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Full text of "Fourth Canadian Infantry Brigade; history of operations, April, 1915, to demobilization"

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HISTORY OF 


OPERATIONS 


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4th CANADIAN 




INFANTRY BRIGADE 




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FOURTH CANADIAN INFANTRY 



BRIGADE. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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http://www.archive.org/details/fourthcanadianinOOcoopuoft 



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FOURTH CANADIAN INFANTRY 
BRIGADE. 



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HISTORY OF OPERATIONS 

APRIL, 1915, TO DEMOBILIZAT^ION. 



1916— ST. ELOI 1^8— AMIENS 
THE SALIENT ARRAS 

SOMME ^ CAMBRAI 

1917— VIMY RIDGE VALENCIENNES 

HILL 70 MONS 

PASSCHENDAELE THE RHINE 



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Compiled by Major J.*^ Al COOPER. 



Printed for Private Circulation. 




LONDON; 
CHARLES and SON (W. Charles), 10, Paternoster Square EC 4. 



D 



FOURTH CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE, 

2nd CANADIAN DIVISION, CANADIAN CORPS. 
1915-I9I9. 



Commanded by 

Colonel (Brig.-Gen.) SEPTIMUS DENISON, C.M.G. 

Formerly commanding Military District No. 4 (Canada). 

Formation to July, 1951. 

Brigadier-General L.G.P.M. LORD BROOKE, C.M.G., M.V.O., 

Honorary Colonel 8th (Cyclist Battalion) ESSEX Regiment 

(Territorial). 

July, 1915. to November, 1915. 

Brigadier-General ROBERT RENNIE, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., M.V.O. 

Officer commanding 3rd Canadian Battalion (Frances 
November, 1915, to September, 1918. 

Brigadier-General G. ERIC McCUAIG, C.M.G., D.S.O. 

Officer commanding 13th Canadian Battalion (France). 

September, 1918, to February, 1919. 

Brigadier-General ROBERT RENNIE, C.B., CM. G.. D.S.O., M.V.O. 

Officer commanding 3rd Canadian Battalion (France). 

February, 1919 to Demobilization. 



SHORT HISTORY. 



** The Infantry Man remains the backbone of defence, 
and the spearhead of the attack.'' — Sir Douglas Haig's 
Despatch, December 21st, 1918. 



WHILE it is not yet possible nor desirable to attempt a 
complete history of any unit in the Canadian Corps, 
there are many facts to be recorded which are of imme- 
diate personal interest to those who have taken their share in the 
work. It is in such spirit that this brief outline has been prepared. 
The 4th Brigade has had a wide experience and an unbroken record 
of success. It has had the post of honour on many occasions when 
the 2nd Canadian Division went into action, and it has never failed 
to live ap to the Corps' record of reaching its objective successfully 
and on time. At the SOMME in 1916 and at VIMY RIDGE, HILL 
70 and PASSCHENDAELE in 1917, it did its part in maintaining 
the reputation which Canadians had won in the Second Battle of 
YPRES. At AMIENS, ARRAS and CAMBRAI in 1918 the Bri- 
gade upheld its unsullied record. The closing days of the war 
found it again leading the Division, and when the " Cease Fire " 
bugle sounded, its battalions occupied the ground, and the head- 
quarters which had been held by the heroic " Contemptibles " when 
they first met the German columns in 1914. The " farthest for- 
ward " military cemetery in Belgium, on the Eastern outskirts of 
MONS, is sacred to the dead of the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

Origin. After the First Contingent left Canada in October, 1914, and 

was organised as the 1st Canadian Division, a second Division was 
decided upon. This was to be raised in Canada by Units, taken 
as such to England, and there concentrated and trained. It was to 
consist of the 4th, 5th, and 6th Brigades. Each Unit was to go to 
England complete with horses, waggons, and other equipment. 

The 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade was raised by Units in 
Ontario and was nominally under the Command there of Colonel 
Septimus Denison. It was never concentrated as a Brigade in 
Canada however. 



6 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

^Avril and Mav The 18th Canadian Infantry Battalion, under Command of Lieut.- 

jjjjg Colonel E. S. Wigle, was raised in Western Ontario (M.D. No, I), 

and left LONDON (Ont.) on April 12th, 1915. It sailed on S.S. 

«' Grampian " from HALIFAX on April 17th, and arrived at WEST 

SANDLING on April 29th. 

The 19th Canadian Battalion was raised in Central Ontario 
(M.D. No. 2), under the Command of Lieut. -Colonel John I. 
McLaren. It left TORONTO May 12th, 1915, sailed on S.S. " Scan- 
dinavian " from MONTREAL, and arrived at WEST SANDLING 
on May 23rd. 

The 20th Canadian Battalion came from the same district, and 
was in Command of Lieut.-Colonel J. A. Allen. It left TORONTO 
May 14th, sailed in t"he S.S. " Megantic,'* and arrived at WEST 
SANDLING on May 26th. 

The 21st Canadian Battalion was raised in Eastern Ontario 
(M.D. No. 8), and was commanded by Lieut.-Colonel W. St. Pierre 
Hughes. It left KINGSTON on May 5th, 1915, sailed from MON- 
TREAL, and reached WEST SANDLING on May 16th. 

AT SANDLING. 

June, July, When all the Units reached England, the Brigades and Divisions 

August, 1915. were organised. Major-General S. B. Steele, C.B., M.V.O., was 
the first Commander of the Division. Later (August) Major-General 
R. E. W. Turner, V.C., came from France and took command. Maj.- 
General Steele received the " South-Eastem Command " in England, 
and was subsequently knighted, becoming Maj. -General Sir Samuel B. 
Steele, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.V.O. 

Colonel (later Brig. -General) Septimus Denison, C.M.G., came over 
about the same time hs the Units of the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade 
and assumed command at WEST SANDLING. He had with him 
Captain T. W. Lawson as Orderly Officer, who afterwards became 
S.C.Q. 

Colonel Denison's health was not very good and he was succeeded 
by Brigadier-General Lord Brooke on June 25th. He had as his 
Brigade Major, Lieut.-Colonel Stewart; Major Walker H. Bell as 
S.C.Q. ; Captain K. A. Murray, S.C.I. , and Lieut. J. T. Lewis, 
B.S.O. ; Lieut. Edwards, of the 21st, was Brigade M.G. Officer, and 
Capt. Elliott, C.A.V.C., acted as Brigade Transport Officer. The only 
change in commanding officers of battalions was in the 20th Bat- 
talion; Lieut.-Colonel Allen returned to Canada and was succeeded 
by Lieut.-Colonel C. H. Rogers, formerly Second in Command, 2nd 
Canadian Infantry Battalion, 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 7 

During June the Battalions were mainly employed in musketry. 
On July 5th they began battalion training, and then came the gradual 
sequence of brigade and divisional manoeuvres. On July 17th occurred 
the first review of the Division as a whole, in the presence of Sir Robert 
Borden and Lieut. -General Sir Sam Hughes. On August 4th they were 
again reviewed by General Hughes, the guest of honour on this occa- 
sion being the Rt. Hon. Bonar Law. Twelve days later the Division 
held a route march and was reviewed by Prince Alexander of Teck. 
From this date on there was intensive training designed to give divi- 
sional and brigade staffs the necessary experience. There were 
marches and bivouacs and night operations. Towards the end of the 
month the Division began its final preparations for active service by 
experience in the making and occupation of trenches and in trench 
warfare. 



September, ARRIVAL IN FRANCE. 

^^^^' Before any division went to France it was customary that it 

should be reviewed by His Majesty. On September 2nd this great 
event in the history of the 2nd Canadian Division occurred under 
favourable auspices, and the shadow of the coming event was strong. 
Afterwards the following message from His Majesty appeared in 
Orders : — 

'* Ofl&cers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and Men of the 2nd 
Canadian Division, — Six months ago I inspected the 1st Canadian 
Division before their departure for the front. The heroism they 
have since shown upon the field of battle has won them undying 
fame. You are now leaving to join them, and I am glad to have 
an opportunity of seeing you to-^iay, for it has convinced me that 
the same spirit that animates them inspires you also. The past 
weeks at Shomcliffe have been for you a period of severe and 
rigorous training ; and your appearance at this inspection testifies 
to the thoroughness and devotion to duty with which your work 
has been performed. You are going to meet hardships and 
dangers, but the steadiness and discipline which have marked 
your bearing on parade to-day will carry you through all diffi- 
culties. History will never forget the loyalty and readiness with 
which you rallied to the aid of your Mother Country in the hour 
of danger. My thoughts will always be with you. May God bless 
you and bring you victory." 

A few days later the Battalions discarded their Oliver equip- 
ment and the men donned web instead of leather, much to their general 



8 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE, 

satisfaction. About the same time their ** Bain " waggons were ex- 
changed for British '* G.S." waggons, and the Division was practically 
complete in equipment and appurtenances. 

The Division moved in due course. On the 11th, Major Walker H. 
Bell, of the Brigade Staff, left for France with an advance party of 
the 4th Brigade, which was to lead the Division. On the 14th the 
Brigade left SANDLING and embarked, but not all of it was destined 
to reach BOULOGNE that night. The Brigade Staff and a large por- 
tion of the 18th Battalion was on a boat which had a narrow escape. 
This steamer yjas rammed by a British destroyer and had to be towed 
into port next morning. Fortunately there were no casualties among 
the troops. 

From BOULOGNE the Brigade went to ST. OMER by train and 
then marched to EECKE, where it went into billets. Here, on the 
17th, it was inspected by Maior-General Alderson, Commander of the 
Canadian Corps — the arrival of the 2nd Division having changed 
Canada's representation in France from a "Division" to a "Corps." 

On the 18th, the 21st marched off to DRANOUTRE, closer to the 
line, and on the following day the 19th did likewise. The other two 
Battalions were inspected by H.R.H. Prince Arthur of Connaught. On 
the 20th, Brigade Headquarters moved up to DRANOUTRE, and on 
the following day the other two Battalions also came up to DRAN- 
OUTRE FARM. The 21st and 19th had already reconnoitred the 
front, and soon the process of taking over for the first time was com- 
plete. The line had been previously held by the 3rd Royal Fusiliers of 
the 85th British Brigade. 

On the 25th occurred the famous BATTLE OF LOOS, which made 
a spectacular opening for the experiences of the Brigade, who co- 
operated slightly, as troops were wont to do who were close to a battle 
but " not in it." 

On the 29th, the Brigade Major laconically mentioned in the 
Brigade Diary : " A ration of rum was issued to the troops in the 
trenches." 
October, 1915. On October 8th, the Brigade was relieved by the 1st Canadian 

Infantry Brigade, and Headquarters returned to DRANOUTRE. The 
baptismal ceremonies were over, but there was no quiet interval. 
Almost immediately, the 18th and 20th Battalions took over from 
General Seely's C.M.R.'s in the M, N and O Trenches in front of 
VTERSTRAAT. The 19th Battalion went into reserve temporarily in 
RIDGEWOOD, and the 21st in LA CLYTTE. 

These trenches were not in as good shape as those previously 
occupied, as the records frankly show. A new communication trench 
was an immediate necessity. Despite this need for working parties. 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 9 

a demonstration against the enemy was a feature of the work on the 
18th. It was a try-out for a possible offensive. On the 27th, His 
Majesty the King inspected the Canadian Corps. *' 

CHANGE IN COMMAND. 
November, During the autumn the weather was bad, with much rain. The 

1915. Canadians were busy improving the defensive lines. The enemy, for- 
tunately, was having the same difficulty with the mud and low wet 
ground, t)ut part of his line was higher and this gave him an advantage. 
Our trenches got so bad that it was necessary to carry forward materials 
and rations over vhe open at night. 

On the 17th, the commaiid of the Brigade passed from Brigadier- 
General Lord Brooke to Lieut. -Colonel Rennie, O.C., 8rd Canadian 
Battalion, 1st Canadian Division, who was promoted Brigadier-General. 
Lord Brooke returned to ENGLAND to assume command of the 4th 
Canadian Division. Lieut. -Colonel Stewart, Brigade Major, Major 
Walker Bell, S.C.Q., and Lieut. S. A. Flavelle, O.O., accompanied 
I/ord Brooke. Captain K. A. Murray, S.C.I., joined him later. 

On the 19th, Lieut. Lewis, B.S.O., captured a Lieutenant and a 
Sergeant from a stranded enemy plane — thus adding one more to the 
rapidly growing list of experiences. 

December The Christmas ^eason was spent by the Br'gade in this sector. 

19;i5, The regular routine was six days in the line, six days in support, 

six days in the line again, and then six days in reserve. On Christmas 
Day, the 20th Battalion in the line had 3 O.R.'s killed and 1 Officer 
and 3 O.R.'s wounded. On the 30th, Brigade Headquarters received 
about 50 shells from the Germans. Capt. H. D. Harington, D.S.O., 
West Yorks. Regt., who had been appointed Brigade Major, joined 
the Brigade. 

January, During this monotonous period there is not much to record, though 

1916. every day brought its dangers, its cares, and its casualties. A typical 
day (January 21st) is described in the Brigade War Diary in these 
words : 

** Weather clear. A fair amount of artillery fire. Machine- 
gun and rifle fire fairly quiet. A great deal of aerial activity. 
Enemy seems to be busy working on his front line trenches. Several 
new M.G. emplacements have been detected. Our patrol dis- 
covered a German working party which was dispersed by M.G. 
and rifle fire. The usual sounds of pounding and driving of stakes 
were heard in the German line." 

On the 25th, there is an entry which says : ** Patrol under Lieut. 
Hooper, 19th Battalion, entered enemy's trench and made excellent 



10 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 



February, 
1916. 



reconnaisance." For this the officer received an M.C., the first in 

the Brigade. 

Another typical entry in the War Diary is that for February 5th : 
" Enemy artillery shelled RIDGEWOOD. VIERSTRAAT, 
etc. Our artillery shelleld BOIS QUARANTE and trenches. 
One of our snipers claimed a hit. Enemy wire reported in bad 
condition. Casualties, 21st Battalion, 4 O.R.'s wounded." 
On the 23rd, Major F. Logic Armstrong became S.C.I. , and 

Captain Morrisey went to Division. 

On the 28th, the 4th Brigade took over permanently the " O " 

trenches and relinguished the " M " trenches to the 5th Brigade. Later 

the '* P " trenches were occupied for a while. 



THE BLUFF. 

March, 1916. On March 2nd, an operation was put on by the 17th Division 

" for the recapture of the BLUFF and neighbouring trenches recently 
taken by the enemy." The 1st and 2nd Canadian Divisions, or the 
portions then in the line, co-operated with smoke bombs and other 
features and with Bengalore torpedoes. The attack was a success, 
but our Brigade, then in the front line for the Division, suffered con- 
siderably during the retaliations. 

After numerous changes, the Diary records on the 22nd : 

" The 18th Battalion took over the right subsection, trenches 
Ml to M4, from the 58th Battalion, 8rd Canadian Division. 

*' The 20th Battalion took over the left subsection, trenches 
N5 to 04, from 21st Battalion. 

