit. These open-air fruit- 
stalls now display oranges, bananas, apples, pears, 



346 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

and pea-nuts. The fruit must be very tempting 
to the boys, but so great is their innate love of 
gambling that they would rather run the risk 
of losing the fruit than forego the pleasure of 
throwing the dice. The propensity for gambling, 
howevei', is not confined to boys, in China, men 
and women being also very much addicted to 
that vice. 

I have not told you, I think, how much we are 
occasionally startled by salutes fired off from the 
men-of-war which come up to Canton. They 
anchor so close to Shameen, that the vibration is 
great from the guns ; the windows of our house 
rattle, and the panes of glass seem to be in 
jeopardy. Last Sunday when we were at church, 
and whilst Henry was preaching, we were startled 
by the guns of a French ship of war firing a 
royal salute in honour of a visit from the Chinese 
Viceroy. The noise was simply deafening, and so 
prolonged, as the salute was fired slowly, that 
Henry was obliged to make a long pause in his 
sermon. The river is at all times a scene of noise 
and bustle, most particularly so where the boats 
congregate near the steamers, but our end of 
Shameen is sufiSciently noisy. It was difficult 
to sleep during the summer when our bedroom- 
windows were wide open. About one or two o'clock 
A.M. we were often awoke by salvoes of fire-crackers 
which were fired when Chinese boats were startincr 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 347 

on tlieir voyages. \The boat population do not sleep 
the night through, but seem to catch sleep at 
intervals during the night and day. We are never 
free during the summer from noise on the river. 
When a death takes place in any of the boats, the 
relations immediately begin to howl, and continue 
to do so at intervals until the body is buriedj It 
is a most distressing sound at night, and one 
which we frequently hear. T Quarrels often take 
place amongst the boat people, and they become 
much excited and scream one to the other, some- 
times for ten minutes or so, and sometimes for 
hours togetherJ In fact there is scarcely an 
hour during the night, in summer^ when complete 
stillness reigns on the river. \ The smallness 
of sleeping accommodation on board the boats 
for the families living in them may partly ac- 
count for this restlessness and wakefulness of 
the boat population. 

What a strange life these boat people live ! 
They are born in their boats, marry from their 
boats (boatmen marrying boatwomen) and take 
their brides home to their boats, three generations 
often occupying the same floating home. Further, 
they die in their boats, and are conveyed to 
the grave in their boaW When a member of a 
boat family dies, the body is taken to a vast 
cemetery on the banks of the river, five or six 
miles to the west of the city of Canton. Many 



348 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IX CANTON. 

of the boatmen serve as sailors on board the ocean- 
going juuks and other native trading vessels, 
and are consequently away for several weeks or 
even months at a time. On returning from their 
voyages they find their boats exartly in the same 
position as that in which they left them. Tliis, 
however, is no longer a matter of surprise, when 
one learns that there is a marine magistrate called 
the Hoi-Teng, who assigns to each boat its position 
on the river, in which it has an undisputed right 
to remain year after year, j^ The boat population 
is regarded with contempt by people living on 
shore, and to every boatwoman the opprobrious 
ej)ithet of " \Yater-hen " is applied -J 



LETTER XXXYI. 

Canton, March 20th, 1878. 

My dear Mother, 

I TAKE up my pen again after a rest of two 
months to write you one of my descriptive letters. 
Little of importance has happened during my 
silence. The Chinese new year has been observed 
as usual. Salvoes of fire-crackers were let off 
without ceasing from eight o'clock of the last 
night of the old year, until daylight of the first 
day of the new year. The temples, small and 
great throughout this vast city, were open the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 349 

whole night, and were crowded by worshipper?, 
who were offering thanks for the good things 
received during tlie year passing away, and 
praying for mercies during the year just dawn- 
ing. All the elders of the districts who attended 
these ceremonies wore their official robes. Wor- 
ship, too, was paid to all the State deities by the 
leading officials of the city. In each dwelling- 
house the ancestral altars, and those in honour 
of the tutelary gods, were lighted up during 
the greater part of the night, and around them 
were gathered all the members of the familv. 
During the few days in which the festivities of 
the new year are observed, all the shops are closed 
and Canton seems to be deserted. The passenger 
boats are crowded with men and women who are 
going into the country to visit friends. Many 
failuies have taken place as usual at the new 
year. 'I'he shops which were closed owing to in- 
solvency, have had red papers affixed to the doors, 
stating that the owners were bankrupts, and the 
amount of liabilities they had incurred. All debts 
must be paid before the new year, and the man 
who cannot meet his demands then, must declare 
himself a bankrupt. During the two or three last 
days of the Chinese year, articles which have been 
previously exposed for sale at a high price, are 
offered at a much lower rate for cash. Henry 
has been very anxious for me to go over one of 



350 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the large ocean-going junks, all of which are now 
preparing for sea. We were in a sampan a few 
days ago, and in passing one of these junks, we 
made up our minds to go on board. I can scarcely 
describe the curious appearance of these vessels. 
The sterns are very high and wide, and are richly 
ornamented with painted decorations, such as the 
Chinese Phoenix with outstretched wings and white 
plumage on a bright red ground. The bows 
are also decorated with coloured representations 
of dragons, etc. The men belonging to the junk 
showed no surprise when I arrived on board their 
ship, although most probably I was the first 
European lady who had ever visited one of these 
ocean junks. On examining this ship, I saw 
she was very long and curiously divided into 
water-tight compartments. The saloon, which we 
entered on invitation, was at the stern, and 
Ave had to descend by deep steps into it from 
tlie deck. I noticed a richly carved and 
gilded altar with a lighted lamp hanging before 
it, at the end of the saloon, and in a niche was 
the image of Tien-Hau, the goddess worshipped 
by all sailors. This goddess is regarded by the 
Chinese as the queen of heaven. Before the vessel 
starts on any voyage, Tauist priests are engaged 
to go on board and hold a religious service, 
asking for the goddess's protection of the ship and 
crew during the ensuing voyage. On the deck 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 351 

there were five large cisterns for fresh water, 
made of wooden planks, the seams of which were 
made water-tight by means of chunam. The two 
masts of the vessel were without yards, and, 
having little or no rigging, Jooked very bare. 
The rudder and its tiller were colossal in size. We 
asked to see the compass, which we found to be 
one of a most primitive kind, possibly not much 
improved since its use was first discovered by the 
Chinese, B.C. 2634. We were surprised when one 
of the sailors accosted us in broken English, and 
on inquiring of him where he had learnt it, he 
told us that he had been a sailor on an English 
steamer. These ocean junks carry merchandise 
from one port to another. Their number has of 
late much decreased in consequence of the great 
many English steamers now employed in these 
waters. This morning a friend, who is captain of 
one of the Chinese gun-boats, took us in a small 
steam launch to his ship. Five of these gun- 
boats belonging to the Chinese government, which 
were built in England, are manned by Chinese, 
and are commanded and officered by Englishmen. 
They are employed by the Chinese government to 
pursue and destroy pirates, and to demolish villages 
inhabited by them. Captain Godsil has just re- 
turned from a very successful voyage. He de- 
stroyed in the gulf of Tonquin eleven piratical 
junks, and two piratical villages. He accomplished 



352 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

this \^•itll bis own crew only, who do not muster 
more than eighty. The mandarin (one of whom 
always accompanies these vessels so that he may 
be responsible to his government for any junks 
taken or villages destroyed) had gone off in a boat 
with some of Captain Godsil's men, to collect the 
crews of his war junks and prepare for the attack. 
He did not hurry back, and arrived an hour and a 
half after the piratical junks had been captured 
and the villages destroyed by Captain Godsil. 
There is not the slightest chance of the true de- 
scription of this adventure reaching the Viceroy's 
ears, as the mandarin sends in the report of the 
voyage to him, and so of course will take the 
whole credit of the affair to himself, and will 
probably receive promotion for his supposed dariug 
exploit. 

All the pirates captured by Captain Godsil, 
amounting to two hundred men, were sent to 
the prison in the district where they were 
taken, and will be, or ratlier are probably already 
executed. 

The Chinese man-of-war's men look remarkably 
w^ell. They are now dressed in their winter 
uniform, blue cotton shirt and trousers, with a 
bright red sash round their waists. Their hats 
are large straw hats with wide brims, worn off the 
forehead. In summer their uniform is white, with 
the red sash. We witnessed a most interesting 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 353 

festival, fourteen days ago, which was given in 
honour of the Tu-ti (prono«»eed Too-te), the gods 
of the earth. This festival is held in many parts 
of the city, and generally takes place in the squares 
in front of temples. There was a great crowd 
where we were, and for some time, to avoid the 
pressure of the people, we sat in the committee- 
room of the temple. Here men were writing 
names of the givers of prizes on pieces of red 
paper. As usual, the ceremony did not begin for 
more than an hour after the time advertised. 
When the preparations were nearly completed we 
went out of the committee-room and were admitted 
into a little open-air theatre, belonging to, and 
opposite, the temple, and a form was placed for 
us on which we stood to witness the proceedings. 

The prizes were displayed on shelves in the open- 
air theatre, and were, we thought, most trumpery 
in character. They consisted of high erections orna- 
mented with red and white paper, artificial flowers, 
and figures made in pasteboard and coloured. 

We were told, however, that some of the prizes 
were valuable, as jadestone bangles were sus- 
pended from them. These erections represented 
houses of several storeys, with lots of little figures 
in them, many of which nodded their heads, 
and shook their arras and legs. Each prize was 
numbered, and differed in form and decoration. 
In some there were representations of men on 

2 A 



354 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

horseback (such creatures the horses were), and 
small fiofures dressed in grand silk, etc. Tlie faces 
of all the figures were of the same much-admired 
style. The eyehrows slanted up towards the fore- 
head, the eyes were narrow slits. In the centre 
of the square a platform had been erected, on 
Avhich three men stood, and when the proper time 
arrived, they received from one of the members 
of the guild which defrayed the costs of the festival, 
a short bamboo gun, from which, when it was fired 
off, a small ball shot up high into tlie air. As it 
was descending there was a great scuffle amongst 
tl»e dense crowd eager to catch it, and sometimes a 
fight took place. The man who was so fortunate 
as to catch it, walked up some steps to the elders 
of the district who were seated on a dais, and 
his name was inscribed in a book as the winner of 
the particular prize which had just been shot for. 
Tiie first two successful men belonged to the 
upper classes, others who won prizes were of the 
lower orders. It is supposed by the Cliinese that 
the ball is directed towards the man who catches 
it, by the Tu-ti, and therefore he is regarded as 
favoured by these gods. The prizes are carried 
to the homes of those who have gained them, after 
the ceremony is over, to the accompaniment of 
music, and they are placed upon ancestral altars. 
They are held to be most acceptable offerings 
to the spirits of departed ancestors. In the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 355 

usual thrifty way of the Chinese, the guild secures 
the prizes for the followiug year by making each 
winner enter his name in a boolc, with a written 
promise to give at the festival of Tu-ti, in the 
following year, a prize costing the same amount of 
money as the one he has just received. I was 
much amused to see the means employed to de- 
scribe the prize and its number to the people. 
Two men walked about with long bamboo poles 
bent at the top, from which swung pieces of red 
paper with tlie number and description of the 
prize on them in Chinese characters. The wind 
was high, and the ball, when discharged from the 
miniature gun, often alighted on the wide roof of 
the temple, and, when this was the case, men who 
were placed on the roof threw it amidst the crowd 
below. Some men of most respectable appearance 
held long strings of fire-crackers which they let 
off. The loud and long-continued report was 
deafening — and a volley of these fire-crackers- was 
let off between each struggle for a prize. Gongs 
and musical instruirjents added their quota to the 
prevailing hubbub. The crowd was great and was 
composed of the lowest class of people as well 
as of some well-dressed men. When we passed 
through them on leaving our retreat, they were 
very polite. They stared, of course, but made 
way for us. 

Amongst the few people who were admitted to 

2 A 2 



356 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the small open-air theatre, besides ourselves, was 
a beautiful Tartar girl, who had regular features 
and a trausparent complexion. She would have 
made a lovely picture just as she was, with a 
curious little band of bright-coloured stuff worn 
across her forehead. 

On leaving the square in which this festival was 
being celebi-ated, we went into a very fine ancestral 
hall belonging to the clan Tam. It is the largest 
building of the kind in Canton. Above the altar 
we saw a vast number of ancestral tablets, which 
are computed at from three thousand to four 
thousand. In the centre of the building there is a 
very spacious quadrangle on each side of which are 
several cells for the use of students. All members 
of the clan Tam can claim board and lodging in 
this ancestral hall when reading for their degrees. 
When we visited it many young men, members 
of the clan, were residing in it, and preparing 
themselves for the ensuing literary examinations. 
Henry had been far from well all the morning, and 
now felt that it would be impossible for him to 
continue his walk home. He, therefore, went out 
of the hall, in order to hire a chair, and I was thus 
left alone for several minutes. For some time I 
had seen several pairs of black eyes peeping at 
me from the various apartments on each side. The 
students now becoming bolder, advanced, stared 
at me and were evidently much surprised, and 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 357 

apparently shocked to see me in their hall. I did 
not at the time understand the cause of their sur- 
prise, nor had I heard then that one of the many 
rules painted on a board placed in the porch of the 
hall was as follows : " Females shall not be allowed 
to enter this building." When Henry returned to 
me we inspected a lofty brick tower forming a 
part of this large pile of ancestral buildings. To 
thi^ tower, dedicated to Man-Chaong, the god of 
learning, the students of the clan resort and pray 
to the idol for success in their approaching 
literary examinations. 

On continuing our journey through the city 
towards Shameen, we saw several gatherings in 
honour of the Tu-ti. They were similar, in all 
respects, to the one which I have just described. 

In the evening of this day we went by invita- 
tion to a Chinese gentleman's house to see a private 
display of fireworks which he was giving in honour 
of the Tu-ti. We sat in the picturesque garden, that 
is, the ladies of the family and I, immediately close 
to a large piece of artificial water. On the opposite 
side of it stood the family theatre* with its beautiful, 
carved double roof. A temporary bamboo platform 
had been erected over the pond, and on this the fire- 
works were let off. The display was very grand, 

* As a rule, wealthy Clanese families have private theatres 
in their houses or grounds, more especially to provide amuse- 
ment for the ladies of the families. 



358 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

and altogether unlike any fireworks I had seen in 
Europe. There were thirteen set pieces represent- 
ing groups of figures which constantly changed 
tlieir positions. In one, a man mounted on a horse, 
fell from the animal and lay beside it. In another 
a dragon vomited fire. Out of one piece, which 
was very well managed, strings of pagodas fell 
down, and from another, innumerable lanterns 
were suspended. Each of these set pieces ended 
in a dazzling display of gold and silver fire. 

The scene around me was truly oriental. We 
ladies were surrounded by innumerable amahs and 
slaves, who waited upon and chatted with us. 
The elder ladies smoked, that is to say they took 
occasional whifls out of copper pipes with long 
stems, presented to them by the amahs. They 
just turned their heads slightly, took whiffs, and 
the pipes were withdrawn by the amahs, to be 
re-lighted in a few minutes. The amahs frequently 
handed lacqueied boxes divided into compart- 
ments and filled with various kinds of pi-eserved 
fruits. 

The ladies were either eating some of this fruit 
or splitting melon seeds between their front teeth, 
the whole time. I very much liked the sugar- 
candy and the preserved fruits, but 1 could not 
swallow some of the sweets that were [)ut into my 
mouth, which had at the same time a sweet, a 
bitter, and an acid flavour. My enjoyment of 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 359 

the fruit was also mucli diminished by the fact 
that the particular amah, who waited upon me, 
took a silver hair-pin from her coiffure, stuck 
it into the preserve, and then put the preserve 
into my mouth. The gentlemen were seated at 
some distance from us, and during the whole 
evening there v\as no communication between 
the party of gentlemen and that of the ladies. 
We thoroughly enjoyed our evening, and did not 
return home until midnight. 



LETTER XXXVII. 

Canton, March 26th, 1878. 

My dear Mother, 

We had a very pleasant Chinese luncheon- 
party two or three days ago. Amongst our 
guests was our friend Mr. 'Ng, who has the 
beautiful house and grounds at Honam. You can 
imagine the size of his residence, when 1 tell 
you that it takes two hours to go over the house, 
and its numerous gardens and garden houses. 
He was accompanied by three of his friends, 
one of whom was an ex-chief justice of the vast 
province of Szechuen, which in area is larger than 
England. He filled a most responsible and high 
position. I could only wonder, as I looked at 
him, how many miserable prisoners he had con- 



360 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

demned to be executed. He is a fine-looking man, 
and the dress he wore was very handsome. His 
long, dark rich brown silk coat was lined through- 
out with fur ; he showed us this fur lining when 
we pressed him to sit near the fire. It is by thick 
clothing that the Chinese protect themselves from 
cold. Fire-places are not allowed in any of the 
houses, kitchens alone excepted, for fear of the 
harm that might ensue, in case of accident, to 
neighbouring dwellings in the narrow and thickly- 
populated streets. Small charcoal fires, enclosed 
in bronze or earthenware pans, are used by the 
Chinese in very cold weather. These portable 
fires are placed generally in the centre of the 
sitting-rooms, and the members of the family 
congregate around them. The chief justice had 
very long nails on four of his fingers ; they were 
from two to three inches in length. I cannot 
understand how he and others who have these very 
long nails preserve them from injury, as they do 
not wear shields over them in society. At night, 
however, they enclose them in silver or bamboo 
tubes. 1 sat at table with our Chinese guests, 
Henry having explained to them previously, that 
it is the European custom for the ladies to dine 
with the gentlemen of their families. The chief 
justice sat by my side at the top of the table, 
and Mr. 'Ng was on my left. We gave an 
European luncheon, only taking care to have no 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 361 

beef on table, and to have the soup made of 
chicken. Before our guests touched the soup, 
they asked the question, " Is there any beef in 
it ? " It is against the teaching of Confucius to 
eat oxen; he forbids his followers to do so on 
account of that animal's usefulness in the 
service of man. Our Chinese guests expressed 
great satisfaction with pork chops, and also with 
pancakes and plum pudding which we had pro- 
vided for them. Before our friends arrived, 
a large box containing a present from the chief 
justice was sent to us. Two sets of silk costumes 
were in the box, one for our little boy and one for 
our little girl. In the former the coat was a 
bright green, and the trousers a brilliant red. 
The jacket for our baby girl was violet, and 
the trousers were green. A little cap of many 
colours for the boy, with a row of silver- 
gilt figures to wear round it, and a bright 
coloured head-dress, to be worn round the fore- 
head (the top of the head being uncovered), for 
our little girl, accompanied the other garments. 
There were also silver-gilt bangles, and a pair 
of jadestone bangles, both very small in size, 
for immediate use, a silver chain and an orna- 
ment in silver, representing the Ki-lun, or fabulous 
animal, for the boy's neck, and a Chinese lock on a 
tiny silver chain for our baby girl. Two card-cases 



362 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

of carved sandal-wood completed the present. 
When we thanked the mandarin for his hand- 
some gift, he said in true Cliinese style, "It is 
only a very small present, indeed it is but a 
trifle." He fortunately is a native of the pro- 
vince of Canton, so Henry and he kept up a 
conversation together, whilst jMr. 'Ng did his 
best with me in pigeon English. It was most em- 
barrassing to have the chief justice at my side, and 
not to be able to say a word to him. I have told 
you before how much literary degrees are valued 
in this country. To whatever class a man may 
belong, if he attain the B.A. degree, or still more 
the M.A. degree, he is at once raised in social 
position. A man who takes his Doctor's degree 
confers an honour on his whole clan, and becomes 
a man of distinction. Therefore, when these gentle- 
men on inquiry learned that Henry had taken 
his Doctor's degree, it not only raised him but also 
me in their estimation. They at once rose, chin- 
chinned Henry, and turning to me addressed me 
as " Taai-Taai," a higher title than " Nai-Nai." I 
have not yet told you, I believe, that some few days 
ago we received a congratulatory present from a 
military mandarin. It not only consisted of silk 
clothes, bangles and ornaments for our children, 
but also comprised a large packet of sugar, 
another of preserved fruit, a third of a different 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 363 

kind of fruit, aud a small chest of tea. All the 
presents were done up in red paper, aud visiting 
cards of the mandarin accompanied them. 

After our Chinese guests had left, we went in 
our sampan to Paak-Hok-Tuung, and walked 
thence to Haang-Kau-Oha-Shaan, where there 
is a small tea plantation. The tea shrub is an 
evergreen and greatly resembles the box-tree 
with \\hich we are so familiar in England. It 
ffrows to a heio-ht of two or three feet. We saw 
men and women picking leaves from the plants, 
and putting them into baskets which they 
held on their arms. I noticed that they used 
great care, picking one leaf only at a time from 
the shrubs. On the following day I had an 
opportunity of visiting a tea-factory, where I saw 
the process of picking out stems and bad leaves 
from quantities of tea spread on ruttau-trays. 
This was done by women and girls who employed 
both hands at a time with great dexterity. In 
another department of the factory, I saw men 
sieving and winnowing tea leaves, the machine 
used for winnowing being precisely similar to the 
machine emploN^ed by English farmers in winnow- 
ing grain. In another department through which 
we passed, men were casting tea leaves into large 
immoveable fire-pans, rendered hot by charcoal 
fires. To prevent the leaves from burning, they 
continually stirred them up with their hands. 



364 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

The men, who were very scantily clothed, were 
dripping with perspimtion whilst engaged in this 
work. I was somewhat startled on seeing the 
means used to make Canton green teas. To pro- 
duce the colour, Prussian blue and turmeric 
were mixed with the tea leaves. Gypsum was 
also added, and when I asked the reason why 
this was done, I was told that it was to give a 
pimgent flavour to the mixture. We finally went 
into the packing room, and I was much amused 
at seeing men pressing tea into tea chests by 
means of their naked feet. 

We arrived at Canton last year just too late 
to see the State worship and other ceremonies 
observed by the mandarins at the opening of the 
ploughing season. We resolved, therefore, to 
attend them this year, and hearing a few days 
ago that they were to take place yesterday, we 
made all the necessary preparations for a visit to 
the Sin-Nuung-Taau, a temple dedicated to the 
god of agriculture, where they were to be held. 
We arose at two a. m., and went in a sampan to a 
landing-place within half a mile of the temple. 
When we left the boat it was very dark, and 
we had to walk over some broken ground, which 
was attended with difficulty, our only light being 
a large paper lantern, on which our surname and 
address were painted in big red characters. We 
afterwards met several Chinese gentlemen who 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 365 

were on the same errand as ourselves. Their 
attendants were bearing lanterns before them, as 
in China no one is considered respectable who 
goes out after dark without a lantern. On ap- 
proaching the temple, we passed, at intervals, 
groups of soldiers squatting round large lanterns 
placed on tripods. They were awaiting the 
arrival of the great mandarins. Their piled arms, 
consisting of matchlocks, spears, and battle-axes, 
with gay banners arranged behind them, looked 
most picturesque as seen by the dim light of the 
lanterns. Looking into the temple, we saw in 
the centre of the quadrangle a high stone dais or 
altar, upon which sacrifices of sheep and swine, 
and offerings of fruits were placed. At length, 
all the officials arrived, and upon entering the 
temple at once engaged in worship. As the 
temple, which is very small, was overcrowded and 
stiflingly hot, we quickly withdrew and seated our- 
selves on a bench at the gates of the Wing-Shing- 
Tsze, or " City of the Dead," which was close by. 
It was a strange, weird-looking scene upon which 
we gazed ; daylight was gradually approaching, 
and we could just distinguish the sacred storks 
(or night herons as they may be called) flying to 
and from their nests in the thickly- wooded grove 
of the City of the Dead behind us. It was now 
five o'clock, and we saw many labourers going 
to their dailv work, and several market-gardeners 



866 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

passed us, carrying the produce of their s^ardens 
towards the city. They were evidently amused 
at our appearance, as they all turned round 
and stared at us. Several lepers, having a most 
loathsome appearance, also passed the place 
where we were sitting. They came from some 
mat huts erected for them on the top of a 
neighbouring hill by humane persons, there 
being no room for them in the asylum for lepers. 
These unfortunate creatures had not come to see 
the State ceremony which was then being held, 
but to await the arrival of funeral processions 
passing from the city to the neighbouring 
cemeteries, with the view of extorting money 
from the mourners. This custom is practised 
daily by lepers. Immediately in front of us there 
was a small field, belonging to the temple of the 
god of agriculture, irrigated and made ready for 
ploughing. It was intersected by nine long 
narrow wooden platforms, each of which was 
raised about a foot from the ground and covered 
by a mat roof. The mandarins, when ploughing, 
walked along these temporary platforms, and so 
avoided the mud and slush with which the paddy 
field was covered. Nine peasants dressed in yellow 
now brought red ploughs into the field, to each of 
which a buffalo was yoked. No sooner were these 
preparations completed than a stir amongst the 
soldiers on duty at the gates of the temple showed 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CxVNTON. 367 

that the officials had linished their worship. We, 
therefore, took our position close to the platform 
on wliich the Viceroy was to walk while ploughing 
liis furrows. We now observed that all the officials, 
attended by a number of sing'ng boys wearing 
yellow robes, were coming towards the field. The 
Viceroy and governor were conducted to the two 
centre platforms ; the Tartar General, the Pro- 
vincial Treasurer, the Chief Justice, the Literary 
Chancellor, and thiee other officials, occupying 
the side platforms. These nine high mandarins 
were dressed alike in robes which are only worn on 
this and similar occasions. The robes were long, 
made in dark blue silk, with patterns of drauons 
on them worked in gold thread. They were 
tucked up in front by belts worn round the 
waist. The costumes were com[)leted by court 
hats trimmed with red floss fringe. Each official 
carried a small wand in his hand, which was 
wound round by silk threads of five colours. 
These wands were supposed to represent whips. 
The singing boys now arranged themselves on the 
banks of the paddy field, and at the command of 
the master of ceremonies burst forth into hymns of 
pra'se. The officials, too, at this moment, placed 
their hands on the ploughs and began to plough 
their nine furrows. Each of these State plough- 
men was followed by two mandarins, who scattered 



368 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

rice seed from boxes, which they held in their 
hands. These amateur ploughmen and sowers of 
seed walked up and down their respective phit- 
forras nine times, and the ceremony was then 
brought to a close. 

You would have been greatly amused had you 
witnessed this State ceremony. The officials were 
brimful of pomposity, walking in the peculiar 
mandarin gait, with countenances unmoved, all 
expression banished from them. This ceremony 
is observed on the same day, throughout the 
length and breadth of China. The Emperor 
himself takes part in it, ploughing his nine fur- 
rows with a yellow plough. However much we 
may laugh at some of the details of this singular 
ceremony, we must acknowledge that a religious 
feeling has prompted the nation at large to ask 
a blessing upon the plough and all arable lands 
of the country. It is of great antiquity, having 
been observed by the Chinese for several centu- 
ries. On our way to rejoin our boat we met a 
strange procession of thirty or forty men dressed 
in long white sackcloth garments, with white 
bandages, like nightcaps, round their heads. 
They were walking in Indian file along a narrow 
bank. We conjectured that they were going to 
the " City of the Dead " to remove the remains of 
a departed relative to a newly-made tomb in one 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 369 

of the neiglilouriDg cemeteries. Still, tliese 
mourners must have been near of kin to the 
deceased, as sackcloth garments are only worn 
by tho>e immediately related to the departed one. 
Friends attending a funeral wear a strip of white 
cloth only round their foreheads. 



LETTER XXXVIII. 

Canton, April 6th, 1878, 

My dear Mothee, 

We are anxious to make several excursions 
up the river before the weather becomes too warm 
for us to enjoy them, so we arranged yesterday to 
go up the river as far as IMeou-Yu-Tau, a dis- 
tance of twenty-five miles from Canton. We were 
obliged to wait until eleven o'clock a.m., when the 
tide turned in our favour. We engaged a slipper 
boat with four strong men in it, and as Henry was 
anxious for us to see as much as possible of the 
country, we had the mat roof taken off; the 
boat thus became nothing more than a kind of 
raft. Most fortunately we had a lovely day for 
our excursion, the sun shining fiercely only at 
intervals. On going up the river we soon lost all 
trace of the city of Canton, and were in the midst 
of very pretty scenery. The Pearl River is noble in 
its width, and the branch of it on which we were 

2 B 



370 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

trayelling bends constantly; the effect in many 
parts was like lake scenery. The chains of 
mountains were beautiful, that of the White 
Cloud JMountains, the favourite resort of all 
Europeans living in Canton, beiug on the right as 
we passed up the river. In front of us there was 
another chain, called by the Chinese " The Three 
Chignons," from the fact that each of its three 
peaks is supposed to resemble a Chinese lady's 
coiffure. We passed a great number of wheat 
fields, also some rice lands. The small beds of 
the seedlings ready to be transplanted into larger 
fields, were brilliantly green in colour. There were 
many herds of buffaloes on the banks of the river 
belonging to the various farms we passed. Many 
of the farmers must be rich men, to judge by the 
large herds of buffaloes kept on their farms. 
In many cases these animals were ploughing the 
land. The country was beautiful through which 
we passed, with mountains in the distance, paddy 
and wheat fields, and beautiful groves of bamboo 
and other trees in the foreground ; and tlien, to 
add to the charm of the scene, there were many 
and various shaped boats on the river. Several 
passenger boats passed us, with their large 
butterfly-wing shaped sails spread, crowded with 
passengers who were going to their native 
villages to worship the tombs. On the hills were 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 371 

groups of Chinese engaged in religious worship at 
the various graves. The last hour of our jour- 
ney we made very slow progress, as the tide had 
turned against us. Our men got out of the boat 
and went on to the left-hand bank of the river 
to tow us. Poor men, they had hard work, and 
were obliged occasionally to take to swimming, 
as there were so many gaps in the bank, caused by 
the tributary streams flowing into the main river. 
This must, one would think, have been injurious 
to them, considering the state of intense heat they 
were in from towing the boat. They were very 
cheerful, and did not grumble once during their 
hard day's work. At last we came in sight of our 
destination, a literary pagoda,* but it was still 
some long way off, and it took us an hour longer 
to reach it. The river had become very narrow, 
and the scenery around was lovely. We were 
now at the foot of the Chignon Mountains, and 
passed quite near to several picturesque villages, 
each one having its large ancestral hall and 
tutelary temple. We went close to one village, 

* These literary pagodas abound on the banks of the rivers 
and creeks around Canton. They are supposed to resemble a 
Chinese pencil in form — hence their name. They are built 
either in three or five storeys, very rarely in storeys of an even 
number. They are often beautifully ornamented with porcelain 
frescoes and arabesques. They differ from the larger pagodas 
somewhat in form, and have no projecting verandahs. 

2 B 2 



372 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the men pulling towards it, in order to avoid tlie 
strong current in the middle of the stream. The 
inhabitants ran out of their houses and clustered 
on the banks of the river to stare at us. I was 
much struck with the pretty picture a ferry-boat 
made, with its landing-place, on the opposite side 
of the river. Men and women, with their large 
picturesque hats, were waiting there for the 
ferry-boat. This landing-place was covered over 
by a stone roof, evidently erected by some one 
as a work of merit to shelter wayfarers when 
waiting to cross the ferry. I saw, also, several 
sampans drawn up on the bank of the river 
near to this village. The children of the boats 
were playing round the only homes they knew, 
and were apparently enjoying their run ashore. 
Shortly after this we arrived at the point where we 
intended to lunch. It was now three o'clock in 
the afternoon. The scene before us was so lovely 
that I expressed a wish to remain a week at this 
place, but you will see that I soon had reason to 
change my mind. 

There are three literary pagodas in sight at 
this point, and it was at the foot of the first that 
we arranged to have our luncheon. We got out 
of our boat and took up our position with our 
faces turned to the river, our backs resting against 
the side of the hill. Close to us there was a 



374 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

beautiful herd of oxen with faces much re- 
sembling Alderney cattle. The peculiar humps, 
however, which they had on their shoulders 
made them most unlike European oxen. There 
was a ferry at this place, and whilst the coolie 
was preparing our luncheon, we were much inter- 
ested at watching the men who were endeavouring 
to make the oxen swim across the river. At last, 
as the creatures could not be induced to go alone, 
they tied three of them together, and a man taking 
the end of the rope in his hand entered the ferry- 
boat. Another man tied three more oxen together, 
and holding tlie rope in his hand also got into the 
boat. The animals were now compelled to take to 
the water, and we saw them swim across the 
river, which is tolerably deep and wide at this 
point, their beads only being visible out of the 
water. When our coolie had prepared everything, 
we sat down to our luncheon with good appetites, 
making up our minds to explore the hill and the 
pagoda after we had refreshed ourselves. Whilst 
we were lunching, a man who had crossed in 
the returning ferry-boat, came up and spoke to 
Henry. He was quite civil in manner, and drank 
a cup of tea which was handed to him. He 
then left and went on to a village which was not 
more than a quarter of a mile from us. We con- 
tinued our luncheon in perfect tranquillity of mind, 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 375 

our dog All-Fa frisking about us. In a short time 
three men came up from the village and stood 
close to us, eyeing the spoons, and everything we 
had with us. They were mucli struck with our 
bamboo chairs, which they said were good. My 
back was turned to them, and so I did not at 
first see their ill-favoured countenances, nor the 
looks which, as Henry told me afterwards, they 
cast on my onyx earrings and rings, which I un- 
fortunately wore that day. Possibly they may 
have thought them of great value. But I must 
give you a description of these three villainous- 
looking men, whom, on turning round, I was 
surprised to see. One of them was in such rags 
that his clothes would scarcely hang on him ; the 
second was a most evil-looking man of twenty or 
less, and the third looked like a ticket-of-leave 
man. They cast longing eyes at the food, as 
if they were ravenous. Our coolie ordered them 
away, but, from his voice, we could see he was 
much afraid of them. Indeed, he told Henry that 
he was quite sure they were thieves. The three 
men then moved a hundred yards or so towards 
the village, but they stopped and watched us, our 
coolie shaking with fear as he packed up the 
forks, spoons, etc., as quickly as he could. We 
(Henry, Minnie, and I) then ascended the hill, leav- 
ing these three wretched-looking men whispering 



376 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

togetlier below. We were charmed with the 
exquisite view as we went higher and higher. 
We could see four or five separate chains of 
mountains, and pretty valleys, with the river 
whiding its course amongst them. The pagoda 
we visited is a four storeyed one, but each 
division of it is so deep that the pagoda is high. 

We went on from the pagoda to the brow of the 
hill and looked down upon the village with its 
covered market-place, from which, no doubt, the 
pretty oxen had been driven. Minnie and I 
gathered charming wild flowers, one of which was 
a lovely blue in colour, resembling our Forget-me- 
not, and another was a red clustered flower, having a 
sweet scent. Having enjoyed the view, we pre- 
pared to descend the hill, as we felt thut we must 
soon start on our homeward journey. We had 
walked on about five minutes, when we heard low 
voices approaching, and immediately after saw 
some men stealthily creeping up the side of the 
hill. To my horror, I recognised the evil-looking 
fellows who had spoken to us below, and soon 
saw that these three men had gathered reinforce- 
ments. First, three came in sight, then another 
three, and still lower on the hill was one man 
alone. From the arrangement of the men, and 
their stopping immediately upon seeing us, and 
turning towards us, it was evident that they were 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 377 

bent upon mischief, and we felt sure that they in- 
tended to attack us. Henry said, " You and Minnie 
go on in front of me, they mean to do us harm." 
I must confess tliat my knees trembled under me, 
and I dreaded going down the steep hill towards 
these ruffianly-looking fellows. Tiiey arranged 
themselves in order of attack as we passed near 
them, and one man, the foremost one, had his 
hands behind his back with something shining in 
them. I looked and thought it was a knife, but 
afterwards I came to the conclusion that it was a 
light-coloured stick, and that the sun shining 
brightly on it, gave it the appearance of steel. 
Another of the men held a thick stick in his hand 
which had a large knob at the end. The young 
villainous-looking man held a small basket, 
probably containing stones, which he must have 
brought from the village, whilst we were ascending 
the hill, as he had nothing in his hand when we 
first saw him. Henry having placed himself 
between us and the robbers, called to us to move 
slowly on, and not to show fear, but this was an 
injunction not easy to follow, as I was in terror 
lest the men should spring upon Henry and stab 
him in the back. One hears that these Chinese will 
hesitate at nothing, will risk everything for a few 
dollars. We walked on, two of the party quaking 
as, I believe, neither of us had quaked before in 



378 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

our lives. Henry maintained a fiim, dauntless 
manner, walking leisurely, and helping Minnie 
and me, as we arrived at the sharpest part of the 
hill. He kept liis hand in his buttoned-up coat, 
and I believe that these men feared to attack, 
thinking that he carried fire-arms, as the Chinese 
have an idea that all foreigners carry weapons. I 
felt as if seven tigers were watching us, ready to 
spring upon us. At one moment, one of the men 
made a shrill scream and pushed one of the others 
towards Henry. Henry knew that this noise is 
generally a signal of attack, and said calmly, 
" They are upon us." I looked towards the boat in 
an agony of fear, to see whether we might rely 
upon help from our coolie and the boatmen. But, 
alas ! the broad-shouldered young coolie stood on 
the bank, liis back turned towards us, and the boat- 
men were in their boat, ready to start if any mis- 
chief should befall us. The seven robbers turned 
their faces towards us as we slowly descended 
the hill. What prevented their attacking us I 
cannot say, but, on talking it over afterwards, Ave 
came to the conclusion that they had intended 
to attack us at the top of the hill, out of sight 
of our boatmen, not having anticipated our speedy 
return from the hill. They may have counted 
upon waylaying us in the pagoda. Henry's calm, 
deliberate, attitude saved us from what, I believe, 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 379 

would have been certain disaster, as an unarmed 
man, and two defenceless women could have had 
no chance against these seven villains. I never 
shall forget my feeling of relief as we stepped into 
the boat, and at once pushed off from the shore. 

The boatmen, on our reaching the boat, said at 
once to Henry that we had had a narrow escape 
from the hands of bad men, that they had expected 
to see an attack made upon us, feeling assured 
that the seven men meant mischief, as they saw 
them creep up the hill. The boatmen went on to 
sav (with how much truth you can imagine) that 
they had intended to come to our assistance in 
case of need. As there was a distance of at least 
ten minutes from the boat to the hill, and they 
had not moved from their boat when we were in 
such grievous peril, we felt that their words were 
not deserving of much credit. Our coolie had evi- 
dently turned his back, so, in case of disaster, he 
might say he had seen nothing of it, knew nothing 
about it. As we pushed off from the shore, the 
seven men were standing on the side of the hill, 
looking like vultures disappointed of their prey. 
We now started on our homeward journey, our faces 
being turned towards most charming scenery. It 
was not, however, so lovely as the view had bee a 
up the river, and I must also add, that I did not 
feel in so happy a state of mind as before, to ejijoy 



380 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the country scenes through which we returned. 
The sun too, soon began to show signs of going 
down, and all became grey. As we neared the 
village of Wong-Sha, a long narrow boat, without 
a light showing from any part of lier (a bad sign 
this, as all boats, excepting those containing 
men of ill-repute, carry lights after sunset), 
bore down upon us, and as it came alongside 
of us, we saw that three or four men were in 
it. It was a snake-boat, and Henry and the 
boatmen exclaimed simultaneously that they were 
tbankful that we had not met with it in a more 
remote part of the river. Fortunately we were 
in a measure protected by our nearness to \\'ong- 
Sha. It occurred to us also that these pirates 
wished to have nothing to do with Europeans, 
as they sheered off on seeing us. We reached 
home at half-past eight p.m., very tired and worn 
out by the fatigues and excitements we had passed 
through during the day. 



LETTEE XXXIX. 

Canton, April lOtli, 1878. 

My dear Mother. 

The day before yesterday we went into the 
city and reinspected many branches of Chinese 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 381 

industry. I was much interested in my visit to 
the dye-works, where I saw the process of dyeing 
cotton cloths, and had it fully explained to me. 
In the inner division of the factory, several large 
vats stood filled with blue dye for printing 
the blue cotton so much used by the Chinese, or 
with a prnne-coloured dye also used for dyeing 
cotton stuffs. The blue dye is composed of indigo, 
water, native wine, and lirae. The prune dye is 
produced by tanning bark, which is brought in 
large quantities from Siam. The process of dye- 
ing these cloths is repeated fourteen times, if the 
colour is to be a dark blue, but four times only, if 
the colour is to be a light shade of blue. The 
cotton cloth is then ready to be calendered. I 
was much amused in watching the primitive 
means used by the workmen to moisten the fabric 
before placing it under the stone rollers which are 
used by the calenderers. They take mouthfuls 
of water from the spouts of teapots, and then 
squirt the water from their mouths over the cloth. 
It is astonishing how much water these men, by 
practice, can take into their mouths at one time. 
The calendering is performed by men standing 
on large granite stones, which they move up and 
down by their naked feet, the cotton cloth being 
placed on wooden rollers underneath these stones. 
On leaving the dye-works we went on to a tobacco 



382 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

manufactory. Here we saw women employed in 
the upper rooms of the factory, in pickiug the 
fibres from the tobacco leaves. They worked most 
rapidly, and did not leave off as they gazed in 
surprise upon us. Below, men were engaged in 
spreading the leaves, which had been prepared by 
the women, on a wooden platform and trampling 
them under their naked feet. They sprinkled 
the leaves occasionally with oil, and then threw 
a red-coloured powder over them to give them 
a red colour. The tobacco leaves were then 
gathered together, and pressed by means of flat 
boards placed under a large wooden beam. This 
pressure reduces them into the form of large cakes. 
Workmen were employed in another j)art of the 
factory in cutting these compressed leaves into 
small particles, and others were weighing certain 
quantities, and making them up into packets. 
These packets were then placed in ovens, heated 
by charcoal, for the purpose of being dried. On 
being removed from the ovens they were ready 
to be sold wholesale or retail to customers. In 
passing through Cheung-Lok street, we entered 
some small shops to inspect specimens of wood- 
carving. Some which were richly carved were 
intended for temple decorations or for the orna- 
mentation of private houses. The devices in 
many instances were very strange. The street 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 383 

occupied by lapidaries, wlio are engaged in ciitting 
jadestone, was the next place at which we made a 
halt. We went into three or four of these work- 
shops, and I was much amused by the cool manner 
in which Henry took out jadestone thumb-rings, 
bracelets, or whatever was in the machines, and 
showed them to me. The workmen laughed and 
nodded, and, knowing Henry so well from his 
constant visits to their workshops, they stopped or 
went on with their work as he directed. The 
cutting of the large blocks of jadestone is done 
by means of wire saws, which are made in the 
form of bows having strings of plaited steel wire. 
The sawyers stand on each side of the block of 
jadestone, and pull the wire saw backwards and 
forwards in a horizontal direction. They drop 
emery powder mixed with water on the part of 
the stone they are cutting. When the blocks of 
jadestone have been divided into pieces, they are 
handed on to other lapidaries who form them 
into ornaments by small circular saws. The jade- 
stone varies much in colour, from white to light 
and dark green. Having watched the lapidaries 
for some time, we went on to the Ch'uung-Shau- 
Tsze, a monastery in which the Buddha of lon- 
gevity is worshipped. He is represented, as a 
very fat, merry-looking old man. Portraits of him 
are often to be seen in shops where pictures are 



384 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON, 

sold, and little bronze and porcelain images of him 
are for sale in the curiosity shops. There is a pretty 
landscape garden attached to this monastery, and, 
in a nursery garden belonging to it, we saw large 
earthenware vessels filled with gold fish. There 
were square troughs containing many of these 
brilliant creatures in all stages of growth, from 
spawn up to the fully-grown fish. This Chinese 
golden carp has a very long tail divided in the 
centre, with two drooping fans on each side. Its 
eyes are peculiarly prominent. It is indigenous 
to the country. We afterwards inspected some 
carvings in mother-of-pearl, which were beauti- 
fully executed. The carving is deep and rich. 
This is surprising, as the instruments used by the 
workmen are of a most primitive kind. We 
also visited some of the shops where silk-weaving 
was going on. As you enter the Chow Ch'uung- 
Tuung street, you hear the sound of sliuttles being 
thrown rapidly from one side of the looms to the 
other. This street is the very centre of the silk- 
weaving district of the city of Canton. The loom 
user! for plain weaving differs little from that which 
is employed in England, but the frames in use here 
for fancy silks are most dissimilar to those used 
in England for the same purpose, and are most 
primitive in form. The draw-boy sits above the 
frame, and pulls the strings by which he brings 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 385 

down the warp-thread through which the sliuttle 
has to pass to form the pattern, I saw many 
beautiful webs of silk being made, and I was 
struck by some of the colours, which were lovely 
in shade. 

We were now quite close to one of the water 
streets. I do not remember whether I have 
described these water lanes to you, in a former 
letter. They are most curious, and remind all 
European travellers of the water streets of Venice, 
only here you have no palaces, but ordinary 
houses on each side of them. As I stood in an 
open doorway, looking down one of these water 
streets, namely that which is called, in Chinese, 
Sai-Hoi, I could imagine that there must be a 
great resemblance. The inhabitants of the houses 
step out of their doors into boats, wlien they want 
to go from their homes. A very large water-gate, 
through which boats pass within and without the 
walls of the city, stands at the end of this water 
street. Leaving this place, we went through 
the street called Chong-Uen-Fong, famous for its 
beautiful embroidery. We entered into many of 
the open shops where men and boys were working 
beautiful patterns on silk or satin in frames. 
I saw most lovely pieces of embroidery in hand, 
some of which were intended for large ancestral, 
or longevity banners, and others as coverings 

2 c 



386 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

for altars. In some cases the embroidery was 
for mandarins' dresses or ladies' tunics. The 
shading of colours was most charming, and I 
thought the flowers and butterflies introduced 
into the patterns were exquisitely worked. Tiie 
pattern is sketched in white chalk, on the silk 
or satin before the embroidery is begun. I am 
much in love with this rich work, and also with 
the beautiful fringes made by the Chinese. The 
embroidery varies very much in quality, a fact 
you do not observe so much at first, but as the 
eye becomes educated, you can detect the different 
qualities at once. We paid a most interesting 
visit to the shop of a gold-beater in this street. 
In this shop two men were beating out gold into 
extremely fine sheets. The gold was placed 
between pieces of black paper, and several of 
them being so arranged, they were covei'ed over 
with thick white pasteboard, then placed on a 
block of unpolished marble. The men who sat 
on each side of the block proceeded to beat the 
packets of gold with extremely heavy hammers, 
and whilst they were so employed streams of 
perspiration fell from their naked shoulders. I 
was amused at seeing two boys who stood behind 
these workmen, and fanned them without ceasing. 
>Some shops in this neighbourhood, in which horn 
lanterns are made and exposed for sale, much 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 887 

pleased me. I wish you could see these lanterns, 
which are manufactured by a singular process, and 
are made in most varied shapes and sizes. Many of 
them are beautifully painted, and framed in black 
carved wood. I cannot tell you all I saw in these 
interesting streets, but I may mention the work 
in kingfisher's feathers which we examined, and 
the beautiful feather fans made from the plumage 
of many a lovely bird. As fans are such necessary 
articles for use in this country, the supply is most 
varied, and the prices asked for them ranges from 
a few cash to many dollars. The carving in 
ivory too, by means of very primitive instruments, 
came under our notice. I saw an elephant's 
tusk wiiich was being exquisitely carved. It had 
been some months under the workman's hands, and 
was still far from completion. It was to be offered 
for sale at a very high price. We now felt in 
need of some refreshment, and therefore went 
into a large tea-saloon. I was very tired with 
my morning's work, but I had enjoyed it most 
thoroughly. It was intensely interesting to see 
the industries which are carried on at the pre- 
sent moment in this country in a precisely simi- 
lar manner as they were in ages past, and I felt 
while inspecting them as if I had been removed 
into centuries long since gone by. And now I 
must give you a description of the tea-saloon 

2 c 2 



388 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

into which we entered in searcli of refreshments. 
It, as is the rule with all these tea-saloons, of 
which there are very many in Canton, consists of 
two or three storeys, in each of which small tables 
are placed with chairs arranged around them. 
These saloons are very grand, being richly orna- 
mented with carved wood-work, and all the ar- 
rangements in them are beautifully clean. In 
fact they are infinitely superior in all particulars 
to public-houses in Europe, the place of which 
they supply in China. There is a furnace in eacii 
storey which supplies boiling water for the tea, 
the oidy beverage consumed in these saloons. On 
taking our seats in the upper room, round one of 
the small tables, a lacquerware box, divided into 
compartments and containing cakes of various 
kinds and many preserved fruits, was placed 
before us ; cups of tea, too, were handed to us. 
You cannot help being struck with the republican 
spirit which is shown in this conservative couutry 
in many particulars. In these saloons rich and 
poor occupy the same room ; a man in silk at 
one table, a man in cotton clothes at another. In 
Canton you do not see any Chinese women in 
lliese saloons. We much enjoyed our tea-cakes, 
preserved cherries, ginger, plums, and kum-kwats. 
When we h<id finished our repast, we called 
one of the waiting-men to us, for the purpose 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 389 

of paying our bill. And now I saw the method 
they adopt for charging. The waiter took up the 
lacquerwaie box, and counted how many cakes 
and fruits remained in it, he knowing the number 
of each which it contained previous to its having 
been phiced before us. As we were passing out 
of the room, this waiter called out the sura we 
were indebted, to an accountant, who sat behind a 
little counter at the door. And here we paid a 
trifling sum, so it seemed to me, for our luncheon. 
On going downstairs Henry took me into the 
large kitchen, at the back of the building, where 
several cooks were occupied in making cakes of 
different kinds, and from the piles and piles of 
little cakes just ready for use, one felt how much 
these places of refreshment must be resorted to 
by the Chinese. How incalculable would be the 
advantages to the English people, if similar re- 
freshment-rooms were established in England, 
where neither wine nor spirits would tempt the 
poor man to drink away his hardly-earned v/ages. 
When we arrived at the door of the tea-saloon, 
we found the street was much crowded, and, on 
asking the reason, were told that the procession 
of Paak-tai was about to pass down the street. 
We, therefore, took up our station at the door 
of the tea-saloon to see it go by. As you will 
be sure to remember my long description of a 



390 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

similar procession last year, I need not say much 
about this one, only that it differed in some 
particulars from the first I had seen. It was 
not on so large a scale, but the umbrellas, 
banners, etc., carried in it were new, and con- 
sequently very bright. One of its features I 
had not observed in the procession of last year. 
Various scenes were represented by children 
and young people, who were grouped on port- 
able platforms. I saw, in one of these set 
pieces, a fortune-teller represented, with a lady 
consulting him. In another two ladies were 
playing cards. In one group the actors (children) 
were seated in a boat. A garden scene, with a 
group of people sitting in it, was prettily ar- 
ranged. The girls composing some- of these 
groups were immensely rouged, and wore beauti- 
fully embroidered silk costumes. The little boys 
wore beards, or long moustaches, and slanting 
eyebrows were gummed on to their foreheads. 

After the procession had passed, we paid a 
hurried visit to the Kwoh-Laan, or fruit market.* 

* In this market, whicli is one of great extent, there is for 
sale, at all seasons of the year, an almost countless variety of 
fruits. Of the fruits which, at stated times, are here exposed 
for sale, we may enumerate the orange, citron, pumniolo, apple, 
roae-apple, custard-apple, pine-apple, pear, carambola, quince, 
guava, loquat, pomegranate, pumpkin, plantain, apricot, peach, 
plum, persimmon, grape, mango, melon, mulberry, lichi, 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 391 

There is always a great variety of fruit exposed 
for sale in this, the Covent Garden of Canton, and 
I often pass throii<2;h it to see the fruits, many of 
which are strange to me. 

We had a very enjoyable excursion yesterday, 
some little way up the Fa-ti creek, our intention 
in starting being to go to a literary pagoda at 
Nam-Cheang and to take our afternoon tea at the 
foot of it. But first we paid, in passing, a visit to 
two or three of the gardens at Fu-ti. It is always 
a pleasure to me to stroll through these curious 
gardens. The first impression of them has naturally 
worn off, but their singularity strikes me afresh 
each time I enter them. It would be impossible 
to bring them as they are before your imagination, 
as you have seen nothing of the kind in England. 
I will try, however, to give you a short description 
of them. In the first place, the Chinese do not 
grow their flowers in beds, nor let them spread 
from one to the other as we do. They grow all 
their flowers in pots. Eows of them line the 
patlis in these gardens, and I have seen lovely 
shows of them, including roses, cockscombs, camel- 
lias, magnolias, chrysanthema, rhododendrons, 
balsams, azaleas, the narcissus, lotus, etc. As I 



wampee, date, luung-ngaan, arbutus, olive, cocoa-nut, walnut, 
chestnut, water-chestnut, and pea-nut. — Vide Archdeacon 
Gray's ' Walks in the City of Canton.' 