" The 21st Battalion went into Brigade Reserve at RIDGE- 
WOOD. 

" The 19th Battalion went into Divisional Reserve at LA 
CLYTTE." 

On the 22nd, Major C. H. Hill came from Division to act as 
Brigade Major, when Captain Harington went ill. 

FIGHTING AT ST. ELOI— THE CRATERS. 

On March 29th, the 3rd Imperial Division, then holding the line 
in front of the village of ST. ELOI and to the left of the 2nd Canadian 
Division, made an attack on the enemy position with the object of 
securing the commanding hill S.E. of the village. In connection with 
this operation a series of mines were blown which created six large 
craters, afterwards the scene of much fighting. The attack was suc- 
cessful. The Imperials established their line three or four hundred 
yards in front of the craters, but later the enemy made a coimter- 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. ll 

attack and the Imperials lost a portion of their trench line 
temporarily. Lieut. -Colonel W. St. Pierre Hughes, who com- 
manded the 21st, which was oUr right Battalion at the 
moment, saw the situation and immediately organised a party of 
about 40 men to go to the assistance of the Imperials, later reporting 
his action to Brigade. These men did splendid work in helping to 
bomb the enemy out of the trenches, enabhng the Imperials to re- 
occupy them. 
April, 1916. On April 2nd, the 18th Battalion was relieved in the P trenches 

by the 27th Battalion, temporarily attached, and the following night 
the 20th Battalion was relieved by the Durham Light Infantry. On 
the 4th-5th the Brigade was completely relieved by the 151st Imperial 
Brigade and disposed as follows : 18th Battalion to SCHERPEN- 
BERG ; 19th Battalion to RIDGEWOOD ; 20th BattaUon to LOCRE ; 
21st Battalion to LA CLYTTE; Brigade M.G. Company went to 
LOCRE ; and Brigade H.Q. to LA CLYTTE. 

Subsequently the 2nd Canadian Division took over the ST. ELOI 
Sector, the 6th Brigade relieving the Imperials. On April 6th, the 
Germans attacked, and the 6th Brigade, after severe fighting, was 
forced back. They were then relieved in the OLD FRENCH TRENCH 
by the 4th Brigade, who established a new line and also recovered 
a portion of the lost territory. There was much fighting between the 
9th and 11th. 

On the night of the 11th, they were relieved by the 5th Brigade, 
and the general system of reliefs continued for the rest of the month. 

On the 28th, Major Macdonald, who had relieved Major Hill as 
Acting Brigade Major, went on leave, and Captain Reginald Brook 
took over his work. Captain Corrigall, of the 20th Battalion, became 
Acting Staff Captain. Brigade H.Q. was then ZEEVECOTEN. 

On the 29th, the War Diary records : ** Shortage of steel helmets 
is seriously inconveniencing all Battalions and is necessitating constant 
transfers of steel helmets from one Brigade to another." 
May, 1916. Brigades had to help each other in these strenuous line-holding 

days. If one was in the line, the' others had to assist with working 
parties. On May 4th, the 20th moved up to relieve the 29th Battalion 
and to supply two companies each night as 6th Brigade carrying 
parties. The other units of the 4th Brigade also supplied working 
parties. Then followed a general relief of the 6th by the 4th. This 
was the typical procedure. ' 

At this time the Canadians held only one *' crater," while the 
others were held by the enemy. This made constant strife. On the 
16th, the 4th Brigade was relieved and Brigade H.Q. moved to 
M 4 b 7.25. On the 20th, Capt. Harington, D.S.O., reported back for 



12 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

duty as B.M. On the 29th, General Turner, Divisional Commander, 
visited the Brigade, and on the same day the Corps Commander, Lieut.- 
General Sir Julian Byng called on the G.O.C. 

On the last day of the month, the Brigade returned to the line, 
relieving the 1st Canadian Brigade in the BLUFF Sector. At first only 
one Battalion, the 20th, went into the line, but the Division soon 
extended its front northwards, taking in the front to Trench 82 in- 
clusive. 

During May the Brigade Dental Officers were transferred to the 
Ambulances. When the 2nd Canadian Division left SANDLING, each 
Brigade had two Dental Officers with Djntal Details attached to 
Brigade Headquarters. It was intended at that time that the Canadian 
Dental Corps should perform its duties independently, and this system 
was followed for about a year. It was then abandoned. The two 
Brigade Officers who served during this period were Capt. E. Kelley 
and Capt. J. L. Kapelle. 

MOUNT SORREL. 

June, 1916. June opened up with stirring events. On the 2nd, the enemy 

came over on the 3rd Canadian Division*s front and took a portion 
of ARMAGH WOODS and MOUNT SORREL. The 21st Battalion, 
which was in th6 G.H.Q. lines, had some casualties. On the 5th-6th. 
the 18th Battalion took over the new front already mentioned from 
the Canal to the junction of Trenches 82 and 88, and the 19th from 
Trench 83 to Railway. 

On the 6th, the enemy raided the 18th Battalion on POLLOCK 
and BEAN Trenches, but were driven off. Our losses were 8 killed 
and 27 wounded. Many men were buried by the terrific bombardment. 
On the 10th and 11th, we put in a heavy bombardment of the 
lost territory, and on the 18th the 1st Canadian Infantry Brigade 
attacked MOUNT SORREL and HIIXS 61 and 62 with some success. 
The 4th Brigade co-operated with rapid rifle fire, M.G. fire, and trench 
mortars. 

On the 2Sth, there was another hostile attempt on this front, which 
was unsuccessful, but the 20th and 21st Battalions had 3 officers and 
2 O.R.''s killec and 21 O'R.'s wounded in the struggle. 

Shortly afterwards, the Division returned to the ST. ELOI front 
and turned over the sector they had -been holding to the 1st Canadian 
Division. 

July, 1916. This was a trying tour for units of the 4th Brigade, which was kept 

in the line for 35 days. Many of the men did not have a bath 
for 44 days. But on July 3rd-4th, the Brigade was relieved and got 
a chance to clean up. 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 13 

On the S'^h, the Brigade put on a horse-show at RENINGHELST, 
which was the most successful show in the Canadian Corps up to that 
time. The Corps Commander and the G.O.C.'s of 2nd and 3rd Divi- 
sions were present. The 19th Battalion Transport carried off the 
Championship Cup. 

On the 15th, the Brigade moved back to the line, Brigade H.Q. 
going to BURGOMASTER FARM. The units had benefited by 
their stay in ONTARIO, QUEBEC, ALBERTA and CHIPPEWA 
CAMPS. 

There were a number of changes in personnel about this time. 
Lieut.-Colonel J. I. McLaren, who had brought over the 19th, returned 
to Canada and was succeeded by Major (afterwards Temp. Lieut.- 
Colonel) W. R. Tumbull, the Second in Command. Captain J. Kemp, 
of the 60th Battalion, reported for duty with the Brigade Staff. Lieut. 
Wigle, 0.0. , was injured and had to go to hospital. Lieut. Gzowski, 
who was Acting 0.0. , went a few days later to the 10th Brigade for 
similar duty. About this time, Lieut.-Colonel W. St. Pierre Hughes, 
of the 21st Battalion, became G.O.C. of the 10th Canadian Inf. Brigade, 
and was succeeded by Major (afterwards Temp. Lieut.-Colonel) E. W. 
Jones, of the same unit. 

A DARING RAID. 

On July 29th, the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade achieved dis- 
tinction with a daylight raid, the first on the British front. Lieut. 
Hooper, M.C., Bombing Officer of the 19th Canadian Battalion, and 
Lieut. Burnham, Scout Officer, did the reconnaisance by day and night 
which proved the raid feasible. They also organised the raid, which 
was led by Captain C. E. Kilmer and Lieut. H. B. Peplar with 80 
O.R.'s of the same Battalion. It was a daring piece of work and quite 
successful. The party entered .he enemy's trenches and returned with 
slight casualties. Both officers were wounded, and Captain Kilmer, 
who sustained a broken leg, was left behind in a shell hole close to 
the enemy's trenches. Two private soldiers volunteered to go out and 
bring him in — Private J. Newton and Private W. Wilson. A barrage 
was arranged for, and they doubled over, got through the wire again, 
secured the officer and dragged him back over " No Man's Land ** to 
safety. For this gallant act, in broad daylight, each received the 
D.C.M. and the Montenegrin decoration. Captain Kilmer received 
a D.S.O. and Lieut. Peplar an M.C. 
August, 1916. During August the defensive phase of trench warfare was closed 

for the time being. Since October 8th, the 4th Canadian Infantry 
Brigade had been building trenches and strengthening the line either 
in the SALIENT or in the VIERSTRAAT sectors. It was monotonous, 



14 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

dangerous, and gruelling work. There were occassional " battles," but 
these were always on a small scale — small as compared with the battles 
which were to come. There were already rumours of big events in 
the future. 

The newly formed 4th Canadian Division arrived about this time 
and was welcomed by the 2nd Canadian Division, then in the line. 
These new troops were given opportunities for preliminary work in 
the line, and finally on the 28rd they relieved the 2nd Canadian Divi- 
sion. The latter left the salient and proceeded to NORDASQUE. 
The march occupied from 25th to 31st and the troops then went into 
training for the SOMME offensive. 

Two events in August are worthy of note. On the 14th, His 
Majesty the King visited the area, and on the 18th Lieut. -General Sir 
Sam Hughes reviewed the 19th Battalion at LA CLYTTE Camp. Th^ 
latter was accompanied by Sir Max Aitken, afterwards Lord Beaver- 
brook. 

THE SOMME OFFENSIVE. 

September, After a short, sharp period of training at NORDASQUE, the 

1916. Brigade entrained for AUXI-LE-CHATEAU, and on September 9th 

reached the Brickfields at ALBERT, and was ready to take its share 

in the big battle on the SOMME. On the 10th they took over trenches 

from the 1st Canadian Brigade. 

On the 15th, the Brigade participated in an attack by the 4th 
and 5th Armies on a front of about ten miles. The main attack on 
the 2nd Division frontage was to be made by the 4th Brigade, with 
the SUGAR FACTORY, near COURCELETTE, as the main objective. 
During the night 14th-] 5th, when the units of the 4th Canadian In- 
fantry Brigade were moving into position, the enemy, who also had 
plans for an offensive on the 15th, made a preliminary attack on a 
portion of our front. He entered our trenches at one point. Without 
much delay he was ejected and our position restored. Despite the 
confusion caused by the invasion, and very heavy shelling on this 
portion of the front, the troops stoutly pursued their task of making 
new trenches and getting into their assembly positions according to 
schedule. The 19th Canadian Battalion, who were holding the whole 
of the front line at the moment, suffered severely. The attack on the 
morning of the 15th was made with the 18th Canadian Battalion on 
the right, the 20th Canadian Battalion in the centre, and the 2l8t 
Canadian Battalion on the left. 

In this operation tanks were used for the first time, six being 
assigned to the frontage of our Brigade. The ground was so broken 
that they were not able to do all that was expected, but they did 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 16 

assist materially. The attack was a success along the whole line. The 
strong point at the SUGAR FACTORY was gallantly captured by the 
21st Canadian Battalion, assisted by elements of the 20th Canadian 
Battalion. Among the captured was a Battalion Commander with his 
staff. After the 21st had reached its obective, a party of the 20th 
Battalion led by Captain Heron and Major (Acting Lieut.) Wans- 
borough) pushed ahead and established a post nearly 1,500 yards 
further on. 

The operations of the Brigade on that day were an unqualified 
success. Up to that time no greater advance had ever been made 
in a single operation by any unit on the British Front. 

Later in the day, the enemy made several local counter-attacks, 
all of which were repulsed. All oar lines were consolidated before mid- 
day. The 24th Canadian Battalion, 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade, 
commanded by Lieut. -Colonel J. A. Gunn, was attached to the 4th 
Canadian Infantry Brigade, and held in reserve. At 4 p.m. the 5th 
Canadian Infantry Brigade passed through the 4th Canadian Infantry 
Brigade and brilliantly captured COURCELLETTE VILLAGE. 

On the 16th, the 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade held the line with 
the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade in support. On the night of the 
16th and 17th the Brigade was relieved by the 9th Brigade and 
marched to BERTEACOURT— ST. LEGER. They returned to the 
BRICKFIELDS 10 days afterwards. 

SECOND PHASE OF SOMME BATTLE. 
Oetober, For the attack on ZOLLERN GRABEN and the MOUQUET 

1916. . FARM SYSTEM by the 1st and 3rd Canadian Divisions, the 4th 

Canadian Brigade was attached to the 1st Canadian Division. Beyond 
doing some trench building they were not required. The l9th Bat- 
talion was attached to the 6th Brigade and was ordered to advance from 
the CHALK PIT to COURCELLETTE VILLAGE. They jumped 
over the 29th Battalion towards the REGINA TRENCH, advanced a 
thousand yards, and passed PRACTICE TRENCHES. Later the 4th 
Canadian Infantry Brigade took over this position of the line from 
the 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade, and the 21st Canadian Battalion 
came up on the left of the 19th. Three days later the 18th and 20th 
Canadian Battalions took over in Inter-Battalion relief, and the 18th 
Battalion further advanced the line 250 yards, suffering hea\y casual- 
ties from shell fire. 

On October 3rd, a message was received from the G.O.C. Reserve 
Army. In part, it read as follows : 

" With the capture of COURCELLETTE, STUFF RE- 
DOUBT, and the SCHWABEN REDOUBT, the Reserve Army 



16 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

has gained complete possession of POZIERES RIDGE and the 
high ground which dominates the ANCRE VALLEY from the 
South. 

" For three months every trench and foot of ground has been 
stubboxfl'y defended by the enemy, but the gallantry and per- 
severance of our troops has overcome every difficulty. . . ." 

IN THE CALONNE SECTOR. 

On October 5th-6th, the 4th Brigade was relieved and went into 
reserve at WARLOY. After a day or two for rest it moved to BONNE- 
VILLE, when it again rested. Thence four days marching, via 
REMAISNIL, SIBIVILLE, and MARQUAY, brought it to BRUAY. 
On the 16th, it moved to BARIJN-HERSIN area, and next day took 
over the CALONNE SECTOR from the 111th Brigade of the 57th 
Division. The Divisional frontage ran from the SOUCHEZ RIVER 
to the DOUBLE CRASSIER. 

On the 28th, the Corps Commander paid us a visit, presented 
medals to men of the 20th Battalion, and inspected the front area. 
Two days later, H.R.H. Field-Marshal the Duke of Connaught visited 
the Division. 

Among the changes in personnel : Captain M. S. Gooderham joined 
the Brigade as Orderly Officer; Major F. Logic Armstrong left the 
Brigade and was succeeded as S.C.I, by Captain G. S. Lindsey; on 
the 31st, Ma;or R. J. Brook proceeded on a course, and Captain D. 
Rispin, of the 18th Battalion, became Acting S.C.Q. Shortly after the 
SOMME fighting, Lieut.-Colonel Milligan, of the 18th Battalion, 
returned to CANADA, and his place was taken by Major Gordon F. 
Morrison, of the 19th Battalion. 
November, in November, Major-General Sir R. E. W. Turner, V.C, K.C.B., 

1916. K.C.M.G., D.S.O., was transferred to Argyle House, LONDON, and 

Major-General Sir H. E. Burstall, K.C.B., C.M.G., A.D.C., took 
command of the Division. 