392 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

have walked up and down these gardens again 
and again, I have been amused at seeing numbers 
and numbers of plants trained over wire sliapes 
into various devices, such as deer, serpents, 
dolphins, pagodas, birds, fans, boats, flower-baskets, 
and lastly, and by far the most noticeable and 
numerous, those which are made to represent 
Englishmen. The latter are most grotesque. 
The body, down to the knees, is made in a wire 
shape with the plant trained and cut over it, 
marking out the outline. A tall hat covers a 
composition head, which is invariably represented 
with red hair and whiskers. High black boots 
are added below the knees, and com[)osition hands 
holding a stick complete these strange figures. 
Sometimes earthenware dogs are represented at 
the heels of these caricatures. Cantonese dogs 
never follow their masters, they are not trained 
to do so, but are regarded as watch-dogs only. 
It therefore strikes the Chinese in this city 
as most curious to see Europeans followed by 
their dogs. A stick, too, is not allowed to be 
used in China, by any man under seventy years 
of age, and it is then used as a staff. And so 
again the habit of able-bodied Europeans carry- 
ing walking-sticks is very strange to the eyes of 
the Cantonese. The dwarf-trees, grown in pots, 
which these gardens contain in great abundance, 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 393 

are very singular. Some of them, especially the 
pear-trees, are of great age, and are not more 
than from one to two feet high. Many have all 
the appearance of gnarled oaks in miniature. 1 
do not think, however, th^y are so wonderful as 
the dwarf-trees whicli I saw in Japan. The latter 
appeared to me as possessing more twisted 
branches, and as being more compressed in form 
than those to be found in the Fa-ti gardens. 
We now re-entered our sampan and went on to 
Nam-Cheang. The literary pagoda, at the foot of 
which we took our seats, is a graceful structure 
and charmingly decorated with porcelain fres- 
coes. The tea was brought to us by our coolie 
from the boat, boiling water was soon got ready 
over a little fire of sticks, and we sipped our tea 
and gazed upon the strange country in front of 
us. Having finished our tea we went into a small 
and dirty temple dedicated to the gods of learning. 
Such irightful idols they were, with a hideous 
attendant in effigy standing on each side of the 
chief altar. We then took a stroll through the 
small village, followed, as we usually are when 
passing through country villages, by boys and girls, 
the latter being very considerably in the minority. 
The girls, without exception, wore their hair cut 
in a fringe across their foreheads, and I knew 
from this that they were not only unmarried, but 



594 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



unaffianced. A young Chinese girl wears her 
back hair in a single plait hanging over her 
shoulders, the front hair is brought over the fore- 
head, but as soon as she is betrothed, the fringe 




UNMARRIED VILLAGE GIRL. 



is brushed back and the back hair is dressed a hi 
teapot. 

Followed by an admiring throng of village 
children, we walked on a little way from Nam- 
Cheang to inspect a large granite arch raised 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 395 

in lionour of Lau-laong-Shee, a woman who at- 
tained to the great age of a Imndred years, 
and who in consequence received this post- 
humous honour. The arch is high, and two 
figures are carved in relief on it, which repre- 
sent old age. Characters, engraved on it, pur- 
port that it is raised by imperial decree, and 
give the name of the lady thus honoured. 
This arch was raised some forty years ago. We 
were so much vexed the other day, on coming 
home from one of our excursions, to find that a 
party of ten Chinese ladies had called upon us. I 
wish they had given us notice of their intended 
visit, as I should have liked so much to entertain 
them, and certainly should have stayed at home 
to receive them. 



LETTER XL. 

Canton, April 12th, 1878.* 

My deak Mother, 

I HASTEN to write to you full particulars 
of a terrible catastrophe which befell our settle- 
ment yesterday, and which has destroyed several 

* This letter lias been re-written from memory, as the letter 
written at the time and sent to England describing the whirl- 
wind, was not returned to my family by the friend to whom it 
was lent for perusal. 



396 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

hundred liouses in the western suburb of the oity. 
I so much fear that you and all those who have 
relations living at Canton must have had a 
severe shock when the telegraphic news of the 
whirlwind and the destruction it has caused 
reached England. If you remember, in one of 
my letters written last August, I told you that 
we had had a terrific wind which caused us much 
alarm, and which destroyed some houses in the 
city. The sound accompanying this last whirl- 
wind was precisely similar to that I then de- 
scribed, only very much louder. But before I 
begin a description of all that happened when 
the whirlwind broke upon us, I must tell you 
what singular weather we had had during the 
earlier part of the day. About eleven o'clock a 
terrific thunder-storm came on, which was accom- 
panied by the most violent tropical rain. After 
that had ceased we were surprised by a shower of 
hail, and the hailstones we picked up from the 
floor of our verandah were in some cases as large 
as walnuts, and of the nature of ice. This hail- 
storm quickly passed off, and the weather par- 
tially cleared up. I was in my bedroom after 
luncheon, at, I believe, about half-past two, when 
I was attracted towards the window by a curious 
rushing sound, and on looking out 1 saw a 
great cloud of what appeared to be fragments 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 397 

and debris being driven madly up tlie river. I 
concluded that the great steamer ' Powan,' which 
was due from Hong-Kong; at that hour, had blown 
up. Immediately though I was undeceived, as the 
wind was upon us, and the banyan trees in front 
of our house were literally bent to the ground by 
its force. I rushed downstairs to Henry, whom I had 
left in the library, and as he came out of the room 
at the same moment, we met in the hall. He said 
to me and to Minnie, who had followed me down 
stairs, " Get under the staircase, a typhoon is upon 
us, and the house may come down ! " He had 
heard the crreat rushins; noise as he was readinsr 
in the library, and also a great amount of firing 
from the junks on the river, and came to the con- 
clusion that, unlikely as it appeared to be, an at- 
tack on the foreign settlement was being made by 
the Chinese. The full force of the whirlwind came 
upon the front of our house, and so terrific was it 
for a few seconds, that it took away our breath, 
and it seemed impossible that any masonry could 
withstand the shock. I was looking on the 
ground for a minute, when my little friend cried 
out, " Oh, Mrs. G ray, the house is coming down !" 
How can I convey to your mind any idea of the 
alarm this exclamation caused me, but on looking 
up I saw what had given rise to the little girl's fears. 
The front door, which is a very high one, gaped 



398 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

wide towards us, and it was only the lock and 
fastening that prevented it falling inwards. The 
window above it, which is in the form of a half- 
circle, fell in, glass, framework, and all, at the 
same moment. The hall lamp, too, was shivered 
to atoms. Without experiencing it, you cannot 
imagine what the fearful pressure of wind is on 
such an occasion. 

I feared for my little ones in their nursery, and 
tried to rush upstairs, but in vain. I could not 
open the door of the dining-room, the pressure of 
wind was so great upon it, for although it 
was on the sheltered side of the house, the 
windows were open. I could not go up the front 
staircase as the glass was falling upon it from the 
high window. Directly the glass had fallen and 
I could pass with safety, I ran uptairs, dreading 
what might have happened, but I found both my 
little ones asleep in their amahs' arms, happily un- 
conscious of the fearful danger they had been in. 
The amahs, who were blanched with fear, cried 
out, " Oh, mississi, how bad you look !" The agony 
of mind and the tension of fear for the few minutes 
that the whirlwind beat against our house, had 
told upon me. Our drawing-room, which was on 
the exposed side of the house to the whirlwind, as 
it came up the river, was most providentially 
closed ; I think for the first time since the 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 399 

warm weather had set in. The coolie, whose 
duty it was to open the windows and typhoon 
shutters, had left very early that morning to go 
into the country to worship tiie tombs of his 
ancestors. The other coolie had neglected to 
unfasten the windows and bliods, so the room 
was really barricaded against the wind. 

In the meantime, the slirieks and screams which 
proceeded from the river were most distressing 
to hear, and we felt sure that terrible destruction 
was taking place amongst the boat population. 
When we had sufficiently recovered, and felt 
that the danger as concerned ourselves had passed, 
we went on to our verandah, and then stepped 
on to the Bund. I sliall never forget the 
scene that now presented itself to our view. A 
quarter of an hour before the whirlwind arose 
I had looked out from this verandah to see what 
was the matter, as a great noise was made by some 
of the boat people. An accident had taken place ; 
a small boat having been run down by a junk. 
As I stood there, I noticed how full the river was 
of craft ; on the right-hand side there was a crowd 
of small boats, in front a large English steamer 
at anchor, surrounded by lighters discharging their 
cargo into her ; a little to the left were two small 
yachts at anchor, and numerous boats were plying 
about the river — and now, when I looked again. 



400 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

all was changed : the small boats were keel 
upwards, and the unfortunate boatmen were, I 
saw, crawling from underneath them on to the 
keels ; one yacht had disappeared, the other still 
rode at anchor, but her mast lay alongside of her in 
the river. The steamer alone remained uninjured, 
but the ca[)tain afterwards told us that had the 
wind struck her midship she would have turned 
over. Most fortunately the tide was changing at 
the moment, and she was in the act of turning 
round, so was struck on the stern by the whirl- 
wind. The lighters suffered fearfully ; they were all 
keel upwards, and the poor human beings belong- 
ing to them, at least those who had not perished, 
were clinging to the keels. The sound made by 
these boats crushing against and breaking each 
other up was most sad to hear. And now began the 
wailing of those who were already recovering the 
dead bodies of their dear ones. A fine boy of about 
nine years old was taken out of the water quite close 
to the Chaplaincy. The poor father came towards 
us with his dead child in his arms, his body bent in 
an agony of grief, and calling upon his son by en- 
dearing names to come back to him. The mother 
joined him, and added her wail of agony to his, and 
tore her hair in her despair. The father now held 
the boy by the heels, the head hanging down, in 
the curious belief that the water would thus flow- 



FOUIITEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 401 

from the mouth. He then placed the body on some 
bricks which the mother had set in orJer for that 
purpose, and put his foot on the chest of the boy 
to press the water out of the body, but it was all 
of no avail, the boy was dead. luimediately 
after this I saw live or six dead children laid side 
by side on the Bund. The creek at the back of 
our house was simply a scene of wailing and desola- 
tion. Hundreds of boats were floating keel upwards, 
and it seemed wonderful how some of the large 
craft had been able to turn over in so small a space. 
Tlie bridge which spans the creek was much 
injured, and by the time we reached it, half 
an hour after the \vhirl\vind had passed, it was 
crowded by hundreds of Chinese. It seemed as 
if another catastrophe might take place, by the 
damaged bridge giving way under the great 
pressure brought to bear upon it. The scene on 
the pathway between the river and the houses 
was most distressing. I saw the American and 
Chinese doctors busy attending to and binding 
up the wounds of those who had been injured by 
the falling houses. The silk rooms belonging to 
Messrs. Siemssen & Co. had simply collapsed, and 
some Chinese had suffered bruises and cuts in 
the fall. The police station was a wreck. On 
the opposite side of the creek, in the Chinese 
suburb, we saw the pathway of the hurricane 

2 D 



402 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

traced in the fallen houses. They had simply 
become a heap of ruins ; and now, as we walked 
on to the centre green walk of Shameen, we 
i-aw the devastation that had been committed 
on the settlement in those short eleven minutes, 
during which it is computed the hurricane raged 
over it. It had swept across the centre of the 
settlement in that corkscrew movement peculiar 
to whirlwinds. You could see by the banyan 
trees, which were torn up by the roots, where 
the fearfnl wind had first struck, and the houses 
immediately in its path looked very wrecks. 

The sides of several of them were blown down. 
The silk warehouse belonging to Messrs. Arnhold, 
Karberg, & Co. had fallen as a house made of cards 
by children falls to pieces, and thirteen Chinese 
were buried in its ruins. They were taking out 
the men (twelve of these men were dead when 
discovered) as we passed by the warehouse. And 
now the Europeans began to collect, and there was 
a look of evident relief as friend met friend, and 
a feeling of thankfulness was in every heart, as 
it became apparent that not an European was miss- 
ing, not one injured. It is difiicult to convey to 
you an idea of the devastation that reigned in our 
settlement. The branches of the trees were strewn 
about in all directions. One tree was a perl'ect 
marvel to everybody. It was one of the largest we 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 403 

had, but every bough had now been stripped off it, 
and by the rotatory movement of the wind had been 
piled up on the top of the trunk. An iron lamp- 
post in front of Messrs. Coare, Lind & Co.'s house, 
was bent double, and twisted like a corkscrew, 
and yet the strange caprice of the wind showed 
itself by leaving their house comparatively un- 
injured. Just a few slates were, I believe, 
blown off the roof. The question was, What 
now is to become of those whose houses have 
been rendered uninhabitable ? Where can they 
stay ? They were eventually divided amongst 
those whose houses had escaped or comparatively 
escaped from harm. The houses most injured 
were those of Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co., 
A, Gepp & Co., William Pustau & Co. and Arn- 
hold, Karberg & Co. We heard to-day that the 
lady living at Messrs. Jardine, IMatheson & Co.'s 
house had a narrow escape with her children. 
They were in one of the upper rooms, when the 
whirlwind came upon the house in its full fury, 
and before they had reached the door, the side 
of the house in which the room is situated fell 
down. They then took refuge in the corner of 
the upper landing, and from there saw the 
furniture driven from its position and flying 
about in all directions. A large screen standing 
by the staircase was lifted up and thrown over 

2 D 2 



404 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the stairs. In the drawing-room the furniture was 
simply wrecked, the top of the grand piano was 
taken off, all the ornaments were scattered about, 
and most of them broken. Below, a marble slab 
was lifted from a table and blown to the other end 
of a long hall. And yet all the inhabitants of 
this house escaped without a scratch ! The wind en- 
tered by the hall door, which was open, and cork- 
screwed up the house, rendering it uninhabitable. 
We returned home sore at heart at all the 
sufferings we had seen. We heard that a 
Chinese merchant, who was walking down the 
centre road of Shameen, was killed by a fall- 
ing brick-bat. We were also told that one of the 
ladies who had left the British Consulate, but 
had returned to fetch something from her room, 
had only just reached the door when a large 
piece of the roof fell through into the room. No 
one had had an idea that the roof was injured. 
Before I left home, I had noticed a most charac- 
teristic feature in some Chinese carpenters in our 
own house. We had a few days before this seen 
a beautifully-carved, black, hard-wood Chinese 
bedstead in one of the furniture shops, but it was 
then in various pieces. We said we should like to 
have the bedstead sent us, and put together at our 
house, so that we could decide if we would purchase 
it or not. It was accordingly brought to our house 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 405 

yesterday morning, and the carpenters set to work 
to fasten the pieces together, and they were still 
so employed when the whirlwind began. They 
left off for a minute or two, standing close to the 
bedstead, which they had placed in the upper hall. 
As soon as the fearl'ul rush of wind was over, they 
re-commenced their work, not even looking out of 
the window to see what had happened, not ask- 
ing a question, nor was their serenity apparently 
disturbed by the heart-rending shrieks and the 
combined wailing of the sufferers immediately 
around them. The poor people in the boats, at 
least those on the wide river, might have tried 
to save themselves when the first sounds of the 
whirlwind were heard. In their foolish belief, how- 
ever, that the mischief was caused by the dragon 
of the river twisting himself and lashing his tail, 
the men took out their guns, and fired them off 
incessantly for the few seconds' reprieve, before 
the force of the wind reached them, in order to 
frighten the dragon away from their boats. It 
was this firing that led Henry to suppose at first 
that an attack was being made on the foreign 
settlement by the Chinese. And now came the 
alarm^ namely the loud beating of gongs, to 
announce that fire had broken out in the city, 
and on looking we saw the heavens red in two 
distinct j)laces. The crowd of human beings in the 



406 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

Chinese street across the creek was immense. The 
great gaps, with the heaps of fallen rubbisli marked 
the path of the whirlwind, and now the horror of 
fire was added to the scene. Before it became 
dark, we had a notice sent to us, which went the 
round of all the European houses, to say that the 
Chinese Viceroy had sent a detachment of soldiers, 
under the command of a military mandarin, to 
protect the foreign community. The lamentations 
and wailings continued all through the night at 
intervals, but nothing occurred to cause us fresh 
alarm on the settlement. We have walked round 
it this morning, and a sad scene it presents. 
Any one coming to it as a stranger would imagine 
that the pLice had been bombarded. A tree 
broken off close to its roots was thrown over our 
neighbour's wall, which was much injured. Trees 
immediately opposite our door have been torn out 
by the roots from the chunam pavement, and lie 
on the ground. We have heard of many sad 
casualties. The Chinese tailor who worked for 
us was, with two or three others, killed by the 
falling of his house just across the creek. No 
one can estimate the number of lives lost yester- 
day ; they say it is some thousands, in fact it 
is feared that from six to ten thousnnd have 
perished. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 407 



LETTER XLI. 

Canton, April 17tli, 187S. 

My dear Mother, 

Last Saturday, and again on the followiua; 
Monday, Henry and I v.eut into tlie western 
suburb, to see for ourselves how far the reports 
we had heard of tlie fearful destruction cansed 
by the whirlwind were true. On starting in our 
sampan, we were conscious at once of a most 
disagreeable odour arising from the water, and as 
we pursued our way to the site of the old factories, 
the smell became more and more offensive, and 
we felt sure, from its intensity, that some dead 
bodies must be floating around and about ns. I 
dreaded to look, fearing to see some revolting- 
spectacle. When we entered the western suburb 
of the city, we noticed that the Chinamen, who 
were walking about, held pieces of sandal-wood to 
their noses, or lield the ends of their tails under 
their nostrils. In all the shops of the western 
suburb sweet-smelling incense was burning. At 
first we thought that the account given us of the 
devastation caused by the whirlwind had been ex- 
aggerated, but as we went on farther and found 
ourselves in the path that it took, we began to 



408 FOUilTEEX MONTHS IN CANTON. 

realise the extent of the disaster. As we stood up- 
on the bridge leading from th'e street called Shap- 
Ts'at Poo, a sad spectacle presented itself to our 
eyes. The creek was no longer a flowing stream, 
but was literally choked up by the debris of the 
fallen houses. As we went along, we were much 
struck by the peculiarly sharp line drawn by the 
whirlwind, for on one side of a very narrow 
street the houses stood uninjured, and on the 
other the houses were simply a mass of rubbish, 
or, if standing, were rendered uninhabitable. In 
one part of the western suburb we stood with 
fallen streets around us, just a chaotic mass of 
bricks and rubbish. On inquiring from men in 
this immediate neighbourhood, Henry became 
convinced of what he had previously conjectured, 
that the loss of human life was not so great as at 
first computed. In one long street, where all the 
houses were down, a man told Henry that only 
eleven persons had been killed. It is certain that 
the Chinese houses, being built of much ligliter 
material and without the solidity of an European 
house, do not bring the same wholesale destruc- 
tion upon their inhabitants when they fall. We 
then went on to see two large temples which have 
been shaken to their foundations by the whirlwind. 
The one is the Tien-Hau-Miu, tlie other, which 
immediately joins it, is the Mi-Chan-Miu. At first 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 409 

we were inclined to think they were not utterly 
ruined, but, on examining them more closely, we 
found that every pillar that was still standing 
was shaken and craclved ; the roofs were broken in, 
the porcelain frescoes most dilapidated, and a mass 
of bricks and rubble lay on the floor. The only 
parts that had escaped in either of the temples 
were, curiously enough, the two high altars ; and 
the goddess in one, and the god in the other, with 
their respective attendants, still maintained their 
positions, although they were much disfigured by 
the dust. On returning towards home, we went 
into a street close to Shameen, and here a very 
sad sight came before our eyes. We saw several 
plain wooden coffins at the side of this street, with 
men of the pariah class sitting by them, and wait- 
ing for corpses which were being dug out of the 
ruins of the fallen houses. We entered one of 
the native merchants' hongs, and saw two of the 
assistants sitting near the entrance, with a jar con- 
taining burning incense before them. This was a 
most necessary precaution, as the offensive odour 
in the shop was overpowering, and the merchants 
told us that one or two corpses had been already 
removed from the ruins in the rear of their hons:. 
In our walk of a mile from the landing-stage, 
and in making the circuit of the district which 
had suffered in the late catastrophe, we saw 



410 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

desolation and ruin. Henry thinks, however, from 
all he has learnt, that the lo^^s of human life caused 
by the whirlwind does not probably exceed 
five thousand. The Chinese benevolent society, 
the Yeuk-Hong, or Chinese dispensary at Shap- 
Ts'at Poo, gave four thousand coffins for the inter- 
ment of those who had perished. The Shun-kum 
(or Chinese gentry) have done much to alleviate 
the sufferings of persons who have sustained in- 
juries from the falling of their dwellings. They 
have erected mat sheds in the quadrangles of se- 
veral of the temples, in which native doctors are 
stationed to dress the wounds of the sufferers, 
and to give them advice and medicines. During 
our walk we entered two or three of these 
temporary dispensaries, and saw many seriously 
injured people receiving medical care, for which 
they seemed most grateful. 



LETTER XLII. 

Canton, April 22nd, 1878. 

My dear Mother, 

Henry learnt from one of his Chinese 
friends that a very grand funeral was to take place 
in the western suburb, and that it was to be one of 
unusual display, as the deceased man had held 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 411 

the high position of viceroy of two of the midland 
provinces of China. We started early in the 
morning, leaving home before six o'clock, and 
walked on to the street called Taai-Liiuk-Poo, to 
a house belonging to the family Loo, of which 
the deceased man was a member. He had died 
seven weeks before, at the ripe age of ninety-six 
years. A large crowd had assemble 1 in the street 
and around the door of the house of mourning, but 
they immediately made way for us to pass through. 
In the porch we were received most courteously by 
the attendants and invited to go into the house. 
We now passed into the inner hall, in which 
the large coflSn was placed behind a screen under 
the ancestral altar. Four sons of the deceased 
came forward, bowed themselves to the ground, 
and did the kau-tau at our feet, in acknowledg- 
ment of our visit of condolence. These men wore 
long sackcloth dresses and low-crowned caps also 
made in sackcloth, from which hung little cotton 
balls suspended on threads of cotton. These 
caps gave a very singular appearance to their 
wearers. The sons of the deceased then handed 
us cups of tea, and the conductor of ceremonies 
gave each of us a little present of lucky money, 
half a dollar in value, wrapped up in white paper. 
A similar present of money is given at all Chinese 
funerals to the friends who are present, but it 



412 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

varies in value according to the rank or fortune 
of the deceased person. Boiled rice was also 
presented to us, but we did not eat it, as it was 
regarded as an offering from the spirit of the 
deceased. This rice is boiled the night before by 
the sons of the family, attired in sackcloth, who 
cook it in the court-yard of the house, themselves 
adding fuel to the fire as required. When this rice 
is boiled it is called " old man's rice," and is offered 
to the spirit of the departed one. This custom is 
observed only when the deceased person has died 
full of years. On the day of the funeral this rice 
is divided amongst the guests. The ladies of the 
family were screened from our view by the altar, 
and the surroundings of the coffin, but we could 
see the edges of their sackcloth garments, and 
occasionally we caught a glimpse of some of them 
either sitting or kneeling on the ground. At 
this moment a passage was made through the 
crowd of friends and retainers, and a mandarin 
of high rank, in full dress, wearing a peacock's 
feather in his hat, advanced, prostrated himself 
before the altar, and worshij^ped the spirit of the 
deceased. The master of ceremonies regulated 
the worship as the mandarin knelt and did the 
kau-tau. A picture of the deceased, well painted, 
hung over the altar. Very many long em- 
broidered banners in bright and varied colours, 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 413 

coataining words of sympathy, adorned the walls 
of the outer and inner halls. On the withdrawal 
of the mandarin, eight Buddhist priests advanced 
into the inner hall and took up their positions, 
four on each side of the altar, on which stood 
a tablet bearing the name of the deceased, and 
offerings of food, fruit, flowers, and a cup of tea. 
Chopsticks were also placed on the altar. The 
priests, one of them beating a tom-tom and leading 
the chanting of the prayers, informed the spirit of 
the departed that they were about to remove his 
body to the tomb prepared for it, begging the 
spirit to be so good as to accompany it without 
causing trouble to the family. The Chinese 
entertain great fears that the soul of a dead man 
may not wish to leave the house on the day 
appointed for the funeral, and they strive to 
cajole it to do so. After the Buddhist priests 
had retired, eight Tauist priests came into the 
hall and rendered a similar act of worship to 
the spirit of the deceased. 

After these ceremonies were over, the howling 
for the dead commenced on the part of the mourn- 
ing women, and the chief mourners, the four sons of 
the deceased. The time having now arrived for the 
coffin to be removed from the house, a curious 
scene occurred. All the members of tlie family, 
attendants, etc., fled from the hall in all directions. 



414 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

as the Ng-tsok (a pariah class whose duty it is to 
carry corpses to the grave) were in the act of raising 
the coiBn on their shoulders. This panic arose from 
dread lest the soothsayer whom they had consulted 
should have failed in choosing a lucky day for 
the burial of the deceased, in which case his 
spirit would be so angry as to desire to afflict any 
members of the family, who were present at that 
moment, with some griveous sickness. 

We now left the house, as we wished to obtain 
a good position in the street through which the 
funeral procession was to pass. All forms and 
ceremonies observed at a Chinese funeral are 
strictly in accordance with the rank and position 
of the dead person, and in this case the arrange- 
ments were on a most unusually giand scale. We 
walked down the street some little way, and then 
entered a shop at the invitation of its owner, who 
at once recognised Henry as an old friend. It was 
fortunate we did so, as there was a long delay 
before the procession started from the house of 
mourning. Our kind friend gave us seats, and 
on hearing we should like to take tea, he made 
some for us. Henry as usual whiled away the 
time by entering into conversation with all 
around him. We noticed that the head assistant 
in the shop looked very sad and remained silent, 
and when the conversation turned on the subject 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 415 

of the late wliirlwind, he looked still sadder. 
The master of the shop told Henry that the 
yoiiDg man's wife had perished in a house 
close by, whicli had been blown down by the 
A\hirlwind. At last musical sounds and beating 
of gongs announced that the funeral proces- 
sion had started from the house of mourning, 
and our host kindly placed at his door a long form 
upon which we stood, and so wei'e enabled to look 
over the heads of the assembled crowd. The first 
tiling that appeared in sight after two gong 
bearers, was a long bamboo catafalque, which was 
intended to be placed over the coffin at the tomb. 
It was trimmed with bright-coloured fringe and 
narrow ribbons. Following it were two men who 
carried large lanterns with the name and title 
of tlie deceased painted on them. Then came 
sixteen young musicians, and after them boys 
bearing flags and paper lanterns on red poles. 
Men carrying red boards bearing the names 
and titles of the deceased and his ancestors, 
also others bearing insignia in various forms, such 
as battle-axes, sceptres, hands, etc., now passed 
before us. The Budilhist priests, who had wor- 
shi{)ped in the house, walked by two and two 
abreast. Equerries on ponies were added to the 
procession, in consequence of the high rank of the 
deceased. Eight of these equerries passed now 



416 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

and eight others nearer the end of the procession. 
After the eight equerries, the Tauist priests 
walked past, two and two abreast, preceded and 
followed by men carrying tables surmounted by 
canopies, trimmed wholly in yellow silk, a privilege 
accorded only by the Emperor to men of dis- 
tinction. These tables, swung on poles, held offer- 
ings of pigs, ducks, fowls, fruit and flowers. On 
another table I saw the official dress, hat, and silk 
boots of the deceased. A large red umbrella was 
carried in the procession, besides other bright silk 
umbrellas. Many friends of the bereaved family 
walked by, two and two, dressed either in long 
silk robes, or, if related to the family, in long 
white cotton coats. A number of soldiers formed 
part of the procession, in honour of the deceased 
viceroy. Then came other bands of music, 
followed by large paper effigies of gods, attend- 
ants, etc. And now passed in front of us the 
chief mourners in their sackcloth dresses, each 
supported on both sides by attendants, their 
backs bowed down as if for very grief they 
could not stand upright. Their eyes and noses 
were streaming, and the cotton bobs hanging from 
their sackcloth hats dangled in front of their 
faces, and gave them a really comical effect. 
The eldest son carried a wooden staff in his hand, 
round which were twined strips of white cotton. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 417 

In the other hand he bore a bamboo pole with a 
streamer at the end of it, called the soul-cloth, 
which is supposed to summon the spirit of the 
deceased to accompany the body it so recently 
animated. From where we stood, we could hear 
the loud wailing of the women who accompanied 
the coffin for a short distance from the house of 
mourning. Behind the chief mourners came the 
second eight equerries, and following them again 
appeared sixty-four men, who were clad entirely in 
white, and who paced slowly along, two and two. 
In their hands, passing from the first to the last 
and fastened to the coffin, were wide bands of 
white calico ornamented with huge rosettes made 
in the same white material. It is supposed (and 
here one sees another evidence of the original in- 
tention having become a sham ceremonial only) 
that these men are drawing the coffin to its 
last resting-place. The fact really is, that they 
have not a particle of weight of the burden laid 
upon them. The huge coffin now came in sight, 
and we saw that it was covered over by a 
richly ornamented red pall embroidered in gold 
thread with patterns of dragons worked on it. 
Along the top of the coffin Avas an immensely 
long pole, red in colour, and much ornamented. 
At one end of this pole a dragon's head was 
represented in green and gold, and at the other 

2 E 



418 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

end was the tail of the dragon equally gilded 
and decorated. 

This dragon pole can be placed only above 
the coffin of a man who lias attained the high 
rank of a viceroy. One feature of the procession 
which I find I have omitted, was the state chair, 
used by the deceased when living. It now con- 
tained his portrait, which had been placed on 
the seat by his sous just before they had left the 
house of mourning. Tfe lamps were alight inside 
the chair, and all was arranged as if the great 
man himself were seated in his chair, instead 
of being a lifeless corpse borne along upon the 
shoulders of some dozens of the Ng-tsok or 
carriers of the dead. The prescribed number of 
chair hearers, in accordance with the high rank 
of the deceased, carried the state chair, and the 
orthodox number of attendants accompanied it. 
The stage on which the huge coffin rested had 
a most complicated arrangement of rope about 
it, by which the Ng-tsok supported the coffin. 
Paper money was scattered along the streets to 
appease the hungry ghosts of paujx'rs, who, having 
died in the streets, have not received the usual 
offering of food and money from their descendants. 
The procession closed with some led ponies be- 
longing to the sons of the deceased man, and by 
groups of attendants and friends. We had seen 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 419 

the high ofiicial, in wliose honour this long pro- 
cession was made, only some two or three weeks 
before his death, wlien we were visiting one of 
the temples, and a Chinese who was present told 
Henry of his high rank, and said that only he 
and one other citizen of Canton were living who 
had attained to the rank of viceroy. No man 
is ever appointed to this high office in the 
province of which he is a native. 

Another strict rule is that when a viceroy 
is appointed to a province, the relations of his 
wives may not accompany him. The American 
Consul's wife told me, a few days ago, a touching 
anecdote about the present viceroy of Canton. He 
had a favourite wife, one he dearly loved, and, as 
he himself told the consul, it was she who always 
superintended his toilet. He said he always went 
to her, before leaving his yamuu on state occasions, 
to ask for her opinion as to his personal appear- 
ance. This wife, on coming to Canton, much 
missed her family, from whom she had been sepa- 
rated for the first time. She entreated her husband 
to allow her to send for them, but he told her that 
it was not possible for him to comply with her 
request. She urged him again and again with 
tears to allow her family to come to her, but the 
viceroy had it not in his power to gratify her wish. 
Just before we arrived at Canton, in ]\Iarch of last 

2 E 2 



420 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

year, the poor woman, not being able to bear tlie 
refusal of her wishes, took opium whilst her hus- 
band was away from home, and on his return he 
found her dying. In an agony of grief he sent for 
the Missionary Doctor, and offered him any sum 
of money, if he could restore his beloved wife, but 
it was too late, and she died a few minutes after 
the doctor arrived. The viceroy is in great distress 
at having no children ; he has married three wives, 
but is still childless. He consulted some geoman- 
cers on the subject, and they advised him to build 
a pagoda in the grounds of his yamun, promising 
him a son when it was completed. The pagoda 
was raised, but the viceroy's desire was not 
gratified, and, on asking the geomancers for the 
cause, they said they had ascertained that the 
pagoda had been placed on an unlucky spot of 
ground, that it must be taken down, and rebuilt 
in another part of the garden. This pagoda is 
now in course of reconstruction. 



LETTER XLTIL 

Canton, April 29th, 1878. 

My dear Mother, 

We have endeavoured several times to go 
up a tidal creek which intersects the island of 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 421 

Honara, and to make a circuit, returning home 
by the broad river, but we have been ag^ain and 
again foiled in our attempts, owing to the low- 
ness of the tides. We made up our minds to 
make another effort last week, and' started to- 
wards the end of the one tide, to catch the fair 
tide on the broad river, as Ave knew if we failed in 
this it would make the excursion so long that we 
could not possibly arrive home until night had set 
in. We started about half-past two p.m., and, going 
some little way up the creek, stopped about 
four o'clock at a little Buddhist monastery stand- 
ing on the left bank. We went in to see it, 
whilst our boy made tea ready for us. I was 
much struck, on entering the shrine, to see 
a monk properly vested kneeling before an 
altar, and unassisted, reciting the vesper service 
in a monotone. He was earnest in manner, not 
disturbed by our appeai'ance, but seemed to be 
simply engaged in a daily duty. No one else 
was present, and not a soul apparently would liave 
known if he had not fulfilled his duty. After we 
had enjoyed our tea al fresco, we re-entered our 
sampan, passing by most picturesque villages, 
and under bridges so quaint and charming that I 
longed to sketch them. The tide again unfortu- 
nately played us false, but this time we had 
entered the broad river before it turned ao-ainst 



422 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

US. We then made way very slowly, for the 
adverse tide was very strong, and darkness fell 
upon us when we were still three or four miles 
from Shameen. We toiled along by the opposite 
bank of the river, and had nearly reached 
Honam, when a black darkness overpowered 
us, and shut out all from our view. It was 
evident that a heavy storm was at hand. We 
heard the busy talk, in a high key, of the boat 
people in the boats around us, who were evidently 
seized with fear at the approach of the storm. I 
felt terrified, for I knew we had to cross the 
wide river, a dangerous matter in such Egyptian 
darkness ; and yet we could not reach home 
without doing so. We already began to strike 
against, and be struck by, other boals, and as 
crafrs without lights were coining in all directions, 
without any rule of way on the river, it seemed 
as if we must meet with some serious accident. 
When we turned our boat's head to cross the 
river, it was a most alarming moment. Boats 
were coming to the right of us, to the left of us, 
behind us, in our path, and otiiers were anchored 
in the river. We could only take our chance 
and strike across to Shameen. The occasional 
vivid flashes of lightning seemed only to make 
the intense darkness more fearful tlian before. 
When we were nearing the old factories' site, we 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 423 

heard a great tumult going on ; boats were crasli- 
ino- ao^ainst each other, men and women were 
screaming loudly, and it was evident that some 
accident liad happened near to the spot. How 
we escaped witliout disaster I cannot tell. Every 
now and then we had such a blow from some 
boat much larger than our sampan, that we Avere 
fairly sent reeling. I cannot tell you how 
thankful I felt when I heard that we were under 
the shelter of Shameen wall, and never was I 
better pleased to land than on that night. Our 
servants at home had become much alarmed 
about us, as they knew the danger we must have 
run in the thick darkness of the impending storm. 
Immediately after we had reached home, the storm 
burst upon us in all its fury. It was terrific. 
The thunder shook our house, the lightning illu- 
minated the rooms, and the rain came down in tor- 
rents. After a while there was a pause in the 
tempest, but it lasted only a short time, when the 
storm was renewed in all its fury. Later on, a 
second lull took place, and then for a third time 
the thunder shook our house, and seemed to 
deafen us with its uproar. The calm did not 
come on until morning dawned. And now I 
must tell you about an early excursion which we 
made into the city yesterday morning, to the 
governor's yamun, to see a most singular cere- 



424 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

mony. At this time, annually, the Emperor 
makes a gift to all convicts, male and female, 
confined in prison, awaiting execution under the 
imperial warrant. This is supposed to exhibit 
the clemency of the paternal government. We 
arrived early at the yamun, but already a dense 
crowd had assembled in the large quadrangle, 
and the prisoners were present. They were 
dressed in new red prison dresses, and had 
chains round their necks, tlie ends of which were 
held by jailors. We found that we had still a 
long time to wait before the Viceroy and five of 
the chief officials were expected to arrive, so we 
looked round for a shelter from the sun, and also 
from the crowd. We at last asked permission to 
enter a tower in the outer quadrangle of the 
yamun, and this request being accorded, we 
ascended into the smallest, dirtiest, and hottest 
little room in which I ever sat. On inquiry, 
Henry discovered that it belonged to the 
governor's bandsmen. During the next hour 
I amused myself by looking out of the window 
and watching the crowd. 

It was a strange, a motley group upon which 
we gazed. Companies of soldiers were there with 
their spears, matchlocks, and gay banners ; small 
stalls, at which light refreshments were sold, stood 
at frequent intervals, and the men holding them 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 425 

seemed to ply a busy trade. Mandarins of 
various grades continued to arrive. One scene 
we saw amused us much. A state chair was ad- 
vancing slowly along a road to the right hand, 
another quietly along a road to the left. When, 
however, the rival chair bearers came in sight 
of each other, they broke into a run, so that 
neither chair should arrive at the patli leading 
through the outer quadrangle of the yamun be- 
fore the other. Having accomplished this, and 
reaching the opening into the path at the same 
moment, the chair bearers carried their respective 
masters into the inner quadrangle side by side, 
neither of the mandarins thus taking precedence 
of the other. They were equal in rank. At last, 
from the sounding of gongs and the shrill blast 
of musical instruments, we knew that the Viceroy 
was at hand. The soldiers stood at arms under 
their banners, in two lines, and the great man 
passed between them up the outer quadrangle. 
After he had arrived, the prisoners were taken into 
the inner quadrangle, accompanied by a strong 
guard. One, who was too weak (or what was 
quite possible, too much injured by torture) to 
walk, was carried up the centre patli in a basket. 
When all had passed in, v/e went down from our 
unpleasant but friendly shelter and entered the 
inner quadrangle of the yamun. We then went 



426 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

into the governor's judgment hall, and saw two red 
covered tables at the end, and two similar tables 
on each side of the hall. The Viceroy and the 
governor now entered, followed by the provincial 
treasurer, the commissioner of customs, the 
literary chancellor, and the chief justice. The 
Viceroy and the governor took their seats at the 
tables placed at the upper end of the hall, 
and the other four ofiScials arranged themselves 
at the side tables. Lesser mandarins and the 
usual crowd of attendants stood behind each 
table. The people who were present occupied 
the sides of the centre path of the quadrangle. 
And now there was a movement behind us, and 
on looking round I saw that the prisoners were 
being led up by jailors in charge of thein. They 
were brought to a stand-still at the wide open 
entrance of the judgment hall, and about ten at a 
time were made to kneel in a row', each prisoner 
being led to his position by his jailor. 

A sad sight were these unhappy prisonei's, who 
looked half-starved, dirty, and utterly woe-begone. 
Their heads were unshaven, and their front hair 
and pig-tails were rough and entangled. These 
poor wretches awoke my sympathy, from the 
cruelties which had been used towards them, 
and my blood ran cold as I thought of the 
fate awaiting them. The jailors behaved with 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 427 

wanton cruelty towards them, jerking them by 
their chains to make them raise their heads. 
The class of jailors in China is the worst possible. 
They take a large shave if not all the money 
provided by the friends of the prisoners, and 
towards those who have no friends to help them 
they exercise the most barbarous cruelty. It 
is more than probable that they, and not the 
unhappy prisoners, received the benefit of the 
Emperor's bounty shown on this day. And now as 
the jDrisoners kneel down with the greatest diffi- 
culty, their limbs being cramped and nearly use- 
less, their names are called over, and two small 
mandarins advance towards them and place in the 
hands of each large palm fans;, I notice with how 
much difficulty these prisoners hold them, as their 
wrists are chained together. Into the j)alm-leaf 
fan one of the mandarins drops a little loaf, 
the other mandarin following him places some 
money on it, and bending down he throws a 
string of cash round the neck of each of the 
kneeling criminals. A rain cloak, large and 
circular in form, made of dried palm leaves, is 
then given to each jailor for the use of his 
particular charge. The prisoners perlorm the 
kau-tau and mutter words of thanks to the 
Emperor for the presents just received ; and now 
with a jerk of the chains the jailors encourage 



428 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

their miserable proteges to rise, aud lead tlieiu 
to the farther end of the quadrangle. 

Amongst the third and last set of prisoners 
who were placed in rows to receive the royal 
bounty, was a most ill-favoured looking woman, 
and, on inquiring, Henry learnt that the crime of 
which she had been convicted was the murder of 
her mistress's child out of revenge. The fate 
reserved for this woman is appalling to con- 
template. She will suffer the ling-chee form of 
punishment, that is, she will be bound to a cross 
and be cut into pieces, the coup de grace not 
being given, in all probability, until fourteen 
cuts have been inflicted. One of the most 
terrible features of Chinese criminal law is this, 
that a prisoner, when condemned to death for 
some heinous crime, such as parricide, matricide, 
fratricide, the murder of a husband, or the 
murder of a schoolmaster, etc., is not executed 
within a given period of time. The imperial 
sanction must be obtained, that is, the Emperor's 
vermilion pencil-mark must be affixed to the 
names of criminals who have been guilty of such 
crimes, before they can be put to death.* Some- 
times a prisoner of these classes esca^ies execution 

* Pirates, burglars, bigliway robbers, aud other such 
crimiuiild are executed uuder the warrauts of viceroys or 
governors of provinces, as the case may be. 



FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 429 

for some years, as the Emperor's vermilion 
pencil-mark lias not been placed against bis par- 
ticular name, and then he is only informed on the 
morning of the day in whicli his execution is to 
take jjlace that his turn has come. I have learnt 
that one of my amahs is now in mourning for 
her husband, who has been recently strangled on 
a cross, on the execution-ground of this city, after 
eleven years' imprisonment. He exclaimed, when 
bound to the cross, that he thought it was very 
hard that, after eleven years' incarceration, he 
should have to suffer a violent death. This un- 
fortunate man was half an hour under the execu- 
tioner's hands. The crime for which he suffered 
was that of kidnapping young children. One 
wonders how a man's brain can stand the pressure 
of daily expectation and uncertainty regarding 
his sentence being carried out. Possibly some 
of those whom we saw, yesterday, receiving the 
imperial presents at the yamun were on the 
eve of being executed, and I could not help 
thinking that the royal bounty was a great 
larce. When the ceremony had been brought to 
a close, I observed that the prisoners were 
marched back to prison under a strong escort. 



430 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 



LETTEE XLIV. 

Canton, May 4th, 187S. 

My deae Mother, 

Some few days ago we received a large 
red card of invitation from the abbot elect of tlie 
Hai-Chwang-Tsze, or Ocean Banner Monastery 
at Honam, asking iis to be present at his conse- 
cration.* It was, as you can imagine, an oppor- 
tunity not to be neglected, and one of which we 
most gladly availed ourselves. The ceremony of 
consecration was to take place very early in the 
morning. We therefore ordered our servants to 
have a sampan in readiness at our landing-steps 
at two A.M., and to call us some short time before 
that hour. We rose at half-past one, dressed our- 
selves, and stealthily creeping by our children's 
door so as not to wake them at that unseasonable 
hour, we went downstairs, and passed out on to the 
Bund. Imagine our annoyance when we found 
no boat ready for us. Our compradore told us a 
doubti'ul tale about two of our servants having 
gone far to find a boat, and not having yet snc- 

* I have been obliged to use tlie Christian terms altar, abbot, 
monk, priest, chaplain, consecration, mattins, vespers, &c., in 
describing pagan ceremonies, as no other words convey the 
meaning of the Chinese terms. 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 431 

ceeded in their endeavours. The ftict was, the 
order had been wholly forgotten. After remain- 
ing a short time near the landing-steps, and not 
seeing anything of either of our servants or a 
boat approaching us, we began to despair of cross- 
ing the river in time to arrive at the monastery 
for the ceremony. We perceived a dirty-looking 
boat at a sliort distance from the Bund, contain- 
ing one old man only. Henry hailed him and 
after much [lersuasion induced him to paddle his 
boat near to us, and to listen to our entreaties to 
take us across the river to Honam. The old man 
paddled us along very slowly, but we reached the 
landing-steps in front of the Honam monastery at 
last. Here we saw several private hong boats, 
which were lighted up by large paper lanterns. 
They contained many Chinese gentlemen, who, 
like ourselves, had come to witness the ceremony 
of consecration. The scene here was most 
j>ieturesque, and so indeed was the scene on 
the river, its craft and banks dimly visible in the 
light of a new moon. We walked on to the 
monastery, and found its cloisters illuminated by 
many coloured lanterns each different in design. 
The effect of these cloisters at this early hour 
with their "dim religious light" was most im- 
pressive, and one could well imagine oneself in 
the cloisters of a Catholic monastery in Europe. 



432 FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

On arriving at the visitors' liall we were invited 
into one of the reception rooms, and when we had 
taken seats, tea Mas handed to ns. 'NYe found 
several Chinese gentlemen assembled in this room, 
who Avere smoking long pipes, sipping tea, and 
chatting with each other. In a short time we 
■were asked to proceed to the chapter-house, 
where we met the abbot elect surrounded by a 
number of his friends. He was then wearing 
a purple robe. In the cloister adjoining the 
chapter-house I saw a band composed of small 
boys in handsomely embroidered coats. A band- 
master was assembling them, and directing their 
movements. A large number of monks be- 
longing to the monastery were congregated in 
the cloister. The abbot elect now rose from 
the chair in which he had been chatting with his 
friends, and a long red silk vestment, made in 
many pieces to represent the robe of poverty, was 
placed over his shoulders. The procession was 
then formed to conduct the abbot elect to the 
various shrines of the monastery. First came the 
band of small boys playing upon flutes, fifes, and 
shrill i^ipes (the latter exactly resembling in 
sound Scotch bagpipes) ; then came monks waliving 
two abreast, wearing grey cowls, and yellow silk 
vestments thrown across the left shoulder ; these 
monks were followed by men bearing large globular 



FOUETEEN MONTHS IN CANTON 433 

Chinese lanterns on which the name, taken by the 
abbot upon embracing monastic life, was painted in 
large characters. The procession was closed by 
two young priests (really chaplains to the abbot), 
one of whom carried a crozier in his right hand, 
and in the other a small tray, on which the abbot's 
rosary, consisting of plain polished black beads, 
was laid when he was engaged in prayer. The 
second young priest held the abbot's rod of office 
in one hand, and in the other a tray on which 
was placed a china vase with a small branch of 
the flowering pear, and a folded letter containing 
the rules of the monastery. These young priests 
immediately preceded the abbot elect, who was 
short and fat, and looked an old man of seventy 
years or more. We followed close behind him, 
and were thus able to see the details of the 
ceremonies which took place. I cannot convey 
to you an idea of the strange and solemn coup 
d'ceil the procession made, as it wound its M-ay 
slowly down the long and dimly-lighted cloisters. 
The first halt it made was at a shrine to the left 
of the large quadrangle, dedicated to the god 
Wei-to. Here the abbot elect prostrated him- 
self before an altar and performed the kau-tau, a 
salvo of fire-crackers being let off as he rose from 
his knees. He then, headed by the procession, 
crossed over to a shrine at the right-hand side of 

2 F 



434 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

the quadrangle, dedicated to Kwan-tai, the god 
of war, and worshipped at his altar. Kwan-tai and 
Wei-to are regarded as the guardians of monastic 
institutions. The procession afterwards passed 
into the large shrine called Tai-Hung-Poo-Tien, 
which contains colossal gilded figures of the 
three Buddhas. The three large altars in this 
shrine were covered with offerings of fruit and 
flowers. The abbot elect stood before the centre 
altar, and one of his chaplains unfolded a square of 
silk which he carried over his arm, and which I 
now discovered to be a kneeling-mat. A band of 
red silk, sewn on to the white silk ground of this 
mat, looked strangely like an ecclesiastical device. 
Before the abbot elect knelt, he removed the 
rosary from his neck, and handing it to the 
chaplain by his side, it was placed on the tray. 
He and his two chaplains now knelt before the 
altar, and one of the latter lighting a joss-stick 
passed it to the abbot elect, who elevated it 
three times, and then gave it to his second 
chaplain to place in the incense-burner standing 
upon the altar. This was done three times, a 
fresh joss-stick being lighted and placed in the 
incense-burner, on each occasion, with the utmost 
solemnity, and in silence. The letter was now 
taken from the tray, unfolded and handed to the 
abbot elect by the one chaplain, read aloud by 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 435 

the old man as he knelt before the altar, then 
passed on to the second chaplain, who re-folded 
it, and replaced it on the tray. The kau-tau 
having been performed by the abbot elect, the 
three rose from their knees, the rosary was re- 
placed round the neck of the abbot elect by 
the one chaplain, the prayer mat was folded 
up by the other, and the procession left the 
shrine. It proceeded then to a shrine containing 
lar2;e imao^es of three abbots who founded this 
monastery and were the first to preside over it. 
Before these idols a very long altar had been 
placed which was overflowing with offerings of 
fruits and flowers. Here the same religious 
service was gone through in all its details as at 
the shrine of the three Buddhas. The abbot 
elect did the kau-tau before the images of the 
three abbots, and prayed that the mantles of 
these his sainted predecessors in office might fall 
upon him. The next halt the procession made 
was in the large kitchen, in which there is an 
altar dedicated to the genius who presides over 
the vegetable diet of Buddhist monks, and before 
wliich the same religious ceremony was performed. 
On leaving the kitchen, the abbot elect and his 
suite moved on to a large dormitory, and there 
worshipped an idol representing the guardian of 
dormitories. 

2 F 2 



436 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

Thence the procession returned to the chapter- 
house, and I was surprised to find that the floor 
of it was coTered with an European carpet. At 
the end of this hall a raised throne was placed, and 
behind it Imug; a large piece of scarlet embroidery 
on which a Kilun Avas represented in gold. A 
table and altar stood in front of the throne, the 
latter being covered with red satin, richly em- 
broidered ; an incense-burner was upon it, and, 
as is always the case, t contained powdered in- 
cense in which worshippers place lighted joss- 
sticks. A large glass, framed in carved black wood, 
stood at the end of the hall. These high glasses, 
which resemble our cheval glasses, are placed 
ill Buddhist monasteries as emblems of purity. 
Procfeding up the hall the abbot elect prostrated 
himself before the small altar, and, having per- 
formed the kau-tau to the throne, rose and placed 
three lighted joss-sticks in the incense-burner. 
He then stood at the right-hand corner of the 
table, and listened to the rules of the order, which 
were read aloud to him by one of the monks. 
We were standing close to the table, and so had 
the coujp d'oeil of the brilliantly lighted hall, 
with rows of monks arranged on each side of 
it. The abbot elect now moved towards the 
throne, attended by his two chaj^lains, and 
stood in front of it. He took up a brown hair 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 437 

switch, and whisked it to the right, then to 
the left, and over his head and shoulders. This 
signified that all evil was removed far from him. 
He was now conducted to the throne by his two 
chaplains, who spread his silk vestment over 
the back of it as he took his seat. All the 
monks advanced, and did the kau-tau to their 
new abbot. On their retiring, some mandarins 
in full costume walked up the hall, and, having 
placed joss-sticks in the incense-burner, prostrated 
themselves before the abbot. The ceremonial 
of installation was now over, and the abbot, 
accompanied by his attendants, passed into his 
private suite of rooms. He afterwards held a 
levee. The first to attend it were the monks of 
the monastery and those who had come from 
other monasteries to assist at the ceremony. As 
each monk advanced, he made a movement as 
if he would kneel, but the abbot, taking him by 
the hand, prevented him doing so, whereupon the 
monk placed his head first on one shoulder and 
then on the other of the abbot. After all the 
monks had paid their respects to the old man, 
several mandarins in full dress came into the 
room to congratulate him. And here we noticed 
a piece of priestly arrogance. When these man- 
darins prepared to kneel to do him homage, 
the abbot did not attempt to prevent their 



438 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

kneeling before liim, but received their obeis- 
ance with a benign smile. After the levee was 
over, the abbot retired to another apartment 
and took off his red vestment. He only rested, 
however, for a few moments, and then the 
poor old man began to make his return visits 
to the monks, trudging along the dimly-lighted 
cloisters, knocking at the door of each cell, and 
saluting its inmate. I pitied him cordially, for 
he looked unequal to the fatiguing duties im- 
posed upon him, and I noticed that when he 
knelt to perform the numerous kau-taus at the 
various shrines, he seemed to have much difficulty 
in rising from his knees. The office of abbot of 
a Buddhist monastery lasts only three years. The 
retiring abbot, however, can be re-elected. We 
now left the Honam Monastery, intending to 
return to it in a few hours' time, as we had 
been invited by the abbot to luncheon, and 
we also wished to see the monks partake of a 
banquet, in honour of the occasion, in the large 
refectory. We took a boat called by the Chi- 
nese a wang-shuee-too, or lerry-boat, and crossed 
the river to the Chaplaincy, where we arrived 
at seven a.m. 

A little before eleven o'clock, we called our 
sampan and re-crossed the river to the monastery. 
On arriving, Henry again offered the abbot his 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 439 

congratulations, and received a hearty welcome 
from him in return. As we passed by several 
rooms constituting the suite set apart for the abbot, 
we saw tables with luncheons laid out on them. 
Chinese gentlemen were sitting round them, and 
partaking of the abbot's hospitality. We were 
ushered by our host into one of these apartments, 
and invited to seat ourselves at a small round table. 
Upon our doing so, vegetable soups of various 
kinds were handed to us. The abbot walked up 
and down the room, coming to our table occasion- 
ally to press us to partake more freely of his 
hospitality. He did not, I noticed, sit down to 
eat with any of his guests. After we had finished 
our luncheon, we passed on to a large reception 
hall, in which the monks were assembling for 
dinner, to the sound of a wooden tom-tom, a 
method usually adopted for calling monks to 
religious services and meals. The monks now 
began to file out of the hall, walking two and 
two abreast, and we hastened to the refectory, so 
that we might see them enter and assemble there. 
The refectory, called by the Chinese Tchi-Tong, is 
an immense hall having an altar at the upper end of 
it. Eight long narrow tables go down the length 
of this hall, four on each side. Benches are placed 
on one side of the tables only, that is, on the left 
of the tables on the left side of the refectory, and 



440 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

on the right of the tables on the other side of 
the refectory. In this manner the whole of the 
monks when at their meals face the centre of the 
room, and so can be seen by the abbot, who sits 
by himself at a small table at the lower end of 
the hall. A basin full of rice, and a plate con- 
taining green vegetables were placed, with chop- 
sticks, for each monk. When all the monks had 
entered the refectory, and were standing in their 
places at the tables, the abbot, preceded by a 
band of music, arrived, and went to the small 
table at the end of the hall, his chaplains 
standing on each side of him. A grace was now 
chanted by the monks. Whilst all were still 
standing, one of the chaplains handed a basin 
to the abbot, who filled it with rice, and ele- 
vating it, blessed it. The chaplain then took 
the basin out of the refectory, and emptied the 
rice, as food for the birds of the air, on a tripod 
standing in thecourtyard. 