THE T.M. BATTERY. 

Early in the year, a Brigade Trench Mortar Battery had been 
formed and did good service. When first organised, it consisted of 
Captain Morrison and 40 O.R.'s. To this were added three officers 
from the Battalions — Lieut. Evans from the 18th, Lieut. Carey from 
the 19th, and Lieut. Jago from the 20th. In April, Lieut. Gowdy 
joined the Battery, and Lieut. Evans was replaced by Lieut. Cullen, 
also of the 18th. 

One of the most notable actions for the Battery occurred early in 



-iTH CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 



17 



June, when the enemy, after a prolonged bombardment, came over 
on the 18th Battahon. The T.M.'s opened up a quick barrage and 
helped materially in driving back the enemy with considerable loss. 
In the SOMME attack of September loth the T.M.'s went over 
the top with four guns. In the second tour in the same engagement 
they took up a position in COURCELLETTE QUARRY, where they 
had heavy casualties. Lieut. Carey, of the 19th, was killed here. 

On November 10th, Captain Morrison left the Battery and was 

succeeded by Captain R. N. Jago, who, except when wounded and 

in hospital, commanded it during the rest of the War. 

December, During November and December ther*" was no heavy lighting, 

1916. but there were continuous small raids on the enemy's trenches with 

the idea of maintaining line superiority. 

In December, Lieut. -Colonel Rogers, of the 20th Canadian 
Battalion, went to hospital, and Major H. V. Rorke, of the same, unit, 
assumed command. Lieut. -Colonel Turnbull also left the 19th Cana- 
dian, and Major (afterwards Temp. Lieut. -Colonel) L. H. Millen, of 
that unit, took over the command. Captain Harington, Brigade Major, 
went on leave during December and afterwards went on other duties ; 
his place was taken temporarily by Captain Lindsay, S.C.I. 

Christmas season in rest billets in the BULLY GRENAY area was 
very pleasantly spent and tended to wipe out some of the distressing 
memories of a trying and arduous year. 

The War Diary for Christmas Day reads : 

** Weather fine and clear. 4.0*0 a.m. — Situation normal. 
- Wind S.W. Gas alert on. 10.00 a.m.— G.O.C. and Brigadier- 
General Mason visit forward area. 3.00 p.m. — Divisional Com- 
mander and Staff call on G.O.C. 3.30 p.m. — Christmas tea for 
children of village (about 200). 4.40. — Situation normal. Wind 
Westerly. Gas alert off. Casualties, 1 O.R. wounded. — (Signed) 
S. L. Cunningham, Major, for Staff Captain." 
In the New Year's Honours, Brigadier-General R. Rennie, M.V.O., 
D.S.O., received a C.M.G., and Lieut. -Colonel Elmer .Tones, of the 
21st, was awarded a D.S.O. 



A FAMOUS RAID. 

January, 1917. To signalise the New Year, the Brigade resolved to put on a more 

extensive raid than had yet been attempted. This was carefully 
planned with a smoke barrage. The attack was to be made by two 
Battalions, the 20th and 21st, in two waves, with two complete 
Companies from each Battalion. The first wave to capture the German 
front line trench and clean it up ; the second was to pass over in the 



18 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

open and go on to the final objective. One half of the iirst wave was 
to foUoy/ the second and help in the final work. 

After waiting several days for favourable wind, on the 17th a force 
of 930 men entered the enemy's trenches in daylight and made a new 
record for the British Front. The results were highly satisfactory. 
The number of enemy dead is unknown, but the prisoners included 
1 officer and 99 O.R.'s. Our casualties were 36 killed, 73 wounded, 
and none missing. 

For the purposes of the raid the Brigade was reinforced by the 
M.G. Company of the Household Cavalry and a M.G. Company and 
the Artillery of the 1st Canadian Division. 

A message was later received, which read : 

" The Army Commander congratulates the 2nd Canadian 

Division on the great success of their enterprise, and is pleased 

that their careful and thorough preparations have been rewarded 

with such substantial results." 

On the 18th, the Brigade was relieved by the 8rd Canadian 
Infantry Brigade and marched into billets at RUITZ. 

On the 30th, the Brigade moved to AUCHEL and MARLES-LES- 
MINES, where it remained until February 12th, when it moved to 
ECOIVRES and the MONT ST. ELOY or THELUS Sector. On 
the 5th, the Corps Commander inspected the 18th Battalion and pre- 
sented medals. 

February, 1917. During February two new officers wer** attached to Brigade Head- 

quarters. Early in the month, Captain S. Burnham, of the 19th, and 
later, Captain Jennings, of the ^Oth, were attached for instruction. 
Shortly afterwards. Captain Smallpiece, of the 35th Battalion, was 
also attached. 

March, 1917. Nothing of a very important nature occurred in March imtil the 

19th Battalion put on a raid on the 20th. The party consisted of 
4 officers and 63 O.R.'s. They secured 5 prisoners and bombed a 
number of occupied dug-outs, returning with only 8 slight casualties. 
On the following day the enemy retaliated with a rai3 on the 
19th, but secured no identifications. They left one prisoner. One of 
our officers was killed. 

On the 24th, the 1 8th Battalion put on a raid, but it was not 
quite so successful. They had 1 officer and 2 O.R.'s missing, believed 
killed. 

On the 25th, the Brigade went out for training over taped trenches 
at VILLERS-AU-BOIS in preparation for the VIMY engagement. 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 19 

THE BATTLE OF VIMY. 

April, l9l7. After long and careful training, the Canadians were ready to drive 

the Germans off VIMY RIDGE, which was the key to the district 
which lies between LENS and ARRAS. The battle involved the whole 
Canadian Corps, but only the part of the 4th Brigade need be men- 
tioned here. The 2nd Canadian Division attacked on a two Brigade 
front, the 4th Brigade having the place of honour. The 18th and 19th 
Canadian Battalions were . in the front line, supported by the 21st 
Battalion. The 18th and 19th, in bad weather and heavy going, com- 
pleted their half of the first phase on time, and the 21st then passed 
over the troops and took a line of trenches at LES TILLEULS cross- 
roads. The Brigade then established itself in a line of trenches near 
THELUS and the first phase was complete. 

As this was one of the most famous battles in which the Canadians 
took part, the 4th Brigade is intensely proud of the important part 
which it took in the victory. Its operation order was as follows : 

4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE OPERATION 
ORDER No. 105. 

1. INFORMATION. 

The Canadian Corps in conjunction with an operation by the III. Army 
on the right will captui'e the Vimy Ridge and consolidate a system of trenches 
in the defense thereof. 

The 1st Canadian Division will attack on our right and the 3rd Canadian 
Division on our left. 

2. INTENTION. 

The 4th Canadian Infantrv Brigade will capture and consolidate portions 
of the Black and Red Objectives. 

3. DISPOSITION. 

The 18th Canadian Infantry Battalion will be on the right and the 19th 
Canadian Infantry Battalion on the left. 

The 21st Battalion will be in Brigade Reserve. 

The 20th Battalion will allot 1 Company (3 platoons) to each of the 18th, 
19th, 21st Battalions and one Company to be held in Reserve. 

The 4th Canadian M.E. Company will allot 8 guns to take part in the 
Corps M.E. scheme and 8 guns to take part in the advance up to the cap- 
ture of the Blue Objective. 

The 4th Canadian T.M. Battery will take part in tlie opening barrage 
and then be prepared to send forward guns with the assaulting infartry. 



20 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

4. PLAM. 

The 18th uiid 19th Battalions will capture and consolidate a portion of 
the Black Objective. 

The 2l8t Battalion will pass through the Black Objective and captui-e 
and consolidate a portion of the Red Objective. 

The 5th C.I.B. will attack the Black and Red Objectives in a similar 
formation. 

The 6th C.I.B. and 13th Infantry Brigade will pass through the 4th and 
5th Infantry Brigades respectively on the Red Objective to the capture of 
the Blue and Brown Objectives. 

5. ADVANCE. 

The Barrage will commence on the enemy front line at Zero, when the 
Infantry will advance to the Assault. The leading waves will capture the 
Black Objective at 0.32 minutes. 

The 21st Battalion will advance from the vicinity of the Black Objective 
at 0.75. The^- will capture a portion of the Red Objective at 0.96, 0.99 and 
0.103 minutes. 

The 6th C.I.B. will advance from the vicinity of the Red Objective at 
0.245 minutes. 

6. REORGANISATION. 

This must be undertaken as early as possible and completion notified to 
Brigade H.Q. 



7. ASSEMBLY". 

Ail units will be in position and extra personal equipment completed by 
4 a.m. on the 9th inst. Units will notify Brigade H.Q. as soon as they are 
in position. 

8. BOX RESPIRATORS. 

From 5 p.m. on the 8th inst. all ranks will wear Box Respirators in the 
Gas Alert position. 

9. CONTACT PLANES. 

Contact Aeroplane patrols will fly at the following times :— 

(1) Zero plus 50 minutes (for Black Line). 

(2) Zero plus 2 hours (for Red Line). 

(3) Zero plus 6 hours (for Blve Line). 

(4) Zero plus 8^ hours (for Brown Line). 

(5) Zero plus 10 hours (for patrols in Farbus). 

The leading infantry will be ready to light flares at the above hours aa 
soon as the aeroplane calls for the flares. 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 21 

10. WATCHES. 

Watches will be synchronised on April 8th at 4 p.m. and 11 p.m. in ao- 
cordance with instructions. 

11. ZERO. 

Zero hour will be notified later. 

12. REPORTS. 

Reports to Brigade H.Q. Zivy Cave. 

CHARLES B. LINDSEY, 

Major. 
For Brigade Major, 

7/4/17. 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade, 

Later in the day, the 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade passed 
through and captured THELUS and FARBUS WOOD, completing the 
Division's portion of VIMY RIDGE. The 20th Canadian Battalion 
was in reserve during this day and did the mopping up of trenches 
and dugouts. 

The casualties in the Brigade were comparatively light for such 
an important and far-reaching victory. The first V.C. in the Brigade 
was won by Sergeant Sifton, of the 18th Canadian Battalion, who, 
unfortunately, was killed in action later in the day. 

On April 10th, His Majesty sent a special message to Sir Douglas 
Haig as follows : — 

" The whole Emipire will rejoice at the news of yesterday's 
successful operations. Canada will be proud that the taking of 
the coveted Vimy Ridge has fallen to the lot of her troops. I 
heartily congratulate you and all who have taken part in this* 
splendid achievement. ' ' 

On April 12th, Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig issued a special 
order of the day concerning the Vimy Ridge attack, in which he said : 

'* The capture of the renowned Vimy Ridge is an achieve- 
ment of the highest order, of which Canada may well be proud." 
On the 13th, the 2nd Division was in a second strong attack, in 
co-operation with the 1st and 2nd Canadian Divisions. Again the 
4th Brigade jumped off for the Division, having two battalions of the 
5th Brigade attached. The first objective was the Farbus-Vimy Rail- 
way Line, and the final objective the line between the road junctions 
at T. 27 c. 1.9 — T. 20 b. 1.4. The operations were again a great 
success. 



22 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

While the casualties in the first day's fighting on VIMY RIDGE 
were low by reason of the predominance of our artillery and the 
quick advance of the Corps, yet the following days were expensive. 
Between the 9th and the 14th inclusive, the Brigade lost 6 officers 
killed, 21 wounded and 4 missing; 141 O.R.s killed, 505 wounded 
and 78 missing. 

About this time (16th), Lieut.-Colonel Gordon F. Morrison, of the 
18th Canadian Battalion left for Canada, and was succeeded by 
Major (afterwards Temp. Lieut.-Colonel) L. E. Jones, of that tmit. 
Captain E. V. Benjamin, M.C., became S.C.I, of Brigade. Major D. E. 
Mclntyre, D.S.O., M.C., became Brigade Major, succeeding Captain 
Lindsey, who went to the 3rd Canadian Division. 

THE STRUGGLE FOR FRESNOY. 

May, 1917. During the early days of May the troops were in front of VIMY 

RIDGE, the 2nd Canadian Division holding the line. On the 8th, 
the Germans attacked and took the village of FRESNOY held by 
British troops on our right. The right of our line, held by the 19th 
Canadian Battalion, was also pushed back slightly. A local counter- 
attack by the 19th Battalion temporarily restored our line to its original 
position, but the Imperials cou'id not get forward, and the 4th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade had to establish a new line about 250 yards in rear 
of the old front line. This was accomplished by the 20th Canadian 
Battalion, assisted by one Company of the 21st Canadian Battalion, 
under command of Lieut.-Colonel H. V. Rorke, commanding 20th 
Battalion. During the operations. Major G. T. Denison, while in 
command of a Company of the 19th Battalion, was killed in action. 
In the operations around FRESNOY, the troops suffered a 
great deal from enemy aeroplanes which flew low and used their 
machine euns against the men in the trenches. Our airmen were not 
suflficiently numerous to hold the enemy planes in check. It was 
a distressing neriod. everything^ considered, and between May 1st and 
15th. the Brigade lost 12 officers killed and 13 wounded, 93 O.R.s 
killed. 339 wounded and 21 missing. On the night of the 14th, the 
5th Brigade relieved our troops in the front area. 

On the 19th. Lieut.-General Sir Julian Bvng, the Corns Com- 
mander, inspected the Battalions in full marching order. The Bri- 
gade remained in support until the 27th, when it returned to the 
line, relieving the 6th Brigade. 

June, 1917. On June 2nd. the Brigade was relieved bv the 3rd Canadian 

"Rriorade. the 1st Division taking over from the 2nd. The troops 
marched bank to th^ HERSTN-COTJPIGNY area, then known as 
the Corps Rest Area. Brigade Headquarters were in BARLIN, 



4'TH CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 23 

On the 7th Lieut.-General Sir Henry Home, Army Commander, 
visited Brigade Headquarters. On the 12th the Annual Brigade 
Horse Show was held in HERSIN-COUPIGNY. A week later the 
Divisional Horse Show was held in the same place. Then followed 
the CoiT)s and Army Horse Show at CHATEAU DE LA HAIE on 
the 19th and 26th. On the 15th Major D. E. Maclntyre, Brigade 
Major, was transferred to H.Q., 6th Brigade, and a day or two 
later, Major D. C. Jennings, A./S.C.Q., was transferred to H.Q., 5th 
Brigade. Major Maclntyre's place was taken temporarily by Captain 
C. W. U. Chivers. Major Rorke, of the 20th, became Temporary 
Lieut. -Colonel. 

This was one of the finest months ever spent by the Brigade. 
The units were rested and trained, and filled with fresh spirit. 
Towards the end of the month, the Battalions were inspected by 
the Divisional Commander, and almost immediately the Brigade 
moved up by stages to the LENS sector, then the left section of 
the Canadian Corps frontage. Here they remained in Divisional 
Reserve for some time, around FOSSE 10 and MARQUEFFLES 
FARM, where they continued their training for the HILL 70 
operation. 

About this time Major D. E. A. Rispin, S.C.Q., returned from 
a Staff course, and Captain D. J. Corrigall became Brigade Major. 
■Jiihi, 1917. On July 17th, the 4th Brigade relieved the 6th in the line, and 

again changed places with them on the 23rd. Four days later the 
entire Brigade held two practices over tapes for the proposed 
offensive. The Army Commander, General Sir Henry Home, the 
Corps Commander, Lieut.-General Sir Arthur Currie, and the Divi- 
sional Commander, attended. The advance was made under a bar- 
rage of men with signal flags. Aeroplanes co-operated. The 
following day, the practice was repeated. 

BATTLE OF HILL 70. 
August, 1917. On August 9th, the Brigade put on a raid covering the entire 

Brigade front of CITE ST. EDOUARD— LENS. This was undertaken 
in order to ascertain the condition of the enemy's wire and the location 
and disposition of the enemy's defences, preparatory to an attack on 
HILL 70. The enemy at first thought this was the real battle which 
they had been expecting. In confused them considerably. 

On August 15th came the big operation at HILL 70. This was 
a Canadian Corps show, with the 4th Division on the right, the 2nd 
Division in the centre, and the 1st on the left. The 4th and 6th 
Brigades were on the frontage of the 2nd Division. The 4th Brigade 



24 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

had a difficult task. It was necessary to debouch through a narrow 
lane of about 600 yards and then attack on a front widening to about 
2,000 yards. Special arrangements had to be made to carry out this 
difficult manoeuvre. Assembly positions were chosen forward of the 
narrow portion of the terrain in ** No Man's Land." These assembly 
positions had been carefully chosen and prepared during the nights 
previous to the attack. Small barricades of brick and rubbish were 
made in advance so as to provide shelter from machine gun fire. 

Special machine gun barrages were provided for the flanks and 
for enemy forming-up positions from which immediate counter-attacks 
might be expected. The 18th Canadian^ Battalion attacked on the 
right, the 21st on the centre, and the 20th on the left. The zero hour 
was at 4.25 a.m., and the arrangements were complete for that hour. 
The weather was clear and dawn was just breaking. The length of 
the advance intended varied from 500 to 2,500 yards on our front, 
with the extreme depth on the left. The area included a portion of 
the village, CITE ST. EDOUARD. 

The enemy expected that if there was an attack our troops would 
advance by streets and the roads. He had these well barricaded and 
fixed up with M.G.'s. Hence our troops were ordered to avoid the 
roads and to get forward through gardens and other grounds to the 
rear of the houses. 

The attack was highly successful. The men reached their assembly 
position without confusion and went forward with splendid regularity. 
They took cover well and advanced rapidly. Each Battalion did well, 
especially the 20th Canadian Battalion on the left, which had the most 
ground to cover. 

In the afternoon the enemy counter-attacked heavily and drove 
in our right centre at the junction of the 18th and 21st Battalions. 
At 5 p.m., under a prepared barrage, a body of the 18th, led by 
Captain Fisher, made an attack and recaptured the front line, taking 
quite a number of prisoners. Two companies of the 19th were later 
attached to the 21st. 

On the following morning, the enemy launched another attack on 
the left centre. This attack was in force on a rather broad front, 
the enemy using more than one battalion. On the left, in front of 
the 20th Canadian Battalion, he was caught in the open and the attack 
broken up. Some of his tiroops, however, succeeded in reaching the 
front trenches on the 21st Battalion front. The 21st Battalion counter- 
attacked with a party under Captain Miller, M.C., and restored the 
position. Lieut. Cockeran, of the same Battalion, was awarded a 
D.S.O. for exceptional gallantry in connection with the capture of a 
machine gun crew. Lieut. -Colonel Jones, of the 18th Canadian Bat- 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 



25 



talion, also received a D.S.O. in connection with this engagement. 
The second V.C. in the Brigade was won by 57113 Sergeant Frederick 
Hobson, 20th Battalion. 

This was the enemy's last attempt to get back from the 2nd 
Canadian Division the fruits of a splendid victory. 

On the 20th, the Brigade left FOSSE 10 area for VILLERS-AU- 
BOIS. Shortly afterwards it was inspected by Field-Marshal Sir 
Douglas Haig, Commander of the British Forces in France. He 
requested the G.O.C. to let the Battalion Commanders know how much 
he appreciated their splendid work in the HILL 70 battle. 



A QUIET PERIOD. 

September, A number of interesting events relieved the hard drill of this 

1917 rest period. Early in September the Brigadier staged a "Tattoo" 

in the Y.M.C.A. grounds at VILLERS-AU-BOIS, in which most 
of the Divisional bands took part. Among those present were the 
Divisional Commander; Brigadier General Dyer of the 7th Canadian 
Brigade; Brigadier General Radcliffe, B.G., G.S., Canadian Corps; 
Brigadier General Farmer, D.A. and Q.M .Q. ; and H.R.H. Prince 
Arthur of Connaught. 

Shortly afterwards there was a Brigade Church Service at 
VILLERS-AU-BOIS which will long be remembered by many who 
were there. General Sir Henry Home attended, and the Army 
Chaplain, Lieut.-Colonel (Rev.) Blackburn, M.C., conducted the 
service, with the assistance of Major (Rev.) Kidd, M.C., of the 
4th Brigade. At the conclusion of the service, the Army Com- 
manders presented a number of medal ribbons, and the Brigade 
" marched past." 

On the 12th there were Brigade sports, and then the Brigade 
returned to the line, relieving the 8th Brigade of the 3rd Canadian 
Division in the AVION sector. After seven days there, the Brigade 
returned to VILLERS-AU-BOIS and CAMBLAIN L'ABBE. 

Lieut. G. W. Brown became S.C.Q. in succession to Captain 
Rispin, who went to Division. 

On September 25th, Brigadier-General Rennie, when proceeding 
to the forward area, was accidentally thrown from his horse, suffering 
a broken collar-bone. Lieut.-Colonel A. H. Bell, D.S.O., of the 31st 
Battalion, took charge of the Brigade temporarily. 
October 1917. Early in October, Lieut. Heighington, brigade bombing officer, 

was recalled to Canada, and was succeeded by Lieut. W. Nickle, M.C., 
of the 21st Battalion. 

On October 15th, the Brigade moved to the OURTON area 



26 ^T^^ CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

for six days, and while there was inspected by the Army Commander, 
General Sir Henry Home. 

On October 2drd, the Brigade moved north with the Corps for 
the PASSCHENDAELE battle. Our troops were detrained around 
CAESTRE and later marched from there to PASSCHENDAELE 
front 

BATTLE OF PASSCHENDAELE. 

PASSCHENDAELE was one of the longest battles of the war. 
It began on July 31st and lasted through the autumn. The fighting 
was practically over on November 18th. The intensity of this battle 
may be gathered from the total casualties, which were as follows : 

British 10,795 Officers 207,887 O.R.'s 

Cpjiadian ... 496 Officers 11,917 O.R.'s 

Australian ... 1,289 Officers 26,502 O.R.'s 

When the Canadians came into the Battle the weather was bad 
and the mud made movement almost impossible. Plank roads were 
the only possible means of travel. 

Shortly after the Brigade arrived in CAESTRE the 19th Canadian 
Battalion was detached and sent into the forward area, being attached 
to the 4th Canadian Division. On the 29th, the 19th Canadian Bat- 
talion was relieved by the 20th Canadian Battalion, the 19th Canadian 
Battalion going back as far as BRANDHOEK. On November 2nd the 
Brigade took over a portion of the sector, with the 19th and 21st 
Canadian Battalions in the line, the 18th in support, and the 20th in 
reserve. On the 4th, they were relieved by the 5th and 6th Canadian 
Infantry Brigades, and returned to POTYZE and BRANDHOEK 
CAMP. 
November J While holding the line on this occasion, the enemy came ovei 

1917. in the early morning and raided the trenches of the 19th Battalion 

and a portion of those of the 21st North-East of CREST FARM. 
They were successfully broken up or ejected, but this added to our 
casualties which, for the three tours in the line, were : 4 officers killed 
and 4 wounded; 58 O.R.'s killed, 202 wounded and 5 missing. 

The capture of PASSCHENDAELE RIDGE was made by the 5th 
and 6th Canadian Infantry Brigades, and they remained in the line 
until the night of the 8th-9th, when the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade 
took over the line. During this tour in the line a second attack was 
made to clear the left spur of the ridge. At this time the 19th Canadian 
Battalion was on the right, the 18th Canadian Battalion in the centre, 
and the 20th Canadian Battalion on the left. Our Brigade was not 
in the actual attack, which was made by the 1st Canadian Division 
and the 1st British Division. Nevertheless, because their position was 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 



27 



December^ 
1917. 



January, 1918. 



known, they were even more shelled than the troops that were 
moving. The 20th Canadian Battalion pivoted on its right flank, 
and its left flank moved forward about 800 yards, to conform with 
the advance of the 1st Canadian Division on its left. The 20th 
Canadian Battalion began with two Companies holding a narrow 
front, and finished with three Companies on a much wider front. 

The troops held the line for about two days and then were relieved. 
During this whole period they were heavily shelled and bombed. Enemy 
aeroplanes flew low and fired machine guns wherever men could be 
seen. 

In this fight the Corps had considerable trouble with enemy " pill- 
boxes," which were the features of the enemy's defences at that time. 

On the 15th, the Brigade pulled out and proceeded by bus 
lorries to ROBECQ. Two days later they arrived in the ACHE- 
VILLE sector north-east of VIMY. Brigade Headquarters were in 
FARBUS WOOD. 

On the 28th, Brigadier-General R. Rennie, having recovered from 
his accident, resumed command of the Brigade. On December 17th, 
Lieut. J. E. Genet, M.C., became Signalling Officer in succession to 
Lieut. McKinnon. 

THE WINTER LULL. 

On December 19th the Brigade was relieved in the ACHEVILLE 
section, where it had been in and out of the line, and working on 
the improvement of trenches. The 94th Infantry Brigade took 
over and our troops moved back to ESTREE CAITCHIE and 
CAMBLAIN L'ABBE. The next day they moved to the ST. HIL- 
LAIRE area, with Brigade Headquarters at NEDONCHELLE 
There it spent the Christmas season as pleasantly as possible, alter 
nating festivities with periods of hard training 

The New Year's Honour List included D.S.O.'s for Lieut. -Colonel 
L . E. Millen, of the 19th Canadian Battalion, and Major H. C. Hatch, 
of the same unit. 

On January 7th, the Brigade was inspected by the Divisional Com- 
mander, Major-General Burstall, and a few days afterwards was 
reviewed by the Corps Commander, who presented medal ribands to 
about 70 men. 

On the 15th, the Brigade again moved towards the line, and 
soon relieved the 10th Canadian Brigade in the AVION sector. No 
untoward incident occurred during this period, except that on the 
27th there was a clash between a German patrol and one from 
the 20th Battalion. The Canadians had the best of it, .and the 
enemy left one dead behind from whom identification was secured. 



28 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 



Lieut. W. G. Lawson became Signalling Officer, Captain Girling 
took over the duties of Brigade Veterinary Officer, and Captain Cor- 
rigall. Brigade Major, went to the 31st British Division. Major W. 
B. Forster took over Brigade Major duties for a period. 
February, After a period in the line, the Brigade moved to VILLERS-AU- 

1918. BOIS for ten days* rest. On February 8th it went into the line at 

THELUS CAVE for ten days and then back to CHATEAU DE LA 
HAIE for training. On the 23rd, Lieut. Stegman, M.C., 20th Bat- 
talion, became Brigade Bombing Officer, succeeding Captain W. Nickle, 
M.C., who had proceeded to England on duty. Captain H. M. 
Wallis, M.C., took over the duties of Brigade Major. 

Two features may be mentioned in this period. Quite a number 
of United States officers were attached to the Canadian units for 
instruction and were given every opportunity to learn the routine 
and the " dodges." The other feature was the restlessness about 
the approaching spring campaign. Even then it was felt that 
decisive events were to happen soon, and this necessitated the most 
earnest safeguards against surprise. Box respirators were 
thoroughly tested in real gas clouds, and other precautions adopted. 
The War Diary says : " Strong patrols covered the Brigade front 
during the hours of darkness and work on the defences was pushed 
as far as possible." As it turned out, these particular defences 
were never required, but similar work was going on up and down 
the whole of the Allied Front. 



A SUDDEN MOVE. 

March, 1918. March was more active than the other months of the winter period. 

On the 4th, the 21st Canadian Division had to withstand a heavy raid 
on the LIEVEN front. The enemy put up a most vigorous bombard- 
ment, and his raiding party was accompanied by Flammenwerfers. 
The 21st met the shock gallantly, and a counter-attack, led by Captain 
A. W. Black, of that unit, restored the position and secured some 
prisoners. The enemy secured no identifications. 

On the following morning the 21st retorted with a splendid raid 
of about 40 men. They entered the enemy's trenches, killed a number 
of the enemy, and brought back a prisoner. There were no serious 
casualties and none of our men missing. 

"When the enemy put on his bifj offensive asrainst the 5th Army in 
March the Brigade was in rest in the GOUY-SERVINS area. It had 
been relieved on the 6th by the 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade, just 
after the 21st Battalion had done their successful raid. On the 23rd. 
they moved south with the rest of the Division to ROCLINCOURT 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 29 

and thence to BAILLEULVAL, which was reached in the early 
morning of the 27th. On that day much serious fighting was going on 
along the whole front from the RIVER SCARPE to ALBERT. The 
3rd and 15th British Divisions immediately south of the SCARPE 
• had been strongly attacked by a formidable hostile force and had been 

obliged to withdraw to a previously prepared position on the NEU- 
VILLE VITASSE Ridge. MONCHY had been lost; and also the 
village of NEUVILLE VITASSE. The 2nd Canadian Division was, 
on short notice, ordered to move and relieve the exhausted troops of 
the 3rd British Division and hold the line in front of ARRAS. The 
4th Brigade moved due east to WAIIXY and proceeded to find out, 
amongst much confusion and uncertainty, where the British front line 

y. was situated. This was located in rear of NEUVILLE VITASSE. 

Our Battle Headquarters were established in a sunken road near 
AGNY. 

> Here the 2nd Canadian Division became part of the Vlth British 

Corps, and on this front the 2nd Canadian Division remained until 
June 22nd. 

On March 29th, Lieut. -Colonel Elmer Jones, of the 21st Cana- 
dian Battalion, received word that he had been awarded a bar to 
his D.S.O. for the LIEVEN raid on the 6th. 

A PERIOD OF ACTIVE RESISTANCE. 