The monks now seated themselves, and the 
repast began, and I must say that all who were 
present did ample justice to it, having their basins 
replenished again and again by lay brothers, who 
carried rice round the tables in large pails. The 
abbot took but a scanty meal, just tasting the rice 
and vegetables placed before him. This meal was, 
as far as he was concerned, a form only, as he diued 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 441 

in private afterwards. The party of monks was 
unusually large, and must have numbered more 
than three hundred, as monks from other mo- 
nasteries were partaking of the hospitality of the 
Hai-Chwang-Tsze on this occasion. In the refec- 
tory I noticed several large boards which were 
hung against the walls, and I learned that they 
contained sayings from the Buddliist classics. As 
silence is observed at all meals, it is considered 
that the monks can be edified by reading and medi- 
tating upon these good precepts as they silently 
eat their food. The abbot now rose from the table, 
and, preceded by the musicians, was conducted 
back to his private apartments. We then saun- 
tered leisurely through the quadrangles of the 
monastery to the landing-stage to rejoin our sam- 
pan. This monastery possesses much to interest 
a visitor, and I am never tired of going over it. 
One of the objects of interest, and which I was 
surprised beyond measure to find here, is the 
Shue-Kuuk, or printing-office, in which Buddhist 
liturgies for the use of monasteries are printed. 
I have seen the process used in printing, and will 
try to describe it to you. A block covered with 
Chinese characters, cut in relief, is smeared over 
with Indian ink. A sheet of paper is then placed 
over it, which, on being closely pressed, adheres 
to the block, and receives the impression of the 



442 FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

characters. It is then removed. The sheets that 
I have seen printed off have l)een very clear. The 
Chinese claim to be the inventors of the art of 
printing, and with justice, as they have known 
and practised it for many centuries. The funeral 
pyre in the gardens of the monastery is another 
object of great interest. We went to see it the 
other day, and I then had an evidence of the 
extreme fear that the Chinese entertain of ghosts. 
One of oiir waiting-boys, Ahee by name,* was with 
us in the garden, but nothing Henry said could 
induce him to go near the funeral pyre, or the 
hut containing cinerary urns, or the ossuaries. 
Indeed, he candidly acknowledged that he was 
afraid of the spirits of the deceased monks. The 
pyre is built of brick, and looks like a small 
tower as you approach it. The open doorway is 
wide enough only to admit the cremation chair, 
in which the corpse of a dead brother is placed 
and carried to the pyre. The chair with its 
human contents is then placed in the pyre on four 
stones, and faggots are piled up round it. After 
some prayers have been chanted by the assembled 
monks for the repose of the departed one's soul, 
the senior monk takes a lighted torch and sets fire 
to the faggots. At intervals small pieces of sandal 
wood are cast into the flames. \Yhen the human 
ashes have become cold they are collected, placed 



FOURTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 443 

in a cinerary urn, and deposited in a hut built 
near to the pyre for the purpose. Here the 
cinerary urns remain until the third month of the 
year, when their contents are emptied into red 
bags and thrown into a large ossuary, which also 
stands near the funeral pyre. Another large 
ossuary, which I have seen in these gardens, 
has been closed, as it has received its full comple- 
ment of human ashes, viz., the ashes of 4948 
monks, and more than this a Buddhist is not 
allowed to deposit in one ossuary. At Henry's re- 
quest, the monk who accompanied us the other day 
opened the door of the room in which cremation 
chairs are kept ready for use, and so I not only 
saw them, but had the whole method of their use 
explained to me. From tliis ghastly subject I 
must turn to one that will amuse you. In a stye 
built close to the quadrangle of this monastery I 
saw several large fat pigf^, which are regarded as 
sacred, having been ofiered to Buddha by votaries. 
A wooden board is placed on the wall of the stye, 
and on it are written characters, requesting visitors 
not to beat or disturb these sacred J)igs. It goes 
on further to state, that should any one do so in 
spite of this warning, an all-seeing eye will take 
note of it, and that the offender will be punished 
on the day of account. Near the stye is a poultry 
yard, in which I was amused at seeing a number of 



444 FOUKTEEN MONTHS IN CANTON. 

cocks, ducks, and geese, whicli are also regarded as 
sacred, having been offered to Buddha by votaries 
as thank-offerings for mercies received. It is 
regarded as a work of merit by the followers of 
Buddha to save life, and so they buy sheep, goats, 
pigs, fowls, ducks, geese, and pigeons at the 
markets, and place them in these harbours of 
refuge, leaving with the monks a sum of money 
to provide food for them. Male birds only are 
presented to Buddha, as they are regarded as 
more acceptable offerings than the female birds. 
A large fish-pond in these gardens is stocked by 
fish, which have also been brought to the monas- 
tery as votive offerings. 



THE END. 



["LONDON; PRINTED BT WILMAH CLOWR8 AND SONS, STAMl'OKD STRBBT 
AND CUAKING CUOSS. 



Bedford Street, Strand, London, W.C. 
Dcccjiiber, 1879. 

Macmillan &■ Co:s Catalogue of Works 
in the Departments of History^ Biography ^ 
Travels, Critical and Literary Essays, 
Politics, Political and Social Economy^ 
Law, etc.; a7id Works connected with Lan- 
guage. 

HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, &c. 

Albemarle. — fifty years OF MY life. By George 
Thomas, Earl of Albemarle. With Steel Portrait of the first Earl 
of Albemarle, engraved by Jeens. Third and Cheaper Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 7^. dd. 
" The book is one of the most amusing of its class. . . . These remi- 
niscences have the charm and flavour of personal experience, and they 
bring us into direct contact with the persons they describe." — EDINBURGH 
Review. 

Anderson.— MANDAL AY TO MOMIEN ; a Narrative of the 
Two Expeditions to Western China, of 1868 and 1875, under 
Colonel E. B. Sladen and Colonel Horace Browne. By Dr. 
Anderson, F.R.S.E., Medical and Scientific Officer to the Ex- 
peditions. With numerous Maps and Illustrations. 8vo. 21/. 
"yi pleasant, useful, carefully-written, and i?nportant work.^' — 

Athen^um. 

Appleton. — Works by T. G. Appleton :— 

A NILE JOURNAL. Illustrated by Eugene Benson. Crown 
8vo. 6s. 

SYRIAN SUNSHINE. Crown 8yo. 6s. 

Arnold (M.) — essays IN CRITICISM. By Matthew 
Arnold. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo. gj. 

Arnold (W. T.) — the roman system of provin- 
cial ADMINISTRATION TO THE ACCESSION OF 
CONSTANTINE THE GREAT. Being the Arnold Prize 
Essay for 1S79. By W. T. Arnold, B.A. Crown Svo. 6s. 



2 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

Atkinson. — an art tour to northern capitals 

OF EUROPE, including Descriptions of the Towns, the Museums, 
and otlier Art Treasures of Copenhagen, Christiania, Stockholm, 
Abo, Helsingfors, Wiborg, St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Kief. 
By J. Beavington Atkinson. 8vo. \2s. 

Bailey.— THE SUCCESSION TO THE ENGLISH CROWN. 
A Historical Sketch. By A. Bailey, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 
Crown 8vo. 'js. 6d. 

Baker (Sir Samuel W.)— Works by Sir Samuel Baker, 
Pacha, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.G.S.:— 

CYPRUS AS I SAW IT IN 1S79. With Frontispiece. Svo. 
I2s. 6d. 

ISMAILIA : A Narrative of the Expedition to Central Africa for 

the Suppression of the Slave Trade, organised by Ismail, Khedive 

of Egypt. With Portraits, Map, and fifty full-page Illustrations 

by ZvvECKER and Durand. New and Cheaper Edition. With 

New Preface. Crown Svo. 6^-. 

"A book ivhich will be read zvith very great interest." — TiMES. " Well 

7vritten and full of remarkable adventures." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

'■'■Adds anothe)- thi-illin^ chapter to the history of Afi-ican adventure." — 

Daily News. ^^ Reads more like a. romance . . . . incomparably mort 

entertaining than books of African travel tisually are." — Morning Post. 

THE ALBERT N'VANZA Great Basin of the Nile, and Explora- 
tion of the Nile Sources. Fifth Edition. Maps and Illustrations. 
Crown Svo. 6^. 
•' Charmingly -written;" says the SPECTATOR, "fill, as might be 
expected, of incident, and free from that wearisome reiteration 0/ useless 
facts which is the draivback to almost all books of African travel." 

THE NILE TRIBUTARIES OF ABYSSINIA, and the Sword 
Hunters of the Hamran Arabs. With Maps and Illustrations. 
Sixth Edition. Crown Svo. 6s, 
7%^ Times says : ^''It adds >nuch to our informatio7i respecting Egyptian 
Abyssinia and the different races that spread over it. It contains, more- 
over, some notable instances of Ettglish daring and enterprising skill ; 
it abounds in animated tales of exploits dear to the heart of the British 
sportsman ; and it will attract even the least studious reader, as the author 
tells a story well, and can describe nature with uncommon power." 

Bancroft. — the HISTORY OF the united STATES 
OF AMERICA, FROM THE DISCOVERY OF THE CON- 
TINENT. By George Bancroft. New and thoroughly Re- 
vised Edition. Six Vols. Crown Svo. 54^ 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 3 

Barker (Lady). — Works by Lady Barker :— 
A YEAR'S HOUSEKEEPING IN SOUTH AFRICA. With 

Illustrations. New and Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
" We have to thank Lady Barker for a very amusing book, over ivhich 
we have spent many a delightful hour, and of ivhich we ivill not take 
leave without alluding to the ineffably droll illustrations which add so very 
much to the enjoyment of her clear a7td sparkling desc7'iptions.''' — MORNING 
Post. 

Beesly. — stories from the history of ROME. By 

Mrs. Beesly. Extra fcap. 8vo. zs. 6d. 
"A little book for which r^-'cry cultivated and intelligent mother will be 
grateful for. " — Examin ER. 

Bismarck_IN THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR. An Authorized 

Translation from the German of Dr. MoRiTZ BusCH, Two Vols. 

Crown 8vo. iSi'. 

The Times says : — " The publication of Bismarck'' s after-dinner ta^k, 

whether discreet or not, will be of priceless biographical value, and Ettglish- 

men, at least, will not be disposed to quarrel with Dr. Busch for giving a 

picture as true to life as Boswell's ^ yohnson^ of the foremost practical 

genius that Gennaiiy has produced since Frederick the Great. '^ 

Blackburne. — biography OF THE RIGHT HON. 
FRANCIS BLACKBURNE, Late Lord Chancellor of Ireland. 
Chiefly in connexion with his Public and Political Career. By his 
Son, Edward Blackburne, Q.C. With Portrait Engraved by 
Jeens. 8vo. \zs. 

Blanford (W. T.)— GEOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY OF 
ABYSSINIA, By W, T. Blanford, Svo, 2Ij. 

Bronte. — CHARLOTTE BRONTE. A Monograph. By T. 
Wemyss Reid. With Illustrations. Third Edition. Crown 
Svo. 6j. 

Brooke. — the raja of SARx\WAK : an Account of Sir 
James Brooke, K.C.B., LL.D. Given chiefly through Letters 
or Journals. By Gertrude L. Jacob. With Portrait and 
Maps. Two Vols. 8vo. 25J, 

Bryce. — Works by James Bryce, D.C.L., Regius Professor of 
Civil Law, Oxford : — 
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. Sixth Edition, Revised and 

Enlarged. Crown Svo. ^s. 6d. 
'Wt exactly supplies a want : it affords a key to much which men 
read of in their books as isolated facts, but of which they havs hitherto 
•had no connected exposition set before them." — Saturday Review. 



4 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

B ry C e. — contimicd. 

TRANSCAUCASIA AND ARARAT: being Notes of a Vacation. 
Tour in the Autumn of 1876. With an Illustration and Map. 
Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 95. 

''Mr. Bryce has luritten a lively and at the same time an instructive 
description of the tour he made last year in and about the Caucasus. When 
so well-info7-?ned a jurist travels into regions seldom visited, and even 
-walks up a mountain so rarely scaled as Ararat, he is justified in think- 
ing that the impressions he brings home are -worthy of being communicated 
to the zvoi-ld at large, especially when a terrible war is easting a lurid glow 
over the countries he has lately surz'eyed.'" — Athen^UM. 

Burgoyne. — POLITICAL AND MILITARY EPISODES 
DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE REIGN OF 
GEORGE III. Derived from the Life and Correspondence of 
the Right Hon. J. Burgoyne, Lieut. -General in his Majesty's 
Army, and M.P. for Preston. Ey E. B. DE Fonbi„\nque. \Yith 
Portrait, Heliotype Plate, and Maps. 8vo. i6j-. 

Burke. — EDMUND BURKE, a Historical Study. By John 
MoRLEY, B.A., Oxon. Crown 8vo. 7^. dd. 

Burrows. — WORTHIES OF ALL SOULS : Four Centuries cf 
English History. Illustrated from the College Archives. By 
Montagu Burrows, Chichele Professor of Modern History at 
Oxford, Fellow of All Souls. 8vo. 14^. 
"A most afiiusing as well as a most instj-uctive look. — Guardian. 

Cameron. — OUR FUTURE HIGHWAY. By V. Lovett 
Cameron, C.B., Commander R.N. With Illustrations. 2 vols. 
Crown 8vo. IShortly. 

Campbell.— LOG-LETTERS FROM THE " CHALLENGER." 
By Lord George Campbell. With Map. Fifth and cheaper 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
"A delightful book, which we heartily cofumetid to the getieral reader." 
—Saturday Revie\v. 

" We do not hesitate to say that anything so fresh, so picturesque, so 
generally delightful, as these log-letters has not appeared among books o 
travel for a long //we."— Examiner. 

Campbell. — my CIRCULAR NOTES : Extracts from Journals ; 
Letters sent Home ; Geological and otlier Notes, written while 
Travelling Westwards round the World, from July 6th, 1874, to 
July 6tli, 1875. l^y J- F- Campbell, Author of "Frost and 
Fire." Clieaper Issue. Crown 8vo. ds. 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 



Campbell. — TURKS and greeks. Notes of a recent Ex- 
cursion. By the Hon. Dudley Campbell, M.A. With Coloured 
Map. Crown 8vo. 3^. 6d. 

Carpenter. — life and work of mary carpenter 

Ey the Rev. J. E. Carpenter. With Portrait engraved by 
Jeens. Crown 8vo. [Shortly. 

Carstares. — WILLIAM CARSTARES : a Character and Career 
of the Revolutionary Epoch (1649 — 1 715). By Robert Story, 
Minister of Rosneath. 8vo. 12s. 

Chatterton : A BIOGRAPHICAL STUDY. By Daniel 
Wilson, LL.D., Professor of History' and English Literature in 
University College, Toronto. Crown 8vo. 6s. 6d. 

Chatterton : a STORY OF ,THE YEAR 1770. By Professor 
Massun, LL.D. Crown 8vo. 51. 

Clark. — MEMORIALS FROM JOURNALS AND LETTERS 
OF SAMUEL CLARK, M.A., formerly Principal of the 
National Society's Training College, Battersea. Edited with 
Introduction by his Wife. W^ith Portrait. Crown Svo. 7^-. 6d. 

Clifford (^A^. K.)— LECTURES AND ESSAYS. Edited by 
Leslie Stephen and Frederick Pollock, with Introduction 
by F. Pollock. Two Portraits. 2 vols. Svo. 25^. 
The Times of October 22, 1S79, says: — ''Many a friend of the 
author on first taking up these vohiines and remenibering his versatile 
genius and his keen enjoyinent cf all realms of intellectual activity must 
have trembled lest they should be found to consist of fragmentary pieces of 
'djctrk, too disconnected to do justice to his powers of consecutive reasoning 
and too vcvried to have any effect as a whole. Fortuna'ely those fears are 
groundless .... It is not only in subject that the various papers are 
closely related. There is also a singular consistency of view and of method 
throughout .... It is in the social and metaphysical subjects that the 
richness of his intellect shaivs itself most forcibly in the variety and 
originality of tJie ideas n'hich he presents to us. To appreciate this variety, 
it is necessary to read the book itself, for it treats, in some form or other, of 
nearly all the sidjects of deepest interest in this age of questioning.^^ 

Combe. — the life OF GEORGE COMBE, Author of "The 
Constitution of Man." By Charles Gibbon. With Three 
Portraits engi-aved by Jeens. Two Vols. Svo. 32i-. 
"^ graphic and interesting account of the long life and indefatigable 

Jabours of a very remai;kable man." — SCOTSMAN. 



6 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

Cooper. — ATHENE CANTABRIGIENSES. By Charles 
Henry Cooper, F.S.A., and Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. 
Vol, T. 8vo., 1500—85, iS^, ; Vol, II., 1586—1609, i8j, 

Correggio.— ANTONIO ALLEGRI DA CORREGGIO. From 
the Gemian of Dr. Julius Meyer, Director of the Royal Gallery, 
Berlin. Edited, ^vith an Introduction, by Mrs. Heaton. Con- 
taining Twenty Woodbury-type Illustrations. Royal 8vo, Cloth 
elegant. 2)^s. 6d. 

Cox (G. V.)— RECOLLECTIONS OF OXFORD, By G. 
V, Cox, M.A., New College, late Esquire Bedel and Coroner 
in the University of Oxford, Cheaper Editioti. Crown 8vo, 6j. 

Cunynghame (Sir A. T.) — MY COMMAND IN SOUTH 
AFRICA, 1874 — 78. Comprising Experiences of Travel in the 
Colonies of South Africa and the Independent States. By Sir 
Arthur Thurlow Cunynghame, G.C.B,, then Lieutenant- 
Governor and Commander of the Forces in South_ Africa. Third 
Edition. 8vo. 12s. 6d. 
The Times says : — "li is a volume of great interest, .... full of 
incidents which vividly illustrate the condition of the Colonies and the 
character aiid habits of the natives It contains valuable illus- 
trations of Cape warfare, and at the present moment it cannot fail to 
command wide-spread attention." 

" Daily News." — the daily NEWS' CORRESPOND- 
ENCE of the War between Germany and France, 1870 — l. Edited 
with Notes and Comments. New Edition. Complete in One 
Volume. With Maps and Plans. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

the daily NEWS' CORRESPONDENCE of the War between 
Russia and Turkey, to the fall of Kars. Including the letters ot 
Mr. Archibald Forbes, Mr. J. E. McGahan, and other Special 
Correspondents in Europe and Asia, Second Edition, enlarged. 
Cheaper Edition, Crown 8vo, 6s. 

FROM THE FALL OF KARS TO THE CONCLUSION OF 
PEACE. Cheaper Edition, Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Davidson. — the life OF A Scottish probationer ; 

being a Memoir of Thomas Davidson, with his Poems and 

Letters. By James Brown, Minister of St. James's Street 

Church, Paisley. Second Edition, revised and enlarged, with 

Portrait. Crown 8vo. "js. 6d. 

Deas. — THE RIVER CLYDE. An Historical Description of the 
Ri.se and Progress of the Harbour of Glasgow, and of the Im- 
provement of the River from Glasgow to Port Glasgow. By J. 
Deas, M. Inst. C.E, 8vo, lOi-. 6d. 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 



Denison. — a HISTORY OF CAVALRY FROM THE EAR- 
LIEST TIMES. With Lessons for the Future. By Lieul.-CoL 
George Denison, Commanding,' the Govemor-General's Body 
Guard, Canada, Author of " Modern Cavalry." With Maps and. 
Plans. 8vo. \%s. 

Dilke. — GREATER BRITAIN. A Record of Travel in English- 
speaking Countries during 1866-7. (America, Australia, India. 
By Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, M.P, Sixth Edition- 
Crown 8vo. 6j. 

^' Many of the subjects discussed in these pages," says the Daily News, 
" are of the -widest interest, and such as no man who cares for the future 
of his race and of the world can afford to treat with indifference." 

Doj^le. — HISTORY OF AMERICA. By J. A. Doyle. With 
Maps. i8mo. 4J. iid. 
^' Mr. Doyle'' s style is clear and simple, his facts are accurately stated, 
and his book is fneritoriously free from prejudice on questions ivliere 
partisanship }-uns high amongst us." — SATURDAY Review. 

Drummond of Hawthornden : the STORY OF HIS 
LIFE AND WRITINGS. By Professor Masson. With Por- 
trait and Vignette engraved by C. H. Jeens. Crown Svo. lOi-. 6d. 

Duff. — Works by M. E. Grant-Duff, M.r., late Under Secretary 
of State for India : — 

NOTES OF AN INDIAN JOURNEY. With Map. Svo. loj-. 6d. 

MISCELLANIES POLITICAL AND LITERARY. Svo. loj-. 6d. 

Eadie. — life of JOHN EADIE, D.D., LL.D. By James 
Brown, D.D., Author ot " The Life of a Scottish Probationer." 
With Portrait, Second Edition. Crown Svo. ys. 6d. 
"An ably written and cluiracteristic biography" — Times. 

Elliott. — LIFE OF HENRY VENN ELLIOTT, of Brighton. 
By JosiAH Bateman, M.A. With Portrait, engraved by Jeens. 
Extra fcap. Svo. Third and Cheaper Edition, bs. 

Elze. — ESSAYS ON SHAKESPEARE. By Dr. Karl Elze. 
Translated with the Author's sanction by L. Dora Schmitz. 
Svo. \2s. 

English Men of Letters. Edited by Jonx Morley. a 

Series of Short Books to tell people what is best worth knowing 
as to the Life, Character, and Works of some of the great 
English Writers. In crown Svo. Price 2.s. 6d. each. 



MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

English Men of Letters. — amtinued. 

I. DR. JOHNSON. By Leslie Stephen. 

' ' The new series opens wdl with Mr. Leslie StepherCs sketch of Dr. 
Joh7ison. It cotdd hardly have been done better ; and it will convey to 
the readers for whom it is intended a Juster estimate of Johnson than 
either of the two essays of Lord Macaiday " — Pall Mai.l Gazette. 

II. SIR WALTER SCOTT. ByR. H. Hutton. 

" The tone of the volume is excellent throughout." — Athen^UM. 

' ' We could not wisli for a more suggestive introduction to Scott and 
his poems and novels." — EXAMINER. 

IIL GIBBON. ByJ. C. MoRisoN. 

'^ As a clear, thoughtful, and attractive record of the life and works of 
the greatest amo)ig the world's historians, it deserves the highest praise." — 
Examiner. 

IV. SHELLEY. By J. A. Symonds. 

*' The lovers of this great poet arc to be congratulated on having at 
their command so fresh, clear , and intelligent a presentment of the subject, 
written by a man of adequate and wide culture." — AtheNvEUM. 

V. HUME. By Professor Huxley. 

" // may fairly be said that iui one now living could have expounded 
Hume 7vith more sympathy or with equal perspicuity." — Athen^UM. 

VI. GOLDSMITH. By William Black. 

"Mr. Black brings a fne sympathy and taste to bear in his criticism 
of Goldsmith'' s writings as well as in his sketch of the incidents of his life." 

ATHEN/EUM. 

VII. DEFOE. By W. Minto. 

" Mr. Minto' s book is careful and accurate in all that is stated, and 
faithful in all that it suggests. It will repay reading more than once.'^ 
Athen.^um. »-• 

VHI. BURNS. By Principal Shairp, Professor of Poetry in the 
University of Oxford. 

"' It is impossible to desire fairer criticism than Principal Shairp' s 
on Burns' s poetry .... None of the series has given a truer- estimate 
cither of character or of genius than tliis little volume .... and all who 
nad it will be thorouglily grateful to the author for this monument to the 
genius of Sco'land' s greatest poet." — Spectator. 

IX. SPENSER. By the Very Rev. the Dean of St. Paul's. 

^^ Dr. CIturcIt is master of his subject, an I writes always with good 
taste." — Academy. 

X. THACKERAY. By Anthony Tkoli.ope. 

*' Mr. Ti-ollope's sketch is excellently adapted to fufd tlie purpose oj 
the series in tvhich it appears." — Athena:um. 

XI. BURKE. By John Morley. 

" Tcrhafs 'he best critiasm yet published on the life and character of 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 9 
English Men of Letters. — continued. 

Burke is contained in J\Ir. Morley'' s compendious biography. His style is 
vigorous and polished, and both his political and personal judgment, and 
his literary criticisms are just, generous, subtle, and in a high degree 
interesting." — Saturday Review. 

MILTON. By Mark Fattison. \Just ready. \ 

HAWTHORNE. By Henry James. ^ 

SOUTHEY. By Professor Dowden. 

CHAUCER. By Professor Ward. I r r >. * r ^ 

COWPER. By GOLDWIN Smith. \. U'l preparation. ^ 

BUNYAN. By J. A. Froude. 
WORDSWORTH. By F. W. H. Myers. 
Otha-s in preparation. 

Eton College, History of. By H. C. Maxwell Lyte. 

M.A. With numerous Illustrations by Professor Delamotte, 
Coloured Plates, and a Steel Portrait of the Founder, engraved 
by C. H. Jeens. New and cheaper Issue, with Corrections. 
Medium 8vo. Cloth elegant. 2\s. 
" We are at length presented with a tvork on England'' s greatest public 

school, worthy of the subject of luhich it treats. . . . A 7'eally valuable and 

authentic history of Eton College.'" — GUARDIAN. 

European History, Narrated in a Series of Historical 

Selections from the best Authorities. Edited and arranged by 

E. M. Sewell and C. M. Yonge. First Series, crown 8vo. 6^. ; 

Second Series, 108S-1228, crown 8vo. 6s. Third Edition. 

" We know of scarcely anything," says the GUARDIAN, of this volume, 

"which is so likely to raise to a higher level the ava-age standard of 

English education." 

Faraday. — MICHAEL FARADAY. By J. H. Gladstone, 
Ph.D., F.R.S. Second Edition, with Portrait engraved by Jeens 
from a photograph by J. Watkins. Crown 8vo. 4^. dd. 
PORTRAIT. Artist's Proof. 5^. 

Forbes. — life and letters of JAMES david 

FORBES, F.R.S., late Principal of the United College in the 
University of St. Andrews. By J. C. Shairp, LL.D., Principal 
of the United College in the University of St. Andrews ; P. G. 
Tait, M.A., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University 
of Edinburgh; and A. Adams-Reilly, F.R.G.S. 8vo. with 
Portraits, Map, and Illustrations, i6j. 