A'pnl, 1918. There is not much to distinguish one week from another during 

this period. There were short spells in the line, a spell in support, 
and a spell in reserve. On April 2nd, the enemy twice raided the 
19th Canadian Battalion, then in the line, but both raids were success- 
fully repulsed and prisoners taken. Our men were ever on the aJert 
and seldom or never caught napping. On the 16th, the enemy 
attacked the 1st King's Own Liverpools on our right flank, who were 
driven out of their front line trenches. The 19th Canadian Battalion 
went immediately to their assistance and took back the trench, cap- 
turing prisoners, 

At 2 a.m. on the 29th, the 19th and 21st Battalions put on the 
first raid on this front and secured 11 prisoners. 

On April 30th the Brisrade Staff was as follows : G.O.C. — Brigadier- 
General R. Rennie, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.V.O. ; Brigade Major — Captain 
H. M. Wallis, M.C.; S.C.G.— Captain G. W. Brown, M.C. ; 
S.C.I.— Captain E. V. Benjamin, M.C. : Orderly Officer— Captain M. S. 
Gooderham: B.S.O.— Lieut. G. W. Lawson; B.T.O.— Major J. A. 
Cooper: V.O.— Captain T. A. Girling; B.B.O.— Lieut. T. H.'Stegman, 
M.C. ; B.G.O.— Lieut. E. W. Edwards ; Staff Learners— Captains P. C. 
Tidy and R. W. Catto, M.C. 



30 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

May^ 1918. In May and June, the work of holding the line proceeded as usual, 

but there were constant raids and continuous work in line improve- 
ments. 

Lieut.-Colonel H. V. Rorke^ D.S.O,, received the Legion 
D'Honneur (Chevalier). Captain Scruton reported for duty as S.C.I. , 
after Captain Benjamin had been wounded near BLAIRVILLE 
QUARRY. Early in the month the transport lines M'ere moved from 
BELLACOURT to MONCHIET to avoid the constant shelling of the 
rear areas. Even then some shells reached us.' 

Perhaps the best-remembered event of the month was the " one 
man raid " put on by Corporal Kelly, of the 18th Canadian Battalion. 
He took a dare and went over in broad, daylight, killed some enemy, 
drove off others, and brought back his prisoner without any injury 
to himself. For this he received a D.C.M. 

During these months of trench warfare, the T.M. Battery, with 
its improved material, did much good work, especially before and 
during the numerous raids. 

REST AND TRAINING. 

June, 1918. The June Birthday Honours List brought a C.B. for Brigadier- 

General R Rennie, and a D.S.O. for Major H. E. Pense, second in 
command of the 21st Canadian Battalion. On the 12th, Lieut.-Colonel 
Millen returned from a furlough to Canada, and Acting Lieut.- 
Colonel Hatch again became second in command of that unit. 

On the 21st, the Brigade went into Divisional Reserve at 
BRETENCOURT, and on the 27th went into rest in the AVESNES 
LE COMTE area. 

The Divisional Commander, in summing up the work of the Divi- 
sion during March, April, May and .Tune, 1918, states : — 

'* Meanwhile I had started a programme of work which was 
steadily continued throughout the period in which I held this 
Sector. By the end of June my Division had completed to full 
depth 9,000 yards of front and support line trenches which had 
previously been three feet deep, had reclaimed 3,500 yards of old 
trenches, had constructed and wired 30 miles of rear lines oi 
defence on the MERCATEL SWITCH, INTERMEDIATE LINE, 
TELEGRAPH HILL SWITCH, and PURPLE SYSTEM, and 
had buried between five and six miles of telephone cable. 

" In addition to this, all R.A.P.'s, Battalion, Artillery 
Brigade and Infantry Brigade Headquarters had been provided 
with deep mined dug-outs and a number of machine gun emplace- 
ments had been constructed. 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 31 

" With the approval of the Corps and Army Commanders, 
I developed and maintained a very active defence, and although 
our casualties were thereby increased, it had the desired effect in 
reducing two of the enemy's Divisions to a state of inefficiency 
and in forcing him to devote a certain amount of attention to 
this sector. 

'* Our casualties for the whole period were : killed, 21 Officers, 
33G O.R.'s; womided, 97 Officers, 2,277 O.R.'s; missing, 2 
Officers, 34 O.R.'s; total, 120 Officers, 2,647 O.R.'s. 

" During the 92 days for which my Division held the line 
we carried out 27 raids, our casualties in the actual raids being 
less than the number of prisoners captured by us." 
When the 2nd Canadian Division left 3rd Army, General Byng 
sent the following letter to General Burstall : — 

June 80th, 1918. 
*' I cannot allow the 2nd Canadian Division to leave the 
Third Army without expressing my appreciation of the splendid 
work it has done. 

" Knowing the Division of old, I had great anticipations of 
offensive action and thorough field defence work. These anticipa- 
tions were more than realised and the 2nd Canadians have now 
added another page of lasting record to their history. 

*' I can only hope that they are as proud of their work as 
I was of again having them under my command." 

(Signed) J. Byng, General. 
July, 1918. It was thought that the Brigade had finished its long spell of 

steady work on this front, and that the 2nd Canadian Division would 
again be united with the Canadian Corps, then in rest. However, 
on the 13th the Brigade did another four days in the line. It moved 
up to the ARRAS front and relieved the 167th Brigade, 56th Division. 
It was relieved by a Brigade of the 1st Canadian Division, and passed 
via LOUEZ and ECOIVRES to the IZEL-LEZ-HAMEAU area, 
where it went into training for greater events. 

On the 1st of the month, while Brigade H.Q. was at AVESNES, 
the famous Canadian Corps Sports took place at TINQUES. The 
Brigade was able to attend in large numbers to enjoy what must ever 
be an unique event in the history of the Corps. The Brigade Mess 
Cart also did unique service on that occasion. 

In the latter part of June and the early days of July a Corps (VI. 
British) Horse Show aroused considerable interest. A Brigade elimina- 
tion contest was held at MONCHIET, where the transport had been 
concentrated for some time, and all the Battalions made an excellent 
showing. The judging was by Lieut. -Colonel Scott of the Divisional 



32 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

Train and Lieut.-Colonel Harrison of the D.A.C., and resulted in a 
win for the 19th Canadian Battalion. This was followed by a Divi- 
sional Elimination Show near MANIN, in which the 19th, 2*2ud, and 
81st Battalions competed. The Divisional Commander and the Briga- 
diers were present. The 19th Canadian Battalion won in a close con- 
test, thus securing the right to represent the Division at the Corps 
Show which was held near SAULTY a few days later. At this affair, 
which was highly successful, the Canadian units (2nd and 3rd Division) 
won the major prizes, but the 19th Canadian Battalion was only third 
in the Infantry Transport class. The Princess Pat's were lirst, the 
Manchesters second, the 19th Canadian Battalion third, and the Guards 
fourth. Later in July a Brigade Horse Show and Sports Day was 
arranged, but the AMIENS move order came the day before, and no 
other opportunity occurred during the year. 

During the month Captain Wallis, Brigade Major, went to Staff 
Course and Major G. I. Gwynne came from Division to perform these 
duties. Lieut. Claude Mempes, M.C., reported as a Staff Learner. 
Lieut.-Colonel Rorke, of the 20th Canadian Battalion, returned to 
England, and was succeeded by Major (afterwards Acting Lieut.- 
Colonel) B. O. Hooper, formerly of the 19th Canadian Battalion. 

On the last day of the month the Brigade opened a new period in 
its history. 

AMIENS-PARIS RAILWAY. 

August, 1918. There were rumours of great events. It was generally known that 

the enemy's offensive in the South had been checked and that the Allies 
were likely to make a big move. It developed that the part of the 
work in which the Canadian Corps was to undertake was the relief of 
the Amiens-Paris Railway, which was then under fire from the enemy's 
guns. But when the troops moved they were not sure whether they 
were going north or south. 

The move from IZEL-LEZ-HAMEAU to PISSY on the last two 
days of July was made by tactical train, taking some of the transport, 
including the cookers. The remainder of the transport was brigaded 
and went by road, travelling only by night and resting by day in 
wooded areas where observation would be difficult. 

On August 3rd and 4th the Division began to move towards the 
front line. The Brigade made a night march from PISSY area to ST. 
AUCHEL-CAGNY area. The following night the 21st Canadian Batta- 
lion relieved the 16th Australian Battalion. During the next two 
nights the other Battalions moved forward to the assembly positions 
and Brigade H.Q. were at Q.83.d.3.5, east of VILLERS BRETON 
NEUX. " A " Echelon Transport remained at CAGNY because the 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 33 

bridges over the River AVRE could not accommodate all the traffic. 
" B " Echelon moved up on the 7th, but did not reach CAGNY 
until nearly midnight. 

FIGHTING BEGINS. 

The Division was on a single Brigade front, the 4th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade in the line, the 5th behind, ready to pass through, 
and the 6th in reserve. The 1st Canadian Division was on our right 
and the 2nd Australian Division on our left. The 4th C.I.B. was to 
capture MARCELCAVE and establish a line 500 yards east. With 
the 4th C.I.B. were two companies of the 14th Battalion Tank Corps, 
one Army Brigade of Artillery, and two batteries of Machine Guns. 
There were also engineers for investigating and repairing dug-outs. 

The rolling barrage opened at 4.20 a.m. on the 8th inst., and 
the troops moved forward in a mist. Instead of following the Tanks, 
they found it necessary to lead. The 19th Battalion was on the left 
in touch with the Australians, the 18th on the right, with the other 
two Battalions in close support. At 6.23 a.m. the barrage lifted from 
MARCELCAVE and the troops rushed the village. Its capture was 
complete by 7.20, the work being done by the 19th and 21st Canadian 
Battalions. The 18th . Canadian Battalion did good work towards 
MORGEMONT WOOD. 

The 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade then passed through our lines 
and went on to the capture of WIENCOURT and GUILLAUCOURT. 
The Tanks suffered heavily, as the open, level coimtry made them fair 
targets once the mist had lifted. Late in the day the 6th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade captured the final objective, the old AMIENS defence 
line. 

On the 9th, at 11 a.m., the 5th C.I.B. attacked on the right and 
the 6th on the left. The 4th C.I.B. was in reserve, in a ravine, 2 kls. 
forward of MARCELCAVE. ROSIERES was captured at 1.15 p.m. 
and MEHARICOURT by 5 p.m. 

On the 10th, the 4th Canadian Division passed through the 2nd 
Canadian Division, after an advance of 18,000 yards in three days had 
been completed. Total Divisional casualties : 117 officers, 2,360 other 
ranks. 

THE SECOND PHASE. 

Aufiust 1918 ^^ ^^^ ^^*^ *^^ ^^^ Canadian Infantry Brigade relieved the 6th 

Canadian Infantry Brigade on the left in support of the 4th Canadian 
Division. 

On the night of the 12th — 13th the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade 
took over the front line CHILLI-MAUCOURT-FOUQUESCOURT, 



34 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

relieving the 10th and r2th Canadian Infantry Brigades. On the 14th 
the remainder of the 4th Division was relieved by the 2nd Canadian 
Division, and the disposition was 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade on 
left and the Uh Canadian Infantry Brigade on the right. 

On the 19th orders were issued to the 4th and 5th Canadian 
Infantry Brigades to push forward and establish a line which would 
deny to the enemy the defences at the railway east of FRANSART, 
and also cleai the village, enabling the 1st Canadian Division, which 
was attacking on a front south of the 2nd Canadian Division, to make 
their objective. The 19th Canadian Battalion attacked at 4.30 p.m., 
successfully carried out the operation, establishing a line well forward 
of the village, capturing many prisoners and machine guns and mate- 
rial. By 7.30 in the evening were in secure possession. 

The 19th Canadian Battalion was assisted by two companies of the 
18th Canadian Battalion on the right, who, after the attack, were used 
to protect and hold the extended right flank, caused by the Division on 
the right not having been able to advance simultaneously. Two com- 
panies of the 20th Canadian Battalion were on the left, but only one 
platoon was required for this show. Lieut. -Colonel Millen got a bar 
to his D.S.O. for his excellent handling of this operation. 

On the same night the Division was relieved and the 4th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade moved back to GUILLACOURT, with « B " Echelon 
still in a ravine west of CAIX, where it had been for several days. 

On the 8th, when Lieut. -Colonel Elmer W. Jones, of the 21st 
Battalion, was killed in action by machine-gun fire. Major H. E. 
Pense, M.C., took command. He became Temp. Lieut. -Colonel from 
the 9th. On the 19th Captain H. W. Morgan, M.C., Royal High- 
landers of Canada, reported for duty as Staff Captain, replacing Captain 
BrOTm, who had been wounded. 

FROM AMIENS TO ARRAS. 

Aufiitsi, 191 8. Between the 19th and 24th the Division did another spectacular 

night move, going back from the AMIENS to the ARRAS front. The 
Battalions entrained at BOVES and the Transport went by road to an 
area near ST. POL. Move of 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade completed 
by 4 a.m. on night of 22nd — 23rd. The following day the Brigade 
moved forward to DAINVILLE-BERNEVILLE area in support of 6th 
Canadian Infantry Brigade, which had relieved troops of 15th Division 
in the NEUVILLE VITASSE sector. On the following day the 4th 
C.I.B. took over a portion of the line in front of TELEGRAPH HILL. 
The Canadian Corps was here the right Corps of the First Army, the 
52nd Division was on the right and the 8rd Canadian Division on the 
left. 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 35 

The enemy were holding CHAPEL HILL, MONCHY-LE-PREUX 
and WANCOURT Ridge, and this was to be the scene of the Canadians' 
second big battle in August. The main portion of our Divisional attack 
was to be carried out by the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade, which had 
thus the place of honour in both the battle of AMIENS and the battle 
of ARRAS. It was assisted by the complete Field Artillery of the 
Division and nine tanks. 

The attack took place on the 26th at 3.20 a.m. By 6 a.m. the 
Brigade had reached its first objective, the 21st Canadian Battalion 
on the right and the 20th Canadian Battalion on the left. The final 
objective was reached at 7.30 a.m., with GUEMAPPE captured later 
by the 21st Canadian Battalion. The 19th Canadian Battalion was 
pushed forward, and by 7 p.m. the front line was on the northern 
slope of HENINEIi Ridge, all the Battalions having taken part in the 
battle. 

.If/^NSt, 1918. On the following day, 27th, the 4th and 5th Canadian Infantry 

Brigades again attacked, the 5th having relieved the 6th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade, which had been rather badly cut up. The 4th 
Brigade captured VIS-EN-ARTOIS early, but were unable to cross 
the SENSEE River until late in the day. 

FRESNES— ROUVROY LINE— FIRST ATTACK. 

On the 28th the 4th C.I.B. made its third successive attack, but 
the fighting strength had been much reduced ; for this reason our 
fiontage was limited to 700 yards. The attack started at 12.30 p.m. 
with the first objective as the FRESNES-ROUVROY line. The 
resistance was very strong and progress was slow. The 31st Canadian 
Battalion of the Reserve Brigade was sent to our support. The men 
were tired, and the wire in front being uncut it was impossible to reach 
the objective. The casualties to officers in the 4th Brigade were very 
heavy. Other brigades suffered as much, the 22nd Battalion being 
left without an officer and the 24th with only two or three. 

During the night of the 28th— 29th the 2nd Canadian Division was 
relieved. 

Early in the morning the remnants of the Brigade bivouacked at 
WANCOURT, and in the afternoon moved into ARRAS. The follow- 
ing day it moved to rest billets in the WANQUENTIN-SIMEN- 
COURT area, with Brigade H.Q. at HAUTEVILLE. 

The Division's casualties in this advance of 9,000 yards in front 
of Arras was 124 officers and 2,969 other ranks. 



36 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

DROCOURT-QUEANT LINE. 

September, The month of September was marked by great activities. Sir 

^^^^' Douglas Haig's despatch thus describes the opening event on our 

front : — 

" On the 2nd September the DROCOURT-QUEANT line was 
broken, the maze of trenches at the junction of that line and the 
Hindenburg system was stormed, and the enemy was thrown into 
precipitate retreat on the whole front to the south of it. This gallant 
feat of arms was carried out by the Canadian Corps of the First Army, 
employing the 1st and tth Canadian Divisions and the 4th English 
Division and the 17th Corps of the Third Army, employing the 52nd, 
57th, and 63rd Divisions. 

** The assault of the Canadians was launched at 5 a.m. on a front 
of about four and a half miles south of TRINQUIS BROOK, our In- 
fantry being supported by forty tanks of the 3rd Tank Brigade and 
assisted by a mobile force of Motor Machine Gun Units, Canadian 
Cavalry, and Armoured Cars. The attack was a complete success, 
and by noon the whole of the elaborate system of wire, trenches, and 
strong points constituting the DROCOURT-QUEANT line on the front 
of our advance was in our hands." 

On the day of the attack by the 1st and 4th Canadian Divisions, 
the 2nd Canadian Division moved forward in support. The 4th Cana- 
dian Infantry Brigade moved from HAUTEVILLE to BEAURAINS, 
and on the 3rd advanced still further to trenches west of CHERISY, 
occupying the old British front line. On the 5th the Brigade occupied 
a portion of the captured DROCOURT-QUEANT Switch, CAGNI- 
COURT area. Brigade H.Q. were in a German dug-out just north- 
east of HENDECOURT. 

The Brigade was in Divisional support from the 5th to the night 
of 12th— 13th. 

The Division was held up at the CANAL DU NORD, with the 
enemy patrols on the near (Western) side. The troops then settled 
down to the work of building a main line of resistance. The possession 
of INCHY and MOEUVRES was still in dispute and a coimter attack 
was possible from that direction. 

On the 12th — 13th the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade relieved the 
6th Canadian Infantry Brigade in the front line. This relief was carried 
out under the command of Lieut. -Colonel Millen of the 19th Canadian 
Battalion, Acting Brigadier. General Rennie left on the 12th for 
BRAMSHOTT and General McCuaig did not take over until the 14th. 

The occupied line extended from a few hundred yards north of 
the ARRAS-CAMBRAI road along the CANAL DU NORD, to the 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. • 37 

Lock, just north of INCHY. It was about two miles in length and 
there were practically no trenches. Rifle pits and shelters had been 
made by the other troops, but these were very meagre and uncon- 
nected. There could be no movement from one pit to another during 
the day. The enemy machine and field guns were very busy, and for 
a while the troops suffered heavily, despite the splendid camouflaging 
of their positions with boughs and other covering. 

The first task was to build a support line. This was sited on the 
top of the ridge in front of the BUISSY Switch. Large working 
parties from both reserve and support Battalions were engaged on this 
every night under the direction of the engineers. When this support 
line was finished a front line was begun, a section being built at a 
time. It was a period of dangerous and difficult work by night and 
for lying low during the day. There were several fierce patrol encoun- 
ters by night around BARALLE WOOD and the big German dump. 
September, When the Brigade went into this sector on the 12th — 13th, the 

1918, 18th Canadian Infantry Battalion and the 19th Canadian Battalion 

were in the front line, with the 20th and 21st Canadian Battalions in 
support. Later one Battalion was drawn back into reserve in CAGNI- 
COIJRT, leaving only a large working party to help with the new 
trenches. On the 16th and 17th there was an Inter-Battalion relief, 
and another on the 20th and 21st. These were well carried out, with 
minimum losses. On the 23rd — ^24th there was still another Inter- 
Battalion relief, and finally on the 25th — 26th the 4th Canadian In- 
fantry Brigade was relieved by the 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade and 
the 56th Division, and the Battalions moved back on their transport 
lines near HENDICOURT. Early on the morning of the 26th the 
enemy gave these lines a final shelling with his guns, causing some 
damage in the horse-lines of neighbouring units. Several shells broke 
within a few yards of Brigade Headquarters, but no casualties resulted. 

MOVE TO BOURLON. 

After a day or two in this area, with the Brigade H.Q. in UPTON 
QUARRIES just west of HENDICOURT, the Brigade moved forward 
through CAGNICOURT to the '* HINDENBURG SUPPORT LINE '' 
and BUISSY SWITCH. The old front line of the early part of the 
month had, since the forcing of the CANAL DU NORD by the 1st and 
4th Divisions, become the support line. Brigade Headquarters were 
in small buildings in a road cutting near INCHY village. Later the 
Brigade moved across the CANAL DU NORD towards BOURLON 
village, which had been captured, and occupied some trenches in the 
vicinity of the MARQUION Switch. 



1918. 



38 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE4 

In addition to the change in Brigadiers, Captain Goodeihani, 
Orderly Officer, went to England with General Rennie, and was later 
replaced by Lieut. Claude Menpes, then Staff Learner. Lieut. Edwards, 
Gas Officer, leturned to hi?> Battalion to assume command of a com- 
pany. The Brigade Staff at the' end of September was as follows : — 

G.O.C., General G. E. McCuaig; Brigade Major, Major G. L 
Gwynne (Captain H. M. Wallis at Staff Course); S.C.Q., Captain H. W. 
Moigan; S.C.I. , Captain H. W. Scruton; B.S.O., Lieut. G. W. Law- 
son; B.B.O., Lieut. T. H. Stegman; B.T.O., Major J. A. Cooper; 
B.V.O., Captain Girling; Brigade Staff Learners : Captain P. C. Tidy, 
Captain R. W. Catto, and Lieut. C. Menpes (afterwards Orderly 
Officer). 

CANAL DE L'ESCAUT. 

ini Q ^^^' ^^ ^^® night of the 1st — 2nd the 2nd Canadian Division went into 

the line, relieving troops of the 1st and 3rd Division. The 5th Cana 
dian Infantry Brigade was on the right and the 6th Canadian Inf smtry 
Brigade on the left. The latter Brigade had been in close support to 
the 3rd Division, which was fighting for the CANAL DE L'ESCAUT. 
The 4th was in support in the HAYNECOURT-BOURLON area. 
Brigade H.Q. was just west of the ARRAS-CAMBRAI road, near 
HAYNECOURT. The transport lines were first on the west edge of 
BOURLON village, but experienced the worst shelling of the year, 
and changed their location by moving west about one kilometre towards 
SANS LES MARQUION. 

At a conference at Divisional Headquarters on the 7th an attack 
was ordered to the north of CAMBRAI on the night of the 8th. The 
5th Canadian Infantry Brigade were to force a crossing over the 
CANAL DE L'ESCAUT and take up a line along the railway beyond 
the canal. The 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade were to make the linp 
of the canal on the left of the 5th. The 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade 
were to assemble well forward after dark and cross the canal when th? 
5th were clear. For this purpose it was arranged to put lanterns at 
the bridge-head crossings, and several miles of tape were secured to 
run lines back from these crossings to the assembly area. This was 
necessary because there was no moonlight. The 4th Canadian Infantry 
Brigade were then to attack at daybreak and make a junction on the 
far side of CAMBRAI with the Third Army, who were to advance on 
the south of CAMBRAI. Barrage tables were prepared with the Artil- 
lery. A Brigade conference was held and details completed in th" 
evening. 

During the night this order was cancelled, and the Brigade was 
simply to move forward in support of an attack by the 5th Brigade, 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 39 

and to be prepared to push through. On the night of the 8th — 9th dt 
1.30 a.m. the attack was launched bv the 5th Brigade, and they 
crossed the bridges at PONT D'AIRE aiid occupied ESCADOEUVRES. 
At 10 a.m. on the 9th they moved towards NAVES, and the 4th Cana- 
dian Infantry Brigade moved forward to MORENCHIES-RAMILIES. 
By 5.30 p.m. the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade was across the 
canal. Brigade H.Q. moved up to MORENCHIES Chateau and the 
transport were near the Engineers' Dump, just south of TILLOY. 

CAPTURE OF NAVES. 

About midnight 9th — lOth the Brigade was ordered to advance 
October, through the 5th Brigade, with their right flank on the CAMBRAI- 

1918. SAULZOUR road. The 19th Canadian Battalion on the right jumped 

off at 7 a.m. from the railway cutting in front of ESCADOEUVRES, 
and captured the village of NAVES at 7.45. At 8 o'clock the I8th 
Canadian Battalion on the left jumped off and attacked towards IWUY. 
The Brigade joined up on the right with the left Brigade of the Third 
Army just north of RIEUX, thus completing the encirclement of 
CAMBRAI. 

At 2 o'clock in the afternoon the 19th Canadian Battalion ad- 
vanced another 1,000 yards and got two companies across the ERCLIN 
River. At 7 p.m. they advanced another 1,500 yards, and took pos- 
session of the high ground, which was to be the assembly point for 
an attack on the following days. 

Later, on the 10th, a relief of the troops by the 49th Division 
was ordered, and the Brigade was to side-slip and attack on a narrow 
front along the roadway east of IWUY. The 20th and 21st Canadian 
Battalions were ordered to make the attack at 8 a.m. on the 11th, 
with the 18th Canadian Battalion in support. As it was impossible 
to relieve the 19th Canadian Battalion properly, the troops of the 
49th Division were to pass through them and they were then to go 
into reserve. 

THE IWUY SPUR. 

On the 11th the Gth Canadian Infantry Brigade on the left failed 
at first to get IWUY, and the 20th and 21st Battalions were badly 
cut up from that village. Considerable disorganisation was caused 
by several enemy tanks. The British Division on our right were driven 
back, but rallied later. Lieut. Crombie, M.C. (died of wounds) 
used a captured anti-tank rifle with good effect. In the 
afternoon the 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade passed IWUY, 
and the 20th and 21st Battalions pushed their lines forward along 
Sunken Roads north-east of that village, and finally made good the 



40 "^TH CA^^ADTAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

top of the IWUY Spur. The casualties were again heavy, totalling 
about 700. During this engagement Brigade H.Q. was moved from 
RAMILIES Chateau up to the deep railway cutting west of NAVES. 

Speaking of the situation at that time, the Divisional Commander's 
report says : — 

'* During the afternoon and night IWUY was heavily and steadily 
shelled by the enemy, and it was impossible to move troops through 
it to relieve or support units which were in advance of the village. 
The G.O.C.'s 4th and 6th Canadian Infantry Brigades both informed 
me that taking into consideration the exhaustion of their troops and 
the large proportion of inexperienced officers and men they would not 
be fit to continue the operations on the following day without suffering 
excessive casualties." 

Early on the 12th the 4th and 6th Brigades were relieved by the 
51st Division. The 4th withdrew to ESCADOEUVRES. Next day 
they swung to the left to take over the line between PAILLENCOURT 
and HORDAIN. This was held by the 25th Battalion, which was 
attached to the Brigade temporarily while our men were given another 
night's rest. The 18th Canadian Battalion was on the right in THUN 
ST. MARTIN, the 19th Battalion on the left in CUVILLERS. The 
21st and Brigade H.Q. were in ESWARS. The 20th Canadian Batta- 
lion was in THUN LEVEQUE. 

THE SENSEE MARSHES. 

On the 14th, the 25th Canadian Battalion was relieved by the 18th 
Canadian Battalion on the right and the 19th Canadian Battalion on 
the left. 

On the evening of the 17th the 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade 
on our left crossed the Canal, and on the morning of the 18th the 19th 
Canadian Battalion crossed over a footbridge between PAILLEN- 
COURT and ESTRUN and advanced as far as WAVRECHAIN. 
During the day other bridges were constructed. 

On the 19th our troops again advanced, and captured BOUCHAIN 
and later entered BOUCHEUEIL, ABSCON, ROEULX, and LOUR- 
CHES. NEUVILLE-SUR-L'ESCAUT was occupied. This ended the 
battle of the SENSEE MARSHES and the Brigade went into billets 
in BOUCHAIN, having been relieved by the 152nd Brigade, 51st Divi- 
sion. 

On the 18th Captain "Wallis, Brigade Major, arrived from a Staff 
course and Major Gwynne returned to Division. Major Peterson, 
D.S.O., joined the Brigade as Staff Learner. 

On the 22nd the Brigade moved to ANICHE. No fighting took 
place between the 21st and 81st. 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 41 

In this third phase of the battle of CAMBRAI the 2nd Canadian 
Division had advanced almost eleven miles, capturing 16 villages. 
The total casualties were 118 officers and 2,496 other ranks. 

THE ADVANCE ON MOZ^S. 

November, During the first ten days of November the Brigade had some rare 

1918. experiences. Perhaps no fighting unit on the Western Front ever 

went the same distance as it did in that period — always within range 
of the enemy. ANICHE via VALENCIENNES to MONS is a fine 
ten days' trip, and the men were properly tired when the goal was 
reached. Part of the trip was by -oad, but much of it was across 
country — top-boot deep in mud and slush. Always the roads were 
torn with shell holes and freshly exploded mines, hampering the troops 
as well as the transport. 

On November 1st the Battalions were busy in ANICHE deciding 
the sporting championships. In the final games the 18th Canadian 
Battalion won from the 19th Canadian Battalion in football with a 
score of 2 to 1 ; and the 18th also won from the 20th in indoor baseball 
with a score of 11 to 10. The next day was spent quietly. 

The Brigade Major, Captain Wallis, was called to England sud- 
denly, and Lieut. -Colonel Alexander came from Division to fill in. 

On the 4th of November was a famous 'bus ride from ANICHE 
to the AUBRY-HENIN area, for the 'buses w^.re delayed, and it was 
midnight or later before the units reached their new billets. Then 
there was a day's halt, followed by a day's march to the ST. SAULVE 
area. That night the Brigadier arrived from leave. 

The 2nd Canadian Division now relieved the 4th Canadian Divi- 
sion, and the Brigade was in Divisional support and again within 
reach of the enemy. 

On the 7th the Brigade mo.ed to the QUIVERAIN-MARCHE- 
PONT area, over very bad roads and amid much congestion of traffic. 

On the 8th it moved forward again to the ELOUGES area, catch- 
ing up with the 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade and racing after the 
retiring enemy. 

THE LAST BATTLE OF THE WAR. 