Freeman. — Works by Edward A. Freeman, D.C.L.,LL.D. :— 
HISTORICAL ESSAYS. Third Edition. 8vo. 10^. 6d. 
Contents:—/. "■'The Mythical and Ro7nantic Elements in Early 

Ens^lish History;" II. "-The Continuity of English History f^ III. 

'■'■The Relations between the Croivns of England and Scothmd ;" IV. 



lo MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 
Free man — continued. 

"Si. Thomas of Canterhiry aftd his Biogratha-s ;" V. " The Reign oj 
Edivard the Third:" VI. "The Holy Roman Empire;" VII. "The 
Franks and the Gauls;" VIII "The Early Sieges of Paris;" IX. 
"Frederick the lirst. King of Italy ;" X. " The Emperor Frederick the 
Second:" XI. "Charles the Fold ;" XII. " Presidential Governinetit. 

HISTORICAL ESSAYS. SECOND SERIES. 8vo. \os. bd. 

The principal Essays are: — "Ancient Greece and Mediccval Italy :" 
" 3Ir. Gladstone's Homer a7id the Ho7?ieric Ages:" "The Historians 
of Athens:'" "The Athenian Democracy:" "Alexander the Great:" 
"Greece diiring the Macedonian Period:" ' ^Alommstns History of Rome :" 
"Lucius Cornelius Sulla :" " The Flavian Cvsars." 

HISTORICAL ESSAYS. Third Series. Svo. 12s. 

Contents : — " First Impressions of Rome." " The Illyrian 
E7nperors and their Land." "Augusta Jreverontm.." "The Goths 
at Ravenna." "Race and Language." "The Byzantine Empire." 
"First Impressions of Athens." "Mediccval and Modern Greece." 
^^ The Southern Slaves." "Sicilian Cycles." '■^The Normans at 
Palermo." 

COMPARATIVE POLITICS.— Lectures at the Royal Institution. 

To which is added the " Unity of Plistory," the Rede Lecture at 

Cambridge, 1872. Svo. 14^. 
THE HISTORY AND CONQUESTS OF THE SARACENS. 

Six Lectures. Third Edition, with New Preface. Crown Svo. 

HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL SKETCHES : 
chieily ItaUan. With Ilhistrations by the Author. Crown Svo. 
IOJ-. bd. 

HISTORY OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, from the Foun- 
dation of the Achaian League to the Disruption of the United 
States, Vol. I. General Introduction, History of the Greek 
Federations. Svo. z\s. 

OLD ENGLISH HISTORY. With. Five Coloured Maps. Fourth 
Edition. Extra fcap. Svo., half-bound. 6^. 

" The book indeed is full of instruction and interest to students oj all 
ages, and he must he a 7vell-i7ifo7-med maJi indeed 7vho will not rise 
fro77i its perusal ivith clearer atul 7/i07-e accurate ideas of a too muck 
neglected portion of E7tglish history." — SPECTATOR. 

HISTORY OF THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF WELLS, 

as illustrating the History of the Cathedral Churches of the Old 

Foundation. Crown Svo. 3j-. 6d. 

" The history assuvies i7i Mr. Freemati's hands a sig7tiflca7tce, a7id, lue 

may add, a practical value as suggestive of what a cathedral ought to be, 

which 7nakc it well worthy of 7nention." — Spectator. 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. ii 

Freeman— r^«//y«/,v/. 
THE GROWTH OF THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION 
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES. Crown 8vo. 5^. Third 
Edition, revised. 

GENERAL SKETCH OF EUROPEAN HISTORY. Being 
Vol. I. of a Historical Course for Schools edited by E. A. 
Freeman. New Edition, enlarged with Maps, Chronological 
Table, Index, &c. iSmo. 3^. dd. 
" It supplies the great want of a good foundation for historical teach- 
ing. The scheme is an excellent 07te, and this instalment has been 
accepted in a way that promises much for the volumes that are yet 
to appear." — Educational Times. 

THE OTTOMAN POWER IN EUROPE : its Nature, its Growth, 
and its Decline. With Three Coloured Maps. Crown 8vo. 'js.dd. 

Galileo. — the private life of GALILEO. Compiled 
principally from his Correspondence and that of his eldest 
daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, Nun in the Franciscan Convent of 
S. Matthew in Arcetri. With Portrait. Crown 8vo. 7^. 6^/. 

Geddes. — the problem of the homeric poems. 

By W. D. Geddes, LL. D., Professor of Greek in the University 
of Aberdeen. 8vo. 145. 

Gladstone — Works by the Right Hon.W. E. Gladstone, M.P.:— 
JUVENTUS MUNDI. The Gods and Men of the Heroic Age. 

Crown 8vo. cloth. With Map. io,r. 6d. Second Edition. 
" Seldom," says the AtheNj¥.UM, " out of the great poems themselves, 

have these Divitzities looked so majestic and respectable. To read these 

brilliant details is like standing on the Olympian threshold a7id gazing at 

the ineffable brightness within." 

HOMERIC synchronism. An inquiry into the Time and 

Place of Homer. Crown 8vo. 6^. 
"/if is impossible not to admire the inwiense range of thought and 
inquiry which the author has displayed.'" — British Quarterly 
Review. 

Goethe and Mendelssohn (1821— 1831). Translated from the 
German of Dr. Karl Mendelssohn, Son of the Composer, by 
M. E. Von Glehn. From the Private Diaries and Home 
Letters of Mendelssohn, with Poems and Letters of Goethe never 
before printed. Also with two New and Original Portraits, Fac- 
similes, and Appendix of Twenty Letters hitherto unpublished. 
Crown 8vo. 5j. Second Edition, enlarged. 



12 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

" . . . Every fa_q;e is full of interest, not merely to the musi- 
cian, but to the general reader. The book is a vety charming one, on 
a topic of deep and lasting interest." — STANDARD. 

Goldsmid. — TELEGRAPH AND TRAVEL. A Narrative of 
the Formation and Development of Telegraphic Communication 
between England and India, imder the orders of Her Majesty's 
Government, with incidental Notices of the Countries traversed by 
the Lines. By Colonel Sir Frederic Goldsmid, C.B., K.C.S.I., 
late Director of the Government Lido-European Telegraph, With 
numerous Illustrations and Maps. 8vo. 2ls. 
*' The merit of the zvork is a total absence of exaggeration, ivhiek does 
not, ho'iVez'er, preclude a vividness and vigour of style not always character- 
istic of similar narratives." — STANDARD. 

Gordon. — LAST LETTERS FROM EGYPT, to which are added 

Letters from the Cape. By Lady Duef Gordon. With a 

Memoir by her Daughter, Mrs. Ross, and Portrait engraved by 

Jeens. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. ^s. 

" The intending tourist who wishes to acquaint himself with the country 

he is about to visit, stands embaj-rassed amidst the riches presented for his 

choice, and in the end probably rests contented with the sober usefulness of 

Alurray. He will not, hcm'ezer, if he is well advised, gi'ud^e a place in 

his portmanteau to this book." — Times. 

Gray. — china, a History of the Laws, Manners, and Customs 
of the People. By the Venerai:i,e John Henry Gray. LL.D., 
Archdeacon of Hong Kong, formerly H.]].M. Consular Chaplain 
at Canton. Edited by W. Govv Gregor. With 150 Full-page Illustra- 
tions, being Facsimiles of Drawings by a Chinese Artist. 2 Vols. 
Demy 8vo. 32^. 
"Its pages contain the most iritthfiil and z'ivid picture of Chinese life 

which has ever been published."— A'l'UKti.'EUM. 

" '^he only elaborate and vahtable book we have had Jbr many years 

treating generally of the people of the Celestial Empire." — Academy, 

Green. — Works by John Richard Green: — 

HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH PEOPLE. Vol, I.— Early 

England — Foreign Kings — The Charter — The Parliament. With 

8 Coloured Maps. Svo. i6s. Vol. II. — The Monarchy, 

14^)1 — 1540; the Restoration, 1540 — 1603. Svo. i6j. Vol.111, 

— Puritan England, 1603 — 1660; thej Revolution, 1660 — 1688. 

With 4 Maps, Svo. i6s. [Vol. IV. in the press. 

' ' il/r. Green has done a work which probably no ojie but himself could 

have done. lie has read and assimilated the results of all the labours of 

students during the last half century in the field oj English history, and 

has given them a fresh meaning by his 07vn independent study. He has 

fused together by the force of sympathetic imagination all that he has so 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 13 
Green . — contimud. 

collected, and has ^iven us a vivid and forcible sketch oj the march of 
English histoty. His book, both in its aims and its accomplishments, 
rises far beyond any of a similar kind, and it will give the colouring to the 
popdar vieto to English history for some time to come." — Examiner. 

A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH PEOPLE. With 
Coloured Maps, Genealogical Tables, and Chronological Annals, 
Cro\\Ti 8vo. Zs. 6d. Sixty-third Thousand. 
" To say that Air. Greenes book is better thatt those which have pre- 
ceded it, would be to convey a veiy inadeguate impression of its merits. It 
stands alone as the one general history of the cotmtry, for the sake of 
which all others, if yonng and old are wise, will be speedily and surely set 
aside." 

STRAY STUDIES FROM ENGLAND AND ITALY. Crown 
8vo. 2>s. 6d. Containing : Lambeth and the Archbishops — The 
Florence of Dante — Venice and Rome — Early History of Oxford 
— The District Visitor — Capri — Hotels in the Clouds— Sketches 
in Sunshine, &c. 

" O tie and all of the papers are eminently readable.''^ — Athen^UM. 

Guest. — LECTURES ON THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 
By M. J. Guest. ^Yith Maps. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
" The book is pleasant reading, it is full of information, much of it is 
valuable, most of it is correct, told in a gossipy and intelligible way." — 

ATHEX/EUM. 

Hamerton. — Works by P. G. Hamerton:— 

THE INTELLECTUAL LIFE. With a Portrait of Leonardo da 
Vinci, etched by Leopold. Flameng. Second Edition. Crown 
\Os. (yd. 8vo. 
" We have read the whole book with great pleasure, and we can re- 
commend it strongly to all who can appreciate gi-ave reflections on a very 
important subject, excellently illustrated from the resources of a mind 
stored with tnuch reading and much keen obseivation of real life." — 
Saturday Review. 

THOUGHTS ABOUT ART. New Edition, revised, with an 

Introduction. Crown 8vo. 8^. 6d. 
"v4 tnanual of sound and thorough criticism on artr — STANDARD. 

Hill, — THE RECORDER OF BIRMINGHAM. A Memoir of 
Matthew Davenport Hill, with Selections from his Correspondence. 
By his Daughters Rosamond and Florence Davenport-Hill. 
With Portrait engraved by C. H. Jeens. 8vo, \6s. 



14 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

Hill.— WHAT WE SAW IN AUSTRALIA. By Rosamond 
and Florence Hill. Crown 8vo. loj. 6d. 
" Afa}' be recommended as an ititerestitig and tnithfid picture cf the 
condition of those leads which are so distant and vet so much like home." 
— Saturday Review. 

Hodgson,— MEMOIR OF REV. FRANCIS HODGSON, 
B. D. , Scholar, Poet, and Divine. By his Son, the Rev. James 
T. Hodgson, M.A. Containing numerous Letters from Lord 
Byron and others. With Portrait engraved by Jeens. Two 
Vols, Crown 8vo. i8j. 
" A hook that has added so much of a healthy nature to our knaii'ledge 

of Byron, and that contains so rich a store of delightful correspondence." 

— Athen^um. 

Hole. — A GENEALOGICAL STEMMA OF THE KINGS 
OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE. By the Rev. C. Hole, 
M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. On Sheet, Ts. 

A BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. Compiled and 
Arranged by the Pv.ev. Charles Hole, M.A. Second Edition. 
iSmo. 4^^. 6d. 

Hooker and Ball. — marocco and the great 

ATLAS: Journal of a Tour in. By Sir Joseph D. Hooker, 

K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.S., &c., and John Ball, F.R.S. With an 

Appendix, including a Sketch of the Geology of Marocco, by 

G. Maw, F.L.S., F.G.S. With Illustrations and Map. 8vo. 2is. 

" It is long since any more interesting book of travels has issued from 

our press." — Saturday Review. " This is, without dozibt, one of the 

most interesting and valuable books of travel published for many years." 

—Spectator. 

Hozier (H. M.) — Works by Captain Henry M. Hozier, 
late Assistant Military Secretary to Lord Napier of Magdala : — 

THE SEVEN WEEKS' WAR ; Its Antecedents and Incidents, 
Nexu and Cheaper Edition. With New Preface, Maps, and Plans. 
Crown 8vo, 6^. 

THE INVASIONS OF ENGLAND : a History of the Past, with 
Lessons for the Future. Two Vols. 8vo. z'is. 

Hiibner. — a RAMBLE ROUND THE WORLD IN iSyr. By 

M. Le Baron Hubner, formerly Ambassador and Minister. 

Translated by Lady Herbert. New and Chea])er Edition. 

Willi numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo. (ys. 

'^ It is difficult to do ample justice t) this pleasant narrative of travel 

. ... it does not contain a single dull paragraphy — Morning Post, 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 15 

Hughes. — Works by Thomas Hughes, Q.C, Author of "Tom 
Brown's School Days." 
ALFRED THE GREAT. New Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
MEMOIR OF A BROTHER. With Portrait of George Hughes, 
after Watts. Engraved by Jeens. Crown 8vo. 5^. Sixth 
Edition. 
" 77ie boy who can read this book 7vithoi(t deriving from it some addi- 
tional impulse to7uards honourable, manly, and independent conduct, has 
no good stuff in him . " — Daily News. 

Hunt.— HISTORY OF ITALY. By the Rev. W. Hunt, M.A. 

Being the Fourth Volume of the Historical Course for Schools. 

Edited by Edward A. Freeman, D.C.L. i8mo. 3^-. 
" Jlfr. Hunt gives us a most compact but very readable little book, con- 
taining in small compass a very complete outline of a complicated and 
perplexing subject. It is a book which may be sdfely recommended to 
others besides schoolboys." — ^JOHN BULL. 

Irving.— THE ANNALS OF OUR TIME. A Diurnal of Events, 
Social and Political, Home and Foreign, from the Accession of 
Queen Victoria to the Peace of Versailles. By Joseph Irving. 
Fourth Edition. 8vo. half-bound. 16^. 

ANNALS OF OUR TIME. Supplement. From Feb. 28, 1871, 

to March 19, 1874. Svo. 4^. 6d. 
ANNALS OF OUR TIME. Second Supplement. From March, 

1874, to the Occupation of Cyprus. Svo. 4^-. 6d. 
" We have before tcs a trusty and ready guide to the events of the 
past thirty years , available equally for the statesman, the politician, the 
public zvriter, and the general reader." — Times. 

James. — Works by Henry James, Jun. FRENCH POETS AND 
NOVELISTS. Crown Svo. 8j. 6d. 
Cor^TTLNTS:— Alfred de Jllusset ; Theophile Gautier ; Baudelaire; 
Honore de Balzac ; George Sand ; The Tzoo Amperes ; Turgenieff, &^c. 

Johnson's Lives of the Poets. — The Six Chief 

Lives — Milton, Diyden, Swift, Addison, Pope, Gray. With 
Macaulay's " Life of Johnson." Edited, with Preface, by 
Matthew Arnold. Crown Svo. 6s. 

Killen. — ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF IRELAND, from 
the Earliest Date to the Present Time. By W. D. Killen, D.D., 
President of Asseml)ly's College, Belfast, and Professor of Eccle- 
siastical History. Two Vols. Svo. 25^'. 
" Those who have the leisure will do well to read these two volumes. 

They are fill of interest, and are the result of great research. . . . We 



1 6 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

have 710 hesitation in reco7nmending the work to all who wish to improve 
their acquaintance with Irish history." — Spectator. 

Kingsley (Charles). — Works by the Rev. Charles Kingsley, 
M.A., Rector of Eversley aud Canon of Westminster. (For 
other Works by the same Author, see Theological and Belles 
Lettres Catalogues.) 

ON THE ANCIEN R^IGIME as it existed on the Continent before 
the French Revolution. Three Lectures delivered at the 
Royal Institution. Crown 8vo. 6j. 

AT LAST : A CHRISTMAS in the WEST INDIES. With nearly 
Fifty Illustrations. Sixth Edition. Crovvn 8vo. ds. 

Mr. Kifigsley's dream of forty years was at last fulfilled, when he 
started on a Christinas expedition to the West Indies, for t he ptirfose of 
becc7ning pasonally acquainted with the scenes which he has so vividly 
described in " Westward Ho !" These turn volumes are the journal of his 
voyage. Records of natural history, sketches of tropical landscape, chapters 
on education, vieius of society, all find their place. " We can only say 
that Mr. Kingsley^ s account of a ' Chnstviias in the West Ittdies ' is in 
every way worthy to be classed among his happiest productions." — 
Standard. 

THE ROMAN AND THE TEUTON. A Series of Lectures 
delivered before the University of Cambridge, New and Cheaper 
Edition, with Preface by Professor Max MOller. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

PLAYS AND PURITANS, and other Historical Essays. With 
Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh. New Edition. Crown 8vo. 6^. 

In addition to the Essay mentioned in the title, this vohane contains 
other tivo — one on ^^ Sir Walter Raleigh and his Time," and one on 
Froude's "History of England." 

Kingsley (Henry). — TALES OF OLD TRAVEL. Re- 
narrated by Henry Kingsley, F.R.G.S. With Eight Illus- 
trations by HUARD. Fifth Edition. Crown 8vo. 5 J. 
*' We knaiv no bciter book for those who want knowledge or seek to 

refresh it. As for the '■sensational,' most novels are tame compared zuith 

these narratives." — Athen^UM. 

Lang. — CYPRUS : Its History, its Present Resources and Future 

Prospects. By R. Hamilton Lang, late H.M. Consul for the 

Island of Cyprus. With Two Illustrations and Four Maps. Syo. 145. 

" The fair and impartial account of her past and present to be found in 

these pages has an undoubted claim on the attention of all intelligent 

readers." — Morning Post. 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPI/V, TRAVELS, ETC. 17 



LaOCOOn. — Translated from the Text of Le5<:ing, with Preface and 
Notes by the Right Hon. SiR Robert J, Phillimore, D.C.L. 
With Photographs. 8vo. \2s. 

Leonardo da Vinci and his Works. — Consisting of a 

Life of Leonardo Da Vinci, by Mrs. Charles W. Heaton, 
Author of "Albrecht Diirer of Niimberg," &c., an Essay on his 
Scientific and Literary Works by Charles Christophek 
Black, M. A., and an account of his more important Paintings 
and Drawings. Ilhistrated witli Permanent Photographs. Roya! 
8vo, cloth, extra gilt. 31J. 6.'/. 

Liechtenstein. — HOLLAND HOUSE. By Princess Marie 
Liechtenstein. With Five Steel Engravings by C. H. Jeens, 
after Paintings by Watts and other celebrated Artists, and 
numerous Illustrations drawn by Professor P. H. Delamotte, and 
engraved on Wood by J. D. Cooper, W. Palmer, and Jewitt & 
Co. Third and Cheaper Edition. Medium 8vo. cloth elegant. 
\bs. 
Also, an Edition containing, in addition to the above, about 4C1 
Illustrations by the Woodbury-type process, and India Proofs of 
the Steel Engravings. Two vols, medium 4to. half morocco 
elegant. 4/. 4J". 

Lloyd.— THE AGE OF PERICLES. A History of the Arts and 
Politics of Greece from the Persian to the Peloponnesian War. 
By W. Wat kiss Lloyd. Two Vols. 8vo. 2ij-. 
" No such accoiiiii of Greek art oj the best period has yet been brought 

together in an English work Mr. Lloyd has produced a book of 

unusual excellence and interest." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Loch Etive and the Sons of Uisnach. — with illus 

trations. Svo. \^s. 
" Not only have we Loch Etive of the present time brought before us in 
colours as true as they are vivid, but stirring scenes which happened on 
the borders of the beautiful lake in semi-mythical times arc conjured up 
with singtdar skill. NoT-vhere else do we reinember to have met with such 
a ivell-writtcn account of the invasion of Scotland by the Irish.'''' — Gloiii:. 

Loftie. — A RIDE IN EGYPT FROM SIOOT TO I. UXOR, IN 

1879 ; with Notes on the Present State and Ancient History of tl;e 
Nile Valley, and some account of the various ways of making the 
voyage out and home. By the Rev. W. J. LotriE. With 
Illustrations. Crown Svo. lo.f. dd. 
" We prophesy that Mr, Loftie s little book will accompany man y 
t--avellers on the Nile in ihe coming winters." — TiMES. 

B 



iS MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

Lubbock. — ADDRESSES, POLITICAL AND EDUCA- 
TIONAL. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 8vo. Ss. dd. 

Macdonell. — FRANCE SINCE THE FIRST EMPIRE. By 
Tames Macdonell. Edited with Preface by his Wife. Crown 
8vo. \Shortly. 

Macarthur. — history of Scotland, By Margaret 

Macarthur. Being the Third Volume of the Historical Course 

for Schools, Edited by Edward A. Freeman, D.C.L. Second 

Edition. i8mo. 2s. 

^* It is an excellent sutnmary, unimpeachable as to facts, and putting 

thetn in tJie clearest and most impartial light attaiiuibley — GUARDIAN. 

" No previous History oj Scotland of the same bulk is anything' like so 

trustworthy, or deserves to be so extensively used as a text-book." — Globe. 

Macmillan (Rev. Hugh).— For other Works by same Author, 
see Theological and Scientific Catalogues. 
HOLIDAYS ON HIGH LANDS ; or, Rambles and Incidents in 
search of Alpine Plants. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. 
Globe 8vo. cloth, ds. 
"Botanical knoruledge is blended -with a love of nature, a pious en- 
thusiasm, and a rich felicity of diction not to be met with in any works 
of kindred character, if we except those of Hugh Miller." — Telegraph. 

Macready. — macready'S reminiscences and se- 
lections FROM HIS diaries AND LETTERS. Edited 
by Sir F. PoLLOCK, Bart., one of his Executors. With Four 
Portraits engraved by Jeens. New and Cheaper Edition. Crown 
8vo. 7j. 6d, 
" As a careful and for the most part Just estimate of the stage during 
a very brilliant petiod, the attraction of these volumes can scarcely be 
surpassed. .... Readers who have no special interest in theatrical 
matters, but enjoy miscellaneous gossip, tuill be allured from page to page, 
attracted by familiar names and by observations upon popular actors and 
authors. " — SPECTATOR. 

Mahaffy. — Works by the Rev. J. P. Mahaffy, M.A., Fellow of 
Trinity College, Dublin : — 
SOCIAL LIFE IN GREECE FROM HOMER TO MENAN- 
DER. Third Edition, revised and enlarged, with a new chapter 
on Greek Art. Crown 8vo. gc 
" It should be in the hands of all who desire thoroughly to understand 
and to enjoy Greek lita-ature, and to get an intelligent idea of the old Gieek 
a fe, political, social, and religious.^'' — GUARDIAN. 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 19 



Mahaffy. — continued. 

RAMBLES AND STUDIES IN GREECE. With Illustrations. 

Crown Svo. 10^. 6J. New and enlarged Edition, with Map and 

Illustrations. 
"A singularly insh-uctive and agreeable volu7ne." — Athen/EUM. 

" Maori." — sport and work on the nepaul fron- 
tier ; or, Twelve Years' Sporting Reminiscences of an Indigo 
Planter. By "Maori." With Illustrations. Svo. 14^-. 

"Every day^s adventures, loith all the Joys and perils of the chase, are 
told as only a keen and cunning sportsman can tell them." — Standard. 

Margary.— THE JOURNEY OF AUGUSTUS RAYMOND 

MARGARY from SHANGHAE TO BHAMO AND BACK 

TO MANWYNE. From his Journals and Letters, with a brief 

Biographical Preface, a concluding chapter by Sir Rutherford 

Alcock, K.C.B. , and a Steel Portrait engraved by Jeens, and 

Map. Svo. los. 6d. 

" There is a manliness, a cheerful spirit, an inherent vigour which 

was never overcome by sickness or debility, a tact ivhich conquered th-' 

prejudices of a strange and suspicious population, a quiet self-reliance, 

always combined with deep religious feeling, unalloyed by either priggish- 

ness, cant, or supa'stition, that ought to commend this volume to readers 

sitting quietly at home who feel any pride in the high estimation cucorded 

to men of their race at Ya7-kand or at Khiva, in the heart of Africa, or 

on the shores of Lake Seri-kuL" — Saturday Review. 

Markham. — northward HO! By Captain Albert H, 
Markham, R.N., Author of "The Great Frozen Sea," &c. 
Including a Narrative of Captain Phipps's Expedition, by a Mid- 
shipman. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo, \os. 6d. 
" Captain ']\Iarkham^s interesting volume has the advantage of being 

loritten by a man who is practical'y conversant with the subject." — Pall 

Mall Gazette. 

Martin.— THE history of LLOYD'S, AND OF MARINE 
INSURANCE IN GREAT BRITAIN. With an Appendix 
containing Statistics relating to Marine Insurance. By Frederick 
Martin, Author of "The Statesman's Year Book." Svo. 14^. 

Martineau. — biographical SKETCHES, 1852— 1875. 

By Harriet Martineau. With Additional Sketches, and Auto- 
biographical Sketch. Fifth Edition. Crown Svo. 6j. 

MaSSOn (David) — For other Works by same Author, see PuiLo- 
SOPHICAL and Belles Leti res Catalogues. 



20 MACMILLAX'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

Masson (David). — contijiucd. 

CHATTERTON : A Slory of the Year 1770 By David Massox, 
LL.D., Professor of Rhetoric and iinglish Literature in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. Crown 8vo. 5J-. 

THE THREE DEVILS : Luther's, Goethe's, and Milton's ; and 
other Essays. Crown Svo. 5^. 

WORDSWORTH, SHELLEY, AND KEATS; and other 
Essays. Crow n Svo. 5'*'- 

Mathews. — life of CFIARLES J. MATHEWS, Chiefly 

Autobiographical. With Selections from his Correspondence and 

Speeches. Edited by Charlks Dickens. 

" One of the pleasaiitdst ami most readable Iwoks of the season. From 

first to last these t7vo volumes are alive icith the inimitable artist and 

comedian. . . . The ivkole book is full of life, 'ngour, and wit, and evin 

through some of the gloomy episodes of volwiie two, will repay most careful 

study. So complete, so varied a picture of a man's life is rarely to be met 

ti'ith.'" — Standard. 

Maurice. — the friendship of books ; AND OTHER 
LECTURES. By the Rev. F". D. Maurice. Edited with Pre- 
face, by Thomas Hughes, Q.C. Ciowti Svo. 10s. 6d. 

Mayor (J. E. B.)— works edited by John E. B. Mayor, 
M.A., Kennedy Professor of Latin at Cambridge : — 

CAMBRIDGE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY^ Part II 

Autobiography of Matthew Robinson. Fcap. Svo. 55. 6d. 
LIFE OF BISHOP BEDELL, By his Son. Fcap. Svo. 31. 6d. 