Next day Brigade Headquarters moved from ELOUGES to 
DOUR, where it halted only for a moment, and then proceeded to 
WARQUEGNIES. -After a short stay there it moved again to COM- 
MUNAL HALL at FRAMERIES, where the 18th and 21st Canadian 
Battalions had passed through the 5th Brigade and gone forward to 
the capture of CIPLY. FRAMERIES was gassed during the evening 
and the night. 



42 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

On the 10th the advance was resumed by the 19th and 20th 
Battalions with vigour, the enemy presumably having moved back his 
gims during the night. The 20th Battalion attacked on the right and 
the 19th on the left. Early in the day the troops came under machine- 
gun fire from HAUT BOIS, the high ground to the east of MONS. 
This held up the 19th and 20th all day, as well as the 7th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade trot)ps on the left of the 19th Battalion, who were 
endeavouring to enter MONS. The 19th Battalion lost four ofl&cers 
killed and 53 other ranks killed and wounded. A tablet to these fallen 
Canadians has since been placed in HYON Parish Church. 

In the afternoon the enemy massed for a counter attack, but this 
was broken up by artillery. Our troops kept pushing forward in the 
evening and during the night. At 0200 hours (2 a.m.) on the 11th 
the 19th Canadian Battalion were pushing through HYON towards 
the MONS-ST. SYMPIIORIEN road, and soon both leading Battalions 
had that as their front line, with MONS to the left and slightly to the 
rear. 
November, At 7.10 a.m. on the lltii a wire was received which was the most 

1918. gratifying message that had arrived since September, 1915. It read :— 

'* Hostilities will cease at 11.00 hours November 11th. Troops 
will stand fast on the line reached at that time, which will be reported 
to Divisional H.Q.s immediately. Defensive precautions will be main- 
tained. There will be no intercourse with the enemy of any descrip- 
tion. Further instructions will follow." 

There was, of course, great rejoicing. We were not in MONS, 
but we were in the suburbs and beyond, and we knew that the Cana- 
dians were in full possession of the city at daybreak. 

In the afternoon many officers rode into MONS to see some Cana- 
dian troops reviewed by the Corps Commander and to witness what 
must ever be a memorable event. 

For seven days the troops rested and talked about the terms of 
the Armistice and what was to follow. There was general satisfaction 
when it was learned that the Canadian Corps was to form part of the 
Army of Occupation and that the 2nd Canadian Division would be 
leading with the 1st Canadian Division on our left. During this period 
the Brigade Trench Mortar Battery was disbanded under Corps orders, 
and the members of this excellent unit returned to the Battalions 
from which they had been drawn. 

FROM MONS TO NAMUR. 

On the 18th the march began, and that night Brigade Hdqrs. 
were in ROEULX. There was an oflRcial welcome of the Canadians, 
and this was taken by the Brigadier and the 19th Canadian Battalion, 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 43 

On the 21st the Brigade moved to TRAZEGNIES, on the 24th to 
RANSART, on the 25th to SPY, on the 26th to NAMUR, on the 
29th to COURTISSE, and on the 30th to the MEAN area, with the 
Brigade Hdqrs. in BOUILLON Chateau, near VERLEE. 

All through the journey the Brigade was warmly welcomed by 
the Belgian people. Flags were hanging from every house. Streets 
were decorated and crowds thronged the thoroughfares. Once past 
NAMUR, however, there were only small villages, and the celebrations 
became less important. The journey receded to an ordinary route 
march through a sparsely settled district. 

FROM BOMAL TO SIEGBURG. 

December During the march to the Rhine the 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade 

^Q,o ' was leading on our front, the 5th Canadian Infantry Brigade follow- 

ing, and the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade last. The Brigade Unit 
for this march was made up as follows : — 

Brigade H.Q.s. — 18th Canadian Battalion. 

19th Canadian Battalion. — 20th Canadian Battalion. 

21st Canadian Battalien. — 18th Brigade C.F.A. 

4th Battalion C.E.— No. 3 Coy. 2nd Battalion C.M.G.C. 

6th Field Ambulance. — No. 2 Coy. 2nd Division Train. 

The strength in horses was about 1 ,300. The problem of billeting 
a unit of this size was greatly increased once we had crossed the 
MEUSE at NAMUR and passed out of the industrial part of Belgium 
into a region partly devoted to agriculture and partly to forestry.' The 
towns became villages and the villages became small collections of 
farmhouses. To find stable accommodation for 1,300 horses was an 
almost impossible task. 

The billeting method followed by the Staff Captain '* Q " included 
double billeting parties. One party went forward each morning to 
scout the territory to be occupied the second night following, and 
one party to complete the billeting for the first night. The plan worked 
well, as it was found possible to improve on the general arrangements 
of the preceding Brigade by noticing their difficulties and trying to 
find a way to avoid them. Each billeting party consisted of one 
Brigade officer and one officer from each unit. 

On the 1st the Brigade moved to the BARVAUX area and Brigade 
H.Q.s was in the Chateau BOMAL, overlooking the OURTHE River. 
Here we were fortunate to remain two days with fairly satisfactory 
billets. Then followed the rush over the mountains into Germany. 

On the 4th Brigade moved to GRANDMENIL area, on the 5th 
to BENO area, and on the 6th to the ST. VTTH area, the head of the 



44 4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

column (19th Battalion) crossing the German border at about 9.30 
a.m. ST. VITH was the first large German town reached. Just 
before entering the Brigade was '* looked over " by the Corps Com- 
mander. Divisional H.Q.s were m that town also. 

On the 7th the Brigade went to to the HALLSCHLAG area, 
with the 20th Battalion and Brigade H.Q.s in the Munition Works, 
about a mile from HALLSCHLAG. Here there was a halt of one 
day and then a move to the BLANKHENHEIM area. 

On the 10th we reached the a.icient and picturesque town of 
MUNSTEliEIFEL. On the 11th we were in the LUDENDORF area 
and on the 12th in the DUISDORF area close to BONN. 

CROSSING THE RHINE. 

December, Then came the famous crossing of the RHINE— on Friday, the 

1918. 13th. It was ordered that this crossing should be somewhat formal, 

and fighting dress Avas worn. At about 9.30 a.m. the head of the 
column passed down the POPPELSDORFER ALLEE and on to the 
bridge, where the Corps Commandei was waiting to review the Divi- 
sion. On this occasion the order of march was reversed, and the 4th 
Canadian Infantry Brigade led, followed by the 5th and 6th C.I.B.'s. 
Unfortunately the rain fell copiously, and the pageant proved some- 
what of an ordeal. Despite this, hoA^ever, the troops held their heads 
high and presented a brave appearance. The people of BONN were 
out in large numbers and were undoubtedly impressed, especially with 
the excellence of our transport. The Germans were curious, polite, 
anxious, but did not hail us as deliverers. 

Each Battalion carried a King's colour. These had been received 
and distributed while we were in the BOMAL area. A moving picture 
was taken near the reviewing stand at tb3 eastern end of the bridge. 

After crossing the bridge, the only one over the Rhine for many 
miles, .'.he units proceeded to their permanent billets for the occupa- 
tion, taking the place of the ce valry screen whi^h had preceded the 
whole march from MONS. The Engineering Battalion and the Machine 
Gun Company passed out of the Bngade Unit into their regular places 
in the Division, the remainder were distributed as follows : — 

18th Canadian Battalion to HENNEF via BUISDORF. 

19th Canadian Battalion to NEUNKURCHEN via SIFGBURG. 

20th Canadian Battalion to KALDUNNEN via SIEGBURG. 

21st Canadian Battalion to SIEGBURG. 

21st Brigade C.F.A. to SIEGBURG. 

Brigade Hdqrs. to SIEGBURG. 

No. 2 Coy. Train to BUISDORF. 

flth Field Ambulance to SIEGBURG. 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 4 

The 18th Canadian Battalion on the right and 19th Canadian 
Battalion on the left of our sector immediately took up the duty of 
forming a line along the neutral zone. The general plan was a series 
of posts on all roads and lines of approach. The area between the 
posts was to be patrolled and the posts were to be supported by 
defined localities at convenient centres. 

The distribution of the Division was in three Brigade sections 
running in depth from the outpost line to the rear Divisional boundary. 
The right section, close to the RHINE and facing almost south, was 
held by the 6th Canadian Infantry Brigade, the centre section by the 
5th Canadian Infantry Brigade, and the left section by the 4th Cana- 
dian Infantry Brigade, facing almost east. The Divisional front thus 
curved from NEUNKIRCHEN past HENNEF to the RHINE at 
OBER-CASSEL. Divisional Headquprters were in BONN. 

Here the 4th Canadian Infantry Brigade were destined to remain 
some time with but minor changes in disposition. On the loth the 
20th Candiar Battalion moved into SIEGBURG, where the accommo- 
dation was better, there being three large munition plants in this 
town of 30,000 people. 

On the 28th the 21st Canadian Battalion exchanged places with 
the 19th Canadian Battalion to allow that unit to concentrate for the 
holiday festivities. 

On the 16th the Commander-in-Chief of the British Armies, Sir 
Douglas Haig, passed through the Brigade area, and was suitably 
received with troops lining the roads. He alsc received Commanding 
Officers of units. 

On the 28th a warning order was received to the effect that the 
Division would move back shortly to the area of the 4th Army on the 
MEUSE. This was welcome news. 

EDUCATION. 

Besides t'le Christmas festivities the chief feature of the latter 
part of December was the inauguration of Education classes. On the 
16th the Education Officers of all units met at Brigade H.Q.s and 
discussed plans for their formation with the Brigade Education Officer. 
On the 19th Colonel Rae of the Division General Staff and the Divisional 
Education Officer met the Brigade Officers engaged in the work and 
outlined their suggestions. By the 23rd all units had their classes 
organised and were hard at work, except the 19th Canadian Battalion, 
which was much scattered. In each Battalion a class was formed in 
elementary reading and writing, and the others were divided into three 
groups, studying : (1) Business, (2) Agriculture, (3) Petrol engines and 



46 4th caKauiaN infan^rV brigade. 

motor mechanics. Despite the holiday season, the classes were well 
under way by the end of the month with an average attendance of 
about 700 men. 

RULES OF OCCUPATION. 

January, 1919. Another calendar year in the history of the 4th Canadian Infantry 

Brigade opened with the units distributed as follows : SIEGBURG — 
Brigade Headquarters, 19th Candian Battalion, 20th Canadian Batta- 
lion, 13th Brigade C.F.A., and 6th Canadian Field Ambulance. 
HENNEF— the 18th Canadian Battalion. NEUNKIRCHEN— the 21st 
Canadian Battalion, and TROISDORF— No. 2 Company 2nd Division 
Train. The only change during the remainder of the stay in the Army 
of Occupation was an exchange of places of the 19th and 21st Canadian 
Battalions. 

The New Year was marked by new regulations for the " Line 
of Control." These were rather liberal as compared with earlier re- 
strictions. Train-loads of food were to be allowed to run from the 
occupied to the unoccupied area, but not the reverse. There was to 
be no restriction of trains within the occupied area, but only working 
men's trains were to cross the line. Everyone so crossing the line must 
be in possession of a pass, a rule which was difficult to enforce. The 
special train between SPA, the International Headquarters, and 
BERLIN was an exception to the general traffic regulations. 

After the delayed Christmas dinners and general New Year's* 
festivities had passed, the troops settled down to education and routine. 
There were few duties for the troops except ordinary guards and out- 
posts. Some work was entailed by the establishment of an Army 
ammunition dump in SIEGBURG, but a British Pioneer Company was 
soon brought to the relief. Education, cports, and entertainment were 
thus the chief items on the programme. Attention was still given to 
drill, and the Brigadier held a *' full dress " inspection of all battalions. 
The transport was kept smart. 

Brigade Headquarters was relieved of much of its responsibilities 
regarding the civil population by the arrival of two British officers, an 
Area Staff Captain, and a D.A.P.M. They organised a special office, 
with German assistants, to regulate the movements and functions of 
the people. This was in intimate relation with the burgomaster of 
SIEGBURG and the Landrat of the KREIS. 

On the 10th of the month H.R.H. the Prince of Wales paid his 
fourth informal visit to Brigade Headquarters, and three days later the 
Army Commander honoured the formation with a visit.* 

♦Other visits : Aniche, St- Saulve. and Frameries. 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 47 

FROM SEIGBURG TO NAMUR. 

On the 15th it was known definitely that the Canadian troops 
would be sent back to the NAMUR area and would be replaced by 
British Divisions. The 34th Division was to take over from the 2nd 
Canadian Division and the 101st Brigade from the 4th Canadian In- 
fantry Brigade. On the 18th the l/4th Sussex Battalion arrived in 
SIEGBURG and was followed by the H.Q. of the 101st Brigade with 
the 2nd North Lanes, and the 2 /4th Queen's. At 10.00 hours on the 
19th the Brigadiers exchanged duties. 

On the 19th, the 20th and 21st Canadian Battalions entrained, and 
with them went the 2nd Coy. Div. Train and the Canadian Mobile 
Vet. Section, which had also been in SIEGBURG. On the following 
day the 18th, 19th, Brigade H.Q., 6th Field Ambulance, and part 
of the transport of the 2nd C.M.G. Battalion were entrained. There 
were six trains in all- four leaving from SIEGBURG and two from 
TROISDORF. The trains used were those which had brought up 
relieving troops. 

On the 20th and 21st the units arrived at AUVELAIS and 
TAMINES, just west of NAMUR, the average time for each train 
over this short run being about 19 hours. The weather was cold and 
the accommodation decidedly unsatisfactory. 
January, 19VJ. On the 22nd the Brigade moved out from AUVELAIS and 

TAMINES into the FOS^'ES area, which had been vacated by troops 
of the 34th Division. The first distribution was unsatisfactory, and 
some adjustments were made. On the 25th the 21st Canadian Batta- 
lion moved from AISEMONT to HAM-SUR-SAMBRE, a mining vil- 
lage that had never entertained either Allied or Hun troops. On the 
28th the 20th Canadian Battalion added ST. GERARD to LESVES 
as its billeting area, with Headquarters in the former village. The 
6th Field Ambulance moved from FOSSE to MAISON, near by. 
Finally, at the end of the month, in order to give the Battalions more 
room. Brigade Headquarters was transferred from FOSSE to the 
Chateau BIOUL. 

On the 29th the Advisory Committee, formed to advise men as 
to their civilian future, had its first meeting. The personnel was as 
follows : — 

President ; Lieut.-Colonel L. E. Jones, D.S.O., 18th Battalion. 

Secretary : Major .1. A. Cooper, 4th C.I.B. Headquarters. 

Members: Major H. C. Hatch, D.S.O., 19th Battalion; Major 
C. J. Ingles, D.S.O., 20th Battalion; Major G. S. S. Bowerbank, 
D.S.O., M.C., 21st Battalion; and Lieut. Mowbray, 18th Canadian 
Battalion. 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 

This was followed up with addresses to each unit by the Brigadier 
on ** Preparation for Return to Civil Life." 

Thus training for a return to CANADA and Canadian occupations, 
and hoping for an early demobilisation, the troops passed into the 
fourth month of the Armistice. 

EDUCATION AND SPORT. 

Nothing happened to mar the monotony of life in rest billets during 
the month of February. It was merely a period of patient waiting for 
demobilisation. TJ.ere were no changes in disposition except that 
Brigade H.Q. moved from FOSSES to BIOUL. BRUSSELS and 
PARIS leave were the features for those who could arrange them, and 
there was some English leave — but not always. The 1st Canadian 
Division was waiting at HUY for the Srd Canadian Division to clear 
LA HAVRE, the embarkation point in France. The 2nd Canadian 
Division had to wait on both. 

Education was given much attention. A fair supply of text-books 
was received and distributed. In addition, each unit got together a 
small library of suitable reading material which was useful for refer- 
ence and loan. Pamphlets outlining the Dominion settlement scheme 
for returned soldiers were received and distributed. As a consequence 
the agricultural classes increased in size and aggressiveness. 

Sport was also given special attention. Brigade eliminating con- 
tests were held, preparatory to the Divisional Sports. The 18th 
Canadian Battalion *' Soccer " Football team won the Brigade Cham- 
pionship from the team of the 19th Candian Battalion by a score of 
4 — 0. The Ten-men Road team of the 19th Battalion won the Brigade 
road race. Indoor baseball was aiso in evidence. As there was no 
snow on the ground after the 10th of the month, the conditions for 
sporting events were tolerably good. 

On the 24th there was a dance at the Chateau BIOUL, given by 
the Brigade Staff, which was a success. Officers were present from 
the Foi.rth Army Division, 5th and 6th Canadian Infantry Brigades, 
Engineers, Ambulances, and all Battalions in the Brigade. The ladies 
present v;ere from the Valley of the MEUSE, NAMUR, and BRUS- 
SELS. 

On the 28th the Brigade said good-bye to Brigadier-General 
McCuaig, who had commanded the Brigade since September, 1918, 
and welcomed back General Rennie, who returned from England. 

During March the chief item was sports, both in the Brigade and 
the Division. On the 15th there was a sple:^did Brigade sports day, 
in which all the events were keenly contested. The 19th Battalion 
won from the 18th 'n the baseball finals in both Officers and other 



4th CANADIAN INFANTRY BRIGADE. 49 

ranks. In the Divisional elimination quite a number of Brigade com- 
petitors secured the privilege of competing at the Corps sports in 
Brussels on the 22nd. 

On the 12th, the Brigade had its final review in Belgium in the 
presence of General Sir Henry Rawlinson, the Army Commander, 
and the Divisional Commander. The troops made a fine show. 

On March 1st, Capt. T. A. Girling, Brigade Veterinary Officer, 
died in NAMUR Hospital and was accorded a military funeral. Lieut. 
Mempes, Orderly Officer, reported to the 1st Canadian Brigade, and 
his place was taken by Lieut. Burns, M.C., of the 20th Battalion. 
Capt. Scruton, M.C., S.C.I. , was acting as G.S.0.2. at Division for 
a period. 

On the 30th, the Brigade began to entrain for LE HAVRE, the 
21st moving first, following by the 18th, 19th, and 20th. By April 6th 
all the units had arrived at WITLEY CAMP, SURREY, and the men 
were given their final leave in England. 



OFFICERS' HONOURS. 



Victoria Cross, 

Lieut. W. L. ALGTE, 20th Battalion, Lusuy, October, 1918. 
Sgt. E. W. SIFTON, 18th Canadian Battalion, Vimy Ridge, April, 1917, 
Sgt. FRDK. HOBSON, 20th Canadian Battalion. Hill 70, August, 1917. 
(All were killed in action. ) 

C.B. 

General R. RENNIE, C.B., June, 1918. 

C.M.G. 

General R. RENNIE, C.M.G., January 1st, 1917. 

O.B.E. 

Lieut. -Colonel C. H. ROGERS, 20th Canadian Battalion. 

D.S.O. {Brigade Headquarters). 

General R. RENNIE, D.S.O. , January, 1916. 
Major REG. BROOKE, D.S.O., January, 1916. 

D.S.O. — 18th Canadian Battalion. 

Lieut. -Colonel MILLIGAN, D.S.O., Somme, 1916. 
Lieut. -Colonel L. E. JONES, D.S.O., Hill 70, August, 1917. 

Bar, Amiens, 1918. 



Ma 
Ma 
Ma 
Ma 
Ma 
Ma 
Ma 



or D. E. A. RISPIN, D.S.O., January, 1918. 

or J. S. BELL, D.S.O., M.C., Vis-en-Artois, August, 1918. 

or J. J. RICHARDSON, D.S.O., Somme, October, 1916. 

or J. A. McINTOSH, D.S.O., Arras, August, 1918. 

or C. M. R. GRAHAM, D.S.O., Guemappe, 1918. 

or K. H. McCRIMMON, D.S.O., Vimy Ridge, April 11th, 1917. 

or W. J. FORBES-MITCHELL, D.S.O. 



OFPICBBS' HONOURS. 61 

D.S.O. — 19th Canadian Battalion. 

Lieut. -Colonel L. H. MILLEN. D.S.O., January 1st, 1918. 

Bar, Fransart, August, 1918. 
Lieut. -Colonel C. F. MOREISON, D.S.O., January, 1917. 
Major H. C. HATCH, D.S.O., January Ist, 1918. 

Major R. P. SAUNDERS, D.S.O., M.C., Amiens, Arras, August, 1918. 
Major H. D. FEARMAN, D.S.O., July 18th, 1917. 
Captain R. H. BLISS, D.S.O. , Marcelcave, August, 1918. 
Captain C. E. KILMER, D.S.O., Daylight Raid, July, 1916. 
Major C. B. LINDSEY, D.S.O., June, 1917. 
Major S. S. BURNHAM, D.S.O. 

D.S.O. — 20th Canadian Battalion. 

Lieut. -Colonel H. V. RORKE, D.S.O., Calonne Raid, January, 1917, 

Legion of Honour, May, 1918. 
Lieut. -Colonel B. O. HOOPER, D.S.O., Vis-en-Artois, August, 1918. 
Major C. C. WANSBOROUGH, D.S.O. and Bar, Somme and Vimy. 
Major G. JI. MUSGROVE, D.S.O., Arras, June 28th, 1918. 
Major C. J. INGLES, D.S.O., Guemappe, August, 1918. 
Major W. ANDREWES, D.S.O., Calonne Raid, January, 1917. 
Major H. A. FOSTER, D.S.O., M.C., Calonne Raid, January, 1917. 
Major L. D. HERON, D.S.O., M.O., Somme, 1916. 
Major D. C. JENNINGS. D.S.O.. November 7th. 1918. 
Major D. J. CORRIGALL, D.S.O., January 1st, 1919. 

D.S.O.— 21st Canadian Battalion. 

Lieut. -Colonel W. ST. PIERRE HUGHES, D.S.O., January 1st, 1917. 
Lieut. -Colonel E. W. JONES, D.S.O., January 1st, 1917. 

Bar, Lieven Raid, March, 1918. 
Lieut. -Colonel H. E. PENSE, D.S.O., M.C., June, 1918. 
Major G. S.-S. BOWERBANK, D.S.O., M.C., Cambrai, October, 1918. 
Major F. F. ELMITT, D.S.O., January 1st, 1918. 
Captain ALAN COCKERAN, D.S.O., Hill 70, August, 1917. 
Major A. P. MILLER, D.S.O., M.C. 
Major C. C. BENNETT, D.S.O., January 1st, 1918. 
Major J. H. SILLS, D.S.O., January 1st, 1918. 



62 



0FFICEB8' HONOURS. 



M.C.— Brigade Headquarters. 

Lieut. G. W. LAWSON (Signalling Officer). 
Capt. H. W. SCRUTON (S.C.I.). 

M.C. — 18th Canadian Battalion, 



Lieut. A. S. ALLAN. 
Lieut. W. S. CLINTON. 
Lieut. V. McC. EASTWOOD. 
Lieut. T. R. DOUGALL. 
Lieut. W. H. FENTON. 
Captain W. C. MICHELL. 
Lieut. W. A. S. PORTER. 
Lieut. J. McAMMOND. 
Captain V. N. SMALLPIECE. 
Lieut. R. E. ROUSE. 
54350 R.S.M. W. T. WHITE. 
Lieut. R. G. ELLIOTT. 
Lieut. H. H. SYKES. 
Lieut. P. JERDAN. 
Lieut. H. B. JOHNSTON. 
Lieut. J. M. FISHER. 



Lieut. J. H. BARKLEY 

Lieut. C. COOK. 

Captain W. J. BAXTER. 

Lieut. J. N. McRAE. 

Captain G. W. F. HODGINS. 

Lieut. E. R. V. LLOYD. 

Lieut. W. K. ERASER. 

Lieut. D. A. G. PARSONS. 

Captain J. S. BELL. 

Captain T. H. O. RAYWARD (Bai). 

Lieut. F. L. GOODMAN. 

Lieut. G. THOMAS. 

Lieut. A. T. FERGUSSO.N. 

Captain M. R. SLOAN. 

53806 R.S.M. A. GARROD. 



M.C. — 19th Canadian Battalion. 

Captain W. G. GIDLEY. Lieut. 

Captain C. E. SINCLAIR. Lieut. 

Captain J. G. WEIR. Lieut. 

Captain W. T. ROGERS. Lieut. 

Captain R. W. CATTO. Lieut. 

Captain W. GREISENGER. Lieut. 

Captain M. C. ROBERTS. Lieut. 

Captain R. P. SAUNDERS. Lieut. 

Captain R. SHIELL (Bar). Lieut. 

Captain W. L. WHITTEMORE Lieut. 

(C. A.M. C). Lieut. 

Captain H. C. ALLISON (C.A.M.C.). Lieut. 

Captain Rev. E. J. McDONALD, Lieut. 

Lieut. W. WALDRUM (Bar). Lieut. 



H. B. PEPLER. 
J. M. BENNETT. 
W. F. SMITH. 

F. H. CANTLON. 

G. H. APPLEGATH. 

F. W. DERBYSHIRE. 
A. 0. THOMPSON. 

J. O'NEILL. 
A. G. BELL. 

G. M. BRADFIELD. 
W. S. HERBERT. 

R. H. L. DINSMORE. 
C. CARMICHAEL. 
J. P. FITZGERALD. 



OFFICERS' HONOURS, 



53 



Lieut. E. A. TRENDELL (Bar). 
Lieut. B. O. HOOPER. 
Lieut. 0. S. DUNN 
Lieut. J. A. LINTON. 
Lieut. A. E. SPENDLOVE. 



Lieut. R. O. SPRECKLEY. 
Lieut. H. STUART. 
Lieut. H. A. LOWE. 
Lieut. V. R. A. CROMBIE. 
R.S.M. S. J. BENNETT. 



M.C. — 20th Canadian Battalion. 



Lieut. -Col. B. 0. HOOPER. 

Major D. J. CORRIGALL. 

Major R. L. GOODLIFF. 

Major L. D. HERON. 

Major H. W. A. FOSTER (Bar). 

Captain B. E. NICHOLLS (Bar). 

Captain C. M. FINLAYSON (Bar). 

A/ Captain J. M. McDONALD (Bar). 

Captain N. B. ALLEN. 

Captain L. H. BERTRAM. 

Captain J. P. BONFIELD. 

Captain F. S. CRONK. 

Captain A. D. FISKEN. 

Captain R. C. FERGUSON. 

Captain C. L. HEATHER. 

Captain W. H. KESLICK. 

Captain D. L. KEITH. 

Captain R. N. JAGO. 

Captain C. E. H. MEDHURST. 

Captain G. MARR. 



Captain A. A. SMITH. 
Captain T. H. STEGMAN. 
Captain A. E. R. TURNER. 
Lieut. M. G. ANDERSON. 
Lieut. R. H. BEATTIE. 
Lieut!^ J. R. BEAM. 
Lieut. W. R. BOEHM. 
Lieut. H. W. CLARK. 
Lieut. H. M. CAMP. 
Lieut. R. E. DALLYN. 
Lieut. E. G. DIXON. 
Lieut. A. GREEY. 
Lieut. A. P. JOHNSTON. 
Lieut. C. E. McRAE. 
Lieut. R. A. MARKHAM. 
Lieut. W. E. PRESTON. 
Lieut. G. C. RICHARDSON. 
Lieut. W. F. WELCH. 
Lieut. A. H. WILSON. 
57330 R.S.M. J. COLLETT. 



M.C. — 21st Canadian Battalion. 



Lieut. -Colonel H. E. PENSE. 
Major F. D. RAYMOND. 
Major W. E. KIDD. 
Captain W. McA. NICKLE. 
Captain J. EDWARDS. 
Captain R. J. MANION. 
Captain A. W. BLACK. 



Major G. S. S. BOWERBANK. 
Captain S. L. CUNNINGHAM. 
Captain E. A. McCUSKER. 
Captain E. A. COOKE. 
Captain R. J. DAVIDSON. 
Captain L. FRAZER. 
Captain F. K. LUDLOW. 



Captain N. J. MacCRIMMON (Bar). Lieut. J. A. McGIBBON. 



64 



OFFICERS' HOKOUBS. 



Captain F. G. ROBINSON. 
Lieut. W. CURRIE, M.M. 
Lieut. G. A. SPEARS. 
Lieut. F. H. HUNTER. 
Captain H. T. DEANE (Bar). 
Lieut. G. D. GILLIE. 
Lieut. W. G. HAZLETT. 
Lieut. A. E. R. JONES. 
Lieut. H. C. CAMERON. 
Lieut. G. E. BURTT. 
Lieut J. R. SMITH. 
Lieut. H. D. WIGHTMAN. 
Lieut. V. R. ULLMAN. 
Major A. P. MILLER (Bar), 



Lieut. C. MENPES. 
Captain E. S. SAWELL. 
Captain D. J. MORE 
Lieut. J. DE G. ADETTE. 
Lieut. H. J. WOOD. 
Lieut. J. S. DAVIE. 
Lieut. B. L. IRWIN. 
Lieut. A. W. MAY (Bar). 
Lieut. J. H. W. COBB. 
Lieut. E. B. SMYTHE. 
Lieut. W. A. STEWART. 
Lieut. D. McK. GOUDY. 
Lieut. S. T. CROOKS. 



French Croix de Guerre. 

Captain A. W. ELLIS, 19th Canadian Battalion. 

Belgian Croix de Guerre. 

Major H. W. COOPER, 21st Canadian Battalion 
Lieut. J. MORGAN, 18th Canadian Battalion. 

Chevalier, Crown of Roumania. 

Lieut. C. McL. KENNEDY, 20th Canadian Battalion. 



Russian Order of St. Stanislas. 

Third Class, with Swords. 
Lieut. V. D. ULLMAN, M.C, 2l8t Canadian Battalion. 



/ 



D Cooper, John Alexander (comp.) 

547 Fourth Canadian Infantry 

C2C6 Brigade 



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