Melbourne.— MEMOIRS OF THE RT. HON. WILLIAM. 

SECOND VISCOUNT MELBOURNE. By W. M. Torrens, 

M.P. With Portrait after Sir. T. Lawrence. Second Edition. 

2 Vols. Svo. 32J-. 

" As might be expected, he has produced a booh which will conwiand 

and reward attention. It contains a great deal of valuable matter and 

a great deal of animated, elegant tc'///;//^\"— QUARTERLY REVIEW. 

Mendelssohn.— LETTERS AND RECOLLECTIONS. By 

Ferdinand Hili.er. Translated by M. E. Von Glehn. Witli 
Portrait from a Drawing by Karl Mijller, never before pub- 
lished. Second Edition. Crown Svo. 7^. dd. 
" This is a very interesting addition to our hno7uledge of the great 
German cofnposer. It rtveals him to us under a nezu light, as the warm- 
hearted comrade, the musician ivhose soul was in his work, and the horn:- 
iTving, domestic «/««."— Standard. 



HIS 'JOKY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 21 

Merewether.— BY SEA and BY LAND. Being a Trip 
through Egypt, India, Ceylon, Australia, New Zealand, and 
America — all Round the World. By Henky Alvvorth Mere- 
wether, one of Her Majesty's Counsel. Crown 8vo. Sj. 6J. 

Michael Angelo Buonarotti ; Sculptor, Painter, Architect. 
The Story of his Life and Labours. By C. C. Blacic, M.A. 
Illustrated by 20 Permanent Photographs. Royal 8vo. cloth 
elegant, 31^-. 6d. 

" The story of AlicJiad Angelo s life retnains viferesiing 'whatever he the 
t/ianner 0/ telling it, and supported as it is by this beautiful series of photo- 
oraphs, the volume must take rank among the most splendid of Christmas 
books, fitted to serve and to outlive the season." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Michelet — A SUMMARY OF MODERN HISTORY. Trans- 
lated from the French of M. Michelet, and continued to the 
present time by M. C. M. Simpson. Globe 8vo. 4^. 6a. 

Milton. — LIFE OF JOHN MILTON. Narrated in connection 
with the Political, Ecclesiastical, and Literary History of his Time. 
By David Masson, M.A., LL. D., Professor of Rhetoric and 
English Literature in the University of Edinburgh. With Portraits. 
Vol. L i'6s. Vol. IL, 1638— 1643. 8vo. i^s. Vol. III. 
1643 — 1649. 8vo. i8.r. Vols. IV. and V. 1649—1660. 32J. 
Vol. VI, concluding the work in the press. 
This work is not only a Bw^rap/iy, but also a continuous Folitiral, Eccle- 
siastical, and Literary History of England thi-ouqh Mil/on' s w/iole iitne. 

Mitford (A. B.)— tales OF OLD JAPAN. By A. B. 

MlTFOKD, Second Secretary to the British Legation in Japan. 

With upwards of 30 Illustrations, drawn and cut on Wood by 

Japanese Artists. New and Cheaper Edition. Crown Svo. 6^. 

" These very original volu?nes will always be interesting as memorials 

op a most exceptional society, t'jhile rci^arded simply as tales, they are 

sparkling, sensational, and dramatic." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Monteiro. — ANGOLA AND THE RIVER CONGO. By 
Joachim Monteiro. With numerous Illustrations from Sketches ' 
taken on the spot, and a Map. Two Vols, crown Svo, 2i.f. 

Morison. — the life and times of saint Bernard, 

Abbot of Clairvaux. By Ja.mes Cotter Mori.son, M.A. New 
Edition. Crown Svo. ts. 

Moseley. — notes BY a naturalist ON THE CHAL- 
LENGER: being an Account of various Observations marie 
during the Voynge of H.M.S. Challenger, Rouiul ihe World, 



22 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

in 1872-76. By H. N. Moseley, F.R.S., Member of the 

Scientific Staff of the Challenger. 8vo. with Maps, Coloured Plates, 

and Woodcuts. 2\s. 

" This is certainly the most intei'esting and suggestive book, descriptive 

of a naturalist' s travels, rvhich has been published since Mr. Darivins 

'yournal ofTeseairhes ' appeared, more thanjorty years ago." — Nature. 

" IVe cannot point to any book of ti-avels in our day more vivid in its 

po'ivers of description, more varied in its subject matter, or tnorc attractive 

10 iveiy educated reader." — Saturday Review, 

Murray ROUND ABOUT FRANCE. By E. C. Grenville 

Murray. Crown 8vo. 7j'. 6d. 
" These short essays area pa-Ject mine of information as to the present 
condition and future prospects of political parties in Fra.7ice. . . . It is 
at once extremely ifiteresting and exceptionally instructive on a subject on 
which few English people are well informed." — Scotsman. 

Napier.— MACVEY NAPIER'S SELECTED CORRE- 
SPONDENCE. Edited by his Son, Macvey Napjer. 8vo. 14J. 
The Times says : — ''■It is replete with useful material for the bio- 
graphers of 7nany distinguished writers of the generation which is passing 
away. Since reading it we understand seve?-al notrworthy vien, and 
Brougham in particular, far better than we did before." " It would be 
useless to attempt within our present limits to give any adequate idea of the 
abundance of interesting passages -which meet us in the letters of Macau lay. 
Brougham, Carlyle, feffrey, Senior, and many other taell-known writers. 
Especially piquant are Jef real's periodical criiicisms on the contents oj 
the Tevie-co -which he had formerly edited." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Napoleon.— THE history of napoleon L By p. 

Lanfrey. a Translation with the sanction of the Author. 
4 vols. 8vo. Vols. I. II. and III. price \zs. each. Vol. IV. 

The Pall Mall Gazette says it is " one of the most striking 
pieces of historical composition of which France has to boast, " and the 
Saturday Review calls it "■an excellent translation of a workofi every 
ground deserving to be translated. It is unquestionably and immeasurably 
the best that has been produced. It is in pact the only -work to which we 
can turn for an accurate and trust-worthy nar^-ative of that extraordinary 
career. , . . The book is the best and indeed the only trust-worthy history 
of Napoleon which has been written." 

Nichol. — TABLES OF EUROPEAN LITERATURE AND 
HISTORY, A.D: 200—1876. By J. Nichol, LL.D., Professor 
of English Language and Literature, Glasgow. 4to. 6s, 6d. 
TABLES OF ANCIENT LITERATURE AND HISTORY, 
B.C. 1500— A. D. 200. By the same Author. 4to. 4J-. 6^/. 



HTSTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 23 
Nordenskiold's Arctic Voyages, 1858-79. — wiih 

Maps and numerous Illustrations. 8vo. i6s. 
" A volume of great interest and much scientific value." — NATURE. 

Oliphant (Mrs.). — THE MAKERS OF FLORENCE : Dante 
Giotto, Savonarola, and their City. By Mrs. Oliphant. Willi 
numerous Illustrations from drawings by Professor Delamotte, 
and portrait of Savonarola, engraved by Jeens. Second Edition. 
Medium 8vo. Cloth extra. 21s. 
" We are g)'ateful to Mrs. Oliphant for her eloquent and beautiftil 

sketches of Dante, Fra Angelico, and Savonarola. They are pictziresqiie, 

full of life, and rich in detail, and they are charmingly illustrated by the 

art of the engraver." — Spectator. 

Oliphant, — the duke and the scholar ; and other 
Essays. By T. L. Kington Oliphant. 8vo. 'js. 6d. 
" This volume contains one of the most beautiful biographical essays we 
have seen since Macaulay^s days." — -Standard. 

Otte. — SCANDINAVIAN HISTORY. By E. C. Otte. With 
Maps. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6s. 

Owens College Essays and Addresses. — By Pro- 
fessors AND Lecturers of Owens College, Manchester. 
Published in Commemoration of the Opening of the New College 
Buildings, October 7th, 1873. 8vo. 145-. 

Palgrave (R. F. D.)— the house of commons -, 

Illustrations of its History and Practice. By Reginald F, D. 
Palgrave, Clerk Assistant of the House of Commons. New 
and Revised Edition. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Palgrave (Sir F.) — HISTORY OF normandy and 
OF ENGLAND. By Sir Francis Palgrave, Deputy Keeper 
of Her Majesty's Public Records. Completing the History to the 
Death of William Rufus. 4 Vols. 8vo. 4/. 4^. 

Palgrave (W. G.)— a NARRATIVE OF A YEAR'S 
JOURNEY THROUGH CENTRAL AND EASTERN 
ARABIA, 1862-3. By William Gifford Palgrave, late of 
the Eighth Regiment Bombay N. I. Sixth Edition. With Maps, 
Plans, and Portrait of Author, engi-aved on steel by Jeens. Crown 
8vo. bs. 
*' Be has not only written one of the best books on the Arabs and om 

of the best books on Arabia, but he has done so in a manner thai must 

command the respect no less than the admiration of his fellow-countty- 

men. " — FoRTNIGHTLY ReVIEW. 



24 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS TN 



Palgra ve . — conduia-d. 

ESSAYS ON EASTERN QUESTIONS. By W. Gifford 
Palgrave, 8vo. los. 6d. 

' ' These essays are full of anecdote and interest. The book is decidedly 
a valuable addition to the stock of literature 07i ivhich men viust 
base their opitiion of the difficult social and political problems stij;- 
geited by the designs of Russia, the capacity of Mahometans lor 
sovereignty, and the good government and retention of Jndia.''' — 
Saturi AV Review. 

DUTCH GUIANA. With Maps and Plans. 8vo. (js. 

''^ His pages are nearly exhaustive as far as facts and statistics go, 
while they are lightened by graphic social sketches as well as sparkling 
descriptions of scenery. '" — Saturday Review. 

Patteson.— LIFE and letters of jopin coleridge 

PATTESON, D. D., Missionary Bishop of the Melanesian Islands. 

By Charlotte M. Yonge, Author of " The Heir of Redclyffe.'' 

^Vith Portraits after Richmond and from Pliotograph, engraved by 

Jeens. With Map. Fifth Edition. Two Vols. Crown Svo. lis. 

^^ Miss Yonge' s work is in one respect a model biography . It is made 

up ahnost entirely of Pattern's own letters. Aware that he had left hu 

home once and for all, his correspondetice took the form of a diary, and 

as we read on we come to know the man, and to love him almost as if we 

had seen him." — Athen^^UM. ^^ Such a life, with its grand lessons oj 

unselfishness, is a blessing and an honour to the age in which it is lived ; 

the b'ograp'iy cannot be studied without pleasure and profit, and indeed 

we should think little of the tnan who did not rise from the study of it 

better and wiser. Neither the Church nor the nation which produces 

such sons need ever despair oj its future.^' — SATURDAY Review. 

Pauli. — PICTURES OF OLD ENGLAND. By Dr. Reinhold 
Pauli. Translated, with the approval of the Author, by E. C. 
Otte. Cheaper Edition. Crown Svo. ^s. 

Payne. — a history of European colonies. By 

E. J. Payne, M.A. With Maps. iSmo. 4J. bd. 
The Times says: — " We have seldom met with a historian capable oj 
forming a more comprehensive, far-seeing, and unprejudiced estimate of 
events and peoples, and we can commend this little work as one certain to 
prove of the highest interest to all thoughtful readers." 

Persia. — eastern Persia. An Account of the Journeys of 
the Persian Boundary Commission, 1870-1-2. — Vol. I. The Geo- 
f^raphy, with Narratives by Majors Sr. John, Lovett, and Euan 
Smith, and an Introduction by Major-General Sir Frederic 
(".rii.usMin. C.P.., K.C.S.I., Brilish Commissioner and Arbitrator. 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 25 

Witli Maps and Illustrations. — Vol. II. The Zoology auJ Gt-olngy. 

By W. T. Bi-ANFORO, A.R.S.M., F.R.S. With Coloured Illus- 

ti-ations. Two Vols. 8vo. 42.?. 
" 77ie volutnes largely inrrease our store of tiifor7nation about 

countries -with which Etiglislinicii ought to be familinr 

They throzu ivto the shade all that hitherto has apf>eared in our tongiie 
respecting the local features of Persia, its scenery, its rcsotircet, even its 
social condition. Thev contain also abundant evidence of English 
endurance, daring, and spirit.'' — Times. 

Prichard. — the administration of INDIA. Froir 
1859 to 1868. The First Ten Years of Administration under the 
Crown. By T. T. Prichard, Barrister-at-Law. Two Vols. 
Demy 8vo, With Map. 21s. 

Raphael. — Raphael of urbino and his father 

GIOVANNI SAxNTI. By J. D. Passavant, formerly Director 
of the Museum at Frankfort. With Twenty Permanent Photo- 
graphs. Royal 8vo. Handsomely bound. 31J. 6d. 
The Saturday Review says of them, " We have seen not a feni' 

elegatit specitne7ts of Mr. Woodbury's new process, but we have seen 

none that equal these." 

Reynolds.— SIR TOSHUA REYNOLDS AS A PORTRAIT 
PAINTER. AN ESSAY. By ]. Churton Collins, E.A. 
Balliol College, Oxford. Illustrated by a Series of Portraits of 
distinguished Beauties of the Court of George III. ; reproduced 
in Autotype from Proof Impressions of the celebrated Engravings, 
by Valentine Green, Thomas Watson, F. R. Smith, E. 
Fisher, and others. Folio half-morocco. £^ ^s. 

Rogers (James E. Thorold). — HISTORICAL GLEAN- 
INGS : A Series of Sketches. Montague, Walpole, Adam Smith, 
Cobbett. By Prof. Rogers. Crown 8vo. a^s. 6d. Second Series. 
Wikiif, Laud, Wilkes, and Home Tooke. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Routledge.— CHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF POPULAR 

PROGRESS IN ENGLAND, chiefly in Relation to the Freedom 

of the Press and Trial by Jury, 1660 — 1820. With application to 

later years. By J. Routledge. 8vo. i6s. 

" The volume abounds in facts and information, almost always useful 

and often curious." — Times. 

Rumford. — COUNT RUMFORD'S COMPLETE WORKS, 
with Memoir, and Notices of his Daughter. By George Ellis. 
Five Vols. ovo. 4/. 14^. 6d. 



26 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS IN 

Seeley (Professor). — LECTURES AND ESSAYS. By 
J. R. Seeley, M.A. Professor of Modem History in the 
University of Cambridge. 8vo. IOj. 6d. 
Contents : — Ronian Imperialistn : i. TAe Great Roman Revolu- 
tion; 2. The Proxiniate Cause of the Fall of the Roman Empire ; 
The Later Einpire. — Milton^ s Political Opinions — Milton's Poetry 
— Elementary Principles in Art — Liberal Education in Universities 
— English in Schools — The Church as a Teacher of Morality — The 
Teaching of Politics : an Inaugural Lecture delivered at Cambridge. 

Shelburne.— LIFE OF WILLIAM, EARL OF SHELBURNE, 

AFTERWARDS FIRST MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE. 

With Extracts from his Papers and Correspondence. By Lord 

Edmond Fitzmaurice. In Three Vols. 8vo. Vol. I. 1737 — 

1766, 12s. ; Vol.tll. 1766— 1776, i2s. ; Vol. III. 1776 — 1805. i6j. 

" Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice has succeeded in placing before us a 

wealth of new matter, which, while casting valuable and much-needed 

light on several obscure passages in the political history_ of a hundred 

years ago, has e^iabled us for the first time to form a clear and consistent 

idea of his ancestor," — Spectator. 

Sime. — HISTORY OF GERMANY. By James Sime, M.A. 
i8mo. 3J-. Being Vol. V. of the Historical Course for Schools: 
Edited by Edward A. Freeman, D.C.L. 
" This is a remarkably clear and impressive History of Gi/rmafty." — 
Standard. 

Squier. — PERU : INCIDENTS OF TRAVEL AND EX- 
PLORATION IN THE LAND OF THE INCAS. By E. G. 
Squier, M.A., F.S.A., late U.S. Commissioner to Peru. With 
300 Illustrations. Second Edition. 8vo. 2is. 
77i£? Times says: — '^ No tnore solid and trustivoj-thy contribution han 
been made to an accurate knozvledge of what are amo7ig the most wonderful 
ruins in the world. The work is really what its title implies. While oj 
the greatest impcn-iavce as a contribution to Pe? uvian archccology, it is also a 
thoroiighly cntcrtaiiiiug and instructive narrative of travel. Not the least 
important feature >nustbeconsidered the numerous wellexecuted illustrations." 

Strangford. — EGYPTIAN SHRINES AND SYRIAN SEPUL- 
CHRES, including a Visit to Palmyra. By Emily A. Beaufort 
(Viscountess Strangford), Author of " The Eastern Shores of 
the Adriatic." New Edition. Crown 8vo. Ts. 6d. 

Tait.— AN ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH HISTORY, based upon 
Green's "Short History of the English People." By C. W. A. 
Tait, M.A., Assistant Master, Clifton College. Crown 8vo. 
3^. 6d. 



'HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC. 27 

Tait. — CATHARINE AND CRAUFURD TAIT, WIFE AND 
SON OF ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, ARCHBISHOP OF 
CANTERBURY : a Memoir, Edited, at the request of the Arch- 
bishop, by the Rev. W. Ben ham, B.D., Vicar of Margate, and 
One of the Six Preachers of Canterbury Cathedral. With Two 
Portraits engraved by Jeens. Crown 8vo. I2J'. bd. 
" The volume can scarcely fail to be read ividcly and with deep interest. 
, . . It is difficult to put it doavn tvhen once taken i?t hand, still more 
difficult to get through it without emotion. . . . IVe comniend the volume 
to those who kneio Catharine and Cj-aufurd Tait as one which will bring 
hack to their minds recollections of thtir characters as true as the recollec- 
iio7is of the faces brought back by the two excellent port7'aits which adorn 
the book ; while to those ivho knew them not, zve commend it as containing 
the record of two noble Chi-istia7i lives, which it will be a pleasure to 
them to contemplate and an advantage to emulate." — Times. 

Thomas. — the life of JOHN THOMAS, Surgeon of the 
"Eari of Oxford" East Indiaman, and First Baptist Missionary to 
Bengal. By C. B. Lewis, Baptist Missionary. 8vo. ioj-. 6d. 

Thompson.— HISTORY of England. By Edith Thomp- 
son. Being Vol. II. of the Historical Course for Schools, Edited 
by Edward A. Freeman, D.C.L. New Edition, revised and 
enlarged, with Maps. i8mo. 2s, 6d. 
" Freedom from prejtidice, simplicity of style, and accuracy of state- 
ment, are the characteristics 0/ this volume. It is a trttstworthy text-book, 
and likely to be generally serviceable in schools." — Pall Mall Gazette. 
"/« its great accuracy and correctness of detail it stands far ahead of the 
general run of school manuals. Its arrangement, too, is clear, and its 
style sifnple and straightjo7-ward." — Saturday Review. 

Todhunter. — THE CONFLICT OF STUDIES ; AND 
OTHER ESSAYS ON SUBJECTS CONNECTED W^ITH 
EDUCATION. By Isaac Todhunter, M.A., F.R.S., late 
Fellow and Principal Mathematical Lecturer 01 St. John's College, 
Cambridge. 8vo. loj. bd. 

Trench (Archbishop).— For other Works by the same Author, 

see Theological and Belles Lettres Catalogues, and 

page 30 of this Catalogue. 
GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS IN GERMANY, and other Lectures 

on the Thirty Years' War. Second Edition, revised and enlarged. 

Fcap. 8vo.' 4^. ' 
PLUTARCH, HIS LIFE, HIS LIVES, AND HIS MORALS. 

Five Lectures. Second Edition, enlarged. Fcap. 8vo. ^^s. 6d. 
LECTURES ON MEDIEVAL CHURCH HISTORY. Being 

the substance of Lectures delivered in Queen's College, London, 

Second Edition, revised. 8vo. I2s. 



28 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF WORKS JN 

Trench (Maria). — THE LIFE OF ST. TERESA. By Maria 
Trench. With Portrait engmved by Jeens. Crown 8vo, cloth 
extra. 2>s. 6d. 
" A book of rare interest." — ^JOHN Bull. 

Trench (Mrs. R.)— REMAINS OF THE LATE MRS. 
RICHARD TRENCH. Being Selections from her Journals, 
Letters, and other Papers. Edited by ARCHBISHOP TRENCH, 
New and Cheaper Issue, with Portrait. 8vo. (ts. 

Trollope. — a HISTORY OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF 
FLORENCE FROM THE EARLIEST INDEPENDENCE 
OF THE COMMUNE TO THE FALL OF THE REPUBLIC 
IN 1831. By T. Adolphus Trollope. 4 Vols. 8vo. Half 
morocco, lis. 

Uppingham by the Sea.— a narrative OF THE 
YEAR AT BORTH. By J. H. S. Crown 8vo. zs. 6d. 

Victor Emmanuel II., First King of Italy his 

LIFE. By G. S. Godkix. 2 vols., crown Svo. \6s. 
" A'i- extremely dear and interesting history oj one of the mod 
important changes of later times " — Examiner. 

Wallace. — the MALAY ARCHIPELAGO: the land of the 

Orang Utan and the Bird of Paradise. By Alkkku Russel 

Wallace. A Narrative of Travel with Studies of Man and 

Nature. Witli Maps and numerous Illustrations. Sixth Edition. 

Crown Svo. 7^. 6d. 

" 77ie result is a vi-oid picture of tropical life, ivhich may be read -wtth 

unflagging interest, and a sufficient account of his scientific conclusions to 

stimulate our appetite 7vithout wearying us by detail. In short, we may 

safely say that we have nrua- read a more agreeable book of its kind." — 

Saturday Review. 

Ward.— A HISTORY OF ENGLISH DRAMATIC LITERA- 
TURE TO TI-IE DEATH OF QUEEN ANNE. By A. W. 
Ward, M.A., Professor of History and English Literature in 
Owens College, Mancliester. Two Vols. Svo. 32^. 
'^ As full of interest as of information. To students of dramatic 

literature invaluable, and viay be equally recommended to readers for 

mere pastime."" — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Ward (J.) — EXPERIENCES OF A DIPLOMATIST. Being 
recollections of Germany founded on Diaries kept during the years 
1840—1870. ]5y John Ward, C.B., late H.M. Minister- 
Resident to the Ilansc Towns. Svo. lo.f. bd. 



MfSTORY', BIOGRAPHY, TRAVELS, ETC, 29 

"Waterton (C.)— WANDERINGS IN SOUTH AMERICA., 
THE NORTH-WEST OF THE UNITED STATES, AND 
THE ANTILLES IN 1S12, 1816, 1820, and 1824. With 
Original Instructions for the perfect Preservation of Birds, etc., 
for Cabinets of Natural History. By Charles Waterton. 
New Edition, edited with Biographical Introduction and Explana- 
tory Index by the Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A. With 100 Illustrations. 
Cheajier Edition. Crov>n 8vo. ds. 

Wedgwood.— JOHN Wesley and the evangelical 

REACTION of the Eighteenth Century. By JULIA Wedgwood. 
Crown 8vo. Zs. 6d. 

Whewell.— WILLIAM Vv^IIEWELL, D.D., late Master of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. An Account of his Writings, with 
Selections from his Literary and Scientific Correspondence. By 
I. ToDHUNTER, M.A., F.R.S. Two Vols. 8vo. 25^. 

White. — THE NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES 
OF SELBORNE. By (iiLBERT White. Edited, with Memoir 
and Notes, by Frank Buckland, A Chapter on Antiquities by 
Lord Selborne, Map, &c., and numerous Illustrations by 
P. H. Delamotte. Royal 8vo. Cloth, extra gilt. Cheaper 
Issue. 2is. 
Also a Large Paper Edition, containing, in addition to the above, 
upwards of Thirty Woodbui7type Illustrations from Drawings 
by Prof. Delamotte. Two Vols. 4to. Half morocco, elegant. 
4/. 4J. 
" Jlir. Delamotte s charming illustrations are a ivorthy decoration of so 

dainty a book. They bring Selborne before us, and really help us to 

luidei-stand why Whites love for his native place ncver grew cold." — 

Times. 

Wilson. — A MEMOIR OF GEORGE WILSON, M. D., 
F. R. S.E., Regius Professor of Technology in the University ol 
Edinburgh. By his Sister. New Edition. Crown 8vo. 6^. 

Wilson (Daniel, LL.D.) — Works by Daniel Wilson, 
LL.D., Professor of History and Enghsh Literature in University 
College, Toronto : — 

PREHISTORIC ANNALS OF SCOTLAND.^ New Edition, 
with numerous Illustrations. Two Vols, demy 8vo. 36^. 

" One of the most interesting, leartied, and elegant works we hair 
seen for a long time. " — Westm i n ster Review . 

PREHISTORIC MAN : Researches into the Origin of Civilization 
in the Old and New World. New Edinon, revised and enlarged 
throughout, with numerous Illustrations and two Coloured Plates. 
Two Vols. 8vo. 36.1, 



30 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF 

Wilson . — contimied. 

' ' A valuable ivcrfk pleasantly writtev and well worthy of attention 
loth by students and general readers." — Academy. 

CHATTERTON : A Biographical Study. By Daniel Wilson, 
LL.D., Professor of History and English Literature in University 
College, Toronto. Crown 8vo. bs. 6d, 

Yonge (Charlotte M.)— works by Charlotte M. Yonge, 
Author of "The Heir of Redclyffe," &c., &c. :— 

A PARALLEL HISTORY OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND : 
consisting of Outlines and Dates. Oblong 4to. 3^. 6d. 

CAMEOS FROM ENGLISH HISTORY. From Rollo to Edward 
II. Extra fcap. 8vo. Third Edition. 5j. 

Second Series, THE WARS IN FRANCE. Extra fcap. 
8vo. Third Edition. 5^'. 

Third Series, THE WARS OF THE ROSES. Extra 
fcap. 8vo. 5^. 
"Instead of dry details" says the Nonconformist, " we have living 
pictures, faithful, vivid, and striking." 

Fourth Series. Reformation Times. Extra fcap. Svo. 5^. 

HISTORY OF FRANCE. Maps, i8mo. 3^. ed. 

[Historic il Course for Schools. 



WORKS FN POLITICS, ETC. 31 



POLITICS, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL 
ECONOMY, LAW, AND KINDRED 
SUBJECTS. 

Anglo-Saxon Law. — essays IN. Contents : Law Courts 
— Land and Family Laws and Legal Procedure generally. With 
Select cases. Medium 8vo. iSj. 

Arnold. — THE ROMAN SYSTEM OF PROVINCIAL ADMIN- 
ISTRATION TO THE ACCESSION OF CONSTANTINE 
THE GREAT. Being the Arnold Prize Essay for 1879. By 
W. T. Arnold, B.A. Crown Svo. 6^-. 

Ball. — THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE BAR. By 
Walter W. Ball, M.A., of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at- 
Law. Crown Svo. 2s. 6d. 
" The student will here find a clear siatemetit of ike several steps by 

which the degree of barrister is obtained, and also usejtil advice about 

the advantages of a prolonged course of ' reading in Chambers. ' " — 

Academy. 

Bernard. — FOUR LECTURES ON SUBJECTS CONNECTED 
WITH DIPLOMACY. By Montague Bernard, M.A., 
Chichele Professor of International Law and Diplomacy, Oxford. 
Svo. 9^. 
" Singularly interesting lectures, so able, clear, and attractive," — Spec- 
tator. 

Bright (John, M. P.)— Works by the Right Hon. John Bright, 
M.P. 

SPEECHES ON QUESTIONS OF PUBLIC POLICY. 

Edited by Professor Thorold Rogers. Author's Popular Edition, 

Globe Svo. 3^. 6d. 

"Mr. Brighfs speeches will always deserve to be studied, as an 

apprenticeship to popular and parlianientarv oratory ; they will form 

materials for the history of our time, and many brilliant passages, 

perhaps sotne entire speeches, ivUl really become a part of the livhig liter-a- 

ture of England." — Daily News. 

LIBRARY EDITION. Two Vols. Svo. With Portrait. 255. 

PUBLIC ADDRESSES. Edited by J. Thorold Rogers. Svo, 
14^. 



32 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF 



Bucknill.— HABITUAL DRUNKENNESS AND IN'SANE 
DRUxYKARDS. By J. C. Bucknill, M.D., P\R.S., late 
Lord Chancellor's Visitor of Lunatics. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Cairnes. — Works by J. E. Cairnes, M.A., Emeritus Professor of 
Political Economy in University College, London. 
ESSAYS IN POLITICAL ECONOMY, THEORETICAL 
and APPLIED. By J. E. Cairnes, M.A., Professor of Political 
Economy in University College, London. 8vo. los. 6d. 
POLITICAL ESSAYS. 8vo. loj-. 6d. 
SOME LEADING PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY 

NEWLY EXPOUNDED. 8vo. 14^-. 
Contents : — Fart I. Value. Fart II. Labour and Capital. Fart 
III. International Trade. 

' ' A work 7i>hick is perhaps the most valuable contribution to the science 
made since the publication, a quarter of a century since, of Mr. MilVs 
^ Frinciples of Folitical Economy.'' " — Daily News. 
THE CHARACTER AND LOGICAL METHOX> OF POLI- 
TICAL ECONOMY. New Edition, enlarged. 8vo. Js. 6d, 
" These lectures are admirably fitted to correct the slipshod generaliza- 
tions xuhich pass current as the science of Folitical Economy." — Times. 

Cobden (Richard).— speeches ON questions OF 

PUBLIC POLICY. By Richard Cobden. Edited by the 
Right Hon. John Bright, M.P., and J. E, Thorold Rogers. 
Popular Edition. Svo. 3^. 6d. 

Fawcett. — Works by PIenry Fawcett, M.A., M.P., Fellow of 
Trinity Hall, and Professor of Political Economy in the University 
of Cambridge : — 
THE ECONOMIC POSITION OF THE BRITISH 

LABOURER. Extra fcap. Svo. 5^. 
MANUAL OF POLITICAL ECONOTMY. Fifth Edition, witli 
New Chapters on the Depreciation of Silver, etc. Crown Svo. 
I2s. 
The Daily News says: *' It forms one of the best introductions to the 
principles of the science, and to its practical applications in the problems 
i'f modern, and especially of English, government atid society." 

PAUPERISM : ITS CAUSES AND REMEDIES. Crown Svo. 

5 J-, (id. 
The AtheN/EUM calls the work "a repertory of into-esting and well 
digested information." 

SPEECHES ON SOME CURRENT POLITICAL QUES- 
TIONS. Svo. \os. ed. 
" They will help to educate, not perhaps, parties , but the educators of 
parties." — Daily News. 



WORKS IN POLITICS, ETC. 



Fawcett. — continued. 
FREE TRADE AND PROTECTION: an Inquiry into the 
Causes which have retarded the general adoption of Free Trade 
since its introduction into England. Third Edition. 8vo. Js. 6d. 
*^ No greater service can be rendered to the cause of Free Trade than a 
clear explanation of the principles on which Free Trade rests. Pro- 
fessor Pazvcett has dotte this in the volume before us with all his habitual 
clearness of thought and expression." — Economist, 

ESSAYS ON POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SUBJECTS. By 
Professor Fawcett, M.P., and Millicent Garrett 
Fawcett. 8vo. los. 6d. 
" They will all repay the perusal of the thinking reader. ^^ — Daily 
News. 

Fawcett (Mrs.) — Works by Millicent Garrett Fawcett. 

POLITICAL ECONOMY FOR BEGINNERS. WITH QUES- 
TIONS. New Edition. i8mo. 2s. ed. 

The Daily News calls it '■'■clear, compact, and comprehensive ;" and 
the Spectator says, '■'■Mrs. Fawcetfs treatise is perfectly suited to its 
purpose." 

TALES IN POLITICAL ECONOMY. Crown 8vo. 3^-. 

" The idea is a good one, and it is quite wonderful zvhat a mass of 
economic teaching the author manages to compress into a small space... The 
true doctt'incs of International Trade, Currency, and the ratio between 
Production and Population, are set before us and illustrated in a masterly 
manner y — Athen^UM. 

Freeman (E. A.), M.A., D.C.L.— COMPARATIVE 

POLITICS. Lectures at the Royal Institution, to which is 

added " The Unity of History," being the Rede Lecture delivered 

at Cambridge in 1872. 8vo. \\s. 

" We find in Mr. Freeman's neiv volume the same sound, careful, 

comprehensive qualities ivhich have lo7tg ago raised him to so high a place 

amongst historical zuriters. For historical discipluie, then, as well as 

historical information, Mr. Freeman! s book is full of value.'''' — Pall 

Mall Gazette. 

Goschen. — REPORTS AND SPEECHES ON LOCAL TAXA- 

TION. By George J. Goschen, M. P. Royal 8vo. 5^. 
" The volume contains a vast mass of information oj the highest value." 
— Athen^um. 

Guide to the Unprotected, in Every Day Matters Re- 
lating to Property and Income. By a Banker's DAUGHTER. 
Fourth Edition, Revised. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3.'. 6t/. 
c 



34 MACMTLLAN'S' CATALOGUE OF 

"Matiy an unprotected female will bless the head whkh planned and 
the hand which compiled this ad7nirable little fiianual. . . , This book 
was very much wanted, and it could not have been better done." — 
Morning Star. 

Hamilton. — MONEY AND VALUE: an Inquiry into the 

Means and Ends of Economic Production, with an Appendix 

on the Depreciation of Silver and Indian Currency. By Rowland 

Hamilton. 8vo. i2j. 

" The subject is here dealt with in a huninous style, and by presenting 

it from a new point of view in connection zvith the nature and functions 

of ftioney, a genuine service has been rendered to commercial science^ — 

British Quarterly Review. 

HarwOOd. — disestablishment : a Defence of the Principle 
of a National Church. By George Harwood, M. A. 8vo. \2s. 

Hill. — OUR COMMON LAND : and other Short Essays. By 
Octavia Hill. Extra fcap. 8vo, 3J. bd. " ^ 

Contents : — Our Common Land. District Visiting. A More 
Excellent Way of Charity. A Word on Good Citizenship. Open Spaces. 
Effectual Charity. The Future of our Commons. 

Historicus. — LETTERS ON SOME QUESTIONS OF 
INTERNATIONAL LAW. Reprinted from the Times, with 
considerable Additions. Svo. Ts.' 6d. Also, ADDITIONAL 
LETTERS. Svo. 2s. 6d. 

Holland.— THE TREATY RELATIONS OF RUSSIA AND 
TURKEY FROM 1774 TO 1853. A Lecture delivered at Oxford, 
April 1877. By T. E. Holland, D.C.L., Professor of Inter- 
national Law and Diplomacy, Oxford. Crown Svo. 2s. 

Hughes (Thos.)— THE OLD CHURCH: WHAT SHALL 
WE DO WITH IT? By Thom.as Hughes, Q.C. Crown 
Svo. 6j. 

Jevons. — Works by W. STANLEY Jevons, M.A., Professor of 
Political Economy in University College, London. (For other 
Works by the same Author, see Educational and Philo- 
sophical Catalogues.) 

THE THEORY OF POLITICAL ECONOMY. Second Edition, 
revised, with new Preface and Appendices. Svo. \Os. 6d. 
'''Professor Jevons has done invaluable ser-rice by courageously claiming 

political economy to be strictly a branch 0/ Applied Mathematics." 

— Westmin.ster Review. 

PRIMER OF POLITICAL ECONOMY. iSmo. is. 



WORKS IN POLITICS, ETC. 35 

Laveleye. — primitive property. By Emile de 

Laveleye. Translated by G. R. L. Marriott, LL. B., with an 

Introduction by T. E. Cliffe Leslie, LL. B. 8vo. i2f. 

" It is almost impossible to ovtr-estimate the value of the well-a'ig( sted 

knowledge which it contains ; it is one of the most learned books that 

have been contributed to the historical department of the literature oj 

economic science." — Athenaeum. 

Leading Cases done into English. By an Apprentice 

OF Lincoln's Inn. Third Edition. Crown 8vo. is. 6d. 
' ' Here is a rare treat for the lovers of quaint conceits, who in reading 
this charming little book will find enjoyment in the varied metre and 
graphic language in which the several tales are told, no less than in the 
accurate and pithy rendering of some of our most familiar ' Leading 
Cases.' " — Saturday Review. 

Lubbock. — ADDRESSES, POLITICAL AND EDUCA- 
TIONAL. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., &c., &c. 
8vo, pp. 209. 8s. 6d. 
The ten speeches given are (i) on the Imperial Policy of Great 
Britain, (2) on the Eank Act of 1844, (3) on the Present System 
of Public School Education, 1876, (4) on the Pre. ent S}stem of 
Elementary Education, (5) on the Income Tax, (6) on the National 
Debt, (7) on the Declaration of Paris, (8) on Marine Insurances, 
{9) on the Preservation of Ancient Monuments, and (10) on Egypt. 

Macdonell.— THE LAND QUESTION, WITH SPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. By 
John Macdonell, Barrister-at-Law. 8vo. 10s. Gd. 

Marshall.— THE ECONOMICS OF INDUSTRY. By A. 
Marshall, M.A., Piincipalof University College, Bristol, and 
Mary Paley Marshall, late Lecturer at Newnham Hall, 
Cambridge. Extra fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Martin. — the statesman's year-book : a statistical 
and Historical Annual of the States of the Civilized World, 
for the year 1880. By Frederick Martin. Seventeenth Annual 
Publication. Revised after Official Returns. Crown 8vo. los. 6d. 
The Statesman's Year-Book is the only ivork in the English language 
which furnishes a clear a7td concise account of the actual condition of all 
the States of Europe, the civilized countries of America, Asia, and 
Africa, and the British Colonies and Dependencies in all parts of the 
world. The new issue of the work has been revised and co}-rected, on the 
basis of official reports received direct from the heads of the leading Govern- 
ments of the world, in reply to letters sent to them by the Editor. Through 
the valuable assistance thus given, it has been possible to coiled an amount 



36 MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF 

of information, political, statistical, and commercial, of the latest date, and 
of unimpeachable trustiuorthiness, such as -no publication of the same 
kind has ever been able to furnish, "As indispensable as Bradshaw." — 
Times. 

Monahan. — the method OF LAW: an Essay on the 
Statement and Arrangement of the Legal Standard of Conduct. 
By J. H. Monahan, Q. C. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
'* Will be found valuable by careful law students ivho have felt the 

importance of gaining clear ideas regarding the relatio7is betzveai the parts 

of the complex orgatiism they have to study." — BRITISH QUARTERLY 

Review. 

Paterson. — THE liberty OF THE SUBJECT AND THE 

LAWS OF ENGLAND RELATING TO THE SECURITY 

OF THE PERSON. Commentaries on. By James Paterson, 

M.A. , Barrister at Law, sometime Commissioner for English and 

Irish Fisheries, etc. Cheaper issue. Two Vols. Cnjwn 8vo. 2ls. 

' ' Tivo or three hours'' dipping into these volumes, not' to say reading them 

through, will give legislators and stump orators a knowledge of the liberty 

of a citizen of their country, in its principles, its fulness, and its modi' 

/ication, stick as they probably in nine cases out of ten never had before." 

— Scotsman. 

Phillimore.— PRIVATE LAW AMONG THE ROMANS, 
from the Pandects. By John George Phillimore, Q.C. 8vo. 

Rogers. — COBDEN and political opinion. By J. E. 
Thorold Rogers. 8vo. ioj-. 6;/. 
" Will be found ?nost useful by politiciaiis of every school, as it forms a 
sort of handbook to Cobden^s teaching." — Athen^UM. 

Stephen (C. E.)— the service of the poor ; 

Being an Inquiry into the Reasons for and against the EstabHsh- 
ment of Religious Sisterhoods for Charitable Purposes. By 
Caroline Emilia Stephen. Crown 8vo. 6s. 6d. 
" The ablest advocate of a better line of work iti this direction that we 
have ever seen.'" — Examiner. 

Stephen. — Works by Sir James F. Stephen, K.C.S.L, Q.C. 
A DIGEST OF THE LAW OF EVIDENCE. Third Edition 
with New Preface. Crown Svo. 6s. 
A DIGEST OF THE CRIMINAL LAW. (Crimes and 

Punishments. ) Svo. 1 6s. 
" We feel sure that any person of ordinary intelligence who had ncz'er 
looked into a law-book in his life might, by a few days' careful study of 



WORKS IN POLITICS, ETC. 37 

Stephen . — continued. 

this volume, obtain a more accuyate understanding of the criminal lata, 
a more perfect conception of its different bearings, a more thorough 
and intelligent insight into its snares and piifilh, than an ordinary 
practitioner can boast of after years of study of the ordinary text- 
books and practical experience of the Courts unassisted by any competent 
guide." — Saturday Review. 

A GENERAL VIEW OF THE CRIMINAL LAW OF ENG- 
LAND. Two Vols. Crown 8vo. {^New edition in the press. 

Stubbs.— VILLAGE POLITICS. Addresses and Sermons on 
the Labour Question. By C. W. Stubks, M.A., Vicar of 
Granborough, Bucks. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3^. 6c/. 

Thornton. — Works by W. T. Thornton, C.B., Secretary for 

Public Works in the India Office : — 
ON LABOUR : Its Wrongful Claims and Rightful Dues ; Its 

Actual Present and Possible Future. Second Edition, revised, 

8vo. 14T. 
A PLEA FOR PEASANT PROPRIETORS : With the Outlines 

of a Plan for their Establishment in Ireland. New Edition, 

revised. Crown 8vo. Is. 6d. 

INDIAN PUBLIC WORKS AND COGNATE INDIAN 
TOPICS. With Map of Indian Railways. Crown 8vo. 2,s. ed. 

Walker. — Works by F. A. Walker, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of 
Political Economy and History, Yale College : — 
THE WAGES QUESTION. A Treatise on Wages and the 

Wages Class. 8vo. 14^-. 
MONEY. 8vo. i6s. 

" It is painstaking, laborious, and states the question in a clear and 

very intelligible for 7n . . . . The volume possesses a great value as a sort 

of encyclopcedia of knowledge on the subject T — Economist. 

MONEY IN ITS RELATIONS TO TRADE AND INDUSTRY. 

Crown 8vo. {Shortly. 

Work about the Five Dials. With an Introductory 
Note by Thomas Carlyle. Crown 8vo. bs. 
"A book which abounds with wise and practical suggestions." — Pall 
Mall Gazette. 



3S MACMILLAN'S CATALOGUE OF 



WORKSCONNECTED WITH THE SCIENCE 
OR THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE. 

Abbott.— A SHAKESPERIAN GRAMMAR : An Attempt to 
illustrate some of the Differences between Elizabethan and Modem 
English. By the Rev. E. A. ABBOTT, D. D., Head Master of the 
City of London School. New and Enlarged Edition. Extra 
fcap. 8vo. 6j-. 
" Valuable not only as an aid to the critical study of Shakespeare, 

but as tending to farniliarize the reader with Elizabethan English in 

general. " — Athen^um. 

Breymann. — a French GRAMMAR BASED ON PHILO- 
LOGICAL PRINCIPLES. By Hermann Breymann, Ph.D., 
Professor of Philology in the University of Munich late Lecturer 
on French Language and Literature at Oweiis College, Man- 
chester. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4J-. itd. 

Ellis. — PRACTICAL HINTS ON THE QUANTITATIVE 
PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN, FOR THE USE OF 
CLASSICAL TEACHERS AND LINGUISTS. By A. J. 
Ellis, B.A., F.R.S., <S:c, Extra fcap. 8vo. \s. 6d. 

Fleay. — a SHAKESPEARE MANUAL. By the Rev. F. G. 

Fleay, M. a., Head Master of Skipton Grammar School. Extra 
fcap. 8vo. ^f. 6d, 

Goodwin. — Works by W. W. GooDWiN, Professor of Greek 
Literature in Harvard University. 
SYNTAX OF THE GREEK MOODS AND TENSES. New 

Edition. Crown 8vo. 6^. 6d. 
AN ELEMENTARY GREEK GRAMMAR. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
" It is the best Greek Grammar of its size in the English language." — 
Athen^.um. 

Hadley. — ESSAYS PHILOLOGICAL AND CRITICAL. 

Selected from the Papers of James Hadley, LL.D., Professor of 
Greek in Yale College, &c. 8vo. i6s. 

Hales.— LONGER ENGLISH POEMS. With Notes, Philo- 
logical and Explanatory, and an Introduction on the Teaching of 
English. Chiefly for use in Schools. Edited by J. W. Hales, 
M.A., Professor of English Literature at King's College, London, 
&c. &c. Fifth Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 45. 6d. 



WORKS ON LANGUAGE. 39 

Helfenstein (James).— a COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR 

OF THE TEUTONIC LANGUAGES : Being at the same 
time a Historical Grammar of the EngUsh Language, and com- 
prising Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, Early English, Modern English, 
Icelandic (Old Norse), Danish, Swedish, Old High German, 
Middle High German, Modern German, Old Saxon, Old Frisian, 
and Dutch. By James Helfenstein, Ph.D. 8vo. 18^. 

Masson (Gustave). — a COMPENDIOUS dictionary 

OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE (French-English and English- 
French). Followed by a List of the Principal Diverging Deriva- 
tions, and preceded by Chronological and Historical Tables. By 
Gustave Masson, As^sistant-Master and Librarian, Harrow 
School. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. Half-bound. 6s. 
"A book which any student, whatever may be the degree of his ad- 
vancement in the lans^uage, zvould do well to have on the table close at 
hand while he is readtn^."— Saturday Review. 

Mayor. — a BIBLIOGRAPHICAL CLUE TO LATIN LITE- 
RATURE. Edited after Dr. E. Hubner. With large Additions 
by John E. B. Mayor, M.A., Professor of Latin in the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge. Crown 8vo. 6.S'. 6d. 
" An ext7-cmely iiseful volume that should be in the hands of all 

scholars." — Athen^um. 

Morris. — Works by the Rev. Richard Morris, LL.D., Member 
of the Council of the Philol. Soc, Lecturer on English Language 
and Literature in King's College School, Editor of " Specimens 
of Early English," etc., etc. : — 

HISTORICAL OUTLINES OF ENGLISH ACCIDENCE, 
comprising Chapters on the History and Development of 
the Language, and on Word-formation, Sixth Edition. Fcap. 
8vo. 6^. 

ELEMENTARY LESSONS IN HISTORICAL ENGLISH 
GRAMMAR, containing Accidence and Word-formation. Third 
P'.dition. i8mo. 2s. 6d. 

Oliphant. — the old and middle English. By 

T. L. Kington Oliphant, M.A., of Balliol College, Oxford. 

A New Edition, revised and greatly enlarged, of " The Sources 

of Standard English." Extra fcap. 8vo. gs. 
'^ Mr. Oliphant' s book is to our mi)td, otie 0/ the ablest and most 
scholarly contributions to our standard Efiglish we have seen for many 
j)/<wrj."— School Board Chronicle. "77;^ book comes nearer to a 
history of the English language than anything we have seen since such a 
history could be written, without ccnjusion and contradictions.'" — 
Saturday Review. 



40 MACMILLAPTS CATALOGUE OF 

Peile (John, M.A.) — an INTRODUCTION TO GREEK 

AND LATIN ETYMOLOGY. By John Peile, M.A., 

Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge. Third 

and revised Edition. Crown 8vo. \os. 6d. 

'^The book may be accepted as a very valuable contribution to the 

science of la7tguage." — Saturday Review. 

Philology. — THE JOURNAL OF SACRED AND CLAS- 
SICAL PHILOLOGY. Four Vols. 8vo. 12s. 6d. each. 

THE JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY. New Series. Edited by 
John E. B. Mayor, M.A., and W. Aldis Wright, M.A. 
4J. 6d. (Half-yearly.) 

Roby (H. J.)— A GRAMMAR OF THE LATIN LANGUAGE, 
FROM PLAUTUS TO SUETONIUS. By Henry John 
RoBY, M.A., late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
In Two Parts. Second Edition. Part I. containing : — Book I. 
Sounds. Book II. Inflexions. Book III. Word Formation. Ap- 
pendices. Crown 8vo. 2>s. 6d. Part II. — Syntax, Prepositions, 
&c. Crown 8vo. ioj-. 6c/, 
''''The book is marked by the clear and practical insight of a master in 
his art. It is a book which would do honour to any country." — 
Athen^UM. '^Brings before the student in a methodical form the best 
results oj modern philology bearitig on the Latin language. " — SCOTSMAN. 

Schmidt. — the RYTHMIC AND METRIC OF THE 
CLASSICAL LANGUAGES. To which are added, the Lyric 
Parts of the "Medea" of Euripides and the "Antigone" of 
Sophocles; with Rhythmical Scheme and Commentary. By 
Dr. J. H. Schmidt. Translated from the German by J. W. 
White, D.D. 8vo. ios. 6d. 

Taylor. — Works by the Rev. Isaac Taylor, M.A.:— 
ETRUSCAN RESEARCHES. With Woodcuts. 8vo. 14?. 
The Times says : — " 2'he learning and industry displayed in this 
volume deserve the most cordial recognition. The ultimate verdict of 
science we shall not attempt to anticipate ; but we can safely sa} this, that 
it is a learned book wliich the unlearned can enjoy, and that in the de- 
scriptions of the tomb- builders, as 'well as in the mamellous coincidences 
and unexpected analogies brought together by the author, readers of every 
grade mu-y take delight as well as philosophers and scholars." 

WORDS AND PLACES ; or. Etymological Illustrations of 
History, Ethnology, and Geography. By the Rev. Isaac Taylor. 
Third Edition, revised and compressed. With Maps. Globe 
8vo. 6j. 

GREEKS AND GOTHS : a Study on the Runes. 8vo. 9^. 



WORKS ON LANGUAGE. 41 

Trench. — Works by R. Chenevix Trench, D.D., Archbishop of 
Dublin. (For other Works by the same Author, see Theological 
Catalogue.) 

SYNONYMS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. Eighth Edition, 

enlarged, 8vo, cloth, lis. 
"He is," the Athen.^um says, "a guide in this department oj 
knowledge to whom his readers may e)ifrnst themselves with confidence." 

ON THE STUDY OF WORDS. Lectures Addressed (originally) 
to the Pupils at the Diocesan Training School, Winchester. 
Seventeenth Edition, enlarged. Fcap. Svo. 5^. 

ENGLISH PAST AND PRESENT. Tenth Edition, revised 
and improved. Fcap. Svo. <)S. 

A SELECT GLOSSARY OF ENGLISH WORDS USED 
FORMERLY IN SENSES DIFFERENT FROM THEIR 
PRESENT. Fifth Edition, enlarged. Fcap. Svo. 5f. 

Vincent and Dickson. — a HANDBOOK TO MODERN 
GREEK. By Edgar Vincent and T. G. Dickson. Extra 
fcap. Svo. 5^. 

Whitney. — a COMPENDIOUS GERMAN GRAMMAR. By 
W. D. Whitney, Professor of Sanskrit and Instructor in Modern 
Languages in Yale College. Crown Svo. 6s. 
"After careful examination we are inclined to pronounce it the best 

grammar of modern language we have ever seen." — Scotsman, 

Whitney and Edgren. — a COMPENDIOUS GERMAN 

AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY, with Notation of Correspon- 
dences and Brief Etymologies. By Professor W. D. Whitney, 
assisted by A. LI. Edgren. Crown Svo. ']s. 6d. 

The GERMAN-ENGLISH Part may be had separately. Price 5^-. 

Yonge — HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN NAMES. By Char- 
lotte M. Yonge, Author of "The Heir of Redclyffe." 
Cheaper Edition. Two Vols. Crown Svo. 12s. 



Now publishing, in crown 8vo, price 2s. 6d. each. 

ENGLISH MEN OF LETTERS. 

Edited by JOHN MORLEY. 

A Series of Short Books to tell people what is best worth knowing, 
to the Life, Character, and Works of some of the 
great English Writers. 

ENGLISH MEN OF LETTERS.-JOHNSON. By Leslie 
STEPHEN. 
*' The new series opens well with Mr. Leslie Stephen's sketch of 
Dr. Johnson. It could hardly have been done better, and it will convey 
t^ the readers for whom it is intended a juster estimate of Johnson than 
either of the two essays of Lord Macaulay." — Fall Mall Gazette 

ENGLISH MEN OF LETTERS.— SCOTT. By R. H. Hutton. 

" The tone of the volume is excellect throughout." — Athenauin. 

" We could not wish for a more suggestive introduction to Scott and 
his poems and novels," — Examine^-. 

ENGLISH MEN OF LETTERS— GIBBON. By J. C. 

MORISON. 
*' As a clear, thoughtful, and attractive record of the life and works 
of the greatest among the world's historians, it deserves the highest 
praise. " — Examiner. 

ENGLISH MEN OF LETTERS.— SHELLEY. By J. A. 

8YM0NDS. 
" The lovers of this great poet are to be congratulated on having at 
their command so fresh, clear, and intelligent a presentment of the 
subject, written by a man of adequate and wide culture." — Athenczum. 

ENGLISH MEN OF LETTERS.— HUME. By Professor 
HUXLEY. 
" It may fairly be said that no one now living could have expounded 
Hume with more sympathy or with equal perspicuity." — Athenaum. 

ENGLISH MEN OF LETTERS. — GOLDSMITH. By 

WILLIAM BLACK. 
"Mr. Black brings a fine sympathy and taste to bear in his criticism 
of Goldsmith's writings, as well as in his sketch of the incidents of his 
life. " — Atheiiicum. 

ENGLISH MEN OF LETTERS.— DEFOE. By W. Minto. 
"Mr. Minlo's book is careful and accurate in all that is stated, and 
faithful in all that it suggests. It will repay reading more than once." 
— Athenccum. 



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